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"Our County and Its People " j^M. 

"#ur Countp ant) Uts people 

♦ ♦ 

A History of 



Alfred Minot Copeland 

IPoIume tlTtoo 

The Century .Memorial Publishing Company 


-T-MT, Cowee R-tcsivEO 
NOV. \| 1P^? 

corv B. 

Copyrighted 1902 


Alfred Minot Copeland 


To the Memory 




This volume is respectfully 




THE CITY OF SPRINGFIELD— The Seat of Justice of Hampden 

County 1 



THE CITY OF SPRINGFIELD— Municipal History 80 


THE CITY OF SPRINGFIELD— Educational— The Fire Depart- 
ment — The City Water Supply — The Almshouse — The City 
Parks — Libraries — The Post-Office — Cemeteries — Hospitals — 
Public Institutions 113 


THE CITY OF SPRINGFIELD— The Board of Trade— Banking 
and Financial — Insurance Companies — Street Railway System 
— Mercantile and Manufacturing 217 


xii ( 'OXTEXTS 





William Pynchon, Portrait 7 

Dea. Samuel Cilapin Statue 12 

Miles Morgan Statue 16 

The Old Ely "Okdiaary" 23 

Park Congregational Church 27 

St. Paul's Universalist Church 35 

The Old Parsons Ta\ ern 43 

Old Lombard House 49 

Old-Time View of Main Street 53 

St. Luke's M. E. Church 61 

Memorial Church, Spkixcfield 69 

Elm Street School 75 

Caleb Rice, Portrait 84 

The Hooker School 88 

Grace M. E. Church 97 

Old Unitarian Church 109 

Old Academic High School 119 

Charles Barrows, Portrait 123 

Admiral P. Stone, Portrait 126 

Central High School 128 


St. Joseph's Church 140 

Oak Street School 158 

Winchester Park and Buckingham School 163 

The Pavilion at Forest Park Entrance 165 

Dr. William Rice, Portrait 173 

City Library' and Art Museum 176 

Old Building on Postoffice Site 185 

U. S. Custom House and Postoffice 194 

Entrance to Springfield Cemetery 198 

Entrance to Oak Grove Cemetery 200 


Pyxciion Street Schoui 208 

Chestek W. CiiAi'ix, P()i:ti!ait 232 

Henry S. Lee, Portrait 238 

Early Rapid Transit, Springfield 250 

Conn- Sen ARE. Springfield, 1824 256 

First Ciiurcii of Christ, Springfield 282 

Oli\et Chlrcii. Springfield 285 

Old Baptist Church, Main Street 297 

First Baptist Church, Springfield ■ • ■ 299 

Chirch of the Unity, Springfield 303 

The Cathedral, Springfield 309 

Park Square in Summer, Westfield 318 

Farm Scene in Westfield River Valley 320 

Broad Street, Westfield 351 

Homestead of Eli Ashley, Westfield 369 

Corner Cltboard, Capt. Moseley's Hoisk 3/0 

Old Landlord Fowler Hoise. Westfield 373 

Elder Ambrose Day House, Westfield 376 

House Built in 1786 by Capt. William Moseley 378 

Old Washington Tavern. Westfield 380 

Ezra Clapp Hotel, Westfield 381 

Old Moseley House, Westfield 387 

Westfield Town Farm 396 

Emerson Davis, D. D., Portrait 402 

Third Building of Town Church, Westfield 404 

The Gen. Shepard Elm 415 

Eldad Taylor, Portrait 419 

Old Academy'. Westfield 425 

Westfield High School 430 

Old Atheneum 432 

Corner of Elm and Main Streets, Westfield 434 


First Foundry of H. B. Smith & Co., Westfield 440 

Old Hampden Bank, Westfield 442 

Crane's Pond, Westfield 443 

Noble Hospital, Westfield 445 

Soldiers' Monument, Westfield 453 

Steei!.\ge Rock. Brimfield 457 

ILL rSTRA TT( )XS x v 

"West BRniFiELD at the Bridge 461 

Soldiers" Monument, Bkimfield 475 

The BRiiiFiELD Windmill 477 

Hitchcock Free High School 479 

The Toavn, from the Fields, Brimfield 480 

Old House on Blandford Hill 505 

"Blaxdford Cattle Show" Exhibit 516 



The history of the city of Springfield from the time of plant- 
ing the first colony at Agawam, has been made the subject of at 
least half a dozen volumes from as many writers, each of whom 
has aimed to cover the ground in such a way that the reading 
public might know all that was necessary to be known of the 
annals of the locality. In a field so frequently invaded by his- 
torians of repute the twentieth century writer can hardly hope 
to furnish anything new in the history of the region, but as an 
essential part of the history of Hampden county the subject must 
be treated according to its importance. 

Just fifteen years after the landing of the pilgrims at Ply- 
mouth settlements began to extend westward into the valley of 
the Connecticut river, where the Dutch from the Netherlands 
were making slow attempts at occupation for the purpose chiefly 
of trading with the Indians. The colonial history of New York 
records the fact that as early as 1614 Dutch navigators had dis- 
covered the Connecticut and had made explorations of the coun- 
try between that and the Hudson river previous to 1630, but it 
was not before 1635 that the sturdy Hollanders established a 
trading post in the Connecticut valley and disputed the right 
of the English settlers in the region. The Dutch were excellent 
traders, but were poor colonizers, while the English were both 
traders and colonizers. The chief articles of trade which the 
Dutch bartered with the Indians were rum and guns, the former 
of which was eagerly sought for the temporary gratification of 
the savage appetite, while the latter was useful to the w^arrior 
and hunter alike, as the English afterward learned to their se- 

1-2 ( 1 ) 


vere cost. But the Indians at length learned that the New Eng- 
land tradei-s could supply them with gaudy cloths and 
trinkets, hatchets and knives, and also that wampum 
(money substitute) was plenty among them; therefore 
they carried their beaver skins to the eastern planta- 
tions and made known to the whites the first understand- 
ing the latter had of the Connecticut valley country. Through 
their representations the region was visited and explored, and 
through their expressed willingness to part with a portion of 
their domain a number of adventurous planters of the Roxbury 
settlement established themselves at Agawam, on the Connecti- 
cut, where now is the metropolitan city of Springfield. 

There is room for the belief that the New Englanders first 
visited the site of the city as early as 1634, and that an investiga- 
tion of the character of the region was made at that time. The 
next year an application was made to the general court bj' cer- 
tain of the Roxbury planters, requesting permission to settle in 
a remote part of the colony; which was granted, although with 
some hesitation, for then it was uncertain whether the region pro- 
posed to be settled was within the jurisdiction of the mother col- 
ony. In this year (1635) "William Pynehon, the founder, John 
Cable, a carpenter, and John Woodstock, an Indian interpreter, 
came to the locality, and then the founder undoubtedly made a 
verbal agreement for the purchase of a considerable tract of land 
at Agawam, on both sides of the river. Cable, ^dth the aid of 
AVoodstoek, built a house on the meadow lands west of the river, 
but on being informed by the natives that the locality was sub- 
ject to annual overflow they removed to the east side and built 
another house on the city site. 

The pioneers of Springfield came to occupy the land in the 
spring of 1636. They were "William Pynehon, the founder in 
fact of the settlement and its guiding spirit for the next fifteen 
years, Henry Smith, son-in-law of the founder, Matthew 
Mitchell, Jehu Burr, William Blake. Edmund Wood, Thomas 
Ufford and John Cable. Tradition has it that Mr. Pynehon and 
Henry Smith were accompanied by their wives, and if such was 
the fact it may be assumed that the others who had families 

{ 2 ) 


brought them also at the time of the immigration. Past writers 
give us no clear light on this subject. We only know that the 
pioneers came, settled on the land and began its cultivation, and 
at the same time Mr. Pynchon completed his purchase from the 
natives and arranged a form of government for the plantation 
under the new proprietary. The latter was consummated be- 
fore the Indian title was extinguished, and on May 14 a common 
ownership in the land was agreed upon. The compact itself 
was an admirably framed document, free from partiality and 
well adapted to the needs and interests of the colonists them- 
selves as well as to those who might follow them into the region. 

A reproduction of the articles at length in this chapter is 
unnecessary^ and merely an allusion to the expressed purpose of 
the pact will suffice for present purposes: "May the 14th, 
1636. — We, whose names are underwritten, being by God's 
Providence ingaged together to make a plantation at and over 
against Agam, on Coneeticot, doe mutually agree to certain arti- 
cles and orders to be observed and kept by us and by our succes- 
sors, except we and every of us, for ourselves and in our per- 
sons, shall think meet oppon better reasons to alter our present 

"Ily. Wee intend, by God's grace, as soon as we can, with 
all convenient speede, to procure some Godly and faithfuU min- 
ister, with whom we purpose to join in church covenant, to walk 
in all the ways of Christ." 

The eight men whose signatures were affixed to the agree- 
ment were those mentioned in a preceding paragraph. They 
were the founders of Springfield, and to them must be accorded 
the honor of having laid the foundations of the town and subse- 
quent city, although none of them were permanent residents of 
the locality and none of them died here. Two months after the 
agreement Avas signed the proprietors secured a conveyance of 
the land from the Indians, the instrument bearing date July 15, 
1636. It was the source of our land titles, subject only to the 
title vested in the colonial government by the grants and char- 
ters from the crown, the latter being acquired by discovery, occu- 
pation and conquest. 

( 3 ) 


The agreement, with hiter moditicatioiis, established a com- 
mon ownership in the lauds and allotted by mutual consent the 
parcels according to the interests and needs of each member of 
the community, Avith full justice in every case. A little later, 
when a more perfect form of government had been framed, the 
town became owner of the lands and allotted^ them upon the 
approval of the freemen or their representatives. No unfit per- 
son was permitted to dwell in the plantation, and if any such 
were discovered they were "disallowed" and their improve- 
ments, if anj' had been made, were paid for out of the common 
funds. Such an establishment of government in existence at the 
present time would be regarded as a " community, ' ' which, while 
not wholly intolerable nevertheless would be looked upon as in- 
consistent with the economy of American institutions. 

In connection with the mention of the founders of the new 
colony and their settlement at Agawam, the names of still others 
are to be noted and recorded as of the same year, and while they 
appear not to have participated in the proceedings relating to 
the agreement and the division of the land, they are worthy of at 
least passing notice in these annals. They were Richard Ever- 
ett, Joseph Parsons, John Allen, Thomas Horton, Faithful Thay- 
ler and John Townes, each of whom was a subscribing witness to 
the Indian deed before mentioned ; and also John Pynchon, son 
of the founder, a boy of fourteen years, and who in later years 
in a great measure replaced his father in influence in the colony, 
in the performance of good works, and in the affections of the 
settlers. He died in the town in 1703. 

AVithin a few days after the settlement by the founders was 
accomplished their number was increased by the arrival of 
Thomas AA^odford, Samuel Butterfield, Jonas AA^ood and John 
Reader, each of Avhom added his name to the agreement and re- 
ceived an allotment of land. 

The above mentioned persons who subscribed their names 
as Avitnesses to the Indian deed appear not to have formed a part 

^The power to dispose of town lands afterward was vested in the selectmen, 
and so continued until 1G63. wtien the granting of the lots was done by a specially 
chosen committee. The first committee comprised Capt. John Pynchon. Ensign 
Thos. Cooper, Benj. Cooley, George Colton, Rowland Thomas, Miles Morgan and 
Elizur Holyoke. The town proprietary system was abolished in 1685. 

( 4 ) 


of the original proprietary although they were of the company 
of colonists. The theory has been advanced that they came in 
the capacity of employees, for there was need of their services, 
and having no direct interest in the transactions relating to the 
transfer of title they were proper persons to witness the execu- 
tion of the deed. At this early day Mr. Pynchon evidently had 
gained a true insight into the Indian character and realized that 
it was prudent to secure as subscribing witnesses to his dealings 
with the natives every disinterested person in the community. 

The extent of lands purchased Avas considerable, on both 
sides of the Connecticut, from Masaksicke (Longmeadow) north 
to the Chicopee river, and was described in the deed by parcels 
with special consideration for each. The main consideration 
paid, however, was 18 fathoms of wampum, 18 coates, 18 
hatchets, 18 knives and 18 hoes. The minor considerations con- 
sisted of wampum, hatchets, etc., as specifically mentioned by 
various writers of contemporary history, and as set forth in the 
deed itself, recorded in Hampshire county July 8, 1679. 

Having acquired and made division of the lands according 
to the agreement, the real work of development w^as begun. Lots 
were laid out at right angles with the river and varied from eight 
to fourteen rods in width. At a distance of about 80 rods from 
the river was laid out the ''town street," substantially on the 
line of present Main street, but much wider than the latter. It 
was a crude and informal beginning of the town's history, yet it 
was sufficient for the time and in accord with the rules of pro- 
priety then observed. 

Notwithstanding the favorable circumstances under which 
the foundations of the town were laid, none of the original colo- 
nists except the son of the founder remained long in the locality. 
Mr. Pynchon himself and Henry Smith, with several members 
of their families, left the place in 1652 and returned to England ; 
and of all the pioneers (so far as an account tends to show) who 
settled the town in 1636 only John Pynchon was a permanent 
resident here. INIatthew INIitchell, Edmund Wood and Thomas 
Ufford removed in the course of a few months. Jehu Burr and 
John Cable soon abandoned the plantation for homes in Con- 


neeticiit, and William Black took up his abode in Dorchester. 
Thus at the end of fifteen years from the time the plantation was 
founded not one of the pioneers, except Captain John Pynchon, 
remained. However, in the year last mentioned the settlement 
had grown in number of persons, new lands had been acquired 
and divided, and a new colony of factors were occupied with the 
varied avocations of life. 

AYilliam Pynchon, the principal founder of Springfield and 
who in fact made most of its history during his residence in the 
town, was of English birth and parentage, a resident of Spring- 
field, County of Essex (sometimes given as Essexshire), previous 
to his emigration to America as one of ' ' The Governor and Com- 
pany of the ]\Iassachusetts Bay in New England," a company 
which was the recipient of the favor of King James under the 
grant of 1629. Evidently comprised of personages in favor 
with the crown, the company was given the extraordinary privi- 
lege of transferring its seat of government from England to New 
England ; and as one of its chief promoters, as well as for per- 
sonal advantage, Mr. Pynchon came to America and became a 
planter, a trader and ultimately the founder of a colony on the 
banks of the Connecticut, on the site of Springfield, the latter so 
named in 1641 in allusion to his old home seat in England. 

]Mr. Pynchon came to New England in 1630 with his wife 
(who died soon afterward) and four children, Ann, Mary (after- 
ward Mrs. Holyoke) John and Margaret. He settled first at 
Dorchester and later located at Boston Neck, where he founded 
a plantation and also engaged as a trader, chiefly in beaver skins 
and furs. He held a king's commission as magistrate and assist- 
ant and in the affairs of the Massachusetts government was an 
important factor. Himself an officer of the court and having 
influence with persons high in authority, he readily persuaded 
them to grant permission to found a new colony in the western 
portion of the domain. His knowledge of the region had been 
acquired from the Indians with whom he had traded, and on 
their representations he visited the Connecticut valley and made 
explorations. Having perfected his plans he called around him 
those whose company and aid he required, sent their household 

( 6 ) 

William Pynchon 


goods and other effects around by way of the ocean and tlie Con- 
necticut river, and then set out upon the journey to Agawam. 
After completing the bargain with the Indians and securing 
possession of the laud, he established his family in a rude though 
comfortable house and began trading with the natives in the val- 
ley; and having been granted special privileges, he also traded 
in grain and like commodities which the Indians produced, as 
well as in furs. 

The privilege of trading in grain, which was especially ac- 
corded to the founder, eventually led to complications and a feel- 
ing of dissatisfaction in the valley, and also to a separation of 
AgaAvam from the other colonies on the river. In a preceding 
chapter the reader will learn that the colonists in this region 
finding themselves separated from the mother plantations, estab- 
lished a system of government for their own convenience, and 
designated Mr. Pynchon as one of the magistrates of the court 
or council which met at Hartford. At the time the proceedings 
of this body in a way partook of the nature of a separation from 
the parent government, and in fact was so regarded by the set- 
tlers in the valley south of Agawam, although the affairs of the 
region were nominally in charge of commissioners appointed by 
the general court; and even the latter body for a time believed 
that the Avestern plantations were separated from them in juris- 
diction, as the proceedings for 1641 refer to the "return of 
Springfield to the jurisdiction of Massachusetts." 

As is fully narrated in another part of this work, the Pequot 
war occurred in 1637 and resulted in the annihilation of that 
savage people and also in a condition of great distress among the 
colonies in the lower part of the Connecticut valley. To secure 
a requisite supply of corn for food Captain Mason, the hero of 
the war, visited Mr. Pynchon and asked permission to buy the 
needed corn from the Indians in the vicinity of Nonatuck, and 
expressed an intention to deal with them after his own soldier 
fashion, while INIr. P,\mchon advised the more pacific methods 
which he previously had adopted in trading with them. A mis- 
understanding then arose and some feeling was shown on both 
sides. At length Captain ]\Iason secured the needed corn, but 

( 8 ) 


the charge was soon made that Mr. Pynehon was guilty of at- 
tempting to speculate at the expense of the other colonists. He 
was summoned before the court at Hartford, and that august 
l)ody sustained the charges. 

This led to the separation of Agawam from the other colo- 
nies in the valley and ultimately to a petition from Mr. Pynehon 
and others to be received into the jurisdiction of the Massachu- 
setts general colony. The subject was duly considered, "re- 
ferred and examined," and on June 2, 1641, "Springfield, upon 
Conecticott" was taken back into the jurisdiction of Massachu- 
setts, and thenceforth was recognized as a town. This was the 
proceeding which various writers have mentioned as the "change 
of the name from Agawam to Springfield;^" and this was the 
action by which Springfield was regarded as an established town 
of Massachusetts, although it was not then annexed to any 
county, had no selectmen until 1644, and no representative in the 
general court until 1649. 

In the affairs of the plantation at Agawam and in the early 
history of the town of Springfield Mr. Pynehon always was the 
chief figure and all his works tended to the public welfare. He 
was the local magistrate to settle the petty dift'erences that arose 
among the colonists and his decrees and orders were character- 
ized with fairness and justice. He was instrumental in estab- 
lishing the parish and church, assisted in securing the services 
of a minister, and of his means gave liberally for the support of 
the gospel. He took part in the modification of the strict re- 
quirements of the orthodox church, but when he essayed to pro- 
mulgate new doctrines through the publication of "The Merito- 
rious Price of Man's Redemption," etc., he was promptly sum- 
moned before the court at Boston. He "justified" himself, 
however, and succeeded in establishing his innocence of wrong 
intent ; but his book was ordered burned, and he was deprived of 
his magisterial office, being succeeded by his son-in-law, Henry 
Smith. He remained only two years longer in the toAvn and 
then departed with his family for England. 

lAt a meeting of the town held April 16. 1640. it was "ordered that the 
Plantation be called Springfield," and in pursuance of that determination the 
general court recognized the name in 1641. 

( 9 ) 


AVitli the departure of Mr. Pynchon and Henry Smith and 
portions of their families, the old Agawam plantation had lost 
all save one or two of its original founders. John Pynchon re- 
mained as probably did his sister who married Elizur Holyoke. 
This was the first event of its kind in the town. But as rapidly 
as the first settlers left, their places were taken by new comers 
and at no time was the number of inhabitants less than during 
the first year in the history of the plantation. In 1637 Rev. 
George Moxon came and entered upon his duties as minister of 
the gospel. His was the only arrival during the year, and he re- 
turned to England in 1652. In the next year there came John 
Searle and Thomas Merrick, both of whom died here, the former 
in 1641 and the latter in 1704. After 1638 settlement became 
more rapid, and from that year until the creation of Hampshire 
county in 1662 the plantation was constantly increased by the 
arrival of settlers who sought to establish homes in the new and 
fertile region, Avhere generous provision had been made by the 
founders for those in humble circumstances, yet who were willing 
to work to maintain themselves and their families. None others 
found more than temporary lodgment in the community, and it 
is a noticeable fact in connection with the early history of 
Springfield that idlers found no comfortable place for themselves 
in the town. If the settler was poor he nevertheless was wel- 
come if he proved faithful to the orders of the to^^^l and was will- 
ing to work ; if he proved unworthy in character, even if indus- 
trious, he was "disallowed." 

After the close of the Pequot war the tide of settlement set 
strongly toward the Connecticut valley, and in the next half 
score of years the number of inhabitants in the region was more 
than doubled. The old town records, a fruitful source of in- 
formation to the writer, disclose the names of nearly all the set- 
tlers, and the year in which their names were entered may be 
taken as a fair index of the time of their arrival. A study of 
the pages of the town books shows that in 1639 several new set- 
tlers were added to the local population, and a number of them 
brought families. The arrivals of that year included AA^'illiam 
AYarriner, who died here in 1676; Rowland Stebbins, who re- 

( 10 ) 


moved to Northampton and died there in 1671 ; Thomas 
and John Stebbins, sons of Rowland, the former of 
Avhom died in Springfield in 1683 and the latter in 
Northampton in 1679 ; John Leonard, Avho -was killed by 
the Indians in 1676, a victim of King Philip's savage 
warriors; Robert Ashley, the progenitor of a numerous 
family of descendants and who died in 1682 ; John AVood- 
cock, who removed to Connecticut in 1642 ; John Allen ; Henry 
Gregory, who left in 1642; Samuel Hubbard; Samuel Wright 
and his sons Benjamin, Samuel, jr., and James, all of whom sub- 
sequently removed to Northampton. While perhaps a majority 
of the settlers who came in this year subsequently removed to 
other localities a few remained and were permanent residents in 
the town. A glance at the list will disclose family surnames 
that are still represented in Springfield by some of its well known 

In 1640, the year in which the old name of Agawam was dis- 
carded and that of Springfield adopted in its stead by the set- 
tlers, the number of arrivals was less than in the preceding year, 
and included Henry Burt and his family, among the latter be- 
ing his sons Jonathan, David and Nathaniel, all of whom were 
closely identified with the subsequent history of the to^^^l ; Elizur 
Holyoke, who married a daughter of William Pynchon and who 
was one of the foremost men of the town in later years ; John 
Dibble, who died in 1646. John Noble came in 1641 and died 
the same year. 

The most prominent arrival in the town in 1642 was that of 
the family of Deacon Samuel Chapin, among whom were his sons 
Henry, Josias, David and Japhet. Deacon Chapin himself filled 
an important place in the early history of the town, and next to 
Mr. Pynchon was one of the most highly esteemed men in the 
community, his works and influence always being for good. He 
was one of the first selectmen and served in that capacity until 
1652, when he was made "commissioner" with John Pynchon. 
In later years he again was chosen selectman, and in many other 
ways he contributed to the growth and prosperity of the place, 
in its public, social and religious history. His descendants have 

( 11 ) 

The Deacon Samuel Chapin Statue 

Deacon Chapin, who frequently is mentioned as "the Puritan," was a man of upright character 
in all the walks of life. His truly christian example in a largre measure molded the char- 
acter of those about him and left its impress upon succeeding generations 


been numerous and include many of the foremost men of the city 
and county, some of whom have attained a high standing in busi- 
ness and public life. The splendid statue which adorns the open 
space adjoining the city library on State street was erected in 
memory of Deacon Chapin and is a Avorthy tribute of love and 
esteem. The "Puritan"— by this name he is frequently re- 
called — died in Springfield in 1675. Kiehard Sikes, who also in 
later years was a conspicuous figure in local history, came to the 
town in 1642. 

The records for the year 1643 make mention of the names of 
Alexander Edwards, who afterward settled in Northampton, and 
died in 1690 ; John Dover ; Morgan Jones, who died the same 
year ; Francis Ball, who was drowned in 1648 ; Thomas Cooper, 
w^ho was killed by the Indians at the time of the attack on 
Springfield in 1675 ; James Bridgman, who died in Northampton 
in 1676 ; Eoger Pritchard, who soon removed to New Haven ; 
Judah Gregory, who also settled in Connecticut; "William 
Branch, who died here in 1683 ; John Matthews, who died in 
1684 ; John Harmon, who died in 1661 ; and Benjamin Cooley, 
who died in 1684. 

Among the settlers who are to be credited for the year 1644, 
the records disclose the names of Miles Morgan, who lived in the 
town until his death in 1699, and whose monument in Court 
square suggests the spirit of the times in which he was a con- 
spicuous figure in local histoTv. In the same connection men- 
tion is made of Abraham IMunden, Avho was drowned at Enfield 
Falls in 1645. For the year 1645 we have the names of William 
Vaughn ; TTilliam Jess, who was droAvned at Enfield Falls in 
1645 ; Francis Pepper, who died here in 1685 ; John Burrhall ; 
Griffith Jones, w^ho died in 1676 ; and James Osborn, who died 
in Hartford in 1676. In 1646 there Avere George Colton, whose 
family name for more than tAvo centuries has been prominently 
mentioned in LongmeadoAA^ history and AA'ho died in 1699 ; John 
Clark, AA'ho died here in 1684 ; Thomas ReeA-e, AA'ho died in 1650 ; 
Richard Exell, aa^Iio died in 1714 : Margaret Bliss, AAddoAA^ of 
Thomas Bliss of Hartford, AA'ho came to the toAvn Avith a large 
family of children and in consideration of her numerous progney 

( 13 ) 


was granted additional lots (a portion of which lands are still 
owned by her descendants) ; Lawrence, Samuel and John Bliss, 
sons of Margaret, all of whom died in the town ; Thomas Thom- 
son, who soon removed elsewhere; Reice Bedortha, who was 
drowned in 1683 ; Hugh Parsons, who was charged with the sin 
of witchcraft, was tried in Boston and acquitted, and afterward 
settled in AVatertown ; John Lombard, who died here in 1672, and 
whose descendants were among Springfield's prominent men in 
later years ; George Lancton, who removed to Northampton and 
died there in 1676. 

The name of a single settler is credited to the year 1647, that 
of Rowland Thomas, Avho died here in 1698. In 1648 there were 
added the names of Thomas Sewell, who took the "oath of fidel- 
ity" Feb. 6, 1649, and Samuel Marshfield, who died in the town 
in 1692. 

In 1649 several new names were added to the list of towns- 
men, among them being that of Anthony Dorchester, who died in 
1683 ; Henry Walkley, who removed to Connecticut ; Nathaniel 
Brown, who afterward settled in Middletown; Benjamin Munn, 
who died in 1675 ; Thomas IMiller, who was killed by the Indians 
in 1675 ; and Jonathan Taylor, who died in Suffield in 1683. 
AYilliam Brooks, who settled in Deerfield and died in 1688, was 
the only person mentioned as having come to the town in 1649. 

The names entered on the lists in 1650 were John Dumble- 
ton, who died in 1702 ; John Stewart, who died in 1690 ; Edward 
Foster, who died at a ripe old age in 1720 ; Samuel Terry, who 
died in Enfield in 1731 : Hugh Dudley and Richard INIaund. 
Those credited to the year 1651 were Benjamin Parsons who died 
in 1689 ; Nathaniel Pritchard, who lived in the town until after 
1691 ; and John Lamb, who died here in 1690. In 1653 ]\Ir. 
Hosford, whose given name is not mentioned, and Thomas Ban- 
croft, who died as early as 1684, are first noted on the books. In 
1654 there are mentioned George Alexander; Simon Beaman, 
who died here in 1676 ; Obadiah Miller and Abel "S\"right, the lat- 
ter of whom died in 1724. Simon Sackett and Thomas Gilbert 
came in 1655, the former dying in the town in 1659 and the lat- 
ter in 1662. 

( 14 ) 


Continuing still further the same line of narration, the rec- 
ords show that the settlers who came to the town in 1656 were 
John Gilbert, Avho petitioned for an allotment of land in AYoro- 
noco, but who did not settle there : Jonathan Gilbert, who at first 
sought to settle at AYethersfield but did not in fact; Thomas 
Noble, who acquired lands in Westfield, where he died in 1704, 
and from whom has descended some of the best men of that 
town ; William INIorgan, who was drowned in 1663 ; and John 
Eiley, who died here in 16S4. John Bagg is first mentioned in 
1657, and his surname has been represented in all succeeding 
generations to the present time by men of worth and prominence 
in the civil and political history of the county. In 1658 we find 
the names of John "Wood, who left in 1660 ; John Stiles, who was 
drowned at Windsor in 1683 ; Joseph Crowfoot, who removed to 
Northampton ; Thomas Day, who died here in 1711 : and Richard 
Fellows, who died at Hartford in 1663. 

For the year 1659 mention is made of Pelatiah Glover, the 
settled minister of the church in Springfield from 1660 to 1692, 
when he died : John Scott, who died in Suffield in 1690 : Tahan 
Grant; Nathaniel Ely, whose descendants have been numerous 
and prominent in the history of Springfield, Longmeadow and 
other towns of the county for many years : Samuel Ely, son of 
Nathaniel, and who died in 1690 ; Peter Swinck, supposed to have 
been the first negro settler in Springfield and who died in 1699. 
In the records for 1660 there are found the names of John Keep, 
who, with others, was killed by the Indians in 1676 while on the 
way from the settlement at Longmeadow to Springfield to attend 
religious worship ; Quince Smith, who was received into the set- 
tlement on probation for two months and then was "dis- 
allowed" and warned to depart; Rev. Mr. Hooker, who minis- 
tered to the people of the parish for a few months. 

In 1661 there appear the names of Charles Ferry, who died 
in the town in 1669 ; Elizabeth Hitchcock, widow of Luke Hitch- 
cock, who with her two sons John and Luke afterward lived and 
died in the town and from whom have descended some of the best 
men of the county : Jeremy Horton who died here in 1682 and 
whose descendants have been prominent in succeeding genera- 

( 15 ) 

Miles Morgan Statue, Court Square, Springfield 


tious ; John Horton ; John and Samuel Harmon and John and 
James Dorchester, both of Avhom died here. In 1662 the neAv 
comers were John Petty, who died here in 1680 ; John Henryson, 
who removed to Connecticut and died there ; "William Hunter, 
who Avas killed by King Philip 's warriors in 1676 ; James Taylor, 
who died here in 1720 ; Thomas JNIascall, who was admitted as a 
settler from Windsor. Hugh Maekey and Thomas Thomson, a 
boy, are mentioned as having a seat in the meeting hoiise in 1663, 
and John Barber, who died in 1712, is first referred to in the 
same year. 

Among the various old records and documents of a historic 
character in the custody of the city clerk of Springfield is a 
paper in the handwriting of that worthy settler, Elizur Holyoke, 
which contains a list of names of the allowed freemen of the 
town, nearly all of them heads of families, in the year 1664. The 
paper reads as follows : 

"February 1664." 

' ' Here follows a Record or List of ye Names of the Townes- 

men, or men of this Towne of Springfield that is to say of the 

allowed »& admitted Inhabitants, who they are this present Febr : 


Serj. Miles Morgan 

William Branch 

Capt. John Pynchon 

Lieut Elizur Holyoke 

Francis Pepper 

Timothy Cooper 

]\Ir. Pelatiah Glover 

Deacon Sam'l Chapin 

Japhet Chapin 

John Stewart 

Thomas Noble 

AYilliam Warriner 

Serj. Tho. Stebbins 

Benjamin Mun 

David Ashley 

Abell Wright 

Rowland Thomas 
Henry Chapin 
William Brooks 
John Bagg 
William Hunter 
Peter Swinck 
Griffith Jones 
Obadiah Miller 
John Henrison 
Richard Exell 
John Dumbleton 
Jonathan Taylor 
Hugh Dudley 
John Baker 
John Scott 
John Riley 

John Clarke 
Rowland Stebbin 
Lawrence Bliss 
James Osborne 
John Harman 
Nath. Pritchard 
Benjamin Parsons 
Widdow M. Bliss 
Sam'l Bliss 
John INIatthews. 
Anth. Dorchester 
Rich. Sikes 
Jonathan Burt 
John Lumbard 
Thomas Bancroft 
Benjamin Cooley 


( 17 ) 


Joseph Crowfoote 
Edward Ffoster 
Thomas Miller 
John Leonard 
Ens. Tho. Cooper 
Rice Bedortha 
Samiiell Terry 
John Lamb 
Robert Ashley 

James Warriner 
Jeremy Horton 
Symon Bemon 
Thomas Day 
Charles Fferry 
Thomas Mirick 
Sam '11 Marshfield 
Nathaneel Ely 

John Bliss 
John Keepe 
Nathaneel Burt 
Widdow Burt 
George Colton 
Samuel Ely 
James Taylor 
Jonathan Ball 
John Horton 

From what is stated in preceding paragraphs it may be seen 
that notwithstanding the generous provision made for the benefit 
of all worthy persons who chose to make their abode in the town, 
settlement in Springfield during the early years of its history 
was somewhat slow. In the time of the elder Pynchon it was 
the purpose of the founders to limit the plantation to forty fam- 
ilies, which fact, with the investiture of the land proprietary in 
the town, had the effect to retard the growth of the localit3^ A 
glance at the list of settlers above furnished will show that almost 
a majority of those who came during the first few years of the 
town 's history soon departed and established themselves in other 
places, many of them in Northampton and others in the colonies 
down the valley. These frequent removals leads to the conclu- 
sion that there was something in the order of things under the 
original founders that was distasteful to many of the first set- 
tlers, or that the Pynchon proprietary clung to the determination 
to limit the extent of the plantation ; but there is no proof that 
such conditions prevailed, and it may be that the temporary set- 
tlement here was for the purpose of selecting the most desirable 
location on the part of the settlers. 

The list of "allowed and admitted inhabitants" prepared by 
Elizur Holyoke in 1664 shows the names of seventy-four ' ' towns- 
men" in Springfield at that time. Each of those mentioned pre- 
sumably was the head of a family, and the number of actual in- 
habitants then in the town must have been more than three hun- 
dred. However, in that year Springfield Avas a jurisdiction of 
considerable size, amounting almost to a principality in area, and 
included portions of towns now within the state of Connecticut. 

( 18 ) 


The proceeding- of the general court in 1641, recognizing Spring- 
field as a town, gave it no bounds, and even the act creating 
Hampshire county in 1662 furnished no more than indefinite 
boundaries for the greater jurisdiction. 

When originally set off in 1636 Springfield was common 
land called Agawam, and Mr. Pynchon evidently had authority 
to acquire title to such portions of the entire region as he felt 
disposed to purchase from the Indians. INIore than that, when 
other lands were acquired by other proprietors, and were settled, 
but without sufficient population to warrant separate town or- 
ganization, such localities were annexed to the mother town for 
purposes of local government. In the j^ear following the first 
settlement at Agawam, owing perhaps to some slight differences 
among the inhabitants of the Massachusetts and Connecticut col- 
onies, the boundary line between them was established, and a con- 
siderable area which formerly had been within the general Aga- 
wam plantation was separated from it, although the inhabitants 
there continued for some time under its general authority. In 
fact a part of the territory of what now is Connecticut originally 
was within the Agawam jurisdiction. 

Of the several towns comprising Hampden county Spring- 
field contributed of its territory to the formation, in whole or in 
part, of no less than thirteen of them.^ First, in 1669, AVoronoco 
was set off and called Westfield, and included all the town now 
so called together with Southwick and parts of Montgomery and 
Russell. Second, in 1763 the territory of original Wilbraham 
was set off and comprised, substantially, all the present town of 
that name and also Avhat is now Hampden. Third, in 1774 the 
remaining portion of Springfield west of the Connecticut was set 
off to form West Springfield, and included all that is now Hol- 
yoke and Agawam. 

The third subdivision of Springfield's territory was made in 
the latter part of February, 1774, when Ludlow was set oft' as a 
district. In the next year it was organized as a town. This 

^In 1664 the town of Springfield fixed the bounds of Enfield and ordered that 
it be "accounted a part of Springfield" until the general court ordered other- 

( 19 ) 


tOAvn alone of all the old component parts of Springfield has not 
been called on to surrender its territory to later formations. The 
fifth subdivision was made in 1783 when Longmeadow was cre- 
ated, including nearly all of the present town so called, together 
with the comparatively new jurisdiction called East Longmea- 
dow. The sixth and last reduction in area of the mother town 
was made in 1848, when Chicopee was set otf. In 1890 a part 
of Longmeadow was annexed to Springfield and was brought 
within the jurisdiction of its city government. 

During the first fev; years of its history it was a question 
whether the colonization scheme undertaken by Mr. Pynchon and 
his associates would be a permanent success, and some writers 
have inclined to the position that there was a time when the 
planters would have abandoned the settlement and returned to 
the eastern colonies. Such a feeling may have arisen when the 
Connecticut colonies began their work of persecution and ar- 
raigned ]\Ir. Pynchon before the court at Hartford on the flimsy 
charge of speculation, resulting in a division and the separation 
of Agawam from its sister plantations in the valley. But this 
seeming hardship proved a blessing in fact and the little unpro- 
tected, struggling colony of planters gradually grew in strength 
and increased their lands. The goodly accession to the number 
of settlers during the years 1640-43 determined the permanency 
of the settlement, and from that time the increase was constant 
and healthful. 

In 1642 a second allotment of lands was made and in 1645 a 
third division became necessary. In the latter year the Connecti- 
cut toA^^ls sought to impose a tariff on Springfield imports and 
exports shipped by way of the river. This attempt was resisted, 
and the feeling created by the events of the period threatened the 
peace of all the New England colonies. In 1646^ the first annual 
town meeting was held (previous to this time the meetings had 
been held monthly) and in 1647 the proceedings were first regu- 
larly recorded. 

^In this year George Colton and Miles Morgan were appointed to "do their 
best to get a smith (blacksmith) for the town," and later on the town bargained 
with Francis Ball for a shop for the smith, the building to be 12x16 feet and 
"six feet stud between joints." — Town records, 

( 20 ) 


In 1648 the community was first plagued with the imaginary 
sin of witchcraft, growing out of a misunderstanding between 
settlers Parsons and Bedortha and the physical condition of the 
wife of the latter which now would be regarded as hysteria. But 
the infection at once caught in the plantation and even the good 
minister Moxon's family did not escape its ravages. The aid of 
the law and the general court was invoked during this period of 
disturbance, alleged witches were apprehended and brought to 
trial, but the most serious result was in the temporary disquiet in 
the plantation. Viewing such events in the enlightened age of 
the twentieth century we can only express surprise that our staid 
old forefathers could have been even temporarily misled by such 
vagaries of imagination, yet they did exist and an occasion is not 
wanting in which the piuiishment of death was visited on an 
unfortunate offender charged and convicted of witchery. Salem 
was a hotbed of witchcraft during the period in Avhich that evil 
was honestly supposed to exist. 

In 1650 Mr. Pynchon, who had been chiefly instrumental in 
founding and maintaining the colony at Agawam and who had 
been the guiding spirit in all the affairs of the plantation as well 
as being one of the magistrates of the court, published his famous 
book, "The Meritorious Price of Man's Kedemption," which is 
referred to on an earlier page. "Wliile the results of this work, 
which has been called "the pioneer of religious thought and free- 
dom," in no wise reflected on his character or his standing in the 
town, he nevertheless was much affected by the "burning" of his 
book ; and after he had been deprived of his magisterial office he 
began preparations for departure. In 1652. having disposed of 
most of his property and other interests in the locality he, with 
his son-in-iaw, Henry Smith, returned to England. INIr. Moxon 
left during the same year, and thus Springfield lost three of its 
most upright pioneers. 

On the departure of the elder P^^lellon his son John suc- 
ceeded to the vacant place in the town, and he is believed to have 
continued the business of trading, milling and selling merchan- 
dise. When the "head" of the church had departed the younger 
P\Tichon ministered to the people by reading to them and ocea- 

( 21 ) 


sionally by addressing them from his "owne meditations." In 
addition to his services in this work, the town, in 1656, employed 
Deacon Wright, Deacon Chapin, Mr. Holyoke and Henry Burt to 
labor in the "Lord's work on the Sabbath" until a settled min- 
ister should be engaged. This laudable work was performed by 
these worthy pioneers until 1661, when Rev. Pelatiah Glover was 
settled as minister over the old First parish. The first meeting 
house was built in 1645 by Thomas Cooper, and was the first 
church edifice in the state west of Boston. Its size was 28x40 
feet, and nine feet "between joints." 

In 1662 the three Connecticut river towns of Massachusetts 
were incorporated as a county by the name of Hampshire, and 
Springfield Avas designated as the "shire town," as may be seen 
by reference to the creating act in another chapter of this work. 
If previously there had been any question regarding the perma- 
nency of the town all doubt was dispelled by this action. The 
three towns were Springfield, Northampton and Hadley, all 
flourishing settlements, that first mentioned being of the most 
importance. Northampton was not made a half-shire town but it 
was ordered that the courts should be held alternately at that 
place and Springfield. 

The designation of Springfield as the seat of justice of a new 
county was the most important event in the early history of the 
town, and at once gave it a special prominence among the munici- 
palities of the state, although many years passed before a court 
house was in fact erected. In 1659 Captain John Pynchon had 
built a large brick mansion house which served the double pur- 
pose of a residence and defensive fortress to be used in case of an 
attack from the Indians ; and there is reason to believe that the 
hospitable owner frequently furnished entertainment to the 
stranger within his gates. 

During the early years of the county's history, the Pynchon 
fort, as it is best recalled, was the place in which courts were held 
and so far as common belief tends to establish the fact, they con- 
tinued to be held there until after the dawning of the eighteenth 
century. Some authorities are inclined to the belief that courts 
were frequently held in the old Ely "ordinary," or tavern, for 

( 22 ) 


which in 1665 Nathaniel Ely was licensed to furnish entertain- 
ment, refreshment and good cheer to villagers and travellers ; and 
in consideration of the great good expected of him the worthy 
host Avas released from ' ' trajTiing in ye towne soe long as he con- 
tinues to keepe ye ordinary," 

The Pynchon fort, or residence, stood near the corner of 
what now is Main and Fort streets, on ground occupied by the 
Fort block. It M^as in existence until 1831 and for more than a 
century was one of the most pretentious structures in the tOAvn. 

In 1662, after Springfield had been designated as the shire 
town, the selectmen caused a house of correction to be built. It 
was located on the "road on the brow of the hill," or what now is 
Maple street. Captain Pynchon and Nathaniel Ely were ap- 
pointed to lay out the road leading to the prison. Previous to 
this time the settlers had little need of a place of confinement, 
and while the construction of a house of correction was first men- 
tioned in 1661, it was not until after the creation of the county 
that it was built. The worthy pioneers would not belittle the 
dignity and character of their place of abode by designating the 
house of correction as a "common gaol," and the structure was 
not built as a place in which offenders were to be punished, but 
rather where tlie evil course of the wrong-doer was to be correct- 
ed. In later years the name "jail" came into use in describing 
the county prison, but the general designation of house of correc- 
tion is still preserved. 

After the organization of the county and the settlement of 
the affairs of the to^ATi in connection with the new order of things, 
the people entered upon an era of progress and prosperity. 
From that time until the outbreak of King Philip's war there was 
nothing to disturb the peace of the community, but when the 
Connecticut river Indians began to show signs of discontent the 
inhabitants naturally were alarmed and took measures for the 
common defense. Of all the plantations that invariably had 
treated the Indians with generosity, Springfield undoubtedly 
stood at the head, but the prospect of conquering the whites was 
too much for the savage nature to resist, and it readily yielded to 
Philip's entreaties and without provocation the natives turned 

( 24 ) 


against the people who had befriended and maintained them for 

King Philip's war, the story of which is told in detail in an 
earlier chapter of this work, began in the spring of 1675, but the 
disatlection among the river tribes did not show itself until the 
latter part of the summer, when the scene of events was trans- 
ferred from the eastern part of the colony to the Connecticut 
valley. The war was the most disastrous event in the early his- 
tory of Springfield and nearly resulted in the abandonment of 
the settlement by its white population. 

On October 5, 1675, Springfield was attacked and burned by 
the Indians, and Lieut. Cooper, Thomas Miller, Pentacost Mat- 
thews (wife of John ]\Iatthews) were killed. Four other persons 
were wounded, and one of them, Edmund Pringrydays, died a 
few days later. In all fifty-two buildings, including the house 
of corecction and Capt. Pynchon's corn and saw mill, were 
burned. Of the total number of buildings destroyed thirty-two 
were houses and twenty-five were barns with all their contents — 
the recently garnered products of the season. 

On the day of the attack the town was practically defenseless 
except for the protection afforded by the fortified houses. The 
militia were away in the defense of Hadley, and upon their re- 
turn the savages fled to the forests. Throughout the remainder 
of that year, and the next, the town was frequently visited by 
marauding bands of Indians, but beyond an occasional sneaking 
assault on some unguarded settler and the burning of a few 
houses and barns no serious loss was suffered. 

While the destruction of Springfield was a serious blow to 
every settler in the town. Captain Pynchon was the heaviest loser 
in property, and as a result he was nearly driven to distraction. 
Indeed, every settler lost all he had, but the feeling of discourage- 
ment which settled in Capt. Pynchon's mind cast a cloud over the 
entire comnumity. The general court advised the removal of the 
people to the eastern colonies of the province, but this was impos- 
sible, hence the counsel was not heeded. For a year or two the 
inhabitants struggled along against every adversity, and at the 
end of that time the storm of war passed away and peace and 

( 35 ) 


order were restored. Soon a new town greAV out of the ruins of 
the old place and a greatly improved condition of things was 

In the course of a few years after King Philip's war new 
Indian troubles arose, and for the next hundred years Springfield 
hardly knew the blessings of peace. Following the period re- 
ferred to in preceding paragraphs, there next was visited on our 
people the effects of King AYilliam's war, then Queen Anne's 
war, and after that the long continued series of French and Eng- 
lish wars which excited the public mind and called for men and 
money— a continual drain on the resources of the town— until 
the final overthrow of the French power in America in 1763. In 
less than a dozen more years there followed the revolution, during 
which Springfield was the center of military operations, and for 
eight years more the people knew nothing of peace. However, in 
a way this war resulted in material good to the town, in the estab- 
lishment of the federal arsenal and the watershops, thus adding 
greatly to the local population and the constant employment of 
about a thousand workmen. FolloAving close upon the revolution 
came Shays' insurrection, the brief but exciting struggle between 
the insurgents and the officers of the law- and the courts, and cul- 
minating in Shays' ridiculous and fruitless attempt to capture 
the IT. S. arsenal on the hill. All the preceding events are made 
subjects of special chapters in another part of this work, hence 
need but passing notice here. 

Among the multitude of misfortunes which visited them- 
selves upon the town about the time of King Philip's war men- 
tion is to be made of the death of two of Springfield's most re- 
spected and upright citizens. We refer to Deacon Samuel Cha- 
pin and Capt. Elizur Holyoke, both of whom died in 1675 and 
both of whom had labored long and earnestly for the temporal 
and spiritual welfare of the people of the community. Major 
John Pynchon, the last survivor of the little pioneer band that 
founded the colony in 1636, was also removed by the hand of 

]\Iajor Pynchon had been the leading man of the town for 
many years. In youth be had come with his father and took part 

( 26 ) 


in founding the plantation, and when the latter returned to Eng- 
land in 1652, the son succeeded to his business interests and also 
to his influence in the region. AVhen the inhabitants formed the 
first militia company John Pynehon was chosen captain. Later 
on he was made major, a title by which he was afterward known. 
From the organization of the county until after King Philip's 
war. Major Pynehon was the most conspicuous figure in Spring- 
field history. 

In accordance with a proclamation issued by the crown, the 
general court, on April 27, 1678, ordered all subjects to take the 

Park Congregational Church, Springfield 

oath of allegiance before one of the magistrates of the colony. 
Major Pynehon was appointed to administer the oath to the in- 
habitants of Springfield, and agreeable to the act the following 
named persons attested their loyalty to the king during the 
month of December, 1678, and January, 1679. (An hundred 
years later such an order would have found little recognition in 
the colony) : Pelatiah Glover, Robert Ashley, Samuel Marsh- 
field, Benj. Parsons, jr., Lieut. Thomas Stebbins, John Lamb, 
Japhet Chapin, Thomas Day, John Stewart, Samuel Bliss, John 
Scott, Jonathan Ashley, James Dorchester, Joseph Leman, 
Thomas Colton, Nathaniel Sikes, John Bagg, John Barber, jr., 
AYilliam Brook, Samuel Bliss, Edward Stebbins, John Holj-oke, 

( 27 ) 


George Colton, Thomas Mirrick, Jonathan Burt, Miles Morgan, 
William Branch, Nathaniel Burt, Samuel Ely, James Warriner, 
Jonathan Taylor, John Harmon, Joseph Ashley, Thomas Cooper, 
Isaac Colton, Increase Sikes, James Sikes, Obadiah Miller, 
Charles Ferry, John Matthews, Thomas Stebbins, Benj. Stebbins, 
Daniel Denton, Anthony Dorchester, John Dumbleton, Rowland 
Thomas, Henry Chapin, John Clark, Rice Bedortha, Nathaniel 
Pritchard, John Hitchcock, John Bliss, John Petty, John Dor- 
chester, Edward Foster, Ephraim Colton, Victory Sikes, John 
Barber, John Riley, Samuel Ferry, Abel Wright, Joseph Steb- 

The above list probably contains the names of all the male 
inhabitants of full age in the town at that time, and by compari- 
son with Elizur Holyoke's list on a preceding page the reader will 
gain an idea of the growth of the town during the intervening 
fifteen years. It should be stated, however, that in 1669 West- 
field was set ofi:' from Springfield and took from the mother town 
a considerable number of inhabitants. 



The beginning of the eighteenth century found the town 
with about nine hundred inhabitants scattered over its vast area, 
with the only trading and marketing center of any consequence 
at Springfield. Except that Queene Anne's war began soon 
after 1700 and had the effect to keep the people in a state of 
alarm, the period was unimportant in local annals. West 
Springfield had recently (1696) been made a separate parish and 
soon afterward Longmeadow v.-as similarly incorporated for pur- 
poses of church Avorship and government. Neither of these local- 
ities, however, severed its connection with the mother town until 
nearly three-quarters of a century later, and at the time of which 

( 28 ) 


we write Springfield still retained substantially all its original 
territory except the part set off in 1669 to form AVestfield. The 
creation of the new parishes was chiefly for the purpose of estab- 
lishing churches and a part of the ecclesiastical rather than the 
civil history of the town. 

After the death of Major Pynchon a new order of things 
began to replace the old system of government. In fact this 
changed condition began about the time tOAvn ownership and 
control of land titles was abolished. Yet many years passed 
before the people realized that the most thickly settled district 
of their town — what is now the city — must of necessity resolve 
itself into the form and character of a municipality. It was a 
county seat, and a trading center, provided with a church, a 
school, a saw and corn mill and other elements of an embryo city, 
but the town lots were over large, being from eight to fourteen 
rods front on the main thoroughfare, and even that "towne 
streete" was of extraordinary width. 

Previous to this time the town ^-irtually had been governed 
by the Pynchon influence, which while perfectly wholesome, 
honest and moral, it was not really progressive or calculated to 
increase the local population or to inspire a spirit of ambition on 
the part of its inhabitants. Even then many men had become 
convinced that there must be a more radical separation of affairs 
of the town and the church, and until this was accomplished there 
could be no real progress in the town. This was not what would 
be called a reform movement, for there was nothing in the moral 
status of the town that required reformation, but it was a step in 
the direction of systematic local government and one which must 
be taken before Springfield could attain a standing of promi- 
nence among the civil divisions of the state. 

For a period of fully sixty years Springfield had been a 
county seat before a court house was built, while Northampton 
had erected a "home of justice" soon after Hampshire county 
was created. The first court house in Springfield was completed 
in 1723 and stood near the corner of Main and Sanford streets. 
The structure and the events in connection with its history are 
fully mentioned in a preceding chapter. 

( 29 ) 


The construction of the court house was not the first success 
of the progressive element of the town over those who were con- 
tent to live under the primitive order of things, but it was the 
greatest achievement of the period. It had been hoped that the 
towns of AVestfield, Enfield, KSuffield and Brookfield would lend 
assistance in the work and commissioners were sent to treat with 
them to that end as early as 1721. But the towns referred to 
failed to give more than verbal encouragement to the project, and 
when the court house was in fact built it was at the sole expense 
of this to-wTi. From that time the progressive element always 
prevailed in town afl:airs although the result was an occasional 
division of the territory and the creation of new towns. No 
bitter rivalries were created and it was simply a question whether 
Springfield should be a progressive or a non-progressive town. 

Ten years later there arose a feeling of real bitterness which 
for a year or two threatened the peace of the community. For 
almost forty years previous to 1734 Daniel Brewer had minis- 
tered to the spiritual needs of the town as head of the First par- 
ish. This good man died in 1733 and in May of the next year 
Robert Breck was invited to preach in the parish meeting house 
with a view to settlement as pastoral head of the flock. But as 
soon as the news of the informal call had become known certain 
citizens and ministers in high standing in the church, particu- 
larly resident in Connecticut towns, circulated serious charges 
against the soundness of jMr. Breck 's religious belief and teach- 
ings, openly alleging heresy and all manner of false doctrines cal- 
culated to deceive the true believer, promote discord and throw 
down the very foundations of the christian church, if unre- 

AYhile it is not the purpose of this chapter to discuss the 
ecclesiastical history of the town, the relation of the event under 
consideration to the civil history of the locality was so close that 
at least a passing mention of it seems necessary at this time. The 
so-called Breck controversy was an exciting event in the town's 
history and resulted in the arrayal of the best people, pro and 
con. with some feeling on both sides. The ministerial association 
was summoned to the relief of the opposing faction, then the local 

( 30 ) 


courts became involved in the matter, and finally the power of 
the general court was invoked, much in the same manner as Mr. 
Pynchon 's case was treated nearly half a century before ; but the 
result was substantially the same, and Mr. Brack's theological 
views came to be accepted in later years, and his pastorate was a 
splendid success for the people of the town. At the outset, how- 
ever, Mr. Breck's supporters v.ere chiefly persons in full church 

At length after a protracted controversy Mr. Breck "justi- 
fied" himself by a published confession of faith, also by ably 
presenting his own defense before various civil and ecclesiastical 
tribunals, and therefore he was duly ordained in the pastoral 
relation. He preached and worked in the old First parish a full 
half century and was one of the most zealous and upright men of 
his time. It is believed that many of his former opponents be- 
came his warm friends. Among them were some of the leading 
men of the town at the time. Those whose names are recalled 
were William Pynchon, jr., Robert Harris, John AVorthington, 
Ebenezer Warriner, Benj. Wait, Ebenezer Warner, Daniel Cad- 
well, Jedediah Bliss, Samuel Bliss, Henry Chapin, Simon Smith, 
Increase Sikes, jr., Abner Ely, Obadiah Cooley, Abel Bliss, Tim- 
othy Bliss, Pelatiah Bliss, John Chapin, Luke Bliss, Joseph Ash- 
ley, Thomas Horton, David Chapin and John Chapin, jr. 

In the above list will be found the names of several persons 
not before mentioned in town history. As a matter of fact at the 
time of the trouble regarding Mr. Breck, Springfield had ac- 
quired a considerable population and was no longer a small town 
as far as number of inhabitants was concerned. The greater 
part of the fertile lands were even then under cultivation and 
the forests were rapidly disappearing before the Avoodman's axe. 
In 1737-8 the town assessment rolls showed a total of about 350 
taxable inhabitants, equal to an aggregate population of about 
1,400 persons of all ages. At that time the territory was divided 
into districts for the improvement and maintenance of roads and 
the convenient collection of annual rates. According to the rec- 
ords of 1738 the town comprised five of these districts, and in 
that part of the town which afterward was incorporated as the 

( 31 ) 


city, constable John jNIunn was collector of the rates. His old 
list, which is preserved among the archives of the town, showed 
the district to contain 89 taxable inhabitants, or an equivalent of 
about 400 persons in the year mentioned. 

In Constable Munn's district these names appeared on the 
roll : Increase Sikes, jr.. John Hancock, Widow Hannah Sikes, 
Simon Smith, Ebenezer Lumbard, Jonathan Stevenson, Israel 
AYarner, Benj. AVarriner, Benjamin Knowlton, Joseph Burt, 
Samuel Weaver, estate of Ebenezer Warriner, Daniel Caldwell, 
Obadiah Cooley, Moses Bartlett, Samuel AVarner, jr., Benjamin 
Sikes, Lieut. John Burt, John Burt, jr., Increase Sikes, estate of 
Samuel Sikes, Jonathan Bartlett, Thomas Stiles, Ebenezer Steb- 
bins, jr., John j\Iunn, Eobert Ashley, Dea. Henry Burt, Moses 
Burt, James Burt, Eobert Harris, Abel Bliss, Timothy Bliss, 
Edward Bliss, Jedediah Bliss, Abner Ely, John Harmon, Lt. 
John Ferre, John Ferre, jr., Ebenezer AYarner, Jonathan Day, 
AYidow Elizur Sikes, Joseph Sikes, Samuel Bliss, John Morgan, 
David AA^arriner, Gershom Ferre, Samuel Bartlett, Ephraim 
Bartlett, James AA^arriner, AAllliam Bliss, jr., Pelatiah Hitchcock, 
widow Hannah AA^hite, widow Ruth Ingersoll, Joseph AYarriner, 
Samuel Marshfield, Capt. John Mirriek, Thomas Merrick, Thomas 
Mirrick, jr., David Alirrick, Aloses Alirrick, Lt. Pelatiah Bliss, 
Luke Bliss, Jonathan Church, AYilliam Pynchon, Thomas Horton, 
Benj. Horton, Jeremiah Horton, Benj. Horton, jr., Timothy Hor- 
ton, John Horton, Daniel AYarner, Benj. Brooks, Samuel Brooks, 
Noah Brooks, widow Hannah Beaman, Jonathan Bartlett, Sam- 
uel Huggins, John Miller, 3d, Noah Alvord, Nathaniel Brewer, 
Katharine Brewer, George Alather, Jonathan Bliss, Benj. AA^ait, 
Cornelius Jones, Jonathan AYarriner, Edmund Newman, Benj. 
Dorchester, AA^illiam Bliss, Elijah Stetson. 

The affairs of the town were beginning to assume practical 
form about this time, and the various offshoot parishes or pre- 
cincts of the mother district were becoming in a measure self- 
supporting and prosperous. The town now had enjoyed a con- 
siderable period of comparative peace, but in 1744 England and 
France were again at war both in Europe and in this country. 
This was the beginning of the end of the French dominion in 

( 32 ) 


America and that power stniggli'd furiously to maintain its 
supremacy on the continent. As usual the New England colo- 
nies were seriously involved in the strife of the next twenty years, 
and again the Connecticut valley was the scene of constant 
disturbance through fear of another Indian attack similar to that 
which resulted in the destruction of Springtield in 1675. But 
now the northern frontier was well guarded, and while the sav- 
ages were constantly on the border this town was fortunately free 
from attack. 

In the expetlition against Louisburg in 1745 there was a 
union of the forces of New York and New England, and the 
Hampshire county regiment was called upon for service in Can- 
ada. The command contained a company of Springfield men, of 
whom twenty-three laid down their lives in the historic siege of 
Louisburg. They were Lieut. John Munn, Jonathan Warriner, 
Abner Hancock, Israel Warner, John Ashley, Pelatiah Jones, 
Gideon Warriner, John Crowfoot, Benjamin Knowlton, jr., Sam- 
uel Chapin, jr., Ebenezer AVarner, Asahel Chapin, Ebenezer 
Thomas, Reuben Hitchcock, Joseph Mears, Reuben Dorchester 
and George Mygate. 

In the later j^ears of the war the town w'as the scene of many 
interesting events, yet the actual strife was confined to other 
localities. The war was finally ended by the treaty of 1763, and 
thereafter the inhabitants of the growing town were granted a 
period of twelve years in which to prepare for the final struggle 
for American independence. 

The revolutionary period was one of great interest in the 
town, and one also in which Springfield attained a special prom- 
inence in Massachusetts history. The general events of the Avar 
are fully narrated in another chapter, hence it is sufficient to 
j-efer to things of a local character, particularly to the names of 
l)ersons who bore arms in the cause of national freedom. In 
1774 West Springfield was set off as a separate jurisdiction, and 
the mother town was now limited to territory east of the Connec- 
ticut river. 

In the years immediately preceding the revolution John 
Worthington was one of the most influential personages in the 

3-2 ( 33 ) 


town. He was representative in the general court from 1761 to 
1774 and for several years had been the leading man of the board 
of selectmen. As a barrister he was held in high esteem and his 
opinion was regarded as law with the majority of the people. 
Before the war was begun he had shown strong tory leanings and 
his voice and influence favored British supremacy. 

In the Connecticut valley Col. AVorthington had many fol- 
lowers, and while they generally were men of substance and in- 
fluence their opinions did not find favor with the great majority 
of the people. The Worthington following comprised men who 
had been active in political affairs, while on the other side were 
the real developers of the region, the actual and useful factors in 
town history: men of brain and brawn, but lacking in political 
ambition and possibly wanting in the power of loud public decla- 
mation. But they were men of strong character and determina- 
tion and when the time for action was at hand they moved 
promptly and effectually and at once subdued any strong senti- 
ment of toryism that may have threatened the community. 

When we consider the influences under which the people of 
Springfield had been reared and governed previous to the revolu- 
tion it is surprising that British sympathizers were not even more 
nmnerous during that period, but when the leaders themselves 
discovered the trend of public sentiment, and the unpopularity 
of the cause they had advocated, they discreetly withdrew from 
active participation in public aff'airs and held themselves closely 
within their own narrow circle. Then Col. Worthington and 
associates retired from the public gaze and new men were called 
into prominence. In 1773 Col. Worthington and John Bliss 
were the representatives in the general court. In 1775 the town 
was represented by John Hale, William Pynchon. Capt. George 
Pynchon and Dr. Charles Pynchon. In 1774 the selectmen were 
John Worthington, Moses Bliss, John Hale, Phineas Chapin and 
Daniel Harris. In 1775 the board comprised Daniel Harris, 
Phineas Chapin, Aaron Colton, James Sikes and William Pyn- 
chon, jr. 

The year preceding the outbreak of the war was one of deep 
interest and great excitement growing out of the unfriendly rela- 

( 34 ) 


tions of the colonies with the mother country, and on July 12 the 
town in public meeting declared its loyalty to the cause for which 
the Americans were contending. The resolves then adopted were 
prepared by a committee comprising Dea. Nathaniel Brewer, 
Capt. George Pynchon, Dr. Charles Pynchon, Capt. Simon Col- 
ton, Moses Field, Jonathan Hale, jr., Ensign Phineas Chapin, 
James Sikes and Dea. Daniel Harris. The resolutions reviewed 
at length the political situation of the country and the numerous 

St. Pauls Universalist Church, Si^riiigtieUl 

acts of oppression on the part of the crown, and promised loyalty 
to the colonies. 

In September following the town approved of the measure 
calling for a "county congress" and chose as its delegates Dr. 
Charles Pynchon, Luke Bliss and Jonathan Hale, jr. The com- 
mittee of correspondence, chosen at the same time, comprised Dr. 
Charles Pynchon, William Pynchon, jr., James Sikes, Dea. Na- 
thaniel Brewer and John Hale. Dr. Pynchon and John Bliss 

( 35 ) 


(the latter of AVilbrahani) were chosen to represent the town in 
the genera] court held at Salem, October 5, and Capt. George 
Pynchon and Jonathan Hale, jr., were selected as delegates to 
the provincial congress held October 2. In addition to the selec- 
tion of the most loyal men to represent the town during this 
trying period, the inhabitants made preparation for war in the 
organization of militia companies and in collecting arms and 
annnunition. In March, 1775, the selectmen drew orders on the 
treasury of the town for 35 pounds to pay Horace White for 25 
gun barrels; to pay Martin Ely 25 pounds for 25 gun locks, and 
to pay Reuben Bliss 7 pounds, 19 shillings and 6 pence for 
"stocking" 25 guns. Provision also w^as made for the relief of 
a number of persons who had been made dependent on the public 
bounty in being compelled to leave Boston, which city then was 
occupied by the British troops. 

At the annual town meeting in the spring of 1775 the most 
loyal men were elected to office and every place was filled with 
great care. The officers then chosen Avere as follows : 

Moderator— J -ames Sikes. 

Clerk and Treasurer— Fidward Pynchon, "Esquire." 

Selectmen— Dea. Daniel Harris, Ensign Phineas Chapin, 
James Sikes, William Pynchon, jr., and Dea. Aaron CoLton. 

Wardens — Daniel Lumbard (Lombard), Nathaniel Burt 
and Eleazer Chapin. 

Assessors — Jonathan Burt, jr., Dea. Eldward Chapin and 
William Pynchon, jr. 

CoHs^aft^e*'— Stephen Hitchcock, Moses Harris, William 
Stebbins, jr., Henry Colton and Stephen AVright. 

Tythingmen — Timothy Bliss, Ebenezer Bliss, George Colton, 
2d, and Jonathan Bement. 

Surveyors of High ways— Andrew Colton, Josiah Hitchcock, 
Aaron Cooley, Hezekiah Hale, Silas Hale, Benoni Chapin, George 
Chapin and Eliakim Cooley. 

Fence Vieivers-Jacoh Cooley, Joseph Stebbins, jr., Festus 
Colton, Samuel Keep, Ensign Phineas Chapin and William 
Chapin, jr. 

Surveyors of Shingles and Claphoards—ljient. Abner 
Smith, Phineas Chapin, jr., and David White. 

( 36 ) 


Hog Kieves — Matthew Keep, Edward Craiidall, John Chirk 
and Abijah Edson. 

Deer /i'/crfs— Nathaniel Alexander and Elijah Burt. 

Sealers of Leather — Samuel Gridley and Jonathan Stebbins. 

Conmiitfee to Adjust Aceounts of rje Treasurer— ^ewh^n 
Bliss, Luke Bliss and Jonathan Dwight. 

Bull Committee— John AVarner, Thomas Stebbins, Josiah 
Cooley, Samuel Keep, Silas Hale, Dea. Edward Chapin, Azariah 
Vanllorn and John Horton. 

In 1775 the town contained a total of 862 "polls." Aeeord- 
ing to the "rate lists" prepared by the assessors in December of 
that year the taxable inhabitants were as follows: 

James Page Adlington, Lieut. Nathaniel Alexander, Lieut. 
Job Alvord, David Ashley. John Ashley, Joseph Ashley, jr., Asa 
Bartlett, George Bates, Thomas Bates, Moses Baxter, Jonathan 
Bement, Jonathan Bissell, Aaron Bliss, Abner Bliss, Alexander 
Bliss, Calvin Bliss. Daniel Bliss, Ebenezer Bliss 2d. Ebenezer 
Bliss 3d, Ebenezer Bliss 4th, Eli Bliss, Widow Elizabeth Bliss, 
Eunice Bliss, Widow Experience Bliss, Gad Bliss, Ensign Jede- 
diah Bliss, Lieut. Luke Bliss, Moses Bliss, "Esq.," jMoses Bliss, 
jr., Nathan Bliss, Nathan Bliss, jr., Nathaniel Bliss, Pelatiah 
Bliss, Widow Rebecca Bliss, Reuben Bliss, Samuel Bliss, Widow 
Silence Bliss, Timothy Bliss, Mary Bond, David Bonner, John 
Budges, Charles Brewer, George Brewer, Dea. Nathaniel Brewer, 
Solomon Brewer, Widow Lydia Brooks, Noah Brooks, David 
Burt, David Burt 2d, David Burt 3d, Ebenezer Burt, Elam Burt, 
Enoch Burt, Frederick Burt, Capt. Gideon Burt, John Burt, 
John Burt, jr., Jonathan Burt, Moses Burt, Nathaniel Burt, 
Oliver Burt, Rex Burt, Sanniel Burt, Benoni Chapin. Dea. Ed- 
ward Chapin, Eleazer Chapin, Eieazer Chapin, jr., Enoch Cha- 
pin, Ephraim Chapin, George Chapin, George Chapin, jr., Gid- 
eon Chapin, Widow Hannah Chapin. Isaac Chapin, Israel Cha- 
pin, Jacob Chapin, Jacob Chapin, jr., Lieut. Japhet Chapin, 
Joseph Chapin, Joseph Chapin, jr., Josiah Chapin, Nathan Cha- 
pin, Ensign Phineas Chapin, Phineas Chapin, jr.. Widow Sarah 
Chapin, Seth Chapin, Simeon Chapin, Solomon Chapin, AYilliam 
Chapin, William Chapin, jr., Moses Church, John Clarke, Dr. 

( 37 ) 


Joseph Clarke, Joseph Clongh, Dea. Closes Cobb, Seth Storer 
Coburn, Ambrose Collins, Ariel Collins, Peter Colson, Dea Aaron 
Colton, Abner Colton, Andrew Colton, Asa Colton, Charles Col- 
ton, Charles Colton, jr., Ebenezer Colton, Elihn Colton, Festns 
Colton, Frederick Colton, (;4eorge Colton, George Colton 2d, 
George Colton 3d, Gideon Colton, Henry Colton, Colonel 
Isaac Colton, Israel Colton, John Colton, John Colton, jr., Sam- 
nel Colton, Capt. Simon Colton, Thomas Colton, William Colton, 
Aaron Cooley, Asahel Cooley, Caleb Cooley, Caleb Cooley, jr., 
Eli Cooley, Eliachim Cooley, George Cooley, Israel Cooley, Jabez 
Cooley, Jacob Cooley, Jonah Cooley, Josiah Cooley, Josiah 
Cooley, jr., Moses Cooley, Stephen Cooley, Samuel Comes, Widow 
Hannah Day, Joel Day, Benoni Dewey, Widow Elizabeth D wight, 
Jonathan Dwight, Abijah Edson, Samuel Edson, Dea. Nathaniel 
Ely, Nathaniel Ely, jr., Aaron Ferre, Elisha Ferre, John Ferre, 
Joseph Ferre, Solomon Ferre, Moses Field, Oliver Field, Thomas 
Fisher, John Fox, John Frink, Abner Frost, Jonathan Frost, 
Joseph Frost, Samuel Gridley, Hezekiah Hale, John Hale, Jona- 
than Hale, Jonathan Hale, jr., Noah Hale, Sylvanus Hale, Thos. 
Hale, Thos. Hale, jr., Abel Hancock, Abel Hancock, jr., Jotham 
Hancock, Wm. Hancock, jr., Dea. Daniel Harris, Moses Harris, 
Lt. Robert Harris, John Hill, Capt. Ebenezer Hitchcock, Ebenezer 
Hitchcock, jr., George Hitchcock, John Hitchcock, Josiah Hitch- 
cock, Levi Hitchcock, Levi Hitchcock, jr., Luther Hitchcock, 
Phineas Hitchcock, Samuel Hitchcock, Stephen Hitchcock, Gad 
Horton, Jeremiah Horton, John Horton, Margaret Horton, 
Widow Mary Horton, Mary Horton "Jr.," Stephen Horton, 
Benj. Howard, Benj. Howard, jr., Thomas Hunt, Jonathan In- 
gersoll, WidoAv Margaret Jones, Matthew^ Keep, Samuel Keep, 
Stephen Keep, Joseph Kellogg, jr., John King, Oliver King, 
Parmenas King, Daniel Lamb, Gad Lamb, John Lloyd, Daniel 
Lombard, Joseph Lombard, Solomon Loomis, Thomas Mirrick, 
(lived in AVilbraham but owned land in Springtield), Aaron 
INIorgan, Ebenezer ]\Iorgan, jr., John INIorgan, Samuel Morgan, 
Stephen Morgan, David Moore, Simon Moore, Samuel Munn, 
AVidow Sarah Munn, Daniel Murphy, Edmond Murphy, James 
Nash, Patrick Nugent, Isaac Osborn, James Parker, Aaron Par- 

( 38 ) 


sons, Aaron Parsons, jr., Abner Parsons, Daniel Parsons, Gideon 
Parsons, Zenas Parsons, John Pascue, John Panlk, Noah Panlk, 
Andrew Peterson, Dr, Charles Pynchon, Edward Pynchon, 
"Esq.," Capt, George Pynchon, John Pynchon, Walter Pynchon, 
AYilliam Pynchon, jr., John Root, Ebenezer Enmrill, Nehemiah 
Rnnn-ill, Allis Russell, Jednthan Sanderson, jNledad Sanderson, 
Robert Sanderson, Lieut. Abner Smith, Joel Smith, Philip Smith, 
Lieut. Smith, Jabez Snow, Ebenezer Stebbins, Edward Stebbins, 
Ezra Stebbins, Dea. Gad Stebbins, Jonathan Stebbins, Joseph 
Stebbins, Joseph Stebbins, jr., Lemuel Stebbins, Lewis Stebbins, 
Medad Stebbins, AVidow Rachael Stebbins, Thomas Stebbins, 
John Stedman, Phineas Stedman, Phineas Stedman, jr., Lieut. 
Aaron Steele, Justus Steele, Squire Steele, Robert Stevens, Abia- 
thar Stevenson, Benajah Stevenson, Joseph Taylor, Abraham 
VanHorn, Azariah VanHorn, John VanHorn, Moses Wait, Ben- 
jamin WardAvell, Ebenezer Warner, Gerald Warner, John War- 
ner, Zachariah Warner, Aaron Warriner, Benjamin Warriner, 
Ebenezer Warriner, Ebenezer Warriner, jr., David White, Pre- 
served AVhite, Preserved White, jr., William White, William 
White, jr., Ensign Samuel Williams, Thomas Williston, Benja- 
min Wolcott, Azai'iah Woolworth, Richard Woolworth, Richard 
Woolworth, jr., John Worthington, "Esq.," Daniel Wright, 
David Wright, Ezekiel Wright, Ezekiel AVright, jr., George 
AVright, George Wright, jr., Moses Wright, Stephen Wright, 
Stephen Wright, jr. 

On the morning of April 19, 1775, a strong detachment of 
British troops marched out of Boston and attacked a small party 
of Americans who had gathered at Lexington to protect the mil- 
itary stores deposited at that place. Within twenty-four hours 
from that time a mounted courier rode rapidly into Springfield 
and sounded the call to arms. The minute-men of the town, and 
of all other towns in the region, at once prepared for action, and 
in the space of a few hours all the companies were ready to march 
to Boston. 

In the office of the city clerk of Springtield there is pre- 
served the formal Avritten announcement^ of the attack on Lex- 

^The fnll text of this ducument will be found in the general chapter on the 
revolutionary war. 

( 39 ) 


ington, which was left with the selectmen by Isaac Bissell, the 
courier. On the reverse side of the paper there appears the 
names of many men of Springfield, all of whom are presumed to 
liave answered the call and enrolled themselves for service, al- 
though there is nothing to show by whom they were commanded 
or that they in fact marched to Boston on that eventful occasion. 
However, as an interesting memento of the period the names on 
the paper are reproduced here, and are as follows : 

Jacob Cooley, jr., Ebenezer Colton, Moses Harris, Calvin 
Bliss, Ebenezer Rumrill, James Taylor, Spencer Myriek, Thomas 
Hale, Jonah Cooley, Abner Cooley, James Nash, Gad Horton, 
Joseph King, Zadock Bliss, Henry Stiles, Silvanus Hale, Jacob 
Chapin, George Wright, Peter Colton, Abiathar Stevenson. Jo- 
seph Kellogg, jr.. Squire Steele, Gad Bliss, Abner Russell, Mat- 
thias Lancton, John AVarner, jr., Abel Hancock, jr., Aaron Ferre, 
Samuel Bliss, Luther Hitchcock, Abijah Edson, Justin Smith, 
Jonathan Ingersoll, Asahel Cooley, Meclad Stebbins, Samuel 
Keep, Olin Field, John Burt, jr., Caleb Cooley, jr., Oliver Burt, 
Israel Chapin, John Stedman, Phineas Stedman, jr., Samuel 
Edson, Benjamin Parsons, Jacob Kellogg, Alexander Bliss, Pat- 
rick Nugent, Phineas Chapin, Solomon Chapin, Joseph Chapin, 
jr., Philip Smith, Eleazer Chapin, jr., Asher Granger, Walter 
Pynchon, William White, Jabez Snow, Arthur Hitchcock, Solo- 
mon Brewer, Robert Stevens, Samuel Griclley. 

The regular Springfield company of minute-men under 
Major Andrew Colton who marched to Boston on April 20, and 
whose service at the time was for ten days, was comprised as fol- 
lows : 

Gideon Burt, 1st Lieut; Walter Pynchon, 2d Lieut; Aaron 
Steele and William White, sergeants ; Luther Hitchcock and 
Ambrose Collins, corporals ; William Colton and David Chapin, 
fifers ; Lewis Chapin, drummer ; Jeduthan Sanderson, centinel ; 
and privates Israel Chapin, Samuel Gridley, Alexander Bliss, 
Aaron Parsons, jr., Aaron Ferre, Gad Horton, Samuel Bliss, 
James Nash, Abel Hancock, George Wright, jr., Matthew Lanc- 
ton, Peter Colton, John Stedman, Abner Russell, Asahel Cooley, 
John Warner, jr., Justin Smitli, Samuel Edson, Patrick Nugent, 

( 40 ) 


Benjamin Parsons, Jonathan Ingersoll, Calvin Bliss, Henry 
Stiles, Luther Colton, Abner Cooley, Lemuel Parsons, Noah 
Bliss, Joseph King, Caleb Cooley, Zadock Bliss, James Taylor, 
Ebenezer Rumrill, Sylvanus Hale, Spencer Merrick, Joseph Par- 
sons and Moses Bliss. 

In Captain David Burt's company of minute-men from 
Long-meadow, who also rallied and marched to Boston on the 
occasion mentioned, there were Ebenezer Colton, Nathaniel Ely, 
Samuel Keep, Abner Colton, John Colton, Josiah Cooley, Aaron 
Bliss, jr., David White, Samuel Smith, Nehemiah Rumrill, Oli- 
ver King, Richard Woohvorth, Elijah Burt, John Ashley, 
Thomas Stebbins, James Parker, Gad Lamb, Samuel Morgan, 
Samuel Burt and Ebenezer Stebbins. 

There were several other minute-men who started out on 
that tedious march of April 20, although we have no record to 
show that they were a part of a regularly organized company. 
In this connection there may be recalled the names of Matthew 
Keep, Thomas Bates, Solomon Brewer, Jonathan Colton, Benj. 
Colton, jr., John Burt, jr., Abijah Edson, Jacob Kellogg, Joshua 
Kellogg, Moses Harris, Robert Stevens, Oliver Burt, Jacob Cha- 
pin, Eleazer Chapin, Oliver Field, INIedad Stebbins, Jonah 
Cooley, Simon Moore, Seth Coburn and Thomas Hale, jr. 

After the departure of the minute men the town took imme- 
diate measures for raising more troops for the army of the 
province, as there yet remained many serviceable men who were 
willing to share the vicissitudes of a soldier's life. Those who 
took up arms at the first call were not enlisted for a specified 
time, but were the enrolled militia, ready for any emergency, 
hence were "minute-men" indeed. On April 24, three days 
after the minute-men had left, Capt. Gideon Burt's company 
was enlisted for three months' service. The personnel of the 
command was as follows : 

Gideon Burt, captain; Walter Pynchon, 1st lieutenant; 
Aaron Steel, 2d lieutenant ; Samuel Gridley, William White, 
Aaron Parsons and Ambrose Collins, sergeants ; Luther Hitch- 
cock, corporal ; and privates Samuel Bliss, Simon Moore, Sam- 
uel Edson, Lewis Chapin, Spencer Merrick, William Colton, 

( 41 ) 


Nathan Bliss, Caleb Cooley, Justin Smith, Lenuiel Parsons, 
Aaron Ferre, Beriah Jennings, Benj. Parsons, Jeduthan Sander- 
son, Noah Bliss, Matthias Lancton, Abel Hancock, Jabez Cooley, 
James Taylor, Stephen Rnssell, Theodore Smith, Ebenezer Rum- 
rill, Frederick Colton, Justin Moore, Abner Cooley, Benj. How- 
ard. Abner Russell, Elihu Colton, Jacob Ward, Silvanus Hale, 
Henry Stiles, Moses Bedunah, Luther Colton, Calvin Bliss, 
Joseph King, Benoni Bannister, Joseph Chapin, Robert Stevens, 
John Hendrick, David Chapin, Zadock Bliss, George Wright, 
Patrick Nugent, James Nash, Arthur Hitchcock, Luther Colton, 
Jonas Christian, Jonathan Ingersoll, INloses Bliss, Ebenezer Mar- 
tin, John Stednian and Peter Colson. 

This, however, does not complete the list of soldiers sent out 
by the town during the period of the war, as nearly all the able- 
bodied young men, and many others, who Avere exempt from mili- 
tary duty, entered the service in one capacity or another. The 
loyalty of the town was undoubted and many households denied 
themselves the necessaries of life in order to provide comforts 
for those in the field. The records disclose that in October, 
1775, besides the excessive drain on the resources of the town in 
earlier months, Capt. Isaac Colton w^as in camp at Roxbury with 
a force of men, among whom were Lieut. Nathaniel Alexander, 
corporals Moses Wait and David Murphy, drummer Benj. Col- 
ton, and privates Stephen Hunt, James Ives, Eli Barrister, Abel 
Hancock, William Hancock, Elijah Hancock, Thomas Ferre, 
Joseph Parsons, James Parker, Ebenezer Eddy and Moses Wait. 
From the same source also it is learned that many young men 
of Springfield were regularly enlisted in the provincial militia, 
while a few found their way into the American army, serving 
with the continental troops throughout the war. 

One of the notable events of the year 1775 was the arrival 
in Springfield of Ceneral Washington, en route to Boston to take 
command of the army encamped about the city. He stopped for 
a time at the old Parsons tavern, which then was located in Elm 
street, and his presence in the town was the occasion of much en- 
thusiasm on the part of the loyal citizens. On his departure a 
troop of horsemen escorted the party as far as Brookfield. 

( 42 ) 


The great hardships which were visited upon our people 
during the war had their beginning in 1777, when the demand 
for men taxed the capacity of the town to its utmost. In April 
of that year the Hampshire county militia were ordered to take 
part in the expedition against Ticonderoga. The men called for 
at this time could not well be spared, as the season's work was at 
hand, but notwithstanding this the town's quota was furnished 
under the assurance that the families of those who were away 
would be provided for by the older men, those who had means, 
and at the public expense. In answer to this call when the men 
marched aAvay to join Col. David Seward's regiment, Spring- 
field 's contribution included Capt. Gideon Burt, Lieut. Ebenezer 
Colton, Jonathan Burt, Samuel Gridley, Ebenezer Morgan, Am- 
brose Collins, Ephraim Brown, Thomas Colton, Festus Colton, 
George Cooley, Ebenezer Rumrill, Simeon Colton, Samuel Keep, 
Henry Colton, Ezra Stebbins, William Hunt, Jeduthan Sander- 
son, Mr. Hitchcock (probably Ebenezer) Luther Van Horn, Dan- 
iel Bliss, Japhet Chapin and Ephraim Chapin. 

In the same year when the subject of confederation of all the 
colonies was under consideration a committee was chosen to 
represent the town at a conference in the province. Deacon 
Nathaniel Brewer was at the head of the committee and Col. 
Worthington and Moses Bliss were among his designated asso- 
ciates. Both, however, declined to serve. Col. Worthington 
was a pronounced British sympathizer while Mr. Bliss and been 
quite lukewarm in his support of the cause of the colonies. As 
lawyers and men of influence both had for years been prominent 
in town affairs and in dealing with the weighty matters under 
discussion the town asked their advice, but it was refused. 

In 1778 another demand for men was made on the already 
overburdened town. The available militia now were on almost 
constant duty and to furnish additional troops required the 
greatest effort on the part of the selectmen and the local commit- 
tee of safety. A draft became necessary and the company thus 
organized was sent to Fishkill, in the province of New York. 

The men were David Bonner, Austin Brooks, William Hitch- 
cock, Justin Smith, James Mills, Israel Bond, Ezekiel Chapin, 

{ 44 ) 


Martin Smith, Leba Bellman, Abel Coburn, Abnei* Russell. Jabez 
Crosby, and Daniel Hancock. 

The following men served in Capt. Rowle's company of Col. 
Jacob's regiment: 

Capt. Nathan Rowle, Lieut. Enoch Leonard, Ebenezer Pome- 
roy, Simeon Colton, Ebenezer Bliss, Oliver Hitchcock, Abiather 
Stevenson, Jonathan Stevenson, AVm. Pepper, Gad AVarriner, 
George Blake, Timothy Hopkins, James Howard and Russell 

In Capt. Phineas Stebbins' company were these men from 
Springfield : 

Nathan Chapin, sergeant, John Ferre, Reuben Ferre, Moses 
Stebbins, Moses Barber and William White. 

The six-months' men who enlisted from the town in 1780 
were Elias and William Hitchcock, Noah Frost, Amaziah Sander- 
son, Aaron Parsons, Alex. Ely, Gad Bliss, Moses Bliss, jr., John 
INIorgan, David Bannon, George Smith, Thaddeus Ferre, Zacha- 
riah Hancock, Oliver Field, Jonathan Stevenson, Oliver Han- 
cock, Solomon Loomis, Gideon Cooley, Joshua Brooks, David 
Hubbard, William Hancock, Joseph McGreney and Isaiah 

In Capt. Browning's company were several Springfield men 
who entered the service for three months in 1780 : Lieut. John 
Colton, Corp. Benoni Chapin, Isaac Stebbins, Abram Brooks, 
Consider Bement, Marsh Bissell, Moses Parsons, Luther Smith, 
Jonathan Felt, Moses Hancock, Justin Bliss, Beriah Howard, 
Isaac Bliss, Zenas Bliss and Samuel Sikes. 

The Springfield men known to have enlisted for three years 
service in Massachusetts regiments of the continental army are 
as follows: David Day, John Stevenson, Samuel Edson, John 
Pease, James Warner, Joseph Chapin and Zachariah Warner, in 
the 3d Mass. ; Corp. Gideon Jones, Simon Johnson and Daniel 
Stevenson, in the 4th Mass. ; James Mills, in the 5th Mass. ; 
Joseph Maxfield and Loyal Sanderson, in the 6th Mass. ; and 
Theodore Smith, Ashbel iNIighel, Henry Stiles and Samuel Steb- 
bins, in the 7th IVIass. regiment. 

Among the other men of Springfield who entered the service 
for three years, and whose enlistment dated from 1781, there may 

( 45 ) 


be mentioned the names of Jonathan Cooley, Alpheus Hancock, 
Hanou Coltou, Caleb Williston, Joshua Brooks, Alpheus Colton, 
Jacob Hills, James Reed, Joseph Dunham, Daniel Murphy, Titus 
Welch, James Eaton, John Fox, Mieah Grant, George Smith. 

Springfield first became a depository for military supplies 
in 1776, and in a small way several cannon were made about that 
time. In the next year Col. Cheever was directed to transfer 
a considerable quantity of army stores to the place and also to 
establish an arsenal and supply depot in the town. In 1779 
land was secured for the erection of the watershops, and there- 
after the locality enjoyed a special prominence in the manufac- 
ture of arms. As is stated in an earlier chapter, the establish- 
ment of the national armory was the work of later years, but for 
more than a century the town and city have derived much ad- 
vantage from the vast manufacturing plant on State street and 
which the people of West Springfield once rejected through fear 
of the demoralizing influences of a body of soldiers in the local- 
ity. In 1780 Springfield was designated as the rendezvous of 
forty-three divisions of three-months men, who were drilled and 
equipped for service at the old training ground on the hill, east 
of the business center of the town, now a desirable residence por- 
tion of the city. At the time mentioned Springfield was the 
central point of military operations in Western Massachusetts, 
and the mobilization of the militia was indirectly the result of the 
establishment of the arsenal and military station. 

After the close of the war the people of the town began the 
difficult and important work of reconstruction. The war itself 
had cost the town many thousands of pounds in money. The 
poorer classes were reduced almost to absolute penury and men 
of property were themselves heavily in debt. Paper money had 
at best very little purchasing power and those who were heavily 
involved for the time were compelled to leave past obligations 
unpaid in order to maintain themselves until the storm of finan- 
cial disaster had passed. But in spite of the unfortunate con- 
ditions which prevailed in the town, Springfield continued to 
grow. Even during the later years of the war, in 1782, a news- 
paper (Massachusetts Gazette and General Advertiser) was es- 

( 4G ) 


tablished and in the same year an enterprising resident essayed 
a book pnblication. 

In 1783 Longnieadow Avas set off from Springfield, taking 
a considerable portion of the territory of the mother town. In 
the same year a stage line was put in operation between this 
town and Hartford. But notwithstanding the remarkable re- 
cuperative powers shown by the people during the two or three 
years next following the revolution, the misfortunes of the war 
were not entirely swept away by the prosperity of the period fol- 
lowing, but frecpiently made themselves manifest through mut- 
terings of discontent on the part of the debtor class. Little at- 
tention was given to these grumblings at first, but in the course 
of a few more years the speck of disapproval in the political sky 
became a cloud and rapidly developed into a storm of insurrec- 
tion that threatened the systems of state and local government. 
This was the period known in history as Shays' rebellion, the 
events of which are narrated in another chapter of this work. 
The insurrectionists would have stopped the operation of the 
courts, abolished the senate, ousted the executive, and. if success- 
ful in their unnatural scheme of government, would have de- 
luged the state with worthless money, all for their temporary 
gratification regardless of the inevitable day of reckoning which 
must come, but of which they knew not. It was an exciting 
period in Springfield when Daniel Shays' hosts overturned the 
courts and openly insulted the unorganized militia, but when 
their little successes prompted an attack upon the federal arsenal 
on the hill, one or two discharges of small cannon by Gen. Shep- 
ard's soldiers dispersed the unruly horde and ended the embryo 
internecine war. This period was only another event in the 
evolution of time in the town, the like of which was enacted in 
several other states. It had its incentive, its lesson and its moral, 
and when it was passed the town was better and more vigorous 
than ever before. However, it was the last war within the bor- 
ders of the county which brought hardships upon its people. For 
almost a century and a half they had struggled against either 
dusky or foreign foes and a struggle among themselves was a 
fitting close to the long period of wars to which they were sub- 

( 47 ) 


In 1794 Springfield, which for more than a century and a 
half had been the shire town of Hampshire county, lost that im- 
portant character through the influence that sought to place the 
seat of government nearer the geographical center of the juris- 
diction. The removal of the county seat was a serious blow to 
local interests for it took away the courts and their important 
judicial functionaries, officers, laAvyers and attendants and trans- 
ferred them to Northampton. At this time the town contained 
about 1,700 inhabitants and its territory included substantially 
the present town of Springfield and also that which now forms 
Chicopee, the latter then being a scattered and sparsely settled 
farming district with large areas of unimproved lands. 

But notwithstanding the loss of the county buildings and 
the courts and the advantages to be derived therefrom, the town 
continued to grow, and the closing year of the eighteenth century 
found Springfield to contain 2,312 inhabitants with business in- 
terests eqiial to those of any town in the Connecticut valley. 


At the beginning of the nineteenth century the town of 
Springfield was found to contain a population of about 2,500 in- 
habitants, with a principal business and trading center on the 
east bank of the Connecticut, on the very site where William 
Pynchon and his associates planted a colony in 1636. At the 
time mentioned the principal business interests of the "Centre" 
comprised about half a dozen general stores and as many more 
small shops, two or three public houses, two printing establish- 
ments and one church, the latter alone of all the old institutions 
of the town having survived the ravages of passing years, and 
having continued to increase in usefulness and strength. In 
the meantime, between 1790 and 1800, the jNIethodists had gained 

( 48 ) 


a foothold in the town, and while a society of that denomination 
was not formally organized, frequent meetings were held by 
missionary laborers sent into the field. There also was the 
"English" school at the Centre, the principal institution of its 
kind in the town, with various others of less note scattered 
throughout the territory to suit the convenience of the inhabit- 
ants. The town was divided into nine school districts in 1795. 
The armory on the hill and the watershops on Mill river consti- 
tuted the chief industry, furnishing employment for about one 

The Old Lombard House, Main street, Springfield 

This house stood where now is Besse Place 

hundred workmen. On Mill river at the same time Avere the 
usual saw, flour and grist mills, with the tannery, the fulling 
mill and the cloth mill. The products of these mills were con- 
sumed largely in the town, and the surplus was shipped down 
the Connecticut to towns less favored with manufacturing enter- 

At this time, as near as can now be learned, the principal 
merchants of the town were Daniel Lombard, whose general store 
was kept at the corner of Meeting-house lane (now Elm street) ; 


( 49 ) 


AVilliam Sheldon, who carried on an extensive general trade in a 
building located south of the court house ; Eleazer Williams and 
Charles Sheldon, whose stock included dry and dress goods, gro- 
ceries, hardware, drugs, etc. John Padley was the local tailor 
and "habit-maker," Deacon Jonathan Church the hatter, and 
John Lloyd the leather dresser, saddler and harness maker. 
James Byers & Co. sold iron and hardware, hollow ware and 
potash kettles, while Marcus Marble carried on a general drug 
store. The postmaster was James Byers, who kept the office in 
his store on the site where now stands the Springfield institution 
for savings. 

The principal center of trade at that time, and indeed 
throughout the early history of the town, was in the vicinity of 
the old court house. The corner where now stands the Chico- 
pee bank was for many years the business center, while the 
closest rival localities were the present Smith & INIurray corner, 
where once stood the famous Hampden coffee house, and at the 
corners formed by the intersection of Main and State streets. 
Springfield was made a post-office station in 1775, and from that 
time until the completion of the new federal building/at the cor- 
ner of Main, Fort and Worthington streets, the office never was 
located south of State street nor north of Pynchon street. The 
old Pynchon fort, almost the last surviving relic of pioneer times, 
was comparatively outside the center of trade and stood almost 
alone in what then was regarded as the north part of the Centre, 
the latter name being used to designate the little hamlet that had 
been built up around the court house. It was not until the com- 
pletion of the old toll bridge that business began to extend north 
along Main street, and not until after the opening of the West- 
ern railroad that Main street became a thoroughfare of impor- 

The construction of the toll bridge was almost the first im- 
portant public improvement Avhich engaged the attention of the 
business men and capitalists (the latter were very few) of the 
time, and nearly every man of substance in the place was identi- 
fied with the enterprise. Indeed, if the question were asked as 
to whom were the principal men of the town during the early 

( 50 ) 


years of the last century a proper answer would be "the projec- 
tors and incorporators of the company that built the toll bridge 
and opened it for traffic in 1805.'" The company included such 
men as George Bliss, William Sheldon, Jonathan Dwight, 
Thomas Uwight, James Scutt Dwight, William Smith, William 
Pynchon, Jeremiah Stebbins. Jonathan Smith, Seth and Samuel 
Ijathrop, Solomon Stebbins, Pelatiah Bliss, Jacob and Alexander 
Bliss, Zebina Stebbins, Justin Lombard, Ebenezer Williams, 
Joseph Williams, John Hooker, Justin p]ly. jun., Reuben Sikes 
and George Blake. 

These proprietors not only built one of the first bridges that 
spanned the Connecticut, but in accomplishing that great work 
they made Springfield easily accessible to the people of the entire 
western region of the county and thus attracted new residents 
to the progressive town on the east bank of the river. More than 
that, after the construction of the bridge Springfield soon at- 
tained a standing of prominence among the most enterprising 
towns of the state. As a half-way station between Boston and 
Albany on the stage line it was the custom of drivers to "put up 
for the night" in the town, and in later years it was the chief 
seat of operations of the stage and transportation companies, 
whose lines extended not only east and Avest but also up and down 
the valley of the river. About the same time, too, Springfield 
began to attract attention on account of the product of its fish- 
eries, in connection with which a considerable business was car- 
ried on : and while these things were constantly drawing new 
residents into the town the turnpike road companies were open- 
ing new farming territory and attracting settlement. Taken 
altogether the first fifteen years of the nineteenth century con- 
stituted a period of advancement and prosperity previously un- 
surpassed in the history of the town, and during that time the 
factors in events laid the foundations of the subsequent city — 
the city which was formally established in 1852. 

In 1812 Springfield again became a shire town, the seat of 
justice of a new county— a county which has endured to the pres- 
ent day and which ranks with the most important civil divisions 
of New England. The formal act incorporating the county was 

( 51 ) 


passed by the legislature February 12, 1812, and became oper- 
ative ou the first day of August following. At this time the 
people of the state were thoroughly wrought up over the impend- 
ing war with Great Britain, and polities then had become a con- 
trolling factor in public afitairs, all officers being chosen with 
especial reference to party affiliation. "When the act went into 
elfect the contending factions at once became involved in a politi- 
cal controversy over the offices to be filled and soon found them- 
selves in a maze of legal difficulties, with George Ashmun and 
George Bliss, the leading legal lights of the time, battling for 
supremacy. But this little domestic squabble soon Avas settled 
and events resumed natural channels. The old court house at 
the corner of Main and Sandford streets Avas again put to use, 
having in previous years been occupied as a town hall and for 
various other public purposes. 

It soon became evident, however, that the old court house, 
which was erected in 1722-23, was unsuited to the requirements 
of the new county and that a larger and more modern house of 
justice was a necessity. The subject was first discussed about 
1815, and while it was agreed that a new building should be 
erected there appears to have been a division of sentiment re- 
garding the proper location. The question seems to have been 
one of discussion only until about 1820, when the matter was 
brought to the attention of the Supreme judicial court through 
a writ of information filed against the court of sessions, charg- 
ing neglect of duty in not providing a place for holding courts. 
The sites most favored were located on State street and on 
Meeting-house square. At that time State street had become 
a thoroughfare of considerable importance and several business 
interests had centered about the armory, while Meeting-house 
square was the old established business center. Fortunately no 
bitterness entered into the controversy, yet the advocates of each 
of the sites labored zealously to secure the coveted buildings for 
their locality. The State street people had the "gaol and house 
of correction" and argued that the court house naturally should 
be in the same locality, while the other side contended for the 
retention of the building in the "business center." 

( 52 ) 


However, after a protracted and interesting contest the ad- 
vocates of the site on the square prevailed with the controlling 
powers and carried the day ; but this was accomplished only after 
the displa.y of a spirit of public enterprise on their part. The 
occasion l)rought into prominence many new factors in local his- 

An old-time view of Main street, near State street, ypriugfield 

tory, such men as Daniel Bontecou, Eleazer Williams, Elijah 
Blake, Justice Willard, Edward P.>^lchon, Thomas Dickman, 
James Wells, John Ingersoll, Henry Brewer, Solomon AVarri- 
ner, David Ames, Elisha Edwards, Sylvester Clark, Japhet Cha- 
pin, Samuel Osgood, Dr. John Stone, Daniel C. Brewer, Alex- 
ander Bliss, John Hooker, IMoses Howe, Thomas Sargeant, F. A. 

( 53 ) 


Packard, Elisha Curtis, Ebenezer Russell, Joseph Pease, Quartus 
Chapin, John Hooker, jiin., Pliny Chapin, Lewis Ferre, jun., 
Charles Stearns, Simon Sanburn, Israel E. Trask, Joseph Carver, 
Edward Bliss, A. G. Tannat, Daniel Lombard, Francis Bliss, 
Robert W. Bowhill, Roswell Lombard, Jacob Bliss, Oliver B. 
Morris, George Blake, James Chapin, Roger Adams, Ebenezer 
Tucker and others who were identified with them in their efforts 
to promote the general welfare of the town but whose names have 
been lost with the lapse of years. 

These men, who were instrumental in securing the location 
of the county building on the public square, organized them- 
selves into a purchasing company and acquired title to a consid- 
erable tract of land, gave a large lot for the structure and an- 
other for the park square, and laid out the remainder into vil- 
lage lots for mercantile purposes, thus permanently establishing 
Main street as the principal business thoroughfare for all future 
time. This being accomplished the court of sessions directed 
Moses Bliss and John Ingersoll to see that the proprietors car- 
ried out their offer; and in the erection of the court house in 
1821 (the old building still stands and now is the Odd Fellows' 
temple) Jonathan DAvight, John Phelps, Daniel Bontecou and 
George R. Townsley were conspicuous figures. 

Previous to this time (1813-14) the jail on State street was 
built, and in connection with its construction the court of ses- 
sions had recourse to the services of such men of the town as 
Jonathan Smith, .jun., Jonathan Dwight, Daniel Lombard, Jona- 
than Dwight, jun., Oliver B. Morris, John Phelps, William Shel- 
don, George Bliss and others Avhose names cannot be recalled. 
That the people of the town were truly and unselfishly public- 
spirited, whether in their personal concerns or in the public wel- 
fare, it may be stated that in 1808 a fugitive slave named 
"Jenny" had escaped from her master in Schenectady, N. Y,, 
and found refuge among our people. She was pursued and over- 
taken, and when her owner would have returned with her to his 
home the generous people of Springfield quickly raised ,$100 by 
subscription and purchased her freedom. 

Having determined the site for and completing the erection 
of the county buildings, the authorities gave attention to the 

( 54 ) 


matter of laying out public streets and avenues in the business 
portions of the town. At this time the population had reached 
about 4,400 inhabitants and Avas increasing steadily each year. 
Many events of note had taken place since the beginning of the 
century, some of them being worthy of passing mention in this 
place. In 1811 the Baptist people had become sufficiently 
strong to plant a church of their denomination. In 1812 the 
old academy on Elm street was opened. In 1814 the Spring- 
field bank began business, its incorporators being a portion of the 
men whose names have been mentioned in connection with other 
early enterprises of the town. In 1815 the Methodists, whose 
missionaries had visited the town twenty years before, siicceeded 
in planting a church, which still survives and from v/hich has 
grown many other churches of later date. In 1817 the Hamp- 
den Masonic lodge was organized. In the same year President 
Monroe visited Springfield and was entertained with appropriate 
ceremony. In 1819 Court square was formally laid out and 
donated to the public, and in the same year there was erected 
the edifice of the old First church which still stands facing the 
square. In 1821 the Hampden cofl'ee house, a famous hostelry 
in its day, was built on the corner where now stands the Smith 
& Murray building. In 1821, also, the First Protestant Epis- 
copal church was established and a Baptist church was erected 
at the Watershops. In 1823 a cotton factory was built on 
Chicopee i-iver. 

The construction of the cotton mill on Chicopee river was 
the beginning of the industrial era in that locality which eventu- 
ally brought that region into special prominence and resulted 
in the creation of a new town from the mother territory of 
Springfield. In 1831 the legislature incorporated the Spring- 
field canal company and authorized the construction of a water- 
power canal, locks and factories. Thus the waters of that river 
were first diverted for manufacturing purposes. The proprie- 
tors of the enterprise were Benjamin Day, James Brewer, Sam- 
uel Henshaw, Edmund Dwight, Jonathan Dwight, .jun., Francis 
Stanton, Israel Thorndike, Harrison Gray Otis, Samuel A. Eliot, 
"William H. Eliot, George W. Lyman, James K. Mills, Gorham 

( 55 ) 


Brooks and George Bliss. In 1837 the Indian Orchard canal 
company was incorporated for the purpose of establishing simi- 
lar industries adjacent to the river at a point a little farther up 
the stream. This company comprised Charles Stearns, George 
Bliss, William Dwight and their associates. 

The notable events of 1824 included the destruction by fire 
of an important part of the armory buildings, and the founding 
of the Springfield Eepublican, a weekly newspaper under the 
proprietorship of Samuel Bowles, and a paper which not only 
has enjoyed a continuous and prosperous existence to the pres- 
ent time, but one which in later years became recognized as one 
of the leading journals of the entire country. In the year men- 
tioned the town supported at least two newspapers, the Hamp- 
den Journal, under the editorial management of Frederick A. 
Packard, who appears to have combined journalism with the 
practice of law, and the Eepublican, founded, owned and eon- 
ducted by Mr. Bowles. 

Glancing over the columns of these papers for the year men- 
tioned, we find the names and generally the "ads" of the promi- 
nent business men and firms of the town. In the issue of the 
Journal on January 7, P. Dickinson, whose place of business was 
opposite the post-office, offered for sale a miscellaneous assort- 
ment of brass andirons, shovels, tongs, fire fenders and silver- 
ware. Day, Brewer & Dwight, who were the leading merchants 
of the place, made public request for the speedy settlement of 
all outstanding accounts which were charged on their books pre- 
vious to July, 1823. John Avery "wants immediately" an ap- 
prentice to learn the blacksmith trade, and says that a lad of fif- 
teen years of age "will find good encouragement." 

As an evidence that the spiritual as well as the temporal 
welfare of the people had a place in the editorial mind, the Jour- 
nal office announces for sale "a few copies of the family bible," 
also the "Life and Conversion of Col. Gardner," and "Dodd's 
Comfort to the Afclicted." Moses Bliss, who in many ways had 
been an important factor in the town 's history, now contemplat- 
ing a change in his business, requested immediate payment from 
all "persons indebted to him. George Colton made a like request 

( .^6 ) 


and intimated that unsettled accounts would be left with an at- 
torney for collection. Flagg & Chapin, general merchants, of- 
fered for sale a large stock of goods. E. Woodworth (opposite 
the armory) announced that he had just received 500 lbs. of 
English brass kettles, 50 dozen sleigh bells and a large quantity 
of general merchandise. H. Edwards suggested that buyers 
will tlnd it to their interest to call and examine his stock of buf- 
falo robes, fur caps, fresh superfine flour, general merchandise, 
drugs, chemicals etc. 

Daniel Bonteeou, ever alive to the wants of the people, ' ' has 
remaining on hand a few cooking, parlor, office and box stoves, 
which will be disposed of at reduced prices," indicating that 
"bargain day" attractions were not wholly unknown to our 
forefathers, even among stove dealers. The Springfield brew- 
ery offered a constant supply of winter and summer ale in bar- 
rels, and intimated that all who intended to return their barrels 
of the last season must do so before February 21. Dwight & 
Colton, brick manufacturers, offer 250,000 merchantable brick at 
market prices. The proprietors of the Hartford & Walpole 
mail stage take occasion to thank the inhabitants of Springfield 
for their liberal patronage, and beg leave to inform them that 
the stage will continue to run as usual three times a week each 
way, and will stop hereafter to take up passengers and baggage 
at the house of Jeremy Warriner. (It is not surprising that 
the stage people should select the famous old Bates tavern as the 
starting place for mail coaches, for Uncle Jerry and Aunt 
Phoebe were hosts of great prominence in Springfield during the 
stage coach period, while the Bates tavern was the rendezvous 
of all the worthies of the town who enjoyed the open-handed 
hospitality of the table and likewise had a keen appreciation of 
Uncle Jerry's toddies and slings. No severe winter cold could 
withstand the potent effects of one of these decoctions.) 

Bangs & Ellis (Joseph and Allen Bangs and Ebenezer 
Ellis) in a generous "ad" announce the fact that they have just 
formed a business connection and are "carrying on the Cupola 
furnace in all its various branches, one mile south of the court 
house." In this connection it is interesting to note that the Cu- 

( 57 ) 


pola furnace at that time was a leading industry on Mill river, 
and was a foundry and machine shop, the somewhat peculiar dis- 
tinguishing name of which is still remembered by a few of our 
oldest residents. 

In the same number of the paper Henry E. Stearns called 
for prompt payment of outstanding accounts. The Spring- 
Held tire insurance company announces that it continues to effect 
insurance against loss by tire ; Geo. Bliss, jun., secretary. The 
proprietors of the steamboat Experiment advertise the season's 
running of their boat between Hartford and New London. 
Joseph Carew takes occasion to say, under the heading of "Fair 
Play," that every claim he has by note or book, which is due and 
unsettled February 1st, will be placed in other hands for collec- 
tion; "that recent circumstances render this course indispen- 
sable." This announcement was quite characteristic of Mr. 
Carew, for he was an upright, straightforward business man, 
meeting his own obligations promptly and exacting from others 
only his just due. He was a worthy type of Springfield's best 
element of citizenship three-quarters of a century ago, and the 
preservation of his name in one of the principal streets of the 
city is a fitting tribute to his memory. Gideon Kibbe, whose 
place of business at that time is not recalled, also requests set- 
tlement of outstanding accounts. 

Dennis Morgan, having given up "riding post," asks all 
persons to settle without delay, and adds, "payment must be 
made peaceably or forcibly." From this it is clear that the ex- 
post rider meant business with those who had failed to requite 
his services. Charles Stearns advertises a "store to let, con- 
veniently fitted up for dry goods and groceries." Another 
notice from the Journal informs the public that "at the old 
stand in the Carew building" the office does job work of every 
description. Solomon AVarriner, enterprising merchant and 
representative of one of our best families, announces that he has 
on hand for sale the publications of the American tract society, 
and also "Dr. Wood's lecture on Quotations." 

T. Dickman, the bookseller, whose surname is not now known 
in the city, offers in connection Avith his general stock the eele- 

( 58 ) 


brated "Chemical Embrocation," or " "WTiitwell 's Liquid Opo- 
deldoc," for the cure of bruises, sprains, gout and rheumatism. 
Stearns & Hunt, at their store opposite Court square, have a gen- 
eral stock of drugs, medicines, oils, dye stuffs, etc., etc. Elisha 
Ed-wards represents New York manufacturers in the sale of 
maecoboy snuff and ' ' paper tobacco, ' ' equal to any in the United 
States. Robert Russell, according to his "ad," offers to bind 
all books and guarantees "fidelity, promptness and reasonable 

The Republican made its initial appearance in the latter 
part of 1824 and appears to have filled "a long felt want" in the 
community. At all events it found favor with the public and 
soon gained that which most delights the average publisher— a 
liberal advertising patronage. In one of the September num- 
bers is found the advertisement of Solomon Warriner, who has 
a complete stock of fall and winter goods. Bontecou & Hunt 
call special attention to their "European and India goods," gro- 
ceries, crockery and glassware. C. Smith does house and sign 
painting, having a place of business opposite the Springfield 
hotel. Henry Brewer makes special announcement of 500 lbs. 
of good cheese, also mackerel in barrels and half barrels. How- 
ard & Lathrop offer cash pay for paper rags in large and small 
quantities. S. D. & W. Sturges (a new name in local annals) 
manufacture white marble tombstones. S. Hatch gives "last 
notice" that accounts must be settled by debtors or they will be 
left with Justice Willard for collection. 

In the same issue Justice AVillard and William Bliss give 
public notice that they have formed a law partnership, under the 
name of Willard & Bliss, for the "transaction of business in the 
line of their profession." J. B. Pitkin announces that he has 
engaged Mr. Stockbridge 's assembly room for the purpose of 
giving lessons in shorthand and plain and ornamental penman- 
ship. (In view of this announcement it is somewhat surprising 
that the era of the office stenographer and typewriter should have 
been so long delayed.) 

In a special notice printed in the columns of the paper Mr. 
Bowles states that he has just received from Ncav York a variety 

( 69 ) 


of job type, and that he is ready "to execute" all kinds of fancy 
job printing. Isaiah Call, whose store was located near the 
bank at the corner of what now is Main and Elm streets, offers 
for sale his stock of stoves and hollow ware of all descriptions. 
G. W. Callender has a general stock of books and stationery, 
does binding, and says he has need of a boy of good habits to 
learn the trade of book binding and to "clerk" in the store. 
Robert Russell is another bookseller and stationer, having a place 
of business opposite the Springfield hotel. 

Albert Morgan, opposite the armory, carries on a grocery 
store, and keeps in stock a generous supply of St. Croix rum, 
Holland gin, lump and brown sugars, mackerel, flour, etc. James 
Wells, as agent, offers to insure against loss or damage by fire 
in the Aetna insurance company of Hartford. 

On October 6, Ames & Reynolds announce having received 
an extensive assortment of new and fashionable goods. In the 
issue of October 12 Bliss & Morris, announce the arrival of a 
large consignment of European, India and American goods. E.- 
Edwards, opposite the Springfield hotel, offers 150 bbls. and half 
barrels of mackerel, also drugs, medicines, paints, oils, dye 
woods, wines and liquors. James AVells evidently was the pio- 
neer of the millinery business in the town, announcing a supply 
of staple and fancy goods in that line, and also, incidentally, a 
few Philadelphia cooking stoves. On October 27 Bowdoin & 
Carew, successors to W. H. Bowdoin, with a place of business 
opposite the armory, advertise for sale a large stock of general 
merchandise. Cook & Wilcox, in front of the Springfield brew- 
ery, carry on business as tinsmiths, and deal in sheet iron pipe 
and live hens' and geese feathers. 

This brief and somewhat incomplete retrospect gives the 
reader an idea of the character and extent of the business inter- 
ests of Springfield at the time indicated, and from what is stated 
it must be seen that the growth of the town from the beginning 
of the century was both steady and healthful. About this time 
public attention was attracted by and considerable interest was 
taken in the general movement in the direction of building canals 
through various sections of the state. The canal era was the 

( 60 ) 


natural outgrowth of river navigation and one of its most impor- 
tant auxiliaries. The early attempts at steamboat navigation 
on the Connecticut, so far at least as concerned Springfield, 
were experimental and it was not until 1828 that Thomas 
Blanchard launched the "Blanchard" and succeeded in mak- 
ing the trip to Hartford in a little less than three hours. How- 
ever, this first attempt M'as regarded as a reasonable success and 
during the next eight or ten years several other steamboats were 
built here and put into regular service, as may be seen by refer- 
ence to the chapter relating to internal improvements. The most 

St. Lukes M. E. Church, Springfield 

notable events of 1828 were the launching of the Blanchard and 
the ceremonies attending the opening of the town hall, on which 
latter occasion George Bliss delivered the address that so fre- 
quently has formed the basis of subsequent narratives by his- 
torical writers. 

Springfield never directly enjoyed the advantages of a navi- 
gable canal, although one was projected for the town as part of 
an extensive system of waterways across the state. In the early 
stages of the discussion local public spirit was fully awakened 
and men of substance readily gave support to the proposed enter- 
prise, yet before their plans were fully matured the canal scheme 

( 61 ) 


was abandoned by eastern capitalists, and an innovation— a rail- 
road—was suggested to connect Boston with Albany, crossing 
the Connecticut at Springfield. At first the town did not take 
kindly to the railroad scheme and was not yet ready to abandon 
the cherished canal project in favor of an unknown and doubt- 
ful medium of traffic and travel as was suggested. Local 
capitalists shook their knowing heads dubiously and grave appre- 
hensions filled the public mind. Surveyors and promoters made 
frequent visits to the town and as often conferences were held 
at which the new idea was the uppermost topic of discussion; 
yet Springfield was slow to act, and it was not until Hartford 
came forward with a request that the line of road be laid through 
that town, instead of Springfield, that a favorable sentiment was 
aroused here and earnest co-operation was given to the enter- 

Notwithstanding the manifest lack of enthusiasm shown by 
Springfield during the early stages of the railroad agitation, the 
measure had a few zealous advocates among the townspeople. 
Those foremost in the work were Justice Willard, George Bliss, 
Caleb Rice, W. H. Bowdoin, with a few others whose names are 
not recalled, while Edmund Dwight, then of Boston but of sub- 
stantial Springfield stock, added his influence in bringing about 
the desired end. Foremost among all, however, were Mr. Wil- 
lard and his law partner, INIr. Bliss. At one of the several pub- 
lic meetings held in the town for a general discussion of the sub- 
ject Mr. Willard, who was famed at the bar as a special pleader, 
addressed an audience in these words : 

"I am told that I am apt to be too sanguine, but when I con- 
sider the improvements of the age, the new discoveries that must 
hereafter be made in that wonderful machine, the steam engine, 
and the new applications of the power of steam, I believe, and 
T am ready to declare — and I do declare, here, before this audi- 
ence—and some of you may make note of it, that during the life- 
time of some persons standing here, a train of cars will run from 
Springfield to Boston, between sun and sun." And then paus- 
ing and drawing himself up, and shaking his finger Avith oracular 
solemnity, he continued: "Yes, sir, I repeat, between sun and 
sun! and back again in the same day." 

( 62 ) 


This public utterance was received with satisfaction and 
k)iid apphiuse, but in certain minds it was regarded as the work- 
ings of vain imagination. At all events the labors of the friends 
of the road had a telling effect upon the town and the enterprise 
thereafter received more cordial support. A few years later- 
October. 1889. — the first train of the Western railroad corpora- 
tion was run from Worcester to Springfield, and on its arrival 
a great throng of people was assembled at the station to cele- 
brate the occasion and hear the congratulatory address of the 
gifted Edward Everett. Before the entire line was completed 
a road was built through the Connecticut valley, and then still 
others of later years until Springfield became recognized as a 
principal seat of railroad operations : and the early prominence 
which the town enjoyed in this respect as a railroad center was 
the most potent factor in its subsequent growth and more than 
all other elements combined contributed to the progress and pros- 
perity of the town and its people. The steam railroads super- 
seded the mail and passenger stages and likewise made river 
navigation unprofitable. The municipalities and manufactur- 
ing and trading centers were greatly benefited by the change, 
but the advantage W'hich accrued to purely agricultural districts 
is questionable. The old station on the west side of Main street 
was built in 1851. The tracks Avere elevated, and the arch and 
the new union station were built in 1888-89. A more detailed 
histoiy of railroad interests in Hampden county will be found 
in the chapter on internal improvements. 

