Skip to main content

Full text of "Our inheritance in the Great Pyramid : including all the most important discoveries up to the present time"

See other formats







\i:- BY 

C^'^PIAZZI SMYTH, F.R.S.E., f.r.a.s. 


"because that which may bk known of god is manifest in them; 


Romans i., 19, 20 



" David, in a choice of evils similar to these, said, ' Let me .^all into the hands of 
the Lord, for very great are his mercies ; but let me not fall into the hand of man' 
(1 Chron. xxi. 13). The people of England know what it is to experience somewhat 
of the latter calamity ; and though they are bound to acknowledge that their long- 
protracted griefs are to be preferred to the short but severe sufferings which the 
nations of the Continent had to endure, they must feel, after all, that it is a deep 
afliiction which many have had to bear. But let them with Faith and Patience endure 
their troubles a little longer. Their redemption draweth nigh." 

John Tayloe's Wealth the Name and Number of the Beast, p. 149. 




(departed JULY, 1864) 













Edinburgh, 187^. 



JEREMIAH xxxii. 18 — 20. 


TX7HEN the late worthy John Taylor, of Gower Street, 
London (originally of Bakewell, Derbyshire) pub- 
lished, first his larger work entitled " The Great Pyra- 
mid ; why was it built, and who built it ?" in 1859 ; 
and afterwards, in 1864, his smaller pamphlet which 
he called " The Battle of the Standards (of Linear 
Measure) : the ancient of four thousand years, against 
the modern of the last fifty years — the less perfect of 
the two," — he opened up for archaeology a purer, 
nobler, more important pathway to light than that 
study had ever enjoyed before. 

But Academic Archaeology did not accept it ; and 
meanwhile some portions of the new pathway were so 
little removed from much of my own scientific profes- 
sional occupations, that I felt it something like a public 
duty to examine into the foundation of Mr. Taylor's 
theory as rigidly and extensively as I could, though by 
home work only, at first ; and my publication of 18G4 
{i.e., the first edition of the present book) contained 
the findings so arrived at. Findings, in many points 

viii PREFACE. 

confirmatory of the principal thread of Mr. Taylor's 
chief discovery ; but exhibiting in the general literature 
of the subject a lamentable deficiency in the numerical 
data required for solid investigation ; and which data 
of measure, nothing but practical examination at the 
place could hope to supply. 

How, when no one else would volunteer, for the 
sake of Great Pyramid knowledge alone, and only one 
gentleman* in all the kingdom, throughout official and 
private circles alike, kindly tendered a subscription 
(£50) towards the expenses, — how, I say, my Wife 
and self determined to sail for Egypt ; and did, very 
soon after Mr. Taylor's death, through four months of 
residence on the Pyramid hill itself, employ a large 
variety of scientific instruments, in obtaining many 
measures of the mighty monument, some of them to 
far more accuracy than had ever been attempted before, 
and others descending to numerous details unnoticed 
by former observers, — all this was described by me, 
first in abstract to the Roj^al Society, Edinburgh, in 
April, 1866 ; and afterwards (in 1867) at much more 
length to the Avorld in general in my three-volume 
book, " Life and Work at the Great Pyramid in 1865." f 

That last publication undoubtedly helped to spread 
a knowledge both of the importance of the question at 
issue, and the only means for solving it : especially 
as against the modern hieroglyphic scholars ; who, 

* Andrew Coventry, Esq., of 27, Moray Place, Edinburgh. 

t Pages 1,653; plateaSG. PublisJ.ei by Edmonston & Douglas, Edinburgh. 


whatever their learning may be concerning other Egyp- 
tian buildings, have never troubled themselves to 
examine the Great Pyramid in the manner now 
required, and remain singularly and perseveringly 
ignorant of its mathematical proportions and mecha- 
nical features. Indeed, these literary Egyptologists are 
rather angered than otherwise to hear that such exact 
data of scientific measure, when collected by others 
than themselves, tend to establish that the Great Pyra- 
mid, though in Egypt is not of Egypt ; and though . 
built in the earliest ages of man upon earth, far before 
all histor}^, was yet prophetically intended to subserve 
a high purpose for these days in which we live and the 
coming days. That it, the Great Pyramid, has never 
been oven remotely understood yet by any race of men, 
though it has been a standing riddle guessed at by all • 
of them in their successive ages; but that it is able 
nevertheless to tell its own story and explain its mission 
most unmistakably : not indeed by reference to, or use 
of, any written language, whether hieroglyphic or vulgar, 
— but by aid of the mathematical and physical science 
of TRodern times : a means fore-ordained both for pre- 
venting the parable being read too soon in the history 
of the world, and for insuring its being correctly read by 
all nations when the fulness of time shall have arrived. 
This spread of purely-obtained Great Pyramid infor- 
mation, unalloyed by the Cainite profanities of Pha- 
raonic Egyj^t, or the interested errors and perversions 
of the classic Greeks, brought by degrees several able 


intellectualists into the field ; and tliey have, during 
the last six years, applied so many of my own obser- 
vations at the place to Mr. Taylors theory, with a 
success beyond anything that he had ever hoped for, — 
that the matter has now completely outgrown its first 
book, and produced this publication as the best answer 
that I, with the assistance of the original publishers, 
can make to frequent demands from various quarters 
for more information. And there are even some most 
interesting and hopeful circumstances in the evolution 
of the scientific contents of the Great Pyramid just now, 
causing the present time to be almost the beginning 
of a new era of increased certainty and more precise 
knowledge regarding all that that ancient building was 
originally intended for ; and which certainly includes 
much of the sacred, as well as the secular. 

And although some well-meaning persons may have 
too hastily concluded, merely because they do not find 
the very name of Pyramid written down in Scripture, 
that therefore there is nothing about the Great Pyra- 
mid in the Bible, — yet they may rest perfectly assured 
that there is a great deal about the Bible subject, in the 
Great Pyramid. Which building is moreover an earlier 
"^locument in the history of the human race ; while the 
putting together of its stones into the vocal and deeply- 
meaning shapes we see them in now, was absolutely 
contemforary Avith the first of the primeval events to 
which it was destined to bear indubitable witness in 
these latter days, and not sooner. 











PART 11. 





VIII. WHY OF THAT SIZE? . . . . . . . .118 






















PART y. 








Appendix I. Mr. Waynman Dixon's Casing-stone . . . 489 
„ 11. Dr. Grant's crucial Pyramid investigations . . 493 
„ III. Dr. Leider's supposed Pyramid .... 497 
,, IV. Mr. James Simpson's further Pyramid calculations. 499 
„ V. Rude stone monuments versus the Great Pyramid . 505 
„ VI. Recent attempts to shorten both the Great Pyra- 
mid's base-side and the profane cubit of Egypt . 511 







I. General Sectional View of G-reat Pyramid [Frontispiece). 

Alluded to in Chapters I. and VI. ; but of more or less ser- 
viceable reference throughout the book; and of especial use in 
showing the respective places of several particular parts of the 
monument which appear separately in subsequent plates. 

II, Casing-stone Testimony to Great Pyramid's it Construction. 

Alluded to in Chapter II. The upper figure gives an illustra- 
tion of John Taylor's tt theory, requiring a particular side angle 
for the Pyramid ; and the lower figures give the angle found by 
Colonel Vyse. 

III. Diameter and Circumference Eelations. 

Alluded to in Chapters II., IV., and X. Certain useful com- 
putation numbers, both in angular and linear measure, are entered 
in their appropriate places on the several Pyramidal figures, and 
will be found of frequent service. 

IV. Diameter and Areal Relations. 

The upper figures alluded to in Chapters IV. and X., and the 
lower figure in Chapter XXV., where they are shown to confirm 
the numbers in Plate III. most remarkably. 

V. Great Pyramid's Place in Egypt, and Egypt's in the World. 

See Chapter V. This is a reduction and concentration of the 
several plates in my "Equal Surface Projection." 



VI. All the Pyramids or Jeezeh. 

See. Chapter VI. All these figures heing on the same scale, show 
the Great Pyramid to be absolutely the largest of the Jeezeh 
group ; and the only one with an ascending system of passages : 
and it enjoys the same superiority over all the Pyramids of 

VII. Placing of the Passages in Great Pyramid. 

See Chapter X. These two figures illustrate a simple geo- 
metrical arrangement, which comes exceedingly close to the actual 
lengths and angles of the passages in the Great Pyramid. 

VIII. The Chamber and Passage Systems in Great Pyramid. 

See Chapter VI. This is a generally useful plate to refer to, 
for the more interesting parts of the interior ; when the frontis- 
piece fails from the smallness of its size. 

IX. The Queen's Chamber. 

See Chapters X., XIX., and XX. A chamber of important sym- 
bolisms, beginning with the excentricity of the niche by the 
amount, apparently, of the length of the sacred cubit. 

X. The Ante-Chamber. 

See Chapters IX. and X. A small chamber fuU of sym- 
bolisms, especially of the subdivision of the sacred cubit into 
inches ; and the equal area equation of squares and circles. 

XI. The King's Chamber. 

See Chapters VI., IX., X., XIX., and XXV. The final cham- 
ber of the ascending series of passages in the Great Pyramid, 
the most exquisitely constructed of all the chambers, and with 
the noblest symbolisms. 

XII. The Grand Gallery: ascending and descending. 

See Chapters VI., XVIL, and XX. The grandest interior 
feature of the Great Pyramid, unknown in any other Pyramid, 
and with supposed prophetic Christian symbolisms. 

XIII. Mouth or the Well, in Lower Corner of Great Pyramid. 

See Chapters VI., XVIL, and XX. Two views, one elevational, 
and the other in perspective, of the exit from the Grand Gal- 
lery to the symbolism of the bottomless pit. 


XIV. Star-Map for Site of Great Pyramid in Antediluvian Times. 

See Chapter XVII. Exhibiting the constellations of hostile 
attributes to man, occupying the mid-heaven at the night begin- 
ning of the primeval autumnal year before the Flood. 

XV. Star-Map for Site of Great Pyramid at Epoch of its 

See Chapter XVII. Representing the constellations of friendly 
attributes to man, at the night beginning of the year of the Great 
Pyramid's foundation ; after both the Flood and the Dispersion. 

XVI. Star-Map for Site of Great Pyramid at the Present Time. 

See Chapter XVII. Eepresenting the portion of time elapsed 
since the foundation of the Great Pyramid, as now indicated on 
the processional dial of the Pyramid and the heavens. 

XVII. The Numbers measured in the Entrance Passage of the 
Great Pyramid. 

See Chapter XX. The numbers entered here are PjTamid 
inches of distance from the north beginning of the Grand Gal- 
lery ; and are supposed to represent years b.c. 



viz. : — 


When a Circle's diameter = (?=—= — = 2 -J - '■, 

4 n 
And its circumference ■=. c ■===. tt cl z=. — - = 2 ^ tz a ; 

_d c 


c 4« c"^ 

'^ ~ ^ ~ ^ — i^a ' 

= 3-14159 I 26535 | 89793 | 23846 1 + &c., &(\, &c. 

n^ log. 0-49714 I 98726 I 94133 | 85435 | + &c., &c., &c. 

^ - 0-785 39816 + &c. = log. 9-895 0899 + &c. 

^ = 0-523 59878 -|- &c. = log. 9-718 9986 -f &c. 

} - = 0-079 57747 + &c. = log. 8900 7902 4- &c.' 

4 TT I o 

-,-A_ - 0-016 88687 + &c. = log. 8-227 5490 4- &c. 
^ w = 1-772 45385 4- &c. = log. 0-248 5749 -f &c. 
?^ z: 57-295 77951 + &c. = log. 1-758 1226 -f &c. 


PL.ITK 11 

Fuj / 



l.>.j,lli,-i »■///, .Irxn/toiis of//u- dirr^l rt//// (Untjo/rul vcrdrai stcUon.s of Uu- sarin 

nslored to a/iruft/ ciiniplcU-iiess 

of ou///rir . 

whtti still nlln,l,.;{ l,> ihr /;itri,„ nl . iii miJ.I/, of YorlJi .sn/r >>/ 








/'/wi'iO/fi/ / riiiiiii/i ■ f'i>r<\>iiif>iifiiti,, 

i'^ee Ch . 

I'LATi-: in 

J? ' ■}^ 

91 31 ■ 05 P. I. or 
365 -242 5'. C. 


12 013 ■ 34 T. I. or- 
nl6- 534 S. C. 







'oy ^■ 






^\ 91 31 ■ 05 P. I. 

^18 S'^^.^ 



As td't'e^t&cL by its ^JXte^rTruxL slope 

caxxL JiorizorvCcd/ rrvasoruy courses. 

TT =3 14159 26535 -Y &o. 

= l^yrj. O ■ 4:9714 98726 4- &o 



9131- O 5 P. 1. 

Ari'^i, of squ^jj-e^ Tta^e. of (rrt>^ji^ FyrnrnAxJy= 
= tn-eciy of a. Girder whose^ dxcuneter' i^ qtx-^h 
~i-100 in. the^ Ante^-ch.£trnher. 

Ar-ext. of Cir-<Ji>, withy CrPyr:^ hett^liJ. for rcifizuti'' 

ofsqiturv. whose. lerujtK of sulif' vs ywe^v 

-i-100 in the ^nte -chnmher. 



S. a - SA CR ED C LB IT. 

8ee Ch^ 2. 4-. & 10. 



.v/.3/f'5 P.I. 
Dtr,',-tVcrti,'al S.u'lioii ofGrPvit 

CyireUi with Diamete-r 
Vrrt' HeUpU of aiW:' 

Squxire wUJi sidi 
ccmpitJeil hy IT. 

&c X 2 


OUTSIDE GREAT PYRAMID. .S't-c (7i r 2 .">. 

See Ch^ 10 K: 





T.on .fitutie E<ist f. 

■.iisi rriJi 

O r'cf 71 tfi c h . 

Vf K 1 ) T T E \l K A N - < 


!•: AN S E A 

rvr;nuul S^ 






Lont/i lurit' iy-orn (i reenwi^cJi . ^ o H • 

120 90 GO 30 0° 5.0 60 90 120 150 18 




inn Ihf Ell 14 111 Surt\t<-f I'rrit-iti4>n J 


See Ch? 5 & 25. 

J 'LA '/I': I'j 












-S''v//^- f^ono of \'<iJuri-. 





A D B = Durtt, or rifjltl . I trtitaJ 
Section of Great rrrntnui 
from North to south . 

E F OH = Square and CinJ'ortqiuil 
aira- to above . 

.Irujle B C S = 






Y .hid to 1'i.j. / , 1 C 

/»(■ horizontal tiiirs, 

Z Y paraHel to C S. ftuul,'. 
entJ-ance fki.-iso</e ■ 

W T tit an. equ^l hut 
a/iff/e mo/t.s Unit d.see/idifu/ 
//isMtitfe aiiitthe flnind t^ollerv. 

hu,le B CP/;>//m' o/n/ual 
una .v^/«/^/»v " ''^ ' ~ 
Latitiuie , apprvayi' 


I'Ljy/-: vni 



platj: jx. 


■•-> 1 







5 ui 






i ' 



\ "a= 










u bJ 



t- < 9~ 



° : 







- "= 



5 $ 

1 «> ° 

z 2 




UJ a o — 




> o 



1 ^^ s- 


) H- 



/ ^^^~\ 



/ "'", \. 

/ '^0 \. 





i^!j!.l|j Irlllli'lt-Nll'liiM 

^\/f ^ 

^j ""ij 

1 Si' ' -'i .' 

Ml 'M 1 


1 1 = 

1- -J 

CO -J 

H 1 

" Ilif 


■ i 

■ 1' 1 

1 ' ,'■ 1 M 

<c < 


II 1 1 

r u 

' i;l 


U 3 



1 I 



i 11 

\ * X 













S Si ^ 

^ ~ ^' 


s 1 

•02'?9sU0 9SS 


AUBnvo QNvao 

J o 
QNl Ny 3 HiUON 

HO y 3M01 

J o 

■LS3M 0N1M001 

,fffvs-sn/j jvruox- 1. to 11 

jux :'ixvid 

■05'^Z.T 9 s^D ass 

;3H3NI HSIJ.IUe iO 3i«as 

n ■31MDXIM 

9NiaN3as3a savav hum 

N0liD3S 3SHlASNVMi 1V01iy3A 

gUAdua Ausnvg qnvuo 3Hi 

3NiaN33SV SaVbV HilM 

//\ ;/.// 7/ 

spzf:)u/ ysijiufi JO ^^^r^rti,' 

■3iiNVM0 axvoioNi s3Nn oissoao asa wvho s,oniv( 3 AoevNoiionaxsNoo 


30 osiv'y 3g|^vH3 S9NIM J0^7s>?^.^^^/^^^''«'ryN0li0 3s nvoiiaaA 

ZT Jir'i<r 

t- ni , 
•■ o O 


X :i.i:v7ci 





3440 B. C. 



See Ch. 17 




2 170 B.C. 



























1881 A. D. 

See Ch. 17. 

FLAT£ jcra. 




as it, iti noH': (nuialso by cLoUadL lintui, as itLs suppose.iL to have been. 

when orujfi/uiJly ti'n/shiutfuid cJosrctup. 

lOO 200 



and in, and tlirougliout, that mighty builded mass, which 
all history and all tradition, both ancient and modern, 
agree in representing as the first in point of date of the 
whole Jeezeh group, the earliest stone building also posi- 
tively known to have been erected in any* country, — we 
find in all its finished parts not a vestige of heathenism, 
nor the smallest indulgence in anything approaching to 
idolatry ; not even the most distant allusion to Sabaism, 7 
or to the worship of sun or moon, or any of the starry J 
host of heaven. ...—^ 

I have specified " finished parts," because in certain 
unfinished, internal portions of the constructive masonry 
discovered by Colonel Howard- Vyse in 1837, there are 
some rude markings for a temporary purpose to be pre- 
sently explained ; and I also except, as a matter of 
course, any inscriptions inflicted on the Pyramid by 
modern travellers, even though they have attempted to 
cut their nantes in the ancient hieroglyphics of the old 
Egyptians. But with these simple exceptions we can 
most positively say, that both .exterior and interior are] 
absolutely free from all engraved or sculptured work, asv^ 
well as from everything relating to idolatry or erring f 
man's theotechnic devices. From all those hieratic 
emblems, therefore, which from the first have utterly 
overlaid every Egyptian temple proper, as well as all 
their obelisks, sphinxes, statues, tombs, and whatev'er 
other monuments they, the Egyptians, did build up at 
any known historical epoch in connection with their 
peculiar, and, alas ! degrading religion. 

Was the Great Pyramid, then, erected before the in- 
vention of hieroglyphics, and previous to the birth of 
the Egyptian religion ? 

No ! for there, both history, tradition, and recent ex- 
ploratory discoveries, testified to by many travellers and 
antiquaries, are perfectly in accord ; and assure us that 
the Egyptian nation was established, was powerful, and its 


spiritually vile hieratic system largely developed, though 
not arrived at its full proportions, at the time of the 
erection of the Great Pyramid ; that that structure was 
even raised by the labour of the Egyptian population ; '''' 
but under sorne remarkable compulsion and constraint, 
which prevented them from putting their unmistakeable 
and accustomed decorations on the finished building, and 
from identifying it in any manner, direct or indirect, 
with their impure and even bestial form of worship. 

According to Manetho, Herodotus, and other ancient 
authorities, the Egyptians hated, and yet implicitly 
obeyed, the power that made them work on the Great 
Pyramid ; and when that power was again relaxed or 

* This very important conclusion results from the " quarry marks " of 
Ihe workmen (see Colonel Howard-Vyse's volumes, " Pyramids of Gizeh," 
London, 1840), being found in red paint on parts of the stones left 
rough, and in places not intended to be seen. The marks are evidently 
in the Egyptian language or manner freely handled ; and in so far prove 
that they were put in by Egyptians. They are excessively rude, no 
doubt, but quite sufficient as checks for workmen, whereby to recognise 
a stone duly prepared at the quarry, and to see it properly placed in its 
intended position in the building. 

That these marks were not meant as ornaments in the building, or put 
on when there, is abundantly evidenced by some of them being upside down, 
and some having been partly pared away in adjusting the stone into its 
position (see Colonel Howard-Vyse's plates of them) ; and, finallj^, by the 
learned JDr. Birch's interpretation of a number of the marks, which seem 
from thence to be mostly short dates, and directions to the workmen as to 
which stones were for the south, and which for the north, wall. 

/These markings have only been discovered in those dark holes or 
hollows, the so-called "chauibers," but much rather "hollows of con- 
struction," broken into by Colonel Howard- Vyse above the "King's 
Chamber^' of the Great Pyramid. There, also, you see the square holes 
in the stones, by which the heavy blocks were doubtless lifted to their 
places, and everything is left periectly rough ; for these void spaces were 
sealed up, or had been built up outside in solid masonry, and were never 
intended to be used as chambers for human visitation or living purposes. 
In all the other chambers and passages, on the contrary, intended to be 
visited, the masonry was finished off with the skill and polish almost of a 
jewelhir; and in them neither quarry marks nor "bat holes," nor hiero- 
glyphics of any sort or kind, are to be seen : excepting always those 
modern hieroglyphics which Dr. Lepsius in 1843 put up over the entrance 
into the Great Pyramid, " on a space five feet in breadth by four feet in 
height," in praise of the then sovereign of Prussia ; and which have 
recently misled a learned Chinese envoy, by name Pin-ch'-un, into 
claiming a connection between the Great Pyramid and the early monu- 
ments of his own country. (See Athenteum, May 21, 1870, p. 677.) 

chap.l] the great pyramid. 7 

removed, thougli they still hated its name to such a 
degree as to forbear from even mentioning it, — yet with 
involuntary bending to the sway of a superior intelli- 
gence, they took to imitating as well as they could, ^ 
though without any understanding, a few of the more J 
ordinary mechanical features of that great work on which 
they had been so long employed ; and even rejoiced for 
a time to adapt them, so far as they could be adapted, 
to their own more favourite ends and occupations. 

Henc6 the numerous guasi-copies, for sepulchral pur- 
poses, of the Great Pyramid, which are now to be 
observed along the banks of the Nile ; always betraying, 
though, on close examination, the most profound igno- 
rance of that building's chiefest internal features, as well 
as of all its niceties of proportion and exactness of 
measurement ; and they are never found even then at 
any very great number of miles away from the site, nor 
any great number of years behind the date, of the 
parent work. 

The architectural idea, indeed, of the one grand 
primeval monument, though copied during a few cen- 
turies, yet never wholly or permanently took the fancy of 
the Egyptians ; it had some suitabilities to their favourite 
employment of lasting sepulture, and its accompanying 
rites ; so, with their inveterate taste for imitation, they 
tried what they knew of it, for that purpose ; but it did 
not admit of their troops of priests, nor the seas of 
abject worshippers, with the facility of their own temples ; 
and so, on the whole, they preferred them. Those more 
open and columned, as well as statued and inscribed 
structures, accordingly, of their own entire invention 
and elaboration, are the only ones which we now find 
to have held, from their first invention, an uninterrupted 
reign through all the course of ancient Egyptian history ; 
and to reflect themselves continuously in the placid 
stream of Nile, from one end of the long-drawn land of 


Egypt to the other. They, therefore, are Egypt. ^ 
Thebes, too, with its hundred adorned Pylon temple-^ 
gates, is intensely Egypt. But the Great Pyramid is f 

/something perfectly different. 
Under whose direction, then, and for what purpose, was 
the Great Pyramid built ; and under what sort of special 
compulsion was it that the Egjrptians laboured in a 
cause which they appreciated not, and gave their un- 
rivalled mechanical skill for an end which they did not 
at the time understand ; and which they never even 
came to understand, much less to like, in all subsequent 
ages ? 

This has been indeed a mystery of mysteries, but 
may yet prove fruitful in the present advancing stage 
of knowledge to inquire into further ; for though 
theories without number have been tried by ancient 
Greeks and mediseval Arabians, by Italians, French, 
English, Germans, and Americans, their failures partly 
pave for us the road by which we mast set out. Pave 
it poorly, perhaps ; for their whole result has, up to the 
present time, been little more than this, that the authors 
of these attempts are either found to be repeating idle tales 
told them by those who knew no more about the subject 
than themselves ; or skipping all the really crucial points 
of application for their theories which they should have 
attended to ; or, finally, like some of the best and ablest 
men who have given themselves to the question, fairly 
admitting that they were entirely beaten. 

Hence the eaxilusive notion of temples to the sun 
' and moon, or for sacred fire, or holy water, or burial- 
places, and nothing but burial places, of kings, or 
granaries for Joseph, or astronomical observatories, or 
defences to Egypt against being invaded by the sands of 
the African desert, or places of resort for mankind in 
a second deluge, or of safety when the heavens should 
fall, have been for a long time past proved untenable ; 


and the Great Pyramid stands out now, far more clearly ] 
than it did in the time of Herodotus, as a pre-historic / 
monument of an eminently grand and pure conception ; ^ 
and which, though in Egypt, is yet not of Egypt, and 
whose true and full explanation is still to come. 

Under'^ these circumsStices it is, tliat a new idea, 
based not on hieroglyphics, profane learning, classic 
literature, or modern Egyptology, but on scientific 
measures of the actual facts of ancient masonic construc- 
tion, was recently given to the world by the late Mr. 
John Taylor, of London, in a book published in 1859.*"* 
He had not visited the Pyramid himself, but had been 
for thirty years previously collecting and comparing all 
the published accounts, and specially all the best certified 
mensurations, of those who had been there ; and while 
so engaged, gradually and quite spontaneously (as he 
described to me by letter), the new theory opened out 
before him. Though mainly a rigid induction from 
tangible facts of number, weight, and measure, Mr. Tay- 
lor s result was assisted perhaps by means of the mental 
and spiritual point of view from whence he commenced 
his researches, and which is simply this : — 

That whereas other writers have generally esteemed 
that the mysterious persons who directed the building 
of the Great Pyramid (and to whom the Egyptians, in 
their traditions and for ages afterwards, gave an immoral 
and even abominable character) must, therefore, have 
been very bad indeed, — so that the world at large has 
always been fond of standing on, kicking and insulting 
that dead lion whom they really knew not, — he, Mr. John 
Taylor, seeing how religiously bad the Egyptians them- 
selves were, was led to conclude, on the contrary, that 
those they hated (and could never sufficiently abuse) might 
perhaps have been pre-eminently good ; or were, at all 

* " The Great Pyramid. Why was it built ? and who built it ? " 
(Longmans and Co.) 


events, of a different religious faith from themselves. 
He then, remembering, with mutatis mutandis, what 
Christ himself says respecting the suspicion to be 
attached when all the world speaks vjell of any one, 
followed up this idea by what the Old Testament records 
touching the most vital and distinguishing part of the 
Israelites' religion ; and which is therein described, 
some centuries after the building of the Pyramid, as 
notoriously an " abomination to the Egyptians." And 
combining this with certain unmistakeable historical 
facts, Mr. Taylor deduced sound reasons for believing 
that the directors of the building, or rather the authors^ 
of its design and those who controlled the actual builders 1 
of the Great Pyramid, were by no means Egyptians, but 
of the chosen race, and in the line of, though pre- y 
ceding, Abraham ; so early indeed as to be closer toj 
Noah than to Abraham. Men who had been enabledlSy 
divine favour to appreciate the appointed idea, as to the 
necessity of a sacrifice for a sin-offering, or an atonement 
by blood and the act of a Mediator : — an idea coeval 
with the contest between Abel and Cain, and v/hich 
descended through the Flood to certain predestined 
families of mankind ; but which no one of- Egyptian 
born would ever contemplate with a moment's patience ; 
for every Egyptian, from first to last, was a genuine 
Cainite in thought, act, feeling, and continual open pro- 
fession to the very back-bone. 

On this ground it was that Mr. Taylor took his stand ; 
and, after disobeying the public opinion of profane 
Egyptian tradition, and setting at nought the most time- 
honoured prejudices of the pagan world so far as to give 
a full, fair, and impartial examination to the whole 
case, announced that he had discovered in the arrange- 
ments and measures of the Great Pyramid, then recently 
made upon it, or as it now exists, and on these again 
corrected for dilapidations and injuries of all intervening 

Chap.L] the great pyramid. n 

time so as to arrive at its original condition — certain 
scientific results, which speak of much more than, or 
rather something quite different from, human intelligence. 
For, besides coming forth suddenly in primeval history 
without any childhood, or known preparation, or long- 
acknowledged duration and slowly growing senility after- 
wards — without any of those human features, I say, the 
actual results at the Great Pyramid, in the shape of 
numerical knowledge of grand cosmical phenomena of 
both earth and heavens, not only rise above, and far 
above, the extremely limited and almost infantine know- 
ledge of science possessed by any of the Gentile nations 
of 4,000, 3,000, 2,000, nay, 1,000 years ago, but 
they are also, in whatever they chiefly apply to, very 
essentially above any scientific knowledge of any man 
up to our own time as well. 

This is indeed a startling assertion, but from its sub- 
ject admitting of the completest and most positive refu- 
tation, if untrue. For the exact science of the present 
day, compared with that of only a few hundred years 
ago, is a marvel of development ; and capable of giving 
out no uncertain sound, both in asserting itself, and 
stating not only the fact, but the order and time of 
the minutest steps of separate discoveries. Much more 
then can it speak with positiveness, when comparing our 
present knowledge against the little that was known to 
man in those early epochs before physical science had 
begun, or could have been begun, to be seriously cul- 
tivated at all. 




John Taylor s First Discovery. 

TI/TR. TAYLOR'S first proposition with regard to the 
^■^ Great Pyramid, when slightly but immaterially 
altered to suit convenience of calculation, is, — that its 
height in the original condition of the monument, when 
every one of its four sloping triangular sides was made 
into a perfect plane by means of the polished outer, 
sloping, surface of the bevelled casing-stones, and when 
those sides, being continued up to their mutual inter- 
sections, terminated at, and formed the summit in, a 
point, — that its height then was, to twice the breadth of 
its base, as the diameter to the circumference of a circle. 
Or, as the case is graphically represented in the 
diagram (Plate 11. , Fig. 1), where the square E F G H 
represents the square base of the Pyramid, and the 
.darkly-shaded triangle A B D exhibits a vertical section 
of the triangular mass of the building taken through 
the middle of opposite sides ; — 

Then A c, the vertical height of the Pyramid, is to 
B D, the side or breadth of its base, when multiplied by 
2, as the diameter to the circumference of a circle ; or, 
A c : 2 B D : : I : 3-14159 -h &c. ; this last number, 
3*14159, &c., being the quantity known amongst 
modern mathematicians under the convenient, to us 
now doubly convenient, designation tt. 


Or again, as sho^vn more recently by Mr. St. Johi 
Day, the area of the Pyramid's right section, viz., A D b, 
is to the area of tlie base e f h g, as 1 to the same 
3-14159, &c. 

Or, as the same fact admits again of being differently 
expressed, the vertical height of the Great Pyramid, A c, 
is the radius of a theoretical circle, A i, the length of 
whose curved circumference is exactly equal to the sum 
of the lengths of the four straight sides of the actual 
and practical square base of the building, viz. e F, F G, 
G H, and H E. 

Now this is neither more nor less than that cele- 
brated practical problem of the mediaeval and modem 
ages of Europe, '' the squaring of the circle :" and the 
thing was thus done, truly and properly accomplished 
at the Great Pyramid, thousands of years before those 
mediaeval days of our forefathers. For it was accom-' 
plished by the architect who designed that pyramid, 
when, over and above deciding that the building was to 
be a square-based pyramid, — with of course all the 
necessary mathematical innate relations which every 
square-based pyramid Tnust have, — he also ordained 
that its height, which otherwise might have been any- 
thing, was to bear such a particular proportion to its 
breadth of Base, as should bring out the nearest value of 
TT as above mentioned : and which proportion not one 
blit of millions, or of any number, of square-based pyra- 
mids would be necessarily endued with ; and not one 
out of all the thirty-seven other measured pyramids in 
Egypt has been proved to be endowed with. 

If, therefore, the quantity is really found built into 
fact with exactness at the Great Pyramid, it must have 
been the result either of some most marvellous accident, 
or of some deep wisdom not less than 3,000 years in 
advance of the world in its own time. And that 
wisdom apparently was building in confidence, not for 




[Part I. 

-cs contemporaries, to whom it explained nothing and 
showed very little, but for distant posterity ; knowing 
well that a fundamental mathematical truth like tt, 
would be understood both in and by itself alone, and 
without any written inscription, in that distant day 
when mathematics should come to be cultivated amongst 
mankind, even as they are now. A most true con- 
clusion too, for experience has shown that neither mathe- 
matics nor mechanics can progress in any country in 
modern times without knowing well the numerical value 
and calculational quantity of tt. In testimony whereof 
I may mention that in Dr. Olinthus Gregory's " Mathe- 
matics for Practical Men," third edition thereof by H. 
Law, C.E,, at ^d%<^ 64 of Appendix, there is a Table 5, 
of " useful factors in calculation," and consisting of that 
invaluable number or proportion tt, or 3 '141 59, &c., in 
no less than fifty-four different mathematical forms. 

Enquiry into the Data. 

Now of this scientific value of tt there is, and can be, 
in the present day, no doubt anywhere ; neither of the 
Great Pyramid's immense priority over all the existing 
architectural monuments raised, and much more over 
all known books ever written, anywhere by any of the 
sons of men ; nor again that the numbers which Mr. 
Taylor gives for the vertical height and breadth of 
base of the Great Pyramid do realise the tt proportion 
very closely. But, as we are to take nothing for granted 
that we can inquire into ourselves in this book, it 
becomes our duty to ask what foundation John Taylor 
may have had, for the numbers which he has employed 
being really those which the Great Pyramid was 
anciently constructed to represent, or does contain 
within itself, when duly measured and corrected for 
modern dilapidations. 


In this research I soon found it necessary to read 
rather extensively in a particular branch of literature, 
the Egyptological ; where the respective authors are not 
only numerous, but their accounts, as a rule, most 
strangely contradictory. Colonel Howard- Vyse, in the 
second volume of his important work,* published in 
1840, gives either extracts from, or abstracts made with 
admirable fairness of, no less than seventy-one Euroj)ean 
and thirty-two Asiatic authors. Several more are now 
to be added to the list, and it is extremely instructive to 
read them all. Unless, indeed, a very great number be 
read, no sufficient idea can be formed as to how little 
faith is often to be placed in the narratives even of 
educated men on a very simple matter ; and when 
measures are given, though the}'' are measures which 
those learned authors report to having measured them- 
seN-es, why then, and even because of all their book- 
lore and classical scholarship, ought we to feel most 
mistrust, according to the experience acquired in this 
looking up of pyramid literary modern authorities. 
Such at least cannot fail to be the unvarying case, 
unless there are other means of proving that some 
exceptional instance, among those often able men of 
letters and metaphysical philosophy, did also really 
understand what accurate measurement means, and is 
capable of. 

It would be easy to string together a series of so- 
called measures, made by successive travellers, on the 
same parts of the Great Pyramid, which should show its 
blocks of solid stone expanding and contracting be- 
tween different visits to it, like elastic india-rubber 
balls ; but it will suffice for the present to indicate the 
necessity of weighing the evidence in every case most 
scrupulously ; to have a large quantity of evidence, a 
great variety of observers, and to place in the first rank 

* " The Pyramids of Gizeh." (Fraser, Regent Street, London.) 


of authors tq be studied in the original, closely in every 
word they have written, but not necessarily to be always 
followed therein: — 

Professor John Greaves in 1638, 
The French or Bonaparte Expedition in 1799, 
Colonel Howard- Yyse in 1837 ; and 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson from 1840 to 1858. 
At present the Great Pyramid is, externally' to the 
sight, a huge mass, rudely though regularly and masterly 
built of rough limestone blocks, in great horizontal 
sheets, or courses, of masonry ; their outer, broken off 
edges necessarily forming a sort of rectangular steps up 
the sloping sides ; and with a platform of sensible area, 
in place of a point, on the top. But this spurious or 
adventitious flattened top, as well as the spurious and 
adventitious steps on the sides, have all of them merely 
resulted from the mediaeval dilapidations and removal of 
the pyramid's polished white-stone casing (with its outer 
surface bevelled smoothly to the general slope, see Plate II. 
Fig. 2), which had stood for more than 3,000 years, and 
had in its day given to the structure almost mathematical 
truth and perfection. This state of things was that de- 
scribed by Greek, Eoman, and early Arabian- writers, and 
it existed until the Caliphs of Egypt, about the year 
1,000 A.D., profiting by the effects of a severe, and for 
Egypt very unusual, earthquake recorded to have hap- 
pened in 908 A.D., began methodically to strip off the 
polished casing-stone, bevelled blocks ; built two bridges 
to convey them more easily to the river, after chipping off 
the prismoidal angles and edges ; and then employed them 
in building mosques and palaces ; for the lining of the 
great "Joseph" well, and for other public structures 
which still adorn their favourite city El Kahireh, or the 
victorious — ^the Cairo of vulgar English.* 

* Very recently my friends Mr. Waynman Dixon and Dr. Grant have 
visited the celebrated Mosque of Sooltan Hassan, in Cairo, to see if any 

Chap.IL] the great pyramid, 17 

It is evidently then the original, not the present, size 
which we require, and must have, for testing Mr. 
Taylor s proposition ; and for approximating, by the 
degree of exactitude that may be found, to whether it 
was accident or intention which decided the shape of the 
building ; and he has well pointed out, that no one had 
got the true base- side length until the French Acade- 
micians, in 1799, cleared away the hills of sand and 
debris at the north-east and north-west corners, and 
reached the levelled surface of the living rock itself on 
which the Pyramid was originally founded. There, 
discovering two rectangular hollows carefully and truly 
cut into the rock, as if for " sockets " for the basal 
corner-stones, they measured the distance between them 
with much geodesic skill, and found it to be equal 
to 76 3 '6 2 English feet. The same distance being 
measured thirty-seven years afterwards by Colonel 
Howard- Yyse, guided by another equally sure direction 
of the original building, as 764'0 English feet, we may 
take for the 'present problem where a proportion is all 
that is really required, the mean, or 76 3 '81 feet, as 
close enough for a first approximation to base-breadth. 

But the height of the Great Pyramid, which we also 
need to have for the solution of our problem, is not at 
all easy to measure directly with any sort of approach 
to exactness ; and more difficult still, to reduce from its 
present to its ancient height safely, after so very much 
of the original top has actually been knocked away, as 
to leave a platform " large enough for eleven camels to 
lie down " in, or beneath, the very place where once the 
four triangular sloping sides were continued up to a 

of the component blocks forming its walls could be identified as having 
belonged to the Great Pyramid. They found them to be undoubtedly of 
the same Mokattam stone, but too well squared to retain any of the 
outside bevelled, and, perhaps, inscribed surface. The enquiry was, 
however, put a stop to by the Mohammedan janitors, before it had 
reached some of the most likely places near the top of the Mosque to meet ' 
with an accidentally or carelessly left oblique surface of the older building. 


point ; a sharp point on wliich an angel, or, as tlie 
monkisli writer argued, any number of angels, might 
stand, but not one man. In fact, the key-stone of the 
whole theory of the Great Pyramid would have been 
entirely wanting, even up to the present day, but for 
Colonel Howard-Yyse's most providential finding of two 
of the "casing-stones" in situ, at the foot of the Pyramid; 
for they enable the problem to be attacked in a different 
manner ; or by angular as contrasted to linear measure. 
And we might indeed accomplish the solution by 
reference to angle only ; but having begun with linear 
measure, we may as well on the present occasion employ 
the angle merely in a subsidiary manner ; or to supply, 
when used in connection with the one linear datum we 
have measured, the other linear datum, which we have 
not been able to measure directly ; and both of them 
against John Taylor's linear numbers also. 

Beginnings of Objections by Captious Individuals to 
the Data on which the Modern Scientific Theory of the 
Great Pyramid rests. 

After reading my first paper on the subject to the 
Eoyal Society, Edinburgh, I was seriously warned that 
two very shrewd and experienced members there had 
objected to this part of the Pyramid research ; one of 
them, an engineer, saying " that he had passed through 
Egypt, been to the Pyramids, saw no symptoms of casing- 
stones bevelled to any angle, and therefore did not be- 
lieve in them." The other, an Indian naval officer, had 
also been to the Pyramids on a visit, and " found such 
heaps of rubbish about the great one, that he could not 
see how any man could measure even its base side length 
with any degree of correctness, much less casing-stones 
which he could not see." 


The First Objector. 

Both these speeches are only too faithful examples 
of the small extent of information on which many per- 
sons, of commanding social rank, will even yet persist 
in speaking authoritatively on both the present, and 
long past, state of the Great Pyramid. The first 
doubter about the casing-stones, should at least have 
read the accounts of Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, and many 
early Arabian authors who described what they saw 
before their eyes when the casing was still complete, 
and eminently smooth and beautiful ; and then should 
have taken up Colonel Howard-Vyse's own book, de- 
scriptive, in details vocal with simple, naive truth, both 
of how he succeeded in digging down to, finding and 
measuring probably the two last of the bevelled blocks 
still in situ, adhering closely by their original cement to 
the pavement base of the building; and then how he 
failed, though he covered them up again with a mound 
of rubbish, to save them from the hammers of tourists 
and the axes of Mohammedan Arabs, doubly and deadly 
jealous of Christians obtaining anything really valuable 
from the country they rule over. Besides which, the 
large amount of casing-stones, bevelled externally to the 
slope, still existing upon other pyramids, as on the two 
large ones of Dashoor ; the well-preserved ones of the 
second Jeezeh Pyramid, conspicuous near its summit, 
and on a bright day " shining resplendently afar," as 
says M. Jomard ; and the granite ones of the third 
pyramid, so excessively hard that modern workmen 
have not cared to have much to do with them — all this, 
which has long been known, and more which I have 
presently to relate, should effect much in convincing 
unwilling minds as to what was the original state of 
the outside of the Great Pyramid. While a similar 
case of spoUation to what that building experienced in 


A.D. 840, was perpetrated only a few years ago, on the 
south stone pyramid of Dashoor by Defterdar Mohammed 
Bey, in order to procure blocks of ready-cut stones of 
extra whiteness wherewith to build himself a palace 
near Cairo.* 

The SecoTid Objector. 

Then the doubter about the possibility of other men 
succeeding in measuring what would have puzzled him 
as he looked on idly, should have read the whole account 
of the French academicians in Egypt, of which the fol- 
lowing extract, from p. 63 of " Antiquites, Description," 
Yol. II. ,t is worthy of being more generally known than 
it is : viz., that after digging down through the rubbish, 
not merely looking on with their hands in their pockets, 
" They recognised perfectly the esplanade upon which the 
pyramid had been established ; and discovered, happily, 
at the north-east angle, a large hollow socket (encastre- 
ment) worked in the rock, cut rectangularly and unin- 
jured, where the corner-stone had been placed ; it is 
an irregular square, which is 11 8 British inches broad in 

* There is even a large consumption of ancient 'building-stones in the 
accidents of modern Egyptian life ; let alone the oft burning of limestone 
blocks into lime, for mortar and plaster-work. Thus I was astonished 
in 1864 at the massive outside stair to his house which one of the 
Sheikhs of the nearest Pyramid village had male, evidently with stone 
blocks from the tombs on the Great Pyramid Hill. But in 1873 I am 
informed by Mr. "Waynman Dixon that that village has been in the 
interval entirely washed away by a high Nile inundation, and that its 
inhabitants have since then built themselves a new village much closer 
to the Great Pyramid Hill, and in so far nearer to their inexhaustible 
quarry of stones, cut and squared to their hand. 

f "lis reconnurent parfaitement I'esplanade surlaquelle a ete etablie la 
pyramide, et decouvrirent heureusement a Tangle nord-est un large 
encastrement, creus6 dans le roc, rectangulairement dresse et intact, oil 
avait pose la pierre angulaire ; c'est un carre irregulier qui a 3 metres 
dans un sens, 3'5'2 metres dans I'autre, et de profondeur 0-207 metres ; ils 
firent les memos recherches a Tangle nord-ouest, et ils y retrouverent 
aussi un encastrement semblable au premiere ; tous deux etaient bien de 
niveau. C'est entre les deux points les plus exterieurs de ces enforcements 
et avec beaucoup de soins et de precautions qu'ils mesurerent la base. Ils 
la trouverent de 232*747 metres." 

Chap.IL] the great pyramid, 21 

one direction, 137 '8 Britisli inches in another, and 7'9 
British inches deep " (measures since then tested by 
myself, but only after several days spent in digging 
and clearing the locality by a civil engineer with a party 
of Arabs). "They made the same research at the 
north-west angle, and there also discovered a hollow 
socket {encastrement) similar to the former : the two 
were on the same level. It was between the two 
exterior points of these hollows, and with much care 
and precaution, that they measured the base-side length. 
They found it 763-62 British feet." 

The " encastrement," so discovered in the basal rock 
at the north-east angle, is duly figured in plan amongst 
the large French plates ; and, as I have since verified 
at the place, has the inner corner curiously pared away, 
evidently indicating the well-shaped rectangular outer 
corner to be the true starting-point for measure ; be- 
cause, also, it was originally the terminal point of the 
Pyramid's substance at that lower angle or foot. From 
the outer corner of the north-east to the outer corner of 
the north-west " encastrement s " of their happy dis- 
covery it therefore was, that the skilful French sur- 
veyors extended their measuring-bars, and with the 
result given above. 

Mr. Taylor has assisted the explanation of, or pre- 
sented some apology for, the errors of the better class 
of earlier observers, by imagining their having been 
really measuring along some of the elevated steps or 
ranges of stones, at a height up the sides of the Pyra- 
mid ; when, from the sand not having been cleared 
away, they erroneously thought they were at the bottom 
of the pile. But the apology was hardly required ; for 
none of them sufficiently realised the importance of 
accuracy in what they were engaged in ; and if, indeed, 
any man really believed the Great Pyramid to be only 
a tomb, and never to have been intended for anything 


but a tomb, as too all our modern Egyptologists boastfully 
teach, why should he trouble himself to measure it as 
carefully as he would a scientific standard of measure ? 

For the length of the real, or ancient, base-side of 
the Great Pyramid, therefore, no measure previous to 
the French one (which is the first socket measure) should 
or need be used, or can be depended on to within a 
serious number of feet. And as the French measures 
cannot now be repeated or- replaced by any decidedly 
better, without previously incurring a large cost in re- 
covering the sites of those important " encastrements" 
ov fittings-in of the outer corners of the Pyramid's base, 
and still more in clearing and levelling the much-encum- 
bered ground between them, we must not let the said 
French measures drop out of sight. 

Colonel Howard-Yyse, indeed, did go to much of this 
remarkable expense ; and not only procured another 
measure of the very original pyramid base breadth of 
the builders on the north side from end to end, but, as 
already mentioned, found near the middle thereof two 
of the ancient exterior casing-stones still forming, on 
the rocky platform, both a firmly-cemented part of the 
old basal line, and a beginning of the northern upward- 
sloping side of the building. 

Howard-Yyse' s Casing-stones. 

The extreme value residing in these angular relics, 
was not only because they were of the number of the 
original casing-stones actually in situ and undisturbed, 
and therefore showing what was once the veritable out- 
side of the Great Pyramid, viz., smooth, polished, dense 
white limestone softer than marble in a sloping plane ; 
but because they exhibited such matchless workmanship : 
as correct and true almost as modern work by optical 
instrument-makers, but exhibited in this instance on 


blocks of a height of nearly 5 feet, a breadth of 8 feet, 
and a length perhaps of 12 feet ; with joints, including 
a film of interstitial cement, no thicker than "silver 
paper." The angle of the inclined or bevelled outer 
surface, measured very carefully by Mr. Brettell, civil 
engineer, for the Colonel, came out 51° 50' ; and being 
computed from linear measures of the sides, made for 
him by another engineer, came out 51° 52' 15 •5''.'* 
Results extremely accordant with one another, as com- 
pared with the French determination (before there was 
anything on which to determine accurately, other than 
the present ruined and dilapidated sides of the edifice) 
of 51° 19' 4"; or of previous modern observers, who 
are found anywhere and most variously between 40° 
and 60°. 

But the Colonel's engineers, though good men and 
true, were not accurate enough for the extraordinary 
accuracy and merits of the unique piece of ancient work 
they had to deal with ; and in the linear measures 
which he gives in p. 261, Vol. I., of his great book (and 
the length measures of the sides of a triangle, as every 
practical surveyor knows, are capable of laying down its 
particulars on paper much more accurately than can be 
done by using the angles through means of an angle- 
showing protractor), there is one anomaly which seems 
to have escaped remark hitherto. The stone itself, in 
cross section, and its accompanying numbers, stand as 
in our Fig. 2 of Plate II. 

The lengths, having been only attempted to be given 
to the nearest inch, are lamentably short of the refine- 
ment to which they might have been taken ; and an 
accurate measure of such noble sides, would have given 
the angle by calculation far closer than it could have 
been observed to, by any clinometer then at the pyra- 
mids, or indeed in all Egypt, and perhaps Europe. 
♦ Sir John Hferschel, Athenceum, April 23, 1860. 


By subtracting the upper from the lower surface length 
the figure is reduced to a triangle for calculation ; and 
we have what should be a right-angled triangle at B 
(Fig. 3), where a =59, 6i=:75, and c:i=i48 inches all 
by measure. But the value of the angle A is then 
found to be so very different, accordingly as it is com- 
puted from h c, or a h, that we may soon perceive 
*clearly that B is not a right angle ; and on computing what 
it is from the three sides, it appears to be 88° 22' 52-6". 
This, however, is such an egregious error for workmen 
like those of the Great Pyramid to have committed, and 
in their easiest angle, that I incline to think Mr. Perring 
must have made a mistake of an inch in his measure of 
the base breadth of the stone, his most difficult side to 
measure. Indeed it would need a little more than an 
inch to be taken off his number, to bring the angle B 
up to 90° ; but as Mr. Perring does not deal in smaller 
quantities than an inch, and as none of the sides were 
likely to have fallen on an even inch exactly, I have 
not ventured to make so strong a correction upon one 
of them only, though too it would be to bring it up to 
the round pyramid number of 100 inches in length; 
and I leave the twin results of the Vyse casing-stones 
as given out to the world by their discoverer. 

John Taylors Proposition supported by Howard-Vyses 
^ ^^^^^ Casing-stone .4-'if^gle. 

~^xi the whole, then, taking everything into practical 
consideration, the ancient angle of the Great Pyramid's 
slope may be considered to be certainly somewhere 
between the two measured quantities of 51° 50' and 
51° 52' 15 "5", while there are many reasons for believ- 
that it must have been 51° 51' and some seconds. 
V many seconds, the modern observations are not 
conii^tent altogether to decide : but if we assume for the 


:ime 14-3", and employ tlie whole angle, viz. 51° 51' 14*3' 
Avith the length of the base side as already given from 
linear measure = 763*81 British feet, to compute the 
height, we have for that element 4 86 '2 567 ; and from 
these values of height and base-breadth, computing the 
proportion of diameter to circumference, there appears 
486-2567 : 76381 x 2 :: 1 : 3*14159, &c.* And this 
result in so far shows that the Great Pyramid does 
represent the value of tt ; a quantity which men in 
general, and all human science too, did not begin to 
trouble themselves about until long, long ages, languages, 
and nations had passed away after the building of the 
Great Pyramid ; and after the sealing up, too, of that 
:and primeval and prehistoric monument of the patri- 
'chal age of the earth, according to Script]xr©r" 

Furm^v-Bmffijmhations of John Taylor^ s Proposition. 

Hence the first stage of our trial terminates itself 
with as eminent a confirmation as the case can possibly 
admit of, touching the truth of John Taylor's proposi- 
tion or statement ; and I am even in a position now to 
add the absolute weight of personal examination, as well 
as of inquiries carried on at the place for a longer time 
and with better measuring instruments than any of my 
predecessors had at their command. I was not indeed 
so fortunate as Colonel Howard- Vyse in finding such 
large, entire, unmoved, and well-preserved casing-stones 
as he did ; but was enabled to prove that the enormous 
rubbish mounds now formed on each of the four base 
sides of the Pyramid consist mainly of innumerable 
fragments of the old casing-stones, distinguishable both 
by the superior quality of their component stone and 

* John Taylor's numbers for the vertical height and the base-breadth 
of the Great Pyramid were 486 and 764 feet : evidently the nearest pos- 
sible approximation by whole feet. 

1 1 


their prepared angle of slope always conformable, within 
very narrow limits, to Colonel Howard -Yyse's determi- 
nation. And a number of these almost " vocal " frag- 
ments are now deposited in the museum of the Eoyal 
Society, Edinburgh. 

Also, by careful measures of the angle of the whole 
Pyramid along all four of its corner or " arris " lines 
from top to bottom, observed with a powerful astrono- 
mical circle and telescope, as more particularly described 
in my larger book, "Life and Work at the Great 
Pyramid," in 1865, the same result came out. For 
that corner angle so measured (see the outer triangle 
A d^ 6 in Fig. 1, Plate II., and compare also Figs. 1 and 2 
of Plate III.) was found to be 41° 59' 45'' nearly : and 
that gives by computation, according to the necessary 
innate relations of the parts of a square-based pyramid, 
for the side slope of this "Great" one, 51° 51' and some 
seconds ; or without any doubt the representative of the 
angle Colonel Howard- Vyse did observe on the side ; 
and the one which, if it is there, necessarily makes the 
Great Pyramid express the value of tt, or the squaring 
of the circle, whatever the absolute linear size of the 
whole building may be. 

