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Full text of "Our heritage : Black history : Princess Anne County, Virginia Beach, Virginia : a pictorial history"

BLAdMTORY 





AUTHOR 



EDNAHAWKINS-HENDRIX 



BOOK 1 




/ 



^^ i^e 




You 're invited to join me in a brief journey 
and look at the black experience in old 
Princess Anne County. This book has over 200 
photographs and documents many never before 
published, covering a span of more than 200 
years. 

Each chapter will highlight historically 
obscure places and individuals, often quiet in 
their acts of courage, strength and commitment 
to bring forih a better life for blacks. 

I hope this book will help young African- 
Americans to learn about individuals who 
overcame obstacles in the past. That they may 
be inspired to meet the challenges of today 
courageously, and realize that they also have a 
HERITAGE to be proud of in Virginia Beach. 

FRONT COVER PHOTO: 

My grandparents 

Meekin Hawkins & Cora Cotton Hawkins 

Background Photo: 

Harper 's Weekly 




iw ■>■ 



Lift every voice and sing, 

Till earth and tieaven ring, 

Ring with the harmonies of Liberty; 

Let our rejoicing rise, 

High as the list" ning sl<ies. 

Let it sound loud as the rolling sea. 



LIFT EVERY 
VOICE AND SING 



Sing a song HjII of the faith that the dark past has taught us. 
Sing a song full of the hope that the present has brought us; 
Facing the rising sun of our new day begun. 
Let us march on till victory is won. 



NA TIONAL NEGRO HYMN 



2nd 

Stony the road we trod. 

Bitter the chasf ning rod, 

Felt in the days when hope unbom had died; 

Yet with a steady beat, 

Have not our weary feet, 

Come to the place for which our fathers sighed? 

We have come over a way that with tears has been watered. 
We have come, treading our path thro' the blood of the slaughtered. 
Out from the gloomy past, Till now we stand at last. 
Where the while gleam of our bright star is cast 



3rd 



God of our weary years, 

God of our silent tears. 

Thou who has brought us thus far on the way; 

Thou who hast by Thy might, 

Led us into the light, 

Keep us forever in the path, we pray, 

Lest our feet stray from the places. Our God, where we met Thee, 
Lest our hearts, drunk with the wine of the worid, we forget Thee; 
Shadowed beneath Thy hand, may we forever stand, 
Taie to our God, 
True to our Native land. 




WORDS BY JAMES WELDON JOHNSON 
MUSIC BY ROSAMOND JOHNSON 




m 

M 



Photo: Left Front - Deacon L.H. Brinbley and other 
deacons on the steps of Union Baptist Church early 19S0's. 




Photo: Oscar Gatlin was bom in 

Princess Anne County about 1876, 

of slave parents, Anthony and 

Rose Epps Gatlin. His 

father came to Princess Anne 

County about 1863. 



BLACKMTORY 




a pictorial history 



Edna Hawkins^Hendrix 



SELF-PUBUSHEDBY: 

Edna Hawkins-Hendrix 

VIRGINIA BEACH. VIRGINIA 



Copyright © 1998 Edna Hawkins- Hendrix 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

No part of this book may be used or reproduced without 

written permission of the author, except for brief passages in 

connection with a review or essay. For more information write: 



EDNA HAWKINS -HENDRIX 

5000 Haygood Road 
Virginia Beach, Virginia 23455 




Headstone of Sally Petty. 

Died May 26, 1912. 

68 years old. 

Jones Memorial Park 



Contents 



Acknowledgments 



Forward by Edgar T. Brown 



Whar Us Come From 11 



CHAPTER 1 - Princess Anne 1691 


19 


CHAPTER 2 - Revolutionary War 


27 


CHAPTER 3 - Princess Anne A Stand On Slavery 


35 


CHAPTER 4 - Early Free Blacks 


41 


CHAPTER 5 - Men of Color To Arms 


47 


CHAPTER 6 - Churches 


57 


Ebenezer Baptist Church 


59 


Union Baptist Church 


62 



Mt. ZionA.M.E. 64 



First Lynnhaven Baptiat Church 



BigPineyGroveBaptistChurch 67 



Little Piney Grove Baptist Church 70 



Pleasant Grove Baptist Church 73 



Asbury United Methodist Church 74 



Mt. Olive Baptist Church 78 



Campbell's Chapel 80 



St. Mark A.M.E Church 81 



Morning Star Baptist Church 84 



86 



Mt. Bethel Baptist Church 87 



New Light Baptist Church 88 



New Oak Grove Baptist Church 89 



St. John A. M.E. Church 



90 



CHAPTER 7 - Reconstruction 



CHAPTER 8 - Unknown Black Surfmen 



91 



103 



CHAPTER 9 - Early Education 



CHAPTER 10 - Beaches 



107 



143 



CHAPTER 1 1 - NAACP 



CHAPTER 12 - Seatack Fire Station 



151 



155 



CHAPTER 13 - Faces From The Past 



161 



Jlcknowleilgnient 



First, I would like to offer a prayer of thanks to 
all individuals, limng and deceased, who help make 
this book a proud testament of the black experience 
in old Princess Anne County and Virginia Beach 

today. 

I am deeply indebted to many persons for 
sharing memories, time and photographs of old 
Princess Anne County and Virginia Beach today. 
While it is not possible to acknowledge all who 
provided information for this book, I want to 
acknowledge just a few. 

I would like to thank my parents, Edmon and 
Thelma Hawkins, for their moral support and for their 
precious memory of both black and white families whose 
histories date back to old Princess Anne County. My sister, 
Frances Hawkins for her assistance in research at the National 
Archives in Washington, D.C. and the Virginia State Library 
in Richmond, Virginia. 

To the following persons, who have aided in the progress of this 
work in its various stages, I wish to express my deep obligation to: 
Frances Knox, Sadie Shaw, Bertha CafFee, Norma Owens, William 
Watson, George Minns, and the late Alexander Woodhouse. I learned a 
great deal from them as they shared stories about their parents and 
grandparents which added an element of first hand experiences. 

It is impossible to name and give equal recognition to all who 
supplied me with materials and answers to the many questions dealing 
with their family members or neighbors. This appreciation is extended 
to them and to all those who gave information by phone, interviews, 
letters, newspaper clippings, or photographs and to the kind individuals 
who offered their moral support while I was working on this project in 
various stages. 

I wish to thank historian Lucious Edwards, Jr., of Virginia State 
University, Petersburg, Virginia and local historians: Tommy Bogger of 
Norfolk State University, Stephen Mansfield of Virginia Wesleyan College, 





Bertha Caffee 




Vincent Darden 




Marshall F. Darden 




Regina Leathers 



and Edgar Brown for their willingness to share their knowledge with me. 
I sincerely thank the City of Virginia Beach Clerk's Office of Curtis 
Fruit and those patient and efficient young ladies, Evelia James, Tracey 
Entwisle, and Tina Sinnen, whose assistance has been invaluable. They 
were helpful in ordering and copying records from the Virginia State 
Library and County Court Records. 

The photographs herein came from many sources. I must extend a 
very special thanks to Brenda Andrews, publisher and Leonard Covent, 
chief reporter, both of the New Journal & Guide Newspaper. Without 
the articles and photographs from the Journal & Guide Newspaper there 
would have been a great void. Other photographs came from friends, 
relatives and individuals who believe these photographs should be 
preserved and shared with others. 

Special thanks goes to my twelve year old son, Vincent G. Darden 
who aided in the success of this project. He gave me unfailing support 
and assistance as he traveled with me throughout Virginia Beach, 
Norfolk, Petersburg and Portsmouth on interviews and research. Above 
all, I wish to praise him on the superb job he did in taking all of the 
headstone photographs in this book. 

I warmly give thanks to Denise M. Melendez, and her staff Mike 
Cannon, Emily Yuhas, Olivia Obey and Heather Pearce for their patience. 
They did not complain as I came back many times making changes in the 
layout and preparing a number of photographs for publication. 

A very special thank you to all those individuals who 

ordered their book before it was published. Your 

patience was greatly appreciated, as it took longer than 

expected. There were problems with layout, delivery, 

and photographs kept coming in that needed to be 

in the book. I changed printers three times before 

this book was published. I guess I had to 

experience the ups and downs of self-publishing, a 

lesson well learned. 

Last but not least, I must give thanks to 
Marshall F. Darden, Regina Leathers and the late 
John Perry. Without them in the beginning of this 
project I would not have written this much needed 
history of Blacks in old Princess Anne County and 
Virginia Beach. It was their pulsating enthusiasm 
and determination that helped make this book a 
reality. 



*s^f 




The late John Perry 



foreword 



Much has been written of practically all phases of the history of Virginia, 
but little has been told of the Blacks and their struggles in their communities. 
Fewer places in America are as rich with a history of the Blacks as ours, here 
in Old Princess Anne Gaunty. 

The author has written a history that relates the progression of the 
Blacks - their efforts, tribulations, triumphs, and contributions - from 
Jamestown, Virginia in 1619 to 
the present time. She tells about 
the stand that was taken on slav- 
ery, religion, and the impact of 
emancipation, and takes us 
through the years that saw certifi- 
cates of fireedom and how Blacks 
were affected by the laws of the 
court. Facts seldom contained in 
other histories of Virginia, such as 
the partidparion of Blacks in the 
Kemps Landing Skirmish during 
the Revolutionary War and the en- 
listment of Blacks in the Civil War 
are included. 

Over the years, as twelve small 
communities, one room school 
houses, and churches were started 
by the Black community, opportu- 
nities improved enabling them to overcome social, economic, and political 
barriers. Their stories are told by those who share their personal memories 
of their lives in oior community. 

The author has done a splendid job of putting together a history that 
shows accountability for her people and allows us all to have a better realiza- 
tion of man's plight. The book she has written seems truly a labor of love 
that portrays the history of her people as an integral part of both Old 
Princess Anne County and the City of Virginia Beach. 




Sam Wright (right) and a friend 
cleaning oysters at Richfield Market 
on Shore Drive 1950's. 



Edgar T. Brown Historian, Virginia Beach 



Whar us come frum ? 




10 



ti 



t you know P" 



Us cumfrum Afiicky! 

De white Massa kotch ' us, 

Dey trick us, an ' us own folks sell us too! 

Lots of white folks cum de same wayfrum Englany. 

Dey stel de own folks too. 

The first pennanent English colony was started at 
Jamestown, Virginia in May, 1607. Many of these men were 
English gentlemen, unused to hard labor. The first eight 
years were difficult ones. They had to deal with the climate, 
disease and starvation. Before the first autumn, more than 
half of them had perished. These English gentleman realized 
they needed labor to help build their plantations and 
cultivate and clear the land for their crops. 

According to Bennett in Before the Mayflower, blacks came to America under 
the same condition as many of the first whites. Many were sold, as the first 
blacks were sold, by captains cf ships. Some whites were kidnapped from the 
streets of England, just as some blacks were from Africa. The English 
government sent shiploads of convicts, orphans, paupers, vagrants and 
disserters to be sold into servitude. Still others were very poor and unable 
to finance their voyage across the ocean. They decided to sell their services 
to planters in America. In exchange for passage to America they were then 
known as "indentured" servants. The period of service varied ranging from 
four to seven years. In return the planters not only received their services 
but also "headrights" grants of land for every person they brought to the 
new colony. 

De white Massas lock us up and de ship move an 'tak us on water. 

Us travelin ' on water long - long time. 

Dey call us Negars, dey say no mo ' African. 

Dey beat us, dey starve us, dey pack us so tigh 'us can 't move. 

Lots 'em prayed to deir Godfo ' death caus ' it so bad on de ship. 

Food got lo an dey throw de sick and weak in de water. 

Lots 'us folks died. White Massa showed no mercy. 

De ship I 's was on cums to Virginny, dey brin ' us on deck. 
De say 'I ain 'tfree no more, I belong to who ever buys me. 
Let me teV ya child, I's so scared but happy to see de land. 




Top: When slave trade became pop- 
ular, slaves were packed tightly and 
in many causes in layers on slave 
ships. 

Harper's Weekly 
June 2, 1860. 



11 



BUT NOW CHILD, Ut me tell yo' bout de first blacks dey brin' to 
Virginny, dey calls dem Ne^fars too. De comes on a ship bout 1619. Dey b' 
FREE like wliite Massa, de law say if % dey work a while jb' Massa dey b' 
FREE to awn land and even b' a Massa. 

Late August of 1619, the first blacks arrived in the Virginia Gilony. 
They arrived at a time when there were no laws pertaining to slavery in the 
colony as we know it today. Somewhere in the vicinity of Old Point 
Gimfort or at Jamestown, Virginia, a ship landed carrying twenty or so 
blacks chained together. 

J.C. Hotten, in his book Ust of Emigrants to America states: They 
were distributed as follows: Abraham Piersey 7; George Yeardley, kt., 8; 
Capt. William Piercey, 1; Richard KingsmalL, 1; Edward Bennett, 2; Capt. 
William Tucker, 3; Capt. Francis West, 1. At that point the blacks took 
their place along side white indentured servants. 

As time passed, other blacks arrived in Jamestown. Anthony arrived in 
1621, Mary 1622, John Pedro 1623, and Bess 1625, all under different 
circumstances. 

On February 16, 1623, a census was taken in the colony. It states as 
follows: The entries are brief as possible, no middle names are^iven, and the 
foreigners are according to nationality, or not more than one name allowed them. 
Not the least curious is the small number ofnegros. Rolfe states, "About the last 
of An£fust (1619) came in a dutch man qfwarre that sold us twenty Negors" 
(Smith, p.l26), and nearly five years after, when this census was taken, 
there were but twenty-two in the colony. 

CENSUS LISTS OF THE LIVINGE a DEAD IN VIRGINIA Feb. 1 6th, 1 623 



NOTE: Listed are only the blacks, 
and the spellings are as they appear 
in the census. 



Att Fourdieu 
Hundred 


6 


Negro's (tw names ) 




4 


Anthony, WiUiam, John, 
and Anthony 




1 


Negors Woman 


Att James Citte 


2 


negro women 




1 


Angelo, a negar 


Plantation over 


1 


John, a negro 


against James Cittie 






Neck of Land 


1 


Edward, a negiTj 


Warwick Squrake 


4 


Peter, Anthony, Frances, 
and Margarett 


Elizabeth Cittye 


2 


Anthony and Ifabella ne: 


A LIST OF THE DEAD 


West & Sherlow 


1 


Negar 


Hundred 







12 



STATUS OF BLACKS 

Due to serious labor difficulties in the colonies, the settlers attempted 
to utilize the Indians as a labor force but were unsuccessful. Many Indians 
knew the territory so well they easily escaped. Other Indians could not 
adjust to this new life, they became sick and died. 

Black men and women were in a strange land; some were just happy 
to put foot on land again. They seemed to adjust because they had no 
choice. Suddenly their hands and muscles worked along with the whites 
side by side. In most instances they worked even harder or better than 
their white counterparts. 

The first black child bom in Virginia was William Tucker, son of 
Anthony and Isabella. They named their son after William Tucker, the man 
they were assigned to after their arrival in 1619. The exact date of the 
child's birth is not known. This child also became the first to be baptized in 
America about 1624. There were few American bom blacks in the first 
twenty years because the importation of blacks declined. 

Another Anthony, who was one of the best known early blacks, arrived 
in the colony around 1621. Within one or two years Anthony Johnson 
completed his indenturedship. A short time later he then married Mary, 
who came to the colony in 1622. By 1651, Anthony was able to import five 
black servants into the colony, on whose headrights he was granted 250 
acres of land in what is now Northampton County. 

Numerous other blacks from that commimity began to accumulate 
property after they served their term of indenturcship. The Africans 
Johnson imported from Barbados, some of them could read and knew 
something of the law and their rights as individuals. In 1654 Richard 
Johnson, a servant imported by Anthony Johnson, was able to import two 
white servants of his own whose headrights he received 100 acres of land. 
Johnson another black, imported eleven persons and received on their 
headrights 550 acres of land adjoining Richard Johnson's plantation. Still 
other blacks, like Benjamin Dole, were granted 300 acres of land in Surry 
County for his importation of six persons. John Harris of New Kent 
County purchased 50 acres of land in 1688. Phillip Morgan leased 200 
acres of land in York County for 99 years. 

During the first forty years blacks, acquired land, built their own homes, 
testified in court, voted, worked and lived among white setders on an equal 
bases, once their indentureships expired. 

White folks no lik'n Negars b 'n Massas. 

Cause som 'em even own whites and land. Ain 't that som 'in. 

Wha white massa do! Dey make new law, Negars can 't own whites; 




Photo: Captain John Smith's 
encounter with the Indians. 



13 




Harper's Weekly 



Life start 'n to chang ' fo 'em; Massa need FREE LABOR. Dey say 
new law com ' an it say. "ALL NEW NEGARS FREE NO MO!" 

LIFE IS NO LIFE. Traders put all new Negars comin ' to Virginny on 
de AUCTION BLOCK. Bid on ' em an Massa tak ' eman' say, 

"SLAVE FOREVER," even piit us littl ' chillin ' on de auction block. 

SLA VE - Dey only wan negars to build de plantations. 

work de land, clean de house, feed dey white chillin 's. danc 'fo 'em 
even wash dey body. LORD Child!! LIFE is no LIFE! 

Now dey got slaves and free negars in Virginia. 

Dey can 't mak'free negars slave cause dey b' BE FREE! 
So dey call ' em FREE NEGROES 
Dey mak 'em carry a piece of paper that say dey b ' FREE. 

Now dey know who free and who ain 'tfree. 

Laws were passed and "slave codes, " enacted 
that defined their legal position in detail and 
placed severe restriaions on movements and 
conduct of the blacks. 

1640 - An aa requiring all masters of families 
to furnish arms both offensive and defensive to 
protect their families except Blacks. 

1642 - All children of 16 years or older and 
all Black women to be tithable. 

(White women were exempt.) 

1662 - All children born in this country shall 

be held bound or free according to the condition 

of the mother. 

1670 - All servants not being Christian 

brought in by sea to be slaves for life. 

Under these laws and codes, new Black 
arrivals became nothing more than "chattel 
property, to be botight, beaten, inherited, and 
bequeathed like houses, animals or even tools. 

Warn 't no law say 'n Massa got to tre ' Negars descent. 
Lots oflcnvs say'n wha us can '/ do. 

USWaHMAB'FBlE! 

But us got no weapons to fight wit - an' us don Y know whar to go 'n 
dis new land to b FREE. 

Others try to escape but de dogs kotch 'em an ' rips de skin off em. 
One master whip all his slaves cause one slave run away. 



14 



Cause he wanna b ' FREE. 

De chains and whips be crackin'. flesh b ' tor 'n 

and swollen even death cans ' US WANNA B' FREE. 





Som 'put escape out de mind cause dey wanna live. 

LIVE or DIE - DIE and b ' FREE. 

Som ' Massas tre ' dey animals better den us. 

A free nigger told me bout a place call 'd NORTH 

Whar slaves can 3 'FREE 

I ask how 'dyoii git to dis place. 

UNDERGROUND RAILROAD! 

Kind people hide you and show you de way. or get near water. 

If you money right a Captain will hide you on he ship. 

But depattyrollers may git you any way you esacape. 

You run, run - hide, hide. 

Caus ' if dey catch you! 

Hav ' mercy on you soull 

Dey can beat de skin off you or kill you! 

Lots of slaves sing dis song: 

Run, nigger, run; 

De pattyroUers get you! 

Run, nigger run. 

The pattyroller come. 

Watch, nigger, watch, 

The paddyroll trick you! 

Watch, nigger, watch, HE GOT A BIG GUN.. 

Tis wa de only hopefo ' som or som 'families sav 'an purchase /reedom fro 'de massa. 
Even aft ' de sav ' de massa may go upn' price. 
Folks say if only one can b ' FREE /'/ b ' worth it. 



Pen & Ink Drawing By: 
Rip Rylance, Local Artist. 




15 



THEFUTURE 




Us had no future to look forward too! 

MyMassa got eight chillin by us slaves and tre 'em all lik' slaves, 

De yellw chill 'in go to de Big House or git sold. 

Us wanna better liffo us chillin. 

Us can only pray and hope for a better day. 

Strangers in a land they did not know. 

They did not understand their masters' language. 

No common language because in their new home fellow slaves were from 

different parts of Africa. (Masters put slaves from different parts of Africa 
together, so they cotdd not understand each other. This was one way to prevent 
rebellion.) 

Missing the freedom of their own homeland. 

A lifetime of hard labor. 

The lash of the whip. 

No weapons to defend themselves. 

No control of their own destiny. 

Families separate, never to be seen again. 

Nothing to look forward to. 

Some would rather died than be staves, 

BISHOP RICHARD ALLEN 

( 1760 - 1831 ) Founder and First Bishop of the African 

Methodist Episcopal Church in 1 787. 

We were stolen from our mother country, and 
brought here. 

We have tilled the ground and made fortunes for 
thousands ... This land which we have watered with 
our tears and our blood, is now our mother country. ' 



16 




Portrayal of slaves escaping through the sii'amps. 
Courtesy of Portsmouth Public Library. 



17 




FEBRUARY 8, 1637 - Importation of Three Negroes 

CAPT. ADAM THOROGOOD, 

200 acs.. Low Co. of New Norf., 8 Feb. 1637, p. 515. Being a neck of land up 
Samuel Bennetts Ct., runing out of Lynn haven river, Ely. down the same &c. 

150 acs. due for trans, of 3 Negroes; 50 acs. for part of the second devt. due to 

John Gundrye &c. Cavaliers and Pioneers, Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents 

and Grants, 1623-66 Patent Book No. 1 Part II p.79. By Nell M. Nugent. 



INTERESTING FACT: 

"At a Quarter Court holden at James City on the 8th of April 
1641. Whereas it appearth to the Court that the estate of 
Adam Thoroiigood, deceased, stands indebted to the estate 
of George Calvert, physician, in the sum of 20:16.6 sterling 
for physics administered to the sd. Capt. Adam Thorougood 
and his servants in the time of their sickness ..." 




18 



CHAPTER 1 



PRINOESSANME 

MOrnf m It is not hard to imagine, SLAVERY in the 

earliest days in the county, long before the Civil War. One 
can sit back and dose his eyes and imagine the long days in 
the fields, the big house, the lash, the slave auctions, and a 
slave driving his master by horse and buggy to transact busi- 
ness at the old Princess Anne Giurthouse. 
Slave masters recorded information about their slaves through deeds, 
wills, audits, and other documents recorded by the County QerL These 
records gives us important information about slaves and firee blacks in old 
Princess Anne County. 

One of the most outstanding white first residents of Princess Anne 
County was Adam Thoroughgood. He arrived in Virginia as an indentured 
servant of Edward Waters of Elizabeth City Shire about 1621. After complet- 
ing his indentioreship in 1624, he returned to England. He soon returned to 
the Colony and purchased 200 acres of land in Elizabeth City. By 1635, he 
began to claimed " headrights" of fifty acres of land for every person trans- 
ported into the Colony. Thorowgood ( Spelling as it appears in early records.) 
received for the importation of 105 persons the largest land grant ever 
recorded of 5,350 acres of land that later became Lower Norfolk County. 
On February 8, 1637 Adam Thorowgood received a land grant of 150 acres 
for the - Importation of Three N^roes, whose names are unknown. It is also 
unknown if these time blacks were with Adam Thorowgood at the time of Ms death. 
By 1691, Lower Norfolk County was divided into two counties, the part 




.^/ftcm^^-'' 



Above: This seal was used on 
many documents being sent from 
the Princess Anne County 
Courts.The seal shows a woman 
holding a scale of justice and the 
words " Princess Anne County 
Court Virginia 1696" circling 
round the figure. The seal has the 
date 1696 even though the county 
was formed from Norfolk County 
in 1691. It took some time to 
develop a seal andl696 was 
probably the first year the seal 
was used. 



19 



Cavaliers and Pioneers, 

Abstracts of Land Patents and Grants, 
BY Nell Marion Nugent 

JOHN GOOKIN, Nugent's voL I 
p. 129 Gent., 640 acs., Low. Norf. Co. 
Oct. 12,1641, Page 784. Adj. a Capt. 
Thorogood's land Trans, of 13 pers.: 
John Mason, Richard Bullock, John 
Covell, William Granger, Ann Wrench 
& 7 Negroes. 

WILLIAM BROCK, 1000 acrs.. Low. 
Norf. Co., Lynhaven Par., at the fresh 
ponds, to the S'wd. ofRudee; 27 Sept. 
1680, Patent Book No. 7 p.60. In the 
dam neck; adj. William Bassett; from 
the Thunder bolt pine; next to Dennis 
Dalley, &c 350 acs. granted sd. Brock 
3 Oct. 1671; 350 acs. 1 Oct. 1661; 
100 acs. 25 Feb. 1664; 200 acs. for 
trans, of 4 pers: Robert Bray twice; 
Peter & Nan Negroes. 

MR. HENRY WOODHOUSE, 441 
acs., Low.Norf. Co.: being part of the 
Long Ridge; 9 Oct. 1675, Patent Book 
No. 6. p. 581. S'ly. from Richard 
Bonnie's land, through a pocoson, &c 
Trans of 9 pers: Daniel Anderson, 
Edward Oulds, Ursla Thornton, 
Edward Stringer, Charles Hendley, 
Robt. Richmond, Patrick Angtiis (?): 
Roger & Bess, Negroes. 

FRANCIS BOND, 100 acs.. Low. 
Norf. Co., Lynhaven Par., 20 Apr. 
1682. Patent Book No. 7 p. 160. Adj. 
Capt. William Carver's land called 
Brinson's quarter; a runn dividing this 
& land of Richard Bonney; into the 
Cyprus Sw., & c. Trans or 2 Negroes: 
Ming & Ann. 

EDWARD OWLD, 452 acs.. Lower 
Norf Co. Par. of Lynhaven, 9 Oct. 
1675 p. 570. Beg. on the Middle Neck; 
to Brushy Neck; by the horse path & 
adj. Mr. Basnett &c Trans of 9 pers: 
Tho. Sampson Jno. Hewes John Daind 
John Cadidge Edwd. Stenton Richard 
Knight Philip Williams; Negro boy 
Jack & Negro woman Jone. 

WILLIAM TRUNTOE { or Gruntoe) 
550 acs. Low. Norf Co. Lynhaven 
Par. 21 Oct. 1684 p. 425. Beg. in line 
of Bear Quarter to Cypress Sw; to Wm. 
Woodhouse &c. Trans, of 11 pers: 
Kath. Richmond; & 10 Negroes: Jack 
Jenny Doll George Dick Susan Will 
James, Ned, Hannah. 



20 



in which the Elizabeth River and its branches were contained became 
Norfolk; the other part which was largely the land of Adam Thorowgood 
became Princess Anne County. 

Earlier records before Lower Norfolk County was divided into the part 
known as Princess Anne County clearly shows the presence of blacks. 

Florence Tucker in Gateway To The New World states: Francis Land 
and Thomas Walke had come here from Barbados to settle in Lower 
Norfolk County, (areas of the Lynnhaven Parish) being from well-to-do 
merchant families, they brought slaves with them to man their ships and 
to work in the lucrative tobacco fields. 

Lower Norfolk Coimty Order Book, 1681 -1686 also dearly shows 
the presence of slaves in the area that began Princess Anne County. Early 
as 1687: Court 1687: Whereas upon the information of Mr. James 

Porter, It hath appeared to this 
Court that Mary Williamson 
hath Committed the filthy 
sin of fornication with 
William, a negro be- 
longing to William 
Basnett Squire. It is 
therefore ordered 
that she be fined five 
hundred pounds of 
tobacco and Caske for 
the use of Linhaven 
Parish for which said Bas- 
nett in open court Ingaged 
himself, as security. Whereas it 
hath appeared to this Court that 
William a negro belonging to William Basnett Square hath Committed 
fornication with Mary Williamson and hath arrogandy behave himself in 
Linhaven Church in the face of the Congregatrion. It is therefore ordered 
that the Sheriff take the said William into his custody and give him thirty 
lashes on his bare back. 

Another such reference to a black slave was this court case: 

In September 1699, Katherine Makool a single woman of the 
parish of Lynhaven Landing brought forth a bastard child, and 
the child being dead. It was ordered that she be fined according 
to law, five hundred poimds of tobacco. She was brought back 
to court in November Court 1699 the case states as follows: As 
Katherine Makool being summoned to this last Court for bring 
forth a Bastard child about September last was months and or- 
dered to be punished according to Law but on this examination 

of the order Capt. Hugh Campell informing the Court that the 




child brought by Thos. Makool, which was Dead was a molatto 
child, and it appearing by the oath two evidences and by her own 
refusing to take her own oath concerning the father thereof that 
there is great presumption that the so child was begotten by a Ne- 
gro and that a negro of Argall Thorowgood named Coly was the 
father of it. It is therefore ordered that she be fined according to 
Law and that the Sheriff take her into safe custody until she shall 
give bond with good and sufficient security for her future good 
behavior, and that she shall not from hense forth at anytime be 
seen in the Company of the forsid Negro and pay cost. 

Taken from: Princess Anne Coitnty 
Court Records, Minute Book Onep£(. 224 

MR. ROBT. RICHMOND 600 acs. 

Low. No//. Co. Lynnhaven Par. on 

W. side of the Cypress Sw: 1684 p. 

426. Trans, of 12 pers: Jno. Ely 4 

times; 

Ann & Quack Negroes; & 2 

Negroes 4 times. 



NEGRO SWAMP 

EDMUND MOORE 400 acs. Low. 
Norfolk. Co. 9 Oct. 1675 Patent 
Book No. 6 p. 5S4. On the Negro 
Sw. the Piney Sw. & the Cyprus 
Sw.Trans. of 8 pers: Francis Dim 
Margaret Motley Tho. Evans James 
Shepheard Nicholas Diigras (?) Jno. 
Guydon Benedict Lewis. 

THOMAS WILES, 176 acs., Pr. 
Anne Co., in Linhai'en; comonly 
called Kemp's Ridge; in the Negro 
Swamp; 2 May 1 706, Patent Book 
No. 9 p.732. Trans, of 4 pers. 
Richard Hobbs, John Dunrmha, 
John Keton, James Cock. 

LEMUEL NEWTON, 48 acs. 
(N.L.). Pr. Anne Co; at a place 
called the Negro Sw., near 
Bowring's River; adj. Lemuel 
Newton; George Kemp; John 
Carroway; & Edwd. Davis' line; 
16 June 1714. Patent Book No. 10 
p. 155. Imp. of William Ragsdale. 

SIMON WHITEHURST & JAMES 
LOVET, 185V4 acs. of Swamp L. in 
Pr. Ann. Co. known by the name 
Negro Sw.; adj. Murden, Carraway 
& Lovet; 12 Jan 1747/48, p.291. 
£L 




21 



















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mKMw MmI lUn Among the most elaborate mansions in the 
county was Fairfield Plantation owned by Anthony Walke. He was one of 
the wealthiest and most influential of the early families. 

The first Walke came to Lower Norfolk Coimty in 1662. He was a 
mariner and owned several vessels in which he carried on trade with England 
and Barbados. He became vestryman, judge of the county and a county 
Lieutenant. Thomas Walke died in the year 1694. He instructed the 
executors of his will to purchase die land (Fairfield) for his son Anthony 
Walke L Anthony became very wealthy and was able to build the beautifiil 
plantation Fairfield. The present site of Fairfield Sljopping Center in Kempsville 
and much of the surrounding area is part oftliis elaborate plantation. 

Ships from England brought to the plantation docks the latest fashions 
and luxuries not available in the new land. There was a library of fine books, 
jewelry and silver and fine paintings. Slaves and workmen from England 
helped build the houses of Fairfield, which had finely paneled walls of 
walnut, carved stairways, coats of arms carved over the mantel-pieces, fine 
fiimiture and hand embroidered hangings. 

Mrs. Phillip Alexander Bruce, talks about Fairfield in her sketches called 
'TJavm On The Lynnharen." She quotes a descendant who tells of it as " an 
extensive landed estate, distinguished for its retinue of liveried black servants, 
and the hospitality and splendor of its entertainment. It had when I was a boy, 
the appearance of a village, from the number of shops and houses of different 
descriptions which were near it. These were occupied by blacksmith, wagon 
makers, saddlers, all mechanics from England, who tai^ht the Negroes, who 
wroughted in the shops, their trades. 