However, let us return to an earlier period of town history 
and briefly mention some of the more important events in local 
annals. In 1830 the old primitive fire department was succeeded 
by a more modern system, one in keeping with the advanced con- 
dition of the town. In 1881 the Pynchon mansion, frequently 
called Ft. Pynchon, was torn down. In 1832 the Ames paper 
factory, the largest concern of its kind in the country, was estab- 
lished. In 1834 thefirst friction matches "in the world" were made 
in Chicopee. In 1834 the "old corner bookstore," long a business 
interest of note, was opened. In 1836 Springfield celebrated its 
bi-eentennial anniversary. In 1841 Springfield cemetery was 

( 63 ) 


consecrated. In 1842 Charles Dickens, the faraecl novelist, visit- 
ed Springfield and voyaged thence down the Connecticut to Hart- 
ford on the steamboat Massachusetts. In 1846 John Brown, the 
abolitionist, who afterward aroused the civilized world in his 
efforts to overthrow the slave power in this country, came to 
Spring-field and engaged in the manufacture of woolen goods. 
Three years later he organized the "Springfield Gileadites," an 
order of negro people whose purpose was to prevent the capture 
and return to bondage of fugitive slaves. In 1848 the north part 
of the town was set off to form Chicopee, and by that action the 
mother town was territorially reduced substantially to its present 
limits. In 1852 Louis Kossuth visited Springfield, and in the 
same year the Young Men 's Christian association of this city was 

The most notable event of the year 1852 was that by which 
Springfield laid aside its former municipal character of town and 
became a chartered city, entitled to and accorded by the legisla- 
ture all the privileges and powers vested in municipal bodies pol- 
itic in this state. In 1636 the little plantation of Agawam was 
founded and then numbered hardly a dozen inhabitants. Five 
years later the plantation became a town by the name of Spring- 
field, and in the course of a few more years its territory and 
jurisdiction Avere so extended that the town in fact amounted to 
a principality. This limited municipal character Avas maintained 
for two hundred and eleven years, until 1852, when, having ac- 
quired the necessary number of inhabitants, the town was incor- 
porated as a city. In 1850 the population was 11,766, an in- 
crease of nearly 1,000 inhabitants since 1840, and that despite the 
fact that in 1848 Chicopee was set off and took from the mother 
town more than 8,000 persons and almost half her remaining 
territory. In 1845 the town as then constituted had attained a 
population sufficient to warrant a city charter, but such action at 
the time was not advisable as the territory was too extensive in 
area to justify the measure. The creation of Chicopee was sug- 
gested as a matter of public necessity and convenience, and when 
accomplished the territory of Springfield was reduced to an area 
that justified its incorporation as a city. This being done the old 

( G4 ) 


board of selectnien i)assecl out of existence and in its stead there 
was created the executive and legislative departments of the city 
— the mayoralty and the board of aldermen. The exact popula- 
tion of the city in 1852 was 12,498 inhabitants. 

Under the new form of nmnici])al government all interests 
were greatly promoted and at once the young city entered upon 
another era of prosperity, which has continued to the present 
time. The new conditions created new and added responsibili- 
ties upon the people as well as upon the governing authorities. 
In 1856^ the residents in the localities known as the Hill, the 
AVatershops and Indian Orchard set on foot a movement looking 
to the creation of still another town from the remaining territory 
of Springfield, but being apprehensive of an additional burden 
of taxes by reason of the measure, if carried into effect, the pro- 
ject was abandoned. 

In 1857 the City library association was formed, a consolida- 
tion of the older institutions known as the Young Men's literary 
association and the Young IMen's institute. Previous to the erec- 
tion of the present building on State street the library was kept 
in the city hall. In 1869 the Springfield street railway was in- 
corporated, the outgrowth of which is the admirable electric 
street railway system— a system and service that is unsurpassed 
in New England, and one which is known as one of the most com- 
plete systems of "trolley" road in the United States. The first 
electric car in this city was run in June, 1890. 

In 1876 the Connecticut Valley Historical society was organ- 
ized, and in 1877 the Springfield Botanical societj^ and the Union 
Relief association were formed. In 1883 the first tract of land 
for Forest park was acquired and the Springfield hospital was 
incorporated. In 1886 the school for Christian Avorkers was 
opened. This institution eventually developed into the Bible 
Normal college and the International Y. INI. C. A. training school. 
In the same year the Springfield home for aged women was 

In 1886, on ^Nlay 25-6, was celebrated the 250th anniversary 
of the founding of Springfield, an occasion of great felicitation 

^The city hall was built in this year. The police department building was 
erected in 1892. 

■^i-2 ( 65 ) 


and congratulation. The state honored the event and poured 
forth its great mass of loyal citizens to join in the festivities of 
the day. The connnittee of fifty, to whom was entrusted the 
details of the celebration, was comprised as follows : William L. 
Smith, chairman; Charles C. Spellman, secretary; William H. 
Haile, treasurer ; William S. Shurtleff , H. S. Hyde, H. M. Phil- 
lips, L. J. Powers, E. Morgan, James A. Rumrill, A. B. Wallace, 
R. F. Hawkins, H. E. Ducker, C. E. Brown, E. H. Lathrop, S. C. 
Warriner, Daniel J. Marsh, J. D. Gill, E. P, Chapin, J. B. Car- 
roll. Theo. Geisel. Milton Bradley, C. J. Goodwin, C. W. Mutell, 
E. H. Phelps, Robert 0. Morris, L. C. Hyde, George H. Bleloch, 
T. 0. Bemis, Samuel B. Spooner, F. W. Dickinson, Edward Pyn- 
chon, F. H. Stebbins, Dr. C. D. Brewer, Willmore B. Stone, P. S. 
Bailey, E. C. Rogers, H. S. Lee, George H. Queen, E. C. Wash- 
burn, J. D. Stafford, George A. Morton, E. A. Newell, Frank D. 
Foot, J. J. Toomey, C. C. Merritt, A. H. Goetting, Nathan D. 
Bill, F. A. Judd, Henry W. Blake and James McKeehnie. 

The honorary committee chosen to represent the outlying 
towns comprised J. Henry Churchill. Reuben DeWitt, Rev. 
Ralph Perry and C. C. Wright, for Agawam : Loranus E. Hitch- 
cock, George M. Stearns, J. B. Wood, Matthew Ryan, T. W. 
Carter, Rev. B. K. Bellamy, F. H. Morton and Harrison JNIunger, 
for Chicopee ; A. C. Burleigh, Decius Beebe, Simeon Smith and 
Dr. George T. Ballard, for Hampden; W. A. Chase, William B. 
C. Pearsons, AVilliam Whiting, W. S. Loomis, J. J. O'Connor. 
Timothy Merrick, James H. Newton and R. B. Johnson, for Hol- 
yoke ; Oliver Wolcott. T. F. Cordis, James Bliss and A. H. Calk- 
ins, for Longmeadow ; B. F. Burr, L. H. Brigham, C. F. Gros- 
venor and Rev. INT. P. Dickey, for Ludlow : Joseph W. Bicknell, 
John Boyle, Charles D. Abell and George W. Hamilton, for 
Southwick : Edward B. Gillett, Lyman N. Clark, L. F. Thayer, 
INIilton B. Whitney. L. B. AValkley, J. R. Dunbar, Henry Fuller 
and Henry W. Ely, for Westfield ; R. Mather Bagg, E. C. Brooks, 
B. F. Trask and (ieorge Wright, for West Springfield : J. W. 
Bliss, F. E. Clark, M. F. Breek and Ira G. Potter, for Wilbraham : 
J. L. Houston, Samuel Hathaway, Joseph Allen and Thompson 
Grant, for Enfield; AY. B. Woods, S. M. Billings. H. R. Kibbe 

( 66 ) 


and D. B. Poiiieroy. for Soniers : J. Luther Sherman. W. L. 
Loomis, A. C. Allen and H. K. AVright, for Siiffield. 

The celebration exercises in fact were begun on Sunday, 
when in each of the city churches special services appropriate to 
the occasion were conducted. In the more formal ceremonies of 
the following' days the presiding officer and the vice-presidents 
were as follows : 

Dr. Joseph C. Pynchon. president of the day; and vice- 
presidents, AYilliani L. Smith. INIarcus P. Knowlton. Gideon 
Wells. Elisha B. JNIaynard. l^liphalet Trask, Homer Foot, Major 
Edward Ingersoll, Henry Fuller, jr., Harvey Sanderson, Bishop 
B. T. O'Reilly, of Springfield: E. K. Bodurtha, of Agawam; 
(jeorge S. Taylor, of Chicopee; William R. Sessions, of Hamp- 
den ; Oscar Ely, of Holyoke ; Stephen T. Colton, of Longmeadow ; 
Marvin King, of Ludlow : Joseph N. Forward, of Southwick ; 
Samuel Fowler, of Westfield : Aaron Bagg, of West Springfield ; 
John M. Merrick, of Wilbraham; Charles Brisco, of Enfield; 
Amos Pease, of Somers : H. S. Sheldon, of Suffield. 

All Hampden county, and thousands from beyond the bor- 
ders of the county, took part in the celebration, but those who 
w^ere active participants, in the capacity of orators, speakers, 
essayists or otherwise, were William L. Smith, chairman and 
speaker; Marcus Perrin Knowlton, presiding officer; Edwin D. 
Metcalf, speaker; Gov. George Dexter Robinson, orator; John L. 
Houston (of Enfield) orator; Judge Henry Morris, historical 
address; William S. Shurtleff, poet (author of "Anniversary 
Ode") ; Edward H. Lathrop, toastmaster; George M. Stearns, 
orator ; William H. Haile. speaker ; A. E. Pillsbury. speaker ; 
Samuel Bowles, speaker ; Dr. Theodore Pynchon, speaker ; Mayor 
O'Connor (of Holyoke), speaker; David A. Wells, speaker; Gen. 
H. C. Dwight (of Hartford), speaker; United States Senator 
Dawes (of Pittsfield), speaker: R. R. Comr. Kinsley, speaker; 
Rev. John Cuckson, speaker ; Rev. John Harding, speaker. The 
second day of the celebration was devoted especially to a monster 
civic-military parade and demonstration, and the occasion was 
closed with a largely attended ball. 

Having thus briefly and in a general way traced the history 
and gradual growth of the town of Springfield from the time of 

( e: ) 


founding the Agawani plantation to the incorporation of the 
city, and thence to the bi-centennial anniversary, and having 
referred incidentally at least to the more important events which 
have taken place during that long period, it is proposed in suc- 
ceeding chapters to analyze the subject of the city's history and 
treat each element separately, giving proper attention to accom- 
plished results, and presenting to the reader the names of men 
who have been contributing factors in producing those results. 
HoAvever, before closing the present chapter we may have re- 
course to the census reports and note the changes in number of 
inhabitants in the town and city as the same is indicated by the 
returns of the enumerators. It may be said, however, that the 
figures here cannot be taken as a true index of the town's growth 
previous to 1850, from the fact that the frequent division of the 
territory and the creation of other towns occasionally took from 
Springfield some of its most thickly populated districts. 

The colonial census of 1776 gave the town 1,974 inhabitants. 
The first regular federal census Avas taken in 1790, and subse- 
quently at the close of each decade. The state enumeration of 
population was begun in 1855. In 1790 the population was 
1,574: 1800, 2,312; 1810, 2,767: 1820, 3,914: 1830, 6,784: 1840, 
10,985; 1850, 11,766; 1855, 13,788; 1860, 15,199; 1865, 22,035; 
1870, 26.703: 1875, 31,053; 1880, 33,340: 1885, 37,535; 1890, 
44,179 : 1895, 51,522 : 1900, 62,059. 


1644-45— Henry Smith, Thomas Cooper, Samuel Chapin, 
Richard Sikes, Henry Burt. 

1646— Henry Smith, Elizur Holyoke, Samuel Chapin, Henry 
Burt, Benj. Cooley. 

1647-49— Henry Smith, Samuel Chapin, Thomas Cooper, 
Henry Burt, Benj. Cooley. 

1650— John PyiH'hon, Henry Smith. Sanmel Chapin. Henry 
Burt, Thomas Cooper. 

1651— John Pynchon, Samuel Chapin, George Colton, Henry 
Bu7-t, Thomas Cooper. 

1652— John Pynchon, Samuel Chapin, George Colton, Henry 
Burt, Benj. Cooley, Thomas Stebbins, Joseph Parsons. 

{ 68 ) 


1653 — George Coltou. Robert Ashley, Thomas Cooper, Beiij. 
Cooley, Thomas Stebbins. 

1654— Thomas Cooper, (ieorge Colton, Robert Ashley, Henry 
Burt, Benj. Cooley. 

1655— Miles Morgan, John Dumbleton, George Colton, Thos. 
Stebbins, John Stebbins. 

1656 — Thomas Cooper, (ieorge Colton, Thomas Gilbert, 
Benj. Cooley, Kobt. Ashley. 

1657— Robert Ashley. Miles Morgan. John Dumbleton, Jon- 
athan Burt, Thomas Gilbert. 

Memorial Church, Springheld 

1658 — Thomas Cooper, Benjamin Cooley, Jonathan Burt. 
William AYarriner, Robert Ashley. 

1659 — In this year the day for choosing town officers was 
changed from the first Tuesday' in November to the first Tuesday 
in February, and the selectmen of 1658 served until February. 

1660 — Thomas Gilbert, Benj. Parsons. John Dumbleton. 
INIiles Moraan. John Pvnchon. 

( 69 ) 


IHGl — Elizur Ilolyoke, Samuel Chapin, Thomas Cooper, 
Benj. Coole}^ Robt. Ashley. 

1662— John Pynehoii, Nathaniel Ely, Kliziu- Ilolyoke, Geo. 
Colton, Miles Mor^ian. 

1663— John Pynchon, Benj. Cooley, Robert Ashley, Thomas 
Cooper, Samuel Marshfield. 

166-4— Samuel Chapin, Nathaniel Ely, Ceortre Colton, Row- 
land Thomas, Elizur Holyoke. 

1665— John Pynchon, Benjamin Cooley, George Colton, 
Samuel Marshfield, LaAvrenee Bliss. 

1666— Ensign Cooper, Robert Ashley, John Dumbleton, 
Benjamin Parsons, Elizur Holyoke. 

1667 — George Colton, Nathaniel Ely, Benjamin Cooley, 
Rowland Thomas, Samuel Marshfield. 

1668— Thomas Cooper, Miles Morgan, John Dumbleton, Ben- 
jamin Parsons, Elizur Holyoke. 

1669— John Pynchon, George Colton, Nathaniel Ely, Samuel 
Marshfield, Lawrence Bliss. 

1670— Elizur Holyoke, Thomas Cooper, Benjamin Cooley, 
Benjamin Parsons, Henry Chapin. 

1671 — John Pynchon, George Colton, Sanniel Marshfield, 
Rowland Thomas, John Dumbleton. 

1672 — Nathaniel Ely, Benjamin Cooley, Benjamin Parsons, 
Anthony Dorchester, Elizur Holyoke. 

1673— George Colton, Samuel ]\larshfield, Thomas Cooper, 
John Dumbleton, Henry Chapin. 

1674 — Nathaniel Ely, Thomas Cooper, Benjamin Parsons, 
Elizur Holyoke. 

1675 — (xeorge Colton. Samuel ^larshfield, John Dumbleton, 
Henry Chapin, Jeremy Horton. 

1676 — Benjamin Cooley, Jonathan Burt. John Keep, John 
Hitchcock, Elizur Holyoke. (Samuel jNlarshfield was chosen in 
place of Elizur Holyoke, deceased, and Anthony Dorchester was 
chosen to fill the vacancy caused by the death of John Keep, who 
was killed by the Indians, March 26.) 

1677— George Colton, John Dumbleton, Benjamin Parsons, 
Henry Chapin, John Dorchester. 

( 70 ) 


1678 — Samuel Marshfield, Japhet Chapin, John Hitchcock, 
Nathaniel Burt, John Holyoke. 

1679— John Holyoke, George Colton, Benjamin Parsons, 
John Dnmbleton, Henry Chapin. 

1680— Benjamin Cooley, Sanniel Marshfield, Jonathan Burt, 
Japhet Chapin, John Hitchcock. 

1681— Daniel Denton, John Holyoke, George Colton, Benja- 
min Parsons, John Dnmbleton. 

1682— Joseph Parsons, Dea. Jonathan Burt, Thomas Day, 
John Hitchcock, John Holyoke. 

1683 — Samuel ^Marshfield, Benjamin Parsons, John Dnmble- 
ton, Japhet Chapin, James Warriner. 

1684 — Jonathan Burt, Henry Chapin, John Hitchcock, Sam- 
uel Ball, John Holyoke. 

1685— George Colton, Samuel ]Marshfield. Benj. Parsons, 
John Dnmbleton, Samuel Bliss. 

1686— Japhet Chapin, John Hitchcock, Samuel Ball, Thomas 
Stebbins, John Holyoke. 

1687 — Jonathan Burt, Benjamin Parsons, Henry Chapin, 
John Dnmbleton, Luke Hitchcock. 

1688 — Samuel Marshfield, Japhet Chapin, John Hitchcock, 
Samuel Ball, John Holyoke. 

1689— Japhet Chapin, Samuel Hitchcock, Samuel Ball, 
Thomas Colton, James Warriner, Thomas Stebbins. 

1690— John Dnmbleton, Jonathan Burt, Benjamin Parsons, 
Henry Chapin, Abel Wright. (This board was chosen in May, 
1689, in accordance Avith the act changing the day of election 
from February to May.) 

1690 — Japhet Chapin, John Hitchcock, James Warriner, 
Thomas Stebbins, John Holyoke. 

1691 — Jonathan Burt, Henry Chapin, John Dinnbleton, 
Isaac Colton, John Holyoke. 

1692— Japhet Chapin, Samuel Colton, Samuel Bliss, Thomas 
Stebbins, John Barber. 

1693 — John Hitchcock, Eliakim Cooley, Joseph Stebbins, 
Jonathan Ball, John Holyoke. 

1694— Pelatiah Glover, John Dorchester, Joseph Stebbins, 
Nathaniel Bliss, David ^Morgan. 

( 71 ) 


1695 — Thomas Cooper, Thomas Colton, Daniel Cooley, 
Charles Ferre, sr., John Holyoke. 

1696— John Pynchon, jr., James Warriner, Luke Hitchcock, 
Edward Stebbins, Benjamin Leonard. 

1697— Jonathan Burt, Henry Chapin. James AVarriner, sr., 
Samuel Bliss, sr., John Warner. 

1698— John Hitchcock. Benjamin Stebbins. Pelatiah Glover, 
Abel Wright. John Warner. 

1699 — Isaac Colton, John Hitchcock, Samuel Bliss, sr., 
Joseph Stebbins. John Myrick. 

1700— Joseph Stebbins, Edward Stebbins, Japhet Chapin, 
James Warriner, sr., Thomas Colton. 

1701— Henry Chapin. Pelatiah Glover, John Barber. David 
Morgan, Ebenezer Parsons. 

1702— John Pynchon, jr.. Pelatiah Glover. John Barber. 
John Warner. Samuel Ely. 

1703 — Eliakim Cooley, Joseph Stebbins, Edward Stebbins, 
John Warner. Nathaniel Munn. 

1704 — Luke Hitchcock, sr., James Warriner, sr.. Edward 
Stebbins, Benjamin Leonard, Joseph Williston. 

1705 — John PjTichon, jr., Joseph Stebbins, Luke Hitchcock, 
sr., Joseph Cooley, sr., John Merrick. 

1706— John Pynchon, jr., Eliakim Cooley, Ebenezer Par- 
sons, John Miller, Nathaniel Burt, jr. 

1707 — Thomas Colton. John Merrick, Samuel Bliss 3d. 
Henry Burt, John Holyoke. 

1708— John Hitchcock, sr.. Edward Stebbins. John Ferre, 
Benj. Leonard. John Holyoke. 

1709— John Hitchcock, sr., John INIerrick, John Day, Pela- 
tiah Bliss, John Holyoke. 

1710— John Pynchon. jr.. Edward Stebbins. John Burt, sr., 
Nathaniel ^lunn. Samuel Bliss 3d. 

1711— Joseph Cooley, sr., Tilley Merrick. John Miller. Thos. 
Horton, John Holyoke. 

1712 — Luke Hitchcock, sr., Joseph Stebbins, sr., John ]Mer- 
rick, Samuel Bliss 3d, John Ferre. 

1713— Pelatiah Glover. Ebenezer Parsons. Nathaniel Burt, 
jr., Henry Burt. John Day. 

( 72 ) 


1714— Peiatiah Glover, John Merrick, Joseph Cooley, sr., 
John Ferre, Thomas Terry, 

1715 — John Pynchon, James Mirick, Sanuiel Bliss ;^d. Luke 
Hitchcock, Peiatiah Glover. 

1716 — John Ferre, sr., James Warrinei- 2d. John Pynchon, 
Joseph Stebbins. Samuel Elj*. 

1717 — Joseph Stebbins, John Mirick, Samuel Bliss 3d, John 
Ferre, Samuel Day. 

1718— John Ferre, Samuel Bliss 3d, Henry Burt, John 
Worthington, Joseph Parsons. 

1719 — Samuel Day, Samuel Ely, Ebenezer Parsons, John 
Day, James JNIerrick. 

1720— Luke Hitchcock, John Ferre, Sanniel Bliss 3d, Henry 
Burt, James AYarriner, jr. 

1721 — Joseph Stebbins, Jaseph Cooley, Sanuiel Bliss 3d. 
Thomas Bliss, sr.. Increase Sikes. 

1722— John Mirick, John Ferre, Ephraim Colton, John 
Worthington, Increase Sikes. 

1723 — Samuel Bliss 2d, Joseph Stebbins. Ephraim Colton, 
Sanuiel Day, John Day. 

1724 — John Ferre, James Warriner, Samuel Bliss 2d, Na- 
thaniel Sikes. Increase Sikes. 

1725— Luke Hitchcock, Ephraim Colton, John Ferre, Sam- 
uel Bliss 2d, Joseph "Williston. 

1726 — James Warriner. John Bagg, John Hitchcock, Joseph 
Williston, Henry Burt. 

1727 — Samuel Bliss 2d. John Ferre. Ephraim Colton, John 
Day, John Worthington. 

1728 — Samuel Bliss, Ebenezer Warriner, Ephraim Colton, 
John Day, John Ferre. 

1729 — James Warriner, John Day, Ebenezer Warriner, John 
Burt, Ephraim Colton. 

1730— James AA^arriner, Ebenezer AYarriner. John Burt. 
Thomas Colton, Thomas Stebbins. 

1731— Samuel Bliss, Joseph AYilliston, James AA^arriner, 
Thomas Colton, Thomas Stebbins. 

1732 — Joseph AA^illiston, John AYorthington, Peiatiah Bliss, 
Thomas Stebbins, John Day. 

( 73 ) 


1738— John Burt, Luke Hitchcock 2d, John Ely, James War- 
riner, Ebenezer AVarriner. 

1734— Pelatiah Bliss, John Burt, Lnke Hitchcock 2d, Ebe- 
nezer Warriner, John Ely. 

1735 — Pelatiah Bliss, Ebenezer AVarriner, John Bnrt, John 
Ely, Lnke Hitchcock 2d. 

1736— John Bnrt, Lnke Hitchcock 2d, AVilliani Pynchon, 
John Day, Benjamin Chapin. 

1737— William Pynchon, John Day, John Bnrt. Lnke Hitch- 
cock 2d, Thomas Colton. 

1738— William Pynchon, John Day, Pelatiah Bliss, Thomas 
Stebbins, Lnke Hitchcock 2d. 

1739— John Day, Thomas Colton, Thomas Stebbins, John 
Burt, John Harmon. 

1740 — John Harmon, Thomas Colton, Thomas Stebbins, 
John Day, Luke Hitchcock. 

1741 — Joseph Pynchon, Thomas Colton, Thomas Stebbins, 
John Harmon, Jonathan Chapin. 

1742 — Joseph Pynchon, Thomas Colton, Joseph ^Miller, Jon- 
athan Chapin, James Warriner. 

1743 — James AVarriner, Joseph Aliller, Thomas Stebbins, 
Thomas Colton, Jonathan Chapin. 

1744 — James AVarriner, Fi'ancis Ball, John Bnrt. Thomas 
Colton, Thomas Stebbins. 

1745 — John Burt, James AVarriner, Thomas Stebbins, Fran- 
cis Ball, AA^illiam Stebbins. 

1746— James AVarriner, Francis Ball, AVilliam Stebbins, 
Joseph Pynchon, Lnke Hitchcock 2d, Ebenezer Hitchcock, Jona- 
than Church. 

1747— Jonathan Church, James AVarriner, Francis Ball, 
AVilliam Stebbins, Josiah Dwight. 

1748— Jonathan Church, James AA'arrinei", Francis Ball, 
AA^illiam Stebbins Josiah Dwight. 

1749-51— James AVarriner, AA'illiam Stebbins, Francis Ball, 
Jonathan Church, Josiah Dwight. 

1752-53— Josiah DAvight, AA^illiam Stebbins. Jonathan 
Church, James AA^arriner, Samuel Ely. 

( 74 ) 


1754-56 — Josiah Uwi^ilit, James Warriiier, Jonathan Church, 
Nathaniel Burt, Samuel Ely. 

1757 — Josiah D\vitiht, Jonathan ("hureh, James Wariiner, 
Samuel Ely, Nathaniel Ely. 

1758 — Josiah Dwijiht, Jonathan Church, Sanniel Ely, Na- 
thaniel Ely 2d, Nathaniel Brewer. 

1759— Josiah Dwight, Jonathan Church, Nathaniel Ely, 
Joseph Miller, Nathaniel Brewer. 

Ehn Street School, Springfield 

1760— Luke Bliss, Luke Hitchcock, Joseph Miller, Josiah 
Dwight, Aaron Colton. 

1761— John AVorthington, Ebenezer Hitchcock, Benjamin 
Day, Aaron Colton, Echvard Pynchon. 

1762 — John Worthington, Edward Pynchon, Aaron Colton, 
Benjamin Day, Luke Hitchcock. 

1763— John AVorthington, Edward Pynchon. Benjamin Day, 
Josiah Dwight, Aaron Colton. 

1764— John Worthington, Josiah DAvight. Edward Pynchon, 
Benjamin Day, Nathaniel Ely 2d. 

( 75 ) 


1765— John Worthingtou, Josiah Dwight, Edward Pynclion, 
Benjamiu Day, Nathaniel Ely, Capt. Samuel Merrick. 

1766-67— John AVorthington, Josiah Dwight, Edward Pyn- 
clion, Benjamin Day, Nathaniel Ely 2d, Robert Harris, Samuel 

1768— John Worthington, Josiah Dwight, Edward Pynchon, 
Benjamin Day, Robert Harris, Nathaniel Ely, John Leonard. 

1769— John AYorthington, Edward Pynchon, Lt. Robert 
Harris, Nathaniel Brewer, Benjamin Daj^ Nathaniel Ely. 

1770— John Worthington, Edward Pynchon, Benjamin Day, 
Nathaniel Ely l2d, Nathaniel Brewer, Robert Harris, John Leon- 

1771— John AYorthington, Edward Pynchon, Benjamin Day, 
Nathaniel Ely 2d, John Leonard, Moses Bliss, Daniel Harris. 

1772— John Worthington, Edward Pynchon, Nathaniel Ely, 
John Leonard, Daniel Harris, Moses Bliss, Jonathan A¥hite. 

1773 — John Worthington, Col. Benjamin Day, Nathaniel 
Ely, Dr. Charles Pynchon, John Leonard. Dr. Jonathan A^^lite, 
Lt. John Leonard, Dr. Aaron Colton, Benjamin Ely. 

1774 — John Worthington, Moses Bliss. John Hale, Phineas 
Chapin, Daniel Harris. 

1775— Daniel Harris, Phineas Chapin, Aaron Colton, James 
Silkes, AVilliam Pynchon, jr. 

1776 — Aaron Colton, James Sikes, William Pynchon, jr.. 
Edward Chapin, Daniel Harris. 

1777— Aaron Colton, Edward Chapin, Thomas Stebbins, 
Daniel Harris, William Pynchon, jr. 

1778— AVilliam Pynchon, jr., Edward Chapin. David Burt, 
Thomas Stebbins, Phineas Chapin, Thomas Williston. 

1779-80— Thomas Stebbins, Phineas Chapin, David Burt, 
William Pynchon, Thomas Williston. 

1781-82— Phineas Chapin, Thomas Stebbins, William Pyn- 
chon, Thomas AVilliston, David Burt. 

1783— AYilHam Pynchon, Phineas Chapin, Thomas Stebbins, 
Thomas Williston, David Burt. 

1784— William Pynchon, Moses Bliss, Reuben Bliss, Eph- 
raim Chapin, Thomas Williston. 

( 76 ) 


1785-86— Moses Bliss, Reuben Bliss, William Pj^nchon, Eph- 
raim Chapin, Capt. Thomas Stebbins. 

1788 — Moses Bliss, Reuben Bliss, AVilliam Pynchon, Eph- 
raim Chapin, Thomas Stebbins, John Hale, Moses Field. 

1789 — Moses Bliss, Reuben Bliss, Thomas Stebbins, William 

1790— Moses Bliss, Reuben Bliss, William Pynchon. 

1791 — AVilliam Pynchon, Moses Bliss, Reuben Bliss, ]Moses 
Church, Capt. Phineas Chapin. 

1792-94— William Pynchon, Jonathan Dwight, Reuben Bliss, 
Moses Church, Capt. Phineas Chapin. 

1795 — William Pynchon, Jonathan Dwight, Reuben Bliss, 
Thomas DAvight, Phineas Chapin. 

1796-97 — William Pynchon, Jonathan Dwight, George Bliss, 
Thomas Dwight, Phineas Chapin. 

1798— William Pynchon, Jonathan Dwight, Francis DAvight, 
George Bliss, Phineas Chapin. 

1799-1800— William Pynchon, Jonathan Dwight, Thomas 
Dwight, George Bliss, Capt. Phineas Chapin. 

1801— William Pynchon, Thomas Dwight, George Bliss, 
Capt. J. Byer, RiTfus Sikes, Moses Chapin, Isaac Bliss. 

1802-3 — William Pynchon. Thomas Dwight, George Bliss, 
Rufus Sikes, Moses Chapin. 

1804-8— George Bliss, John Hooker, Thomas Dwight, Rufns 
Sikes, Moses Chapin. 

1809-11 — Thomas Dwight, George Bliss, George Blake, John 
Hooker, Moses Chapin. 

1812— Joshua Frost, Moses Chapin, Judah Chapin, Eleazer 
AYright, Edward Pynchon, Jonas Coolidge, Daniel Lombard, 
Phineas Chapin, Asher Bartlett. 

1813-16— Moses Chapin, Edward Pynchon. William Sheldon, 
George Blake, Jonas Coolidge. 

1817— William Sheldon, Edward Pynchrm, Jonas Coolidge, 
Jacob Bliss, Joseph Pease. 

1818-19— Edward Pynchon, Jacob Bliss. Jonas Coolidge, 
Thomas Sargeant, Joseph Pease. 

1820— Edward Pynchon, Joshua Frost, Harvey Chapin, 
Solomon Hatch, Justin Lombard. 

( 77 ) 


1821 — Edward Pynchou, Justin Lombard. Solomon Hatch, 
William Childs, Jesse Pendleton. 

1822— Jesse Pendleton, Solomon Hatch, AVilliam Childs, 
Joseph Carew, Simon Sanborn. 

1823 — John Hooker, Kobert Emory, Joseph Pease, Israel'E. 
Trask, Jonathan Dwight. 

1824:— Jesse Pendleton. Solomon Hatch, AVilliam Rice, 
George Colton, Allen Bangs. 

1825 — Solomon Hatch, (ieorge Colton. "William Rice, Allen 
Bangs. Bridgeman Chapin. 

1826— William Rice, Joshua Frost, Bridgeman Chapin, 
Henry Chapin. Solomon Hatch. 

1827-28 — Oliver B. Morris, George Colton. Charles Stearns, 
Horace King. Orange Chapin. 

1829 — George Colton, Charles Stearns. John B. Kirkham, 
Orange Chapin, Elijah Blake. 

1830— John Howard. Elijah Blake. Allen Bangs, William 
Rice. Silas Stedman. 

1831— William Bliss, Allen Bangs, Edwin Booth, Orrin Dim- 
mick. Downer Chapin. 

1832— George Bliss, Allen Bangs. Orange Chapin, Orrin 
Dimmick, Edwin Booth. 

1833-3-4— Allen Bangs, Orange Chapin, George Colton, 
James W. Crooks, Harvey Chapin. 

1835— George Ashmun Stephen C. Bemis, Walter H. Bow- 
doin. William Childs. 

1836 — George Ashmun. Stephen C. Bemis, William Cad well. 

1837— William DAvight, Walter Warriner, Ephraim S. How- 
ard, Elihu Adams. AVilliam Chapin, Samuel Reynolds. Lewis 

1838— William Dwight. Sylvester Taylor. Gideon Gardner, 
James Christie. Samuel Reynolds. William Chapin. Thomas I. 

1839 — William Dwight. Samuel Reynolds, Sylvester Taylor, 
Simon Sanborn. Silas Stedman. James Christie, Francis M. 

1840-41— William Dwight. Samuel Reynolds, Simon San- 

( 78 ) 


born. Fi'iuu'is M. CaroAv. Otis Skeole. AVilliam Caldwell, Pliny 

1842 — Otis Skeele, Chester W. Chapin, James W. Crooks. 
Ezra Kiniberly. Bennin<i- Tieavitt. John B. Kirkhani, Albert 

18-43 — Otis Skeele. Chester W. Chapin, John B. Kirkham. 
Benning Leavitt, Albert Hayden. 

1844 — Giles S. Chapin, Charles Howard, Benning Leavitt. 
John B. Kirkhani. Joseph Lombard. Rnfns Chandler. Theodore 

1845 — Henry jNlorris, Allen Ban^is, Titus Amadon, Austin 
Chapin 2d, Adolphns G. Parker. 

1846 — Henry Morris, Austin Chapin, Adolphns G. Parker. 
Titus Amadon. John B. M. Stebbins, Harvey Butler, Bildad B. 

1847— Adolphns G. Parker, Bildad B. Belcher, Titns Ama- 
don. Henry Vose, Harvey Butler, John B. M. Stebbins, Nathaniel 

1848 — Solomon Hatch, Jonathan Pease, jr., William E. Mon- 
tague. Waitstill Hastins. Levi C. Skeele. Edward Renney. Philo 
F. AA'ilcox. 

1849— Ephraim W. Bond, Erasmus D. Beach. Harvey Danks 
(voted this year to have three selectmen). 

1850— Erasmus D. Beach, Ephraim W. Bond, Oliver B. Ban- 
non, Simon Sanborn, Henry Gray. 

1851— Eliphalet Trask, William B. Calhoun, Theodore Steb- 

Town Clerks— 'H.enry Smith, 1636-52; John Pynchon, 1652- 
55 ; Elizur Holyoke, 1656 ; John Pynchon, 1657-60 : Elizur Hol- 
yoke. 1661-76: John Holyoke, 1677-80; Daniel Denton, 1681; 
John Holyoke, 1682-95 ; John Pynchon, jr., 1696 ; Jonathan Burt, 
1697-1700; John Pynchon, jr., 1701; John Holyoke, 1702-11; 
Pelatiah Bliss, 1712-15 ; Joseph AVarriner, 1716 ; Pelatiah Bliss, 
1717-27 ; William Pynchon, jr., 1728-46; Edward Pynchon. 1747- 
72 ; Benjamin Day. 1773 ; Edward Pynchon. 1774-75 ; William 
Pynchon. 1776-1804 ; Edward Pynchon, 1805-29 ; William Bliss, 
1830-38; Richard Bliss, 1838-41; Walter H. Bowdoin. 1841; Jos- 
eph Inoraham, 1842-52. 

( 79 ) 



For fully ten years previous to the act granting the city 
charter Springfield frequently was involved in political disturb- 
ances growing out of the selection of public officers, for it appears 
that the village and country districts were arrayed against one 
another, on the question of improvements more than on party 
lines. The measures most calculated to promote the local inter- 
ests of the villages of Springfield and Chicopee, and which in fact 
were really necessary for the good order and protection of those 
localities, could not directly extend their benefits throughout the 
entire town, hence not deriving direct advantage therefrom the 
inhabitants of the rural districts naturally opposed any proposi- 
tion which would put increased taxes upon their Fands. An 
examination of the records during the period referred to discloses 
the fact that at the annual town meetings the conflicting elements 
were so earnest in their endeavors that important offices fre- 
quently were left vacant for some time, and were filled only when 
public necessity made such action imperative and after some sort 
of temporary compromise had been "patched up." Usually the 
compromise was reached Avhen the people of the villages consent- 
ed not to insist on expenditures which affected their localities, 
which meant that unless some remedy was provided Springfield 
always would remain a non-progressive tOAvn. This principal 
village required increased fire and police protection, better 
schools, a good water supply system, street lighting and other 
necessary adjuncts of municipal existence, but the inhabitants of 
the outlying districts failed to appreciate the need of these things, 
hence they opposed them with their votes. 

( 80 ) 


In the election of town officers, especially tlie board of select- 
men, there was more or less rivalry between Springfield and Chic- 
opee, the population of the places being about the same, with the 
advantages, if any, in favor of the former ; and if the one sought 
to secure any api)ropriation for improvements the other was 
quite apt to oppose it successfully with the aid of the votes from 
the agricultural regions, which always could be relied on to reject 
a measure that must be paid for by taxation. At the annual 
town meeting in 1842 only two selectmen were agreed on and 
voted into office. On April 18 following five others were 
chosen. In the next year only one was chosen at the regular 
meeting, but later on, after a compromise had been effected, the 
remaining five were selected. In 1847 it was determined to 
choose seven selectmen, but at the regiilar meeting only three — 
Adolphus G. Parker, Bildad ±J. Belcher and Titus Amadou — 
were elected. At an adjourned meeting, after a truce had been 
agreed on, Henry Vose, Harvey Butler, John B. j\l. Stebbins and 
Nathaniel Cutler were elected to complete the full board. 

About this time, perhaps a year or two earlier, the inhab- 
itants of the principal villages demanded a division of the town 
and the creation of a new jurisdiction from the northern portion. 
Chicopee was the result, the enabling act therefor being passed 
by the legislature April 29, 1848. There appears to have been 
no real opposition to this measure, which was regarded both as a 
convenience and a necessity; but after it was accomplished 
Springfield's progress still was opposed by certain influences, 
now in part of a purely political character. In 1849 Ephraim 
AV. Bond and Simon Sanborn were chosen selectmen at the reg- 
ular meeting, leaving three vacancies. A little later Harvey 
Danks was added to the board, and still later it was voted to have 
but three selectmen. In 1850 a full board of five members was 
chosen, but in 1851 Eliphalet Trask was the only member at first 
elected. Then AVilliam B. Calhoun and Theodore Stebbins were 
added. At a subsequent meeting it was decided that the board 
as then constituted was illegal, and a vote ordered that the board 
of the preceding j-ear be recognized and continued in office. 
However, by some arrangement of matters, the board of the cur- 
rent year transacted the business of the town. 


( 81 ) 


For a year or two the leading men of both political parties 
had been discussing the situation of affairs in the town* and 
arrived at the conclusion that a city charter for Springfield 
would have the effect to remove the old elements of opposition 
that had retarded growth and advancement in earlier years. At 
a town meeting held jNIarch 1, 1852. at which Samuel Day was 
moderator, it Avas voted "that in the opinion of the inhabitants 
of the town an organization under a city charter would conduce 
to the welfare and prosperity of the town, and that such organi- 
zation ought to be adopted." And it was then further voted 
"that application be made to the legislature to grant the town a 
city charter, and that a committee of five be appointed to make 
such application and procure the passage of such charter;" and 
voted "that said committee of five shall be appointed by the 
moderator. ' ' 

In accordance with the determination of the meeting the 
moderator appointed Henry Vose, John Mills, Stephen C. Bemis, 
George Dwight and Henry Gray as the representatives of the 
town in securing the passage of the charter act : and it is quite 
evident that the worthy commission was in full harmony Avith the 
spirit of the movement, for on April 12 of the same year the legis- 
lature passed "An act to establish the City of Springfield." the 
creative sections of which were as follows : 

Sec. 1. "The inhabitants of the town of Springfield shall 
continue to be a body politic and corporate, under the name of 
the City of Spring-field, and. as such, shall have, exercise and 
enjoy all the rights, immunities, powers and privileges, and be 
subject to all the obligations now incumbent upon, and apper- 
taining to. said town a.s a municipal corporation." 

Sec. 2. "The administration of the fiscal, prudential and 
municipal affairs of said city, and the government thereof, shall 
be vested in #one principal officer, to be styled the mayor, one 
council of eight, to be called the board of aldermen: and one 
council of eighteen, to be called the common council, which boards, 
in their joint capacity, shall be denominated the city council," 

( 83 ) 


On xVpril 21, 1852. in less than ten days after the act was 
passed by the legislature, and as soon as the "warning" neces- 
sary for a legal meeting could be given, the inhabitants again 
assembled to act upon the adoption or rejection of the new char- 
ter. On this occasion William B. Calhoun was appointed mod- 
erator, after which the electors proceeded to vote on the question, 
"Shall the act entitled 'an act to establish the city of Springfield' 
be adopted?" The whole number of votes cast was 1,42-S. of 
which there were 969 yeas, and 454 nays. 

Having ratified the action of the legislature, the meeting 
next proceeded to designate the five men who, under the act, were 
to divide the town into eight wards, and. made choice of William 
B. Calhoun. John B. Kirkham. Theodore Stebbins, Eliphalet 
Trask and Joseph Ingraham for that duty. In due season the 
work was accomplished, upon which it was found that the several 
wards thus created contained a population as follows: AVard 1, 
2,222 ; ward 2, 2,294 ; ward 3, 2,120 ; ward 4, 1,711 : ward 5, 1,935 ; 
ward 6, 710 ; ward 7, 688 ; ward 8, 730. 

The first city election was held ]\Iay 13. 1852\ the principal 
contestants for the mayoralty being Caleb Rice and AYilliam B. 
Calhoun. Mr. Rice was elected, having received a total of 691 
votes, against 642 for his opponent. Among the other prominent 
citizens who received complimentary votes for the same otfiee 
were Erasmus D. Beach 17, Chester W. Chapin 11. John Mills 3, 
and J. M. Thompson, R. Cleveland. George Dwight. S. B. R. 
Leavis, Captain Thompson. Ethan Chapin, George Haynes and 
John Barbel', one vote each. The total vote for city clerk and 
treasurer was 1.356. of which Joseph Ingraham received 1,355 
and Henry Vose (who was not a candidate for any office but re- 
ceived one vote for each, except that of mayor), one vote. The 
total vote for aldermen w-as 1,370. 

On the last used page of the last of the record books of town 
meetings, in the characteristic handwriting of the town clerk, 
there appears this entry: 

"Springfield. May 25, 1852. 

"This day ends the Town and commences the city govern- 

"^The city government was org.Tnizert May -.">. 1832. 

( 83 ) 

Caleb Rice 
First mayor of Springrfield 


ment — Having been a town just two hundred and sixteen years, 
to a day — And now we go from an old town to an infant city. 

"Joseph lugraham, 
last town and first city clerk and treasurer of the old town and 

the new city of Springfield." 

Occasionally during the half century of Springfield's exist- 
ence as a city, the charter has been amended to meet new con- 
ditions and to provide for them in accordance with modern sys- 
tems of municipal management, but there has not been at any 
time a radical revision of the charter provisions, which fact at- 
tests the genius of the framers of the original act. The aldermen 
now as formerly are voted for at large, but are chosen one from 
each ward. The conunon councilmen are elected by wards. Orig- 
inally the offices of city clerk and treasurer were filled by a 
single person, but in 1888 they were separated and an incumbent 
was elected for each. 

Under the charter the board of aldermen, the common coun- 
cil and the joint body — the city council — have been clothed with 
ample power to provide for the selection of subordinate officers 
and for the maintenance of the several departments of city gov- 
ernment ; and the generally healthful and prosperous conditions 
which are so apparent on every hand are evidence that the "city 
fathers," and the people who elect them, have not been miserly 
in the distribution of the public funds. Still, there is nothing to 
indicate lavish or unwarranted expenditures, each board having 
a watchful eye upon the actions of the other, and the "negative" 
power occasionally has been exercised. 


Mayors-Caleh Rice, 1852-53 : Philos B. Tyler, 1854: Eliplia- 
let Trask, 1855 : Ansel Phelps, jr., 1856-58 : William B. Calhoun, 
1859 : Daniel L. Harris. 1860 ; Stephen C. Bemis, 1861-62 ; Henry 
Alexander, jr., 1863-64: Albert D. Briggs, 1865-67; Charles A. 
Winchester, 1868-69; William L. Smith, 1870-71; Samuel B. 
Spooner, 1872-73 ; John I\I. Stebbins, 1874 : Emerson Wight, 1875- 
78 : Lewis J. Powers, 1879-80 : William H. Haile. 1881 ; Edwin 
W. Ladd, 1882; Henry ^I. Phillips. 1883-85; Edwin D. Metcalf. 

( 85 ) 


1886 ; Elisha B. Maynard, 1887-88 ; Edward S. Bradford, 1889- 
91 ; Lawson Sibley, 1892 ; Edmund P. Kendrick, 1893-94 ; Charles 
L. Long, 1895 : Newrie D. AYinter, 1896 ; Henry S. Dickinson, 
1897-98 ; Dwight 0. Gilmore, 1899 ; William P. Hayes, 1900-1901. 

City Clerks and Treasurers— Joseph Ingraham, 1852-59; 
Horace G. Lee, 1860-61 ; Samuel B. Spooner, 1862, resigned Sept. 
30, and succeeded by Albert T. Folsom ; Albert T. Folsom, 

Cittj Clerks— Elijah A. Newell 1888-1901. (Still in office.) 

City Treasurers-BMplmlet T. Tift, 1888-1901. (Still in 
office. ) 


Aldermen— V\^ard One, Samuel S. Day; Ward Two, Elipha- 
let Trask; Ward Three, E. D. Beach; Ward Four, George 
Dwight; Ward Five, Albert jMorgan ; AVard Six, Charles G. Rice ; 
Ward Seven, Oliver B. Bannon ; Ward Eight, F. A. Barton. 

C?crA;— Joseph Ingraham. 

Common Councihnen — President, Henry Morris; Ward 
One, J. B. M. Stebbins, Eleazer Ripley, John V. Jones; Ward 
Two, W. C. Sturtevant, Francis Bates, Henry Fuller, jr. ; Ward 
Three, Charles IMerriam, Willis Phelps, Cicero Simons ; Ward 
Four, Henry Morris, Alexander H. Avery, Benjamin F. Warner ; 
Ward Five, William Hitchcock, Hiram Q. Sanderson, Nathaniel 
Cate ; Ward Six, Henry Adams ; Ward Seven, Ezra Kimberly ; 
Ward Eight, Rodney Holt. 

Clerk — Alanson Hawley. 


Aldermen— V\^ard One, John B. Stebbins; Ward Two, 
Eliphalet Trask ; Ward Three. Willis Phelps : Ward Four, Henry 
Vose ; AYard Five, Titus Amadon ; AYard Six, Drayton Perkins ; 
AA^ard Seven, Joseph N. Sollace ; AYard Eight, Harvey Foster. 

CZerA;— Joseph Ingraham. 

Common Councihnen — President, Henry ]Morris (resigned 
May 16), AYilliam Stowe ; AYard One. Daniel Hitchcock, AA^illiam 
Pynchon, Addison Day; AA'ard Two, Joseph C. Pynchon, Orrin 
Baker, E. AY. Bond : AYard Three, Lombard Dale, T. M. AYalker, 
AYilliam Stowe ; AYard Four, Henry Morris, Alexander H. Avery, 

( 86 ) 


Edmund Pabm'r; Ward Five, Nathaniel Gate, AVilliaDi Dickin- 
son, Daniel Collins ; Ward Six, Henry Adams ; AYard Seven, 
Ezra Kimberly ; AVard Eight, William S. Barker. 

C'ZerA;— Alanson Hawley (resigned March 7), Samuel 0. 


Alder)ncti—V\^i\vd One, AVilson Eddy; "Ward Two, Eliphalet 
Trask ; Ward Three, Elkanah Barton ; AVard Four, William L. 
AVashburn ; Ward Five, Edward F. Moseley; AVard Six, Roder- 
ick Lombard ; AVard Seven, Joseph Lombard ; Ward Eight, Rod- 
ney Holt. 

Clerk— Joseph Ingraham, 

Common Councilmen — President, Samuel S. Day ; AVard 
One, Asa Clark, Samuel S. Day, Thomas AY. AVasou ; AA'ard Two, 
George H. Roberts, Henry A. Robinson, Roderick Ashley ; AA^ard 
Three, Philo F. AA^ilcox, Lombard Dale, Frederick H. Harris; 
AVard Four, Daniel L. Harris, Tilly Haynes, Joseph B. Hopkins; 
AA^ard Five, Daniel Gollins, G. AV. Harrison, A. H. Clark ; AA^ard 
Six, Edwin S. Hall; AA'^ard Seven, Harris B. Johnson; AA^ard 
Eight, Horace Pease. 

Clerk — Charles 0. Chapin. 


Alderman— Ward One, James M. Blanchard; AA^ard Two, 
AV. C. Sturtevant ; AA^ard Three, David Smith ; AVard Four, Dan- 
iel Reynolds ; AA'ard Five, AA'illiam E. Montague ; AA^ard Six, 
Henry Adams ; AA'ard Seven, James P. Chapman ; AA^ard Eight, 
Harvey Foster. 

Clerk— Joseph Ingraham. 

Common Councilmen — President, John M. Stebbins; AA^ard 
One, E. B. Haskell, John M. Stebbins, Stephen Morse ; AVard 
Two, 0. W. AA' ilcox, John Hooker, 3d, D. H. Brigham ; Ward 
Three, Francis S. Graves. Rufus Elmer, E. AA^. Dickinson ; AVard 
Four, Abel B. Howe, John AA^. Hunt, Jeremiah R. Cadwell; 
AVard Five, Nathaniel Howard, S. S. Holmes, E. F. Moseley; 
Ward Six. J. G. Capron ; AA^'ard Seven, Luther S. Lewis; AA'ard 
Eight, Samuel AA'ebber. 

Clerk— lihom2iS Chubbuck. 

( 87 ) 



Aldertnen —W^urd One, Samuel S. Day; Ward Two, Henry 
Fuller, jr.; AVard Three, Edmund Freeman; Ward Four, Ste- 
phen C. Bemis ; Ward Five, Thomas H. Allen ; Ward Six, Henry 
Alexander, jr. : Ward Seven, Henry Reynolds; Ward Eight, 
Samuel Webber. 

Clerk — Joseph Ingraham. 

Common Councilnien— President, James Kirkham; Ward 
One, Charles O. Russell, Chauneey L. Covell, Hervey Hills; 

The Hooker School, Springtield 

Ward Two, O. W. Wilcox, Henry A. Chapin, Dexter H. Brig, 
ham ; Ward Three, Dr. Nathan Adams. Charles L. Shaw, George 
Whitney ; Ward Four, James Kirkham, George Walker, John W. 
Hunt; Ward Five, Otis A. Seamans, E. F. Moseley, Nelson Ty- 
ler ; Ward Six, Elbridge Barton : Ward Seven, AVilliam Smith ; 
Ward Eight, INIilton Foster. 

Clerk— Charles 0. Chapin, 


Aldermen— V^ard One, Samuel S. Day; Ward Two, Henry 
Fuller, jr. : Ward Three, Henry Alexander, jr. : Ward Four, Ste- 

{ 88 ) 


pheu C. Beniis; Ward Five, Joseph Hannis; AVard Six, James 
Warner: Ward Seven. Ilenry Poniroy: AYard Eight, Samuel 
Webber, jr. 

C'/^rA;— Joseph Ingraham. 

Common Coioicihiicn—V resident, George Walker; Ward 
One, Charles O. Russell, C'liauneey L. Covell. James Stebbins : 
Ward Two, Erastus Hayes, Lyman King, Francis B. Bacon ; 
AA^ard Three, Alarvin Lincoln. Henry Avery, John R. Hixon ; 
Ward Four, George AValker, Samuel Leonard, AA^illiam Birnie ; 
AVard Five, Charles AVoodman, Luther Upton, George A. Otis; 
AVard Six, Elbridge Barton ; AVard Seven, AVilliam Smith ; AVard 
Eight, George A. Cooley. 

Clerk — Charles 0. Chapin. 


Aldermen— ^Xard One, Samuel S. Day; AVard Two, Henry 
Fuller, jr. ; AVard Three, Henry Alexander, jr. ; AA^ard Four, Ste- 
phen C. Bemis ; AVard Five, Joseph Hannis ; AA^ard Six, James 
AVarner ; AA'ard Seven, Henry Pomroy ; AVard Eight, Samuel 
AVebber, jr. (resigned), E. A. Fuller. 

Clerk — Joseph Ingraham. 

Common Councilmen — President, John R. Hixon; AVard 
One, Wilson Eddy, AVilliam Pynchon, AVilliam L. Smith ; AA^ard 
Two, Randolph E. Ladd, Ambrose N. Merrick, Charles B. Trask: 
AA'ard Three, John R. Hixon, Henry A. Chapin, Gurdon Bill: 
AVard Four, Samuel Leonard, John AA^. Hunt, R. G. Shumway; 
AVard Five, Charles AA^oodman, George Swetland, John Brooks: 
Ward Six, Elbridge Barton ; AVard Seven, Joseph AA^heelock. jr. ; 
AVard Eight. Erastus King. 

Clerk — Charles 0. Chapin. 


Aldermen — AVard One, Chauncey L. Covell : AVard Two. 
Roger S. Moore : Ward Three, Edmund Freeman : AA^'ard Four, 
Daniel L. Harris: AVard Five, AA^lliam Hitchcock; Ward Six, J. 
G. Capron ; AA^ard Seven, Horace Smith : AVard Eight, George W. 

Clerk — Joseph Ingraham. 

Common Couneilmen— 'President, A. N. Merrick (resigned 
in INIayV Samuel Leonard: AA^ard One, Joshua M. Harrington. 

( 89 ) 


Justin M. Cooley, John V. Jones ; Ward Two, George H. Roberts, 
Lewis H. Taylor, Gurdon C. Jndson; Ward Three, A. N. Mer- 
rick, Daniel Gay, Hosea C. Lombard; Ward Four, Samuel Leon- 
ard, Alfred Rowe, Reuben T. Safford ; AA-'ard Five, Theodore 
Bishop, AYalter Maynard, AYalter North ; Ward Six, Isaac D. 
Gibbons; Ward Seven, Ransley Hall; AA^ard Eight, Warren L. 

Clerk— Jjiicius E. Ladd. 


Aid cnti an— Ward One, Edmund B. Haskell: AVard Two, 
Erastus Hayes ; Ward Three. Franklin Chamberlain ; AA^ard 
Four, John AV. Hunt ; AA^ard Five, AA^'illiam Hitchcock ; AA^ard 
Six, John G. Capron ; Ward Seven, William Foster ; AVard Eight, 
George AA^ Holt. 

C'ierA;— Horace C. Lee. 

Common Councilmen — President N. A. Leonard ; AVard One, 
Joshua M. Harrington, H. S. Noyes, J. H. Demond ; AVard Two, 
Lewis H. Taylor, George R. Townsley, Charles A. AVinchester; 
AA^ard Three, AVilliam L. AA'ilcox, John Hamilton, Clark AV. 
Bryan; AVard Four, N. A. Leonard, AA^illiam Birnie, Alfred 
Rowe ; AVard Five, AA'^illiam Higley, A. F. Strong. Charles AVood- 
man; AA'ard Six, Robert Crossett; AVard Seven, Orrin Lombard; 
AVard Eight, AndrcAV J. Plumer. 

Cier/i;— Lucius E. Ladd. 


AUhrmc It— Ward One, Henry Gray; AA'ard Two, Ephraim 
AV. Bond ; AVard Three, H. N. Case ; Ward Four, Nathaniel How- 
ard ; AVard Five, Charles AA'oodman ; AA^ard Six, Amos Call ; 
AA'ard Seven, AA^illiam Smith ; Ward Eight, A. J. Plumer. 

Clerk — Horace C. Lee. 

Common Couiwilmen—Fref>\dent, N. A. Leonard; AA^ard 
One, H. J. Chapin, J. M. Cooley, J. H. Demond ; AVard Two, 
Lewis H. Taylor, D. H. Brigham, F. B. Bacon : AA^ard Three, 
AA'illiam L. AA^ilcox, John Hamilton, James M. Skiff ; Ward Four, 
N. A. Leonard, John AV. Bliss, Alfred Rowe ; AVard Five, AA^- 
liam Higley, Otis A. Seamans, A. W. Allen ; AVard Six, Aaron 

( 90 ) 


C. Barton ; AVard Seven, Henry Reynolds ; Ward Eight, H. E. 

Clerk — Lucius E. Ladd. 


Aldermen— Wavd One, Henry Gray; Ward Two, E. W. 
Bond ; Ward Three, H. N. Case ; Ward Four, T. W. Wason ; 
Ward Five, Horace Kibbe; Ward Six, Horace Smith; AVard 
Seven, William Smith ; Ward Eight, H. S. Evans. 

Clerk-— ^. B. Spooner, jr. 

Common Councilmen — President, N. A. Leonard; Ward 
One, Horace J. Chapin, L. 0. Hanson. L. J. Powers; AA^ard Two, 
Sylvester Day, Tim Henry, Eli H. Patch ; AVard Three, James 
M. Skiff, J. E. Taylor, A. F. Jennings ; Ward Four, N. A. Leon- 
ard, Alfred Rowe, T. M. Walker ; AA- ard Five, P. V. B. Havens, 
George K. Jacobs, George K. Charter ; Ward Six, Aaron C. Bar- 
ton ; Ward Seven, Ezekiel Keith ; AA^ard Eight, H. E. Moseley. 

CZerA;— Lucius E. Ladd. 
, 1863. 

Aldermen— '^2iYd One, Justin M. Cooley; AA^ard Two, AVil- 
liam Patton ; Ward Three, AA^illiam K. Baker ; AA^ard Four, Dan- 
iel L. Harris ; Ward Five, AA^illiam Bodurtha ; AVard Six, Horace 
Smith ; Ward Seven, Virgil Perkins ; AVard Eight, Andrew J. 

Clerk— A. T. Folsom. 

Common Councilmen— VveaiAenX. N. A. Leonard ; Ward 
One, N. W. Talcott, George S. Haskell, Luther Clark ; AA^ard Two, 
0. H. Greenleaf, G. R. Townsley, John AVest; AA^ard Three, 
Aaron G. Lord, James M. Skiff, Francis S. Graves ; Ward Four, 
N. A. Leonard, A. L. Soule, Henrj- S. Lee ; AVard Five, Cheney 
Bigelow, George K. Charter (resigned), Charles Phelps, Orlando 
Chapin (resigned), AAalliam Collins; AVard Six, J. G. Chase; 
AVard Seven, C. P. L. AVarner; AVard Eight, Hiram Warner. 

CZerfc— Lucius E. Ladd. 


Aldermen— ^?iYd One, Norman AV. Talcott; Ward Two, 
AMlliam Patton; AA^ard Three, Albert D. Briggs; Ward Four, 
Frederick H. Harris ; Ward Five, Charles Barrows ; AVard Six, 

( 91 ) 


Warren H. AYilkinson; Ward Seven. Virgil Perkins: AVard 
Eight, Harvey E. IMoseley. 

Clerk— A. T. Folsom. 

Contnwn Councilmen—FreHident, N. A. Leonard; AVard 
One, Henry S. Hyde, John Mulligan, Charles H. Allen; AVard 
Two, 0. H. Greenleaf, G. R. Townsley, J. F. Tannatt: AA^ard 
Three. Charles A. A\"inchester, AA'. H. Smith, A. N. Merrick: 
AVard Four, N. A. Leonard, A. L. Sonle, Henry S. Lee: AA^ard 
Five, Charles Phelps, AA'illiam Collins, S. AA". Porter ; AVard Six. 
L. H. Taylor; AA^ard Seven, Peter A^alentine: AA^ard Eight, 
George Foster. 

Clerk— hucius E. Ladd. 


Alder me II —V\^i\yd One, Henry S. Hyde; AVard Two. George 
R. Townsley: AVard Three, Otis Childs; AA^ard Four, Frederick 
H. Harris: AA'ard Five. Charles Barrows: AVard Six, AA'arren H. 
AVilkinson ; AA'ard Seven, A'irgil Perkins ; AVard Eight, Andrew 
J. Plume r. 

Clerk— A. T. Folsom. 

Common C oniicilme n—VviSH\<lQ\\\.. Henry S. Lee: AVard One. 
John Mulligan. AA^ H. Allis. H. S. Noyes ; AVard Two, Gideon 
AVells. John Olmsted, J. F. Tannatt : AA' ard Three. AVilliam H. 
Smith. J. F. Tapley, H. N. Tinkham ; Ward Four, N. A. Leon- 
ard, Henry S. Lee, S. J. Hall : AVard Five, Charles Phelps, S. W. 
Porter, J. Q. A. Sexton ; AA^ard Six, Gustavus D. Tapley ; AA'ard 
Seven, Rawson Hathaway : AA^ard Eight, George Foster. 

Clerk — Lucius E. Ladd. 


Aldermen— \\iivd One. AA'illiam Pynchon; AA'ard Two, D. 
H. Brigham : AA'ard Three, Tim Henry ; Ward Four. F. H. Har- 
ris ; Ward Five. G. AV. Harrison; AA'ard Six. W. H. AA^ilkinson: 
NA'ard Seven, John G. Taylor (died), Rawson Hathaway: AVard 
Eight. John Severson. 

Clerk— A. T. Folsom. 

Common Co /r»<:'(7/>/e» — President, AA^illiam L. Smith; AA'ard 
One. J. H. Demond. AA^'arren Emerson, J. C. Mcintosh : AVard 
Two, Gideon AA>lls. H. M. Morehouse, George Dwight. jr. ; AVard 

( 92 ) 


Three, H. X. Tinkhani, William H. Smith, Joseph H. Damon 
Ward Four, D. B. Wesson, William L. Smith, W. S. Marsh 
Ward Five, Chailes Phelps, S. AV. Porter, Charles Chapman 
AVard Six, Gustavns D. Tapley; Ward Seven, John AI. Meggett 
Ward Eight, Sanmel INlills. 

Clerk— hncmn E. Ladd. 


Aldermen— Vyard One, John Mnlligan ; AYard Two, Tim 
Henry; AA^ard Three, H. N. Tinkham ; AYard Four, F. H. Harris; 
Ward Five, Sanmel AY. Porter ; AA'ard Six, Amos Call ; AA^ard 
Seven, Rawson Hathaway; AA'ard Eight, John Severson. 

Clcrk-X. T. Folsom. 

Common Councihnen — President, AYilliam L. Smith; AA^ard 
One. J. C. INIcIntosh, AVarren Emerson, J. H. Demond ; AA^ard 
Two, H. ]\I. IMorehonse, C. S. Hnrlbut, L. A. Tiift; AYard Three, 
Charles Marsh, H. K. AA^. Dickinson, P. S. Bailey ; AYard Four, 
AY. L. Smith, AY. S. Marsh, L. J. Powers; AYard Five, Charles 
Chapman, A. H. Clark, J. S. Brown : AYard Six, Charles A. Call; 
Ward Seven, E. AY. Clark ; AYard Eight, Samnel Mills. 

Clerk — Lucins E. Ladd. 


Aldermen— ^?iY(\. One, 3 o\\n jMnlligan; AYard Two, Tim 
Henry ; AYard Three, H. N. Tinkham ; AYard Fonr, AY. S. Marsh ; 
AA'ard Five, Samuel AY. Porter; AA^ard Six, Amos Call; AA^ard 
Seven, E. AY. Clark ; AYard Eight, ]\Iilo Chapin. 

Clerk- A. T. Folsom. 

Common Co» j)ri7»K'*/— President, Henry S. Lee; AA'ard One, 
AYarren Emerson, Josiah Bnmstead, Roswell Lee ; Ward Two, 0. 
H. Greenleaf, Charles R. Ladd, Lewis A. Tifft: AYard Three, E. 
H. Patch, A. J. Mcintosh, AYilliam H. Smith ; AA^ard Four, Henry 
S. Lee, E. G. Norton, M. A. Clyde ; AYard Five, Cyms E. Bnck- 
land, Alden AA^'arner, AA^illiam R. Purple ; AYard Six, George E. 
Howard; AA^ard Seven, Charles (lage ; AA^ard Eight, George Swet- 

CierA— Lucius E. Ladd. 


Aldermen— ^SiYd One, J. jNI. Cooley ; AA^ard Two, George 
Dwight; AYard Three. AAllliam H. Smith; AYard Four. AA\ S. 

( 93 ) 


Marsh; Ward Five, Joseph M. Hall; Ward Six, George E. How- 
ard; Ward Seven, Charles Gage; Ward Eight, Charles J. Good- 

Clerk— A. T. Folsora. 

Common Councilmcii — Fresident, Henry S. Lee; Ward One, 
George M. Atwater, Josiah Bumstead, John Olmsted ; Ward Two, 
Charles K. Ladd, 0. H. Greenleaf, C. C. Smith; AA^ard Three, 
A. J. Mcintosh, E. H. Patch, J. H. Appleton ; Ward Four, Henry 
S. Lee, E. G. Norton, L. J. Powers; Ward Five, Alden Warner. 
E. B. Haskell, AY. P. Taylor; AVard Six, I. P. Dickinson: AYard 
Seven, AVilliam H. Pinney; AYard Eight, George Swetland. 

Clerk— huciws E. Ladd. 


Aldermen— V^ard One, J. A. Rnmrill ; AYard Two, Eliphalet 
Trask: AYard Three, Dr. John Hooker: AYard Fonr, AYillis 
Phelps; AYard Five, Joseph M. Hall; AYard Six, I. P. Dickinson; 
AYard Seven, AYilliam H. Pinney; AVard Eight, George Foster. 

Clerk-A. T. Folsom. 

Common Councihnen — President, Henry S. Lee; AA^ard One, 
Albert Holt, A. D. Day, C. B. Holbrook ; Ward Two, George 
Dwight, jr., James S. Bourke, David Legro ; AYard Three, James 
E. Alelntire. George W. Tapley, George S. Lewis : AYard Four, 
Henry S. Lee, Gurdon Bill, S. R. Philips; AA^ard Five, Charles 
Phelps, AA^lliam B. Miller, T. B. AAllson : AYard Six, George E. 
Howard: AA'ard Seven. John A. Hall: AA^ard Eight. Alfred S. 

Clerk — Lucius E. Ladd. 


Aldermen— \\^nvd One, Josiah Bumstead: AYard Two, 
Charles R. Ladd; AYard Three, Lawson Sibley; AYard Four. 
James M. Thompson ; AYard Five, Richard F. Hawkins ; AYard 
Six, Isaac P. Dickinson : AYard Seven, John A. Hall ; AA'ard 
Eight, Noyes Bastow. 

Clerk-A]hert T. Folsom. 

Common Con iieilnie n —Frefiident. Henry S. Lee; AA'ard One, 
Albert Holt, P. AY. Brewster, F. J. Donahue ; AA^ard Two. Milton 
Bradley. Tilly Haynes. R. AYarren: AYard Three, B. C. English, 

( 94 ) 


S. B. Spooner, N. C. Newell; Ward Four, Henry S. Lee, Henry 
M. Phillips, E. A. Perkins ; Ward Five, T. B. Wilson, J. C. Perry. 
E. B. Maynard; Ward Six, George E. Howard; Ward Seven, J. 
W. Lull; Ward Eight, George Swetland. 

Ci^er/.-— Lucius E. Ladd. 


Aldennan—M' ard Two, Charles R. Ladd ; Ward Three, Wil- 
liam H. Smith ; Ward Four, Emerson Wight ; Ward Five, Joseph 
M. Hall R. F. Hawkins ; Ward Six, George E. Howard ; Ward 
Seven, AVilliam H. Pinney ; Ward Eight, Noyes Barstow. 

Clerk— Albert T. Folsom. 

Common Councilmen — President, M. P. Knowlton; Ward 
One, F. J. Donahue, L. H. Powers, N. W. Fisk; Ward Two, 0. 
H. Greenleaf, George W. Ray, Henry F. Trask: Ward Three. 
N. C. New^ell, Samuel Palmer, George M. Smith; Ward Four, E. 
A. Perkins, H. M. Phillips, V. N. Taylor; Ward Five, M. P. 
Knowlton, E. B. Maynard, P. H. M. Brooks; Ward Six, E. A. 
Newell ; Ward Seven. J. W. Lull ; Ward Eight, W. L. Converse. 

C^erA— Lucius E. Ladd. 


Aldermen— W&rd One, H. S. Hyde ; Ward Two, George W. 
Ray; Ward Three, E. H. Patch; Ward Four, Emerson Wight; 
Ward Five, R. F. Hawkins; Ward Six, George E. Howard; 
Ward Seven, L. A. Tifft ; Ward Eight, Noyes Barstow. 

CierA— Albert T. Folsom. 

Common Councilmen — President. M. P. Knowlton ; Ward 
One, Florence J. Donahue, Noyes W. Fisk, Albert Holt ; Ward 
Two, 0. H. Greenleaf, H. F. Trask. S. C. Warriner ; Ward Three, 
Joseph K. Newell, Charles M. Lee. Charles M. King; Ward Four. 
Varnum N. Taylor, E. A. Perkins, H. M. Phillips; Ward Five. 
M. P. Knowlton, J. D. McKnight. W. G. Chamberlain; Ward 
Six, E. A. Newell ; Ward Seven. B. F. Farrar : AYard Eight, John 

eZ^r/.-John A. Hall. 


Aldermav—Wsird One, Albert Holt; Ward Two, Hugh 
Donnelly : Ward Three, A. J. :MeIntosh : Ward Four. L. J. 

( 95 ) 


Powers; Ward Five, Albert W. Allen; Ward Six, I. P. Dickin- 
son : Ward Seven, J. W. Lull, AVard Eight, Henry C. Fuller. 

(7(r/,-— Albert T. Folsom. 

Common CoiiHcilmen— President, T. B. Wilson; Ward One, 

D. J. Curtis, Horace Wheeler. James A. Byrnes; Ward Two, L. 
B. Lillie, M. L. Tourtellotte, P. J. Ryan ; Ward Three, B. S. Has- 
kins, Charles A. King, August Sheppert ; Ward Four, J. H. Ap- 
pleton, Homer Foot, jr., D. J. ]\Iarsh; Ward Five, W. G. Cham- 
berlain, T. B. AYilson, Benjamin Hannis ; Ward Six, Daniel 
Schoonmaker; Ward Seven, E. W. Ladd ; Ward Eight, John 

Clerk-^. A. Newell. 


Aldermen— ^^avd One, Hinsdale Smith; Ward Two, D. H. 
Brigham ; AVard Three, F. H. Fuller ; AA^ard Four, L. J. Powers ; 
AVard Five, W. G. Chamberlain ; AA'ard Six, Amos Call ; AA^ard 
Seven, Rawson Hathaway ; AA'^ard Eight, H. K. AVight. 

Clerk— A. T. Folsom. 

Common Cotincilmen-Fvefiident, Henry S. Lee: AVard One, 
Horace AVlieeler, James A. Byrnes, N. AA^. Fisk ; AA^ard Two, S. 

E. Seymour, H. F. Trask, M. L. Tourtellotte; AVard Three, J. K. 
Newell, A. J. Plumer, J. K. AA'^inter ; AA^ard Four, Henry S. Lee, 
D. L. Harris, J. S. Carr; AVard Five, B. S. Haskins, Benjamin 
Hannis, E. S. Stacy; AVard Six, Daniel Schoonmaker; AA^ard 
Seven, E. P. Cook ; AA^ard Eight, D. P. AVoolson. 

Clerk— T^. A. Newell. 


Aldermen— Ward One, N. W. Talcott; AA^ard Two, George 
Dwight; AA^ard Three, J. K. Newell; AA^ard Four, Henry S. Lee; 
AA^ard Five, N. I. Hawley ; AA^ard Six, D. L. Swan ; AVard Seven, 
Rawson HathaAvay ; AA'^ard Eight, H. K. AA'^ight. 

Clerk— A. T. Folsom. 

Common Co?/»fi7r»r»— President, H. F. Trask: AA^ard One, 
John Mulligan, J. M. Cooley, J. J. IMoore ; AA^ard Two, ]\Iilton 
Bradley, H. F. Trask, M. L. Tourtellotte; AVard Three, H. N. 
Tinkham, J. F. Tapley, Elijah Nichols ; AA^ard Four. AV. S. Shurt- 
leff, D. L. Harris, J. S. Carr; AA^ard Five, H. AV. Phelps, Edwin 

( 96 ) 


McElwain, E. S. Stacy; Ward Six, R. R. McGregor; Ward 
Seven, Larkin Newell ; AVard Eight, Samuel F. Smith. 

Clerk— F,. A. Newell. 


Aldertnen— Ward One, John Olmsted ; AYard Two, George 
Dwight; AVard Three, J. F. Tapley; AA^ard Four, Henry S. Lee; 
Ward Five, N. I. Hawley (resigned), Benj. Hannis; AVard Six, 

Grace M. E. Church, Springfield 

D. L. Swan; Ward Seven, AV. H. Pinney; AA^ard Eight, H. K. 

O^er^-Albert T. Folsom. 

Common Councilmen — President, H. F. Trask ; AA'ard One, 
John Mulligan, N. AV. Fisk, L. H. Powers; AVard Two, H. F. 
Trask, AI. L. Tourtellotte, George E. Frink ; AVard Three, H. N. 
Tinkham, Elijah Nichols, George B. Smith ; AVard Four, Daniel 


( 97 ) 


L. Harris, William S. Shurtleff, J. K. Newell ; Ward Five, Ed- 
win McEhvain, John A. Hall, A. J. Wright; Ward Six, H. C. 
Puffer ; Ward Seven, E. AY. Ladd ; Ward Eight, Milo Chapin. 

Clerk— 'E. A. Newell. 


AMermeH— Ward One, John Olmsted; Ward Two, George 
Dwight; Ward Three, J. F. Tapley; Ward Four, Henry S. Lee; 
Ward Five, John A. Hall ; Ward Six, D. L. Swan ; Ward Seven, 
AV. H. Pinney ; AYard Eight, H. K. AAlght. 

C7erA;— Albert T. Folsom. 

Common Councilmen—Fresident, A. J. AYright ; AA'ard One, 
John Mulligan, L. H. Powers, E. Belding ; AYard Two, Dr. H. G. 
Stiekney, Dr. A. K. Kice, E. M. Bartlett ; AYard Three, Elijah 
Nichols, George B. Smith, J. E. Smith; AA'ard Four, AY. S. Shurt- 
leff, J. K. Newell, H. A. Gould ; AA^ard Five, A. J. AAMght, N. AY. 
Howard, S. L. Hodgdon; AA^ard Six, George R. Dickinson; AA^ard 
Seven, Edwin AA\ Ladd ; AA'ard Eight, F. M. Bardwell. 

Clerl—F,. A. Newell. 


Aldermen— \\^&vd One, John Olmsted; AA^ard Two, George 
Dwight : AA^ard Three, J. F. Tapley; AA'ard Four, George AA^ Tap- 
ley; AA^ard Five, Benjamin Hannis ; AA'ard Six, George R. Dickin- 
son; AA^ard Seven, E. AY. Ladd; AYard Eight, H. K. AAlght. 

Clerk— A. T. Folsom. 

Common CoimciUncn — President, J. R. Smith; AA^ard One, 
John Mulligan, E. Belding. J. AY. Baldwin ; AA'ard Two, E. H. 
Phelps, Horace Jacobs, F. A. Judd; AA^ard Three, J. R. Smith. 
Elijah Nichols. Frank E. AA^inter; AA^ard Four, Henry A. Gould, 
George B. Holbrook, C. J. Sanderson; AA'ard Five, N. AA". How- 
ard, S. L. Hodgdon, M. J. Chamberlain; AA'ard Six, E. M. Lom- 
bard: AA^ard Seven, Charles Taylor; AA^ard Eight, F. M. Bard- 

Clerk— E. A. Newell. 


Aldermen— V^^ard One, John Olmsted; AA^ard Two, S. C. 
AA'arriner; AA'ard Three, J. F. Tapley; AA'ard Four, George AA\ 

( 98 ) 


Tapley; AVard Five, Benjamin Haunis; "Ward Six, George R. 
Dickinson; Ward Seven, E. AV. Ladd; Ward Eight, H. K. Wight. 

Clerk-A. T. Folsom. 

Common Coiincilmen — President, Elijah Belding; Ward 
One, E. Belding, Ethan C. Robinson, Harlan P. Stone ; Ward 
Two, Fred A. Jndd, E. H. Yoimg, E. M. Bartlett; Ward Three, 
Elijah Nichols, Frank E. Winter, Emory Meekins, Ward Four, 
George B. Holbrook, Charles J. Sanderson, William H. Haile; 
Ward Five, Nathaniel AV. Howard, Sewall L. Hodgdon, James 
D. Gill ; Ward Six, Edward M. Lombard ; Ward Seven, Charles 
Taylor; Ward Eight, Frank M. Bardwell. 

Clerk— Y\. A. Newell. 


Aldermen — Ward One. Elijah Belding: Ward Two, Ste- 
phen E. Seymour; Ward Three, Elijah Nichols; Ward Four, 
Edward P. Chapin ; Ward Five, Oscar D. Adams ; Ward Six, 
Edward M. Lombard; Ward Seven, George Nye; Ward Eight, 
H. K. Wight. 

Clerk— A. T. Folsom. 

Common Couneilmen — President, Charles J. Sanderson; 
Ward One, Harlan P. Stone, Hoyt E. Howard, Henry J. Beebe ; 
AYard Two, Fred A. Judd, Edwin M. Bartlett, John Lobsitz; 
AVard Three, George P. Stebbins, Jacob C. Lutz, Simpson Clark ; 
AA^ard Four, Charles J. Sanderson, AAllliam B. AA'alker, Edmund 
P. Kendrick; AVard Five, James D. Gill, Henry Dana, James F. 
Brierly; AA^ard Six, Albert E. Foth : AVard Seven, AA'illiara C. 
Bemis; AA^ard Eight, George Foster. 

Clerk— ^. A. Newell. 


Aldermen— VCnrd One, Henrj' D. Carroll; AA'ard Two, Ste- 
phen E. Seymour; AVard Three, Elijah Nichols; AA'ard Four, 
Edward P. Chapin; AVard Five, Oscar D. Adams; AA'ard Six, 
Edward M. Lombard; AA^ard Seven, George Nye; AVard Eight, 
Davenport L. Fuller. 

Clerk— Albert T. Folsom. 

Common Conncilmen-FYe&ideni, Edmund P. Kendrick; 

AA^ard One, Harlan P. Stone, Henrv J. Beebe, Ethan C. Robin- 


( 99 ) 


son ; Ward Two, Fred A. Judd, Frank M. Bugbee, Frank E. Car- 
penter; Ward Three, Simpson Clark, Jacob C. Lutz, James D. 
Parsons; Ward Four, Edmund P. Kendrick, James C. Alden, 
Edward C. Rogers ; Ward Five, Henry Dana, Charles E, Dodge, 
Charles Fuller; Ward Six, George McGregory; Ward Seven, 
John S. Sanderson ; Ward Eight, Edward D. Chapman. 

Clerk— E. A. Newell. 


Aldermen— N\^ ard One, Harlan P. Stone; Ward Two, Fred 
A. Judd ; AVard Three, James Kirkham ; Ward Four, James C. 
Alden ; Ward Five, James D. Gill ; Ward Six, Charles A. Call ; 
Ward Seven, George Nye ; Ward Seven, John S. Sanderson. 

Clerk— A. T. Folsom. 

Common Councilmen — President, E. P. Kendrick; Ward 
One, Charles McKay, J. F. Callanan, John L. Knight; Ward 
Two, Frank E. Carpenter, Frank M. Bugbee, James A. Bill, jr. ; 
Ward Three, Jacob C. Lutz, Simpson Clark, W. F. Cook ; Ward 
Four, Edmund P. Kendrick, Edward C. Rogers, Thomas D. 
Lyon ; Ward Five, George H. Wells, James Kimball, Whiteman 
T. Steere ; Ward Six, Oscar S. Greenleaf ; Ward Seven, George 
W. Hall ; Ward Eight, John Rivers. 

Clerk— E. A. Newell. 


Aldermen — AVard Two, Andrew Y. Beach ; Ward Three, 
Jacob C. Lutz; Ward Four, George W, Tapley; Ward Five, 
Henry M. Brewster; W^ard Six, Charles A. Call; Ward Seven, 
George Nye, John S. Sanderson ; AA^ard Eight, Davenport L. Ful- 

Clerk— A. T. Folsom. 

Common Councilmen— Vve^ident, Edward C. Rogers; AVard 
One, Henry L. AA'hitcomb, John L. Knight, Patrick C. O'Con- 
nor; Ward Two, Hosea C. Lombard, James A. Bill, jr., James N, 
Dodge ; Ward Three, Simpson Clark, George F. Clark, James S. 
Adams; Ward Four, Edward C. Rogers, Charles L. Long, 
Thomas D. Lyon ; AVard five, George H. AVells, James Kimball, 
J. H. Hendriek ; AA^ard Six, Oscar S. Greenleaf ; AVard Seven, 
George AV. Hall ; AA^ard Eight, John Rivers. 

Clerk— E. A. Newell. 

( 100 ) 



Aldermen— ^2ivdi One, John L. Knight; Ward Two, An- 
drew Y. Beach ; Ward Three, Jacob C. Lutz ; Ward Four, Daniel 
P. Crocker; AYard Five, Charles Taylor; Ward Six, Charles A, 
Call ; Ward Seven, John S. Sanderson ; AYard Eight, George W. 

Clerk— K. T. Folsom. 

Common Councilmen — President, Charles L, Long; Ward 
One, George E. Frink, James F. Bidwell, Henry M. Castle ; Ward 
Two, James A. Bill, jr., Hosea C. Lombard, Edwin F. Lyford; 
Ward Three, Edgar C. Whittemore, Richard D. Whitney, John 
H. Clune ; Ward Four, Henry H. Bowman, Charles L. Long, Al- 
fred N. Mayo ; AYard Five, George H. AVells, Joel H. Hendrick, 
James Kimball ; Ward Six, Oscar S. Greenleaf ; Ward Seven, 
Richard W. Pinney; Ward Eight, Horatio E. D. Green. 

Clerk— E. A. Newell. 


Aldermen — President, Andrew Y. Beach; Ward One, James 
F. Bidwell ; AVard Two, Andrew Y. Beach ; AVard Three, George 
B. Holbrook ; Ward Four, George AY. Tapley ; AA^'ard Five, Joel 
H. Hendrick ; AA^ard Six. AA^alter H. AA^esson ; AA^ard Seven, Rich- 
ard AY. Pinney; AVard Eight, George AA^. INIiller. 

Clerk— A. T. Folsom. 

Common Councilmen — President, Charles L. Long; AA'ard 
One, George E. Frink, Charles A. Fisk, R. Hale Smith; AA^ard 
Two, James A. Bill, jr., Edwin F. Lyford, Samuel J. AA^hyte; 
AA^'ard Three, John H. Clune, Claudius C. Margerum, AYilliam F. 
Callender ; AA'ard Four, Charles L. Long, Henry H. Bowman, Al- 
fred X. Alayo ; AVard Five, Thomas S. Stewart, Edward S. Brad- 
ford, Marcus M. Kendall ; AVard Six, AAllliam L. Dickinson ; 
AVard Seven, George AV. Hall ; AA'ard Eight, Horatio E. D. Green. 

Clerk— E. A. Newell. 


Alderman— Frenideni, James F. Bidwell; AA^ard One, James 
F. Bidwell ; AVard Two, Frank M. Bugbee ; AA^ard Three, AAllliam 
F. Callender; AA^ard Four, William H. AA'right; AVard Five, 

( 101 ) 


Sherman D. Porter; AVard Six, William L. Dickinson; Ward 
Seven, Kichard AY. Pinney ; AA^ard Eight, John Rivers. 

67er/v— Albert T. Folsom. 

Common Councilmen—Fvesident, Henry H. Bowman; 
AVard One, Frederick H. Stebbins, John Dollan, Frank C. Leon- 
ard; AVard Two, Frank S. Crane, James A. Bill, jr., Newrie D. 
AVinter; AA^ard Three, Clandins C. Margerum, James E. Dun- 
leavy, Howard N. Newell ; AA'ard Four, Henry H. Bowman, AVil- 
liam AA". More, Charles E. Brown ; AA^ard Five, Edward S. Brad- 
ford, Marcus 1\I. Kendall, AA'illiam C. Newell ; AVard Six, Edward 
J. Flannery; AYard Seven, Landomer E. Pease; AYard Eight, 
James H. Morley. 

Clerk-1^. A. Newell. 


Aldermen—President, Frank AI. Bugbee ; AYard One, John 
C. Mcintosh ; AA^ard Two, Frank M. Bugbee ; AYard Three, Law- 
son Sibley; AVard Four, AA^illiam H. AY right; AYard Five, Sher- 
man D. Porter; AYard Six, AA'illiam L. Dickinson; AYard Seven, 
Richard AY. Pinney; AYard Eight, John Rivers. 

Clerk— 'E. A. Newell. 

Common Councilmen — President, Newrie D. AVinter; AYard 
One, Frederick H. Stebbins, Frank C. Leonard, George AY, 
Turner; AA^ard Two, Newrie D. AVinter, Charles C. Parkhurst, 
Edward F. Tower ; Ward Three, James E. Dunleavy, Frederick 
S. Newman, Leonard Schadt ; AYard Four, AVilliam W. More, 
Charles E. Brown, George Leonard ; AA^ard Five, Edward S. 
Bradford, Marcus M. Kendall, James AY. Anderson ; AYard Six, 
Edward J. Flannery ; AYard Seven, Charles E. Ladd ; AYard 
Eight, E. A. Grise. 

Clerk— Tom Fitzgibbon. 


Aldermen— Preaident, John C. Alclntosh ; AA^ard One, John 
C. Alclntosh; AVard Two, Charles C. Parkhurst; AA^ard Three, 
Herbert C. Puffer; AVard Four, John A. Alurphy; AYard Five, 
John AIcFethries ; AVard Six, Henry S. Dickinson ; AVard Seven, 
George AY. Hall : AA^ard Eight, Orson Moulton. 

Clcrk-Y^. A. Newell. 

( 10-2 ) 


Common Cointcibne n — Fre&ident, George Leonard; "Ward 
One, George AY. Turner, Leroy Z Cutler, AYilliam F. Ray; AVard 
Two, AA'aldo R. Forester, Francke AY. Dickinson, Dr. George E. 
Foster; AA^ard Three, Leonard Scliadt, Jacob G. Lutz, John P. 
Gasman ; AYard Four, AA^illiam AA^. More, George Leonard, 
Charles A^an Vlack; AA^ard Five, Milan AA". Bull, Ruel R. Nicker- 
son, Thomas H. Benton ; A\"ard Six, Cornelius AY. Phillips ; AYard 
Seven, Charles E. Ladd ; AA'ard Eight, Loren AA". King. 

Clerk— Andrew 0. ]\IcGarrett. 


Aldermen— 'Pvesident, Henry S. Dickinson ; AA^ard One, 
George AY. Turner; AA'ard Two, Charles C. Parkhurst ; AYard 
Three, George B. Holbrook; AA'ard Four, John A. Murphy; 
AA'ard Five, Edmund P. Kendriek; AYard Six, Henry S. Dick- 
inson ; AA'ard Seven, George AA". Hall ; AYard Eight, Orrin E. Til- 
" Clerk-E. A. Newell. 

Common Councilmen — President, George Leonard; AA'ard 
One, Leroy Z. Cutler, AA'illiam F. Ray, Louis C. Hyde ; AA'ard 
Two, Francke AY. Dickinson, George D. Fisk, John B. King; 
AYard Three, John P. Gasman, Arthur A. Couch, George J. 
Seuss ; AA'ard Four, George Leonard, Charles Van Vlack, Fred- 
erick H. Gillett ; AYard Five, Milan A\' . Bull, George H. Clark, 
George H. Kemater ; AYard Six, Cornelius AY. Phillips ; AA'ard 
Seven, Benjamin C. Harvey; AA'ard Eight, Charles E. Jennings. 

CZerA;— Andrew 0. McGarrett. 


Aldermen — President, John A. Alurphy ; AA'ard One, Louis 
C. Hyde : AA'ard Two, Charles C. Parkhurst ; AA^ard Three, George 
B. Holbrook; AYard Four, John A. Murphy; AYard Five, Ed- 
ward H. Lathrop ; AA'ard Six, Frederick Harris ; AA^ard Seven, 
Benjamin C. Harvey; AA'ard Eight, Orrin E. Tilley. 

Clerk— 'E. A. Xewell. 

Common Councilmen — 'President, Francke AA^. Dickinson; 
AA'ard One, Henry E. Marsh. John McDonald, Charles H. Mulli- 
gan ; AA'ard Two, Francke AA'. Dickinson, John B. King, Dwight 
O. Gilmore ; AA'ard Three, George J. Seuss, Charles AY. Turk, 

( 103 ) 


Jeremiah F. Mahoney; Ward Four, Charles Van Vlack, W. F. 
Adams, James D. Norton ; AVard Five, Milan W. Bull, Georo^e 
H. Clark, George H. Kemater; AYard Six, George M. Stebbins; 
Ward Seven, Thomas A. Holland ; Ward Eight, Charles E. Jen- 

C7erA— Andrew 0. McGarrett. 


Aldermen— 'President, Frederick Harris; Ward One, Louis 
C. Hyde ; Ward Two, Frank E. Carpenter ; Ward Three, Claud- 
ius C. Margerum; Ward Four, Charles M. Mather; Ward Five, 
Samuel D. Sherwood; Ward Six, Frederick Harris; Ward Seven, 
Benjamin C. Harvey ; AVard Eight, Leonard B. Richardson. 

CkrA-— Elijah A. Newell. 

Common Cotincilmen — President, James D. Norton; Ward 
One, William P. Hayes, Charles H. Mulligan, Henry W. Sex- 
ton; Ward Two, Edwin A. Carter, DAvight 0. Gilmore, James J. 
Sullivan ; Ward Three, George J. Seuss, Jeremiah F. Mahoney, 
John Sharrocks; Ward Four, W. F. Adams, James D. Norton, 
Charles E. Stickney; Ward Five, William M. Gray, William A. 
Harris, Stillman L. Tuttle; Ward Six, George M. Stebbins; 
Ward Seven, Thomas A. Holland; Ward Eight, Henry A. Bra- 

Clerk— Andrew 0. McGarrett (resigned)— Wm. E. Gilbert. 


A^denne^i— President, George Nye; AYard One, Olin H. 
Smith ; AYard Two, Dwight O. Gilmore ; AYard Three, Claudius 
C. Margerum ; AYard Four, Henry H. Bowman ; AA'ard Five, 
George Nye; AYard Six, Nathan D. Bill; AA^ard Seven, Benjamin 
C. Harvey; AA^ard Eight, Leonard B. Richardson. 

CierA;— Elijah A. Newell. 

Common Councilmen — President, James D. Norton; AYard 
One, AYilliam P. Hayes, Charles H. Mulligan, AA^inford N. Cald- 
well; AYard Two, AYalter G. Morse, Charles AA^ Perkins, George 
B. Rathbun; AYard Three, Harry P. Elsey, George F. Sessions, 
Charles AYorkheiser ; AYard Four, AA", F. Adams, James D. Nor- 
ton, Charles E. Stickney; AYard Five, AYilliam A. Harris, Edwin 

( 104 ) 


S. Field, Frederick B. Miller; Ward Six, Eugene Young; Ward 
Seven, William H. Gage ; Ward Eight, Merrill E. Streeter. 

C7erA— AYilliam E. Gilbert. 


Ak/(?r/>(<?7(— President, Henry H. Bowman; AVard One, Olin 
H. Smith ; Ward Two, Dwight 0. Gilmore ; Ward Three, Gus- 
tave Remkus ; Ward Four, Henry H. Bowman ; Ward Five, 
George A. Russell; Ward Six, Claudius C. Margerum: AVard 
Seven, Daniel AV. AVare : AA^ard Eight, Merrill E. Streeter. 

Clerk— Y:.. a. Newell. 

Common Councilmen— 'President, George P. Sessions; AA'ard 
One, AVilliam C. Hayes, Charles L. Burr, George F. Fuller; 
Ward Two, Maurice P. Cavanaugh, Charles AA^. Perkins, Frank 
H. Elwell; AA'ard Three, Harry P. Elsey, George F. Sessions, 
Robert A. Grant ; AVard Four, Howard A. Gibbs, Robert A. 
Knight, Paul R. Hawkins; AA^ard Five, Edwin S. Field, Fred- 
erick B. INIiller, Fred C. AA^right: AA^nrd Six, Edward C. Hamil- 
ton ; AYard Seven, AVilliam S. Bemis ; AA'ard Eight, Philip C. Sul- 

C/erA--AYilliam E. Gilbert. 


Aldermen— 'President, George A. Russell: AYard One, 
George F. Fuller-. AYard Two, Albert E. Foth : AA^ard Three, Gus- 
tave Remkus ; AA'ard Four, Henry L. Gaylord ; AYard Five, 
George A. Russell; AA^ard Six, AYalter P. Goodenough; AA^ard 
Seven, Daniel AA\ AA^are; AA^ard Eight, IMerrill E. Streeter. 

Clerk— 'B. A. Newell. 

Common Councilmen — President, Robert A. Knight; AA'ard 
One. Charles L. Burr, Lewis D. Robinson, AA^illard F. Tripp ; 
AYard Two, ]\Iaurice P. Cavanaugh, Frank H. Elwell, Charles D. 
Rathbun ; Ward Three, Adin AY. Bangs, Robert A. Grant, George 
AY. D. Upton ; AA^ard Four, Howard A. Gibbs, Paul R. Hawkins, 
Robert A. Knight; AYard Five, Albert P. Casey, Augustus A. 
Howard, Frederick B. Miller ; AA^ard Six, Edward C. Hamilton ; 
AA^ard Seven, Charles E. Ladd ; AYard Eight, John R. Reed. 

67c}7.-— AAlUiam E. Gilbert. 

( 105 ) 



Aldermen— Fresident, Henry S. Dickinson ; Ward One^ 
Charles L. Burr ; Ward Two, Dwight 0. Gilmore ; AVard Three, 
George J. Senss ; Ward Four, Henry S. Dickinson ; Ward Five, 
Charles H. Parsons; Ward Six, Charles Rogers; Ward Seven, 
Charles E. Ladd ; Ward Eight, Octave A. La Riviere. 

Clerk— F,. A. Newell. 

Common Counciimen— 'President, ^Maurice P. Cavanaugh ; 
Ward One, Frank H. Bills, William J. McCann, Willard F. 
Tripp; AYard Two, Maurice P. Cavanaugh, Harry C. Collins, 
Charles T. Winchester; Ward Three, Henry D. Marsh, Frank D. 
Quilty, George AV. D. Upton ; AVard Four, Ralph W. Ellis, Zera 
AA^ Smith, Fred H. Sturtevant ; AVard Five, Frank AA^ Barker, 
Augustus A. Howard, Edward R. Lee ; AA^ard Six, Frank D. 
Kemp ; AA^ard Seven, AVilliam AV. Bartlett ; AVard Eight, Charles^ 
0. Churchill. 

Cie>7v— AA^illiam E. Gilbert. 


Aldcr)nen—FTeddent, Dwight 0. Gilmore; AA^ard One, AVil- 
lard F. Tripp; AVard Two, Charles H. Mulligan; AA^ard Three, 
Dwight 0. Gilmore; AVard Four, Ralph AV. Ellis; AA^ard Five, 
Charles C. Lewis ; AA'ard Six, Edward C. Hamilton ; AA^ard Seven, 
Charles E. Brown ; AVard Eight, Homer D. Packard. 

Clerk-'E. A. Newell. 

Common Councihnen — President, Frank AV. Barker; AA^ard 
One, Orville A. Dodge, Lewis D. Robinson; AA^ard Two, Luke J. 
Coogan, Henry D. Shaw, Harry J. Vesper ; AVard Three, Charles 
H. Dunham, Frank H. Elwell; AA^ard Four, Lewis F. Carr, 
Charles E. Newell ; AVard Five, Frank AV. Barker, Stanford L. 
Haynes ; AA'ard Six, Fred A. Bearse, Dennis Casey, jr. ; AVard 
Seven, George A. Bacon, AVilliam AA^. Bartlett ; AVard Eight, 
Charles 0. Churchill, Alexander C. Alethven, Fordis C. Parker. 

CZer^-AVilliam E. Gilbert. 


J.Zf7erwicn— President, Dwight 0. Gilmore ; AA'ard One, Lewis 
D. Robinson ; Ward Two, Charles H. Alulligan : AA^'ard Three, 
Dwight 0. Gilmore; AA'ard Four, Ralph AV. Ellis; AVard Five, 

( 106 ) 


Charles C. Lewis ; Ward Six, Edward C. Hamilton ; AVard Seven^ 
Charles E. Brown ; AVard Eight, Homer D. Packard. 

Clerk-E. A. Newell. 

Common CoM7«Ci7w«e?i— President, Fordis C. Parker ; "Ward 
One, Orville A. Dodge, Franklin A. Latimer, jr. ; Ward Two, 
Lnke J. Coogan, Matthew R. Alansfield, AYilliam A. Strange ; 
Ward Three, Edward T. Davis, Harry H. Parkhurst; AVard 
Fonr, Lewis F. Carr, Charles E. Newell ; AYard Five, Fordis C. 
Parker, Stanford L. Haynes ; AA'ard Six, Fred A. Bearse, Samnel 
Jones ; AYard Seven, r4eorge A. Bacon, Seth J. Buckland ; AA^ard 
Eight, Albert E. AY. Drake, Alexander C. Alethven, AAalliam F. 

CZerA;-AYilliam E. Gilbert. 


Aldermen— 'Pre&ident, Charles H. Alulligan ; AYard One, 
Franklin A. Latimer, jr. ; AA^ard Two, Charles H. Mulligan ; 
AA^ard Three, Frank H. Elwell ; AA\ard Fonr, Edwin A. Blodgett ; 
AA^'ard Five, Fordis C. Parker ; AYard Six, Fred A. Bearse ; AA^ard 
Seven, Jnlins F. Carman ; AA^ard Eight, Alexander C. Methven. 

Clerk-B. A. Newell. 

Common Councilmen — President, Fred 0. Clapp ; AYard 
One, Fred 0. Clapp, Edwin B. AA^oodin; AYard Two, Lnke J. 
Coogan, Patrick J. AlcCarty, Patrick J. Mitchell; AYard Three,. 
Clottlieb Baer, George AA^. D. Upton; AA^'ard Four, Lincoln C. 
Haynes, AYilliam AY. Tapley; AA^ard Five, Theodore F. Dwight, 
Charles A. AA^right; AYard Six, Frederick S. Ladd, George Smith; 
AA^ard Seven, Albert G. Bennett, jr., Seth J. Buckland; AYard 
Eight, Albert E. AY. Drake, AYilliam F. Mundell, AYoodward E. 

OZer^•-AYilliam E. Gilbert. 


AZfZcnnew— President, Edwin A. Blodgett; AYard One, Fred 
0. Clapp ; AYard Two, Henry AY. Fitch ; AYard Three, Frank H. 
Elwell ; Ward Four, Edwin A. Blodgett ; Ward Five, Fordis C. 
Parker ; Ward Six, Fred A. Bearse ; AYard Seven, Julius F. Car- 
man ; Ward Eight, Alexander C. Methven. 

Clerk— 11. A. Newell. 

( 107 ) 


Common Councilmen—Fvesident, Albert G. Bennett, jr. ; 
Ward One, Clifford P. Kibbe, William E. Sanderson ; Ward Two, 
Patrick J. Mitchell, James E. Dunn, John M. Sullivan; Ward 
Three, George AV. D. Upton, Napoleon L. Byron; Ward Four, 
William W.Tapley; F.Winthrop Edwards; Ward Five, Theodore 
F. Dwight, George Nye, jr. ; Ward Six, George Smith, Eugene 
M. Tinkham; Ward Seven, Albert G. Bennett, jr., William A. 
Newton; Ward Eight, William F. Mundell, Oliver E. Hines, 
Everett E. Stone. 

CifrA— William E. Gilbert (resigned), H. S. Gilbert. 


Aldermen— Fresident, Fred 0. Clapp ; Ward One, Fred 0. 
Clapp; Ward Two, Henry W. Fitch; Ward Three, Henry D. 
Marsh ; Ward Four, AVilliam W. Tapley ; AVard Five, Henry H. 
Bosworth ; Ward Six, Frank D. Kemp : Ward Seven, Albert G. 
Bennett, jr. ; Ward Eight, Edward J. Murphy. 

Clerk— 'Ei. A. Newell. 

Common Councihnen— President, Everett E. Stone; Ward 
One, Clifford P. Kibbe, William E. Sanderson ; Ward Two, Pat- 
rick J. Mitchell, James E. Dunn, Patrick J. Delaney; Ward 
Three, George H. McClean, William W. Warren ; Ward Four, F. 
Winthrop Edwards, Henry P. Norris ; Ward Five, George Nye, 
jr., Calvin S. AYhitcomb ; AVard Six, Eugene M. Tinkham, John 
J. Hamilton ; AVard Seven, William A. Newton, Henry G. Cha- 
pin ; Ward Eight, Oliver E. Hines, Everett E. Stone, AVilliam T. 

Clerk-H. S. Gilbert. 

Presidents of Common Council — Henry Morris, 1852-53, 
resigned May 16, 1853, and AA'illiam Stowe chosen ; Samuel S. 
Day, 1854 ; John M. Stebbins, 1855 ; James Kirkham, 1856 ; 
George Walker, 1857 ; John K. Hixon, 1858 ; A. N. Merrick, 1859 ; 
Nehemiah A. Leonard, 1860-64; Henry S. Lee, 1865; AVilliam 
L. Smith, 1866-67 ; Henry S. Lee, 1868-71 : Marcus P. Knowlton, 
1872-73 ; T. B. AVilson, 1874 ; Henry S. Lee, 1875 ; H. F. Trask, 
1876-77 ; A. J. AA^right, 1878 ; J. R. Smith, 1879 ; Elijah Belding, 
1880 : Charles J. Sanderson, 1881 ; Edmund P. Kendrick, 1882- 
83 ; Edward C. Eogers. 1884 : Charles L. Long, 1885-86 ; Henry 

( 108 ) 


H. Bo^vn]an, 1887; Newrie D. Winter, 1888; George Leonard, 
1889-90 ; Francke W. Dickinson, 1891 ; James D. Norton, 1892- 
93 ; George F. Sessions, 1894 ; Robert A. Knight, 1895 ; Maurice 
P. Cavanaugh, 1896 ; Frank W. Barker, 1897 ; Fordis C. Parker, 
1898 ; Fred 0. Clapp, 1899 ; Albert G. Bennett, jr., 1900 ; Everett 
E. Stone, 1901. 

1852— John B. Kirkhani, Harvey Chapin, E. A. Morris. 

1853— E. A. Mori'is, Saiinipl ^NTcNary, Roderick Ashley. 



Old Unitarian Church, Springfield 

1854— E. A. Morris, Harvey Banks, Horace Kibbe. 

1855— Walter H. Bowdoin, Robert Crossett, John B. Kirk- 

1856— Edward A. jMorris, Jolm B. Kirkham, Roderick Ash- 

1857— J. B. M. Stebbins, Roderick Ashley, Henry Smith. 
1858-59— Henry Smith, Horace Ashley, Horace C. Lee. 
1860— Henry Smith, Francis Norton, David A. Adams. 
1861— Roderick Ashley, Francis Norton, David A. Adams. 
1862— Francis Norton, David A. Adams, Otis Childs. 

( 109 ) 


1863— Henry Smith, W. C. Sturtevant, Francis Norton. 

1864— Titus Aniadon, H. S. Noyes, Edwin Booth. 

1865— Francis Norton, AY. C. Sturtevant, Titus Amadon. 

1866— Francis Norton, H. S. Noyes, Titus Amadon. 

1867— Francis Norton, H. S. Noyes, G. D. Tapley. 

1868— Francis Norton, Otis Childs, E. B. Haskell. 

1869-70— Francis Norton, D, A. Adams. J. G. Capron, 

1871— D. A. Adams, J. G. Capron, T. M. Dewey. 

1872— D. A. Adams, J. G. Capron, George Dillingham. 

1873-76— Francis Norton, J. G. Capron, H. G. Shaw. 

1877-81— Francis Norton, J. G. Capron, George S. Lewis. 

1882-83— Francis Norton, J. G. Capron, Albert H. Kirkham. 

1884— J. G. Capron, Albert H. Kirkham. 

1885-88— Albert H. Kirkham, George B. Smith, John J. 

1889-94— George B. Smith, John J. Leonard, Marcus Hough- 

1895-1901— George B. Smith, John J. Leonard, Frank S. 
•Overseers of tlie Poor} 

1852— Elijah Blake, Edwin Booth, "William Pynchon. 

1853— Elijah Blake, Edwin Booth, Tyler Childs. 

1854— J. C. Stebbins, Edwin Booth, S. C. Bemis. 

1855— Elijah Blake, Henry Collins, Tyler Childs. 

1856— Elijah Blake, Henry Gray, Edward Savage. 

1857-58-Elijah Blake, Henry Gray, R. T. Safford. 

1859— Elijah Blake, Henry Gray, G. W. Harrison. 

I860— AY. C. Sturtevant, Tyler Childs, Edwin Booth. 

1861— H. S. Noyes, Marvin Chapin. Edwin Booth. 

1862 — Marvin Chapin, George C. Fisk, Edwin Booth. 

1863-64— David A. Adams, Marvin Chapin, Luke H. Pease. 

1865— ]\L^rvin Chapin, Luke H. Pease, Edwin Booth. 

1866 — Luke H. Pease, Thomas H. Allen, Titus Amadon. 

1867— Luke H. Pease, Thomas H. Allen, H. S. Noyes. 

1868— J. H. Demond, Thomas H. Allen, Luke H. Pease. 

1869— Luke H. Pease, David A. Adams, D. J. Bartlett. 

'The mayor is an ex-officio member of this board. 
( 110 ) 


1870— D. A. Adams, Tyler Childs Josiah Bumstead. 

1871— D. A. Adams, J. H. Demond, D. J. Bartlett. 

1872-D. A. Adams, D. J. Bartlett, C. C. Smith. 

1873— D. J. Bartlett, C. C. Smith, Varnum N. Taylor 2d. 

1874-76— D. J. Barlett, C. C. Smith, James Burke. 

1877-D. J. Bartlett, C. C. Smith, C. L. Covell. 

1878- D. J. Bartlett, C. L. Covell, James H. Lewis. 

1879-80— C. L. Covell, James H. Lewis, J. Q. A. Sexton, Dr. 
David Clark. 

1881— C. L. Covell, James H. Lewis, J. Q. A. Sexton,. Dr. 
David Clark. 

1882-C. L. Covell, James H. Lewis, F. A. Burt, Dr. A. R. 

1883-James H. Lewis, F. A. Burt, Dr. A. R. Rice, C. C. 

1884— F. A. Burt, Dr. A. R. Rice, C. C. Smith, James F. 

1885-87— Dr. A. R. Rice, C. C. Smith, James F. Brierly, Dr. 
C. C. Chatfee. 

1888-Dr. A. R. Rice, C. C. Smith, James F. Brierly, C. C. 

1889-91-Dr. Walter H. Chapin, C. C. Smith, James F. 
Brierly. C. C. Merritt. 

1892-94-Dr. Walter H. Chapin, C. C. Parkhurst, James F. 
Brierly. C. C. Merritt. 

1895— Dr. Walter H. Chapin, C. C. Smith, James F. Brierly, 
C. C. Merritt. 

1896-Dr. Walter H. Chapin, C. C. Smith, Edward A. Hall, 
C. C. iNIerritt. 

1897-98-Dr. Walter H. Chapin, C. C. Smith, Edward A. 
Hall, James H. Lewis. 

1899-1900-Dr. Walter H. Chapin, C. C. Smith, Edwin S. 
Stacy, James H. Lewis. 

1901-Dr. Simeon J. Russell, C. C. Smith, Edwin S. Stacy, 
Charles C. Lewis. 

City Physicians-H. G. W. English, 1855; A. S. M'Clean, 
1856-59 ; J. M. Foster, 1860-61 ; William G. Breck, 1862 ; J. M. 

( 111 ) 


Foster, 1863 ; H. G. Stickney, 1864-67 ; George S. Stebbins, 1868 ; 
H. G. Stickney, 1869 ; A. K. Rice, 1870 ; Charles P. Kemp, 1871 ; 
Sarah J. Williams, 1872; P. LeB. Stickney, 1873; A. R. Rice, 
1874; John Hooker, 1875; David Clark, 1876-81; A. R. Rice, 
1882-88 ; AYalter H. Chapin, 1889-1900 ; Simeon J. Russell, 1901. 

City Engineers— J. R. Smith, 1864-67 ; William B. Harris, 
1868-69 ; T. A. Curtis, 1870 ; Stockwell Bettes, 1871-73 ; George 
A. Ellis, 1874-86 ; Charles M. Sloeiim, 1887-1901. 

Superintendents of Almshouse— Z. F. Chadwick, 1886-87; 
Lyman W. Sexton, 1888-1901. 

City Solicitors— YidmvinA P. Kendrick, 1895 ; Edward H. 
Lathrop, 1896-99 ; William G. McKechnie, 1900-1901. 

Superintendents of Streets— Harvey Chapin, 1857-58 ; Jus- 
tin Sackett, 1859-67 ; John Q. A. Sexton, 1868-73 ; Michael Roane, 
1874-75; Theodore Sprague, 1876; Henry D. Foss, 1877-88; 
William L. Dickinson, 1889-99 ; Arthur A. Adams, 1900-1901. 

City 3Iarshals— David A. Adams, 1852-53 ; Sylvester 
Churchill, 1854 ; L. P. Rowland, 1855 ; Sylvester Churchill, 1856 ; 
George Ensworth, 1857; Wells P. Hodgett, 1858; Otis Childs, 
1859-60 ; A. W. Lamb, 1861 ; L. H. Pease, 1862 ; Henry Clark, 
1863-64 (resigned) ; Luke H. Pease, 1864-70; John M. Meggett, 
1871; Luke H. Pease, 1872-75; Hiram Q. Sanderson, 1876-77; 
E. C. Pettis, 1878 ; W. H. H. Blair, 1879-81 ; John L. Rice, 1882 ; 
Robert J. Hamilton, 1883-85 ; E. C. Pettis, 1886 ; John H. Clune, 
1887-88 ; F. G. Southmayd, 1889-91 ; John L. Rice, 1892-94 ; Joel 
H. Hendrick, 1895 ; Alfred M. Copeland, 1896 ; Henry McDonald, 
1897-1900; George M. Stebbins, 1901. 
License Commissioners. 

1896— George E. Frink, Frank E. Carpenter, George B. 

1897— George E. Frink, William F. Cook, George B. Hol- 

1898-99-William F. Cook, Geo. B. Holbrook, Robt. W. Day. 

1900— William F. Cook, William C. Hayes, Robert W. Day. 

1901-William F. Cook, William C. Hayes, Charles H. Beck- 

( 112 ) 


City Messengers— H. D. Braman, 1852-53 ; Sylvester 
Clnu-chill, 1854 ; L. P. Rowland, 1855 ; Wells P. Hodgett, 1856- 
58 ; John K. Gardner, 1859 ; Eodolphns Kinsley, 1860 ; John K, 
Gardner, 1861-62; DAvight Clark, 1863; J. D. Bigelow, 1864-81; 
George S. AYarriner, 1882-98 ; Stephen P. Burns, 1899-1901. 



From the time of planting the colony at Agawam, in 1636, 
to the beginning of the twentieth century the inhabitants of 
Springfield have given careful and generous consideration to the 
education of the youth of the town and subsequent city. In the 
days of the plantation the settled minister of the parish was 
looked upon as the schoolmaster and teaching the youth was 
almost as much a part of his duty as that of guarding the spirit- 
ual welfare of his flock. In 1641 the selectmen ordered that all 
the children of the settlement be taught to read and learn the 
catechism, and that with primer study and spelling and writing 
comprised the course of study available to the progeny of our 
earliest ancestors in Springfield. In 1667 a schoolmaster was 
employed, and received for his services three pence per week for 
each child who was taught reading, and four pence if writing was 
added. In 1668 the town hired one David Denton to teach the 
school, at a salary of 20 pounds per year, the school being kept 
in the toM'er of the meeting house. As the settlement increased 
it was customary to hire a room in the houses of several of the 
inhabitants, Avhere rudimentary instruction was given by the 
good housewife to the children of the neighborhood. These were 
the "dame schools" of the period. 

In 1679 a school house was built in "the lane going to the 
upper wharf," or in what now is Cypress street, between Main 
street and the river. Thomas Stebbins, jr., undertook the erec- 

8-3 ( 113 ) 


tion of the building, at the price of 14 pounds, but the records 
state that if it be found that the builder "have a hard bargain" 
he is to have 10 shillings more from the town. In 1685 an order 
was adopted compelling attendance at school by all children be- 
tween the ages of five and nine years, living between "Round 
hill" and Mill river, under penalty of two pence per week for 
the space of half a year, to be paid by the parents neglecting to 
comply with the order. Then tuition rates were paj'able in wood, 
grain or money, at the choice of the person indebted to the town ; 
and as late as 1709, when John Sherman taught the grammar 
school the agreement was that his salary of 40 pounds should be 
payable in "pease, rye, Indian corn and barley" at the town 
(market) price. 

The educational system of the town previous to 1700 was 
crude and immature and while substantial advances were made 
and many good schools were established during the next hun- 
dred years the real march of progress in the direction of higher 
education was not begun until after the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century. About 1717 the town was divided into precincts 
and provision was made for a school in each. Later on, after 
the town was reduced in area by other town formations, schools 
were established and maintained with some degree of regularity. 
Grammar schools also were supported, usually one in each town, 
according to the requirements of law, but the grammar schools 
provided for by the act of 1647 bore no comparison to the same 
schools of modern times. They were called grammar schools 
because grammar teaching was imperative, and because the 
master was required to instruct his pupils "so far as they can be 
fitted for the university." A school of this class, indeed more 
than one, was maintained in the town until about 1820, and while 
the course of study was available to all the youth of the town, the 
school itself was not popular, for then young persons were put to 
work as soon as the primary branches of reading, writing, spell- 
ing and arithmetic were finished and the regulations regarding 
attendance at the school were complied with. Indeed, Avhile 
schools of a higher grade were required and provided for by law, 
they were not always Avelcomed by the burdened taxpaying in- 

( lU ) 


habitants, hence they were regarded as an expensive luxury and 
were supported reluctantly. 

During the latter years of the eighteenth century, after the 
town was reduced to territory east of the Connecticut, its remain- 
ing lands were divided into school districts, and a committee was 
chosen to manage a school in each. Frequently, however, dis- 
tricts felt too poor to maintain a separate school and united with 
another district in supporting a joint school : but in 1800 the 
town voted that each district should have and support its own 
school. In 1823 the sum of $250 was voted for the town gram- 
mar school and $1,000 for the English or common schools. In 
the next year the accumulated school fund amounted to more 
than $6,000, but instead of being utilized directly for the benefit 
of schools it was loaned by the "trustees of the school fund" to 
various persons of the town on "secured" notes. This fund 
gradually increased and when finally it was made available for 
use by the chartered city it aggregated about $10,000. Moses 
Bliss was for many years clerk of the board of trustees of the 
school fund. 

