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il ! I«f W«ii!lii!i!i|SP^^ 

RFYNOtns hi?;torical 



3 1833 01177 0473 






Safford \l. North 




It lias occurred to nie many times in the course of tlie preparation of 
this book that those who have purchased it liave invested even wiser 
than they knew. The interest and value of this volume are certain to 
increase and the man or woman who shall be the possessor of a copv a 
century hence will realize the force of this suggestion. Even at this 
time there is a great deal of interest in the pioneer history of this region, 
fostered as this interest is by th.e local society of The Daughters of the 
American Revolution and by the Holland Purchase Historical Society. 
This interest is likely to increase as the years go by. It is often said 
that history repeats itself, but such history as is made up of blazing path- 
way;, through primeval forests and v'f fighting batrles with Indians will 
not be repeated in Western New York, and when viewed in the romantic 
light in which time robes the distant past will become of even moi'e ab- 
sorbing interest than at the present day. 

While attempts have been made in past years towards placing in ]">er 
manent form the interesting histor}' of Genesee county and its immediate 
vicinity, it is generally conceded that such attempts, although quite 
worthy in some of their features, liave not as a whole resulted satisfac- 
torily. In undertaking the preparation of a work bearing the title, 
" ^)ur County and Its People," as a successor to s-tch books of local 
history as previously have been issued, it was full'. c(.>mprehended that 
if a favorable verdict was expected from reader-, it could be secured 
with nothing less than a publication that would st md as the best of its 
kind, containing a complete, compreh.ensive and reasonably correct his- 
torical and biographical record of the county. An earnest and pains- 
taking effort has been made by all who have shared in this task to reach 
that liigh standard. It remains witli the public to determine how far 
the ctlori has been successful. 

T(; those whose ancestors settled and who have long dwelt in this 


locality; who have figured in its memorable hisu^rical ineidents or shared 
in its important events; who have watched the i^rowth and contributed 
to the welfare of the community; who have aided in developing its in- 
dustries, in clearing and making productive its lands, and in founding 
its institutions, the skillfully told history of the region will iia\-e a pe- 
culiar interest and charm. Events and objects long familiar, perhaps, 
gain a new and more vivid fascination wlien the story of their creation 
or occurrence is placed upon the printed page, [)ossihly linking them 
closely with vastly more momentous events of early times. The (jflen- 
rehearsed story of a local battle ground is read with renewed interest 
bygone who learns that his neighbor's sire or grandsire there shed his 
blood. A road so often traveled that its every feature is j^ermanently 
pictured in the mind, becomes more than a familiar highway when the 
reader learns its history as an Indian trail, or that his immediate ances- 
tors laid it out through the primeval forest. The very hills and valleys 
and streams assume a new and more interesting aspect when the his- 
torical record peoples them with the men and women of long ago. These 
are facts which enhance the value of all properly prepared local history 
and biograi)hy, through which the reader is made accpiainted with the 
past of his dwelling place, and in which are preserved records that no 
community can afford to lose. 

Local history bears to general history a similar relation to that of a 
microscopical examination and one made with tiie naked eye. The 
former must take cognizance of a multitude of minute details which of 
necessity must be passed over in tlie latter. Minor facts of little value 
in theniselves, often assume great importance wlien considered with 
their attendant circumstances and surroundings. It is the gathering, 
compilation, and arrangement of these many minor details that demand 
patience, time, and skill. Descriptions of Itjcal events, unless of par- 
amount importance, frecpiently went unrecorded in early years, thus 
doubling the task of obtaining them at the present time. The placing 
on record of hundreds of date.-i and thousands of names is alone an ar- 
duous task and one demanding the utmost watchfulness and care to 
avoid error. Harsh criticism will, theref'^re, be tempered with ndld- 
ness by the fairminded reader who may hnd a single error among a 
myriad of correct statements. 

It is impossible to perform the otherwise pleasant task (^f expressing 
gratitude to the many persons wiio have given substantial aid during 
the preparation of this wcjrk. This is especially due to George B. An- 


derson in recognition of his scholarly and valuable work. He devoted 
several months to researcli, in gathering,'- and arranging; material f<)r the 
pajjes of this history, to the examination of the records of the office of 
the Secretary of State at Albany, old newspaper files and to K-cal rec- 
ords public and private wherever available. It seemed tome through- 
out his work that he brought to bear not only great industry and zeal 
but the literary discrimination of a mind thoroughly fitted for historical 
research. In this connection it will n<^t be ci>nsidered invidious tu men- 
tion the assistance cheerfully accorded by the vari(nis county and town 
officials, and the heads of many institutions that Iiave b(jen foundeil in 
tlie county, all of whom have shown their intere.-<t in the progress of 
this work. 

A word should be said with reference to that portion of this work de- 
voted to personal sketches. It has not been attempted to go much 
further than to include the subscribers to the work and their kindred. 
To have attempted to include a sketch of every family in the county 
would have been out of the question, while any effort to discriminate 
by arbitrarily selecting from among living residents those who might be 
considered "prominent " would have been more impossible. The chap- 
ter referred to therefore is distinctly a subscribers' chapter. Those 
who are paying for this work are afforded an opportunity to preserve 
in permanent form a family sketch, with some detail as to ancestry. It 
is believed that upon reflection no subscriber can complain that a like 
opportunity has not been given to all others or that those who have 
prepared the work have not attempted the task of selecting from non- 
subscribers those especially deserving of notice. 

Bata\i.\. August 1. 1899. 



Erection of Genrsee County and Its Subdivision— Surface and (^eolog^y of the 
County — Its Streams— Numerous Railroads Traversink^ Its Territory — Krec- 
tion of the Various Townships in the County '-» 


The Great Iroquois Confederacy— Its P\Hindation. Customs and Laws— Its Wide 
Dominion— The Seneca Indians, ihe Aboriijines of Genesee County— Subdi- 
visions of the Five Nations— Political Aspect of This Powerful Savage Re- 
pulic ^~-' 


From the Discovery of the Hudson to the Inauguration of the Final Contest for 
Supremacy of the American Continent Betvveeu the French and Enj,'lish — 
Expeditions of Champlain La Salle. De Nonville and Others— Construction 
of the Fort at Niagara— La Hontan and His Expylition- The Attack Upon 
Montreal— Struggle Over the Control of Lake Ontario 2'1-M 


Tin; Final Struggle Between the French and English for Supremacy in North 
America— Capture of the Fort at Os^vego- Bradstreet Takes Fort Fn.nteuac 
—General Prideaux's Expedition Against Fort Niagara— The Trageih "f 
Devil's Hole— End of French Dominion in An-erica 3T-4;i 


The War of the Revolution — Expedition of General Sullivan into tiie Genesee 
Country— The Sent-ca Indians Routed— Lieutenant Boyd s Awful Fate- 
First White Settlement at Butlalo Creek -^^""''^ 

▼iii -vt<- CO N'T P: NTS. 

chapti:r vr. 

From the Clnso of the Rtvolulidu to llic- Famous Purchase of the Holland 
Land Company — Cession of the Soverciijnty of the "(ienesee Countrv " by 
Massachusetts to N'ew York — Sale of theTerritr)ry to Individuals — The Mor- 
ris Purchase — The Ildland Land Company Enters the Field — Morris Extin- 
guishes the Indian 'I'itles to the Land He Had Purchased M-Vt 


The Holland Land Company and Its Pvepre-^entatives in America — Joseph Elli- 
pott, the First Agent on the Purchase, and His (Jperations — Old Indian 
Trails—Taxpayers in Cronesee County in I'^On — Sketi-h of Joseph .'i.VTO 

CHAPTi:iv \'III. 

From 1800 to isr2— Increase of Settlements on the H'>il.ind Purchase, Particu- 
larly in Genesee County — Early Ta%-erns Between Batavia ai:d H-it'Jalo— The 
First Town Meeting — First Courts in (lenesce County — ' 'ivision of the 
Town of Batavia— Life of the Pioneers— The First Church in the County 
— Other F:oneer Religious Organizations — The First Murder Trial— The 
First Printing Press and Newspaper — The Arsenal at Batavia.... SO-00 



The War of ISI'2, and the Part Taken Therein by :n^' Inhabitants -.f Genesee 

County , 119-147 

chapti:r XI. 

Char.'-es Along the Varujus Lines of Endeavi.r i.j Gi-nesee Coi'.nty from the Close 
of the War of 1.^12 to il.e Erection of the Prc>cnt County i):' (.ie:iesec in 1>41 
— Some of the Settlers of Those Days— Early IKteLs— The Fs-.ttblishment of 
Important Manufacturing Industries — Schools— Many New Churches Foun'led 

Eftort to Remove tht; County Seat to Attica— The Faius\\ori;i— The 

Morgan Episode— A New Jail — The Land Ortice War — Discontent Among 
the Land Holders — F-'imation of the County Agricultural Society— Erection 
of the New Court House — Division of the ' >!d and. Creati(jn i>f a New Gen- 
esee County. ItT-lSd 



From the Erection of the Present County of Genesee to the Beginning of the 
War of the Rebellion — Two Decades of Steady Industrial and Commercial 
Development — New Churches Organized During That Period — Creation of 
the Town of Oakfield — Railroa'ls Built in Genesee County — The Long Era 
of Peace Rudely Ended 1 88-198 



From the Close of the Civil War to the Present Time— Establishrr.ent of the Mod- 
ern Manufacturing Industries of the County — Banks and Banking Since the 
War— Le Roy and Its Numerous Manufactures — Mills and Milling— The 
Malting Industry— The Salt WelN of Le Roy and Pavilion and Their De- 
velopment — The Great Marl Bed in Bergen — Disastrous Fires in Bergen. 
Oakfield and Le Roy — Organization of the Genesee County Pioneer Asso- 
C'.ation— Building of the Bufialo, Rochester and Pittsburg Railway — Bergen 
Again Laid Waste by Fire— The West Shore P^ail road— The Leiiigh Vallc) 
Railroad— Fatal Railroad Accidents — Remains of a Ma.->todon Unear'hed 
Near Batavia — Genesee County's Participation in tho War With Spain — 
Fatal Accident on the New York Central Railroad Near Corfu— Churches 
Established in Genesee C<^unty During this Pe-icil •22',-'2^y> 










chapti:r XX r. 



CHAPTi:;^ XXIil. 



niOGRAPHICAI 41>l»-o:;0 




Pan I - 16:{-ll*4 

Part :i y-*i 

Fan III VJ-i-V.iU 



'■ VcU'w^ktv, John... facing page oSO, Part II 

,Kllis, John J page 72. Part III 

. Kllicott. Joseph facing page "jye, Part I 

>-(iil!ette, George M page 101. Part III 

V Hough, Charles W facing page .")04. Part 1 1 

. Huntley. Bvron E facing page S\i^. Part I 

vHutchins, Horace S.. Dr facing page JO'), Part II 

.Jackson, A. P.. Dr page 114. Part HI 

• Kingman. Franklin D. facing page r)OS. Part II 

Maxwell, Robert A facing page 511, Part II 

North, SafYord E frontispiece 

Pardee, Tracy faciug page 515. part II 

Parker, Samuel facing page W2. Part I 

■ Richardson, William E. facing page ")H, Part II 

Richmond, Dean _. facing page 519, Part II 

' Sanders. Archie D facing page 'y2\. I'ai ;. II 

Townsend, Morris W., Dr facing page 47lJ, Part I 

Ward, John H facing page oOl, Part I 

• Wiard, George facing page IjOT, Part I 

Wovthington, Gad B facing page r)uO. Part II 

Relics of Primitive Man .- facing page 450, Part I 


ciiapti:r I. 

Erectiou of Genesee County and Its Subdivision— Surface and Geology of the 
County— Its Streams— Numerous Railroa'ls Traversing Its Territory— Erectiou of 
ilie Various Townships in the County. 

The orig-inal ten counties nf the I'rovince, now the State, of New 
York, were created November 1, 1GS3, and natned New York, Kings, 
Queens, Suffolk, Richmond, Westchester, Oranc,'-e, Ulster. Dutchess 
and Albany. March \-2, ITT"^, Tryon cininty was taken from Albany 
countv, and the name was changed to Montgomery in 1784. Mont- 
gomery county originally included nearly all the central and western 
part of the State. January ST, ITS'.', Ontario county, occupying most 
of the western portion of the State, was set apart f' om Montgomery 
county. March 30, 180-2, all that part of the State lying west of the 
Genesee river and a line extending due south from the point of junc- 
tion of the Genesee and Canaseraga creek to the south line of the State, 
was set oK from Ontario county and designated as (jcnesee county. It 
win thus be seen that the original Genesee county c<»mprised all the 
territory embraced wit'uin the present counties of Genesee, Orleans, 
Wyoming, Niagara, Erie, Cattaraugus and Chautauqua, and the western 
portions of Monroe, Livingston and Allegany counties. 

The first division of the original county of Genesee occurred April 7, 
180G, when Allegany county was set off by act of the Legislature. 
Allegany county then comprised parts of Genesee, Wyoming and Liv- 
ingston counties. The northern section was set oft to Genesee county 
in 1811, and the northern central part was set ofT to Wyoming and 
Livingston counties in 1S4*'.. March 11, 1808. the counties of Catta- 
raugus, Chautatiqua and Niagara were erected, the latter then includ- 
ing Erie county, which was erected as a .separate county April "2, 18-:]. 


February 23, IS'U, the size of the county was still further reduced by 
the erection of Livingston and Monroe counties, whose western portions 
lay within the original limits of Genesee. A part of Covington was 
annexed to Livingston county in 18*^3. November 11, 18'2-1, Or!ean> 
county was taken off, and April 5, 18^5, the town of Shelby was an- 
nexed from Genesee county. The final reduction in territory occurred 
^Liy 14, 1841, when the major portion of the present Wyoming county 
was taken ofi.i 

It will thus be seen that in recording the history of Genesee countv 
prior to 1841, the writer is compelled to deal with a very large portion 
of Western New York, and the early history of all that region is inti- 
mately connected with the story of the modern development of this 

Genesee county lies in the midst of one of the mcjst fertile regions in 
the vicinity of the Great Lakes, joining the most westerly tier of the 
New York counties on the east. It is bounded on the north by Orleans 
and Monroe counties, on the east by Monroe and Livingston, on the 
south by Wyoming and iyivingston, and on the west by Erie and Niag- 
ara. A narrow strip in the extreme southeastern corner is also bounded 
on the west by Wyoming county; a portion of the town of Le Ron- is 
bounded on the r.orth by Monroe county and an extremely small strij) 
of the same town is bounded on the south by the same county ; and 
portions of Le Roy and Pavilion are bounded on the smith by Livings- 
ton county. The area of Genesee county is nvc hundred and seven 
square miles. 

The surface of the county is mostly level or gently undulating, except 
along the southern border, which is occupied by ranges of hills extend- 
ing northerly from \\'yoming county. vSome of these hills rise to an 
elevation of from two hundred to three hundred feet above the flat 
lands, and about one thousand feet above the level of the sea. K.v- 
tending east and west through the county, north of the centre, is a 
terrace of limestone, bordered in many places by nearly perpendicular 
ledges. In the extreme eastern and western parts of the county this 
terrace ranges from rifty to one hundred feet in height, but toward the 
central portion tlie height averages from twenty to forty feet. 

The principal streams are Toiuiwanda creek,' which, rising in Wy- 

' The name Ton.-iwanUa. ^iran^oly enoi!<h, whet, the {fener.illv sluif^isli course of the stream 
is consiJerjJ, si.rniries in the I:iJ'.an l.\n.;u.i<o,." s.viftly runninj; \v;itt-r," from tlic r.Tpiil ciirr.-nt 
f<.r about ten miles below Uatavia. 


oming county, enters the town of Alexander from the south, flows in a 
northeasterly direction through that town and Batavia to the villajre of 
Batavia, where it turns and flows in a westerly, then northwesterly, 
direction through the latter town, Pembroke and Alabama, leaving 
the latter town at a point a trifle north of the centre of its western 
boundary. The course of Tonawanda creek is exceedingly tortuous, 
and for the most of its course it flows in a very sluggish manner. 
An idea of its tortUK^sity may be gained from the fact that between 
Attica, in Wyoming county, and Batavia this stream flows between 
two parallel roads about a mile apart; and while the distance be- 
tween these two points is about eleven miles by the highwav, by the 
course of the stream it is forty-three miles. 

The principal tributaries of Tonawanda creek are Little Tonawanda 
and Bowen's creeks. Oak Orchard creek has its source near the centre 
of the county, and winds its way through Batavia and Elba, turning 
at the northeast corner of the latter tov/n and continuing vresterly 
and flowing through the great Tonawanda swamp, which occupies the 
northern part of the towns of Elba. Oak field and Alabama. Black 
creek, known by the Indians as Chcckanango creek, flows in a north- 
erly direction through the central parts of tiie towns of Bethany, 
Stafford and Byron, and thence easterly through Bergen into Monroe 
county. Its principal tributaries are vSpring and Bigelow creeks. 
Oatka creek flows across the southeast corner of the county. Mur- 
der creek and Eleven Mile creek flow through the southwest corner. 
Tonawanda, Black and Oatka creeks form a series of picturesque cas- 
cades in their passage down the limestone terrace north of the cen- 
tre of the county. 

The lowest rocks in Genesee county form a part of the Onondaga 
salt group, extending along the northern border. Gypsum abounds in 
large quantities in Le Roy, StatTord and Byron. This is succeeded bv 
hydraulic, Onondaga and corniferous limestone, which form the lime- 
stone terrace extending through the county. The outcrop of these 
rocks furnish lime and building stone. Succeeding the limestone, in 
the order named, are the Marcellus and Hamilton shales, which occupy 
the entire southern part of the county. The surface generally is cov- 
ered thick with drift deposits, and the underlying rocks appear only in 
the ravines of the streams. Most of the sv/amps contain thick deposits 
of muck, and marl, furnishing in great abundance the elements of future 
fertilitv to the soil. Nearly all the springs and streams are constantlv 


depositincr limein the form of marl. Alonn^thc northern boundary of the 
.county are numerous wells yielding water whicii is strongly impregnated 
with sulphuric aid, and known as " sour springs." Salt was discovered 
in the town of Le Roy in 18>!1, at a depth of si.x hundred and fifteen 
feet. The supply is con.sidercd practically inexhaustible 

Genesee county is well supplied with railroads, furnishing transpor- 
tation facilities equalled by but few counties in New York State. Ba- 
tavia and Le Roy are the two principal railroad centres, as well as the 
most populous villages. 

.The main line of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad 
enters the county at the eastern boundary of Bergen, and passes in a 
generally southwesterly direction through that town, Byron, Stafford, 
Batavia, Pembroke and Darien. The Tonawanda railroad has its east- 
ern terminus at Batavia. and extends thence westerly through that town 
and Pembroke. The West Shore Railroad passes easterly and westerly 
through the northern part of the ounty, traversing tlie towns of 
gen, Byron, Elba, Oakfield and Alabama. The Buffalo and Geneva 
Railroad enters the town of Le Roy at its eastern boundary and extends 
in a generally southwesterly direction through Le Roy, Stafford, Ba- 
tavia, Pembroke and Darien. The Delaware, Lackawanna and West- 
ern Railroad crosses the southern part oi the county from east to west, 
traversing the towns of Pavilion, Bethany, Alexander and Darien. 
The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railroad enters the county at 
the southern boundary of Pavilion, runs nortlierly through that town 
and Le Roy to the village of Le Rc\v, where it turns and extends east- 
erly, leaving the county at the east bounds of Le Roy. The Xew 
York, Lake Erie and Western Railroad enters the county at the west- 
ern boundary of Darien, crosses that town to Alexander and runs 
thence to Attica. At the latter place one branch takes a northeasterly 
and southeasterly curve througii the southern parts of Ale.xandcr and 
Bethany, leaving the county near the southwest corner of the latter 
town. Another branch runs northeasterly through Alexander and P^a- 
tavia to the village of Batavia, where it turns and thence pursues an 
easterly course through the towns oi Batavia, Stafford and Le Ro'-. 
The Batavia and Canandaigua Railroad enters the county at the east- 
ern boundary of Le R«jy, passes westerly thnvugh that town, Stafford 
and Batavia to the village of Bata\ ia, where it forms a junction with 
the Xew York Central and Hudson River RailrtKid. 

"There are thirteen ti>wns in Genesee county — Alabama, Alexander, 


Batavia, Bergen, Bethany, Byron, Darien, Elba, Le Roy, Oakfield, 
Pavilion, Pembroke and Statlord. 

Of these towns Batavia is the oldest, having been erected when the 
original county was formed, March ;50, 1S02. As at first constituted it 
comprised the territory now composing the towns of Alexander, Bergen. 
Byron, Bethany, Pembroke, Darien, Elba and Oakfield, and parts of 
the towns of Alabama and StatTord. Alexander, Bergen (including 
Byron), Bethany and Pembroke (including Darien and a part of Ala- 
bama) were taken or! June 8, ISJ'2; Elba (including Oakfield) and a 
pari of Stafford were taken off in March, 1820. Le Roy was formed 
from Caledonia (Livingston county) June S, ISl'i, and was originally 
called Bellona. Its name was changed April G, 1S13. A part of 
Stafford was taken off in 18-^0 and a part of Pavilion in \SV2. Statford 
wns formed from Batavia and Le Roy ^Lirch 'H, IS'IO. A part of Pa- 
vilion was taken off in 1842. Alabama, originally called Gerrysville, 
was formed from Pembroke and Shelby (Orleans county) April 17, 1H"2*".. 
Its name was changed April 21, lS:;iS. A part of the town of Wales 
was annexed in 1832. Pavilion was formed from Covington (Wyoming 
county) May 10, 18U. Parts of Le Roy and Stafford were annexed 
March 22, 1842. 


The Great Iroquois Confederacy — Its Fouiirlation, Customs and Laws — Its Wide 
Dominion — The Seneca Indians, the Aborigines of Genesoe County — Subdivisions 
(It the Five Nations — Political Aspect of This Powerful Savage Republic. 

The Seneca Indians, the immediate predecessors of the Holland 
Comi)any in the occupancy of the region west of the (^icnesee river, 
were the fifth and most westerly nation of the great Iroquois Confed- 
eracy. The Mohawks were the (original Confederates, their abode be- 
ing along the banks of the Mohawk river. The Oneidas were located 
upon the southern shore of Oneida lake; the Onondagas near Onon- 
daga lake; the Cayugas near Cayuga lake; and the Senecas upon Seneca 
lake and Genesee rivt-r. These localities were the seats, or places of 
the council fires of the various tribes, though the tribes did not con- 
fine themselves to these localities alone. They really occupied, in de- 


tached villages, nearly the entire State, from the Hudson to the 
Nia^^ara river. Each nation had a principal seat, as indicated, with 
■ tributary villages. 

The actual dominion of the Iroqiujis had a much wider range, how- 
ever, than the territory mentioned. They laid claim to sovereignty to 
"all the land not sold to the English, from the mouth of Sorel River, 
on the south sides of Lakes Erie and Ontario, on both sides of the Oh\o 
till it falls into the Mississippi; and on the north side lakes that 
whole territory between the Ottawa River and Lake Huron, and even 
beyond the straits between that and Lake Erie."' Wiien the settlement 
of 'Manhattan, Beverwyck and Rensselaerwyck was begun by the Dutch, 
the Long Island Indians, those on the north shore of Long Island 
Sound, and those inhabiting the banks of the Connecticut, Hudson, 
Delaware and Susquehanna rivers were dominated by the Iroquois, to 
whom they paid annual tribute. Kven the powerful Canadian tribes 
were conquered by the warlike Five Nations. Schoolcraft says: 

At one period we hear the soup.d ut their war cry along the Straits of the St. Mary's, 
and at tlie foot of Lake Superior. At another, under the walls of (juebec, where 
they finally defeated the Hurons, under the eyes of the French. Thev put out the 
fires of the Gah-kwas and Eries. They eradicated the Susquehannocks. They 
placed tiie Lenapes. the Xanticokes, and the Munsees under the yoke of subjection. 
They put the Metoacks aud Manhattans under tribute. They spread the terror of 
their arms over all New England. They traversed the length of the Appalachian 
Chain and descended like the enraged yagishoand megalonyx. on the Chcrokees and 
CaLawbas. Smith encountered their warriors in the settlement of Virginia, and La 
Salle in the discovery of Illinoi.s. 

In IGGO the French declared the number of t!ie Iroquois warriors to 
be 2, '200; in 16TT an agent of England, dispatched to their country for 
the sole purpose of ascertaining their strength, confirmed the French 
estimate. Bancroft says that their geographical position " made them 
umpires in the contest of the French for donnnion in the west." 

The strength of these Five Nations lay in the fact that they were 
confederated. The nations they m.ide war against were detaclied, and 
not only would not join in attempting to bar the progress of the tri- 
umphant Iroquois, but doubtless had feuds among themselves. The 
Iroquois, on the other hand, invariably acted as one nation in war, 
always in perfect accord. Perhaps by reason of their constant inter- 
course and interchange of ideas, possibly from other reasons, thev had 
a physical and mental organi/.atujn, a certain degree of enlightenment, 

' Sinith'a H. story of New Vork. 


far ahea'd of that of all other tribes or nations. They were most appro- 
priatC')- termed the Romans of the West, a name first applied to them 
by Volney, the French historian. " Had they enjoyed the advantages 
possessed by the Greeks and the Romans," wrote President Dwij^ht in 
his " Travels," " there is no reason to believe they would have been at 
all inferior to these celebrated nations. Their minds appear to have 
been equal to any effort within the reach of man. Their conquests, if 
we consider their numbers and circumstances, were little inferior to 
those of Rome itself. In their harmony, the unity of their operations, 
the energy of their character, the vustness. vigor, and success of their 
enterprises, and the strength and sublimity of their eloquence, they 
may be fairly compared with the Greeks." 

While the Seneca Indians were the aboriginal inhabitants of the 
eastern portion of the territory which subsequently became the original 
Genesee county, the Neutral Nation inhabited that part of the territory 
contiguous to the Niagara river and the eastern end of Lake Erie. 
The Senecas were the most numerous of the five nations known as the 
Iroquois, or the Five Nations, and they occupied the most westerly 
portion of the territory controlled by this great confederacy. The 
English called the Iroquois the Confederates; the Dutch, more partic- 
ularly those who settled the Mohawk valley, knew them onlv as the 
Mohawks and Senecas; and the Indians called themselves the Aganns- 
chioni, meaning ''United People." They also called themselves the 
Hodenosaunee, meaning " People of the Long House," all their habita- 
tions being low, narrow and as a rule very long. Thev also likened 
their confederacy, stretched for two hundred miles along a narrow 
valley, to one of the long wigwams containing many families.' 

The Five Nations were composed of the Mohawks, on the east; ne.\t 
west being the Oneidas, then the Onondagas, then the Cayugas, and 
finally the Senecas, who held most of the original county of Genesee. 
When the Tuscaroras, from the Carolinas, joined the confederacy 
known as the Five Nations, they became amalganiated with th.e 
Oneidas and gradually lost their identity. When the confederacy was 
established is not known. Iii David Cusick"s history he relates the 
Indian traditions relative to the origin of the kingdo:n. The following 
is abstracted from the work referred to: 

• For the brief nl-sumc ot early Indian hiilory cnntained in this chapter the writer i> iiidobteii 
to David Cr.sick's sketches of aricicnt hist>Ty of the Six N'utions. with aiinotat.ons by W. M. 
He.iucl'.arsi;^ and to il.ita furnished by the late IJL-orgt: S. Conuver, the well known aiulicritj on 
Indian history. 


By some inducement a body of people was concealed in the mountain at the falls 
named Kuskehsawkich (now Oswego). When the people were released from the 
m'^untains they were visited by Tarenyawai^oii, i. e., the Holder of the Heavens, 
who had power to chansjc himself iuto various shapes; he ordered the people to pro- 
ceed toward the sunrise as he i,'uided them and come to a river and named Yenon- 
anatcbe, i. e., going around a mountain (now Mohawk), and went down the bank of 
the river and come to where it discharges into a great river running towards the 
midday sun; and Shaw-nay-taw-ty. i. e. beyond the pineries (now Hudson), and 
went down the bank tf the river and touched bank of a great water. . . . The 
people were yet in one language; some of the people went to the banks of the great 
water towards the midday sun, hut the main company returnerl as they came, on the 
banks of the river, under the direction of the Ffolder of the Heavens. Of this com- 
pany 'there was a particular body which called themselves one household; of these 
were six families and they entered into a resolution to preserve the cham of alliance 
which should not be extinguished in any manner. The company advanced some 
distance up the river of Shaw-na-tawty (Hudson), the Holder of the Heavens directs 
the first family to make their residence near the bank of the river, and the family 
was named Tehaw-re-ho-geh. i. e., a speech divide.Wnow Mohawk) and their lan- 
guage was soon altered; the company then turned and went towards the sunsettmg. 
and traveled al.-jut two days and a half, and come to a creek, which was named 
Kaw-na-taw-te-ruh, i. e.. Pmeries. The second family was directed to make their 
residence near the creek, and the family was named Ne-haw-re-tah-go, i. e., Big 
Tree, now Oneidas. and likewise their languaj;e was altered. The company con- 
tinued to proceed towards the sunsetting; under the direction of the Holder of the 
Heavens. The third family was directed to make their residence on a mountain 
named Onondaga mow Onondaga; and the family was named Seuh-now-kah-tah, i. 
e.. carrying the nam.e. and their language was altered. The company continued 
their journey towards the sunsetting. The fourth family v.-as directed to make their 
residence near a long lake named Go-yo-goh, i. e.. a mountain rising from the water 
(now Cayuga) and the family was named Sho-nea na-we-to-wah. i. e.. a great pipe, 
their language was altered. The company continued to proceed towards the sun- 
setting. The fifth company was directed to make their residence near a high moun- 
tain, or rather nole, situated south of the Canandaigua lake, which was named 
Jenneatowake and the family was named Te-how-nea-nyo-hent, i. e.. Passing a 
Door. DOW Seneca, and their language was altered. The sixth fam.ilv went with the 
comjjany journeyed towards the sun.setting, and touched the bank of a great 
lake, and named Kau-ha-gwa-rah-ka, i. e. . A Cap, now Erie, and then went towanls 
between the mid-day and sunsetting. and travelled considerable distance and came 
to a large river which was named Ouau-we-yo-ka. i. e.. a principal stream, now 
Mississippi. . . . The family was directed to make their residence near Cau-ta- 
noh; i. e. . Pine in water, situated near the moutli of Nuse river, now in North Caro- 
lina, and the family was named Kau-ta-noh. now Tuscarora and their language was 
altered. . . . The Holder of the Heavens returns to the five families and forms 
the mode of confe<Ieracy which was named Ggo-neaseali-neh. i. e.. A Long House, 
to which are 1st— Tea-kaw-reh-ho-geh ; 2d— New-haw-teh tah-go; ;Jd— Seuh-nau-ka- 
ta ; 4th — Sho-nea-na-we-to-wan ; 5th — Te-hoo-uea-nyo-hent. 


This organization is supposed to have taken place between I'.njO and 
20(iO years before Columbus discovered America, or between 100 B.C. 
and 500 B.C. While this account is purely traditional it is conceded by 
most autliorities to be the most authentic in existence. 

When the white intruders hrst discovered that such an alliance ex- 
isted, all that was known of the ori^anization of the form of govern- 
ment so remarkable among a savage people was, as we have shown, 
mere tradition. Each nation of the confederacy was independent of 
every other in all matters of a local character, and in tiie councils no 
sachem w^s superior to another, except by reason of higher intellectual 
attainments, such as they might be. The fifty offices created at the 
organization of the confederacy were distributed among the nations 
according to their numerical strength. Although these offices were 
hereditary, no one could become a ruler or sachem until elevated to 
such a place by a council of all the sachems of the original American 
confederacy. The sachems, who, in council, constituted the legislative 
body of the union were also the local rulers of their respective nations. 
While a SAcheni or chief had civil authority, he could not be a chieftain 
in war until elected to that position. Every sachem went on the war- 
path as a common warrior imless he had been doubly honored and 
made a military leader as well as a civil officer. The Iioquois nation 
then was practically a republic, founded on much the same principles 
as the United States of America. 

The policy of the Iroquois nation in war appears to have been not 
alone for the sake of war, but for conquest and the extension of the 
nation's pov/er and influence. So successful were they in their efforts 
that at the end of the seventeenth century they dominated a very large 
portion of what is now the United States. The Iroquois of Xew York 
and the Algonquin tribes of Xew England were perpetually at war. 

For many years, during the early French an^i Indian wars and doubt- 
less for a long period prior thereto, the ])rincipa! and probably the 
most western of the permanent villages of the Senecas, was located at 
Boughton Mill, about twenty miles east of Rochester. Sporadic camps 
were to be found among the forests and in the sheltered places in 
the territory further west, whicii afterward became (ienesee count}-; 
but aside from a village (probably a summer encam[)ment) on the site 
or" Buffalo, we have no knowledge of the existence of any centres of pop- 
ulation among the Senecas west of the Genesee river prior to l'".S7, 
when Governor de Nonville of Canada made his f.rst invasion. As late 



as 17.9, ^ynen Sullivan entered upon his campaign against them he 
went no further west than the Genesee river. The vear followin^^ 'the 
Senecas. who had deserted their villages at Sullivan's apDroach estab- 
lished a permanent settlement on Burfalo Creek, on territory from wliich 
they had driven the Kah Kwah tribe. This settlement was made upon 
the advice and under the auspices of the British at Fort Niagara to 
whom the Indians had tied from the French for protection and relief 

The Neutral Nation (the Kah-Kwahs). to which reference has been 
made, occupied the territory adjoining the Niagara river on both th ^ 
east and the west, but they ventured but a short distance eastward from 
that stream. They had but four villages on the east side of the river 
The Ivah-Kwahs were called the Neutral Nation bv reason of the fact 
that they found it necessary for tlieir own preservation to maintain 
peacetul relations with both the Iroquois of Central New York and the 
Hurons of Canada. The two latter nations were hostile, but they met 
under an armistice in the territory of the Kah-lCwahs. The latter were 
unable to continue their policy of peace and neutrality for long and 
the nation was finally disrupted and overthrown by death in battle' and 
adoption into the rival tribes of the Hurons and the Iro.]uois. 

It is a fact worthy of note that the confederacv recognized no relig- 
ious functionaries, though in each nation there were ofllcers who offici- 
ated at the religious ceremonies held at stated intervals throughout the 
year. Among most of the aboriginal nations there existed'^ regular 
religious profession; but among the Iroquois this was unknown* In 
reality the Iroquois were governed but little. Each warrior was' in a 
measure independent. But the moral state of the Iroquois was high 
and it was their boast that they had ever maintained it. 

There were in each nation eight tribes, named as follows: Wolf 
Bear, Beaver. Turtle, Deer, Snipe. Heron and Hawk. The Wolf tribe- 
was divided into five parts, onv-fiftii being located in each of the five 
nations. The remaining tribes were similarly divided and distributed 
thus giving to each nation the eight tribes, and in their separated state 
making forty tribes m the confederacy. Between the separated parts 
of each tribe there existed a relationship which linked the nations to- 
gether with firm bonds. The Mo'iawk Indian ot the Hawk tribe rec- 
ognized the Onondaga or the Seneca of the Hawk tribe as his brother 
and each considered the other bound to him by ties of consanguinity.' 
This custom prevailed among all the tribes of the various nations, prob- 
ably furnishing the chief rea.son why the fragments of the ancient con- 


federacy continued to cling together long after it was disrupted by the 
encroachments of the whites. The wisdom of these divisions and dis- 
tributions is shown by the history of the nation; for its various nations 
never fell into a state of anarchy, nor did any nation ever hint at such 
a thing as secession. The confederacy was, in fact, a lasting league of 
tribes, interwoven into one great family, the tribes themselves, in their 
subdivi'^ions, being composed of parts of many households. Thus it 
will be seen that the basis of the entire organization was the family 

The \Volf, Bear, Beaver and Turtle tribes were brothers to one an- 
other and cousins to the tribes known as Deer, Snipe, Heron and Hawk. 
These groups were not permitted to intermarry. But any of the first 
four tribes could intermarry with any of the last four. Whoever vio- 
lated the laws of marriage incurred everlasting disgrace and degrada- 
tion. In the course of time, however, the rigor of this system was 
relaxed until the prohibition was confined to the tribe of the individual. 
The children always followed the tribe of the mother. 

Naturally, in accord with such a system, the separate rights of each 
tribe and of each individual were jealously guarded. One of the most 
remarkable civil institutions was that which confined the transmission 
of all titles, rights and property in the female line to the exclusion of 
the male. For example, if the Wolf tribe of the Senecas received a 
sachemship at the original distribution of these ofiices, the descent of 
"such title being limited to the female line it could never pass out of 
the tribe. One of the most marked results of this system was the per- 
petual disinheritance of the son. Being of the tribe of his mother it 
formed an impassable barrier against him; and he could neither suc- 
ceed his father as a sachem nor inherit from him even his medal or his 
tomahawk. For the protection of tribal, rather than individual or 
family rights, the inheritance was thus directed from tlie descendants 
of the sachem to his brother, his sister's children, or some individual 
of the tribe at large under certain circumstances. 

The method of reckoning degrees of consanguinity was clear and 
definite. No distinction was made between the lineal and collateral 
line, either in the ascending or descending series. The maternal 
grandmother and her sisters were equally grandmothers; the mother 
and her sifters were equally mothers; the children of a mother's sisters 
were brothers and sisters; the children of a sister would be nephews 
and nieces; and the grandchildren of a sister would be grandchildren— 


that is, the grandchildren of a person from whom tlic dep^ree of relation- 
ship is reckoned. These were the principal relatives within the tribe. 
Out of the tribe the paternal ^grandfather and his brothers were equally 
grandfathers; the father and his brothers were equally fathers; the 
father's sisters were aunts, while in the tri!)e the mother's brothers were 
uncles; the children of the father's sister were cousins, as in the civil law; 
the children of these cousins would be nephews and nieces; and the 
children of these nephews and nieces would be his grandchildren. 
The children of a brother were reckoned as children, and the grand- 
children of a brother were grandchildren. The children of a father's 
brotliers were brothers and sisters; and their children were reckoned 
as grandchildren.' 

The peculiarities of the mode of computing the degrees of blood re- 
lationship were nothing as compared with the intricacies of the succes- 
sion among the rulers of the confederacy. Some authorities claim that 
the sachemships were elective offices; others have endeavored to point 
out that they were hereditary. Apparently they were, many times, both 
elective and hereditary. One fact should be borne in mind, in order 
that the casual reader may not be misled; and that is that the titles of 
of sachem and war-chief are absolutely hereditary in the tribe to which 
they were originally assigned, and can never pass out of it, except with 
its extinction. 

As has been shown, the sachem's brothers, and the sons ui his sisters, 
are of his tribe, and t'nerefore in the line of succession. Between a 
brother and nephew of the deceased there was no law establishing a 
preference. Between several brothers, on the one hand, and several 
sons of a sister, on the other, there was no disiinction in the law. Xor 
was there any positive law that the choice should be contlned to the 
brothers of the deceased ruler, or to the descendants of his sister in the 
female line, before a selection could be made from the tribe at large. 
It thus appears that the offices were hereditary in the particular tribe 
in which they ran, wliile being elective as between the male members 
of the tribe itself. 

Upon the decease of a sachem a covincil of the tribes was held to 
select his successor. In the absence of physical and moral objections 

• The names of '.hi- several dt?«r',MS of r<l;ni;jnsliip reio>r:ii7.i-J amor.k; tlie Irofjucis are a* fol- 
lows, in the Seneca t>>nc;iK-: (jrandfatlier, H">te: vjramJinnt hi-r. L"c-*"tc; fathi.T. ha-mili; 
in'>thcr, N'oh-yeh; s<>n. lin-ah-week:,'IUer. i;u-ah-wei-k: vcraiiJcliililreii. ka va-iia; uncle, h<ic- 
no-seli; aunt, ah-^'eh-hui-: nephew, ha-yan-wan-iK-h; niece, br^.ther-* and ms- 
ters, ila-ya-gwa-dan-n'.-U.i, coUnih, aU-nare-sch. 

Tin-: iF-ioouois. 13 

the choice orenerally fell upon a son of the deceased ruler's sisters, or 
upon one of his brothers. If the new sachem was an infant a guardian 
was chosen for him, and such guardian performed the duties of a 
sachem until the young sachem reached a suitable a;^e. It seldom 
happened that a selection from the tribe at large was made unless the 
near relatives or direct heirs proved unfit for or uinvcjrthy of the otlice. 

The tribes held the power of deposition as well as that of selection. 
If a sachem lost the confidence and respect of the tribe, and was deemed 
unworthy of authority, he was at once deposed by a tribal council. 

The manner of selecting names for infants was unique. Soon after 
a birth occurred, a name for the infant was selected by the near rela- 
tives of the same tribe. At the next nati'mal council public announce- 
ment of the birth and name was made, with the name and tribe of the 
father and name and tribe of the mother. Wnen an individual was in- 
vested with authority as a sachem, his original name was cast aside and 
that of his sachemship itself assumed. The same rule applied to war- 
chiefs. Wiien a chief was chosen, the council of the nation performing 
the ceremony took away the original individual name and assigned to 
the incumbent a new one. Thus, when the celebrated Red Jacket was 
raised to the dignity of chief, his original name, 0-te-ti-an-i (meaning 
Always Ready), was laid aside and the na;ne of Sa-go ye wat-ha 
(meaning Keej^er Awake), signifying the ptjwer of his eloquence, was 
bestowed upon hini. 

A tribe of the Ho-de-no-sau-nce iiivolves the idea of descent from a 
common mother. In the formation of an Iroquois tribe portions were 
taken from many households and bound together by a tribal bond, in 
reality by the ties of consanguinity. All the menibcrsof the trit^e were 
connected by easily traceable relationship. The wife, her children, 
and her descendants in the female line were forever linked with the 
destinies of her own tribe and kindred; and the husband, his brothers 
and his sisters, and the descendants of the latter in the female line, 
were held by affinity to the mother tribe. 

This magnificent republic was founded upon terms of absolute equal- 
ity. Those apparently special privileges that we!"e granted to certain 
tribes arose solely from locality. For instance, the Senecas, located 
upon the western frontier of the nation, were allowed to have the head 
war-chiefs; while the Mohawks, by reason of their most easterly loca- 
tion, became receivers of tribute from the subjugated nations to the 
north,' east and south of them. 


A great peculiarity of the confederacy was that uyinimity was one of 
the fundamental laws. Such a thinqf as majority rule was unknown. 
With the idea of obviating- altercations in c <uncil, as far as possible, the 
founders of the confederacy divided the sachems of each nation into 
classes, usually of two and three each. Xo sachem was allowed to e.K- 
press an opinion in council until he had a-reed with the other sachems 
of his class upon the opinion to be expressed and had been desijijnated 
as spokesman for his class. Thus, tlie eij^^ht sachems of the Senecas, 
being divided into four classes, were entitled to but four opinions. The 
four sachems representing the four classes then lield a consultation, and 
whe;1 they had agreed they selected <ine of their number to express 
their opinion. This opinion was th.e opini'jn and decision of the nation. 
The final settlement v/as reached by a conference of the individual rep- 
resentatives of the several nations; but no determinati.ju was reached 
until these delegates were unanimously agreed upon the question at 
issue. Thus, the Iroquois war against the French was declared by a 
unanimous vote; but when the question of an aliiance with the British 
in the Revolution came up, the council was divided, and although most 
of the confederates were allies of the British in that war, it was bv rea- 
son of the fact that each nation was permitted to act as it deemed best. 

The earliest detailed notice, from English sources, of the territory 
which subsequently became, for the most part, the original countv of 
Genesee, was contained in a work published in London in ITSO under the 
title of "Chalmer"s Political Annals of the United Colonies." The de- 
scriptive article which was of interest in this connection appeared under 
the heading of " Observations of Wentworth Greenhalph, in a journev 
from Albany to the Indians westward, begun the -..'Sth of Mav, l-;??, 
and ended the llth of July following." After describing the country 
of the first four nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, the writer alludes 
as follows Lo the Senecas and their abode: 

The Senecas have four towas, viz: — Canag-nah. Tistehatuti, Canoe:i:i'.la. Keuit-he. 
Cana.'^orah and Tistehatan lie witiiiu tliiity miles of t!ie Lake FroDtenac; the other 
two about four or five miles to Lhe southward of these; they have abundance of corn. 
None of their towns are stockaded. 

Canagorah lies at the top of a great hill. and. in that as well as in the bigness, 
much like O.ionda^^oe,' containing one hundred atirl fifty liijuics, 'horthwestwdrd 
of Cayuga seventy-two miles. 

Here the Indians were very desirous to see us ride our horses, which wc did. Thev 
made feasts and dancing, and invited us. 

' OnonJ.-i^oe is describ'-'il .t> ••■iituatcl on a hi'.l that i>i very largt?. the bank on Ciich s'de 
extcadirtg itself at least two miles, all cleared lands, whereon the corn i* planted." 

I ■ H 


Tistehatan lies ou the edge of a hill; not mucli cleared ground; is near the river 
Tistehutan, which signifies bending.' It lies to the northward of Canagorah about 
thirty miles; contains about one hundred and twenty houses, being the largest of all 
the houses we saw : the ordinary beiv.g fifty or sixty feet long, and some one hun- 
dred and thirty or one hundred and forty feet long, with thirteen or fourteen fires in 
one house. They have good store of corn growing about a mile to the northward of 
the town. 

Being at this place, on the 17th of June, there came fifty prisoners from the south • 
westward, and they were of two nations; some of whereof have a few guns, the 
other none. One nation is about ten days' journey from any Christians, and trade 
only with one great house, not far from the sea; and the other, as they say, trade 
only with a black people. This day, of them were burnt two women and a man. and 
a child kHled with a stone. At night we heard a great noise, as if the houses had all 
fallen ; but it was only the inhabitants driving away the ghosts of the murdered. 

The ISth, going to Canagorah, we overtook the prisoners. When the soldiers saw 
us. they stopped each his prisoner, and made him sinr; and cut otf their fingers and 
slashed their bodies with a knife; and, when they had sung, each man confessed 
how many men he had killed. That day, at Canagorah, there were most cruelly 
burned four men, four women and one boy; the cruelty lasted about seven liours; 
when they were a'mfst dead, letting them loose to tiic mercy of the boys, aiul lakin" 
the hearts of such as were dead to feast on. 

Canoeaada lies about four miles to the southward of Canagorah; contains about 
thirty houses, well furnished with corn. 

Keint-he lies about four or five miles to the southward of Tisteiiatan ; contains 
about twentj'-four houses, well furnished with corn. 

The Senekas are counted in all about l.OOu fighting men. 

Whole force— Magas ;iOO 

Oneydoes 20<» 

Onondagoes S.jO 

Cayugas 300 

Senekas 1 ,000 

Total 2,150 fighting men. 

Rev. Samttel Kirkland left Johnson's Hall at Johnstown, Fulton 
cotinty, January IG, 1705, accompanied by two Seneca Indians, upon a 
mission embracing all the centres of population among the Iro(iuois. 
He finally reached Kanadasagea, the principal town of the Senecas. 
where he delivered to the sachem the message, or letter of introduc- 
tion, furnished to him by Sir William Johnsun. He was received in a 
friendly spirit, e.Kcei)ting by a limited number of Indians, who ai^pearcd 
to dislike his advent. The Senecas, after deliberating over the mat- 
ter, finally decided that he should establish his residence among them. 
A few weeks after his arrival he was fi^rmally adopted into the familv 

.' • Probably ihc Genesee. 



of the chief sachem of the nati-.u. This adoption was elTected only- 
after formal ceremonies. Upon his entrance into the council one of 
the chiefs, after a short period of silence, said: 

Brothers, open your ears ami your eyes. Vou see here our white brother who has 
comefroma^^reat distaQcc. recommenaed to us by our great chief. Sir Wilham John- 
son, who has enjoined it upon us to be kind to him. and to make hira comfortable and 
to protect him to the utmost of our power. He comes to do us good. Brothers this 
young white brother of ours has left his father's house, and his mother, and all his 
relations. We must now provide for him a house. I am appointed to vou and to 
our young white brother, that our head sachem adopts him into his family. He will 
be a father to him, and his wife will be a mother, and hissou- and daughters will be 
his brbthers and sisters. 

The head sachem of the Senecas, arising, then took liim by the hand, 
called him his son and led him to the spot where his tamily were seated. 
"A smile of cheerfulness sat on every c<nnitenance." says Mr. Kirkland 
m his journal, "and I could not retrain from tears; tears .;f joy and 
gratitude for the kind Providence that had protected me tiiruugh a 
long journey, brought me to the place of my desire, and give,n me so 
kind a reception among the poor savage Indians." 

Unfortunately, however, the relations begun on such a friendly basis 
were destined to be interrupted wiili a menace agamst the missionary 
sent out by Sir William. A few days after Mr. Kirkland had become 
a member of the Indian family referred to, the head of this family, a 
man greatly respected, fell ill and died. Several of the Senecas, who 
were jealous of the young missionary on account of his great popularity 
among the nation as a whole, at once made the death of this Indian a 
pretext for creating, or attempting to create, a feeling of prejudice 
against him, alleging that the death was produced by magic, or that it 
was "an intimation of the displeasure of the Great Spirit at his visit and 
residence among them." They insisted that the safety ot" the remain- 
der of the nation demanded that the newcomer must instantly be put 
to death. Upon these presentations councils were convened, and for 
several days the Senecas deliberated over the matter. In this hour of 
trial the chief sachem proved the steadfast friend of Mr. Kirkland, 
opposing every proposition to do him any harm of whatsoever nature. 
The counsels of the friends of the threatened minister prevailed in the 
end, and thereafter he lived, as he said in his journal, " in great har- 
mony, friendship and sociability." For eight years prior to the Revo- 
lution he lived among the Senecas, and during that struggle, though 
he had been sent among them by a warm adherent of the Briti-sh cause, 


he succeeded in tlivertiny- many of the nienibers of the nation from ad- 
herence to the cause of the crown. He e.xerted a stronj^ influence 
anionic them, and in after years liis services were mucl) Siur^lit by th<jse 
wlio desired to hold councils with them for the purpose of entering u[)- 
on treaties with them. 

About a hundred years ag^o Red Jacket was a powerful chief of tlie 
Senecas, who at that time had lost their independent power and become 
wards of the American nation. In K'J'2 he and Farmer's Brother, 
representing the Senecas, visited the American cajntal, I'hihidelphia, 
when President Washing-ton presented to the former a silver medal, 
which he wore on State occasions during the remainder of his life. 
Red Jacket at that time professed to be friendly to civilization, but in 
after years he became a slave to spirituous liquors and lost of his 
prestige, both v/ith the federal g'o\'ernmcnt and his own tribe. He 
died January '20, ls:30. Farmer's IJrother was an inlluential and elo- 
quent chief and warrior. During tlie latter days of his life he was the 
staunch friend of peace and civi!ij:ation and did ^Tiuch to si)read i)rinci- 
ples of temperance among his tribe. Another famous Indian of those 
days was John O'Bail. commonly known as Cornplanter, whcj was ac- 
knowledged as leader by a band of Senecas on the Allegany Reserva- 

Red Jacket was born in iTo'I. His birthplace is believed to have 
been at a place formerly called " Old Castle," about three miles west 
of Geneva. His Indian name was Sa-go-yon-wat-ha, signifying "one 
who keeps awake b}' magical influence." During the Revolution the 
Senecas fought under the British standard. Although cpiite young, his 
activity and intelligence attracted the attention of the British officers, 
who presented to him a richly embroidered scarlet jacket. This he 
wore on all occasions, and from this circumstance arose the name by 
which he was known among the whites. During the Revolution he 
took little or no pai't therein as a warrior, but his personal activity and 
transcendent talents won the esteem of his tribe. A gentleman who 
knew him intimately for more than thirty years in peace and war spoke 
of him in the following terms: 

Red Jacket was a perfect Indian in every respect, in costume, in his contempt of 
the dress of ihe while men. in his hatred of and opposition to the missionaries, and 
in liis attachment to and veneration tor the .mcient customs and traditions of his 
tribe. He h.ul a contempt for the English language, and disdained to use any other 
than his o"vn. He was the tinest spe< imon of the Indian character tliat I ever knew, 
and sustai\n?d it with more dignity than any other chief. He was second to none in 


authority in his tribe. As an orator he was unequallcl by any other Indian I ever 
saw. His langua^^c was beautiful and figurative, as the Indian language always is 
, and delivered with the greatest ease and Miiency. His gesticulation was easv gr ice- 
ful and natural. His voice was distinct and dear, an.l he alwavs spoke with great 
animation. His memory was very strong. I have acted as interpreter to mo^t of 
his speeches, to which no translation could do adequate justice. 

Many interesting anecdotes, illustrative of the peculiarities of his 
character and his ready eloquence, are related. At a council held with 
the Seneca.s, a dispute arose between Governor Tompkins and Red 
Jacket, in relation to a treaty of several years' standinj;-. The s,Mn-orn..r 
made a cerain statement, and the famou.^ chief insisted that the reverse 
was true. " But." came the reply. " you have forj^otten— we have it 
written down on paper." " The [niper then tells a lie,'" was Red fack- 
efs reply; " I have it written here," placin;^^ his hand with ^^rcat dig- 
nity upon his brow. " Vou Yankees are born with a feather^ between 
your fingers; but your paper does not speak the truth. The Indian 
keeps his knowledge here— this is the book the Great Spirit gave us— 
it does not lie. " The treaty in <iue.stion was immediately referred to. 
when, to the astonishment of all present, and to the triumph of the 
bronzed statesman, the document conhnned every word he had uttered. 
At a treaty held with the Indians during the Revolutu.n. La Favette 
was present. The object of the convention was tr> effect a union of the 
various tribes in amity with the patriot cause. The majority of the 
chiefs were friendly, but there was much opposition made to the pro- 
posal, especially by <jne young warrior, who declared that when an al- 
liance was entered into with America, he should consider that the sun 
of his country had set forever. In his travels through the Indian coun- 
try, when on his last visit to America, La I'ayette referred to the treaty 
in question at a large assemblage of chiefs, and turning to Red Jacket 
said: '• Pray tell me, if you can, what has become of that daring youth 
who so decidedly oppuised all propositions for peace and amity.^" *' I 
myself, am the man," answered Red Jacket, "the decided enemv ot 
tiie Americans so long as the hope of successfully opposing them re- 
mained, but now their true and faithful ally until death." 

During the war of ISLi Red Jacket and his tribe enlisted in the 
American army. He fought through the entire war, displaying un- 
daunted intrepidity ; and in no instance did he e.xhibil the ferocity of 
the savage nor disgrace himself by any act of inhumanity. 

Red Jacket was the foe of the white man until late in life. Hi.s na 
tion was his god; her hontjr, preservaci«jn and liberty his relij;ion. He 


hated missionaries, because he feared sojne secret desij^n upon the hinds, 
the peace or the independence of the Senecas. He could never com- 
prehend the apparent mysteries of Christianity. He was a keen ol>- 
server of human nature, and saw that amon;^- both white and retl men 
sordid interest was equally the prcjmoter of action. Naturally enouj^h 
he therefore suspected every strancjer who came to his tribe of some 
desij^n on their little but dearly pri./.ed domains. 

His tribe was divii.led into two factions, one of wiiicli was called the 
Christian faction, by reason (;f its favorable attitude toward the mission- 
aries; the othc!', from their opposition, was known as the pajjan jxarty. 
His wife, who attended tlie reli;^ious meetinrirN of the Christian party, 
was persecuted by him on this acccjunt. But during- his last sickness 
his feelings respectinj^ Christianity appeared to have undert^one quite 
a chanu;"e. He frequently remarked to his wife that he was sorry that 
he had persecuted her, that she was right and he was wrong: and on 
his deathbed he said to her: "Persevere in your reliL,don. It is the 
right way." 

A few days before his death he sent for the local missionary, whose 
name was Harris; but as the latter was in attendance upon an ecclesi- 
astical council he did not receive the message until after the great 
chieftain's death. In his last wandering- moments he is said tu have 
directed that a bottle of cold water should be placed in his coffin, so 
that he might have something- with which to fight the evil spirit. Many 
persons from ButTalo attended his funeral. some of whom wished him bur- 
ied according to the pagan custom. But in accordance with the expressed 
desire of his Christian wife and (jlher relatives lie was buried in the 
Christian manner. He left two wives, but none of his children siirvivcd 
him. Two of his sons are believed to have died Christians. Rev. 
Jabez B. Hyde, who taught among the Senecas prior to the war of 181'^, 
was authority for the statement that one of Red Jacket's sons was the 
first convert to Christianity from this tribe. 

For several months prior to his death time had made such ravages 
on the old chief's constitution as to render him fully sensible of his 
approaching dissolution. He often referred to that approaching event, 
but invariably in calm and philosophic terms. He visited successively 
all his most intimate friends at their cabins, conversing with them upon 
the condition of the nation in the most affecting and impressive maimer. 
He told them that his counsels would soon be heard no more. He ran 
over the history of his people from the most remole^j'period to which 


his knowledfje extended, and pointed out, as few couId, the wroii^^^s, 
the privations and the loss of character which almost of themselves 
constituted that history. " I am about to leave you," he said, "and 
when I am gone, and my warning shall no kinger be heard or regarded, 
the craft and the avarice of the while man will prevail. Many winters 
have I breasted the storm, but I am an aged tree and ean stand no 
longer. My leaves are fallen, my br.mehes aie withered, and I am 
shaken by every breeze. Soon mV aged trunk will be prostrate, and 
the foot of the exulting foe of the Indian may be placcil upon it in 
safety; for I leave none who will be able to avenge such an indignity. 
Think not I mourn for myself: I go to join the spirits of my father^, 
where age cannot come; but my heart fails when I think of my i>eo[jle, 
who are so soon to be scattered and forgotten."' 

Ganothjowaneh, a distinguished chief of the Seneca tri'oc, is said to 
have been an orator superior even to Red Jacket. The whites called 
him Big Kettle. It is stated that he never tasted intoxicating licpiors, 
opposing the practice among the Indians, and suffered some persecu- 
tions on that account. During the early period of his life he opjKjsed 
the introduction of Christianity, Init later was favorable to the faith. 
Mr. Wright, a missionary living among the Senecas near HurYalo in 
1840, attempted to persuade him to embrace the Christian religion. 
When told that he was a sinner in the sight of God, Big Kettle apj^ar- 
ently was greatly surprised. Throwing hiniself into an oratorical atti- 
tude he recoimted a long list of his good deeds and endeavored to make 
it appear that he was not a sinner. Once he said to Mr. Wright: 
" Does God overrule all" Being answered in the affirmative he 
continued: " I tell my people so, in council, but when I am alone and 
think how much inifjuity is practiced by the white people in gettii^g 
away our lands, etc., and liow the}' '^o on without being punished, I 
have my doubts." He concluded by saying that the i^reaciiing of the 
missionaries was good, and that tiie Indians would listen to and folhjw 
it; but it would iiave little eiYcct, for ttic bad habits of his people were 
so strong and confirmed that the attempt to break them up wi>uld lie 
as idle as to "stop the wind from blowing down Lake IC:ie." 

Cornplanter was the son of a white man who lived in the vicinity of 
Fort Plank. His mother was a young woman of the Seneca tribe. 
During the Revolutionary war he led the Senecas against the Amer- 

' Tllis skuUli of Ro'l jaokcl was 0'jni;)ile'l f'onj vuri<>its snmti-s. bti' pr;nc:li.illy irniu V'.;. 
XIV ol the New Vork .Mirrur, vvhorc ii appe.ircJ ioou aiier ilie Ut-;illioi .Ui« ctflcbr.iuJ clucf'.aiii. 


icans in the Mo'nawk valley, and durintif one of his incursions he took 
his father prisi>ner. However, he treated him well and released him 
from confinement. In a letter written by this ^reat chief to the gov- 
ernment of Pennsylvania in 18'2-2, comjilaining of the attempt to impose 
taxes upon him and the Senecas residinjj on the Allegany, he began as 

" When I was a child. I played with the butterfly, the grasshopper, and the frogs. 
As I began to grow up. I began to pay some attention, and play with the Indian 
boys in the neighborhoarl. and they took notice of my skin being a different color from 
theirs, and spoke about it. I inquired of my mother the cause, aud she told me that 
my father was a res; Jen: of Albany. I still ate my victuals out <jf a bark ilish; I 
grew up t<^ be a young man. and married me a wift , but I had no kettle or gun. I 
then knew where my father lived, and went to see him. and found he was a white 
man and spoke the English language. He gave me some victuals while at his house, 
but when I started to return home he gave me no provision to eat on the way. lie 
gave me neither kettle nor gun. neither did he tell me that the United States were 
about to rebel against the government of England," etc., etc. 

Cornplanter lived to a great age, having deceased within the last eight or ten 
years. lie was an able man, distinguished in subsequent negotiations. He waselo- 
quent, and a great advocate for temperance. He made a very effective an'I char- 
actertistic speech upon that subject in 18i2. 

" The Great Spirit lirst made the world, and next the flying animals, and found all 
things good and prosperous. He is immortal and everlasting. After finishing the 
flying animals, he came down upon the earth and there stood. Then he made dif- 
ferent kinds of trees, and woods of all sorts, and people of everv kind. He made 
the spring and other seasons, and the weather suitable for planting. These he did 
make. But j////.*. to make wiskey to give to the Indians, he did not make. . . . 
The Great Spirit told us that there were three things for people to attend to. First, 
we ought to take care of our wives and children. Secondly the white people ought 
to attend to their farms and cattle. Thirdly, the Great Spirit has given the bears 
and deers to the Indians. . . . The Great Spirit lias ordered me to quit drink- 
ing. He wishes nie to inform the people that they should quit drinking iuto.\icating 
drink. ' In the course of the same speech, he gave evidence that lie was not very 
much pleased with the admixture of his own blood. . . '-The ditTerent kinds the 

Great Spirit male separate, and not to mix with and disturb each other. Hut the 
white people have broken this command, by mixing their color with the Indians. 
The Indians have done better by not doing so." ' 

' Stone's Life of lirant. 



From the Discovery of the Huc'.son to the Inauguration of the Final Contest for 
Supremacy oa the American Continent Hetween the I>ench and Enjjiisb— Expedi- 
tions of Champlain. La Salle. De Nonville and Others— Construction of the Ft.rt at 
Niagara— La Hontan and His ICxpedition— The Attack Upon Montreal— Struggle 
Ovc!\the Control of Lake Ontario. 

Soon after stmrise on the third day of September, in the year I'lOO, 
a small band of one of the abf>ri;.4-inal tril)es of America stood at the 
doors of their rude dwelHn.L^.^ on the northern part of Sandy Hook 
and gazed in amazement and fear at the white sail.s of a small vcs.sel 
sailing slowly along the coast in a northerly direction In abject terror 
at the strange apparition the savages tied t«> the mainland and spread 
among their tribe the news of t!)e mysterious object they had be- 
held. The vessel, in the meantime, continued on its course, and soon 
lay at anchor in the water now known as the Lower Bay of Xcw York. 
It is almost supcnluous to add that this strange craft was the little 
ship Half Moon, in command of that daring English navigator, Sir 
Henry Hudson, who been engaged to sail hither by tiie Dutcli 
East India company for the purpose of discovering, if possible, a 
northwest passage aroimd the American continent. Twt) da}'S after 
entering the bay the intrepid explorer landed, Init on the liHh ot the 
month he agaii;i set sail and entered the noble river whicii still bears 
his name. 

As the result of Iludsous voyage Holland set up a weak claim to 
the couutrv extending irc^m Cape Cod to I)elawarc bay, to which it 
gave the name of Xew Xetherland. This territory claimed by Hol- 
land also extended inland an indefinite distance, and included all the 
vast unknown West of which the territory embraced within the confines 
of Genesee county formed a part. Great liritain and France treated 
the claim with contempt, but Holland nevertheless bc^an the settle- 
ment of the ricli territory between tiiese two points, making the first 
permanent settlement on the island of Manhattan. 

At this time the Netherlands, which but a comparatively s'nort time 
before had won their independence from Spain, had fairly entered upon 


the heroic period in their history. Tliey had become powerful on the 
sea. They felt that the rij;^ht of discovery entitled thcni to full con- 
trol of a reg-ion of practically unexplored country which since has be- 
come the richest and most populous on the American continent. For 
more than a score of years — despite the threatening: attitude of the 
Enj^-lish and the French claimants to practically all of the soil of North 
America north of Florida— the stupid Dutch j^overnment maintained 
nothing in the territory it claimed excepting^ a few tradinj.,'- posts. 
Then, when it was too late to remedy the condition brought about by 
its stolid indifference to the menace confronting it, and after liaving 
allowed ignorant and mos: thoroughly incompetent men to manage its 
affairs in the New World, the government partially awoke to the ne- 
cessities of the occasion — if it would retain possession of its rich claim. 

The English government steadily contended that the Dutch had no 
right to the territory in question, particularly inasmuch as no well de- 
fined plan for colonization had been adopted. The latter therefore 
concluded that the only way in which they could make their tenure of 
the territory secure and their title indisputable was by actual occupa- 
tion. Their next step was the founding of the patroonship system, 
which resulted in the establishment of colonies on the Delaware and on 
the Hudson. The latter was successful, but the Delaware colonies 
failed and soon after the French government had made extensive grants 
in that region to its subjects. In the meantime the English settlements 
in New England were encroaching upon the domain claimed bv the 
Dutch. Both the English and French claimed priority of discovery, 
excepting a limited region near the Hudson, and even this territory the 
English included in their claim. The advent of the Dutch, as we 
shall soon see, was the cause of a general awakening t«> tlie danger of a 
conflict of authority on the part of both the French and English. 

The French based their claim to the vast expanse of territory in 
question to tiie early explorations of Cartier and Chami^lain. Cartier 
sailed from France in 1.334, just three-c[uarters of a century before 
Hudson ascended the river bearing his name, discovered and named 
the St. Lawrence river, raised the stanrlard of the King of France on 
the site of the city (jf Montreal, proclaimed the country to be a posses- 
si(m of the French crtjwn and named it New France. The year fol- 
lowing he niade anotiier voyage to the same region. In I.">j() Francis 
de la Roc[ue sailed with a commission from his king and m:ide an effort 
to effect a permanent settlement. But little was done in this direction 


until 100:3, when Samuel dc Chaniplain began his famous voyage of 

Champlain was a navij;;ator of experience. With .several other 
Frenchmen, he had received the royal authority to form colonies on 
the St. Lawrence and to explore the country as he should see tit. 
Fitting- out an expedition in li;o:3, he ascended the St. Lawrence as far 
as the site of Quebec, where he determined to erect a substantial fort. 
Soon the fur trade and the enormous profits to accrue to him therefrom 
became the subject uppermost in his mind. In order to hold this tra>le 
for the French he finally decided to join the Hurons and Algonquins 
in -an expedition against the Iroquois tribes of New York, hoping 
thereby to conquer the latter and unite all the Indian tribes in an alli- 
ance with France. Had he better understood the situation and the 
relations of these tribes, he woukl ha\-e h.esltated before waging war 
against the powerful and warlike Irocpaois confederation, 

July 2, IfJOO, Champlain, at the head of a considerable party of French 
and Canadian Indians, left Quebec and began the ascent of the Sorel 
river. Here the majority of the French invaders returned with their 
vessel to Quebec, finding the Chambly rapids impassable with their 
craft, and left Champlain and two other white men at the head of the 
Indian band to continue the journey in canoes. Soon they reached tlie 
lake which now bears the name of its discoverer. Landing at the south 
end of the lake, near the site of Ticonderoga, X. Y., they met a both- 
of Mohawk Indians, and the first battle on American st)il ensued. Had 
Champlain exercised discretion on this first expedition and sought to 
make friends of the Iroquois, the entire course of future events in 
American history might have been different. But the warlike and re- 
vengeful Mohawks, and their fellow tribes in the great Five Nations, 
never forgot the wanton killing of one of their number by a French 
musketoon, and when the opportunity came, they and, in later years, 
their sons and their grandsons carried the war re[)eatctlly into the 
country of the French and Algonquins, finally forming an alliance with 
the English for the purpose of wreaking still further vengeance on their 
hated enemies. 

In 1015 Champlain planned and carried cnit a greater expedition, 
this time entering the heart of the country of the C hiondagas, bringing 
defiance to all the Iroi|uois tribes, and spreading death and devastation 
on every side. On tiiis expedition he di'^covcred Lake Ontario, the 
name meaning, in the Indian tongue, the "beautiful lake." He ex- 


plored its shores along the western border of northern Xew Voik in the 
vicinity of what was afterward known to the French as La Famine. 
On his return he passed near the head of the St. Lawrence, thus be- 
coming the first explorer of tlie Thousand Island region. 

During the same year in which Champlain made his first expedition 
into the Iroquois country, and even a day or two before he saw the 
waters of Lake Champlain, Sir Henry Hudson had entered the mouth 
of the Hudson river. But before either of these expeditions, the Eng- 
lish had begun their attempts to colonize a part of the territory now 
claimed by both t!ie Dutch and the Frencli. In August. lOOG. the 
Plymouth company sent their first sh.ip to America. The voyage was 
but half completed when the company's vessel was captured by a Span- 
ish man-of-war. In the fall another ship was sent out. This party re- 
mained on the American coast until spring, and then returned with 
glowing accounts of the new country. In IGOT the first colony was 
sent out, but it met with disaster. About the same time the London 
company sent a colony to America, and Jamestown was founded. But 
it was not until Itl'^n wlicn the Pilgrim fathers arrived, that the first 
permanent and successful English colony was founded. 

It will thus be seen that at the close of the first quarter of the seven- 
teenth century the Englisli had permanent settlements in Massachu- 
setts, the French had settlements on the St. Lawrence and Ciiesapeake 
bay, and the Dutch had possession of Manhattan island and had a fort 
on the site of Albany. Little was known of the interior country, and 
each of these nations set up a claim to most of the disjnited territory. 
The Dutch standing between the two fires and being rej^resented in 
America by igUDrant, stupid men, the result was inevitable. Their 
power was eventually annihilated and the struggle for supremacy nar- 
rowed down to the French on one side and the Englisli on the other.' 

L'nfortunately for the French, success did not attend their erTorts to 
colonize the region of country to which the}- had set up a stout claim. 
But the disappointment of their government was lessened by the in- 
defatigable labors of the Jesuit priests who had come from France to 
America. In 101. 5 a number of Franciscan friars had come to An^erica 
with Champlain, but soon they were supplanted by tlie more powerful 

' Thougli maiij- <>' tin.- events niirrated in this cluiincr transpired :\i points far fr<»iu Lienesj-c 
county, they were cl"»cly connected wit!i the contlii-t which ulliniatcly resulted in Rnifli^h do- 
minion in this country, whose ori>rinal ti-rritory at one lime formeil the objrctive point of a senew 
of frcniicf strugis'lcs. The lon){ stru^jfle for supreme control of this territory and it* outoiine, 
have had .i >;rcat intluence in directing the destiny of Genesee cotinty and its inhabitant!*. 



order ot Jesuits, the latter arrived in Canada in l.;-.'"., and at once be- 
gan preparation for penetraiint,^ the interior wilderness by wav of the 
St. Lawrence, with tlie purpose of carryin- the principles of'civiliza- 
tion and the Christian reli^rion tr. the Indian tribes. As early as IG'li] 
Father De La Roche Daillon visite.l the Xeutral Nation and spent the 
winter among them. Other priests soon had stations established as far 
west as the ea.stern shore of Lake Ilunm. Champlain died in 1C35. 
and his successors in charge of the French colonies had small capacity 
for carrying on the great work he had inaugurated. The hostility of 
the Iroquois nation— incurred by Champlain himself through his early 
expeditions against the great confederacy— had resulted inUie destruc- 
tion of many of the habitations of the French colonists along the St. 
Lawrence and tiie material reduction of the number of its inhabitant.s 
at Ouebec and elsewhere. Nevertheless, the French had succeeded in 
establishing fur-trading posts at four points on the C.reat Lakes as 
early as IGGo. The Canadian Indians being friendlv to the French, the 
missionaries traveled the northern path of the traders in comparative 

The English control of Manhattan and the Hudson river region be- 
gan in IGG-i, when the Dutch were compelled to capitulate. It was not 
untij 1670, however, that English control of the country hitherto known 
as New Netherland, embracing Genesee county, was made permanent. 
But the Dutch continued to be a powerful factor in the fur trade, as 
well as in the development of the agricultural re.sources of the territory 
whose control had been wrested from them; and, moreover, they es- 
tablished the firm foundation on which the higher social fabric of the 
future was to rest. The English were di.screet enough tr. c..)ntinue the 
peaceful relations which their predecessors had established with the 
Iroquois confederacy, which fact redounded greatly to their advantage 
when the final struggle for supremacy between tlie English and French 

To Robert de La Salle, the most illustrious of the French explorers, 
his country owed the greatest debt. In ir,;:] Joliet and .Manpiette had 
passed down the Wisconsin river and penetrated the wilderness to the 
Mississippi, sailing in their canoes on that river below the mouth of the 
Arkansas river. But it remained for La Salle to determine whether the 
waters of that great river were discharged into the .southern gulf or 
into the broad Pacific. In lOOo La Salle came to Canada and engaged 
in the fur trade at La Chine, where the Sulpitian Fathers gave him 


an extensive grant of land. Plis love for adventure was j^reat, and his 
imagination having become excited by the si(..ry of the voyage of Mar- 
quette and Joliet, he determined to push still further south in the hope 
of discovering the desired route to the " South Sea," erecting a line of 
military posts and trading stations along the route. This, he believed, 
would give France a still stronger claim to this vast territory. 

in 1G72 Frontenac was made Gr)vernor (ieneral of Canada. Their 
aspirations being of the same nature, it was easy for La Salle to secure 
the co-operation of the former. Returning to France in IGT4, La Salle 
received grants to large tracts of land about Lake Ontario and a title of 
n-jbility was conferred upon him by the king. Returning to Canada he 
sought a monopoly of the fur trade, but his prosperity and ambition re- 
sulted in the creation of animosities on the part of numerous rivals, and 
in 16TT he agam returned to France to maintain his position, and also to 
obtain aid and authority to complete his plans for explorations in the far 
west. In this he was successful. May ]-2, K'TS, the French cnnvn 
granted to him the sole authority over all the western part of New 
France, with permission to construct all the forts necessary to the accom- 
plishment of his purpose, and a commission for the discovery of the 
Great River. The commission read as follows: 


Gkantf.p p.v thk KiNi; of Fkancf. tu iiik pi: La Sallf, o.\ imf V2m or 

May. 1678. 

Louis, by the Grace of ('lOii, Ki'og nt I'mncc mni .Xitvarrr, to our i/t-ar nud 'u-cll 
beloved Robert Cavalier, Sieur tie l.^i >,tlle, s^reetim^: — 

We have received with favor the very humble petition which has been presented 
to us in your name, to permit you to endeavor to discover the western part of our 
country of New France; and we have consented to this proposal the more willingly 
because there is nothmg we have more at heart than the discovery of this country, 
through which it is probable that a passage may be found to Mexico; and because 
vour diligence in clearing the land which we granted to you by the decree of our 
council of the 13th of May, 1075. and by letters patent of the same date, to form 
habitations upon the same lands, and to put Fort Froutenac in a good state of de- 
fence, the Seigniory and government whereof we likewise granted to you; affords us 
every reason to hope that you will succeed to our satisfaction, and to the advantage 
of our subjects of the said country. 

For these reasons, and others thereunto moving us, we have permitted, and do 
hereby permit you, bv these presents, signed by our hand, to endeavor to discover 
the western part of our country of New France; and for the execution of this enter- 
prise, to construct forts wherever you shall deem it necessary; which it is our will 
you shall hold on the same terms and conditions as Fort Frontcuac, agreeably and 


conformably to our said letters patent of the i:Uh of May. 167.'). which we have con- 
firmed as far as is needful, and hereby confirm by these presents.— and it is our 
pleasure that they be executed according to their form and tenure. 

To accomplish this, and everything above mentioned, we give you full powers; on 
conditions however, that you shall finish this enterprise in five years, in default of 
which these presents shall be void and of none etlect; that you carry on no trade 
whatever, with the savages called Outa<juacs. and others, who bring their beaver 
skins and other peltries to Montreal; and that the whole shall be done at your ex- 
P'^nse, and that of your country to which we have granted the privilege of trade in 
buffalo skins. And we call on Sieur de Frontenac, our governor and lieutenant- 
genera!, and on Sieur de Chesneau. intendant of justice, policy and finance, and on 
the officers who compose the supreme council of s:iid country, to afhx their signatures 
to these presents; for such is our pleasure. Given at St. Germaine en Laye, this 
12th day of May, 1G78. and of our reign the thirty-fifth. 

[Signed] LOUIS. 


Late in the summer of lt;:s La Salle, accompanied by Tonti, an 
Italian, a number oi mariners and mechanics, and carrying naval and 
military stores and g-oods for the Indian trade, arrived at Fort Fronte- 
nac. Here his formidable expedition was joined by Father Louis 
Hennepin. Early in the fall, accompanied by Father Hennepin and a 
part of his company, he embarked in a v.-ooden vessel of ten tons bur- 
den, crossed Lake Ontario and sailed up the Xiag-ara river as far as 
Lewiston. Cpon the present site of Fort Niagara at Voungstown he 
established a trading pjst. Proceeding thence to a spot on the east 
side of the Niagara river, now the site of the hamlet of La Salle, he 
built a ship of sixty tons burden, called the Griffin.' Tonti and Father 
Hennepin meanwhile established friendly relations witli the Senecas. 
August T, IGT'J, La Salle, having comjileted his boat, and also having 
dispatched messengers to apprise the inhabitants of the Illinijis district 
of his intended visit, set sail up the Niagara river, carrying a colony of 
fur traders destined for the valley of the Mississippi In Father Hen- 
nepin's account of this expedition of La Salle he says: 

On the 14th day nf January. KJTH, we arrived at our cabin at Niagara to refresh 
ourselves from the fatigues of our voy.ige. . . . On the '20th. I heard, from the 
banks where we were, the voice of the Sieur de I>a Salle, who ha<l arrived from Fort 
Frontenac in a large vessel. He brought provisions and rigging necessary for the 
vessel we intended building ab<jve the great falls of Niagara, near the entrance into 
Lake Erie. But by a strange misfortune, that vessel was lost through fault of the 
two pilots, who disagreed as to the course. The vessel was wrecked on the southern 
shore of Lake Ontario, ten leagues from Niagara. The sailors have named the place 

' This sliip was upon ilie of C:i\ >ij,'a creek on thf present An^rvinc farm. 


La Cap Enrage (^L\ll Cap). The anchors and cables were saved but llie goods and 
bark canoes were lost. Such adversities would have caused the enterprise to be 
abandoned by any but those who bad formed the noble design of a new discovery. 

The Sieur de La Salle informed us that he had been among the Iroquois Senecas, 
before the loss of his vessel, that he had succeeded so well in conciliating theni, that 
they mentioned with pleasure our embassy, which I shall describe in another place, 
and even consented to the prosecution of our undertaking. This agreement was of 
short duration, tor certain persons opposed our designs in every possible way. and 
• .stilled jealousies into the minds of the Irotjuois. The fort, nevertheless, which we 
were building at Niagara, continued to advance. But finally the secret inf.uences 
against us were so great, that the fort became an object of suspicion to the savages, 
and we \\ere compelled to abandon its construction for a time, and content our-elves 
with building a habitation surrounded with palisades. 

On the 2'2d we went two leagues above the great falls of Niagara, and built some 
stocks, on which to erect the vessel which we needed for our voyage. We could not 
have built it in a more convenient place, being near a river which empties into the 
strait which is between Lake Erie and the great falls. In all my travels b.ick and 
forth, I ahvavs carried my portable chapel upon my shoulders. 

On the 26th. the keel of the vessel and other pieces being ready, the Sier.r de La 
Salle sent the master carpenter named Moyse, to reijuest me to drive the first bolt. 
But the modesty appropriate to my religious profession, induced me to decline the 
honor. . . . Finally the Sieur de La Salle undertook his expedition on foot over 
the snow, and thus accomplished more than eighty leagues. He had no food, e.\cept 
a small bag of roasted corn, and even that had failed him two days' journey from 
the fort. Nevertheless he arrived safely with two men and a dog which drew his 
baggage on the ice. ... In the meantime the two savages of the Wolf tribe, 
whom he had engaged in our service, f<jllowed the chase, and furnished us with rf)e- 
bucks, and other kinds of deer, for our subsistence. By reason of which our work- 
men took courage and applied themselves to their business with more assiduity. 
Our vessel was consequently soon in a condition to be launched, which was done. 
after having been bles.sed according to our church of Rome. We were in haste to 
get it afloat, although not finished, that we might guard it more securely from the 
threatened tire. The ve.ssel was named The tiritVin (Le Griffon), in allusion to the 
arms of the Count de Frontenac. which have two Griffins for their supports. For 
the Sieur de La Salle had often said of this vessel, that he would make the GriiTin 
fly above the crows. . . . 

After a few days, which were employed by the Sieur de la Forest in treating with 
the savages, we embarked with the vessel, having with us fifteen or si.\teen squaws, 
who embraced the oppotunity, to avoid a land passage of forty leagues. As they 
were unaccustomed to travel in this manner the motion of the vessel caused them 
great qualms at the stomach, and brought upon us a terrible stench in the vessel. . . 
A few days after, a favorable wind sprung up, and Fathers Gabriel ile la Kibourde 
and ZenobcMambre and myself embarked from Fort Frontenac in the bngautine. 
We arrived in a short time at the mouth of the river of the Senecas [O^wegoJ. which 
empties into Lake Ontario. ... On the 4th of August I went overland to the great 
falls of Niagara with :he sergeant, named La Fleur, and from thence to our shiji- 
vard, wliich was si.\ leagues from Lake Ontario; but we did not find there the ves.sel 


we had built. Two yoving savages slyly robbed us of Uie liulc biscuit which re- 
mained for our subsistence. We found a bark canoe, half rotten and without pad- 
dles, which we fitted up as well as we could, and having made a temporary paddle. 
risked a passajje in the fra=; boat, and tin;d!y arrived on board our ve.sael. which we 
found at anchor a league from the beautiful Lake Erie. Our arrival was welcomed 
with joy. We found the vessel perfectly eiiuipped with sails, masts and everything 
necessary for navigation. We found on board five small cannon, two of which were 
brass, besides two or three A spread griflin adorne<l the prow, sur- 
mounted by an eagle. . . 

We set sail on the 7th of August, 1079, steering west sor.ihwcst. . . . On the 
8th a favorable wind enabled us to make about forty-five leagues, and we saw 
almost all the way, the two distant shores, fifteen or sixteen leagues apart. 

Aug.'ll. We sailed up the strait [Detroit river] and passed between two small 
islands of a very charming appearance. This strait is more beautiful than that of 
Niagara. It is thiity leagues long, and is about a league broad, except about half 
way. where it is enlarged, forming a small lake which we called Sainte Claire, the 
navigation of which is safe along both shores, which are low and even. 

Reaching Green Bay, Wisconsin, the Griffin took on a rich car'>-o of 
furs and started on the return voyage. After sailing from that point 
no tidings were ever received of the vessel or crew, which undoubtedly 
were lost in a storm on one of the lakes. Soon after La Salle and the 
remnant of his band were obliged to return on foot to Fort Frontenac, 
a distance of a thousand miles. During his absence Father Hennepin 
traversed Illinois and explored the Mississippi northward as far as the 
Falls of St. Anthony. 

In IGSl La Salle returned to his station on the Illinois, brin-Mn"- men 
and supplies. Another boat was built atul launched, and early in the 
following year the heroic adventurer, with a small band of companions, 
descended the river to its mouth and entered the Mis.sissip[)i. He 
finally reached the waters of the Grulf of Mexico, and after a brief so- 
journ he started on his return journey. This adventure was one of the 
greatest exploits of modern times. 

Returning to Quebec La Salle immediately setsail for France. That 
country was now in a state of high excitement on account of the mar- 
velous expedition which the intrej)id adventurer had successfully carried 
out. Vast plans were at once made for beginning the work of coloniz- 
ing the valley of the Mississippi. 

In the meantime De la Barre had been appointed Cioverncjr of Can- 
ada, in IGSv. His brief administration wasafailurc. In KJSt thcSen- 
ecas, who had been at war with the western Indians, pillaged a number 
of French canoes and captured fourteen prisoners, be la Barre was 


ordered to invade the Seneca country; but before he did S(j he souj^ht 
from Governor Donj;an of the province of New York a pledge that the 
latter would not permit the sale of guns or ammunition to the Iroquois 
Nation. The English were on terms of friendship with the Iroquois, 
and consequently Governor Dongan refused to pledge himself to neu- 
trality. De la Rarre then made an invasion of the country of the Sen- 
ecas and Onondagas, but the fiery eloquence of Garangula, a celebrated 
Onondaga chieftain, so thoroughly alarmed him that he was glad to 
leave the country. Disgusted with his weakness, his government re- 
called him in 1GS5, and Marquis de Xonville was appointed to succeed 

In July of the same year in which Dc la Barre allowed the Iroquois 
to overawe him, La Salle left France at the head of a colony of two 
hundred and eigiuy emigrants, in four ships commanded by Ivjaujeu. 
His plan was to ascend the Mississippi river and plant colonies on its 
banks and tributaries. Against La Salle's entreaties the blundering 
captain allowed the rleet to be carried out of its c<jurse, beyond the 
mouth of the Mississippi. Here a landing was eflected and the first 
colony in Texas planted, on the shores of the bay of Matag<jrda. After 
several ur.successful efforts to rediscover the mouth of the Mississippi. 
La Salle finally set out overland, with sixteen companions, to cross the 
continent to Canada. The march began in January, 1687, and on the 
•iOth of March following the intrepid explorer was assassinated by two 
consinrators in his company. 

In the meantime De Xonville, the new (Governor of Canada, began 
preparations for subduing the Seneca Indians, who inhaiiited most of 
the territory within the limits of the original coimty of Gene>^ce. He 
proposed energetic measures, including the establishment of a strong 
fort at Niagara and another on Lake Erie, for the double purpose of 
h<,>lding tiie Indians in check and preventing the English from further 
extending their fur trade among the western nations. In 1*;.SG he 
wrote to his government: 

War once declarerl. it is an indispensable necessity to establish and maintain a 
post of two hundred men at Nia,v^ara, where married farmers oujjht, in my opinion, 
be placed to make clearances and to people that place, m view of becoming;, with 
Ijarks. masters of Lake Krie. I should greatly wish t<j to have a null at Niagara.' 

De Nonville also advised the erection of other fortifications (;n account 
of the defenseless condition of the French, insisting that the Irocjuuis 

'O''s Djc. Cul. Hist, of N. V. 


were powerful and hated the 1-Vciich, and tluit their ability to procure 
arms and ammunition from tlie Hn<;1ish made them daui^erous f-.>es. 
He also corresponded with Governor Donj^an. insisting; that the French 
had the first riglits in Western Xcw Ymik. Meanwhile he had juished 
his preparations for invadinj^^ the country of the Senecas 

June lo, 1GS7, De Nonville left Montreal with a force of two tiunisand 
men. four hundred of whom were Canadian Indians. Arriving at I-'ort 
Frontenac on the oOtli, he proceeded July 4 U) the south shore of Lake 
Ontario, landinc: at what is now In^ndequoit, Monroe county, where 
the forces at Xiag-ara had been ordered to nicet him. After erectin;; 
a small stockade he started for the interior July I'i, leaving a garrison 
of four hundred men to occupy the fort. The Senecas, finding the in- 
vading- force so vastly surperior, tied before the French, burning their 
villages before they did so. 

The Indian village of Gannagaro, located near the [)rescnt village at 
Victor, Ontario county, was the first p jint attacked. Ua the i:Uh they 
arrived at a defile near the Indian village, where they v/ere ambushed 
by a considerable force of Senecas. Many of the invading force threw 
away their guns and clothing to escape intc; tlie woods, so great was 
their consternation. The Senecas finally retreated before the French 
army, burning all their villages, and sought refuge among the Cayugas. 
The French remained in the Indian country, however, until the '^Uh. 
The deserted villages were entered and large (juantities of corn and 
beans destroyed. The Indian allies of the French scouted the country 
and tomahawked and scaljied those Senecas who fell behind in the 
flight. In his report of the e.Kpedition to the king De Xonville painted 
his exploits in very vivid coli.>rs; but P<aron La Montan, one of hicofli- 
cers, in his account of the e\peditic>n, accused De X'onville of coward- 
ice, or at least timidity. 

De Xonville was so dispirited with the fright that had struck his men 
that his Indians could not persuade him to pursue. He halted the re- 
mainder of the day, and the ne.xt day proceeded on with the intention 
of burning the village; but the Senecas had laid their settlement in 
ashes. On the 24th, finding his invasion practically fruitless, the expe- 
dition returned to the bank of Lake Ontario 

The four Indian villages which De X'onville visited are supposed to 
have been as follows: 

Gannagaro, as the French called it, or Gaosaehgaah in the Seneca 
language, near \'ictor, Ontario county; 'iannogarae, in the town of 


East BloonifieUl, in Ontario county, near where tlie ancient Indian trail 
crossed Mud creek; Totiakto, or Deyudihaakdoh as the Senecas called 
it, .on the northeast bend (jf Iloneoye outlet, near West Mendon, in 
Monroe county; and Gannounota. or Dyudonsot in the Seneca tonj^aie, 
about two miles southeast of ]-"ast. Avon, 

On the •^ijth of the month the whole army set sail for Xiag-ara. where 
it arrived on the mornini,'- of the :50th, havini; been delayed by head 
^'■•nds. There the army at once bei,^an the erection of a fort "at the 
extremity of a tongue of land between the river of Niagara and Lake 
Ontario, on the Injcjuois side." In three days the post was in good 
condition for defense in case of assault In his journal 1 )e Xonville 
says his object in constructing this fortification was for the protection 
of the Indian allies and to ejiable them to continue the war against the 
Irocpiois. He left a garrison of one hundred Trov'es there, with am- 
munition and provisi'jns for eight months; but they were besieged by 
the Senecas, and a sickness which broke out soon after killed off nearly 
the entire garrison. 

August '2 De Xonville left X'iagara. reaching Montreal August I.'), 
having left one hundred men at Fort Frcjntenac. The Senacas soon 
after returned and occupied the territory they had deserted. In oppi>- 
sition to his personal desires La Hontan was directed to assume com- 
mand of a detachment and accom[)any the returning western Indian 
allies. At Lcwiston, "where the navigation stops," his men carried 
their canoes up' " t;ie three mountains," launching them again at 
Schlosser, in the southeastern part of the present city of Niagara 
Falls. A large body of Senecas were soon upon his trail. From the 
foot of Canandaigua lake, where they had temporarily encamped, they 
started for the vicinity of X'iagara Falls, for the purpose of attacking 
the French troop? or their Indian allies. The latter had just sailed 
from Schlosser, when a large body of Senecas appeared on the bank 
of the river. La Hontan's forces proceeded along the north shore of 
Lake Ivrie, and eventually reached the fort of St. Joseph's, relieving the 
garris'Hi at that point. 

During the succeeding winter a party of Hurtjn Indians started for 
the fort at Niagara, intending to enter the Seneca cmmtry and kill or 
capture detached parties of trappers. On their way through Canada 
they fell in with a party of Iroijuois and killed or made prisoners of the 
entire party of sixty. When they returned to Macki!iaw some of the 
prisoners informed La Ilontan that they were members of the baml 

^^ OUR COL'N'I V A.\r» ITS ri-OI'IT.. 

which had intended to capture him and his cuniinand at Nia-ara I'alls. 
When they left, they said, ciglit hundred Indians had besic«,red the f..rt 
at Niagara, and famine and disease were rapidly reducin-- the small 
French garrison there. 

De Nonville's invasion, the formidable whicli the TreDch had 
yet undertaken, served to ag-ravate the strained relations between that 
nation and the English, the latter insisting that the French had entered 
territory belonging to England. I'.ut the French occupation of the 
post at Niagara was short lived. The Iroquois Indians, thoroughly 
enraged over the attacks made upon them by the white invaders, har- 
assed the fort constantly, until the French were compelled Uj sue for 
peace. In the summer of liiSS De Nonville ordered an armistice and 
invited five hundred Iroquois to meet him at Montreal to conclude 
peace negotiations. At the same time a band of twelve hundred warriors 
were ready to attack the Frencli settlement there if thti results of this 
convention should prove unsatisfact<'ry. The Iroquois insisted upon 
the destruction of Fwrt and Fort Niagara, the [)ayment to 
the Senecas of a sufficient sum to reimburse them for the losses they 
had incurred by reason of the iM-ench invasion of their countrv, and 
the return of a numl)er of their tribe who had been carried in captivity 
into Canada. 

The French were willing to concede w'aat the Iroquois asked and these 
stipulations were inserted in th.e treaty then and tiicre made. Hut, un- 
fortunately, ttie peaceful intentions of this convention were foiled bv 
an act of treachery on the part of the liurons. A chief of that tribe, 
accompanied by a hundred braves, visited Fort Frontenac for the pur- 
pose of assuring the French of his friendship. Reaching the latter place 
he learned of the friendly neg'Hiations then in progress between the 
French, his allies, and the Iroquois, his enemies; jealousy prompted him 
to ambush the band of Irocpiois returning from their mission to Montreal, 
killing many of them and making prisoners of the remainder. His 
treacherous spirit |ri-(^mpied him to tell the prisoners that he had at- 
tacked them under directions of De Nonville. He then liberated the 
prisoners, who returned to their country and spread the story of French 

The consequence was inevitable. The enraged Iroquois immediately 
went upon the warpath for revenge. July "^G twelve hundred warriors 
attacked Montreal, slaughtered about a thousand of the French settlers 
and left the village in ruins. This left the French in desperate .straits, 

1 ;'s;cyGG 


and on the other hand strengthened the bonds ot" friendship between 
the Iroquois and tlie English. To tins tact, more than any othersingle 
'^-ccurrence, the victory of the Ivnglish in their contest against the 
Freiici) was due. The latter immediately abandoned Forts I'n ntenac 
and Niagara; and war between France and England having been de- 
clared, the allied forces oi English and Irotjuois wrought havoc among 
the French settlements in Canada. The enemies of the linglish dev- 
astated Schenectady and a portion of the Onondaga country; but the 
victory lay with tne English. The treaty of Ryswick, in 16'JT, again 
brought peace, but for a few years only. 

The main point which produced the contest between these two 
nations — the con tlicting territorial claims — unfortunately was not settled 
by this treaty ; and until the boundaries between the colonial posses- 
sions (jf the two countries should be settled hostile operations were in- 
evitable. The Jesuit priests in Canada continued actively to S]M"ead 
their religion among the Indians. gi\'ing offense to the Engiisii by 
establishing missions among the Iroc|uois. The result was easily fore- 
seen. The differences between the two nations grew wider until the 
conflict known as Queen Anne's War, which began in 1702 and con- 
tinued until 1713. Before the inauguration of tiiis war the French, 
gaining the friendship of the Western Indians through the othces of 
the Jesuit priests, had strengthened their position by the erection of 
numerous forts and the establishment of settlements. The French 
considered western Xew York — the territory subsequently becoming 
the original Genesee county — a great point of vantage to them; but 
the English directed their attentions principally to other points. The 
details of this war are of little interest in this connection. Peace wa.-. 
concluded with the treaty of Utrecht Ai^ril 11. IMi). France ceding to 
England Nova Scotia and Port Royal, and agreeing to refrain in the 
future from molesting " the- Five Nations subject to the dominion of 
Great Britain." Still the most important matter ot all — the boundary 
question — was left unsettled and made another war certain. 

Little by little it became evident to the French that the English had 
determined to obtain control of Lake Ontario. In 17"^1 or 17'^^ the 
latter established a trading post at Irondequoit. and in 17".^0 one at 
Oswego. France still claimed the territory. To strengthen her posi- 
tion she erected, in l7*-iG, a new fort at Niagara, on or very near the 
site of the present stone fort there. Tlie Frencii had (objected to the mili- 
tary occupation of the tv/o points on the lake by the English; the latler 


contended that the French were gf>in<; beyond their rij:jhts in erecting a 
fort at the mouth of the Niagara river. The positions at both ends of 
the hike were of the higliest commercial and strategic importance to 
both parties, as the nation holding- both could absolutely control Lake 
Ontario and the bulk of tlie great fur trade. li(jth intrigued with the 
Indians in the hope of securing their allegiance. 

In 1712 the remnant of the Tu.-<carora tribe was adopted by the Iro- 
quois Confederacy, becoming the sixth nation rjf that republic. Tiie 
Tuscaroras originally came from North Carolina, where they liad in- 
habited the country of the Neuse and Tar rivers. In ITOS their twelve 
hundred warriors inhabited fifteen towns. In ITO"^ they had a rupture 
with the colonists, and soon after they were robbed of their lands. 
Hostilities followed, and many warriors were slain, while larger num- 
bers were made captives. Tired of their persecution and hopeless over 
their defeats, the remainder of the tribe who had not remained neutral 
migrated to New York. 

In 1 T4i war was declared involving not only ICngland and France, 
but Spain and Austria, During the summer of that year tlie old stock- 
ades at Niagara were strengthened, but little else of direct interest in 
this connection transpired before the peace of October IS, 1* JS. WHiilc 
there was peace (^n paper, the conllict in America in reality never ceased. 
Both nations struggled with intensity to secure the undivided allegiance 
of the powerful Iroquois. In IT.Ji the English, probably aware of the 
fact that their enemies were planning to capture Oswego, repaired the 
fortifications at that pi^int. While Hraddock's stubbornness was leading 
him into the greatest of mistakes, Governor Shirley of Massachusetts 
strengthened the post at Oswegi', which was heavily garrisoned, built 
Fort Ontario on the east side (;f the river, and created a small navy on 
the lake. In the meantime the French were bettering the c<.)ndition of 
Fort Niagara, which had been saved from Shirley's contemplated attack 
by reason of storms on Lake Ontario. These preparations were prc;- 
gressing during the period of technical peace. The next, and final, 
struggle for supreme control was n<jt inaugurated until the formal dec- 
laration of war on May IS, lTo<i. 

Till-: i-iNAL s'rRr(ic.Li:. 37 


The Final Struggle Between the Frencli ami English for Supremacy in North 
America — Capture ot the Fort at Oswego — Hradstreet Takes Fort Froutenac — Gen- 
eral Prideaux's Expedition Against Fort Niagara — The Tragedy of Devil's Ilole-- 

End of French Domiuion in America. 

Before the beginnini^f "f actual hostilitie.^ in 17^0 it hail become evi- 
dent to each party to the impending struggle that the other had been 
preparing with great energy to make a most desperate effort to main- 
tain its claims in America. At the beginning of the war the outlook 
for the cause of the English was far from flattering. It was, indeed, 
ominous. The I-'rencli had been e.xceedingly active, and had secured 
many of the best points of vantage. Niagara had been j^laced in 
splendid condition by tiie French. Abercrombie's expediti<jn against 
the post was unsuecessfid. A few days after the declaration of war 
Comnuxlore Bradley, commanding the little English fleet at Osweg(j, 
started for Niagara, but was soon compelled to return by reason of 
tempestuous weather on T^ake Ontario. On his second expedition in 
June one of his vessels was captured by the French srjuadron. 

In August, iToO, Montcalm, the successor of Dieskau, commanding 
the French army of Canada, led five thousand men, consisting of reg- 
ulars, militia and Indians, against the English fort at r>swego, which 
Governor Shirley of Massachusetts had left in charge of Colonel Mer- 
cer and a garrison of seven himdred men. I'^recting trenches about 
the fort, he o[)ened a terrific tire August l"-.*. The F.nglish had but a 
small supply of ammunition, and were comijelled to retreat across the 
river to Little Fort Oswego, spiking their guns before they left. Mont- 
calm at once occupied the deserted fort, and from it assaulted tiie lesser 
fort, killing Cohjuel Mercer and many (jf his men. On the 14th the 
disheartened English capitulated, and the French were for the time 
being practically masters of the <.ireat Lakes, as well as Lake Cham- 
plain and Lake George. 

Montcalm destroyed the fort at Oswego after he had captured it, 
principally for the purpose of showing the Iroipiois that the l""rench did 


not intend to maintain a military station in their territory. This move 
caused many of the Indians to tnrn to tlie !• rcnch, i;reatly to the ela- 
tion of the hitter. 

The campaign of IT."): was also disastnKis to the Knglisli, leavin.i^ 
their enemies in control of the West. In 1 T.jS the En.^^^lish, strength- 
ened by a better organization of the regular and colonial volunteer 
forces, succeeded in capturing Fort Frontenac. 

Colonel liradstreet, who first suggested the attempted capture of 
Fort Frontenac, was placed in com mad of the army assigned to 
the great task. At the head r,f about three thousand men, with 
eight cannon and three mortars, he left Lake George and embarked 
at Oswego. On the evening of August 2o he landed about a mile 
from the fort. Within two days he had planted his batteries and 
opened fire. On the -^Tth the French commander surrendered one 
hundred and ten men, nine vessels, sixty cannon, sixteen mortars, 
many light arms and large quantities of military stores, provisions and 
merchandise. The ft^rt was destroyed, as was everything else which 
could not be carried away by the victorious English army. 

The tide had turned, and the French were now as despondent as they 
had been elated. Their anxiety was also greatly increased by the rapid 
development of the English colr)nies. whose population was increasing 
at an entirely unanticipated rate. 

The spring of K59 found the French in a wretched condition. While 
their crops had failed and there had been no considerable accession to 
their forces, the numerical strength of the ICnglish had become greater 
and the internal ties between the colonies, fighting in a comm<jn 
cause, stronger. '')n I-'^ort Niagara the French placed their greatest 
dependence. The Iroquois had now conje out openly in favor of the 
English cause, and even the courageous Montcalm was discouraged. 

Among the expeditions [)lanned by the English was one against 
Niagara. Major-Gcneral Amherst had become commander of the En^^- 
lish forces in North America. So successful had the English been 
that they now planned the complete conquest of Canada. The three 
strong positions still heh.l by France were to be attacked simultaneuuslv. 
Quebec was to be besieged by General Wolfe, the hero of Louisbur^"--. 
General Amherst was was to proceed against Crown Point and Ticon- 
deroga, and after taking tlu>se places, cfoss Lake Champlain and join 
Wolfe. General Prideaux, accompanied by Sir William Johnson, was 
to. have charge of the expedition against Fort Niagara. General .Stan- 


wix and his detachment was to guard Lake (Ontario and reduce the re- 
maining- French posts in the Ohio valley. 

Ivarly in the summer General PrideauK, at the head uf an army of 
European and Provincial troops and Indians, proceeded to Oswego, 
coasted along the southern shore of Lake Ontario, and landed at the 
faouth of Four Mile creek July G. When this army reached Niagara it 
consisted of two thousand whites and one thousand six hundred Indians. 
Despite the fact that it was broad dayliglit the French knew nothing 
of the approach of their enemy until the forces had passed the fort and 
entered the river.' 

July T seven Knglish barges appeared near the shore. Scouts sent 
out by Captain Pouchot reported that fifteen or twenty barges, all told, 
lay near by, while numbers were (locking on the beach. The following 
day the English camp on the lake shore was assaulted and broken up. 
On the 9th the surrender of the position was demanded by the besieg- 
ers, but Pouchot t^ent word to Prideau.\ tiiat he should defend the post. 
On the loth the fort was shelled, wounding several French soldiers- 
All this time the Englis'i had been strengthening their position, from 
which the assault was cuniinued each da\-. July I'.i (.ieneral Prideaux 
was accidently killed in the trenches by the carlessness of a gunner who 
was preparing to fire a sheU. 

- The Engli.-h kept tip a regular hre, doing great damage to the fort 
and killing and wounding many of the garrison. The French were 
running short of ammunition and many of tlieir arms had become 
worthless. So desperate had their condition become that they were 
compelled to resort to the use of hay, straw, and even the mattresses 
and linen from their beds for wadding for their cannon. By the "^-Ith 
the French had not more than a hundred muskets tit fur Rein- 
forcements dispatched to the relief of the fort by Aubrey and Lignery, 
at Fort Machauk and Presque Isle, were driven back by the English. 
Seeing tliat further resistance was useless Pouchot surrendered, upon 
the dema.nd (jf Sir William Johnson, on July -25, when tiie victors took 
possession of the fort. 

By this victory the Niagara river, which the French had controlled 
for more than a century, came under English domination. (Juebec, 
falling before the magnificent assault under Wolfe, French d<^minion 
on the American continent was forever at an end. Still Canada was 

' Tlu- acctnint of ilie ensuing opt-ra'.ions in thi-; c.iinii.i;\;!i i.>; taki'n fr'Hn '.lii.' nicin'nrs of 
Pouclii»t, com!n.iiKlv;r '•[ ihc French i\>r.c-i at Ni.ig:ira. 


not ceded to England until the sii^nint; of the treaty of 17t;:), so tena- 
ciously did France clin^; to her colonies. 

Immediately after the surrender of port Niai^^ara the Eni^lish tot.k 
possession of the frontier of Western Xew Vwrk. with tlie intention of 
keepini^ control of a means of communication with their western points. 
Of all these posts the most important to England, as it had been with 
France, was Niagara. In ITtii) this carrying-place was jjiaced in charge 
of John Steadman, who was instructed by Sir William Johnson to open 
and improve the road. This step was highly displeasing to the Senecas 
whf), disregarding the authority of Johnson as superintendent of Indian 
affairs, united with western tribes in marauding expeditions, pursuing 
their depredations almost to the gates of Niagara. In these attacks 
several Englishmen were killed. 

At this time the Senecas had no settlements between the Genesee 
and the Niagara. The English had erected a palisaded fi:>rt on the 
east bank of the Niagara neai" the east boundary of the present city of 
Niagara Falls, w;:ich they named Fort Schlosser. in hon<jr of its first 
commander, Captain Josejih Schlosser. Fort Niagara, which had been 
greatly strengthened, was for the time used as a base of supplies for 
the West and the growing Indian trade. A few of the Senecas in- 
habited cabins on the present site of Lewiston, where they assisted the 
English in transporting goods across the river. 

July "24, IT'Jl, Johnson reached Niagara on his way to Detroit. Here 
he remained for four weeks inspecting tlie various points on the frontier. 
He also learned that attempts were being made by certain traders to 
cheat the Indi;ms, a course well calculated to produce an uprising 
among them. In lTO'2 Jolmson. learning of the murder b}- the Indians 
of two traders who were passing through the Seneca country, informed 
the natives that any futr. re crimes of this character would be followed 
by summary punishment. tlie Senecas, foreseeing their idtimate 
expulsion from their country ar.d their extinction as a nation, seemed 
determined to retard, if not prevent, the encroachments of the whites. 
The portage between Lewiston and Fort Schlosser, passing most of 
the way through the woods, was a dangerous road, and soldiers were 
stationed at both cnils to protect and accompany trading teams. Soon 
after this occurred the terrible massacre at Devil's Hole, a point on the 
east bank of the Niagara river a siiort distance north of the city of 
Niagara Falls. Th.e following old account of what took place at that 
spot IS considered authentic by historians: 


la i:r.„ Mr. Ste( an Knvjlishman. conlractecl with Sir William | Juiu.sonl to 
construct a porta-e roarl from Ou.-ensto„ Lan.liag. n..w Levviston, t<. Fort Sdilosser 
a u.siance of ab..nt eiglit miles. The roa-l having been complotcrl. on the mormnvi 
of the of September. 1T.;:J, fifteen uav;oi,s an.l teams, mostlv oxen, under an 
escort of twenty-tour men. commanded by a sergeant, and accompanie-l by the cn- 
tractor. Stedman. and Captain Johnson, as a vohmteer. set out from Fort Nia,v;ara stores. c\:c.. intended for the garrison at Fort Schlosser. Arriving something 
over two m-.les from ilie top of the mountain above Lewiston. anci.ten or twelve fr-m 
Niagara, the escort and wagons halted about eleven o'clock, on a htlie savanna ..f 
green sward to rest and take refreshments, beside a gulf calle.l in Indian and Eng- 
lish, tlie Dev.l s Hole. This is a semi-circular i^recipice or chasm of some two hun- 
dred feet in diameter up .md down the river on the summit, but less at the bottom 
A little distance from the brink of the hole i. a kind of natural mound, several feet 
in height, also ot crescent shape; and si.Kty feet Inmi the top issues a fine sprin- 
v.-hich dashes down through the underbrush to the river. A small brook in the 
neighborhood, called the bioody-run. now runs into the chasm. The Seneca Indi-ms 
continued in the French interest at this period, and fearing a hostile m<n-ement on 
tueir part, a detachment of volunteers consisting of one hundred and thirty men 
under the command of Captain Campbell, marched from Oueenston tcstrengthen the 
escort. Just as the troops under Capt. C. reached the spot where the escort halted, 
about five hundred Indians, who bad been concealed behind the mound, sprang from 
tneir covert wiih savage yells, and like .so many tigers began an indiscriminate 
slaughter of the troops, who were thrown in the utmost confusion. Resistance 
against such odds did not long continue, and those of the partv who were not killed 
or driven from the precipice with their teams, attempted their escape bv flight. In 
the midst of the conrlict. Stedman .sprang upon a small horse, and giving the faithful 
animal a slap on the neck with his hand, it him 'over the dead and dying, and 
through the thick ranks of the foe, who discharged their riHes. and hu'rled 'their 
tomahawks in vain at his head. 

Of those who jumped directly down the precipice in front, some .seventy or eighty 
feet, which has an uneven surface below, only one escaped with life. This was a 
soldier named Mathews, from whom particulars were obtained by the touri^,t. 
He was then living on the Canada shore, near Niagara, and familiarly called Old 
Bnttania. Several trees were growing from the bottom of the hole, the tops of which 
reached near the surface of the ground. Into one of these trees Corporal Noble 
leaped and hung, in which position eleven bullets riddled his body. Captain John- 
son, of the escort, was killed, and Lieut. Duncan, of the relief, a native of Long Isl- 
and, and a promi.sing young officer, was wounded in the left arm, of wiiieh he died. 
The whole number of troops and teamsters was about one hundreil and seventy-tive. 
of this number only some twenty-five escapc<l with life, and all of them, except'sted- 
man and Mathews, did ,so below or near the north end <.f the hole, at a little .sand 
ridge, which served to break the fall. Of Capt. Campbells command, only eleven 
escaped with life. The loss of the enemy was inconsideraljlc compared with that of 
the British. A short time after this horrid aiTair. the Indians, who considered Sted- 
man a charmed man. gave him as a reward for his daring feat, a large tract of land, 
which embraced all that he rode over in his dight"! He returned to Fuglaiid.' 


taking along this favorite horse, ami never afterwards would lie allow it to bo sad- 
dleil or harnessied.' 

Most Other accotints of this tfcacherous and blo(jdy attack agree with 
the .one quoted in its essential points. Some state that it occurred 
September 11 instead of September 17. tlic date -iven by Mr. Simms; 
that the escort consisted of twenty-five men instead (jf twenty four, and 
that tlie train was bound for Detroit instead of Fort Schlosser. But 
these details are of minor imiMirtance. Sume recent publications state 
that but eight men are believed to have escaped, whereas Mr. Simtns"s 
informant, who was one of those whose lives were spared, puts the 
number at about twenty-five. 

In the meantime Pontiac'.s war had broken out in the West, the cause 
being similar to that which resulted in the massacre at the Dexil's Hole — 
tbiC ICnglish encroachments upoi^ Indian territory and their defeat of th.e 
French. In July. 1704, General John Bradstreet, at the head of eleven 
hundred provincial troops, started for the west to put down the up- 
rising inaugurated by the wily Ottawa cliief. At Oswego his forces 
were augmented by five htmdred Iro([uois under Johnson, and at Niag- 
ara the army was nearly doubled, thi'ee hundred of the additional fcjrces 
being Seneca Indians. While wailing in this vicinity the erection of 
Fort Erie was begun. 

October 19. 17t">3. while si.K hundred English soldiers in command of 
Major Wilkins were on their way to Detroit in boats, the rear guard, 
consisting of one hundred and sixty men, were fired upon from the 
shore by a band of Senecas, who were concealed in the woods about on 
the site of Black Rock. At the first volley thirteen men were killed 
and wounded. Fifty men were sent aslK^re, where three more men 
were killed and twelve seriously wounded. I'his was the last serious 
attack on the part of the Senecas. In April. l"r. 1, representatives of 
tlie natii^n signed a treat}' of peace at the home oi .Sir William fohnson 
at Johnstown. 

From that time to the Rev(jliition comparative i»eace rei::;ned 
throughout (ienesee county. The trade with the Indians increased at 
a satisfactory rate, and the Niagara fr(jntier was a scene of great activ- 
ity. Sir William Johnson devoted much of his attention toward se- 
curing a continuance and enlargement of the policy of peace and hon- 
esty toward the Indians on the part of the Bi'itish government. Janu- 

' Th'N :•■.■. iui;> IS ! :kt-:i t' .in J.';.;h,i K S:r.:'!>> I'.r.rU.-r W.irs o'' New ViTk i1"<l.".,. I Ik- ;uuli.r 
i'1(;u.;1l-i; •.hi.- >;"r> I'roui ■.!■.•.- l;j»* o:'<jiic "f iIk- %;nviv«jr<. as .ippvars in tlie n.irralivc. 


ary IT.. IT'-.."), Rev. Samuel Kirk'.and. aceonipanicd by two Sciieca In- 
dians, left Johnstown on a nussicjn tIiiouv;h thf Iro'iuois country. He 
remained some time at Kanadesa-a, the cliief villa<^'e of the Senecas, 
spreadin;^- the principles of the Christian reli<.j-ion amonj? them. For 
six rears he labored assiduously anions;- the Six Nations, and his serv- 
ices were most valuable in breaking- down the feeIinL,^s of animositv 
which these nations entertained toward the English. 

Durino- this period of peace, Tryon c-ounty, afterward Monti^omcry, 
was erected from Albany county in l?;-^. The new county comi)rised 
all New Y.ork State west of the present western boundaries of Sarato-a 
and Schenectady counties, and of course included all the territorv which 
subsequently was set apart to form Oenesce county." Few other events 
of importance occurred before the Revolution. Little attempt was 
made to elTect settlements at a distance from the trading posts, f(/r the 
whites still felt insecure from the attacks of the Indians, whom all had 
learned to distrust. The condition of Western New York, then, was 
to all intents and purposes the same at the opening of the Revolution- 
ary war as at the close of the long series of contlicts which gave to 
England the supremacy over France on the American continent. 


The War o£ the Revolution — Expeditio'.i of General Sulli\'an iuto tlic Genesee 
Conntrv— The Seneca Indians Routed — Lieutenant P.oyd's Awful l-"ate — First White 
Settle nient at Buffalo Creek. 

The details of that tremendous struggle of the American colonies for 
independence from the tyrannical, btit short-sighted, British govern- 
ment, need no recounting in connection with the brief story of </ien- 
esee cotinty's participation or immediate local interest in the war. The 
causes of this remarkable contest existed even before the echoes of the 
French and Indian war had died away, and are too familiar to require 
even a mention in this connection. During all that l<-»ng period of hos- 
tilities, beginning in JTToand terminating in iTSiJ. no part of the actual 
contest occurred in the county of Genesee, excepting S])oradic Indian 
attacks. • At one time, however, the victorious American army came 

•1-t orr^ couNTv and its pkopu:. 

as far west as the easterly bcniruls of the original county, but there 
paused and retraced its steps. The orijjmal plan contemplated the in- 
vasion of Genesee county and an attack upon Fort Niaj:,'ara. 

While the Western New York frontier had very little immediate cju- 
nection with the events of th.e v/ar. the post of Fort Niagara was an 
important one from a military standpoint for either of the contesting 
powers. During the entire war it remained in the undisputed posses- 
sion of the British. 

As during the French and Indian war, the fealty oi the powerful 
Irorpiois Confederacy became an object of considerable importance to 
two nations of white men. The great inilucnce of the noted Jolinson 
family, now led by Sir ]^A\n Johnson and ColonelGuy Johnson, the 
latter having succeeded Sir William as superintendent of Indian affairs, 
was strongly exercised in the interests of the llritish cause. The re- 
sult was that all the Iroquc^is nations e.xcept the Oneidas and Tus- 
caroras allied themselves with the British as against the colonists. 
The Seneca nation hesitated for some time before coming out openly 
for an alliance, but tlie pay promised them i)y the Johnsons and their 
natural disp')sition to g-j upon t!ie warpath finally converted them. 
After 1T7T they were active partisans of the British crown. It is a 
matter of record, though not oiTicial, tliat at a council held at Oswego 
the agents of the I'ritish government gave numerous presents to the 
Senecas and promised them '' a bounty on every scalp that should be 
brought in."' I'.ut the Americans v.-ere erpiallyas active as the British 
in seeking an alliance with the New York Indians, though not success- 
ful in their efforts. 

Col. John Butler, the notorious Tory; Joseph Brant, the celebrated 
Mohawk chief; the Johnsons and other enemies of the colonies made 
Fort Niagara their head([uarters during the period of tlie war, and fre- 
(jucnt expeditions against exposed portions of the country were p!;(nned 
and i)ut into execution at that point. Butler organized the n'>torious 
Butler's Rangers, whose very name ins])ired the hearts f>f the colonists 
of New York with terror, antl their commander became one <.>f the 
most C(jnspicuous figures in the border wars. 

The massacre of Wyoming, in July. 1TT>^, and the attack ui->on 
Cherry Valley in November of the same year thoroughly alarmed the 

' Tnis i-i ;io>:.>r.lin.,' t.> 'Ik- ivo <•{ .M.irv lemison. tlu- wlii-.- woman wlmsi- hiv.orv aptn-ars 
;n a > iivjiH-iliiiL; .-li.ipiLT. Tin.- tii;'.Ii oi hi.i- ^Ki!inn.-iit Iuin Ijiih :.,'i.i\ uly iiiu-atiuticil. ami m-vi-r 
UciiiiiuVy .settled. 


colonists. On rhc former occasion :i motley band of Tories and Indians 
imder command of Butler entered the \Vv..inin- vallev about four 
hundred stron- on July 3. This locality, unfortunately! already had 
sent two companies into the Continental army, leavin- only old men. 
women and children, with a small body of soldiers for its defense. The 
unsuspecting- inhabitants were attacked by the invadin-- party, who 
soon killed and scalped more than two hundred of them. ^ Many of the 
pris,.ners were either tortured or slau!.,dUered in the most sava-e fash- 
ion. On the night of July 4. after a number of fugitives who had taken 
refuge in the fort had been otYcred humane terms of surrender, the In- 
dians overran the beautiful valley and completed their work of desola- 
tion and murder. Nearly every house in the valley was burned and 
the remaining inhabitants obliged to flee to the mountain^, for their 
lives. In this massacre the Indiar.s consisted principally of Senecas. 

November II of the same year a band of Indians and Tories under 
command respectively of Joseph Brant and Walter N. Butler, a son of 
Col. John Jiutler. descended upon Cherry valley, killed thirty-two of 
the inhabitants and sixten soldiers garrisoned there, and carried nearly 
forty men. women and children into captivity. 

Tv.-o expeditions against the Indians were now planned. The first 
of these was made against the Onondagas in the spring of i:;'.i. under 
Colonels Van Sciiaick and Willet. but it accomplished little. During 
the summer a more extensive expediti<.n with the same end in view— 
the chastisement of the Seneca.s— was organized. Congress authorized 
General Washington to send an expedition int(j the country ul the Iro- 
(juois, lay waste their villages and retaliate for the wn^ngs they had in- 
.'hcted upon the colonists. The expedition was to be primarilv for 
punitive purposes, but the design also embraced an attack upon Kort 
Niagara, the headquarters of the British and their Indian allies in this 
region of the C(vantry. 

The Senecas, being located at a remote point from the headcpiarters 
of the American forces, for a long time had been com[)arativeIy free 
from fear of retributive justice; and they were in a position, by reason 
of their location, to do the patriot cause incalculable injury. 