Mrs. Bruce speaks of Fairfield as °ife handsomest house ever erected in eariy 
days around the Lynnhaven. " 

An estate of this size required many slaves. The slaves worked as carpenters, 
mechanics, blacksmith, cooks, wagon drivers, field hands and house servants. 



FACING PAGE: 

Anthony Walke' s tithables, 

lands, and wheel carriages. 

Ninety-five slaves served on 

Fairfield Plantation. 



BOTTOM: Pen and ink 

drawing showing what the 

docks of Fairfield 

Plantation may have looked 

like. Slaves loaded the ships 

with tobacco and many of 

the ships were bound for 

England or Barbados. 




23 



A Return of the List of Tithables for the Eastern Branch Precinct, 
made by me Francis Land this twelf day of August 1779 

*Taken From: Princess Anne County Court Records: Office of the Circuit Court Clerk, Virginia Beach Municipal 
Center,Virginia Beach, Virginia. The spellings and additions are as they appear in the listing. 



PERSON'S NAME NO. 

GEORGE ABYVON for self and Negroes 
Ned, George, King, Tamer, Ventus, Joe, Rose, 
Phillis, Violet and Nelly 1 1 

THOMAS AGNIFS for self and Negro Hager 2 

JAMES ARCHER for sel f 1 

JAMES BRATTHWAIT for self and JOHN 
KEELING, ROBERT KEELING, and Negro 
Rofe 4 

ROBERT BURLEY for self and Nergro Mary 2 

SARAH BROWN for Negro Cloe 1 

JOHN BRUCE for self and GEORGE 
STEVENSON & CORNELIUS CALVERT 3 



JAMES CARAWAY for self 

JOHN CARMICHAEL for self 

JOHN BRUCE for self and GEORGE 
STEVENSON & CORNELIUS CALVERT 

JAMES CARGIVAY for self 

JOHN CARMICHAEL for self 

WILLIAM CALLAWAY for self and JOHN 
PRICE 

THOMAS CARTER for self and Negro 
Cubano 



PERSON'S NAME 

c. ABEL EDMONDS for self, JOHN 
EDMONDS.and WILLIAM EDMONDS 

iMARY EASTER for Negro Jenny 

JOHN ESTEN for self and Negro Miriam 

ABSOLOM EDGNRE 

MALICHA EDMONDS 

NATHANIEL EDMONDS 

WILLIAM ? (FORREST) for self and Negro Pegg 

MICHEAL FENTREFS 

DAVID FENTREFS 

MARY FENTREFS for Negro Aliff 

BENJAMIN D. GREY for self and Negro Agnifs 

MATHREW GODFREY for NATHANIEL 
DAVIS, and Negroes Sharper & Hannah 

JOHN CARRIES 

FRANCIS HAYNES for Negro Nanny 

JONATFL\N HOPKINS for self and Negroes 
Hercides, Jonas, Demp, George, Nanne, Abb, 
Courtne, Rachel,and Judah 

2 JOSHUA HOPKINS for self and Negro Boston 



1 
1 
3 

1 
1 
2 



OBEDIENCE DAVIS Overseer and Negroes 

Moses, Peter, Sam, America, Sam, Robin, 

Toney, Sarah, Chaney, Nan, Nance, Nanny, 

and Hannah 14 

MATTHL\S DREWRY for self and Negroes 
Jemmy, London, Rose and Sam 5 

EDWARD DAVIS 1 

DENNIS DICK for self 1 

HORATIO DAVIS for sel f and Negro Dinah 2 

SAMUEL DAVIS 1 

HENRY DUDLEY for sel f and Negro Jibbo 2 

STEPHEN DEAIR for self and Negro Phobe 2 

WILLIAM EDMONDS Sen' for self HENRY 

EDMONDS, GEORGE EDMONDS, and 

Negro Jude 4 



WILLL\M HANCOCK for self and Negroes 
Peter, Vinah, Sam Dudley, and Amey 

JOHN HANCOCK for self and Negroes Demy, 
Sam, Magnus, Ned, Daniel, China, Vinah, 
Pleasant, Venus, Phoebe, Unica, and Chloe 

SARAH HUTCHINGS for Negroes Cato, 
Jemmaca, Jemmy, Demby, Silphia, Molly, 
Violet, and Phillis 

GEORGE JAMISON for self CHARLES 
SMYTH, and Negroes Jack, Jack, Harry, 
Daniel, Ned, Will Fulton, Crefs, Violet and Dick 

NELL\ JAMISON for Negro Dinah 

NIEL JAMISON for self and Negroes Vulcan, 
Moggy, Amey, Jenny, and Fortune 

TOTAL 



NO. 

3 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 

3 
1 
1 

10 

2 



12 



11 
1 

6 
138 



24 



JAMES KEMP for JAMES WILLIS, and 
Negroes London, Fran, Robin, America, 
George, Jeffery, Harry, Peter, Ned, Cale, 
Jenny, Alice and Nell 15 

JOHN KELINE for self ANTHONY 
WHITEHURST, JOHN SALALISBERRY, and 
Negroes Pegg,, Betty and Sarah 6 

ELIZABETH KELSICK for Negroes Sibb and 
Solomon/ 2 

ELIZABETH KELSICK for Negroes Sibb and 
Solomon/ 2 

WILLIAM KAYS for self Negroes Pegg and 3 

Rose 

JAMES LAMB for self CHRISTOPHER 3 

BURROUGHS and Negro Thillis 

JOHN MATTHL\S for self JOHN MATHL\S 

Jur, GEORGE MATITflAS and Negroes 

London, Ishmaei, Violet and Nan 7 

REUBIN iVL^TTHIAS for self and Negroes 
Nanney, Venus and York 4 

JOHN MATTHIAS for self and Negroes 

Tom, Jack, Sam, Arthur, Befs, Edy, and Sarah 8 

HILLARY MATirnAS . 1 

JOSHUA MATTHLVS 1 

CHARLES xMATTHL\S 1 

EDWARD HACK MOSELEY for self, 

EDWARD HACK MOSELEY Jur' and 

Negroes Tom Saunders, Ned, Gary, Ishmaei, 

Jasper, Dick, John Dudley, Joe, Roger, Jack, 

Job, George, John Tronble, Hager, Phillis, 

Pegg, Chaney, Jenny, Babb, Kate, Pattey, 

Nanny, Pegg, Jone, Nanny, Lizey and Dinah 28 

BAFIELD MOSELEY for self, and Negroes 
George, Abby, and Sellice 4 

HILLARY MOSELEY for self, and Negroes 
Robin, Cason, Arthur, Nanny, Pegg, and Amy 7 

WILLL\M MOORE for self JAMES 

RAINTER MOORE, and Negroes Cato, 

Robin, Mingo, Grande, Ned, Nander, Sam, 

Tom, Gate, Abby, Dinah, Gate, Ruth, Doll & 18 

Mary 

ISAAC MURRAY for self and Negroes Ned, 
George, Patt and Pegg 5 

JOHN MURRAY for self and Negroes Ned, 

Sam, Cato, & Edy 5 

MATTHL\S MURRAH for self & Negroes 

Bray Boy, Jespo, Harry and Phillis 4 



ANNE NEWTON for Negroes Pegg, Savinah, 

Rose, Mary, Lettice, John, and Jacob 7 

NATHANIEL NICHOLAS, for self JOSHUA 
NICHOLAS, and Negroes Tabb, Toney, and 
Tall 5 

WALTER OSBURN 1 

JOHN PARSONS for self and Negroes Peter, 

Jim, Hager, and Nanny 5 

JOHN RAMSEY for self and Negroes Stepany, 

Jack, London, Sam, Penny, Violet, Nell, Moll 

and Arbella 10 

WILLL\iM ROBINSON Sent' for self JAMES 

ROBINSON and Negroes Bistol, Parker, Amy, 

Tibb, Sail, Sampson 8 

JOSIAH SHIPP for self amd Negroes Tol, and 3 

Sampson 

MALBONE SHELTON for sel f Negroes Jack 3 

and Sail 

RICHARD SPARROW for self and Negro Sarah 2 

GEORGE SMYTH 1 

MARY ANNE SEOTH for Negroes Paul and 
Bridget 2 

FRANCIS THOROWGOOD for self and 

Negroes Cale, Owin, Pleasant, James, and Rose 6 

JAMES TAYLOR for self FAZACKLEY 
BROUGHTON and Negro Lucy 3 

TOTAL 179 

Headstone: In Memory ofEmaline Bonney 1845-1912 
Jones Memorial Park. 




25 




26 



CHAPTER 2 



RmiUNTIOMJUIYWaB 

MM M%M On a cold night of March 1770, Crispus Attucks 

Attucks a fugitive black slave and others became the first to die in 

the fight for liberty. His death caused many to consider the 

incongruity of slavery in a land that was pressing for liberty and 

property for ail. 

Instantly it was called the Boston Massacre; the incident served as a 

constant reminder of British tyranny. The colonists were tired of British rule 

and wanted their own government. The actions of Attucks and his followers 

became a major incident which led to the war of independence. 

Why did free blacks take up arms with the colonist when they were not 
acknowledged as citizens or equals? 
First, consider several factors : 

At that time, fi-ee blacks were included in the slave codes in the 
North and the South. 

Under British rule, ft-ee blacks were denied the right to vote. 
No legal or political rights for fi-ee blacks. 

In the North and South these words "free blacks" - meant FREE 

BUT NOT FREE. In some places in the North, a free black was treated 

like a slave. They were required to carry pass in order to travel. Many 

, of them were segregated both socially and privately. 

Free blacks decided to enlisted in the hoped these words of LIBERTif 

would also include their rights as FE^E MEN. Still others enlisted to 

receive the bounty of a plot of land or a sum of money given to enlistees. 

When the fighting began, there were many people in the North and 
South, who were against arming blacks to fight the British. Even after 




FACING PAGE: During the 

Revolutionary War some slaves 

sought freedom by answering 

Lord Duntnore's appeal 

for them to leave their masters. 

He outfitted some 300 

British Red Coats 

in his Ethiopian Regiment. 

Courtesy of Portsmouth 
Public Library 



27 




blacks had fought gallantly at Bunker Hill, concerns continued to grow. 

In July, 1775, George Washington took command of American troops to 
set up a more organized military organization. One of his first duties was to 
settle the question on the enlistment of blacks. On OcL 8, 1775, Washington 
and his generals discussed the issue of enlisting blacks. Several weeks later on 
Nov. 12,1775, General Washington issued an order instructing recruiters not 
to permit any black, slave or firee to enlist. This ordered angered firee blacks. 
They had fought in all wars before the Revolutionary War and were now 
fighting for the rights of all men. 

Why did Washington issue the order instructing recruiters not to 
enlist slaves or free blacks. 

1. By 1660, slavery was well established in the colonies. It had 
already become socially and economically important. Many families 
in the North and South built their fortunes on the slave trade. 

2. Some of Washington's officers insisted blacks did not make 
good soldiers. 

3. Many were afi-aid of slave revolts if guns were placed in the 
hands of blacks. 

4. They felt if the Continental Army used backs the the British 
would do the same. 

When Washington was approached by free blacks, he foimd it 
difficult to justify his actions on the use of free blacks. Much to his 
surprise, five days earlier the-ex-govemor of Virginia had taken a step 
that forced Washington to later reverse his decision. He received 
word that the slaves were flocking to the British. 
No Umger royal governor of Virginia, John Murray, (Earl of Dunnwre) 
on a ship in Norfolk, Virginia, became liberator to free blacks, indenture 
servants and slaves. 

On November 7, 1775 he issued the first PROCLAMATION freeing all 
slaves and indentured servants who would join his Majesty's Troops. Slaves 
heard the words FREEDOM ring out in Norfolk County and Princess Anne 
County. Many of the young slaves instantly fled from their masters and joined 
Dunmore. They were not concerned with the American or the British cause but only 
with winning their awn freedom from their masters. 

Washington was forced to reverse his order. He then permitted the 
enlistment of only free blacks, adding that if the Continental Congress did not 
agree, he would no longer enlist free blacks. 

Blacks were now enlisting on both sides .... slaves to to gain their freedom 
and free blacks to gain more rights and better treatment. 

Soon after the proclamatioa, Dunmore first made use of black privates when 
a skirmish took place at Kemp's Landing. 



28 



A ktter dated November 27,1776 Edmund Pendleton to Ridmrd Lee, American 
Archives, ^ Series, IV. 202, £ives an account of that skirmish in which Dunmore 
used blacks. 






I" EDMUND PENDLETON TO RICHARD HENRT LEE. 

IVirj inU, Norember 27, 1775. 
Dear Sm : For want of a Committee sitting, and as it 
B impossible to judge wlist will be the sentimenU of the 
Rsi Convention on the several poiuts, previous to an applica- 
tion 10 tbe Congress for assistance to this Colony, I can say 
nothing on the subject of your ioint letter of the 14th, but 
I that I will lay that and former letters before the Conven- 

ItipQ, at their meeting on Friday next. In the mean time 
~-% I wQl. mention what has happened below, according to the 
loose accounts I have had, which, perhaps, may be mote 
. lullj related in the papers which will accompany ihb. 
]'' Eight companies, with some baggage, had passed the 
• river at Jamestown, and were waiting at Cobham for the 
I remainder with Colonel Woodford, who were obliged by 
[ the navy to go up the river to pass, and did not get over 
|- till Sinrfjy sen'night. In the mean time. Colonel Joseph 
Hatchings, and some others in Princess Anne, raised about 

i. one hundred and seventy men, and were marching to meet 
and join Woodford's corps. The Govemour, hearing of 
3 this, inarched out with three hundred and fifty soldiers, 
gj" tories and slaves, to Kemp's Landing, and after setting up 
r his standard, and issuing his proclamation, declaring all per- 
, sons Rebels who took up arms for the country, and inviting 
! all slaves, servants, and apprentices, to come to him and re- 

iceive arms, he proceeded to intercept Hufchings and his 
party, upon whom he came by surprise, but received, it 
'• seems, so warm a fire, that the ragamuflSos gave way; they 
were however rallied, on discovering that two companies of 
:'•*■ our militia gave way, and left Hutchings and Dr. Reid with 
a volunteer company, who maintained their ground bravely, 
' till they were overcome by numbers, and took shelter in a 
'swamp. The slaves were sent in pursuit of them ; and 
■ one of Colonel Hutchings' s own, with another, found him. 
,_,• On their approach, he discharged his pistol at his slave, but 

(missed him, and was taken by them after receiving a wound 
in his face with a sword. The numbers taken or killed, on 
3 either side, is not ascertained. It is said the Govemour 
tf went to Dr. Rdd's shop, and after taking the medicines 
r and dressings necessary for his wounded men, broke all the 
I others to pieces. Letters mention that slaves flock to him 
! in abundance, but 1 hope it is magnified. Young Good- 
rich, who brought in the powder, is sent to Boston. They 
have also taken the old man near the Capes, in his passage 
to the West-Indies, and, 'tis said, used him very ill ; but I 
bad not particulars. We are told Matt Shripp was in 
Hutchings's party, and fouglit bravely, so that 1 hope he 
is not really fallen off. Present ray compliments to your 
worthy colleagues, and to Dr. Shippen. 
1 am, dear sir, your most humble servant, 

Edmund Pendleton. 
To Richard Henry Lee. 



1 



«^2 



■ 



=t 



-^. 



29 



Mrs. Calvert Maxwell Read gives this account after the skirmish at 
Kemp's Landing: MEMOIRS of Helen Calvert Maxwell Read by 
Norfblk Historical Society of Chesapeake p£. 54-55 

After this. Lord Dunmore entered the town in trivunph at the head of his 
soldiers and proceed at once to to establish his headquarters at Mrs. 
Logans. (Home of George Lagan) Here he erected his Majesty's standard, and 
those who could not conveniendy run away at once and took the oath of 
allegiance. Some of the poor Pungo people, too had particularly 
distinguished themselves in the fight of the militia, becoming alarmed lest 
they should be pursued and overtaken, turned in their flight and came to 
town to summit themselves to the conqueror. All who thus declared 
themselves on the King's side wore a badge of red doth on their breasts, and 
the price of the article rose in the stores. Some wore a flannel patch as large 
as your hand, but others were content with a smaller piece. Never, I 
suppose, since wars began, was a victory more complete or won with so 
little loss of blood. 

Seeing the town thus taken and alarmed again for our safety, my sister 
Marsden and myself went over to Carles Sayer's who lived a little out of 
Kempsville, to stay with his family, as he had kindly invited us to do. We 
had hardly got there, however, when an ugly looking negro man, dressed up 
in a ftill suit of British regimentals, and armed with a gun, came in upon us 
and asked with a sausy tone, " Have you got any dirty shirts here?" (this was 
the name by which our soldiers were known.) " I want your dirty shirts." 
" No!" said I, 'Sve have no dirty shirts here." 
'^ut you have, " said he and I will find them." 
Soon after the skirmish several letters appeared in the Virginia . 
Gazette advising the colonist to warn their slaves against joining 
Dunmore. One letter even stated that Dunmore only proposed to free 
those who bear arms, leaving the aged and infirm, the women and 
children, to bear the brunt of the shorn master's anger and that the 
British would sell runaways to the sugar islands. 

"Be fwt,ye negroes, tempted by this proclamation to ntin your selves ." 
( Virginia Gazette, Nov. 17, 1775 and Nov. 24,1775.) 

Benjamin Quarks in his book. The Negro in the American 
Revolution states: By the first of December the British had nearly three 

hundred slaves outfitted in military garde, with the inscription. Liberty 

to Slaves," emblazoned across the breast of each. The ex-govemor 

officially designated them Tord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment." 

It is assumed that many of the blacks that were at that skirmish of 
Kemps Landing went on to fight in a major battie at Great Bridge. 



30 



5y his Excellency the Right Honourable JOHN Earl of DUNMORE, his 
Majesty's Lieutenant and Govemour-General of the Colony and Dominion 
■ of Virg^a, and Vice- Admiral of the Same: 

A PROCLAMATION. 

AS I have ever entertained Hopes that an Accommodation might have 
taken Place between Great Britain and this Colony, without being 
compelled, by my Duty, to this most disagreeable, but now absolutely 
necessary Step, rendered so by a Body of armed Men, unlawfully assembled, 
firing on his Majesty's Tenders, and the Formation of an Army, and that 
Army now on their March to attack his Majesty's Troops, and destroy the 
wellndisposed Subjects of this Colony: To defeat such treasonable Pur- 
poses, and that all such Traitors, and their Abetters, may be brought to 
Jfustice, and that the Peace and good Order of this Colony may be again 
restored, which the ordinary Course of the dvil Law is unable to -efiFect, I 
have thought fit to issue this my Proclamation, hereby declaring, that imtil 
the aforesaid good purposes can be obtained, I do, in Virtue of the Power 
and Authority to me given, by his Majesty, determine to execute martial 
Law, and cause the same to be executed throughout this Colony; and to the 
End that Peace and good Order may the sooner be restored, I do require 
every Person capable of bearing Arms to resort to his Majesty's STAN- 
DARD, or be looked upon as Traitors to his Majesty's Crown and Govern- 
ment, and thereby become liable to the Penalty the Law inflicts upon such 
Offences, such as Forfeiture of Life, Confiscation of Lands, (S-c. &c. And 
I do hereby farther declare ail indented Servants, Negroes, or others 
(appertaining to Rebels) free, that are able and willing to bear Arms, 
they joining his Majesty's Troops, as soon as may be, for the more speedily 
reducing this Colony to a proper Sense of their Duty, to his Majesty's 
Crown and Dignity. I do farther order, and require, all his Majesty's 
liege Subjects to retain their Quitrents, or any other Taxes due, or that 
may become due, in their own Custody, till such Time as Peace may be 
again restored to this at present most unhappy Coimtry, or demanded of 
them for their former salutary Purposes, by Officers properly authorized 
to receive the same. ^ 

GIVEN under my Hand, on Board the Ship William, off Norfolk, the 
7th Day of November, in the 16th Year of his Majesty's Reign. 

DUNMORE. 



\:>- 



Copy of LORD DUNMORE'S PROCLAMATION 



31 



lORanUMMOREAMDHISMEGROFOUOWERS 



The following are copies of some Morning Returns of Lord Dunmore 's black banditti, 
distinguished by their owners surnames, and found by our troops when they took possession of 
Gwyn 's island 

Women embarked at Mill Point, May 21, 1776 on board the Dunluce 



Mary Williams 
Patience Butt, a child 
Hannah Williams 
Jenny Cook 
Abby Willoughby 
Lucy Robinson 
CJrace Thompson 
Abby Robinson 
Jenny Hurt 
Grecian Hopkins 



Sent to hosp- 
pital brig 

same day Sarah Veal 
Mary Bradley Brown 
Rose Moseley 
Manda Willoughby 
Pnelope Hopkins 
Kate Willoughby 
Mary Willoughby 
Jenny Willoughby 



Opened a cask of flour ( WK) 
Phillis Thorowgood, Sen Alice Everidge 



Fanny Moseley - Officers Rachel Love 
Nelly McCIennan - Servants China Ivy 



Phillis Thorowgood, Jun 
Pleasant Robinson 
Hannah GriflEin 
Dinah Willoughby 
Hannah Parker 
Elizabeth Williams 
Let Willoughby 
Judith Willoughby 
Susan Nimmo 
Belinda Edwards 
Dilly Love, alias Freeman 



Esther Willoughby 
Jenny Boush 
Abby Nimmo 
Esther Herbert 
Susanna Savage 
Dinah Morris 
Hannah Helter 
Mary Tyler 
Kate Thorowgood 
Esther Willoughby 
Judith Boush 



Major Byrd's Comp.\ny on Board The Dl\\more, iVLay 22, 1776 



Max. Villeroy 
Francis Thorowgood 
George Thorowgood 
Lawrence .Ambler 
Owen Woodhouse 
Phillip Jones 
Areulls Willoughby 
Peter Thorowgood 
Glasgow Willoughby 



William Anderson 
Moody Nimmo 
Sampson Ellegood 
Bristol Mitchell 
Jasper Jones 

Michael XXXXXXXXX 
Samuel Gordon 
Owen Lovatt 
Max. Boush 



Moses Holsture 
Davie Nimmo 
Charles Griffin 
Samuel Gimer 
James Savage 
Armaki Whitler 
Robert Willoughby 
Peter Godwin 
Peter Willoughby 



John Talbot 
Sepper Tinnible 
Argyle Sawyer 
James Daniel 
Scipio Thorowgood 
Thomas White 
Jonas Ivy 
James Reed 
James Savage 



Present At The Camp On Gywn's IslaiND, May 29, 1776 
My Lord's Comp.\ny 



Benj Campbell 
Navin Parker 
Max. Woodhouse 
Robert Ellegood 
Jesse Damerom 
Abel Keeling 
Mingo Peeding 
Jesse Keeling 
Gabriel Mingo 
Charles Frazer 
William Byrd 
Philip Harrison 
Roger Comicks 



Frank Newton 
Benjamin King 
Thomas Rand 
Robert Flemming 
James Savage 
John Everidge 
Gabriel Armstead 
Samuel Goodwin 
Lewis Wells 
Robert Tucker 
Michael Wallace 
Benjamin Longwith 
Africa Comick 



Jacob Hawes 
John Steves 
Thomas Essex 
George Bivan 
Francis Jackson 
Norfolk Macki 
Robert Wallace 
Neal Robinson 
Daniel Hogwood 
Joseph Tucker 
George Tucker 
Toby Lawrence 
Caesar Stuart 



Serjeants 
Curry - on bord 
Crouch 
Corpral Brittain 



30 th entered 



Lewis Paden 
CuriTs Son - 



Chart Continues 



32 



My Lord's Company 30th of May Entered at Gywn's Island 



Robert Scott 




Joshua Lawson 


OUver Curi Joseph Qayfon 


Soioinon Robinson 










May 3 1 . Rk 1 l-rned From Hospitai, Brig Adonis 


John Crocus 




Sampson Portsmouth 


xVtayor Byrd's 


Owen Jones 




Samuel Fry 


do 


Henry Drew 






do 


Quash Ashley 




George Woodhouse 


CaptMackay 


Tony Parker 




ftom the fleet 




and 4 more 




flour rum beef 
5 5 5 




N.a 


June 1. Capt Mackay's Company - - 
On board the Hospital brig Adonis - - 


- - 34 ) names not 

- - 64) mentioned 



Taken from the Virginia Gazette, August 31, 1776 



This article appeared in the Virginia 
Gazette December 14,1775. 



W I LL T>:4tl S B'U R,G/-23,„w,«-/^ 

_ Since Toi^ DurimoreV pfacIam atron ipadejts appear^ 
" vance'htfej .iflrniTtTKcTias recinrt'eti Wis. army, in the 
'counties of Princefs Anne' anil Norfolk, to the amount 

of about aoooliien-, includinpi-fais^jlackreeiment, which 
'is thought to be a confidcrabl^'part, "witu this in'fcrip- 

rion on tIieir'brea(Tts:---|'^iberty .to'Tlives." — How- 
. cver/as the rivers 'wiir henceforth be ftriflly watched, 
_. aad every. pofllble. precaution take'h Tit is hoped othci^' 

will be cife<Stu3ily {^cvoiited from joining thofe his lord- 

Ihip has already collciSet^. ^ - . 
. —flic- arniy-that'-wint-down-Taft-weekj-undet^-jgii, 

inaiin'UrTDC WOUtHvifa, to ooitruct DrTninorcs ptMCTcli 
.of inHiting nlcn in the lower" counties, 'frlh in" wth a 

party of twelve or thirteen of Dunmore'sfnViid^. and. 
.roade.thejn all pri/oner.. .liieut. col. Scott, with tire 

ailvanced guard, upon his arrival at the Guar Bnilgc, 

found the enemy intrenched there^ and it is fjiJ r. iiitirt 

firing began by fomc of the riflemen, which wai ir- 

•rurpcd," and .continued a confiderable time on bbfli 

"JIdci, butio, what effeft. we know not. It isalTofaid, 

'^hat^rimrfday Iitf'Wai fixed ^ifpon l>y our troopi to be- 

. .gin. a general tttack-p they \^ere healthy, in good fpi- 

riti, and ha'd"grcatjjrorpe«x)f.fliccefi.. - - - ; ■ 
'. . borne accounts nrara Norfolk :ire, that Dimmore'i 

?arty has deboliQied (Jfvenir'houfes bkck of the town, 
nd fortified ^themfelv'ei j alfOjthat col. Ilutchings, and 
.fome other gentlcnien, their prifbneri, had been re- 
. moved to thp-iOii^s bn'account of the gaol having betk 
feton fire. ' ' 



33 




Hannah Nimmo was a slave on the Nimmo Plantation. 

Hannah was bom in 1831. 

She served as nurse maid to the Nimmo childreft. 

At a early age, she became a member of Nimmo M..E. 

Church South, (white) When her master attended church Hannah 

sat in the slave balcotry of Nimmo M.E. Church South. 



34 



CHAPTER 3 



Princess Anne County 
Takes A Stand On 



VmMMmJkMM M In 1784 the Methodist enacted a resolution 

that slavery was 'conaary to the laws of Cod" and gave dieir members 
twelve months to liberate their slaves. Many of our local inhabitants 
joined with other Southern states and forced a suspension of the 
resolution. Around 1789 the Baptist declared somewhat the same 
position on slavery but were forced to recede from this position also. 
A number of the local churches accepted blacks, but the white mas- 
ters were afraid that too liberal a policy would be dangerous to the 
effective control of slavery. They were in favor of educating their 
slaves on Christian principles, but viewed slavery as an economic 
necessity. Some of the plantations were large and many felt it 
wovdd be impossible to run the plantations without slaves. Much of 
their wealth was based on the work of the slaves. 

Joel King, slaveholder, 
William Dawley, minister of 
Charity ChapeL, and others 
like them that advocated 
freedom for slaves, showed 
their views on slavery by 
emancipating their slaves. 
Some members of Charity 
Chapel and other chtorches 
in the Princess Anne Circuit 
did not follow them as de- 
scribed by church law. 

In the year 1844 the 
Methodist created two 
branches. Northern and Southern. The Methodist Episcopal, North- 
em forbid the holding of slaves. 





Tombstone of Adeline Figgs 

Bom: 1830- Jones Memorial 

Park, Witchduck Road. 



35 



Thus, on June 22, 1844, a notable meeting convened in the Princess Anne 
Circuit of the Virginia conference. One of the resolutions that was adopted 
states: 

" slavery is opposed to no law of Methodist Disciple, nor to the law of 

God neither is it a " moral evil " but it is an institution fastened upon us by " 
northern traders in blood" which has been abolished in the north - as far as it 
concerns negroes - by interest, under the garb of philanthropy." 

From W.W. Sweet's Vir^rda Methodist - History 

Upon leaving the conference all Methodist churches within the Princess Anne 
Circuit were then know as Methodist Episcopal South. A few examples: Charity 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, Ninimo Methodist Church South. The 
Baptist churches in Princess Anne County experience the same kind of split 
within its church organization. Thus both Methodist and Baptist churches were 
in favor of slavery in Princess Anne County. 



William Dawley to his slaves Jiida and Jacob 



'' .'\Jvt-aiAi*-t.\J 



■^ lurtiv ci4l\rvn'ci/vi/ uOxjn^ »//tcr*u. nlcAiK) cf (^^^, ^° ^^ • °^^ Y^^ 

1 OTV twVi^rrffc ^«/h/ t/^'ec6»>x^cY'Vneact7, jor /ic'nt. to CiJ'We.c . ttt rfcJ 
4 dcioch .hxjii'xVu' ai\c 'Alcixr-J . ^x.4ilcW u/i^ C^^ iw tlK. "^^"^7 .'One* 

^ t J ' r , ^r f i' i'r ' r ' " ' 

j the cine :JicTfcrrraa.Tice^ or '>x*hi'c/t'. »/. Kcvi;c licA'cttTitb .ick ytui 



13 
3 



d.. 



.^, 






iUCu^nv ^aivdiyg) 



Princess Anne County Court Records Deed Book 24 page 124 



36 



The Methodist and Baptist churches continued to educate the slaves on 
Christine principles and that slavery was correct. " Obey your masters and be 
^ood little servants and Cod will bless you even more in Heaven." More and 
more slaves were allow to attend church with their masters and some 
became members. 

Slaves sat in pews in the rear of the church or in balcony seats. In some 
cases, they were chained to the floor to keep them from escaping while 
church was in progress. 

The balcony at Nimmo Church still stands today. Tou can still see the holes 
in the floor of the balcony. Whites pulled the chains tlmnigh these holes and 
chained their slaves together. 



Nimmo M.E. Church 

South built 1791. 

Courtesy of Norfolk 

Public Library. 




REGISTER OF COLOREP MEMBERS AT NIMMO CHURCH 

Year Ending 11 - 11 - 1846 



George Woodhouse 
Rachel Butt 
Peter Fentress 
Daniel Brock 
Jacob Whitehurst 
Abba Munden 
Horatio Lewis 
Betsy Pitts 
Betsy Thompson 



Nancy Murden 
Mima Lewis 
James Land 
William Gaunto 
Tom Henly 
Toby Brock 
Bridget McClannan 
Jesse Whitehurst 
Abraham Henley 



Judah Woodhouse 
Mary James 
Robert Munden 
America Petty 
Tom James 
Palace Brown 
Ishmael Robinson 
Amey Lovett 



Eunice Turner 
Fanny James 
Katy Eaton 
Charity Comick 
Jaca Owens 
Jacob Lewis 
Nelly Fentress 
Tatt Owens 



Aliph Ward 
China Painter 
Robert James 
Rosa Forest 
John James 
Lucy Fentreee 
Nancy Gaunto 
Owen Cason 



37 



^ij. 




F ^«/ ^4^ ;^%^ 2^5^, •^•■'•'''^ 



T^e^fr 



.'£. 



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I 



Certified to be a TRUE C 
of record in my custoay. 
J. Curtis Fruit, Clerk 



'^'^■^^b^ 



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.^--c 




—.J 



Blacks had to carry a traveling pass in 
order to work for someone else. 

permit the Barrar John to pass 
and repass upon his good 
behavior til the first day of May 
1802 this from me as I have sent 
him to John Richard Edward 
to worl< for him. 