Previous to about 1825 the common district schools of the 
town were not in any sense progressive, and were conducted with 
reference to economy rather than the welfare of the youth. As a 
public necessity they were supported as the law required, but not 
one whit more than was obligatory was suggested or considered. 
In the year mentioned the town voted to appoint a committee to 
inquire into the existing conditions and to "digest" such im- 
provements in the schools as in its judgment should seem proper. 
The committee selected for this duty comprised William B. Cal- 
houn, Joseph Hall. Frederick A. Packard, James "\V. Crooks and 
Justice Willarcl. 

In due season the committee made its report, which was ac- 
cepted, and thereupon the town voted to appoint a committee of 
seven, to be joined with the stated clergymen of the town, "whose 
duty it shall be to see that all the provisions of the law of this 
commonwealth relative to schools are faithfully complied with, 
to examine all instructors, to determine what books shall ])e used 
in the several schools, and generally to have superintendence and 

( 115 ) 


controlling power over the schools." This was the inauguration 
of the "school committee" system which has been maintained to 
the present clay. 

In 1827 the town voted an appropriation of $2,500 for the 
support of common schools and $500 for the support of a high 
school, the latter having become obligatory under an act of the 
legislature. A special committee was deeined necessary to devise 
means for establishing the high school, and Joseph Pease. Solo- 
mon Hatch, George Bliss, jr., David Kice, Allen Bangs, Israel E. 
Trask and William Childs were appointed in that capacity. The 
committee carefull}^ examined the premises and reported that at 
that time there were 824 families or householders in the town ; 
that in the five most central districts there were 508 families, 153 
living north and 355 living south of the center of State street ; 
that 303 families were living in the most central districts on the 
Connecticut river, and 205 families were in the "Hill" and 
Watershops districts. 

This information was furnished for the purpose of deter- 
mining the location of the school, but from what is stated it is 
seen that the center of population or residence at the time, in 
what now is the city, was south of State street. On the report of 
the committee the town voted to purchase from Charles Stearns, 
for $150, a lot of land in Union street, on which it was proposed to 
build the school house— a two-story brick building, 65x30 feet in 
size, with cupola and bell. The structure was to afford seating 
capacity for 125 "scholars" in each story, and the school was to 
be conducted on the "monitorial" plan. However, something 
soon happened to change the location of the building, for about 
this time Simon Sanborn came forward Avith a proposition to give 
a site in exchange or as an "oft'set" for a certain claim for dam- 
ages. This new proposition found favor with the committee and 
it was determined to erect the first regular high school building 
at the northeast corner of School and High streets. It was built 
in 1827 and was occupied for its intended use until about 1839, 
when it was vacated, and the high school idea virtually abolished, 
being neither advantageous nor profitable for the education of 
the youth, according to the opinion of the tax-paying resi'dents. 

( ne ) 


In 1841 it was voted to sell the land and building, the committee 
to negotiate the sale being John Howard, William Child and 
Francis M. Carew. But it appears that Mr. Sanborn had donated 
the land for the sole purpose of a school, and on the sale he re- 
ceived a fair proportion of the avails. 

It was found, however, that a high school in the town was 
imperative under the law, hence in 1841 the district school build- 
ing on Elm street, about on the site where now stands the court 
house, was occupied for that purpose. Its first principal was 
Rev. Sanford Lawton, who was followed in 1844 by Ariel Parish. 

Soon after the dissolution of the first high school as an insti- 
tution of the town a number of the more progressive citizens of 
the principal village determined to revive it and also to place the 
common schools on a more uniform and equitable basis of opera- 
tion. In 1840 the appropriation for school purposes was $7,811.- 
08, and at that time the town comprised twenty districts. In the 
town meeting it was voted to appoint a superintendent to take 
general supervision of all the schools under the regular school 
committee. S. S. Green was the first and only incumbent of the 
office thus created, and Avhile his efforts were in a measure suc- 
cessful, and the schools were improved under his superintend- 
ence, two years' experience with the new idea proved sufficient 
for the inhabitants, and the office was abolished in 1842. 

In the meantime the affairs of the high school on Elm street 
were progressing with varied success, as the taxpayers in the 
localities known as Cabotville, Skipmuck, Indian Orchard and 
the Watershops contended that the greatest benefits of the insti- 
tution were derived by the people of the village of Springfield, 
hence they set up an opposition to the appropriations for its 
maintenance, just as they fought against all other measures pro- 
posed for the improvement of the principal village. Still, under 
the law the school was maintained until about 1847 or '48, when 
all local interests were set aside while the subject of dividing the 
town was under consideration. This Avas accomplished in 1848, 
when Chicopee was incorporated as a town, but by that time the 
high school had so declined that its existence was hardly recog- 



In 1848 the legislature passed a new act in relation to high 
schools and it was soon discovered that the local institution was 
not conducted in conformity with the strict requirement of the 
law. The matter came up for consideration in the town meeting 
in 1849, the warrant stating as one of the subjects for action, "to 
see if the town will establish a high school conformably to the act 
passed in 1848." The result was the appointment of a committee 
to consider the subject, the members being Erasmus D. Beach, 
Samuel S. Day, Freeman Bangs, Harvey Danks, Homer Foot, 
Henry Pomeroy, Jonathan Carlisle, Oliver Kibbe, J. W. Fuller 
and F. A. Barton. In the report submitted to the town the com- 
mittee say they "believe the town liable to a penalty by reason of 
non-compliance with the law," and suggest that an arrangement 
be made with district No. 1 (Springfield) by which the high 
school of the district be converted into a high school for the town ; 
and further suggest that the school committee be empowered to 
make the arrangement. 

At a later meeting the matter again was under discussion, 
and it was voted "that the law regulating the establishment of a 
high school in this town be so far complied with as to protect the 
town against prosecution for the penalty, hut no farther." In 
1850 it was voted to continue the arrangement another year, but 
in 1851, probably on account of the unpleasant political feeling 
w^hich pervaded the entire town and worked injury to every in- 
terest, no action was taken concerning the high school, and evi- 
dently the previous arrangement was renewed. The school house 
of district No. 1, to which allusion has been made, was built by 
the district for its own purposes and was regarded as one of the 
most pretentious structures of its kind in the county. The high 
school was established there in 1849, and was maintained until 
the erection of the first regularly known high school on State 
street in 1874. In the course of time the latter building became 
insufficient for the educational interests of the city and was re- 
placed with the present structure on an adjoining tract of land 
in 1898, the latter being regarded as one of the most complete 
school buildings in Western Massachusetts. 

Having briefly traced the history of the schools of the town 
from their beginning to the time of the city charter, it is proper 

( 11« ) 

01(1 Academic Higli School Building, Springfield 
On tliis site now stands tlie Police HeadQuarters 


in the present connection to furnish the succession of the school 
committee from the time the office was created in 1825 to 1852, 
when under the charter the school system entered upon a new era 
of progress. The succession follows: 

1825— AVilliam B. Calhoun, George Colton, Joseph Hall, jr., 
Joshua Frost, Frederick A. Packard, James W. Crooks, Justice 

1826— Frederick A. Packard, AVilliam B. Calhoun, George 
Colton, Elijah Blake, John B. Kirkham, James W. Crooks, Dan- 
iel N. Dewey, and the clergymen of the several societies. 

1827— William B. Calhoun, AYilliam Bliss, James "\V. Crooks. 

1828— William B. Calhoun, William Bliss, James W. Crooks, 
Dr. L. W. Belden, Stephen C. Bemis. 

1829— William B. Calhoun, William Bliss, Dr. L. W. Belden. 

1830— William B. Calhoun, AVilliam Dwight, Josiah Hooker. 

1831— William B. Calhoun, George Colton, Stephen C. Rus- 

1832-34— Benjamin Putnam, Josiah Hooker, George Colton. 

1835— Abraham C. Baldwin, AYilliam Bliss 3d, George Col- 

1836— Elihu Adams, Robert E. Bemis, Ebenezer B. Wright. 

1837— Dorus Clark, H. A. Graves, Edwin Seeger, Artemas 
Rogers, Richard Bliss. 

1838— Dorus Clark, H. A. Graves, Rev. Mr. Clapp, Jefferson 
Church, Richard Bliss. 

1839— Dorus Clark, Sanford Lawton, Hiram A. Graves, 
Sumner G. Clapp, Jefferson Church. 

1840-41— Ezekiel Russell, George Eaton, Robert T. Ellis, 
Jonathan Pease 2d, Henry R, Vaille. 

1842— Henry W. Lee, James Swan, Mark Staples, Albert A. 
Folsom, Timothy W. Carter. 

1843— Henry W. Lee, Eli B. Clark, Mark Staples (two va- 

1844-Henry W. Lee, Eli B. Clark, Robert F. Ellis, Albert 
A. Folsom, James Swan. 

1845— William B. Calhoun, Henry W. Lee, Rev. Eli B. 
Clark, James Swan, Albert A. Folsom. 

( 120 ) 


1846— William B. Calhoun, George E. Landon, Rev. Eli B. 
Clark, Henry W. Lee, Robert C. Mills. 

1847— AVilliam B. Calhoun, Samuel McNary, Rev. Eli B. 
Clark, Henry AV. Lee, Robert C. Mills. 

1848— Josiah Hooker, Samuel McNary, Rev. Eli B. Clark, 
Robert Kellen, Miner G. Clark. 

1849 — Samuel Osgood, George F. Simmons, Miner G. Clark. 
Henry AY. Adams. 

1850— Josiah Hooker, Alexander S. McClean, AYilliam L. 

1851— Alexander S. MeClean, Josiah Hooker, Charles A. 
Winchester, William B. Calhoun, George Walker. 

When in 1852 the legislature passed an act to establish the 
city of Springfield the alfairs of local government, so far at least 
as the schools were concerned, were in a decidedly unwholesome 
condition. The state laws then in force were complied with by 
the several district and prudential committees just far enough to 
escape the penalty for non-compliance, and very few of the dis- 
tricts had shown a disposition to give the schools the loyal, ear- 
nest attention to which they were really entitled. The framers 
of the original city charter were not unmindful of the needs of 
the schools, but they were compelled to be exceedingly moderate 
in preparing the effective sections of the bill, else the same, if ac- 
companied with arbitrary regulations, would have been rejected 
by the non-progressive element of population who were inclined 
to oppose the measure on general principles and sought some 
half-reasonable excuse on which to base their action. 

Thus it was that the enacting sections relative to the schools 
which declared that "the limits of the several districts shall be 
abolished, and the several districts shall be united under one 
organization," were not made imperative, but were accompanied 
with a proviso to the effect that the act of consolidation should 
not become operative unless within ninety days from the accept- 
ance of the charter act, "the several districts shall vote to dis- 
solve their organizations and sell their school property." A fair 
number of districts did vote to dissolve their organizations and 
placed their schools within the jurisdiction of the general com- 

( 121 ) 


mittee, but others voted to continue the former district arrange- 
ment, and thus delayed the work of placing all the schools on a 
uniform footing, with equal benefits to all ; and it was not until 
December 1, 1855, that the last vestige of the old system disap- 
peared. During the three years necessary to accomplish this 
work of reformation, the general school committee found itself 
burdened with the task of missionary labor, the arduous duty of 
converting the committees of the less progressive districts from 
the inbred notions of the old system to the more modern methods 
suggested by the city charter. 

Again, the members of the first school board found them- 
selves opposed by many elements outside the natural objections 
raised against the abandonment of the district system. The 
several departments of the new city government were clamorous 
for appropriations of money, and, as usual, the purely political 
element prevailed, and the schools were compelled to await the 
pleasure of the powers. Still substantial progress was made 
during the first few years of the schools under the charter, and 
an evening school for adults Avas opened in the winter of 1852. 
The committee, in its first annual report, urged the appointment 
of a superintendent, but the demand was not received with favor. 
During the first year Committeemen Hooker, Winchester and 
McClean acted as superintendents, devoting their time unselfish- 
ly to the work of visiting the schools, examining teachers as to 
their qualifications, and also examining and passing upon candi- 
dates for admission to the high school. This work required much 
of the time of the members, and frequently was done at great 
personal sacrifice. 

In 1852, in addition to the high school, M'hich was an insti- 
tution of the old town, Springfield contained twelve school dis- 
tricts (and a total of thirty-one schools) known and designated 
as follows : No. 1, Center district, 924 children between the ages 
of five and fifteen years, and eight schools ; No. 2, North district, 
419 pupils and five schools; No. 3, South district, 126 pupils and 
three schools ; No. 4, Armory Hill district, 387 pupils and five 
schools; No. 5, Ames district, 64 pupils and two schools; No. 6, 
AVatershops district, 102 pupils and two schools ; No. 7, Carlisle 

( 122 ) 

C'liarles Barrows 
Foi' many years I'rinoipal in SpriJig-ticId piiblie soliool' 


district, 19 pupils and one school ; No. 8, Five ISIile district, 29 
pupils and one school ; No. 9, Sixteen Acres district, 34 pupils 
and one school; No. 10, Wachoag district, 30 pupils and one 
school ; No. 11, Putts Bridge district, 16 pupils and one school ; 
No. 12, Indian Orchard district, 38 pupils and one school. In 
this year the total value of school property was estimated at 
$39,250, and the sum appropriated for school support was $7,500. 
The high school is described in the committee's report as a model 
school, although it was kept in an upper story of a building in 
the Center district on Court street. 

The school sj'stem of the city throughout the last fifty years 
has enjoyed a constant and healthful growth until it has at- 
tained a standing of especial prominence in educational circles in 
Massachusetts and in New England. From 1852 to about 1860 
the growth was sIoav and conservative. At first the people did 
not appear to appreciate the benefits to be derived from schools 
of higher grade and many of them could not understand why 
their youth should be given greater advantages in the way of 
education than they themselves had enjoyed. They were reluct- 
ant to appropriate money for the erection of new buildings, and* 
previous to 1864 all that was accomplished in improving the 
standing of the schools was done by the sub-committees of the 
general board. In the year mentioned the principals of the sev- 
eral grammar schools Avere given supervisory powers in their re- 
spective districts, and while this action had the effect to relieve 
the committees of part of their former work, the best success in 
the grammar schools was retarded by the enforced absence of the 
principals in supervising the work of the common schools. 

However, in 1864 the office of superintendent of schools was 
created, to take eft'ect January 1, 1865. E. A. Hubbard was the 
first superintendent and served in that capacity until April, 1873. 
]\Iuch good was accomplished during his term, both in the ad- 
vancement of the schools themselves and in the erection of new 
buildings. Among the more prominent school houses built dur- 
ing this period mention may be made of that on North ]\Iain 
street— the Hooker school — and the Elm street building, both in 
1865 ; the Oak street building on Armory hill and also that at 

( 124 ) 


Indian Orchard, both in 1867 ; the AYorthingtou street bnildin<^ 
in 1868; the Central street building in 1870: the West Union 
street and the AAliite street buildings in 1872, and the partial 
completion of the high school building on State street in 1873. 

On the resignation of Mr. Hubbard, Rev. AYilliam Rice was 
chosen his temporary successor, and served until the beginning of 
the next school year, when Admiral Paschal Stone assumed the 
duties of the office, beginning in September, 1873, His connec- 
tion with the schools continued until April 1, 1888, and he was 
known as a practical thorough organizer, an agreeable associate 
and co-worker, and a faithful public official. Under him the 
schools prospered as never before, and the people finally became 
awakened to an active, earnest interest in the Avork of education. 
During his term, in 1874, the high school building was completed 
and dedicated, and in the same year the Brightwood building 
was erected. In the next year the Hooker building was partially 
destroyed by fire, but was at once rebuilt, and the East Union 
street primary building was erected. Among the other school 
houses built during his term we may recall that on York street in 
1879, the Dry Bridge building in 1881, the Oak street primary 
and the Armory street buildings in 1884, the Ward 5 school 
house in 1887, and the beginning of the Jefferson avenue build- 
ing in 1888. He, too, was chiefly instrumental in establishing the 
manual training school in 1886. 

The present superintendent, Thomas M. Balliet, began his 
commendable work in Springfield April 1, 1888. He found the 
educational system in good condition, with reasonable conven- 
ience and comfort guaranteed under the existing order of things, 
yet there was room for still further improvement. Almost his 
first work was the establishment of the normal training school for 
teachers, which was opened in September, 1888, and from that 
time to the present his energies have been devoted to the welfare 
of those who work with him, and under him, all to the end that 
the city may have as good schools as can be devised by modern 
methods and advanced theories in teaching. His efforts have 
been seconded by the school committees with whom he has been 
associated, and the people have given loyal encouragement to his 
endeavors as an organizer and educator. 

/ ( 125 ) 

Admiral P. Stone 


So many indeed have been the changes in the educational 
system of the city during Mr. Balliet 's time that no attempt will 
be made to follow them in this chapter, and for definite informa- 
tion concerning them the reader may have recourse to the munici- 
pal register, in which the superintendent presents in detail the 
gradual development and annual growth of the Springfield 
schools. During the brief twelve years of his superintendency 
the school population of the city has almost doubled, the average 
number belonging to the schools has more than doubled, and the 
current expenses have increased nearly threefold. The records 
disclose that during this period large sums of money have been 
expended for new, modern school buildings, the largest outlays 
having been made in the years 1891, '97 and '98. The Jefferson 
avenue building was finished in 1889, the Charles street and the 
Adams street buildings in 1890, the Buckingham and Pynchon 
buildings in 1891, the School street building in 1892, the Belmont 
avenue building in 1893, the Carew street building in 1894, the 
South Main street building in 1896, the Central high school, the 
Homer street and the Indian Orchard primary in 1898, the Bos- 
ton road, the Brightwood, the Eastern avenue and the Forest 
park buildings in 1899. 

The Central High school on State street naturally is the 
chief object of interest to all who have occasion to observe the 
educational institutions of the city. In architectural design and 
interior appointment it is one of the most complete structures of 
its kind in the state, and its erection at a time when the city was 
burdened with the cost of many other public buildings reflects 
something of the liberality of the people and their loyalty to the 
cause of education. In 1841 the inhabitants of the town were 
content to open a high school in one of the upper rooms of a 
district school hous^9 on Elm street, yet before the end of the next 
ten years the institution virtually Avas discontinued. In 1849 it 
was found that a high school was compulsory under the law 
passed in 1848, and in compliance with the requirements of the 
act a new school of that grade and character was opened in an 
upper room of the district school building on Court street, on the 
site where now stands the police headquarters building. The 

( 127 ) 



school was maintained there until 1874. when the first regular 
city high school was completed. The structure was dedicated 
with appropriate ceremonies, August 31, Augustus Lord Soule 
being the principal orator of the occasion. 

The present Central High school was opened in September, 
1898, about five years after the real need of such a structure was 
first proposed to the people by the school committee and the 
superintendent. Nearly two years were spent in discussing the 
(piestion and preparing the minds (and, incidentally, the purses) 
of the taxpayers for what must come sooner or later. In the 
latter part of 1895 the project began to take definite form when 
Mayor Long appointed a special high school commission to inves- 
tigate the subject, consider a location, and invite plans and speci- 
fications for a building with normal seating capacity for 800 
pupils. The connnission comprised Louis C. Hyde, Frederick 
Harris, James B. Carroll, Orlando M. Baker and Jason Perkins. 
Its work was carefully and thoroughly done, and the result of the 
labors of its members, jointly and severally, in co-operation with 
the school committee, is seen in the splendid high school building 
which attracts the admiration of visitors and citizens alike. Ac- 
cording to the valuation fixed by the committee on city property, 
the land on which the high school stands is worth $98,000, while 
the structure itself is worth $335,000 ; value of furniture, $15,000. 

The principals of the high school have been as follows : Rev. 
Samuel Lawton, 1841-44 ; Ariel Parish, 1844-64 ; E. A. Hubbard, 
acting principal associated with 0. M. Fernald, 1865-66 : M. C. 
Stebbins, 1866-74: William W. Colburn, 1874-90; Charles 
Jacobus, 1890-95 ; Fred W. Atkinson, 1895-1900, resigned in May 
to accept appointment as U. S. commissioner of education to the 
Philippines ; AYilliam Orr, acting principal from May, 1900, to 
close of the school year, and principal, Sept. 1900. 

9-2 ( 129 ) 


From its organization in 1849 to 1900: 

































































































































































'Previous to this date there were no graduating exercises. 
"The course was changed this year from three to four years. 
^This was the first year in which any pupils were graduated in the two-years 
liusiness course. 

<The business course was abolished after 1894. 

( 130 ) 


School Committees.^ 

1852— Josiah Hooker, Charles A. "Winchester, Alexander S. 
McClean, George Walker, AYilliam P. Bagg, Henry Adams, Mar- 
cellus Pinney, Frederick Holt. 

1853 — Josiah Hooker, Charles A. Winchester, A. S. McClean, 
Alfred Lambert, V. L. Owen, Jabez C. Terry, Henry Pomeroy, 
Harvey E. Moseley. 

1854— Josiah Hooker, Charles A. Winchester, A. S. McClean, 
Horace S. Taylor, Samuel McNary, Henry Pomeroy, George 0. 
Lombard, Frederick Holt. 

1855-Chester R. Chaffee, John E. Taylor, Henry H. Vaille, 
Randolph E. Ladd, Charles P. Bragdon, Isaac P. Dickinson, 
Marcellus Pinney, Harvey E. Moseley. 

1856 — Josiah Hooker, William L. Smith, Samuel Osgood, 
John B. Kirkham, V. L. Owen, Edwin L. Hall, John Kimberly, 
Samuel Mills, jr. 

1857— Josiah Hooker, R. B. Hildreth, Samuel Osgood, John 
B. Kirkham, V. L. Owen, Edwin L. Hall, John Kimberly, Samuel 
Mills, jr. 

1858— Josiah Hooker, at large ; Dr. W. G. Breck, James E. 
INIcIntire, Rev. Samuel Osgood. Dr. Abram Paige, Dr. V. L. 
OAven, Edwin L. Hall, John Kimberly, Rev. E. D. Mur- 

1859— Josiah Hooker, at large: R. B. Hildreth, James E. 
Mclntire, Samuel Osgood, Charles Marsh, Y. L. Owen, Edwin L. 
Hall, John Kimberly, Marcus W. Fay. 

1860— Josiah Hooker, at large ; R. B. Hildreth, James E. 
Mclntire, Samuel Osgood, Osmond Tiffany, G. W. Harrison, E. 
L. Hall, John Kimberly, Marcus AV. Pay. 

1861— Josiah Hooker, at large; R. B. Hildreth, James E. 
Mclntire, Samuel Osgood, Osmond Tiffany, G. W. Harrison, R. 
Crossett, M. Pinney, Marcus W. Fay. 

1862— Josiah Hooker, at large ; R. B. Hildreth, J. E. Mc- 
lntire, Samuel Osgood, Francis Tiffany, G. W. Harrison. R. 
Crossett, M. Pinney, Marcus W. Fay. 

1863— Josiah Hooker, at large ; R. B. Hildreth, J. E. Mcln- 

'Members of school committees are mentioned In the order of ward numbers. 
( 131 ) 


tire, S. G. Buekiugham, Francis Tiffany, Horace Kibbe, Obacliali 
Frary, M. Pinney, M. AV. Fay. 

1864— Josiah Hooker, at large; K. B. Hildreth, J. E. :\Ic- 
Intire, S. G. Buckingham, Francis Tift'any, Horace Kibbe, J. G. 
Chase, W. W. Gardner, A. J. Phimer. 

1865— Josiah Hooker, at large; Rev. Josiah Marvin, Rev. 
William Rice, Rev. S. G. Buckingham, John L. King, Horace 
Kibbe, John B. Stebbins. AMlliam AV. Gardner, Andrew J. 

\\ (trtiiiiigtou street iScliool, ^springtield 

1866— Josiah Hooker, at large ; Josiah Marvin, AYilliam Rice, 
S. G. Buckingham, John L. King, Hoi'ace Kibbe, John B. Steb- 
bins, W. W. Gardner, Hiram Warner. 

1867— Josiah Hooker, at large ; Josiah Marvin, William Rice, 
S. G. Buckingham, John L. King, Horace Kibbe. John B. Steb- 
bins, Marcellus Pinney, Hiram Warner. 

1868— Horace J. Chapin, at large: John M. Stebbins. Will- 
iam Rice, S. G. Buckingham, John L. King, Horace Kibbe, John 
B. Stebbins, M. Pinney, Hiram Warner. 

( 132 ) 



1869— Horace Kibbe, at large; John M. Stebbins, William 
Rice. S. G. Buckingham, John L. King, S. W. Porter, John B. 
Stebbins, jNI. Pinney. Hii-am Warner. 

1870— Horace Kibbe, at large; John M. Stebbins, W^illiam 
Rice, S. G. Buckingham, John L. King, S. W. Porter, 
Mrs. Randolph, E. Lacld, W. W. Gardner, Charles J. 

1871— John E. Taylor, at large; John M. Stebbins, William 
Rice, S. G. Buckingham, John L. King, S. W. Porter. S. D. Bur- 
banl\-, W. W. Gardner, Charles J. Goodwin. 

1872— John E. Taylor, at large : John M. Stebbins, William 
Rice, S. G. Buckingham, John L. King. Samuel W. Porter, S. D. 
Burbank, W. W. Gardner, Charles J. Goodwin. 

1873— John E; Taylor, at large : John M. Stebbins. AVilliam 
Rice, S. G. Buckingham, Timothy M. Brown, S. W. Porter, John 
B. Stebbins, W. AV. Gardner, Stephen Harris. 

1874— Rev. A. D. Mayo, at large; J. E. Taylor, William 
Rice, S. G. Buckingham. T. M. Brown, S. W. Porter, John Fal- 
lon, W. W. Gardner, C. J. Goodwin. 

1875— A. D. Mayo, at large, J. E. Taylor, William Rice. 
S. G. Buckingham, T. M. Brown, S. W. Porter, John Fallon, 
W. W. Gardner, C. J. Goodwin. 

1876— A. D. Mayo, at large: J. E. Taylor. William Rice. 
S. G. Buckingham. T. M. Brown, S. W. Porter, J. G. Chase, John 
Giles, C. J. Goodwin. 

1877— A. D. Mayo, at large ; J. E. Taylor, Rev. William Rice, 
S. G. Buckingham, T. M. Brown, S. W. Porter, J. G. Chase, John 
Giles, C. J. Goodwin. 

1878— Rev. A. D. Mayo, at large ; J. E. Taylor. William Rice. 
Sanford Lawton, jr.. T. M. Brown, Rev. L. H. Cone, J. G. Chase. 
John Stiles, C. J. Goodwin. 

1879— Rev. A. D. Mayo, at large; J. E. Taylor. William 
Rice, Dr. Sanford Lawton, jr.. Rev. L. H. Cone, J. G. Chase, A. 
M. Copeland. C. J. Goodwin (one vacancy). 

1880— John E. Taylor. Joseph C. Pynchon. Rev. William 
Rice. Sanford Lawton. jr., L. H. Cone, T. M. Brown. J. G. Chase, 
A. M. Copeland, C. J. Goodwin. 

( 133 ) 


1881— John E. Taylor, at large ; Joseph C. Pynchon, William 
Rice, John R. Smith, C. S. Hurlbut, Orlando M. Baker, J. G. 
Chase Alfred M. Copeland, C. J. Goodwin. 

1882— John E. Taylor, at large; Joseph C. Pynchon, Will- 
iam Rice, John R. Smith, Cornelius S. Hurlbut, 0. M. Baker, 
James D. Safford, AV. W. Gardner, C. J. Goodwin. 

1883— Avery J. Smith, at large; George H. Belock, Milton 
Bradley, John R. Smith, C. S. Hnrlbut, 0. M. Baker, J. D. Saf- 
ford, W. W. Gardner, C. J. Goodwin. 

1884— The Mayor; Avery J. Smith, at large; George H. 
Beloek, Milton Bradley, John R. Smith, C. S. Hurlbut, 
O. M. Baker, J. D. Safford, W. W. Gardner, Charles 
J. Goodwin. 

1885— The Mayor; Avery J. Smith, at large; George H. 
Beloek, Milton Bradley, John R. Smith, C. S. Hurlbut, 0. M. 
Baker, J. D. Safford, Raw^son Hathaway, C. J. GoodAvin. 

1886 — The Mayor; James L. Johnson, at large: G. H. Be- 
lock, Edward H. Phelps, John R. Smith, C. S. Hurlbut, 0. M. 
Baker, J. D. Safford, R. Hathaway, C. J. Goodwin. 

1887 — The Maj^or; James L. Johnson, at large; G. H. Be- 
lock, E. H. Phelps, Adelaide A. Calkins, C. S. Hurlbut, Ellen B. 
Merriam, J. D. Safford, Rawson Hathaway, Charles J. Goodwin. 

1888— The Mayor; J. L. Johnson, at large; G. H. Belock, 
E. H. Phelps, Adelaide A. Calkins, C. S. Hurlbut, Ellen B. Mer- 
riam. J. D. Safford, Rawson Hathaway, Charles J. Goodwin. 

1889 — The Mayor : J. L. Johnson, at large ; Harlan P. Stone, 
G. H. Belock, Adelaide A. Calkins, C. S. Hurlburt, Ellen B. 
Merriam. J. D. Safford, Rawson Hathaway, Charles J. Goodwin. 

1890— The Mayor : J. L. Johnson, at large : H. P. Stone, G. 
H. Belock, A. A. Calkins, Clark W. Bryan, E. B. INIerriam, W. C. 
Simons, R. Hathaway, C. J. Goodwin. 

1891 — The Mayor; J. L. Johnson, at large: H. P. Stone. G. 
H. Belock, A. A. Calkins, C. W. Bryan, E. B. Merriam, W. C. 
Simons. EdAvard 0. Robinson, Henry K. Wight. 

1892— The Mayor: Elisha B. Maynard, at large; H. P. 
Stone, S. D. Brooks, A. A. Calkins, C. W. Bryan, E. B. Merriam, 
^Y. C. Simons, E. 0. Robinson, H. K. Wight. 

( 134 ) 


1893— The Mayor; Elisha B. Maynard, at large; H. P. 
Stone. S. D. Brooks, A. A. Calkins, C. W. Bryan, Rachel B. 
Jacobs, W. C. Simons, Wm. 0. Day, H. K. Wight. 

1894— The Mayor; Elisha B. Maynard, at large; H. P. 
Stone, S. D. Brooks, A. A. Calkins, C, W. Bryan, R. B. Jacobs, 
W. C. Simons, W. 0. Day, H. K. Wight. 

1895— The Mayor; Elisha B. Maynard, at large; J. G. Dun- 
ning, Adelaide H. Trask, A. A. Calkins, C. W. Bryan, R. B. 
Jacobs, W. C. Simons, W. 0. Day, H. K. Wight. 

1896— The Mayor; Elisha B. Maynard, at large; J. G. Dun- 
ning, A. H. Trask, A. A. Calkins, C. W. Bryan, R. B. Jacobs, W. 
C. Simons, W. 0. Day, H. K. Wight. 

1897— The Mayor; Elisha B. Maynard, at large; J. G. Dun- 
ning. A. H. Trask, A. A. Calkins, C. W. Bryan, R. B. Jacobs, W. 
C. Simons. Frank N. Seerley, Chas. Jacobus. 

1898— The Mayor; Oscar B. Ireland, at large; Willard F. 
Tripp, George D. Weston, Adelaide A. Calkins, Clark W. Bryan, 
Rachel B. Jacobs, William C. Simons, Frank N. Seerley, Charles 

1899— The Mayor; Oscar B. Ireland, at large; vacancy in 
ward one. Dr. George D. Weston, Adelaide H. Trask, John A. 
Hall, Rachel B. Jacobs, William C. Simons, Frank N. Seerley, 
Charles Jacobus. 

1900— The Mayor; Oscar B. Ireland, at large; Franklin A. 
Latimer, jun., Dr. George D. Weston, Adelaide H. Trask, John 
A. Hall, Rachel B. Jacobs, Frederick E. Hopkins, James G. Dun- 
ning, Frank N. Seerley. 

1901— The Mayor; Oscar B. Ireland, at large; Frank H. 
Goldthwait. George D. Weston, Adelaide H. Trask, John A. Hall, 
Rachel B. Jacobs, Frederick E. Hopkins, James G. Dunning, 
Frank N. Seerley. 

In connection with the history of the growth and develop- 
ment of the schools of Springfield the appended statistical tables 
(taken from the municipal register) furnish an interesting 

( 135 ) 


From the Organization of the City in 1852 to 1900 

From 1852 to 1856 expenditures for repairs were ineluded in current expenses. 

Tlie Mutual Training school was estahlislied in 1886 (reorganized as the Mechanic 
Arts High School in 1898); the Cooking school in 18!«; and tlie public Kindergarten in 
1894. The amounts expended under these heads are included under " Current Ex- 





$6,558 89 

13,257 31 

15.049 89 

16,451 22 

17,501 03 

18,727 67 

18,494 40 

18,315 77 

18,115 04 

17.961 30 

19.358 08 

22,361 56 

29,941 54 

37,242 93 

48,542 28 



68,524 83 

73,636 97 

79,489 26 

92,286 88 

96,380 77 

110,066 43 

115,786 04 

106,949 96 

89,t89 74 

83,087 62 

81,780 65 

83,053 74 

88,267 73 

92,081 29 

98,624 26 

107,523 95 

111,851 90 

109,990 53 

115,749 65 

124,739 06 

134,938 12 

146,488 62 

157,644 68 

163.570 40 





239,679 72 

262.972 39 

302,854 35 

321,804 66 

Repairs and 



$4,146 81 

3,144 54 

2,939 82 

3,532 04 

2,956 24 

2,601 92 

939 55 

5,662 30 

5,516 10 

5,728 90 

3,718 32 

7,529 04 

7,778 57 

4,027 70 

4,096 28 

5,086 27 

16,760 80 

16,545 76 

21,958 95 

5,221 48 

2,938 91 

1,708 02 

2,528 04 

7,497 14 

9,240 86 

9,088 23 

10,672 68 

10,159 73 

7,490 23 

7,021 26 

9,399 94 

9,348 20 

9,314 65 

16,208 53 

17,630 70 

10,447 98 

11,549 10 

10,995 75 

13,647 77 

8,911 17 

16,095 08 

38,881 78 

12,<06 09 

11,437 20 

$6,403 47 

671 00 

1,553 16 

10,645 00 
53,969 78 
59,062 72 
41,267 84 
62,270 59 
34,285 49 
12,444 57 
28,490 00 
71,202 63 
53,095 82 
69,979 01 
17,098 73 

1,169 69 

17,228 99 
7,664 96 
1,626 17 

19,053 60 
30,712 40 
39,072 98 
48,943 67 
76,052 19 
13,829 18 
26,314 01 
46,562 87 
26,758 82 
43,878 11 
238,196 30 
363,249 04 
71,783 82 
81,698 41 























































( 136 ) 

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( 137 ) 


During the early years of the century jnst closed, at a time 
when the common schools Avere not conducted under strict legis- 
lative enactment, there came a demand for private and select 
schools in M-hich children might have the advantages of a good 
education at comparatively small expense. One of the earliest 
institutions of this character was a private academic school on 
Elm street, which was opened about 1812 and was continued with 
fair success until about 1825. Among the teachers here in early 
days were Benjamin Day, Mr. Lusk, Mr. Olmstead, Mr. Morley, 
and J. W. Crooks, each of whom was dignified Avith the title of 
''Professor," and a portion of whom were active factors in the 
history of the toAvn outside of educational circles. 

About five years later, in 1829, Julia Hawkes opened a select 
school for girls in a house on Maple street. This is remembered 
as a school of unusual merit and one which was liberally patron- 
ized by the well-to-do people of the town. Rev. Mr. Eaton suc- 
ceeded Miss Hawkes in the management of the school and contin- 
ued at its head about two years. A Lancasterian school was 
opened in Springfield in 1829, and was continued about twa 

In 1835 Rev. George Nichols opened a select school of high 
grade at the corner of Main and State streets, but soon after- 
ward removed to the building next west of the old court house on 
Court street. Under a succession of competent instructors the 
school was continued in existence until about 1880, when the 
grooving popularity of the city public and high schools induced 
parents to withdraw their patronage from the select schools and 
send them to those maintained at the public expense. During 
the later years of its existence the school referred to was known 
as the Springfield English and classical institute, and under the 
charge of Mrs. Nichols, Miss H. S. Avery, Elizabeth Stebbins, 
Celia and Mary Campbell, E. D. Bangs and C. C. Burnett it was 
an institution of prominence in the city. 

Another of the old-time private schools of Springfield, and 
one which gained a liberal patronage, w^as that established dur- 
ing the late seventies and known as Miss Howard's school for 
girls. ]\Iany Avives and mothers noAv living in the city can recall 

( 138 ) 


pleasing memories in connection with their attendance at this 
school. Othei- persons refer Avith equal pleasure to Rev. M. C. 
Stebbins' college preparatory school which Avas established in 
1874 and for a time was quartered in the old court house. 

"The Elms," a family, day and boarding school for girls, 
located on High street, is one of the oldest select schools in the 
county and also is one of the best. The school was founded in 
Hadley. in 1866, by Charlotte W. Porter (associated for a time 
with Abby Smith, of Hadley, and later with Rena Champney, of 
Northampton), whose purpose from the beginning was 
to found a school where thorough instruction should 
be given in every department, and with it the refine- 
ments, comforts and personal care of a well-ordered 
home. In 1881 the school was removed to Springfield 
that its efficiency might be increased and a larger number of pu- 
pils received in the day school. The Harvard examinations were 
from the first made the standard of the work done in the school, 
and it gradually became evident that in order to maintain the 
kind of school for which The Elms wished to stand, it must make 
college preparation a distinctive feature. Accordingly the cer- 
tificate privilege was obtained from A^assar, Smith, Wellesley and 
Mt. Holyoke, and since 1886, with the exception of three years, 
the school has annually sent pupils to the various colleges. 

"The Elms" stands for thorough instruction not only in its 
college preparatory and special courses, including French and 
German, but also in its music course, which fits for the examina- 
tions for the first degree of the American college of musicians. It 
probably was the first school in this locality to introduce the 
study of current wants as a part of regular school work. The 
"Periodical class," later called the "Outlook class," was started 
in 1887, and as the good results of the work was seen in the girls, 
the women of Springfield became interested, and at their request 
classes were formed for them, until now a class of betAveen 60 and 
70 meets fortnightly for tAvo hours to discuss current wants and 
current literature. 

A day and boarding school Avas opened in Springfield in 
1866 by Mr. and Mrs. J. Giles, and for a score and more of years 

( 139 ) 


thereafter it ^vas a flourishing institution in the city, special at- 
tention being given to college preparatory work. A later school 
of similar character, with special courses of study in modern lan- 
guages, is that now and for many years past conducted by Rev. 
Paul H. Pitkin, at No. 629 Chestnut street. It is in all respects 
a worthy institution, deserving the consideration of all our peo- 
ple. The same also may be said of the MacDuffie school for 
uirls, located at No. 182 Central street. 

.M. Jdsepii s Clniich, Howard Street, SpringflelU 

For many years the city has been noted for the excellence of 
the parochial schools which have been established in connection 
with the Roman Catholic parishes. One of the first of these was 
the Sacred Heart school on Everett street, founded in 1874 by 
Rev. Father McDermott, pastor of the Sacred Heart church and 
parish, and placed in charge of the sisters of Notre Dame in 1887, 
when 330 children were present to give greeting to their teachers. 

Next in seniority is St. Michael's hall and school, established 
in 1882, during the time of Father Burke. The erection of the 

( UO ) 


school house was begun in 1880; the corner-stone was laid in 
July, 1881, and the building Avas dedicated in November, 1882. 
This school is under charge of the sisters of St. Joseph. 

A parochial school in St. Joseph's i)arish was opened in 
1884. The present school house was erected in 1897, and in the 
following year was given in charge of the sisters of the Holy 
Cross. In 1899 this school had 370 children in the first foui- 
grades, nearly all of whom were of French-Canadian descent. 

In 1890 Rev. Father Boudouin became pastor of St. Aloysius 
Church at Indian Orchard. He founded and built the Sisters' 
convent, on AVorcester street, the home of six sisters of the order 
of Assumption, in Avhose care is placed the education of 350 chil- 

llie International Yoxmg Men's Clirisfian Association 
Training School.— In 1885 Rev. David Allen Reed founded in 
Springfield the School for Christian Workers, of which a depart- 
ment with J. T. Bowne at its head was devoted to the training 
of young men for the secretaryship of the Y. M. C. A. The 
course of study covered two years and was well calculated to 
qualify men for association work. In 1890 the institution be- 
came separately incorporated under its present name. During 
1891 a large and desirable site, facing on "Massasoit lake," was 
purchased. The gymnasium was erected in 1894 and the dormi- 
tory was completed in the next year. 

The secretarial course has been extended to three years, and 
the subjects studied are grouped around bible, church and asso- 
ciation history and methods, economics and sociology, and psy- 
chology. The physical department was organized in 1887 with 
Luther Gulick and R. J. Roberts in charge. These summer ses- 
sions of from six to ten weeks each were continued for five years. 
In the regular session of 1887-88 a two years' physical course 
Av;is introduced ; and was continued until 1894-95 when another 
year was added. Since that time men in the physical course 
spend three years in the practical and technical problems of 
physical training. 

The school owns property valued at $117,000, consisting of 
30 acres of land Avith all necessary accommodations for 65 stu- 

( 141 ) 


-dents. The library is one of the best in existence on association 
literature and publications, and is thoroughly classified and in- 

This school aims to equip young men for the offices of gen- 
eral secretary, physical director and director of boys' work in the 
y. M. C. A. Christian young men desiring to fit themselves for 
the directorship of college and school gymnasiums are also ad- 
mitted. Of the employed men now in association work. 135 
have attended this institution, and in addition, 15 men who have 
attended are now physical directors in colleges, universities or 
preparatory schools. 

The present officers of the institution are L. L. Doggett, Ph. 
D., president ; Preston D. Keith, vice-president ; Henry H. Bow- 
man, treasurer. 

T'he Bible Normal College, founded under the name of the 
School for Christian Workers, was incorporated under the gen- 
eral laws of this state January 28, 1885. It is a school of re- 
ligious pedagogy, the especial aim being to train young men for 
religious and philanthropic work, and to prepare its students 
for instructorships in bible, primary and normal schools ; for the 
work of city, home and foreign missionaries, and also as field 

In Springfield this school has accomplished much good and 
has sent a number of young men into responsible positions, yet 
the institution has not met with the gratifying success its worth 
and importance has deserved. At a recent meeting of the cor- 
poration it was determined to remove the school from Springfield 
to Hartford. The officiary for the year 1901 is as follows : 
Rev. David Allen Reed, president : George H. Archibald and 
Rev. Jesse L. Hurlbut, vice-presidents; George D. Chamberlain, 
treasurer; Edwin F. Lyford, secretary. 

The Frencli- American College was founded in Lowell, Mass., 
in 1885, under the name of French-Protestant college, and was 
removed to Springfield in 1888. At the annual meeting of the 
corporation, June 1, 1894, it was unanimously voted to change 
the name of the institution from French-Protestant to French- 
American college. At the same time the following statement of 
principles was adopted: 

( 142 ) 


"I. This is a Christian institution. It is established in 
the interests of the Kingdom of Christ, for the purpose of form- 
ing and developing Christian manhood and womanhood. 

"II. This is a protestant college, recognizing the Holy 
scriptures as the supreme authority in all matters of faith and 
practice, and affirming for all men the right of private judg- 
ment and liberty of conscience. 

"III. This is an evangelical institution, accepting that in- 
terpretation of scripture teaching which is generally held among 
the churches commonly called evangelical. 

"IV. This is a catholic institution, in hearty accord with 
all branches of Christ's church, even with those with which we 
have no organic connection, and in deep sympathy with all 
evangelizing movements throughout ecumenical Christendom, 
which tend to further the establishment of Christ's kingdom 
throughout the world. 

"V. This is an American institution, maintaining those in- 
tellectual and moral standards which prevail in American insti- 
utions of higher christian education, upholding American ideals, 
inculcating the American spirit and supporting American insti- 
tutions of social order and of civil and religious liberty." 

When the corporation determined to remove the seat of the 
institution from Lowell to Springfield the trustees were influ- 
enced in their action only by the best interests of the college and 
by the same considerations which have prompted the removal to 
this city of so many other notable institutions and interests. The 
field was found more broad, the surroundings more congenial, 
and more, Springfield long had been known as a seat of culture 
and refinement, as well as a " city of homes. ' ' In its new home 
the college was first opened in buildings in the east part of the 
city, but subsequently the corporation purchased a considerable 
tract of land (now S^/o acres in extent) on State street, where the 
buildings are now located. The grounds occupy the block 
bounded by State and College streets, and Wilbraham and Wind- 
sor avenues. The institution is organized on the usual plan, 
with college and preparatory school, open to both sexes. 

The French-American college aims to instruct its students 
in branches usually taught in New England schools and colleges, 

( 143 ) 


with special reference to training for the ministry, to bring 
French-Americans into a certain kind of life— a life in which a 
pure Christianity at once creates and regulates liberty. 

The officers of the corporation are Rev. Samuel H. Lee, 
president ; Rev. Samuel H. Woodrow vice-president ; Henry H. 
Bowman, treasurer; Jonathan Barnes, clerk; H. Curtis Rowley, 
auditor. The trustees are Rev. S. H. Lee, Jonathan Barnes, H. 
H. BoAvman, Rev. Joshua Coit, Miss Emily Winters, Rev. S. H. 
Woodrow, Rev. T. S. St. Aubin, Z. Willis Kemp, Gov. W. Mur- 
ray Crane, Henry A. King, D. B. Wesson, Rev. F. B. Makepeace, 
Miss Celia C. Merriam, Miss Charlotte W. Porter, H. Curtis 
Rowley, William E. AYright, Mary E. Wooley; Rev. Winfield S. 
Hawkes, financial secretary. 

More than three-quarters of a century ago a business school 
Avas opened in Springfield, and instruction was given in short- 
hand, book-keeping, penmanship and mathematics. Through- 
out all subsequent years a school of this character has been main- 
tained in the city, but the modern methods of instruction are 
wholly unlike those of earlier times. Indeed, there has been 
the same comparative advancement in this field of education as 
in the public and high schools, and the business school or college 
is now regarded as a public necessity. At the present time 
Springfield has two such institutions, both well equipped for edu- 
cational work in their special line, and both worthy of the con- 
sideration of all our people. 

The Springfield Business school, which perhaps is one of the 
most noted and widely known institutions of its class in New 
England, was established in 1884 by Elmer E. Childs. then occu- 
pying two small rooms in Bill 's block, on Main street. Later on 
it was removed to a hall in the Haynes building, and thence in 
1898 to splendidly equipped apartments in the Besse building, 
occupying the entire upper floor. From the time the school was 
founded the present proprietor, B. J. Griffin, has been immedi- 
ately connected with the shorthand department, first as teacher, 
then as associate owner, and finally as sole proprietor. He be- 
came partner with Mr. Childs in 1895, and sole proprietor in 

( 144 ) 



This school is perhaps best known through its remarkable 
success in teaching typewriting, Mr. Griffin having begun using 
his method (which is simply to Avrite on the keyboard without 
using the eyes to locate the keys) in 1889, and so successful was 
he in this work that his method has been adopted by the best 
business schools in the country. The graduates of the Spring- 
field Business school may be numbered almost by thousands, and 
there are but few offices in this city which has not given employ- 
ment to some of its former pupils. 


The original act incorporating the city made no special pro- 
vision for and only incidental mention of a fire department, but 
it was not that the framers of tlie act were unmindful of the im- 
portance of this branch of city government. Their first and 
highest aim Avas to secure the charter act itself with as little 
opposition as possible from those who were not in favor of the 
advanced form of government. But in the very next year the 
legislature made an important amendment to the charter and 
authorized the organization of a fire department on a basis suited 
to the commercial importance of the young city. From that 
time the fire department has been one of the established branches 
of government and one which has been of the greatest value to 
mercantile and manufacturing interests. Every citizen of 
Springfield feels a certain, special pride in the department, 
and hundreds of the older men of the present day in a reminis- 
cent mood refer with satisfaction to the time when they "ran 
with the machine." Half a century and more ago every public 
spirited man felt it a duty to be in some manner identified with 
one of the fire companies, and regardless of membership it was a 
pleasant self-imposed task to take hold and help "man the 
brakes" on the old goose-neck when a fire was threatening the 
property of a fellow townsman. 

The Springfield fire department traces its origin to the earli- 
est years of the town's history, when the founders of the planta- 
tion ordered among themselves to keep a stout "leathern bucket" 
for use in case of fire. At the public expense a number of hooks 

10-2 ( 145 ) 


and ladders were made, and were stored in some place known to 
every man in the town. A little later a two-wheeled cart was 
provided to carry the ladders, and on each corner of the primi- 
tive ''truck" Avas hung a leather bucket, ready for instant use. 
This equipment comprised the fire-fighting apparatus for more 
than the first century of the town's history, while the personnel 
of the department included every man who could "pass the 
bucket" along the line without spilling the water. During this 
period the Centre, as the thickly settled portion of the town was 
called, was a little scattered hamlet of houses and stores situated 
between the river on the west and the Town brook on the east, 
the latter being a small stream that flowed along under the hill, 
just east of Main street. In dry seasons the brook could not be 
relied on for a water supply, and to remedy the defect the in- 
habitants caused the bed of the stream to be deepened and 
widened, with here and there small reservoirs in which water was 
stored for fire purposes. 

At length, however, the department of early days evolved 
from its primitive state to that of the possession of a fire engine, 
which was procured by subscription in 1792, and to which was 
given the name of "Lion." (It has been intimated that the 
town contributed to the purchase of the engine but the records 
give no light on the subject.) In 1794 a "Fire club" was or- 
ganized to man the engine, and each member was required to 
keep in his house "two fire bags, made of skin," with which to 
remove goods from burning houses, and two buckets to be used 
in carrying water. 

As near as can be determined from meagre and somewhat 
conflicting records the original members of the fire club were 
Thomas Dwight, William Smith, Joseph Williams, William Shel- 
don, William Pynchon, Luke Bliss, Zenas Parsons, Chauucey 
Brewer, Bezaleel Howard, James Byers, Samuel Lyman, Zebina 
Stebbins, John Hooker and George Bliss. Membership, how- 
ever, in this old fire-fighting organization soon increased in num- 
bers, and in the course of the next ten or a dozen years these 
names were added to the roll : Charles Stebbins, Jacob Sargeant, 
Daniel Lombard. Jacob Bliss, Alex. Bliss. Joshua Frost, George 

( 146 ) 


Blake, Solomon Warrinor, Rufus Sikes, Justin Lombard, Wil- 
liam Ely, Israel Chapin. Qnartiis Stebbins, Samuel Osgood, Sam- 
uel Kingsley, Samuel Orne, Edward Pynchon, Thomas Stebbins, 
Festus Bliss, Edmund Dwight, Oliver B. Morris, Jonas Coolidge, 
John Chaffee, James Dwight, Robert Emory, John IngersoU, 
Ebenezer Russell, jun., Thomas Sargeant, Henry Brewer, John 
Howard, Charles Howard, Justice Willard, Charles Stearns, 
John Worthiugton and Moses Bliss. 

The Lion was an extraordinary piece of mechanical appa- 
ratus, but was one of the types of its period and in a way served 
a useful purpose. At first it was supplied with five feet of hose 
but under foreman Elijah Blake tw^enty-five feet more were 
added. For many years the machine was kept in a building on 
the old town hall site on State street, and after its period of serv- 
ice was ended the "tub" was removed to a location near the 
south end of Main street, where it was kept until 1840, the date 
of its last public appearance, although it practically went out of 
service in 1824. 

Among the early foremen of the company known as the fire 
club there may be recalled the names of Festus Bliss, Oliver Col- 
lins, Eleazer Williams, Thomas Sargeant, William Ely, James 
AYells, Apollos Marsh and Elijah Blake, the latter having come 
into command of the town firemen in 1809, and afterward hav- 
ing been identified with the history of the department for many 
years. One of the last foremen under the old system was Dray- 
ton Perkins, whose reminiscences of early times in the fire de- 
partment are exceedingly interesting. 

In 1824, largely through the efforts of George Dwight, a 
new side-brake engine — the "Tiger" — was purchased, the funds 
therefor being raised almost wholly by subscription. The new 
engine was a decided improvement on the Lion, but when 
brought into competition Avith the machines owned by the Chico- 
pee and Northampton people its men on the brakes were so thor- 
oughly 'Svashed" by the water thrown by the visitors that 
Springfield determined to have as good an engine as then was 
procurable. In the meantime the armory people had exchanged 
their old tubs for engines of improved types, one a Button, 

( 147 ) 


called Eagle No. 1. and the other a Waterman, which was locally 
named Eagle No. 2. the latter being designed for use at the 
Watershops. This being done, the "Old Ocean" was sold to the 
Western railroad company, and soon gave way to the "New 
Ocean." the latter a Jeffers make hand engine. 

In May, 1824, the town took np the question of purchasing 
a hand engine for nse in the principal village — Springfield — 
and Justice AYillard, Jonathan Dwight and Robert Emery were 
appointed a committee to consider the matter and make report. 
On May 10 the report was submitted, and recommended the pur- 
chase of a new suction engine and hose, but when the proposition 
was submitted to the meeting for approval it was promptly voted 
down, owing to certain jealousies (not rivalries) which then 
existed among the several sections of the town. Then a fund 
M'as raised for the purchase of the "Tiger," of which mention 
has been made. About the same time the Chicopee people, who 
had voted against the proposition to purchase an engine for 
Springfield (in which action they were supported by the Indian 
Orchard and Sixteen Acres people) secured an engine which 
they named "Torrent" and which still is owned in that city. 

However, in 1826, the town of Springfield voted to appoint 
Elijah Blake, Thomas Sargeant, Joseph Pease, Joseph Hall, jun., 
and Walter Warriner a committee to consider the purchase of a 
first class suction engine with 100 feet of leading hose, and also 
suggested that there be provided a suitable place for keeping the 
apparatus, hooks and ladders, and a carriage for carrying the 
ladders to and from fires. This report was considered in open 
meeting, was accepted, and Joseph Hall, jr.. Elijah Blake and 
George Colton were made a conunittee to purchase the engine. 
In 1827 it was voted to build an engine house, and Jonathan 
Dwight. jr., Albert Morgan, Joseph Carew, Alex. Bliss, Joseph 
Lombard, jr.. Orange Chapin and William Childs Avere appointed 
a committee to supervise its construction. 

In 1830 the legislature passed an "act to establish a fire de- 
partment in the town of Springfield," and authorized the select- 
men to appoint a chief and as many assistants and fircAvards, not 
exceeding fourteen, with as many enginemen, hosemen, and hook 

( 148 ) 


and ladder men as they might deem necessary, not exceeding 42 
men for each suction engine, 30 men for each common engine, 5 
men for each hose carriage, and 25 men for each hook and ladder 
company. Under this act (which, however, was repealed in 
1847) the fire department began to assume definite form, and its 
alfairs thereafter were more directly under the charge of the 
town through its selectmen. 

In 1831 Elijah Blake was appointed chief engineer, George 
Bliss 1st, Simon Sanborn 2d, and Edwin Booth 3d assistant 
engineer. All were reappointed in 1832, except Edwin Booth, 
who was succeeded by Samuel Woodworth, and in 1833 the offi- 
cers were the same as in 1831. All were continued in their re- 
spective capacities until 1836. when Francis M. Carew became 
3d assistant. In 1837 Chief Blake was again appointed but re- 
signed and was succeeded by Ithamar Goodman. INIr. Carew 
was made 1st, and Charles Stearns 2d assistant engineer. In 
1838 Mr. Blake was chief, Mr. Bliss 1st, ]\Ir. Carew 2d, and 
Mr. Stearns 3d assistant engineer. 

In 1833 the selectmen made a practical reorganization of the 
department and designated manj' new members for the several 
companies then in existence in the town, including those of 
Chicopee, which was a district of considerable importance and 
was regarded by its people a fair rival village to Springfield. In 
1834 the legislature passed "An act concerning the appointment 
of enginemen, " and the town during the next five years adopted 
several of its provisions, the result being more complete syvStem 
in fire department affairs and better protection to the property 
of citizens. 

On October 13, 1844, there occurred a disastrous fire at the 
corner of Main and Sanford streets which resulted in the destruc- 
tion of five buildings and eight stores. On that occasion Chief 
Blake's department was given an opportunity to show its effi- 
ciency, and it is evident that the firemen acquitted themselves 
nobly, as the town afterward voted to pay $50 for "refresh- 
ments, etc.." furnished the men; and further it was voted "that 
Dr. James Swan and Charles Stearns be a committee to carry a 
vote of thanks to Jeremy Warriner, 0. M. Alden and Roswell 
Shurtleff for refreshments furnished." 

( 149 ) 


In 1845 the Springfield fire district was established, upon 
■which the selectmen deeded to the district all the rights of the 
town in and to the engine house, fire apparatus and other sup- 
plies and equipment then in the district available for fire pur- 
poses. The district was formed within the limits of school dis- 
trict No. 8. At the same time the Chicopee fire district was 
formed, and in the same manner became possessed of the appa- 
ratus kept therein. In this year, and the next, the officers of 
the Springfield fire district were Cicero Simmons, chief engineer, 
Lucius Harthan, 1st assistant, James M. Thompson, 2d assistant, 
and Samuel S. Day, 3d assistant engineer. 

From this time until 1852 the fire department appears not 
to have received the attention of the town authorities, and from 
the fact that it then was of a local character it undoubtedly was 
maintained by private contribution. In fact after the engine 
house and apparatus were transferred to the district, the control 
of the department appears to have been vested in that body 
alone, although no record of its transactions is found. 

In 1853, according to Chief Brewer's first annual report, 
the companies comprising the "S. F. D." were Niagara engine 
company No. 1 with 70 members ; Cataract engine company No. 
2 with 48 members; Eagle engine company No. 1, with 75 mem- 
bers; Eagle company No. 2, with 66 members (the "two Eagles" 
were the property of the U. S. government, kept on the armory 
grounds for the especial protection of the federal buildings but 
through the kindness of the commandant they were at the call of 
the city in case of need) ; and Ocean hose company No. 1, with 30 
members. The other department equipment comprised 13 reser- 
voirs, conveniently located in different parts of the city : an 
engine house in Sanford street, valued at $2,000 ; an engine house 
and land in Stockbridge street, valued at $1,600 ; an engine house 
and land in the sixth ward, valued at $200 : Niagara and Cataract 
engines, valued at $500 each; Niagara and Cataract hose car- 
riages, valued at $50 each ; and an old engine in the sixth ward, 
valued at $50. 

Tender the provisions of the amendatory act passed in 1853 
the city council adopted an ordinance establishing a fire depart- 

( 150 ) 


ment. to consist of a chief engineer and eight other engineers, 
and of as many enginemen, hydrant-men and hook and ladder 
men, to be divided into companies, as the number of engines and 
other fire apparatus should from time to time require. In ac- 
cordance with this ordinance the department was thoroughly re- 
modeled, and in 1854 a new hook and ladder company was added, 
taking the name of "American hook and ladder company" in 
1855. In 1861 "Champion fire company" was organized at 
Indian Orchard, and during the same year the "Two Eagles" 
were ordered not to perform fire duty off the government lands. 
The order, however, was subsequently modified, and the city 
again was given the benefit of the companies. About the same 
time, owing to some disobedience of the rules, Cataract company 
was disbanded, and its reorganization, while eventually accom- 
plished, was a slow process. 

In 1862 the city purchased an Amoskeag steam engine, 
which was placed in the quarters formerly occupied by Niagara 
company, the latter being temporarily disorganized. The 
steamer company took the name of "Monitor" steam fire engine 
company, No. 1. In the same year Major Dyer, commandant at 
the armory, was furnished M'ith two steam engines, both Amos- 
keags. and the Western railroad company purchased a similar 
engine to replace the "Ocean." At the annual parade held 
September 24, 1865, the "S. F. D." made a very creditable show- 
ing, with its splendid equipment of fire apparatus of modern 
type. The companies then "in line" were American hook and 
ladder company. Monitor steam fire engine company, the "Con- 
stitution" steam fire engine company (apparatus owned by the 
W. R. R. Co.), and the Union steam fire engine company (owned 
by the United States). 

After this time the companies were renamed, as the next 
annual report of the chief engineer mentions the working force 
of the department as consisting of the Geo. Dwight steamer, the 
L. 0. Hanson steamer, the Henry Gray steamer, the AYaterspout 
steamer, the Champion hand engine and the hook and ladder 
company. In 1867 Alert hose company Avas organized, and was 
stationed on AVorthington street, near Spring street. In 1868 

( 151 ) 


the engine house and hose tower (now department headquarters) 
on Pynehon street, was erected and was first occupied by the 
steamer Dwight. In this year the working force of the depart- 
ment comprised three steamers, each with a hose carriage and a 
company of 25 men, one independent hose company, of 35 men, 
and one hand engine and hose carriage at Indian Orchard. 

In 1870-71 the Dwight became Engine Co. No. 1 ; the Hanson 
became Engine Co. No. 2 ; the Henry Gray became Engine Co. 
No. 3 ; the new steamer bought in 1871, and stationed on Walnut 
street, became Engine Co. No. 4: Champion hand engine com- 
pany acquired the old steamer purchased in 1862 and became 
Engine Co. No. 5 ; Alert hose became Hose Co. No. 1 ; the truck 
company on Sanford street became H. & L. Co. No. 1 (apparatus 
put in service in 1871), while Waterspout engine company re- 
mained as before, not being under the control of the city. 

From this time, keeping even pace with the growth of the 
city in other directions, the fire department has been increased 
in working force and efficiency as occasion has required, and the 
city authorities have made liberal expenditures in favor of this 
branch of government. Since 1862 the department has evolved 
from the primitive equipment of an old-time volunteer depart- 
ment to that of a modern paid organization, yet in a way the 
volunteer character has ever been preserved and the bonds of 
firemanic brotherhood apparently are as strong as at any time 
in past years. The Springfield veteran firemen's association 
was organized February 23, 1895, and was incorporated April 
10, 1897. Its objects are purely social and fraternal, and the 
annual muster is an occasion of general observance throughout 
the region. Its predecessor organization was the Firemen's 
mutual relief association, organized March 16, 1858, with a 
benevolent purpose in view. Its rolls were open to members of 
the fire department, each of whom contributed twenty-five cents 
membership fee and a like sum annually for the support of the 
relief fund. 

In 1893 it was deemed best to place the affairs of the depart- 
ment in charge of a commission, and accordingly the first body 
thus constituted comprised Edward P. Chapin, James E. Dun- 

( 152 ) 


leavy, William H. Haile, M. A". B. Edgerly and Olin Smith, five 
practical and thorough business men. At that time the board 
of engineers comprised A. P. Leshure, chief engineer, and J. A. 
Stevens, J. H. Gould, J. H. McCleary and H. W. Kej^es, assist- 
ant engineers. 

The apparatus turned over to the commission comprised 
that used by Engine Co. No. 1, located on Bond street, an Amos- 
keag steamer, put in service in 1871, and a two-horse hose car- 
riage, put in sex'vice in 1885 ; Engine Co. No. 2, on Pynchon 
street, an Amoskeag steamer, put in service in 1873, and a one- 
horse hose wagon, put in service in 1885 ; Hose Co. No. 3, on Pyn- 
chon street, a two-horse hose wagon put in service in 1891 ; En- 
gine Co. No. 4, on "Walnut street, an Amoskeag steamer, put in 
service in 1862, and a one-horse hose wagon, put in service in 
1885 ; Hose Co. No. 5, Indian Orchard, one hand and a one-horse 
hose carriage and a set of ladders; Hose Co. No. 6, located on 
South Main street, a two-horse hose wagon, put in service in 
1887 ; Hose Co. No. 7, on Worthington street, a two-horse hose 
wagon, put in service in 1889 ; Engine Co. No. 8. at AVinchester 
park, an Amoskeag steamer, put in service in 1891 ; Hose Co. 
Xo. 9, North Alain street, a two-horse hose wagon, put in service 
in 1893 : Hook & Ladder Co. No. 1, on Pynchon street, Babcock 
aerial ladder, put in service in 1888 : Hook & Ladder Co. No. 2, 
at AA^inchester park, a Leverich truck, put in service in 1871 ; 
Hook & Ladder Co. No. 3, North Main street, a Leverich truck, 
put in service in 1875. 

Under the control of the commissioners, although the advis- 
ability of the board was at first questioned, the Springfield fire 
department has attained its highest degree of efficiency, and to- 
day it ranks with the best equipped, officered and managed fire 
departments in the state. During the last ten years the regular 
working force has been almost doubled, and under the prudent 
management of the commissioners the city has made liberal ap- 
propriations for extending the service of the department, the 
erection of new buildings and stations and for the purchase of 
new and improved apparatus. A glance at the last '"inven- 
tory" of property appertaining to the department shows a pres- 

( 153 ) 


ent total value of all property of $305,755, divided as follows: 
Land, $47,330 ; buildings, $125,375 ; equipment, $133,050. The 
expenses of the department for the current year 1900 amounted 
to the sum of $99,500. 

The following- is a complete list of the apparatus: Five 
steam fire engines with accompanying hose wagons; one steam 
fire engine in reserve; 2 chemical engines; 3 chemical and hose 
combination wagons; 3 hose wagons; one water tower; 2 aerial 
ladder trucks ; 2 ladder trucks ; one ladder truck in reserve ; one 
hose reel stored at headquarters; one hose reel stored at Indian 
Orchard ; one hose reel located near Ludlow line ; one hose wagon 
at Forest park; one trolley transportation car for transporting 
engines to the hill and suburbs of the city; supply wagons and 
sleighs for each company. 

Chief Engineers, S. F. D. (under the charter).— James D. 
Brewer, 1852-53 : George Ensworth, 1854 ; Levi W. Park, 1855 ; 
George Dwight, 1856-59 ; Hosea C. Lombard, 1860 ; L. 0. Hanson, 
1861 ; Joseph Marsh, 1862 ; Levi 0. Hanson, 1863-64 : George 
Dwight, 1865 ; L. H. Powers, 1866-67 ; W. W. Day, 1868 : L. H. 
Powers, 1869 : A. P. Leshure, 1870 : L. H. Powers, 1871 ; Hosea 
C. Lombard, 1872-73 ; A. P. Leshure, 1874-93 ; William J. Little- 
field, 1894-1901. 

Fire Commissioners 

1894— Edward P. Chapin, James E. Dunleavy, AVilliam H. 
Haile, M. V. B. Edgerly, Olin H. Smith. 

1895— Edward P. Chapin, James E. Dunleavy, AVilliam H. 
Haile, M. V. B. Edgerly, AYalter P. Goodenough. 

1896— Edward P. Chapin, James E. Dunleavy, AVilliam H. 
Haile, James A. Bill, jr., Henry S. Dickinson. 

1897— Edward P. Chapin. James E. Dunleavy. AVilliam H. 
Haile, James A. Bill, jr., Charles C. Lewis. 

1898— Edward P. Chapin, James E. Dunleavy. AVilliam H. 
Haile, Homer G. Gilmore, Charles C. Lewis. 

1899— Edward P. Chapin, James E. Dunleavy. AA^illiam H. 
Haile, Homer G. Gilmore, Franklin A. Latimer, jr. 

1900— Edward P. Chapin. James E. Dunleavy. AVilliam H. 
Haile, Homer G. Gilmore, Julius P. Carman. 

( 154 ) 


1901 — Edward P. Chapin, James E. Dunleavy, Homer G. 
Gilmore, Henry L. Hines. AYilliam AY. Tapley. 


Previous to 1848 the town of Springfield had no water sup- 
ply for domestic purposes other than that furnished by the 
house-lot wells of property owners, and an occasional town pump. 
For fire protection that part of the town bordering on the Con- 
necticut had recourse to the river, but the town brook was the 
chief dependence for many years. In the thickly-settled locali- 
ties on the hill a series of storage wells were constructed, but 
their water Avas rarely used for any other than fire purposes. 

In the summer of 1843 Charles Stearns, who is still remem- 
bered as one of the most enterprising men of the town in his 
time, suggested the propriety of establishing a system of water 
works, but those whom he sought to interest in the undertaking 
were doubtful of the success of the venture, hence gave little en- 
couragement and no financial aid to the project. The worthy 
promoter, however, was not discouraged by the lack of interest 
shown by his fellow townsmen, and resolved to "go it alone" in 
constructing a general water system for the business section of 
the town. He secured the necessary permission from the select- 
men, and in August, 1843, began the work of la.ving wooden 
main pipes— pump logs— from what is known as the Van Horn 
reservoir through the streets to the AVestern railroad depot and 
down Main to Bliss street, supplying dAvellings, stores, hotels and 
other buildings, to the number of about 150, with good wholesome 
water at moderate cost. Year after year he extended the sei'v- 
ice until nearly all the principal streets in the business center 
were supplied, and he even essayed to furnish water for fire pro- 
tection purposes. 

]Mr. Stearns' Avater Avorks plant, hoAvcA^er crude and imper- 
fect it may have been at the time. Avas a great benefit to the peo- 
ple of the toAvn. As an investment his scheme Avas successful, 
and when the business interests of the town called for an im- 
proved system local capital Avas ready to take stock in the pro- 
posed company. In February, 1848. an application Avas made 

( 155 ) 


to the legislature for an act incorporating the Springfield Aque- 
duct company, the petition therefor bearing the signatures of 
eighty-three prominent citizens. In the- meantime a strong 
opposition to the plan had arisen and the incorporating act was 
delayed several months. On April 14, in town meeting the in- 
habitants voted to approve the measure, but when the opposition 
became pronounced an attempt was made to nullify the former 
action and secure a vote of disapproval. This subject came up 
for action at a meeting held April 24, but instead of a vote on 
the main question the electors voted an indefinite postponement 
of further action. This was a substantial victory for the advo- 
cates of the water works, and on May 10 the bill became a law 
and the Springfield aqueduct company was duly incorporated. 
Charles Stearns, Festus Stebbins, George Hastings, "and their 
associates" being named as incorporators. 

Upon its organization the company succeeded to the prop- 
erty and interests formerly owned by Mr. Stearns and at once 
became one of the prominent public improvement enterprises of 
the town. As the water service was extended to meet the re- 
quirements of the public the capital of the company was in- 
creased until 1867, when the outstanding stock amounted to 
$137,800. The reservoir capacity was enlarged and new cement- 
lined pipes replaced the old pump logs. The company kept 
faith with its promises and provided the town with a good sup- 
ply of water for both domestic and fire purposes, yet along about 
1860 there arose a feeling in favor of city -water works or munici- 
pal ownership in the system then being operated. This feeling 
is said to have arisen in part from the fact that the city at that 
time was increasing rapidly in population and commercial im- 
portance and the fear that the actual capacity of the works* then 
in use was not sufficient on extraordinary occasions. About this 
time the city authorities had sunk a well for fire purposes at the 
intersection of State and Stebbins streets, and it was proposed 
to construct a system of wells, to connect them by pipes and con- 
vey their waters to the lower part of the city for general use. 
This plan seemed practical and a committee was appointed to 
make a thorough investigation and report its conclusions to the 
city council. 

( 150 ) 


This specially constituted commission comprised Mayor Har- 
ris, Alderman Hitchcock and Conneilmen Leonard, Noyes and 
AVoodman. They reported a feasible plan under the well sys- 
tem, and the result was in the formation of the City aqueduct 
company, with D. L. Harris, E. A. Chapman, (i. R. Townsley 
and B. B. Tyler as its proprietors. This company took a supply 
of water from wells on the hill and conveyed it through pipes 
into the business sections of the city ; but there soon arose the cry 
that the Avells were draining the private wells in their locality, 
and also that trees and all vegetation were threatened by the re- 
moval of their natural nourishment. It was then suggested 
that the city should become owner of the water works plants and 
also that a new and ample supply should be found Avithout dan- 
ger to private interests. This matter was the subject of agita- 
tion for several years\ and finally, in 1872. an act of the legis- 
lature authorized a million dollar bond issue for the purpose of 
establishing an adequate water system. Avith a source of supply 
either in the Connecticut or the Chicopee river. The act Avas 
approved May 6. 1872. and Avas accepted by the people on May 
28 folloAving. 

The first board of Avater connnissioners appointed under the 
act comprised Horace Smith, Daniel L. Harris, A. D. Briggs, 
Samuel AT. Porter and George C. Fisk. and under their super- 
A'ision the difficult Avork of inaugurating the neAv system was be- 
gun. The franchise and interests of the old Springfield aque- 

^In a sperial communication to the city council in August. 1871, Mayor 
Smith said : "In 1860 this subject was brought before the council, and a commit- 
tee was appointed to make the necessary investigations. The report of the com- 
mittee contained estimates of the cost of obtaining a supply from the Connecticut 
river and other sources. No steps, however, were taken toward carrying into 
effect either of the suggestions of the committee, and the matter has been suf- 
fered to rest until now. The population and business of the city are steadily 
increasing, and the demand for a sufficient supply of water is increasing In more 
than a corresponding ratio. There is a considerable portion of the city that 
the aqueduct company, though making the most of their facilities, cannot reach, 
and there is a very large amount of property without any adequate protection 
from destruction by fire." Agreeable to the suggestions of the mayor, the board 
of aldermen, on August 22. designated Messrs. Sibley, Dickinson and Hawkins as 
members of a joint special commission to make inquiry as to the most feasible 
plan of supplying the city with water. On August 28 the common council se- 
lected as members of the commission above described Messrs. Fioward. Bradley. 
Newell and Holt. 

( 157 ) 


duct company, and also of the City aqueduct company, were pur- 
chased, and their systems were united, and a new temporary 
source of supply was established, first by taking water from Gar- 
den brook and later by ei-ecting a pumping station on the bank 
of the Connecticut at Brightwood. This, however, was not 
more than a temporary expedient and as soon as the necessary 
preliminary investigations could be concluded, and a proper 
reservoir location could be found, the commissioners purchased 
a little more than 800 acres of land in Ludlow, from which local- 
itv the citv has since derived its greatest supply of water. 

Oak Street School, Springfield 

The city still owns the old sources of supply which were ac- 
quired from the aqueduct companies, the extensive works in 
Ludlow constructed in 1873-75. the works at Belchertown, which 
were constructed in 1890-91, and the additional works at Lud- 
low, constructed in 1893-94. The aggregate storage capacity of 
all works is 2.295,792.000 gallons of water ; mode of supply, 

The city water system has cost Springfield the total sum of 
i|^2,128,559.56. of which amount interest bearing bonds are out- 

( 158 ) 


standiiiu- in the sum of $1,500,000. According to the last annual 
report of the superintendent of water works, there are now in 
use 144.64 miles of supply and distribution mains, while the 
total number of connections in use is 9,764. 

The following table, taken from the last commissioners' re- 
port, shows the total amount of water rates charged and collected 
in each year since 1885 : 

Water Rates Charffed 



(During th 

e year, onlu) 

M ate 


s Collected 


















$6,450 73 








8,152 74 








7,129 69 








9,960 31 








7,371 75 


1 140.604 






7,071 84 


! 150,515 






9,363 98 


i 164,894 






14,587 69 








1,832 93 








15,651 44 








10,952 60 








2,758 83 








9,578 08 








11,350 58 








5,680 33 

The expense of maintenance in 1900 Avas $24,024.97. 
^Vater C ommiissioncrs. 

Under the act of 1872 provision was made for a water com- 
mission of five members. In 1873 the number was reduced to 
four members. By an act passed in 1880 the board was abol- 
ished, and it was provided that from and after February 1 the 
water commission of the city should comprise the mayor, ex 
officio, and two citizens, the latter to be elected by the city coun- 
-cil, and to hold office two years after the first appointments. One 
commissioner is chosen each year. 

♦Amounts for 1800 estimated at .$20,000 less than actual totals for that 
jear. which includes \'> months water rates — instead of VI — due to change of 
jime in rendering the semi-annual bills. 

( 159 ) 


1872-73^— Horace Smith. Daniel L. Harris, A. D. Briggs^ 
Samuel AY. Porter, George Fisk. 

1874— Charles 0. Chapin, A. D. Briggs, George C. Fisk^ 
Daniel L. Harris. Samuel W. Porter. 

1875-76 — Charles 0. Chapin, Lawson Sibley, Sanuiel W. 

1877-80— Charles 0. Chapin, Samuel W. Porter, N. ^^\ 

] 881-89 — The Mayor. Hiram Q. Sanderson, Noyes AV. Fisk. 

1890-92— The Alayor. Hiram Q. Sanderson, Charles L. 

1893— The INIayor, Charles L. Goodhue, Richard F. Hawkins. 

1894-1901 — The Alayor. Charles L. Goodhue, James F. Bid- 


From the time of founding the colony at Agawam the au- 
thorities of the town and subsequent city have always made 
special provision for the support of the indigent poor. In the 
early history of the town applicants for help were few, as it was 
the policy of the authorities to rid the settlement of all unworthy 
persons ; but did one of their own townsmen by misfortune 
come to want assistance was immediately and freely extended. 

From the time overseers of the poor were first elected the 
care of unfortunate persons was entrusted to them, and the ap- 
plicants generally were placed with some worthy townsman until 
the public was relieved of their support. This custom prevailed 
until 1753, when the town voted down a proposition to build an 
almshouse, and instead thereof directed the selectmen to hire a 
house and land where public charges could be maintained. In 
1798 it was proposed to unite Springfield Avith other towns and 
establish a common poor house, but this plan met with disap- 
proval and Springfield voted to support its own poor independent 
of AA'est Springfield. Longraeadow and Ludlow. 

In 1801 it was voted to "purchase a place for a poor house,"" 
and Jonathan Dwight. William Pynchon, George Bliss, AVilliam 

^The commission as constituted in 1S7--73 is not mentioned in the published 
city register. 

( 160 ) 


Ely and John Hooker were appointed a committee to carry out 
the Avill of the inhabitants. In 1802 the committee purchased 
from the heirs of John AVorthington the property formerly 
owned by Ebenezer Hitchcock, paying therefor $660.67. In 
1826 it was voted to build a new almshouse on the land, and to 
erect in connection therewith a workhouse, but as the county then 
was contemplating the erection of a house of correction, the idea 
was abandoned, and in 1827 the almshouse alone was built, at a 
cost of $3,000. In 1834 the property was sold and the town pur- 
chased the Benjamin Brown farm of 43 acres, paying $3,000 for 
the land and erecting new buildings at an additional cost of 
$5,500. In subsequent years the almshouse property was the 
frequent subject of attention on the part of the authorities. The 
present buildings Avere erected in 1873, and since that year the 
city's poor have been given considerate attention by a liberal 
board of overseers. The property is located on the Boston road, 
about two miles east of court square. 

During the year ending November 30, 1900, the city expend- 
ed $47,453 for the support of the indigent poor, and the addi- 
tional sum of $1,932.30 for the maintenance of an isolation hos- 
pital. During the year 381 persons were cared for. One of the 
recent adjuncts of the institution is the wayfarer's lodge, where 
work is provided and shelter given to unemployed persons and 
transient applicants for assistance. 

In Springfield the affairs of the almshouse are in charge of 
the overseers of the poor, who are appointed by the city council ; 
and of the board thus constituted the mayor and the city physi- 
cian are ex officio members. 


Previous to the creation of the park commission, in pursu- 
ance of the act of 1882, neither the city authorities nor the 
people of Springfield had given much thought to the subject of 
parks, or of a single large place of public resort where business 
cares might be laid aside for rest and quiet and comfort in 
nature's inviting fields. In 1821, Avhen certain enterprising 
citizens of the principal village gave land for the court house. 


( 161 ) 


they also donated to the public about one acre for use as a public 
square, or park, to be enjoj^ed by all the people in common. 
Later on, as the town continued to grow in population, it became 
necessary to lay out public streets in localities formerly occupied 
for farming purposes, and as the old roads of earlier years had 
been established to suit the convenience of owners rather than 
with regard to regularity, the systematic survey of street lines 
naturally created numerous small angular parcels at points of 
intersection, which eventually were transformed into delightful 
little parks; and they were named in allusion to whomsoever had 
donated the land for park purposes or had beautified the same at 
personal expense, or who had in some manner been prominently 
identified with the locality. 

In addition to the magnificent tract of land known as Forest 
park, the city owns or controls for park purposes twenty-eight 
other parcels, with an aggregate area of 22.52 acres, known and 
located as follows : 

Benton lawn, State street, 3.55 acres in extent (this beautiful 
park tract almost in the heart of the city was the result of joint 
action by the municipal authorities and the commandant at the 
United States arsenal, Colonel J. G. Benton, whose efforts in the 
work endeared him to every loyal citizen) ; Calhoun square, 
Chestnut street, 2.4 acres, named in honor of the late M^illiam B. 
Calhoun ; Carew triangle. North Main street, .08 of an acre, 
named in allusion to the late Francis M. Carew ; City Hall square, 
Pynchon street, .16 of an acre ; Clarendon fountain, Clarendon 
street, .10 of an acre, beautified and provided Avith a drinking 
fountain by John D. and W. H. McKnight, and donated to the 
public ; Concord terrace. Concord street, .15 of an acre ; Court 
square,^ Main street, .93 of an acre (the Wesson fountain, the 
gift of Daniel B. Wesson, was placed on the Main street front of 
the square in 1884. Many yeai-s ago Charles Merriam gave two 
drinking fountains for use on the square, and in 1841 James 
Byers erected a handsome marble fountain in which the water 
fell in three consecutive basins) ; Dartmouth fountain, Dart- 

'Court Square became city property by an act of the legislature passed in 

( 162 ) 


mouth street, .15 of an acre ; Dartmouth terrace, end of Dart- 
mouth street, .39 of an acre ; Dorchester rest, Dorchester street, 
.11 of an acre; Gunn square, Westford avenue, .80 of an acre; 
Kenwood terrace, Belmont avenue, .39 of an acre ; Kibbe foun- 
tain, Federal street, .07 of an acre; Lafayette rest, end of Lafay- 
ette street, .10 of an acre ; Magnolia terrace. Magnolia terrace. .29 
of an acre ; INIaplewood terrace, Maplewood terrace, .76 of an 
acre : McKnight glen, Ingersoll grove, 6 acres ; McKnight trian- 
gle. Bay street. .62 of an acre, improved and donated by John D. 
and W. H. INIcKnight : Merrick terrace, State street, .55 of an 
acre; INIill street fountain. Mill street, .05 of an acre; ^Nlill river 

Winchester Park and Buckingham School 

rest, Mill street. .08 of an acre ; Public lawn. ]\Iain street. .53 of 
an acre; Sargeanl's rest. North Main street, .24 of an acre; 
Stearns' square. Bridge street, .46 of an acre (donated to the 
public about 1845 by and named in honor of the late Charles 
Stearns); Tapley playground, Sherman street, 1.07 acres; the 
levee, foot of Elm street, .80 of an acre ; Thompson triangle, St. 
James avenue. 1.06 acres: Winchester triangle. State street. .62 
of an acre (named in honor of the late Charles A. Winchester). 

Before the park commission was established these tracts were 
under the supervision of committees of the city legislative bodies 

( 163 ) 


and the care they received was such as could be given by the 
employees of the department, except as liberal citizens improved 
and beautified them ; but when the commission was created a new 
order of things was established, and the entire people of the city 
proper were awakened to an earnest interest in a general park 

Fortunately, the original park commission comprised five of 
Springfield's progressive, public-spirited citizens — Daniel J. 
Marsh, John Olmsted, Orick H. Greenleaf, Walter H. Wesson 
and John D. McKnight, whose names must be forever associated 
with the measures which led to the establishment of what is now 
known as Forest park, one of the most beautiful and attractive 
home resorts in the state. Yet this great end was not attained 
without difficulties and personal sacrifices and some adverse 
criticism, for the spirit of opposition is ever manifest in measures 
proposed for the public good. For several years prior to the 
passage of the act there had been felt the need of a public park, 
and while such had been considered in local official circles, the 
most approved method of accomplishing that end had not been 
suggested. The act of 1882, general in its character and scope, 
opened the way and "made straight the path" for that element 
of the people who desired the benefits of a park resort ; but when 
the end was finally reached the lesser parks of the city w^ere not 
in any way neglected, and they have since received the same care- 
ful attention as the larger and more popular resort. In estab- 
lishing the wide reputation of Springfield as a "city of homes" 
the public parks have played a prominent part. 

Forest Park— On September 29, 1883, the park commission- 
ers completed their official organization by electing John Olmsted 
chairman, and Walter H. Wesson clerk. At that time neither 
the commissioners themselves nor any other persons in authority 
had proposed a definite plan for a city park, yet dozens of sug- 
gestions had been set afloat through the medium of the press and 
the utterances of those who assumed to know the wants of the 
city. Having no funds at their disposal, the commissioners 
could accomplish little except a supervisory control over the small 

( 164 ) 


111 his inaugural address in the year mentioned Mayor Phil- 
lips said: "I should be glad if. during the current year, some 
steps could be taken toward the inauguration of a system of 
public parks. Nature has been wonderfully lavish with our 
beautiful city, and I have only to point to the possibilities which 
might result from even a slight expenditure along the east bank 
of our river at almost any point." 

For some time previous to this there had existed a strong 
sentiment in favor of a public park on the bank of the Con- 
necticut, and when the commission came into life a careful exam- 
ination of the premises was made. It was learned that there was 
an available tract of land on the river bank between Bridge and 
HoAvard streets, which, in the opinion of the commissioners, 
could be transformed into a beautiful park, 100 feet wide and 
about 2,000 feet long, at an expense of about $125,000. It was 
then hoped that the railroad company, being greatly benefited by 
the improvement, Avould take an interest in the matter and bear 
a portion of the cost, and some negotiations were had with that 
end in view. 

AA'hile awaiting some action on the part of the railroad com- 
pany, and at the same time casting about in every direction for a 
desirable location, in October, 1884, the commissioners were 
agreeably surprised by the magnanimous offer of one of their own 
number— Orick H. Greenleaf— who proposed to present the tract 
of land known as "Forest park" for the purposes for which the 
commission was constituted, and to convey the same to the city 
free of any cost. This splendid offer was made in perfect good 
faith and was followed by a deed of conveyance, vesting title in 
the city to 65.08 acres of land located south of Sumner avenue 
and about one and one-half miles south of court square. The 
land was accepted, and in the same year the commissioners pur- 
chased from Linus Dickinson, for $2,200, a tract of 17.11 acres, 
and from AYilliam L. Dickinson, for $1,000, a tract of 7.99 acres, 
both adjoining the Greenleaf lands. Thus at the end of 1884 
Forest park comprised 90.18 acres of land of as good quality and 
as well situated as could be desired for that purpose. 

There were no further acquisitions of land for the park for 
several years, and the annual appropriations were used in devel- 

( 166 ) 


oping and improving that which had previously come into posses- 
sion of the city. Between 1884 and 1890 the city fathers appro- 
priated the total sum of $46,300 for park improvements, the 
greater portion of which was expended in Forest park while the 
smaller tracts were not in any manner neglected. In 1889 the 
county contributed $500 to the park fund. To enumerate the 
multitude of improvements made during this five-year period 
would require more space than is at our command, and would 
add little of interest to our narrative. The immediate work of 
improvement was placed under charge of Justin Sackett, a con- 
tractor of Springfield, and in the most admirable and satisfactory 
manner lie performed every duty committed to his care. 

The year 1890 constituted an eventful period in the history 
of the park. By this time the people of the entire city had be- 
come thoroughly interested in the project and all opposing ele- 
ments had been subdued in the general approval of what had 
been accomplished. In this year the park was brought nearer to 
the heart of the city by the completion of the electric street rail- 
way, and whereas the tract was previously reached only at con- 
siderable inconvenience and expense of time and money, the 
opening of the "trolley road" afforded ready access to the park 
as a popular resort for all Springfield. 

In the same year the city was made the recipient of still 
greater benefactions at the hands of generous citizens. First, 
John Olmsted, former commissioner, and commissioners Mc- 
Knight, Greenleaf, Wesson and Kirkham purchased at their own 
expense a tract of nearly fifty acres and conveyed the same gratis 
to the city. Then followed the magnificent and characteristic 
gift of Everett H. Barney, who from the outset had taken a com- 
mendable interest in the park movement, yet who had entered 
into the active councils of the commissioners in this year. 

Mr. Barney gave to the city for the park enterprise his ele- 
gant homestead property, comprising 104.56 acres of land, re- 
serving to himself only a life occupancy of the Barney residence. 
But this Avas not all. In 1892 he erected the splendid granite 
"Memorial and Lookout," also caused to be built the beautiful 
white marble monument, "Faith. Hope and Charity." which 

( 167 ) 


attracts admiring attention from all who chance to pass down the 
Long Hill road which borders the improved portion of the park 
on the west. More than this, Mr. Barney has given other valu- 
able lands, and has devoted his time and conti'ibuted liberally of 
his means to park improvements independent, and with the full 
approval, of the other commissioners, until the western limits of 
the tract have become a perfect garden of beauty — an Eden of 
horticultural art. 

In 1890 the city appropriated $13,000 for park maintenance 
and improvement and $14,000 for the purchase of the property of 
the Dickinson estate, the latter adding 89.70 acres to the lands of 
the park tract. In the same year also. President Marsh, of the 
commission, purchased at his OAvn expense and donated one and 
one-half acres of land, making the total area 334.33 acres. In 
1891 Mr. Greenleaf bought and gave to the park 4.12 acres, this 
being his third contribution in land for the good of the city's 
people. His work always was unselfish and earnest. His was 
the original gift for the park, and by his generosity and public- 
spiritedness it Avas made possible. He died May 14. 1896. but his 
good works are fondly remembered by all loyal citizens. 

In 1892 six more parcels, aggregating 61.21 acres were added 
to the park lands by these donors : Theodore A. Havemyer. 3.68 
acres; Ida M. Southworth, 6.33 acres; Marvin Chapin, 10.50 
acres; Moses Field, 7.20 acres: Ella F. Allen, 7.20 acres; Everett 
H. Barney, 26.29 acres. The park now aggregated 399.66 acres 
of land. 

Still further acquisitions of land were made in 1894, by gift 
and by purchase as follows: Helen Spring. 1.74 acres; Celia C. 
Merriam, 1.74 acres; Everett H. Barney. 22.02 and 4.24 acres in 
separate donations ; Marvin Kirkland. 3 acres ; and the William 
Barry tract of 1.86 acres which was acquired by purchase and 
the process of law, at a cost of $800. 

In 1896 five more parcels Avere secured, four by gift and one 
by purchase. The donors of the year were John B. Stebbins. 
4.15 acres; George Nye, 4.15 acres; Elisha Gunn, 4.15 acres; 
Everett Barney, 17.26 acres. The fifth parcel. 7.12 acres, was 
purchased from the sisters of St. Joseph, at an ultimate cost to 
the city of $18,921.11. 

( 168 ) 


Within its present boundaries Forest park comprises 463.24 
acres of land. It has been made up of 29 separate parcels, five 
of which were purchased by the commissioners in their official 
capacity, while the 24 other parcels were donated by interested 
individual citizens. It cannot be said that the city authorities 
Iiave been miserly, or even conservative, in their appropriations 
for park purposes, as the following table will give direct contra- 
diction to such an assertion. During the seventeen years of the 
history of the park the city has raised moneys for park mainte- 
nance and improvement as follows : 1884, $9,500 ; 1885, $6,300 ; 
1886, $4,000 ; 1887, $6,500 ; 1888, $12,000 ; 1889, $8,000, and $500 
from the county; 1890, $13,000; 1891, $18,000; 1892, $18,500; 
1893, $20,000 ; 1894, $20,000 ; 1895, $22,500 ; 1896, $25,000 ; 1897, 
$28,050 ; 1898, $28,000 ; 1899, $28,000 ; 1900, $25,000. 
The Park Commissioners. 

The city park commissioners have always performed the 
duties of office with great care and zeal. They have given their 
time and service frequently at the sacrifice of personal interests 
and comfort. That their work has been well done no person will 
care to dispute, and there never has been raised against their 
official action so much as a breath of suspicion. The personnel of 
the first board is given in a preceding paragraph, but of the first 
members who comprised that body only one— Daniel J. Marsh is 
now in office. The first president was John Olmsted, who retired 
from the board in 1886, upon which Mr. Marsh became presi- 
dent and has so continued to the present time. Walter H. Wes- 
son served as clerk until 1886, when he was succeeded by Fred- 
erick Harris, who served until 1891. William F. Callender was 
then chosen clerk and continued until 1896, when he retired from 
the board, and was followed in office by Azel F. Packard, who 
served two years. The next clerk was Charles E. Ladd, who 
still performs the duties of that office, although not now a member 
of the commission. 

The park commissioners have been as follows : John Olm- 
sted, 1883-March 1, 1886 ; Daniel J. Marsh, 1883-still in office : 
Orick H. Greenleaf, 1883-died March 14, 1896 : Walter H. Wes- 
:son, 1883-Jan. 11, 1890 ; John D. IMcKnight, 1883-died Dec. 20, 

( 169 ) 


1890: John E. Taylor, 1886-April 21, 1892; Frederick Harris, 
1889-Jan. 2, 1891 ; Everett H. Barney, 1890-still in office : Will- 
iam F. Callender. 1891-May 1, 1896 : James Kirkham, 1892-died 
Feb. 8, 1893; Azel A. Packard. 1896-May 1, 1898; Edward S. 
Bradford, 1893-Dec. 1, 1899; Charles E. Ladd, 1896-1901, now 
park superintendent ; Kobert 0. Morris, 1898-1901 ; Nathan D. 
Bill. 1899-still in office: William E. Wright, 1901-still in office; 
Herman Buchholz, 1901-still in office. 


Naturally, in a city whose people can establish and maintain 
one of the finest and most complete library institutions in the 
country, much interest attaches to all that can be said concerning 
the subject of libraries. Still, the library association of the city 
had a beginning as humble and almost as primitive as that of 
any other of its institutions, and it was in fact the outgrowth of 
older literary societies, one of which was founded in the town 
more than three-quarters of a century ago. 

Sometime during the closing years of the eighteenth century 
a number of interested citizens of the town associated together 
and founded what was knoAvn as the Springfield library com- 
pany, w^hich, according to meagre traces of its history, possessed 
a few hundred volumes of books, chiefly devoted to subjects of 
history, voyages, travels and poetry, with some attempt at a col- 
lection relating to divinity and ethical topics, biography (chiefly 
European) and also a fcAv miscellaneous works. But just when 
and how the library company came into existence and the causes 
of its dissolution, no person now assumes to state. 

The second library was opened by the Franklin library asso- 
ciation, undoubtedly so named in allusion to Benjamin Franklin, 
Avho then had achieved more than national fame in the w^orld of 
science. The patrons and founders of the association were 
chiefly persons connected with the U. S. armory, and its existence 
was continued until 1844, when it was merged in the Young 
Men's institute, the latter having been established in the preced- 
ing year. 

Next in the order of formation was the Hampden Mechanics^ 
association, organized in January 1824, for the commendable 

( 170 ) 


purpose of maintaining a public library for the benefit of its 
members, and also for the purpose of establishing an evening 
school for mechanics and apprentices. The association also pro- 
vided for lecture courses for the general welfare. It was a 
worth}' organization and was productive of much good in the 
town for a quarter of a century-. Its collection of books was 
transferred to the Young Men's institute in 1845. and four years 
later the association passed out of existence. The members, how- 
ever, were not unprovided for, as the transfer Avas made on con- 
dition that they should have free access to the library and read- 
ing rooms of the institute for all time. In 1834 the "Appren- 
tices' library," as it was commonly known, contained 627 vol- 

The Young Men's institute, which seems to have absorbed 
the earlier literary societies of the town, was founded in 1843 and 
was an improvement on all its predecessor bodies. It acquired 
an excellent local reputation and a large membership, receiving 
material support from prominent citizens. Its courses of lec- 
tures were of more advanced character than was before attempt- 
ed, and its weekly debates attracted much attention by reason of 
the forensic efforts of its orators, particvilarly the young "limbs 
of the law, ' ' who were pursuing their studies in the village ; and 
if local tradition be true these meetings were not without interest 
among the older professional men, who not only found their way 
into the weekly gatherings, but who took part in the discussions 
and occasionally were "worsted" by their younger brethren. 

In 1854. after the Young Men's institute had been in opera- 
tion about ten years, a similar organization under the name of 
the Young Men's literary association was brought into existence, 
but the causes which led to its organization are not now clearly 
apparent. Its character and objects were the same as those of 
the older society, and it is believed that the new association was 
created to stimulate discussion of general topics in open debating 
contests, and also to interest a new element of citizenship in liter- 
ary work. However this may have been we know not, but the 
ultimate result of the two societies was a consolidation of inter- 
♦'sts and a general request, in 1855, supported by a petition with 

( 171 ) 


1,200 signers, upon the new municipal government for an appro- 
priation of $2,000 for the establishment of a city library. The 
petition and request were referred to committees and in due 
season a favorable report was made, yet the city council failed 
to act, setting forth as its chief reason that the expenditure would 
be unwise in view of the contemplated erection of a city hall at 
great cost to taxpayers. 

"Disappointed in this direction," said the late Dr. Rice in 
one of his articles on library history, "the friends of the enter- 
prise determined to make a vigorous effort for the establishment 
of a public library by means of a voluntary association and by 
seeking private subscriptions. For this purpose the City Library 
association was organized, November 27, 1857. The members of 
the two existing organizations, the Springfield institute and the 
Young Men's literary association, united in the new enterprise, 
and their small libraries were made over to the City Library asso- 
ciation. A committee was appointed to solicit subscriptions 
among the citizens, a considerable sum was raised, and accessions 
were made to the library by donations of books. In 1859 Mayor 
Calhoun again brought the subject to the notice of the city gov- 
ernment and recommended an appropriation to the association, 
claiming 'that in view of the benefits of a public library as the 
fruitful source, not of the ordinary and acknowledged blessings 
of intelligence merely, but of an efficient and all-pervading 
economy,' it would be literally an 'institution of saving.' But 
in view probably of the 'heavy indebtedness of the city,' no ac- 
tion was had on this recommendation. During the year, how- 
ever, the libraiy was removed to rooms in the city hall with the 
approval of the mayor and the committee on city property. The 
same year the association established as an adjunct in its work a 
museum of art and natural history." 

"Simultaneously with the occupancy of these rooms, com- 
menced an earnest and persistent effort to increase the resources 
ot the association. A subscription of about $8,000 was raised, 
and in the following year a fair was held by the ladies for the 
benefit of the enterprise, which resulted in adding about $1,800 
to its funds. A reference theological department was com- 

( n^ ) 

Dr. William Rice 


menced, and donations were secured in money and books from 
the various religious denominations. The agricultural depart- 
ment was largely increased by the addition of the Hampden agri- 
cultural library. Courses of lectures were likewise given which 
for several years resulted in a considerable income. No funds, 
however, were received from the city until 1864, and no help 
except the room rent, fuel and lights" furnished after the re- 
moval of the library to the city hall in 1859. 

"In 1864 the city began making appropriations for the 
library. It then contained 17,000 volumes and at least $45,000 
had been contributed to the funds of the association. The rooms 
in the city hall now were filled to overfloAving. and it was felt 
that provision must be made for its permanent accommodation 
and continued growth. The association was therefore reorgan- 
ized under a new charter which constituted it a corporation for 
the purpose of 'establishing and maintaining a social library and 
a museum of natural history and art for the diffusion of knowl- 
edge and the promotion of intellectual improvement in the city 
of Springfield.' With this reorganization an effort was made by 
the association to secure funds for a library building, which 
resulted in the erection of the present library on the site donated 
by George Bliss. ' ' 

The City Library association, the history of which Dr. Rice 
has briefly traced in preceding paragraphs, was an institution of 
far more than minor importance. It was the union of interests 
which formerly had existed in two similar societies, and embodied 
the best elements of both. Its constitution and by-laws were 
original, and were readily adopted by a strong membership. The 
persons who subscribed their names to the original instrument 
were as follows : Ariel Parish, H. M. Dickinson, J. W. Jenkins, 
Wm. H. Smith, Lewis A. Tift, T. D. Bridgman, Charles M. Lee, 
Henry S. Lee, Oliver Marsh, Justus W. Grant, F. H. Fuller. 
Daniel J. Marsh, Henry A. Chapin. W. H. Ellis, Wm. H. Haile, 
Edwin L. Knight, Elisha Morgan, Francis Norton, George Wal- 
ker, Robert Crossett, Osmond Tiffany, Charles Marsh, J. S. Me- 
Elwain, F. B. Bacon, Thomas Atchison, J. F. Moseley, C. S. 
TTurlbut, A. N. Merrick, Frederick Bill. Augustus E. Pease, 

( 1^4 ) 


Theodore A. Belkuap, H. IM. Morehouse, AVm. S. Shiirtleff, E. B. 
Vinton, James INI. Buzzell, James M. Arnold, Henry Tracy, W. G. 
Chamberlain, J. W. Preston, W. Emerson, George T. Bond, 
George W. Winchester, Albert Holt. 

On the formal organization of the association these officers 
Avere chosen for the first year : President, Charles Marsh ; vice- 
president, Charles 0. Chapin ; clerk and secretary, Lewis A. Tift ; 
treasurer, Wm. H. Smith. The subsequent presidents were 
Charles Marsh, 1858; Charles Merriam, 1859; John L. King, 
1860-64. The vice-presidents after the first year were A. N. 
Merrick, 1858 ; Charles Marsh, 1859 : George Merriam, 1860-63 ; 
Daniel L. Harris, 1864. The secretaries were Lewis A. Tift, 
1858-59 : Osmond Tifi'any, 1860-61 ; AVilliam Rice. 1862-64. The 
treasurers were C. S. Hurlbut. 1858 ; Henry S. Lee, 1859 ; Julius 
H. Appleton, 1860-61 ; James D. Safford, 1862-64. 

The City Library association of Springfield, the present or- 
ganization, was incorporated by an act of the legislature passed 
April 8, 1864, and was authorized to own and hold real estate not 
exceeding $150,000 in value (this amount was afterward in- 
creased). The corporators named in the act were John L. King, 
Chester W. Chapin, George Bliss, James ]\I. Thompson, Ephraim 
AY. Bond and Homer Foot. Under the provisions of the act the 
city was authorized to make appropriations for the benefit of the 
library so long as the association "allowed the inhabitants of the 
city free access to the library at reasonable hours." 

But it was not this action that led to the establishment of the 
library in its present location. The need of more commodious 
quarters had long been felt and for several years the library had 
been recognized as one of the most valuable auxiliary educational 
institutions of the city. Committees of the old society had fre- 
quently urged the importance of more ample space for books and 
reading rooms, but under the conditions then existing a way out 
of the dilemma had not been suggested and made clear from any 
authentic source. Various expedients were recommended, yet 
none met the requirements of the occasion. 

In this emergency it was reported that George Bliss (of hon- 
ored memory and worthy fame, a scion of the old substantial 

( 175 ) 


families of Springfield) had offered to give his home property for 
the purpose of a library site, and as the nucleus of a building 
fund was willing to contribute $10,000 in addition to the land. 
Then the necessary legislative authority was invoked, the bill was 
drawn, presented, and enacted into a law, and the city libr-ary 
association became a body corporate for the purposes indicated in 
its charter. 

According to the regulations of the association, the officers 
thereof were to be a president, vice-president, clerk, treasurer, a 
board of directors of ten members (subsequently increased but 
still later reduced) and two auditors. On the formal organiza- 
tion these oiScers were chosen : 

President, John L. King ; vice-president, Daniel L. Harris ; 
clerk, William Rice ; treasurer, James D. Safford ; directors, 
George Bliss, Chester AA^. Chapin, James M. Thompson, Charles 
Merriam, George Walker, Ephraim "W. Bond, Josiah G. Holland, 
John B. Stebbins, P. B. Tyler and James Kirkham. 

On May 30, at a meeting of the directors the offer of Mr. 
Bliss was made the subject of special consideration, and at the 
same time a committee was appointed to employ the services of a 
competent architect with a view to determine the kind and char- 
acter of building which would be best suited to the requirements 
of the association. This special committee comprised James M. 
Thompson, Ephraim W. Bond, Josiah G. Holland and William 
Rice. In the meantime the association had not been idle in 
regard to other matters relating to the construction of the pro- 
posed building, for soon after the passage of the act the presi- 
dent, Mr. King, consented to personally interest himself in the 
work of creating a building fund ; and with such success were his 
endeavors rewarded that within a year a fund of $77,000 had 
been raised by subscription. On their part the members of the 
building committee secured the services of architect George 
Hathorne, of New York. The plans at length were prepared 
and approved, the work of construction was begun, and the 
libra ly at the northeast corner of State and Chestnut streets was 
the result of the united efforts of the association and the generous 
people of Springfield who contributed to the building fund: and 

12-2 ( 177 ) 


Avhen it was found that the structure could not be finished within 
the original estimate and a debt of about $25,000 was hanging 
over the institution, the people again liberally responded to the 
call and relieved the association of its burden. 

In this brief chapter the library building itself needs no 
detailed description, for it is known to every person in the city, 
and generally throughout the county. In size the building is 100 
by 65 feet, the material used in exterior construction being native 
granite and pressed brick, ^\ii\i richly cut Ohio freestone trim- 
ming-s. The entire structure is in the medifBval style of archi- 
tecture. The work of construction was finished in the spring of 
1871, and the library was opened to the public in the following 
fall, with 31,400 books on the shelves. In later years, when the 
art and science buildings were erected, the original library build- 
ing was given the name of the "Rice building," in honor of the 
late Dr. William Rice, who had labored long and faithfully, in 
season and out of season, for the success of this grand institution. 

In speaking of the subsequent history of the library, a co- 
temporary writer has said: "Having comfortably located the 
city library in its splendid new home, the managers again 
appealed to the city for greater liberality in the direction of ap- 
propriations. The new building, with what it contained and the 
ground it occupied, represented a value of $185,000, all of which 
had been secured by the enteiTDrise of the association. The asso- 
ciation received annually from the subscription fees of one dollar, 
which Avere still required for the drawing of books, and from 
other soui'ces. The importance of additional endowment funds 
had, meantime, been urged upon the public in annual reports of 
the directors, and the desirability of making the library entirely 
free by increased appropriation was also presented from time to 
time to the city government. In this line special effort was made 
in 1884 to increase the endowment funds. A plan was adopted 
]\v which it was provided that all subscriptions of $5,000 and 
upwards might be separately invested, and the fund thus created 
be known by the name designated by the donor, and the annual 
interest on such fund be expended for the specific department 
indicated by the donor. This plan met with approval, and 
$80,000 was almost immediately subscribed." 

( 178 ) 


"The library was opened to the public May 25, 1885, entirely 
free in all departments. The success of the movement speedily 
dispelled the misgivings of those who had entertained doubts re- 
garding the wisdom of the plan, and more than met the expecta- 
tions of the most sanguine of its supporters. Before the close of 
the first year the number of persons holding cards in the library 
had increased from 1,100 to more than 7,000, and the annual cir- 
culation of books grew' in the same time from 41,000 to 154,000. ' ' 

When the library was made free the future success of the 
association was assured, and the sympathies and earnest support 
of the city and its people were with the institution. In connec- 
tion with the library there are now five endowed departments : 
The John Bryant department of natural history, endowed by 
INIary Bryant m 1875, $5,000 ; the Chester AY. Chapin department 
of reference, endowed by Dorcas Chapin in 1884, $10,000; the 
Augustus Hazard department of industrial art. endowed by 
Fanny Hazard Bond, $5,000 : the Charles Merriam department of 
history, biography and travel, endowed by Charles Merriam, 
$5,000; and the James M. Thompson department of English lit- 
erature, endowed by Anna Thompson, $5,000. 

The principal legacies bequeathed to the association have 
been as follows: Estate of J. B. Vinton, 1871. $993; Elam 
Stockbridge, 1882, $1,500 ; Catharine H. Lombard, 1892, $5,126 ; 
Horace Smith, 1894. $50,000; AYilliam IMerrick, 1896. $30,000; 
William Rice, 1898, $5,000. 

The history of the city library during the last ten years has 
been a record of continued progress, and in that time it has be- 
come an important factor in educational growth and develop- 
ment. It is and for years has been operated in connection with 
the city school system, and through the courtesy of the directors 
books are sent to the Central high school and also to the remotely 
situated schools of less advanced grade. The co-operation of the 
city authorities in carrying out the true purpose of the institu- 
tion is both earnest and generous, and the mayor, president of 
the common council and the superintendent of schools are made 
ex officio members of the board of directors. 

For several years beginning in 1865 the city appropriated 
annually $1,500 for the library, and then increased the amount 

( 179 ) 


to $3,500. In 1873, '74 and '75 the sum of $4,500 was appropri- 
ated annually, and in the following year the city "dog money" 
was added to the amount. From that year to 1901 the annual 
appropriations for the library have been as follows: 1876, $4,000 
and $1,611.13 dog money ; 1877, $3,500 and $2,451.11 dog money ; 
1878, $3,000 and $2,024.64 dog money ; 1879. $3,000 and $1,623.60 
dog money; 1880, $3,800 and $1,286.09 dog money; 1881, $4,800 
and $1,263.49 dog money ; 1882, $5,500 and $1,307.35 dog money ; 
1883, $7,000 and $1,231.32 dog money : 1884, $6,500 and $1,779.80 
dog money; 1885, $10,500 and $1,926.93 dog money; 1886, 
$13,000 and $2,064.90 dog money ; 1887, $12,600 and $2,444.48 
dog money ; 1888, $12,600 and $2,594.62 dog money ; 1889, $12,- 
800 and $2,365.08 dog money ; 1890, $13,000 and $2,377.50 dog 
money; 1891, $14,300 and $2,712.80 dog money; 1892, $15,800 
and $2,698.38 dog money; 1893, $17,000 and $2,657.07 dog 
money; 1894, $17,000 and $2,405.51 dog money; 1895, $21,000 
and $2,840.00 dog money: 1896, $21,000 and $2,956.77 dog 
money: 1897, $23,500 and $3,124.99 dog money; 1898, $23,500 
and $3,168.53 dog money; 1899, $29,161 including dog money; 
1900, $29,945.56 ; 1901, $29,944.95. 

Under the present arrangement of its affairs the property of 
the library association comprises three principal buildings, 
known, respectively, as the Rice building (the library building), 
the art building and the science building, and also an auxiliary 
building known as the M'omen's club. Of each of these we may 
briefly treat. 

The Art Building— It was the purpose of the City library 
association founded in 1857 to establish and maintain in connec- 
tion with its library of books a department for the collection and 
exhibition of works of art, the greater portion of which it was 
expected would be contributed by friends of the enterprise ; but 
in the early struggle for a permanent existence the association 
managers were content to devote their energies to the mainte- 
nance of the library alone, hence the collection of art works for 
many years was quite limited. Under the charter of 1864 the 
managers of the association determined to establish an art 
museum and made some little attempt to collect exhibits for that 

( 180 ) 


department, but there was no systematic effort in that direction 
for several years. 

On June 1, 1867, the legislature incorporated the "Spring- 
field atheneum and gallery of arts," naming as incorporators 
William Stowe, Samuel Bowles, Albert D. Briggs, Frederic H. 
Harris and Charles 0. Chapin. Whether it was the purpose of 
the new corporation to found an art museum and manage it in 
connection with the library association or as an entirely separate 
institution is not now known, but it is a fact that the incorpor- 
ators themselves were, with one exception, members of the asso- 
ciation. The authorized capital of the atheneum association was 
$100,000, and it was permitted to own and hold real estate not 
exceeding $75,000 in value. Evidently the new corporation soon 
merged in the older and the establishment of the art gallery was 
the result of their joint efforts. 

The movement whicli led to the establishment of the Spring- 
field art museum was begun in 1889, when the overcrowded con- 
dition of the library building made some change necessary. At 
one of the board meetings of the year George V. Smith offered by 
letter to bequeath his valuable collection of art treasures to the 
association on condition that there be provided a suitable place 
for its display : and this offer was supplemented by that of Mrs. 
Smith to likewise bequeath her rare collection of laces. About 
this time, through the offices of Noyes W. Fisk. who, acting for 
the AVinthrop club, held the refusal of the property adjoining the 
library on the east, the directors were able to purchase the same 
for $35,000, the lot having a frontage of 115 feet on State street 
and 400 feet deep. The frame residence was removed to the rear 
of the lot and was refitted for the women's club. This purchase 
was made in 1890 with funds from the Horace Smith donation. 
Then began the work of creating a fund for the art building, 
the onus being assumed by John Olmsted, who headed the sub- 
scription with a cash donation of $10,000, and by his earnest 
work in the city he soon secured subscriptions sufficient to war- 
rant the erection of the building. The sum of $50,000 at first 
was thought to be sufficient for the purpose, but the total amount 
required was more than $90,000. The building was completed 

( 181 ) 


and opened in 1895. In both exterior and interior design and 
finish it is a model of ai'chitectural genius, an excellent example 
of the Italian renaissance style, and also is an example of "good, 
honest construction." The west and south facades, in addition 
to their ornamentation, are appropriately inscribed with the 
names of the most famous painters, sculptors and artisans of 
Eurojje and America. The building is of brick, with terra cotta 
trimmings. The main entrance is at the end of the avenue lead- 
ing from Chestnut street back of the library building, hence the 
more elaborate ornamentation on the w^est facade. The first 
story is devoted to the natural history museum, a large lecture 
room and another of less size, but when opened together will 
comfortably seat 350 persons. The second story is used for the 
art galleries. On a bronze tablet in the building may be seen 
the names of the contributors to the construction fund. 

The Science building of the library association was erected 
in 1898, and was the result of a popular demand that the ap- 
pointments of the association be made as complete and as elabor- 
ate as any city in the land can boast. Ample space for the build- 
ing was found on the land north of the art museum, and when 
the directors had fully determined to undertake the work, and 
had completed their plans, John Olmsted again went among the 
loyal citizens of Springfield and secured the necessary pledges to 
the building fund, amounting to $30,000, and representing the 
contributions of more than one hundred persons. The building 
was occupied in 1898, and on a bronze tablet within its walls may 
be seen the names of those who helped to share the expense. 

The succession of officials of the City library association is as 
follows : 

Premie /(/s— John L.King, 1864-72: Daniel L. Harris, 1873- 
79 ; Ephraini W. Bond, 1880-91 : James R. Rumrill, 1892-1901 ; 
John Olmsted, 1901. 

Vice-Presidents— Daniel L. Harris, 1864-72; Ephraim W. 
Bond, 1873-79 : James M. Thompson, 1880-83 ; James A. Rumrill. 
1884-94; John Olmsted. 1892-1900 : Nathan D. Bill, 1901. 

Clerks— \y\\\mm Rice, 1864-1897 ; John Cotton Dana, 1898. 

Treasurers— JanwH D. Safford, 1864-88: Henry H. Bowman, 

( 182 ) 


Directors— IIqwyy J. Beebe. 1897 — ; Nathan D. Bill, 1887- 
1901 ; George Bliss. 1864-72 ; Ephraim W. Bond, 1864-72 ; Samuel 
Bowles 2d, 1866-77: Samuel Bowles 3d, 1878 — ; Charles 0. 
Chapin, 1872-82 : Chester W. Chapin, 1864-83 ; Luke Corcoran, 
1897— ; George H. Deane, 1884-89 : Frederick H. Gillett, 1893- 
— : Orick H. Greenleaf, 1872-96 : William H. Haile, 1892-1901 ; 
Azariah B. Harris, 1880-91 ; Josiah G. Holland, 1864-71 ; George 
E. Howard, 1873-88: James Kirkham, 1864-92; James W. Kirk- 
ham, 1893 — : Henry S. Lee, 1893 — ; Charles Merriam, 1864-87 ; 
George S. Merriam, 1896 — : William Merrick, 1883-86 ; James 
A. Rumrill, 1901 — : John Olmsted, 1889-91 : Robert 0. Morris, 
1901— ; William S. Shurtleff, 1890-95 : G. W. V. Smith, 1892— ; 
Horace Smith, 1877-92; C. H. Southworth, 1892-96: John B. 
Stebbins, 1864-98 : James M. Thompson, 1864-79 : P. B. Tyler, 
1864-65: George AValker, 1864-76; Daniel B. Wesson, 1888-92: 
Walter H. Wesson, 1899. 

Officers, iPM— President, John Olmsted; vice-president, 
Nathan D. Bill: clerk, John Cotton Dana; treasurer, Henry H. 
Bowman ; directors, Luke Corcoran, Samuel Bowles, George S. 
Merriam, G. W. V. Smith, Henry S. Lee, Frederick H. Gillett, 
James W. Kirkham, Henry J. Beebe, James A. Rumrill, Robert 
0. Morris ; and ex officio, the mayor, William P. Hayes ; the pres- 
ident of the common council, Everett E. Stone : and the superin- 
tendent of schools, Thomas M. Balliet. 