But that feature of linear size contains other pro- 
blems within itself, the nature of whose origination is 
even still more mysterious than this one, now prac- 
tically solved, touching the angle of rise of each of the 
four inclined sides and the object thereof. 




A Foot Standard unsuitable for tt on the Great Pyramids 


TN the process of recomputing Mr. Taylor's circum- 
-^ ferential analogy of the Great Pyramid on p. 25, after 
his own manner by linear vertical height and horizontal 
base-breadth, the quantities which we employed* were 
expressed in English feet ; but it does not therefore 
follow that they, or indeed any foot-measures, were 
employed by the ancient builders. 

Certainly the length, want of meaning, and incon- 
•venience of the fractions obliged to be introduced in 
order to represent the true, or tt, proportion of the one 
Pyramid element to the other, in these particular, abso- 
lute, linear terms, tend to forbid the idea. No doubt 
that a foot is something of a natural and very common 
measure,t and may have been (I do not say that it was) 
extensively used in Egypt for many agricultural and 
other operations, which, if lowly, '' are innocent and 
hurt not ;" but still there is good reason for disputing 
whether a "foot" was ever lifted up against that 

♦ Viz., vertical height = 486*2566 feet, and length of one side of 
base = 763-81 feet. 

t The natural or naked foot of man is shorter, say about 10'6 in place 
of 12 inches ; but the practical foot of civilized man, sandalled, shoed, or 
booted, is often more than 12 inches long. 


grandest building of all antiquity, the Great Pyramid, 
by the authors thereof. 

If then a foot-measure was not likely, and the pro- 
fane Egyptian cubit (whose length was close to 20*7 
British inches) gave similarly inconvenient fractions, what 
sort of standard of linear measure was likely to have 
been employed at the building, or rather by the builder 
or architect of the whole design, of the Great Pyramid ? 

What Standard would suit tt on the Scale of the Great 
Pyramid ? 

As a first step in such an inquiry, let us see whether 
an equally exact proportion between linear height and 
twice base-breadth, to what our long fractions of feet 
gave, cannot be obtained from some simpler numbers. 
Take, for instance, 116'5 : 366-0. These do not give 
the value of tt exact, as no simple numbers can, when 
the proportion itself belongs really to the incommen- 
surables ; but it is an astonishingly close approach, and 
an admirable clearing away of fractional troubles in all 
approximate work, for such plain and small numbers to 
make ; and the exceedingly trifling fraction* by which 
the one should be increased, or the other decreased, does 
not, in the existing state of our pyramidal knowledge, 
make much practical difference upon most of the ques- 
tions which we shall have presently to take up. 

Are there, however, any other reasons than such 
mere convenience, why we should attach any significance, 
touching importance in the design of the Great Pyramid, 
to these particular numbers ? 

There are such reasons. 

In the first place, 366, which represents here (for 

* Either 116-5014 : 366-0000, or 

116-5000 : 365-9956, would be closer, 
but not so convenient in multiplication and division. 


our arbitrary diameter of a circle 116'5) the tt circum- 
ferential analogy of that circle, is also the nearest even 
number of days in a year ; or more precisely, of solar 
days in a mean tropical solar year ; or, again, of day- 
steps in the circle of a year, the most notable and im- 
portant of all circles to man. 

We now know, by modern science, that the exact 
number of these day-steps in the natural year is 
365*2422 + an almost endless fraction of unascertained 
length ; though practically, and for the ordinary pur- 
poses of life, all civilised nations now use 365 even ; 
except in leap-year, when they do, evenly also, make 
their year to consist of 366 days. 

In the second place it may be stated, that that por- 
tion of the Pyramid employed as the chief datum of 
linear measure in the problem under discussion, viz., 
the length of each side of its square base as determined 
by the " socket " measurements, both of the French 
savants and Colonel Howard- Vyse, when it comes to be 
divided into 366 parts, seems to give each of them a 
length approaching nearly to one ten-millionth of the 
earth's semi-axis of rotation, or close upon 25 British 
inches. Equivalent, therefore, if further and indepen- 
dently proved, to the architect having laid out the size 
of the Great Pyramid's base with a measuring-rod 25 
inches long in his hand ; and in his head, the number 
of days and parts of a day in a year ; coupled with the 
intention to represent that number of days in terms of 
that rod on each base side of the building. 

A Day and Year Standard indicated, with Earth 
Commensur ability. 

Now this is a feature, in all sober truth, if that 
quantity of length was really used intentionally as a 
standard of measure, of the most extraordinary import- 


ance ; for it is only since Newton's time that men 
knew anything exact about, or have attributed anything 
peculiar in its size to, the earth's axis of rotation as dif- 
ferent from any other diameter thereof. It is, therefore, 
to man, evidently a result of modern science alone ; and 
every modern civilised nation has, during the present 
century, been obliged to perform gigantic trigonometrical 
operations and " degree measurings," in order to arrive 
at any approach to accurate knowledge of the true 
length of that earth-line, or rotation axis of the earth ; 
and they are still pursuing the inquiry with most 
extensive establishments of well-trained surveyors and 
scientific calculators. 

Their best results hitherto oscillate generally about 
500,500,000 English inches within very narrow limits, 
though some of the results are as great as 500,560,000, 
and others as small as 500,378,000. 

Such, then, are the ranges of uncertainty in which 
England, France, Germany, America, and Russia are 
placed at this moment ; and yet they are immensely 
closer in accord, and nearer to the truth, than they 
were only fifty years ago ; while 1,000, 2,000, or 3,000 
years since, even the most scientific of men knew nothing 
but what was childish about the size of that earth on 
which it had pleased God to place his last and most 
wondrous act of creation — man — to dwell, and play his 
part, for a little season. 

Is it possible, then, that at a much earlier date still 
than 3,000 years ago, or on the occasion of the founding 
of the Great Pyramid in 2170 B.C., the author of the 
design of that building could have known both the size 
and shape of the earth exactly, and have intentionally 
chosen the unique diameter of its axis of rotation as a 
reference for the standard of measure in that building ? 

Humanly, or by human science finding it out then, 
and in that age, of course was utterly impossible. But 

Chap.HT.] the great pyramid, 31 

if the thing was inserted there in fact — and if its in- 
sertion be not owing to accident, and if traces of the 
supernatural are attributable only to God and to his 
Divine inspiration, it must be one of the most remark- 
able facts that occurred at the beginning of the post- 
diluvial career of man, outside of Scripture history; ancf] 
stands next in importance to Scripture itself for man to L 
inquire into, as to how, and for what end, it was allowed I 
or aided by the Almighty to take place. J 

More Rigid Inquiry into the Absolute Length of the 
Base-side of the Great Pyramid. 

The first thing, therefore, for us to do now, is to 
ascertain if the alleged fact is there ; or, rather, to what 
degree of accuracy it is there ; for in all practical work 
of physical science and nicety of measurement, good 
scientific men know that nothing whatever can be as- 
certained absolutely, but only within certain limits of 
error ; those limits becoming smaller as observation 
improves, but never entirely vanishing. 

Is, then, the ten-millionth part of the earth's semi- 
axis of rotation, or 2 5 '02 5 British inches (according to 
the estimate of the axis rotation being 500,500,000 
British inches long),'^''" multiplied by 365 '242 (the number 
of solar days in a year), the true length of a side of the 
square base of the Great Pyramid ; and if it is not, by 
how much does it differ ? 

The above theoretically proposed quantity evidently 
amounts to 9,140 British inches, nearly. And at the time 
of the first edition of this book being published, the 
only admissible, because the only socket-founded, deter- 
minations of the base-side lengths that I was acquainted 
with, were, 1st, the French one (see p. 21) = 7G.3-62 

* The earth's equatorial diameter is about 602,226,000 British inches 


English feet = 9 1 6 3 "44 British inches ; and, 2nd, Colonel 
Howard-Yyse's, of 764 English feet = 9,168 British 
inches ; and both of them are too large. 

This error, if it is so, did not affect our determination 
in the last chapter for the tt shape of the Great Pyramid, 
because we computed the height in terms of this same 
base-breadth by reference to an angle observed quite 
independently. But now we require to know more 
positively whether the length then used was real or 
figurative only ; and when I was actually at the Great 
Pyramid in 1865, Messrs. Alton and Inglis, engineers, 
succeeded in uncovering all four of the Great Pyramid's 
corner sockets (as duly detailed in my book, " Life and 
Work"), and then proceeded to measure from socket 
to socket every one of the four sides of the base : and 
with what result ? They made them all shorter, far 
shorter than both the French and the Yyse determina- 
tions, or equal only to 9,110 British inches on the mean 
of the four sides. 

Either their measures then must have been very bad 
and too short, or those of the French and Colonel 
Howard-Yyse were bad and too long. I inclined to 
divide the errors between them in my book; '' Life and 
Work," published in 1867 ; and in 1869, when the 
Koyal Engineer surveyors, returning from the Sinai 
survey, went (according to orders) to the Great Pyramid, 
and announced, through their colonel at home, that 
the mean length of a side of its square base, from 
socket to socket, was 9,180 British inches, my idea of 
even-handed justice seemed to be in part confirmed.'"" 

* The Great PjTamid's base-side length was recently quoted from 
Sir H. James by the "Warden of the Standards in Nature as 9,120 Br. 
inches. But this was an error; for on page 7, line 4 ab imo, Sir H. James 
(then Col., now Gen.), E.E., states distinctly in his "Notes on the Great 
Pyramid," that " the mean length of the sides obtained by the Ordnance 
Surveyors was 9,130 inches ; " and it is only when he goes on to take the 
mean of his men's 9,130, with Aiton and Inglis's 9,110, — wholly ex- 
cluding the French surveyors and Colonel Howard- Vyse, — that he 
announces that "9,120 inches was therefore the true length of the side 


But as there are internal features of evidence that 
none of the measures, not even the last, were accurate 
enough to be depended on to the third place of figures 
(whether measured upon only one side, or all four sides, 
of the base considered square by everybody), all men 
are at this very moment left by the last pyramid 
base-side measurers of modern times in this predica- 
ment — viz., the theoretical length of 9,140 inches, 
which would imply such almost unutterable wisdom, 
or such inconceivably happy accident, for that primeval 
time, on the part of the designer of the Great 
Pyramid, is really found amongst, or as though it were 
one of, the best results of modern measure. It 
is, indeed, notably confirmed by them ; or may be 
asserted upon and by means of them, within such 
limits as they can confirm anything ; and if those 
limits are coarse, that coarseness is entirely the fault 
of the modern measurers, not of the ancient building ; 
which, founded on a rock (and an admirably firm and 
nearly unfissured hill of dense rock of nummulitic 
limestone, in nearly horizontal strata), could not pos- 
sibly have expanded and contracted between the suc- 
cessive modern dates of 1799, 1887, 1865, and 1869 
A.D., as the recent measures seem at first to imply. The 
variations, therefore, first from 9,163 to 9,168, then 
to 9,110 and then to 9,180, must be merely the pim 
and minus errors of the modem measurers : or of men 
intending honestly to do well if they could, but erring 
involuntarily, sometimes to one side and sometimes to 
the other of exactitude. 

of the Great Pyramid when it stood perfect." The reason of this dis- 
honourable shelving of the honourable older observers, with their larger 
results, is shown in the next line, where the Colonel develops his absurdly 
mistaken theory of the much later Greek cubit having decided the length 
of the early Great Pyramid base-side, and requiring such a length as 
9,120 inches ; of which more anon. 


T}i& Earth-axis, and Year, Commensurable Result 
further indicated. 

Of course better measures than all that have been yet 
taken might be made, and should be instituted forth- 
with, to clear up so notable a point in the primeval 
history of man ; but the expense to be incurred in the 
preliminary clearing of the ground to allow of accurate 
measuring apparatus being brought to bear, is beyond 
the means of any ordinary poor scientific man ; and 
the Great Pyramid is not a favourite subject either with 
rich men or the wealthy governments of wealthy nations : 
while the invaluable corner sockets, never properly 
covered up since 1865, are daily being trodden and 
broken down at their edges out of shape and out of size ; 
so that we are not likely to see sj)eedily, if ever, any 
better measures of the base-side length than those 
already obtained. 

But as they, when considered by any computer fully, 
honestly and fairly, do include the theoretical 9,140 
British inches, we are already justified so far (and we 
shall have in a future chapter signal confirmation from 
the interior of the Pyramid), in upholding the high 
degree of probability that the reason why the Great 
Pyramid (made already of a particular shape to enun- 
ciate the value of the mathematical term tt) had also 
been made of a particular size, was, — in part, to set forth 
the essence of chronology for man in chronicling all his 
works upon this earth. For evidently this was accom- 
plished there, by showing that the number of times that 
the Pyramid's standard of linear measure would go into 
the length of a side of its square base, was equal to the 
number of days, and parts of a day, in the course of 
a year. That standard of linear measure being, more- 
over, with a marvellously complete appropriateness, the 
ten-millionth of the length of the earth's semi-axis of 


rotation : or of half of that axis, by the earth's rotating 
upon which before the sun, that particular number of 
days for work and nights for rest is constantly being 
produced for all humanity in the course of the earth's 
annual revolution around the sun. 

Hence there is here wheel within wheel of appro- 
priate and wise meaning, far above any mere single case 
of simple coincidence of numbers ; and which implies 
something beyond mechanical accident on the part of 
the ancient architect, though our own modern Egyptolo- 
gists and the ancient Egyptians and all the rest of the 
pagan world too, saw nothing of it. The afGair was 
open, because it was on the surface, during all antiquity, 
and especially open during the days of the Greek 
philosophers in Alexandria, when the Great Pyramid 
was still complete in size and finish, with its bevelled 
casing-stones forming the then outside finished surface 
of the whole ; and any of those learned men, by merely 
dividing the Pyramid's base-side length by the number 
of days in a year, might have acquired to themselves 
the most valuable scientific standard of length contained 
in the whole physical earth ; but none of them did so. 

Beginning of Reference to the Great Pyramid's Numbers. 

And the affair grows in wonder the further we inquire 
into it. For Mr. Taylor, led by the numbers of British 
inches which measure the earth's polar-axis length, — 
and other men, also led by the dominance of fives in the 
Pyramid's construction (as that it has five angles and 
five sides, including the lower plane of the base mathe- 
matically as one) — ventured the suggestion, that the 
author of the Great Pyramid's design both had, and used, 
as his smaller unit of measure, an inch. An inch, though, 
larger than a British inch by a thousandth part, i e. 
about half a hair's-breadth ; an apparently unimportant 


quantity, and yet it is that which enables the round, 
and at the same time grand, Pyramid number of jive 
hundred millions of them, even, to measure the length 
of the earth's polar diameter with exactitude. 

With these inches, the day standard of linear measure 
for the side of the base of the Great Pyramid is 5 x 5, 
or just 25 of them ; and that length, while it will be 
shown presently to be fully deserving of the appella- 
tion, amongst all Christians, of " Sacred Cubit," we will 
in the meanwhile only call the cubit of the Great 
Pyramid's scientific design. Next, as there are four 
sides to the Pyramid's base, the united length of all of 
them evidently equals 36,524 Pyramid inches; or, at 
the rate of a round hundred inches to a day, the whole 
perimeter of the building (already shown to represent 
the theoretical tt circle) is here found to symbolise once 
again, in day lengths, the practical circle of the year, 
so essential to the life and labours of man. 

Now is it not most strange, — or rather is, it not 
ominously significant, that the ancient profane cubit of 
idolatrous Egypt, 20*7 British inches long nearly, if 
applied either to the Great Pyramid's base-side, or base- 
diagonals, or vertical height, or axis lines, or any other 
known radical length of the building, brings out no 
notable physical fact, no mathematical truth. While 
the other length of 25*025 British inches (which the 
profane Egyptians, and the Jupiter and Juno and Yenus 
w^orshipping Greeks, when in Egypt, knew nothing of) 
brings out in this and other cases so many important 
coincidences with nature, as makes the ancient monu- 
tnent speak both intelligibly and most intellectually to 
the scientific understanding of the present day. 

Why, it seems almost to imply, — so far as the close- 
ness of a 25 British inch length, to being the key for 
opening this part of the design of the Great Pyramid, is 
concerned, — that there was more of intercommunication 


in idea and knowledge between the architect of the 
Great Pyramid, and the origines of the Anglo-Saxon race 
(whose national unit of linear measure the inch more 
especially is) than between the said architect or designer 
of the one Great Pyramid in Egypt, and all the native 
Egypti^in people of all the ancient ages, with their in- 
variable 20-7 inch cubit, which explains nothing, ex- 
cept their early connection wdth Babylon ; and they, 
the holders of it, idolaters worse than those of Babel, 
and Cainite religious professors every one of them. 

The Great Pyramid's Linear Standard contrasted tuith 
the French Metre. 

We have thus arrived by a comparatively short and 
easy path, at the same chief result touching the Great 
Pyramid's standards and units of linear measure, and 
a probability of -whence the British inch was derived 
in primeval days of purity and patriarchal worship 
before idolatry began, — which Mr. Taylor equally ob- 
tained, but by a more circuitous process ; and what a 
result it is, in whatever point of view we look upon it, 
or by whatever road we have attained to it ! 

The nations of the world three thousand years ago, of 
their own selves and by their own knowledge, cared little 
about their national measures, and knew nothing but 
what was childish with regard to the size of the earth ; 
so that all our present exact acquaintance with it is 
confined within the history of the last hundred years. 
The great attempt of the French people in their first 
Ilevolution to abolish alike, the Christian religion, and 
the hereditary w^eights and measures of all nations, 
and to replace the former by a worship of philosophy, 
and the latter by their " metre," " French metre," 
scheme depending in a certain manner of their own 
upon the magnitude of the earth, as well as to substi- 



tute the week of seven days by an artificial period of 
ten days, — is only eighty years old. And how did they, 
the French philosophers, endeavour to carry out the 
metrological part of their scheme ? By assuming as 
their unit and standard of length, the 1-1 0,000,000th 
of a " quadrant of the earth's surface V Well may we 
ask with surprise if that was all that science, trusting in 
itself, was able to do for them. For the grasp and 
understanding of the subject, that took a curved line 
drawn on the earth's surface in place of the straight 
axis of rotation, was truly inferior in the extreme. Sir 
John Herschel has well said, but only after John 
Taylor s statement about the Pyramid had lighted up 
his mind with the exquisite thought, of how near after 
all the British hereditary inch is to an integral earth- 
measure, and the best earth-measure that he had ever 
heard of, — Sir John Herschel, I repeat, has said, " So 
long as the human mind continues to be human, and 
retains a power of geometry, so long will the diameter 
be thought of more primary importance than the cir- 
cumference of a circle ;" and when we come to a sphere, 
and in motion, the axis of its dynamical labour should 
hold a vastly superior importance still. 

Again, the French philosophers of eighty years ago, 

in fixing on a Meridional quadrant of surface for their 

metre's derivation, had no idea that within the last 

f three years the progress of geodesy would have shown 

ithat the earth's equator was not a circle, but a rather 
irregular curvilinear figure,* perhaps ellipsoidal on the 
whole, so that it has many different lengths of equa- 
I torial axes, and therefore also different lengths of qua- 
I drants of the Meridian in different longitudes. Tliey, the 
' savants of Paris, could not indeed foresee these things 

* See M. de SchuT>ert in "Transactions of Imp. Acad, of St. Peters- 
burg;" and Sir G. B. Airy, Astr. R., in "Monthly Notices of Eoyal 
Astron. Soc." 


of the present day, or a state of geodesic science 
beyond them ; and yet these things were all taken into 
account, or provided for, or certainly not sinned against, 
by the mind that directed the building of the Great 
Pyramid 4,040 years ago ; and the reference for the 
grand unit, the 10^*^ or ten-millionth, part of the 
earth's polar semi-axis, then adopted, is now shown to 
be the only sound and scientific one which the earth 

Through those long mediaeval periods, too, of dark- 
ness, confusion, and war, when our nation thought of 
no such things as mathematics, geodesy, and linear 
standards, the same master-mind likewise prevented our 
hereditary, and quasi Pyramid, unit of measure^ the 
inch, from losing more than the thousandth part of 
itself; for this is the result, if it turns out as John 
Taylor believed — and as he was the first of men in these 
latter days both to believe and to publish his belief — 
that the Great Pyramid is the one necessarily-material 
centre from which those practical things, weights and 
measures, in a primeval age, somewhere between the 
time of Noah and Abraham, take whatever chronology 
you will, were Divinely distributed to certain peoples and 
tonp^ues ; and carried with the utmost care from land 
to land, for special purposes of some grand future manH 
festation, which is yet to make its appearance on they 
stage of human history. 




John Taylor s Earth and Pyramid Analogies. 

TTAYING established tlius mucli, and to this degree 
-LL of approximation, as to shape, size, and linear 
standard of the Great Pyramid, it may now be worth 
our while to bestow some special attention on two other 
analogies between that building and the earth, published 
by John Taylor ; and which, on being examined soon 
afterwards by Sir John Herschel,'"" were honourably de- 
clared by him to be, so far as he then knew, the only 
good relations between the size of the earth and the size 
of the Pyramid which had up to that date been 
successfully made out ; though at the same time he 
expressed his belief that they were only approximate. 

A most useful caution ; and keeping it fully in view, 
let us test them over again and in the terms of those 
pyramidal units and standards which we ourselves have 
now obtained ; for inasmuch as they allow us to speak 
of the Great Pyramid in the very primal measures appa- 
rently employed by its architect in planning the design, 
we may thereby be enabled to put his work to a stricter 
and more direct test. 

The first of these two analogies by Mr. Taylor is, 

* Athemeum, April, 1860 ; and Mr. Taylor's " Battle of the Standards," 
1864. See the Appendix to the Second Edition of his " Great Pyramid." 
Longmans & Co. 


when put into the form subsequently chosen by Sir 
John Herschel, "a band encircling the earth, of the 
breadth of the base of the Great Pyramid, contains one 
hundred thousand million square feet." The built size, 
in fact, of the Great Pyramid is here stated to bear 
such a remarkably round and even number, as its 
proportion to the created size of the natural earth, at 
the epoch of its human habitation, that an argument for 
intention rather than accident may spring therefrom, if 
it hold closely in fact. 

The feet to be used on such an occasion, can hardly 
be any other than pyramid feet, or 1 2 pyramid inches 
set in a line ; and the part of the earth for the colossal 
band to encircle, what should that be ? 

Though it is allowable enough, and very useful too 
in approximate work, to speak of the earth as a globe, 
or sphere, whose every great circle, or section through 
its centre, will have the same length of circumference, 
we cannot so do, or content ourselves therewith, either 
in accurate modern science on one side, or in any 
advanced stage of pyramid investigation on the other ; 
especially when some of our earliest discoveries there, 
indicated that its design discriminated between the axis 
of rotation diameter, and any and every other possible 
diameter through the really spheroidal, or ellipsoidal, or 
chiefly flattened-at-the-poles figure, of the great mass of 
the earth. 

Let us come to some very clear conclusion then on 
the size and sjiape of the earth, in pyramid units of 
measure too, before we attempt the solution of any 
further problem supposed to connect the two. 

Of (lie Length of tJte Eartlis Polar Axis. 

Expressed in pyramid inches (each of them O'OOl 
of an inch longer than the national British inch) the 


polar diameter, or axis of rotation of the earth, has been 
stated by different observers of the best modern schools 
of the present time to be either (see p. 30) 499,878,000 
or 500,060,000 pj^amid inches in length, or any and 
almost every quantity between those limits. They can- 
not, in fact, be determined much closer by the best 
measures of the best men and the most powerful govern- 
ments of civilised nations in the present day ; and 
although one office or nation publishes its results to 
an arithmetical refinement of nine places of figures, it 
cannot convince any other office or nation of its cor- 
rectness beyond the three first places of figures. Some 
of them may agree to four places, few or none of them 
to five or six or more places. Therefore in this case and 
all other similar ones throughout this book, I shall try to 
simplify all numerical statements of measures by not 
putting them down to more places of significant num- 
bers than they can be nearly depended on to. Hence 
the 000 with which the above statements terminate are 
merely to give the proper value to the preceding figures, 
and not to indicate that any one man's measures of the 
earth gave forth an even number of inches in tens, 
hundreds, or thousands. 

" But why do they not ascertain Avhat the length of 
the earth's axis is, and state it exact ? " may ask many 
a reader, not directly experienced in practical scientific 
measurement. Well, by all means let any and every 
such reader ask, and ask again that question in the 
proper quarter. Let them ask, for instance, at the 
Ordnance Survey Office in Southampton, or from the 
Trigonometrical Survey of India, where generations after 
generations of Engineer officers have been taken away 
from their proper military duties, and kept at nothing 
but observations and calculations to get at the size and 
shape of the earth all their lives long. They have 
lived and died at that employment alone, and are still 


succeeded at the task 'by others, and yet it is not com- 
pleted. In fact, the expense of the methods and the 
men employed, is increasing every day. And not in our 
country alone, but in every state on the Continent, is 
similar work going on, and with less chance than ever 
of one exact, absolute, and universally admitted con- 
clusion being ever arrived at. 

Neither is this any fault of those individuals ; it is 
the nature of human science, because it is human and 
not divine. Human practical science can only go on by 
approximations, and can never reach anything more 
than approximations, though it work at one and the 
same simple subject for ages. And though the subject 
itself in nature and to the eye of its Creator is abso- 
lutely simple, human science makes it so complicated 
and difficult as it advances with its successive approxi- 
mations, that the matter is crushed in the end by its own 
weight, and at last falls out of the range of all ordinary 
men to deal with, or even to be interested in. 

Not only, too, do the experts of two different coun- 
tries produce 'different measured results for the size of 
one and the same earth's axis of rotation, but they 
produce different results in computing the same ob- 
servations ; until even one and the same computer will 
produce varying quantities out of the same data by 
different methods of computation, the absolute cor- 
rectness of any of which he does not pretend to . 
guarantee, though he can say a great deal for them all, 
in the present advanced state of the science. 

Latest Determination of the Earth's Polar Axis. 

A good example of this condition of our best know- 
ledge of the earth's size was given by a volume 
published by the Ordnance Survey in 186 G. It con- 


tained some splendid computations by Colonel Clarke, 
K.E., the chief mathematician of the establishment, and 
gave perhaps the most highly advanced results of all 
earth surveys then made by any and every nation. 
Yet he presents his final results in two different shapes, 
and by one of them makes the polar axis of the earth 
(reduced here from British into pyramid inches) to 
measure by one mode of computation 499,982,000, and 
by another 500,022,000; leaving the reader to choose 
which he likes, or any mean between the two. 

This was, in its day, a great advance upon everything 
before it ; but now, in place of being contented with 
either one or other or both those results, all Eurojoean 
countries are engaged on further measurements of the 
earth ; which measurements, after the consumption of 
more millions of money, may enable the parties con- 
cerned, in the course of the next century or two, to 
amend the above numbers by some very small propor- 
tional part ; but which way, there is no saying. 

In a work entitled '' The Metric System," by Presi- 
dent Barnard, of Columbia College, New York, 1872, 
that able analytical mathematician and forcible writer, 
at pages 94 to 105, sets forth admirably, and in plain 
words, the inconceivable practical difficulties which 
small irregularities in the earth's figure throw in the 
way of modern science determining the size and shape 
of the whole earth. And, wonderfully extensive, as well 
as dreadfully expensive, as have been the geodesic 
operations of all nations, taken together, during the last 
hundred years, he considers that all their resulting 
data, expressed by him shortly as "40 Latitudes," 
must eventually be increased to not less than 4,000, 
before the materials for computing the earth's size will 
be worthily ready for the mathematicians to begin their 
unwieldy, unenviable, and humanly almost impossible, 
discussions upon. 

Chap. IV.] 



Equatorial and other Diameters of the Earth. 

Meanwhile we have already assumed as the polar- 
axis length for computation in the pyramid comparisons, 
500,000,000 pyramid inches ; and that being a quantity 
which this recent Ordnance publication may, and to a 
certain extent does, largely confirm, but cannot over- 
throw, let us hasten on to an equally close knowledge of 
what the other diameters of the earth may measure. 

These parts depend partly on what amount of elliptical 
compression the computers assume, as either -^^^ -g--^, ^\q, 
or anything else ; and partly what shape they assign 
to the section of the earth 'at the equator where a 
species of transverse elliptical compression is assigned 
(not absolutely, but only with a certain slightly different 
degree of probability that it is so, rather than not) by 
the Ordnance book ; to an extent that makes one of the 
equatorial diameters 150,000 pyramid inches longer 
than another. 

Without then attempting to decide any one's correct- 
ness, I have represented these extremes in the accom- 
panying table, and placed between them the very set of 
earth measures which I had computed as 'probably nearest 
the truth in the first edition of " Our Inheritance in the 
Great Pyramid." 

Tablb of Earth's Size in Pyb,a.mid Inches. 

Parts of the Earth 
referred to. 

Polar Diameter 
Diameter in Lat. 60 . 

n ,, 45 . 


„ Equator 

Result with 
Clarke's smallest 
eqiiatoriol diam. 


Result adopted 
in " Our Inherit- 
ance." rirst^ 
edition, 1804. 


Result with 
Clarke's hii g-est 
equatorial diam. 



John Taylors First Analogy. 

With these data at our command let us return to the 
Taylor-Herschel Pyramid analogy, which asserts that " a 
band of the width of the Great Pyrariiid's base-breadth 
encircling the earth, contains 100,000,000,000 square 

An equatorial band is the only one which could 
encircle the earth in a great circle, and at the same 
time in one and the same parallel of latitude ; we pro- 
ceed therefore thus : from the equatorial diameters 
given above, we compute the equatorial circumferences 
by multiplying them by that almost magic number to 
work calculations with, the tt of the Great Pyramid, or 
3*14159, &c. Reduce them to pyramid feet by dividing 
by 12, and next multiply by the already determined 
pyramid base-breadth in Pyramid feet, viz., 760-922 ; 
the following results then come out, viz. : — 

They all give smaller figures than the required 
100,000,000,000; for the smaller equatorial diameter 
gives 99,919,000,000, and the largest equatorial dia- 
meter gives 99,949,000,000. 

Not absolutely true, therefore, with any allowable 
equatorial diameter, to the first three places. An inter- 
esting approximation therefore, but, as Sir John Herschel 
truly remarked, only an approximation. Let us pass 
on, therefore, to the next analogy. 

John Taylors Second Analogy. 

The height of the Great Pyramid, says Mr. Taylor, is 
the -2-7-070-00 th part of the circumference of the earth. 

But why ^-7-o!o-o (rth ? That is not any known pyramid 
number, like the 5's, and lO's, and 4-s of its practical 
construction, or the tendency to the marked tt numbers 
3 and 7 of its shape ; and the only approach to a 


reason which I have been able to discover is the 
following : — The squaring of the " circle " in every way 
is a continual problem throughout the Great Pyramid ; 
and if the area of its base be computed in hundredths 
of feet, the length of the circumference of a circle 
containing an equal area will be 269,740*, not 270,000', 
of the same terms. 

Hence the number 270,000 is not quite accurate to 
begin with ; and if we multiply that by the Pyramid's 
height in inches, and divide by tt, we have what should 
be a mean diameter of the whole earth in some great 
circle ; but the result comes out only 499,590,000 ; 
which number a glance at the previous table will show 
is too small for all its data ; i.e. not fully true when the 
third place of numbers is reached. 

Hence both of these analogies may have been useful 
in approximately leading an inquirer to a first cosmical 
foundation, or reason, for the Great Pyramid's size ; but 
they cannot take the place of that other relation esta- 
blished on pages 31 and 34, between the length of the 
Great Pyramid's base side in 2 5 -inch cubits, or its whole 
perimeter in standards of 100 Pyramid inches each, and 
the number of days in a year. 

For that relation is apparently true to the fifth place 
of numbers at least ; and, besides that, is backed by a 
cosmical relation with good reason of the utmost impor- 
tance to men ; and to the Pyramid too as an anthro- 
pological monument, and in so far as its design 7}iay\ 
contain a message from Heaven to man, touching v 
closely on his personal welfare and future social and I 
governmental condition upon this earth. ^^ 

* Even one simple arithmetical coincidence is not so frequently met with 
as some persons imagine. For whereas in 1869 one of the Ordnance 
officers attempted to turn the pyramid cubit into ridicule as an earth 
meisure, — " Because," said he, " the British foot is as closely com- 
mensurable a measure of an equatorial degree of longitude, in terms of 
the year and its days too, as the pyramid cubit of the earth's polar semi- 
axis ; and we know that that relation of the modern British foot must be 


Grander Pyramid and Solar Analogy. 

Yet however valuable these last two basal cum annual 
analogies may be, they only hold their position at all 
by means of the base-breadth being measured on each 
occasion in one particular linear standard, and no other. 
They are neither of them, therefore, that grander relation 
between the Pyramid as a whole, and something either 
in the heavens above or the earth beneath, quite inde- 
pendent of the terms of measure, which mankind had 
been long hungering and thirsting for ; but which was 
;jnly at last obtained by my friend William Petrie, C.E., 
when studying the mensurations in " Life and Work," 
in October, 1867. 

He then remarked, and naturally enough, that the 
circle typified by the base of the Great Pyramid has 
already been proved to symbolise a year, or the earth's 
annual revolution around the sun ; and the radius of 
that typical circle had also been shown to be the ancient 
vertical height of the Great Pyramid, the most important 
and unique line which can be drawn within the whole 

Then that line, said he further, must represent also 
the radius of the earth's mean orbit round the sun ; 
and in the proportion of 10^ or 1 to 1,000,000,000 ; 
because, amongst other reasons, 10:9 is practically the 
shape of the Great Pyramid. For this building notwith- 
standing, or rather by virtue of, its tt angle at the sides, 
has practically and necessarily such another angle at the 
corners, — see Figs. 1 and 2, in Plate III., — that for 

purely accidental " — yet when I came to test the assertion hy calculating 
the matter out, I found that the officer had taken Colonel Clarke's maxi- 
mum equatorial radius on the ellipsoidal theory, had used it as though it 
had been the mean radius, and did not get the full number he required for 
his assertions even then. So that his number, instead of coming out to 
365,242-, only reached 365,234-, but had no right to be quoted higher 
than 365,183-; and there all the scoffer's reasoning and analogy ended, 
-while the Pyramid's continued to go forward to greater things. 

Chap.IV.J the great pyramid. 49 

every Un units its structure advances inward on the 
diagonal of the base, it practically rises upwards, or points 
to sunshine, by nine. Nine too, out of the ten charac- 
teristic parts (viz., five angles and five sides), being the 
number of those parts which the sun shines on in such 
a shaped pja-amid, in such a latitude near the equator, 
out of a high sky ; or, as the Peruvians sa}^, when the 
sun sets on the Pyramid with all his rays.'"" 

TF. Petries Pyramid Sun-distant j. 

To computation Mr. Petrie instantly proceeded, reduc- 
ing the 5,813 pyramid inches of the Pyramid's height 
to British inches, multiplying them by 10^, and reducing 
those inches to miles, — when he Avorked out the quantity 
91,840,000. Alas! sighed he, the analogy does not 
hold even in the second place of figures, for the real 
sun-distance by modern astronomy has been held during 
the last half century to be 95,233,055 miles.t 

So he threw his papers on one side and attended to 
other matters ; until one fine morning he (a man then 
almost wholly occupied with chemical engineering) 
chanced to hear, that although the above number, ninety- 
five milHons odd, had been held to for so long by all the 
modern world, mainly because it had been produced by 

♦ Tliis 10 : 9 shape of the Great Pyramid was independently discovered 
soon afterward by Sir Henry James and Mr. O'Farrell, of tlio Ordnance 
Survey Office ; and it is interesting to notice that the side anpfle com- 
puted from it amounts to 51° 50' 39 ""l ; the ir angle being 51" 51' 14"'3 ; 
and the angle from Mr. Taylor's interpretation of Herodotus, or to the 
effect of the Great Pyramid having boon built to represent an area on tho 
side, equjil to tho height squared, 51° 49' 25". The vertical heights in 
Pyramid inches, are at tho same time, using the same base-side length for 
them all— by tho 10 : 9 hypothesis, 5,811 ; by the 7r hypothesis, 5,813 ; and 
by the Herodotus-Taylor hypothesis = 5,807. 

t Air. Petrie may have used a rather greater heip:ht, viz., 6,826 inches 
for the Pyramid, in which case his sun-distance would have been rather 
greater than 91,840,000; but the general nature of his rosult, on the 
quantity approved by all European astronomy lifteen years ago, would 
hiive been seubibly just tho same. 



the calculations of a late first-rate German astronomer 
(calculations so vast, so difficult, and with such a pres- 
tige of accuracy and power about them, that no living 
man cared to dispute their results), yet the astronomical 
world had been forced to awaken during the last twelve 
years to a new responsibility, and not only admit that 
the number might possibly be erroneous, but to institute 
some observations for endeavouring to determine what 
it should be. 

Such observations, too, actually had just then been 
made, and the daily press was full of their new results. 
And what were they ? 

Why one group of astronomers of several nations 
declared the true mean sun distance to be about ninety- 
one to ninety-one and a half millions of miles ; and 
another group of the same and other nations declared it 
to be from ninety-two to ninety-two and a half millions 
of miles. And while they were fighting together as to 
whose results were the better (an actual duel with swords 
was expected at one time between M. Le Terrier and the 
late lamented M. De Launay), Mr. Petrie steps in and shows 
that the Great Pyramid result actually is between the 
two ; indeed, it is almost exactly the mean between the 
contending parties, and forms therefore a' single repre- 
sentation of all the sun-distance results of all human 
kind even in the present age. 

Granting then that modern science is now so far 
advanced that it may talk, at least on a "mean of all its 
results, with some degree of confidence at last of what 
may not improbably be the true sun-distance, — the 
correct figures for it were given, and built up, by the 
Great Pyramid's design 4,040 years ago ; or before any 
nations of mankind had begun to run their independent, 
self-willed, theotechnic, and idolatrous courses. And if 
we desired any additional proof to the records of the 
history of science in general, and of the sun-distance 


problem in particular,* that such knowledge could not 
liave been obtained in that early day, when men were 
few and weak upon the earth, except it came from 
Divine inspiration, — the modern astronomers are now 
splendidly, though involuntarily, affording it : giving in- 
deed, proof heaped on proof, in the enormous prepara- 
tions which they are making, at the expense of their 
respective nations, to observe the transit of Venus over 
the sun's disc, merely as one step towards getting the 
sun- distance number, perhaps a trifle better than before, 
in the year 1874. 

Modem Astronomers are involuntarily proving that 
Man, unaided by Supernatural Divine Power, could 
not possibly have measured the Sun-distance accu- 
rately in tJie Age of the Great Pyramid ; and yet it 
is there ! 

These preparations for observing the next Yenus-Sun 
transit by modern astronomers have already been 
going on for several years, and nothing of their kind 
so costly, so scientific, so extensive, were ever seen on 
the face of the earth before. From Europe to America, 
and from the most northern nation's old Hyper- 
borean strongholds to the most distant and newest 
colonies in the Southern Hemisphere, the busy hum 
resounds. Steam navigation, iron ships, electric tele 
graphs, exquisite telescopes, both reflecting and re 
fracting, photographic machines of enormous power, 
refined " regulator " clocks, and still more refined chrono- 
graphs, transit instruments, equatorials, spectroscopes, 

* In the age of the Greeks, the distance attrihuted to the sun from tho 
earth began with the infantine quantity of about ten miles ; it increased 
slowly to 10,000 ; still more slowly to 2,500,000 ; then, after a long delay, 
increased to 36,000,000, under German Kepler ; to 78,000,000 in tho days 
of Louis XIV., under French La Caille; and only at length reached the 
full quantity, and then clumsily overpassed it, at tho boijinning of the 
preaeiit century. 


altitude-azimutli circles, all these modern inventions and 
many others, with all the learning of the universities, 
are pressed into the cause ; preparatory computations 
too, with much printing, engraving, and publication, 
have been going on for years ; and all will be car- 
ried out almost regardless of expense, of time, of 
danger, of obstacles, to the most distant parts of the 
earth ; and where necessary, to parts, some of them in 
the tropics, and some in frozen oceans, which neither 
Greeks nor Eomans in all their days, nor even our own 
fathers only sevent}^ years ago, knew anything of. 

But all this accumulation of power, of wealth, of 
numbers, of risk, co-operated in too by every civilised 
nation, is stated to be absolutely necessary ; nothing of 
it can be spared, nothing omitted, if we are to enrich 
ourselves, in the present age, with a better result for 
the sun-distance tban mankind has yet obtained ; ex- 
cepting always that one result of old laid up in the 
Great Pyramid. So the expeditions will set forth 
gloriously next year, amid the warmest plaudits of the 
whole modern world, and especially of its scientific 
associations. Many of the pilgrims may fall like heroes 
by the way, and some of them leave their bones to 
whiten distant lands. Large populations at home may in 
the meanwhile starve for want of the necessaries of life, 
and the crimes arising out of ignorance uneducated, 
crowding in squalid residences, and the innate wickedness 
of human nature when left to its own devices uncorrected, 
will go on wholesale, making our morning papers 
hideous. But for all that, the chosen parties will sail 
with their treasuries of instrumental detail ; and, if the 
usual consequences of successful scientific researches 
follow, the science of the modern world will have oc- 
casion to boast, after it is all over, of having improved 
its number for expressing the sun-distance, — a little ; 
and its acquaintance with certain disturbing pheno- 


mena increasing the difficulty of the observations, and 
throwing new doubts upon the final result — a great 

The Great Pyramid before Science.- 

What a solemn witness to all these unequal efforts 
of mankind, is not the Great Pyramid, which has seen 
all human actions from the beginning ; from the time 
when men broke away in opposition to both the Divine 
rule and inspired teachings of patriarchal life, and wil- 
fully went after their own inventions. 

Placed in the midst among all men, and especially 
those of the earliest inhabited regions of the post- 
diluvial earth, thus has been standing the Great Pyramid 
from dispersion times ; and they, the men so honoured, 
never knowing anything of its knowledge capacity, or 
suspecting its profound meaning. Yet these things, or 
the types and measures of them, so far as we have seen 
them here, were on its surface all the time. Any one, 
therefore, through all history, who should have known, 
if he could have known indeed, the true sun-distance, 
had only to compare the Great Pyramid's height 
therewith, reasoning at the same time on its shape, in 
order to be enabled to perceive that the measure of 
that all-important physical, astronomical, metrological, 
and anthropological, quantity w^as hung up there from 
ancient days, and in figures more exact than any that 
modern observations have done more than merely approxi- 
mate to. 

But again we shall have to tell, and from facts ascer- 
tained and ascertainable in just as eminently practical 
a manner, that all that wonderful scientific information 
(more than wonderful for the age and circumstances 
under which it was placed there) was not introduced into 
the Great Pyramid solely, or even at all, for strengthening 


men in science ; much less was it to promote tLe 
worldly fame of tlie introducer. . ^-v.^^ 

Science is there, but mainly to prove to these latter 
scientific days of the earth that the building so designed 
has a right, a title, an authority, to speak to men of these 
times, and even to the most scientific of them, on 
another and far higher subject ; and with proofs of 
things unseen, quick and powerful, piercing even to the 
dividing asunder of the soul and spirit, and discerning 
the thoughts and intents of the heart ; as may pro- 
bably develop itself with unexpected clearness, if the 
inquiry into what the Great Pyramid does monumentally 
and mechanically testify to, is allowed to progress to 
the end. 

CiiAr. v.] 





TT may, however, after our last chapter, be demanded 
-■- by very earnest inquirers, to be shown some easy 
and material proofs of astronomy of more ordinary kind, 
let alone the possibilities of so transcendental a kind, 
having been intended by the primeval designer of the 
Great Pyramid,^before they can fully admit the entirely 
non-accidental character of the remarkable numerical 
coincidences which have just been given. 

The request is most reasonable, and I address myself 
to the answer immediately. 

"^s-ryf- llm Great Fyrm mL 

To begin, the reader may be reminded, that the 
square base of the Great Pyramid is very truly oriented, 
' or placed with its sides facing astronomically due north, 
\outh, east, and west ; and this fact at once 
cmaiTr^S^ies't5Tli^"-"ei^ectth^ all thephenomena of 
component parts of that ryTlim^^^^^~^P^^^ ^^ P^^^ 
geometry alone ; for to pure geometry all azimuths are 
alike, and one most particular astronomical azimuth or 
direction has been picked out there. 

In the early ages of the world the very correct 
orientation* of a large pile must have been not a little 
difficult to the rude astronomy of the period. Yet with 


sucli precision had tlie operations been prime vally per- 
formed on the Great Pyramid, that the French Academi- 
cians in A.D. 1799 were not a little astonished at the 
closeness. Their citizen Nouet, " in the month Nivose 
of their year 7," made refined observations to test the 
error, and found it to be only 19' 58" ; but with the 
qualification added by M. Jomard, that as M. Nouet 
only had the ruined exterior of the Pyramid before him 
to test, the real error of the original surface might have 
been less. In this conclusion M. Jomard was doubtless 
right ; for in the similar sort of measure of the angle of 
slope of the side with the base of the Pyramid, it was 
proved afterwards, on the discovery of the casing-stones, 
that his compatriot had erred to a very much larger 
extent than the original builders. 

As it was, however, all the Academician alithors of the 
great Napoleonic compilation were delighted with the 
physical and historical proof which the Pyramid seemed 
to give them, when compared with their own modern 
French observations of stars, " That the azimuthal 
direction of the earth's axis had not sensibly altered, 
relatively to the sides of the Great Pyramid's base, 
during probably 4,000 years." 

Possibility of Azimuthal Change in the Crust of the 

Now some action of this kind, one way or the other, 
has long been a mooted question among astronomers, 
though chiefly for its bearing on geography, general 
physics, and geology. In its nature, therefore, it must 
be kept entirely distinct from the more perfectly astro- 
nomical phenomenon, and which few but astronomers 
care at all about — viz., the direction of the earth's axis 
in space, moving with it lihe whole substajice of the 
earth at the same time ; and wherein the precession of 


the equinoxes comes to the surface, with its slow but 
ceaseless chronological changes from age to age in the 
apparent places of the stars usually supposed most fixed. 
But in the rather geographical, and more especially sur- 
face-differential, light in Avhich the problem was dis- 
cussed by the French 'savants of the Eevolution, it had 
also been clearly seen long before, as a cynosure of study, 
by the penetrating genius of the English Dr. Hooke. 

For it was this early, and ill-paid, but invaluable Secre- 
tary of the Royal Society of London, who, in his discourse 
on earthquakes, about the year 1677 A.D., remarks, 
"Whether the axis of the earth's rotation hath and doth 
continually, by a slow progression, vary its position with 
respect to the parts of the earth ; and if so, how much 
and which way, which must vary both the meridian 
lines of places and also their particular latitudes ? 
that it had been very desirable, if from some monu- 
ments or records in antiquity, somewhat could have 
been discovered of certainty and exactness ; that by 
comparing that or them with accurate observations now 
made, or to be made, somewhat of certainty of infor- 
mation could have been procured." And he proceeds 
thus : " But I fear we shall find them all insufficient in 
accurateness to be any ways relied upon. However, if 
there can be found anything certain and accurately 
done, either as to the fixing of a meridian line on 
some stone building or structure now in being, or to 
the positive or certain latitude of any known place, 
though possibly these observations or constructions 
were made without any regard or notion of such an 
hypothesis ; yet some of them, compared with the 
present state of things, might give much light to this 
inquiry. Upon this account I perused Mr. Greaves' 
description of the Great Pyramid in Egypt, that being 
fabled to have been built for an astronomical observa- 
tory, as Mr. Greaves also takes notice. I perused his 


book, I say, lioping I sliould have found, among many 
other curious observations lie there gives us concerning 
them, some observations perfectly made, to find whether 
it stands east, west, north, and south, or whether it 
va,ries from that respect of its sides to any other part 
or quarter of the world ; as likewise how much, and 
which way they now stand. But to my wonder, he 
being an astronomical professor, I do not find that he 
had any regard at all to the same, but seems to be 
AvhoUy taken up wath one inquiry, which was about 
the measure or bigness of the whole and its parts ; and 
the other matters mentioned are only by-the-bye and 
accidental, which shows how useful theories may be 
for the future to such as shall make observations." 

Dr. Hooke, however — in mitigation of whose acerbity 
there is much to be said in excuse, for nature made 
him, so his biographer asserts, " short of stature, thin, 
and crooked " — this real phenomenon. Dr. Hooke, '' who 
seldom retired to bed till two or three o'clock in the 
morning, and frequently pursued his studies during the 
whole night," would not have been so hard upon his 
predecessor in difficult times if he had known, and as 
we may be able by-and-by to set forth, -what extra- 
ordinarily useful work it was that Professor Greaves 
zealously engaged in when at the Great Pyramid. The 
Doctor's diatribes should rather have been at Greaves' 
successors to-be, those who were to visit the Great 
Pyramid in easy times, and then and there do nothing, 
or mere mischief worse than nothing. Whence it re- 
mains still, to any good and enterprising traveller, to 
determine with full modern accuracy the astronomical 
azimuth of the Great Pyramid, both upon its fiducial 
socket marks, as defining the ends and directions of the 
sides of the base ; and, still more importantly, on its 
internal passages. 

These passages are worthy of all attention ; and a 

Chap, v.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 5g 

furtlier proof of the importance attached by the 
primeval builders to the strict " orientation " of the 
whole building, in each of its parts as well as its mass, 
is eminently shown by the apparently perfectly parallel 
position which they preserved for the azimuth of the 
first, or entering passage, with the base sides on either 
hand ; and this, too, notwithstanding that (as Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson explains) there were structural or rather deeply 
politic reasons for their not placing that said entering 
aperture exactly in the middle of the northern side in 
which it is found, but a considerable number of feet 
nearer towards the east than the west end thereof. 

Pojpular Ideas of Astronomical Orientation. 

In page 26 of George R. Gliddon's '"OtiaCEgjrptiaca," 
its acute author does indeed oppose any reference to 
astronomical skill, by suggesting that all this exactness 
of orientation indicates, amongst the builders of the " pre- 
antiquity " day of the Great Pyramid, " an acquaintance 
with the laws of the magnet." Yet had that been all 
the founders were possessed of to guide them, their 
great and lasting work might have been in error by 
as much as twenty degrees, in place of only twenty 
minutes, or, perhaps, far less. 

George R Gliddon is truly, on most Egyptological 
topics, a well-read man, and had nearly a lifetime 
of Egyptian experience to dilate on, as he does, too, 
with eloquence ; but, unfortunately, he shares tlie 
pseudo-scientific belief of a large part of the world in 
general — to wit, that more wisdom and science are 
manifested if you do a thing badly and imperfectly by 
the indications of electricity or magnetism, than well 
and accurately by plainly visible phenomena of me- 
chanics and astronomy. Had he been able in this 


case to show that Egypt was perpetually and for ever 
in a plague of darkness and enclosure of mist, men 
would have been thankful for a magnetic needle, maugre 
all its excessive variations and trembling uncertainties. 
But when they had in that magnificent climate and 
almost tropical position, the high climbing sun by day 
and the exact stars by night, what else did they want to 
get their astronomical alignment, and the direction of 
the north, by means of? 

At all events, in my own observations there in 1865, 
I was happy to throw magnetism and its rude point- 
ings overboard, and employ exclusively an astrono- 
mical alt-azimuth instrument of very solid construc- 
tion, and reading to seconds : in that way comparing 
the socket-defined sides of the base, and also the 
signal- defined axis of the entrance passage, with the 
azimuth of the pole-star at the time of its greatest 
elongation west ; and afterwards reducing that by the 
proper methods of calculation to the vertical of the 
pole itself 

And with what result ? Though a tender-hearted 
antiquary has asked, " Was it not cruel to test any 
primeval work of 4,000 years ago by such exalted in- 
struments of precision as those of the Victorian age in 
which we live ? " 

Well, it might be attended with undesired results, 
if some of the most praised up works of the present 
day should ever come to be tested by the improved 
instruments of precision of 4,000 years hence; but the 
only effect which the trial of my Playfair astronomical 
instrument from the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, had 
at the Great Pyramid, was, to reduce the alleged error 
of its orientation from 19' 58' to 4' 30".'"' 

* Tlie particulars of both observations and computations may be seen 
in vol. ii. of my " Life and Work at the Great Pyramid, 1867." 

chap.y.] the great pyramid, 6 1 

Further Test hy Latitude, 

In so far, then, tliis last and latest result of direct 
observation declares with high probability that any 
large relative change between the earth's axis and a 
line on its crust, such as Dr. Hooke and the French 
Academicians speculated on, must, if anything of it 
exist at all, be confined within very narrow limits 

This conclusion has its assigned reason here and thus 
far, solely from observations of angular direction on the 
surface of the earth ; and without any very distinct proof 
being touched on yet, that though we find the Pyramid's 
sides at present nearly accordant in angle with the 
cardinal points, they were intended to be so placed by 
the primeval builder for his own day. 

But indication will be afforded presently respecting 
another test of nearly the same thing, by distance on 
the surface ; or that the architect did propose to place 
the Great Pyramid in the astronomical latitude of 30° 
north, whether practical or theoretical ; while my own 
observations in 18G5 have proved that it stands in the 
parallel of 29° 58' 51". 