Between 1790 and 1850 most of the blacks brought into Virginia were 
used as slave laborers. Slaves could not own property in lands, houses, or 
livestock but many were not without money. Many masters gave rewards 
for work done beyond the call of duty. Others were given plots around their 
cabin and were encouraged to have gardens and chickens. Slaves were 
frequently hired out by their masters, or they were permitted to hire 
themselves out with an agreement with their master for part of their wages. 
The majority of plantations in Princess Anne County had fewer than 10 
slaves. On the smallest plantations with two or more slaves the master and 
his family worked in the fields with their slaves. 

Laws prohibited slaves fi-om holding meetings, leaving the plantation 
without written passes, possessing firearms, learning to read and write, or 
being manumitted except for meritorious service. All blacks, bond and fi-ee, 
as well as Indians, were held incapable of witnessing in court against a white 
persons. 



38 




-"■-- ' -^ Slave patrollers 

i^T^ checking pass. 

■ ~~ ■ Frank Leslie Illustrated 



^^ 













/ ^' 




ANTHONT GATLIN u-as bom a slave in North Carolina about 1845. 

He came to Princess Anne County in 1863, and lived on one of the farms 

supervised by the Freedmen's Bureau. After the Citil War he worked on the 

Thomas Brefftet's firm, as a sharecropper tiith his second ivife. Rose Epps Gatlin. 



THE VIRGINIA GAZETTE 



Princess Anxe, June 16th 1774. 

RUN AWAY from the SUBSCRIBER two Negro 
Men and a Negro Woman, namely: Peter, a flim fellow 
about twenty five years old, a dark Mulatto, a little pock 
marked, with afullen look and bufhy head, bom in 
Jamaica. Will, a flount fellow, an AFRICAN; about 25 
Years df Age: Scar'd on the Cheeks after his Country 
Faihich, his Right Fore- Finger and Left Thumb; Nail's 
off. Part of one of his Toes off, fpeaks very little 
Enghth, Candace, a dark Mulatto Wench, about 20 
Years Old a VIRGINIAN, much marked with a whip very 
Artfully. Whoever will apprehend them or either of 
them, fo that I Get them again, fhall have the Following 
Rewards. For PETER, Ten Dollars, For WILL. Four 
Dollars, and For CaNDACE, Two Dollars, and all 
reafonable charges. 

WILLIAMHANCOCK. 





CSH^ 



i\ U .\ 



Mc 



u :ind a N-. 



I Pr.r.Ncrss AyKZ, }urz jCt'a 5774- 

AWAY frcrrc-th^j Susscfci utt two Negro 



Wor: 



-amc 



i#. p„.. 



a Him Tc!- 



lo^-'V-bcut rivcrity iTvc yaiH^'old, 3 cxrk Mniatto, a; 

li::!cpock;na7ki:d,\riib afiill^IookjmdhuffirJvead, bom] 
jics. Yvill, X Cloa: fciIo->^, as Articixj aboxm 
— df rigc : Sc?.rcl prL-:h= Checks sftcr hi'; Coua-j 
'^"'^ his Righ.: rofe^Fro^ik- and L&ft-TBuiha 



is Jimaic 



V 



ru 



— ..iti.. 



Nr.Ti? p^, -PrC-r of c^e cr h& Toes d£, fpcakslrery L'ttld: 
Englidi^ &i^d;'.ce, a dar5:j2»*ois.tto Wociij aBoa't. ao'' 
Ycnrs'Old&t: ViF.ci.viif:, rcuch. njarjred-wnlii wlijoj 
yerr ^Art^dly. . ■ Wiiocrcr|-'wiIi .^sprdieiicE ilicin 
dthcroTtl^pi, fo :iiarT Gettian sgain,' fljall J^gye-. 
5cIloWingP'v.t'«-:iET>s.' For PETEt,' -TdttDbil3rrj'^d_ 

■ iars; land all rcifoaabie chsrsrek"^"' * -- .- -. i|.",. .■i';''>x"'-£» 
: {..•■- Vi-lJ^VlAU'rEkn'S^bcW 



ABOVE: Eunaivay slave ad appeared in the Virginia Gazette 

RIGHT: Augustus & Cherry Comick were slaves in 
Princess Anne County. 





' >«• 




40 



CHAPTER 4 




EARIY 
FB EC BUCKS 



The status of the 



already existing blacks {servants, or simply negroes) in the 
colony changed. They were labeled as FREE NEGROES 
and new arrivals were considered SLAVES. As free blacks 
increased and decreased by various methods of obtained 
freedom, free blacks did not have the same liberties as their 
white counterparts. Some were bom free, some purchased 
their freedom, others were granted manumissions by their 
masters. Many laws were enacted to keep the free black 
population from increasing. By 1662, the colony 
determined the status of the child by the condition of the 
mother; 

From a torn scap of paper: " Aantony Filler was homed the 
13 day of November 1 794 Moes Fuller was bond Slthe of march 
1796 Cesar fullar was homed The 23 ofnovemher 1799 Fanny 
fuller His Sons and daughters, Polly Fullar was Bom October 2, 
1787." [Many of the Fullers were free persons of color, andtheir 
freedom dated hack to about 1 700 and perhaps beyond. There 
are quite a number of instancs found in the Minute Books of 
Princess Anne in which the Fullers, Andersons, and other free 



Rev. Charles E, Hodges with his 

daughters Sarah and Cordelia Hodges. 

They were bom free in Princess Anne 

County. Rev. Charles Hodges was bom 

in 1819. He devoted much of his life to 

the ministry and the general leadership of 

the people. He represented Norfolk 

County and Portsmouth in 

the House of Delegates 1869-1871. 




Harper's Weekly 



41 



persons of color came into court and registered their children as having been 
bom free. According to the law of the time, if the mother was free, her children 
were free. From the Virginia State Library - FREE NEGROES Princess Anne 
County. 

There were only 64 free blacks in Princess Anne County at the time of the first census 
in 1790. By 1793 every free black was required to register in the covinty court or city in 
which they lived. For only twenty -five cents each was given a copy of the register(a 
certificate of freedom). They were required to carry the certificate with them at all times. 
If they lost their certificate of freedom they were subjeCT to arrest or placed into slavery. 
Sometimes a free black could stay in jail, as long as a year before freedom was proven. Hear 
say and reputation were received as evidence as to the status of the person in question. 

The 1810 census showed a sharp increase of 267 free Blacks and by 1830 another 
increase among free blacks. Life seem to be less stringent between free blacks and whites 
in the covinty than any other time in the county's history. During this time slave masters 
continued to free their slaves through deeds of manumission and through wills. 

A few examples: 

WILL OF THOMAS WOODHOUSE (Will Book II page 62) States: Negro Max 
I give him his freedom and five hutuired dollars. Dated April 8,1812. 

WILL OF EMANUEL FENTREFS 
(Will Bock II page 399) States: I leave my 
four slaves to be free forever viz; Man David, boy 
Daniel, woman Letty, girl Cloe for them and 
their heirs to be free for ever. Item I give and 
bequeath to three of the said slaves vix. Letty, 
Cloe and Daniel all my property both real and 
i personal to them and there heirs forever. Dated 





June 1, 1812. 




FREE BLj^CK POPULMI 


1810 


267 Free Blacks 


1820 


251 Free Blacks 


1830 


343 Free Blacks 


1840 


232 Free Blacks 


1850 


259 Free Blacks 


1860 


192 Free Blacks 



LEFT: William E. Hodges son of Charles E. 
and Sally Hodges. (Free blacks in Princess 
Anne County) William enlisted in the Navy 
during the Civil War. 



42 



LAST Will AND TESTAMEMT OF DEMPSMMnEBSON 

FREE PERSON OF COLOR 

(DATED 1803) WILL BOOK 2 pg.319 Princess Anne County Court Records 

In the Name of God Amen I Demps Anderson of the County of Princefs Anne County being sick and knowing I am 
of sound mind and memory thanks be to God do make this paper writing my last will and testament in manner 
and form following to wit. Imprimis Imprimis I give unto my daughter Elizabeth Carter a pair of smoothing irons 
to her and her heirs forever, it is my will and desire that the rest of my estate of every kindly except what I have 
givin away shall be sold and the money arritnng from the sale be applied to the payments of my just debts the 
reminder to be equally diinded between amongest my son Joshua Anderson and my daughter Elizabeth Carter and 
my wife Rose a slave belonging to Jacomine N. Thorroivgqod orphan of William Thorowgood, dec, share and 
share alike it is part of my will and desire that if my son Joshua Anderson should return in two years after my 
death he being gone to several years that I then give his part of the estate to my dtuighter Elizabeth Carter and my 
wife Rose share and share a like to them and their heirs forever. Lastly I appoint tAathias Griffin excutor of this 
my last will and testament. 



In Wilnefs I bound toset rrty hand and seal this twenty second day of September 1803. 
Signed and sealed and published In the presence of Thomas Griffin, Mathias Griffin, Arudener Griffin, M. Parker 
SALLY FULLER A FREE PERSON OF COLOR GIVES NEICE PEMMY FULLER HER FREEDOM. 



•isl;. 



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antxL dLtXej af^t/wJum-M, tin ojvui/ ln\J Co-rxaxjJLenaXiumnJ of'Vkr^m.aJUinjaJL £trtej aun2> 



I.- U-1 



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3 iruvue^ arrd aexJinJ Xo /Tr«-</ fymuejott ij'vnrunnu u'ttlxxju jUnCj dLcm-anXjeA^ oj efhtm\aj iru£tav tAJtai out 
UxULi CLa ftrr X\enf brUsn^ cuAua/r>-CaTV\»*tX u*>/ IMt^ iuoyCoO, StOAJt^ OmjxmjCAAx^aijcA., amJb isA 'vrf^ rt/yid *». 

iiift> txtrrtuo C/e/>TW«uj iflxxttm AruiAn/y\xi) Xt^ttru OA/vt/n/ Ha /vr^ei Jati. 'Vru* A^trrtrCytjuvi dtxjimnxto afuxxjm^ iiti ■ 
iLuAj cLcxZtAj JUke^ Qj'i .^ JLclu tjf.cuulju 4^'bl auruL c^^> nucaidexL imjUrT- Q/rvyxsJ CaurrUo Crun/f.. 
3o /TUXaKj ObwxiS Jjj JHaCJL lo /fie- iou2 UermyrrvLi ZTutCtn/ -rUny (freiAryrv, anrvo6 jCo /ruVVCi aniianutu 

twnen.ejc-f J 'Yicuvc^ ^-ntocAArvvCa ^r n'nu/ XxxxjvyjcL cxnruJLi la^xJU Lnjut /S - <^'"<iJ^i <Hr "Yiav- 4iH~. 

iW. ^iL. /WaxfcLVuTuj3SL> 

arm itricj ,&&n.tto (5/ /ceo o^ CfrrvrvLcZi „^TyvyrLej AkntyyOL^i AiLtrvuvr tJfijL. A^ ■■ dUtif o{«upKmtf 

3/rW3 arnd/LrrLtuTLej erf 



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43 



NEDKEEim 




Harper's Weekly 



was bom a slave in Princess Anne County 
about 1770 and became a free man in 1815. He belonged to a man of 
such heavy indebtedness that upon the occasion of the master's death, 
Keeling stood in grave danger of being sold South at public auction to 
slave traders in satisfaction of the claims of creditors. Such was one of the 
many vices of slavery wherein innocent Negroes stood as lawfiil property 
in the satisfaction of the debts of a defunct slave owner. In this instance 
the family of the owner (Keeling) was left in such straits that Ned, the 
Negro, actually supported his bereaved mistress and her children for a 
time. ^ 

Reeling's integrity was of such a high order that a white woman by 
the name of Catherine Collette bought him from his owner's family, not 
that she needed his services, but in order to save him from the slave 
traders, who at all times infested Norfolk. This benevolent act was 
performed in 1813, but in two year's time he paid back this sum and thus 
became a candidate for emancipation. He was awarded it by the woman 
who rescued him, and then the man began at once to secure the means 
to buy the members of his family and extend them freedom. Within five 
years this double feat was accomplished. In 1820 we find Keeling saying 
becavise of the '^ove and affection which I Have and bear for my wife, a 
Negro woman, named Amy, and our two children,named Peggy and 
William, whom I purchased from John Shepard of the County of 
Princess Anne (I hereby set them free. )''^ 

In the midst of these activities Keeling in 1818 became a drayman in 
Norfolk and pursued this business imtil his death in 1846. Because 
Norfolk was a seaport town the occupation of drayman drew many other 
Negroes besides Keeling, both slave and free. These men served the 
merchants and other citizens of the town in the transfer of goods to and 
from the river. Between 1830 and 1835 Norfolk and Virginia at large 
was heavily engages in selling surplus slaves for the southern market. 
This continual drain left Norfolk without a sufficient number of drayman 
from the slave class so that the remaining emancipated Negroes who 
occupied and monopolized this business did well. 

By 1830, Ned Keeling held property valued at $1000.00 in Norfolk. 

1 Mss. Petitions (Archives, VA State Library, Norfolk County, 
Dec.5,1834) 

2 Deed Book (Clerk's Office), XV, 410. By Luther Porter Jackson, 
Negro Enterprise In Norfolk During The Days Of Slavery (The 
Quarterly Journal) found in Virginia State University Archives in 
Petersburg. 



44 









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I, JOmV J. nCUROUOnS, ^iUtiy^i^ ^,in^ '^U ij ^^umcm ^nn»'^:^J^ 

r<^iO- -u<!^* Y'f^' : -f^^ 'tee.A^"^ ^^d;a:c^ -nA^i^^ iC'-^' 
feii, ^-M ^rtf.^y ^^-t-^i^ y^tAc^ ^*c^ /fZcy i*»«»C3S7^ . : — — •' 

Certified !0 be a TRUE COPY 

of record in my custooy. 

J. Curtis Fruit, Clerk . ->•<» "««»«» •■'•" —"• 7 -'— — — >" — " ■ •^ ^''■'■it 






'■.,■. 1 



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„{_J^\Ouvv^^'-^yfia — 




CERTIFICATES OF FREEDOM - Virginia State Library Free Blacks Princess Anne County Court Records 



Vi;. 



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¥^itj|itf {a* Princes* J.nnc County, Sc. 

f ■ I, JOICT J. BVIUtODCnS, ^?c;« ji'/y^S If^nly '^ut cj ^uncett ^nnt 

ajitaau/. JtO HEREBY CERTIFr, e/f<a ^e<na^ (Sccre^fi^f c< fa^-^ Cjmjt^'^^ 
TTzo/n^, w^iKi a^ ^-^a^^^/ l/^o^^^ .r7i,~tl(jD ^^^Cjv c^^*-'^^^^ •^^'/ifta^^ '' ' ^<^<-fii2i ^^^ 

wa* b^tat'*f*t*^ £«e -nxy t/A^ acecutuM io Uiv, «n iM 'y^< <(^ tj .^£-^CcZii,0^^n £^ 

yeat r/a n iun nutK^ud and inc'tly ^1f^t^t*-6^ • 

J'n^UTU.^^nnt'^nty'&Mt.C^, '7'-— day c^ 'i/l^^Ttcd'^ -fSSJ^ 

/e/ iffiucui/lo aCovt ca a ttua vekyj iCt^ Caen lluCit made Oii tM OuzH. 

XnStatlmonstuljtrtof, J'ifav ^cu„ue<,^i ,«« AmT 



m 






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Certified to be a TRUE COPY 
C.I rrcord in xy custooy. 
J. Curtis Foiit, Clerk 
C'icy.t Court, Vvqiniq 



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ury Clerk 






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45 




Black Civil War and Black Spanish American War Veterans Monument 



NORFOLK MONUMENT 

Dedicated in 1920 by the Norfolk Memorial Association. 

The monument features an almost life-sized black union soldier, that remains us of a 
tale too easily forgotten, slavery, segregation and efforts to win freedom. It stands 
proudly as memorial to black fallen heroes of our country's wars. 

Location: Westpoint Section ofElmwood Cemetery 

Princess Anne Road and Monticello Avenue in Norfolk, Virginia. 



46 



107th Infantry, user, cl863 
Courtesy of Casemate Museum 
Fort Monroe,Virginia 




CHAPTER 5 



Trom the East to West, 

from North to South, 

the sky is written 

all over, 

NOW OR NEVER." 

Liberty won by white 

men would lose 

half its luster. 

Who would be free, 

themselves must 

strike the blow. 

Better even die free, 

than to live slaves. 



Men of Color, to Arms! 

iffcq 

M%M%MM0 This is the sentiment of every 

brave colored man amongst us Remember 

Denmark Vesey of Charleston; remember 
Nathaniel Turner of South Hampton; remember 
Shields Green and Copeiand, who followed noble 
John Brown and fell as glorious martyrs for the 
cause of the slave. Remember that in a contest with 
oppression, the Almighty has no attribute which can 
take sides with oppressors." 

Frederick Douglass, 
Rochester, New York March 21, 1863 
This chapter is dedicated to all the those unrecognized soldiers who 
gave their lives and those that fought and lived to continue their lives, 
after the Civil War. 

At the onset of the war, blacks served in the Union and die Confederate 
armies as laborers and servants. Princess Anne County adhered to the 
Confederate cause, and ultimately formed several confederate regiments. 
Some slave masters sent slaves from the County to fight for the Confederacy 
in their place or carried them with them as man servants. These slaves 
washed clothes, kept the quarters clean, cut hair, clean guns, and did many 




Harper's Weekly, 1864 



47 



MUSTER ROLL of Captain 1st Lient Eugene Smith's, 
COMPANY H 10th U.S.C. TROOPS Oct 31, 1863 to Dec. 31, 1863 
Enlisted men from Princess Anne County, Virginia (National Archives) 

CAREY BROWN CLWEN BROWN CHARLES CUFFEY 
GEORGE CUFFEY EDWARD SPARROW 




THOS. CASEY 

CO. E 

36 U.S.C.T. 

Mt. Zion AM.E, Churchyard 



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CLD, INF. 



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7. 




TOBY CORNICK 

CO. F 

36 U.S. CLD. INF. 

Little Piney Grove Churchyard 



Other tasL 

Following the issuance of the 
Emancipation Proclamation on January 
1, 1863, blacks were finally permitted to 
enlist in the Union army. They did so 
with eagerness and ethusiasm. 
Recruiting stations were established in 
Princess Anne GDunty, Portsmouth, Camp Hamilton in Phoebus, Fort 
Monroe and Craney Island in Norfolk. Still others traveled to recruiting 
stations in other States. The Union army organized black troops into 
several regiments of cavalry, infantry, light and heavy artillery. They were 
segregated into units called U.S. Colored Troops (USCTs) to distinguish 
them firom white units, but they were commanded by white officers. 
William Paquette in the book Readirigs In Black & White states: "The 
first cavalry unit to be formed locally was the First Regiment Colored 
Cavalry at Camp Hamilton, Virginia (Phoebus) on December 22, 1863. 
The Second U.S. Colored Cavalry was also organized on December 22, 
1863, but at Fort Monroe. The Second Regiment Light Artillery, Battery 
B. was the only Light Artillery unit formed in Va. It was organized at 
Fort Monroe on Jan. 8, 1864." 

Listed in the following pages are the names of just a few men that 
served in the Civil War from Princess Anne County. The headstone 
photographs are headstones issued by the government for Civil War 
veterans. A headstone application was filed by a friend or a family 
member for the deceased veteran. These are m almost all cases not for the 
soldier who died in battle but for the veteran that returned home and 
lived out his life. The headstones contained herein were found in 
churchyards and private cemeteries in Virginia Beach, Virginia. 

HEADSTONES ON PAGE 49 



4S 



AMERICUS PETTY 

CO. C 2nd U.S.C. CAV. 

Jones Memorial Park 

WIFE: SaUy Petty 


REUBEN LEE 

Private Co. D. 36th Regt. 

U.S.C. VOL. INE 

Died: OCTober 5, 1910 

Wll-E: Lovcy Lee 
Union Baptist Cemetery 


JOHN WILLIAMS 

CO. B 2nd 

use. TROOPS 

Jones Memorial Park 


ISSAC MANNING 


HARRY SAXTON 


WILLIAM TODD 


Private 


Private 


CO. H 


CO. K. 1st REGIMJEKT 


CO. C 2nd U.S.C. INE. 


37th U.S. C.TROOPS 


U.S.C. CAV. 


Died: August 3, 1907 


Newsome Farm 


Died: July 16, 1910 
St. Johns A.M-E. 


Union Baptist Cemetery 
WIFE: Affie Sason 


Cemetery 


Churchyard 






SMALLWOOD ACKISS 


BOSTON COWELL 


EDWARD PHELPS 


CO. E 23rd. 


U.S. NAVY 


CO. C 36di 


U.S.C. TROOPS 


LANDSMAN 


U.S.C. TROOPS 


Wli-h: Charlotte Adass 


USS St. Lawrence 


Newsome Farm 


Private Cemetery 
offLasldnRd. 


Enlisted: Oct. 26, 1864 

Mt.Zion A.M.E. 

Churchyard 


Cemetery 




49 



^'i.^* 





^Sft'^ 



VOLUNTEER ENLISTMEINT. 



STATE OF 



y/ZcCc/^ 




TOWN OF 



I, ^//>cCc^ /2 

in the State of 

and by occupation a "^^ 

volunteered this ^l-<^ ^e^<^t.~^-^^ /^ / ^y 



bom in /%>*< du:,^,:/ ^i^t^t.-t^tyc C d . 



aged j^%^^i^^^04-t</z. /J 4'/ years, 

Do HEBEET ACE:fOTrLEDGE tO haVO 

day oft,i^^TAt,<-t-«-,i4--t. 18/ J, 
to serve a3 a Sold ier in the ^Irmn of tl}c Haitcti States of Glmcrica, for the 
period of TUIiEE YEARS, nnlesa aooaer discharged by proper authority: Do also 
agree to accept such bounty, pay, rations, and clothing, as are, or may be, estab- 
lished by law for volunteers. And I, ty^^^c^^c-^ ^Au-t^-z.-.j..^ — ~ do 

solemnly swear, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Units fl STfztes 
of Alli:icx^ca, and that I will serve them honestly and faithfully against ail 
their enercries or opposers whomsoever; and that I will observe and obey the 
orders of ihe President of the United States, and the orders of the oiScers 
appointed over me, according to the Rules and Articles of War. 

Sworn and sn&crilwd to, at /^i'^^'*^ o-<^>-^<^ >^ ^ J /^ 'kT^/^^ 

I CERTIFY, Oy HCLYOS, That I hare carefoUy examined the above named Volunteer, agreeably to 
the General lUgnlations of the Annj, and that in my opinion ha ia free &oai all bodHj dc/ecta and mental 
iniiimity, which would, In any way, diaqnalify him from performing the dnties of a soldier. 



■A 



A^^ ^ 



ExucMao SnsGEOs. 

/ CERTIFY, ON BONOR, That I have mlnately inspected the Tolnnteer, 
preTioosly to hid enll5tment, and that be was entirely sober when enlisted ; that, to the ciest oi my 
juu^'meiit and belisi. h= i^ of la^rful aje ; and that, in :icci-j)ti'j2 Uini aa July iiiilifltd to p«rform the duties 
of an able-bodied soldier, I have strictly observed the Eegulations which govern the recniiting service. 
ThiS soldier has ^,S~Ciy>yA. rja, ^Cc^iy^ hair, c=^£2yty/^ oimpUxum, iiJ^'^^^'/ittkt^'^'T/incha 
high. 






Gor Wurcr. ukf. July, lai 



VchmUcn. 



RrcRcrnso OFrrcm. 




50 



Black Ghiil War nin 

tSfnGU nlGUai MHcs James was bom a 

slave, in Princess Anne County, on April 12,1829. At the age of 
twenty-four, on June 9, 1853, he married Sarah Brock. The 
ceremony was performed by her master Col. Whiters of Princess 
Anne County, in the usual plantation custom Jumping the Broom. 
They had five children: John the eldest son was bom in 1861 and 
the other four children Ella, Frances, Anthony, and Miles Jr., died 
during infancy. 

On November 16, 1863, Miles James volunteered his services 
to the Union Army at Portsmouth, Virginia and listed his 
occupation as a farrier-blacksmith. He was mustered into the 
service on December 20, 1863 at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, and 
assigned to Company B. 36th U.S. Colored Troops. According 
to brief description in his pension files, he listed at 5-feet-5 inches 
tall. Eyes: Dark Hair: Dark, Complexion: DarL 

In the following year, he showed unusual heroism while in 
action near Richmond, Virginia (The Battle of New Market 
Heights, apart of the attack on BSchmond's defenses in a section known 
as Chaffin's Farm or Fort Harrison). Corporal Miles James, on 
September 29, 1864, of the Thirty-Sixth USCT, fell to the ground 
after a bullet pierced his arm, making immediate amputation 
necessary. Under the severe pain of having his arm amputated. 
Miles continued to perform his duties with one arm. He rouse to 
his feet, loaded and continued to fire his weapon with one hand 
and urged his men forward. Corporal Miles James was later 
promoted to Sergeant and presented a Silver Medal of Honor by 
General Benjamin Butier. 

While hospitalized at Fort Monroe, he wrote a letter to his 
Commanding General. In this letter Sergeant Miles James asked 
permission to remain in the Army even though his left arm was 
amputated. On April 18, 1865, permission to remain in the Army 
was granted. He was fiimished a sword instead of a musket, and 
later sent to Texas with the Union Army Occupation Forces. On 
Oaober 18, 1865, he received a disability discharge at Bragos 
Santiago, Texas. 

Upon assviming the status of civilian, he and his family moved 
to Norfolk, Virginia. He found employment as shoemaker from 
1866 to 1869. On August 9, 1870, Miles James died in Norfolk 
County, Virginia and buried in an unmarked grave. 



Medal of Honor 
Recipient 




SergL Miles James 



• His citatum stated that having had 
his arm mutilated, making immediate 
amputation necessary, he loaded and 
discharged his piece with one hand^ and 
urged his men forward. This was thirty 
yards from the enemy's works. 

Miles was one of the fourteen 
black soldiers to be awarded the Medcd 
of Honor for their gallant action during 
the Battle of New Market Heights 
(Chaffm's Farm). Only sixteen black 
soldiers were awarded the medal during 
the Civil War. 



51 



The following is a copy of a letter written by Brig. Gen. A.G. Draper to 
the Surgeon in charge at the U.S. Gen. Hospital, Fort Monroe, Virginia 
NATIONAL ARCHIVES PENSION RECORDS, Washington, D.C. 



HJ. Qrs. 1st. Brig. 1st Div. 25tli A.C. 

Chaffin's Farm Va. Fek 4,1865 
Surgeon in Charge U.S. Gen. Hasp. Fort Monroe, VA 

Sir: 
Sergeant Miles 
James. Co. B, 30tn. U.S.C.T. writes me from your Hospital to urge 
that he may be permitted to remain in the service. 

He lost his left arm in the charge upon New Market Heights. 
Sept.ZQ, 18u4. If it he propihie, I woula most respectfully urge that his 
reguest he granted. 

He was made a Sergeant and awarded a silver medal by Maj. Gen. 
Butler, for gallant conduct. He is one of the bravest men I ever saw; and 
in every respect an model soldier. He is worth more with his single arm, 
than half a dozen ordinary men. Being a Sergeant, he will have very little 
occasion as a file closer to use a musket. 

He could be Sergt. of my Provost Guard or Hd. Tr. Guard, and 
could, do full duty in many ways. If consistent with your, views of duty 
I shall be greatly obliged if you can make it convenient to return him to 
his Regiment. 

I have the honor to be 
Very Respectfully, 
Your Obedient Servant 

A. G. Draper Brig. Gen. Commdg. 



RECEIVED > 

1 U.S. GENERAL HOSPITAL 
FEB. r. 1865 
FORT MONROE 

VIRGINIA / 



Miles James received 

the Butler Medal for his gallant 

actions at Chaffin's Farm in Netv 

Market Heights, near Richmond 

Virginia on September 29, 1864. 

The medal is the only medal ever 

designed especially for black troops 

that performed beyond their call of 

duty by Major Gefteral 

Benjamin Butler. 

NATIONAL ACHIVES, 

Washington D.C. 




HEADSTONE MARKERS 
ISSUED FOR THESE 
DEASED VETERANS 

ROBERT FORBES 

CO. A 
1 U.S.C CAV. 

Private 

Died: Feb.7, 1913 

Big Piney Grove Churchyard 

JOHN WARD 
U.S. NAVY 

Landsman 

Vessel: Charies Phelps 

Discharged: Oct.3, 1865 

Mt. Zion A.M.E. Churchyard 

ABRAM ELLIOTT 

CO.A 
2 U.S.C. CAV. 

alas: Richard Jones 

Died: June 25,1916 

Baker Farm 

ALEXANDER ACKISS 

CO. D 

1 U.S.C.CAV. 

Cook 

Died: July 7,1912 
Private cemetery off Birdneck Road 

The Veterans Administration issued the 
above veterans a headstone. Tloe place 
of burial for the veteran is listed above 
but location of headstone in that 
churchyard or private cemetary could 
not be found. 

HEADSTONE APPLICATIONS 
NATIONAL ARCHIVES, 
Washington, D.C. 



WILLIAM H. GRIMSTEAD 

26,1844 

CO. B 

2nd. Reg. 

COLORED USA 



Information recorded from a headstone 
found in the middle of a field (Private 
Cemetery) three miles from Little Piney 
Grove Church. 



mm^ 



52 



COMPANY C 15TH REGIMENT OF VIRGINIA CAVALRY 
CONFEDERATE ARMY PRINCESS ANNE COUNTY 

Listed below is a roster of Company C, ISth Regiment of Virginia Cavalry that served in 
the confederate Army in the war between the States 1S61 - 1865, On Jaru 22, 1917 it was 
presented to Judge B.D. Wljite of Circuit Court and the Court ordered the same to be entered in 
the Common Law Order Booit 1 1 page 7 of the Circuit Court in Princess AntK County, VA 
Captain E. W. Capps, Wounded died prison 



2nd LieuL A.W. Edwards, 
1st LieuL J. P. W. Kellam, Killed. 
1st. Sergt G. L. Brockett, Killed 
2nd Sergt. Jas. W. Kellam, Killed 
1st Corpl. E.W. Holt, Killed 
2nd. Corpl. Thos. Woodhouse, Killed 



3rd LieuL M.P. Seneca, Died. 
Orderly Sergt. O.B. Meats 

3rd Sergt Thorowgood Kellam, Killed 
4thSergt. W.E. Holt, Killed 
3rd Corpl. William James, Killed 
4th Corpl. Geo. R. Flanagan 



Ackiss, James A. 
Ackiss, Wm. H. 

Ackiss, Wm. M. 
Atwood, Ed. V. 
Ayers, Wm. T. 
Beasley, W.C. 
Bright, Jesse T. 
Brice, G. P.O. * 
Bonney, Henry 
Brock, Wm. F. 
Brock, Henry 
Capps, Joel 
Cook, Wm. 
Chappell, John G. 
Capps, Virginius 
Chappell, Newton H, 
Crammer, John 
Carroll, Sam'l. * 
Capps, Washington 
Capps, Charies T. 
Dozier, Wilson 



Drewry, James M. 
Dozier, Henry F. 

Eaton, James 
Eaton, Earley W. 
Ellison, Wm 
Etheridge, T. L. 
Flanagan, Charies 
Fentress, Wm. C. 
Fentress, Callus 
Forties, David 
Fisher, Johnson 
Grimstead, David H. 
Grimstead, D.N. 
Guy, Joseph L 
Gomto, Wm. T. 
Gordon, John D. 
Gordon, Wm. H. 
Godfrey, Anderson 
Hargrove, John T. 
Hill, Luke 



Henley, Henry 
Henley, Thos. H. 

Harrison, Henry S. 
Hold, James 
James, John D. 
James, Emperor 
Jordon, Benj. F. 
Lane, Jesse 
Malbome, Wm. 
Morse, N.B. 
Momsette, Wm. 
IVlalbome, Henry 
Munden, Wm. T. 
Murden, Zachariah 
Munden, J. Walter 
Munden, J.S.D. 
Morse,Dr.Tulley 
Petree, Enoch 
Rainey, Enoch D.* 
Rainey, John, Killed 



Simmoms. Ashville D. 
Simmons, John T. 