Washington gave General John Sullivan command of three thousand 
Continental troops, gathered in the Wyoming valley and the surround- 
ing country, and directed him to proceed against the Senecas. The 
capture of Fort Niagara, which was being held by the notorious Colo- 
nel John Butler, was a possibility consequent ui-on the routing of the 


Indians. Reachini^ Ti.)g^a Point Aii.c'ust -^J. Sullivan was juincd by 
General James Clinton in command of tlic eastern division, composed 
of one thousand six hundred men. About a mile below Xewtown, 
now Elmira, the Indians, thoui^h strongly fortified, were routed. 

The force opposinj^- Sullivan consisted of Butler and his notorious 
Rangers and a large body of Indians under the famous Mohawk chief, 
Joseph Brant. The latter consisted of Senecas. with a few Delawares. 

August -19, after having laid was'.e all the Indian country he had 
traversed, General Sullivan prepared to attack the British and Indians 
in the position they had chosen to defend. After two hours of desper- 
ate lighting, durin-- whicii Sullivan had so dis[)o.>ed his forces as nearlv 
to surround the position of the enemy, the latter, becoming fearful 
that they would be hemmed in and annihilated, suddenly abandoned 
the post and fled. For two miles Sullivan followed in pursuit. The 
enemy lost heavily, while the American loss was but si.\ killed and 
about forty wounded. 

This victory convinced the Indians that furtlier resistance would be 
useless, and Sullivan found no further bar to his progress into the 
Genesee country. As the Americans proceeded, however, they found 
that the principal villages of the Senecas had been ai>andoned. Onlv 
once again did the enemy make the .slightest preparations to impede 
the progress of the patri'/. army. Near the head of Conesus lake thev 
selected a position and began arrangements for an aminiscade, but 
when Sullivan's forces came up the flight was continued as expe- 
ditiously as before. Sullivan continued his march, de\-astating everv- 
thing that could be of use to tlie Indians. While Sullivan was con- 
structing a bridge over a creek which led to Little Beard's Town. 
Lieutenant lioyd and a scouting party had a severe battle with a 
superior force of Indians in the vicinity of what is now tlie town of 
Leicester, Li\"ingston county, originally within the conflnes of (jcnesee 
county. Boyd and a man named l^arker were made piisoneis. and the 
former was tortured to death in the most horrible mannei-. The fol- 
lowing account of the incident is taken from \Vilkin.>(jn's Annals of 
Binghamton : 

From Canandaigiia the army proceeiled to Honeoye. winch they (lestroye<l; atul 
passing by Hcmiock lake, Ihoy came to the iie.Ki of Coiimssius lake, where liie artr.y 
encamped fur the nigiit. on the ground wiiieh is now called Henderson's Flat.s. 

Soon after tlie army ii.i 1 encamped, at the dusk of evening, a party of twentv-onc 
men, under t!ie command of Lieut. William Boyd, was detac'.ied from the ritle corps, 


which was commanded bv the celebrated Morgan, and sent out for the purpose ot rc- 
connoitering the i^roiind near the Genesee river, at a place Dow called Williamsburgh. 
at a distance from the place ot encampment of about seven miles, and under the 
guidance of a faithful Indian pdot. The place was then the site of an Indian vil- 
lage; and it was appreiiended that the Indians and rangers, as their allies were 
called, might be there, or iu its vicinity. 

When the party arrived at Williamsburgh, they found that the Indians had very 
recently left the place, as the l-.res in their hats were still burning. The night was 
so far spent when they g..t to the place of tlieir destination, that the gallant Hoyd. 
considering the fatigue of his nieu. concluded to remain quietly where he was. near 
the village, .sleeping upon their arms, till the ne.xt morning, and then to dispatch two 
messengers with a report to the camp. Accordingly, a little before daybreak, he 
sent two men to the main body of the army, with information that the enemy had 
not been discovered, but were supposed to be not far distant, from the li.'-e.s' they 
found burning the evening before. 

After daylight, Lieutenant Boyd and his men cautiously crept from the place of their 
concealment, and upon getting a view of the village, discovered two Indians lurking 
about the settlement. ui:e of whom was immediately shot and scalped by one of 
the ririemen by the name of Mur|.hy. Lieutenant Boyd— suppijsing now tiiat if 
there were any Indians near they would be aroused by the report of the rifle, and 
possibly by a perception of what had just taken place, the scalping of the Indian- 
thought it most prudent to retire and make his best way back to tlie main army. 
They accordingly set out and retraced the steps they had taken the evening before. 

On their arriving within a!:>out one mile and a half of the main army, they were 
surprised by the sudden appearance of a body of Indians, to the amount of live hun- 
dred, under the conmiand ot Brant, and the same number of rangers, commanded 
by the infamous Butler, who had secreted themselves in a ravine of considerable ex- 
tent, which lay across tlie track that Lieutenant Boyd had pursueil. These two 
leaders of the enemy had not lost sight of the American army since their appalling 
defeat at the narrows above Newtown, though they had nut shown themselves till 
now. With what dismay they must have witnessed the destruction of their towns 
and the fruit of their field*, that marked the progress of our army! They dare not. 
however, any more come in contact with the main army, whatever should be the 
consequence of their forbearance. 

Lieutenant Boyd and his little heroic party, upon discovering the enemy, knowing 
that the only chance for their escape would be by breaking through their lines, 
an enterprise of most desperate undertaking, made the bold attempt. As extraor- 
dinary as it may seem, the first onset, though unsuccessful, was made without the 
loss of a man on the part of the heroic band, though several of the enemy were killed. 
Two attempts more were made, which were etjually unsuccessful, and in which the 
whole party fell, e.xceptiug Lieutenant Boyd and eight others. Boyd and a soldier 
by the name of Parker, were taken prisoners on the spot; a jiart of the remainder 
lied, and a part fell on the ground apparently dead, and were overlo<.<.keil by the In- 
dians, who were too much engaged in pursuing the fugitives to notice th.Kc who 

V.'iien Lieutenant B^yd fouiul himself a prisoner, he solicited an interview with 
Brant, preferring, it seems, to throw himself upon the clemency and liilelity of the 


savage leailer of the enemy, rallier than to his civilized colleague. Tlie cliief, 
who was at that moment near, imnietlialely preseiUed liiniself, when Lieuter^ant 
Boyd, by one ot these appeals and tokens wi ich are known ouly by those who have 
V)een initiated aud instructed in certain niysteiies, and which never fail to bring suc- 
cor to a distressed brother, addressed him as the only si>urce from which he ccjuld 
exjjecL respite from cniel punishment or death. The apj)eal was recognized, and 
lirant immediately and in the strongest langii.-ige, assured him that his life should 
be spared. 

Boyd and his fellow-priso-.iers were conducted immediately l)y a party of Indians 
to the Indian village called Beardstown, after a distinguished chief of that name, on 
the west side of the Genesee river, anil in what is now called Leicester. After their 
arrival at Beardstown, Brant, being called on service which required a few hours" 
abs^ice, left them in care of Colonel Butler. The latter, as soon as Brant had left 
them, commenced an interrogation, to obtain from the prisoner^ a .statement of the 
number, situation, and intention.-, of the army under Sdlivan. and threatened them, 
in case they hesitated or prevaricated in tlieir answers, to deliver tliem up immedi- 
ately to be massacred by the Indians; who. in Brant's absence, and with the encour- 
agement of their more savage commamler, Butler, were ready to commit the greatest 
cruelties. Relying probably upon the promises whicii Brant had made them, and 
v.'hich he most likely intended to fultlU, they refused to give Butler the desired infor- 
mation. Upon this refusal, burning with revenge. Butler hastened to put bis threat 
into execution. lie delivered them to some of their most ferocious enemies, among 
which the Indian chief Little Beard was distinguished for his inventive ferocity. In 
this, that was about to take place, as well as in all the other .scenes of cruelty that 
were jierpetrated in his town. Little Beard was master of ceremonies. The stoutest 
heart quails under the ajiprehension of inimediate anti certain torture and death; 
where too, there is not an eye that pities, nor a heart that feels. The sulTering lieu- 
tenant was first stripped of his clothing, and then tied to a sapling, when the Indians 
menaced his life by throwing their tomahawks at a tree directly over his head, 
brandishing their scalping-knivcs around him in the most frightful manner, and 
accompanying their ceremonies with the most terrific shouts of joy. Having pun- 
ished him sutriciently in this way, they made a small opening in his abdomen, took 
out an intestine, which they tied to a sapling, and then unbound him from the tree, 
and by sc(jurges. drove him around it till he had drawn out the whole of his intes- 
tines, lie was then beheaded, and his head was stuck upon a pole, with a dug's 
head just above it, and his body left unburied upon the ground. Throughout the 
whole of his sutlerings, the brave Boyd neither abked for mercy, or uttered a word 
of complaint. 

Thus jK-rish.ed William Boyd, a young olVicer of heroic virtue and of rising talcnl.s; 
and in a manner tliat will touch the sympathies of all who read the story of his 
death. His fellow soldier, ami fellow suiVerer, Parker, was obliged to witness tins 
moving and tragical scene, and in full expectation of passing the same ordeal. Ac- 
cording, however, to our information, in relation t<» the death of two men, 
whicii has been obtained incident.dly from the Indian account of it, corroboratcil by 
the discovery of the two bodies by the American army, Parker was only beheaded. 

The main army, immc'iately after hearing of the situation of Lieutenant P.'.yd\ 
detawiimeut, moved towards Genesee river, and lindiug the t)odies of who were 


slain in the heroic attempt to penetrate the enemy's line, buried them in wiiat is 
now the town of Groveland, near the bank of Hoard's creek, under a binich of wild 
pliun trees, whore the graves arc to be seen to this day. 

General Sullivan tor some time continued the \vt)rk i)f devastating; 
the C(juntry of the Senecas, destr(jyinj,' everything;" necessary to tiie 
maintenance of life. The Senecas were completely lumiblcd and sub- 
dued and fled to Niagara for succor; but the patriot f<irces returned 
without proceeding to Niagara, whose capture might i-asily have been 

General .Sullivan's journal of his campaign against the Senecas shows 
that the aboriginal inhabitants of Genesee county by this time had 
made considerable progress in the arts of peace. The majorit}- of them 
had left the chase and turned to agriculture, but tied upon the approach 
of the Continental army, seeking sustenance at Niagara. In July, ITS'.', 
Colonel Gtiy Johnson, writing to Lord Germain upon Indian ati'airs, 

The large body that was to be provided for at this post, durinic the last winter, in 
consequence of the rebel invasion, and the destruction of many Indian towns, occa- 
sioned much expense, and great consumption of provisions, which I have endeavored 
as far as consistent with the service, and the Commander-in-Chief atlorded his assist- 
ance for re-establishing them, and enabling them to plant, as early as he could; to 
promote which, as well as to forward parties, 1 have lately visited their new settle- 
ments; one on the Ohio route is increasing fast, and I have already induced about 
twelve hundred of their people lo settle and plant these places, v.-hich will lessen the 
burden of expenses. 

Buffalo Creek was on the Ohio route referred to, and here one of the 
principal Indian settlements was located, early in the summer of H >0. 
The Senecas who settled h.cre were undi;r the leadersliip of Siangar- 
ochti, or Sayengaraghta, an aged sachem, known popularly as Old 
King. The Gilbert family of fifteen persons, who were captured in 
April, K6(), by eleven Indians, at their home in Northampton coinity. 
Pa., were carried by the Senecas to Fort Niagara. Subscriuently some 
members of the family were taken to iJulYalo Creek. One member of 
the family carried to the latter place was Elizabeth Peart, wife of 
Thomas Peart, son of the elder Mrs. (iilbert by a former husband. A 
Seneca family had adopted her. but her child, a few months (jld, was 
adoi)ted by another family living near Fort Niagara. ICarly in ITSl 
the Indians at Buffalo Creek were compelled to g(j to Fort Niagara for 
provisions. She accompanied them to see her child, hut on arriving at 
the fort she learned that it had been bought by a white family. Mrs. 


5*^ OUR L'c>L'.\"r\' AM) ITS ricorLF. 

Peart contrived to escape to Montreal wiih he- luisband and cliildren. 
Other members of tlie family were lield prisoners for seme time, and 
the last of them were not released until \',^-^. 

Butl'alo Creek beinj;- deemed an advantaLTcous point for trade, a num- 
ber of Enjjlish located there a short time after the establishment of tlic- 
Indian settlement. This was the tirst white settlement in that locality. 

From this time to the close of the Revolution few events (A more than 
passing interest occurred v/ithin the limiis of what afierward became 
the original county of Genesee. During the winter and spring of i;sO- 
17Si Brant made a few unimportant forays from Niagara, but as the 
territory in the vicinity of the fort was held by the British and their 
Indian allies, no important results followed. The Niagara frontier was 
quiet from this period to the close of the general hostilities; but al- 
though peace was declared in r.'.S:;, the formal surrender of the frontier 
did not take place until July, ITOG. This facts accounts in a large 
measure for the late development of the resources of this community 
by the whites. 


From the Close of the Revolution to the Famous Purcliasc of the Holland Land 
Company — Cession of the Sovereignty of the " Genesee Country " by Mas.sachuse'.t.'? 
to New York — Sale of the Territory to Individuals — The Morris Purchase — The Hol- 
land Land Cf>rapany Enters tlie Field — Morris Extinguishes the Indian Titles to the 
Land He Had Purchased. 

The war of the Revolution, while disastrous in its etlects upon most 
sections of the country, was not without its benefits. The country west 
of the Genesee river received a great amount of advertising as a direct 
result of the war. A large portion of the American army, drawn from 
other States as well as irvni New York, was encamped in or marched 
through this section on frecjuent occasions. Before tlie close of the war 
" the Genesee coimtry " had become widely known as one of the most 
fertile and productive tracts anywhere in that secti<m of America which 
had been thoroughly explored. The otVicers and soldiers of tiie patriot 
army, most of whom resided in the New England States, learned of 
the character of the land, mingled with the pioneer.>> and in se\-ural in- 


Stances married dau^hlers ot" some of the inl.abitaiits ot' tlie new coun- 
try. The result was that when thi; wai- ended and lliey returned to 
their homes the\' i;ave roseate accounts of the wonderful farm lands in 
the reg-jon which had sheltered them and of the numerous other attrac- 
tions, with the result that 1 ir^^e numl)ers of the inhabitants of New 
England beyan planning;' to found new homes in tliat part of Xew York 
which afterward became the original county of (ieneseo. 

With the signing of the convention commonly known as the treaty 
of Fort Stanwix, which event took place October 'i'i, K84, tlie Indian 
titles to {ill lands west o( the line fixed by the treaty were extinguished, 
and the red men were guaranteed peaceable possession of the territor>' 
east of the line. An illustration of the honesty of purpose on tiie part 
of the United States in its dealing with the Indians in those days is 
found in the case which arose in 1 *'.'(». In that \ear the great sachems, 
Cornplanter, Half Town and Great Tree, complained to President 
Washington that they were being ill-treated in various ways and that 
the rights g"uaranteed them by the treaty of 1TS4 were not being ac- 
corded them. Washington promptly assured them that they would be 
fully protected in their rights and that the whites would be compelled 
to observe the provisions of the compact into which they, through their 
representatives, had entered. For time thereafter, in accordance 
with instructions issued by the president, the local Indians liad no 
cause of complaint, though they ultimately were compelled to relin- 
quish control of the lands they and their forefathers had held for maii\- 

Soon after the peace of ITS^J emigratif^n westward began to assume 
considerable proportions, for the fame of the Genesee country had 
si)read throughout the Union. Many of the newcomers followed Sul- 
livan's old route as far as the Genesee river, proceeding thence to 
Lewiston, on the Niagara river. Atjout ITOuor 171M a road was opened 
as far west as the crossing at lilack Rock. From Hatavia this road f(jl- 
lowed the high ground (jn nearly the same course as the old stage road 
U) Butifalo. 

In 178'.) Ontario county was erected from Montgomery. The original 
Ontario county embraced practically all the territory west of Seneca 

In the month of April, 1T91, the War r)epartment dispatched Colonel 
Thomas Proctor on a mission to pacify the Indians in the we^t, against 
whom f.ieneral St. Clair was preparing an expedition. Tlie Ur.ited 


States orovernment had been led to believe that the I'.ritish. who still 
oecupied the po.s:.s on the frontier, had boon encoura;^iiig tlie Indians 
to continue their depredations on the froiuier. Colonel Proctor visited 
the villa^^e of the chief called Cornplanter, located on the Allegany. 
Thence he proceeded to the Cattaraip^-us settlement, in ctjnipany with 
Cornplanter and a number of his warriors. Continuinj^^ down the 
beach to ButTalo Creek he made ert"orts to induce the Senecas to use 
their influence to put an cud to the Indian depredations in the west. 
At this time the famous chieftain, Red Jacket, had become very influ- 
tiaj, and when he learned Proctor's plans he questioned the latter's 
authority. Proctor proved to the Indians that he had authority direct 
from the g-ovcrnment, and the next day Red Jacket announced that he 
would remove the coimcil to Fort Xiai,^ara. Proctor objected to this 
step, and a compromise v/as effected by the Indians scndinj,' to Niagara 
for Butler. Two or three days afterward P)Utler arrived, and on May 
4 the sachems and leaders met him in council. When the c»)uncil was 
ended Proctor prepared for an expedition further west, and Red Jacket 
announced that the women of his tribe had decided that the sachems 
and warriors must aid the commission and that a number of them, would 
accompany him on his errand of peace. But the British threw obsta- 
cles in Proctor's path, the officer in command opposite Fort Niagara 
refusing" the request of the American officer for transportation up Lake 
Erie on a British merchant ves.scl, the chief having refused to make the 
journey in an open boat. Proctr^r endeavored to bribe Red Jacket, but 
the expedition finally was abandoned and May -il, after having sjK'ut 
nearly a month at or near Buffalo, Proctor started for Pittsburg. The 
expedition had proven a failure. 

In 1794 General Anthony Wayne began his famous campaign against 
the western Indians, completely subduing them. Two years later the 
British surrendered Fort Niagara and other frontier posts, and the 
Indians began to imderstand that their interests would be best c<m- 
served by maintaining friendly relations with th.e victorious Americans. 
After 1700 their attitude was such as to give the American government 
little concern. As so<jn as absolute peace was thus a.-.sured, settlers 
began ilooking to the rich and productive regicjn of country of which 
we are writing, and whose fame had been s[)read throug'noufc the length 
and breadth of land. 

Much confusion has arisen in the minds of average readers as to the 

THE '•gi:nksi:h COrNTkY." o3 

meaning of the wiJely-nsed term, " tlie Crenesee country." Durin;^' 
tiie Revtilutionary war, and as late as 17S0, that part of Xew York State 
west of a line drawn north fmm about the site of the present city of 
Elmira was known as " the CTenesee country." Tlie lands were claimed 
by both New York and Massachusetts, and the I-5ritish forts at Xia;^'ara 
and Oswec;-o menaced botli the claimants lono^ after the close of the 
Revolution. Simcoe, then governor of Upper Canada, protested against 
the settlement of :'ne country " during the inexecution of the treat}' 
that terminated tlie Revolutionary war." The British considered the 
treaty of JTS:] a mere truce, to be followed by the speedy failure of the 
new republic and the restoration of the coloriies to the mother country. 
Beside the constant menace of the British the country abounded in un- 
friendly Indians. So bad was the reputation of the entire section that 
v/hen apprentices were bourn.! or slaves sold it was stipulated that they 
should not be taken into the Genesee country. In 1T8S, five years after 
the signing of the treaty of peace, when Oliver Phelps left his home in 
Connecticut to go to ihe notorious country for the purpose of looking 
after his great claim liis friends called him a fool; and a number of the 
more religiously inclined among them .accompanied him t<:) the limits 
of his town with prayers and tears. 

Oliver Phelps and Daniel Gorhani, the latter also of Connecticut, had 
purchased from Massachusetts the entire tract west of *' the pre-emption 
line, ■' agreeing to pay $1.00(),000 therefor. This was at the rate of 
fourteen cents per acre for the seven million acres-. This line ran 
northward from the eighty-second milestone on the Pennsylvania border 
to the shore of Lake Ontario. Massachusetts had ceded to New York 
all political jurisdiction to the territory west of this line, reserving the 
right of pre-empti'in. In ITSS Phelps held a council with the repre- 
sentatives of the Six Nations on the site of the present village of Can- 
andaigua, purchasing their right to two million five hundred thousand 
acres in this tract, the Massachusetts title to which already had been 
invested in himself and Gorham. He then opened, at what is now Can- 
andaigua, the first land oilice in America for the sale of virgin lands to 
actual settlers. But later on these partners in this gigantic speculation 
met with financial reverses and were obliged to surrender all of the 
tract the Indian title to which had not been extinguished, and the major 
portion of it afterward was purchased by the Holland Land company. 

It will thus be seen that the original " Cienesee country " was a term 
which included not unlv tiie tract eventuall',- kntjwn by that name, bi;t 


also the Holland tract and other tracts. What was finally known as 
"the Genesee country," after the failure of Phelps and (ioriiani.emljraced 
an area of two niillic^i two liundred thousand acres. It was bounded on 
the east by the pre-emption line, and c»n the west liy a line drawn throu^di 
the "Bii; Elm" at the junction of the C-.iaserapfa crcck with the Gen- 
esee river, near the present villa;^^e of Mfumt Morris This line met 
the Pennsylvania line at the soutli. Two miles north of Canandai;^ua 
now Avon, it turnel westward at a vl'^ln an,c;le, and then f(.>llo\ved the 
course of the Genesee river to Lake Ontario, a distance of twelve niiics. 

When the war of the Revolution had been broug-ht to a close and the 
independence of the colonies had been established, a serious dispute 
arose between the State of New York and the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts regarding- the territory now comprised in Western New 
York. Massachusetts claimed the title to this land by virtue of ajjrant 
by King: James I to the Plymouth Company, made November 3, l'J:2i). 
New York laid claim to it by virtue of the grant from Charles I to the 
Duke of York, dated March Vl, IGtl-t, and the voluntary submission of 
the Iroquois nations to the British crown in 1084. ' 

At a convention held at Hartford, Conn., December IG, 17S'3, at 

'James I. Kin>f of Great Britain, in the A-ear li'.O'i, (fianted to thv Plymouth Company, a tract 
of country denominated New Envfland ; this tract extended several de>crees of latitude north and 
south, and from the Atlanf.o to the Pacific ocean east and west. .V charter for the government 
of a portion of this territory, .cranicd by Charles I, in lejs, was vacated in 1'.S4, but a second 
ch.irter was jjranted by William and Mary in IG'.tl. The territory comprised in this second charter 
extended on the .Atlantic ocean [.--oin nortii latitude J-' dej^rees J minutes to 44 dekfreesUI minutes, 
and from th.e .Vtlantic to the Pacit'u ocean. Cliarlcs 1, in li'.i^J. grantecl to the Duke of Vork and 
Albany, the province of N'ew Vork. includin.i.' tlie presuni Slate of .\ew Jersey. The tract thu> 
granted extended from a line tsventy miles east of the Hudson river, westward rather indef- 
initely, and from the Atlantic o^eau nortii to the Si.uth line of Canad.i. then a French p: ovinco. 
By this collision of dcscr:i,tio:i. each of these colonies (afterwards st.itesi. laid claim f' tlie juri-.- 
diction as weU as to the pre-emption riv;ht of the same land, bi.Mii< a tract sutWcicntly larjje to 
form several states. Tr.c St.ite of N'ew Vork, however, in ITSI. anl Massachusetts, in ITn*> ceded 
to the T.'niied .States all :hv.'ir ri.vthts. either of jurisdiction i^r pr">prietorsliip, to all the territorv 
lying west of a meridian line run south from the westerly bend of Lake Ontario. Although the 
nominal amoimt in controversy, by these acts, was much diminished, it still left some nineteen 
thousand s(|uar<.- miles of territory in di^tpute, but tliis was finally settled by a con- 
vention of Commissioners ap-ivo-ntcd by the parties, held at Hartford, Conn., on the 10th day of 
December, 17^6. Aci;or<linc to the stipul.ition-. entered into by the convention. .M.iss.»..hus»'tts 
ceded to the State of N'ew Vork all her claim to the vrovernment. sovereiirritv and *uris,!ic' ion of 
all the terr;ii)ry lyin^ wes' o; tin.- present ea.-.t line of the Stale of New Vork: and N'ew Vork ceded 
t'> Massachusetts the pre-emption riirht, or fee or the land subii-ct to tl.e '.ille of ! he n.itivcs. of all 
that part of the State of New N'ork 1\ m^ wlsI of a line. beninninK' at h point in the north line of 
Pennsylvania, v.* miles IV rth of 'tic northeast '.orner of rwiiil State, and runnm.if from thence due 
north iiiroi;<!i Seneca hike, to Lake Ontario: cxceptin),: and reserving to the«r of New Vork 
a strip of land east of and a'ljoninK the eastern bank of th>- Niavara river, one mile wide. an<l 
extendini^ its who!e ieii^ih. The land, the pie-en>ption rik;ht of which was thus ceded atnoiinied 
to ab'-u. six millions of .icre>.— Turner's History of the Holland Purchase. Paife :fi"». 


which the States of New York and Massachusetts were represented by 
coinniissioiiers, the conPiicting' chiinis of tlic two States to that portion 
of what is now New York lyin;;;- west of a Hne drawn northwardly from 
tlie eighL}--second niile-stone on the Pennsylvania line to Lake Ontario, 
excepting a strip one mile wide the length of the Niagara river on its 
east side, had been adjusted lO the satisfaction of both i)arties to the 
C(>ntract. Massachusetts had ceded to New York complete jurisdiction 
over the land, and Xew York had yielded to Massachusetts the pre- 
emption or proprietary right. In other words the State of Massachu- 
setls as an individual, held the proprietary title to lands in Xew York 
State. The tract in question contained about six million acres. 

In April, ITSS, Massachusetts contracted to sell to Oliver Piielps of 
Granville, Hampshire county, Mass., and Xatlumiel Ciurham of Charles- 
town, Mass., their pre emption right to all the lands in Western Xew 
York, for the sum of one million dollars, to be paid in three annual 
installments. This was at the rate of about seventeen cents per acre. 
The contract required that the payment should be made in a kind of 
scripknown as "consolidated securities," at that time mach bel<>w par; 
but a rise to par prevented them from fullilling tiie terms of their 

In ]uly, 1TS^^, Phelps and (lorham purcl'.ased of the Indians, at a 
convention he'.d at Buffalo, the Indian title to about "2,000,000 acres of 
the eastern part of their purchase from Massachusetts. This purchase 
wa-s bounded west by a line beginning at a point in the northern bound- 
ary of Pennsylvania due south of the point made by the coniluence of 
the Canaseraga creek with the Genesee river, running thence exactly 
north to the iunction of these two streams, thence northwardly ahjug 
the waters of the (renesee river to a point iwo miles ni»ith ui Cana- 
wagus village, thence running due west twelve miles, thence lamning 
northwardlv t(.> a poin: on the south shore of Lake Ontario twelve miles 
west of the Genesee river. Xovember -^1, ITS^, the State of .Massa- 
chusetts ei_>nveyed to Phel[)s and Gorham all the right and title to this 
tract, the latter having extinguished the Indian title. These lands in- 
cluded most of the territory comprised within the limits of the present 
counties of Allegan\\ Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Schuyler, Steuben, 
Wayne and Yates. 

As stjon as practicable this tract was sur\eyed into townships ai)Out 
si.x miles square, and these townships subdivided into lots, many of 
which were soon sold to white settlers. 


May 11, 1701, the State of Massachusetts S'jIc] to Saimicl O^^den, as 
the representative ot Robert Morris, all the balance of its land except- 
ing that which Phelps and Gorhani had retained. This included abcnit 
3,750,000 a.L-es which the latter had been compelled to reconvey to the 
State, tindinj^ themselves unable to pay for the same. 

Oliver Phelps was a native of Windsor, Conn. He served through 
the Revolutionary war, during which ae became acquainted with Rob- 
ert Morris. In l.SO'2 he removed to Canandaigua, remaining there un- 
til his death in ISOO. He became ilrst judge of Ontario county, and 
also served as a member of Congress from his district. Plis son, Leices- 
ter* Phelps, assumed the nime of Oliver Leicester Phelps after his 
graduation from Yale cjllege. The latter died in 1S13. He was the 
father of the late Judge Oliver Phelps of Canandaigua. Nathaniel 
Gorham, the partner of Mr. Piielps. was a citizen of Boston. Mass., but 
never resided upon his purchase. His son, Nathaniel Gorliam, became 
an early resident of Canandaigua, where he died in 18'-20. 

Robert 2*1 "rris, who lived in Philadelphia, was the great patriot and 
financier, who had been Superintendent of Finance for the Revolr.tion- 
ary government, and his hand had guided that government in safety 
through the pecuniary perils which had beset and almost wrecked it. 
This great tract of land, known in history as the "Morris Purchase," 
became the original county of Genesee.' The east line of the Morris 
Purchase conmienced upon the Pennsylvania line -l-l-. TS miles west of 
the pre-emption line and ran due north to an elm tree and the forks of 
the Genesee river and Canaseraga creek, thence northerly along that 
river to a p(jint two miles north of the Canawagus village, thence due 
west twelve miles, tlicnce north twenty- four degrees east to Lake On- 
tario. Soon after his purchase, Morris made a treaty or contract with 
the Indi:ins residing on the territory he had acquired in which tiiey 
agreed to relinqi'.ish their title to all the land in question excepting a 
few reservations of moderate area.' 

' Tlif Kncflisli tran-iuiiion of the name Gonosec i-i " The Beautiful X'allcy." 
' Tho tracts roservvd Sy tlic Indian.s wore the fanaw.ipiis Ke-icrvaiiun of uvi sijuarc milt-s. 
on the Ciene«.*e n^'fT wc^t, of Avon, Litlle He.iril'^ and B^kj Tree Keserv atiorir* of four .square 
milc"*. on the Gene-ce opp(.^:;o Cicni.'si'o ; Stjuakic Hill Resers-ation of two -.(luarc miles, on the 
Genesee north of .Muuiit Morris ; Gardeau Reserv.ition of twenty-eii;ht scjuare miles, on both 
sidesof the Gene^vc. in Ca-itiii- ar.d .\loiint Morris ; the (."aneadea Reservation of six sii'.iarc- miles, 
on both sides of the Gi.n>-see in .-Micic.inv county ; the Oil .Siiriiivr ResLTv;it;on oi one ^TJare mile, 
on the line be'.weer. ra'.;ara'.i.;v.^ and Alle^'any counties, the AUeicanv Reservation of f.irty-two 
square miles, on b'':!: si.!esi fihe Aiie^r.iny river, esti-ndinj; north from the f'enti-.vlvania Ime ; 
the Cattarauvrus keserv.itiv; of for:y-t\vo square miles, on boili si.lesol the nioiith ••! fattaraUirus 
creek ; t.;e Bulfalo kes..-rv.itiiii of one hundred and tliirty S(|uare nu'.es. on bo-.h s.des .if Buifalu 


The GarJeaii Ressrvatioii. wliich lay partly in the towi\ of Castile, in 
the southeastern corner of Wyoming- county, formerly a part of tlie 
ori.ijinal Genesee county, was a tract of ten thousand acres which the 
Indians conferred uprni Mary jemison, the historic " wliite woman." 
who resided upon it until her decease, at a very advanced a^e, in Sep- 
tember, ISoo. 

Mary Jemison was a remarkable woman. Siie was born at sea, of 
Irish parents, during; their passage to America in 17-1*^ or 1743. Her 
parents settled upon what at that time was the frontier of Pennsyl- 
vania. One of her uncles was a member <jf Washingt-ni's command, 
and fell at Braddock's defeat. In the sprin^j of KoO Mary, her parents, 
two brothers and several otlier inmates of the house in which she was 
residing were made prisoners by a ])arty of six Seneca Indians and four 
Frenchmen. They were taken to the woods, every member of 
the captured party except Mary was murdered. She was exposed to 
all the hardships and privations of a prisoner until her arrival at a 
Seneca town, where she was adopted as a daughter into an Indian 
family. She was treated with kindness, but laid plans for escape; these 
being frustrated she finally resigned herself entirely to the Indian life 
and customs. Soon she fell in love with a young Delaware Indian, and 
married him, becoming the mother of children. 

Her Delaware husband dying, at about the beginning o{ the Revo- 
lution, she married a chief of the Senecas, residing in the Genesee valley. 
Her new husband was one of the most bloodthirsty members of that 
warlike tribe, but was ever kind to hiss[)ouse. Through all her career 
among the savages she retained her family name, Jemison, and gen- 
erally spoke the English language; but although her parents had given 
her careful religious instruction, she embraced the religion of the sav- 
ages and became thoroughly Indianized — adopting and becoming 
enamored of all their manners, liabits and customs. 

Her life was full of incident, with many wild adventures. She was 
always iield in the most exalted esteem by the Indians, as was evinced 
by the grant of the Gardeau tract, a fertile section upon which she re- 
sided until a few years before her death, which occurred on tlie BuiTalo 
Creek Reservation. In obtaining this grant, or reservation, she showed 
all the cunning of her adopted people. Thomas Morris, who conducted 

crcik , ;lic T'>n;f.vanJa Ke->ervat'.<>n of stvcnt>- sfiuan- ihiIl-s i.i: l)oili s:iU-?. -.i Ton.iwantt.i cr^«?k, 
nio-tly ir. (i.-ni-see Oi>unty ; anil the T'licarora KcsiTvation of one -i'liiarc iiiik-. tlirc« niiU-N e.i-*! 
o^' Lewist-in. N'.:\E;ara (.-ounty. I-''>rt:>'>ns ••t" S"iiie of lhfi« re<(.TV.iti'>n> arc still lioKl anj ociupicil 
by dL*-ici'; o( the <.>r:g:nal InJiaii owners. 


the treaty for his father, is reported as having- said tliat when a request 
for a reservation for the " white woman " was made to him, hesupposed 
tliat the petitioning'- Indians meant only a farm of two hundred or three 
acres; but the woman herself, by artfully indicatinj,^ certain bounds 
with which he was not familiar, (jverreacheil iiim and obtained a tract 
of ten thousand acres, including- the whole of what was known as the 
Gardeau tlats and the romantic walls of rock and hill within which they 
are sequestered. 

During the Revolution the house of Mary Jemison frequently shel- 
tered ^Brant and Ihitler when making their invasions upon the frontier. 
In 1:7:) she attended the treaty of Genesee tlats. held by (General 
Schuyler. In l^-:i:; the story of her romantic life, as told by her, was 
taken down in wriliug. and was full of incident and adventure. Manv 
of her ex[)eriences were very thrilling, and some pathetic. She 
never would consent to cast off her Indian costume, even after her 
home had become completely surrounded by the increasing white pop- 
ulation, but to the tnd of her life siie adhered with great tenacity to all 
her Indian cusL(;ms. She was wealthy and her thousands of acres 
were worked by tenants. One of -iier sons became a physician and ob- 
tained a surgeon's commission in the I'nited States navy. Though a 
woman of unusu.'dly marked peculiarities Mary Jemison was humane 
and benevolent, and her intluence. particularly in her latter days, was 
always employed for the accomplishment of good, princiijallv among 
the members of tlie fast decaying Indian tribes residing in Western 
New York. 

In the summer of 1TS9, the year after the [uirchase of Western New 
York by Phelps l*v: rrorham, Dliver Phelps left Gi-anville, Mass , with 
men and means for the purpose of exploring and surveying this exten- 
sive territory. The wilderness was penetrated as far as Cananilaigua, 
then considered on the frontie:- of civili/.alion. IJy the assistance of the 
Rev. Mr. Kirkland, the missicjuary an;ong the Six Nations, and a com- 
missioner on beludf of MassaciiuseUs, Mr. Pheljis succeeded in collect- 
ing ihe chiefs and warri(jrs of those tribes whose warlike spirit still 
rankled, on account of the chastisement indicted by Sullivan's expedi- 
tion. This conference with the Indians was held on a beautiful eleva- 
tion overlooking Canandaigua lake. 

TwD days IkkI parsed away in ne^otiaUoii witli the Inilians for a cessir^n of tlieir 
lands. The contract was supposed to l>e nearly compleli->i. wlicn Red Jacket arose. 
With the grace anil dignity of a Roman senator he drew his blanket around him. 


ami with a piercing eye surveyed the multilnde. All was luished. Ndhiiig inter- 
posed to break the silence save the rusthng of the tree-tops, under shade they 
were gathered. After a long and solemn, but not unmeaning pause, he commenced 
his speech in a low voice and sententious style. Rising gradually with his subject, 
he depicted the primitive simplicity and happiness of his nation, and the wrongs 
they had sustaine'l from the usurpations of the white man, with such a bold but 
faithful pencil that the In.i-^n auditors were soon roused to vengeance or melted into 

The eiYect was inexpressible. P.ut, ere the emotions of admiration or sympathy 
had subsided, the white men became alarmed. They were in the heart of an Indian 
country, surrounded by more than ten times tlieir number, who were inflamed by 
the remembrance of their injuries, and excited to indignation by the eloquence of a 
favorite chief. Appalled and terrified, the white men cast a cheerless gaze upon the 
hordes around them. A nod from the chiefs might be the onset of destruction. At 
that portentous moment. Farmer's lirother interpo.-,ed. He replied not to his brother 
chief; but, with the sagacity aboriginal, he ca'.:sed a cessaticjii of the council, 
introduced good cheer, commended the eloquence of Red Jacket, and. before the 
meeting had reassembled, with the aid of other prudent chiefs, he had moderated 
the fury of his nation to a more salutary review of the question before them.' 

The Revolntifni rtsiilted in the financial ruin of Robert Morris, and 
soon after makinj;' his L^reat purchase, a speculation in which he hoped 
partially to retrie\'e his fortunes, he was compelled to part with his land. 
In lT;»-2 and 17'.K3 he disposed of most of his iioldinij^s to representatives 
of men in Holland who afterwards became known as the Holland Land 
Company. Th.e property was conveyed by four separate deeds. De- 
cember "21, l?!^''^ he deeded one and one-half million acres to Herman 
Le Roy and John Linklaen. February "27, 171^3, he deeded one milli(jn 
acres to Herman Le Roy, John Linklaen and Gerrit Boon. July *20, 
I7'.i3, he deeded eight hundred thousand acres to the last named per- 
sons; and on the same day deeded three hundred thousand acres to 
Herman Le Roy, William }5a\'ard and ^hitthew Clarkson. 

These tracts were purchased with m<>ney furnished by a number of 
capitalists residin^,-^ in Holland and held in trust for their benefit, the 
laws of the State forbiddin"" aliens to purchase and hold real estate in 
their own names. The State Legislature finally sanctioned transfers 
of portions of the land, and the entire tract was conveyed by the trus- 
tees by three separate deeds to the individiials composing three separ- 
ate branches of the Holland I>and Company. Although these deeds of 
conveyance were given to three distinct companies of proprietors, their 
interests were very closely blended, several of the persons having large 
interests in each of the three ditlerent estates. They appointed one 

' ' BarljiT :iTiJ Hout-'s ■ HNl' Ci'r.i-cti.-n.s of St.ite ot Niw V.rk." 


general a;^ent for the whole, who conducted the concerns of the tract 
generally as tin'ii^Oi it all bclonj^^ed to the same proprietors, making no 
distinction which operated in the least on the settlers and purchasers. 

The tracts thus sold by Robert Morris became famous as the " Hol- 
land Purchase." This sale was made before the Indian title to the land 
was extinguished, acccMiipanied by an agreement on the part of Morris 
to extinguish that title, with the assistance of the company, as soon as 

The Holland Purchase comprised about seven-eighths of the entire 
Morris Purchase, Robert M<:)rris reserving to himself a strip of an aver- 
age width of twelve miles, lying between the Phelps and (iorham Pur- 
chase and the Holland Purchase, and known as the Morris Reserve. 
The line forming the division between the Holland Purchase and the 
Morris Reserve commeiiced u])on the Pennsylvania lir.e twelve miles 
west of the west line of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase, and from 
thence ran due north to near the center of the present town of Staf- 
ford, (Tcnesee county; tliencc due west "^.oTsTo miles thence due north 
to Lake Ontario. T'.:is line is known as the " Transit Line," from its 
being run by a transit, then uscfd for the first time in making surveys. 

The Morris Reserve sul^serpiently was disposed of in several large 
tracts to different purchasers. A tract containing 87,000 acres, lying 
immediately west of Phelps c*^ Gorham's "mill yard," was sold to Le 
Roy, Bayard i!^- McICvers, and is kn.rwn as the Triangular Tract. The 
Connecticut Tract lies immediately we -it of the Triangle, and contains 
100,000 acres. It was purchased by the State of Connecticut and Sir 
William Pultney and was divided between them. The Cragie Tract, 
containing 50,0ij0 acres, joins the Coniiccticut Tract on the sou>th, and 
immediately east is the Forty Thousand Acre Tract. South (jf these 
are successively the Ogden Tract of oD, 000 acres; the Cottinger Tract 
of 50,000 acres; the Sterritt Tract of loU,000 acres; and the Church 
Tract of 100, OoO acres. A tract joining the Forty Th(nisand Acre 
Tract on the south is kncnvn as Morris's Honorary Credito:s' Tract and 
contains 5S,5T0 acres. Of these tracts the Connecticut and Cragie 
Tracts, wiih the Ibjlland Purchase, occupied all of what is now Gen- 
esee count}-. 

Soon after the purchiase made by the Holland com[iany, a colony con- 
sisting of about seventy (ierman families was sent over from Hamburg 
to settle on the land a.-qiiired ; but having lived in large town< those 
immi-rar.ts were unaccu>:onied to the hard laljor nccessarv t(» the clear- 


inf^ up and early development of a new country, and riotinjj followed 
the first attempt at settlement. After this the company opened an 
ofHce for the sale of its lands, which were disj^jsed of in this way for 
many years. 

Immediately after the title had been obtained by the individuals or 
the associations of individuals referred to in the forej^oingr, steps were 
taken to extinjjuish the Indian titles and to survey the tract. 

Though Robert Morris desired a speedy settlement of his transactions 
with the Hollandeis, it was not until ITOO that he requested President 
Washingt;on to order a treaty and appoint a commissioner to represent 
the United States. Morris's delay in making liiis application was due 
entirely to motives of public consideration. His letter was as folhnvs: 

Piiii.AniiLruiA, Aui^ 2'). 1790. 

Sir — In the year IT'.H I purchased troin ihc State of Ma.ssachusetts a tract of coun- 
try lying within the boundaries ot tlie State of New York, which had been ceded by 
the latter to the former State, under the sanction and with the concurrence of the 
Co' of the United States. This tract of land is bounded to the east by the 
(jenesee river, to the north by Lake Ontario, to the west partly by Lake Erie and 
partly by the boundary line of tlie Pennsylvania triangle, and to the soutli by the 
north boundary line of the State of Pennsylvania. A jirinted brief of the title I take 
the liberty to transmit herewith. To perfect this title it is necessary to purcliase of 
the Seneca nation of Indians their native rigiit, which I should have done soon after 
the was made of the State of Massachusetts, but that I felt myself restrained 
from doing so by motives of public consideration. The war between the western 
Indian nations and the United States did not extend to the Six Nations, (*f wiuch 
the Seneca Nation is one; and, as I apprehended that, if this nation should sell its 
rights during tlie existence of that war, they might the more readily be induced to 
join the enemies of our country, I was determined not to make the purch.isc whilst 
the war lasted. 

When peace was made with the Indian nations I turned my thouglits toward the 
purchase, which is to me an object very interesting; but upon it being represented 
that a little longer patience, until the Western posts should be delivered up by the 
British government, might be public utility, I concluded to wait for that event also, 
which is now happily accomplished, and there seems no obstacle to restrain me from 
making the purchase, especially as I liave reason to believe the Indians are desirous 
of making the sale. 

The delays which have already taken place and that arose solely from the con- 
siderations above mentioned, have been extremely detrimental to my private atTairs; 
but, still being desirous to comply with formalities prescribed by certain laws of the 
United States, although these laws probably do not reach my case. I now make ap- 
plication to the President of the United States and request tliat he will nominate and 
appoint a commissioner to be present and preside at a treaty, wliich he will be 
pleased to authorize to be held with the Seneca nation, for the purpose of enablii-.g 
rae to mAke a purchase in conformity with the formalities requ-red by law, of the 


tract of country for which I have already paid a very hiri^c sum <if nK^ncy. My rii^lu 
to pre-emption is unequivocal, and the land is become so necessary to the gro\vin>j 
population aad surround'n^ settle. uenls that it is with ditlijalty that the white people 
can be restrained from squatterin;^ or settlinj.; down upon these lands, which if :hey 
should do, it may probably bring on contentious with the Si.\ Nations. This will be 
prevented by a timely, fair, and honorable purchase. This proposed treaty ouyht 
to be held immediately before the hunting season, or another year will be lost, as the 
Indians cannot be collected during that season. Tlic- of another year, under the 
payments thus made for these lands, would be ruinous to my affairs; and as I have 
paid so great deference to public considerations whilst they did e.xist. I expect and 
hope that my request will l)e readily granted now. when there can be no cause iov 
delay, especially if the Indians are willing to .sell, which will be tested by the ofifer 
to bify. 

With the most perfect esteem and re^i)ect, I am. sir, yinir most obedient and must 
humble servant, RobF.RT Mmkkis. 

Geukge Washi.ngton, Esq., President of the United States. 

In accordance with Morris's request Wasiiin^^ton designated Is;uic 
Smith, a member of Con^^ress from Xcw Jersey, as commissioner. Ijiit 
Mr. Smith subseqtiently having b^jen a[;poiatcd a jtidije of the Supreme 
Court of New Jersey, he declined the api)ointment, and Colonel Jere- 
miah Wadsworth, who had been a member of Cony;ress from Connecti- 
cut, was named in his place. Morris being unable persunally to par- 
ticipate in the convention, he appointed his son Thomas and Captain 
Charles Williamson as his attorne\'s; !)ut the latter declined to act, on 
account of pressing private business, and the entire responsibility for 
conducting the difTtlcult negotiations devolved upon the younger Morris. 

It was decided to hold the convention at Big Tree, near the site of 
the present village of Geneseo. Thomas Morris entertained the prin- 
cipal persons participating in the treaty, and caused a large council 
house to be erected.' Late in the month of August the Indians began 
to arrive at Big Tree. Of the fifty-two who signed the treaty, many 
were foremost sachems. The leaders of the Senecas included si:ch 
noted chieftains as Young King, chief warrior. Red Jacket, Cornplanter, 
Handsome Lake, the Prophet, Farmer's Brother, Little Billy, Pollard, 
the Infant, Little Beard, Destroy Town and Blacksnake. There were 

» In D'>ty's History •.[ Livinicston county it is asserted the Indi.m viUa-.:c .>f Bi\: Tree was 
west f'f the Genesee river, tju'. the hist'.rie l)i< tree itself ro-*r irom the eastern bank of tin- 
river. S'>iTie historians claim that the villaice of the river. iJoth.ire correct, as the vil- 
laRe was moved ; but it was west '<i ti;e (ienesee at the time of the treaty. N'ot only does it ap- 
pear so on the first map or'tho n^'ion male from surveys, but in thelre.niy as infrecd upon 
it was stateil that the reservation of Hii; Tree should embrace the vnianc. Kllicott's map of IHM 
shows the reservation to be W(.-st r,f the river. The villav;e was moved in I'S'i".. and on the map 
showinsjth.- I'hclj'sand liiirh.un I'urcliase in l^iit;. Hi c Tree village is locateil on the east of the 
Genesee, li: all probability il;e council house erected by Thuuias Morris stood on the east bank. 


two Indians known to the whites as Bi;.;Tree. C)a-on-dah-go-waali, some- 
times called Great Tree, was a full-blooded Seneca of the Hawk clan 
and for many years resided at Bi'^^ Tree villa-e. July 8, 17SS, when 
Phelps and Gorham made their purchase, he attended the Buffalo treaty. 
In ITPO he went to Philadelphia with Cornplanter and Half Town to 
protest a^^ainst what they deemed unjust treatment on the part of 
Phelps and his associates. In K'.i-^ he went there a;^ain in company 
with Red Jacket and died in that city in April of that year. His dau;^'h- 
ter had a son whose father was a Xia;j:ara trader named Pollard. He 
became a famous chief, named Ga-on-do-wan-na, and was also known 
as Big- Tree. He was one of the si.L,^ners of the Big Tree treaty. He 
was almost the equal of Red Jacket as an orator, but had a hner char- 
acter, becoming; one of the noblest of the Senccas, esj^eciallv after the 
death of the famous Cornplanter. He was one of the first Indians at 
the Buffalo Creek Reservation to become a convert to Christianity, and 
after his conversion his life was pure and beneficent. He was known 
by many as Colonel John Pollard. His death occurred on th.e Buffalo 
Creek Reservation April 10, ISil, and his body was interred in the old 
Mission cemetery. 

August 22 Thomas Morris reached the Genesee valley. The com- 
missioners arrived four days later, Colonel Jeremiah Wadsworth rep- 
resenting the United States and General William Shepherd appearing 
for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Among the others who were 
there were Captain Israel Chapin, who had succeeded his father. Gen- 
eral Israel Chapin, as superintendent of Indian affairs; James Rees, 
later of Geneva, who acted as .secretary to the ; WiHiam 
Bayard of Xev/ York, the agent of the Holland Land Company; two 
young Hollanders named Van Staphorst, relatives of the \'aii Stap- 
horst who was one of the meml)ers of the Holland Land Com[)an\-; 
Nathaniel \V. Iloweil, Horatio Jones and Jasper Parrish. 

At one o'clock on the afternoon of August 2S, IT'JT, the council was 
formally opened. The first to speak was Cornplanter. The two com- 
missioners then presented their credentials and addressed the council, 
assuring the Indians that no injustice should be done them, but that 
their interests would be fully pr<.»tected. Young Morris then informed 
the Indians of his father's desire, and concluded b\- offering the sum of 
$1(10, Oi to for the entire tract, allowing the Senecas to retain such reser- 
vations as might be needed for their actual occupation. 

In order to give the hnlians time for deliberation, the council was 


then adjourned. Upon reassomblinij Farmer's Brother replied to the 
propositions made by Morris, statiny; that tlie Indians had various ob- 
jections to selling. Morris answered the arguments advanced, and 
another adjournment was taken. Upon reconvening, the famous Red 
Jacket arose to announce the determination of his people. At the 
previous session Morris had thoughtlessly remarked, in referring to the 
small value of the lands while remaining in the natural and unproduc- 
tive state, that their only value while in that condition arose from the 
consciousness of their ownership that the Indians felt. In the famous 
speech now delivered by Red Jacket he admitted the truth .;f the re- 
mark,* but added : 

That knowledge is everythiug lo us. It raises us in our own estimation. It creates 
in our bosoms a proud feehng which elevates us to a nation. Observe the difference 
between the estim.-\tioa in which a Seneca is held and that of an Oneida. We arc 
courted, while the Oneidas are considered a degraded people, tit only to make brooms 
and baskets. Why this dirlerence ? It is because the Senecas are known as the pro- 
prietors of a broad domain, while the Oneidas are cooped up in a narrow space. 

For two weeks the question was disctissed in all its aspects. The 
Indians not yet agreeing to s.Ml. the commissioners exhibited impa- 
tience and urged upon young- Morris the wisdom of more vigorous 
action. The latter protested, insisting that he knew the Indian char- 
acteristics better than liis advisers; but so strongly did the commission- 
ers insist that at the next session Morris pronounced an emphatic neg- 
ative to the proposition vi the chiefs, declaring that if they had nothing 
better to oiler the council might as well end. Springing to his feet 
Red Jacket exclaimed : 

You now have arrived at the point to which I wished to bring you. You told us 
in your first address that, even in the event of our not agreeing, we wt)uld part as 
friends. Here, then, is my hand. I now cover up the council nre. 

This decision was received with great applause, and to all appear- 
ances the council was ended. The commissicjners, realising how un- 
fortunate had been the results of their interference. n(nv begged Morris 
to endeavor to rekindle the council fire. The latter acted promptly 
and with great sagacity. Approaching Farmer's Brother he declared 
that, according to the Indian custom, the council fire could be put out 
by none other than by him who had kindled it; that Red Jacket had 
exceeded his authority, and that the council fire was still burning. The 
force of Morris's argument was admitted. The latter then called the 
Seneca women together, distributed handsome presents among them 
and argued wit'n thetn in favor of the proposed transfer of the lands. 


Accordiny^ to the Indian laws the hinds be!on;.^ed to tlic warriors wlio 
fought for them and tiie women who cultivated tiiem. While tlie treaties 
Pfenerally were necrotiated by the sachems, the warriors and tiie women 
held the right to interfere when the question involved was the sale of 
land. Morris knew tliis, hence his diplomatic dealings witli the women 
of the nation present. As the result of his elTorts, the women here ex- 
ercised their inherent right and the council reassembled. Cornplanter, 
the principal war chief, superseded Red Jacket and c(>nducted the 
neg'Jtiations for the Indians. After a comparatively brief conference 
the Indians decided to accept the offer made by Morris, and SeiUember 
15, KOT, tiie treaty was signed. By its provisions all the land now 
embraced within the counties of Allegany, Wyoming, Genesee, Erie, 
Cattaraugus and Chautauqua was sold to Robert Morris,' amount paid 
therefor to be invested in the stock of the bank of the United States 
and held in the name of the president for the benefit of the Indians. 


The Holiatid Land Company aii'l Its Representatives in .America — Joseph Ellicotl, 
the First .A.gentonthe Purchase, and HisOperalious — Old Indian Trails — Taxpayer.-; 
in Genesee County in IS' '0— Sketch of Joseph Ell;cott. 

The main otTice of the Holland Land Comjjany was located at Phila- 
delphia, and the members of the company were Wilhelm Wiilink, Jan 
Willink. Nicholas \'au Staphorst, Jacr.b Van Staj^horst, Nicholas Hub- 
bard, Pieter Van Eeghen, Christian Van I-2eglien, Isaac Ten Cote, Hen- 
drick Vallenhoven, Christina Coster. Jan Stadmitski and l\.utger J. 
Schimmelpennick. Theo-philus Cazenove, the first general agent of the 
company, took charge of all the business relating to the company from 
the time of the first purchase of the lands until iT'Jfl. Upon his retire- 

' <"ert.i;n in-xlcrn wrilcrs \vl;.> !.a\e invc-iti-Ciitc! the subject li.ivc pii>aiieed wli;it iip|)c-:ir.s lo 
be tl(;iry uvidencc :li:it .M"rr!s and tlie repie-.c-ntativcs ot llie Ht^'.'ani! I.. mil Company 
were CMinptlloil secretly i<j bribe the Seneca warriors to iniliiee ihem to ci'iiseiu t" the >vi'.e of 
their !aiic!s. It is .saij that Cornplanter receiveil an annuity or two liiin.lred ami rtfty J. .liar* a^ 
ior..< a-. h>: '.ivet! as his .■^hare of the bribe, while Red Jacket, Yoiini; KinR and Little IJiUy receive.l 
one hur.dred dolLirs per arnun:. Robert Morris himself evidently exp'Cted that tlie Indian'; 
w.jiild have to be bribed, to:- in his leivr of inst ructions hi- sai<!: ".•Viimiitit s of jSJ" to .«iiii mav be 
ijiven to :n*^-.;entia' chiefs, and to the hij.rhest chiefs .ftlVl to $:!i«i. .S.nie dollars nia\- be pri.nii^id 
before the treaty and paid wliei; isnished, to the amount oi V''"' or $(jai, or, if necesiwiry Ji i*>i.. ' 


ment Paul Busti succeeded to the numao^ement, renuiinin;^^ in charge 
until K^'M, a period of a quarter of a century. He in turn was suc- 
ceeded by John J. X'aniler Kemp, who remained in control un'.il the 
final settlement of the affairs of the company, 

Joseph Ellicott, an eminent surveyor, was employed by the famous 
Holland Company to survey their lands and manage the sale of them, 
his engagement with them datinj^^ from July. 1707. fie at once took 
charge of tlie surveys of these lands, completing them in a little less 
than a dozen years. Surveying began on a big scale in 179S, after 
elaborate and extensive preparations. Besides Mr. Ellicott there were 
eleven surve}'ors, each of whom was provided with a corps of assist- 
ants.' A part of this force, under the leader.-hip of John Thompson, 
proceeded westward over the usual route to l->uffaio. where a portion 
of their outfit was left for use on the v/cstern part of the purch.ase. 
The remainder was taken to Williamsburg, on Genesee river, wb.erc a 
storehouse for the use of the surveyors had been built. At the start 
these two points were t!ie [u'incipal depots for the surveyors; but l)efore 
the end of the year Mr. ICllicott, who had personally surveyed the Trati- 
sit Line, made the principal headquarters at the point on that line 
known as the Transit storehouse. The Transit Line extended from 
Pennsylvania to Lake Ontario, forming the basis for tiio future surveys 
and divisions of the territory. surveys v/ere ctmtinued until 
the whole territory was divided into ranges and townships. The ranges 
were numbered from east to west and the townships from south t«; 

The first plan of the agent of the company was to divide each 
township, which was six miles square, into sixteen portions, one 
and a half miles square, to be called sections, and to subdivide 
each section into twelx'e lots, each lot to be three-quarters of a mile 
long (generally north and south) and one-cpiarter of a mile wide, con- 
taining about one hundred -and twenty acres each. It was presumed 
that many wealthy farmers would purchase one 'section each, while 
those possessed of moderate caj^ital would content themselves with the 
smaller farms. The surveys of twenty-four townships were begun in 

'The principal surveyors en>;;\.,'<.-J ilurin^; tl.c ai::i;c sca^uii ut' I'.O"^. in I'jwnsliij). :jivr;d;.tn 
line and reservati-in siirvevs, aaJ in l.ike .iii'l river iiavcrsc-;, wei-; .'is fnU^w^ : Ju^cpli anil IV-nja- 
min Elliott, John Tlio:np>'jn. kicharj .M. StocMard. ( Icorj.;!.' Biirfje^s. J.-i!!ics I)«.\voy, David K:ii- 
cott, Aari^n Oakt', jr.. Aui;'.istus Porter. .Seih I'v.tso. JaiiU'S .snicillcy. William Shi-plier-!, 
George Eis'jjleston. In addition to ihc-.c \vcr<' two KrcrKlinicn. .\Ii-s>rs. IKitiJicaiir and Auiriohy, 
who were employed in .sotne surveys of N'la^'ar.i ru er and t!.e l.iIU. I'll'- List were rathe: en- 
ifiauetb than sarvcyor».— Turacr's History ot the Holland I'urchase, pajjc JuO. 


conformity to this plan, although the surveyors departed from the uni- 
formity of the size and shape of the lots where large streams like the 
Tonawanda creek, running through townships, were made convenient 
boundaries uf lots. 

From experience, however, it wus ascertained that, in the purchase of land, each 
individual, whether father, son or son-in-law. would locate himself according to his 
own choice or fancy. T' this formal and rej^ular division of laJid into farms, sel- 
dom was found to be in conformity to the topog^raphy of the country, nor to the dif- 
ferent requirements as to quantity, likewise that the addition of sections to townships 
and lots, rendered the descriptions of farms more complex, and increased the liability 
to err in defining any particular location; for which reasons, tlie practice of dividing 
townships into sections was abandoned, and thereafter, the townsliips were simplv 
divided into lots of about sixty chains or throe -fourths of a mile square, which could 
be divided into farms to suit the topography of the land and quantity required by the 
purchasers. In t!io>e townships in which the surveys had been commenced to divide 
them into sections, and not completed, the re;naining sections were divided into four 
lots only of three-fourths of a mile square each. These lots consequently containeil 
about three hundred and sixty acres each, but could not be laid oil exactly uniform 
in shape and area.' 

When the survey of the Holland Purchase began in the spring of 
1T9S, all travel westward to Buffalo was along the ancient Indian trail. 
During the preceding winter, however, the State Legislature had ap- 
pointed Charles "\Villiamsun a commissioner to lay out and open a State 
road from the Genesee river to Buffalo Creek and t" Lewiston. Tb.c 
Holland Company subscribed $0,000 toward defraying -the expense oi 
constructing this road. Mr. Williamson began his task in the summer 
of 1T9S, following the Indian trails as closely as possible Mr. Ellicott, 
with the aid of a party of Senecas, opened the first wagon road early in 
the season as a preliminary to the work of the survey, improving the 
trail from the East Transit to Buffalo Creek to an extent that made it 
passable for wagons. The construction of this road was undertalceu 
thus early for the purpose of providing a good highway to those who 
might settle on the lands of the company. That the managers of the 
company's business appreciated the value of such a road is evident 
from the following extract of a letter from Paul Busti, who in ITO:! 
succeeded Theophilus Cazenove as agent of the company, to Mr. IClli- 
cott, dated August Lj, ISOO: 

The opening of communication through the country, is a matter deemed of inch 
importance, that it will not escape your attention, antl that the application of money 
for that purpose has been appropriated on a much larger scale tiian you thought 

» Turner's Hi>tory uf the H-'UanJ Purcha.-.c, page 4aj. 


neces.s;iry. By extending; the amount of t'xpoinlitnres on that head. I mean to 
evince to you how much I am persuaded of th^i ustfuhiess of having practicable 
roads cut out. Vou will have to take care tliat the roads to be laid out at present, 
are to be cut in sucli a direcliun as to become of general advantage to the whole 

The old Indian trail, (jn which the principal part of this road was 
built, crossed the Genesee at Avon, passed thence thron-h Ikitavia and 
down the north side of Tonawanda creek, entering^ Erie count}' at tlie 
Tonawanda Indian villag-e: from there it crossed the site of Akron, 
passed throu;4h Clarence Hollow and \Villianis\-ille to Cold Sprin;,--, and 
thfence followed nearly on the line of Main street, in HutYalo, t'> the 
creek. A branch continued to Black Rock, where the river was crossed. 
Another branch c::terided from Clarence to Lancaster and ran thence 
alon^ Cayuga creek to tlie Seneca Indian villai;,^e. Another tr:iil e.\- 
tended from Little Beard's Town, on the Genesee, to the boundary of 
Erie county near the southeast corner of the town tjf Aklen and con- 
tiriued westerly to the Seneca village. There were als<j trails up Caz- 
enove and Eighteen Mile creeks and between Cattaraugus and liutfalo 

As late as the summer of ITOO no liouse had been built on the road 
from the East Transit Line to Buffalo. To remedy this situation, 
June 1, ITOO, Paul Busti authorized Mr. Ellicott to induce six per.^ons 
to locate on the highway about ten miles apart and to open taverns, in 
consideration of which each was to receive from fifty to one htmdred 
and fifty acres of land at a low price and liberal terms of payment. 

In accordance with the offer of Mr, Ellicott three persons immedi- 
ately grasped the opportunity presented. Frederick Walthers took one 
hundred and fifty acres, including the ICast Transit storehouse and tiie 
site of the village of Stafford. Soon afterward Asa Ransom of BufYalo 
located on a one hundred and fifty acre tract at Clarence Hollow.' 
September l'"., Garritt Davis took one hundred and fifty acres east of 
and adjoining the Tonawanda Reservation. These three persons at 
once erected houses for the acc(jmmodation (jf the tra\-eling public. 

As soon as Mr. Ransom had erected liis tavern, at " Pine (irove," as 
it soon becatne kn(jwn, Mr. Ellicott made it his headtiuarters. His ap- 

• Harry H. Ka:i-.i);:i. wl-,.. w.i-i b.irn In the li'>usc buiK lioro m Xm-tinbcr. i;;»^t. \v;i> ilu- rirst 
white<.- clulJ ';orn in ihat p.i.'t of tin- Oenest-e C'-.inty. nuw ICric county. .Mr. i;i:;c<jti 
made- R.mb'iraS l;'ius< his lic.uhju.irters as soon as it luid been ciin>ir\!cici.l. Ivlias Kans'^'ni biiiii 
a irame hoiiM- .in tlio r^.i'l if"ift B.iiavia tu HufTaM). seven ii)ile> '.t tlie latter iila-.o. wl-.xh 
was prob.itj.y thi.- i\r>: fr.i:iio bui'.il;n< vi.-sl >'i I'..i:.ivia. 1 Ik- ;l;ri'o pi blic h<mscs nMorn-l v>in V.\e 
text were conitructcd of '.'^tja. 


pointment as local aj^ent of the company took etTect October 1, ISOO, at 
which time he bej^an the sales of haul. His odice was located in one 
end of Ransom's tavern. Janie>< W. Stevens of Phihadelphia acted as 
his clerk, and occasionally Mr. Brisbane assisted in the work of the 
ofhce. though the latter si)ent most of his time at the Transit stc^re- 
house. January IG, ISOl, Mr. Kllicott wrote to Mr. Busti as follows: 

I have the satisfactiou to inforin you (although after a diasgreeable journey) thai 
1 arrived here in good htalth the 1st instant, since which period I have been Ijusily 
employed in making arrangements for the sale of the land placed under niy charge. 
The season oi the year being such as to prevent persons from making their t-stablisii- 
ments. prevents me at present from eiYecting any Ao fiii /ii/c' sal^ri. Settlers generally 
wishing to defer entering into articles before they are able to commence their im- 
provements. I have, however, abundant reason to conclude, that at the opening of 
Spring I shall effect the sale of considerable land. 

May 7 of tb.e same }'ear Mr. Ellicott, writing to Le Roy and I'ayard, 

In respect to sales of land, we have not as yet made ra^'id progress. The best and 
most eligible situations are only in demand. However, we dispose of more or less 
almost every day. Settlements (urni more rapidly on the east side of the I'urcbase 
than on the west, owing to iis contiguity to tlie old settlement in the Genesee, where 
provisions and necessaries for tlieir beginning is more easily attainable. However, 
there are some going on the western side, and I continue to live under the expecta- 
tion of selling a considerable quantity of lands in tiie course of the summer and fall, 
and presume after this season the sales will increase, the ice will then be broken, 
and convenieO'^s will be l;ad for settlers on tlie Purchase. 

The survey of the Holland Purchase into townshij)s was concluded 
in ISOO, by which time several of them had been divided into lots. In 
the same year Mr. Ellicott, while on a visit to the East, had printed a 
number of hand bills headed " Holland Company West Genesee Latids, " 
in which he portrayed the attractions of the territory and announced 
that it was for sale on reasonable terms.' 

' A portion of this handbill reaJs as follows : 

•'The Ho'.lanJ Land Company will open a Land OiVilc in the eiisuini; month of September, 
fi-r tlie sale of a portion of their valuable lands in the country. State of Xew York, sit- 
uate in the last purchiise m.ide of the .Seneca Nation of Indians, on the western .-.iile of Oenoee 
river. For the'oonvenience ot .ipplicants, the Land Ofliee will be estal>lis!ied iIjc i:entre of 
the lands, intended for sale and on the main roail, leading from the Eastern and .Middh- .States to 
Upper Canada. Hresque Isle in Pennsylvania, and the Connecticut Reserve. Tho->e l.inds are sit- 
uate, adjoinintr anil contivruous. to the lakes Krie, Ontario, and the streiijh'.s of N'i.i;;ara. i)osscs»- 
inii; the ai'.vantacje of the naviirati-in and trade of all the L'pper lakes, as well as the river Saint 
Lawrence, u'rom which the Kritish settleinenth derive >ireat advanta^'i-i also intersected by the 
Allevjany river, naviirable for boats oi '■■/> or U> tons burthen, to Pittsburgh and Xew ( irleans, and 
cont.ijnrius to the navi^-able w. iters of the west br inch of the Siisqueh.mna river, .ind almost sur- 
rounded bv-sett'e-.ner.ts, where provisioii o- every kind is to be in threat abundance and on 


In ^[ay. IS'H, nctirig as the special a^^^eiit of Le Roy and Bayard, he 
employed Richard M. StcKidard to survey the Trian^ruhir Tract, ^Mvin-- 
explicit directions, particularly as to layin^^ oil five hundred acres at 
" liuttermillc Falls." In a letter to Mr. Mun^rer. at the Transit store 
house, dated at Ransom's in May, l^^Ol, he states that he has been in- 
formed that " the inhabitants of your neii;hborhood have umlcrtaken 
to open the road to Gan.son's. Vou will please consider mc a subscriber 
toward the expense of the undertaking;-." 

For a period of more than twenty years Mr. I^Uicott had practieallv 
exclusive control of the local business of the Holland Company. Under 
his inanagement an iTumense tract of wilderness was converted into one 
of the finest agricultural regions in the world. He was identit'ied with 
all the enterprises of Western New York, and ii^ the construction of 
the Erie canal he took a great interest. Paul l^usti, who had succeeded 
Cazenove as general agent at Philadelphia, managed the general affairs 
of the company with great shrewdness and ability for a period of 
tv.'enty-four years. 

In 18T-t David Seaver of New York, in an article contributed to the 
Batavia vSpirit of the Times, gives a synopsis of a work published in 
1T95 by Rochefoucauld Lianeourt, a French adventurer or traveler, who 
prior to that time had made a journey from Philadelphia through 
Western New York as far as Niagara I-'alls. After describing his meet- 
ing with Red Jacket, the noted Indian chief, Lianeourt says: 

The road from (Ontario to Canawas^u (Caiiavvaui^us) i^ a jjood one for this couiitrv, 

reasonable terms remlers the sitviarmn of Uk- HolI.-»nJ l.aml Company'>^e"> r.aml-; more 
eligible, desirous, and advaniaiious settlers any otlit-r iinst itlcd tract at inland country 
oft-qiuil maj^nitude in the L'niic-d States. Tlie crrc-ater part -.f tliis tr.ict is linely waioiel ffew 
exceptions) with never failin.; sprinvjs and streams, alT'Tdini; siilVicicni-y nf water tor )fr!-.tmii;s 
and other water work-.. Tl.c sub>.:rib'.-r, during the years K'lS and V.W. siirv-.-ycd and laid oiT tht- 
wliole of these lands into townships, a portion of which, to acconinmdafe purchasers .iti.I settlers, 
is now layinif orV i!'.lo li^ts and ir.i'ts from ]-i<i acres .md upwards, to tl;e quantity «;ontaine<l in a 

'•The lands abound with limestone, ami arc calculated in suit every description of purchas- 
ers .ind settlers. Those who prefer land timtu-red with bl.ick and white oak. hickory, piplai , 
chestnut, wild cherry, butternut and do^jwood.or the more hixuriaiil timbered with b.isswood or 
lynn. butternut, sujjar-tree. white ash. wild cherry, cucumber tree, (a species >.f the inacnoijai 
and black w.ilnut. may be suited. Th"se who prefer level land, or ^'raduaIIy aSeendinR:. afford- 
injj extensive plains and valle\s. will lind the coimtry ad.jpled to their choice. In short, such arc 
the varieties of situations in this p.irt of the 0-neseo country. e\ery where almost covered 
with a rich soil, that it is presumed that .ill pureliasers who may be inclined to p.irticipate in the 
advantav;es of those lancls. may select lots from l'.""! acres to tr;icts^j li»i,<i)ii acres, that 
would fully please and Siiti>:y their choice. Tlie Holland Land Company, liberality is so 
well known in this country, now otTcr to all those who m.iy wish to become partakers I'f tlie 
H owinv; value of th ise lands, such portion-, and su,;!i parts .t> they m.iy'llunk proper to pur- 
chas«. Those wlio ni.iy clioose to p.-iy cash will find a liberal discount from the credit price." 


but as usual it leads throu;^li the niulst of the woods, and wilhiu a space of 10 miles 
we saw only one habitation. In this journey we discoveretl two Indians lying r.nder 
a tree; thouijh we had seen a c<)nsideral)le numlier of them, yet this meeting had for 
as an attraction of novelty, as we found them in aslate of intoxication which scarcely 
manifested the least svniptoms of life. One wore around his neck a long and heavy 
silver chain, from which a large medallion was suspended; on one side whereof was 
the image of George Wasliiugton, and on the other the motto of Louis XIV., /«<v 
p/uiib:ts Si'ifiar, with the t'lgure of the sun, which was usually displayed with it in 
the Ficnch army. This Indian, no doubt, wa-; hise.\cellency in a ditch, out of which 
we made repeated efforts to drag him. but in vain. . . . 

Cauawago is a small town, the inhabitants lew, but Mr. l->erry keeps there 0:10 of 
the best inns we have seen for Mune time. 

Wednesday, June 17th. 1 7 '.),>. After remaining half a day at Canawagu, wc at 
length set out to traverse the i/s.n/s, as thry are called. A journey through un- 
interr.-.ptcd forests offers but little matter for speculation or remark; the woods are 
in general not close, but stand on fruitful soil. The route is a fo(npath, toleiably 
good upon the whole, but in some places very miry; winding through the forests 
over a level ground that rises but seldom into gentle swells. After a ride of 12 hours, 
in which we have crossed several large creeks (Oatka and Black t, we arrived at Big 
Plains (Oaktield), which is 3S miles distant from Canawago. We breakfasted at 
Buttermilk Fall (Le Roy), and dir.ed r)n tlie bank of the Tonawaugo (Batavia), and 
for both these meals our ajipctites v.-ere so kven that perhaps we never ate anvthing 
with a better relish. 

Liancourt then de.sci-ilies vi.sit to the tribe of Indians which then 
had a small village at Tonawatigo. 

In another contribution to the same paper Mr. Seaver chives extracts 
from a book Vv'ritten by John Maule, and printed in London, wiierein 
the writer describes his experiences duriiiL^ a journey over praclicallv 
the same route followed by Liancourt, but made five years afterward. 
Maule stopped for a while a.t CanawauLcns, whence lie proceeded on his 
journey Auy^ust '10, ISoO, accompanied by an Indian named Hot Hread. 
He arrived at Ganson's, now Le Roy, at eleven o'clock in the morning, 
where he made the folhnvin^ entry in his journal: 

When my friend L. passed this place last year, Ganson's was a solitary house in 
the wilderness, but it is now in the midst of a nourishing township, in which 01 fam- 
ilies are already settled. A new tavern and a number of dwelling houses are build- 
ing. Two hundred and ninety-eight miles; recross Allen's creek ; the bed a llat lime- 
stone rock. 15 or 20 rods wide, with three or four inches of water; a handsome 
bridge was building. This creek is the western terminus of Capt. Williamson's pur- 
chase (Puitney tract). A very handsome road four rods wiilc ha.^ been cut. and the 
whole distance from (lenesce River to Ganson's being 12 n.ilcs in nearly a straight 
line. I now entered into what is called the Wilderness, but at v. m. reached the 
Holland Conij>any's storchi-use and Frc'lerick Waltl'.er's tavc-n (StaiYord*. 'V)-i}.2 


The Holland Company consists of a nvimher of merchants and others, principally 
residents in Holland, who purchased a very large travt of Mr. Morris. This terri- 
tory, for such it may be called, is on the cast bounded by Williamson's purchase, and 
on the west by Lake Erie and Niajjara River. No part r)f the land is, I believe, yet 
settled, but at present under survey for that purpose. One of the principal survey- 
ors and his gany; were at the tavern, and fully occupied the lodging hut; tl'.is. with 
the additional circumstance of there being no hay for my horses, and no other feed 
than oats, cut green in the straw, induced me to give up the design of sleeping here 
this night, but rather to push on to the next station. . . . At 4 !•. M. we left 
Walther's, and at 309 miles (DataviaU'eii in with the Toiiawautee Creek, sluggisii, 
shallow and broad. At »ii^ p. m. we reached Garret Davi.s's tavern. 310 miles (Winan's 
farm near Dunham's Corners) near a small run of good water. This is one of ih'.se 
three stations which the Holland Comj)any has this year e--tablished for the accom- 
modation of travelers, who hitherto have been obliged to sleep in the woods. Davis 
first began to ply his axe in January last; he has now a good log house, a f.eld of 
green oats (sowe'l 18th of J"ne, the <*nly feed I could get for my horses), and a very 
excellent garden, the most productive "f any oi its si /.e I have seen since leaving New 
York. He had also cleared a pretty extensive field for wheat. On this land the logs 
were now burning, and I passed a greater part of the night in making up the tires. 
This employment I preferred to harb )u:ing with a number of .strangers, one of whom 
was sick and not expected to live till morning. This, however, was only the fearful 
conjecture of Davis. I got got some maple sugar for my tea, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Davis paid me every possible attention, but I cannot praise them for neatness. Per- 
haps I ought not to expect it wiien the j)eculiarity of the situation and a large family 
of children are taken into account. From Allen's Creek \>> Walther's was excellent 
lands, but miserable roads, at times impassable, and the wagoner would take his axe 
to cut a new passage. From Walther's to Davis's the r<«ad is better. At Davis's the 
woods are composed of small, tali saplings, closely crowded. This morning we ex- 
perienced a very keen frost with a bright sun, and so late as 11 a. m. I stood in tlie 
sun to warm myself, my hands being benumbed with the coM. \'ery scorching sun 
in the afternoon after leaving Walther's, and troublesome tlics and mosijuitoes. 

Thursday. August 21, ISOO. Start at day light, IJIS miles; we leave the thick 
woods and enter upon the I^ig Plains. These plains ((^ahiield) aie open groves of 
oak, in a light shallow soil on limestone. . Tl;<'se plains are many miles in 

extent, and it struck me I had seen park grounds in England much like them. At 
321 nules the oaks are sp.ialler and more compact, and at I522 miles we enter the 
woods (jf beech an'l maple. At 7>j a. m. we reached tiie Indian town of Tonawautee. 
330 miles. This settlement is on the west bank of the creek, which I now crossed 
for the second time. It bore, however, a dilTerent character here than at :il9 miles 
(Batavia). being clear and rapid. 

Left Tonawautee and passed through open plains of oaks with less of tamarisk 
and more grass to '■'>■'>[ miles, where I fell in wiih the old road. At lOrSd a. m. 
reached Asa Ransom's station, distance 314 miles (Clarence. Erie county |. I was 
here greatly surprised with an excellent 'oreakfast of lender clijcken and good loaf- 
sugar for my tea. Ransom. like l^ivis, sat down in the woods in January; he has 
l.jO acres, ten acres cleared and in oats. . . The Hollau''. Company has laid 

out a new road from Oanson's to HuiTalo Creek, which passes to the sojth of Davis's 


station, but in with the present road at Ranso:n"s, and this new mad will make a 
difTerenee ot 10 miles in 42. Ransom informed nie llial l)y an aceonnt. he had kept, 
no loss than IT).") families with their wagons have passed his house this sr.mnier. emi- 
viratin;^ from 4^eun>ylvania and N'e'.v Jersey to Canada. Si.\teen wa^jons passed in 
one day. 

In the orTice of the secretary ot state at Albany is the original map of 
the famous HollMia Land Cuinpany"s tract. This niap is about ei:<ht 
feet square, the scale bein-- half an inch to the mile. The eastern 
boundary— the Transit Line run in K'j.S— starts on the Pennsylvania 
line, at^the southeast corner of the Willink Purchase, and runs directly 
northward, crossing the Genesee river "at "M miles going northwest 
and at :]o miles going northeast.'" reaching Lake Ontario at a place 
known as " the Devil's Xosc." 

The ranges, averaging about six miles in width, have l)oundaries 
parallel with the Transit Line. They begin six miles west of that line, 
and are numbered to the westward from one to fifteen inclusive. The 
townsh.ips run from south to north, beginning at the Pennsylvania line, 
and average six miles square. Xo range has more than sixteen town- 
ships and when the western end of tlie State is reached (in what is now 
Chautauqua county) there are but three townships in the fifteenth 

Between the seventh and eightli ranges a strip about tv.-o miles wide 
runs from the Pennsylvania line northward to Lake Onta'-io. It 
pierces the present counties of Cattaraugus, Erie and Niagara, and on 
the map is marked as tlie property of Wilhelm and Jan Willink. The 
same persons arc also credited with ten townships in the eastern and 
southern parts ot tlie present Allegany county. Between the first range 
and the Transit Line isa strip about six miles wide running from Pennsvl- 
vania to Lake Ontario. This is assigned, with the respective number 
of acres named, to the following persons: J. Sterrett, 5,000 acres; A. 
Hamilton, lOO.oOO; Cottinger, ;>0,:S4; Ogden. :):),T^^4; Cragie, o,:>:.J; 
Watson Cragie. 100,000. The lands of Sterrett and Hamilton arc in the 
present county of Allegany; those of Cottinger and Ogden in Wyoming; 
that of Cragie in rjcnesee. and that of Watson Cragie in Orleans. 

East of the Transit Line are two parcels of land. Tlie first of these, 
located in the present county of Allegany, has one hundred and fifty 
thousand acres, 'credited to S Sterrett. The second is a triangle of 
seventv six thousand one htindrcd and seventy-three acres, assigned to 
Lc Ro) , Bayard and McEvcrs. The n<jrthern binmdary of tiiis triangle 


is r.akc Ontaric. the western the Transit Line, and the third adia^n)nal 
be-innini; at the intersection of the sontliern line ot" the Phelps and 
rrorhani Purchase with tiie Transit Line, near the i)iesent vi!la<4e of 
Le Roy, and runnin.i^ norilieasterly nntil it reaches Lake Ontario. The 
slantin^Lf boundaries of the eastern townships of Genesee county and of 
the western townships of Monroe ccnmty are laid al<;>ng this diagonal 

All that part of the State was known to the province of New York 
as Tryon county, but after 17S4 it was called MontL;('inery county. All 
to the west of the " [ire-cniption line " was erected into Ontario cuunt\- 
in ITJjS, and the present western counties have been taken from the 
oriui'inal territory oi Ontario county since that date. 

The extent to which the early settlement of tlie territory of the 
Genesee river had reached, during- the closing years of the eighteenth 
century, is illustrated by reference to the following tax roll, the first 
one made for this territory (then all included in the great town of 
Northampton). About fifteen names are missing from the first page of 
the roll, which bears date of October (i, ISOO: 

Value of Rcnl Amntint 

iin.J Hers. ma! i.f 

Estate. Tax. 

Curtis, William >; 30 $.()(] 

Carter. William. [)i .I'j 

Chamberlia, Hind.s 284 .-10 

Curtis, Augustus... 500 .01 

Curtis, Jonathan 887 ..O-t 

Campbell, Peter 52 .UU 

Chapin, Henry 3,000 CTk) 

Chapman, Asa 112 .'2.\ 

Cumins, Joseph 20 .01 

Conatt, Samuel 3S ,iu; 

Chamberlin, Joshua flH .12 

Cary. Joseph «Jls i.oi 

Coals, Timothy 39G .')i 

Dugau Christopher l.:;06 I.f,:', 

Uouylas, Cyrus 78 .14 

Davis. Dauiel 572 .72 

Davis, Garrett 350 .45 

Davis, Be!a 105 .22 

Davis, Samuel 312 .37 

Ellicott. Benjamin COO .71 

Fish. Josiah 1,51«>; 

FareA-ell, riisha 2ns .:57 

Fuller, David 80 .12 

TAX ROLL OF \^()0. 75 

Value of Re;il Atiioiuii 
und Personal ■,: 

I' l.ix. 

Forsyth, John 330 .4:'. 

'iranger. Eli lOd .14 

Gcx^dhue. Georvje 17(j .20 

(ianson, John, jr LOIO 'i.lO 

fianson, James 12 .02 

tirifnth, Eli 05S .9^ 

Hencher, William l.OliO l.(;4 

Hicks, Samuel 4 J .O'J 

Heth, Reuben 40 .00 

Hunt, Ehjah v>S .14 

Harris, Alpheus 72 .l."* 

Pla'.l, Friend 200 .I'.O 

Hunt. Joseph 64 .13 

Hopkins, Timothy... 42 .00 

ILlyne, John 50 .11 

Hawley, Chapman 112 .is 

Hall. Gilbert 370 .52 

H'-it, Stephen 1.j3 .34 

Jones. H.John 140 .23 

Jones. Elizabeth 153 .24 

Johnson, Moses _...• 800 1.117 

Johnson, William 2.034 3..*)0 

Kith. M. Michael 42 .00 

Kimball, John 700 1.03 

-Kent. Elrah 90 .14 

Lane, Ezekiel 114 .24 

Laybourn, Christopher . 470 .02 

Lyon, John 40 .OS 

Leonard, Jonathan 40 .00 

Le-.vis, Seth 00 .14 

Mills, William 714 .94 

Mills, Lewis 72 .10 

Mills, Alexander so .i:t 

Mills. Samuel 2.-)() .30 

Morton. Simeon 5'* .11 

Mading-, Timothy 128 .16 

McCloning, John 40 .n-.i 

McC'.oning. John, jr 12 .02 

Middaugh. Martin 4.1 .09 

Mayle, Lewis :3<> .09 

— 1. s-\ .10 

Muikins. Henry-. 54 .11 

Nettletou. Philemon 5'.»2 .Mi 

Morgan. Jo-eph 870 1. 1 1 

McNa-.ighton. 48 .11 


Stiinson & Jones 

Stoir^iiton, Amaziab... 

Shefter, Peter 

ScotL, Isaac 

Shelly. Phiros 

Scott, Salmou 

Scoonover, Jacob 

Thompson, Adriandaei 

Utley, Asa 

Olmstead, Jeremiah .. 

Wilber, Charles - 

Walther, Frederick 

Wemple, Ilcnry 

Gilbert, Warren 

Value of Real Amount 

:«iiil I'cisonal o(;it<.-. 'I':ix. 

100 .22 

Mc Pherson , I )an 

Patterson, I.awreu.e 5i)0 .'JO 

Pebody. Stephen ^J' -^^ 

Palmer, John '*^- 

Pangman, William 

Ouivey, Norton 

Redtord, John 

Rhan. Alexander 

Stimson, Leonard - •'*' 

•2(M) .20 

1(;4 .21 

:3(X) .c<; 

70 .l.') 

130 .10 

sr, .12 

King, Thomas - 

King, Simeon - 

Hender, Stephen 

Ransom, Asa . - - 

Erwin, John 

Woolman, John - 

Philips, William 

Carver, John 

Lh, Justin 

4,20") 5.:;0 

l,inS 1.4."i 

l.JO .I'i 

790 .05 

731 1.00 

30 .<»7 

901 1.17 

120 .29 

60 .'-n 

4HS .OS 

27 .17 

42 .111 

30 .07 

40 .li» 

12 .02 

410 .61 

428 .96 

162 .36 

30 .07 

310 .40 

9 '.11 

1,9."»0 3.87 

4,437 .S.'-O 

2,33:; 4.C2 

4,.V'0 b.02 

Barnard, Ebenezer 

Phelps, Enoch 

Hartford. Charles 

King. Gideon (hens) 

Ilmkley. Samuel • 

Stone, John 

Wadsvvorth. James 

Williamson, C and others ^1- "'^"^ •'^^•-'^ 

.-).000 01 

3»,.')00 OS :;>; 

2,190 2.C'1 


Colt, Jiulah ^''^'-^ 

M..rr.s, Thomas ^.^'''^ '^•=- 

IIall,Amos '^>^ l"^*^ 

llolla.d C..m;.anv 3."00u00 5.231.n2 


Value of Real Amount 

an J Personal ci 

Eatati-. Tux. 

Williamson, Charles ITiS.lSO ^07.41 

Williamson \- Phelps lOO.OOO '219.14 

Craigie. Andrew , oO.OOO 73. 'JC 

Ogden. Samuel 50.000 109.07 

Cottinger, Garrit 50.000 109.57 

Church. Philip. 100. 000 vJlO.U 

Unknown 27.210 .■.9.41 

Le Roy & Bayard 82.0' >0 179. OS 

Le Roy & Bayard 4<»,000 87. fJ'J 

Phelps &:. Jones, supposed to be owned by Thomas Morris 40,900 69.:{0 

Joseph F'itts Simmons ... 

Joseph Higby 0(^0.000 1.311.81 

Total $4.785,S88 ?-^.:387. 1 1 


Xo man was more closely identified with the hi.slory of Wesicrn New 
York, and especially of the Holland Purchase than Joseph Eliicutt. As 
the general land ay^ent of the Holland Company, superintendent of 
their surveys and settlements, his name has bec(jme associated with the 
early history of nearly every town and village. A contlict of authority 
exists as to the origin of the ancestors of Joseph I'211icott. In sketches 
of the family prepared for publication by descendants of the family at 
Ellicott Mills, Md.. it is asserted that his ^grandparents, Andrew iilli- 
cott and Ann Bye Ellicott, came to this country in 17:)1 from Cullopton, 
Wales, and settled in New York. Other reminiscences of the family 
state that they came fr>jm Cullompton, Devonshire. En;^land, and set- 
tled in Bucks county, Pa., where they were married in ITol, soon after 
their arrival. Nathaniel, Joseph, Andrew and John Ellicott were the 
sons of Andrew, and as early as 1770 we find them settled in business 
as owners of a tract of land and mills on the Patapsco river in -Mary- 
land. This settlement has lone: been known as li^Uicott's Mills. ( )f the 
sons of Andrew named in the forep^oing, Joseph was the father of the 
Joseph Ellicott of Holland Purchase fame. Another son, Andrew, 
eldest brother of Joseph, became eminent as a surveyor. He surveyed 
the Spanish boundary, so called, durin;,'' JetTerson's administration, and 
afterwards was made surveyor .general of the United Stales At the 
time of his death, ai)out IS"21, he was professf^r of matiiematics in the 
United States Military Academy at West Point. 

At fhe age of fourteen Joseph Ellicott became, with his f.ither's fam- 


ily, a resident of rv[arylaiul. Prcvi-)us to tins time he had enjoyed only 
such advanta^L^es as were ai forded by the pioneer schools and the in- 
structions of his brotlK-r Andrew in siif\-eyin;^. When tiie site of the 
city of Washin.i^ton was selected as the national capital he assisted his 
brother in its survey. In ITt^l Tinioth} I'ickerint]^, secretary of war, 
designated him to run the boundary line between the State of Georgia 
and the territory of the Creek Indians. His next engagement was to 
survey the land.s of the Molland Conipan_\- in Penns\-Ivania, under 
Theophilus Cazenove, their general agent. This brought him into the 
notice of the company and resulted in his ap])ointment in their service 
soon after, where he continued for upwards of twenty vcars. 

Mr. Ellicott's conmiissii^n as principal surveyor of the Holland Com- 
pany's lands in Western New York dated from July, 17'.)?, but his 
actual service did not commence un:i! after the council of the Septem- 
ber following, when the company's titles to these lands were perfected. 
His first duty was to make a traverse and survey of the north and north- 
west bounds of the tract for the [)urpi.'Se of estimating the (iuantity of 
land it contained. On thisexpediton he was accompanied by Augustus 
Porter, as surveyor for Robert Morris. Commencing at th.e northeast 
corner of Phelps and Gorham's tract, west of the Genesee river, they 
traversed the south shore of Lake Ontario to the Niagara river, thence 
along the Niagara river and the southeast shore of Lake Erie to the 
western boundary cf New York State, that being a meridian line run- 
ning due south fron; the western extremity of Lake Ontario, as previ- 
ously established by United States Surveyer-General Andrew Ellicott. 
This work was completed in November following and Mr. Kllicott re- 
turned to Philadelphia for the winter. 

Early in the spring of 170S he again arri\-cd in the territory with 
a large force of assistants. The work of this season was to commence 
the division of the territory into townships in accordance with plans 
already made, and the establishment of the eastern boundary of the 
purchase. A number o: men were detailed for town work, while Mr. 
Ellicott, with his brother I'.enjamin, and several assistants, undertocjk 
the difficult task of running a true meridian line from the Pennsyl- 
vania boundary tc) Lake Ontario. A stone monument was erected on 
the Pennsylvania line, exactly twelve mile> west from the eighty-sec- 
ond milestone, as a starting point. Providing liimself with a transit 
instrument, Mr. Ellicott ct)mmenced his labors. His progress was 
verv slow and laborious. Trees and underbrush had t(3 be cut awav to 


a wiJtli of three or four rods, that an uninterrupted view mij^^ht he ob- 
tained in advance of th.e instrument. About tlie first of Deeemi^er 
foUowing- the work was eompleted. For nearly twelve years Mr. Elli- 
cott was actually engaged in the work of surveying this large tract, and 
finally became local agent of the com pan v. 

In person, Joseph Ellicott was a man of commanding presence. He 
was six feet three inches tall, and possessed of a sj^lendid constitution 
and great powers of endurance. In his business lie was methodical, 
prompt and faithful. He was a most agreeable companion, being pos- 
sessed o/ unusual conversational powers. Turner, in his History of the 
Holland Purchase, says of him : " ?Iis education was strictly a prac- 
tical one.- He was a good mathematician, a scientific surveyor, a care- 
ful and able financier. The voluminous correspondence he has left 
behind him, with the general agency at Philadelphia, with the prominent 
men of this State of his period — in reference to the business of the com- 
pany, political measures, works of internal improvement, and public 
policy generally — indicate a good degree of talent as a writer, and en- 
larged and statesman-like views." During his life Mr. Ellicott accu- 
mulated a large estate. He never married, and at his death his estate, 
by special bequests, was divided among his surviving relatives. During 
the last years of his life his mind became greatly impaired and he was 
removed to Bellevue hospital, Xew York, for treatment. Here, escap- 
ing the vigilance of his attendants, he took his own life in August, 
1S'2G. His remains were afterward brought to Uatavia, where thev 
now rest, marked by a beautiful nuMiumcnt erected to his mem^rv. 



From 180fi tii 1*^10 — Increase of Settlements uu the Hullaml Purchase, Particularly 
in Genesee County — Early Taverns Between Batavia and ButTalo — The Tirst Town 
Meeting — First Courts in Genesee County — Division of the Town of Batavia — Life 
of the Pioneers — The First Clu'.rch iu the County — Other Pioneer Religious Organ- 
izations—The First Murder Trial — The First Priutlnj:^ Press and Newspaper — Tiie 
Arsenal at Ba*avia. 

The beginning; of the iMP.eteenih cetUury witnessed t1ie clevel«jpnient 
of order ot:t of chaos throir^-hout the gTcaler portion of the Genesee 
country. March 30, ISO^.', the county of Genesee was erected from 
Ontario, and included all oi the State west of the Genesee river. The 
survey of this inunensc tract had prtJi^-essed to a point where the Hol- 
land Company was prepared t<.' supply newcomers with good farms as 
rapidly as tliC}' should make application for them. Soon after the 
erection of the county Joseph. ElHcott established his land ofhce on the 
site of the present villag^e of Batavia, of which he became tiie founder. 
This location he chose because it was central; and furthermore it was 
on the Hue of the Indian trail fr(jm Canada to Southern Xew York, and 
directly m the path of the immi;:,'-ration that was then moving west- 
ward. Within a few rods of his office the Indians had a council ground. 
His first office was a wooden structure, but early in the century it was 
replaced by the stone structure which stands to-day, one of tlie most 
historic and interesting edifices in Western Xew York. The Land 
Office was in all respects the headcjuarters of the entire Holland Pur- 
cliase. It was practically the capital of a rapidly developing colony, 
and all entcri)rises of any import were discussed and settled there. Mr. 
EUicott, a courtly, dignified, honest and extremely pleasant gentleman, 
maintained his important position in a manner that iias caused his name 
to be reiDcmbered even t(j this day with feelings of profmind resjject 
and admiration. 

The fame of the region was extending, and methodical settlement, 
under the auspices of the Holland Company, began. At first there was 
some difficulty in dispos'ng of the company's lands on account of tiie 
demand for ten per cent. ca.->h. The price set was i;"2.To [^er acre. 


Many ot those who desired lu buy had little if any money; and most of 
those who were able to pay the advance demanded were reluctant to do 
so, as the clearing of the land would immediately rcc^uire a lar<4e out- 
lay of time and some mone}'. Referrin;^' to this matter ^[r. ICllicott 
wrote to Mr. Busti tiiat " if some mode could be devised to 5;rant land 
to actual settlers who cannot pay in advance, and at the same time not 
destroy that part of the ])]an which requires some advance," he was 
convinced that "the most salutary results would follow." 

There is no doubt that Mr. EUicott was greatly disappointed at the 
slow sales of land. While lie had believed that the favorable terms 
offered, coupled with the great natural advantages of the region, would 
result in a very general migratory movement vrestward, he evidently 
had not taken the scarcity of money intri consideration. ( )n Oecember 
4, 1801, while at his teniporary iieadqvuuters at " Pine (3 rove," he wrote 
to Mr. Busti as follows: 

I have made no iiclual sa'.e? this tall where t!ic stipulated odvance has been j^aid. 
I begin to be .sirongly of ti'.e opinion yoa always expressed to me (biu which I must 
confess I rather doubtedi, that few purciiasers will come forward and pay cash for 
land in a new country. 

But the prospects grew brighter with the beginning of another year, 
and Mr. Ellicott announced tl:at many settlers were preparing to estaii- 
lish homes and begin the clearing and cultivation of their lands as soon 
as the spring opened. The opening of highways and the establisliment 
of taverns added to tb.e conveniences of the locality and doubtless 
helped to make it more attractive to newcomers. 

" Among the priniitive tavern keepers there was a backwoods piii- 
losophcr. It was the Mr, Walthcrs who had been sent from Plnh-idel- 
ptiia to be the landh.ird ^.t tiie Transit Store House. ' Estaiilishcd in his 
location, he made liimsclf quite officious; liis letters came tiiick and 
fast upon Mr. ICllicott. wh.enever he knew wiiere the;* would reach him. 
They were an odd mixture of philos-vphy and advice and suggestions in 
reference to the best m.r'.ner of settling a new country. In one letter 
he W(5uld talk of his domestic troubles; in another he would announce 
that one, or two, or three landlookers had been his guests, not forget- 
ting to assure Mr. I'ilicott how hard he had labored to con\-ince them 
of the splendid prospects of the new country; in another he wouUl in- 
form him of fal.^e reports that had been started as Ui the title of tlie 
land, and how he had put a (puietus upon them; in anotiier he would 
express his regrets that his house was full of strangers, who were pa.>.-.- 


in^ the Purchase, and f^roin-- to 'swell the numbers of his Britannic 
Majesty's subjects in Upper Canada.' In Mr. Eliiccjtt's ai-)sencc he was 
wont to consider himself a sub-acjent ; takin.g some airs upon him.self, 
from some favors that had been shown liim by the general a_i;ent at 
Philadelphia. He did not last long-, as will be observed in an extract 
of a letter from Mr. Ellicott to Mr. Husti. Mr. KUicott answers a let- 
ter received from 'Mrs. Berry and .Miss \Vemi)Ie' — (names familiar to 
old settlers, as household words). They were ap{)licants for two town 
lots at the 'Bend of the Tonewanta. ' lie very courteously informs 
them that when he lays out a town there the lots will contain forty 
acres each, and their ap'plication will be held in remembrance." ' 

The first town meetin^c on Holland Purchase was held at the log 
tavern of Peter Vandeventer on March 1, ISo:]. The functions of this 
meeting;' extended over territor}' ha\-ing a radius of a hundred miles, 
thoui^h the most distant settlements were at Buffalo, twenty-two miles 
west, and at the East Transit, twenty-ftrar miles east. Rut. despite 
the long' di.^tance many of them were compeHed to travel, and in the 
season of the year when new roads were ver\' apt to be almost impassa- 
ble, the number of the assembled voters was so large that the polls 
were opened out -of doors by Enos Kellogg, one of the commissi(;ncrs 
appointed for the purpose of organizing the town of Batavia. 

The meeting was a unique one. Mr. Kellogg, after calling the vot- 
ers to order, announced that Peter \'andeventer and Jotham Bemis of 
Batavia village were candidates for supervisor. The vote was then 
taken, the procedure being novel. Mr Kellogg placed the two candi- 
dates side by side in the road and then dii'ected the voters to f:;!l in 
line, each beside the n^an <.'f l:is choice. Seventy-four men stood by 
Vandeventer and seventy by Bemis. and the former was declared 
elected. A little later on, when the men from the east of Vandeventer's 
(who wore considered Batavians) gathered in the one place, and those 
from the west of there in another, the\- took note of their absent neigh- 
bors and found that there were but four to the eastward and five to the 
westward who had failed to attend. This makes the whole number of 
voters on the Holland Purchase in that year one hundred and fifty- 
three, one hundred and forty-four of whom were present at this [)rimi- 
tive election. 

The balance of the officers chosen on that occasion were as follows, 
the election being conducted by uplifted hands: 

' Turner's Hiitury. 

tup: first courts. 83 

Town clerk, David Cully; assessuis, lycns Kellugj;. Asa Ransom, Alexander Rhea; 
commissioners of highways. Alexander Rliea, Isaac Sutherland and Suilrenus (-) 
Maybee; overseers of the poor, iJavid Cully and Henjainin Porter; ct^lleclor, Abel 
Rowe; constables, John Mud;^e, Levi FeUnn. Rufus Hart. Abel Rowe. Seymour 
Kellogg and Hugh Howell ; overseers of highways, Martin Middaugh, Timothy S. 
Hopkins. Orlando Hopkins, Benjamin Morgan, ixufus Hart. Lovell Churchill, Jabe/. 
Warren. William Blackman, Samuel Clark, Gide-ni Dunham, Jonathan Willard, 
Thomas Layton, Hugh Howell, Benjamin Porter ana William Walsworth. 

The first vState election on the Holland Ptirchase was held at th.c 
same place the following nionth. At the latter nieetiny^ one hundred 
and eightv-nine votes were cast for niember of asscmijly, evidence o( 
the rapid increase in the number of settlei"s. At this election the vcte 
was as follows: 

For Senati-rs — Caleb Hyde, l-l*); X'inceiit Mathews, 5. 

For Members of Assembly — Daniel Chapin, 1S"2; Ezra Patterson, I'y'y . John Swift, 
IGO: Folydore B. Wisner, 4; Nathaniel W. Howell. t28; Amos H.'dl, 0. 

Ill jime, ISn;', the cotirt liouse at Batavia beiiv^^ nearly completed, 
the first courts of the county were organized there. The judges were 
Ezra Piatt, John H. Jones and Benjamin Ellicott, and Xathan Perr\- 
was an assistant justice. Among those admitted to practice in tiie new 
court as attorneys and counselors were Timothy Hurt, Gouverneur 
Ogden, John Greig, Richard Smith and George Hosmer. At this terin 
of court the first grand jury west of the Genesee river was organized. 
It consisted of Alexander Rhea, Asa Ransom, Peter Wmdevcnter, Daniel 
Henry, Samuel F. Geer, Lovell Churchill, Jaljez W'arren, Zerah Phelps, 
Jotham Bemis, Seymour Kellogg, John A. Thompson, Jonn Ganson, 
jr., Isaac Smith, Elisha Farwell, Peter ShaelYcr, Hugh Mcr)ermolt, 
Job.n McXaughton and Luther Cole. In November fuUowing, at a 
second session of the courts, ICbenezcr F. Norton, Robert \V. Stoddard, 
Jonathan T. Haight, John Collins, Daniel h. Brown and Jeremiah R. 
Munson were admitted to practice. The first issue joined in a court of 
record west of the Genesee river was tried at this term. It was the 
case of Rtifus Hart \-ersus Erasmus Enos. 

At the next term of courts in June, 1 S04, several indictments were tried, 
and the jury was the tirst traverse jury drawn and organized in the new 
court. It consisted of William Rumscy, Jo.seph Sellcck, A!)e! Rowe, 
John Forsyth, Benjamin Morgan, Alexander McDonakl, Peter Camj^- 
bell, James Woods, Benjamin Gardner, Ltjvel Churchill, Joim Ander- 
son and John Mc\'ean. Tlie first jury empanelled in a civil suit in these 
courts consisted of Job Pierce, Andrew Wortman, (Jilbert Hall, John 


McXauyhton, Isaac Smith. Arciiilcas Whitten, Isaac Sutherland, Sam- 
uel Davis, Ransom Harmon, Peter X'anderventer, lluijh MclJcrmott, 
and Jabez Fox. 

The Big Tree road, or the Middle ruad, a.^ it was known by the Hol- 
land Company, was surveyed and cut out in the summer of ISOo by 
Jabez Warren of Aurora, who was paid ^'^..jO per mile for surveying 
and $10 per mile for cutting out the road. This highway extended 
from iie;ir Geneseo to Lake ICrie in a nearly westerly direction. It ran 
about a mile smith of the southerly line of the Big Tree Reservation. 

The Legislature of 1S04 divided the town of Pjatavia into four towns. 
These were: Batavia, on the east; next. Willink. including the 4tii, 
5th and Gth ranges; next Erie, containing the Tth, 8tli, 0th and lOtli 
ranges, the State Reservation and adjacent waters; then the town of 
Chautauqua, consisting oi the remainder ot the purchase. 

Dr. Dwight, wlio traveled through the town of Pembroke in October, 
1S04. while making a tour of the West, notes the circumstance of liis 
passing through ''oak plai'.is " or "openings," as he refers to them. 
He describes these grounds as having a varied surface, and in a great 
degree destitute of forests, but covered with grass, v.-eeds and shrubs 
of various kinds'. He supposes these openings to have been caused by 
the Indian.s burning tliem over, to produce pasturage for deer. In the 
fourth volume of liis " Travels " he writes: 

When one of these plains is s-jcc al a little distance, a traveler emerging; from tlie 
forest naturally concludes, that it is the comniencenient of a settled country, and as 
he advances toward it, is insiinclively led to cast his eye forward to find the village 
of which it is the outskirt. From this impressinn his mind will be unable to frt-e 
itself; for the tliought, though given up. will recur again and again, in spite of lus 
absolute conviction that he is in the heart of au immense wilderness. At t'.ie same 
time a sense of siillnoss and solitude, a feeling of absolute retirement from the world, 
deeper and more atTecting than any in which he has ever suspecte<l before, will be 
forced upon him while he is roving over one of these sequestered regions. N'f) passa.gc 
out of them is pre.sented to his eye. Yet thougli the tract around him is sceminglv 
bounded everywhere, the boundary is everywhere obscure: being formed dv trees 
thinly dispersed, and retircl bey<jud each other, at such distances, as that while in 
many places they actually limit the view, they appear rather to border dim. indis- 
tinct openings into other tracts of country. Thus he always feels the iimi: to be un- 
certain; and until he is actually leaving one of these plains, will continuallv e.xpect 
to tind a part of the expansion still spreading beyond the reach of his eve. At evcrv 
little distance, especially on the Iiigher grounds, the view is widely, though indeli- 
nitely extended along the surface; and a little above wl;ere he looks through the 
stems of the trees, is bouu'led only by the horizon, (^n every side a multitude of 
chasms condu.t his eye beyond the labyrinth by which he is surrounded; and pre- 


sent an imaginary passage back into the world, from which he is withdrawn; bewil- 
dering him with expectation, continually awakened to be contiuiialiy disappointed. 
Thus in a kind of wild, romantic rapture, he wanders over these plains, with emo- 
tions similar to those with which, when a child, he roamed through the wilderness 
created in Arabian tales, or the imaginary regions spread before him m a dream. 
He is not only separated from all human beings, but is every moment conscious of 
this separation. Whenever he ascends one of the superior elevations, he seems to 
stand above the rest of the globe. On every side he looks downward; and beholds 
a prospect with many vistas, opening indeed around him. but conducting his eye to 
no definite object, and losing it in confusion and obscurity. His view is contintrd by 
neither fores'.s uor mountains ; while yet trees in a thin dispersion partly interrupt 
It; but at tiie same time di-^cover, through their various openings, that it has no 
other limitation than the skirts of the heavens. While he wanders on tlirough this 
bewildering scenery, he cannot fail to remember, that on these plains Indians have 
lived, and roved, and hunted, and fought, ever since their first arrival from the 
shores of Asia. Flere. r.nless they molested each other, there was nothing to molest 
them. They were the Sole lords, the undisturbed possessors of the country. Here, 
therefore, he will call up before his imagination the secret windings of the scout; the 
burst of the war-whoop; the fury of an Indian onset; the triumphantdisplay of scalps; 
and the horrors of t;ie war dance before the tortured and expiring captive. Whether 
these thoughts will be excited in the mind of any future traveler, I know not; in my 
own they sprai^g up instinctively. 

An idea of the manner in which .smiie of the pioneers lived, and of 
the business of those early days, ma}- be gleaned from the following 
narrative of William H. Busli, a jvioneer wlnj came from Bloomfield, 
Ontario county, and located upon the Tonawanda three and a half 
miles below Batavia:' 

I moved my family from Bloomfield in May, 180G. The settlers on Buffalo road, 
between my location and Batavia village, v.ere Isaac Sutherland, Levi Davis and 
Timothy Washburn. Rufus McCracken, Daniel McCracken, Thomas Godfrey, Linus 
(iunn, ficnry Starks, Alaiison Gunn, David Bowen, John Lamberton. lived on the 
road west. There were then less than one hundred acres of land cleared on the 
ButTalo road in the distance of six miles west of Batavia. 

I built a log liouse, covered it with elm bark — could not spare time to build a chim- 
ney ; the floor was of slabs and hemlock boards. I immediately commenced building 
a saw mill and had it completed before the middle of October. That summer my 
wife did the cooking for family and hired nicu by an out of tloor fire, built up against 
stumps. The first winter, I attended my own saw mill, working in it from daylight 
to dark, cutting my firewood and foddering n:y stock by the light of a lantern. Be- 
fore winter set in. I had built a stick chimney, laid a better lloor in my liouse, plas- 
tered the cracks, and hired an acre of land cleared— just enough to prevent the trees 
falling upon mv house. Wlieii the mill was built 1 liad it paid fi;r, but to accomplish 
it, I had Sold some pork ao'' grain I had produced by w<jrking land upon shares in 
Bio. .ini".eld — in fact, everyt'iing but my ><canty liousehold furniture. My -aw mill 

« Turner's Hi>t.iry, p.ig-.- V,\. 


proved a yood investnient, boards were much in d..'maiul at seven dollars and fifty 
cents per thousand ; the new settlers stocked the mill with logs to be sawed on shares. 

In l>?()s I built a machine shop, a carding and clclh dressing cstablishnient. These 
were the first upon the Holland purchase. On the lOtli of June of that year. 1 carded 
a sack of wool, the first ever carded by machine on the Holland Purchase. It be- 
longed to George Lathrop of Bethany. In February, ls09. I dre.s.sed a piece of full 
cloth for Theophilus Crocker, the first ever dressed upon the Holland 
There are on my books, the namesof customers, from as far southas Warsaw and Shel- 
don ; from the east, as far as StatTord ; from the west to the Niagara river and Lake 
Erie, including Chautauque county; from pretty much all of the settled portion of the 
Holland Purchase. I carded in the season of l^OS. IJ.OOO lbs. of wool; the lar^^^est 
quantity for any one man, was 70 lbs., the smallest, 4 lbs. The lots averaged IS lbs. 
Allowing 3 lbs. to a sheep, the average number of sheep then kept by the new set- 
tlers, would be si.K; although it is presumed that the number is larger, as in those 
days, much of the wool was carded by hand. 

The machinists of the present day. may be glad to learn how I procured my ma- 
chinery. I bought my hand shears of the Shakers at New Lebanon ; my press plate 
at a furnace in Onondaga; my screw and bo.>c at Canaan. Conn., my dye kettle, 
press papers. &o. at Albany. My transportation bill, for these things, wa.s over two 
hundred dollars. 

I built a grist mill in ISOO; in 1S17, a paper mill and distillery. I manufactured 
the first ream of paper west of the Gene.see river. 

During all the period of my milling operations I was clearmg up the farm where 
I new reside, coming into the woods as I have related, dependent almost wholly 
upon the labors of my hands, m the first twenty years, success had so far attended 
my e:Torts. that I had accumulated some fifteen or si.xteen thousand dollars. 

An exhaustive search among the records of the oldest cliurches in 
Genesee county adduces evidence of the most reliable character that 
the first religious society to be established in this county is the First 
Congregational church of Bergen, which was organized in December, 
ISOT, by the Rev. Jolin Lindsley and thirteen other inhabitants of that 
town who became the first communicants.' This church, in all proba- 
bility, was not only the first to be founded in (ienesec county, but it is 
the oldest religous organization west of the Genesee river, with the 
single exception vt the old Scotch Presbyterian church at Caledonia, 
Livingston county. At the time of its organization I'.ergen was a part 
of the great town of Xorthampton, At the time of the organi-.ation 
Levi Ward, sr., and Denjamin Wright were elected deacons, and Levi 
Ward, jr., clerk. January 2'), 18fi8, organization was perfected by the 

' Sonu- autin.ri'i ■-, i.l.ii:ii tli.ii tli<.- l'ri-r,b\ tcrian church in .Mcx.miU-r orKani/.Cfi a .short 
timi- prior t.. tliisdaiL- , but this Ntatcnviu cannot be tliurrm^'lily a-UlK-nticatf! . It is p<.>sible. 
liowevcr. thai tile Pri.sbyierian church at .Mixandcr and the First ii>n>:ri.-;;.:f.iiial <>( Bcrj;c-n. in 
the .ib>..-ni;t; of p..siti\c dociuuetuary ev:.! ,n<<.-. in;i> have U, liivido the hunor lailini,' *" the 
pii-noer church i<f (ioncNCe county. 


election of Alexander White, Simon Pierson and Levi Ward, jr., as 
trustees. The other original members were John Ward, John GilTord, 
Josiah Pierson, Selah Wrij;ht and W. II. Miinger. The Rev. John 
Lindslcy preached tor the new society fc^r a tew months, but the first 
reijularly ordained pastor was the Rev. Allen Ilollister, who was in- 
stalled July 4, ISli"). The first church edifice was built on Cemetery 
Hill, about a mile to the south of the second location, to which place 
the church was removed in the spring of 1854, during the pastorate of 
the Rev. A. O. Whiteman. Alth(nigh organized as a Congregational 
church, the society placed itself in charge of the Presbytery soon after 
its organization, since which it has remained a Presbyterian church. 

Meetings had been held by the Presbyterians of Alexander for over 
two ye.irs, under the direction of Elder Burton, before the Presbyterian 
church in that town was organized. The exact date of the establish- 
ment of this church is not known. It was in existence in 1808, and 
some authorities claim that it was founded about the same time as. or 
even shortly prior to. the organization of the Congregational society in 
Alexap.der. Harvey Hawkins and Cyrenus Wilbur were the princip;d 
promoters of the movement which resulted in its formation. It was 
not a strong society at the start, as is shown by the fact that upon its 
reorganization, or the pe-^fection of its organization, in 1818, it had but 
ten members. The first house of worship, a stone structure, was not 
erected until 18"28. The Rev. Solomon Hibbard was the first regular 
pastor. A second edifice was C(mstructed in 184o, at an expense of five 
thousand dollars. 

The first murder case in the court of Genesee county occurred at tlie 
term held in June, ISiC, when James McLean, who had been indicted 
for the murder of Wiliiam Orr, was placed on trial. Hun. Daniel I"). 
T<'n-ipkins was the presiding judge, and Judge Howell was council for 
the prisoner. A right then existing by common law, but long since 
abolished by statvite, was that the accused, being an alien, was entitled 
to be tried by a jury one-half (jf whom were aliens. In accordance 
with the demand of the counsel for the defense a jury thus composed 
was selected, as follows: 

Citizens — Benjamin Morgan. Ebenezer Cary, Samuel Geer, Worthy 
L. Churchill, John Olnc}' and Daniel Fairbanks. 

Aliens — Duncan McLelland, James McLelland. John .McPhcrson, 
John McVane, Daniel McKinney and Patrick Powers. 

The jur\- convicted the prisoner, v.ho was sentenced to be hanged in 


Au;T;iist toll<)^vi!V^^ Tiic crime was comniiited near Caledonia S[)rings. 
McLean, Orr and a man named McLaughlin, who were scjuatters on the 
forty thousand acre tract, had been to tiie Si)riniL,^s to^ijether, had drunk 
at least one i;lass of beer each, but McLean was not int(jxicatcd. Wliile 
there a dispute arose reg^arding a tree located on land which McLean 
claimed, and which had been felled by Ory. McLean knocked Orr 
down with an axe, killing;' him at the second blow. McLaughlin in- 
terfered to prevent a tragedy, and he too was killed. That night the 
murderer remained in a hollow loij^ near his house, and the following:: 
inorninji' took to the woods. As soon as the news of the crime reached 
the ears of the authorities Judge Piatt ordered out the militia, which, in 
small squads, searched the entire region. Several days pas.'^ed, when 
McLean was captured while attempting to make his escape eastward, 
he having been recognised at a tavern a few miles east of Canandaigua, 
where he was airested. A great crowd from all ]:)arts of the country 
attended the public execution, tlie first to take j^lace in Genesee county 
and consequently an event uf extraordinary interest for those days. 

Several other events of interest occurred in the county during the 
period prior to the war of 1S1"2. The development of the numerous 
resources of the community progressed favorably during these years. 
In the villages of Batavia and Le Roy, as well as in the smaller settle- 
ments, the spirit of progress was constantly in evidence. New busi- 
ness buildings were erected annually to accommodate the increasing 
trade of the community, and many handsome residences also were 
erected. Road improvement during these years was carried on at a 
satisfactory rare, enab'ing the rapidly increasing farming community 
to carry on trade with the villages with greater facility. 

In ISOT the first printing 'press ever seen west of the Cienesee river 
was set up in Datavia, and soon after the opening of the ofiice the lir.>t 
nuniber of the Genesee Intelligencer, the pioneer newspaper of the 
county, and indeed of the entire Holland F'urchase. was issued from 
that press, by Elias Williams, editor and publisher. 

L'ntil 1610 James Brisbane and ICbene/.er Gary were the only mer- 
chants in the village of Batavia. In that >'ear an extensive store was 
opened by Ephraim Hart, who intrusted its management to Clark 

The pioneer re'igi^nis society of Batavia was organised September 
19, ISOO, by Rev. Royal Phelps, a missionary sent out by the Hani])- 
shire Missionary Society of Ma.ssachusetts. It was of the Congrega- 


tional deiiiiinination. Tliis church was n'>t reij^uhirly incorporaLcd until 
Feburary, 1^11. Us first reL,aihir pastor was Rev. F.phraim Cliapin, 
who served in tliis capacity from 1818 to IS-JI inclusive.' 

The fourth rolifjious society to be founded in Genesee couiuy was the 
Freewill F>aptist church at West Deth any, wliich was organized in ISO'.i 
by the Rev. Nathaniel Rr(nvn. Every town in Genesee county, ex- 
ceptin.q: Bethany, received from the Holland Land Company a errant of 
one hundred acres of land lor re!i;..,Mous purposes. F>ut this ne.i^Icct on 
the part of the Land Company did not dann)en the sjiiritual ardor ui 
the adhe;"ents of the Baptist denomination in Bethany, as is demon- 
strated by the very early establishment of their church society. This 
church experienced a steady, thou<.;"h not rapid, growth from the start. 
Lack of means, however, deterred the society from erectin;^' a hfnise of 
worship for three decades, the first edirlce, a frame l:)uilding, not bein;.;- 
erected until ISo'J. 

The first church in the town of Byron v/as of the Baptist denomina- 
tion. Tiiis society v/as ori^'anized at Byron Centre in 1810, but after 
a few years it disbanded. Relii;"ious services had been conducted in 
that town, however, a year before the establishment of this pioneer 
society, by the Rev. Royal Phelps, a Presbyterian missionary froni 
Cayuga county. In the same year (181<^) the Rev. Joshua Spencer, a 
CongreL^ational minister, held services in Pembroke and organized a 
Congregational church at Long's Corners, now Corfu. This was the 
first religious society in the town of Pembroke. Its existence covered 
but a brief period. 

The East Elba Meth'jdist Episcopal church began its existence by 
the formation of a class of eleven under the leadership of Joseph Wal- 
ton, an exhorter of that denomination. Among those who thus asso- 
ciated themselves together for worship were Elder Grant, John ILnve, 
Seth Howe, Zalmon Luttington, Fayette Luttington and others. The 
class was organized by the Rev. Ralph Lanning. A year later the 
Rev. ^Llrmaduke Pierce became the first regular pastor of the society, 
and in 1814, so greatly had the organization prospered, that tlie erec- 
tion of a small house of wtjrship was found practicable. In lS:jOa new 
church was dedicated, and Levi Barnes, John Taylor, Phineas Howe, 
William Knapp, Isaac Barber and Locklin N'orlon were chosen to be 
its trustees. 