Auditors, J. H. Appleton and R. F. Hawkins. 

The Library Corps— Any allusion to the personnel of the 
working force of the library association that failed to mention 
the splendid services of the late Dr. Rice would indeed be imper- 
fect, for with him the success of the institution was the chief 
object of his long and useful life. He was an early member of 
the old city library association, and was its clerk, secretary and 
librarian, and also its most earnest advocate after 1860. He was 
the first clerk and librarian of the successor institution on its 
organization in 1864, and served in that capacity until the time 
of his death in 1897. He was followed in office by Mr. Dana, the 
present librarian, who has brought into the affairs of the associa- 
tion a new spirit of progress, new and improved methods, and 

( 183 ) 


under his supervision the usefulness of the institution has been 
greatl}^ increased. 

The art and science departments in their respective buildings 
are now recognized as essential institutions of the city, and in 
connection with educational development they are factors of 
great importance. The art museum is under the curat orship of 
G. W. V. Smith, with Solomon Stebbins and Bernhart Richter 
as assistants, and Eleanor A. Wade assistant in the art library. 
In the science museum William Orr, principal of the central high 
school, holds the curatorship, with Grace L. Pettis as assistant. 
In the library Mr. Dana has a large corps of excellent assistants, 
among whom are persons whose service in their respective depart- 
ments have made them experts on questions of library history. 
In seniority of service the first assistant librarian, Alice Shepard, 
is to be first mentioned, followed by William Stone, of the read- 
ing rooms, Mary Medlicott, the reference librarian, and A. Louise 
Morton, in the order named. 


There is no knowTi record of the time when a post-office was 
first established in Springfield. The business of carrying let- 
ters in the American colonies existed from the time of the earliest 
settlements, and in populous centers persons took it upon them- 
selves to become depositaries and forwarders of them. Such 
persons later became quasi public functionaries by receiving 
licenses ' ' to keep a post-office ' ' and to charge certain fees. Prob- 
ably the earliest enactment of this kind was the order of the gen- 
eral court of Massachusetts Bay in 1639, providing "that notice 
be given that Richard Fairbanks his house in Boston is the place 
appointed for all letters which are brought from beyond the seas 
or are to be sent thither to be left with him, and he is to take care 
that they are to be delivered or sent according to the direction. 
And he is allowed for every letter a penny, and must answer all 
miscarriages through his own neglect in this kind." In 1677 

^From a paper prepared by Col. John L. Rice on the occasion of laying the 
coiner stone of the new postofflce building, February 22, 1890. 

( 184 ) 


the merchants of Boston petitioned the general court, setting 
forth the inconvenience of the private conveyance of letters and 
asking for the appointment of "some meet person" to conduct 
the business under regulations to be prescribed. Nothing came 
of this, however. A like condition of things existed in all the 
colonies down to near the close of the 17th century. The assem- 
bly of Pennsylvania in 1683 made it the duty of sheriffs, con- 
stables and justices of the peace to convey from county to county 

Old building formerly on Postoifice site 

letters on the public business. In like manner a Virginia statute 
of 1661 required the planters of that colony to forward such let- 
ters from plantation to plantation under a penalty of 350 pounds 
of tobacco for each default, and further provided that "if there 
is any person in the family where the said letters come as can 
write, such person is required to indorse the day and hour he re- 
ceived them, that the neglect or contempt of any pei-son stopping 
them may be better known and punished accordingly." 

( 185 ) 


Parliament took no steps to provide a postal service for the 
colonies till 1691, when Thomas Neal of London was granted the 
exclusive privilege of establishing post-offices in North America 
for 21 years, apparently with a view to his pecuniary advantage 
rather than the accommodation of the colonists. He proceeded 
at once to farm out his privilege through a postmaster-general, 
whom he appointed and established at New York. Under this 
regime Duncan Campbell became postmaster "of Boston and 
New England" in 1693, and was succeeded in 1701 by John 
Campbell, who held the office till 1718. Although there was 
legislation to prevent the private conveyance of letters, yet the 
competition from this source was such that Neal's postmasters 
found the business attended with little profit, and the Campbells 
were frequent petitioners to the general court for aid, which was 
generally granted in a small way. In 1693 ' ' An Act to Encour- 
age the Post-Office" was passed in Massachusetts. This was a 
well-considered piece of legislation, and was calculated to place 
the postal service upon a basis of public usefulness rather than 
of private gain. But the act was disallowed by the privy coun- 
cil at London as "inconsistent with the patent granted Thomas 
Neal, for the post-office in America," and things went on as be- 
fore. But in 1710 parliament took the matter in hand, and 
from that time forward a postal service of a public nature was 
gradually established in the colonies, and by 1765 there was a 
line of posts along the Atlantic sea-board from New Hampshire 
to Georgia, with offices at all the principal towns on the route. 
As early as 1772 stages were running between New York and 
Boston carrying the mail. At firet these passed to the south- 
ward of Springfield after leaving Hartford, but there was un- 
doubtedly a post-office at Springfield long before this, although 
it was probably devoid of any official character, and received its 
mails from Hartford by post rider. 

One of the first cares of the continental congress after as- 
suming control of public affairs was the establishment of a postal 
service throughout the colonies by the act of July 26, 1775, and 
the appointment of Benjamin Franklin as postmaster-general. 
Moses Church was immediately appointed postmaster at Spring- 

( 186 ) 


field, as appears by the financial recoixls at Washington, although 
the record and exact date of his appointment is not preserved, 
and continued in the office throughout the entire period of the 
confederation, covering the incumbency as postmaster-general of 
Benjamin Franklin, Richard Bache and Ebenezer Hazard. With 
his appointment our earliest certain knowledge of the Spring- 
field office begins, and a glance at its historj^ shows that its re- 
moval to the new public building will be a radical change in point 
of location. For considerably more than a century it has never 
been north of Pynchon street nor south of State street. It has 
been housed in 10 different buildings under the administration 
of 15 different postmasters. Postmaster Church, upon his ap- 
pointment, established it in a one-story frame building which 
stood at the northeast corner of Main and Court streets, on 
ground now occupied by the Five Cents savings bank building, 
where he carried on a hat and fur business which he had in- 
herited from his father, Dea. Jonathan Church. When the pos- 
tal service was transferred from the government of the confeder- 
ation to that of the constitution, he was re-appointed postmaster 
by Samuel Osgood, President Washington's first postmaster-gen- 
eral, his commission dating June 2, 1790. At that time there 
were only 75 post-offices in the whole country and the total reve- 
nue from them all that year was $37,935, only a trifle more than 
the receipts from the Springfield office for the last four months, 
although the average letter rate then was 15 cents in lieu of the 
two cents w^hich now suffices. The efficiency of the early postal 
service may be judged from the fact that among the first records 
in the dead-letter office at Washington there is note of an un- 
delivered letter, mailed at Boston, August 25, 1786, addressed to 
"Jonathan Dwight, Springfield, Mass.," probably at that time 
the best known man in the town. 

Postmaster Church was one of the town worthies in his day 
who held numerous public offices and besides the store kept a 
popular tavern across the street on the site of AVilson's new 
block. He died in 1810, but his hat business has come down un- 
interruptedly to this generation and is now carried on by San- 
derson & Son near by its earliest location. .\ part of the orig- 

( 187 ) 


inal post-office building, now used as a blacksmith shop, is still 
standing on East Court street. Postmaster Church was succeeded 
July 21, 1792, by Ezra W. Weld, a new-comer in Springfield, who 
had been sent from Worcester to take charge of the Hampshire 
Chronicle, for its owner, the celebrated Isaiah Thomas, the 
founder of the Worcester Spy and many other newspapers. At 
that time newspaper offices were also bookstores, as well as the 
starting points for the post riders who distributed the papers 
through the country, and were also licensed to carry letters on 
"cross lines" not traversed by stages. Towards such centers of 
intelligence the post-offices naturally gravitated, the public con- 
venience seconding the publisher's ambition, and it thus came 
about that wherever a newspaper existed it was quite common 
to find its publisher filling the office of postmaster. This cus- 
tom, coupled with the influence of his patron, undoubtedly ac- 
counts for the appointment of a stranger like Weld, as well as 
that of his immediate successor. Postmaster Weld removed the 
office to the Chronicle establishment, a two-story building at the 
corner of Main and Elm streets, where the new Chicopee bank 
building now stands. 

The next year Weld and Thomas sold out the Chronicle and 
Thomas established the Federal Spy, sending here his son-in-law, 
James R. Hutehins, to manage it. The Spy not only speedily 
killed oft' the Chronicle, but it also secured the post-office. 
Editor Hutehins succeeded Editor Weld as postmaster April 25, 
1793, and removed the office to the Spy establishment "at the 
corner of the entrance to the court house." where Brewer's drug 
store now is, at the corner of Main and Sanford streets. The 
following year the Spy passed into the hands of John W. Hooker 
and Francis Stebbins, and the post-office appears to have gone 
with it, for the record shows that Hooker became postma.ster 
April 1, 1794. Two years later Stebbins announced himself 
"sole editor and proprietor" of the paper, and October 1, 1796, 
the postmastership was conferred upon him. He sold out the 
paper near the close of 1799, but for some reason the post-office 
then ceased to be an appurtenance of the establishment. Perhaps 
ihe public had tired of seeing the office bandied about at the sport 

( 188 ) 


of the varying' fortunes of newspaper editors who came and went 
with sneh frequency, for the fonr knights of the quill who had 
left the office seemed to have been carpet-baggers in Springfield, 
who remained only so long as their newspaper connection lasted. 

James Byers, jr., was appointed postmaster January 1, 1800, 
under the presidency of John Adams. He was engaged in trade 
in a building then standing on the lot next north of the Spring- 
field institution for savings, and by removing the post-office to his 
store he doubtless drew fresh patronage to his counters. This 
federalist official survived the defeat of his party a few months 
later, for the spoils system was not yet in vogue, and held on 
through the first and well into the second term of President Jef- 
ferson, when he sold out his store and surrendered the post- 
mastership to a rival merchant across the way. Subsequently 
Byers passed a long and successful business career in Spring- 
field, accumulating a large fortune and dying here in 1854 at an 
advanced age. Among his enterprises was the erection, along 
in the thirties, of the block on the Chieopee bank corner, now par- 
tially demolished, and the two blocks adjoining on Elm street. 
Byers street perpetuates his name. 

Daniel Lombard succeeded Byers as postmaster July 29, 
1806, and at once transferred the office to his own store, which 
was then on the Elm street corner, thus bringing it back to where- 
it had been when attached to the Chronicle a dozen years before. 
Here for 23 years Lombard officiated as postmaster to the general 
satisfaction of the public, under the changing administrations of 
Jefferson, Madison, Monroe and the younger Adams, till the 
deluge came with the inauguration of Andrew Jackson. The 
"clean sweep" of that memorable era reached Springfield June 
3, 1829. when Lombard was succeeded by Albert Morgan. Spring- 
field was a whig to\^ai, almost an entire generation had witnessed 
no change in the postmastership, and there was a great display 
of indignation, more or less simulated, at the removal for purely 
political reasons of this long-tried and faithful official. The 
demonstrations of disapproval were so prolonged that the demo- 
crats tardily offered the excuse that he was "incapacitated by 
age" and too frequently delegated his duties "to a female attend- 



ant, and a colored female at that." This last charge was stoutly 
denied, and as to his age, he continued in active business many 
years afterward, dying in 1856 at the age of 92. He was a man 
of wealth and position, held many town offices and was a soldier 
on the right side in the time of the Shays rebellion. He is well 
remembered by our older citizens, and two of his daughters are 
still living at an advanced age on Howard street. A younger 
son, William, is also living in Chicago. He was the first letter 
carrier in Springfield, carrying letters as early as 1820 and re- 
ceiving one cent each for the service. 

Postmaster Morgan carried the office round to the corner of 
State and Market streets to a two-story wooden building which 
was torn away in 1866 to make room for the present savings bank 
building. Here the office continued till 1834, when it migrated 
to the Elm street store now occupied by Auctioneer Winter, 
Here, and in the two stores next west in the same building, it re- 
mained for upward of 30 years under six successive postmasters. 
The newspapers of the period bear testimony to the prevalence 
of the spoils doctrine, which had now become a prominent feature 
in politics. Within a week after Morgan's appointment the 
democratic ncAvspaper announces with a flourish that the whig 
editor "has been removed from, and we are the happy recipients 
of the distinguished office of honor and profit, that of advertis- 
ing the dead letters i-emaining in our post-office." The whig 
organ in reply expresses "the hope that the circumstances may 
not shake our political faith:" whereupon the administration 
journal retorts Avith fine irony, "we in turn as Idndly hope that 
his enjoyment of this lucrative post for past years has not been 
the only reason that his political integrity has not been ques- 
tioned." James E. Russell was assistant postmaster and man of 
all work in the office at this time. He slept in the office and relates 
that four consecutive houre of rest was the most that he was able 
to get out of the 24. Morgan served through President Jack- 
son's two terms and was reappointed by Van Buren. After his 
retirement he established the American house on the site of the 
Boston & Albany railroad's granite building. Afterward he 
was president of the Agawam bank and of the Hampden saA-ings 

( 190 ) 


bank, and was one of the first board of directors of tlie Fire and 
Marine insurance company. He died in 1860. 

The early death of President Harrison and the uncertain 
course of Vice-president Tyler postponed the fruits of the whig 
victory of 1840, but on April 1, 1842, Col. Solomon Warriner 
was appointed to succeed Morgan. The whig paper of the fol- 
lowing week exulted that "after 13 years we are enabled to greet 
the return to our columns of the post-of¥ice advertising. For 
more than a year after the whig administration commenced, our 
late postmaster (Mr. Morgan) continued to advertise in the 
democratic paper." The editor of the latter quoted this boast 
and replied, "We advise the paper to make the most of it during 
the three years of ]\Ir. Tyler's administration, for from that 
period we reckon it will be more than 13 years before it Avill 
again be restored." A year later Tyler had so far apostatized 
that he was turning out his whig appointees and installing demo- 
crats in their places. August 29, 1843, Col. AVarriner was re- 
moved and Col. Harvey Chapin stepped into his shoes, but only, 
for a brief period, as the event proved. Col. Warriner was long 
a leading business man in the town and Avas for many years 
actively identified with the militia. He was also a soldier in the 
war of 1812. But he is best remembered as an enthusiast in 
musical matters. For a long period he was a chorister at the 
First church, where the choir of 75 or 100 voices made an im- 
posing part of the public worship. He was also leader of the 
first musical society in Springfield, the old Handel and Hayden 
society, a compiler of several collections of church tunes, and a 
recognized authority in musical matters in all this region. He 
died in 1860 at the age of 82. 

The senate not being in session at the time of Col. Chapin 's 
appointment, it was not necessary that he should await the ac- 
tion of that body, and he entered upon his duties as postmaster 
at once. At the next session of congress, however, the senate 
was found to be not in the mood of confirming Tyler's nomina- 
tions, and that of Col. Chapin was rejected along with many 
others, and he stepped down and out. The local democi*acy 
promptly provided a fresh candidate. Dr. Elijah Ashley, editor 

( 191 ) 


of the Independent Democrat, a newly established Tyler organ,, 
the democratic Post never having come to the support of the ad- 
ministration. The senate rejected Ashley's nomination, and 
Ethan A. Clary, who was next nominated, shared the same fate. 
Finally on June 15. 1844. the last day of the session. Col. Galen. 
Ames was nominated and confirmed, and served to the end of 
Tyler's term in the year following. He was a prominent mer- 
chant at that time, an officer in the militia and took an active 
part in public affairs generally. Subsequently he was for many 
years employed in the Boston and Albany office, remaining at 
his desk till within a few months of his death. He died in 1882,. 
at the age of 86. When the democrats came to their own again, 
Col. Chapin naturally sought a vindication, and on May 5, 1845, 
President Polk appointed him postmaster, and he held the office 
till the whigs returned to power again, four years later. He was 
a leading democratic politician, an officer in the militia, and a 
popular tavern keeper in the days of turnpikes and stages. Like 
so many of his predecessors, he lived to be very old, dying in this 
city in 1877, at the age of 89 years. 

Postmasterships had now come to be universally recognized 
as legitimate spoils in politics, and when the whigs came in again 
Col. Chapin went out, and June 7, 1849, President Zachary Tay- 
lor appointed William Stowe to succeed him. Mr. Stowe had 
for several years published the Springfield Gazette, an able whig 
paper which shortly before his appointment had been absorbed 
by the Eepublican. Whig ascendency, however, lasted only 
four years, and with the inauguration of President Pierce the 
democrats began to cast about for Stowe 's successor. The choice 
finally fell upon Abijah Chapin, son of Col. Harvey Chapin, and 
A^^gust 10, 1853, he was appointed. President Buchanan re- 
appointed him in 1858 and he continued in office until the in- 
auguration of the first republican administration in 1861, after 
which he was engaged in the insurance business in this city for 
several years, and later retired to a farm in Deerfield, Mass. 
William Stowe came back to the office by appointment of Presi- 
dent Lincoln April 10, 1861, Postmaster Chapin being removed 
a year before the expiration of his second term. In the inter- 

( 192 ) 


val since his retirement in 1853, Mr. Stowe had served by sev- 
eral successive elections as clerk of the Massachusetts house of 
representatives. He was reappointed by President Johnson in 
1866 and again by President Grant in 1870 and died in office De- 
cember 7, 1871. In 1866 he removed the office from its out- 
grown quarters on Elm street to the Haynes hotel building, just 
then erected, where it remained for 10 years. 

President Grant filled the vacancy January 8, 1872, by the 
appointment of Gen. Horace C. Lee, Avho had given up the office 
of city clerk at the outbreak of the rebellion to enter the army. 
His appointment was asked for by practically the unanimous 
voice of his fellow citizens in recognition of his brilliant military 
services, although there Mas some effort made to procure the ap- 
pointment of the late Capt. Lewis A. Tifft, father of E. T. Tifft. 
Postmaster Lee was reappointed by President Grant in 1876 and 
again by President Hayes in 1880. At the close of his third term 
in 1884 he retired in shattered health and died a few months 
after from a complication of troubles induced by his service in 
the army. Under his administration in 1883 the free delivery 
system was established in Springfield, this service at that time 
requiring but eight carriers. There had been, however, a carrier 
system in vogue for a long time before this, the old penny post, 
so-called, although the carrier was usually allowed to charge two 
cents for delivering a letter. Chauncey K. Camp is remembered 
by many of our older citizens as a postman away back in the for- 
ties as well as his father before him. Gen. Lee also procured 
the removal of the office to the Five Cents savings bank building 
in 1876, after a sharp contest between that location and the one 
where the office now is. 

Upon the retirement of Gen. Lee, President Arthur ap- 
pointed Edward P. Chapin, his commission bearing date Janu- 
ary 15, 1884. The late LeAvis H. Taylor was the only opposing 
candidate at this time. Postmaster Chapin held the office for 
nearly a year after the inauguration of President Cleveland's 
administration, retiring voluntarily in February, 1886, to accept 
the appointment of savings bank commissioner tendered him by 
Gov. Robinson. The vacancy was filled by the appointment of 

13-2 ( 193 ) 

United States Custom House and Post-Ottice 


John L. Kioe, whose commission, signed hx (irover Cleveland, 
bears the date of January 20, 1886. In the following year the 
office Avas removed to the Gilmore block, and there remained 
until the completion of the new federal building at the corner 
of Maine, AVorthington and Fort streets. Col. Rice Avas the in- 
cumbent of the i)ostmastership until ^larch, 1890, although the 
commission of his successor. Col. Henry ]\I. Phillips, bears the 
date of January 21) of that year. The latter served until suc- 
ceeded by John H. Clune, whose commission was dated jNIay 16, 
1894. Louis C. Hyde, the present postmaster, was next in the 
succession, his connnission bearing the date of June 30, 1898. 

The movement to secure an appropriation for a federal 
building and i^ost-otHce in this city began several years previous 
to the passage of the act of congress authorizing its construction. 
During the term of office of Congressman Rockwell, a bill was 
passed appropriating $150,000 for the erection of such a build- 
ing, and when that was done, and approved, the business men of 
the north and south parts of ]Main street became earnest rivals, 
each striving to secure the coveted building for their locality. 
As is usual in such cases, the advocates of the site in the newest 
locality Avere successful, and for the first time in the history of 
the town and city the post-ot^ee went north of Pynchon street. 
But this great acquisition to business interests near the arch Avas 
not gained Avithout considerable cost to the successful competi- 
tors, for the land on Avhich the building Avas erected was pur- 
chased by them at a cost of $70,000 and was sold to the govern- 
ment for $18,500. The corner-stone of the new building Avas 
laid Avith impressive ceremonies on February 22, 1890, and on 
February 28, 1891, Col. Phillips removed the post-office into the 
finished structure. 

The Springtield post-office building is a model of beauty, 
although in its construction there is no elaborate architectural 
display. It is of LongmeadoAv broAA'n stone, substantial and sym- 
metrical in every part, Avith artistic trimmings. When built it 
Avas large enough for the business of the office, but in the course 
of a fcAv years there Avas a demand for more room. The croAvded 
condition Avas partially relieved by the extension built on the 
AYorthington street side in 1900-01. 

( 195 ) ' 



The city of Springfield has six well laid out and improved 
places for the burial of the dead. In the early history of the 
town the settlers established a burial ground in rear of the meet- 
ing house lot, which w'as entered by way of Meeting-house lane, 
or the thoroughfare which is now called Elm street. This was 
the "silent city" for the inhabitants of that part of the town 
which bordered on the river. In 1645, according to the town 
records, "William Pynchon and Henry Smith bargained with 
Francis Ball and Thomas Stebbins for two and one-half acres of 
land on the river, which previously had been the ' ' home lots ' ' of 
those worthy settlers, but which was secured by the town for a 
burying ground and a training field. It was maintained as a 
town cemetery until 1696 and then was conveyed to the trustees 
of the First parish. This plot lay on the east bank of the river 
and extended from Elm street nearly to State street. 

The second burying ground in this locality comprised half 
an acre of land bought by the trustees of the parish from Aaron 
Warriner, the tract having been a part of that settler 's home lot. 
It was situated north of Elm street, west of the present line of 
Water street, and extended north to the south line of the old 
Trask foundry lot of later years. For more than two centuries 
these tracts were known as the north and the south burying 
grounds, and throughout that long period they were the estab- 
lished cemeteries of this part of the town ; and so continued until 
the construction of the railroad necessitated the removal of the 
bones from their quiet resting-place on the bank of the Connecti- 
cut to some locality more remote from the busy haunts of man. 
This work was done under the direction of Elijah Blake ; and by 
him the honored dust of some of our most worthy forefathers 
was transferred to a specially designated spot in the Pine street 
portion of the new cemetery, there to await the final call. Among 
the remains thus removed were those. of Mari (Mary), wife of 
Elizur Holyoke ; Henry Burt, who died in 1662 ; Deacon Samuel 
Chapin, the Puritan, whose statue in bronze adorns the terrace 
west of the city library building ; Capt. Elizur Holyoke, who died 
in 1675 ; Major John Pynchon, son of the founder of the colony 

( 196 ) 


and town; Japhet Chapin, son of the Deacon; Col. Wm. Pj'n- 
chon ; Col. John Pynchon, Josiah Dwight, Col. John Worthing- 
ton, and hundreds of others who in some manner during their 
lives had been identified with the early interesting history of the 

The Second parish graveyard, "set aside by the pioneers of 
Springfield, was at Chicopee, on the north side of Chicopee river. 
Many years later the Springfield land company, who were the 
original purchasers and who developed the water power at the 
center village, laid out the private cemetery of four acres on Elm 
street, in rear of the old high school building, to which several 
additions were afterward made." About 1865 the town of 
Chicopee purchased 25 acres between the Center and the Falls 
and laid out the beautifully shaded city cemetery of to-day. The 
first Catholic cemetery was opened by Father Brady of Chicopee, 
on Springfield street, and within the limits of the present city 
of Springfield, but for some reason it never was used to any great 
extent for burial purposes. 

The Springfield Cemetery. — For more than a year previous 
to the laying out of this cemetery there was a strong feeling in 
favor of such a movement, but the question of location was the 
subject of much consideration. At that time Dr. W. B. 0. Pea- 
body was an influential personage in local history and he gave 
the matter of a new cemetery plot much careful thought. Hav- 
ing a thorough knowledge of the topographical character of the 
town, and evidently an intuitive understanding of its future 
growth, he finally suggested the beautiful locality known as 
"Martha's dingle" as the most appropriate tract for a burial 
place. He found earnest co-workers in George Bliss, George 
Eaton, George Ashmun, Justice Willard, Homer Foot and other 
prominent men of the time, and with such energy as these influ- 
ences could bring to bear the work of organizing an association 
was hardly more than a matter of form. 

In 1840 all preliminaries were settled and the site was 
chosen by a committee selected for that purpose. On May 9, 
1841, on the application of fourteen representative citizens (Jus- 
tice Willard. AY. B. 0. Peabody. Henry Adams. Samuel Key- 

( 197 ) 


nolds. George Dwight. George Eaton, Homer Foot, Edward Sav- 
age. Allen Bangs, AVni. S. Elwell, Solynian Merrick, John Avery, 
Charles A. Mann and Eliphalet Trask) a warrant was issued for 
a meeting of townsmen to organize the "Rural cemetery associa- 
tion/' At the meeting George Ashmun occupied the chair, and 
John Howard, Justice Willard. Elijah Blake, Charles AV. Chapin 
and Asa Flagg presented a plan of organization, which was 
adopted. Dr. Peabody was chosen president, Elijah Blake, 
treasurer, and Chester Harding, Philo Wilcox, George Dwight, 
Joseph Weatherhead, George Eaton, Samuel Reynolds and Wal- 
ter H. Bowdoin as the trustees of the association. 

The original cemetery purchase comprised a little less than 
twenty acres of land,, but in later years the association was com- 
pelled occasionally to add other parcels until the grounds occu- 
pied much of the space bounded by Walnut, Pine, Cedar and 
Union streets, with principal entrances from ]\Iaple and Walnut 
streets. The cemetery was consecrated September 5, 1841, the 
principal orator of the occasion being Dr. Peabody. The first 
burial was made September 6, 1841. The burying grounds of 
the Union street Methodist society were laid out about 1825. and 
were included within the cemetery tract in 1844. 

The Springfield cemetery, which frequently is known as the 
"Peabody" cemetery, in honor of its founder in fact, for many 
years has been regarded as the favorite depositary of the dead in 
the city. Nature's endowment here has been beautiful and 
abundant, and while the grounds are not well adapted either to 
residence of business occupancy they are admirably situated for 
burial purposes. The vrorks of nature have been materially im- 
proved upon by the arts of man. In the presidency of the 
association Dr. Peabody was succeeded by George Bliss, and the 
latter in turn by Albert D. Briggs. The later presidents have 
been George Dwight, Charles 0. Chapin, Calvin C. Chaffee and 
Edward P. Chapin. The present officers of the association are 
Edward P. Chapin, president : C. A. Nichols, vice-president ; W. 
C. Marsh, clerk and treasurer; Dr. D. F. Atwater and Henry H. 
Bowman, auditors. Superintendent. Fred Emery. 

St. Benedict's Cemetery, more frequently referred to as the 
"Old Catholic cemetery," at the junction of Liberty and Arm- 

( 109 ) 


ory streets, the burial plots in which were filled, many years ago, 
was laid out in 18-18 and was intended for the interment of the 
Catholic dead of Chicopee and Springfield. 

St. 3Iichael's Cemetery w^as purchased and laid out in 1871, 
under the direction of Bishop O'Reilly, of the diocese of Spring- 
field. The tract comprises fifty acres of rolling land, pleasantly 
situated south of the Boston road, in the eastern part of the city. 
Subsequently thirty-three acres more were added to the tract, 
thus constituting one of the most extensive burial places in the 

Entrance to Uak Urove Cemetery, Sjuinglield 

Oak Grove Cemetery. — This beautiful location as a place of 
burial owes its existence to the efforts chiefly of James Kirkham, 
who succeeded in securing subscriptions to the capital stock 
($25,000) with which to make the purchase of land and, in part, 
to lay out the cemetery lots, avenues and parks. Among the 
others who were financially interested in the undertaking there 
may be recalled the names of Daniel B. Wesson, John Olmsted, 
Orick H. Greenleaf, Ephraim W. Bond, Justin Sackett, James 
M. Thompson. H. S. Lee, Horace Smith, G. A. Kibbe, N. C. 

( 200 ) 


Newell, G. W. Tapley, Wm. H. Haile, Elisha Gimn, 0. D. Adams, 
Gideon Wells and John Goodrich. 

The association was organized in 1881, at a time when the 
city was in need of another cemetery, and the laying out of the 
new plot was looked upon in the light of a public enterprise. The 
lands selected comprised parts of the old Stebbins, Sackett. 
Adams and Thompson farms, and contained ninety acres of 
land. The purchase price was $12,249, but far more than that 
amount in addition was expended in developing the plot under 
the direction of Justin Sackett. 

Oak Grove Cemetery is situated on the old "Bay road." 
about two miles east of court square. "Its spacious ave- 
nues and walks, in straight lines and circles, are of solid 
gravel, while its aquatic and forestry adornments, in which sim- 
plicity and wildness have not been sacrificed to artistic ornament- 
ation, are thoroughly gratifying to the sense and taste." The 
cemetery was consecrated with impressive ceremonies, in charge 
of Rev. Samuel G. Buckingham, in October, 1885. The beauti- 
ful arch at the Bay street entrance was built in 1883. The pres- 
ent officers of the association are Daniel B. Wesson, president: 
D. A. Folsom, treasurer; and Jonathan Barnes, clerk. Super- 
intendent, James C. Sackett. 

Mapleicoocl Cemetery, at Indian Orchard, dates back in its 
history to the year 1816, when a small tract comprising less than 
an acre of land was set apart as a burying ground for the people 
of that locality. An acre of land was added to the plot in 1882, 
and in the same year the Maplewood cemetery association was 

Previous to aliout three-score years ago nearly every re- 
ligious society having a house of worship also had a churchyard 
for the burial of the dead ; but after the rise of the recognized 
cemeteries, old customs were changed and the remains of the 
dead no longer were laid at rest in the church lot. A few burial 
places of this class are still in existence and among them men- 
tion may be made of that in what once was called Cherry lane, 
near where stood a Baptist church edifice ; another is seen near 
the once-known "Faith chapel," on Sumner avenue: another on 

( 201 ) 


Allen street, three miles out on the road to Hampden ; and still 
another on Parker street, between Sixteen Acres and the Lud- 
low mills. 


Several years before Springfield became a city the subject 
of founding a hospital had been discussed in the town, and from 
old records it is learned that such a proposition received the at- 
tention of the inhabitants in one or more of the town meetings. 
Still, nothing was accomplished in this direction until about the 
period of the civil war, when sick and wounded soldiers were 
brought here for rest and treatment. This led to an act of the 
legislature incorporating a hospital association, Albert D. 
Briggs, Orick H. Greenleaf and Samuel G. Buckingham being 
the leading spirits of the enterprise. Ths association, however, 
was never fully organized and the charter became inetfective. 

The Springfield Hospital.— In 1868 Dr. George S. Stebbins, 
then city physician, in his annual official report recommended 
the establishment of a city hospital. In the following year the 
city purchased a tract of land on the Boston road and remodeled 
the large farm house thereon for hospital occupancy. The 
grounds comprised about two acres of land, which, with the 
buildings, cost the city $10,630, with $2,455 additional for fur- 
nishings. The institution was opened to the public in April, 
1870, and was, until the appointment of a board of managers in 
October of that year, in charge of the city physician and a com- 
mittee of the city council. 

"Wliile the hospital itself, even in the early period of its his- 
tory, was one of the worthy institutions of the city, it was appa- 
rent that the best interests of the city demanded that the eon- 
duct of its afl:'airs be placed in the hands of a board of managers. 
The mayor so recommended in his message in 1870, and in ac- 
cordance therewith a board was constituted, comprising, origi- 
nally, Eliphalet Trask. James A. Kiunrill, Henry S. Lee, George 
E. Howard, John A. Hall, H. N. Case, Henry S. Hyde, Abijah 
AA'. Chapin and John B. Stebbins. Mr. Trask was the first presi- 
dent and Air. Hall the first secretary of the board. 

( 20'-3 ) 


In 1873 an act of the legislatnre authorized the city to raise 
by tax such sum of money as the city council might deem neces- 
sary for the support of the hospital. From this time until 1879 
the institution was conducted by the board of managers without 
material change in method, but the demand for more room and 
better accommodations was constantly increasing. In the year 
mentioned an amended ordinance vested the immediate control 
of the hospital in a board of trustees, three of whom, it was pro- 
vided, should be women. This ordinance was a departure com- 
pared with previous methods, but it proved of great benefit to all 
interests, having brought several women into the councils of the 
board and thereby created an added interest in the institution 
thi'oughout the city. 

The Springfield hospital was incorporated December 24, 
1883, the original corporate members being Henry M. Phillips, 
Henry S. Hyde, Dorcas Chapin, Charles Marsh, Lizzie D. 
Nichols, Henry A. Gould, James A. Rumrill, Julia A. Callender, 
Lucinda 0. Howard, Iranna L. Pomeroy, John Cotton Brooks, 
AYilliam Merrick, Charles H. Southworth, David Allen Reed and 
Timothy ]\I. Brown. The object of the corporation, according 
to its by-law^s, was to establish and maintain a hospital in the 
city of Springfield for the purpose of furnishing medical and 
surgical treatment for persons requiring the same temporarily. 
Originally the corporation comprised fifty persons, but in 1897 
the number Avas increased to one hundred persons. 

The first officers were Henry S. Hyde, president: Timothy 
Isl. Brown, clerk; Charles Marsh, treasurer; James A. Rumrill, 
Henry A. Gould, Lucinda 0. Howard, Henry S. Hyde, Lizzie D. 
Nichols, Julia A. Callender, Charles H. Southworth and David 
Allen Reed, trustees, with the mayor and president of the com- 
mon council ex officio members of the board. 

Many of the original officiary were long associated with the 
work of the institution and unselfishly gave their time to the 
conduct of its affairs ; and, did the necessities of the occasion re- 
quire, they contributed liberally of their means to its mainte- 
nance. Mr. Hyde, the first president, is still in office and his in- 
fluence in the affairs of the institution always has been for the 
general good. 

( 203 ) 


One of the objects of the corporate body was to provide, as 
soon as possible, a specially constructed and equipped hospital 
building, but the most pnident means to accomplish that end was 
not then apparent, the chief obstacle being the lack of necessary 
funds. However, before the hospital itself was founded one 
of the city's foremost men, Chester W. Chapin, who in some 
prominent manner had been identified with many worthy public 
enterprises, had contemplated the establishment of a city hos- 
pital, but he died before the plans were fully matured; and it 
remained for his widow, Dorcas Chapin, a most estimable woman, 
to carry out the intentions of her husband. On her death, No- 
vember 14, 1886. she bequeathed to the corporation the sum of 
$25,000 for the benefit of the hospital, on condition that a like 
sum be raised by subscription and that the city convey to the 
corporation its hospital and equipment. Both conditions were 
complied with and the corporation found its affairs to be on an 
excellent financial basis, deriving a fair income from invested 
funds and receiving an annual appropriation from the city gov- 

Early in 1887 (Jan. 17) William ]\Ierrick, whose untimely 
taking off caused a shock in city business circles, also died, and in 
his Avill the hospital corporation was made residuary legatee. All 
the funds from this source did not become immediately available, 
but were turned over as soon as the procedure of the court 
would permit; and when acquired the legacy enriched the cor- 
poration by more than $98,000. The subscription fund called 
for under the Chapin will was raised in April, 1887. and 
amounted to $28,444.96. In October of the same year the city 
deeded to the corporation the hospital property on the Boston 

In November, 1887, the Fuller farm of about 35 acres of 
land on North Chestnut street was purchased by the trustees, 
and in accordance with plans adopted May 15, 1888, the pres- 
ent hospital building was erected thereon. On Saturday, May 
14, 1889, the building was dedicated with appropriate exercises, 
and on the following Monday the hospital was opened for the 
reception of patients. 

( 204 ) 


Thns permanently established under excellent management, 
the Springfield hospital at once became one of the most worthy- 
institutions of the city, and one which to-day ranks with the best 
hospitals in the state. Fortunately for the institution, its trus- 
tees and officers have been chosen from among the best business 
men and the most benevolently inclined women of the city, and 
in every respect its aft'airs and mangement have been in trust- 
worthy hands. 

So commendable indeed has been the main object of the in- 
stitution and so earnest have been the endeavors of its officers 
that the corporation has been the recipient of several splendid 
bequests and endoAvments besides those previously mentioned. 
In 1891 the Margaret H. Lombard bequest of $10,000 was re- 
ceived and was made to constitute the "Lombard fund for the 
establishment of free beds." In 1892 the John Lombard fund 
was received under the will of Catherine H. Lombard. In 1894 
the corporation received the Horace Smith bequest of $30,000 
for the establishment of free beds. In 1895 Mrs. James A. 
Kumrill established a free bed with the income of $520 per an- 
num. In 1898 there was received from the Caroline C. Briggs es- 
tate the sum of $1,609 ; from the Charles Bill estate, $6,000 ; and 
from the Mary J. Baldwin estate, $6,000. In 1899 there was re- 
ceived from Elizabeth AY. and Nathan Adams, $6,300, and from 
the estate of Angelina Stebbins the sum of $1,000. In 1900 the 
additional sum of $233.21 was received from Elizabeth W. and 
Nathan Adams. 

Thus, in the aggregate, the hospital corporation has received 
from all sources since 1886 the splendid sum of $248,264.86, of 
which amount $33,952.59 Avere raised by popular subscription. 
The present hospital property represents a value of $112,711.91 ; 
the Merrick building a value of $18,130.48 : the laboratory, $435, 
and the furnishings in all departments, $4,887.30. 

The officers of the corporation for the year 1901 are as fol- 
lows : Henry S. Hyde, president ; C. H. Beckwith, clerk ; W. 
F. Callender, treasurer : Henry S. Hyde, Henry A. Gould, James 
A. Kumrill, Henry IVI. Phillips, Robert AV. Day, W. F. Callen- 
der, Chester W. Bliss, Airs. C. A. Nichols, Mrs. Charles A^an 

( 205 ) 


Vlack, Mrs. Samuel Bowles, jNIrs. Gideon Wells, Andrew B. Wal- 
lace, Lewis F. Carr, Mrs. James T. Abbe, Mrs. Charles E. Stick- 
ney, with the mayor and president of the common council, both 
ex officio, trustees. The personnel of the committee on aids and 
charities is as follows : Mrs. H. A. Gould, Mrs. James D. Saf- 
ford, Mrs. Frederick Harris, Mrs. R. W. Day, Mrs. E. B. Hed- 
den, Mrs. R. F. Hawkins, Mrs. W. H. Wesson, Mrs. F. B. Doten, 
Mrs. Chester W. Bliss, Mrs. Henry P. Trask, Mrs. Austin E. 
Smith, Mrs. E. S. Brewer, Mrs. F. A. Bill and Mrs. A. B. Wal- 

Tlic House of Mercy Hospital was founded in 1896, when 
Bishop Beaven purchased the Allis property on Carew street and 
remodeled the building for a new occupancy. The hospital was 
formally opened July 19, 1898, in the old Allis house, and in the 
same year the work of erecting a new building was begun under 
the personal supervision of the bishop and his faithful co- 
workers, the corner-stone ceremonies being held in October. In 
due season the structure w^as finished and dedicated, and at once 
was given in charge of the good sisters of Providence, through 
whose splendid work the three great hospitals in Holyoke, Wor- 
cester and Springfield have been founded and maintained. 

The Mercy hospital, as commonly known, is one of Spring- 
field's noblest charities, and one which the people have learned 
to appreciate according to its worth. When the institution was 
founded its business affairs were placed in the hands of the 
Mercy hospital corporation, the present officers of which ai^ as 
follows : President, Rt. Rev. Thomas D. Beaven : secretary, 
Rev. Thomas Smyth ; treasurer. Mother ]\Iary of Providence : 
executive committee, Rt. Rev. Thomas D. Beaven, Rev. Thomas 
Smyth, Mrs. Ann Mara, John McFethries, Mother I\Iary of 
Providence, and Mrs. James B. Carroll. 

Hampden Homoeopathic Hospital. — On January 29. 1900, 
at the solicitation of Dr. John H. Carmichael, Daniel B. and Cyn- 
thia M. Wesson donated their elegant residence, No. 132 High 
street, for a homoeopathic hospital. The munificent gift was 
accepted by the representatives of homoeopathy in the county, 
and before ]\Iay 1 following the sum of $10,000 had been raised 

( 206 ) 


to remodel the interior of the building into a modern hospital, 
fully equipped for the very best kind of professional work and 
supplied with all kinds of medical and surgical apparatus. 

On ]May 1 the institution was regularly incorporated under 
the name above mentioned, the corporators being Daniel B. Wes- 
son, George B. Holbrook, A. N. Mayo, A. W. Damon, C. C. Lewis, 
E. P. Chapin, Oscar H. Greenleaf, H, E. Marsh, Lewis J. Powers, 
Henry Beebe, W. E. Wright, H. C. Rowley, William W. Mc- 
Clench, Dr. John H. Carmichael, Henry H. Bowman and AVar- 
iier F. Sturtevant. 

The hospital building contains thirty beds and is admirably 
arranged for its new occupancy. The surrounding grounds are 
ample and contain a grove and several fine springs. In connec- 
tion with the management of the institution there is an excellent 
nurse's training school. In every respect the hospital fills a 
long felt want in the city, especially in homoeopathic circles, and 
during the brief period of its existence it has gained rapidly in 
popularity and usefulness. 

The object of the institution is to care for the sick, and all 
physicians and surgeons, of whatever school, have such free ac- 
cess to its benefits as is consistent with its somewhat limited size 
and accommodations. Any physician in good standing is allowed 
the privileges of the hospital, and subject to the rules of the cor- 
poration may treat private patients therein. Patients of this 
class are expected to pay a moderate fee for the use of the sur- 
gery, and admissions are made on application to the matron, or 
through their own physician. 

The present officers of the corporation are as follows : Presi- 
dent, Lewis J. Powers ; first vice-president, Edward P. Chapin : 
second vice-president, H. C. Rowley; secretary, William W. Mc- 
Clench; treasurer, Henry H. Bowman: trustees, Mrs. 0. B. Ire- 
land, Dr. Clarice J. Parsons, Annie L. Bailey, Harriet S. Rowley, 
Fred C. Wright, Mrs. John H. Carmichael, Mrs. F. H. Page, 
Daniel B. Wesson, W. C. Newell. George M. Holbrook and Phil- 
lip C. Powers. Executive committee. Dr. John H. Carmichael, 
chairman, Dr. 0. AY. Roberts and Dr. F. M. Bennitt. Medical 
and surgical staff, Drs. O. AA". Roberts, Plum Brown, F*. AI. Ben- 

( 207 ) 


nitt and Clara M. Sweet. Consulting physicians, Drs. George 
G. Shelton (New York), George H. Smith (Holyoke), J. P. 
Sutherland (Boston) and A. M. Gushing (Springfield). Assist- 
ant physicians, Drs. Clarice J. Parsons, James M. Gates and 
Alice E. Rowe. Surgeon-in-chief, Dr. John H. Carmichael. 
Assistant surgeons, Drs. Robert F. Hovey, James B. Comins, 
Harry W. Green and Seth A. Lewis. Consulting surgeons, Drs. 
Sidney F. AVilcox (New York), Nathaniel Emerson (Boston). 
Oculist and aurist. Dr. George Rhoads. Rhynologist and 

Pynchon Street School, Springfield 

laryngologist. Dr. Charles Chapman. Bacteriologist and path- 
ologist, Dr. Harry W. Green. Electro therapeutist. Dr. Clarice 
J. Parsons. Anaesthetists, Drs. James M. Gates and Alice E. 
Rowe. Dental surgeon, Dr. C. S. Hurlbut. 

The King's Daughters and Sons Hospital, located at No. 12 
Brace street, in the extreme south part of the city and in the de- 
lightful vicinity of Forest park, is one of the newest charitable 
institutions of Springfield. The hospital was incorporated 
April 26, .1900, and is maintained largely through the benevolent 

( 208 ) 


work of Avomen. The house accommodations are small, yet the 
care of patients is as carefully provided for as in any of the 
larger similar institutions of the city. The corporation has not 
finished the first year of its history, but its present condition 
indicates a future of usefulness and progress. The present offi- 
cers are Mrs. Mary P. Flagg, president; Mrs. Hattie A. Powers, 
clerk ; Mrs. F. C. AVoodstock, treasurer. 

Springfield Home for Friendless Women and Children. — 
This, the oldest eleemosynary institution of the city, dates its 
history from 1865, when an act of incorporation Avas passed by 
the legislature, naming Rachel C. Merriam, Charlotte Barnes, 
Caroline L. Rice, and their associates, as corporators, and au- 
thorizing them to establish and maintain a temporary home for 
destitute and friendless women and children. Originally the 
corporation Avas authorized to hold real and personal property 
to the amount of $20,000, but by subsequent supplementary acts 
the amount Avas increased, and uoaa- the corporation may hold 
property to the value of $200,000. 

In 1865 the managers purchased, at a cost of $4,500, a house 
and lot in William street, AAhere the home began its history, but 
after five years a separate house for children (the property be- 
ing located on Buckingham street) Avas purchased. The build- 
ing AA'as improved and made ready for immediate occupancy, and 
the people gave generously in response to appeals for financial 
aid in behalf of the institutions. Since that time tAvo homes have 
been supported, and ever have been in prudent hands. For 
several years the legislature made annual appropriations of 
$2,000 for the benefit of the homes, but in 1872 these contribu- 
tions AA'cre discontinued. Noav the homes are supported chiefly 
by the city churches and the interest from invested funds. The 
permanent fund at this time amounts to almost $140,000. About 
$15,000 are required for annual maintenance. 

The officers and managers of the corporation for 1901 are as 
folloAvs: Mrs. "William C. Warren, president: Mary L. Jacobs 
and ]Mrs. AYilliam G. Breck, vice-presidents ; Mrs. J. H. Car- 
michael, clerk ; Mrs. George H. Carter, treasurer ; Mrs. George 
AY. Tapley, corresponding secretary ; Henry S. Lee and George 

14-2 ( 209 ) 


W. Tapley, auditors. The board of managers comprises ]\Irs. 
Wm. G. Brecli, ]Mrs. George Church, jNlrs. David P. Smith, jNIrs. 
George AV. Tapley, Mary L. Jacobs, Mrs. Charles Hall, Mrs. 
Henry S. Hyde. Mrs. Harlan P. Stone, Mrs. Charles A. Nichols. 
Mrs. 0. S. Greenleaf, Elizabeth M. Ames, ]Mrs. Homer G. Gil- 
more, Mrs. VCm. C. Warren, INIrs. Charles P. Nichols. INIrs. Azel 
A. Packard. Mrs. George H. Carter, Amy B. Alexander, Mrs. 
John H. Carmichael, Mrs. Ferguson R. Mellows, jNIary M. At- 
water, Mrs. Charles E. Stickney, Mrs. Silas Kenyon, ]Mrs. James 
D. Safford, Mrs. Charles Shaw, Mrs. Bradley D. Rising. Mrs. 
Edmund E. Charles, Mrs. E. L. Janes, Mrs. Orthello K. :\Ierrill. 
Mrs. Joseph T. Herrick, Mrs. Elijah Belding. Advisory com- 
mittee, Gurdon Bill. Henry S. Lee, George W. Tapley. Rev. John 
C. Brooks, Harlan P. Stone, R. AV. Ellis, H. H. Skinner. Board 
of physicians, Drs. Marshall Calkins, Frederick W. Chapin, 
George L. Woods, Cheney H. Calkins. Wm. H. Pomeroy, Sarah 
M. Wilbur, Mary Blake. 

Springfield Home for Aged Womeu. — ln the early part of 
the year 1884 a movement was begun in Springfield in behalf of 
a home for aged women. One of the most earnest advocates of 
the cause was the late Dr. Thomas L. Chapman, through whom 
the late INIarvin Chapin (who for many years had been a promi- 
nent factor in city history) became likewise interested in the 
project. The early informal meetings of friends of the work 
Avere held in ]\Ir. Chapin 's residence, and there the preliminaries 
were discussed and the plans were matured. Among the other 
persons prominently identified with the early history of the in- 
stitution were ]Mrs. Chester AV. Chapin and Miss Frances Lom- 

The home was regularly incorporated under the laws of the 
state, and the articles of association were signed September 3 of 
that year. The original incorporators were ^Marvin Chapin. 
Thomas L. Chapman, Oriek H. Greenleaf, Homer Alerriam, 
David Allen Reed, Mrs. I. Newton Bullens. Henry S. Lee, J. 
Augustus Robinson, Wm. P. Draper, Wm. H. Chapin, Gratia R. 
Reed, Edward C. Rogers, Eliza B. Rogers, Harriet S. C. Birnie, 
Wm. L. Smith, Caroline L. Smith, Theo. F. Breck. Helen C. 

( 210 ) 


Breck, Thomas W. Bishop, i\Iary D. Chapman, Angelina Steb- 
bins, ]\Irs. James D. Brewer, Frances Lombard, JNIargaret H. 
Lombard, M. Lucretia Smith, Mary A. Bill, Harriet E. Button. 
Elizabeth D. Nichols, Annie L. Brooks, Sadie E. Haywood, j\Iary 
Ames, Jeannie G. Ireland, Rebecca A. Gordon, Harriet B. Hitch- 
cock, Horace Smith, Gurdon Bill, Mrs.- J. M. Thompson, Eliza- 
beth ]M. Ames, Mrs. Chester W. Chapin, Prank R. Young, Isa- 
bel S. Young, William Birnie.. 

The first officers of the corporation were, president, INIarvin 
Chapin ; vice-president, Thomas Luce Chapman ; treasurer, 
Henry S. Lee: clerk, Frank R. Young; finance committee, Mar- 
vin Chapin (chairman), Horace Smith, Wm. L. Smith. 

The corporation purchased a house and lot at the corner of 
INIain and William streets, which was made the first home of the 
association. The building was remodeled and furnished largely 
through the liberality of Marvin Chapin. The home was opened 
for inmates November 22, 1886, wdiich date marks the beginning 
of its history in the boundless field of charitable work ; and from 
that time it has been recognized as one of the worthy institutions 
of the city, and one in which the benevolent people have taken a 
most kindly interest. In the course of time, however, the in- 
creasing popularity of the home resulted in a severe tax upon its 
capacity and the managers began looking for a new loca- 
tion and hoping for a much larger building. Having received 
several considerable donations of money and having been given 
assurances of necessary help in building a larger home, the cor- 
poration purchased from John Olmsted his splendid residence 
property on Chestnut street, the consideration paid therefor be- 
ing merely nominal when compared with the real value of the 

The house on the land, being unsuitable for the purposes of 
the home, was removed, and in its place was erected the present 
elegant structure, Avith a capacity for thirty inmates. It was 
completed and occupied May 31, 1900, and was formally dedi- 
cated in the following fall. 

According to the published statement of the board of man- 
agers, this home is not designed to be a boarding house, nor to 

( 211 ) 


be altogether free to its inmates, but it is intended for the accom- 
modation of these three classes of women over 65 years of age : 
' ' Those who have some relative Avho cannot conveniently receive 
them into his or her family, and who desires and prefers to pay 
for their support in an institution of this kind ; those whose sup- 
port will be assumed wholly, or in part, by the church to which 
they belong; and those who have some means of their own, but 
not enough to maintain themselves Avithout help, during their 
declining years." 

The Industrial House CliariUes of Springfield was origi- 
nally organized in 1883 and was incorporated in 1895. The cor- 
porators were Mina C. Hall, Jane E. Law, Harriet N, Hosley, 
Elizabeth 0. Bailey, Mary E. Heywood, Martha M. Mills, Emms, 
C. Bugbee, Emma M. Downing, Ednah D. Tobey and Sarah B. 
Stone. The object of this organization is to aid the poor of the 
city and help the destitute to provide for themselves. For its 
trulj^ benevolent purposes the corporation has provided a com- 
fortable home building on Bliss street. It ^s supported by the 
charitable contributions of citizens, the earnings of its inmates 
and the interest derived from invested funds. It is a Avorthy 
charity, deserving the earnest consideration of the public. 

The board of officers and managers for 1901 is as follows: 
President, Mrs. Charles Hosley ; vice-president, ]\Irs. Frederic 
S. Bailey ; clerk, pro tern., Mrs. David Allen Reed ; treasurer, 
Martha M. Mills; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Ernest D. Bug- 
bee ; advisory board, G. F. Adams, Arthur B. AVest, Charles H. 
Barrows, James B. Kirkham, Andrew B. Wallace ; auditor, G. F. 
Adams; managers, Mrs. Charles D. Hosley, Mrs. Silas N. Hey- 
wood, Mrs. Frederic S. Bailey, Mrs. Charles A. Stone, Emma L. 
Holbrook, Addie Clark, Mrs. David A. Reed, Mrs. Fordis C. 
Parker, Martha M. Mills, Mrs. Frank G. Tobey, Mrs. AVm. P. 
Draper, Carrie Emory, Mrs. Ernest D. Bugbee, Mrs. Wm. T. 
Parker, Mrs. W. 0. Collins. 

The Young Men's Christian Association — 1l\\\^ association 
of christian w'orkers in Springfield, now comprising one corpora- 
tion with four branches, traces its history back to the year 1852, 
when the first formal organization was efifected, although early 

( 212 ) 


in its work certain questions regarding membership gave rise to 
much discussion and soon accomplished the downfall of the insti- 
tution. No secretary's record of transactions has been pre- 
served, and little is known of early association history, but it may 
be said that the Springfield organization was third in point of 
seniority among the associations of America. In 1854: and 1855 
H. A. Chapin -was president, and at that time rooms in Blake's 
building, opposite court square, were occupied. In 185-4 the 
association was represented by H. A. Robinson at the first inter- 
national convention assembled in Buffalo, N. Y., but the next 
year it passed out of existence. 

In the course of the next ten years evidently there was a 
revival of interest in the city, as the local body is reported as 
having a representation at the Philadelphia convention in 1865. 
In 1866 it had 130 members, and in 1867 delegates were sent to 
the convention at ]\Iontreal and also to the state convention. In 
1868 the members numbered 202, and W. H. H. Wooster was 
president. In 1869 the members had increased to 253, and in 
that year, also in 1870, H. AY. Hallett was president. 0. D. 
Morse was president in 1871-72 ; G. C. Andrews in 1873 ; ^Milton 
Bradley in 1874-75, and AVm. P. Draper in 1876, the membership 
then being 390. However, about this time the association ap- 
pears to have declined, and in the following year it is mentioned 
merely as having an existence. 

In 1878 the Springfield Railroad Y. M. C. A. first appears 
by name in the general reports, and from that time its history 
has been continuous. The West Springfield railroad branch is 
first mentioned in 1882, and that, too, has since grown and pros- 
pered. From this we may fairly assume that the Springfield 
railroad branch was the only local association in the city from 
1878 to 1883. In the latter year the Armory Hill association was 
organized and entered on its career of usefulness. It was incor- 
porated in 1886. In 1884 the Springfield association was organ- 
ized, and from that time to 1891 there were three Y. M. C. A. 
bodies in the city. The Springfield association was incorporated 
in 1885 as the Central Y. M. C. A., the corporators being J. 
Stuart Kirkham. Ralph W. Ellis, Stedman AY. Craig, E. Porter 

( 213 ) 


Dyer, Z. W. Smith, Charles E. BroAvn, C. H. Morton, A. Ladner, 
W. F. Andrews, Charles H. BarroAvs, C. H. Sonthworth, F. H. 
Dumbleton, J. F. E. Chamberlain. F. D. Howard and W. M.- 

By an act of the legislature passed in 1891 the Central asso- 
ciation and the Armory Hill association were consolidated under 
the name of the "Springfield Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion. ' ' Since that time the history of the greater body has been 
a record of continued and gratifying success. It soon came to 
be recognized as one of the leading institutions of the city, and 
under its liberal plan of government it has found favor and 
support in all christian circles. It is now referred to as one- 
corporation with four branches, i. e. : The Central branch, cor- 
ner of State and Dwight streets ; the Railroad branch, No. 227 
Main street; the West Side branch, and the Student's branch, at 
the training school on Alden street. 

During the twenty-five years following the first attempt to 
found an association in the city, the endeavors of the interested 
persons were opposed by many obstacles, some of which Avere 
unsurmountable, but later efforts in the same direction have been 
rewarded with gratifying success. On May 5, 1894, the associa- 
tion laid the corner-stone of the splendid Y. M. C. A. building on 
State street, and on March 19, 1895, the completed structure was 
dedicated with appropriate ceremonies. The building cost about 

The association now has a total membership of 553 men and 
176 boys, or an aggregate of 729 members. The officers and 
directors in 1901 are as follows : Jonathan Barnes, president ; 
Henry H. Bowman, vice-president : Herbert C. Hastings, record- 
ing secretary; Ralph P. Alden, treasurer; William Knowdes 
Cooper, general secretary. Board of directors, W. P. Draper, 
Jonathan Barnes, G. D. Chamberlain, L. C. Haynes, Charles H. 
Burnham, Wm. A. Lincoln, Ralph P. Alden, T. D. Potter, H. C. 
Hastings, H. H. Bowman, C. C. Lewis, W. W. Tapley, H. A. 
King, Mase S. Southworth, C. A. Crocker, F. ^Y. Lathrop, H. E. 
Flint, AY. F. Andrews, Charles Jacobus, John AIcFethries. 

( 214 ) 



In the early part of the year in which was celebrated the 
centennial of American independence a number of interested 
citizens of Springtield and its locality began to discuss the sub- 
ject of forming a historical society whose purpose should be "to 
procure and preserve Avhatever may relate to the natural, civil, 
military, literary, ecclesiastical and genealogical history of the 
country, and especially of the territorj-^ included in the Connecti- 
cut valley. ' ' 

Several preliminary meetings were held for free discussion 
of the subject, and on November 1, 1876, the articles of associa- 
tion of the Connecticut Valley Historical society were duly 
signed by Henry Morris, William Rice, Samuel Bowles, Samuel 
G. Buckingham, Augustus Lord Soule, Henry S. Lee, Charles 
Marsh, Homer Merriam, E. A. Reed, Joseph C. Pynchon and 
William L. Smith. On April 21 the organizers adopted by-laws 
for the regulation of the society and elected the first board of 
officers, viz.: Henry Morris, president; Augustus L. Soule, 
AYilliam L. Smith, Samuel Bowles, vice-presidents ; AVilliam Rice, 
clerk and treasurer; S. G. Bucldngham, Homer Merriam, E. A, 
Reed, Joseph Pynchon, Henry S. Lee, Charles INIarsh, executive 

Thus was perfected the organization of Avhat was intended 
to be one of the inost beneficial historical, social and literary 
societies in the valley region and for a time the zeal of its mem- 
bers and the public approval seemed to indicate a permanent and 
healthful existence in all later years. On May 22, 1876, the 
membership Avas increased by 53 persons, and in September fol- 
lowing 46 more names were placed on the rolls. For nearly five 
years a lively interest was manifested in the affairs of the society, 
after which the records show evidences of decline in the frequent 
notings of "no quorum." No meetings were held from 1882 to 
1889, during which period the society lay dormant: but in the 
latter year a radical reorganization was effected, the by-laws 
were amended and re-adopted, and a new membership of more 
than 250 persons was established. Instead of three vice-presi- 

( 215 ) 


dents, the number was increased to thirteen, and they were 
selected from various towns of this county and Hampshire and 
also from the neighboring towns in Connecticut. 

The reorganization having been accomplished the society was 
again established upon an apparently secure basis, but in the 
course of a few years the interest again began to abate and there 
came various omissions of meetings. However, during these 
years the society succeeded in collecting a large amount of valu- 
able historical material and published one excellent volume ; and 
while a majority of the members became somewhat indifferent to 
the success and permanency of the institution, a few active and 
willing spirits maintained and supported it for years. No reg- 
ular meetings were held between 1896 and 1901, when, in the 
latter year, a second revival w^as accomplished through the efforts 
of a few loyal members. The purposes of the society certainly 
are commendable and its work should be given the hearty support 
of every loyal son and daughter of the entire region of the Con- 
necticut valley. 

The officers of the society since its organization have been as 
follows : 

1876— Henry IMorris. president; A. L. Soule, Wm. L. Smith, 
Samuel Bowles, vice-presidents ; AVm. Rice, clerk and treasurer. 

1877— Henry Morris, president ; A. L. Soule, Samuel 0. 
Lamb, Samuel T. Spaulding, vice-presidents ; Wm. Rice, clerk 
and treasurer. 

1878-1888-Henry Morris, president; A. L. Soule, S. 0. 
Lamb, Rev. L. Clark Seelye, vice-presidents ; Wm. Rice, clerk and 

1889-90— Rev. Dr. Samuel G. Buckingham, president ; Geo. 
D. Robinson. E. B. Gillett. W. B. C. Pearsons, L. Clark Seelye, 
George ]\I. Steele, Levi Stockbridge, S. 0. Lamb, Charles L. Gard- 
ner, J. W. Harding, Wm. N. Flynt, R. 0. Dwight, Henry F. 
BroAvn, H. S. Sheldon, vice-presidents; Edward Morris, clerk; 
Charles Marsh, treasurer; A. H. Kirkham, cor. sec. 

1891 — Samuel G. Buckingham, president; same as in pre- 
vious year, vice-presidents : Edward Morris, clerk ; A. H. Kirk- 
ham, corresponding secretary and treasurer. 

( 216 ) 


1892-93— Samuel G. Buckingham, president; Wm. S. Shurt- 
leff, first, Wm. Rice, second, Clark W. Bryan, third vice-presi- 
dent; Edward Morris, clerk; J. Stuart Kirkham, treasurer; A. H. 
Kirkham, corresponding secretary. 

1894— William S. Shurtleff, president; S. G. Buckingham, 
Clark W. Bryan, Alfred M. Copeland, vice-presidents; W. F. 
Adams, clerk; J. Stuart Kirkham, treasurer; A. H. Kirkham, 
corresponding secretary. 

1895— William S. Shurtlefit', president; S. G. Buckingham, 
Clark W. Bryan, Alfred M. Copeland, vice-presidents; W. P. 
Adams, clerk; A. H. Kirkham, treasurer; Harry A. Wright, cor- 
responding secretary. 

1896-1900- Alfred M. Copeland. president; Samuel G. 
Buckingham, Clark W. Bryan, John L. Rice, vice-presidents; 
W. F. Adams, clerk; Harry A. Wright, treasurer; A. H. Kirk- 
ham, corresponding secretary. 

1901— Alfred M. Copeland, president; John L. Rice, Samuel 
Bowles, Edward P. Chapin, vice-presidents; William C. Stone, 
clerk and treasurer; Albert H. Kirkham. corresponding secre- 
tary ; AV. F. Adams, Harry A. Wright, Frank G. Tobey, Freder- 
ick H. Stebbins, Mrs. Charlotte E. Warner, Miss Mary A. Booth, 
executive committee. 



In the early part of 1890 several business men in informal 
conversation were discussing the probable benefits to be derived 
from an organization whose purpose should be to promote com- 
mercial and manufacturing interests in the city, and in the 
course of a few days, as a result of the meeting, the following 
circular Avas addressed to many citizens ; 

"Sir: — Your presence is earnestly desired at the old Grand 
Army Hall, in the Massachusetts Life Insurance building. No. 

( 217 ) 


413 Main street, on Monday, March 3, at 7.30 p. m., for the pur- 
pose of considering the desirability of forming a Board of Trade 
or Commercial Club. 

"Such an organization is most imperatively needed in our 
community, and in not having it, we are at present in the rear 
rank of the progressive municipalities of the country. Do not 
fail to attend. Eespectfully, 

"E. P. Chapin, W. E. Wright, H. P. Stone, Elisha Morgan, E. H. 


The meeting -was held, the subject in hand was thoroughly 
discussed, and a committee was appointed to consider and report 
at a future meeting a plan of permanent organization. The com- 
mittee comprised Harlan P. Stone, Clark AV. Bryan. George M. 
Stearns, AVilliam E. Wright, Elisha Morgan, Edward S. Brad- 
ford, Henry S. Hyde, L. S. Stowe, Edward P. Chapin, A. N. 
Mayo, Noyes W. Fisk, Henry M. Phillips, N. C. Newell, A. D. 
Nason and E. B. Maynard, from whom Messrs. Hyde, Chapin, 
Fisk, Stearns and Stone were made a sub-committee to report on 
scope and plan. 

The necessary preliminaries having been settled, a general 
meeting of business men of the city was held jNIarch 19, at which 
time it was determined to establish a corporate body : and there- 
after, on March 31, the Springfield Board of Trade was incor- 
porated under the laws of the state. At a meeting held April 7 
nearly 300 memberships were created, and on the next day a 
board of directors was chosen. 

As is defined in the by-laws the purpose of the board is "To 
establish a body of recognized authority to deal with- matters of 
interest to the business men of Springfield, and to the general 
public ; to forward the prosperity of the mercantile and manu- 
facturing community : and to procure and spread such informa- 
tion as will advance and elevate commercial dealings, and extend 
just methods of business by the establishment and maintenance 
of a place for business and social meetings." 

Under its plan of government, the general body of the asso- 
ciation chooses a board of fifteen directors, in which is vested 
the control of the business policy, and also the authority to des- 
ignate the annual officers of the board. 

( 218 ) 


For more than ten years the Springfield board of trade has 
been an active factor for good in mercantile and manufacturing 
circles in the city. Its affairs always have been in prudent, safe 
hands, and much of the prosperity which has come to the city 
during that peiiod is directly traceable to the excellent business 
capacity and sound judgment of the men who have comprised 
the board of officers and directors. To enumerate in detail the 
many benefits thus derived would require more space than is at 
our disposal, j'et all business men in the city are aware of the 
importance and value of the board of trade as a factor in munici- 
pal history. 

Since the organization the officiary of the board has been as 
follows : 

1890— Harlan P. Stone, president; Elisha B. IVIaynarcl, 
Henry S. Hyde, vice-presidents ; George M. Stearns, secretary 
and treasurer ; John W. Drown, assistant secretary ; Harlan P. 
Stone. R. F. Hawkins, Edward P. Chapin, A. A. Packard, Elisha 
Morgan, Clark W. Bryan, Henry M. Phillips, AY. E. Wright, E. 
B. Maynard, A. D. Nason. George M. Stearns, H. S. Hyde. A. N. 
Mayo, Xoyes W. Fisk, E. H. Lathrop, directors. 

1891 — 0. S. Greenleaf, president: E. B. Maynard, Edward 
S. Brewer, vice-presidents ; George M. Stearns, treasurer : John 
W. Drown, secretary; 0. S. Greenleaf, E. B. Maynard, E. S. 
BreAver, G. M. Stearns. Charles H. Parsons, H. M. Phillips, A. H. 
Overman. Clark AA\ Bryan, A. N. Mayo, R. F. Hawkins, W. E. 
Wright, A. D. Nason, L. C. Hyde, H. P. Stone, Wm. W. More, 

1892—0. S. Greenleaf. president; Clark W. Bryan, Edward 
S. Brewer, vice-presidents : Wm. A. AVebster. clerk and secretary : 
Edward P. Chapin. auditor; 0. S. Greenleaf, AV. E. AVright, A. 
H. Overman, E. S. Brewer, L. C. Hyde, H. P. Stone. T. L. 
Haynes, H. M. Phillips, A. D. Nason, Clark AV. Bryan, R. F. 
Hawkins, E. P. Chapin, George Nye, Peter Murray, A. B. AVal- 
lace, directors. 

1893— Charles Hall, president; Clark AV. Bryan, Louis C. 
Hyde, vice-presidents; AA'm. AA^ More, treasurer; AVm. A. AA^eb- 
ster, clerk and secretary; E. P. Chapin. auditor; 0. S. Greenleaf, 

( 219 ) 


Elijah Belding, Lyman P. Briggs, A. J, Wright, L. C. Hyde, W. 
0. Day, T. L. Haynes, H. M. Phillips, Charles Hall, Clark W. 
Bryan, Francis D. Foot, Charles VanVlack, George Nye, jr., 
Peter Murray, A. B. Wallace, directors. 

1894— James T. Abbe, president ; Clark W. Bryan, Louis C. 
Hyde, vice-presidents ; Wm. W. More, treasurer ; Wm. A. Web- 
ster, clerk and secretary; Edwin A. Carter, auditor; Charles 
Hall, 0. S. Greenleaf, James T. Abbe, Clark W. Bryan, A. B. 
Wallace, L. C. Hyde, John S. Sanderson, Charles VanVlack, T. 
L. Haynes, Lyman P. Briggs, Peter Murray, W. 0. Day, Francis 

D. Foot, John West, N. D. Winter, directors. 

1895— Newrie D. Winter, president; Charles VanVlack, 
John S. Sanderson, vice-presidents; AVm. W^. More, treasurer; 
Wm. A. Webster, clerk and secretary ; Edwin A. Carter, auditor ; 
N. D. Winter, Charles Hall, Charles VanVlack, T. L. Haynes, 
L. P. Briggs, J. S. Sanderson, H. P. Stone, E. C. Rogers, H. C. 
Eowley, R. W. Day, Frederick Harris, Charles C. Lewis, H. G. 
Gilmore, C. C. Spellman, P. H. Potter, directors. 

1896 — John Olmsted, president ; Francke W. Dickinson, H. 
C. Rowley, vice-presidents ; W. W. More, treasurer ; W. A. Web- 
ster, clerk and secretary ; E. A. Carter, auditor ; John Olmsted, 
H. C. Rowley, B. D. Rising, H. G. Gilmore, J. P. Fait, E. C. 
Rogers, H. H. Bowman, T. W. Leete, F. W. Dickinson. P. H. 
Potter, N. D. AYinter, D. H. Brigham, James F. Bidwell, C. C. 
Spellman, L. Z. Cutler, directors. 

1897— Francke W. Dickinson, president; Ed\vard C. Rogers, 
Henry H. Bowman, vice-presidents ; W. W. More, treasurer ; W. 
A. Webster, clerk and secretary ; Edwin A. Carter, auditor ; John 
Olmsted, H. H. Bowman, B. D. Rising, F. W. Dickinson, J. P. 
Fait, David Allen Reed, Charles E. Hoag, E. C. Rogers, T. W. 
Leete, P. H. Potter, Leroy Z. Cutler, Samuel D. Sherwood, David 

E. Taylor, Nathan D. Bill, Judson Strong, jr., directors. 

1898— Theodore W. Leete, president; William W. More, 
Henry E. ]\Iarsh, vice-presidents; Louis C. Hyde, treasurer; Wm. 
A. Webster, clerk and secretary ; Edwin A. Carter, auditor ; John 
Olmsted, F. W. Dickinson, H. H. Bowman, T. W. Leete, D. A. 
Reed, L. Z. Cutler, S. D. Sherwood, D. E. Taylor, Judson Strong, 

( 220 ) 


jr., Wm. W. More, H. W. Marsh, E. 0. Clark, Ralph W. Ellis,. 
Henry J. Perkins, R. Hale Smith, directors. 

1899— Theodore W, Leete, president ; Henry E. Marsh, Mase 
S. Southworth, vice-presidents; L. C. Hyde, treasurer; Frederick 
S. Sibley, clerk and secretary ; George H. Kemater, auditor ; T. 
W. Leete, H. E. Marsh, M. S. Southworth, R. H. Smith, H. J. 
Perkins, H. H. Bowman, S. D. Sherwood, E. 0. Clark, D. E. 
Taylor, Lewis F. Carr, Walter G. Morse, Charles A. Stone, Stan- 
ford L. Haynes, Charles D. Reid, William E. Wright, directors. 

1900— Theodore W. Leete, president; Mase S. Southworth, 
Henry E. Marsh, vice-presidents; Louis C. Hyde, treasurer; Fred 
S. Sibley, clerk and secretary ; George H. Kemater, auditor ; T. 
W. Leete, M. S. Southworth, H. E. Marsh, R. Hale Smith, Wm. 
E. Wright, E. 0. Clark, Charles D. Reid, W. G. Morse, C. A. 
Stone, S. L. Haynes, William P. Hayes, Everett H. Barney, Azel: 
A. Packard, Eliphalet T. Titft, Charles A. Royce, directors. 

1901— Henry E. Marsh, president; Charles D. Reid, Charles 
A. Stone, vice-presidents ; Louis C. Hyde, treasurer ; Frederick 
S. Sibley, clerk and secretary ; George H. Kemater, auditor ; 
Henry E. Marsh, Charles D. Reid, Charles A. Stone, Theodore 
W. Leete, Mase S. Southworth, William P. Hayes, Stanford L. 
Haynes, Everett H. Barney, Eliphalet T. Tifft, Charles A. 
Royce, Charles C. Lewis, Herbert C. Puffer, Henry A. King, 
William H. Baush, James J. Sullivan, directors, 


One of the surest indications of a healthful condition of busi- 
ness affairs in any city is in the number of its banking houses. 
Ordinarily cities of less than 65,000 population do not maintain 
fifteen regular corporate banks, yet in Springfield this condition 
obtains and, what is more, each of these institutions is planted on 
a firm foundation. The first bank opened here is yet in opera- 
tion and its history has been an unbroken record of business 
prosperity, although the original name is now changed : and in 
the same manner the most recently organized banking house of 
the city is also in a flourishing condition notAnthstanding the 
numerous similar institutions with which it must compete in 

( 221 ) 


order to do business. As a matter of fact Springfield, in its busi- 
ness history, is an exceptional city and draws a vast amount of 
trade in all commercial and industrial lines from beyond its own 
corporate limits. The truth of this statement is readily apparent 
to the casual observer of affairs, while to one who takes occasion 
to inquire closely into business conditions the magnitude and 
extent of local business operations is surprising and at times 
almost unaccountable. Naturally, in the course of events disas- 
ters have overtaken and caused the downfall of a few banks in 
the city, but these occurrences are specially noticeable for their 
infrequency, and on final liquidation serious losses generally 
have been averted. 

The Springfield bank, the pioneer institution of its character 
in the city (then town), was incorporated bj' an act of the legis- 
lature passed February 4, 1814, with an original capital of 
$200,000, and with authority to continue business until October 
1, 1831. The state reserved the right to subscribe to $50,000 of 
the capital stock, also to borrow money from the bank, not ex- 
ceeding $20,000 at any one time. The incorporators were Jona- 
than Dwight, John Hooker, George Bliss, James Byers, James S. 
Dwight, Justin Ely, Jonathan Dwight, jr., Moses Bliss, jr., Ed- 
ward Pynchon and Oliver B. ]\Iorris. Subsequent to the original 
act the legislature frequently changed the amount of the capital 
stock, reducing it at one time to $100,000 and eventually increas- 
ing it to $250,000. 

The corporation was fully organized at a meeting of stock- 
holders held IVIay 12, 1814. at Jeremy "Warriner's tavern. Jona- 
than DAvight. Jonathan Dwight, jr., James Byers, John Hooker 
and Moses Bliss were chosen directors. The first president was 
Jonathan Dwight, and the first cashier was Edward Pynchon. 
The bank opened its doors for business in a building on State 
street, and remained in that location until 1866, when, having 
been reorganized under the national banking act of 1863, it was 
removed to the corner of ]\Iain street and ToAATisley avenue, the 
site now occupied by the successor institution, the Second Na- 
tional bank of Springfield. During the period of its history 
under the state law. the old Springfield bank was one of the 

( 222 ) 


strongest and most reliable financial institntions in the Connecti- 
cut valley, and when after almost forty years of successful oper- 
ation it was converted into a national bank its old-time record 
survived in the memory of business men and it was looked upon 
with much favor in local circles. 

The presidents of the old bank down to 1863 were Jonathan 
Dwight, 1814-17: John Hooker, 1817-19; (no record from 1819 
to 1833) : James Byers, 1833-36; John Howard, 1836-49; Benja- 
min Day, 1849-56 ; Edward A. Morris, 1856-59 : Henry Alexan- 
der, 1859-63. The cashiers for the same period were Edward 
Pynchon, 1814-17; Moses Bliss and Benjamin Day, from 1817 to 
1823 ; John Howard, 1823-36 ; Lewis AYarriner, 1836-63. 

The Second National bank. No. 181, was the direct out- 
growth of the Springfield bank, the latter having been reorgan- 
ized in 1863 in conformity to the provisions of the act of con- 
gress authorizing national banks. Its capital was, and still is, 
$300,000, and from the time of reorganization to the present day 
it has been regarded as one of the safest and most substantial 
financial institutions in the county. According to the most re- 
cent published report of its condition the bank has assets of the 
value of more than $1,500,000, a surplus fund of $150,000, and 
an undivided profit account of over $45,000. 

The succession of presidents of the Second National bank 
since 1863 is as follows : Henry Alexander, 1863-78 ; Alfred 
Kowe, 1878-87 ; Albert T. Folsom, 1887-93 ; Gurdon Bill, 1893- 
1900; Walter G. Morse, 1900-—. The cashiers for the same 
period have been Lewis Warriner, 1863-80 ; Harry P. Piper, 
1880-81 ; Charles H. Churchill, 1881— now in office. Directors, 
1901, Gurdon Bill, Dwight 0. Gilmore. Theodore AV. Leete, Wal- 
ter G. Morse, Henry j\I. Phillips, William P. Porter, Frank C. 
Rice. George A. Russell, Horace P. Wright. 

The Chicopee bank, the second banking institution in Spring- 
field, was incorporated April 9, 1836, with $200,000 capital, by 
Elisha Edwards, William Bryant, Albert Morgan, and their 
associates. Its organization was perfected at a meeting held in 
Jeremy Warriner's famous hostelry, and on October 30 its doors 
were opened for business with George Bliss, president, and Henry 

( 223 ) 


Seymour, cashier. The first directors Avere George Bliss, Elisha 
Edwards, William Bryant, Sable Rogers, James Brewer, Albert 
Morgan, Edward A. Morris, Wells Lathrop and William Dwight. 

The bank began business at the corner of Main and Elm 
streets, where from 1836 to 1865 it was in the heart of the mer- 
cantile district of the town and subsequent city. The successor 
institution, the Chicopee National bank, occupies the same cor- 
ner, although the old building of early years has been replaced 
with one of more modern construction and architecture. From 
the beginning of its history the Chicopee bank has been success- 
ful in its business operations and its managing officers have been 
chosen from the best material at the command of the directors. 
Previous to the reorganization in 1865 the presidents w^ere George 
Bliss, 1836-46, and Philo Wilcox, 1846-65. For the same period 
the cashiers were Henry Seymour, 1836-41 ; B. Frank Warner, 
1841-56 ; Thomas Warner, jr., 1856-65. 

The Chicopee National bank. No. 464 (revised No. 466), suc- 
cessor to the Chicopee bank, the state institution, was incorpor- 
ated in March, 1865, under the act of congress authorizing the 
organization of national banks m the several states. The change 
w-as one of character of the corporation rather than in business 
policy of the old bank, and nearly all the directors of the former 
were re-elected. The personnel of the new board was as follows : 
Jas. D. Brewer, Philo F. Wilcox, Henry Fuller, jr.. Gad 0. Bliss, 
Elijah W. Bliss, Horace Smith and Henry S. Lee. The new- 
officers were James D. Bre^ver, president, and Thomas Warner, 
cashier. The subsequent presidents have been Henry S. Lee, 
1866-69 ; Henry Fuller, jr., 1869-87 : Horace Smith, 1887-9 : A. J. 
Mcintosh, March, 1893— now president. The cashiers have been 
Thomas Warner, 1865-79; and Arthur B. West, 1879— now 

The Chicopee bank (by this name it has been known in 
Springfield business circles for more than sixty-five years) has: 
long been regarded as one of the sound financial institutions of 
the city, and deservedly has enjoyed a successful and healthful 
business career. During the period of its history as a state bank 
the capital was occasionally changed to meet new conditions, but 

( 224 ) 


never at any time was the soundness of the institution brought 
into question. The present paid in capital is $400,000, and the 
deposit account, both in amount and number of depositors, com- 
pares favorably ^^^th that of any bank in the city. The present 
surplus fund aggregates $150,000, and about $55,000 stands 
credited to the undivided profit account. The present officers of 
the bank are A. J. ]\lcIntosh, president ; Arthur B. West, cashier ; 
Henry S. Lee, George L. "Wright, Arthur B. West, A. J. Mcin- 
tosh, George S. Taylor and B. D. Rising, directors. 

The Agawam bank, predecessor institution to the Agawam 
National bank, was incorporated by an act of the legislature 
passed February 12, 1846, the corporators being Chester W. 
Chapin, Addison Ware and Edmund Freeman. The original 
capital was $100,000, and was increased in 1848 to $200,000, and 
to $300,000 in 1857, The act provided that the bank should be 
located and maintained within twenty-five rods, north or south, 
of the Western railroad in Springfield, which fact in a measure 
may account for the continuous location of the bank in the vicin- 
ity of the railroad for more than half a century. The principal 
reason that has impelled the directors to remain in this locality is 
in the fact that the surroundings are entirely congenial, and in 
this busy center of trade and traffic the bank has become one of 
the fixed and leading institutions. 

The first board of directors comprised Chester W. Chapin, 
Horatio Lyon, Wells SouthAvorth, Albert INIorgan, J. B. Vinton, 
James Barnes, Benjamin Day, Willis Phelps and Addison Ware. 
Mr. Chapin was the first president and Frederick S. Bailey the 
first cashier. Mr. Chapin was continued in office until 1850, 
when Albert Morgan succeeded him. The latter died in 1856 
and was succeeded by Thomas Stebbins, who continued until the 
election of ]Marvin Chapin in 1862. Mr. Chapin was president 
throughout the reorganization period and until 1870, when he 
declined a re-election. Mr. Bailey as cashier and active officer 
of the bank had a long and honorable service in that capacity, 
and on his retirement was succeeded by the present cashier, 
W. M. AVillard. 

The Agawam National bank. No. 1,055, was organized in 
May, 1865, with a paid-in capital of $300,000, and an authorized 

15-2 ( 225 ) 


capital of $500,000. When the reorganization was effected there 
was no change in the officers and board of directors. On Mr. 
Chapin's retirement from the presidency in 1870, Henry S. Hyde 
was elected his successor and was continued at the head of the 
bank until January, 1901, when he retired and was succeeded 
by Mr. McGregory. 

From the time it was first established in 1846 to the present 
day the Agawam bank, state and national, has held a high 
standing in financial circles in New England, and it ahvays has 
been regarded as a safe and well managed institution. The 
present officers are H. W. McGregory, president ; W, M. Willard, 
cashier; H. W. McGregory, George Nye, jr., William H. Chapin, 
Charles A. Nichols, Mase S. Southworth, Lewis J. Powers and 
Henry M. Brewster, directors. 

The Western bank, of Springfield, was incorporated by an 
act of the legislature passed May 1, 1849, the corporators, who 
also were its guiding spirits throughout its brief career, being 
Eliphalet Trask, Samuel Bailey, Samuel Day, and their asso- 
ciates. The original capital was $100,000, the amount being in- 
creased in 1850 by an additional $150,000. 

The bank began business under favorable circumstances and 
was well officered. Its first and only president Avas Caleb Rice, 
while Charles P. Bissell was the first cashier. He was succeeded 
by George P. Bissell, and the latter, in turn, by J. L. Warriner. 
Among the other prominent men who were at some time identified 
with the business affairs of the bank there may be recalled the 
names of Eliphalet, Edmund Freeman, H. N. Case, W. N. 
Flynt, William Rice, Willis Phelps, W. C. Sturtevant, Samuel S. 
Day, William Birnie, Chauncey L. Covell and others, who served 
in the capacity of directors. Eventually, however, the bank be- 
came involved in loans to western railroads and other enterprises, 
and failing in an emergency to realize on its securities it was 
forced to suspend. 

The John Hancock bank was incorporated by an act of the 
legislature passed April 6, 1850, the corporators being James W. 
Crooks, James M. Thompson, Walter H. Bowdoin and Solomon 
Hatch, who are remembered by our older citizens as four of the 

( 226 ) 


foremost men of the town in their time, and whose connection 
with the organization of the bank inspired confidence in the 
enterprise on the part of the public. The original capital was 
$100,000, but afterward the amount was increased to $150,000. 
The bank was organized at a meeting held at the old Armory 
house, on the hill, for this was distinctively an institution of that 
locality, the charter itself providing that it be esitablished on the 
south side of State street "on the hill, near the armory." In 
1857 the legislature authorized its removal to "some more con- 
venient location." and accordingly in the same year the concern 
was established in its present quarters on Main street. 

Although Mr. Crooks was the guiding spirit of the enterprise 
even to the extent of suggesting its name, he was too much occu- 
pied with other business affairs to assume its management, there- 
fore Colonel Thompson was chosen president, and Edmund D. 
Chapin, the present president, was made cashier. The first 
board of directors included such well known business men as ]\Ir. 
Crooks, Col. Thompson, W. H. Bowdoin. Solomon Hatch, Edward 
P. ]Moseley, Pliny Cadwell, Alexander H. Avery and Roger S. 
IMoore. For eight years the bank did business on the hill, and 
then it was resolved to move nearer the active center of trade on 
jNIain street. This being accomplished the old bank's career was 
continued with gratifying success to its stockholders until 1865, 
when a reorganization under the national banking act was effect- 
ed. Col. Thompson was president until 1863, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Roger S. Moore. Mr. Chapin was cashier of the state 
bank throughout the period of its existence and for several years 
after it was reorganized as a national bank. 

The John Hancock National bank. No. 982, w^as organized in 
1865 with $150,000 capital stock (subsequently increased to 
$250,000) and since that time it has been one of the leading finan- 
cial institutions of the city. INIr. Moore was elected its first 
president and served in that capacity until 1890, when he was 
succeeded by Edmund D. Chapin, who for many years has been 
regarded as the mainstay of the bank, and its active managing 
officer. "When ]\Ir. Chapin became president E. D. Metcalf was 
chosen vice-president and E. Dudley Chapin was made cashier. 

( 227 ) 


This personnel of the officiary has been changed but little in later 

A glance at the bank report discloses a healthful condition 
of affairs in connection with the John Hancock bank. Its policy 
for 3'ears has been conservative, therefore safe and prudent, 
hence the confidence felt in its management by the business 
public. The last report of its condition shoAVS a surplus and 
undivided profit account of more than $90,000, and a total de- 
posit account of more than $400,000. The present officers and 
directors are Edmiind D. Chapin, president; E. Dudley Chapin, 
cashier; Edmund D. Chapin, John Kimberly, Edward C. Rogers, 
L. Z. Cutler, Edward H. Wilkins and E. Dudley Chapin, 

The Pynchon bank was incorporated under the state laws 
relating to banks, in 1853, and was established in a location at 
the southern end of the business center of the city at that time. 
The state was not wholly in favor of granting bank charters 
indiscriminately and it was necessary that incorporators furnish 
some logical reason for founding their institution, and the need 
thereof. The old Agawam bank was started within tAventy rods 
of the AA^estern railroad depot, to accommodate trade in that 
vicinity ; the John Hancock bank was started on the hill, near 
the armory, where trade then was increasing ; and in the same 
manner the Pynchon bank was intended to accommodate the mer- 
chants and other business interests in the south part of the city, 
near the corner of State street. 

Among the prominent men interested in founding the bank 
were AA^illis Phelps, Homer Foot, "Gov." Beach, George Mer- 
riam, Charles Merriam, J. B. Rumrill, Col. Case, Samuel Bowles 
and AAHlliam StoAve. each of whose names is frequently mentioned 
elsewhere in connection with events of early city business his- 
tory. H. N. Case — Col. Case— was the first president, and 
Henry Alexander, jr., Avas the first cashier. In 1865 the bank 
Avas reorganized as the PAaichon National bank. No. 987, and in 
1869 the capital Avas increased from $150,000 to $200,000. 

The presidents of the Pynchon bank, both state and national, 
Avere H. N. Case, 1853-58 ; James Kirkham, 1858-62 ; H. N. Case, 

( 228 ) 


1862-89; Charles Marsh, 1889-91; Edward D. Chapin, 1891-1901. 
During the same period the cashiers were Henry Alexander, jr., 
1853-58 ; Frederick H. Harris, 1858-63 ; James D. Safford. 1863- 
06 ; Charles Marsh, 1866-89 : George R. Bond, 1889-1901. 

For almost half a century the Pynchon bank was numbered 
among the solid tinancial institutions of Springfield, and deser- 
vedly enjoyed the confidence of the public, as well as a large pat- 
ronage ; but on June 21, 1901, owing to certain investments on 
which immediate returns were not possible, the comptroller of 
the currency ordered a suspension of business. At that time the 
bank's capital was $200,000 and its surplus was $100,000. The 
officers and directors in 1901 Avere Edward P. Chapin, president ; 
George R. Bond, cashier ; Edward P. Chapin. H. C. Rowley, John 
S. Sanderson, James T. Abbe, AYilliam 0. Day, Charles C. Lewis 
and George R. Bond, directors. 

The First National bank. No. 11, of Springfield, was char- 
tered in 1863, and its founders are said to have constituted the 
first body of business men in the entire country to apply for a 
charter after the national banking act went into effect. How- 
ever, other applications were received first, hence in the numeri- 
cal order this bank was given the number 14. It was organized 
February 24, 1863. with $150,000 capital, the amount being in- 
creased to $300,000 in 1864, and to $400,000 in 1871. The first 
directors were James Kirkham, Henry Morris, Orick H. Green- 
leaf. Daniel B. Wesson, Samuel Norris, "W. K. Baker and George 
E. Howard. 

On the organization of the board, Mr. Kirkham was elected 
president, and from that time until his death in February, 1893, 
he was at the head of the bank and its chief managing officer. In 
March following John Olmsted was elected president and still 
serves in that capacity. His successful business career is too 
well known in Springfield to need mention here, and the reader 
only has to refer to the institutions of the city to ascertain how 
he has been a factor in local events. Julius H. Appleton was the 
first cashier, being succeeded in 1866 by James D. Safford, who, 
in turn, was succeeded in 1872 by Dustin A. Folsom, the present 
cashier and active officer of the bank. 

( 229 ) 


The First National bank is one of the solid financial institu- 
tions of the Connecticut valley in Massachusetts, and in banking 
circles in New England it always has held an enviable standing ; 
and its affairs never Avere more prosperous than at the present 
time. Its capital is $400,000 ; surplus, $80,000 ; undivided pro- 
fits, $32,753. The officers and directors are as follows : John 
Olmsted, president : Dustin A. Folsom, cashier ; F. L. Safford, 
assistant cashier ; John Olmsted, John West, Peter Murray, 
Henr>^ J. Beebe, Harlan P. Stone, Alfred N. Mayo, James W. 
Kirkham, and B. Frank Steele, directors. 

The Third National bank of Springfield, No. 308, in the 
numerical succession, and second of the original national banks 
in this city, was organized in 1864, under the immediate super- 
vision of George Walker, who in later years attained a standing 
of prominence in financial circles both in this country and in 
Europe. The bank was formally organized February 20, 1864, 
with $500,000 capital, and opened its doors for business with 
these officers and directors : George Walker, president ; Freder- 
ick H. Harris, cashier ; George Walker, John L. King, John 
Wells, Joseph C. Parsons, Emerson Gaylord, Edmund Freeman, 
Clark W. Bryan, Joseph Carew and Aaron Bagg, directors. 

Mr. Walker continued at the head of the bank until 1876, 
when he was succeeded by Joseph C. Parsons. On the death of 
the latter in 1886, Frederick H. Harris, the former cashier (and 
who in one capacity or another has been identified with banking 
history in the city since 1839) was elected president and still 
holds that relation to the institution. Frederick Harris, son of 
the president, was appointed assistant cashier in 1873, and on 
the election of his father to the presidency, he Avas chosen cashier, 
which position he still holds. 

Except as one board of officers has succeeded another in the 
evolution of time and events, there has been little change in the 
personnel of the management of the Third National bank. When, 
the institution was founded it at once became a prominent factor 
in the financial history of the city, and from that time its pro- 
gress has been onward until it came to be regarded as one of the 
safest banking houses in New England. For many years it has 

( 230 ) 


been a depository for government funds, and at various times 
its disbursements for the armory pay-rolls has been exceedingly 
large. The building at the corner of Main and Hillman streets 
was erected in 1875, and even now it is numbered among the more 
substantial structures of the city. The building committee, un- 
der whose supervision the work of construction was done, com- 
prised Henry A. Gould, James H. Newton and Joseph Carew. 

The Third National bank has a capital of .$500,000, a sur- 
plus of $400,000, an undivided profit account of more than 
.$66,000, and a total deposit account of over $1,600,000. In a large 
degree this gratifying success was due to the capacity of Mr. 
Walker, yet since his death the conduct of the business has been 
in equally reliable hands in his successor. At the present time 
the officers and directors of the bank are as follows : Frederick 
H. Harris, president; Frederick Harris, cashier; Frederick H. 
Harris, Henry A. Gould, J. S. McElwain (Holyoke), Charles R. 
Ladd, Aaron Bagg, jr., A. W. Damon and Frederick Harris, 

The Chapin National bank was first incorporated in 1872 
under the state laws, as the Chapin Banking and Trust company, 
and was named in allusion to Chester W. Chapin, its founder 
and principal stockholder, and also one of Springfield's foremost 
business men for many years. Indeed, it is doubtful if any 
other man was more closely identified with vast and varied busi- 
ness interests in the city and county than w-as Mr. Chapin. The 
first directors of the banking and trust company were Chester 
W. Chapin, William K. Baker, James M. Thompson, James A. 
Rumrill, John B. Stebbins, Daniel L. Harris, Henry S. Lee, Geo. 
C. Fisk, Charles 0. Russell and W. H. AVilkinson. (Having 
mentioned Mr. Chapin 's close relation to business interests in 
the city, it is also proper to state in this connection that no bank 
previously organized in Springfield had a stronger board of 
directors than the original Chapin bank.) Mr. Chapin was the 
first presid'cnt, Mr. Baker the first vice-president, and James D. 
Safford the first cashier. 

Thus officered and with a capital of $500,000, the bank 
opened its doors for business and in the course of a few years it 

( 231 ) 

Chester W. Chapiu 


was recognized as one of the most successful financial institutions 
of the city. There was little change in the officiary of the board 
of directors before 1879, when James A. Rumrill succeeded Mr. 
Chapin in the presidency, and William F. Callender, who had 
"been teller in the bank since it was started, was made cashier in 
place of Mr. Safit'ord. On October 1, 1879, the state charter was 
surrendered and the bank was reorganized under the national 
banking act as the Chapin National bank, No. 2,435. 

From the time the Chapin bank began business it has been a 
strong financial institution, always popular with the public, well 
managed and officered, yet the best results have been achieved 
since the reorganization of 1879. In its present condition the 
bank has a capital of $500,000, a surplus of $100,000, and an un- 
divided profit account of $65,000. The deposit account aggre- 
gates over $1,300,000. The officers and directors are William F. 
Callender, president, who was elected to that office June 3, 1897, 
succeeding Mr. Baker; George R. Yerrall, cashier, elected April 
5, 1893, succeeding Mr. Callender, who was made vice-president 
at that time; James A. Rumrill, Edward S. Bradford, Samuel R. 
Whiting, William F. Callender, Charles C. Jenks, Chester W. 
Bliss, Dr. Theodore F. Breck and George R. Yerrall, directors. 

The City National bank of Springfield, No. 2,433, was organ- 
ized September 9, 1879, with $250,000 capital, and with James D. 
■Safford (formerly cashier of the Chapin banking and trust com- 
pany) as president, and Henry H. Bowman (now president of 
the Springfield National bank) as cashier. The first directors 
Avere James M. Thompson, John B. Stebbins, Marcus P. Knowl- 
ton, Nelson C. Newell, George B. Holbrook and James D. Safford. 

Throughout the period of its history Mr. Safford has been 
president and active managing officer of the bank, and the certain 
success achieved by the institution is largely due to his efforts. 
Mr. Bowman was cashier until succeeded by Edwin A. Carter, in 
January, 1893, and the latter was, in turn, succeeded in 1900 by 
William E. Gilbert, the present cashier. 

The managers of the bank at the outset adopted a liberal 
policy, and its affairs always have been conducted in accordance 
Avith progressive business methods, hence its success and the 

( 233 ) 


popular standing it has in business circles in the city. Accord- 
ing to the latest published report of its condition, the bank has a 
surplus and undivided account of over $160,000, and a deposit 
account of more than $1,163,000. 

The present officers and directors are as follows : James D. 
Saftord. president ; AYilliam E. Gilbert, cashier ; Marcus P. 
Knowlton, Nelson C. Newell, Luke S. Stowe, Lewis F. Carr, 
Edwin A. Carter, James B. Carroll and James D. Safford, 

The Springfield National bank, the youngest of the city's 
financial institutions established under federal laws, was organ- 
ized May 6, 1893, with a capital of $200,000, but notwithstanding 
this it is unquestionably one of the strongest banks in New Eng- 
land. Eight years of business shows an accumulated surplus of 
$200,000, undivided profits amounting to more that $61,000, and 
a deposit account of over $2,243,000. The original officers. 
(Henry H. Bowman, president; George B. Holbrook, vice-presi- 
dent; and Kalph P. Alden, cashier) are still in their respective 
positions, and in the personnel of the board of directors there has 
been little change. W. C. King, B. D. Rising and A. H. Over- 
man, who Avere members of the first board are not now of the 
number. The present directors are Robert W. Day, Ralph W. 
Ellis, AY. D. Kinsman, Franklin Pierce, F. G. Tobey, Michael 
Dunn, George B. Holbrook, C. A. Crocker, George W. Tapley, 
Henry H. Bowman and Ralph P. Alden. 

The Springfield Safe Deposit and Trust company, the oldest 
banking concern of the city doing business under state laws, and 
also one of the most substantial institutions of its kind in the 
entire region, Avas organized in December, 1885, and opened its 
doors for business in July, 1886. The original charter was 
granted in 1873 to Henry Alexander, jr.. Smith R. Phillips, 
Charles 0. Chapin, Samuel B. Spooner and Samuel Palmer, but 
as no organization was effected under the charter within the 
required time the company forfeited its rights and subsequent 
legislation was necessary to revive it. 

The first board of directors, chosen in 1885, comprised J. G. 
jNIcIntosh, Samuel Bigelow, C. H. Haywood, Edwin McElwain^ 

( 234 ) 


Nathan D. Bill, A. B. AYallaee, Charles D. Rood, J. S. Hiirlbut, 
Timothy Merrick, Kodney Wallace, AYilliam Skinner, AV. L. 
BroAvn, J. S. INIcEhvain, Joseph Metcalf, G. H. Newman, J. L. 
AVarriner and Sanniel Blaisdell. The first officers were J. G. 
^Mcintosh, president; AY. A. Lincoln, treasurer; Timothy Aler- 
rick, Samuel Bigelow, A. B. AYallace, AAllliam Skinner and 
Joseph Aletcalf, executive committee. The original capital of 
$300,000 was subsequently increased to $500,000, and although a 
safe deposit and trust company within the strict interpretation 
of the name, the institution always has done a general banking 
business, and, except in the issue of currency, has greater power 
than is extended to national banks. 

For more than fifteen years the Springfield Safe Deposit 
and Trust comj-yany has been an important factor in the business 
history of the city and state. Its affairs always have been well 
managed and it has gained especial popularity in mercantile and 
manufacturing circles. As has been stated, the company's capi- 
tal is .$500,000, the surplus and undivided profit account aggre- 
gates more than $311,000, and its deposit account is above $2,- 
700,000. The total assets are more than $3,544,000. 

The present officers of the company are J. G. Mcintosh, 
president ; AA". A. Lincoln, vice-president ; George H. Kemater, 
treasurer ; J. G. Alclntosh, A. B. AA'allace, Joseph Aletcalf, Sam- 
uel Bigelow, AY. H. Heywood, John E. Stevens, Edwin McEl- 
wain, Luke Corcoran, A. A. Alarston, Albert D. Nason, J. Searle 
Hurlbut and AA". A. Lincoln, directors. 

The Hampden Trust company was incorporated by a special 
act of the legislature, June 1, 1887, under the name of the Ham]>- 
den Loan and Trust company, by Emerson Gaylord, Henry S. 
Hyde, Henry AI. Phillips, Edward H. Lathrop, AVilliam AY. 
AA^right, Daniel J. Marsh and Charles A. Kibbe. The object of 
the company was to carry on a general banking, loan and trust 
business under the laws of this state, and the incorporation ap- 
pears to have been suggested by Col. M. V. B. Edgerly, who 
aimed to conduct the business in connection with the Massachu- 
setts Mutual Life as auxiliary to that corporation. However, 
under the charter nothing was accomplished for several years, 

( 235 ) 


and the company in fact was not organized and ready for busi- 
ness until the spring of 1895. 

The first officers were Col, Edgerly, president; Henry M. 
Phillips, vice-president; and William G. Mclntyre, treasurer. 
Before the business was fairly started Col. Edgerly died and 
John A. Hall was thereupon elected his successor. He served 
one year and was succeeded by Gov. Haile, who died in February, 
1901, and during whose term in the presidency the company be- 
came firmly established in banking circles in the city. On the 
death of Gov. Haile, William G. Mclntyre, the former treasurer, 
was elected president of the company, and at the same time Say- 
ward Galbraith, originally clerk and later assistant treasurer, 
succeeded to the vacancy created by the advancement of Mr. 

Six years of business have demonstrated the usefulness and 
success of the Hampden Trust company (the name having been 
changed May 1, 1901) as one of the financial institutions of 
Springfield. The company does a general banking business, 
having a deposit account of nearly $1,500,000, and in addition 
thereto acts as trustee, executor or administrator of estates of 
deceased persons, and also as registrar for corporations. Indeed, 
under its charter and the laws of the state the company possesses 
all the advantages of national banks, except in the issue of cur- 
rency, and in many respects has greater powers. The latest 
report of its condition shows a capital of $100,000. undivided 
profits amounting to $57,000, and trust accounts aggregating 
nearly $200,000. 

The present officers of the company are William G. Mc- 
lntyre, president; AVilliam F. Whiting and Henry C. Haile, vice- 
presidents; Sayward Galbraith, treasurer; Henry M. Phillips, 
AVilliam E. Wright, William B. Plunkett, Peter Murray, Henry 
C. Haile, AVilliam W. McClench, Edmund P. Kendrick, William 
F. Whiting and William G. Mclntyre, directors. 

The Springfield Institution for Savings, the oldest corpora- 
tion of its kind in Hampden county and one of the oldest in 
Massachusetts, dates back in its history— an unbroken record of 
successful business operation— to the year 1827, when it was 

( 236 ) 


brought into existence by a special act of the legislature. When 
business was begun the institution was conducted as an auxiliary 
to the old Springfield bank, and occupied the same building until 
1S44. At first its business was quite limited, the deposits in the 
year mentioned amounting to less than $50,000. About that time 
the trustees were disposed to wind up its afi:'airs, but finally ap- 
pointed a committee (William DAnght, John Howard, Theodore 
Bliss, James Brewer and Samuel Reynolds) to consider the prem- 
ises and suggest a plan of action for the future. The committee 
reported in favor of continuing the bank, and accordingly it was 
separated from the old patron institution and started out on an 
independent career. 

Subsequent events proved the wisdom of this proceeding, 
and in the course of a few years the savings institution became 
established on a firm foundation ; and it has since continued to 
grow in strength and public favor until it has come to be recog- 
nized as one of the most solid institutions for savings in all New 
England. In proof of this assertion we have only to refer to the 
present condition of its affairs. The depositors number over 
40,000 persons, and the total deposits aggregate $16,614,075.50. 
Few similar institutions in the country can make a better 

The first officers were John Hooker, president; George Bliss, 
Jonathan Dwight, jr., David Ames, Roswell Lee, John Chaffee, 
Joshua Frost, Robert Emery and John Ingersoll, vice-presidents ; 
Daniel Bontecou, John B. Kirkham, Diah Allen, Samuel Hen- 
shaw, William Child, Joseph Wetherhead, Benj. Day, W. F. 
Wolcott, George Colton, George Bliss, jr., Charles Stearns, Moses 
Bliss 2d, Oliver B. Morris, Justice Willard and Samuel Reynolds, 

When the savings institution was separated from the Spring- 
field bank in 1844. new quarters were found for the former in 
Foot's building, but in 1867 the trustees caused to be erected the 
substantial building at the corner of jNIain and State streets, the 
subsequent and present home of the corporation. 

The succession of presidents is as follows : John Hooker, 
1827-44; Theodore Bliss and William Dwight, each for brief 

( 237 ) 

Henry S. Lee 


terms from 1844: to 1847 ; Josiah Hooker, 1847-70 ; James M. 
Thompson, 1870-84; John B. Stebbins, 1884-99; Henry S. Lee, 
1899— now in office. The treasurers have been John Howard, 
1827-49 ; Henry Stearns, 1849-58 : Henry S. Lee, 1858-99 ; Joseph 
C. Booth, 1899— now in office. 

The present officers of the institution are as follows : Henry 
S. Lee, president^ : Julius H. Appleton, vice-president : Joseph C. 
Booth, treasurer : W. N. Caldwell, clerk ; Henry S. Lee, Julius H. 
Appleton, Marcus P. Knowlton, Edward P. Chapin, Arthur B. 
West, John A. Hall, Homer L. Bosworth, W. N. Caldwell and 
John McFethries, trustees; James D. Safford, W. C. INlarsh and 
H. W. Haskins, auditors. 

The Hampden Savings bank was incorporated and organized 
in 1852, and "was the creation of Chester W. Chapin, who had 
in view the establishment of a bank near the depot, to accommo- 
date the employees of the "Western railroad and others from out 
of town, who might desire to make deposits out of their monthly 
earnings." On the formal organization of the bank (]May 21, 
1852) Albert Morgan was elected president; James T. Ames, 
Chester "W. Chapin, Franklin Morgan and Eliphalet Trask, vice- 
presidents ; Frederick S. Bailey, treasurer; Samuel S. Day, Will- 
iam Melcher, Ezekiel Blake, Sylvanus Adams, Andrew Hunting- 
ton, Stephen C. Bemis, Gilman Jaquith, Hiram Q. Sanderson. 
Henry Gray, Ephraim W. Bond, Thomas W. Wason and Edward 
Southworth, trustees. 

Previous to 1873 the savings accounts were kept in the Aga- 
wam bank, to which in a measure the savings bank was auxiliary, 
but in that year the institutions were separated and in 1899 the 
savings bank was removed to its present quarters on the west side 
of Main street. From the time of its organization the affairs of 
the bank have been prudently and conservatively managed, and 
the hopes of the founder were realized in the opening of many ac- 
counts by railroad employees and others of the wage-earning ele- 
ment of the city's population. 

Mr. Morgan continued in the presidency from 1852 to 1856, 
and then was succeeded by Stephen C. Bemis, who served until 

'Mr. Lee died March 29, 1902, and .Julius H. Appleton has been elected in his 

( 239 ) 


1871. Eliphalet Trask was the next president, serving until his 
death in 1890. John Mulligan followed next, and was succeeded 
in February, 1899, by Charles L. Gardner, the present president. 
During the half century of its existence, the bank has had only 
two treasurers, Frederick S. Bailey, who was the active manager 
of its affairs from 1852 to 1870, and then was succeeded by Peter 
S. Bailey, who is still in office. 

According to the most recent published statement of its 
condition, the Hampden Savings bank has a deposit fund of more 
than $3,300,000, and total assets of more than $3,529,000. The 
present officers are as follows: Charles L. Gardner, president; 
Henry S. Hyde and Lewis J. Powers, vice-presidents; Peter S. 
Bailey, clerk and treasurer; Louis C. Hyde, Elijah Belding, 
Frank E. Carpenter, W. Chaplin Bemis, E. Dudley Chapin, F. 
H. Stebbins, William F. Callender, J. F. Bidwell, AV. E. Wright, 
Mase S. Southworth, Dwight 0. Gilmore and George K. Ester- 
brook, trustees. 

The Springfield Five Cents Savings bank was chartered and 
organized in 1854, and was the first institution of its kind in the 
city to specially invite small savings, its patrons being allowed to 
deposit sums as small in amount as five cents, and from that to 
$1,000. Dr. George W. Rice Avas the guiding spirit of the enter- 
prise, and in his early efforts in behalf of the bank he was aided 
by Willis Phelps and Dr. Joseph C. Pynchon. On the organiza- 
tion of the officiary ]\Ir. Phelps Avas chosen president, and Dr. 
Pynchon, treasurer. In 1858 Dr. Pynchon became president and 
Charles Marsh was made treasurer. 

Dr. Pynchon w-as continued in the presidency until 1889, 
when he died, and was succeeded by Ephraim W. Bond. The 
latter died December 5, 1891, and was followed as president by 
Dr. William Rice, who served until his death, August 17, 1897, 
when Robert 0. ^Morris was elected his successor. In 1859, 
Charles Marsh, treasurer, w^as made cashier of the Pynchon bank, 
upon which Daniel J. Marsh was elected to the vacant office in 
the savings bank. He still serves in that capacity and now 
ranks with the oldest bankers in the city ; and it may truthfully 
be said that in a large degree the success of this institution has 
been due to his prudent management of its business affairs. 

( 240 ) 


From the outset the business of the bank has been conducted 
Avith gratifying success. During the first year the deposits 
amounted to $99,406, and from that time they have increased 
until the aggregate account at present is more than .$6,077,000. 

The present officers of the bank are as follows: Robert 0. 
Morris, president : Henry M. Phillips, Oliver Marsh, Charles A. 
Nichols, vice-presidents ; Daniel J. Marsh, treasurer ; Robert 0. 
Morris, Henry M. Phillips, Charles A. Nichols, Alfred M. Cope- 
land, Henry S. Dickinson, Richard W. Rice, Aaron Bagg, George 
Leonard, Daniel J. Marsh, Oliver Marsh, Ralph W. Ellis. James 
H. Pjnichon, AYilliam H. Gray and Henry D. Marsh, trustees; 
Henry D. Marsh, clerk ; Oliver Marsh, AVilliam H. Gray, finance 
committee : Alfred M. Copelanci, George Leonard, Richard W. 
Rice, auditing committee. 


The history of insurance in Springfield dates from the early 
years of the last century. At one time the city gave promise of 
unusual prominence as the home of many companies, and for a 
time the leadership of Hartford in this respect was questioned. 
Still, of all the old insurance companies chartered, organized and 
for a time continued in this city, only three have survived the 
ravages of time and experience and are in successful operation 
to-day. Some of our older citizens will remember the old Massa- 
soit and Hampden insurance companies, and the first Springfield 
Fire insurance company, all of which lived for a time and then 
passed naturally out of existence. At a later date there were 
organized in succession the Washington ^Mutual Life and the 
Citizens' insurance companies, which, like the majority of their 
predecessors, found actual experience at variance with theory, 
and as a result they, too, fell by the wayside. A like fate over- 
took nearly all the later assessment companies, each of which 
promised much and accomplished little for the good of mankind. 

The Mutual Fire Assurance company of Springfield, the old- 
est institution of its kind in the city, and one of the oldest in the 
state, Avas chartered and organized in 1827, and was the result of 
an accident. On a Sunday morning early in that year, when the 


( 241 ) 


meeting house bell was calling the inhabitants to worship, a fire 
broke out in the dwelling house of Zebina Stebbins, and in spite 
of the efforts of the villagers and the fire company the building 
was destroyed. It was a custom of the period, and one which 
had existed almost from the time the town was founded, in case 
of serious loss by fire by one of the townsmen his neighl)ors would 
generously join together and replace the building or contribute 
money for that purpose ; and occasions are not wanting in which 
the town voted to make good the losses of sutferers by fire. This 
not only was a custom of the age, but also was purely mutual in- 
surance without the formality of charter or organization. 

Zebina Stebbins, the victim of the Sunday morning fire in 
Ferry lane, was a conspicuous figure in early Springfield history. 
He did not need contribution on the part of his neighbors, but the 
fire itself suggested to his mind the need of an insurance com- 
pany in the town, and he set about the work to accomplish that 
end. As a result of his efforts the legislature, on February 23, 
1827, granted a charter to the Mutual Fire Assurance company 
of Springfield, naming as incorporators Zebina Stebbins, Joseph 
Carew, David Ames, jr., Festus Stebbins, Walter Stebbins, John 
Newbury, Sable Rogers and Jacob Bliss. At a meeting of in- 
terested persons held at Russell's inn on February 14. an infor- 
mal organization of the company was effected. "William Bliss 
was chosen permanent secretary, but the election of other offi- 
cers was deferred until the next day. On the loth Zebina 
Stebbins was made president ; "William Bliss, treasurer : and Ze- 
bina Stebbins. Jacob Bliss, Joseph CareAV, Sable Rogers, Theo- 
dore Bliss, David Ames, jr., and Francis M. Carew, directors. 

From the beginning of its history to the present time the 
policy of the company has been very conservative, and not once 
has it departed from its old traditions. As a purely mutual 
corporation it could not well do otherwise and keep faith with 
the pledges and purposes of the organizers. There are no sal- 
aried officers, other than the secretary and treasurer, the direc- 
tors receiving a nominal compensation for attending meetings ; 
and there are no agents whose commissions make inroads on the 
revenues of the company, and every endeavor is made to keep 

( 242 ) 


down the expense account for the benefit of policy holders. The 
company insux'es only dwelling house property, yet its fame and 
popularity is such that about 2,700 policies are constantly out- 
standing. Covering the entire period of the company's history, 
the directors have returned to policy holders an average divi- 
dend of 80 per cent., and for the last nine years have returned a 
dividend of 90 per cent. The actual cost to the assured on a 
policy is about $1.25 on each .$1,000 for five years. The assets 
now aggregate $200,000. The company never has been embar- 
assed by serious losses and its business department always has 
been in safe hands. 

The presidents of the company have been as follows: Ze- 
bina Stebbins, May 15-July 25, 1827; Joseph Carew, July 25, 
1827-Oct. 5, 1829 : George Colton, Oct. 5, 1829-March 9, 1838 ; 
William Child. March 9. 1838-Oct. 4, 1841; Samuel Reynolds, 
Oct. 4, 1841, declined : Charles Howard, declined ; Philo F. Wil- 
cox, Oct. 4, 1841-Oct. 11, 1850 ; Elijah Blake, Oct. 11, 1850- 
Oct. 4, 1869; AY. C. Sturtevant, Oct. 4, 1869-died Aug. 
21, 1891 ; Alfred Rowe, Oct. 6, 1891-Oct. 7, 1895 ; George B. Hol- 
brook, Oct. 12. 1895-now in office. The secretaries have been 
William Bliss, 1827-38 ; Justice Willard, 1838-49 ; Lewis Gor- 
ham, 1849-68 ; Lewis A. Titft, 1868-74 : Frank R. Young, Sept. 
19. 1874-now in office. The treasurers have been William 
Bliss, 1827, declined: Sable Rogers, 1827-48. (On Oct. 2, 1848, 
this office was consolidated with that of secretary.) 

The officers in 1901 are : George B. Holbrook, president ; 
Frank R. Young, secretary and treasurer ; John West, Edwin 
McElwain, James L. Johnson, H. Curtis Rowley, Henry A. 
King, Azel A. Packard, Julius H. Appleton, George B. Holbrook 
and Frank R. Young, directors. 

The Springfield Fire and Marine Insurance company, one 
of the most successful corporations of its character ever char- 
tered under the laws of Massachusetts, was incorporated by an 
act of the legislature, passed April 24, 1849, with an authorized 
capital of $150,000 "for the purpose of making insurance 
against losses by fire and against maritime losses." The act 
authorized the company to conduct its business twenty years 

( 343 ) 


(later on the charter was made perpetual) and to hold real es- 
tate not exceeding $15,000 in vahie. The incorporators were 
Edmund Freeman, George Dwight, John L. King, and their 
associates and successors. 

Previous to the formal act of incorporation the company in 
an embryo state began making history, through its founder, 
Marvin Chapin, a man of means and influence in Springfield. 
Loyal always to the town (the city then was not incorporated) 
and its institutions, he argued earnestly in favor of an insurance 
company at home, which property owners and insurers might 
patronize rather than contribute to the support of corporations 
having no local interests, but which annually took away large 
sums of money in premiums. At first his efforts met with little 
encouragement, but finally business men saw the logic of his 
argument and by their promise to take stock the enterprise was 
made a success. 