A sensible defalcation from 30°, it is true, but not 
all of it necessarily error ; for if the original designer had 
wished that men should see with their bodily, rather 
than their mental, eyes, the pole of the sky, from the 
foot of the Great Pyramid, at an altitude before them of 
30°, he would have had to take account of the refrac- 
tion of the atmosphere ; and that would have necessi- 
tated the building standing not in 30°, but in 2 9° 5 8' 22". 
Whence we are entitled to say, that the latitude of the 
Great Pyramid is actually by observation between the 
two very near limits assignable, but not to be discrimi- 
nated between, by theory as it is at present. 


Testimony, from the Great Pyramid's Geographical 
Position, against some recent Earth Theorisers. 

In angular distance, then, from the equator, as well 
as in orientation of aspect, the land of Egypt, by the 
witness of the Great Pyramid, has not changed sensibly 
for all ordinary, practical men, in respect to the axis of 
the earth, for 4,000 years. 

What therefore can mean some of our observers at 
home, observers too of the present day, who stand up for 
having themselves, during their own lifetimes, witnessed 
the sun once rise and set in an exceedingly different direc- 
tion by the naked eye from what it does now ? I have 
looked over the papers of two such enthusiasts recently 
(one in England and the other in Scotland), but with- 
out being able to convince them of their self-decep- 

Again, in the Kev. Bourchier Wrey Savile's work, 
"The Truth of the Bible," pubHshed in 1871, that 
usually very learned and painstaking author (and much 
to be commended in some, subjects) implies, on page 76, 
that the direction of the sun at the summer solstice is 
now, at Stonehenge, no less than twelve degrees different 
from what it was at the time of the erection of that 
monument, which is probably not more than half 
as old as the Great Pyramid. And he quotes freely 
from, as well as on his own part confirms, a mad-like 
man now dead, one Mr. Evan Hopkins, in asserting 
** that the superficial film of our globe is moving from 
south to north in a spiral path, at the rate of seven 
furlongs in longitude west, and three furlongs in 
latitude north, every year ; whence the presently 
southern part of England must have been under a 
tropical climate only 5,500 years ago." 

This astounding assertion is supposed to be supported 

Chap, v.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 63 

by a quotation from one of the Greenwich Observatory 
Eeports in 1861, wherein Sir George B. Airy remarks 
that " the transit circle and collimators still present those 
appearances of agreement between themselves, and of 
change with respect to the stars, which seem explicable 
only on one of two suppositions — that the ground itself 
shifts with respect to the general earth, or that the 
axis of rotation changes its position." But I can ven- 
ture to be professionally confident that vSir G. B. Airy 
did not mean to support any such assertion as Mr. Evan 
Hopkins' and Mr. B. W. Savile's, by that mere curiosity 
of transcendental refinement in one year's instrumental 
observation, which he w^as alluding to in one number 
of a serial document ; a something of possible change, 
too, w^hich is so excessively small (an angle subtending 
perhaps the apparent thickness of a spider's line at the 
distance of fifty feet), that no one can be perfectly 
certain that it ever exists ; and which, if found at any 
given epoch, does not go on accumulating continually 
with the progress of time, so as at last to become patent 
to the common senses of all men. 

To confirm, too, this much more sober view of the 
nearly solid earth we live upon, the Great Pyramid adds 
all its own most weighty testimony to that both of 
Greenwich and every public observatory with good 
astronomical instruments throughout Europe, by declar- 
ing the world's surface to be remarkably constant to the 
cardinal directions ; if not indeed for ever, yet at least 
for a far longer time than they, the modern observa- 
tories, can directly speak to. And thus it may come to 
pass at last, that there will yet be proved to be more of 
''the truth of the Bible" bound up with both the 
scientific mechanical definition, and the exactly ob- 
served constancy through long ages when so defined, of 
astronomical directions and geographical positions, than 
has yet entered into most persons' modern philosophy. 


True Prhneval Astronomical Orientation, as in the 
Great Pyramid, opposed by all early idolatrous 
structures elsewhere. 

And thus, in fact, the Great Pyramid, otherwise 
proved a non-idolatrous, as well as primeval, monument, 
set the true scientific rule in building, of orienting its 
sides to the cardinal directions. This plan was fol- 
lowed also wherever that Pyramid's example, by over- 
shadowing grandeur, was felt to be compulsory, as it 
evidently was in the adjacent parts of Lower Egypt, — 
but nowhere else. 

At Thebes, for instance, far away in Upper Egypt, 
and in Nubia further still, the temples and tombs are 
put down or founded at every possible azimuth, in 
almost every quarter of the compass ; and those temples 
and tombs are all of them undoubtedly idolatrous, and 
speak lamentably to human theotechnic inventions. 

In Mesopotamia, again, the Chaldean temples, dedi- 
cated glaringly both to false gods, and all the Sabsean hosts 
of heaven, are not laid out at random like the Theban 
temples, but in another sort of opposition to the Great 
Pyramid example ; for while their bases, though 
rectangular are not square, they are set forth with their 
sides as far as possible from any cardinal point, or at 
an angle of 45° therefrom ; and steadily and per- 
sistently thereat from one end of the Interammian 
country to the other. 

The Rev. Canon Rawlinson of Oxford has, indeed, 
endeavoured to maintain that it was a matter of indif- 
ference for the astronomical observations of those 
Chaldean buildings, whether they w^ere oriented upon, 
or at 45° away from, the cardinal points — but he can 
be no astronomer, even as Mr. Fergusson has proved 
him to have no sound practical views of architecture, 
though he may be the most profound of all academical 

Chap, v.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 65 

scholars. And when we study the Great Pyramid itself 
still further, important results follow to its prestige 
and geographical . power upon earth from new develop- 
ments arising out of its north and south, with east and 
west, bearings, as well as from its regular figure. 

Geograjphical Aptitudes of the Great Pyraraid, 

With the general's glance of a Napoleon Bonaparte 
himself, his Academician savants in Egypt, in 1799, 
perceived how grand, truthful, and effective a trigono- 
metrical surveying signal the pointed shape of the 
Great Pyramid gratuitously presented them with ; and 
they not only used it for that purpose, as it loomed far 
and wide over the country, but as a grander order of 
signal also, to mark the zero meridian of longitude for 
all Egypt. ^ 

In coming to this conclusion, they could hardly but 
have perceived something of the peculiar position of the 
Great Pyramid at the southern apex of the Delta-land 
of Egypt ; and recognised that the vertical plane of the 
Pyramid's passages produced northward, passed through 
the northernmost point of Egypt's Mediterranean coast, 
besides forming the country's central, and most com- 
manding meridian line ; while the N.E. and N.W. dia- 
gonals of the building similarly produced, enclosed the 
Delta's either side in a symmetrical and well-balanced 
manner. But the first very particular publication on 
this branch of the subject was by Mr. Henry Mitchell, 
Chief Hydrographer to the United States Coast S irvey. 

That gentleman, having been sent in 1868 to report 
on the progress of the Suez Canal, was much struck 
with the regularity of curvature along the whole of 
Egypt's northern coast. To his mind, and by the light 
of his science, it was a splendid example on that very- 
account, of a growing and advancing coast-line, devc- 



loping in successive curves all struck one after tlie other 
from a certain central point of physical origination. 

And where was that physical centre of origin and 
formation ? 

With the curvature of the northern coast on a good 
map before him (see Fig. 1, Plate Y,), Mr. Mitchell sought, 
with variations of direction and radius, until he had 
got all the prominent coast points to be evenly swept 
by his arc ; and then, looking to see where his centre 
was, found it upon the Great Pyramid : immediately 
deciding in his mind, " that that monument stands in a 
more important physical situation than any other build- 
ing yet erected by man." 

On coming to refinements, Mr. Mitchell did indeed 
allow that his radii were not able to distinguish between 
the Great Pyramid and any of its near companions on 
the same hill-top. But the Great Pyramid had already 
settled that differential matter for itself; for while it 
is absolutely the northernmost of all the pyramids (in 
spite of one apparent exception to be explained further 
on), it is the only one which comes at all close — and it 
comes very close — to the northern cliff of the Jeezeh 
hill, and thence looks out with commanding gaze over 
the sector, or open-fan, shaped land of Lower Egypt ; 
looking over it, too, from the land's very *' centre of 
physical origin ;" or as from over the handle of the 
fan, outward to the far off sea-coast. All the other 
pyramids are away on the table-land to the south of 
the Great one, so that they lose that grand view from 
the front or northern edge ; and they appear there, 
behind, as in a manner the suite and following train 
only of the Great building ; that mysterious Great one 
who is the unquestioned owner there, and will not allow 
his servants to dispute his possession with him. 

So very close was the Great Pyramid placed to the 
northern brink of its hill, that the edges of the cliff 

Chap, v.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 67 

might have broken off, under the terrible pressure, had 
not the builders banked up there most firmly the im- 
mense mounds of rubbish which came from their work ; 
and which Strabo looked so particularly for 1800 years 
ago, but. could not find. Here they were, however, and 
still are, utilised in enabling the Great Pyramid to stand 
on the very utmost verge of its commanding hill, 
within the limits of the two required latitudes, 30° and 
29° 58' 23", as well as over the centre of the land's 
physical and radial formation ; and at the same time 
on the sure and proverbially wise foundation of rock. 

Now Lower Egypt being, as already described, of a 
sector shape, the building which stands at its centre 
must be, as Mr. Henry Mitchell has acutely remarked, 
at one and the same time both at the border thereof, 
and in its nominal middle ; or, just as was that monu- 
ment, pure and undefiled in its religion though in an 
idolatrous land, alluded to by Isaiah ; the monument 
which was both " an altar to the Lord in the midst of 
the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof;" 
but destined withal to become a witness in the latter 
days and before the consummation of all things, to the 
same Lord and to what He hath purposed upon mankind. 

Whether the Great Pyramid will eventually succeed 
in proving itself to be really the one and only monu- 
ment alluded to under those glorious terms or not, it 
has undoubtedly most unique claims for representing 
much that is in them, both in plain mechanical fact 
and broad chorography ; while its excelling character- 
istics of situation by no means end there. For, pro- 
ceeding along the globe due north and due south of 
the Great Pyramid, it has been found by a good 
physical geographer as well as engineer, William 
Petrie, that there is more earth and less sea in that 
meridian than in any other meridian all the world 
round ; causing, therefore, the Great Pyramid's meridian 


to be just as essentially marked by nature across the 
world, as a prime meridian for all nations measuring 
their longitude from, as it is more minutely marked by 
art and man's work for, the land of Egypt alone. 

Again, taking the distribution of land and sea in 
parallels of latitude, there is more land surface in the 
Great Pyramid's parallel of 30°, than in any other. 
And finally, on carefully summing up all the dry land 
habitable by man all the wide world over, the centre of 
the whole falls within the Great Pyramid's territory of 
Lower Egypt. '''" 

Of the Mental Accompaniments of these Several Facts. 

It is useless for objectors to go on complaining that 
the profane Egyptians, the mere slaves of Pharaoh, did 
not know anything about the existence of America, 
Australia, New Zealand, or Japan, and therefore could 
not have made the above calculation rightly, for I have 
never accused those profane Egyptians of having had 
anything to do with the design of the Great Pyramid ; 
and have no intention of limiting my statements of 
what science may find in the measured facts of the 
building, merely to what Egyptological scholars tell us, 
from their questionable studies, that the vile animal- 
worshippers of old Egypt either did, or did not, know. 

The fact is there in the Great Pyramid, and in the 
Avorld, for every one who likes to test on absolute 
grounds ; to try it for our own times first, and then to 
reduce it to the days of the Pyramid, if there are or 
were sensible changes in the distribution of sea and land 
on the whole, going on. 

But that would seem not to have been the case : 
and, indeed, for the special period of the truly human, 

* See my " Equal Surface Projection," published in 1870 by Edmonston 
and Douglas, Edinburgh. See also Fig. 2 of Plate V., in this book. 

Chap, v.] THE GREAT PYRAMID, 69 

or division into nation, time of the world (or since both 
the Deluge and the Dispersion), there is every reason to 
believe that the dry land surface spot which was central 
4,000 years ago is central still, and will continue to be 
so until the end of man's trial on earth. And if we be 
further enabled before long to illustrate that the directors 
of the building of the Great Pyramid were not natives 
of Egypt, but came into Egypt out of a country having 
a different latitude and longitude, and went back again 
to that country of theirs immediately after they had 
built the Great Pyramid ; and that there, in their own 
country, though no mean architects, yet they built no 
second pyramid, — will not that go far to indicate that, 
assisted by a higher power, they had been taught and had 
confessed of early time, that there was only one proper 
and fully appropriate spot all the wide world over 
whereon to found that most deeply significant structure 
they had received orders to erect on a certain plan, 
viz., the Great Pyramid ? 

But if the exterior of that unique building, in these 
days almost ruinous under the successive attacks of 
twenty nations, leads so abundantly, when carefully 
studied and scientifically measured, in spite of all those 
dilapidations, to ennobling views (the like of which too 
were never made out in all past time for any other 
building of the earth, not even for a single one of 
the other Pyramids of Egypt, which, all of them, err 
utterly in angle, size, and position), what may we not 
expect from the Great Pyramid's better-preserved 
interior ? 



"who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who 

HATH stretched THE LINE UPON IT ? 





THERE is little enough of hollow interior to any of 
the Pyramids, as they are generalty all but solid 
masses of masonry ; and yet what little there is, has 
' shown itself quite enough to raise up a radical distinc- 
tion of kind, as well as degree, between the Great 
Pyramid and every other. 

What the Ancients knew of the Interior of the Great 

The progress of human historical knowledge with re- 
gard to what constituted the hollow interior of the Great 
Pyramid, was both slow and peculiar. Had we now 
before us in one meridional section of the building all 
the ancient knowledge with regard to what it contained, 
it would amount to little more than this — that when 
the Great Pyramid stood on that hill-top in the 
primeval age of the world in solid masonry, with the 
secret of its nature upon it, clothed, too, complete on 
every side with its polished bevelled sheet of casing- 
stones, rising from a duly levelled area of rock-surfaco 
in four grand triangular flanks up to a single pointed 
summit, — that then it also contained (trending down 


from the nortli and entering at a point about 49 feet 
above the ground on that side) an inclined descend- 
ing passage of very small bore, leading to a subter- 
ranean, excavated, rock chamber 100 feet vertically 
under the centre of the base of the whole built monu- 

This subterranean chamber had been begun to be 
carved out in the heart of the rock with admirable 
skill. For the workmen, having cut their way down to 
the necessary depth by the passage, commenced with the 
ceiling, which they made exquisitely flat and smooth, 
though 46 feet long by 28 broad; then sinking down 
the walls therefrom in vertical planes, there was every 
promise of their having presently, at that notable depth 
inside the limestone mountain, a complete rectangular 
chamber, whose walls, ceiling, and floor should all be 
perfect, pattern planes. But 'when they had cut down-* 
wards from the ceiling to a depth of about 4 feet at the 
west end, and 13 feet at the east end, they stopped in 
the very midst of their work. A small bored passage 
was pushed on into the rock a few feet further towards 
the south, and then that was also left unfinished ; and 
a similar ^abortive attempt, though downwards, was 
begun, but probably in modern times, in the broken 
rock of the uneven floor itself; the whole floor from 
one end of the chamber to the other being left thus 
a lamentable scene of confusion, verily (seeing that the 
whole light of day was reduced down there to a mere 
star-like point at the end of the long entrance passage), 
verily, " the stones of darkness and the shadow of 
death." (See Plate I. and Plate VIII.). 

This one item of its internal construction, moreover, 
there is good reason for believing, was all that the 
Egyptians themselves knew of, from within a generation 
after the Great Pyramid had been built, to the latest 
times of their nation ; excepting only certain men who 


broke into the building at tbe epoch of, or near to, the 
Persian invasion ; and for them see Part IV. 

That the Egyptians themselves as a people knew 
thus much, we may readily allow ; because they could 
hardly have known less of the interior than the 
Romans ; and there is proof, in the shape of good uncial 
letters marked in carbon, and recorded to have been 
seen by Signor Caviglia when he first recovered in 
modern times the re-entry to that part of the Pyramid, 
that t}iey, the old Romans, were once inside the sub- 
terranean chamber. 

There appears also, it is asserted by some Egyptologists 
of rather a sanguine turn of mind, some small pro- 
bability that pyramids with this single characteristic — 
viz., a descending entrance passage and subterranean, 
or call it positively, a sepulchral, chamber, but of poor 
workmanship, were indigenous in Egypt before the 
erection of the Great Pyramid ; which in that case, 
therefore, began so far in deference to some native ideas ; 
though, as will be seen presently, the Great Monument 
did not care to complete tliem, nor carry out the either 
intended or pretended sepulchral chamber to such a 
condition of floor state, that any stone sarcophagus could 
have been decently, and in order, established there. 

In the undoubtedly subsequent second and third 
Jeezeh pyramids, on the contrary, the subterranean 
rooms "were finished, floors and all, and sarcophagi 
introduced. Their architects, moreover, attempted to 
adorn those chambers with a large amount of com- 
plication ; but it was only useless and confusing com- 
plication, without any very sensible object ; unless 
when it was to allow a second king to make himself 
a burial-chamber in the pyramid-cellar already occu- 
pied by a predecessor ; and then it was bad. Gra- 
dually, therefore, as the researches of Colonel Howard- 
Vyse have shown, on the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, 


eighth, and ninth Jeezeh pyramids (all these being 
very small ones, let it be remembered) the native 
Egyptians dropped nearly everything else that they had 
tried, except the one single, partly descending and 
partly horizontal, passage, with a subterranean chamber 
for burial purposes ; and that they kept to, so long as 
they practised their petty pyramid building at all, most 
religiously. (See Plate YI.) 

Lepsius Law of Egyptian Pyramid Building. 

Still further, that the making of such descending 
passages with subterranean chambers, and using them 
for sepulture, is precisely what the Egyptians usually 
did when they were their own masters and the directors 
of their own works ; and that they did little more, except 
it was to decorate them with images of false gods, 
boasting inscriptions in hieroglyphic writing, and por- 
traits- of themselves, is also testified to from quite 
another quarter. For all the Egyptologists of our age, 
French, English, German, and American, have hailed 
the advent, on their stage of time, of the so-called 
'' Lepsius' Law of Egyptian Pyramid Building ;" they 
universally declaring that it satisfies absolutely all the 
observed or known phenomena. And it may do so for 
every known case of any Egyptian pyramid, excejpt the 
Great Pyramid ; and there it explains nothing of w^hat 
it chiefly consists in. 

Taking, however, the cases which it does apply to, 
viz., the profane Egyptian examples, this alleged "law" 
pronounces, that the sole object of any Pyramid was 
to form a royal tomb — subterranean as a matter of 
course — and that operations began by making an in- 
clined descending passage leading down into the rock, 
and in cutting out an underground chamber at the end 
of it. The scheme thus begun below, went on also 

Chap.VL] the great pyramid. 77 

growing above ground every year of the king's reign, 
by the placing there of a new heap or additional layer 
of building stones, and piling them layer above layer 
over a central, square-based nucleus upon the levelled 
ground, vertically above the subterranean apartment ; 
and it was finally {i.e., this superincumbent mass of 
masonry) finished off on that king's death by his suc- 
cessor, who deposited his predecessor's body embalmed 
and in a grand sarcophagus in the underground cham- 
ber, stopped up the passage leading to it, cased in the 
rude converging sides of the building with bevelled 
casing-stones so as to give it a smooth pyramidal form, 
and left it in fact a finished Egyptian, and Pharaonic 
2)yramid to all posterity : ''' and no mean realisation 
either of prevailing ideas among some early nations, of 

* In Dr. Lepsius' Letter 7, March, 1843, that eminent Egyptologist 
says distinctly enough with regard to the above theory, — *' I discovered the 
riddle of pyramidal construction, on which I had been long employed ; " 
but in the letterpress attached to Frith's large photographs of Egypt 
(1860 ?), by Mrs. Poole and R. S. Poole, the discovery is given categorically 
1o another person. As the passage is accompanied with a very clear 
description of the theory, there may be advantage in giving it entire from 
this opposite side ; as then proving beyond all doubt how much of the 
whole internal arrangement of the Great Pyramid, as now known and 
presently to be described, the approved pyramidal theory of the most 
learned Egyptologists really accounts for : — 

"The principle of their (the ancient Egyptians) pyramid construction 
was discovered by Mr. James Wild, the architect who accompanied the 
l*russian expedition. A rocky site was first chosen, and a space made 
smooth, except a slight eminence in the centre, to form a peg upon which 
the structure should be fixed. Within the rock, and usually below the 
level of the future base, a sepulchral chamber was excavated, with a 
passage, inclining downwards, leading to it from the north. Upon the 
rock was first raised a moderate mass of masonry, of nearly a cubic form, 
but having its four sides inclined inwards ; upon this a similar mass was 
})laced, and around, other such masses, generally about half as wide. At 
this stage the edifice could bo completed by a small pyramidal structure 
being raised on the top, and the sides of the steps filled in, the whole 
being ultimately cased, and the entrance passage, which had of course 
been continued through the masonry, securely closed ; or else the work 
could be continued on the same principle. In this manner it was possible 
for the building of a pyramid to occupy the lifetime of its founder 
without there being any risk of his leaving it incomplete (to any such 
degree or extent as would afford a valid excuse for his successor neglecting 
to perform his very moderate part, of merely filling up the angles, and 
smoothing off generally)." 


burying tlieir monarchs svih montihus altis, in impres- 
sive quiet, immovable calm, and deep in the bosom of 
motber earth. 

Classic Antiquity on the Interior of the Great Pyramid. 

There has been some scholastic question of late years, 
whether Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, and others of 'the 
ancients, or their immediate informants, were ever 
actually inside the Great Pyramid ; for sometimes it has 
been maintained that the edifice was inviolably sealed, and 
that what they mentioned was only on the reports of 
tradition ; while at other times it is averred that they 
must have seen something more accurately than through 
others' eyes, in order to have described so graphically 
as they did ; describing, however, always a vast deal 
more about the exterior than the interior. The very 
utmost, indeed, that they had to say about the latter 
was touching a certain removable stone, and then a 
dark groping " usque ad," or right away to, the far sub- 
terranean chamber where M. Caviglia in a.d. 1820, 
as already mentioned, found blackened Eoman letter^ 
upon its roof;'''' and half the world has. seen, since then, 
the unfinished, unquarried out floor ; or a room with an 
excellent ceiling and walls too, so far as they go, but no 
floor, if that be possible. 

To that point, then, and through that descending pas- 
sage also of the Great Pyramid, occasionally (and probably 
only at very long intervals) various nations did penetrate, 
aided by the removable block of stone. The machinery 
of that sliding block and the opportunity of sometimes 
working it, seemed to act as a safety-valve to the 
Pyramid-curiosity of early times, which was thus ad- 
mitted on rare occasions to see the interior of the 
greatest of all the Pyramids ; and then, after frantic 

* Howard- Vyse's "Pyramids," vol. ii. p. 290. 


exertions, men saw and made acquaintance witli — what ? 
Nothing but a descending entrance passage and a sub- 
terranean chamber ; that chamber which ought to have 
been a sepulchral one according to both ordinary Egyp- 
tian ideas, and the " Lepsius' Law," but was not. Con- 
sistently too with the Lepsius theory, it should have been 
the first thing finished about the whole mighty fabric, 
but yet it was never even pretended to be finished at all ; 
the very chamber which ought to have contained sar- 
cophagus, mummy, paintings, and inscriptions, but which 
only really held the rock contents of the lower part of 
the room, not yet cut out of the bowels of the mountain. 
In short, the classic nations knew nothing whatever 
about the real interior of the Great Pyramid's scientific 

Medieval Arabian Learning on the Interior of the Great 

In the course of the dark ages, even what Greece and 
Kome once knew, was lost, besides the Pyramid being 
issailed by driving storms of desert sand. Hence, when 
the Callj^;^ al Mamoun, a Caliph with an inquiring turn of 
mind, like his father Haroun al Kaschid, of the "Arabian 
Nights," but attending to higher things — (indeed, he was 
said by Gibbon to have been a prince of rare learning, '/con- 
tinually exhorting his subjects in excelsior vein assidu- 
ously to peruse instructive writings, and who not only 
commanded the volumes of Grecian sages to be translated 
into Arabic, but could assist with pleasure and modesty 
at the assemblies and disputations of the learned") — 
when this British Association genius of his day then, 
coming down from Bagdad to Cairo, desired to enter the 
Great Pyramid, a.d. 820, there was only a very indistinct 
rumour to guide him towards trying the northern, 
rather than any other, side. 



But Al Mamoun, the then Propliet-descended ruler 
of the Mohammedan world, was likewise flattered almost 
as a god in the rhapsodies of his court poets. They, 
inventing some new pleasure for him every day, could 
only not give him the Great Pyramid itself. Emu- 
lating, however, on a hasis of Coptic tradition derived 
from the then innumerable Egyptian monasteries, the 
enchanted tales of Bagdad, they drew gorgeous pictures 
of the contents^ of the Pyramid's interior ; as well as of 
the astounding history of that mighty and mysterious 
triangular masonic fact, so patent as to its exterior in the 
eyes of all Cairo, so recluse as to its interior against 
both the world and time. 

In describing these matters, most of the reciters 
seemed only intent on putting in everything of value 
they could possibly think of All the treasures of 
" Sheddad Ben Ad," the great antediluvian king of the 
earth, with all his medicines and all his sciences, they 
declared were there, told over and over again. Others, 
though, were positive that the founder-king was no other 
than Saurid Ibn Salhouk, a far greater one than the 
other; and these last gave many more minute particulars : 
some of which are at least interesting to. us in the 
present day, as proving that amongst the Egypto-Arabians 
of more than 1,000 years ago, the Jeezeh Pyramids, 
headed by the grand one, enjoyed a pre-eminence of 
fame vastly before all the other Pyramids of Egypt put 
together ; and that if any other is alluded to after the 
Great Pyramid (which has always been the notable and 
favourite one, and chiefly was known then as the East 
Pyramid), it is either the second one at Jeezeh, under 
the name of the West Pyramid ; or the third one, dis- 
tinguished as the Coloured Pyramid, in allusion to its 
red granite, compared with the white limestone casings 
of the other two ; which, moreover, from their more 
near, but by no means exact, equality of size, went fre- 


quently under the affectionate de'signation of "the 

But what seemed more to the purpose of Al Mamoun 
at the time, was the very exact report of Ibn Abd 
Alkokm, as to what was then still to be found in each 
of these three Pyramids ; for this was what, according 
to that most detailed author, the primeval King Saurid 
had put into them and safely locked up ; though where 
in the scanty hollow interior of any, or all, of the 
Pyramids, he could have found space for so much, is 
more than any one now knows. 

" In the Western Pyramid, thirty treasuries, filled 
with store of riches and utensils, and with signatures 
made of precious stones, and with instruments of 
iron, and vessels of earth, and with arms which rust not, 
and with glass which might be bended and yet not 
broken, and with strange spells, and with several kinds 
of alakakivs (magical precious stones), single and double, 
and with deadly poisons, and with other things besides. 

" He made also in the East Pyramid divers celestial 
spheres and stars, and what they severally operate in 
their aspects, and the perfumes which are to be used to 
them, and the books which treat of these matters. 

"He put also into the Coloured Pyramid the com- 
mentaries of the priests in chests of blauk marble, and 
with every priest a book, in which the wonders of his 
profession, and of his actions, and of his nature were 
written ; and what was done in his time, and what is and 
what shall be from the beginning of time to the end of it. 

" He placed in every Pyramid a treasurer ; the 
treasurer of the Westerly Pyramid was a statue of 
marble stone, standing upright with a lance, and upon 
his head a serpent wreathed. He that came near it, and 
stood still, the serpent bit him of one side, and wreath- 
ing round about his throat, and killing him, returned to 
his place. He made the treasurer of the East Pyramid 



an idol of black agate, his eyes open and shining, 
sitting on a throne with a lance ; when any looked 
upon him, he heard on one side of him a voice which 
took away his sense, so that he fell prostrate upon his 
face, and ceased not, till he died. • 

" He made the treasurer of the Coloured Pyramid 
a statue of stone, called alhui, sitting ; he which looked 
towards it was drawn by the statue, till he stuck to it, 
and could not be separated from it till such time as he 

Some of these features were certainly not encouraging ; 
but then .they were qualified by other tale-reciters, 
who described "three marble columns in the Great 
Pyramid, supporting the images of three birds in flames 
of fire of precious stones beyond all value and all 
number. Upon the first column was the figure of a 
dove, formed of a beautiful and priceless green stone ; 
upon the second, that of a hawk, of yellow stone ; and 
upon the third, the image of a cock, of red stone, 
Avhose eyes enlightened all the place. Upon moving 
the hawk, a gigantic door which was opposite, com- 
posed of great marble slabs, beautifully put together, 
and inscribed with unknown characters in letters of 
gold, was raised ; and the same surprising connection 
existed between the other images and their doors." 

Exciting wonders, of course, appeared beyond those 
strange portals ; but what need we to disentomb these 
Arabian romances further ? In Egypt they believe pretty 
seriously in enchantments and Jinn or Genii of marvel- 
lous proportions still ; how much more then in the days 
of the son of Haroun al Raschid, and when the Great 
Pyramid Avas a mystery of old, fast sealed ? To ascer- 
tain, therefore, what really existed inside it then, was 
evidently a very definite and promising sort of labour ; 
and why should not the young Caliph Al Mamoun 
undertake it ? 


Caliph Al Mamoun attacks the Northern Flank of the 
Great Pyraimid. 

He did so, and directed liis Mohammedan workmen 
to begin at the middle of the northern side ; precisely, 
says Sir Gardner Wilkinson, as the founders of the 
Great Pyramid had foreseen, when they placed the en- 
trance, not in the middle of that side, but twenty-four 
feet away to the east. Hard work, therefore, was it to 
these masons, quarrying with the crude instruments of 
that barbarous time, into stone work as solid almost, at 
that place, as the side of a hill. 

They soon indeed began to cry out, " Open that won- 
derful Pyramid ! It could not possibly be done !" But 
the Caliph only replied, " I will have it most certainly 
done." So his followers perforce had to quarry on un- 
ceasingly by night and by day. Weeks after weeks, and 
months too, were consumed in these toilsome exertions ; 
the progress, however, though slow, was so persevering 
that they had penetrated at length to no less than one 
hundred feet in depth from the entrance. But by 
that time becoming thoroughly exhausted, and be- 
ginning again to despair of the hard and hitherto fruit- 
less labour, some of them ventured to remember cer- 
tain improving tales of an old king, who had found on 
a calculation, that all the wealth of Egypt in his time 
would not enable him to destroy one of the Pyramids. 
These murmuring disciples of the Arabian prophet were 
thus almost becoming lOpenly rebellious, when one day, 
in the midst of theii various counsel, they heard a 
great stone evidently ftall in some hollow space, within 
no more than a few feet from them ! 

In the fall of tliat particular stone there almost 
seems to have been an accident that was more than an 

Energetically they instantly pushed on in the direc- 


tion of the strange noise ; hammers, and fire, and 
vinegar heing employed again and again, until, breaking 
through a wall surface, they burst into the hollow way, 
" exceeding dark, dreadful to look at, and difficult to 
pass," they said at first, where the sound had occurred. 
It was the same hollow way, or properly the Pyramid's 
entrance passage, where the Komans of old, and if they, 
also Greeks, Persians, and Egyptians, must have passed 
up and down in their visits to the subterranean chamber 
and its unfinished, unquarried out, floor. Tame and 
simple used that entrance passage to appear to those 
ancients, but now it stood before another race, and 
another religion, with its chief leading secret, for the 
first time since its foundation, nakedly exposed. A 
large angular-fitting stone that had made for ages a 
smooth and polished portion of the ceiling of the inclined 
and narrow passage, quite undistinguishable from any 
other part of the whole course, had now dropped on to 
the floor before their eyes, and revealed that there was, 
at and in that point of the ceiling, another passage, 
clearly ascending towards the south, out of this descend- 
ing one ! (See Plate VIII.) 

But that ascending passage was closed, for all that, 
by a granite portcullis, formed by a series of huge 
granite plugs of square wedge-like shape dropped in, 
or rather slided down and jammed immovably, from 
above. To break them in pieces within the confined 
entrance passage space, and pull out the fragments there, 
was entirely out of the question ; so the grim crew of 
Saracen Mussulmans broke away sideways or round about 
to the west through the smaller masonry, and so up 
again (by a huge chasm still to be seen) to the new 
ascending passage, at a point past the terrific hardness of 
its lower granite obstruction. They did up there, or at 
an elevation above and position beyond the portcullis, 
find the filling material of the ascending passage only 


limestone ; so making themselves a very great hole in 
the masonry alongside, they there wielded their tools 
with energy on the long fair blocks which filled that 
passage-way. But as fast as they broke up and pulled 
out the pieces of one of the blocks in this strange 
ascending passage, other blocks above it, also of a 
bore just to fill its full dimensions, slided down from 
above, and still what should be the passage for 
human locomotion was solid stone filling. No help, 
however, for the workmen. The Commander of the 
Faithful is present, and insists that, whatever the number 
of stone plugs still to come down from the mysterious 
reservoir, his men shall hammer and hammer them, 
one after the other, and bit by bit to little pieces, until 
they do at last come to the end of them. So the 
people tire, but the work goes on ; and at last the 
ascending passage beginning just above the granite 
portcullis, is announced to be free from obstruction and 
ready for essay. Then, by Allah, they shouted, the 
treasures of the Great Pyramid, sealed up from the 
fabulous times of the mighty Ibn Salhouk, and unde- 
secrated, as it was long supposed, by mortal eye during 
three thousand years, lay full in their grasp before them. 
On they rushed, that bearded crew, thirsting for the 
promised wealth. Up no less than 110 feet of the 
steep incline, crouched hands and knees and chin 
together, through a passage of royally-polished lime- 
stone, but only 47 inches in height and 41 in breadth, 
they had painfully to crawl, with their torches burning 
low. Then suddenly they emerge into a long tall gallery, 
of seven times the passage height, but all black as night ; 
still ascending though at the strange steep angle, and 
reaching away farther and still more far into the very 
inmost heart of darkness of this imprisoning mountain 
of stone. In front of them, at first entering here, and 
on the level, se6 anothet low passage ; on their right 


hand (see Plate XIII.) a black, ominous-looking well's 
mouth, more than 140 feet deep, and not reaching water 
but only lower darkness even then ; while onwards and 
above them, a continuation of the glorious gallery or 
hall of seven times, leading them up to the possession 
of all the treasures of the great ones of the antediluvian 
earth. Narrow, certainly, was the way — only 6 feet 
broad anywhere, and contracted to 3 feet at the floor 
— but 28 feet high, or almost above the power of their 
smoky lights to illuminate ; and of polished, glistering, 
marble-like, Cyclopean stone throughout. (See Plates 
VIII, XL, and XII.) 

That must surely be the high-road to fortune and 
wealth. Up and up its long ascending floor-line, ascend- 
ing at an angle of 26°, these determined marauders, with 
their lurid fire-lights, had to push their dangerous and 
slippery way for 150 feet more ; then an obstructing 
three-foot step to climb over ; next a low doorway to bow 
their heads beneath ; then a hanging portcullis to pass, 
almost to creep under, most submissively ; then another 
low doorway in awful blocks of frowning red granite 
both on either side and above and below; but after that 
they leapt without further let or hindrance at once into 
the grand chamber, which was, and is still, the conclusion 
of everything forming the Great Pyramid's interior ; the 
chamber to which, and for which, and towards which, 
according to every subsequent writer, in whatever other 
theoretical point he may differ from his fellows, the 
whole Great Pyramid was built. (See Plate XL) 

And what find they there, those maddened Muslim 
in Caliph Al Mamoun's train ? A right noble apart- 
ment, now called the King's Chamber, 34 feet long, 17 
broad, and 1 9 high, of polished red granite throughout, 
both walls, floor, and ceiling ; in blocks squared and 
true, and put together with such exquisite skill that the 
joints are barely discernible to the closest inspection. 


Ay, ay, no doubt a well-built room, and a handsome 
one too ; but what does it contain ? What is the trea- 
sure ? The treasure ! yes indeed, where are the silver 
and the gold, the jewels, medicines, and arms ? These 
fanatics look wildly around them, but can see nothing, 
not a single dirhem anywhere. They trim their torches, 
and carry them again and again to every part of that 
red-walled, flinty hall, but without any better success. 
Nought but pure, polished red granite, in mighty slabs, 
looks upon them from every side. The room is clean, 
garnished too, as it were ; and, according to the ideas 
of its founders, complete and perfectly ready for its 
visitors, so long expected, so long delayed. But the 
gross minds who occupy it now, find it all barren ; and 
declare that there is nothing whatever for them, in the 
whole extent of the apartment from one end to another ; 
nothing except an empty stone chest without a lid. 

The Caliph Al Mamoun was thunderstruck. He 
had arrived at the very ultimate part of the Great 
Pyramid he had so long desired" to take possession of ; 
and had now, on carrying it by storm, found absolutely 
nothing that he could make any use of, or saw any value 
in. So being signally defeated, though a Commander 
of the Faithful, his people began muttering against 
him ; and to exclaim, too, in most virtuous phrases 
of religious repentance upon both their own waste of 
time, and the treason and treachery of some one. 

But Al Mamoun was a Caliph of the able day of 
Eastern rulers ; so he had a large sum of money 
secretly brought from his treasury and buried by night 
in a certain spot. Next day he caused the men to dig 
precisely there, and behold ! although they were only 
digging in the Pyramid masonry just as they had 
been doing during so many previous days, yet on this 
day they found a treasure of gold ; ''and the Caliph or- 
dered it to be counted, and lo ! it was the exact sum 


that had been incurred in the works, neither more nor 
less. And the Caliph was astonished, and said he could 
not understand how the kings of the Pyramid of old, 
before the Deluge, could have known exactly how much 
money he would have expended in his undertaking, 
and he was lost in surprise." But as the workmen got 
paid for their labour, and cared not whose gold they 
were paid with so long as they did get their wage, they 
ceased their complaints. While as for the Caliph, he 
returned to his city home, musing on the wonderful 
events that had happened ; and both the King's Chamber 
and the '' granite chest without a lid " were troubled 
by him no more. 

The poets of El Kahireh did indeed tune their lutes 
once again, and celebrate their learned j)atron's discoveries 
in that lidless box of granite. According to some of 
them, a dead man with a breast-plate of gold, and an 
emerald vase a foot in diameter, and " a carbuncle which 
shone with a light like the light of day, and a sword of 
inestimable value and 7 spans long, with a coat of mail 
1 2 spans in length " (all of them very unlike an Egyp- 
tian mummy of the usual type), rewarded his exertions; 
though, according to others, the chest' was really 
crammed to the brim with coined gold " in very large 
pieces ; " while on the cover, which others again main- 
tained was not there ' then and is certainly not to be 
seen now, was written in Arabic characters, "Abou 
Amad built this Pyramid in 1,000 days." But nothing 
further of importance was actually done in a cause 
which men began now to deem, in spite of their poets, 
to be absolutely worthless, and in a region more pro- 
fitless to all mere sensualists than the desert itself. 
The way of approach, however, once opened by Al 
Mamoun, remained then free to all ; and " men did 
enter it," says one of the honestest chroniclers of that 
day, '* for many years, and descended by the slippery 


passage which is in it ; " but with no other result than 
this, '' that some of them came out safe and others 

Reaction after the Exciteifnent 

A still more edifying account, in a moral and cor- 
rectional point of view, was attempted by one *' Masondi 
in the Akbar-Ezzeman," writing, one would think, for 
children of tender years ; for this is the burden of his tale. 

'' Certain explorers who had formed a party," said he, 
" discovered in the lowest part of the Great Pyramid 
a square chamber, wherein was a vase containing a 
quantity of fluid of an unknown quality. The walls 
of the chamber were composed of small square stones 
of beautiful colours, and a person having put one of 
these stones into his mouth, was suddenly seized with 
a pain in his ears, which continued until he had re- 
placed it. They also discovered in a large hall a 
quantity of golden coins put up in columns, every 
piece of which was of the weight of 1,000 dinars. 
They tried to take the money^ but were not able to 
move it. In another place they found the image of 
a sheikh, made of green stone, sitting upon a sofa, and 
wrapped up in a garment. Before him were statues 
of little boys, whom he was occupied in instructing. 
The discoverers tried to take up one of these figures, 
but they were not able to move it. Continuing their 
researches, they came to a female idol of white stone, 
with a covering on her head, and lions of stone on 
each side attempting to devour her ; on seeing which 
they were so immensely frightened, that they took to 
flight. This happened," the educational sage Masondi 
is particular to record, in order to clinch its date, " in 
the time of Yerid Ben Abdullah ; though who ho was, 
is a problem." 

Another writer aims at the Caliph himself, who is 


described in the third person, as " one who employed 
three years, and considerable sums, in endeavouring 
to enter the Pyramid, and who found little or no 
treasure; but saw an inscription in letters of gold on 
the side of the chamber, declaring that "the impious 
violator of the tomb should experience, as his sole 
reward, the regret of having committed a sacrilegious 
action without any successful result." While, finally, a 
surveying British general officer of the Koyal Engineers, 
determined to bend the bow the other way, freely an- 
nounces in 1869 that the king's body (that is, Cheops'), 
after a repose of 2,960 years, was thrown out of its 
tomb by Al Mamoun, and " treated with grossest indig- 
nities by the rabble of the streets of Cairo." 

But to return to something like the sober chronicles 
of the period, it was years after the Caliph's assault on 
the inside of the Pyramid, that there began that de- 
spoiling of its outside which was carried on by many 
generations of Cairenes systematically, until all the 
white and polished blocks of the casing (except the 
two which Colonel Howard-Yyse was to bring to 
light 1,000 years afterwards) had been removed 
for the building of new Cairo ; and the grand old 
primeval inscription on the outside of the Pyramid, 
" engraved," somewhere about the days of Job, " with 
an iron pen and lead in the rock for ever," — what 
became of it : and what would it have told if translated 
by a more able linguist and impartial judge, than the 
idolatrous Egyptian priest who put ofP Herodotus with 
an idle jest ? 

The, Euro'pean Mind enters into the Question. 

Centuries passed by, and then modern European 

travellers began to look in at the Great P^^amid. The 

Eastern day-dream of wealth had departed, but that 

empty stone chest still offered itself there in the interior 


for explanation. Why was it in such a place of honour ? 
Why was the whole Pyramid arranged in subservience 
to it ? Why was it so unpretending and plain ? Why 
had its lid been forgotten ? Why was the whole thing 
empty ? Why was it utterly without inscription ? 

Gradually the notion grew that it might be a sarco- 
phagus ; that it was a sarcophagus ; and that it had 
been intended for " that Pharaoh who drove the Israel- 
ites out of Egypt ; and who, in the end, leaving his 
carcase in the Red Sea, never had the opportunity of 
being deposited in his own tomb." 

But this idea was effectually quashed, for, amongst 
other reasons, this cogent one, — that the Great Pyramid 
was not only built, but had been sealed up too in all its 
more special portions, long before the birth even of that 
Pharaoh. Nay, before the birth of Isaac and Jacob as 
well ; which disposes likewise of the attempt to call the 
Great Pyramid " the tomb of Joseph," whose mortal 
remains being carried aw^ay by the Israelites in their 
Exodus, left the vacancy we now see in the coffer or 
stone box. 

Then wrote some, " here was buried King Cheops, or 
Chemmis, but his body hath been removed hence." 
Whereupon Professor Greaves pointed out " that Dio- 
dorus hath left, above 1,600 years since, a memor- 
able passage concerning Chemmis, the builder of the 
Great Pyramid, and Cephren, the founder of the work 
adjoining : ''Although," saith he, " these kings intended 
these for their sepulchres, yet it happened that neither 
of them were buried there. For the people being 
exasperated against them by reason of the toilsomeness 
of these works, and for their cruelty and oppression, 
threatened to tear in pieces their dead bodies, and with 
ignominy to throw them out of their sepulchres. Where- 
upon both of them, dying, commanded their friends to 
bury them in an obscure place." 


And again, other scliolars brought up the very clear 
account of Herodotus, that King Cheops was not buried 
in the Great Pyramid building above, because he was 
buried in a totally different place ; viz., " in a subter- 
ranean region on an island always surrounded by the 
waters of the Nile." And if that necessarily and 
hydraulically means a level into which the Nile water 
could always flow, it must have been at a depth of 
more than fifty feet below the very bottom of even the 
unfinished subterranean chamber carved deep in the 
rock underneath the Great Pyramid, and not in the 
direction of the grand, upper, built room with its empty 
stone chest discovered by Al Mamoun in the sub-aerial 
masonry of the building. 

The Tomhic Theory. 

So in later years, all the single sarcophagus propo- 
sitions for the benefit of the empty stone chest having 
failed, they have been merged into a sort of general 
sarcophagus theory, that some one must have been 
buried there. And this notion finds much favour with 
the hierologists and Egyptologists, as a school ; for these 
gentlemen will insist on keeping up a hold over the 
Great Pyramid, as being a valuable part of their art, and 
a grand chariot to drive withal before the wondering 
gaze of mankind. They allow, that in no other pyramid 
is the sarcophagus — as they boldly call the stone 
chest, or granite box, or porphyry coffer (though it is not 
porphyry either) of other authors — contained high up in 
the body of the Pyramid, far above the surface of the 
ground outside ; that in no other case is it perfectly 
devoid of adornment or inscription ; that in no other 
case has the lid so strangely vanished ; in no other case 
are the neighbouring walls and passages of the Pyramid 
so devoid of hieratic and every other emblem ; in fact. 



tliey allow that the red granite coffer, with all that part 
of the Pyramid's chambers and ascending passages where 
it is found, and which opened itself so strangely to 
the eyes of the Arabians after 3,000 years of con- 
cealment, is entirely unique and peculiar to the Great 
Pyramid. The coffer and its chamber, the Grand 
Gallery and the passages leading to it, form indeed a 
sort of machinery which is altogether in addition to 
what the other pyramids possess ; while what they have, 
the Great Pyramid has also, though it never completed 
and used it ; viz., the subterranean chamber and descend- 
ing passage intended to be — sepulchral-notion inspiring, 
or sepulchral, if you will, but never finished — though 
left enterable at any time through all antiquity. 

Observe also with the alleged " sarcophagus," in the 
Kings Chamber (for so is that apartment now most 
generally, though perhaps erroneously, termed), that 
there was no ancient attempt to build the vessel up and 
about in solid masonry, in the most usual manner for 
securing a dead body inviolate. On the contrary, there 
were magnificently built white stone passages of a most 
lasting description, and in a different material to the 
rest of the fabric, as well as fit for continued use 
through long ages, leading straight up to such sarco- 
phagus from the very entrance itself ; while, more notably, 
the shapely King's Chan^ber was intended to be ventilated 
in the most admirable manner by the " air channels " 
discovered by Colonel Howard- Vyse ; evidently (as the 
actual fact almost enables us to say with security) in 
order that men might come there from time to time, 
and look on, and deal with, that open granite chest, 
and live and not die. 

But how is it known, or can it be proved, that there 
are not similar secret chambers in the other pyramids 

Something may be done in this way ; firstly, with 


tlie example of the Great Pyramid to go by, during 
1,000 years, the other j^yramids have been abundantly 
examined, and industriously probed for like features, 
regardless of expense, but without success. In the 
second place, some of the others have become dilapi- 
dated to an extent that should show such chambers if 
they were there ; and in the third place, whereas the 
third Pyramid of Jeezeh has been admired by some 
authors* as the third and most perfect work of the 
true Egyptian pyramid builders, where every excellence 
of their system was introduced, that very pyramid was 
bored centrally and vertically through by Colonel 
Howard- Vyse without detecting anything but solid 
masonry until its subterraneans were finally reached ; 
and then the scene partook decidedly of Egypt the 
profape, with a richly ornamented sarcophagus and an 
idolatrous dedication in Mizraite hieroglyphics on the 
coffin board. 

What then Avas the purpose of all that upper system 
in the Great Pyramid, above its one entrance passage 
which descends ultimately to the lower, or underground 
chamber ? Why too was not that unique upper system 
of sub-aerial chambers. Grand Gallery, .and ascending 
passages made easy of access to Egyptians, Persians, 
Greeks, and Komans in their time ; or rather, why was 
it so entirely and scrupulously concealed from every one 
of them through all their long historical day ? 

Hieroglyphics, and their modern Egyptologist inter- 
preters, are plainly at fault here ; for, always excepting 
the quarry-marks in strokes of red paint on the un- 
finished stones in the black hollows of construction, there 
are no hieroglyphics to translate upon either the granite 
coffer, the chamber which contains it, or even the whole 
of the Great Pyramid. Nor has anything, in all hiero- 
glyphic literature throughout all Egypt, ever been dis- 

* H. C. Agnew, ''Letters on the Pyramids," 1838. 


covered throwing the smallest light on, or displaying 
the most distant knowledge of, the ascending interior of 
this one, most unique, of all the pyramids. 

The Exclusively Tomhic Theory receives a Shake. 

Meanwhile, some few good men and true in scientific 
researches — witness M. Jomard in the celebrated " De- 
scription de I'Egypte," and Sir Gardner Wilkinson in his 
own works — have begun to express occasional doubts as 
to whether any dead body of a king or other mortal 
man ever was deposited in the strangely-shaped vessel 
of the King's Chamber. 

.The actual words of that most philosophic Egypto- 
logist, Sir G. Wilkinson, are : " The authority of Arab 
writers is not always to be relied on ; and it may be 
doubted whether the body of the king was really 
deposited in the sarcophagus;" i.e., of the Great 
Pyramid ; and the remark, so far, is unassailable. But 
when he goes on to say, " I do not presume to explain 
the real object for which the pyramids were built, but 
feel persuaded that they served for tombs, and were 
also intended for astronomical purposes," why then it 
is plain that he is mixing up two very different things, 
viz., the one Great, pure and anti-Egyptian Pyramid, 
with any number of other pyramids truly and absolutely 
Egyptian and Pharaonic. 

Another Egyptologist, of less mature years, but loud 
in talk, rushes in thus heedlessly where his better, 
with reason, had feared to tread, declaring, " The 
pyramids were in all cases tombs, and nothing more. 
That they were places of sepulture is enough, to any 
one acquainted with the character of the ancient 
Egyptians, to prove that they had no other use ; but 
were it not so, our knowledge of their structure would 
afford conclusive evidence." And then follows that 


author's knowledge of their structure, and it leaves out, 
neatly and completely, though painted by his own 
admiring self, all that is peculiar to the Great Pyramid. 

Now it was precisely when another, viz. M. Jomard, 
was studying that grand phenomenon's peculiar features, 
and comparing them day after day with the ordinary 
forms of old Egyptian pyramids, that he, discussing 
the matter at leisure with the other members of the 
French Academy then in Egypt, began shrewdly to 
suspect that the object of both the coffer itself, and the 
place it was in, " might be entirely and totally dif- 
ferent " from either the treasure-theory of the East, or 
sepulchral, i.e. tomhic, theory of Western minds : and 
would probably prove, if correctly understood, to be 
something gifted with a very high value indeed for 
nations who were far advanced in civilisation and in- 
tellectuality. He even fancied that it might have some- 
thing to do with a standard measure of length, and 
believed at one time that he had detected an analogy 
to the then new French metre on one part of the coffer. 

Something of a metrological kind had also been 
speculated on by Sir Isaac Newton more than a century 
earlier ; and though sufficiently accurate measures at 
last failed him, yet he did succeed in getting out, so 
far as he had foundations to go on at all, a number of 
instances indicating with much probability that certain 
harmonious proportions of a fixed measure of length 
were generally adhered to in the formation of many of 
the Pyramid's passages and chambers. 

Yet, notwithstanding this good beginning, little more 
was subsequently tried by any one else in the same 
direction. The crowd in society still belonged to either 
the treasure, or the tombic, school ; and both parties 
were equally offended at the poverty of the contents of 
the chamber in general, and the lidless granite chest in 


Eacli had expected riches after their own heart's desire ; 
and instead of them, merely found this plain stone box, 
made indeed, they allowed, with exquisite geometric 
truth, rectangular within and without, highly polished, 
and of a fine bell-metal consistency, in a sort of hard, 
compact, faultless, syenitic granite ; but then it was 
empty, they said, and the lid was gone? So they were 
all grievously offended at it, and are so still : one man, 
as an example of the civilised, wealthy, and educated 
modern Europeans, hits the coffer a bang with a big 
hammer, merely to hear over again what fifty persons 
had recorded before him, viz., "that it rings like a 
bell on being struck ;" another actually breaks off a 
j)ortion for a " specimen ; " another tries to do the 
same and cannot, though he tries with all his might ; 
and though the Anglo-Indian soldiers under General Sir 
David Baird succeeded only too well.'" While, finally. 
Dr. Lepsius, whom Gliddon states with pride, " has been 
justly termed by the great Letronne, the hope of 
Egyptian study,'' planted a young palm-tree in the 
hollow of the ancient coffer, to act as a German 
Christmas-tree ; a gracious tree, on whose branches 
he should hang some baubles which he had bought 
in Cairo, as presents for himself and his Prussian 
friends ; whom he fondly calls " children of the wilder- 
ness," on the strength of having been resident for a 
few weeks in the comfortable parts of Lower Egypt. 

John Taylor 8 Theory, 

In the midst of such scenes, illustrating, unfortu- 
nately, what is actually going on among the Egypto- 
logists in the nineteenth century, comes out the late 
John Taylor with the result of his long researches ; and 
suggests that, "The coffer in the King's Chamber of 

* "Description de I'Egypte; " and Dr. Clarke in his Travels; but 
defended against them by Colonel Howard- Vyse. 



the Great Pyramid was intended to be a standard 
measure of capacity and weight fit for all nations; and 
certain nations did originally receive their weights and 
measures from thence ; so that those of them who 
still preserve, more or less successfully, with their lan- 
guage and history their hereditary weights and measures, 
may yet trace their pre-historic connection substantially 
with that one primeval, standard, metrological centre, 
the Great Pyramid." 