Killed 

Stone, William 
Sykes, Zachariah 
Sawyer, Issaac L. 
Wilson, Moses 
Whitehurst, John W. 
Williams, A. J. 
Whitehead, Alex 
Whitehead, Lyourgus 
White, Wm. N. 
White, Albert L 
West, James L. 
Woodhouse, Wm. D. 
White, Henry 
Whitehurst, R. W. 
Wright, John 
Willis, John 
Williams, Charies 



Hill, Walter H. 

* Brice, G.P.D. Promoted to 3rd. Lieut 

* Rainey, Enoch, D. Died in hospital 



Randolph, CD. 

* CarrolL Sam'l. Died in prison 



Confederate 
Statue, unveiled 
November 
15,1905 at 
Princess Anne 
County 

Courthouse to 
honor 

Confederate 
soldiers. 



GEORGE FENTRESS COLORED COOK 





We are crossing the 

river one by one. 

Out number is 

growing small. 

Soon ive'll stake our 

arms, and then, 

We'll answer the 

last roll call. 

Lieut. M.P. Seneca 



Frank Leslies 
Illustrated 
Newspaper 
(date unknown), 
cine f cook. 

Left: Harper's 
Weekly, 18 63 



53 







Excerpts from speech by Frederick Douglas on Decoration Day, 1871, at 
Arlington, National Cemetery dedicating a monument of the UNKNOWN LOYAL DEAD 

if we ought to forget a war which has filled our land with widows and orphans, which has made stumps 
of men of the very flower of our youth; sent them on the journey of life armless, legless, maimed and 
mutilated; which has piled up a debt heavier than a mountain of gold - swept uncounted thousands of men 

into bloody graves, and planted agony at a million 
hearthstones; I say if this war is to be forgotten, I ask in the 
name of all things sacred what shall men remember? 

The essence and significance of our devotions here to- 
day are not to be found in the fact that the men whose 
remains fill these graves were brave in battle. If we met 
simply to show our sense of bravery, we should find enough 
to kindle admiration on both sides. In the raging storm of 
fire and blood, in the fierce torrent of shot and shell, of the 
sword and bayonet, whether on foot or on horse, 
unflinching courage marked the rebel not less than the loyal 
soldier. But we are not here to applaud manly courage, 
save as it has been displayed in a noble cause. We must 
never forget that victory to the rebellion meant death to the 
republic. We must never forget that the loyal soldiers who 
rest beneath this sod flung themselves between the nation 
and the nation's destroyers. If to-day we have a country not 
boiling in an agony of blood like France; if now we have a 
united country, no longer cursed by the hell-black system 
of human bondage; if the American name is no longer a 
by-word and a hissing to a mocking earth; if the star 
i^^^^^S. spangled banner floats only over free American citizens in 
every quarter of the land, and our country has before it a 
long glorious career of justice, liberty, and civilization, we 
are indebted to the unselfish devotion of the noble army 
who rest in these honored graves all around us. 




Harper 's Weekly May 4, 1864 



54 



THEGaEBBATIOMOFTHEaKANCIPAmil 

FuULLhIIIImTIUH From 1863 to the late 1930's, blacks 
celebrated the Emancipation Proclamation which was issued by Abraham 
Lincoln on January 1, 1863. They organized parades and other celebrations. It 
was a day of remembering their past and a time for them to look to the future. 
Black slaves were unshackled from their chains and many had nothing 
except their bare hands with which to earn a living. Local blacks fled to farms 
maintained by the Freedmen's Bureau and soon after began to form their own 
small communities, such as Burton Station, Seatack, and Newsome Farm. Their 
first concern was to organize their families, establish a home and make a living. 
Some were skilled artisans, boatman, farmers, farm tenants, farm laborers, 
domestic servants and workers in Norfolk factories. 




?hoto taken 1933, of a brass band on the grounds of 
Smith Comer Church now known as Union Baptist 
Church. Behind the band is the old union hall that 
served as the first high school building for black 
children in Princess Anne County. 



55 



THE BLACK CHURCH 

Your beginnings were humble; 

Slab, mud, logs, mortar and pot belly stoves. 

From dark and uncertain years of pain and suffering. 

You offered pride and dignity otherwise denied us. 

You have been the sustaining force which gave us the strength; 

To endure when endurance gave no promise. 

You opened your doors and gave refuge to all; 

Giving fellowship, love, education, prayer and the 

freedom to be themselves. 

You have withstood the time of changes; 

You became then and now the Solid Rock with a firm foundation; 

Built on the strength of all, who enter your doors. 

By Frances Hawkins and Edna Hendrix 




St. MarkAM.E. Church 



56 



CHAPTER 6 



CHURCHES 



Prior to the Civil War slaves and 
free blacks were members of the same churches as whites because of the laws 
of that time. They were allowed to worship in the rear of the church, or in 
the balcony. A law of 1804 
prohibited slaves from meeting 
at night for any purpose, but the 
following year it was changed as 
not to apply to slaves who 
attended church with their 
masters, or part of the white 
family, if the service was 
conducted by a ordained 
minister. 

Almost all slave owners gave 
special attention to the religious 
views of their slaves. Their 
slaves attended church with 
them or a separate service was 
held on the plantation. White 
ministers would preach to the 
slaves congregations from time to time or a biaoc minister was asked to 
preach only under the watchful eye of an overseer or the master himself. 
There were no records keep of these slave gatherings for religious services. 

The early records regarding blacks in the white churches were kept by the 
white congregation if they were keep at all. These records were generally 
keep in the church and if there was a fire or some natural disaster the records 
were destroyed. Blacks themselves were either unable to keep their own 
records, or discouraged from doing so. Only a few of these records still exist. 

After the war blacks began to separate themselves from the white church. 

FREEDOM, FREEDOM, FREEDOM these were the words that rang 
throughout the county. The right to be their own person and most of all the 
right to worship in their own way, caused blacks to begin to form their own 
churches. 

Unfortunately, there are very few official records on the beginnings of 
many of the black churches in old Princess Anne County. Most have one or 




Pen and ink drawing dated 
December 5, 1863, from the 
Illustrated London News. 



57 



two page documents to account for their more than one hundred years of existence. 
Deeds, anniversary books, white church records, newspaper clippings and faded 
memories with older church members, that have passed down were instrumental in 
recording their histories in this booL 

According to what was told by word of mouth, soon after the Civil War blacks 
built their churches of logs daubed with mud or bush tents, furniture of which were 
very crude. 




Senior Choir of First Lynnhaven Baptist 
Church late 1940's. 



58 



^"0. 







EBENEZER BAPTIST CHURCH 

Baker Road, Virginia Beach, Virginia - 3rd Building 




Photo: MARSHALL LAND the first 
black minister of Ebenezer Baptist 
Church, (black) He was bom March 
18, 1847 in Princess Anne County. 



Present Pastor Rev. C. K. Jones 

Ebenezer Baptist Church is Virginia Beach's oldest black church in 
existence today. It was established on the plantation of John Conuck in 
1859, or earlier. 

Not more than three miles down the road from Ebenezer Church 
Baptist Church there is a church called Haygood Methodist Episcopal 
Church, (white) once known as Ebenezer Methodist Episcopal Church 
South from 1832 - 1896. Two of the first ministers to preach at the 
church were C.C. Wertnbaker and Joseph J. Hall. This church was a 
small, unpainted, wooden structure with a center aisle, the women 
sitting on the right side and the men on the opposite side. The church 
had no slave balcony or room in the rear of the church for slaves to 
worship because the church was very small itself. 

Early members of Ebenezer Baptist Church (black) and neighbors 
tell a story of a plantation chapel for slaves. It was made of logs on the 
property of John Cornick on which the present structure stands today. 



59 



The small log chapel was attended by Comick's slaves, and slaves from 
neighboring plantations only with the permission of their master. A white 
minister would preach to the slave congregation. On occasions, the slaves 
were allowed to hold their own services with a slave preacher or a free black 
minister, though whites were always present, as observers (overseer, or 
master) or sometimes whites worshipped with them. 

After the Civil War, ex-slaves continued to hold service in the log cabin 
with permission of the Cornicle's. They decided on the Baptist 
denomination and then called their congregation Ebenezer Baptist Church. 
Their Srst appointed black minister was Marshall Land of Norfolk Coimty, 
Virginia. 

The log cabin began to deteriorate and the congregation began to grow, 
it was decided they were in need of a new structure. The second Ebenezer 
Baptist church was a small framed building located in the head of the log 
cabin. Services continued in the log cabin until the new structure was 
completed. Under the pastorate of Marshall Land in 1883, the members 
were informed that the property had been sold. William Jones and Henry 
Guy, who was a member of Ebenezer Methodist Church South (white) 
purchased the property from Comicks. The church trustees Abraham 
Elliott, Alfred Mitchell and Granville Leo negotiate with them and the 
property was sold to the church for one- hundred and twenty- five dollars. 

The third building to house Ebenezer Baptist Church was much larger 
than the previous two with a very large balcony. The cornerstone was laid 
on July 2, 1884. The church members felt that the church needed a burial 
ground for its members. Four trustees, Bros. Everett Williams, who was 
also a teacher at the Ebenezer School, Peter Roberts, Abraham Goodman 
and Andrew Yoimg located the suitable land. On January 23, 1897, the land 
was surveyed and the deed was dated September 16, 1901 for the purchase 
of five acres at a cost of S500.00 




..^tStlK WPILM Ull^Clf 
MEMOQIAL 

t CEMETKDY T 








REV. JOSEPH J. HALL 

BorruUlS - Died - 1889 

Rev. Joseph J. Hall was a preacher 
of Ebenezer Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South (white). He served as 
schoolmaster, doctor, surveyor and 
probably one of the first minister of 
the plantation chapel for slaves on 
John Comick's property. Rev. Hall 
also performed marriages for both 
black and white. 

Photo: EBENEZER BAPTIST CHURCH 

MEMORIAL CEMETERY 

Located on the comer of Diamond 

Springs Road & Wesley an Drive in 

Virginia Beach. 



Bottom Photo: 

. Tombstone o/' PETER ROBERTS 

one of the early trustees of 

Ebenezer Baptist Church. Located 

in church cemetery. 




/ 







\ V J Lj -, 



\. \^^:z 






60 



Previous pastors listed in order 
of presidence were: 

Rev. Marshall Land 

Rev. F.P. Saunders 

Rev. G.W. Lomack 

Rev. George Washington 

Rev. J.M. Powell 

Rev. A. C. Tillery 

Rev. D.W. Harris 

Rev. H.J. Wormly 

Rev. G.L. Parker 

Present Pastor: Rev. C.K. Jones 





Photo: On May 19, 1967, 

church members gave Rev.G.L. 

Parker and his wife, an 

appreciation service 

commemorating 18 years of 

faithful service. 

In late December, 

Rev.G.L. Parker resigned as 

pastor of Ebenezer Baptist 

Church because of poor health. 



Deacon Board in early 1970's. Rev. C.K. Jones in white suite. 



61 




UNION BAPTIST CHURCH 

4608 South Blvd. Virginia Beach, Virginia 23462 - 4th Building 



Present Pastor: W.Walton 



Following slavery, a small group of Christian believers banded 
themselves to worship God beginning first in their homes. Later, they 
were invited by some White Christian friends of the Methodist Church in 
Kempsville to use their building, as a place of worship after their morning 
services. After a period of time, this group found a place of their own. The 
place was a bush shelter at Walk's Corner. They later construaed a second 

house of worship which was built 
of logs and slads at Smith's 
Comer. 

Here, the church received its 
first name "^ Smith Comer Baptist 
Church ." The. third was built of 
rough plank. 

Under the pastorship of Rev. 
Outlaw, money was saved to con- 
strua a new church. In 1894 the 
fourth church was built of fire 
lumber, planned and polished. 
When the building was dedicated 
Dr. S.L. Scott Sr. to the church, it received its 





LEWIS HENRY BRINKLEY, SR. 

Born: April 15, 1856 

Died: January 10, 1940 

Early church clerk 

Location: Church cemetery 



62 



current name Union Baptist Church. The new church was built during 
the pastorship of Rev. George Washington. The church was paid for 
while Rev. Sanderlin was serving as minister. Members of the church 
completed additional remodeling and added the bell to the steeple under 
the pastorship of Rev. Arnold. Under the leadership of Rev. Howard, a 
new Delco light system was installed and finances of the church greatly 
improved. 

Dr. S.L. Scott, Sr. was pastor for twenty-seven years. During this 
time, much progress was made and many additional auxiliaries of this 
church were formed such as the Female Usher Board. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Jackson was Chairman, of the Gospel Choir (which after a few years 
serving in this capacity joined with the Senior Choir.) Improvements 
were also made to the building. The church was painted on the exterior 
and renovated on the interior, and electricity was also installed. 




Previous pastors listed in order of presidence were: 



Rev. Marshall Land 

Rev. Winfield 

Rev. Jackson 

Rev. Outlaw 

Rev. George Washington 

Rev. L. P. Saunders 



Rev. Arnold 

Rev. Sanderlin 

Rev. Howard 

Dr. Spencer L. Scott, Sr. 

Dr. Spencer L. Scott, Jr. 

Rev. W. Walton 



ADELINE 

Wife ofLH. BrinUey, Sr. 
Bom: Oct. 25, 1857 
Died Feb. 20,1910 
Early Sunday School Worker and one 
of the organizers of first choir with 
Sister Fannie Sears. 
Location: Church Cemetery 



Copy oforginial deed of Union 
Baptist Church, formerly called 
Smith Comer Baptist Church. 



DEED BOOK 58 PAGE 437 

This deed made the 20tn day of May in the year 1807, between John Smith of the County of Princefs Anne State 
of Virginia of the one part and Noiand BrinkJey, Valentine Riddick, Carrasaw Eason, Henry Riddick & Miles Riddick 
colored of the same County and State of the other part. Withnefseth, that in consideration of the sum of twenty dollars 
to him in hand paid or secured to he paid to be paid the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged the said John Smith doth 
grant unto the said Noiand Brinkley, Valentine Riddick, Carrasaw Eason, Henry Riddick and Miles Riddick half an 
acre of land situated lying and being in the County of Princefs Anne Described as the follows viz commencing at the point 
where the line between the lands of the said John Smith and William C. Smith interect the road leading from KempsviHe 
to London Bridge and running in a south westerly direction along siad road towards KempsviHe for such a distance as 
bry running a line at right angles with the said road until it strikes we line of the said Jno. Smith and Wm. C. Smith 
wiE cut off a lot containing half an acre. In trust for the use or benefit of a society of colored people in connection with the 
Baptist Church as a place for public worship to be held and used as such and not otherwise and the said John Smith 
covenants toand with the said Noiand Brinkley, Valentine Riddick, Carrasaw Eason, Henry Riddick and Miles Riddick 
colored trustees as aforesaid that he will warrantgenerauy the title to said tract or lot of land to them and their sucsejsors. 
Witnefs the following signature and seal the Vday and date first herein above toritten. 

John Smith 



63 




MOUNT ZION AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

2268 Princess Anne Road 
Virginia Beach, Virginia 23456 



Present Pastor: Rev. Larry S. Hinton 




PETER SHEPPARD 

First appointed minister of 
Mt. Zion A.M.E. 



In August, 1872 Tat Walke, Daniel Whitehurst and Frank Rainey, trustees 
for Mount Zion A.M.E. Church, negotiated with Durant Simmons to purchase 
an acre of land. Mr. Simmons, also a religious man, for one dollar sold one acre 
of land to be used for religious purposes only. The trustees were fortunate to 
find property with a church already erected that could be used for a place of 
worship. This church was built of logs. 

On the sixteenth day of Oaober, 1873, the deed was recorded in the Clerk's 
Office in Princess Anne County Courthouse of Virginia in the name of Moimt 
Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church. And so the new members toiled on 
uncomplaining , a vision of great work that might be done for their community, 
and a faith in God they began to worship in the way they wanted to. It is not 
known who acted as pastor of the congregation when the church first began. 

Accoriiing to the record presented by George A. Singleton, General Secretary 



64 



of the A.M.E. Church 1961: 
When the Virginia Annual Conference was held in Richmond, Vir^nia 
in 1875 with Bishop J. P. Campell presiding, Rev. Peter Sheppard was 
appointed the first pastor of Mt. Zion A.M.E. Church. Mt. Zion was 
part of the Princess Arme Circuit. Worship service took place only two 
Sundays a month. There were other churches on the circuit with 
Mt.Zion A.M.E. Church: Mt. Cavalry A.M.E. now known as 
Campell's Chapel A.M.E Church now located on Indian River and 
North Landing Rd., St. Matthrews A.M.E. Church, no longer 
existence but was located near Stumpy Lake Golf Course. 

In 1884 under the partnership of Rev. Jeremiah CufFey, the 
membership began to grow. During this time the first fi-ame church was 
built. This church was used for many years. 

By 1907 under the pastorship of Rev. Joseph Mackey, the present 
church was built. It was completed in 1908 under the pastorship of 
Andrew Robertson. This was a firamed building with the interior walls of 
wood and no ceiling overhead. 

From I WOULDNT TAKE NOTHIN' FOR MY JOURNEY by 
Leonidas H. Berry son of Leonidas L. Berry previous pastor of Mt. Zion 
A^.E. Church. 

One of the strangest practices of facial social eqiudity" which I ever 
seen or heard about occurred at Pop's church in Princess Anne. On some 
Sundays, white folks would drive up in horse and buggy or horse and 
carts to the side of the church building where the windows were raised 
high for ventilation and cooling. 
They would sit there until the 
sermons were over so that they 
could enjoy some good preaching. I 
understand that this practice began 
long before my time. One preacher 
who attracted quite a few such 
worshippers was Rev. James 
Garner, an older and distant cousin 
of my father, who had a reputation 
in the Tidewater area as a great 

preacher. My father is said to have . '^^^^^ .f^U f 

followed the style of his older cousin 
who went to the Hampton Institute for a trade and basic cultural studies 
and went into the ministry. A dramatic bit of history of that period 
includes the true story that Rev. Gamer dropped to his death in this 
church while preaching a sermon. 




REV. LEONIDAS L. BERRY 

Served as pastor from 
1912 -1914 



Photo: 

Rev. &Mrs. Paul M.Caldwell 

The pastor's retirement banquet 

was held Sat. April 23, 1988. 

(Twenty -four years of service at 

Mt. Zion AM.E. Church.) 




65 



Trustee Board of Mt. ZionAM.E. 1980. 





Photo: Taken 1980. In 1900 during the pastoring of Rev. Davis and leadership 

of Mrs. Virginia Riddick, the Senior Choir ofMt. Zion A.M.E.Church was organized. 



66 




BIG PINEY GROVE CHURCH 

2804 Hollana Road Virginia Beach, Virginia - 2nd Building 

Present Pastor: Rev. Charles A. Vinson 

About 1870 there came a group of settlers from Ebenezer Baptist 
Church to the community. Finding the soil fertile and the place thickly 
wooded, each selected his home and began to build up the community. 
Charles Jukes saw the necessity for a church and discussed the matter 
with Sister Sawyer. In the fall of 1870 or 1871, the church was built. 

An acre of ground was purchased. A log cabin was built. This building 
was daubed with clay, covered with slabs and had a bush shelter at the 
door. Its value was 535.00. 

The following persons were members: Wiley Grandy, Telly Walke, 
Stanhope Riddick, Bill Booze, Nancy Booze, Winnie Savage, Harvey 
Frank, Joicy Griffin, Lewis Griffin, Charles Jukes, Joiney Sparrow, John 
Rogers, Wilson Parson, Malinda Jukes, Abram Savage, Isaiah Savage, 
Lucy Savage, Delia Smith, Elick Ferbee, Olive Brown, Susan Ferebee, 
Stephen Smith, Alcora Savage, Hannah Riddick, Lucy Rogers, Jane 
Ferebee, Jeffiey Williams and Jane Williams. 

The officers were as follows - Deacons: Benjamin Kittrell, Jim 
Williams, Charles Jukes; Secretary: Wilson Parson; Sextons: Brother 
Lewis Griffin and Sister Joicy Griffin. 

Sunday School was started in 1872. Soon afterwards, the Church 
joined the Norfolk Union Baptist Association. The first delegate was 
Brother Wilson Parson. 



Headstone of Stanhope Riddick Sr. 

and his ivife Hannah. 

They were among the first 

members of the church. 

Location: Church Cemetery 

Headstone Inscription: 

STANHOPE RIDDICK SR. 

Bom: Apr.8, 1822 

Died: ]unel4,1902. 

Hannah H. Riddick 

Bom: Oct.7,1832 

Died: Nov.11,1917 




Rev. Willis Brown 
4th Pastor: 1904-1915 



67 




Photo: Headstone of Olive Broum 
Bom: Jan. 1828 - Died: Nov.8,1896 
Location: Buried in the church 
cemetery, across the street from present 
church building. 




Third stnicture built during the 
leadership of Rev. Willis Broum. 



As the population of Piney Grove Community grew, so did the 
church membership, until the log church in which they worshiped was 
not sufficient to accommodate the members. It was not satisfaaory in 
size or design, so the members decided to build a better one. 

The plan of the old church now used as a schoolhouse was that of 
Rev. Willis Brown; thus, the two large pillars or colums in the center, 
the huge windows, etc. The sills were cut with rip saw by Rev. Simon 
Rogers and Brother Stanhope Riddick. The cost of the structure was 
about S800. 

The little house located in the rear of this building was built for the 
pastor and the deacons as a council room to meet and formulate plans 
for the church. 

Rev. Samuel Jones was pastor at the time of the erection of the 
second building. The Church was both the spirtitual and social uplift 
of the community. 



= The following pastors have served: 



Rev. John Jackson 1870 

Rev. Samuel Jones 1870 

Rev. John Kirby four years 

Dr. Willis Brown 1904-1915 

Rev. Charles iVIoton... 1915-1916 

Rev. W.P. Curl 1916-1918 

Rev. E. A. Owen 1919 

Dr. W. J. Lucas 1925-1928 

Dr. J.A. Brinkley 1928-1953 

Rev. B. Robinson 1954-1955 

Rev. Roger Steele 1955-1969 

Rev. H. Grier 1971-1973 

Rev. Charles Vinson ..1976- 




DR. J.A. BRINKLEY 

9th Pastor 1928-1953 



Headstone: 

PETER S. BROWN 

Bom: Mar. 10,1810 

Died: March 20,1882 

Location: Church Cemetery 




68 




^inry (Srnur iSapttsl Qlljurci} 



Built IQOITMnl Stniwre 

2404 Holland Road 
Virginia Beach, Virginia 



69 




LiniE PINEY GROVE BAPTIST CHURCH 

669 Princess Anne Road, Virgmta Beach, Virgirua 23457 



Present Pastor. Marion E. Thompkins 



About 1832, according to Willis August Hodges - a free black, 
bom in Princess Anne County - states in his diary FREE MAN OF 
COLOR by Gateivood: 

The Pungo meeting house, as the Baptist church of which my father 
and the rest of the family were members, was situated about five miles 
from our house. This church was a new building, having been built but a 
short time. Money was solicited from people of color to build it. A shed 
or a wing for their use was promised to be erected along side of the main 
church. The promise induced them to throw in money and soon this 
strange looking church with its "^n^" wzs built. For a long time the 
people of color occupied their quarters unmolested, but the whites began 




Rev. W.P. Jones 



70 



PUNGO BAPTIST 
CHURCH 

Colored Members, 
Names living in 1838 

Slaves and free blacks were 
meTubers of white Pungo 
Baptist Church. The church 
was orgardzed in 1762, in the 
Pungo Ridge area of Princess 
Anne County. By 1856, the 
church built a new house of 
worship and changed its name 
to Oak Grove Baptist Church. 

1809 Cela 

1 816 Pemmy dec'd 1846 James 

1827 Betsey, Gzdda. dismis 

Ned, Frank RandoL, 
Fanny 

1829 Violet 

1 830 Peggy, Miles Expelled 
1845, Phebe decU, Frank 
Lawrence, Charlotte, 
Sarah, Lydia, Sarah 
dismissed, Nansy, Silvy, 
Betsy, Sarah 

1837 Tony 

1 838 George sent away, Sarah 
Grimstead expelled, 
Marcia Munden 

1840 Judith, decU, Sarah, 
RettaHill, Hannah 
Fentress, Adneh 
Munden, Violet, 
Maria West expelled 
Wile dismissed 
Sarah expelled 

Sarah Munden expelled 

1841 Retta, Charles Ward, 
Gad Fisher, Daniel, 
Maria Doudge, 
Kedar Williams expelled 
Christine Fisher expelled 
Frank Doudge sold away 
Mary Morris 

1845 Bartetet Stone, Lawson, 
Jake 

This listing of black church members is 
located in the early church records of 
white Oak Grove Baptist Church in 
Virginia Beach, Virghnia. 



to take from them the front seats (which were only benches) and kept on 
in this way to get them nearer the door. At °bi^ meetings'' more than one 
half of the colored shed or wing was taken up by the whites. Every August 
it is the custom in Princess Anne County and Norfolk County to have 
these '1ri£f meetings" or revivals." I was about seventeen years of age when 
I attended one at the church. 

Even though blacks had a separate section of the church to worship, 
in they were still very much a part of Oak Grove Baptist Church. 

Mirmtes of Conferences held at Oak Grove Baptist Church (white) located less 
than a mile from the present church, relative to the formation of LiakPiney Grove 
Baptist Church 

SEPTEMBER 1867: On motion we appoint Brethren R. W. 
Baylor, J.S.D. Munden, T.S. Etheridge to inform- the coloured 
members of the intentions of the church relative to their constituting 
themselves into a separate church, and building a house of worship for 
themselves. 

OCTOBER 1867: The committee to see the coloured members 
reported that the coloured members were ready and willing to 
constitute a church of the same faith and order and wished instruction 
from the church now to act. 

On motion we dismissed all colovired members for the purpose of 
forming an African church of the same faith and order. 

SEPTEMBER 1869: On motion Bro. George Fentress (colored) 
was granted a letter of recommendation. On motion Bro. Baylor was 
appointed to write the letter to the Assodatipn and Brethren J.O. 
Morris and Calab L. Ackiss were appointed bearers of said letter. 

JULY 1870: On motion a subscription was taken up to aid the 
coloured people in the building of a church. Bro. Spann was 
appointed to hand round the subscription for that purpose. On 
motion we appointed Bro. Jas. L.D. Munden a committee to inform 
the colored people of the action of this church. 

At this point its seems the black members were still apart of Oak 

Grove Baptist Church but they held service in a bush tent located 

now not far from the white church with a white minister. 

AUGUST 1870: The committee to inform the coloured people of the 

action of this church relative to their organization, reported that the leaders 

of the coloured members were on the church ground. On the motion the 

report was received and the committee discharged. Upon upon motion they 

were invited into the house to receive instruction upon the subject of their 

organization. On motion it was agreed that the coloured members of this 

church be organized into a church to themselves and that the right hand of 



71 




Old church before changes in 1975. 

Church officers and Reverend W.P. Jones. 

From Left to Right - Front Row: Deacons Tom Williams, 

Russell L. Laivrence, Samuel Ridley, Richard Bell, 

John Grimstead, Chairman of the Board of Deacons, 

Tom Creekmore, Reverend W.P. Jones, Reverend W. H. Bell 

(son in the ministry and assistant pastor) 

Brother Alfred Wilson Church Campus Officer, and Sister 

Brunetta White, Church Organist of Junior Choir. 



fellowship be extended to them by the official 
members of this church. On motion we grant each 
_. , QQg Qf them a letter of 

dismission to join another 
church of like faith and order. 
They had as pastor a white 
minister. For several months 
they used a tent. Their first 
black minister was Reverend 
Charles Hodges. 

Some of the members 
were: Jane Munden, Rev. 
John Archer, Mr. Jesse Hill, 
Mr. Charles Williams, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Wright, Mrs. 
Cholie Williams, Mrs. Sarah 
Hill, Mr. Joseph Williams, 
Mr. John Thorogood, Mrs. 
Alfma Hill, Mrs. Diane Grimstead, Mrs. Asnet 
Williams, Mr. Isaac Williams, Mr. Miles Williams, 
Mr. Ned Wright, Mrs. Judie Edwards and Mrs. 
Gracie Creekmore. 




72 



TRUSTEES OF THE CHURCH 

Brother Samuel Ridley Chairman 





PLEASANT 6R0VE BAPTIST CHURCH 

1Q25 KempsviUe Road Va. Beach, Virginia 23404 - 2nd Builaing 

Present Pastor: Rev. Dr. William Darryl Scott Sr. 

Pleasant Grove Baptist Church was founded in the 

year 1870. The deed to the property issued March 

28,1888. The founders of the church migrated from 

Prince George County, near Petersburg, Virginia and 

settled in Princess Anne County. Unable to return to 

Prince George for worship because of transportation ;!- ' ' ~-f^ t,W~ L^lts if T 

and long hard winters, the founding fathers came p,4i^T^fS^ C^L^I^^ilLU JE- 

together to establish a church in their own community. 
The first pastor of Pleasant Grove was Rev. William 

Odom. The church grew tremendously under his 
guidance and leadership. The foimding members included the 
Odom family, the Gaskins, the Bright family, the Jennings family 
and many friends. The ministers who served as pastor are listed 
in the order in which they served: Rev. William Odom, Rev.W. E. Headstone- REV W. E. SMITH 
Smith, Rev. Annais Reid, Rev. Leon Williams, and Rev. Dr. William Bom: 1873 Died: 1939 
p. ](-„{; Pastor of Pleasant Grove, Mount Olive 

^ ' and New Light Baptist Churches. 






73 




ASBURY UNITED METHODIST CHURCH 

13Q2 Princess Anne Road Virginia Beach, Virginia 23457 - 2ra Building 

Present Pastor: John Haynes 



Asbury United Methodist Church in the Pleasant Ridge section of Virginia 
Beach, Virginia, was organized in 1871. It was built in the year of 1872 under the 
ledgership of John D. and Mary Frances James, Thomas Wright, Cornelius Hodges, 
Noah Cotton, Wilson Burnett, Daniel Munden, and Henrry Irvin. The land was 
purchased for twenty-five dollars from Jack Wright, Rev. David T. Wrighfs 
grandfather. This present spot, at that time in the mist of woods. The members 
cleared the land and built the first church of logs with the timber they cleared away. 
The tools they used at the time were called a mallet znd jute. The log cabin was torn 
down and a new frame structure was rebuilt in 1917 under the leadership of Rev. J. 
H. Dickens. 

This Chxirch property also has a long history of use in the general community. 
During the early 1900's a new school was built by the county and it supplied its 
teachers. 

A new hall was also built on the property by the True Reforming Lodge. Some 
of the families who were members of the lodge were, the Wrights, the Jacksons, the 
Lovitts, and the Capps. There was a youth branch of this lodge called the Rose Bud 
Lodge. It consisted of young boys and girls. The center also served as a meeting 



74 



place for the Good Samaritan Lodge that was part of the community until recendy. 
When the first school was destroyed by fire, the Lodge center served as a school until 
another building replaced it about 1915. 

The county built a larger Charity Neck school for white children and their old 
building replaced the burned-out building of Pleasant Ridge. The building was 
moved fi-om Charity Neck with the consent of the County and moved it next to the 
church. The building still stands there today. Mr. Walter Brock, Frank Brock, 
Ruben Lamb, and Ernest Jackson; members of 
Asbury moved it with mules and calloggue 
wagon. The school was used until 1955 and the 
building was donated to Asbury Church. Some of 
the teachers were Mrs. Mary Parson, Eva Jones, 
Sadie Bright, Ruth Forbes, Mrs. Holloman, and 
Mrs. Rowena Towc McFadden. 

The second church building was blown down 
by a hurricane in the year of 1944. The present 
building was rebuilt from 1947 to 1949 under 
the leadership of Rev. J. A. Panky and J. W. 
Gamble. 