After the charter was granted no further action was taken 
until April 9, 1851, when the persons interested held a meeting 
at the Massasoit house for the purpose of accepting the act and 
completing the organization. At a meeting held May 19, Wil- 
liam Conner, jr., was elected secretary, and then it was reported 
that two rooms in the City hotel building had been hired for the 
business operations of the company. It was voted to call in $50,- 
000 of the capital, and to begin business July 1 by the issue of 
policies, no single risk to be written for a larger sum than $5,000. 
Two years afterward an office was opened in New York city, and 
soon after the company branched out into other states ; and now 
the Springfield F. & M. does business wherever American fire in- 
surance companies issue policies. The losses for 1851 amounted 
to $356.25, and the total fire risks written during the year were 
$1,784,916, and marine risks, $8,280. 

The first officers of the company Avere Edmund Freeman, 
president, and William Conner, jr., secretary and treasurer. The 
first board of directors comprised eleven prominent business and 
professional men, Avho were identified not only with the history 
of the company but also with the best interests of Springfield in 
general. All, except Mr. Walker, Avere elected to the director- 

( 244 ) 


ate on April 9, 1851, and served for the period set opposite their 
respective names : Marvin Chapin, died June 27, 1899 ; Ed- 
mund Freeman, died Jan. 25, 1879 ; Daniel L. Harris, died July 
11, 1879 ; Chester W. Chapin, died June 10, 1883 : Andrew 
Huntington, died August 18, 1858 ; Edward Southworth, died 
Dec. 11, 1869 ; John L. King, resigned 1852 and died September 
5. 1872 ; Jacob B. Merrick, died June 9, 1863 ; Albert Morgan, 
died Sept. 24, I860; Waitstill Hastings, died May 24, 1888; 
George Walker, resigned 1876 and died Jan. 15, 1888. 

After six years of successful operation it was determined to 
secure more connnodious quarters for the company, and accord- 
ingly a committee was appointed to select a suitable site for a 
building. In 1857 land was purchased at the corner of Main 
and Fort streets (where once stood the old Pynchon fort, or 
mansion) the consideration paid being the sum of $5,600. On 
this historic land the home office building of the company was 
erected, and Avas occupied in 1858. 

The Springfield F. & M. has passed the fiftieth year of its 
history — a half century of remarkable success when we consider 
the many serious events which during that period have worked 
the downfall of hundreds of kindred enterprises. True it is that 
during this period our own home company has not escaped dis- 
aster, and while the losses in the Boston fire of 1872 (the most 
serious in the history of the company) swept away the accumu- 
lated surplus and impaired the capital to the extent of $150,000, 
the stockholders stood firmly together, paying all demands with- 
out complaint and showing no disposition to part with their cer- 
tificates on account of the losses of that and the preceding year, 
or at any other time when disturbances in business circles neces- 
sitated heroic action to maintain the integrity of the company. 

Several times during the period of its history the capital 
stock of the company has been increased to keep step with grow- 
ing conditions. In 1859 it was doubled, and in 1866 it was in- 
creased from $300,000 to $500,000. In later years as business 
operations were extended and the company became recognized 
as one of the most reliable insurance concerns in the country, 
still further increases were made, the last of which, in July, 

( 245 ) 


1901, raised the capital from $1,500,000 to $2,000,000. On 
January 1, 1901, the total assets were $5,159,623.47, while the 
total liabilities, including capital, amounted to $3,340,480.06. At 
that time the net surplus was $1,819,143.41, and the surplus as 
regards policy holders, $3,319,143.41. Since it began business 
the company has paid losses aggregating $27,459,196.69. 

The succession of offieere of the company is as follows : 

Presidents— Edmund Freeman, April 9, 1851-resigned 
April 11, 1874; Dwight K. Smith April 20, 1874-died April 15, 
1880 ; Jarvis N. Dunham, May 31, 1880-died Dec. 2, 1891 ; An- 
drew J. Wright, Dec. 7, 1891-died March 14, 1895 ; A. Willard 
Damon, April 8, 1895-now in office. 

Vice-presidents— Dwight R. Smith, April 14, 1868- April 20, 
1874 ; Andrew J. Wright, Dec. 8, 1890-Dec. 7, 1891 ; Charles E. 
Galacar, Sept. 25, 1896-now in office. 

Secretary and Treasurers — AA^illiam Conner, jr.. May 26, 
1851-resigned Feb. 5, 1866; Jarvis N. Dunham, March 5, 1866- 
resigned June 6, 1868 ; Sanford J. Hall, July 6, 1868-resigned 
April 1, 1872. 

Secretaries— Sanford J. Hall, July 6, 1868-died Dec. 28, 
1900; William J. Mackay, Jan. 1, 1900-now in office. 

Treasurers— Andrew J. Wright, April 9. 1872-Dec. 7, 1891 ; 
Henry M. Gates, Dec. 7, 1891-died April 30, 1899 ; Francis H. 
Williams, May 8, 1899-now in office. 

Assistant secretaries- Sanford J. Hall, Nov. 12, 1866- July 
6, 1868 ; Charles A. Birnie, April 17, 1884-Feb. 10, 1890 ; A Wil- 
lard Damon, Dec. 8, 1890- April 8, 1895; William J. Mackay, 
April 15, 1895-Jan. 1, 1901. 

Directors, 1901— Frederick H. Harris, Marshall Field, 
James L. Pease, Mase S. Southworth, Henry S. Lee, Warren D. 
Kinsman, Homer L. Bosworth, William A. Harris, A. Willard 
Damon, Charles E. Galacar. 

The Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance company, the 
survivor of all the numerous life insurance companies AA^hich dur- 
ing the last thirty years have striven to gain a permanent foot- 
hold in this city, was incorporated by an act of the legislature, 
approved May 15, 1851, and from that time has been numbered 

( 246 ) 


among the most successful institutions of its kind in the state. 
A mutual organization from the outset, its founders aimed to es- 
tablish a firm financial basis by providing a guarantee capital of 
$100,000, but in 1867 this feature was abolished and the company 
became in fact, as well as in name, a purely mutual corporation. 

The real founders of the company were George W. Rice and 
Dr. Alfred Lambert, the former at one time having been the rep- 
resentative of a foreign life company, while the latter was its 
medical examiner in the town. They conceived the idea of es- 
tablishing a life insurance company in Springfield, and set about 
the missionary work necessary to educate the pubic to that end. 
The ultimate result of their labors was an informal organization, 
pledges to the guarantee capital, and a lively interest in having 
a home life company established on an equitable basis of opera- 
tion. Then followed the act of incorporation, the principal 
persons mentioned in which were Alexander H. Avery, James M. 
Thompson and William Rice, and their associates and successors. 

On May 27 the stockholders held a meeting, perfected a tem- 
porary organization and elected the following board of directors : 
James M. Thompson, Alexander H. Avery, Harvey Danks, Ches- 
ter AV. Chapin, William B. Calhoun, Samuel S. Day, George 
Bliss, George Ashmun, Henry Gray, Edmund Freeman, William 
Rice, Rufus Chandler, George Dwight, E. P. Moseley, Caleb 
Rice, Henry Fuller, jr., Erasmus D. Beach, John Hamilton, Al- 
fred Lambert and W. W. Boyington On June 20 the board 
voted to employ a secretary — F. E. Bacon — who also was to act 
as managing officer of the company's business. In August the 
first policy was written, the assured being director Harvey 
Danks. From that time forward the work was vigorously pushed 
and offices were established in various places in this and other 

The early years of the company's history were accompanied 
with many vicissitudes, and on at least one occasion the perma- 
nence of the institution was threatened ; but in the course of a 
few more years the former experiences served as object lessons 
for the future and success was assured. Now, having passed a 
half century of active business life, and having in that time 

( 247 ) 


grown from a small organization struggling for existence to one 
of the strongest and safest insurance corporations in all New 
England, the fondest hopes of the founders have been realized to 
their fullest extent, though none of the original factors in its 
creation have lived to witness its best achievements in the clos- 
ing years of the nineteenth, or its splendid condition at the be- 
ginning of the twentieth century. 

During the last decade of the century just closed the assets 
of the company increased more than 133 per cent., and the sur- 
plus more than 167 per cent. On December 31, 1900, the assets 
aggregated $26,2-45,622.04, while the liabilities amounted to $23,- 
920,986.53 ; surplus, $2,324,635.51. From 1851 to the close of 
the year 1900 the company paid death claims amounting to the 
gross sum $20,163,430.97; endowments matured, $3,370,018.00; 
and dividends, $9,559,142.03. 

This gratifying success has been due largely to the con- 
fidence of the public in the stability of the company, and this sta- 
bility, in turn, has been the result of efficient management and 
the high character of those who have composed the officiary of 
the company. 

The presidents of the company have been Caleb Rice, 
1851-73 ; Ephraim W. Bond, 1873-86 : M. Y. B. Edgerly, 1886-95 ; 
John A. Hall, 1895-now in office. The vice-presidents have been 
Erasmus D. Beach, 1851-67 ; Ephraim W. Bond, 1867-73 ; C. Mc- 
Lean Knox, 1873-74; Henry Fuller, jr., 1874-85: M. V. B. Edg- 
erly, 1885-86 ; Henry S. Lee, 1886-now in office. The secretaries 
have been F. E. Bacon, 1851-70; C. McLean Knox, 1870-73; 
Avery J. Smith, 1873-81 ; John A. Hall, 1881-95 ; Henry M. Phil- 
lips, 1895-now in office. The actuaries have been James W. 
Mason, 1860-73 ; Oscar B. Ireland, 1873-now in office. 

The present officers and directors are as follows : John A. 
Hall, president; Heniy S. Lee, vice-president; Henry M. Phil- 
lips, secretary ; Oscar B. Ireland, actuary ; Julius H. Appleton, 
Henry S. Hyde, Marcus P. Knowlton, N. C. Newell, Lewis J. 
Powers, John A. Hall, Henry S. Lee, Henry M. Phillips, Charles 
S. Warburton, William W. McClench, John S. Tilney, John F. 
Anderson, jr., Edward A. Groesbeck, John R. Redfield, George B. 

( 248 ) 


Chandler, Edwin D. INIetcalf, John K. Marshall, Albert E. F. 
White and Charles S. Mellen, directors. 


During' the early years of the war of 1861-65, at a time when 
nearly all of the progressive cities of New England were agitat- 
ing the subject of street railroads, a movement was set on foot 
looking to the establishment in Springfield of such a carrier sys- 
tem. On March 30, 1863, the legislature passed an act to incor- 
porate the "Springfield horse railroad company," with a capital 
of $100,000, and authority to construct and operate a horse rail- 
road with single or double tracks from such points on Main street 
as the city council might determine, reserving to the city the 
privilege to purchase the road after the expiration of ten years. 

The incorporators named in the act were Chester W. 
Chapin, George Bliss and Henry Alexander, jr., all of whom 
were conspicuous figures in early city history. But however 
praiseworthy may have been the purpose of these citizens, their 
scheme never was developed into life, and beyond securing the 
charter and a general discussion of the matter nothing was ac- 
complished, probably owing to the uncertainties of the war then 
in progress in the South. 

In 1868 the subject was revived, and on March 16 of that 
year the legislature passed an act incorporating the Springfield 
street railway company, naming as incorporators George M. 
Atwater, Chauncey L. Covell and Ethan S. Chapin, and grant- 
ing the company authority to construct and operate a line of 
street railway through Main street, and also to the neighboring 
towns of Chicopee and Longmeadow. Under this act nothing 
was accomplished, hence the charter virtually was forfeited ; but 
in 1869, by an act passed March 26, the charter was revived and 
authority was then given to build and operate a road through 
INIain and State streets. 

This was the company which in fact built and put in opera- 
tion the first street railway in the city. The authorized capital 
was $100,000, but business was begun with half that sum. On the 
organization the first board of directors comprised George M. At- 

( 249 ) 






water. Homer Foot, Chaiincey Covell, Caleb Alden and Gurdon 
Bill. The officers were George M. Atwater, president; J. C. 
Mcintosh, treasurer, and Gideon Wells, clerk. 

The principal point of operations was at the company's stables 
at the corner of Main and Hooker streets, from which in 1870 a 
line of track was laid through Main and State streets to Oak 
street. The fii^t car was run on March 10 of that year. This was 
known as the Main and State street line when the company had 
become possessed of sufficient franchises to warrant distinguish- 
ing names. In 1873 the board of aldermen gave permission to 
locate a road from State street through Main and Locust streets 
to Mill river. In 1874 a location was granted for a line to extend 
north from Hooker street to Brightwood. In 1879 an extension 
was granted from State street through Maple and Central streets 
to the Watershops. In 1884 the location for the St. James ave- 
nue line was granted In 1886 the AYalnut and King street 
location was granted, and the road was opened the same year. 
In 1887 the Lyman, Chestnut and Carew^ street line was located, 
and in the same year the Worthington street line was opened as 
far as Kibbe avenue. In 1887, also, the location for the Chicopee 
line Avas granted, and the road was opened on North Main street 
in 1888. In 1889 the Mill river line was authorized to be ex- 
tended through Ft. Pleasant and Summer avenues to Forest 
park. This extension was opened for traffic in 1890, and settled 
beyond all cjuestion the permanency of the park. Previously a 
few thousand visitors had patronized that resort each season, 
but after the road was opened the number of visitors multiplied 
several fold. 

The year 1890 was eventful both in the history of the com- 
pany and the system it operated. The Forest park line was 
equipped Avith electric motor cars, and so gratifying was the 
success of this first effort that on the older lines the use of horse 
poAver Avas discontinued as rapidly as possible and the more rapid 
"trolley" system replaced the old. sIoav and uncertain method 
of transportation. In later years all ncAV lines and the extension 
of older ones AA-ere equipped AA'ith electric poAver for propelling 
cars. In the adoption of electric motors. hoAvever, the Spring- 

( 251 ) 


field street railway company was not a pioneer, the management 
awaiting the results of the experiment in other cities, and adopt- 
ing the same after its value had been fully demonstrated. 

When the company was granted permission to operate its 
lines wdth electric power the Maple street and Mitteneague 
branches were excepted from the operation of the grant ; the 
former on account of an objection on the part of residents in 
that street, and the latter because the authorities were doubtful 
of the expediency of permitting electric cars to cross the old 
structure at the foot of Bridge street. The Maple street people 
for some time fought the company persistently, basing their 
objections on the ground that the street was too narrow for the 
convenient operation of cars and the superior rights of the' 
public, and further, on the ground that the people of the street 
did not want a railroad line through a principal residence 
thoroughfare of the city. But, at length, when it was proposed 
to equip the Maple street line with electricity, which measure 
-also was opposed, the board of aldermen voted to submit the 
question to the people at the next general election, upon which 
the spirit of opposition gradually subsided, and the change was 

The location for the original West Springfield line across the 
old toll bridge and thence through Bridge, Main, Park, Elm and 
Westfield streets to Mitteneague, was granted in 1888. In 1892 
the line was changed to cross the North End bridge. In 1892 
also the Glenwood line to Chicopee was located ; the Worthington 
street line was extended from Kibbe avenue to St. James avenue ; 
the Indian Orchard line was located, and the Liberty street line 
was opened. The latter soon afterward was extended through 
Liberty street and Broadway in Chicopee to Chicopee Falls. 
The Catherine street line was located and opened for traffic in 
1893 ; the Longmeadow line in 1896 ; the Plainfield street line in 
1897 ; the Hancock, Walnut, Mill, Allen and White streets line 
in 1897; the Holyoke extension in 1895; the Westfield extension 
to Tatham and the Agawam line in 1900. The Belmont avenue 
location was granted in 1894. The cars on the line formerly run 
.by way of the park and the "X" at the south line of Euclid 

( 252 ) 


avenue, but afterward a road was built to connect the Euclid 
avenue terminus with the line at the foot of Ft. Pleasant avenue. 

In 1870 the Springfield street railway company operated a 
line of horse cars over 13,039 feet of track, using' four ears and 
twenty-five horses and furnishing employment for eleven men. 
From July 1 to September 30, 1870, the company carried 67,705 
passengers, at an average rate of speed of three and three-fifths 
miles per hour. The operating expenses for the time mentioned 
were $4,455, while the total earnings were $4,525. The cost of 
the road then in operation was $45,330.87, from which it may 
correctly be inferred that at that time the street railway invest- 
ment was not regarded as really profitable. 

Mr. Atwater was president of the company from its organiza- 
tion until January, 1876, and the success of the company during 
the period of his management was due in a great measure to his 
personal efforts. He was president during the creative period 
of the company's history, a period in which in nearly all large 
undertakings profits and dividends are not expected. However, 
in 1876 John Olmsted was elected president of the company. At 
that time he was not a practical railroad man, but he was a 
practical, thorough and successful business man in various mer- 
cantile and manufacturing enterprises. When the change was 
made the directors Avere George ]\1. Atwater, John Olmsted, 
Homer Foot, Chauncey L. Covell and Henry W. Phelps. 

Mr. Olmsted was made a director of the company in 1871, 
and when he became president in fact he assumed absolute con- 
trol of its business and management ; and whether under his 
guiding hand the company has been siiccessful, and the people 
have been satisfied with the service rendered, the general public 
must determine. Whatever was necessary to be done Mr. Olm- 
sted did, and the directors never once questioned his policy. If 
questions arose that required the action of the board, that body 
assembled and heard the statement of the president and then 
requested him to proceed according to his own judgment; and 
subsequent events have shown that this confidence in the 
managing officer was not misplaced. 

The result of the management of the Springfield street rail- 
way company has been entirely gratifying to every person con- 

( 253 ) 


nected with the enterprise, and also to the general public : and 
to-day the railway system of the city stands unsurpassed by any 
of its kind in the country. It operates nearly 68 miles of main 
road, owns more than 225 cars, employs 440 men, and for the 
year ending September 30, 1900, carried almost fourteen millions 
of passengers. The present capital, which frequently has been 
increased with tlie constant growth of the company's interests, 
is nearly $1,500,000, yet the general assets of the corporation are 
worth about $4,000,000. 

In the year mentioned the company paid its employees about 
$232,000, and the operating expenses were nearly $500,000 : the 
gross expenditures were more than $672,000, and the gross earn- 
ings amounted to more than $686,000. In the same year the 
company paid dividends of more than $116,000. about an eight 
per cent, dividend, which has been paid regularly for several 

However, in speaking of the splendid results accomplished by 
the management of the company much credit must be given to 
Mr. Olmsted's faithful assistants. During the old '^ horse car" 
days F. E. King acted as superintendent, and on his death he 
was succeeded by Austin E. Smith. The latter, perhaps more 
than any other one person, was a valuable aid to Mr. Olmsted 
in working the system up to its standard of excellence. He was 
chosen treasurer of the company in 1881, and became a director 
in 1888. Subsequently (July 29, 1890) he was made manager 
and held that responsible position at the time of his death in 
1899. He was followed in office by George W. Cook, the present 
managing director. 

In all the multitude of elements which have combined to 
place Springfield among the progressive cities of the country, the 
street railway company has been a leading and prominent factor. 
During the busy hours of day nearly a hundred cars are in con- 
stant motion, with their loads of traders, shoppers and pleasure 
seekers. The operation of the extended suburban lines has 
brought to the city the best trade of Holyoke and AVestfield, 
while Chicopee people thereby are enabled to buy most of their 
goods in Springfield. The same also is true of Chicopee Falls, 

( 254 ) 


Ludlow, Indian Orchard, Longmeadow, AVest Springfield and 
AgaAvam, and every day buyers from the border towns of Con- 
necticut find their way over the "trolley'' lines to Springfield's 
large mercantile establishments. Taken altogether it is doubtful 
if any of the enterprises for which this city is noted has been 
productive of more sulistantial and general good to all interests 
than the street railway company. 

The present officers of the corporation are John Olmsted, 
president ; Frederick Harris, treasurer : Jonathan Barnes, clerk ; 
Lucius E. Ladd, auditor; George W. Cook, superintendent; 
George M. Atwater, John Olmsted, Frederick Harris. Alonzo AY. 
Damon and George AT. Cook, directors. 

mercantUjE and manufacturing interests 

In an earlier part of the city chapter frequent reference is 
made to the old interests of Springfield, and some attempt has 
been made to recall the names of business men at various periods 
of the town's history. A century ago, Springfield with its 2,300 
population laid claim to perhaps a dozen mercantile establish- 
ments, a few small shops and no industries of consequence except 
that carried on by the government in the manufacture of fire- 
arms. When Hampden county was created and Springfield was 
designated as its shire town all interests naturally were bene- 
fited, yet the greatest advantage to mercantile pursuits at that 
time came from the operation of the several stage lines through 
the town. This period continued from the early years of the 
century until about the time of the city charter— a period of 
something like fifty years, and one in which was laid the founda- 
tion of many substantial fortunes in the town. Indeed, the busi- 
ness men, most of them engaged in mercantile enterprises, 
advocated and procured the passage of the charter act of 1852, 
and thus gave Springfield a standing in commercial circles in the 

However, it was during the half century of progress which 
followed the opening of the Western railroad that Springfield 
made the greatest strides in business advancement. Previous to 
that time the stores were chiefly centered about court square, 

( 255 ) 



while State street aud armory hill were struggling' for existence 
as trade localities. The opening of the railroad had not the 
effect to destroy these interests, but rather to promote them in 
the greatly increased population of the next score of years. 
After the road was completed Main street became the recognized 
thoroughfare of traffic and trade, and the general growth in all 
directions naturally strengthened all interests in other localities. 
The period of steam railroad building in Springfield continued 
from about 1840 to 1870, and in that time both the population 
and mercantile houses were more than doubled. Not only Main 
and State streets became established trading avenues during the 
period, but Dwight, Lyman, Worthington, Taylor, Bridge, Hill- 
man and Sandford streets and Harrison avenue were trans- 
formed from residence localities into mercantile and business dis- 
tricts, while north of the tracks the street was rapidly taking the 
form and semblance of a trading center. The early establish- 
ment of Cooley's hotel in that vicinity had much to do with 
attracting trade in that direction, but the general desirability of 
the region was a considerable factor in accomplishing that end. 

If the reader peruses the early portions of the city chapter 
it will be found that the most extensive merchants of the town 
kept on hand large quantities of wares of various kinds, and 
under the head of "general stores"' liquors frequently were kept 
on sale as part of the usual stock in trade. The Dwights were 
among the largest traders of early days, and while their stock 
is not said to have included the commodity just mentioned, their 
general assortment of goods might be likened to a miniature of 
the present vast establishments of the city conducted by Smith 
& Murray, Forbes & Wallace, IMeekins, Packard & AAlieat, Dick- 
ieson & Co., Quigley's and others now in trade in the city. 

The establishment of the modern department store is in 
a way a return to an old-time custom in merchandising, only on 
a far greater scale of operation. If local tradition be true, the 
DAvight store in the best days employed from six to eight sales- 
men, all of whom were males ; the present modern stores of the 
city give employment to from 250 to 400 clerks, both men and 
women, the latter perhaps prevailing in point of numbers. In 

17-2 ( 257 ) 


stablishing stores of this class Springfield was not a pioneer 
city, but adopted the custom of the larger metropolitan cities 
after the departure had proved a success. The Forbes & "Wal- 
lace store dates back in its history to the year 1866, when Alex- 
ander Forbes and J. M. Smith began business at the corner of 
Main and Vernon streets. Mr. Wallace replaced Mr. Smith in 
the concern in 1874, since which time the firm name has been 
well known in business circles, although the personnel of the 
proprietary has changed in later years. The Smith & Murray 
establishment was founded in 1879, occupying a substantial 
building at the corner of Court Square, where formerly stood the 
famous Hampden coffee house. Meekins, Packard & Wheat are 
a more recent yet equally strong house, and with such concerns 
as Dickiesons, D. H. Brigham Co., Carter & Cooley, H. S. 
Christopher, W. D, Kinsman, the George F. Quigley Co., and 
probably twenty others in the same lines of trade, have combined 
to give Springfield an especial prominence in business circles in 
the central and western portions of the state. 

A mention of these interests naturally suggests others in 
various branches of trade, but it is not possible or within the 
province of our work to mention the names of all merchants, 
either past or present, who have contributed to the business his- 
tory of the city. Still, in speaking of stores of remarkable size 
and strength some notice must be given to such houses as Haynes 
& Co. (one of the strongest and best in Western Massachusetts), 
Besse, Carpenter & Co., Meigs & Co., Charles E. Lynch, all of 
whom have contributed in a large degree to the prosperity of the 
city. Our observations in this direction might be continued 
almost indefinitely, until every branch of business is mentioned, 
but scope and policy forbid. Each, however, is worthy of notice 
and each is a factor for good in the history of the city, but it is 
not the purpose of this work to advertise the business men of 

Springfield has a population of more than 63,000 inhabi- 
tants, and business houses sufficient in number, size and variety 
to supply the demands of 100,000 people ; and this demand they 
do supply, for the city draws trade from all points within a 

( 258 ) 


radius of twenty miles, and is known as the best business center 
in the state outside of the city of Boston. The volume of busi- 
ness at the post-office is surprising, and may be taken as an index 
of the magnitude of the mercantile and manufacturing trade of 
the city. In this respect Springfield enjoys an unusual distinc- 
tion, as may be seen by reference to the statistical tables of the 
cities of New England. Yet comparative statistics tending to 
show to the disadvantage of cities larger than our own are not 

For much of its progress during the last half century the 
city is indebted to the numerous lines of steam and electric rail- 
way, the latter having been the particular factor in accomplish- 
ing good results. Strangers visiting Springfield and observing 
the number and apparent thrift of its business interests, fre- 
quently are impelled to ask whence comes the trade to maintain 
them ; but the answer is plain, and one need only point to the 
^'trolley" lines leading to suburban localities to show that all 
the surrounding country is in truth tributary to the city and the 
bulk of the trade of more than 50,000 people from beyond its 
own corporate limits is attracted here. 


As an industrial city Springfield has long held an enviable 
prominence in New England, but there are few manufacturing 
centers in the whole region which are less favored with natural 
facilities for this pursuit. The waters of the Connecticut have 
not and cannot be readily diverted for manufacturing purposes 
within the city limits, and the only other stream of sufficient size 
to afford water power is Mill river. This is narrow and of 
limited capacity, yet from "time out of mind" its waters have 
been utilized for power purposes. The pioneers had recouree to 
this stream in the construction of the primitive mills of their 
period, hence the name— Mill river— by which it has ever since 
been known. After the construction of the saw and grist mills 
there was built on its banks a fulling and cloth mill, then a small 
tannery and bleachery, and later, among the old industries of the 
locality, the watershops plant, a government enterprise for the 

( 259 ) 


manufacture of firearms, which has continued to the present daj^ 
and one Avhich, with the main construction works on State street, 
constitutes the greatest labor employing concern in the city. 

The next considerable industry on the river was the Ames 
paper mill, a small affair when first started, but the humble be- 
ginning of the greatest industry in the Connecticut valley, and 
one which has given Holyoke a world-wide prominence. For the 
last three-quarters of a century the Mill river locality has been 
an important manufacturing district, yet in a great measure 
water power has been replaced with steam power, hence proprie- 
tors have established their works in the vicinity of the railroads. 

Previous to 1848 one of the most available manufacturing 
localities of Springfield was along the banks of Chicopee river, 
where a few small factories w^ere started about one hundred yeai's 
ago. About 1825 or '30 the waters of the river were diverted for 
manufacturing purposes and at least two heavily capitalized 
companies were formed for the purpose of constructing dams, 
canals and mills, and for the operation of the latter. In the year 
mentioned (1848) the public welfare demanded a division of 
Springfield and the creation of the new town of Chicopee, which, 
when done, took from the mother town several of its largest man- 
ufacturing enterprises. At the time and for many years 
afterward, these plants were owned by Springfield capital, and 
to-day business men of this city are largely interested in Chico- 
pee and Chicopee Falls industries. 

Between 1840 and 1850 steam power as a means of operating 
machinery came into use, and soon afterward Springfield again 
became recognized as a manufacturing center. The construction 
of the several lines of railroad impelled still greater efforts in 
this direction, and along about 1860 the city took rank with the 
most progressive factory cities of New England. None of this 
prestige has been lost in later years and there are few cities of 
the same population that can boast of a greater number or 
variety of manufacturing industries than Springfield at the be- 
ginning of the twentieth century. Three principal lines of rail- 
road carry the product of its factories to all the great markets, 
while the lesser branches furnish ready access to interior regions 

( 260 ) 


and add materially to the industrial and commercial wealth of 
the city. 

A careful observer of Springfield's manufacturing enter- 
prises has placed their number at more than two hundred, great 
and small, varying in employing capacity from 25 to 300 men. 
The reader will see how impossible it will be to record the history 
of each plant in this chapter without the writer involving himself 
in a maze of statistics and needless detail ; and more, the proprie- 
tors themselves have expressed a desire not to be "written up" 
exhaustively as a part of the city's history. Plowever, it is 
proper to mention these establishments separately, especially 
those of importance, as many of them have been conspicuous fac- 
tors in Springfield's industrial growth. 

The little primitive paper mill started by David Ames about 
1800 evidently made good progress during the first twenty-five 
years of its operation, for in 1827 the Ames paper company was 
incorporated by Mr. Ames and his sons David, jr., and John 
Ames. The latter then were young men, the elder being a man 
of thorough business qualifications and a practical paper maker, 
while the younger, in addition to his knowledge of the business, 
developed an inventive genius and perfected several machines 
and processes for use in paper making. As the concern pros- 
pered others became interested in the business in other localities 
and soon Hampden county gained an enviable notoriety from its 
paper products. The Ames works was the real beginning, how- 
ever, of this now vast industry, and was located on Mill river. 

In 1823 a number of Springfield capitalists and business 
men conceived the idea of starting an extensive cotton goods 
and iron mill in the town, and to that end secured an act 
of incorporation for the Boston & Springfield manufacturing 
company. The prime movers of the enterprise were Israel E. 
Trask, Jonathan Dwight, jr., Edmund Dwight, Joseph Hall, jr., 
Benjamin Day, James Brewer, Joseph Brown, John W. Dwight, 
3d, James S. Dwight and Samuel Henshaw. The works were 
put in operation on Chicopee river about 1824, the company em- 
ploying a capital of .$500,000. In 1827 the name was changed 
to Chicopee manufacturing company, and woolen goods and ma- 
chinery were added to the list of products. 

( 261 . ) 


Another old industry was that known as the "Proprietors 
of the Hampden brewery," incorporated in 1826 for the purpose 
of manufacturing and selling ales, beer and porter. This 
is believed to have been the first concern for the production of 
malt liquors in the town, and while perhaps the later interests of 
the same class (and the city never has been without them) are in 
no sense the outgrowth of the old company, the principles em- 
ployed in the manufacture are not greatly changed. At the 
present time the city is well supplied with breweries, and each 
has an excellent standing in commercial circles. In this line we 
may refer to the Springfield Breweries company, H. Porter & 
Co., and to the Highland concern, w^hose reputation as producers 
is knoAvn throughout Western Massachusetts. The proprietor 
of the old concern known as the Springfield brewery, to which 
reference has been made, were William F. Wolcott, Elisha Curtis, 
John B. Kirkham, Stephen Warren, jr., Edmund Allen, jr., Itha- 
mar Goodman and Samuel H. Stebbins. 

The Springfield card manufacturing company was incor- 
porated in 1826, by Joseph CarcAV, Walter H. Bowdoin, Israel 
Phillips, jr., and William Bowdoin, jr., for the purpose of mak- 
ing and vending machines and cards. The works of this com- 
pany were commonly known as the "old card factory," a once 
famous industry in early Springfield history ; but now the plant 
is gone and its site is being rapidly filled to grade level with the 
surrounding property. 

Another notable old industry was the Ames Manufacturing 
company, which was incorporated in 1834 by Nathan P. and 
James T. Ames, Edmund Dwight, and James K. Mills, for the 
manufacture of hardware, cutlery and other articles in that line. 
The company built works on Chicopee river and developed a 
valuable industry, but when Springfield was divided it became 
an interest of the new town of Chicopee, although started and 
owned largely by Springfield capital. 

The Springfield Manufacturing company also is to be men- 
tioned in the same connection. The company was incorporated 
in 1832, wath an authorized capital of one million dollars, by 
Jonathan Dwight, Harrison Gray Otis, Israel Thorndike, Ed- 

( 263 ) 


mund Dwight, James K. Mills, Thomas H. Perkins, Samuel A. 
Eliot, Benjamin Day, Samuel Cabot, Francis Stanton, George 
AV. Lyman and George Bliss. The establishment of this com- 
pany was Avell known in its day, and was a cotton and woolen 
factory of much importance half a century ago. Although an 
industry of that part of the town set off to Chieopee, much 
Springfield capital was employed, and great good came to the 
town through its operation. AYith the others before mentioned, 
this plant went to Chieopee in 1848. 

The Dwight company, the first corporation so called, was 
incorporated in 1836, by Charles Stearns, George Bliss and Wil- 
liam Dwight, all of whom, it is remembered, were interested in 
securing the early completion of the railroad from AVorcester to 
Springfield and thence to the Hudson river. In their endeavors 
to promote this enterprise these men secured a charter for the 
company and proposed to establish in Springfield a factory for 
the construction of locomotives and other steam engines. The 
plant, however, was not built, and nothing more than organiza- 
tion of the company Avas etfected under the charter. 

The Dwight Manufacturing company was incorporated in 
1841 by Thomas. H. Perkins, William Sturges and Edmund 
Dwight, with $500,000 capital, for the erection and the equipment 
of a factory building and the manufacture of cotton goods, the 
Chieopee river being selected as the site of operations. The Chi- 
eopee falls company, incorporated in 1836 by David M. Bryant, 
David Bemis and George W. Buckland, was another old Spring- 
field enterprise which became lost to the town as a result of the 
division of the territory. 

In 1837 the Indian Orchard Canal company was incorpo- 
rated for the purpose of constructing a canal and diverting the 
waters of Chieopee river for manufacturing purposes. The com- 
pany also was authorized to engage in the manufacture of cotton 
and woolen goods. This was the actual beginning of the indus- 
trial history of the locality knoAvn as Indian Orchard, although 
steps toward that end were taken several years earlier. In 1821 
the Springfield Manufacturing company was organized, Benja- 
min Jencks being the leading spirit of the enterprise. The first 

( 263 ) 


mills in the locality were built on the Ludlow side of the river, 
while early all the employees were domiciled on the Springfield 
side. In 1825 Charles Stearns began purchasing lands in the 
vicinity, with the ultimate intention to found an industrial set- 
tlement in that part of the town. Soon afterward George Bliss, 
James BreAver and "Willis Phelps became interested in the enter- 
prise with Mr. Stearns, and through their united efforts mast of 
the available mill sites and power privileges were brought under 
their control. Then followed the incorporation of the Indian 
Orchard Canal compau}^ and the real development of the indus- 
trial resources of the region. In 1845 the canal company suc- 
ceeded to the rights and interests of the old Springfield ]Manu- 
facturing company on the south side of the river, and in the same 
year the first massive stone dam was constructed across the 

The work of the canal company was performed slowly but 
surely, and it was not until about 1852 that the erection of the 
mill buildings was begun. In the meantime the canal for power 
purposes had been excavated, the company lands had been sur- 
veyed and laid out into lots, and a small village had been 
founded. In 1853 the Ward Manufacturing company succeeded 
to the rights and privileges of the canal company, and at that 
time the two principal factory buildings were partially com- 
pleted. In 1857 the Ward company conveyed its property to 
William Dehon, Henry V. Ward and Samuel Frothinghani, as 
trustees, and at the same time a mortgage was given to George 
Bliss, George Walker and Caleb Barstow, also as trustees. This 
lien afterward was released to the Indian Orchard Mills com- 
pany, w^ho became the next proprietors of the mills and land 
enterprise. At this time 1,800 spindles and 352 looms Avere in 
operation in the mills, and twenty-five houses had been built in 
the village. 

A second mill was built in 1859, and operated 1.800 spindles 
and 385 looms. The general capacity was afterward increased 
until the mills run more than 50.000 spindles and nearly 1,200 
looms. In 1859, also, the company established a library and 
reading room for the benefit of its employees. The result of the 

( 264 ) 


work of these several companies was the establishment of a 
tloiirishino' villajie. wliieh ever has been known as Indian Orch- 
ard. The old industries lived out their time and then gave way 
to others of a different and more modern character, and not less 
important in the history of the city 

One of the best of these successor industries is that known 
throughout the land as the Chapman Valve company, one of the 
largest, most solid and reliable labor-employing concerns in 
Western Massachusetts. Its product is distributed throughout 
the United States and in general business circles it has a very 
high standing. The company was incorporated July 20, 1874, 
with an original capital of $60,000, and began business January 
25, 1875, occupying two of the buildings which had been erected 
by the Indian Orchard Mills company. Even at that time, with 
comparatively limited capital, the Avorks operated were regarded 
as an important element of manufacturing life in the city, yet 
within a very short time it was found necessary to increase the 
■capital stock and also to add to the capacity of the plant. The 
most extensive enlargements were made between 1880 and 1890, 
but since the business was first begun every year has witnessed 
the growth of the works to meet the demands of constantly in- 
creasing business. The capital has been enlarged at various 
times, and now is $600,000. James D. Saft'ord is the president, 
and Henry R. Dalton, jr., treasurer, of the company. 

The Spring-field Satinet company was another of the old in- 
terests of the town, and for several years was operated in the 
card factory building in the "dingle.'" to which previous allusion 
has been made. The incorporators of the company were Elisha 
Curtis, Walter H. Bowdoin and AYilliam Child, each of whom 
was a conspicuous figure in early city history. The charter was 
granted in 1837 and for something like twenty years afterward 
the company was a factor in Springfield industrial circles. 

The Springfield Car and Engine company was incorporated 
in 1848 by Osgood Bradley. Amasa Stone, jr., and Azariah 
Boody, with $250,000 capital, for the purpose of manufacturing 
care, steam engines and othei- machinery incident to the equip- 
ment of steam i-ail roads. Previous to the incorporation some of 

( 2<;5 ) 


the persons interested in the company had begun the manufac- 
ture of cars for the railroads, but the business was conducted in 
a small Avay and it was expected that the stock company would 
establish a plant of greater magnitude and employing capacity. 
This hope, however, was not realized and in a few months the 
concern lost its identity and the works passed into the hands of 
the proprietors of the firm which afterward was resolved into the 
Wason Manufaeturing company, the latter destined to become 
one of the greatest industrial enterprises of the whole country. 
The AVason Manufacturing company, which was incorpo- 
rated under its present name April 17, 1862,with a capital at that 
time of $50,000, dates its history in Springfield to the year 
1845, when Thomas W. and Charles Wason left the employ of 
one of the Cabotville cotton mill companies, came to Springfield 
and began making cars for the Connecticut Kiver railroad com- 
pany. The first car was built entirely by themselves, and almost 
wholly without machinery or mechanical appliances except 
skill and persevering energy. During the first year the brothers 
and their employees built eight box cars, and in 1846, as their 
business promised future success, they removed from their first 
location near the bridge across the Connecticut to a larger shop- 
on Liberty street. Two years later they occupied the buildings 
previously used by the old car and engine company. Soon after- 
ward Charles Wason retired from the firm, and Thomas W., 
after carrying on business alone for a year or two, took as part- 
ners L. 0. Hanson, Josiah Bumstead and J. S. Mellen, Mr. Wason 
having a half and each of the others a sixth interest in the works. 
In 1854 George C. Fisk succeeded Mr. Mellen in the partnership, 
and the firm thus constituted carried on the works without ma- 
terial change until 1862, when the Wason Manufacturing com- 
pany was incorporated. The later changes in the personnel of 
the company and its management are unnecessary in this place; 
a sufficient record of the wonderful success and growth of the 
industry would require a volume'. In 1870 Mr. Wason, actual 
founder and at that time president of the company, died, but 
the vast business of the corporation was continued uninterrupt- 
edly until it became the principal industry of the city. Soon: 

( 266 ) 


after the death of Mr. Wason the company purchased a consid- 
erable tract of land at Brightwood, a northern suburb of the city, 
and in 1873 the works were removed to that point. The company 
has a present capital of $300,000 and furnishes constant employ- 
ment to from 400 to 750 workmen in all departments. The pro- 
duct of the factories (the company operates several acres of 
buildings) of the Wason Manufacturing company may be seen 
in almost every city in the United states, and Americans travel- 
ing outside the jurisdiction of our government very frequently 
notice the best emblem of the company, "Wason Manufacturing 
Co., Springfield, Mass.," in gilt letters in cars where chance calls 
them. The principal officers of the company at the present time 
are George C. Fisk, president, and H. S. Hyde, treasurer. 

The Springfield Gas Light company was incorporated Feb- 
ruary 10, 1847, by James D. Brewer, Albert Morgan and Henry 
Gray, for the purpose of manufacturing illuminating gas and 
supplying the same to consumers in the then principal village 
of the tOAvn. Although a small enterprise at the outset the com- 
pany evidently filled a "long-felt want," and in 1848 entered 
into a contract with the selectmen to supply Main and State 
streets Avith 38 lamp-posts (to be paid for by the town) and to 
furnish lights each night in the month, "except when the moon 
is above the horizon." For more than half a century the gas 
company has been an important element in the industrial history 
of the city. Previous to 1900 it was principally a local concern, 
but in February of that year the stock was transferred to a syndi- 
cate of capitalists outside of the city. The company has about 
90 miles of main pipes in use and about 8,600 consumers. The 
presidents in succession have been Solyman Merrick, James D. 
Brewer, Marvin Chapin, James M. Thompson, Marvin Chapin, 
AYilliam H. Haile, James A. Kumrill and Charles H. Tenney. 
The present officers are Charles H. Tenney, president; F. de V.. 
Thompson, manager; I. B. Allen, treasurer. 

The Springfield AYater Power company was incorporated in 
1846, with $300,000 capital, by Willis Phelps, James D. Brewer 
and Henry Sargeant, for the purpose of creating a water power 
and diverting the waters of Chicopee river for manufacturing 

( 267 ) 


purposes in Springfield. This was another of the eai-ly enter- 
prises planned for the general welfare of the town, but like many 
others of its time and kind it now has passed out of existence. 

The Ludlow ]\Ianufacturing company, a Springfield enter- 
prise, although the name indicates a location in another town, 
was incorporated in 1849 by James Stebbins, John B. M. Steb- 
bins and Timothy W. Carter, who, with their associates and suc- 
cessors, proposed to create a water power and erect a series of 
factory buildings for the manufacture of cotton and woolen 
goods, iron and other wares, succeeding in their operations to the 
well planned but less elaborate works started by Benjamin 
Jencks in the towns of Ludlow, Springfield and Wilbraham. 

The Springfield INIachine company was incorporated in 1850, 
with a capita] of $150,000, by Amasa Stone, jr., Azariah Boody 
and Addison Ware, for the manufacture of various articles of 
wood and iron. The American Hardware company was incor- 
porated in 185-1, with $150,000 capital, by Homer Foot, and 
Philos B. Tyler and their associates, for the manufacture of fur- 
niture casters and other hardware. The Indian Mills company, 
to which reference is made in a preceding paragraph, was in- 
corporated in 1859 by Jabez C. Howe, George 0. Hovey and 
George S. Bullens. Its object was to construct and maintain 
dams across Chicopee river, and also to engage in the production 
of cotton goods in the towns of Chicopee and Ludlow, but in the 
course of its oi)erations the concern found its way into the town 
of Springfield. 

In treating of the old and well established industries of the 
city special mention must be made of the enterprise carried on 
for almost half a century under the firm style of Smith & Wes- 
son, manufacturers of fine grade revolvers and other small arms. 
This universally known house was established in 1857 
by Horace Smith and Daniel B. Wesson, both of whom 
are frequently mentioned in various portions of this 
chapter as factors in the civil and political as well 
as the industrial history of the city. The original 
firm continued in business until 1874, when the senior partner 
retired and Mr. Wesson then continued alone until 1882. In 

( 268 ) 


this year Walter AVesson became partner with his father, and 
still later Joseph H. Wesson, also a son of the founder, became 
interested in the firm which throughout this long period has been 
under the old style of ymi1,h & Wesson — a name known in busi- 
ness circles throughout the world. 

The Hampden Watch company, an industry of the city for 
more than twenty years, Avas established in 1867, taking the place 
of the still older New York Watch company. At the outset the 
business was small, but the product of the works, while limited, 
found favor in the markets of the country. The company was 
originally incorporated in 1870 and was reorganized and rein- 
coi'porated in 1877, at which time Homer Foot was the principal 
man of the concern. The works were maintained in the city 
until about 1889 and then Avere removed to Ohio. 

The Waltham Watch company, a more enduring and success- 
ful enterprise than any of its predecessors in Springfield, was 
not the outgrowth of any previous establishment of the same 
class, yet it came to the city by removal from Waltham in 1890, 
in Avhich year, also, the company Avas incorporated. It is in all 
respects a reliable concern and gives employment to many sldlled 
W'Orkmen. The active officers of the company are C. E. Van 
Norman, president: William E. Wright, vice-president; John 
McFetheries, treasurer. 

The Morgan En\'elope company Avas originally incorporated 
in April, 1870, and Avas reincorporated in March, 1872, but the 
enterprise as an industry of the city dates back to 1864, when 
Elisha Morgan began the manufacture of envelopes in a small 
Avay in a building on Hillman street. At first an experimental 
investment in a comparatively ucav field of operation, the 
proprietor did a careful and conserA^ative business, but at the end 
of a year or tAvo the A'enture had proA^ed a success. Then it be- 
came necessary to remove to larger quarters on Taylor street, 
Avhere in the course of time the buildings occupied by the con- 
cern extended through to Worthington street. In 1883 the com- 
pany removed into the most con)plete and thoroughly appointed 
factory buildings in the city. Here the company has found 
permanent lodgment, and here it has developed one of the best 

( 2r,9 ) 


industries in the region. The first president of the company was 
Emerson Wight, while Mr. Morgan was the treasurer and man- 
ager. The latter became president in 1884, and still stands at 
the head of the company. Robert Day is the present treasurer. 

The American Papeterie company, which was organized in 
1878, w^as the result of a consolidation of interests in the pape- 
terie departments of the Morgan Envelope company, the Powers 
Paper company and the Plympton Manufacturing company, the 
latter a Hartford concern. The American Writing Paper com- 
pany, incorporated in July, 1899, is the outcome of a consolida- 
tion of individual paper companies of various cities. Elisha 
Morgan is president of the latter company. 

The National Needle company, an important factor among 
the industries of the city, was organized in September, 1873, and 
was incorporated in the next month. When the business was be- 
gun six workmen were employed, but when the resources of the 
company w^ere fully developed the number of employees was in- 
creased to more than 150 in all departments. The present offi- 
cers are James D. Safford, president, and Selden B. Hickox, treas- 
urer. The works are located on Boylston, Emery and Fulton 

The Barney & Berry Skate works, one of the old manufac- 
turing concerns of the city, and one w^hich has been continued 
more than thirty-five years with unvarying success, was estab- 
lished in 1864 by Everett H. Barney and John Berry, and began 
operations in what was then known as the AVarner pistol factory 
building at Pecowsic. During the first year only 500 pairs of 
skates were made and six or eight men were employed. In more 
recent years an annual product of from 75,000 to 100,000 pairs of 
skates has not been regarded as an unusual event. Mr. Berry 
retired from the firm in 1869, Mr. Barney then becoming sole 
proprietor, but the old firm style always has been retained. The 
large factory building at Broad and Hanover streets was erected 
in 1882. 

The R. F. Hawkins Iron works, which is recognized as one 
of the best industries of its class in this part of the state, was es- 
tablished under its present name in 1868, although the business 

( 270 ) 


dates its history from 1846, when the firm of Stone & Harris be- 
gan the manufacture of the Howe truss bridge and in connection 
therewith did general machine work. Mr. Hawkins at first was 
an office employee of the old firm and became partner with Mr. 
Harris in 1863. Five years later he became sole proprietor and 
during the more than thirty years of his active business life iu 
the city he has shipped the product of his works to nearly all 
parts of the country. As is well known this plant manufactures 
bridges, steam boilers and builders' and contractors' iron work. 
The present proprietors are R. F. and Paul R. Hawkins. 

The Hampden Paint and Chemical company as an industry 
of this county dates its history from 1852, when a charter was 
granted to the Serpentine Paint and Fire Brick company, the 
corporators being Reuben A. Chapman, C. C. Chaffee, Herman 
S. Jjucas and Charles Phelps. On a reorganization of the con- 
cern the name was changed to Hampden Paint and Chemical 
company, as now known in manufacturing and trade circles. The 
company is an important factor in the industrial history of the 
city. The present ofificers are Edward P. Chapin, president, and 
Edward K. Baker, treasurer. 

The Newell Brothers Manufacturing company, whose works 
at the foot of Howard street produce an extensive variety of cov- 
ered, ivory and pearl buttons and give constant employment to a 
large number of wage earners, was established originally in Long- 
meadow, and thence removed to Springfield in 1864. The found- 
ers of the enterprise were Nelson C. and Samuel R. Newell, who 
made their beginning in 1848. The company was incorporated 
in 1870, and upon the death of Samuel R. Newell, in 1879, a re- 
incorporation was effected. From the outset tliis business has been 
successful and the company has established an excellent reputa- 
tion in trade circles as well as in this city. During the period of 
its operation the works have been enlarged frequently and the 
working force as often increased. The personnel of the manage- 
ment also has occasionally changed, as is customary with estab- 
lishments of long standing in any community. The present 
officers are Nelson C. Newell, president and treasurer; A. W. 
Newell, vice-president, and William C. Newell, superintendent. 

( 271 ) 


The Phillips jNIaniifacturing company, producers of steam 
heating apparatus for public and private buildings, was incor- 
porated in March, 1876, and for many years thereafter was' an 
important industry in the city. It was named in allusion to Col. 
ffenry M. Phillips, its president, who also for'years has been a 
factor in Springfield civil and political history. 

The Medlicott-Morgan company, successor to the AV. G. Med- 
licott company, was incorporated in 1887, although the predeces- 
sor concern dated from 1881. The company for several years 
was the only manufacturer of textile fabrics in the city, and all 
through the period of its history has held a good standing in in- 
dustrial circles. The present company in its works on Worth- 
ington street produces a general line of men's tine fancy cotton 
underwear. The officei-s are James C. Cooley, president; H. J. 
Straukamp, secretary, and H. M. Morgan, treasurer. 

The Taylor & Tapley Manufacturing company was incorpor- 
ated January 1. 1884, although its business was begun in 1882 
as an individual concern succeeding the still earlier interests car- 
ried on by Bingham & Co. est., 1863 ; Ray & Taylor, 1865 ; George 
Tapley, 1866, and the Ray & Taylor company, organized in 1874. 

The Milton Bradley company, so long known in litographic 
and publishing circles in Springfield, has been for many years an 
important concern in the city. It was started in 1860 by Milton 
Bradley, who soon afterward was joined by Clark W. Bryan and 
J. F. Tapley, and later by Lewis Bradley, then establishing the 
firm of Milton Bradley & Co. The company was incorporated in 
1884, with George AA". Tapley as president, and Milton Bradley as 
treasurer and manager. 

The Cheney Bigelow AYire works was incorporated in 1887, 
with $90,000 capital, yet the company traces its history to a time 
previous to the city charter, when Cheney Bigelow with a single 
assistant opened a small shop in the principal village of the town 
and began the manufacture of various articles from wire. This 
was in 1842. Mr. Bigelow continued the business with fair suc- 
cess until the time of his death, in 1873, when W. D. Stevens, a 
former mechanical draughtsman and office employee in the shop, 
undertook the management. His efforts also were rewai'ded with 

( 272 ) 


success, and in 1889 the former individual company was resolved 
into an incorporated stock company, the first officers being J. H. 
Bigelow, president, and W. D. Stevens, treasurer and manager. 
The works now occupied bj- the company are located at the foot 
of Heywood avenue, and the product includes a large variety of 
wire goods. The present officers are Daniel B. AYesson, presi- 
dent, and Edwin C. Spear, treasurer and manager. 

The Baj^ State Corset companj- was incorporated July 19, 
1890, and was the outgroM'th of an individual enterprise previ- 
ously co2iducted in West Brookfield, having removed thence to 
Spring-field in 1886. The proprietors at that time were C. L. 
Olmstead and A. D. Nason. and on the organization under the in- 
corporation JMr. Olmstead became president and Mr. Nason treas- 
urer of the company. The other persons interested in the enter- 
prise were Myron AV. Sherman. Charles E. Whitney and William 
M. Titus. From the humble beginning indicated above the com- 
pany has become one of the best employers of labor in Spring- 
field, furnisliing work to from 400 to 500 wage earaere. and 
carrying on a very extensive business. The present officers are 
William M. Titus, president and manager ; Joseph A. Ordway, 
treasurer; Frank E. Powell, assistant treasurer; John J. Line- 
han, secretary. 

Having thus referred at some length to many of the older 
maniifacturing interests, both individual and corporate, of 
Springfield, it will be seen that from the early years of the cen- 
tury just closed this city has been an industrial center of far 
more than ordinary prominence. In preceding paragraphs the 
writer has attempted to mention as many as possible of the labor 
employing establishments which had an existence previous to 
ten years ago, yet doubtless many concerns have been omitted 
which are deserving of notice. The claim has been made, and 
with undoubted fairness, that at least 20,000 of the city's popu- 
lation are daily employed in the numerous factories which are 
now in operation, and also that the city has as many as 200 es- 
tablishments in which material is improved or manufactured. 
j\Iany of these concerns are conducted by individual owners, or 
partnership proprietors, while an equal number are carried on 

18-2 . ( 273 ) 


by corporate companies organized under the general laws of the 
state. In succeeding paragraphs it is our purpose to mention 
briefly the names of the persons, firms and companies now or re- 
cently in the city and engaged in industrial pursuits; and if any 
are omitted it is the result of oversight rather than design, and 
none can be noticed at length if the writer adheres to the policy 
of this work in declining to advertise the business of any man or 

In addition to the industries mentioned in preceding para- 
graphs a passing allusion may be made to others, many of which 
have come into existence during the last twenty years. Among 
these mention may be made of the Mill River Machine shops, of 
which Humphrey Ford is proprietor; R. P. AVhipple & Co., 
makers of patent automatic blind hangers ; the Chadwick Copy- 
ing Book Co. ; the Springfield Printing and Binding Co. ; the R. 
H. Long Shoe Mfg. Co. ; Chamberlain & Co.. brass founders, cop- 
persmiths and machinists ; D. J. Curtis & Son, Phillips Bros., and 
Potter & Potter, brick manufacturers; the Chandler Co., E. A. 
Evans & Co., Warren S. Rogers, and Charles AVorkheiser, button 
makers ; John W. Russell and E, S. Stacy, button machinery 
makers ; Burgin Bros, and the Iroquois Mfg. Co., manufacturers 
of canvas goods; the New England Card and Paper Co., D. L. 
Swan's Sons, proprietors; the Hodges Fibre Carpet Co., of In- 
dian Orchard ; Morris H. Barnett, Margerum Bros., the Massa- 
soit Co., Adolph Weber, Joseph Whitcomb, & Co. and H. P. 
Wright, cigar manufacturers; the Century Mfg. Co., makers of 
butchers' frocks and overalls; Wadsworth, Howland & Co., 
coach color makers ; the Natick Underwear Co., T. M. 
Walker & Co., sash, door and blind makers ; the Moore 
Drop Forging Co. ; the Hampden Corundum Wheel Co., 
at Brightwood ; the Baker Extract Co., the Crown 
Chemical Co. ; the Fast Color Eyelet Co. ; the Springfield 
Covered Eyelet Co. ; George A. Schastey, maker of architectural 
woodwork: Burgin Bros, and the Planet Mfg. Co., makers of 
horse feed bags; the Tucker & Cook Mfg. Co., knit- 
ting cotton manufacturers ; the Hopkinson machine works ; 
the Springfield Iron works; the Olmstead & Tuttle Co., 

( 274 ) 


makers of wiping and packing wastes and fleece filled mattresses 
and pillows; the Springfield Felting Co., F. J. Millea, proprietor; 
L. W. Brown & Co., the Burgess Paper Box Co., P. P. Kellogg 
& Co., Ernest C. King, N. AV. IMerrill, and C. C. Taylor & Co., 
paper box makers ; the United Mfg. Co., manufacturers of paper 

In the same manner a brief allusion may be made to the in- 
corporated or stock companies, the operations of which have con- 
tributed so materially to the growth and prosperity of the city. 
A glance over the list will disclose the fact that most of these com- 
panies have been incorporated within the last twenty years, the 
period in which Springfield has attained a greater manufactur- 
ing prominence than at any previous time in its history. 

The A. F. Leonard company was incorporated Dec. 27, 1894. 
The A. & T. Fairbanks Confectionery Co. was incorporated 
Oct. 4. 1897, with $15,000 capital ; officers, Arthur T. Fairbanks, 
president and treasurer. The Alaska Knitting Co. was incor- 
porated April 28, 1900. The Atlas Pulp Co. was incorporated 
March 30, 1885. The Aerated Fuel Co. was incorporated in 
1887, capital, $250,000 ; officers, H. A. Chapin, president ; Charles 
E. Stickney, secretary, and J. H. Bullard, treasurer and man- 
ager. The American Flax Co. was incorporated in January, 
1896, capital, $125,000; officers, Harry G. Chapin, president; 
John H. Clune, secretary and treasurer. The Bausch & Harris 
Machine Tool Co. was incorporated April 4, 1896, with $75,000 
capital. The business was originally established in 1880. The 
officers are William H. Bausch, president and general manager; 
George H. Bausch, vice-president and superintendent ; 
Samuel L. Pratt, treasurer. The Baker Extract Co. 
was incorporated in 1892, capital, $50,000, for the manu- 
facture of flavoring extracts, succeeding a business es- 
tablished in 1879 by Maurice Baker; officers, Edwin 
L. Smith, president; Frank L. Worthy, vice-president; T. Walter 
Carman, secretary and treasurer. The Bemis Car Box Co., man- 
ufacturers of the Berais patent journal and gear, was incorpo- 
rated in 1885, capital, $300,000 ; officers, Sumner A. Bemis, presi- 
dent, and George M. Hoadley, manager. The Bemis & Call 

( 275 ) 


Hardware and Tool Co.. manufacturers of combination nut and 
pipe Avrenches and other tools, was incorporated in 1855 ; officers. 
W. Chaplin Bemis, president and treasurer; Howard R. Bemis, 
assistant treasurer, and John C. Beggs, secretary. The Blair 
Mfg. Co. was incorporated in 1884, with $25,000 capital ; officers, 
"W. A. Loud, president ; A. B. Case, treasurer and manager, and 
C. L. Brooks, secretary. The Blake Mfg. Co. was incorporated 
Feb. 10, 1892, capital, $15,000; officers, George A. Eussell, presi- 
dent; "William E. Blake, treasurer, and James A. Bill, secretary. 
The Brightwood Box Machinery Co. was incorporated in 1895, 
capital, $50,000 ; officers, L. W. Brown, president ; Alfred Birnie, 
treasurer ; Donald Birnie, secretary. The Brightwood Brick Co. 
was incorporated in March, 1900, capital, $18,000 ; officers. E. M. 
Coates, president; AY. H. Selvey, secretary and treasurer. The 
Brooks Bank Note Co. was incorporated in 1896, capital, $75,000 ; 
officers, J. L. Brooks, president, and A. D. Cutler, treasurer. The 
Bullard Camera Co. was incorporated Sept. 30, 1899, capital, 
$100.000 ; officere, Elisha Morgan, president, and Henry H. Bow- 
man, treasurer. The Chapin & Could Paper Co. was incorpo- 
rated in March, 1900, capital, $200,000 ; officers, Henry A. Gould, 
president ; Edward H. Sterns, treasurer, and Henry G. Chapin, 
secretary. The Confectioners' Machinery and Mfg. Co. was in- 
corporated in 1893, capital, $200,000; officers, F. H. Page, presi- 
dent ; Henry H. Bowman, treasurer, and George C. Baldwin, jr., 
secretary. The C. W. Mutell Mfg. Co. was incorporated Oct. 31, 
1890. The Cycle and Tool Co. was incorporated Nov. 13, 1896, 
capital, $27.000 : officers, William C. Brown, president ; William 
C. Marsh, treasurer, and Chester E. Clemens, clerk. The Davis 
Tire Co. was incorporated in December, 1900, capital, $100,000 ; 
officers, C. S. VanAuker, president ; William F. Ellis, treasurer ; 
Robert Knight, secretary. The Dickinson Hard Rubber Co. was 
incorporated Feb. 6, 1880, capital, $40,000 : officers James Duck- 
worth, president and treasurer, and George H. Empsall, secre- 
tary. The E. Stebbins Mfg. Co., brass founders and finishers, at 
Brightwood. was incorporated February 13, 1868, capital, $50,- 
000: officers, H. M. Brewster, president and treasurer; E. P. 
Marsh, agent. The Duckworth Chain INIfg. Co. was incorporated 

( 276 ) 


in 1900, capital $15,000 ; officers, James Diiekwortli, presi- 
dent and treasurer, and George H. Enipsall, secretary. 
The Elektron Mfg. Co., builders of elevators, hoists and elec- 
trical appliances, was incorporated in 1888, capital, $200,000 ; 
officers, W. D. Sargent, president; W. E. Wright, vice-president; 

E. H. Cutler, manager; Leon J. Harley, superintendent. The 
P. P. Emory Mfg. Co. was incorporated Nov. 30, 1890, capital, 
$30.000 ; officers, George C. Kimball, president ; A. W. Allen, 
vice-president; George W. Kimball, treasurer and manager. The 

F. L. Hewes Paint Co. was incorporated Jan. 19, 1894, capital, 
$6,000. The Fisk Mfg. Co., makers of fine toilet and other soaps 
for all domestic uses, was incorporated Nov. 10, 1880, capital, 
$50,000 ; officers, George C. Fisk, president and treasurer, and 
Harry G. Fisk, agent. The Fisk Rubber Co. was incorporated 
in 1898, capital, $33,000 ; officers, Harry C. Fisk, president, secre- 
tary and treasurer. The Gilbert & Barker Co. Avas incorporated 
March 31, 1870, capital, $40,000; officers, J. F. Barker, presi- 
dent : W. C. Clarke, treasurer, and W. T. Rayner, clerk. 
The Hampden Corundum Wheel Co. was incorporated in 
1888, capital, $16,000 ; Willard P. Lashure, president and treas- 
urer, and Julian S. Deane, secretary. The Hampden Zinc and 
Lead Co. was incorporated Jan. 10, 1900, capital. $150,000 ; 
officers, Julius F. Carman, president; N. E. Russell, vice-presi- 
dent ; George C. Tait, secretary and treasurer. The Hendee Mfg. 
Co. was incorporated Oct. 6, 1898, capital, $5,000 : officers. George 
M. Hendee, president and treasurer; A. M. Coleman, secretary. 
The Hodges Fibre Carpet Co. was incorporated in 1893, capital, 
$1,000,000: officers, A. J. Bailey, president: H. K. Wiuht, vice- 
president; Frank F. Hodges, secretary and manager: William M. 
Stevenson, supt. The Holyoke Card and Paper Co. was incorpo- 
rated March 10, 1884, capital, $150,000 ; officers, Franklin Pierce, 
president; Henry H. Bowman, treasurer, and Frank Merriam, 
secretary. The Hough Cash Recorder Co. was incorporated Nov. 
13, 1895, capital, $30,000 : officers, W. C. Godfrey, president ; H. 
K. AVight, treasurer, and Henry C. Spence, general manager. 
The Hut chins Narrow Fabric Co. was incorporated Aug. 12, 
1896, capital. $40,000; offieei-s, George R. Bond, president; 

( 277 ) 


Charles D. Bond, secretary, E. AY. Bond, treasurer. The Indian 
Orchard Co., one of the most extensive fabric manufacturing 
concerns in Indian Orchard, was incorporated March 24, 1890, 
capital, $350,000 ; officers, A. N. Mayo, president ; Elisha Morgan, 
vice-president, and H. K. Wight, treasurer. The Larsson Whip 
Co. was incorporated in January, 1901, capital, $25,000; officers, 
Henry W. Larsson, president and manager, and Eobert S. CTunn, 
secretary and treasurer. The Leukos Co., manufacturers of gas 
machines, was incorporated in April, 1901 ; officers, C. B. Bojtq- 
ton, president ; Charles E. Flagg, secretary ; Myron B. Spooner, 
treasurer. The R. H. Long Shoe Mfg. Co. was incorporated in 
1897, capital, $30,000; officers, R. H. Long, president; J. M. 
Clough, treasurer. The Metal Castings Mfg. Co. w'as incorpo- 
ated March 4, 1901, capital, $150,000 ; officer, E. P. Chapin, 
president; Fred. Carpenter, secretary; W. P. P. Fogg, treasurer. 
The M. D. Stebbins Mfg. Co. was incorporated Dee. 30, 1896. The 
Metallic Drawing Roll Co. was incorporated in July, 1890, capi- 
tal, $80,000; officers, Julius H. Appleton, president: H. K. 
Wight, treasurer; Henry C. Spence, general manager. The 
Moore Drop Forging Co. was incorporated Oct. 11, 1900, capital, 
$30,000; officers, Henry E. Marsh, president; Fred. S. Sibley, 
treasurer and manager. The ]\Iunder Electrical Works Co. was 
incorporated in 1889, capital, $200,000; officers, S. A. Bemis, 
president; C. F. Munder, treasurer; George M. Hoadley, secre- 
tary. The Natrick Underwear Co. was incorporated in 1897, 
capital, $30,000; officers, D. Edward Miller, president; E. E. 
Carlton, treasurer. The National Papeterie Co. was in- 
corporated January 15, 1889, capital, $100,000 ; officers, 
George A. Russell, president; James A. Bill, jr., treas- 
urer; Louis G. Scheuing, assistant treasurer; A. G. 
Bennett, clerk. The Novelty Blind Operator Co. was 
incorporated March 16, 1901, capital, $100,000; officers, Hi- 
ram D. Osborn, president; Charles P. Chase, treasurer; John 
Aldrich, secretary. The Planet Mfg. Co. was incorporated Jan. 
8, 1898, capital, $25,000 ; officers, Roscoe R. Moody, president and 
general manager ; Robert Gowdy, vice-president ; J. F. Dietz, sec- 
retary; Charles S. Browning, treasurer. The J. H. Rogers Car- 

( 278 ) 


riage Co. was incorporated in Jannary, 1893, capital, $40,000 ; 
officers, S. A. Bemis, president; Charles B. Brown, secretary; F. 
H. Chapman, treasurer. The George A. Schastey Co. was incor- 
porated in April, 1891, capital, $120,000 ; officers, J. P. Harding, 
president and manager; 0. K. Merrill, treasurer. The Sherbet- 
Tade Co. was incorporated in November, 1900, capital, $100,000, 
for the manufacture of soda fountain syrups ; officers, C. E. 
Worthen, president; W. W. BelloAvs, secretary; A. M, Worthen, 
treasurer. The Skalon Whip Co. was incorporated in January, 
1901, capital, $200,000; officers, George Birnie, president; 
Julian Pomeroy, vice-president and secretary. The R. H. 
Smith Mfg. Co. Avas incorporated January 2, 1884, with 
$20,000 capital, yet the history of the company in fact dates 
back to 1865, when the business had its beginning. 
Officers, R. H. Smith, president and treasurer; H. M. 
Smithj vice-president ; Henry P. Smith, clerk and secretary. 
The Springfield Paper Co. was incoporated in 1870 and in 

1882. The Springfield Brass Co. was incorporated April 1, 1890, 
capital, $25,000 ; officers, L. B. Porter, president ; H. C. Cornwell, 
manager. The Springfield BreAveries Co. was incorporated in 
March, 1899, capital, $2,500,000; officers, M. H. Curley, presi- 
dent: D. W. C. Skates, treasurer. The Springfield Brick Co. 
was incorporated July 18, 1899, capital, $50,000 ; officers, A. N. 
Mayo, president ; George E. Frink, secretary and treasurer. The 
Springfield Co-operative Milk Association was incorporated in 

1883, capital, $30,000; officers, 0. A. Parks, president; F. B. 
Allen, secretary and treasurer. The Springfield Drop Forging 
Co. was incorporated May 18, 1893, capital, $100,000; officers, 
William H, Crosby, president ; A. D. Dana, treasurer and man- 
,ager; W. W. Merrill, secretary. The Springfield Coil Boiler Co. 
was incorporated July 12, 1893. The Sprinfield Door, Sash and 
Blind Co. was incorporated August 12, 1891. The Springfield 
Electrical Mfg. Co. was incorporated May 11, 1900, capital, $10,- 
000; officers, H. E. Bosworth, president; B. C. Starr, treasurer; 
H. H. Curtis, secretary. The Springfield Construction Co. was 
incorporated January 18, 1896, capital, $20,000, for the purpose 
of construction of iron and steel bridges. The Springfield Ele- 

( 279 ) 


vator and Pump Co. Avas incorporated April 2. 1896. capital, 
$100,000 ; officers, John Mayher, president ; James Hale, treas- 
urer. The Springfield Engine 8top Co. was incorporated in 
August, 1895, capital, $100,000: officers. J. D. Millea, president; 
M. J. Carroll, secretary and treasurer. The Springfield Eureka 
Hard Plaster Co. was incorporated Nov. 21. 1895. capital, $20,- 
000; officers, A. L. Wright, president; D. W. Mellen, vice-presi- 
dent; "W. T. Gregg, secretary; W. T. Underwood, treasurer and 
manager. The Springfield Foundry Co. was established in 1870 
and incorporated Oct. 9, 1877, capital, $100,000. The Spring- 
field Glazed Paper Co. was incorporated May -t. 1871:. capital, 
$100,000; officers, W. H. Shuart. president; John F. Marsh, 
treasurer (works at the west end of old toll bridge.) 
The Springfield Iron Works was incorporated May 1, 1895, 
capital, $20,000 ; officers. James Gibbons, president and treas- 
urer ; Edmund DeWitt, secretary. The Springfield Knitting Co. 
was incorporated May 6, 1892; officers, Gurdon Bill, president; 
Nathan D. Bill, treasurer; C. B. Potter, secretary and manager. 
The Springfield Machine Screw Co. was incorporated August 10, 
1895, capital, $5,500 ; officers. Edward S. Bradford, president ; 
Edward S. Bradford, jr., secretary and treasurer. The Spring- 
field Narrow Fabric Co. was incorporated April 8. 1890. The 
Springfield Planing and Moulding Co. was incorporated January 
3, 1894. The Springfield Steam Power Co. was incorporated 
March 28, 1881, capital, $200,000 ; officers, George C. Fisk, presi- 
dent ; Henry S. Hyde, treasurer ; L. C. Hyde, clerk ; J. AV. Hyde, 
assistant treasurer and manager. The Springfield Waste Co. 
was incorporated March 24. 1884, capital, $150,000; officers. 
George E. Howard, president and treasurer. The Springfield 
Weaving Co. was incorporated July 23. 1878. The Springfield 
Webbing Co. was incorporated June 25, 1894. capital, $15,000 ; 
officers, Joseph Merriam, president ; L. F. Denio. treasurer. The 
Standard Brick Co. was incorporated April 17, 1884, capital, 
$5,000; officers, J. S. Sanderson, president; A. N. Mayo, treas- 
urer; George E. Frink, secretary. The Standard Button Co. 
was incorporated Feb. 10, 1893. capital, $4,000 ; officers. Mre. J. 
W. Holton, president; J. W. Holton, treasurer. The Standard 

( 280 ) 


Knvelope Co. was incorporated April 7. 1882. The J. W. Steers 
& Son Organ Co. was incorporated May 1, 1901, capital, $50,000 ; 
officers, George A. Bacon, president and secretary; A. L. White, 
vice-president and manager. The United Electric Light Co. 
was incorporated May 9, 1887, capital, $500.000 ; officers, Elisha 
Morgan, president; W. A. Lincoln, treasurer; Henry S. An- 
derson, manager. The LTnited States Compound Oxygen Co. 
was incorporated January 19, 1886. The United States 
Envelope Machine Co. ^vas incorporated March 19, 1886. 
The Ignited States Spring Bed Co. was incorporated June 
18, 1889, capital. $10,000 ; officers, H. H. Bowman, president ; F. 
M. Tinkham, treasurer and manager. The Victor Sporting 
Goods Co. was incorporated in 1898, capital, $50,000 ; officers, F. 
J. Faulkner, president; C. B. Whitney, treasurer. The Whittier 
]\Iills Co. was incorporated in 1898, capital, $70,000 ; officers, H. 
A. AA^hittier. president; Nelson AVhittier, treasurer; Walter R. B. 
Whittier, manager. The AA^ight-Thayer Co. of Indian Orchard, 
was incorporated July 21, 1898, capital, $10,000; officers, Charles 
H. Thayer, president and secretary : Henry K. AYight, treasurer. 



The First Church of Clirist — The mother church of Spring- 
field, from which during the first century of its history there 
were set off several parishes, and from which in later years, both 
directly and indirectly, there have been numerous otfshoots, is 
said by various writers to have been established in 1637, when 
George Moxon was settled as minister of the parish. A doubt 
exists as to the exact time of Mr. Aloxon's settlement, the town 
records giving no clear light as to whether he was settled in 1637 
or in the year following. The present writer is inclined to the 

( 281 ) 


belief that the church in fact was established May 14, 1636, when 
the little colony of planters under Mr. Pynchon entered into 
solemn compact with one another and framed articles of govern- 
ment, the second declaration of Avhich reads as follows: "Wee 
intend, by God's grace, as soon as wee can, with all convenient 
speede, to procure some Godly and faithfull minister, with whom 
wee purpose to joyne, to Avalk in all the Avays of Christ." 

Inasmuch as the settlement of a minister is not prerequisite 
to the establishment of a church, and that the latter action is de- 
pendent only upon the declaration and intention of the covenant- 
ers, it is a question whether the First church of Christ in Spring- 
field was not founded in 1636. 

In 1645 a meeting house was built near the southeast corner 
of what is now court square. It was 25 x 40 feet in size and 
faced south, on Meeting house lane (now Elm street). This 
structure was one of the few buildings of the town that escaped 
destruction by the Indians on the occasion of the burning of 
Springfield during King Philip's war, yet in 1h77 it was replaced 
by a more commodious structure, the latter standing farther west 
and quite within the limits of the square. The third meeting 
house was larger than either of its predecessors, being 46 x 60 
feet in dimensions and "26 feet between joints. It stood directly 
east of the present church edifice and on the square. The fourtti 
and present edifice was erected in 1819 and still stands, and not- 
withstanding its more than four score years of service it now is 
an attractive and comfortable building, and one around which 
cluster a thousand historic memories. Although devoid of archi- 
tectural display its exterior is pleasing in every sense, and great 
care has been exercised to preserve it against the ravages of time 
and the elements. So, too, with the interior, which retains much 
of its original appearance, except that modern heating appli- 
ances have replaced the old-time foot-stoves and the magnificent 
pipe organ now stands back of the pastor's desk instead of occu- 
pying a niche in the rear gallery, as did its predecessor. The old 
high pulpit was first lowered in 1854. Cushions were placed in 
the pews in 1862. Modern custopis of worship prevail, but other 
than is noted the aim has been to preserve the interior in accord- 

( 283 ) 


-ance with the ideas of the builders in 1819. The chapel east of 
the edifice, and connecting therewith, Avas built in 1872. 

For more than a century and three-quarters the mother 
church of Springfield was supported at the common expense of 
the townspeople, and when during the latter years of the eight- 
eenth century the region had become settled with families of 
other denominations, there naturally arose some opposition to the 
payment of church rates where the people wei-e not Congregation- 
alists and preferred the associations of their own church. The 
collection of rates was enforced until about the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, when the custom became unpopular and was 
finally swept aside. However, since that time the old society 
never has suffered from lack of support, and to-day the First 
church is the largest and most infiuential ecclesiavStical body in 
the city, having a total meuibei*ship of more than 1,100 persons. 

The ministers and pastors of the First church have been as 
follows : George Moxon, 1637 ( or 1688) -1652 : Mr. Hosford, 1653 : 
Thomas Thomson, 1655-56: Mr. Hooker, 1656, three months; 
Pelatiah Glover, 1660-92 : John Haynes, 1693, a few months ; 
Daniel Brewer, May 16, 1694-1733, died 1733 : Robert Breck, Jan. 
26, 1734-1784, died 1784 ; Bezaleel Howard, D. D., April 27, 1785- 
1809, died 1837 : Samuel Osgood, D. D., Jan. 25, 1809-1854, died 
1862: Henry M. Parsons, Nov. 15. 1854-1870: Edward A. Reed, 
June 14, 1871-1878: Edward P. Terhune, D. D.. April 30, 1879- 
1884 ; Michael Burnham. Feb. 27, 1885-1894 : Fi-ank L. Good- 
speed, D. D., Nov., 1894— the present pastor. 

Olivet Church — In December, 1832, eleven members of the 
Firet church requested letters of dismission for the purpose of 
organizing another Congregational society in Springfield, whose 
house of worship should be located on Armory hill for the es- 
pecial accommodation of families living in that rapidly growing 
vicinit.y. The application received the approval of the mother 
society and on January 8, 1883, the Fourth Congregational 
church of Springfield was duly organized with nineteen constitu- 
ent members. The Sabbath school was organized on the third 
Sunday in January of the samc,^ year, with four teachers and 
twelve pupils. This church has been known by the name of Oli- 

( 284 ) 


vet since March, 1855. although the act of the legislature au- 
thorizing its adoption Avas not passed until March 31. 1875. Tlie^ 
first services of the new society Avere held in what was known as 
the Conference house, a brick building standing at the corner of 
High street and AYoodworth avenue. The first church edifice was 
built on State street in 1834 and still stands, although constantly 
increasing membership has necessitated subsequent enlargements 

Olivet Churcli, Springfield 

and substantial repairs to the original structure. The vestry, 
Sunday school and society building was erected in 1878. 

Olivet church for many years has been an important and in- 
fluential factor in the ecclesiastical history of the city. The pres- 
ent members number more than 300 persons, while the Sunday 
school has more than 200 pupils. The pastors of the church, in 
succession, have been as follows : "Waters AVarren. minister, Jan. 
8, 1833- April 8, 1833 : Abraham C. Baldwin. Dec. 4. 1833-Jaii. 8, 
1839 : Ezekiel Russell. D. D.. Alay 15. 1839- July 17. 1849 : Samuel 

285 ) 


W. Strong, March 27, 1850-Oct. 10, 1852 ; Henry B. Elliott, min- 
ister, Jan. 16, 1853-Oct. 29, 1854 ; George DeF. Folsom, May 23, 
1855-Sept. 1, 1860 ; W. W. Woodworth, minister, Sept. 23, 1860- 
March 3, 1862 ; George H. Gould, D. D., minister, June 1, 1862- 
June 1, 1864 ; William K. Hall, minister, April 15, 1865-April 2, 
1866 ; John A. Hamilton, minister, April 1, 1867-July 1, 1867 ; 
Luther H. Cone, Oct. 30, 1867-now pastor emeritus; Edwin H. 
Hadlock, Ph.D., June 20, 1899— the present pastor. 

South Congregational C'/atrc/i— Nothwithstanding the or- 
ganization of the Third society in 1819 and the Fourth in 1833, 
the rapid increase in population in the town during the ten years 
next following the latter date necessitated the formation of still 
another church society. Consequently, in 1842 the parish of the 
South Congregational society was organized with 40 original 
members and was an offshoot from the mother church on Court 
square, including in its membership a number of the leading busi- 
ness and professional men of the town, and their families. Early 
services were held in the old court house on Sanford street, and 
the first house of worship was built on Bliss street. Its cost, in- 
cluding the chapel adjoining, was less than $10,000. The present 
church edifice on Maple street was erected in 1874, and then (as 
now) was regarded as one of the most pretentious structures of 
its kind in the city. 

Throughout the period of its history the South church has 
had but three regular pastorates,^ covering an aggregate of al- 
most three-score years. The first pastor was Rev. Noah Porter, 
jr., from 1843 to 1847, followed by the memorable pastorate of 
Rev. Dr. Samuel G. Buckingham, who both in church work and 
in the interests of all the institutions of the city always labored 
for the public good, and often at the expense of personal comfort. 
He retired from active church work in 1894, but was regarded as 
pastor emeritus until the time of his death, Julj^ 12, 1898. Rev. 
Dr. Philip S. Moxom succeeded to the pastorate in April, 1894, 
and still serves in that capacity. Under his ministry here the 

'On May 7, 1885. Rev. Edward G. Selden was installed associate and active 
pastor, and worked in conjunction witti Dr. Bucliingham, pastor, active and emer- 
itus, until October 5, 1893, when he was dismissed. 

( 286 ) 


church membership has increased to nearly 500 persons, while the 
Sunday school has 270 pupils. 

North Congregational CJmrch—ln the spring of 1846 a 
number of meetings were held for the discussion of a proposition 
to organize another Congregational society in Springfield, and 
the result was the adoption of a constitution and articles of faith 
by a number of interested persons ; and with this informal or- 
ganization the little society secured the services of Rev. Robert 
H. Conklin, and in September of that year began holding meet- 
ings in Frost's hall. The more formal church organization was 
perfected on Oct. 28, with 22 constituent members. The Sunday 
school was formed Nov. 11, George White being the first superin- 
tendent. In September, 1847, the church acting in the capacity 
of a parish purchased a lot of land at the southeast corner of 
Main and Worthington streets, and built thereon a chapel; and 
in the following month the society hired for use during the win- 
ter months the old structure on Sanford street which was known 
as the "Free church." However, the lot above mentioned was 
soon sold and in place thereof the society purchased a new lot on 
the west side of Main street, north of Bridge street. In March, 
1848, the church was duly incorporated, and in the same year a 
substantial edifice was built on the new site. It was completed 
and formally dedicated March 1, 1849, the day of the installation 
of the first pastor. 

In 1871 this property was sold for $46,000, and a new site 
was purchased, the land being located at the corner of Salem 
street and the avenue of the same name. Here a large edifice was 
erected in 1873, the dedicatory services being held September 18. 
The cost of the structure, including the chapel, was more than 

The North church at present has a membership of 440 per- 
sons, and in its Sunday school are 315 pupils. A colony of fifty- 
five membere of this church was organized into the Memorial 
church by a council held in the vestry of the former church, Oc- 
tober 27, 1865. The succession of pastors of the North church is 
as follows: Raymond H. Seelye, D. D., March 1, 1849-Jan. 26. 
1858; James Drummond, June 16, 1858, died in the pastorate 

( 287 ) 


Nov. 29, 1861 ; L. Clarke Seelye, D. D., LL. D., Jan. 20, 1863-May 
31, 1865: Kichard G. Greene, May 13, 1866-Oct., 1874: Washing- 
ton Gladden, D. D., LL. D., Feb. 1, 1875-Dec. 7, 1882 : Charles 
VanOrden, D. D., LL. D., May 13, 1883-Oct. 11, 1886; W. L. 
Gage, D. D., April 16, 1887-one year; F. Barrows Makepeace, 
Oct. 6, 1888-1899 : Newton M. Hall, Oct. 4, 1899-the present pas- 

Indian Orchard Church — The Firet Congregational society 
of Indian Orchard was organized March 23, 1848, with fifteen 
members nnder the pastoral care of Rev. Luther H. Cone, late 
pastor and now pastor emeritus of Olivet church. In 1856 the 
Ward Manufacturing company gave the society two lots at the 
corner of Main and Oak streets, and in 1863 a neat house of wor- 
ship Avas erected thereon. In the course of a few years the soci- 
ety became disorganized and the church property passed into the 
hands of Harvey Butler and later of the Indian Orchard Mill 
company. In the late winter of 1865 a reorganization was ef- 
fected, and Mr. Rice was called to the pastorate. From that time 
the church maintained a fairly healthful existence, although not 
always self-supporting. The present members number 161 per- 
sons, with a Sunday school of 200 pupils. The church at present 
is without a pastor. 

Hope Congregational Church — This church, now among the 
first in point of numerical strength in the city, had its inception 
in the successful work of a mission Sunday school which was 
opened in the eastern central part of the city in 1865 by a num- 
ber of interested members of the South church. At first these 
sessions of the school, with occasional infoi-mal church services, 
were held in dwelling houses, but later on a barn in Union street 
was purchased and fitted up for Sunday occupancy. In 1870 a 
small chapel building — Hope Chapel — was erected, but in the 
course of the next five years three separate enlargements of the 
original structure were necessary. In 1875 Charles Morgan, a 
recent graduate of Yale Divinity school, was called to take 
charge of the mission work, and in the same year articles of faith 
and by-laws for a new church were adopted. On ^Nlarch 15, 1876, 
a ehui'ch was regularly organized and Mr. Morgan was ordained 

( 288 ) 


and installed as its first pastor. On November 14 the chapel was 
removed to a new location at the corner of State and Winchester 
streets, and during the succeeding five years the increase in in- 
terest and membership was such that a new and larger house of 
worship was a necessity. On September 24, 1882, the corner 
stone of the present attractive edifice Avas laid with impressive 
ceremonies, and the completed structure Avas occupied for the 
first time, October 14, 1883. Its cost was $38,000. However, be- 
fore three more years had passed there was a call for "more 
room," and in 1887 galleries were constructed in the auditorium, 
increasing the seating capacity of the edifice from 900 to a little 
more than 1,200 persons. 

Although one of the younger religious bodies of the city 
Hope church, like the First church from which it sprung, has it- 
self been a prolific mother. Let us briefly mention its principal 
offshoots : 

Emmanuel CliurcJi — ln the latter part of 1881 a Sunday 
school was formed in the school house on the East Longmeadow 
road and was conducted by four young men from Hope church. A 
Sunday evening prayer meeting was held and also occasional 
preaching services. A neat chapel was subsequently erected on 
White street by the standing committee of Hope church, and was 
dedicated December 7, 1884. On November 20, 1888, the mission 
was organized into Emmanuel Congregational church, with a 
membership of 45 and a Sunday school of 103 pupils. This 
church now numbers 77 members and is under the pastoral care 
of Kev. David L. Kebbe, who was called to that office in 1895. 

Eastern Avenue Cliurch — The Eastern Avenue chapel was 
erected by the standing committee of Hope church in the early 
part of 1884. In July of that year Rev. Orville Reed, associate 
pastor of Hope church, took charge of the work both at the East- 
ern avenue and the White street missions. On February 22, 
1888, the mission was organized into a church with 58 members 
and 160 Sunday school attendants. The chapel building has 
since been enlarged. Although temporarily without a pastoral 
head the Eastern Avenue church has a present membership of 
123 persons, while in its Sunday school are 177 pupils. 

19-2 ( 289 ) 


The Park Church — In 1887 Hope church evangelization so- 
ciety purchased the lot at the corner of St. James avenue and 
Clarendon street and erected thereon a dwelling house, finishing 
the lower floor for use as a chapel. The growth of the locality 
soon made it evident that enlarged accommodations would be 
needed, upon which the dwelling was removed and the erection 
of the present chapel was begun in August, 1888. The building 
was completed in May, 1889. In June of that year a church was 
organized with 56 members and a Sunday school of 136 pupils. 
This church has a present membership of 64 persons, and from 
1896 to the early part of 1901 was under the pastoral charge of 
Rev. Allen E. Cross. 

8t. John's Church— For several years Hope church was in- 
terested in a work among colored people of the city, and in carry- 
ing out that work a chapel was built in Quincy street. In 1890, 
by the union of the Sanford street church and the Quincy street 
mission, St. John's church was organized with a membership of 
23 persons and a Sunday school of 60 attendants. Since that 
time the church has enjoyed a quiet, steady growth. 

Thus it is our privilege to note in part the commendable 
work originating with and carried to successful results by the en- 
terprising benevolence and truly missionary spirit of Hope 
church, a comparatively young but in point of membership tlie 
second in numerical strength among the Congregational churches 
of the city. Notwithstanding the fact that it frequently has con- 
tributed its members to offshoot bodies, the mother church has a 
present membership of 678 pereons, and in its Sunday school are 
662 pupils. 

The succession of pastors, their associates and co-workers, of 
Hope church is as follows: Charles Lincoln Morgan, March 15, 
1876-November 1, 1880 ; David Allen Reed, June 7, 1881-Decem- 
ber 23, 1889 ; Orville Reed, in charge of Eastern Avenue and 
White street chapels, 1884-86, and co-pastor of Hope church, 
1886-88 ; Ralph Watson Brokaw, co-pastor, 1888-89, pastor, 1889- 
98; Samuel H. Woodrow, September 1, 1898— the present pas- 

The French Church— The society of this church was the out- 
growth of missionary work among the French residents of 

( 290 ) 


Springfield during the years immediately preceding 1886. The 
church organization was perfected in 1886 and since that time 
has been one of the institutions of the city. The house of wor- 
ship is located in Bliss street. Since 1897 this parish has been 
under the pastoral care of Rev. Thomas S. St. Aubin, the mem- 
bere numbering 37 persons. 

The Sivedish Congregational Church, which does not ap- 
pear in the minutes of the general association as one of the regu- 
lar societies of that denomination in the city, was organized in 
1891, and now is under the pastoral charge of Rev. Gustave Lind- 

Faith Congregational Church — With a house of worship at 
the corner of Fort Pleasant and Sumner avenues, was organized 
in 1894; pastor, Rev. D. Butler Pratt. 


Ashury First M. E. C/mrc/i— Bishop Asbury visited Spring- 
field as early as 1791 and preached his first sermon on July 15 of 
that year. He again visited the town in 1794-95, and was fol- 
lowed by other missionary laborers, all of whom worked faith- 
fully for the establishment of a permanent Methodist Episcopal 
church in the locality. Preaching services were held in dwell- 
ings, and a class was formed as a result of the work in 1796. 
These sei*\aces were continued with more or less regularity until 
1801, when circuit preachere ceased their visits and left whatever 
was of public worship under Methodist teachings to the local 
preachers of the neighborhood. In 1815 the class and society 
were reorganized by William Marsh and were made a part of the 
Tolland circuit. In 1819 Springfield w^as made a separate sta- 
tion and Daniel Dorchester was appointed pastor; and in addi- 
tion to his regular labors this worthy teacher of Methodism also 
taught school in the old block house on the armory grounds. 
About this time the meetings were held alternately in the school 
house near the corner of Hancock and Central streets, at the 
Watershops, and also in the armory chapel on the hill, with occa- 
sional services in the old court house In 1820 Moses Fifield was 
sent to take charge of tlie local services, and in the same year a 

( 291 ) 


chapel Avas built at the AVatei-shops. This was the first regular 
church home of Methodism iu Springfield, and at the time there 
Avere only fifteen churches of that denomination in Massachusetts. 
However, the first sermon in the little chapel was preached by 
Elder Sawyer, a minister of the Baptist church. In 1835 the 
building was enlarged, but finally was made into a tenement 
house. In 1821 Thomas Asbury, a local preacher, was employed 
to assist Mr. Fifield, and in 1823 a new meeting house was built 
in Union street, to which place the old organization was trans- 
ferred, although occasional services were continued to be held 
at the AA^atershops until 1832, when regular preaching was re- 
established there. 

In 1834 a great revival increased the number of local Metho- 
dists to 346, and in the following year the society was divided 
into two separate churches and a pastor was appointed for each. 
In 1844 a new church was organized and a new house of worship 
was built in Pynchon street, to which place the Asbury members 
were transferred. Ten years later preaching was resumed at the 
old church edifice and the pulpit was supplied by Miner Ray- 
mond, D. D., principal of Wesleyan academy at Wilbraham. In 
1860 the old society was once more constituted a church, and was 
placed under the pastoral care of Samuel Jackson. In 1865 the 
erection of a new house of worship was begun, the structure be- 
ing located in Florence street, from which fact it was called the 
Florence Street M. E. church. The corner-stone address was de- 
livered by William Rice, and in November, 1866, Bishop Simpson 
preached the dedicatory sermon. In 1871 the name was changed 
to Asbury First ]\I. E. church, by which it since has been known. 

The change in name to Asbury First church established his- 
torical connection with Bishop Asbury, the founder of Methodism 
in Springfield ; and the entertainment of the 100th session of the 
New England conference by the mother church in 1896 was an 
eminently fitting event. In church circles in Springfield Asbury 
First exercises a wide influence for good, and its pulpit has been 
filled with the best material at the command of the conference. 
The church noAv numbers 307 members. 

Glancing back into the history of the church and society, we 
may recall the names of many of its ministers and pastors, as 

{ 292 ) 


nearly as possible in the order of succession: Daniel Dorchester 
(1819), Moses Fifield (1820), Thomas Asbury (assistant to Mr. 
Fifield), Thomas Pierce (1822), John M. Hardy (1823-24), Mr. 
White and Sanford Benton (1832), Mr. White and Moses 
Dwight (1833), Bartholmew Otherman and George F. Poole 
(1834), Ebenezer Blake, H. H. White, J. D. Bridge, W. H. Rich- 
ards, E. Potter. J. Fleming, E. A. Manning, Miner Raymond, 
Samuel Jackson, John C. Smith (1862-63), Pliny Wood 
(1864-65), Mr. Fulton (1866-67). Samuel Roy (1868-69), Charles 
D. Hills (1870-72), F. K. Stratton (1873-75), W. C. High 
(1876-77), Joseph Scott (1878) ; and since 1878 : E. P. King, V. 
N. Simons, Henry Matthews, C. A. Littlefield, Charles Tilton, and 
W. J. Heath, the latter the present pastor. 

The Wesley Church — Although one of the youngest religious 
societies of the city, the Wesley church is nevertheless descended 
almost directly from the old Union street society, which dates its 
history from the year 1823. In that year a-large frame meeting 
house was erected in Union street. The later and more pre- 
tentious State street edifice was completed in 1873, at a cost of 
$80,000, and was dedicated on November 25 of that year, by 
Bishop Simpson. 

St. Luke's church was organized in 1888, the charter there- 
for bearing date January 14, and under the advice of the com- 
mittee in charge it was determined to build a chapel at the High- 
lands. The structure was finished during that year and the so- 
ciety took the name of St. Luke's. During the next ten years this 
church increased rapidly in strength, and in 1896 it numbered 
318 members. The pastors of St. Luke's were George A. Yiets, 
1888 ; L. H. Dorchester, 1889-93 ; W. G. Richardson, 1894-98. 

In 1899-1900 the work of uniting State street and St. Luke's 
churches was undertaken by Rev. Dr. Charles F. Rice, assisted by 
Dr. Seaman, and the present Wesley church of more than 600 
members is the result of their endeavors. More than that, the 
society is possessed of one of the most complete and attractive 
church edifices in the city, and under the pastoral guidance of Dr. 
Rice future success and increased growth are assured. 

The pastors of the old Union street church were D. Dorches- 
ter, Daniel Webb, Timothy iMerritt. Orange Scott, T. C. Pierce, 

( 293 ) 


Hiram H. White, Bartholmew Otherman, A. D. Merrill, William 
Livesay, John Rice, Charles K. True, Mark Staples, Daniel Wise, 
R. S. Rust, A. D. MerriU, W. R. Clark, George Landon, J. W. 
Mowrey, F. A. Griswold, Moses Dwight, C. B. Bragdon, J. M. 
Barley, Oliver S. Howe, A, 0. Hamilton, Daniel Steele, Isaac 
Cushman, Nelson Stutson, Joseph Scott, Joseph H. Mansfield, 
John C. Smith. 

The pastors of the State street church were R. R. Meredith, 
Merritt Hubard, J. H. Twombly, Daniel Dorchester, W. T. Per- 
rin, W. E. Knox, C. S. Rogers, W. R. Newhall. W. H. Meredith, 
T. Corwin Watkins and W. G. Seaman, in the order mentioned. 

Trinity Church — This church is a continuation of what 
many Springfield Methodists remember with affection as the old 
Pynchon street church. It had its inception in the prayer meet- 
ings held in the grand jury room of the court house, and in the 
same building also was held the meeting at which the church 
organization was effected, February 9, 1844. On that occasion 
this resolution was adopted : ' ' We, the members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church in Springfield, Mass., residing in and about 
Main street, having advised with our brethren in the other parts 
of the town, deem it to be our duty to proceed forthwith in the 
erection of a place of worship." In April, 1844, Jefferson Has- 
call was assigned to the charge, which at the time had about forty 
members. The church edifice was dedicated in March, 1845, ana 
immediately the church began to take a leading position m 
the religious life of the town. The Pynchon street building was 
maintained and occupied until 1869, and during its history its 
pastors were as follows : Jefferson Hascall. George Landon. 
Mark Tafton, Isaac A. Savage, J. D. Bridge, Fales H. Newhall, 
Jett'erson Hascall, Mark Tafton, Nelson Stutson. J. S. Barrows, 
A. McKeown, William R. Clark and C. D. Hills. 

The present Trinity church edifice in Bridge street, near 
Main street, was dedicated by Bishop Simpson, December 1, 1369, 
during the pastorate of Mr. Hills. The total cost of the structure, 
including land, was $73,000. The succession of pastors of Trinity 
church is as follows : C. D. Hills, 1869 ; J. 0. Peck, 1870-73 ; Mer- 
ritt Hubbard, 1873-76: S. F. Upham, 1876-79: F. J. Wagner, 

( 294 ) 


1879-82 ; Frederick Woods, 1882-85 ; George Skene, 1885-88 ; Wal- 
lace McMullen, 1888-93 ; Henry Tnckley. 1893-98 ; A. C. Skinner, 
1898— the present pastor. 

This church has a total membership of 690 pereons, and is 
recognized as one of the leading Methodist Episcopal churches in 
the Connecticut valley. 

Grace Church — In the latter part of 1866 there was voiced 
a strong sentiment in favor of the establishment of a church of 
this denomination in the south part of the city, and to that end 
about thirty members of Pynchon street (now Trinity) church 
withdrew their membership and organized the Central M. E. 
church. For several years meetings were held in the old Union 
hall, then in Institute hall, and still later in the old Universalist 
meeting house, which was rented by the new society. In 1869 a 
considerable portion of the members withdrew from the new 
church and returned to the old society ; but notwithstanding this 
loss the others held firmly to their purpose and through their 
united labors the church continued to grow in strength. 

In 1872, Rev. A. J. Cass was appointed pastor, which proved 
a fortunate event in the history of the church. During his term 
the name was changed to Grace M. E. church and the large house 
of worship on Main and Winthrop streets was erected. The 
formal dedication took place January 19. 1875. The completed 
edifice cost $73,000. The present membership of the church is 
303 persons. The succession of pastors is as follows: Charles 
A. Merrill, 1867-68 : Kev. Dr. Cook, supply. 1869-70 ; Charles F. 
Johnson, 1870-71 ; J. R. Tiddy, 1871-72 ; J. A. Cass, 1872-76 ; E. 
A. Smith, 1876-78; J. 0. Knowles, 1878-80: S. B. Sweetser, 
1880-83 : T. W. Bishop, 1883-86 : W. J. Heath, 1886-91 ; F. H. 
King. 1891-94; E. P. Herriek, 1894-98: C. E. Spaulding, 1898— 
the present pastor. 

Swedish Church— In the early part of 1893 S. L. Carlander, 
superintendent of the Swedish missions in the New England con- 
ference, visited Springfield and found about one thousand per- 
sons of Swedish birth living in the city, only about twenty of 
Avliom were members of the church, and all of whom 
were desirions to have a church home for their own people. 

( 295 ) 


Accordingly, on June 4 of that year, the First Swedish M. E. 
church was organized, but not until 1901 did the little band se- 
cure a house of worship of their own in the erection of the small 
edifice on Bay street. The present members number about fifty 
persons. Hilmer Larson was the first pastor, and was succeeded 
by Peter Frost and Charles Paulson, in the order mentioned. 

8t. James Church— In 1901 the society of this church erected 
an attractive house of worship on North Main street, and now as 
a permanent institution of Methodism it shows a membership of 
more than 100 persons. The church had its inception in a mis- 
sion chapel built by subscription in 1879. An organization 
known as the Union Evangelical church was effected in 1887, but 
in 1898 a reorganization resulted in a church society under Meth- 
odist Episcopal supervision. The name was changed to St. James 
church, and the new edifice Avas built in 1901. The pastor is Rev. 
W. E. Vandermark. 

The Loving Street African M. E. church, which for several 
years has been a religious institution of the citv, is not allied to 
the M. E. church of the New England conference. For a time 
an effort was made to bring the society witliin the jurisdiction 
of the conference, but the conditions necessary to effect that end 
were not fulfilled. 


The First Church— N^'ith the establishment of the United 
States buildings at the Watershops there came to live in Spring- 
field many persons and families who held to religious teachings 
differing with those of the old First parish church, and whenever 
opportunity oft'ered both Baptists and INIethodists assembled in 
some convenient place for worship according to their own desires. 
In 1811 nineteen Baptists formed themselves into the First Bap- 
tist society of Springfield, and on May 13 of that year the church 
was recognized by a regularly convened council according to the 
rules of the church. The new church began its history with 
twenty-five members and during the next ten years the number 
was more than doubled, although the society had no settled pastor 
and no regular house of worship previous to 1821, when a plain 

( 29(1 ) 


frame building was erected at the corner of Central and Cherry 
streets. In the next year Rev. Allen Hough was installed as pas- 
tor, at which time the members had increased to 50 persons. 

In 1832 a more comfortable house of worship was built at the 
comer of Maple and Mulberry streets, the dedication services be- 
ing held September ] 2. However, during the next fifteen years 
even this building was found to be too small for the growing con- 
gregations, and it was therefore sold and removed to Union street, 
where it now does service as a dwelling house. Having sold the 
old meeting house, the Baptist people at once began the erection 
of a substantial brick and stone edifice at the corner of Main 
street and Harrison avenue, on ground where now stands the Re- 
publican building. The structure, which cost $18,000, was dedi- 
cated September 27. 1847. Here in the very heart and center of 
the business district for the next forty-two years was the princi- 
pal home of Baptist teaching in the locality. During this long 
period the old First society sent forth her members to form other 
churches of the same denomination, more than 100 withdrawing 
themselves in 1864 to found the State street society, while many 
others removed to the west ; and the First Baptist church of Chi- 
cago may almost be called the offspring of the mother church in 
Springfield. The present splendid edifice on State street was 
completed and dedicated in 1889, and cost about $90,000. It is 
one of the largest and most attractive structures of its kind in the 
city, and when the dedicatory services were concluded the prop- 
erty was free from debt. This society celebrated its 90th anni- 
versary. May 12-13, 1901. 

During the period of its history the pastors, in succession, of 
the First church have been as follows : Allen C. Hough, 1822-25 ; 
Joseph Hough, 1825-27; Nicholas Branch, 1827-30; Benjamin 
Putnam, 1830-36; Dwight Ives, 1836-38; Hiram 0. Graves, 
1838-40; J. W. Eaton, 1840-43; Humphrey Richards, 1840-46; 
Minor G. Clark. 1846-50 ; E. E. Cummings, 1851-52 ; George B. 
Ide, D. D.,1852-72 ; George E. Merrill, 1872-77 ; C. W. Annable, 
D. D., 1877-82; Lester L. Potter, 1882-84; George C. Baldwin, 
1886-99 ; William N. Hubbell, 1899— the present pastor. 

The State Street Chnrch — On April 10. 1864, the First 
church granted permission to such members as desired to hold 

( 298 ) 

.^-«^-4' — W-T^ 






separate meetings with the ultimate purpose to establish a new 
church in the city, and about the same time, agreeable to the pre- 
vailing sentiment, an organization was formed under the name of 
' ' The Colony of the First Baptist Church. ' ' Meetings were held 
in Union hall, and so great Mas the interest shown in the move- 
ment that on August 7 letters Avere granted to 121 members of the 
mother society who, with ten others from other churches, on Au- 
gust 17, organized the State Street Baptist church. On March 
20, 18G5, the society voted to purchase a lot on State street, op- 
posite Dwight, and on June 21 following, it was voted to build a 
"brick meeting house" on the site, ^i'he corner-stone was laid Au- 
gust 31, 1865, the vestry was dedicated July 8, 1866, and the edi- 
fice itself was formally dedicated December 18, 1867. The entire 
cost of the property was $57,378, 

Like the mother society, the State street church has made a 
progressive historical record and not less than three distinct 
church societies are numbered among its offshoots. In the fall of 
1876 seventy-eight members were dismissed to form the West 
Springfield church. In 1886 more than one hundred more with- 
drew to organize the Higliland church, and in 1899 fifty-six 
others went out to establish the Belmont avenue church. But not- 
withstanding this the State street church always has held a strong- 
membership and to-day is ranked with the leading religious so- 
cieties of the city, both in influence and numerical strength. The 
succession of pastors is as follows : A. K. Potter, 1865-83 ; W. H. 
P. Faunce, 1884-89 : James Grant, 1890-92 ; B. D. Hahn, D. D., 
March 26, 1893— the present pastor. 

Tliird Ckurcli — This society had its inception in the weekly 
prayer meetings held in the homes of William M. Clark and Lucy 
Hicks on Hancock street in the years 1869-70. About 1871 a 
number of colored families came to Springfield from the South 
and the State street church offered them the use of its vestry for 
Sunday afternoon services. In 1872 as the new movement in- 
creased in interest rooms were engaged in the Institution for Sav- 
ings building, and on October 8, the organization of the Pilgrim 
Baptist chui'ch was duly recognized. In 1876, owing to some dif- 
ferences, a split occurred in the new church, and the dissentient 

( 300 ) 


membere who withdrew formed what was called the Berean Bap- 
tist church. The difficulty, however, was soon repaired, the Be- 
rean followers returned, and a reorganization was effected under 
the name of the Third Baptist church. The house of worship of 
this society was secured Jargely through the contributions of gen- 
erous members of the First and State street churches. The pas- 
tors have been as follows : Spencer Harris, Peter Smith, Eli N. 
Smith, AA^illiam Garrett, S. Henri Brown, and Eugene C. Brown, 
the latter the present pastor. 

Carew Street Church — On May 22, 1880, several members of 
the First church organized a Sunday school at the north end of 
the city in the old "balmoral factory" on Ringgold street, and to 
this school was given the name of Ward One Baptist mission. In 
July, 1882, the First church relinquished the work, upon which 
the mission became an organized society. In 1885 a chapel was 
built at the corner of Carew and North streets, and on December 
13 of that year the building was dedicated. In 1890 it was remod- 
eled and enlarged at an expense of $11,000. On May 12, 1887, a 
church organization Avas effected and the name was changed to 
Carew Street Baptist church, and as such was incorporated De- 
cember 26, 1889. This is the only Baptist church in the north 
part of the city and is the source of great good in that locality. 
Its membership is 296 persons. The pastors, in succession, have 
been as follows: AA". E. Waterbury, 1887-92: S. E. Frohock, 1892- 
98 ; Clarence Minard, January to October, 1899 ; A. P. Wedge, 
March 1, 1900 — the present pastor. 

Highland Churcli — The lot upon w^hich the present edifice 
stands was purchased in October, 1882. The chapel was dedi- 
cated September 27, 1885. The Bible school was organized Octo- 
ber 4, 1885, as a branch school of the State street church ; and it 
was organized as an independent school December 27, 1885. The 
church was organized Dec. 12, 1886, with 119 constituent mem- 
bers, of whom 102 came from the State street society. The church 
edifice was dedicated June 20, 1893. The present estimated 
value of the church property is $60,000. To the original 119 
members there were added up to January 1, 1901, 602 members, 
making a total during the history of the church to that time of 

( 301 ) 


721 members ; present membership, 497. The pastors have been 
fis follows: George S. Goodspeecl, Dec. 12, 1886- June, 1888; 
George W. Quick, June 1888— the present pastor. 

Belmont Avenue Church— Thh church was organized June 
30, 1899. In May, 1889, the State street church voted to accept 
a building lot at the corner of Belmont and Euclid avenues which 
had been donated by the late D. L. Swan for the purposes of 
church extension in the south part of the city. In 1890 Mr. 
Swan, George A. Russell and George W, Tapley caused a chapel 
to be built on this lot for occupancy as a Bible school. The in- 
terest of the State street society in this mission was continued 
until June 20, 1899, w^hen 56 members went out to unite with 
others in the organization of the Belmont avenue church. In 
1897 Rev. J. W. Martin was placed in charge of the Belmont 
and Carlisle missions, and later on in the same year Rev. Willard 
E. Waterbury became missionary pastor in both fields. In 1899 
Mr. Waterbury was made pastor of the Belmont avenue church 
and now serves in that capacity, 


Church of the Unity — For nearly ten years previous to the 
division of the mother church and the creation of the Third Con- 
gregational society in Springfield there was a strong inclination 
on the part of many influential persons and families to separate 
themselves from the parent body, then under the ministry of Dr. 
Osgood, but the strong will and determined opposition of that dis- 
tinguished leader restrained those who would have withdra\vn 
to establish a new society more in accordance with their views on 
certain doctrinal questions. As years passed the feeling in favor 
of a separation was strengthened rather than diminished, and on 
May 27, 1818, fifty-four prominent citizens of the town, nearly 
if not quite all of them members of the mother church, addressed 
a petition to the general court asking for an act of incoproation 
of the Second society of the First parish, with the usual privi- 
leges and a portion of the maintenance fund of the parish accord- 
ing to the proportion of taxes for church purposes contributed by 
the petitioners. 

( 302 ) 

Church of the Unity. Springfield 


This suggestion, supported by a numerous following from 
the best element of the parish, created a storm of opposition from 
the Avorthy pastor and a large number of his faithful adherents, 
but under the careful guidance of Rev. Bezaleel Howard (Dr. 
Osgood's predecessor in the pastorate of the First church) and 
Jonathan Dwight, on February 15, 1819, secured an act of in- 
corporation of the '"Second Congregational society of the First 
Parish of Springfield." On January 31, 1820, a supplementary 
act of the legislature re-incorporated the society under the name 
of the "Third Congregational society of Springfield" — a name 
by which it has since been legally and strictly known, although 
the name. Church of the Unity, is more generally used. It also 
may be said that distinctively Unitarian doctrines were not 
avowed by the founders of the new society at the time of the di- 
vision, but were adopted during the early part of the ministry of 
Dr. Peabody, the first pastoral head of the church. 

In the meantime Mr. Dwight, whose name is previously men- 
tioned, gave increased ardor to the action of the separatists in a 
generous offer to erect a suitable house of worship at his own cost, 
on the sole condition that the other members of the society should 
establish an ample fund for the support of the minister. This 
was accomplished in the creation of a subscription fund of more 
than $14,000, and thereafter (May 19) Jonathan Dwight, jr.. Dr. 
Joshua Frost, Eobert Emery, Samuel Orne and John Howard 
were constituted a board of trustees of the society 's funds. 

The corner-stone of the new edifice was laid with appropri- 
ate ceremony on Thursday. May 20, 1819, and on September 12 
the house was so far completed that services were held there that 
day. The structure stood at the corner of State and AVillow 
streets and served the requirements of the society until 1869, 
when the splendid edifice on State street, one of the most com- 
plete and elaborate structures of its kind in the city, was finished 
and ready for occupancy. The corner-stone Avas laid May 20, 
1867, and on February 14, 1869, the dedicatory service was held. 
The pastor's residence adjoining the edifice was built in 1886, and 
was the generous gift of ]\Irs. Dorcas Chapin. 

From the earliest period of its history the Church of the 
Unity in Springfield has exercised an influence for good, and 

( 304 ) 


among the ecclesiastical bodies of the reg:ion it has always held 
a prominent position. Its founders were among the foremost 
men of the old First parish and through all succeeding genera- 
tions the congregations attending service in the Unitarian church 
have included many of tlie leading business and professional men 
of the city. The church now numbers 200 families. 

The succession of pastors is as follows: William B. 0. Pea- 
body, Oct. 12, 1820-May 28, 1847 : George F. Simmons, Feb. 9, 
1848-Oet. 12, 1851; Francis Tiffany. Dec. 30, 1852-Jan. 1, 1864; 
Charles A. Humphreys, Nov. 29, 1865-Jan. 24, 1872 ; A. D. Mayo, 
Oct. 1873-Dec. 25, 1879 ; E. B. Payne. Dec. 28, 1880-Dec. 13, 1883 ; 
John Cuckson, Sept. 10, 1884-1892 ; Bradley Oilman, June, 1892 
— the present pastor. 


Clirist Church — An early as the year 1817 Episcopal serv- 
ices were held in the armory chapel by the Rev. Titus Strong, of 
Greenfield, and in July, 1821, the Rev. Edward Rutledge was 
made rector of the newly created parish. The results of his work, 
hoAvever, were not entirely satisfactory and despite his patient 
efforts, coupled with the valuable aid of Col. Roswell Lee, the 
services were discontinued in 1822, not again to be resumed for 
fourteen years. During this brief ministry the seed of the church 
was sown and was destined to yield an abundant harvest in good 
season. In Mr. Rutledge 's time there were only four Episcopal 
families in the parish, and when in 1835 Rev. Samuel McBurney 
was sent here "in the hope" that the church might be well es- 
tablished little encouraging results rewarded his endeavors. To- 
day the church numbers twelve hundred communicants. 

In 1838, under the leadership of the Rev. Henry W. Lee, 
son of Col. Lee, a new effort Avas made to re-establish the church, 
and in the next ten years, through the assistance of prominent 
churchmen of Boston, Hartford and Lowell, a modest though 
comfortable church edifice w^as built, the parish was reorganized 
and an act of incorporation was secured. The first edifice was 
consecrated April 1, 1840, and since that time the church has 
continued to grow in influence and strength. During Mr. Lee's 

20-2 ( 305 ) 


rectorship the number of communicants was increased from 20 
to 190, and in 1851 it was found necessary to enlarge the church 
building ; and again, soon after 1870, it became apparent that a 
new, more modern and much larger edifice must be provided. 
To this end the parishioners directed their energies, with result 
in the laying of the corner-stone in 1874 of the splendid building 
on Chestnut street, which attracts attention of all visitors in 
that locality. The work was completed in May. 1876. and the 
church was consecrated October 10, 1900. 

Much of the best work in the history of Christ church has 
been accomplished during the rectorship of Mr. Brooks. When 
he came to Springfield in 1878 an indebtedness of $40,000 was 
hanging over the parish, but all that debt has been swept away ; 
and more, during his time the parish house has been built at a 
cost of $15,000 ; a new organ for the church has cost $5,000 ; 
memorial windows in the parish house cost $3,000 : the organ in 
that building cost $1,000; there was paid for Merrick park 
$5,000, and the erection of St. Peter's church by the mother 
parish cost $10,000. The present total value of parish property 
and invested funds aggregates $163,500. 

The rectors of the parish, in succession, have been as fol- 
lows : Edward Eutledge, July, 1821-January 20, 1822: Henry 
W. Lee (afterward Bishop of Iowa, died 1874), 1838-47; Henry 
W. Adams, 1848-49 : A.N. Little.john, D. D. (now Bishop of Long 
Island^ 1850-51: William S. Child, D. D., 1851-59; George H. 
McKnight, D. D. 1859-69 ; Alexander Burgess, D. D. (now bishop 
of Quincy), 1869-78; John Cotton Brooks, December, 1878— the 
present rector; Rev. James Clement Sharp, rector's assistant. 

St. Peter's Church — The mission of St. Peter's parish was 
organized in the latter part of 1891, under the direction and 
support of Christ church. The church was organized in 1893, 
and was placed under the rectorship of Rev. John F. Ballentine. 
The church edifice was built chiefly by the mother parish, and 
cost $15,000. St. Peter's now numbei-s 200 connnunicants ; rec- 
tor, Rev. John A. Staunton, jr. 

( 306 ) 



.S'^. Paul's First Church— The society of St. Paul's First 
Uiiiversalist church dates its history from the year 1827, when 
Edmund Allen, Alexander Stocking, Dudley Brown, Israel Phil- 
lips, jr., Ethan A. Clary and Moses Y. Beach were incorporated 
under the name of the First Independent Universalist society in 
Springfield. The early meetings were held in the armory chapel 
and later in Beacon hall at the corner of State and Walnut 
streets. About 1840, through the efforts of Eliphalet Trask, 
Thomas AV. Wason and others, the society gained added strength 
and four years later a plain house of worship was built at the 
corner of Main and Stockbridge streets. The church organiza- 
tion was formally effected by Rev. J. J. Twiss, February 25, 
1855. The present handsome edifice at the corner of Chestnut 
and Bridge streets was erected in 1869. The society now num- 
bers about 250 families, and that notwithstanding the fact that 
two other societies of the same denomination have recently been 
organized in the city and have drawn their strength chiefly from 
the mother church. 