In 1^11 a public library, the first in the county, wa-< established in 

' Tliis c'.r.irch becarn>- Un.- Fir>i Pros'i)ti.rian ilii:r>.h of I'.a'.ivi.i. 


Alexander. The tri:stees were Alexander Re:i, Harvey Hawkins, Seha 
Brainard, Sa;nnel Laihani, Henry Hawkins, Xoah North and IC/.ra W. 

It was not until February T, IS^l-i, that the first Presbyterian churjh 
of Le Roy was organized, althoui^h reli->,Mous services had been held in 
that town with some degree of reg-ularity ever since ISOO, when they 
were inaugurated by the Rev. David Perry, a missionary from Massa- 
chusetts. The Le Roy church of 1S12 at once was increased in num- 
bers by the admission into membership of the local adherents of the 
Congregational denomination. The organizatic^n of ihe society was 
perfected by the Rev. Oliver Ayer and the Rev. Reuben Parmalee. 
David Anderson was tlie first to be onl. fined to the deaconate. Tiie 
Rev. L)avid Fuller, the first resident clergyman, served the society for 
a short time, when the Rev. Calvin Colion v/as in>tailed as the first 
regular pastor. A substantial hiUise of worship was erected by the 
society in l.-^-^'J. 

The old arsenal a: Patavia, which was abandoned about ISIO, was 
erected just prior to the war of is] 2. This was one of the numerous 
measures for defense adopted by the State Government for the pro- 
tection of the frontier as soon as it was secri that hostilities were in- 
evitable. About 181U the State entered into a contract with Joseph 
Ellicott for the construction of a building twenty feet square and twelve 
feet*in height, to be used for the storage of military supplies. Tiie 
■arsenal remembered by tl:e present generation was nut built until after 
the close of tliat war. 

In 1811 a Protestant Episcopal church was established in Sheldon 
(Bennington), then in Genesee coimty, tins being the first church of 
that denominati'>n organized upon the Holland Purchase. The first 
wardens were Josiiua Mitchell and Fitch Cinpman, and the first vestry- 
men v/ere Jolm Rolph, John \V. c:oleman, Seneca Reed, James Case, 
Philo Welton and James Ward. The I'nion Religious Societv was es- 
tablished in isr2 at \Var>aw. then also in Cienesee county. The first 
trustees were Isaac Phelps, Abraham Reed, John Munger, William 
P>ristol. Zerah Tanner and Shubael Goodsjieed. Tlie first Paptist 
church of Sheldon was organized in is 12 with the following trustees: 
Pelatiah Case, Darius Cri^ss, Justin Loomis, Solomon King, Willi.mi W. 
Parsons and IC/.ra Luddcn. 



Tlie settlement of the territor\- west of the Cienesec river was re- 
tarded g-r;eatly by reason of tlic continued Indian tr"ni)lL-s. Iminediatelv 
after the close of tlie war a number of Xew iMi-iand farmei's, princi- 
pally from the western part of Connecticut, started out witli their fam- 
ilies to build new homes in the already famous "Genesee countrv;" 
i)ut soon after entering the State of New Vork they learned of the 
dangers that beset the whites in that locality, and abandoned the pro- 
ject. Some returned to the locality- Vv'hence they had come, and others 
located in tiic Mohawk valley ov In Sarat(j,L;'a county. As earlv as ITSo 
two families, named Rr^ynolds and Rnv:ei-s, left Canaan, Connecticut, 
\v'ith th.e intention of settling west of the Genesee river, but their jour- 
ney ended in Sa'ratoga cc-nnty. 

While the tide of immigration in the direction of the rich and productive 
plains of the famed Genesee country was not very strong until the close 
of the eighteenth century, still a number of daring seekers after new 
homes found their way into this region prior to ISOO. In a preceding 
chapter appear the names of most of the taxpayers west of the Genesee 
river in ISOO. Just v/hen they came and where they located has never 
been ascertained in some cases. The pioneers of those days, while 
building for posterity, did not keep a record of their movements and 
other important events, consequently later generations have been com- 
pelled to live on with but meagre knowledge of the careers of their 
ancestors, excepting rare cases. 

It is probable that the first v.diite man to lf>cate in the territory now 
comprised within the confines of the county of Genesee, and perhaps 
the first to locate permanently at any point on the Holland Purchase, 
was Ciiarles Wilijiir, who, in lTC*-'5, began the cultivation of a farm 
which subsequently became a part of the site of the village of Le Ro}-. 
Wilbur erected a small log house, which he used as a residence and a 
tavern. Tiiere has been soine difTerence of opinion on this point, but 
modern' research, reinforcing the rccorils of the i>ast, leads to tiie con- 


elusion that Wil'Dur was the first white man to found a home in that 
part ot New York State west of the Genesee river. 

While Wilbur was the pioneer settler, his residence at this point cov- 
ered a comparatively brief period, and he did little to perpetuate his 
name or fame. It is to the (lanson family that the credit for piiniccr 
progress and industry properly beloni^s. 

Captain Ganson was born in I')ennington, \'t., in 1T50. At the be- 
ginning of the Revolutionary war he enlisted as a private in the patriot 
army, went at <jnce with a X'ermout re;..^iment to r.ostr)n, arriving there 
in time to participate in the battle of lUinker Hill. Du'-ing that en- 
gagement a British musket ball carried away one of his fingers. Soon 
after he was commissioned as captain, and kept command of a com- 
pany until the close of the war. when he returned to his home at Ben 

During a part of the war Captain Ganson was a member of the com- 
mand of General vSullivan, and as such participated in the latter's e.\- 
pedition against tlie Seneca Indians. During his brief sojourn in the 
borders of the famed "Genesee country " he was impressed by the 
remarkable fertility of the land and the agreeable climate. It was to 
him an ideal spot fur a home and for carrying on agricultural pursuits. 
C'jmp\red with the rugged hills of N'ermont. it was little short of a 
paradise for a farmer. 

With the close of the war Captain (ian'^on decided to make a still 
further personal investigation of tiie wcjnderful new country, and the 
fear of the dreaded Seneca Indians did not deter him from starting out 
on his trip of inspection. In ITS'.) he left Bennington, accompanied by 
his two sons. Of these, John was fourteen years of age and James v/as 
twelve. Late in the fall ui that year they reached a point about two 
mues south of the site of the village of Avon, where he purchased laud 
on which to build his future liome. 

Leaving his sons in the custody of a friendly Seneca he returned to 
Vermont for the jviirpose of bringing the remaiiuler of his family west 
witli him. But soon after reaching home his wife died, and it was n(jt 
until late in the spring of IT'.'H when he began his final journey west- 
ward with the remnant of his family. At this time there were few 
settlements west of Utica, and most of the latter part of the journey 
had to be made over Indian trails. I-"rom Canandaigua to the Genesee 
river, a distance of over twenty miles, hardly a white habitation was to 
be seen. Soon after scttlin-'- uimju the Genesee the Ciansons erected 


the first g^rist mill Ujcated upon that river. It was a log structure aiid 
a primitive afi'air, but it proved a great couvenience to the pioneers fur 
miles around. 

In 1797 Captain Gai;son and his sons deci'led to remove to the west 
side of the river, and the former purchased the farm and hmise owned 
b\' Charles WiTnur. This place was the beginnin.;.jof what subsequently 
became g-eneraliy known as "the <lanson settlement," the neighborhood 
whicii ultimate!}- developed into tiie thriving villa.cic of Le Roy. Here, 
a few years later, following the completion of the tl-iUand Laud Com- 
pany's su^rveys, can)e immigrants in large numbers, and for many years 
the tavern of John Ganson, who as a lad of fourteen came west with 
his fatlier, was one of the most noted betweeii the IIuds'")n river and 
the Great Lakes. 

Both StatTord and Le Roy have long laid claim to the lionor oi being 
the location of tn.e first permanent settlers in Genesee county. Though 
Captain Ganson purchased the Wilbur farm in 17'.)7, it is generally be- 
lieved tliat he did not remove there until the following spiung. On 
tills point there is some doubt. In I7'.iS James firisbane, the first mer- 
chant on the Holland Purchase, came to StaiTord with a load of sup- 
plies and general merchandise for sale to the siirveyors at work under 
direction of Jo;-eph Ellicott. He at once opened a store, on the site of 
the present village of Stafford, which was called the Transit store- 
house: but its e.Kact location is not n>>w known. Though tiic truth 
is not definitely known, there are many reasons for believing that Cap- 
tain Gansim had moved upon his newly acquired property in Le Roy a 
short time befc^re Bris'oane built his store, where he also at tirsi re- 
sided. It is not likely that tlie uiooted ([uestion will ever be deJ'.nitel)' 

Settlements were also made at Latavia in IT'.iS. These are more 
fully described in tiie ciiapter deviated to tiie history of the village of 

To revert to " the Ganson settlement: " Immigration hither assumed 
large proportions iiTimediately after the completion of tiie sui'veys matle 
by the Holland Land Company, Capt. Jotham Curtis, one of the 
earliest to come, was a farmer and tavern kee[)er. I(,)se;):i Hewitt and 
Daniel Davis came S'^n after. All three were there, ho\ve\er, before 
1S0".2, the vear when the surveys were completed. Chapman Ilawley 
located east (,^f Lc Roy viliage about IJ^OI, and was well known as "the 
fiddler -■■ for that section. For some time he an imi)urtant iur.^- 


tioaar}- at local dances and <jtlier cntcrtainnienis. Richard M. Stod- 
dard, who came to this neiL^^hborhood in lSO-2, was the first local ai,'ent 
for the Triaa;.^le tract. E>;ra Plait, who removed here from Canandai- 
gua, either in iStH or ISO'i. pro'oably the latter date, was the first to re- 
ceive the app'tintmeut of jud;;c of Genesee County Court of Common 
Pleas. Stephen A. Wolcott, who came from Geneva in ISO'2, was the 
first cabinet-maker and builder in town. 

Daniel Davis, whose settlement here has already been noted, married 
Naomi Le Barron soon after his arrival. She came fr(jm Killinj^- 
worth, Conn., with the family of Philemon Xcttleton. Their marriaije 
was the first in the Ganson settlement and their daughter, Naomi 
Davis, was the first white child born there. Charles ^Vilbur, the first 
justice of the peace, performed the v.-eddin- ceremony. At the same 
time and place Gardner Carver and Lydia Davis v.ere married by Jus- 
tice Wilbur. Davis's farm was about two miles east of that of the 
Gansons, near the eastern edge of the present town. 

Hiiid.s Ciuimbeiiin was one of the very earliest pioneers, and one of 
the most enterprising and useful citizens in the community. In all 
public movements he was conspicu(->us as a leader for many years. He 
opened the first road from the Genesee river t') Ganson's, over the old 
Indian trail, under direction of Richard M. Stoddard. The farm he 
first opened he sold in 1801 to Asher Bates, who m that year came 
from Canandaigua. 

Richard M. Stoddard was one of the most conspicuous and influen- 
tial men of the community in its early days. He came from Canan- 
daigua with Ezra Piatt. In May, L^OI, Joseph I'dlicott, then acting as 
special agent for Le R<>y and I>ayard, engaged Mr. Stoddard to make a 
surve}- of the Triangle tract, giving e.\plicit directions as to the laying 
off of a tract of five hundred acres at " IJuttermilk Falls." This tract, 
which was purchased in 1>0'1 by Mr. Stoddard and Ezra I'latt, is now 
entirely covered by the village of Le Roy. They erected on theOatka 
a grist mill, which is believed to have been the first west of the Genesee 
river. Mr. Stoddard became the first sheriff of Genesee county and to 
his efforts is due in a very large measure the jieaceful conditions which 
surrounded tiie inhabitants of this county during a portion of the first 
decade of the present century. He also built a commodious tavern 
and several other houses. He was a man of wide influence, which he 
invariably exercised for good. 

In 1790 Gilbert Hall ijegan the cultivation of the farm known in 


recent years as the Phelps farm. Fricml Hall came soon after and 
Idcated near by. Jabe/. Fox ar.d Jamcs Davis, jr., settled in town 
about 1S'K\ Lym:'.n Prindle !)uilt a home on West Main street in \s()l. 
Tlie f<.MIo\vini.j \-ear Richard Waite camf? from Canandaii.,^ua. His iiome 
was frequently used in the early days as a house of worship. Daniel 
D. Waite, for many years editor of the P>atavia Advocate, was liis son. 
Captain James Austin was an early niilhvrii^ht in Le Roy, and Thad- 
deus Keyes had the first tannery there. Ebenezer Fox, one of the 
pioneers, conducted a sinci'in;^ school for some time. Aarcjn Scrihner 
and Samuel Davis remo\'od to this town about 1><^'1. The latter was 
the proprietor of an early tavern. In a drunken brawl which occurred 
in his house he met his death at t'p.e hands of his son, fames, and Ivlijah 
(iray, sr. Both were tried and convicted of the murder. Gra}- was 
sentenced to State prison for life, but sentence was subsequently com- 
muted. James Davis was hanged for the crime, at P.atavia. in 1S",.*0. 
Amon^; others who settled in the town pri<jr to lStj2 were Captain 
Xatlianiel 3uel, John Sweatland and Orange Judd. 

In iSOo Jeremiah Hascall came from Connecticut and settled upon 
the farm east of the village which in more recent years has been known 
as "DreamLand." He had four sons — Jeremiah, Amasa, [ohn and 
Augustus P. — and tv/o dau.ghters. 

In ISOS Simon Pierson located near Fort Hill. He was a descemlant 
of Abraham Pierson, the first president of Yale University. He. served 
as a major in the war of ISI'^, and enjoyed a reputation as an authority 
on Indian antiquities. lie made numerous excavations in the ancient 
Indian fort near his home and discovered large numbers of Indian 
relics. Some of these he found bel(;w the largest trees, proving that 
the v.-orks were very ancient. 

Contemporaries of Major Pierson were Cieorge \V. Blodgett. the first 
saddler and harnessmaker, who settled upon the farm afterward occu- 
pied by his daughter. Mrs. J. R. Anderson; Mr. Drown, who was the 
pioneer blacksmith; John Gilbert, a blacksmith and axe maker, father 
of the distinguished artist; Levi Farnham, the first manufacture:- of 
clothing; Ca])tain Isaac Marsh, who built an early saw mill. [)robal>!y 
the first in town; John Hay. the first stone mason, who built the first 
Episcopal church ; William Whiting, who came from Canandaigua in 
ISi)'); C'-'lorel William Olmsted, who came fn-ni Williamstown, Mass., 
in 1^00, father of J( hn R. r)lmsted (jf Le Roy. 

Among others whc located in the town of Le Roy prior to the begin- 


nlng of the war of ISl'-i were Ileman J. Red field, who became a dis- 
tinguished citizen of Genesee cuiiuiy; Auj^ustus H. Ely, Stephen Slill- 
well, Daniel Woodward, David Anderson. Alexander Anderson. Joseph 
Austin, Jonatlian Wri^^ht, BL-njaniin Webb, Joel Butler. Thankful 
JBuel, Joy Ward, Captain William Thomas, Edmund Beach, Jonas Bart- 
lett, Christopher Cadman, Joseph Cook, Amasa Clapp, Lee Comstock, 
Thomas Studley, Thomas Severance, James Roberts. Elias Peck, 
Henry Goodenow. Ezekiel Hall, Israel Herrick, Daniel Pierson, Rus- 
sell Pierson, Ebenezer Parmelee, David W. Pannelee. Zalmon Owen, 
William HolbrojDk, Moses McColIum. Alfred Moreiiouse, Jesse Beach, 
Philip Beach, Colonel Xortini S. Davis, Dudley Saltonstall. whose 
daughter became the wife of Richard M. Stoddard; Phineas Bates, 
Cyrus Douglass, Yi:\ David Fairchild, Jabez Fox, Ann s Hall, Xathan 

Harvey, Alexander McPherson, Abel Nettleton. Scoiield, Am;d 

Stouijhton, Richard Waite, Stephen A Wolcott, L>r. William Coe, Cal- 
vin Davis, Jolm McPherson, Samuel B WoUey, Daniel Wliite, David 
White, Allen McPherson, Gideon Fordham, John Franklin, Jacob Mc- 
ColIum. Robert Xesbit, Captain David Scott, Asa Buell, Moses Lilly, 
Lsaac Perry, Ge-^rge A. TiriariV, David Emmons, Jason Munn, Philo 
Pierson, Simon Pierson. the author; Abram Butterfield, Ithaniar Coe, 
John Elliott, Dr. Frederick Fitch, Dr. Benjamin Hill, Captain Theodore 
Joy, H. Johnson, Silas Lawrence, Flugh Murpiiy, R. Sinclair, Step^hen 
P. Wilcox, ^LHjor Xatiian Wilcox, ?Iarry Backus, Timothy liackus, 
Ebenezer Miles, Salmon Butler, Chester Barrows, Willis Buell, Ward 
Ecekley, Jacob Coe, Silas Fordham. William Harris. Seth. FLirris, Mar- 
tin Kelsey, Uriah Kelsey, James McPherson, jr.. Captain Isaac Marsh, Xewell, Stephen Glmstcd, Harvey Prindle, Elias Parmelee, 
Dr. Chauncey P. Sniith, Dr. William Sheldon, Thaddens Stanley, 
Alanson Stanley, J. Harlow Stanley, Thomas Tufts, Thomas, 
Chester Waite, Captain John Webb, Washington \Veld, Joseph Annin, 
Abraham Buckley, Xathan Bannister, Joseph Curtis. Levi Farnham, 
Julius Griswold, Samuel Gili)ert, Ebenezer Lawrence, Pliny Sanderson, 
Elisha Stanley, John Thwing, .Stei)hen Taylor, Stephen Walk!e\-. 

The mill of Stoddard t^ Plait was ihc first erected in Le Ro\-, its 
operation beginning in 1S0;J. This mill antedates that which the Hol- 
land Land Comi)any erected at Batavia. 

The year before a wooden bridge had been erected over th.e Oalka. 
These tv.-o institutiins served to attract people t(; Le Roy from t!ie sur- 
rounding country, and were in a measure responsible for its early 


cifrowth. The britlgc was built by James Gans"n, under direction (jf 
Charles Wilbur and Jothain Curtis, commissioners of hijjhways. The 
t-nvn voted ^oO towards |xiying the expense of construction, and $'0'iO 
more was raised by popular subscription. The work was tinished rive 
days after it had been beg^un, as men from all the adjacent country 
participated in the work. d(jnatin^4- tlieir services. 

The post ofliice at Le Roy was established in lso4, Asiier iJates bein^^- 
the first to officiate as postmaster. Richard M. Stoddard and James 
Ganson were his immediate successors. 

Richard ^[, Stoddard was the first to otter any merchandise for sale 
in town, but he did no general business. The first rej^ular store in 
town was opened in 1S06 by George F. TitYany on the east side (A the 
Oatka. Philo Pierson was also an early merchant, opening a store at 
the corner of Main and North streets in Le Roy about 1810. David 
l-'mmonsand Captain Theodore Jo}' were proprietors of a general store 
at this point during the period under discussion. Captain Joy was one 
of the best known merchants "oetween Canaudaigua and Buflalo. M. 
&; B. Murphy and James Annin located very early here. The latter 
first had a store on the east side of the Oatka, but like several others, 
he removed. to the west side of the creek as soon as it became evident 
that that locality was to be the business centre (.)f the village. 

Dr. William Coe was the first regular practitioner to locate in Le 
Roy, where he settled in 1^03. Besides practicing his profession he 
tauuht several of the higher branches of learning in the evening. Many 
of the prominent persons of tiie generation succeeding him owe to Dr. 
Coe the education they obtained. Dr. Frederick Fitch, Dr. Ella Smith. 
Dr. Chauncey P. Smith and Dr. William Sheldon practiced in town 
during this period. Graham Newell was the ])ioneer lawyer in town. 

The name of the town was changed to Caledonia in 1S07. Li 1811 it 
was called Bellona. from the goddess of war, nearly every able-bodied 
man in town having enlisted in the American army to fight against the 
British. The name was not changed to Le Roy until 1813. 

In the year 1798. Joseph and Benjamin Ellicott and James Brisbane 
are recorded as inhabitants of the town of Batavia. T!ie separate 
chapter in the history of the village of P>atavia furnishes more detailed 
information regarding these note'd pioneers and some of their contem- 
poraries. The early records show that John Branan located in town in 
I8n0. In tlie township outside the village the first settlers were Isaac 
Sutherland, who built a substantial log liouse on his farm about two 


miles west of the land office in the villa^^e, and General Worthy L. 
Churchill and Colonel William Rnmsey, who located in the eastern sec- 
tion of the town. at'rer iJenjamin Mi-r-an, John Lainberton and 
Samuel F. Geer settled in the town. 

The life and services of Joseph Ellicott, the founder of Batavia. have 
been touched upon in extenso elsewhere in this work. Let us now 
take a retrospective view of some oi the less distinguished, thou^^h 
prominent and inlluential pioneer inhabitants, than the first agent of 
the Holland Land Company. Perhaps James Brisbane deserves the 
first place in the list. 

Mr. Brisbane was born in Philadelphia, of Irish parentage, October 
r2, ITTO. At the age of twenty-two years he left the City of Brotherly with a large (p.iantity (,f supplies and general merchandise f<»rsale 
to the corps of men then engaged in surveying the Western Xew York 
wilderness under the direction of Joseph Ellicott. Mr. Brisbane and 
those who accompa:iied him first stopped at Stafford, where a building 
called the Transit storehouse was erected. This was in ITOS. January 
2, ISOO, he accompanied Mr. Ellicott back to Philadelphia. Returning 
in the spring of ISO'2 he located permanently in the new village of Ba- 
tavia, which was laid out in that year, offering for sale the first lot of 
general merchandise ever shipped to that point. July 21, lbO-2, Gideon 
Granger, postmaster-general, commissioned him as the first postmaster 
of Batavia. This was the second post-office west of the Genesee, that 
at Lewiston being the first. Isaac Sutherland and Samuel F. Geer had 
erected a building on the northeast corner of Main and Church streets, 
which was immediately rented for use as a store by Mr. Brisbane, and 
afterward purchased by him. In ISO*; he resigned the postmastership 
and Ebenezer Cary was apptnnted in his place. At the same time he 
disposed of his stock of goods and rented his store to Trumbull Carv. 
He so(;n after went to Xew York and engaged in the book business for 
two years. Returning to Batavia in ISOS he resumed business at his 
original stand, remaining there until 1S2I. During the earlier years 
of his residence in Batavia he purchased large parcels of real estate, 
which soon became exceedingly valuable. In I'^X) he became the prin- 
cipal incorporator and largest shareholder of the Tonawanda railroad. 
Mr. Brisbane was married in LSQT to Mary Lucy Stevens, a sister of 
James W. Stevens, the first clerk of Genesee county. His death oc- 
curred May 2'J, ISjl. He was survived by two sons: Albert, born in 
ISOp, and George, born m 1S12. 


Among tlic oilier pioneers uf the town, prior to the war of isp^, were 
the following,'-: 

James W. Stevens, a native ot New Jersey and a urraduate of Prince- 
ton College, came in IS.'iO. At the earliest period of its land sales in 
Western New York he became connected with the Holland Land Com- 
pany, and remained in that capacity nntil the a:Tairs of that concern 
were closed up. He was the first clerk of Genesee county, hc^lding 
otlice from lSi)4 to ISIO. No man in all Genesee county was more 
highly esteemed than he. 

David E. Evans, a nephev,- of Joseph ICllicoit, came from his home 
in Maryland to assume a clerical p(.)siti(.>n in the Holland Land otlice. 
He was elected to the State Senate in 181s and served in that body 
four years. He became a member of congress in IS'iO, but resigned 
in that year in order to accept the agency of the Holland Company, to 
succeed Jacob Otto, a position he filled with great fidelity until ISoT, 
when the affairs of the company were closed up. His death occurred 
in 1S50. Mr. Evans was a public-spirited man, and a liberal contrib- 
utor to all worthy enterprises, public or private. 

Ebenezer Cary accompanied Mr, Ellicott as a surveyor to th.e Hol- 
land Purchase, and served the compar.y iov some time in various ca- 
pacities. He v/as an early me!"chant in Batavia, succeeding James 

Dr. David McCracken and Roswel! Graham came in ISO), and James 
Cochrane in ISO'2. The latter was the proprietor of a bell fovmdry on 
Bank street. He died in 1S"20. 

Trumbull Cary, brother of Ebenezer Cary, was born in ^Lansfield, 
Conn., August 11, IT^T. He came to Batavia in 1S0.">. and after spend- 
ing fcnir years as cleik for James Brisbane and Ivbenezer Car}-, bought 
out that firm and remained in business until IS-lo. He also served as 
post'.naster for part of that time. He served in both branches of the 
State Legislature, and was an adjatant in the war of lSr2. He was 
the founder of the Bank of Genesee, and was for many years one of the 
most successful business men and financiers in this section of the State. 
He died June '20, ISGH. 

Ebene/.er Mix was born at New Haven, Conn., December .'H. ITSO. 
In 1^(19 he came to Batavia and W(jrked at his trade as a mason in the 
summer and taught school in tiie winter. In ISIO he began the study 
of the law with Daniel B. Brown, but in the spring of 1811 entered 
the employ of the Holland Land Company, where he remained as 


contracting; clerk iov twenty-seven years. Durin^^ this period he was 
for twenty-une years surro^^^ate of Genesee county. While serving in 
that otTice. he codified the State laws relating t.. the descent and distri- 
bution of estates. He served with distinction in the war of isr.>, act- 
ing as the volunteer aide of Gen. Peter li. Porter at the memorable 
sortie at Fort Erie, September 17, IS] 4. lie was recognized as one of 
the best mathematicians in the Slate, and was the author of a work en- 
titled '• Practical Mathematics." He also assisted Orsamus Turner in 
the compilation of his " History of the Holland Purchase." March :]0, 
1815, Mr. Mix married Jemima Debow. His death occurred in Cleve- 
land, O., January 1'2, 1SG9. 

Aaron Van Cleve, who came to Catavia in ISOf), was ])orn in Xew 
Jersey in 17G>^. In 17l)l he married a daughter of P.enjamin Stevens 
and a sister of James W. Stevens. In 1700 he assisted Josei.h Ellicott 
in running the West Transit Line. In IS'iO he removed to Paiavia, 
and two years later was appointed sheriff, serving until 1S14. He also 
held other ofHces of trust. 

In addition to those persons mentioned in tiie foregoing, the follow- 
ing are recorded as holders of property in Ratavia village or townshii) 
as early as l.sO'^: 

Elisha Adams, Joseph Alvord, Dr. J. Arnold, Thomas Asliley, Will- 
iam Blackman, Hiram Elackman, Russell Crane, Charles Cooley, Silas 
Chapin, Daniel Curtis, James Clements, Jeremiah Cutler, James Coch- 
rane, Gideon Dunham, r^arrett Davis, Dr. C. Ch.apin, John Forsvth, 
E. Gettings. Samuel F. Geer, Rufus Hart, James Holden, I'aul Hir.k- 
ley, Paul Hill, Jesse Hurlburt, Joseph Hawks, Jo'm Lamberton. P. 
Lewis, Daniel M.Cracken, Rufus McCracken, James McKain, Ben- 
jamin F. Morgan, David Mather, ICIisha Mann. R. Noble. Zerah Phelps, 
Peter Powers, Benjamin Porter, Stephen Russell, Benjamin R-us.seiI, 
H. Rh.odes. Abel Rowe, Am',)s Ranger, Rowland Town, E. Tillottson.' 
Henry Wilder, Aaron White, J. Washburn, William Wood, Elijah 
Spencer and Isaac Spencer. 

Beside these the following are on record as having buen owners (jf 
property between the year lSO-2. when Batavia village was founded, 
and the outbreak of the war of ISl'-i: 

John Alger, David Anderson. David I5o\ven, William H. Ihish, Ben- 
jamin Blodgett, Ephraim Brown, Isaiah Bal'cock, Daniel B. Brown, 
M. Brooks, WilW-im Curtis. Benjamin Gary, Elisha Co.\. Nathaniel Cole- 
man, Cant'.ing, L. L. Ciark, Simeon Cummings, Peleg Dou'^- 


Kiss, r.ev: Davis, Silas Dihhlc. jr., Hii_L!;h IhifTv, John Oornian, L. Dis- 
bruv. -John Do Wolf, Andrew A. l-211icolt, Gideun ICllicott, John B. 
IClIicoU, "Williani Kwin^, Seymour Ensi;..Mi. ['hinoas Ford, Lilibeus, Iv.len Ftxster, IC:<ekiel Fox. Oilinicl l-'ieUl, I>avid (Joss. R. Godfrey, 
Thomas Godfrey, Linus Gunn, Alaiison Gunn, Hugh Henry, James 
Henry, John Herring, Hinman 1 1 olden, Samuel C. Holden. General 
Atnos Hall. David Ha'd, Winter Hewitt, James O. Hoyt, H. Jerome, 
Samuel Jacks, Seymour Kellogg, Zenas Keyes, Chauncey Keyes, Will- 
iam Keyes, Solomon Kingsley, John S. Leonard, Henry Lake, William 
Lucas, Amos Lamberton, Reul)en Lamberton. Thomas Layton, A. 

Lincoln, Leonard, Asa McCracken, E. Messenger, Az.or Marsh, 

David C. Miller, X. Miner, William Pierce, LlanchartI Powers, Patrick 
Powers. James Post. Xathan Rumsey, Samuel Ranger, J. Z. Ross, 
Reuben Town, L Norman Town, Deniamin Tamtcr, JoelTyrrell, Jona- 
than Wood, Reuben W. Wilder, Oswald Williams, Ivlias Williams, Abel 
Wheeler, John B. Watkins. Starks, Joshua Sutherland, David 
Smith, Isaac Smith, Henry vStarks, J. P. Smith, S. Stought'in, X. 

James Brisbane, the llrst settler in the town of Stafford and the 
first merchant on the Holland Purchase, remained in that town but 
a short time. In LSO-2, when Mr. Ellicott began the work of laying 
out the village of Batavia, one of the first men to take advantage of 
the .;uperior opportunities for trade which that locality offered was 
Mr. Brisbane. He had abandoned his storehouse, whicli probably was 
located on the west side of the creek, north of the bridge, in the 
present village of Stafford, some time before. 

In 1700, the year after the arrival of Mr. P.risbane, James Dcv.-ey, 
one of the surveyors employed by Mr. Ellicott for the Holland com- 
pany, was induced by Mr. Brisbane to clear aV)out ten acres of land 
ju.-5t west of the Transit, wiiich he sowed with oats. 

Frederick Walther located in Stafford during or prior to ISOO. He 
was one of the first men to accept the offer of the company in isoo, re- 
garding the establishment of taverns. Paul Busti, the general agent 
of the company at Philadel])hia, had given authority " to contract with 
six reiHitable individuals to locate themselves on the roail from the 
Transit Line to BuiYalo Creek, about ten miles apart, and open houses 
(jf entertainment for travelers," in consideration for which they were 
to ha\-o "from :ifty to one hundred and fifty acres of huul each, at a 
liberal time for pa\-ment, without interest, at the hjwest [^rice per acre." 


In accordance wiih this oiTer Walthcr touk a tract of one hundred and 
fifty acres west of and adjoininc;- tlie Eastern Transit Line, including 
tlic company's storehouse. He had already located on a jjart of this 
tract, but how lung lie had been there at this time is unkinAvn. His 
stay was brief in tiiis comnuiniLv on account of iiis unpopularity. 

One of the carlist permanent settlers of whom any record has been 
left was Colonel William Rumscy, who came from Hub'oardton. \'t.. 
in lSo-:2 ami located on Startord Hill. Colonel Rumsey also was a sur- 
veyor employed under direction of Mr. Ellicutt, and a man of sterling- 
worth. He became one of tiie most inthiential men in the town and 
county. His son, Joseph E. Rumsey, settled here the same year, but 
subsequently remo\-ed to Chicaj^o;. 

In 1S03 Xathan Marvin b^u.^ht a lar;.,'-e tract of land, upon which he 
settled, but he evcnLually sold the property and moved to Ohio. 

General Worthy Lovell Churchill, who became one of the most con- 
spicuous men in Genesee county in its early days, settled xipon a farm 
near that of Culonel Rumsey in 1S03. He served as an officer in the 
war of 1812, commanded the One Hundred and Sixty-fourth Rejj:iment 
of New York S:;ite Militia, and served as sheriff of the c.-unty from 
1820to lS-?o. 

John Debow and Zenas r-i;,4elow bet^^an the cultivation of farms in 
Stafford in ]S''^4-. From thai lime to ISl-i newcomers were quite nu- 
merous. Among those who came to town during that period were Eben 
Eggleston. who kept a tavern on the Big Tree road; D. Hall, Let.-nard 
King, Hour}- Rumsey. Josia'.i Churchill, Phineas White, John Bean, 

Malachai Tyler, Amos Stow. Seymour Ensign, Falconer, Xathan 

Bannister and Betsey Bigelow. Tyler operated a small wood turning 
shop, where he turned out chairs, spinning wheels, bowls and other 
wooden implements. He also did blacksmithing. Amos St<.'V.- bi;iit a 
saw mil! on Bigelow creek in ISll, and in tiie same year Seymour En>ign 
built a grist mill in the same neighborhood. The latter also conducted 
quite a business in woul-carding and cloth dressing. Captain Xathan 
Cash and Elisha Prentice removed to the town in 1812. Xatlianiel Wat- 
son and Daniel Prentice located about 1812 on the Pultncy lands of the 
Connecticut tract. 

In ISOfJ Esther Sprout opened a private school on or near the present 
site of the village of StatTord. Tiiis undoubtedly was the first school 
in town. X'jthing is known of any other scliools which mav have ex- 
isted during this period. 


Beside tlio Waltlier tavern reforrcil to, Jonatlian Bemis kept a public 
house in Staftord as early as IStU. David Danolds was another early 
landlord, his tavern bein^' on the site of the one Walther had occupied, 
just west of the buildini^ occupied by Mr. I'risbane as a storehouse. 
Ebcn Eg-gleston's tavern on the Di^^- Tree Road, opened in I SCO, for 
many years was a famous hostelry. 

Religious services were held in town as early as ISl't, In- the Rev. 
William Green, a Ixiptist preaclu-r. The ea.rliest mcetinos were held 
at the house of Colonel Runise}-. iM-om these services spran-- the first 
liaptist chiirch of Stafford. 

The town of Oakfield was first settled in IROl, when Erastus Wolcott 
and Aaron White built homes and began the cultivation of farms. 
Ciideon Dunham located here soon after, in the same vear, his neigh- 
borh'jod soon becoming known as Dunham's r, rove. A little later in 
the same year Erastus Wolcott, Peter Rice and Christopher Kenyon 
moved into the town. Peter Lewis immigrated from Vermont in 1S02 
and settled on a farm near that of Gideon Dunham. Daniel Aver and 
Job Babcock also came in ISO-y The records show the following as 
having located here in IS'':';: Hiram Sniith, James Robinson, Lemuel 
L. C!ark, Silas Pra:t. William McGrath. Philip Adkins, l)arius Aver 
and George Lathrop. Rufus IListings, Roraback Robinson, Samuel 
Jerome, sr., Samuel Jerome, jr., Benjamin Chase and Solomon Baker 
came in 1^04, and Caleb Blodgett, sr., Olei) Blodgett, jr., Micajah 
Green. George II<^ge, Ezra Thomas, William Parrish, David Clark, 
Eldridge Buntley, George Harper, John Harper, David Woodworth, 
Nicholas Bentley and James CrosseLt came in ISOG. In ISOT Elijah 
Blodgett. a native of Vermont, came froni C)ntario county aiul settled 
at what is now Mechanicsville. William McCrilless settled here in lj<10 
and George W., John and Jeremiah H. Gardner in 1>;11. In the latter 
year George Driggs located on the north line of the Reservation. He 
cut that portion of the Lewist<jn road from Alabama to Wa;sw<»rLh's 
tavern. Other early settlers included John Orr, Russell Xobles, Othniel 
Brown, Harvey Hubbard and Laurens Armstrong. 

The first mills in Oakfield were those built by Christopher Kenvon 
in ISIL Gideon Dunham was the first tavern keeper. 

The earliest inhabitant of Bergen was Samuel Lincoln, who pur- 
chased a farm in that town in IS'IL Soon afterward, in the same year, 
Benajah Worden, George Letsun, William Lctson, James Letson, David 
Scott, Gideon Elli"tt. Richard Abbey, Jesse Leach and Solomon Levi 


settled in various portions of the town, mostly in I.incoln's neighbor- 
hood. From that time to lsi-2 the followin;^ were recorded as settlers 
in Bergen, all being landholders: Alexander White, Alexander Bissell, 
Amos Hewitt, A. E. Wilcox, John l.andon, Abram Davis, Captain 
James Austin, James Landon, Isaac Wallace, Orange Throf;p, Josej)!! 
Throop, David Potter, Levi liissell, Aaron Rissell, Wheaton South- 
worth, Jolm Gitford, Samuel Butler, Jesse Barber, Jedediah Crosby, 
Captain William Peters, Samtiel Gleason, Oliver Avery, Aaron Arnold, 
Eben Arnold, Deacon Benjamin Wright, Deacon Pitman Wilcox, Deacon 
John Ward, Deacon Levi Ward. Deacon Timothy Hill, James Mvmger, 
Joarab Field, Wickham Field, Joel Wright, Stephen R. Kvarts, David 
H. Evarts, Captain Phineas Parmelee, Natiirm Field, L'riah Crampton. 
Captain Samuel Basse tt. Sc'ah ^L Wright. B-jla Mi'.nger, William H. 
Mnnger. Harvey Field. Joshua Field, Dr. Le\'i Ware], Colonel W. II. 
Ward. Hamilton Wilcox, General Daniel Hurlburt. ^L C. Ward. Josiah 
Pierson. Simeon Picrson, Ji.ihn Pierson, Phili". Pierson, Linus Pierson. 
Russell Pierson (brothers), David P'ranklin, Isiii Franklin, Sylvanus 
F'ranklin, Reuben Franklin. PJaniel I'ranklin (brothers-, TLarvey Kelsey, 
Captain Daniel Kelsey, Uriali Kelsey, Martin Kelsey. Charles Kelsey, 
Thomas Steven.s^ Daniel Stevens, Jesse Griswold, Josiah Buell. Job Sew- 
ard. Roswel; Parmelee. Ebenezer Parmelee, Abner Hull, I'Voen.ezer Hull. 
Phineas Xettlcton, J;j1hi Smitli. Samuel Smith, Deacon Selden. Major 
Nathan Wilcox. Calvin Seward. Augustus Buell and Jonathan ^Vright. 

Hamilton Wilcox was a member of a colony which came from East 
Guilford, Conn., in ISOS. At the age of sixteen years he began 
teaching school in Bergen. In the winter of IS13-14, when troops 
were called for, he left his school to take command of a company. On 
the night of December :;'>, l^i:'., as the British were crossing the river 
at Black Rock, he was wounded by a bullet. He was taken back to 
Bergen, where his arm was amputated, causing his death four weeks 

Aaron Arnold was the oldest son of Enoch Arnold, and was born in 
Berkshire county, Mass., in 178L In ISOG he married Eliza Allen 
of Canaan, Conn., and the following year he removed to Bergen and 
began farming. He became a man of wealth and iuMuence. and served 
his town several terms as supervisor. 

Ebenezer Arnold, youngest son of Daniel Arnold, came from East 
Haddam, Conn., in lS'r2. He was for many years a deacon in the I-"ir>t 
Congregational churcii of Bergen. 

TFIE PinXKFRS (^F THE COUN'TV. 1(15 Field came from Killingworth, Conn., in June, 1S(J0, in 
company with several other pioneers of (Genesee, antl settled about two 
miles west of Bergen villai^e. 

AbnerHiiil, who came also from Killin^^worth, C'onn.. in ISOs, served 
as justice of the peace and su[»ervisor of I'er'^en for many years. lie 
was a man of upright character, noted far and wide for his intej^rity. 
One of his sons, Ferdinand H. Hull, was sheritf of Genesee county 
from 18(',0 to ISO"? inclusive. Carlos A. Hull, who has served as county 
clerk continuously since ISO?, is another son. Al)ner Hull's wife was 
Rachae} Parmelee. 

The first reli^^ious organir.ati'<n in Berf,^en of wh.ich there is any record 
was the Congreg^ational clrareli or^^^anized January "25, IS'iS, at the 
house of Deacon John Ward. Hut before this date relig^ious services 
had been held by Rev. Calvin Ini^-alls, a missionary, in the barn of 
David Franklin. 

Harvey Kelsey was the earliest school teacher. Titus Wilco.x, Joshua 
Field and Hamilton Wilcox were otlier teacliers of the jMonecr days. 

Jared Merrill erected the first saw mill in Beri^-en. The store of Dr. 
Levi Ward, opened in lSi").S, and that of Josiah Pierson, opened in ISU, 
are believed t'j hnve been the First in to\s-n. In ISDO Samuel Butler 
opened a tavern, the first public house in Ber;^en. 

The earliest settleir.ents in Bethany were made in the year lSo:j, wh.en 
John Torrey, Orsanuis Kell'tg;,^, John Dewey, Charles Culver. Captain 
George Lathrop, Richard Pearson. Samuel Prindle, L. D. Prindle, 
David Hall, O. Fletcher, Nathaniel Pinney, Horace Shepard and Jed- 
ediah Riggs took i;p farms in town. Whether all these actually settled 
liere in that \'ear or not is not shown by the recc>rds. Captain George 
Lathrop settled in t'jwn in that year, but he had two neighbors who 
were there him. Captain Lathrop was an officer in the war of 
isr^ Solomon Lathrop came in 1804, but remained but a short time. 
Henry Lathrop, who settled here the same year, resided in town until 
his death. Richard Pearson, sr., came from Lyme, Conn., in 180;), and 
purchased a good sized tract, but did not permanently settle in Bethany 
until 1815. Richard Peck, who located here in 18'i<j. was a lieutenant 
in Colonel Rumsey's regiment in the war of 18I2. Jededial; Lincoln 
located in town in 1S0.3. and Peter Putnam a short time afterward. 

Among the other inhabitants of the town who are recorded as having 
resided here before the war of 181-2 were tiie following: S ilnnon Kings- 
ley, Peter Adley, John P.ovnton, William Coggeshall, W. ]'-. C'>'j,'^e- 


shall, James Cowarey, Jeroniiali Cowdrey, Lewis Disbrow, Pole-- 
Doiio^lass, John Grimes, Elislia Giddiaos, Joseph Hawks, Thomas 
Hardin^:, John Ilalsted, Alanson Jones, Jolm Roberts, Israel Shearer, 
David Tyrrell, Joel S. Wilkinson, Isaae R. Williams, William Willianii^, 
David Anderson, Israel Duell, Abel Buell, Firastus Bennett, James 
Bennett, Jeremi^di Bennett, Joseph Bartlett, Eli Bristol, Jason Bixby, 
Jonathan Bixby. Joim Ciiambers. Ezekiel Fay, John Greenouf^h, John 
Huntington, Thomas Halsted, Asher Lamberton, Gershom Orvis. Eli 
Perry, Alfred Rose, Riehard Stiles, Josiah Southard, Elisha W.\]]ace, 
Peter Wilkins<.n, Isaac Wilson, Piiilo Whitcomb, Joseph Adgate, Elisha 
Andrews, Lewis Barney, D. W. Piannister, Peter Davidson, Chester 
Davidson, Moses Goodrich. Liberty Judd, David Ingersoll, David Mor- 
gan, Henry Miller, Mather Pcck, Thomas Starkweater, David Stewart. 
Joseph Shedd, Eben Wilson. Ileman P>rown, BucU Brown, Svlvester 
Lincoln, jr., Moses Page, Elisha Hurlburt. Xathanie! Brown, Calvin 
Barrows, Eleazer Faunce. O. Walker, W. Waiie, s:-., Israel Cook, Al- 
exander Grimes, Daniel Marsh, Jesse Rumsey, Judge Wilson, Charles 
Smead, Robert Lounsbury, Israel Fay. 

The first mill in Bethany v/as built about ISOS, at Linden, by a man 
named Coles. The dam was twenty four tVet higti. In isiu another 
mill was built at that point by Judge Isaac Wilson. In IS09 or ISIO 
Calvin Barrow erected a carding and woolen mill, which was widely 
patronized for many years. Judge Wilson had (jue of the first general 
stores in town. He was also a justice of the peace for several vears, 
and the first postmaster at Linden. Joseph Chamberlain was the pro- 
prietor of the first tavern at that point. The first tavern in the town, 
however, was that kept by Sylvester Lincoln and opened for business 
in 1805. At Canada a mill was in (;peration very earlv, p:;rhaps as earl v 
as ISOS. Its proprietor was a man named Bennett, and the locality 
\vas known for some ti'ue as Bennett's Mills. Xatlianiel Brown built a 
grist mill at West Bethany in 1811. 

Religious services were held in Bethany as early as ISIO, when the 
Methodist brethren Cf^nducted can)p meetings at "Bennett's." The 
year following services were held by Benjamin Barlow, a local pieacher. 
Brother Howe and l\ither Waller. Dr. Jonathan K. Barlow was the 
pioneer physician of the town. 

The first inhabitant of Darien was Orange Carter, wlio came from 
Vermont in 180:; and located near Darien village, (jr Darien Citv. The 
year following Isaac C'naddock, also from Vermont, located in the same 


vicinity. Stephen Parker opened a tavern in lS<i,«^, which was the first 
in town. Aukxs Humphrey built the first saw mill in town in ISO'J. It 
was lucateil on the bank.s of Eleven Mile creek. 

. Saxton Bailey, accompained hy his son Joshua, removed to Darien in 
lSu6 and purchased a farm of six hundred acres. His family followed 
two years later. Of these one son, Daniel, became a captain in the war 
of is]-:?. John Bardwell and his family, includinj;,' his son Dexter, re- 
moved here from Orange county, \'t., in ISlo. Pele;.,^ Hou-cn. a native 
of Gahvay, Saratcv^a county, X. V., removed to Darien in ISII. Ht- 
spent hi.s life upon his farm, and served with honor in the war of ls[-i. 
Owen Curtis, a native of Warren, Conn., came to Darien in LSdK and 
bought a farm, on which he resided for seventv years. 

The pioneer Orange Carter was born December •.»:], ITri. in Connec- 
ticut. His wife was Betsey Rumsey of Vermont. Mr. Carter had been 
employed for several years assisting in the survey of the Holland Pur- 
chase, and the farm he selected in the north part of the town was one 
of the finest in Genesee county. For a year his nearest neighbor lived 
three and one-half miles distant, in Alexander, and he had to travel six 
miles to find a orrist mill. Mr. Carter .served in the war of lSl-2. He 
died in Wisconsin -in 1355, aged eighty-one years. 

Brazilla Carter, a native of Connecticut, settled in \S\'} in Darien, 
after a trip of six weeks, with an ox sled and cart, from his New En^' 
laad home. He died at the age of eighty-six years on the farm where 
he first settled. 

Abner C. Colby. Reuben Colby and Daniel Colby removed to Darien 
from, X. H , in lSr2, taking contracts for land at three dollars 
per acre, with ten years' time for payment. Their farms adjoined one 
another and the .settlement became known as the Colby neighborhood. 
Jonathan Durkee, a graduate of Dartmouth College, came to Darien 
in ISIO and took up four hundred acres of land. He became promi- 
nent in the atTairs of the town, serving as justice and sui)ervisor. 

Alva Jefiers<jn and Ichabod Jefferson were pioneers of 1S12, locatin- 
in the southern part of the town. 

Colonel Abraham >ratteson. a native of Bennington, \'t., removed 
from that place to Darien in ISOs, with his wife, formerly lietsev 
Woodard of Bennington. He entered the war of isi-j as a private 
and was mustered out as a cc^lonel. He held numerous offices, serving 
as a justice for sixteen years. He also represented Genesee county in 
the State A.^scmblv. He died in 1831. 


Henry Saulsbury, born at Sciiodack, RL-nsselaer county, X. Y., about 
1700, reiiKtved to [Jarien in IS 10, re>i(Jin;^^ there tlio balance of liis life. 
He held nuiv.erous local otbces and was a man of influence. 

Other pioneers of Darien of this perioel included (icor^'c Wrij^ht, 
David Goss, Rufus Kidder, Israel Doane, James Day. Ca[)tain Jonatlian 
Bailey, Benjamin Carter, David Carter, John Long:, David Lonpf, John 
Lamberton, Stephen Parker, Joseph Peters, Samuel Carr, S. D. Cleve- 
land, A. L. Clemens, Owen Curtis, Amos Humphrey, John Sumner, 
James G. TitTany, H. G. Tiffany, D. Tiffany, Major William Thayer, 
Jonathan Vai:ghan, Daniel Jones, Levi Jones. Jotham Si'mner, Orris 
Piou^hton, E. X. r,ouo;hton, John Ball, PelcLC Brown, Nathaniel Jones, 
John Murray, Jerome Sumner. Joel Sutherland, Harry Stone, Jonas 
Kinne, Win^low Sumner, Tyler Sumner, David Sutherland, John Suth- 
erland, John Stickney, Daniel Carter, Frank Chapin and Ira J. Tisdale. 

Elba was first settled in ISui. July H, 180o. the Holland Land Com- 
pany issued to John Young- a deed to land south I'f Elba village. In 
the spring of the following year Mr. Young and his wife came from 
Virginia on horseback, and located on their new farm. For a while 
they endured great hardships and privations. It is related that their 
first bed was a large cotton bag which they purchased of Mr. Brisbane 
at the Transit .storehouse and rilled with the down of "cat tails." Mr. 
Young at once set to v.-ork to clear up and cultivate his land, and soon 
found himself in possession o: a most fertile and productive farm. His 
log house was the first erected in the town of Elba. 

Soon after the arrival of John Young, in ISO-l. John Roraback estab- 
lished himself at the point which afterwards became known by the 
name of Pine Hill. He was a weaver, and for many years manufac- 
tured "homespun" for most of the settlers within a radius of several 
miles. A little later Bannan Clark, Thomas Turner and Ephraim 
Wortman settled in the same community. Patrick O'Fling was also a 
very early inhabitant. He and his three sons and a son-in-law fought 
in the war of ISI'2. Mr. O'Fling had previously served in the Revolu- 
tion. The Drake family — Samuel, Joiin, Jc-se and James — came to 
town in ISll. Lemuel Foster came about the same time. In ISOS 
Eleazer Southworth. Asa Saw telle, Sherrard Parker and Daniel Mills 
located here. George and Jtjhn Mills settled near the latter, and that 
Community was known for years as the Mills neighborhood. Near the 
latter L(jckiin N«j!ton located about l!Si>0. In l^Os Isaac Higley 
founded a home in the eastern section of the town. Wilco.x, 

THl- PIONEI-kS OF Tin-: COL'NTV. 109 

Dudley Sawyer, Deacon Seymour, Sylvanus Humphrey autl En*.s Kel- 
loorg ,,vere also residents of the town during;- or prior to LSI -2. The ex- 
isting; records also s'now the names of Dr. Daniel Woodward. Reulien 
Perry. Col. E. J. Pettibont, David Kin-sley. Elisha Kellog--. J(;hn 
Willis, Archibald Whitten, Thomas Parker. Nathaniel Johnson, Hiram 
Smith, Col. Samuel Hall, Mark Turner, Xelsou Parker, Phineas P.arr, 
Loren Barr. John Lambtrvton, Ira Howe, Isaac Barber. John Howe, 
Phineas Plowe, Simeon riosmer, Cornelius Barr, Richard Edgerton, 
Dudley Sawyer, Samuel Cumminp^s, Natlian Miner, Silas Torrey, Ed- 
mund Byrgess, Horace Jeron:e. Joel Jerome, Joseph Mills. Aaron 
White, Stephen Harmon, Masou Turner, Asa Babcock and Samuel 

Horace Gibbs and Coniforr Sruith erected tlie first saw mill and grist 
mill on Spring creek in l^lo. 

^Lason Turner opened a school on Git=ford Hill, at the house of J. W. 
Gardner in ISll. Tiiis was the rirst school established in Elba. 

Dr. Daniel Woodward probably was the ursl p'aysician to practice in 
this town. 

Tile exact date of the first permanent settlement within the limits of 
the present town of Alexander is not definitely known. Early gazet- 
teers state that Alexander Rea or Rhea located here in 1802, and that 
John Oney (Olney), Lewis Disbrow, George Darrow and William 
Blackman followed in ISO'^ and isO:). It is known that Alexander 
Rhea, for whom the town was named, obtained a deed to a tract of 
land in ISO-:^, but it is doubtful if he settled upon it in that year. He 
erected a saw mill on the <i:e of Alexander village in ISoi^ but m.iy 
have become a resident before that date. Mr. Rhea was one of the 
surveyors employed by the Holland Land Company. Later on he was 
a brigadier-general of the S:atc militia, and also served as Stale senator 
for several terms. He was a man of infiuence and amassed a fortune. 
In 1809 he removed from his first farm and took up a larger tract, since 
known as the Pearson farm. 

Some authorities refer to William Blackman as the first actual set- 
tler, though it i)robabiy never will be known whether hi^ occupation of 
land in the town antedated that of Rhea. IClijah Root and William 
Johnson came in 1803 or 1 >ri4. In the latter year Lillie Fisher, Caleb 
Blodgett, Benham Preston, Joseph Fellows, Elisha Carver, Elias 
Lee. John Lee, Solom...n Rlodgett, Samuel Russell and Elijah 
Rowe were recorded, as owners of laud. Some of thost- '.vho touk u-) 


land in l.'^OG were John Churchill, David Clark, Henry Rum.scy, Jonas 
BlodgcLt, Isaac Chaddock, Captain I->.ekiel T. Lewis, Alexander Little, 
K. Lyman, J. McCoUistor, David Carter, John Chamberlin, Aan.n 
Gale, Timothy Fa\-. Henry Williams, Elnathan Wilcox and Amos 
Jones. The latter tau-^ht the tirst school in the town, Ezekiel Church- 
ill, Ct. W. Wing, Philo Porter. S. Bradway, Rudoljihus Hawkins and 
Joseph Gladden settled here in ISuT. Timothy Hawkins came during 
this period t'roni Tolland, Conn. William Adams, who located in the 
village about 1807, built a saw mill and grist mill soon afterward. He 
was for some time a lieutenant in the State militia. 

\V*illiam Parrish and his son Isaac came from Randolph, Vt., in iSoi). 
The latter was pressed into service during the early part of the war of 
IST-*, while on a business trip to Batavia, but was allowed to return 
home after reaching Buffalo. Hon. Abel l->nsign and Harvey Hawkins 
settled in town in ISOS, and were proprietors of the first tavern and 
store. The year following L\-man Riddle, John Squires, Thomas Rice, 
Shubael Wing and Edmund Tracy purchased land and founded homes 
Levi Thompson and Moses M. Page located here in 1810, and soon 
afterward Colonel Seba Hrainard settled in the same neighborhood. 
John and Samuel Latham, wiio came about the same time, erected the 
first frame dwelling in Alexander. In 1810 and 1811 Gehial Stannard, 
"William Waite. Spencer Waldo, John Cady and Return 15. Cady be- 
came their neighbors. Captain Elisha Smith, who settled at Alexander 
village in 1812, was a native of Washington county, X. Y. , and a soldier 
in the war of 1812. Timotiiy Mooers built the first mill at Alexander 
village. Leverett Seward, another pioneer, was a soldier in the war of 
1812 and served twice in ihe Assembly. 

The early history of Pembroke is closely identified with that of 
Darien, and the names of most of the early settlers of the former town 
are contained in the preceding pages of this chapter devoted to the pio- 
neer history of Darien. David Goss made the first settlement in 18<>1. 
He came from Massachusetts and erected a dwelling whicli he also used 
as a tavern. Dr. David Long, from Washington county, X. Y., John 
Long, his son, and Samuel Carr settled in town in 180*^, and Joseph 
Lester, frcjm Connecticut, in 18n',t. Samuel Carr built tlie first grist 
mill and saw mill, and also kept a tavern, believed to liave been the 
first in Pcml)roke. The Longs located at what is now Corfu, and for 
many years that neighborhood was known as Long's Corners. Dr. 
Long was the ;irst medical practitioner to establish himself in Pem- 


broke. Anna Horton opened a school in \>l\, the first in town. Jonas 
Kinne, who came to Lonj;'.-^ Corners in ISl'^, noun after erected a com- 
modious two story tavern, whicli became a famous public house for 
those days. 

Although the old -azettcers affirm that Peter Crosman, who located 
in Pavilion in 1S09, was the first settlor in that town, recent research 
shows that settlements were made within the present limits of the town 
at least four years earlier than that date. Isaac D. Lyon, who removed 
to this town in ISOo, doubtless was the pioneer white inhabitant. The 
next record extant shows that in l"^')? Richard Walklcy and the Law- 
rence family established homes in the town. Peter Crosman came in 
1S(V;>. and in the same year we find settlements made by Levi and James 
McWethy, Solomr'n, Ezra and Laura Tcrrill. RluIjcu Bi'.rnham. Lr. 
Benjamin Hill, William Halbert, Oran;i-e Judd, Rowland Perry, Josluia 
Shumway, Calvin Sprin-', Erastus Sprinc;-, Amos Sprini.,'-, Elliott Ter- 
rill and E^;ra Walker came in l^^M; Barber Allen, Amasa Allen, 
Issachar Allen, William A!my, Leman Bradley, Samuel Bisliop, H. B. 
Ehvell, Libbeus Graves. Calvin Lewis, Daniel Lord, Samuel Phelps, 
E'.ijah Phelp.-, Page R'assell, Cyril Shumway. X;)ah Starr, L^aac Storm, 
Jesse Sprague, Daniel Walker, Lsaac Walker, Loomis Walker and Syl- 
vanus L. Youiig in ISll ; and Harry C-^nklin, Lnvell C<^bb, Francis Her- 
rick, Richard Pearsrin. W. E. Pearson, D. W. Matteson. Isaac Shepard, 
Ilazei Thompson, D". Abel Tenna:U and Dr. Daniel White during or 
before ISP^. 

Ezra Terrill, one of the most prominent of the earliest pioneers, came 
from Vermont in 1S09. He bouglit four hundred and eighty acres near 
L^niou Corners, and erected thereon a log house. He married Rox- Elliott. Daniel Lord v/as a taihjr. aiul he and his wife made 
many suits of clothing fur the soldiers of the war of 1SP2. Captain 
James Sprague, a native of Connecticut, in company with Aai-on 
Spaulding, built the first saw mill in the neighborhood, on the Oatka. 
Amasa Allen and his wife, formerly Lucinda Loomi.^, was (jne of tliose 
who came in ISU. Captain Issachar Allen, his son, was an oflicer in 
the State militia. L)i\ Daniel White, the first physician in town, 
a surgeon in the war of 1S12. 

James Walsv.orth, who came to Alabama in 1>^0G, and opened the 
first tavern there, wa^ tr.e first settler in that town. As far as can be 
ascertained from careful sf.uly of the records he was the only one to lo- 
cate in tliat town prior to ISPJ. 


Benliaiii Preston, who (jrig'inally located in I5;itavia, and who removed 
to Byron in ISOT or 1S0>, was the first permanent settler in that town. 

In ISOS Elisha Taylor and H(jskins took up land and built homes 

there. Mr. Ta}ior eame from Otsej^o count}', X. Y. The following- 
year the colony was increased by the arrival of Wheaton Carpenter 
from Rhode Island, Elisha Miller from Pennsylvania and Chester T. 
Holbrook from Cayuga county. In IS 10 Xathan Ht.-lt came from 
Otsego county, and in IS 1 1 Asa Merrill immigrated from Oneida county. 
Chester T. Holbrook taught the first school, which was opened in ISIC. 
The earliest religious services were held in 1809 by Rev. Royal Phelps, 
a Presbyterian clergyman from Cayuga count}'. The first religious so- 
ciety in town v/as the Baptist church organised in ISIO by Elder Ben- 
jamin M. Parks. Tlie first grist mill and saw mil! v/ere erected by 
Samuel Parker in 1S09 or ISIO. 

In addition to those already mentioned as pioneers of Byron, the fol- 
lowing are recorded as having settled in the town in the years men- 
tioned: ISOO. Sherrard Parker; ISO?, Benoni Gaines; iSOS, Elijah 
Loorais; 1800, Asahel Cook; ISIO, Richard G. Moses, Elijah Brown, 
Elkanah H;:mphrey, E. Taylor; 181 1, Julni Bean, David Cook, An- 
drew Dibble, Benaiah Griswold, Amasa \\'alker; l>^l-l, Paul Bullard, 
David Shedd, Ezra Sanford, Zenrj Terry, William Terry. 

According to the survey of the Holland Purchase into ranges and 
townships, the various counties and their towns, as at present organ- 
ized, were included in the ranges and townships of the original survey 
as follows; 

Allegany County. — Bolivar, Township 1, Range I. Wirt, t. •■2. r. 1. 
Friendship, t. 3, r. 1. Belfast, t. 4-. r. 1. Caneadca, t. j, r. I. Hume, 
t. G, r. 1. Genesee, t. 1. r. '2. Clarkesville, t. '2, r. '.'. Cuba, t. o. r. 
2. Belfast, eastern part of t. i, r. 'I. New Hudson, western part of t. 
-I, r. 2. Rushford, t. 5. r. 'L Centreville, t. G, r. '2. 

Wyoming County. — Pike, t. 7, r. 1. Gainesville, t. S, r. 1. War- 
saw, t. 9, r. 1. Middlebury, t. 10, r. 1. Eagle, t. 7, r. •^. Weathers- 
field, t. S, r. l. Orangeville, t. 1), r. -2. Attica, t. 10, r. Z. China, t. 7. 
r. 3. Java, t. S, r. 3. Sheldon, t. 0, r. 3. Bennington, t. 10. r. :;. 
China, t. 7, r. 4. Java, t. 8, r. l. Sheldon, t. 'J, r. I. pjennington. 
t. 10, r. 4. 

rrenesce Coi'.nty. — Betliany, t. 11, r. 1. Staiford, e.istern part of t. 
1'2, r. 1. Batavia, western part of t. V2, r. I. Elba, t. i:;, r. 1. Alex- 
ander, t. II, r. ;!. Bat.'.vi.i, t. \'l, v. "2. Elba, eastern part of t. 13. r. 


•:2. Oakfiekl, western part of t. 13. r. I. Darien, t, 11, r. :'.. Pem- 
broke, t. 1:2, r. 3. Alabama, t. 1:5, r. 3. Darien, t. 11, r. -4. Pembroke, 
t. 1-2, r. 4. Alabama, t. 13, r. 4. 

Orleans County. — Parrre, t. 14, r. 1. Parre, southern part of t. lo, 
r. 1. Gaines, northern part of t. 1.3, r. 1. Carlton, t. 1<;, r. 1. Parre, 
t. 14, r. "2. Ridg-eway, western tier of lots in t. lo, r. 2. Parre, south- 
eastern part oi t. 1-3, r. 2. (^raines, northeastern i)art of t. 1-3, r, "2. 
Carlton, t. It), r. 2. Shelby, t. 11. r. 3. Ricb^a-way. t. lo. r. 3. Yates, 
t. IG, r. 3. Shelby, t. 1 1. r. 4. Rid-eway, t. 1.3, r. 4. Yates, t. IC. r. 4. 

Cattaraugus County — Portville, t. 1, r. :>. P(5rtvi!le, southern part of 
t. •-'. r. 3,. Hinsdale, northern part of t. 2, r. 3. Hinsdale, southern part 
of t. ;>, r. 3. Rice, northern part of t. 3, r. 3. Lyndon, t. 4, r. 3. Far- 
mersville, t. 5, r. 3. Freedom, t. tJ, r. 3. Olean, t. 1, r. 4. Olean. 
southern part of t. 2, r. 4. Hinsdale, nortliern p.ivi of i. l, r. 4. Hin.s- 
dale, s<;ut]iern part of t. 4. r. 4. Rice, northern part of t, 3, r. 4. Lyn- 
don, eastern part of t. 4, r. 4. Franklin viUe, western part of t. 4, r. 4. 
Farmersville, t. .5, r. 4. Machias, southwestern corner lot of t. G, r. 4. 
Freedom, residue of t. G, r. 4. Burton, t. 1, r. .3. Burton, t. 2, r. 5. 
Humphrey, t. 3. r. 5. Franklinville, t. 4, r. .3. ^L\chias. t. 5, r. 5. Ma- 
chias, southern tier of lots in t. G, r. .5. Yorkshire, part <jf t. G, r. o. 
Yorkshire, southeastern part of t. 7, r. .3. Carrolton, t. 1 , r. G. Carrol- 
ton, so\ithcrn part of t. '2, r. G. Great Valley, northern part of t. 2, r. G. 
Great Valley, t. 3, r. G. Ellicottville, t. 4. r, G. EUicottville, southern 
part of t. 5. r. G. Ashford, northern part of t. .3, r. G. Ashford, south- 
ern part of t. G, r. G. Little Valley, t. 1, r. 7. Little Valley, t. 2, r. 7. 
Little Valley, t. 3, r. 7. .\Lansfield, t. 4, r. 7. Otto. t. 5, r. 7. Otto, 
southern part of t. G, r. 7. Ashford, part of t. ti. r. 7. South X'alley, 
t. 1, r. S. Cold Spring-, t. 2, r. S. Xapoli, t. 3, r. S. New Albion, t. 4, 
r. 8. Otto, eastern part of t. 5, r. 8. Persia, western part of t. 5, r. >i. 
Otto, southeastern part of t. G, r. 8. Persia, southwestern part of t. i'., 
r. 8. South Valley, t. 1, r. 0. Randol[)li, t. '2, r. 1>. Connewang-o, t. 3, 
r. 0. Leon, t. 4, r. 1). Dayton, t. .3, r. '.». Perrysburgh, t. tl, r. D. 

Erie County. — Sardinia, northwestern part of t. G, r. o. Sardinia, 
ncjrthern and western parts of t. 7, r. .3. HijUand, t. ^. r. o. Wales, 
t. :•, r. o. Alden, t. 11, r. 5. Xewstead, t. 12. r. 5. Xewstead, southern 
part of t. 13, r. 5. Sardinia, northeastern part of t. G, r. H. Conc(jrd. 
northwestern part of t. G, r. G. Sardinia, eastern part of t. 7, r. G. Con- 
cord, western jiart (;f t. 7, r. r,. Colden, t. >i, r. ik Aur.:)ra, t. 0, r. G. 
Lancaster,- t. 11, r. G. Clarence, t. 12, r. G. Clarence, stjuthcrn part of 

114 OUR COl'N'lV AND ITS I'l-ZOri.F.. 

t. 13, r. G. Concord northeastern part of t. t), r. 7. Collins, north- 
western part of t, »;, r. 7. Concord, eastern part <»f t. 7, r. 7. Collins, 
western part oft. 7, r. 7. Eden, western tier of lots in t. S, r. 7. lios- 
ton, eastern part of t. S, r. 7. Ilaml.urg-. t. '.\ r. 7. P.lack Rock, two 
western tiers of lots in t. 1 1, r. 7. Amherst, northern tier of lots in t. 1 1, 
r. 7. Cheektowaj^a, residue of t. II', r. 7. Tonawanda, two southeast- 
ern lots in t. l-^\ r. 7. Amherst, residue of t. I'l, r. 7. Aniiierst, south- 
ern part of t. 13, r. :. Collins, northern part of t. G, r. S. Collins, t. 7, 
r. 8. Eden, t. S, r. S. Evans, southwestern part of t. 0, r. 8. Ham- 
burg, residue of t. 0, r. S, DufYah; City, as constituted in lS5f>, south- 
western part of t. 11, r. 8. Black Rock, residue <jf t. II, r. 8. Tona- 
wanda, southern and eastern parts of t. 1'^, r. S. l)randt. southern part 
of t. 8, r. 0. lA-ans, nojthern part or t. 8, r. 0. 

Niagara Count\ .^ — Royalton, northern part of t. i:i, r. 5. Ro\a!t<;n 
t. 14, r. o. Hartland, t. 15, r. 5. S Miierset, t. IG, r. o. Rfjyalton, 
northeas'ern part of t. 13, r. G. Lockport, northwestern part of t. 13, 
r. G. Royalton, easterji part of t. 14, r. G. Eockport, western ])art of 
t. 14, r. G. Hartland, eastern part of t. 15, r. G. Xewfane, western 
part of t. lo, r. G. Somerset, eastern part of t. IG, r. G. Newfane, 
western part of t. IG, r. G. Pendleton, northern part of t. 13, r. 7. 
Lockjwrt, eastern part of t. 14, r. 7. Cambria, western part of t. 14, 
r. 7. Newfane, eastern part of t. 15, r. 7. Wilson, western part of 
t. lo, r. 7. Wheatfield, northwestern part of t. r2, r. 8. Whcatfield, 
t. 13, r. 8. Cambria, eastern part of t. 14, r. S. Eewiston, western 
part of t. 14, r. 8. Wilson, eastern part of t. 15, r. 8. Porter, western 
part of t. 15, r. 8. Niagara, t. 13, r. 0. Eewiston, t. 14, r. ('. Porter, 
t. 15, r. 0. 

Chautauqua County. — Carroll, t. 1, r. 10. Poland, t. -2, r. 10. IClling- 
ton, t. 3, r. 10. Cherry Creek, t. 4, r. In. Villanovia, t. 5, r. 10. J-Ein- 
over, t. G, r. 10. Ellicott, northern tier of lots in t. 1, r. 11. Carroll, 
southeastern part of t. 1, r. 11. Eusti, southwestern part of t. 1, r. 11. 
Ellicott, t. •.>, r. 11. Gerry, t. 3. r. 11. Charlotte, t. 4, r. 11. A;k- 
wright, t. 5, r. 11. Hanover, four lots in the southeastern part of t. G, 
r. 11. Sheridan, residue of t. G, r. 11. Busti, eastern part of t. 1, r. 11. 
Harmony, western part of t 1, r. I'i. Bu^ti, southeastern part of t. '..', 
r. 12. Harmony. S'>uthwestern part of t. "J, r. li. Ellery, northern 
part of t. 2, r. 12. Stockton, northern tier of lots in t. 3, r. 12. E!E-rv, 
residue of t. 3, r. 12. Stockton, t. 4, r. 12, Pomfret, t. 5, r. 12. P-in- 
fret, t. G, r. 12. Harmony, t. 1. r. 13. Harmony, t. 2, r. 13. Stock- 


tun, m^rtheastern lot in t. o. r. IJ. Ellcr)'. residue of the eastern tier 
vi t. 3, r. lo. Chautauqua, western part ut t. :j. r. D). Stockton, east- 
ern tier of lots in t. 1, r. ['■). Portland, no;t:h\veste:ii part of t. 4, r. 1:5. 
ChauiaiKpaa, residue of t. -J, r. i;]. Portland, t. o, r. lo. Clynicr, t. 1. 
r. 14. Sherman, t. ".2, r. 14. Chautaucjua, eastern part of t. '.>, v. 1 L 
Westiield, western part of t. ;j, r. 14. Chautaiujua, southeastern part 
vi t 4. r. 14. Westfield, residue of t. 4. r. 14. French Creek, i 1, r. 1.".. 
Mina, t. '2, r. 15. Ripley, t. 3, r. lo. 

The names of all the purchasers of land in Genesee count}', from the 
comniencqment of the land sales up to January 1, 1>;0T, are _L;iven be- 
low. They appear in the order in which the contracts were taken each 
year, their locations being desii^nated by townsliips and ranges. 
Reference to the plan of Genesee county as it ap[iears in the foregoing 
tabu]atii.)n will show in what towns these settlcme:us were made, and 
what year: 

ISOl. — Batavia village, Abe! Rowe, Stcplien Russell, David Mc- 

Townsliip 1'2, range I. Worthy L. Churchill, William Rumscy, Daniel 
Curtis, William Blackman, Iliram Blackman, William Munger, I-^lea/.cr 
Cantling, Xalhaniel Walker, Joan A. Tiiompson, I'etcr Stage, Jesse 
Rumsey. John Dewey, Zenas Bigelow. 

Township 1'2, range "2. Gideon Dunh;un, Isaac Sutherland, Samuel 
F. Geer, Peter Lewis, John Forsyth, John Lambertou, Rnssel Noble. 

Township 12, range '>, Orlando Hopkins. Otis Ingalis, I)avid Cully, 
Peter Vandcventer. 

Township 13, range "2, Aaron White, Peter Rice. 

ISO:]. — Batavia village, Charles Co(^lcy, James McK;'.in. Rlisha Ciett- 
ings, Joseph Alvord, Zerah Phelps, Elijah Tillotson, James W. Stevens, 
Hezekiah Rhoads, Rufus Hart, Israel M. Dewey, James Brisbane, Will- 
iam Wood, Major Nobles, Russell Crane, Oswald Williams, Rowlen 
Town, Silas Chapin, Ebene/.er Cary, I'aul Hinkley, Timothy Washburn, 
Moses Ilayse, Janics Ilolden, Elijah Spencer, Benjamin Russell, Paul 
Hill, Peter Powers, Daniel Curtis, Libbeus Fish, Henry Wilder, lose 

Township 11. range '2, Lewis Disbrow. 

Township 12, range 1, Elisha Adams, Roswell Graham. 

Township 11, range 2, Alexander Rea,' John Olney, <.icorgc Harrow. 

Township 12, range 2, Samuel F. Geer, Benjainin Morgan. 

' Tliis :ip;) ■>:•. tlic records as buth Rca and Rlic.i. 


Township 13, ranj^^c -2. Daniel Aycr, JobDabc<>ck. 

1S03. — Batavia village, John S. Leonard, James Clement, Jeremiah 
Cutler, Eli.^ha Mann. 

Township 11, ran-e 1, John Tcrrey, Cliarles Culver, Ai)ner Ashley. 
Elisha Wallace, David Hall, S\-lvoster Lincoln, ^L Sc(At, Nathaniel 
Pinney, Orsamus Kello^^j,^, George Lathrop. Solomon Kiny^.sley, ledediah 
R'&ffi*. Horace Shepiierd, John Dewey, Lyman D. Prindle, Samuel 
Prindle, Oliver Fletcher. 

Township 12, range 1. Lewis Disbruw, Eljene/.er I'^ggleslon, Peter 
Powers, Enos Kellogg, Charles Culver, John Henry, Moses Dimmick, 
Robert Beriy, Stephen Wickham, Lemuel T. Pringle, James Guttridge, 
James Fuller, John Berry, John Spencer, Burgess Squire, ]^Ioody Stone, 
Asa Osborne, Elisha A. Eades, Parley Fairbanks. 

Township p], range 1, Archilcus Whittcn, David Kingsley, Thomas 

Township 11. range '2, E/,ekiel Chu'-chill. George Darruw, Elijah 
Root, Joseph Fellows, Miles Wilkinson, Benedict Ames. 

Township P2, range 2, Peleg Douglass, Aln.nson Gunn, }?cnjamin 
Tainter. Henry Lake. Jolm LamlierttMi, Hugh Henry, Amos Lamberton, 
Joshua'.aiid, William Pierce, l^lisha Cox. David Buwcn, Abrai)am 
Starks. William Lucas. 

Township 1'), range 2, Hiram Smith, Silas Pratt, William McGrath, 
George Lathrop, Darius Ayer, Philip Adkins, Lemuel L. Clark, James 

Township P2, range 3, Jesse Tainter, Abner Lamberton, Micajah 

1S04. — Town>hip 11. range 1, Peter Adley, Isaac Wright, IClijah 
Bristol, Israel S'uearer, Alanson Jones. Joseph Hawks, |oel S. Wilkin- 
son. Peleg Douglass, Isaac R. Wright, Elisiia Giddings, John .Smith, 
Abner Ashle\', Charle.> Culver, V\'i!liam Cogv-.-haii, William 1*. Confi:- 
shall, John Halstate, John Grimes, James Cowdry, John Roberts, David 

Township P2, range 1. Nathaniel Walker, Pardon Starks, Zcn<>sKcves, 
Benjamin Cary, Alfred Lincoln, Horace Jerome, Nathan Miner. 

Township 13, range 1, John S. Sjjrague, Nathaniel Johnson. 

Township 11, ranged, Elijah Root. Samuel Russell, Benham Pre>ton. 
Elisha Carver, Elias Lee, Jesse Hawkins, Solomon Blodgett, Rutus 
Blodgett, John Lee, ICzekiel T. Lewis. IClijah Rowe. 

Township P2, range 2, Elizur Messenger, Lsaae Smith, Levi Davis, 
Azor Marsh, David Smith. 



Township 13, ran_^e "2, Rufus llastinys, Rr.r;iback Rot,)inson, H».Mija- 
iniii Chase, Solonioa Piaker, Samuel Jerome, sr. , Samuel Jerome, j;\ 

Township D2, ran-e o, David (ioss. 

Township I'i, ran;^'-e 4, John Richardson, Ste[)hen 15. Tilden, Jacob 

Townsliip lo, range 4, James Walworth. 

180.5. — Baluvia vilhv^e, \Villiam Ivwing. 

Township 11, rani;-e 1, Phiueas Smiih, Ilarvey Prindle, Cyrenus 
(ilass, William W!llia:ns, D.ivid Anderson, Solomon Lathrop, Jonathan 
liix-by, Jghn F'i.Kby, Er.ekierPox. Philo Whitcomb, John Cireenon<]fh, 
'.lershom Orvis, llemrin TiiMwn, Xatli-iniel Prown, Petei" Putnam, ]*at- 
rick Alvord. Altord Rose, Richard Stiles, John ChamiK-rs, Thomas lial- 
stead. John I'oynton, Eli Perry, Abel Buell, Joseph Harlett, David Mor- 
gan, Asher Lamberton, Israel P>ue;i,\Vi:liam }J;mnister, Amasa Robbins, 
Jesse Cowdry, Isaac Wilson. Josiah Southard, John Grimes. 

Township P2, range 1, Asa Webster, James Ileacoeks, Oliver Sweat- 
well, Asa Osborn. liiel Chapnian. Abel McKain, Nathan Graham, Jo- 
seph Bentley. 

Tov.mship. i:>, range 1, Iliram Smith, Colonel Sarnuel Hall, Horace 
Carr, Benjamin Chase. Elisha Kellogg, Dudley S;twyer, Samuel Cum- 
inings, X-athan ^^lner. Silas Torrey. Edmund Burgess. 

Township 11. range '2, John ^fcCormick. T^evi Harris, William Prout, 
Asa Buckley, Ivzra Blodgett, Noah Brooks, Asa Frost, Xathanial East- 
man, Thomas Lee, Daniel Raws<.>n, David Rowland, Elisha Fox, Seth 
Landon, Stephen Day, Abijah Warren, Saniiiel Reed, Daniel Davis, 
Manna Chase, Amos Adams, Joseph (jladden, Joseph Cady, John Olney, 
(iurdon Williams, Jonas Marsh, Charles C. Jackson, IClisha Sutton, Will- 
iam Burton, William King, Isaac King, Samuel Benedict. 

Township 12, range "2, Timothy Washburn, Tliomas Godfrey. Reuben 
W. Wilder, Rufus McCracken, AzorXash, Lemuel L. Clark. Joel Tyrrell, 
Hugh DutTy, James Henry, Richard Godfrey, John Algur, John Herring, 
Jonathan Wood, Reuben Lamberton, Amos Lamberton, Paul Hill, Silas 
Dibble, jr. 

Township 11, ranges. Orange Carter, Israel Doane, Samuel Russell, 
James Jones, David Clark. 

Township I'l, range 4. Francis B. Drake, David .Sarles, Xoah Pca^e, 
1-phraim Pease. - 

ISOr.. — Tcnvnship 11, range 1. D..niel W. llannistei-, jerry Cowdry, 
Thomas Starkweatlier. Mons Goodrich. Lewis Barnev. David M-irLran. 


Ebenezer Wilson, David Filkin, IVtcr Davidson, Chester Davidson. 
Franklin Putnam, David Stewart, Lyman D. Prindle. Joseph Shedd, 
Henry Miller, Orsarni!-^ Kello--, Eber.c/.er lv4<:,deston, Henry Runisey, 
Elislia Bristol, Eli;aii Andrews, David In^ersoll, Joseph P>artlctt. 

Township PJ. range l, Solomon Sylvester, Daniel H. Iln.wr.. Israel 
Graham, Moses Norton, Peter Putnam, Amos Jones, Alvah Jones, Ste- 
phen Powell. Webster Pov.-crs. Robert Norton, Ilcnjamin Graham, Jo- 
seph Savacool, Henry Strinj^er, jr., Samuel Rang-er. Peter Sta^e, Gur- 
don Pluntington. John Gr.uld. 

Township m. ran-e 1, Joel Jerome, James Mills, Horace Jer-me, 
Aaron White, Enos Kello.Q-g-, Evihraim W(.rLman. P.enjamin Chase, Svl- 
vester Eldrids:e, Silas Torrey. John Roraback. 

Tov.-nship 11. ran-e -i. Elijah Root, jr., E/,ra Whipple. Joim Hum- 
phrey, James Clisby, Jac(;b Thom]^sr.n, Amos Thorn ps(^n. ( leor^a' Har- 
rick, Joseph Carpenter, David S Clement, William Wood, Noah P.rooks, 
Benjamin C. Goodrich, Joel Munn. Phineas Munn. John W. Lawson, 
Andrew MeLean, Ebenezer Seeley, John Olney, Joseph Wan Debo^jart. 

Township Vi, range -2. Newcomb Godfrey. Elijah Clark, Richard God- 
frey, William J. McCracken, Edmund FJad.L^er, William H. Bush, Otl:niel 
Field, James Post, Caleb Blodg-etr. Samuel Risey. Elisha A. Fades, 
Joshna Barrett. Eiisha Morehouse, Tiiomas Godfrey. 

Township 13, ratv^e '•.'. Micajah Green, Caleb Blodgett. jr.. (ieorge 
Hoge, Eldridge Buutley, Nicholas Bentley, George Harper, James Cros- 
sett, John Harper, David Woodworth. David Clark. William Parrisl^ Ezra 
Thomas. Caleb Blodgett. 

Township 11. range 3, Amos Jones, Joseph Fellows, Timothy Fay. 
Henry Rumsey, David Carter. Einathan Wilcox, John Chamberlin. 
Alexander Little. Nahum Thompson, Jonas Blodgett, Isaac Chaddock, 
John McCoIlister. Burnhan Lyman, Henry William, David Clark. John 
Churchill, jr., Reuben Nichols. Joseph Peters, Aaron Gale. 

Township \\>. range 4, John Richardson, Jariel Scott, Samuel Carr. 

Following are the names of the first persons who took contracts and, 
in most instances, became pioneer settlers in the various towns of Gene- 
see county enibraccd within the limits of the Holland Purchase in 
whic'n no contracts were taken previous to January 1, ISOT. The names 
of those who settled in the county previous to that date are found in a 
list wliicli appears in previous ])ages : 

l^l('.— Township ]:\, range:), town of Alabama. Jesse Lund, David 
Gary. Ch.arles B'.iss. Levi Suviili, John S. Wolcott, Nathan McCumber. 


1S07. — To\vns]:ip 11, ran;^''c 4, town of Daricn, William Humphrey, 
Eme!-y Rlodi^'ett, Jobhua Bailey, Josiah Lee, Rufus Kidder, Aukjs 
Humphrey, David I'"nc,^ 

IS'.''^. — Township i:">, rang-e 4, town of Alabama, Benjamin Patterson, 
Solomon Force. Augustus L. Barton, Joseph Barber, Ezra X. Russell. 


The War of IHV2, and the Part Taken Therciu by liic Inhal.itants of Genesee 

While the United States and Great Britain were ostensibly at peace 
during the period from 1TS3 to the begiiining of 1SP2, tlie two nations 
were far from beinu;- on friendly terms. Great P^ritain continued lier 
depredations wherever practicable. She maintained military posts on 
the Canadian frontier, 'despite the treaty stipulations to the contrarv, 
and constantly menaced our trade and commerce and our frontier 
settlements. When CongTess, reali/cing- probably that another conflict 
was inevitable, began to build a navy, Great Britain took offense. In 
1T9T tins country put into commission three frii^'-ates — the Constitution, 
the Constellation and the United States. Each carried a full comple- 
ment of guns. At the close of the year ITOS the United States had a 
navy of twenty-three vessels, with an a-gregate of four hundred and 
f<.>rty-six guns. 

As soon as it was learned that this country was placing itself on a 
War footing, the British formed a plan to cripple the American navv. 
The first intimation of the intentions of Great Britain came November 
IG of tliat year, when Captain Phillips, in command of the American 
cruiser Baltimore, sailed from the harbor of Havana, Cuba, to escort a 
number of merchant vessels to Charleston, S. C, and protect tiiem 
from attack by Frencli privateers, which then infested the western 
waters of the Atlantic. Just outside the harbor Captain Phillips met a 
British srpiadron and advanced toward tiie Carnatick, the llaL;ship, to 
speak with the commander as an act of courtesy. 

Tl;cn, without a word of warning, the British s(piadr(<n bore d<jwn 
ujion the American incrchantmcn and seized three of them. Captain 


Phillips went on boarJ the Carnatick tc* protest, but was informed that 
every man on the P>altimore who eoiilcl not prove that lie was a native- 
born American W(juld be compelled to enter the P>ritish service then 
and there. Captain Phillips announced that he would jtrefer to make a 
formal surrender, but this privile^'"e was denied him. Upon returninj:;^ 
to his own vessel he found that a Britisii officer was musterinc:; the 
xVmerican sailors. Fifty-five of these were transferred tc; the Carnatick, 
but later, when Phillips struck his flac^, all but live of them were re- 
turned. These five men, with the three merchant vessels seized, were 
carried away by the Piriush squadron. 

Great Britain at that time was the acknowledged mistress of the seas, 
consequently all that the United States government could do was to pro- 
test ag^ainst the outrage. Not t)nly was no attention paid to the protest, 
but Great Britain continued to prey upon American commerce upon the 
high seas, impressing into her service the best American sailors during 
the next fourteen years. Great Britain claimed the right of search, not 
only as regarded American vessels, but also all neutral vessels, her de- 
sire being to look for British subjects to press them into the British naval 
service for her war with France. Every time America offered to en- 
deavor to reach a friendly understanding with Great Britain on the 
subject the offer was rejected or not noticed. 

In ISi'T Xauoleon, in his attempt to compel the United States to be- 
come his ally as against Great Britain, issued a decree declaring all ves- 
sels which submitted to the right of search and impressment by Great 
Britain to be denationalized and subject to capture if caught going to 
or coming from a British port, or on the high seas. Spain and Hol- 
land, desirous of i)!easing Napoleon, issued similar decrees. These 
acts placed the commerce of the United States in a dangerous position. 
The menace was all the greater by reason of the fact that our principal 
foe maintained a naval force along the American coast for the purpose 
of preying upon our commerce. 

Early in ISOT the British frigate Leopard rired u]3on the United States 
frigate Chesapeake upon the refusal of Commodore Barron, in com- 
mand of the latter vessel, to grant to the British commander the privi- 
lege of searciiing his vessel, killing and wounding twenty men. As 
soon as the American colors were hauled down the Chesapeake was 
boarded by otTicers of the Leopard. Commodore Barron tendered his 
vessel as a {)rize, but Captain Humpiirey, the British commander, re- 
fused to accept her, knowing that such an act would give the Americans 

THE corxTV IN 'riii-: war of isr3. loi 

a valid claim ajji'ainst his j^overnment. The crew of ihe Chesapeake 
was then niustercd. Three Americans who had once been impressed 
into the British service were placed in irons, and John Wilson, a liritish 
seaman who had deserted, was taken on board the Leopard. All fcnir 
were sentenced to be han^^ed, and Wilson was executed, but the three 
Americans reprieved upon condition that they should enter the British 
naval service. 

This act naturally aroused an intense feeling of resentriient upon tlie 
part of the people of the I'nited Stales. The British ;_;overnment dis- 
claimed tjie act and recalled Hi'.m{)hre\' frtjm service in the nax^v; but 
two of the captured Americans sailors were held in slavery on British 
ships for five years, while the third died in the service. 

Up to time the strife between the Federalist and Democratic 
parties in America had been so fierce that a i^reat civil war was feared. 
Taking' advantage of the situation, Great Britain endeavored to increase 
this antagonistic feeling by establishing a propagaiida of anti-democ- 
racy. John Henry, an Irishman, who was a naturalized citizen of the 
United States, residing in the State of Vermont, contributed to the 
press some letters denouncing the federal officials for their incom- 
petency and declaring that the country was incapable of self-govern- 
ment. His letters were noticed by Sir James Craig, governor of Can- 
ada, who in ISOtJ sent the author an invitation to come to Montreal. In 
that city arrangements were made by which Henry was to devote his 
entire time to the propagation of popular discontent in the United 
States, Sir James promising him /"^IKOUU if he should succeed in in- 
citing the Americans to civil war. He was granted authority to ofYer 
the Federalists the suppcjrt of British influence, should such a promise 
be needed to encourage them. After five years of steady work this 
project failed, and Henr}- was refused compensation for his labors. 
Piqued at his treatment, he came to tlie United States and revealed the 
entire plot to President Madison. All knowledge of the plot was denied 
by the British ministry, but when it was proposed to submit to a court 
of inquiry all the correspondence in Henry's possession, the proposition 
was voted down by the Hcjuse of Lords. 

In 180T the United States Senate ])asscd an embargo i)ill prohibiting 
all ships tlien in American ]>orts from sailing foi' any foreign port, ex- 
cepting that foreign ships might sail in ballast. This act was a decla- 
ration ro t'le W(jrld that the United States would voluntarily sever all 
connections with th.e rest of the world until tireat I'.riiain, France, 


Spain and Holland shoukl end tiicir obnoxious i^ractices and allow 
American ships to sail the seas imniolested. The eiYect of this act was 
to annihilate the commerce ot this country, and in 1S()'.) it was repealed 
upon the ur-ent solicitation of tlie businessmen of the counti-v. In its 
place was passed a non-interc(nirse act, which simj>ly prohil)ited trade 
with Great Dritain and France. A little more than a year later this 
act was also repealed. Madison now having succeeded [ellerson as 
president, upjn the recommendation of the former another embargo 
act, to obtain for sixty days, was passed, and the country, the limit of 
its endurance having been reached, beg-an i)reparations f(U' war.' 

\Var was formally declared June 10, lSU-2. At that time the Britisli had 
in Upper Canada a force of fifteen hundred regulars,besides six thousand 
in the valley of t!ie St. L;.wrenee. Canada had a British population of 
four hundred thousand and a militia of forty thousand to draw from. 
They also had formidable strongholds along' the American frontier. Op- 
posite Buffalo stood Fort Erie; near the falls of Niagara \v:is Fort Chip- 
pewa, and at tho mouth of the Niagara river stood Fort George. At sea 
they were sinii-ly overwhelming in strength, as compared with the United 
States. The only forts the Americans possessed in this vicinity v/ere 
at the mouth of the Niagara river and at Oswego. To handicap us still 
further thirty five hundred American sailors were at that time practi- 
c.dl\- held in slavery on board of British men-of-war, where thev wcraUl 
be compelled to tight against their own coimtr}'. 

The population of the entire region west of the Genesee at the begin- 
ning of the war probably was between twenty five and thirty thousand. 
The population principally centered upon the Buffalo road and in the 
few small villages. Away from thi> thoroughfare the populati<jn ex- 
isted in small neighborhoods and isolated families. The region was 
poorly prepared for war. There were no perfect military organiza- 
tions, although there were several snuill local militia companies, organ- 
ized more fur parade than anything else. Their training, when it came 
to a question of actual warfare, amounted to practically nothing. But 
the American spirit was the same in LSI "2 as in 'TG, and the peaceable 
pioneers were transformed as if i)y magic fnun raw and inexperienced 
soldiers into brave and effective ri,:.4hting men. The spirit of patrioti.>>m, 
of liberty, became the father to the genius of warfare. Tiie backwoods- 
men of U.encset- county were among the and hardiest soldiers 
wluj served in that crisis in the affairs <>f the American comnn-n wealth. 

' 'I'lii-NC e\i-nis !:.i>-e Scvii litc'l si:ni»ly tn i-.\|>1ain the <.;uisos itM<]inv: ".]> !•« Uii- stirring 
tviii's whicli took i-i.-ci.- !i :ir. 1 i!i.- "r.-.;!!!;!! ci.iiiuy if <jt.Tn.>i.'' lur..!^ '.ho yc,ir-.t.! l>\i 1»| i. 


Tb.e proclainaticjn of President Madison, carried \)y couriers nxjunted 
on neet-footed horses, traveling by relays, readied Fort Niagara June 
'Jti and r.lack Roclc, the head(juarters of C'ldonel Swift, the same day. 
As these couriers passed throuj^h the country they spread the news as 
they rode, so that the entire coninuinity was informed of the advent 
of war ahnost as soon as the official intellig-encc liad been received by 
the officers on the frontier. There was a general feeling" of insecuritv, 
almost of helplessness for the moment, as it was known thai the enemy, 
close at hand, were fully prepared for a war, and even for invasion of 
our territory, while the preparations for defense upon side were 
almost wholly lacking'. Some (jf the more timid, magnifying the 
danger which menaced them, tied eastward across the </ienesee. At 
the same time immigrants from New ICnglaiid and other eastern pcnnts, 
fearless and undismayed, continued their journey into the heart of the 
famed " Genesee county," willing and anxious to take uj) arms to repel 
the invader if necessary. 

Unfortunately the news of the declaration of war reached Canada at 
least twelve hours before the oflicers on the American frontier had 
been informed. John Jacob Astor, who had immense fur interests in 
Canada, dis^)atched a messenger from New York to notify Th<jmas 
Clark, his repi'esentative al Oueenst(jn. This measure was adopted by 
Mr. Astor for the purpose of insui-ing, if possible, the safety of the 
immense cargoes of furs coming down the'lreat Lakes. As stjon as 
the news had been received in Canada all Americans in that countrv 
were arrested, and preparations for hostile actions were immediate! v 
begun. The first intelligence the people of Rutlalo had of the inaugu- 
ration of hostilities was when a small vessel, bound up Lake Erie from 
])lack Rock with a cargo of salt, was captured and taken to I'ort Erie. 

May-^l. 1S1:2. the ai-nied force upon the Canadian frontier of Xew 
Vork consisted of about six hundred men only, excepting the garrison 
at Fort Niagara. These men had been called out by the governor of 
the State in pursuance of an act of Congress. While the governor's 
rec[uisition was for a draft of the militia, most of these soldiers were 
volunteers, under command of Colonel Swift. July 4, eight days after 
the news of the declaration of war was received, this force had been 
increased to about three thousand. ' leneral William Wadsworth first 
assumed general command, but he was soon succeeded by General 
Amos II, d!, who in tarn was succeeded, August 11, by 'leneral Stephen 
\'an Rensselaer, who made his headcpiarters at Lewistmi. The Cana- 


dian troops were in coniinand of (iencral Brock, the actinp;- ;;-overnor 
of the province. 

" One of the most fruitful sources of appr>;hensi()n and alarm in the 
earlier stages of the war was tlie fear tliat the Seneca Indians would 
revive their ancient predilections and be found allies of the British and 
Canadian Indians. Their position was at first enigmatical — undefined. 
Their chiefs, prominent among whom was Red Jacket, at that period, 
counseled and maintained neutrality; and neutrality was unfavorably 
construed by the border settlers. Their position of neuirality was, 
however, early secured by a talk in council. But when these appre- 
henijions were partially cpiieted, every bree/.e that came frtjm Canada 
or from the west brought with it to the scattered border settlements of 
the Hfjlland Purchase rumors rife with accounts of contemplated Indian 
leagues, and banded descents with ihe tcjmatiawk and scalping knife. 
Judge Erastus Granger, the then government Agent of the Scnecas, 
took an early opportunity to hold a council with them and get assur- 
ances of neutrality. In a letter from Mr. Kllicott to Mr. Busti, dated 
July 7, lSl-2, he assures him of the entire safely of the country from 
invasion — of comp:irati\"e (juiet, and adds: — 'I send by the mail that 
carries this letter our last newspaper, which contains a speech made by 
an Indian chief to the inhaliitants of this village, and our reply, by 
which it will be seen that o;:r Indians are disposed to be on good terms 
with us — and that they have declared the Mohawk Indians, residing in 
Canada, out of the c.)nfederation of the Si.K Nations, and of course, 
"enemies in war, in peace, friends."' Tiiis position of neutrality, 
partially preserved in the first stages of the war, was not long main- 
tained. The Scnecas, rightly determining their true position and in- 
terests, soon became fast friends to the United States, — useful armed 
allies, in several contests." ' 

At a council held by the Ind.i;ins in the summer of iST-i a formal dec- 
laration of war was adoi)ted and placed in wi"iting by an interpreter.' 
It read as follows: 

We. the chiefs and couii.selors of the Six Nations of Indians, rcsidiniij in the State 
of Neu- York, do hcrcljy proclaim to all war ciiiets and warriors of tlie Si.\ Nations 
that war is declared on our part a;.;ainst the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. 
Therefore, we command and advise all the war chiefs and warriors of the Six Nations 
to call forth immediately the warriors under them, and put tiiem in mo" ion to pro- 
tect their rights and liberties. 

' Turners n story '«;" V.u- HoiL^nJ Purcluise. p.ii;<-s ''S"- :in«l .>'i. 
■■' This is [M-.>l).-ib;y il'.v oiV.y i,l<'CiJiiic:r. i-C tin.- k.iul cv(.r issticJ Ijy ati In'li.iti nafion or tribe. 

TPIi: COUNTY I\ TIIK WAI: OF \'^V2. l-J". 

Despite this formidable declaration, and through the influence of 
such of their chiefs as desired to maintain a strictly neutral attitude 
durin'::f the wa'- of iSl'i, the Indian share in the work of the battlefield 
during that struggle was very small. D'nibtless the early American 
disaster^- had s<")mething to do with causing this proclamation to remain 
practically a dead letter. 

The hastilyjjjrganized militia which began to hurry to the frontier 
was enthusiastic, but the organization of these bodies was im[jerlect and, 
for the most part, the discipline very poor. When this militia finally 
reached the .^.eld c«: actual hostilities and the sniell of burning powder 
and the rattle of artillery and musketry reached its members, it is 
hardly remarkable that the trial was too mucli for most of them. 

The plan for the campaign of 18r.2 embraced the invasion of Upper 
('anada, at Detroit and at Niagara, and the employment of regulars, 
"olunteers and militia. Governor liull of Michigan, who was in Wash- 
i igton in the spring of this year, t(^ld the president that the British, 
anticipating war with this country, had sent throughout the northwest 
emissaries bearing arms and presents to the Indiaiis and endeavoring 
to i)rocure an a'.liance with them. For this reason Hull objected to the 
invasion of Canada from Detroit, as this would leave Michigan open to 
attacks from the savages. In pursuance of his advice. Commander 
Stewart was sent to Lake Erie with orders to construct a ileet. The 
president also called upon Governor Meigs of Ohio for twelve hundred 
militia, which, with a regiment of regulars, assembled at Dayton. May 
2o Hull arrived and assumed command. When he arrived at Detroit 
on July -t he found the British erecting fortifications at vSandwich, 
across the river. Hull's defense of Detroit was a complete and shame- 
ful failure, largely the result of his own incompetency, and August I'i 
the fort and tlie troops, about twt), were surrendered to the 
enemy. Hull was afterward court-martialed, convicted of cowardice 
and sentenced to be shot, but his age and service in the Revolution 
caused the court to recommend mercy, and he was pardoned by the 

Early in the campaign it became evident that American success on 
the northern and Niagara frontiers could be achicvetl only with abso- 
lute control of Lake Ontario. The Americans therefore built a small 
navy on Lake Ontario. During the summer imi)ortant events occurred 
on the Niagara frontier, which was thinly settled at that time. August 
13 Major-General Stephen Van Rensselaer, in C'mmand of tliedetached 


militia of Xew York Slate, arrivcel at Fort Niagara. At this time the 
condition of Niagara was pitiable. Five thousand men had lieen 
promised to General \'an Rensselaer, but as late as September 1 his 
entire foree on the Niagara frontier was but six hundred and ninety. 
Two weeks later he asked Governor Tompkins and General Dearborn, 
who was highest in command in the Lake region, for reinforcements, 
explaining in detail the precarious situation in which his army and the 
frontier then was. By October 1 detachments of regulars and bodies 
of militia began arriving, the former, under command of General Alex- 
ander Smyth, hailing at Buffalo, and the latter, under General Amos 
Hall, being stationed at Lewiston. In the latter were numbers of men 
from Genesee county. 

The plan to be carried out by Van Rensselaer, if possible, was to 
concentrate the regulars near Niagara, where they were to cross the 
river, and storm and take Fort CJeorge from the rear. At the same 
time the militia, under the personal command of Van Rensselaer, were 
to cross the river fvtuu Lewiston and take the heights of Oueenston. 
But througii the delay and disobedience of General Smyth, a proud 
Virginian attached to the regular army, v/ho "could not bend to the 
necessity of obedience to a militia general," ' \'an Rensseh'.er was 
greatly delayed in undertaking offensive oijcrations. 

In the meantime Lieutenant J. B. Elliott of the United Stales Navv 
had captured the Detroit and the Caledonia off Fort ICrie. The former 
was originally the brig Adanis, taken by the British at the surrender 
of Hull, and the latter was the property of the Northwestern Fur Com- 
pany, laden with a cargo valued at two himdred thousand dollars. Un- 
fortunately the captors were compelled to burn the Detroit and set her 
adrift to keep her from again falling into the hands of the forces of 
General Brock, but the Caled(^nia was saved and afterwards did service 
under Commodore Perry on Lake Erie. This daring exph^it caused 
unbounded enthusiasm throughout the United States, and correspond- 
ingly depressed the enemy.' 

After tolerating the insolent conduct of Smyth until the American 
troops were on the verge of mutiny. October 10 General Van Rensselaer 
prepared to move upon (Jueen.ston Heighis. The fc^rce under hiscom- 

' Lossinif. 
' I'.rock, in a UttiT to Sir f.corvci' I'n-vt.s'.. Oclober II, IM-J. s;iid ; " The- event is 
t;ci;" iriy iinf-'riun.itt. and iray r«'duce us to incalcul.iule ilistrt-ss. 'llic cni-my is iiuikinj,' cwry 
vserti-n l" j^ain a nava! su;.l: i.'rr.y i.a b..i:i l.ikcs. which, it they accoi!ip;;-.h il, I d'> nyt sf>.- linw 
we can poibibiy ret liii tlic country." 


inand comprised tliirty-six hundred and Ih'ty regulars and twenty-six 
Inmdred and fitly militia, stationed at Xiay;ara. Lewiston and Black 
Rock, while the liritisli force niunbered seventeen hundred and fifty, 
includini,'- two hundred and fift\' Indians under Jolm lli-ant. 'J"hc enemy 
iiad planted batteries at every formidable point, commanding- the land- 
ings at both Lewiston and Oueenston. It was decided to make the at- 
tack upon Oueenstcni at three o'clock un the m')rning of October 11, 
the invading- force to be under command of Colonel Soloinon Van 
Rensselaer. Tlie attack was destined to be delayed, howdver. The 
troops assembled f<jr emlxirkatinn at the hour desiL,'-nated. but Lieu- 
tenant Sims boarded the first boat and rowed away in the darkness, 
preventing^ the dispatching of the remaining Ijoats, all the oars for the 
expedition having been stored in the boat taken by iiim. Pa.>sing a 
considerable distance beyond the point selected for landing, he stepped 
on shore and fled at his utmost speed. Whether this act was the result 
of cowardice or treachery will never be known. This incident neces- 
•arily resulted in the temporary abandonment of the plans. 

At three o'clock in the morning of Oct(/oer 13 the troops crossed the 
river, and the regulars, under command of Captain John IC. Wool, 
cb.arged gallantly up the heights, which were soon gained. The ap- 
proach of the Americans was soon noted by the enemy, and lively 
firing began, Colonel \'an Rensselaer and Captain Wool both being 
wounded. When tlie battle began General Brock was at Fort George, 
seven miles down the river. He at once proceeded to the scene of tlie 
action at full speed, accompanied by his staff, but Wool and his men 
came upon them as soon as they had reached the heights. The entire 
Company of officers fled in dismay, and the Ame'rican flag was soon 
iloating over the battery near which they stood. Brock"s next step was 
to lead a body of his troops to drive Wool from the heights. The su- 
perior force of the British pressed the Americans back to the eci'^e of 
the precipice, which rises perpendicularly two hundred feet above the 
Niagara; but at this critical moment, when they seemed to be, 
Wool's heroism and cheering words inspired the little band of Amer- 
icans, who turned furiously upon the enemy, driving them in utter rout 
down the hill. 

A few moments later, as Brock was rallying his men at the foot of 
the hill preparatory to an attempt to take the position from which thev 
had been forced, he fell, mortally wounded. 

Until Gen. William Wad^worth of tlie New York militia avrrived to 


take coniniand. Wool was left in char<re of the heigfhts. In the mean- 
time General SheatYe assumed eommand of tiie forces of tlie enemy, 
which lie again rallied. Lieut. -Col. Winfield Scott had cros.sed the 
river and joined tlie Americans on the heiji^hts as a volunteer, and at 
the request of General Wadsworth assumed active command. Early in 
the afternoon a band of Indians under the leadership uf John r)rant 
attacked the American pickets with L^M'eat fury. The militia were 
about to flee, when the loud voice and towerinii' form of Scott checked 
them. Tiien, an instant later the entire bodv under him, about six 
hundred, turned on the savages and drove them into the woods. 

By this time General Van Rensselaer was endeavoring U) forward re- 
inforcements from Lewiston ; but the.-e refused to go, evidently through 
cowardice, announcing that they were not compelled to leave the soil 
of the United States. They therefore remained safely at Lewiston, 
while their fellow countrymen were being killed by the score. While 
Van Rensselaer was entreating these troop^s to accompany him across 
the river, the troops engaged in the action were fairly overwheln)ed by 
the enemy, and soon were compelled to surrender. Their loss had 
been one hundred and ninety killed and wounded. Nine hundred were 
made prisoners, and sent to Newark. Tlie loss of the enemy in killed, 
wounded and prisoners was only about one hundred and thirty. 

Thoroughly disgusted by the unaccount.ible C(»uduct of the militia 
and the jealousies of some of the regular orficers, Gerieral Van Rensse- 
laer now resigned his ci.^mmand to the boastful and proud General 
Smyth, who at once began to concentrate troops at Buffalo preparator\' 
to the invasion of Canada. While these preparations were being made, 
the enemy began the b)mbardmcnt of Fort Niagara, on November "21, 
from breastworks in front of Newark. At nightfall the fort had been 
considerably damaged, but it was gcdlantly and successfully defended 
by its little garrison. 

General Smyth had planned his invasion of Canada for the morning 
of the ■2:>th. lUit before moving he had issued innumerable proclama- 
tions, which gave the enemy all the information they needed about the 
contemplated movements of the Ainerican army. The landing <m 
Canadian soil was effected at three o'clock in the morning, but by a 
small force only. The general embarkation, for s<jme mysterious rea- 
son, was i)03tpv.>ned one day, while those who had reached the western 
sh<jre of the river fell captives to the enemy. By this time the whole 
American force was t:i'.«roughl\- disgusted with the actions of the wordv 


Smyth. The g'eneial eiiibarkatii-)n bei;an at three \. m. on Tuesday. 
December 1, when l.oOO men entered t!ie boats. General P(jrter was 
to load and direct the laridin;:;^. Hut by the time everything was in 
readiness to proceed Smyth astonished his ofticci's !)y sugj^estinj:^ — in 
fact, ordering;' — that the invasion be not nuule at all that season. Con- 
se<iuently the troops were all ordered ashore, the militia and many of 
the volunteers were sent to their homes, and the regnlar army went 
into its winter quarters. 

So great was the indignation against the incompetent Smyth for this 
act of tremendous follv that he was more than once tired upon when he 
left his tent. General I'orter charged him with cowardice, and in the 
quarrel which ensued Smyth cb.allenged his accuser to mortal combat. 
Porter accepted the challenge and a meeting was had.. After each had 
iired. and neither had been injured, the two men apologi/.ed to each 
other and shook hands. .Sm}-th resigned December '^•2, being suc- 
ceeded by Col. Closes Porter. Thus closed the camj^aign of IST^. 

The campaign oi ISIO oi)ened almost at the same time on the shores 
(>t Lake Ontario, on the coast of \'irginia and in the valley of the 
Maumee. General Harrison's operations in the West were successful, 
and he was able to protect the inhabitants on tlie borders i.>f Lake F>rie. 
Lat th.e spring was well advanced before much activity was seen on the 
Niagara frontier. At this time General Dearborn was in command of 
the entire northern frontier. April '2o he sailed from Sackett's ITarl'Or 
in Commodore Chauncey's ileet. with seventeen hundred troops under 
the immediate command of General Zebulon Pike. The plans of both 
tile navy and army were to attack York (Toronto), Fort George, Fort 
iJrie and Chippewa, and th.en proceed to Kingston. April -17 the lleet 
apj'eared before T(;ronto and began the attack; but the British, in des- 
peration, blew up their powder magazine located on the lake shore, 
killing tifty-two Americans and wounding one lumdred and eighty, 
'leneral Pike and ten of his aids were among those mr.rtally wounded. 
Tlie British lost forty killed in the same explosion. The place soon 
after surrendered, but the Americans, deeming it of little strategic 
value, abandoned it. 

On account of tempestu(jus weatlier th.e attack 'apon Vovt George 
Was delayed a week. Commodore Chauncey, General r)earborn and 
other ofiicers of the lleet and army proceeded in advance of the main 
body and chose a landing j'lace four miles cast of Fort Niagara. At 
that time the force (ji the enemy in and near I'ort George, all under 


command of General Vincent, numbered about cig-htcen hundred. 
May S the American troops U-mdcd at the place desi;^nated, and Chaun- 
cey returned to Sackeu's Harbor for ri.-inf<.rcement.s and supplies. May 
2-^ he reached the American cami) east of Fort Nia^^^ara. Oliver Haz- 
ard Perry reached tliat point the evenincT of the sanie day. 

May -2? the troops ux-rc taken to a spot a short distance west of the 
mouth of tlie Xia;.:;;ai-a, wliere a landin.i,'- was effected under co\L-r of 
the cruns of the fieet. I'nder the leadersliip of Colonel Scott and the 
dashing- yt)ung- Perry, and in the face of a terrific rire the brave Amer- 
icans aseended the blulT which skirts the shore at that point, and the 
British retreated a short distance. After spiking their guns and de- 
stroying their ammunition, the enemy abandoned the fort and retreated 
to Beaver Dams, where they had a stock of supplies. 

While the victory at Fort George was being accomplished, the garri- 
son at F(.)rt Erie oj^ened a brisk cannonade upon Black Rock; but tiK- 
following morning tiie British exploded their guns and magazine, de- 
stroyed their stores, and abandoned the fort, which was immediately 
occupied by the Americans under Colonel Preston. AVithin a brief 
time the enemy had destroyed everytliing else that could be of value 
to the Americans and which was located near the river on the Canadian 
side, leaving the latter in full possession of the entire Niagara frontier. 

By midsummer General Dearborn's operations had progressed so 
little and met with such small success that he was superseded, on July 
G, by Major-General Wilkinson. Meanwhile five vessels which had 
been quietly fitted out at the mouth of .Scajaquada creek sailed awav, 
on June 15, and joined Perry's Oeet at Erie. 

In June General Dearborn had withdrawn the regular S')ldiers from 
IJulfah) and Black Rock, leaving a large quantity of stores praeticaiiv 
unprotected. Realizing his error, i)robably, he stationed ten artillcrv- 
men in the block house at Black Rock and issued a call fur rive hun- 
dred militia from neighboring counties. A few days before Deari)orn 
relincpiished command about three hundred of these militiamen arrived 
and were posted in the warehouses at Black Rock, under command of 
Major Parmenio Adams of Cienesee county. Before the work of gar- 
risoning this point was completed, however, a British expedition of 
about four hundred men under Colonel Bishopp started to attack the 
place. On the afternoon of July lo this force left its headquarters at 
Lundy's Lane, rowed up the river and at daylight of the 11th hmded a 
mile below the m-utii of the Scajaquada. Soon the forces under Major 


Adams learned of tlie advance of the enemy, and (led precipitately, 
withuut firing' a gun or making the slightest show of resistance. The 
P>ritish at once occupied the cam[i which the American militia had 
abandoned, and small detachments started out to capture officers and 
promii:ent citizens at their homes, (leneral Porter managed to escape 
just before the British reached his liome, l.)ut left his aiMus and [)art of 
his clothing. As he was approaching the village he met a body of one 
hundred regulars under Captain Cummings, wlu^m lie ordered to sta- 
ti^ni themselves near by and await reinf(jrccments. At lllack Rock fifty 
citizens placed themselves under Captain Pnill and went to reinforce 
Cummings's command. About one hundix-d of Adams's retreating mili- 
tia, who had been kept together by Lieutenant Phineas Stauntun, rallied 
for the recapture of the position. Chief Farmer's Protluu" of the Sen- 
ecas also gathered a band of iiis warriors togctlier and joined the 
American forces. Volunteers came in from other places in the neigh- 
borhood, all eager to make the attack upon the unsuspecting Rritish. 
who belie\'ed they had effected a victory whose results would be per- 

At eight o'clock the assault was ordered. The surprise of the enemj" 
v/as complete. Colonel P>ishopi.i fell from his horse badly wounded, 
and his men becanie demoralii^ed. When the American regulars 
pressed forward the entire Britisii force tied m confusion to the bank 
of the river. The militia, which had lied in fright a few hours before, 
now fought like veterans, springing to their work with the utmost enthu- 
siasm and bravery. The forest resounded with tiie war-whi.iops of the 
Senecas engaged in the fight. After retreating as far as Black Rock 
tiie enemy embarked in boats found there, but the pursuing Americans 
kept up a strong lire on the craft, mortally v.-ounding the gallant Colo- 
nel Bishopp, who died five days later. The boat in which he lay v.-as 
the last to leave the shc>re, and immediately after he fell it signalled its 
surrender. The entire British loss during this expedition in killed, 
v.-ounded and missing has been variously estimated at from seventy to 
one hundred. The Americans lost three killed and five wounded. The 
British did not destroy more than one-third of the vahurole naval stores 
at Black Rock, destined for the use of Pen-}-, nor did tliey succeed in 
reaching the military stores at I>uiYalo. 

During the succeeding few weeks several minor engagements took 
place. August Vi Perry and his little lleet left Erie, reaching Put-in 
Bay on the 15th, wl:ere a plan oi campaign was ari-:mged with Ger.cral 


Harrison. On September 10 occurred his meiTH)rable battle with the 
British tleet under Captain Robert H. IJarclay, after which he sent to 
General Harrison tlie historic dispatch: " AVe have met the enemy and 
they are ours." 

This remarkable naval victory g^ave the Americans undisputed con- 
trol of Lake Erie, and inspired the entire country. Other successes 
followed durin.cj tlie balance of the }'ear, and th.e feelini^ of discouray;e- 
ment which had pervaded many sections of the country gave way t<; 
general expressions of joy.' But while success rewarded the valor of 
American arms elsewhere, the campaign along the Niagara frontier 
was wretchedly managed during the ensuing few months. General Wil- 
kinson unwisely withdrew the main body of his troops to the lower end 
of Lake Ontario, though strongly advised not to do so by General 
Porter and other officers. Porter, Chapin and McChire offered to raise 
a thousand men to aid him in making a sally from Fort George; or, if 
provided with artillery, they (;ffered to invade the enemy's country and 
conquer the British. Wilkinson's stubborn refusal to see the wisdon;i 
of either of. these suggestions was the beginning of the mismanagement 
which marked operations (m the frontier from that time until the spring 

When Wilkinson left Fort George he turned (jver ihe command (_if 
that post to General McClure, who now had one thousand militia, sixty 
regulars and two hundred and fifty Indians. The terms of enlistment 
of volunteers and militia were rapidly expiring. He endeavored to 
retain them by offering small bounties, but they declined to renuiin in 
the service. Soon after the news came that Generals I )rummo!id and 
Riall had arrived on the peninsula' with reinforcements from Kingston, 
and that a body of troui)s under Colonel Murray was moving on Fort 
George. Upon being apprised of this movement McClure determined 
to abandon his post and post his garrison in Fort Niagara. Before do- 
ing so, however, he notified the inhabitants of the village of Newark 
that he intenled to burn that place, which he did a few hours after 
notice had Vjeen given. Of the one hundred and fifty houses in that 
village but one was left .standing, and a large number of women and 
children were driven from their h(jme.i to face the blasts of a severe 
winter with no (jthcr ])rotection than that afTorded by the clothing they 

'"TIk- pco^i'ic wvrc iicc'jin n^; in^ri- ani'. ir.'jrca unit in I'l'inioii oiiccrninij the riLrliici.usne-^ ot 
the war on the part ut tlie Ooverniiii-nt, and its b;.nericial t:Vcits in <leve!..j)iri^ tlio intern. il re- 
sources i>f the cuntry: aUn in '!e:uwns:.'-.ain< the aiiility ot .i free js'ov einiiient to proteet ilseit 
a^jMinst a powertui ioe."— L'^^bing. 


wore and could carry \vitli them. This cruel and totally unnecessary 
act was roundly condemned by many of McClure's officers, but it had 
been sanctioned by the War Department.' 

After abandoning- Fort George and makiu'^- an attempt to destroy it 
by explosion, McClure stationed one hundred and fifty regulars in Fort 
Niagara, and on December 1"2 proceeded to Buffalo, wliither he called 
two hundred additional regulars from Canandaigua. Soon after Col- 
onel Murray, with five hundred liritish sctldiers and Indians, occupied 
the ground which the Americans had abandoned. 

Genera^ McClure's unwise and unnecessary act in devastating New- 
ark was justly censured b}' those who believed in honorable warfare, 
and particularly, as an imprudent measure, by th(_)se who felt confident 
of the retributive blow that soon was to follow. 

Soon after the Dritisli had taken possession of Fort George, the 
awful work of devastation on the part of themselves and their Indian 
allies began, in retaliation for the burning of the village of Newark. 
Ab(jut sunrise of December 19 a party ot Indians whc) had left the main 
body reached Lewiston, where a small force was stationed under com- 
mand of ^Major Bennett. The xVmericans retreated with the loss of 
half a dozen men. those killed in the in.discriminate slaughter 
that followed the attack was Dr. Alvord, one of the pioneer physicians 
of Batavia. As soon as the assault began the inhabitants of that part 
of the frontier began a retreat eastward. With them went the Tus- 
carora Indians, whose village was in that vicinity. The invaders met 
with no formidable resistance, except upon Lewiston Heights, as they 
attempted to advance to Niagara Falls. Here Major Mallory and a 
small body of volunteers, who had been stationed at Schlosser, drove 
the enemy down the hill; but the lost ground was soon recovered, and 
there was a fine show of resistance all the way to the mouth of Tona- 
wanda creek. 

During the summer of 1S14-, the British being in possession of Fort 
Niagara, parties of Indians from that stronghold occasionally ventured 
out and attacked inhabitants who had returned to their homes. In 
these expeditions the Indians — and frequently the British, too — infiicted 
great damage upon the inhabitants of that region. Terror reigned in 

' The Socr'.-tary o( War, ri'.^n .it .S.ickirtt.'^ H.irb'M', adJre>-;i.'iI CiciiLTal ^[cCl'.i:-e, "or oiriCiT 
CDiiimanJing at Fort (;for.,'e," as f^. !'•■«•--. under Jate of <.)ctol)iir 4, 1^1:1: "■ U.niic-rst.inili'.-iK' V::it I'.u- 
ili-fcnse of tlu- post ouiun;iit<.-d to y 'ur ci'.arce ni.iy render it pi'oper to destroy tlu' towi; of N'ew- 
ark. Villi are hereby directed t.'.ipprise tlie iiihaijitants of t!ii> eircunist.iiiii', a::d :nvite tiioin to 
r.-iiinvt.- themselves and their eir\i;t.s to so;ne jilaee ..f i,'re.Uer s.ifety. JOilN .\.U\1S1 Kc.vo." 


all the territory west of the Genesee. Anticipating a further march of 
the invacliML,^ force, and an attack upon Batavia, where there were an 
arsenal and considerable military stores. General Hall soon collected a 
force from General Wadsworth's brij^ade, and a number of volunteers 
from Genesee county, and established headquarters at Batavia. On 
Christmas day, a considerable force having been organized and armed, 
the troops started to march to Buffalo. There he found a disorganized 
and confused body of troops, and all were in consternation and dismay. 
These were organized with the force already under his command and 
prepar:iti'~^ns foi- resisting the enemy were made at once. 