Take, for instance, our own case. When the British 
farmer measures the wheat which the bounty of Pro- 
vidence has afforded him as the increase of his land, 
in what terms does he measure it ? In quarters. 

Quarters ! Quarters of what ? 

The poor farmer does not know ; for there is no 
capacity measure now on the Statute-book above the 
quarter ; but, from old custom, he calls his largest 
corn measure a quarter. 

Whereupon John Taylor adds in effect : "The quarter 
corn measures of the British farmer are fourth parts or 
quarters of the contents of the coffer in the King's 
Chamber of the Great Pyramid ; and the same Pyra- 
mid's name, instead of being descended from irvp, fire, 
may rather have been derived from Trvpo^, wheat, and 
jiieTpov, measure ; signifying a ' measure of wheat.' 
To establish the ground-work of an international 
standard to that end, though not at that time to 
publish it generally, would seem to have been a leading 
purpose of the Great Pyramid ages ago ; and the true 
value, in size, of its particular measure, has not sen- 
sibly deteriorated during all the varied revolutions of 
society in the last 4,040 years 1" 

This is a statement requiring full examination. 




rFHE first part of the problem now immediately before 
-■- us should be both short and simple ; for it is, 
merely to determine the cubical contents of the vessel 
known successively or variously as " the sarcophagus, 
the empty box, the lidless stone chest," or more philo- 
sophically and safely, so as not to entangle ourselves 
with any theory, "the coffer" in the King's Chamber 
of the Great Pyramid ; " the only and one thing," says 
that quaint old traveller, G. Sandys, *' which this huge 
mass containeth within his darksome entrails."* 

Reported of a plain rectangular figure within and 
without, carved out of a single block ; of moderate size 
therefore for a man to examine and survey, and acces- 
sible on every side, what should present so easy an ad- 
measurement for any educated man to make, as this 
coffer of the Great Pyramid ? How often, too, has 
it not been admeasured, and by some of the most 
learned academicians of Europe ? even as though they 
all held firmly that it had been originally designed 
and constructed only for that one end, purpose, and 

From Colonel Howard- Vyse's important work are 
drawn forth and arranged, in the following table, the 

* George Sandys' "A Eelation of a Journey begun a.d. 1610." 



[Part II. 

chief measures which have been taken between 1550 
and 1840 A. D., some of the principal authors being con- 
sulted in their original writings. Their measures, generally 
given in feet, or feet and inches, or metres,* are all here 

Modern Measures or the Great Pyramid-Coffer up to a.d. 1864. 

Exterior. 1 




Material as 


Brdth. Depth. 

Lngth. Brdth. 









Bellonius . 


Black marble . 




P. Alpinus 


Black marble . 












DeVillamont . 

1618 Black marble . 




Professor Greaves . 

1638 ; Thebaic marble 







De Monconys . 

1647 1 




M. Thevenot . 

1655 1 Hard porphyry 






M. Lebrun 






M. MaiUet . . 

1692 Granite 




De Careri . 

1693 Marble 








Like porphyry 




74-' ? 



Egmont . 


Thebaic marble 






Pere Sicard . 







Dr. Shaw . 









Dr. Perry . 






M. Denon . 








M. Jomard and Eg. 

Fr. Ac. . . 






77-836 26-694 


Dr. Clarke 






Mr. Hamilton . 








Dr. WhitmaTi . 








Dr. Wilson 







M. Caviglia 







Dr. Eichardson 


Bed Granite 




Sir Gard. Wilkinson 


Bed Granite 




Col. Howard- Vyse . 








I^.B. — ^A note of interrogation after any of the interior measures, indicates that they 
have been obtained bj' applying to the exterior measures the " thickness " as given by 
the observer ; such thickness being supposed to apply to the sides, and not to the 

set down in inches, to give a clearer view of the progress 
of knowledge in this particular matter. And now, our 
only bounds to exactness will be, the capability of these 
educated men of Europe, to apply accurate measure to a 

* The feet of all authors, when not otherwise particularized, h^ve been 
here assumed as English feet, and in some cases may require a correction 
on that account, but not to any extent sufficient to explain the chief 
aaomalies observed. 


regularly formed and exquisitely prepared specimen of 
ancient mechanical art. 

Reflections on the Numbers as measured. 

Look at them, then. Surely the list is not a little 
appalling. An ordinary carpenter amongst us talks of 
sixteenths of an inch quite fluently, and sometimes 
undertakes to make a special piece of cabinet work " fit 
to half a sixteenth : " but our learned travellers commit 
errors of many whole inches ; and this when they are 
measuring the one and only internal art-object which 
the Great Pyramid contains, and on which indeed its 
whole structure focusses and concentrates itself ; a 
building too where no less than forty centuries are be- 
holding their proceedings, just as they are said to have 
done with admiration those of the French soldiers in 
1799 ;* but are also, in these now quiet times, weigh- 
ing rich travellers, learned philosophers, and modern 
education in the balance of truth together. 

My own part here must be very moderate ; for I am 
a would-be measurer too, never perfectly exact. Yet 
even I have to say, after the most favourable considera- 
tion possible, that out of the twenty-five quoted authors 
no less than twenty-two must be discharged summarily 
as quite incompetent, whatever their mental attainments 
otherwise, to talk before the world about either size or 
proportion in any important practical matter. These 
rejected ones have also been, to so lamentable an extent, 
uniformly persevering in the error of only applying 
their measures directly to the exterior of the coffer, 
when the interior is the really valuable feature for 
theory and use (and is the more lasting fact of the 
two, as a measure, because protected from injury by 

* " Soldats ! du haut de cea Pyramides quarante sidclos vous con- 
templcut."— Xapoloou iu Egypt.^^ 


the very existence of the exterior), that one is com- 
pelled at last to doubt these men's very principles of 
proceeding as well as every practical outcome of their 
measuring skill. 

Professor Greaves in 1638, the French academicians 
in 1799, and Colonel Howard-Yyse in 1837, are there- 
fore the only three names that deserve to live, as coffer 
measurers, in the course of 250 years of legions of 
visitors. Of these three parties thus provisionally 
accepted, the foremost position might have been expected 
for the academicians of Paris. Professor Greaves lived 
before the day of European science proper, and when 
Ptolemy's works, with sundry Arabian authors, were 
almost the only books thought worthy of study after the 
classical writers of Greece and Kome, and one or two of 
re-arising Italy ; and simply because there were so very 
few others. While Colonel Howard-Yyse did not lay 
himself out for very refined measurements, but rather 
went through what he felt himself obliged to undertake 
in that direction, in the same fearless, thorough-going, 
and artless manner in which the Duke of Wellington was 
accustomed to review a picture exhibition in London ; 
beginning with No. 1 in the catalogue, and going 
through with the whole of them conscientiously to the 
very last on the list. 

The Colonel's measures, therefore, are respectable and 
solidly trustworthy with regard to large quantities, but 
not much more. 

With the French academicians it is quite another 
thing ; they were the men, and the successors of the 
men, who had been for generations measuring arcs of 
the meridian, and exhausting all the refinements of 
microscopic bisections and levers of contact in determin- 
ing the precise length of standard scales. Their mea- 
sures, therefore, ought to be true to the thousandth, 
and even the ten-thousandth part of an inch : and 


perhaps tliey are so in giving the length and breadth of 
the coffer ; but, alas ! in their statements of the depth, 
both inside and Out, there seems to have been some 
incomprehensible mistake committed, amounting to 
nearly three whole inches. 

I have looked up the original authorities in the 
" Description de I'Egypte," have reduced the metre to 
inches from several different copies, but cannot come to 
any other conclusion than that this vital portion of the 
Academy's work is hugely erroneous. Their length 
and breadth numbers are not far from a mean of good 
modern observers ; but those for the depth are outside 
all other good men, in the most improbable manner to 
be true. I have written to the Perpetual Secretary of 
the Academy in Paris upon the subject, but have got no 
answer ; and all my attempts to prevail on friends to 
seek admission to the original documents of the Egyp- 
tian expedition, if still in existence, have failed. 

Under such circumstances, I have been compelled to 
discharge the French Academy also, from the list of 
fully trustworthy competitors for usefulness and fame in 
Pyranid coffer metrology. Only two names, therefore, 
are left — Howard- Vyse, who has been already charac- 
terised, and Greaves, in whom we have most fortunately 
a hos: indeed. 

Of Professor Greaves, the Oxford Astronomer in 1637. 

He lived, no doubt, before the full birth of European 
science, but on the edge of an horizon which is eventful 
in scientific history. Immediately behind him were, if 
not the dark ages, the scholastic periods of profitless 
verbal disquisitions ; and in front, to be revealed after 
liis death, were the germs of the mechanical and natural 
I)hilosophy which have since then changed the face of 
the world. There is no better a life-point that can be 


taken than Greaves', whereby to judge what Europe has 
gained by the exercise of civil and religious liberty, 
coupled with the study of nature direct, through two and 
a half centuries of unrestricted opportunity. When as 
much more time has passed over the world, as now 
separates us from Greaves' age, then — say many of the 
safest interpreters of the sacred prophecies — a further 
Divine step in the development of the Christian dispen- 
sation will have commenced. 

But of Greaves himself, it was somewhat strange, 
though not inexplicable,''" that he should make the 

* He relates his ideas, to a certain extent, thus in the "Pyramido- 
graphia : " — 

*' These proportions of the chamber, and those which follow of the 
length and breadth of the hollow part of the tomb, were taken by me 
with as much exactness as it was possible to do ; which I did so mach the 
more diligently, as judging this to be the fittest place for fixing the 
measure for posterity — a thing which hath been much desired by learned 
men ; but the manner how it might be exactly done hath been thought 
of by none. I am of opirion that, as this Pyramid hath stood 3,000 years 
almost " (this material under-estimaie for what is nearer 4,000 years, 
arose from a mistaken theory of Professor Greaves for idertifying 
Herodotus's name of the Jeezeh Pyramid-builders, Cheops, Chefren, and 
Mycerinus, with kings of Manetho's twentieth, in place of his fourth, 
dynasty), '* and is no whit decayed within, so it may continue many 
thousand years longer; and, therefore, that after-times measuring these 
places by the assigned, may hereby find out the just dimensions of tha 
English feet. Had seme of the ancient mathematicians thought of this 
way, these times would not have been so much perplexed in discovering 
the measures of the Hebrews, Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, and other 
nations." — Greaves, vol. i. p. 126. 

At p. 346, in the conclusion of his "Denarius " dissertation. Professor 
Greaves gives the following special instances of his measui-es, which 
should all be repeated at the earliest opportunity : — 

" The first and most easterly of the three great Pyramids in Egypt 
hath on the north side a square descent ; when you are entered a little 
past the mouth of it, there is a joint or line, made by the meeting of two 
smooth and polished stones over your head, which are parallel to tiose 
under your feet ; the breadth of that joint or line is 3-463 of the English 
foot" r= 41-556 Greaves' English inches. 

*' Within the Pyramid, and about the midst of it, there is a fair room 
or chamber, the top of which is flat, and covered with nine massy stoaes ; 
in it there stands a hollow tomb of one entire marble stone ; the length 
of the south side of this room, at the joint or line where the first and 
second rows of the stone meet, is 34-380 feet" = 412-560 G. E. inch«s. 

*' The breadth of the west side of the same room, at the joint or line 
where the first and second row of stones meet, is 17"190 feet " = 206-280 
G. E. inches. . i ' 

Chap.VXL] the great pyramid. 105 

gi'eat exertion he did to visit the Pyramids in the 
dangerous times of 1688 and 1639 ; and should, as 
some of his contemporaries tauntingly observed, though 
he was a professor of astronomy, take so much more 
care in providing himself with a linear measuring-rod, 
than with any astronomical instruments proper. But 
the use which he made of that same measuring-rod 
(" a ten-foot radius, most accurately divided into 
10,000 parts, besides some other instruments, for the 
fuller discovery of the truth "), when he had entered 
the Pyramid, and approached the granite coffer of the 
King's Chamber, has something in it which is passing 
strange indeed. 

Almost every other visitor, both before and since, 
paid vastly more attention to the exterior than the 
interior of the coffer. Why, then, did Professor 
Greaves, when engaged on the exterior, merely give 
it in feet and inches, as thus, — " the exterior 
superficies of it contains in length seven feet three 
inches and a half, — in depth it is three feet three 
inches and three-quarters, and is the same in breadth " ? 
But when he comes to the interior, why does he imme- 
diately address himself to it, as to a matter requiring 
vastly more accuracy than all that he had been looking 
to before ? " Of the hollow, therefore, within," the 
coffer — or, as he calls it, " the king's monument," — he 
writes, " It is in length on the west side, six feet, and 
four hundred and eighty -eight parts of the English foot, 
divided into a thousand parts" (that is, 6 feet, and 
488 of 1,000 parts of a foot) ; "in breadth at the north 
end, two feet, and two hundred and eighteen parts of 
the foot divided into a thousand parts " (that is, 2 feet 
and 218 of 1,000 parts of the English foot.) "The 

" The hollow, or inner part of the marble tomb near the top, on the 
west side of it, is in length 6-488 feet " = 77*856 G. E. inches. 

" The hollow, or inner parfc of the marble tomb near the top of it, on 
the north side, is in breadlh 2-218 feet" = 26-616 G. E. inches. 


deptli is 2 feet and 860 of 1,000 parts of the English 

And he defends his practice in this instance by 
adding : "In the reiteration of these numbers, if any 
shall be offended either with the novelty or tediousness 
of expressing them so often, I may justify myself by the 
example of Ulug Beg, nephew of Timurlane the Great 
(for so is his name, and not Tamerlane), and Emperor 
of the Moguls, or Tatars (whom we term amiss Tartars). 
For I find in his astronomical tables (the most accurate 
of any in the East), made about two hundred years 
since, the same course observed by him when he writes 
of the Grecian, Arabian, and Persian epochas, as also 
those of Cataia and Turkistan. He expresseth the 
numbers at large, as I have done ; then in figures, such 

as we call Arabian, , which manner I judge 

worthy of imitation, in all such numbers as are radical, 
and of more than ordinary use." 

Or eaves and Vyses Coffer Capacity Beterininations. 

Exactly why, or fully wherefore, it was put into the 
heart of the mediaeval Oxford Professor of Astronomy to 
consider, contrary to the usual ideas of other scientific 
visitors and admeasurers, the numbers for the interior of 
the coffer so extra-remarkably "radical and of more 
than ordinary use," we may come to form an opinion by- 
and-by ; but in the meantime we should accept the fact 
with thankfulness, as the very thing of all others which 
is directly to the point, where a measure of capacity is 
concerned.'"' Hence we have for the cubical contents of 

* To preserve that humility which is equally necessary to insure ulti- 
mate success in the paths of scientific research, and in a certain narrower 
and more important way as well, it should be known to Professor Greaves' 
countrymen that in his comparatively careless treatment of the exterior 
of the coffer, he made an error of about one inch in the height, and some- 
what more in the length. 


the coffer in English inches, from Greaves' original 
measures, in 1638 — 

77-856 X 26-616 X 34-320 = 71,118. 

And by Howard-Yyse's measures, also just as taken in 
1837— 780 X 26-5 x 345 = 71,311. 

Several small corrections may possibly be applicable to 
these mere numbers as rudely read off; but for the 
present we may provisionally accept for a first approxi- 
mation the simple mean of the above statements, or 
71,214 cubic inches, as the apparent capacity contents 
of the coffer of- the King's Chamber. 

Wherefore now, what proportion does that number 
bear to the capacity of four modern English corn quar- 
ters, in terms of which British wheat is measured and 
sold at this very hour ? 

Eeferring to the almanac for the Act of Parliament on 
the subject, we find in our copy a declaration, that the 
gill "is equal to 8 '6 5 5 cubic inches ;" and then going- 
through the continued multiplications for pints, quarts, 
&c., up to four quarters, we have for that collective 
quantity, 70,9 83 6 80 cubic inches. But in another 
copy, one gallon is declared 277 '274 cubic inches; 
which, being similarly multiplied for bushels, quarters, 
and four quarters, yields 70,982-144 English cubic 

Preferring, then, this latter quantity as having under- 
gone less multiplying than the other, the degree of 
agreement between a quarter British and a fourth part 
of the coffer, or granite box, and possible type of a corn- 
measure in the Great Pyramid, is at this present time as 
17,746 : 17,801. 

Qualities of the Coffers "Quarter" Measure, 

A suflficiently fair amount of agreement is this, between 
the things compared (viz., the Pyramid coffer on one 


side divided into four by not very modern savants, and I 
on the other, the old Anglo-Saxon corn-measure after 
being too often " adjusted " by Acts of Parliament, 
since those halcyon days of rest when Edgar " the j 
peaceable " reigned over England at Winchester) ; suf- 
ficiently near, I repeat, to allow all friends of worthy old 
John Taylor to say that the Great Pyramid, with its 
coffer of four corn-quarter capacity yet measurable, is 
in so far still capable of fulfilling the purpose of its 
ancient name, — under one form of interpretation at 
least : and if there be after all anything in any word or 
name more worthy the attention of science, than 
ancient contemporary mechanical facts that may still be 
handled and measured before our eyes. 

To nations in a more or less primitive condition, the 
first application of capacity measures would, with little 
doubt, be in the exchange of corn ; and through what- 
ever subsequent stage of power or luxury or refinement 
they may pass, the measuring of the staff of life will 
probably still keep up a permanent iajj|)brtance over every 
other object of measuring or weighing, even though it 
be of drugs, or silver, or gold, — in perfect accordance 
so far with our Lord's Prayer, where the only material 
supplication is, " Give us day by day our daily hreadJ' 

Yet it is to be remarked, that if any given means for 
measuring corn were devised by a very superior intelli- 
gence, they should eventually be found applicable also, 
so far as principles of accuracy go, to many of the more 
artificial and precise purposes to which the after pro- 
gress of mankind may introduce them, as well as to the 
rude original employ. 

Thus, the moon, with its frequently recurring varia- 
tions and phases, serves man in the savage, and did 
serve him in the primitive and patriarchal state, as a 
coarse method of chronicling time over a few months. 
In a more artificial and civilised condition, some of the 



larger cycles of lunations enable him to speak exactly 
of many years at a time, and approximate to some 
eclipses. In a further advanced condition, the moon's 
subsidiary features of movement enable the sailor 
in the midst of the broad surface of ocean, assisted 
by data from the astronomer and mathematician on 
shore, to measure his precise longitude. And amongst 
the ablest minds of the present day, the theory of those 
movements and the computation of their nature, forms 
an arena where every man may measure off his own 
intellectual height at the base of an infinite cliff which 
he may never hope to stand on the summit of. 

In exact proportion, therefore, as man has become 
able to profit by God's moon, which he, man, was 
originally told was merely intended to rule the night, so 
has the divinely appointed luminary been found capable 
of more and more applications ; and whenever any 
difficulty has occurred, it has never been any want of 
perfect accuracy in the lunar machinery itself (for that 
really seems infinite), but merely in the power of man 
to interpret the working of it. 

Is there, then, anything approaching to the same 
suggestive principle connected with John Taylor's idea 
of the " corn measure " of the Great Pyramid ? 

There can be no harm in inquiring, as we proceed 
with our grand research ; and it will be the surest way 
too of guarding against any possibility of our having 
been misled thus far, by attending overmuch to some 
single fortuitous coincidence. 

Let us conclude this chapter, however, of rather old, 
and much improvable data about the coffer's dze, by a 
glance at the material of this most interesting vessel. 

Granite, the true Material of the Coffer. 
A reference to the third column of our table on 
page 100, will show that travellers have assigned the 


coffer to almost every mineral, from black marble to red 
granite, and porphyry of a colour wliicb no one has 
ventured to name. The majority of modern authors 
are in favour of red granite. I was for a long time 
before going to Egypt inclined to porphyry, doubting 
if anything so well known and distinctly marked as red 
granite would ever have been called black marble ; and 
having been further at that period so distinctly assured 
about the coffer by a railway engineer who had been 
much in Egypt, that "it is undoubtedly porphyry : " 
an assertion which he backed up by describing some 
of the differences in character between the material of 
the coffer, as witnessed by himself, and the indubitable 
red granite walls of the chamber. 

This granite he traced to the quarries of Syene, 550 
miles up the river from the Pyramid ; for nearer than 
that, there is not a particle of granite rock on the banks 
of the Nile, or within many days' journey from them on 
either side : but there, at the cataracts of the Nile above 
Syene, it abounds ; and Syene was in fact a storehouse 
of granite (of the syenitic variety, but still eminently to 
be called granite rather than by any other mineral 
name equally understood by the public at large) for 
every dynasty that sat on the throne of Egypt subse- 
quently to the building of the Great Pyramid. 

Porphyry may not improbably be also found at Syene, 
amongst the veins and extravasations of granite and 
basalt which there abound : but the most celebrated 
Egyptian quarries of porphyry, both red and green, 
were much nearer the Bed Sea than the Nile, or at 
and about the Gebel Dokkan and Mount Porphorytes ; 
therefore in much closer geographical proximity to, and, 
perhaps, geological connection with, the granite moun- 
tains of Sinai than the plutonic beds of Philse and 

Nevertheless, I having at last visited Egypt in 1864-5, 

Chap. VII.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 1 1 1 

after the publication of the first edition of this book, 
spent almost whole days and weeks in this King's Chamber 
of the Great Pyramid, until all sense of novelty and 
needless mystery in small things had worn away ; 
and then decided, without the smallest hesitation, for 
the material of the coffer being syenitic granite ; ex- 
ceedingly like, but perhaps a little harder as well as 
darker than, the constructive blocks of the walls of the 
King's Chamber containing it. 

Granite in the Dark, and Semi-darJc, Ages now gone by. 

Modern measures of the coffer are still awaiting us ; 
but first I will plead for a little more about granite, 
so necessary is it for every one to know intimately 
both where that mineral is, and where it is not, in the 
structure of the Great Pyramid : besides also under- 
standing what is implied mechanically, and also, if 
possible, what was intended to be held symbolically, 
whenever the primeval architect abandoned the use 
of the limestone he had at hand, and adopted the 
granite procured with utmost toil and expense from 
a distance ; whether it came from Syene, as modern 
Egyptologists usually determine, or from Sinai, as 
Professor Greaves would rather infer. 

Recent travellers have indeed abundantly detected the 
cartouches or ovals of both King Cheops and King Che- 
phren, or Shofo and Nou-Shofo, of the Jeezeh Pyramids, 
on certain quarried rocks in the Sinaitic peninsula, near 
Wadee Maghara ; but the " works " with which these 
inscriptions were connected are generally supposed to 
have been copper mines and emerald pits ; and the follow- 
ing original note by Professor Greaves, evidently written 
long before the day of mineralogy, may be useful for 
a different purpose. The passage runs as follows : — 
" I conceive it " (the material of the coffer) " to be of 
that sort of porphyry which Pliny calls leucostictos, 


and describes thus : — ' Eubet porjDhyrites in eadem 
iEgypto, ex eo candidis intervenientibus punctis leu- 
costictos appellatur. Quantislibet molibus csedendis 
sufficiunt lapidicinse.' Of this kind of marble there 
was, and still are, an infinite quantity of columns in 
Egypt. But Venetian, a man very curious, who ac- 
companied me thither, imagined that this sort of 
marble came from Mount Sinai, where he had lived 
amongst the rocks, Avhich he affirmed to be speckled 
with party colours of black and white and red, like 
this ; and to confirm his assertion, he alleged that he 
had seen a great column left imperfect amongst the 
cliffs almost as big as that huge and admirable pillar 
standing to the south of Alexandria. Which opinion of 
his doth well corres23ond with the tradition of Aristides, 
who reports that in Arabia there is a quarry of excellent 

Sad confusion here between granite and porphyry 
in the seventeenth century : while in the " unheroic 
eighteenth century" Anglo-Saxon ignorance of granite 
went on increasing. No fresh granite was then being 
worked anywhere direct from nature, and the monuments 
of antiquity composed of it Avere first suspected, and then 
alleged, to be factitious ; as thus stated by a Mediter- 
ranean traveller in 1702 : — "The column of Pompey 
at Alexandria. Some think it of a kind of marble, but 
others incline rather to believe that 'twas built of 
melted stone cast in moulds upon the place. The 
latter opinion seems most probable, for there is not 
tJie least piece of that stone to be found in any part of 
the world, and the pillar is so prodigiously big and high 
that it could' hardly be erected without a miracle. I 
know 'tis alleged by those who believe the story of the 
Ehodian colossus, that the ancients had the advantage 
of admirable machines to raise such bulky pieces ; but 
I should reckon myself extremely obliged to those gen- 


tlemen if they would show me any probable reason why, 
among so great a variety of Egyptian monuments of 
antiquity, there is not one of marble; and by what 
unaccountable accident the stone called granite, which 
was then so common, is now grown so scarce that the 
most curious inquiries into the works of natuje cannot 
find the least fragment of it that was not employed in 
ancient structures. 

''And even though I should suppose, with my 
adversaries, that the quarries out of which this stone 
was dug were by degrees so entirely exhausted that 
there is not the least footstep of 'em left, and that 
Nature herself has lost so much of ancient vigour and 
fecundity that she is not able to produce new ones, I 
may still be allowed to ask why granite was only used 
in obelisks or columns of a prodigious bigness : for if 
it were really a sort of stone or marble, I see no reason 
why we might not find small pieces of it, as well as of 
"porphyry and other precious kinds of marble. 

" These reflections, in my opinion, may serve to 
confirm the hypothesis of those who believe that all 
these admirable monuments were actually cast in a 
mould ; and. if they would take the pains to view this 
column attentively, they would soon be convinced by 
the testimony of their own eyes that 'tis only a kind of 
cement composed of sand and calcined stone, not unlike 
to mortar or lime, which grows hard by degrees." 

Another century of modern civilisation rolled on, 
and then we find the celebrated traveller Dr. Clarke quite 
convinced that granite is a natural substance, and that 
hand specimens of it may be found by those who will 
search from country to country through the world ; but 
yet so seldom met with, that he has all this trouble in 
explaining to London society seventy years ago what com- 
mon rock material it is that he is talking about : — " By 
Greaves' Thebaick marble is to be understood that most 


beautiful variety of granite called by Italian lapidaries 
granito rosso (see 'Forbes Travels/ p. 226, London, 
1776), which is composed essentially of feldspar, of 
quartz, and of mica. It is often called Oriental granite, 
and sometimes Egyptian granite ; but it differs in no 
respect from European granite, except that feldspar 
enters more largely as a constituent into the mass than 
is usual with the granite of Europe. The author has 
seen granite of the same kind, and of equal beauty, in 
fragments, upon the shores of the Hebrides, particularly 
at Icolmkill." 

Sixty more years of modern civilisation passed away. 
Macdonald at Aberdeen had by that time taught his 
countrymen how to work in polished granite, both red 
and grey, far and wide over Scotland. From tombstones 
to brooches, and from banks and insurance-offices to 
kettle-holders and ear-rings, cut granite (poured forth 
since then without any stint both by the pale Queen of 
the North and her blushing sister of Peterhead) is now 
used on every side ; until all society, and the children 
too, talk as glibly in these our days about the once 
awfully mysterious tri-speckled stone, '' as maids of 
thirteen do of puppy-dogs." And yet the thing is not 
plain to all our educated gentlemen even yet. 

When, for instance, my wife and I were living 
through several months in a tomb of the eastern cliff 
of the Great Pyramid hill in 1865, a Cambridge man, 
with a most respectable name in science, and a sage- 
looking, experienced, head of iron-grey hair, called upon 
us and remarked, to the lady too, who knows a great deal 
more about minerals than I do, " What a fine granite 
cavern you are living in." Granite, indeed ! poor man ! 
when the petrified nummulites were staring at him all 
the time out of the naught but limestone on every side ! 
And other travellers within the last few years have con- 
fidently talked of having seen granite in the entrance 


passage of tlie Great Pyramid, granite in the subter- 
ranean chamber, granite forming the casing-stone heaps 
outside, granite, in fact, anywhere and everywhere, 
and basalt dykes in the Pyramid hill too, though in a 
country of pure nummulite limestone. 

They, however, being free and independent writers, 
cannot be easily interfered with ; but will my readers 
at least excuse me for insisting upon it, that for any 
would-be pyramidist scholar it is a most awful mistake 
to say granite, when he means limestone, or vice versa ; 
and to see limestone, where the primeval architect went 
to infinite pains to place granite. To talk thus inter- 
changeably of the two is, indeed, over and above saying 
the thing that is not in mineralogy, over and above too 
taking hard for soft, and soft for hard ; Neptunian for 
plutonian ; repletion with traces of organic existence for 
naught but crystals that never had a breath of life in 
them, — it is also on the part of such individual a 
depriving himself of the only absolutely positive feature 
that he can, or should, speak to in all pyramid inquiry ; 
as thus : — 

Questions of angle, line, and measure of weight are 
all questions of degree of approximation only ; or of 
limits of approach to a something which may never be 
actually touched, or even defined. But if nummulitic 
limestone cannot be distinguished absolutely from red 
granite, without our being told authoritatively, by uni- 
versity scholars, that one of those substances glides so 
insensibly into the other, that no man can say with 
confidence where one begins and the other ends — the 
age for interpreting the long-secret interior of the Great 
Pyramid has not yet arrived. 

But I will not consent to any such state of mind 
afflicting the readers of this present edition of 1873 ; 
and would rather, with them, as one amongst friends 
and equals and often betters, request their attention 


(before returning again to the coffer in the King's 
Chamber) to a prevailing feature of the manner in 
which the Great Pyramid makes its chief use of this 
rock, of so many colours and strange traditions, granite. 

There is granite in the Great Pyramid, and granite 
in various small pyramids ; yet so far from their being 
therefore alike, it is on that very account, or by that 
very means, that most difference may be detected both 
in their designs and even in the very minds of their 

Take the third pyramid as an example ; the world 
hailed it as the " Coloured Pyramid;" coloured, forsooth, 
because its casing-stones more than half-way uj) were of 
red granite. That that little third pyramid was there- 
fore more expensive than the Great one, all its friends 
admit, and even boast of : but what else did it gain 
thereby ? Lasting power, is the general idea ; because 
granite is so proverbially hard. But, alas ! granite, 
besides being hard, is also so very brittle on account 
chiefly of its tri-crystallization, and so largely expansible 
by heat, that under the influence of a hot sun by day and 
cold sky by night, it loosens and crushes minutely the 
materials of its own surface to little pieces, film by film, and 
age after age — until now, after 3,000 years, those hard 
granitic casing-stones of the third pyramid are rounded 
into pudding shapes, which can hardly indicate the 
angle they were originally bevelled to, within a handful 
of degrees. Yet the softer, and fair, white limestone 
which was chosen for the casing-stones of the Great 
Pyramid (a variety of limestone found in the Mokattam 
hill on the east side of the Nile), and which was begun 
to be exposed to the weather before the third pyramid 
or its builders were born, has, joined to that softness, 
so much tenacity, smallness of heat expansion, and 
strong tendency to varnish itself with a brownish iron 
oxide exudation, that it has in some instances pre- 


served the original angle of the casing-stones within a 
minute of a degree, and their original surface within 
the hundredth of an inch. 

But because the Great Pyramid architect found lime- 
stone to answer his purpose for casing-stones, did he 
therefore use it everywhere ? No, certainly not. He 
knew it to be too soft to keep its size and figure in 
places where men do tend to congregate ; and where 
strains and wear and tear may accumulate, and have to 
be strenuously resisted. In and towards the centre, 
therefore, of the whole mass of the Great Pyramid, 
where strains do increase and the treasure was sup- 
posed to be kept, and where Caliph Al Mamouns in 
one age, and middle-class passengers from steamers in 
another, rush in to see what they can get, — there its 
architect began, and in a very special and marked 
manner, to use granite in place of limestone. And in that 
deep and solemn interior, where he did so use it, there was 
no sun to shine and heat up by day, no sky to radiate 
cold at night, as at the casing-stones of the third 
pyramid ; but only darkness and a uniform temperature 
from year to year, and century to century. 

There was, therefore, no tendency in granite to sepa- 
rate its component crystals there ; but very great neces- 
sity for its hardness to resist the continual treading, 
hammers and mischief-working by the countless visitors 
of these latter days. For the granite portion of the Great 
Pyramid (excepting only the portcullis blocks at the 
lower end of the first ascending passage) begins in the 
so-called ante-chamber apartment, through which those 
visitors must all pass, in order to reach that further and 
final King's Chamber wherein the employment of granite 
culminates : and wherein is to be seen standing loose 
and movable on the open, level, granite floor that 
pyramid coffer, or long and high granite box, which is 
still awaiting our further examination. 




IF we grant, temporarily, for argument's sake, that the 
long rectangular box, lidless chest, or open granite 
coffer, in the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid was 
intended by the precise, measured, amount of its cubic 
contents to typify, as Mr. Taylor has suggested, a grand 
and universal standard of capacity measure — can any 
reason in nature or science be shown, why it should 
have been made of that particular size and no other ? 

In a later age the designer of such a vessel would 
have been hampered by custom or led by precedent ; 
but in the primeval day of the foundation of the Great 
Pyramid, who was there then to control its architect ; or 
from whom could that truly original genius have copied 
anything ; or what was there to prevent his making the 
coffer of any size he pleased ? 

Of Scientific References for Capacity Measure. 

The affair of the wherefore of the coffer's precise size 
is indeed a question of questions, for there is no ready 
explanation lying on the surface ; and the subject, 
viewed as one of capacity and weight measure, is capable 
of such peculiar perfectionings and remarkable refine- 
ments, that we may have to dig extremely deep before 
discovering the real reason, if it is there. 


Not that modern nations have shown a very par- 
ticular care for the teachings of science, or extensive 
acquaintance "wdth nature either, in ordering for them- 
selves the size of their several standards of capacity 
measure, having generally left this one standard to 
something like arbitrary fancy ; and seeming even still 
to think the subject either a vulgar and publican 
matter, or one ruled altogether by their own more 
scientific proceedings in linear measure. Thus, the 
late eminent Francis Baily, in his report on the 
standard scale of Great Britain,* says, after a magnificent 
introduction in favour of the importance of permanent 
standard measures, " such measures are usually divided 
into those of length, capacity, and weight ; but as the two 
latter may in all cases be deduced from the former, it 
will be necessary to consider only measures of length ;" 
and measures of length are accordingly the only ones 
which he cares to take notice of in that very large and 
learned paper. 

French Metrical Reference for Capacity Measure. 

Not very dissimilarly too, did the French philo- 
sophers act when establishing their metrical system ; 
for after having scorned — in the cause and for the 
sake of accuracy — to adopt a short natural unit for 
linear reference, such as the second's pendulum, lest 
in applying it to long distances errors should creep 
in by continued multiplication ; and having insisted 
on taking there a long — that is, an earth large — 
natural unit, and obtaining, what they required in 
practice subsequently, by continued subdivision (in that 
manner producing their metre out of the measured 
meridional distance from pole to equator), they went 

* "Royal Astronomical Society's Memoirs," vol. ix. 


the very reverse way to work in obtaining their units 
of capacity and weight. 

To procure these upon parallels to their " linear " 
principles, they ought evidently for the one, to have 
subdivided the capacity of the shell of the earth ; and 
for the other, to have similarly divided the weight of 
all the matter, whatever it is, that fills or occupies 
that shell of the earth, and gives it on the whole that 
general mean specific gravity, which is better adapted 
than anything else known to man to be his grand 
cosmical unit for the physics of universal matter. But 
they attempted neither the one nor the other. 

They did not even employ their metre itself in the 
large, in this part of their metrology, and necessarily 
adopt thereby a good honest size for their capacity 
and weight standards — which they would then have 
been less extravagantly multiplying, in the common 
affairs of daily life ; but, as every one knows, they 
took the 1-1 0th part of the metre, cubed, for the 
capacity measure; and filled the 1-1 00th part of that 
with water for their ridiculous little unit of weight 
measure — a something so small that a poor country- 
man wishing to weigh his daily load therewith, can 
hardly either see or feel it : while the learned doctors 
themselves, in speaking of, and recommending, it as a 
universal standard of weight to the practical world, 
have to break through all their artificial scheme of 
nomenclature ; and, while presenting their metre pure 
and simple, are obliged to multiply their grairiTYie by 
1,000 ; introducing it indeed into the units place, but 
with the name of H^ogramme. Wherefore even now in 
Italy the metrological combat is between the old Roman 
foot and pound on one side, and on the other the 
modern French metre and /a^ogramme ; shortened how- 
ever by the country-people into " metre " and " kilo," 
to the still more inextricable confusion of the proprie- 


ties of a too learned, as well as too narrow, attempt to 
coin new names. 

The French Academicians had, no doubt, a something 
in their little mite of a "gramme" which could be 
referred, through both the metre outrageously minified, 
and %mter when in a curious condition very difficult to 
hit upon and keep it to — viz., its maximum density at 
a little above freezing — to that one element ; and not 
a very large one, in the size of the whole earth. But 
if there was such extraordinary mental satisfaction 
previously felt at the metre, a linear human measure, 
being a neat commensurable fraction of a linear 
length along a quadrant of the earth — and poor 
Englishmen have had this flaunted and flouted in their 
faces for fifty years past, until at last it has been pro- 
posed ''" to abolish the British hereditary measures in 
favour of the new French inventions, because the 
former are so utterly unscientific, and the latter so 
perfectly replete with science — why should there not 
be mental satisfaction also, when a capacity measure in 
some way gives us a neat commensurable fraction of 
the capacity of the earth ; or at all events reminds us 
of its shape and capacity-giving power : and when a 
weight measure gives us a similar proportion of what 
is even more important in nature, and special to our 
terrestrial globe ; viz. the weight, or what goes prac- 
tically to make what is by persons in general called the 
weight, of the earth as a planet in space ? 

There may, indeed, be some remarkable difficulties 
in the way of accomplishing this reference ; for not 
only are the arrays of numbers appalling, but there 
may be some logical doubt as to how to proceed in 
comparing a weight on the surface, against the weight of 
each equal portion of a sphere, whose own attraction it is 

* President's opening address to the British Association, Newcastle, 


whicli gives all the appearance of weight to anything 
laid upon it. The affair is difficult, and perhaps of a 
transcendental character : yet not more so than, accord- 
ing to many eminent men, with able mathematicians 
amongst their number, are various other scientific pro- 
blems already accomplished in the service of modern 
civilisation. In the meanwhile, too, the earth has a 
weight, or mass ; and not only so, but it is precisely the 
grand French metrical school of mathematical astro- 
nomers, who care not a straw for the visible size of sun, 
moon, or planets. They want only to know their mass as 
a term in an equation; and then, having obtained that, 
they proceed in all their admirable - calculations — where 
so few of us can hold pace with them — for the orbital 
movements of those planetary bodies under the influence 
of gravity, as though the mass were concentred, in the 
case of each separate sphere, into an infinitely small point 
at its centre. To them., the high-class French mathe- 
maticians, in sad truth it is almost an impertinence to 
be told by the telescope that the substance of a planet 
is expanded into a globe of such or such a size in miles ; 
or into one large and several small globes as attendant 
satellites. These great men want only .to know the 
weight of the matter contained in each system, simple 
or compound, reduced to a point or points, together 
with certain distances asunder, and then they will set 
their equations in array, and compute you any length 
of orbital consequences. 

Why, then, did not those confessedly most acute 
and extraordinarily able men, when preparing a com- 
pletely new metrological system for France (and, as they 
hoped, for the world through France), give us some 
symbolization or expression in harmonious commen- 
surabilities of 'that which is astronomically far more 
important than a sphere's linear measure, and is already 
a term in their immortal equations, viz. the weight or 
mass of the earth as a whole ? 


Perhaps they did not think of it ; or if they did, 
perhaps they could not devise any means of accom- 
plishing it. Certainly they did not do it, nor has any 
one else amongst men done so, throughout all the 
historical period of science and the reign of the schools. 

Is it worth while, then, to examine the Great 
Pyramid of 4,040 years ago, to ascertain if a practical 
solution was made and enshrined there in a material 
or substance undoubtedly oere perennius, and older 
than Abraham, though only recently brought to the 
light of human life and thought ? 

Not altogether fair, perhaps, to expect it ; but some- 
how, from the unique and unprecedented character 
amongst human works which the whole of this gigantic 
mass of pure masonry of the Great Pyramid, unvitiated 
by any idolatrous design, is taking, on being submitted 
to the searching examination of the science learning of 
modem times, we have begun to look for high things 
from every part of it. At present, however, we have 
merely to inquire why, for any reason whatever, was, 
or may have been, that smooth-sided and rectangular 
granite box, the coffer, made of the particular size, 
exclusive of shape, which we now find it to be ? 

John Taylor on the Origin of the Coffer's Capacity Size. 

On opening Mr. Taylor's valuable work* with refer- 
ence to this question, we may see that he had — and 
quite characteristically of so invaluable ' an author — 
expected that his reader would require some explanation 
of this matter. But after perusal, I regret to say that 
what he has written on the subject, being on the 
furthest confines of his researches and discoveries into 
the Pyramid mystery, has not, for me at least, his 
usual powers of satisfying, if even he was content with 

♦ "The Great Pyramid," p. 195. 


it himself. He shows, for instance, tliat the cube-root 
of the contents of the coifer is equal, very nearly, to 
the length of a certain ancient Egyptian double cubit 
in wood, found accidentally some years since, on pulling 
down an old temple at Karnak ; thence called the cubit 
of Karnak ; and believed now to have been one of 
the veritable mason's measures by which the profane 
buildings of that day were measured and set out. 

Not, indeed, that Mr. Taylor would imply that that 
rod was either the original standard, or the Govern- 
ment copy thereof belonging to the Pharaoh of that day, 
or indeed any standard at all : or that a measure 
exactly equal to it was first used in, and therefore 
characteristically belonged to, the Pyramidically distant 
and most idolatrous city of Karnak. But without, so 
far as I can find, putting anything much more distinct 
than the above into its place, as the reason why the 
founders of the non-idolatrous Great Pyramid chose to 
make their coffer of its actual size in cubic contents, he 
goes off into a disquisition on its shape — an interesting 
disquisition also, but on a much less important question, 
if the subject really be one of a cajpacity standard 
and measure. 

That the coffer should be oblong-rectangular in place 
of siniply cubical, Mr. Taylor thinks a matter of sym- 
metry and convenience; expressly saying at page 197 
of his " Great Pyramid," — " But why, it may be asked, 
was not the coffer made at once in the shape of the 
cube of the Karnak cubit ? From its obvious unfit- 
ness, if it were of that shape and size, to serve as a 
model measure. The framers of the standard would 
naturally have regard to the portability and convenient 
use of the wooden capacity measures which were to be 
founded on that model ; and if men of the present day 
would prefer the shape of a (rectangular) trough to 
that of a cube of such inconvenient dimensions, we 



may give the founders of the Great Pyramid credit 
for so much common sense as would lead them to 
the same conclusion. To all the inhabitants of the 
East the }ioi hath was a familiar object, and in the 
appropriation of its form to the purpose of a corn 
ineasure, we see how it happened that this vessel 
received the name of caldarium, chaldron, or laver. It 
was that which it had possessed from the earliest times, 
long probably before its employment as a corn-measure 
had been thought of" 

Joseph Jopling on the same. 

Next after studying Mr. Taylor's account, I chanced 
to fall in with a recently published paper,* which pro- 
mised great things, and began most admirably thus : — 
'' In what is called the King's Chamber of the Great 
Pyramid of Egypt, there is a coffer of porphyry (granite 
really) commonly supposed to have been the sarcophagus 
of the royal builder. This coffer, however, does not 
resemble an ordinary sarcophagus, and its form presents 
numerous definite and peculiar proportions, so that it is 
impossible to conceive the structure to be accidental. 
Having found the proportions geometrically accurate, 
•the author of this paper believes that this coffer is 
a treasure- chest of science, and that its proportions 
deserve careful observation and study." 

Then followed a theory, based on " squares inscribed, 
or to be inscribed, in the circles of the human eye," as 
a nearly invariable natural reference of length in man, 
from childhood to old age (conveniently small for a 
popular unit, but very difiicult, and highly dangerous 
to the subject either to take off with the points of a 
pair of compasses, or to apply directly in practice) — 
and some very astonishing results were brought out, 

^ By Joseph Jopling, architect, in the Leisure JEc-.trf 1863. 


in the play of arithmetical numerations, by themselves. 
But on adopting the given size of the unit, and the 
number of them stated to exist in the length, breadth, 
and depth of the coffer according to the geometrical 
formula, and comparing them with actual coffer mea- 
sures — the results were far wider than most of those 
which we have already found it necessary to condemn, 
as not representing observations of the fact. Mr. 
Jopling's arithmetic is indeed one thing, and the 
coffer in the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid 
quite another. 

Hehekyan Bey and M. Dufeu on the same. 

After this, a more remarkable volume came up for 
study; a book printed privately in 1863, by " Hekekyan 
Bey, , C.E.,* of Constantinople, and formerly in the 
Egyptian service." It is entitled, on the " Chronology 
of the Siriadic Monuments," and contains a large plate 
of the sectional interior of the Great Pyramid (not very 
good), and an allusion to the coffer, under the name of 
" The Kings Stone, "f deposited by the Arions in the 
sanctuary of the first Pyramid, as a record of their 
standard m^etric system^ In so far as that the book 
shows an Eastern mind breaking through the tyrannical 
Western hypothesis of a burial sarcophagus and nothing 
else, it is well ; but the method of deducing a value for 
the profane Nile cubit out of certain arbitrary propor- 

* The author enjoys the following favourable introduction in Mr. 
F. Sopwith's " Notes on Egypt," 1857 : — " We next called on Hekekyan 
Bey, who occupies a spacious and handsome house in the same locality, 
near the north-west corner of the Place Esbekeeh. Hekekyan Bey spent 
some thirteen years in England in early life, and thus acquired a perfect 
knowledge of the language and institutions of the country. I greatly 
enjoyed his conversation, which embraced several subjects of national 
interest, and his general opinions and sentiments appeared to be those of 
an enlightened citizen of the world." 

t Early writers were particular in notifying that the coffer was cut out 
of a single block of stone ; but this present name is a more peculiar 
designation of it, and may indicate a tradition of its having something of 
a special hidden virtue, recalling the fabled "philosopher's sione." 

Chap. VHI.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 1 2 7 

tions of both the outside and inside measures of the said 
King's Stone, is clumsy in a scientific point of view ; 
overlaid with masonic mysteries ; and discloses no better 
knowledge of the real dimensions of the coffer, than 
those taken by Greaves 240 years ago : measures thus 
rejDroduced in Egypt without any of those necessary 
subsequent corrections for the length of their standard 
scale, or investigations of Greaves' large errors in the 
granite box's outside elements of size, which have led 
long since to grave discussions at home. The author, 
in fact, though living, and flourishing too, in a wealthy 
social position in Cairo, with the Great Pyramid in 
view from the top of his house, knew nothing of the 
coffer by personal measure ; his acquaintance with it 
was confined to the pages of an English book more 
than two centuries old ! 

In the course of the present year (1873) the ideas of 
Hekekyan Bey, in an extended shape, have been pub- 
lished to the world, as perfectly new to it, by M. Dufeu, 
member of the Egyptian Institute, and of the Society 
of Historical Studies in Paris. This work is distin- 
guished from its very title-page (where it speaks to 
'* the fonv Pyramids of Jeezeh ") by special ignorance of 
pyramid facts; and on page 231, where its author main- 
tains the hollow box of the coffer to be merely a form 
given to the cubit of the Nilometer, he makes me a 
partaker of Mr. Jopling's numbers, though I have 
always eschewed them; quotes Professor Greaves as 
though he were a very modern authority ; and finally 
pretends to give a set of measures of his own. Pre- 
tends, I say advisedly, for when he puts down every 
element of the coffer's size to the ten-thousandth of an 
inch, he cannot be excused either for making several 
errors amounting to one and two whole inches ; * or, 

* See Quarterly Journal of Science for October, 1873, pages 511 to 


mucli worse, for having failed to discover ruling and 
original features of the vessel itself, of more importance 
t han many inches, as will presently appear. 

Tlfie Freemasons on the same. 

Freemasonry also, notwithstanding its boastings of 
secret wisdom fit to scale the skies, seems to lead no 
nearer to a knowledge of the metrological objects and 
ideas of the coffer, than anything connected with the 
idolatrous religion of the ancient Egyptians ; and to 
all that side of the world, there has ever been an 
impenetrable darkness touching the real nature of the 
ultimate purposes aimed at by the symbolical, and we 
may almost say, professionally scientific, design of the 
Great Pyramid. 

Wrote a Grand Secretary of the Freemasons to me, 
from Cornwall, after my return from Egypt in 1865, 
'' I am going to publish a book of our masons' marks, 
of all ages and countries ; and as we hear that you 
have been taking some wonderful photographs of the 
King's Chamber in the Great Pyramid by the mag- 
nesium light, I write to know if any of these marks 
appeared upon either the walls or the coffer?" 

" Don't you know whether there are, or are not, any 
there?" I ought to have asked, in the interest of all 
the world outside the Lodges ; but in over-haste to give 
satisfaction to my correspondent, if possible, I merely 
inquired, — "What are Freemasons' marks?" 

He sent a number of them in a letter, adding that 
they were unfailing proofs, wherever they were found, 
of the ancient presence of the thrice-mysterious craft ; 
and that Mr. Layard, having had his attention once duly 
awakened to them, found them most numerously in the 
Assyrian buildings excavated by him in Mesopotamia. 

But I could only reply, that neither microscopic 

Chap, vm.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 129 

examination of the glass photographs, nor eye-examina- 
tion of the walls of the King's Chamber at the Great 
Pyramid, would show one of those particular marks. 
The Freemasons had in so far, on their own showing-, 
had no hand in raising that sacred and pure building, 
whatever they had been doing in subsequent ages for 
idolatrous Assyrian kings and their fish-gods or any 

Yet the photographs showed other marks on the 
walls of the chamber clearly enough ; and amongst these 
there was one group in particular that would appear most 
conspicuously in every view of the coffer. The walls of 
the King's Chamber which formed the background of 
each coffer picture, being not only dark, and red, but 
also far from the magnesium illuminating light, were 
generally almost absolute black in the photographs ; 
yet letters cut on these walls by hammer and chisel 
developed whitish lines of abraded and powdered crystals, 
which caught enough magnesium light to make them- 
selves visible in the photographs and appear even 
luminous ; and then too, they were seen mysteriously 
floating in space beyond the coffer, when viewed in the 
stereoscope. It was just the sort of effect that Free- 
masons might perhaps have coveted for the glorifica- 
tion of their marks, but it was all expended, in the 
principal instance here, on the mere ordinary Saxon 
letters, J. W., the initials of some recent visitor. 

So there was a valuable fact ascertained by negation. 
There are no Freemasons' marks in the very part of the 
Great Pyramid where they might have been most 
expected, had wandering mysticists been allowed any 
hand in the work ; while, even if the trifling little marks 
sent me by the Grand Secretary had been found there, 
who could have guaranteed that they were not put in 
long after the building of the monument, like those 
letters J. W. ; by some cousins of that genius, or by 



J. W. himself, or perhaps by a certain vulgar Russian- 
German, near the beginning of the present century, 
whose name I will not repeat, because he painted the 
jaw-cracking word on those exquisite walls of polished 
granite, in letters a foot high, with a tar-brush ! 

Had the secrets, therefore, of the Great Pyramid been 
inscribed in mere, little, cut-in writing on those chamber 
walls by their ancient architect, — as inscription anti- 
quaries so often lament was not done in the orthodox 
Greek and Roman fashion, — who would be able un- 
doubtedly to distinguish the ages of each inscription : 
and, if the original inscription had not been perhaps in 
subsequent ages altogether expunged, prove that it was 
the original one ; that it was coeval with the building ; 
and that it must be accepted eventually by all mankind, 
even though its message entails consequences subverting 
most of the critical philosophy, or philosophical and 
historical criticism, of modern times? 

The Ledge Anomaly of the Coffer, 

The Pyramidist scholar, however, most fortunately, is 
not called on to pin any faith on fleeting inscriptions ; 
trifling little things which many a man. in any age may 
cut in, and many a man in any age may remove or per- 
vert, though none of them should be able either to build 
up, or to throw down and carry away the Great Pyramid. 
But when the same Pyramidist scholar advances from 
grandest facts of masonry (mechanical, and of the 
Pyramid, not the " Free " falsely so called) to this coffer 
of the King's Chamber, a loose, almost portable vessel, 
and necessarily small, some startling difficulties are 
met with. And yet eventually he may find, thart; well 
measured facts joined to advanced theoretical science 
will enable him to prove satisfactorily to himself, in 
spite of all obstacles, for what purpose the ancient 
architect made that vessel, and for what he did not. 


How astounded, for instance, was not I, on first 
visiting the coffer in January, 1865, to find that, 
though sure enough, that remarkable vessel was still in 
the King's Chamber — that no art thieves (whether Earls 
of Belmore or plebeian Belzonis) had carried it off to 
sell to a distant museum — yet there was actually a 
ledge for a lid, cut out of, or into, the substance of the 
top of the sides, of what had been styled proverbially 
for ages the " lidless box, or open chest, of stone." 