The records of St. Paul's are somewhat imperfect, yet from 
reliable sources it is learned that the ministers and pastors of 
the church, in succession, have been as follows : Lucius R. 
Paige, 1834 — : Charles Spear, service unknown; D. J. Mandell, 
1842-48: A. A. Folsom, 1844-47: H. P. Ambler, 1849, a few 
months: J. AY. Ford, about two years: J. J. Twiss, 1854-57: 
Josiah Marvin. 1857-65 : H. R. Nye, 1866-71 : Oscar F. Safford. 
1871-78 : Rev. Mr. Seward, a few months : A. H. Sweetser, 1874- 
77: George AV. Perry, 1877-80: J. K. Mason, 1880-85: L. L. 
Houghton, 1886-88 : G. I. Keirn, supply a few months in 1888 ; 
Marion Crosley, 1888-94: Charles Conklin. 1894-98: Flint M. 
Bissell. 1898— the present pastor. 

The Second and Third Universalist societies are offshoots 
from the mother church, and were organized in 1898 under the 
pastoral care of Rev. Charles Conklin. The neat frame house of 
worship at the corner of Bay and Princeton streets was built in 
1899, and the new church home of the Third society was com- 

( 307 ) 


pleted and dedicated in November, I'JOl. Both of these church- 
es now are under the charge of Rev. Mr. Conklin. 


St. Michael's CaiJicdral—As early as 1830 mass was said at 
Cabotville, then a part of the town of Springfield, but now 
Chicopee, M'here at that time there were three Catholic families. 
In 1835 Rev. John Brady, of Hartford, said masses in the local- 
ity of the Watershops and occasionally in other parts of the 
town. Father Brady continued his missionary Avork here about 
ten years and in that time laid the foundations of the church in 
what now is the city. In 1840 Rev. George W. Reardon was ap- 
pointed to the care of Springfield, and about this time land was 
secured for the purposes of a church building. A few years 
later additional land was bought, and in 1846 Father Reardon 
purchased the old Baptist meeting house and caused it to be 
removed from Mulberry street to Union street, where it was 
remodeled, repaired and became the first Catholic church in 
Springfield— St. Benedict's church— dedicated by Bishop Fitz- 
patrick February 14, 1847. 

The Catholic people of Springfield had occupied the Union 
street building less than fifteen years when there came a demand 
for more room. The opening of the Western railroad, followed 
soon afterward by the construction of another road through the 
valley, with Springfield as a central point of operations, natu- 
rally had the effect to bring many Catholics to the town, vdth 
result in taxing the capacity of the church building. Father 
Gallagher, who then was in charge of the parish, enlarged the 
edifice to a seating capacity of 800, but this answered a tempo- 
rary purpose only, and in the nieantime the worthy priest was 
casting about in search of a favorable location for a new build- 
ing. In January, 1860, he made the first purchase at the corner 
of State and Elliott streets, folloAved that transaction with sev- 
eral others of like character until he had invested in land the 
then unusual sum of $34,750 and had acquired a tract 300 feet 
wide on State street and extending north on Elliott street more 
than 700 feet. So much of this tract as was necessary for his 

( 308 ) 

The Cathedral, Springfield 


purposes Father Gallagher retained and sold the remainder at a 
good advance above its cost. 

On the State street front of this lot in July, 1860. Father 
Gallagher began the work of building a church edifice. He had 
planned to build a large parish church, at a cost of about $75,000, 
but he in fact built a splendid diocesan cathedral, one of the 
most beautiful edifices of the kind in Western Massachusetts. 
The finished building was opened for services December 27, 1861, 
and on September 28, 1867, less than ten years later, the church 
of St. Michael was consecrated by Rt. Rev. John Williams, 
Bishop of Boston. In 1870 Springfield was made an episcopal 
see and on September 25 of that year Rev. P. T. O'Reilly was 
consecrated first bishop of the new diocese. Then St. Michael's 
church became St. Michael's cathedral. It is of brick and stone 
construction, 105 feet wide at the transepts, 175 feet long, with 
a spire towering 190 feet above the State street level. 

Upon the accession of Bishop O'Reilly, Rev. Patrick Healy 
was appointed vicar-general of the diocese, and Rev. James J. 
McDermott was called to the rectorship of the cathedral. Bishop 
O'Reilly died May 28, 1892, and on October 18 following Rev. 
Thomas D. Beaven, pastor of the Holy Rosary church of Hol- 
yoke, was consecrated as his successor. 

The pastors of St. Benedict's church (1846-64) were Rev. 
George Reardon. Rev. John Julius Dougherty and the Rev. 
Michael P. Gallagher. The succession of pastors of St. Michael's 
is as follows : Rev. Michael P. Gallagher, 1864-69 ; Rev. Pat- 
rick Healy, 1869-70; Rev. James J. McDermott, 1870-74; Rev. 
Charles E. Burke, 1874-83 ; Rev. William Goggin, 1883-86 ; Rev. 
Garrett H. Dolan, 1886-88; Rev. B. S. Conaty, 1888-97; Rev. 
Edward S. Fitzgerald, January 24, 1897— the present pastor. 
The regularly appointed curates of St. Michael's parish have 
been Revs. Thomas 'Sullivan, Miles O'Reilly, P. B. Phelan, 
Charles Burke, AVilliam Goggin, Garrett Dolan. William Power, 
John Fagan, Levi Achim, Edward S. Fitzgerald. John P. Mc- 
Caughan and Michael A. K. Kelly. 

>S'^. Matthew's Church— Mass is said to have been read to 
the Catholic families in Indian Orchard as early as 1846 by Rev. 

( 310 ) 


Father Reardon, and in 1850 snch service is known to have been 
held by Father Blenkinsop, of Chicopee, in the cloth mill of the 
old Indian Orchard company ; but it is not understood that regu- 
lar visits to this part of the town were made much earlier than 
1864, when Father Healy built St. Matthew's church. For eight 
years the church was attended from Chicopee, and in 1878 a resi- 
dent pastor was appointed for the parish in the person of Rev. 
J. F. Fitzgerald, then curate of the Sacred Heart church. The 
subsequent pastors have been Rev. John Kenney, nine years, and 
William J. Power, who began his work here in 1889. 

Sacred Heart ChurdiSo rapid was the growth and out- 
spreading of the influence of the Catholic church in the years 
immediately folloAving the close of the war of 1861-65, that a 
division of St. Michael's parish became necessary. Upon the 
death of Father Gallagher, Father Healy took charge of the 
church and he soon learned the need of a new parish in the 
north part of the city. Accordingly he purchased a tract of land 
at the north end, and when Father McDermott was appointed 
rector of the mother church he increased the area of the tract by 
the addition of the site of the present school and convent. When 
the division was accomplished in 1873 Father McDermott, then 
rector of the cathedral, was given charge of the new parish, and 
said his masses in the school building on Everett street, which 
was used as a parish chapel until the completion of the church 
building in 1896. The school and chapel were dedicated in 1874. 

Father McDermott was an earnest and prudent organizer 
and worker, a thorough believer in education and a worthy 
pastoi'al head of a church. He first secured the land, then the 
school, and the year 1887 found his parish free from debt and a 
good balance in the treasury. He then began work on the 
church building. The corner-stone of the handsome brownstone 
structure w'as laid October 21, 1888, but the good priest did not 
live to see the completion of his work, for he died in Paris, July 
26, 1891, while travelling in search of health. He was succeeded 
by Father Smyth, who took up the work of his predecessor with 
commendable zeal and on October ]8, 1896, the finest parish 
church in New England was dedicated by Bishop Beaven. In 

( 311 ) 


1895 Father Smyth built a chapel in Brightwood where mass has 
since been said on Sundays and holydays. 

The rectorship of the Sacred Heart church has had but two 
incumbents. Fathers McDermott and Smyth. The curates ap- 
pointed to this parish are Revs. J. E. Fitzgerald, James J. Boyle, 
M. J. Howard, J. J. Fallon, Austin 'Grady, Francis J. Reilly, 
M. J. Griffin, M. J. Tyrrell and M. Z. Boyne. 

St. Joseph's Church — After two ineffectual attempts to 
found a parish for the benefit of the French-Canadians of 
Springfield, the work was successfully accomplished by Father 
Louis Gagnier in 1873. He organized the parish and said his 
first mass on March 9 of that year in the city hall. Then he 
began the equally arduous task of creating a fund for the pur- 
chase of a site and the erection of a church building. The base- 
ment of the present St. Joseph's church on Howard street was 
ready for occupancy in June, 1873, and was used for church 
services until the completion of the superstructure in 1877. 
When organized the parish numbered 1,460 persons; now the 
number is more than 3,300. The large parochial school building 
was erected in 1897-8 and was dedicated by Bishop Beaven on 
May 8 of the latter year. The Sisters of the Holy Cross have 
charge of the school, which is attended by about 400 children. 

St. Aloysius' Church — The parish of this church was organ- 
ized March 3, 1873, for the especial welfare of the many French- 
Canadian families who then were settled in Indian Orchard and 
its locality. The Indian Orchard Mills company donated a lot 
for a church building and the structure was ready for occupancy 
on Christmas day, 1873, when the first pastor. Rev. Louis Gag- 
nier, said mass. During Father Boudouin's pastorate the con- 
vent building was erected as a cost of $10,000. St. Aloysius' 
parish numbers about 2,500 Catholics. The rectors have been 
as follows : Rev. Louis Gagnier, 1873-76 ; Rev. H. Landry, 
1876-86 ; Rev. Charles Crevier, 1886-90 ; Rev. Clovius Boudouin, 
1890-1897 ; Rev. J. E. Marcoux, 1897-1901 ; Rev. Edmund Gra- 
ton, the present rector. 

( 312 ) 



Memorial C'liurcli — On the silver plate deposited under the 
corner-stone of the j\Iemorial church is this inscription: "From 
love to God and good-will to man, a company of believers, who 
profess faith in Christ, the Saviour of mankind, by the aid of 
the Churches of Spring-field, and other friends of the enterprise, 
build this house of worship for the Memorial Church." 

"This Church, constituted by the fellowship of Christians 
of diffei'ent denominations, was organized October 29, 1865, and 
named the 'JNIemorial Church' in memory of the deceased min- 
isters of Christ in New England.'' 

Tlie Memorial church has been one of the institutions of 
Springiield for more than thirty-five years, yet there are many 
pei^sons in the community who do not understand its origin, char- 
acter and purpose. As has been stated, the church was organ- 
ized in October, 1865, and was recognized by an ecclesiastical 
council of the neighboring churches. For the information of all 
who seek to learn something of the character and quality of the 
church the following declaration of the founders will be found 
of interest : 

"Believing that the interests of religion require the forma- 
tion of a Church in Ward One, we. a company of believers who 
profess faith in Christ and acknowledge Him to be the Saviour 
of mankind, to effect this purpose, in connection with the Society 
W'hich has been formed to build a house of worship in said w^ard, 
do hereby organize ourselves into a Church of Christ. ' ' 

"In love to the memory of the deceased ministers of New 
England, this Church shall be called the Memorial Church." 

"Love to God and good will to men shall be our bond of 

"This Church shall be Congregational in its form of gov- 
ernment and discipline, in accordance with the legal interests of 
the Society with which it is connected. It will seek the rela- 
tions of Christian fellowship with other evangelical churches, by 
the mutual transfer of members, by ministerial exchanges, by 
sacramental communion, by mutual councils, and by all suitable 
modes of co-operation." 

( 313 ) 


On the first anniversary of the organization of the church, 
Oct. 29, 1866, these resolutions were adopted : 

"Believing that an organized company of believers in Jesus 
Christ, and who acknowledge Him to be the Saviour of man- 
kind, form and constitute a Christian Chui'ch : that a Congrega- 
tional Church is one which vests all ecclesiastical power in a com- 
pany thus organized, and that the Holy Catholic Church is the 
universal Christian brotherhood ; therefore, 

" Resolved, That the Memorial Church of Springfield, having 
declared in its creed its belief in the Holy Catholic Church, wel- 
comes to its membership and communion all who love the Lord 
Jesus Christ in sincerity and trutli. and wlio agree with it con- 
cerning the essential doctrines of the Christian religion, by what- 
ever name they may be called." 

"That the success of the Church upon this basis during the 
first year of its history— a success which has brought at least 
five denominations into happy communion of personal feeling 
and action— is our sufficient justification for reaffirming this 
basis as a ground of Christian liberality, a guide to a wise and 
sound policy, and especially as the true basis for organized 
Christian effort in the Avard in which our church is located." 

On the second anniversary, Oct. 27, 1867. this declaration 
was made by the church : 

"Whereas, the INlemorial Church, in its plan of organization, 
declares that it will seek the relations of Christian fellowship 
with other evangelical churches by the mutual transfer of mem- 
bers, etc., 

"Resolved. That in its action in pursuance of these prin- 
ciples, it does not intend to merge itself in any denominational 
organization. ' ' 

Throughout the period of its history the Memorial church 
has been governed in accordance with the declarations of its 
founders, and during that same period also it has become recog- 
nized as one of the leading influential religious bodies in New 
England. The church property is conveniently and delightfully 
located at the southern slope of Round hill, and the edifice is one 
of the most attractive structures of its kind in the region. It was 

( 314 ) 


completed and opened for worehip in March, 1869, and cost 
$100,000, all of which simi was paid long ago. In November, 1888, 
and again in January, 1889, the pastor called attention to the 
great need of a parish house in connection Avith the constantly 
increasing work of the church. Soon after this (ieorge M. At- 
water. one of the founders of the church, contributed $5,000 to- 
ward the parish house fund, and on the veiy same day John H. 
Southworth donated an equal sura for the same purpose. In 
January, 1891, Mrs. Catherine H. Lombard sent the pastor a 
check for $5,000 in aid of the enterpi'ise. and hiter on in the year 
Harriet B. Hitchcock gave the land for the building, in memory 
of her father, Daniel Hitchcock. Other substantial contributions 
to the fund were made, and on April 17, 1895. the splendid par- 
ish house on North Main street was dedicated, free of debt. The 
entire expense of its construction, exclusive of the land, was 
about $37,000. 

During the period of its history the Memorial church has 
had one minister and two pastors. Rev. Mark Trafton, D. D., 
supplied the pulpit for one year from April 1. 1867. Rev. Wil- 
liam T. Eustis. D. D., the first pastor, was installed June 3, 1869, 
and died in office March 30, 1888. Rev. John L. R. Trask, D. D., 
the second and present pastor, began his ministry here October 
1, 1888. and was installed pastor December 13 of that year. 


First Presbyterian Churcli — This church dates its history 
from 1895, when about a dozen Scotch Presbyterians and about 
40 former members of the Park Congregational church organized 
a society and church according to the Presbyterian form of gov- 
ernment and worship. From an original membership of 55 the 
number is now increased to 170 persons. The house of woi*ship 
is located at the corner of State street and Concord terrace. The 
first pastor was Rev. William Hart Dexter, who was succeeded 
in January, 1899, by Rev. Stanley G. Tyndall, the present 

Among- the otlier and perhaps more recently organized 
church societies of the city mention nmy V)e made of the German 

( 315 ) 


Evangelical Lutheran church, organized in 1889, with a house 
of worship located on King street, near Walnut street; the 
Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Bethesda church, organized in 
1891 and incorporated in 1892, the house of worship being on 
Union street, near Main street; the Church of Christ (Disciples), 
organized in 1895, and having a church home on South Main 
street; the Church of the New Jerusalem (Second Advent), 
which dates its history from the year 1853 ; the Advent Chris- 
tian church, and also the Seventh Day Advent society, both 
among the recently organized religious societies of the city ; and 
the Jewish synagogue, at No. 2-1 Gray's avenue. 

( 316 ) 




Introductory. — One school of historians would teach us that 
the evolution of a community is determined by man, — that the 
ultimate source of history is the human will; another school 
would teach us that the physical environment of a community 
determines its history. Each school teaches a partial truth. 
AVhile Ave must admit that the history of our town has been de- 
termined mainly by the personal qualities of its citizens, we may 
not pass unnoticed their physical environment. 

Pliysiography. — The central part of the township is an al- 
luvial valley extending six or seven miles from east to west. It is 
from two to three miles in Avidth. The steep banks or bluffs bor- 
dering this valley and separating it from the surrounding plains 
are generally about seventy feet in height. Prom the brow of 
these banks, the Avidely spread dwellings, embowered in elms and 
maples, the steeples of the churches rising above the trees, the 
broad meadows divided by the wandering streams, the back- 
ground of Avestern hills and the serrated range on the east, pre- 
sent a scene beautiful and picturesque. There is a tradition that 
this valley Avas once so Availed by the Holyoke range on the east 
that it Avas the bed of a lake, and that by the giAnng Avay of this 
range at the place of the outlet, or by gradual erosion the lake 
Avas drained ; but geological facts do not substantiate this theory. 

Geologists tell us that in the remote past, a bay or estuary 
several miles in Avidth extended north from the ocean across Avhat 
is noAV Connecticut and Massachusetts in the direction noAV 
marked by the Connecticut river. Material brought into this bay 

( 317 ) 


from the north and from the Appalachian elevations on the west, 
helped to fill it. The Westfield river seems to have furnished its 
contribution so long as it discharged its waters into this bay. 
Later, tlie northern part of the continent as far south as the for- 
tieth parallel of latitude was covered with glaciers, moving from 
north to south. That the channel of the Westfield river among 
the western highlands existed previous to the glacial period, is 
asserted by geologists, who find that the large glacier moving 

Park Square. Westtiekl, in Suniuier 

south along what is now the Connecticut valley, sent a lateral 
branch westerly' some distance into the channel of the Westfield 

As the huge mass of the glacier moved in a southerly direc- 
tion it wore away the red sandstone underlying it, in Massachu- 
setts, comminuted it to be borne by the glacial streams and de- 
posited in beds now hard and compact and known as the Port- 

( 318 ) 


land red sandstone of Connecticut, so generally nsed in buildings 
throughout the valley. Other results than the abi-asion of the 
red sandstone are to-day evident in the broad plains which bor- 
der the alluvial portion of the valley and which are composed 
of sands, clays and pebbles belonging to drift. The hard trap 
rock of the Holyoke range and of other elevations, could not, like 
sandstone, be easily worn away ; hence it now stands boldly above 
the plains. 

So long as the Westfield river, as it emerged from its channel 
among the western hills, met the waters of the estuary or mingled 
with the underflowing waters of the glacier, contributing its silt 
to the upbuilding of the valley, its water would take a southerly 
course from the present site of Westfield to the sea. The Con- 
necticut and its tributaries have cut out of the plains formed by 
glacial action, the alluvial basins. 

The present easterly course of the Westfield river through 
the towns of Westfield and West Springfield, may have been ow- 
ing to a considerable depression or opening in Holyoke range 
that runs north and south near the dividing line of these towns, 
-or to terminal moraines deposited by the receding glacier not 
farther south than the town of Southwick. 

It will be admitted that one of the many shallow lakes that 
the glaciers, as they melted, left in New England, may have 
rested, though at a much higher level, where the village of West- 
field now stands, but that the present alluvial valley was the bed 
of a lake no geologist can admit. 

Whatever may have determined the easterly course of the 
river across the glacial plain, there is no reasonable doubt that 
the long alluvial valley, that now forms so large a part of the 
township of Westfield. is the work of the Westfield river and its 
tributary. Little river. One evidence that this valley was formed 
by the erosion of these streams is the fact that it is a terraced 
valley such as rivers are now making wherever they are flowing 
through a yielding soil, and in beds that are gradually finding 
a lower level. The more sinuous the course of a stream the great- 
er the lateral erosion. As a river erodes its concave banks it de- 
posits on its convex banks, forming alluvial flats at length raised 

( 319 ) 
















as high as the tiood waters build. When a river is continually 
deepening its channel, it is evident that the alluvial flats last 
formed will be at a lower level than those formed at an earlier 
period. The result is a terraced valley. 

Another evidence that the rivers now flowing in this valley 
have made it, is the fact that by digging down a few feet in any 
part of it, one will come upon the rounded stones and pebbles 
of an old river bed. The way in which the rivers widen the 
valley is evident to any one who will observe how Little river is 
cutting away the bordering bluff, below the railroad bridge which 
crosses this river. 

Before the coming of the white man, the alluvial soil of this 
valley, cleared every spring by fires set by the Indians, was 
adapted to produce an abundance of maise, grass and other 
crops. The streams abounded with fish. The time is not far re- 
mote when shad and salmon Avere plenty in these streams. Their 
smooth surfaces were often rippled by the scurrying water fowl 
and along their banks the otter, the mink, the beaver, and other 
fur-bearing animals made their homes. The forests that covered 
what are now for the most part plains, to the north and to the 
south, and the hills on the west, furnished attractive and profit- 
able hunting grounds. 

The bordering blufts near tlie open fields of the valley above 
the reach of the occasional floods, we can readily imagine, were 
favorite camping grounds of the Indians. It is not strange that 
they called the region AVauwunockoo, which is said to mean, ''it 
is fat hunting. ' ' This name like other Indian names took various 
forms in the records ere the permanent form Woronoco was 
evolved. From this Woronoco valley, radiated the Indian trails 
as now radiate the highways from the town along the banks of 
the streams to the mountain valleys on the west, toward the Con- 
necticut on the east, and across the then wooded plains that 
stretched away to the north and to the south. .The routes of 
many of the colonial roads were first surveyed by the Indians in 
locating their trails. They little dreamed of the busy highways 
and the iron tracks that were to follow the courses they had 

31-2 ( 321 ) 



The first white men who made a temporary abode in this 
region seem to have been attracted by the opportunities to trade 
with the Indians for beaver skins and other furs. It is impossi- 
ble to trace the routes, to locate the stopping places, or to deter- 
mine the times of these early pioneers. 

Controversy tvith Connecticut. — In 1641, as shown by the 
Colonial records, the general court of Massachusetts, finding that 
the people of Connecticut had encroached upon the domain of 
the Massachusetts Bay, wrote them as follows : 

*'It is greivos to us to meete with any occation that might 
cause difference to arise betweene yor people & us, standing in 
so near relation of friendship, neighborhood & Christianity, espe- 
cially; therefore or study is (when any such arise) to labor the 
removing of them upon the first appearance. Now, so it is, that 
we have been certified that you have given leave to some of yors 
to set up a trading house at AVoronock, wch is knowne to bee 
wthin or patent, lying as much or more to the north than Spring- 
field. Wee heare also, that you have granted to Mr. Rob't Sal- 
tonstall a great quantity of land, not far beneath Springfield, 
Avch wee apphend to bee an injury to us, & do us such right in re- 
dresse hearof as you would expect fro us in a like case. 
Wee suppose wee shall not need to use other argumts ; wee know 
to whom wee wright. Wee have thought meete upon these occa- 
tions to intimate further unto you that wee intend (by God's 
help) to know the certeinty of or limits, to the end that wee may 
neither intrench upon the right of any of or neighbors, nor suf- 
fer orselves & or posterity to bee deprived of what rightly be- 
longeth unto us, wch wee hope wilbe wthout offence to any ; & 
upon this wee may have some ground peeeding in or further 
treaty wth you about such things as may concerne the welfare of 
us all. These things wee leave to yor consideration, & shall ex- 
pect yor answear. In the meane time wee rest." 

The immediate occasion of this letter was the fact that Gov- 
ernor Hopkins of Hartford had obtained a grant of land, and, in 
16-40, had established a trading house at "Woronock." 

( 322 ) 


Sayhrook Fort. — At a still earlier period the people of Con- 
necticut claimed a certain jurisdiction over Springfield, even, as 
well as the territory lying west. In 1635, John Winthrop, son of 
Governor AYinthrop of Massachusetts, came from England having 
a commission from Lord Say and Lord Brook appointing him 
governor in Connecticut. Two thousand dollars were given him 
for the purpose of erecting a fort at the mouth of the Connecti- 
cut river. He built the fort and named it Saybrook fort, fitting 
it up Avith an armament he brought wath him from England. 

Not unlike a mediaeval baron who built his castle on a rocky 
battlement overlooking a highway leading through a mountain 
pass and levied toll under the excuse of protecting those who 
passed by. so all vessels passing up the river were now required 
to pay toll. Settlers from Massachusetts Bay in Windsor, Weth- 
ersfield and Hartford to avoid a contest paid the toll. Springfield 
refused to pay. Hence arose the most serious controversy that 
ever occurred betAveen the two colonies. The general court of 
Massachusetts when appealed to for protection responded 
stoutly in defence of Springfield. In 1644, when the Connecti- 
cut settlements bought the fort, they included in the purchase all 
claims against Springfield for unpaid tolls. When these claims 
were urged upon the attention of the commissioners of the 
united colonies their decision was long deferred until the commis- 
sioners from Massachusetts refusing to act, the others decided in 
favor of the claimants ; but Springfield stubbornly refused pay- 
ment. Massachusetts, siding strongly with Springfield, retaliated 
by attempting to levy toll upon all vessels of other colonies enter- 
ing the harbor of Boston. The colonies would not endure this, 
and to prevent the breaking up of the union of the colonies, the 
measure was Avithdrawn. The claims of Connecticut for tolls still 
remain unpaid. 

The boundaries of Springfield were from time to time so ex- 
tended as to include a good share if not all of the territory after- 
Avards known as Westfield, and that of several other towns. In 
1647, the general court issued the following order: 

"It is ordered by this Court, that Woronoko upon Connecti- 
cut Kiver Avthin ys jurisdiction, shall be, and be reputed as a 

( 323 ) 


part of ye towne of Springfield, & liable to all charges there as 
other pts of the same toune; vntill errecting some other planta- 
tion more eonvenieut, it shall be thought fitt by ye Court to 
annex it to such new plantation." 

Holland tells us that "at the May court, 1662, certain gentle- 
men who appear to have belonged in Windsor and Dorchester, 
presented a petition, representing themselves to be much in want 
of land, and asking for a tract six miles square at Woronoco,to be 
joined with the farms of 'the late much honored Maj.-Gen. Ather- 
ton and Capt. Roger Clapp of Dorchester,' to whom it appears 
grants had previously been made by the court. The petition was 
signed by fifteen individuals. The deputies voted to grant the 
petition, and decreed that the farms alluded to should belong to 
the plantation, in respect to public charges, and that 4he order 
for Woronoeo henceforth to lie to Springfield should be void;' 
provided the petitioners should settle themselves and a minister 
within three years ; otherwise the land was to belong to Spring- 
field until a plantation should be settled there. . . . But this 
scheme seems to have entirely miscarried, as no considerable set- 
tlement occurred there until 1666, and among those who held 
titles confirmed by a residence of five years, thereafter, the name 
of but one of the petitioners can be found, viz., George Phelps, 
who emigrated from Windsor. The first settlers were from 
Springfield, Windsor, and Northampton. ' ' 

First Settlers. — Ensign Thomas Cooper seems in 1658 to 
have received the first grant of land in Woronoeo from the town 
of Springfield. It was located ' ' on the northeast side of Worro- 
noke River, to wit., betwixt the brook called Tomhammucke and 
the river called Worriuoke River, from the mouth of the said 
River Tomhammucke, and soe up, soe high towards Pochasuck as 
until he cometh to the hill AVasapskotuck. " This grant in- 
cluded, it would seem, most of the alluvial lands on the north 
side of the Westfield and extended from Brass or Prospect hill 
on the west to the stream flowing from Springdale mills on the 
east. Across tlie east part of this tract, after 1664, passed the 
road from Northampton to Windsor. 

In 1660. March 13, "There is granted to Samuel a 
piece of land at Woronoeo, being between twenty and thirty 

( 324 ) 


acres 'lying on the east side of the second brook, that is on this 
side of Thomas Cooper's farm there and is to be bonnded by the 
hill on the north and the river on the south, provided those lands 
shall be considered by the court to belong to this toAvn and he 
purchase the said land of the Indians, and he is not to hinder 
passage through it to other lands beyond it.' " 

This grant from Springfield recognized, as did other origi- 
nal grants, the OAvnership of the Indians. Those to Avhom lands 
were originally granted, Avere to purchase them of the Indians, 
in order to obtain a complete title. 

Judging from the records and traditions, Walter Lee, John 
Sackett, and George Saxton were the first permanent settlers on 
the north side of the Westfield river. The site of Mr. Sackett 's 
house is still shown. He is believed to have been the ancestor of 
those of the name who have since resided in Westfield. Benja- 
min, the son of George Saxton, who lived for a time on the part 
of the Northampton and AYindsor road running from the pres- 
ent road from Westfield to Springfield, to the hamlet. Little 
river, was the first child born among the settlers of Westfield. 
He was born in 1666 and was among the first to give proof by his 
life in Westfield that it is a place favorable to longevity. He 
died at the age of eighty-eight. 

As the old Indian fort was said to have stood on the south 
side of the Westfield river near its confluence Avith Little river, 
the area between the rivers Avas called the fort side. This name 
may have been perpetuated because part of the area AA'as fortified 
after a time by palisades. The land lying north of the Westfield 
river AA'as called the north side and that south of the river but 
east of Little river, the south side. 

Forests and Glades. — We should be glad to have some pho- 
tographic vicAA's of the lands on the AVestfield river, as they Avere 
before they AA-ere occupied by AA'hite men. but no man used a cam- 
era in those days. The best lands Avere annually cleared by the 
Indians in many places by kindling fires in November that con- 
sumed leaves, underbrush and dead limbs on the ground. A Mr. 
Graves, writing in 1629, says, the country "is very beautiful in 
open lands mixed Avith goodly Avoods and again open plains, in 

( 325 ) 


some places 500 acres, some more, some less, not much trouble- 
some to clear for the plough." "The grass and weeds grow up to 
a man's face; in the low^ lands and by fresh rivers abundance of 
grass and large meadows without any tree or shrub.'' 

There was plenty of land ready for the plow. The fires of 
the Indians had swept widely. The uplands bordering the low- 
lands Avere often thinly covered Avith trees, and the dense forests 
beyond the reach of the meadow fires were generally free from 
underbrush, so that hunters and companies of soldiers mounted 
or on foot easily penetrated the forests in all directions. Owing 
to the annual burnings good timber in some of the river towns 
was not as plenty as has been supposed. Westfield was better 
provided than Springfield. The western hills were nearer. 
Springfield voted in 1647 "that no timber, boards, planks, shin- 
gle-timber, nor pipe-staves should be carried- out of the town 
from the east side of the river. ' ' 

Worovoco Committee.— At a town meeting held at Spring- 
field, Feb. 7. 1664, Capt. John Pynchon, Nathaniel Ely, George 
Colton, Benjamin Cooley and Elizur Holyoke were chosen to be 
a standing committee "to have the sole power to order matters 
concerning the lands in Woronoco and for admittance of inhab- 
itants for that place and for granting of lands there or any other 
affairs that concern that place, and that may conduce to the set- 
tling the said towne. This committee to hold till the tOA\Ti see 
cause otherwise to order." 

This committee soon made grants to Capt. Aron Cooke, 
Thomas Day, John Ingersoll, Joseph Leeds, Moses Cooke, John 
Osborne, John Holyoke, David Ashley. Thomas Noble. Sergeant 
Stebbins, Samuel Mansfield, John Ponder. John Root, Benjamin 
Cooley, Hugh Dudley, and Thomas Orton. 

Jan. 9, 1667, the committee declared the lands of certain 
grantees "forfeited fully, unless they begin the work of settlers 
in fencing, etc." "It is ordered that Capt. Cooke, Thos. Dewey, 
John Williams, John Sacket, John Ponder, David Ashley and 
]\Ir. Cornish shall view the land to be fenced, and determine 
where the fence shall be set, what quantity there is, and where 
each man 's portion shall be, and this work to be attended to forth- 

( 326 ) 


"It is further ordered that all such as have lands granted at 
Woi'onoak shall meet there on Tuesday fortnight next, if the 
weather will allow, or the next fay re and fit day, to consider and 
agree about fencing and other matters of concernment, and if 
due notice to the persons concerned (that are now absent) then 
such as shall come may act and determine what tends to the 
speedy carrying on of the fencing and other necessary affairs." 

At a meeting of the committee for Woronoco, March 2, 1667, 
Thomas Noble, David Ashley and John Root made request that 
their home lots westerly from the Indian fort, may be each two 
rods broader for convenience in setting their fence, the ground 
of the present line being wet. At the same meeting George 
Fyler makes request for a home lot "on that side of the river 
by the Indian fort." 

Certain lands "on the north side of Woronoak river above 
the cellars" were granted. Also certain other lands were granted 
"on the south side of the river not yet disposed of, to Ambrose 
Fowler, George Saxton and Jonathan Alvord. " 

Among the various orders of the committee, March 13, 1667, 
is the order that the "gate by (John) Sacket's be well hung for 
the security of the field by the 25th of this inst. March and after 
yt time who ever shall leave open or not shut the gate shall pay 
5s to the use of the proprietors." 

This gate it is thought was a little east and south of the site 
of the Springdale mills, probably where the road from North- 
ampton to Windsor entered the common field. This road held 
its southerly course to the river, where there was a ford called in 
some of the old documents the "neck riding." The road then 
continued easterly along the south bank of the AVestfield river, 
until it approached the present site of the county bridge ; then 
it took the present course of the road running southerly from 
the bridge to the hamlet now knowai as Little river. Some- 
where across this road, perhaps where the road left the com- 
mon field as it proceeded to the south, another gate was hung. 
This was to be closed by those passing, under the same penalty, 
"for the security of the corn field." 

Division of Lands. —While a considerable tract was held as 

( 327 ) 


a common field it Avas found desirable to allot a home lot to each 
householder. Later the common field was divided. 

"At a meeting of the proprietors of land of Woronoak on 
the tfort side March the 13th, 1668, for laying out the propor- 
tions of land on the ffort side." 

''All the proprietors unanimously agree that for the most 
equall disbursing and dividing their generall portions of land, 
the land to be now laid out shall be divided into three parts, one 
part of it next to the ffort river shall be accounted or goe in lieu 
of meadow, where every man shall have his share, only Serg. 
Stebbins, Thos. Bancroft, & that whereas William Brooke's allot- 
ment are to have their shares (viz.) three acres (not these but) 
against their home lotts in the low land there, which is instead 
thereof, this for the first part or division of land which is ac- 
counted the meadow division. 

"Nextly the plowland is to lye in two divisions and every 
man to have his proportion in each Division of the plow land. 
And for the laying of men's land, that is the place where each 
man's portion of land shall lye, it is agreed that it be de- 
mined by casting lotts for it, every proprietor agreeing to ac- 
quiesce in that place where his lott shall fall. And for the be- 
ginning of the first division of plowland, it shall be at the lower- 
most or southeasterly side, there the first lot is to lye, & from 
thence to goe upward or Westerly. 

"The first lott came out to Thomas Gunn, who lyes next the 
river on the easterly syde of all the other lotts Avhere he hath 
seventeen acres, length 160 rod, breadth 10 rods at the front 
and 24 rods at ye west and besides this there is 2 rods broad al- 
lowed more to this lott for a high way downe to the river all the 
length of it." 

Then follows the description of the lots laid out (1) from 
the meadow land (2) from the first division of the plowland and 
(3) from the second division of the plowland. The names of the 
parties to whom these three divisions were severally apportioned 
bv lot are : 

( 328 ) 


14 No. 7 

Thomas Gunn 

David Ashley .. . 

John Ponders 

Sergeant Stebbins. 
Joseph Whiting . . 
William Brookes . 
Thomas Bancroft . 

Hugh Dudley 

Isaac Phelps 

George Phelps 

Thomas Eoot 

John Root 

Thomas Noble 





17 acres 


11 " 


11 " 


13 " 


16 " 


10 " 


11 " 


6 " 


10 " 


26 " 


8 " 


11 " 


13 " 






'S c *" 

5"- 3j 01 r. 




5- O C C8 

S. S— * :; 



u x,Z = y 


E^ c c.s 

6 acres 


4 " 


4 " 




6 " 






2 ' 


3 ' 


8 ' 


3 ' 


4 ' 


4 ' 


ir-C C fc- cs 

H ^ tH S O- 

9 acres 

The term "Hundred Acres" was applied to the lowlands 
south of Little river, between the Southwiek road and the rail- 
road running south from Westfield. 

"An account of the land called the hundred acres": 

Joseph "Whiting 16 acres 

Thomas Boot 7 acres 

Thomas Stebbins 3 acres 

Israel Dewey 6 acres 

Isaac Phelps 6 acres 

George Phelps 16 acres 

Hugh Dudley 5 acres 

John Ponder 7 acres 

Thomas Gunn 10 acres 

David Ashley 7 acres 

John Root 7 acres 

Thomas Noble 7 acres 

"18th Feb. 1668. Grants of land made by the town. John 
Sacket hath liberty to lay downe the five acres of boggy meadow 

*No allotment in this division, having received allotment adjoining home lots. 

t"Mr. Whiting's lot is wanting, the land not holding out any more in this 
place, and so he must have it some other where, which he chooseth in the 'Hun- 
dred Acres,' that parcell which remayns above the Uootes lot." 

( 329 ) 


and to take up five acres on that side of the river elsewhere so 
that it be not to the detriment of former grants. ' ' 
19th March 

1669. Sackett's creek is granted to Mr. Whiting & Da- 

vid Ashley, to set a mill theron to grind and also the land about 
the creek is granted them for a pasture. More granted them 
for encouragemt an hundred acres of land & liberty to choose it 
in two places. ' ' 


At a meeting at Woronoco the 21st of Jan.. 1668, it was 
''voted that James Cornish, George Phelps, Thomas Dewey, and 
Tho. Noble shall goe to Springfield the first Tuesday in Febru- 
ary next at a towne meeting, to propound to the town for the 
settlement of our place and affayres, in particular to determine 
where the lyne shall run betwixt Springfield and us and to ap- 
poynt persons to lay out the bounds granted us by the Honor 'd 
Genii Court and to allow us to be a township of ourselves and 
signify the same to the honored Genii Court etc. ' ' 

Springfield we find acquiesced in the wishes of the proprie- 
tors, so that later in the year, on the 11th of August, the settlers 
voted unanimously "that we will look out for a minister to carry 
on the work of God in this place." The record of this meeting is 
dated Streamfield, apparently the name first chosen by the set- 
tlers as they were about to organize the town. 

The preliminary order of the town of Springfield was as 
follows : 

" Springfeild, Att a Towne meeting ffeb. 2d, 1668. Uppon 
ye Motion of ye Inhabitants at Worronoco This Town being wall- 
ing to prmote & further their desire of being a Township of 
Themselves, (amongst other graunts to them did &g) Doe leave 
the Inhabitants there to themselves to mannage their o^^^l mat- 
ters, or as to Honnord Genie Corte shall further Order: And 
we hope the Corte will see cause to Order them to be a Township 
& that they through the favor of God may grow up into a com- 
fortable society, & bee a happy Neighbourhood to Us & Our 
ifriends & Theires. 

( 330 ) 


''This is a true Coppy of the Town Ordr vizt., soe much of 
it as is concerning the releasing of AVoronoco from Springfeild. 

"Taken out of ye Town Records 

"By mee Elizur Holyoke Recorder.'" 

vB. 112, P. 193.) 

The action of the general court was as follows: 

"There being a motion made to this Court in ye behalf e of 
ye Inhabitants at Woronoake belonging to Springfield, That they 
may be a Township of ymselves : Springfeild being willing there- 
toe as appeares by Coppy of an order of that Towne under their 
Recorders hand heretoe anexed. Leaving Woronoak to ymselves 
& referring ym to this Court : This Court (therefore) Doth here- 
"by Grant them to be a Township, <& allows them all Priviledges 
according as other Townes have in this Collony, And that ye Sd 
Towne be caller Westf eild : 

"The magists have past this their brethren the Deputys 
hereto consenting. 

28 May 1669. Edward Rawson, Secty. 

Consented to by the Deputyes. 

(B. 112, P. 193.) William Torrey Cleric." 

The boundaries of the township as determined by a com- 
mittee of the town of Springfield acting under the authority of 
the general court is as follows : 

Springfeild, April 14th 1670. 

Wee whose names are here subscribed being a Comittee ap- 
poynted by the Town of Springfeild for ye laying out of the 
quantityof Six miles Square graunted to Westfeild by the Hon- 
nord Genii Corte have attended the said Work and therefore doe 
hereby declare how Their said quantity of land shall lye, that is 
to say the said quantity of land is laid out to them five mile broad 
at ye Northerly end thereof extending from a pine tree marked 
at ye East Mountayne to a white oake marked at ye West Moun- 
tayne, & it runneth in length Southerly Nine Mile that is to say 
from the said Pine tree holding the course of the South South 
West poynt uppon ye Meridian compass : And at the Southerly 
•end of their Nine ]\Iile their limitts are ffoure miles broad West- 
ward : And the Ledge of Mouuta\Ties is to be the bounds between 

( 331 ) 


Springfeild & "Westfeild : Avthin this tract of land their is con- 
teyned the quantity of about three Square miles of land granted 
before by Springfeild to Westfeild, & about the quantity of Two 
square miles in reference to the farmes of the AVorthy Major 
Atherton deceased & Capt. Clapp. 

Elizur Holyoke George Coulton 

Samuell Marshfeild Rowland Thomas. 

The Deputyes approve of this returne sd Honor 'd magists 
Consenting thereto. 

William Torrey Cleric. 

The Magists Consent hereto. 

Edw. Rawson Secrety^ 
[Massachusetts Archives, vol. 112, page 201.] 

The general court required that Indians occupying land 
should be paid for the same in order that settlers might secure a 
complete title. We subjoin a copj' of the deed by which the In- 
dians made a transfer of a large tract of land lying between 
"Little and Great rivers." This deed was certified June 30, 
1669. and regarded, we believe, as just and as necessary a part 
of the conditions of possession, as the action of the general court 
or the action of the town of Springfield. 

These presants testifi That Alquat the Indian Sachem of 
waranoake and pochasuck for & in consideration of the sum of 
forty Pounds in english act being so much sterling to him in hand 
before ye sealing & Delivery hear of well & truly Payed by ye 
Capt John Pynchon of Springfield for & in behalf of Capt Aron 
Cook, Mr James Cornish Mr Joseph Whiting Geo Phelps Tho 
Noble David Ashley John Roote & other ye Inhabitants of war- 
ranoake alais AYestfield. The Recipt whare of the sd Alquat 
Doth Acknolidg by these presents and tharewith to be fully sat- 
isfyed & contented hath Given Granted Bargained & sold & by 
these presents Doth fully & clearlly and absolutely Give grant 
Bargain & sell unto Capt Aron Cooke Mr James Cornish Mr Jo- 
seph Whiting George Phelps Tho Noble David Ashley John Roote 
of Westfield alias waranoake aforsad For themselves and ye 
Present Inhabitants of ye aforsad Place or Plantation and theire 

( 332 ) 


successors & assignes from time to time & unto their hires For 
ever according as theire severall Proportions or Divisions shall 
be laid out & proportioned to them. A certain Parcel or tract of 
Land Meddo & wood Land lying & being at waranoake aforesad 
on ye south side of woranoake River ye greate River & on ye 
North or northerly side of ye Little River or Foart River adjoin- 
ing on ye southeast, East and North east on Land formerly 
Purched by Saml Marshfield of Springfield for the Inhabitants 
of Westfield aforesaid and on ye south and sou west on ye Little 
River affoar named comonly called the fort River on ye North or 
Northerly it is bounded by ye greate River called woranoak River 
& so Running up waranoak river to ye falls near about a mile 
above ye present Housen to a marked tree tliare and from that 
marked tree it runs off westerly or souwesterly upon a straight 
line to the Little River or fort River to a stone at ye Nooke or 
Poynt whare all ye good land ends & whare going up ye hill the 
pine plaine begins the sd common or Pine Plain being ye westerly 
or Northwesterly bounds of this tract of Land ye line of Division 
being run by several English going a long with ye Indian from 
ye f awls in the greate River over to that stone afore named which 
IS on the top of the hill by the Little River whare the Pine plaine 
begins To have and to hold all ye Parcel or tract of Land before 
mentioned containing severall Hundrid acres with all ye profits 
and apurtinances thareupon or thareunto belonging to the sd 
Capt Cooke James Cornish Joseph Whiting Geo Phelps Tho 
Noble David Ashley and John Roote for ye Inhabitnts of West- 
field aforsd according as Division thareof shall be made to them 
& their hires & assignees for ever only Reserving & Exemting 
oute of ye presant sale seven acres of Meddo Land for Wollump, 
son of sd Alquat. which seven acres resarved and exemted Lyes 
in a nooke by ye Little River & against land now Divided and 
Proportioned to Mr Joseph "VMiiting & is to be at the soul dis- 
pose of the sd Alquat & Wollump all so Reserving Liberty for 
Indians to fish & take foull and ye sd Alquat Doth covenant and 
premise to and with ye sd Capt Cooke James Cornish Mr Joseph 
Whiting Geo Phelps Tho Noble David Ashley & John Root that 
he will save them harmles from all manner of claim of any per- 

( 333 ) 


son or persons Lawfully claiming any right title or intrest in the 
premises otherwise than ye Reserve or exemption of ye seven 
acres aforesd for Wolhimp In witness whereof the sd Alquat 
hath hearnnto affixed his hand and seall this 30th day of June 

Subscribed sealed & Delivered in ye presence of Samuel 
Marshfield. "William Brooks Timothy Cooper John AYatson. 
the mark of Indian witnesses 

Wollump, his mark 

Wollamunt, his mark f 
The mark of Al 8 quat. 

Alquat ye indian Sachem acknowledge this instrument to be 
his act and deed this present 30th of June, 1669 before mee John 
Pynchon of Spring-field. 

Attested by me Isaac Phelps, ^' 

Town Clerk. 

(A true copy of ye original deed.) 

The First Town Center.— ^ear the confluence of Little and 
Westfield rivers was the central hamlet of the first settlers. There 
they built their first meeting-house, probably of logs, thirty-six 
feet square with fourteen feet posts. Those who had settled, some 
tAVO miles farther east in the hamlet now known as Little river, 
hoped, we are told, to have the building in their neighborhood. 
Those who had settled on the north side of the AVestfield river 
had like aspirations. The ' ' fort side ' ' was the most central. 

The wearing waters of the rivers, in spring time using ice 
for tools, 

"Mining the soil for ages," 
have cut aAvay much of the meadow terrace upon which the 
houses near the church were built, yet a part of the site of the 
first meeting house, selected in January, 1668, remains. 

The triangular plot thus occupied by houses and home lots, 
bounded on two sides by streams, Avas more easily defended than 
forest-bordered fields. Down the streams the settlers could float 
the logs needed for their rude buildings. On these streams also, 
before jealousies had hindered intercourse, came and went the 
canoes of their swarthy neighbors with whom they traded. In 

( 334 ) 


the winter the ice furnished convenient highways reaching far 
into the forest. At all seasons the waters, abounding in fish, were 
a storehouse of food. Nature seems to have designated this as 
a suitable place for the settler's home. According to tradition 
the Indians once had a fort here. 

Defenses against the Indians. — One or more houses were 
built as forts by the settlers and during the often 
recurring Indian Avars several were forted, i. e., the 
walls were made bullet-proof, ammunition and provisions 
were stored, and measures taken to extinguish fire in case the 
houses were set on fire by an enemy. Some of these forted houses 
Avere surrounded by palisades. These palisades Avere made by 
splitting sections of the trunks of trees of inoderate size in halves 
and so straightening and scoring the edges, that AA-hen they Avere 
set in the ground edge to edge they Avould form a continuous 
Avall or closed fence, not less than tAvo inches thick and eight or 
more feet high. The tops of the palisades Avere pointed. The 
palisades enclosing the central hamlet of AA^estfield are said at 
one time, during King Philip's and other Indian Avars, to have 
been about two miles in circuit. If one Avould trace the position 
of this Avooden Avall or fence, as it was at the close of Philip's 
Avar, let him leave Main street at its junction Avith MeadoAv 
street, and facing the east, turn to the left, follow the broAV of 
the meadoAv terrace ai'ound behind the Moseley house in its sinu- 
ous course till he reaches the bank of AA^estfield riA^er, thence 
along the bank of the river nearly or quite to the mouth of Little 
river, then along its bank until the brook that crosses Noble street 
is reached, then Avesterly along by this brook, at length turning 
from it by a curve to the north to reach our point of departure. 

It is evident if the course of the palisades has been correctly 
outlined, that betAveeii the Moseley house and the bridge over Lit- 
tle river, palisades once stood opposite to the entrance of Noble 
street close upon Avhat is noAV Main street. The Avestern gate of 
the enclosed area was not far from the Avest side of MeadoAv 
street at its junction with Main street. The brow of the terrace 
along AA'hich the northern line of the palisades ran Avas made 
doubly strong for defense by the steep bank that fell aAvay from 

( 335 ) 


the palisades and by the swampy land at its base. The high 
banks of the rivers also formed a fine rampart, rendering the 
palisades along the banks more effective. The area within the 
palisades is sometimes designated in the old records as "the 
fort." Owing to the fact that at times those settlers who could 
not avail themselves of the forted houses without the palisades,, 
were obliged to find places of abode by building within, it was 
called at times the place of compact dwellings. 

There seems to be no record in the town books of the setting 
up of these j^alisades, which constituted a general fort for the 
town. This, however, does not prove that no such action was 
taken, for early records of the town are incomplete; but per- 
haps the law of the general court, 1667. rendered the action of the 
town by vote unnecessary. This law authorized : 

"The committee of militia in every toune Avth the selectmen 
thereof, or the major part of them, to erect or cause to be erected 
within their tounes. either enclosing the meeting houses or some 
other convenient place, a fortiffication. or fort, of stone, bricke, 
timber or earth, as the places may be most capable, of such di- 
mensions as may best suite their ability and use ; in which for- 
tiffication the weomen, children & aged persons may be secured, 
in case of any suddaine danger, whereby the souldjers may be 
more free to oppose an enemy : for the effecting whereof, itt is 
here by ordered, that the trayned souldiers, both horse and ffoote, 
in every toune, vpon their trayning dayes, shall be imployed 
about building the syd fort at the guidance of the chiefe military 
officers of the toune ; and all others exempted from ordinary 
tra^^lings, who have estates or bodily abillity, that dwell in the 
toune, or belong to it, they shall also, according to proportion, 
contribute their help and assistance in bodily labour or other- 
wise, according as the comitee of militia and select men shall or- 
der and appoint." 

"Westfield, at the time of its settlement, was the town farthest 
west in Massachusetts. It has been said that Mt. Tekoa, now 
standing upon the western border of the town, continued to 
mark the boundary of Massachusetts and the limits of civiliza- 
tion so far as the homes of her people were concerned, until 1725. 

( 336 ) 


The rocky hills west of Tekoa, to those accustomed to the 
lowlands, the plateaus and the slopes of the valley of the Con- 
necticut, were undesirable as places of abode. When the sons 
and daughters of the early settlers of AVestfield sought new 
lands they went forty miles west and rested not until they 
found soil in the valley of the Housatonic as attractive as that of 
their early home. Another objection to the settlement of the 
part of ]\Iassachusetts Avest of Westfield was that New York, with 
its system of land rents, claimed the territory. The western 
boundary of the Bay State was long a matter of dispute. 

AYestfield, then, for half a century, was the most western 
town of the state ; and, in proportion to its number of inhabi- 
tants, had to do with a larger number of Indians than those 
dwelling in older towns. Greater caution was here needed in pro- 
tecting the families of the settlers. The first fort house, as well 
as those from time to time subsequently "forted. " was solidly 
built, the space between the outside and inside boarding of the 
walls being filled with material impervious to bullets. An am- 
ple cellar was the i-efuge of women and children wdien the fort 
was attacked. "Whenever the surrounding Indians were un- 
friendly or hostile, the strong palisade, extended as we have seen, 
nearly two miles in circuit, was guarded. 

In the stress of Philip's war, settlers vvho had ventured to 
make a home outside of the area enclosed by palisades, complied 
with the plans of a committee of the general court in 1667, re- 
quiring settlers to form more compact communities. The 
proprietors within the palisades agreed to break their lots and 
alloAV the outsiders to settle upon them. In payment for every 
acre so relinquished, two acres were received in outlying lots. 

Advantages of Village Settlements. — The clustering of 
dwellings in hamlets and villages, in the earlier days of New 
England, has had much to do with the development of the in- 
tellectual, religious and social life of her people and of their 
descendants, many of whom have settled in other parts of our 
land. The homes of the settlers were near the church building 
and the school house. In the church centered their religious life. 
In the school, then as now. children Avere trained to live and to 

22-2 ( 337 ) 


act together, to respect each other's rights, to submit to consti- 
tuted authority and to practice that self-control which is essen- 
tial to the existence of a free government. Dangers that threat- 
ened the very existence of their homes, fears that touched the 
stoutest hearts, made them one in sympathy, in endurance and 
in courage. The joys of peace, the rewards of victory they to- 
gether experienced. While the integrity of the family was 
stoutly maintained they lived so near to each other that the ques- 
tions of the day were constantly discussed. They found the say- 
ing true : 

' ' Truth like a torch, the more 'tis shook the more it shines. ' ' 

The strenuous endeavor imposed by deprivations and dan- 
gers challenged their heroism, and individual examples were not 
wanting to stimulate achievement. Each felt that he had some- 
thing to do in caring for his neighbors, each had a part in pro- 
moting the general welfare. The more thoughtful and religious 
were persuaded that a Divine Providence was guiding them and 
that they were commissioned to possess the land and to lay the 
foundations of social order for coming generations. 

The external evidences of this social and civic life, made 
glad "the wilderness and the solitary place." The improvements 
made in a house and its surroundings by one family stirred the 
emulation of another. The log houses, after a time, began to give 
place to better buildings. When at length there were no more 
wars with the Indians, when unmolested they could gather their 
harvests, householders vied with each other in building commodi- 
ous dwellings, having roomsof generous size, with broad fireplaces 
befitting the generous hospitality of the times. The few large 
country houses more than a hundred years old that yet remain 
in Westfield are stately reminders of the taste and the thrift of 
the forefathers. To-day there is a growing appreciation of the 
"colonial style" as appropriate for a country home. 

Lombardy poplars and other trees and shrubs brought 
across the seas, set along the borders of the ample front yards, 
seemed to link them Avith their English ancestry, while they pre- 
sented pleasing contrasts with the native trees and shrubs that 
seemed to glory in their superior power of enduring the vicissi- 
tudes of climate. 

( 338 ) 


The kindly rivalry in the attractiveness of the family home 
and its surronndiny-s \vhieh has given tlie New England village 
such an enviable reputation had its origin in the desire of the 
settlers to be near the church and school and in the necessity of 
protection against the wiles of treacherous foes. 

Summarizing the condition of the colonies in the Connecti- 
cut valley four years after the incorporation of Westfiekl, Hol- 
land says: "Fifteen hundred would doubtless be an extrava- 
gant estimate of the white population of the valley," in 1673. 
He reckons that the population of Westfield, Deerfield and 
Northfield taken together was probably from two to four hun- 
dred. Westfield was destined for some time to be the western- 
most settlement in the valley. For this reason it seemed less de- 
sirable as a place of settlement. For several years it contained 
only a few score of settlers. 

Bdation to ilie Indians. — The Indian inhabitants -were not 
numerous, though it is not easy to estimate the number in the 
valley or in the immediate vicinity of Westfield. The rights of 
the Indians were generally respected. The settlers bought from 
them the lands they occupied. The Indians were well treated. 
It Avas for their interest to keep the peace that their trade with 
the whites might not be interrupted. They managed their own 
aifairs, though when living in the neighborhood of a settlement 
it was their custom in this valley to look to the authorities main- 
tained in the settlement to administer justice. The records of 
these early times show that the settlers tried to be just to the In- 
dians as to their own people, consequently the Indians usually 
submitted to the verdicts of the settlers when penalties were vis- 
ited by the magistrates upon Indians who had wronged the Eng- 
lish. It was not uncommon for the magistrates in issuing a war- 
rant to arrest an Indian to give instructions to the constable to 
abstain from force. The Indians were allowed in several towns 
to place their clusters of wigwams on land owned by the town 
and to hold them unmolested. Under very reasonable conditions 
they were allowed in some towns to build forts upon town land. 

When the Indians in Pochasic complained that the English 
had allowed their cattle to injure the corn of the Indians, claim- 

( 339 ) 


ing damages, the court ordered the claims of the parties to be ad- 
justed according to the following agreement : 

' ' That the English there forever hereafter shall be free from 
doeing, making or maynteyning any finces about the Indians 
corne or lauds about Pochasick: In consideration whereof the 
English at Westfield are sometyme this next winter to pay the 
Indians twenty bush, of Indian corne and (between this and the 
next spring,) one hundred and twenty fadom of wampum, or ye 
value thereof. And that they shall cart for the Indians twenty 
load of fencing stuff, which fencing stuff the Indians are to get 
in places feazable for the carting: and the English having this 
performed, the Indians are to secure their own fields, or other- 
wise not to require anything of the English for damage etc." 

The records give evidence that it was the endeavor of the 
courts to mete out even-handed justice. The settlers used very 
stringent measures to keep firearms and liquor from the Indians. 
Yet the frequent and severe fines imposed did not avail to pre- 
vent sales. Fines were increased until in some cases £40 and 
more were paid. Whole townshijis were sometimes sold for less. 
Yet drunkenness became fearfully frequent, and so anxious were 
the Indians to obtain firearms that they found men unprincipled 
enough to accept the large prices they were willing to pay in ex- 
change for guns. This statement is found in the records of the 
court of Hampshire county for the year 1670 : ' ' The wof ul 
drunkenness of the Indians calls aloud to use the most laudable 
means to prevent that sin among them." Indians when sober 
must be guarded against, for many of them were treacherous and 
cunning. When intoxicated and possessed of fire-arms, the worst 
results might be apprehended. 

We have spoken of the fort erected in Westfield. As the 
settlement extended, fortified houses were built, to furnish 
outlying posts of defence and places of refuge for those 
living at a distance from the central fort. In every town 
a military organization Avas maintained, and men and boys 
above fifteen years of age were required to assemble several times 
in the year to receive military instruction and training. Delin- 
quents were promptly fined. Among the orders adopted at 

( 340 ) 


Springfield in 1639 occurs the folloAving: "It is ordered that 
the exercise of trayning shall be practised one day in every 
month ; and if occasion doe sometimes hinder, then the like space 
of time shall be observed another tyme, though it be two days 
after one another. And whosoever shall absent himself without 
a laAvful excuse, shall forfeit twelve pence, and all above fifteen 
years of age shall be counted for soldiers." Similar action was 
taken in other towns. 

In 1648, the New England colonies formed a union or 
league by which they made all wars, whether offensive or defen- 
sive, chargeable upon all the colonies in proportion to the male 
inhabitants between sixteen and sixty years of age. In 1644, a 
general military organization of the militia was provided for. 
The several companies of the militia chose their own officers ; but 
all officers higher in rank received their appointment from the 
general court. That religious qualifications were then regarded 
essential in public officers is evident in the selection of the first 
commander-in-chief, Thomas Dudley, "whose faithfulness," we 
are told, "and great zeal, and love for the truths of Christ, 
caused the people to choose him to this office, although he were 
far stricken in years." 

Events were at hand which were to tax the military re- 
sources, the courage and the endurance of the settlers to the ut- 
most. The commanding influence and large authority of Massa- 
soit, the chief of the Wampanoags, not only over his own tribe, 
but over neighboring petty tribes, proved a strong bulwark to the 
Massachusetts colonies from 1621 to the time of his death in 
1662— forty-one years. His two sons, Alexander and Philip, sur- 
vived him. Alexander held the position vacated by the death 
of his father, only one year, then Philip became the grand sachem 
of his tribe. He was the opposite of his father in nature and in 
his purposes. It is said that "for eight or nine years after the 
accession of Philip to the chieftainship, little is heard of him, 
save in business transactions with the English, involving the 
transfer of lands. During this time, however, and in these very 
transactions, he saw with prophetic forecast, the sceptre depart- 
ing from his hand and his land absorbed by strangers. During 

( 341 ) 


this time, too, his power had been increased by the acquisition 
of English arms and by the confirmation of friendly relations 
with the Narragansetts, established before the death of Massa- 
soit. Skilled beyond savage diplomacy in deception, possessing 
a mental power that, among the various tribes, carried mth it 
great influence, brave even to ferocity, jealous of the English, 
and ambitious in proportion to the strength of his intellect, it is 
not strange that, trampling upon treaties, he should conceive the 
design of annihilating the English settlements in New England." 

King Philip's War. — In 1675, only six years after the incor- 
poration of the town of Westfield, the storm that had been gath- 
ering burst upon the colonies. For three years the savages 
burned dwellings, sometimes destroying Avhole villages, slew 
men, w^omen and children, and threatened the utter destruction 
of the English and all they had wrought. The terror, the anx- 
iety, the suffering of the settlers in the valley of the Connecticut 
during this period no pen can describe. Those living in West- 
field, few in number, and forming a sort of outpost on the ad- 
vancing line of settlement, seemed most exposed to attack. Yet 
they held their ground, though frequently urged to fall back to- 
ward the more populous to\vns. Perhaps the newness of the set- 
tlement, which prevented the accumulation of stores and other 
things desired by the Indians, led them to leave "VYestfield com- 
paratively unharmed, while they plundered and burned most of 
the other towns in the valley within the limits of iNIassachusetts. 
Northfield was bounded on the north by the line of the state, 
W'hile Springfield was the to^^^l farthest to the south. Between 
these were Westfield, Northampton, Hadley, Hatfield and Deer- 
field. Springfield and Northampton were the older towns. The 
newer towns Avere composed largely of emigrants from the oth- 
ers. Farming was the business of the time, and when a new gen- 
eration came to manhood, finding the best lands along the river 
occupied, they felt the need of occupying new territory. 

As a result of the terrible devastation of the first year of the 
war, Deerfield and Northampton were abandoned, and the stress 
of the war was so severe in the eastern part of the state that the 
authorities could not easily decide what course to pursue. The 

( 342 ) 


council at Boston, limited in means, in need of men to complete 
the depleted ranks, finding it impossible to properly garrison the 
towns in the valley, planned to concentrate the settlements by 
having the inhabitants of other towns move to Springfield and 

The plan Avas proposed to the towns in a letter, dated March 
26, 1676, from Secretary Rawson to Major Savage, commander 
of the Massachusetts forces. The headquarters of the major 
were at Hadley, which seems at this time to have been more 
strongly fortified than Northampton. The letter, after setting 
forth the necessity of concentrating the inhabitants of the valley, 
adds : 

"Some that know those places best, do apprehend that 
Spring-field and Hadley are the fittest places for their fortyfying 
and planting." 

Another letter of similar import was addressed by Secretary 
Rawson to Major Pynchon of Springfield, dated March 20, 1676. 
As this letter concerned the people of Westfield we quote from it. 
The secretary, doubtless expressing the conclusions of the gov- 
ernor and council, says that he can see no other way, 

"But to come all together in some convenient p'ace in the 
town and take in so large a fort that the proprietors may live in 
distinct houses or shelters .... and Westfield must join 
with you, and totally remove to you, for 'lis impossible to hold 
both towns, the enemy being so many in those parts and our 
army must remove from them, we are assaulted on every side. 
Most of our frontiers are away off: our present 
work is to secure the principal towns upon the sea-coast : we can- 
not see how your people can remove at present, but must ride 
it out as best you can ; we speak not of particular persons but of 
the bodv of the people ; for whither will you go. or how will you 
remove Vour corn and goods? The like advice we have given for 
the other towns upon the river to come in all to Hadley and 
fortify it well, and there by united strength it may be kept, but 
otherwise all will be lost according to reason. Suppose the 
enemy should plant upon your deserted towns : it is hoped when 
the corn is grown we may have ability to destroy it. We must 

( 343 ) 


strengthen the heart. Ammunition is scarce here. If your people 
be averse to our advice, we must be necessitated to draw off our 
forces from them, for we cannot spare them nor supply them 
with ammunition. We have ordered the major to leave some of 
the garrison soldiers to strengthen you, if you are able to provide 
food for them." 

Northampton protested stoutly against removal to Hadley, 
and Westfield still more stoutly to removal to Springfield. 

A town meeting was held by the people of Westfield, and a 
committee chosen to show reason to the council Avhy the people 
of Westfield should not remove to Springfield. The letter of the 
committee which we quote was prepared by the minister, Rev. 
Edward Taylor: 
"Westfield letter 

3 Aprill Rec'd 

28 Aprill 76" 

Honrd CounciU: We Presume a Second time to trouble ye 
Worships with a few lines, ffor having cast orselves. upon ye 
Honored Counsells concerning or abiding here, or removing hence 
& for that End having faithfully represented our State unto 
you we were in Expectation of hearing yr advice. But at last 
perceiving yr thoughts by ye Order you gave unto Maj. Generall 
Savage the wch in pt ye have attended upon, viz., to gather op ye 
mindes of or town respecting or remoove where we made such 
an offer as this to any that should come to vs, that we would deny 
orselves to accommodate between f-wenty & thirty families of or 
Present tillage land if so many Avould come to vs & that during 
ye continuance of ye troubles : ye which in a town meeting was 
judged by all that we could do ; But when or Commitee, came 
to Consult with or Neighbour towns, although singly, & apart 
it was generally thought strange that Springfield should be 
judged a better. & more Convenient place for ffortification than 
AYestfield, they rather was silent, or moving for or remove to 
Springfield, the wch was & is altogether against or inhabitants, 
insomuch that there is not a man among vs hath any ye least in- 
clination to remove that way. & in that there is an intimation of 
such a thing in yr Honrd Order to ye Generall, as if Springfield 

( 344 ) 


&c : was fittest for It'ortification, with great respect vnto ye In- 
formation we cannot bnt take ye boldness as to intimate ye 
grounds of or thoughts to ye Contrary, as 1. Its Situation lying 
on both sides of ye great River Connecticut, whose East Side is 
voyd of habitations being but a very few left, & those a great 
distance asunder those on ye West side being scattered above a 
mile up & down some of which are hid with brambles, & as for 
its tillidge ground ye most being a great distance from ye town & 
not cleare from brush in some places of it &. to it, in so much as 
an indifferent person cannot but judge (as we suppose) yt ye 
Danger is double in mannaging ffield imploym'nt: to what ors is. 
2. Its Preparation, It is a Place (with grief e of heart be it 
spoken) most of ye East side in asbes, vnbuilt & vnfortified 
vnlese some few houses. 3. Its Providentiall Dispensation. It 
hath been sorely under ye blasting hand of God, So that it hath 
but in a lower degree than ordinary answered ye labour of ye 
Husbandman, & sometimes his labour on it is wholely cast away, 
now these thoughts are very discouraging vnto all thoughts of 
or removall thither, for to remove from Habitations to none, 
from ft'ortifications to none, from a Compact and plain place to 
scatter 'd, from a place of lesse danger in ye ffield to ye more, 
from a place under ye ordinary Blessing vpon ovr Labours to one 
vsually blasted, seems to vs such a strange thing that we finde 
not a man amongst vs inclining thereto, wherefore being by ye 
Honord Councill at Hartford, vpon address for strength from 
them, yt wth their own necessities could not dispence with, ad- 
viced not to desert ye place as yet, we are determined to draw in 
or out Garrison houses, and to Contract or ffortification into ye 
Compass of about 70 rodslong,yewich or thoughts are to ffortifie 
strongly and to keep with five flankers, and for this end ovr earn- 
est suit is that you would allow vs, if, it may bee a garrison of 
thirty souldiers, Ave are not without hope of gaining some Corn 
for our families as yet. But if you cannot allow any, then or 
present thoughts are that if we cannot have a safe Convoy from 
ye town to some place downward, it is judged that we had better 
abide here in or ffortification thus strengthened, and that al- 
tbough we have no help from abroad, with respect to or own 

( 345 ) 


safety than to go to Springfield. It grieves vs that we should ob- 
ject so much against Springfield for ye Worshipfull Maj'r 
Pynchou's sake. But we judge there is a better way for his safety 
than this, & although we would do much for his sake, yet we 
cannot adventure on this ground into such great hazzard as ap- 
pears. Here are some young men with vs its said Avould inlist 
themselves in Country service to garrison if they could be ad- 
mitted, whom necessity will force from vs if it cannot be. 

Ffurthermore, we are at ye Present altogether incapacitated 
for any removall, by reason of ye awfuU hand of God upon us 
in Personall visitations, for here came a souldier sick of ye 
Bloody fflux, and dying amongst vs in Capt. Cook's family, hath 
infected ye ffamily therewith in somuch that he hath 
lost a son of it, his AYife lies at ye point of Death his youngest 
son is very weak of it, and he him selfe is almost brought to his 
bed by it, & there is another ffamily in his house hath it. AVe 
hope yr "Worships will Pardon or teadiousness, & give or argu- 
ments a Patient hearing for surely it is against vs to say as we 
do, if great danger did not stare us in ye fface. The Good Lord 
Sanctifie. and deliver vs. We remain 

Yr Servants, & Suppliants 

ill the name of the Towne. 

Isaac Phelps, 
David Ashly, 

WestfieJch 3. 2//). 1676, Josiah Dewey. 

The letters from the council so vigorously met by protest bv 
the people of Northampton and by the people of AVestfield 
"show," as Trumbull, the author of the recent admirable history 
of Northampton has well said, ' ' that a state almost of panic pre- 
vailed among the leading men of the colony. Beset on all sides, 
the authorities knew not which way to turn. Needing their re- 
sources for the defense of the eastern towns, they must devise 
some means by which the valley settlements could take care of 
themselves. The most feasible method seemed to be that of union 
for a common defense. Such a concentration and abandonment 
of towns must have resulted in the entire removal of the English 
from the valley. This advice was injudicious and disheartening. 

( 346 ) 


Fortunately the proposition found no supporters, among those 
who were most immediately interested in the suggested movement. 
Strong, able and voluminous protests were showered upon the 
council. The authorities had misjudged the spirit of the settlers. 
They Avere not yet ready to give up all that they had toiled so 
hard, and suffered so much to gain. They refused to yield their 
homes, their land, and their household effects to the fury of the 
savage foe. Such a course, while it would greatly encourage the 
enemy, and proclaim the panic existing among the English, 
would also add impetus to the reported designs of the French, 
as shadowed by the statements of the Indians, that they intended 
to drive out the English and recolonize the country." 

If the battle of the French and English upon the Plains of 
Abraham adjacent to Qitebec in 1759 may be regarded as the 
Thermopylae of the occupancy of America by the English rather 
than by the French, the determined stand of the people of North- 
ampton and AVestfield may be reckoned as the Marathon. 

Events soon proved the wisdom of remaining at Westfield 
instead of moving to Springfield. October 5, Springfield was 
attacked and most of its houses burned. Owing to the destruc- 
tion of their corn mill, the people of Springfield resorted to West- 
field to have their corn ground. Fortunately for both towns, the 
mills owned by three Dewey brothers, Thomas, Josiah and Jeda- 
diah, and Joseph Whiting, on Two-Mile brook, the outlet of 
Congamond ponds, had been completed in 1672. These mills 
were on the AVindsor road, a mile or more west of the school- 
house at Little river. The Dewey grist mill was the first grist 
mill built in Westfield. 

The minister. Rev. Edward Taylor, noted some of the events 
of Philip 's war. He says, beginning in the year 1675, "but sum- 
mer coming opened a door unto that desolating war began by 
Philip, Sachem of the Pokoneket Indians, ^by which this handful 
was sorely pressed, yet sovereignly preserved, but yet not so as 
that we should be wholly exempted from the fury of war, for our 
soil was moistened by the blood of three Springfield men, young 
Goodman Dumbleton. who came to our mill, and two sons of 
Goodman Brooks, who came here to look after the iron on the 

( 347 ) 


land he had lately bought of j\Ir. John Pynchon, Esq. Who be- 
ing persuaded by Springfield folk, went to accompany them, but 
fell in the way by the first assault of the enemy made upon us, at 
which time they burned Mr. Cornish's house to ashes and also 
John Sachet's with his barn and what was in it, being the first 
snowy day of winter ; they also at this time lodged a bullet in 
George Granger's leg, which was, the next morning taken out by 
Mr. Bulkley, and the wound soon healed. It was judged that the 
enemy did receive some loss at this time, because in the ashes of 
Mr. Cornish's house were found pieces of the bones of a man 
lying about the length of a man in the ashes. Also in winter, 
some skulking rascals, upon a Lord's day, in the time of our af- 
ternoon worship fired Ambrose Fowler's house and barn; but in 
the latter end and giving up of winter, the last snowy day we 
had thereof, we discovering an end of Indians, did send out to 
make a full discovery of the same, designing only three or four 
to go out, with order that they should not assault them, but to 
our woe and smart, there going 10 or 12, not as scouts, but as 
assailants, rid furiously upon the enemy, from whom they re- 
ceived a furious charge, whereby Moses Cook, an inhabitant, and 
Clemence Bates, a soldier, lost their lives. Clemence in the place 
and Moses at night. Besides Avhich w^e lost none of the town, 
only at the Falls fight at Deerfield, there going nine from our 
toM'n, three garrison soldiers fell. Thus, though we lay in the 
very rode of the enemy, we were preserved, only the war had so 
impoverished us that many times we were ready to leave the 
place. ' ' 

During the first year of the war, and earlier. AYestfield and 
other towns in Western Massachusetts repaired and completed 
their lines of palisades. This work went on during the winter of 
1675-6, which is said to have been a mild season. The Indians 
seem to have retired beyond the northern boundaries of Massa- 

In March, 1676, we find the following action was taken : 
' ' The town considering the hand of God upon us in having or let- 
ting loose the Indians upon us, so that now we cannot carry on 
our occasion for liberty had as fonnerly : and considering that it 

( 348 ) 

THE To^y^' of westfield 

is not a time uow to advance our state, but tardy our rate of our 
former advantage, that so we may carry on something together 
for the good of the whole, that so by God's blesvsing on our labors 
we may be in a way of getting food for our families, therefore in 
•case the honored court laid not cost or repose, we agree to carry 
on as followeth : we agree to fence only the northeast field, 
. . . . and we agree to plow and sow and carry on the im- 
provements of this field in general; that is, such as shall agree 
hereunto as it shall be ordered by some men that we shall ap- 
point, who shall go out to work and who shall tarry at home from 
day to day; and if it shall please God to give opportunity to rate 
the long fit of labouring, men shall resume an equal proportion 
according to his family. Necessary public charges, [if] any, first 
charged. And the rest, if any man sow more seed than his pro- 
portion, he shall reserve that again in the first plan [place] . The 
men chosen to order the whole matter for service and farming 
are Goodman Ashley Seignoir and Goodman Gunn. We who 
agree hereunto do promise and engage to submit ourselves to the 
said proportion as witness our hands. 

George Phelps, Josiah Dewey, 

Thomas Gunn, Nathaniel Weller, 

Samuel Loomis, Thomas Dev^^ey, 

IsAACK Phelps, John Sacket, 

David Ashley, Edward Neal." 

The above record is obtained from what seems to be a record 
but partly understood by the one copying it into the present 
Tjooks of the town. Hence its ineohereney. 

The condition of affairs in the winter of 1675-6 was in "West- 
field most disheartening. Deerfield and Northfield, newer outly- 
ing towns like AVestfield, had suffered terribly and had been 
abandoned. However mild the early winter, later the cold was 
intense, and the snow was deep ; yet this may have helped to hold 
the Indians in their wigwams in the valleys of Vermont. The 
population, as Edward Taylor said, was but a "handful," prob- 
ably less than one hundred and fifty, possibly not over one hun- 
dred, all told. Some of the men had fallen. Some, discouraged 
with the outlook, had moved to larger towns that seemed safer 

( 349 ) 


from attack. Soldiers left by ]Major Treat, to garrison the town^ 
when he led his division back into Connecticut, were billeted 
upon the householders : less had been planted than usual. The 
troublous times and the withdrawal of men for defense and for 
war had left what was planted in a measure uncared for, and in 
part, unharvested. Grain and other supplies had been levied to 
supply the needs of the forces. How to husband the limited sup- 
plies for man and beast so as to survive the winter, was a per- 
plexing problem, and Avho could tell how soon they would be as- 
saulted ? 

As William G. Bates has written : "In the case of our fath- 
ers, there was nothing to sustain them but their own fortitude, 
inspired by their own high hopes of the future. It Avas no holi- 
day warfare which was impending The result was 

to be literally victory or death, not a death to them only, but a 
death of extermination of all their kindred." 

"Nor can we fail to admire, also, the heroism of those, who 
were left almost alone in their homes of precarious safety, when 
the stalwart men of the settlement went forth to war. The in- 
firm and those of immature age, were their only defenders. It 
was for them to protect the families against a stealthy foe, whose 
war-whoop was followed, at once, by the torch and the tomahawk, 
which too often awoke and silenced a whole settlement. They 
were the guardians, who, from the summit of the watch-tower, 
Avere to watch, and listen through the long days, and the longer 
nights, for the approach of the savage, and to patrol, during the 
same periods, along the poorly constructed palisades. In the 
meantime, the anxious mothers were snatching their broken slum- 
bers, in the embraces of their terrified children, their rest dis- 
turbed by dreams of danger, and visions of disaster." 

The news from the valleys of Manchester and Sunderland in 
Vermont, where late in the year 1675 the Indians had made their 
camps, was not encouraging. Two of the captives taken by the- 
Indians Avere purposely alloAved full opportunity to count their 
rank and file, Avhen draAvn up in full array, and then freed and 
sent to Albany. They reported that twenty-one hundred were 
well armed, evidently ready to slaughter and devastate until the 

( 350 > 


English should be driven from the land. The effectiveness of 
this body of Indians was increased by the knowledge and skill of 
those Indians who had lived near the settlements and mingled 
with the English. 

The wasteful feasting and revelling in the camp rapidly re- 
duced the stores gained by pillage the season before. Soon a large- 
division with limited rations was upon the warpath, as fierce for 
prey as hungry wolves. Early in March, Lancaster. Chelmsford 
and a half-dozen other places in the eastern part of the state were 

Broad Street, Westtield 

On the 14th of ^Nlarch, the yells of the savages on all sides of 
the stockade awoke the people of Northampton to the terrific fact 
that the town Avas assaulted. The Indians with unwonted fury 
made the attack on three sides of the stockade. Soon they were 
pouring into one opening. Four houses outside and one inside 
were soon in flames. The soldiers of the garrison, under the lead- 
ership of Capt. Turner, and those of the two Connecticut com- 
panies, under Major Treat, who had providentially reached 
Northampton the night before— less than two hundred in all— in 

( 351 ) 


the lurid light of the burning buildings hemmed in the Indians 
within the stockade, killed many, while the others retreated 
through the opening. These Indians found themselves en- 
trapped and never after did a body of assaulting Indians rush 
into a stockade through a narrow opening. 

The successful repulse of this impetuous assault of the In- 
dians seems to have ett'ectually arrested their advance to the 
south. Had they succeeded, or had their loss been less severe, 
Westfield, the next town at that time on the south, must have suf- 
fered. The little settlement at AVestfield with its slender garri- 
son could hardly have survived the attack of so large a force of 
Indians as swarmed that night around the stockade at North- 

Companies of Indians frequently changing their camp, ever 
intent upon plunder, stealthily prowling about in the neighbor- 
hood of the towns, continued to terrify the English and to gather 
booty. Soon after the attack on Northampton, a large body of 
Indians appeared at Hatfield, but Capt. Samuel Moseley was pre- 
pared for them and they were not anxious to repeat the severe 
experiences at Northampton. 

On the 26tli of March, 1676, a company of people on their 
way to church from Longmeadow to Springfield were waylaid 
by Indians. Two were killed, two wounded and two women and 
their babes captured. During the winter, two men were killed 
and two houses burned in AVestfield. 

Harassed on every side by attacks of Indians, now here, now 
there, and unable to adequateh' garrison the towns against such 
numerous and ubiquitous foes, the Connecticut council sent a 
flag of truce up the river, asking for an exchange of prisoners, 
and suggesting a treaty of peace. The Indians who had enjoyed 
the just dealings of the people of AVestfield, and tribes who had 
enjoyed the hospitality of towns in ]\Iassachusetts farther up the 
valley, were ready for peace. But the larger body of the Indians 
parleyed, that they might lay in a store of provisions at the 
spring fisheries and plant the deserted meadows of Deerfield and 
some other fields. April Avas a quiet month ; the Indians were 
busy fishing and carousing. They were gathered in large num- 

( 352 ) 


bers in May about the falls above Deerfield on the Connecticut 

Though Capt. Turner was too ill to undertake so hazardous 
an enterprise as an attack upon the Indians, he was appointed to 
lead. Three of the nearly one hundred and fifty mounted men, 
who made the nitiht march from Hatfield to what is now known 
as Turner's Falls, were Westfield men. These brave men sur- 
prised the Indians at break of day, while they Avere yet sleeping 
off the night's debauch, the consequence of a successful raid 
upon the village of Hatfield, May 30th, 1676. This slaughter of 
Indians at the Falls, was the severest blow yet inflicted by the 
English upon the Indians in the valley. The courage and en- 
durance of the attacking party, though the Indians greatly out- 
numbered them, impressed the Indians with the unconquerable 
valor of the English. The fight at Turner's Falls, where so many 
Indians were slain, or, in the panic, drowned in the river, was 
one of the most decisive battles in Philip's Avar. This battle, to- 
gether with the repulse of the well-planned attack on Northamp- 
ton, the hostility of the Mohawks and disputes and disagreements 
that arose between sachems and tribes soon led to the disintegra- 
tion of the Indian forces. Still the inhabitants in the valley and 
those in other parts of the state could not divine when they 
would again unite. Indians were still prowling about in differ- 
ent places shooting men, occasionally stealing cattle, and com- 
mitting other depredations. 

On the 19th of September. 1676, a party of Indians from 
Canada descended upon Hatfield, killing twelve men, wounding 
four, and taldng seventeen prisoners. This Avas the heaAnest loss 
of men. Avomen and children yet experienced by any Hampshire 
toAvn. On the evening of the same day, the raiding party was at 
Deerfield. Five men Avere there erecting houses on their aban- 
doned farms, hoping soon to reinstate their families. The five 
men Avere captured and though hotly pursued, the Indians made 
good their escape to Canada. 

Not knoAving that this Avas the last raid of the war, and 
knoAving that the skill of the Indians, increased by three years of 
active Avarfare, made them, if again united, more dangerous than 

23-2 ( 353 ) 


ever, the general court appointed a committee to bring the resi- 
dents in towns more closely together in order to better provide 
for their defense. 

The order of the committee having jurisdiction of Westfield, 
as copied from our town records by Louis M. Dewey, genealo- 
gist, is as follows : 

"Northampton, Nov. 19, 1677. 

"At a meeting of the Committee for ordering Compact 
Dwelling together for better defence and safety— present John 
Pynchon, Lt. William Clark, Mr. Peter Tilton, Lt. William Allin, 
En'sn Samuel Loomise. For Westfield we do order that the In- 
habitants there do all possess and settle together in that tract of 
land which lies from about Hugh Dudley's barn easterly to take 
in Mr. Taylor's house and their meeting house and so to turn 
south or southwest beyond Goodman Phelps his toward the hill by 
the bridge, so far that way as to have land for convenient building 
for all the Inhabitants; and then turning westerly all they can 
near over against Hugh Dudley's barn, whence to turn to that 
and into the street there ; and all the Inhabitants there are to 
repair to and settle within that tract of land, except we do allow 
of Thomas Dewey to Continue where he is, if he desire it, in re- 
gard of the mill that way and security to the Common road, yet 
it is provided he be well fortified and take care to have 5 or 6 
men with him for his defence ; and Ambrose Fowler having now 
built is to fortify himself well and to have 5 or 6 men with him 
of his family, we permit his abiding awhile till we see what next 
summer may come to ; but for all other persons, according to 
order of General Court requiring our stating the compactness of 
their Dwellings, we order their removing and setting as above. 

' ' In the tract of land above mentioned and forthwith to pre- 
pair and fit to attend the same, getting fortification this winter 
and ready to sett up early in the spring which will advise to be 
made strong and substantial, and every one of them to carry on 
their proportion in the fortification ; and in case of their dis- 
agreeing about the way or rule of proportioning it, Majr. Pynch- 
on, with anyone more of the committee, to determine the same 
according to discretion we have had together and directions there 

( 354 ) 


about; and for satisfaction to such whose land must be made use 
of for others to build on, understanding the Inhabitants are in a 
way to allow land for it, we advise their agreement thereabouts ; 
and case of any disagreement about it, according to the rule we 
have set for others, Ma jr. Pynchon and any one more of the com- 
mittee to determine the same and order of the Committes. ' ' 

The town having already fixed upon the area described by 
the committee as most suitable for defense, and having already 
fortified some of it readily concurred in the report of the com- 

AVe have already spoken of the Dewey mills built on Two- 
Mile brook on the Windsor road. The house of Ambrose Fowler 
was on the west side of the road that runs from East Silver 
street, through the meadows and under the railroad bridge, about 
half way between Silver street and the bridge. 

In 1679, May 30, the general court enacted the following: 

"Whereas the committee appointed by the Gennerall Court 
in October 1677, for new modelling the dwelling of people in 
Hampshire, did accordingly order a coming nearer together in 
some of those tonnes, & living more compact, for safety & se- 
curity of the said people, and particularly appoynting a tract 
of land for the inhabitants of Westfield, to build on nearer to- 
gether at or by their meeting house ; and some of the committee 
aforesajd having treated the inhabitants of Westfield about it, 
who by a generall vote consented to the settling thereon : and 
the proprietors of that land also yielding to breake their home 
lots, & forgoe part of their right and interest in them to such 
other persons as should come and settle on them, they, the pres- 
ent proprietors, being allowed for the land they parted with two 
acres for one out of the tounes adjacent lands intended for home 
lots, or thereabouts, which was accordingly granted by the tonne, 
to incourage the persons to bring in and sett their buildings on 
those particular parcells or portions of lands which were sett out 
and measured to them, being about half an acre, or three quar- 
ters of an acre to a man— now, for the full assurance of those 
portions of land to such persons as have removed, or are about 
removing, & settling, building thereon, this Court doth order 

( 355 ) 


those persons which have or ought to have parted with their land 
as abovesajd, having had or being tendered satisfaction from the 
toiine, as above, they shall give deeds, and make legall confirma- 
tions of those small portions of land vnto those persons, who. in 
obedience vnto authority, have them in actual possession or in 
grant in order thereunto. ' ' 

Philip's war, so far as concerted action of Indian tribes was 
concerned, was over ; but roving bands of Indians still demanded 
unceasing vigilance in g-uarding life and property. 

Quaker Troubles. — The difficulties with the Quakers were 
mainly in the eastern part of the state. Westfield, however, was 
not wholly exempt. George Fyler, the first surgeon mentioned 
among the early settlers of Northampton, was granted a home 
lot of six acres and an additional thirty acres, on condition that 
he should build on his lot and remain four years. He seems to 
have come into possession of the land, but scon after sold it and 
removed to Westfield. At the March term of the court in 1673 : 

"George ffiler of Westfield being prsented by the Jury for 
divers disorders and being examined firstly for entertayn- 
ing Quakers last summer he owns he did entertayne 
them being necessitated thereunto because none else would 
as he sayes. George ffiler sayth he shall before the World 
own that he is one of them whom ye world calls Quakers : Also 
he is prsented for absenting himselfe from God's publike wor- 
shipp on ye Sabbaths, he ownes he has genrally absented himself 
genrally last winter. His speeches have been contemptuous of 
the Ministers of the Word, and their work, viz. that they turne 
over 20 or 3o Authors a Aveeke to patch up an houres discourse or 
two on the Sabbath. And tho he would prtend that he meant 
not the ministry in that town or of N. England yet by testi- 
monyes it appears otherv.^ise. He seems to be a very seminary of 
corrupt heriticall opinions tending to poysoning and corrupting 
the minds of them with wm he hath to doe. And in speaking of 
the religion of the Quakers (he speaks of it as distinct from that 
prfessed by our Nation in this country) : he calls it Our re- 
ligion, that is his own and such as hee. The said George ffiler for 
his venting of his hetorodoxyes and adhering ' to the pnicious 

( 356 ) 


waves of the Quakers was prtested agt by the Corte and admoii- 
isht thereof. And for his absenting himself fro Gods Ordinances 
on the Sabbath haveing been formrly admonisht thereof, both by 
ye Worppll Major Pynchon and also by Westfield Commissionrs 
was now also admonisht ye of by the Corte. And it declared to 
him that it was in order to further dealing with him except he re- 
form his course therein. And for his contemptuous and scandal- 
ous speeches of the ministry of the country and of Christ's holy 
institutions as denying the Sacramts, &c., he is sentenced to pay 
a fyne to ye County 5s or els to be well whipt." Thomas Noble 
of AA'estfield agreed to see the fine paid. 

Early Highways. — The settlers first made their way through 
the forests and across the glades by following the Indian trails. 
Some of these trails were the result of no little experience on the 
part of the Indians, in finding the most feasible routes over 
mountains, across streams, and along valleys. The sons of the 
forest have proved unwittingly the preliminary surveyors of 
many of our old highways. 

As early as 1635 and 1636, the towns of Springfield, Weth- 
ersfield, and Hartford Avere incorporated. From these towns 
came the first settlers of Northampton. Those from Springfield 
went on the east side of the river. Most of those from the other 
towns, went by a track on the west side of the river, before the 
town of Westfield was incorporated. Northampton was organ- 
ized as a town as early as 1655, earlier than the record of any 
English settlers in Westfield. 

The county of Hampshire, then including all AVestern Mass- 
achusetts, was incorporated in 1662. Two years later by author- 
ity of the county, two roads, or ' ' cart ways, ' ' as they were called, 
were laid out. One road was to be on the east side of the river 
to connect Hadley and Northampton with Springfield, the other 
to connect Hadley and Northampton Avith Windsor and Hart- 
ford. As this latter road is the oldest highway crossing the terri- 
tory of Westfield, and is in part now maintained as a tow^n high- 
way, we give its course, taken from the records at Northampton, 
as noted by Sylvester Judd. The road from Northampton and 
Hadley to Springfield and from Thence "to the dividing lyne be- 

( 357 ) 


tweene the Collonyes" (of Massachusetts and Connecticut) is 
first outlined and then proceeding from south to north, the road 
on the west side of the river, as follows : 

"And from the said dividing lyne on the West side of ye 
river towards Waranoak, in the way that is now improved, com- 
monly called ye new way, that is to say, to two mile brooke fourty 
rods, and from thence to Waranoak hill where the trading house 
stood, twenty rods, and from tlience to ye passage of ye river 
where ye Avay now lies six rods, and from thence through ye other 
meddow to ye great hill as the way now lies six rodds and from 
thence to Munhan river forty rods, and from Munhan river to ye 
lotts now laid out neere ye mill river fourty rods, and from 

thence to the town of Northampton ffoure rods, 

And the wayes and bridges from the landing place at the great 
river [in Northampton] unto the top of Waranoak hill to be 
made and mayntayned by North Hampton, and from thence unto 
Windsor to be made and mayntayned by Hadley and Northamp- 
ton mutually. And further we determine yt if Hadly and North- 
ampton eyther or both of them shall at anytyme hereafter see 
cause to desert the highway they now use and shall make the way 
through Springfield their comon roade to Windsor for carting, 
then eyther or both shall contribute to ye mending the bridge at 
Long Meddow. And for these several wayes and bridges to be 
made and repaired sufficient for travel with carts, we determine 
that they be done by the severall townes respectively at or before 
ye sixth day of June next, as also yt such stones as are movable 
in Scanunganunk river be turned aside out of the cartway and 
ye charge thereof to be paid by the County Treasurer." 

For several years Springfield, Hadley and Northampton 
maintained these tvvo "cart-ways" as far as Windsor, where was 
the line between Massachusetts and Connecticut, as claimed by 
the former. The number of rods given in the description of the 
road from one point to another is the number of rods in -width. 
It may seem strange that the road should be laid out in some 
places twenty rods, and in others, forty rods wide. The explan- 
ations given are two : First ; w^here the land was unoccupied and 
covered with trees there was more or less danger of being at- 

( 358 ) 


tacked by one or more skulking Indians, plying the business of 
killing and robbing on the highway. Wood and timber was 
scarce on many of the alluvial tracts first occupied, owing to the 
annual fires of the Indians, preparatory to planting and grazing, 
so that trees growing upon highway land could be easily removed 
by allowing any one to cut any trees not reserved by order of the 
town or of the central authority at Boston. 

Another reason was that the committee laying out the road, 
felt that where land was unoccupied, the road should be laid out 
of sufiicient width to allow opportunity to change the road-bed 
as economy or the public convenience might require. The road 
we have noticed was known in Westfield as the Windsor road. 
Tracing it in the direction it was laid out, we find it entered the 
southeast part of our present township in the vicinity of what is 
now known as Longyard, and pursuing a westerly course until it 
reached Two-Mile brook, crossed it, and then pursued a northerly 
course passing, as it now does, across the west end of Little river 
street at right angles to it, and, as now, reaching East Main 
street, near the present bridge across the Westfield river. Thence 
it continued w^esterly on the bank of the river, crossing it some 
distance below its junction with Little river : then taking a north- 
erly direction across the meadows up the hill at Springdale, 
("through the other meddow to ye great hill" as the committee 
described it) and across the plains on the west side of Hampton 
Ponds to Northampton. The present road on the west of these 
ponds is several rods farther west than the old Windsor road, 
though essentially the same. 

This road and the road east of the river for nearly half a 
century were the main lines of transportation for all goods 
brought into Western Massachusetts and for all products carried 
out, whether the goods were from places east, south or west, or 
whether the products were destined for places in any one of those 
directions. If grain, very largely a substitute for money, beef 
and pork, or lumber, were to be sent to Boston in payment of 
taxes, or for purposes of trade, this freight was generally carted 
to Windsor, below the falls, or to Hartford, and thence trans- 
ported by water. The carting was over the same roads if the 
freight was to or from New York. 

( 359 ) 


The way from the valley to the west Mas from AVestfield over 
the hills through Blandford, to Kinderhook and thence to Al- 

Among the captives taken at Hatfield by the Indians during 
their last raid upon towns in the valley, were the wife and three 
children of Benjamin Waite and the wife and two children of 
Stephen Jennings. 

The two husbands procuring the requisite papers from the 
general court and appropriation toward the expenses, went to 
Canada whither the retreating Indians had gone. There they 
found the prisoners. After tedious negotiations, occupying 
nearly two months, they succeeded in ransoming all the captives. 
As soon as the people of Hatfield learned that the company 
under a French escort had in spite of the lingering winter, 
reached Albany, a company from Hatfield with horses and pro- 
visions started to meet the returning captives. Going by way of 
Westfield they met them at Kinderhook, May 27, 1678. They all 
returned by way of Westfield to Hatfield. For nearly a century 
this route seems to have been almost the only one in Massachu- 
setts from the valley of the Connecticut to the valley of the Hud- 

Over this trail passed Indians before and during Philip's 
war on their way to and from Connecticut, avoiding Westfield, 
but coming near enough at times to excite great fear. Along this 
way during the many years of the French and Indian wars went 
horsemen and footmen and military supplies. For many years a 
fort was maintained at what is now Blandford to furnish convoy 
and defence and quarters for rest. General Amherst and his 
army on his way from Boston to Canada, destined by the aid of 
Wolfe and Prideaux to strike the final blow to the tottering domi- 
nation of the French on this continent, stopped one night at 
Westfield, another at Blandford, another at Sandisfield and an- 
other at Monterey. 

During the war for independence, the teams mustered in 
Westfield and elsewhere to get through the snow or over the mud 
and the hills from Westfield to Albany, were sometimes of no 
ordinary size. It is a matter of history that ' ' it took twenty yoke 

( 3no ) 


of oxen and eighty men to convey a mortar over the hills to West 
Point." Twenty of these eighty men would be required to drive 
the oxen. Whether the remaining sixty Mere employed in open- 
ing the drifts or in strengthening the rude bridges and in bed- 
ding the mud holes wnth boughs is not stated. 

A part of the prisoners taken at Bennington, in 1777, passed 
over this road on their way through Westfield to Boston. 

This road was the route of Burgoyne 's army after its defeat 
at Stillwater, on their way to Boston. After a three days' halt 
at Otis, they moved on, stopping one night in Westfield, we are 
told. After the war, this road was designated, "The great road 
from Boston to Albany." It was the only road between these 
places directly crossing Berkshire county. Over this road came 
Washington when visiting New England after the war. He was 
for a little while the guest of Creneral Shepard, then living on 
Pranklin street. Other events worthy of note that occurred along 
this highway, however many, are not discoverable in the scanty 
choronicles of the past, or, if recorded, have escaped our notice. 
The intersection of these highways in Westfield, the one running 
north and south, with the "great road" running east and west, 
has tended to promote the intelligence of the people of West- 
field and to render them more cosmopolitan than people living re- 
mote from avenues of travel and traffic. 

The way connecting Springfield and Westfield was laid out 
as a highway at an early date. 

Westfield, then, at the time of its incorporation, 1669, was 
not so much of an out-of-the-way place as many have supposed. 
It was on the line of communication of all the towns in the val- 
ley, with Albany and places farther west. It was on a main line 
of communication between towns in the valley north and south of 

Mr. Judd tells us that "there is no record of goods being 
l^rought from Boston to Connecticut river by land, except small 
quantities on horseback, before 1767, so that for a century after 
the settlement of Westfield, goods from Boston came to the town, 
as to other towns in the valley, by water around the cape along 
the sou^i shore and u]) the Connecticut river to Hartford and 

( :^'n ) 


AVinclsor and then by cart to towns farther north." In the year 
1767 it is recorded that one Simeon Smith of Amherst "carried 
down produce and brought up goods for traders and others, in 
the towns on both sides of the river." He made his way with 
a wagon, over the ungraded roads, sometimes with a load weigh- 
ing nearly a ton. He charged from a dollar to a dollar and a half 
per hundred for his freight. He did not make regular trips in 
winter, the roads in some places being blocked by snow drifts. 
Drummers would have had a sorry time of it in those days. Ped- 
dlers with thread, needles and other small articles on horseback 
w^ere not uncommon on the bay paths running from Hadley and 
Springfield to Boston. The foot peddler, even in winter time, 
with his pack or with his two little tin trunks hung from the ends 
of a shoulder yoke to lessen the pull upon his arms, could make 
his way from house to house over the deepest snow and the high- 
est drifts on his snowshoes or rackets, as they were called. 

Simeon Smith did not long plod his way alone over the hills 
and through the forests to Boston. Other teamsters began to keep 
company with him. AA^e have no record of those from A\"estfield, 
but in tlie winter, after "hog killing," the farmers would load 
their pork on "pungs" drawn by horses, and, forming a train of 
loaded teams, move on to Boston. If they found the road drifted 
they could "all turn to and shovel out." Fortunately, a good 
share of the way forest trees protected the snow from the "pil- 
ing W'inds. " If a hill was unusually steep, they could ' ' double ' ' 
their teams, and thus cheerily pull up one load after another. 
Having made successful sales their homeward trips with full 
pockets and light loads of sugar, molasses and other household 
supplies, and their merry and sometimes boisterous ways, led to 
the charge of "revylyng on the highwayes" ; but there was no re- 
porter to put up a column concerning their performances nor a 
daily paper to publish it. As they neared their homes the old 
responsibilities again impressed them, and they entered AVest- 
field with a mien as sedate as that of their horses. The titles 
"Colonel," "Captain." "Ensign," etc., seemed to rest upon 
them as appropriately as if their boyish escapades had not oc- 
curred. That Boston had learned of the products of AA'estfield 

( 362 ) 


not many years after the incorporation of the town, is evident 
from the diary of Chief Justice Samuel Sewall, who has been 
styled "the Puritan Pepys." Writing in 1692, he says: "Our 
kitchen chimney fell on fire about noon, and blazed out sorely at 
top, appeared to be foul ; the fire fell on the shingles so that they 
began to burn in several places, being very dry ; but by the good 
Providence of God, no harm was done. Mr, Fisk was with us, 
and we sat merrily to a dinner on the Westfield pork that was 
snatched from the fire on this occasion." 

Town Eoads.—A volume might be written describing the 
town roads and streets of AVestfield. As early as 1667, or very 
soon thereafter. Main street. Union street. Meadow street and 
Silver street were laid out. The street that once ran from "West- 
field river across Main street, near the Little river bridge, south 
to Silver street, was long ago cut off by Little river. So much of 
South street as runs north from Silver street to the river bank 
is all that remains of old South street. Little river was forded in 
early times above the bridge. From this ford the road took a 
northeasterly course into the Windsor road by the bank of the 
river. The present road between the bridges is comparatively 
new. The way to the plains (Southwick) on the south was along 
South street to the river ford above the present railroad, thence 
across the river and up the hill in a southwesterly direction. 

The Early French and English Wars.— King Philip's war 
had ended in 1677, As the Indians no longer attacked towns 
nor massed their warriors for desolating expeditions, the bless- 
ings of peace returned. Confidence was gradually restored. 
Houses and barns were rebuilt, the western towns were strength- 
ened in numbers and in Avealth by the arrival of new settlers. 
The areas of occupancy Avere Avidened. Forests hitherto undis- 
turbed by the Avoodman's axe began to echo Avith its sound and 
open lands untouched by the implements of tillage Avere subject- 
ed to the plough. Prosperity returned. The abundance of 
good land easily obtained as yet in the A'alley, made it compara- 
tively easy to reduce the indebtedness incurred by the war. 

The years of peace, hoAvever, Avere fcAv. In 1688 AYilliam 
and Mary became the sovereigns of England. The Avar knoAvn 

( 363 ) 


as King William's war between the French and English in- 
volved the colonists in fresh difficulties. This was the first of 
four conflicts, which, as Francis Parkman remarks, "ended 
in giving Great Britain a maritime and colonial preponder- 
ance over France and Spain." "So far as concerns the colo- 
nies and the sea," he adds, "these several wars may be re- 
garded as a single and protracted one, broken by inter- 
vals of truce." Like the solitary oaks upon the moun- 
tainside, that come to full strength and maturity exposed to the 
sunlight and the storms, so each New England settlement during 
many years experienced its vicissitudes of peace and war, of 
plenty and want, of joy and sorrow, through all, growing in 
strength and in wisdom. At length the character and culture of 
the people of New England have come to determine the character 
of a nation. 

During King William's war, Deerfield, being the northern 
settlement in the valley, Northfield not yet being resettled, suf- 
fered the loss of several inhabitants at the hands of skulking In- 
dians; but Westfield suffered little. During Queen Anne's war 
the sack of Deerfield on the last day of February, 1704, thrilled 
with horror the people of Westfield. The French and Indians, 
after much slaughter and house burning, started over the snow 
for Canada with one hundred and eleven prisoners. Who could 
tell when the next town in the valley Avould be overpowered ? 

May 14, as soon as the condition of the ground was favor- 
able to repairing the stockade, "it was voted unanimously that 
all persons shall work hoth with themselves and theire teames att 
repairing of the fort aboute Mr. Taylor's house forthwith & who- 
soever shall neglect to doe his share shall pay theire equal pro- 
portion to others according to what work is done att sd fort or 
worke at some other public workes of ye towne." 

At a town meeting June 30, 1704, ''it Avas voted unani- 
mously by ye inhabitants that ye severall houses in the town that 
are forted, hereafter named shall stand and be defended and 
have there severall proportions of men posted to them (by ye 
committy appoynted) as may be accounted convenient under 
theire circumstances for theire defense viz. Mr. Taylor's Stephen 

( 364 ) 


Kelloji's Consider .Maudsley 's, John SacUet's John Noble's, 
Thomas Root's." 

At the same meeting "it was unanimously voted that ye sev- 
erall honsen and garrisons above mentioned shall be free (as 
well for the proper owners,) for all families and good (accord- 
ing to their proportions) who shall be appoynted to the severall 
garrisons by the eommitty of malisha. " 

Truiiibiill says : ' ' Constant rumors of an approaching ene- 
my kept the country in a continued state of alarm. At no time 
since Philip's war, twenty-eight years previous, had there been 
so many soldiers in the county. They were quartered in every 
town, and there were marchings and countermarchings in every 
direction. Indians, spies and scouts of the approaching army, 
filled the forests. Parties of English, many of them citizens of 
the river towns, incessantly ranged the woods. None of the in- 
habitants dared venture far beyond the fortifications without an 
efficient guard, and the occupations of the farming community 
w^ere greatly interfered with, if not wholly suspended. ' ' In spite 
of the vigilance of the English, during this and several years 
following, Indian murders were not infrequent. In 1708, Haver- 
hill was attacked, about forty persons killed and many taken 
captive. The various expeditions fitted out by the colonists 
against the French in Canada, not meeting with the needed aid 
from England, failed of decisive results. 

During the ten years of the war one hundred and nineteen 
persons were killed in Hampshire county, twenty-five wounded, 
while the captives numbered one hundred and twenty-five. 

The burden of taxes which the war imposed upon Massa- 
chusetts was enormous, and the means of paying them were 
scanty. An average tax of more than a million a year was levied 
upon the people of ]\Iassachusetts. The treaty of Utrecht, in 
March, 1713, establishing peace, was hailed with joy and 

Though England and France were at peace, the Indians hov- 
ering near the towns were still ready to plunder whenever it 
seemed to them safe to do so, and, like lionnds that have tasted 
blood, they were prone to take life. 

( 365 ) 


In 174-t, the terrors of King George's war darkened the land. 
At a legal town meeting April 27, 1747, "it was voted that the 
Commission Officers and the Selectmen and Doctor Ashley shall 
be the Connnittv to see what measures and what houses should 
be forted and to make Report to the town what is best to be done : 
att the same meeting it was voted to pay a scout that may be sent 
by the Commission ofScers out after the discovery of the enemy 
if the province will not pay them : this meeting was voted to be 
continued by adjournment untill Monday next the 4. day of 
May : the town met at the time adjourned to and the Committy 
Reported to the town that they were determined it was best to 
make a fort Round Stephen Kelloggs house and Lieut Consider 
Mosleys and Doct. Ashley house and one over the Little River 
and one over the great River and two watch boxes and to be done 
by the town." 

The "Doctor Ashley house," spoken of in the above note, 
was situated in Silver street at the south end of Noble street, on 
the site of William Atkins's house. The building has been razed 
within a few years, to make room for a modern structure. The 
base of the second story projected over the top of the first story, 
and the walls were fortified against musket-balls. The fort-houses 
were situated in positions convenient for the refuge of the in- 
habitants, in case of a hostile attack. The old Ingersoll house, 
not long ago standing over Little river, is said to have been the 
one which was fortified, or "forted." 

The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle brought a respite to the col- 
onists of only a few years. In 1754 began the tremendous strug- 
gle of the French and English for the dominant power in North 
America. The cost to the towns in the valley, both in men and 
in money, was large ; but in the campaigns of this last and wide- 
spread French and Indian war, the English of the colonies 
were trained in the art of organized warfare and rendered 
effective service in many terrible battles. In the four hours' 
fight near the shore of Lake George, in the expedition against 
CroAvn Point, in 1755, victory was won largely by the stubborn 
valor of the Hampshire regiment. Nearly one-fourth of all the 
killed and wounded belonged to this regiment. Major Noah 

( 366 ) 


Ashley. Capt. Jonathaji Ingersoll and Richard Campbell, from 
Westfield, are reported among the dead. It is impossible to give 
a complete list of those from Westfield who helped, in this and in 
the previous wars, to destroy the domination of the French and 
to put an end to the depredations of their savage allies. The 
following are recorded from Westfield as soldiers for Canada in 
1757: William Shepard (afterwards General), Thomas 
Campbell, Eli Noble, John Larrabee, Seth Root, Simeon 
Root, William Hitchcock, Richard Falley, Israel Noble, 
Elisha Martindale, Daniel Hubbard, James AVilson, Gideon 
Gunn, Shem Kellogg and William Kerr. The two last, named 
were killed and Falley was taken prisoner. It is said that Oliver 
Root and Ozam Sacket were also in the war and "put up a vote 
of thanks upon the meeting house door in 1760." Zenas Noble, 
Aaron Ashley, Peleg Combs, Stephen Ward, Moses Root, A. 
Jones, Samuel Johnson, Enos Loomis, Nathaniel Church, Joseph 
Baker, Stephen Saxton, William Patterson and Benjamin Pike 
enlisted in 1761-2, probably for the expedition against Pontiac. 
There is no record of the individual sufferings of thousands be- 
cause of the French and Indian wars. At length, after a series 
of wars extending over the larger part of a century, in 1760, the 
French surrendered the province of Canada. 

Speaking of this period, Holland, referring to this valley, 

"Children had been born, had grown up to manhood, and 
descended to old age, knowing little or nothing of peace and 
tranquillity. Hundreds had been killed, and large numbers car- 
ried into captivity. Men, women and children had been butch- 
ered by scores. There is hardly a square acre, certainly not a 
square mile, in the Connecticut valley, that has not been tracked 
by the flying feet of fear, resounded with the groans of the djdng, 
drunk the blood of the dead, or served as the scene of toils made 
doubly toilsome by an apprehension of danger that never slept. 
It was among such scenes and such trials as these that the settle- 
ments of Western Massachusetts were planted. It was by these 
scenes and trials that their sinews were knit to that degree of 
strength that, when the incubus of war and fear were lifted, they 

( 367 ) 


spraug to those enterprises of peace, which in less than one cen- 
tury have transformed the valley and the Berkshire hills into a 
garden of beauty, a home of luxury and refinement, an abode of 
plenty, and a seat of free education and free religion. The joy 
of victory that spread everywhere over the colonies was great, 
but the joy of peace was greater. The relief felt on every hand 
can hardly be imagined now. The long clogged wheels of en- 
terprise moved again, and settlements that had been forsaken 
Avere reclaimed, while new ones were commenced. The axe re- 
sounded in the forests, and smiling harvests returned once more 
to be gathered rejoicingly beneath the reign of peace." 


The first dwellings of the settlers were very rude— log houses 
or bank houses, facing the south, so that the bank on the north 
would protect from cold and allow of underground rooms behind 
the sunny front rooms. These ground dwellings were sometimes 
called cellars. The banks that bound the lowlands on the north 
side of the Westfield river and the meadow terraces are well 
adapted to such dwellings. Here several seem to have been 
made, for this side was sometimes known as the north or cellar 
side. These cellars were not uncommon in other parts of the 
town. At a town meeting February 4, 1678, during the stress 
of Philip's -war, "there is granted liberty to John Ponder to set 
a house or celler within the gate by Lieut. Moseley for a while 
in case he is thrust from his OAvn by reason of troublous times." 

As sawmills were built and the increasing means of the 
settlers made it possible to provide better buildings, log houses 
gave place to more commodious dwellings. Those of simpler 
form were one-story houses, having rooms of good size, while the 
unfinished attic furnished a generous chamber for children, with 
abundant opportunity for the storage of corn and other grains, 
for the drying of nuts and for the safekeeping of manifold house- 
hold goods. The huge stone chimney, built with clay instead of 
mortar, occupying a large portion of the cellar, and 
claiming a good share of the house as its right, that it might 
present in every room a large fireplace, and rising above the 

( 368 ) 

M ^ 



ridge of the house with a top square and large as if defying 
the fiercest storms, was one of the most distinctive features of the 
earlier colonial houses. The front door opened into a small en- 
try, on the right and on the left of which was a door opening 
into a front room, one the parlor occasionally used, the other the 
sitting room. Back of these rooms was the long kitchen, or liv- 

Corner cupboard in the house built by Captain William 
Moseley in 1786 

Now owned by his grandsons, Edward and Thomas B. Moseley, 
Westfleld, Mass. 

ing room, running the whole length of the house save as it was 
shortened by ''mother's bedroom," a pantry and a closed stair- 
way leading from the kitchen to the attic. The kitchen by doors 
comnumicated Avith all the other rooms of the house and with 
the woodshed. A side door, in many houses, opening on to the 

( 370 ) 


yard, gave an unhindered view of the fields, and added to the 
good cheer of the room in summer time. 

Larger houses, though of the same general plan, were two 
stories in height and had four front rooms. The chimney held 
so large an area that the space for the front hall and angular 
stairs w-as often quite limited. The kitchen with its concomitants 
was usually provided for under a lean-to roof. The Moseley 
homestead, on Union street, which long ago passed its centennial, 
is a stately example of this sort of house, though it has a rear 
ell instead of the lean-to roof. 

Another plan, more aristocratic, was that of a two-story 
house having eight rooms nearly square in the main house, with 
a generous hall on eaeh floor, running from front to rear. The 
kitchen was in an ell projecting from one-half of the rear of the 
main house. As provision was made for heating all the rooms 
by fireplaces, two chimneys were required in the main house and 
one in the ell. Such a house when standing on rising ground in 
an ample yard bordered Avith Lombardy poplars, originally im- 
ported from over the sea, was indeed a stately reminder of the 
manor houses of old England and of ancestral rank. The mould- 
ings and carvings of the front entrances of these old houses, the 
chaste mantels, the panelled wainscot and the corner cup- 
boards of the front rooms are much admired. 

The finish of the front entrance of the large gambrel-roofed 
house on Main street, near Noble street, is yet well preserved. 
This house was long known as Landlord Fowler's house, and 
later as Harrison tavern. 

Burgoyne, with some of his companions, after his defeat at 
Saratoga, is said, under the convoy of American soldiers, to have 
slept here one night while on his way from Albany to Boston, 
hence the house is often called the "Burgoyne house." 

The kitchen in these colonial houses, with its long mantel 
spanning the huge fireplace and oven and with its high-backed 
settle, that, in zei'o weather, attempted to wall off the frigid cold 
in the rear of the room from the torrid heat of the fire, well 
nourished by Avood from four to eight feet in length, was the 
center of the home life of the household. 

( 371 ) 


Whittier has well described the winter evening fire, as it 
lighted lip the kitchen : 

"As night drew on, and, from the crest 
Of wooded knolls that ridged the west, 
The sun, a snow-blown traveller, sank 
From sight beneath the smothering bank, — 
We piled, with care, our nightly stack 
Of wood against the chimney-back, — 
The oaken log, green, huge, and thick. 
And on its top the stout back-stick ; 
The knotty forestick laid apart, 
And filled between with curious art, 
The ragged brush ; then, hovering near, 
We watched the first red blaze appear, 
Heard the sharp crackle, caught the gleam 
On whitewashed wall and sagging beam, 
Until the old rude-furnished room 
Burst, flower like, into rosy bloom." 
The kitchen was in its best array in late autumn, when 
strings of quartered apples, clusters of red peppers, braids of 
popcorn vied with crook-necked squashes, bacon, ham, dried beef 
and sheaves of herbs in adorning the walls. 

The straight backed chairs seemed to say, "This is no place 
for lounging," while the tall clock, with its deliberate and sol- 
emn tick, seemed to remind of those lines of Young: 
"We take no note of time. 
But from its loss ; to give it then a tongue, 
Is wise in man. ' ' 
The kitchen was indeed a place where these siiggestions were 
heeded. Time was improved. In addition to the usual cooking 
and cleaning there was soap-making, brewing and dyeing, the 
making of cloth for the family and the cutting and making of 
garments. At one end of the long room stood the spinning wheel 
and the loom. The whir of the one and the rattle and thud of 
the other made music in the ear of the thrifty housewife. Here 
the flax which the men had raised, threshed, retted and broken, 
the women with distaff and spindle Avrought into thread to be 

( 372 ) 


woven into linen— some of which woven more than a century ago 
is among the heirlooms of Westfield homesteads to day— or to be 
woven with woolen yarn into linsey-woolsey. 

Over the mantel hung the gnn proved in many a hunt and 
relied upon as a staunch Aveapon of defense. On the mantel the 
little hoard of books, well read because without competitors. 
There also was the box containing the flint and steel, the tinder 
and lint wherewith to start a fire, if the fire on the hearth should 

Old ••Landloid Fowler House," Westfield 

go out. When other sources of fire failed, a tramp to some neigh- 
bor's house must be taken with tin lantern to bring home the 
lighted candle. 

The kitchen was at times the workshop of the men and boys 
as well as of the women. During the long evenings shingles 
were shaved, yokes and other farm implements were fashioned. 