Asbury Church family joined the United 
Methodist Church under the Virginia 
Conference, April 23, 1968. A new fellowship 
hail was added to the church under the leadership 

of Rev. Godfi-ey Tate with the assistance of the District Superintendent Dr. Carl 
Savmders, of the Norfolk District. 

The old school building has been partially restored and the exterior painted by 
the Restoration Committee. The committee consisted of former students, Barbara 
Henley of City Council and Ellis Hamberry serves as chairman. 




PEN & INK DRAWING : Old Charity School Building 

was moved to Pleasant Ridge Road to be used as a 

school for black children. 



Rev. McClain 




Rev. McCallum 




Rev. Daryle Elzie 






Rev. Chanis 


1900 


Rev. Gamble 


1943 


Rev. Lorenzo Hill 




1988 


Rev. Qarke 




Rev. Brown 




Rev. MatthewRease 




1989 


Rev. Noah S.T. Shambarguei 




Rev. Pankey 




Rev. John Haynes 




1990 


Rev. Leonard 




Rev. James Enoch xMcCallum 1950 


Rev. D.D. Felder 


1974 - 78 


Rev. John R. McNair 


1912 


Rev. Willie S. Berry 


1954 


Rev. Franklin D. Caldwell 


1976 


Rev. Walter 




Rev. Esau A. Williams ' 




Rev. John Haynes 




1981 


Rev. McCallvim 




Rev. Robert Sharpe 


1962 


Rev. Daryle Elzie 




1986 


Rev. Dickens 




Rev. Ken- 




Rev. Lorenzo Hill 




1988 


Rev. Lee 


1916 


Rev. Godfi-ey L. Tate 


1968 


Rev. xVIatthew Reese 




1989 


Rev. Littiejohn 


1917 


Rev. Naploean J. Graves 


1971 


Rev. John Haynes 




1990 



75 




76 




77 





ENOCH MORGAN 



MOUNT OLIVE BAPTIST CHURCH 

310 North Birdneck Road, Virginia Beach, Virginia 23452 - 2nd Building 



Present Pastor: Rev. Lamont Brown 

Spiorred on by a lack of a church in their community, founders Enoch 
Morgan, Americus Morgan, (brother) Moses Snowden, (uncle) and others 
dedicated themselves to the task of supplying this need. Setting out to 
accomplish this goal, they withdrew their membership from the First Baptist 
Church, Lynnhaven and the Piney Grove Baptist Church, Holland Road, to 
be members of this new body. 

Although very small in number, they started with the Sunday School in 
June of 1894, having as the superintendent Mr. S.W. Archer, Secretary, Mrs. 
Sarah Hall, and treasurer, Mr. Moses Snowden. 

On September 9, 1894, the church was officially organized in a business 
meeting at Chatham Hall. Elected trustees were Moses Snowden, Jeremiah 
Bean and John T. Brown and they called the first minister Rev. Jacob 
Gaskins. 

The church started with 14 members and they rented a one room building 
for 51.50 a month. When the church no longer need the building, Sarah 



78 



Parsons and concerned parents started the first 
Seatack School. 

Ministers that followed Rev. Gaskins included: 
Madison Wright, Monroe E. Gherest, L.W.C. 
xMelts, W.E. Smith , W. P. Jones, Dr. Milton A. 
Reid, T. M. Walker, L.C. Chase, Harry L. Batts, 
W. Glials Crews and Jerome C. Ross. 




\ 



JOUf 



I.M. 



Voice Of The People 



Editor, Journal and 
Guide: 

My desire is first of all 
to correct the statement 
concerning my signed 
license to the gospel min- 
istry in an article on the 
front page of the Journal 
and Guide for July 3, 1976, 
under the title- "Baptist 
Women Raise Cry for 
Better Deal" at the annual 
session of Baptist General 
Association held at Staun- 
ton, Va. 

It is to the member- 
ship of the Mt. Olive 
Baptist Church, Virgin- 
ia Beach, that I owe the 
i.credit for receiving my 
license signed July 24, 
"1959, 13 years before I. 
joined New Calvary 
Baptist Church. 

The church needs to be. 
highly congratulated for 
its Christian Uberality, in 
spite of the persecution 
and barrassment from 
other .Baptist ministers 
and Cihurches. Even a 
committee from the Mir'- . 



Mt. Olive Gave 
Rev. Gordon License 



I _. __ td^^^ ir-^/s-y^- i 

[_. .s^. -^^iC^fes:,.^^^^^^ -■ I 

, _^::%^,>^.vt.,..,^ii^^«<'*-«--*^-.*?^^^t-«>*»''^ 



isters Conference sent a 
threatening message to 
Mt. Olive that there was a 
great possibility of Mt. 
Olive losing with the Sis- 
terhood of Baptist 
chxirches. 

Nevertheless, after six 
months of deliberation, 
Mt. Olive faced the 
challenge, £ind broke the 
unscriptural tradition 
whcih was so deeply 
rooted among Baptists 
in Virginia and other 
Southern States. 

The Rev. Mrs. Mary 
Bonner and all other 
dedicated Christian 

women who have received 
and who wilt receive the 
call to the gospel ministry , 
have my prayers, I would 
like to admonish them to 
be strong in the Lord and 
in the power of His might? 
. "For it is better to obey 
God rather than man." 

Rev. Lola Morgan Gordon 
-Virginia Beach, Va. .. 







J 




LOLA MORGAN GORDON 

On July 24, 1959, she became the first Baptist 

woman in Virginia licensed to preach. She made 

history again in 1981 when she became the first 

Baptist woman ordained as a minister in the state. 

TOP: Princess Anne County Organizations Records 
Folder 18 Virginia State Library 

LEFT: Article appeared in the Journal & Guide 
Newspaper date unknown. 



79 




CAMPBELLS CHAPEL A.M.E. CHURCH 

32S2 Indian River Road Virginia Beach, Virginia 23456 



Organized in 1864, as Mr. Calvary A.M.E. Church, 
the church developed from prayer meetings which were 
held in private homes. They first built a small bush 
structure near Owens Mill off of North Landing Road. 
This building was struck by lighting and burned. In 1884, 
through the kind generosity of C.E.Brown and Maggie E. 
Brown his wife granted for only one dollar to trustees 
John E. Capehart, Michael Allen, Robert Pratt, Moody 
Jarvis and Amos Wilson one acre of land. 



Present Pastor: Rev. Jonathan Thomas 




Rev. Arthur Bassley Graves 
Pastor from 1964 - 1982. 



80 




SAINT MARK AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

1740 Potters Road Virginia Beach, Virginia 23454 - Church & Parsonage - 1948 




Present Pastor: Henry E. Jefferson 

Saint Mark A.M.E. Church actually had its beginning in the year 
1874. According to what has been told by word of mouth, the original 
church was located in a spot known as Nicholson's Branch, somewhere 
in the vicinity of Lynnhaven. The first building is said to have been built 
of logs daubed in mud. It is stated that the church btimed. Following this 
another church was constructed. This time it was a small frame church 
and was built by Rev. Jeremiah Cuffee during the later part of the 
nineteenth century. 

A recording ia Deed Book No.52, page 114 at Virginia Beach 
Courthouse, gives exact details of the securing of the property for this 
church. It was a gift from Mr. E. D. Ferebee, who was living in die 
community at that time. 



A ptdpit view from the addition 
made to old church by Rev. Hardy, 
1907. 



Rear view of church 1907after 
additions were completed. 




81 



In the year 1907, the Rev. W. F. Hardy, the pastor at that time 
remodeled the church by making an addition on the North East corner 
of the church. This addition opened into the main sanctuary with a full 
view of the pulpit, altar and choir stand which was on the western side 
facing the pulpit. Its seating capacity could accommodate about 60-75 
persons. 

The church was frame, painted white with a vestibule to the south. 
Entrances could be made from either the East or West. It had a seating 
capacity of about 225 persons with a balcony above the front door 
entrance which could seat about 30. 

In the early forty's many of the members decided that they wanted 
the church remodeled and if necessary rebuilt. The church members 
were now under the guidance of Rev. David A. Russell to complete 
their goal. They had rallies, pledges, dinners, baby contest, barbecues 
on the church yard, mock weddings and many other plans to rise 
money. In 1948 the old church was completely torn down. Though 
there were many setbacks the members continued their efforts for a 
new building. God finally blessed them with the new building below and 
a brick parsonage in the rear. 

"A BEACON UGHT" - igdl 



Unfortunately there is no record of the first pastor or photographs 
of the early ministers. However, the following is a list of ministers at 
the turn of the century and photographs of those that followed: The 
Reverend Jeremiah Cuffee, builder of the second church. Reverend 
Going, Rev. Thomas Timberlake, G.C. Hunter, and B. Augustus. 

The following is a list of early officers. Those who signed the deed 
were: Charles Bell, Samuel Edney, Isaac Beane, John B. Williams and 
Thomas Bell. 




Pulpit view showing the center aisle 





Rev. A.]. Nottingham 
1899 -1903 




Rev. Green 1909 - 1913 



82 




MINISTERS OF ST. M.\RK A.M.E. CHURCH OF VA. BEACH 






Rev.G.C Taylor 
1913 - 1917 



Rev. T.W. Cotton 
1917- 1921 



Rev. J. West 
1922 - 1924 



Rev. D.W. Baker 
1924 -1926 



Rev. A.M. Jones 1950-1954 




Rev. D. V. Young 1930-1932 





Rev. W.F. Hardy 
1903 - 1909 ' 
No photo avaiLible 



Rev. Cotton 

1921-1922 

No photo available 



Rev. Samuel 

McKeathan 

1926 - 1930 

No photo available 



Rev. Armstrong 

1949 - 1950 

No photo available 



Rev. A.]. Beckett 1932 - 1946 



Rev. David Russell 1946 - 1949 
Builder & Architect 




Rev. D.P. Felton 
1958 



Senior Usljer Board 1961 



83 



^ 




MORNING STAR BAPTIST CHURCH 

4800 First Court Road Virginia Beach, Virginia 23455 



Morning Star Baptist Church was organized in 
1887. The nearest black Baptist church in the 
BayviUe section of Princess Anne County was 
Ebenezer, which was too far for the children to 
walk to Sunday school. Some of the members of 
Ebenezer who lived in the Bayville area decided to 
open a Sunday school in one of their homes. This 
later grew into a flourishing Sunday school and a 
strong prayer meeting. 

In 1889, with the permission of Joshua 
Garrison, the congregation erected a church 
building on what was called the Garrison 
Plantation. After completing the church they 
carried on for sometime with out a minister. The 
Rev. Elisha White and Rev. Charlie Logan both 
licensed ministers, did what they could to keep 
the people together. Once a month the Rev. 
Madison Louis, pastor of First Calvary Baptist 
Church, Norfolk, Virginia, would preach and 
serve Holv Communion. 

On February 3, 1892 in consideration of one dollar Lansing D. Wetmore 
sold to the trustees of Morning Star Baptist Church, the land and the church 



Present Pastor - Ret'. Charles H. Williams 




William & Liicinda Alexander 
with their children Willie and 
Bemice. Photo taken mid 1920's. 



84 



building on which the church now stands. 

The first pastor called to the church was Rev. 
Thomas Hill, of Norfolk, Virginia. The first 
deacons were: Anthony Skinner, Moses White, 
Americus Petty, Washington Johnson, and Henry 
Smith. The second was Rev. Melton, who served 
one year and died. Other ministers of Morning 
Star Baptist Church were: Rev. B.B. Williams who 
served firom 1902 - 1919. 

Then in 1921 the church called Rev. David 
Jennings who served until the year of 1937, after 
which he was called from labor to reward. 

In 1937 Rev. G.L. Parker was called as pastor and served until 
1964. During the twenty-three years under the leadership of Rev. 
Parker, the church grew both spiritually and financially. 

Ministers that followed: 

Rev. John H. London 1966 - 1967 

Rev. John D. Harrington 1968- 1969 

Rev. Charles H. Williams Present Minister 




I 



Children of Morning Star 
Baptist Church date 
unknown. • 



85 




FIRST LYNNHAVEN BAPTIST CHURCH 

2744 Robert Jackson Drive Virginia Beach, Virginia 23452 



Present Pastor:Rev. Dr. Edgar L. Williams, Jr. 




Rev. Jesse H. Smith, Pastor of 
Lynnhaven Baptist Church for 
27 years. 



First Lynnhaven Baptist Church began in a '^ush Tent^ in the Little Neck 
section of Virginia Beach under the pastorate of Reverend Gaskin in 1871. 
The church was later moved to Nickerson's Corner under the pastorate of 
Reverend Metz. John Bright, William Bray, J.H. Whitehurst were trustees of 
the church in 1909. 

As the church family grew, they moved to their present site, Robert 
Jackson Drive, and the new leader was Reverend C.J. Morris. 

Rev. Jesse H. Smith, organized the Relief Band at Lynnhaven in 1938. 
Mrs. Angeronna Ferebee was president of the Relief Band and Cherry 
Sawyer was the secretary at the time of Rev. Smith's death Sept. 15, 1959. 

In 1977 Rev. ^Matthew H. Lewis became their leader, and he served until 
his death September 17, 1991. 



86 



The following pastors have served the church: 

Rev. Gaskins Rev. Melvin R. Boone 



Rev. Metz 

Rev. C. B. J. Morris 

Rev. Baker 

Rev. Jesse Smith, Sr. 



Rev. E. Ray Cox 
Rev. J. L. Fenner 
Dr. Matthew H. Lewis 



Rev. Dr. Edgar Williams 




Rev. Wright - left 



, Rev. Felton right 



Photo taken in First Lynnhaven Baptist Church date unknoitm. 




MT. BETHEL BAPTIST CHURCH 

Organized in 1888 as Gum swamp Baptist Church. On August 14, 
1890 tnistees Benjamin Kittrell, Edmund Christian and Noah Williams 
purchased one acre of land for twenty-five dollars. 



87 



:i^trm^^^ 




Photo courtesy of Virginia Wesleyan College Local History Collection 



NEW LIGHT BAPITST CHURCH 

5549 Indian River Road, Virginia Beach, Virginia 23464 - 1st Building 



Present Pastor: Rev. R.B. Lewis 

It was more than a century ago when James Smith, Peter Ross, 
and Daniel Harris held their first prayer meeting from house to 
house. In 1893, land for a church was willed to the New Light 
Baptist Church by A.S. Newton. In 1896, the first church was 
ereaed; the cornerstone was laid and dedicated under the leadership 
of Rev. Jacob Barnes, who served the church for fifi:een years. 

Pastors: Rev. Rogers, Rev. Jacob Barnes, A.F. Owens, Rev. Bell, 
Rev. E. M. Lassister, Rev. I.W. Penn, Rev. W.E.Smidi, Rev. L. R. 
Smith, Rev. Daniel Williams, C.V.Russell and the present pastor 
R.B. Lewis. 



88 




NEW OAK GROVE BAPTIST CHURCH 

3200 Head of River Road, Virginia Beach, Virginia - 2nd Building 



Present Pastor: Dr. O.L. Cromwell, II 



IN THE TEAR OF 1862. The men got together and cut bushes and 
built a bush shelter in which to worship God. This building satisfied for 
a while but as minds began to develop, they wanted a better place in 
which to worship and felt the need for a permanent leader. In the year of 
1865, they called Rev. John Bass. He accepted the pastorate of the Bush 
Shelter which was located about 3/4 miles from the present location. The 
shelter was surrounded by a grove of oaks, thereby the church derived its 
name. Oak Grove. 

Rev. Bass and the people went to work and built a more suitable and 
comfortable building. Though the building was small, it was very pleasing 
to both the leader and the followers. For thirteen years Rev. Bass 
remained and many a soul for Christ was gained. The Rev. I.V. Roach 
was then called, and for eighteen years he labored. In 1896 Rev. H. H. 
Norman was called, to the best of his ability he served well. Pastors that 
followed: Rev. W.G. Alexander, C.L. GriSin, Re\'. Horace Moore and the 
present pastor Dr. Olleo L. Cromwell, n. 



89 




"" -" ~-^_>^=- 'J-'"^' ■ * "^T^^^ -i?*»- TiiP*-!*. "^-^ 



•-^^~*-«f^»*^-** - 



ST. JOHN AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

SAOO Goodman Road, Virginia Beach, Virginia - 2nd Building 



Present Pastor: Rev. Emanuel H.Terrell Jr. 

On the 5th day of Oaobcr in the year 1882, Orville Fleming and 
his wife granted trustees Edward Phelps, Norris Dozier and John 
Buford, one quarter acre of land leading from Flemings Corner to 
Newtown Landing. 

A small fame building was soon erected for worship service. The 
congregation started to increase and a new church was built in 1907. 
In 1982, a new sanctuary was built at 5400 Goodman Road in 
Virginia Beach, Virginia. 



90 



CHAPTER 7 



RECOHSTRUCTIOH 



The reconstruction period 
started at the dose of the Civil War in 1865. It was an era that 
brought radical changes in the South including bitterness and 
reaction against change on the part of ex-confederates. 

One of the first acts formed by the Confederate states after being admit 
to the Union were laws which put restrictions on blacks called Black Codes. 
These codes forced some to remain in the position of servants, prohibited 
fi-om owning property, certain jobs that blacks could hold, curfew laws, 
blacks could not testify against whites. Everything possible was done to 
keep blacks firom exercising the right of 
sufeage. The white Ku Klux Klan came 
into being to terrorize blacks through 
lynching, beatings and even murder to 
make sure these codes were enforced. 
AU these laws were made by officials who 
had been elected by white voters. Blacks 
were not allowed to vote. 

Frederick Douglas and other 
influential blacks protested these laws. 
They petitioned Congress and President 
Andrew Johnson for protection of 
freedmen's rights. Douglas insisted that 
they must be allowed to vote as one 
means of protecting their rights. 

Congress agreed blacks must be 
allowed to vote in order to help elea 
officials who would protect their 
freedom. Congress later passed laws that 
dealt with reconstruction. 

FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT TO THE 

CONSTITUTION - 1866 states, "All 
persons bom or naturalized in the United 
States ... are citizens of the United States 
and of any state wherein they reside." 



Harper's Weekly 




91 



RECONSTRUCTION ACT - 1867 This law set up a system of temporary 
government for the GDnfederate states that rejeaed the Fourteenth 
Amendment, which included Virginia. It permitted blacks to vote and hold 
political ofBce. The first act faced by each GDnfederate states was to write a 
new coiistitution. Those who would write this new constitution on had to be 
chosen by elections which included, for the first time, all fi-eed blacks. 

Before white dozens could vote, they were required to take an oath of 
allegiance to the United States. They swore they had never voluntarily borne 
arms against the Unites States nor held any office under the Confederacy. 
Many whites in Princess Anne County lost their right to vote and this angered 
them. They had been ex-slaveholder who served the Confederacy and resented 
the thought of blacks filling the position of political power. 

Under the terms of the Reconstruction Acts of Congress, passed in 1867, 
practically all black male adults became eligible to vote while many whites of 
these states were denied the ballot. Blacks registered and voted in large 
numbers in 1867 and for a number of years after. 




Harper's Weekly 



92 



Almost all free blacks spoke out against slavery and the treatment of 
free blacks in the North and South. Many became outstanding 
abolitionist, speakers and organizers for human rights. 



WIIUS a. HODGES 



Among these outstanding 
organizers and speakers on the rights of blacks several came from 
Princess Anne County. The family of Charles Augustus Hodges was 
one of most political black families in the history of Princess Anne 
County. Charles and his wife Julia were bom free and so were their 
children. Charles's sons, Willis Augustus Hodges, Charles E. Hodges, 
William J. Hodges and John Q. Hodges (son of William J. Hodges), all 
assumed active leadership roles in politics and religious development of 
slaves and free blacks in Norfolk County and Princess Anne County. 
They grew up near Blackwater, in Princess Anne County about twenty 
two miles from Norfolk County, Virginia. Much of their life was spent 
speaking out against the injustices brought against their race. They 
suffered social ostracism and arrested several times in their fight for 

equal rights. 

Between 1810 and 1830 Charles Hodges, (the father) had already 
accumulated more than a hundred acres of land and rspectcd by both 
whites and blacks. But soon after die Nat Turner Rebellion, Charles 
and his family were looked upon differentiy. They were forced to leave 
Princess Anne County in 1833 by the slave patrol because of his 
unwillingness to conform to the laws of Virginia restraining the 
movements of free blacks and the outcome of a case against his son 
William. Most of his family moved to New York, but Charles (the 
father) and wife Julia returned to Virginia after a short stay. Various 
members of the family traveled from Virginia to New York and back 
between 1833 and 1865. 

By the time the Civil War broke, out Willis and his brother Charles 
had returned to Princess Anne County and their brother William to 
Norfolk County. They worked in contraband camps, help start schools, 
and influencing the organization of chiirches in the black communities. 
Willis Hodges even served as a scout and frequentiy lead raids from the 
Federal encampments. Willis Hodges received the nickname 'XM 
^fcf" because of his large silver rimmed eyeglasses. 

Following the war, he was eleaed a delegate to Virginia's 
Constitutional Convention- 1867 and later served a short term as keeper 
at the Cape Henry Lighthouse. Brother WiUiam also ran as a candidate 




WiHis Augustus Hodges 
"Old Specs" 1815 - 1890 

WiBis Augustus Hodges was 
bom a free bhck in the Blackwater 
section of Princess Arme County. He 
was active in the anti-shivery move' 
ment in die North and leader of die 
movement in Princess Anne County. 
"Liberty" and "Freedom" were die 
words that gave him the stren^ to 
/ight for himself and for die mMons of 
blacks stM in bondage. 

After Emancipation of the 
slaves, widi many obstacles before 
him, die struggle was not over. He 
devoted the rest of his life too "ecfual 
rights" fjT blacks. He was founder of 
a newspaper caRed die "RAMS 
HORN" in Brookiyn, N.Y., January 
1847. 

Mr. Hodges became the first 
black elected to represent the county 
in the State Constitutional Conven- 
tion 1867- 1868 m Richmond, Vir- 
ginia and later held odier public of- 
fices in Norfolk County and Princess 
Anne County. 

Above: This pen draunng is thought to 
portray Willis Augustus Hodges. 



93 




CHARLES E. HODGES 
House of Delegates 1869-1871 



in the Constitutional Convention- 1867 in Norfolk but lost. Willam's fight 
for equal rights continued. Other blacks were later elected to hold public 
offices in Princess Anne County and Norfolk County because of large 
voter registration and determination.. 

Brother Charles E. Hodges, was elected as a delegate to the General 
Assembly for the 1869-71 session firom Norfolk County and Portsmouth. 
Hodges' nephew John Q, Hodges was elected as Princess Anne County's 
delegate that year also. He was later eleaed clerk for the Township of 
Kempsville. Littleton Owens, another relative was elected to the House 
of Delegates sessions 1879-82. They all became powerful forces in the 
black communities and devoted the rest of their lives to better the plight 
of blacks. Willis Augustus Hodges died in September of 1890 soon afi:er 
he returned from a trip north to raise funds for a "colored oldjblks home" 
in Norfolk, Virginia. 

The newspaper articles on the next page and the story that jbllows will give 
an idea of what it was like fir blacks during the Reconstntction years in Princess 
Anne County, Virginia. 



PRINCESS AMMECOUMnElECTION RETURNS FOR STATE CONVEMTIOM 1867 

Wm. A. Hodges, white, the Republican candidate in Princess Anne County, was elected by a majority of 198. The 

majority for a convention, is 416. (As it appeared in newspaper.) 
SPECIAL NOTE: Correction Wm. A. Hodges, white should be printed as Willis A. Hodges, colored. When the newspa- 
per received voter retums, the editor or writer of this report, assumed that with such a large majority in votes Hodges 
had to be white. Appeared in Norfolk Virginicm Newspaper October 25, 1867 





FIRST 
DISTRICT 


SECOND 
DISTRICT 


THIRD 
DISTRICT 


FOURTH 
DISTRICT 


FIFTH 
DISTRICT 


TOTAL 

As tliey appeared 
in newspaper. 


FOR 
CONVENTION 

AGAINST 
CONVENTION 


Colored 69 
White 4 

Colored 
White 112 


Colored 40 
White 52 

Colored 
White 111 


Colored 
White 

Colored 
White 


141 
18 


144 


Colored 439 
White 

Colored 
White 97 


Colored 142 
White 22 

Colored 
White 97 


Colored 843 
White 84 

Colored 
White 561 


WILUSA. 
HODGES 


Colored 58 
White 


Colored 27 
White 


Colored 
White 


141 



Colored 539 
White 


Colored 142 
White 


Colored 807 
White 


WILLIAM 
HARDING 


Colored 1 1 
White 4 


Colored 24 
White 83 


Colored 
White 



3 


Colored 
White 


Colored 
White 


Colored 40 
White 35 


FRANK 
WHITEHURST 


Colored 
White 112 


Colored 
White 120 


Colored 
White 




161 


Colored 
White 96 


Colored 119 
White 


Colored 1 
White 698 



94 



Appeared in the ISORFOLK VmGUVIAJV, January 12, 1876 

Dismissal From Office of Wilus, 

Alias "Specs" Hodges. - Monday the notorios "Specs" Hodges , who for a number of years past, 
has been a Justice of the Peace in Princess Anne County, was dismissed from the position on the 
charge of malfeasance in office. This charge was made against him some months bacl( by O.B. IVlears, 
Esq. and the case tried before the County, Juge Keeling presiding. It was argued by W.W. Coke, Esq., 
and John J. Whitehurst, for IMr. Mears, and L.H. Chandler, Esq., for Hodges. His dismissal gives a 
great deal of satisfaction, not only to the whites but a large number of the colored people, whom he 
has been fleecing by abuse of this office. Mr. Mears deserves much credit for his action in the matter. 
John Nash, Esq., has been appointed Justice to fill the vacancy. 



Appeared in the IWORFOJLK VIRGUVIAJV, December 7,1878 

"Specs" - Willis A., (Spec) Hodges, the inciter, if not the leader of the late late Kempsville 
election riot, who, with Noah Lamb, another negro leader in Princess Anne County, was elected to leave 
the State forever at the present term of the County court, was in town yesterday making arrangements 
for his departure for New York. He informed us that he was a native of that city, where he married his 
wife. He claimed that he had been resented on account of being Republican, and that he considered his 
banishment from the State an act of great injustice. 

Mth the departure of this man, which will occur a few days hence, Tidewater Virginia will get rid of 
one of the most incendiary negroes that has cursed this section. 



This event occurred at the December, 1878 election poll in Kempsville. 

In Princess Anne County, tensions erupted after the Congressional 
Election of 1878 when Conservative John Goode won re-election over 
Republican John Dezendorf. Goode won over Dezendorf by 773 to 543, 
but in die Kempsville prednct, Dezendorf won by a narrow margin 
provided by blacks. 

On election night, a black man and a white began arguing about the 
candidates. The black man pull a gun which the white man took and 
smashed against a tree. Other blacks came to his ad and before it as all 
over, Abraham Elliott a black man was killed; four other blacks and one 
white were wounded. 

Later that evening the sheriff arrested Noah Lamb, Willis A. Hodges, 
Irvin GriflBn, Charles Elliott, Elisha White, Litdeton Owens and Stmion 
Elliott, all blacks for inciting to riot. 



R I im wiimifiiiiTi — ^%r> ■^ 'iir«Tiii 




95 



BLACKS ELECTED TO PUBLIC OFFICE 1870 - 1875 



MAY 1870 ELECTION 

Minute Bock 41 pg. 147 

Willis A. Hodges - Supervisor Township of Kempsville 
Thomas Cuffee - Asperor Township of Kempsville 
Minute Book 41 pg. 148 

John Q. Hodges - Clerk Township of Kempsville 
MAY 1871 ELECTION 

Common Law Order Book 186&1877 pg. 175-176 
Willis A. Hodges - Supervisor Township of Kempsville 
Thomas Cuffey - Apsefor for Kempsville Township 

Princess Anne County Election 

Records Abstracts of Votes - Virginia State Ubrary 

Littleton Owens - Commissioner of Roads 

Littleton Owens - Magistrate Township of Kempsville 

MAY 1872 ELECTION 

Minute Book 42pg.82 

Thomas Cuffey -Apsefor Kempsville Township 
MAY 1873 ELECTION 

Minute Book 42 pg. 198 

Littleton Owens - Overseer of the Poor Township of Kempsville 
Willis Hodges - Magistrate Kempsville Township 
Minute Book 42 pg. 199 

Toney Wilson - Justice of the Peace Seaboard Township 
Wilson Parson - Constable of Seaboard Township 
MAY 1874 ELECTION 

Minute Book 42 pg. 283 

Thomas Cuffey - Apsefor for Kempsville Township 
Minute Book 42 pg. 285 

Littleton Qwens - Commissioner of Roads Kempsville Townshfp 

MAY 1875 ELECTION 

Minute Book 42 pg. 352 

Willis A. Hodges - Justice of the Peace Kempsville 
Magisterial District 

Noah Lamb - Justice of the Peace Kempsville 
Magisterial District 




Harper's Weekly 
November 2, 1872 p.849 



MINUTE BOOK 

44 pg. 306 

November 10, 1881 

7775 following blacks served as jurors 
Alex Ackifs 
Demp'sey Shears 
Smallwood Ackifs 
Joseph Sawyer 



WIS IS BY NO MEANS A COMPLETE LISTING 



% 



How I saueil Princess Anne County 
from iHsgrace of 




"NEGRO RULE" 



To My fellow Citizens of 
Princess Anne County, Va. 



I hereby announce myself a candidate fir Treasurer of 
Princess Anne County, Vir^nia, subject to the Democratic 
Primary on August 3rd. 

In making this announcement I take occasion to refer to 
the part I took in the work of rescuing Princess Anne from 
the humiliation and disgrace of Negro rule, which then 
threatened our County. 

It was then I served my people, arui it is for them to say haw well I did 
the work! Was Chairman of the Democratic County Committee for 28 
years, fir 28 years I served as Election Judge and fir 28 years as Poll Book 
Commissioner. And it was during these years I had many disagreeable 
duties to discharge, as many will remember. 



1. On one occasion on court day at Princess Anne Courthouse 
two Negroes Hodges and Land were making violent speeches 
against the white people of the County. John Nash came to me 
and said if he had twenty men he would take these Negroes from 
the stand. I told him to follow me and I would take them from 
the stand myself. I knocked Hodges from the stand and Land 
jumped over the fence, both leaving their hats in their flight. 

2. When Tony Wilson was a Negro magistrate in Kempsville 
district, I was asked what should be done. I told my friends Tony 
would disappear. The first case he had to trial was at Princess 
Anne Court House. 





TONEY WILSON was on the 22nd. 
day of May 1873, duly elected by 
qualified votes of Seaboard Township, 
Princess Anne County, a justice of the 
Peace for said Totvnship, to serve as such 
for a term of three years, commencing 
on the 1st day of July 1873, this day 
appeared in open Court, and qualified 
by taking the oath prescribed by law. 

Princess Anne County Court Records 
Minute Book 42 page 199. 




TONY WILSON may have pictured 
this scene in his mind "DEATH" if he did 
not give his resignation. 

TONEY WILSON, this day tendered 
his resignation as Justice of the Peace 
for Seaboard Township which is 
accepted. Ordered that the Court be 
adjourned till Court in course. 

T.M. Whitehurst 

Princess Anne County Court Records 



When he called his court to order I walked into the court room with 
a rope on my shoulder. After a while I said to Tony: " What the devil 
do you know about law ?" He said " Sah?" I then said to him: Do you 
see this rope?" He said: " Yes, sah, Fse been watching that rope some 
time and I want to get rid of this office." I told him if he did, to follow 
me. 

We then went to Judge Kellam's office, and Tony said: Master 
Judge, this here office Fve got I wants to get rid of it." Judge Kellam 
told him if he did, to sign " these papers." Tony then said to me : " Mr. 
Cason, you ain't goin" to hang me now, are you?" I said to him that I 
had not said I was going to hang him, but had simply asked if he had 
not seen the rope over my shoulder. 

3. On another occasion, it being court day, and the next day, Tuesday, 
being election day, James A. McAlpin and myself were in the 
GDurthouse yard when Jessie H. Caffee and his brother B.T. Caffee, 
who were running a hotel at Princess Anne, came up and said to me: " 
Walter, my dining room is full of Negroes and demand dinner, and my 
family is terribly frightened, won't you get a crowd and drive them 
out?" I pulled a pistol from James A. McAlpin's pocket, walked into the 
dining room alone and said: I understand you Negroes want dinner. I 
have dinner enough in this gun for you all! The door was not large 
enough for them to get out. They were piled up four or five deep at the 
door! 