Compared with this discovery, it was nothing that the 
vessel was chipped and chipped again on every possible 
edge ; that the south-eastern corner was broken away by 
fresh hammer fractures to an extent of eight or ten inches 
ffiore than it was in the days of Colonel Howard- Vyse. 
But that ledge cut out, when was that introduced ? 

In the first edition of this book, in 1864, I had 
ventured to publish a plate of the coffer ; and strove, in 
mere lithography, to make it look as neat, trim, and 
symmetrical a long and, both originally and intention- 
ally a lidless, box as it is represented in the first-class 
line engravings on copper of the great French work on 
Egypt which I copied ; and no critic or reviewer 
breathed a suspicion of there being any error ilien. 
But as soon as I had gone a pilgrim to the Great Pyra- 
mid, I myself was the first to discover the consequences 
of having once put full trust in the French Academy ! 
I had told the world in 1864, on the credit of that 
immortal Institute, that the coffer had no ledge for a 
lid ; but in 1867, I not only, as in duty bound, untold 
that, upon my own observations at the place, but left no 
sort of doubt by descriptions, measurements, drawings, 
and photographs, that there was a ledge, and of such 
and such a shape and size. And when I further found 
that it had been marked on a small scale in Perring's 
views of the Pyramids published in 1840, I announced 
that also, — and ilnzn were the critics stern and unfor- 


giving upon me for what they called "■ my " erroneous 
figure of 1864 ; while they said not a word touching 
the grander plate from which that figure was copied 
with all acknowledgment, or their own ignorance until 
instructed by my second publication. 

Yet it would form a very pretty piece of literary 
disputation, to argue out the date of that ledge on the 
coffer, from the earliest datum afforded by high modern 
scientific authority ; for that is the Egypto-French Aca- 
demy, of 1799, which represents no ledge as then exist- 
ing : or again, to try to arrive at a numerical expression 
of the limits of respect due to any dictum of the French 
Academy in future, from the degree of divergence 
between what they published as their own testimony 
touching the appearance of the coffer at the beginning 
of this century, and what we may assure ourselves it 
must really have been then, from what we find it to be 

The French observed Depth and Height Anomaly also, 
in the Coffer. 

A thoroughgoing essayist would likewise append to 
the above subject a collateral glance at M. Jomard and his 
brother Academicians in Egypt, for having further made 
both the inside depth and outside height of the coffer 
some three inches too great ; although generally pro- 
fessing to measure, and sometimes succeeding, to an 
accuracy of a hundredth of an inch. 

The testing of this " French depth " matter was one 
of the first coffer measurings that I made, on seeing the 
vessel in 1 8 6 5 ; and the rude answer came out instantly, in 
whatever way the question was tried, " French Academy's 
measures of height and depth 3 inches too great ;" 
and when, after some weeks' further acquaintance with 
the coffer, I took magnesium light and photographic 

Chap.VIIL] the great pyramid. 1-33 

apparatus into the darkness of the King's Chamber, my 
measuring-rods (specially prepared for the purpose at the 
advice of Mr. Joseph Sidebotham, of Manchester), were 
photographed standing side by side with the coffer, and 
showed some 3 inches less of height and depth than 
the once supposed unquestionable measurement of the 
savants of France, then the intellectual ruler of nations. 

But might possibly the tops of the sides of the coffer 
have been in a different state in 1799 to what they 
are at present ? Could they have been then three 
inches higher than their highest part is now ? and 
could some one since then have feloniously cut off three 
inches from the top of the coffer all round, and have 
cut in the ledge for a lid at the same time ? 

Perring's views show that the action must have taken 
place, if at all, before 1837 ; and from 1799 to 1837 
was not prolific in clever granite cutters anywhere, 
least of all too in Egypt ; and even if such men could 
have managed it outside the Pyramid with the- ad- 
vantage there of plenty of time, air, space, and motion, 
could they have accomplished it inside the King's 
Chamber in darkness, heat, want of fresh air, and the 
banditti-like surveillance of an irrepressible rabble of 
free and independent Pyramid Arabs ? . 

Besides that, too, the limits of those 3 inches, or 2, 
or 4, open up a differential impossibility in the Pyramid 
itself. The doorway of the King's Chamber, 100 inches 
thick in solid, polished, unyielding granite (ceiling, floor, 
and walls), is only 42 inches high, and 41*3 broad. 
The coffer, therefore, of its present height, and without 
any lid whatever on the top of it, being in that lidless 
state 41*27 inches high, can only just pass through, 
with the fraction of an inch to spare. But if it were of 
M. Jomard's, and the Academy's, and French Govern- 
ment's published height, ^ — viz., 4477 inches, — just 
fancy ! Why, even if they were all to clap on together, 


on one and the same hawser, they could never pull the 
grand old rigid monolithic granite coffer through a 
solid granite doorway two and three-quarters inches less 
in height I 

Confession of Error in the First Edition of this BooJc, 
and attempt to amend it. 

But leaving the origin of such mistakes, and the dis- 
inclination in public bodies to confess them afterwards, 
— to those so quaintly called by our early savants " the 
curious," I will write down with all penitence that there 
was serious coffer-error in my first edition of " Our In- 
heritance;" and will endeavour to make up to all whom I 
then unwittingly misled upon literary information alone, 
by setting before my readers here what size, shape, and 
condition I found the coffer in, in 1865, and how the 
inquiry was conducted. The following is, therefore, an 
extract from my book, " Life and Work at the Great 
Pyramid," published in 1867, and now revised, in order 
to introduce some later observations and corrections, 
by Dr. Grant, and Mr. Waynman Dixon, C.E. 


March 20—23, 25, 1865. 

This vessel, tlie sole contents of the King's Chamber, and termed, 
according to various writers, stone box, granite chest, lidless vessel, 
porphyry vase, black marble sarcophagus, and coffer, — is composed, as to 
its material, of a darkish variety of red, and possibly syenitic, granite. 
And there is no difficulty in seeing this ; for although the ancient 
polished sides have long since acquired a deep chocolate hue, there are 
fiuch numerous chips effected on all the edges in recent years, that the 
component crystals, quartz, mica, and felspar, may be seen even brilliantly. 

The vessel is chipped around, or along, every line and edge of bottom, 
sides, and top ; and at its south-east corner, the extra accumulation of 
chippings extends to a breaking away of nearly half its height from the 
top downwards. It is, moreover, tilted up at its south end, by a black 
jasper pebble, about 1*5 inch high (such pebbles are found abundantly 
on the desert hills outside and west of the Great Pyramid), recently 
pushed in underneath the south-west comer. The vessel is therefore in 
a state of strain, aggravated by the depth to which the vertical sides have 


been broken down as above; and great care must be taken in outside 
measures, not to be misled by the space between some parts of the 
bottom and the floor. 

As for the under surface of the bottom (speculated on by some persons 
as containing a long inscription), I felt it, near the south end, with my 
hand ; and tried to look under it also, when a piece of magnesium wire was 
burning there, — without being sensible of any approach to hieroglyphics 
or engraving. But as to the inside, or upper surface of the bottom, and 
also the vertical sides of the vessel, both inside and out, — all the ancient 
surfaces there, are plainly enough polished smooth, and are without any 
carving, inscription, design, or any intentional line or lines ; they are 
also, all of them, simple, plain, and flat (sensibly to common observation) ; 
excepting only the top margin, which is cut into in a manner implying 
that a sarcophagus lid once fitted on, sliding into its place from the west, 
and fixable by three steady pins, entering from the lid into holes on that 

The west side of the cofier is therefore lowered all over its top surface, 
except at the north and south ends, by the amount of depth of such ledge 
cut-out, or 1"72 inch; and the other, or east, north, and south sides are, 
or should be, lowered to the same depth on their inner edges , and to a dis- 
tance from inside to out, of 1*63 inch. But the fulness of this arrangement 
cannot be seen now, because in some places, both ledge and top of sides 
are broken away together ; and in others, though much of the inner 
base line of the ledge remains, — thanks to its protected position, — the 
upper and true surface of the cofler's side has all been chipped away. 
In fact, it is only over a short length near the north-east corner of the 
cofier, that the chippers have left any portion of its original top edge. 
And a cast of that corner recently taken by Mr. Waynman Dixon, 
shows, as compared with my photograph (and also with the frontispiece 
to Vol. I. of my " Life and Work"), that a further portion of the side's 
top-surface, indeed an awfully large conchoidal-shaped slice, has disap- 
peared since 1865. 

The whole question, therefore, of the full depth of the coffer, rests on 
one very small portion of the north-east wall, so to speak, of the coffer ; 
a portion too which becomes smaller and smaller every year that we live. 

Only at that north-east comer too, is there an opportunity of measuring 
the vertical depth between the ancient top surface of a side, and the 
bottom surface of the ledge ; and it was, by repeated measure, found by 
me = from 1"68 to 1*70 and 1-76 ; say mean = 1*72 inch. 

The sides of the ledge depression appeared to me to have been 
vertical, or without any dovetailing : and the horizontal base breadth of 
such cut-out, — measuring from within, to, or towards, the "without" of 
the coffer, — and restoring the sides to their original completeness before 
the chipping away of the edges, — is, — 

On and 

near Western portion of Northern side . = 1*65 


Middle „ „ . = 1-62 


Eastern „ „ . = 1-73 


Northern part of Eastern side . = 1-55 


Southern „ „ . all broken. 


Eastern and Western parts of Southern 

side all broken. 

Mean = 1*63 in. 



[Part II. 

But this appearance of the coffer's ledge having been rectangular^ has 
been, since my visit, successfully shown by Dr. Grant and Mr. W. 
Dixon to be a mistake. For although everywhere else all the over- 
hangings of an acute ledge have been broken away to beyond the 
vertical, yet there is a small part left near the north-east corner, which 
speaks unmistakably to an acute-angled shape : not so acute as that of 
the sarcophagus of the Second Pyramid, but decidedly and intentionally 
on the acute side of rectangular. 

Along the western side are three fixing-pin holes, 1-2 deep, and 0*84 in 
diameter, save where they are broken larger, as is chiefly the case with 
the middle and southern one. The three holes have their centres at the 
following distances from the north end j viz., 16-0, 45*3, and 75*1 

It is inconceivable how the French Academicians could have pictured 
the cofier, as they did, without representing anything of this ledge cut 
out ; unless they looked upon it as a comparatively modem attempt to 
convert the original pure coffer into a sarcophagus, and which they were 
therefore boimd to overlook. 

OUTSIDE OF coffer: its figure. 

The planes forming the four external vertical sides of the coffer, which 
have never yet been questioned by any other measurer, appeared to me to 
be far from true ; excepting the east one, whose errors are under 0*02, 
or perhaps O'Ol ; while the north, west, and south sides are so decidedly 
concave as to have central depressions of 0'3 and 0'5 inches; or more 
particularly — 

At North side, central hollow or depression of coffer's 
side (measured from a horizontal straight-edge 
touching the side at either end, and in a horizontal 
plane), or the quantity of central depression^ near 
bottom = 0*45 

Central (?^i?r^6«ow near middle of height . . = 0-20 
„ top = 0-12 


At West side, central depression^ near bottom 
„ „ „ middle 

» n n top 


At South side, central depression^ near bottom 
„ „ „ middle 

» j> » top . 

Mean .. 

= 0-26 in. 

= 0-35 

= 015 

= 010 

= 0-20 in. 

t= 0-28 

= 0-18 

= 0-10 

= 0-19 in. 

Again, when the straight-edge is applied vertically to the sides,— east 
Bide comes out true, but the others concave- 
On North side, the maxima of such vertical depression 
or c^' ...... . = 0-20 and 0-28 

On West side, d\ at South end . . . . = O'OO 

„ d\ at North end . . . . = 0*20 

And on South side, d'y at different distances from East 

to West = 0-08, 0-12, and 0'04 in. 




The comers and edges of the coffer are so much chipped, that the steel 
claws I had had prepared for the sliding-rods to adapt them from inside 
to outside measures, were found not long enough to span these modern 
fractures and reach the original polished surfaces. A method was therefore 
adopted, of making up the sides of the coffer with straight-edges projecting 
beyond it at either end; and then measuring between such straight-edges 


On East side, near bottom 

„ 10 inches under top 

„ above top 
On "West side, near bottom . 

„ above top 

„ near top 

Mean length 




i. 90-5 




• • 


The above mean, however, represents only the mean length of the edges 
of the two sides, not of the whole coffer, on account of the concavity of 
the two external ends ; wherefore, if we desire to state the mean length, 
for the mean of each end surface, we must subtract two-thirds of the 
mean central concavity, as previously determined; i.e. =0-17 for the 
north end, and similarly 0-13 for the south end ; wherefore, then, the mean 
length for mean of each end of coffer — 89*71 British inches. 

= 89*62 Pyramid inches. 

N.B. — An anomaly in the West side, near the bottom. 


At North end, near bottom . 

„ near top 

„ over top 
At South end, near bottom . 

„ near top 

„ over top 

Mean . 
Correction for curvature of 
West side . 

Mean breadth of mean sides 
Concluded breadth 






















= 38e 
= 38*6 

)6 Bn 

tish in 




[Part II. 


Height of coffer outside, eliminating the stone under bottom, and the 
sarcophagus ledge of 1-72 ; i.e. measuring from coffer-bottom to 
extreme ancient top of sides, is — 

At North end, eastern part of it = 
Same repeated . . . r= 

At North end, north-eastern part 

of it 

At other parts no top left. 


=. 41-22 

Mean height = 

Correction in capacity computations 
for a supposed hollow curvature of 
under side of bottom ; agreeably 
with three, out of the four, upright 
sides ; and also agreeably with the 
construction of the under sides of 
the casing-stones, which rest on 
their circumferences, on account of 
a slight hollowing away of their 
central areas ; say 

41-27 British inches. 
41-23 Pyramid inches. 




41-17 British inches. 
41-13 Pyramid inches. 


For this purpose two vertical straight-edges higher than the sides were 
placed opposite each other, in contact with the inside and outside surfaces 
of any flank of the coffer, and the distance across was measured over the top 
edge of the coffer ; finding at successive parts of the coffer circumference, 
bearing from centre — 

South-south-west thickness 






South-south-east „ 



East-south-east „ 



East „ 



East-north-east „ 



North-north-east „ 



North „ 



North-north-west „ 



"West-north-west „ 



West „ 



West-south-west „ 



Mean thickness of vertical sides = 5 -99 B. in. 

Chap. VIII.] 



The above measures were repeated on March. 28th, and proved sensibly 
true for this method of measurement over the top edge of the coffer ; but 
if calipered lower down, it is probable that a different thickness would 
have been found there. 


By difference of heights of two straight-edges of equal length, applied, 
one inside and one outside, — the outside one being further propped up 
where required by a third straight-edge, inserted under the bottom, — there 
was found — 


»r South-west comer, thickness 


torn . 



East side „ 



East-north-east „ 




East-north-east again ,, 



North end „ 




North-north-west „ 



North-north-east „ 




West-north-west „ 

— ^ 






South-south-west „ 



Mean thickness of bottom around the edges (the thick- 
ness of bottom in the centre cannot at present be 
satisfactorily or easily measured) . . . = 6-92 B. in. 


The inside surfaces of the coffer seem very true and flat over the greater 
part of their extent ; but betray, on examination by straight-edges, a 
slight convergence at the bottom, towards the centre. 


(Correction ■\- 0-13 added to all the readings for length of this SUder.) 

Distance between East and 

West sides of the North and 

South ends. 

Level at which observations were taken. 


inches under 








Close to Eastern side . | 

At ^d breadth from East 
Halfway between E. & W. 
At Ids breadth from East 
Close to West side . 

Mean at each level 

Broken at j 
S.-E. comer, j 
















Mean of the whole, ( 
length of coffer 

)r the inside 1 — 77*93 British inches. 
. j = 77-85 Pyramid inches. 



[Part II. 


(By Slider 25, not requiring any correction.) 

Distance between North 

and South end, along the 

East and West sides. 

Level at which observations were taken. 



6 to 7 




0-6 re- 

Close to North end 
At ^d length from N. end 
Near middle of length . 
Atf ds length from N. end 
Close to South end 

Mean at each level 











Mean of the who] 
breadth of coffe 

e, or the inside \ = 
r . . . j = 

= 26-73 British inches. 
= 26-70 Pyramid inches. 


The measure of this element is taken from the inside bottom of the 
coffer, — which is apparently smooth and flat, — up in the shortest line to 
the level of the original top-surface of the north, the east, and the south 
sides ; and of the west side also, presumably, before it was cut down to the 
level of the ledge which runs round the inner edges of the north, east, and 
south sides, and all across the west side's top. 

Now, the depth of that ledge was before ascertained = 1-72 inches 
below the original top ; a block of wood was therefore prepared of that 
thickness, and placed on the west side, and also on the base-surface of 
the ledge wherever found on the other sides, to support one end of a 
straight-edge, whose other end rested on some part or parts of the 
original top of the coffer's sides, which are still visible at and about the 
north-east corner. 


(By Slider 25, not requiring any correction.) 

Part of Length where observations 
were taken. 

Part of breadth where observations 
were taken. 





Mean at 
each part 
of length. 

0-6 south of inner N. end . 

3-0 south of inner N. end . 

5-0 do. do. . 
10-0 do. do. . 
24-0 do. do. . 

Mean at each part of breadth 









General mean, or the insid 
of coffer . 

B depth\ = 34-34 British inches. 
.j = 34-31 Pyramid inches. 




Diagonals inside the north end ; from either low corner at bottom, up 
to a measured height of 30'0 inches, i.e. the greatest height quite free 
from fractures ; then — 

From low North-east to 30- high North-west = 39-71 British inches, 
and from low North- west to 30" high North-east = 39*70 „ 

Diagonals inside west side ; from either comer below, up to a height 
of 30 inches measured at the sides — 

or from low South-west to 30* high North-west = 83*19 British inches, 
and from low North-west to 30- high South-west = 83-13 „ 


From low South-west to 30* high North-east = 87*13 British inches, 
„ South-east „ North-west = 87*05 „ 

„ North-east „ South-west = 87*06 „ 

„ North-west „ South-east ) _ oh.yx 

temporarily supplied \ ~ " 

These cubical diagonals give sensibly less than the diagonals computed 
from the lengths and breadths ; on account, apparently, of the extreme 
points of the corners of the bottom not being perfectly worked out to the 
exact intersections of the general planes of the entire sides. But they 
seem abundantly sufficient to prove general rectangularity of figure, in 
all the main part of the coffer's interior. 

Tine, Sarcophagus Theory of the Coffer. 

With all this additional information, then, touching 
the actual size of the coffer, let us take up once. again 
that vexed question of " why of that size ?" and on our 
so doing we must, of course, let the Egyptian sarco- 
phagus theory be heard over again, especially when it 
has something to say touching shape as well as size. 

The inside dimensions of the coffer being by our 
ovm measures (roughly) 6*5 feet long, 2-2 feet wide, 
and almost 3 feet deep, are at least long enough and 
broad enough for a coffin ; and if rather deeper than 
convenient or necessary, I will not object to that, as 
there is now proved to be a ledge cut into the top of 
the vessel, and quite suitable for a lid. • 


As there is a ledge, an intention to put on a lid 
may or must be inferred ; but it is still to be proved 
wbetber a lid ever was put on, especially for sarcophagus 
purposes ; because, first, with a sarcophagus lid of the 
ordinary style and thickness fastened into that ledge, 
the coffer could not have passed through the closely- 
fitting doorway of the room; it would have been several 
inches too high. Second, a sarcophagus lid fastened 
into that ledge would have betokened the accomplish- 
ment of the last rites to the dead; and they would have 
included among all Eastern nations, but more especially 
the profane Egyptians, the engraving the deceased's 
name, titles, deeds, and history on the coffer, both in- 
side and out ; but there is nothing of the kind there ; 
so the coffer remains still the smooth-sided, vacant, lid- 
less chest of old Al Mamoun Arab tale ; quite capable of 
having been made at any time into a sarcophagus ; but 
never so made or converted, whatever may have been 
the reason why or wherefore. 

Considering, however, the coffer's approximate shape, 
size, and situation, I am quite ready to allow it to be 
"a blind sarcophagus;" viz., a deceiving blind to the 
eyes of the profane Egyptian workmen, as well as a 
symbol sarcophagus to others, reminding them of death, 
judgment, and eternity (as well taught by William 
Simpson, artist) ; but without thereby interfering one 
iota with its further more exact objects and intentions. 

And what are they ? 

Only look at some of them, as the vessel tells them 
off itself in number and measure, and see features 
thereby which cannot be accidental ; features which 
have never been heard of in any other, or mere, sar- 
cophagus ; and which no Egyptologist, not even Lepsius 
himself, has ever made himself famous by publishing, 
as his "■ law of Egyptian sarcophagus construction." 

Taking the coffer measures, for instance, as of the 


whole vessel before the ledge was cut out, from the 
previous pages in pyramid inches ; then — 

Length. Breadth. Depth. Volume. 
Coffer interior = 77-85 X 2670 x 34-31 = 71,317* 
Coffer exterior = 89-62 x 38-61 x 41-13 = 142,316' 

that is, within the limits of accuracy of the modern 
measures, the volume of the exterior is double that of 
the interior ; and the simplest even relation between 
them is that of capacity. 

Again, the mean thickness of the sides of the coffer 
being assumed in pyramid inches 5*952, and of the 
bottom 6 "8 6 6, we have (from a formula first prepared 
by the ingenious Mr. Henry Perigal) — 

Coffer's bottom = 89-62 x 38-61 X 6-866 = 23,758- 

Coffer's sides = 2 (89-62 X 26-70) X 34-31 X 5952 = 47,508- 


or again, we find a duplicity of the one quantity against 
the other; and the only apparent simple relation between 
the two, and of the sum of both, with the interior of 
the vessel, is that of capacity. 

If now then, we may justifiably say, that though the 
coffer is probably what John Taylor did not think it, 
viz. a blind sarcophagus and a symbolical coffin, it is 
also most positively what he did consider it (though by 
means of mensuration proof which he never lived to 
see) — viz. a vessel at whose birth the requirements both 
of, and for, capacity measure presided and governed : 
— then in that case, what is its capacity? 

What shall we consider the Capacity of the Coffer 
proved to he ? 

Now, for the coffer's length and breadth elements ; 
we can quote plenty of measures, but depth is a weak 
point ; because, as already explained, every particle of 


the original top of the sides is cut or broken away, except 
some little patches near the north-east corner. Those 
were in place in 1865, but who will guarantee that they 
are there still, when men will hammer that exquisite 
gift inherited from primeval time, merely in the ignorant 
notion of sending their friends at home a chip of 
" Cheops' coffin " ! When the last of these small pieces 
of the ancient top, which I mapped so carefully in " Life 
and Work," has disappeared (and Mr. Waynman Dixon's 
cast shows that some of them are already gone), then 
comes the deluge among future coffer measures ; a 
veritable chaos of uncertainty as to depth, in the midst 
of which French academicians might put on their three 
additional inches again, and upset all the geometrical 
doublings and equalities which have just been obtained 
by means of our having still a trace of the true height. 
But at this point of the discussion there comes in a 
strange use of the ledge cut out, though it has hitherto 
been thought of only for a lid and nothing else. 

No lid has ever been seen by any historical indi- 
vidual, but every man of the present age may test the 
truth of the following mechanical adaptation ; viz., the. 
ledge, though acute-angled, is cut out of such a base- 
breadth and depth that a frame made to fit it flush with 
the ancient top of the sides would, when let down in 
vertical plane, and diagonally inside the coffer, just 
form the diagonal of said coffer's interior, and the frame's 
height at that moment would exactly measure the 
coffer's depth. Hence the breadth of the ledge, con- 
tinued across the coffer from west to east, would, 
continue to give us an outstanding test of the coffer's 
original depth, long after young cadets going out to 
India, and comfortable shopkeepers, on a " spree " from 
Cairo, shall have knocked away every particle of the 
original top of the sides. 

In this case also, of course — just as it usually is in 

Chap.VIII.] the great pyramid. 145 

all matters of so-called exact measuring — no two human 
measures ever agree exactly ; and all that finite man 
can hope for is, to come within moderately close limits. 
So then must it be with the coffer's cubic contents'. 

Taking the ledge breadth (from my '* Antiquity of 
Intellectual Man," p. 300) as 34 '282 Pyramid inches, 
then the coffer's cubic contents in cubic Pyramid 
inches : — 

(1) By interior length and breadth, and by depth from ledge- 

breadth = 71,258- 

(2) By interior of coffer, by all direct measures . . . = 71,317* 

(3) By half the exterior volume directly measured . . .. = 71,160* 

(4) By sum of bottom and sides directly measured . . . = 71,266* 

Here then we have a vessel whose cubic contents are 
not only something excessively near to 71,250* cubic 
Pyramid inches, but it was pretty evidently intended to 
be both of that quantity within some minute fraction, 
and to carry a check and a witness thereto down through 
all fair accidents, through all ages, to distant time. While 
that precise quantity, and the care for that quantity, 
are so impossible for the Egyptologists to explain on 
any sarcophagus theory of their own, pure and simple — 
for it has never been suggested b}^ any one a 'priori, and 
is not found in any other sarcophagus from one end of 
Egypt to the other — that we must now strive to ascertain, 
on methods new to Eg}^ptolog}', what the Great Pyramid 
itself may hava to add to this, its own preliminary 
setting forth of " a symbolical sarcophagus, adapted to 
something further and higher connected with capacity 




THOUGH there be no inscriptions, yet is there much 
teaching on the interior walls of the Great 
Pyramid ; and as the coffer, when taken merely by 
itself, has proved thus far, too hard a riddle for full 
interpretation, let us try the teaching of the walls which 
precede, as well as those which surround it. 

Ante-chamber Symbolisms. 

In order to enter the Great Pyramid's so-called 
King's Chamber, we have to pass through the " ante- 
chamber," very appropriately so called, because it is a 
little room which must be passed through before the 
King's Chamber can be entered or the coffer seen ; and 
in passing through it the attentive eye may note many 
more complicated forms there, than in* any other part 
of the Great Pyramid. Amongst these notanda are 
certain vertical lines above the southern or further 

Previous travellers have contradicted each other so 
abundantly about the number of these lines, that I was 
rather surprised to perceive them instantly to be not only * 
confined to the number four, but these distinct, regular, 
parallel, extending the whole way evenly from door-top 
to ceiling, and no less than 2*8 inches deep and 3 '8 


inches broad each, with six-inch spaces between, and with 
similar six-inch spaces also between the outer side of 
each outermost line, and the bounding of the ante- 
room wall on that side. 

Hence the lines were subservient to the spaces, an<? 
the whole arrangement appeared to me, not so much a 
system of four lines, as an example of surface divided 
vuXjO jive portions or spaces. 

As the doorway is only 42 inches high, and the 
dividing lines are drawn down to its (now broken) top, a 
man of ordinary height standing in the ante-room and 
looking southward (the direction he desires to go in 
order to reach the King's Chamber), cannot fail to see 
this space divided into five. And when he bows his 
head low, as he must do to pass under the southern 
doorway of 42 inches, he bends his head submissively 
under that symbol of division into five, and should re- 
member that five is the first and most characteristic of 
the Pyramid numbers. (See Plate X.) 

Travellers describe the Wall-courses of the King's 

Not for nothing, therefore, was it, as the intelligent 
traveller may readily believe, that the architect of the 
Great Pyramid desired to impress that division into 5 
upon his, the traveller s, mind, just the last thing before 
he should bow down previous to passing through the 
low, solid, doorway, 100 inches thick and 42 high ; and 
after that, rising up in the midst of the King's Chamber 
beyond, and seeing — what should he see ? 

According to that usually most correct of travellers, 
Professor Greaves, he says of the King's Chamber that 
every one may see there " from the top of it descending 
to the bottom, there are but six ranges of stone, all 
which, being respectively sized to an equal height, very 


gracefully in one and tlie same altitude run round the 

Well, tliat is not tlie accomplishment of a division 
into five, so let us try an older traveller, Sandys, in 
1610. Says he, "A right royal apartment, and so 
large that eight floors it, eight roofs it ; eight stones 
flagge the ends and sixteen the sides." Worse and 

Says Dr. Pocock in 1743, "Six tiers of stones of 
equal breadth compose the sides ; " which M. Fourmont, 
on the part of Bourbon France, confirms in 1755 by 
laying down that " the walls are composed of six equal 
ranges." The still more famous traveller, Dr. Clarke, 
makes Cambridge in 1801 support Oxford in 1639, 
by particularising that " there are only six ranges of 
stone from the floor to the roof ; " while, finally, that 
usually infallible author on Egypt, Mr. Lane, with his 
relatives the Pooles, seem to set a seal for ever on the 
mistake by declaring, " Number of courses in the walls 
of the King's Chamber, six." 

What could have blinded all these men, and sent 
them following each other helpless down one and the 
same too easy rut of simple, ridiculous, error ? Dr. 
Richardson, in 1817, was more original, if error appa- 
rently there must be ; for he chose a new and hitherto 
untrod line of it for himself, sententiously writing of 
the room, " Lined all round with broad flat stones, 
smooth and highly polished, each stone ascending from 
the floor to the ceiling." But having once begun this 
new misdescription, he soon has followers ; and we find 
Lord Lindsay, in 1838, writing, " A noble apartment, 
cased with enormous slabs of granite 20 feet high " (or 
more than the whole height of the room) ; and Sir 
William R. Wilde and M. R. I. A., in 1837, equally 
write down, as observed by themselves, "An oblong 
apartment, the sides of which are formed of enormous 


blocks of granite reaching from the floor to the 

And yet, will it be credited, even by little children, 
that the walls of this chamber are divided into five hori- 
zontal courses, neither more nor less, almost four feet high 
each ; and that these courses are most easy to count, as 
they must have been undoubtedly most expensive for the 
architect to construct, because each course runs round and 
round the room at one and the same height in granite 
blocks 47 inches high, difficult to get in large numbers 
so massive and uniform in any quarry ; and every course 
is the same height as every other, except the lowest, 
which is less than the others by nearly 1-1 0th part, if 
measured from the floor, but is the same height if 
measured from the base of its own granite component 
blocks, which descend in the wall to beneath the. floor's 
level* (See Plate XL) 

The Pyramid Number of Wall-courses, and of Stones 
in them. 

Neither was I the first person to find out that the 
courses in the walls of the King's Chamber were five 
only, for the same thing had been noted by Lord Egmont 
in 1709, and Dr. Shaw in 1721, and perhaps by some 
others earlier or later ; but no one previously to myself 
had, so far as I am aware, either fought against odds 
for the correctness of his observation, or connected the 
number with both the teaching of the architect in the 
jtnte-chamber, and the quinary character of the Pyramid's 
first arithmetic. 

Yet, quinary though it be for some purposes, it is 

* Full particulars of my measures of this room in whole and part, and 
parts compared against whole, are contained in my " Life and Work at 
the Great Pyramid," vol. ii. ; but are too long to introduce here. I have 
given there also the immediately succeeding measures of a young 
engineer, sent, I suspect, by a rich man, to trip me up if he could, but 
confirming my measures both of number und size of courses and room. 


decimal for others, as shown here in almost juxta- 
position ; first, by the tenth part, nearly, taken off the 
height of the lower course, by the manner of intro- 
duction of the floor ; and then by the 10x10 number 
of stones, exactly, of which the walls of this beautiful 
chamber are apparently composed. This latter circum- 
stance was only recently announced, though on my 
publication of 1867, by Mr. Flinders Petrie ; and does 
him all the more credit because, when I came to test 
the statement, there was one joint line, by mistake, too 
many in the middle course of the south wall in my 
engraved plate of the chamber, though the printed 
numbers were correct. Yet as the upper courses, though 
given by me, are on Mr. Inglis' observations alone — they 
should certainl}^ be repeated, now that an unexpected 
importance has attached to them. 

The King 8 Chamber and the Coffer are mutually Com- 
TYiensurahle in Pyramid Numbers. 

Bit the tenth part, nearly, taken off the visible height 
of the lower granite course of the walls ; w^hat was that 
for ? Its first effect was to make that course, within the 
fraction of an inch, the same height as the coffer ; and 
the second was, more exactly, to make the capacity, or 
cubic contents of that lowest course of the room, so 
decreased, equal to fifty times the cubic contents of the 
coffer, already shown to be 71,250" cubic Pyramid 
inches. Two separate sets of measured numbers in 
Pyramid inches for the length, breadth, and height, of 
that lowest course giving as follows, when divided by 
the coffer's contents, — 

412-14 X 206-09 X 41-9 3,558,899- 

= — 49-95 

71,250 71,250 



412 X 206 X 42 3,564,624- 

= = 50-03 

71,259- 71,250- 

Hence, close as was the connection of the several 
parts of the coffer by the tie of capacity, equally close 
is the connection of the coffer with the adjusted course 
of the granite room in which it stands, and by capaxiity 
measure also. While, if the multiple before was two, and 
is 50 now, is not 50 twice 25, or double the number of 
inches in the cubit of the Great Pyramid, the significant 

Commensurahilities between the King's Chamber and the 
Structural Masonry Courses of the whole Pyramid. 

Neither did the fives and the tens of this chamber, on 
being examined, end here ; for having been greatly struck 
outside the monument on contemplating the grandeur 
of the horizontal courses of masonry of which the whole 
Pyramid is built, I began next to study them by measure. 
Not equal to each other are they in their successive 
heights ; but, whatever height or thickness of stones any 
one course is begun with, it is kept on at that thickness 
precisely, right through the Avhole Pyramid at that level ; 
though too the area of the horizontal section there may 
amount to many acres. 

To secure this result, in fact just as with the equal 
lieight of the granite courses in the King's Chamber 
walls, but on a far larger scale, — it was plain that 
immense arrangements must have been instituted with 
the masons of many quarries ; and such arrangements 
imply method, mind, and above all, intention. Where- 
fore, having measured the thickness of every com- 
ponent course of the Great Pyramid, one day in April, 
1865, when ascending to the summit, and another day 


in descending, I compared and confirmed those figures 
with ray own photographs of the building placed under 
a compound microscope ; and also with similar num- 
bers obtained from still more careful measures by the 
French Academicians in 1799 and 1800 ; and then 
began to sum up the courses' successive thicknesses to 
give the whole height of any particular number of 

On reaching in this manner the 50th course, lo ! 
the total height of that stratum, or 1,690 inches, gave 
the hypsometrical level of the floor of the King's 
Chamber as well as it has yet been ascertained directly 
by all the best authorities. So that the level of the 
50 th course of the Pyramid, is the level also of that 
granite, floor, whereon is resting the coffer, a vessel 
with commensurable capacity proportions between its 
inside and out, arid walls and floor, in a room with 5 
courses, composed of 100 stones, and with a capacity 
proportion of 50 to the 5 th of these courses. 

The dullest person in existence could hardly but see 
then, that the so-called, in the dark ages, King's Cham- 
ber, should rather have been called the chamber of the 
standard of 50. Can we also say of 50 Pyramid inches 
employed in capacity measure ? 

But what is a length of 50 Pyramid inches in 
the eye of Nature, and how ought that length to be 
employed for scientific and general capacity-measure 
purposes ? 

Fifty Pyramid inches fqrm the one ten-millionth of 
the earth's axis of rotation ; or decidedly the proper 
fraction to take for capacity measure, when we have 
already chosen one ten-millionth of the semi-axis for 
linear measure. The reason being, that in measuring 
distances, say amongst the spheres of heaven, men mea- 
sure them from centre to centre, and therefore have 
only to take account of the radii of each ; but in dealing 


with either their capacity or weight, we must .take each 
sphere in its entirety, or from side to side, that is, by 
its diameter rather than radius. 

More Symbolical Hints from the Ante-chamber. 

Such is the answer to the first part of the question ; 
and a hint how to deal with the second part may be 
gathered from some of the hitherto incomprehensible 
things in the little ante-chamber to this our grander 
chamber. Little is the ante-chamber, when it measures 
only 65-2 inches in utmost breadth from east to west, 
116'3 long from north to south, and 149 "4 high ; but 
it has a sort of granite wainscot on either side of it, 
full of detail ; and was to me so complicated and 
troublesome a matter as to occupy three days in 
measuring. (See Plate X.) 

On the east side, this wainscot is only 103'1 inches 
high, and is flat and level on the top ; but on the west 
side it is 111 "8 inches, and has three semi-cylindrical 
cross hollows of 9 inches radius, cut down into it, and 
also back through its whole thickness of 80 to 117 
inches to the wall. Each of those cylindrical hollows 
stands over against a broad, shallow, flat groove 21*6 
inches wide, running from top to bottom of the 
wainscot, with a pilaster-like separation between them ; 
and this groove part of the arrangement is precisely 
repeated on the east side, within its compass of height. 

These three grand, flat, vertical grooves, then, on either 
side of the narrow ante-chamber, have been pronounced 
long since by Egj^ptologists to be a vertically sliding 
portcullis system for the defence of the door of the 
King's Chamber. There are no blocks now to slide uj) 
and down in these grooves, nor have such things ever 
been seen there : but the gentlemen point triumphantly 
to a fourth groove, of a different order, existing to the 


north of all the others, indeed near the north beginning 
of the ante-chamber ; and with its portcullis block, they 
say, still suspended, and ready for work. 

The, Granite Leaf. 

That alleged portcullis block, however, contains many 
peculiarities which modern Egyptologists have never 
explained ; and as it was first carefully described by 
Professor Greaves under the appellation of " the granite 
leaf," we had better keep to that name. 

Its groove, instead of being 21-6 inches broad, like the 
others, is only 17'1 broad; and in place of being like 
them cut down to, and even several inches into, the 
floor, terminates 437 inches above that basal plane; 
so that the block, or rather blocks — ^for it is in two 
pieces, one above the other — stand on solid stone, and 
could not be immediately lowered to act as a portcullis 
if any one desired. Nor would they make a good 
portcullis if they were to be forcibly pushed, or chiselled 
down in their vertical plane, seeing that there are 
21 inches free lateral space between the leaf and the 
north entering wall and doorway, where a man might 
worm himself in, on that face of it; and 57" inches 
above its utmost top, where several men might clamber 
over ; and where I myself sat on a ladder, day after 
day, with lamps and measuring-rods, but in respectful 
silence and absolute solitude, thinking over what it 
might mean. 

The granite leaf is, therefore, even by the few data 
already given, a something which needs a vast deal 
more than a simple portcullis notion, to explain it. 
And so do likewise the three broader empty grooves to 
the south of it, remarkable with their semi-cylindrical 
hollows on the west side of the chamber. But it is 
not any, or every, other notion which will therefore be 
found to apply. 

Chap. IX.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 1 5 5 

Thus a military knight and engineer-general had, in 
1869, published in more than positive terms a most 
questionable idea of the descending entrance-passage, 
together with the ascending passage and Grand Gallery 
of the Great Pyramid, being a pet plan of the ancient 
King Cheops for easily visiting his King's Chamber 
when in progress ; viz., by going down the first slope 
in a truck, whose impetus should be so remarkably 
economised by ropes and pulleys, as to draw him up 
the second slope to twice the vertical height he came 
down from ; and the gallant commander could scarcely 
be restrained from giving orders to the commissioned 
and non-commissioned officers on the Sinai survey to 
go over from there and fit up, or rather, as he con- 
sidered, restore, such a system of ropes and trucks 
inside the Great Pyramid ; and what for ? Why, to 
facilitate the legionary visits of modern travellers ; 
the very men who day by day, and year after year, 
break both the coffer and anything and everything else 
breakable with their needless and provoking hammers ; 
and become more and more rampagious the larger 
parties they are allowed to accumulate ; '' cutting such 
antics " there, " as make the angels weep." 

In the course of last year, however, a civilian engineer, 
Mr. John Dixon — ^having returned from Egypt, where, 
with his brother Mr. Waynman Dixon as resident 
engineer, he had been building a bridge over the Nile, 
and successfully exploring at the Great Pyramid also — 
kindly contributed several Pyramid drawings to the 
Graphic in London. 

These drawings, or their descriptions, contained some 
allusions both to the granite leaf and the three semi- 
cylindrical hollows on the top of the wainscot of the 
western side of the ante-chamber. This special infor- 
mation, apparently quite new to the military man, 
seemed to set his ambitious soul in a blaze, for he 


immediately wrote off with enthusiasm to Mr. John 
Dixon about the truck system; and called presently 
with a model of it under his arm, asking "if he 
(Mr. J. D.) did not think that all those ante-chamber 
arrangements which he had pictured, were just intended 
to carry out his, the general officer's, ideas of Cheops' 
pet truck method of going without any exertion up 
and down the Grand Gallery. Was not too (he asked 
most triumphantly) — was not the granite leaf fixed 
across the ante-chamber for fastening the fixed ends 
of the ropes to ; and were not those semi-cylindrical 
hollows made on purpose to receive the pivots of the 
big horizontal rollers round which the turns of the 
running ropes must have passed ? " 

" No," said the civil engineer firmly, " certainly not : 
for your running ropes would fray themselves against 
the lower corners of the granite leaf; the whole would 
be a bad mechanical arrangement ; and then what 
would you do with the other end of your rollers, when 
there are no semi-cylindrical hollows to receive them 
on the east side ?" 

On hearing which last piece of absolute truth, the 
military engineer fell backwards as though he had been 
shot ; and was instantly rendered so utterly helpless, 
that had he been at that moment on the long slope of 
the Grand Gallery, or indeed of any of the inclined 
passages of the Great Pyramid, he would — instead of 
finding them, according to another of his theories, 
representations of " the angle of rest" and "repose," — 
he would, I say, have been involuntarily set sliding down 
at such a continually accelerated rate, that he would 
have gone, alas ! headlong to some awful degree of phy- 
sical smash at the bottom, piteous to contemplate. 

Others, however, passing and repassing frequently in 
1865 through the ante-chamber, on seeing those three 
grooves, have rather received the impression, in their 


more quiet and studious minds, of the three dimensions 
necessary to express capacity-contents — the three hol- 
low curves too, reminding them of the curved shell of 
the earth's surface ; and the granite leaf with its double 
block (implying double power to its specific gravity) 
leading them also to think of the earth's interior, or 
capacity, contents, which are, when taken in the whole, 
of almost exactly double the mean density, or specific 
gravity, of tliat granite. 

Earth's Mean Density approximately indicated, hut 
required more exactly. 

Here then, from every side — from the coffer, the 
King's Chamber, the Pyramid courses, and the ante- 
chamber trappings of stone — all the very, and most 
scientific, and suitable, items necessary for preparing 
earth reference capacity and weight measures were 
gradually cropping up in 1865 A.D., before earnest and 
attentive study of the actual Pyramid facts, to a quiet 
onlooker, measuring-rod in hand. But no mere linear 
measuring-rod can supply the further radical idea re- 
quired for weight. The something else called for in 
this instance, in order to be true to the grandeur of 
the beginning made in the Pyramid system for length, 
could be no other than the mean density of the whole 
world, and this quantity is not yet by any means so 
intimately understood by every one, that it would be 
generally and instantly recognised the moment it should 
haply be seen, under some symbolical figure or numerical 
equivalent, in the Great Pyramid. 

Although, too, the earth's mean density has been for 
long a subject of permanent interest throughout other 
most important and varied branches of natural philo- 
sophy, besides astronomy, and not only in this country, 
but the whole world over, yet it has been practically, 
diligebtly, successfully, studied by hardly any other 


nation than ourselves ; and what we have done in the 
cause has been confined to very late times indeed. 

The first special move, always excepting Sir Isaac 
Newton's most sagacious guess in the absence of any 
experiment,* seems to have been made by Dr. Maske- 
lyne ; who wrote in 1772 as follows to the Royal Society 
of London, in the course of a paper urging the propriety 
of making experiments to measure the precise angle 
through which a pendulum might be drawn out of the 
vertical, by the attraction of a mountain mass. 

'' It will be easily acknowledged," remarked he, " that 
to find a sensible attraction of a hill from undoubted 
experiment, would be a matter of no small curiosity ; 
would greatly illustrate the theory of gravity, and would 
make the universal gravitation of matter, as it were, 
palpable to every person, and fit to convince those who 
will yield their assent to nothing but downright experi- 
ment. Nor would its use end here, for it would serve 
to give us a better idea of the total mass of the earth, 
and the proportional density of the matter near the 
surface, compared with the mean density of the whole 
earth. The result of such an uncommon experiment — 
which I should hope would prove successful — would 
doubtless do honour to the nation where it was made, 
and the society which executed it." 

Mountain Determinations of the Earth's Mean 

The effect of this representation was, that the society 
did undertake the experiment ; Mount Schihallion, in 

* Sir Isaac's words are : — " Unde cum terra communis suprema quasi 
duple gravior sit quam aqua, et paulo inferius in fodinis quasi triple vel 
quadruple aut etiam quintuple gravior reperiatur ; versimile est quod 
cepia materise totius in terra quasi quintuple vel sextuple major sit quam 
si teta ex aqua constaret." A rudely correct approach this to the density 
of the whole earth, but by means of such a decided over-estimate of 
the mean density of the average materials of "mines or quarries," that it 
did not carry much conviction with it. 


Perthshire, Scotland, was selected as the most appro- 
priate site ; Dr. Maskelyne being appointed to make the 
observations, and Dr. Hutton to calculate the results : 
which were reported, in 1778, to be, that the mean 
density of the whole earth was 1=: 4-5 ; that is, composed 
of matter 4^ times heavier than water. 

This result rather surprised most men at the time ; 
for " common stone," of which they had usually con- 
sidered the majority of the earth to consist, was known 
to be only 2^ times the density of water. 

They looked, therefore, into the composition of the 
Schihallion mountain itself, which they had vaguely, as 
a first approximation, considered to be of "common 
stone ;" and Playfair, the Edinburgh Professor of 
Natural Philosophy, and an immense friend of Hutton, 
the fire geologist, discovered certain injections of dense 
trap ; whence he determined the mean specific gravity of 
the whole of the mountain's minerals to be from 2 '64 
to 2-81. In proportions, too, which brought up the con- 
cluded density of the whole earth, to be 4 "8 ; with some 
suspicions that it might be still more. 

In this surmise the computers were undoubtedly 
right, for every determination that has been made since 
then, and by every method, has invariably given 
greater results. The only experiment quite similar, 
excepting some results of rather unmanageable extent 
in India, connected with the Himalayas, was that 
reported to the Royal Society of London in 1856, by 
Colonel Sir Henry James, in charge of the Ordnance 
Survey. He therein describing the observations made 
by non-commissioned officers of the Royal Sappers and 
Miners, with their zenith sector, on and against the hill 
of Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh ; which observations 
yielded, when put through the necessary computations, 
as they were most splendidly, by Captain Ross Clarke, 
R.E., the number 5-316. 


Another species of experiment, not far removed in 
its nature from the above, was tried in 1826 by Mr., 
now Sir George B. Airy, Astronomer Koyal, Dr. Whe- 
well, and the Kev. Richard Sheepshanks, by means of 
pendulum observations, at the top and bottom of a 
deep mine in Cornwall ; but the method failed. Subse- 
quently, in 1855, the experiment was taken up again 
by Sir G. B. Airy and his Greenwich assistants, in a 
mine near Newcastle. They were reinforced by the then 
new invention of sympathetic electric control between 
clocks at the top and bottom of the mine, and had 
much better, though still unexpectedly large, results 
— the mean density of the earth coming out, 6-565. 

Natural Philosophy and Closet Determination of the 
Earth's Mean Density. 

The subject being thus so excessively difficult to 
obtain a close numerical result upon, even by the best 
modern astronomy, good service was done to the world 
in the course of the last century, when the Rev. John 
Mitchell proposed a different and a direct manner of 
trying the same experiment, actually between the 
several parts of one and the same piece of apparatus. 
He died, indeed, before he himself could try his acute 
suggestion ; but it was taken up after his death by the 
celebrated Cavendish, and worked very successfully in 
1798, with a final result of 5*450. I say successfully, 
in spite of much unkind criticism which he underwent 
from those who were more mathematical and less 
chemical than himself ; for he evidently made a great 
stride towards the truth, improved the existing deter- 
mination of his day to a large proportional quantity, 
and no part of the increase which he gave it has had 
since to be removed. 

Nearly forty years after Cavendish's great work, his 

Chap.TX.] the great pyramid. i6i 

experiment was repeated by Professor Eeich, of Freyberg, 
in Saxony, with a result of 5'44 ; and then came the 
grander repetition by the late Francis Baily, representing 
therein the Royal Astronomical Society of London, and, 
in fact, the British Government and the British nation. 

With exquisite care did that well- versed and metho- 
dical observer proceed to his task ; and the attention of 
every man of mathematical science in the country was 
directed towards his operations. Much, indeed, and 
more than any one then thought, was depending on 
his labours ; for without them the world's knowledge of 
the mean density of the earth, even up to this present 
time (1864), would not have been such as to warrant 
any interpretation of the Great Pyramid standards of 
weight and capacity. 

The well-known mechanical skill of Thomas Bramah 
was first employed in casting an immense cylinder of 
lead, pure and dense ; and then in producing from it, 
by the most exact turning in the lathe, two faultless 
spheres, each 12-1026 inches in diameter, and 380-469 
lbs. avoirdupois in weight. These were for the attracting 
balls, to which Mr. Simms added, with all an optician's 
skill, the smaller balls to be attracted, and the niceties 
of the " torsion suspension," by which the smallest 
attractive influence on them was to be made sensible. 

This apparatus was erected by Mr. Baily in an 
isolated room in the garden of his mansion in Tavistock 
Place ; and observations were soon begun with even more 
than official regularity. 

But they did not prosper. 

Week after week, and month after month, unceasing 
measures were recorded ; but only to show that some 
disturbing element was at work, overpowering the 
attraction of the larger on the smaller balls. 

What could it be ? 

Professor Reich was applied to, and requested to state 



how he had contrived to get the much greater degree 
of accordance with each other that his pubHshed obser- 
vations showed. 

"Ah !" he explained, " he had had to reject a large 
number of measures for extravagant inconsistencies ; and 
he would not have had any presentable results at all, 
unless he had guarded against variations of tem^perature 
by putting the whole apparatus into a cellar, and only 
looking at it with a telescope through a small hole in 
the door." 

Then it was remembered that a very similar plan 
had been adopted by Cavendish ; who had furthermore 
left this note behind him for his successor s attention — 
" that even still, or after all the precautions which he 
did take, minute variations and small exchanges of 
temperature between the large and small balls were the 
chief obstacles to full accuracy." 

Mr. Baily therefore adopted yet further means to 
prevent sudden changes of temperature in his observing 
room ; but as he could not prevent them absolutely, he 
profited by the advice of Professor J. D. Forbes, of 
Edinburgh, of placing gilded surfaces between the 
balls ; for, though gravitation will pass through any- 
thing whatever, radiant heat has extraordinary difficulty 
in piercing a surface of polished gold. 

Immediately that this plan was tried, the anomalies in 
the measures almost vanished ; and then began the most 
full and complete series of observations as to the effect of 
gravitation attraction from one set of artificial globes to 
another, that has ever been made upon the earth. 

The full story of them, and all the particulars of 
every numerical entry, and the whole of the steps of 
calculation, are to be found in the memoirs of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, and constitute one of the most 
interesting volumes'"'''" of that important series ; besides 

* The fourteenth, volume. 


affording a determination of the mean density of the 
earth, which will probably be looked on as standard for 
fifty years from its day, and charged with a probable 
error of only 0038. 

TlfiG Prohahle Error Statements in Modern Scientific 

Now what does that statement of probable error 
mean ? 

It should mean, in the above instance, that the real 
quantity in nature must infallibly be confined some- 
where between the limits of 5-6788 and 5 '671 2. But, 
in point of fact, unhappily, it does not mean anything 
of the kind. It is in reality, nothing but a way that 
the scientific men have got into, copied chiefly from the 
German savants, of representing a something or other 
of a very confined and partial character connected with 
their observations. A something which they cannot 
exactly describe and do not altogether understand, 
though they perfectly appreciate that it makes the said 
observations look a great deal better than they really 

Thus Baily's earth's mean density was announced as 

, 6-675, probable error + 0-0038 

The Ordnance Survey's Arthur's Seat experiment gave 
the same earth's mean density as 

5-316, probable error ±^ 0-054 

And Sir George B. Airy's mine experiment declared, 
still the same earth's same mean density, to be, 

6-565, probable error ± 0-018 

From which mutually conflicting data, it will be seen 
that modern science, whatever it says about its extreme 
accuracy to j^ or less, cannot really be certain in this 


transcendentally difficult, but infinitely important, phy- 
sical inquiry respecting the earth's mean density to 
nearer than, about -|^th of the whole quantity ; and that 
is actually five times the amount of error that was 
recently (to the special scandal of the ladies and gentle- 
men of the Social Science Association when last in 
Edinburgh) afflicting all the modern world's knowledge 
of the sun's mean distance from the earth. 

If in that case, the old, old Pyramid sun-distance, 
though it would have been kicked against and put 
down with a high hand only fifteen years ago, has been 
justified by the very latest determinations made in 
astronomy, — so we may hope, nay, even expect, that 
the Pyramid earth density will be likewise justified, 
when modern science improves her processes in that 
department also ; and shall attack once more the grand 
subjective problem of the earth, on the same stupendous 
scale as that on which she is now attacking the chief 
objective one, at this moment, of all terrestrial science 
and all mankind. *" 

Earth's Density Number in the Great Pyramid. 