'About midnight of December 2'J news was received at ButTalo that a 
British force had crossed the Niagara river near the head of Grand 
Island, fired on a patrol of mounted men, and taken possession of a 
battery located upon the site of the lower village of Black Rock. Gen- 
eral Hall at once ordered out the troops at ButTalo, but believing that 
the attack at Black Rock was intended simply to draw off the main 
force at BurYalo, in order to enable the enemy successfully to attack 
that place, he decided not to proceed against the British. Colonels 
Warren and C'nurchill, who were in command at Black Rock in the 
absence of General Hopkins, were ordered by General Hall to attack 
the enemy, dislodge them from their position they had taken and drive 
them from their boats. The attack was hastily prepared and made 
under cover of intense darkness, but failed to accomplish its purpose. 
The attacking force was dispersed; whereupon the main body of troops 
at ButTalo v.-as ordered to proceed toward Black Rock, A small corps 
of men headed by Colonel Chapin and Major Adams made a second as- 
sault upon the battery, but this force, too. was dispersed. These two 
failures foresliadowed what was to come. The stor_\- of the events of 
the morning of December oO is told in the following extract from an 
ofhcial dispatch from General Hall to Governor Tompkins: 

As the day dawned I discovered a detachment of the enemy's boats crossing to 
our shore, and bending their course toward the rear of Gen. Porter's house. I im- 
mediately ordered Col. Blake.slie to attack the enemy's force at the water's edge. I 
became satisfied as to tlic disposition and object of the enemy. Their left wing, 
composed of about one thousand regulars, militia, and Indians, had been landed be- 
low the creek, imder the cover of the night. With their centre, consisting of four 
hundred royal Scot.s. commanded by Col. Gordon, tiie battle v.-as commenced. The 
right, which was purposely weak, was landed near the main battery, inerelv to divert 
our force ; tlie whole under the immediate command of Lieut. Col, Drummond, and 
led on by Maj, Cien. Riall. They were attacked by four held pieces in the battery at 

THR COUXrV IX THE WAR OF 181-2. 135 

the water's edge, at the same time the battery from the other side of the river opened 
a I'.L-avy nre upon us, of shells, hot shot and ball. The whole force now ojjposed to 
the enemy was, at most, not over six hundred men, the remainder havin.t;;- fled, in 
spite of the exertiuns of tlieir oiVicers. These few but brave men, disputed every 
inch of ground, with the steady coolness of veterans, at the expense of many valu- 
able lives. The defection of the militia, by reason of the ground on which they must 
act, left the forces engaged, exposed to the enemy's fire in front and tlank. After 
standing their ground for half an hour, opposed by an overwhelming force and 
nearly surrounded, a retreat became necessary to their safety, and was accordingly 
ordered. I then made every etfort to rally the troops, with a view to attack their 
columns as they entered the village of Bud'alo, but all in vain. Deserted by my 
pr'.ncipal force, I fell back that night to Eleven Mile creek, and was forced to leave the 
riourishmg villages of Black Rock and Buffalo a prey to the enemy, which they have 
pillaged and laid in ashes. They have gained but little plunder from the stores; the 
chief loss has fallen upon inili\iduals. 

This disaster was the cuhiiination of a series of events in a badly 
managed campaign. The efficient forces upon that part of the frontier 
had been withdrawn and nntrained and unorganized militia from West- 
ern Xew York assigned to the important duty of defending one of our 
most vulnerable points. The entire invading force under General Riall 
was but a little over one thousand, while our force was numerically 
superior; but the enemy had the advantage of thorough organization 
and fair discipline. 

Though the cowardice and ilight of many of the soldiers who partic- 
ip.itedin this engagement, not to speak of the panic-stricken ones who 
fled withoiu making a sliow of resistance, was a disgrace to American 
arms, the records show that the untrained soldiers from Genesee county 
who volunteered their services behaved most admirablv. This count v 
complied promptly with the military requisitions made upon it, though 
the majority of those v/ho so bravely went to the front made greater 
personal sacrifices than the representatives of most communities who 
fought in that war. The growing crops, whose failure meant little less 
than the desolation of many homes, were deserted when the call to 
arms was issued; and this meant much in a new country like that west 
of the Genesee. The absence of the tillers of the soil and the conse- 
quent neglect of the crops produced unusual distress and suffering 
among the inhabitants. 

The volunteer militia performed valiant service, freciuently equal to 
tliat of the regulars; but as a rule the work of the men who waited to be 
drafted was v.-retched, cowardly. It was the latter class tinit permitted 
itself to be so completel\- routed by General Riall's forces. 


About three o'clock on the afternoon of the 3'»th, after the invading 
forces had reduced Buffah) and Black Rock to ashes, the enemy crossed 
the river ivo:n the latter point with the [)ublic and private property 
they had captured. They also took with them about ninety prisoners, 
about half of whom were from Colonel Blakeslie's troops. More than 
forty were killed and denuded and their mutilated bodies left upon the 
snow. Anionc: the Americans slain, the liighest officer was Lieutenant- 
Colonel Boughton of Avon. The enemy lost about thirty killed and 
sixty wounded; but no: an officer was killed, and only two were wound- 
ed. Had the two thousand Americans been well disciplined and in com- 
mahd of thoroughly efticient officers in all cases, there is little doubt 
that the enemy might have been driven back across the river and held 
at bay, temporarily at least, and much loss and suffering averted. 
When General Hall reached Williamsville he rallied a few hundred 
fugitives and called for reinforcements, but this step was taken too late, 
as there was no more fighting. 

The scenes and incidents of that memorable day, December 30, along 
the principal thoroughfares leading eastward, including the Big Tree 
road, can never be properly described. In the rush was an indiscrimi- 
nate mob of militia, citizens, sleighs, ox-sleds, wagons, horsemen and 
horsewomen, children and infants, all with one thought uppermost in 
their minds — to get as far from Buffalo and Black Rock as possible, 
and with the greatest speed. "rVn ox sled would come along bearing 
wounded soldiers whose companions had pressed the slow team into 
their service; another with the family of a settler, a few household 
goods that had been hustled upon it, and one, two or three wearied 
females from Buffalo, who had begged the privilege of a ride and the 
rest that it afforded: tlien a remnant of some dispersed corps of militia, 
hugging as booty, as spoils of the vanquished, the arms they had neglected 
to use; then squads and families of Indians, on foot and on ponies, the 
squaw with her up'.m her l)ack, and a bevy of juvenile Senecas 
in her train ; and all this is but a stinted programme of the scene that 
was presented. Bread, meats and drinks soon vanished from the log 
taverns on thiC routes, and fieeing settlers divided their scanty stores 
with the almost famished that came from the frontier." ' The news of 
the disaster tlew faster than the fugitives, and many homes were found 

January 1 a body of the enemy again appeared at lUiffalo and burned 

' Tur.ier'> Hiit<u-v df tho Ilci'.aml Purchase. 


the few remaining houses, excepting' one occupied by an aged woman 
and her two daughters. Just as the work of destruction was completed 
a detachment of mounted men was seen crossing Scajaquada, and the 
British hastily mounted and rode down the liill. The Americans fired 
upon them and Adjutant Tottman, who was in command, was killed. 

For weeks the frontier remained deserted and des(jlate. The vil- 
lages of Buffalo, Black Rock, Niagara Falls, Lewiston ;iud Youngstown 
and the intervening tenements and f;irm houses presented one long 
panorama of ruin. 

Batavia, being the principal place at a comparatively safe distance 
east of Buffalo, became tlie final rallying point of what Vv'as left of the 
American army, and the headquarters for the h'.imelcss refugees from 
the frontier. The most valuable articles, including the records, of the 
Laud Office, were carried east of the ' lenesee river. Mr. Ellicott's 
residence was converted into headquarters for the officers of the army, 
and his office into a hospital ; barns and sheds v.-ere occuijied and many 
private houses were thrown open. Had it not been for the hospitality 
of the inhabitants of Batavia the condition of the fugitives would have 
been inestimably wor.-^e than it was. The fiVilowing letter will gi^■e some 
idea of the condition of the country west of Batavia during the period 
immediately succeeding the disaster on the Niagara frontier: 

C.ANANUAK.rA, Stli Jan., ISU. 
Gentlemen : 

Niagara county and that part of Genesee which lies west of Batavia are completely 
depopulated. All the settlements in a sectiim of country forty miles square, and 
which contained more than twelve thousand souls, are effectually broken up. These 
facts you are undoubtedly acquainted with; but the distresses tliey have produced, 
uone liut an eve-v,-itness can thorouglily appreciate Our roads are tilled v.-itli 
peoi)le, many of whijm have been reduced from a state of competency and gni)d pn^'S- 
pects to the last degree of want and sorrow. So sudden was the bl<v.v by winch they 
have been crushed, that no provision could be made either to elude or meet it. The 
fugitives from Niagara county especially were dispersed under circumstances ot so 
much terror that in some case^, mothers find themselves wandering with strange 
children, and children are seen accompanied by such as have no other sympathies 
with them than those of common sutTerings. Of the families thus separated, all the 
members can never again meet in this life; for the same violence whicli has made 
them beggars, has forever de[)rived them of tlicir heads, and others of their branches. 
Ailiictions of the mind so deep as have been allotted to these unhappy people, we 
canr.ot cure. They can probably be subdued cnly by His power who can wipe away 
all tears. But shall we not endeavor to assuage them"' To their bodily wants we 
can certainly administer. The inluibitants of this village have made large contribu- 
tions for th.vir relief, in provisions, clothing and money. And we have been ap- 


pointed, among other things, to solicit further relief for them, from our wealthy and 
liberal minded fellow citizens. In pursuance of tliis appointment, may we ask yuu, 
gentlemen, to interest yourselves particularly in their behalf. We believe that no 
occasion lias ever occurred in our country which presented stronger claims upon in- 
dividual benevolence, and we humbly trust that whoever is willing to answer these 
claims will always entitle himself to the precious reward of active charity. We are, 
gentlemen, with great respect, W.m. SiiEf.viui, 

Thau's CirAiix, 
Moses Atwatkr, 

M\RoN HoLI,K\, 
Till. MAS, 
PaiNEAs p. Baiks, 
Committee of Safety and Relief at Canandaigua. 
To the Hon. Philip S. Van Rensselaer, 

Hon. James Kent, 

Hon. Ambrose Spencer, 

Stephen Van Rensselaer, Esq., 

Elisha Jenkins, Esq., 

Rev. Timothy Clowes, 

Rev. William- Neill, 

Rev. John M. Bradford. 

In response to this appeal the State Legislature immediately appro- 
priated $50,000; the Common Cotmcil of Albany, .$l,Ot>0; the ComnKjn 
Council of Xew York, $3,000. Liberal subscriptions were also made 
b\- residents of New York, Albany, Canandaig-iia and other localities, 
including $:2,0n0 liy the Holland Land Company and .$-.'0(j by Joseph 
Ellicott. 'J'he entire relief fund amounted to about $'jo,00(.t, which did 
much toward relieving the immediate wants of the sufferers from the 

As soon as the intelligence of the invasion reached the national cap- 
ital, President ^vladison directed General Lewis Cass to proceed to the 
scene, investigate the causes of the disaster and suggest such measures 
of relief and defense as siiould a[)pear nccessar}'. In a letter written 
by General Cass to the Secretary of War, dated January 12, ISl-t, the 
former says: 

The fall of Niagara has been owing to the most criminal negligence. The force 
in it was fully competent to its defence. Tiie commanding othcer, Captain Leonard, 
it is confidently said, was at his own house, three miles from the fort, and all the 
other officers appear to h.ave rested in as much ^ecuiity as though no enemy was 
near them. Captains Rogers and Hampton, both of the QUh, had companies in the 
fort. Both of them were absent from it. Tiieir conduct ought to be strictly inves- 
tigated. I am also told that Major Wallace of the 5th was in the fort. Ik- esca'-)eil 


and is now at Erie. The circumstances attending the destruction of ButTalo you 
will have learned before this reaches you. I'ut the force of the enemy has been 
i,^reatly maj^-nitied. From the most careful (.-xaminati'm I am satisfied that not more 
than six hundred and rifty men. of regulars, niditia and Indians, lauded at Hlack 
Rock. To oppose tl' we had from two thousand five hundred to three thousand 
militia. All except a very few of them behaved in the most cowardly manner. Thev 
tied without discharging a musket. The enemy continued on this side of the river 
until Saturday. AH their n)ovements betrayed symptoms of apprehension. A vast 
quantity of property wa* left in the town uninjured, and the Ariel, which lies four 
miles above, is safe. Since the first inst. they have made m. mo\'ement. The\- con- 
tinue to possess Niagara, and will probably retain it until a force competent to its 
reduction arrives in its vicinity. 

Tlie caiiipaig-n of 1S14 \vas as and successful, as a whole, as 
that of 1S13 liad been disastrous. Experience had been a bitter, but 
competent, teaclier. and the canipaic^n was now conducted by tlie 
Americans with more vigor and judgment. In t'ne spring troops be- 
gan to arrive on the frontier. Xew ofhcers were in command, and 
rigid discipHne and general efficiency v\-cre inaugurated. General 
Riall commanded the Canadian frontier and had headquarters on 
Oneenston Heights. Tlie One Hundredth Regiment of the British 
army was stationed along the river from Chippewa to Fort Erie. April 
10 Cieneral Winfield Scott arrived at Chippewa. A few weeks later 
Major-General Jacob Brown arrived on the froritier and assumed the 
chief command. His forces comprised two brigades, conmianded re- 
spectively by General Scjtt and Colonel I^leazer W. Ripley, to each of 
which was attached a small body of artillery. There was also a small 
troop of cavalry All were under excellent discipline and high spirits. 
In addition to these troops were about eleven htuKlred volunteers from 
Xew York and Penn.sylvania, and about six hundred Indians who had 
been inspired to help the Americans by the eloquence of the famous 
Red Jacket. These volu.nteers and Indians were under the chief com- 
mand of General Peter B. Porter. 

In the latter part of May General Scott removed his headquarters to 
Buffalo, where the troops were constantly drilled and perfect discipline 
maintained. By July 1, the Americans were ready for action. The 
day folhnving Generals Brown, Scott and Porter reconnoitered Fort 
Erie and laid plans for its capttire. The capture of these works was 
comparatively easy. Sunday morning the army passed over the river. 
General Scott's brigade and the artillery corps of Major Hindman 
landed nearly a mile i)elow Fort Erie, between two and three o'cl';ck in 
the morning. General Rinlev and his brigade landed about the same 


distance above the fort. A little later a small force of Indians crossed 
over. The enemy was completely surprised. The fi)rt was approached 
on both sides by the army, while the Indians skirted the woods in the 

General Brown demanded the surrender of the garrison, giving the 
commander two hours to reach a" determinati<^. Meantinie a battery 
of " long eighteens " was planted where it commanded the fort. But 
the enemy was overawed and surrendered at six o'clock, being im- 
mediately sent over the river to the American, shore. The prisoners 
numbered over one hundred and seventy, all being in ccnunand of 
Major Burke. Several pieces of ordnance and some military stores 
were also captured. During the brief period of firing which took 
place in the morning one man was killed and two or three wounded 
on each side,' 

This almost bloodless capture of Fort Rrie was but the beginning of 
a vigorous and successful campaign. July 4 Scott and his brigade pro- 
cccued to Black Creek, a few miles above Chippewa, Ripley advanced 
on the afternofju of the same day. The next day Scott was joined by 
General Porter with his volunteers and Indians. General Riall was 
still in command of the British forces, which in the meantime had also 
been considerably reinforced. 

About daybreak of July 5 oj.ierations began by attacks on the Ameri- 
can picket lines, the chief purjiose of the enemy being to divert atten- 
tion from the main attack against the American centre. But this plan 
failed. The American commander, feeling sure of his position and 
strength, gradually drew in his pickets and thereby led the enemy into 
a general action. The Indians fought splendidly under command of 
General Porter, Red Jacket and Captain Pollard, and the British were 
soon forced back towards Chi[jpewa with heavy loss. General Porter's 
command fcjll'nved, but on reaching the outskirts of the woods he en- 
countered the main body of the enemy, and most of his men, being un- 
accustomed to the din of battle, bi-oke away in confusion. The re- 
mainder of the army, however, soon came upon the scene, and after a 
sharp conflict the entire British force broke and fled to the entrench- 
ments below Chip[)ewa creek, destroying the bridge and thus prevent- 
ing the victorious Americans from pursuing them. In this battle the 
American loss was sixty-one killed, two hundred and fifty-five wounded 

' 'riiis acc'unt i<f th'j eaptur,' of I'urt ICtIl- is taken t'roni lln.' story pi:'iHihcJ in the l!'.ilTa!i> 
• ia/oltr i;; its iss'.ic- nest sacL-ee.ling tin.- v\t;r.t '.K-soribLtl. 


and nineteen missing-. The British h^ss was six hundred and four, of 
whom two hundred and thirty- six were killed. 

General Riall, in his retreat, proceeded to Oueenston, occupyin^c 
Fort Georg"e witli part of his troops and making his headcpiarters 
twent}' miles to the westward, near Lake Ontario. General Drum- 
mond, completely chagrined over the defeat of the British veterans by 
what he considered raw American troops, resolved that the British arms 
should redeem themselves. He therefore at once organized a large 
army, and with a force one third larger than that of the Americans 
under General Brown, advanced to give battle. Brown in the mean- 
time had moved forward to Oueenston, where he hoped to find Chaun- 
cey's fleet awaiting on the Niagara river to co-operate with the land 
forces. But Commodore Chauncey's fleet did not appear and the army 
was compelled to prepare to fight it out alone. Riall, however, had 
received considerable reinforcements in the meantime. General Brown 
therefore ordered a retreat t') Chippev."a. On the morning of the 25th 
news came from Lewiston that the British were at Oueenston and on the 
Heights in considerable numbers, and that five of the enemy's fleet had 
arrived and were proceeding up the river. Soon after it v/as learned 
that they were landing at Lewiston. General Drummond had arrived 
from Kingston with reinforcements, while Riall's trcjops at the same 
time had been put in nu>tion. That morning a large part of the forces 
under Lieutenant Colonel Pearson held a comuKmding position on an 
eminence in and near Lundv's Land. Brown evidently had not re- 
ceived intelligence of this movement, for he made plans to attack him 
at Oueenston. Late in the afternoon he (jrdered a forw ard movement. 
Soon after he was informed that a large l-'ritisli force liad been seen at 
Niagara Falls, but he believed that it was Drummond and his truoi^s 
going up the river to capture the store of supplies at Schlosser. For 
the purpose of recalling the enemy he decided to menace the forts at 
the mouth of the river. Accordingly, about four o'clock he ordered 
General Scott to march rapidly after theni with Towson's artillery and 
all the mounted men at his command. 

Within tv/enty minutes after receiving his orders Sc(^tt's command 
was in motion. About half past five he crossed the Chippewa, believ- 
ing that a large body of the enemy was on the other side of the Niagara 
instead of directly in his front. But he soon learned the true situation. 
He met the forces of Riall, and the memorable battle of Lundy's Lane 


Scott's command consisted of about l/.'OO men. The British force 
was greatly superior in point of numbers. Retreat would have been 
fatal to the Americans, and Scott heroically decided to fi;.;ht, thoui.;!! 
the odds were so greatly against him. Halting a moment to send a 
dispatch to his commonder notifying the latter of the true situation, he 
began the attack. General Brown realized that the battle was in prog- 
ress even before he had received Scott's dispaic'n, for he could plainlv 
hear the report of musketry and the cannonading. Ordering the brig- 
ade under Ripley to follow him, he hastened to the field at the head 
of his personal staff. Meeting Scott's messi-'Uger, he ordered the latter 
to "continue on and bring the whole force iuiu the field. As soon as 
Ripley's brigade reached the field. General Bn^nvn, seeing that Scott's 
brigade was becoming greatly exhausted by the severe fighting thev 
had been doing, interposed a new line between tiiem and the enemy, 
thereby holding the latter in readiness f(jr a new conflict. 

The British now fell back, their right restir>g on a heighi command- 
ing the whole plain on which they and the American forces were 
moving. It was now perceived that this height must 'oe carried or the 
Americans would lose the battle. ]\IcRee was ordered to detach Col. 
James ]\IiHer with the Twenty-first Regiment for this hazardous and 
difficult duty, and to proceed with the remainder of the Second Brigade 
down the Oueeiiston road in order to divert the attention of the eneinv 
from his right, which was to be attacked. Turning to Colonel ^liller, 
General Brown said: 

" Colonel, can you storm that work and take it ?" 

" I'll try, sir," was the laconic response. And he did take it. 

Miller's assault was a brilliant one' The Ihitish retired in confusion 
from the line of advancing bayonets, leaving tlieir cannon and several 
prisoners in possession of the Twenty-first Regiment. About the same 
time Ripley's brigade advanced and encountered the enemy on the 
right of ^Miller's operations. A part of his brigade was broken under 
the galling fire of the British regulars, but the line was immediately 
formed again and brcnight intoactic^n. At this moment Major Jesup, of 
Scott's brigade, who had been ordered to act independently on the right 

' With three hundred men he- tiiovetl up the ascent bteadily in the darkness, alonij a Tenee 
lineii wiili thiek i)u>.rifS i!kU hid his iroujis (rn;n the view of the i^iinners and their protector.^ who 
lay near by. Wlien witliin a short imiskft ran^e ot tlie l5a-,tery. they could see tlie ;<vinr:ers \vi',h 
tl;..-ir uluwiu'.,' lin>t..cks. ready t" .ict at the \v,.rJ, lire. Sekot-r.< '^otid iii;irksiuen, MiMer directed 
each tu rest his ritic "A tl;e fence. >rlect a .;.;iir.ncr and fire at a !s'i\-en signal. \'ery soun every 
ijunner t'L-Il, wlien Millar and his men rui'ned lorward and ca^'iured the ijattery.— J-ussing. 


of the American army, after capturing- and sending-- to camp General 
Riall and several other British of!icers, proceeded toward the heii^'-hts as 
far as the Oueenston road. At this point he was joined by General 
Brown, who directed him to advance up Lundy's Lane and form on the 
right of Ripley's brit^ade, whose left was resting upon the height de- 
fended by the captured cannon. ^Meantime General Porter had arrived 
with his command and was formed on Ripley's left. 

Fresh troops had been sent from Oueenston and Fort George to re-' 
inforce the enemy, which now advanced in strong force. At the first 
fire, however, the British fled in great confusion. A second attack was 
made, and the enemy fought with great obstinacy, but two or three 
volleys sufficed to drive them down the height. Soon another desper- 
ate assault was made, but this, too, was repulsed after a terrific hand 
to hand contest, the enemy fleeing in great disorder and leaving many 
prisoners in t!ie hands of tlie victorious Americans. In the last assault 
both Generals Brown and Scott wei'e wounded. The f<jrmer was shot 
twice, but remained on his horse. General Scott, however, was disabled 
and carried from the field. 

The Americans now fell back to Chijipewa, having effectuallv re- 
pulsed the enemy. Here General Brown ordered Ripley, upon whom 
the command had devolved, to rest awhile and then reocciipy the bat- 
tlefield. The latter disobe\'ed orders and remained at Chippewa, and 
this so irritated General Brown that he sent to Sackctt's IIarl;or for 
(leneral Edmund P. Gaines v/ith orders for the latter t(j assume tempo- 
rary command on the Niagara frontier. Through Ripley's disobe- 
dience the Americans were depri\-ed of the substantial advantages of 
the hardly-earned victory, for the British returned, captured most of 
the cannon and again occupied the field.' 

While the An:ericans were really the victors, the British also laid 
claim to the honor by reason of their having taken possession of the 
battlefield after the Americans had left it. In this engagement the 
xVmerican loss was one hundred and seventy (jue killed, five hundred 
and seventy-one wounded and one hundred and ten missing. The loss 
of the enemy was eighty-four killed, nve hundred and fifty-nine wound- 
ed, one hundred and ninety-three missing, and forty-two prisoners. 

On the morning of the day following the battle Genera! r)r(.)wn. Gen- 

'This battle was f'lug!-.: eir.:ro'.y between sunset and ;n;..;n;\''lu. T!ie iiv..>:-i s!i:niii>,' 
brii;iuly, and as liiore was no breeie -.ts later and more san^cuinary incidents cecurred ainon^' 
dciiSe clouds vi sir.'jke caused by the burnini; powder. 


era! Scott, ^[ajor Jesup and the other wounded officers were taken to 
Buffalo, Colonel Ripley being left with orders to hold his strong;- posi- 
tion at Chippewa until he could be reinforced. Hardly had the wound- 
ed ofhcers left the scene when Ripley de.str(jyed the military works and 
stores, demolished the bridge and fled with his army to the Canadian 
end of the Black Rock ferry. But for the strenuous opposition offered 
by ]vIcRee, Wood, Towson, Porter and other officers he W(.)uld have 
crossed with the army to the American shore. He actually rode to 
General Brown and asked for orders to do so, but that valiant com- 
mander treated the proposition with justifiable scorn, and ordered Rip- 
ley to move his army to a good position on the lake shore just above 
Fort Erie, strengthen the fort and erect new defenses in expectation of 
a siege.' 

Within two or three days Drummond, having received eleven hun- 
dred reinforcements, prepared to move up the river. August '2 the 
enemy drove in the American outposts surrounding the fort and camped 
two miles from tiie fort. In the meantime the works around the fort 
Had been strengthened and three armed schooners were anchored near 
at hand. Within a few days a detachment of the enemy met two hun- 
dred and forty rinemen under Major Lodowick Morgan, near the Sca- 
jaquada creek; but the British were driven back across the river. 
While tliis fight was transpiring Drummond opened a cannonade on 
Fort Erie. This was of short duration, and at its close both sides 
worked hard for several days in strengthening their respective posi- 

August 4, General Gaines arrived at Fort Erie and assumed the chief 
command, Ripley again taking command of his brigade. On the Iili 
the Britisli began the siege by a heavy cannonade, which continued for 
a week. On the evening of the 14th a British shell exploded with ter- 
rific force in an empty m.agazine in the fort, and the enemy, believing 
that this would result in the demoraliy.ation of the American force, pre- 
pared for a direct assault upon the fort. At two o'clock on the m<;rn- 
ing of the loth a picket of one hundred men was attacked, and a few 
moments later fifteen hundred of the enemy assailed Towson 's battery 
and an abattis between that work and the shore of the lake. After a 
brief but desperate struggle they retired. In the meantime the Doug- 
lass battery, a stone work with two guns on the extreme American 

' fiL-;u-r.u l)rL;i!;:ror:d kri'iwn of 'Jie we.ikness uC the American furcu .it tlii.s juncture he 
might have successiully assa:ied tlieir pi-'.-iitiuii. 


right, was attacked by five hundred infantry and artillery of the enemy. 
This force was soon repulsed, when a body under Drummond endeav- 
ored to force an entrance over the walls with the aid of scaling'-ladders. 
After beinj^ repulsed twice at this point, the gallant British commander 
went around the ditch and, in the face of a hot fire and after several 
attempts, he reached the parapet with one hundred of the Ruyal 

The success of this endeavor fairly crazed Drummond, Ordering no 
quarter for the Americans, he posted a band of Indians where they 
could rush into the works at the first opportunity and aid in the anni- 
hilation oT the garrison. The British now made a Herce bayonet charge, 
mortally wounding several American officers who were standing the 
brunt of the attack. Lieutenant McDonough was killed by Drummond 
himself after asking for quarter. The latter fell a minute later with a 
bullet through his heart. Three attempts were then made to drive the 
enemy from the fort. Just as a fourth charge was to be made the mag- 
azine was blown up. whether by accident or design has never been 
learned. Many of the enemy were killed in the explosion, and the 
reuiuant, being instantly attacked by artillery and infantry, l)roke and 
fled from the fort in the greatest confusion. The explosion of the mag- 
azine doubtless saved the American force from the utter annihilation 
which otherwise might have been their fate. In this terrible fight the 
British lost two hundred and twenty-one killed, one hundred and seventy- 
four wounded and one hundred and sixty-eight prisoners. The Ameri- 
can loss was seventeen killed, fifty-six wounded and eleven missing. 

From this time until about the middle of September the Americans 
spent their time in strengthening their position and increasing their 
force. The British did likewise. Until the first of the month the en- 
emy threw shells, hot shot and rockets into the fort. During this 
bombardment, August '28, General (iaines was so injured by an ex- 
ploding shell that he was compelled to retire to }]uffaio for the treat- 
ment of his wounds. Upon learning of this General Brown proceeded 
from Batavia and placed Ripley in command of the forces occujiying 
the fort; but learning of the unpopularity of this othccr he almost im- 
mediately assumed personal command, though still surTcring from the 
woimds he had received in the previous action. 

September IT General lirown ordered a sortie, during which two oi 
the British batteries were captured after thirty minutes' h.ot fighting. 
General Porter's forces accomplishing this victory. Immediately after- 



wards a block-house in the rear of another battery was taken, the gar- 
rison made prisoners, the cannon destroyed and the magazine blown up. 
But this brilliant victory was dearly purchased, for Brigadier General 
Daniel Davis,' Colonel Gibson and Lieutenant Colonel Wood all fell 
mortally wounded. In the meantime General ]\Iiller had taken two of 
the enemy's batteries and seized the block-houses in the rear. Toward 
the close of tlie. action Ripley's reserve was ordered up and he was 
severely wounded. Within forty minutes after the beginning of the at- 
tack the Americans were in pr)ssessi(_)n of the entire British works, and 
Fort Frie was saved. Not only this, but in all probability this magnifi- 
cent' victory saved the entire Niagara frontier and Western New York. 
This sortie is recorded in history as more skillfully planned and gal- 
lantly executed than any other, and as one of the very rare instances in 
which a single sortie re.-5ulted in the rai>ing of a siege. The Americans 
lost seventy-nine killed and two hun'.lred and fourteen v/ounded. The 
British lost tive hundred killed, wounded and missing and four hundred 
prisriner.-. So compU-te was the demoralization of the enemy that on 
September -il Drummond broke up his camp and retired to the in- 
trench ments behind Cinippcwa creek. 

Thib splendid victory at Fort Erie was the most important closing 
event of the war on the Niagara frontier. Soon after, General Izard 
proceeded from Sackett's Harbor to Lewiston, reaching the latter place 
October o. Six days later his forces encamped about two miles north 
of Fort Erie, where he assumed chief command. General Plrown re- 
turning to his former post at Sackett's Harbor. Izard's command soon 
numbered eight thousaiid troops, with which he made preparations to 
march against the army under cr)mmand of Drummond. Leaving Ffjrt 
Erie well garrisoned, he proceeded toward Chippewa and endeavored 
to draw the enemy into an engagement — but in vain. The British 
commatider had seen enough of the undisciplined Yankee faruicrs, and 
fell back to Fort George with as much haste as he could make without 
giving evidence of undue fear. Izard then returned to Black Rock 

' nrigaJier (ieneral! D.ivis .•■i.-sidi.-d in f.e R'n- and was Iho (.■'immander ot the Incal 
voiur.ti.-er s./diers. He was a rn.m iLcreally Ijcloved by tho-^e wiio .servei! uudcr liiin, th.outjh a. 
strict disciplinaria.i. In the first military ur.^'-ani/.ation in Lc Ruy, in ISnl. he was ehusen liciuen- 
ant. He had a str.,>r.g jjassion fcr r.iili'.ary life. He was ani'>n;;- the first tn enlist in the Wi-.r of 
lsl-,\ and was rapidly pruni'>ted for his emMiiess and bravery until he attained the rank of briija- 
dier jjciieral. Tii.-se chatacti-risties v. ere espei-'ally conspieuou.s diirini; the sortie from Fort 
Erie. With sword in h.isluind he led in adv. mix- '-i his division, and asceiidi-d. liie par;i|>et. tlioutch 
warned not t" do so. Keaeliin'^' this point he in~;tantiy w;is shot tlu-ouyh tli'- •.;'■. k, lallinii into the 
arms ol his uide-de-eauip, wiio had Ljraveiy acciQipaaied liiiu. He was buried at Le Roy. 

FROM 1S12 TO iSil. 147 

ferry, whence the entire American army crossed over to the American 
side, abandonin^^- Canada. This practically ended the war, as far as the 
participation of the inhabitants of Genesee county and Western Xew 
York therein was concerned. If some of the inhabitants of Genesee 
county had exhibited those traits in the early part of the war which 
brought upon their heads deserved censure, those who participated in 
the events of the last year of the war won undying fame by reason of 
their high patriotism, their coolness and bravery, their splendid obedi- 
ence to the commands of their officers and their general behavior dur- 
ing the most critical periods of the contests in which they took part. 


Changes Along the Various Lines of Endeavor in Genesee County from the Close 
of the War of lsr2 to the Erection of the Present County of Genesee in 1841 — Some 
of the Sett ers of Those Days— Early Hotels — The EslabHshment of Important 
Manufacturing Industries — Schools — Many New Churche-:. Founded — ErT^rrt to Re- 
move tlie County Seat to Attica — The Farnsworlh Trial — The Morgan Episode — A 
New Jail — The Land Ofhce War — Discontent Among the Land Holders — Formation 
of the County Agricultural Society— Erection of the New Court House — Division of 
th.e Old and Creation of a New Genesee County. 

At the close of the war of LSr-2 the county of (jcnesee was in a lament- 
able condition. Money was scarce, commerce and industry in its vari- 
ous branches either paralyzed or seriously crippled, and the settlement 
of the new districts almost at a standstill. Strangely enough, during 
the war many brave immigrants had taken up lands within the confines 
of the cuunty, while, as soon as the war was ended, such settlement 
almost ceased. fJatavia and Le Roy suffered less from the effects of 
the war than most other communities, yet even these centres of popu- 
lation were in a deplorable condition. A few persons from the East, 
possibly not realizing the situatifjn, or not fearf'al of the probable hard- 
ships which they might be called upon to endure, had the hardiho<jd to 
come west and locate in the county. In Batavia the following are re- 
corded as settling dtiring the few years succeeding the war: 

ISU, R. O. Iloldcn, John Hickox, Silas IloUister, Aipheus Reynolds, 
T. B. Campbell. Joseph Whtaton; ISIo, Guilliam Bartholf, T. Beek- 



with, Samuel Thomas, Ricliard Williams, M. Wurts, Alva Smith, E. 
M. Cook; 181G-18ir, Libbeus Allen, Dr. John Cotes, Andrew Dibble, 
Richard Dibble, Oren Follett, Thomas (ireen, Geori^e W. Lay, Thomas 
McCullcy, Lemon Miller, Tracy Pardee, Moses Tag;.4-art, James Wal- 
ton, William Sullings, Richard Smith, William Seaver, AVilliam Wat- 
kins; ISIS, Ira Boutwell, James A. Billinos, Clement Carpenter, Daniel 
Upton, Moses Wilcox, Aaron Wilcox; ISl'J, J. L Bartholf, Thomas 
Bliss, Andrew Adams; IS'.'O, Whcaton Mason, Seth Wakeman. 

These settlements were recorded in the town of Le Roy during the 
same period: 

1S14, Levi Beardsley, William Le Roy Bishop, Manley Colton, Paul 
E. Day, John Gilbert, P. McVane, Abel Nijyes, John Richards, Elisha 
Severance, A, Williams; IS]. 5. Jeremiali Buell. James Ballard, lames 
Campbell, John Deming, Daniel Foster, Timothy Fitch, W. G. Gustin, 
Harry Flolmes, Timothy Hatch, Joseph Keeney, Marshheld Parsons, 
Jriseph Tompkins; 1810, Versal Bannister. Isaac Crocker, Elijah 
Crocker. Jacob Gallup, Daniel Harris, Timothy Judd. Harry Latiiroj), 
Solomon Root, Deacon Clark Selden, Elliott L. Stanley. Joel White, 
Pander Weld; 1817, C. Butler. Nathaniel Farnham, E. Flart, Uni 
Ilurlburt, A. Perry; 1SI8, Samuel Bishc-p, Silas Jones, Miles P. Lamp- 
son, Thomas C. Ladd, Charles [Mori^an, S. Titiany, Levi Ward, jr. ; 
1810, Dr. S. O. Almy, Albert Hill; 1820, S. M. Gates, Daniel Le 

In Alabama: 

1814, John Richardson, James Richardson, jr., Hannah Carr, Samuel 
Sheldon; LSlo, William Daniels; 1817, Jonas Kinnc, Beniamin Gumaer, 
Henry Ilo^vard; 1810. E. F. Norton; 1821, Robert Harper, James Peter, 
Joseph Holmes; 1822, James Gardner ; 1821:, Samuel Whitcomb ; lS2."i, 
Samuel Basom; 182G, Selah X'osburgh ; 1827, Thomas R. Wolcott; 
1828, Jesse Lund, (iideon M. Taylor, David Webster, Leonard Webster, 
Nahum Loring; 1820, Sterling Hotchkiss; 1830, Daniel Thayer, Ryal 
Ingalsbe, Elijah B. Ingalsbe; 18:52, Gideon Howland, PVirley V. In- 
galsbe; 1834, Elijah and ICbenezer Ingalsbc, Samuel Burr, J;imes Burr, 
Isaac Duell, N. Baker, jr.; 183o, Jacob Martin, David Martin; 1S3G, 
Anson Norton; 1837, James l-'ilkins, George Wight. Abbott Wight. 

Numerous settlements were made in Alexander during these years. 
Among those who h^cated in that town, despite the calamitv which had 
befallen Western New York, were the following-, most of v. horn cair.e 
in 1815: 

FROM 1812 TO 18 H. 149 

General Josiah N"ewton, Captain Mtircellus Fellows, Asahel Warner, 
Slephen Day, Josiah Goodrich, Wolcott Marsh, Emory Blod<Tett, Solo- 
mon Blodgett, Frederick Balcli. Luther Chaddock, Tliomas Chaddock, 
Dennis H. Chaddock, Xewcombe Demary, Nathaniel Loomis, Joshua 
Rix, al! of whom came durini^ or just previous to 1S15; Moah North, 
James A. North, and Eben North, sons of Noah North (a pic^neer of 
ISOS), Daney Churchill, Cherrick Van De Boo-art, Timothy Haskins, 
Janies R. Jackman, < t. Kelsey, James Lewis, Lyman Brown, Ira Newton, 
N. Manson, J. (L Tiffany, who came in ISIG; Silas Southwell, Jonas 
Stimai's, James vStima'^s, Ezra W. Osborn, S. C. SprinL,--, David Halsted, 
1S17; l^benezer Scoville, Guy Shaw, Philip Cook, ISIO; Daniel F. Binven, 
S. B. I-'rainard, Sanford Riddle, C. J. ILiwkins, S. B. Smith, 18:^0; Eliph- 
alet Peck, Horace 15. Hou;^''hton, Benjamin vSimonds. John Simorids, 
Moses Dickinson, Philo Porter, O. T. Fargo, 18-24; Charles Austin, 18-M. 

Among- those who located within tlie limits of the present town of 
Berger; during the few years succeeding the war were William P. Mun- 
ger, William Gorton, Lathrop Farnham, Linus Beecher and Alva Ste- 
vens, who established homes tliere betv/een 1814 and 1810. The tem- 
j^erance socioty estalilished in tov;n in is-^O had these niembers: Rev. 
Josiah Pierson, Rev. Heman Halsey, Deacon Pitman Wilcox, Deacon 
John wSpencer, H. H. Evarts and Henry D. Gifford. Others who resided 
in town during this period, some of whom may have come before the 
war. included Rev. R. Darwin, J(.)hn T. Bliss, David Fancher, INIilton 
Bird, Thomas Templeton, Daiiiel Robinson, Levi Ward, Levi Ward, jr., 
Benjamin Wright, Alexander White, John Gifford, Simon Pierson, Selah 
Wright, Re\-. Allen Hollister, Russell Pierson, C. Pierson, Rev. 
Elisha Mason. 

Mcist of the settlements in Bethany were made before the war of 
181-2. Among those who located there after that event or during the 
last year of the war were the following: 

1813, Abner Ashley, S. Bowers. Josiah Churchill, Captain Lodowick 
Champlin, W. R. Dixon, John Eastland, L Everest, John Metcalf, 
Harvey Prindle, John Page, Nathan Rumsey; 1814, Thomas Adgate, 
Charles r)ixon, T. Fa}', Alanson D. Lord, Rufus Munger, W. F. Nor- 
ton; 1815, James Bennett, jr., diaries Brisbee, Richard B. French, 
John Green, Jolin Lincoln, A. Parsons, J. Saunders, James Stewart, 
Benjamin Smith; l^l^^ G. CottrcU, ]. Rolfc, Asahel Shcpard, James 
Shepard; ISIT, Daniel Hyde, 15. Biirh.w; 1818, D;ivid Merritt. Jared 
S. Lord; 1810, S. Dcbow, Gardner; 1824, James Baker; 18'-2.3, 


Orange Allen, R. R. Brown; 18-2S, Aaron Bailey; 18-29, E. C. Dibble; 
1832, Nathaniel Ilug-^^ins; prior to 1825, Richard Powers, Ira Waite, 
Matilda Wed^^'-e, Samuel Jolles, C. J. Lincoln. 

Some of those who settled in B_\Ton were: 

1813, Abner Thompson, Andrew Hunter (^reen, William Shepherd; 
18 LI, John Searls, Ira Xewburi^-, Asa Williams; 181-3, Seth C. Lang- 
don, Jason Adams. James Tillotson, Asa Merrill; ISIG, Chester Mann, 
A. Norton, Abner Chase. William Warn, Lyman Warn, Milo Warn; 
181?, Joseph liarker, Marcus Barker, Andrew Adams, Jonathan 
Wright, William Peckham. David Mann, Chaiies Beswick; 1818, Moses 
<iiliett, Levi Fish, Calvin Wells; Isi'.i, Harmon Norton, Erastus Nor- 
ton. W. S. Miller: 18-28, Miles C. White; 1818, Rev. Herman Halsey; 
ls2;), Jacob Busliman: 1822, Milton Allen; 1820, Pierpont E, Bull. 

In Darien these settlements are recorded: 

1813, Harvey IVatler. Anson Ackley, Jonathan Llastings, Hiram 
Hedges, John A. Lathn^p, Josiah Lee. William Vickery, Thomas 
Vickery, John McCollister, Tho'-p Wildman; 18U, Daniel Mar-h, 
Horace Sloan. William B. Ciarticld, John Webb, Jonathan Vickery; 
1815, Ba.xter ijiiijert, Ezra Clark, A. Hutchinsitn, vShadrach Harmon. 
Ouartus L'-,c. D. J. Lee, 0:,tadiah Jenks. Elijah Lamb, Joshua Peters, 
jr., David Salisbury. Ephraim Sumner; 181G, David Anderson, Col- 
onel Jesse Satf(;rd, Benajah (Jriswold, William Cole, Daniel C.Stoddard, 
John L. Hoyie, Julius Wildman, Jfjhn Seaver; 1817, C. Dodge, John 
W. Brov.-n, Elisha H. Lathrop, Davis Huntley, Hugh Wallis, Noah 
Win.slow; 1818, Elijah Lee, Philo Farnham, Lemuel Sticknev, Adna 
Titlany, Silas Titlany; 1810, James Booth, Justus Fales, L. H. Colbv, 
Samuel Harroun, Oliver Harpei", Zebulon Jones, Stephen King, Anson 
Lathrop, Caroline Lathrop. William Shumway, John W. Willett. lien- 
jamin Sloan. 

In Elba the following located durmg this period: Chester Scott 
about 18 IT; Nathaniel Ford and Thomas Griffin, 1820; prior to 182'2. 
Washington Cardner, James Fuller, John Wilson, Elisha Buck, Robert 
Irwin, Abraham Sleepe;-, James Harris, Richard Shotwell, Isaac Shot- 
well, Smith Lane, Wanton Aldrich, Israel Hoag, Miles Britton ; about 
1810, Samuel Laing; and the ftdlowing, tlie ye:irs of whose coming are 
unknown, though all were residing in tlie town in 1820; Lemuel Foster, 
}.rason Turner, (ie^jrge Mills, Charles Woodworth, John Underbill, 
Erastus Wolcott, Isa.ic Benedict, Jeremiah Wilford. M.irk Turner. 
Dudley Sawyer, Isaac Higley, Eleazur D. Davis, Ichabod Hincklev 

FROM l^Vi TO 1841. 151 

Samuel White, Xehemiah Tn^ersoll, Martin Wilson, Joseph Jones, 
Abraham Giftord, Joseph Walter. 

Few settlements were made in Oakfield di'.ring' these ye;irs. Aaron 
Brown came from Chili in ISlo, John Underhill and his S(_)n, Alfred 
Uuderhill, came at the same time. Isaac Stringham and Reuben Xorton 
came about IS IS. David C. Reed came in 1S"25. 

Among- those who removed to Pavilion were the following: 

1813, Aaron Tufts, Ezra Coe, Harry Coe, Isaac Crocker, Francis 
Ruby; 181-4, J. ]•".. Holcomb, Leonard Anson, Elijah Cheney, John 
Ilendee, Elijah Olmsted, W. C. SuK^ad, Marshall .Smead, Jesse Snow; 
IS 15, T. Butler, Xaomi r)avis, Ruius Glass, William Glass, Seth Miles, 
Darius ILjwe, Ja-iies X<.)bles, John Reed, Elijah Rogers, Seth Smith, 
James TDnio'-cins. Daniel Ward. Washington Weld, Samuel Webb; 
!81G, Cfiesler, Hora.ce Hannum, Eli Carr, Joel Crofoot', Fran- 
cis Royce. Amos Flalbert, Bial Lathrop, Daniel Knowlton; 1817, 
Horace Batt^, Erastus Bailey: 1818, Chauncey Tiliotson, Jolm Ward; 
1819, Oswald B.)n.d. Carkon Cooley, Albert Hill, Charles Hill; 18-20, 
William Gilmore. George Tubbs; js-^-]^ Jasc^n Duguid, Asa Higgins; 
l.^-Jo, Dr. WLi!---e:i Fay; IS^U. J<^hn Doty; ]82o. Horace S. Coe, George 
Murray, wSitreon LJr.tton, Ale-x.^nder Boyd ; 18-ir,, Edward Lauderdale; 
ls-37, Ira Town:.end. 

Tlie number oi settlements in Pembroke during this period was lim- 
ited. Calvin Cumm.ings came in IS 10, Reuben Millett in 1827, Rev. 
Hugh Wallace in ISio. Other early settlers, the dates of v/hose arriv- 
als are not knovrn. included I-')enjamin Wells. Daniel McCracken, '.icorge 
Porter, Henr}- Porter, Selah Kidder, George Dennison, Burnham Barber. 

Trie records show tlie names of the following settlers in the town of 

l8lo, ^.lerritt King: IsM, Peter Stage; 1815, Eden Foster, Xoble 
Daniels; Isir,, Adget Lathrop, David McCracken; 1817, Abel Cross; 
1818, Chester Scott; ISllt. Joel Philleo, B. Clark, J. J. Reynolds, John 
S. FJlair; 18'H, B. liristol. Beside tiiese the following located on the 
Craigie tract: 

1815, J. Bushnell. D. Biddlecome; 1817, C. Sweetland ; IS'^c, E. 
Xorthrup; IS'M. D. Laid; 18-23, E. Wright; 18-24, S. Plant; 18-27, E. 
W. Cobb. Ot;ier early inhabitants included families named Lent, 
Bannister, Coon, vSnow. Tomlinson, Tanner, Pratt, Lewis, Beckley, 
Reyn-Vids, Terry, Drary, Hv.ljbard, Ikmgs, Kelscy, Ellis, DanoUIs, 
Kendall, Judd, Biish, Stutterd, Hinsdale, Kellogg, Smith and Randall. 


The newcomers were for the most part men in rug^g'ed health, vig^- 
orous intellects, intlomital.)le courag-e and possessed of the true spirit of 
enterprise. Xo pros[)ects of hardships daunted them. Whatever prob- 
lem confronted them, they uniformly rose superior to the occasion. 
By reason of their efforts the country was rapidly developed. Xew 
mills, new shops, foundries, stores and other forms of industry dotted 
the country here and there, replacing the half dead community with 
signs of life and activity on all sides. They built school houses and 
founded churches. Obstacles, sometimes seemingly insurmountable, 
were finally overcome by the sturdy and determined inhabitants, and 
Genesee county took on a new lease of life. 

The industrial development during the period between the close of 
the war of 1812 and the beginning of the war of the Rebellion — four 
years less than half a century — was gradual, but steady and, best of all, 
of the most substantial and beneficent character. Batavia experienced 
greater results than any other section of the country.' Second to Ba- 
tavia came Le Ro}'. 

The development of the village of Le Roy fortunately had not ceased 
during the war, though of necessity the inhabitants suffered greatlv. 
Even wh'le the war was in progress, in ISl'^, J. & A. Nobles built a 
carding factory in the village. Another was in operation during and 
after the war by a man named v'^tewart. Brick yards were conducted 
by Martin O. Coe and Uni Murlburt. There were several distilleries 
— for, while corn would not pay for its transportation, the whiskev 
which could be made from it would. Thomas Tufts was the first to 
open a distillery. Elisha Stanley soon after built one on I'^ort Hill. 
Others were conducted by William Morgan, |. (!v M. Colton, j. H. Lent, 
Dickey, Lampson, Merry and Foot. In iS'ic Joseph Annin built the 
largest distilling plant in Western Xew York at that time, manufactur- 
ing proof spirits for the eastern trade. 

In ISIT Elijah Warner began the manufacture of potash, which he 
continued until l'^-i3. Thaddeus Joy and Mr. Sherman also engaged in 
the same business soon after Mr. Warner opened his asherv. In ISlo 
or 181 G an oil m\\\ was started by Martin O. Coe. This afterwards be- 
came successively the property of L. C. Morgan, Foreman, Starr cS: 
Co., I. M. Foreman, and Mr. Rogers. In 18-^0 James Ballard began 
the manufacture of hats, which he conrinued for about a dozen years. 

' An acc.-'.iTit of rhe inJustr-..-il. i;oiiirneri;, eJ uc.uional, ri.-lit;i(ju.s and social a<.V(jl..i)mc-ni .jf 
i::!-- t'wn aMjiL-.irs in -Jit- fli.ipter devoted to th<j historv of liatavia. 

FROM l>^r2 TO 1^41. ' 153 

About the same time A. E. Ilutchins rind D. Seavey operated a small 
chair factory. 

In 1831 John Tomlinson built a large grist and tlour mill two miles 
southwest of Le Roy village, on the Oatka. Several years after a mill 
was operated at the same point by Thomas Tufts. In 18"^^ Jacob Le 
Roy built a flouring mill about a mile nortli of the village. In 1800 
this property was sold to W. F. Jones, who made wrapping paper there 
until 188T, when it was destroyed by fire. An early tannerv, located 
on the flats below Tomlinson's mill, was conducted by I). & \V. Graves. 
Samuel Glifford began the operation of a carding mill in IS'.)'). Thomas 
Ladd opened a wagon shop in 1818, working there at his trade for about 
forty years. In 1854 his son, ]\I. A. Ladd, constructed a tvvostor}' 
stone building, in which he continued the business established by his 

Le Roy was well supplied with taverns in these early days. In 1819 
Major James Ganson, eldest son of Captain Jolin Ganson, sr., built the 
Eagle hotel on ]\Iain street, on the site of the original Eagle tavern, 
which had been previously conducted by " Auntie" Wemple. He also 
built a ta\-ern on the corner of Main and North streets, which he after- 
ward sold to Mr. Ilosmer of Avon. The Globe and Eagle tavern, built 
in 18in, was first conducted b}- Rufus Robertson. Mr. Walbridge suc- 
ceeded tt; the management in l'^■-*7, and after him Elisha Stanley, J. H. 
Stanley, Lyman Ballard, A. G. Collins and others were proprietors. 
John Lent also had a tavern on the hill. 

The malting industry was inaugurated at Le Roy at an early day, 
but there is in. existence no authentic record regarding it. The 
flouring mill i>uilt by Jacob Le R'->y, which has been referred to, was 
sold by him, ujjon his removal to Xew York, to Joshua Lathrop. After 
various changes the property came into possession of C. F. Prentice 
and J. D. Camen:)n in 18GG. 

So great had been the development of Le Roy, and so progressive 
was the spirit of its inhabitants, that in 18.'U it was decided to ask the 
Legislature to grant it a charter. This was done on May .3, 1834. By 
this act incorporating the village, the corporation limits were deflned as 

All that part of the town of Le Roy. in the county of ('^Jnesee, bounded as follrjws, 
to wit: Bec^inning at a point in the centre of the Niagara road, where a road run- 
ning north by Israel Ralhbun's west line intersects the Niagara road; iheiice along 
said north road so far that a line running west drawn parallel with the .Niagara road 


shall intersect the triangular road at Oeorge \V. Blodgett's north line; thence west 
on said line to a line running south, drawn parallel to the west side of John Lent's 
farm; thence south on said line so far as to intersect a line running east parallel to 
the Niagara road, by the south side of the widow Munn's land; thence east on said 
line so far as to intersect a line running north, to the place of beginning; thence 
north to the place of beginning. 

The charter further provided as follows: 

The first annual mtciing . . . shall be holden on the first Monday in June 
next, at two o"cloci<. in the afternoon, at the house now kept by Theodore Dwight. 

At this election Josluia Lathrop, John T>ent, Rufus Ivol^ertson, Th.eo- 
dore Dwigin and Dennis Blakely were chosen trustees. S. M. Gates 
was elected clerk and Henian J. Ived field treasurer. 

With the rapid increase in the business of vari'jus kinds transacted in 
Le Roy cante the necessity of better banking facilities, and the mer- 
chants and mannfacttirers of the town decided, in LS3S, to establish a 
bank in that villag-e. This institution was ortjanized as the Genesee 
County Dank December S, lSo8, with these directors: Israel Rathbun, 
Miles P. Lampson, Joh.n Dent, Elisha Stanley, jr., Samuel Skinner, 
Isaac X. Stag-e, Alfred Wilcox, Marsliall vSmead, Dticius Parks, Xo;ih 
Starr, Jam^.. C. Ferris, Warren Fay and John B, Skinner. The first 
officers of the bank were: Israel Rathbun, president; John Dent, vice- 
president; Miles P. Danips^n:, cashier ; Samuel vSkinner, attorney. I-Vom 
the date of its incorporation to the present time there has been no break 
in the operation of the batik, thotigh it has been reorganized and re- 
named on several occasions. In l.-^Go it was succeeded by the First 
National Bank of De Roy, with these directors: ^Nliles P. Dampson, 
William Dampson, Miles P. Dampson, jr., Benjamin F. Ballard, Ran- 
dolph Ballard and Miles F. Bi:<by, who were also its first shareholders. 
The capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars v.-as increased June 
5, 1SG5, to one hundred and fifty th(;usand dollars. ?kli!es P. Lampson 
was the first president, William L;impson the first vice-president, and 
Benjamin F. Ballard the first ca.shier. Miles P. Dampson died March 
27, lyOO, having served continuously as an officer of the bank from the 
date of its organization, 

Jantiary ;j, IbSo, the National Bank of De Roy was authorized to be- 
gin business with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars, suc- 
ceeding to tlie business of the ?hrst National Bank. Of this bank tlic 
first directors were William Lampson, Miles P. Dampson, ir. , Ran- 
dolph liallard, John ^Lllone\■ and Butler Wartl, who were also the liulv 

LE Rf)V, lsio_iS41. l,-,5 

shareholders. The. Xational Bank of Le Roy went out of existence 
July 1, ISsO, and upon the same day its successor, the Bank of Le Roy, 
a State institution, which still transacts business under that name, be- 
gan its career. Amid all these chauQ-es the or!.i4-inal bank and its suc- 
cessors have always occupied the rdd buildinci- on the northeast corner of 
Main and Bank streets. Miles P. Lampson, jr., died December 14. 
]S9G; William Lamp^son died February 14, 1S'.>7, and Butler Ward, the 
present chief officer of the bank, assumed the duties of his position 
February •-.':), 1807. 

In the existing- records of the bank there is a hiatus, from Auo-nst, 
IS.j"). to the date of the or;_;-anization of the First National Bank in 
IS*;-! Tlie records show the follriwing oflicers of the denesee County 
Ban.k from 1S3S to ]>5o; 

Presidents.— lS:;^-4(t, Israel Rathbun ; 1^41 -44, John Lent ; LS4."5-4r, 

]^Iarshall Smsad; 184S-49. John Lent; 1850 . Miles P. Lampson. (It 

is known, however, that Mr. Lampson remainel president as long as 
the bank existed). 

Vice-presidents.— 18:38-40, Jolm Lent; 1841-4-2, Marshall Smead ; 
184:). Rut us H. Smith; 1844-4T. James C. Ferris; 1848-50, Elisha 
Stanley; 185^-—, John Lent. 

Cashiers.— 18:38-49, "Miles P. Lampson; 1850-51. II. U. Ilov/ard ; 

185-2 , S. T.FI:>ward. (Mr. Howard served as cashier as late as 180O, 

and perhaps later). 

The officers of the First Xatii.uial Bank of Le Roy were as follows: 

Presidents. — 18o5-o8, Miles P. Lampson; 1809-85, William Lampson. 

Vice-presidents. — 18o5-GS, William Lampson; 1SG9-71, Charles Mor- 
gan; 177-2-77, Elisha Stanley; 1878-8-;:, Randolph Ballard; 188:3-85, 
Miles P. Lampson, jr. 

Cashiers. — 18G.5-7-2. Benjamin F. Ballard; Jmie, 187-2, to 1^85. But- 
ler Ward. 

Assistant Cashiers. — 18G8. Miles P. Lampson, jr. ; 1884-85, Robert 
L. Taft. 

During its brief career the Xational Bank of Le Roy had these offi- 
cers, without change : 

President, William Lampson; vice-|.iresident, Miles P, Lamps'm, jr. ; 
cashier, Butler "Ward; assistant cashier, William C. Donnan. 

The Bank of Le Roy has had the following officers: 

Presidents. — 1889-'.)7. William Lampson; Februar}- -2:}, 1^97. to the 
present time, Butler Ward. 


Vice-presidents.— 1S30-9G, ^Nliles P. Lampson; 1S07-08, John Ma- 

Cashiers— l.>^S9-0r, Biitlcr Ward; JSOT-OS, William C. Donnan. 

Assist:mt Cashiers. — IS.S'J-OO, William C. Donnan; lSOT-03, Harold 
B. Ward. 

Le Roy's citizens at an early date adopted measures for protecti'^n 
against the ravages of fire. For many years the custom of keeping fire 
buckets distributed conveniently about the village was in vogue, and 
many an incipient blaze was thereby quenched before it could make 
any cimsiderable headway. In 1834 the village authorities purchased a 
hand engine operated by two hand cranks. A few years later a small 
brake engine was purchased for the use of the tire company. February 
8, 1851, a regular fire department was organized. In the same year 
the Le Roy Firemen's Benevolent Association was chartered, its mem- 
bership being limited to active members of the fire department. 

Among the enterprises founded in Stafford during these years of 
commicrcial and manufacturing development were the Roanoke roller 
mills, which were built in 183-3 by the firm of Lay, Ganson & Co. They 
were located on the Oatka. In 1887 they became the pro[.'erty of H. C. 
Duguid & Son. 

In 18'jG Holland Earl built a flor.r and gi'ist mill on Tonav;anda creek 
at North Pembrcjke, which he operated for many years. In later years 
the mills became known as the Excelsior fiouring mills. 

In 1817 or 1818 Erastus Bailc}- and Bial Lathro]) built a grist mill on 
the site which afterward 'oecame generallv known as Bailey's Mills. A 
new dam was built in IS'28. In 1835 the property v/as sold to Mr. Bos- 
ley, in 1840 to D. W. Olmsted, and in 1843 to Erastus Bailey, the orig- 
inal part owner, who built a stone mill five years later. 

In 1840 S. Pierce began the operation of a woolen factory at Stafford 
which had been built several years before by a man named Xorthrup. 
In 1845 it became the property of Knowlton, Rich cSj Co., and in 1853 
was owned by Shatter ^: Hardy. It was destroyed b)' lire in the latter 

While devoting the main part of their energies to the development 
of the resources of the county, the establishment of various commercial 
institutions and manufacturing industries, etc., the inhabitants of Gen- 
esee C(umty were not immindful of the education of the youth ' in their 
charge or the fcjstering and healthful development of the spirit of piety. 

' St--' Ch.i;it<--r "P. Fd; in ("ieno-~uc C<>ur.ty. 

CHURCHES, lbl-0— isll. 157 

The first church to be organized during' the period covered by this 
chapter was St. James Protestant Episcopal church of Batavia.' This 
societ}' was formally organized at a meeting held in the court house on 
June »;, IS 15. 

In the same year a stone house of worship was built by the Baptist 
congregaticm in Stafford, nearly half a mile west of the East Transit 
Line on the road to Batavia. The earliest services of this denomination 
in Stafford were conducted in 1810 by the Rev. William Green, who 
preached at the house of Colonel Rumsey. The first regular pastor of 
this church was the Rev, William Lampson. In ISIG a Christian 
church was organized by the Rev. Joseph Badger, and was at once 
consolidated with the Universalist society there. The Rev. H. Thomp- 
son was the first pastor, and the house of worship was built in ISoo. In 
ISTO tlie church became purely Christian. Another society of the same 
denomination built a church in the eastern part of the town in ISoO ; but 
in ISO? the property was sold and the society ceased to exist. In lS"il a 
C'jngregational church was organized, under the charge of the Presb}'- 
tery. For the first four years of its career the Rev. ]\lr. Huxley acted 
as pastor. Subsequently a Congregational and Presbyterian union 
church was formed, but dissatisfaction arose over the occupancy of the 
building c":a disorganization resulted. 

In iSl'j Elder Leonard Anson established th.e first Baptist church in 
Pavilion, with fourteen members. For several years meetings were 
held at various places in the neighborhood, and it was not until 1S34 
that the society erected a hr)use of worship for its use. The cemetery 
adjoining this church is one of the oldest in the county, the first inter- 
ment therein, that of Peter Crosraan, having been rnadc in 181 "•i. 

Four new churches were formed in the county in 1817. Of these the 
First Presbyterian church of Pembroke was organized under the direc- 
tion of the Rev. Hugh Wallis, who acted for several years as general 
missionar}' for the Presbyterian church on the Flolland Purchase. This 
church, small in numbers at first, experienced a steady and substantial 
growth. The Rev. F. B. Reed served as stated sujiply in 18'2o. The 
Rev. L. B. Sullivan became pastor in lS-.iS^ and three }-ears later the 
first house of worship, a frame building with a seating capacity (;f one 
hundred, was erected. 

St. Mark's Protestant Episcopal ctnirch of Le Roy was also organized 

' A more t'.imp!ete h!SC<rry '.>i t!ic- vaiions religi'nis orijani/.iiinns in liat.tvia will bo fnund in 
ihtj cliapicr (icvoteJ to "TIi'j \':ilai;e of" 


in IS 17, under the direction of Rev. Samuel Johnson. A.s early as 1S03 
or 1804 Episcopal services had been held in Le Roy by the Rev. Da- 
venport Phelps, a missionary foi- Western Xev,- York. Tiie number of 
adherents of this denomination continued to increaseuntil it was finally 
deemed advisable to establish a parish. The first officers, chosen in 
181?, were; Wardens, Timothy Hatch, Hugh Murphy; vestrymen, 
Abel Xoyes, Solomon Root, George A. Tiffany, Ezra Piatt, Thaddeus 
Stanley, Elisha Stanley, Manly Colton and Graham Xewell. In 1S20, 
during the rectorship of the Rev. Seth W. Beardsley, a stone church 
was erected on the site of the present edifice on Church street, on land 
donated for the purpose by Jacob Le Roy, who also gave one thousand 
dollars toward defraj'ing the exijense of constructing the building. 
The church was consecrated August T, lS"2r, by Bishop Hobart. This 
house of worship served the parish until ISGO, v/hen it was torn dov.m 
to make way for a new church, the ct^rner stone of which was laid Api-il 
•2-4, 18(39, under the pastorate of the Rev. J. H. Waterbury. The edi- 
fice was formally opened for vrorship December 22, 1870, but was not 
consecrated until November '23, 1S7G, when the Rt. Rev. Arthur Cleve- 
land Coxe, bishop of Western New Y(jrk, performed that ceremonv. 
The Rev. Dr. T. ^I. Bishop was serving as rector at the time of the 
consecration. The rectors of the parish who succeeded the Rev. Mr. 
Beardsley been: 1830, J. M. Rogers; 1831. Dr. H. F. Cummings; 
1833, Dr. Kendrick Metcalf; 1841, George D. Gillespie; 184G, T. D. 
Chipman; 1850, George H. McKnight; 185G, R. J. Parvin; 18iJ2, A. M. 
Wylie; 1804, A. 11. Cicsner; 1808, J. H. Waterbury; since which time 
the parish has been served successively by Revs. T. M. Bishop, D. D., 
L. D. Ferguson, J. II. Weibel, Arthur W. Sloan and Pierre Gushing, the 
present rector. 

The Stafford Christian church, located at Morganville, was organized 
October 20, 1817, by the Rev. Joseph Badger and Levi Hathaway, v^•ith 
eleven members. The houise of worship was built some time prior to 
1S35. The first pastor was the Rev. Hubbard Thompson. Succeeding 
him tlie following have served the society: 1820, Jeremiah Gates; 1820, 
Daniel Call; ls31, J')seph Badger; 1^".32, Allen Crocker; ls33, Thomas 
Fiske; 1835, David Millard; ls3r,, Ebene/.er Adams; 1842-45, R. A. 
Burgess and A. C. Parker; l>.t5, Joseph Weeks; 1801, J. Burlingame; 
isci, I C. Tryon; ]-.»;s, William G. Wade; 1>71, J. Worden; 1S73, I. 
C. Tryon; is:.;, p. R. Scllon ; b^si, William Case; I'^s?, I. C. Tryon; 
I^^s, J. B. Ciark; 1.s;m), J. H. Carr; ls:j3, A. J. Wayman; 181)5, Alden 
Allen, the present pastor. 

CHURCH KS, 181:2—1841. • 159 

The Congregational church of Bethany, located at East Bethany, was 
founded June 17, 1S17, by John Bliss, a missionary from Connecticut. 
Its original membership numbered eleven. For .several years this 
church was without a regular pastor. The first to serve in that capacity 
was the Rev. Reuben Hard, who located there in 1S"23. The following 
year a brick house of worship, costing three thousand dollars, was 
erected; and in the same year the society abandoned the Congregational 
form of government and united with the Presbytery of Genesee, since 
which it has remained a member of the Presbyterian denomination. 

Two churches were organized in IS IS — the First Baptist church of 
Le Roy, and the First Congregational church of Byron. 

The first Baptist service held in Le Roy was when Elder Peck, a 
missionary of that church, visited ihe settlement: in IsuG and preached 
in the school house there. A few months later ]-_^lder Bennett, another 
Baptist [ireacher, delivered a seruion in the same place. In ISlo Hinds 
Chamberlain's barn was opened as a temporary house of worship, and 
Elder Witherell [)reached a sermon therein. After that several sei-mons 
were delivered by the Rev. Donald }ilann, the i:)astor at Caledonia, and 
Elder Leonard Anson. The number of adherents of this faith contin- 
ued to increase, and on June -^-t, ISlS, the First Baptist church was for- 
mally organiz'^d at tlie sciiool house near Oliver Lang\vorth}-'s, Rev. 
K. \'ining actirig as moderator and Henry Slax'ton as clerk. Twenty- 
six persons received the right b.and of fellowship. Elder xVmes Lam[)- 
son v/as selected for the first pastor, and iriinds Chiamberlain as deacon. 
In 1823 the society began the erection of the present church edifice on 
tlie eastern part of ^lain street, which was completed in 18"20. Six 
yea'-s later it was removed to Churcli street, on land purchased of Joshua 
Lathru[). The church was incurporatud as "The First Societv 
of Le Roy" in ^lay, ISil, with Austin Phelps aspresident of the board 
of trustees and P. M. Smith as clerk. In LSOS a parsonage costing 
nearly two thousand dollars was built on Wolcott street; but this was 
afterward exchanged for a residence on Church street, which was rebuilt 
in ISSI. Those who have acted as pastors of this church, in the order 
of their service, are Amos Lampson, E. M. S[iencer, David ]\Ioi-ris, 
J<jhn Minor, Barach Beckwith, Ely Stone, A. Willey, John .Milkr. W. 
I. Cram, Ichabod Clark, William Hutchinson, H. Daniels, A. C. Bar- 
rell, D. Moom, O. A. F. Spinning, I. Clark, W. F. Basten, E. P. Brig- 
ham. D. D. Reed, A. L. Wilkinsi^i, C. M. Rupe, O. C. Kirkham, and 
D. L. Martin, who became pastor September 1, ISSI. In 1S9,5 the so- 


ciety purchased the F. C. Lathrop property on P^ast Main street, which 
will be held as a site for a future new house of worship. 

The First ConL^TCc^^ational church of Byron was organized Xoveniber 
2v, 181S, at the house of John Thompson of Batavia, by the Rev. Her- 
man Halscy, a minister sent out by the New York Evangelical Society 
of Young Men. The original members numbered eleven. In 1810 the 
place of worship was moved to a brick school house about one and one- 
half miles south of Byron Centre. In 18'2o it was fixed at Byron. In 
IS'Z'i the First Congregational vSocicty of Byron was chartered accord- 
ing to law. The society met in various places in FJyron Centre until 
18^30 when a church edifice was erected and dedicated. In 18'^4 the so- 
ciety united with the Genesee Conassociation of the Congreg:tti(->nal 
Church, and transferred its relation to the care of the Genesee Presby- 
tery in 1831. In 184-5 it was changed to the Presbyterian form of gov- 
ernment, under the pastorate of Rev. J'^hn B. Preston. In 186G the 
church edifice was extensively repaired at an expense of about $3,o00. 
In 1893 a beautiful new parsonage was erected, a gift of the Boynton 
estate. In 1806 the floor of the auditorium was raised and a suite of 
rooms added below. Tlie following ministers have served the church, 
now known as the Byron Presbyterian church: Revs. Herman Halsey, 
1818; William P. Kendrick, 18-2t3; Lot B. Sullivan, 18-2S; Lewis Cheese- 
man, 1830; Herbert A. Reed, 1831; B. B. Gray, 1833; A. Sedgwick, 
1837; Euer Childs, 1830; Francis Danforth, 1813; John B. Preston, 
1841; J. Partington, 18.50: A. O. Wightman, 1855; R. If. Dexter, 185i*. ; 
N. M. Clute, 1857; John M. Ballou, 1S03; T. M. Hodgraan, 18r,(.;; Ed- 
win Allen, 1873; J. F. McLaury, 18^5; J. W. Stitt, 1800. 

St. John's Methodist Episci.<pal church of Batavia' was organized in 
1810, and became connected with the " Xew Amsterdam Circuit and 
Genesee District," but no house of worship was erected until 18'^3-".ll. 

The three churches organized in the year 18'-20 were the First Bap- 
tist of IJethany, the Freewill Baptist of Byron and the Friends" Society 
of Elba, now defunct. The first of these, the First Baptist churcii of 
Bethany, was founded May 7 of that year with a membership of 
twenty-six. In 1810 it reported a membership of one hundred and 
forty, but owing to great changes in the population of the town it has 
since decreased in members. The original house of worship, built in 
1S'2G, is still standing. Those who have served as pastors are: 18-20--H, 
John lilain : l8-2-*--25, John Mudge; 18-.2'i-:28, Bartemus Brayman; 18--.^0- 

' A full liisi.iry of ih;.i society will bf fi)Uiul in the ch;ipter relatini^ to the viliuj^e >.n' U.ilavia. 

CHURCHES, 1S12— IStl. IGl 

?A, William Gildersleve ; 18;J2-:):3, Daniel Peck; 18:-5o-3G, William 
Sinilh; 18;ji;-40, H. R. Stiinpson; lS-U-4-^, Henry Shute; 184-2-43, R. 
C. Palmer; 1844-45, Rela Palmer; Islt'i-^l^ llobar: Lea\'en\vorth ; 1847- 
4'J, L. W. Olney; 1850-5:!, A. M. Starkweather; 1853-55, James Mal- 
lory; 1^50-58, William Buxton; 18iJ0-G4, Smith Ilulse; 18Gi-G8, Jesse 
Elliot; 18Gy-:i, F. B. Mace; 18?'2-:4, T. A. Edwards; 1874-7G, C. 
Townsen; 18rG-08, J. M. Scarff. 

The Freewill Ba[)tist church of I'yron, located at North Byron, was 
organized in 18"2() by the Re\s. Nathaniel Brown and Harmon Jenkins. 
The first house of worship was erected in IS33. A. Baptist church was 
established in Byron as early as IS 10, but it ceased to exist many years 
ago. The First M. E. church of that town, fomided about IS'22, has 
also been extmct many years. 

The Friends' Society orj^anized in Elba in 18'20 originally consisted 
of forty-eight heads of families in that town, besides several others from 
adjoining towns. Among the leading members at the foundation were 
Jonathan Ramsdale, Elijah Pond, Abraham Clifford, Ira Lapham, Will- 
iam Cromwell and Joseph Jones. The first house of worship, a log 
structure erected in 1S'20, was replaced in 1838 by a stone church. The 
society has always been in a prosperous condition. Rev. James D. 
Wood is the present pastor. 

The First Presbyteri-m church of Elba was organized as a Congrega- 
tional society with sixteen members C)ctober 8, 18"-2"-2. It remained 
Congregational in form, although for a part of that time under the care 
of tlie Presbytery, until November 3, 18GG, when it became a duly or- 
ganized Presbyterian church. The Rev. Solomon Hibbard was the 
first pastor of the church. Tlie first church, erected in 18Q'2, of wood, 
was su})planted in l-^'S by a commodious structure costing seven thou- 
sand dollars. Revs. E. H. Stratton, R. Whiting and (t. S. Corvvin were 
early pastors. The present pastor is the Rev. Farley Porter. 

The Second Baptist church of Elba was formed September 13, 18'^.3, 
with sixteen m.embcrs. Two years later a house of, worship was erected. 
The Rev. John Miner acted as the first pastor of the society. The first 
church was destroyed by fire in 1S37, and not rebuilt until 1849-185i.'). 

St. Philip's Protestant Episcopal church of Stafford dates from the 
year 18'23. As early as February IG of that year Lucius Smith, Rich- 
ard Smith and E. Mix ' of Batavia organized a church under that 
name." In February, 1833, a parish was regularly organized at the 

> I'riibabiy Ebenexct M:x. ' Sn rcC'.'rd^ >>f this early church arc in c\ii:ence. 



village of Stafford and g:iven the name of Trinity parish. The Rev. 
John P. Robinson was the first rector in charge. The records of the 
church in the year foHowing sliow that there were forty c(nnmunicants. 
For a few years services were held in the old stone church. In 
1841 the society began the erection of an edifice fur its own use, and 
this was consecrated by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Delancey in 1842 under 
the name of vSt. Paul's Protestant Episcopal church. The Rev. George 
D. Gillespie, afterwards bishop of \Vestern Michigan, was the first rec- 
tor, and John Warren, sr., and Richard Warren were the first wardens. 
Those who have served as pastors are: Steplien C. Millet, John P. 
Calhoun, Milton Ward, Philemon E. Coe, Richard Radley, Rev. Mr. 
Edson, E. R. Armstrong. 

The Presbyterian church of North Pergen was organized Xoxember 
IS, 18-23, in the house of Jonah Guthrie, by the Rev. A. Darwin. Josiah 
Pierson, Jolm T. Bliss and David Fancher. It was first known as the 
Congregational church of Bergen, Byron and Clarendon, and had 
twenty-one members when organized. April 11, IS^T. it united with 
the Rochester Presbytery, and D. Fancher, Milton Bird. Thomas Tcm- 
pleton and Daniel Robinson were chosen elders. ^^lilton Bird was the 
first to be ordained deacon. The Rev. X. Clapi), the first pastor, was 
ordained and installed February 2o, 1S--2T. April -2, 1^20. the societv 
was nained after the post-office of that time— Lyme — but in ISlt), when 
the name of the post-office was changed to North Bergen, the name of 
the church was likeu-ise changed. In 183:3 a commodious frame edifice 
was constructed. This has been remodeled several times. In 18'.f2 a 
parsonage was built. The following have served as pastors of the soci- 
ety, in the order given: Rev. Mr. Clapp, ordained and installed Febru- 
ary 5, 1829; Revs. Colton Meade, Isaac Bliss, John Walker, Lemuel 
Clark, L. Cheeseman, Bela Fancher, Hiram Gregg, N. M. Clute, 
Albert Bigelow, L. W. Billington, O. PI. Barnard, L. W. Billington, 
E. W. Brown, C. W. Remington, John H. Perkins, Shubal Carver, 
L. C. Butler, Mr. Boon, A. R. Vosburg, and Rev. J. C. Long, the pres- 
ent pastor. 

The Freewill Baptist church of Alabama was organized in 1824 
through the instrumentality of Elder Samuel Whitcomb, who was not 
only its first pastor, serving for many years, but also for a long period 
the only preacher in the town of Alabama. 

A Baptist mission church was organir^.ed on the Tonawanda Indian 
Reservation in 1S25 and placed in charge of the Rev. Mr. Bin" ham. 

CHURCHES, 1812—1341. 1G3 

Several years later the society built a brick church, which is still in use. 
The membership has never been very large. 

In 1820 Zion Protestant Episcopal church of Bethany was founded. 
The corner-stone of the house of worship was laid July -i of that year 
under the direction of the Masonic fraternity, on which occasion an 
oration was delivered by William Mitchell, afterwards first judge of the 
Court of Common Picas. The early records of this church are not in 

The First Congregational church of I>arien, which ceased to exist in 
ISGi), was organi:ed May 0, 1S23, at Darien Centre, with the Rev. 
Hugh Wallace as pastor and twelve members. A wooden chu.rch was 
built in 1830. Among those who served as pastors were the Revs. T. 
Baldwin and L. A. Skinner. 

The Free Baptist church of Wheatfield, in the town of Alabama, 
was organized in 1S'20 and reorganized in 1837. Joseph Holmes and 
Holland Fuller were the first deacons. The present cluuxh building- 
was built in 185<'. The pastors of the church, in the order of their 
service, have been; Revs. H. Oilman, H. Blacknter, Horace Perrv, 

E. P. Talman. R. Martin, Smith, L. Johnson, W. Peck, C. H. 

Floag, S. R. Evans. Mr. Evans, the last resident pastor, left his charge 
in 18'j0. 

A society known as the Batavia and Pembrt/ke Baptist church was 
established at East Pembroke February !>;, 18-2(;, by E)aniel McCracken, 
Benjamin Wells, Chauncey Woloott, William Upton, Mary A. Mc- 
Cracken, Lydia 'Wolcott and Sally Harrington. The Rev. Amos 
Lampson w-as chosen as the first pastor. The first church, a frame 
building built in 1^4i,', ums superseded in 18^7 by a fine brick edifice 
costing seven tliousarid dollars. 

The Alexander M. E. church was organized in 18-^7. The earlier 
records are not in existence. The cliurch now standing is the first one 
built by the society. The various ])astors since 18ol, as far as shov/n 
by the records, have been: IS.") I, M. Scott; 1853), E. R. Keves; lS")5-.")7, 
M. W. Riply; ISijl, I). B. Worthington : l8G-^-(;3, J. X Simpkins; 1.>G4, 
R. D. Miller; ] SG5, P. Woodworth; LsiJO, E. W. Hill; 1SG7, G. De Ea 
Matyr; 18<;s, M. W. Riply, 1810-71, T. E. I'.cU; l>'r^, F. W. Conable; 
1873,-74, T. W. Chandler; 187.!., R. E. Waite; 187<;, H. J. Owens, 
R. E. Waite, J. McEv>-en; 187^, T. H. Perkins and R. E. Waite; 187'.)- 
80, T. H. Perkins; l>^•2-84, C. S. Haly; 18s.-.. J. McEwen; 1887-S8, W. 
L. Moore; 188'.), F. E. King; 1^1m)-01, H. A. Slingerland; 18'Jo, A. li. 
Taylor; 180G, William Magovern; Ib07-0S, A. H. .Ma-. p.. 


The Metliodist Episcopal church of Le Roy was not organized until 
September, 1S2S, though preaching service had been held there for 
several years and a class had been organized as early as Ib'Z'.), composed 
of Alfred Morehouse and his wife. Orange vScott and his wife, Asenalh 
Judd, John Hay, Julia Herrick, I. Herrick and his wife, Alanson Stan- 
le}', Mrs. Stanley and Henry Goodenow. The Rev. Micah Seager was 
the first regular pastor of the society. For a year services were held 
every two weeks in the school house east of the village. In ISO',) a 
small brick church was built at a cost of $050 and dedicated by Bishop 
Roberts. In 18S4 this church was ruined by fire, and plans for a new 
building were at once made. The corner-stone of the handsome new 
edifice on Trigon Park, East Main street, was laid ^Nlay 20, 1885, by the 
Rev. J. E. Bills, D. D., presiding elder of the Genesee district of the 
Genesee conference, and the structure was dedicated September 17, 
1886. It is of grey sandstone and cost $2G,000. Those wlio have 
served as pastors of this church, and the years of their appointment, 
are: 1823, Micah Seager; 1821, J. Hustes; 1825, C. V. Adgate; 1827, 
W. Hoag; 1S2'J. S. :^[adison; 1830, R. Parker; 1831, Micah Seager; 
1832, S. Madison; 1833, R. L. Waite; 1834, L. B. Castle; 1835, I. 
Chamberlytie; 1830, G. Osband; 1837-38, J. Latimer; 1839-40, P. E. 
Brown; 1841, D. D. Buck; 1842, M. Seager; 1843, P. Woodworth ; 
1844-45, A. Steele; 1840-47, C. C. Houghton; 1848-49, R. L. Waite; 
1850, H. R. Smith; 1851-52, J. M. Fuller; 1853-54, A. P. Ripley; 
1855, S. C. Clark; 1850-57, J. McEwen; 1858, G. De La :\Iatyr; 1859- 
00, P. R. Stover; 18t;i-G2, E. A. Rice; 1803, C. Shelling; 1804-00, K. 
D. Nettleton; 1807-09, P. R. Stover; 1870-71, W. S. Tuttle; 18':2, J. 
Hartwell; 1873, J. Morrow; 1S74-75, J. B. Wentworth; 1870, R. F. 
Kay; 1877-78, R C. Brownlce; 1879, K. P. Jervis; 1880-82, ^[. C. 
Dean; 1883-85, G. H. Dryer; 1880-80, W. C. Wilbor; 1889-90, I. M. 
Dalby; 1891-92, J. A. Smith; 1893-98, G. M. Harris; from October 
1898, Frederick S. Parkhurst, Ph. D. 

The Second Congregational ehurch of Lc R(j_\- and Bergen, now 
known as the " Presbyterian Societ}' of Stone Church," is the orfshootof 
the First Congregational church of Bergen, and was founded March lb, 
1828, with S. Dibble and J. Ward as deacons and Russell Pierson, 
David Byam and Luther C. Pierson as assistants. The <jriginal "Stone 
church" was begun September 24, 1828, In 1804 a frame edifice was 
built upon the site of the first church and was dedicated the following 
year. October 28, 1828, the Rev. Elisha Mason became the first pas- 

CHURCHKS, 1812—1811. 165 

tor of the society. The society chanc,''ed from the Congreg"ational to the 
Presbyterian form of ^^overnment in 188"-3, 

■ The Methodist sr^ciety was org-anized in Bethany in 1820 by Dr. 
Jonathan K. I^arlow, the pioneer physician in that town, but its ex- 
istence was brief. A Bethany Union church was formed in IS'^8 and a 
second M. E. society in lS-12, but all are now extinct. 

The second Presbyterian church in Bethany was organized October 
20, 1S20, by Messrs, AVhiting, Bliss, Watts and a few other persons. 
The first pastor was the Rev. W. Whiting. In 18:19 the society erected 
a house of worship, which since that time has been repaired several 

The Univei-salist church of Le Roy was organized in 18:31, though 
services had been held there b}' preacliersof that denomination as early 
as 1812. Among the early n)inisters after tlie formation of the society 
were Tomlinson, Knapp, Kelsey, Peck, Brayton, and others. The so- 
ciety held its meetings in the old "Round House." In 185S the Rev. 
Charles Cravens was chosen pastor, and the socieiy was reorganized. 
The " Round House " was purchased in 1850 and razed to the ground. 
In its place was erected the present church edifice, costing at that time 
about §8,000. After a severe and protracted struggle the society paid 
for the building, and it remains to this day imincumbered. Mr. Cra- 
vens, aft( r a long and successful pastorate, retired, and was followed 
b}- Rev. P. ^I. Hicks. He was succeeded by the Revs. Charles Datton, 
G. W. Powell, E. W. Fuller, M. L. Hewitt, H. B. Howell, M. D. 
Shumway, AV'illiam Knott, C. L. Haskell, J. A. Copeland and E. L. 
Conklin, in the order named. 

The First ]\Iethodist Episcopal church of Bergen was organized April 
5, 18:31. The records of the society show that Rev. Reeder Smith 
founded a society priorto this date, which v.-as called the " First Societ}' 
of the Methodist Episcopal church of Bergen." In 1838 an edifice 
C(;sting SI, 000 was erected. In 1853 the society removed to the present 
site, purchased the ffjrmer edifice, and beautified and enlarged it at a 
cost of over $'^,000. In 18T3 the society was a part of the Churchville 
circuit, but under the labors of Rev. T. E. Bell, the membership in 
that year swelled to one hundred and eighteen, and sixteen probation- 
ers, and a separate existence was created. In 18*'0 a parsonage was 
erected at a cost of $l,20t\ and August 3, 1882, the present elegant 
brick edifice, built in Gothic style, was dedicated, with Rev. J, B. 
Countryman, pastor. In I8'j8 a chapel was built at a cost of $I,-i00. 


The records show the following to have served as pastors. The list is 
not complete, but no further data is in existence. 1S31, Reeder Smith; 
183-2-:j:], Ilenajah Williams and Preston R. Parker; 1S:5(J, G. Taylor 
and Salem Judd; ISijO, (lideon Laniny and David Nutten ; 1^40, X. 
Fellows, G. Taylor and E. (). flail; lS-Il-14, Daniel Anderson; 1S45, 

H. Ryan Smith; , Amos Smith; lS.->"3-53, ^licah Sea<jfer, John 

Fuller; 1854, John B. Lanckton ; IS55-5i;, Sheldon H. Baker; ISoT, 
Richard Cooley ; 1858, James M. Fuller; 1850, John AIcEwen ; 1800-01, 
Sumner C. Smith; lS02-0;3, Benjamin F. McNeal : 1804. John Kennard ; 
1805^, Chauncey S. Baker; 1S00-G7. tienry W. Annis; 1808, J. N. 
Simpkins; 1809-70, N. Jones; 18?!, E. S, Furman; 18:-^, \V. L. 
Warner; 18::!, Thomas E. Bell; 1874, J. L. Forster; 1875-7^, PI. C. 
Woods; October, isr8, to October, 18711. T. C. Hitchcock; 1870-8-^, 
J. B. Countryman; 188-.2-S5, Thomas Cardus; 1885-88, T. T. Rowe; 
1888-01, J. A. Smith; 1801-94, C. G. Stevens; 1894 to the present time, 
John R. Adams. 

The First Universalist society of Pavilion was organized October 10, 
1831, by James Sprague and h^lijah Olm'^ted, with thirty-eight mem- 
bers. The year following a house of worship was erected. The first 
pastor was the Rev. L. L. Sadler. Others who have acted as pastors 
named in the order of their service have been the Revs. Alfred Peck, 
A. Kelsey. J. Davy. j. S. Brown, X. M. Fisk, Orville Brayton, Charles 
Cravens, Charles Dutton and M. D. Shumway. 

The Oakfield and Alabama Baptist church at Great \"alley was also 
one of the four churches organized in Genesee cotmty in 1831. Xo- 
vember '-^o, 1S'20, a meeting was called at the house of ]\Irs. Betsey 
Barker at Oaktield Five C'^niers. Bi-other Shears and wife, Brother 
Calkins, and Sisters Dickinson and Barker were constituted a branch 
of the Baptist Church at Elba. December 'i27, 1831, a council was con- 
vened at Shears school-house one mile east of South Alabama, and this 
branch bec;ime the church of Oakfield with twentv-five members. 
During the first ten years the society had eight pastors — Rev. Messrs. 
Gould, Brown, Hall, Griswold, Fuller, Blood, Fairchild and South- 
worth. January '2i. 1830. the society voted to unite with the Alabama 
church and build a house oi worship. This was completed in 1840, 
and has been re{)aired three times — in 1855, 1870 and 1883. The nas- 
tors since 1810 have been as follows, named in the order of their service: 

Revs. A. Warren, James Mallcry, Reed. R. Baker, R. D. Pierce, 

R. C. Palmer, l*:ii Stone, W D. Corbin, L. Atwater, E. E. Gage, B. 

CHURCHES, 1812—1841. 167 

F. :Mace, Charles Berry, J. M. Derby, William Garnet, J. M. Coley, B. 
F. :Mace, Marion Forbes, M. W. Hart, P. W. Cranell, W. H. Holt, J. C. 
Newman, (). F. Love, A. A. Shaw, I). E. Hurt. 

Asbury M. IC. church of Pavilion was built at Union Corners in 1S3"2, 
chietly through the efforts of the Rev. Hiram May, who was then 
preaching on that circuit. The society disbanded in 187G. The old 
church was occupied for a time by the Free Methodists, but was finally 
abandoned. The Union church was built at Pavilion Centre at an earh" 
da}*, and was used by all denominations. It subsequently was con- 
verted ii;to a public hall. 

The Alabama Baptist church v/as organized in 1832 by Elijah In- 
galsbe, ]Mr. Rennant and wife, Charles P. Brown and wife. Adna 
Ingalsbe and wife and others. Elder Hall was the first pastf^r, Mr. 
Bennant and Adna Ingalsbe the first deacons and Charles P. Brower 
the first clerk. The church united with the Niagara Association in 
ISoo. The next year one of the greatest revivals in the histor}- of the 
county occurred. Seventy persons were baptized in one day, three 
ministers being in the water together and baptizing at the same time. 
Soon after this Hiram K. Stinson became pastor and baptized eighty- 
one more, making the total of one hundred and fifty-one baptisms for 
that assoeiational year. Mr. Stinson was ordained to the ministry in 
this town. In ISSO the house of worsh.ip was thoroughly repaired, 
making it practically a new building. Four years later a parsonage 
was built. Since Mr. Stinson's pastorate the following have served the 
society: ISOG, Augustus Warren; 1S40, J. Packer; 18-12, Alexander 
Mede; 1845, E. J. Corey; 184G, I. A. Whitney; 1848, J. Packer; 1850, 

C. Clutz; 1854, Augustus Warren; 18T0, ]Mace; 1ST7, L. S. 

Stowell; 1S79, Fowier; 188-2, D. J. Ellison (supply); 1885, H. H. 

Thomas: 1S8G, J. B. Lemon; 1888, I. Child; 1800, O. N. Fletcher 
(supply); 1802, F. Redfern; 1804, G. R. Schlanch ; 180G, J. S. Nas- 

The year 1833 witnessed the establishment of no less than five church 
organizations in Genesee county. These were the Universalist church 
in Alexander, an M. E. church in Darien, a Methodist Protestant 
church in Elba, a Presbyterian church in Oakfield, and an Episcopal 
church in Stafford. 

The First Universalist church of Alexander built and dedicated a 
frame house of worship in June, 183:i, the year of the organization of 
the society. The first trustees of the society were Colonel Nelson, 


Capl. Royal Moulton and Joseph Rix. The pastors of the church and 
the years of the beginning of their pastorates follow: 

1833, J. S. Plagler; 18:30. Samuel Goff; 1812, B. B. Bunker: IS-l-"), W. 
B. Cook; 1S48, E. \V. Locke; 1850, William McNeal ; 18.r2, C. F. Dodge; 
1858, T. J. Whitcome; 1802, C. C. Cravens; 1871, G. \V. Powell; ISTl, 
B. Hunt; 1870. George Adams; 1878, C. C. Richardson; 1S81, M. D. 
Shumway; 1884. H. W. Hand; 1880, H. W. Carr; 1801, T. E. Potterton ; 
1803, C. R. East; 1803, Miss Frankie Cook. 

The first Methodist Episcopal church of Darien was organized March 
18, 1833. The society had but a brief existence, and the records can- 
not t)e found. The present M. E. church in that town was organized 
in 1841 by Rev. J. W. Vaughn with tifty-three members. The present 
church building was erected in 1848. Services at Darien Centre were 
held until 18Ti in the Congregational church, when through the efforts 
of the pastor. Rev. E. S. Furman, aided by Jacob Nichols of Darien 
Centre, the present church building was erected. 

The names of the pastors in the order of their service are: Revs. 
J. \\\ Vaughn, 1841 ; H. M. Ripley, 1842-43; A. Herrick, 1844-45; P. 
Woodworth, 1840; P. Roberts. 1847; K. D. Xettleton, 1848; J. W. 
Vaughn, 1840-51; J. Hagar, 1852; J. Torrey, 1853; J. X. Simpkin.s. 
1854; H. Butlin, 18.'.5-5G; J. R. Wooley, 1857-58; A. P. Ripley, 1850- 
60; J. McClelland. 1801-62; D. D. Cook, 1803-04; C. Eddy, 18G5-G0; 

A. Plumley, 1807-0^; C. S. Baker, 1800-71; E. S. Furman, 1872-74; W. 

B. Ci^ff, 1875-77; R. F. Kay, 1878-70; J. B. Peck, 1880-81; L. E. Rock- 
well, 1882-83; W. S. Tuttle, 1884; W. Magovern. 1885; J. Criswell, 
1886; H. A. Slingeriand, 1887-88; G.A. Bond, 1880; I. Harris, 1800-02; 
E. W. Pasko. 1803-O.-. ; E. W. Shrigley, 1800; L. J. Muchmore, 1807-08. 

The hrst Methodist Protestant church of Elba was organized with 
twenty-five members in 1833 by the Rev. Isaac Fister. The following 
year a church edifice was constructed. This was remodeled and en- 
larged in 1878. This property was original!}- deeded by Asa Babcock 
and wife to a board of trustees consisting of Eden Foster, James Fuller, 
Loring Barr, Martin Scotield and Jeremiah Wilcox. Among those who 
have served as pastors are Isaac Fister, E. A. Wheat, D. S. Skillman, 
O. P. Wildey and B. Poste, who was appointed to the charge in 1808. 

The Rev. C. Fitch established the Oakfield Presbyterian church De- 
cember 10, 1833, with seven members. The first church edifice, a 
frame building, still in use, was not erected until 1843. The dedica- 
tory sermon was preached by the Rev. William C. Wisner, D. D. The 


Rev. Ehenezer H. Stratton, the first pastor, assumed his rehitions with 
t\\e society in 1S34. 

Tlie Episcopal church of Stafford, orgaui;^eil in is:3;), is the successor 
(jf the first Episcopal church in that town — St. Philip's — established in 
IS'2;]. Its history is found in preceding- pages. 

The First Baptist church of Baiavia dates from July S, 1834., though 
organization was not perfected until November 9, 18o7.' 

The First Methodist Episcopal church of Pavilion was established in 
connection with one at Moscow, N. Y., and one at Cm'ington, and 
moved from Covington to Pavilion in 1S40. Thehcjusc of worshij) was 
erected in the latter year. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at Roanoke was founded as a Union 
church in 1840, wiih about fifty memliers and the Rev. Daniel Burke 
as pastor. In 1843 a house of worship costing fifteen hundred dollars 
was built. 

In the interval covered by this chapter numerous changes took place 
throughout the county at large, in addition to those noted in the various 

In 1818 and ISIO a strong effort was made by the inhabitants of the 
southern part of the county to secure the removal of tlie county seat to 
Attica. During the same time a movement to divide the county was 
also inaugurated. It being apparent to all at this period thai the old 
court house, erected in 1802 and 1803, was ina'.Iequate and inconvenient 
for the purposes for which it was intended, Mr. Ellicott, determined to 
save the county seat to Batavia, addressed a letter to the judges of the 
county courts and the board of supervisors of the county recommend- 
ing tlie erection of a new court house. He also offered, as tb.e repre- 
sentative of the Holland Land Company, to convey to the supervisors, 
for the comparatively small sum of three thousand dollars, the triangu- 
lar piece of land bounded by Ellicott, Main and Court streets; also a 
strip of land one hundred feet wide, located about midway between 
Main and Ellicott streets and extending from a point on what is now 
Clark place, back of the store occupied by M. H. Bierce; also a strip 
about thirty-five feet in width e.\.tendiug from Main street to the other 
strip mentioned, the last-named piece of land being known on the map 
of the village as lot No. 81. The otTer of Mr. Ellicott was acce[)ted, 
and a few years afterward a new jail was completed." About the same 

' l-"or ii history of clii.s cliui-ch see the chapter ilev^ted to the \'il'age of Uutavia. 
■^ This is ilie buildin;.; iimw used as t!ie headquarters ot the huiikari'l htdder co:iiijany. 


time a county clerk's office was erected in the northeast corner of tlie 
trian<^ie. Both were built of brick." 

The Genesee County Bible Society was or;.4anize<l July 14, IS IS. 
Rev. Calvin Colton, then pastor of the churcli of Le Roy, and after- 
wards disting:uished as the author of " Life and Times of Henry Clay," 
and other works, was corresponding- secretary, which otTice he contin- 
ued to fill for several years. Colonel Martin O. Coe of Le Roy v.'as 
chosen the first president. Deacon Hinds Chamberlain and Samuel Gran- 
nis, vice-presidents; Seth M. Gates, recording secretary, and Colonel S. 
M.Gates, treasurer. The society was orj^ani.zed two years after the Amer- 
ican ljil)le Society was rounded. As the records of the society from 
from IS IS to \So'-) have been I'lst, but few items of its early history can 
be furnished. Theodore F. Talbot of Batavia was president m 1S"2-1, 
Isaac Wilson of Middlei^ury in lS-2'), William Seaver of Batavia in 1S"2^ 
and IS'iO, and Ciaius F>. Rich of Attica in 1S30. In 1S.'j3 the society 
was reorganized and a constitution adopted. Colonel ^lartin O. Coe 
of Le Roy was chosen piresident and was i^e-elected to that office fc* 
several successive }-ears. The records furnisli no data of any meeting 
from 1S:J4 to IS'M\ In IS;]'.) Colonel Coe was again elected president, 
continuing in that office for several years. In 1S41 the county of Gen- 
esee was divided, and the society has operated since that year within 
the p''esent bounds of Genesee county. Since 1S40 these persons have 
served as president of the society: 

1S40, P. L. Tracy; ISol, J. E. Tompkins; 1853, P. L. Tracy; 1S«J4, 
John Fisher; ISt]?, A. J. Bartow; Ibr,!, Jrjhn Fisher; ISTo, A. D. Lord; 
1875, R. L. Selden; ISTG, A. D. Wdbur; 1881, William Swan; 1SS3, 
John W. Sanborn; ISSt, William W. Totherob; 18S8, A. D. Draper; 
ISOl, W. L. Lloyd; ls'.i-.>. J. IF Durkee; LS9.:), Cardus. 

One of the most remarkable trials ever occurring in any court in 
Genesee county, and in many respects one of the most peculiar on 
record in any court, took place in the court house at liatavia in Julv, 
18"2'3. A man nam.ed Farnsworth was arrested and committed to jail 
on the charge of having forged '" United States land warrants," and a 
special session of the United States District Court was ordered to be 
held for the trial of the case against him. The court was convened (bv 
what authority is unknown) in July, Hon. Roger Skinner presided as 
United States district judge, cmd Jacob .Sutherland, afterward one of 

' The clerk's oiVii.r was useii as such until tlie prcscr.t court house was built, in l,S4:i, wlieu ihc 
c!t-T'rc's olVKt was !-i.-:ii.)vc-l !■> I'.v.- li.isc;nc:-ii >tt t!ie -..mic. 'riif olVico ri-ni.iiiieJ tlivre uiuil llie coa- 
siructioii oi tii'j present county clerk's anj surrogate's «_>!Vicc in ISt-i. 


the judg-es of the Supreme Court of New Vork Slate, acted as United 
States district attorney. 

The g-rand jury which had investigated the charges against Farns- 
worth was composed of men of intelHgence, some of whom were quite 
prominent in the community. xVfter due dehberation they presented 
a true bill, and the accused was immediately arraigned for trial. Public 
interest in the case was intense, and the sentiment of the populace was 
almost unanimously against the accused. People came from remote 
sections to hear the proceedings, which were of an unparalleled char- 
acter. . 

On both sides able counsel was employed. District Attorney Suth- 
erland was considered learned in the law and a man of great sagacity. 
General Ethan B. Allen, who conducted the defense, was a lawver of 
considerable prominence and enjoyed a wide reputation as an orator. 
Nevertheless subsequent events proved that the presiding judge and 
the prosecuting attorney knew a little more law than that laid down on 
the statute books. The trial was a long one. 'i'he judge ch.arged the 
jury adversely to the interests of the prisoner, and the intelligent jurors 
soon returned with a verdict of guilty. The only penalty knov/n to the 
court for such an atrocious offense as that of which the accused had 
been convicted was death, and Farnsworth accordingly was sentenced 
to be ha.iged on tlie gallows on September 20 following. 

Farnsworth's attorney, satisfied that the verdict was an unjust one, at 
once sent to President Monroe a petition for a pardon or commutation of 
the death sentence, but the grounds on which he based his request are 
not knovv^n. Few persons believed that the president would overturn 
the decision of the ai:gust cuid learned court, and the inhabitants pre- 
pared to convert September 'iO into a gala day. Little sympathy was 
expressed for the culprit who had violated one of the most sacred of 
the federal laws, and thousands of persons from far and near flocked to 
the village to witness the execution of the death penalty. 

Much to the surprise and chagrin of the assembled witnesses a mes- 
sage from the chief magistrate of the nation was received just as the 
final preparations for the hanging were being conducted, and the local 
authorities were compelled to announce to the disappointed throng that 
the execution had been suspended for six months, during which time 
the merits of the case were to be investigated. To take the edge otY 
the keen disappointment of those who had assembled to witness the 
hanging, it is said that the turnkey, without tlie knowledge and consent 


of the sheriff, took Farnsworth from his cell, seated him on a platform 
at tlie north end of the old court house, which at that time was hidden 
from public view by a hiyh board fence, and admitted a iarge number 
of visitors into the jail yard to behold the monster who, temporarily at 
least, had escaped from the gallows. Each visitor, however, was re- 
quired to pay a shilling as an admission fee. 

The farcial character of the whole proceedings is illustrated in the 
subsequent events. President Monroe and his legal advisers made a 
thorough examination of the case, with the result tliat it was ascer- 
tained that Farnsworth had violated no law of the United States, and 
that his arrest, trial and conviction were without legal authority! The 
accused was, therefore, pardoned and discharged from custod}-. 

A most extraordinary event, and one which temporarily disrupted 
the order of Free and rVccepted Masons in the United States, prompted 
the organization of a political party which had for its aim the annihila- 
tion of that great and powerful secret order and threatened to involve 
the country in civi! war, transpired partly within the limits of Genesee 
county in IS'.'o. The details of the transaction are too generally 
known to need more than a brief descripti(jn here. The event is 
known in history as the " Morgan affair." 

William Morgan, then residing in the village of Batavia, was arrested 
and conveyed to Canandaigua on a criminal warrant issued by a magis- 
trate 01 the latter place, the charge against him being the larceny of 
certain articles of small value. He was found innocent of that charge 
and acquitted, but was immediately rearrested for a debt of al)out two 
dollars and again thrown into jail. That evening he was discharged 
from jail, but was abducted and taken in a closed carriage from Canan- 
daigua by wdv of Rochester and Lewiston to Fort Niagara. From this 
point no absolute evidence as to what disposition was made of him was 
ever obtained, tliough it v.-as the popular belief that he was killed for 
the purpose of preventing him from divulging the secrets of Free 

Prior to his arrest members of the Masonic fraternity learned that 
Morgan, in connection with David C. Miller, was planning to issue a 
publication disclosing the unwritten secrets of Masonry. ConsequentU' 
his sudden and mysterious disappearance and reported violent death at 
the hands of members of that powerful order created a tremendous 
sensation, not onl}- in Western New York, but throughout the entire 
country; and this feeling resulted, first, in a lengthy and vigorous in- 


vestig-ation which resulted in satisfying the majority of the public that 
Morgan had met his death at the hands of conspirators among cer- 
tain members of the fraternity whose secrets he was about to ex[)ose, 
and second, in the formation of a strong Anti-Masonic political party 
whose slogan was ''Death to Masonry!" The most commonly ac- 
cepted belief as to the fate of the missing man was that he had been 
drowned eiiher in Lake Ontario or the Niagara river near its mouth. 
A prolonged search for his remains was made, but no bo'.ly that could 
be positively identified as that of the missing man was found. 

In Oct.ober of the following year, about eleven months after Morgan's 
disappearance, a dead body was found on the Lake Ontario beach near 
the mouth of Oak Orchard creek. An inquest was held but no one 
recognized the body. A verdict of accidental drowning was rendered 
and the body was buried, but the clothes found upon it were preserved. 
Soon afterward the sensational story that this body was that of Morgan 
spread, creating intense excitemciit. Committees from Batavia and 
Rochester were sent to disinter and examine the body, and they re- 
ported, after a most critical investigation, that the remains were not 
those of Morgan. 

This report did not satisfy a certain class who had been jnaking po- 
litical capital out of the lamentable tragedy, and the body v/as again 
disinterred and brought to Batavia, where a spectacular parade was 
held and the body declared to be that of the missing man. Mr. Morgan's 
widow (taking it for granted that the man was dead at this time) was 
the chief mourner in the funeral procession. The body was buried in 
the village cemetery. 

Several weeks before these gruesome scenes were enacted, a man 
named Timothy Monroe was drowned at the mouth of tlie Niagara 
river, and from the description of the body found at the mouth of Oak 
Orchard creek it was believed that it might be that of 2^Ionroe. His 
widow, then residing near Toronto, was n':)tified of the finding of the 
body, and her description of the clothing he wore when last seen alive 
corresponded so exactly with that of the chjthing taken from the 
mooted body that unprejudied peo[)le everywhere believed that the 
body interred at I-5atavia as that of Morgan in reality v;as that of Tim- 
othy Monroe. The result of this disclosure v>'as the hi->lding of another 
inqitest at Batavia, when, after an exhaustive investigation, the coro- 
ner's jury determined that the body in question was that of M(jnroe.' 

• The siateinents contained above iire siib-ituntially those made Ijy William Souvcr of Bat.-x- 
via, an eye witness to si>me uf the depKirable events desiTil)ed, in hi.-- I'.i'jlury of liatavi.i. 


Another account of the " Morg-an affair "' contains statements of in- 
terest that do not appear in the story as told in the foregoing'. The 
following- account appears in " Historical CoUccticnis of the State of 
New York," written by John W. Barber and flenry Howe and pub- 
lished in IS-il, and is a synopsis of the official report of ^Ir. Whittlesey 
and others at the United States Anti-Masonic convention held in Phil- 
adelphia, September 11, 1830: 

Morgan, it appears, was ijoru in 1774 in Culpepper county, Va. His occupation 
was originally that of a Ijricklayer and stone mason. He removed from Virginia in 
]S~1, and went to York. U. C. ; from thence h.e removed to Rochester. From vari- 
ous misfortunes, he became quite reduced in circumstances, and in the summer of 
1S20 he resided in the village of Batav.a. Whde here, he became connected with 
D. C. Miller, a printer, for the purpose of publishing a work disclosing masonic obli- 
gations, secret signs, Sec. Morgan, it appears, was a royal arch mason; and when 
the fact became known that he w as preparing a work to reveal the secrets of ma- 
sonry, many of the masonic fratei'nity became much excited, and appeared deter- 
mined to put an end to his disclosures Fortiiis purpose, his character was assailed 
jn the public print-,. In July, \S'2G, Morgan v.-as arrested on a civil suit at Batavia, 
and gave bail; he was afterward arrested and hurried to jail, without time being 
given him to procure bail, and search was made at his lodgings for his papers on 
some pretended process, the sherili in the meantime absenting himself. An attempt 
was afterward made to burn down Miller's printing office, where " Morgan's Book " 
was printing. 

On Sun lay, Sept. lOth, application was made to J. Chipman, Esq., a magistrate 
of Canardaigua, for a warrant to apprehend M(jrgan for stealing a shirt and cravat, 
v^-hich it appeared afterward he had only borrowed. The warrant being issued, the con- 
stable at Canandaigua, attended by five otiier persons from that place, immediately 
set out for Batavia, where tiiey arrived in the evening. Early the ne.xt morning 
(Monday), Morgan was arrested and taken to the public house v,diere the party had 
slept; an extra stage-coach was procured, and the jjarty left Batavia for Canandai- 
gua, witli Morgan in their custody. Miller attempted to procure the release of Mor- 
gan just as the carriage was starting, but he was pushed aside, and the driver was 
urged to drive fast till he should get out of the county. Having arrived in Canan- 
daigua, Morgan iu the evening was taken before the magistrate who had issued the 
warrant, and was by him examined and discharged. One of the party inmiediately 
applied to the same magistrate for a warrant against Morgan for a debt of about 
.•?'2, which he said had been assigned to him by a tavern keeper. Judgment was en- 
tered against Morgan for $"-i.fj9, debt and costs, and an execution immediately issued. 
Morgan took oiY his coat and offered it to the constable to levy upon for the debt. 
The constable declined receiving it, and Morgan was committed to the Canandaigua 
jail the same evening, where he remained until the evening of the next dav. 

On the 12tli of Sept., about 9 o'cl',ck in the evening, the wife of tlie jailer, at the 
request of the plaintiff in the execution, ccmsented to let Morgan out of the prison. 
As he wa- leaving the jail steps, he was violently seized by two persons; he strug- 
gled and cried •' murder," a numl)er of times. Two other persons now came up, one 


of whom stopped Morgan's outcry by thrusting a handkerchief, or something similar, 
into his mouth. x\t a signal given by one of the party, a two-horse carriage now 
drove up; two of the party thrust Morgan into the carriage, and then got in 
themselves. This carnage arrived in Rochester about day-dawn the ne.xt morning. 
Another carriage was procured, and relay's of horses were obtained. When the party 
arrived ai New Fane, about 3 miles from Lockport, they sent to the sheritl' of Niagara 
county, to assist them in getting Morgan into Canada. The slieritt accordingly left 
Lockport, attended the party, and assisted them in procuring horses, Sec. They 
arrived at Lewiston about midnight; here another carriage was procured, and the 
party was driven to the burying ground near Fort Niagara. Here they left the car- 
riage and proceeded with Morgan in their custody to the ferry, and crossed over to 
the Canada side. After conferring with a number of persons in Niagara village, 
Morgan was brought back, as arrangements had n(.)t been, completed for his recep- 
tion. This event it appears liad been anticipated. Morgan was taken to the maga- 
zine of Fort Niagara, and locked in before day-dawn, on the morning of the 14th of 

On the day that Morgan was put into the magazine, a royal arch chapter was in- 
stalled at Lewiston, which event called together a considerable assemblage of Ma- 
sons from the vicinity. In the evening, 20 or 30 persons came to the fort from 
Lewiston. About midnight, 7 pers'jns, stated to be royal arch masons, held a cai- 
sultation on the plain near tlie graveyard, as to the manner in which Morgan should 
be disposed of. The prevailing opinion among them appeared to be, that Morgan 
had forfeited his life for a breach of his masonic obligations, and that tbey oiKdit to 
see the penally executed by drowning him in the river; some of the company dis- 
covering a reluctance to go to such lengths, the pn^ject was abandoned at that time. 
On the night jf the IGth, a similar consultation was held between four persons, liut 
nothing was decided on. As to the disposition of Morgan, after the evening of the 
14th of September, nothing has yet been known judicially, but circumstances are 
strong, to induce the belief that he was put to death on the night of the 19th of Sept. 
18'-2i), by being cast into the depths of Niagara river. 

Recent invcstigatiun into the case secrus to prove tl)at Morofan was 
never made a Mason. By some means he oI)tained enough kno\vled;,;e 
of the craft to induce a Mr. Warren of Batavia, a Mason in good stand- 
ing-, to believe that he liad joined the order in Canada. Mr. Warren 
vouched for him, and lie gained admission to the k)dge in Ijatavia. In 
lS'2f.; a charter was secured for a chapter in Batavia. On account of 
his dissohite habits Morgan was refused membership, and this caused 
him to become furious in his opposition to Masonry. Tr.e onl\- hiwful 
degree that he ever received was in the Royal Arch, at Le Roy, May 
ol, 18;25, after the deceit practiced upon Mr. Warren, who was his em- 
ployer. But that did not make him a member of the craft. 

As soon as the chapter rejected his application for admission he be- 
gan his crusade against the order. His colleagues were David C. Mil- 


ler, editor of the Batavia Advocate, and his three partners. Miller had 
received the degree o( Entered Apprentice; but further advancement 
was denied him, and he, too, wa? bitter against the order. 

An interesting-, and now believed by many to be a trustworthy ac- 
count of Morgan's disappearance, is thus given by Robert Morris, a 
Masonic writer of high repute: 

In September, IbOC, Morg-an was on the jail limits on judi^nients for debts. The 
limits were a mile square, with the jail for the centre. John Whitney and Morgan 
met in Donald's tavervi and set down to supper together. In answer to Wh.itnev's 
inquiries Morgan said he was in a bad fix; that he had not a friend but his wife, and 
sh^ ought not to be on account of his treatment of her. She had a baby only three 
weeks old and cried continually, fearing that they were going to starve. He was 
out of work; the Masons made him no more donations and threatened to kill him ; 
he said he had sold himself to Miller, v.-ho had promised him half a million dollars; 
he never had more than a shilling at a time, and that with abuse. 

'• I am authorized," said Whitney, "to give you relief. I will give you fifty dol- 
lars in cash with which to buy yourself suitable clothes and help your family in its 
present need if you v.-ill go to Canada and settle there. When you are located in 
Canada you shall have five hundred dollars, and your family sliall be sent to you. 
I pledge you that they shall be provided for until they rejoin you." 

Morgan quickly accepted the oiler and consented to submit to a legal process for 
his removal for trial to Canandaigua on the charge of having stolen a shirt and neck- 
tie from the landlord there. This charge was not pres.sed and Morgan, following out 
a preconcerted plan, went to Canada, escorted to Fort Niagara by si.x men whose 
names ar2 well known. He was rowed across the river and received on the Canada 
side by .wo Masons who were in the arrangetnent. Morgan was paid his five hun- 
dred dollars and went away quite baj-py. Among those wlio were with the party 
that saw Morgan over the border was Colonel King. He was very conscientious 
about the matter and insisted upon knowing the full circumstances. In answer to 
the queries which his persistency brought out, Morgan made the following statement: 
" That he had contracted with Miller and others to write an expose oi Masonry; that 
he had never been a Mason in any lodge, but had received the Royal Arch degree in 
a regular manner and felt bound by that obligation, and never intended to reveal 
the secrets of that degree: that he had been treated kindly by the gentlemen who 
formed his escort; that he was willing and an.xious to be separated from Miller and 
from all ideas of a Masonic expose; wished to live in habits of industry and resjiect- 
ability ; to go to the interior of Canada and settle down as a British citizen and have 
his family sent to him; was sorry for the uproar his proceedings had made and for 
the disgrace he had caused his family." . . . 

The Anti-Masons succeeded in carrying the State that fall upon the strength of 
of their opposition to Masonry and the display they made in prosecuting the persons 
who were engage! in Morgan's deportation. Colonel King became alarmed, and he 
sent a confidential messenger into Canada to look for Morgan and bring him back. 
Morgan had changed liis name, changed his clothes, bought a horse and left the vil- 
lage within forty-eiglit hours of the departure of those who took him there. The 

NEW JAIL. 177 

colonel sent a second messenger, who employed an old Indian scout, thoroughly 
posted in the calling, to follow Morgan up. It was learned that he had gone east at 
the rate of fifty miles a day to a point down the river not far from Port Hope. He 
had sold his horse and disappeared. Doubtless he boarded a vessel there and sailed 
out of ihe country. At any rate tha: was the last trace of him ever obtained. 

The Anti-'^[asonic movement whicli ori<;inated in 1820 was, to a cer- 
tain extent, complicated with, an increasing opposition to the Holland 
Land Company. Many fanr.s wei-e still burdened with debt to the 
company, and thoug'h the latter had treated the debtors liberally by 
accepting farm prtjducc in lieu of cash, thotigh losing money by the 
operation, many of the farmers found it next to impossible to meet 
their mattiring obligations. The situation was made still more dis.tress 
ing by persistent reports that the company was preparing to advance 
the prices of all lands on which the original time of payment had 
elapsed. About this tittie Mr. Otto was succeeded by ]\Ir. Evans in the 
conduct of the local affairs of the c(im{)any, and under the administra- 
tion of the latter contracts were somewhat modified in favor of the 
purchasers of land. But the general dissatisfaction continued to in- 
crease, manifesting itself in questioning the validity of the company's 
titles, in recommending heavier taxation of the pro-perty of the com- 
pany, and in various other wii\"s. l^he rising sentiment of opposition 
to this company was bound, in later years, to bring about serious 
trouble. It led, in fact, directly to what is known in local history as 
"The Land Office War." 

The act of the State Legislature passed March ]',t, 1831, authorizing 
the erection of a new jail in Gericsee county contained the following 

The supervisors of the county of Genesee shall cau«e to be assessed . . . for 
the purpose of erecting a new jail in said county, the sum of three thousand dollars. 
. . . The said jail shall be built on the public ground now belonging to said 
county in the village of Batavia, and David Scott of Attica, Ziba S. Beardslev of 
Alexander, Daniel II. Chandler, Hinman Holden and Benjamin Porter junior, of 
the town of Batavia, are hereby appointed commissioners to superintend the build- 
ing of the said jail, and they, or any three of them, are hereby authorized to tix or 
lay out the site, and devise a plan for tl;e same. . Tiit said commis-iouers 

shall be allowed the sum of one dollar and tweuty-fivc cents per day for their serv- 
ices in the actual performance of their duty. . . . 

The jail was built under the direction of the commissioners named, 
and still stands on the south side of West ^Ll■n sfect, in Batavia. 
By act of the Legislature April '-l'), 1831, Nathan Rumsey, Henry C. 


Jones and James Sprague, second, were appointed commissioners to 
lay out a public highway fnnn Angelica, Allegany county, to PJatavia. 
By the opening of this road traffic between the two points named was 
greatly expedited, and the rural community particularly were bene- 
fited by the improvement. 