Glancing at the table and cupboard, we should notice that 
pewter and woodenware were in common use. Crockeiy was 

( 373 ) 


sparingly used by settlers in the seventeenth century. The table 
was supplied with articles of food from the farm and house gar- 
den. The smoke-house and the meat barrels in the cellar fur- 
nished a continual supply of meat, alternated with fowl, game, 
fish and the snow-preserved fresh meats of winter. Boiled din- 
ner, with Indian pudding, was a frequent midday meal and was 
served cold at supper to Avorkingmen. Wheat bread seems to 
have been more common in the seventeenth than in the eighteenth 
century. Rye and corn came to be the common ingredients of 
bread. Brown bread, composed of two parts Indian meal and 
one part rye, was largely used. Prof. Shaler of Harvard has well 
set forth the value of Indian corn to the settlers. He says : 

"The success of the first settlements in America w^as also 
greatly aided by the fact that the continent afforded them a new 
and cheaper source of bread in the maize or Indian corn, which 
was everywhere used by the aborigines of America. It is diffi- 
cult to convey an adequate impression of the importance of this 
grain in the early history of America. In the first place, it yields 
not less than twice the amount of food per acre of tilled land, 
Avith much less labor ( ?) than is required for an acre of small 
grains ; is far less dependent on the changes of the seasons ; the 
yield is much more uniform than that of the old European 
grains ; the harvest need not be made at such a particular sea- 
son ; the crop may Avith little loss be alloAved to remain ungath- 
ered for Aveeks after the grain is ripe ; the stalks of the grain need 
not be touched in the harvesting, the ears alone being gathered ; 
these stalks are of greater value for forage than is the straw of 
wheat and other similar grains. Probably the greatest advan- 
tage of all that this beneficent plant afforded to the early set- 
tlers Avas the way in Avhich it could be planted Avithout plough- 
ing, amid the standing forest trees AA-hich had been only deadened 
by having their bark stripped aAvay by the axe. . . . Its 
strong roots readily penetrated deep into the soil, and the 
strong tops fought their Avay to the light Avith a vigor Avhich fcAv 
plants possess. The grain Avas ready for domestic use AAnthin 
three months from the time of planting, and in four months it 
Avas ready for the harvest." 

( 374 ) 


Tea niul colTee were long considered rare luxuries in most 
families. Fortunately, they have taken the place of cider, so long 
considered needful. Orchards are now reared for better pur- 
poses than for the filling of cider barrels for home consumption. 
In early times, before the settlers had planted orchards or built 
cider mills, home-brewed beer was a common drink. For many 
decades, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a supply of 
cider was c(msidered as important as other articles of diet. 
Charles Francis Adams tells us that "to the end of his life, a 
large tankard of hard cider w^as John Adams's morning draught 
before breakfast ; and in sending directions from Philadelphia 
to Qnincy to her agent in 1799, Mrs. Adams takes care to men- 
tion that the ' President hopes you wdll not omit to have eight or 
nine barrels of good late made cider put up in the cellar for his 
own particular use.' " 

Trumbull, speaking of the meals of these early times, says : 
"For breakfast, meat was seldom provided, but bread and milk 
or bread and cider, hasty pudding with milk or molasses, and 
sometimes porridge or broth, made of peas or beans flavored by 
being cooked with salt pork or beef, was the usual fare. 

"Dinner w-as deemed the most important, and some kind of 
meat or fish, with vegetables, was ahvays served. Potatoes were 
unknown ; but turnips, cabbages, beans and a few other veget- 
ables, were used to a considerable extent." Potatoes w-ere in- 
troduced into the Connecticut valley about 1720, and were not 
used as a common article of diet until several years later. 

One of the oldest colonial houses, built according to the 
plans we have noticed, is the Day house, as it is called, on the 
high land north of the Boston and Albany railroad and west of 
the trap rock ridge; another is the brick house in Pochassic, for 
several years the home of Barnum Perry and his family ; and an- 
other is the IMoseley house on the north side of Main street, just 
east of the junction of Meadow and Main streets. Other houses 
deserve mention, but these must suffice. 

The genealogy cennected with each of these houses is inter- 
esting. We will speak of those only who have occupied the 
Moseley house, using an account given by one of the family. In 

( 375 ) 


1677 John Maudsley (or Moseley) removed from Windsor with 
his wife, Mary Newbury, to Westfield, and purchased the house 
and store of Mr. Whitney, w^hich thenceforth has been known as 
their home or the home of their descendants. Mr. Moseley had 
already proved his valor in battles with the followers of King 
Philip. Hence, he was warmly welcomed to the stockaded hamlet 
and chosen lieutenant of the little company of defenders. He 
was also recorded as one of the seven original members or ' ' foun- 
dation men," of the church first organized under Rev. Edward 
Taylor, in 1677. The sons of "Lieut. John" ''struck out" in 
new paths for themselves. Consider has many descendants in 
Westfield and elsewhere, one of them, Mrs. Bingham (Sybil 
Moseley) was among the earliest missionaries to the Sandwich 

Elder Ambrose Dav House 

Islands. "Quartermaster John," as he was called, was another 
son. He was the father of Col. John Moseley, one of the com- 
mittee of safety in the war for independence. Owing to his pub- 
lic services, his name often appears in the town and in the state 
records. While the widow of Joseph (another son) was living in 
the house, we find the record was made upon the town book that 
the selectmen had agreed with one John Negro to call the peo- 
ple to meeting by beating the first drum, "against the widow 
Moseley 's house in good weather." This drum beating by John 
or some one else for about one hundred and fifty years served 
instead of bell-ringing to promote punctual attendance at church. 
When the first meeting-house, near the bridge, over Little 
river, became inadequate to the needs of the growing town, in 

( 376 ) 


1719, measures were taken to build another. After much dis- 
cussion and disagreement respecting the site for the new build- 
ing, the town by vote made Samuel Partridge final arbiter. His 
decision was that "the place for erecting and setting up the new 
Meeting House, to be the knowl on Capt. Maudsley's lot on the 
north side of ye way behind his housing." This meeting-house 
stood not far from the present southwest corner of the Moseley 
place on Meadow and Main streets. 

In 1749, we find David Moseley, Esq., as he is named in his. 
commission from George II, appointing him magistrate of 
Hampshire county, occupying the Moseley house. Like many 
other officers of law and landholders, during the earlier troubles 
with the mother country, he was known as a tory. Had he lived 
to feel the injustice of later and more oppressive measures of the 
home government he would doubtless have helped to swell the 
unanimous votes passed during the revolutionary struggle, tend- 
ing to secure independence. He was the first public surveyor of 
the to^^^l. His royal commission is still preserved by his descend- 
ants, and also his compass, used in running town and division 
lines. His book shows the "Two Hundred Acres lying on the 
Symsbury Road," laid out by him for Jacob Wendell, Esq., of 
Boston. These acres were afterwards given for the first bell 
hung in the "coney" on the town meeting house, near the 
Moseley house. His son, also named David, was a staunch pat- 
riot, a selectman for several years, serving in other offices also, 
and chosen, in 1775. one of "the Committee of Correspondence 
and Safety to carry out the Plans of the Provincial Congress ap- 
pointed by the town." While serving in the war for independ- 
ence he was commissioned colonel of the Third regiment of 
militia in Hampshire county. In his diary we find : 

"24th Day of Sept. 1777. I went to Saratoga in the alarm 
of the militia : General Burgoyne was Delivered into our hands 
a prisoner of War the 17th day of Oct. 1777. I returned home 
the 19th day of Oct. from the camps." 

This Captain, afterwards Colonel, Moseley, had charge of at 
least one tory when a John Ingersoll was examined by the com- 
mittee and placed under guard. 

( 377 ) 

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Time had made sad inroads on doors and windows "since 
this old house was new," and about fifty years ago one of the 
descendants of "Lieut. Moseley from Windsor" made repairs 
and changes. The huge central chimney, with its wide fireplaces, 
was taken out and a hall made through the center of the house. 
The panelled Avails were stripped of much of their handiwork 
and a modern finish substituted. The corner cupboards were re- 
moved, windows changed and the decaying doors on the front 
and east side, with their artistic carvings, curved mouldings and 
enormous brass knockers, gave place to modern contrivances. 
Fourteen brides, each bearing the name of Moseley, have been 
married in the "best room" on the west side of the house, dur- 
ing the more than two hundred years in M-hich the house has 
passed in the same family from generation to generation. Those 
born and reared in the Moseley house, joining hands and hearts 
with others, have built up from time to time new homes, here 
and elsewhere, far and wide, under the colonial names. Noble, 
Ingersoll, Koot, Sackett, Fowler, Dewey, Taylor and others, as 
well as the name of Moseley. 

Work was the motto of the settlers. Their circumstances 
compelled persistent industry. Yet they were not as gloomy a 
people as they are often represented. They made "the wilder- 
ness and the solitary place" glad with their good cheer, born of 
full health. The variety of their work made recreation less a 
necessity for them than for those of the present time, when di- 
vision of labor has made so many well nigh parts of the mechan- 
ism of a factory. Nor did they lack amusement and recreation. 
There were training-days, when work was suspended, that the 
militia might assemble on the "common" and receive instruc- 
tion and drill. The day of annual muster was another holiday. 
Old election day was maintained as a holiday long after the elec- 
tion of state officers was transferred from May to November. 
"Raising day" was anticipated by every boy, as he saw the 
heavy frame of a building nearing completion, for he knew that 
the able-bodied men and the boys of the neighborhood would 
assemble in gladsome mood at the "raising," and feats of 
strength, skill and courage might be expected. It was the cus- 

( 379 ) 


torn to levy the tax for the repair of the roads as a separate tax 
to be "worked out" under district surveyors. After planting 
time the surveyors in the several districts summoned men with 
their teams to put the roads in good condition. Boys, allowed a 
wage according to their years, mingled with men. Working on 
the roads was a social affair. Local history, personal reminis- 
cence and mirthful story gave zest to the busy hours. The noon 
hour, when under some wide, arching tree, each partook of the 
dinner he had brousht. was a time for nuich discussion of the 

Old Washington Tavern 

questions of the day. These were very democratic occasions, for 
the minister and the doctor (though doctors were rare) worked 
out their tax with others. Then, there were husking parties, 
dancing, hunting parties, games of ball, in which all might play, 
being chosen as at evening spelling matches on one side or the 
other; spinning bees for the girls, and games at neighborhood 
parties, in which all might engage, that made the colonial houses, 
illuminated with generous hearth fires, resound with merry-mak- 


( 380 ) 


That the large fireplaces were great consumers of fuel is evi- 
dent from the annual supply of wood necessary for a household. 
The annual supply <if a minister's family is fairly known from 
church and town records. Mr. C'hauncy of Hatfield used from 
fifty to sixty cords. Mr. Edwards, aftei- 174(1. consumed, in 
Northampton, upwards of seventy loads each year. It has been 
estimated that one hundred families of Hadley, as late as 1765, 
when the size of fireplaces was less than a century earlier, con- 
sumed not less than three thousand cords annually. Westfield 
burned as nuieh wood per family as other towns in the county. 
Sylvester Judd, the historian of Hadley, wrote : "The minister's 
Avood was got on days appointed, and the minister furnished the 

Ezra Clapp Hotel, built before 1752 

flip and other drink, but not the food." These were high days 
for young men, and for some not young, in Hadley and in other 

It would seem that among other amusements there must 
have been sleigh rides in winter. Judd tells us that "the first 
settlers of New England knew nothing about sleds and sleighs, 
nor did they use them for some yeare. In Hampshire, wood was 
sometimes sledded before 1670, but in general it was carted long 
after that date. For many years logs were conveyed to saw pits 
and sawmills on wheels, and almost everything was carted." He 
adds: "There were no sleigh-rides in these towns till after 1730 
or 1740." Later, as those now living can testify, this form of 

( 381 ) 


winter amusement was common. Weddings were festive occa- 
sions and not infrequently both merry and boisterous. 

Rev. John Ballantine, who seems to have made careful en- 
tries in his diary of the largess of his people, notes the 
following articles received on the 16th of October, the day be- 
fore the marriage of his daughter, Mary, to Capt. John Ash- 
ley: "Mrs. Parks, one gallon of rum; Capt. Moseley, two quarts 
of rum ; Deacon Shepard, a leg of mutton ; Mrs. Clapp, one quart 
of rum ; Thomas Root, two quarts of brandy ; Matthew Noble, 
flour and suet; Ensign Noble, some butter; Clark King, a pig; 
Ensign Ingersoll, two quarts of rum ; Mrs. Ashley, a loin of mut- 
ton and butter ; Moseley, a pig and three fowls ; A. Weller, some 
apples ; Mrs. Ford, cabbage and potatoes ; L. Noble, two fowls ; 
D. Root, two quarts of brandy." 

In this list articles are not wanting adapted to stimulate 
hilarity. If they were placed on the table they would hardly 
correspond to a modern array of bridal presents. 

The bridegroom above named was a resident of Sheffield, 
and in the time of Shays' rebellion major-general of the state 
militia. The lineage of the bride, Mary, was restored to AVest- 
field in the person of Jane P. Ashley, her granddaughter, who 
married William G. Bates in 1830. 

The dress of the bride was often as expensive as her cir- 
cumstances allowed. The "coming out groom and bride" were 
always expected at the church services on the Sabbath imme- 
diately following the wedding. The law of 1647, imposing a fine 
of £5 for gaining the affections of a girl with intent of marriage, 
before having obtained permission from her parents or guar- 
dians, does not appear to have been applied to any suitor in 
Westfield or in Hampden county. 

Lechford, in his "News from New England," says of fu- 
nerals in 1642: "At burials, nothing is read, nor any funeral 
sermon made, but all the neighborhood, or a good company of 
them, come together by tolling of the bell, and carry the dead sol- 
emnly to his grave, and there stand by him while he is buried." 
The earlier ministers of New England, we are told, refrained 
from prayers at funerals, because there was in the Bible neither 

( 382 ) 


precept nor example for such prayers. Near the close of the 
seventeenth century prayers at funerals were not uncommon, 
and twenty years later Mather tells us that the minister in many 
towns made a prayer at the house and a short speech at the 

The English custom of a bountiful meal at the house of the 
deceased just after the funeral had justification among the colo- 
nists in the fact that the homes of many attending were at a dis- 
tance. That these meals should be of a festive sort can hardly 
be excused on the ground that they were a means of allaying 
grief. The day before the burial of his wife we find Pareon Bal- 
lantine made the following entries in his diary, showing that his 
people were mindful of his needs : 

Donation Mr. Zachariah Bush, — piece of fresh meat 

'' " Bohan King,— spare rib; 

" " John Phelps. 2 fowls, suet, sugar. 

" " Capt. Bush, 2 pieces of fresh meat. 

" " Deacon Mather, 2 fowls, biscuit and pie. 

" " Mr. Morse, piece of fresh meat. 

*' '' John Atwater, Butler's cake. 

" " Dr. Whitney, bottle of cherry rum etc. 

" " Mr. Samuel Fowler, bottle of cherry rum. 

What Mr. Ballantine bought to supplement these gifts we 
do not know; but we may believe the supply for the meal that 
followed the funeral exercises was ample. 

The simplicity and the limited means of country people for- 
bade their adoption of many of the extravagant customs of the 
aristocracy in Boston— customs brought mainly from London. 
We are told that "in some cases, gloves were lavishly given — 
700 pairs at one funeral 1000 pairs at another, and above 3000 
pairs and 200 rings at the funeral of A. Faneuil in Boston in 
1738. A Boston minister, in 1728, estimated that the rings and 
gloves which he received at funerals in a year were worth £15." 
During King Philip's war many believed that the sufferings 
the settles endured were the result of their wickedness. Rev. 
Solomon Stoddard of Northampton, writing to Increase Mather, 
says : "I desire that you would speak to the Governor that there 

( 383 ) 


may be some thorough care for a reformation," and among the 
"many sins grown in fashion" he mentions "intolerable pride in 
clothes and hair." At the November session of the legislature, 
in 1675, many sins were noted, with penalties provided for those 
who yielded to them. Under previous sumptuary laws three 
Westfield women were "presented," in 1673, for wearing silk 
contrary to law. In 1676 scores of persons in the Connecticut 
valley were fined, some for wearing silk in a "flaunting man- 
ner," and others for indulging in long hair. Five of these were 
from Westfield. But then, as now, men admired beautiful dress 
and the Avomen Avere not averse, so that the sumptuary laws soon 
became obsolete. 

We quote a paragraph from the history of Pittsfield, as it 
gives a glimpse of some of the sons and daughters of Westfield 
as inhabitants of that town. "Still another class of festivities, 
less generally remembered, were the evening suppers, at which 
the choicest of substantial country luxuries— from the goose and 
turkey, down to the pumpkin-pie and nut-cake, not forgetting 
apples, chestnuts and cider — were served in turn at the houses 
of circles of friend's, who formed a kind of informal club ; the 
most flourishing of Avhieh was the Woronokers, composed of im- 
migrants from Westfield, and their descendants— a right hearty 
and jovial set of men, noted for stalwart frames, vigorous and 
manly intellects, integrity of character, and devotion to the 
democratic party. ' ' 

Holland says that a large portion of the inhabitants of Pitts- 
field at the time of its incorporation, 1761, Avere from Westfield. 

Meeti)ig-IIonses.—We are accustomed to speak of church 
buildings as churches. The early settlers designated their houses 
for Sabbath gatherings, meeting-houses, for they Avere used, when- 
ever they met together, to transact any business requiring the 
meeting together of the people. Some room in the fort, or 
' ' f orted house, ' ' Avas probably used for Sabbath meetings by the 
people of Westfield previous to 1672. In December of that year 
we find the toAvn voted "that the toAvn Avill go on Avith building 
a meeting house Avith all convenient speed as may be. The di- 
mensions are as folloAVS; — about thirty-six feet square. [Height 

( 384 ) 


of ceiling] is fourteen feet and for form like the Hatfield meet- 
ing house. ' ' According to tradition, the settlement begun on the 
north side of the "Westfield river, and the settlement at Little 
river on the Windsor road, strove with each other and with the 
settlement between the rivers, respecting the location of the 
meeting house. Each wished the house to be located in its own 
precincts. After it was decided to build it on the "fort side," 
not far from the confluence of the rivers, there still was diversity 
of opinion respecting the place in which it should stand. The 
record says that "after solemn looking to God, the lotts were 
drawn. The lot came forth on the place before CTOodman Phelps' 
or Goodman Gunn's, on the point." 

This first meeting house was probably made of logs and 
stood on the north side of Main street on the terrace near the con- 
fluence of the rivers and a little northwest of the bridge over 
Little river. A central aisle led from the entrance to the pulpit. 
On each side of this aisle, and at right angles to it, were the long 
benches that filled the body of the church. On the sides of the 
church were benches perhaps at right angles to those filling the 
body of the house. These were the flank seats. 

As the little community increased in numbers more seats 
were needecL By vote of the town, May 10, 1703, "Gallareyes" 
were built on each side of the meeting house. The end gallery 
opposite the pulpit may have been built when the church was 

The body seats decreased in dignity from front to rear. The 
dignity of other seats was determined by vote of the town acting 
upon a report of a committee previously appointed. Change in 
seats of the church required a new dignifying of seats. 

At a town meeting held the same year that the side galleries 
were put in, among other matters, it was voted "to build pcAVs in 
ye meeting house Avhere ye flank seats now stand." It Avas also 
"voted that the fore pew is in Dignity betv^^een the fore seats in 
ye body and ye Table and the second pew to be in Dignity be- 
town ye first and second seats in ye body ; and the fore Gallary 
is accounted to be in Dignity between ye second and third seats 
in ye body ; and the side fore seats in ye Gallary to be in Dignity 

35-2 ( 385 ) 


between the third and forth in ye body and ye second seats in 
fore Gallary to be in dignity between ye fifth and sixth seats in 
ye body ; and the Alley seats in ye Gallary to be in Dignity with 
the sixth seats in ye body; and ye second seats in the side Gal- 
lary to be in betAveen the sixth and seventh seats in ye body." 

It was also ' ' voted yt Capt. Phelps, Sergt Root, Xathl Ban- 
croft, Saml Ashley & Thomas Noble Junr, are chosen to seat per- 
sons in the meeting house. ' ' 

If the town concurred with the report of the committee, as 
was the usual custom, there was no seating anew for some years, 
until a change of population made a new seating necessary. 

The general rules for seating guiding the seating committee 
were enunciated at times by vote of the town and were quite uni- 
form. December 10, 1722. upon the completion of the second 
meeting-house (the first being at that time inadequate), which 
stood on Main street, just east of Meadow street, the seating 
committee Avas ordered "to seat by age and estate only, and that 
so much estate as any man's list is advanced by negroes shall be 
excluded and cast out." Also that the seating should be done 
''by nine men in three distinct companies, and so the major part 
of them agreeing to stand ; and that no man shall be seated for 
more than only a third part of what estate he hath by hire or by 
marrying a widow." 

At a new seating several years later the "seators" were en- 
joined by vote of the town "to observe that three pounds on his 
(one's) list shall be accounted equal to one year of age, and to 
seat according to age, estate, and qualifications according to their 
best judgment." We cannot tell what heartburnings this seat- 
ing caused 

"AYlien in order due and fit 
As by public vote directed, ranked and classed the people sit ; 
. . . Clerkly squire before the clown 

From the brave coat lace-embroidered to the gray frock shad- 
ing down." 

In 1772 it was voted to new seat the church by the ' ' Auction 
Rule." Our readers are acquainted with this method. 

The second church building, of which we have spoken, was 
in accordance with a vote passed November 17, 1719, "to build a 

( 386 ) 

i£ 3 .£ 

a 3 


O 5 


meeting house barn fation with a bell coney upon the middle of 
it, fifty two foots in length and forty one foots in breadth." 
"Barn fation" meant having two roofs and gables. The gables 
are said to have been on the north and south ends. The bell, for 
which two hundred acres of land were exchanged, took the place 
of the drum-call to meeting, and was rung by a rope reaching 
to the middle of the church floor. This building was in size a 
little larger than the main building of the Westfield atheneum, 
which is forty-six by forty-two feet. 

The raising of this building Avas a town affair, and is a fa- 
mous example of such occasions. No one has chronicled the do- 
ings of the day ; we can only quote from the town records the pre- 
paratory votes. 

June 6, 1720, "it was voated by the town that they would 
begin to raise the meeting house on WednesDay morning, at 2 
hours by the sun in the morning, the 8th day of this instant 
June, (assembling) to work, at the beat of the drum every morn- 
ing, until it is done." 

"It was also voted that all men belonging to the town shall 
assist in the w^ork of raising the meeting house, from seventeen 
years of age and upwards, on pain and penalty of three shillings 
per day for every day's neglect during the time of raising, ex- 
cept all such as shall make a satisfactory excuse unto the comitey 
yt have the charge of ye Mater. It was also voted that the com- 
itey shall have liberty to prepare four or five barels of beer at 
the Town's Charge for that concern above mentioned and that 
Captain Phelps, Deacon Nolles & Deacon Ashley should go and 
desire Mr. Taylor to come to the place of raising the meeting- 
house then & there at the time apointed to seek to God for his 
guide and protection in the work of raising." 

Whether the raisers needed protection from timbers, or from 
beer, is indefinite. This vote leads us to infer that it was too 
early as yet for the English custom of beer drinking to yield to 
the drinking of cider, which became general before the close of 
the century. That long seats filled the body of the house in this 
building as in the old is evident from a later vote "to take out 
all the long seats in the body of the meeting-house and build or 

( 388 ) 


make pews in their places.'' In the afternoon of the same day 
the vote was reconsidered and lost. Fifty years ago in attending 
meetings in the conference room of the Congregational church 
the women occupied the seats at the minister's left and the men 
those at the right. This custom seems to have been an old Eng- 
lish custom, still strictly enforced in some of the churches of 
England and maintained in Westfield in the long seats of the 
earlier church buildings. 

That the church buildings had a men's side and a women's 
side is evident from the vote of the town in January, 1748-49, 
when it was voted "to build a pew for the minister's wife and 
family, the woman's side of the house." Pews restored the fam- 
ily in the church seats. 

It appears that for more than one hundred and fifty years 
the people of Westfield attended church without any means of 
warming the church building. An ample force of "tithing 
men" was maintained all the while, who, according to the vote 
of the town, were to "have full power to take especial care that 
all disordei's in the meeting house, especially upon the Sabbath 
day, are stilled, and to give such correction that they shall think 
fit, unto the boys, to keep them in order. " It is not strange that 
the boys in the gallery were restive under the long sermons, and 
were sometimes noisy as they attempted to warm their feet by 
striking their boots together. When it was first proposed in iovm 
meeting that the Congregational society should raise money for 
stoves the vote of the moderator decided the tie vote in the af- 
firmative : but a reconsideration followed and reference to a com- 
mittee to report. December, 1827, in the third meeting-house, to 
be described hereafter, the innovation, so long dreaded by many, 
came. The town voted that the "selectmen provide at the ex- 
pense of the Congregational society of this town, two stoves to- 
gether with pipes, not to exceed in am't 80 dollars." 

William G. Bates, in his ' ' Pictures of Westfield, ' ' says : ' ' AVe 
cannot conclude, without referring to an incident, in those times, 
strongly illustrating the power of the imagination. 'The meeting- 
house' was then unwarmed. There was no fireplace or stove in it, 
and no provision for heat, except a hot brick, or soap-stone, or a 

( 389 ) 


foot-stove. There were, besides, no sidewalks, as we have now ; 
and the article of overshoes was confined to a few persons. The 
congTegation iised to wade 'to meeting.' sit with wet feet during 
a long sermon, and then hurry home to those restoring influences, 
which so effectually guarded against colds. The project was agi- 
tated, of warming 'the meeting-house.' It met with a furious 
opposition. Dr. Atwater was one of the innovators; yet even his 
opinions could not dispel the dread of stove-heat. At last 
[many yeare after the death of Mr. Atwater], two stoves 
were put in. Some said, 'Oh how comfortable!' Said oth- 
ers, 'It makes me faint !' On the second Sunday, owing to a 
neglect to provide fuel, no fires Avere built. But the stoves were 
there ! One lady, of Court street, who was annoyed on the first 
Sunday, was still more annoyed on the second. She at first re- 
sorted to the reviving fan. She brandished it furiously, but its 
breezes could not cool that odious and distressing stove-heat. She 
untied her bonnet-strings, threw off her shawl, and opened her 
cloak : but the stove-heat increased upon her. Unable longer to 
sustain the fury of the Nebuchadnezzarean furnace, she rushed 
doAAm the broad aisle, and sought relief from the internal heat in 
an atmosphere of 20 degrees beloAv zero. It may readily be im- 
agined, that good old Parson Knapp Avas seized Avith a fit of 
coughing about that time, and that the congregation AA^ondered, 
hoAV tAvo cold stoves could produce such an inflammation in only 
one person." 

The relation of the ministers of early Ncav England to their 
people is vividly portrayed by MclNIaster. "High as the doctors 
stood in the good graces of their felloAV-men, the ministers formed 
a yet more respected class of New England society. In no other 
section of the country had religion so firm a hold on the affec- 
tions of the people. NoAvhere else were men so truly devout, and 
the minister held in such high esteem. It had, indeed, from the 
days of the founders of the colony been the fashion among Ncav 
Englanders to look to the pastor Avith profound reverence, not 
unmingled Avith aAve. He Avas not to them as other men were. 
He Avas the just man made perfect ; the oracle of DiA'ine Avill ; the 
sure guide to truth. The heedless one Avho absented himself from 

( 390 ) 


the preaching' on a Sabbath was hunted up by the tithing man, 
Avas admonished severely, and if he still persisted in his evil ways, 
was tined, exposed in the stocks, or imprisoned in the cage. 

"In snch a community the authority of the reverend man 
was almost supreme. To speak disrespectfully concerning him, 
to jeer at his sermons, or to laugh at his odd ways, was sure to 
bring down on the offender a heavy fine. His adA'ice was often 
sought on matters of state, nor did he hesitate to give, unasked, 
his opinion on what he considered the arbitrary acts of the high 
functionaries of the province. In the years immediately pre- 
ceding the war, the power of the minister in matters of govern- 
ment and politics had been greatly impaired by the rise of that 
class of laymen in the foremost rank of which stood Otis, Han- 
cock and Samuel Adams. Yet his spiritual influence was as great 
as ever. He was still a member of the most learned and respected 
class in a community by no means ignorant. He was a divine and 
came of a family of divines. Not a few of the preachers who wit- 
nessed the revolution, could trace descent through an unbroken 
line of ministers, stretching back from son to father for three 
generations, to some canting, psalm-singing Puritan, who bore 
arms with distinction on the great day at Naseby, or had prayed 
at the head of Oliver's troops, and had, at the restoration, when 
old soldiers of the Protector were turning their swords into reap- 
ing-hooks and their pikes into pruning-knives, come over to New 
England to seek liberty of worship not found at home. Such a 
man had usually received a learned education at Harvard or at 
Yale, and would, in these days, be thought a scholar of high at- 
tainments. Of the men who Sunday after Sunday preached to 
the farmers and blacksmithsof the petty villages, one had explored 
the treasures of Hebrew literature, another was an authority on 
matters of Greek grammar, while a third added to his classical ac- 
quirements a knowledge of metaphysics and philosophy. His nar- 
roAvmindedness and sectarianism, his proneness to see in the com- 
monest events of daily life manifestations of Divine wrath, his 
absurd pedantry, his fondness for scraps of Latin, may well seem 
laughable. Yet, bigoted as he was. the views he held and the 

( 391 ) 


doctrines he preached would by his great-grandfather have been 
despised as latitudinarian. Compared M'ith Cotton or Hooker, a 
New England minister of 1784 had indeed made vast strides to- 
ward toleration. He was a very different man from the fanatics 
who burned Catholics at the stake, who drove out the Quakers, 
who sent Roger Williams to find an asylum among the Indians of 
Rhode Island, and sat in judgment on the witches of Salem and 
Andover. In the general advance from ignorance toward 
knowledge, the whole line was going forward. ' ' 

Speaking of the minister just after the war of the revolu- 
tion, McMaster says: "When at last the independence the min- 
ister so much wished was achieved, he found himself, with all his 
neighbors, in the depth of poverty. His stipend, which had once 
been paid with punctuality to the last pistareen, was now delayed 
till long after the day of payment, and often consisted of bar- 
rels of turnips, bushels of corn, sacks of beans and flitches of 
bacon. Patches appeared on his homespun suit, and in extreme 
need he betook himself in his moments of leisure to teaching 
school. His home was turned into a seminary for half a dozen 
boys, whom he undertook, for a miserable pittance, to board, 
lodge, and fit for college. Yet his dignity and self-complacency 
were never for a moment laid aside. He had succeeded his father 
in the pastorship of the little white meeting-house, and he never 
left his charge till he was carried out to be laid away in the shade 
of the elm and chestnut trees in the burying ground beside the 

"His sermon was the one event of the week. There were no 
concerts, no plays, no lectures, none of the amusements which 
in the great towns like Boston, drew away the thoughts from re- 
ligion. On a Sabbath the whole village turned out in force with 
note book and pencil to take down the text and so much of the 
discussion as they could, and, when the services were over, drew 
up along the aisle to let the great man and his family pass out 
first. Nor were his discourses altogether undeserving such 
marks of distinction. ... In truth, of the writers who, up 
to the peace, and for many years after, put forth treatises, argu- 
ments, and expositions on metaphysical themes, scarcely one can 

( 392 ) 


be named who was not a native of New England, and a pastor of 
a New England church." 

Town Ministers.— The earlier ministers in Westfield were 
ministers of the town, selected by authority of the town and paid 
by town appropriations. March 19, 1666, the town appropriated 
a lot of twelve acres for the minister. According to the account 
of Rev. Edward Taylor, written a few years later : 

"Westfield, then Warronnokee, coming to be an English 
plantation, had at first Mr. John Holyoake, son of that Godly 
Captain Elizur Holyoake of Springfield, to dispense ye word of 
life amongst them Ano Dmi 1667, about half a year ; but in ye 
beginning of winter following, he, as finding ye ministry of the 
word too heavie for him, desisted : from which time till ye be- 
ginning of winter 1668 they had no minister." 

Springfield was still recognized as the parent colony. Co- 
operating with a committee at Springfield, it was voted, in 1668, 
''that Capt. Cook shall go into the Bay to procure a minister." 
The record of this qviest is wanting, but he probably obtained 
Rev. Moses Fisk, son of a minister of the church at Chelmsford, 
for he served as minister three years. They then tried to obtain 
a Mr. Adams from Dedham, but failed, finding him "not as yet 
movable from ye collidge." 

Mr. Edward Taylor was the next minister sought and ob- 
tained. He was the minister selected by the town soon after its 
organization. The town, including every man, woman and child 
within its borders, was his parish. For more than half a cent- 
ury, during its early formative period, he was the religious, the 
educational, and, in large degree, the civil leader of the town.- 
An outline of his life cannot fail to present facts of importance 
relating to the early history of the town. A letter by one of his 
descendants, Henry W. Taylor, Esq., of Canandaigua, to William 
G. Bates and dated October 1, 1869, gives some facts pertaining 
to the early life of Rev. Edward Taylor. Prom this we quote : 

"He was born in England, educated for the ministry, stud- 
ied seven years in one of their universities; but the ejection of 
2,000 dissenting clergymen in 1662, and the persecutions which 
that class of Christians sufi'ered, induced him to a voluntary ex- 

( 393 ) 


ile. It seeiiis he was then an ardent anti-monarchist, and his 
early writings are said to breathe, in no doubtful terms, his 
strong aversion to the rulings of the existing dynasty. He was, 
through his whole life, a most voluminous writer, keeping a diary 
of the running events of his life, and recording things of pass- 
ing interest. He left a large number of written folio volumes, 
and he was in the habit of transcribing, with his own hand, the 
books which were loaned to him by his friend. Judge Sewall of 
Boston. Mr. Taylor also studied medicine ; and during his life 
was accustomed to minister as well to the diseases of the body, as 
of the soul. He also gave attention to the study of natural his- 
tory, and some of his compositions were published in the scien- 
tific literature of the day." 

The description of Mr. Taylor's voyage across the Atlantic 
his residence in Cambridge and his entering upon the work of 
the ministry in Westfield we quote from his diary : 

"Anno Domini 1668. April 22, being Lord's day, between 
ten and eleven o'clock at night, I came for sea, taking boat at 
Execution Dock, Wapping. They got to the Downs, May 1, and 
we are forced to tarry for the winds. I sent a letter to London 
and another to Sketchley. May 3, I had a sad forenoon, but to- 
ward evening the ship-master sent for me, and enjoined me to go 
to prayer with them. ^la}' 14, against Dover. I sent a letter to 
my brother Richard. ]May 15, against the Isle of AVight. May 
20, against the Lisard. Lord's day. May 24, I then being put to 
exercise spoke from John 3d, 3d. May 31, Lord's day, wind 
west. I was very sick, so that I could not perform the duties of 
the day. June 7, our latitude is forty-three degrees. These two 
last days we sailed Avell nigh 150 leagues. I being somewhat bet- 
ter in health than before, did exercise from and apply the doc- 
trine that before I approved. June 13, we exercised from Isaiah 
3d, 11th. June 18, our latitude 41 degrees, longitude 51 degrees. 
After dinner I read the 4th chapter of John, in Greek. Lord's 
day, June 21, I approved the doctrine I delivered the Lord's day 
before. Lord's day, June 28, I exercised from the words, "For 
the reward of their hands shall be given them,'' Isaiah 3d, 11th. 
July 2d, sounded 50 fathoms. July 4th, thick fog; seeing land 

( 394 ) 


on both hands, Plymouth on the left and Salem on the right, to- 
wards snn-setting', about five o'clock we saw the Island in our 
passage up to Boston. About three o'clock on Lord's day, July 
5th, in the morning we came to shore. July 23d I was admitted 
into the college, pupil under Mr. Thomas Graves, Sir Fellow in 
a great, yet civil class. I continued there three years and a quar- 
ter, all which time I was college butler. I proposed to lay dowTi 
my place at the commencement. The President by his incessant 
request and desires prevailed with me to tarry in it, as for three 
years before; but after a quarter's trial he (I) was invited by 
Mr. Thomas Flint of Braintree to come and study with him. He 
(I) went in 1671, but soon returned and settled in the college, 
and was instituted scholar of the house the 16th day of Novem- 
ber, 1671 : but the 17th being quarter day, Thomas Dewey a mes- 
senger from Westfield on Connecticut river, to the Bay to get a 
minister for the people, being by eight or nine elders, met at the 
lecture at Boston, directed to myself, came to me with a letter 
from Mr. Increase Mather ; and whom, for ansAver, I referred to 
the Rev. President Chauncey and FelloAvs ; and finding Mr. Dan- 
forth for it, Mr. Oakes indifferent, rather advising to it, the 
President altogether against it." 

At this time the President and Fellows wanted to retain Mr. 
Taylor for a Fellow. But Mr. Danforth the Chief Magistrate- 
advised, and did on the 18th advise Anth Mr. Increase Mather 
and Mr. Flint. Their advice was positive for going to Westfield. 

"Nov. 27, I set out with ]\Ir. Dewey, and arrived at West- 
field Dec. 1. On Lord's day I preached to them from Matthew 
3d, 2d — my first sermon, Dec. 3, 1671. 

"My going to Westfield Avith Mr. DeAvey, Avas a great part 
of the way, by markd trees : I arrived and lodged the first night 
at Captain Cook's, in the little village." 

The Westfield settlement Avas small Avhen ]\Ir. Taylor came 
into it : the cloud of King Philip 's Avar was gathering about to- 
burst in devastation and slaughter upon the scattered towns ; 
Westfield seemed especially exposed to attack, being the Avestern- 
most settlement. It seemed to be no time to organize churches 
and provide for the needs of a fixed population. HoAvever hope- 

( 395 ) 


fill the outlook, when Mr. 'I'aylor found his Avay with i\Ir. Dewey 
on their horses through the forest from Cambridge to AVestfield, 
times soon changed for the worse, and whether this outpost of 
western advance could be maintained, was soon a very grave 

But !o\e is not bound by i)rudential considerations. Mr. 
Taylor was winning the afl'eetions of a worthy woman, Avho had 
already won his heart. By what sacreligious hands so touching 
and fulsome evidence of his attachment as a love letter, written 
not long before his marriage, should have been deposited among 
the collections of the Connecticut historical society, we cannot 
tell. Yet it is there and we submit a copy of it, as transcribed by 
his great-grandson : 

"AVestfield, Mass., 8th day of the 7th month, 1674. 

"My Dove: — I send you not my heart, for that I hope is 
sent to Heaven long since, and unless it has awfully deceived me 
it hath not taken up its lodgings in any one's bosom on this side 
the royal city of the Great King ; but yet the most of it that is 
allowed to be layed out upon any creature doth safely and singly 
fall to your share. So much my post pigeon presents you with 
here in these lines. Look not (I entreat you) on it as one of 
love 's hyperboles. If I borrow the beams of some sparkling met- 
aphor to illustrate my respects unto thyself by, for you having 
made my breast the cabinet of your affections as I yours mine. I 
know not how to offer a fitter comparison to set out mj^ love by, 
than to compare it unto a golden ball of pure fire rolling up and 
down my breast, from which there flies now and then a spark 
like a glorious beam from the body of the flaming sun. But alas ! 
striving to catch these sparks into a love letter unto yourself, and 
to gild it with them as with a sun beam, find, that by what time 
they have fallen through my pen upon my paper, they have lost 
their shine and fall only like a little smoke thereon instead of 
gilding them. Wherefore, finding myself so much deceived, I am 
ready to begrudge my instruments, for though my love within 
my breast is so large that my heart is not sufficient to contain it, 
yet they can make it no more room to ride into, than to squeeze 
it up betwixt my black ink and white paper. But know that it 
is the coarsest part that is couchant there, for the finest is too 

( 397 ) 


fine to clothe in any linguist and huswifry, or to be expressed in 
words, and though this letter bears but the coarsest part to you, 
yet the purest is improved for you. But now, my dear love, lest 
my letter should be judged the lavish language of a lover's pen, 
I shall endeavor to show that conjugal love ought to exceed all 
other love. 1st, appears from that which it represents, viz. : The 
respect there is betwixt Christ and his church, Eph. 5th, 25th, 
although it differs from that in kind ; for that is spiritual and 
this human, and in degree, that is boundless and transcendent, 
this limited and subordinate : yet it holds out that this should be 
cordial and with respect to all other transcendent. 2d, Because 
conjugal love is the ground of conjugal union, or conjugal shar- 
ing the effects of this love, is also a ground of this union. 3d, 
From those Christian duties which are incumbent on persons in 
this state as not only a serving God together, a praying together, 
a joining in the ruling and instructing their family together, 
which could not be carried on as it should be without a great 
degree of true love, and also a mutual giving each other to each 
other, a mutual succoring each other in all states, ails, griev- 
ances; and how can this be when there is not a love exceeding 
all other love to any creature! And hereby if persons in this 
state have not love exceeding all love, it's with them for the most 
part as with the strings of an instrument not tuned up, when 
struck upon makes but a jarring, harsh sound. But when we 
get the wires of an instrument equally drawn up, and rightly 
struck upon, sound together, make sweet music whose harmony 
doth enravish the ear; so when the golden strings of true affec- 
tion are struck up into a right conjugal love, thus sweetly doth 
this state then harmonize to the comfort of each other and to the 
glory of God when sanctified. But yet, the conjugal love must 
exceed all other, yet it must be kept within bounds, for it must 
be subordinate to God's glory: the which that mine may be so. 
it having got you in its heart, doth offer my heart with you in 
it as a more rich sacrifice into God through Christ, and so it sub- 
scribeth me. Your true love till death, 

Edw^\rd Taylor. 
This for my friend and only beloved Miss Eliz- 
abeth Fitch at her father's house in Normch. " 

( 398 ) 


Miss Fitch was the daughter of Rev. James Fitch, one of 
the original proprietors, and the first clergyman settled in Nor- 
wich, Conn. Mr. Taylor was married to Miss Fitch before the 
close of the year. 

During Philip's war he and his bride shared the toils, the 
privations, the anxieties and the heartrending sorrows of the 
colonists. Every night, for many months, he with his wife and 
others repaired to the fort, one of the forted houses of which 
mention is often made in the town records, and every night the 
watch was set to guard the encircling palisades and give notice 
if the enemy approached. In the midst of the war, as we have 
seen, the central authority of the colonies urged the settlers to 
abandon the town and remove to Springfield. The stout reply 
of the little settlement we have given. The framer of this reply 
was the young minister, whose heart was with the people and 
whose patriotic determination fitted him for leadership in 
''times that tried men's souls." 

But the terrible years of Philip 's war wore away. AVestfield 
had been saved from the fire and slaughter that drove the settlers 
of Deerfield and of Northfield from their homes, though several 
of the people of Westfield had fallen victims "to ye rage of ye 
enemy." A brighter future dawned. Steps were taken to es- 
tablish a church and to install Mr. Taylor. 

The letters inviting a council bore the date of July. 1679. 
August 27 w^as the day for the assembling of the council. The 
day is described as the last fourth day of the sixth month. This 
is in accord with the ecclesiastical year, old style, which began 
the year with the first of March. The council, we are told, ' ' con- 
sisted of Rev. Solomon Stoddard of Northampton, Mr. Strong, 
ruling elder, and Capt. Aaron Cook and Lieut. Clark, messen- 
gers ; Rev. John Russell of Hadley, and Lieut. Smith and Mr. 
Younglove, messengei's; Rev. Pelatiah Glover of Springfield, 
teaching elder and I. Holyoke, Dea. Burt and Mr. Parsons, mes- 
sengers ; and one messenger from Meriden, Conn., the pastor being 
detained by sickness ; there -were present also, as guests, the Rev. 
Samuel Hooker of Farmington, Conn., and the 'Worshipful 
Maj. John Pynchon' of Springfield. The council assisted inorgan- 

( 399 ) 


izing the church, consisting of the foUowing members: — Edward 
Taylor, John Maiidsley (Moseley), Samuel Loomis, Isaac Phelps, 
from the church in Windsor ; Josiah Dewey and John Ingersoll 
from Northampton, and John Root from Farmington, Conn. The 
council then proceeded in accordance with the expressed wish of 
the church to ordain Mr. Taylor as pastor." 

Mr. Taylor, by study of medicine, had prepared himself to 
care for the bodies as w^ell as the souls of his charge. He 
was much beloved and respected by the people of the town. 
However severe the stress of war, however straitened their cir- 
cumstances, the town records show their readiness to vote his 
full salary. 

Mr. Taylor, like other country ministers, was a farmer. His 
people could not help him to write sermons, they could help 
him in his field work. It seems to have been the custom for his 
parishioners to render him voluntary aid in haying and harvest 
time. There is a vote on record providing such aid and also re- 
quiring the women of the town to assist Mrs. Taylor in spinning. 
When Mr. Taylor was advanced in life, the town increased his 
salary one-third. AVith filial tenderness they provided by abun- 
dant gifts for his table on Thanksgiving and other festive occa- 

One of his daughters married Isaac Stiles, whose son became 
president of Yale college. President Stiles made these notes of 
Mr. Taylor: "He was an excellent classical scholar, being mas- 
ter of three learned languages, a great historian, and every way 
a learned man. He had a steady correspondence with Judge 
Sewall of Boston, who duly communicated to him all the trans- 
actions in the assembly, and occurrences in the nation." "He 
was a vigorous advocate of Oliver Cromwell, and of civil and 
religious liberty. He was an incessant student." "A man of 
small stature, but firm ; of quick passions, yet serious and grave. 
Exemplary in piety, and for a sacred observance of the Lord's 

For many years he was the only physician in Westfield and 
for many miles around. Some of his medical, as well as his the- 
ological books, he transcribed. Natural history was hardly recog- 

( 400 ) 


laized as a school study, yet he accumulated no little knowledge 
of plants, minerals and animals. He continued to minister to his 
people fifty-seven and one-half years, preaching regularly till 
within a few years of his death in 1729, at the age of eighty- 

Mr. Nehemiah Bull succeeded Mr. Taylor. He, if not eccen- 
tric, was a man of marked individuality. He died in 1740, in 
the thirty-ninth year of his age and the fourteenth of his minis- 
try. Mr. David Parsons for a time supplied the pulpit, then 
Rev. John Ballantine began his life-long pastorate replete with 
toil. He died in 1776, aged sixty, having discharged the duties 
of a pastor for thirty-five years. Dr. Lathrop, for sixty-five 
years pastor of the church at West Springfield, says of him: "He 
was blessed with superior abilities, a clear understanding, a 
capacious mind and a solid judgment." "His ministerial life 
was a useful pattern to his brethren, and his Christian life was 
an instructive copy to his people." 

Rev. Noah Atwater was the next pastor. He left a tutor- 
ship at Yale and proved himself a very scholarly and efficient 
educational and religious leader. During his pastorate the plan 
of an academy was formed, a charter obtained, a fund collected, 
a finely proportioned building erected and the fourth academy 
in the state, the only one in Western jNIassachusetts, began its 
successful career. Mr. Atwater always prepared sermons in ad- 
vance of the immediate demand, visited every family frequently, 
before the academy was opened trained young men for college, 
and largely increased the numbers and the efficiency of the 
church. He was no common man, and, during the twenty years 
of his ministry, he evidently produced a deep impression upon 
the people of the town. He was a man of unceasing energy and 
was profoundly respected by his people. At the close of the 
twentieth year of his ministry, taking for his text, "Having 
therefore obtained help of God I continue unto this day," he 
delivered his last sermon November 22, 1801. 

As the meeting-house was too small for the population of the 
town, now numbering upwards of two thousand, a movement 
was begun to secure another. At an adjourned meeting, June, 

26-2 ( 401 ) 

Emerson Davis, D. D. 


1803, it was voted "to build the meeting house by sale of pews." 
It was also voted that the committee should "prepare a plan of 
a meeting house, copies of same to be distributed in the several 
parts of the town, that they may have opportunity to inspect the 
same, and which plan the said committee are to lay before the 
town. ' ' 

After the plan was agreed upon, it was voted, December 21, 
1803, that the committee should "ascertain the exact length and 
bigness of each stick of timber that shall be wanted in building 
said house, and put the same up at vendue at the lowest bidder." 

January 25, 1804, it was found that seventy-five pews had 
been bid off, by which $6,019.50 had been pledged toward build- 
ing the meeting-house. The town then voted that in considera- 
tion "of fifteen pews and the galleries to the use of the town, 
they will complete, finish, and forever keep in repair the said 
house. ' ' This was the last town meeting-house ; this, as we shall 
see, was at length transferred to the Congregational church and 

October 26, 1803, the town chose a committee to make ar- 
rangements on the occasion of settling Mr. Isaac Knapp. He 
was the last town minister, though his successor during the 
greater part of his pastorate discharged the functions of a town 

Mr. Emerson Davis, a graduate of Williams college and for 
a time tutor in the college, after fourteen years ' service in West- 
field academy as preceptor, became pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church, in 1836, as colleague of Mr. Knapp. On the thir- 
tieth anniversary of his settlement he preached a sermon re- 
view^ing the history of the church and recalling some of his own 
experiences. On the following Friday night he died suddenly, 
having had almost uninterrupted health during his long life of 
remarkable usefulness. No later minister may ever expect to 
hold such paternal relations as Dr. Davis to all the residents of 
the town.^ 

'The present pastor, who has himself served twenty-three years, in his bi- 
centennial sermon delivered in 1879, says; "It is a remarkable fact in those days of 
short pastorates and unsettled supplies, that the first six pastors of this clnirch began 
and ended their ministerial work here, and were laid to rest by their grateful and 
loving people. Their average term of service is thirty-two years." 

( 403 ) 

Third building of the town church, Westfield. Dedicated Jan. 1, 1806 
It stood on the site of the present First Congregational Church 


Dr. Davis was no oi'diiiaiy man. He was largely endowed 
with common sense and was noted for his industry, his sound 
judgment, his manly sincerity and his devotion to his pastoral 
duties. The town was his parish. He was ever the thoughtful 
and wise counsellor both in secular and in religious affairs. 

His preaching, simple, straightforward and free from un- 
necessary words, was always practical and instructive. No one 
can estimate the value of his fourteen years' service as preceptor 
of the academy and his thirty years service as pastor to the 
people of Westfield. He was by nature a leader of men. He 
exerted a strong influence in the earlier councils of the state 
board of education, of which he was a member, and in all the 
progressive educational movements of his time. He was a mem- 
ber of the school committee twenty-five years, was the god- 
father of the state normal school and at the time of his death 
was vice-president of Williams college. 

In 1856 the First Congregational church had become so 
large that from it was formed the Second Congregational church. 
The present church building of this church was completed in 
1861. The same year the First Congregational church completed 
its present building (the fourth in order of succession) on the 
site of the third town meeting-house. Several years later the 
tall and beautiful steeple of this church was plunged into the 
body of the church by a terrific gale ; a safer but less impressive 
steeple has been erected. The later pastors of the First Congre- 
gational church are : 

Rev. Elias H. Richardson, 1867-1872. 

Rev. Adoniram J. Titsworth, 1873-1878. 

Rev. John H. Lockwood, 1879 to the present. 


The parliament of Great Britain, March 7, 1774, ordered the 
port of Boston closed to commerce and the custom-house, courts 
of justice and other public offices to be removed to Salem. 
Salem refused to take them from Boston. The people of Marble- 
head offered the merchants of Boston the free use of their 
wharves. Other oppressive acts of parliament followed, affeet- 

( 405 ) 


ing not only Boston, but Massachusetts, and General Gage, with 
his soldiers, was on the ground to enforce the acts. On the first 
of June the port bill took full etit'ect. The ruin of trade resulted 
in the ruin of fortunes and abject poverty. "All classes," says 
Lossing, "felt the scourge of the oppressor, but bore it with re- 
markable fortitude. They Avere conscious of being right, and 
everywhere tokens of the liveliest sympathy were manifested. 
Flour, rice, cereal grains, fuel and money were sent to the suf- 
fering people from the ditferent colonies ; and the city of Lon- 
don, in its corporate capacity, subscribed one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars for the poor of Boston." 

May 25, 1774, a town meeting was called "to see what an- 
swer the town will make to a letter received from the Town Clerk 
of Boston setting forth the sore calamities the town labors un- 
der." Eldad Taylor, Elisha Parks, John Phelps, Dr. Samuel 
Mather and John Ingei'soll were chosen a committee to inquire 
into the state of Boston and report at a subsequent meeting. July 
19 they made the following report : 

"W^hereas the State House of Representatives of this Prov- 
ince on the 17th of June last past taking into consideration the 
many distresses and difficulties into which the American colonies 
and this Province in particular, are and must be reduced by the 
operation of certain late acts of Parliament, did resolve to de- 
termine that it is highly expedient that a Committee should be 
appointed by the several British Colonies on this continent to 
consult together on the present state of the colonies and to de- 
liberate and determine upon Proper Measures to be by them 
recommended to all colonies, for the recovery and establishment 
of the just rights and liberties, and the restoring of that Union 
and Harmony between Great Britain and the Colonies ardently 
desired by all good men: and did, on the same day, appoint a 
comtee of five Gentlemen to meet said Committee on the first day 
of September next at the city of Philadelphia for the purposes 
before said; — 

"Voted that we the inhabitants aforesaid in town meeting 
assembled, do cordially approve of the above measure taken by 
the said House, and would fervently pray that the Great Father 

( 406 ) 


of the Universe out of his abundant ^loodness, would bless their 
meeting, and afford them that wisdom that is profitable to direct 
upon measures most salutary to Extricate us from ye difficulties 
and distresses under which we are laboring, and that we are 
cheerfully ready to adopt and strictly to adhere to any practica- 
ble measures said Congress may recommend relative to said re- 
lief not inconsistent with our duty to (Jod and allegiance to our 
Rightful Sovereign George the third; and in the meantime we 
shall encourage our own Manufactures, and discountenance un- 
necessary use of India Teas and British goods, and that we shall 
not be wanting of charity to the town of Boston and Charles- 
town in their Distressing Day; — but think they ought to be re- 
lieved and sustained until the sense of the colonies may be had 
touching their conduct and shall send them that relief that their 
Circumstances and our abilities upon due consideration shall dic- 
tate and direct." 

' ' The foregoing was voted to be accepted by the town unani- 
mously, and the Clerk of the Town is desired to forward it to the 
Chairman of the Congress at Boston, and that it may be pub- 
licly entered in ye Publick Prints." 

July 19, 1774, the town voted unanimously and granted, to 
be paid out of the town treasury, forty shillings for the committee 
of congress. 

September 19, 1774, Capt. John Moseley, Eldad Taylor and 
Mr. Elisha Parks were chosen delegates to a county congress to 
meet at Northampton. 

Capt. John Moseley and Mr. Elisha Parks were chosen as 
representatives of the town to attend the general court, to be held 
October 5 at Salem. It was voted "that if the General Court 
doth not act constitutionally, that our Representatives, with Rep- 
resentatives of the Provinces, if they judge it expedient, do form 
themselves into a Congress unitedly to sit at Concord or any other 
place Avhere they may agree, to consult the best interests and 
safety of the Provinces at this critical time." 

At a town meeting November 14, 1774, it was "voted and ac- 
cepted the list of the soldiers as is returned by the Comtee, viz. 
Eldad Taylor, Elisha Parks, Joseph Root, Capt. John Moseley, 

( 407 ) 


Daniel Sacket, Daniel Fowler, Oliver Ingersole, Capt. Shepard 
appointed to make a division into two companies." 

"Voted that Capt. John Moseley and Mr. Elisha Parks be 
desired to attend the Congress at Cambridge next or next ses- 

At a meeting called in Jan. 1775, the same two men were 
chosen to attend the congress at Cambridge and instructed "that 
our Comtee shall not consent when in ye Provincial Congress, to 
any acts that may be there made to take up the Government or 
to assume kingly authority." 

At a meeting in February, 1775, "the Comtee appointed to 
search for Province Guns and to see what may be procured for 
the use of the minute-men on a sudden emergence, ' ' reported that 
they found in the houses of sundry persons some province 
arms, "witli what can be hired is between 30 or 40, and a few 

"Voted to provide necessary provision for those persons that 
are not able to provide for themselves & to see that all persons 
be immediately Equipt Avith Millitary accoutrements as the law 
of the Province requires." 

"Voted that the Comtee of Correspondence be a Comtee with 
the select men to make the necessary Provision as Granted 
above. ' ' 

"Voted by Great Majority That there shall or may be 
Raised a Company of minute men." 

On the 19th of April, 1775, Major Pitcairn ordered the ad- 
vanced guard of the British forces, sent to Lexington to destroy 
the military stores there collected. Eight colonists were 
killed and many others wounded. "When the news of Lex- 
ington reached "Westfield," Holland says, "seventy men at once 
set out for Boston, under command of Capt. Warham Parks and 
Lieutenants John Shepard and Richard Falley. ' ' According to 
Holland this is the largest number of soldiers that went at once 
from any town in Hampshire county, then including the three 
river counties. To this number we must add one officer, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel William Shepard, who, with Colonel Timothy 
Danielson of Brimtield, commanded a regiment. 

( 408 ) 


Some who have given us an aeeonnt of the men who set out 
from Westfield the day after the battle at Lexington say that 
there were seventy-six men from Westfield, others that there were 
fifty-three. There were probably fifty-three in the company that 
marched from AVestfield on the 20th of April, the day after the 
fight at Lexington. Others were delayed a little in Westfield, it 
seems, and joined the advance division near Boston. The follow- 
ing names are accredited to the first division : Zechariah Bush, 
Amos Bush, Moses Bush, Lewis Charles, James Culverson, Aaron 
Chapman, Moses Dewey, Benjamin Dewey, James Derrick, Eliab 
Dewey, Jonathan Dewey, Stephen Dewey, Moses Gunn, Eli 
Granger, Daniel Gunn, Warham Gunn, Joseph Kellogg, David 
King, Agnatius Linus, Bartholomew Noble, Asa Noble, Roger 
Noble, James Minocks, Azariah Moseley, Asahel Owen, David 
Pierey, Jared Plumb, Justus Pomerory, William Robinson, David 
Ross, Martin Root, Jonathan Snell, John Smith, Joshua Senn, 
Phineas Sexton, Abner Sackett, Israel Sackett, Gideon Shepard, 
John Shepard, David Taylor, Nathaniel Tremain, Jedediah Tay- 
lor, Ruggles Winchell, William Welch, Luther White, Reuben 
Whai-field, Solomon Williams, Abner Ward. 

A partial list of others than those named who served as sol- 
diers during some part of the war, we also note : William Ashley, 
Simeon Burke, Amos Barlow, Lieut. Bagg, Lieut. Buell, Aaron 
Bush, Elijah Bliss, Titus Bigelow, James Carter, John Carter, 
Buckley Caldwell, Noah Cobley, Aaron DcAvey, Deacon Israel 
Dewey, John Dewey, Noah Dewey, jr., Asaph Dewey, David 
Dewej', Sergt. Moses Dewey, Ely Danielson, Sergt. Benjamin 
Dewey, Timothy Dewey, A. Eager, Isaac Ensign, Samuel Fowler, 
Frederic Fowler, Ebenezer Fowler, Blackleach Fowler, Luther 
Fowler, John Fowler, Daniel Fowler, John Frost, Capt. John 
Ferguson, Stephen Fowler, Bildad Fowler, jr., David Fowler, jr., 
Capt. Gray, Elijah Haxman, Enoch Holcomb, jr., Moses Han- 
chet, Jacob Halliday, Oliver Ingersoll, John Ingersoll, Capt. John 
Kellogg, Aaron King, jr., Peter Kitts, Silas King, Gideon J. 
Linsey, Seth Linsey, Jonathan Lyon, Capt. David Moseley, Sam- 
uel Mather, Zadoc, Edward and Samuel Martindale, Bilda Noble, 
Lieut. Stephen Noble, Paul Noble, Sergeant Gad Noble, Shadrack 

( 409 ) . 


Noble, Aaron Phelps, Justin Pomeroy, David Province, William 
Palmer, Silas, Samnel and Jonathan Root, Joseph Root, jr., 
Datis E. Root, jr., Abner Stevenson, Simeon Stiles, William 
Sackett, Thomas Sparks, John Stiles, Phineas Southwell, Jona- 
than Sibley, Elijah Williams, Sergt. Martin Way, James Wood- 
bury, John AA^ilson, Nathan Waldron. During the first three 
years of the war it is estimated that more than a hundred men 
entered the army from Westfield.^ 

The town meeting, in April, a few days after the battle of 
Lexington, gave evidence of progress towards independence. The 
second article of the warrant was ''to consult what measure may 
be best to be done to secure our privileges and whether it is ad- 
visable to take up government." Money was also voted to pur- 
chase "powder and warlike stores." As the town records are 
imperfect, the record of the earlier committee of "Correspond- 
ence and Inspection" is wanting; but the names of those chosen 
by the town in December, 1775, are as follows : Col. John Mose- 
ley, Col. Elisha Parks, Daniel Fowler, Dr. Samuel Mather, Capt. 
David iNIoseley, Lieut. John Kellogg, Lieat. Daniel Sacket, En- 
sign Zachariah Bush, Bohan King, Oliver Ingersoll, David Wel- 
ler, jr.. Ensign Daniel Bragg, Lieut. Stephen Noble. 

At a subsequent election of a "Conunittee of Correspond- 
ence, Inspection and Safety," August, 1776, the new men elected 
were Martin Root, Robert Hazard, William H. Church, William 
Hiscock and Oliver Weller. The following year the committee 
included Benjamin Saxton and Capt. John Gray. 

During the winter of 1777-78, ever memorable for the patri- 
otic fortitude of the continental army suffering for clothing and 
other supplies at Valley Forge, Col. Shepard writes to his towns- 
men. At a meeting held March 9, 1778, it was voted to send War- 
ham Parks to Boston, "as an agent for the town in consequence 
of sundry letters from Col. Shepard & others in the continental 

'J. D. Bartlett, of Westfield, who has spent much time in gatliering facts for a 
history of the town tells me that he has evidence gathered from the state records and 
other sources that not less than two hundred and fifty men from Westfield entered 
the army during the Revolutionary war. Granting that the population of the town 
during this period was about 1,500, and that the males numbered 750, one-third of the 
males, practically all the able-bodied men of military age were at one time or another 
in the army. 

( 410 ) 


anny, — on the cost of the toAvn. Voted also to choose a com- 
mittee to remonstrate to the general conrt of the Nakedness of 
the Army, and of the Necessity of its being supplied with cloth- 
ing." It seems the state authorities acted promptly, considering 
the slow means of connnunication, for in April the town held a 
meeting and appointed a conniiittee to provide the fifty-three 
shirts and lifty-three pairs of shoes and stockings, demanded for 
the army. The committee, according to their judgment, made 
requisitions upon each householder. There was not time to make 
the articles required. The army was suft'ering. The articles, we 
may believe, Avere collected and forwarded promptly. There were 
no stores of ready-made clothing as now. Each family, in the 
rural districts especially, made its own clothing. 

At the May meeting, 1778, it was voted to pay thirty pounds 
to each soldier raised to reinforce the army. This was a bounty. 
At the May meeting of the next year the town, by a vote of 75 
to 1, instructed their representatives to give their votes for call- 
ing a state convention to form a new (state) constitution or form 
of government. 

June 29, 1779, it was "voted to raise the sum of Twelve 
Hundred Pounds for the encouragement of the soldiers to be 
raised to join the continental army forthwith, for the space of 
nine months." In August, Col. John Moseley was chosen a mem- 
ber of the convention to meet at Cambridge, September 1, to form 
a new (state) constitution. A committee of nine men were chosen 
to instruct the delegate. 

At the same meeting August, 1779, appeared a hint of dis- 
satisfaction with the existing government, which later ripened 
into a threatened revolution under the name of Shays 's rebellion. 
Then, and in the years following, the people of Westfield acted 
wdth due consideration, avoiding those ill-concerted gatherings 
and movements that disgraced many other sections of the state. 
Gen. Shepard of AA^estfield rendered most effective service in re- 
storing order to the state. It was voted at this time "that the 
petition of Benjamin Winchell and others for the purpose of 
stopping the Courts of Justice in the County be not entertained." 

At the October meeting, 1779, a bounty of thirty pounds was 
voted for each soldier "now to be raised for the continental ser- 

( 411 ) 


vice & destined to Claversack and also their mileage at two shill- 
ings per mile. ' ' When the state constitution was formed, and sub- 
mitted to the people of the state, the town appointed a committee 
of eleven "to make objections," and report. At the adjourned 
meeting the town voted to accept the whole constitution, except- 
ing those articles objected to by the committee. Among the im- 
provements suggested by the committee were the following: 

"The Senate should consist of 28 only.'" 

"The Governor should declare himself to be of the Chris- 
tian and Protestant Religion." 

"Justices of the Peace should be nominated by the town, 
and hold office for 3 years." 

"No minister of the gospel should be allowed a seat in the 
House of Representatives." 

As the war continued, the need of men at home was more se- 
verely felt and it was more and more difficult for Westfield to 
meet the requisitions for money and men. In 1780, June 16. the 
town voted "to give the nineteen soldiers to be raised for the con- 
tinental army for the term of six months three pounds per month 
in hard money, or Continental money equivalent, as wages, and 
one thousand dollars in continental money as bounty for each 
man and the bounty money to be paid before the marching of 
the men." July 5, five additional six months men were raised, to 
whom it was agreed to pay a like heavy bounty. As requested by 
the general court, the town, during the year, agreed to purchase 
twelve horses for the army. The town also voted to raise $44,000 
to purchase beef, in accord with the order of the general court. 
Before the year closed they voted to raise eighteen more men. It 
was voted to raise 30,000 pounds to defray the expenses of the 

January 2, 1781, it was voted to raise 130 pounds in hard 
money to buy beef ordered for the army by the general court. 
In September of this year the town resolved to give each one 
of the militia who should serve in Connecticut, under the com- 
mand of Governor Trumbull, 3 pounds per month, in hard 

There was a public celebration in Westfield of the signing 
of the treaty of peace. Thirteen guns, in honor of the states joined 

( 412 ) 


in one nation, was the mornin^i salute. Rev. Noah Atwater, the 
town minister, delivered an eloriuent discourse in the forenoon ; 
then followed the banquet, with many toasts, each followed by 
discharge of cannon. The fii'eworks of the evening closed the 

Shays' Eehellion.—'Freedom from British rule by the toils 
and privations of a seven years' war had been gained. New 
troubles arose. It was difficult in country towns to obtain money 
enough to pay the taxes. The settlement of debts had been de- 
ferred during the war. The courts were now busy in enforcing 
payment ; imprisonment was a penalty for non-payment. 

Those who were in straitened circumstances, but who in- 
tended to pay their debts, keenly felt the need of delay, and 
would gladly have the courts stop for a time — at least until the 
state legislature would diminish what seemed unnecessaiy ex- 
pense in the legal processes of enforcing payments. 

There was another class who Avished in some way to avoid 
paying theii- debts. These had not forgotten that the colonists 
in freeing themselves from the government of Great Britain had 
freed themselves from debts due the English abroad. "Why not 
have another revolution, set up a new government, and escape 
from the debts contracted under the present government? 

There was another class whose pleasure was foiuid in ex- 
citement, in adventure and in change. The stirring events of the 
war had passed. The staid life of a New England farmer was 
irksome: they jn-eferred to be where something was "going on." 

These several classes were in no sense bloodthirsty. They 
thought to sto]) the courts and compel acquiescence in their de- 
mands, by gathering crowds (mobs), hoping to prevail by force 
of numbers. Perhaps a hundred men and boys from Westfield 
were at one time and another with the rabble that made up the 
followers of Shays, yet the citizens of Westfield, as a body, as 
shown by the town records, were in favor of constitutional and 
conservative methods of adapting public measures to the ex- 
igencies of the times. They and some fifty other towns in Hamp- 
shire county, sent delegates to the Hatfield convention and after- 
wards instructed their representative to the general court to se- 

( 413 ) 


cure by legislative enactment, in a legitimate way, changes in 
the laws, that, as a result of the discussions in the convention, 
seemed desirable. The town in these troublous times was both 
considerate and conservative. The action of General Shepard, a 
leading citizen of the town, in resisting with his military force 
the mob intent upon plundering the arsenal at Springfield, was 
as humane as it was decisive, and quite in keeping with the hon- 
orable record of his unswerving patriotism. 

General Shepard. — It would be fitting, if space allowed, to 
outline the personal history of men who have led in the pro- 
gressive development of Westfield, and who, by their deeds here, 
and elsewhere, have deserved lasting honor. The heroes of 
former days, whose exploits were worthy of fame, had no scribes 
to herald their deeds. A little fellow in one of our schools, after 
listening to stories and incidents of men engaged in one of our 
recent wars, was asked Avhy these men went to war. He replied : 
^'To have something written, and stories told, about them." 
Publicity was not a motive in earlier times and the products of 
the press were very limited as compared with the present. The 
materials for biographies of the founders of our nation are very 
scanty. We shall attempt to outline but two of the famous men 
of Westfield, making use, in the first case, of one of the sketches 
of William G. Bates, who, in his boyhood, had some personal 
knowledge of the man : 

Major-General AA^illiam Shepard was born December 1, 1737, 
and died November, 1817. The eighty years of his life included 
the times of all the wars with the French and Indians, beginning 
with King George's war and ending with the capture of Quebec 
and the conquest of Canada. These eighty years also included 
the time of the war for independence and the war of 1812. In 
all these wars, with the exception of the latter, Gen. Shepai'd 
was an active participant, and could his life in detail be written, 
as Irving wrote the life of Washington, it would be an epitome of 
the history of the wars. His limited common school education 
ended at the age of seventeen. Avhen he entered the army at the 
l)eginning of the French and Indian war. Under Generals Aber- 
■crombie and Amherst he was promoted from the ranks, through 

( 414 ) 


successive grades, and remained with the army until the con- 
quest of Canada established Anglo-Saxon supremacy in North 
America. He then returned to Westfield, married, hung up his 
sword and put his hand to the plough, hoping to enjoy the peace 
of a farmer's life. The thrill of the slaughter at Lexington and 
Concord was felt by all. William Shepard hastened at once 

The General Shepard Ehn 
Franklin Street. Westfield, Mass. 

to the camp at Roxbury. He was made colonel and was the com- 
panion of Washington in most if not in all his battles. By him 
he was appointed to protect the retreat from Long Island, dur- 
ing which his neck was pierced by a ball. He was borne from 
the field. While the surgeons were probing for the ball his con- 
seiousness returned. "Bring me a canteen," said he. Finding 

( 415 ) 


that he could drink, and tjiat the organs of his throat were not 
severed, he said to the surgeon: "It is all right, doctor, stick 
on a plaster and tie on my cravat, for I am going out again." In 
spite of the remonstrance of the surgeon, and to the amazement 
of the attendants, out he Avent into the battle. This was but one 
of the twenty-two battles that tested his valor and proved that 
the commission of general was .justly and Avisely given him. 

When the war was ended, and the impressive words of 
Washington had been spoken to the officers, who, through so 
many years, had been his companions in toil, privation and "on 
the perilous edge of battle," General Shepard again returned to 
his little estate to maintain himself and those dependent upon 
him by his toil in the fields. He did more. His simple style of 
living, his exemplary conduct, his public spirit, his Christian 
endeavor and his neighborly kindness furnished a model for 
younger men and kindled their aspirations for a noble life. 
Though his opportunities for intellectual culture had been re- 
stricted in youth, and though the routine of camp life had allowed 
little opportunity for adding to his general knowledge, such were 
his common sense, his bravery, his high character for upright- 
ness and intelligence, that the people were ready to trust him to 
perform the highest and most delicate services for the public 
good. He was chosen state representative, senator and coun- 
cillor. He was three times elected representative to congress. 
The governor of Massachusetts appointed him to treat with the 
Indians of Penobscot. The United States government appointed 
him to treat with the Six Nations. He served in many town of- 
fices and was deacon of the church for twenty-four years. He 
was a large, well formed man, six feet in height, compactlj^ built, 
not corpulent, and weighing something more than two hundred 
pounds. His personal appearance was impressive. On training 
days, when, with others, he came out to observe the evolutions of 
the military companies during the closing years of his life. Mr. 
Bates, then a boy, says of him: "When I recall his large, im- 
posing figure, bedecked with his trusty sword and crimson sash, 
the modest insignia of his rank, accompanied by Adjutant Dewey, 
with the bright point of his spontoon glistening in the sun, and 

( 416 ) 

THE To^^^' of westfield 

heard the whispers 'There's the general,' I remember the awe, 
notwithstanding his genial face, with which he inspired me." 

After the reviews and evolutions were finished the soldiers 
were discharged. "Then came the greetings and the shaking 
hands with the general." 

Speaking of his character, Mr. Bates adds: "The man, who 
for more than thirty years, was in the service of his country, in 
places of high emolument, the man who was esteemed by Wash- 
ington and was his companion in all the battles of the revolu- 
tion, who, being detached for that purpose, fought with Gates at 
the battle of Saratoga and contributed to the surrender of Bur- 
goyne ; the man who. notwithstanding his simple and frugal hab- 
its of living, in his small brown house, his constant and energetic 
labor, in the favorite business of his life, went to his grave a poor 
man !^ AVhat a record is that to leave of him ? No taint of mean- 
ness or dishonesty ever attached itself to him. He was distin* 
guished for his good character and his unbending integrity." 

The rank and file of the leading men of Westfield during 
the Indian wars and the war of the revolution furnish many 
examples of worthy and valiant men. Our limits forbid the 
notice of more than one, though his eotemporaries were equally 

"Eldad Taylor," according to the local historian, J. D. 
Bartlett, "the last son and child of Minister Taylor and Ruth 
Wyllys, his second wife, was born in 1708. He lived to be- 
come one of the eminent men of Westfield, both in church and 
state." Though not himself a clergyman, he was closely related 
to several, as his father was a lifelong minister, and each of his 
five sisters married a minister. In 1741, the year of the settle- 
ment of Rev. John Ballantine, Mr. Taylor became deacon, and 
was prominent in earing for the interests of the church. His 
large family, including several sons, well sustained the honor 
of the name in public and in private life. 

Mr. Taylor's name is of frequent occurrence on the toAvii 
records. He held many town offices at different times. At the 

'The inventory of his real and personal estate as reported by his executors was 
S289, as proved l)y the researches of .T. D. Bartlett. 

27-2 ( 417 ) 


age of twenty-live he represented the town in the colonial legis- 
lature and many times during later years. He had a part in 
laying the foundations of our state government, for he, with 
Elisha Parks, Col. John Moseley, William Shepard and Daniel 
Fowler, all notable men, represented Westfield in the first "Con- 
tinental" legislature of Massachusetts, 1775. Mr. Taylor is al- 
luded to as " a member of the council," the following year. 
Some selections from a long letter written to his wife from Bos- 
ton, or the immediate vicinity, give some details of the evacua- 
tion of Boston by the British, which may not have been recorded 
elsewhere : 

Sunday, March 18, 1776. 

My Dear : This morning opens with much news, no doubt 
it will be pleasing to you and all friends to have ye most authen- 
tic account probable. The Ministerial Vermin left Boston yester- 
day morning iu ye utmost confusion. . . . This morning, I 
have been with Dr. Winthrop to get the best intelligence. They 
say that ever since our cannonading ye Sabbath before last, they, 
viz., ye Regulars have been upon ye move & designed to with- 
draw last Friday, but ye wind not favoring of ym were de- 
tained and left Saturday night. Our forces took possession of 
a small hill nearer Boston and ye shipping than ever before, on 
Dorchester Point [which] caused ye Regulars to fire at ym all 
night but without any hurt to any of our men except one a lit- 
tle, not much hurt by ye scattering of some gravel & we did not 
return one shot. In ye morning early they left in utmost haste 
d;nd confusion and [are] below ye Castle and where they are 
destined is not known but supposed to Halifax. The tories are 
gone otf with ye Regulars except a few. . . . The Select- 
men say that ye tories were ye most dreadful against ym of any. 
They say that all ye sufTerings of ye poor for want of pro- 
visions and necessaries of life, was not equal to ye insult, scorn 
& derision & contempt from them. 

The Ministerial Butchers have robbed the Warehouses and 
shops of all ye best goods they could carry away and destroyed 
what they could in their hurry. ... In their hurry on pur- 

( 418 ) 


posely they scattered numbers of good blankets. It is said that 
in one of tJieni was wrapped up a child that had died of Small 
Pox. We are more in danger in that quarter now than from the 
Enemie. . . . The poor distressed captives from Boston 
come with a most pleasing aspect in their faces rejoicing at so 
great deliverance. . . . 

They say that ye tories about a fortnet ago was in high 
spirits encouraging ye troops that they should be soon masters of 
America but — when ye orders were given to prepare to sail, they 
were struck with paleness & astonishment. . . . Mortifying 
indeed. They, ye Selectmen, say ye town is in a most dreadful 

Eldad Taylor 

condition, houses torn, streets nasty, town empty. They carried 
away our prisonei*s taken at Bunker hill fight in irons, also Mas- 
ter Lovewell. They left some of their draft horses and about 
1000 bushels of wheat. The Bells and organs are not hurt. 

From as always your consort, Eldad Taylor. 

In the old burying gTound is a tablet to Mr. Taylor's firet 
wife, Avho died in 1740, in the twenty-ninth year of her age. 

A second tablet bears his name and that of his second wife, 
to whom the letter was addressied. The inscription is: 

( 419 ) 


In memory of the 

Honorable Eldad Taylor Esq. 

who died iu Boston the 21st of 

May, 1777, AEt. 69, and lies 

interred in the Tomb of the 

Hon. John Wendell Esq. 


Mrs. Thankful Taylor 
his relic died Aug. 12th 
1803 aged 82 years 
Kind reader this stone 
Informs you who we are, 
What we were we tell you not, 
AVhat we ought to ha\'e been that be thou, 
Where we are now ye "will know hereafter. 
Remember that Christ 
is the resurrection and the life. 


Before the town was organized the settlers provided a school 
for their children. After the incorporation of the town the se- 
lectmen annually, in town meeting, were required by vote of the 
town to provide a schoolmaster and to pay him a specified salary. 
No stress of war was deemed sufficient to excuse the town from 
caring for the school. The schoolmaster in the earlier days often 
received his pay in grain at the prices fixed by the town. Such 
was the scarcity of money that payments were often more 
promptly made in grain than in cash. The contract with the 
schoolmaster was a matter of sufficient importance to be at times 
recorded upon the town books. For instance : 

"December 16, 1703. These presents testify an agreement 
made between the select men and Joseph Sexton in behalf of the 
tOAvne of Westfield wc is as ffowlleth viz: — The said Joseph Sex- 
ton is hereby bound and obliged to keepe schoole from ye day of 
ye date hereof untill the fifteenth day of Aprill nexte ensuing all 
wc time hee Doth Ingage to use ye best of his skill and industry 

( 420 ) 


soe far forthe as he is capassatated to teach children to read & 
wright \vn sent to schoole during said terms. 

"2nd. The Select men as aforesaid in behalf of vetowneDoth 
Ingage to pay to ye afore sd Sexton or to his order ye sums of ten 
pounds att or before ye afour sd terms shall be expired Viz. 
Wheat at 5s per bushell, Good white pease at 4s. 6d pr bushell, 
Ry at 3s. 3d. per bushell Indian corn at 2s. 4d per bushell, barley 
at 3s per bushell in any or either of ye afoursd species being good 
and merchantable. This ye afou sd parties Doe acknowledge to 
be ye trew intent and meaning of ye a four'sd bargaine in every 

"Entered by order of the selectmen. 
"Attest: Joseph Sexton, Toivn Clarke." 

If the spelling of these early records is defective, this should 
be remembered : There wal no fixed standard of spelling avail- 
able for the common people, beyond the limited lists furnished in 
spelling books. Johnson's dictionary was not published until 
after the middle of the eighteenth century. Walker's dictionary 
was published a score of years earlier, but its vocabulary was lim- 
ited and it was rarely seen in rural communities. 

That Latin was taught by the town or grammar school- 
master is evident from the vote passed in 1724 respecting IMr. 
Isaac Stiles, whom the town promises to pay "fivety pounds for 
keeping the school one year, that is to say the three sum- 
mer months, he shall be obliged only for keeping the Latin school- 
ers. ' ' 

Yet when there were no pupils in the school studying Latin 
the selectmen do not seem to have been required to obtain a col- 
lege graduate as teacher, but might obtain a "scolar or some other 

lit person." 

In several towns the grammar school became at times migra- 
tory. There were reasons why families living on Union street 
and in Little river district should wish to bring the school to 
their neighborhoods. January 15, 1774, the town voted not to 
move the^grammar school from place to place. It was customary 
to charge tuition to those attending the grammar or town school. 
Votes similar to the following frequently occur. December 2, 

( 421 ) 


1698, it was voted "that all boys capable to go to school, their 
parents or masters to pay three pence a week for readers and 
four pence a week for wrighters. " The grammar school was in 
part to prepare for college. As there were no higher institutions 
during the first century after the incorporation of the town 
open to women, one reason for the attendance of girls at the 
grammar school was wanting. The main reason, however, for 
their non-attendance was that the opinion generally prevailed 
that it was neither needful, fitting nor wise to educate girls be- 
yond the ability to read and to write. The duty of educating 
boys was recognized. The duty of educating girls was disre- 
garded after they had learned to read and write. 

In a vote passed April 26, 1705, the first mention of girls as 
pupils of the town school occurs. They are to pay the same tui- 
tion as boys "if they goo," but all boys from 7 to 12 are to pay 
"whether they go or not." 

The town took no action respecting the ' ' Dame ' ' or primary 
schools for many years. These seem to have been maintained by 
private effort. With, or without schools, all children, in respect- 
able families, were taught to read, for it was deemed the duty of 
parents to see to it that their children were trained to read the 

At the town meeting, held March 9. 1719, action was taken 
recognizing one other school than that taught at the center or 
fort side of the town. It was voted "to allow forty five sliillings 
towards the school over Little River." In 1724 three pounds 
were voted "to be improved in hiring a schoolmaster there this 
winter season." May 13, 1725, the town voted to "give the 
widow Catharine Noble twenty five shillings a month for keep- 
ing school so long as the toAvn sees cause to improve her in that 
service and if she sees cause to assent to it." This appears to be 
the first recognition in the town records of a female teacher. 

The wood for fuel was furnished the school by the parents 
and guardians of the pupils. In December, 1698, the town voted 
that "such persons that send their children to the school shall 
provide a load of wood for each scholar ; it is to be understood 
that boys from 4 to 14 are to pay." This action seems to be but 

( 422 ) 


the legal enforcement of a custom that for many years obtained 
in the country towns. 

The objects sought by those who first settled our state made 
the school the necessary complement of the church. When the 
community came to be made up of denominations differing in re- 
ligious belief, as well as of those caring little for any form of 
faith, public schools could no longer be maintained by one de- 
nomination. The school was no longer the handmaid of the 
church. The religious motives for maintaining the public school 
declined. The terrible war of Philip, soon followed by French 
and Indian wars, prolonged with uncertain intervals through 
two generations, and the long and exhausting struggle for inde- 
pendence, diverted attention from the public schools and dimin- 
ished the means for their upbuilding. They were in a wretched 
condition at the close of the war for independence. Those inter- 
ested in the education of the young were obliged to provide other 
schools. With no little self-denial on the part of the donors, aided 
from time to time by legislative grants, academies were estab- 
lished. The centering of the interest of the friends of popular 
education in academies increased their number and their effi- 
ciency, but helped also to increase the neglect of the common 
schools and to postpone any generous attempt to improve them. 
In the dark age, as it has been called, of the common schools, ele- 
mentary education Avas persistently cherished, at the firesides 
of the people, however defective the public schools, until men who 
had learned the value of better schools b}^ attending academies 
and by informing themselves of the methods of educational re- 
formers in Germany and elsewhere, introduced a new^ and pro- 
gressive era in the common schools of the state and the nation. 

Westfield Academy was chartered June 19, 1793, though not 
opened for the admission of students imtil January, 1800. The 
scholarly and energetic minister of the loAvn, Key. Noah At- 
water, for three years previous to his settlement, in 1781, a tutor 
in Yale college, evidently had much to do with the founding of 
the academy. The minister in most of the settlements was the 
educational, no less than the religious, leader of the community. 
Mr. Atwater seems to have been especially earnest in caring for 

( 423 ) 


the culture of the young. At times he joined the work of teach- 
ing to that of the ministry, that he might help boys on toward 
college. The state authorities willingly granted the act of incor- 
poration of Westtield academy, as there was no other institution 
of the sort in Western Massachusetts. It was the fourth academy 
incorporated in INIassachusetts. 

That the academy might be established the tow-n voted £600 
towards its endowment. The act of incorporation named Gen- 
eral William Shepard and others as trustees of Westtield acad- 
emy, *'to be and continue a body politic, by the same name, for- 
ever." The trustees were authorized to hold lands or other es- 
tate, the annual income of which should not exceed $2,000. In 
1797 citizens of the town had subscribed $1,000. In response to 
a petition of the trustees half a township of land in the district 
of Maine was granted by the legislature in aid of the academy. 
The sale of this land and private subscriptions so increased the 
funds that a building was completed in 1799, at a cost of about 
$5,000. Hon. Samuel Fowler, agent for building the academy, 
in town meeting, April 13, 1803, reported the cost to be £927 
10s. 8d. 

On the first of January, 1800, the building was opened with 
appropriate dedicatory exercises. Rev. Joseph Lathrop of West 
Springfield preached the sermon, taking as his text Ps. 144:12. 
In the closing paragraph occurs this passage: ''This day intro- 
duces a new year— the year that closes the eighteenth century 
from the era of your redemption. On this day we are assembled 
to dedicate to God and commit to his blessing this infant semi- 
nary, hoping that here 'our sons will be as plants grown up in 
their youth, and our daughtei's as corner-stones polished after 
the similitude of a palace'— that here formed to useful knowl- 
edge, pious sentiments, and virtuous mannere, they will bring 
honor to God, do service to men in their day, and transmit to 
another generation the pious principles and the excellent wis- 
dom which they here imbibe." 

The sermon was followed by a brief address, and the present- 
ation of the keys by Hon. Samuel Fowler, president of the board 
of trustees. The following passage occurs in the first part of his 

( 424 ) 


address: "We have assembled this day for the delightful pur- 
pose of dedicating and setting apart this building for the im- 
portant design of education, that the rising generation may be 
instructed in the various bi'anches of human and sacred erudi- 

"We rejoice that this hapi)y lot has fallen to us and that we 
have an opportunity to impart a small poi'tion of our property 
in laying the foundation of so useful an institution. 

"The attention of the citizens of this commonwealth to the 
education of the rising generation aft'ords a most pleasing pros- 

The old Academy, Westfield 

pect of the future support of religion, science and morality. 
These are the grand pillars on which this country has been raised 
to its present opulence and splendor and on which the principles 
of our most excellent frame of government must be continued 
and supported." 

Preceptors following Peter Starr, the first preceptor, were: 
Henry C. iNlartindale, afterwards member of congress; Lyman 
Strong, Alfred Perry, M. D., Horatio Waldo, Saul Clark, Theo- 
dore North, Sylvester Selden, Francis L. Robbins, Samuel INF. 

( 425 ) 


Emerson, Alfred Stearns, Charles Jenkins, Stephen Taylor, Fla- 
vel S. Gaylord, George W. Benedict, Elnathan Gridley, Alvan 
Wheeler, M. D., Parsons Cooke and Emerson Davis, who re- 
signed in 1836, after fourteen years' service, to become pastor of 
the Congregational church. The above named, with one excep- 
tion, were graduates of Williams college. 

In his brief sketch of Westfield, printed in 1826, Preceptor 
Davis thus outlines the condition of the academy: 

"The building was repaired in 1824. It has two school 
rooms on the lower floor and on the other a large hall and lecture 
room. The institution is furnished with a sufficient quantity of 
chemical and philosophical apparatus for illustrating the gen- 
eral principles of those sciences. There is also a respectable col- 
lection of minerals for the use of the academ3\ Instruction is 
given in the departments of natural history to those who Avish. 
Terms continue eleven weeks— tuition is three dollars per quar- 
ter. During the fall, winter and spring quarters, twenty-five 
cents in addition is paid for fuel, sweeping, bell ringing, &c. 
Present number of students 110. About three thousand have 
been educated at this academy since its establishment, many of 
whom hold conspicuous stations in life, and many others are use- 
ful members of society. The funds of the academy are $5000."^ 

The preceptors following Emerson Davis, between the years 
1844 and 1856, were: Ariel Parish, William W. Woodworth, 
Eev. Hubbard Beebe, AYilliam C. Goldthwaite, Ephraim Flint, 
William C. Butler and Moses Smith. 

Many ushers and many ladies of superior ability and of gen- 
erous culture left the impress of their character and teaching 
upon students in attendance. Among the lady assistants, or pre- 
ceptresses, was Miss Emma Hart, from Connecticut, who after- 
ward married Dr. Willard of Troy and established the famous 
Troy female seminary, one of the first schools in the country to 
provide adequate higher instruction for women. Miss Philena 
Carpenter, preceptress for several years, added to her other ac- 
complishments skill in teaching needlework and painting. Pict- 
ures painted under her instruction were much appreciated in 
many homes. Another, among many others who won and who- 

( 426 ) 


deserved high esteem, was Miss A. Elizabeth Stebbins, after- 
wards the wife of Norman T. Leonard. 

When Westfield academy was founded it was the only in- 
stitution of the sort in Western Massachusetts. During the fol- 
lowing half century rival institutions, better endowed, sprang 
up, and free high schools began to be established. This academy 
became but one of many institutions occupying territory once 
exclusively her own. William G. Bates was the soul of a move- 
ment to prevent the decline of the institution. We quote from 

"It became apparent to the friends of the academy, that, in 
its appointments, it was in a situation where a large expenditure 
should be, and must be, made, to prolong its usefulness. The 
building, though an elegant one for the time it was erected, had 
become dilapidated and old. It was still comfortable, and might 
by repairs have been made still more so; but it was 'behind the 
times, ' in its extent and in its architectural beauty. It was there- 
fore determined to erect a new building as an addition— or, rath- 
er, to erect a new academy, and have the old building subserve 
the part of lecture rooms, and other similar purposes. An ad- 
dress was accordingly prepared and printed, addressed to the 
alumni and the friends of the academy. A response was made 
to the application, by, in some cases, very generous subscriptions. 
A contract was made for the building, and on the 31st of July, 
1857, the corner-stone was laid, with imposing ceremonies, and 
an address was delivered by Mr. Bates, and original odes were 
sung by a chorus of voices. The future seemed prosperous, and 
the donors felt that their benefactions had been judiciously ex- 

J. B. Holland was appointed preceptor in 1858. Circulars 
had been sent to the alumni to aid in securing students. The 
school opened with a full attendance. It was soon evident that 
the decline of the academy could not be permanently arrested. 
The rise of the Westfield and other high schools, the development 
of Williston seminary and other well endowed institutions within 
the territory once exclusively the territory of the Westfield acad- 
emy made it impossible without a large endowment to restore its 

( 427 ) 


pre-eminence or to continue its new life. Mr. Holland resigned 
in 1864. Charles F. Diirfee was preceptor for a year. Mr. 
Geddes attempted to maintain the school another year. In 1867 
the grounds and the building were sold to the town of Westfield 
and have since been the premises of the high school. The trus- 
tees added the proceeds to the fund of the academy to accumu- 
late until there should be suitable opportunity to use the same, 
in the words of the charter, in "promoting piety, religion, and 
morality, and for the instruction of youth in such languages, and 
such of the liberal arts and sciences, as the trustees shall direct." 

We may not pass from the institutional life of the academy 
without again quoting from Mr. Bates. In his bi-centennial ad- 
di-ess, delivered October 6, 1869, on the occasion of the two hun- 
dredth anniversary of the incorporation of Westfield, alluding to 
the academy, he said : 

"It would be a pleasing retrovspeet if we were to pass over 
the first two-thirds of the present century, and record the names 
of those at whose feet, from time to time, we have sat for guid- 
ance and for instruction ; if we were to recall those early com- 
panions, with whom we strayed, and played, and perhaps toiled 
along the paths of learning— companions dear to us then — of 
whom we felt, 'very pleasant hast thou been to me, my brother' — 
but oh, how doubly dear now, as one by one they have faded from 
our sight, leaving us more and more alone, like a city, which sits 
solitary, and yet is full of people— in the world, but not of it, 
among men, yet not of them, and sighing for the unselfish friend- 
ship of those who made our young hours happy ; if we were to 
estimate the effect which the establishment of the institution has 
wrought upon the material interests of the town, its moral influ- 
ence upon the people, and the heightened tone it has given to its 
intelligence and its virtue ; if we were to consider what a result 
has been produced upon the world at large, by more than nine 
thousand people, who have gone out from it, to all parts of the 
civilized globe. But the topic is too vast for the occasion. I may 
say, however, in regard to it as a part of the history of the town, 
that the proximity of other institutions, endoAved by enlightened 
liberality. Avith ample funds, enabling them to provide more 

( 428 ) 


numerous teachers, more extensive apparatus, and more com- 
modious boarding accommodations, inaugurated a rivalry against 
which this almost unendowed institution could poorly struggle. 
The buildings and grounds, which had come down to us, were ac- 
cordingly sold. The estate of the academy is invested for in- 
crease, until by accumulation, augmented as I trust it will be, by 
future benefactions, it shall again spring forward into a field 
of usefulness. 

"My fellow citizens, I say now, in as full faith as I said to 
you on the 31st of July, 1857, ' Westfield academy will never die ! 
It was born to be immortal ! It was incorporated to he and con- 
tinue a body politic forever' ; and if this generation shall pass 
away with a deluded apathy to its interests, it will find, in a gen- 
eration perhaps now unborn, friends who will rally around it, 
with the zeal of its first founders, and rejoice with exceeding 
great joy, in its returned prosperity." 

Mr. Bates proved his faith by his works. Before his death 
he deeded to the trustees of the AVestfield academy, in aid of its 
purposes, real estate which he valued approximately at ten 
thousand dollars. The trustees of the academy, in recent years, 
have secured the ends for which it Avas established by using the 
income of its fund in extending the course of study and in in- 
creasing the efficiency of the high school ; the trustees also ac- 
tively co-operate with the school committee of the town in the 
management of the school ; hence the history of the academy is 
in a measure merged with that of the high school. We turn to 
its history. 

The Higli School. — The first movement toward the establish- 
ment of a high school, as appears from the town records, was the 
appointment of a committee, in 1837, to procure a site and to 
build a town house and high school building. 

When the town house was completed it contained rooms in 
the first story for a high school, while the second story was a town 

Though no arrangement was made by the town for that pur- 
pose, the academy continued to provide, as heretofore, for the in- 
struction of those who continued their studies after learning the 
grammar grades. 

( 429 ) 


In 1845, when the state board of education were about to 
provide a permanent abode for the normal school, the town of- 
fered to sell the first story and the basement of the town hall to 
the state for the use of the normal school for the sum of $1,500 ; 
but if the board preferred to erect a separate building the town 
offered to give $500 for that purpose. 

Westfield High School 

At the April meeting, 1855, the town appropriated $1,000 
"for the high school and for fitting up rooms for that purpose.'' 

The school opened in the town hall building the same year. 
H. E. Daniels was the first principal. Miss H. N. Fletcher (after- 
wards Mrs. L. R. Norton), the first assistant. These were suc- 
ceeded by Almon B. and Mrs. Clapp. The succeeding principals 
were A. H. Bingham, C. D. Hills, E. A. Booth, H. H. Tuttle, A. 
E. Gibbs, Henry Dame, John Welch and James McLaughlin. 

( 430 ) 


In 1867, as we have seen, the building and grounds of the 
Westfield academy became those of the high school. The town, 
in 1889, purchased the Ives property and thus extended the 
grounds towards the south. In that year the town also voted 
$26,000 for the reconstructioji and enlargement of the high 
tschool building. During that year, also, an arrangement to 
continue for a term of years was completed between the trustees 
of the academy and the town, by which the income of the acad- 
emy fund, upon certain conditions, should be used to improve 
and to extend the work of the high school. In carrying out this 
arrangement the trustees co-operate with the school committee. 

In September, 1890, the new building was ready; a larger 
faculty had been carefully selected, and a more extended course 
of study had been prepared by the incoming principal. The school 
entered upon a new era of usefulness. 

During the year the rear wing— the old academy— was 
burned. It was replaced by a brick wing adapted to the needs 
of the school. 

The studies of the high school are now largely elective, fur- 
nishing opportunity for individual culture and for special prep- 
aration for future work. The studies are grouped under the 
following heads : College preparatory, Latin scientific, modern 
language, English and business course. 

Herbert W. Kittredge was appointed principal in 1890. As 
the result of his thorough teaching, careful administration and 
tireless energy, and the loyal co-operation of competent teach- 
ers in the several departments, the school has reached the fore- 
most rank in the high schools of the state. The principal in- 
structs in Greek and college English. The teachers of other de- 
partments are: D. M. Cole, sciences; George W. Miner, business 
branches ; Sara M. Kneil, English and civics ; Lucy Jane Dow, 
Latin; Elizabeth F. Atwood, stenography and typewriting; 
Grace Crafts Alden, mathematics; Caroline Barhauer, modern 
languages ; Margaret B. Randal, English, history and elocution ; 
Sterrie A. Weaver, music; Marion E. Hurlbut, drawing. 

The Atheneum.—ln 1864 Samuel Mather, Hiram Harrison 
and Cutler Laflin, their associates and successors, were incor- 

431 ) 


porated under the name of AVestfield atheneum. Mr. Mather 
gave $10,000 as a permanent fund for the maintenance of the 
library, and is designated on the records as the "founder of the 
institution." Mv. Harrison gave about the same amount in the 
form of land, and the building which he erected upon it, on 
Main street. Ten thousand dollars were raised by subscription 
for the purchase of books. The donors were Henry T. Morgan, 
$3,500 ; Cutler Laflin and Charles Jessup, $1,000 each ; William 
G. Bates, Henry J. Bush, Edward B. Gillett, George L. Laflin 
and Samuel Fowler, $500 each. Smaller sums were donated by 

The Old Athoiieum 

other parties. Recently the legacy of Addison C. Rand, $5,000, 
and that of Fanny B. Bates. $1,000, and donations from others, 
of less amount, have been received. 

In 1872, Mrs. Cynthia Eldridge, sister of Samuel Mather, 
gave $1,000. 

May 10, 1895, by the joint action of the directors and the 
town the library was made free. Number of volumes in the li- 
brary February, 1902, 18,800 ; number of regular patrons, 4,000 ; 
circulation about 40,000. 


The church first established in AYestfield, and for more than 
one hundred years maintained by the town, is now known as the 

( 433 ) 


First Congregational church. We have already outlined its his- 
tory. We may add that within a few years a commodious parish 
house has been added to the church building, furnishing accom- 
modations for the large Sabbath school and for the social gath- 
erings of the various organizations connected with the church. 
The present membership is 450. 

In 1856 a colony of sixty-three from the First church was 
organized as the Second Congregational church. In 1862 the 
present church building was erected. A convenient chapel has 
since been added. The present membership is 434. The follow- 
ing is a list of the pastors, with the date of entering upon their 
duties : Francis Homes, 1856 ; Joel S. Bingham, 1856 ; George 
Bowler, 1863; Henry Hopkins, 1865; Lyman H. Blake, 1882; 
William E. Gordon, the present pastor, 1899. 

The first Baptist church organized in Westfield was at the 
West Farms (Wyben). This church prospered for many years, 
but after a time it was evident that a strong church could not be 
maintained so far from the center of population. Services, how- 
ever, were maintained until 1871, when the church was disor- 
ganized, the members uniting with the Central Baptist church. 
Since that time various clergymen from Westfield have held 
services on Sunday afternoons in a mission chapel. 

The "First Baptist church" of AVestfield was organized in 
1784. Five years later a building was erected near the old county 
bridge. In 1795 the church became divided and disorganized. 
The revival of 1806 infused new life. Services were resumed. 
The little band failed to maintain services from 1810 to 1819. 
Then Kev. David Wright became the pastor, and through his 
earnest efforts the membership was increased to 203 in 1826. This 
church erected its second house of ^^orship on Main street, near 
the bridge over Little river. 

On May 23, 1833, the Central Baptist church was organized, 
with Rev. David Wright as pastor. This was the beginning of a 
new era for the Baptists of Westfield. A church building was at 
once erected on the corner of Elm and Church streets. The 
church grew and in a fcAV years absorbed the Baptist interests of 
Westfield. In 1867-8, the church having outgroAvn its accom- 

28-2 ( 433 ) 


modations, the present house of Avorship, during the pastorate of 
Kev. John Jennings, was erected. In 1898 Mi's. G. I. Hays pur- 
chased the brick building, built by A. B. Whitman, and pre- 
sented it to the church, thus supplying a want long felt for kin- 
dergarten rooms and furnishing admirable opportunities for so- 
cial gatherings. The church has recently provided a new par- 
sonage. The following pastors have served the church : Andrew 

Corner of Elm and Main Street, Westfield 
The Vmilding at the left is the old Methodist churcli, long since abandoned 

M. Smith. David Wright, Charles Van Loan, Farondia Bester, 
Alfred Colburn, John Alden, William Carpenter, John R. Beau- 
mis, John Jennings, E. M. Gerome, AV. H. Eaton, H. P. Smith 
and R. B. Esten. W. S. Ayres is now the pastor. 

Methodism began in Westfield in 1794. The town then was 
included in what was then called the Granville circuit, and was 

( 434 ) 


a part of the New York conference. Services were first held in 
that part of the town now called Mimdale, then known as Hoop- 
hole. In 1812 the first sermon was preached at the center, by 
Thomas Thorpe, and a class was formed. The first meeting-house 
was built at Hoophole, also called West Parish and Mundale. In 
1830 the town purchased a site and in 1833 the building on Main 
street Avas dedicated. In 1836 it became an independent church 
with Kev. Paul Townsend as first pastor. As a circuit it has had 
the services of the most distinguished preachers of early Method- 
ism, such as David Kilbourn, Erastus Otis, Jefferson Ilascall, 
Thomas W. Tucker, Jonathan D. Bridge and others. 

Revs. Smith, B. McLouth, Ephraim Scott, Jefferson Has- 
call were successors of Mr. Townsend. In 1843, under Mr. 
Hascall, a splendid church building was erected on Elm street. 
So strong and prosperous had the society become that the New 
England annual conference was held in AVestfield, in 1841. Dr. 
Hascall was succeeded by Drs. Mark Trafton, H. V. Degen, Miner 
Raymond, J. B. Hatch, G. F. Cox, J. H. Twombly (twice), Wil- 
liam Butler, Gilbert Haven (afterwards bishop), I. J. P. Collyer, 
D. E. Chapin, George Bowler, Hills, Henry W. Warren (now 
bishop), Daniel Richards, W. G. H. Lewis, J. H. Mansfield, 
George Whitaker, J. S. Barrows, S. L. Graoey, F. Woods (twice), 
J. A. Cass, E. A. Titus, J. M. Leonard, Charles Young, L. H. 
Dorchester, Frederic N. Upham and John D. Pickles, the pres- 
ent pastor. The church has been characterized by strength and 
aggressiveness. During the second pastorate of Dr. Twombly, 
the present large and beautiful church edifice was erected. It 
was dedicated in 1875. 

Methodism has had more than a hundred years' history in 
that part of the town known as Mundale. If our limits allowed 
it would be a pleasure to note the labors of those who from time 
to time have been its pastors. Rev. John Evans is the present 

The Universalist church was organized in 1853. Rev. D. H. 
Plumb was the first pastor. In 1889. the present church build- 
ing on Elm street was erected. The pastor of this church, 
Rev. Lucy A. Milton, has recently resigned. 

( 435 ) 


The Episcopal church was organized in 1860. Services 
were held for some years in the Universalist chapel and later in 
a hall and in the Universalist church. In 1873, the parish was 
incorporated under its present name, "The Church of the 
Atonement." In 1875, it Avas accepted into the Episcopal dio- 
cese of Massachusetts. AVe note the names of the rectors : Kev. 
J. Mines, Rev. Andrew Mackie, Rev. J. F. Winldey, Rev. B. F. 
Cooley, Henry Sheridan, Rev. Mr. Parker, Rev. H. N. Cunning- 
ham, Allen C. Prescott, Rev. Henry Tarrant, Rev. N. S. Board- 
man and Frederick A. Wright, who became rector of the church 
in 1899, and has recently been compelled by ill-health to resign. 

The Second Advent church began as a mission church in 
1866. Here Rev. H. L. Hastings and wife labored. In 1869, Mr. 
Hastings organized a church. Services were held for a time in 
the Universalist chapel on Chapel street, later in the old Baptist 
church, corner of Elm and Church streets. In 1874, the present 
chapel on School street was erected. The ten settled pastors 
have been : Revs. E. S. Owen, George L. Teeple, James Hem- 
menway, AVilliam C. Stewart. S. G. Mathewson, J. E. Cross, John 
C. St. John, M. E. Andrews, George M. Little and Allan H. 
Bissell, recently installed. 

If our limits permitted, we should insert the admirable his- 
tory of St. Mary's church, found in the "History of the Catholic 
Church," written by Rev. J. J. McCoy. AYe shall use parts of it. 

It is not clear when the first mass was said in Westfield. 
Father Fitlon speaks of visiting AVestfield as a missionary, 
between 1828 and 1880. Father John Brady of Hartford, was 
in Westfield during the building of the canal, caring for the 
Catholic workmen. Later, during the building of railroads, 
services were again held. John Healy was here in 1840, and 
about the same time William Sullivan, William Callinan and 
John O'Neil. This same O'Neil Avas drowned in Southwick 
ponds while bringing up the last boat that ever came up the old 

The first mass definitely remembered was in the tOAvn hall, 
November, 1851. About one hundred and fifty were present. 
For some time the Catholics gathered in some one of their houses 

( 436 ) 


whenever the priest visited them. On Sundays, if no priest 
could be with them, they still assembled and said the rosary and 
the litanies in common. 

James Phillips Avas an earnest worker. His Protestant 
friends aided him in securing a church building by purchasing a 
site in 1853. The vigil of Christ was held in the new building 
the next year, though the walls were yet unplastered. Father 
Blenkinsop of Chicopee had charge at this joyful opening of the 

In 1854, during the time of intense "Know Nothing" excite- 
ment, some of the "baser sort" of the town's people gathered 
and moved toward the new church, threatening to burn it. 
Catholics gathered in its defence. Hiram Hull, a leading man 
of the town, met the mob, and by a few well-timed and decisive 
words, turned them away from the church. Dr. McCoy adds: 
^'The Catholics were never afterwards molested. On the con- 
trary, there has been no time in the church's history, when Prot- 
estant neighbors have failed, by kind word and generous help, 
to encourage all the good that the Catholic hearts and minds 
could plan." 

In 1855, in the month of June, Bp. Fitzpatrick of Boston 
attended the first confirmation. John Healey, the first to be 
buried in the Catholic cemetery, was present to see his four chil- 
dren confirmed, though he was in the last stages of consumption. 

Westfield was for a time a mission of Springfield. In 1862, 
Rev. M. X. Carroll became the first resident pastor. He was 
followed in 1868 by Father IMiglionico. In 1874, Rev. Thomas 
Smythe became pastor, a man much respected by all classes. He 
had large influence in town affairs. 

March, 1881, the church was destroyed by fire. The com- 
modious brick church, now so serviceable, was dedicated by 
Bishop 'Reilly INIarch 1, 1885. Father Smythe very much en- 
larged the grounds of the church. One of his latest purchases' 
was the land opposite the church, on which now stand the con- 
vent and the new parochial school. 

Father Donahue succeeded Father Smythe in 1891. His 
pastorate, thus far, has been eminently succesvsful. On the 

( 437 ) 


church books are recorded between six and seven hundred mar- 
riages and nearly four thousand baptisms. 


Westfield for more than one hundred and fifty years was 
a farming town. Its extensive alluvial meadow lands made it 
a leading agricultural town. Citizens are now living who re- 
member the beginnings of other industries that now absorb 
so large a proportion of the capital and the labor of its people ; 
yet the amount of grass, corn, tobacco and other crops is still 

The whips made in Westfield have spread its name widely. 
The strands for lashes were first cut on flat tables. The Shakers 
of Lebanon, New York, were the first to cut strands from horse- 
hides by "stripping," a handicraft practiced with wonderful 
skill by cutters in Westfield. 

The manufacture of whips seems to have been begun, in a 
very simple and rude way, in Westfield, nearly a century ago. 
Tradition has it that Joseph Jokes, as early as 1808, made whips 
with hickory stocks, to which, by a loop or "keeper," a lash was 
fastened. Soon improvements were made by boiling the wood 
in a preparation of colored oils. The stocks of the "twisted 
whips," as they were called, were made of white oak or other 
wood of tough fibre, and covered with black sheepskin sewed on. 
The stock of the first plaited whip made in Westfield is said to 
have been made in the cabinet shop of Erastus Grant, by D. L. 
Farnham, by gluing together pieces of rattan around a whale- 
bone centre. The plaiting machines for covering stocks, as they 
are now covered, were first introduced from Germany and Eng- 
land; though they were greatly improved by the ingenuity of 
New England men. The first plaiting machines were barrel ma- 
chines. They might be called hand-braiding machines. 

The plaiting was afterwards done by machines that were 
worked with a crank. Sixty years ago, these were also run by 
water. Improvements in the plaiting machines have made it 
possible to run them with great rapidity. A machine will cover 
with its fine weaving from six to ten stocks in an hour. There 

( 438 ) 


are some thirty-lhree firms or companies in Westfield engaged 
in the manufacture of whips, besides a considerable number of 
manufacturers of parts of whips. Two million dollars worth of 
whips are annually sold. Ajiproximately one-half of this amount 
is received by the United States whip company, the largest in the 
world. The Pomeroy and Van Deusen company is reckoned 

The old-fasliioned plaiting machine 

the second in size. Hiram Hull did much to promote the earlier 
development of this industry. 

We name some of the more important industries that, to- 
gether with the manufacture of whips, go far to make Westfield 
a manufacturing town : 

American Cycle company, opened in 1897 as the Lozier Man- 
ufacturing company ; organized in 1900 under its present name. 

( 439 ) 


Employs from 400 to 800 men. Annual product, 30,000 wheels. 
About one-third of these exported in 1901. 

Automobiles — E. J. Moore Manufacturing Co. is arranging 
to employ 100 men, 

Ijoomis Manufacturing Co. — Opened in 1899; can fill but 
a tithe of its orders for automobiles. 

The First Foundry of H. B. Smith & Co., Westfield 

As established in A. D. 1853, on the line of the Farmington canal, which then extended 
from New Haven, Conn, to Northampton, Mass. The canal was practically closed 
to travel before 1850, though not filled up until many years later. This building 
was built and probably pictured before the canal closed. H. B, Smith began in it 
in 1853. 

Casket Handles and Trimmings— American Casket Co. em- 
ploys fifteen to twenty-five hands. 

Textile Manufacturing Co.— Incorporated 1880. Capital 
stock $100,000. Employs about sixty hands. 

( 440 ) 


Cigars— There are several cigar manufacturers. The an- 
nual output is about ten millions of cigars 

The tobacco packers of Westfield handle about $750,000 
worth of tobacco annually. 

AYestfield Brickyard — Six to ten millions of bricks annually. 

Wm. Warren Thread Works — Spool cotton and thread of 
every description. One hundred and fifty hands. 

Foster Machine Co— Incorporated 1891. Fifty to eighty 
hands. Produce annually from seventy-five to one hundred cane 
and tube winding machines, having twenty to one hundred 
spindles each. 

Bryant Box Co. — Incorporated 1892. Paper and cigar 
boxes. Value of annual output, $25,000. 

A. E. Ensign Box Co.— Fine cigar boxes. Established over 
fifty years. 

Planet Co.— Manufacturers canvas goods, bags, awnings, 

Organ Pipe Factory- Employs twenty men, and uses 24.- 
000 lbs. of lead, 1,400 lbs. of tin, and 40,000 lbs. of zinc annually. 

The H. B, Smith Co.— The foundation of this company was 
laid in Westfield, in 1853, by Henry B. and Edwin Smith, 
brothers, the owners of a small foundry producing iron fences 
mainly. In 1860, they began the manufacture of boilers. In- 
corporated in 1878. About five hundred hands now employed, 
and about seventy-five tons of iron melted per day in making 
boilers, radiators, cottage heaters, etc., for steam and water 

Church Orgavs. — The church organs built by Emmons 
Howard have received deserved recognition in the wide appre- 
ciation of his large organ exhibited at the exposition at Buffalo 
in 1901. 

The Westfield Marble and Sandstone Co. is producing from 
its quarry a highly ornamental marble, which is coming into 
wide use. 


The first attempt to manufacture paper was made at Spring- 
dale, as the locality is now called, by the brothers Augustus E., 

( 441 ) 


Charles A., and Alexander C. Jessup. They made paper by 
hand, dipping square sieves into a vat of pulp. 

The Columbian Photo Paper Co. now owns the premises. 
Incorporated in 1890. It is said to be the only mill in the 
country in which paper is made from rags and completely fin- 
ished for the photographer. Capacity, one ton per day. 

Crane Brothers' Mills— Upper and Lower — Produce fine 
ledger, Japanese and other linen papers. The excellence of the 
product has secured a world-wide reputation. Three tons of 
paper per day are produced. 


First National — Organized 1864 by consolidating the First 
National Bank, capital $150,000, with the Westfield Bank, capital 

The old Hampden Bank 

From an old lithograph; showing also the house of Mrs. Messer, who 
conducted a fancy goods store, corner of Elm and Main streets 

$100,000. The Westfield Bank was organized in 1851. Capital, 
$250,000 ; surplus, $120,000. 

Hampden National — Incorporated 1825. Became a national 
bank in 1865. Capital, $150,000 ; surplus, $100,000. 

Co-operative Bank — Incorporated 1881. Authorized capi- 
tal, $1,000,000. 

( 442 ) 


Saving's Banks— AVoronoco and Westfield, each having be- 
tween one and two millions deposits. 


Noble Hospital— Incorporated 1893. During the five years 
since the building was opened, seven hundred patients have re- 
ceived treatment. 

Shurtleff INlission — Cares for the children of the poor and 
destitute. Incorporated 1895. The charter requires that those 
having charge of the children shall "foster in their minds the 
spirit and teachings of the gospel." 

Space forbids notice of various other associations, charit- 
able, literary and religious connected with the churches, or main- 
tained independently. 

The Young Men's Christian association was incorporated 
March 10, 1891. The corner-stone of the present convenient 
building standing on a lot costing $10,000, was laid Oct. 15, 1900. 

An active Christian Temperance union has long been main- 
tained by ladies of Westfield. 

The Board of Trade, numbering from 100 to 150, takes ac- 
tive interest in all that pertains to the development of the town. 

The "Woronoco Street Railway Co., incorporated in 1890, 
operates ove^ eleven miles of track, and is projecting large ex- 

Selectmen of Westfield— As given in the town records:— 

1672 — Capt. Cook, Dea. Hanchett, Sergt. Dewey, John 
Sackett, Joseph Whiting. 

1676— Isaac Phelps, Thos. Gunn, John Porter, John Inger- 
soU, David Ashley. 

1677— Ens. Loomis, Geo. Phelps, Josiah Dewey, Isaac 
Phelps, Thos. Dewey, David Ashley. 

1678— Lieut. Moseley, Thos. Bancroft, Jedediah Dewey. 

1679— David Ashley, Josiah Dewey, Isaac Phelps. 

1680— Serg't Dewey, Isaac Phelps, David Ashley. 

1685— Ens. Loomis, Serg't Phelps, David Ashley. 

( 444 ) 


1686 — Cornet Dewey, Ens. Dewey, John Root. 
1687-88— Isaac Phelps, Lieut. Loomis, Nathaniel Weller, 
Capt. Maudsley, John Saeket, Jedediah Dewey. 

1689— Josiah Dewey, Samuel Root, Isaac Phelps. 

1690 — Isaac Phelps, Nathaniel Weller, Samuel Root. 

1691-92— Lieut. Phelps, John Saeket, Nathaniel Weller. 

1693 — Isaac Phelps, Samuel Root, John Saeket. 

1694— Deacon Dewey, Deacon Weller, David Ashley. 

1695— Isaac Phelps, Samuel Root, Ens. Dewey. 

1696— Dea. Weller, John Gunn, John Noble. 

1697— Dea. Weller, Nathaniel Weller, Jedediah Dewey. 

1698— Lieut. Root, Ensign Dewey, Deacon Weller. 

1699 — Jedediah Dewey, Isaac Phelps, David Ashley. 

1701 — Joseph Maudsley, Nathaniel Phelps, Thos. Noble. 

1702— Nathaniel Phelps, Nathaniel AVeller, Samuel Root. 

1703 — Isaac Phelps, Deacon Weller, Samuel Ashley. 

1704 — Isaac Phelps, Samuel Ashley, Nathaniel Phelps. 

1705 — Capt. Phelps, Nathaniel Phelps, Samuel Taylor. 

1706 — Samuel Taylor, David Dewey, Isaac Phelps. 

1707 — Nathaniel Weller, Isaac Phelps, Samuel Taylor. 

1708-9 — David Dewey, Isaac Phelps, Nathaniel Weller. 