Now the Pyramid earth density comes out most 
simply, on the showing of the parts of the Pyramid 
itself, from the cubic contents of the coffer in Pyramid 
inches, divided by the 10 th part of 50 inches cubed. 
Whence, trusting to my measures, it is : — 7^L250„ 
divided by 12,500 ; the quotient being 570 ; a result 
which modern science may confirm, but cannot over- 
throw at present, if she ever will. 

Of Temperature Corrections, and how effected. 

Some further questions, however, this modern science 
already asks of Pyramidists, in order to ascertain whether, 


and how, certain precautions, which she thinks necessary 
in all her own important work, were taken, and still 
remain effective, in those primeval operations of the so 
long sealed up interior of the Great Pyramid. 

For instance, if the coffer has to be considered as to 
its weight contents in water (and water filling is so fre- 
quently an operation connecting capacity and weight 
measures), strict attention is necessary to temperature, 
an element usually supposed to be only amenable to 
the thermometers of the last 200 years ; yet the 
smallest errors on the score of uncertainties of tempera- 
ture (and we may say almost the same for variations of 
barometric pressure), in the ancient work, would have 
introduced unnumbered perplexities. 

These perplexities, nevertheless, are far from being 
found in the Great Pyramid's Coffer. Not because 
the Pyramid architect either had, or left behind, any 
very superior mercurial thermometers ; but because he 
employed a method overriding thermometers, and be- 
ginning now to be found preferable even by the highest 
science of our o^vn day, its multitudes of thermometers, 
and barometers too, of every kind, notwithstanding. 

Thus the latest conclusions of the best geodesists, in 
conducting their modern standard-scale experiments, is 
expressed in the maxim, " have as little to do with 
variations of temperature as possible ;" for temperature 
is an insidious influence whose actions and re-actions 
men will hardly ever hear the last of, if once they let it 
begin to move, vary, or be higher in one place than in 
another, or at one time than another. We have seen 
too, already, how this feature went close to the annihila- 
tion of the Cavendish experiment and its repetitions ; 
and that the only source of safety was, not any attempt 
by power of fine thermometers to observe the tempera- 
ture differences, and by the resources of modern mathe- 
matics to compute the disturbing effect, and so eliminate 


it ; but, to cut down the variations of temperature them- 

Hence that retreating into cellars, and closing of 
doors, and only looking in through small holes with 
telescopes. Quite similarly too, in every astronomical 
observatory, where uniformity of clock-rate is prized, it 
has been the last, and practically the best, thing to that 
end yet found out, — that after the clockmaker has done 
everything which his art can do, in decreasing the dis- 
turbing effects which follow changes of temperature, by 
applying a so-called, and in truth very considerably 
effective, " temperature compensation pendulum," — 
there is always a further improvement that can be 
effected in the going of the clock, by superadding other 
contrivances simply to lessen the amount of heat- 
changes for such pendulum to try its compensating 
powers upon. 

Thus, at the great observatory of Pulkova, near St. 
Petersburg, where they value an insight into small frac- 
tions of a second perhaps more than anywhere else in the 
wide world, the very able Russian astronomers erected 
the chief clock of their establishment in the central hall 
of that building : because in that hall no window was 
ever opened, and large masses of masonry on every side 
greatly promoted an equality of temperature both by 
day and by night. Thereby was their grand standard 
clock notably strengthened, and enabled to keep a much 
better rate than a similarly constructed clock (with a 
so called by the clockmakers " temperature compensating 
pendulum " of course) placed in one of the outer astrono- 
mical observing-rooms ; and where the opening of the 
shutters in the roof for star observation, necessarily 
admitted air sometimes warm and sometimes cold. 

But within the course of the year 1864, I was 
informed by M. Wagner, then in charge of the time 
observations at Pulkova under M. Otto Struve, that 


their normal clock was then going more uniformly than 
it had ever done before, or than they believe any other 
clock in the world is going ; and because, from their 
central hall, windowless though it might be, on the 
ground-floor of the building, they had recently removed 
the clock to the "subterraneans" of the observatory, 
where the natural changes of temperature are smaller 

It is not, however, quite certain yet, that theirs is the 
best-going clock in existence, for M. Le Yerrier has 
recently removed the normal clock of the Paris Observa- 
tory to the " Caves," which exist there underground at 
a depth of 95 feet below the surface ; and in a trium- 
phant manner he remarked, when mentioning the case 
to me, '' temperature invariable, constant'^ 

Now, at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, there 
have been observations taken for many years of several 
large and very long-stemmed thermometers, whose 
bulbs have been let into the rock at various measured 
depths ; and it is found that, notwithstanding the 
possibly-disturbing effect of rain-water soaking down 
through fissures, there is such an astonishing power in 
a mass of stony matter to decrease temperature-variations, 
that at the surface of the ground — 

The mean semi-annual variation of heat amounts to = 60° Fahr. 
At three inches under the surface . . . . = 30"^ „ 

At three feet under the surface 
At six feet .... 
At twelve feet 
At twenty-four feet 

= 16^ 
= 10° 
= 5° 
= 1° 

At 95 feet, then, from the surface, in the case of the 
Paris Observatory, how very slight and innocuous to the 
most refined observation must be the variation of season- 
temperature ! But how much more slightly affected 
still, and how admirably suited to a scientific observing- 
room, must not the King s Chamber in the Great Pyra- 
mid be, seeing that it is shielded from the outside 


summer heat and winter cold, by a thickness of nowhere 
less than 180 feet of solid masonry ! 

There is not, in truth, in any country of Europe, 
there never has been erected, and it does not look much 
as if there ever will be erected, by any nation under the 
sun, a scientific observing-room for closet experiments 
that can at all be compared in the very leading requisite 
for such an institution, with the King's Chamber of the 
Great Pyramid. 

When Francis Baily closed those remarkable observa- 
tions of his on the ''mean density of the earth," he 
predicted that they were not likely to be repeated 
until the slow progress of science in general, and an 
improved knowledge of the theory of the " torsion 
pendulum," in particular, should have given the men of 
a future day some reasonable hope of securing, by re- 
newed experiment, a sensibly more accurate result. But 
had he been aw^are of the unique temperature quali- 
fications of that central chamber of the ancient Great 
Pyramid, where too the mean density of the earth is 
already represented and turned to account for man in 
the size of the interior of the granite coffer as com- 
pared with the cube of 50 inches,: — would he not have 
been off the very next week to repeat his experiments 
there : and to have seen with his own eyes, before he 
died, that mysterious and primal-founded science temple 
of the south ? 

Absolute Temperature of the King's Chamber of the 
Great Pyramid. 

All the knowledge and advance, then, of the present 
day, so far from improving on, or altering with ad- 
vantage, cannot too much commend, copy, and adhere 
to, the uniformity arrangements for rendering constant 
the temperature of the Great Pyramid's coffer chamber. 


But in that case, the responsibility now falls upon me 
of showing a something else which it is also required in 
practice to know, — viz. What is the absolute degree of 
that so produced, steady, and constant, temperature in 
the King's Chamber? 

There, unfortunately, we lack high-class modern 
observations continued sufficiently long and under un- 
exceptionable circumstances ; but so far as what have 
been taken may be trusted, the best of them are found 
to indicate a particular temperature degree which theory 
assists in confirming, and which possesses otherwise 
some singular recommendations. In the Pyramid, as 
before observed, there is a grand tendency for numbers, 
things, and principles going by "fives ;" and this seems 
carried out even in its temperature, for it may be 
described as a temperature of one-fifth ; that is, one- 
fifth the distance between the freezing and boiling points 
of water above the former. 

Observed Temperatures at and near the Great Pyramid. 

The first grounds for this belief are, that M. Jomard, 
in the "Description de TEgypte," gives the observed tem- 
perature of the King's Chamber part of the Pyramid as 
22° Cent, zzr 71°6 Fahr. ; but this was unnaturally raised 
by, first, the number of men with torches whom he 
had with him ; second, by the incredible number of large 
bats which then made certain parts of the Pyramid their 
home ; third, by the ventilating channels not being 
open or known in his day ; and fourth, not improbably 
by the artificial dryness of the interior : for certain it is, 
that in the great Joseph Well in the citadel of Cairo, in 
the same latitude, at the same height, but tuith watery 
vapour (and perhaps in excess), the same M. Jomard 
measured the temperature there, and found it 17° Cent, 
to 18°Cent.z=62°6 Fahr. to 64°4 Fahr. 


Hence 68° Fahr. would have been nearly a mean 
between his two observations ; besides being a probably 
closer approach to the pure and undefiled original tem- 
perature of the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid 
under both ventilation, and the other intended normal 
circumstances of its foundation. And 68° Fahr. is pre- 
cisely a temperature of one-fifth. 

There is more, too, in the temperature numbers 
resulting for the Pyramid, than the mere accident of the 
mean temperature of its particular parallel of latitude ; 
for that quantity would in truth seem to be certainly 
higher, if observed at, or in, the surface-ground, 
especially the low valley ground itself, than this pyra- 
midal quantity of one-fifth. Not only for instance did 
M. Jomard find it so, for he measured 25° Cent. = 77° 
Fahr. for the lower part of the "well" of the Great 
Pyramid, and also for- several of the tombs in the open 
plain in the neighbourhood ; but my own observations 
in 1864-5 on the temperature of wells in and about 
the city of Cairo (in winter and spring, and at a depth 
sufficient to give as near an annual average as pos- 
sible) yielded on a mean of 12 of them 69*9 Fahr. A 
quantity which is also the identical result for the 
mean annual atmospheric temperature of the same city, 
as obtained by the Austrian Meteorological Society 
from five years of observation. 

Hence if the Great Pyramid was devised originally to 
stand in a temperature of one-fifth, it was necessary that it 
should be mounted upon just such a hill as that whereon 
it stands (and more particularly the King's Chamber 
level of it), in a sensibly cooler stratum of the atmo- 
sphere than that of the plains below ; reducing thereby 
69^9 to 68^ Fahr. 

Thirty-seven years too after M. Jomard had measured in 
the King's Chamber the extra temperature of 71*6 Fahr., 
(i.e., extra according to this subsequent theory). Colonel 


Howard Yyse cleared out the two ventilating channels ; 
and reported, without having had any idea that the 
temperature had been theoretically too high — that in- 
stantly, upon the channels being opened, the ventilation 
re-established itself, and with a feeling to those in the 
chamber of most agreeable coolness. 

But no sooner had he left, than the Arabs stopped up 
the ventilating channels again ; while steam-navigation 
and the overland route poured in day after day, and 
year after year continually increasing crowds of visitors 
with their candles and torches and frantic, Eed Indian 
savage acts into the King's Chamber's granite hall ; so 
that in 1865 I found its temperature more deranged 
than ever, or risen to no less than 75*2 Fahr. On 
one occasion indeed, it was so much as 75*7 imme- 
diately after a large party, from some vulgar steamer, 
had had their whirling dances over King Cheops' tomb- 
stone and their ignorant cursing of his ancient name, 
to the vocal music of passionate shouting and the pain- 
ful thunder of the coffer being banged, to close upon 
breaking, with a big stone swung by their Arab helps ; 
while the temperature was only 74° at the same time in 
the Queen's Chamber below, and 73° at the dry-well 
mouth lower down still in the Pyramid. Numbers 
which evidently indicate an abnormal temperature- 
elevating force at that moment in the King's Chamber : 
and no wonder ; at least to any one who should have 
looked in upon some of those mad and multitudinous 
scenes of lurid-lighted revelry, indulged in by many 
smoking, tobacco-stinking gentlemen, a few ladies, and 
imp-like Arabs of every degree, black, brown, and grey. 
Lamentable scenes to be beheld in the present edu- 
cated age of the world ; yet scenes which both disturbed 
my quiet days of measuring, and photographing by 
magnesium light, there, at intervals of about every 
three or four hours : and which the Consuls would 


give no assistance in endeavouring to keep down. 
" Egypt," they said, " in the present day is every man's 
land, and every one is his own master when he comes 
out into the desert here. Pharaoh would be pulled 
from his throne, if. he attempted to interfere." 

Temjperatnre and Pressure Data for the Coffer s Weight 
and Capacity Measure. 

At the present moment, therefore, the coffer is no 
more of its right, or original, temperature, than its right 
and original size, when so much of it has been broken 
bodily away by the hammering of the representative 
men of modern society. But the barometric pressure 
in the chamber happily defies such power of disturbance, 
and keeps, by the law of the atmosphere over all that 
region, expressively close to 30*000 Pyramid inches. 
Wherefore we correct our temperature observations 
slightly by theory, take the mean observed pressure, 
and then have quite enough to justify us in this, our 
first inquiry, for taking as the original coffer and King's 
Chamber temperature of 4,040 years ago, and also what 
their temperature would be again were the ventilating 
channels re-opened, and a strict prohibition issued in 
Scottish Covenanter phrase, against " promiscuous danc- 
ing " by all travellers, whether educated or ignorant, 
over Cheops' mistaken gravestone, — we have, I say, 
and may quote, the number 68°0 Fahr. ; or the tempera- 
ture of one-fifth. 

Wherefore at that temperature, and the pressure pre- 
viously mentioned, the coffer's 71,250 cubic Pyramid 
inches of capacity, filled with pure water, form the 
grand weight standard of the ancient Great Pyramid. 

What weight in our reckoning of tons or pounds, that 
will amount to, and what subdivisions of its grand 
standard the Pyramid system permits, we may probably 


take up with advantage in the third division of our 
book, — after having devoted one more chapter to 
examining our foundational Pyramid data of lengths 
and angles more rigidly than ever ; and especially by 
the method of comparing, through the agency of 
several recent discoveries, the interior, against the ex- 
terior, of this most remarkable, most abused, but already 
most largely evident Monument of number, weight, 
and measure, as well as of Bcyme funereal associations. 




IN tlie several theoretical conclusions arrived at tlius 
far in this second division of our book, the interior 
measures of the Great Pyramid finally made use of in 
the research (as those for the size and shape of the 
coffer) had been taken almost entirely by myself, and 
generally with more care and at far greater length and 
fulness of detail than to be found anywhere else. Now 
w^hen some of those conclusions, ascertained long since 
(i.e. five or six years ago), were quoted ve^y recently in 
a London drawing-room as deserving attention, the 
kindly speaker was confronted by a Cambridge mathe- 
matician, who rose with authority amongst the guests, 
and simply remarked, " So this man you tell us 
of, made his own observations ! Then what can his 
theoretical deductions be worth ? " Wherefore the 
previous speaker was instantly extinguished, or held to 
be so, by every one present (forgetful that the argument 
against John Taylor in his day was, that he never 
observed at all, but only w^orked from, or upon, the 
observations of others), and the Great Pyramid was that 
evening, for the polite society of that drawing-room, 
handed back to the Egyptologists as nothing but an 
ordinary Egyptian tomb. 

Whether so-called pure mathematicians of College 
upbringing have reason to be suspicious of each other 


in such a case, I know not ; but a very different rule of 
conduct has been for long observed among astronomers. 
Indeed, the efforts of such men as Francis Baily, Sir John 
Herschel, Professor De Morgan, and many others of the 
leading spirits of their time during the last forty years 
have been largely directed to encourage, and almost oblige, 
every astronomer in a public observatory to do some- 
thing more than merely observe ; more too than com- 
pute his own observations also ; for they taught that he 
should further apply them to theory, or theor}^ to them ; 
and discover, if he could, anything that they were 
capable, in that combination, of disclosing. 

No doubt the observations should first, wherever pos- 
sible, be published pure and simple ; though that costs 
money, which is not always forthcoming even in Govern- 
ment establishments ; and afterwards, or separately, 
should appear any theoretical discoveries that eitlter the 
observer, or any one else may have been able to educe 
out of them. But that was exactly what I had done 
in the case of my Pyramid observations of 1865. 
For, by immense sacrifices out of a small income on 
the part of my wife and self, I had published the 
original observations in 1867 in Vol. II. of my "Life 
and Work," in as full detail as though it had been both 
a Government expedition, and its printing paid for out 
of the national purse. And this self-taxation was espe- 
cially to satisfy all those intellectualists who might 
wish to do the computing and theorizing for them- 
selves ; while only in Vol. III. of " Life and Work," 
and subsequently in my ** Antiquity of Intellectual 
Man," did I begin to try what I could make out of 
this new and extended supply of raw material for 
testing John Taylor's Pyramid theory. 

And yet five years afterwards a stay-at-home mathe- 
matician, without pretending that any better obser- 
vations had been made by any one else, either before 


or since, could openly ridicule tlie possibility of there 
being any value in my deductions, merely because I had 
had the honour and expense, the toil and danger, of 
making the observations as well ! 

But fortunately, since the date of publication of my 
volumes in 1867 and '68, several free and independent 
spirits, often quite unknown to me, have discussed 
some of the observations contained in them much more 
minutely than I had done myself; and have made 
discoveries which had never entered into my head even 
to conceive of How happy then shall I not be now to 
withdraw for a time into my shell as nothing but a mere 
observer, and let all the theorizing be done by Mr. William 
Petrie, late a Chemical Engineer ; Mr. St. John Vincent 
Day, Civil Engineer ; the Rev. Joseph T. Goodsir ; 
Captain Tracey, R.A. ; Mr. James Simpson, Commercial 
Bank ; Mr. W. Flinders Petrie (not yet entered into 
the battle of life) ; Mr. Henry Mitchell, Hydrographer, 
U. S. Coast Survey ; the Rev. Alex. Mackay, LL.D., 
Edinburgh ; Charles Casey, Esq., of Carlow ; the Rev. 
F. R. A. Glover, M.A., London, and, though last not 
least. Professor Hamilton L. Smith (Professor of Astro- 
nomy in Hobart College, Geneva, New York, U. S.) ; 
the several parties being mentioned here according to 
the dates of their researches becoming known to me. 

The. New School of Pyramid Theorists in the King's 

Of all parts of the Great Pyramid amenable to accu- 
rate linear measure, there are none presenting such 
advantages therefor as the King's Chamber ; because 
it is — 1. Equable in temperature ; 2. Un visited by wind, 
sand, or natural disturbances ; 3. Of simple rectangular 
figure (excepting an infinitesimal angle of convergence, 

Chap.X.] the great pyramid. 177 

and a rather larger angle of inclination, observed as yet 
only by myself and not altogether to my own satisfac- 
tion) ; 4. Erected in polished, dense, hard, red granite ; 
and, 5. It exhibits the longest lines of any part of 
the Pyramid, both in that hard material, and in a 
horizontal position with vertical end pieces. 

M. Jomard speaks of his English predecessor, 
Professor Greaves, having inscribed, or cut, the length 
of his standard foot measure on the walls of that 
chamber. But I could not find any trace of such a 
thing ; and rather suspect that Jomard must have been 
misled by some figurative expression of Greaves' s ; who 
wisely considered, that a printed statement of the 
measured length of that chamber (so constant in its 
size from age to age), in terms of his foot measure, 
would be a better record to posterity of what the 
length of that standard must have been, than any 
attempt to cut it there and then bodily into the hard 
granite by smoky candle-light, with imperfect tools, 
and while Mameluke Mohammedans were looking on 
with impatience and hatred of everything done by the 
Christian dog. 

The Mensuration Data at the Disposal of the New 

Certain it is that I could not find any corporeal record 
of that foot measure in the King's Chamber ; nor can 
the Heads of Houses in Oxford find Greaves' s iron 
measuring-rod itself, though they have the wooden 
box for it safe enough. But the libraries of Europe 
contain innumerable copies of the hooh record, to the 
effect that the length of the King's Chamber in the 
Great Pyramid as measured by Greaves, amounted to 
34-380 of his feet, i.e. 412-56 of his British inches, 
in 1637. 




[Part II. 

Now this is a quantity well worthy of remembrance, 
viz., this 412-56 inches of Greaves : for — 

By Col. Howard-Vyse, in 1837, that same chamber 

length was stated to be 411-00 

By Mr. Lane, in or near 1838 412-50 

By Messrs. Alton and Inglis in 1865, from . 411-7 to 412*1 

and by myself in 1865 it was given as follows, with 
particular care to reduce my inches to standard British 
Government inches : — 

South side, near floor level, 11th March, first 


. = 


Do., second measure .... 

. :r: 


16th March, first measure .... 

. ^^ 


Do. second measure 

. = 


North side, March 11th, first measure 

. = 


Do. do. second measure . 

. = 


Do. do. third measure 

• — 


Mean of south side . . . . 


Mean of north side 

• ■— 


Mean length of both north and south sides 




Breadth of King's Chamber near east end, 



. = 


Do., second measure .... 

. = 


Near west end 

. = 


Mean breadth of east and west ends . 

Height of King's Chamber near north-east 
angle of room 

North side 

North-west angle 


South side 

South-east angle 

North-east angle repeated .... 

The mean here = 230-1, but is certainly 
smaller than it should be ; for so many of the 
floor stones, from which the heights neces- 
sarily had to be measured, were disturbed 
and to some extent risen up (like the drawing 
of a tooth), as though in consequence of 
earthquake disturbance. Hence the true 
quantity must be much nearer the greater 
than the smaller limit of the measured 
heights, and should probably be called . 

206-30 British inches. 
206:09 Pyramid do. 


230-70 British inches. 
230-47 Pyramid do. 

Chap. X.] 



Diagonals of floor : 

From south-west to north-east corner 
North-west to south-east . . . - 

Mean measured floor diagonal .... 

Diagonals of east wall : 

Low north-east to high south-east corner . 

Low south-east to high north-east corner, 
subtracting 1-6 inches for hole in low 
south-east comer 

Diagonal of west wall : 

Low south-west, to high north-east, comer 
Subtract I'O for a sunken floor-stone south-west 
(The other diagonal not measurable on account 
of a large and deep hole in floor in north- 
west corner of chamber, whereby men enter- 
ing have gone on excavating at some time to 
under that part of the floor whereon the cofler 


461-65 British inches. 
461-19 Pyramid do. 


= 310-0 

= 309-6 British inches. 
= 309-3 Pyramid do. 

rr: 310-4 
= 1-0 


British inches. 
Pyramid do. 

Mr. James Simpson^ s Sums of the Squares. 

With these measures before him, and paying more 
attention to those of them taken from rectangular sides 
than the more difficult practical case of the corners, 
Mr. James Simpson, adopting what he thought the most 
probable numbers for length, breadth, and height, com- 
puted the several diagonals, and prepared the following 
theoretical measures of the room in Pyramid inches. 

King's Chamber Lines. 





The latter Measures 

corrected by 

Simpson's proportions. 

I Breadth = 

Linear . . < Height = 

( Length = 

(End = 

Diagonals of \ Floor = 

(Side , = 

Solid diagonal . . . =: 







The differences between Mr. Simpson s adopted linear 
numbers and my pure measures in the first division, it 
will be seen amount to not more than '07 of an inch, or 
within the error of an average single measure by me, 
and much within those of some observers ; indicating 
therefore that we may take his numbers as expressing 
well the true dimensions of the apartment inUr se^ 
such as the breadth being exactly half of the length, 
and the height exactly half of the floor diagonal (as 
discovered also independently by Professor Hamilton L. 
Smith) ; if indeed a good conclusive reason can be 
shown for them ; and this is what Mr. Simpson does 
most effectively in a series of commensurabilities of 
squares in very Pyramid numbers. 

Take, says he, half of the breadth, or 103 '05, as a 
special unit of division ; and test and divide therewith 
each of the above recorded quantities as below ; and 
then, squaring the results, you will have for the — 

Breadth . . . 2 000 whose square = 4 
Height . . . 2-236 „ =: 5 

Length . . . 4-000 „ == 16 

Or sum of squares for linear dimensions . . = 25 a Pyramid number. 

For the end diagonal . 3-000 whose square = 9 
Floor do. . . . 4-472 „ = 20 

Side do. . . . 4-582 „ = 21 

Or sum of squares for part diagonals . . = 50 a Pyramid number. 

Solid diagonal . . = 5-000 whose square = 25 a Pyramid number. 

And the smn of the three Pyramid numbers . = 100 

And this is in the chamber whose walls, according to 
Mr. Flinders Pe trie's recognition first, are composed of 
just 100 blocks of well-cut, squared, and even-heighted, 
though very differently lengthed, granite. 

The manner in which the long fractions of some of 
the simple divisions clear themselves off, on taking the 
squares, is especially to be noted ; and from a further 

Chap.X.] the great pyramid. i8i 

theoretical consideration of his own (which I trust he 
will soon be able to publish), Mr. Simpson considers 
that a more exact expression for the original size and 
proportions of the room should be in Pyramid inches — 

Breadth = 206-0659 

Height = 230-3886 

Length = 412-1317 

Diagonal of end = 309-0988 

Do. floor = 460-7773 

Do. side = 472-1562 

Solid, or cubic diagonal = 615* 1646 

And the grand division test of this chamber . = 103-0329 

In so far, these very precise absolute quantities of 
length are recorded here chiefly to gain their relative pro- 
portions more exactly ; and, therefore, when we multiply 
one of them, the chamber's length (its chief line and the 
best measured line too of the whole Great Pyramid), by 
the special Pyramid numbers 5X5, and find it to yield 
10303"29, or the same row of ciphers with the decimal 
point differently placed, as Mr. Simpson's touchstone 
line of commensurability, we may then ask further 
whether that larger, absolute quantity of length so 
implied, has any particular value or meaning outside 
that King's Cliamber wherein it is now found. 

Then comes a remarkable answer for any philosophical 
mathematician to ponder over, and especially as to how 
it came there in the early age of the Pyramid's foun- 
dation, before all history ; viz., that the area of the 
square base of the Great Pyramid, whose perimeter has 
already been determined by us to bear in those Pyramid 
inches a round and even relation to the number of 
days in a year, is equal to the area of a circle whose 
diameter = 1030330 + -01 of the same Pyramid 
inches. (See Plate III, Equality of Areas, No. 1.) Thus 
bringing up again, though in a slightly different shape, 


that squaring of the circle which was one of the chief 
objects of the Great Pyramid's ulterior design touching 
its external figure. And which object seems to have 
been intimately and most intentionally w^oven into the 
very fibres of the Great Pyramid's constitution ; for there 
was no automatic mechanical necessity obliging brute 
masonry in the hands of unthinking workmen to give 
the King's Chamber exactly that special size or shape, 
which would endue it with a definite circle-squaring 
commensurability to the size of the base of the whole 
monument in which it is contained. 

Linear Relations between the Coffer and the King's 

But in the King's Chamber we may look to some 
further values, bearing on interior subjects now ; and 
that constant warning from the ante-chamber to expect 
a " division into five " when we enter the King's Cham- 
ber, at once helps us to a connection between its walls 
(divided into 5 courses), and that peculiar vessel of 
capacity formation and mensuration, the coffer. For 
the 5th part of the breadth of the room, or 10th part of 
the length, is 41 '21 Pyramid inches : and the measured 
height of the coffer (the quantity where the hapless 
French Academicians, in spite of all their high science, 
made an error of three whole inches), is shown on page 
138 to have been measured by me as 41*23 near its 
edges ; but considered to require some small reduction 
on account of concavity of the bottom surface, when 
stating the mean height ; or for that purpose to be rather 
held as 41*13, or somewhere between the two. 

The cubic diagonal is, however, the most important 
and governing line that can be drawn in any room, and 
amounts in the King's Chamber to 515*1646 Pyramid 
inches ; a quantity which, as Mr. James Simpson shows, 

Chap. X.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. ' 183 

connects the King's Chamber at once, on one side with 
its containing Pyramid, and on the other with its con- 
tained coffer vessel. For, multiplied by 10, the cubic 
diagonal is exactly the length of the side of a square 
equal in area to a right vertical section of the Great 
Pyramid (see Plate IV. Fig. 3) ; and on the other, the 
same cubic diagonal divided by 2 equals practically the 
sum of the lengths round the cofter's external base ; 
or, in other words, the greatest radius of the King's 
Chamber, 2 57 '5 8 Pyramid inches, equals the greatest 
horizontal circumference of the coffer.'''' 

Capacity Relations between King's Chamber and Coffer. 

Now the coffer, the moment we began to examine it 
on its own actual measures, exhibited on page 143 a 
marked tendency to duplication of intercommensurable 
capacities ; and so also does the King's Chamber com- 
mence with a duplex character in its linear measures, 
seeing that the length is, with an accuracy of at least 
a thousandth of the whole, just double the breadth ; the 
breadth is double a certain unit, which performs wonders 
in detecting commensurabilities ; and the floor diagonal 
is double the height. That height, moreover, has another 
double character, but in a different way ; for you may 
measure it either from the floor as visible height, or 
you may measure it from the bottom of the grand and 
solid granite walls, under the floor, as virtual and 
symbolic height, and find them then five inches higher 
than before. This room has therefore, whether we like 
it or not, yet by fact of masonry, tvjo heights ; and they 

* This equation is not exact, owing chiefly to the stranp^e anomaly in 
the lower part of the west side of the coffer, shown at p. 137, and deserv- 
ing further attention at the place. But meanwhile taking the breadth 
just as given on p. 137 = 3872 British inches, and the length, if freed from 
the anomaly, = 90-20 British inches; then (38-72 + 90-20) X 2 = 257-84 
British inches = 257-58 Pyramid inches. 


will be found on many an occasion to act as two remark- 
ably powerful strings to its bow of symbology. 

Thus, at once, if you take the first height, you get 
Mr. Simpson's commensurabilities by squares ; the cubic 
diagonal duplex relations ; and also the capacity commen- 
surability by 50 of the lowest course of the room with 
the coffer's interior. But if you take the second height, 
what do you get ? 

Why, with Mr. Simpson's last numbers, and a round 
5 inches for the difference of the two heights, you 
obtain 19,990,679 cubic Pyramid inches; or, as he 
has reason to say (the preciseness of the five inches all 
round the room having still to be measured, and quite 
admitting of being, as estimated by me alone, and at 
only one available place, some 0*1 of an inch too small), 
" you may get absolutely and unquestionably twenty 
million cubic Pyramid inches ; a grandly round number 
in itself, yet having a duplex aspect in decimal arithmetic, 
in common with several other features of this chamber 
of twice 25, and its duplicating coffer." Whence the 
chamber itself may be considered, not one long chamber 
of twenty million inch capacity, but rather to be com- 
posed of two chambers, each of them of ten million 
cubic inches capacity, set together; and suggestive, 
therefore, of the employment for capacity in that 
united chamber with its coffer treasure, of a linear 
standard consisting (as actually is the case there) of 
two Pyramid cubits in length ; each of which cubits 
is the ten-millionth part of the earth's semi-axis of 

This is, in fact, the very idea required to be given 
by the Pyramid to clench the whole of our coffer capacity 
measure theory in Chapter IX. It is well, therefore, to 
know that there is still further confirmation to it from 
both the Queen's Chamber and the ante-chamber. 

Chap.X.] the great pyramid. 185 

Capacity References in the Queens Chamber. 

If the King's Chamber be the chamber of the 
standard of 50, or of two cubits length, the Queens 
Chamber is the chamber of the standard of 25, or one 
cubit length ; for it stands, with its original floor, not 
the present one, on the 25 th course of masonry com- 
posing the Pyramid ; and its one grand architectural 
feature, the niche in the east wall, symbolises, by its 
amount of excentric displacement in the room, a length 
amounting to just one cubit. We might expect then 
to find, if the theory be true, that one ten millions of 
cubic inches are indicated by this room's contents, as 
against the two ten millions of the King's Chamber. 
And this does appear to be the case. (See Plate IX.) 

The room is, indeed, quite a short one, and being 
furnished with an angular ceiling, is totally unlike the 
King's Chamber in shape as well as material, which is 
white limestone, now much encrusted with salt ; but 
Mr. Simpson, extracting my measures of it from *' Life 
and Work," soon perceived the breadth, measured by 
me at 205 '6, to be a reminder at the least, if not 
a repetition, of the King's Chamber breadth, 206 '06 
Pyramid inches, but apparently clogged by the saline 
incrustations. Wherefore altering the other measured 
numbers similarly {i.e. making them about a quarter of 
an inch, or nearly one eight-hundredth of the whole, 
longer at each end), he obtained for the length 2 27 03 
in place of 226 "5, and for the mean height 21386 in 
place of 21 3*2 ; the three dimensions then giving for 
the cubic contents of the chamber 10,004,676 cubic 
Pyramid inches, or as close as could be expected nowa- 
days from a chamber of soft material, liabiHty to saline 
deposits, and of extra difficulty to measure exactly. A 
chamber, however, which Professor Hamilton L. Smith, 
of New York, keeping chiefly to the hardest and 


sharpest parts, has some splendid ideas and magnificent 
researches upon (soon to appear in Sillimans Journal), 
showing the niche more especially to be a very magazine 
of the crucial angles of the Pyramid's structure ; and the 
roughnesses of the floor (see Plate IX.), even to have a 
symbolical meaning in connection with the incommen- 
surables in nature. 

The Ante-chamher's Symbolisms. 

There was always, nevertheless, more satisfaction to 
me as a measurer inside the Great Pyramid when dealing 
with granite, rather than limestone ; and this harder 
material began in the ante-chamber, the little dark 
room almost in the centre of gravity of the whole mass 
of this mountain of masonic skill. 

Tlie total length of that ante-chamber was by several 
measures, all recorded in "Life and Work," as follows : — ■ 


Mean = 11637 British inches. 
= 116-26 Pyramid inches. 

While the length of the granite portion alone of the 
floor is recorded at — 


Mean = 103-28 British inches. 
— 103-17 Pyramid inches. 

and the height of the granite wainscot on the east side 
of the chamber is given at 103 1 British, or 103'0 
Pyramid, inches ; but considered to be intended to be 



the same as the other really, and either of them to be 
best represen table by 103 08 Pyramid inches within 
limits ± 05 inch. 

On these numbers Captain Tracey, R.A. (now at 
Gibraltar), was the first to remark, " Why, this granite 
portion of the ante-chamber floor (thanks to those who 
have been enabled to distinguish granite from lime- 
stone, see Chapter YII. p. 1 1 1 to 1 1 7), is the length of the 
unit test of the King's Chamber for discovering com- 
mensurabilities, viz. 103-033 ; and the height of the 
granite wainscot on the east side must be intended to 
measure the same." 

Now, said he, one of these two equal lengths being 
placed horizontal, and the other vertical (both of them 
also coming to, and so enclosing, the same corner), 
they evidently typify the adjacent sides of a square ; 
the area too of that square. But the area of that 
square of 103*033 in the side (or the length of the 
granite portion of the floor only, far within the limits 
of error of the modern measures) is precisely equal to 
the area of a circle 116*26 in diameter; and 11626 
Pyramid inches is the whole length of the ante-chamber's 
floor, granite and limestone together. Or, as the Abb^ 
Moigno, in " Les Mondes " for 16 th October, more ele- 
gantly puts it (having previously called 116*26 ^=. 2 7\ 
and 103*03 = c) ; this remarkable employment of 
granite and limestone by the ancient Pyramid architect 
is the method adopted by him of saying, in one com- 
mon lanofuaofe of mathematical science, from an isolated 
mountain peak of 4,000 years ago, to all nations in the 
present educated age of the world, that — 


TT r" zzz c . 

TTAo, after this first coincidence of the ante-chamber, 
says the Abb^, could pretend that the diversity of the 
materials and their relations, or differences, of length 


are a simple, brute accident ? But here are others not 
less extraordinary connected with their absolute lengths, 
when measured in the standards and units of the Great 
Pyramid's scientific theory : and in no others known. 

2. 116-26 X TT = 365-24, the number of days in a 
year ; the number, also, of Pyramid cubits contained in 
the length of a side of the base of the Great Pyramid. 

3. 116-26x7rx5x5(5is one of the chief Pyramid 
numbers) = 9131 Pyramid inches; the length of a 
side of the square base of the Great Pyramid deduced 
from all the measures that have been taken since the 
happy discovery of the corner sockets by the French 
Academicians under Napoleon Bonaparte. 

. 4. 116-26x50 (50 is the number of horizontal courses 
of masonry between the level of the ante-chamber and 
the base of the whole Pyramid) = 5813 P^^amid 
inches ; the ancient vertical height of the Great Pyramid 
deduced from a mean of all the measures. And, 

5. 103-033x50 = 5151-65 Pyramid inches ; oris 
the side of a square of equal area, 1st, to a triangle of 
the shape and size of the Great Pyramid's vertical 
meridian section ; 2nd, to a circle having the height 
of the Pyramid for a diameter. 

Geometrical Derivation of the Passage Angle. 

That same square, of 5151-65 Pyramid inches in 
the side, is a still further important feature in the 
design of the Great Pyramid ; for, as may be seen 
more easily than described, from the practical geometry 
of Plate YII., by placing that square centrically and 
symmetrically on the centre of the base of the Pyramid, 
tri-secting its upper semi-diameter, and bi-secting its 
lower, we obtain the positions of its several chambers 
and passages ; and, above all, by a further reference to 

Chap.X.] the great pyramid. i8q 

the height of the building, we procure the angle of slope 
of those passages. 

This angle should be, from the construction, 26° 18' 
10" : and my observations found it for the entrance 
passage, by a multitude of measures with several dif- 
ferent instruments, acting on different principles — 


27' 0" 
28' 7" 
25' 20" 

Mean 26° 


ending passage — 


6' 30" 
6' 40" 

Mean 26° 



17' 28" 
17' 4" 
17' 63" 

Mean 26° 17' 32" 

Wliich three passages, therefore, contain the theoreti- 
cal 26° 18' 10" amongst them; within quite as close 
limits too as could be expected in so ancient a struc- 
ture, with many of its limestone masses cracked by the 
weight of a mountain's superincumbent pressure through 
long ages ; and very much closer than is found when 
we examine instrumentally into the mensuration errors 
of most modem buildings. 

Inches typified in the Granite Leaf. 

A further use for that particular passage angle comes^ 
up in the astronomy of the Pyramid's chronology ; but 
relegating just now that subject to a future chapter, let 


us conclude this one with reference to a very small 
matter in size, though great in importance, viz. the 
granite leaf, standing at the head of, above, and beyond 
all these passages. 

Some objectors to the Pyramid scientific theory have 
said, " We do not admit the reality of your Pyramid 
inches with its original builders, when you can only get 
such inches by subdividing immense lengths of the 
building by divisors of your own choosing. (Though 
this is denied.) But show us a single such inch, and 
then we may believe." 

Whereupon Captain Tracey has pointed out that such 
single inch is actually marked, and in a Pyramid man- 
ner on, or rather by means of, the above granite leaf in 
the ante-chamber ; and it comes about thus : 

In that small apartment its grand symbol on the 
south wall is the already mentioned illustration of a 
division into five : and if the symbol had virtue enough 
to extend into and dominate some features in the next, 
or King's Chamber (as in illustrating its now undoubted 
number of jive wall courses), why should it not typify 
something in its own chamber as well ? But what is 
there, in the ante-chamber, divided into .five ! " The 
sacred, or the Great Pyramid's own, cubit," answers 
Captain Tracey ; " for here it is so divided in the 
shape of this hoss on the granite leaf, just five inches 
broad. And further, that fifth part of that cubit of the 
Great Pyramid's symbolical design is divided before our 
eyes into five again ; for the thickness of this remarkable 
boss is l-5th of its breadth. So there you have the 
division of the sacred cubit into 5x5 inches." 

This boss on the granite leaf (see Plate X.) is another 
of my rediscoverings of things which are to be seen ; for 
they have been marked, but not sufficiently noted or 
measured, in that excellent though so unwieldy and 
seldom consulted folio of enormous plates, " Perring's," 

Chap. X.] THE GREA T PYRA MID. 1 9 1 

or rather perhaps to be called " Vyse and Perring's," 
views of the Pyramids, published in 1840. 

Nor was this most unique yet modest boss described 
and pictured by me with full correctness even in " Life 
and Work," I having made it much too high, too 
accurately rectangular at its lowest corner line, and too 
sharply and neatly defined all round : as I am enabled 
now to say positively, having been kindly furnished by 
my friend Mr. Waynman Dixon with a cast of it in 
Portland cement taken by him in the Great Pyramid 
last year (1872). The one inch thickness however, and 
jive inches breadth, being fairly measurable along the 
best part of the cast-boss for measuring, viz. its steep, 
though not absolutely rectangular, lower edge, — they 
remain untouched and perfectly suitable for Captain 
Tracey's analogy, which is further supported as follows : 
— The boss, a flat bas-relief one inch thick or high 
from the stone, is on the north side of the upper 
of the two granite stones forming that "granite leaf" 
which crosses the ante-chamber near its northern end. 
(Compare Chapter IX., pages 154 to 157.) Excepting 
the presently broken state of the upper surface of 
the top stone, evidently a modern mischief, the forma- 
tion of the whole leaf is regular, rectangular, and sym- 
metrical. Why then is the boss not in the middle 
between the two sides of the very narrow apartment ? 
(41 "21 inches broad). 

My measures of 1865, if they can be trusted here, 
show that the boss is just one inch away on one side 
of the centre ; and as it has been otherwise shown by 
the niche of the Queen's Chamber, that it was a Great 
Pyramid method to indicate a small quantity (there a 
whole cubit) by an excentricity to that amount in some 
far grander architectural feature, we cannot but accept 
this excentricity of the boss as an additional Pyramid 
memorial of the very thing which is being called for 


by the sceptical just now ; viz. one single, little inch 
memorialized by the builders of the most colossal piece 
of architecture in the world. All the more decidedly 
too, when, as Mr. St. John Vincent Day has since then 
shown, that that very excentric position of the boss has 
enabled the distance from its centre to the eastern end 
of the leaf itself in its well-cut groove in the granite 
wainscot to be, within the limits of mensuration errors, 
just a whole Pyramid cubit = 25 '025 British inches, or 
something very near to it indeed.'''^ So that we have 
tied up here the whole cubit, its fifth part and its 
twenty-fifth part ; which, though so small, like the 
needle in a haystack, yet is it also securely tied up here, 
for the instruction of all posterity. 

And Captain Tracey again shows that the lower stone 
of the granite leaf (in this ante-chamber, which proves 
itself to be a veritable synopsis or microcosm, of the whole 
Great Pyramid), that this lower stone, I say, which is fairly 
dressed, rectangular, "j* and the one on which the upper 

* My measures say, p. 100, vol. ii. of " Life and Work " — 

British ' inches 

Centre of boss to east side of room = 21-5 

P. 98, vol. ii., depth of groove in that wall . . . .= 40 

Whole distance from centre of boss to east end of granite leaf 

in its groove = 2o-5 

But again, on p. 93, and also p. 95, the grooved breadth of the 

room is given in British inches at 48*1 


Mean = 48-067 

Half = 24-034 
Add 1 inch of excentricity of the boss from east wall . -\- 1 

Whole distance of centre of boss from the inside of its flat 
groove in granite (a distance which I recommend to future 
explorers to check for me) = 25-034 

t My ante-chamber measures, as condensed on p. 37 of the 13th vol. of 
the ** Edinburgh Astronomical Obs. : " — 

Say, granite leaf, thickness north to south, on east side . = 15*4 
„ ,, west side . = 16-0 

Chap.X.] the great pyramid. 193 

stone with its divisions of the cubit rests, — expresses a 
notable division of the capacity measure of the coffer. 
For it presents us, within the walls of the ante-chamber, 
with a fourth part of that coffer vessel ; or with the 
veritable ■' corn quarter " of old, and which is still the 
British quarter corn-measure both by name and fact and 
practical size. 

A Representative Antagonist of the Modern Scientific 

Theory of the Great Pyramid. 


But now, after so many confirmations, both large and 
small, furnished by the Great Pyramid itself (and there 
are more still, and of a higher class, to appear in our 
fourth and fifth parts), the reader may possibly be in- 
clined to ask, " Who are the parties who still refuse to 
allow the force of any of these things ; and persist in 
saying that they see in the Great Pyramid merely 
a burial monument of those idolatrous Egyptians, who 
delighted in nothing so much as grovelling worship, 
and architectural memorialization, of bulls and goats, 
cats, crocodiles, beetles, and almost every bestial thing ?" 

One of these unhappy recusants has lately offered him- 
self for description. He is an Oxford man and a clergy- 
man, a country vicar and a chaplain to Royalty ; the 
author too of a large octavo of travel in Egypt, pub- 
lished two years ago and already in a second edition ; 
a book written throughout cleverly, fluently, scholarly, 
but in an outrageously rationalistic vein of ultra Broad 
Churchism, even to the extent of holding the. Biblical 
history of man, in all its miraculous features and limits 

Height of lower stone 27'o to 28-0 

Breadth east to west, between the open walls . . . = 41*21 + a? 
„ between the leaf's grooves . . = 48'05 ± * 

But they ought now to be repeated by some one else, when so much 
theoretical importance seems to attach to them. 


194 ^^^ INHERITANCE IN [Part IT. 

of chronology, to be utterly false. The religions of Christ 
and Moses this author perversely maintains to have 
been in no way differently originated from those of 
Egypt, Greece, and Rome. They were each and all, with 
him, merely the product, "the summa philosojjhia/' 
of the wisest men of their time, acting by their human 
wisdom alone, and composing systems of religion suitable 
for their own respective ages : as, too, he would have 
the ablest men amongst us try to do again for these 
troubled and most unhinged times in which we live ; 
times wanting, he says, a new religion, for that of Christ 
is no longer effective. 

This, then, was the author who, starting for his 
Egyptian tour at six hours' notice only, tells us that he 
took no scientific instruments with him ; and says, 
moreover, that he did not want them, as he has methods 
of philosophical observation overriding all science. 

Thus, as to the almost endless series of mathe- 
matical and physical problems contained in the Great 
Pyramid, this vicar-Oxonian merely leant against the 
monument, with his hands in his pockets, and look- 
ing upward along its sides, declared that he got a 
far better notion of it, than if he had made any 
number of scientific observations ; for he perceived 
with the greatest certainty then, there, and at once, 
that in place of there being any truth in all the unique 
numbers and mysteriously deep scientific things pub- 
lished about it by the Scottish Astronomer Royal, — 
the whole edifice throughout all its building was nothing 
but an ordinary development of ordinary human nature 
in history. The Egyptians, he says, built the Great 
Pyramid at the time, and in the manner, they did, 
merely because they could not help it : it was the only 
way that occurred to them to build it, and there was no 
thinking spent upon it. 

If opposite extremes ever meet, they certainly do so 

Chap. X.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 1 95 

here : for the said Scottish Astronomer Roj^al also holds, 
that the EgyptiaTis spent no thought upon the design 
of the Great Pyramid, and built it without understand- 
ing it, and because they could not do otherwise at that 
time. But that nevertheless a Mighty Intelligence did 
both think out the plans for it, and compel unwilling 
and ignorant idolaters, in a primal age of the world, 
to work mightily both for the future glory of the one, 
true God of Revelation, and to establish lasting pro- 
phetic testimony touching a further development, still 
to take place, of the absolutely Divine Christian Dis- 

The Astronomer, however, asks no one to take his 
mere opinion. If the facts which he has to unfold, 
work no conviction ; neither will, nor should, all the 
words of persuasion that he could possibly utter. 



B8 assembled: who among them can DECLARE THIS, AND SHEW US 




TTTHEN Magna Charta ruled the British land, — and 
' * perhaps in thoroughness of spirit and completeness 
of intention with those immediately concerned that was 
not very long, — a ray of metrological wisdom and a 
beam of light from some far-off horizon in the history 
of the human race, shot momentarily athwart the 
troubled scene of our national weights and measures. 

Those institutions had existed from the earliest times 
known to our literature, an heirloom among the Anglo- 
Saxon peoples ; and a late first-rate American writer, 
as well as statesman (John Quincey Adams), equally 
claiming with ourselves to be descended from that 
ancient stock, but without any necessary prejudice 
in favour of the wisdom of modem British Parlia- 
ments, has expressed a very firm conviction that the 
most perfect condition of those weights and measures, 
even including all that was done for them by modern 
savants under the reign of George IV., was in the 
earliest known times of Saxon history ; and connects 
itself much more with an ancient Royal residence at 
Winchester, than a modern one in London or Windsor. 
It may have been earlier still ; and the system had already 
fallen into such republican, many-headed, confusion in 
the times of King John, that the Charter, to the joy of 
all men, said that in future there was only to be one 


standard of measure throughout the land ;* while, to 
render that principle a possible one to carry out in 
practice, wisdom counselled, and ancient Saxon practice 
reminded, that grand standards both of length and 
weight should be immediately constructed, and copies 
thereof dispatched to all parts of the kingdom. 

But what followed ? 

That which too uniformly follows when a generous 
people, roused for a time to the care and assertion of 
their rights, trust all to the word of unwilling, 
despotically inclined rulers ; and then relax once more 
into passive obedience and dull routine. 

Those standard measures, if ever made, were lost ; no 
copies were sent to country districts ; the Magna 
Charta lawyers were ignorant of the most vital facts 
(as abundantly evidenced by their verbally ordaining 
that the quarter was to be the national measure for 
corn, but leaving the people in ignorance of what measure 
or weight it was the fourth part) ; ■]* and then came a 
certain very natural consequence. 

Practical weights and measures are not only of in- 
terest, but essential importance to all classes of the realm : 
for, as was well said years ago, all the productions of 
land and labour, of nature and art, and of every concern 
and condition of life, are bought, sold, or estimated by 

* " Measures are wanted for two distinct objects, the commercial and 
the scientific. The wants of natural philosophy have grown up within 
the last two centuries ; while so early as Magna Charta it was one of the 
concessions to the grievances of the subject that there should be one 
weight and one measure throughout the land," says the late Lord 
Brougham's chief educational authority ; not knowing, however, that the 
epoch of Magna Charta, instead of being primeval, is very middle-aged 
indeed, in the real history of British weights and measures. 

t A.D. 1215. Magna Charta, Sect. 35 :— 

" There shall be but one uniform standard of weights, measures, and 
manufactures ; that for com shall be the London quarter." 

"Magna Charta," says Dr. Kelly, in his "Metrology," 1816, "points 
out the quarter of London as the only standard for measures and weights 
of that time, but we are left to guess of what measure or weight it was 
the quarter part." 


them. Hence, weights and measures have been very 
properly defined as the foundation of justice, the safe- 
guard of property, and the rule of right ; while the laws of 
honour peculiarly abhor any fraud in this respect. Yet 
withal, says the same authority, it is to the common 
people, in every country, to whom the business of 
weighing and measuring is almost exclusively com- 
mitted. Whence, in part, by evident necessity, it comes 
that weights and measures are primarily affairs of the 
working classes, of the poor, and those who with 
their own hands do the daily work of the world ; not 
of the rich, who luxuriously inhale the sweets and 
tempting quintessence thereof, without vulgar toil ; 
without any racking anxieties so to economise their 
daily bread as just to be able to make both ends meet. 
They, i.e. the rich, and even the classes between them 
and the workers, viz., mercantile men, and various em- 
ployers of labour, can perfectly well afford in their 
lordly mansions or comfortable counting-houses, to 
reckon up their gains in terms of any measures, or of 
any language, whatever under the sun, when balancing 
their account-books at stated intervals ; but the working 
poor, in their daily, ceaseless, occupations, have neither 
the education, nor the time, nor the opportunity to deal 
with more than one language and one set of measures. 

And these last, to be fully useful, must come to 
them, in every item, just as naturally as the mother- 
tongue is felt to do in after-life ; for who is there, 
unless experienced in practical matters himself, who 
knows how suddenly and immediately, in many of the 
constant affairs of the working world, an unexpected 
exigency occurs ; when, without books, or scales, or 
balances, or compasses, the labouring man, whether 
sailor or coal-miner, whether agriculturist or engineer, 
has to look some natural danger in the face ; and his 
only hope of plucking the flower, " safety," from the 


event, is in his then and there instantly concluding, 
without instrumental assistance, without time for 
serious thought or metrical examination, upon a nearly 
correct estimate of some measure of weight, or length of 
space, or strength of material, or angle of slope, before 
the catastrophe arrives. 

The working man, too, must have convenient natural 
standards also to refer to at certain times, both to 
correct the estimate of his mere feelings, and keep up 
as well an outward proof, as an inward ideal, of justice 
in his dealings with those around him, but in the 
terms he loves best. So what was the consequence 
when the restored king and government of A.D. 1215, 
having got the rule of the country once again into 
their power, did not send the promised standards to 
every town and village in the land ? Why, every town 
and every village began to make standard measures for 
themselves, and for their own immediate knots of 
society, rich men and poor, farmers, artisans, and mer- 
chants, in their small and often very isolated pro- 
vincial communities. 

Within a certain range that was tolerable enough ; 
because all these examples j)ro tern, were more or less 
closely founded on, or were tolerably representative in 
some way or another of, the original Saxon standards, 
and were named with names derived from the same 
effective language ; but beyond that range of temporary 
service, — then began the mediaeval confusion worse con- 
founded which has reigned in our national weights and 
measures ever since. Under the same name, at the 
same epoch, all sorts of different subdivisions of the 
same original quantities have been intended in different 
parts of the country ; and, in such various country-side 
parts, through a long series of years, what astounding 
names, not unfrequently for the same thing, have not 


been invented out of the wealth and depth of the 
mother tongue ! 

The late Dr. Young collected as many as would have 
filled a small dictionary,* and the general progress of 
the nation was not at that time found free from ex- 
ceptional results in this direction. For, as civilization 
progressed, wealth asserted its interests too powerfully ; 
and lawyers were always attainable, to frame any num- 
ber of acts of parliament to secure rent and taxes 
being drawn from the working poor in any and every 
denomination ; but to prevent their deriving profits 
from their work, unless a statute standard was rigidly 
adhered to. 