One of the most noteworthy events in the history of Genesee county 
in these days was the disturl^ance which since has been generally knuwri 
as "the land office war." Though some of the principal scenes in this 
uprising transpired in the village of Batavin, the trouble was not cm- 
fined to that community, but was widespread throughout Genesee 
.county and over a large portion of the Holland Purchase. Batavia was 
seriously involved in the trouble as the principal land office of the com- 
pany was located in village. Several accounts of this little "war" 
have been written. One of the most trustworthy appears in William 
Seaver's " Historical Sketch of the Village of Batavia," whicli is here 
reproduced : 

The origin of the difticulty, as we understand it, was briefly this; Early in ls?,l) 
certain companie.s purchased of tlic Flolland company all its unsold lands, mortgages, 
contracts, &c. , indeed, all its remaining interest in these western counties, and im- 
mediately instituted a new order of things in reference to the settlers. Previous to 
this, however, a restive spirit, (engendered as it v.-as said, by certain lawyers, a.nx- 
ious for a fee) had for some time been manifested against the company in reference 
to its original Title to the land ^ so that when the new landlords came in, the settlers 
were by no means in the most amiable mood towards either the old or the new pro- 

This state of things did nut deter the new owners (or some of them at least) from 
going- forward in the exercise of their legal rights and adopting some new and mure 
stringent measures than had before existed for the collection of land debts, and bv 
way of stimulus to prompt payinent, a little addition to the price of the land was 
also proposed in case the old contracts were not fulhlled. All this had the effect 
to exasperate many who were directly interested, and their indignation at length 
broke forth in open acts of violence, intended not only to affect the interests of 
the new proprietors, but also the old company in consequence of transfer the 
new order of things had been introduced. 

In Chatauque and the south part of Erie and Genesee counties the excitement 
prevailed with more intensity than in any other .sections. Large and enthusiastic 
public meetings were there held, for the purpose, either by argument or intimida- 
tion, of inducing the proprietors to rescind some of their measures and adopt a more 
lenient system, but as these movements failed of producing the designed effect, open 
war was declared, and the belligerent forces were marshalled for the conflict. 

The first object was to destroy the Land Ofnce at Mayville, and for that purpose a 
large mub assembled on the night of Feb. 0th, 1S:;g, comnieuced the grand assault, 
and without meeting the slightest resistance demolished the whole superstructure, 


laying it even with the ground. They tore open the vault whose impregnable walls 
withstood their etYorts for three hours, aud having collected all the books and papers 
in one pile on the green, the torch was anrilied, and they were offered up as a burnt 
sacritice to the demon of mobocrac\". 

E.KuIting in the complete success of this bi'illiant achievement, the belligerents, 
taking courage from victory, began to pant for wider fields of glory, and having 
proved the temper of their " maiden swords" oa the Fortress of Mayville they re- 
solved upon the higher and more chivalrous feat of undcrtakir.g to storm and de- 
molish the very citadel of Land Otlice power at Batavia. Accordingly emissarys 
were sent m every direction to rouse up all the disaflccted forces, and congregate 
them on a certain night prepared for the grand assault. 

}i[eantime Davi;l E. Evans Esq., who then held the Land Office keys, and who 
had been informed of the transactions at ^Layvil!e, was also apprised of the threat- 
ened attack at Batavia, but not knowing when the demonstration might be made, 
he took the precaution to send all the books and valuai/ie papers to Rochester be- 
ycjnd the reach of danger in any untoward emergency. Thus several weeks passed 
on, and as no hostile movement appeared, the books I'lrc. were bnjught back and 
hopes were entertained that the storm would quietly subside. These hopes, how- 
ever, were of short duration, for the fires of discontent had only been smouldering 
preparatory to breaking forth with renewed violence. 

To give some idea of the feeling which prevailed in the S'juth part of Erie county 
we quote the language of an agent Sent into that quarter, who reported that "all 
labor is suspended, the whole adult male population meeting at taverns and stores, 
vowing vengeance agairiSt the 'land sharks,' threatening to burn their houses, and 
intimating that assassination will be the consequence of attempts to enforce the 
terms pro])Osed by the new purchasers." 

Without dwelling upon further preliminaries it will be suflic'ent to say that the 
ferment continued to increase until about the 12th of May, when intelligence was 
received that a very large mob from the .south part of this and Erie counties were 
gathering, with the avowed intention of marching to this place and tearing down 
the land office, and the jail (in which two of their friends were imprisoned), and of 
c<immitting other depredations on some of our citizens wlio had become obnoxious to 

To know that such an attempt would be made was sufficient for our people at 
0!ice to resolve upon the most lirni and united lesisiance, and accordingly our public 
authorities both civil and military, aided by the citizens, made immediate j)repa- 
rations to repel the foe. The Land Office was converted intn a sort of forti!ication, 
well stored with arms and ammunition, and thus matters rested in suspense, not 
knowing when the attack would be made, until about midnight on the i:lth of May. 
when messengers arrived I'ost haste from Attica and Alexander giving information 
that the mob was concentrating at the latter place in great force, supposed to be 
from TOO to 1.000, and that it would soon be upon us. 

No sooner had this intelligence been received than all the bells in the village rang 
the alarm and a general muster of our "fighting" men immediatelv followed. 
Vid.etts were sent out by the sheriff on the dificrent roads, to recnnnoiter the enemv, 
and men were sent to the arsenal for a snilicieut supply of muskets to arm all our 
citizen>. Two boxes of ball cartridges of 1,000 each were also brought up. or.e of 


which was left at the Land Office, and the other taken to the Court House where the 
sheriff (Nathan Townsend), who was the commanding officer on the occasion, held his 
headquarters, surrounded by the "chivalry" of the villaye ready for the conflict. 
What then followed we cannot better describe than in the language of a letter, from 
D. E. Evans, to J. J. Vanderkemp, written soon after the event and from which we 
are perntitted to make the following extracts: 

"Our force in the Land Office consisting of fifty men, remained patiently await- 
ing the arrival of the enemy till about sun rise, and none appearing we concluded 
they had rbandoned the enterprise, and we appointed a committee to go to Ale.xan- 
der to ascertain what number had been there and who their leaders were. Col. Sca- 
ver. Col. Davis, and myself (the committee) immediately started, and meeting Mr. 
Cary near the bridge took him with us. We had proceeded but two miles when we 
m*et two of our expresses returning at full gallop, who told us they had just left the 
mob at Fargo's Tavern, two miles distant, forming in order to march to Batavia. 
They estimated the whole number at 700, about 400 of which were armed with fire- 
arms, and the residue with bludgeons, crow-ljars and sledge hammers. 

Previous to leaving the ofKce I requested Mr. Chandler to remain at it with thirty 
men, till we either returned or sent him positive information that tlie mob had di^,- 
persed. On receiving information that the m<jb had really advanced lo Fargo's, t'le 
committee lost no rin:e m returning, and taking such requisite steps to reassemble the 
citizens, most of whom had gone to their respective homes. The mob soon after 
appeared in sight and halted (m the road east of Judge Stevens's Mouse, where they 
were met by Gen. Verplanck, and asked what they wanted ? Thev answered " to 
right themselves." He asked in what manner? and was answered, "that it v.-as 
none of his business. " He then said it was his duty to inform them chat if tliey com- 
mitted any outrages in an organized body, upon either public or private property, 
they wouhl be fired upon. Some of them then said they wished to have a conference 
with me, and he promised to inform me of it, and came to the offiice and did so. I 
desired him to return and say, that I positively declined having any communication 
whatever v,-ith an armed mob. Their number he estimated at about five hundred 

Soon after he returned they put themselves in motion, crossed the bridge, 
marched to the otfice, and I supposed we should soon come to blows. After having 
halted in front of the office, and become sensible that an attack upon it would be at- 
tended with danger, it v.-as evident to all spect.ators that they felt the au kwardnes'; 
of their situation. After remaining still for a few minutes, four men came under tiie 
window in whicii I was sitting, and re([uested a conference with me, which I de- 
clined, refusing in a peremptory manner to have anything to do witli tliem, and bid 
them defiance in no measured terms. 

About this time I saw a sudden movement among them which I could not account 
for, but which I soon learned was occasioned by the (to them) unexpected appear- 
ance of Sheriff Townsend, with P20 men, armed with bright muskets, witii bayonets 
fixed, in full march fur the Oiiice. He halted his men in frunt of my house, and ad- 
vanced himself with three or four attendants, towards the mob, and was met bv sev- 
eral of them. He told them his object in meeting them was to say, that if thev at- 
tempted to destroy any building in the village, he should, without any further notice, 
fire a full volley among them. One of them was proceeding to argue the legality of 


his doing it, but he cut the matter short by assuring them that he should do it 
whether legal o;- not, and advised them to be off very quickly. 

They .soon after went down the street half a mile, and had a ijoisterous consult- 
ation, some professing to wish to return and attack the ORice, but by far the greatest 
part thought it best to go home. Snnie forty or tifty continued on westward, anil 
the residue returned as thev came, parsing the Office without apparently looking at 
it. The most of them re crossed the Bridge and went off, but a few lurked about 
the Village, some of whom were apprehended and committed to prison, and among 
the number their reputed leader, a man by the name of Hill, a Constable in Holland, 
Erie County. 

As you may readily imagine, our Village ren;ained for several days, in a high state 
of excitement. The Military were called out, and two Cannons, assigned to Artillery 
Companys at Le Roy and Bethany, were sent for, and brought to the Village, and 
strong guards, composed of th.e \'iHagers only, were kept at night, as great appre- 
hensions were entertained that the \"illage would be set (;n tire by incendiaries, which 
was threatened by the mob on their reLreat, and those threats were reiterated from 
sections of the Country where we had reason to expect better things. Almost all 
business was at a stand in the Village, the Country people afraid to come to it, and 
the consequence was, the Mercantile men. Tavern-keepers, Grocers, and Mechanics, 
becatne apprehensive that the business of the place would go elsewhere. 

It therefore became obvious, that either the office must be removed from this place, 
or some means devised to defend it with a few men. and I determined on erecting 
two strong block houses, one on the northeast, and the other on the southwest cor- 
ners. They are made of solid timber from 1') t<> I'i inches thick, and each armed 
with thirty muskets, and amply supplied with air. munition, and twelve men in each, 
would drive a mob of 1,000 men from the vicinity of the office in a very short time. I 
have employed four men as a night guard, with directions to keep three of their 
number in the Bloek-houses, and one on tlie look-out on the outside. I now consider 
the office secure. 

After the mob had taken th.eir departure, and the citizens their breakfast, notice 
was given that a meeting would be held at the Court House to take measures for the 
security of the village. At this meeting, Messrs. Wm. Seaver, D. H. Chandler, 
and myself, were appointed a committee of safety, the duties of which I found vastly 
more arduous and unpleasant than I imagined. Having received positive informa- 
tion that a considerable number of persons, residents of Chautauque, Erie, and Gen- 
esee counties, were passing from tov.m to town, endeavoring to raise another and 
larger, and in every respect more efficient force than the last, we concluded to lay 
the case before the Governor, and ask him to issue a proclamation, not that we sup- 
posed it would tend to allay the irritation against the new land company, but to sat- 
isfy the malcontents, that the state Government was not friendly to their proceed- 
ings, which they had been made to believe. Accordingly we despatched Dr. Van 
Tuyl to Albany, deeming it advisable to send a person who could give a clear 
and distinct account of the actual state of the country. 

When the Doctor arrived in Albany the Governor was at Saratoga Springs, but re- 
turned next day, and very promptly issued the proclamation. He also authorized us 
to retain the two six-pounders we had, as long as we might war.t them, sent us two 
more with a supjjly of 2>owder and round and canister shot, and several thousand 


musket cartridges, and authorizeil us to take two twelve pounders from the arsenal 
at Canandaigua. 

The captain ot an artillery company at Bennington, by the name of Xorris. having 
stated that he and his company and gun, a bras-; three pounder, were ready at any 
moment's notice, to turn out and attack P.atavia, we represented the case to the Gov- 
ernor, who immediately directed the conniiissary general to order Capt. Xorris to 
deliver the gun to the keeper of the arsenal at this place, forthwith. The Capt. 
was very unwilling to obey the order, pleading as an excuse that the people in the 
neighborhood would not permit the gun to be taken away but on being threatened 
to have his delinquency reported to the commissary general, and told that the conse- 
quence would be very serious to himself, he concluded to bring it." 

Having been apprised of our formidable preparations for a determined resistance 
to nv)bocracy, the malcontents were not slow in coming to the wise conclusion that 
"prudence was the better part of valor," and all further attempts to attain their ob- 
ject by violent means, was at once abandoned as utterly hopeless. 

Thus terminated the "Land Office War," and so far as the people of this place 
were concerned, ic is but justice to say that they acquitted themselves in a manner 
worthy of all praise. Xo matter what may have been their individual opinions in 
regard to the origin of tiie difficulty, no sooner did thev know that lawless violence 
was a:iout t'' be committed, and that an eiu'uriated nn/b, perhaps with the midnigiit 
torch, was preparing to invade us, than the lire of '76 kindled in everv bosom, and 
they were prepared to resist, even at the price of their Ijlood, the threatened aggres- 
sion. As the ' Times' well said, "never before had we witnessed the interesting 
spectacle of a whole village of peaceful and quiet citizens transform.ed at the mo- 
ment, and b}- a common impulse, from the varied and ordinary pursuits of business 
into efficient citizen soldiers — all, from highest to lowest, actuated bv a common im- 
pulse — that of self defense at any and every hazard." The aft'air satisfied us by 
ocular demonstration t!:at there is nothing so potent to quell a mob as ball and bay- 
onet, and sure we are that had it not been for a fear of those article,-^ in the hands of 
resolute citizens, and a perfect assurance that they would be used "to kill" in case 
the sliglitest aggression had been committed, the mob would have destroyed at least 
the Laud Office and t'ne Jail. 

An event which occurred in Erie and Niagara counties in 1836 was of 
interest to many of the inhabitants of Genesee countv. Benjamin Rath- 
bun, a darin-- s]jecuIaior residing in Buffalo, who seemed not to have 
profited by tn.e financial disasters and ominous conditions of 1S3C, made 
plans fi;r carrying r,n his specuhitions on a gigantic plan. He bought 
land and kiid otit a n^agniheent city at Niagara Falls, advertising an 
auction sale of lots for August ".'. Just before this David E. Evans of 
Batavia, agent iov the Holland Land Company, had made the discoverv 
while on a \-isiL to Philadelphia that Rathi)un had forged his name on 
notes for large amounts. Returning to Buffalo after Rathbun had con- 
ducted his great sale at Niagara Falls, Mr. Evans confronted the swind- 
ling speculat'.ir, who confessed his crime and admitted that the i)aper 


bearing Mr. Evans's name was but a small item in a large list of similar 
forgeries. The forgeries had reached nearly a million dollars. Rath- 
bun's arrest followed at once. His tri:d began in Bata\-ia March 29, 
1837, and he was found guilty and sentenced to State prison for five 

The general discontent and feeling of discouragement produced by 
the stringency of the money market augmented and intensified the 
opposition to the Holland Land Company. .The holders of many farms 
owed not only the principal but tlic interest for many years on the 
debts on their lands, and the scarcity of money rendered payment more 
difficult than ever. Meetings were held in various places, not only in 
Genesee but in other counties whose territory was included in the Hol- 
land Purchase, where this dissatisfaction and opposition was publicly 
expressed. At these meetings the company was denounced, a modifi- 
cation of its terms of payment demanded, legislative interference re- 
quested, and the attorney-general called upon to contest the title of the 

In February, 1837, a meeting termed an " agrarian convention " was 
held at Aurora, the counties of Genesee, Erie, Niagara and Chautauqua 
being represented. Dyre Tillinghasi of Buffalo acted as president, 
Charles Richardson of Java and Ilawxhurst Addington of Aurora as 
vice-presidents, and H. X. A. Holmes of Wales and A. M. Ciapp of 
Aurora as secretaries. Resolutions were adopted expressive of the 
sentiment of those present as indicated in the foregoing, and those who 
favored the company were termed '' j udases " and strongly censured. 
In some sections actual resistance to the agents of the com pan v was 
offered. If an agent made an attempt to take possession of a farm, 
the holder of which was in arrears, threatening notices were placed be- 
fore his eyes, and armed men so terrified him that he was glad to es- 
cape without having accomplished his mission. The Legislature refused 
to accede to the request of the farmers, knowing full well that there 
was no ground for contesting the title. In many of the towns the ma- 
jority of the settlers succeeded in discharging their indebtedness. In 
a few localities the resistance was so stubborn and lc)ng continued that 
the company deferred the final resort to force until the holders acfjuired 
title to their farms by adverse possession, in which they were sustained 
by the courts. This condition of affairs m the rural communities im- 
d(3ubtedly tended tocripple the energies of the settlei's, prevent progress 
and seriously delay improvements which would have been made under 


more favorable circumstances. And all this time the conditions in 
favor of an ultimate open armed revolt were ripening-. 

Thoug-h the existing- Genesee County Agricultural Society was not 
organized until IS'oO, an association with a similar aim and scope had 
been founded in Genesee county just a score of years previous to that 
date. On June 2-2, l^l'J, a number of representative men of Batavia 
and vicinity met at the home of Hinman Holden in that village and 
made arrangements for holding annual fairs. An agricultural society 
was organized at that meeting, with Joseph Ellicott for president. Hon. 
Samuel M. Hopkins president prutem.. and Parmenio Adams treasurer 
pro lem. It was decided to hold a meeting and exhibit in the month 
of October following, and those present agreed to raise live hundred 
dollars to defray the expenses of the event. Of this amount th.ree 
hundred and fifty dollars was appropriated for premiunis. Colonel 
Green and Colonel Towner were appointed marshals of the day. Little 
is known of tliis early agricultural society, but it must have been pros- 
perous ti!) a certain degree, as it was in existence for nearly, if not 
quite, twenty }'ears. 

The present society was organized in 1839. For twenty years the 
annual fairs were held in various places, sometimes on the Mix })rop- 
erty, opposite the jail; some on AValnut street across the creek; others 
on the Clark property, at the head of Jackson street. FUit by the end 
of that time the society had reached such proportions, and its facilities 
were so limited that it was decided to purchase a permxanent site for 
the annual fair and erect thereon buildings adequate to the needs of the 
growing organization. A half-mile track for horse racing and stock 
exhibits was constructed, on the old grounds on lilllicott street, costing 
$3,017, and the exp(,)siti()ns held annually under the auspices of the 
society became more successful with every succeeding year. The so- 
ciety was incorporated with tlie sccrdar}- n( state, May "^-i, ISod, with 
these officers: President. Eden Foster; vice-president, John F, Plato; 
secretar}', Horatio N. Wright; treasurer, Chauncey Kirkham, jr. In 
ISOO the society sold its old grounds to the Buffalo and (Geneva Rail- 
road Company and voted to purchase what was known ;is the Redheld 
grounds, the price agreed upon being six thousand dollars. This is 
the old " driving park property " of nearly twenty-four acres, and eight 
and one-half acres additional on the east side of the track, which in- 
cludes an oak grove of two and one-half acres. A short time after- 
ward the society purchased two additional acres of Mr. Redfield, mak- 
ing its total possessions about thirty- five acres. 


Unfortunately tlic records of the society prior to 187 are missino". 
Since that year, however, the principal officers have been as follows: 

1870. — President, 1. A. Todd; secretary, Liicien R. Bailey; treasurer, 
Auf;iistus N. Cowdin. 

1871. — President, Crcorge Burt; secretary, L. R. Bailey. 

IST'2. — President, K. G. Townsend ; secretary, G. H. Robertson; 
treasurer, A. R. Warner. 

1873. — President, M. X. Moulthrop; secretary, F. M. Jameson; treas- 
urer, A. R. Warner. 

1874. — President, S. B. Lusk; secretary, J. H. McCulley; treasurer, 

A. R. Warner. 

1875. — President, Warren J. Tyler; secretary, J. II. ]\IcCulley; treas- 
urer, A. R. Warner. 

1876. — President, Cortland Crosman ; secretary, E. R. Hay; treas- 
urer, A. R. Warner. 

1877. — President, I, S. Durfee; secretary, E. R. Hay; treasurer, A. 
R. ^\''arner. 

1878. — President, Albert Parker; secretary, J. H. Robson ; treas- 
urer, ?". L. Kenyon. 

1870. — President, C. W. Van De li!oLj-art; secretary, Nelson Boj;ue; 
treasurer, Robert A. Maxwell. 

1880 — President, C. W. Van De Bog-art; secretary, Nelson Bog:ue; 
treasurer, Robert A. ^laxwell, 

1881. — President, John H. McCnlley: secretary, George W. Pratt; 
treasurer, Robert A. ^^laxwell. 

1882. — President, Eli Taylor; secretary, J. B. Neasmith; treasurer, 
J. HoUey Bradish. 

1883. — President, D. L. Plodgson; secretary. Nelson Bogue; treas- 
urer, O. Town, jr. 

1884. — President, Nelson Dugiiid; secretary, J. M. ^iIcKenzie; treas- 
urer, r>. George Kemp. 

188"), — President, Nelson Duguid; secretary, J. M. McKenzie; treas- 
urer, B. George Kemp. 

1S8G. — President, B. F. Peck; secretary, J. "NI. McKenzie; treasurer, 

B. George Kemp. 

1887. — President, Nelson Bogue; secretary, J. M. McKenzie; treas- 
urer, B. George Kemi^ 

1388.— President, E. J. Ingalsbe; secretary, Frank B. Redlicld; 
treasurer, WilHam T<H-rence. 


1889. — President, R. R. Losee; secretary, L. F. Rolfe; treasurer, 
Frederick B. Parker. 

1890. — President, James Z. Terry; secretary, L. F. Rolfe; treasurer, 
Frederick B. Parker. 

1891. — President, Dwig-ht Dimock; secretary, Greenville R. Safford ; 
treasurer, Frederick B. Parker. 

1802. — President, J. 'M. McKenzie; secretary, Albert E. Brown; 
treasurer, Frederick B. Parker. 

1893-1804.— President, Wolcott Vandebog-art; secretary, Albert E. 
Brown; treasurer, Frederick B. Parker. 

l89o. — President. W. E. Sumner; secretary, Albert E. Brown; treas- 
urer, Frederick B. Parker. 

189G. — President, Cyrus P. Bell; secretary, Albert E. Brown; treas- 
urer, Charles D. Harris. 

180 r.— President, J. X. Parker; secretary, Albert E. Brown; treas- 
urer, Charles D. Harris. 

1808. — President, F. T. Miller; secretary, Albert E. Brown; treas- 
urer, Charles D. Harris. 

In May, lS-10, the State Legislature pas.-^ed an act providing for the 
erection of a new ourt house in Genesee county, appointing "Walter 
Hubbell, Jobhua A. Spencer and Auicjs P. (iranger commissioners to 
locate the site and authorizing a loan of $10,000 from the State to the 
county to defray the expense of buildiiig. Batavia having always been 
the county seat of the old Genesee county, the inhabitants of that vil- 
lage naturally expected that the proposed new court house would be 
erected there; but after the erectiim of Orleans county, Batavia was 
considered nortli of the geographical centre nt the county, and the in- 
haliicants of the southern t>jwns made an effort to secure the Location 
of the court house at a more central point. The discussion that fol- 
lowed was sliarp and for a time bitter, but the advocates of a more 
southerly location finally withdrew their o])jections to Batavia's claim 
with the understanding that residents of the northern part of the countv 
would not oppcjse its division and the erection of a new countv, a sub- 
ject which began to be agitated at the time the court house proiect was 
instituted. The commissioners thereupon selected Batavia as a site for 
the new county building, soon after which the board of supervisors ap- 
pointed Paul Richard.s of Orangeville audi John Tomlinson of Le Rov 
as building commissioners. They contracted with. Elias Pclton to do 
the mas(jn work and Ira E. Phillips and Jonathan Hutchinson to con- 


struct the wood work. Knowlton Rich and Consider Warner of Le 
Roy furnished the cut stone and Samuel R. Clifford of Le Roy fur- 
nished and put in ])osition the pillars, caps, etc., of Lockporl stone. 

May 19, 1841, soon after the work of construction was be^^nm, the 
county was divided, Wyoming county being- erected from the southern 
portion of what was then Genesee county. The law dividing the county 
contained these provisions, among others; 

All that part of the county ot Genesee lying and being on the south side of a line 
beginning at the norilnve-St corner of the town of Bennington, in tiie county afore- 
said, and running tlience east on the north line of the towns of Bennington, Attica 
and Middlebury, to the west line of the town of Covington; thence south on tlie east 
line of .Middlebury to tiie southwest c<jrner of the Ci'aigie tract; thence east on the 
south line of said Craigie tract, and on the south bounds of the forty thousand acre 
tract to the east line of the said town of Covington, shall he a separate and distinct 
county of the State of New York, and be known by the name of Wyoming, and en- 
titled to and possessed of all the beneiits, rights, privileges and immunities, and sub- 
ject to the same duties as the other counties of this State, and the freeholders and 
inluibitants thereof shall possess and e-ijoy all the rights and immunities v.-hich the 
freeholders and inhal.iitants of the several counties of this State are by law entitled 
to po-'^sess and enjoy. All the remaining part of the present county of Genesee shall 
be and remain a separate and distinct county by the name of Genesee, 

All that part of t'le town of Covington which lies north of the aforesaid line, shall 
be and remain, from and after tiie passage of this act, a separate and distuict town 
of the said county of Genesee, by t'.ie name of Pavihrni. 

There shall be a meeting of tiit- board of sujiervisors of the present C(;unty of 
Genesee, on the second Tuesilay of June next, at the court house in the village of 
Batavia, to transact such busine.'iS as may be necessary in consequence of the pas- 
sage of this act. 

The said supervisors when so convened as aforesaid, shall have power to form 
themselves into two separate and distinct boards, tliose residing in the countv of 
Genesee to be considered., as the board of supervisors in and for the said countv of 
Genesee, and those residing in the county of ^Vyoming to be considered as the board 
of supervisors in and for the county of Wyoming. 

It shall be the of the treas irer of the county of Genesee and of th.e treasurer 
of the county of Wyoming, so to h-'C appointed as aforesaid, to meet with the said 
supervisors at their said special meetings; and the said supervisors and treasurers 
v/hen so assembled in joint board, shall api)ortion and divide all debts owing by the 
said county of Genesee, or to said county, and shall make such arrangements in re- 
lation to the poordiouse property and the support of the county poor, as shall be just 
■and equitable. 

The said county of Genesee shall be entitled to elect two members of assembly, 
and the said county of Wyommg shall be entitled to elect two members i)f assembly, 
in the same manner as other counties of this State are by law entitled to elect mem- 
bers of assembly; and the said counties of (ienesee and Wyoming shall compose the 
twenty-ninth congressional district. 


Paul Richards, one of the building- commissioners for the new court 
house, beings a resident of the newly formed county of Wyoming, re- 
si,L,med that office arul Pafdon C. Sherman was named as commissioner 
in his place. The building-, excepting the basement, was completed in 
1S43, and the first court therein was held in February of that year. 
Horace U. Soper and Moses Taggart were afterward appointed com- 
missioners to complete the countv clerk's office in the basement. The 
cost of the completed edifice was about ;^lT,Oi)0. 


From the Ereciioa of the Present Coiuitv of lienesec to tlie Beginning- of the War 
of the Rebelhon — Two Decades of Steady Industrial and Commercial Development 
— New Churches Org-anized During Tliat Period— Creation of the Town of Oaktield 
— Railroads Built in Genesee County— The Long Era of Peace Rudely Ended. 

The period beginning with the erection of the new county of Gen- 
esee in 1S41, and terminating with the inauguration oi tiiat terrific in- 
ternecine struggle known in history as the war of the Rebellion, was 
characterized by few stirring or unusual incidents in Genesee county. 
In all communities, however, there were constant evidences of a steady, 
healtliful development. Here and there new industries were founded 
and old ones strengthened, increasing the wealth of thecommunity and 
enhancing values ever_\'\vhere. In no case was there anything resem- 
bling a forced development. Tl.e inhabitants v.-ere then, as they are 
now, too conservative .ind thoughtful f(;r that. The development was 
slow, steady, sure, permanent. Great pride was also shown by the 
inhabitants of tlie county in their educational institutions. The relig- 
ious spirit, too, continued to thrive, and now and then the Christian 
people in the various communities organized themselves into church 
societies, and erected substantial, and in several cases handsome, 
houses of worshi[). The commercial world also became broader; and 
the establishment of banking institutions indicated the increasing pros- 
perity along all lines. Tne o[)ening of a railroad as far west as Hatavia 
as early as ISij^ gave a tremendous impetus to trade, which v.-as still 
furtiier increased m 1^4:5 by the extension of the line to P>uiTalo. This 
was but the beginning, for within a few years the county was intersected 

FROM 1841 TO 1801. 189 

again and a^ain by new steel thorouL;hfares, until it was furnished with 
transportation facilities excelled by those of no other comity in the 
Empire State. 

The first onficial act under tlie law dividing- the county was performed 
June 8, 1841, when the board of supervisors of the new civil division 
met in Batavia and, in accordance with the provisions of the law en- 
acted on May 10, organized the new county of Genesee with twelve 
towns, as follows: Alabama, Alexander, Batavia, Bergen, Bethany, 
Byron, Darien, Elba, Le Roy, Pavilion, Pembroke and Stafford. The 
town of Pavilion was increased in size March '2o, ISi'l, by the annexa- 
tion thereto of parts of the towns of Le Roy and Stafford. The town 
of Oakneld ' was erected from a portion of Elba April 11, 1842. That 
portion of the legislative act creating the new town provided as fol- 
lows : 

From and after the first }iIoaday of March next, all that part of the 
town of Elba, in the county of Genesee, lying west of a north and south 
line, beginning at tiie southwest corner of hot three, section five, town- 
ship thirteen, range two of the Plolland Land Company's land, running 
north upon said line of lots to the north bounds of said town, shall be a 
separate town by the name of "Oakfield," and the first town meeting 
therein shall be r.eld at the house of Isaiali Olcott, on the first Tuesday 
in ^Larch, eighteen liundred and forty-three, at which Perez Rowland, 
John C. Gardner and Clitus "Wolcott shall preside. 

The remaining part of the town of VAha shall be and remain a sepa- 
rate town by the name of Elba. 

In May, lSi'2, a treaty between the Six Nations and commissioners 
on the part of the L'nited States, the States of New York and Massa- 
chusetts and tlie Ogden Company, was held at Buffalo. By this con- 
vention it was agreed that the Ogden Company should have immedi- 
ate possession of the unimproved lands on the Buffalo and Tonawanda 
Reservations, and that within two years from that date the Indians 
should leave the improved lands also on those reservations and go t'> 
those of Allegany and Cattaraugus counties, which they were to re- 
tain during their pleasure. The lands thus thrown inio possession of 
the company were promptly STirveyed, divided among the members 
and placed on the market. 

The first religious society of which any record is left as having 

' So n.imcil by recisoa oi the large area o: oak timber land comprised within its liinit.s in the 
early days. 


been org-anized during- this period of nearly a score of years was the 
Second Methodist Episcopal church of Byron, which was established 
at South Byron September -20, 181-2. John Cook uas one of the leaders 
in tlie movement which resulted in the org-anization. The first pastor 
was the Rev. Alva Wrig-ht. In IS.3:) a church edifice was erected at a 
cost of about $-3,500. The First Methodist Episcopal church estab- 
lished at Byron Centre at an early day has been extinct many years. 

A public meeting- held at the house of Adna Tenny in Darien Jan- 
uary 7, 1843, adopted a set of resolutions unicpie in their character. 
This action on the part of the inhabitants of that town was simply an 
incident of the hard times of that period. The resolutions adopted 
were as follows: 

Resolved, That we as citizens of the State of New Yorl^, do hold, that a true and 
strict equality ought to be instituted between man and man in this free and enli;..,dn- 
ened Republic; and that al! privileged orders ought to be unknown in a land ui 
Freemen, where every man has a right to claim the equality we advocate. 

Re.solved. That we v.dll use our united etlorts as true and loyal citizens to establish, 
through our public servants that equality we now claim. 

Resolved, That in order to etlect this e.juality we will recommend to the Legisla- 
ture of this State to instruct our Senators and recommend to our Representatives in 
Congress the necessity and propriety of reducing the wages of the members of Con- 
gress, at least one-half, or to an equality with the compensation received by the 
Farmer and Mechanic for their labor. 

Resolved, That we will recommend to the Legislature of this State the necessity 
of reducing the fees of the Surrogate in said county of Genesee, and that all other 
officers in the several counties and in the State, or in other words to the county and 
State olBcers to an equality with that sta'ulard of compensation by which the labor- 
ing part of the community are governed and to which they are made to submit. 

Resolved, That we recommend and petition the Legislature of this State, to abro- 
gate that part of our Common School law requiring the board of Supervisors in each 
of the counties in this State, to appoint a Deputy Superintendent in their county, li 
creates an office of which we do not approve, and which we believe is not called for 
by a majority of the people of this State, and which is considered a drain to our 
common school fund which carries more out than it is able to return back again, bv 
its best exertions, into fountain from which it is taken, and we do further peti- 
tion the legislature of this State to amend that part of our common school law relat- 
ing to inspectors of common schools in the town of Darien so as to limit the meetin"- 
of such inspectors to two days in each year, one day in the fall, for ihe inspection of 

One of the most important occurrences in the history of Genesee 
county was the construction of the early railroad lines extendin-T 
into and throuj^h th.e territory embraced within the countv. The 
first railroad communication eastward from any part of Genesee 

FROM ISU TO istil. _ 101 

county came with the openini^- of that portion of the BufTalo and 
Rochester railroad extending from Rochester as far west as Bergen. 
in 1S30. During the following year the road was completed and 
put in operation as far as Batavia. The Attica and Buffalo rail- 
road, chartered in 1S3G, was opened late in 1S4--.V The Tonawanda 
railroad, chartered in 1S32, was also first put in operation in 184-^. 
By 1843 the first road named was also in operation between Buffalo 
and Rochester, thus forming a continuous chain (;f transportation by 
way of steam railroads from Butlalo to Albany and thence to Xew 
York. ^The first througli train from Rochester to Buffalo was run, 
via the Attica and Buffalo line, January 8, 1843. The Buffalo and 
Rochester road was formed December 7, IS50, by a consolidation of 
the Attica and Buffalo and the Tonawanda railroads. In 185'2 this 
company opened a direct road from Buffalo to Batavia, maintaining 
that part of the Attica and Buffalo line between Attica and Buffalo as 
a branch. Though the Attica and Buffalo line was organized prior to 
183G, its operations were postponed by the tinancial panic of that time. 
Auburn and Syracuse had been connected by rail since 1838, and Utica 
with Syracuse since 1830, while in August, 1841, a road was opened 
from Auburn to Rochester. These were the early-forged links in the 
great Xew York Central C(5nsolidation of 1853, and greatly facilitated 
passenger and freight transportation to and from the East. 

The Niagara Bridge and Canandaigua railroad, originally the Can- 
andaigua and Niagara Falls railroad, filed articles of inc()rporation 
March 1, I851, was opened for traffic April 1, 1851, and leased to the 
New York Central Railroad Company September 1, 1858. The road 
has since been merged in the New York Central & Hudson River Rail- 

In 185'2 the Buffalo and New York City Railroad Company' o[iened 
a line of road from Buflalo to B.itavia, thence eastward to Avon, and 
thence southeastward to Corning, In a short time, however, the track 
between Batavia and Buflalo was taken up, \vhile the line bevond Ba- 
tavia became the property of the Erie Railroad Company. 

In May, 1853, the various companies and roads between Buflalo and 
Albany were consolidated under the name of the New York Central 
Railroad. The importance of this road was still further increased in 
1800 by the absorption of the Hudson River road. 

' In IviT tiio naiiiL' was chan.i;eil ij B.itY.ilo, Xew Voi'li ami Erio. Its road was subso<ii:ctrily 
leased Vj the Eric Railroad C>>!upany. 


An idea of the passenger transportation facilities of these days may 
be gleaned from a report of a convention of delegates representing all 
the railroad companies between the Hndsun river and Bufl:alo, namely, 
the Attica and Butfalo, the Tonawanda, the Auburn and Rocliester, the 
Auburn and Syracuse, the Syracuse and Utica, the Utica and Schenec- 
tady, the Mohawk and Hudson, and the Troy and Schenectady rail- 
roads, held at the American hotel in Albany, January 31, iSio. On 
this occasion resolutions as follows were adopted : 

Resolved, That it is expedient to run two daily lines between Buffalo and the 
Hudson river, connecting with the morning and night boats out of Albany and Troy, 
and trfat each line be run in '2'i hoars, including stops, and that tlie same be appor- 
tioned as follov.-s; 

Buffalo to Rochester, hours; Rochester to Auburn, 6 hours; Auburn to Syracuse, 
2 hours; Syracuse to Utica. 4 hours; Utica to Albany and Troy, 7 hours — 25 hours. 

-» * * 

Resolved, That during the winter months the train shall leave Buffalo at 7 in the 
morning, reach and remain over night at Syracuse; and leave Albanv at o'clock in 
the morning, and stay over night at Auburn, so that a passenger may make the 
passage between Albany and ButTalo in two days. 

In 1845 the Rev. A. C. Paine, M. D., gathered together fifteen ad- 
herents of the Methodist faith in the town of Pembroke, at Corfu, and 
organized the "First Methodist Protestant church of Pembroke."' 
After worshiping in various places for eight years, the society, in ^'^53, 
erected a brick house of worship at a cost of three thousand dollars. 
The society had a prosperous career. 

Three churches v,-ere founded in Genesee county in 1849. The First 
Christian church of Pembroke, located at North Pembroke, was organ- 
ized June 30 of that year, witli fifteen members, by tlie P.ev. Joseph 
Weeks. A year later they built an edifice, which was enlarged and re- 
modeled in 1888. 

Aprils, 1840, St. Joseph's Roman Catholic church of Hatavia ' be- 
gan its existence as an independent church and parish, under the pastoral 
charge of the Rev. Father Edward Dillon, who was appointed to the 
charge by the Rt. Rev. Piishop Timon. The first services were held in 
the historic brick school house on the corner of Main and Ivagle streets. 
The present edifice, liocated on the corner of East Main and Smnmit 
streets, which cost forty-five thousand dollars, was not erected until 

It was through the efforts of Fatiier Dillon of Batavia that St. Peter's 

' .See Hisiury oi llic Vilkiyo vi 15..itavia. 

FROM 1>^41 TO l^ni. 193 

Roman Catholic church of Le R^y was ori^anized, in 1840, a short time 
after his a[)[:)ointment ti) the newl}' urL;'ani/.ed parish in Batavia. With- 
in a few weeks aftei" cc^miiii^' to I^.alax'ia iJillon visited Le Roy 
and said mass in the famous old Round House, on the site of the pres- 
ent Universalist cliurch. ^Monthly services were held thereafter for 
some time, and durint^ Julv Misliop Timon made his hrst visit to the 
congregation In Septem!)er following Fathei" Dillon |)urchased a lot 
on Pleasan.t street and erected thereon a frame chiirch, in which the 
first mass was celebrated on Christmas night folh^v/ing. From October, 
1S50, to October, 1S.')"2. various pastm's conducted services. (7)n the lat- 
ter date th'e Rev. Francis O'Farrell assumetl charge, remaining four 
years. In the meantime he also served the churches at Katavia and 
Attica. Father Brown auvl Father Mc'ilew succeeded him in turn. 
()\ving to thegrowtli in the membership of the clnirch he bought a lot 
on Myrtle street. The Rev. Thomas Cunningham, v/ho came in ISGO, 
bought eight acres of land on Exchange street, laid out St. Francis's 
cemetery, increased the church acoonmi'.>dations and established a fund 
for a new church. A parish was organized in December, ISGS, and the 
Rev. Daniel De Lacy ]M'.»ore became the first resident priest. He 
purchased a lot on Lake street and made plans for a new church. Un- 
der his ministrations the work of C(vnstruction was begun. But he died 
in January, IStl, and the Rew L. \"anderpool, the present pastor, who 
had assumed charge in Decemljc]-, 1^70. completed the task. The 
church was dedicated in December, ls;7o, by Bishop Ryan of Bui¥alo. 
A parochial school house was opened Septemiier '2, L'^SO. 

The Presbyterian church of Pembroke and Batavia was organized 
December "24, lS't4, through the offices oi the Re\'. William Lusk of 
Batavia. The origin;d members numbered twent\--two, and the Rev. 
Daniel C. Houghton was the first pastor. Tlie first church edifice, 
built in lS5o, a frame building. c(j.->t five tliousand dollars. 

vSt. Michael's Ivpiscopal church of Oakfield dates from 1S5S. It has 
had an tinusually intcrestiiig career. In IS.'li; the Rev. G. V. C. ICast- 
man liecanie head master of Cary Collegiate Seminary. Poinding in 
town several people who had been attached to the Church of Englaml, 
he began to hold services in the cliapel of the scmiruiry. The move- 
ment soon accpiired sufficient strength to warrant the organization of a 
parish. The records show that June 14, LSoS, a meeting was held for 
that purpose. The Rev. Mr. Eastman presided; twcj wardens, A. C. 
Dodge, Cyrus Pond, and eight vcstrxinen were elected. In lb»Jl the 



Rev. H. V. Gardner became rector and was succeeded, May 4, 1805, 
by the Rev. James R. Coe, who held the rectorship until his death, 
March IG, 1874. 

After Mr. Coe's death, the Rev. Henry A. Duboc served a brief but 
acceptable rectorship. His successor was the Rev. Charles H. Kellogg, 
who resigned May 2, 1878. The following October the Rev. H. M. 
Brown assumed the rectorship, which he held till 1881. Subsequently 
for several years the parish was served by R. H. Coe as lay reader, 
with occasional services by the Rev. Dr. Hitchcock and other clerg\-- 
men. The Rev. A. J. Warner was then called and was rector from 
November, ISSG, to September, 1889. The Rev. C. C. Gove, deacon, 
was elected minister-in-charge October 4, 1880, and having been ad- 
vanced to priest's orders in St. ^lichael's church by Bishop Coxe, on 
St. Thomas day, 1801, was then made rector and is the present incum- 

Until February 1, 1885, the services were held in ihe chapel r.f the 
seminary. On that day services were celebrated for the first lime in 
St. Michael's church. June IS following, Bishop Coxe of Buffalo, as- 
sisted by five clergymen, ccuisecrated tiie edifice. 

Though the First Roman Catholic church of Bergen was organized 
about 1850, the house of worship was not erected until 1850. The Rev. 
Father ]McGowan, who for several years had pastoral charge of tlie 
congregation, was chietly instrumental in the erection of the church. 
In 1883 the original building was torn down and the present handsome 
edifice erected, under the supervision of Father !Maloy. The parish 
had no resident priest until 1880, when the Rev. Father O'Riiey came. 

Ingham Collegiate Institute of Le Roy ' was incorporated April 0, 
185'2. The trustees named in tlie charter were A. P. Hascall, A. S. 
I'phara, Allen Ayrault, I. Chandler, M. L. R. P. Thompson. William 
C. Wisner, John Chester, Charles X. Mattoon, G. H. McKnight, J. B. 
vShaw, W. W. Evarts, D. C. Houghton. Stephen G. Austin, Pelatiali 
Perit, A. F. Barton, Aristarchus Chaiupion , Miles P. Lampson, Marshall 
Smead, Dennis Church, James R. I-5ond, Albert Brewster, James Falk- 
ner, Phineas Stanton and M. M. Ingham. 

In ISo'l the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank, which had been estai)- 
lished in Batavia in 18o8, was removed to Buffalo, principally through 
the influence of Elbridge G. Spaulding, who was elected president in 
1852. The first board of trustees consisted of E. G. Spaulding, Rufus 

• See the chapter on Ei.lui;;itiun in Genesee Coniuy. 

FROM 1841 TO IS^l. 19.") 

L. King^, Jolin S. Ganson, William R. Gwinn and fl. Ponipclly. The 
orir,^inal capital of the bank was one hundred tliou.sand dc^llars. 

In the iiieantinie ni^ticeable improvements were effected in the various 
towns of the county. The industrial develtjpment was steady, though 
not rapid, as the increase in populati'm was nrjt very marked during- 
this period. Among the first of the new industries to be established 
were the Oak field mills, located on a branch of Oak Orchard creek in 
the town of Oakfield. These mills were built in lSi--2 by Stephen Olm- 
sted, who operated them successfully for fourteen years. In 1S5G they 
were purchased by Calvin Nobles. lie continued their operation alone 
until 1SS3, when he sold them to his son, X. C. Xobles, who remodeled 
the mills and put in modern roller iiiacliinery, using both steam and 
water for motive power. In 184-2 Stephen Olmstead purchased the old 
Xobles mill at Oakfield. In ISoh he constructed, in connection there- 
with, a plaster mill, the original capacity of which was twenty-five tons 
per day. The stone has ahvaysbecn taken from the town, iu the vicin- 
ity of the mill. In Is',)-^ the business went into tlie hands of the Olm- 
sted Stucco Company, consisting of F. A. Olmsted, C. P. Olmstead and 
H. W. Olmsted. The plant was destroyed by fire in August, ]8it3, and 
was rebuilt on a larger scale and in (.)[)eration again in E)ecember fol- 
lowing. In ISOti the enterprise v/as S'_)ld to the Ott(j B. Englisch Plas- 
ter company, v/hich still operates it. It is one of the principal indus- 
tries of the town. 

In 1S3T Caryviile, the principal village in Oakfield, changed its name 
to Plain Brook. Soon after the name was changed to Oakfield, under 
which name it was incorporated in 1S5S. August T of that year the 
first officers under the charter were elected, as follows: Trustees, An- 
drew Thompson, \ irgil C. Calkins, Asa A. Woodruff, Abner C. Dodge, 
S. P. Champlin; assessors. Rice Baldwin, Samuel Fern>ws, Horace R. 
Holt; clerk, Solomon H. Parmalee; treasurer, Cyrus Pond; collector, 
Thomas Fjrown; poundmaster, De Witt C. Col<jny; inspectors of elec- 
tion, Samuel March, A. A. Woodrut?, S. P. Ciiamplin. 

Batavia experienced many changes during these two decades. In 
I'^oO John Enger purchased the old stone church on West Main street, 
built by the Methodist society in lS"-37, which he converted intcj a 
brewery. In 1S55 the Batavia (Jas Bight Com[xany was organized 
with a capital of $:5-2,50O. In 1857 Eli Fish built large ale vaultson the 
site of the old brewery built by Libbeus Fish in 1S:;JT. 

In Le Roy prosperity was in evidence on all sides. But the place 


had been devastated by several fires in earlier years, and the inhab- 
itants v/ere now awakening- to the necessity of securino: better protec- 
tion against the ravages uf the destructive element. Conscfiueutly a 
fire department was organized February S, 1851, with John W. Shedd 
as chief engineer, John G. Barber as first assistant chief, and A. O. 
Comstock as secretary. The department for many years Ci:)nsisted of a 
chemical compan}', a hose company and a hook and ladder company. 
For nearly thirty years vSamuel F. Comstock was secretary of the de- 
partment. He died in IS','-:, since which time F. A. Steuben has served 
in that office. The Le Roy Chemical Engine Company was organized 
October r>, 1>S.j, v,-ith these members: F. ;M. Comstock, W. C. B^ak, 

F. L. B. Taft, T. W. Larkin, C. F. Curtiss, J. K. Boak, F. H. Morgan, 
S. D. Gilbert, W. F. Huyck, Hobart S. Kelscy, L. W. Steuben, Frank 
W. Rail, Charles M. Rider, \V. F. McKenzie, F>dward P. Freeman. John 
C. Ross, W. M. Chapman, Edward Priester, H. H. Falkner, S. H. 
Mnrdock, \V. E. Humelbaugh and J. W. Olmsted. Noven-iber 2, lS!n;, 
the \-iIlage tru^iccs engaged a steam engine of the Silsby Manufactur- 
ing Company "f Seneca Falls, paying theref<_>re twenty dollars per week, 
until the completion of the new waterworks system in that village. 
The chief engineers of the fire department have been as follows: 

ISol, Colonel John \V. Shedd; 18o-2-lS5t3, John G. Barber; IS.".:, 
Samuel T. Howard; 1S5S, records missing; 1S.59-1SGI, John (j. Barber; 
1802, Angus L. Tompkins; 1sg:3, John G. Barber; 18G4— 1807, James 
Allison; ISGS-IST^, AV. S. Brown; lS:o-18r4, A. S. Tryon ; 1875, John 

G. Barber; IST'I, Gideon Fordham (removed by the village trustees 
and W. S. Brown elected in 1>)7',' to succeed him); 18T^>-1SSG, An<-'-us 
L. Tompkins; 1S8T- IS'.Jii, John Wiss; ISOl-lSO-^, Frank Siez; 18'.>3- 
1895, Sephrine E). Gilbert; 18;'G-1808, Stanley M. Smith. 

The Le Roy Firemen's Benevolent Association was incori)orated 
April 11, 1S53, the first ofificers being: President, John [. |. Tompkins; 
vice-president, Abram D. Lampkins; secretary, John H. Lent; treas- 
urer, Charles ^LJrgau; tlircctors, JiVun H. Stanley, Seaman T. Wright, 
Samuel T. Howard. The following is a list of the presidents of the 
association : 

185;3, John J. J. Tompkins; 18,V}, A. O. Comstock; 185."). Solomon T. 
Wright; 185G-57. Joh:i H. Stanley; 185S-Go, John J. J. Tom])kins; 
ISG-i-TG, John G. Barber; is::, W. S. Brown; ISIS-ro. Gideon Ford- 
ham; ISSu, Angus L. Tompkins; 1881-85, Edwin L. Bishop; 18SG-'.'8, 
S. Percy Hooker. 

FROM 1841 TO l>ifil. 197 

The charter of Le Roy was amended by act of the Ley;i,slature passed 
April G, 1857. By tliis instrument the boundaries <»f tlie villag-e were 
defined as f(.)ll><ws: 

All that district of countrv hereafter described shall be known and distinguished 
by the name of the village of Le Roy, that is to say: all that part of the town of Le 
Roy, in the county of Genesee, bounded as follows, to wit: Beginning at a point in 
the centre of the Nia.^ara road, on the wi?st line of James R. Lynn farm; theuce 
along said west line north, so far that a line running west drawn parallel with the 
Niagara road shall intersect I'.rockport street at (^eorge \V. Blodgett"s north line; 
thence west on said parallel liu<.- with the Niagara read, until it strikes a line run- 
ning north^from the east line <>i land formerly known as the P.enjamin Wilcox farm; 
thence south on said line to the east line of said Wilcox farm, on said Niagara nad; 
theuce continuing south on the east line of said Wilcixx farm, so far as to intersect a 
line which, running due east, will meet the road crossing Allen's creek, near Has- 
kin's mill, where the same intersects the Bethany r.-iad; thence easterly along the 
said road crossing Allen's creek, to wliere said load intersects the Pavilion road, by 
the south side of land formerly owned by widow Munn; thence east on a parallel 
line with said Niagara road, so fa" as to intersect a line drawn due south from the 
place of beginr. iug; tlieiicc north lo tiie place of beginning. 

The first trustees of the village under the new charter were A. P. 
Hascall, S. S. Brvant, S. Chamberlin, A. d. Carpenter and J. H. Stan- 

Le Roy has suffered from numerous destructive fires, one of the most 
disastrous of whicli, durin^- the period under discussion, occurred at 
three o'clock on the morning of January 17, 1S55. The flames origin- 
ated in an old wooden building occupied by the printing office of the 
Genesee Herald, owned by Mr. Grummon, and ]Mr. Finney's tobacco 
store. Among those v/hose places of business were destroyed were 
Samson 4.K; Elmore, Foreman v.^" Sons, I:5arton ^K: Olmstead, James Annin, 
lirowning lS: Kelsey, Hascall Ov; Bangs, Mr. (Jlmsted and Mr, Adams. 
The total loss was about one hundred thoustmd dollars. 

The Le Roy (jas Light Company was organized in July, 18G0, with 
a paid-in capital of twenty-five thousand dollars. Lucius N. Bangs 
and Channcey L. Olmstead v;ere largely interested in establishing the 
company. The first othcerswere: President, Nathan Randall ; treas- 
urer, Patrick H. Agan; secretary, superintendent and inspector, Charles 
M. Randall. The works, located at Allen's creek between the Central 
and Erie railroads, were opened in 1801. In ISO') the company added 
an electric light plant to its establisliment, bt;t the village now <jperates 
that plant itnder condemnation proceedings instituted in ]S!i7. Nathan 
Randall served as president of the gas comjiany until 1^0.3, when he 


was succeeded by Chaunccy L. OInistead. General C. Fitch Bissell 
became president in IST-i, and his son, L). Jackson Bissell in ISSO, the 
latter still serving in that office. 

Anioni;- the other industries established in Le Roy during this period 
were the broom factory of Jerome French, which was started in 184!) 
in the old Rockwell hotel, two and one half miles south of the village. 
In 185-4 M. A. Ladd established a' carriage sho]) in the village, erecting 
a stone building of two stories. 

In Darien Heni-y L. Harlow, in 1844, began the manufacture of car- 
riages in a small way at Harlow's Corners. Soon after he admitted his 
younger brothers. JefL'erson P. and Charles J. Harlow, into partner- 
ship. From time to time the business increased and the market was 
extended until at one time the firm employed thirty-five men and sold 
the product of its factory in seven or eight different States. The busi- 
ness was continued in Darien, and then in Lancaster, f(_)r a period of 
about forty years. 

Whilr- Genesee county, in coiumon with the country at large, was 
enjoying an era of prosperity following the financial panic of ISoT, the 
country passed through the most important presidential campaign 
which had occurred since the form:itit»n of the Union. This was the 
campaign of 18f3o — the forerunner of tiie tremendous crisis in the affairs 
of state which terminated in tlic Civil war. There were four national 
tickets in the field, headed respectively by Abraham Lincoln, John C. 
Breckinridge, J jlm Bell and Stephen A. Douglas. Of the three hun- 
dred and three electoral votes, Lincoln received one hundred and 
eighty, Breckinridge seventy-two. Bell thirty-nine, and Douglas twelve. 
The result produced great rejoicing in the triumphant Republican 
party in the Northern States, but with it was intermingled an ever- 
increasing volume of dissatisfactioii and rage, which came up h'om the 
South like a tidal wave, cidminating in i)pen rebellion and the seces- 
sion of several of the Southern States. Before the country could real- 
ize the catastrophe which had overtaken it, SunUer had been fired upon 
and the nation was involved in all the horrors of what proved to be a 
sanguinary civil war, the greatest in the history of the world. 



On the morning- of April 15, IS*] I, the daily newspapers which 
reached B^atavia bore the sc;rrowful tidings of the bombardment of Fort 
Sumter on the I'llh and i;jth of the month. On that day business of 
all kinds, public and priv^ate, was neg-lected fur the discussion of the 
portentous event. War was tlie sole topic of conversation; but even 
yet it was believed by most men of intelligence and judgment that the 
moment that the powerful arm of the government was uplifted against 
the offenders they would abandon their treasonalile outbreak and bow 
in submission to the federal authority. Many months elapsed, how- 
ever, bh.^od was shed in the border States, and millions of treasure 
were expended before even the highest government officials realized 
that a long and desolating war had begun. 

April 15, the day of the evacuation of Fort Sumter, President Lin- 
coln issued a proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand militia for 
three months' service. This call in itself was suflicient evidence of the 
general belief at the national capital that the war would prove to be no 
more than a summer-long conflict. The quota of New York State un- 
der this call was 13, "280, and it was mure than filled. May 3 another 
call for troops was issued, under which, and acts approved July 'i:l, 
half a million men were required. No sooner was the first call for 
troops made public than Genesee county was plunged into a fever of 
martial enthusiasm. Flags were unfurled to the breeze from hundreds 
of windows, and an intensely war-like sj^irit pervaded the atmosphere 
everywhere. xAn enthusiastic meeting was held immediateh' at Batavia, 
when twenty volunteers were enrolled. The same evening a meeting 
was held at Le Roy, and others in the various towns of the county fol- 

April 1,S. the county authorities received official information that 
five hundred men would be needed from Genesee cuunty. In accord- 
ance with demand public meetings were held on the afternoon and 
evening of Saturday, April x'O, at Concert hall, in Batavia, at which 


forty-eij^ht young- men were enrolled. ()n tliat occasion Trumbull 
Gary, John Fisher, Junius A. Smith, Seth Wakemau and James M. 
Willett were named as a committee to solicit subscriptions to a fund for 
the support of the families of those who enlisted, I^'or a similar pwv- 
pose a committee of tl^ree was ai)pointed in each town, as follows: 

Alabama. — Chauncey Williams, George PI. Potter, Edward IlaNey. 
Alexander. — Heman P>lodtcelt, Earl Kid'Aer, E. G. Moulton. 
lietbany. — Lemuel F. Lincoln, A. G. Torrey, Carlos Huggins. 
Bergen. — Horatio X. Reed, Sanuiel Richmond, Josiah Piersou. 
Pjyron. — J. T. Boynton. Loren (rreen, Addison Terry. 
Qarien.— J. W. Hyde. Co'nnel A. Jefferson, T. C. Peters. 
Elba.— Alva U. AVilhs, A. Hnlett, C. H. .Monell. 
Le Roy.— Hon. A. S. Upbam, Walter Gustin, A. O. Comstock. 
Oaktield. — Cbarles H. Ciiamberiin, Jnhu C. Gardner, William Dunlap. 
Pavilion. — 0.\i\va'.d Bond, Warren Fay, George Tomlin.son. 
Pembroke.— G. W. Wright. D. X. Wells, R F. Thomson. 

Frum the beginning of riie work, local recuiting" projn'essed rapidly. 
April ■-}'.! the formation of the hr&t com|)any in the county was com- 
pleted, and under the command of Captain Aiigustus I. Root it left tlie 
county to become part of the Twelfth Reqiment, X. Y. \'ol. Inf. May 
1-1- a second coiupany, in command of Captain James R. Mitchell, left 
to join its regiment. Tlie third company, commanded by Captain Will- 
iam L. Cowan, followed May 15. 

While these niilitary compap.ies were being formed, the patriotic 
women of 'leaesee coimty began the organization of associations for 
providing for the soldiers in the held comforts, and even lu.Kuries, whichi 
the government did not furnish — such as tlannels, havelocks, articles 
of clothing, medicines, etc. These things were supplied in liberal 
quantities, and accomplished much toward the amelioration of the far 
from pleasant condition of the men v/ho had gone to the front for the 
preservation and maintenance of the American Union. Among those 
who were leaders and most active workers in this noble and gracious 
cause, were Mrs. Gad Ih Woi^Lhington, Mrs, Ivichard Cotes, Mrs. John 
Fisher, Mrs. (leorge II. Iloiden, Mrs. Alva Smith, Mrs. E. R. Pratt, 
Mrs. Levi Jackson, Mrs. Wright. :\[rs. X, Cr. Clark, Mrs. Putnam, Mrs. 
Thomas Yates, .Mrs. John Wood, Mrs. Seth ^Vakeman, Mrs. Levant 
B, Cotes, Mrs. S. C. Iloldcn, Mrs. Junius A. Smith, ^[^s. Dean Ricli- 
mond, Mrs. H. L", Howard, Mrs. Macy, Miss ^L ^LdIory, Miss Parsons, 
Miss Carrie Pringle and many others. 

The first engagement participated in by any company sent to the 


front by Genesee county occurred on Monday, July IS, IStJl. On that 
day the Twelfth Reg-t. X. V. \'ol. Inf., of which Company K was or- 
"■ani^ed in Bata\'ia, to )k a !e:idin;^^ part in the sharp skirmish at Bull 
Run Creek, Va., the preliminary movement in the memorable battle of 
Bull Run, which occurred three days later. About 2 p. m. Richardson's 
Brigade of Tyler's Division, consisting of the First ^Tassachusetts, Sec- 
ond Michigan, Third Michigan and Twelfth New York Regiments of 
Infantry, with the New Yiv/k Regiment in advance, arrived at Centre- 
ville after a long and weary march from \"ienna, aiul turned t<^ the left 
from Qentreviile Heights towards liul! Run. The division had ad- 
vanced to a pf)int about a mile and a half south from Centreville, when 
the rebels opened fire up'jn it with artillerv. Company K, C(jmmanded 
by Captain A. I. Root, being on the left llank, was nearest the rebel 
battery and was among the first to feel the effects of its fire. The Xew 
York regiment was immediately formed in line of battle in an open 
field and two companies, deployed as skirmishers, at once advanced 
toward a thicket of small pines where the rebels were supposed to be 
in force. They were followed and sr,pported by the remaining eight 
companies of the regiment, am,l these were folhjwed and supported by 
the balance of the brigade. As the skirmishers approached the woods 
they were received with a heavy fire from the enemy's advance posted 
ttiere, V)ut were promptly and nobly sustained by the regiment. The 
order was: 

'• Twelfth Xew York, ri.K bayonets and clear the woods I " 
Bayonets were fixed, an intervening fence was scaled, and the regi- 
ment rushed double quick into the woods ten or twelve rods with bay- 
onets at cliarge, when the boys were met witli a siulden and fierce fire 
from Longstreet's entire division oi the rebel army. The bullets fell 
like hailstones. Fortunately the rebels were not experienced fighters 
and the bullets fiew high. The rattle of the balls against the trees was 
terrific, and branches and leaves fell like grass before the mower. The 
regiment was thrown into confusion and compelled to retire to form in 
line again, and it fell back to the other side of the field over which it 
had just charged In this charge the regiment suffered a loss of over 
four hundred men in killed, wounded and ju-isoners. Conipany K, of 
Batavia, lost Privates Lathrop, mortally wotmded ; Cirimes, severely 
wounded; and Charles Duran.t and Johnson, taken prisoners. 

While the regiment was being re-fcirmed a youthful lieutenant, fresh 
from West Point, and on that day acting as aid to General Tyler, rode 
up and said : 


" I know some of those boys. They are from Batavia. Let me lead 
their regiment down through this ravine and attack the rebel flank." 

The desired permission was not granted, however, though the opin- 
ion has been expressed, by several who participated in that action, that 
it could have been a wise and successful one. That young lieutenant 
was a Batavia boy, Emory Upton, afterwards Major General! 

There was no more fighting that day. The division fell back to Cen- 
treville Heights, where it remained until it advanced to participate in 
the bloody battle of Bull Run of July 21. 

The action of July IS was Company K's first " baptism of fire." But 
the members of this company afterwards participated in many of the 
battles of the war. Its captain attained the rank of C(3lonel and died at 
the head of his regiment — the Fifteenth New York Cavalrv — in one of 
the closing battles (jf the war. Its orderly sergeant became major — 
^lajor S. D. Ludden. Its second sergeant became captain — Captain 
Charles F. Rand. Private John B. Foote became a lieutenant. This 
company, the rirst to organize in Genesee county, and the first to depart 
from Batavia for the scene of the conflict, had the following officers: 

Captain, Augu.stus I. Root; lieutenant, William P. Town; ensign, Lucius Smith; 
sergeaats, Samuel D. Lucl'iea, Charles F. Rand, James F. Taylor, Thomas Tauzey, 
corporals, Samuel McChesney, WiUiam P. Jones, James P. Taylor, Joseph L. Hunt; 
musicians, Albert A. Mea'l, Francis M. Lincoln. 

The privates were as follows: 

William B. Aird, George W. F.aars, John W. Rartlett, John C. Reach, Almon G. 
Bentley, Franklyn Billings, James Brayley, John Briggs, Henry R. Casler, James 
Clifton, Zelotus R. Colby, James Conway, James E. Cross, Charles F. Davenport, 
Robert Dearlove, Michael Delano, Charles FJurant, William Enwright, Harrison 
Ferguson. John B. Fot.ite, Daniel W. Ford, Alvin Fox, Patrick Garrity, John G. 
Gartner, Jasper Gibb^, John Glansbroth, WiUiam Graham, Jacob Heiber, Charles A. 
Hickox, William Johnson, Barney Karker, Gef)rge Keem, William Lathrop, William 
H. Leonard, Peter Mischlin, Frank Murphy, William H. Xickols, Robert Peard, 
Cornelius W., lieorge W. Reynolds, Michael Roach. Michael Ryan, Frank 
Seani.jns, James Shepard, George Smith, Hiram W. Smith, Parmenis Skinner, 
Albert P. Stage. John Stone, William Thompson, Timothy Tierney, Horace F. 
Tracy, William Wheeler. 

The Twelfth Regiment, of which Captain Root's company formed a 
part, was commanded by Col. Ezra L. Walrath and was mustered into 
the service May 13, ISOl. 

The Twenty eighth Regiment, X. Y. Vol. Infantry, was organized 
at Albany to serve two }-ears. The companies of wliich it was com- 


posed were raised in the counties of Genesee, Xia<^'-ara, Ontario, Orleans 
and Sullivan. The members ot the re^^iment left Batavia May 13, ISGl, 
and on 'Siay •?•? tlie organization was mustered into the service of the 
L^nited States at Albany. The Genesee county company, ort^anized by 
Captain James R. Mitchell, afterwards major, was in command of Cap- 
tain Charles H. Fenn. Its other officers were: 

First lieutenant, William W. Rowley; second lieutenant, George ^^. Ellicott; ser- 
geants, Lucien R. Ikiiley. Charles Y). Searles, George W. .Sher\v<jod, Edward J. Watts; 
corporals, Leander Hamilton. Chandler Gillam, Robert E. Whitney, Darwin Fel- 
lows; nmsicians, John Prost. Silas Bragg. 

The following persons went out with the company as privates: 

Calvin Annis, tieorge H. Alien, William F. Albro, Edmund Bragdon, Byron 
BrinkerlioiT, James F. Bennett, Riley Blount, (reorge Barnard, Lafayette liaker, 
Oscar Bar:>.es, I'hilip Bettingt;r, George H. Bol'on, Henry Baldwin, John S. Barl>er, 
William H. Colburn, Roswell Coddington, Robert Chappell, Henry Close, Charles 
H. Crandell, Alexander Comyns, Henry Dykeman, Joshua C. Davis, Melvin Dodge, 
Decatnr Doty, Irvin H. Ewell, Kirkland Ewell, Theodore Eldridge, Joseph Ennis, 
(."reorge Gritnn, Cleveland Gillett, Joseph Gibson, Peter Howland, William Howland, 
Porter Howard, Truman M. Hawley, George M. Hamilton, Isaac Hotchkiss, James G. 
Lawton. Charles (}. Li^comb, Joseph Luce, John Moran, Barnard Murray, Lvmau 
B. Miner, William McCiackei;, Richard Outhardt, Charles A. Perkins, F"]avius Per- 
kins, Edward C. Peck, Erastus Peck, Franklin Peck, Michael Quirk, Charles B. 
Rapp, Harlow iL Reynolds, Michael Ryan, Howard ^L Snell. Henry Scott, William 
B. Simmons, Stephen Tayler, Roiiert Thomp^on, Milton Tripp, George Thayer, 
John Van P.'.iren, Francis ^L Weatherlow. 

The regitnent of which this compan}- formed a part remained at 
Camp Moi-j^an, Albany, about three weeks, and was then ordered to 
Washington. The next orders carried them to Martinsburg, \'a. 
Soon iifter, at Harper's Ferry, it was attached to the Third Brigade, 
Ninth Army Corps, under C(niimand of General George II. Tlionias, 
and spent the summer a?ul fall in doing picket duty along the Potomac. 
Early in the winter th.e regiment went into cpiarters at Frederick, 
Md. January 1, ISO',', it moved to Hancock, Md., where it remained 
two months. March 1, the day designated for the grand mcjve of the 
Army of the Potomac, the Twenty- eighth pioceeded to Virginia, pass- 
ing the summer in th.e Shenandoah Valley. In the fall it marched to 
Martinsburg again, thence to Culpeppei" Court Hnusc. In this place 
and vicinity a month was passed. After the battle of Chancellorsville 
it proceeded to Wasliington, and soon afterward left for the North. It 
was mustered out of the service of the United States at Lockport, June 
•^, lStJ3. 


The reg:iment participated in the battles of Cedar Mountain, Antie- 
tam and Chancellorsville. At the Ixittle of Cedar Mountain Colonel 
Donnelly, commanding- the rej^iment, rcceivctl wounds which resulted 
in his death Aui;nst ir>, Is*;-^: Lieutenant Colonel Edwin F. Brown had 
an arm sliot off; Major ICUiutt W. Cook was made a prisoner; Adjutant 
Ciiarles l). Sprout was killed in actic.m, and I.ieutenarjt Bailey of Com- 
])any F was wounded. The rei^iment lost heavily in this eng-agement. 
The record of the officers of this regiment who went from Genesee county 

Major.— Jaiijes R. Mitclit-ll, commissii^ned June "iO, istjl; resi;.2,ned September ;'.0, 


Captains.— William \V. Rowley, commissioned November 10, 1SG2 ; mustered out 

with regmieut. Jan^es R. Mitchell, commissioned ; prouKAed to major June "0, 

18'Jl. Charles II. r enn, commis.sioued July 4, l><i;i ; nuistered out with regiment. 

First Lieutenants — Charles II. Fenn, commissioned ; promoted to captain May 

19, 18<J1. William W. Rowley, commissioned July 4. ISGI; promoted to captain No- 
vember 10, 18G2. GeorL;-e M. Ellicott. commissioned November 10, 18G2; mustered 
out with regiment. 

Second Lieutenants. — William W. Rowley, commissioned ; promoted to first 

lieutenant May 19, ISGI. C,eorge M. Ellicott, commissioned July 4, ISGl ; promoted 
to nrst lieutenant Novembe'- 10, ItfG-. Lucien R. Bailey, commissioned February 
7, 1SG3; mustered out with regiment. 

Capt, William L. Cowan's company (Company D) of the Fourteenth 
Regiment, Xew York Volunteer Militia, was recruited in Genesee 
county, organized at Batavia, inspected May S, ISf.l, and mtistered into 
the service of the United States May IT, 1801, for two years. Captain 
Cowan was a resident of Darien. The other officers commanding the 
company were: 

First lieutenant, Robert H. Foote, of Batavia; second lieutenant, George E. Gee of 
Darien; sergeants, Thomas R. Ilardwick of Pembroke, Almon C. Barnard, Jesse R. 
Decker of Batavia. Irwin II. Crosman of Alexander; corporals, David W. Manning, 
Harry Par.suus. Hiram II. Van Dake, Thomas L. Ostrom; musicians, James B. Pot- 
ter and Gregory Sliaver. 

The following were mustered as privates; 

Orlando Aldrich, Charles Archer, Charles Avenll, Lucius F. P.rown, James Bailey, 
Freeman F. Barber, William II. Barnett, Martin W. Bliton, Thomas Bowie, John H. 
Brown, Warren P. Burr, Austin A. Bagley, George Carpenter, George Chamberlin, 
Daniel Chamberlin, Martin Coon, Ira S. Cross, William E. Crissey, Ellery L. I.^elano, 
James Derick, George Drain, Stephen Euiiis, Henry Farnham, George F'isher, De- 
metreus Glenn, Clark E. (Jould, Abram Ilancr, I'.ruce Hc-rington, Henry Hike, Na- 
than 11 H<)[)kin^,, Lowell H'>we. N>:-lson lenkins, Daniel Jiilins, Phillip Lapp, An- 
drew Lee, James A. Lewis, jMhn Lyon, Ma>;on, Kich.u-d P. Merrill, James 


McDermit, Arthur O'Xiel, Martin Pilgrim, William H. Randall, Almon Secord, Rob- 
ert Scovell, Joseph Shaw, William Shaw, William Smith, Francis D. Smith, Andrew 
Seiber, Andrew Strobel, Paddock L. Tucker, Charles H. Tessey, Carmel D.Townsend, 
Edward Tibbits, Randolph Tubbs, Arthur Tumalty, Peter Van Valkenburg, Charles 

B. Vickery, Ira Woodin, Benjamin Winans, Airios B. Wyman, Millard U. York, 
Menden Younge. 

As the quota of New York State was filled when Captain Cowan or- 
ganized his coii-ipany, when he left Batavia for Albany with his coni- 
niand, Ma_v 15, ISGl, he acted entirely upon his own responsibility. 
Upon arriving at Albany, however, he succeeded in liaving- his com- 
pany assigned to the P'ourteenth Regimen:, commanded by Colonel 
James McQuade. Soon afterward the regiment proceeded to the front, 
being first stationed at Camp Douglas, where it received its arms and 
equipments. Upon leaving Camp Douglas, it proceeded to Miner's 
Hill, Va., where for some time it performed picket duty. March IG, 
1SG2, it joined ^IcClellan's army. It participated in several of the 
most important battles of the war. The complete list is as follows: 
Gaines's Mill, Turkey Bend, Malvern Hill, Antietam, IJig Bethel, Chan- 
cellorsville, Second Bull Run, South Moimtain, Hanover Court House, 
Mechanicsville, White Oak Swamp, Fredericksburg, Siege of Yorktcjwn, 
Warrenton Junction, Snicker's Gap and Williamsburg. 

Captain Walter B. Moore's company of the One Hundredth Regi- 
ment of Infantry was recruited principally among the inhabitants of 
Genesee county. The regiment, poi)uIarl\- known as the Second Regi- 
ment of the Eagle Brigade, commanded by Colonel James M. Brown, 
was mustered for three years' service. The Genesee county com[Kiny 
c<jnsisted of the following: 

Captain, Walter B. .Moore; lieutenants, Meluncthon IIowcll Topping, Martin S. 
Bogart; sergeants, Rodney Uexter, Leonard D. Howell. Edward S. Peck, Peabody 
Pratt, Myron P. Pierson ; corporals, William Wheeler, William ^L Thomsijii, Donald 
Mcpherson, Norman H. Meldrum, John C. Davis, Milu L. Olmstead; musicians, 
Joseph O. Price, Samuel Makers; wag(mcr, Willard Jos-,lyn. 

Privates, Irvin Austin. Robert F.rears, Edward K. Boyd, Benjamin I'.ain, Henry 

C. Bolton, George N. Benjamin, Charles Clough, William N. Crosby, ivlward P. 
Cooley, Benjamin C. Coon, Henry G. Copeland, Mortimer L. Daniels, Fritz Dato, 
Ord. yi. Davis, Leonard R. Delamater, (leorge Eberhart, Jacol) Edgarton, George 
C. Fales, James Fo.\, Charles D. Foot, William H. French, Barney Grownev, Theo- 
dore O. Geer, John Goiland, Philip Gei/.e, Henry M. Haskins, Alljert Howell, John 
Jordan, Andrew Lynd, John J. McCall, George Moore, Timothy McMullin, loscpli 
Maud, Gordon B. Meldrum, John McPiiaii, Thomas McCann, Daniel Mclntvre, 
Charles Meyrer, James McPherson, Mather Moore, William Newton, William Olm- 
sted, John B. Ott, Albert J. Pcrvorce, Joseph P. Pierson, John C. Presbry, Albert 


Russell, Hiram Robison, Phillip Ryan, William P. Swift, James V. Swarthout, Will- 
iam Seeley, Chester F. Swift, George Swift, Peter Treehouse, Rol)ert Trimball, Ly- 
man Taylor, Sanford C. Thomson, Peter Tracy, I^ouis II. Todd, Stephen Walkley, 
Aut,'ustus P. Weller, John G. Wicks, Abram L. Wood, Matthias Winkle, Albert U. 
Ward, James Walker. 

The One Hundred and Fifth Regiment, X. Y. Vokmteer Infantry, 
was recruited largely from among the residents of Genesee county. The 
names of the officers and men from Genesee county, as they appear 
upon the vState muster rolls, follow: 

Field and StatT. — Colonel, James M. Fuller, Le R(jy; lieutenant-colonel, Henry S. 
Achillis, Le Roy; major, John W. Shedd, Le Roy; quartermaster, Charles Strong, 
Le Roy; surgeon, David C. Chamberlin, Le Roy; chaplain, Byron P. Russell, Le 
Roy; commissary sergeant, Jerome J. Shedd, Le Roy. 

Company A. — Second lieutenant, George W. Dickey, Batavia; first sergeant, 
George H. Smith, Batavia; sergeant, Harrison Barber, Elba; corporals, Marony 
Shadbolt, Alexander; Clinton Brace. Batavia; Gecvrge vS. Winslow, Batavia; Lemaii 
T. Miner, Batavia; musician, Lonson R. Chatfee, Le Roy; privates, Samuel Avery, 
Frederick Bramsted, Edward Brewer, Jetlerson Curtain, Lorenzo Croft, Alonzo 
Croft, Oliver X, Campbell, William Dingman, John Free, Alvirus D. Harrington, 
George F. Hundredmark, John Killen, Burr Kenyon, John Nash, Malcom G. P-etti- 
bone, Henry H. Ruland, Lewis Skinner, John Tyrrell, Henry E. Thomas, John 
Thomas, William Thomas, Isah Thomas, Abram Vanalstine, Andrew Whimey. 

Company B. — Corporal, Merit White; privates, Philip S. Frost, Cornelius Ryan. 
William Rose. 

Company C. — Corporal, Edward Thompson; privates, Joseph M. Cook, Charles 
H. Hodge. Peter A. Mclntyre, Malcora Mclntyre, Edward Mercer, Erasmus R. Ste- 
I^hens, William H. Tliompson, Orrin Thompson, John B. Way. 

Company D. — Sergeant, George W. Grifiith, Le Roy; musicians, John Foster and 
Emogine Daniels. Le Roy; privates, Charles H. Miller, James Shine. 

Compan\- E. — Captain, George Babcock, Batavia; first lieutenant, Willis Beuham, 
South Byron ; second lieutenant, John J. White. Batavia; sergeants, Edwin J. Hyde 
and Lucius F. Rolfe, Bethany, Patrick H. Graham, Batavia; corporals, George W. 
Mather. Herbert Stacey and Edward Brenuan, Batavia, James A. Sherwood, Byron, 
Clarence H. McCabe, Danen, Taylor Hart, Alexander, Newell J. Hamilton, Oak- 
field; teamster. Philbrook ?Iolden, Batavia; privates, John F. Armstrong, William 

F. Albro, Chauncey Bowen, John Blake, John Barnard, Heirick C. Crocker, William 
E. Crane, Thomas Cady, Owen Gaskin, William H. tieal, Jacob Hagisht, Lawrence 
Henescy. Wesley Hawkins, James H. Hogan, Edwin S Heath, John Keenan, James 

G. Lawton, Mann, John Moore, William Martin, Robert C. Odion, David 
Powell, James F'ar.shall, \Villiam Ri!ey, Michael StrictT, Levi Schrem, Joseph Sco- 
field. Harlam Trumbull, James P. Thomas, James H. Turner, I'ranklin Terry, Isaac 
Wakeley, Isaac P. Wakeley. 

Company F — Corp'jral, William J. Deshon, Bethanv; privates, Arthur Carniel, 
Thomas Close, Edward Hibbisou, Oliver B. Olin, Sylvester Primmer, George 

Company G. — Private, Thomas Coady. 


Company K.— Corporal, Sheldon L Brown, Oakiield; privates, Frederick Ellris, 
George Fauset, John Johnson. 

This reg-iment was mustered into the service of the United States in 
March, 1SG2, and consolidated with the Ninety-Fourth New York Vol- 
unteers m March, iSGo. The regiment participated in the followinj,^ 
battles: Cedar Mountain, Rappahannock Station, Thoroughfare Gap, 
Second Bull Run, Chantilly, South Mountain, Antietam and Fredericks- 
burg. The names of the officers and their records follow: 


James ^L Fuller, commissioned April 10, lS6vJ; resii^ned August 2, ISi'.'l 

Howard Carroll, commissioned August 2, 1SG2: not mustered as colonel. 

John W. Shedd, commissioned October 10, 1S02: mustered out at cons(;lidation. 
March 17. 1863. 
Lientena7it- Colonels: 

Henry L. Achilles, commissioned March 21, 1SG2; resigned March 2.'5, 1S62. 

Howard Carroll, commissioned April 10, 18'32 ; died September 20, 1802, of wounds. 

Richard Whiteside, commissioned October 10, 1S<)2; mustered out at consolidation. 

John W. Shedd, commissioned April 10, 1862; promoted to colonel October 10, 1SG2. 

Daniel A. Sharp, commissioned October 10, 1802; mustered out at consolidation. 
Adj uiants: 

Daniel A. Sharp, commissioned April 10, 1SG2; promoted to major October 10, l'*G2. 

John \. White, commissioned November 24, 18G2; mustered out at consolidation. 
OuartLvmastLis : 

Charles Strong, commissioned April 10, 18G2; discharged August 12, 18G2. 

Jerome J. Shedd, commissioned December 17, 18G2; transferred to Ninety-fourth 

Surgeon : 

David C. Chamberlain, commissioned April 10, 18G2; transferred to Ninety-fourth 
Assistant Siirs^eons : 

James W. Casey, commissioned April 10, 1^G2; mustered out at consolidation. 

John T. Brown, commissioned September 17, 18G2; transferred to Ninctv-fourth 
Chaplain : 

Byron P. Russell, commissioned April 10, 18G2; resigned September 12, 1862. 
Captains : 

Richard Whiteside, commissioned April 10,1802; promoted to lieutenant-colonel 
October 10, 1862. 

J(jhn C. Whiteside, commissioned November 10, 1862; transferred to Ninctv- 
fourth Regiment. 

James B. W. De Long, commissioned April 10, 18G2; discharged October 1, 1862. 

CharlesF. Rodgers, commissioned November 24. 1SG2; transferred to Ninety-fourth 
Regiment; brevet major N. Y. V. 


Htnr}- E. Smith, coniinissioned April 10, 1802; discharged October 13, 1862. 

Thomas A. Steadinau, C()mmissioned November 19, 1802; mustered out at consoli- 

Isaac S. Tichenor, conimissioued April 10, 1802; mustered out at consolidation; 
brevet colonel U. S. V. 

George Babcock, commissioned April 10, 1862; discharged Octol.>er 0, 1852. 

Willis Benham, commissioned November 2-i, 18G2; transferred to Ninety-fourth 

Abraham Moore, commissioned April lU, 1802; transferred to Ninety-fourth Regi- 

John McMahon, commissioned April lo, 1802; transferred to Ninety-fourth Regi- 

Patrick W. r.radley, commissioned April 10, 1802; mustered out at consolidation. 

Thomas Purcell, commissioned April 10, 1802; discharged September IT, 1802. 

Joseph E. Conway, commissioned December 2:], 1802; not mustered as captain. 

Salah J. Wilber, commissioned April 10, 1802; discharged January 16, 1863. 
First Lieutentxiits: 

John C. Whiteside, commissioned April 10, 1802, promoted to captain November 
19, 1803. 

Benjamin Whiteside, coimuissioned December 22, 1802; transferred to Ninety- 
fourth Regiment. 

Charles F. Rodgers, commissioned April 10, 1802; promoted to captain November 
24, 1802. 

Frederick J. Massey, commissioned November 24, 1802; transferred to Ninet\-- 
fourth Regiment. 

Thomas A. Steadman, commissioned Aj)ril lu, 1802; promoted to captain Novem- 
ber 19, 1802. 

John De Graff, commissioned November 24, 1n02; not mustered as first lieutenant. 

Horace D. Bennett, commissioned April It), 1802; dismissed October 17, 1802. 

Augustus Field, commissioned December 22, 1802; transferred to Ninety-fourth 

Willis Benham, commissioned April 10, 1802; promoted to captain November 24, 

Lucius F. Rolfe, commissioned February 20, 1803; mustered out at consolidation; 
brevet captain N. Y. V. 

William Clark, coiumisr^ioned .\pril 10, l.s02; discharged .September 12, 1802, 

William Knowlcs, commissioned Novcmljcr 24, 1S02; transfcrreil to Ninety- 
fourth Regiment. 

Dennis Graham, commis-^ioned April 10, 1S02; discharged (k't(.>ber 9, 18')2. 

Isaac Doolittle, commissioned October 30, 1S02: transferred to Ninety-fourth 

David C. Smith, commi.ssioned April 10, 1802; resigned November 28, 1802. 

George W. Connelly, commissioned February 19, 1803; not mustered as first lieu- 

Michael McMulIen, commissioned April 10, 1802; mustered out at consolidation. 

David Gould, jr., commissioned April 10, l-^''.2; resigned Julv 12. 1^02. 

Eli D. Wooduorth, commissioned July 21, 1862; mustered out at consolidation. 


Second Lifitiena)its: 

George \V. Dickey, commissioned April 10, 1S()'2; discharged September 10, 1862. 

Thomas Burrows, commissioned December 22, 1.SG2; transferred to Ninety-fourth 

Frederick J. Massey, commissioned Ai)ril 10, 1SG2; promoted to first lieutenant 
November 24, 1^02. 

Charles T. Mesler, commissioned December 22, 1S62. transferred to Nmety-fourth 

John De Gratt, commissioned Aj^ril 10, 18G2; missing since December lo, l!:"i2. 

James H. Bushnell, commissioned December 22, 18G2; mustered out at consolida- 

Augustus Field, commissioned April 10, ISGJ; promoted to first lieutenant Decem- 
ber 22, 18G2. 

Oscar F. Hawkins, commissioned December 22, 18G2; transferred to Ninety-fourth 

John J. White, commissioned April 10, 18G2; promoted to adjutant November 24, 

Lucius F. Rolfe, commissioned November 24, 18G2; promoted to first lieutenant 
February 20. 1862. 

William Knowles, commissioned April 10. ]S(_;2; promoted to first lieutenant No- 
vember 24, 1SG2. 

Edwin A. Dayton, commissioned December 22, 1862; transferred t(j Ninety-fourth 

Isaac Doo'.ittle, commissioned April lo, 18G2; pn^moted to first lieutenant October 
30. 18G2. 

(reorge W. Connelly, commissioned December 22, 1862; mustered out at consolida- 

John Hayes, commissioned February 10, 18''>3; not mustered. 

Joseph E. Conway, commissioned April 10. 1^62; mustered out at consolidation. 

George French, commissioned December 22, 1**G2; not mustered. 

Charles C. Buckley, commissioned April 10, 18G2; killed in action at Antietam, 
Md., September 17. 1SG2. 

Garwin Longmuir, commissioned January 31, isG;); not mustered. 

Eli D. Woodworth, commissioned April 10, 1SG2; promoted to first lieutenant July 
21, 18C2. 

George Wilbur, commissioned July 21, 1862; mastered out at consolidation. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Regiment of New York Vet- 
erans was recruited lari^ely from (jcnesee county. It \va.s ort^anized at 
Lockport, to serve three years, and was mustered inti; the service of 
the United States as an infantry rej^-iment August Vl, l8(j-..>. In Febru- 
ary, lSb3, it was changed from infantry to lieavy artillery and desig- 
nated as the Eighth N. Y. Heavy Artillery. It belonged to the Second 
Army Corps. 

Two additional companies were organized for this regiment in Janu- 



ary, ISG-i. The entire org-anization was raised in the counties of Gene 
see, Niagara and Orleans, comprising the Twenty-nintli Senate district. 
Companies G, H, I and K were transferred to the Fourth New York 
Artillery June 4, 18G5. Companies L and M were transferred to the 
Tenth New York Volunteer Infantry, and the remaining six companies 
were mustered out June 5, 1S0(), in accordance with orders from the 
War Department. This regiment participated in the following battles, 
according to the official report of the adjutant-general of the State of 
New York: Spottsylvania, Tolopotomoy, Cold Harbor, North Anna, 
Petersburg, Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, Ream's Station and lioyd- 
ton Road. The casualties of this regiment during the campaign which 
closed with Lee's surrender,' were officially reported at 1,17 1 officers 
and men. As far as can be learned the following is a list of the Gene- 
see county members of this regiment. 

Major. — James M. Willett. 

Company G. — Captain Elbridge T. Sherwin; lieutenants, J. R. Cooper, Orrin C. 
Parker; sergeants, John H. Nichols, John F. Ilutton, John J. 'ihomas, Jaiiie.-, \V. 
Young, George Ford; corporals, J. D. SalTord. Lewis Teller, Wni. H. Bennett. >[. 
M. Kendall. Peter Welch, W. \V. Burton. M. Mauahan, Thomas Cuthbert, James H. 
Horton, Peter Barber; musicians, M. ^McNamara, Joseph U. Ilorton ; artificer, John 
G. Foster. 

Privates. — Albert Amidon, John Adams, Nelson F. Bowen, \Vm. A. Burris, Chai-!os 
Brooks, John Bisher, H. Tv. Bennett, Charles Buell, L. C. Brig;.:;s, M. Birmingham, 
AVm. Brower, Charles Collins, James H. Charles, Christopher Cooper, \Vm. Cleve- 
land, George A. Cole, J. Cook, J. Donnigan, L. C. Dorman, A. E. Darrow, A. T- 
Denham, Anthony Davis, I.)eIos Eddy, Nicholas Felter, Harry Fcrnerstein, Edward 
W. Flanders, Charles H. Fuller, George A. Fuller, Peter Fowldin, Frank Gleaser, 
Warner Howe, Henr}- Helfniau. Wni. Hutton, Christopher Johnson, Henry Johnson. 
Lyman C. Kendall, Wm. H. Kendall, John Kimmerling, Daniel AV. Kinnic, Wm. 
Morford, Norman Martin, Moses Miilington Peter McDermid, Daniel MclJerr.iid, 
Charles W. McCarthy, Cain Mahaney, Joseph Murdock, Peter Metzler, George 
Metzler. S. Myres, J. McLaughlin, John .Munz, George Merlan, Conrad Merlan, 
Abram Norris, Van A. Prate, Robert Pcard, Wm. J. Pmdar, M. S. Parker, F. W. 
Rice, Fernando Robbins, Charles H. Rice, Nathaniel Rowan, Wm. H. Ship, John J. 
Sherman. Wm. Smith, Devolson Smith, Henry Thomas, Joseph Thompson, George 
W. Thomas, Lewis Van Dyke, G. H. Van Alstine, Reuben Van Wart, S. A. Wil- 
son, W. W. Wyman, W. Ward, W. P. Wright, Joseph Willett, Leroy Williams, N. 
W. Wakeman, Wm. Wood, R. H. Waue, Richard Welch. 

Those recruited and sent on after the regiment had gone to the front 

F. A. Altmeyer, John W. Amlong, N. F. Bowen, William N. Barton, Mark Bossard, 
Joseph Bongordon, John W. Babcock, A. J. Bennett, M. F. Bowe, John Brown, Will- 
iam Boehme, W. H. loennett, Peter Barber, P. Colson, Henry Conklm, G. R. Cochran, 


John Camp, Hibbard Chase, John Collins, James B. Clark, Patrick Collins, Daniel 
Dibble, Hugh Dutfy, C. M. D.xls^e, Robert Denham, M. W. Elston, Abram Elston, 
Robert A. Erwin, La\vrence Flynn, Christopher Follttt, K. B. P'inley, Matthew 
Gleaser, J. M. Giison, Cliarle^ C. Gilsoii. (rcorge F. Jones, Ezra Kirby, James Moore, 
John McXamara, Virv;il Marsh, Hiram Marsh, A. J. Mahcw, F. B. Maynard, N. A. 
Mitchell. M. Manion, N. Martin, Charles Nichols, R. Oveudan, Thomas E. Peard, 
John Perkins, George \V. Parshall, D. M. Pannell, M. W. Parker, George Perry, W. 
O. Robinson, John Reed, Cliarles Sanford, J. B. D. Sawtell, Martin Steves, William N. 
Smith, Jacob ^L Smith, Joseph Steffin, Horatio Thomas, John Thomas, Cassimere 
Thomas, O. Timmerson, N. Truesdall, Seth J. Thomas, Thomas Wilsor,. John Was- 
chow, Albert Wilber, Rowley Wilson, Luke White, i'^dwin Wade, C. M. Whitney, J. 
Wal>h, J. M. Wiggins, F. F. Watermaii, E. A. I'errin, Silas Smith. 

Company H. — Captain, Stephen Connor; lieutenants, George Wiard, J. H. Rob- 
son, W. H. Raymond, Archibald Winnie; sergeants, Henry Bickford, W. H. Rober- 
son, William Grant, Louis Mather, Steplien Vail, O. E. Babcock, A. W. Aldrich, R. T. 
Hunu; corporals, E. P. Cowles, Charles C(jx, E. J. Winslow, A. M. Allen, C. Chamber- 
lain, William Jones, W. H. Fidinger, W, H, (rritlin, E. A. Whitman, Joseph Webber, 
H. B. Salisbury, L. H. Robinson; musicians, C. D. Davis, Henry C. Ward; artificers, 
F. Krager, W. Cole ; wagoner, R. Crosby. 

Privates.- — Orrin Allen, Arthur Allen, Ed. Anthony, FVank Anthony, Thomas 
Anthony, Henry Anthony, J. O. Aldndge, H. L. Austin, Albert Algo, J. Armidick, 

D. H. Bailey, F. Burgomaster, J. K. Brown, H. E. Firooks, |. C. Beach, Ira Baker, 
Henry Brittou. James Bush, John S. Barber, W. R. Cruok, Eli Cope, J. M. Cook, 
J. W. Chappel, Joseph Cheney, Robert Caple, P. Carlton, Robert Conroy, F;dward 
Dyer, .\lvin Dyer, Ferdinand Dorf, H. E. Duell, Charles Derby, Frank Derson, M. 
T. Bailey. N. J. F2aton, WilHani Fenner, Daniel I'enner, Irvine Fenner, Leon Feller, 
N. Frenberger, C. Foster, J. C. Fidinger, A. J. Frayer, J. E. Friesman, W. B. Gra- 
ham. Jacob Gleaser, R. L. Gumaer, W. J. Gregg, John C. Gray, (t. A. Haight, J. E. 
Haight, Sam Haight, G. Z. Howard, J. B. Hescock, J. D. Henderson, S. B. Holmes, 
James Heal, Robert Heal, Jonas Holmes, John Hi.K, J. W. Hildun, Charles Havens, 

E. G. Havens, F. M. Harden, O. S. Holcomb, F. Johnson, D. V. Johnson, P'rank 
Jones, W. S. Joslyn, H. D. Johns, Thomas Johns, Daniel Johns, F. x\. Kenyon, W. 
P. Kidder, J. W. Kasson, B. R. Lamkins, Fred Lord, C. Laileur, D. E. Lamphear, 
William Lewis, James Laighbody, Charles Lilly. J. D, Mason, W. J. Moore, J. K. 
Merrill, W. A. McMillan, N. N. Morse, Pat Murphy, H. 1). Myers, J. McDaniels, J. 
Mc.\llister, W. H. Mattison, J. Mahannah, A. T. McCracken, Byron Murdock, W. L. 
Norton. Alfred P.iker, G. W. Reynolds, John Radford, A. E. Spauldmg, Paul Ste- 
vens, D. Sherman, Festus Stone, H. T. Sautell, Moore Smith, W. I. Skidmore, A. 
V. Simmons. H. F. Snook, Arba Shaw. J. Spaulding, H. Suits, Daniel Suits, H. C. 
Searls, M, Sutnn, Thomas Steele. H. C. Timby, Samuel Throop, George Tliomas. 
M. O. Tyrrel, E. Tibbitts, S. D. Tuttle. W. B. Tallman, B. F. Tallman, H. L. Van 
Dresser, M. L. Watson, J. A. Wall, Robert Walker. W. M. Walker, Jolin H. Wea- 
ver, B. F. Wood, James W. Wood, Julius Wies, Jacob Wies, Thomas Warner, War- 
ren West. J. H. Williamson, Edson Weed, E. G. Web>ter, J. M, Warren, Alpha 
Warson, N. H. Winslow, A. B, Ward, W. ]■'. Young, Peter Stevens, John Shum, 
George Walker, J. M. Zimmerman. 

Company 1. — Captain, Alexander Gardner; lieutenants, M. M. Cook, S. R. Stat- 


ford, E. R. Loomis, Edward Gillis; sergeants, Thomas J. Dean, Seth C. Hall, M. 
Duguid, M. Van Antwerp, J. B. Arnold, N. S. Nier, John P. Thomas, E. H. Norton; 
corporals, J. R. Perry, J. H. Taggart, L. A. Clark, S. J. Feagles, E. B. Randall, W. 
II. Elwell, Marcu5 Wilcox, Thomas Houston. Charles Pindar, Fred. Walter, W. L. 
Benedict, Orville Bannister; musicians, W. F. Osborne, George W. Lower; artificers, 
George Kelley, W. F. Perkins; wagoner, W. H. Miller. 

Privates. — J. D. Ames, James Agett, jr., James Avery, W. Allen, A. C. Bushman, 
John Byzn, James Byzu, Leonard Bland,' J. F. Bell, J. B. Bcardsley, C. Cook, Fred 
Cook, Joseph Cook, Joseph Cook, 2d, John Cook, Ebenezer Cook, D. Chamberlain, 
PI. A. Church, W. L. Calvert, Elias Chappell, H. T. Clark, Jerome Clark, Charles 
Carpenter, J. B. Curtis, Thomas Cauffield, G. J. Chandler, Peter Campbell, S. B. 
Doty, Albert De Wolf, W. H. Dayton, A. K. Damon, F. Eberhardt, Fidelo Eddy, 
a! Etherefingtou. John Fulton, W. H. Fuller, W. L. Farr, Sylvester Farr, F. H. 
Fordham, F. Furey, John Folk, W. H. H. Gillett, C. Gibhartt, Peter Gallagher, 
Nich. Gossie, W. H. Gordon, G. H. Holmes, George Heath, E. P. Hoyt, Sylvester 
Hoyt, John Houston, William Houston, E. N. Henderson, James Hunter, W. A. 
House, E. W. Herrick, D. Y. Hallock, W. H. Howell, Elmer Howell, Daniel Jones, 
E. M. Kline, John Kelley, Philip Lougle, Joseph L'jugle, H. J. W. Lewis, Seymour 
Lewis, Alonzo Lewis, P. McDonnell, William Mc'Tuire, M. H. ISIcNeil, D. McMartin, 
B. F. McHeury, P. Mmgus, Michael Mahan, Alfred Murdock, Dwight I^Iann, Joiiu 
Monroe, Nicholas Xowe, Alonzo Nichols, F. H. Olmsted, W. D. Perkins, J. B. 
Palmer, Lewis Payne, S. A. Pease, George Phillips, D. Russell, Roberc Reid, Ash- 
ley Randall, E. P. Ross, A. J. Roibling. T. C. Rawsou, R. E. Robertson, W. W. 
Stamp, Ed. Stamp, Ed. Sharp, William Sharp, F. A. Shipley, J. A. Sherwood, J. M. 
Sherwood, L. K. Spafford, E. D. Shader, Delos Shattuck, James Sifert, Almon 
Secor, Ed. Strouch, Riley Stevens, Alexander Shaw, S. L. M. Stafford, ?_^morv M. 
Tone, J. A. Tone, John Thomas, Amos Topliff, H. W. Trobridgc, A, E. Townsend, 
A. N. Van Antwerp, William Wayman, J. W. Wilson, John Walter, H. A. Williams, 
Harry Willis, Joel V.'illis, John Woltz. Charles Wooliver, E. A. White, F. C. Waltby, 
E. B. Clark, C. S. Holbrook, J. H. Hoyt, John Shipley, W. H. Thompson. A. R. 
Terry, G. W. Terry, J. E. Young. 

Company L. — Captain, S. Dexter Luddon; lieutenants, Hiram II. Van Dake, 
George H. Robertson, W. L. Totten ; sergeants, Darwin L. Fellows, E. T. Forman, 
W. O. Bartholomew, E. H. Ewell, Josepli .Shaw, C. A. Whipple, Edward Bannister, 
W. H. Hunu; corporals, D. K. Austin, Allen Buell, J. A. Clark, Robert Chappie. 
James Drain, Kirk Ewell, Harrison Ferguson, E. F. Ives, G. W. Kendall, George 
Metzger, William Page, Edward Williams; musicians, Julius Kassler, Wdliam Kisor; 
artificers, G. A. Barner, Loren Hedger; wagoner, Eugene Plumley. 

Privates.— W. H. Anderson, P. Anthony. N. Armstrong, J. Babcock. Charles G. 
Ball, Samuel Barnes, William Battersby, Joseph Bloedt, M. Buck, O. S., I). 
W. Burleigh, George Cacner, A. E. Carpenter, C. B. Carpenter, J. S. Carpenter. E. 
L. Carpenter, W. T. Chapman, James H. Childs, O. A. Churchill. W. H. Clancey, 
Chauncey Clark, Lewis Clark, James Conway, James Courtney, William Craig, I. S. 
Cro-ss. Orrin Crocker, M. M. Cummings, II. V. Day, D. M. Dean. E. M. Doty, A. J. 
Drake, Thomas Duffy. Harley Dunham, James Ellis, M. Filkins James Fluker, (i. 
W. Freelove, W. M Fuller, Robert Gibson, C. N. Gdodenow, G. W. Gould, E. J. 
Stratton. H. N. Goodenow, D. P. Goodrich, David Crreeuing, Adam Grile, Charles 


Hale, S. Hamilton, John Hersch, John G. Hersch, John Hewitt, Thomas Hellman, 
W. H. H. Holden, R. D. Holley, Edwin Hoops, C. A. Howland, Ira Howland. W. 
R. Howland. Riley Lv^alsbe, Joel B. Jewett, Jefferson Judd, W. >L Kendall. Alfred 
Keyser, Henry Knapp, E. (t. Moukon, John Kunsc, Lewis Kraft, William Lewis, A. 
W. Liugfield, Mortimer Lingfield, Charles Looniis, O. I). Lyman, L. D. Mapes, 
Morris Marquot, W. C. McCabe, Daniel McMulIen, Morris McMuUen, M. Myers, 
Stephen Myers, Charles Mertz, Caleb Miller, James Morton, William Ni.Kon, Dennis 
O'Connor, H. Z. Owen, Isaac Page, F". G. Passmore. R. H. Perkins. A. D. Petrie, 
,G. W. R. Pettibone, Harris Phillips, E. P. Pierce, F. Prescott, William Radley, 
Frank Reinhart. E. H. Rich, E. Robinson, Wesley Robinson, George Rose, E. K. 
Sage, Frank Sage, I. H. Sanford, Ira Smith, Joseph Sorrell, II. R. Stevens, M. B. 
Stevens, John Thomas, George Totterdale, I). C. Tracey, C. D. Vickery, George 
Walker, Tooker Walker, W. II. Walker, II. I. Wallace, II. C. Warner, William 
Welch, E. Wentworth, L. Whipple, E. G. Wurtz, Charle.". Youngs. 

The following is a list of olTicers who served in the regiment, with 
the dates of their coaiinission, and their promotion, discharge, dismissal, 
transfer, or death: 


Peter A. Porter, conyiiissioned September 10, ISGi; killed in action at Cold Har- 
bor, Va. , June 3, 18GI. 

Willard W. Bates, commissioned June 14, 18(<4; not mustered. 

James M. Willett, commissioned July 1'2, 18G4; discharged January 14, 18(5"), 

Joel B. Baker, commissioned January 3U, 18G4; transferred to the Tenth N. Y. In- 
fantry June 4, ISG-l. 
Lituit'na)it Colo)iels : 

Willard W. Bates, commissioned August 18, 18G'2; died June 25, 1864, of wounds 
received in action. 

James M. Willett, commissioned June 14, 18G4; promoted to colonel July 12, 1865. 

Lawrence Kipp, commissioned June 13. 1864; declined. 

Joel B. Baker, commissioned January 13, 1865; promoted to colonel January 30, 

Joseph W. Holmes, commissioned January 30, 18t'i5; mustered out with regiment 
June 5, 1865. 
Majors : 

James M. Willett, commissioned September 10, 1862; promoted to lieutenant-colo- 
nel June 14, 1864. 

Joel B. Baker, commissioned June 17, 1864; promoted to lieutenant-colonel Janu- 
ary 13, 1865. 

S. Dexter Ludden, commissioned January 17, ls65; mustered out with regiment. 

Edwin L. Blake, commissioned February 10, 1864; died June 19, 1864, of wounds 
received in action. 

Joseph W. Holmes,' coniiTiissioned September 14, 1864; promoted to lieutenant- 
colonel January 30, 1^(15. 

James Low, jr., commissioned January 30, 1865; mustered out with regiment. 

Erastus M. Spaulding, (tjrevit lieutenant-colonel N.Y. Vols.), commissioned I'ebru- 
ary 23, 1864; discharged December 10, 1>64. 


Henry M. Starr, commissioned December '^'2, isnt; nuistered (nit with regiment. 
Adjutant : 

Edwin L. Hlake. commissioned September 10, \^^\l ; promoted to major Febniarv 
10, 18G4. 

Ouariermasie-rs : 

George B. Wilson, commissioned September 10, 18G'2; mustered out with regiment. 

Franklin J. Fellows, commissioned .May lU, 18(;."3; not mustered (see second lieu- 

James M. Leet. commissioned September 10, 1802; resigned October 24. IBUo. 
^ Alouzo Churchill, commissioned November. iMio; mustered out with regiment. 
. Iss/staiit Surgeons : 

Henry C. Hill, commissioned September 10, 1SG2, discharged December 3, \x>Vl. 

Charles H. Pegg, commissioned March 19, 1803; discharged November 28, l^Gi. 

Julius A. Freeman, commissioned January 31, 18(55; not mustered. 

Simon G. Plnce, commissioned March 22. ISi;,!; mustered out with regiment. 

Richmond S. Hayes, commissioned September 10, 1862; resigned June 7, 18G3. 

John W. Freeman, commissioned June 24, 18G3; discharged Februarv 23, 18G4. 

William A. Wiser, commissioned February 23, 18G4; discharged May 7, 18G4. 

Francis P. Casey, commissioned May 11, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 
Chaplains : 

Gilbert De La Matyr, commissioned Septemiier 10, 1SG2; discharged January 9 

Joshua Cooke, commissioned April G, 18G5; transferred to Tenth N. Y. Infantrv. 
Captains : 

Erastus M. Spaulding, commissioned September 10, 18G2; promoted to major Feb- 
ruary 22, 1864. 

Henry M. Starr, commissioned February 23, 18G4; promoted to major December 
23, 1864. 
. Samuel K. Green, commissioned December 22, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

Joel H. Baker, commissioned Septembt-r 10, 18G2 ; promoted ti) major June 17, 

James Low, jr., commissioned .August 22, 18G4; promoted to major fanuary :;o, 

David L. Pitcher, commissioned January 30, 1SG5; mustered out with regiment. 

Riley M. Tinkham, commissioned September 10, 18G2; resigned Julv 8. 1SG3. 

George A. Hoyt, commissioned August 17, 1863 ; died July 5, 1864, of wounds re- 
ceived in action. 

George D. Church, commissidiicd July 27, 1864; discharged December 2, 18G4. 

George H. Robertson, commissioned March 30, lsG5; transferred to 10th N. V. 

James Maginnis, commissioned September 10, 1SG2; killed in action at Ream's 
Station, Va., August 25, 18G4. 

Morris R. Blodgett, commissioned (Jctober 31, 1864; not mustered (see first lieu 


Joseph W. Holmes, commissioned September 10, 1802; promoted to major Sep- 
tember 14, ISOl. 

Roderick Baldsvin, commissioned September IG, I'^Gl; not mustered (see first lien- 

Stephen R. Stafford, (brevet major U. S. V.), commissioned December 22, 18G4; 
mustered out witii regiment. 

William J. Hawkins, commissioned September 10, 1802; died June 24, 18G4, of 
wounds received in action. 

Samuel Sully, commissioned July 10, 1804; not mustered (see first lieutenants). 

Eli S. Nichols, commissioned November 30, 18G4; mustered out with regiment. 

Elbridge T. Sherwin, commissioned September 10, 1SG2; died July 30, 1864, ol 
disease, at City Point, Va. 

John R. Cooper, commissioned August 12, 1804; transferred to 10th N. Y. Infantry. 

Stephen Connor, commissioned September 10, 1S02; discharged October 17, 1804. 

George Wiard, commissioned October 31, 1804; not mustered (see first lieutenant). 

Arcliibald Winne, commissioned March 25, 1805; not mustered (see first lieutenant). 

Samuel B. Dinsmore, conmnssioned May 10, ISO."); transferred to 10th N. Y. In- 

Ale.Kander Gardner, commissioned September 10. 1802; killed in action at Cold 
Harbor, Va., June 3, 1S04. 

Marshall N. Cook, commissioned June 21, 18G4; mustered out with regiment. 

James B. Pratt, commissioned September 10, 1S02; discharged October 20, 1864. 

Simon P. Webster, commissioned October 31, 18G4; mustered out with regiment. 

S. De.xter Ludden, commissioned Februarv 23, 1804; promoted to major January 
17. 1805. 

Thomas Low, commissioned January 20, 1805; died April 25, 1805, of wounds re- 
ceived m action. 

George B. Wilson, commissioned May 10. 1805; not mustered (see first lieutenants). 

Hazard A. Sheldon, commissioned March 15, 1S04; discharged October 28, 1804. 

Orrin C. Parker, commissioned November 30, 1804; mustered out with regnneut. 
First L.ieiittnatits : 

Henry M. Starr, commissioned September 1(\ 1802; promoted to captain February 
23, 1864. 

Judson Thomas, commissioned March 15, 1804; discharged September 23, 18G4. 

DeWitt C. Wickham, ccnnmissioned November 30, 18G4; mustered out with regi- 

Edwin L. Blake, commissioned September I't, l'^G2; appointed adjutant September 
10, 18i;2. 

Samuel K. Green, commissioned February 10, 1804; promoted to captain December 
22, 1804. 

Thomas Mayberry, commissiuned December 22, 1804; mustered out with regiment. 

James Low, jr., commissioned September 10, 1802; promoted to captain August 
22, 1804. 

David L. Pitcher, conmiissioned August 22, 1804; promoted to captain January 
30, 1805. 

Henry A. Botsford, commissioned March 13, 1SG5; transferred to Tenth N. Y. In- 


Eli S. Nichols, comraissioued February 10, 1804; promoted to captain November 
30, 1SC4. 

Romeo G. Burnes, commissioned November UO, 1804; mustered out with rei^iment. 

George A. Hoyt, commissioned Se])tember 10, 1802; promoted to captain August 
17, 1S03. 

Charles H. West, jr., commissic^ned August 17, ISGo; killed iu action at Ream's 
Station, Va., August 25, lso4. 

William B. Gardner, commissioned September 10, 1SG2; resigned March 14, l^^Cl. 

George W. Webster, commissioned March dO, 1801; dismissed December 12, l8';4. 

William M. Sloan, commissioned December DO, 18G4; not mustered. 

Morris R. Blodgett, commissioned February 10, 1804; mustered out with regiment. 

John E. Owens, commissioned October 31, 1804; dismissed December 12, 1"<<!4. 

Michael Metzger, commissioned March 13, 1805; transferred to Tenth N. Y. In- 

Roderick Baldwin, commissioned September 10, 1802; discliarged December 
5, 18G4. 

Joseph Willett, commissioned August 22, 18G4; not mustered (see second lieuten- 

Henry R. Swan, commissioned February 10, 1SG4; died June 14, 1804, of disease, 
at Cold Harbor, Va. 

Frank II. Boyd, commissioned July IG, 18G4; dismissed October 10, 1864. 

Charles H. Kugel, commissioned October 31, 1804; mustered out with regiment. 

Samuel Sully, commissioned September in, 18i'>2; discharged November 5, 1801. 

Lewis C. Hosmer, commissi(med October 31, 1864; not mustered (see second lieu- 

William H. Wescott. commissioned March 13, 1865; mustered out with regiment. 

George W. Rector, commissioned February 10, 1864; died October 29, 1804, of 
wounds received in action at Hatcher's Run, Va. 

William Leggett, commissioned November 30, 1804; mustered out with regiment. 

John R. Cooper, commissioned September 10, 1802; promoted to captain August 
12, 1864. 

John Nichols, commissioned August 12, 1864; not mustered (see second lieuten- 

John D. SatYord, jr., commissioned October 31, 1804; mustered out with regiment. 

Owen C. Parker, commi-^sioned February 10, 1864; promoted to captain Novem'uer 
30, 1804. 

James W. Young (brevet captain U. S. A.), commissioned November 30, 1804; 
mustered out with regiment. 

Martin W. Roberts, commissioued September I'l, 1862; discharged December 
2, 1862. 

George Wiard, commissioned December 17, 1862; mustered out with regiment. 

Josejih Clapsaddle, commissioned March 13, 1865; transferred to Tenth N. V. In- 

Joseph H. Robson, commissioned February 10, 1^04; discharged October 28, 1864. 
on account of wounds received at Cold Harbor. 

E. H. Taylor, commissioned March 13, 1805; transferred to Tenth N. V. Infantry. 
Marshall N. Cook, commissioned September 10, 1802; promoted to captain June 
21, 1804. 

ihp: war of the rerkllion. 217 

Edwin R. Loomis, commissioned Juue 21, lHf',4; uot musLered (see second lieu- 

Stephen R. Stafford, commissioned February 10, ISG-I ; promoted to captain De- 
cember 2-2, 1801. 

Seth C. Hall, commissioned December 22, IHi'A; mustered out with regiment. 

(".eorge F). Church, commissioned September 10, 1S(>2; promoted to captain July 
27, 1^01. 

Archibald Wmne, conmiissioned September IG, 1801; mustered out with regiment. 

Le Roy Williams, commissioned March 30, ISGo; transferred to the Tenth New 
York Infantry. 

Simon P. Webster, commissioned T'cbruary 10, L^Ol; promoted to captain October 
31, 1SG4.^ 

Ellis P. Wolcott, corrmiis^ioned October 31, 1804; mustered out with regiment. 

(Jeorge H. Robertson, commissioned February 23, 18G4; promoted to captain Octo- 
ber 31, 18«M. 

William H. Raymond, commissioned March 30, IS'")."); mustered out with regiment. 

Hiram H. Van Dake, commissioned February 2:5, 1864; discharged September (», 
186-1; recommissioned. 

Darwin L. Fellows, commissioned October 31, 180-1; not mustered; killed in action. 

Henry H. Van Dake, commissioned Decembers, 1804; not mustered. 

Erw-.n H. Ewell, commissioned January 28, 180."); mustered out with regiment. 

Frederick R. Derrick, commissioned March 15, 1864; discharged October 27, 1,';04. 

Walter J. Collins, commissioned November 30, 1804; mustered out with regiment. 

Adelbert G. Clapp, commissioned March 1."), 1804: died November 21, 1804, of 
wounds received in action. 

William H. Crowley, commissioned January 19, 1805; mustered out with regiment. 

George B Wilson, not commissioned, but name on tht> records of the War De- 
partment; mustered out with regiment. 
Seco/ui Lieute na>its: 

Charles H. West jr., commissioned September 10, 1^02; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant August 17, 1803. 

George N. Webster, commissioned August 17, 1803; promoted to first lieutenant 
March 30, 1804. 

Robert Glass, commissioned March 30, 1801; died July 15, 1804, of wounds re- 
ceived in action. 

Joseph Ciapsaddlc, commissioned October 31, 1804; promoted to first lieutenant 
March 13, 1805. 

Edgar B. Lewis, commissioned March 13, 1N05; mustered out with regiment. 

Judson Thomas, commissioned January 18, 1804; promoted to first lieutenant 
March 15. 1804. 

Samuel B. Dinsmore, conmiissioned March 15, 18t>4; promoted to captain Mav 10, 

A. J. Budlong, commissioned Ma}- 13, 1*^05; not mustered. 

EH S. Nichols, commissioned September 10, 1"^02; promoted to first lieutenant 
February 10, 1865. 

Fayette S. Brown, commissioned February 17, 1S04; killed in action at Cold Har- 
bor, Va., June 3, 1S04. 


Romeo G. Barnes, commissioned J:inuary '21, 1804; promoted to first lieutenant 
November :'0, 1SG4. 

Franklin J. Fellows, commissioned December 7, 1864; mustered out with reijiment. 

Daniel L Pitcher, commissioned February 17, 1S<j4; promoted to first Iieuteuaut 
August 22, 1S04. 

William H. Crowley, commissioned Auc;ust 22, 1SG4; promoted to first lieutenant 
January 19, l^^G't. 

Eugene C. Fuller, commissioned January 10, 1805; mustered out with regiment. 

Nathan J. Cornell, commissioned September 10, 1862; resigned November 0, 1802. 

William D. Lord, commissioned November 24, 1802; resigned June 27, 1803. 

Samuel K. Green, commissioned August 10, 1S03; promoted to first lieutenant 
February 10, 1804. 

* John Safford, jr., commissi(jned August 22. 1S64; promoted to first lieutenant Oc- 
toljer 31. 1804. 

James Young, commissioned October 31, 1864; promoted to first lieutenant No- 
vember 30, 1864. 

Le Roy W;'.Hams, commissioned November 30, 1804; promoted to first lieutenant 
March 30, 1805, 

Eugene K. Sage, commissioned March 30, 1865; transferred to Tenth N. Y. In- 

Walter Collms, commissioned February 24, 1804; promoted to first lieutenant No- 
vember SO, 1804. 

Owen C. Ilibbard, commissioned November 30, 1804; mustered out with regiment. 

Morris R. Blodgett, commissioned September 10, 1802; promoted to first lieutenant 
February 10, 1804. 

John E. Owens, commissioned February 17, 1804; dismissed December 12, 1804. 

William A. George, commissioned October 31, 1864; transferred to Tenth N. Y. 

Arthur L. Chase, coinmissioned February 13. 1804; killed in action at Cold Har- 
bor, Ya., June 3, 1804. 

Charles B. Lacker, commissioned July IS, 1>^04; not mustered; discharged as en- 
listed man. 

William Grant, commissioned November 30, 1864; mustered out v.-ith regiment. 

Henry R. Swan, commissioned September 10, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant 
February 10, 1804, 

Francis II. Boyd, commissioned February 17, 1804; promoted to first lieutenant 
July 16, 1804. 

Charles H. Kugei, commissioned July 10, 1804; promoted to first lieutenant Oc- 
tober 31, 1804. 

Edward Taylor, commissioned Novemlier 30, 1864; promoted to first lieutenant 
March 13, 1865. 

Charles T. Behan, commissioned May 13, 1865; transferred to Tenth N. Y. In- 

Ellis P. Wolcott, commissioned ^[arch 21, 18r»4; promoted to first lieutenant Oc- 
tober 31, 1864. 

William Wescott, commissioned October 31, 1804; promoted to first lieutenant 
March 13, 1805. 


Reed Pierce, commissioned March l:}, ISG"); mustered out with regiment. 

George W. Rectrjr, jr.. commissioned September 10, ISO'2: promoted to first lieu- 
tenant February !<', ls»;4. 

Lewis C. Ilosnier, commissioned February IT, ISG-t; discharged December 'J. 18G4. 

Charles Moore, commissioned January 10, ISG.-j; mustered out with regiment. 

Archibald Winne, commissioned March 22, lytJl; promoted to first lieutenant Sep- 
tember IG, 1SG4. 

William M. Sloan, commissioned September IG, 18*)-1; promoted to first lieutenant 
December oO, 1SG4. 

Samuel W. Waldo, commissioned March 1:3, 186.1; mustered out with regiment. 

Orrin C. Parker, commissioned September 10, 1SG2; promoted to first lieutenant 
February 10, lSG-1. 

John Nichols, commissioned February 17, 18G4: discharged September 22, ISGl. 

Mtlvin M. Kendall, commissioned August 12, 1804; not mustered. 

Walter P. Wright, commissioned February 17, lsG4: killed in action before Peters- 
burg, Va., June 16, 1864. 

Thomas Mayberry, commissioned February 2:5, 1864; promoted to first lieutenant 
December 22, 1864. 

Samuel B. Butler, commissioned December 29, 1804; not nnistered. 

John G. Lacey, commissioned March ^0, 1SG5; mustered out with regiment. 

George Wiard. commissioned September 10, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant De- 
cember 17, 1862. 

Joseph II. Rob.son, commissioned December 17, 18G2; promoted to first lieutenant 
February 10, 1864. 

William H. Raymond, commissioned February 17, 1864; promoted to first lieu- 
tenant Marcli 30, 18G5. 

William n. II. Bickford, commissioned July 16, 18G4; died March 9, 1865, of dis- 
ease, at Camp Parole. Annapolis, Md. 

Myron H. Hale, commissioned March 30, 18G."); mustered out with regiment. 

Joseph W. Caldwell, commissioned March :!, 1864; killed in action at Cold Harbor, 
Va., June 3, 1864. 

De Witt C. Wickham, commissioned June 21, 18G4; promoted to first lieutenant 
November 30, 18G4. 