4. On the following night I was at Kempsville and James H. Bonney 
sent me word not to come to the Court House the next morning to 
serve as Judge of Election as 200 Negroes would be there who said 
they intended to take my life. I borrowed a shot gun and at dawn next 
day rode to the Court House. There I found James H. Bonney and a 
yard full of Negroes. I drove to the back door of the hotel and got out 
of the buggy, making the remark: I understand you black devils are 
going to take my life, and before taking it I am going to kiU some of 
you." I thert proceeded to put some shells in my gun. James H. 
Bonney came out in his night clothes and tried to pull me in the house. 
I said to him, " No, let me shoot them." His wife then came out, and 

yielding to her wishes, I went into the house: but as soon as I was 

inside Mr. Bonney locked the door, saying that I 

was the biggest fool he ever saw, as the Negroes had 

been there all night planning to kill me. When the 

sun rose I observed that this Negro mob were 

running and falling over fences in every direction. 



98 



5. I was one of the Judges at the poles. About 10 o'clock John Capehart, a Negro, 
and one of the leaders of his race in Princess Anne, drove up with five wagon loads 
of Negroes to vote. When the voting of whites was slack, I voted two wagon loads 
of Negroes. By the time there was a rush of whites to the pools. I then said to 
Capehart that as he had voted 18 Negroes, and as there was now a rush of white 
voters I was going to vote one by one. He said no, that he had his men and then 
go back and get more voters and thereupon a rush was made for the window, 
Capehart being in fi-ont, I then told Capehart that if he did not move back and 
allow the white voters a chance. I would leave the window and come out and 
knock him down. The Negro laughed and said " Mr. Cason I have never been 
knocked down in my life." I raised to get the window when E.E. Burroughs, one 
of the Judges of the election, said: " Walter, don't you go out there - those Negroes 
will kill you." I got out of the window and said to Capehart: " We are fiiends we 
are not?" " Yes, sir." You ask me to knock you down and I like to accommodate 
my friends." Down went Capehart, falling at the window where the voting was 
being done. E. E. Burroughs looked out of the window and said: " Walter has he 
voted? " I said no. Burroughs then remarked that he would never vote again, that 
he was dead. I crawled back to my place inside and told our boys to come on and 
vote, as it was not necessary to stop because there was a dead Negro. No one 
would come up to the window to vote on account of the Negro lying ther, so I 
went out and puUed him around the comer of the Court House, where Dr. 
Wright took charge. 

Six hours later some one came to me and said that Capehart wanted to see me. 
On going to where he was I found him sitting up leaning against the Court House. Harper's New Monthly 
He said: "Mr. Cason, are you mad with me?" 
When I told I was not, he said he would never 
again ask me to knock him down that he had 
seen more stars when I hit him than he has ever 
witnessed in the firmament. 

6. At the next eleaion this same Negro 
Capehart was appointed a Judge of the election. 
A few minutes before sun - down the following 
day I left out to go to Bonney's for a lamp so 
as to see how to coimt the ballots, making the 
remark as I left for the boys not to leave too 
soon after the polls had been closed, as some 
ftm was to be had. I heard such a fijss and so 
much laughing in the voting room that I went 
back and asked what the trouble was. They said 
Capehart had gone out of the back window, 
saying he knew what that meant, and that they 
were going to kill him there that night. 




99 



As to the correctness of the jbre^oing statements, I respectfully refer to 
the followin£i gentlemen, well known citizens: J. H. Bonney, A.T. 
Herbert, J. I. Herrick, Randolph Ward, O. B. Mears, Solomon Bonney, 
Judge J. M. Keeling, E. E. Burruss, R.I. Atwood, Martin Whitehead, 
John Earley, Major J. T. Woodhouse, J.O. Land, J.M. Malbon, S. W. 
Ewell, and J.F. Woodhouse. 

And now, fellow citizens, I submit that it net been for prompt and 
vigorous action at a critical period in the political history of our county it 
would have been over- rtm by a horde of ignorant and vicious Negro 
officials, and that the part I played to avert such calamity was in obedience 
to a sacred duty - a duty I awed my wife and children - aye, the family of 
every white citizen of Princess Anne County. 

And now, at the age of 64 years, I would as quickly resent in the most 
emphatic and vigorous manner any similiar outrage upon, the white 
manhood and womanhood of my County as I did in younger life. In 
conclusion, I beg to assure the good people of Princess Anne County that 
if they elect me too serve them as Treasurer, that I will give the office with 
credit to myself and to the best interest of the County. 

I trust all my friends will be at the polls early on the 3rd of August and 
stay all day. Let us all pull together and put an end to ring rule. 



Pen & Ink Draunng By: 
Rip Rylance, Local Artist. 



( Adv. ) 



Very respectually, 
W.W. Cason 




Article appeared in the 
Princess Anne Times Newspaper 
July 2, 9, 19, and 27, 1915. 




Hannah Riddick bom 1 S22. 

Her son was Daniel Riddick, president of the 

Princess Anne County Training School Association.. 

She was a member of Big Piney Grove Church 

at the time of her death in 1922. 



101 



CAPEHlMBYUBHTHOUSi 

BLACK KEEPER & ASSISTANT 

NATIONAL ACHIVES 

Record of Lights - Keepers' 

CAPE HENRY LIGHTHOUSE pg. 229 

WILLIS A. HODGES - BUVCK KEEPER 
Annual Salary $760 Date of AppL May 1 0. 1 870 

Date of Vacation: July 26. 1 870 How Vacated: Resigned 

NATIONAL ACHIVES Number of Assisants 
CAPE HENRY LIGHTHOUSE , 

LITTLETON OWENS - BLACK NCI ASSISTANT 



Annual Salary: 550 
Date of Vacation: Nov. 27,1 880 



DateofAppt. Nov. 16,1880 
How Vacated: Revoked 




LITTLETON OWENS - BU^CK N0.2 ASSISTANT 

Annual Salary: 500 

Date of Vacafion: Feb. 28, 1881 

LITTLETON OWENS - BU\CK N0.2 ASSISTANT 



Annual Salary: 500 

Date ofVacation: Feb. 28, 1881 



102 



CHAPTER 8 



UNKNOWN 
BUGKSURFMEN 



There is 



>^'^D 



much written about the CAPE HENRY LIGHTHOUSE 
and the CAPE HENRY LIFE SAVING STATION in local 
history books. Lesser known to most residents is the 
fact that some of the early surfinen were Blacks that 
served with honor and dignity. Willis Augustus 
Hodges a black man served as a lighthouse keeper; 
later another black Littleton Owens, served under Jay 
Edwards as assistant Keeper. 

Cape Henry Life Saving Station came on line with 
the other life-saving stations in December 1874. The 
first keeper was John W. Burke and his crew: Thomas 
W. Morse Wilson Gomoto, William M. May, Edward 
W. Williams, Joseph Spradey and George W. West an all white. The men 
were appointed for a term of one year unless sooner discharged, to make 
any necessary repairs to the station by 1st of December 1875, and remain 
there for four months December, 1874, through March, 1875. Before 
their term was completed on January 19, 1875, the former crew was 
discharged by the keeper for alleged insubordination. Although the events 
that lead to the discharge are somewhat unclear, several days later a new 
crew was appointed. 

Jay D. Edward (white) was appointed January 21, 1875 keeper and his 
crew consisted of all blacks: George Owens, Peter Fuller, Thomas Wright, 
Littleton Owens, Thomas Cuffy and William 
Owens. The men were paid a salary of $40.00 
dollars a month. All were listed as farm labors in 
the 1870 census. 

Edwards was reappointed for a second term 
and his crew consisted of Frank Creekmore 
(white) Thomas CufFey, Littleton Owens, George 
Owens, Peter Fuller and William Olds all black- 




Facing Page: Cape Henry 
Lighthouse 

Top: Pen drawing of a black 
surfman. 

Bottom: Seatack Life Saving 
Station ivas built in 1878. This 
building gives us an ideas of what 
the Cape Henry Life Saving Station 
may have looked. 

Courtesy of Life Saving Museum 
of Virginia 




OSpHXtTE OF 



^nptrralralirat si ^ife-Saimig Staliiras, 




Elizabeth City, X, C, . 



_,187 



0^ / ^ 



jS^t^i^-yT^ 



.(2^^6L^^ ^^€^. 







/ ^rry2^UA^ Ou^€^ (rL4/ c^n,<^^^ut^ 





urt^ 




Above: 
NATIONAL ARCHIVES - U.S. UFE 
SAVING SERVICE I COAST GUARD 

Record Group 26 Norfolk District 
Cape Henry Jan. 1875 - March 1886 

Left: 

Headstone of Thomas Wright 

Died: Jan. 6,1885 

76 years old 

f have fought a good fight 

I have finished my course, 

I have kept the faith. 

Location: 1807 Gum Bridge Rd. 
Virginia Beach, Virginia 



104 



r. s. UFE-SAVIXG SERVICE. ) 



AETICLES OF ENGAGEMENT FOR SURFMEN. 



Wk, the aub«cril>cre, do. aod «acL of us doth, hereby ^fsree to and with 




. Keeper 



if Life-SaviDg SratiOD No. / . . ou the CoaHt of /2^ ^^^ '^^ ^^^^ . and in the Lifo-Sa\ang: Service of the UDited Stat*^. 
manner and fonn followiDg. that is tn \v.\y. 

In the jvnt plaix. we do hereby agree, iu cunmderatiuu of x\\f monthly w ages aixamsr eacn of our iiauir8 Uf rennto set. pavHlilt- ai such times 
and iu such pruportious ais are or may In- preecritied by the St-crvlary of the Treuaury of the Ualt^^i Stat*^. to tauter inT<» the Life-Saviug Service 
i3i the Unit^ Slatets. for ilie term of mit- yejir nnlese sooner tliwharewl liy the onlcr of the Secretary of tlie Treasury, and to repair to Statiou 
No. / , on the Coast of /~^ ^^ V? \! \ii''~-;p ■ 'T ^^*> 1st of Decemlwr, Irf^S^aud reniaia there for four mouths, thai is 
TO (*My. durinp the niontht- of Decemiwi. 1"^^*' and Jani)ar>'. Kebruar>. and March. 16/^ . or iu due aud Ktasouable Time after tJie datt- of oar 
engagement, co remain luicil the Ist day of April. l'^^6- and dnrinp that time. unleA«> aoouer diNcliarged l»y proper authority, ro the atniodt of 
OUT jmwer aud ability, respectively, to diecharjre uur several duties, and iu evprythiug x** )**• i-ont'ormable and oltedient to the lawful commands 
.>t rhe offiern- ^ lio may. from time to time, be placed over us. 

.Vra/ifdi.y." We do. also, oblige and Kubject ourselvwi. and for that pnrpfw«e do hereby covenant aud agree to serve during the term aforesaid. 
autl T-i> comply with and l>e subject to such ruIe^ and discipline as are or may \w esLablished for the goverumeni of the Life-Saving Service 
of tin- Unitieo States. v ^ .'-n 

ThtTdLy. The said yf^lC^ AJ * C_5^^2^*-^^^2^i364 * ^"^ ^°*^ '° lH;half of th* United Stateh. doth hereby covenant aud 

agree to and with t-be parnee whohave hereunto H«veral1y signed their names, and each of them, reepective^ly, that the said pifftie« shall be paid 
iu consideration of their services, the amount per moDth which, iu the colnmu hereunto annexed, is set opposite ro each of their names, respect- 
ively, at anch times and iu such proportiouB an are or may be allowed b\ the (.ieneral Instmctions for the govemment of the Life-Saving Service. 



NAMES. 








mf^^^ 








Pat ns Mortb. 



TEEM. 



j iH WHAT CaPACITT. 

I 



KEMAEKS. 



DoUan. Ctts. 






-:_A; 






-^ !,^**^*.^a_J&^fc^ ?=^^- 












J^;^^^^ 



NATIONAL ARCHIVES - U.S. LIFE SAVING SERVICE / COAST GUARD 
Record Group 26 Norfolk District Cape Henry Jan. 1875 - March 1886 



105 




106 



CHAPTER 9 



EJUIIY 



tnueimoN 



Prior to 1830 the thoughtful people of Princess 
Anne County were not opposed to the education of their slaves and free 
blacks. Reading and writing was a means of becoming familiar with the Bible 
and doctrines of Christianitv. Slaves and free blacks even became members of 
their churches. 

Church Wardens in 
the mid' 1700's played 
an integral part in the 
teaching free blacks a 
trade. Princess Anne 
County Court Records, 
Minute Book 10 page 
293 records the follow- 
ing: 

Ordered, that the 
Clmrch Wardens bind 
out according to Law, 
Caleb Jones Son of 
Jtidy JoTies, a free Ne- 
gro to William Holmes 
to learn the Trade of a 
carpenter. 

Ordered that the 

Chttrch Wardens bind 

otit according to Law, Elizah Jones an Infant Son ofjtidt Jones a free Negro, to 

William Wishart Gent, to learn the Business of a . 

Ordered thet the Clmrch Wardens bind out accordirig to Law, Robert Jones, Son 
of Sara}} Jones, a free Negro to Martin to learn the Trade ofSlioe Maker. 

Ordered that the Church Wardens bind out according to Law, Argyle Jones, 
Son of Sarah Jorus a free Negro to David to learn the Art of a Mariner. 




Children and adults attended 

classes instructed by teachers 

of the American Missionary 

Association, but later taken 

over by the Freedmen's 

Bureau in 1864. 

Library of Congress 

Collection 



107 



Wise Farm, Virginia August 31, 1864 
Ref. Ctorge Whipple. Sec. A. M. Associaticn 



Dear Sir: 

Your favor of the 2Sth is received, I will give you a statement of 
things on and around the farm called Baxter No. # 1 in a few words 
as I can. This farm is the place where George Morris a colored teacher 
sent out by the Association labored a short time. It is the largest 
number of cultivated acres of any farm in this district. There are 
thousands acres of com upon it now. It is satuatcd five miles from the 
Wise Farm - the nearest missionary station and about three fourths a 
mile fix)m the small village in Kempsville. This is about the distance 
finom the house from the village. Near this farm there are two small 
ones occupied by the Government. On these three farms there arc 
upward of 300 fieed people now, with the expectation that there will 
soon be more. There arc in and around Kempsville some 150 or 200 
more, maldng a population of about 500 people that may be reached 
by a mission on Baxter No.l. 

The overseers of the farm, and several other with whom I have 
conversed arc opinion that 150 or more can and ought to be gathered 
into day and evening schools - the evening school being for those who 
work during the day - and at least 200 in the Sabbath school. 

They now hold meetings on the farm, the Methodist attending 
there while the Baptist go to Kempsville which is quite near the houses 
of many of them as the house on the farm. There is a Church in 
Kempsville in which they worship that is controlled by Bro. Walker of 
the Mission at Norfolk, who has taken possession of it in the name, 
and is the agent of the Cabin Baptist Home Mission Society. 

This Church is thought to be the place for the Sabbath school and 
the religious service. And the overseer and others think there would be 
no diflScult in gathering them are there if the right course was taken. 

By invitation I preached there one week ago last Sabbath, and in 
to do again next Sabbath. When I will find out more about the 
possibility of affecting a union. 

There is under the house on the farm a large basement in which 
75 to two scholars can accommodate that has a fire place, and is 
plastered and also fitted up for school meetings to. There Mr. Morris 
kept school. Those who best know the condition of things think there 
sould be a school at the Church and also in this basement. 

Bev. Joel Baker 



Ordered that the Church Wardens bind out according to Law, Dinah Jones 
an Infant Daughter of Saraij Jones to Margaret Kilgore to learn the Art of 
Spinning, Serping 8c c. 

Anthony Walke's plantation Fairfield had 
slaves trained in crafis essential to make the plan- 
tation self sufficient. His slaves knew how to read 
and write because of the skills they possessed. A 
few house servants aided in the lessons of their 
master's children. Advertisements in local news- 
papers showed that if the slave knew how to read 
and write, it added to the market value. 

Nat Turner Rebellion of 1831 brought about 
a change in attitudes of whites, towards bhcks 
throughout the North and South. Free blacks 
were frowned upon and their white friends no 
longer considered themselves friends. The slave 
codes (laws) became more stringent. The instruc- 
tion of slaves and firee blacks was forbidden. The 
gathering of three or more blacks, slave or free, 
unless supervised by a white person, was prohib- 
ited. Local whites increased nightly patrols of 
slave quarters. Severe penalties were enforced on 
those engaged in unlawfial assemblies for the pur- 
pose of teaching blacks. They feared any type of 
assembly of blacks might be used for the plotting 



Mottthly School Report of Wise Farm 
located Princess Anne County, Virginia, 
American Missionary Association. 
Located at Amisad Research Center at 
Tulane University in New Orleans. 



of rebellions against local whites. 

But soon after the Civil War began, several so- 
cieties were formed to aid in the care and educa- 
tion of the blacks in the North and South. The 
American Missionary Society sent teachers as 
early as 1863 , to help in the education of blacks 
in Princess Anne County. 

A Contraband School was located in the 
Lynnhaven area on the property George Rogers. 
Slaves were brought from other areas to work on 
farms that were taken over by the Federal Gov- 
ernment, but run by the AMA which provided 
tfiem with' basic math and reading. Local freed 
men were on farms of Dr. I.N. Baxter, at 
Kempsville and Greenwich, Taylor Farm, and the 
Wise Farm or Rolleston, once the home of Gov- 
ernor Henry A. Wise. 



108 



PIOMEEBS INaUCATIOM 



MARTHA lOVE BBOWM one of the foremost persons in 
the education of black children in Princess Anne County was Martha 
Love Brown. She was bom in Princess Anne County on November 
6, 1866. As a child her teacher, Mrs. Ellen Holmes Gray taught, her 
the necessity of an education. So forceful was the influence that 
Martha Brown became a teacher herself Martha Brown began 
teaching in the school she attended as a child. After teaching two 
terms, she decided to attend Hampton Normal and Industrial 
Institute to further her education. 

Upon graduating in 1888, she returned home and started teaching 
at Piney Grove School. She also taught a Svmday School Class and 
held the position of organist in her church Big Piney Grove Baptist 
Church. Her teaching career lasted more than thirty years. In 1899 
she organized the Blooming Violet Tent # 121 in Princess Aime 
County with the help of Mrs. Sallie Bonney, Mrs. Ward and Mrs. 
Annette Lane. (Annetta Lane headed and help organized the United 
Order of the Tents in 1867 in Norfolk, Virjfinia.) 

One student had this to say about her. "Martha Love Bnmm was a 
woman who impress you, never idle, always stressing the importance of an 
education, warm hearted, generous, sympathetic, and afaitljfid worker for 
Christ." 

Throw a stone into a pool of water, watch the ripples, the influence 
of one Martha L. Brown has spread in just that manner. More teachers, 
college professors and ministers have benefitted by this person. We pay 

* 

her diis tribute, "SHE SERVED HER FELLOWMAN." 





.■ ^^^ uwV.f/A•^<^r'rl.MV4^«£M>^v^M^v^4a,4H';^,^,u„^(J^^^^,^^ 



mSS. MARTHA LOVE BROWN 



PINEY GROVE SCHOOL - First served as Big Piney Grove Baptist 
Church. When the original school house was destroyed by fire, it was decided 
by Rev. Willis Brown to use the old church building as a school. 



PRINCESS ANNE COUNTY 

Annual Report of the 

Superintendent of Schools for tbe 

Year ending 7- 31- 1886 

Showng School Population, Number of Schools, 
School Attendence, Number of Teachers and by 

Population Schools Teachers 

PHNGO 

White 774 VVhitc 8 White 8 

Colored 374 Colored 2 Colored 2 

SEABOARD 

White 763 White 8 White 8 

Colored 675 Colored 4 Colored 4 

REMPSVILLE 

White 367 White 5 White 5 

Colored 930 Colored 4 Colored 4 

O.B. Mears, School Superintendent 

Records located in the Viiprda State 
Ubrar), State of Virgcnia County School 



109 




MARY E. GRAY 



mJInf tm UUitY The second pioneer in education I wish to 

acknowledge is Mrs. Mary Poole Gray. She was married to Samuel Gray. 

They were both life-long residents of Norfolk, Virginia. At the time of her 

death, she resided at 636 Chapel Street. 

In 1915, she was appointed the first Jeans supervisor in Princess Anne 
County. The Jeanes supervisor was the outgrowth of a request 
made of Anna T. Jeanes, a wealthy Quakeress of Philadelphia, 
for financial aid in developing better vocational training in 
black public schools in the South. The untiring efforts of Mrs. 
Gray to bring industrial art to the boys and girls of Princess 
Anne County led the parents and firiends to believe in "Train 
the hands alow; with the head. "With her help the parents could 
also see and feel the need of a (training school) high school, 
and after years of appeals and letters she and other parents 
finally secured the co-operation of the School Board, a high 
school was ereaed known as Princess Anne County 
Training School in 1937. 

In 1945, a literarv club was formed in her honor because 
of her untiring work with the schools. She helped the teachers 
rise money to secure books, care for their medical needs and 
much more. On August 21, 1945, Mrs. Gray submitted a 
letter of resignation due to illness. She died October 4, 1946, 
leaving a great void in the hearts of many residents in Princess 
Anne County. 

- BmiE FORBES WIIUAMS The subject of this 

sketch became the second Supervisor of Negro Elementary 
Schools in Princess Anne County about 1946. 

Bettie Forbes was born September, 1900 in Princess Anne 
County. Her parents were Columbus C. Forbes and Roxanna Forbes 
who were farmers that grew vegetables, root crops and raised chickens. 
As a child, she showed the desire to help others by often giving away 
surplus crops to friends or nei^bors in need. 

The first school she attended was a one room school house called Piney 
Grove School. There her ability for learning expanded in all directions. 
Her parents sent her to John T. West School in Norfolk, Virginia, to 
complete her high school education because Princess Anne County had 
no high-school for black children. She advanced to the grade from which 
she could enter State Normal College in North Carolina. Later attending 
Virginia State College in Petersburg, Hampton Institute and earned her 
masters from Virginia Union University in 1939. Her insatiable desire for 



110 



knowledge, inspired her to undertake further graduate studies at 
Howard and Columbia universities. 

In May of 1922, Bettie Forbes was called upon to teach at Cross 
Road School in Princess Anne County. This school was like other little 
frame schoolhouses in the County crowded to capacity. On September 
3, 1925, Bettie Forbes began teaching at Seatack School. 

Her third teaching job was at Union Kempsville School, located on 
the grounds of Union Baptist Chiirch. When the new Princess Anne 
County Training School opened in 1938, she was transferred there. 

She served actively at Union Baptist Church, having held the 
following positions: Sunday School teacher, junior choir organist, a 
member of the Rappahanna Sunday School Convention, an executive 
member of the General Sunday School Union, a member of the 
Tidewater \Iissionary Association, the Woman's Baptist \Iissionary and 
Educational Association of Virginia and Blooming Violet Chapter of the 
Order of Tents. 

After the imtimely death of Mary E. Gray in 1946, she as appointed 
Supervisor of Negro Elementary Schools in Princess Anne County. She 
retired in 1961 because of poor health. In October, of that year the 
Princess Anne County School Board named and dedicated its newest 
school in her honor. 

Minutes of the Princess Anne County School Board. May 16,1961: 
A committee composed of Rev. H.C. Benjamin, Clyde Siler, and 
Robert F. Hagans appeared before the Board with signed petitions 
requesting the School Board to re-name the Princess Anne County 
Training School in honor of Thaddeus C. Smith, deceased teacher, 
and the new elementary school (currently designated as the 
Newsome Elementary Schcpl) in honor of Bettie Forbes Williams, 
elementary school supervisor. 

On motion by Lyon, seconded by A-lr. Owins, the School Board 
voted to comply with the request of the naming of the Negro 
elementary school the BETTIE F. WILLIAMS ELEMENTARY 
SCHOOL. The Board voted to 
postpone taking positive action 
on the re-naming of the 
Princess Anne County Training 
School. 

She has influenced and moulded 
many lives. Many local residents 
both black and white said "She was 
Tiever too busy ofjir a hand." 




BETTIE FORBES WILLIAMS 

Bom: September 19C0 
Died: A^ 2, 1962. 



Union Kempsville School about 

1933. Grades 1-7 were taught in 

this two-room building. 

Courtesy ofArchey Richardson 

Collection, Virginia State University 

Archives, Petersburg, Virginia. 




Ill 



Miss. E.E. Daughtrey and Miss Haivk first 
teachers at the William Skinner Scliool. 



H<i<i 



^ X .-. , i / 




112 




good limes 

muuM SKiMm 



VVmtWm Williiam C. Skinner was a Beechwood resident 
and a member of the Morning Star Baptist Church. He saw the need 
to build a school where black children could receive a proper educa- 
tion. After seeking and gaining the support of the parents from both 
Beechwood and Gracetown communities, he asked that the Princess 
Anne County School Board provide an adequate building to use as a 
school for area black children. 

Skinner met with the board on several occasions before he was 
told that they, the communities, would have to raise one-thpusand 
dollars which would be matched by the school board. 

Julius Rosenwald, a Jewish philanthropist and former President of 
Sears Roebuck, had provided money to other southern black schools 
and this new school was no exception. The Rosenwald Fund added 
an additional one-thousand dollars to the educational project. 




Top: William Skinner School 

Bottom: William C. Skinner founder of 
the William Skinner School. 

Facing Page: Miss Daughtry and Miss 
Hawk, teachers at the Skinner school in 
the 1940' s. 



113 



^m^'^ ':0^'--'- ^r:^'\ 



4-^' ^.->^^^i._jv.- 



' *:<>■•« •^. 





:^'c^l^^^^^&Mli : 



Top: Students playing in the 
school yard of the Skinner School 
in mid-1940' s. 

Bottom:The Old Pot Belly Stove. 




Grace Keeling, a white con- 
cern citizen donated the land 
near her home on Pleasure 
House Road for the school 
site. This land is now the main 
entrance to the Thorough- 
good Neighborhood. With 
one-thousand dollars raised by 
the parents and one- thousand 
from the county school board, 
a grand total of three-thousand 
dollars had been raised,, to 
build the school, furnish the in- 
terior, hire a teacher and pur- 
chase learning materials. This 
was the beginning of the 
William Skinner School. Its doors opened in 1923 and for the next thirty 
years many children from Beechwood, Gracetown, Reedtown, Lake 
Smith, and Burton made their way to and from those three rooms. 

For the first two years one of the rooms was used as a library. When 
additional classroom space was needed, it was made into a classroom. 

With no running water in the building, fresh water had to be carried 
daily from Morning Star Baptist Church. 

Miss Hawk and Miss Daughtry, Mrs. Ruth Hodges Elliott, Helen 
Johnson, Mrs. Cora McWilliams, and Mrs. Lavania Whidbee all taught 
elementary students. There was no high school for blacks in Princess Aime 
County at that time, nor was there never enough room for a teacher to 
instrua one grade level. 

Leolas Williams memories of her days there include a sewing teacher, 
who visited the school once a month to teach the girls sewing techniques. 
She also recalls the Friday Night 'Ten Cent Foot Dances. " The boys paid 
ten cents to choose the feet of a girl, that was hidden behind a sheet, The 
girl whose feet were chose would be his partner for the dance. 

Some of the. daily routines which began in 1923 and continued until 
1933. The "CHd Pot Belly "stoves were always waiting to be fired up, by the 
boys who often had to climb in windows to get the stoves ready. They 
were not permitted to have keys to die school. 

The boys also gathered wood from the nearby wooded areas because 
the first several years the school board did not provide coal for the stoves. 
Enough wood had to be stored to last the winter months for cooking and 
heating the school. Because there was no kitchen or nearby places to eat, 
the children ate food cooked on the stoves, by the teachers, during the day. 



114 



Mary White recalls the many days that beans were cooked for 
the entire student population. 

As said: "We would put on beans on in the morning when we first 
made the fire so they would be ready by twelve noon. " I remember 
many days when myself and other classmates brought sweet potatoes 
to school. " I would di£ sweet potatoes put them in the sun so they 
could be sweet. At school we wotddput them in the bottom of the stove 
in the ashes. By noon they wotdd be asfjy, but 
"Oh" how sweet. After lunch we wotdd play a^ame of marbles called 
Baltimore .The marbles were placed in a circle on the ground. By the 
end ofthe^ame, the champion "Alarble Qtteen," Mrs. Marion Grif- 
fin wotdd have all the marbles. 

Fridays were special days for many. The teachers permitted 
the children, who had a nickel to go to the Robbins' Oamer Gro- 
cery Store to buy a peppermint stick and a pickle. ■ - 

The Robbins' Comer Grocery was also the place where the 
girls were sent to buy neck bones, tomatoes, white potatoes, and onions 
for soup. The owners of the store, Hugh and Daisy Watlington would 
always put a little extra in the bags. 

Between 1936 to 1947, John Wright can re- 
member that the soup was sold by the cents a 
bowl. 

" Money was taken up in the morning for the size 
bowl you wanted, time for plain soup, five cents fijr 
soup with tomatoes and potatoes, aftdfijr ten cents 
for tomatoes, potatoes and a bone. When Mrs. 
Josephine Williams became the school dietian, 
she would sometimes prepare hot meals at her 
home and bring to the school. 

During the early decades of the school's exis- 
tence, the minimum requirement for teachers 
was two years of college. They were then quali- 
fied for what was know as a "normal certificate." 
It was not until some years later that four years 
of college were required to receive a collegiate 
professional certificate. 

Cora McWilliams began teaching at Skinner 
School in 1930. Looking back on her 20 years there, she said, "I always 
taught the second-grade, except when the second grade and third-grade 
were combined. Usually, there were about 40 children in the class." She 
taught every subject, and re-remembers that reading was a subjea on 
which great emphasis was placed. But the problem was that there were 
no reading materials designated for a particular grade. 




Mrs. Josephine WillUims dietian for the 
William Skinner School. 




Mrs. Cora McWilliams teaching class 
at Princess Anne CountyTraining 
School in late 1950's. 



115 




Skinner School - Construction under 
way to add the one room. 



Lavinia Whidbee principal of Skinner 
School in late 40' s to closing of the in 
1953. 



"^^^. 





"Some of the books were supplied fir us, hut they 
were used, "she explained. "We, the teachers, con- 
tributed books from our personal libraries. 
"Magazines and other books that would help the 
children with their reading were used to supplement 
the program. 

In March of 1931, parents appeared before 
the Princess Anne GDunty School Board: 

Minutes Of School Board, March 25,1931 

The Skinner Colored School asking that the 
Board assist their Leagtu in adding another room 
to the present three ^room building. J^er much dis- 
cussion and as it wasfnind that the available state 
and local money would net the cost to the county not 
more than $150.00 over a present anticipated expenditure. It was decided to 
grant the request of these people. The Superintendent was requested to go 
aijead with the building plan and the painting on and after the money from 
local sources was put in the hands of the Treasurer of Princess Anne County. 
The Superintendent fiirther presented a plan fir the building of wood houses 
on the school ground of various negro schools. He explained that the colored 
people had agreed to furnish the wood for the coming school year. The Board 
would spend the money appropriated for wood in the construction of wood 
houses. 

Mrs. Whidbee, who was also the principal, began the morning with 
the ringing of the bell. All the children gathered for morning devotion, 
a prayer, pledge of allegiance to the American Flag, and a song. 

In January 1941, Skinner School was recognized as the first school 
in Virginia to join the Junior Audubon Society. The student body raised 
a total of S13.75, which was sent to help with the conservation of birds 
and wildlife. 

There were no buses to carry the children to and from school, walk- 
ing was the major form of transportation. When the weather was too 
cold or rainy, parents would drive as many students as they could back 
and forth. 

When the school year ended in May, the students were expected to 
help with the planning and harvesting in the then farm-populated areas. 