That holding up to view the importance of one grand 
national standard, was indeed in so far (for it was evi- 
dently one-sided) very excellent ; but unfortunately, 
the powers that were went on framing their acts of 
parliament without either defining, making, or identi- 
fying any such standard. The taking of scientific 
steps really to do that, seemed to men of the pen, 
the law, and schools of high mental philosophy, a 
base mechanic operation, which their ethereal line of 
studies placed them far above the level of It was a 
drudgery they would not submit to ; and even up to 
the other day (1814), when at last it was impressed on 
the governing bodies that, in the material matter of 
weights and measures, there must be material standards, 
— they appointed a yard, which was to bear a certain 
proportion to a second's pendulum of a specially named 

* The following is an example from one division of his report :— Awm, 
hag, bale, basket, bat, beatment, billet, bind, bing, boll, bolt, bolting, 
bottle, bout, box, bucket, bunch, bundle, burden, cabot, cade, canter, 
caroteel, carriage, cart, cartload, case, cast, cheef, chest, clue, cord, corf, 
cran, cranock, cut, cyvar, cyvelin, daugh, dish, drop, duffer, &c. &c. 

*' Mr. Adderley said that in his country there were thirty-six different 
bushels, and he was informed that in Lancashire there were more than 
double that number." — " Report of Discussion in the House of Commons, 
14th May, 1864." 


and legally described scientific order ; but what length 
that pendulum was of in very fact, they did not inquire ; 
for they said, " any expert watchmaker could ascer- 
tain that ; " and yet up to the present time neither 
watchmaker nor philosopher, nor government official of 
any kind or degree, has fully succeeded in that little 

So the confusion of weights and measures only grew 
worse in the kingdom, while other branches of civiliza- 
tion continually progressed. About the year 1700 A.D., 
the Government, through the Attorney-General, had in- 
stituted an accusation against a merchant for cheating 
the revenue by using false gallons ; and he, the mer- 
chant, successfully proved that it was the Government's 
own appointed gallon that he had followed, and that 
Government did not know what they had been legislating 
on the subject.* 

That was a grievous exposure ; but the fault was 
easily thrown on the poor working men, when a Parlia- 
mentary Committee superciliously reported in 1758, 
that of those uneducated beings, but who had hitherto 
borne all the toil and burden of the work, only a few of 

♦ *' A little after 1700 an information was tried in the Exchequer against 
one Baxter, for having imported more Alicant wine than he had paid 
duty for. On the part of the Crown it was contended that the sealed 
gallon at Guildhall (said to contain 231 cubic inches) was the standard. 
But the defendant appealed to the law, which required that a standard 
gallon should be kept at the Treasury ; proved that there was such a 
gallon at the Treasury, containing 282 cubic inches ; and established, by 
the evidence of the oldest persons in the trade, that the butts and hogs- 
heads which came from Spain had always contained the proper number 
of the real standard gallons. A juror was withdrawn, and the law officers 
of the Crown took no further proceedings except procuring the above Act 
(* An Act of 5 Anne, cap. 27, for arresting the further decrease of the 
gallon below 231 inches'). A better instance of confusion could hardly 
be imagined ; the legal gallon had gradually been diminished more than 
60 cubic inches ; the merchants in one particular trade continued to 
import and to pay duty by the real gallon, and were finally called to 
account by the Attorney- General, who, in common with the rest of the 
world, had forgotten what a real gallon was, and sued for penalties upon 
appeal to what was no more a legal standard than the measure in a pri- 
vate shop." — Fenny Cyclopc^dia. 


them were able heretofore to make proper measures or 

weights ; standards were carelessly made and destroyed 
as defective, and the unskilfulness of the artificers, 
joined to the ignorance of those who were to size and 
check the weights and measures, occasioned all sorts 
of varieties to be dispersed through the kingdom, 
which were all deemed legal, yet disagreed. 

Other independent-minded persons, however, ven- 
tured to report, and perhaps more justly, that another 
cause of this confusion was " the prodigious number of 
acts of parliament, whereby the knowledge of weights 
and measures became every year more and more mys- 
terious." In 1823 it was stated by Dr. Kelly, in his 
examination before the House of Lords, " that there 
had been upwards of two hundred laws enacted without 
success in favour of conformity, and five hundred various 
measures in defiance of those laws." Both sets of acts 
of parliament, too, were in opposition to that law of the 
practical nature of things, which ordains that every- 
thing in connection with weights and measures shall be 
done in direct reference to material examples thereof. 

But, in 1824, a standard yard and a standard pound 
were at last deposited in the House of Commons ; and 
the Legislature enjoyed the advantage of having a 
moderately accurate example before them, of the prac- 
tical thing they were legislating about. This pleasure, 
however, only lasted about ten years : for in October, 
1834, both yard and pound perished in the Great Fire 
which consumed the two Houses of Parliament. 

Then was made another insane attempt to get on 
without any standards at all ; to collect revenue by the 
threat of a standard, and yet have no standard to refer 
to. Lawyers, therefore, had it all their own way in this 
pleasant fiction ; and in an act of parliament (5 and 6 


William IV. c. 63), which passed both assemblies in the 
following year, " the standards were referred to as if 
still in existence, and quoted as authorities to be ap- 
pealed to on every occasion, although they had been 
actually destroyed a twelvemonth before, and no other 
standards submitted in their stead," 

Both Houses of Parliament certainly appeared to have 
been wholly ignorant of this actual non-existence of the 
objects on which they were legislating. But some per- 
sons said for them, that they were not, and never had 
been, entirely dependent on their late legalized parlia- 
mentary standards ; for Government had an ancient 
standard of its own, to which extra-conscientious 
ministers might refer when there was grave occasion. 

Curiosity was .excited. There had been indeed once 
two standards in the Exchequer, descended from some- 
what historical times {i.e. Queen Elizabeth's) ; one of 
45 inches, the other of 36. The former, the more 
accurate of the two, seems to have been allowed to drop 
out of sight altogether at some period unknown ; and 
the latter was abused, instead of used, in a degree 
directly proportionate in latter days to the nation's 
advance in wealth, the growth of geodesic science 
amongst learned men, and the increase of general atten- 
tion to the scientific subject of standards in foreign 

For, so far back as 1742, when some inquiries were 
set on foot by both the Koyal Society of London, and 
the Paris Academy of Sciences, the Exchequer standards 
were then in a respectable condition ; and seemed to be 
treated with attention and care, by the high officers and 
clerks of the establishment. But no one had heard of 
them again for a long interval. And when their habita- 
tion was at length revisited in 1835, to see the founda- 
tion on which the government of good King William 
was then legislating, Mr. Baily reports of the then single 


standard, and apparently the only one,* •' that it was 
impossible to speak of it too much in derision and con- 
tempt. A common kitchen poker, filed at the end in 
the rudest manner by the most bungling- workman, 
would make as good a standard. It has been broken 
asunder," he writes, " and the two pieces have been dove- 
tailed together, but so badly that the joint is nearly as 
loose as a pair of tongs. The date of the fracture I 
could not ascertain, it having occurred beyond the 
memory or knowledge of any of the officers at the Ex- 
chequer. And yet, till within the last ten years, to the 
disgrace of this country, copies of this measure have 
been circulated all over Europe and America, with a 
parchment document accompanying them (charged with 
a stamp that costs £3 10s., exclusive of official fees), 
certifying that they are the true copies of the British 

These are severe remarks ; and partly help to answer 
the noted difficulty which Dr. Kelly found himself 
confronted with, after all his historical researches up to 
his own time ; viz., that in England there is nothing 
that has a greater tendency to grow worse, or, curiously 
enough, more obstinately resists improvement, than 
weights and measures," Yet the Exchequer itself has 
indicated the full truth of Mr. Baily's critique, by 
publishing the Astronomer Koyal's very similar views ; 

* Since the above was written, an unusually good parliamentary report 
has appeared, drawn up by Mr. Chisholm, chief clerk in the office of the 
Comptroller-General of the Exchequer, on "The Exchequer Standards of 
Woif^ht and Measure ; " mentioning a yard rod, a gallon, and two bushels 
of Henry VII. ; a yard measure and an ell, together with pints, quarts, 
gallons, bushels, and troy and avoirdupois weights of Quoen Elizabeth, 
besides several other weights and measures of the early Norman kings, 
and not regarded as standards. 

Of the above Exchequer standards, so-called, the yard rod of Henry VII. 
is that which was expressly stated, in 1743, to have been for a long time 
disused as a standard ; the ell rod of Queen Elizabeth is that which also 
dropped into disuse between 1743 and 1835 ; while the yard rod of the 
same queen is that which was reported on by Mr. Baily to the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1835, as horrible in workmanship, and with lis 
length shortened by a dovetail. 


first, on tlie error in the general theory of British 
legislation on the subject of standards, as shown in 
" the entire apathy on the part of Government towards 
the matter, whereby it acts only when pressed by 
popular demands;" and second, the error in the prac- 
tice of the British Executive, which is, within its 
functions, not much unlike the above ; leading also to 
such exposures of our chief political statesmen as the 
following, extracted from Mr. Chisholm's report : — 

" In answer to a question upon this subject in the 
House of Commons, Sir George Grey is reported to have 
said (see Hansard) that ' the standards (Exchequer) had 
been examined ; some adjustment was found necessary, 
and measures would be taken to have them verified.' 
It is probable that the answer of the Home Secretary 
was imperfectly heard or misapprehended, as no exami- 
nation, comparison, or adjustment whatever of the Ex- 
chequer standards has been made." 

Since then, however, some members of her Majesty's 
Government have advanced in metrological knowledge : 
a new office has been created for the subject and placed 
under the care of the same Mr. Chisholm, late chief clerk 
in the Exchequer, with the title of " Warden of the 
Standards;" and a gentle current of interest has so 
decidedly begun to flow towards the subject, that one 
or two of the oratorical leaders on ordinary political 
topics have graciously intimated, that when that current 
shall have become stronger they may then perhaps 
find it worth their while to utilize its motive power, 
and in their own way and for their own purposes con- 
sider, what can be done for, or with, our British national 
and hereditary weights and measures. 

Too late ! too late ! for while these politicals were 
dallying with their national duties, a mine has been 
sprung beneath their feet. The merchants and manu- 


facturers of the country, with a section of the scientific 
men, chiefly of the electrician and chemical stamp, 
have burst into the arena, and declare that they cannot 
wait for the slow improvements of Government. They 
want, they haste, to be rich. The creed that they almost 
worship consists in " buying in the cheapest, and selling 
in the dearest, market," or making money with the 
utmost speed ! * and as they fancy that their operations 
receive a momentary check in some foreign countries, 
by the different metrological systems there and here, — 
so immediately, without weighing the whole case, with- 
out allowing the mass of the population to have a voice 
in that which is their affair, which is as ancient and 
necessary to them, the people, as their very language, 
and without considering whether, by breaking down the 
barriers between France and Frenchified countries and 
ourselves, they may not be raising up other obstacles 
between ourselves as so altered, and Russia, f America 
and Australia, — they, these new intruders into the 
scene, are calling out and demanding that French 
weights and French measures shall be instantly adopted 
by law from one end of Great Britain to the other ; 
under pains and penalties, too, of the most compulsory 
order, and enforced by a new and special description 
of highly paid officials to be appointed for that sole 

In the midst of such a headlong pursuit of mere 

♦ See Mr. John Taylor's work, " Wealth the Number of the Beast." 
t Amongst many other symptoms of strong and youthful vitality, and 
promise of its future pre-eminence in the affairs of the world, Russia 
scorns to adopt the French units of measure. Some interested parties 
recently went to St. Petersburg, trying: to persuade its citizens to adopt 
the French system, on the plea that Belgium, Holland, Sardinia, Tuscany, 
Spain, Portugal, Greece, Switzerland, and several countries of South 
America, had already joined it, and that Great Britain was just going to 
do 80. But Russia whs nothing moved by that, and though all the world 
was going to submit itself to France, she, Russia, was not ; she knew the 
value of her own hereditary measures, connected at one point with the 
British system, and she would as soon give up her language aa her 
ancient metrology, adapted to, and loved by, her people. 



wealth, as this unprecedented tampering with the pre- 
historic possessions of our nation, for such a purpose, 
would be, the poor are unfortunately the first to go to 
the wall. They may have been somewhat curbed and 
bridled in past times by kings and barons and Govern- 
ment servants, — but what is that to the oppression of 
merchants and mill-masters hasting to be rich, and 
freely sacrificing thereto any patriotic sentiments and 
historical associations which their " hands " may pre- 
sume to indulge in ? 

There is not indeed a completer way than by such a 
forced introduction of foreign units, for treading out the 
desire for national independence amongst our poorer 
classes, the chief material, after all, of our army and 
navy in war, and main strength in peace ; and for 
telling every man of them, and twenty times a day, 
whether he is in the field or whether he is in the 
house, that his convenience and comfort in necessaries 
are sacrificed to schemings for still more riches to come 
to those who are abeady overflowingly rich ; and that 
the poor man's fine traditional aspirations for the per- 
petuity of the British name, are held subservient amongst 
his latest rulers to lower and less patriotic ideas of the 
hour. While even the very " People's House " of the 
Legislature with their Committee of 1862 arrived, in 
their own words, unanimously at the Macchiavellian 
conclusion, " cautiously and steadily to introduce into 
this country the French metric system, adopting its 
nomenclature also ; at first merely legalising its use, 
and then, after a time, rendering it compulsory :" and 
never, perhaps, expecting to hear the Nemesian cry 
raised against them, the cry which, when issuing from 
the rank and file, has proved the speedy death-knell of 
a great empire within the last three years — " Nous 
sommes trahis " (" We are betrayed "). 

The Committee were indeed told, from the reports of 

Chap. XL] THE GREA T PYRAMID, 2 1 1 

the Astronomer Koyal and elsewhere, "that the said" 
forcible introduction of foreign weights and measures 
into Great Britain would be to the eoccessively great 
inconvenience of 9,999 persons out of every 10,000 
of the population, and the gain to the one person 
in 10,000 only small; and that any interference of 
Government for compelling the use of foreign measures 
in the ordinary retail business of the country would be 
intolerable; that they could not enforce their penal 
laws in one- instance in a thousand, and in that one 
it would be insupportahly oppressive.'' Yet all the 
effect that this wise, salutary, and truly charitable in- 
formation produced on the politico-pretence merchants 
of peace principles, with Mr. Cobden himself amongst 
them, was " to look forward to a comprehensive and 
exact system of inspection, and the establishment of 
an efficient central department to give force and unity 
to local action." In fact, to act like a German army 
in undisputed possession of a foreign country, and put 
down at all costs amongst the British people any 
national feelings for historical institutions of their own ; 
for things which, however they may have been meddled 
with by modem acts of parliament, are still substan- 
tially the same as those which the origines of the 
nation received, the nation itself does not know how or 
where, or exactly when ; though they are fully aware 
that they have possessed them as long as they have 
ever been a nation at all, or from before the birth of 
any history amongst us ; and they, the mass of the 
working people, understand the outside world thoroughly, 
familiarly, intuitively, only in terms of them. 

No wonder the Tiinnes wrote on July 9th, 1863 : — 
"A very great trial is impending over this free and 
happy country. It is not the loss of our cotton trade, 
of our colonies, of our prestige, or our maritime 
supremacy. It is a change that would strike far deeper 


and wider than any of these ; for there is not a house- 
hold it would not fill with perplexity, confusion, and 
shame. From a division in the House of Commons 
yesterday, it appears that we are seriously threatened 
with a complete assimilation of all our weights and 
measures to the French system. Three years are given 
to unlearn all the tables upon which all our buying and 
selling, hiring and letting, are now done. Three years 
are supposed to be amply sufiicient for undoing and 
obliterating the traditions of every trade, the accounts 
of every concern, the engagements of every contract, 
and the habits of every individual. But we very much 
doubt whether the general shopkeepers, who take pos- 
session of the comers of our small streets, or the green- 
grocers, will be able in three years to translate their 
accounts into Duas, Hectos, Kilos, Myrias, Steres, and 
Litres, Metres, Millimetres, Centimetres, and the hun- 
dred other terms extracted by our ingenious neigh- 
bours from Latin or Greek, as may happen to suit 
their purposes. Is the House of Commons, then, really 
prepared to see the votes, the reports, the returns 
of the revenue, the figures of the national debt, all 
run up in paper francs and actually paid in gold 
Napoleons ?" 

The accomplishment, however, of so undesirable a 
result seems to have been postponed for a time by the 
Parliamentary proceedings of May 4th, 1864 ; when 
Mr. Ewart's bill, after two readings, was withdrawn in 
deference to another proposal brought up by Mr. Milner 
Gibson. But as Mr. Cobden professed himself quite 
unable to see the difference between the two, though 
allowing there might be some, — and we know already 
what are the ultimate compulsory intentions of the 
promoters of the bill, — it is plain that the thin end of 
the wedge is already introduced to attempt to destroy 
our British hereditary metrology. 


Chap. XI.] THE GREA T PYRAMID, 2 1 3 

Thus far, nearly, was written in the first edition of 
this book, published in 1864; but now in 1873-4, 
what is the state of matters ? 

Well, their condition is surely most passing strange ; 
for, bill after bill has been brought into Parliament, 
agitators have been at work throughout the land, defec- 
tions from the national cause have occurred by the 
thousand, scientific men have turned coat, and those 
who a few years ago gave the most splendid testimony 
that to force foreign measures on the British people 
would aggravate them to the extent of civil war, those 
who in an earlier state of society would have died 
rather than abandon their best opinions and patriotic 
creeds, — have now been signing propositions on the other 
side, and even assisting in putting up at the Palace of 
Westminster, side by side, copies of the British and 
French standards of length, as though the Government 
of France ruled already over half of the British people. 

Other renegade scientific men, encouraged too by 
some of the chief scientific societies, have been publish- 
ing new text-books in science for, if possible, all the 
schools and colleges in the empire ; wherein, though 
they still condescend to use the English language, they 
scorn to be loyal to the English authorized weights 
and measures ; but speak of everything "in the heavens 
above and the earth below in the new French metrical 
terms, which they seem to have sworn together they 
will make this country accept, whether it likes it or 
not.* While in the elementary schools which are now 
springing up under Government headship and School 
Board management all over the country, teachers are 

* In the letters which have appeared in "Nature," from H.M.S. 
Challenger' s scientific expedition, carried on at an expense of not less than 
£20,000 a year to the British people, those contemned individuals have 
the distances steamed over by their British ship, by means of British coal, 
described to them in kilometrea ; and even a little piece of chalk, bronj^ht 
up by the dredge from the ocean-bottom, is defined for size to British 
readers by fractional part* of a metre. 


urged, induced, -encouraged from some secret quarters 
to take time, witk its expected political changes, by 
anticipation, and teach all the children within their 
reach at once the French weights and measures ; or 
when they cannot do that, openly in defiance or prosti- 
tution of what the schools were established for, at least 
to have some printed representation of the French 
system suspended in sight, as though it were soon 
going to he the law of the land. 

And yet, notwithstanding all these questionable pro- 
ceedings, every attempted bill has failed before Parlia- 
ment ; and another bill yet, which is to be brought in 
this very year (1873) will have to go through the 
Sisypheian labour of the others, or of beginning the 
task again where Mr. E wart's bill of 1864 began, as 
well as ended.* 

How they all came to fail, is almost as deep a mys- 
tery, as how and whence the irrepressible and untiring 
energy to bring them forward again and again, is 
derived ; for though two good speeches were delivered 
against the last bill, what were they to the torrent of 
declamation on the other side, — claiming, too, to be the 
side of liberal opinion, of modern science, of political 
advance, of mercantile wealth, of organized industries, 
of all civilization, and indeed of everything but — nation- 
ality, history, and religion. 

Those three ought, of course, to be a powerful trio ; 
in other countries too, as well as our own ; but the 
two latter of them were not invoked in the Parliamen- 
tary discussion at all. Indeed, they were apparently 
not understood by either party as in any way belonging 
to the subject ; so that whatever political ferment has 
been made hitherto by the metrological question, it is 

* At the time of going through the press this event has already 
occurred; Mr. Benjamin Smith's bill having been withdrawn, and a 
promise given that Government is to take up the subject next year. 

Chap. XI.] THE GREA T PYRAMID, 2 1 5 

nothing to what is inevitably to come, and all the 
world over too, when its full importance has been 
understood ; and its profligate treatment at the hands of 
rulers during the present hour, appreciated by the rising 
and indignant masses of all civilized nations. 

Just now, or up to the present time, therefore, the 
fight has merely been between the would-be introducers 
of the new French metric system, and the defenders of 
the British national system as it is. These latter men 
will have no change, simply because they dislike all 
change, and have been getting on after a fashion well 
enough hitherto ; but they cannot expect on those prin- 
ciples to have the victory in future fights always given 
into their hand : especially when they can neither pre- 
tend to prove that the British metrology is everything 
that it might be to suit the advanced wants of the 
present high state of civilization and science ; nor 
demonstrate that it is still, all that it once was, for 
general social purposes in that primeval time when the 
system was first given as an heirloom to the Saxon 
race, before they came to these islands. This latter 
position is, indeed, suflficiently indicated from our 
sketch, meagre though it is, of the political history of 
British weights and measures from the days of Edgar 
the Peaceable on his throne of Winchester, down to the 
present hour. And when throughout that long in- 
terval, these most precious units and standards have 
always been neglected by our chief rulers for the time 
being, and left without guidance to underlings or in- 
terlopers to manipulate almost at pleasure, how could 
we expect Government, with ever so good intentions, 
to have either safely preserved, or wisely built up, our 
metrological traditions ? 

When Dr. Kelly found reason to remark, that 
through all our modern history our weights and mea- 
sures had always been growing worse, rather thrn 



[Part III. 

better, — ^he might well have risen to the idea that at 
some primeval age they must have been of strange and 
even surpassing excellence. But it was not given to 
him, or any scientist in that reign, to perceive the logical 
bearings of the case so clearly : wherefore weights and 
measures went on in a doomed course towards a sea of 
trouble destined to surge over many nations. 

Louis Napoleon may have disappeared, a defeated 
man; but before he fell from power he had engaged the 
then Prussian king, now German emperor, to abolish 
the ancient national German measures and establish the 
new French ones in their stead, when the year 1872 or 
1874 should arrive. And now that haughty potentate 
must either swallow his words, undo much preparator}'- 
legislation, and break faith with the metrical men, — or 
will have, whether in his own, or in his son's time, to 
enter into contention with the masses of the German 
people who have raised him to his present throne by 
their intense Germanism ; but never gave him authority 
to tamper with their hereditary German gifts and pos- 
sessions ; theirs from before the time that they say 
St. Paul visited them as the Galatians. 

"Oh !" but joyfully argue some men, " it would be so 
gloriously promotive of modern science, for one set only 
of weights and measures to be used and referred to by 
the scientific men of all nations." Yet that is only a 
resuscitation of a cruel fallacy of the middle ages ; viz., 
to try to keep up Latin as a common language among 
all scientists whatever language their poor fellow- 
countrymen spoke. A demoralizing and suicidal fallacy ; 
because it was found in practice infinitely more im- 
portant, patriotic, charitable, for each scientific man to 
have no secrets, no mysteries from the masses of those 
poor, but worthy, and often most religiously-minded 
men around him ; and whose friendly encompassing of 
him in that manner, was the very source of the quiet 

Chap. XI.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 2 1 7 

and leisure which he enjoyed for his own prosecution 
of science. Wherefore the first professor who gave a 
scientific lecture in the vulgar tongue in a German 
university, was rightly held to have made almost as 
precious, useful, and fruitful a reform, as that priest 
who began the system of publicly praying, and reading 
the Scriptures, in the language of the people. 

There is, indeed, something to be said for choice, or 
regulation, of weights and measures coming from the 
side of science ; but the people were in the field before 
science, and have the first and largest interest in them 
still. Neither is it in the power of any scientific men, 
with, all their science up to its very latest developments, 
to invent a truly national set of weights and measures, 
any more than they can make a national language and 
a national people. 

Before the Flood, according to the Bible, there was 
no division of mankind into nations ; that was a divine 
appointment afterwards, together with the creation of 
their tongues, the appointment of their bounds, and, 
there are good reasons for believing, the assignment of 
their weights and measures. And if that was the case, 
a direct and intentional effort by men to subvert them 
now entirely, is not likely to succeed, however many 
scientists put their shoulders to the wheel. 

But the French metrical system, in its acts and 
ambitions, is precisely such an attempt in these days to 
dethrone the primeval system of weights and measures 
amongst all nations ; and make all mankind speak in 
future in that new and artificial metrological language, 
invented only eighty years ago in Paris. And if there 
is sound reason for believing in the Divine appointment 
of the ancient systems, this new antagonist to them 
otight to have been ushered in under some very con- 
trary influence. 


How, then, was it brought to the light of day ? 

By the wildest, most bloodthirsty, and most atheistic 
revolution of a whole nation, that the world has ever 
seen. And, attempt to conceal it as they may, our 
present meek-looking but most designing promoters for 
introducing the French system amongst us (and I hear 
from Birmingham that there is a lady also among them, 
loudly petitioning Government for its compulsory 
establishment, forsooth, over our whole nation) — those 
meek-looking geniuses, I say, cannot wipe out from 
the page of history, that, simultaneously with the 
elevation of the metrical system in Paris, the French 
nation (as represented there), did for themselves 
formally abolish Christianity, burn the Bible, declare 
God to be a non-existence, a mere invention of the 
priests, and institute a worship of humanity, or of 
themselves, under the title of the Goddess of Reason ; 
while they also ceased to reckon time by the Christian 
era, trod on the Sabbath and its week of seven days, 
and began a new reckoning of time for human history 
in years of their then new French Republic, and in 
decades of days so as to conform in everything to their 
own decimal system, rather than to Revelation. 

Mere human telling was not enough to remind our 
British metrical agitators of those fearful things : so 
they have had them not sounded again only, but re- 
peated too in fact, within the last three years, in blood 
and fire and blackest of smoke throughout the same city 
of Paris, — when the Commune, on getting for a time 
the upper hand, immediately re-established the Re- 
publican era as against the Christian, and declared war 
against every traditional observance and respect of man. 
While since then, the still more savage and merciless 
proceedings of the Spanish commune, wherever it has 
had an opportunity of rising in their cities, shows that 
the heart of man, unregenerated in Christ, is no whit 

Chap. XL] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 2 1 9 

better in the present day than at any epoch throughout 
all antiquity. 

Now, perhaps, — and without pursuing any further 
this historic part of the subject of weights and mea- 
sures, which, though as old as Cain and Seth, if not 
Abel also, is by no means yet played out on the stage 
of time, — it may be given to a favoured, predestined 
few, to begin to understand, on a figure once used by 
Dr. Chalmers, what extensive armaments of what two 
dread opposing spiritual powers may be, without our 
knowledge, engaging in battle around our little isle, 
contending there — on this subject, too, as well as many 
others — for mighty issues through all eternity. So 
that not for the force of the sparse oratory emitted in 
defence of British metrology before Parliament, were the 
bills of the pro-French metrical agitators so often over- 
throAvn, but for the sins rather of that high-vaulting 
system itself ; and to prevent a chosen nation, a nation 
preser^^ed through history thus far by much more than 
the wisdom of its rulers, — to prevent that nation un- 
heedingly robing itself in the accursed thing ; and 
unknowingly throwing away an institution which it 
was intended to keep until the accomplishment of the 
mystery of God touching the human race. 

A very close approach to the dangerous cliff was 
made only a dozen years ago, when the Government's 
own Standards Commission, not content with the yard 
in place of the inch being pronounced a new British 
unit, must also propose to drop the original inch 
entirely; inventing new names for multiples of 1,000 
and 2,000 of their new unit yard, to take the place of 
tlie British mile ; and subdividing it again as a con- 
crete quantity into a totally unheard-of set of small 
lengths, such as neither we nor our fathers ever knew, 
to supersede and obliterate what have hitherto well 


served all the smaller, and most of the exact, purposes 
of Anglo-Saxon life and existence. 

But happily the Commissioners' hands were stayed ; 
and one of their number — the highest approach to the 
ideal of a philosopher since the days of Newton that 
this country has produced, the late Sir John Herschel 
(whose remains now repose in Westminster Abbey) — 
was presently gifted to see, that of all the various length 
measures now on the statute-book, the inch (which was 
then in such imminent danger) is by far the most really 
important, because the true and original unit and source 
of all the others. This idea too seemed continually to 
grow in Sir John Herschel' s mind. For, through the 
inch, he perceived that all the British weights and 
measures might be easily made (once again perhaps) 
most scientifically earth commensurable ; and without 
the popular value of any of the chief units or standards, 
or even their names, being interfered with. 

That grand principle, too, of earth commensurability, 
or that there should be a complete and harmonious 
scale of numerical relations connecting the small units 
employed by man in his petty constructions on the 
earth, with the grander units laid out by the Creator in 
the sky. Sir John Herschel stood up splendidly for : and 
argued and wrote for the glorious idea really belonging 
to British metrology, in various parts of the country ; but 
in vain ! His colleagues on the Standards Commission 
could see no beauty nor desirability in that which he 
esteemed so highly : unless it was those of them who 
claimed something of the same earth-commensurable 
principle, though in a less perfect form, for the French 
metre : and tliey wished to abolish the entire British 
system. So after doing all that he could to convince, 
demonstrate, persuade, with the effect only of finding 
that the majority were determined to sacrifice every- 
thing to France, he took the final course for a great 


and honest man to take — he gave up what had been 
an honour to fifty years of his life, his place at the 
Standards Commission, his prospects of power or in- 
fluence in Government appointments, — and went out 
from amongst them all, alone, wounded in spirit and 
lowered, perhaps, in the eyes of many ; but nobly 
nerved to carry on the battle single-handed, in the 
open world outside, against the metrical mania of the 
day : a strange disease, which Sir John Herschel 
(the equal to whom, not Cambridge herself could show 
at the greatest of all competitive examinations) deemed 
not only anti-national, but, in spite of all that is so fre- 
quently said for it, not of the highest science either. 

This case, I fear, is the one, only, bright example 
which British science has shown in our day, of a 
scientist who would suffer in place, in power, and in 
worldly, social dignity, for opinion ; and did so : — a man, 
therefore, in whom a great nation might trust in any dire 
emergency ; and who, when the last pro-French metrical 
bill was about to be urged before the House, came to 
the defence of his country's cause with the following 
letter to the Editor of the Times : — 

" 81K, 

•* As Mr. Ewart's Bill for the compulsory abolition of our whole 
system of British weights and measures, and the introduction in its place 
of the French metrical Hystem comes on for its second reading on the 13th 
proximo, I cannot help thinking that a brief statement of the comparative 
de facto claims of our British units and of the French on abstract scientific 
grounds may, by its insertion in your pages, tend to disabuse the minds 
of such, if any, of our legislators who may lie under the impression (I be- 
lieve a very common one among all classes) that our system is devoid of 
a natural or rational basis, and as such can advance no d priori claim to 
maintain its ground. 

" De facto, then, though not de jure {i.e. by no legal definition existing 
in the words of an art of parliament, but yet practically verified in our 
parliamentary standards of length, weight, and capacity as they now 
exist), our British units refer themselves as well and as naturally to the 
length of the earth's polar axis as do the French actually existing 
standards, to that of a quadrant of the meridian passing through Paris, 
and even in some rcHpects better, while the former basis is in itself a 
preferable one. 

" To show this I shall assume as our British unit of length the imperial 



[Part III. 

foot ; of weight the imperial ounce ; and of capacity the imperial half- 
pint ; and shall proceed to state how they stand related to certain proto- 
types, which I shall call the geometrical ounce, foot, and half-pint ; and 
shall then institute a similar comparison between the French legally 
authenticated metre, gramme, and litre in common use with their (equally 
ideal, because nowhere really existing) prototypes supposed to be derived 
from the Paris meridian quadrant, distinguishing the former as the 
practical, the latter as the theoretical, French units. 

*' Conceive the length of the earth's axis as divided into jive hundred 
million equal parts or geometrical inches. 

" Then we will define: — 1. A geometrical foot as twelve such geome- 
trical inches ; a geopietrical half-pint, as the exact hundredth part of a 
geometrical cubic foot ; and, 3, a geometrical ounce as the weight of one 
exact thousandth part of a geometrical cubic foot of distilled water, the 
weighing being performed, as our imperial system prescribes, in air of 62** 
Fah., under a barometric pressure of 30 inches. 

" In like manner the theoretical kilogramme and litre of the French are 
decimally referred to their theoretical metre on their own peculiar con- 
ventions as to the mode of weighing. 

"This premised — (1) the imperial foot is to the geometrical in the exact 
proportion of 999 to 1,000 (nine hundred and ninety-nine to a thousand), 
a relation numerically so exact that it maybe fairly considered as mathe- 
matical ; and 2 and 3, the imperial half-pint and ounce are, each of them, 
to its geometrical prototype as 2,600 to 2,601. 

" Turn we now to the practical deviations from their theoretical ideals 
in the case of the French units. Here, again (1), the practical metre is 
shorter than its theoretical ideal. The proportion is that of 6,400 to 
6,401. The approximation is, indeed, closer, but the point of real import- 
ance is the extreme numerical simplicity of the relation in our case, more 
easily borne in mind, and more readily calculated on, in any proposed 
case. 2 and 3. Any error in the practical value of the metre entails a 
triple amount of aliquot error on the practical kilogramme and litre, so 
that, in the cases of these units the proportion between their practical and 
theoretical values is not that of 6,400 to 6,401, but of 2,133 to 2,134. 
Here, then, the greater degree of approximation is in our favour ; and it 
is to be observed that in our case this triplication of -error does not hold 
good, since, by a happy accident, our standard pound has been fixed quite 
independently of our standard yard, and our gallon is defined as 10 lbs. 
of water. 

*' I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

" J. F. W. Hekschel. 
" CoLLiNGwooD, April dOth, 1869." 

This is very clear so far: but its able author did not 
go far enough. For while his grand fountain and source 
of earth-commensurability for the British measures was 
based, even by him, upon, not the foot, which he ulti- 
mately used, but the inch, being an evenly earth 
commensurable measure, and by the particular number 
of Jive hundred millions of them, yet he afterwards 
drops out of view both the inch, the five times of so 


many parts, and says nothing about his new cubit 
standard, which he was at that very time proposing 
for the British nation, and prescribing that it should 
consist of 5 X 5 of those inches, in place of their present 
yard of thirty-six inches. Nor does the eminent astro- 
nomer attempt to show that either the earth-commen- 
surability or the terrestrial fiveness of the inch was any- 
thing more than accidental. At all events, he does not 
explain how or when, or through what, or by whom, 
that unit first came about ; and though he alludes to 
English history as far back as any printed acts of par- 
liament may extend, he shows no faith capable of 
tracing the fortunes of our nation up to those dim 
periods of primeval story where the Bible is the only 
book worth consulting. 

Perhaps it was well, though, that Sir John Herschel 
stopped where he did : for time is required to enable 
men effectually to receive the whole of any very new 
idea ; and he did succeed at least in making some able 
men pause in their mad career of abolishing, as having 
nothing at all in them, the traditional British, standards 
and units of measure. And had he, the most brilliant 
representative of modern exact science, gone on further 
still, and been the propounder of the Great Pyramid 
source of tne wisdom of our ancient measures : that 
they had been monumentalized there in the Siriad 
land before history began, but yet in admirable earth 
and heaven commensurability, and in a manner never 
known to the profane Egyptians ; — the sceptical modern 
world would hardly have consented to believe, but that 
the excellences of such a system were Sir John Her- 
schel's own transcendent inventions ; and had arisen 
much more through his brilliant grasp of modern acade- 
mical science, than by his simple readings in that stone 
book of Revelation which stands on the Jeezeh 
open, though hitherto illegible, to all mankind. 




But for Jolin Taylor, who never pretended to be a 
scientific man, to propound the grand idea ; — and for 
the Scottish Astronomer, with scarce pay enough to 
exist upon, and only a few old instruments, though in a 
so-called Royal Observatory, at his hand both for pro- 
fessional work, and to follow up the Great Pyramid clue 
— was, and is, quite a different matter. Such plan was, 
indeed, hardly less, than to let the stones of the Great 
Pyramid themselves cry out to a heedless generation. 

But, oh ! how effectively they cry for the few who will, 
and do, give heed to them ! Only see how satisfactorily, 
in our Part I., the Great Pyramid's first and simplest 
mechanical features have helped us over Sir John 
Herschel's enormous, and by him never solved, difficulty 
of explaining why there was more meaning in the unit 
inch going jive, rather than any other number of hun- 
dred million times into the length of the earth's axis 
of rotation. Let the reader presently judge, too, how 
similarly gleaned Pyramid facts will enable us to assign 
a date, a place, and an origin to the whole system, 
capable of demanding the respect of all men, scientific 
and unscientific alike : on a far higher footing, moreover, 
than anything that can be said for all the works of the 
philosophers of Greece, the poems of Homer, or the 
reputed wisdom of the Egyptians themselves. 

Be it, however, our first and immediate part to 
enter somewhat into practical applications ; or to set 
forth in the four ensuing chapters what may be the most 
probable schemes of subdivision and arrangement of the 
Great Pyramid's grand standards ; to indicate their 
points of contact with the British and Saxon metrologies ; 
and allude to both their aids to the minds as well 
as the bodies, and their promotiveness to the fulness of 
thought as well as the material comforts, of universal 
intellectual man. 

Chap. Xn.] 





rriHE grand standard of capacity in the Great Pyramid, 
-■- as already stated, is given by tlie contents of the 
granite coffer at the further end of its final and so-called 
King's Chamber ; and this vessel measures, as too it was 
originally intended that it should, 71,250 cubic Pyramid 
inches, or something very close thereto. 

This whole quantity subdivides itself easily, after the 
manner of the Pyramid arithmetic and Pyramid con- 
struction, as follows : — The two most important steps 
being, first, the division into 4, as typifying the four 
sides of the base ; and second, the division into 2,500, 
or 50 X 50 parts ; fifty being the special number of the 
room, and the number also of the masonry courses of 
the whole structure on which that chamber, or rather 
the two chambers of ten million cubic inches each, of 
which it is composed, rest in their places. 

Ptbamid Capacity Measure. 

DiyiBion, or 
number of each 


Capacity of 
each denomi- 

1 Eqoivalent 
1 Weight in 

Name now proposed to be 



nation in 

i Pyramid 

given to each successive 

contained in 


1 T>ound8 of 


the whole coffer. 

cubic inches. 

















2 5 


100- • 
















Wine-glass or fluid ounce 





Tea-spoon or fluid drachu > 





Ten drops. 







We begin, therefore, with the large measured and 
scientific quantity of the coffer ; and end with a unit 
which, in an ajpproxhnate form, as a drop, {i.e., the 
cubical space occupied by a drop of water falling freely 
in air at a given Pyramid temperature and pressure), is 
in every one's hands, and is definable accurately upon 
the coffer by the stated proportion. 

In contrasting this arrangement with the British 
imperial system, we may see at once that that modern 
system is merely a measure for large and rude 
quantities, knowing of nothing smaller than the pint 
(the gill being merely a later tolerated addition to suit 
special wants), and rendering it therefore necessary 
for the apothecaries and druggists to manufacture 
a sort of fluid and capacity measure for themselves, 
which they do by starting from the pint and ending 
in the drop ; or, as they term it, with needless addition 
of dog-latin, a " minim." 

This apothecaries' fluid measure was established only 
in 1836 ; and we may assume, with Lord Brougham's 
Penny Cyclopcedia, that such fluid ounce, when it is an 
ounce, is an ounce avoirdupois ; although it is stated 
elsewhere, that medical men are never to use anything 
but troy weight. 

This incongruity renders the break between imperial, 
i.e., the present British, capacity, and apothecaries' capa- 
city, measures peculiarly trying ; followed as it is by a 
break of connection between apothecaries' capacity, and 
apothecaries' weight, measures also. 

In the Pyramid arrangement, however, there is no 
halting half-way ; but^ when it is a question of capacity, 
the scheme goes right through from the biggest bulks 
ever dealt with in commerce, and through all ^he 
measures required by the people further in dealing with 
coal, corn, wool, potatoes, beer, wine, peas, meal, oil, 
medicines, photographicals, and chemicals, up to the 



smallest quantity ever judged of by capacity measures 
of specified name ; for when once we have arrived by 
several decimal stages at '' drops," no one would ever 
think of subdividing them further, if they could, in any 
other manner than by the tens of pure arithmetic again 
and again. 

Next, for the testing of these bulks •by weight, the 
imperial system has only one strikingly even equivalent, 
viz., the gallon, =10 lbs. of water weight. But that is 
accompanied by the double drawback, 1st, that 10 lbs. 
in weight is not an imperial known weight ; and 2nd, 
that the gallon is not the unit of the imperial system. 

The unit of the imperial capacity system is a pint ; 
and it is, moreover, the very important centre of con- 
nection between that system for large ordinary quantities, 
and the apothecaries' system for scientific and medical 
small quantities. It is, therefore, the point of all others 
in the scale which should be round and complete, test- 
able also at a moment's notice by an equally round, well- 
known, and frequently employed standard of weight. 

So it was too in the days of the wisdom, wherever 
that was derived from, of our Saxon forefathers, or the 
times of instinctive strength of our hereditary traditions ; 
but under the luxurious, and very modem, reign of 
George IV. that strange tendency to take measures from 
the poor, and enlarge them more or less for the con- 
venience chiefly of the rich, was rife ; so the pint, from 
having been the unit, as one pound's weight of water, 
was expanded into the odd quantity of 1 and \ pounds 
of the same ; while the bigger measure of a gallon, 
with which the poor man has seldom to deal, was 
ordained to be the standard capable of being tested by a 
round sum of 10 lbs., if that could be obtained or made 
up from other weights. 

This petty mauaaivring with some of the customary 
old usages, if not also hereditary rights, of the poor, was 


attempted, in tlie case of the new imperial pint, to be 
electro-plated with brilliant proverbial mail, by Lord 
Brougham's and the great " Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge Society's " giving out this saying, to be learned 
by all good subjects in these latter days, — 

"A pint of pure water, 
^Weighs a pound and a quarter." 

But, treason or no, I venture to doubt whether every 
peasant has yet got that distich by heart ; and whether 
he does not rather ruminate in his family circle and 
about the old hearthstone over the far more ancient and 
pithier rhyme, — 

"A pint's a pound, 
All the world round;" 

An expression, too, in which there may be vastly more 
than immediately meets the eye ; seeing, as in our above 
table, that the Pyramid system appears to restore the 
principle embodied in those two little lines ; and may 
have communicated it, in ages long gone by, to many 
other countries also : in part, who knows, to prove 
them, if they could be faithful, and for how long, to 
their ancient covenant. 

Almost every one of the Pyramid capacity measures, 
however, over and above its pint, admits of being tested 
by a round number of "water-pounds;" and that number 
is always such a one as we shall presently see equally 
exists in the Pyramid system of weight measure. 

We have, therefore, only to conclude this division of 
the subject by submitting a table of comparison of each 
concluded Pyramid capacity vessel, with each similarly 
named current capacity vessel in Great Britain, through 
means of the common medium of English cubic inches. 
Whence it will be seen that, excepting the " coffer," 
(though even that is hardly altogether unknown to our 
nation, " chaldron " having been under Anglo-Saxon 

Chap. XH.] 



rule an expression for, and a description of,* it), there 
is no need to invent any new names ; for, under the 
existing names, as of pints, gallons, &c., &c., the abso- 
lute capacities have often varied much more than here 
indicated,t and without a tithe of the reason for it. 

Pyramid and British Capacity Measures, 

Compared through the temporary medium of English cubic inches, 


Coflfer, Pyramid . = 


Four Quarters, Brit. 



Quarter „ . — 



„ . 






» • 



Bushel ,, . = 





Gallon „ . = 





Pint „ . = 



5> • 



Ounce or Wine-glass = 


Ounce, fluid. 




Dram or Tea-spoon = 


Dram, fluid, 




Drop, Pyramid . — 


Drop, Apoth 



International Appendix to Great Pyramid Capacity Measure. 

If analogues of the Great Pyramid measures are thus found in the 
oldest metrology of the Anglo-Saxons presently known, some traces of 
them can hardly but be discoverable also in the hereditary metrologies of 
other countries besides our own Great Britain. 

Without, then, attaching any particular importance to the results, I 
append here some of the most striking approaches to coincidence, chiefly 
gathered from Kelly's Universal Cambist, published in 1821. Dr. Kelly 
having been an author of the most respectable class in commercial 
and educational science ; and one who, though the French metrical 
system had already appeared on the horizon in his time, yet lived in the 
full force of the older hereditary metrological systems ; systems perverted 
often exceedingly into provincial variations, but not then begun to be 
stamped out of existence wholesale, for the benefit of the metre of Paris. 

" Quarter " Capacity Corn Measures. 

Coimtry or City. 

Name of measure. 

Contents in English 
cubic inches. 

Malta . 

Great Pyramid 

Rome . 
Sicily . 


Quarter of Coffer 

Salma generale 





♦ See Mr. Taylor's " Great Pyramid," p. 144. 

t In or about 1800 it was reported that in Westmoreland the following 
diverse measures were used : — Ist, a Winchester bushel ; 2nd, a customary 
bushel, equal to three Winchester bushels ; 3rd, a potato bushel, equal to 
two Winchester bushels ; and, 4th, a barley bushel, equal to two and a 
half Winchester busheU. 



[Part III. 

Sack " Capacity Corn Measures. 

Country or City. 

Name of Measure. 

Contents in English 
cubic inches. 

Amsterdam . 

Mudde . 


Basil . 




Scheffel . 



Mudde . 



Great Sack 



Scheffel . 





Genoa . 



Hague . 




Scheffel . 



Malter . 








Great Pyramid 

Sack . 


Keval . 



Turin . 



ZwoU . 




*' BusheV Capacity Corn Measures. 

Country or City. 

Name of Measure. 

Contents in English 
cubic inches. 

Berlin . . . 

Scheffel . 



Tomolo . 


Greek (ancient) 



Hildesheim . 

Scheffel . 


Konigsburg . 

Scheffel . 


Magdeburg . 

Scheffel . 


Maranham . 

Alquiero . 



Scheffel . 


Nancy . 



Naples . 

Tomolo . 



Scheffel . 


Parma . 



Poland . 



Great Pyramid 



St. Maloes . 

Boisseau . 



Starello . 



Killau . 



Scheffel . 






rpHE weight measure of the Great Pyramid we have 
-L to obtain from its King's Chamber coffer also ; but, 
as before intimated, by the introduction of an addi- 
tional and more difficult idea than mere cubic space ; 
and this idea is, the m^ean density of the whole earth. 

Were masses of such matter directly procurable, the 
best representation of the Pyramid weight standard 
might have been a rectangular block of that substance, 
57 times smaller than the coffer's internal capacity, set 
up beside it in the equal temperature and rarely much 
disturbed atmospherical pressure of the same chamber. 

But as we are not able, in spite of all the wonderful 
resources of modem science, to delve anything like 
deep enough to obtain a specimen of this grand unit 
material which forms the foundation of our globe, we 
must take the coffer's contents in water as a stepping- 
stone, but only as that, to reach our desired result. 

Thus the coffer's contents of pure water are 71,250 
cubic Pyramid inches, which at the temperature of 68° 
Fahr. would weigh 18,030,100 of our avoirdupois grains ; 
according to the estimate of the British Government 
that one cubic British inch of distilled water at tempera- 
ture 62" Fahr. and barometer 30-00 inches, weighs 
25 2 458 grains ; the necessary reduction being per- 
formed for the different size of the inch and the altered 




[Part III. 

temperature. Therefore a mass of the earth's mean 
density material of the size of 12,500 * Pyramid cubic 
inches, at the standard Pyramid temperature and 
pressure, weighs in the lump 18,030,100 British avoir- 
dupois grains. 

But what are its subdivisions on the Pyramid system ? 
Here we can follow no better plan than that adopted in 
the capacity ,branch of metrology ; and then we are 
rewarded by finding, when we come to the most charac- 
teristic division of all, viz., that of 50x50, which 
should give us a popular unit to compare with the 
pint in capacity — we find, I say, that it does give us 
something which is excessively close to the old Saxon 
pound ; but with this further advantage, of world-wide 
application in the Pyramid system, and presently to be 
illustrated in computing weight from measured size, viz., 
that each such Pyramid pound is equal to the weight of 
five cubic Pyramid inches of the earth's mean density. 

Hence our first Pyramid weight table runs thus : — 

Pyramid Weight Measure. 

Capacity of 

Capacity of 

part in 


cubic inche's 



(T 50° B 30-) 

of Pyramid. 

Division, or 
number of each 

Weight of 

the parts in 

Name now 


the part so 


proposed to 

part contained 


divided in 

cubic inches 

be given 
to each kind 

in the weight 



of earth's 




of part. 





















































Ten- grain. 







Derived from 71,250 divided by 6*7. 


Having already stated that the Pyramid grand weight 
standard weighs in British terms, viz., avoirdupois 
measure, 18,030,100 British grains; we are met, as 
soon as we begin to compare Pyramid and British 
weights together in point of fact, with an accusation, — 
that the Pyramid grains must be very 'small, if there 
are 25,000,000 of them, to 18,000,000 nearly of the 

But herein comes to light one of those needlfess 
pieces of meddling legislation by our most modern, or 
Georgian era, political rulers, which so provoked John 
Quincy Adams and other American writers on Saxon 
metrology ; for whereas the old law of the land was, 
that the troy pouud should be divided into 7,680 
grains (and which were very nearly the weight of full 
and fair grains of well-grown wheat), a later law said 
that it should be divided into only 5,760 parts or 
grains so called, but of no known variety of plant em- 
ployed for breadstuff. Wherefore Cocker, Wingate, and 
other arithmeticians of that day used to enter in their 
useful compendiums during the transition period, that 
32 real grains or 24 artificial grains made the penny- 
weight troy ; and when that ingenious story was 
pretty well indoctrinated into their obedient scholars, 
the notice of the old grains was dropped out altogether, 
and the new ones remained masters of the situation, 
with the word "artificial" removed, and as though 
there had never been any other. 

Referred then now, over the heads of these, to the 
genuine old grains of Saxon metrology (so far as we can 
trace them back by the usual literary and historical 
steps, and which is, after all, not so much as a thousand 
years), the number of 25,000,000 of the Pyramid grains 
would have been measured then by 24,040,100 of the 
Saxon grains of that earlier, though not Pyramid 
epoch, day ; but a sufficiently close approach to the 


25,000,000, to satisfy any poor man seeking the value 
of a few grains only. 

But the British legal weight measure of modern 
and historical times has, over and above this item, 
always been, even within itself and at home, in a 
dire antagonism between two grand and rival systems ; 
viz., troy and avoirdupois, not to say anything of 
apothecaries' weight, which is little but the troy, 
under a different mode of subdivision. General public 
favour seems at last to have settled upon avoir- 
dupois, as most worthy to be the national weight in 
future for things in general, and especially things 
on a large scale ; but as it does not go lower than 
drachms, why then, even though troy weight should be 
extinguished to-morrow, apothecary's weight will have 
still to be kept up for dealing with smaller quantities 
than drachms and the more valuable class of substances. 
There is, indeed, a legal definition of the number of 
the large modern " artificial grains " which constitute a 
pound avoirdupois, viz., 7,000 ; but as the further 
avoirdupois subdivisions are into 16 ounces, and these 
into 1 6 drachms, we are left there with one such drachm 
equal to the crushingly awkward quantity to deal with 
in accounts of 27*34375 grains ; and drachms are just 
the point where science begins to be particular. 

Therefore it is that druggists, obliged already to buy 
wholesale by avoirdupois, have then to dispense retail 
by troy or apothecary's weight ; for these last are the 
only British weights which enable them to deal easily 
with grains ; and yet these are not real grains, neither 
for the people, nor in history, nor in science. 

The Pyramid weights, therefore, which are on one 
system only, and go through the whole scale from tons 
to grains without any break, seem to offer already at 
this point, an honourable mode of escape to the British 
nation out of the confusion they have suffered for ages. 



No new names are required, many close approaches to 
the grander standards and units will be remarked, and 
the proportions of matter under each denomination, as 
used in the Pyramid and in British nomenclature, are 
approximately as follows : 

Pyramid and British Weight Measures, 
Compared through the temporary medium of English " artificial " grains. 

1 grain Pyramid 

1 drachm Pyramid 
1 OTince Pyramid 

1 pound PjTamid 

1 stone Pyramid 

1 cwt. Pyramid 
1 wey Pyramid 

1 ton Pyramid 

( 1 grain 
0.7212 \ Saxon 

real," or old 


= 7,212- 




\ 1 grain new English 

» 1 drachm avoird. 

\ 1 drachm apoth. 

i 1 oz. avoird. 

{ 1 oz, troy or apoth. 

f 1 pound avoird. 1 

■ 1 pound, an ancient 

weight preserved at I 

the Exchequer, but >= 
I of unknown origin 
I 1 pound old English 
I, and Scotch 
( 1 stone meat 
I 1 stone wool 

1 cwt. avoird. 

1 wey English 

( 1 ton avoird. 
( 1 ton shipping 




= 784. 

= 1,274; 

= 15,680, 

= 18,816, 


Sjpecijic Gravity. 

In no part of metrology more than in weight, is 
there found so much of the wheel within wheel of 
natural difficulty, tending, unless well watched and 
studied, to introduce perverse variations whenever uni- 
formity is attempted ; and there are still existing some 
supporters of the arguments for keeping up both the 
troy and avoirdupois weight systems amongst us. For 
the same reasons, too, that those gentlemen believe the 
complication was first introduced. 