Henry A. Botsford, comnnssioned November 30, 1^64; promoted to first lieutenant 
March 13, IsG.",. 

Myron Sherwood, commissioned March 3. 1"^G.">; mustered out with regiment. 

Stephen R. Stafford, commissioned September 10, 1862; promoted to first lieu- 
tenant February 10, 1864. 

Edwin R. Loomis, commissioned February 17, 1864; discharged April 12, 18G3. 

Joseph Dean, commissioned June 21, 1864; mustered out witli regiment. 

Edgar Gillis, commis^^ioned February 17, IS'Il; discharged October 17, 1^64. 

Manfred Duguid. commissioned October 31, 1S64; mustered out with regiment. 

Simon P. Webster, commissioned vSeptember 10, 186 2; pn^moted to first lieuten- 
ant February 10, 1>64. 

Thomas Westcott. commissioned February 17, 1864; discharged October 4, 1864. 

Erwin II. Ewell commissioned January 19, 1863; promoted to first lieutenant Jan- 
uary 28, I860. 


Edward T. Forman, comrnissioned February 10, ISGo; inustered out with regiment. 

Wallace B. Hard, commissioned February 17, 18<;4; killed in action at Cold Har- 
bor, Va., June 3, 1SG4. 

Ashley P. Hawkins, commissioned June 21, IStU; discharged January 25, iNtj.J. 

James M. Cook, conim.issioned March 13, 18G5; mustered out with regiment. 

William L. Totten, commissioned February 13, 1SG4; dischargf'd January 14. 1805. 

James M. Waite. commissioned February 13, 1805; mustered out with regiment. 

Joseph M. Willett, commissioned February 23. 1804; died February 17, 1805, at 
Danville, Va. 

William O. Bartholomew, commissioned August 22, 1S04; mustered out with regi- 

Oliver M. Campbell, commissioned March 1", 1*^04; killed in action at Cold Har- 
bor, Va., June 3, 1804. 

Michael Metzger, commissioned January IS), 1805; promoted to first lieutenant 
March 13, 1805. 

Hosmer G. Curtiss, commissioned March 13, 1805; mustered out with regiment. 

George W. Gladden, commissioned March 15, 1801; killed in action at Cold Har- 
bor, Va.. June 3, 1804. 

William H. Stearns, commissioned June 21, 1814; discharged January 20, 1865. 

Augustus Riebling, commissioned Marcli 3U, 1805; mustered out with regiment. 

Samuel Wilson, commissioned March 30, 1805; mustered out with regiment. 

In Febrtiary, lSo4, this regiment was recruited to the nia.\imura 
number, eig-hteen hundred and thirty-nine. The records of the de- 
partment disclose the fact that the loss stistained at the battle of Cold 
Harbor was larger than that sustained by any other regiment in any 
battle of the war, with the single exception of a Maine artillery regimer.t. 
This interesting fact was published in one of the Century Magazine war 
articles. The "Eighth Heavy" contained far more Genesee county 
men than were enlisted in any other regiment, and its record is one of 
bravery and unflinching fidelity to duty. 

The following from Genesee county were members of the Fifteenth 
N. Y. Cavalry Regiment: 

Company F. — Ouartermaster-sergeant, Xoaii B. Ivincoln ; sergeants. Thomas 
Gormley, William Hawkins: corporals. Franklin H. Wells, William Lake. John 
James, Thomas H. Scott, George W. Sherwood ; saddler, William Cooper ; privates, 
Wiiham Boughton, Franklin Busbee, Charles H. Butler, Melvin C. Dodge, Charles 
Duftner, Civilian Halbert. John Hayes. William Heal, Alonzo Heath, George Lear- 
man, Richmond Lilley, John Metzler, John P. Michels, Peter Michlian, Richard 
Oothoudt, Ma.x Pagefall, Sylvester Primmer, Peter Sabel, William Smith, Frank 

The Fifteenth Regiment was oi-ganized at Syracuse to serve three 
years. The companies of which it was composed were raised in tlie 
cnnities of Genesee, Onondaga, Erie, Ontario, C)range, Oneida, Chau- 


tauqua, Cattaraugus, and Tompkins. It was mustered into the service 
of the United States from August 8, ISGo, to January 14-. lS6-i. It 
was consolidated with the Sixth New York Cavalry, June 17, ISiJ."), 
the consolidated force being- designated the Second New York Pro- 
visional Cavalry, which was mustered out of service August !», LSG5. 
The latter organization was in command of Colonel Charles L. Fitz- 
hugh and Lieutenant-Colonel Harrison White. 

Following is a list of the officers from Genesee county who served 
with the Fifteenth Cavalry, with the dates of their commissions, and 
their promotion, discharge, dismissal, transfer or death. The list is 
as nearly complete as can be gleaned from the existing records: 

Lieutenant-Colonel. — Auy;ustus L Root, commissionLfJ November 2i), iSOo; killed 
in action April S, l^Go. 

Major. — George }J. EHicott, cor.imis.sioned June 17, l>^t'..l; not mustered as majfir. 

Adjutant.— Sidney Tuttle, conuiiissioued November 20, 18(>j; resigned Mav 22, 

Captain. — George ^L Ellicott, commissioned November 20, 1SG2; discharged at 

First Lieutenants. — Ralph D. Short, commissioned November 20, 1S60; died Jan- 
uary 20, lSG-5. Edson Grifhs, commissioned January G, 1>5G4; resigned January 7, 
I'SGS. Ileman H. Griswold, commissioned August 2G. l.sGi; not mustered ; declined. 

The Twenty-second New York Independent Battery was organized 
in Genesee county by Captain John D. Newman (d" Niagara county and 
mustered into the service of the State of New York at Lock|)ort Sej)- 
tember 4, lSG'-2. October 28 following it was mustered into the service 
of the United States at Elmira by Major A. T. Lee, and soon after- 
ward all but seven members of the command were transferred tu the 
Ninth New York Heavy Artillcr}-, commanded by Colonel Joseph Well- 
ing and William H. Seward, jr. The oflicers and men when mustered 
into the United vStates services were: 

Captain, John D. Newman; senior first heutenant, Melancthon 1). Brown, of Alex- 
ander: junior first lieutenant, D. D. W. Pringle, ot l')atavia; senior second lieuten- 
ant, Robert C. Worthington, ot Bethany; junior second lieutenant, ICdwin F. Chirk ; 
sergeants, James M. Waite, Francis N. I'arrish. Asahel ^L Abby, Daniel E. Waite, 
William L Parrish, William E. Wright, John OMswager and Josiah T. Crittenden; 
corporals, Ilugli T. Peters, Edward F. Moulton, WiHiam H. Maltby, Thomas Walsh, 
Eugene B. Wing, Robert Fowles, Henry NuUy, Orville Thompson, John Connor, 
John D. Bartlett, George Firov,n and James G. Match; musicians, Cliaries Foster 
and Edson H. Pond; artificers, I^evi T. Crarrett, Henry Wood; guidon, William M. 
Moulton; stable sergeant, Edwin Lock; company clerk, Cieorge Avery; privates, 
Hezekiah Brown, William T. Barrett, E. J. Benton, John P.ower. Seymour S. Brown, 
Thomas C. Barnard, C. W, Brown, Charles W. Bradley. Truman Bade}-, jr , Miles 


T. Brown, Isaac Bruett, Charles J. Cleveland, George T. Chase, Rowland Champion, 
John Carmel, John Cox, Alva X. Colt, James \V. Ca'^e, Michael Carney, James Car- 
ney. Thomas Cook, Henry Connelly, Benjamin Cox, Zina W. Carter, Oran H. 
Conant, William B. Cole, Jerome Cantield, Dioclesian Covey, William U. Chappie, 
George l). Dodson, James Dunn, Earl A. Dodson, Sylvester Demary, Dennis Dibble, 
George Edwards, William R. Eddy, Elias Eastwood, James Emory, Orson J. Forbts, 
Robert Fiuley, Charles Fairfield, William Falser, Harmon Fitch, Ansel Ford, John 
E. Field, John Griffis, George Gann, Cyrus A. (iowing, Charles R. Griffin, Paul 
Glor. Amos Humpiirey. John Harmon, Ira E. Huight, Edward J. Hullenbeck. Archie 
HoUenbeck, John Hassett, David Hill, Henry Johnson, John L. Kingdon, Albert 
Knapp, Patrick Keating, Stephen R. King, James Kidder, Silas Knapp, John Keil- 
ner, Libbeus King, Henry L. Kieatzer. George B. Lawrence, Henry Lapp, Samuel 
Lathm)p, Benjamin Lewis, Henry Leverington, James M. Lapp, Elias Lyons, 
Charles Loplow. Thomas McManis, Marion F. Meredith, Jacob Moore, Elias Martin, 
David Milles, Albert H. Moulton, Archie McMillen. John Munt, Alexander Mc- 
Donald, Angus Mcintosh, Lucius A. Manger, Joseph Marsli, Moses Nichols. Michael 
O'Donnell, Robert Plant, Thomas W. Paden, James Porter, John J. Peard. Norman 
M. Putnam, George Rogers, Frederick Reichert, Mortimer Rich, Alonzo Rich, 
Ambrose Rich, Nathan E. Rumsey, Charles E. Smead. Henry Shafer, Gilbert 
Shader, David S. Spring. Edwin Shadbolt, John D. Shiller, Edsil Shaw, Charles A. 
Smith, Wallace M. Smith. Edward B. Smith, Stephen Thompson, Frederick Tan^rer, 
Homer L. Tisdale. Stephen Taylor, Henry Vishon. Charles Van Kuren, Frederick 
Vickens. Gilbert Wade, Jonah C. Wicker, John J. Warren, Edwin Ward, John 
Worthington, Warren West, Stephen T. Wing. William Welch, John W. Williams, 
Walter S. Wright and Christian Zwetsch. 

The original company numbered one hundred and sixtv-eii^ht, .seven 
of whom were transferred to the Billinghurst Battery. By reason of 
his mismanagement. Captain Newman was discharged April IS, 18t33. 
Lieutenant Brown was discharged April IG, 1SG3, and Lieutenant 
Pringle October "28, ISG-l. Lieutenant Wcnthington resigned January 
29, IS'J'2. Lieutenant Clark was discharged September 4, ISO--*, never 
having reported for duty. The company served with the Ninth Nev.' 
York; Heavy Artillery, as Company 'SI, until June '25, 18G5, when it was 
consolidated with the Second New York Artillery. After the dischar'^'-e 
of Captain Newman the company was commanded by Captain Anson S. 
Wood, imtil the latter was pruniotcd to mai(u-, when Captain William 
L Parrish assumed command. Captain Parrish entered the company 
as a sergeant, and was promoted from one rank to another imtil April 
4, LSr.4, when he received a conmiission as a captain. He remained in 
command of Company M until it was discharged from the service Sco- 
tember 20, 1SG5. He was also brevet major of New York \'i,>lunteers. 

This company fought in the ft;llowing engagements: Cold Harbor, 
Petersburg, Monocacy, Charlcstown, vSecond Winchester, Cedar Creek, 


Second Petersburg, Sailor's Creek and Lee's surrender. During these 
battles the regiment was attached to the Second Brigade, Third Divis- 
ion and Sixtli Army Corps. After the battle of Petersburg, June ■2-2, 
LSiU, the command was the color company of the regiment, remaining 
in this post of honor until the close of the war. At the battle of Cedar 
Creek Lieutenant John Oldswager was killed by a shell. lie was a 
resident of the town of Alexander, and was the (ndy officer in the com- 
pany killed during the war. The number of men in the company who 
were killed was small, compared with the losses sustained by other 
companies; but the loss in wounded and prisoners was as large as that 
sustained by any other company in the regiment. Of the one hundred 
and sixty-eight men who left for the front but sixty-fivc were left in 
the command to be discharged at the close of the war. 

The Twenty-fifth Independent Battery of Light Artillery was re- 
cruited in the counties of Genesee, Orleans and Niagara. It was mus- 
tered in at Lockport in September. 180-3, went to New York the follow- 
ing December, and joined the forces of General Banks. Tlie company 
sailed thence to Fortress Monroe, and from there to Ship Island, but 
was wrecked on the coast of Florida The men were picked up by a 
Union gunboat and landed at Key West, and in January, ISGo, sailed 
to Xev.- Orleans. The company participated in the siege of Port Hud- 
son, the battle of Lafourche, and in the Red River campaign. In the 
spring of 1865 they went on the expedition to Mobile, and Auo-ust 5 
of that year were mustered out at Rochester. The Genesee county 
members of the battery were as follows: 

Second Lieutenant, Irving D. Southworth; sergeant, Edgar A. Fisher, corporals, 
Aaron Hartwell, ILjnry C, Denton, John Kersch; privates', Rodney Alexander. Jo- 
seph Brill, Peter Busser, Lewis Beck. Albert Cook, [ohn Clark, Peler Clench, lame.-. 
Darkin, Wallace W. Fi.-,k, William R. Fisher, Harvey M. Graves, Addison Gates, 
Fred Hartwick, William J. Hemstreet, Charles Hartley. Charles A. Kendall, Peter 
Linn, Nathan Leonard, Arthur Little, James McMullen, Frank D. Murdock, Jacob 
Miller, Francis McCann, John Madagan, William, Paul Xotham, John Oi^erton, 
William J. Pike, Cunningham Primrose, \'alentine Ricker, E. Fitch Rapp, fohn J. 
Snyder. William Shcldt. Patrick Sage, William Squires, " Peter Tarnisch, William 
Willgin, Field B. Wright, William Walton, Henry Wall. John Wright, William 

The officers of the Twenty-fifth Battery and their records were as 

John A. Grow, commissioned Noven.ber 29, 18(3'^; discharged August PJ. 1804. 


Irving D. Southworth, commissioned December 7, 180 1 ; nuistered out with battery. 
First I.icutetianis: 

William H. Perry, commissioned November 'i'J, ISG'2; resii^^ued Mav 11. X^.^'i. 

Irving D. Southworth. commissioned December 1!), iS'jo; promoted to captain 
December 7, 1SG4. 

John C. Flanders, commissioned February 14. 180.3; nmstered out with battery. 

Albert Cook, commissioned February 14. 1805; mustered out with battery. 
Second lAeictenants ; 

Irving D. Southworth. commissiijued November -^iJ, ISO",'; promoted to rirst lieu- 
tenant December 19, 1S03. 

John C. Flanders, commissioned December 29, 18iiJ ; promoted to hrst lieutenant 
Febr\iary 14, 1^0.3. 

James F. Emery, commissioned February 14, ISO.!; mustered out with batt.-^ry. 

David F. Burgess, commissioned Decembeni, ISfi^; discharged December 19, 1802. 

David II. Parks, commissioned Feljruary 14, 1805; mustered out with battery. 

The Forty-ninlh Reg-iment, X. Y. \'ul. Infantry, was organized at 
Albany to serve three years. The companies ot which it was composed 
were raised in the counties of Genesee, Erie, Xiai^'ara and Chautauqua. 
It was mustered into the service of the United States from August -l-l 
to September 30, 1861. The original members, e.xcepting veterans, 
were mustered out o\\ the e.\piration of term of service, and the regi- 
ment, composed of re-enlisted men and recruits, was retained in ser- 
vice until June -^T, 1865. when they were mustered out. The Fortv- 
ninth Regiment participated in the following battles: Drainesville, 
Yorktown, Williamsburg, Golding's Farm, Savage Station, White Oak 
Swamp, Malvern Hill, Crampton's Gap, Antietam, Fredericksburg, 
Marye's Heights, Salem Heights, Gettysburg, Rappahannock Stati(-n, 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Fort Stevens, 
Opequan, Fi.sher's Hill and Cedar Creek. 

The members of this regiment from Genesee county were Peter 
Thomas, Ferdinand Thomas, French W. Fisher, Joseph ^lark. Ser- 
geant Hare, Charles Hayden and Sergeant Slingerland. Of these, 
French W. lusher rose from the ranks to second lieutenant: was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant September ;jO, 1861; was promoted to captain 
and commissioned May IT, l:s6-3, but was not mustered as captain. He 
was afterward brevetted captain of United States Volunteers. 

In addition to the <.irgani/.ations mentioned, Cienesce county contrib- 
uted men to the One Hundred and Fourth Regiment of Infantry. 
Unfortunately it is impossible at this late day to ascertain the names 
of those from this county who served in this command. The records 
in the office of the adjutant-general refer to this organization as fol- 


"The One Hundred and Fourth ReL;inient, X. Y. Vol. Infantry, was 
organized at Albany to serve three years. The companies of which it 
was composed were raised in the counties of Genesee, Albany, Rensse- 
laer, Livingston, Monroe and Steuben. The regiment was mustered 
into the service of the United States from October, ISO I, to March, 
ISO','. Upon the expiration of its term of service the original members, 
excepting veterans, were mustered out, and the organization, com- 
posed of veterans and recruits, was retained in service until Jul}- 17, 
1805, when it was mustered out. The One Hundred and Fourth Reg- 
iment fought in the following battles: Cedar Mountain, Second Bull 
Run. South Mountain, Mine Run, Wilderness, Fredericksburg, Antie- 
tarn, Chantilly, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, North Anna, Spottsyl • 
vania, Bethesda Church, W'eldon Railroad and Petersburg." The reg 
iment was commanded by the following colonels, in the order given: 
John Rorbach, comniissioned May IT, I8G"2; discharged October 21. 
1S6".2. Lewis C. Skinner, commissioned November 2-1, 18t;-2; not mus- 
tered as colonel. Gilbert G. Prey, commissioned December 3, 18G2: 
discharged March 3, 18G5. John R. Strang, 'commissioned March IT, 
18G5; not mustered as colonel. 

Among the other organizations which this county helped to fill were 
the following: Fifteenth Infantry, Twenty-sixth Infantry, One Hun- 
dred and Fortieth Infantry, Fourteenth Artillery, Nineteenth Battery, 
Second Mounted Rifles, Forty-ninth Infanti'v, One Hundred and Thir- 
tieth Infantry, One Hundred and Thirty sixth Infantry, Ninth Artil- 
lery, First Dragoons. Sixtli Michigan Cavalry, Forty- fourth Infantr}-, 
Ninety-sixth Infantry, One Hundred and First Infantry, One Hundred 
and Thirty-ninth Infantry, One Hundred and Fifty-first Infantry, One 
Hundred and Sixtieth Infantry, Ninth Artillery, Thirty-Ninth Artil- 
lery, Thirty first Connecticut Infantry, Twelfth Indiana Infantry, 
Twenty-fourth Wisconsin Infantry, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, vSix- 
teenth Infantry, One Hundred and I'^jrty-Sixth Infantry, Third Cav- 
alry, Fourteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, Sixth U. S. Cavalry, Twentieth 
U. S. Colored Infantry, Seventh Ohio Infantry, Thirty-third Infantry, 
Ninety fourth Infantry, One Hundred and vSeventh Infantry, One 
Hundred and Eighty-eighth Infantry, ICighteenth U. S. Infantry, 
Sixty-fourth Illinois Infantry, 

One of the most distinguished soldiers who served during the Civil 
war was Gen. Emor}- Upton, a native of th.e town of Bata\-ia.' At the 

' A .sk'jtcli ul tlie lite and st.Tvic'.-> <jf Oc-neral L'pton will l)o found i.-l>'3\vln.-i-o in Uiis work. 


battle of Winchester he commanded the Second Brigade of the First 
Division of the Sixth Army Corps. During the early part of the day 
there had been heavy skirmishing, and an advance was anticipated by 
the troops. Our soldiers were discouraged and disheartened, for they 
had been beaten repeatedly. Earthworks had been erected, behind 
which the Union soldiers lay in comparative security. 

Orders were given for a general attack on the rebel line. Realizing 
the condition and feeling of the men, General Upton mounted his horse 
and, accompanied by his full staff, rode along the line. At every con- 
venient point he stopped, dismounted, mingled freely with the men, 
and conversed with them in cheering tones, counseling economy in the 
use of ammunition, a liberal use of the bayonet, and a short, sharp and 
decisive fight v/hen the bugle should sound the command to advance. 
His influence was magnetic, The stimulus he inspired among them 
was marked, and there was not a member of the command who did not 
feel better for tiie kindly admonition. 

The charge which followed was stoutly resisted by the rebels. Every 
inch of the ground was stubbornly disputed for hours. Soon General 
Upton succeeded to the comniand of the division. He had been 
wounded in both legs by rebel bullets; but no sooner was he apprised 
of the condition of things than he directed the detailing of eight men 
from the ambulance corps and the procurement of a stretcher. On this 
he was at once carried to the front, and during the remainder of the 
engagement he was constantly at the line of battle directing the move- 
ment of the troops in person, \vith j:)erfect calmness, though in the midst 
of a furious storm of shot and shell. He was then a young, graceful, 
dashing, handsome man, brave, quick in action, and greatly beloved 
by his troops. As he raised himself slightly on his elbow and darted 
his restless eyes over the scene of battle, giving his orders in c[uick, im- 
petuous tones, he seemed to the soldiers like some chained lion, fretting 
and chafing because he could not dash into the midst of the conflict. 
History records the success of the Union troops in this engagement, 
but few of the published histories of the day note the fact that to Gen- 
eral Upton was due that notable success of the Union arms. All day, 
until the eagle of victory perched upon the Stars and vStripes, he re- 
mained upon the field, his presence fortifying the troops, and his ring- 
ing voice, heard above the din of battle, lending additional enthusiasm 
to their efforts. 

An endeavor has been made to give, in this chapter, as complete as 

FROM 1SG5 TO 180S. 327 

possible a li^t of the inhabitants of Genesee county who fought in the 
war of the Rebellion. It is a fact deeply to be regretted that the rec- 
ords in the oftice of the adjutant-general of the State of New York do 
not give the places of residence of ihose mustered into the servnce of 
the country for this war. In 18G5 a law was passed directing the town 
authorities throughout every State in the Uniou to make a complete 
record of the soldiers sent fiom each town. The law was generally 
ignored throughout New York State, and the record made in Genesee 
countv is very inc(jmplete and unsatisfactor}'. In all probability an 
authentic and complete list of Genesee county soldiers can never be 
compiled. This chapter is founded upon the official reports as found 
in the office of the adjutant-general at Albany and in the office of the 
clerk of Genesee county. It is authentic, though not as nearly com- 
plete as would have been possible had the various town officers hold- 
ing off.ce in 1865 and ISCG acted in accordance with the law of 1805 
referred to. 


From the Close of the Civil War to the Present Time — Establishment of the Mod- 
ern Manufacturing Industries of the County — Banks and Banking Since the War — 
Le Roy and Its Numerous Manufactures — Mills and Milling — The Malting Industry 
— The Salt Wells of Le Roy and Pavilion and Their Development — The Oreat Marl 
Bed in Bergen — Disastrous Fires in Bergen, Oakfield and Le Roy — Organization of 
the Genesee County Pioneer Association — Building of the Buffalo, Rochester and 
Pittsburg Railway — Bergen Again Laid Waste by I-^ire — The West Shore Railroad 
— The Lehigh Valley Railroad — Fatal Railroad Accidents — Remains of a Mastodon 
Unearthed Near Batavia — Genesee County's Participation in tiie War With Spain — 
Fatal Accident on the New York Central Railroad Near Corf u — Churches Established 
in Genesee County During This Period. 

The condition of the inhabitants of Genesee coimty at the conclusion 
of the war of the Rebellion was wretched in the extreme, lousiness of 
most kinds was either at a standstill, or had been annihilated. The 
few industries of the county which had been spared were struggling 
feebly to continue their existence. Others apparently were dead past 
all hopes of resurrection. Money was scarce, provisions were costly, 
credit in most cases was ruined or greatlv impaired. Everv man 


looked at his fellows with a doubtful eye. During" the war period little 
of importance transpired to add to the story of military operations. 
Aside from the establishment of a few minor concerns, which con- 
tributed but slightly to the general welfare and prosperity of the com- 
munity, the industrial development of the county was practically at a 

It was not until ten years after the restoration of peace that the 
establishment of the great modern industries of Genesee county began, 
though a few steps in the march of progress along- these lines were 
taken before that period. Among the latter was the venture of X. R. 
Keeney of Le Roy, who in LsG-l: established an extensive produce busi- 
ness in that village. He first purchased of I. B. Phelps a building; on 
Lake street, near the railroad. I'his warehouse being- dcstroved bv 
fire in 1874, the year after he rebuilt on a more extensive scale. So 
great was the increase in the business that in 18S8 the firm— now X. B. 
Keeney & Son— built a six-story inm clad building west of the original 
one, equipped with all the modern appliances for conducting their 
business. This industry soon became one of the most important in Le 
I'^oy, giving employment to a large number of persons. 

In 1865 C. F. Prentice bought the mill property built at Le Rov by 
Jacob Le Roy in lS-22 and established his present extensive business. 
In 1806 Mr. Prentice organized the Le Roy Power cK: Milling Company, 
with himself as president and D. C. Howard Prentice as secretary and 
treasurer, continuing the business which had been operated by tlie 
former since 1805. The concern now has a daily capacity of one hun- 
dred and seventy-five barrels of Hour, besides large quantities of feed, 
meal, buckwheat, etc. Mr. Prentice is also ])resident of the Hydraulic 
Electric Company- of Le Roy, organized in 189o, and with his son, 1). 
C. PI. Prentice, owns the entire plant of the com])any. 

In ISOG Schuyler C. Wells came to Le Roy and entered into partner- 
ship with his brother-in-law, L. S. Hooker, as Hooker & Wells, in the 
drug business. Three years later this partnership was dissolved, and 
in 1871 Mr. Wells began the manufacture of Shiloh's family remedies. 
In 18:7 he erected the four-story brick building on Church street for 
the accommodation of his wonderfully increasing business, to which an 
addition was built in 1S82. In tlie latter year he sold a half interest in 
the business to his brother, George H. Wells, the firm becoming S. C. 
Wells & Co. The latter retired in 189-2, and in 1807 a stock company 
was organ i.'.ed for carrying on the business. The enterprise is one of 
the best known of its kin.d in the corintry. 

FROM ist',5 TO 1S98. 229 

The banking house of Francis C. Lathrop of Le Roy was established 
in 1SC7, and conducted by him until August 9, 1893, when the financial 
depression which afflicted the country compelled him to make an as- 
signment. The business has never been re-established. 

The first concern of its kind to be established in Genesee county was 
the Byron cheese factory. This factory was built in ISO? by a stock 
company, which at once began the manufacture of cheese intended 
especially for the markets of iMigland. The factory was built about 
three-quarters of a mile southwest of Byron Centre, and from the be- 
ginning lias been successful. 

The Le Roy l>ibrary Association, which has been one of the most 
valuable of the public institutions of that town for a quarter of a cen- 
tury, was founded in ISTH by a number of ladies residing in the vil- 
lage. ]vlrs. John R. Olmsted was chosen to be the first president, and 
has served continuously since tliat time in that office. 

In ISTi James McElver purchased the old Cummings foundry in 
Byron and began the manufacture of agricultural implements, his in- 
dustry soon becoming one of the most important in that town. 

Large deposits of limestone of a fine quality and perfectly adapted 
for building purposes having been discovered in the town of Le Roy, 
they were exploited about 1870, and from that time on have been 
worked with profit to the operators. George H. Holmes, Livingston 
D. Howell, and Morris & Str(-4)el v.'ere among the first to enter upon 
this important enterprise. Mr. Holmes at one time employed as 
many as one hundred and thirty-five men. The business is still suc- 
cessfully carried on in the town, but the number of men employed is 
not so great as formerly. 

The planing mill built in 1S7'2 at Le Roy by Olmsted \: ]\Iclvenzie 
was the successor of the first mill of the kind erected there about half 
a century before by Chauncey Olmsted. While owned by the latter 
this mill was twice burned and rebuilt. It then passed into the hands 
of William Olmstead, then Laramee & vSmith, Olmsted & ]\IcKenzie, 
McKenzie, King cK; Sage, Hartwell tV' Sage, Frost lV Murdoch, S. H. 
Murdoch. Another enterprise established in ]87"i was the fruit distil- 
lery of Decker tSj Titman, the only one in Genesee county. In 1875 
Thomas Gallagher l^' Sons started a broom factory on Exchange street. 
In 1878 J. T. Warren purcli.'iscd the old Catholic church and there estab- 
lished a foundry and machine shop, eng.aging chiefly in model and nov- 
elty work. 


In 1876 the famous Wiard Plow Company moved its works from East 
Avon to Batavia, and the county seat of Genesee county experienced 
an industrial impetus which within a few years had phiced it foremost 
among the manufacturing villages of the country.' Old manufac- 
turing concerns soon appreciated the manifold advantages which 
would accrue to them by locating in that village, with the result that 
within the next few years the county seat of Genesee could boast of 
being the site of half a dozen or more of the most important manufac- 
tures in the country. The effect was beneficial not only to Batavia, but 
to practically the entire country surrounding. 

In 1ST3 C. B. Rogers & Co. established a sash, door and blind fac- 
tory at what is known a.s the old oil mill, on the banks of the Oatka, in 
Le Roy. It was operated as such by that firm until the fall of ISS'J, 
when it was leased to F. C. Rogers, tlie present proprietor. He pur- 
chased the property in the spring of 1892. The machinery for v/uod 
working purposes subsequently was removed to Mr. Rogers's new mill 
on Lake street, which is operated by steam. Water power was used 
in the old mill. Six to eight hands are employed regularly. 

The American Malting Company's plant at Le Roy was originallv 
founded in 1874 by W. I). Matthews &- Co. In 1880 Edward Rogerson 
became associated with the firm, remaining until Mr. Mattliews's death 
in 1888, when the business was c(jntinued by Mr. Rogerson and Wilm.ot 
D. Matthews. 

In 1895 it was incorporated as the W. D. Matthews Malting Co., and 
in 1897 it became part of the possessions of the American Malting Co.. 
which organization also operates a considerable number of other similar 
plants in this and other States. The plant in Le Roy is located on the 
line of the Erie, N. Y. C. and B., R. t^c P. railroads, and comprises rour 
commodious malt-houses, which are constructed of stone, and a large 
frame elevator attached. They are fully equipped with improved ap- 
pliances for economical pr()duction, including steam power and electric 
lights. The output of the plant is about seven hundred thousand bush- 
els of malt per season, and employment is given to sixty skilled malt- 
sters and assistants. The product is especially noteworthy for high 
quality, and only the finest selected grain is used in its manufacture. 
The product is shipped chieily to the large brewers of New York and 

' Historical sketclies of the Wiard Piow Company and ihc otlicr vTicai industries of l-^atavia 
will be found in the chapter d-vcitc! to Uie VilUi^o of llatavia. 

FROM lbG5 TO 1.S9S. 231 

Boston. The management of the enterprise is in the hands of Edward 

Thoug-li the firsi discovery of salt in Lc Roy was made as early as 
February, 1S79, it was not until five years later that actual operations 
for the market were successfully inaugurated. The salt interests of 
Le Roy are among the most important in Genesee county. Soon after 
the discovery of this mineral in \\'yoming county in 1S7S, some of the 
citizens of Le Roy, believing that it existed beneath the surface of that 
town, were induced through the efforts of X. B. Keeney to subscribe 
to a fund of rlfteen hundred dollars for the pur^jose of making the de- 
sired tests. With the guarantee of this sum, C. M. Everest of Roch- 
ester agreed to bore for salt to the Niagara formation, or not to exceed 
one thousand feet in depth. While Mr. Everest believed salt might be 
found, he was more anxious to discover oil. He engaged C. B. Mat- 
thews of Wyoming to look after his interests, and the latter in turn con- 
tracted with Mr. Iligiey of Bradford, I'a., to drill for the salt or oil. 

The work was inaugurated December 4, 18TS, and by the end of two 
months such pro.;'ress had been niade that both gas and brine were 
reached at a depth of live hundred feet. xVt this point in the operations 
Mr. Matthews, upon the advice of Mr. Everest, ceased work and de- 
manded payment for what he had already done. The contract not hav- 
ing been carried out, the citizens of Le Roy who had guaranteed the 
expenses of the work refused to honor the demand thus summarily 
made upon them. Litigation followed until the fall of ISSl, when Mr. 
Everest, learning that the people of Le Roy undoubtedly were in the 
right, proposed to drill another well. The proposition w^as accepted 
and work was begun by Curtis Ov \Vhitaker imder the superintendence of 
A. E. Miller, John 1-^yres representing the citizens, who had guaranteed 
]\Ir. Everest thirteen hundred dollars if he would assume all the risks. In 
this well brine ami a salt vein twenty to twenty- five feet thick were foimd 
at the depth of sixlumdred and fifteen feet. 

Satisfied with the result of the experiments the four Le Roy citizens 
back of the enterprise continued the work. The first well, which had 
been obstructed with iron implements, was cleaned, at considerable ex- 
pense, the work not being completed until the summer of L"^S"^. From 
that time work was practically abandoned until the spring of 1883, 
when a plant capable of an output (jf a hundred barrels per day \vas 
put in operation under tiie direction of the American Chemical Com- 
pany of West Bay City, Mich. In September of that year the lirst 


salt manufactured — one carload — was shipped from the works. But 
the process of this company proved a failure, and early in the summer 
of 1881- tlie works were remodeled and the i^M-ainer proee.<s adopted. 

At this juncture, and after the failure of the American Chemical 
Company, it became necessary for those interested in the enterprise to 
determine whether the future business W(Mdd warrant an increase in 
capital sufllcient to continue operations on a more extensive scale. It 
was therefore determined to put down another salt well, this time at 
the junction of the IiurYalo, Rochester and Pittsburg and the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western railroads on the'iilmore farm three miles 
sout*Ii of Le Roy, in the town of Pavilion. At the depth of eight hun- 
dred and forty feet that well developed a vein of salt fifty-one feet thick 
between two strata of limestone. Completely satisfied as to the suc- 
cess of future operations, the experimenters decided to establish a per- 
manent plant at Le Roy. Accordini^ly, in the fall of ISS-i, C. F. Pren- 
tice, S. C. Wells, A. E. Miller and N. R. Keeney organized and incor- 
porated the Le Roy Salt Company, ^L•. Miller being placed in complete 
charge of the works. Two grainers were put in with four boilers. 
With the aid of fourteen workmen fourteen thousand barrels of salt 
were shipped from the factory that fall. 

While this result was satisfactoj-y for a new business in which a small 
force was employed, it was evident to all interested that the output 
could be increased with enlarged facilities. Consequently additions 
were made to the buildings, new grainers were erected, boilers intro- 
duced, and a capital of ^30,000 employed, all proving successful. 

Changes, however, were constantly made for more econrtmical pro- 
duction, and by the energy and enterprise of the company under the 
careful management of A. V.. ]\[dler, the production reached, on August 
31, LSOl, six hundred barrels per day. At this time a large part of the 
works was destroyed by fire, entailing a loss of some §"25,i)OU. Through 
the unusual business ability and energy of ^L^ Miller, the burnt ]")or- 
tions were rebuilt and manufacturing resumed in January, 1802. Owing 
to overwork and the strain necessary to carry on this work, his health 
began to fail and he died August 'JS, 180".2, and was buried on the 131st. 
exactly a year after the lire. 

As the demand for Le Ro\- salt was constantly increasing, large addi- 
tions were m;>.;le from time to time until the plant has become one of 
the largest in the country. In spite of the depression incident to hard 
times and free trade in salt, the business increased every year and in 


1897 the averac^e outjuit was one thousand barrels per day. Tlie force 
employed is one hundred and twenty five hands. Nineteen boilers 
ag-greLi-atini;" two th'uisand liorse ]K)\ver furnish the steam and motive 
power. The salt is made in twenty [j^rainers, operated day and nii^ht, 
and a storay^e capacity is provided of nearly two hundred thousand 
btishels, which is crowded to its limits. The first block erected in 1882 
was thirty-six by three hundred feet. As rebuilt in 1891 it was one 
hundred and thirty-six by three hundred feet, with an addition of forty 
by seventy-six feet. As it now stands the main building' is three hun- 
dred and twelve by three hundred and sixty-two feet, with an addition 
of eigfhty-six by one hundred and sixty-eight feet. The company op- 
erates eleven wells, averagings six hundred and fifty feet in depth, and 
the furthest one being- one mile from the wi.irks. The officers of the 
company at present are C. F. Prentice, president ; Jolui liurden, vice- 
president; C. X. Keeney, secretary and treasurer; J. P. Samson, man- 

Oakfield has shared in g;eneral prosperity of thecounty in these days. 
In 18T8 Henry Fishell established in that town a plant for the manu- 
facture of all kinds of agricultural machinery, which he continued to 
operate for eleven years. Albert PTowland succeeded to the business 
in that year. In 1883 Olmsted Ov Staples built a plant for the manufac- 
ture of barrel heads and staves, a short time afterward adding' a plaster 
manufacturing- establishment. At the same time a barrel and lumber 
mill was in operation by Harmon Parker. In 1880 M. B. Tarba erected 
a mill of a similar nature in tlie northeastern part of the town. This 
was burned in the spring- of 1889. but was immediately rebuilt. 

In Stafford, John Sin-imons built an exteiisive grist mill at Morgan- 
ville in I8ts, on the site of the mill erected in l^'iO b\- Atlget Lathrop. 
In ISSG Albert H. White embarked in the manufacture of wagons, 
carriages, sleighs, potato diggers, etc., in the shop built in 165:J. 

In Pembroke, Crillmore eV Car^ienter built the present roller mills at 
Indian I'alls in 18T9. They are located at the falls in Tonawanda creek, 
which at this p'>int furnishes a splenic! water power, the fall being forty- 
one feet. The mill is still operated by the firm of S. Gillmore & Co. 
The Indian Falls grist ar.d tlour null was established about the same 
time about a quarter of a mile above the falls. D. K, Chaddock was 
an early proprietor. 

In the town of Byron, Rowley H. Douglass built the ' iencsee rolling 
mills in 1-80. Thev are located on Black creek, about half a mile east 


of Byron Centre, on the site of the mills originally built many years 
before by James Taggart. ^[cKenzie l^ Bennett succeeded Mr. Doug-- 
lass as proprietors. 

In Bergen, Peter Weber began the manufacture of baskets by hand 
in 18G-1. The business subsequently assumed extensive proportions. 
In 1879 O. J, }vliller began the manufacture of steam engines of various 
kinds in that village. Under his skillful management the industry has 
become one of considerable importance. He is still the sole proprietor 
of the business. 

The F. \V. -Miller Manufacturing Company, composed of F. W. Miller 
and C. W. Bradley, manufacturers of machinery and agricultural im- 
plements, is the successor to the business started by F. W. Miller in 
Caledonia in 18S0. Mr. ^kliller's father died in 18S(j. The industry was 
removed to Le Roy in 1805, and in May, 1897, the present company 
was formed. The manufacturing plant was erected in 1895, and the 
average number of hands employed is twenty-hve. The products com- 
prise Miller's bean harvesters, bean planters, steel land rollers, wood 
stave land rollers, potato coverers, chilled plows, wheel cultivators, 

The lumber yard of George H. Church at Bergen was started in 
1877. Since 1885 a saw mill and planing mill has been operated in 
connection tlierewith, the whole enterprise forming a valuable contri- 
bution to the industrial welfare of Bergen. 

About 1880 Alva O. Barden erected in Corfu a large frame building, 
designed for use as a public hall and for stores. The structure was 
named Barden hall, after its owner, but was not a financial success. It 
is now used jointly by a broom factory and the natural gas companv <a 

Laban II. Robinson of Darien built his feed and saw mills at the vil- 
lage of Darien in 18>!1, locating tliem on Murder creek, on the site of 
the mills built in 185-i by Stephen Douglas. Zeno Ciriswold's orist. 
saw and cider mills were establislied previous to the former date at 
Sawens, also on Murder creek. 

In Pavilion, J. Ouincy D. Page established a co(;per works in 1880 
for the manufacture of barrels, tubs, etc. The output has alwavs been 
large. In 1888 Henry Chilson erected a steam grist mill and saw mill 
having a ca[)acity oi three hundred l)ushels of grain per day. About 
that time John C. Doty erected a warehouse for produce and grain on 
the site of two earlier warehouses built by Dr. William B. Spra^ue 

FROM isnri TO 1S9.S. 235 

both of which had been burned. Another enterprise established at 
this time was the fruit evaporator of 11 F. Trescott, located where Dr. 
Sprague formerly was enijai4ed in the same line of business. 

In Alabama, "William Price erected a substantial steam saw mill in 
lST-2 on the site of his original mill, built in ISGl, but burned in the 
year first mentioned. Soon after he began the operation of a second 
mill. In ISSS S. S. Parker built the model creamery, for the manufac- 
ture of both butter and cheese. 

Early in the period covered by this chapter Judge Ira Rix and 
Alonzo T. ^looers engaged in the grain and milling business in Alex- 
ander. The Messrs. Moulton were extensive millers about the same 
time. George Jones began the manufacture of sash and blinds and Hor- 
ace Plunii operated a saw mill in the sixties. 

In 1881 George Perry built a grist mill in Bethany. Daniel Merritt's 
cooper shop was in operation before that year. 

Some of the princij')al industries established in Elba prior to ISOS 
were Phineas Barr, jr.'s saw mill and shop, E. Murphy's stave and 
barrel factory, French & Co.'s stave and heading mill, Thomas Grif- 
fin's saw mill, Hal! & Grimes's woolen mill, Southwick lV Staples's stave 
factory, F^. ^l. Whitney's flouring mills, James Bray's woolen mill and 
Frank Kurtz's woolen mill. 

The cold storage warehouse business of P. Gleason, started at Le 
Roy on a small scale in 18S7, has developed into one of the most im- 
portant enterprises of its kind in Western New York. The present 
warehouse was built by ?klr. Gleason in 1801. Adjoining it is a larg^e 
bean elevator, both of which are fully ecjuipped. !Mr. Gleason annually 
handles enormous quantities of apples, pears and beans. Railroad 
tracks adjoin both the liouscs. The cold storage ca]jacity is about fifty 
thousaTid barrels of apples at one time, and the annual shipment from 
the plant amounts to aiiout one hundred and fifty thousand bai-rels of 
apples and pears and three hundred tliousand bushels of beans. A 
force of fifteen men and eighty girls is employed by Mr. Gleasun, wlio 
also maintains several other similar establishments in Western New 

The fruit evaporating establishment of Benjamin F. Trescott at 
Pavilion was constructed in 1880 by Mr. Trescott. It does an exten- 
sive local business. 

One of the most important industries of the town of Pemljroke is the 
cultivation of flowers in greenhoi;ses for the wholesale and retail mar- 


ket. This business was established in 1SS3 by Mrs. Irene Tyrrell, who 
now owns four greenhouses at Corfu. Since that time twenty-six 
greenhouses have been built there. Of these William Scott of ButTalo 
owns and operates four large ones. Six are owned b}' .Edward Gid- 
dings, eight by Tliomas Wel)b and two by James Farnham. 

The Exchange Bank of Oakfield, a pri\'ate institution, was established 
in 1SS3 by F. E Wright. It was located in the Jackson block for 
several years, but in the fall of 1808 moved into its own building, a 
handsome stone and brick structure. Mr. Wright has always been 
president of the bank. 

Tn 188;; Orator F. Woodward began the manufacture of patent medi- 
cines at Le Roy. In 189tj he added the manufacture of Grain-O, a 
product nijw known all over the United States. Four large buildings, 
all owned by Mr. Woodward, are now devoted exclusively to this busi- 


Another important enterprise was added to the industries of Bergen 
when the Cold Spring Creamery Company uf that town was incorporated 
in March, 1888. The original capital stock of $1,400 was soon increased 
to $"2,000, on account of the unanticipated increase in the company's 
business. Francis \\\ P\anson was chosen superintendent, secretary and 
treasurer. The annual production of butter ranges from forty to sixty 
thousand pounds. The fence works of }.Iichael Doran at Bergen were 
established in 1880. 2\Ir. Doran's cider and vinegar factory has been 
in operation since 1873, 

Salt was discovered in the town of Pavilion in the year 1800. The 
Pavilion Salt Mining Company was organized in that year, and at once 
secured title to seven hundred and forty acres of land, at a total cost of 
$188,480. This land is a part of the '"salt basin" of Western New 
York, being on a direct line between the Retsof mines, ten miles to the 
southeast, and the Le Roy salt wells, four miles to the northwest. 
Salt was struck at the depth of eight hundred and seventy-five feet. 
Tiie upper stratum consisted of a deposit sixteen feet thick, followed 
by a layer of dividing rock six feet thick, then another layer of salt 
thirty-one feet thick. There was no brine, however, and as tliere was 
no water in abundant ijuantities convenient the work was abandoned 
temporarily. Subsecpiently the Le Roy Salt Company began to work 
the Pavilion field. A history of the operations of this company has 
been given in the precetlii:io pages. 

The Pavilion Salt Company, a c<;partnership, was organized in the 

FROM ISO.-, TO 180S. 237 

spring of ISOl by the lion. Lester tl. Humphrey of Warsaw and Mar- 
cus E. Calkins of Ithaca. The present jKirtncrs are the foregoing and 
O. S. Humphrey of Warsaw, son of L. H. Humijlircy. The company 
began driUing for salt in the southern part of the vilhige of Pavilion in 
May, 1891. The vein of rock salt which had previously been discovered 
at Warsaw, Wy<^ming county, and at other points in Western New 
York, including Le Roy, was struck at Pavilion at the depth of ten 
hundred and twelve feet, and was found to be more than seventy feet 
in thickness. The salt was found to be of exceptionally fine cpiality, 
being entirely free from the chlorides which make so much of the salt 
sold in this country unfit for table and dairy purposes. Most of the 
salt is made in open ir'jn pans by direct heat, which is the process 
mainly employed in England. The output for seven years has been 
six hundred and fifty thousand barrels of two hundred and eighty 
pounds each. Two thirds of the product has been fine table and dairy 
salt, and about one-third what is called comnum fine and coarse salt. 
The company employs from thirty to forty persons, men and women, 
and is the most important industry in the town of Pavilion. 

One of the most iiiiportant industries in that part of the cmmty out- 
side of Batavia is the Oakfield Fertilizer Compan}', Vv'hich was incorpo- 
rated in March, 1802, with a capital stock of $250,000. The incorpo- 
rators named in the articles filed in the oflice of the secretary of state 
were Charles Mager, Horace}. Harvey, Frank P. Vandenbergh, (.Tem'ge 
Sandrock, Philip Houck, Aaron D. Coffin, William W. Stevens, Albert 
A. Grinnell, Jacob Davis, John Irlbacker, Charles E Benedict and 
Francis J. Henry. From the start the concern has been very success- 
ful, the ou.tput finding a market in all parts of the Union. It is noticed 
by a bulletin of the New York vState Agricultural ]'^x[ierin!ent Station 
appearing in August. J89G, that the Oakfield Fertilizer Company's 
brands were found to be of a higher percentage of value than was 
guaranteed by the company. 

vSevcral new industries were organized in 1894, and some changes in 
the established enterprises occurred. Frank Richards in that year suc- 
ceeded C. vS. Thompson as owner and operator of the Star Roller Mills 
at Alexander, the principal industry in that town. At Le Roy Kroner 
& Lapp established a large plant for the manufacture of sa-^h, do(;rs, 
blinds, mouldings, cisterns, etc., and at once erected a conimwdious 
building for carrying on their business. The Randall Fence C'ompany 
of Le Rov was also founded in 1804. The Randall fencing was de- 


sig-ned by William P. Randall and first introduced by him in 1800. The 
fabric, being- new to the trade, liad to be made by si)ecially prepared 
machinery, worked b}- hand power, which was also desig-ned by Mr. 
Randall. The industry soon became (luite well known b\' sales to a 
prominent seedman in Xew York cit}-, who used the fabric for garden 
trellis. Accordingly in 180-i Mr. Randall organized a stock companv 
with a capital stock of $15,000 and these officers: President, George 
F. Lowe; vice-president, William P. Randall; secretary and treasurer, 
Calvin E. Bryant. In ISOo Mr. Bryant sold his interest to S. C. Doug- 
las, and in 1897 Mr. Lowe sold his interest to William F. Huyck. Mr. 
Randall remains vice-president, Mr. Huyck is president and treasurer, 
and Mr. Douglas is secretary. The conipany enjo}'s a trade scattered 
through twenty-six States. 

Le Roy Lodge No. 73, I. O. O. F., was organized at Le Roy April 
19, 1895, with thirty-(jne members and Henry Duguid as noble grand. 
The Le Roy Bicycle Club was organized June 15, 189'i, with the follow- 
ing officers: President, T. W. Larkin; vice-president, J. P. Muller; 
secretary, Frank WoodruiT; treasurer, Walter Given; collector, Ralph 
Wilcox; captain, A. J. Hooker; first lieutenant, Carl Wells; second 
lieutenant, George G. Seyfler. 

About this time Clarence O. Richards, who for some time had been 
operating the old fiour, feed and saw niill near the depot at Corfu, en- 
larged his plant and increased his facilities for the manufacture of cider. 
The industry has become one of considerable importance in the town of 

At Pavilion R. L. Hutchinson built a large flour and feed mill near 
the railroad in 189:'!. and has since remained its proprietor. 

In the spring'of 1891 the creamery at ICast Pembroke was built and 
opened for business in April. The first officers of the company o[)er- 
ating it were: President, James F. Bennett; treasurer, D. L. Wilkin- 
son; secretary, L. C. Case; directors, J. F. Bennett, Henry P. Ellin- 
wood, Abraham Mook, William Uphill, John Moore. The Byr(jn 
cheese factory was also opened for business in May of this year. Dur- 
ing the year the Oakfield and Alabama Fish and Bird Protective 
Association was organized with the following officers: President, 
Seneca Allen; vice-]")residents, G. H. Craft, Thomas O'Reily, Frederick 
B. Parker; secretary and treasurer, E. F. Hickey. The Co-operative 
Insurance Com[".any of Wyoiuingand (xcnesee Counties was organized 
February 22, 1892. 

FROM 18(55 TO 1898. 2;J9 

The year 1895 witnessed the inauguration of an important industry 
in the town of Pembroke— the development of the natural -as'found 
beneath the surface of the earth in the vicinity of Corfu. The first -as 
well, located about a quarter of a mile north of that villa-e was driven 
early m the summer of 1895 by the Corfu Gas Companv, of whicli 
Geor-e W. Archer of Rochester is president. The balance of the stock 
of the company is held by the estate of Robert Roy of Bradford Pa 
Soon after five other wells were sunk, and a plant costin- twelve thou- 
sand dollars was erected at Corfu. The -as was first discovered on the 
farm of ^Vilder E. Sumner. 

At Le Roy the roller mills of McEwen & Cole were constructed and 
bc-an operation in 1S9G. The year foll.nving E. W. Miller came from 
Caledonia and established his iron foundry. Both are located near the 
depot of the Buffalo, Rochester c\; Pittsburg- Railroad. 

In response to a demand for local banking facilities the private 
banking house of W. S. & C. E. Housel was established in Ber-en 
September -^5, 189G. W. S. Housel became president and C. E. Ilousel 
cashier, both still remaining in those respective offices. This is the 
first and only banking institution to be established iu Bergen. 

Nicholas Schubmehl came from Cohocton, X. Y., to Be'rgen January 
1, 1897, and started a cigar factory in the latter village uncfer the style 
of Schubmehl & Co. The factory employs from tliirty to forty hands 
and manufactures cigars only, for the jobbing trade. The output 
averages ab(nit three million cigars annually. 

John J. Ellis established at Darien Centre a few years a-o a -rain 
and produce business which has undergone many changes aucrimprove- 
ments, until it is to day an enterprise of C(msiderable proportions. It 
is one of the most important establishments of its kind in Genesee 
county, outside of the village of Batayia. 

Though yet in ii.. infancy, with the product undeveloped .•there ex- 
ists in the town of Bergen the foundation for one of the most'important 
industries in all Western New York. Early in the summer of Is:.; a 
gentleman who is superintendent of a large manufacturing j^lant was 
traveling through Genesee county un the West Shore raihoad, when 
his attention was attracted to the peculiar formation of the 'earth 
almost white in color, through which a cut had been made in the con- 
struction of the railr(;ad. So impressed was he that he alighted from 
the train at the next station, walked back to the cut, procured samples 
or the earth, and proceeded to his destination on the next train, pjac- 


ing the samples thus secured in the hands of a chemist for analysis, 
he was surprised to learn that the earth was almost pure lime, contain- 
inor 97(3 per cent, of this mineral. Sulisequent invcstii;:u:i(jn slunvcd 
that the deposit covered about three hundred acres of land, and that 
the averao;e depth was ten feel. T.arge quantities of blue clay were 
also discovered in the immediate vicinity. Other experiments were 
conducted, and from these two materials a superior quality of Portland 
cement was made. Early in 18!")8 the Iroquois Portland Cement Com- 
pany was organized at Buffalo, and incorporated under the laws of 
West Virginia. The company at once secured the rights to the land, 
containing at dry weight over five million cubic yards of marl, which 
will be sufficient to supply a plant with a capacity of one thousand 
barrels per day for forty years. The company is ca|)italized at one 
million dollars. Its officers are: President, Jacob Davis; secretarv, 
John C. Bertand; vice president, A. D. Coffin: treasurer. Edward L. 
Davis; attorney, William E. Webster. These, with John S. Hertel 
and Eugene Bertand, are comprised in the board of directors. The 
development of this great marl bed has not yet begun, but plans are 
being made to carry on the work. 

Another concern incorporated in 1807 was the Diamond AVall Cement 
Company of Oakfield. The broom factory of Xelson Brown was 
started at Corfu in November, 1808. I>. W. iSoyce, manufacturer of 
machinery supplies, etc., established his business in Oakfield April ], 

The first industry of its kind existing in the town of Bergen for a 
period c-f half a century is the concern known as the Bergen Roller 
Mills, which were constructed in Bergen village in 1808 by Thomas ]. 
Tone. These mills, having a capacity of fifty barrels per day, employ- 
ing seven hands and being operated by steam power alone, began run- 
ning December I'l, 1808, manufacturing dour and feed. They are 
among ths best equipped mills in the countr}-. 

Standard's sash, door and blind factory at Bergen was erected in the 
fall and winter of 1898. 

In March, 1S08, Miller Bros, v.^- Co. purchased of Daniel J. McPhcrson 
his grain and coal business and elevator at Ijergen. This business was 
established many years ago by Platts tV- McPherson. In 188-.2 the junior 
partner, ])onaKl McPherson, purchased the interest of Henry Platts 
and took his son, Daniel J. McPherson, int(.) partnersliip. In ISOG 
D. J. McPherson assumed sole control of the business, retaining it until 
its sale to Miller IJros. iV Co. 

FROM 1S(m to 181IS. •■241 

A destructive fire laid a lap^e part of the village of Bergen in ruins 
on the night of Monday, January 15, ISGG. The flames originated 
about eleven p. m. in the hardware store and tin shop occupied by Sam- 
uel C. Tulley, located at the foot of Main street adjoining the New 
York Central railroad, and within two hours "every building on the 
west side of the street up to the crossing of the main street, running- 
east and west, together with the large and commodious warehouse in 
the rear, belonging" to Beecher & Marvin, was in ruins." The latter 
was considered one of the hnest buildings of its kind in Western New 
York. The section destroyed embraced nearly all the business portion 
of the village. Among the principal buildings burned, beside the 
warehouse referred to were the twu-stor}" shoe store owned by Lawrence 
Crosby, the three-story dry goods store of E, F. Hubbard, the new dry 
goods store of J. D. Doolittle, Smith &Co., S. C. Tulley's hardware 
store, Harvey Mullen's shoe store, John H. Parish's flour and feed 
store, Samuel C. Carpenter's clothing store and residence, residence 
and o}'ster saloon occupied by Augustus C. Hamlin and owned by Sam- 
uel C. Carpenter, a building owned by J. D. Doolittle and occupied by 
W. Thopson and wife as a dwelling and dressmaking establishment, 
harness shop owned by Lawrence L. Crosby and occupied by William 
H. King, dwelling of Eleanor Crosby, dwelling of \V. N. Beardsley. 
The total number of buildings destroyed was seventeen, and the loss 
aggregated betv.-een .$10,000 and $50,000. 

On Friday night, June 15, ISGG, fire originated in A. A. WoodrulT's 
hardware store in the village of Oakfield, and before the flames were 
quenched the following buildings were destroyed; A. A. Woodruff's 
hardware store, loss $11,000; John D. Stedman's shoe store, loss$l,000; 
E. T. jacquith's shoe store, loss $500; C. PL Jacquith's cabinet shop, 
loss $G00; A. C. Dodge's harness shop, loss $1,'200; George Stegmen's 
harness shop, loss $200; C. H. Chamberlain's dry good store, loss about 
$G,000; millinery store and meat market of ^L^s. Ceorge W. Brown, 
loss$GOO; dwelling house owned by Mrs. Cakler and occupied by (ieorge 

A destructive fire visited Le Roy on the evening of Thursday, Janu- 
ary 28, 18G9. The flames originated in the cabinet shop of G. & II. 
Steubcr, and before they could be quenched thc\' had tiestroyed several 
large br.ildings. Among the heaviest losers were the Steuber Brothers, 
loss $11,000; W. S. Brown cK: Co.'s carriage works, loss $I1,000; John 


Wiss's hotel, $4,000; L. J. Piissell's bakery, loss $2,500; Morton S: 
Dean's shoe store; and other establishments. 

The Genesee County Pioneer Association had its 'genesis in a meet in l;- 
held at Union hall in Batavia, August 'i~), ISO'.,', at which a number of 
the pioneer settlers of Genesee county were present. The meeting was 
presided over by Stewart Chamberlain, and Marcus L. Babcock acted 
as secretary. Before the meeting adjourned it was decided to form an 
association of the living descendants of the pioneers of the county, and 
Hon. Moses Taggart of Batavia, Marcus L. Babcock of Batavia, Syl- 
vester Willis of Oakfield, Alanson Fisher of Darien, Samuel Scofield of 
Elba, vStewart Chamberlain oi Le Ro\', and Augustus P. Hascall of 
Le Roy were named as a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws 
to govern the contemplated sc^ciety. This committee presented a con- 
stitution at an adjourned meeting held in the court house at I'-atavia 
October o, 1869, when the organization was perfected by the election 
of the folluwing officers: 

President, Hon. Heman J. Redlield; vice-president, Hon. Seth 
Wakeman; secretary, Phineas Ford; assistant secretary, Augustus P. 
Hascall; treasurer, James P. Mitchell; vice-presidents for their respec- 
tive towns: Alabama, Joseph Lund; Alexander, Earl Kidder ; Batavia, 
James S. Stewart; Bergen, Ebenezer Scofield; Bethany, Luman Stevens; 
Byron, Cyrenus Walker ; Darien, iVlanson Fisher; Elba, Samuel Sco- 
field; Le Roy, Stewart Chamberlain; Oakfield, Sylvester Willis; Pa- 
vilion, Chester Hannum; I'embroke, David Anderson; Stafford, Daniel 

Since that time the oflicers of the society have been as follows: 

ISTl. — President, Moses Taggart; secretary, Da\'id Seaver. 

1872. — President, Alden S.Stevens; secretary, David Seaver. 

1873. — President, Benjamin Pringle; secretary, David Seaver. 

1874. — President, Benjamin Pringle; secretai-y, David Seaver. 

1875. — President James P. Mitchell; secretary. J. M. Waite. 

187G. — President, James J*. Mitchell; secretary, J. X. Beckley. 

1877. — President, Albert Rowe; secretary, Safford }i,. North. 

1878. — President, Albert Rowe; secretary, Safford E. North. 

1S7'J. — President, Albert Rowe; secretary, vSafford E. North. 

ISSO. — President, Israel M. Peck; secretary, Safford E. North. 

1881. — President, James P. Mitchell; secretary, Frank .S. Wood. 

1S82. — President, Lucius Atwater; secretary, Frank vS. '\Vood. 

1883. — President, Lucius Atwater; secretary, Frank S. Wood. 

FROM 1805 TO 1898. 243 

18S4. — President, Albert Rowe ; secretary, Frank S. Wood. 

ISSo. — President, Lucius Atwater; secretary, Frank S. Wood. 

ISSC. — President, Lucius Atwater; secretary, Frank S. Wood. 

18S7. — President, Lucius Atwater; secretary, Frank S. Wood. 

18SS.— President, K. C. Walker; secretary, John H. Yates. 

1889. — President, Lucius Atwater; secretary, John H. Yates. 

1800. — President, Lucius Atwater ; secretary, John H. Yates. 

1891. — President, S. L. Lusk; secretary, Jolin IL Yates. 

] 89-2. —President, S. B. Lusk; secretary, John IL Yates. 

1893.— J-'resid.uit, S. B. Lusk; secretary, John H. Yates. 

189-t. — President, Adin (i. Gaj^e; secretary, John IL Yates. 

1895. — President. Sylvanus Ford; secretary, John H. Yates. 

1890. — President, S}-lvanus Ford; secretar)', fohn H. Yates. 

189T. — President, Sylvanus Ford; secretary, John IL Yates. 

1898. — President, Jacob Nichols; secretary, John H. Yates. 

1899. — President, Jacob Nichols; secretary, John IL Yates. 

A number of tlie leading- citizens of Stai'ford met in 18T0 and organ- 
ized the Stafford Benetit Association, a mutual insurance association. 
The institution was reorganized in is;7 and incc^rporated according to 
the laws of the State of New York in 1881. The society Si)on became 
one of the most prosperous in the State, an.d its officers have been the 
most highly esteemed residents of the town of StafTord. 

In the summer of 18T5 Le Roy was again visited by a destructive 
fire, which laid in ashes the Starr block, with an adjacent block, c(jn- 
taining stores, ollices and the public library. The loss of the latter 
could not be replaced, as it contained numy rare books of value. 

The Rochester and State Line Railroad Company secured a chartei" 
from the State of New York Octoljcr h, 1809, to build a railroad from 
Rochester, the northern terminus, soutlnvest through the Genesee and 
"Wyoming valleys to Sahunanca, a distance of one hundred and eight 
and one-half miles. The secti<jn between Rochester and Le Roy, 
twenty-four and one-terith miles, was opened for business September 
15, 1874. At this time the following officers and directors were in 
charge: President, M. F. Re\-nolds; treasurer, (j. E. Mumford; sec- 
retary and assistant treasurer, D. McNaughton; engineer and suT)erin- 
tcndent, C. S. Masten, all of Rochester; directors, M. F. Revnolds, C. 
F. Smith, Thomas LeightL'n, <L H. Perkins, Edv/anl Harris, George 
Darling, George li. Mumford, of Rocliester; D. D. S. Brcjwn, .Scous- 
ville, N. Y. ; Oliver S. Allen, Mumford, N. Y. ; William Brist(;l, War- 
saw, N. Y. 


The line to Salamanca was completed and opened for traffic May in, 
1S7S. Wlien orio;-inalIy commenced the intention was to build to the 
V»ituminous coal fields ot W^estern Pennsylvania. The city of Roches- 
ter put $000,000, and the towns along: the line .$500,000, into the enter- 
prise. In JSTO the A^anderbilts accpiired the control of the road, in- 
tending to make it a connecting link between the old Atlantic and Great 
Western Railroad (now Chicago and Erie Railroad) and the New York 
Central and Hudson River Railroad. The authorities of the city of 
Rochester concluding that the Vanderbilts were responsible for the 
company, and that the original intention of building to the coal fields 
had been abandoned, brought action against the companv ar:d the Van- 
derbilts for upwards of one million dollars, and at the same time the 
contractor commenced legal proceedings foi- a large amount. These 
actions were tried and dismissed by the court. 

Finding that it was imiiossible to obtain an undisputed title to the 
property without long and tedious litigation, the V^'.nderbilts aband'«ned 
the road, and default being made on the bonds, a ftjreclusui'e was com- 
menced, and Mr. Sylvan us J. Macy appointed receiver February --io, 
1S80. In January, 1881, the property was sold under foreclosure pro- 
ceedings, and reorganized as the Rochester and Pittsburgh Railroad 

With this change disap])eared all connection of local men with the 
road. In ISSl the road again passed into the hands of a receiver bv 
reason of a default on its second mortgage bonds. Sale under fore- 
closufe proceedings took place in October, 1885, when the propertv was, 
purchased by Adrian Iselin of New York, and associates, and reorgan- 
ized under the name of the Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway 
Company, its present title. The road now operates four hundred and 
eighty-nine miles of track. 

Practically the entire business portion of the village of Bergen was 
destroyed by fire on the night of Sunday, February -20, 1880. Tlie 
buildings burned com[)rised thirty-one business houses, seven residences 
and five barns. The principal sufferers and the amount of the loss on 
the part of each was as follows: 

S. K. Green, dry goods and groceries, $18,000; Samuel C. Tulley, 
hardware. $lT,Oi)0: George II. Church, hardware, .s6,000;. Mrs. Har- 
ford, Brennan hotel buildiiig, $4,000; John Walker, dwelling house, 
barn and two tenement houses, $:>,000; H. S. Andrews, grocerv, $1,-100: 
L. A. Pratt, sto;-c, $1.0O(); H. .V. King, grain warehouse, $5,000; II;ir\-e}- 

FROM isr.o TO 189S. 245 

Mullen, boot and shoe store, $1,500; wSouth worth S: Tone, grain ware- 
house and barn, $10,000; V. C. Calkins, drug- store, $;),000; William 
P. Mun^^cr, King- warehouse, $-2,'J"i0; F. M. Merrill, printing office, 
$-1,000; r,. F. Buell, grocer, $2,000; E. E. Spencer, grocer, $1,S00; 
A. T. South worth, house and barn, $'2,800; Miss Chalker, millinery, 
block and stock, $1,000; Morey and Son, empty block, $2,300; S. Car- 
penter 6c Son, clothing store and Fisher drug store building, $G,800; 
Parish block, $1,000; A. S. Fisher, drug store, $1,500; Mrs. B. M. 
Hall, dwelling and contents, $2,000; Morton Bros., clothiers, $2,500. 

Soon after the fire Benedict Harford erected a hotel on the site of the 
Brennan hotel, now known as the Harford house. The new hotel was 
at first conducted In- Patrick Brennan, then by John Brennan, then 
Mr. Eckler. and finally by Ik'uedict Harford, who has been proprietor 
since 1SS5. Tlie W^alker house on tlie opposite corner was also erected 
in l.-r^SO by William C. Walker, who has been its proprietor since that 

The New York, "West Shore and Buffalo Railroad was opened 
through for traific in January, 1881. Its line passes through the north- 
ern tier of towns in Genesee county. December 5, 1885, the property 
was transferred to the newly organized West Shore Railroad Company, 
and on the same date tlie line was leased to the New York Central 
and Hudson River Railroad Company for four hundred and seventy- 
five years. 

The village of Bergen having been a great sufferer by fire in preced- 
ing years, the agitation in favor of ad(jpting a system affording better 
protection against the ravages of the destructive element resulted in 
the organization of the I'.ergen Fire Department on November 17, 1880. 
The first officers elected wei'e: (TC^rgeO. Emerson, president; Miciiael 
F. Bergin, vice-president; iJaniel S. Thompson, secretary; Homer T>. 
Gage, treasurer; William A. Bowen, chief engineer. Fifty one origi- 
nal members signed the department rc^ll. Of these, Charles T. (jood- 
win, W. T. Bergin, S. J. Cietman, Richard Haley, Eugene- Sn^'der, 
Grant W. Buell, Flarvc}- Bo}.'ce and E. L. Fisher were selected as mem- 
bers of the hose cornpany. The remaining sixty-three members of the 
department were assigned to the engine company. Grant W. l^uell 
was chosen foreman and Charles T. Goodwin assistant foreman of the 
hose company, and X. A. Eckler was chosen foreman and Myron H. 
Parmelee assistant foreman of the engine companw The apparatus of 
the department has always consisted of a hand engine and a hose cart. 


Three reservoirs, located at convenient points throuohout the village, 
furnish the supply of water for use at fires. 

The chief engineers of the department have been as follows: William 
A. Bowen, elected in December. ISSG, died in office April 17, 18SS; 
James R. McKenzie, elected December, 1S8S; Myron H. Parmelee, 
ISSlJ; John W. Day, 189:3; John S. Gleason, 1804: George M. Gillette, 
1S9S. The first secretary, D. S. Thompson, was succeeded by Mr. 
Emerson, who in turn was succeeded in 1895 by Daniel ]. McPherson, 
the present secretary. 

A terrific thunderstorm occurred in Genesee county on the afternoon 
of "I'uesday, July 5, 1889. In Batavia it is recorded as having been the 
worst in the history of the county seat. Streets were flooded, cellars 
were filled with water, and the sewers, inadequate to the extraordinary 
demands made upon them, overflowed. In several business placcb in 
town stock in cellars was ruined or I)adly damaged by the flood, and 
considerable damage was done by lightning. The electric fluid also 
shocked many individuals, but none was injured seriouslv. The year 
1889 was also marked by the incorj^oration ot the Buffalo and Geneva 

A catastrophe accompanied by the loss of three lives occurred De- 
cember 31, 189(1. Workmen were employed on the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad extension on the farm of John Simmonds near Morganville, 
in the town of Stafford. During the discharge of a heavy blast large 
quantities of earth and stone were thrown among the body of laborers, 
three of whom — Andrew Hunt. John Nosky and Andrew Iloodock-- 
were either instantly killed (,)r died soon after the occurrence, by 
reason of the injuries received. The Buffalo extension of this road 
was completed the folL-wing year and opened for trathc September 

I, 189-^. 

The Le Roy Business .Men's Association was formed August '22, 1890. 
The first officers, chosen on that date, were as follows: President, Ed- 
ward Rogerson ; vice-piesidents, Thomas ]]. Tuttle, Charles F. Pren- 
tice, J. B. Gillett; secretary, William E. Humelbaugh; treasurer, Geort^e 

II. Wells; directors, C. X. Keeney, Dennis Scanlon, John Wiss. D. Jack- 
son Bissell. S. Loucks. 

The Lehigh Valley Railway Company was organized June 23, 1890. 
This road was formed by the consolidation of sundry roads outside of 
Gene.see county, and of the Buffalo and Geneva Railroad, projected t(.» 
run from Buifalo to <ieneva, X.V., and to traverse the county, and uv- 

FROM 18t;5 TO 1S9S. 2-17 

.f,'-anized about May 1, 1S89, The Lehigh Valley Railway was com- 
pleted and opened for business about September 1, 1S92. The road 
runs from the Pennsylvania State line north of Sayre. Pa., to I'.utlalo, 
N. v., and through the towns of Le Roy, Stafford, Batavia, Pembroke 
and Darien. The Lehigh Valley Railway was leased to the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad Co. — a Pennsylvania corporation— January 1, LS91, 
and has sir^ce been operated by the latter company. 

July "-26, ISOl, a disastrous fire occurred in the village of Oakfield, 
causing a loss of abuiit seventeen thousand dollars. The flames orig- 
inated in the basement of J. C. Doolittle & Co.'s bakery in the north 
end of Seyn-iour Reed's bnck block. Tlie other business places burned 
were C. H. (iriftin's store, in the Reed block; J. C. P.lack ^; Co.'s meat 
market, A. C. Dodge's harness store, and Warner H. Smith's blacksmith 
shop, in the building owned by Charles H. Chamberlain. August 31 
of the same year the plant of the Le Roy Salt Com.pany at Le Roy was 
damaged by fire to the extent of thirty thousand dollars, but the estab- 
lishment was soun rebuilt. In the following October the East Elba ^^L 
E. church, a structure v.-hich had been built sixty-one years before, was 
destro}-ed by fire. It was at once rebuilt, the dedication taking place 
May 5, IS'.rl January 10, IsO-l, the plant of the Matthews Malting 
Company at Le Roy v/as damaged by fire to the extent of thirty thou- 
sand dollars. 

An accident attended by the loss of the lives of five persons, which 
occurred near tlie village of Le Roy on Sundav, August '^O, IbOO, 
brought sorrow to the hearts of the inhabitants of Genesee countv. 
Lorenzo J. Bovee of Le Roy, accompanied by his wife, 'Mrs. Adelia 
Bovee; his daughter, Miss Ola Bovee; and Miss EmmaBowden of Xew 
York and ^liss Lena Wicks of Le Roy, was driving from his home near 
the village to services in the Le Roy Presbyterian church. On the 
Lake road crossing of tl;e Lehigh Valley Railroad the vehicle was struck 
l)y an express train and all five persons were instantly killed. Mr. 
Bovee was fifty-eight years of age and one of the best known residents 
of eastern Genesee county. He had for several years carried on an 
extensive lumber business at Tonawanda, and was the owner of large 
tracts of timber land in Michigan. 

The village of Oakiield, was again visited by a most disastrous fire 
on May 11, 1SU5. Tlie flames originatee) in the rear of Harris c\: Cha- 
pin's hardware store in the Chamberlin block, owned 1)\- Charles H. 
Chamberlain. In this block were located, beside Harris >.\; Cliapin's 


store, Dr. Pugsley's druj;- store, Eugene T. Chamberlin's dry goods 
store, and the offices of Dr. A. G. Zurh(;rst and B. F. Hawes, justice of 
the peace, all of which were destroyed. Beside these the foliowiug" 
were burned: L. A. Weaver's furniture store, R. B. McVea's store, 
both located in a buildin^- owned by the former; H. C. Martin & Son's 
store, with the ofifice of I. J. Stedman, justice of the peace, located in 
the same building; Callan & Gilmore's meat market, John B. Arnold's 
hotel and barns, and two private dwelling houses. August "28 of this 
year the Le Roy Power and Milling Company of Le Roy was incorpo- 
rated with a capital stock of sixty-five thousand dollars, and these 
ditectors: Charles F. Prentice, Dr. C. H. Prentice, Calvin E. Keeney, 
John P. Sampson, William F. Huyck. The Le Roy Hydraulic Electric 
Company was incorporated on the same day. 

May 15, 1890, a number of the leading business men of Bergen or- 
ganized the Bergen Board of Trade, having these officers: President, 
D. J. McPherson; vice-president, C. N. Carpenter; secretary, A. A. 
Roberts; treasurer, J. S. CTieason. 

In 189? an event of considerable note occurred in Le Roy in the 
the death of William Lampson, the wealthiest resident of that town 
and for many years the president of the Bank of Le Roy, on February 
14. AVhen his will was opened it was found that the bulk of his estate, 
valued at about six hundred and fifty thousand dollars, was bequeathed 
to Yale University, of which he was a graduate. Mr. Lampson was 
a son of Miles P. Lampson, founder of the Bank of Le Roy, and for 
many years was one of the most prominent men in Genesee county. 

In November, 189G, a number of the fruit growers of Genesee county 
met at Batavia and organized the Genesee County Fruit Growers' 
Union, with these officers: President, Nelson Bogtie; vice-president, 
J. G. Fargo; secretary and treasurer, D. L. Dodgson ; executive com- 
mittee, N. II. Green, George Douglass, W. H. Chaddock. 

The Citizens' Bank of Le Roy w.'is incorporated as a State institution 
in November. iS'.u;. and was opened for the transaction of business 
January 1, 1897. The charter directors were Wilbur F. Smallwood, 
Frederick R, Green, Th<;mas B. Tuttle, Mathias Mullcr, William F. 
Huyck, John P. Sampson cUid Edward H. Butler, and the capital stock 
is fifty thousand dollars. The present officers of the bank have held 
office since its organization. They are: IVesident, Wilbur F. Small- 
wood; vice-president, Thomas B. Tuttle; cashier, Frank E. Chaddock. 

Two events of importance to the village o( Le Roy occurred in 1897. 

FROM iy(M TO LsyS. 249 

March 30 the taxpayers of the corporation of Le Roy voted in favor of 
corporation ownership of the electric lig'lit plant in that village. The 
village therefore purchased tor $"2?,15<\ of General C. Fitch Bissell, 
owner of the gas and electric light plants of Le Roy, that industry. 
The Supreme Court subsequently decided that the action of the tax- 
pa5'ers of the village was illegal and ordered the cori)oration to turn the 
property over to the original owner. General Bissell refused to accept 
the title to the concern, and the case was carried to the Court of Ap- 
peals, where it now lies. The charter of the village of Le Roy was 
amended by the Legislature in 18'J7, one of the principal features of 
the act being a provision for the election of the village president di- 
rectly by the people. Prior to that time the presiding officer had been 
chosen by the trustees from among their number. The first person to 
serve as village president under the amended charter was L. T. "Will- 
iams, who was chosen at the corporation election in 1897. 

Septeml-ier 8, L80T, while workmen were making excavations in a 
swamp on the farm of General C. Fitch Bissell of Le Roy, located on 
the Alexander road a short distance south of the village of Batavia, por- 
tions of the remains of a prehistoric animal, probably a mastodon, were 
unearthed. The day following additional relics were found. These in- 
cluded large tusks of ivory, portions of ribs, a jaw bone holding two 
enormous teeth, vertebrae, etc. Prof. H. L. Ward of Rochester, a 
naturalist, expressed the opinion, after investigating the remarkable 
discovery, that the bones had been under the earth from three to si.x 
thousand years, and tliat the weight of the animal, when alive exceeded 
five tons. Twelve or fifteen years before this discovery, the antlers of 
a prehistoric animal were unearthed on Dr. Horn's farm on the Stale 
road. The remains of the mastodon found in 1807 are now on exhi- 
bition in the Holland Land Office in Batavia. 

A new era in the agricukural development of Genesee county began 
in 1807, when about one himdred and fifty of the farmers of the county 
began the culture of sugar beets. Expert authorities expressed tlie be- 
lief that the soil of this county is unusually adapted to the culture of 
this product. Though thu industry is siill in its infancy, the outlook is 
that the culture of sugar beets eventuall\' will bect)me a most important 
factor in the agricultural interests of the county. 

The Genesee County Volunteer Firemen's Association was organized 
in Batavia January l*,', l^Os, at which time these officers were chosen: 
President, Stanley ^L Smith of Le Roy; first vice-president, James A. 


Le Seur of Ratavia; second vice-president, D. J. McPhersonof Berg-en; 
secretary, Edward A. Short of Ikitavia; treasurer, L. W. Stuber of Le 
Roy: executive committee, Anthony Harsch of Baiavia, J. S. Gleason 
of Berg-en, Wilder E. vSuniner of Corfu, John S. Brown of Le Rov, 
Warner Smith of Oakfield, and Dr. W. O. Burbank of Pavilion. 

When President McKinley i.ssued his first call for volunteers to serve 
in the war with Spain in the summer of LS08, Genesee county re- 
sponded promptly to the summons. Patriotism was instantly apparent 
on all sides, but unfortunately the volunteers from this county were 
destined to get no nearer the scene of conflict than Virginia or Tennes- 
see before the peace protocol was signed and the order for the return 
home of most of the troops was issued. 

The total number of residents of Genesee county who were connected 
with the armed forces of the nation during this brief war was thirtv- 
nine. Of these thirty-six served in the army and three in the navy. 
The largest delegation went with the Two Hundred and Second Regi- 
ment, X. Y. Volunteer Infantry, which eventually was in service in 
Cuba. In the Two Hundred and Second Regiment were the following 
from Genesee cr>unty: 

Batavia. — William Cope, Burnett F. Crowell, Frederick W. Griffs, 
Joseph A. Michaels and Mortimer E. Stringham of Companv K: David 
L. Parsons, Otto Ackerman and Peter Crinvley of Compan}- H ; Ihirry 
W. Dodge and Willis J. Rumsey of Company I. 

Alexander. — Corporal Lucien B. Greene, George Harrison and 
Charles C. Baldwin of Company L; Howard Carroll of Company H. 

Elba. — William H. Baube and Harvey ^Merrills of Company F; John 
F. Duggan of Company K. 

Oakfield. — Charles L. Binder, Zonoah Reed and Alfred Watts of 
Company I. 

Pembroke. — R(^bert D. Owen, F. A. Redman and Peter Wolf of 
Conipany I. 

Alabama. — Stanton E. Barrett of Company K. 

Le Roy.— Charles H. Valentine of Company K. 

Residents of Batavia who entered the vSixty-fifth Regiment, N. Y. 
Volunteers were: Frank S. Holden, quartermaster's clerk; Robert D. 
Wallace, John B. Roy, James A. P.oyd, J. F. Haller, George W. Fotch, 
iprivates, Company D; Roger Donoghae, cook, Comi)any K; William 
H. Coon, flute player, regimental liand. Elba was represented bv 
(ieorge Swartz, company clerk, and Frank Eckei-t, ]:)rivate, Albert 

FRO^r ISCo TO ISOS. 2r,l 

Murray Steel of Batavia was a corporal in Company H of the Third 
New York. Arthur Beals of Alabama and Morton S. Rundel of Oak- 
ficld wore als':. members of the Third Rc^^n'ment. vStephen Moll of 
Batavia, John D. Toll of Bethany and Richmond L. Rathbone of Oak- 
field served in the navy, the latter as an assistant enj^-inoer, with the 
rank of ensign. Miss Minnie E. Bates of Batavia went out as nurse, 
and for some time was located at Fort McBherson, Ga. 

Former Genesee county men who served in the Sixty-fifth Recriment 
were: J. Wesley Jewell, ^Villiam Bentley, Harry W. Diepold, William 
A. Town, formerly of Batavia; Captain George PI. Norton, formerly 
of Pembroke; James McPartlin, formerly of Bergen; Lieutenant Nel- 
son T. Barrett, formerly of Alabama. Other former Genesee county 
men who served in the army were: Roscoe D. Ives, formerly of Batavia, 
Seventy-first Reg-iment N. Y. \'ols. ; Peter Reagan, formerly of P>ata- 
via, First Battabion of Engineers. Cleveland, O., Grays; Charles L. 
Brockway, formerly of South Pjyron, captain of Company F.. First 
Regiment, South Dakota Vols. ; Frank N. Robinson, formerly of Bata- 
via, second lieutenant. First Separate Battalion, District of Columbia 
Vols. ; Charles Anthony, formerly of North Oakfield, Thirteenth N. Y. 
Vol. Intantry. Arthur Carlisle of Le Roy accompanied one of the ex- 
peditions to the Philippine Islands as a soldier in the infantrv. Joseph 
F. Hall of Batavia accompanied the Sixty-fifth Regiment as a newsjia- 
per correspondent. Color Sergeant Richard Silvey of the Marine 
Corps, who had the distinction of being the first to plant the Aiuerican 
fiag on Cuban soil at Guantanamo b:i_\-. was b(U-n in Oakfield. 

There was great disappointment over the sudden termination of the 
war on the part of many of the zealous patriots who evinced such anxi- 
ety to see actual service. Not only was tlie disa[)pointment experienced 
by those whose connection with the army has been noted, but also by 
hundreds of other inhabitants who stood ready to respond fjuicklv to 
their country's call. April T, ]S9s;, Captain Lina Bcecher of Batavia 
received instructions from the War Department to receive the names 
of men who desired to enlist in the Volunteer Cavalry Regiment to be 
organized in Genesee. Orleans and Monroe counties. April II he 
opened a recruiting station at No. o Jackson street in Batavia. .\ few 
days later the counties of Niagara, Wyoming cmd Allegany were em- 
braced in the order. So enthusiastic were the young men of Genesee 
over the project that by April -^0 three hundred and seventy-five names 
had been enrolled. April '20 a second recruiting station was opened in 


Pembroke by First Lieutenant George W. Thayer. The whole num- 
ber enrolled exceeded two thousand, who were offered either as cavalry 
or infantry. As early as April G the services of this organization had 
been tendered the adjutant-general of New York State by letter. 
April 20 wSenator Humphrey of Warsaw, Wyoming county, went to 
Albany to urge the adjutant-general to accept the services of the com- 
mand, but as the supply of men greatly exceeded the demand, the ten- 
der could not be accepted. The field officers in command of the regi- 
ment at this time were: Ci')loncl, Lina Beecher of IJatavia; lieutenant- 
colonel, W. Fi. Tallman of Perry; majors, M. J. Woodworth of Warsaw, 
J. A. 'Smith of Attica; surgeon, Dr. M. A. Morse of Batavia; assistant 
surgeon, Dr. B. F. Shinverman of Batavia. 

An accident resulting in the loss of eight human lives occurred on 
the New York Central Railroad at Winspeare bi^idge, near Corfu, on 
the morning of Tuesday, December 13, 1S9S. A body of men shovel- 
ing snow from the tracks stepped from one track to avoid a freight 
train, and an east bound passengei' train dashed among them, instantly 
killing eight men and injuring f<>ur others. Those killed were John 
Warner and Henry Cunnison of BuiTalo, and six men supposed to be 
Poles. All resided in ButTalo. 

CJiurchts. — During the entire period of the Civil war but three relig- 
ious societies were organized. These were an Evangelical church in 
Batavia, one of the same denomination in Pembroke, and an Advent 
church in Darien. 

A society of the Evangelical Association was organized in the \-illage 
of Batavia, by the Rev. M. Pntzinger, February 20, 1802. The first 
church building was erected on the corner of I^'dlicott and South Liberty 
streets, and was dedicated }vLarch 15, ISCo, under the pastorale of the 
Rev. J. Siegrist. In the year 18tl this edifice was sold and the present 
brick structure erected on the corner of Center and School streets and 
dedicated September 2S, 1ST2, the Rev. Tlieodore Schneider having 
charge at the time. During the pastorate of the Rev. C. A. Wiessemann 
18T'.i-81, a parsonage was built on Center street next to the church. 
Both the church and jxarsonage have undergone extensive repairs. 
Tlie following ministers have had charge of the church: M. Pfitzinger, 
F. Klein, Theodore .Sciineider, C. F. Boiler, Philip Bahn, J. Siegrist, J. 
Greneback, Philip Miller, C. A. Wies^em.ann, G. Gelser, L. Hermann, 
William'Mentz. F. ]•:. Her, (i. F. P>uesch, S. B. Kraft, H. A. Schneider. 

The Advent Church of (iod was organized at North Darien, January 

FROM \mr) TO ISO^. 25:5 

16, 18G4, by Elder C. W. Low. The original membersliii) was forty. 
The Rev. A. C. Newell served the congre2;-ation as its first pastor. In 
1807 the society built its first house of \vorshij,\ v/hich has since served 
for the purposes for wliich it was intended. 

A church of the Evanciclical Association was established at Indian 
Falls, in the town of Pembroke, in 18''..5, chiefly throug-h the etiorts of 
the Rev. John Siegrist, a member of the association. It beg-an with 
sixteen members, and at the end of its first year built a church edifice 
at an expense of $1,100. The society has enioyed a steady g^rovvth 
since its formation. The Church of the Disciples of Christ was organ- 
ized at Richville, in Pembroke, in 18GT, by J. C. Goodrich. It started 
with seventy-hve members and the Rev. W. II. Rogers as the first 
pastor. A house of worship was erected in 1808. 

St. Mary's Roman Catholic church at I'^ast Pembroke was organized 
in 1808. Its first liouse of worship was erected in 1890. The corner 
stone was laid September 28, 1800, by the Rev. Father Barrett. 

The P'ree Baptist church at Indian Falls, Pembroke, was foundedjune 
13, 180.0, with nine members. W. V>. Hopkins was elected the first 
deacon, and still serves in that office. The house of worship was com- 
pleted and dedicated in 1ST8. Some of the records have been lost, but 
as nearly as can be learned these pastors have served the society : Revs. 
J. F. Smith, L. Johnson, M. H. Blackman, W. IT. Peck, O. B,. Buffum, 
1). M. L. Rollin, PI. X. Plumb, G. Donnocker, F. O. Dickey, F. L. 
Foster, S. W. Schoonover, W. W. Plolt, E. L. Graves, A. J. Osborn 
and E. Jones, the present pastor. 

In 18T0 the Presbyterians of Alabama organized a mission, nnder 
Asher Wright. They subsequently erected an edifice costing two 
thousand dollars. In the same t^)\vn a mission of the }vl. E. church was 
organized in 18.^^8 by the Rev. S, S. Ballon. 

The Episcopal church in Bergen was organized as a mission in ]une, 
18T2, by the Rev. E. L. Wilson. In l^:[ Mrs. Cynthia L. Richmond 
gave to the trustees of the parochial fund of the diocese a deed of a lot 
as a memorial to her late husband, Dean Richmond, upon which the 
ceremony of laying the corner stone of the new church was held June 
6, 1874, Bishop Coxe presiding. The structure was dedicated ]anua!-y 
G, 1875, and consecrated June 15, 1880. The church is known as St. 

A number of the German inhabitants of Batavia met and organizctl 
the society known as vSt. Paul's German United Evangelical church 


April 2^\ 1ST3. The first pastor cliosen to preside over the conpfrega- 
tion was the Rev. Georg-e Field, and the first officers of the societv 
were: President, John Friedly; treasurer, .Martin Wolticv; secretar\-, 
Louis Uebele. In the following year a Methodist Episcopal church was 
erected by the society at Darien Centre. 

In May, ISTO, the tirst Episcopal services were held by the Rev. Jay 
Cooke at Corfu. The denomination continued to grow in that town, 
and June 14, ISSu, the corner stone of a church costing three thousand 
dollars was laid. The society is the outgrowth of a missic;n started at 
Corfu by the members of St. James's Episcopal church of Batavia. AH 
Souls' Union church at Corfu was organized in [uly, ISSl, bv the Rev. 
C. C. Richardson, with about twent}'-five members. Mr. Richardson 
became the first pastor, and through his efforts a house of worship cost- 
ing four thousand dollars was erected during the first year of the so- 
ciety's history. 

In January, 1SS5, the First Freewill Baptist church of Batavia was 
organized. Four years later a church structure was built at a cost of 
about ten thousand dollars. The society had its inception in a meeting 
held in Odd Fellows' hall September tS, 1SS4-, at v/hich the Rev. J. H. 
Durkee presided. 

November 1, ISSG, the Rev. Carl Stocker, Lewis Shultz, Carl Bloom, 
John Harloff, Gottlieb 'W^ayback and Fred Harloff organized the Ger- 
man M. E. church of Oakfield, which started with thirty members and 
the Rev. Carl Stocker as pastor. A frame house of worship was 
erected in ISSG at a cost of about two thousand dollars. 

The ICvangelical Lutheran Concordia Congregational church of Byron 
Centre was founded May 5, JS^T, by Rev. \*oegele of Le Roy, as the 
Evangelical Lutheran Trinitatis Congregation. August 2b, 1S80, the 
Rev. L, Gross became the first pastor. The church was incorporated 
under its preseni name (3ctol)er ••24, ISSO, and the house of worship was 
dedicated December IS of the same year. The pastors ha\'e been: I\.e\-. 

L. Gross, ISsK-lS'Jl; P. F. Becker, IS'.i^-lS'.t;); August Stein and 

Euchler 1S'J4; Otto Poesche, IS'.io; E. F. Holls, lSllj-l;^08; August 
Klein, 1S9S. 

The Evangelical Lutheran St. Paul's church of ICast Oakfield was 
founded in Isl'l by the Rev. G. Bartling of Medina, X. V., and incor- 
porated in th.e same year. November -^^t, ISOI, the church was dedi- 
cated. The ti-ustecs at that time were C. Voss, C. Basel and Fr. Beck. 
The Rev. G. Mlihlhauser of Roseville, Mich., the first pastor, was called 


January 30, lSO-2. He was succeeded August 13, IS'.):], by the Rev E 
F. Holls of Bayonne, N. V. The present pasto-:, the Rev. A B Klein" 
succeeded Mr. Holls in Au-ust, 18;»s. This society, and that at Byron 
Centre became connected with the Synod of Missouri in 1894. 

The Roman Catholic church at South Byron was erected through the 
efforts of the Rev. Father Kean of Ber.iren, and dedicated July 20, IS92 
by Bishop Ryan of Buffalo. ' ' ' "' 

The German Evangelical Lutheran Salem church at Le Roy was 
founded March 23, IS'Jo. The house of worship was consecrated July 
21 of that year, the principal address on that occasion being delivered 
by the Rev. G. Helmkamp of Rochester. August Dringeman is pre'^i- 
dent of the society, and the Rev. Karl Edward Wenzel is pastor. 

The Catholic church at Corfu was built in ISOs through the efforts of 
the Rev. Father F. L. Burns of East Pembroke 





• An event which marked an epoch in the historv of Genesee c..„..,. 
occurred October 13, 1S94, when the ancient office of the Holland Land 
Company, located on West Main street in the village of Batavia was 
dedicated as a historic^d museum. The occurrence was a most note- 
worthy one, and called to the county seat many distinguished person- 
ages from all parts of the countrv. 

The tlrst sign of interest shown by the public in the project for the 
saving and restoration of the .,.ld building was a special meeting of Cp- 
ton post, G. A. R., held m Batavia on the evening (,f Friday. July 2s 
1803, for the purpose of taking action toward this end. At' this meet- 
ing the members of that body resolved that an attempt should he madr 
to obtain possession of the structure and place it in possession of a his- 
torical society. 

On the evening of Tuesday, August 1, 1803, a number or Ikitavia's 
representative citizens assembled at the rooms of the board of education 
to take further action in the matter. Daniel \V. Tomlinson, president 


of the Bank of Batavia, explained the object of tlie meeting- and called 
for suggestions. After a general discussion of the matter, on motion 
of Dr. J. W. Le Seur a committee consisting of William C. Watson, 
Daniel W. Tomlinson, John U. Ward, I'rof. John Kennedy and Carlos 
A. Hull was appointed to formulate a plan of action and devise means 
to secure the budding. The matter drifted on for over a month, but 
on the afternoon of September 18 the committee decided to raise by 
popular subscription a sum sufficient to purchase the building— two 
thousand dollars — making the minimum subscriptions one dollar and 
the maximum ten dollars. Soon after an option was secured on the 
prope^-ty for one thousand eight hundred and fifty dollars, the option 
to expire October 20, IS'Xo. The plan of the citizens' committee was to 
raise eight hundred and fifty dollars, paying that amount in cash and 
giving a mortgage for the balance. The members having charge of 
the subscri[)tiou papers pushed matters vigorously, but up to within a 
week before the expiration of the option but five hundred dollars had 
been secured. The balance, however, was soon pledged, and on the 
morning of November i:], IS'.):], a deed was filed in the countv clerk's 
otTice conveying to Daniel W. Tomlinson the Land Office property, the 
consideration being one thousand eight hundred and fifty dollars. 
From that time subscriptions continued to pour in, each one making 
the donor a charter member of the Holland Purchase Historical So- 

A meeting was held on Friday, January 12, ISO-i, to discuss the tie- 
tails preparatory to drawing up articles of association, constitution and 
by daws. February G incorporation papers were prepared to be sent to 
Albany. It was decided that the society should be known as the Hol- 
land Purchase Historical Society, and officers were elected ;ts follows; 
President, Mrs. Mary K. Richmond; vice president, William C. Wat- 
son; recording secretary, Herbert P. Woodward; corresponding secre- 
tary and librarian, Arthur E. Clark; treasurer, Levant C. Mclntyre; 
managers, Gad B. Worlhington, George Bowen, Frank B. Red field. 
John Kennedy, Mrs. Adelaide R. Kenny, John H. Ward. Daniel W. 
Tomlinson, Julian J. Washburn and George D. Weaver. 

July 17 Vice-President Watson named a general commitLce to prepare 
a programme for the dedication. This committee consisted of the fol- 

Dr. J.W. Le Seur. chairman ; Ihm. SatVord K. North. Frank S.Wood, Daniel \V. Tom- 
linson, Hinman Holden. Dr. H. J. Burkhardt, Louis B. Lane, J. J. PaUt-rson, E. A. 


Washburn, 'A. W. Caney, John H. Yates, John H. Ward. Frank B. Redfield, F. A. 
Lewis. John McRenzie, A. W. Skelley, Fredd H. Dunliam, C. A. SncU, D. D. Lent, C. R. 
Winslow, A. E. Clark, R. S. Lewis.' W. E. Webster, Dr. Ward B. Whitcomb, G. S. 
Griswold, J. A. LeSeur, John M. Hamilton, A. J. MeWain, William C. Watson, J., 
H. Bradish, J. F. Hall, B. R. Wood. J. C. Barnes, Nelson Bogue. W. D. Sanford, 
H. T. Miller, C. W. Hough, D. Armstrong, Dr. C. L. Baker, F. E. Richardson, A. 
D. Scatchcrd, M. H. Peck, jr., C. Pratt, E A. Dodgs.m. Dclos Dodgson, C. H Dol- 
beer. Rev. J. H. Durkee, S. Masse, Rev. Thomas P. Brougham. Arthur Ferris. 
Rev. C. A. Johnson, Carl-.s A. Hull, John Dellingc-r. S. A. Sherwin, W. T. Eager, 
H. O. Bostwick, John Glade and J. W. Holmes. 

Hon. Robert A. Maxwell of Batavia, then fourth assi.stant postmaster- 
general,' from tb.e outset had manifested .L^'reat interest in the project. 
Soon after the organization of the historical society he began to inter- 
est his friends in President Cleveland's cabinet in the forthcoming ded- 
ication, with the idea of securing their attendance. Therefore, when 
Judge Safford E. Xortli, representing tlie society, visited Washington 
on Angust '33. 1504, to see Secretar}- Carlisle, who had virtually prom- 
ised to deliver the dedicatcjry address, and have a date fixed for tl'iC 
ceremony, he found the way made easy for him. Judge Xorth, in C(jm- 
pany with Mr. Maxwell, visited other cabinet officers, several of whom 
promised to accompany Secretary Carlisle. Arrangements for the ded- 
icatioii were then ]>erfected as speedily as possible. 

Those who hrst proposed the preservation and enlisted in the movement resulting 
in the dedication had in mind an unostentatious transfer of the Land Office property 
to a society organized to hold and mamtain it. The old structure was considered to 
have a historic value as the oiTice where the sales ot lauds to the early settlers were 
consummated. It was tiie onice whence deeds ot th.e [)ioneers' lands were issued. 
and where the original purchasers ivom the Hi.illand speculators paid their money 
for their po.ssessions; ami the^e facts attached to it an interest iluit seemed suOicient 
to warrant it being held in veneration. Prof. John Kennedy, superintendent of 
schools in Batavia, beciime engrossed in the subject, however, and m a number of 
admirably written articles, the first appearing in the News of July 20, lS'.)o. connected 
Robert Morns of Revolutionary fame with the old olTice, through, his sale to the Hol- 
landers of the greater part of the territory west of the Genesee river. These articles 
attracted considerable atieniion. and when the Laud Office rinaliy was secured by the 
Historical .society Prot. Kcur.edy's suggestion that it be dedicated to the memory of 
Robert Morris and made a National atfair, by reason of its couriccration to his mem- 
ory, being a tribute to the first iinancial otliccr of the Federal Government, was in 
its main parts favorably acted upon.' 

On the day set for the dedication, thousands of visitors thronge^l the 
streets of Batavia. The parade lield in the morning was the largest 

> B.tlavia ;>aily News. October li, 1>'>1. 


and most imposing- ever seen in (icncsce connty. Practically all in- 
terests — industrial, reli^'-ions, educational and civic — were represented. 
Upon passing- the histcn-iual Land Ofllce the column was reviewed by 
officers of the day and disting-uished guests, including the orator of the 
day. Here the tablet erected to the memory of Robert Morris was 
unveiled by Hon. Walter O. Gresham, secretary of state, and a dedi- 
catory prayer delivered by the Rt. Rev. Stephen Vincent Ryan, bislioj) 
of the Catholic diocese of Buffalo. The order of the parade was as 

Advanced guard of mounted men under conmiand of W. L. Colvillc; aids, George 
Douglass, L. A. Terry and M. S. Dunlap. 
Marshal, James A. Le Seui-; chief of staff, I. D. Southworth; adjutant, L. L. 
Crosby ; orderlies, J. F. Read and Burt Williams; uiarshal's statT, C. S. Pugslcy, A. 
D. Lawrence, Collis Samis, Asher Davis, Harry Amos, Frank Harris, William Tor- 
rance, Roy Barringer, George Parish, Frank Lusk and William Lusk. 

i'irst Division. 

G. W. Stanley, assistant marshal; W. W. Plato, Dwight Dimock and Walter Chad- 
dock, aids. 
Sixty-fifth Regiment Band and Drum Corps. 
National Guard. 
G. A. R. Posts. 
Sons of Veterans. 
Continental Drum Corps. 
High School Cadets. 
Clerks from I'>ie County Clerk's Office. 
Indian Band. 

Srco):d Division. 

Captain Timothy Lynch, as.^istant marshal; James ■McMannis, John Leonard, 

William Burnes and P. Bucklcj-, aids. 

Select Knights' T'>and. 

C. M. B. A. 

C. B. L. 

A. O. H. 

Le Roy Total Abstinence Society. 

St. Aloysius Society. 

Tliiyii Division . 

F. Lewis, assistant marshal; Ira tlowe, William II. Walker and I. W. White, aids. 

Citizens' Band. 

Johnston Harvester Company, 

Wiard Plow Works. 

Ott & Fox. 


Batavia Wheel Works. 

Wood Workiug Coiiipaay. 

Cope Brother-;. 

L. Uebele. 

Fourth Division. 

C. H. Reynolds, assislant marshal; Wolcott \'an Do Boi^art, C. H. Avery, Edward 

Moulthrop, aids. 

Le Roy Band. 

Le Roy Chemical Engine Company. 

Bergen Fire Department. 

I. O. O. F. 

A O. U. W. 


School Children. 

I-iftJi Di:'.'sio/!. 

G. A. Wheeler, assistant marshal, R. J. Page, Lewis Jnjinston, (ieorge Constable. 


Bergen Band. 

Pioneers in Carriages. 

Oflicers in Carriages. 

The at the State Institution for the Blind in the afternoon 
were impressive and interestinL^'. The programme carried out was as 

Selections by the Sixty-fifth Regiment band; music, "To Thee, O 
Country." chorus; prayer, by Rt. Rev. Arthur Clev-land Coxe, bishop 
of Western New York; music, " Zion, Awake," cliorus; dedication 
poem by John II. Yates, read by the author; music, "O Columbia, 
Columbia Beloved," from Lucretia Borgia, cliorus; address. IIo!i. Jolm 
(j. Carlisle, secretary of the treasury; musi.c, "America," clujrus; clos- 
ing prayer and benediction by Rev. Philos C. Cook, the oldest clergy- 
man on the Holland Purchase. 

Perliaps no better idea of the life and services of Robert Morris can 
be gained than from the address delivered by the Hon, John (1. Carlisle. 
Such extracts of that memorable address as are deemed appropriate in 
in this connection follow: 

Robert Morris, or, as he was sometimes called, Robert Morris, jr., was fur many 
years one of the conspicuous figures in the gala.Ky of great men whose statesman- 
ship and courage achieved the independence of the American colunies, and u* him 
more than to any other man in a civil station, the people were indebted for the suc- 
cessful termination of the Revolutiunary war. . . . 

It is alike creditable to the patriotism and the liberality of the citizens of Western 


New York tliat 'hey have orgaiu/.ed the first public as.suciation and inaugr.rute'l the 
first practical movement for tlie purpose of paying a long deferred tribute to the 
memory of a niau who, notwithstanding all the malignant accusations made against 
him while in the public service, has left a record in which the critical researches of a 
hundred years have failed to discover a trace of dishonor, or any lack of unselfish 
devotion to the true interests of his countrymen. . . . 

Robert Morris was born at Liverpool, England, on the 31st day of January, new 
style, and, according to a statement in his father's will, came to America in the year 
174S. ... 

By a contract, or treaty, entered into at Hartford on the 10th day of December, 
1786, between commissioners of the State of New York and the State of Massachu- 
setts, the conflicting claims of the two States to certain territory west of a line drawn 
northwesterly from the eighty-second milestone on the boundary of Pennsylvania to 
Lake Ontario, except a strip one mile wide the length of the Niagara river on its 
east side, were adjusted, Massachusetts ceding to New York full sovereignty and 
jurisdiction over the land, and New York yieldmg to Massachusetts the pre-emption 
or proprietary right. The tract thus described was supposed to contain about si.K 
million acres. In 17SS the State of Massachusetts sold all the land to Phelps and 
Gorham, but they failed to pay the whole purchase money and in March, 17U1, re- 
conveyed about 0,7.>0,(,)00 acres to the State. On the 12th of March, 17IM, the State 
sold to Samuel Ogden, who was acting for l-lobert Morris, all the land, excepting one 
million acres, or thereabouts, which Phelps and Gorham had paid for and retained. 
This purchase embraced all Western New York \vest of a line which corresponds, 
substantially, with the Genesee river, or, in other v.-ords, nearly all that part of the 
State west of Rochester. In 1702 and 17'.);J M(jrris sold 15,400 000 acres of this land 
to the Holland Land Company, but the conveyances v.ere at first made to other par- 
ties, probably on account of the alienage of the IIollandcr.s. Afterwards, however, 
conveyances were made direct to the individuals composing the company, of which 
Wilhelm Willink, through whom one of the public loans in Holland had been nego- 
tiated while Morris was Superintendent of the Finances, appears to have been the 
president. After this purchase a colony of (icrmans, consisting of seventy families, 
was formed at Hamburg and sent over to settle on the land. They were furnished 
with tools and put to work to construct a road from Northumberland to Genesee, but, 
having come mainly from cities, they were unaccustomed to such labor and the set- 
tlement finally broke up in a riot. After this, an ofilce was opened by the compan\- 
and the land was sold and conveyed in parcels to suit purcha.sers until ISo'J, when 
its afiairs were closed. In 18i)2 its office was removed to Batavia, and in 1804 the 
building which you are here to day t<^ dedicate to the memory of Robert Morris, was 
erected, and for more than a third of a century the titles to the homes of the pcoj)le 
who now inhabit the counties of Erie, Chautau'pia, Cattaraugus and Niagara, except 
the Indian reservations, and nearly all the countiesof Orleans, Genesee, \Vyomiu.g and 
Allegany were prepared and executed within its wails. Thus it is tliat nearly every 
home in the v.-cstern part of the beautiful valley which suggested tlic Indian name 
of the river which Jlows through it, is connected with the name of Robert Morris, 
and, tiiough .all others may neglect his memory, and even forget the name of tlie 
great financier of the Revolution, his fame will live on in this historic region as long 
as the people I<n-e tlie land on wliich their children were born ami in which their 
fathers sleep. 


Morris's pecuniary affairs grew worse from day to day, and finally his creditors be- 
came so imporiunate that he was compelled to remain constantly in his home to avoid 
them. They watched his hoi; -e, oven at night, and lighted tires on his premises in 
order that he might be intercepted if he attempted to escape. One of them, a 
Frenchman, went so far as to threaten to shi.x.t him if he made his appearance at the 
window. In Jannary or February, 1798, he was committed to a debtor's prison, 
where he remained for more tlian three years and a half. It was his habit, while 
confined, to walk around the prison yard fifi:y times each day and drop a pebble at 
the completion of eacli circuit in order to keep the count. During the hardest of his 
misfortunes he never Ijocame despondent or uttered a complaint, except to express 
his profound regret that he was unable to discharge his honest obligations. He 
never ret"erred to the great service he had rendered his country, or appealed to the 
sympathy or charity of the public, but silently submitted to unjust accusations, to 
prolonged imprisonment and to the inditlerence .and ingratitude of his countrymen 
with the heroic fortitude of a great and noble mind. 

No period of his long and honorable career illustrates the stalwart and in- 
dependent character of the man than those closing years of his life. He had stood 
on the very pinacle of fame and listened to the enthusiastic plaudits of his emanci- 
pated countrymen and had received even the forced homage of their defeated an- 
tagonists. He had been the confidential adviser and trusted agent of the govern- 
ment, when a serious mistake would have been fatal to its existence, and had proved 
his statesmanship and patriotism by the wisdom of his counsels and the cheerful 
sacrifice of his personal interests. He had been the bosom friend of Washington 
and nearly all of the great Americans whose names have come down to us from the 
last half i)f the eighteenth century and had been the peer of the greatest among 
them. He had lived in luxury and had at his command all that wealth and political 
influence and otlicial station could procure ; but now he was broken in fortune, im- 
prisoned for debt, denounced as a reckless speculator, separated from his old per- 
sonal friends and ungenerously neglected by the government and the people he had 
served so long and so well. But he endured it all without a murmur, and after his re- 
lease from prison went uncomplainingly to his dismantled home, and by the practice 
of close economy managed to live in a tolerably comfortable condition, for which he 
was mainly indebted to the Holland Land Coinjiany, which paid to Mrs. Morris as 
long as she lived an annuity of §1,500. 

Morris died on the Sth day of Ma\-, ISOG, in the seventy-third j-ear of his age, and 
was buried in a little churchyard on Second street in F'hiladelphia, where his remains 
now rest, with no monument over them except an ordinary stone slab. The great 
country which he helped to rescue from the domination of its oppressors has grown 
rich and powerful under the constitution he helped to frame; the three million people 
whose liberties he helped to establish, have multiplied until they largely outnumber 
the population of the mother Land ; the thirteen feeble States on the shores of the 
Atlantic, which he helped to unite under a compact of perpetual peace and mutual 
protection, have become the progenitors of a mighty sisterhood of prosperous com- 
monwealths, whose couiine^i are limited only by their western seas; and still, no 
obelisk rises to tell the story of his great services, his unseltish jKitriotism. his hoiK^r- 
able life, and its melancholy close. 


FoUowinp^ is the dedicatifMi poem written for tlie occasion by John 
II. Yates of Ratavia and read by liim: 

When to the banks of Jordan's rollinj^ tide 
The hosts of G')d from far ott Egypt came — 

With cloudy pillar their long march to guide, 
Past Sinai's awful mount of smoke and Hame, 

The found no passage the dark waters o'er, 

No way to cross the overtlowiug stream, 
And Israel's warriors stood upon the shore 

But could not reach the Canaan of their dream. 

Then Joshua, their leader, strong and true. 

Lifted his voice and soul to God in })raycr. 
While angel hands the billows backward threw, 

And made a passage for God's people there. 

The ark of God moved on at his command, 

And forward moved the host o'er Jordan's bed; 

Their feet as dry as when, throut^h burning sand, 
Their weary way the cloudy pillar led. 

Then reared they high a monument of stone, 

To tell to generations yet unborn 
How he, the King of Kings, on throne of thrones. 

Held back the waters on that glorious morn. 

In after years, when sunny youth inquired 

" What mean these stones?" the gray-haired fathers told 

The story that again their bosoms tired, 
The story of deliv'rances of old. 

Before us stands this monument of ours. 

That hath the>e many years the storms withstood ; 

Reared 'mid the perfumes of the forest (lowers, 
In shadows cast by monarchs of the wood. 

Reared on the banks of Ton-a-\van-da's stream, 
Which, fed by living springs and rippling rills, 

Winds down the vale as gentle as a dream, 
From the biiic dumcs of the Wyoming hills. 

Reared at the junction of two Indian trails, 
Where chieftains met to seal some white man's dtujm ; 

Where war cries mingled with the night-wind's wails 
And council tires lit up the forest's gloom. 

To-day, when sunny ycnith of us inquires 

" What mean these stones?" we stoj) with pride to tell 

(If wonders wrought by high Ambition's fires. 
And honest toil, o'er every hill and dell. 


As sea shells sing forever of the sea, 

Though borne inland a thousand miles away, 
So do these walls give forth, to you and me 

The sounds and songs of our forefathers' day. 

I hear the echo of the woodman's stroke 

Resounding through the aisles of forest gray; 
The crash of giant elm and sturdy oak, 

As they for towns and fertile fields make way. 

I hear the siage horn's blast at close of day, 

The wheels that rumble o'er the rugged road, 
While feeding deer affrighted speed away. 

To tiingled thickets of their wild abode. 

I hear the postman as he hastens here 

From forest op'nings, where the blue smoke curled, 
O'er v.indmg pathways, desolate and drear, 

Where now are beaten highways of the world. 
The breaking twigs in thicket dense I hear, 

Where stealthy panther creeps upon his prey; 
The victim's struggle and his cries of fear, 

Which fainter grow, and die, at last, away. 
I hear the whirring of the spinning wheel, 

The crackling of the logs on fireplace bright. 
The scythe stone grinding on the blade of steel. 

The owl complaining through the lonely ni^-ht. 

I hear the merriments of olden times. 

The apple-parings and the husking bees; 
The laughter ringing out like merry chimes 

From rustic haunts beneath the forest trees. 

" What mean these stones ? " They tell of honest men, 
Who lived in years now ilown away. 
Who toiled for us with hammer, plow and pen, 
From rosy morn until the evening <'-rav. 

Their grandest castles, builded in the air. 

When they at noon sought rest in shady dell. 
Were not, though fancy painted, half so fair 

As these in which their children's children dwell. 

We now enjoy the fruitage of their toil. 

From where the Genesee's bright waters llow. 
To where Niag'ra's billows in turmoil 

Plunge o'er the precipice to depths below. 

All honor to those noble men who laid 

The nrm foundation of our wealth ami pride! 
They rest to-day beneath tlie maple's shade, 

AH undisturbed by traihc's surging tide. 


O, could they wake from slumber of the tomb, 

What changes would they note beneath tb.ese skies 

A wilderness transformed to Eden bloom, 

With, wonders everywhere to greet their eyes. 

What though their forms have crumbled into dust. 
Their deeds shall shine resplendent as the sun ; 

What though their plowshares are consumed by rust, 
The work they wrought will never be undone. 

All honor to that man who forward came 

In " times that tried men's souls," long years ago, 

And gave his wealth and pledged his name, 
To drive forever from our shores the foe. 

The memory of ^lorris long shall stand, 

With honor crowned beneath these sunny skies; 

The sons and daughters of our favored land 
Will not forget his love and sacrifice. 

'Twas he who wakened from their wild repose 
These hills and valleys, stretching far awav, 

'J'hat now unfold their beauty like the rose 
That gives its dew drops to the kiss of Day. 

When armies faltered for the lack of bread. 
When bugles ceased to call and drums to beat, 

He came with patriot heart and hasty tread. 
And laid his millions at his country's feet. 

Freedom's immortal Declaration bears 
The name of Morris on it.s sacred page; 

With changing years his record brighter wears, 
While granite crumbles at the touch of Age. 

Then dedicate this structure to his name, 
While music sweet floats out upon the air. 

The walls shall to the earth speak forth his fame, 
And this fair valley shall be still more fair. 

As sea shells sing forever of the sea. 

Bear them away from ocean where thou wilt, 

So shall ye sing, O walls, through years to be, 
Of great success on firm foundation built. 

The storms ami tenii)ests of the rolling years 
Have beat thy granite walls by night and day, 

Yet thou hast stood, amid man's hopes and fears. 
To see the hands that made thee mould away. 

Thou shalt remain to bid this land rejoice, 
Till these fair youtlis who gaze upon thee now 


Shall speak thy praises with a trembling voice, 
When hoary hairs adurn each wrinkled brow. 

Tlie waves of progress which iiavc swept away 
Thy brother landmarks, built of wood or stone. 

Broke at thy feet and vanished into spray, 
And left thee, gray old monarch, here — alone. 

"A thing of beauty " thou hast always stood, 

"A thing of beauty" thou shalt ever stand, 
At first the glory of the lonely wood, 

But now the glory of the teeming land. 

Sing on, O walls, though years their changes bring. 

Sing on while all the bell> of progress chime, 
Sing of the past, of future glory sing. 

While ihy quaint form defies the march of time I 

The chorus which participated in the exercises of the day consisted 
of about a hi:ndred voices under the direction of Prof. E. F. Crane, as 

Sopranos — Mrs. E. Kirby Calkins, ]\Irs. I. E. Mecorney, ^Irs. "W. R. 
Durfee, Mrs. Frederick II. Fary-o, Mrs. P. Welch, Mrs. Charles Scott, 
]\Irs. Sarah Peck, Mrs. C. B. Peck. }vlrs. Bessie Carpenter, Mrs. Kate 
Crosby, Mrs. Lounsbury, Mrs. B. H. Bean, Mrs. Presttui Case, ]vlrs. 
Geor|:,fe Crofoot, Mrs. Lord, and Misses Ella Hirsch, Ida Kellar. Miriam 
Kellar. Emily Carr, Mary A, Lewis. E. Alice Smith, Edna King, IJes- 
sie Kellar, Emily Hartshorn, Gracia Morse, Minnie Ingersol, Frankie 
Ingersol, Cornelia Brownell, Rachael McNab, Mertie McXab, Lizzie 
Shepard, Ada Mockford. E. Maud Baker, Edith M. Knapp, Mertie 
Knapp, Grace Perkins, Lillian Hatch, Jessie Wallace, Cora J. Gardner, 
Alice Parmelee, Ora Rapp, Mary Puultridj.^e. Mary ]\Ialtby, Ruth Ben- 
jamin, H. A. Langdcjn, Adelle Clark, Eva Milward, E. F. Wood, Nellie 

Contraltos — ]\Irs. W. C. Gardiner, Mrs. E. E. Lea\-enworth, Mrs. V. 
A. Lewis, Mrs. Clara Mills, and Misses Lottie Roi^-crs, Mary Milward, 
Helen M. Iveson, Cora W. Palmer, Gertrude Cardus, Bertha L. John- 
son, Agnes C. Rimmer, Hattie Hartshcjrn, Jean Brownell, Louise H. 
^lorse, Nellie McNair, Blanche Lewis, Fannie vStanlcy. 

Tenors — |. T. Whitcomb, Frank E. Howe, Clarence Meserve, George 
Mower, A. H. Block, S. P. Stephens. E. I. Nott. Edward Gamble, 
Charles B. Peck, F. C. Chadwick, F. A. Lewis. 

Bassos — Henry Chiswell, Matthew Robinson, William Mills, E. H. 
Perry, William C. Gardiner, C. A. Snell, Rev. Thomas Cardus, Lucius 


A. Parmelee, John C. Squires, Frederick IT. Fargo, E. E. Leaven- 
worth, Georo-e W. Pratt, Myron A. Pratt, Myron A. Williams, W. II. 
Kearns, John Skehan, Ilarrv C. Norton, Thomas Trick, Wilbur 

Lunch was served in the corridors of Hotel Richmond at one o'clock 
i\ M. Among- the c;uests who sat at the table were Robert Morris of 
Johnsonbur^-, Pa., a g-reat-grandson of Robert IVlorris; S. Fisher Morris 
of Eckman, W. Vs.., also a great-grandson of the distinguished patriot; 
Mrs. Morris, a descendant of the family of George Washington; Mr. 
and ^Mrs. John L. Church of Geneva, the latter being a descendant of 
Robert Morris; Hon. Walter O. Gresham, secretary of State; Hon. 
John G. Carlisle, secretary oi the treasury; Hon. Daniel S. Lamont. 
secretary of war; Hwn. Wilson S. P.issell, postmaster-general; Hon. 
Hilary A, Plerbert, secretary of the navy; Hon. Hoke Smith, secretary 
of the interior; Hon. Frank Jones, first assistant i-)o.stmaster-general ; 
Hon. Thf_)mas E. Benedict, public printer ; and a ninnber of other in- 
vited 9'uests. 


Hon Joseph Ellicott was the founder of Eatavia. Late in the summer 
of IT'j; he came from Philadelphia to Genesee to attend a convention 
for the purpose of entering upon a treaty with the Indians at that place, 
when the land-^ west of the (jenesee river v.-ere purchased from them 
by Robert Morris. In September of that year the treaty was concluded, 
and after having made arrangements for the survey of the Holland 
Company's lands, Mr. Morris returned to Philadelphia in the following 
February. In May, 1T9S, he again started for the Genesee countrv, 
accompanied by his brother, Benjamin Ellicott, and Ebenezcr Carv. 
He arrived at Buffalo in June. 