The official records of Princess Anne County refer to the close of 
Skinner School on Sept. 22,1953. School Board minutes state that the 
Skinner School was abandoned. The pupils and some of the teachers 
were transported to the Princess Gaunty Training School. The building 
that had housed the William Skinner School was to have been moved to 
Gracetown for use as a neighborhood recreation center, but a fire of 



116 



undetermined origin claimed it before it could be removed 

For the next several years, the chimneys were all that 
remained of the school. The William Skinner School had 
been the beginning of education for so many. 






I 



CERTIFICATE -€. 



I 

i: 
.1 

i. 

■1. 



(ElriH (Errtifirs HinU- 



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nnii4]irtril tbr CjnuBr of &tiii)g prTSXTlfari^ for thv* €l£inntlaig &cfaaaU of Pnsrrsa Aunr 

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• Aimiaaian tn tli? Hiah ^rhnola •'■.-". 

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3n iTraltmmnr IDhrrrnf, thi« C*riinrat» ii gtom twa. -/.(>'.- -Sag 




-ISlJ. 



Right: Mrs. Helen Johnson teacher at the 
William Skinner School. 



^*?5»«5ss=>€«i=iCS?*^SS= 



cXu&^Ciij^^^C^i^tj -— 4, Left: Elementary Promotion Certificate. 



=yr:*~c"?««^' 




Marlene Keeling, Helen Lundy, Margaret Sneed, Norris Williams, 
Willie Hines. Vivian Garrett, Shirley Carrol, Deloris Walton, Candy Boyd. 



117 




-^ 




118 



Its Origin and Founder 

smacK 

ElEMENnBY SCHOOL 

By: Mrs. Sadie Daughtry Shaw 

Many people do not know the history of the original 
Seatack Elementary School. During the early nineteen 
hundreds the Princess Anne County School Board did not 
provide schools for black in the Seatack area. The parents 
and other concerned leaders of Seatack realized the great 
need for a school where the children could receive a proper 
education. This group was the dynamic force that started 
this community striving for a greater tomorrow. 

A delegation met with the School Board and asked for a building in 
which to hold classes. The delegation was told to find a building and they, 
the school Board would furnish the building, and hire a teacher. 

The delegation found a small building on Mt. Olive Baptist Church 
ground, located at 310 North Birdneck Road. This building had served 
as the first Mt. Olive Baptist Church from 1894 until 1908. Now the old 
church building was playing an important role in education of blacks in 
the Seatack community. 

The first teacher and founder of this school was my mother, Mrs. 
Sarah Parsons Daughtry who graduated firom the Hampton Institute in 
1902. 

Virginia State Library - REPORT OF TEACHERS (COLORED) 

CONTRACTED WITH Princess Anne County, 1908: 

0» Nov. 9, 1908 the School Board hired Sarah Parsons at a salary 
of 20.00 per month. Her first contract with the School Board was fin- 
a period of six months. 

Some other teachers that followed: 1918- B^uth Williams, Rosa Fields, 
1924- Rosa Fields, Elfireda Hall, 1937- Margaret Martin, Marguerite Presto 
and Helen Johnson. 

MINUTES OF PRINCESS ANNE COUNTY SCHOOL BOARD: Meeting 
held this 14th day of Sept. 1926: 

Miss. Betty V. Forbes (colored) S40.00. The last named teacher is 
employed at Seatack School - Board pays her salary - as Virginia 
Beach has no colored school. 




FACING PAGE: Sarah Parsons 
Daughtry first techer of Seatack School - 
Pen drawing of the first Seatack School. 

TOP: Daugther of founder 
Mrs. Sadie Daughtry Shaw 

Former Students: 

MIDDLE: Eugene Gayle 

BOTTOM: Leon Minns 



119 





Without running water, inside toilets or central heat in this 
building, the students used out door toilets, brought in water by the 
buckets full, and the boys cut wood from a wooded area behind the 
school to heat the building. This building was used until 1923 when 
three room school was ereaed at 141 South Birdneck Road. Where 
the Seatack Recreation Center now stands. 

Appeared in Journal Guide Newspaper 
IVIarch 12, 1921: 

The Patrons League of the Seatack School, is doing excellent 
work. Last year they raised $702.00 of which $575.00 was fir 
building purposes, $105.00 for teachers salary, and $22.00 fir 
industrial works. A big rally is planned for April. Mr. Henry 
Ballard is President of the League, Mr. Ernest Looker - secretary, 
and the teachers are: Mrs. Fields and Mrs. Williams. 

On February 6, 1923, John Sharp, William Burford and 
William Addie Grimstead, trustees of the Seatack Public School 
Leagtu purchased the property fir $1800.00. DEED BOOK 115 
pgs. 70, 71, 72. 

Fourteen students from the original school are still alive. 
They are asfillows: 

Mr. Eugene Gayle, Rev. Lola Morgan Gordon, Mrs. 
Georgia Wilhams, Mr. John Johnson, Mrs. Georgia 
Thoroughgood Lowther, Mrs. Dorothy Davis Minns, Mr. 
Leon Minns, A-Irs. Bessie Ballard Moore now living in New 
York, Rev. Clarence Morgan, Mrs. Anneva Grimstead 
Northern, Mrs. Lizetta Ward Sands, Rev. Welford Cuffee, 
Mrs. Annie May Highter Braxton, and Mrs. Bessie Highter 
Miller. These students can tell interesting stories about their 
hardships and some good times. 

Mrs. Georgia Lowther and Mr. Leon Minns clearly 
remembers when the new building was opened, the teachers 
and students marched from the Mount Olive Baptist Church 
location to the second Seatack Elementary School at 141 
South Birdneck Road. The old school building remained in 
use as a meeting hall until the late 1940's. 

As part of this history I have included my drawing of the 
first Seatack Elementary School building and the signatures of 
a few of the original students. 



TOP: ]ohn Herman Johnson 

MIDDLE: Lizzetta Ward Sands 

BOTTOM: Mrs. Georgia Williams Holloway 



120 



1. Mr. Eugene Gayle j:^-d£dr^^ .i £iX^j^. 

2. Rev. Lola Morgan Gordan 

3. Mrs. Georgia WiUiams HoUoway JfijL^^qJyiJ/Jr )iry~ll^yt^L>~ym 

4. xMr. John Herman Johnson t.'p:'yi'YZ. (■^.. i^&yT^t^-^/' 

5. Mrs. Georgia Thoroughgood Lowther ^ tir.^j^^ ^^ y^ 



6. Mrs. Dorothy Davis Minns 

7. Mr. Leon Minns J-^-tf-^"^ 

8. Mrs. Bessie Ballard Moore 



u-^/n^^-'^''<^ 



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9. Rev. Clarence M. Morgan /^ j,^, (^ /~n "^hnoT-^ 

10. Mrs. Anneva Grimstead Northern S^^^ . 5Z^,^vt^^ ^^^^^fe^ 



-'7 



11. Mrs. Lizzetta Ward Sands ^~r:d,^-^i^~r- <C , 

12. Rev. Welford Cuffec 

13. Mrs. Annie May Highter Braxton Uhi,-,*^^ J/H- ^/z.. cr^/jc^ 

14. A'Irs. Bessie Highter Miller 



I 



■'d^Q^hy-: 



?n 



C-T'-^f'^t^ 



attended die first Seatack 



Elementary School located at 310 North Birdneck Road from 1915 until 1923. * 
Those named above were also in attendence while I was there. 




" I 4:^:^--??/^vqC^^^^^^=^<^ 




anended the first Seatack 

Elementary School from 1916 until 1923. Mrs. Sarah Daughtry was my first 

teacher." 

" Mrs. Northern said, die students were divided into groups. Each group had 
an alloted time to stand around the long iron heater to warm themselves " She 
recalls, " We had buckets of water brought in from an outside pump. We had a 
dipper to pour the water but there were no cups from which to drink the water. 
We solved that problem by making cups out of our writing paper. Mrs. 

Northern said, " Attending school at that time was mighty rough." Former Students of Seatack School 

TOP: Aiinie M. H. Braxton 
Rev. Clarence Morgan 
Eva Northern 
Georgia T. Lowther 



^^d^V/*^ A). JWr^J^xT 



SADIE D. SHAW 



121 




122 




Adult ei'emng class held at Ptney Grove School about 1920. 

l-7th Grade teachers in Priricess Anne County 1932- 
Coiirtesy of Archey Richardson Collection Virginia State Unii'ersity Archives 



123 



VAC. VVA.- 



I Foreman give th is 
slip to worker for psy 
\ identification 



ASSIGNMENT AND IDENTIFICATION CARD 

Project No.?.!!.'?..?. Requisition No....r:„ 

Foreman Signature 

Witness ' Worker 



(Leave this line blank lor foreman who will have you sign) 



This notici3 means that "you have'bVen assigned to work as a..5.yj?.!L?!y.i.^.Q.?!...LuiiCh_ __ 

IvIePherson School 
Report to work at^lSPfe.e?.3pn._Schqolji;;ja^^ __ 

You will A.M. Give these / c- i • Who will be 

start at P. M.«_.._ 193* slips to .#.?.*>.....^.i?.?.'6.?:!?_?. your foreman 



REPORT READY TO WORK 

-V 



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Identification t^o4-.i- ------ NameMary Cornick 

AddressLynnlriaven, Va. 




WILLIAM SKINNER SCHOOL DURING EARLY YEARS (1920'S) 

Roland Ward, Mary Watkins, Mary Sue Logan, Careseta Hill, Dorothy Lee Cornick, Adell Goodman, Thelma Hunter, Nellie 
Goodman, Inez Ballard, Van Dee Johnson, Beatrice Hunt, William Lee Goodman, Charlie Williams, Carlton 9Mutt) Willis, Johnny 

Boy Long, Marthy Wright, Mrs. Elliott with Bu Willis Sitting Left to Right Alene Logan (standing) , 

Rorence Hill, Dablet Jones , Warrick Wright, Robert Hunt, , , , Robert Hardy and Mary Logan. 



124 



so Years Educator 

EMMMHAIBSTOM 



A native and life-long resident of Virginia Beach, Mrs. Emma 
Hairston was the daughter of the late W.N. Williams, Jr. and Mrs. 
Georgie Williams, and wife of the late James W. Hairston, formerly a 
Virginia Beach mortician. 

She graduated from the Old Booker T. High School and received 
her B.A. degree from Knoxville College Term., and her M.A. from 
Virginia State College Petersburg. She has done frirther study at 
Hampton Institute, Teachers College of Columbia University, and the 
University of Maine. 

HER FIRST teaching position was in 
Booker T. Washington High School, 
Norfolk, where she taught one year. The 
second was in Tidewater Institute on the 
Eastern Shore of Virginia for one and a half 
years and then she married. 

After living away for a year, she came 
back to Virginia Beach was appointed a 
teacher in Oceana Elementary School which 
she had attended as a child, and no 
improvements or any visible changes had 
taken place. The late Pauline Spruill was the 
teacher there and Mrs. Hairston made the 
second one, teaching grades 3 through 7, 
while Mrs. Spruill taught grades 1 and 2. 
There were so many first and second graders 
that riiey had to be divided this way. 

EACH ROOM had a potbellied heater, 
a water pail and common dipper from which 
no one was allowed to drink, pupils either 
brought collapsible cups from home or paper 
cups which they made. There were brooms 
for each room, a few boxes of crayons, and 
an axe. The axe was there to spHt the sticks 
of wood on the wood pile. 



\ 




Emma Hairston first principal of 
Seatack Elementary School. 



125 




Photo: Oceana School bmiaings 
1932, in Princess Anne County, 
Virginia. In 1894 -189S Superintent 
John E. Massey reported a census of 
Colored Teachers, listed Mamie 
Bradley and Sarah E. Handle as 
teachers of the school. The school 
continued through 1949, when it was 
torn down because of its condition. 

Collection ofArchey G. Richardson 
at Virginia State Archives in 
Petersburg, Va. 



Teachers and pupils were 
janitors. In the cold weather 
the pupils gather around the 
heater to warm until the 
entire room was comfortable. 
Frequently there was a large 
pot of soup on the heater 
cooking. Different students 
brought vegetables and Mrs. 
Hairston brought soup bones 
and a little meat that was 
delicious soup prepared by 
the older girls. Those were 
days of hardships. Both 
teachers and pupils enjoyed a 
healthy relationship and the 
parents worked well with the 
school programs. The student as a whole were much more studious as a 
whole than those of today. Many of them walked around five miles one way 
just to be in school and get and education. 

AFTER A FEW years, the enrollment increased so rapidly that a third 
teacher was added a Miss Poole from Hampton Institute. Miss Poole 
remained at Oceans only one year and the late Mrs. Sarah Robins 
succeeded her. The following year, Mrs. Spruill took sabbatical leave to 
study and the late Mrs. Beatrice Gormandy was added to the staff. 

The enrollment continued to increase, so a room in the Masonic Hall 
was rented and Mrs. Helen Johnson was hired, however this did not suffice. 
Mrs. Hairston asked the superintendent to buy a cabin for the fourth grade 
and hire another teacher which he did. Miss Lucille Mosely, now Mrs. 
Maddox, was added to the staff. Now there were five teachers and almost 
300 students. 

Mrs. Hairston called the parents together and had attorney Victor Ashe 
present to discuss the possibility of getting a bus for Oceana School. A 
committee of one, Mr. Solomon Parker, went to the superintendent and 
transportation was furnished both Oceana and Seatack Schools. This was 
the first time elementary Negro children were given bus transportation. 

Principal. EIGHTEEN YEARS at Oceana was a long time as teaching 
principal but it eventually paid off. On the first Sunday in March, 1952 the 
three schools, Oceana, Seatack and Great Neck, consolidated to form the 
Seatack Elementary School. It was a great day for teachers, pupils, and 
parents to attend the dedication of the first consolidated school for Negroes 
in Princess Anne GDunty. 



126 



There were twelve class rcxjms, an auditorium that seated about 
500, a cafeteria with seating capacity for 250 a shift, a clinic, clerks' 
and principal's office, and a library. The library had to be used for a 
classroom immediately for there were over 450 pupils, twelve teachers 
and a non- teaching principal. Mrs. Hairston became the first 
principal. 



THE FIRST three months the teachers raised $1,500.00 to set up 
the teacher's lounge. The following September a goal of $4,500 was 
set to buy a few band instruments and uniforms. This goal was reached 
in less than three months. This was the First Negro Band in Princess 
Anne County. Along with the band there were some 40 majorettes. 
Miss Vemetta Lee was the first band instruaor with about 40 pupils 
in the band firom the 5th through 7th grades. She was most successful 
with them and in May they had a parade fi-om Seatack Elementary 
School to Seatack volunteer Fire Department. 

Mrs. Hairston says the years in Seatack Elementary School were 
years of hard work with long hours, sometimes fi-om 8:00 a.m. until 
6:00 p.m. but it was rewarding because she saw it grow fi-om 450 
pupils to over 1,000 pupils and 32 teachers. 



Emma Hairston at Seatack 
Elementary School about 1969. 




127 



IN 1962, Mrs. Hairston became an elementary Supervisor over 
Seatack, Seaboard and Bettie F. Williams Elementary Schools. 

She introduced the idea of obtaining federal funds to provide classes 
for the disadvantaged and slow learners. Mr. Cox, the superintendent, 
called all the supervisors together for a meeting. He then sent Mr. J. 
Owens his assistant, and Mrs. Hairston to Norfolk to confer with Keith 
Williams who was working with federal funds at that time. After writing 
up the projea and it was okayed, Mrs. Hairston was made the Director 
of Head Start. 

Mrs. Hairston worked in the community all of her life, going into 
homes helping to provide food clothing for the needy families, sometimes 
through soliciting and at other times from her own personal fimds. 

SHOE WAS one of the original members of the original Virginia 
Beach Branch of the N.A.A.C.P. Emma Hairston died July, 1995, at the 
age of 96. 

This article appeared in THE ANSWER 1982. It was the first 
newspaper in Virginia Beach published by an African -American. 
Onmer: E. George Minns 





f'i TOP: Emma Cason Broum was a 
teacher at Nimmo Colored School - 
1930's. 



TOP LEFT: Broad Creek School-1933 
Courtesy of Archey Richardson 
Collection. Virginia State University, 
Petersburg, Virginia. 



BOTTOM LEFT: Union Kempsville 
School-1946 



128 



OTHEHONE& WO ROOM SCHOOL HOUStS 



Typical inside view of 

many of the one or two 

room school houses in 

Princess Anne County. 

Middle Left: 

St. John School No. 1 

in 1932. Location Davis 

Comer & Virginia 

Beach Blvd. 

Middle Right: The 

McPherson School 

original building burned 

on Dec. 14,1932. The 

school moved to this 

Odd Fellows Hall 

building in Lynnhaven. 




Bottom: Nimmo School 

No.2 located on the 

church grounds of 

Mt.Zion Church 1933. 

All photographs on this 

page courtesy ofArchey 

Eichardson Collection, 

Virginia State University 

Archives, Petersburg, VA 



129 










Top: Pleasant Ridge School 1980. 

Middle: Ebenezer School opened 

in 1872, the first teacher 

was Everett Williams. 

The first classes ivere held in the 

rear of the first church buildifig 

made of logs. This is a two room 

structure built in 1910 on the 

churchyard of Ebenezer Baptist 

Church. Photo was in 

taken 1934. The Ebenezer 

School closed in 1946. 

Bottom Left: Newlight School 
crowed to capacity 1 946. 

Bottom Right: Two Newlight School 

pupils by a broken pump, the 

schools only source of drinking 

water. November 1946. 









130 




TOP: NIMMO SCHOOL GRADES 1-7 1922 



BOTTOM UNKNOWN STUDENTS IN PRINCESS ANNE COUNTY 




131 




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132 







PRINCESS AMHECOUNH 

luMlnMlwU uUHUUt The dedication of the Princess 
Anne County Training School October 1937, was an important event in the 
history of schools for blacks in Princess Anne County. It was the result of 
overhelming interest and cooperation of parents and teachers because their 
dreams of about 13 years finally came true. 

Their dream began in 1925 at a meeting at Mt. Olive Baptist Church on 
Birdneck Rd. Parents and teachers decided it was time to have a separate 
high school for their children. They formed Princess Anne County Training 
School Association to accomplish that goal. 

As late as 1933, Princess Anne County had no public high school facility 
for black children nor did the county school board desire to make any provi- 
sions for such. Princess Anne County at that time already had three high 
schools, Oceana High School, Kempsville High School, Creeds High 
School, but all three were for white students only. 

With opposition from the County School board black parents and teach- 
ers raised money through contests, dances, collections pie sales and on sev- 
eral occasions each black adult was asked to contribute SI. 00 to the cause. 
Finally, they had enough money to purchase the property for their school. 

In the Clerk's office of Princess Anne County Circuit Court on the 11th 
day of August, 1926. This plot was received with a deed recorded in Deed 
Book 140, page 314. 

MINUTES OF SCHOOL BOARD MEETING 
February 19, 1930: 

A committee from the Colored School Leagues appeared stat- 




THADDEUS C. SMITH, SR. 

He was the first principal of 

the new Princess Anne County 

Training School 1938 

FACING PAGE: First graduating 

class of Princess Anne County 

Training School. 



133 




TOP: DANIEL RIDDICK ivas the second 
president of the Princess Anne County 
Training School Association. 

BOTTOM: MILLIE McPHERSON 
trustee of the Princess Anne County 
Training School Association. Courtesy 
of Archey Richardson Collection, Virginia 
State University Archives Petersburg,VA 




ing that they had raised an amount of money and had purchased 
and paid for certain property as a school site. They requested the 
Board to assist them in establishing a training school. The Board 
instructed the Superintendent to look into the matter and report 
his recommendation at the next meeting. 

MINUTES OF SCHOOL BOARD MEETING 
April 16, 1930: 

The Superintendent brought to the attention of the School 
Board a letter from Mr. W.D. Greham, Supervisor of Negro Educa- 
tion, asking that the Board make a substantial appropriating to assist 
the negroes in the county in constructing a training school. After a 
along discussion Mr. Brock made a motion, seconded by Mrs. Fem- 
strom that we table the same for a period of one year and in the mean- 
while study the purpose of such a school, and ascertain the feasibility 
of a future expenditure toward such a construction. 

MINUTES OF SPECIAL SCHOOL BOARD MEETING 
March 1,1934: 

The construction of the proposed Training School for 
negroes was next discussed and it was agreed that this pro- 
ject be submitted. The Board voted to appropriate the sum 
the sum of $4,697.77 for the purpose of constructing said 
Training School, this amount to be derived from the contri- 
butions of local negroes ( 51,697.77 ) and the grant of 
S3,000 from die Slater Fund. 

Relative to the project for the construction of colored 
schools there was much discussion. On motion of Mr. Ko- 
rnegay, seconded by Mr. Ives and carried unanimously the 
Board voted to appropriate the sum of $1000 for the con- 
struction of a standard nvo-room school for colored chil- 
dren the money to be obtained from the 1933-1934 school 
operating fund. 

John F. Slater Fund - The fund was given in March 1 882, 
by John F. Slater of Connecticut, instituted a trust fund of 
one million dollars "for the purpose of uplifting the lately eman- 
cipated population of Southern States. Later the fund war in- 
creased to about two million dollars by the Peabody Fund. 

MINUTES OF SPECIAL SCHOOL BOARD MEETING 
March 19, 1935: 

A committee from the Princess Anne Training School 
Association, consisting of M.J. McPherson and Rev. L.P. 
Roberts, appeared before the Board and requested some 



134 



action in the near future which would insure educational facilities 
for the people beyond the seventh grade. They also presented a 
resolution from the Training School Association as follows: 

"Tfce officers and members of the Training School Association 
held a meeting on the date to discuss the necessity of having a 
Training School and trattsportation for our boys and girls. 

"After some discussion, a motion was made to appoint a com- 
mittee to meet your honorable board. 

"During the year we have been working, we have to our credit, 
to put at your disposal, four acres of land, paid for; $1,079.00 in 
the County Treasurer's office and $974.48 in the Merchant Me- 
chanics Bank. 

"In view of this fact we are asking you to please build us a 
school. 

"Thank you in advance for your consideration, we are. 

Obediently yours. 

COMMITTEE 

M.J. McPherson 

M.J. Williams 

L.H. Brinkley 

D. Riddiclc President 

N.S. Jemigan, Acting Secretary 
After some discussion in which the board showed interest in 
the request, the Superintendent was instruaed to invite Arthur 
D. Wright, president of the Slater Fund to appear before the 
Board at its April meeting in order that a financial plan for the 
building might be discussed. 
The remaining amount 
of 14,000 was a grant from 
the federal government 
(Works Progress Adminis- 
tration). The school is of 
monohthic concrete con- 
struction and contains four 
class rooms, a hbrary, as- 
sembly room and a princi- 
pal's office. It was designed 
by the Rudolph, Cooke and 
Van Leeuvwen of Norfolk, 
Virginia. The building con- 
sisted of four classrooms. 




LH. BRINKLEY 
Trustee of the Princess Anne 
Training School Association 

Agricidture Building 




**£ 



135 



principal's office and library. 

A year later with the help of fluids from parents and the WPA a two room 
building was constructed. This building consisted of classrooms for agriculture 
and home economics. 

The faculty consisted of Thaddeus C. Smith, principal; Harry Robinson, 
teacher of agriculture, Hattie Goodman and Bettie V. Forbes. 

By June 1941, when the Princess Anne Training School received accreditation 
as a Class "A" high school by the State Department of Education, the Training 
School Association had contributed more than $5,000.00 to the completion of the 
school and purchasing equipment. 




l-7th Grade teachers in Princess Anne County -1950's. 



136 



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f 137 




Mr. W. Francis Taylor 



138 



And Jesus said unto them, because of your unbelief: For verily I say unto 
you, if ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this 
mountain, remove rence to yonder place; and it shall remove, and nothing 
shall be impossible to you. 

17th Chapter SL Matthew - 20th verse 

The long Struggle For 



Eaual Schools 



I was at the Seatack School one night 
in early winter 1944, to attend a N.A.A.C.P Meeting, at the conclusion of the 
P.T.A, Meeting of the school. The P.T.A. was so lengthy I decided to go in 
and wait for the meeting to dose. When I got in I discovered that a very heated 
discussion was going on between the parents and teachers in regards to turning 
over the school to the county, with a threat of taking away one of the teachers, 
the county was not paying if this wasn't done. Remind you the school was 
purchased with public funds by, the citizens of Seatack. There were three 
teachers, the county was paying two and the parents the third. The School 
Board's letter really made me upset, and the people too. When I discovered 
some wanted to turn it over to them. For the first time in my life had I ever 
heard of individuals building schools and hiring teachers, when I legally knew 
it was a responsibility of the respective county. I raised so much cain in the 
meeting until I was appointed chairman of a committee to see the School 
Board in reference to the bad school conditions 
at Seatack, Oceana and Great Neck. 

After surveying conditions of the past and 
present history of these schools, I nearly went 
into hysterics, and decided to make a personal 
survey of the entire county's Negro Schools. I 
found after nearly a year of secret surveying and 
investigating that these schools weren't 
suffering half as bad as others in other, sections 
of the county. I also found several others that 
didn't belong to the county and the county was 

too trifling, to even replace a 26(): window pane in the winter months. Then I 
was asked in a special called mass meeting in the Training School in the fall of 
1946, that I be permitted to use the name of the N.A.A.C.P. (That had less 
then 35 members, and not $7.00 in the Treasurer), the Princess Anne Covinty 
Civic Organization, that was just a few weeks of its existence. (But wasn't 
functioning) and the Training School P.T.A. that was the contribution faaor 
in the success of my school fight londer the name of the Princess Anne County's 
Citizen Committee of which I was and still is its chairman. In the initial groxind 




Exterior view of the one-room, 

Blacku'ater School, one of the 

oldest buildings in the colored 

school system in a large 

number of which part-time 

classes are taught by one 

teacher. 

Journal & Guide Newspaper, 

Saturday November 30, 1946. 

Courtesy of the New Journal & 
Guide Newspaper. 



139 



Interior view of the Blackwater 
showing some of the broken-down 
desks. W. Frances Taylor Jr., 
Chairman of the Joint Citizens 
Committee, stands by a drinking 
water bucket and holds up a 
dipper used by all of the pupils. 

Courtesy of the New Journal & 
Guide Newspaper 



Personal letter written by Francis 
Taylor 1946. 



work of our committee, the Training School P.T.A. should get all the credit. 
Honorable mention should go to many persons especially to Mrs. Mary 
J. Whitehurst who attended all of our heated meetings, (and also resided in 
the same section with Jno. B.Dey the chairman of our School Board.) and 
to C.I. Siler, my stick of dynamite when needed. Most of the real rough 
meetings with Mr. Odx, was just myself and Siler. Many of those meetings 
were series of all types of lie calling, using Mr. Cox's own sworn to report, 
as compiled in the Supt. of Public instructions Report to the School Board. 
(State School Board) When we had decent meetings Mr. Henry Brinkley, 
Hi'"l *• ~ .^ ' p and Mr. Millie V. 

McPherson both deacons 
■" were carried along for 
^ spiritual prestige with the 
- Board. I hope this 
information along with the 
2 enclosery will help you. A 
friend of mine who teaches 
in Washington, borrowed 
all of my material on the 
schools, for a P.H.D. thesis 
in Sociology at Columbia 
this summer, another 
friend of yours has quite a 
bit at another school this 
summer. All were 

clippings, copies of my 
lettered sent and received. 
But you have some information that I have never revealed before, on how I 
got the idea. I heard a new one a few months ago. Deacon Brinkley in 
introducing me before a talk, said while I was sick in 1945, the Lord shown 
me a vision why lie on the Lord not only me. 

Please return all this information for my own files, as I won't hardly let 
any one else use it. I hope our will pardon the delay, but I have been 
extremely busy and is home now for a few days, resting. 

Respectfully. W. Francis Taylor Jr. 

P.S. My personal's if you need it, I graduated from the Booker T. 
Washington High School in Norfolk, studied at Howard University in 
Washington D.C. My hobbies are Statistics and Law which I contribute as 
solely responsible for the school success, because there wasn't much help I 
could get being stubborn plus a tainted ego in regards to my statistical and 
lead knowledge, hat's a rough statement but few people knew themselves 
that well or rather not crazy enough to admit it. 




140 




R'lert Char-ies Sois."')'" 





3a»iJ J|f*ia/)5o Mi/fer Tr-es, 




-^.C.eodnion iTitss? Sj'^ 




Prlnce^bAna 

r^^/7c'^j/ Training ScliQO I 



Cl^ss of 



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Jorle Re id Sar^snc At arms 



(•laJ<ie Wood PresiJent- 



LaanJer vVi'.TiiamS V'ce *•«. 



141 




142 



CHAPTER 10 



SEA VIEW BaCH 

OCERNBREEZt 

PABKaSHOTa&RESmURUn 



These Tidewater resort facilities drew visitors from all sections of Virginia, 
North Carolina and other states. On hot summer weekends Shore Drive traffic 
was tied up for miles. They were the results of segregation, at a time when blacks 
were forbidden to attend the white resorts and amusement parks. 




143 




cz/fnd 



/\MU^E/HE(\T PARK ~^ 



Logo used for Ocean Breeze 
Beach and Amusement Bark 
advertisement in 1941. 



W.W. Consolvo, John C. Davis and Joseph Nelson (all white), opened a bathing 
beach and amusement park exclusively for blacks May 30,1933. The 75 -acre tract is 
now part of Bay lake Pines just off Shore Drive. 




Col. George W. 
Banks, vice president 
and general manager 
of Ocean Breeze 
Beach. 
Photo: 1937 



Ocean Breeze, Hew Venture, In Historic Spot 

Bath Houses, Dance Pavilion Among Features 

Reprint from: Journal &c Guide Newspaper, May 27,1933 

The Negro population in Norfolk, Tidewater Virginia and nearby North Carolina 
need have no worries over sweltering in the summer heat already forecast by the 
weather man. Norfolk itself will have a beach that's second to none in the country. 

Ocean Breeze, located near the interseaion of the Chesapeake Bay and the 
Atlantic Ocean, is to serve the beach needs of the thousands that flack to the seaside 
during the hot months. 

The informal opening, on May 30, will make history for Norfolk, as this will be 
the first time that Negroes have had a local beach worthy of note. Plans have already 
been completed to to entertain the large crowds cxpeaed. 

Already about 20 men are at work making improvements to the beautiful natural 
ocean front scenery. A new bath house to accommodate more than 500 persons, is 
nearing completion which is 25 yards of the 'low water'' mark. 

The dance pavilion, also new, will be just a few yards below the bath houses 
down the 1,900 feet of beach space. 

About 10 or 15 well-planned concessions line the beach between the dance 
pavilion and the bath houses. Ice cream, pop, hot dogs, hamburgers, and every thing 
that goes to make a perfect day at the beach, will be sold at popular city prices. 

Quite out of the ordiiiary, many shade trees cover the 75-acre tract extending 
from the ocean front back to the beautiful Shore Drive Route, the latter of which 
offers an all paved route from the city property. All vinder brush has been cut away 
so that an almost complete canopy is formed. Riastic fiirniture wiU be constructed in 
the shadiest spots on the place. This will afford a perfea setting, for both, private 
and public picnics. 

A 25-foot roadway has been construaed over the quarter-mile span fi-om the 
beach. No stooping is necessary along the way as the road is suflBciently wide to 



144 



afford the passage of three cars at once. 

Ocean Breeze is located on a very historic site, alongside beautifiil Lake 
Joyce. In the midst of this lake is an island, which, as the legend goes was 
once the rendezvous of Black Beard, the Pirate. It is said that this famous 
rover hid the bulk of his booty in this spot. 

It goes on that Lake Joyce was not a lake then, rather, an inlet from the 
bav, but the continued force of the wind and washing of the water has 
completed dosed the entrance. As a result the inlet has been converted into 
a fresh water lake, unrivalled for beauty in this section. 

Arrangement have been made with the Norfolk Southern Bus Company 
to transport passengers from the center of the dty directly to the waterfront 
for the very low fare of 35 cents round trip. There will be no walking 
necessary, as the busses will operate on a frequent schedule. 



Dance painlion at Ocean 
Breeze Beach and 
Amusement Park 
Photo: 1950's Courtesy of 
Edgar Broum. 




145 




SEAVIEW BEACH 



'Once called the largest and best "Negro Beach Resort in America." 