1710— Nathaniel Weller, Nathaniel Phelps, Stephen Kellogg. 

1711— Nathaniel Phelps, John Root, Stephen Kellogg. 

1712— David Ashley, Nathaniel Phelps, John Root. 

1713— Isaac Phelps, John Root, David Ashley. 


1715— Nathaniel Phelps, Thos. Noble, John Root. 


1717— John Root, Capt. Moseley, Thos. Dewey. 

1718— John Root, Daniel Bagg, Ens. Gunn. 

1719— John Root, John Gunn, Mark Noble. 

1720— Samuel Ashley, Thos. Noble, Israel Dewey. 

1721— John Gunn, Thos. Ingersoll, Samuel Ashley. 

1722— Thos. Noble, James Dewey, John Root. 

1723 — John Shepard, John Gunn, Daniel Bagg. 

1724— Thos. Ingersoll, John Ashley, Samuel Bush (2d). 

1725 — Thos. Ingersoll, John Root, Jonathan Ashley. 

( 446 ) 


1726— John Gunn, Lieut. Root, Joseph Dewey. 

1727— Thos. Ingersoll, Samuel Bush (2d), Jonathan Phelps. 

1728— John Gunn, John Shepard, Thos. Ingersoll 

1729— John Gunn. Consider Maudsley, Thos. Dewey. 

1730— John Gunn, Samuel Fowler, Abijah Dewey, John 
Shepard, Consider Maudsley. 

1731— John Root, John Gunn, Thos. Ingersoll, Nathaniel 
Bancroft, Elizur Weller. 

1732 — Deacon Shepard, James Dewey, Nehemiah Loomis. 

1733— Thos. Ingersoll, Eldad Taylor, James Dewey. 

1734— Lieut. Ingersoll, Dea. Shepard, Ensign Taylor, Lieut. 
Ashley, James Dewey. 

1735 — Dea. Shepard, Lieut. Ingersoll, Ensign Maudsley, 
Samuel Fowler (2d), Ens. Taylor. 

1736— Samuel Fowler (2d), John Lee. Elizur Weller, En- 
sign Maudsley, Lieut. Ingersoll. 

1737— Dea. Shepard, Ensign Maudsley, Lieut. Ingersoll, 
Joseph Root, David Dewey. 

1738 — Thos. Ingersoll. Joseph Root, Ensign Maudsley, Mat- 
thew Noble, John Gunn. 

1739— Joseph Root, Ensign Taylor, Dea. Shepard, Thos. In- 
gersoll, John Gunn. 

1740 — Abijah Dewey, James Dewey, David Dewey, Matthew 
Noble, Samuel Fowler. 

1741— James Dewey, Ensign Maudsley, Joseph Root, David 
Dewey, Matthew Noble. 

1742— Thos. Ingersoll, Ensign Maudsley, Joseph Root. Dea. 
Dewey, Israel Maudsley. 

1743— Ensign Maudsley, Dea. Dewey, Israel Maudsley, En- 
sign Taylor, Thos. Ingersoll. 

1744— David Moseley, John Shepard, Dea. Taylor, David 
Bagg, Ensign Noble. 

1745— James Dewey, David Moseley, Eldad Taylor, Thos. 
Ingersoll, John Shepard. 

1746— Abel Cadwell, John Shepard, Capt. Ingersoll, David 
Moseley, Eldad Taylor. 

1747— Israel Ashley, Abel Cadwell. David Moseley, John 
Shepard, David Weller. 

( 447 ) 


1748— David ]Moseley, John Shepard, Abel Cadwell, Asa 
Noble, Stephen Nash. 

1749-50— David Moseley, Aaron Phelps, Moses Dewey, Dr. 
Ashley, John Shepard. 

1751— Jonathan Ingersoll, Israel ]\Ioseley, Israel Dewey, 
Ens. Noble, Stephen Nash. 

1752— David Moseley, Noah Ashley, Dr. Ashley, Abel Cad- 
Avell, Jonathan Ingersoll. 

1753— Noah Ashley, David Moseley, Dr. Ashley. AYm. 
Sacket, Abel Cadwell. 

1754— David Moseley. Israel Ashley, AVni. Sacket, David 
AA'eller, Jonathan Ingersoll. 

1755— David jNIoseley, Israel Ashley, David AVeller, Jona- 
than Ingersoll, Wm. Sacket. 

1756— David Moseley, Israel Ashley, Moses Dewey. David 
Weller, Wm. Sacket. 

1757— Israel Ashley, Eldad Taylor, David Aloseley, John 
Shepard, ]\Iartin Dewey. 

1758— David JNIoseley, Israel Ashley, Martin Dewey, John 
Shepard, John Ingersoll. 

1759 — David Moseley, John Ingersoll, Ezra Clapp, Moses 
Dewey, Aaron King. 

1760-1— Matthew Noble, Sanmel Fowler, Joseph Root, 
Aaron King. 

1762— David Aloseley, John Ingersoll, John Moseley, Eldad 
Taylor, Samuel Fowler. 

The records covering the period between 1762 and 1774 have 
been lost. 

1774— John Ingersoll, John Bancroft, Wm. Shepard, David 
Fowler, Elisha Parks. 

1775— Elisha Parks, John Moseley, Wm. Shepard, Eldad 
Taylor, Daniel Fowler. 

1776— John Moselej^, Daniel Fowler, Daniel Bagg, Dr. 
Mather, Daniel Sacket. 

1777— David Moseley, Daniel Sacket, Benjamin Saxton, 
Martin Root, Samnel Mather. 

1778— John Ingersoll, Bohan King, David AVeller, jr., Dan- 
iel Fowler, John Kellogg. 

( 448 ) 


1779— John Kellogg, Israel Ashley, David Moseley, David 
Weller, Elisha Parks. 

1780— Israel Ashley, Daniel Saeket, Samuel Fowler, Israel 
Dewey, Esquire Ingersoll. 

1781— Dr. Ashley, Samuel Fowler, James Taylor, Deacon 
Dewey, Esquire Ingersoll. 

1782— Capt. Saeket, Dr. Ashley, Samuel Fowler, Capt. Tay- 
lor, Aaron Dewey. 

1783— John Ingersoll, Samuel Fowler, John Bancroft, Bil- 
dad Fowler, jr., Noah Phelps. 

1784— John Ingersoll, Capt. Bancroft, Col. Shepard, Israel 
Ashley, Samuel Fowler. 

1785— Wm. Shepard, Israel Ashley, David Moseley, Dr. 
Whitney, John Ingersoll. 

1786— Samuel Fowler, Col. Shepard, Col. Moseley, Dr. 
"Whitney, Jedediah Taylor. 

1787— David Moseley, Gen. Shepard, Samuel Fowler, Dr. 
Whitney, Jedediah Taylor. 

1788-9 — Samuel Fowler, John Bancroft, John Phelps, Gad 
Noble, Ezra Clapp. 

1790-91 — Samuel Fowler, Wm. Shepard, John Phelps, War- 
ham Parks, Aaron Dewey. 

1792— Aaron Dewey, Wm. Shepard, Bohan King, Zachariah 
Bush, jr., Paul Whitney. 

• 1793 — Aaron Dewey, Paul Whitney, Zachariah Bush. 

1794 — Zachariah Bush, Aaron Dewey, Paul Whitney, Wm. 
Shepard, James Taylor. 

1795-6— Wm. Shepard, James Taylor, Warham Parks, Zach- 
ariah Bush, jr., Zadock Martindale. 

1797-8— James Taylor, Warham Parks, Abel Whitney, Silas 
Bush, John Dewey. 

1799— Warham Parks, James Taylor, Silas Bush. 

1800— James Taylor, John Dewey, Silas Bush, Jedediah 
Taylor, Gen. Parks. 

1801— Jedediah Taylor, John Dewey, James Taylor, Silas 
Bush, Wm. Moseley. 

39-2 ( 449 ) 


1802— Jedediali Taylor, Israel Ashley, V\^m. Moseley. 

1803-4— Israel Ashley, Jedediah Taylor, Wm. Moseley, Silas 
Bush, Solomon Phelps. 

1805-7— Silas Bush, Jedediah Taylor, Solomon Phelps, Fred- 
erick Fowler, Isaac Ensign. 

1808— Solomon Phelps, Jedediah Taylor, Silas Bush. 

1809 — Silas Bush, Jedediah Taylor, Frederick Fowler, Ben- 
jamin Hastings, Enoch Holcomb. 

1810— Silas Bush, Benjamin Hastings, Enoch Holcomb, Aza- 
riah Moseley, Frederick Fowler. 

1811— Frederick Fowder, Jedediah Taylor, Enoch Holcomb, 
Azariah Moseley, Benjamin Hastings. 

1812— Jedediah Taylor, Frederick Fowler, Azariah Moseley. 

1813-14— Jedediah Taylor, Frederick Fowler, Azariah 
Moseley, Ambrose Day, Isaac Allen. 

1815— Azariah Moseley, Frederick Fowler, David King, Ja- 
cob Cooper, Roswell Dewey. 

1816— Frederick Fowler, Azariah Moseley, David King, 
Isaac Allen, Roswell Dewey. 

1817— Roswell Dewey, Azariah Moseley, Eager Noble, Wm. 
Atwater, Isaac Allen. 

1818— Wm. Atwater, Eager Noble, Jared Noble, Ambrose 
Day, Isaac Allen. 

1819— Wm. Atwater, Eager Noble, Jared Noble, Ambrose 
Day, Elisha G. Cook. 

1820— Azariah Moseley, Ambrose Day, Jas. Fowler, Eager 
Noble, Elisha G. Cook. 

1821-2— James Fowler, Elisha G. Cook, Azariah Moseley. 

1823— Ambrose Day, Warham Shepard, Elisha G. Cook, 
Henry Fowler, Wm. Hooker. 

1824— Ambrose Day, Warham Shepard, Elisha G. Cook, 
Jas. Fowler, Roland Taylor. 

1825— James Fowler, Ambrose Day, Elisha G. Cook, Elijah 
Arnold, Eager Noble. 

1826— Elisha G. Cook, Chas. Douglas, Harvey Champion, 
Warham Shepard, John Shepard. 

( 450 ) 


1827— Chas. Douglas, Harvey Champion, John Shepard, 
Kansford Allen, Wni. Atwater. 

1828 — Chas. Douglas, AVm. Atwater, John Shepard, Sylva- 
nus G. Morley, Sturges Upson. 

1829 — Sylvanus G. Morley. Asahel Bush, John Shepard, 
Sturges Upson, Lewis Fowler. 

1830— Asahel Bush, Sturges Upson, Lewis Fowler, Chaun- 
GQj Pease, Joshua Loomis. 

1831— Asahel Bush, Sturges Upson, John Shepard, Thomas 
Ashley, Wm. Sibley. 

1832— Asahel Bush, Chauncey Pease, Thos. Loomis, Ezra 
Allen, George Taylor. 

1833 — Chauncey Pease, Henry Douglas, S. G. Morley, Lucas 
Cowles, Adna Avery. 

1834— Asahel Bush, Chauncey Pease, Thomas Loomis, Chas. 
Noble, Adna Avery. 

1835— Asahel Bush, Chauncey Pease, Thomas Loomis, Geo. 
Taylor, Adna Avery. 

1836— Lucius Wright, Asa B. Whitman, Geo. W. Noble, 
Israel Sackett, Thos. Loomis. 

1837— Lucius Wright, Asa B. Whitman, Israel Sacket. 

1838— Lucius AVright, Israel Sackett. Ashbel Dewey, Chas. 
Dewey, Orin Cowles. 

1839— Asa B. Whitman. David Moseley. Lucius Wright, 
Orin Cowles, Ashbel Dewey. 

1840— David ]\Ioseley, Hiram Harrison, Roswell Sherman, 
David Drake, Salmon Ensign. 

1841— David Moseley, Roswell Sherman, Salmon Ensign, 
David Drake, Wm. Noble, jr. 

1842-3— David ^Moseley, Lewis Fowler, Martin Sackett, 
Chauncey Pease. Alonzo Allen. 

1844— David Moseley, Joseph IVI. Ely, Stephen Harrison, 
Micajah Taylor, Alonzo Allen. 

1845 — Dennis Hedges. Joseph Arnold, Geo. H. Moseley. 

1846 — Dennis Hedges, Geo. H. Moseley, Horace Root, Ed- 
Avin Brewer. Jason Fox. 

( 451 ) 


1847— Dennis Hedges, Geo. H. Moseley, Horace Root, Edwin 
Brewer, Jason Fox. 

1848-9— Jovseph M. Ely, Stephen Harrison, Geo. Sackett, 
Jas. Noble, Frederick Morgan. 

1850— Joseph M. Ely, Geo. Sackett, Fred'k Morgan, Ste- 
phen Harrison, Jas. Noble. 

1851— Geo. Noble, Dennis Hedges, Wm. Moseley, Silas Root, 
Ebenezer W. Cook. 

1852— Dennis Hedges, AYm. Moseley, E. W. Cook, Geo. W. 
Noble, Silas Root. 

1853— Francis S. Eggleston, Jehial Shepard, G. W. Noble, 
Frederick Fowler, Dennis Hedges. 

1854— Henry Fuller, Frederick Fowler, Jehial Shepard, F. 
S. Eggleston, Geo. W. Noble. 

1855— Silas Root, J. S. Knowles, Thos. Cowles, Barnum 
Perry, E. W. Cook. 

1856— Samuel Horton, Thos. Kneil, Thos. Cowles, L. B. 
Blood, Chas. Fowler. 

1857— Caleb Alden, Dennis Hedges, Joseph Arnold, Frank- 
lin Arthur, Merwin Loomis. 

1858— Hiram Hull, Geo. H. Moseley, Joseph Arnold. 

1859-60— Hiram Hull, Geo. H. Moseley, Seth Bush. 

1861-L. C. Gillett, Hiram Hull, Seth Bush. 

1862— L. C. Gillett, Reuben Loomis, Wm. Provin. 

1863— Wm. Provin, L. C. Gillett, L. F. Thayer. 

1864— L. F. Thayer, L. F. Root, Wm. Provin. 

1865— H. B. Lewis, Elihu Gay lord, Wm. Provin. 

1866-67— H. B. Lewis, Elihu Gaylord, Geo. E. Knapp. 

1868— Wm. Provin, Elihu Gaylord, John Fowler. 

1869— H. B. Lewis, John Fowler, Chas. H. Bush. 

1870— F. S. Egleston, J. M. Ely, Daniel Fowler. 

1871— Alexander McKenzie, F. S. Egleston, Elihu Gay- 

1872— F. S. Egleston, Jos. S. Clark, E. P. Parks. 

1873-74-F. S. Egleston, Jos. S. Clark, M. R. Van Deusen. 

1875-F. S. Egleston, Jos. S. Clark, W. S. Bush. 

( 452 ) 


1876 -L. F. Thayer, Wm. S. Bush, Alexander McKeuzie. 
1877-L. F. Thayer, Wm. S. Bush, L. F. Root. 
1878-L. F. Thayer, Jos. S. Clark, L. F. Root. 
1879— L. F. Thayer, David Lainberton, E. C. Carpenter. 
1880-L. F. Thayer, E. C. Carpenter, Seth Bush. 
1881-Wm. Provin, jr., I. H. Plumley, G. H. Moseley. 
1882— EdAvin Hedges, Frank F. Arthur, John Fowler. 
1883— Edwin Hedges, Frank F. Arthur, John Fowler. 
1884— Edwin Hedges, C. D. Allen. John Fowler. 

Soldiers' Monument 

1885— Edwin Hedges, C. D. Allen, John Fowler. 
1886— Edwin Hedges, C. D. Allen, John Fowler. 
1887— Edwin Hedges, W. H. Foote, T. B. Moseley. 
1888 -W. C. Clark, T. B. Moseley, L. F. Root. 
1889-W. C. Clark, T. B. Moseley, L. F. Root. 
1890— Jas. P. Freeman, T. B. Moseley, L. F. Root. 
1891— Jas. P. Freeman, T. B. Moseley, L. F. Thayer. 
1892— Jas. P. Freeman, T. B. Moseley, L. F. Thayer. 
1893— Jas. P. Freeman, T. B. Moseley, L. F. Thayer. 

( 453 ) 



1894— Edwin Hedges, T. B. Moseley, James P. Freeman. 
1895— Olin C. Towle, Orrin A. Granger, Jas. P. Freeman. 
1896— Orrin A. Granger, Jas. P. Freeman, Thos. B. Moseley. 
1897— Orrin A. Granger, Jas. P. Freeman. Thos. B. Mose- 

1898 — Orrin A. Granger, Jas. P. Freeman, Thos. B. Mos€- 

1899-Chas. H. Beals, Jas. P. Freeman. Thos. B. Moseley. 
1900— R. J. Morrissey, Jas. P. Freeman, Thos. B. Moseley. 
1901 — R. J. MoiTissey, Jas. P. Freeman, "Wm. S. Bush. 
1902-James H. Clark, George H. Loomis, ^\m. S. Bush. 


1693— John Ashley. 
1694— Joseph Sexton. 
1695-1702— Isaac Phelps. 
1702-1705— Joseph Sexton. 
1705-1715— Isaac Phelps. 
1715-1731— John Root. 
1731-1747-John Gunn. 
1747-1763-Eldad Taylor. 
1763-1774— Record wanting. 
1774-1777-Eldad Taylor. 
1777-1781 -Samuel Mather. 
1781 — Samuel Fowler. 
1782-1788 -Israel Ashley. 
1788— Samuel Fowler. 
1789 — Israel Ashley. 
1790-1795 -Paul Whitney. 
1796— John Atwater. 
1797-1799-Abel Whitney. 
1799-1813-John Ingersoll. 
1813-1815- Chas. Douglas. 
1815-1817 -AYilliam Blair. 
1817-1823— David King. 
182.3-1826-Alfred Stearns. 

( 454 ) 


1826— Eli B. Hamilton. 

1827— JNIatthew Ives, jr. 

1828- Chas. Douglas. 

1829-1832— Matthew Ives. jr. 

1832-1834-Homer Holland. 

1834-1836-Joseph S. Stebbins. 

1836-1842-Xorman T. Leonard. 

1842-1845-Wm. 0. Fletcher. 

1845-1847-Reiiben Noble. 

1848— Hiram A. Beebe. 

1848-1850-Asahel Bush. 

1850-1852-Henry C. Moseley. 

1852-1854- Gilbert W. Cobb. 

1854— Geo. R. Whitman. 

1855-1865-P. H. Boise. 

1865-1868-Dwight W. Stowell. 

1868-Geo. H. Douglas. 

1869 -AVm. H. Foote. 

1870-1874— R. B. Robinson. 

1874-1879-E. W. Dickerman. 

1879-1888-D. M. Chace. 

1888— March to August, 1888, E. Axtell. 

1888— August, Charles X. Cakes (present town clerk). 


from 1671 to 1876, when Westfield became a part of the 10th 
Representative District. 
J. F. Hull. Thos. Dewey, John Ashley, Daniel Bagg, John 
Moseley, Elisha Parks, Joseph Lyman, Isaac Phelps, James Tay- 
lor, John Ingersoll, Ashbel Eager, Jedediah Taylor, Benjamin 
Hastings. Frederick Fowler, Azariah Moseley, Wm. Blair, James 
Fowler, David King, Wm. Atwater, Alfred Stearns, Elijah Ar- 
nold, Chas. Douglas, David Wright, Aaron Sibley, Matthew 
Ives, Jesse Farnam, Henrv' Douglas. Eli B. Hamilton, Henry 
FoAvler, Joseph S. Avery, Elias Cadwell, Lewis Fowler, Asahel 
Bush, Henry Champion, Chauncey Pease, Thos. Loomis, Joseph 

( 455 ) 


Hedges, Asa B. Whitman, Lucius Wright, Joseph Arnold, David 
Moseley, Jonah L. Gross, Norman T. Leonard, Dennis Hedges, 
Samuel R. B. Lewis, Geo. Sackett, Hiram Harrison, Oliver 
Moseley, Chauncey Colton, Hiram Fox, Royal Fowler, Hiram 
A. Beebe, Israel Sackett, Josiah S. Knowles, Daniel D. Erving, 
Hiram Hull, Geo. H. Moseley, Jas. Noble 2d, James Holland, 
Luke Bush, Henry Fuller, D. N. Goff, Geo. Green, Addison Gage, 
Jasper R. Rand, David M. Chase, Lewis R. Norton, Henry J. 
Bush, Thos. Kneil, Jas. R. Gladwin, Chas. Dickerman, William 
G. Bates, Samuel Horton, Alexander MeKenzie, Reuben Noble, 
L. B. Walkley. 



The town of Brimfield, comprising something more than 
21,500 acres, lies on the eastern line of Hampden county. It is 
bounded on the north by the town of Warren, Worcester county ; 
east by the town of Sturbridge, Worcester county ; south by the 
towns of AVales and Tolland; and on the west by Monson and 
Palmer. Straight lines define the boundaries on the west, south 
and east sides, while the northern boundary is irregular, being 
formed in part by the Quaboag river, by which Brimfield is 
separated from the town of Palmer. The land is high, forming 
part of the watershed between the Thames and Connecticut 
rivers. The highest elevations in the town are some 1,200 feet 
above the sea level. There are no mountains, strictly speaking, 
but in the western portion of the town a well-defined range of 
hills rises to a height of 500 or 600 feet at the highest points. On 
one of the highest summits of this range a massive bowlder bears 
the distinctive name of "Steerage rock." This eminence com- 
mands a wide view over the surrounding country, and tradition 
ascribes the name of the rock to the fact that it was visited by 

( 456 ) 


the Indians, when journejnng through the regions, that they 
might take correct bearings for any point which they desired to 
reach. Perhaps to facilitate these observations, the surround- 
ing hills had been burned over, so that at the time of the first 
survey by white men, preparatory to settlement, the timber on 
the hills had been destroyed, while the valleys were principally 
■covered by a strong growtli of native gi-asses. 

The first steps toward the settlement of Avhat became the 
town of Brimtield were taken in the year 1701, when on the 20th 
of June the general court, in compliance with tlie petition of 

Steerage Eock 

twenty-one citizens of Springfield, appointed a "prudential com- 
mittee" of five Springfield men— Major John Pynchon, Captain 
Thomas Colton, James Warriner, David Morgan, and Joseph 
Stebbins— to lay out a new township, to the eastward of Spring- 
field, to allot lands, and to have the general management of the 
afi'airs of the settlement. The township was to be eight miles 
square, and grants of land were to be made to sixty families, or 
to seventy, if so many could be accommodated ; but no more than 
120 acres were to be assigned to any one person 

( -157 ) 


The committee, accompanied by twenty other persons from 
Springfield, visited the region on the 22d of September, 1701, 
and spent some time in the selection of a town site. The location 
first chosen was what is known as Grout's hill, now in the town 
of Monson; but further investigation showed better land lying 
near the eastern side of the township, and the site Avas changed 
accordingly. Thirteen grants of land wei-e made December 81. 
following, on condition that work thereon should be begun the 
next spring, but this agreement was not carried out, and nothing- 
further was done for some years. The war existing between 
England and France, the hostile disposition of the Indians, and 
the distance of Brimfield from the stronger settlements, exposed 
its settlers to many dangers, and the development of the town- 
ship proceeded but slowly. In 1717 the general court, on peti- 
tion, extended the town limits three miles further east, so as to^ 
embrace some desirable land lying in that direction. 

The tract thus laid out included the territory now covered 
by the towns of Brimfield, Monson, Wales and Holland, as well 
as certain tracts since included within the limits of Warren and 
of Palmer. Monson was incorporated as a district in 1760, and 
became a town in 1775 ; Wales and Holland originally consti- 
tuted the district of South Brimfield. The former was made a 
district September 18, 1762, and became the town of Wales Feb- 
ruary 20, 1828. Holland Avas incorporated as a district July 5, 
1783, and as a town May 1, 1836. 

Owing to the slow development of the new township, so 
much dissatisfaction arose that the general court was petitioned 
to appoint a new committee, and this was done June 12, 1723, 
the following persons being named : Hon. John Chandler, Henry 
DAvight, Esq., and Joseph Jennings. Six years later, in Septem- 
ber, 1729, this committee made a report, recommending annul- 
ment of the grants of land made by the former committee, and a 
new allotment. This action naturally caused consternation. The 
recommendation elicited strong protest from those likely to be 
affected, and they addressed to the general court a memorial 
setting forth the injustice Avhich Avould be done them if thus 
deprived of lands Avhich they had improA'ed "\Aath great hazard; 

( 458 ) 


of their lives and substance, living- on and defending- the same." 
The matter was settled on the 18th of June. 1731, by an act of 
the general court contirming grants of 120 acres each made by 
the first committee to "Nathaniel Hitchcock, Ebeuezer Graves, 
David Hitchcock, Benjamin Cooley, Leonard Hoar, Captain 
John Sherman, David ]\Iorgan and Nathan Collins, and one to 
one of the sons of each of them; to Deliverance Brooks, Daniel 
Hubbard, John Ateheson, and one to his son; one to Park Wil- 
liams in his OAvn right, and one purchased by him, originally 
granted to Robert Old; one to John Stebbins, AVilliam Wilson, 
and John Charles, and likewise one to each of their sons: one to 
ffohn Lumbard, David Lumbard, Samuel Hubbard. Peter 
Haynes, Joseph Haynes, Peter Montague, Henry Burt. Thomas 
Stebbins, the heirs of William Nichols, Micah Townsley, Eleazer 
Foot, William AVarriner, James Thompson, heirs of Francis 
Baxter, George Erwin. Joseph Frost. David Shaw, John alias 
Daniel Burt, Joshua ShaAv, Samuel Bliss. Thomas Foot and 
assigns, John Keep, Samuel Allen, Nathaniel INIiller, Ezra King, 
Robert Old, Samuel King, Anthony Needham. Robert Moulton, 
Robert Moulton, Jr., John Wilson, John Danielson. John Miller, 
John Mighill, Joseph Davis, Benjamin Warner, Daniel Graves, 
Benjamin Mun. Daniel Fuller, Nathaniel Clark and John Bullen, 
amounting to 169 lots of 120 acres each. To Samuel Munger, 
Thomas Green, Joshua Old, Ebenezer Scott, Mark Ferrey, Sam- 
uel Allen. Jr., Samuel Shaw, Seth Shaw and Daniel Kilhim. each 
a home lot of sixty acres, already laid out, and if any of them 
should be found to have more than that amount, to retain the 
same, the surplus to be deducted from their after rights. To. 
Rev. Mr. Treat, the minister of the town, a lot of 120 acres, with 
all after rights; also a lot to Samuel Chandler, son of John 
Chandler, who had built a house here : one to Seth DAAnght, son 
of Henry D'wight, and one to Joseph Jennings, in consideration 
of their services as a prudential committee : also to AVilliam Pyn- 
chon and Obadiah Cooley, who, although they did not reside on 
the grants, 'did provide some materials for finishing the meeting- 
house, and have since made some improvements thereon'; also a 
lot to them jointly, 'in consideration that they pi'ovide iron-work 

( 459 ) 


for the first sawmill, they drawing no after rights.' Also to 
Captain George Colton and David Ingersole a lot 'in considera- 
tion of their having provided nails of all sorts, sufficient for 
finishing the meeting-house'; also to the heirs of Lieut. Col. 
Pynchon, Captain Thomas Colton, James Warriner, David Mor- 
gan and Joseph Stebbins, all deceased, and to Pelatiah Glover, 
120 acres each, without any after rights. To Thomas Ingersole, 
in consideration of expenses incurred on the first committee; to 
Thomas Mirrick, Thomas Mirrick. Jr., the heirs of Nathaniel 
Sikes, Increase Sikes, Samuel Keep and Tilly Merrick, in con- 
sideration of money paid, lots were granted and confirmed with- 
out after rights or divisions. The claims rejected were those of 
AVilliam Brewer, William Hamilton, Patrick Marshall, Andrew 
Bayley, Pelatiah Glover, Jr., John Evans, and Ebenezer 
Cooley. ' ' It was further directed by the general court that after 
these grants were satisfied the remaining lands should belong to 
the grantees, and be proportionately divided, with after rights, 
and that the inhabitants should enjoy all the rights and privi- 
leges of other towns in the province. 

The grantees under this act practically included all of the 
first settlers of the town, and their family names bear an honor- 
able part in the history of the tOAvn for many generations. In 
order properly to award the lands, some twenty roads or high- 
ways were authorized ; but as courses and distances were not 
made mattei^ of record for many yeai-s, the descriptions were 
often perplexing to parties interested, as well as amusing in the 
later reading, as for instance: "Across land of Joshua Shaw, 
where there is the best going, leading from a big rock in the line 
of said Joshua's plain lot to a black-oak staddle over a squeachy 

The first town meeting, on a warrant issued by John Sher- 
man, under authority from the general court, was held March 16, 
1731, while the matter of land grants still remained unsettled. 
The full list of officers then elected was as follows: Town clerk, 
Robert Moulton ; selectmen, Robert Moulton, John Stebbins, Ezra 
King, David Morgan, and David Shaw; treasurer, John Steb- 
bins; assessors, Joseph Blodgett, Joseph Haynes, and David 

( 460 ) 


Hitchcock; constables, George Charles and John Erwen; sur- 
veyors of higlnvays, James Thompson, Joseph Frost, Samuel Al- 
len, and Nathan Collins; tithingmeu, Ebenezer Scott and Henry 
Burt ; fence-viewers, Thomas Stebbins, John Nelson, and John 
Keep; hog-reeves, Samuel Bliss and Benjamin Cooley. A sealer 
of leather was chosen in 1736, a sealer of weights and measures in 
1738, a packer of beef and pork in 1771, a culler of shingles and 
staves in 1793, while field drivers were not elected until 1823. 

West Brinitield at the bridge 

John Stebbins, Robert Moulton and David Shaw were elected 
May 4, 1731, to represent the interests of the town before the 
general court, and on the 24th of the same month Robert Moul- 
ton was chosen as the representative of the town to the general 
court, as the legislature was then designated. 

The offices of selectmen, town clerk, and representative 
(until 1812, when the district system of representation was 
adopted) have been filled by the following persons: 

( 461 ) 


Selectmen — llSl, Robert Moulton, John Stebbins, Ezra 
King, David Morgan, David Shaw; 1732, Robert Moulton, John 
Stebbins, John Sherman. John Russell, William Nelson; 1733, 
Robert Moulton, John Sherman, John Russell, William Nelson, 
Joshua Shaw ; 1734, John Stebbins, John Sherman, Ebenezer 
Graves, Leonard Hoar, Benjamin Cooley; 1735, John Sherman, 
Ebenezer Graves, Nathaniel Hitchcock, John Keep, Joseph Blod- 
gett ; 1736, John Stebbins. John Sherman, John Russell, David 
Hitchcock, Nicholas Graves: 1737, Ezra King, John Sherman, 
Leonard Hoar, Joseph Haynes, William Warriner; 1738, John 
Stebbins. Benjamin Cooley, Nathaniel Hitchcock, Joseph Blod- 
gett, Samuel King; 1739, John Stebbins. John Sherman, Wil- 
liam Nelson. David Hitchcock, Nathaniel ]\Iiller; 1740, John 
Stebbins, John Sherman, William Nelson, Nathaniel Miller; 
1741, John Sherman, James Merrick, Henry Burt, Nathan Col- 
lins. John ]\Iighe]l : 1742, John Stebbins, John Sherman, John 
Russell, Joseph Blodgett. Nicholas Graves; 1743, John Russell, 
Nathaniel ]\Tiller, John Mighell, Thomas Stebbins, Benjamin 
Morgan; 1744, John Stebbins, John Russell, Joseph Blodgett, 
David Hitchcock, John ]\Iighell; 1745, John Sherman, Leonard 
Hoar, Benjamin Cooley, John Mighill, Thomas Stebbins; 1746, 
John Sherman, Leonard Hoar, David Hitchcock, Anthony Need- 
ham, Joseph Davis ; 1747, John Sherman, Leonard Hoar, Samuel 
King, Thomas Stebbins. Anthony Needham ; 1748, Robert ]\Ioul- 
ton, Joseph Blodgett, George Colton, Joseph Hoar. Thomas El- 
lingwood ; 1749, Robert ]\[oulton, John Sherman, Leonard Hoar, 
John Keep, Enoch Hides ; 1750, John Sherman, Joseph Blodgett, 
Thomas Stebbins, Joseph Hoar, Daniel Burt; 1751, John Sher- 
man, Joshua Shaw, Samuel King, Joseph Hoar, John Danielson ; 
1752, John Sherman, James Merrick, George Colton ; 1753, John 
Sherman, Leonard Hoar, Joseph Blodgett, George Colton, Enoch 
Hides; 1754, John Keep, Luke Blashfield, Noah Hitchcock, 
Adonijah Russell ; 1755, Samuel King, Joseph Hoar, Daniel 
Burt, Bezaleel Sherman ; 1756, John Sherman, Thomas Steb- 
bins, Daniel Burt, Samuel Moulton ; 1757, Samuel King, An- 
thony Needham, Daniel Burt, Luke Blashfield; 1758, Joseph 
Davis, Noah Hitchcock, Francis Sikes, Edward Bond; 1759, 

( 4fi2 ) 

THE To^y^ of beimfield 

Thomas Stebbins, Joseph Davis, Daniel Burt, Sarimel Nichols; 
1760, Joseph Blodgett, Daniel Burt, Adonijah Russell, Edward 
Bond, Jonathan Ferry; 1761, Joseph Iloar, Samuel Nichols, 
James Lawrence, Jonathan Janes, Joseph Hitchcock ; 1762. Jo- 
seph Blodgett, Anthony Needham, Joseph Hoar, Noah Hitch- 
cock; 1763, Joseph Hoar, Daniel Burt, Moses Hitchcock, Jona- 
than Charles, Benjamin Merrick; 1764, Joseph Davis, Adonijah 
Russell, Edward Bond, Jonathan Janes, Timothy Danielson ; 
1765, Joseph Hoar, Daniel Burt, Adonijah Russell, Timothy 
Danielson, James Sherman ; 1766, Joseph Hoar, Daniel Burt, 
Adonijah Russell, Timothy Danielson, James Sherman ; 1767, 
Joseph Hoar, Adonijah Russell, Bezaleel Sherman, Samuel Nich- 
ols, Timothy Danielson ; 1768, Joseph Hoar, Adonijah Russell, 
Bezaleel Sherman, Samuel Nichols, Timothy Danielson : 1769, 
Thomas Ellingwood, Daniel Burt, Bezaleel Sherman, Joseph 
Hitchcock, Joseph Browning; 1770, Daniel Burt, Bezaleel Sher- 
man, Joseph Hitchcock, Timothy Danielson ; 1771, Daniel Burt, 
Bezaleel Sherman, Samuel Nichols, Timothy Danielson, Joseph 
BroMTiing; 1772, Joseph Hoar, Daniel Burt, Bezaleel Sherman, 
Timothy Danielson, James Bridgham ; 1773, Joseph Hoar, Beza- 
leel Sherman, Timothy Danielson, James Bridgham, Jonathan 
Brown ; 1774, Joseph Hoar, Bezaleel Sherman, Timothy Daniel- 
son, Joseph Browning, James Bridgham ; 1775, Thomas Elling- 
wood, Daniel Burt. Joseph Browning, James Bridgham, Joseph 
Hoar, Jr. ; 1776, Daniel Burt, Bezaleel Sherman, Samuel Nichols, 
Timothy Danielson. James Brigham; 1777, Daniel Burt, Bezaleel 
Sherman, Timothy Danielson, Joseph Browning, Jonathan 
Thompson; 1778, Jonathan Brown, Joseph Hoar, Jr., Thomas 
Lombard, Simeon Hubbard, William Janes; 1779. Daniel Burt, 
Joseph BroAvning, Jonathan Brown. Jonathan Thompson, Aaron 
Mighill; 1780, Daniel Burt, Jonathan Brown, Joseph Hoar. Jr., 
Aaron Charles, Abner Morgan; 1781, Joseph Browning, Jona- 
than Brown, Joseph Hoar, Jr., Aaron Mighill, Aaron Charles; 
1782, Daniel Burt. Joseph Browning, Jonathan Brown, Joseph 
Hoar, Jr.. Aaron Mighill; 1783. Daniel Burt. Joseph Browning, 
Joseph Hoar, Jr., Simeon Hubbard, Samuel Bates ; 1784, Daniel 
Burt, Joseph Hitchcock, Joseph Browning, Aaron Mighill, Sam- 

( 463 ) 


uel Bates; 1785, Daniel Burt, Joseph Browning, Joseph Hoar, 
Jr., Samuel Bates, Issaeliar Brown; 1786, Joseph Hoar, Jr., 
Aaron Mighill, Abner Morgan, Issachar Brown, John Carpen- 
ter; 1787, Joseph Hoar, Jr., Abner Morgan, Issachar Brown, 
Alexander Sessions, Medad Hitchcock; 1788, Joseph Hoar, Jr., 
Aaron Mighill, Abner Morgan, Issachar Brown, David Morgan; 
1789, Joseph Hoar, Jr., Aaron Mighill, Abner Morgan, Issachar 
Brown, David Morgan; 1790, Joseph Browning, Simeon Hub- 
bard, Abner Morgan, Issachar Brown, David Morgan; 1791, 
Joseph Browning, Joseph Hoar, Jr., Abner Morgan, Issachar 
Brown, Samuel Sherman; 1792, Joseph Browning, Abner Mor- 
gan, Samuel Bates, David Morgan, Jonas Blodgett; 1793, Jo- 
seph BroAvning, Abner Morgan, Samuel Bates, David Morgan; 
1794, Joseph Hoar, Jr., Abner Morgan, Issachar Brown, Alexan- 
der Sessions, Jonas Blodgett; 1795, Joseph Browning, Joseph 
Hoar, Jr., Abner Morgan, Issachar Brown, Jonas Blodgett ; 1796, 
Joseph Browning, Joseph Hoar, Jr., Abner Morgan, Medad 
Hitchcock, Samuel Sherman; 1797, Joseph Browning, Jo- 
seph Hoar, Jr., Abner Morgan, Medad Hitchcock, Jo- 
nas BJodgett; 1798, Joseph Browning, Abner Morgan, 
Medad Hitchcock, Aaron Morgan, Joseph Moffat; 1799, 
Joseph Browning, Abner Morgan, Medad Hitchcock, Aaron 
Morgan, Joseph Moffat; 1800, Joseph Browning, Abner 
Morgan, Medad Hitchcock, Aaron Morgan, Joseph IMoffat ; 1801, 
Joseph Browning, Abner Morgan, Medad Hitchcock, Aaron 
Morgan, Joseph Moft'at; 1802, Joseph Browning, Joseph Hoar, 
Jr., Abner Morgan, Medad Hitchcock, Aaron Morgan, Joseph 
Moffat; 1803, Joseph Bro"\\Tiing, Joseph Hoar, Jr., Abner Mor- 
gan, Aaron Morgan, Philemon "Warren ; 1804, Joseph BroAvning, 
Abner Morgan, Aaron Morgan, Philemon Warren; 1805, Ste- 
phen Pynchon, Thomas Sherman, Alfred Allen, Benjamin Sher- 
man; 1806, Stephen Pynchon, Thomas Sherman, Alfred Allen, 
Benjamin Sherman; 1807, Abner Morgan, Thomas Sherman, 
Benjamin Sherman, Joseph D. Browning; 1808, Stephen Pyn- 
chon, Benjamin Sherman, Joseph D. Browning, Reuben Patrick; 
1809, Stephen Pynchon, Benjamin Sherman, Joseph D. Brown- 
ing, Jacob Bishop ; 1810, Abner Morgan, Stephen Pynchon, 

( 464 ) 


Thomas Sherman, Benjamin Sherman, Abner Stebbins; 1811, 
Abner Morgan, Philemon Warren, Darius Charles, David Hoar ; 
1812, Philemon Warren, Stephen Pynchon, Darius Charles, 
David Hoar; 1813, Philemon Warren, Stephen Pynchon, Cyrus 
Janes, James Blodgett; 1814, Issaehar Brown, Stephen Pyn- 
chon, Benjamin Sherman, Joseph D. Browning; 1815, Issaehar 
Brown, Stephen Pynchon, Benjamin Sherman, Joseph D. Brown- 
ing; 1816, Stephen Pynchon, Alfred Allen, Daniel Nichols, Mar- 
quis Converse; 1817, Issaehar Brown, Stephen Pynchon, Benja- 
min Sherman, Marquis Converse, Asa Lincoln ; 1818, Stephen 
Pynchon, Benjamin Sherman, Cyrus Janes, Marquis Converse, 
Asa Lincoln ; 1819, Abner Morgan, Joseph D. Browning, Darius 
Charles, Asa Lincoln, Ichabod Bliss; 1820, Stephen Pynchon, 
Daniel Burt, Samuel Brown, Simeon Coye, John Wyles; 1821, 
Stephen Pynchon, Daniel Burt, Samuel Brown, Simeon Coye, 
John Wyles ; 1822, Cyrus Janes, Asa Lincoln, Simeon Coye, John 
Wyles, William W. Thompson ; 1823, Benjamin Sherman, Cyrus 
Janes, Asa Lincoln, Simeon Coye, Lewis Williams; 1824, Benja- 
min Sherman, Simeon Coye, Lewis Williams, Thomas Merrick, 
Justin Morgan ; 1825, Benjamin Sherman, Marquis Converse, 
John Wyles, Lewis Williams, Justin Morgan; 1826, Darius 
Charles, John Wyles, Lewis Williams, Justin Morgan, Oliver 
Blair; 1827, Asa Lincoln, Lewis Williams, Oliver Blair, Julius 
Burt, Lyman Bruce ; 1828, Asa Lincoln, Lewis Williams, Oliver 
Blair, Julius Burt, Lyman Bruce : 1829, Asa Lincoln, Oliver 
Blair, Julius Burt, Col. Dauphin Bro^Ti, Robert Andrews; 1830, 
Darius Charles, Simeon Coye, Col. Dauphin Brown, Robert An- 
drews, Festus Foster; 1831, Julius Burt, Col. Dauphin Brown, 
Cyril R. Brown, Augustus Janes, John M. Warren ; 1832, Darius 
Charles, Simeon Coye, Festus Foster, Royal Wales, Absalom 
Lombard; 1833, Royal Wales, Absalom Lombard, Linus Hoar, 
Lemuel Lombard, Nathaniel Parker; 1834, Festus Foster, Linus 
Hoar, Issacher Brown, Jr., Moses Tyler, Johnson Bixby; 1835, 
Festus Foster, Linus Hoar, Issaehar Brown, Jr., Moses Tyler, 
Johnson Bixby; 1836, Festus Foster, Linus Hoar, Abner Hitch- 
cock, Parsons Allen, Peuuel Parker; 1837, Festus Foster, Linus 
Hoar, Abner Hitchcock, Parson Allen, Penuel Parker; 1838, 


( 465 ) 


Asa Lincoln, Augustus Janes, Abner Hitchcock, Parsons Allen, 
Samuel Tarbell, Ebenezer Fairbanks; 1839, Ebenezer Knight, 
Samuel A. Hitchcock, Darius Shaw, James Fenton, William J. 
Sherman; 1840, Ebenezer Knight, James Fenton, Harvey Fen- 
ton, Lewis Stebbins, Orson Sherman, Albigence Newell; 1841, 
John Wyles, Cyril R. Brown, James Fenton, Orson Sherman, 
Abram Charles, Sumner Parker; 1842, Asa Lincoln, Cyril R. 
Brown, James Fenton, Harvey Janes, Nathan F. Robinson, Solo- 
mon Homer, Jr.; 1843, Asa Lincoln, Augustus Janes, James 
Fenton, Fitz Henry Warren, Lemuel Allen, George Puffer ; 1844, 
Absalom Lombard, Parsons Allen, James Fenton, Lemuel Allen, 
George Puffer, Abner Brown ; 1845, Cyril R. Brown, James Fen- 
ton, Alvin Janes, Alfred Hitchcock, James Tourtellott ; 1846, Ab- 
ner Brown, Darius Shaw, Harvey Fenton, Austin Andrews, Leon- 
ard Henshaw ; 1847, William J. Sherman, Orson Sherman, Sum- 
ner Parker, Alured Homer, Philip G. Hubbard; 1848, Paul W. 
Paige, Lyman Upham, Augustus Wheeler, Francis D. Lincoln, 
Cheney Newton; 1849, Johnson Bixby, Sumner Parker, Lyman 
Upham, Wilson Homer, Joseph C. Hunter ; 1850, Abram Charles, 
Nathan F. Robinson, Joseph C. Hunter, Jairus Walker, Jonathan 
Emerson; 1851, Penuel Parker, Sumner Parker, Lemuel Allen, 
Ezra Perry, 3d, Calvin B. Brown ; 1852, Sumner Parker, Warren 
F. Tarbell, Ambrose N. Merrick, Alfred L. Converse, Thomas J. 
Morgan ; 1853, Nathan F. Robinson, Alured Homer, Elam Ferry, 
William G. Tarbell, Alfred Lombard; 1854, Henry F. Brown, 
Oilman Noyes, Aaron B. Lyman, Orra Parker, Dauphin Brown ; 
1855, Calvin B. Brown, Warren F. Tarbell, Oilman Noyes. Alden 
Goodell, James S. Blair; 1856, Oilman Noyes, Edward W. Pot- 
ter, William H. Wyles, Samuel N. Coye, Samuel W. Brown: 
1857, Parsons Allen, Oilman Noyes, Edward W. Potter, William 
H. Wyles, Braraan Sibley; 1858, Parsons Allen, William H. 
Wyles, Samuel W. Brown, Newton S. Hubbard, Pliny F. Spauld- 
ing; 1859. Jonathan Emerson, Orra Parker, William H. Wyles, 
James B. Brown, George C. Homer-, 1860, Sumner Parker, AVil- 
liam H. Wyles. Newton S. Hubbard ; 1861, Sumner Parker, Wil- 
liam H. Wyles, Newton S. Hubbard : 1862, Sumner Parker, Wil- 
liam H. Wyles, Edwin A. Janes ; 1863, Sumner Parker. James S. 

( 466 ) 


Blair, William H. Wyles ; 1864, Sumner Parker, Thomas J. Mor- 
gan, William H. Wyles ; 1865, Warren F. Tarbell, William H. 
Wyles, James B. Brown; 1866, Cyril R. Brown, Cheney Newton, 
Porter A. Parker ; 1867, Sumner Parker, Cheney Newton, James 
S. Blair; 1868, Cheney Newton, Dauphin Brown, James B. 
Brown; 1869, Samuel W. Brown, Ephraim Fenton, Abram 
Charles; 1870, Newton S. Hubbard, George Bacon, Francis E. 
Cook; 1871, Pliny F. Spaulding, James B. Brown, John W. 
Lawrence; 1872, Samuel W. Brown, James B. Brown, John W. 
Lawrence; 1873, James S. Blair, James B. Brown, Albert S. 
Prouty; 1874, James B. Brown, Porter A. Parker, Moses H. 
Baker; 1875, Newton S. Hubbard, Porter A. Parker, Moses H. 
Baker; 1876, Newton S. Hubbard, James B. Brown, Porter A. 
Parker; 1877, James B. Brown, Moses H. Baker, Charles F. 
Spaulding; 1878, Cheney Newton, Charles F. Spaulding, Moses 
H. Baker; 1879, Cheney Newton, Moses H. Baker, Pliny F. 
Spaulding; 1880, James B. Brown, Pliny F. Spaulding. Dwight 
P. Allen; 1881, Cheney Newton, Samuel W. Brown, Edward 
Bliss; 1882, Sanford Booth, Moses H. Baker, Oscar F. Brown; 
1883. Moses H. Baker, Sanford Booth, Edwin H. Morgan ; 1884, 
Moses H. Baker. Frank R. Newton, John C. Spring; 1885, Moses 
H. Baker, Frank R. Newton, Daniel W. Janes; 1886, Moses H. 
Baker, Frank R. Newton, Daniel W. Janes ; 1887, Frank R. New- 
ton, Oscar F. Brown, Josiah Stebbins; 1888, Frank R. Newton, 
Oscar F. Brown, Josiah Stebbins ; 1889, Oscar F. Brown, Josiah 
Stebbins, Orrin Hicks; 1890, Oscar F. Brown, Josiah Stebbins, 
Orrin Hicks; 1891, Frank R. Newton, Moses H. Baker, Orrin 
Hicks; 1892, Frank R. Newton, Moses H. Baker, F. Edgar 
Brown; 1893. Frank R. Newton, Moses H. Baker, F. Edgar 
Brown: 1894. Frank R. Newton, Arthur D. Brown, Charles C. 
Brown; 1895, Arthur B. Brown, Charles C. Brown, Moses H. 
Baker; 1896, Newton Hubbard, Arthur B. Brown, George W. 
Sherman ; 1897, Moses H. Baker, Arthur B. Brown, George W. 
Sherman; 1898, Arthur B. Brown, Edward H. Davenport, Ed- 
ward B. Brown ; 1899, Arthur B. Brown, Edward B. Brown. Ed- 
ward H. Davenport ; 1900, Edward B. Brown. Edward H. Dav- 
enport, Charles S. Tarbell; 1901, Edward B. Brown. Edward H. 
Davenport, Charles C. Brown. 

( 467 ) 


Town Clerks— Hohert Moulton, 1731 ; John Sherman, 1732- 
61 ; Joseph Blodgett, 1761-2 ; Timothy Danielson, 1763-75 ; James 
Bridgham, 1775-6; Aaron Mighill, 1777-8; Joseph Moffat, 
1779-84 ; Aaron Morgan, 1784-97 ; Stephen Pynchon, 1797-1823 ; 
William W. Thompson, 1823-6 ; Ebenezer Knight, 1826-9 ; John 
B. Cooley, 1829-31; Francis B. Stebbins, 1831; Abner Brown, 
1832 ; Francis B. Stebbins, 1833 ; Ebenezer Knight, 1834-9 ; Asa 
Lincoln, 1839 ; Fitz Henry Warren, 1840 ; John W. Bliss, 1841 ; 
Asa Lincoln, 1842 ; Otis Lane, 1843-5 ; Henry F. Brown, 1845-8 ; 
Philip G. Hubbard, 1849 ; John Newton, 1850 ; Henry F. Brown, 
1851 ; Charles Le Baron, 1852 ; George Bacon, 1853-6 ; James B. 
Brown, 1857; Calvin B. Brown, 1858-60; Henry F. Brown, 
1861-2; George Bacon, 1863-4; Henry F. BroAvn, 1865-91; 
George M. Hitchcock, 1892-6 ; Oscar F. Brown, 1897. 

The town officers of Brimfield for 1901 are as follows: 
Town clerk and treasurer, Oscar F. Brown; selectmen, overseers 
of the poor and board of health, Edward B. Brown, Edward H. 
Davenport, Charles C. Brown; auditors, George F. Kibbe, Miner 
H. Corbin; collector, Charles S. Tarbell ; assessors, Sanford 
Booth, Charles C. Brown, Gilbert L. Brown; constables, George 
W. Sherman, George E. Hitchcock, Orrin Hicks, William C. 
Davenport; superintendent of streets, Edward H. Davenport; 
cemetery committee, George M. Hitchcock, Edward W. Potter, 
Emory Livermore; school committee, James Read Brown, Dr. 
Robert V. Sawin, Clarence B. Brown ; superintendent of schools, 
James A. MacDougall of Monsou; trustees of public library, 
Thomas J. Morgan, Charles C. Brown, Issac W. Allen, Rebecca 
M. Lincoln, M. Lizzie Noyes, M. Anna Tarbell (librarian). 

Fepresentatives^—Uohert Moulton, 1731; John Sherman, 
1740; Thomas Mighill, 1746; Thomas Stebbins, 1747-51; John 
Sherman, 1753-4; Daniel Burt, 1760-65; Timothy Danielson, 
1767-72 ; James Bridgham, 1773 ; Daniel Burt, 1781 ; Dr. Joseph 
Moffat, 1782; Aaron Mighill, 1783; Nehemiah May, 1784; Jo- 
seph Browning, 1786-93; David Morgan, 1794; Joseph Brown- 
ing, 1795-6; Joseph Hoar, 1797; Abner Morgan, 1798-1801; 

'Town representatives subsequent to 1812 will be found in the county civil 

( 468 ) 


Clark Brown, 1802-3 ; Stephen Pynchon, 1805-7 ; William Eaton, 
1808 ; Stephen Pynchon, 1809-12 ; James Blodgett, 1809 ; Phile- 
mon Warren, 1810-12 (town entitled to two representatives from 
1809 to 1812). 

"Wliile the settlei-s of Brimfield experienced not a little 
trouble from Indians, and built two block houses in different por- 
tions of the settlement as places of refuge in case of need, it is a 
pleasure to record that there was no occasion for their use, the 
t()\vn being spared the scenes of butchery and conflagration to 
which many of the early IVIassachusetts settlements were sub- 
jected. The town, however, furnished a generous proportion of 
its citizens for service in the various Indian wars preceding the 
revolution. There is no occasion to doubt that these men served 
faithfully, although the records are lamentably meager. Their 
names, however, have been preserved, and the following list, 
which is doubtless reasonably complete and correct, includes the 
names of the Brimfield men rendering sei'vice in the companies 
and at the times designated : 

Expedition Against the French and Indians, 1747 — Ensign 
James Mirick, Sergeant Ichabod Bliss, Corporal Medad Hitch- 
cock, Sentinel Daniel Graves -. Samuel Kilborn, Nathaniel Clark, 
Mark Ferry, Humphrey Gardner, Charles Hoar, Daniel Morgan, 
Henry Burt. John Nelson, E. Moreton, Joseph Bullings, Nathan- 
iel Munger. 

French and Indian AVar, 1755: Captain Daniel Burt's com- 
pany—Lieutenant Samuel Chandler, Ensign Trustrum Davis; 
Sergeants Jonathan Brown, John Harkness, and William Janes ; 
Clerk Daniel Loomis, Drummer Ebenezer Arms, Corporals John 
Hallowell, Joshua Russell, John Mighill, and Jabez Keep; Senti- 
nels Ephraim W^hite, Ebenezer Bishop. Joseph Moffatt. Jr., Na- 
thaniel Collins, and John Bishop ; John Thompson. Asa Merritt. 
Samuel Livermore, William Gordon, Joseph Davis, Elijah Mig- 
hill. Gideon Dimock, Benjamin Webber, Joshua Garey, Ichabod 
Meecham, Francis Baxter, Thomas Walton. Simeon Burke, Perez 
Marsh, Jr., Dennis AVedge, John Burt, Nathaniel Mighill, Robert 
Dunkly, Jr., James Turner, Daniel Moffatt, John Brightwell, 
Thomas Blodgett, Edward Roatch, Jehiel Morgan, Ebenezer 
Scott, Jr., Deliverance Carpenter, William Dadee. 

( 469 ) 


Captain Ebenezer Moulton's company — Lieutenant Gideon 
Mirrick, Ensign David Wallis, Clerk Humphrey Crane, Sergeants 
Hugh Taeldes, Joseph Belknap, and Joseph Hunger; Corporals 
Joshua Burgess, Phineas Mirrick, Phineas Durkee, and Aaron 
Graves; Drummer Richard Gordon; Samuel McClellan, John 
Cross, John Danielson, Jr., Abuer Blodgett, Robert McMaster, 
Benjamin Stebbins, David Lumbard, Thomas Riddle, Stephen 
Clark, John Chedle, Ebenezer Frost, Asa Belknap, William 
Gardner, Nehemiah Needham, Samuel Bullen, John Hiel, John 
Lamberton, Thomas Anders, Jonathan Lumbard, Timothy 
Walker, Reuben Morgan, Jonathan Kilbourn, Josiah Converse, 
Jr., Joseph Moulton, William Belknap, James Runnels, Isaac 
Aplin, Timothy Farrell, David Brittian, Jonathan King, William 
Fleming, Samuel Frost, Timothy Collins, Adonijah Russell, Abi- 
jah Healey, Henry Webber, Samuel Dearing, William Garey, 
Henry Lyon, Jonathan Frost, Ebenezer Cooley. 

Crown Point Expedition, 1756: Captain Trustram Davis' 
company— Clerk John Mighill, Sergeant Israel Walker, Corporal 
Ephraim White, Drummer Joseph Foot; Elijah Mighill, John 
Post, Samuel Allen, Josiah Smith, Reuben Townsley, Samuel 
Lee, David Allen, Joseph Moulton, John Davis, Joseph Needham, 
Jacob Webber, Asa Belknap, Andrew Walton, Isaac Wallis, 
Jotham King, William Garle, Samuel Smith, Edward Cobb. 

During the same year five Brimfield men were pressed into 
the service : Simeon Hubbard, Samuel Lee, Samuel Bates, John 
Burt, and Edward Cobb. 

Expedition Against Canada, 1758: Captain Daniel Burt's 
company — Sergeants Aaron Merrick, Phineas Durkee; Corporal 
Josiah Holbrook; Drummers Isaac Mund, Jasper Needham; Is- 
rael Walker, Benjamin Blodgett, Timothy Walker, Jonathan 
Moulton, Isaac Bliss, John Morgan, Joseph Thompson, John 
Rosebrook, Richard Bishup, Samuel Webber, Samuel Mighill, 
John Thompson, Reuben Lilley, Asa Belknap, Israel Janes, 
Peter Fuller, Asa Holbrook, Thomas Hobart, Reuben Hoar, 
Aquila Moffatt, Paul Hitchcock, Jotham King, Benjamin Nelson, 
William Garey, Nathaniel Mighill, Reuben Townsley, Phineas 
Graves, Simeon Keene, Ebenezer Stebbins, Elnathan Munger, 

( 470 ) 


John Shaw, John Harris, Peter Groves, Smith Ainsworth, Isaac 
Scott, Daniel Sherman, Beriah Sherman, Joseph Morgan, Jacob 
Ainsworth, Matthias Hartman, William Nelson, Benjamin Car- 
penter, Benjamin Webber. 

Captain Trustram Davis' company, 1760— Lieutenants 
Jonathan Morgan and Joseph Thompson, Ensign Daniel Knowl- 
ton. Sergeants Samuel Mighill and Gideon Dimick, Corporals 
Peter Fuller, John Anderson and William Bishop, Sentinels 
Reuben Lilley, George Larkins and Jehiel Morgan, Drummer 
Samuel Blodgett; Asa Belknap, Ariel Mighill, John Robinson, 
Samuel Friz/ell, Joseph Hitchcock, Daniel Haines, Adonijah 
Cooley, Joseph Davis, George Peagray, John Hinds, Aaron 
Mighill, Joseph Craw^foot, Reuben TowTisley, Benjamin Nelson, 
Caleb Loomis, Edward Cobb, Thomas Anderson, John Willis, 
John Davis, Jonathan Babcock, Benajah Rice, Jonathan Norris, 
John Harris, Jonathan Torrey, Da\ad Torrey, Leonard Hoar, 
Alexander Jennings, Nathaniel Cooley, Trustram Davis, Jr., 
Lemuel Hind. 

It is noteworthy, in connection vdth the last named com- 
pany, that one of its membei-s, Reuben Townsley, was taken 
captive by the Indians, and was subjected to their favorite 
ordeal of running the gauntlet. Despite this trying reception, 
he became a favorite Avith his captors, was adopted into the tribe, 
and lived with the red men for ten years. He then returned to 
Brimfield, but finding civilized life distasteful, went back to the 
forest Avhere he passed the rest of his days. 

In the discussions and active measures which preceded the 
actual outbreak of the revolution, the people of Brimfield took 
an earnest part. At the town meeting in 1768 it was voted to 
send Timothy Danielson as a delegate from Brimfield to the 
convention to be held at Boston on the 22d of September of that 
year to consider the relations between the colony and the English 
government. In 1773 strong resolutions denouncing certain 
objectionable acts of Parliament were adopted, and in 1774 the 
voters of the town unanimously adopted the covenant pledging 
them to abstain from the use of any goods imported from Great 
Britain and to sunder all commercial relations with those who 

( 471 ) 


continued to sell goods so imported. This covenant was signed 
by 190 freeholders of the town, and as there was no dissenting 
vote recorded, it is probable that this number included prac- 
tically all of the men of the town. During the same year money 
was raised for the purchase of powder and lead, and measures 
were taken for the organization of two militia companies, who 
were to hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's 
notice to the defense of the province. The organizations were 
designated as the East and West companies, and the following 
officers were appointed on the 7th of October : East company — 
Captain James Sherman, First Lieutenant Jonathan Charles, 
Second Lieutenant Phineas Sherman, Ensign Daniel Burt. West 
company — Captain Samuel Nichols, First Lieutenant Jonathan 
Brown, Second Lieutenant Nathan Hoar, Ensign Abner Steb- 
bins. In January, 1775, it was voted that a company of fifty 
minute men be raised and equipped at the expense of the town, 
and Joseph Thompson was chosen as their captain. He remained 
in the service until the close of the war, attaining the rank of 

With the opening of the war the demands upon the people 
of the town became heavy, and so continued to the close of the 
struggle. Not only were soldiers furnished in liberal number 
to maintain the continental army, but the tax upon the people 
who remained at home, to supply the necessities of the troops, 
to pay for their service, and to meet other requirements, was 
enough to appall the bravest. Yet there was no faltering or 
demur. Whatever was required was voted M'ith unanimity, and 
the most serious burdens were assumed unflinchingly. The list 
of those who served in the patriot army, so far as preserved, is 
given below; but it is believed that in all the town sent fully 
200 of her sons into the service— a most heroic number consider- 
ing the population at the time. Wliere these men served, the 
battles in which they were engaged, the marches and the hard- 
ships which they endured, are not recorded; but it is of record 
that at the close of the war the town bore a burden of £1,768 Ss. 
as its share of the arrears of pay due the faithful troops who 
had M'On the independence of the colonies. 

( 472 ) 


So far as preserved, the names of Bi-inifield's soldiers in 
the war of the revolution were : 

Brigadier-General Timothy Danielson, Colonel Jonathan 
Thompson, Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Thompson, Majors 
Nathaniel Dickinson and Abner Morgan, Captains Thomas T. 
Burt, Joseph Browning, John Carpenter, Joseph Hoar and 
James Sherman, Lieutenants Jonathan Brown. Reuben Lilly, 
Aaron Mighill and Phineas Sherman, p]nsign Nathaniel INIiller; 
John Atehinson, Henry Abbott, Zebediah Abbott, Nathan Ames, 
Peter Alexander, Samuel Andrew, James Burnett, Joseph Baker, 
Sherebiah Ballard, John Bartlett, George Bement, Jesse Bement, 
George Blanchard, James Blashfield, John Blashfield, Ozem 
Blashfield. William Blashfield, Henry Bliss. John Bloss, Blodgett 
Bliss, Edward Bond, Ephraim Bond, Luke Bond, Samuel Bond, 
Daniel Belknap, Thomas Bliss, Admatha Blodgett, Jonas Blod- 
gett, Benjamin Blodgett, Ephraim Blodgett, Rufus Blodgett, 
Hooper Bishop, Solomon Bishop, Abner Bishop, Jonathan Bridg- 
ham, Silas Brooks, Bartholomew Brown, Jonathan Brown, John 
Bryant, Noadiah Burr, Abel Burt, Stoddard Cady, Abial Car- 
penter, John Carpenter, William Carpenter, Timothy Corliss, 
Lemuel Chapman, Aaron Charles, Jonathan Charles, Nathaniel 
Charles, Nehemiah Charles, Solomon Charles, John Charles, 
Nathaniel Chickering, Benoni Clark, Peter Clark, Lewis Collins, 
Nathaniel Collins, Stephen Collins, Thaddeus Collins, Azariah 
Cooley, John Collis, Altamont Danielson, Calvin Danielson, 
Daniel Danielson, Jghn Danielson, Lothario Danielson, Luther 
Danielson, Samuel Davis, William Davis, Isaac Draper, Samuel 
Draper, Joseph Dunham, Hananiah Ellingwood, Rufus Fair- 
banks, Ebenezer Fairbanks, Elijah Fay, Levi Fay. Judah Ferry, 
Jonathan Fisk, Luther Fuller, Jesse Graves, John Gardner, John 
Harris, Danial Haynes, Jonas Haynes, Samuel Haynes, Josiah 
Hill, Aaron Hitchcock, Abijah Hitchcock, Abner Hitchcock, 
Eldad Hitchcock, Eli Hitchcock, Elijah Hitchcock, Ezra Hitch- 
cock, Jacob Hitchcock, Joseph Hitchcock, Levi Hitchcock, Luther 
Hitchcock, Medad Hitchcock, Winchester Hitchcock, Leonard 
Hoar, John B. Hubbard, Jonathan Hubbard, Henry Hooker, 
Jeremiah Howard, David Janes, Elijah Janes. Eliphalet Janes, 

( -473 ) 


Isaac Janes, Israel Janes, Jonathan Janes, Peleg Cheney Janes, 
Solomon Janes, Thomas Janes, William Janes, Asaph Lane, 
Samuel Lewis, Benjamin Lilly, Joseph Lilly, Reuben Lilly, 
Samuel Lilly, Daniel Livermore, Absalom Lumbard, Aaron 
Lumbard, David Lumbard, Jeremiah Lumbard, Stephen Lum- 
bard, Thomas Lumbard, Nathaniel Mighill, Oliver Mason, Ezra 
May, Thomas McClure, Abner Mighill, Nathaniel Miller, Amos 
Miller, Daniel Moffatt, Jacob Moftatt, Joel Moifatt, Judah Mof- 
fatt, Lewis Moffatt, William Moft'att, Aaron Morgan, Benjamin 
Morgan, David Morgan, Enoch Morgan, Jacob Morgan, Jonathan 
Morgan, Joseph Morgan, Pelatiah Morgan, William Morgan, 
Benjamin Nelson, Samuel Nelson, John Newell, Asher Nichols, 
John Nichols, Zadok Nichols, Jesse Parker, Lemuel Parker, Eli 
Powers, Joseph Russell, Simon Rogers, Sylvanus Sanderson, 
George Shaw. Samuel Shaw, Benjamin Sherman, Beriah Sher- 
man, Bezaleel Sherman, James Sherman, John Sherman, Joseph 
Sherman, Lemuel Sherman, Noah Sherman, Samuel Sherman, 
Thomas Sherman, George Shumway, Elijah Smith, John Smith, 
Daniel Stearns, Abner Stebbins, David Stebbins, John Stebbins, 
Jotham Stebbins, Judah Stebbins, Levi Stebbins, Thomas Stone, 
Abner Sabin, Alpheus Thompson, Asa Thompson, Amherst 
Thompson, James Thompson, Jonathan Thompson, John Thomp- 
son, Samuel Thompson, Solomon Thompson, Stephen Thompson, 
Adam Townsley, Daniel Townsley, Gad Townsley, Jacob Towns- 
ley, Reuben Townsley, Benjamin Trask. Noah Trask, William 
Trask, Joseph Tucker, Christopher AVard, Comfort Ward, 
Ebenezer Ward, Elijah Ward, Bradley Webber, Gershom Whit- 
ney, Joshua Witham, Calvin Worthington. 

In the Shays rebellion of 1786-7 the town stood in support 
of the government, and its two militia companies were twice 
ordered to Springfield— on September 25, 1786, remaining six 
days, and on January 17, 1787, remaining on duty for twenty- 
four days. A special company was also enlisted, and served 
from February 7 to March 12, 1787. 

The people of Brimfield, as was the case generally through- 
out New England, were not in sympathy with the war of 1812, 
and did not fail to express their dissent in town meetings and 

( 474 ) 


otherwise. Nevertheless, sturdy sons of the town followed the 
flag of their eoimtry, though tlie details of their service, as in 
other eases, are known only in vague tradition. The towns of 
Monson, Brinifield and South Brimfield united in raising a com- 
pany for this war, under command of Captain Isaac Fuller of 
Monson, of which Brimfield furnished : 

Lieutenant Abner Brown, Sergeant-Major Daniel Frost, 
Sergeants Julius AVard and Erastus Lumbard, Corporal Zadoc 
Nichols; Saunders Allen, Lemuel Allen, Shubael Butterworth, 

Soldiers' Monument 

William Blodgett. Martin Durkee, Chester Ellinwood, Oliver 
Felton, Timothy Gardner, Jonathan Hayues, Eaton Hitchcock, 
John Dunbar, Edward Lewis, John G. Moore, Joshua Nichols, 
Daniel S. Nichols, LewTS Robinson, Timothy Snyder, Martin 
Smith, Abial Stebbins. Erastus Stebbins, Calvin Burnett, Loring 
Collins, Aaron English, George Harvey. 

In the war of the rebellion, from 1861 to 1865, the people of 
the town manifested for the preservation of the nation a heroism 
as lofty and self-sacrificing as that displayed in the long struggle 
for independence and a republican government. Under the 

( 475 ) 


n^arious calls for soldiers during that war, the town furnished 
138 men, being an excess of five over the quota required. The 
larger portion of these men served with the 27th, 34th and 46th 
Massachusetts regiments, though many other organizations within 
the state, and some from other states, bore the names of Brimfield 
men upon their rolls. There was i-aised and expended for mili- 
tary purposes during the war, by the town, over $15,000, besides 
$5,853 for state aid to soldiers' families, which was afterward 
repaid by the state. Over $1,800 was also raised by the women 
of Brimfield for the Sanitary and Christian Commissions, to aid 
in the work of these noble organizations in behalf of sick, 
wounded, and needj^ soldiers in the field and in hospitals. The 
town was one of the first in the state to erect a soldiers' monu- 
ment, an appropriation of $1,250 for the purpose being made 
March 12, 1866, and the monument being dedicated July 4 
following. AVitli other appropriate inscription, it bears the 
names of 18 soldiers from the town who died in the service. 

It is thus shown that whenever a resort to arms has been 
necessary, the men of Brimfield have been ready to meet the 
fullest requirements of patriotic citizenship, whether by the 
giving of their substance, the manful bearing of privation and 
hardship, or even the supreme measure of life sacrifice, in behalf 
of American ideas and institutions; and this while they have 
been eminently a peaceful, almost pastoral, people, devoted to 
the culture of their fertile acres, and to those amenities which 
give to life its sweetest and most charming aspect. 

The settlement of Brimfield was decided upon on account of 
the fertility of the soil and the inviting nature of its lands for 
farming purposes. Naturally, agriculture has always remained 
the principal pursuit of its inhabitants. The township as settled 
was divided into farms of moderate proportions, and compara- 
tively little change has been made during the subsequent ex- 
periences of the inhabitants. "Within the town limits there are 
nearly 200 farms, with an average valuation of some $3,000. 
This distribution of the town property indicates, a thrifty, pros- 
perous community, on the one hand without concentration of 
great wealth in a few hands, and on the other being spared the 

( 476 ) 


blight of widespread poverty. A community of people with 
homes is the ideal of American life, and that has ever been the- 
condition of Brimfield's inhabitants. 

The manufacturing interests have never been extensive, 
though a considerable variety of industries have first and last 
been established. In the early days, potash, saltpeter and tar 
Avere produced to some extent, and later some pottery was made 
from clay obtained at Sherman's pond. Brick making has con- 
tinued to the present time, as have saw mills and grist mills. 
Wool dressing, tailoring, and the manufacture of woolen hats 

Tlie BriniHeld Windmill 

were followed prior to the modern practice of consolidating such 
industries in large establishments. Some cotton and woolen 
manufacturing was carried on during the first half of the last 
century, and the plant was afterward used for the manufacture 
of shoemaking tools and machinery. The tanning of leather was 
carried on until the destruction of the plant about 1850, and 
the manufacture of boots and shoes was at one time of some im- 
portance. It is said that Brimfield sent the first ready-made 
boots to some of the Connecticut markets, and to other southern 
points, but the industry never attained to large proportions. 

( 477 ) 


Various other branches of business have been entered from time 
to time, and have proved more or less valuable factors in the 
town's development; but none have come to compare in impor- 
tance with the permanent and profitable labors of the husband- 

The matter of education received attention early in the his- 
tory of the town, it being voted December 28, 1731, that the town 
have a school. The territory was divided into three districts in 
1736, but only a single teacher was employed, dividing the time 
between the three sections. The boundaries of the districts were 
established in December, 1742, and at the same time a tax of £80 
was voted to pay for labor and materials for the building of 
school-houses. In 1753 it was voted to have schools kept in seven 
places, and thirteen years later the number of districts was in- 
creased to ten. A year previous a grammar school had been 
voted; but the compensation of the teachers cannot have been 
very liberal, as the annual appropriation for 1755 was only £30, 
of which about one-ninth was to go to the teacher of the grammar 
school, the remainder to be equally divided between the seven 
districts. The examination of teachers and care of the schools 
was in the hands of the minister until 1819, when a committee 
of ten — one for each district — was appointed for his assistance. 
In 1843 the plan of a general committee of three to have over- 
sight of all schools in the town was adopted, but it was not until 
1859 that school reports were printed. The district system was 
abolished by the state in 1870, and the present plan of graded 
schools took the place of the old method. 

The Hitchcock Free Academy was established in 1855, 
through the liberality of Mr. Samuel A. Hitchcock, and for 
almost half a century has held an honorable place among the 
educational institutions of the county and state. Mr. Hitchcock 
was a public-spirited citizen of the best type, and bestowed his 
means, -while still living and able to direct the beneficence, for 
the permanent good of his native town. His total contributions 
amounted to $75,000, and these have been supplemented to some 
extent by outside subscriptions, although substantially the school 
stands as the monument, of most noble type, of its namesake and 

( 478 ) 


founder. Tlie incorporation was effected A\n-\\ 26. 1855, as 
"The Tiiistees of the Brimfield Free Grammar School." In 
June of the following year the name was changed to the Hitch- 
cock Free Grammar school, in March, 1871, to the Hitchcock 
Free High school, and June 10. 1897, to Hitchcock Free academy. 
The school buildings are pleasantly located on a commodious 
Jot in the center of the village, and are equipped with modern 
scientific apparatus and a carefully selected library. The insti- 
tulion is primarily designed for the free accommodation and 

Hitchcock Free High School 

benefit of Brimfield residents, but applicants from other towns 
are received on favorable terms to the capacity of the school, and 
so widespread is its reputation that there is never a lack of 
pupils. English and classical courses of study are provided, the 
latter covering four years, and being designed to qualify students 
for admission to the best American colleges. 

The principals of the school, from the time of its opening 
until the present have been: Henry A. Littel, Joseph G. Scott, 
Edwin D. Dewey, Charles E. Sumner, Nathan Thompson, 
€harles M. Palmer. Henrv Harden. W. S. Knowlton, Elias 

( 479 ) 


Brookings, William W. McClench, E. W. Norwood, Charles H. 
Cooper, Francis E. Burnett, R. B. Clarke, Arthur A. Upham, 
Henry S. Pratt, J. M. Russell, George W. Earle, Fred A. Luce 
and "Wellington Hodgkins. 

It may almost be said that Brimfield has had but a single 
charch during its history. One of the requirements embodied 
in the commission of the first prudential committee was that they 
should settle an able Orthodox minister as soon as might be, and 


The Town, from tlie fields 

early in the history of settlement this requirement was carried 
out. The first meeting-house was erected in 1722 on the site of 
the present village church. It was a plain frame structure, with- 
out tower or steeple, and in accordance with the custom of that 
time it was built without chimneys or any provision for artificial 
warmth. Still it served its purpose until 1804, when a new build- 
ing was erected on the site, at a cost of $6,000, the "raising" of 
the frame being made a day of general jubilation through the 
town. This building was remodeled in 1838, and was destroyed 

( 480 ) 


by fire in 1847. As soon as practicable it was replaced by the 
present structure, which was dedicated in January, 1848, and 
with some improvements has served the people for more than 
half a century. The Sunday school was established in 1819. 

Rev. Kichard Treat, the first minister, was ordained Novem- 
ber 18, 1724, being granted 120 acres with "after rights," and 
paid a salary of £85, afterward increased to £105— a liberal 
allowance for the time and in the condition of the settlement. 
He resigned the pastorate in 1734, and his successor, Rev. James 
Bridgham, Avas called in 1736, serving for forty years, until his 
death in 1776. The subsequent pastors have been : Rev. Nehemiah 
AVilliams, 1775-96 ; Rev. Clark Brown, 1798-1803 ; Rev. Warren 
Fay, 1808-11; Rev. Joseph Vaill, Jr., 1814-34, 1837-41; Rev. 
Joseph Fuller, 1835-7; Rev. George C. Partridge, 1842-6; Rev. 
B. E. Hale, 1847-9; Rev. Jason Moore, 1849-61; Rev. Charles M. 
Hyde, 1862-70; Rev. Moses B. Boardman, 1870-73; Rev. Webster 
K. Pierce, 1874-8 ; Rev. Doane R. Atkins, 1879-81 ; Rev. Samuel 
V. McDufTee, 1882-4; Rev. Joseph Kyte, 1884-8; Rev. M. L. 
Richardson, 1889-91 ; Rev. AVilbur Rand, 1891-3 ; Rev. Robert J. 
Kyle, 1893-1900; Rev. William P. Clancy, 1900. 

A few minor societies have for short periods held meetings 
in the toAvn, but none have long continued, and the record of the 
community has been one of remarkable religious unity. 

In area the present town of Brimfield covers 35.2 square 
miles. In population it had in 1840 attained 1410, by the United 
State census, and in 1850 reached its highest figure— 1420. Since 
that time the falling off has been continual, the census figures 
showing, in 1860, 1361; 1870, 1288; ,1880, 1203; 1890, 1096; 
1900, 941. 

31-2 ( 481 ) 



Blandford is located south of Chester, and is bounded north 
by Chester and Huntington, east by Russell, south by Tolland 
and Granville, and west by Otis and Becket, For the most part 
the town is on a plateau of an average altitude of about 1,300 
feet above the sea. The highest land is Walnut Hill in the west- 
ern part of the town, the summit of which is 1,760 feet above the 
sea. There are four natural ponds : North Meadow pond. Long 
pond, Blair pond and Cochran pond. A branch of Westfield 
river known as Little river flows from North Meadow pond in a 
southeasterly direction through the central part of the town and 
the south part of Russell, and enters the Westfield river just 
below Westfield village. 

The views from Blandford are extensive, the city of Spring- 
field being easily seen through a strong glass, and in the evening 
the illumination from the electric lights is visible from the vicin- 
ity of the meeting-house. The view to the north across the West- 
field river ravine and over the highlands of Montgomery and 
Huntington and Chester and beyond, is grand, and so to the 
west and south and east it is extensive and almost equally grand. 

There are two villages in the town, Blandford and North 
Blandford. Highways lead from these to Russell and to West- 
field, to Chester and Huntington, to Otis and to Becket, to Tol- 
land and to Granville. There are numerous brooks flowing in 
every direction, some flowing toAvard and into AA^estfield river, 
and some flowing toward and mingling their Avaters with the 

( 482 ) 


Parmington river. These streams afford many water privileges 
for saw-mills, and at North Blandford for other manufacturing. 

The geological formation is metamorphic to a high degree. 
AVhile there is found here and there a fair degree of fertility of 
soil, for the most part the soil of this town is not so favorable for 
agriculture as in some of the adjoining towns. Mr. Gibbs in his 
address upon the history of Blandford says that "For many 
years after the settlement of the town, our most wealthy farmers 
cut only sufficient hay to winter a cow and a few sheep. Those 
who kept horses were obliged to have them wintered in West- 

In the northwesterly part of the town is a soap stone ledge : 
near this place is a hummock of serpentine rock, and it is marked 
on some maps, verj^ erroneously, as an extinct volcanic crater. 
There are other outcropings of soapstone. In the east part of 
the town is a bed of kaolin which is utilized in connection with 
the maiiufacture of brick at Russell. 

Prior to 1713 some of the northern tier of towns in the state 
of Connecticut were supposed to be within the limits of the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay, and the government of Massa- 
chusetts exercised jurisdiction over them. Woodstock, Enfield 
and Nuffield were for many years treated as Massachusetts towns. 
Deeds of land in Suffield were recorded in the Old Hampshire 
county records. But the boundary line between the colony of 
Connecticut and the Province of Massachusetts Bay Avas for 
many years a matter of controversy betvv'een the Province and 
the Colony. In 1713 a commission was agreed upon to survey 
and establish the line. The line as established by the commission 
threw into the Colony of Connecticut the towns of Woodstock. 
Huffield, the southern extremity of the old town of Springfield 
both east and west of the Connecticut river, and the southern 
part of the town of Westfield. By the terms of the agreement. 
Massachusetts was, as before, to have jurisdiction over the old 
border towns, though they fell south of the new line. For this 
privilege of jurisdiction Massachusetts agreed to compensate 
Connecticut. For as much territory as Massachusetts governed 
south of the true line, she agreed to give the same amount of 

( 483 ) 


ten-itory to Connecticut in unimproved lands in western Massa- 
chusetts and in New Hampshire, and a further allowance was 
made by a promise to sell the more distant lands at a cheaper 
rate. These unimproved lands were called equivalent lands. The 
small disputed tract at Windsor fell to Connecticut. The lands 
in Connecticut that Massachusetts governed by the above agree- 
ment were : 

In Woodstock 30,419 acres 

In Enfield 36,180 acres 

In SufQeld 22,172 acres 

Part of Springfield, east of Connecticut river 640 acres 

Part of Springfield, west of Connecticut river 287 acres 

In Westfield 5,549 acres 

Besides there were some lands in grants to private indi- 

It was customary for individuals to own large tracts of land 
in commo2i, principally for pasturage, and they were called the 
proprietors of common and undivided lands. The laws of the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay recognized this kind of proprie- 
torship of lands, and laws were passed touching the organiza- 
tion of such proprietors for the purpose of regulating the use 
and enjoyment of such common and undivided lands. In the 
toAvn of Suffield were a large number of owners of common and 
undivided lands. It appears that some of the lands so held in 
Suffield were set to Windsor and some to Simsbury by the re- 
adjustment of toAvn lines incident to this settlement of the line 
between Massachusetts and Connecticut, and so were brought 
within the jurisdiction of Connecticut; and thus the proprietors 
were deprived of their former rights as tenants in common. To 
compensate these proprietors for their loss, the general court of 
the Province of Massachusetts Bay gave to these Suffield pro- 
prietors of common lands so set to the towns of Windsor and 
Simsbury, a tract of land just west of Westfield to be of the con- 
tents of six miles square, as an equivalent for these common lands 
of which they had been so deprived. This grant was made in 
1732, and the land so granted was called New Glasgow, or often 
simply Glasgow. There were somewhat more than one hundred 

( 484 ) 


of these proprietors. Their rights were held common and un- 
divided, but in unequal shares, each individual share consisting 
of a definite number of acres. 

About 1734, Christopher Jacob Lawton, a lawyer, of Suf- 
field, began to buy of each proprietor his share in the New Glas- 
gow lands, each one giving Lawton, for a named consideration, a 
deed of his right, naming the number of acres, without giving 
any other description except naming the township, designating 
it as the equivalent land granted by the general court of the 
Province of IMassachusetts Bay to the proprietors of common 
lands in Suffield that were set off to Windsor and Simsbury in 
establishing the line between Massachusetts and Connecticut in 
1713. A copy of one of the deeds will give a good idea of the 
transaction, besides giving valuable historic facts. The follow- 
ing is a substantial copy of a deed to Lawton from Joseph King 
of Suffield. Omitting the formal preliminary statements, the 
deed runs thus: "For divers good causes and considerations me 
hereunto moving, but especially for those hereafter mentioned, 
viz. : for and in consideration of the sum of one hundred and 
seventy-five pounds, to me in hand paid or secured by Christo- 
pher Jacob Lawton of Suffield, aforesaid, and for the great ex- 
pense the said Lawton has been at to obtain a grant of the gen- 
eral assembly of the Province aforesaid (Mass. Bay) of the con- 
tents of six miles square of land for an equivalent to the pro- 
prietors of the common and undivided lands in said Suffield for 
land taken away from the proprietors of the township of Suf- 
field, aforesaid, and laid to the towns of Windsor and Simsbury 
by the late establishment of the line between the Pro\dnce afore- 
said and the Colony of Connecticut, and for the further expense 
in viewing and surveying a tract of land whereon to lay said 
equivalent, and getting a confirmation of the same by the gen- 
eral assembly aforesaid, do remise, release, and forever quit- 
claim, and by these presents do, for myself and my heirs re- 
mise, release and forever quitclaim unto him, the said Christo- 
pher Jacob LaAvton, and to his heirs and assigns forever, all the 
right, estate, interest, claim and demand whatsoever which I, 
the said Joseph King, had or ought to have of, in. and unto the 

( 485 ) 


aforesaid grant of six miles square of land (as it is confirmed by 
the general court of the Province aforesaid, reference being had 
to the province records may appear), by any deed or deeds here- 
tofore made to me, the said Joseph King, viz. : By deed made me 
by Jared Huxley and William Pluxley of a forty-acre right on 
the right of their father, Thomas Huxley, one of the original 
proprietors of said Suffield, deceased ; and by a deed made to me 
by Luke Hitchcock, Esq., of a fifty-acre right; and by a deed 
made to me of a fifty-acre right by Joseph Leonard; and by a 
deed made to me by my brother, James King, of a fifty-acre right 
on the right of John Huggins, deceased ; and by a deed made to 
me by Ebenezer Scott of the six-acre right of his father, John 
Scott; and by a deed of a twelve-acre right made to me by my 
honored father and mother, James King and Eliza King, his 
wife ; and a ten-acre right on the right of Benjamin Cooley, de- 
ceased, by deed made me by his son, Benjamin Cooley; and by 
deed made to me of the fifty-acre right of Obediali Miller, de- 
ceased, by his heirs, viz. : Obediah Miller, John Barker, Timothy 
Hale and Hannah, his wife, Nathan Miller, John Miller, Thomas 
Terry and Martha, his wife, Benjamin Wright and Mary, his 
wife, and from John Stephensen, Jonathan Stephenson, and 
Benajah Stephenson, Ebenezer Leonard and Joannah, his wife; 
and on the fifty-acre right of George Colton, by deed made to me 
by Capt. Thomas Colton, John Colton, Nathaniel Bliss and Deo- 
bora, his wife, Capt. George Colton, Ephraim Colton, Samuel 
Colton, Josiah Colton, Ebenezer Bliss and Sarah, his Avife, Mar- 
garet Colton, Samuel Bernard, Jonathan Wells, Ebenezer 
Graves, Capt. John jNIirick and his wife, Benjamin Chapin and 
his wife ; and on the fifty-acre right Rowland Thomas, deceased, 
by deed from his heirs that are hereafter named, viz. : Eben- 
ezer Thomas, Samuel Thomas, Josiah Thomas, Benjamin Thomas, 
James Warriner and Sarah, his wife, John Bagg and Mary, his 
wife. All the aforementioned rights were original rights in the 
township of Suffield. and I, the said Joseph King, am a com- 
moner thereon so far as these deeds mentioned make me so or by 
any other way or means howsoever. 

To have and to hold all my right in or title unto the afore- 
said grant of six miles square as an equivalent as aforesaid, unto 

( 486 ) 


him the said Christopher Jacob Lawton, his heirs and assigns for- 
ever (yet nevertheless it is to be understood that the said Chris- 
topher Jacob Lawton, his heirs and assigns, is to be at all further 
changes in fulfilling the conditions enjoyned by the general assem- 
bly, aforesaid, in respect to building and settling said equivalent 
to bring forAvard a town there so far as I, myself, ought to have 
done), to their only proper use and behoof of him, said Chris- 
topher Jacob LaAvton, his heirs and assigns forever. So that 
neither I, the said Joseph King, nor my heirs, executors or ad- 
ministrators, or any other person or persons by, from, or under 
me or them, or in the right or stead of any of them, shall or will, 
by any Avay or means, hereafter have claim, challenge, or de- 
mand any estate, right, title or interest in or to the premises, or 
any part or parcel thereof; and furthermore I, the said Joseph 
King, hereby covenant and engage for myself, my heirs, execu- 
tors and administrators to and Avith the said Christopher Jacob 
Lawton, his heirs, executors and administrators, that he or they 
shall have the benefit of any one, so mam^ or all my deeds so far 
as they respect said equivalent at his or their own proper cost 
and charges in the law to bring an action or actions on the said 
deeds or either of them, against any or every of the vendors in 
my name, or in the name of my heirs, executors or administra- 
tors, wherein any of said vendors or all have broken their cove- 
nants with me or my heirs, &e., on final judgment I covenant for 
mA^self, my heirs, executors and administrators, that he, the said 
LaAV'ton, his heirs, executors or administrators, shall and may 
have the benefit of any judgment or judgments of court it or 
them receive and discharge Avithout being accountable to me, 
my heirs, executors or administrators so far as respects said 
equivalent, and I further covenant that I have the said deeds of 
the aforesaid premises on the public records, or shall have 

In Avitness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal 
this tAventy-fourth day of November, A. D. 1735. 

Joseph King— and seal." 

There haA-e been statements made in some of the historical 
sketches of Blandford that the conditions of settlement Avere im- 

( 487 ) 


posed because the proprietors had caused the township to be 
surveyed seven instead of six miles square. The statements are 
credited to "tradition." But the conditions were the same as 
were imposed upon other townships that came by grant into the 
hands of private individuals as proprietors. The deed to Law- 
t(m from Joseph King and the following do not appear to justify 
the tradition. 

' ' To all people to whom these presents shall come : Christo- 
pher Jacob Lawton of Suffield in the county of Hampshire and 
Province of Massachusetts Bay in New England, Esq., sendeth 
greeting. Whereas, on the fourteenth day of December, A. D. 
1732, upon the petition of Joseph Winchell and Joseph King to 
the great and general court then assembled at Boston in the 
county of Suffolk within the Province aforesaid, in behalf of 
themselves and the other commoners and proprietors of the com- 
mon and undivided lands in the said town, setting forth that in 
running the line between the aforesaid province and the colony 
of Connecticut, A. D. 1713, there was taken from the aforesaid 
town of Suffield a very large quantity of land, and praying that 
they might be allowed an equivalent for the lands so taken away, 
a vote was passed in the Honorable House of Representatives, 
that the prayer of said petition should be so far granted as that 
the commoners and proprietors of the common and undivided 
lands in said town should be impowered by a surveyor and 
chainmen on oath to survey and lay out at their cost and charge 
the contents of six miles square of the unappropriated lands of 
the aforesaid province on the west side of Connecticut river, pro- 
vided that within the term of seven years from the confirmation 
of said grant they should settle on the spot 60 families who 
should be obliged by the said grant to bring to clear and fit for 
improvement 3 acres, and 6 acres more well stocked with English 
grass, and also should each of them have a good convenient 
dwelling house on the said land of one story high and 18 feet 
square at the least, and to build within the said town a conve- 
nient house for the public worship of GOD, and settle a learned 
orthodox minister there, and that the said commoners and pro- 
prietors should return a plan of the said granted premises to the 

( 488 ) 


general court within twelve months for confirmation of the same 
to the said commoners and proprietors, their heirs and assigns 
forever; which said vote was afterwards concurred in by the 
Honorable Council, and consented to by His Excellency, the 
Governor, and whereas, the aforesaid twelve months in and by 
the aforesaid proviso limited for the surveying and laying out of 
the aforesaid six miles square, and returning a plan thereof to 
the general court for the confirmation of the same to the said 
commoners and proprietors, their heirs and assigns, were by two 
subsequent orders of the general court prolonged to the space of 
two years from the time of the aforesaid grant; and the afore- 
said term of 7 years in the aforesaid provision limited for set- 
tling the said 60 families in manner as aforesaid, on said tract of 
land, was also prolonged to the space of 8 years from the time of 
said grant : and whereas, pursuant to the aforesaid grant and 
orders of said general court a tract of land of the contents of 
six miles square of the unappropriated lands of the said prov- 
ince on the west side of Connecticut river was surveyed and laid 
out by a surveyor and chainman on oath for the aforesaid com- 
moners and proprietors, who returned a plan thereof to the 
great and general court in December last, which was by said 
court accepted on the 4th day of the same month and recorded 
(as by the records of the said court reference being had thereto 
may appear) whereby the aforesaid tract of land which is but- 
ted and bounded as in the said plan returned to the general court 
is particularly mentioned and described, was confirmed to the 
said proprietors and commoners of the common and undivided 
lands of the said town of Suffield, their heirs and assigns forever. 
And whereas the said Christopher Jacob Lawton hath since 
purchased of the aforesaid commoners and proprietors all their 
several respective rights of, in and to the aforesaid tract of land 
except the rights of Josiah Sheldon and the heirs of Joshua Lea- 
vitt, deceased, of said Suffield, and hath agreed with Robert 
Senot, James Freeland, John Osborne, Hugh Hambleton, Hugh 
Black, Comeinne Anderson, James Beard, Joseph Rice, Benjamin 
AVoods, Samuel Karmer, James Montgomery, Armon Hambleton, 
Israel Gibbs, Robert Henry, Jonathan Boyce, James Wark, Rob- 

( 489 ) 


trt Black, John Osborne, John Hambleton, Jeremiah Anderson^ 
M^illiam Province, James MacCletick, Samuel Ferguson, James 
Freeland, Jr., John Houstin, Samuel Cook, Daniel Stone, Robert 
Houston, David Boyce, John Stuart, William Knox, Samuel 
Crooks, Samuel Tyger, William Anderson, William Barker, 
Samuel Wark, Alexander Osborn, Thomas Reed, Matthew Blair, 
Robert Cook. John Cockhoran, Robert Hambleton, Hugh Ham- 
bleton, Daniel Howe, Adam Knox, John Knox, Joseph Freeland,. 
John Stuart, Robert Huston, Samuel Cook, William Dunaghoi, 
AVilliam Province, James Beard, John Cockran, Robert Hamble- 
ton, for the settlement of 60 families on said land in such manner 
and within such time as in the said proviso, in the aforemen- 
tioned grant is contained and expressed, to whom the said Chris- 
topher Jacob Lawton hath covenanted to grant the several quan- 
tities hereafter mentioned, viz. : To fifty families 120 acres, 
each, to two families 60 acres each, to five families 40 acres each, 
to one family 30 acres, rendering to him, his heirs and assigns 
six per cent current lawful money of New England yearly if de- 
manded for each 120 acres of land and so proportionably, which 
said settlers have given bonds and covenants to John Foye and 
Francis Wells, both within the province aforesaid, merchants, 
and the said Christopher Jacob Lawton in penalty amounting in 
the whole to £22,500 lawful money of New England with con- 
ditions to accomplish their several settlements and pay their 
aforesaid bonds. Noiv iciUiesseth these presents, that the said 
Christopher Jacob Lawton for and in consideration of £3,000 in 
lawful public bills of credit to him in hand paid by Francis 
Brinley of Roxbury in the county of Suffold and province afore- 
said, Esq., before the sealing and delivery of these presents, the 
receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, ' ' etc. Then follows, in 
usual form, a deed to said Brinley of one undivided fourth part 
of said township. This deed is dated July 8th, 1735. Lawton 
had already, by deed dated January 17th, 1735, conveyed to- 
Francis Wells of Cambridge and to John Foye of Charlestown, 
one undivided fourth to each, of his interest in said township. 
And on March 30th, 1737, these several proprietors executed a 
deed of partition among themselves ; so that from that date eacb 

( 490 ) 


became the owner of certain lots located in different parts of 
the town containing 500 acres each. 

The people named in the above cited deed from Lawton to 
Brinley, Avere, for the most part, those who came to Glasgow from 
Hopkinton, J\Iass. It came about in this way: A Congrega- 
tional church was organized in Hopkinton Sept. 2d, 1724. 
"Seven of the original members of the church were Scotch Pres- 
byterians, and five others soon after joined. As nothing was 
said at the outset about a form of church government, these men 
could conscientiously assent to the covenant and unite in Chris- 
tian communion. April 9th, 1731, the church voted 'to comply 
with the Platform of Church Discipline agreed to by the Synod 
of Churches assembled at Cambridge, 1649, as the rule of their 
discipline, so far as they apprehended it to be agreeable to the 
Word of God.' This voting the church Congregational gave 
great offense to the Presbyterians. About ten families with- 
drew from the communion of the church. They were brought 
under discipline, and eventually several of them excommuni- 
cated. In 1734, they organized a Presbyterian church, built a 
small meeting-house about one and one-half miles west of the 
village, near what is known as the Ellery place. Subsequently, 
on the removal of many of these families to Blandford. this 
church organization was, by consent of Presbytery, transferred 
to that town, where it existed till 1800." 

The list of membership of the First Congregational church 
in Hopkinton, contains the names of those who were excommu- 
nicated. Of them are the names of Robert Cook, "William Duna- 
ghoi, Robert Hambleton, Robert Huston, Hugh Black and his 
wife, William Henry, Matthew Blair, Sarah Montgomery, Robert 
Black, Jane Wark, Rebecca AYark, James Montgomery, John 
Hambleton, Adam Knox, Israel Gibbs. Mary Gibbs, Israel 
Walker. Mrs. Robert Sennet, Mrs. Robert Cook, Hugh Hambleton 
and wife, Walter Steward and wife, Mrs. J. S. Montgomery^ 
Mary Hambleton, and these people went to Blandford, then 
called New Glasgow, and took their church with them. Tradi- 
tion has it that they were promised a church bell from the city 
of GlasgOAV if they would call the town Glasgow, and continue 
that name. 

( 491 ) 


Previous to the coining of these people (to quote from Wm. 
H. Gibbs' historical address in 1859) "they sent a number of 
bold and courageous young men to select the best route and erect 
habitations for their reception. These hardy adventurers 
rc^ached the centre of this town in the latter part of April, 1735. 
On the day of their arrival, a severe snowstorm commenced and 
continued three days, leaving a body of snow on the ground to 
the depth of three or four feet. We can but faintly imagine their 
sufferings." Such shelter as they could find in the forest under 
the protectiiig boughs of pines and hemlocks they had. But the 
snow soon began to waste, and they were then able to clear away 
trees and to erect temporary cabins. ' ' The lEirst families arrived 
the following autumn, the residue the succeeding spring. Hugh 
Black Avas the first man who arrived with his family. " 
"The next individual who emigrated to this town with his family 
was James Baird." The locations selected by these settlers, as 
given by Mr. Gibbs, cannot at this late day be definitely given. 
We can only say that they were somewhere Avithin the bounds 
of the township— probably within the limits of the tract laid out 
for the settlers— a tract about 2 miles Avide by about 4 miles long. 
It included the AA'hole of North street extending northerly nearly 
to what is knoAvn as "Beulah Land," on its Avesterly line, and 
southerly about to a soapstone quarry lying betAveen "Fall road" 
and Little river; its easterly line extending from Tarrott's hill 
to near Chester line. It included the territory on Avhich the 
village of Blandford is built, and it includes the road located 
easterh' of, and little more than a mile from and parallel with 
North street. In this tract of land the lots for settlers AA^ere laid 
out. Mr. Gibbs says that, ' ' The settlers selected their farm lots, 
and the names of several families who obtained farms on the 
west side of the town street, are left on record, viz. : Messrs. 
Black, Reed, McClinton, Taggart, Brown, Anderson, Hamilton, 
Wells, Blair, Stewart. Montgomery, Boise, Ferguson, Campbell, 
Wilson, Sennett, Young, Knox and Gibbs. The majority of the 
above-named persons became permanent residents upon the lots 
they drew." The northernmost lot drawn was in the vicinity, 
probably, of Dug hill and near Avhere the highAvay to Huntington 

( 492 ) 


turns off from North street. Mr. Gibbs suggests that the entire 
country from this spot to Canada was a trackless wilderness. 
The nearest settlement was Westfield, ten miles east. ' ' The team 
which drew the first cart that entered the town was driven by 
Widow IMoses Carr while the men were repairing the road. It 
is said that the team belonged to Israel Gibbs, who settled on 
Ihe farm now (1850) occupied by John Gibbs; and his son Israel 
M'as the first male child born in this town." 

"The number of families which emigrated with the second 
company, cannot be ascertained. Their progress in ascending 
the mountain through Russell (then part of Westfield), was 
laborious and disheartening. They commenced the ascent at 
'Sackett's Tavern' (probably near the four-mile house), on the 
old Westfield road, a distance slightly exceeding seven miles to 
the centre of this town. The ascent of the mountain began on 
the margin of the river, and continued up a rocky ledge, which, 
from its rude and forbidding appearance, acquired the name of 
'De^dl's Stairs'. Such was the difficulty of forcing a passage 
up the hills and through the unsubdued forest, that the team was 
able to travel only two miles the first day. As night came on, 
they encamped in the forest. The second day they reached the 
top of 'Birch Hill,' and again encamped for the night in the 
midst of beasts of prey and venomous reptiles. On the third day, 
the wearied families arrived at their anticipated home, and 
seated in their log hut. participated in the bounties it afforded." 

' ' Soon after a part of these families removed further north ; 
in reaching their locality they had to pass through the 'Caus- 
way, ' then a pathless hemlock swamp. This passage required a 
day of severe toil. James Baird, an athletic man belonging to 
the company, was so fatigued in accomplishing this task, that 
on leaving the swamp, he immediately threw himself upon the 
earth and quietly slumbered during the night beneath the 
branches of a large hemlock. His family, consisting of eight 
persons, is believed to have removed with him. In a similar 
manner other families urged their toilsome way to their respec- 
tive places of residence. The trial and perplexities which they 
endured cannot be described ! Probably there is not a parallel 

( 493 ) 


in the history of the settlement of any town upon the moun- 

Patrick Boise, Esq., in an address upon the early history of 
Blandford, says: "In 1737 the proprietors became owners of 
"their lands, severally by a deed of partition. By this they appor- 
i;ioned between themselves fifty-one lots of land. IMessrs. Lawton, 
Brinley and Foj'e took thirteen lots aside from the two sixty-acre 
lots given to each of the first fifty settlers. A grant was made 
of a ten-acre lot in the center of the town, for public uses and 
as a general common. The other lands in the town were laid out 
in 500-acre lots. It is here worthy of remark that the exact 
figure of the town plot and the uniformity in the location and 
dimension of the lots of land, form a system of order and ar- 
rangement which is not to be found in any other town in the 
county— if in the State. It was a method well adapted to make 
certain the limits, preserve the boundaries, and secure the 
property of land-holders and purchasers. To this cause more 
than any other may be attributed that harmony which has so 
generally prevailed among the owners of land in this town. Few 
questions of disputed title have arisen to create disturbance and 
jealousy in the minds of the inhabitants." 

In 1741 the general court of the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay, passed an act as follows: "Whereas, it hath been repre- 
sented to this court, by the inhabitants of Suif [e]i[e]ld equiva- 
lent lands, commonly called Glasgow, in the county Hampshire, 
that they labor under great difficulties by reason of their not 
being incorporated into a township. Be it enacted by His Excel- 
lency the Governor, Council and Representatives in General 
Court assembled, and by the authority of the same. 

"Section 1. That the lands aforesaid be and hereby are 
erected into a separate and distinct township by the name of 
Blandford: the bounds whereof are as follow^eth, viz.: beginning 
at a black birch, marked, with stones about it, being the southeast 
corner, and is near a small brook that runs into Westfield River, 
and on the west side of a steep round mountain; from thence, 
running west, twenty degrees north, one thousand nine hundred 
and forty-five rods, to a maple tree, marked; thence north, 

( 494 ) 


twenty degrees east, one thousand nine hundred and twenty rods, 
to a beech tree, marked, with stones about it ; from thence, east, 
twenty degrees south, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five 
rods, to a yellow pine tree, marked, with stones about it; from 
thence, running south, twenty degrees west, one thousand nine 
hundred and twenty rods, to the bound first mentioned. 

"Sec. 2. And the inhabitants on the land aforesaid be and 
are hereby vested with all the powers, privileges and immunities 
which the inhabitants of other towns are or ought to be vested 
with." Passed April 10, 1741. 

The people of the town wished it called Glasgow, but Gov. 
Shirley, who had recently arrived in the good ship Blandford, 
insisted that this toAvn should be called Blandford. 

■'These early inhabitants were so poor that they were com- 
pelled to solicit many favors from the proprietors of the town. 
They frequently petitioned the Colonial Legislature for grants 
of money and remission of taxes. This being a frontier settle- 
ment the court patiently listened to their prayers, and cheerfully 
imparted the solicited boon. At one time forty bushels of salt 
were given to the town to be distributed among the inhabitants. 

In 1755 a special favor granted by the court to the town is 
noticed upon their records, and acknowledged in the following 
terms: "By virtue of a petition put into the Great and General 
Court of Boston by Rev. Mr. Morton in behalf of this town, the 
Honorable Court was pleased to grant us one sivivel gun as an 
alarm gun, with one quarter barrel of powder and one bag of 
bullets for the same, and also one hundred flints for the use of 
the town, which we have received and paid charges on the same, 
from Boston to this town, which is two pounds and sixteen 
shillings old tenor, to Captain Houston.'' 

"In 1758 (quoting further from Gibbs), owing to the em- 
barrassing circumstances of the first settlers, the General Court 
discharged them from the obligation of furnishing their quota of 
men for the public service. In the spring of 1749, the Indians 
began to make encroachments upon the white settlers of the town, 
and all the families but four fled to the neighboring towns ; some 
to Westfield. others to Windsor. Suffield. Simsbury. and "Wethers- 

( 495 ) 


field, Conn. A portion of tlieiu returned the following autumn, 
the remainder the next spring. At an early period three forts 
were erected; the first upon a lot now (1850) owned by Elijah 
Knox, another upon a lot now (1850) owned by Col. Justin 
AVilson, and the third upon the farm now (1850) owned by John 
Gibbs. At night all the families were collected into these forts. 
This state of things continued for the space of a year ; and even 
long after that, on the least alarm, the inhabitants fled at dead of 
night from their OAvn dwellings to seek refuge in these fortifica- 
tions. How imminent and trying their situation ! They seldom 
repaired to the field to their daily toil without taking fire-arms 
and placing a sentinel to keep guard while the others labored. 
Nor did they deem it safe to meet on the Sabbath for religious 
worship unarmed." 

There Avas no grist-mill nearer than Westfield, which fact 
added to the hardship of the inhabitants. 

"Many are the instances when they carried their grain and 
returned -with their meal on foot, thus performing a journey 
Avith a load upon their back of more than twenty miles. Some 
families, considering the distance, fatigue, and time it required 
in going to and from mill, used to pound the corn in mortars." 

"The inhabitants who first settled at the center of the town 
obtained most of their hay for many years from North Bland- 
ford, Avhere we are informed were two beaver dams; one stood 
where the factory dam now (1850) stands, and the other near 
the sawmill of Mr. Orrin Sennett. These were demolished, and 
the grass sprang up and grew luxuriantly." 

About twenty years after the settlement of the town a grist- 
mill was erected upon the stream and farm owned in 1850 by 
Levi Sizer, and it was known as "Bunnell's Mill." The next 
year after its construction, a salmon weighing 13 lbs. was taken 
in the pond. Salmon were known to ascend the river for many 
years later, and they gave name to Salmon falls in Russell. 
The most available source of information touching the early his- 
tory of Blandford is Mr. Gibbs' historical address written in 
1850, and it is used freely in this sketch of the town. 

The civil affairs of the town advanced as fast as could be 
expected in a situation so secluded, and where the inhabitants 

( 496 ) 


were devoted to agricultural pursuits. It appears from the 
records that the people were deeply interested in the political 
questions agitating the country at that early date. They par- 
ticipated in the general grievance that agitated the colony 
because of the arbitrary taxation imposed by Great Britain ; 
and they were prompt in selecting delegates in 1775, to 
attend conventions at Concord, Watertown and Boston, hoping 
to obtain a redress of these grievances. The persons chosen as 
delegates were William Boies, William Carnahan and William 
Knox, AA^hen the national independence was declared, and the 
people took up arms against the mother country, some of the 
citizens of this town demurred and boldly avowed their loyalty 
to the king. And these loyalists were forbidden by the com- 
mittee of safety to pass beyond the boundaries of their own 
farms. But these men occasioned the town little trouble. 

The town met its proportion of the expenses of the war, and 
furnished its quota of soldiers. Though poor in purse, and at 
the same time taxed to the utmost of its ability to sustain the 
war, this town voluntarily selected a committee of enterprising 
men to collect money for those who would enlist as soldiers for 
the northern companies. In 1778 the town raised £106, and 
placed it in the hands of the selectmen, to furnish clothing for the 
soldiers. Committees of safety, inspection and correspondence 
were cliosen, who were vigilant in watching the movements of 
the enemy, hoping to be ready for any emergency. In 1779 new 
troubles and difficulties arose because of the depreciation of the 
value of money used as a circulating medium. It was difficult 
to obtain credit, and dangerous to give it. 

About this time Justus Aslimun was chosen delegate to 
attend a convention at Concord, to deliberate upon this subject, 
and to prevent, if possible, the further depreciation of the cur- 
rency. The town assessed and raised £682 of the existing cur- 
rency for military bounty, also to meet a demand brought against 
the town for blankets which were provided for the soldiers who 
were employed in the service upon the Hudson river. Most of 
the military stores used in the West during the Revolution were 
transported from Boston through this town. The roads were so 

32-3 ( 497 ) 


bad at that time that 20 yoke of oxen and 80 men were required 
to convey a mortar over Blandford hills on its way to West 

When the news reached this town that Burgoyne was march- 
ing from Canada down the Hudson, many of Blandford 's citizens 
shouldered their muskets and hastened to join our army. Isaac 
Gibbs received the intelligence at sunset, and during the evening 
moulded 300 or 400 bullets, and was ready in the morning to 
mount his horse and repair to the scene of action. He, together 
with others, arrived at Bennington just after the victory in that 
celebrated battle had turned in our favor. The fresh troops that 
had collected from the surrounding country were stationed as 
guards of the provisions they had captured, while the regular 
soldiers, weary from hard fighting, enjoyed a season of repose. 
Some of the prisoners taken at this battle were marched on their 
A\'ay to Boston through this town, where they were caught in a 
severe snow storm, which occasioned them much suffering. But 
the people did what they reasonably could for the comfort of 
the prisoners. The snow soon dissolved and they were able to 
resume their march. 

It is said that, in 1791, Mr. Gibbs brought into town the 
first single wagon used here. Previous to this time, heavy bur- 
dens were transported upon the back of horses. A man, his wife 
and two or three children would mount a single horse to attend 
church or to make a visit, so says tradition. The ladies of those 
days were great equestrians. It was a common occurence for 
them to ride on horseback from Blandford to Western (now 
AVarren), a distance of 40 miles, in a day. When a number of 
young ladies rode in company, they enjoyed much pleasure in 
trying the SM^ftness of their steeds. 

The expenses of the revolutionary war, and the deprecia- 
tion of the general currency, reduced many of the inhabitants 
almost to penury, and during a long period after the war, our 
agriculturists obtained but little cash for their produce. They 
cleared their lands and prepared the way for future prosperity. 
Pease, beans, flax and flax-seed were the principal articles of 
produce. These ai-ticles for the most part were transported to 

( 498 ) 


Hartford and exchanged for salt, groceries, and such other 
goods as they needed. INIost of the clothes worn in those times 
were of home manufacture. 

About 1807, Amos M. Collins took up his residence in this 
town. He was a merchant of considerable wealth from Con- 
necticut. Previous to his arrival, the farmers had devoted their 
efforts to the cultivation of grain and wool; but the soil and 
locality were not eminently favorable for growing grain. Mr. 
Collins induced the farmers to try dairying with reference par- 
ticularly to butter and cheese. This proposal being accepted 
by many, he proceeded to New York state and purchased a large 
drove of cows, which were distributed among the inhabitants. 
He devoted his efforts patiently and persistently to teaching 
the people hoAv to make cheese, going from house to house for 
that purpose. His efforts were highly successful, and resulted 
in the prosperity of the people. And it became a saying among 
the farmers that "Mr. Collins was the making of the town." In 
1837 there were 1535 cows in the town; 230,000 lbs. of cheese 
were manufactured annually and 20,000 lbs. of butter. The annual 
product of cheese was valued at $16,000 and the butter at $3,000. 
The capital invested was estimated at $60,000 and there were 
employed 200 men and 300 women. During the time ]\Ir. Collins 
was in Blandford he is said to have accumulated the handsome 
little fortune of $25,000. He was succeeded by Orrin Sage, who, 
for more than thirty years was extensively engaged in buying 
cheese. He always paid the market price, and the pay was sure. 
He was highly esteemed as a man of high moral worth in addi- 
tion to his excellent business ability, and used to be spoken of 
as "the Bank" of Blandford. 

From the period above referred to down to the present time 
there has been no change in the agricultural prosperity of an 
upward tendency in the town. It has shared the decadence of 
the towns of Avestern Hampden. There are many so called aban- 
doned farms, and not a few old farm buildings, evidently erected 
by prosperous proprietors, have gone to decay. The Blandford 
farmers of to-day who are blessed with business ability and good 
business habits are well-to-do. Many of the less well-to-do 

( 499 ) 


famers cut off the wood and timber from their land and eon- 
verted it into railroad ties, cord wood and lumber, and many- 
farms are left partly or wholly nntilled. 


In so mountainous a town as Blandford the making and main- 
taining of roads is so important in every way, especially in diffi- 
culty and expense of construction, as to be an item of historical 
interest. In Blandford as in all the mountain towns the high- 
ways pass over high points of land to the great inconvenience of 
travel, when, as we view it to-day, better grades could have been 
secured. One reason at least for this, as in the town of Chester, 
the settling lots were laid out and located where inconvenient 
grades could not well be avoided. It cannot justly be charged 
upon the early settlers that they lacked good judgment in this 
respect. The fact is, they were poor and had to submit to dicta- 
tion where they had not the power to choose for themselves. 
There may have been other reasons. But one good reason is 
better than many speculative reasons. At any rate the settling 
lots were from 1000 to 1500 feet above the sea, and the ascent to 
them from the Westfield river was rather abrupt, and there are 
a good many "Devil's Stairs" on the way. Mr. Gibbs says: "We 
are informed that when the first road was made from Springfield 
west, the pioneers who laid it out traveled to the top of the first 
hill, then started for the highest peak of the next, and so on, until 
they arrived at Albany." This is rather fanciful. 

The proprietors' plan shows an oblong tract of land laid out 
in the southwesterly part of the town, and marked on the plan 
as "Pixley's Farm." A road was laid from Springfield to Great 
Barrington, and is still called the Old Barrington road, which 
passed through the south part of Blandford and through the 
Pixley farm soon after the settlement of the town. 

A grant of 300 acres of land was made to Mr. Pixley, who 
was to "have, occupy and OAvn said land" if he fulfilled the fol- 
lowing conditions:— "Provided, that the said Pixley shall erect 
a public house upon the mountains, half way between Spring- 
field and Great Barrington ; and that the said house shall be 40 

( 500 ) 


feet lang, 25 feet wide, and 9 feet posts, etc. ; and that the said 
Pixley shall provide wholesome food for travelers, hay and grain 
for horses, at the usual prices," etc. Tradition has it that the 
honse was erected, and that for several years it had no floor nor 
chimney. A fire was constantly kept upon the ground in the 
center: logs eight and ten feet long were drawn in by a horse 
and rolled upon the log heap fire, the smoke passing out through 
a hole in the roof. Roads in those days were hardly worthy the 
name, and in fact were nearly impassable. For many years the 
only way of transporting heavy merchandise was upon a dray. 
In 1795 a mail route from Springfield to Kinderhook passed 
through Blandford. In 1806 a mail route was established from 
this town to Hartford. 

In 1801, the Eleventh Massachusetts Turnpike Corporation 
was incorporated to connect with the turnpike from Hartford 
to the state line, "then into and through the east parish of 
Granville, to Blandford meeting-house, by the usual Pittsfield 
road, so called, and into the town of Becket, until it connects with 
the road of the Eighth Turnpike Corporation." 

March 16, 1805, the Blandford and Russell Turnpike Cor- 
poration was incorporated, and it was described in the act as "a 
turnpike road from the dwelling-house of Stephen Sacket, in 
Westfield, through Russell, to the dwelling-house of Solomon 
Noble in Blandford. ' ' The incorporators were mostly Blandford 
men. Some of these highways were changed as to location because 
of the difficulty not only of grade but of building and main- 
tenance of the same over hard ledges and in places where they 
were very liable to be injured by rains and melting snow. These 
difficulties in the matter of maintaining highways in this town 
are and always have been an obstacle to the town's prosperity. 
Roads of better grade could be constructed, but the distance 
would be increased as well as the expense of construction, and 
there are other obvious reasons why such changes are not made. 
It is stated by Gibbs that between 1800 and 1850 the town had 
made a total appropriation of $53,360 for the building and repair 
of highways. There are to-day many miles of fairly good roads ; 
there are some roads of considerable length, somewhat expensive