April 13, 1T0S-, James Brisbane and John Thompson left Philadelpliia 
with a supply of stores for Mr. Ellicott and the men who were to sur- 
vey the Morris Purchase. May 1."^ ihey arrived at the mouth of the 
(lenesee river, havin;.^ traveled frijm (Oswego in batleaux, via Lake 
Ontario. At this point Mr. Brisbane ])roceeded up the (jenesce river 





to WilHamsburgh, takin- with liim one batteau loaded with stores. 
Mr. Thompson proceeded westward on tlic lake until he reached the 
mouth of the Xia-ara river, whence he proceeded to Buffalo with the 
remainder of the stores. Mr. Brisbane remained at Wi]liamsbur£,rh, 
located between Mount Morris and Geneseo, until October, ITOS, when 
he removed with the stores in his charge to what is now the villarre of 
Stafford. Headquarters were maintained here until January 2, ISOO 
when the entire party— consisting of Joseph and Benjamin Ellicott.' 
Ml-. Gary, Mr. Brisbane and James W. Stevens, started to return to 
Philadelphia. November ] of that year Joseph Ellicott received the 
appointment of general agent for the great Holland Land Company. 
A few days afterward he returned to Buffalo, arriving theie earlv in 
January, ISOl. Late in that v.'inter he removed to Ransom's Tavern, 
in what is now the town of Clarence, Erie county, where he opened an 
office for the disposal of the lands of the Holland Company. 

At a very early date, probably before March, J SOI, Mr'. Ellicott de- 
termined to make the present site of Batavia the location for the land 
office of the company he represented, deeming it a fine location for the 
village he hoped to found.' As the fact became known, a number of 
persons visited the spot with a viev." to making it a place of residence. 
Among them v/as Abel Rowe, who arrived in March, ISOl, and erected 
th.e first building in the village, on the lot directly opposite that selected 
for the site of the land office. The building, which was made of lo"s 
was used for a tavern, and for some time was widely known as " Rowe's 
hotel." Soon afterward Stephen Russell erected a log house on the 
land subsequently occupied by the Genesee house. 

It was the original intention of Mr. Ellicott to name the place Busti- 
ville or Bustia. in h.onor of Paul Busti, general agent of the Holland 
Land Company. He communicated the fact to :Mr. Busti, but the 
latter entreated him to use another name, suggesting Ellicottstown • 
hut Mr. Ivllicott refused to honor himself in this manner, and announced 
that the place should be known as Tonnewanta. But this name evi- 
dently did not satisfy the founder of this village, for a few months later 

' February )r, isil, u:itin>,' fio-.r. K.msoiiuillc to RiilKtrd M at l".in.indai<tia. .Mr 
Ellicott said; '■ I Lxpoct to make ;ii> fstabiislimont at or near tlic »c-i;d ..f T.,niK-\v;ujta." and 
there let the Genesee Read fork. o:ie to be directed to HuiVal.. and the ol!;er to i "uconston .-ir.d 
place my otTice in the fork looking Ra-^tward.' The "fnrk" subse-nientlv hecair./the .^•;l• fertile 
arsenal In a letter to Steph.en Ku-^seH at Mlooomlield. written in .May. INH. lio-ays: " [ exjiJct 
sl-.ortly. to !;;'.ve altthe Lots laid •>::i at the Uend. Since I saw vo-a 1 r..f..eiv.-d i'l bes! u, '.,..J. 
ponvtheni for the present, in order to attend to laying out a p'iei e .1 Road before the iJavJs 
Ijccame so thick as to prcveTU u- fion- sceini,' the countrv " 


he began referring to it as liatavia, in accordance with a snggestion 
made b}' Mr. Biusti. November 7, ISOl, Mr. ElHcott wrote to Mr. 
Busti, dating the letter "' ISatavia." ' 

One of the first steps taken by ]Mr. RUicott after deciding to make 
" the Bend " his headquarters was the erection of a dam in the creek 
and a saw milk Tlie Latter was completed about the middle of Decem- 
ber, ISOl, and kept in constant operation manufacturing planking and 
boards for the houses which were planned by the pioneers of pjatavia.'' 

As there was no pine timber nearer the mill than at a point six miles 
distant, in the present town of Elba, ]\Ir. Ellicott engaged Isaac 
SutJierland to cut a road to the Pinery (Pine Hill), and the work was 
begun January IS, ISi'"?. 

The first laud office building was completed in December, 1>^01. It 
was a two-story log structure and was situated on the north side of 
West ]\Iain street, nearly opposite the site of the old land office now 
standing. Immediately after its comj^letion this building was occu- 
pied by John Thompson and oth.ers in the employ of the company as a 
boarding place; but ^Mr. Ellicott did not remove his office from Ran- 
som's until the spring of 1S0"2. 

February 20, ISO'^. John Lamberton was engaged by Mr. Ellicott to 
cut a public road tlirough the village of Batavia. Lamberton, assisted 
by a man named Mayo, began the work the day following, cutting a 
road one hundred feet wide and two miles long, its western terminus 
being in front of tlie arsenal. This roadway, the clearing of which 
cost twelve dollars per acre, or about two huridred and ninety dollars, 
was completed in tlie following May. It at once became, and .always 
has remained, the principal thoroughfare in Batavia — Genesee, now 
Main, street. Tlie land ncjw occupied by this street was at that time 
covered v,"ith tiufoer. Mr. Lamberton's contract called for the cutting 
away of this timber and preparing it for logging. The road was con- 
structed, probably, by the owners of lots fronting on the new street. 

The necessity of a gri=t mill manifested itself at an early date. The 
first allusion to the enterprise is contained in letters from 'Sir. Ellicott 
to Mr. liusti, dated at Batavia, February '.28, lSO-2, and forwarded by his 

' In this letter Mr. \'\'.i^o:i wrote: "In re^jarj to tl'.e name o' this place, it heretofore was 
calleil Uie Henil, t'ro-!i the e;rcu:)i>tance of tlie Uenci of tlie Creek, and i-^ v;e!ierallv known by tliat 
n.inie, !nu [ ha\c iia;''.:/e.l ;t by the Xanie of Haias ia." 

■^ riiis s,iw mil! wa-i lorn Oown about L^O'^ 


brother, Benjamin I-^llicott.' Tliis mill was not completed until late 
in the year ISOi. 

When the Holland Land Company mai)pcd out the villa;.;e of Batavia 
in ISOl, they divided it intf) about one hundred lots. 'J'hese lots had 
a frontage of twenty rods each on what is now Main street. They were 
marked from No. 1 up, the even nun:ibers being- on the north side of 
the street and the odd numbers on the south side. Each lot was in- 
tended to be one mile deep, and the extent of land covered in the 
original map was much larg^er than that of the present corijoration. 
The western boundary line ran through the spot formerly occupied by 
the State arsenal. From what is now Jackson street to the court house 
the lots were subdivided, and in the original map did not contain as 
much land as the others. Main street was then called Batavia street 
west of the court house and (Genesee street east of that point. 

The first sale recorded on. the old records, and 'doubtless the first 
sale of village property, was made January 1, ISO'-i, the purchaser being 
Ste[>hcn Russi-ll. The lot was bounded on the east by what is now 
State street, was of sufficient depth tt) comprise an area of eight and 
one-half acres, and was sold for five dollars per acre, or forty-two dol- 
lars and a half for the whole lot. A four-acre lot having a frontage on 
Main street was sold April 30, 1S(3T, to Jaiues Cochran, also f(jr five 
dollars per acre. The lot on what is ncnv the west corner of Jackson 
and Main streets, extending west to a point about the centre of the cjld 
Molden stoie, was sold March '-I], ispi, to S;iniuel Peck and Benjamin 
Blodgett, for one hundred and fifty dollars. 

A contributor to the Batavia Spirit of the Times (jf Aj)ril in, lSS-2, 
thus describes the improvement of the sanitary conditi(;n of Batavia 
from ISOO to 1F<S-^: 

The first settlers were prostrated with bilious, typhus, typhoid fevers, ai;uo and 
fever, dysentery, jaundice, and all the av^^gravated disorders of the liver to such an 
extent that there were not enough of tlic well to take care of the sick. Sickness 
compelled many who had located here to leave. Many <if the seniors frum New 
England went to Wyoming county, where the surface of the country was hilly and 
the water was .soft. Even in l^^'J'J the ague and fever prevaileil to sv;eh an e.\tcnt 
that the usual fall militia drill and militia e.\erciscs were dispensed with. >hLlaria 
with its attendant diseases still prevailed to a very great e.\tent and createii the 
greater portion of the sickness of that time. 

' hi this IctltT Mr. IClIicntr. atlcr to lui.^inL-s-; mailers to !n- u\pl.iiiK-.l by Ins 
broilit-r, tho writer s.ivs: " His object is also to pincurL' such i-.cci-s-arifs in tlie I.o'.vor Country, 
as will be recjiiired tor the comph.lion ot the (irist Mill eioctinvT "" .iccoimt ot thv i •iinp.iny. ati'l 
also to procure if practicable, a ijoui.1 .Mill-Wri;s''ht to construct the runniii;.; ;<eai of .^aiil null." 


The early physicians of that day were David McCracken, Ephraim Brown, Winter 
Hewitt, John Cotes, Levant R. Cotes, Chester Bradford, John Z. Ross, Richard 
Dibble, Truman II. Woodrurt, Charles E. Ford, who ranked high in their profession 
and were skilled in tlie treatment of the malarial diseases of the country, 'i'heir in- 
vestigation (jf tl;e causes and their story of the character of the prevailing diseases 
and their conviction of the urgent necessity for their prevention made them strong 
advocates of surface drainage as the only elTectual safeguard against sickness. This 
period closed with the year hSoO, with some modification and abatement in the ma- 
lignant type of the disease. 

The second term ranges from lb3U to ISGU. During this time a marked change 
was produced, resulting from a thorough and more extensive system of surface 
drainage. The Tonawanda Railroad drained the ponds at Mount Lucy, and filled 
the streets along its line nearly three feet. The village authorities inaugurated an 
effective system of surface drainage on the north and south sides of Main street. 
The spring, fall and winter overtlow of the creek was checked by raising the road 
and making a dyke along its banks at Toad Point. The genial ravs of the sun evap- 
orated the latent miasma from a soil freed from the stagnant waters. The plow and 
the spade lent a helping hand, au'l the village to a certain extent was liberated from 
the slimy pools of water which had hitherto dotted its surface. Still the medical 
faculty insisted that many instances of malarial disease were constantly occurring 
where the drainage was imperfect. Dr. John Coles, Levant B. Cotes, Truman H. 
Woodruff, Charles E. Ford, Ilolton Gansun, John Root, John R. Cotes O. P. Clark 
were the leading physicians of this period. A still more efficient mode of drainage 
was strongly advocated by all these medical men. They admitted that the sanitary 
condition of the place showed marked improvement, and that they were not obliged 
to resort to the violent remedies of former years. 

The last term extends from IS'JU to 1882. During this time another marked 
change has taken place. The system of surface drainage has been abandoned and 
the tile system has been adopted. The population of the village has doubled and 
houses have bc-en erected in close proximity to each other. Xo sanitary restraints 
liave been enforced in regard to the p(^silion of wells and outhouses, and the contents 
of v.-ater closets and house drainage are poured into closed tile sewers running to the 
creek, the grade of wliicli is so small tliat it produces a sluggish and impeded move- 
ment of its slimy contents. The outlet empties into the creek at low water mark, 
subject to have its malarious germs swept back into every cellar during the high 
tloods of the creek. Beluw the outlet the waters of the creek are polluted with the 
olTcnsive sev.-age and exhale a [Pestiferous miasma, poisoning the atmosphere along 
its !;anks. This has produced a return to the malarious condition of the time from 
1S20 to iSoO. Ague and fever, bilious, typhus and typhoid fevers, dysentery, dis- 
ordered action of the liver have again reappeared, and with them that class of dis- 
eases engendered by sewer gas, diphtheria, scarlet fever, roseola, malarial fever, 
mental depression, loss of vitality, general lassitude and debility and all the various 
types of nervous maladies v.-hich are t!ie marked characteri.stics resulting from the 
poi.sonous emanations of sewer gas. Among the physicians of the last term, Dr. Le- 
vant B. Cotes was the veteran survivor of all his compeers. Dr. Ganson followed 
next in seniority, than in succession Jrihn Root, John R. Cotes. O. P. Clark, N. G. 
Clark, L. L. Tozlc-r, John 1'. Baker, II. S. Hutchins, Hamilton, Morse, Davidson, 
Rand, Walkiusliaw and others. 


It was almost entirely throu.^-h the efforts of Mr. Ellicott that the 
county of Genesee was erected, with Batavia for a county seat. The 
population of the new villai,^e was increasing'- at a satisfactory rate, and 
the legislative act desig-naung- Batavia as the capital of the new county 
gave it a prestige wliich instantly proved most beneficial. Determined 
that the village which he had founded should enjoy the full benefits 
which naturally should follow its selection for this important purpose, 
jSIr. lillicott at once began plans for the erection of a court house and 
jail, having stipulated, in his agreement with the Legislature, that 
these buildings should be constructed at the expense of the Holland 
Land Company. In a letter to Mr. Busti, written ]\Iay S, 1S02, he 
said : 

I am happy in the promptness with wiiich you have agreed to carry into ctlcct 
the erection of the Court House and Jail, as stipulated to lie erected at the expense 
of the Company, by Mr. D. A. Ugden and myself. This stipulation was one of the 
principal inducements towards our effecting the passage of the Law establishing the 
new County. This money I conceive to be well laid out, for had we not have pro- 
cured tins Act for establishmg the County, and bounded it as we have fortunately 
done, the Company v,-ouId. in all probability, have had to erect another Court House 
and Jail, as well as that at Canandaigua, at their e.xpeuse, and in which they would 
have been but little benetited. 

It was in contem.plation by Mr. James Wadsworth, and interest was actually mak- 
ing for that purpose, so to divide the county of Ontario, as to make his residence in 
the town of Hartford [now Geneseo], on the Genesee River, the County town of a 

In regards to the Court Plouse and Jail, your ideas perfectly accord with niv own, 
in erecting them in such a maner as will be the most economical, and at the same 
time answer well the purposes intended. I have received a Plan from New York, 
which my friend, D. A. Ogden, was kind enough to procure from an Architect of 
that place. It is not, in my opinion, calculated for the meridian of this Western 
World, this Century, but might probably answer for the meridian of the cities of 
London or Amsterdam. 

Mr. Ellicott engaged Isaac Sutherland and Sanuiel F. (jeer as archi- 
tects for the court house, which was to be built after his own plan, and 
of wood. The frame was set up about November I. Its raising " was 
a Herculean task of tliree days, and in consetpience of the sparsenessof 
population, required all the men that could be mustered in the snrr<nmd- 
ing cotmtry, even from ButTalo. The timber was exceedingly heavy, 
being almost exclusively oak, and we are told that the worknian.ship 
was so perfect, as to elicit the adiiiiration of every one who saw it. Not 
the slightest mistake was discoverable, and when the frame was put 


together, every joint was as perfect as mallet and chisel could make it.' ' 
Though the building was not completed until 1804, the work had pro- 
gressed so far by the spring of 1S03 tliat the first .sessions of the courts 
after the organization of the county were held in it at the time last 

The first frame building in the village was erected by Isaac Suther- 
land in the spring of ISO'^, about two months before the construction of 
the court house was begun. It stood west of the Presbyterian ineeting 
house, and was occupied as a residence by ]\Ir. vSutherland and his fam- 
ily. About the same time Mr. Sutherland and Samuel F. Geer built 
another frame house on the ground subsecpiently occupied by the Pres- 
byterian church, intended .^or their own use as a joiner's shop. 

In the spring of ISO-^l James Brisbane visited New York and pur- 
chased a stock of groceries, provisions and general wares with which to 
stock a store which lie had arranged to conduct under the patronage of 
the agents of the Holland company. Arriving with his stock at Batavia 
about the middle of May. he rented the building which Sutherland and 
Geer had erected for use as a joiner's shop and at once began business 
as a merchant — the tirst in town. A few weeks later he purchased the 
building and occupied it until lS'-22, wlien it was removed to make room 
for the Presbyterian meeting house. 

Several other improvements were made in 1S02. During the sum- 
mer of that year William Munger erected the west part of what after- 
ward became the Keyes house, which he conducted as a tavern. He 
was succeeded by Mr. R(nve, and then by William Keyes, under whose 
management it became the principal hotel in the village. About the 
same time Mr. Ellicott erected a frame building for use as a land ofBce, 
tearing bown the original log building and moving the records of the 
office into the new one about January 1, 1803. This building was after- 
ward altered and became a portion of the residence occupied for many 
years by D. E. Evans. Stephen Russell also erected a two-story frame 
building as an annex to his log tavern, on the site whicli afterward was 
occupied l)y the Genesee house. It will thus be seen that the develop- 
ment of the village of Ixitavia was progressing at a most satisfactory 
rate as early as 180'^. 

The indomitable energy and public spirit of the fonmler of Batavia 
is everywhere in evidence. On every possible occa.sion lie promoted 
the welfare of the village. All legitimate enterprises were encouraged 

> Hislonciil Sketch ..t thv Villai^c of Hatavia. bv William Scavcr. IblO. 


by him in a practical way and he was never sh_)W to take the initiative 
when he believed the young- village would be benefited by his projected 
act. May 15, 1S02, he addressed to Gideon Granger, postmaster-gen- 
eral, a petition for the establishment of a post-office at Batavia, and 
recommending the appointment of James Brisbane as postmaster. In 
his petition Mr. Ellicott said: 

Although I cannot ilatier the Post Muster fJeneral with much augmentation to the 
revenue which may arise from an estabh>hinent of this kind, yet as the country is 
fast settling, and the Land Office is kept here for the sale of a large extent of coun- 
try, there is little doubt but that in a short period, a considerable revenue will arise 
from this establishment, as well as be productive of great convenience to the nihab- 

The postmaster-genera! promptly appuinted Mr. Brisbane posttnaster; 
but there already being a post-otlice named Batavia in Greene county, 
the new office was designated Genesee Court House. The commission 
for the first postmaster was dated July •21, 180^2, and the following 
month he entered upon the discharge of his duties, maintaining the 
office in his store. The mail was carried once in two weeks, either on 
foot or on horseback. The route west was from Canandaigua to Ba- 
tavia, Lewiston and Fort Niagara, and eastward from Fort Niagara to 
Niagara Falls, Buffalo, Williamsville, Van Deventer's, the Indian \'il- 
lage, Batavia and Canandaigua and other points east. Soon afterward 
the increasing population warranted the establishment of a weekly mail 
from Canandaigua to I'uffalo direct, Ikitavia being a post on the route. 

An idea of the population of Batavia, and of Genesee county, in b'^Oi, 
may be gained from a statement made in a letter written by Mr. I'^lli- 
cott to Seth Pease May lo, 1802 : 

As you were acquainted with this part of the country before any settlement took 
place, it may not be altogether uninteresting to be informed of tlie number of votes 
given in at this village last election, for Members of Congress, which will be some 
data to form an opinion of the progress of settlement. 

Oliver Phelps, Esq., Republican, 50 votes. 

Nat. W. Howell, Esq., anti-Republican, 1 vote. 

In this county, (Genesee), in consequence of the settlements, not more than 
one third of the people could witli any convenience attend the election polls, therefoie 
we only voted 183. of which 117 were Rej)ublican and for Oliver Phelps, and the res- 
idue for Nat. W. Howell, so that it appears this county may be styled Republican. 

The organization of Genesee county took place in 180;;. The first 
court was held in the new court house June 14, when Richard Smith 
was admitted to practice as an attorney and coimselor. November > 



the second court was held, at which Daniel B. I5rown was admitted to 

During- the early days of the villa-e a favored few were permitted to 
purchase from twenty to forty acres of land fronting- on Genesee, now- 
Main, street, running- back one mile in length. These had all been 
well schooled in the arbitrary doctrines of a landed aristocracy, the po- 
litical creed of Joseph Ellicott. For years these men held their broad 
acres undiminished by a sale. They were hostile to the idea of any 
street parallel to Main, which they would have considered an invasion 
of their sacred rights. They held their corn and pasture lands for their 
own pleasure and convenience, claiming tliat the public had no right 
to sacrifice them for highway purposes ; that public necessities were 
subject to their private interests. As a natural consequence Main 
street was filled with handsome residences. For years all taxes and 
improvements were lavished upon that broad thoroughfare. The re- 
sult was that a residence upon that hue avenue became, to a certain 
extent, the arbiter of social position. 

In the original village plot, as planned by Joseph Ellicott, al! the 
streets converge at the bridge. Ho designed that the business part ijf 
the village should be built around the mill site and west on the banks 
of the creek. The business location was largely determined by the lov.^ 
prices at which Stephen Russell sold his subdivisions uf lots '20 and '2-1. 
The first new street to be opened by the necessities of the pioneers was 
Mechanic street, now State. Then followed Center, then Bank, Lib- 
erty, Summit, South Liberty, Evans, Swan and Ross. The\' were 
generally occupied and built upon before they were legally opened as 
highways, becoming streets from the demands of a growing population 
and not in conformity to any plan laid down in the original village 
plot. North street was the only parallel street on the north side of 
Main. It was opened as a highway in 184:2 and 1843. Ellicott avenue 
was laid out by the vState. 

The year lSt>T was noteworthy by reason of the establishment of a 
printing office in the village, the press used being the first ever seen 
west of the Genesee river. Soon after the opening uf the othce the 
first newspaper in the county, the (ienesee Intelligencer, was published 
by Elias Williams. Unfortunately publication was suspended iii the 
following October. The early history of the press in P.atavia is graph- 
ically told in a letter written by f5enjamin Blodgett, one of the first ed- 
itors, to Frederick Follett, in November, 1840. A part of this interest- 
ing letter follows: 


The first paper published in thi^ County was in the spring of ISQT. Elius Wilhanis 
purchased in Manlius, an old Rainage Printing Press that had been laid aside as 
useless, and a box ot old typt in i>\, intended to sell as typ-j niotal, and brought them, 
iu the winter of that year, to Batavia. After a laborious winter's work of assorting 
his old type, and patching up the old press, he published the tirst number of a paper 
called the "Genesee Intelligencer." 'J'his paper was printed upon a half sheet of 
medium size, with a subscription list of TOO, and two or three columns of advertise- 
ments from the Holland Land Company, one Elopement, and one runaway appren- 
tice Boy, for whose apprehension a bag of bran was ofiercil as a reward. This was 
all thiO advertising patron:ige, if my recollection serves me right, that the paper com- 
menced with. The paper was a sorry looking thing — the mechanical execution 
being so bad that it would have puzzled a Philadelphia Lawyer to find out what it 
was. I ought to have preser.ed a copy— it would be lo(jked upon by the craft at 
this day, not only as a literary but a mechanical curiosity. Williams, becoming 
disheartened at the shabljy appearance of his paper, and about t(j fail for the v/ant of 
funds, induced me to go into partnership with hiiii. Anxious to see my name at the 
head of a newspaper, as Printer, Pablislu-r, and Editor, too, of the " Cienesee Intelli- 
gencer," I embarked my all of this world's etTects into the enterprise, which 
amounted to the vast su.m of forty-eight dollars and seventv-tive cents, the hard 
earnings of the summer before, as Pack Horseman and Cook to a Companv of Sur- 
veyors on the Holland Purchase, a pursuit better fitted to my capacity at that dav, 
than Editor of the ■• Genesee Intelligencer." 

About the first of July, ISOT, the firm of William^ \- Blodgett resumed tl:e jnibli- 
cation of the " Inte'iligeiicer." with an increased subscription list and advertising 
patronage. After publishing 10 numbers, Williams went to Alexander to attend a 
Military Review, and has never since been seen or heard of in thi- countrv. 'I'liis 
unceremonious leave-taking of Williams put a mighty damper upon the prospects of 
^Ir. Editor Blodgett, who instead of realizing the golden dreams he had anticipated, 
found himself involved in debt about $300, !lat on his back with the fever and ague, 
which continued about six months withi_)ut intermission; and for the want of help, 
not being a practical Printer myself, was obliged to abandon the publication of the 
"Intelligencer." However, in the spring of ISON, 1 lallied. again, antt in c<)mpar,v 
withi a man by the name of Peek, I started the " Cornucopia," (a verv classic name,) 
with an enlarged sheet and new type, under the firm of Peek & Blodgett, with a sub- 
scription list of about 3U0. In the fall of ISll.Peck was taken sick and died, and 
with liis death the " Cornucopia" went down. 

1 then, under the mechanical sui)enntendence of David C. Miliar, (afterwards 
Colonel, with his little cane and breeches,) commenced the publication of the " Re- 
publican Advocate," with a new Press and new type, and continued its publication 
for several years, when I sold out to Colonel Millar, who became s<jle proprietor of 
that paper.' 

Up to the year ISlU James iJrisbane and EbenezerCary were die onlv 
inereliants in town. In tliat year I'Lphraiin Hart opened a mercantile 
establishment of extensive proportions, the manag-ement of whieh he 
intrusted to Chirk Heacox. 

' From the History ot liie Pic-.:, iv. \\\'^uvn New \<,ik, by Frctl'.rick IV/k-ti. 


For the first half do/.en years in the history of I'.atavia no rcy^ular 
religious organization was supported, though meetings were held 
occasionally by laymen and itinerant preachers. The first religious 
society was organi.^ed September ] I), ISOO, when "a regular meeting 
was held at the Center ^School House in this place, this afternoon, 
agreeable to previous notice being given, for the purpose of forming a 
Congregational Church. The Rev. Royal Phelps, a missionary from 
the Hampshire Missionary ^Society in the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts presided, and officiated in the transactions of the day. We spent 
the meeting with a sermon adapted to the occasion, from Joshua 2-4th 
Chap, loth Verse, ^d Clause." ' 

At the conclusion of the sermon Silas Chapin, David Anderson, Ezek- 
iel Fox, Solomon Kingsley, Eleanor Smith, Elizabeth Mathers, Eliza- 
beth Peck, Esther Kellogg, Hulda Wright, Patience Kingsley, Esther 
Kingsley and Polly Branard, signed the Articles of Faith and Church 
Covenant and v/ere pronounced the constituent members of tlie new 
Congregational church. September 24, 1809, Rev. Royal Phelps 
preached "at Rumsey's barn" and administered the ordinance of 
the Lord's Supper, this doubtless being the first occasion of that kind 
in the history of the town. The church was regularly incorporated in 
February, 1811. The first regular pastor of the congregation was Rev. 
Ephraim Chapin, who received a call January 23, ISIS, and served four 

The impending hostilities between Great Britain and America which 
were inaugurated in 1812 prompted the State government to adopt 
measures for the protection of the Canadian frontier from invasion. 
The plans for defense included the erection of an arsenal for the storage 
of arms and ammunition at Batavia. In 1810 or 1811 the State made a 
contract with Joseph Ellicott for the erection of a log building twenty 
feet square and twelve feet high to be used for this purpose. This 
"arsenal," not a very imposing edifice, but large enough and possibly 
strong enough for the purp(.)ses for which it was intended, was situated 
above the mill, on the opposite side and near the bend of the creek, on 
the Alexander road. It was abandoned soon after the close of the war 
of 1812, when the old stone arsenal in the west end of the village was 
erected by the State, under the supervision of Major Isaac Sutherland. 

June 0, 1815, after a scries of services according to the ritual of the 
Protestant l^uscopal church had been conducted by Rev. Alanson W. 

' Fruin ihe ehurch records. 


Welton, a number of the resident adherents of that denomination met 
in the court house for the purpose of organizin.^- a Protestant Episcopal 
church. Rev. Mr. Welton presided, and these officers were chosen: 
Wardens, John Hickcox, Samuel Benedict; vestrymen, Richard Smith, 
Isaac Sutherland, Isaac Spencer, John Z. Ross, Chauncey Keyes, Da- 
vid C. Miller, Aaron Van Cleve, Oswald ^Villiams. It w^as decided 
that the society then org-anizcd should be known as St. James's church 
in Batavia. The record was certified by the chairman, vS. Cummings, 
and Trumbull Gary, in the presence of Samuel Risley and Isaiah Bab- 
cock, acknowledo-ed before Hon. D. McCracken, one of the judges of 
the Genesee county courts, and recorded in the county clerk's olTice by 
Samuel Lake, deputy county clerk. At the first meeting of the vestry, 
held at Hickcox's inn, July 1, 1815, Richard Smith was appointed 
clerk, and it was resolved that Isaac Sutherland, John Z. Ross and 
Chauncey Keyes "be a Committee to wait on the Agent of the Holland 
Land Company, to ascertain v/hat aid may be olitained from the said 
Company towards the erection of a Protestant Episcopal Church, in 
the Village of Ikitavia, and that the said Committee report at the next 
meeting of the Vestry." July 15 the committee reported "that in be- 
half of the Holland Land Company, the Agent would make a donation 
towards the erection of a Protestant Episcopal Church, if of Wood, of 
One thousand Dollars, and if of Brick, of Fifteen hundred Dollars." 
At a subsequent meeting of the vestry at Hickcox's inn, which occupied 
the southern part of the court house, Aaron Van Cleve and Isaac 
Sutherland were appointed a committee to ascertain from the agent of 
the Holland Land Company what site might be obtained for the church. 
October 21 of that year Isaac Sutherland was designated to superintend 
the erection of a brick church. At the same time Richard Smith, the 
clerk of the vestry, was appointed treasurer and Chauncey Keyes and 
Isaac Spencer collectors. Major Sutherland declining to act as super- 
intendent, another person was appointed in his place. The vestry im- 
mediately contracted with David Canfield and Thomas McCulley of 
Schenectady t(-> perform the mason work, and on April 10, 181G, ground 
was broken and the erection of the new church was begun. The 
church was not completed until JS2"2. The first regular rector. Rev. 
Levi S. Ives, subsequently' bishop of North Carolina, did not enter 
U'pon his duties until Ib"-2'2, and his minstrations chased in san;imer of 

Soon after the organization of St. James's church, a Metliwdist ICpis- 


copal class, which had been or^c^anized as early as ISJO, perhaps prior 
to that time, beg-an to take steps toward the orc^anization of a regular 
church society. December l"), ISl'.i, a meetingr oi the local Methodises 
was held at tiie court house. Rev. Elisha Iio\ presided, assisted by 
Jeremiah Bennett, and Thomas McCuIley, Samuel P. Gecr, Jeremiah 
Bennett, Seymour Ensign and Silas Hollister were elected trustees of 
a congregation which it was then and there decided should be known 
as the First Methodist Episcopal Church in Batavia. The first church 
edifice was not erected until IS'23. 

. The Batavia ijranch of the Genesee County Bible Society was organ- 
ized April 5, ISIO. The meeting was held in the old brick schof.l 
house, and Rev. Mr. Chapin acted as moderator and Thomas ^Ic- 
Culley as secretary. The society v.-as organized by the election of 
these oflicers: Chairman, Ephraim Towner; clerk, Thomas McCulley; 
treasurer, Parmenio Adams: collector, Trial Spencer; distribuiing 
committee, Lemuel Foster, Amherst Crane. Ahimaz Brainard, Thomas 

A fair idea of the CMnmercial and industrial progress made by the 
village during the pericxl closing with the year 1S1'.» may be gathered 
by reference to the following list of business men in town in that vear: 

Merchants, James Brisbane. Gary & Davis, Jonathan Lay, William H. Wells, L P. 
cV- A. Smith, William R. Tliomp.son, W. S. Moore & Co. Druggists, PL Tisdale, 
Hewitt lV- Billings. Leather and ^hoe store, E[ihiaim Towner. Jeweler, C. C. 
Church. Milliner, Mis> Ann Forbes. Tailors, James Cawte, IL B. Pierpont, Sam- 
uel Mead. PLatter, Xatlian Follett. Tavernkecpers, William KevcS, Hinmac IIol- 
den, Horace r.ibl)s, Mrs. Leonard, Joseph Baker. Lawyers, Richard Smith. Daniel 
B. Brown, P. L. Tracy, Ktlian P.. Allen, T. C. Love, C. Carpenter. Physicians, 
D. McCracken, Ephraim Brov.-n, John Cotes, Winter Hewitt, lohn Z, Ro^'s. Sad- 
dler, Simeon Cnmmiugs. Cabinet and cliairmaker, Thomas Bliss. Tanners. K. 
Towner, Oswald Williams. Meat market, Mr. Folsom. Bo.;k store, Oran I'olletr. 

The year 1S21 was marked by the first fire of any importance which 
occurred in Batavia. The ntnnber of buildings destroyed and the 
pecuniary losses appear small when compared with the great fires 
which are Si» common in these days, but the destruction of even ^lo - 
OOO worth (^f property was heavily felt by the citi/.ens of Batavia over 
three-fpaarters of a century ag... The Spirit oi the Times describes the 
fire, which occurred on the night of December ■1\>, as follows: 

The ilames were discovered to proceed from a block of buildings occupied as stores 
and shops on the north side of >Lun street, and e.xliibitcd to the agitated minds of 
r citizens a scene terrible and alarming in the highest degree; tlie destructive ele- 



nicnL was raging with the greatest fury in the heart of our village, and a prospect 
almost inevitable of the fairest portion of it being laid in ashes. The fire had made 
such progress before it was discovered, as to forbid all attempts to save the buildings 
situated on either side of Mr. L. Baker's Silversmith shop where it is supposed the 
fire originated. The active exertions of the citizens were turned to prevent it ex- 
tending its ravages to the adjacent building. The struggle was long and doubtful, 
but the cool and deliberate action of a few individuals, favored by the stillness of 
the night, and the constant pouring of water over the sidesof the exposed buildings, 
accomplished at last what the most sanguine hardly dare hope. 

Mr. (Tibb's dwelling house on the west, and the Grocery Store of Mr. Lavis at the 
east, were situated but a few feet from the building burnt, yet they were saved with 
no other n^eans than the use of buckets. The injury they sustained is trifling. 

The destruction of property is of considerable amount. Three buddings destroyed. 
One of them was occupied by Messrs. Moore .."v- Finch as a Dry-goods store and 
owned by Mr. Horace Gibbs. Another by L. Baker as a Silver-smith shop, also 
owned by Mr. Horace Gibbs. The other v.-as occiipied by Mr. James P. Smith, Mer- 
chant. Charles C. Church, watch-maker. Tiie u[)per part was occupied by I). C. 
Mdler, Esq., as the Advocate Printing Otlice, v/hich was totally destroyed. The 
building was owned by Messrs. F. iv T. Palmer. M'r. Miller is probably the great- 
est sufLerer in this dreadful calamity, having lost the whole of his printing apparatus, 
list-books, accounts, etc. 

The amount of property destroyed may be estimated at about $10,0<'iO. The great- 
est amoont was consumed in the building occupied by Messrs. Moore cV F'inch, but 
it gives us pleasure to state, that their loss, between 5 \- $(j,00o was covered by an 

The first direct result of the fire, aside from the temporary set-back 
to the btisiness development of the villa-e, was an agitation for the es- 
lablish.inent of an adequate system of fire protection and the incorpora- 
tion of the village. June 23, 1S'2"2, a mass meeting of citizens was held, 
when Silas Finch, William H. Wells and Trumbull Cai-y were appoint- 
ed a committee to petition the State Legislature for an act of incorpora- 
tion. For some reasun the first attempt in this direction failed; but at 
the next succeeding session of the Legislature a chartci" was granted, 
on April 2o, 1S"23. I'ollowing is the original act incorporating the vil- 
lage of 'Batavia. 

Be it enacted by the people of the State of New York represented in Senate and 
Assembly: That the inhabitants re.sident within all that part of the \'illage ot 
Batavia in the county of Genesee as Surveyed by Joseph EUicott bounded as follows; 
Beginning at a point in the East line of lot Number forty-four in said Village eighlv 
rods north from the centre of Genesee street thence westwardly jjarallel witli the 
centre of Genesee and Batavia streets Eighty rods therefrom h) the western bounds 
of Lot Number Three in said Village thence southerly on the west line of said lot 
number fourteen to the Southwest corner of .said Lot, thence continuing iu the same 
direction to the south bank of Tonncwanta Creek thence up the S-mthern bank of 


Tonnewanta Creek :o a pom*, eighty rods so'.ith of the Cenire of Genesee Street 
thence eastwardly paraUei with said Genesee Street to the East line of Lot Number 
Forty-five thence northerly on said line to the {-lace of bcijinnir.g shall be a corpo- 
ration by the name and Style of the Trustees of the Village of Batavia and by that 
name they and their Successors may have perpetual succession, shall be known in 
law; shall be capable of suing of being sued and of defending and being defended 
in all Courts and places v.-hatsoever and in all manner of actions and causes an-l 
they and iheir Successors nia%- have a common Seal and may alter the same at 
plea'^ure and shall be in Law capable of purchasing holding and conveying any real 
or personal Estate for the use of said corporation and shall have pov\-er to erect and 
keep m repair one or more nre Engine or Engines and Ladder nre hiX)ks and other 
instruments for extinguishing nre; to improve the streets and sidewalks and remove 
and prevent encroachments thereon; to prevent horses cattle and swine from run- 
ning in the streets; to erect hav scales and regulate the assize of bread and to ra.->e 
money by Tax lu carry into errect the above mentioned pov.ers and for defraying 
the incidental expenses of supporting the several bye laws and regulations. Which 
money to be raised shall not exceed the sum of three hundred dollars annualu' Pro- 
vided that no part o: the said sum to be annualu- raised shall be applied to the mak- 
ing or repairing sidewalks, and shall be assessed upon the freeholders and inha'j- 
itants of said Village v.-ho are voters there m proportion to their property real and 
personal within said Corpr<ration by the Trustees thereof and collected by the Col- 
lector of said Village in the same manner as the Taxes of the County of Genesee 
and collected by virtue o: a warrant to him directed signed by a majorir\" of the 
Trustees of said Corporati^vn and by him paid into the hands of the Treasurer 
thereof: pro\-ided that no tax shrill be levied or monies raised for any of the pur- 
poses aforesaid nor any public buildings erected nor any purchase or sale of any real 
or personal estate be made nor any fire Engine house or houses erected or disposed 
of without the consent of the freeholders and inhabitants of said Corporation as- 
sembled qualined to vote as hereinafter mentioned or a majority of them to be 
given at a public meeting duly notified as hereinafter mentioned. 

And be it further Enacted Tiiat the Inhabitants residing within said Corporation 
and who shall have been in possession of real property within said Corporation for 
six months next Previous tn the time of voting and shall have paidh:ghv.-ay or other 
Taxes within the limits of said Village may on the first tuesday of June next meet at 
some proper place within the said C'>ri><>ration to be appointed by any two Justices 
of the Peace of the town of Batavia a notice whereof shall be put \.\p in at least three 
Public Places within said Corp')ration ten days previous to said first Tuesday of June 
next and then and there proceed to Elect five discreet persons resident within said 
Corporation and who shall have resided therein for the space of one year then next 
previous to such election and having freeholds therein to tiie value of Five hundred 
Dollars or other pr.>perty to the value of One thousand Dollars to be the Trustees 
thereof and who wlien Chosen shall possess the Several rights and powers hereafter 
specified and Such Justices shall preside at such meeting and shall declare the Sev- 
eral Persons having the greatest number of votes duly Elected Trustees and on every 
rirst tuesday of May after the Election of Trustees there shall in like manner be a 
new election of Trustees for said Corporation and the Trustees so elected shall hold 
their oihces for o:'.e vear and until others are Elected in their stead and the said 



Trustees or a majority of them shall after the first Election as aforesaid perform ihe 
du jesrequu-ed trom the saul Justices in respect to notifying- the inhal>itants of Said 
\ illage and presiding- at Such Election. 

And be it further Enacted That it shall be lawful for the said Trustees of said Vil- 
age or a major part of them and their Successors to make ordain constitute and Pub- 
lish such prudential bye Laws rules and regulations as thev from tune to ume shUl 
deem correct and proper and for the benefit of said Village relating to the objects 
mentioned m the first section of this act and not inconsistent with the Laws of the 
State or of the I nited States and shall further be lawful for the said Trustees to or- 
dain constitute and publish such fines and forfeitures for the breaking any such laws 
And be ,t turther Enacted That the inabitants of said Village qualified to vote fo; 
Trustees as aforesaid at their first and annual meetings thereafter shall and thev 
are hereby authorized and empowered to choose one Treasurer and one collector 
being inhabitants of said Village and having resided therein One vear next previous 
to such election and the persons havmg the greatest number 'of Votes for each 
office respectively shall be deemed duly chosen and in case a vacancy shall happen 
m either of the above Orfices by death removal from saul ^■,lIage or refusal to 
serve the trustees shall have the power to appoint some other person of the Qual- 
ification atoresaid to supply such vacancy until the annual meeting and the person 
so appointed shall be liable to the same penalties and restri;tions as if dulv 
elected at tae annual meeting which said Treasurer and Collector shall be entitled 
to receive for their several services such suitable compensation as the legal voters 
of said Corporation or a majority of them at their annua, meeting shall deem proper 
^ And be It turther Enacted That the Trustees Treasurer\and Collector sLll 
oefore they proceed to execute their several offices and within ten days after their 
election respectively take and subscribe an oath or atrirmation before any Justice 
of the peace of the town of Batavia for the faithful Execution of the Office or 
trust to which they may be severally elected Provided nevertheless That the said 
Treasurer and Collector before they take the oath or affirmation aforesaid shallVe- 
spectively give security to the Trustees of said Village for the faithful discharge 
of their respective Offices m such sum and in such manner as the majoritv of them 
shall deem suflic:ent. 

And be it further l-:nacted That it shall be lawful for the Trustees of said Vil- 
lage or a majority of them to appoint not exceeding fiftv firemen out of the inhab- 
itants or saul \ illage and the same or any of them to remove at pleasure and to 
appomt others in their stead and to regulate the times of meeting and exercise of 
said Company of firemen to appoint their Captain and other officer^ an<l to make such 
bye laws rules and regulations for the government of said Companv and regulate 
ordain and establish such penalties for the breaking or disobexing of ^uch bve^I a-vs 
rules aiid regulations as they may deem expedient Provided that no penaltv'sh-.l'i i,e 
mfiicted on any fireman exceeding the sum of fifteen Dollars for anv one otYence and 
that the said Trustees or a majority of them shall have the power of remittin-^ such 
fine or any penalty when they may deem it expedient. 

And be it further Enacted That the Trustees within twentvdavs after their election 
or a major part of them shall and it is herebv made their' dut'v to assemble at s<,me 
convenient place in said Village and there choose and appoint 's.,me one .nitableper- 
s<.n of their body to be President of the said b.,ard of Trustees an,! some other su^t 


able person being a taxable inhabitant of said Village to be Clerk to said board of 
Trustees and it shall be the duty of the President when present to preside at the 
meetings of the Trustees, to order extraordinary meetings of the Trustees whenever 
he may conceive it for the interest of the Village; to hear and receive complaints of 
the breach of any of the laws of said Corporation to see that all the bye laws rules 
and regulations of said Village are enforced and faithfully executed to prosecute in 
the name of the Trustees all offenders against or violators of the bye laws ordained 
and published as aforesai.l to keep the seal of said village and to affix it together 
with his signature to all such rules and regulations as a majority of the Trustees 
shall deem proper and in case of the Death removal or inability of the President to 
discharge the duties of the Ofhce it shall be the duty of the Clerk to notify the other 
Trustees of such death removal or inability who shall within ten days thereafter 
meet and elect another President out of their body to hold his office until the ue.\'. 
annual meeting- and it shall further be the duty of the President to take care of |)ro- 
tect and preserve all the property belonging to said Village as a Corporation to pre- 
side over all public meetings of the villagers for the purposes and to do all such other 
acts and things as may be proper for the President of the Trustees to do and it shall 
be the duty of the Clerk to keep the minutes of all such votes orders rules and reg- 
ulations as are made by the freeholders and inhabitants of such Village at their pub- 
lic meetings, and also to attend the meetings of the trustees and record all the b\ c 
laws rules and regulations passed by them ; and the Trustees shall have power to re- 
move such clerk and to appoint a new one, and to appoint one pro tempore in case of 
the absence of the Clerk as a majority of them shall agree, and the Clerk shall re- 
ceive such compensation for his services as a majority of the trustees shall deem suf- 
ficient to be paid out of the funds of said Village. 

And be it further Enacted That it shall be the duty of the Trustees and their Suc- 
cessors annually to assess on the several inhabitants and freeholders residing in said 
village the amount of the taxes which the freeholders and inhabitants of said Village 
shall at the annual meetings determine to be raised levied or collected in proportion 
to their property real arxd personal within said village and they shall likewise exer- 
cise the office of fire wardens in said village in case i<f fire. 

And be it furtlier Enacted That tlie Collector shall within such time as shall be 
hereafter limited by the bye laws of said Corporation after the receipt of his 
warrant for collecting of any Tax that may have been ordered to he raised collect and 
pay the same to the Treasurer and that such collector shall have and exercise the 
same power in the Collecting such Taxes by distress and sale as the several collect- 
ors of Towns have in the levying and collecting of Taxes and tliat all monies wh.ich 
may at any time be in the hands of the Treasurer shall be liable to be drawn out bv 
the Trustees <;r a majority of them and ap;:ilied and disposed of as shall have been 
directed by the freeholders and Inhabitants of said Village or agreeably to the pro- 
visions of this act: Provided nevertheless that the Trustees shall have the Power to 
apply ami dispose of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated for anv 
purpose or purposes for the benefit of said Corporation in tlieir discretion anything 
in this act to the contrary notwithstanding. 

And be it further Enacted That the said Trustees shall keep an account of their 
necessary disbursements and shall exhibit the same to the Taxable inhabitants of 
said Village at their annual meeting or any other legal nievting of said Corporation 
when required by a vt-tc '. iiercot. 


And be it further Enacted That if any one of the inhabitants of said Village qual- 
ified as aforesaid shall hereafter be elected and chosen a trustee and shall refuse or 
neglect to serve as such it may be lasvful for the Trusteesduly (lualified or the major 
part of them to impose and inflict upon such person so neglecting- or refusing such 
reasonable fine or tines as they may think proper Provided That such fine for any 
one offence shall not exceed the sum of Ten dollars to be recovered in the same man- 
ner that other fines or penalties are recoverable by this act and that in all cases when 
the Trustees of the Village of Batavia shall sue or prosecute by virtue of this act it 
shall be sufilcient for the said Trustees to declare generally that the Defendeut is 
indebted to them by virtue of this act to the amount of twenty five dollars or under 
and give any special matter in evidence under such declaration and in any action or ac- 
tions which may be brought for or against the Trustees or for or against any other 
person or persons for anything done under this act the freeholders or Inhabitants of 
said Village shall be and they arc hereby declared Competent Witnesses or Jurymen 
for either party in such action. 

And be it further Enacted That it shall be the duty of the President of the Board 
of Trustees to give notice to the Inhabitants of said Village of all public meetings at 
least one week previous thereto in such manner as a majority of the Trustees may 
deem proper and that it shall be lawful for the Trustees or a majority of them to 
call a public meeiing of the inhabitants of said Village when thrv may think it ex- 

And be it further Enacted That all fines penalties and forfeitures and all monies 
obtained in any manner whatever by virtue of this act shall be paid into the hands 
of the Treasurer for the public use of said \'illage and tlie Treasurer shall and he is 
hereby auti}orized in case any person having so received any money by virtue of this 
act to and for the use and proper benefit of said \'il!age and shall refuse or neglect 
to pay the same to him to prosecute every such Offender in the name of the Trustees 
of said Village for monies had and received to and for the use of said \'illage. 

And be it further Enacted Tiiat each and every individual owning or being iu 
possession of land in the said Village adjacent to the Street of said Village shall 
make and improve side walks in front of such land under the direction and superin- 
tendence of the Trustees Provided nevertheless that no individual shall be compelle'l 
to expend a greater sum than Ten L>oilars in any One year for such purpose and in 
case any person shall neglect or refuse to build or rejKiir such side walk in front of 
his or their land after being duly notified by the Trustees the said Trustees niav 
erect or repair the same and charge such per.sou or persons therewith and recover 
the .same in the same manner that other penalties are recoverable l)y virtue of this act. 

And be it further Enacted That this act be and the same is hereby declared to he 
a public act and shall be construed in all Courts of Justice within this State benignlv 
and liberally to effect every beneficial purpose therein mentioned and contained. 

A supplementary act pa.s.sed April 0, IS:,!!-, contained the f(_>ll()\ving' 
provisions : 

I'e it enacted by the people of the State of New York represented in Senate and 
Assembly That in addition to the powers vested in the Trustees of the Village of 
Hatavia in and by the act of which this is a supplement that the salt! 'J'rusiees 
have full power and authority to determine the number of groceries to be kept in the 


said Village and to license such and so many thereof for such sum or sums of money 
as they the said Trustees or a majority of them shall determine to be just and 
proper which said money shall be paid into the hands of the Treasurer of the said 
Corporation for the use of the said Corporation the said Trustees shall also have full 
power and authority to compel each and every house keeper or person being in pos- 
session of any building in said village to keep their fire places chimneys and stoves 
clean and in good repair also to order and direct each and every person who shall Ije 
in possession of any building in said Village to provide themselves with one or more 
fire buckets the said Trustees shall also have full power and authority to suppress 
and prevent nuisances generally and may make and ordain such j)rudential by-laws 
rules and regulations in reference to tlie above objects as to them or a majority of 
them shall seem meet and proper. 

And be it further Enacted That the person or persons in possession of any real 
estate in said Village at the time auv ta.-: is assessed shall be liable to pay the 
amount assess-jd thereon and if such person or persons is or are not bound by con- 
tract or otherwise to pay such tax or any part thereof he she or they shall and may 
recover the same from the owner or owners of such real estate or other person whose 
duty it was to have paid the same. 

And be it further Er.acted That it shall be lawful for the freeholders and inhab- 
itants residev.t in the \'i!iage of P.atavia qualified t(^ vote at their annual meeting m 
each and every year to ch(jose and elect by ballot a Village Constable who when 
elected shall be vested with the same powers and authority and subject to the same 
duties in all cases civil and criminal as by law appertain or belong to .constables 
chosen at the annual Town meetings of the Town of Batavia Provided however that 
the said Constable shall not have power or authority to execute any civil process ex- 
cept the Corporation of said Village shall be a party thereto ov interested therein 
and provided further that the said Constable shall within ten days after his election 
and before he enters upon the Duties of his office shall take and subscribe an oatii 
or at^irmation before any justice of the peace faithfully to execute the Duties of his 
oftice and shall also give security to the Trustees for the faithful discharge of the 
duties of his oftice in such sum and in such manner as Majority of the said Trustees 
shall deem proper and sufficient. 

And be it further Enacted That it shall be and is hereby made the duty of the 
Trustees uf the Village of Batavia at each and every annual meeting of the inhab- 
itants of said \'ir:age to exhibit a ju.^t and true account of the expenditure of all 
monies whicli shall have been assessed or otherwise received for the use of the Cor- 
poration of said \'i!lage. 

Ill accordance witli the jn'ovi-sions of this charter a meeting of the 
inhabitants of the vi!la;^e was iield June ',), 1S"^3, at the tavern of James 
Ganson. C. Carj^enter and L). Tisdale, justices of t!ie peace, presided, 
and the followin;..,^ were chosen officers for the first year: 

Trustees, Daniel 11. Chandler, i )avid E. Evans, Nathan iM^llett, Simeon Cum- 
mings, Silas Finch; treasurer. Trumbull Cary; collector, Parley Paine. 

These officers md June 14 and made these appointments: 


President, Uaniel 11. Chandler; clerk, Oliver (}. Adams; a>^scssors, Silas Finch, 
Nathan FoUett; superintendent of streets and sidewalks, Simeon Cunnnings; povmd- 
keeper, Robert P. Betts. 

While the original charter of the village of Batavia and its supplement 
are quaint documents, they are hardly more interesting than the first 
ordinances adopted June 5, LS"2)], by the trustees, signed by Daniel II. 
Chandler as president, and printed and posted in conspicuous places 
throughout the village. These ordinances related exclusively to the 
subject of impounding stray animals, fast riding or driving, and defin- 
ing sidewalks. After describing the duties of poiuidmaster and the 
limitations of owners of animals, the first ordinance provides that " such 
Pound keeper shall receive for his services the following fees, to wit: 
for driving each swine to pound, six cents, and six cents for each day 
he shall keep the same; and for driving each horse to pound, twelve 
and an half cents, and twelve and an half cents for each day he shall 
keep the same; and six cents for advertising, and six cents for selling 
each swine or horse impounded as -aforesaid." Sidewalks were defined 
as " the space of twelve feet, on each side of the streets." It was also 
ordained that " there shall be no rtmning or racing of horses in the 
several streets within the boundaries of the Corporation of the X'illage 
of Batavia. . . . Each and every person running a horse upon any 
of the streets within the said Corporation, shall forfeit and pay to the 
trustees of the said corporation, the sum of one dollar, with costs of 
suit; and each and every person running a single horse, with a carriage, 
sled or sleigh, on any of the streets aforesaid, shall forfeit and pay as 
aforesaid, the sum of Two Dollars; and each and every person running 
a pair or span of horses, with a carriage, sled or sleigh, on any of the 
streets aforesaid, shall forfeit and pay as aforesaid, the sum of Five 
Dollars; and each and every person, who shall a second time be guilty 
of a violation of this ordinance, shall forfeit and pay as aforesaid, double 
the amount for each and every offence above enumerated, with costs of 
suit as aforesaid." 

From this time on the village began to realize the benefits of incor- 
poration. Streets were improved, sidewalks constructed, street lights 
were provided for and measures were taken to guard against the rav- 
ages of fire. The first fire company was not organized, however, until 
April 20, IS-^-i. The " Rules and Regulations enacted by the trustees 
of the Village of Batavia in relation to the Fire men and Fire Company 
in said Village April 20th, 1S24," read as follows: 


There shall be one lire company established in the village of Batavia to consist of 
twenty-five men, and shall be denominated Katavia Fire Company, and located at 
such place as the Trustees may hereafter designate. 

The following persons are hereby appointed fire men in said company: 

William Seaver, Jun., Captain; Nathan Follett, Hinman Ilolden, Norman Town, 
William R. Thompson, Benjamin Allen, Stephen Grant, Naham Loring. John S. 
Moon, Jonathan Lay, Horace Gibbs, David M. Gardner, Rufus Kurnham, Walter 
Seymour, Daniel H. Chandler, Frederick r<.)llctt, William Parcel, Parley Painc 
Oran Follet, William Piatt, Daniel Gates, Ralph Stiles, Hezekiah Piatt, William 
Dickinson, Charles C. Church. 

The members of said Company shall hereafter elect their captain by a plurality of 
the votes of the members present, and. such person so elected shall be respected in 
his office, and shall discharge the duties of the same and shall hold his oRice for one 
year, and until another shall be elected. . . . 

It shall be the duty of the members of said company, in the event of tire, to repair 
with all possible dispatch to the place of rende.-A'ous, and conduct themselves in an 
orderly and efficient manner in discliarging their duties in extinguishing fire, under 
the penalty of Five Dollars for each otfense, to be prosecuted for and recovered and 
applied according to law. 

In case of fire ... it -^hall be the duty of every person present to obey the 
directions of the Trustees of the Village, in the formation of Bucket Lines, and to 
render such other assistance as may be required, and any person present who shall 
refuse to C(jmply with such orders, shall for each offense, pay to the Trustees for the 
use of the Inhabitants of said Village, a tine of five dollars. 

Tills \va.s the tire company organized in Batavia, and the found- 
ation of the modern fire department of the village. 

May -i, IS'^4, the board of trustees of Ikitavia, consisting- of Daniel 
H. Chandler, David E. Evans, vSilas Fink and Nathan Follett, reported 
that they had expended the sum of .$-.21i."i.51 for street improvements; 
also that " the trustees have very recently expended $17. in construct- 
ing a sluice way across the street near Mr. Burnhams in order to drain. 
a pond, which threatens, unless sjiecdily removed, to create consider- 
able sickness." 

A tragic event, the notori(jus "Morgan affair," which had its incep- 
tion in Batavia, transpired in the year 182(3. The details of this lament- 
able occurrence are given in an earlier chapter on the historv of the 

The brewing industry in Batavia had its inccpticjn in a brewery and 
malt house established in 18"27 by Libbeus Fish. The business grew 
steadily until by lS'ii» the anntial otitput amotmtcd to eiglit thousand 
barrels. Libbeu.s T^ish was s(jle propriet(jr until lx'.]b, when his scm, 
Eli H. Fish, became proprietor. In ISG^^J the latter sold the business 
to Bovle & SmitVi, \vi;o in turn suld it in IbGI to Mr. Fish. The build- 


iPLi'S were burned in 1SG.5. The same year Mr. Fish erected a malt 
house on the site, conductinij it until 18T1, when he formed a partner- 
ship with Robert A. ^Maxwell. Early in lST-2 Maxwell (!v' Ensign suc- 
ceeded to the business. The plant was destroyed by fire in December, 
1S7"2, but within a few months had been rebuilt by 'Mv. Fish, who then 
formed a partnership with A. H. Kins;'. In 18TG the interest of Mr. 
Fish was purchased by A. II. Kint^: & Son. Fire ag-ain destroyed the 
plant in May, 1883; but King Ov Son at once rebuilt it, increasing its 
capacity twofold. In ISSG Mr. King became sole owner, and in 1888 
the prpperty passed into the hands of Upton iX.- Warner. 

In 1850 John Eager bought tlie old stone Methodist Episcopal church 
on West Main street, which he converted into a brewery. This he con- 
ducted until 18G".i, when it was destroyed by fire. lie then erected a 
commodious brick building on the opposite side of the street, in which 
he continued the business. Mr. Eager died December 23, 1809. His 
widow conducted the business for a short time, since wliich it has been 
in the hands of his sons and daughter, Wellington T. Imager, Herbert 
B. P^ager, and ]\Irs. E. M. Whitcomb. 

In 1857 Eli H. Fish constructed capacious ale vaults on the site of 
the original Fish brewery. This plant changed hands several times 
until, in 1880, it came into possession of William Gamble, who operated 
it until 1S87, in which year the buildings were burned. Soon after the 
Batavia Brewing Company was formed, with William Gamble as super- 
intendent, and this company erected a new building in the eastern part 
of the village in the fall of 1880. 

The Bank of Genesee of Batavia was incorporated in 18"^0 with the 
following directors: Alva Smith, James C. Ferris, Oliver iJenton, 
ITenry Hawkins, Gains B. Rich, Jacob Le Roy, Trumbull Cary, Rufus 
H. King, Jonathan Lay, Roswcll L. Burrows, Israel Rathbone, Phineas 
L. Tracy, Joseph Fellows. 

Its capital stock originally v/as one hundred thousand dollars, hut 
this was increased the first year to one hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars. The first president wa< Trumbull Cary and the first cashier Will- 
iam M. Vermilye. In 1851 the institution was reorganized as a State 
bank. In March, 1SG5, it became a national bank, under the luime of 
National Bank of Genesee, having a capital stock of one hundred and 
fourteen thousand four hundred dollars. In 18S5 the charter was re- 
newed and it continued business as a national bank until June, ]8s8, 
on which date the charter was surrendered and the bank was reor^jan- 


ized as a State bank havint;- a capital of seventy- five thui'.sand dollars. 
Among those who at various times have served as directors of the Bank 
of Genesee are Jacob Le Loy, Oliver Benton, Triunbull Gary, Alva 
Smith, James C. Ferris, Gains B. Rich, Rufus H. King-, Henry Ilav/k- 
ins, Phineas L. Tracy, Israel Rathbone, Joseph Fellows, Jonathan Lay, 
R. S. l^urrows, John Foot, G.- \V. Lay, David E. Evans, James Wads- 
worth, Horatio Srevens, John S. Ganson, Samuel Skinner, C M. Lee, 
John B. Skinner, Benedict Brooks, Horatio Averill, Thomas Otis, 
William M. Spraj^'-ue, J. E. Robinson, Benjamin Pringle, S. Grant. 
Aaron D. Patchen, Walter Cary, J. S. Wadsworth, T. H. Newbold, 
Miles P, Lampson, Thomas Brown, \Villiam Lampson, H. U. Howard, 
E. H. Fish, R. T. Howard, Augustus N. Cowdin, Trumbull Cary, Dr. 
Charles Cary, J. X. Scatcherd, and H. F. Tarbox. The following 
have served as ofhcers of the bank : 

Presidents. — Trumbull Cary, from the organization to March 31, 
1840; Phineas L. Tracy, ISiO-lSol; Benjamin Pringlc, 1 85 1-1 Sr,.-) ; 
PL U. Howard, 1S55-1SS5; Augustus N. Cowdin, 1SS5-1898; Trum- 
bull Cary, 1898 to present time. 

Vice-Prcsidiiits. — V\\\\\(i:\'i L. Tracy, 1831-1810; J. C. Ferris, l>^l(i- 
184-1; J. B. Skinner, 1844-49; Benjamin Pringle, 1849-1851; Alva 
Smith, 1851-1853; H. U. Howard, 1853-1855; Alva Smith, 1855-185: ; 
J. B. Skinner, 185:-18rO; E. H. Fish, 18:0-1S:9; Walter Cary, 1S:9- 
1883; W. Lamp.son, 1882-1885; H. F. Tarbox, 1891-1894'; J. X. 
Scatcherd, 1894-1898. 

CasliitTs. — William ^L Vcrmilye, from organization to May, 1830; 
J. S. Ganson, 1830-]8:;8; J. E. Robinson, 1838-1851; T. C. Kimbcrly, 
1851-1858; M. L. Babcock, 1858-1859; Augu.stus X. Cowdin, 1859- 
1885: Trumbull Cary, 1885-1898; Lewis F. McLean. 

For many years the Bank of Genesee was the only financial institu- 
tion in this section of the State, and its business extended over nearly 
all of Western X'ew York. 

The first official record of any fire engine in the village of Batavia is 
found in the annual report of the board of trustees for 1830: 

An attempt had made some years ago, to organise a tire Conipanv ; but it had 
failed, probably, because the Corporation had no Engine; an essential object, to con- 
centrate and direct the attention and discipline of such a con;pany. 

In September last, a small Engine, upon an improved and cheap plan, was brot to 
this village, exhibited lor several days to the inhabitants, and otlered for sale on a 
year's credit, at $-7i\ with interest. 

A Memorial was presented to the trustees, signed by forty-seven persons, contam- 


inj^ the names of the most respectable inhabitants, and heaviest taxpayers in the 
Corporation, praying the trustees to purchase said Engine, and pledging themselves 
ti> vote for a tax to meet the payment for the same. 

In I onijiliance with so respectable, and so reasonable and proper re [uest, the trus- 
tees purchased said En-iue, and gave a Note for the same, under the seal of the 
Corporation, on interest. 

The faith and credit of the Village are therefore pledged for the payment of it, 
and it is hoped and presumed they will be honorably redeemed. 

Immediately ujjon the purchase of the Engine, a Eire Company was organized, 
under the conmiand of William Seaver Esq., Captain. 

This organization was known as Triton Fire Com[)any. It.s officers 
and members were as follows: 

Captain, William Seaver; first engineer, Daniel H. Chandler; second 
engineer, Xatlian Follett; secretary, Abraham Van Tuyl; treasurer, 
John S. Oanson ; members, Henry Tisdalc, Daniel Latimer, Rali>h 
Stiles, H. Humi):irey, James 11. Lay, John WilsLMi, Alva Smith, Joseph 
Clarke, Albert Hosmer, James Milnor, Homer Kimbcrly, Stephen 
r, rant, V. ^L Cummings, Frcd.erick Follett, George A. Lay, Norman 
Town, D. C. McCleary, Jolm Chatfield, L X. Town, Junius A. Smith. 

In the anntial report for 1S3I the trustees oaid: 

It will be recollected that in the year 1829 an Engine was purchased for the use of 
this Village. That the Engine was purcha.sed in good faith, by the then acting Trus- 
tees, there can be no doubt, — indeed they did not venture upon its purchase, without 
first obtaining the consent of the citizens of the vdlage to do so. The Engine was 
[)urchased, and a Corporation Note, for $'J70 given for the payment thereof, payable 
m one year from date. The Note became due, we believe in September last. At 
the last annual meeting (^f the Electors (;f the \'>llage, a vote was taken to raise $:';i)0 
by tax. in order to meet the payment of said Note, pjcfore the Note became due, 
the Trustees were satisfied, the Engine did not answer the recommendation 
given of it at the time it was purchased. It therefore became a subject of some 
moment, whether it should be paid for, or not. In order to determine this question, 
it was thought best to refer the subject back to the inhabitants of the Village for their 
deji-sion. A meeting for this purpose was called — and it was the unanimous opinion 
of tliose present, that a compromise should be made, if po-^sible, with the owners of 
the Note, by paying them for all damages which the Eiigiue might have sustained, 
during the time it has been in our possession, and that thej- take the same back — 
and in case they would not do this, the Trustees were advised to stand trial, on the 
suit, if one should be commenced. The President of the Village, accordingly wrote 
to the Agent of the Company, who resided in New York. The only answer which 
has ever been received to this letter, was one from a Lawyer in that city, informing 
that the Note had been left with him for collection, and that unless immediately 
paid, the same would be prosecuted. Some four or five months liave since elapsed, 
t)ut no prosecution has been commenced. That the Engine is, comparatively, good 
f'-r nothing, there can be no doubt. It may perhaps, be well for the Electors now as- 


sembled, to take some order on this subject. \Vc leave this, however, entirely to 
your good judgment. 

Two destructive fires occurred in Batavia in 1833. "iMie first of these 
occurred about two o'clock on the morning- of March 4, and was first 
discovered in a wooden building^ on Main street, near the corner of 
Jackson street, in which was located a billiard parlor. This buildino- 
was destroyed, to^jether with one on the west side occupied by William 
Manley as a saddler's shop, and two small buildings on the east side, 

occupied respectively by C. C. Towner as a law office and by '- 

Wentworth as a shoe sh(jp. M(?st of the contents of these buildin^js 
were saved. 

A more disastrous fire occurred April 10, lS;j3, the fiames first being- 
discovered between one and two o'clock in the morning in a small 
wooden building nearly opposite the Eagle Tavern. It spread with 
great rapidity along Main street "until its progress eastward was 
arrested, though with diiiiculty, at the intersection of Mechanic street, 
and westward by tlie new three-story Arcade Buildings erected by A. 
Champion of Rochester. The following buildings were destroyed: 
The Tavern House at the corner of Genesee and Mechanic streets, to- 
gether with its appurtenances, occupied by Harvey Rowe, and owned 
by Messrs. Lamberton and Hurlburt. Mr. Rowe's goods and furniture 
were principally saved. Loss of buildings, about $1,200. An uncom- 
pleted building, owned by Joseph Wilson, which was fitting up for a 
grocery, valued at about $300. A small building occupied by R. 
Blades as a Tailors' shop. Loss of building about $150. Some of Mr. 
Blade's goods and furniture were destroyed. A building owned and 
occupied by Joseph Wilson as a grocery, together with most of the 
goods. Loss about $500. The Store of Messrs. Sherman and Cran- 
dall, occupied by them as a Dry Goods and Book Store, and Book 
Bindery, most of the goods were saved. Whole loss about $-3.000. A 
building owned by William Dickinson, and occupied by J. T. Allen, 
Watch-maker and Jeweller, and Messrs. Gilbert & Seward, Tin and 
Sheet Iron manufacturers. Mr. Dickinson's loss $400; Mr. Allen 
about $100. A small building owned by Mrs. Ross, occupied by Hugh 
Evans as a grocery and Bakers shop, valued at about $100. A two- 
story building, owned also by Mrs. Ross, and occupied by W. P. Gold- 
smith as a Tailors shop; Charles Seward as a dwelling; E. C. Dibble, 
Attorney at Law, and Doct. L. B. Cotes, as a Druggist Store. In the 
basement was a grocery, kept by Caleb x\llen. Building estimated at 


$800, insured $:)00. A share of the loss is sustained by G. W. Allen, 
to whom the building- was leased for a term of years, and who had 
fitted it up and rented it to the present occupants. Althouj^h the num- 
ber of buildings was considerable, yet as will be perceived, some of 
them were not of very great value. The aggregate loss of buildings is 
estimated at about $4,000. There has, however, been some consider- 
able other loss, but to what amount we are unable to state.'" 

The report of the village trustees, submitted May 7, 1833, shows 
that the village paid Joiin Anderson tlie sum of five hundred dollars 
for a "fire engine and apparatus; " and that the further sum of $i-O.SO 
was paid to William Dickinson for "hooks and ladders, axes, etc." 
The year following one hundred dollars more was paid to John Ander- 
son " for engine; " $18.50 to D. Latimer "for storing engine;" and 
$40 to William Dickinson " for carriage for hooks and ladders." 

A still more disastrous fire than that of 18:)3, which might properly 
be dignified by the name of conflagraticm, 'occurred in Batavia May 30, 
1>>34. The buildings destroyed burned with great fury. There had 
been no rain for some time and everything was quite dry. Added to 
this, a strong wind was blowing from the southwest. The local fire 
company responded quickly to the alarm, bringing the little fire engine 
called the "Triton." William Seaver, the historical writer, who v/as 
foreman of the fire company at that time, in referring t(.) this apparatus 
says that it " could only be worked by six men at a time, three on each 
crank, like turning a grind-stone, and its effect on that fire was about 
equal to a pewter syringe on the crater of Mount -Etna." As soon as 
the roofs of the two big hotels caught fire, the gale drove the blazing 
shingles to great distances, at one time threatening to destroy the whole 
village. Fortunately, about half an hour after the fire started the wind 
suddenly veered to the n<^rtheast. The nnost authentic account of this 
conflagration appeared in the Advocate of June 3, 1834; 

The most destructive fire ever kiiown in this coimty, broke out in this villai^e on 
Friday last, about o'clock r. m. It was first disco\-ered in some cunibustibie ma- 
terials near the barns and stables connected with the Ka;.^!e Tavern. The out-houses 
were quickly one mass of flame, and being situated near the ICagle Tavern, it was 
found to be impossible to prevent the destruction of that noble edifice, and soon the 
devouring element was seen bursting in large volumes from its windtnvs. A gentle 
gale was blowing from the southwest nearly in the direction of Genesee street, which 
caused the flames to expand along the line of buildings on the south side of that 
street with alarming rapidity, and to jjrn-ressin that direction in spite of every etlort 

> From the i;;ila\ ;a Advocatt; of March J. ISi-'i. 


to avert them, till every building was a bhi/.ing heap of ruins from the Eagle Tavern 
to Mr. Latimer's house near the corner of Jackson street, where by indefatigable and 
persevering efforts of the Fire Company, the march of the destroyer was at length 

The fire extended south from tlie Eagle Tavern along Court street to Mr. Wood's 
blacksmith shop on Bigtree street. The spectacle presented by the contiagration 
was truly appalling. The following estimate of the number of buildings destroyed, 
the amount of Insurance, loss ^;c. on each, will be found nearly correct. 

Genesee street. — B. Humphrey's Eagle Tavern, estimated loss of buildings, barns, 
sheds Sec. ^10,000. Insured .$:,0U0. 

Tavern house occupied by H. Rowe, and owned by A. Champion of Rochester, no 
insurance. Loss $3,000. 

Taggart tV Smith's Law Ofrice, no insurance. Loss $300. 

Jones & Leech, tailors shop, owned by M. Taggart Esq., no insurance. Loss S'JOO. 

Law Otlice and dwellinghouse, owned by T. Fitch Escj., no insurance. Loss $1,200. 

Building owned by E. B. Scyn^our. and occupied by Mr.- Bu.xton as a Cabinet 
shop, by Gilbert \- Seward as a Tin Factory, and by T. Cole as a tador's shop. In- 
sured §300. Loss o; building $6<t0. 

Dwelling House owned by Mrs. Hewett. no insurance. Loss $'<00. 

Dwelling house owned aad occu[>ied bv Richard Smith Esq.. no insurance. Loss 

Allen & Chandler's Law Otiice. 

Dwelling house owned by E. B. Allen, and occupied by Mr. Ottoway, and \Vm. 
Fursmau. Loss §1000. 

Two small buildings, one occupied as a grocery and the other as a dwelling. 

Court Street. Two dwellings owned by H. <.<c E. C. Kind:.erly. Loss $600. 

Barns and sheds owned by A. Hosmer. Loss .■?.i00. 

Big-Tree Street. — Two dwelling houses owned by Jesse Wood. Loss $900. In- 
sured .S.tUO. 

Considerable furniture and other property were also destroyed, of which it is im- 
possible to form an estimate. 

The whole number of buildings, including dwellings, barns, &:c, is about 2.x Ag- 
gregate loss of property, it is supjiosed cannot l)e less than ^^O.OOO. 

By this fire a large lunnber of persons were rendered homeless, and 
the central and most conspicnuus and valuable portic^n of the villao-c 
was annihilated. 

For many years the " Snake Den tavern," located un the corner of 
Main and State streets, was a largely patronized hostelry. This hotel 
was built in JSol by Tniman Hurlbnrt, sr. , and named the Genesee 
house. It was also popularly known as the Snake Den tavern. 

The fourth church established in Batavia, the Baptist church, was 
organized November 10, ISoo, at a meeting held in the court house. 
Gideon Kendrick and P. S. Moftit presided o\'er the meeting. It was 
voted that the society be called the " Baptist Society of Batavia Vil- 


lage," and Richard Covell, jr., John Dornian, William Blossom, Will- 
iam D. Popple and Calvin Foster were elected the first trustees. Rev, 
J. Clark was at once engaged as the tirst pastor, and a house of wor- 
ship was erected on Jackson street in the same year by T. ]. Hoyt and 
Thomas McCulley, on land donated to the society by ^Villiam D. Popple. 

Even before the territory devasted by the great fire of lS3-t had been 
again improved b}- the reconstruction of the edifices destroyed, another 
fire, though not of such serious proportions, occurred. It orignated 
early on the evening of November 8, 183T, in a building on the north 
side of. Genesee street owned by William Blossom and occupied as a 
dwelling by John Kenyon, which, with the building occupied by the 
blisses Vaughns as a millinery establishment and Mr. Staniford as a 
tailor's shop, were consumed. The flames then continued in an east- 
erly direction, destroyed the barber shop, G. W. Allen's jewelry store, 
H. Noble's tailor shop and John Kenyon's grocery store. The progress 
of the fire was stO|jped by tearing down a frame building occupied by 
L). N. Tuttle as a hat factory and Isaac M. Joslyr.' as a gunsmith shop. 

One of the most exciting events in early times in Batavia was the 
attempt of a mob to assault and destro}' the office of the Land Company 
during the so-called " Land Office war " in ISoG. Fortunateh- the in- 
habitants of the village were apprised of the impending trouble in ample 
time to arm themselves, and when the mob reached the village they 
found that such a determined and organized resistance had been pre- 
pared that all effi5rts on their part looking to the destruction of the land 
office or any other property would be accompanied by the death of 
greater or less numbers of the invading party. Consequeritly they re- 
tired and tlie threatened attack was never made.' 

The Exchange Bank of Genesee was organized at Alexander in 1S3S, 
by vSamuel Benedict, jr., Earl Kiddei-, Henry Martin, A'an Rensselaer 
Hawkins, Henry Hawkins, Jesse Hawkins, Stephen King, Jusiah New- 
ton, Charles Kendall and others, with a capital stock of one hundred 
thousand dollars. Among those who served as cashiers at various times 
during the career of this institution were Heman hJlodgett, E. S. 
Warner, ?I. T. Cross and J. E. Pier[:)ont. The bank was authorized 
by the Legislature on March 11, ISiS, to change its place of business 
from Alexander to Rochester, but with the proviso that it continue an 
office at Alexander for the purpose of closing up its business there, for 
a period not exceeding one year. But the insLitution never look the 

' A more JetaiK-J cu-coimt ui this distuibancf wiii be foiinil in a prfi:i'd;np chapter. 



Step authonzeci by the Leo-islaturc. Soon after his removal to Alex- 
ander D. W. Tomlinson bouo^ht up all the stock and removed the bank 
to Batavia. where it finally discontinued business about IS.^S 

The Batavia Lyceum was incorporated April 17, 184.3 "for the uur 

pose of establishing- and maintainin,. a librarv, reading- roLm, and rooms 
for debates and lectures on literary and scientific subjects; and such 
other means ot promoting moral and intellectual improvement with 
power or such purposes to take by purchase, devise, gift or otherwise 
and to hold, transfer and convey real estate and personal propertv "to 
the amount of ten thousand dollars; and also further to take retain 
and convey all such b<.oks, cabinets, library furniture and apparatus as 
may be necessary to obtain the objects and effect the purposes of said 
ri7n t"" .^^';fi^-'-P--^-^ named in the charter were Hemar; J 
Redheld, 1 rumoull Lary, Lucius A. Smith, Lsaac A. Verplanck, Joshua I 
Brown \ dbam G. Bryan, John F. Ernst. Joel Allen, Brannon Vounc/ 
Seth Uakeman, Frederick Follett, John L. Dorrance and their assocT 


By the amendment to the village charter passed April oo 1,^4,^ ^k. 
boundsof the village of Batavia were fixed as follows- ' ' ' 

Beginning at a point in the east line of lot number fortv-four in said 
village, one hundred rods north from the centre of Genesee street • 
thence westerly parallel with the centre of Genesee and Batavia streets 
one hundred rods therefrom to the westerly bounds of lot number nine 
in said village; thence southerly on the west line of said lot number 
nme, to the southwest corner of said lot; thence continuing in the 
same direction to the north bank of Tonewanta creek, thenc? up the 
northern bank of said creek to a point one hundred rods south of the 
centre of Genesee street; thence eastwardly parallel with the centre 
of Genesee street to the east line of lot number forty-five- thence 
northerly on said line to the place of beginning. 

In 1847 the trustees reported that, p'ursuant to the vote at the pre 
ceding annual town meeting, they had "proceeded to the selection of 
a site and commenced the building of a suitable Engine and Hook and 
Ladder House, and to complete the same thev were compelled to bor- 
row Two Hundred Dollars." The trustees further reported that the 
engine owned by the village was not satisfactory, and continued: 

Inasmuch as the corporaLion now own a good and suHieient En^jme Hou^e the 
Irustees .latter the.nselves that the citizens will carry out the work of encouragin.^ 
the Department by purcliasing a good and substantial Engine, and onethat 
will give satisfacli<,>n to the Firemen as well as the citizen.. 


In accordance with the recommendation of the board and the res- 
olution then adopted by tl:e voters, the trustees purchased of Thomas 
Snooks a fire engine, paying therefor seven hundred dollars. 

In 1851 the trustees reported that they had "caused to be built, pur- 
suant to the vote of the electors of said village, two large reservoirs, 
and have caused a well to be dug and furnished with a pump and en- 
closed with good and substantial railing, so that each reservoir can be 
filled and kept supplied with water for the use of the Fire Department. 
They have also exchanged the old fire engine Red Jacket for a new En- 
gine, for^wliich they have given their official note for $-20r)." 

In lS5"-2 they report: "The Engine which was procured by the ex- 
change of the old Engine Red Jacket was found upon trial not to be of 
sufficient power, and the trustees have sold that for the sum of §"200, 
and have purchased a new engine for the sum of $T5tK . . . They 
have also sold the old Engine house (located on Jackson street) and 
have procured in place thereof a permanent Lease of the basement of 
the Old Court house for the use of the Fire department. They have 
also purchased a new Hose Cart for the use of Engine No. 2; also 200 
feet of new Hose." 

By the amended charter adopted in April, 1853, the bounds of the cor- 
poration were fixed as follows: 

The territory embraced within the following bounils, that is to say: Beginning in 
the east line of lot number forty-six (as laid down on the map or survey of the village 
of Batavia into village lots made by the Holland Land Company by Joseph Ellicott, 
surveyori at a j)oint half a mile northwardly from (icnesee street ; thence westwardly 
parallel to said Genesee street and half a mile distant therefrom toapoint two chains 
and fifty links westwardly of the east line of lot number sixteen; thence still west- 
wardly parallel to r>atavia street and half a mile distant therefrom to the west line of 
lot number eight; thence southwardly on the west line of lot numbereight to Batavia 
street, thence continuing si.>utherly in the same direction to the south bank of the 
Tonawanda creek; tlience up said creek on the south t^ank thereof to the west line 
of lot number fifty seven ; thence southerly upon the said west line <^f lot nuinber 
fifty seven to the plank road of the Builalo and Batavia Blank Road Company ; thence 
easterly along said plank road to the west line of lot number fifty five; thence south- 
erly on the west line of said lot number fifty five to the south line of the second or 
straight line of railway of the Buffalo and Rochester Rail Road Company; thence 
easterly on the southerly line of said radway to the western bank of the Tonawanda 
Creek; thence up said creek on the westerly and southerly bank thereof to a point 
twenty rods due south from the street or highway umv known as Chestnut street ; 
thence eastwardly to the northerly bank of the Tonawanda creek, at the point where 
the east line of l<.)t number twenty nine intersects the same : thence t/astwardly in 
a direct line to the point v,-here the east line of lot number forty seven intersects 


Bigiree street; and thence northwardly on the east line of lots number forty seveil 
and forty six to the place of beginning, shall constitute the village of Batavia, and 
the bounds thereof are altered and extended accordingly. 

It is interesting to note at this juncture the names of the persons en- 
g-ag-ed in the various branehes of trade, in the professions, etc., half a 
century ago, as illustrating the commercial development of the village 
of Batavia during that period of its career. The following is the list 
as it was published in 1S49.' 

Ministers. — J. A. Bolles, Byron Sunderland, S. M. Stimpson, Allen Steele, D. C. 

Doctors. — John Cotes, Levant B. Cotes, H. Ganson, C. E. Fc)rd. Jolm F. Baker, 
Chauncey D. Griswold, J. Delamater. 

Lawyers.— Richard Smith, P. L. Tracy, G. \V. Lay, H. J. Redfield, B. Pringle, 
E. C. Dibble, I. A. Verplanck, M. Taggart, J. L. Brown, J. H. Martindale (district 
attorney), H. J. Glowackie, W. G. Bryan, S. Wakeman, J. D. Merrill, T. Fitch, >L 
W. Hewitt, H. Wilber, H. U. S<iper (Judge of Genesee county). J. F. Lay, M F. 
Robertson, E. Pringle, E. Young (county treasurer), J. PL Kimberly. 

Forwarding and Commission Merchants. — L. A. Smith, ]. Foot, J. Ganson c*i; Co. 

Dry Goods Merchants. — Wm. H. Wells & Son, Smith & Warren, G. A. Lay, Na- 
than T. Smith, Thorn Sc Holden. 

Hardware Merchants. — Belden Otis & Co., R. Haney. 

Hotels. — American, B. G. Tisdale, Genesee House, S. N. Bierce, Western Hotel, 
I. Backus, Eagle Tavern, E. Hall, Railroad Depiot, S. Frost, Dutch Tavern, A. 

Livery Stable. — Ferren ^'l- McConnick. 

Cabinet Makers.— C. Kirkham, C. T. Buxton, J. T. Buxton, O. Grifllth. 

Carpenters and Joiners. — O. Dustin, R. W. Craig, D. Palmer, J. Coleman, S. 
Tuttle, J. L. Gardner, W. Lowden, L. Knapp, Mr. Rice, H. Graham, J. Palmer, J. 
R. Hart, L. P.arner. 

Blacksmiths. — F. Baxter. A. Tyiell, M. Kellogg, G. W. Miller, S. Lynn, J. Clark, 
J. Trumbull .V Son. 

Gunsmith. — L M. Joslyn. 

Saddle and Harness Makers. — Wm. Manley, A. J. Ensign, J. T. Carr. 

Masons.— T. McCully. H. Muiphy, J. Holteu, D. Johnson, A. Wilcox. 

Stonecutter. — I'ellows i.V Co. 

Furnacemen. — T. Hurlburt, J. R. Smith. 

Baker.— B. C. \- O. Page. 

Cradle Maker. — H. Naramor. 

Cooper. — Z. York. 

Brewer.— E. H. Fish. 

Barbers — J. Leonard, D. Leonard. 

Butchers. — R. Fowler, R. Winn. 

Druggists and Book-;eliers. — Wm. Seaver ^- Son, Fellows iV Co. 

> Tills :ia'- appeal-, un Uic- lusl pa^'e ut Wm. .Seuvcr'i Hisu.rv of I'.aravia. 

The village of batavl\. og-r 

Grocers.— C. A. Russell. John Wilson, John Keny<^n. J. McCullant, Wilson &r 
Austin, S. A. Wilson, G. Knowles, J. >.\; R. Eager. 

Jewellers.— J. A. Clark, E. S. Dodge. 

Hatters.— H. & E. ^L McCormick, P. Warner. 

Boot and Shoe Store.— T. Yates, A. Joslvn. H. M. Warren, Spencer &- Merrill M 
Rupp, J. P. Phillips. J. Baker. 

Milliners.- Mrs. Denslow, Mrs. Blake, Mrs. (Griffith, Mrs. Showerman & Halbert. 

Tailors.— G. B. Hurlburt, D. Ferguson. J. Jordan. J. M. Rovce, Nathan Smith, 
John Allen, Biessenger & Rebstock. 

Printers.— Wm. Seaver & Son, D. D. Wait. 

Book Binder. — G. Kiesz. 

Paintess.— H. W. Ashling, Howe & Barnard, P. S. Moffett, E. Woolsey, O. N. 
Sanford, W. Mclntyre. 

Carriage Makers.— J. Clark, G. W. Miller, A. Peek. 

On February IT, 1850, Batavia was visited by the most destructive 
fire in the history of the viliage up to that time. The tire ori.^inated 
about 11.30 A. M. in the two story wooden building on the north side of 
Genesee (Main) street, occupied by R. Haney as a hardware store. 
The wind v>-as blowing- strong from the west and the flames swept 
eastwardly until every building to the corner of Genesee and Bank- 
streets was consumed. Among the principal buildings destroyed were 
the hardware store of R. Haney, loss $S.0()0; the office and residence 
of Dr. H. Ganson, loss S'i.OOO; store of S. C. Holden, loss $1,200; store 
owned by Hinman Holden and occupied by C. Kirkham as a cabinet 
shop; next the American hotel, the largest and most expensive build- 
ing in the village, having cost over $25,000, owned by Alva Smith 
and kept by B. G. Tisdale; a two story brick building owned by D. W. 
Tomlinson, who was fitting it up for the use of the Exchange Bank of 
Genesee, then located at Alexander; a building owned by Moses Tag- 
gart and occupied by Dr.- J. Delamater as an ofiice and dwelling, by 
Dr. Stevens, dentist, and by Mrs. Williams as a residence. 

The year 1S50 was marked by the organization of companies for the 
construction of plank roads between Batavia and Buffalo and between 
Batavia and Oakfield. The work of construction was begun soon after 
the formation of the companies referred to. 

The Spirit of the Times of December M, 1852, contained the follow- 

There is no mistake but this ancient Capital of the "Holland Purchase," is des- 
tined to maintain its rank and dignity, through all the changes that are constantly 
going on witliin and around it. To satisfy any of this fact, they have onlv to look 
^.t o;;r thronged streets, and the business-like appearance of our stores, shops and 


warehouses, all indicating continued, if not increasing prosperity. . . . We have 
now the great Central Railroad, with its six daily trains, beside the cross ruad to 
Attica, connecting us ^vith the P.uJfalo and X. V.' City R. R. These, to which will 
soon be added the Canandaigua and Niagara Falls road, now nearly completed from 
this place westward, and the Buffalo aud Conhocton Valley road to be finished next 
season, all combine to give us greater facilities for business or pleasure than any 
other town in the interior can boast, and tend directly to point out Batavia as "the 
greatest place of its size " in Western New York. 

While thus blowing the trump of fame for the generalities of our Village, we must 
not omit to notice some of its new embellishmeuts, prominent among which is the 
elegant Brick Block recently erected by Messrs. Dodge, Yates and the Odd Fellows, 
on .the corner of Main and Jackson streets. The part owned by Mr. Dodge, on the 
Corner, is finished off in elegant style as a Jewelers store, and filled with his new 
stock of glittering wares, presents a .splendid appearance. The other store belong- 
ing to Mr. Yates, is fitted up for a Shoe and Leather store, in a style and beauty, 
favorably comparing with that of Mr. Dodge. Both together, with their wide, ele- 
gantly finished doors, and immense si,:ed glass set in metallic sash richly plated 
with silver, present a front truly magnificent, and the whole does honor to the en- 
terprising proprietors. 

The three story brick building erected by Mr. Godfrey, for Messrs. Onderdonk 
aud Carr, as a Saddlery establishment, adjoining the store of W. H. Wells Ss Son, is 
now completed in a substantial and tasteful manner, and adds much to the beautv 
of that part of the village. Another decided improvement has been made by Mr. 
John Kenyon, in erecting a large addition to his old store. 

The Stone building formerly occupied by Mr. Ganson's Bank, is also undergoing 
improvements in the front, preparatory to its being occupied by Mr. Toni]inson\vith 
his Exchange J'ank. 

The Batavia Gas and Electric Light Company was org-anized as tlie 
Batavia Gas Light Company in 1855, with a capital of thirty two thou- 
sand five htindred dolUirs and these directors: Gcort^e Brisbane Dan- 
iel W. Tomlinson, Gad ]]. Wurthington, S. C. Holden, Alva Smith 
Frank Chamberlain and R. Merrifield. Mr. Tomlinson was president' 
secretary and treasurer, and \V. II. Tompkins was superintendent.' 
The tirst gas holder had a capacity of thirteen thousand five hundred 
feet. A new gas holder, with a capacity of thirty-five thousand feet, 
was built in 1S7S. Early in the year 18S5 new works were erected 
for the manufacture of gas from crude petroleum. In 188G the com- 
pany established an electric lighting and heating {)lant, which it has 
since operated in conjunction with its gas plant. 

The Batavia Fire Department was incorptn-ated April t^-i, 18i;'3, with 
the following trustees: David Seaver, Sanford S. Clark, Albert R. 
Warner, William M. Tuttle, Louis M. Cox, Benjamin Goodspeed, 
William H. Brown, John Passmore, Marsden J. Pierson, William D. 


W. Pringle, George D. Kenyon. Hollis McCormick, Henry G. Charnp- 
lin, James Nugent and Samuel Jennison. The charter officers were: 
President, David Seaver; vice-president, Sanford S. Clark; secretary, 
xVlbert R. Warner; treasurer, Georg-e P. Pringle. 

July 2S, 1SG-.2, the board of trustees of the village adopted an "or- 
dinance establishing fire districts'" as follows: 

District Number One.— All that portion of the village of Batavia 
lying north of ]Main and west of Bank street. 

District Number Two.— All that portion of tlie village l}'ing north 
of Main, and east of Bank street. 

District Number Three.— All that portion of the village lying south 
of Main and east of Jackson street. 

District Number Four. — All that portion of the village lying south 
of Main and west of Jackson street. 

The ordinance also provided that "at each and every fire it shall 
be the duty of the Sexton, or person or persons ringing the Fire 
Alarm Bell, to ring a general alarm for at least one minute, or until 
the district wherein the fire occurs, can be ascertained, and immedi- 
ately thereafter to strilce the number, then to repeat the general 
alarm for one minute, and afterv/ards the district alarm, continuing 
the repetitions at proper intervals for at least thirty minutes, or 
until the said alarm shall be ascertained to be false." It was also pro- 
vided that "any watchman, sexton or other person who shall first 
ring the correct district alarm of any actual fire, shall be entitled to 
one dollar for each actual fire it is so" 

The fire department, it was ordained, should consist of a chief en- 
gineer and two assistant engineers, in addition to the trustees of the 
village of Batavia, "and such fire engine men, hose men, hook and 
ladder men, axe men and bucket men as are anil mav from time to 
time be appointed by the Trustees of the Village of Batavia." 

liefore the organization of the department several fire companies had 
been in existence in Batavia. Reference to some of these is found in 
preceding pages. As early as September, ls->;t, Triton Fire Company 
was organized. A hcjok and ladder company was formed in I80G, 
while in 1850 two companies were formed — Pioneer Hook and Ladder 
Company No. 1 and Neptune Engine Company No, -.2. Red Jacket 
Engine Company was another old fire company which existed for many 
years. Hose Company No. 3 was organized in IsfJ.'J and Alert Hose 
Company No. 1 in ISfiS. The old Rescue Engine Company No, 1 was 


formally disbanded October 10, 1870. The first officers of Alert Hose 
Company were: President, C. E. Fish; vice-president, J. A. Mackey; 
foreman, J. E. Warren; assistant foreman, J. B. Hewitt; secretary, 
D. W. Tomlinson. The company, the oldest in the department, was 
incorporated May 5, 1879, the directors being J. M. Hamilton, Hinman 
Holden, M. K. Young, Ellis R. Hay and George J. Austin. The first 
fire attended by this company was that in the Western hotel, which 
stood on the site of the Schafer Commercial building, soon after the 
organization of the company. 

At a meeting of the trustees of the fire department held July 14, 
1*862, the following persons were confirn^ed as firemen and the first 
members of the department: 

Pioneer Hook and Ladder Ladder Company No. 1. — Henry S. Morse, 
George B. Edwards, William H. PrestoTi, johii Westphal. 

Neptune Engine Company No. ".2. — James E. Rosecranse, Patrick 
Donahue, Ernst Welker, Martin h^rion, John Menger, Lemuel L. Tozier. 
Frank Nelo. Jusiah P. Piers(jn, Michael Moran, Wm. l-l Blake. Lyman 
Kraing, Henry Erbleding, Frank McDonald. 

Neptune Hose Company No. 'i. — Louis Mann, Byron S. Cotes, James 
H. Royce, Jerenn;ih <J'Connell, ILjratio Thomas, Daniel A. Lynch, 
John Corby. 

Rescue Engine Company No. \. — John Mungcr, Henry Steuber, 
Frank Newell, Brainanl E. Forbes, (Tottlieb Greishaber, Lewis Tevinn, 
John vStrong, Horace Ford, Anson T. Bliss, James Giddings, James 
McKay, Adam Feurstein. 

Rescue Hose Com[)any No. L — -Frank Decott, l-'rank Riley, Chai'les 
Morris, Daniel Councils, Thomas Kinney. 

At the meeting held August II the following additi(>n:U members 
were approved : 

Neptune Engine Company No. '•2. — James Buckley, James Whitman, 
Christian Wolf. 

Neyjtune Hose C(.)m[):tny No. ".?. — Peter Lane. Charles A. Hastings, 
Ambrose N. H:mna, C'ollins Pratt. 

Pioneer Hof)k and Ladder Company No. 1. — Joseph Houltman, A. 
F. Lawrence, l^-ter Wai-ner. 

Eagle HoseCompan}' No. 1 was organized in 180'^ and disbanded A.{"iiil 
8, 1800. Li the same year it was reorganized, and in I8GS it was again 
disbanded ami .VIei t Hose Company organized in its place. Amphitr"* 
Hose Company No. "2 .md I'nion Hose C'omiiany No 3 were organized . 



iS^Go. Amphitrite Hose Company was disbanded in 1SG7 and Richmond 
!Iose Company No. 2 was formed in its place. The orij^^inal Xeptnne En- 
idne Company was disbanded Au;^^ust -y.), IStV.K Citizens' Hook and Lad- 
derCompany was formed in IST--2, disbanded in 1874, reori^ani/.ed in 187-i, 
a^^-ain disbanded in 1877, and once more reorganized in tlie Latter year un- 
der the present name of Rescue Houk and Ladder Company. Zephyr Hose 
Company No. 3 was formed January 7, LSSo, and Ellicott Hose Company 
No. -iin November, 1S9G. The department at the present time consists of 
Alert Plose Compan}-, Richmond Hose Company, Zephyr Hose Com- 
pany, Ellicott Hose Company and Rescue Hook and Ladder Company. 

The chief eng-ineers of the dei)artment have been as follows: David 
Seaver. ISG-J-Go; Albert R. Warner, lSf;4; Hollis McCormick, ISGo; 
Pepworth Crabb, ISC^i]; John L. Foster, 1867-71; Hollis McCormick, 
187-2-74; James ^L Walkenshaw, 1875; Ah in J. Fox, 187G; O. J. Wa- 
terman, 1877-78; James M. Walkenshaw, 187l'-18Sl; Joseph IL Rob- 
son, 18S"2; Cornwell D. Morgan, 188:3-84; L. S. Croaker, 1885-SG; 
Cornwell D. Morgan, 1887; Clarence L. Austin, 1888-07 (died in 
othce); L. W. fLihn, 1807-08. 

The Farmers' Bank of Latavia was established in 185G as the Far- 
mers' Bank of Attica, at Attica, by Lconidas Doty. The bank was 
moved to Batavia in 1860, and in 18G'2 the name was changed to the 
present one. Mr. Doty was also one of the founders of the l-'irst 
National Bank of Batavia. A few years ago the Farmers' Bank erect- 
ed a commodious banking house at the southeast cornei" of Main and 
Jackson streets. A few year before that date John H. Ward had been 
admitted into partnership with Mr. Doty, and the former has been, 
since Mr. Doty's death in 188^, manager of the business. Since the 
death of Mr. Doty his widow, Mrs. vSelina A. Doty, has contr(jllcd 
the interest of her husband in the bank. 

The First National Bank of Batavia was founded March :2 1 , 18G4, 
with a capital stock oi fifty thousand dollars and the following officers: 
R. H. Farnham, president; C. H. Monell, cashier; R. H. Farnham, 
Tracy Pardee, Henr}' Monell, Charles H. Monell and (ieorge Bowen, 
directors. ^L^ Monell never held the position of casiiier, Marcus L. 
Babcock being elected to the position June 4, 18G4. ^Lly ;)1, 18G5, the 
capital stock was increased to seventy-five thousand dollars, and Jan- 
uary 0, 1883, it was further increased to oiie hundred thousand dollars. 
The following have served as officers of the bank: 

Presidents. — R. H. Farnham, March 21, 1861, to June 20, 186-3; Tracy 


Pardee, June 29, IS«35, to January 10, 1SS4; Levant C. ^fclntyre, Jan- 
uary 10, ISS-t, to ]S'.i8; Samuel Parker, from April t>], 1808, to date. 

Cashiers. — Charles H. M-.ncll, March "M, 1804 (did not act); Marcus 
L. Babcock, June i, 1801, to February 8, ISGo; Daniel E. Waite, Feb- 
ruary S, 1805, to Au«-ust 13, isOG; Levant D. Mclntyre, Auo-ust 13, 
1866, to January 10, 1884; Jerome L. P>igelo\v, January 10, 1884, to 

Assistant Cashier. — Geory:e F. Bigelow, January 'I'i, 1806, to date. 

The various changes in tiie directorate of the bank have been as fol- 
' 1864, Reuben H. Farnham, Tracy Pardee, Henry Monell, Charles 
H. ^Slonell, Geor-e Bowen; 1S06, John McKay, to succeed HeJiry 
Monell; 1807, Leonidas Doty; 1808, John Fislier, to succeed John 
]\IcKay; 1800, number of directors increased to seven, and Tracv Par- 
dee, Reuben H. Farnham, Leonidas Doty, John Fisher, George Thrown, 
Gad B. \Vorthingt(jn and Cyrus Walker were elected; 18t4. number of 
directors decreased to six. and all but Reuben H. I'arnham were re- 
elected; 1881, E. B. Wilford; 188-.', Daniel W. Tomlinson, to succeed 
E. B. Wilford; 1883, Samuel Parker, to succeed John Fisher, and Le- 
vant C. Mclntyre to succeed Tracy Pardee; 1808, E. A. ^Washburn, to 
succeed Levant C. Mclntyre, deceased. 

The Genesee & Venango Petroleum Company vras organized in Ba- 
tavia in the winter of 1804-65, with a capital stock of three hundred 
thousand dollars, for the purpose of mining for petroleum in the oil 
regions of Pennsylvania. The charter officers of tr.e corporation were; 
President, Reuben H. Farnham; vice president, Elias A. Lewis; treas- 
urer, Eli FL Fish; secretary, William H. Story; trustees, Truml-)ull 
Cary, Eli IL Fish, E. M. McCormick, Elias A. L-ewis, Johnson B. 
Brown, Tracy Pardee, Lyman Terry, H. L. Onderdcmk, R.H. Farnham. 

The funeral services held at Batavia in honor of President Lincoln on 
Wednesday, April 10, 1805, were of a most impressive character. Tp- 
on the conclusion of religious services held in the respective churches, 
a procession formed in front of Ellicntt hall at 1.30 i'. m., under the di- 
rection of Plon. FL U. Soper, marshal, and J. Haskell, S. B. Lusk, 
Capt. Robert L. Foote and Lucas Seaver as assistant marshals. The 
large funeral car v.-as draped in mourning and covered with the Anier- 
ican flag. Beside ii marched the following pall bearers: Daniel W. 
Tomlinson, Harry Wilber, J. C. Wilscjn, W. S. Mallory, E. A. Lewis, 
D. D. Waite, H. I. Glowacki, Scth Wakeman, Wilber Smith, John 

, i- »>''• *^";» \ 

\ f I 


^ ■.'■ * Si '. 

\ I 


Fisher, M. H. Bierce and R. O. Holden. On either side of the car the 
following g-entlemen were mounted on horseback as a guard of honor: 
Captain L. Phillips, E. Wakeman, C. H. Dolbeer, B. S. Cotes, E. Stini- 
son, O. S. Pratt, P, H. Smith and George Foote. Following them 
came the village oflicers, the Batavia fire department, public offi- 
cers, veterans of the civil war and civic organisations. The pro- 
cession marched down Main street to the Oak Orchard road, thence 
back along Big Tree street to Jackson, to Main, to Cemetery street to 
the front of the court house, where the following exercises took place: 

Music, '* Old Hundred," choir; prayer, Rev. Morelle Fowler; music, 
"The Departed," choir; address, Rev. Mr. Mussey; music, "Dead 
March," from Saul, Batavia band; address, Judge vSoper ; music, " Amer- 
ica," choir; address, Wm. G, Bryan; benediction. Rev. S. M. Stimson. 

The Western Farmers' ]\Iiitual Insurance Company for many years 
was a strong institution in Genesee coimty. In IStJ^j its officers were: 
President. Samuel Richmond; vice-president, Samuel Ileston; secretary 
and treasurer, Horace M. Warren ; directors, .Samuel Willett, Heman 
J. Redfield, Samuel Richmond, Joseph \"allett, I'Llijah Piatt, Samuel 
Ileston, James L. Paine, Jacob Grant, Alvin Pease, Daniel Rosecrance, 
Hiram Chaddock, L. Douglass and John F. Plato. 

The "Commercial building," located on. the south side of Main street 
a short distance west of Jackson street, was originally occupied as a 
hotel. In 1837 a tavern known as the Central house vv'as opened there 
by- iJaniel Latimer. In 1S40 it became the property of Lament H. 
Holden, brother of Hinman and Samuel C. Holden, who changed its 
name to that of Farmer hotel. It was in this hotel, while under the 
management of Mr. llolden. that the meetings of Batavia Lodge No. 
88, F. & A. M., were held for some time. The property finally became 
known as the Western hotel. It was destroyed by fire May 20, 18(j0. 
Subsequently ii commodious brick building was erected on the site, and 
for many years was run as a hotel under the names of Washburn house, 
Parker house, and others. In 180"3 the property was repaired and re- 
modeled for mercantile purposes, and is now one of the principal busi- 
ness blocks in Batavia. 

The Batavia Farmers' Club was organized at Batavia in February, 
\S&i, with these officers: 

President, Henry Ives; vice-president, P. P. Bradish ; secretary, J. 
G. Fargo; treasurer, Sanford Wilber; direct<*rs, Charles Gillett, C. D. 
Pond and Addison Foster. 


The Batavia Library Association was incorporated by act of the Lc-^- 
islature April '>7, IST^J. The first trustees named in the charter were 
Gad B. Worthin-ton, Edward C. Walker. Myron H. Peck, Sidney A. 
Sherwin, Robert B. Pease, Wilber Smith, Daniel W. Tomlinson, 
Henry F. Tarbox and George P.owen. By an act of the Legislature 
passed in 1887, the corporation was dissolved. The library, consisting 
of about 4,000 volumes together with $3,oOO in money, was turned 
over to the trustees of the Union Free School District, No. •>. The 
condition of the gift was that the fund should be kept forever intact 
and the income derived therefrom used, so far as needed, to maintain a 
reading room which the trustees were authorized to provide for, in con- 
nection with the Richmond Memorial Library. 

The Bank of Batavia, now recognized as being one of the strongest 
financial institutions outside of the larger cities in Western New Verk. 
was incorporated July 11, isTi;, with Jer(.)me Rowan as president an.! 
William F. Merriman as cashier. Its original capital stock was fiiiv 
thousand dollars. Mr. Merriman resigned in September, 187S, and 
Marcus L. Babcock was elected to succeed him. In February, 1879, 
Mr. Babc(jck resigned and was succeeded by H. T. Miller. Mr. Rowan 
resigned as president in February, JSS-2, at which time iJaniel W. l\,ni- 
linson was elected to succeed him. Up to this time the bank had not 
been successful; but with the change in management new life was put 
into the establishment, and from the smallest institution of its kind in 
Batavia, it soon grew to be the largest, its capital being increased 
twice — froin fifty thousand to one hundred tlnMisand d'')llars in March. 
1883, and to one hundred and fifty thousand dollars in March, I^^)l. 
The payment of dividends was begun in the fall of 1883, since which 
time they have 'hcen regularly paid twice each year. At the same 
time the bank has built up a surplus of over one hundred thousand 
dollars, with resources exceeding one million one hundred thousaiui dol- 
lars. In 180o the new fire proof building on the south side of Main 
street was erected. Thi.-, is pro). ably the finest building occupied ex- 
clusively by any country banking liouse in New York State 

Considerable enthusiasm over military atlairs developed in Batavia 
in 1870, with the result that a number of the citizens of the village 
made application to (general Franklin T(;wnscnd of Albany, adjutant- 
general of the State of New York, for permissicm to organize a se[jar- 
ate company of the National Guard of the State of New York. The 
desired permission was granted in the following order by the adju- 

Tiir. viLLAcr: of rat.wia. anr, 

tant-ijeaeral, the company having previously been formed and officers 

Genkkai, Hkadouakm.k.s, Statk ok Xew York, 

AnjUTANT-GF.NKr.AL's Oi-Tici:. 

Alkanv. July 28, 1S76. 
Si'i'-iAr. Okijkr No. V20. 

Application having been nKide in proper form for the organization in the village 
of Batavia, Genesee county, of a Company of Infantry, to be attached to the 81st 
Brigade, 8th Division, National Guards, State of New York, said Company is here- 
l)y organized with the following named Officers, who will be commissioned with 
rank from July 22, ISTG; 

Captain, Orrin C. Parker; first lieutenant, George W. Griifis; second lieutenant, 
Al\in J. Fox. 

Said Company will be known and designated as the Fifth Separate Company of 
Ir.fantry of the 31st Brigade. National (niard. State of New York. 

By Order of the Commander-in-Chief. 

(Signed) Franki.i.v: Tow.nsfnd, 


Tile orig-inal rnember.s of the comi)any in 1876 were as follows ; 

Captain, Orrin C. Parker; first lieutenant, Georo^e W. Griffis; second 
lieutenant, Alvin J. Fux; first sergeant, James M. Waite ; quarter- 
master-sergeant, Lawrence L. Crosby; second sergeant, Henry C. Fish; 
third sergeant, Charles V. Hooper; fourth sergeant, John G. Johnson; 
fifth sergeant, Peter Thomas; first corporal. George Crawford ; second 
corporal, Andrew Rupp; third corporal, William H. Kendall; fourth 
corporal. Thomas Gallagher; fifth corporal, Henry A. Thompson; 
sixth corporal, Robert Peard ; seventh corporcil, John A. Mackev; 
eighth corporal, Frederick F. Smith; musicians. William H. Firadish, 
Herbert I^. Collamer. 

Privates, Aaron Alpaugh, Ira Brady. Harlan J. Brown, Hiland H. 
Benjamin, George H. Bulsch, Frank W. Biddlemari, William H. lUick- 
holts, John Buckholts, Levant Bullock, Henry Crego, Frank S. Cross, 
Henry A. Cross, Henry Curry. James C. Cummings, Thomas Cum- 
mings, John Cummings, Frank C. Campbell, William E. Casev, John 
P. Casey, William K. Dawson, Philip Dit/.el, John Didget, Jacob iM-ion, 
Chester Ford, Charles E. Fish, I'ratt Flanders, Walter K. Goidd, Jo- 
seph T. Garnier, Frederick Hess, James ^L Harris, Hiram ILirris, Ellis 
R. Hay, Alonzo X. Henshaw, Frank Hcjnielius, Henry W. Hi;mclius, 
John ^L Hamilton, Anthony Horscli, Frederick L. Hovev, Cieorge ^^. 
Hermance, Xewton Johns, Frank Johnson, Homer X. Kelsey, Harvey 
W. Kendall, Benjamin F. Lowns, John B. I>eonard, I"2dwin S. Lcn.t, 


Alva W. Lewis, Charles Lawson, Asa F. Lawrence, Charles Little, John 
D. Maloy, Malcolm D. Mix, Samuel P. Mix, John W. Mix, jr., Redmond 
Manning-, Frank S. Mol-niey, Robert A. .Maxwell, William Metzi;er, 
Callaghan McDonald. John B. Neasmith, Rodger O'Donohue, Edward 
O'Connor, Charles B. Peck, William T. Pond, Robert Peard, William 
Powell, Van A. Pratt, Charles W. Pratt, Wirt B. Quale. Michael Reb- 
meister, Daniel Rodgers, Joseph Roth. Marvin A. Seamans, Silas H. 
Smith, Sanford Spalding, Frederick M. Sheffield, M. Cleveland Terry, 
Peter Tompkins, John Thomas, Charles A. Thompson, CharlesJ. Try^n, 
W. W. Whitney, Albert Weber, Frederick E.^ Williams, 

This company, which bore the name of " Batavia Rifles," enjoyed 
an interesting career of about seven years, and was disbanded in 1SS3. 
A second independent military company, also known as the " Batavia 
Rifles," was organized December 54, IS'.U, with these officers: Pres- 
ident, C. B. Stone; secretary, Claude Giddings; treasurer, Frank Plome- 
lius; collector, Edward Th'jnias; captain, PL W." Homelius; first lieu- 
tenant, W. A. Hooker; second lieutenant, Charles Moll; orderly ser- 
geant, James Dunning; color guard, Frank Stephenson. Tliis companv, 
however, had but a brief existence, and never became an organization 
of the New York National Guard. 

The Wiard Plow Company is one of the most celebrated establish- 
ments in the world devoted to the manufacture of plows. The concern 
is also the oldest of its kind in the United States, having been founded 
in 1S04 by Thomas Wiard, sr. , a blacksmith and farmer residing at 
East Avon, N. Y. His first plow was of the ancient pattern knov/n as 
the "bull plow," large numbers of which were made by hand by 'Sir. 
Wiard for the use of the pioneers of Western New York. In 1815 
Jethro Wood of Aurora (then Scipio), N. Y., the inventor of the flrsi 
successful cast-iron plow, sold Mr. Wiard the necessary castings, which 
the latter completed and attaclied wooden handles thereto in his shop. 
Four years later he found liis facilities for manufacture entirelv inad- 
equate, by reason of the increasing population of the community and 
the conserpient growing demand for the output of his little smitliy; so 
he erected a foundry at East Avon, where he made pattei-ns for im- 
proved plows, manufacturing all the parts thereof himself. Here, in 
connection with his three sons — Seth, Henry and Matthew — he con- 
tinued the manufacture of these imolements until his death about IS-^N). 
One or more of these sons continued the business at East Avon until 
1S7L All were men of great ingenuity and constantly were at work 




tup: village of P>A'I\-\VL-\. sut 

devising' improvements in the plows they manufactured, until they had 
become celebrated as the makers of the most satisfactory implements 
of this nature in the country. 

October 1, 18T1. George Wiard, son of William Wiard, became half 
owner of the establishment at East Avon. In 1871 Charles W. Hough, 
treasurer of the company, purchased the interest of Matthew Wiard, 
the firm becoming Wiard ^.S: Hough. 

During the career of the concern at ICasL Avon the works were de- 
stroyed by fire and rebuilt several times. In 18-TG, to such proportions 
had the, business grown, it was decided to remove the industry to a 
point where the transportation facilities would be better than those 
offered at East Avon. Learning of the determination of the company, 
the citizens of Batavia donated a site for the proposed new plant, lo- 
cated on Swan street, between the New York Central and Hudson 
River and the Erie railroads, and the company accepted the proposition 
offered. The new plant was completed in SepLeniber, 18T6, and aboiit 
the same time a riew company was organized and incorporated under 
the name of the Wiard Plow Company, with a capital stock of fifty 
thousand dollars. Tliis amount was sul)sequently increased to one 
hundred thousand dollars. George Wiard was the j^resident of the new 
corporation and C. W. Hough the secretary and treasurer. The other 
incorporators were Eli Fish, John Green and Joseph H. Smith. Mr. 
Wiard also assumed the duties of superintendent. These gentlemen 
still occupy the same otYices in the company, excepting that J. J. Wash- 
burn acts as secretary, relieving Mr. Hough of a share of his duties, 
Mr. Washburn succeeded Mr. Smith in the concern in May, 1880. The 
original capital stock of the cora[)any, sixty-three thousand dollars, was 
increased at the end of the first year to one hundred thousand dcjllars, 
and five years later to one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, the pres- 
ent capital. While the principal business of the company is the man- 
ufacture of its widely celebrated plows, it is also the invent'jr of im- 
provements in sulky hay rakes, which it has been manufacturing for 
several years. The establishment turns out many varieties of plows, 
adapted to all kinds of soil and all other conditions. It ii]<,o manufac- 
tures hop and potato cultivators, i)atent sulky plows. Emperor sulky 
rakes, Morgan patent spading harrows, Wiard disc harrows, Wiard ad- 
justable weeders, and automatic hand corn planters. The company's 
territory includes everything east of Lake Michigan and as far south as 
Florida, Georgia, Tennessee and Kentucky, including those States, and 


many foreign countries. The present plant covers about five and a 
half acres. Numerous improvements thereto have been made from 
time to time, among the latest being- the new office building erected in 
1897. An average of one hundred hands is employed the year around. 
It IS a notable fact that the company has never shut down in its history, 
excepting for a few days in the summer of each year for the purpose of 
making the necessary repairs. lis employes are for the most part 
thoroughly skilled workmen. 

The Batavia Preserving Company is an institution which could flour- 
ish in few places as it does in the geographical centre of Western Xev.- 
York, the most famous fruit-growing country in the world. The en- 
terprise was established originally in 1870 by John Picrson, who began 
canning fruits and vegetables for the market, at Bushvillc. Though 
supplied with all the necessary appliances, lack of proper attention \o 
the details of the business rendered it pecuniarily unsuccessful at the 
beginning. In ] >^1 the establishment became the property of the Bank 
of Batavia, which for one year conducted the business at Bushville. 
The following year it was purchased by Sprague, Warner c^- Co. of 
Chicago, who a year afterward removed it to the village of Batavia. 
where a marvelous development of the business was begun. So ^reat 
was the increase in the demand for the product of the establishm.ent 
that the erection of more commodious and convenient buildings was 
necessary. Into these the industry was removed in May, 1S8S. The 
business still growing at a wonderful rate, the present companv was 
incorporated in ISOl, and placed under the management of C. H. Fran- 
cis. To day the company controls three factories— at Batavia. Middle- 
port and Brockport, X. Y., located in the heart of what undoubtedly 
is the finest fruit and vegatable growing section of the world. The 
Batavia factory has a tloor area of over fifty thousand square feet, and 
the other factories are nearly as large, and of similar character. The 
Batavia factory is run exclusively, during the season, upon green peas 
and sweet corn, using the production of hundreds of acres of the best 
farming lands in Genesee county. Nowhere in the world are better 
vegetables grown than in Western New York, and nowhere are they 
better prepared for the trade with more skill and care than in the fac- 
tories operated by this company. ICach of the factories devotes itself 
only to such products as can best be raised in that locality and market- 
ed at their doors in best condition. Thus the factory at Brockport 
packs small fruits, tomatoes, string beans and apjjles; while the jilant 


at Micklleport is devoted to peaches, pears, squash, etc. The company 
also cans Bahama pineapples, baked beans, jams, jellies, preserves and 
crushed iruits, fruit syrups and juices for soda-fountains. Chicken and 
turkey are also canned in larg-e quantities. The industry naturally is 
closely identified with the prosperity of the rural sections of Genesee 
county and Western New York. 

The Genesee County Bank, of Batavia, was organized April 4, 1879, 
as the Genesee County National Bank, with a capital stock of fifty 
thousand dollars, and the following- officers: President, Solomon Masse, 
vice-president, Dean Richmond, jr. ; cashier, William F. Merriman'; 
directors, Solomon Masse, Dean Richmond, jr.. Dr. H. S. Hutchins,' 
Charles R. Gould, Henry Craft, William C. Watson, William F. Merri- 
man, J. C. Guiteau, Edwin Darrow, H. A. Huntington, and F. C. 
Lathrop. December 31, 1884, the bank surrendred its charter to the 
federal government and was reorganized as a State bank. At its an- 
nual meeting January 14, ISOO, the bank voted to go into voluntary 
liquidation, and is still engaged in closing up its business. The officers 
of the bank have been: 

Pn^si/t^/as. -Solomon Masse, April 4, ISTO, to July 14, 1885; Royal 
T. Howard, July 14, 1SS5. to September 10, 1891; H. A. Huntington, 
September 10, 1S91, to date. 

J let- Presidents. —Dk^avl Richmond, jr., April 4, 1879, to Januarv l-» 
188-2; Dr. H. S. Hutchins, January 1:>, 1882, to January 9, 1883; Will- 
iam C. Watson, January 9, 1883, to date. 

Cashiers. — ^Villiam F. Merriman, April 4, 1879, to June 2, 1880; 
Charles R. Gould, June 22, 1880, to August 28, 1882; Jerome L. Bige- 
low, August 28, 1882, to January IS, 1884; John W. Smith, Janiuary 
18, 1884, to date. 

An institution which has proven a great boon to a large number of 
inhabitants of Batavia is the Genesee County Permanent Loan and 
Building Association, which was organized April lb, 1879. Organiza- 
tion was perfected by the election of the following officers: 

President, Wilber Smith; vice-president, Charle.-s H. Howard ; secre- 
tary, Frederick M. Sheffield; treasurer, Frank S. Wood; attornev, Saf- 
ford E. North; directors— three years, Royal T. Howard, Charles H. 
Howard, Dr. Horace S. Hutchins; two years, George Wiard, Wilber 
Smith, Lucien R. Bailey; one year, Theron F. Woodward, James R. 
Mitchell, Charles Houghton. 

The capital of the association consists of shares of one hundred and 


twenty-five dollars each, payable in weekly installments of twenty -five 
cents for each share. The charter i)nn'ides that the number of shares 
outstanding;- at any one time shall noi exceed five thousand. 

Wilber Smith was succeeded as president in 18S1 by Gcorf,re Wiard, 
who has served continuously in that oflice since that time. Hon. Sat- 
ford E. North has served as attorney fur the association continuouslv 
since its or^'-anization.' The oQicers of the association in 1S97 were: 
President, George Wiard : vice-president, M. B. Adams; secretarv, W. 
G. Pollard; treasurer. J. W. Pratt; attorney, Safford E. North; direc- 
tors, George AViard, M. B. Adams, J. W. Pratt, Safford E. North. \V. 
W. Lewis, G. S. Griswold. John P. Casey, F. W. Board and George J. 

On the -ith day of August, ISSO, General Garfield, then the Republi- 
can nominee for the presidency, passed through Batavia. Although at 
a very early hour m the morning General Garfield was dressed and ap- 
peared at the rear platform of the car where he spoke a few words to 
the large crowd which had assembled. He introduced Gen. Benjamin 
Harrison who spoke about three minutes, when the train moved away. 
Batavia thus had the unusual distinction of having within its borders at 
the same time tv;o men destined to become president. 

The only time Grover Cleveland ever appeared in public at Batavia 
was during the famous grape sugar trial in ISSO. He was one of the 
attorneys for the plantiff. Hon. Loran L. Lewis of tJuffalo, who has 
since won distinction as a justice of the Supreme Court, was the lead- 
ing counsel tor the plaintit'f. He examined most of the witnesses. 
opened the case to the jury and summed it up with the masterly skill 
for which he is justly famed. Associated with him were Mr. Cleveland 
and Addison G. Rice of the Ijuffalo Ixar and Hon. Ge(jrge Buwen of Ba- 
tavia. The defendants were represented by Sherman S. Rogers and 
Franklin D. Locke of Buffalo and William G. Watson of Batavia. The 
title of the case was John L. Alberger against the Buffalo Grape Sugar 
Company, Cicero J. Hamlin and William Hamlin. Hon. Albert 
Haight presided. The trial began November 30 and on the 10th of 
December the jury rendered a verdict for the plaintirT for $-?47,125 ; 
this was by all odds the largest verdict ever rendered in Genesee 
county and one of the largest verdicts ever rendered by a jury in this 
State. No appeal was ever taken and the judgment was iproniptly paid 
with costs. 