$100,000 BUCK RESORT 




William T. Mason, President of 

Seainew Hotel and Beach 

Corporation. 

Incorporated January 4, 1945 



Beach and summer resort facilities available to the black public was 
vastly enhanced when the former building and site of the swank Club 500, 
situated on the Bay Shore Drive near the State Park at Cape Henry and 
acquired by local black interest opened on May 30, 1945. 

The commodious building originally the Knight Templars Club, later 
know as the Bay Shore Beach dub, occupied a 300 - foot plot in the center 
of a six-and-one-half tract with an expensive stretch of beautiful white sand 
fronting direcdy on the ocean. 

CORPORATION 

At a cost of $45,000 the building and site was purchased by the 
Seaview each and Hotel Corporation, a group of 21 local black business 
and professional men. It was planned to be the largest, most attractive and 
finest equipped shore resort for blacks on the Atiantic Coast. When taken 
possession of by its new owners, it was appraised at 85,000. 

The new corporation acquired a cost of 535,000 a surrounding 50-acre 
tract of xindeveloped land which was to plotted and sold for the erection 
of permanent resort homes. 



146 




THE OFFICERS 

The company taking over the property from white ownership was heaed 
by W.T. Mason, president: Wilbur O. Watts, vice president: the Rev. J. A. 
Handy, secretary, and Dr. R. J. Brown, treasurer. 

The board of directors, in addition to these top ofScer, was composed of 
Leroy Berry, Andrew M. Sutton, Joseph D. Wilbur, Dr. U. S. G. Jones, Dr. 
Alfred C. Fentress, Dr. Irvin Watts, W.E. Waters, A. J. Trice, R. E. 
Spellman, James R. Purvis, William Moore, William Marks, Herbert G. 
Carter, Dr. H. Randolph Boffinan, Charles Arris, Talmadge Johnson and 

Thomas Brown. 

THE BUILDING 

The structure, 300 feet in length of two-story frame construction, with a 
red roof and trimmings, presented an imposing view-from the main 
highway. 

For more than eight weeks workmen engaged in putting in shape 
preparatory to the scheduled opening on May 30, 1945. 

It was equipped with an expensive and beautiftilly appointed ballroom, 
on each side of which ran a spacious mezzanine 
floor on which table service was provided. 
There are numerous large and cozy rooms for * 

transient or permanent guest, a powder room 
for ladies, a wide men's rest room and grill 
room. 



Photo: Bay front Club: In 1927, 
CM. Emerson and A.A. Vaughan 
formed a corporation called the 
Hygeia Club. The building was 
used by whites as a dance hall. In 
1936, new otimers purchased the 
building and renamed it the Club 
500. Big name bands ivere brought 
in and its popularity soared. The 
building was later sold to the 
Shriners of Virginia Beach and they 
renamed it the Templar Club. 

By 1 945, the building was sold 
to the Seaview Beach and Hotel 
Corporation, a group of 21 black 
business men. It then became 
Seaview Beach, and served the area 
for more than 18 years. It became 
as one of the best resorts on the 
East Coast for blacks. In the early 
60's the property was sold and by 
1965, the building was torn down. 
Seagate Colony Condominiums on 
Shore Drive now occupies the spot 
were this building seri'ed both 
whites and blacks through the 
years. 

Courtsey of Edgar Brown 



mr. 



LOCKER FOR BATHERS 

Fitted lockers and showers in separate 
compartments for men and women were 




Photo: Sadie 
Shaw and 
her daughter 
enjoying a 
cool stvim 
at Seaview 
Beach in the 
early 
1950's. 



147 



available for use of bathers. Adjoining the building on 
the beach side was the modem " starlight" plaza. This 
was a large outdoor dance pavilion, shade colorfixl 
umbrellas for day use and equipped with unique lights 
for the evening. 

A large plot of cleared and gravel - covered ground 
comprised the main entrance to the hotel and beach, 
affording ample parking space for automobiles. 



EDEAL FOR BATHING 

The strip of the beach that was developed extend more than 700 feet 
long the seashore and descended gradually into the ocean, providing ideal 
conditions for surf bathing, especially for children, and persons just learning 
to swim. 

The beach was easily accessible 
to Norfolk. It was reached via by the 
Norfolk and Southern bus and route 
to Cape Henry Special buses were 
fiirnished during the summer for 
transporting groups for picnics and 
outings. 



BEAUTIFUL DRIVE 

The drive to the beach takes one 
down concrete boulevards by some 
of the most beautiful lakes in Vir- 
ginia, and through gorgeous strips 
of wood. The historic Lynnhaven 
Inlet was crossed before reaching, 
Seaview Beach, where dancing may 
be had under the blue open sky on 
the "starlight plaza," or a stroll down 
the beach listening to the wild waves 
beat the sandy shore of the Chesa- 
peake Bay. 

Reprint From: Journal & Guide 
Newspaper, Saturday May 26, 
1945. 



iH 



o3i£/?>[ 



XM^ Near NoRpolk **- 

AMERICA'S BEST EQUIPPED 
PARK FOR COLORED FAMILIES 

HOW TO GET THERE BY BUS . . . take Norfolk - Southern Bus at 

Brambleton Avenue and Church Street, Norfolk. 

BY AUTO - On Virginia Route 60 to Norfolk Continue on Shore Drive 1 mile 

past Lynnhaven Bridge to entrance of Seaview Beach. 

Drive t mile past Lynnhaven Bridge to entrance of Seaview Beach. 

WATCH FOR ANNOUNCEMENTS OF 

Free Acts & Famous Name Bands 

^ NEW FOR THE SMALL FRY. 
RING WITH LIVE PONIES 



Amusements 

Rides • Sports 

Refreshments - Picnics 

Ample Parking Accommo- 
dations in Enlarged Area 



CROUP 
OUTINGS 

For Charter Buses 
Dial 93370 Ports. 



148 



PABKEH'S BEMCH MOm anH RESTAUTMMT 






Photos: 

Top: Front view of Parker's Motel 

Middle: Kitchen area of of 
restaurant 

Right:: One of the cottages in the 
early 1960's. 

Bottom: Thomas Parker(owner) 
top and him standing outside of 
motel office in August 1964. 

From 1947 to 1971,Thomas 
Parker and his mother, were 
oumers of Parker's Beach Motel 
and Restaurant for blacks. Parker's 
was located on Shore Drive next to 
Seaview Beach. 



— <B!*.>->i.^r5:V.'" .. ''■H~^'^:f^' 



149 




E. George Minns 
NAACP President, Virginia Beach Chapter 



w 



Our Time Has Come^^ 



The current city of Virgirm Beach <was founded almost 33 years ago in 
l963.That was a time of segregation, when black citizens were denied the right 
to eat at hinch counters or spend nights at hotels on the oceanfront. AH such 
basic, human commodities and public facilities were rjudrdy for whites only. 

Now our time has come for inclusion in the real politiad, dedsum-mafdng 
process of this city. 



150 



CHAPTER 11 



THENJlTIOHUaSSOCMTIOH 
FOR THE anVAHCEMEHT OF 
GOIORED PEOPIE 



wlfBlttlSBBBCU UHSPlBf in the month of October, fifty-six 
years ago two occurrences - one tragic and the other marked the beginning of the 
Virginia Beach Chapter of the National Association of Colored People formally 
called the Princess Anne Chapter of the NAACP. October 16, 1941 George Smith, 
black (nicknamed Lobster) was shot in the back by a white police officer Guy 
Barnes. Officer Barnes was on patrol duty when dispatched to 19th & Cypress Av- 
enue the Shady Rest Inn to a disturbance. Local newspaper the Virpjinia Beach News 
FIRST -OCTOBER 17,1941^crpe thefrllawing account: 

From the preliminary investigation. Chief of Police W.P. 
Dodson stated that officer Barnes had been dispatched to Cypress 
Avenue and 19th Street to quell some disturbance, and found 
Smith, his wife and a Ne^ess, Lula Sawyer, having an alterca- 
tion, with Smith brandishing a razor. Cfficer Barnes attempted 
to take control of the situation, and attempted to arrest Smith, 
who ran, discarding the officers order to stop. Cfficer Barnes 
drew his revolver and fired in an attempt, according to reports, 
to shoot at the ground, or possibly to wound the Negro in the legs 
to retard his flight. 

The bullet, however struck George Smith in the 
back-The wound proved fatal, and Smith died on the way to 
a Norfolk hospital. Guy Bams was later held under a tech- 
nical charge of involuntary manslaughter. 

Circumtances surrounding the shooting sent a wave of 
revulsion rippling throughout the county's black communi- 
ties. 

White officer shots black citizen in the back 
of the head, mistakes his head for his feet. 



NELSON H. DAVIS 

First President of the 

Virginia Beach Chapter 

of the NAACP 





151 



WILLIAiM T. CONWAY 




PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE NAACP 



Nelson H. Davis 


1st. President October 1941 


Rev. D.T. Nelson 


1946 


Frances Taylor 




Mr. W.T. Conway 


1954- 


Lee Williams 


mid- 1960's 



The Rev. J. A. Beckett, pastor of Saint Mark A.M.E. Church 
immedately called the black ministers of the commimity together. Some 
of the originial participants were: the late Rev. L.S. Roberts of Mt. Zion 
A.M.E. Church Rev. Jesse Smith of First Baptist Church, Lynnhaven, 
Rev. G.L. Parker of Morning Star Baptist Church and many others. 
Since they that did not have a active chapter of the NAACP in Princess 
Anne County they immediately called the Norfolk Chapter of NAACP 
for assistance. They then proceed to form their own chapter. The 
foxinding meeting took place in St. Mark A.M.E. Church, located on 
Potters Road. 

Attorney Oliver Hill of Richmond, Virginia came down to assist in 
the case on behalf of the National Association of Colored People. The 
trial for Guy Barnes was held October 24, 1941. Judge Eugene V. 
Greham, Police Justice of Virginia Beach withheld his decision pending 
the trial of the two women involved in the case. 

On October 31,1941, Judge Gresham gave a decision of not guilty in 
the prosecution of Guy L. Barnes for manslaughter in the fatal shooting 
of George Smith. 

Some of the original foimders were as follows: the late 
Nelson Davis, first president, Emma W. Hairston, Cherry 
Sawyer, Margaret Preston, Richetta Green, Beatrice 
Gormandy, Eugene Wilson, J.L. Bell, Deacon Henry 
Brinkley of Union Baptist Church, Deacon Enoch Morgan 
and John Minns of Mt. Olive Baptist Church, Deacon Ellis 
Williams of Morning Star Baptist Church, Deacon M.J. 
McPherson of First Baptist Church, Lynnhaven, Deacon 
Jeflfery, Ebenzer Baptist Church, Deacon Robert Jackson of 
Union Baptist Church, Brother Charlie Woodhouse of Mt. 
Zion AM. E. Church and many others not mentioned. 



Rev. G.L. Parker late 1960's to early 1970's 

Rev. E. Ray Cox 1970's 

Mrs. Alice Walton until around 1978 

Mr. Fitzpatrick 

James M. Bailey 1978 - 1984 

Mrs. Virginia Little 1978- 1988 served two terms 

E. George Minns 1988 - 1996 

Sandra Smith- Jones Presiding president 




VIRGIMA LITTLE 



LEE WILLL\MS 



152 



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m 



O 
m 
> 

33 



to 
o 

03 




153 




154 



CHAPTER 12 




■^*»!*:^&'^.?iS£*£i"i^v:!^jr>^';; 



THESERnCKVOlUmaR 
HBEDEPJUITUmN0.12 

During World War H, the Civil Defense 
Department organized numerous Civil Defense Units 
in Tidewater area. One of these units was located in 
Seatack, a little community, covering six miles in an 
area between Oceana and Virginia Beach. This unit was 
composed of men from the Seatack, Atlantic Park and 
Cypress Avenue areas of Princess Anne County. These 
men were trained to fight forest fires. 

The Civil Defense Department, flinded by the 
federal government provided the unit with fire fighting 
tools and equipment such as bush hooks, forks, shovels, 
5 five gallon water back packs and a 500 gallon water 
tank mounted on a trailer. This tank was not equipped 
with a pump, it only had several feet of hose to dispense 
the water. The equipment was kept in the Oceana Civil 
Defense building at 141 Birdneck Road where the 
Seatack Community Center now stands. 



Top: Seatack Fire Department and in 
rear of the building the Seatack 
Recreation Center. 
Photo Taken: 1970 




Facing Page: Tloe Oceana Civil Defense Building & 
Officials. David Wright, Jim Sharp, Enoch Morgan, 
Rev. Beckett, H.K Robinson, John W. Sharp, Millie 
McPherson, O. Bray, Ossie Woodhouse Jr., Clarence 
Morgan,William Grimstead, Levi Kearney and Ossie 
Woodhouse Sr. Photograph taken 1943. 



155 



completing the course in 
Elementary Firemanship. 
Issued to Cylester Shaw 
Septembers. 1948. 



Reverend David Wright was appointed Civil Defense Warden. When there 

was a forest fire Rev. Wright would attach a trailer with a water tank to the back 

of a truck and pull it to the location of the fire. The firemen then strapped on five 

gallon water packs on their backs and began the task of trying to extinguish the 

fire. 

After the war in the year 1948, the citizens of Seatack realized that they were 
Certicate of Credit issued .,,..,,,_ _, „ 

by the State Board of "^ ^° almost isolated position should a fire occur. The calls were answered by 

Education of Virginia for Virginia Beach Fire Station. They decided they could help themselves instead of 

depending on others. The men and women of the Seatack area could work to- 
gether and save the $50 dollar fee that was charged by Virginia Beach Fire Station 
for calls outside the Beach Borough. 

Revenend Wright met 
with Chief E.B. Bayne, ex- 
plaining the great need for a 
fire department. Chief Bayne 
agreed and suggested they 
appoint five officers and his 
department would began 
training them. In July of 
1948, Wright and 19 other 
men formed the Seatack Vol- 
unteer Fire Department and 
the one story civil defense 
building became the fire- 




3nJmHtral l.Jl .3 ©utratum 




Sl^tfl Ifl to (Sjrtifg '^' ^'^' ■ ■^ '^^■^ f^-^ 



(r/-— — sA, ^., "7. . . - - ^ ■/'■ ^ > apprmedby tJie 

&tal? Soari iax Inratumai Sutratimt nf Itrgtnia 



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house. The first officers 
elected were: Rev. David 
Wright, President and 
Founder, Joseph V. Grim- 
stead - Vice President, Aaron Parsons- Recording Secretary, Harry Robinson- 
Financial Secretary, John Sharp - Treasurer, Cylester W. Shaw- First Fire Chief. 
Under the supervision of Chief Bayne, the men were carried through a very 
strenuous training program. They were also given instructions in fire-fighting, 
first aid, and other subjects required. After training the men were tested and a 
certificate awarded to each of them. Later the men took another more advanced 
training course. Chief Bayne trained the Seatack Volunteers in hose drills. They 
were tested by competing with other volunteer companies to see what company 
would be the first to complete the hose drill. The Seatack Volunteer Fire Depart- 
ment Co. 12 won first place by completing the task in twenty nine seconds. 

In 1954 the Department consisted Stephen Wilson, C.W. Shaw, Paul 
Hughes, Erving Hoggany, James E. Ellis, Wilbert Lewis, Zion Berry, Bernard 
Edney, Oscar V. Grimstead, Irving Gary, James Coston, Oscar V. Grimstead, 
Silas Hyman and 20 other members. 

The wives of the men formed a 12 woman auxiliary. Their job was to 



156 



I 



raise money for the organization. They sold dinners, lunches, put 
on mock weddings, door to door canvassing and other projects. 
These women were Mary Parsons, president, Mrs. Ira Watkins, 
vice president. Mrs. Minnie Hughes, Mrs. Rosa Lee Hoggany, 
Mrs. Katherine Gary, Mrs. Louise Grimstead, Mrs. Ann Eva 
Northern, Mrs. Sadie Shaw, Mrs. Gertrude White, Mrs. Vivian 
Woodhouse, Mrs. Aggie Gary and A-Irs. Mary Littman. 

The first piece of equipment purchased by the station was a 
giant red monster known as "BIG BERTHA." It was said to look 
like a cross between a tank and a boxcar. 

In 1951, funds were appropriated to purchase another fire 
truck. Sadly to say it was not enough money to purchase a 
Chevrolet chassis and Chuck Kadis for the sum of $5,499.00. 
David Wright secured a loan to complete the sale. 

As more equipment was added the need for more space became 
a problem. The summer of 1951, the firemen pulled together and 
added more rooms to the original structure and added a second 
floor. The lower floor housed two fire engines. The upper floor 
consisted the office, meeting room, game room, kitchen and 
bathroom. 

August of 1954, Chief Cylester W. Shaw was called into the 
military. Aaron A. Parsons became the second fire chief. 

Seatack Fire Station was integrated during the late 1960's or 
early 1970's. This action was necessary because the station was in 
need of volunteers.After thirty-two years as a privately chartered 
corporation, Seatack Fire Station had become a casualty of a drop 
in number of volimteer fire fighters. The station no longer met the 
quota established by the State Corporation Commission. Members 
of Seatack Fire Station decided not to renew their charter. When 
their charter expired the City of Virginia Beach 
took over the operation. 

In 1983, a new Seatack Fire Station named in 
honor of its predecessor was built at 927 South 
Birdneck Road. A brass plaque mounted outside 
the brick building bears the names of the 
founders. 



TOP: Cylester Shaw first Fire Chief. 

MIDDLE: Preston Watkins was the last 
secretary for the Seatack Fire Station. 

BOTTOM: First Bumper Engine, 1954 





157 




158 



Plaque located at the nnv Seatack Fire Station at Birdneck Road & General Booth Blvd. 




Seatack Fire Station and trucks 1957 



FACING PAGE:SEATACK HRE DEPARTMENT 

MEMBERS: Bottom Roiv: Left: Vernon Gary, Thomas Olds, George Parson, Melvin Gardner and Samuel Tticker 
Second Row: Cylester Shaw, David Wright, Aaron Parsons, Harry Robinson, John Sharp, Vernon Etheridge, E.Dukes, 
Paid Hughes, Albert Ferebee, James Catling, Alfred Morgan, Robert Smith, Fred Cardivell, Robert Smith. Third Row: 
Bernard Edney, Joseph Grimistead, Hallotved T. Wright, John Trotman, Edward Shaw, Preston Watkins, James Coston. 
Fourth Row: Leondais Northern, Henry White, not showned Erving Hoggatty Photo: Early 1970's 



159 



■jik^stMf^- 



r 













vW 



ROBERT SPARROW with his companion law enforcer LUCKY, a German Sherpard. Sparrow joined the 
Princess Anne County Police Force in 1947 as it's first black member, when it was only five-men strong. 



160 



CHAPTER 13 



sl^lJU^- 



t>i 



ncis 

OFTHEPASr 





TOP: 

Deiintt 

Cottage 

1939 



BOTTOM: 

Waiters at the 

Cavalier Hotel 

late mid 1930's 



161 




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162 



In thfl Circuit Court of Princess Anna County. 
To thn Hon. R. E. Boykln, 

Jud^e of said Court. 
The undersigned, a committee appointed by 'Unity Lodge 
No. 93, A. P. & A. mJ, of Princess Anne County, respectfully 
repr<<sent unto the Court as follows: 
That the said Lodge was established or consecrated on the 29'J^ 

day of July, In the yenr 1901, that said Lodge has been In c 

continuous existence since that date: 

That from said date up to a short time back, said Lodge has 
possessed no property of Its own, but has recently contracted 
for the purchase of a tract or lot near 'Grook" corner. In ta 
this County, said lot containing one half of an acre of land, 
the bounds of which will be specifically set forth in the 
deed to be executed and dRilvared whereby the said lot will 
be conveyed to the trustees elected by said Lodge for the 
purpose of holding the legal title to the said lot: that at 
a meeting of the said Lodge held on the 11th, day of Septembaa 
1907, the undorsignert were appointed a committee for the pur- 
pose of making application to yrur Honorable Court for the ap- 
pointment of the said trustees, and tnat at said meeting 
Scuthey Kellam, C. H. Painter, C. C. Dilday, Henry Phelps 
and Edward Johnson, were duly elected trustees for the said 
Lodge for tne pur ose of hciding the lef»l title to any 
property that may have been or that might be acquired by the 
said Lodge fcr its pur oses, subject tc the conClnnatlon of 
ycur Honornblo Court. A copy of the minutes of said meet- 
ing are herewith filed as a part hereof, snld minutes being 
duiy certified by the Worthy Master and Secretary of said 
Lodge, as is also filed as a part hereof, an affldavl^oor 
three members, in good standing, of said Lodge, who were 
present at said meeting. 

Your petitioners would, therefore respectfully pray that 
the said Southey Kellam, C. K. Painter, C. C. Dilday, Henry 
Phelps and Edward Johnson, be appointed trustees for the said 
Lodge for the purpose of holding the i egal title to the proper 
ty of the said Ledge, and to promote the purposes and objects 
of any conveyance of land or other property that has been, 
or that may be made for the purposes of said Lodge. 

And in duty bound they will ever pray. 

Committee. ) /lyf y^i^/?.!. 



v/-^ ) 



^'^U 



W. M. Unity Lodge &c. 



^&^t^^ldtdii- 



UHmiOOGCNO. 93 

Prince Hall Free and Accepted 
Masons of Virginia, Inc. Established July, 1901 




JOHN D. LINZIE 

2nd Worstiipfu! Master of Unity Lodge No.93. 




Lodge building in 1946, the downstairs served 
as a one-room school called St. John School. 

Princess Anne County Organizations Records 
Folder 18 Virginia State Library 



163 



0eUMHl0DBE#69 

Prince Hall Free and Accepted Masons of Virginia Inc. 
Established 1892 




WILLIAM A. GRIMSTEAD 

Worshipful Master 1945 -1947 
He also served as an Air Raid Warden in the Seatack area during World War 11. 



BOTTOM PHOTO: 1992 



OCEANA LODGE #69 F&AM 
Virginia Beach, Virginia 




Front Row: Marshall - P.M. Vernon Gary; Chaplain - Willie Bright; Tyler - James 
Wills; J.W. - Ernest H. Harris, Jr.; W.M. - Nelson G. Davis; S.W. - 
George Parker; J.D. - Paulvine Brown; Treasurer - P.M. Luther 
Banks. 

Back Row: S.S. - Gary L. Riddick; J.D. - Royal Evans, Jr.; Secretary - Wallace 
Drake; J.S. - Edward Johnson. 



164 



DUSYGHUNSOeiUUIDCHIUIineiUB 

ORGANIZED: Daisy Chain Chapter - 1929 Aster Chapter - 1955 
Dahlia Chapter - 1966 Zinnia Chapter - 1978 



DAISY CHAIN 1950 




DJUSKS-30THJmHmBSJUIYr959 

SEATED: Cherry Sawyer, Edith Smith, Hazel Mason, Olive Daughtry, Mae Jemigan, Elizabeth Davis, Mildred 

Manuel and Riiby Davis. 
STANDING: Asters Queen Fletcher, Sadie Shaw and Evelyn Lewis, Daisies Ira WatkJns, CI. Siler and Francis Taylor, 

Friends of the Daisies, Daisies Elizabeth Gilbert, Catherine Williams, Ruth Kates, and Edna Suttoru 



165 




WIUUMN.WnUMMS AMD GEORGIA JiMMAWIUIMMS 

William N. Williams was bom in 1852. He died in Princess Anne County on January 16, 1947. 
Georgia his wife was 96 years old when she completed 70 years of service as a midwife. 



166 




FIRST MEGHODEPUn SHERIFF 

This history making scene took place in the offices of the sheriff of 
Princess Anne County Friday, December 30, 1955, when Nelson H. Davis, 
right of center in above photo, prominent businessman of Virginia Beach, 
was sworn in as the first Negro deputy sheriff in Princess Anne County. 

The ceremony was performed by John V. Fentress, left. Clerk of the 
County Court. Witnessing the ceremony, left to right, are Mr. Fentress, W. 
Francis Taylor, president. Princess Anne County and Virginia Beach 
Citizens Committee; Mr. Davis, H. I. Siler and George Hatchet. Davis was 
appointed by John E. Mart, St. Sheriff. 



Identification card issue to Nelson 
H. Davis by the Princess Anne 
County Police Dept. Jan. 2, 1956. 

He was appointed the first presi- 
dent of the Natioruil Association for 
the Advancement of Colored People 
of Princess Anne County in 1941. 
Mr. Davis was the only black to 
hold a real estate license and the 
first black to be commissioned as a 
notary public in the county during 
the 40 's. 



IDENTIFICATION CARD 



NAME. 



Nelson H. Davis 



LOCAL ADDRESS 
EMPLOYED 



DESCRIPTION: AGE — _LH 



820-15^11 Sty Vj.» Beuch •' 
i^epu-uy ^.-er itT, PA County' 

210 



. HGT. 



"J-o 



. WGT_ 



EYES brown HAtR "blacl: • bld — r. unr:<: 'y'. 

THIS CARD iS TO BE USED FOR IDENTIFlCATtON PURPOSES ONLY 

PRINCESS ANNE COUNTY POLICE DEPARBIENT 

1/2/56 



datc 



FORM NO. tit - M.E.C. 



BY. 





Ident. Bureau } 



167 




H. L. Robinson Sr. 
Jury Commissioner 



Bobinson MameU Countjf Juiy Commissioner 

Circuit Court Judge Floyd E. Kellam of Princess Anne County listed the 
Jury Commissioners for 1957, he included the name of H.L.Robinson on the 
list. 

MR. ROBINSON was a teacher at Princess Anne County Training School 
and secretary of the Citizens Committee of Princess Anne County and Virginia 
Beach for the black schools. 

The duty of a Jury Commissioner is to selea jury panels for the year. Mr. 
Robinson was the only black citizen on the group of five. The others were Mrs. 
Virginia Wilson, Herman C. Clark, O. H. Buym and Stanley Holland. 

Journal & Guide Newspaper Jan.20,lQ57 




HameU Tax Assessor In Princess Anne County Jan. 1957 



Mrs. Alice Petty was the first black woman appointed as personal property 
tax assessor in Princess Anne County. 



168 




169 



NEUYSEABS 

Otvner of Nelly's 

Take Oiit.The best 

chicken on the 

oceanfront was sold 

at Nelly's. A large 

bou'l of soup sold for 

25 cents in the early 

1950- 1960's. 




_> 



ANN/iWmONllVElY 

Anna Watson Lively opened Anna's Cottages at the oceanfront in 1942, 
after much success in renting a room in her home. The cottages were 
located between Virginia Beach Blvd. and 18th Street. Her son William 
Watson noiv operates Anna's Cottages on 15th Street. 



170 




Lillian Ackiss 

Owner ofLill 's Grill 



ERMESTA BEAMWmS 

Hawkins Inn Restaurant 19 54 - 1970's 

Earnest afui Bea Hawkins sewed the best fried chicken in 
Tidewater from the late SO's to the early 70's. (Newtown Road) 

TOP: Wedding Anniversary 
BOTTOM: Inside view of Hawkins Inn Restaurant 





171 





Vimnia Beach, Va. yfl ^Y -^J 7, ^ ^^^ ' 
This is to Certify that ' J^O _■ §03 ' 



is a member of 



THE TOWN CLUB, Inc 



1 

(over) 



PRESroENT 



-^'*?. ^/ %:^2)fc^ 



SECRETARY 



TOP: Waiters at the Cavalier Hotel early 1930's 

LEFT: 1952 - Francis Taylor headivaiter at the 
Cavalier Beach Club & Cabano Club. 

RIGHT: Membership Card for the Toum Club. 



Ill 



HAWELBOODHM 

In 1933, Hattie Goodman became the first high school 
teacher for "colored" children in Princess Anne County. 
PHOTO: Taken in 1963. 





Pen & Ink drawing of the Odd Fellows Hall that 
housed the first high scljool for " colored children" 
of Princess Anne County. 




JOHN FUITOMMAIBON AMD ROSE MAIBON 

John Fulton Malbom was bom in Princess Anne County, 
November 185S. He died in 1945. His wife was Rose 
Sneed Malbon, bom February 1856, in Princess Anne 
County. 



173 



mom a. warren 

He was a white Catholic priest at St. Joseph's Catholic 
Church in Norfolk and he also ran the church's school 
for black children. 




HOME OF CHARLES WOODHOUSE 

Located a short distance from Pri/tcess Anne Court House on 
Princess Anne Road. 



KiDiiappiDBYmin 

ROBta-HOODEDHEH 

On September 1, 1926, Father Warren 
brought the Colored Boys Band from St. 
Joseph's Catholic School to give a concert 
on the lawn of Charles Woodhouse, a 
black man. Many students from Princess 
Anne County attended the Catholic school 
because there was no high school in the 
couttty for colored children.The purpose of 
the concert was to give the students a 
chance to play for their parents as a group. 

After the concert had been undencay 
for a while, suddenly several cars pulled up 
with men in ivhite robs with hoods 
covering their faces. Father Warren was 
quickly pulled in to one of the cars and 
taken to an unknown spot near Pungo. 

Father Warrren said they questioned 
him severely for more than an hour. Tloe 
impression had gotten out among the 
white people, that the band was cotnposed 
of "white and colored boys and girls, " and 
there had developed objection to the 
concert on that account. Some of the 
hooded men even thought the priest was 
going to start a school for colored children. 
Father Warren assured them there were no 
white children in the band and that he had 
no plans to start a school for colored 
children in Princess Anne County. 



174 



PBIMDESSUIHCeOUmYTmHIHBSeHOOl 1955 




Miss Olive F. Daughtry 

Sponsor 

Mathematics 





Mrs. Jean 0. Siler 

Sponsor 
Conmercial Education 



175 





Mr. H. L. Robinson 

Chemistry 

Agriculture 



Miss Hattie L. Goodman 
English 





Mrs. Catherine M. Frink 
Librarian 



Mrs. Fredrlca R. Ballard 
Home Economics 



176 





Mr. Roy A. Reid 
Band Director, 
History Instructor 



'■Irs. Bemadine A. Rasberry 

English Instructor, 

Choir Director 





Kiss Rose K. Johnson 

Physical Education 

Instructor 



Mr. Alexandre 'w'oodhouse 
Industrial Arts Instructor 
Driver Training 



177 





L 



Mrs. Ruby L. Allen 
Maslc Instructor 



Mr. Judge tjoss 
Physical Education 



Mr. Thaddeus C. Smith 
Biology 4 Chemistry 




Miss Oscelletta Wilson 

General Science, 
Home Econcmics aind 
English 







i|^ii 






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178 




n 




Mrs. Velma Haynes 
Clerk 



Mrs. Blanche Bell 
Clerk 




Mrs. Mary B, Brockett 
Guidance Counselor 




Mr. Robert L. Gordon 

French 

History 



Mr. C. Kenneth Wilson 
Mathematics 



Mr. William J. Watson 
History 





179 



COPI- 

Digital Imaging • Printing • Color Copies 




UAUTY 
UAWTITY 
yiOCLY 



4609 Haygood Road 
Haygood Shopping Center 
Virginia Beach, VA 2345S 

460-2800 

FAX; (757) 460-9195 



MBOUT THE MUTHOB 



EDNAHAWKINS-HENDRIX 



/ was born February 14, 1951, in 
Pnncess Anne County. Virginia, the 
daughter of Edmon and Thelma Hawkins. A 
graduate of Union Kempsville High School, 
Virginia Beach, Virginia in June 1969, and 
studied at Norfolk Stale College, Norfolk, 
Virginia from September, 1970 to May, 197 2, 
majoring in political science. 
Currently, I am the local historian for the 
African-American Cultural Council of 
Virginia Beach whose goal is to bring 
historical and cultural awareness to the 
Virginia Beach community. I am also vice- 
president of the Princess Anne County 
Training School Association and a member 
of The Friends of the Ferry Plantation 
House Inc. , and serve on it 's Board of 
Directors. 

In April, 1991, Regina Leathers and 
myself published HERITAGE DISCOVERED, 
a black history newspaper, to supplement 
the inadequate information presented in 
most textbooks and to supply students with a 
broader picture of Black participation in 
the progress of our nation and here in 
Hampton Roads.