This case, in some respects the n)ost remarkable ever tried in Gene- 


see county, originated in Erie county, the venue being laid there. A 
trial at Buffalo resulted in a disagreement of the jury; the place of trial 
v.-as removed to Genesee county on the ground that the case had at- 
tracted so much attention in Erie county that an impartial jury could 
not be obtained. A struck jury was ordered, the only one ever drawn 
in Genesee coimty. Forty-eight prominent citizens were selected by 
tlie county clerk as provided by law, and from this number eleven ju- 
rors were obtained, the panel was then exhausted and William Carpen- 
ter, who happened to be sitting in the court room, was drawn as a 
talesman. The jurors v.'ere as follows: Perry Randall, foreman; El- 
bert Townsend, .Miles B. Adams, Henry \\ Ellenwood, Edward A. 
Brown, Sherman Reed, Joseph F. Stuttcrd, Robert S. Fargo, David 
C. Holmes, Richard Pearson, Aucil D. Mills and William Carpenter. 

Mr. Cleveland's firm were not the attorneys of record in the case. 
He acted as advisory counsel throughout the trial and conducted the 
direct examination of Williams, the plaintiff's principal witness, and 
who was understood to be the real party in interest. 

The E. X. Rowell Company, manufacturers of paper boxes at Bata- 
via, was originally instituted in 1>;.S1. Jt is an offshoot of one estab- 
lished before ISGO at Utica, X. Y., by Dr. A. S. Palmer, who made his 
own pill boxes with implements of his own invention. After Dr. 
Palmer's death the business was carried on by his children until ISSI, 
when it was removed to Batavia. The business increased rapidly, and 
.in ISOO a stock company was incorporated by Edward X". Rowell, the 
former sole owner of the business, Edward G. Buell and William W. 
Dorman. The factory is located in a three-story brick building located 
on Ellicott street, at its junction with Main, wliere about one hundred 
and twenty-five persons are employed. The present officers of the 
company are: President and treasurer, Edward X. Rowell; vice-presi- 
dent, Edward G. Buell; S(.-cretar\-, C. H. P.uprecht. 

The Batavia Club was founded July --^s, is,S-2, with nine directors, as 
follows: Ivucien R. Bailey, Daniel \V. Tonilinson, John Holley Bradish. 
Arthur E. Clark, Frank S. Wood, Augustus X. Cowdin, John H. Ward, 
A. T. Miller and W. L. Otis. Daniel W. Tonilinson was elected the 
first president, J. H. Bradish vice-president, A. T. Miller secretarv, 
Frank S. Wood treasurer, and Eucien R. Bailey, W. E. Otis and Arthur 
E. Clark house committee. January 4, 1883, the club took possessii^n 
of its first quarters, located on East Main street near Dellinger's opera 
house. This building was destroyed by fire February 10, issf.;, and 


April 17 following- the club rcinDved to the building; it now occupies, 
onJ:he northeast corner of East Main and Hank streets, formerly occu- 
pied by the Bank of Genesee. The club was incorporated April ',, 
ISyS, and soon afterward purchased the buildiiVi^ it occupies. 

The Batavia Manufacturing; Coni[)any was incorporated in ISSilto 
manufacture the Post sewing machines, by Lucien R. Bailey, II. I. 
(ilowacki, Columbus Buell, C. J. Ferrin, jr., and C. H. Howard. Tlie 
Batavia Sewing Macliine Company was organized in 1SS4 to succeed 
the first-named company. No machines were ever manufactured and 
the company soon ceased to exist. 

Upton Post Xo. vIJD, Grand Ai-my of the Republic, so nanied in 
honor of General Eniory Upton, was organized October 2'>, b-^S"i, under 
general orders from department licadtiuarters, dated October 1-1, l^S^i. 
The officers who instituted the post were as follows: H. S. Stanbach, 
Post 9, commander; L. S. Oatman, Post 9, senior vice-commander; 
C. S. King, Post '2i'J, junior vice-commander; A. G. Rvkert, Post 219, 
adjutant; L. F. Allen, Post -219, (puirtermaster; A. J. Lorish, Post '^19. 
chaplain; Jacob U. Creque, Post •-2-2G, officer of the day; G. S. Farwell. 
Post 520, officer of the guard; E. N. Havens, Post 9, inside sentinel; 
E. A. Halcomb, Post 219, sergeant major; Julius Baker, Post 219, 
quartermaster sergeant. The charter members of the post were as 

W. J. Reedy, W. H. Raymond, Geor:;e Thayer, John O. GrifiiL^, O. C. Parker. 
Morris McMullen, C. R. NiL-hols, Peter Tiionias, L. L. Cro.sby, Russell Crosby, Tim- 
othy Lynch, Lucius R. H.ailey, Henry C. Fish, Charles A. Sloan, Irving D. South- 
worth. William Radlty, B. M. Chesley, Gcoige W. Mather, George H. Wheeler. 
Daniel W. Grifiis, William IL Ilunn, Edward F. Moulton, Peter Welker, lames F. 
Bennett, Oscar D. Hammond, Charles Lilly, John K. Giddings, James -Con way, 
Frank Fanning, Williara Squires. 

The post had for its nrst corps of ofiicers the following comrades: 

Commander, W. J. Reedy; senior vice-commander, W. H. Raymond; iunior vice- 
commander, George Thayer; ([uartermaster. John O. Grifns; ofiicer of the dav, O. 
C. Parker; othcer of the guard, Morris McMullin ; chaplain, C. R.Nichols; adjutar.t. 
Peter Thomas; sergeant major, L. L. Crc^sby; quartermaster sergeant, Russell 
Crosby At the first meeting of the post the following comrades were mustered in 
as members of thep-ist; Edson J. Winslow, Edwin J. Fox, Edward C. Peck, George 
McGregor, Charles McGregor, Pnirr Kenyon, William Gay, Fred. Kelpenberg. 

Following is a complete list of the commanders and adjutants of 
Upton Post from the date of its organization to the present time: 

Commanders. — l'^^:i l-^y.'), William J. Reedy: ISSG, Timothy lA-nch ; ISyT, W.J. 


RcL-dy; isSS, Whiting C. Woolsey; ISSO, PMward A. I'crrin; 1>S90, John Thomas; 
IMiI, Frank -M. Jameson; IS'j'^-ls;);], John Thumas; ls'j4, D. W. Grifiis; 1895-iy96. 
Clcorge \V. Stanley; T^'JT, George H. Wheeler; lyUS, Adilison (5. Negus. 

Adjutants. — ls>.>:l-l>sr), Peter 'I'honias; ISSG .18^^3. L. L. Crosby; l^S'-l-l^'Jl, Anson 
M. Weed; ISUo-lSUT, Addison G. Negus. 

The names of the members of the post at the present date, with their 
residences and the names of the commands with which they served 
dnrino- the Civil war, are; 

Ahl, Henry .Ratavia Co. D, loth H.A. 

Ar.stin, N. J ..Albion... Co. I), Oth Cav. 

i'..\:-:on, Isaac R Eatavia Co. F, 42d Ohio \'ol. 

i'.i-.eH. Melvin P.atavia Rat. L, 1st N. V. 

P.u'.ve, E. A Batavia.. 'M 7Cth N. Y. Vol. 

Hnrns, James M Ratavia Co. C, Ith H.A. 

B;:niingham, M ...Ratavia Co. G, 12'Jth N. V. Vol. 

BIoss, E. L Batavia Co. H, S5th N. Y. \'<A. 

Burroughs, Wm. A.... ..Pembroke _.Co. G. Sth N. Y. H. A. 

Bialey, Wm Elba.... Co. I, 81st X. Y. Vol. 

Conrad, Jacob Ale.xander.. Co. G, IGOth .\. Y. Vol. 

Colville, W. L Batavia Co. L, 2d N. Y. Cav. 

Cro>::iy, L. L Batavia U. S. Signal Cor|)s. 

Ciosby, R Elba.... Co. H, 129th N. Y. Vol. 

Conway, James ..Batavia Co. K, 12th N. Y. Vol. and Co. 

L, Sth N. Y. H. A. 

Colt, J. B .Batavia Co. A, 9th N. Y. Cav. 

Collins, John... Batavia Co. M, Sth N. Y. H. A. 

Capel, Robert Elba Co. D, 49th N. Y. Vol. 

Clark, Livingston Batavia Co. I, 12th N. Y. Vol. 

Collins, Albert G Batavia Co. I, lolst N. Y. Vol. 

Cooper, James A ..Batavia ...Co. F, 110th N. Y. Vol. 

Crocker, George ..Bethany.. ...Co. L, Sth N. Y. H. A. 

Churchill. R. E. Batavia Co. K, 10th N. Y. Vol. 

I'olbeer, Charles Ratavia 24th N. Y. Battery. 

Dewey, C. E Batavia Co. A. 90th N. Y. VmI. 

Hurfev, Charles Batavia Co. G, lS4th N. Y. \'ol. 

iJuffy,' John... - Batavia Co. C, 151st N. Y. \'oI. 

Edv.-ards, C. I) ...Ratavia Co. A, 140th N. Y. \'ol. 

Elliott, Edwin R East j'embroke Co. E, 140th X. Y. \'nl. 

Follett, E... ._ Ratavia. Co. K. 12th X. Y. \'ol. 

Foster, J. P - Rochester Co. A, 9th H. A. 

lM,ley, Tim Ratavia. Co. A, 11th X. Y. \'ol. 

I-\>rd, George Batavia Co. G, Sth X. Y. H.A. 

Farnsworth, S. W. Oakfield Co R, 1st X. Y. brago(jns. 

(irifris, I. O Batavia 22d X. Y. R.ateryand2d X. Y. 

Gndis, L>. W. Flat a via Co. C, 131 ht N. Y. W-J. 


Giddings, John K ..Batavia Co. C. Uth N. Y. Vol. 

Gardiner, J. A Batavia ...Co. F. W. Va. Vol. 

Gardiner, W. C Batavia ^...Co. D, 2Gth N. Y. Vol. 

Greene, J. O Alexander Co. A, ;id N. V. Cav. 

Gibhart. C Elba ..Co. I, 8th N. Y. H. A. 

Hunn, William FI Elba Co. I, Sth N. Y. H. A. 

HoUoran, M Batavia Co. I. 151st N. Y. Vol. 

Hammond, O. D... Batavia Co. G, IGOth N. V. \'ol. 

Hoyt, J. H.. Elba ..Co. I, Nth N. Y. H. A. 

Hayes, .M Batavia Co. C. 151st N. Y. Vol. 

Hundredmark. G. F Oakfield Co. A, Itijth N. Y. Vol. 

Hough, C. W Batavia... Co. E, KWth X. Y. Vol. 

Jones,!). M Batavia Co. M, Sth H. A. 

Jame.son, F. M Batavia Co. G, 140th N. Y. Vol. 

Kelley, John Batavia .Co. H, 24th N. Y. Yol. 

Kelley, Seneca Auburn ._Co. A, 89th N. Y. \'ol. 

Kendall, \V. C Batavia. ..Co. G, Sth N. Y. H. A. 

Kenyon.E Batavia Co. G, Sth N. Y. H. A. 

Kinell, Cbarle.s.. Batavia lUth N. Y. Vol. 

Lynch, T Batavia... Co. E., 100th X. Y. Vol. 

Lock, \V. G.. Batavia 14th N. Y. \'ol. 

Le.sler, Peter Pembroke.. 'i.ith N. Y. Ind. Batt. 

Leller, G. W Batavia Co. G, .50th N. Y. Vol. Eng. 

Lincoln, F. M Batavia Co. K, Vlih X. Y. Vol. 

Moulton, A. H Ale.xander 22d Ind. Batt. 

Muntz, John Batavia Co. G, Sth X. Y. H. A. 

Moulton, E. F Batavia U. S. Signal Corps. 

McPhail, John Batavia Co. B, 100th X. Y. Vol. 

:^Iahoney, Cain Batavia .Co. G, Sth X. Y. H. A. 

Myers, John . Batavia. Co. D, 49th X. Y. V. 

Xegus. A. G. ...Batavia ...Co. G, 9th Hawkins Zouaves. 

Nash, F - ..Batavia... Co. B, 9:5(1 X. V. Vol. 

Odion, R. C. Batavia Co E, 105th X. Y. \'o!. 

Osgood, A. W Batavia Co. G, 23d X. Y. Vol. 

Perrin, E. .\ Batavia Co. F, 4th N. Y. H. A. 

Power, E. Batavia Seaman on "Juniata." 

Prescott. F l-5atavia Co. I, od R. Corps. 

Putnam, J. H... Batavia Co. A, 70th X. Y. Vol. 

Ouauce. Wilhird Batavia Co. F, 91tl! N. Y. \'ol. 

Raymond, W. H Elba.... Co. H, 12l)th X. Y. Vol. 

Radley, William Batavia Co. I, 8:h X. V. H. A. 

Rolfe, Lucius Batavia Co. E, 105th X. Y. \'ol. 

Robinson, \V. X ...Batavia Co. A, 1st X. Y. Infantry. 

Reed, J. E ..Batavia.. Co. B, l(J4th Ohio X. G. 

Robbins, F. J Bethany 2<iih X. Y. P.att. 

Russell. C. M. -. .Batavia Co. H, :J^th X. Y. V(;l. 

Stanley, G. W - Batavia Co. D. 2d X. Y. Cav. 


Stanley, L. V. Batavia Co. I, Lllst X. Y. Vol. 

Soiithworth, L 1) Batavia 2."ith X. Y. lud. Batt. 

S'luiers, W ..Batavia 25th X. Y. Ind. I^att. 

Scliecr, (icorge Batavia ...Co. B, 0th Ohio \'ol. 

Scniiate, R. Batavia Co. G, 'JOtli X. V. \'ol. 

Siiiitli, J Batavia Co. C, 151st X. Y. \'ol. 

Stavtley, J. Batavia E. V. C. X. Y. 

Thayer, G. W. ....Indian Falls... Co. F, 2yth X. Y. \'. M. C M. R. 

Travis, L Batavia Co. D, od Mieh. Inf. 

Taylor, Thomas .Batavia Co. B, lOtli X. Y. Cav. 

Toil, Simon J Bethany Co. B, 1st Iowa Cav. 

Thomas, John Batavia. Co. G, Sth X. V. II. A. 

Thomas, Peter Piatavia Co. l-^. -I'.'th X. Y. \'ol. 

Tarbox, H. F Batavia Co. C, K'sth X. Y. \'ol. 

Tripp, A. J... Oakrield ...Co. E, 2d X. Y. II. A. 

'I'onrnier. George 'M Batavia Co. G, :]d Li;<lit Art. 

Thomas, Edward A Batavia. ..Land.smsn, ^!iip '• Sheuango. 

Welch, Pat Batavia , . . . Co. F, lO^th X. Y. Inf. 

Welch, William Alexander Co. M, 9th II. Art. 

Wheeler, G. H Batavia ..K, 12th X. Y. V. .\; F, 5th X. 

Y. V. C. 

Welker. Peter Elba Co. M, 8th X. Y. H. Art. 

Win.slov,', E Batavia... .Co. H, 129th X. Y. Vol. 

Woolsey, W. C Batavia .Co. I, O'Jth 111. Vol. 

Weed, A. M Batavia Co. L, 50 X. Y. Vol. Eng. 

Wright, C. M _ ...Batavia.. Co. C, Sth X. Y. H. Arl^ 

Ward, E .Bergen 22d X. Y. lud. Batt. 

Whitney, C. M Ray, X. Y Co. (t. Sth X. Y. H. Art. 

Wagner, F Batavia Co. C, 151st X. Y. \'ol. 

Zurhorst, A. F Alabama Co. G, 21st X. Y. Cav. 

The Batavia Carriage Wheel Company is the outy;rovvth of the in- 
dustry fcnmded on a modest scale in IS8"2 by A. M. Colt, James R. 
Colt and Moses E. Trite, for ti:e manufacture of clamps, saw Iiandles 
and hardware specialties. In 1885 John ^I. Sweet became identified 
with the original firm, styled Colt Brothers & True, and the energies 
of thicse gentlemen were then directed more ])articiilarly lu the man- 
iifacture of the celebrated Sweet carriage wheels. The works were 
then located on Exchange place. They were destroyed by fire in 1887, 
soon after which the present stock company v/as incorpc^/rated and a 
new plant built on Walnut street, adjoining the tracks of the New 
York Central and Hudson River Railroad. The buildings and ma- 
chinery cost u]nvards of forty thousand dollars. 

The trade of the Batavia Carriage Wheel Company has steadily de- 
veloped until to-day it extends throughout the entire Unitetl States and 


into many foreig^n lands. Its product includes car-riag-e wheels of 
every description, its specialty in recent years bein^^' wheels with rub- 
ber tires. Re.-.ides these it manufactures Sweet's ci)nce:ilj.^d band, the 
Ivcnney band, and the Sarven i!v- Warner patent and plain wood hub 
wheels. The concern has contributed very lari^ely to the industrial 
development of Hatavia. Its officers are: President, Frank Richard- 
son; vice-president, W.C.Gardiner; secretary, William W. Leaven- 
worth; treasurer, A. M. Colt; superintendent, John M. Sweet. 

The. Johnston Harvester Compan.y for seventeen years has been 
closely identified v/ith the welfare and progress of the village of Ba- 
tavia. As tht iron industry has made Pittsburg famous, as the collar 
industry has nuule 'I'roy famous, as the knit goods industry has made 
Fall River and Ct/noes famous, so has this great industry known as the 
Johnston Harvester Company made the name of Batavia famous 
throughout not only the United vStates but many foreign countries. 

This concern is not only the most important m Batavia, but it is one 
of the most noted of its kind in the world, and its establishment in 
Batavia has been instrumental, more than any other single agency, in 
directing attention to this thri\ing industrial centre. This mammoth 
concern had its inceirLiou in a small machinery nianufacturing firm, 
originally instituted in Brockport, X. Y., by Fitch, Barry i\: Co., more 
than half a century ago. It was in this early factory, in 1847, that the 
McCormick reapers, now celebrated the world over, were constructed. 
In 1850 this firm became Ganson, Huntley & Co., and in I853 Huntley, 
Bowman & Co. In 1S68 Samuel Johnston, Byron E. Huntley and 
others entered into a co-partnership under the firm name of Johnston, 
Huntley i.\: Co., for the ])urnose of continuing and enlarging the busi- 
ness being carried on at liruck^-iDrt. ^Ir. Huntley was the principal 
member of the iirm, which at first devoted its energies principally to 
the manufacture of tlie "'Johnston Sweepstakes." In 18T1 the com- 
pany was incorijeirated under its present style, with Mr. Johnston as 
president and Mr. Huntley as secretary and treasurer. A few years 
later the manufacture of the old machine was abandoned and the con- 
struction of the now celebrated Johnston harvester was begun. In 
1874 Mr. Johnston withdrev.- from the corporation and left Mr. Hunt- 
ley still at its head, though the name of the company remained un- 

In Jime, ISSx'. while the company was enjoying a prosperous and 
rapidly increasing business, the works at l>rockport were destroyed by 


^•':^ %(-^^ 







fire. When the company bei;an to consider the question of rebuilding, 
it was decided to locate the new plant in a place offering" better trans- 
portation facilities than those which had been enjoyed at Brockport, 
and Batavia was selected as the site for the greatly enlarged and im- 
proved manufactory which it was determined to build. Accordingly 
the present mammoth plant, which has been enlarged and improved 
fmrn time to time, was constructed and occupied, and within an incon- 
ceivably short time after the burning of the plant at Brockport, oper- 
ations in the present magnificent lot of factories were resumed, with 
an increased number of employes and new and improved machinery. 
Commodious as the present buildings are, they have proved entirely in- 
adequate to meet the re(|uiremeius of the constant]}- incrcasir.g busi- 
ness of the company, and extensive additions to the plant liave reccntl}- 
been made. 

The works of the Johnston Harvester Coiupany occii'py a tract of 
about seventeen acres of land principally between and south of the lines 
of t!ie New ^^;)rk Central and Huds.jn Rivei" and the Iilrie railroads, 
each building being especially designed and adapted for its i)articular 
part of the work. Probably no other plant in America is arranged in 
a more systematic and orderly manner or nn^-e independent of outside 
assistance. Side tracks connect the works with tlie railways running- 
through the village. Over six hundred persons, a large proportion of 
whom are skilled workmen, are regularly employed. The output of 
the conqoany's plant consists exclusively of Inirvesting machiner}-, disk 
implements, and sugar beet cultivating and harvesting machinery. 
The principal machines manufactured are mowers, binders, reajjers, 
rakes, headers, disk harrows, disk cultivat(jrs, corn harvesters, beet 
cultivators, and beet harvesters, and toi)pers. The company has dis- 
tributing warehouses for its products at twenty of the leading com- 
mercial centres vi the United States, and sales agencies at all [>oints 
throughout the agricultural sections of the country, with a Euroi:iean 
office at Paris, France. The officers of the conqjany are: President, 
Byron K. Huntley; vice-presideiit and treasurer; E. W. Atv/ater; sec- 
retary, L. D. Collins; s\q:»erinlendent, (r. A. Farrall. K. ]. Mockford, 
who had been vice president, retired from the December 1, 

The Richmond Memorial Library was erected in ISST by Mrs. Marv 
E. Richmond, widow of Dean Richmond, as a memorial to her son. 
Dean Richmond, jr., who died in ISSo. The building, a handsome 


fireproof structure, is located on the west side of Ross street, nearly 
opposite the hii^^h school. Its front is of light gray Fredonia sandstone 
and red Albion stone, a combination as picturesque and suitable asanv 
that could possibly be planned. The style of architecture is Romanesr^ue. 
The building cost about thirty-five tlwnisand dollars. It was completed 
and presented to the village March 12, ISSO. It has a capacity of i^.. 
000 volumes, tiiough the number of volumes on the shelves now is be- 
tween 11,000 and 1-2,000 only. 

The Young Men's Christian Association was founded in the spring of 
1SS9 with these officers: President, Levant C. Mclntyre; vice president, 
vSafford E. North; general secretary, C. H. Harrington; recording 
secretary, A. H. Thomas; treasurer, John M. McKcnzie. For some 
time the rooms were located on the corner of Main and Jackson streets. 
but the association now has quarters in the old Alva Smith residence 
at the head of Park avenue which for many years was used for a ladies' 

The Wtstern liotel, owned by Andrew J. Wells, was destroyed bv 
fire September l;j, 1.^80. A hotel on this site, then conducted bv a 
man named Hensinger, was burned in 1850. The latter was the orig- 
inal hotel erected on the site of the old Western hotel, and was a land- 
mark in the first half of the century. 

The Baker Gun and Forging Company, celebrated as the manufac- 
turers of the Baker hammcrless shot guns, is the successor to the Svra- 
cuse Forging and Gun Compa.ny, which removed its plant irom Syra- 
cuse t(j Batavia in the spring of ISSn. The enterprise was originallv 
founded in Syracuse in 1880, but the company was reorganized and re- 
named upon the removal of the establishment to Batavia. Oddly 
enough, it began business by manufacturing an improved fifth wheel 
for wagons, finally adding the manufacture of the new Baker gun, tlic 
invention of W. II. Baker, for several years the general superintendent 
of the company. The market for this gun extends throughout everv 
State in the Uni(^n, from five U) si.x thousand being S(jld annually. 
Besides the Baker hannncrless, popular grades include the Batavia 
hammerless, the Paragon hammerless and the Baker I'^O? model, a 
hammer gun f^r nitrt> powder. The manufacturing plant includes 
a two-story main factory and f(;undry, in which about two hundred 
skilled woi-kn^en are en^phjyed. The compan\-'s otficers are : President 
and treasurer, William T. Mylcrane; vice-president, C. W. Hough; 
secretarv, E. W. Aiv.;iter. 


Hotel Richmond occupies a site that for just three-quarters of a 
century has been occupied by hotel building's. On that lot the first of 
the famous old Eap;le taverns stood. This was a spacious three-sior}- 
brick structure built by Horace Gibbs for Bissell Humplirey and hrst 
opened to the public on February 1, 18:23. It was destroyed by fire 
May 30, 1S34. In this tavern Batavia Lodj^e No. 433, F. & A. M., 
lield many of its meetiny;s. The second l^agle tavern was erected by 
a stock company at an expense of about fifteen thousand dollars. Its 
doors were opened December 'io, 18.35, under the management of Eras- 
tus Smith. In 1800 Albert G. Collins, Andrew J. Andrews and James 
H. AVhite purchased the Eagle hotel property, which was renamed 
Hotel Richmond by Mr. Collins; but numerous residents of Batavia 
protested over the name, believing' that it had too strong political sig- 
nificance for those days, and Mr. Collins and his partners were pre- 
vailed upon to change the name, and tlie same was changed to that of 
St. James Hotel. Collins & Andrews were proprietors until 1884, 
when Mr. Collins [)urchased the interest of his partner. In the latter 
vear the hotel Vv'as remodeled into an arcade with four stories. In that 
year Mr. Collins rented the property to Capt. Orrin C. Parker, who 
conducted it until January ^;, 1880, when it was destroyed by fire. The 
present Hotel Richmond, which is said by many travelers to be one of 
the finest hostelries of its class in the country, was erected in 1889 by a 
stock concern knov.m as the Batavia Hotel Company. June '2-i, 1880, 
the companv, in which Mrs. Mary E. Richniond, widow of Dean Rich- 
mond, was a heavy stockholder, executed a ten-year mortgage fen" 
forty thousand dollars to her. In January, 1800, in defauk of paynient 
of interest, an action of foreclosure was begun by the executors <jf the 
Richmond estate against the liorel ccjmpany, and ^larch 0, 180G, the 
property was purchased by the executors of that estate for 1843, 040. 8"2. 
The hotel has been under the managL:ment of lienjamin R. Wood since 
June, 1801. 

The Batavia roller mills, on Evans street, were established in 188 4 
by X. I). Nobles, the present proi)rietor. 

The Ellicott street roller mills were erected by Frank ',t. Moultun in 

Tlie Consumers' Electric Eight and Power Com]iany was organized 
and incorporated in 1880 with a capital of twenty-tivc thousand doUars 
and these officers: President, Henry Craft; secretary, C. H. Caldwell; 
treasurer, R. L. Kinsey. February 13, 1890, the plant of the Batavia 


Gas Li^ht Company was sold to those interested in the Consumers' 
Electric Lig-ht and Power Company. The two companies soon after 
were consolidated under the name of the BataviaGas and Electric Com- 

The Batavia and New York Wood Working- Company was incorpo- 
rated in July, lS9--.\ soon after wliich it purchased the entire plant, 
business and good will of the New York Lumber and Wood Working 
Company, a concern which had been established about six years. The 
company's main building, exclusive of boiler and engine rooms, is sixty 
by three hundred feet, and three stories in height. The concern 
makes no stock article of any kind, working only to designs and on 
contract. The products comprise doors, sash, blinds, mouldings, in- 
terior hardwood finish for buildings, wainscoting, stairs, office par- 
titions, bank interiors, and fine cabinet work of all kinds, made from 
architects' drawings and in special designs. Many of the finest com- 
mercial and office buildings, hotels, apartment houses and private res- 
idences in the great cities of the East have been supplied with interior 
woodwork by this establishment. It employs regular! v about two 
hundred and fifty skilled v/orkmen. The officers of the company are; 
President, J. N. Scatcherd; vice-president, C. H. Honeck; secretarv 
and treasurer, A. D. Scatcherd. 

The predecessor of the Batavia and New York Wood Working Com- 
pany — the New York Lumber and Wood Working Company — sprang 
from the Batavia >Lanufacturing Company, incorporated in 1884 witli a 
capital stock of two hundred thousand dollars. Soon after the firm 
was clianged to the Bata\ia Sewing Machine Company, with a capita! 
stock increased to three hundred thousand dollars, which contracted to 
manufacture the Post combination sewing machine. During the sum- 
mer of LSS4 the company erected the building now occupied by the 
wood working company, near the eastern boundary line of tlie village, 
at a cost of about forty thousand dollars. The plans of tlie company 
could not be carried <nn, by reason of financial difficulties, and in ISn.5 
the building became the properly of the New York Lumber and Wood 
Working Company, formerly tlie New York Wood Turning Company 
of New York city. The company, wliose capital was one liundred 
thousand dollars, was composed of residents of New York city, witli 
W. C. Andrews as president, and Charles H. Honeck as superinten- 
dent. In lh02 it sold its business to the Batavia and New York Wood 
Turning Company. 


June 2G, 1893, the taxpayers of Ratavia decided by vote to authorize 
the trustees of the villai;-e to expend twenty-three thousand dollars for 
an electric li^^dit plant. The trustees at once acted upon the authority 
thus conferred upon them, and the electric lii^ht plant began oper- 
ation Jul\- 13, 180-1. The apparatus was furnished h}- the Fort Wayne 
(Ind.) Electric Company, at an expense of twelve thousand five hun- 
dred dollars, the contract for the same having been awarded Januar}- 
25, ISO-t. 

April 2-5, 1S93, a number of the business men of Hatavia held a meet- 
ing and organized the Batavia I5^)ard of Trade. The hrst officers, 
elected on that date, were: President, Charles \V'. Hough; hrst vice- 
president, Augustus N. Cowdin; secfmd vice-president, Ashton \V. 
Caney ; corresponding secretary, lAhvard Russell; recording secretary, 
David I). Lent; treasuiei", Joseph C. Ikirnes. 

During the gubernatorial campaign in the fall of lSO-1 William Mc- 
Kinley, then governor of CMiio, stopped in Batavia adviut nine o'clock 
on the morning of ( )ctober "slO. and made a speech of eight minutes from 
a platform erected for the purpose in the [jark at the northeast coriier 
of the Surrogate's office. The distinguisiied orator was greeted by a 
vast audience of early risers from all parts of the county. He was in- 
troduced by Judge North as the next president of the United States, a 
prediction destined to be fulfilled. 

The Batavia Street Railroad Company was incorporated February 
20, 1S95, to operate an electric street railroad from Batavia to Horse- 
shoe lake, a distance of seven and one h.alf miles. The capital stock 
was fixed at seventy- five thousand dollars, and the company had these 
original directors: Amos H. Stephens, A. 15. Wilgus, J. H. Wilgus, J. 
S. Lindsay, C. C. Marsli, New York; H. R. Burdick, Maiden. Mass.; 
F. P. Wilgus, ]Mark Sugarman, Brooklyn; F. G. F'a.dner, Chicago. 
The road contemplated has never been constructed. 

Among the other local organizatii'ns are the following: Lodge Xo. 
197, LO.O. P., was instituted in August, 180S, by H. S. Andrews, D. 
G.^L, with five charter members: Weeden T. Bliss, William Hoyt, Sim- 
eon Lothiem, Thomas Yates and B. P. Fonda. ^Lijestic Lodge Xo. 
7ol, LO.O. P., was instituted June 4, 1890, with Clayton W. Shedd as 
N.(t. Richmond Encampment, iN^o. 07, Patriarchs ^Llitant, was insti- 
tuted August 21, 1872. Security Lodge Xo. 21, A. O. U. W., was 
chartered April 20, 1870, with C. F. Starks as CM. The Batavia 
Farmers' Club was organized in 1872 with P. P. Bradish as president, 



J. G. Fargo as secretary and Henry Ives as treasurer. The Pliilhar- 
monic Society was or-anized in 1S83. Batavia Lodge No. 5, E. (). 
M. A., was instituted March lo, 1870, with tliirty-three charter mem- 
bers. The Batavia Athletic Association was founded in 1887 v.-ith 
forty members and M. F. Cross as president. The Batavia Chess Club 
v.-as organized in December, 1S08, with Oliver A. Jones as president. 
The Batavia Business Men's Bowling Club was organized January 7, 
180r,, with D. W. Toralinson as president, E, f. Mockford as vice- 
president, Dr. Burkhart as secretary, and Orrin C. Steele as treasurer. 
The Batavia Gun Club was organized April 0, 180G, with Geurge Levv'is 
a!5 president and Held captain, W. E. Baker as secretary, and H. M. 
Johnson as treasurer. Upton Camp, S. of V., was organized with 
twenty-seven members May -^-i, 1807, with II. PI. Scott captain, George 
A. Gardner first lieutenant and George B. Thomas second lieutenant. 

The shoe factory of P. W.\Minor & Son was established in I'Jatavia 
in 189G, and employs about one hundred hands. P. W. Minor already 
had been engaged in the manufacture of shoes for about forty years. 
The industry is a valuable addition to the industries of Batavia. 

Smith Brothers' vShoe Company is the most recent addition to the 
manufacturing industries in Batavia. This company, composed of 
Louis E. Smith and Anthony C. Smith, was established in 1807. The 
factory is located on Railroad avenue, employs from ten to eighteen 
hands, and manufactures ladies', misses' and children's shoes exclu- 

In the spring of 1840 the town of Batavia, at its annual town meet- 
ing, appointed William Seaver, Samuel Heston and Seth Wakeraan a 
committee to ascertain and report at the next town meeting the matter 
of procuring a suitable site for a town hall, si>ecifying in such report 
the place, the size of the building proposed and the cost thereof with 
the requisite furnishings. About this time the grand jury of Genesee 
county adopted this resolution: 

That it is advisable that the old cuurt house should be either torn down or repaired, 
or that It should be disposed of in such manner as to insure its being kept in a decent 
state of repair. 

The town committee mentioned in the foregoing decided that the old 
court house could be repaired and converted into a town hall, and there- 
fore applied to the board of sujiervisors for its possession. November 
7, 1840, the county legislature adopted the following resolution: 

Whkkeas. The old court house owned by the county of Genesee, situated in the 


villatje of Batavia. is in a perishable and dilapidated condiUon, and of very little use 
to said county, and 

Whereas, It is represented that the same can be repaired and converted t<j a use- 
ful purpose, therefore be it 

Resolved h^ the board of supervisors of the county of Genesee that in conformity 
with an application presented to this board in behalf of the town of Batavia by a 
committee consisting of William Seaver. Samuel Heston and Seth Wakeman, the use 
and occupancy of said old court house, together with the ground upon which it stands, 
be granted to the said town of Batavia for the purpose of converting the said build- 
ing into a town house so long as the sjii.' building shall standand be used for the pur- 
pose aforesaid, upon condition that the said building shall be thoroughly repaired, 
fitted up and appropriated to the uses and purposes set forth in the said application, 
to which this resolution is annexed. 

Resolved, further, in case the saitl building shall be so repaired, fitted up and 
appropriated by the town of Batavia aud kept in good repair, that for the purpose of 
securing to the building of proper care and protection, and that ii may 'oe under the 
contr(;l and management of some legal authority, it shall be and remain in charge of 
such public officer or officers as the electors of the town of Batavia may at their an- 
nual town meeting by resolution designate which officer or othcers shall have the 
exclusive power to grant permission for its use and occupancy, except that it shall 
always be free for holding of town meetings and election meetings of the Genesee 
County Agricultural Society, and meetings for educational purposes, and except that 
the board of supervisors may at any meeting of said boa'-d have the use of said 
building or such part thereof as may be desired, and further if at any time the said 
building shall be needed for the purpose of holding any of the Supreme. Circuit and 
County Courts therein, then that it may be used for such purposes. 

Resolved, That the foregoing application, preamble and resolution, be entered in 
the minutes and proceedings of this board. 

The town committee reported at the next ensuing- town meeting rec 
ommending the acceptance of the proposition of the board of super- 
visors, and the town of Batavia, by resolution, accepted the report and 
offer on the part of the county auth(*rities. Thus the (»!d court house, 
the oldest building now standing west of llie (Jenesee river, became the 
property of the town of Batavia. with certain conditions and limitations 
attached to the ]:)roprietorship. 

Instead of repairing the building, the town board of Batavia, at that 
time consisting of John B. Pike, supervisor; Isaac M. Josh-n, town 
clerk; Augustus Cowdin, Nathaniel Read, M. \V. Hewitt, and Richard 
Smith, justices of the peace, entered into a contract with Levi Otis, 
Benjamin Pringle, Rtifus Roljertson and William L. Malk)ry, whereby 
the building became the property of these men, they agreeing to make 
these repairs: Raising the building from its f(nindation, fitting up the 
basement for the use and occupancy of the Batavia Village l-'ire bei)art- 


ment; fittinc^ up the first story into otlices; converting- the second and 
third stories into one story and one hxrg-e room, for use as a town hall; 
erectino stairways in each of the two seiiii-(KUagons, thereby making it 
conveniently accessible; providing- a new roof, new flooring, new win- 
dows and doors, plastering, painting and papering — in short making all 
the alterations and repairs essential to a first class public building. The 
town agreed to pay these four men for such work the sum of one 
thousand dollars, the latter to be entitled to all the rents and profits 
thereof. The town board reserved the use of the building, subject to 
the rights of the county therein, as contemplated by the resolution of 
the board of supervisors giving the structure to the town. 

The building was accordingly repaired and named Ellicott hall, in 
memcjry of Joseph Ellicott, its founder, and used as a town hall up to 

Since the transfer of the building to private ownership the title has 
undergone several changes. In 18.33 "William L. Mallory sold his one- 
fourth interest therein U) the reuaaining three partners. In lSt38 the 
interest of Rufus Robertson was sold to Horace M. Warren. In the 
same year the one-third interest of Benjatnin Pringle was sold to Mr. 
W^arren and Levi Otis, leaving the title to the property in the hands of 
the two latter men. In ISTO the board of supervisors deeded to Messrs. 
Otis and Warren a strip of land sixty-six feet to the north of the build- 
ing towards Main street and the full width of the building, for the pur- 
pose of enlarging it and converting it into an opera house ; but the 
repairs were never made. In 1S71 Levi Otis sold his half interest in 
the property to H. M. Warren, who thereby became sole owner. After 
Mr. Warren's death it became the property of his two daughters, Mrs. 
F. M. Jameson and Mrs. W^ W. Whitcomb. In 1893 Mrs. Whitcomb 
sold her half interest to Mrs. Jameson. 

In the v/inter of 18'.)?-I'> the town board conceived the idea of again 
purchasing the j^roperty, the main thought being to preserve it as a 
historic relic. I'lie boartl therefore appointed John Thomas, supervist>r 
of Batavia, a committee to consult Mrs. Jameson for the purpose of as- 
certaining if it could be purchased, and if so, at what price. The terms 
proposed being considered satisfactor\', the town board pre[)ared a res- 
olution directing the purchase, which it submitted t(j the voters of the 
town at the annual town election in the spring of 1808. The resolution 
was adopted by a large majority and the purchase was consummated. 
Soon after, the work of repairing the structure was begun, the original 


colonial style being- preserved. The building- to-day is considered the 
staunchest in Genesee county. While the repairs were in progress 
Upton Post No. •2:i',', Grand Army of the Republic, made application 
t(^ the town board for the fitting up of one of the roonis in the building 
f(jr their occupancy; and the laws of the State permitting this to be 
done, the application was granted by a unanimous vote, and the Grand 
Army post and the local cami^ of the Sons of \'eterans, raised the Stars 
and Stripes over the building, the first Hag being donated by Gen. 
George W. Stanley, a member of Upton Post, G. A. R. 

The dedication of this historic building took place on the evening of 
Wednesday, October •2'.;, 189S, Harry Barrows acting as master of cere- 
monies. The Rev. A. M. Sherman opened the ceremonies with a brief 
prayer. This was f^sllowed by the singing of "The Star Spangled 
Banner" by the Alert quartette, comp'jsed of the ^Messrs. Telfair, C. 
W. Hutchinson and Frank C. Fix, with Miss Stanley as accompanist. 
John Thomas, supervisor of the town of Batavia, read an interesting 
historical record of Ellicott Hall, prepared by him for the occasion. ' 
W. L Colville, on behalf of Upton Post, thanked the town for giving the 
post new quarters in the building. He was followed by the Hon. Safford 
E. North, judge of Genesee county, who delivered the dedicatory ad- 
dress. The singing of "America" by the Alert quartette and the 
benediction by the Rev. A. M. Sherman concluded the exercises. 

In the course of his address Judge North spoke as follows: 

Ninety-six years ago, the thrift and energy of the men, who, with their strong 
arms and bright axes, bla;:ed a way through the primeval forests, led them to erect 
here, at this junction of two Indian trails, the building which, after the lapse of so 
many eventful years, we are rededicating to-night. With what ceremonies it may 
have been dedicated almost a century ago. or wliether without ceremony, we know 
not. Of all those whose hands wrought this substantial structure — whose ponderous 
oaken timbers have with^toud wind and rain these many years — not one is left to tell 
the story. It may well be guessed, although we do not know for certain, that not 
one even of the children of those who built so well yet survives to read irr to-mor- 
row's paper the story of how, after all the chances and changes of the eventful years 
which lie between us and the time when this structure was erected, it was reserved 
fur those who bear the honored title of Sons of \'eterans once more to dedicate this 
structure, grown classic with historical ass(x-iations. 

It was only a year ago that the matter was under serious consideration whether 
this building, grown somewhat unsightly from lack of repair, should not be demol- 
ished. But a few men of sound judgment — and foremost among these. I was glad 

' Many of the facts coniair.eJ iii t'ac above Iiistory of this time hiT.urpii biii'.Jiiic wi;r>.- gleaned 
from the address of Mr. Thonia.s. 


to note, was Supervisor John Thomas— said that it was too bad to tear down a struc- 
ture surrounded by so many time-iionored memories, and which had been the first 
court house not only for Genesee county, but for all of what are now Erie, Wyoming. 
Niaijara, Orleans, Chautauqua, Cattaraugus and Allegany, as well as a part of the 
present counties of Livingston and Monroe. 

And so it came about that the propositi<;n was submitted to the voters of Batavia 
at the town meeting in -March of this year (IS'JS). and thanks to the good sen=e of 
our people, old Ellicott Hall with its interesting history and with its ninety-six years 
was elected, not to be torn down, but to receive a fresh coat of paint, to be strength- 
ened, renovale(i and repaired and to remain, the common ]iroperty of us all, to be- 
come the heritage of our children and our children's children. 


In prccedino- pages of this chaptei" tlie details of the org-anizatiun of 
the older churches in Batavia appear in chronological order. Follow- 
ing will be found concise historical sketches of the churches from the 
date of their organization to the present time. 

The First Presbyterian church of Batavia is the outgrowth of a Con- 
gregational society organized September 10, 1800. by the Rev. Roval 
Phelps, who had been sent to the Genesee country bv the Hampshire 
Missionary Society of Massachusetts. Those who signed the nienil)er- 
ship roll upon the institution of the church were Silas Chapin, David 
Anderson, Ezekiel Fox, Solomon Kingsley, Mrs. Solomon Kingslev, 
Patience Kingsley, Eleanor Smitii, Elizabeth Mathers, Mrs. Esther 
Kellogg, Elizabeth Peck, Iluldali Wright and Mrs. Polly Branard. 
The ancient reci.rds show that during the same month in which the 
society was organized a sacramental service was held in Jesse Rum- 
sey's barn. In June, 1810, the Rev. Reuben Parmelee preached in 
Abel Wheeler's barn. Meetings were held after this at Phelps's inn, 
the Pheljxs school house, at Clark's settlement, and at the residences of 
Samuel Ranger and Ezekiel Fox. In 1813 regular services were in- 
augurated in the court house, now ICllicott hall, and continued there 
until 18-M. when the first house of W(jrship on Main sti-eet. opposite the 
court house, was erected. This was a frame builditig and cost about 
three thousand five hundred dollars. This was occupied by the society 
until I8,3tj, when a handsome stone structure was erected on East Main 
street, corner -jf Liberty street. Sunday school rooms were added to 
this church in lsS-2, a new gallery was built in 1888, and in 188!'» the 
interior of the church was renovated and redecorated, completelv re- 
juvenating it. 


Up to Octobers, ]S]8, when the church connected itself with the 
presbytery, the society was served by the Rev. Reuben Parmelee, the 
Rev. Julm Spencer, the Rev. John Alexander, and the Rev. Messrs. 
Ayres, Bliss, Swift, Ilanningr, Swce/.y, Squires, Colton, Duvel, and 
Ephraim Chapin. In 1822 the church was hicorporated under its' pres- 
ent name. Since 1818 the church has had the following; retrular pas- 

1818-22, Rev. Ephraim Chapin; 1823-2G, Rev. Calvin Colton; 1827- 
28, Rev. Charles Whitehead; 1829-31, Rev. Russell Whiting; 1837-39, 
Rev. Erastus J. Gillett; 1839-43, Rev. William II. Beeche?;' 1843-51,' 
Rev. Byron Sunderland; 1852-o5, Rev. William; 185.5'-oS, Rev,' 
Isaac O. Fillmore; 18G1-G9, Rev. Charles F. Mu.ssev; 1871-74' Rev. 
Chester W. Hawley; l87o-77. Rev. Thomas B. McLeod ; 1878-87, Rev*. 
William Swan; 1887-91, Rev. Allan D. r3raper; Rev. William J. Mc- 
Kittrick, 1891-94; Rev. Henry R. Fancher, March 4, 1895, to date.^ 

The details of the organization of the First Methodist Episcopal 
church of Baiavia, December 15, 1819, appear in earlier pages in this 
chapter. The society was then a member of the " New Amsterdam 
Circuit and Genesee District," and for some time services had been 
held either in the court house or a frame school house located a short 
distance west of the old land office on West Main street. In 1820 and 
1821 the Rev. James Plall and the Rev. Zachariah Paddock were in 
charge of the circuit. James Gilmore and Jasper Bennett served in 
1821-1822, and John Arnold and Asa Orcutt in 1822-1823. Mav IG 

1823, the work of raising money for a church edifice, by subscription' 
was begun. June 23 following the trustees of the society contracted 
with Thomas McCulley, Joseph Shaw and Seymour h:nsign to build a 
stone church forty by forty-five feet in dimensions. This church, which 
cost about two thousand eight hundred dollars, was dedicated June 13, 

1824. It stood on the corner of Main and Lyon streets. In 183l» this 
building was sold to the First Freewill P.aptist church of Batavia. Then 
for about two years the M. E. congregation worshipped in the Ni.xon 
building, subsequently a di.strict school house, located east of St. James's 
church. A new house of worship on the east side of Jackson street, 
known as St. John's church, was erected in 1841 and dedicated Decem- 
ber 3 of that year. This was sold to William M. Terry in ISGG, and 
burned July 15, 1888. After leaving the Jackson street churcli the 
congregation worshipped about a year in Concert hall, corner of Main 
and State streets. In 18G8 anew brick house of worship, co.^ting tv.-cnty 


thousand dollars, was erected on West Main street, duniiL;- the pastorate 
of the Rev. Sandford Hunt, D. D. The eorner stone was laid June ;)0, 
ISGS, by the Rev. E. IC. Chau!i>ers, then presidint^ elder, and the build- 
ing was dedicated September U, 1>1G9. Those who have served the 
society as pastor, in addition to the early circuit preachers mentioned, 

1S22-1.S41, Revs. JdIiii ArnoM, Asa Orcutt, John Beggarly. Andrew Prindel. J. B. 
Roach, Kenajah Williams, Jonathan Heustis, Asa AVjcU, John Cosart, Ira Bionson, 
Micah Seager, Glcnzen Filhr.ore, Chester V. Adgate, S. W. I). Chasc, Levi B. Cas- 
tle, John H. Wallace, Gideon Lanning. Richard L. Waite, John B. Alverson, Will- 
iam Fowler, G. B. Benedict, Daniel M. Murpliy, Wesley Cochran, Darius WillianiS, 
D. Nutter; l.S41-1^70, Allen Steele, Philo E. Brown, Josejih Cross, John Parker, 
William R. Bal)cock, Daniel C. Houghton, Philo Woodworth. J. K. Cheesenian, 
William M. Ferguson, Charles Shelling, E. Everett Chambers, James M. Fuller, 
John B. Wentworth, De Forest Parsons, King David Nettleton, Joseph H. Knowles, 
George G. Lyon, Schuyler Seager, Charles R. Pomeroy, Sandford Hunt; 187U-1S7L 
Sandford Hunt, D. D. ; LS71-1'^T;J, R. C. Brownlee; 1873-1S7G, James E. Bills; 187(3- 
1878, A. D. Wdbor; ls7S-!--<l, T. H. Youngmau; 1S81-1S8-2, i). S. Chamberlain; 
1882-1885, John W. Sanborn; hSS') -IS.^S. C. W. Winchester; 1S8S-18'J1. S. W. Lloyd; 
Jan. 1, ISO--', to Oct. 1, 1-^0.', C. W. Cashing, D. D. (appointed as supply to fill un- 
expired year of S. W. Lloyd, who resigned Jan. 1, 1892, on account of illness); 1S92- 
1893, A. F. Colburn, lS!j;j-is!)s, Thomas Cardus; 1808, A. F. Colburn. 

The early history of St. James's Protestant Episcopal church has 
been o-iven in detail in earlier pages in this cliapter. The first house 
of w<jrship, a brick structure, was consecrated by I'ishop Hobart Sejj- 
tember :2'^ IS'^G. The second church, wliich is still in use, was erected, 
of stone, in 1835 and ISHd, and during these years the main part of the 
old rectory was also built. David E. Evans, then agent for the Hol- 
land Land Company, donated the h-t on which the church stands, be- 
sides presenting to the- suciety a chandelier and the sum of fifteen hun- 
dred dollars. Trinity churcli of New York also gave one thousand 
d(.;llars toward defraying the building expenses. 

The Revs. Samuel Johnston and Lewis S. Ives conducted services 
from the organization of the parish until lS"io. Since that year the 
rectors of St. James have been as follows: 

Rev. Lucius Smitli, ls2;Mi;]; Rev. James A. P.oiles, D.D., 1n;!;J 54; Rev. Thomas 
A. Tyler. D. 1 '. , ls.".4-r.2; Rev. Morelle Fowler, 18():3-»JS; Rt. Rev. C. F. Robertson, 
bishop of Missouri, a few months during ISdS; Rev. tieorge F. Pluramer. 18G>i-7.">; 
Rev. George S. Baker. 1^<70 77; Rev. H. L. Everest. 1878-82; Rev. William A, 
Hitchcock, D. D., lss;;-S7; Rev. A. .M. Sherman. 1^87-98. 

The Eirst I' church of IJatavia was organized under the State 


laws at the court house November 9, 1S35, as the " Baptist Society of 
Batavia Village." On that occasion Richard Coville, jr , John Dor- 
man, William Blossom, William I). Poi>ple and Calvin Ff^ster were 
elected trustees. March IT, \^:]>\, a lot on the west side of Jackson 
street was purchased of William D. Popple for $400 and work upon a 
house of worship was begun soon after. About iSOo the church was 
remodeled at a cost of ten thousand dollars. In ls77 the society was 
reorganized and incorporated under its present name. December 3, 
1833, the board of trustees decided to purchase a site for a new edifice. 
A week plater they purchased of Mrs. Mary L. Douglass, for four thou- 
sand five hundred dollars, the lot on East Main street on which the 
present handsome church stands. The corner stone of the new struc- 
ture was laid June K, 1890, by the Rev. Cyrus A Johnson, then pastor 
of the society. The completed edifice, which cost about forty thousand 
dollars aside from the organ, which cost about five thousand dollars, 
was dedicated October '-^-i, 1891. the dedicatory sermon being preached 
by the Rev. J. A. W. Stewart, D. D , of Rochester. During the ded- 
icatory services the sum of seven thousand dollars was contributed to 
liquidate the indebtedness incurred by the society in constructing its 
new home. The pastors of this church, with the date of the commence- 
ment of their woik, have been: 

1834, Ichabod Clark; 1S:J7, William \V. Smith; 1S40. L. A. Esta; 1S44. Gibbon Will- 
iams; 1S45, S. M. SLimpson; 1552. D. Ilarringtou; 1835, J. D. Vrooman ; IS'/J. L. J. 
Huntley; 18G1, S. M. Stimpson; 1SG5. O. E. Mallory; 1875. I). D. Brown; 1877, Will- 
iam C. Leonard; 188-2, CyriLs A. Johnson; 1898, John H. Mason. 

Though the Catholic congregation in Batavia was not placed under 
the care of a regular pastor until 1849, services had then been held in 
the village for several years. As early as 1810 the Rev. Father Gan- 
non began to make visits to the few Catholic families then residing 
here, and conducted services as frequently as his duties elsewiiere per- 
mitted. At that time there probably were not more than a or 
fifteen adherents of the Catholic faith in Bata\'ia and its immediate 
vicinity. Father Gannon continued his ministrations for a period of 
about three years. Then, from lS-43 to 184T, the Rev. Bernard 
O'Reilly, subsequently bishop of Hartford, Conn., and his brother, the 
Rev. William O'Reilly, both of whom were stationed at Rochester 
during those years, conducted services here alternately. Sometimes 
the small but increasing congregation would gather for worship at the 
home of Edward O'Connor, and sometimes at the residence of James 


Ronan. About lS-i.5 the numerical increase of the congreg-ation had 
became' such thai private residences were too small to accommodate 
them. Learning,- of this condition of allairs. Messrs Otis and Worth- 
ington tendered the stKiety, free of charge, the use of a large room on 
the second tloor of the building occupied by Gad B. Worthington as a 
hardware store. 

In 1S48 the Rev. Thomas McEvoy was appointed to succeed the 
Rev. Fathers O'Reilly in charge of the congregation, which a short 
time before had been established as a mission. He served in this 
capacity until April 4, 1840, when, an independent congregation hav- 
ing been formed, the Rev. Edv.-ard Dillon was appointed resident 
priest by the Rt. Rev. John Timon, the first bishop of the newly or- 
ganized diocese of Buffalo. On the following Sunday, April S Easter 

Sunday— the nev/ priest conducted services for a congregation of 
about seventy-five Catholics in the old brick school house located on 
the corner of Main and Eagle streets. Prior to this time the subject 
of a house of worship had been discussed by members of the steadilv 
increasing congregation, and now, upon the permanent location of a 
resident pastor, the members of the society went to work to build up a 
fund to pay for the erection of a church. About a month after Father 
Dillon had been installed as j)astor, Bishop Timon visited Batavia and 
lectured in a hall near tlie Eagle Tavern (now Hotel Richmond). In- 
terest in the project for a church edifice was at once greatly enhanced 
and within a few days the congregation purchased of Benjamin Prin- 
gle, for twelve hundred dollars, a two-story stone dwelling on Jackson 
street, which had been erected for a private school. After the neces- 
sary alterations thereto had been made, regular services therein were 
inaugurated and continued there for several years. Upon the comple- 
tion of the new church this building was used for St. Joseph's parochial 

Father Dillon resigned his pastorate in November, 1850, and was 
succeeded by the Rev. Thomas Fitzgerald. The latter was succeeded 
September o, 18.V.2, by the Rev. Francis O'Farrell. December lU 
1S55, the latter was appointed vicar-general of the diocese of Buffalo, 
and rector of St. Joseph's cathedral in the city of Buffalo. The Rev. 
Peter Brown was appointed to succeed him. The latter resigned Sep 
tember --28, 18:)i;. The Rev. James McGlew, who followed him, was 
succeeded December 10, lS.;o, by the Rev. Thomas Cunningham, with 
the Rev. John Castaldi as his assistant. September ij, ISCrl, Father 


Cunning-ham purchased the lot on tlie northeast corner o/ East Main 
and Summit streets, from Lawrence Timmons, for two thousand five 
hundred dollars, and soon after began the erection thereon of the 
present handsome and commodious church, which was dedicated to the 
worship of God in 1SG4. This edifice, built of brick, cost about forty- 
five thousand dollars. A convent was also erected on Jackson street in 

Father Cunningham served as pastor of St. Joseph's for nearly thir- 
teen years, being succeeded by the Rev. P. A. Maloy August 23, 1S73. 
After starving exactly one year Father Maloy retired, and was followed 
by the .Rev. Martin McDonnell. At the time of the latter's resigna- 
tion in April, ISSO, his charge numbered about two thousand two hun- 
dred persons, and a mission had been established at Attica. In Januarv, 
1882, the Rev. James McManus became priest in charge of the con- 
gregation. His continued illness prevented him from the performance 
of his duties, and the Rev. Father Walsh, his assistant, conducted ser- 
vices and pertormed the other pastoral work. Father McIManus died 
in Batavia, at the age of forty years. In February, 1SS2, the Rev. T. 
B. Brougham was appointed to take charge of the congregation, and 
still serves as pastor. During his tirsi year in Batavia the old convent 
on Jackson street was sold and the j.)rcsent convent and parochial 
school on Summit street, north of and adjoining the church, were 
erected. The Convent of ]\Iercy, a brick structure, is a convent for 
novices, who go there from all parts of this diocese. During the pas- 
torate of Father Brougham tlie ju^rish of St. Joseph's has ex})erienced 
great prosperity, both spiritual and temporal, and is recognized to-dav 
as one of the strongest Catholic parislies in the diocese. Not only have 
the new convent and school been erected during his pastorate, but he 
acquired a large lot cast of the church, as a site for a pastoral residence 
erected in 1S9'2. The church has also been renovated and repaired, 
making it one of the handsomest structures in the State. 

The Evangelical Association of 15atavia was organized in 18'j'2 bv M. 
Pfitizinger and Adolph Miller. The Rev. Jacob Seigrist was the first 
pastor of the society In the same }ear the first house of worship, a 
frame structure, was erected. The present church edifice, of brick, 
was constructed in 181 1 at a c<.»st of six thousand dollars. It is located 
on Centre street. The society is small numencallv. 

vSt. Paul's German United Evangelical church was founded April OO. 
1873, by the organization (;f a society with these oiVicers: President, 


John Friedley; treasurer, Martin Wolfley; secretary, Louis Uebele. 
The Rev, George Field was tlie first pastor, and the first house of wor- 
ship was located on Ellicott street. A new churcli, located on Lii)erty 
street, was erected in IsliS, the dedication taking- place during the pas- 
torate of the Rev. I-]. F. Holls December 4 of that year. 

The First Freewill Baptist church of Batavia was organized with about 
twenty-five nieinhers January 17, 1S8G. September '^S, 1SS4, the Rev. 
J. H. Durkee opened a meeting in Odd Fellows hall, which was attended 
by several adherents of this denomination. The meetings thus inaug- 
urated were continued in Odd Fellows hall and in Lorish'shall until the 
organization of the society. The members of the organization council 
were the Revs J. H. Durkee, L. P. Bickford, J. C. Steele, D. M. L. 
Rollin, and R. E. Xesbit. The church edifice on Bank street, a com- 
modious frame building, was completed early in the summer of 1SS7, 
and dedicated June '21 of that year. Its cost was about ten thousand 
dollars. Mr. Durkee remained as pastor until 1S9S, when he resigned. 
The society is now without a pastor. 

A chapel on Ellicott street in Batavia was opened by the newly 
formed Free Methodist society March 2, 1893. The first pastor of the 
society, who conducted services on that occasion, was the Rev. M. T. 



While the judicial system of the State of New York is to a large ex- 
tent foynded upon the common law of England, there are important 
differences which are revealed by a study of the laws of our country, 
showing that the American system, in many respects, is an original 
growth. In the simple, yet initiative manner of entitling a criminal 
process, for example, there is a radical difference between the American 
method and that which must be followed in England. Here it is "the 
People versus the criminal," while in England it is " Rex versus the 
criminal." In the one it is a judiciary directly responsible to the peo- 
ple; in the other it is a judiciary responsible to a monarch. This prin- 
ciple of the sovereignty of the people over the laws, as well as their 
dominance in other governmental matters, has had a slow, conservative, 
yet steadily progressive and systematic growth. 

In the colonial history of this State the Governor was in effect the 
maker, interpreter and enforcer of the laws. He was the chief judge in 
the court of final resort, while his councillors generally were his obedi- 
ent followers. The execution of the English and colonial statutes rested 
with him, as did also the exercise of royal authority in the province. 
It was not until the Revolution that he ceased to ctmtejKl for these pre- 
rogati\-es and to act as though the only functions of the court and coun- 
cillors were to do his bidding as servants and helpers, while the Leg- 
islature should adopt only such laws as the executive should suggest 
or approve. 

By the first constitution the Governor was deprived of the judicial 
power which he possessed under colonial rule, and such power was 
vested in the Lieutenant-Governor and the State Senate, the chancellor 
and the justices of the Supreme Court; the to be elected by the 
people, and the latter to be ajjpointed by the Council. Under this con- 
stitution there was the iirst radical separation of the judicial and the 
legislative powers, and the advancement of the judiciary to the position 
of a CO ordinate department of the government, subject to the limitation 


consequent upon the appoinrment of ils members by the Council. This 
court, called the "Court tor the Trial or Impeachments and Correction 
of ?2rrors," was continued by the second constitution, which was adopted 
in lb-^1. 

It was not until the adoption of the constitution of 1846 that the last 
connection between the purely political and the judicial parts of tlie 
State government was abolished. From this time on the judiciarv be- 
came more direjily representative of the peo{)le by reason of the elec- 
tion by them of its members. The development of the idea of the re- 
sponsibility of the courts to the people, from the time when all of the 
members were at the beck and nod of one well nigh irresponsible mas- 
ter, to the time when all jud-es, even of the court of last resort, are 
voted for by the people, has been very great. Through all this change 
there has prevailed the idea of having one ultimate tribunal from 
whose decisions there can be no appeal. 

Noting briefly the present arrangement and powers of the courts of 
this State and the elements from which they have grown, it is seen 
that the plan is, first, a trial before a judge and jury — arbiters of law 
and fact respectively; second, a review by a higher tribunal of the 
facts and the law; third, a review of the law alone by a court of last re- 
sort. To accomplish these purposes there was devised and established, 
first and highest, our present Court of Appeals, perfected by the con- 
ventions of IStJT, L^'iS and 189-i, and ratified by vote of the people in 
18G9 and ISOl, and taking the place of tlie ancient "Court for the 
Trial of Impeachments and Correction of Errors " to the extent of cor- 
recting errors of law. 

As originally organized under the constitution of 184^, the Court of 
xVppeals was composed of eight judges, four of whom were elected by 
the people and the remainder taken from the justices of the Supreme 
Court having the shortest remaining time to serve. As organized in 
1870, the court consisted of the chief judge and si.K associate judges, to 
hold ofTice for a term of fourteen years from and including the first day 
of January succeeding their election. The court exists to-day as then 
organized. It is continually in session in the capitol at Albany, with 
an annual June session in the Town Hall at Saratoga Springs, except 
as it takes recess from time to time on its own motion. It has full 
power t(j correct or reverse the decisions of all inferior courts, when 
properly brought before it for review. Its decisions are final and abso- 
lute. Five judges constitute a quorum, and four must concur to ren- 


(ler judgment. If four do not agree, tlie case must be reargued; but 
ni> nn>re than two rehearings can be had, and if f<nir judges do not then 
concur, the judgment uf the court below stands aninucd. 

The State Legislature has prt)vided by statute what, how and when 
proceedings and decisions of inferior tribunals may be reviewed in the 
Court of Appeals, and may, in its discretion, alter and amend the same. 
Upon the reorganization of this court in 1800 its work was far in 
arrears, and a Commission of Appeals to aid the Court of Appeals was 
provided for by the constitutional amendment adopted that year. In 
ISSS the Legislature adopted a concurrent resolution that vSection (3 of 
Article G of the constitution be so amended that upon tlie certificate of 
the Court of Appeals to the governor of such an accumulation (.>f 
causes on the calendar of the Court of Appeals that the i)ublic interest 
required a more speedy disposition thereof, the g(.n'ernor might desig- 
nate seven justices of the Supreme Court to act as associate justices of 
the Court of Appeals for the time being, these constituting a second 
division of tliat C'jurt, to be dissolved by the governor v/hen the neces- 
sity tor their services ceased to exist. This amendment was ratified at 
the succeeding State election, and in accordance therewith the gover- 
nor selected the seven Supreme Court justices, the new division was 
organized, and began its labors March 5, IS.S'J. Its work having become 
completed this division was dissolved in October, lS".t2. 

Second in rank to the Court of Appeals stands the Supreme Court, 
which is constituted of several different elements. This court was 
originally created by act of the Colonial Legislature May G, IGOl, and 
finally was fully established by ordinance of the Governor and Council 
May 15, IGOO. It at first was empowered to try all issues to the same 
extent as the English Courts of King's lieuch. Common Pleas and Ex- 
chequer, except that it did not have equity powers. It had jurisdiction 
in actions involving the sum of one hundred dollars or more, and could 
revise and correct decisions of inferior courts. An appeal from its de- 
cisions could be taken to the Governor and Council. There originally 
were five judges, who made annual circuits of the counties, under a 
commission naming them, issueil by the governor, and giving them 
fu'si prills, oyer and terminer and jail delivery powers. Under the 
first constitution this court was reorganized, the judges being then 
named by the Council of Appointment. All proceedings were directed 
to be entitled in the name of the people, instead of in the name of the 


The consiitution of 1S'21 made numerous and important changes in 
the character and methods of this court. The number of the judges 
was reduced to three, who were to be appointed by the Governor, sub- 
ject to contirmation by the Senate, to hold office during- good behavior 
or until having- attained the age of sixty years. They were removable 
by the Legislature when a majority of the Senate and two-thirds of the 
Assembly so voted. Four times every year this court sat in review of 
their decisions upon questions of law. 

By the constitution of 184G the Supreme Court as it then existed was 
abolished and a new court of the same name, having general jurisdic- 
tion in law and equity, was established. This court was divided inf.j 
General Terms, Circuits, Special Terms, and Courts of Oyer and Term- 
iner. It was ci)mposed of thirty-three justices, to be elected bv the 
people. The State was divided into eight judicial districts. In the 
first of these five of the judges were to reside, while each of the other 
seven districts furnished four judges. By the judiciary act of 1847, 
General Tt-rms were to be held once in each year in counties possessing 
more than 40,000 inhabitants each, and in other counties as often as 
once in two years. At least two Special Terms and two Circuit Courts 
were to be held annually in every county excepting Hamilton, the pon- 
ulation of which was, and still is, inconsiderable. The court was also 
authorized by this act to name the time and place of holding its terms 
and those of Oyer and Terminer. The latter was to be held by a jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court and two justices of sessions. From 1882 to 
to the adoption of the constitution of 1894 the Courts of Oyer and 
Terminer were held by a single justice of the Supreme Court. 

One of the old courts, the powers of which have been vested in the 
Supreme Court, was the C()iirt of Chancery. This court was a relic of 
the old colonial period. It had its origin in the Court of Assizes, the 
latter being invested with ecpiity powers under the duke's laws. The 
court was established in 1G8:]. The Governor, or such person as he 
should designate, was chancellor, assisted by the Council. In 1008 this 
court ceased to exist by limitation; but it was revived in ITOI, again 
suspended in ITOo, and re-establishetl the following year. At first this 
court was unpopular in the Province of New York, the Assemby and 
tlie colonists opposing it with the argument that the crown had no 
authority to establish an e(juity court in the colony, and they were 
doubtful of the j.ropriety of constituting the Governor and Council such 
a court. Under the constitution of 1777 the court was recognized as 


still in existence, but its chancellor was prohibited from holdin- any 
other oflice except dele-ate to Con-ress on special occasi.Mis In^lTrs 
the court was reor-ani.ved. Masters and examiners in ciianccrv were 
to be appointed by the Council of Appointment; re-isters and clerks 
by the chancellor. The latter licensed all solicitors and counselors who 
practiced before the court. Under the constitution of LS-^l the chan- 
cellor was appointed by the Governor, and held office durin- oood be- 
havior, or until he had attained the a-e of sixty vears. Appeals lav 
from the chancellor to the Court for the Correction of Errors Under 
the second constitution equity powers were vested in the circuit jud-es 
whose decisions were permitted to be reviewed on appeal to the chan- 
cellor. Soon after this -eneral erjuity iurisdiction devolved upon the 
chancellor, while the judo-es alluded to acted as vice-chancellors in their 
respective circuits. The constitution of 1846 abolished the Court of 
Chancery, and its powers, duties and jurisdiction were vested in the 
Supreme Court. 

By an act of the Legislature adopted in 1S48, entitled "The Code of 
Procedure," all distinctions between actions at law and suits in equity 
were abolished, so far as the manner of commencing- and conducting 
them was concerned, and a uniform method of practice was adoptecf 
Under this act appeals lay to the General Term of the Supreme Court 
from judgments rendered in Mayor's, Recorder's and County Courts 
and from all orders and judgments of a court held by a single justice of 
the Supreme Court. 

The judiciary article of the constitution of 181G was amended in ISCO 
authorizing the Legislature, not oftener than once everv five years to 
provide for the organization of General Terms consisting of a presiding 
justice and not more than three ass(,ciatcs; but by an act passed in JSt'o 
the existing organization of the General Term was abrogated and the 
State divided into four departments, and provision was made for hold- 
ing General Terms in each. I]y the same act the (Governor was directed 
to designate from among the justices of the Supreme Court a presiding 
justice and two associates to constitute a General Term in each depart""- 
nient. By the constitutional amendment of 188-2. the following \car 
the Legislature divided the State into five judicial departments and pro- 
vided for the election of twelve additional justices, to hold ofllce from 
the first Monday in June, 1■■^S4. 

In June, ISST, the Legislature enacted the Code of Civil Procedure 
to take the place of the code of 1848. By this many minor chaiiires 


were made, amonc;;- them being a provision that every two years 
the justices of the General Terms and the chief judges of the Superii^i- 
City Courts should meet and revise and establish ^^^eneral rules <>f [)iac- 
tice for all the courts of record in the State, excepting the Court (jf 

Previous to the constitution of IS'il, modified in 18'ii,'>, justices <jf the 
peace were appointed. Since that date they have been elected. Tiie 
office and its duties arc descended from the English office of the same 
name, but are much less important in this country than in England. 
Under the laws of this State they are purely the creatureof the statute. 
. Next in authority to the Supreme Court is the County Court, held in 
and for each county in the State, except New York county, at such 
times and places as its judges may designate. This court had its origin 
in the old English Court of Sessions and, like that court, originally had 
criminal jurisdiction only. Ey an act passed in 1003, a Court of Ses- 
sions, having power to try both civil and criminal causes by jury, was 
directed to be held by tliree justices of the peace in each of the coun- 
ties of the province, twice every year, with one additional term in Al- 
bany and two in New York. By the act of IG'Jl and the decree of I'JM'.', 
all civil jurisdiction was taken from this court and conferred uiian the 
Court of Common Pleas. By the radical changes of the constitution of 
lS-46, provision was made for a County Court in every county in the 
State, to be held by an officer to be designated as the county judge, and 
to have such jurisdiction as the Ee;.^islatnre might prescribe. Under 
the authority of that constitution the County Courts from time to time 
have been given jurisdiction in various classes of actions whicli need 
not be enumerated here, and also have been invested with certain 
equity pov;crs in the foreclosure of mortgages, the sale of infants' real 
estate, the partitioning of lands, in the admeasurement of dower and 
care of persons and estates of lunatics and habitual drunkards. The 
judiciary act of ISO'.) c<jntinued the then existing jurisdictic)n of the 
County Courts, and conferred upon them original jurisdiction in all 
actions in wh.ich the defendants lived within tiie county, and where the 
damages claimed did not exceed one thousand dollars. This sum was 
afterward changed to two thousand dollars. 

Like the Supreme Court, the County Court now has its civil and 
its criminal sides. Until the adoption of the c(jiistitution of Esfil, in 
criminal matters the county judge was assisted by two justices of ses- 
sions, elected by the people from among the justices of the peace in 


the county. It was in the criminal brunch of this CDurt, known as the 
Court of Sessions, that all minor criminal offenses were disposed of. 
All indictments irom the gi-and jury, excepting for murder or some 
very serious felony, mij;rht be sent to it for trial from the Oyer and 
'JY'rminer. Ry the code- of 18-iS and 1877, the methods of procedure 
and practice were made to conform as nearly as possible to the practice 
in the Sr.nren^e Court. This was done with the evident desii,'-n of at- 
tracting litigation into these courts, thereby relieving the Supreme 
Court in a measure. In this puri)ose comparative failure resulted, 
however, jitigants generally preferring the shield and the assistance of 
the broader powers of the higher court. Under the codes the judges 
can perform some of the duties of a justice of the Supreme Court at 
Chambers. The County Court has appellate jurisdiction over actions 
arising in Justices' Courts and, until tlieir abolishment, Courts of 
Special Sessions. Appeals lay from the County Courts to the General 
Term until the adoption of the constitution of lsO-1, since which ap- 
peals are taken to the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court. 
County judges were appointed until 1S47, since which time they have 
been elected. I'y the constitution of 1801, which abolished Courts of 
Sessions except in the city of New York, the jurisdiction of the latter 
courts was transferred to the Cfjunty Conrts. 

Surrogates' Courts exist in each of the counties of the State, and are 
now courts of record having a seal. Their special jurisdiction is the 
settlement and care of estates of persons who have died either with or 
without a will, and of infants. The derivation of the jxjwers and prac- 
tice of the Surrogate's Court in this State is from the h'cclesiastical 
Court of England through a part of the Colonial Council, which existed 
during the Dutch dominion in Xew Netlierland. Its authority was ex- 
ercised in accordance v/ith the Dutch Roman law, the custom of Am- 
sterdam and the law of Aasdom, the Court of Burgomasters and Sche|)- 
pens, the Court of Orplum Masters, the Mayor's (Juurt, the Prerogative 
Court and the Court of Probates. The settlement of estates and the 
guardianship of or[/nans, which was at first vested in the director- 
general and Council of New Netlierland, was transferi'ed to the 
Burgomasters in IG-"*:], and soon after to tiie ( )rphan Masters. Under 
colonial rule the Prci"()gative Court controlled all matteis in relation to 
the probate of wills and settlement of estates. This power c(jntinued 
until li;0-2, when by act of Legislature rdl jirobates and granting of let- 
ters of adiuinistration were placed under the hand of the governor or 


his delegate; and two freeholders were appointed in each town to take 
charge ot the estates of persons dying without a will. I' nder tlie duke's 
laws this duty had been ])ei"f<nnied b\- the constables, overseers and jus- 
tices of each town. In 1778 the governor was divested of all this 
power except the appointment of surrogates, and it was conferred upon 
the Court of Probates. Under the first constitution surrogates were 
named by the Council of Ap})ointment, and under the second constitu- 
tion by the governor, with the approval of the Senate. The constitu- 
tion of 1S4'J abrogated the office of suirogate in all cf)unties having less 
than forty thousand })opuUition, and conferred its ])owers and duties 
upon the county judge. By the Code of Civil Procedure surrogates 
were invested with all the powers necessary to carry out the equitable 
and incidental re(|uirements of the office. The constitution also gave 
the Legislature authority for the election of special surrogates, who dis- 
charge the duties of surrogate in case of inability, or of vacancies, and 
exercise such other powers in special cases as provided by law. 

The constitution of IS'.ii made numerous changes in the character of 
the courts of New York State, some of which have been referred to in 
the preceding pages. It abolished the General Term. Circuit Courts, 
Courts of Oyer and Terminer, the Superior Courts of the city of New 
York and of Buffalo, the Court of Common Pleas for the city and 
county of Xew York, the City Court of Brooklyn, vesting their jurisdic- 
tion in the wSupreme Court. Courts of Sessions, except in tlie city of 
New York, were also abolished. It also provided for the establish 
ment of an Ap]:)ellate Division of the Supreme Court, to stand second 
t<j the Court C)f Apjieals only. It directed the Legislature to divide the 
State into four judicial dei^artments, and defined the Appellate r>ivis- 
ion as consisting of seven justices of the Sui^reme Court in the first de- 
partment (the county of New York), and of five justices in each of 
the other dejKirtments. The jjower of appointment io this court is 
vested in the gcn'ernor. To the Ap[)ellate Division was transferred the 
jurisdiction exercised previously by the .Supreme Court at its General 
Term, by the General Terms of the C'Mirt of C<jmmon Pleas for the 
city and county of New York, the Superior Court of the city of New 
York, the Superior Court of Buffalo and the City Court of Bro(.>klvn, and 
such additional jurisdiction as may be conferred by the Legislature. 

Under the act of February P.', I7!tt;, this State was divided into 
seven districts, <n-er which an assistant attf^rney-gcneral was ajjj^ointed 
by the Governor anil C'umcil of Appointment, to serve during pleas- 

THK Hi:.\cn ANl) }?AR. 341 

lire. Tlie otTice of district attorney was created April 4, 1801, the 
Slate being- di\'ided into seven districts as before, but subsefiiiently 
several new districts were formed. By .> law [tasSL-d in April, 181S, 
each county was constituted a separate district for the purpose of this 
otfice. During- the period of tlie second constitution district attorneys 
were appointed by the Court of General Sessions in each county. Since 
then they liave been elected b}- the peojile. 

The edjtor of this work has lieen reciuested by tlie iniblishers to pre- 
]-)are a sketch of the lives of the nien who in the past have been repre- 
sentative members of the legal profession in Genesee county. The 
scope of this article does not includf_- iiny lawser nov/ living. Tt is only 
of those whose earthly labors are ended that we are to speak. Within 
the limit of space assigned it will be impossible to give more than an 
outline of the lives of these men, many of whon-i have been among the 
foremost citizens of Gencsee county. It is not claimed that mention is 
made of every lawyer who has practiced here, neither does this sketch 
include thost* who have pursued their studies or practiced in this county 
for a short time, but who have made their reputaiiuns elsewhere. In 
any community the members of the bar are a]vva\-s in a large sense 
public men. Man\- in-iportant judicial positions are necessarih' tilled 
from their ranks, while legislative and other orticial places are often 
occupied b}' lawyers. The bar of Genesee county forms no exception 
to this rule. There has ne\'er been a time when it did n(;t include man\- 
men of recognized ability, and the bar as a whole has always compareil 
favorably with that of any <jther county of anything- like ecpial size. Of 
those whose names ai'e here recorded onl\- Martindalc, Wakeman, 
Hewitt, Tag-gart, Peck, Glowacki, Ballard, Pringle, Bangs, Heddon, 
H. W. Hascall, Bissell, and Crofoot were personally known t(j the 
writer. The estimates given of the professional characteiistics of the 
men who form the subject of this article have been derived largely from 
conversation with those who knew them as lawyers and citizens, and 
partly, of course, from such ])rinted sketches as were available. The 
historical facts have been gathered from biographies found in many 
diflerent places, fr«nn newsj)aper files, court records, recollections of 
old inhabitants, and in several instances from such meagre statements 
as are chiseled in marble in the cemetery, or are written down in not 
less formal phrase in the books of the surrogate's oflice. 


The first judc;e ot the coiitny was Joseph IClHcott, the same man wlio, 
as surveyor, bhized his way throiv^h the primeval forests of Western 
New York, and I;ud cut the counties, t(nvns and viihiLres of tlie IloUand 
Purchase. Mr. Ellicott was not a huvyer. He resio^ned the po.-^ition 
of jud^e a short time after his appointment in I'-^o:), and was succeeded 
by Ezra Phut. Of Jud^^e Phatt but little information is available, ex- 
cept that he discharged the few duties of the otlice until about 181:2. 
His will is recorded in bonk 1 of Wills in the surroL,aite's office, at paj^e 
11, and is the third will entered in the county records. The first was 
that of Daniel Totten, recorded January 20, 1808, and the second, that 
of IXavid Franklin, was recorded March oO, 1800, while the record of 
Judge Piatt's will was made January 0, 18r.3, making three w-ills in four 

The succeeding judges down to 1847 were John H. Jones, Isaac 
Wilson, John Z., William H. Tisdale, William Mitchell, Phineas 
L. Tracy, and Edgar C. Dibble. During the same period the surro- 
gates of the county had been Jeremiaii R. Munson, whose name does 
not appear in any of the records of ttie office, Richard Smith, Andrew 
A. Ellicott, Ebenezer Mix, Harvey Putnam, Timothy Fitch, and Samuel 
Willett. }^rr. Mix filled the othcc from 18-^ to 1840. Under tlie lav- 
as it has existed since 1847 the functions of county judge and surrogate 
have been performed by the same official. The duties of surrogate 
prior to that date were few, as estates were seldom settled. 

Richard Smith, whose portrait has for many years hung in the court 
house, over the chair occupied by the presiding judge, was born in 
Connecticut, February 17, 1770, and died Decembei- ;')!, 1850. He was 
a graduate of Vale College and removed to Genesee countv in 180.). 
He was at one time a partner of Daniel 13. Brown. Judge Smith sel- 
dom, if ever, appeared in court. It is not known that an}' of the other 
incumbents of the office up to that time were particularly prominent as 
lawyers, neither is mucli informati(.m available as to any county judc^e 
prior to Phineas L. Tracy. Judge Ross is spoken favoi-ably of as a cit- 
izen and lawyer. He died October '.27, 18'20, at the age of forty years. 

Few men have been more closely identified with the history of Cicne- 
see county than Judge Trac}'. He was born December :25, 178'j, at 
Norwich, Conn., and graduated at Yale in 180(;. He was admitted to 
the bar at .Vlhany in ISll, and removed to Genesee county in 181;). 
For many years he had an extensive .and lucrative practice, and was a 
man of marked force and ability. He was elected to Congress in 18"27 


and a::;-ain in IS-^O, and in 1841 was appointed " first judi:;c " of the 
county by William II. Steward, then g(n-ern(jr. After lii.s retirement 
from the bench in b-Tx; lie practiced hiu' but little. He was for many 
years a member of the vestry of St. James's Church. His death 
occurred December 'i^, isrti. An obituary published at that time says: 
"He would have been 00 years old on Christmas day. A good and 
just man, full of years and ripe for the harvest, has 'j;<me to his peace- 
ful rest." 

The next county judge was Edgar C. L)ibl)le, who held the office 
during the year iSii'>, and again from b^:.-^ to is,")/;. Judge Dibble was 
a fairly well rea_d lawyer, a man of good character, and he discharged 
the duties of his oflice satisfactorily. He died February 28, 18<.i2, at 
the age of fifty-seven years. During the period of his professi(;nal 
career he was at diiierent times in partnership with Timothv Fitch, 
John II. r^Iartindale and Martin F. Robertson. 

Judge Dibble was succeeded by Horace C Soper, v.dio served four 
years. Judge wSoper is said to liave made a good record upon the 
bench, but was never especially prominent as a practitioner. He was 
an amiable and agreeable gentleman, of attractive manners and large 
general information. He died January 1.5, bSTs, at the age of seventy- 
two years, leaving no descendants. 

Josluui L. Brown became county judge and surnvgate in ISo*; and 
held the office four years. He died at the age of fortv-eight, June Hi, 
LSiJO, a few months after the expiration of his official term, at vSt. 
Louis, Mo. Judge Erown was a gocKl citizen, and a lawyer of exten- 
sive learning and decided ability. He is said to have possessed less 
aptitude for the trial of causes before a jury than for the other duties 
of his professi(Mi, lie tried a large number (>[ cases. Before 
the court, or as a counselor in his oflice, he was a strong, safe man. A 
member of the bar now living tells how he had a habit during the trial 
of criminal causes, wiiere, as often occurs, the defense was conducted 
by Some young man designated by the court, <jf taking a seat near tlie 
junior thus assigned, when, as the trial proceeded, he would draw his 
chair up and make su-gestions. After a little he would be on his feet 
arguing a law point, and in one case at the close of the evidence he pro 
ceeded at once to sum up to the jury, much to the discomfiture of the 
young lawyer who had prepared, with great care, an address which was 
to make his reputation. Judge Brown was for man\- vears a p.irtner 
of Maj. Henry I. Glowacki. Tiie firm of Brown ^; GKnvacki enioved 


for many years an extensive and lucrative practice, wliich was at its 
full hei'^ht at the time of Judge I^rown's death. 

Moses Ta;4;^Mrt, wliu succeudeJ Jud_i;e Urown, died at his home in 
Batavia, Februar}- 17, ]SS:5, at the ripe age of eighty two years. He was 
the Nestor of our bar, having been in active and continuous ]iractice 
for about fifty-five years. During his eventful life he had endeared 
himself to the profession, of which he was an honored member, and was 
universally respected in the community where he had so long resided. 
As a lawyer he was thoroughly grounded in the elementary ])rinci- 
p^les of legal science. 'J'hrou^^hout his career he was esteemed f<;r his 
good judgment, safe counsel, arid extensive research, rather than for 
any special abilit}' as a trial lawyer. He had little liking or a[jtitude 
for the work of an advocate. A strong, helpful friend of young men, 
he had v.-itnessed the career of every man at the bar at the time of his 
death, and it is safe to say that ever}- one of the number felt a sin- 
cere attachment for tlie venerable and honored father of the fraternity. 
Judge Taggart was born at Colerain, Mass., August 21, 1T99. At 
the age of eighteen years he left his native town to find a home in 
the newer region of Western Xew York, and traveled all the way to 
Byron on foot. His legal studies were pursueil in the office of Phineas 
L. Tracy. U[j<.>n his admission to the bar he became a partner of Albert 
Smith, who at tlie time was an able and noted practitioner. x\t dif- 
ferent perioils of his life he was in partnership with Daniel H. Chand- 
ler, Charles Henshaw. Seth Wakeman, and during the latter years of his 
life with his son-in-law, W. Harris Day. He was a member of the Ctm- 
stitutional Convention of IS-iij, and in 1S51 was appointed justice of the 
Supreine Court to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Judge Sill. 
This position he filled until the close of 1S53, and during the last year 
of his service bcc:ime, under the then existing provisions of law, a mem- 
ber of the Court of Appeals. In IStJO he was elected county judge and 
surrogate of tliis county, and filled the office acceptably for two terms 
of four years each. In 1S"'1 Judge Taggart was appointed jjostmaster 
of Batavia. which position he held for altout four years. He main- 
tained his excellent health and vigorous bearing almost io the end of 
his life, while his intellectual pcnvers remained unimpaired to the last. 

Charles Hensliaw was born at Java, Wyenning county, and studied 
law with Gen. L. \V. Thayer at Warsaw. He was electe<l counts- jiulge 
and surrogate in IStiS, and died in office Sejjtember IS, ls7(», at the age 
of forty-eight years. A man of sterling worth, honest throuj-h and 


through, lie possessed (inalificatinns which rendered him in some re- 
spects the most remarkable lau-yer who has ever i^racticed at our bar. 
It is doubtful if any other lawyer of this countv has ac(iuired s,. exten- 
sive a knowledge of the law itself. His memorv was unfailing, and his 
famdiarity with both elementary law and judicial decisi<>ns\vas vast 
and perfectly at his command. He could alwavs sav " on such a book 
and page you will find the law." He disregarded all forms, and fash- 
ioned his papers briefly and accurately to suit himself. Unwilling or 
unable to try a case before a jury, he seldom if ever appeared in "this 
capacity. His judicial career, upon which he had fairlv entered, gave 
great promise, and had he lived Charles H.Mishaw would have filled 
higher positions upon the bench. 

Among tlie members of the legal profcssi<m who have practiced in 
Le Roy there may be mentioned Jacob Harf nv, Alfred F. llartow and 
Charles Bartow, his sons, Seth M. (^ates, Charles Danforlh, Samuel 
Skinner, Perrin M. Smith, and Augustus P. Hascall. 

Jacob Bartow, although never distinguished as a lawver, was a man 
of large attainments and rare scholarly tastes. He wa.s a law student 
with Aaron Burr. He died about 1:^1.1 His son, Alfred F. Bartow 
studied law with Heman J. Kedfield, and later became his partner.' 
He removed west and died several years ago in Chicago, ^[r. Bartow 
was an excellent practical business lawyer, and was a prominent and 
respected citizen of Le Roy. He was for many years a member of the 
vestry of St. Mark's church, and took much interest in the work of that 
society. Charles Bartow studied law with A. P. Hascall, and during 
the time he practiced in Le Roy was in partnershio with ILram w" 
Hascall, and afterwards with J.^hn R. Olmsi.^d. He removed to New 
York, where he died. Augustus P. Hascall was f.-r a long time an hon- 
ored and prominent citizen of Le Roy. He served as ]iresidential 
elector in 1848, and was a rei)resentative in the Thirty-second Congress. 
He died T,', 187:2, aged about scvcnfy-six years. Charles"l)an- 
forth was a graduate f-f Williams College, and was at one time judge 
of Common Pleas in this county. He was a good lawyer and gave .sat- 
isfaction as a judge. Samucd Skinner was one of the' carliest^'lawyers 
in Le Roy, and is said to have been an able, well-read member of' the 
bar. He was a graduate of Williams College, and was possessed of 
scholarly tastes. He died in Le Roy about the yeai" is.-,;;. l>errin M. 
Smith studied law with Mr. Redfieid and became a i>artner of Mr. Skin- 
ner. He removed from Le Roy to the West, where he died manv vears 


ago. Seth M. Gates practiced law in Le Roy for many years, and was 
an able man. He was proficient alike as an office lawyer and in the 
trial and arc^iinicnt of cases. lie was elecietl tu Con.^ress in Ks:j'.t, and 
SDon after conipletinj.,^ his term of service removed to Warsaw, where 
he died about the year ISTii. l)urin}4^ his residence in Le Roy he was 
ten years associated in business with David R. Bacon. Mr. liacon was 
at one time a law p.irtner of James Summerfield, but upon becoming;' 
connected with manufacturing'- interests several years a.(j;o retired from 
active practice of his profession. He died November 1, 18'.iO. 

Among the more promijient of the early Datavia lawyers may be 
mentioned Albert Smith, who in his day had a wide reputation for ex- 
tensive legal knowledge, autl for his power as an advocate. He was a 
representative of the Twenty eighth and Twenty-ninth Congresses from 
this district, and served in the Assembly in 181"-2. At different times 
he was associated as a partner with the ablest lawyers of the county. 
Mr. Smith removeil west soon after his service in the State Legislature, 
and has long since been dead. 

Daniel B. Brown was born October IS, ITSO, and died July 7, ]S"2"2, 
leaving, it is said, no descendants or near kindred. He is reputed to 
have been one of the most brillirmt advocates who ever practiced in this 
county. He was somewhat intemperate in habits and erratic in dispo- 
sitirjn, and consequently never won for himself the position which he 
otherwise would have gained.. It is hardly probable that he is prac- 
ticing law in the other world, yet his tombstone bears the inscription, 
copied quite likely from his sign used while living: " Daniel B. Brov;n, 
Attorney and Counsellor at Law." 

Levi Rumsey was a prominent citizen of this county at an early day, 
and was intimately concerned in that class of law business connected 
with the formative period of our history. But little information con- 
cerning him is now available, }'et an old citi/.en of Batavia well qual- 
ified tfj know and judge says of him, that in the ])rime of life he was 
not only the foremost lawyer of this county, but of Western Xew Yoi-k. 
He was unquestionably a man of high character and of decided ability. 
Mr. Rumsey was district attorney of this count}' from ]S:2'.) to ls:U. 
He was born in Connecticut, L)ecember 8, ITIt;, and died I )ecember x!!t, 

I'lthan B). Allen was among the most prominent of the early law}'ers 
of thecountv, and was a man of high character and unusual attainments. 
In personal bearing he was "a gentleman of the old school." He was 



born in Columbia county, October 01, ITS?, and died April 19, 1S:]5. 
fic ^yas the father-in-law of tliat distinguished advocate and jurist,' Isaac 
.\. Verplanck. Mr. Allen was a State senator from this district from 
1S26 to 1830. Upon his tombstone are inscribed the words " intellicrcnt 
virtuous, and affectionate, he fulfdlcd the various duties of a legislator^ 
a citizen, and a friend." 

Daniel H. Chandler, who was for many years a prominent citizen of 
this county, was born in 17:i.^, and died March 29, ]S(U, at Madison 
Wis., where he had removed in 1847. He was district attornev of this 
county from 1S;;4 to I808. Mr. Chandler was an able and thorouc^^hly 
e(iuippetl lawyer, combinin- in an unusual dei,aee the characteristics 
of advocate and counselor. He was a partner at one time of Senator 
Ethan B. Allen, and later with Hon. Moses Ta-L^art. Mr. Chandler is 
well remembered by quite a number of our older residents, all of whom 
attest his worth as a man and his talents as a lawver. His ability as a 
trial lawyer broucrht him actively into the management .;f manv notable- 
cases, where he won for hiniself high commendation from bench bar 
and clients. He was the father of the late Rear-Admiral Ralph Chand- 
ler, of the United States navy. After his removal to Wisconsin Mr 
Chandler acquired a large practice, and fully maintained the reputa- 
tion he had gained here. 

George W. Lay, the fourth son of John Lay, esq., was born at Cats- 
kill. N. v., July -2:, i:08. He graduated at Hamilton College, X. Y 
in the class of I8I:. He came to Ratavia the same rear and 'stu'di.'d 
law in the office of Hon. Phineas L. Tracy. After his'admission to the 
bar he became a law partner of ^L•. Tracy. The firm of Tracy \- Lav 
did and extensive law business in the territory now embracing tVe 
counties of Gene.see, Wymuing and Orleans, and enjoyed a wide rep- 
utation and extensive acquaintance throughout the State. At that 
time the Genesee bar was composed of lawyers of marked abilitv and 
talent. John R Skinner, Daniel H. Chandler, Etiian B. Allen, Henian 
J. Redfield, Daniel B. Brown, Moses Taggart, Albert Snu'th. a'nd many 
others attended the courts and were in full practice. Mr. Lav was a 
close practitioner under the old system, and was noted for his skill and 
dexterity as a pleader. The partnership ended in lS:;-.>. M,-. Lay ^vas 
at that time elected to C\;ngress. He then became a ])arlner with 
James G. Merrill and Horace U. Soper. In IS4M he was elected to the 
A.ssembly of the State of Xew York, and serve.! as chairman of the 
canal committee. His canal report was characterized as a <locument of 


marked foresight and al)ilitv. In ISil he was appointed charge 
d'affaires at the court of Norway and Sweden, and resided three years 
at Stockholm. After liis i-cturn home his health failed, he liecame a 
confirmed invalid, and died < Jctoher "M, ISGO. 

Isaac A. Verplanck, who was ranked as one of the ablest lawyers in 
Western New York, practiced for several }-cars in Batavia. He was 
born October IG, lSr2, and came to (icnesee county in is:;i. For a 
considerable time he was in pai-tnership with John H. Martindale, the 
two forming a very strong law firm. Mr. Vcr{)lanck lacked the in- 
dustry and ind^)mitahle energy which characterized his distinguished 
partiier, but compensated by his masterly abilities, by his extensi\-e 
kno\vledge of the law, and his great forensic power. Me was district 
attorney of this CLiunty from ISiJS to 1S42, and again in 1S4G. Soon 
after this he remtned \.o ]]utfalo. He was elected one of the judges of 
the Superior Court of that cit}-, and held the position during the re- 
mainder of his life. For the last three \'ears he was chief judge. His 
death occurred (October 15, lh'"o. * 

Elijah Hurty, whose early death terminated a career of mai-ktd proni- 
ise and usefulr.ess, was a man (»f scholarlv tastes, genial disposition, and 
excellent char:'tctei\ He was born in Bethany, in this county, and 
when cpiite a young man bec;unc principal of Union School in Batavia. 
Soon after his admi.ssion to the bar he formed a partnership with 
Flon. George Pjowen, under the firm name of Hurty &' Bowen. He 
died August I't. is.vt. at the age of thirty-two years. 

James G. Hoyt s[-)ent bu.t a small portion of his professional life in 
this county, antl altiiough a sketch of his career is hardly within the 
scope of this article, yet so well was he known here that his name 
cannot pro[)erly be omitted. He was born in Camden, January 25, 
ISOG, and removed to Genesee county in IS 12. His father died six 
j-cars later, leaving a widow and nine children in such poverty that 
the future jurist was at once thrown upcjn his own resources. In 
1^30 he was elecied a constable, and discharged the duties of his 
office with so much promptness and intelligence as to attract the atten- 
tion of leatling business men. In ]^'.\A he was elected justice of the 
peace, and the same year began to read law with Moses Taggart. 
Shortly after his admission to the bar he removed to Attica, which 
was then inclu'.led in Genesee countv. He gained almost immediate 
recognition as a lawyer of unusual industry, thoroughness and ability. 
After a few \-ears he removed to Buffalo, and was tv/ice elected justice 


of the Supreme Court. In the di.scliari^^e of the exacting; duties of that 
office he gained a hic;h reputation, and is rememt)ered by all our older 
lawyers as one of the ablest of the many etninent men who have filled 
the position. Pie died October -.23, 1SG3. 

Probably no firm of lawyers ever enjoyed so varied and extended a 
practice in this county as Wakeman & Bryan, who were copartners 
from 185'-2 until the death of Mr. Bryan, wliich occurred in Octcjber, 
I SOT. The combination was one of unusual strength. Seth Wake- 
man was a successful trial lawyer, while William G. Bryan was a coun- 
selor of learning and discretion. :Mr. Wakeman was born in \'ermont, 
January 1"., isil. His father was a soldier in the War of LST^, and 
died in the service, leaving a widow and a large family of children in 
destitute circumstances. They soon renuj\-ed to this cnnitv. When 
quite a young man }ilr. Wakeman was elected a constable of the town 
of Pembroke, and it was by reason of his occasional duties at iustice's 
courts that he became interested in law. In isiJS he was elected a jus- 
tice of the peace, and six years later, at the age of thirty-three, he was 
admitted to the bar. After a brief partnership with Joseph Sleeper the 
firm of Wakeman & Bryan was formed. After Mr. Bryan's death Mr. 
Wakeman was for a time a partner of Judge Taggart, and afterwards, 
and up to his forced retirement on account of failing health in 1875, he 
was associated with William C. Watson, the tirm doing an extensive 
business. Mr. Wakeman was a Whig until the dissoluticui of that 
party, when he became a Republican. He was elected district attorney 
in 1850 and served two terms. In 1850 and 1S57 he was a member of 
assembly. In 1807 he was a member of the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, and in 1870 he was elected to the lojrty-second Congress. As 
a citizen Mr. Wakeman was generous, companionable and kind. Dis- 
tinctively a self-made man, he was always in warmest sympathy with 
every person whom he found struggling with adverse fortune. While 
eminently fair as a lawyer his strongest antagcjuists fouml him " a foe- 
man worthy of their steel." He was an admirable trial lawyer, and 
gained a splendid practice and reputation as such. Possessed of few 
of the graces ot oratory, Mr. Wakeiuan was nevertheless a strong, 
trenchant and convincing speaker. He died Jauuarv I, bsso. 

William O. liryan was bi)rn January '.*S, 18-2:2, in Bi-i,:.^lUon, ICngland. 
He came to America and settled in Le Roy in is;;i). His law studies 
were pursued with Albert vSmith and with Moses Taggari. In 1S51 he 
formed a partnership with John H. Martindale, which was soon dis- 


solved by the removal of the latter to Rochester. In politics Mr. 
Bryan was an ardent Democrat, and was a trusted adviser in all partv 
matters. Pie was a lawyer of decided ability, but from choice spent 
his time inside his office prcjjarin;^' papers, o'iving- counsel and examin- 
ing cases. He was a man of refined tastes, of scholarly attainments, 
and <;Teat personal worth. Between him and Mr. Wakcman the strong-- 
est attachment existed. Ilis uniimcly death, at the ag-e of forty-five, 
was the result of an accident. He had j^one to Burlington, Iowa, on a 
visit, and while there, in endeavoring to control a frightened horse, he 
was thrown from a carriage and killed. A public meeting of the cit- 
izens of Batavia was held on the sad occasion. His accomplished and 
estimable wife, Ruth Bryan, for many years principal of the Bryan 
Seminary, died January lo, IS'j?, at Buffalo. 

James M. Willett was born October 10, ISol. He graduated at the 
Albany Law School m IS.jii. In 1850 he was elected district attornev, 
being the first Democrat ever elected to that office in this county. He 
entered the army in bSG-^ and became a major of the famous Eighth 
New York Heavy Artillery. In the fearful ordeal through which that 
regiment passed at Cold Harbor he was severely wounded. Upon re- 
joining his regin:cnt three months later, he became colonel, and to the 
close of the war commanded a brigade. After leaving the army he 
engaged in business in New York until ISTo, when he removed to 
Buffalo and formed the well known law partnership of Laning, Folsom 
& Willett. The firm were the legal representatives of the New York 
Central Railroad, and did a large general practice. Colonel Willett con- 
tinued to suffer from his aim}- wounds, his health gave \vay, and he 
died June G, 18TT. He was a strong, well equipped lawyer, a genial 
and companionable friend, a Christian gentlemen. Few men ever 
practiced at our bar who had so strong a hcjjd on the affecticjns of his 
associates and the jjeoplc at large. 

Martin F. Roberts(jn was a native of Genesee county, and passed his 
life in Batavia. He was posse;>:ied of decided ability, fair legal learn- 
ing, and was a good trial lawyei'. As a man he was very companion- 
able and poinilai". He died March 21, ISOS, at the age of forty-eight 
years, never ha\'ing married. 

Benjamin Pringle, for many years one of ttie foremost citizens of 
this county, born in the year 1S()7, at Richfield, in this State. He 
came to Batavia in ISiJo and formed a partnersliip with Albert Smith, 
and later becanu; a partner of Heman J. Redfield. He was judge of 


the county from 1S41 to IStG. In IS.-)2, and a<;-ain in IS5i, he was 
elected to Congress. In ISG'i he was ineinhcr of assembly and in 1SG3 
President Lincoln a[)pointcd him jud-e under a treaty between the 
United States and Great Britain tor the suppression of the slave trade. 
He remained in tlie discharge of tlie duties of this office for seven years 
at Cape of Good Hope. Judge Pringle was a competent ecpiity l.uvyer, 
but without special taste for the trial of cauises. As a citizen he was 
public spirited and patriotic. In private life he was exemplary. Fijr 
many years he was a warden (;f St. James's Episcopal church, of which 
lie was a devoted member. During his old age he divided his time 
between Batavia and Hastings, Minn., where his suns lived. He died 
at the latter place June 7, ISST. His remains are buried in P>atavia. 

MarlbroW. Hewitt, though never pai-licularl\- active as a practitioner 
was a respected member of the bar. and an esteemed and well known 
citizen of Batavia. He was for a great many years a justice of the 
peace and discharged the duties oi that ofiice with fidelity and unusual 
intelligence. Mr. Hewitt died J;'.nuary ^d, 1880, at tlie age of si.\tv- 
four years. 

Ileman J. Redtield was born in Cnnnetticut December 2T, 1T88. His 
father removed to Western New York and the son remained on the 
farm till 1808 when he entered the Canandaigua Academy. He stud- 
ied law with that distinguished jurist, J(jhnC. Spencer. He volunteered 
as a private in the war of 1812 and served through tw(^ carnpaigns. 
He was in the battle of Oueenston Heights and was with Gen. Har- 
rison at Fort George where he received a brevet from the commanding 
general for valiant service. In 1815 he be^an the practice of law at 
Le Roy He was appointed district attorney in 18"21; lie wa^ State 
senator from 18^:3 to is^-"", and during the last \-ear of this service he 
v/as appointed one of the New York commissiuners to settle a boundary 
question with New Jersey. He served as postmaster in Le Roy for 
more than twenty years. He was offered and declined the position of 
special counsel to assist in the trial of the persons accused of abducting 
William Morgan. In 18;!") he declined the otlice of circuit judge ten- 
dered him by (jovernor Marcy; in 183<; he became the inirchasei- with 
Jacob Le Roy from the Holland Land Company of its unsold i)ossessions. 
President Pierce ap[)(jinted him naval officer of New York but he was 
soon transferred to the oiVice of collector of the port of Xew York and 
he held this position until June IK), l8o>7, although James Buchanan, 
who had then lately come into otlice, offered to continue him. During 


the Civil war Mr. Redtield was conspicuous as a War Dcinocrat and his 
intense h^yalty was of j;reat value to the Union cause. 

A sketch of his life published many years ago, says, "(~)n Sunday 
evening-, July '-^.i, IS77, he sat with the members of his family on the 
veranda of his house, enjoying the c(K)1 breezes after the heat of the 
day, appearing in excellent hcaltli and spirits. About eight o'clock he 
complained of a dizziness in his head, entered the house, gradually 
grew worse, and became unconscious, and about ten o'clock he peace- 
fully, painlessly, breathed his last. Thus closed the earthly career of a 
good, kind-hearted, benevolent man, and a true and devout Christian. 
Dtiring his long life he was an active and devout member of St. James 
Episcopal Church at I'atavia, serving as vestryman and warden. Many 
citizens attested their res]>cct and esteem for their old neighbor and 
friend by their attendance at the funeral service Wednesday evening. 
The processi(;n was one of the longest ever seen in the village. Im- 
mediately following the hearse came the venerable roadster, so long the 
favorite riding horse of Mr. Redfield, saddled and bridled, and led by 
the groom." 

One of the most interesting figures in the history of the bar of Gen- 
esee county and of Western New York was Gen. John II. Martindale. 
iVlthough most of his ])rofessic;nal life was passed in Rochester, whither 
he removed in IS')'^. he had prior to that time served two terms ;!s dis- 
trict attorney of this county, and had laid the foundation of his brilliant 
career as an advocate and orator. Having received a military educa- 
tion at West Point he entered the army at the breaking out of the He did active and elTicient service in the field quite early 
in the war, ar.d later served as military governor of the District of 
Columbia, with the rank of major-general. He was elected attorney- 
general of this State in ISOo. General Martindale became famous in 
his management of actifjns for damages for personal injuries brought 
against r:iiIro.v.l corp:jrations, particularly the New York Central. Ili.s 
most frequent antagonist was that most brilliant and admirable trial 
lawyer, the late Al'oert P. Laning, of Buffalo. Tliey tried a large 
number of cases opposed to each other in this county, and the memory 
of those days is an ever recurring delight. The cou.rt house wasalways 
tilled and the audience always entertained. The limits of this article 
forbid what miglit be an interesting account of this remarkable man. 
Always eloquent, he had the faculty of being most so in cases otherwise 
commonplace. The writer has heard many of his addresses to juries, 


but the most elo('[uent is re:iicinl)erctl a.s his snnunint; up in the case of 
(larwood a-ainst tlie New York Central Railroad, an action broUL^ht to 
roco\-er danKi;4es for injury to plaintiff's mill power b\' pumping water 
from the Tonawanda Creek into tanks for the use of locomotive boilers. 
The tiieme was certainly not one which would seem to atford op[)ortu- 
nity for a display of oratcjry, yet the speaker proved superior to the oc- 
casion, and the result was an address seldom equalled. Althouj;h of 
agreeable dis[)osition General Martmdale was ratlier easily ruftled when 
engaged in the trial of important cases. His wily opponent learned 
well his sensitive p(jints, and never failed to take advantage of tlicm. 
As Genera! Martindale always ajjpcared for the plaintilf in rail- 
road cases he had the advantage of the closing address. He was 
ijuite fond, in talking to a Genesee county jury, of indulging in 
reminiscences, and often referred to his acfiuaintancc with the 
fathers of some of the younger ju.rymen, and to old associations con- 
nected with liatavia. (^n one well remembered occasion., when Mr. 
Laning thought liis florid antagonist would be apt to find op])ortunity 
for a display of this kind, he turned his weapons against him in that 
quiet and iniinitable manner so strikingly in contrast wirli tlie exuber- 
ant style of his opp-jncnt. Me told the jury what the general would 
shortly proceed to narrate in their hearing, including all that Martin- 
dale C(ndd })ossibly say about his early hume, his dead ])ariner, " the 
classic \'erplanck." Ins friends and neighbors, the old church, etc. 
The result was that the orator was com[5elled to change his t;',ctics. 
The contests between Martindale and Laning will always l)e remem- 
bered by those who enjoyed the privilege of listening to and witness- 
ing the efforts of these remarkable but wholly dissimilar men. In pri- 
vate life General Martindale was greatly esteemed. Ills character 
was above reproach, and he was a man of sincere piety. His pei-srmal 
apj.-iearance and bearing attracted admiration at all times. In ISSl he 
went to ICurope in a vain scarcii for health, but died in Nice, I-'rance, 
on the thirteenth day of iJecembei" of that \'eai", at the age of si.Kty-si.\. 
Lucius X. liangs ^vas born April -1, Js-^',""). fie studied law v.dtii 
Augustus P. Hascall, with wlumi, after his admission to the bar, he 
forn-ied a partnership. He subseciuently became a partner of Elixei" 
Hinsdale, who after a few years removed to New York. In ]s70 Mr. 
Hangs was elected county judge and surrogate of thrs county, and lield 
the office for twelve years. During his first term Marcus L. I'.abcock 
was clerk of the surrogate's court, and during iiis last term the position 



was filled by Frank S. Wood, now of the Batavia bar. Jud-re Ruvs 
did not receive a college education but he was a man of rare scholarlv 
tas e.s and extraordinary attainments, both in the field of his profession 
and m hterature and science. His law library was one of the finest 
private collections in the State, while his.miscellaneous library was or 
great value, selected as it had been with discrimination and taste Th.- 
latter collection was unfortunately burned in a fire which destroved its 
owners residence. Judg-e Bangs was nut fond of the work of 'a trial 
lawyer but m his arguments before the appellate cnirts he displaved 
.great ability and a degree of learning which was marvelous. After'his 
term ot utt.ce expired he removed to Buffalo. He died in the citv of 
^ew ^ork December :]. Isij->. At a meeting „f the bar of (ienesee 
county held a few days later, the Hon. George Bowen said that he IkuI 
CO lected and preserved Judge Bangs's printed briefs, and that he c<,n- 
sidered the discussions contained in them ab^olutelv exhaustive of the 
questions mv,.lvcd, a rare compliment from one well qualihed to jud'^e 
Judge Bangs was a delightful man in his social and familv relation^. 
and his associates of the bar were much attached to him. 
_ Henry I. (ilowacki was born in i'oland in ISKJ of a distinguished 
tamily. He was the son of a prominent general of the Polisirwar of 
IM-^. Having participated in the revolutionarv movement he was im- 
prisoned tor two years, and afterward, about the year 1,S;3;) was exiled I 
by the Austrian government. In New York he was favored witli the I 
friendship of Albert Gallatin, who while a foreign minister had known ! 
his tather. .Mr. Glowacki made the acquaintance of David E Evms i 
who ottered him a position m the now historic Land Office in Batavia' i 
He came here in IS3-1. and continued for tour vears in tiie land oftice 1 
During his later years Major Glowacki used to tell that early in this | 
service he was employed to c(,py records, and that, althouoh whollv ' 
unable to read the English language, he performed the work by imi j 
tatmg the handwriting assigned to him to eopy. He was admitted to j 
the bar m 1S4U. He was sliortly afterward appointed master in chan- < 
eery, and served until 1 Sh;. He was for several years a law partner or 1 
Judge Joshua L. Brown, and the firm enjoved a large and lucrative ' 
practice, Mr. Glowacki was seldom, if ever, engaged in the trial of !, or m legal arguments, but he was a valuable and accurate office 
lawyer. Major Gh.wacki was a Democrat, and was for manv years 
conspicuous in the councils of his party in State and countv. He was j 
four times a delegate t.. national Democratic conventions. ' He served 



nine years as president of the Batavia Board of Education. Major 
(xlowack, was a man of elegant and distin-nished persona! appearance 
Althou-h he neeanie a proficient Enylish scliolar he alwavs retained a 
marked torer-n accent m speech. He died at liis home in Batavia in 
November, 189:., havmg years before retired from the practice of the 

Randolph Ballard died December -G, l.sOo, at the age <.f sixtv-eight 
years. He studied law with Judge A. P. Hascall. He was at one time 
m with Gen. C. F. Bissell. Upon the death of Jud.;e Henshaw 
ni KsM, ^Mr. Ballard was appointed by the Democratic governor to fill 
the vacancy, and served for the remainder of the vear. X., one who 
ever knew him can forget his elegant manners and his fastidious dress 
Like qualities extended to his business and professional life He was 
an excellent penman and all his work was neatlv, promptlv and accu 
rately done. Judge Ballard tried some cases in cr)urt and tried them 
well, but he was essentially a business lawyer and business man and 
was successful as such. In the fall of ISOi) he found himself obli-ed to 
submit to a critical surgical operation. He was unable to rallv from 
us ettects and died in Rochester on the -^lith d;iv oi September. 

Thomas P. Hedd,)n was born at Stafford, X.'v., December "2 l.S-iO 
He was educated at the common schools and at the (Genesee and Wvom- 
mg Seminary in Alexander. He studied law with Randolph Bal'lard 
and was admitted te. the bar in ISfjo. Mr. lleddon was for several 
years a ju.^tice of the peace of the town oi Lc Roy, and served as dis- 
trict attorney of the county from is:,^ to issi. 'hc '.vas a tru.stee of 
the village of Le Roy at the time of his death. He was a Republi- 
can m politics, and his services as a public speaker were often in 
demand at political meetings Mr. Heddon died lune -^J, is'j-i. 

Myron H. Peck was born May -.'S. lS->;. At the age o'f fourteen he 
received an injury which rendered it evident that he must choose a vo- 
cati(.n unattended with active physical labor, and hc soon concluded to 
make the law his profession. He studied in Canandaigua in the ortice 
of Lapham .V Metcalf. and after his admission to the bar he became 
the partner of Elbridge (i. Laj^ham, one of the members of this firm 
and afterwards representative in Congress and United Stales senator. 
The firm dis.solved in ISoS. and Mr. Peck removed to Batavia, He 
was for a time associated in business with Col. James M Willett and 
afterwards with Hon. Ceorge Bowen, u.nder the firm name of Peck .<e 
Bowen, In is,y2 he was nommated by the Democratic partv for the 


office of county jud-e and surrn-atc. and was elcctt-d. After the ex- 
piration of his term he removed to Ihiffalo, where he continued in 
practice until his last ilhiess. He died September '2, ls',)8. A meet- 
ing- of the bar was held a few days later at a term of the court. Ap- 
propriate remarks were made by Hon. Nathan A. Woodward, William 
Tyrrell, H. F. Tarbox and H. I). Cone, judge North, presiding, pre- 
sented the following mciiKjrial prej)ared by him, which, ui)nn the re- 
cpiest of Mr. Tyrrell, was ordered entered upon the minutes of the 
court : 

"The death (>( Judge Peck having occurred so soon Ijefore a regular 
'term of the court over which he presided for six years, the suggestion 
was made by several members of the bar that it would be cpaite ajj- 
propriate that this court room slunild be selected as a place of a meet- 
ing" of the law}-ers of the county to take suitable action, in o[Jcn court. 
expressi\'e of our sorrow at the death of our associate and of (.nir ap- 
preciation of the intellectual tpialities which rendered him one of tlio 
most notable figure'-^ in the history of uur bar. 

''Here for thirty years he practiced his profession, and could these 
walls speak v.'hat memories w(juld they recall: His thorough prepa- 
ration in every case with which he was connected, his keen and analyt- 
ical mind, his aljounding knowledge of the law and the vehement force 
with which he expounded it, his terse and lucid expression of legal 
principles, the contempt with which lie brushed aside matters which 
he deemed iinimj;ortant, and the power with which he massed all his 
virile force into a few strong points, all of these things combine at this 
hour to bring his familiar face and voice vividly before us. 

" To those of ns who have served long enough to have known of these 
qualities, it will be hard to realize that he h:is gone out from his place 
for the last time, and by every member of our bar from the oldest to 
the youngest he v\-ill be remembered as a man of unusual learning in 
the profession which he lovetl, of great force and strength in the prac- 
tice of the l;uv and as a fair and impartial judge. 

" It may well be added that although his aggressi\-e temperament 
made him a stern and uncompromising antagonist, yet d()wn deep lie 
was greatly attached to the members of his own profession and to his 
friends in general, and since his removal from this county nine vears 
ago, he has always, on the occasion of his visits to liatavia, evinced the 
warmest interest in the welfare of his old friends and neighbors and 
the liveliest satisfaction at every o^jportunity to renew old friendships. 


'• He is now num1:»ered amon;^' those whose lives are of the past, and 
of all of these who liave practiced law here it is doubtful if there has 
been one possessed of wider learninir in the yreat profession of which 
he was an honored member." 

Iliram W. Ilascall was born at Le Roy, December IS, ISl"?, and his 
loni;- and eventful life was wholly passed in that town. Up to about a 
year previous to his death he had retained his viijor in a remarkable 
degree, and was as active as at any period of his life. lie was a staunch 
adherent of the Republican party, and hisde\-otion to the best interests 
of that ori4;anization was proverbial. Business matters absorbed his 
attention quite larc^ely, and he was never particularly active as a prac- 
titioner. He was elected county clerk in JS5-3, and served for two 
terms. In 1S04 he was appoiuted collector of internal revenue. In 
IStJl' he was made postmaster of Le Roy, and filled that position to the 
satisfaction of his townspeople for sixteen years. Mr. Hascall was a 
man of uprig'ht life and a most kind aud genial friend and companicju. 
He died December 2, 1S9S. 

William R. Crofoot was born December 10. ISoo, and was reared 
upon his father's farm in Pavilion. He attended the Le Roy Academy 
for some time, and i;Taduated from Amherst Colleg-e in J 880. He 
studied law with Hon. Randolph Ballard, and after his admission to 
the bar occupiedi the otlice witli Jud;.4e Ballard until the death of the 
lattei'. Mr. Crofoot was three times elected as a justice of the peace 
of the town of Le Roy and six times village clerk. Pie was the attorney 
of record for the executors of th.e will of William Lampson in the im- 
portant litigation connected with the large estate left by Mr. Lampson. 
Mr. Crofciot was :i man of agreeable manners and of great kindness 
of heart. His death occurred Decendjer '.), i^'.ib. 

C. Fitch Bissell was born in Greenfield, M;iss., March 0, ISIS. He 
came to Le Roy with his parents in 1S3S, and resitled there until his 
death, which occurred December ]], ISOS. Always a striking antl in- 
teresting personality, few men have ever been so widely known in Gen- 
esee county. He commenced the practice of law in lS-t2, with Samuel 
Skinner as a partner. Later lie was in pai^tnership with R.mdoljih 
Ballard. For many years before his death he had been associated with 
his son, David Jackstm P>issell. He held the position of quartermaster- 
general on the staff of (Governor John T. Hoffmann, and the title of 
" general " clung toliim the rest of his life. He served as district at- 
t<.irnev from ISGtJ to l8'i'3, and again from 1ST5 to L•^^•^. He was a good 


trial lawyer aiul a successful business man, Ix'th in the management of 
his own arTairs and those of his clients. He was always looking out for 
the common sense view of a question, and his keen and analytical mind 
and his natural sense of justice were important factors in contributing 
to his success. Possessed of an abounding humor and fond of com- 
panionship, he made hosts of friends. His intellectual vigor remained 
unimpaired until the end of his life. Iiwas a remarkal)le circumstance 
that three members of the Le Roy bar died within the s|xice of ten 
days, Hascall, Crofoot and Dissell. All had been public spirited and 
useful citizens. 

• Walter PI. Smith was born in West liloomfield, Ontario countv, X.Y., 
July -20, ],So3. a son of Xelsoi, H. and Ellen B. (Pellett) Smith. His 
mother was a nati\-e of Mont\-i!le, New London, county, Conn. His 
father was a native of ICast Lyme, New London county. Conn., and was 
connected with a Ijook publishing house in Hartford, Conn., for a num- 
l)er of years. He sulisequently moved to West lUoom field, X. Y., and 
with a brother purchased a large tract (>f land. He later met with an 
accident which hastened his death. Walter H. was then an infant. 
Subsequently his motlier married Henry G. Deshon and the familv 
moved to Le Roy in ISGl, where Walter H. attended the Le Roy Aca- 
demic Institute and later Williston (Mass.) Seminary, where he ritted 
for college. He returned to this place and entered the olTice of Hon. 
Lucius X. Langs, who was then county judge of Genesee couiuv, and 
studied law for four years, then entered the Albany L