And what reasons were they ? 

When society was in a very primitive, or much more 
probably, a mediaeval degraded, condition, and little but 
grain was sold, a test for the amount of grain in any par- 
ticular vessel was, the quantity of water it would hold. 
But water and grain are of different specific gravities ; 
therefore, if equal bulks were taken, the purchaser got a 


very different quantity of what he valued most, than if 
equal weights were observed ; and as some parties were 
more particular about bulks than weights, and vice-versa, 
two sets of weights were prepared, with such an amount 
of difference between them, that a pound of grain in one, 
occupied the same space as a pound of water in the 

But in the present day, when all sorts of matters 
besides bare grain are sold, and almost every one of the 
thousand and more substances dealt in has a different 
specific gravity, we cannot hope to have as many dif- 
ferent systems of weight as there are of such sub- 
stances ; nor, maintaining only one system of capacity 
measure, to keep up on all possible occasions that 
appearance of identity between weight and bulk. Hence, 
for the modern man, the only resource seems to be, to 
have one capacity, and one weight, measure pure and 
simple ; but to produce the identity required of old for 
different substances, by calculation. Assisting that 
calculation, too, by some convenient table of specific 
gravities, wherein the point of coincidence between the 
two descriptions of measure, or the point where there 
is no calculation at all from bulks to find weights, shall 
be in favour of the substance most frequently required 
to be dealt with ; or for those which offer the best 
average example of all the substances which have in 
their turn to be either weighed or measured by man. 

In the French metric system this point of coincidence 
is occupied by water ; and it is intended that the cubic 
amount of water being measured, that statement shall 
in itself, with the mere alteration of names, and perhaps 
of the decimal point, express its weight. Hence, at 
a recent metrological discussion at the Philosophical 
Society of Glasgow, a pro-French metrical speaker lauded 
this quality of his favourite anti-national system ; and 
enlarged upon how convenient it must be for a mer- 

Chap.XIIL] the great pyramid. zyi 

chant receiving goods in the docks, out of many vessels 
from many countries, to go about among the packages 
with a mere French metre measuring-rod in his hand ; 
and by that obtaining their cubic bulks, thence to 
know simultaneously their weights also. 

" Yes," remarked another speaker, "■ that would be 
simple enough if British merchants imported, and ex- 
ported, and dealt in, nothing but water!' 

Now the pro-French metrical man on this occasion 
was a large dealer in iron ; and had made much fame 
for himself, and some money too, by improved methods 
of working the weighty iron plates required for modern 
armour-clad war vessels. So he was completely over- 
thrown by the above answer ; but tried to recover himself 
and his theory with the professional remark, "Well, but 
you must allow that the French metrical system is an 
excellent one for ship-builders computing their displace- 
ments by." 

" Yes," again answered his merciless opponent, " if 
ship-builders are never required to deal with salt water ; 
only distilled water ; and can keep that always at the 
uncomfortably cold temperature of water s maximum 
density, and can also, work in a vacuum as to atmo- 
spheric air;" for all these are the truly anti-practical 
plans for any correct weighing to be performed on the 
boasted French metrical system. 

Other speakers then came to the defence of the pro- 
French metrical iron ship-builder, and urged that a table 
of specific gravities might be employed when anything 
else than pure distilled water at a temperature of 39° 
Fahr. was being measured or weighed ; and that when 
rough commercial results only were required, both 
temperature and atmospheric pressure might povhahly 
be neglected. 

Let us look each of these sides of the argument 
straight in the face ; for they serve well to contrast 


essential and inlierent qualities in the French metrical, 
as against the Pyramid, system of weighing. 

The former, having its specific-gravity equality-point 
at water, while almost all the substances dealt with by 
art and science (especially the more useful and valuable 
ones in modern life, such as the metals, minerals, &c.), 
are heavier, far heavier, than water, — the weights first 
given out by the French metre rod are always largely in 

The latter or Pyramid system, on the contrary, 
having its equality-point at the earth's mean density, 
or between stones and metals, is much nearer the truth 
at once and without any specific gravity correction, for 
things in general, and for precious ones in particular. 

Again, the French system which makes the tempera- 
ture reference close to freezing, or where men can barely 
exist (and certainly cannot work to advantage), and the 
atmospheric pressure reference, a vacuum where they 
cannot exist at all, — must require much larger correc- 
tions on the rough measures actually taken in the cir- 
cumstances of daily life, — than the analogous Pyramid 
references ; which are those of the average temperature 
and average pressure under which all men upon this 
earth, do live, move, and work. 

Under the French system, indeed, a shopkeeper 
ought to take account in summer of the large amount 
of natural expansion of his goods above the ideal 
temperature of water s maximum density, the wintry 
39° Fahr. ; and in winter he ought to correct for the 
artificial temperature which he keeps up by stoves or 
otherwise. While in both summer and winter he ought 
to make allowance for the buoyant power of air of the 
density, more or less, of 30 inches pressure of mercury, 
on the comparative specific gravities of the material of 
his weights, and the material of the things weighed ; 
they being true according to his system only in an 


absolute vacuum, and that, too, in close proximity to 
an ice-house. 

But under the Pyramid system, and under the 
British also, the ordinary weighings in the shop under 
the temperatures and pressures there usually ex- 
perienced, either in winter or summer, will be never 
more than microscopically different from weighings per- 
formed under the exact and scientific temperature and 
pressure references of these systems ; viz., the mean, 
very nearly, of what are experienced both in the shops 
and the general habitations of men, all the wide world 
over. But of this more and further y in Chap. XY. 

Weights, then, on the Pyramid system are equally 
referable, as with the French system, to one given point 
on both the temperature and pressure scales, w^hen 
nicety is required. But that given point in the Pyra- 
mid case is an easier, pleasanter, and a better known 
one ; while for the rough work of the world, the 
Pyramid weights are calculable at once from Pyramid 
linear measure, without any reference to observations 
of thermometer and barometer at the instant, much 
more accurately than the French from theirs, under 
similar circumstances. The Pyramid rules, too, being 
expressible in the following simple manner : — 

For small things, ascertain their bulk in cubic inches, 
divide by 5, and the result is the weight in Pyramid 
pounds — if the said articles are of the same specific 
gravity as the earth's average material. 

For large masses, ascertain their bulk in cubic 
Pyramid cubits, add \, and the result is the weight in 
Pyramid tons^ — under the same condition of specific 

* Conversely, the Pyramid weight of a hody of earth's moan density 
being given, to find its Pyramid cubical measure— multiply the pounds 
weight by 5, and it will give the number of cubical inchea : and decrease 
the tons weight by |, to find the number of cubic cubits. 



[Part III. 

But if the matter measured in either case were not 
of earth's mean density, but, say, ordinary stone, the 
real weight would be nearer a half, and if of the 
more common metals, double, the amount given by 
the above process ; the raw number first procured by 
it, requiring in the case of every different physical sub- 
stance, to be multiplied by its specific gravity in terms 
of that of the earth's. Hence, such tabular multiplier is 
1 when the specific gravity is the same as that of the 
earth ; a fraction of 1 when lighter ; and 1 with some- 
thing added to it, when heavier ; as in the following 
table, prepared from various authorities : — 

Specific Gravities. 

Earth's mean density = 1 ; Temperature = 68" Fabr. ; 
Barometric Pressure :^ 30^025 British inches. 

Cork .... 


Porcelain (chin. 

i) . . ^420 

White Pine (American) . 


Glass, crown 


Oats (loose as in bushel) . 


" Common ston 

b" . . ^442 

Larch (Scotland) 


Desert sand, ne 

ar the Sphinx ^454 

Lithium .... 




Riga Fir .... 


Red granite (Pe 

terhead) . ^464 

Barley (loose as in bushel) 


Marble (Carrar? 

i) . . ^477 

Ether, sulphuric 


Red granite, Gt 

. PyramJd -479 

Wheat (loose as in bushel) 


Emerald . 


Alcohol, pure . . . 




Pumice-stone . 


Basalt . 

- . . ^500 



Glass, flint 


Butter, tallow, fat . 


Sapphire . 


Bees' wax 


Diamond . 


Old Oak .... 




Distilled water 




Sea water 


Sapphire . 


Blood .... 




Heart of oak . 








Aloes .... 


Silver ore 




Arsenic, molten 

. 1-010 

White sugar . 



. 1-04 

Bone of an ox . 


Tungsten . 

. 1-07 




. MO 

Ivory .... 
Brick .... 


Litharge . 

. MO 


Uranium . 

. 113 

Casing stone, Gt. Pyramid 



. 117 

Sulphuric acid, concentrated 


Lead ore, black 

. 1^20 

Nummulitic limestone, G. P. 


Zinc, in its comi 

non state . 1-21 

Chap. XIII.] THE 




Tin ore, black . 


Mercury, brown cinnabar 


Wolfram . 


Silver, virgin . 


Zinc, compressed 


Silver, hammered 


Tin, pure, Cornisli . 


Mercury, precipitated, j»er se 


Iron, cast at Carron . 


Lead, molten . 


Iron ore, prismatic . 




Lead ore, cubic 




Iron, forged into bars 


Mercury, fluent 


Copper, native . 


Mercury, congealed . 




Gold, not hammered 


Steel, hardened 


Gold, hammered 


Brass, cast, common 


Gold, English standard. 

Brass, cast 


22 carats 


Mercury, precipitated, rec 


Gold, English standard. 

Cobalt . 


24 carats 


Cadmium . 


Gold, English standard. 

Brass wire, drawn . 


hammered . 


Nickel . . . . 


Platinum, purified . 


Copper wire, drawn . 


Platinum, hammered 


Bismuth, native 


Platinum wire, drawn 


Bismuth, molten 


Platinum, compressed 


Silver, native . 


Iridium, compressed 


No efficient system, then, of determining weights hy 
linear measure, in the present day can possibly go unac- 
companied by its table of specific gravities. And some 
few of those items at least might worthily be extracted for 
natural theology texts by every schoolmaster appointed 
to teach weights and measures, — for what a boundless 
vista does not specific gravity open up into the realm of 
nature. And what thankfulness should it not 'excite in 
the mind of man towards the Creator, for his free gift of 
all these endless varieties of elementary matter, where- 
with He has of old stocked the earthly abode of man ; 
and thereby made a higher existence possible to him, 
than to denizens of water alone. 

The specific gravity standard of the Pyramid weight 
measure being the mean density of all the solid, as well 
as fluid, treasures of the earth, — means thus a great deal 
in the history of mankind ; and there appears to be 
further an even commensurability of a most interesting 
order, between the weight of the whole Great Pyramid 
and the weight of the earth, or in the proportion of 




[Part HI. 

1 to 10 ^^* A commensurability, too, whicli may be 
considered to have been intended ; for had the building 
not been chiefly composed of a stone so much lighter 
than what is usually known as '' common stone," that 
it has the specific gravity of 0'412 in place of 0'442, 
the even proportion would not have been obtained, — 
without indeed altering the size, and that would have 
overthrown other equally, or still more, important com- 
mensurabilities. But now, without in the slightest 
degree interfering with any of its other departments of 
science and cosmical reference, the Great Pyramid asserts 
its unexceptionable fitness to be a centre of authority 
and reference for weight measure also, and to all men, 
of all nations, living on the whole earth. 

International Appendix to Great Pyramid Weight Measure. 
Sereditary Found Weight Measures. 

Country or City. 

Name of Weight. 

Weight in 
English Grains. 

Aix-la-Chapelle . 



Augsburg . 

Heavy pound 



Light pound 


Basil . 

Livre, poids de marc . 






Light pound 

• 7,560 

Brunswick . 



Canary Islands 









Constance . 




do. . . . 



do. . . . 



do. . . . 



liivre, poids de marc . 


Frankfort . 




Light pound 


Hamburg . 




do. . . . 



do. ... 



do. ... 


Liege . 

do. . . . 


See my "Antiquity of Intellectual Man," pp. 468 — 475, 

chap.xiil] the great pyramid. 


Intbrnational Appendix [continued). 

Country or City. 

Name of "Weight. 

"Weight in 
English Grains. 




Liineburg . 

do. ... 



Livre, poids de sole . 



Libra .... 









do. ... 


Naples ... 

Cantaro piccolo . 


Neufchatel . 

Livre, poids de marc . 


Oldenburg . 




Libbra, peso grosso . 


Portugal . 






Great Pyramid . 

"Pound" . . 


Rotterdam . 

Light pound 


St. Gall . 



Spain .... 

Libra .... 





Stralsund . 

Old livre . 


Strasburg . 

Livre .... 



Libbra, peso grosso . 


Ulm .... 




do. , . . 


Wurzburg . 

do. ... 


Zell .... 

do. ... 



Light pound 


The above forty-seven remarkable approximations in many countries 
to the Pyramid pound, are extracted out of a table of 174 weights of all 
kinds ; and the origin, or centre of diffusion of the 7,212 grains pound, is 
evidently not to be sought in any of the classical profane nations, the Old 
Roman pound having been equal to from 4,981 to 5,246 English grains; 
the Ancient Greek niina, from 5,189 to 6,994 English grains; the 
Pharaonic Egyptian pound, or mina =: 8,304 grains; and the Alexandrian 
Egyptian mina = 6,886 English grains. 




WE have now arrived at the commercial arrangement 
of the most important of all the measures of a 
nation ; at that one which requires practically to be 
attended to first, and which was first attended to, and 
secured with more than sufficient accuracy, as well 
as with the grandest of suitable and harmonious earth- 
commensurability in the Great Pyramid ; viz., linear, 
or length, measure. 

The unit of this measure, at the Pyramid, is the inch ; 
accurately the 5ou,oio.ow th of the earth's axis of rotation ; 
approximately, a thumb-breadth, to any man who has 
ever lived on the earth during the last four thousand 
years. In that long interval of anthropological time, 
what mighty empires, what varied races of men. and 
what languages too, have passed away from the face 
of the world ! Therefore, of the present words and 
phrases, laws and customs, which rule in modern 
society, whether scientific, political or commercial, 
which of them can expect to continue to control the 
actions of men for anything like a similar period to 
this rule of the inch ; or for the next forty centuries of 
years ? 

A thumb-breadth, then, is no indifferent test-refer- 
ence to every poor man, for realising when in haste the 
unit of his measure of length ; and keeping up some 


identity in his works, with those of his fathers from 
earhest history, and even before history. Wherefore it 
is only characteristic of the working men of Newcastle, 
according to the unintended testimony oi Sir William 
Armstrong before the British Association of 1863, .that 
they have once more practically by their deeds and in 
their works, pronounced indubitably for the inch (an 
inch, too, decimally divided), wherever extreme accuracy 
is concerned. 

It was so in our national olden times as well ;. viz., 
that the English unit was the inch, and not any of 
those larger measures, of yards or metres, which the 
wealthy have been endeavouring to get established of 

The old Exchequer standards, spoken of in 1742, 
marked E for Queen Elizabeth, and supposed to date 
from 1580, were, as reported at the time, one a yard, 
and one an ell ; but that did not make either the one, 
or the other, the unit of the country. Where the unit 
is small, the public standard must inevitably consist of 
a number of such units strung together ; and the 
incommensurability, except through their component 
inches, of that pair of measures laid side by side, the 
yard and the ell, might have reminded men in sub- 
sequent times of the true state of the case. But no, 
the rich men and the lawyers were in power ; so the 
unit of the country during the last century — and until 
Sir John Herschel ten years ago began to advocate 
the national, hereditary, and scientific claims as well, of 
the inch — has been endeavoured to be proclaimed, the 
huge, and unscientific, or not earth-commensurable, 
(][uantity of, a yard. 

That the efforts of the ruling classes have long been 
really directed to this end ; and that in making so 
much, as they have during late years been doing, of the 
yard, they have intended it as in itself a new unit, and 


not as a convenient number of the ancient small inch 
units arranged together to suit a special purpose of 
commerce, the following words of the act (June 1824) 
sufficiently testify. 

".The straight line or distance between the centres 
of the two points in the gold studs in the straight brass 
rod, now in the custody of the clerk* of the House of 
Commons, whereon the words and figures standard yard 
<)/ 1760 are engraved, shall be, and the same is hereby 
declared to be, the original and genuine standard of that 
measure or lineal extension called a yard ; and that the 
same straight line or distance between the said two 
points in the said gold studs in the said brass rod, the 
brass being at the temperature of 62° Fahrenheit's 
thermometer, shall be, and is hereby denominated, the 
imperial standard yard, and shall be, and is hereby de- 
clared to be, the unit, or only standard measure of 

Yet a yard-unit comes, even on the rich people of 
the country, rather awkwardly ; or they are striving at 
something still greater ; for the Astronomical Society's 
new scale of 1835, as well as of those of Troughton, Sir 
George Shuckburgh, and others, were oftener of five 
feet than three. At three, however, it has been even- 
tually settled by the last Parliamentary commission,* 
and at three feet it will legally remain until some great 
constitutional exertion be made to rectify it. 

During all the time, too, that it has remained there, 

* The commission of 1838 had been thorough enough to consider all 
the following points : — 

A, Basis, arbitrary or natural, of the system of standards. 

B, Construction of primary standards. 

C, Means of restoring the standards. 

D, Expediency of preserving one measure, &c., unaltered. 

E, Change of scale of weights and measirres. 
r, Alteration of the land-chain and the mile. 
G, Abolition of Troy weight. 

H, Introduction of decimal scale. 

I, Assimilation to the scale of other countries, &c. 


Chap.XTY.] the great pyramid. 247 

a most artificial and naturally incommensurable quantity 
with anything grand, noble, sublime, — there never 
seemed to be the slightest suspicion, until John Taylor 
announced it from his Great Pyramid studies, and Sir 
John Herschel followed with scientific confirmations, 
that each of the 36 inches of which the modern British 
Government's unit and standard yard is composed, 
contains within itself all that much desiderated physical 
applicability and scientific perfection, — when each single 
British inch is, almost exactly, the 1-5 00, 00 0,0 00th of 
the earth's axis of rotation already referred to. 

Almost, only, not quite, at this present time ; for it 
requires I'OOl of a modern British inch to make one 
such true inch of the earth and the Great Pyramid. 
An extraordinarily close approach, even there, between 
two measures of length in different ages and different 
lands ; and yet if any one should doubt whether our 
British inch can really be so close to the ancient 
and earth-perfect measure, I can only advise him to 
look to the original documents, and see how narrowly 
it escaped being much closer ; and would have been 
so too in these days, but that the Government officials 
somewhere in the "unheroic" eighteenth century allowed 
the ell-measure, of equal date and authority with the 
yard, and of a greater number of inches (45 to 36), and 
therefore, in so far, a more powerful standard, — to drop 
out of sight. 

The modern inch now in vogue amongst us, was 
derived from the Exchequer yard-standard, through 
means of Bird's copy in 1760 and other copies, and 
was therefore intended to be one of the inches of that 
particular yard ; but the inches of the Exchequer ell 
were rather larger inches, and there were more of them ; 
so that if either standard was rightfully taken as the 
sole authority for the value of an inch, it should have 


been the ell. Now when these standards were very 
accurately compared by Graham in 1743, before a large 
deputation of the Royal Society and the Government,* 
it was found that the Exchequer ell's 45 inches 
exceeded the quantity of 45 such inches as the Ex- 
chequer yard contained 36 of, by the space of 0-0494 
of an inch. A result, too, which was in the main con- 
firmed by the simultaneous measures of another 
standard ell at Guildhall, with an excess of 0*0444 of 
an inch, and the Guildhall yard with the excess of 
0*0434 of an inch. 

Keeping, however, only to the Exchequer standard 
ell ; and finding that it was not, after all, the Exchequer 
yard, which was subsequently made (in Bird's copy) 
the legal standard of the country, that it was compared 
with, but a previous copy of it, and found in 1743 
to be in excess by 0*0075 f of an inch, on the Royal 
Society's scale, — we must subtract this quantity from 
the observed excess of the Exchequer ell ; and then we 
get that its 45 inches were equal in terms of the 
present standard inches of the country, to 45*0419. 

But 45 Pyramid inches are equal to 45*045 modern 
English inches ; whence it will be seen, that a Pyramid 
inch and an early English inch had a closeness to each 
other that almost surpasses belief, or of 1* to 0*99993 : 
and will cause every well-wisher of his country to see, 
that the inch must be preserved. Not only preserved 
too, but, if possible, restored to its ancient, or Pyramid 
value ; — when the following table of earth-commensur- 
able lengths (in its now proposed divisions, chosen 
because appropriate to the Great Pyramid's numbers 

* Astronomical Society's Memoirs, vol. ix. 

t This is the quantity, or about it, by which' the Royal Society's scale 
and those descended from it exceed the Exchequer yard, by what Mr. 
Baily calls "a very large quantity;" but he went to eight places of 
decimals of an inch in his measure, and he does not seem, unfortunately, 
to have looked at the Exchequer ell at all. 



as well as suitable to human use and wont), would 
become possible to be the British measures in modem 
times also, and without dislocation to any of the more 
usual popular factors. 

Great Pyramid Length Measure. 

\ Division, or num- 
j ber of each part 

in the grand 
Length Standard. 






Length in 


cubits or 


Length in 

Name now 

proposed to be 



Earth's semi- 






axis of rota- 
































Cubit or arm. 























A small standard, viz., the foot of 12 inches, is left 
in place ; because, although not evenly earth-commensur- 
able, and inappropriate, therefore, for scientific purposes, 
there is a large vulgar use for it ; and it is connected at 
one end, though not at the other, with the Pyramid 
system. And if we next compare all the mutually 
approximating items with the British, we shall have the 
following table : — 

Pyramid and British Linear Measure, 
Compared through the temporary medium of British linear inches. 

1 inch Pyramid = 


1 inch British = 


1 foot „ = 


1 foot „ = 


1 cubit or arm „ = 


2 foot rule „ = 




1 rod 


1 acre- side ,, = 


1 acre-side,, = 


1 mile „ = 


1 mile „ = 


1 league „ = 


1 league „ = 


1 earth s semi- axis 

1 earth's semi-axis 

of rotation . = 


of rotation . = 



The first remark to be expressed on this table, is the 
very close approach of the acre-side of the Pyramid to 
that of the British scale. It is a length which does not 
nominally figure on the usual linear English lists, 
though it exists through the square measure ; and is, 
without doubt, the most important large measure by 
far which the whole community possesses ; because it 
is the invariable term in which all the landed property 
of the country is bought, sold, and " deeded." 

As such an all-important quantity to this country, one 
cannot at all understand how an acre was ever established 
by Government at such a very awkward proportion in 
the length of its side, to any of our linear measures ; 
for the fraction which it gives, is rough to a degree : and 
yet, it will be observed, that the Pyramid principle, 
hardly altering the real value to any sensible extent, 
makes it, in its own inches, at once the easy quantity of 
2,500 ; or in arm, i.e. cubit, lengths, 100. 

Nor does the advantage of the Pyramid principle end 
here, for the mile contains 2,500, or 50 x 50, cubit- 
lengths ; and such a proportion has recently become so 
great a favourite with Government, that they have com- 
menced a magnificent survey of Great Britain on pre- 
cisely this proportion, or 1-2 5 00th of nature. 

This is by far a larger scale than either our own, or 
any other, country has ever been completely surveyed 
on yet ; and infers such an infinity of drawing, copying, 
and engraving, that it could positively never have been 
thought of, even in wealthy Great Britain, but for the 
previous invention, first of photography to do all the 
copying, and then of electrotypy to multiply the soft 
engraved copper plates. Hence the survey on the scale 
of 1-2 5 00th is a remarkable public work of the present 
time, and excites some curiosity to know how and why 
that proportion came to be adopted. 


Plainly 1-2500 does not form any portion of the 
British imperial linear system ; and when we are officially 
told, that the proportion was adopted to allow of the 
map being on a scale of 25 inches to a mile, or 
becoming thereby capable of representing an acre by 
one square inch, — we are quite assured (if the Govern- 
ment is still true to the legal measures of the land), 
that that is not the reason ; for the map is not on 
that scale. It is truly of the proportion of 1-2 5 00th 
of nature,; but that gives in the British metrolog}^, 
25 "344 inches to a mile, and 1"018 inches to an acre. 

Immense inconvenience, therefore, results to th^ 
component members of the British nation, that the 
grandest and most costly survey of their country which 
they have ever paid for, and which is now in inevitable 
progress whether they like it or no, — does not fit in to 
their existing measures evenly, but carries these annoy- 
ing fractions along with it. 

Yet a single act of parliament adopting the Pyramid 
measures for the country, — or, we might almost say, 
restoring the nation's hereditary measures to their 
proper place, — would cause the map, without any altera- 
tions to it, to be at once a map on the scale of 25 legal 
British inches to the mile, and of one square legal 
British inch to the acre, without the smallest fraction 
left over or under ; and would substitute truth for 
falsehood, on every occasion when a Briton has hastily 
to mention the great national map of his country. 

In my first edition, I said that Britons might in hot 
haste stumble into that slovenly and untruthful error of 
speaking of 25-344 inches, as being 25'000 inches ; but 
I regret to have to add now, that larger experience shows 
that they commit themselves equally in their calmer mo- 
ments as well ; for in the Proceedings of the Royal So- 
ciety of Edinburgh for the Session 1872-3, just published, 



[Part III. 

the learned President Professor, Sir Robert Christison, 
Bart, M.D. (and great for the introduction of the French 
metrical system, as well as for more accurate or con- 
venient weights and measures for British pharmacy and 
chemistry), one therefore who knows what exactness is, 
yet even he, from his presidential chair and in his in- 
augural address for the season, could continually speak 
of, and the Society subsidized by Government, could 
continually print on page after page, ''the 2 5 -inch 
maps of the Ordnance Survey ;" just as though those 
25-344-inch Ordnance maps really and truly were on 
t^at other scale, in the existing inches of the present 
law of the land — as well as in the inches of the ancient 
Great Pyramid, in favour of which the very popular 
President made then no mention. 

International Appendix to Great Pyramid Linear Measure. 
Hereditary Cubit or " Cloth" Measures. 

Country or City. 

Name of Linear Measure. 

Length in 
British Inches. 

Aix-la-Chapelle . 

Ell ... . 



Pic . 



Pic . 

- 26-80 


Turkish pic 






Woollen ell 



Long eU 






Ell . 



EU . 



Guz . 



"Woollen braccio 


Cairo . 

Pic . 



Pic . 



Ell . 






Pic . 



Aune . 



Ell . 



"Woollen braccio 



Silk braccio 







International Appendix {continmd). 

Country or City. 

Name of Linear Measure. 

Length in 
British Inches. 


Ell ... . 


Libau . 

Ell . . . 






"Woollen braccio . 



Ell . . . 






Guz . 

* . 






EU . . . 



Aune . 



EU . . . 



Ell . 



Long ell . 



Ell . . . 



Woollen braccio 



Silk braccio 




Cloth braccio 



Silk pic 






Ell . 



Ell . 


Great Pyramid 

"Sacred cubit" . 





St. Gall . 

Cloth ell . 



Ell . 


Scios . 

Short pic . 



Ell : . 


Stutgard . 

EU . 



EU . 


Trent . 

Cloth eU . 



Silk ell . 



WooUen eU 



Silk eU . 


Tunis . 

Woollen pic 



Silk pic 



Aune . 



Woollen braccio 



Silk braccio 



Woollen braccio 



Silk braccio 





Zante . 

Silk braccio 


254 0^^ INHERITANCE IN [Part III. 

Toot Measures. 

As shown in our table on page 249, and its subsequent explication, a 
12-inch, foot standard introduces notable difficulties into the earth-com- 
mensurable section of the Great Pyramid arrangement of long measure. 
And proposals have been before the public for several years, from totally 
opposite quarters too, requesting Government to enact a 10-inch foot for 
the future use of the nation. 

Such a foot would evidently harmonise at once with every branch of 
the Pyramid system ; but how would it suit the convenience of the 
working men, for whose purpose mainly the foot seems to have been 
originally introduced, and is still kept up ? 

"We have already seen in the note on page 27, Chapter III., that the 
natural or naked foot of man is barely lO'o inches long, though the shoed 
and booted foot of civilized man may be twelve inches or more ; and 
indeed, in some parts of Switzerland and Germany, their local metrological 
tables state that twelve inches make, not a foot, but a " schuh " or shoe. 
There need be no surprise, therefore, to find, that two separate foot mea- 
sures have long been known amongst mankind, oneof them averaging twelve 
English inches long, and the other ten, though still almost invariably 
divided into twelve parts, or small inches of its own : in the foot of the 
one case, its length was twelve thumb breadths, and in the other, twelve 
finger breadths, approximately. The ancient Roman foot {11-62 English 
inches long nearly) was evidently of the former class ; as was likewise the 
Greek Olympic foot, generally known as the Greek foot J3ar excellence, and 
= 1211 English inches; though Greece had also another foot standard, 
termed the Pythic foot, which was only 9*75 English inches long. 

But in mediaeval and modern, or Saxon, Norman, and British times, 
humanity seems to have declared ifself unmistakeably for the larger foot. 
So that in Dr. Kelly's list of all the commercial peoples known to Great 
Britain in 1821 (see his Universal Cambist, vol. ii., p. 244), while ten of 
them have feet ranging between 9*50 and 10-99 English inches, no less 
than seventy-four are found to have feet whose lengths are comprised 
somewhere between 11-0 and 13-0 of the same inches. 

Hence, if any alterations should be made in future time to earth-com- 
mensurate the Pyramid foot, as now imagined =: 12-012 English inches, 
it should rather be in the direction of making it = 12'5, than 10-0, 
Pyramid inches ; and no harm would be done in either case, so long as the 
value of the inch was not interfered with. 

The ancient idolatrous Egyptians of the Pharaonic period do not appear 
to have had any foot measure ; but, for all linear purposes, to have 
invariably used their well-known profane cubit = 20-7 English inches 
long; doubling it sometimes as the royal or Karnak cubit, which was 
then =:: 41-4 English inches. In subsequent Greek Alexandrian times, 
those Kgyptians both employed, perverted, and mixed up with their own, 
sundry measures of Greece, and may then have had feet, as well as small 
cubits = 1-5 foot; but these hybrid and short-lived standards are by no 
means worth our while now to enquire into, for Alexandria of the 
Ptolemies, never very ancient, has long since been deservedly dead and 
buried ; while the present Alexandria is a diffeient city, inhabited by a 
differently descended people, and professing a totally different religion. 



Hereditary Inch Measures. 

CouBtry or Cit^ 

y. Name of Linear Meastire. 

Length in 
British Inches. 


. Rhineland foot -f- 12 . 



. Foot H- 12 . 


Augsburp^ . 

. Foot — 12 . 


Austria, Vienna . 

. ZoU '. . . . 


Basil . 

. Foot -i- 12 . 



Lost its traditions and 
language too. 


, Foot — 12 . 


Berre . 

. Zoll . 


Bii-mah, Rangoor 

I . Paulgaut 


Calemberg . 

. Foot -i- 12 



. Foot -f- 12 


Denmark . 




. Foot -f- 12 


France (older sys 

tem). Pouce 


France {systeme m 

uel], \ 

ince ) Pouce 

interdicted £ 




France (modem) 

Destroyed its traditions 

Hanover . 

. Zoll .... 


Holland . 

Lost its traditions 

Inspriick . 

. Foot -:- 12 . 



. Foot -^ 12 . 


Ley den 

. Foot -f- 12 . 



Long foot -:- 12 . 



. Zoll .... 



. Schuh-fl2 



. Foot -H 12. 


Neufchatel . 

. Foot-;- 12 . 



Turn .... 



. Foot-f- 12. 


Oldenburg . 

. Foot -:- 12 . 


Pisa . 

. Palmo-^12 


Portugal . 

Pollegada . . 



. Foot -1- 12 . 


Prussia, up to 18 

72 . Zoll .... 


do. since 18 

72 . Lost its traditions. 

Great Pyrami 

d . ''Inch" . . . 


Rhineland . 

. Foot -r 12 . 


Rome . 

. Foot-f- 12 . 


Spain . 

. Pulga'ia 



. Rhineland foot -f- 12 . 



Land foot -f- 12 . 



Tum .... 



. Zoll .... 



The above table is prepared chiefly from Dr. Kelly's Universal Cambist; 
but inasmuch as he does not descend below foot measures, and the inches 
are then deduced by dividing his values for the feet by twelve ; — the list 
is supplemented by positive inches, or their verbal equivalents, as — zoll, 
pouce, tomme, turn, pollegada, pulgada, &c., as contained in Weale's 
Woolhouse's "Weights and Measures." 





A S already shown, no system of weights and measures 
-^ can be complete Avithout a reference to heat, and 
its power of altering the dimensions of all bodies. It 
would appear too, that, next to the very existence of 
matter, heat is the most important influence or condi- 
tion in creation ; and, since the rise of the modern 
science of thermo-dynamics, which looks on heat as a 
form of motion, the measure of heat is the first step 
from statics to dynamics, which is the last and truest 
form of all science. 

A " thermometer " is therefore one of the most widely 
essential of all scientific instruments, and there is pro- 
bably no modem science which can advance far without 
its aid ; unless indeed assisted by some semi-natural 
method of securing one constant reference temperature, 
for all its observations ; but which is seldom the case 
in modern observatories. Yet the thermometer in Eng- 
land, though there so doubly necessary, has been 
allowed to remain in a most unsatisfactory guise. That 
is, its scale is generally ridiculed over all continental 
Europe, as being both inconvenient in practice, and 
founded in error, in so far as the notion of that worthy 
man. Mynheer Fahrenheit, touching absolute cold, is 
seen every winter to be a mistake, whenever his ther- 
mometer descends below its carefully-marked zero ; 



while the all-important point of the freezing of water 
is left at the not very signal, but certainly rather 
inconvenient, number of 32°; and the boiling-point at 
the not more convenient one of 212^ 

Many, therefore, have been the demands that we 
should adopt either the German Reaumur, or the French 
centigrade, i.e., originally the thermometer of Celsius ; 
in terms of any of which, water freezing marks 0° ; and 
all degrees below that notable point, are negative ; 
above, positive. 

The proposed change has, except in a few chemical 
circles, been strenuously resisted, because — 

1st. The anomalous absolute numbers chosen for 
freezing and boiling on Fahrenheit's scale, do not inter- 
fere with the accuracy of thermometers so marked, when 
due allowance is made for them. 

2nd. It has been against the principle of most British 
scientific men hitherto, in their different weights and 
measures, to have them showing a natural standard in 
themselves ; ^ut only to have their proportion to the 
said natural standards numerically determined, and 
then recorded in writing elsewhere. 

3rd. This system has been carried out in its integrity 
in Fahrenheit's thermometer when it is written, that 
180 even subdivisions shall exist between freezing and 
boiling ; and the commencing number for freezing shall 
be 32°. 

4th. In the fact that the distance between freezing 
and boiling is divided into 180 parts in Fahrenheit's 
thermometer, but only 100 in the French thermometer 
and 80 in the German instrument, eminent advantage 
is claimed for every-day purposes ; even among the 
chemists too, as weU as all other members of the com- 
munity, — ^because a greater number of different states 
of temperature can be quoted in even degrees without 
reference to fractions of a degree ; and — 


5th. It is said that the proposed change would be 
subversive of all ordinary ideas of steady-going indi- 
viduals as to what the new numbers really meant ; 
because, what honest country gentleman would appre- 
ciate in his heart that a temperature of 40°, when a 
French system should be established amongst us, meant 
a summer heat of 104° Fahrenheit ? 

Some of these objections have weight, but others are 
of doubtful importance ; and in all that can be said 
about the British scientific principle (as established by 
government) not founding its measures on natural 
standards direct, — that has not only been well-nigh dis- 
established by the recent outcry of many noisy mem- 
bers of the commercial, and chemical, parts of the 
nation for the modern scientifically devised French 
units ; but is proved to be baseless for our nation's 
early, and more than historic, origin ; by reason of 
the real British length-unit, the inch, having been 
found, after all, to be an even round fraction of the 
earth's semi-axis of rotation. 

The ultra-scientific and most highly educated up- 
holders too of Fahrenheit, have, in the instance of the 
best practical zero of temperature, received a notable 
correction from the poorer classes of our land ; the very 
classes for whom alone all working measures should be 
primarily arranged ; for every gardener, and probably 
every ploughman who thinks of such things at all, is 
accustomed in his daily toil to speak of the more rurally 
important and biologically trying cases of temperature, 
not in terms of Fahrenheit's scale by any means, but as 
so many '' degrees of frost " or '* heat." 

The practical importance, therefore, of having the 
British thermometrical zero at the freezing-point of 
water, is thus incontestably proved, and from the 
right quarter ; while, if it be desirable, as no doubt 
it is desirable, to have the space from freezing to 



[Part III. 

boiling divided into a greater number of degrees 
than either the French or German systems offer, — 
why then, let the nation take for the space be- 
tween the two natural water units, not even the 180 
of the honest Dutchman, Fahrenheit, but the 250 of 
the Great Pyramid scale ; for by so doing, not only will 
they reap that one advantage above-mentioned to a still 
greater extent ; but they will suffer less shock, as it 
were, in their feelings, when talking of summer tem- 
peratures, than even if they retained the size of the 
Fahrenheit degrees, but placed the at freezing ; as 
simply illustrated by the following numbers, giving the 
same absolute temperatures in terms of five different 
thermometric scales : — 












But now for the finishing off of this last temperature 
scale, in the manner in which the Pyramid system so 
often ends with reference to the four sides of its base, 
and to the first four simple sections of such a Pyramid. 
Multiply, therefore, the 250° of water-boiling by 4, 
making 1,000°, and where are we landed ? 

At that most notable and dividing line of heat, where 
it causes bodies to begin to give out light ; and regis- 
tered with confidence by the Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge Society in vol. ii, of their Natural Philosophy^ 
p. 63, under title of " Iron Bright Red in the Dark," as 
being 752° Fahrenheit, which amounts to 1,000° of the 
Pyramid precisely. And multiply this 1,000° again by 
5, and where are we ? At 5,000° of the Pyramid, or 
that glowing white-hot heat, where the modern chemists 


of several nations would place the melting-point of the 
most dense and refractory of all metals, platinum. Or 
descend again to — 400° Pyramid, and we find a point 
regarded by some existing chemists as the absolute 
zero of temperature : though natural philosophers are 
more inclined to prefer their theoretical base of the air 
thermometer at — 682° Pyramid ; but as none of them 
have yet approached nearer than about half-way thereto, 
no man among them knows what physical obstacles 
may lie in the untried portion of their patji. And 
there may not improbably be many. 

Thus the French metrical temperature reference was 
originally intended by its exceedingly scientific authors, 
admirable for their day, to have been the freezing-point 
of water ; on the arithmetical and mathematical, rather 
than physical and experimental, conclusion — that they 
would find water in its densest condition when coldest, 
or immediately before passing into the state of . ice. 
But lo ! when they began to experiment, nature refused 
to be bound by human ideas, and water was discovered 
to be of the greatest density at a very sensible distance 
of heat above freezing, or at 3 9°' 2 Fahrenheit. 

When this discovery was once made, able men found 
in it a most beneficent infiuence to promote the ameni- 
ties of human life upon the surface of the earth ; seeing 
that but for the anomalous expansion of water with cold, 
when the temperature descends below 3 9° 2 Fahr., our 
lakes and rivers would freeze at the bottom instead of 
the top ; and would, in fact, accumulate beds of ice below, 
until in the winter they became entirely solid blocks ; 
which blocks no summer sun would be able to do more 
than melt a small portion of the surface of, to be inevi- 
tably frozen hard again the next cold night, to the 
destruction of all the fish. 

The discovered fact, however, of what really does 



take place, when water approaches the freezing-point, 
had the inconvenience of utterly breaking up the) 
uniformity of the Academy's arrangements for tem-' 
perature reference in the French metrical system. For 
the Parisian philosophers still desired to refer some 
observations to freezing ; yet could not but con- 
scientiously admit the superior propriety, at least for 
all measurements wherein the density of water entered, 
of employing their newly-corrected temperature of 
3 9°. 2 Fahr., rather than their former 32° Fahr. 

Accordingly, at page 21 of " Eoscoe's Lessons in 
Chemistry," where the best possible face is put upon 
French measures for the British nation, we are told that 
the French unit of weight is a cubic centimetre of water 
at a temperature of 4° centigrade. But at page 147, a 
table of specific gravities is given, where it is stated that 
water at the temperature of 0° centigrade is to be 
taken as unity. And no temperature reference at all 
appears for length measure ; perhaps because the author 
knew that that is just now, for the metre of the 
Archives, an uncertain quantity somewhere between 
6° and 12° C. 

Again at pages 361 and 362 extensive tables are for- 
mally given of comparisons between the English and 
French measures of all kinds (descending, where weight 
is concerned, to the sixth place of decimals of a grain), 
but no mention at all is made either of temperature or 
atmospheric pressure for any of them ; though the 
former condition must vary occasionally by 60", and the 
latter by the extent of the whole atmosphere. 

In fact the too learnedly artificial and bungled cha- 
racter of the French temperature and pressure references 
is such, that they cannot, in practice, look the light of 
day, much less that of science, in the face ; while they 
are, above all things, and for other reasons as well, 
totally unsuitable to the working man. You cannot. 


for instance, attempt or pretend to use them in 
practice, without breaking their most important pro- 
visions continually ; as well as introducing huge errors, 
such as the omission or introduction of the whole 
atmosphere, and all for the purpose of guarding 
against mere microscopic errors depending on minute 
and almost totally insensible variations of the atmo- 
sphere as it exists about us. 

On this unhappy doctrinaire French system, strictly, 
if there should arise a difference of opinion in society, or 
at a market, as to which is the longer of two measuring- 
rods, or which is the heavier of two weights, you must 
carry both of them away from what they were being 
employed for, and bring the rods down by any possible 
method to the 6° or 1 2° C. point, and place the weights 
by some difficult and expensive contrivance in a vacuum 
at a temperature of 0° C, or perhaps 4° C. Both of these 
being out-of-the-way conditions where no one wants to 
use either rods or weights ; and where you may find that 
their relations to each other (from different rates and 
characters of heat expansibility) are actually and totally 
different from what they were at any of the degrees of 
natural temperature, which they were being really and 
practically used in ; and which degrees never differ 
much from their mean quantity all the year through. 

Indeed the extreme narrowness of the range both of 
temperature and atmospheric pressure, within which all 
the best, and the most too, of human work is performed, 
and can only flourish, — has begun at last to excite 
intelligent and interested attention. Wherefore thus, 
an able and scientific American author, Mr. Clarence 
King, holds forth, in his recent book entitled " Moun- 
taineering in Sierra Nevada," California, — on pressure, 
when he has descended to the inhabited plain country 
from the high and snowy flanks of Mount Shasta : — 


" Tlie heavier air of this lower level soothed us into 
a pleasant laziness (frame of mind) which lasted over 
Sunday, resting our strained muscles and opening the 
heart anew to human and sacred influence. If we are 
sometimes at pain when realising within what narrow 
range of latitude mankind reaches finer development, — or 
how short a step it is, from tropical absence of spiritual 
life, to dull boreal stupidity, — it is added humiliation to 
experience our still more marked limitation in altitude. 
At fourteen thousand feet, or with 17 only, in place of 
30, inches of atmospheric pressure, little is left me 
but bodily appetite and impression of sense. The habit 
of scientific observation, which in time becomes one of 
the involuntary processes, goes on as do heart-beat and 
breathing ; a certain general awe overshadows the mind ; 
but on descending again to lowlands, one after another 
the whole riches of the human organization come back 
with delicious freshness." 

By what insane impulse then could it have been, that 
the philosophers of Paris did not accept their position 
on the earth, under the atmosphere, as given them by 
God ; and instead of thankfully making the delightful 
mean annual temperature and wholesome mean annual 
pressure of the atmosphere on and in their abodes, the 
national references for those features in all matters of 
their metrology, — they must rush off to a horribly chil- 
ling and actually freezing zero ; to a theoretical absence 
of all vital atmosphere ; and to a host of physical diffi- 
culties which they have not even yet completely over- 
come or got out of the maze of 

Or by what mere flock- of-sheep impulse of irrationally 
following, is it, that now our own scientific men, and the 
meteorologists among them more particularly, having 
made their own barometrical observations between 50° 
and 90° in-doors, and having received others from 
abroad also confined within the same limits of tem- 


perature, can think of no other mode of bringing them 
all to one common point of comparison, than by carry- 
ing every one of them right away to the distant and 
outside freezing-point ; and applying for that purpose 
so ]^rge a correction to the numbers read off from each 
barometer, that the original observer fails to recognise in 
his computed observations those standard heights of 
quicksilver which he used to identify in his daily experi- 
ence with particular conditions of weather, or warnings 
of approaching storms ? 

But all these anomalies are so happily corrected by 
the Great Pyramid system, that its primeval Author 
must surely have had more real regard for humanity, 
than all the savants and doctrinaires of the first French 
Revolution put together. For the mighty building of 
old, being founded on the 30th parallel of latitude, is at 
once in the approximate temperature and very approxi- 
mate atmospheric pressure of the middle zone of either 
hemisphere of the earth ; and as the iso-barals equally 
with the iso-thermals, are much broader there, than in 
any other latitude, — that 30° zone represents the climatic 
conditions of a larger part of the earth than any other 
possible zone ; and being also the parallel which has in 
either hemisphere an equal amount of surface between 
it and the Pole on one side, and between it and the 
Equator on the other, it cannot help being somewhere 
very near to a golden mean between the far too hot 
tropics, and the far too cold arctic and antarctic circles ; 
— while at the same time it receives more sunshine, 
more vivifying influence to man than any other latitude, 
by reason of its paucity of clouds, combined with the 
high solar altitude. (See the Maps in my " Equal Sur- 
face Projection.") 

That paucity of clouds in latitude 30°. being largely 
due to the trade-wind influence, is accompanied by a 


barometric pressure which, in that latitude and at the 
surface of the sea, reaches there its terrestrial onaximuTn, 
rather than mean quantity ; — ^but then come into play 
the elevation both of the King's Chamber in the Great 
Pyramid, and of the Pyramid on its own hill-top, which 
correct that small excess of pressure ; as likewise does 
the same elevation fact, the rather too great tempera- 
ture of Egypt generally, for the Pyramid Standard ; that 
land being situated in one of the longitudes rather than 
latitudes of extra development of warmth.* 

But this total hypsometrical elevation of 4,297 inches 
above the sea level, corrects the King's Chamber's level 
of atmospheric mean temperature, to what, — in the scale 
of natural temperatures ? 

To the temperature firstly of one-fifth exactly from 
freezing to boiling of water ; and secondly, to the mean 
temperature of all the anthropological earth. The entire 
earth has a surface temperature rather lower than one- 
fifth ; but such entire earth includes Polar lands in 
either hemisphere which are not, and cannot, and never 
will be, permanently occupied by man. Lands too, 
which with their long Arctic nights ignore the Pyramid's 
very first and foundational teaching, or of solar days 
numbering 365*242 to the length of the year. 

There is therefore no more occasion for taking those 
uninhabitable, and uninhabited, lands' temperatures 
into account, when deciding on the one temperature to 
which all living men shall refer their science, their 
metrology, and their commerce, than for our most 
learned meteorologists, working in pleasantly warmed 
rooms, carrying all their barometric observations away 
to 32° Fahr. actually; while our good friends the 
Russians — who know what cold is far too well to court 
it unnecessarily — ^reduce their barometric observations 

* See my ** Treatise on Equal Surface Projection," 1870. 


to 62° Fahr. ; a most praiseworthy approacli to the 68" 
Fahr. of the Great Pyramid, but without any cosmical 
reason in its special favour. 

And on making such very proper Polar exception 
in our earth-surface enquiry, the mean temperature 
of all man-inhabited countries appears to be, the very 
same beneficent and most suitable quantity as that 
of the Great Pyramid ; whose system of numbers 
enables us now to express its standard quantity 
of i of temperature, by 50°; or the very number 
already made out as specially belonging to the 
King's Chamber itself, where temperature reference is 
most required. Hence we are now Pyramidically justi- 
fied in giving, in the general table on p. 268 (derived 
as to its items from various modern sources expressed 
in Fahrenheit and Centigrade), the numbers which 
would be read off for those phenomena, so important 
for the progress of civilization and man, upon any well- 
graduated Pyramid thermometer soon, it is hoped, to 
be constructed. 


No sooner has man in the course of his scientific 
development begun to contemplate the skies, than he 
feels the necessity of having angular, as well as, or even 
rather than, linear, measure to refer to for distances ; 
and the same demand for angular measure is soon 
afterwards experienced in each of the purely terrestrial 
sciences as well. 

Therefore it was, that the French savants of the 
Revolution attempted to introduce into their decimally- 
arranged metrical system an angular graduation where 
the quadrant contained 100, and the whole circle 400, 
degrees. But, after trying it for some years, they had 
to give it up ; for the influence of " Great Babylon," 



[Part III. 

Temperatures in Pyramid Thermometer Degrees. 
Atmospheric Pressure = 30 inches, except when otherwise stated. 


Platinum melts . 
Wrought iron melts . 

»> >» 

Steel melts 

>» >? 
Cast iron melts . 

„ grey, melts 
„ white „ . 
Grold, pure, melts 

, alloyed as in coinage 
Copper melts 
Silver, pure, melts 

>> » >) 
Bronze melts 
Sulphur boils 
Antimony melts 
Zinc melts 

» ?> • • 

Iron visible in the dark 
Mercury boils . 

Sulphuric acid, strong, boils 

j> »> » 

Lead melts 

Cadmium . . 

Phosphorus boils 
Bismuth m^lts . 
Water boils under 20 atmo- ") 
spheres . . . ) 

It >» 15 ,, 

10 „ 

_5> )> 5 ,, 

Spirits of turpentine boils 
Acetic acid boils 
Sulphur melts . 
Water boils 
Sodium melts 
Benzol boils 
Alcohol, pure, boils 

j> » » 

Stearic acid melts 
White wax melts 

on Scale. 































on Scale. 

Wood spirit boils 
Potassium melts 
Yellow wax melts 
Greatest observed shade ") 

temperature . . j 
Stearine melts . 
Spermaceti melts 
Summer temperature at t 

Pyramid . . j 

Ether, common, boils 
Blood heat 
Butter and lard melt 

Mean temperature at " 
Pyramid temp.=T i 

Mean temperature 
both of alllands in- 
habited by man, and 
of the most suitable 
degree to man • ; 

Ether boils 

Mean temperature of ") 
London . . ) 

Low winter temperature 
at Pyramid . 

Water freezes 

Freezing mixture, snow "^ 
and salt . . . j 

Sulphuric acid freezes 

Mercury freezes 

Greatest Arctic cold ex- 

Greatest artificial cold, 
nitrous oxide and car- 
bonic disulphide, in 

Absolute zero (Miller's 

Theoretical base of air 
thermometer, or air occu- 
pying no space at all ! 
















Chap. XV.] 



which had originally invented, and then fixed on the 
world, our present sexagesimal sj^stem, or 360° to the 
circle, and 60 minutes to the degree, was too powerful 
for modern Paris to contend successfully against. 

But there could have been no more community of 
feeling or idea between most idolatrous Babylon and 
the totally non-idolatrous Great Pyramid in their 
goniometry, than in their methods of astronomical 
orientation, which we have already seen were entirely 
diverse. What system, then, for angle was employed 
at the Great Pyramid ? 

A system apparently of 1,000° to the circle ; 250° to 
the quadrant. 

This conclusion is deduced from the following features 
at the Pyramid. 

(1.) The angle of rise of the Pyramid's flanks, and 
the angle of descent or ascent of its passages, are both 
very peculiar angles, characteristic of the Great Pyra- 
mid ; and though rough and incommensurable on either 
the Babylonian, or French, or any known vulgar system, 
are in a practical way evenly commensurable on the 
Pyramid system. 

Pyeamid Featuee. 

System of Angle Measubbs. 





A whole circumference 
Angle of side with) 
horizon . . . .J 
Angle of passages 

60° 61' 14" 
26° 18' 10" 




2. Whereas the King's Chamber has been in a 
manner utilized as the chamber of the standard of 50, 
and the Queen's as that of the standard of 25, and are 
both of them witnessed to by the number of the 
Pyramid courses on which they stand, the subterranean 


chamber may be considered the chamber of angular 
measure ; and does,'"* at its centre, view the whole 
Pyramid side, at un angle of 75° 15' \" Babylonian, 
but 209° "03 Pyramid. And though there are now 
only 202, there are shown to have been in the original 
finished Pyramid somewhere between 208 and 212 
complete masonry courses ; or agreeing, within the limits 
of error of those researches, with the angular result of 

3. And then there follows a useful practical result 
to Navigation, and its peculiar itinerary measure, the 
" knot," or nautical, or sea, mile ; viz., the length of a 
mean minute of a degree of latitude. 

At present there is much inconvenience from the 
large difference in length between our land and sea 
miles ; for they measure 63,360* and 72,984* inches 

But, granted that a Pyramid knot shall be 1-2 5th 
part of a Pyramid degree, — then the respective lengths 
of a Pyramid land and a Pyramid sea mile will be the 
nearly approaching quantities, in inches, of 62,500* and 


The French metrical system included "money ; and 
its francs, issued accordingly, have deluged the world 
to such an extent, that when a prize was recently pro- 
posed to all nations by the British sovereign, for a cer- 
tain artistic manufacture to be competed for at the 
South Kensington Museum of Science and Art, the 
money value of that prize was publicly advertised in 
" francs." 

Wherefore many inquirers have demanded, "What 
about money on the Pyramid system?" 

* See my " Life and Work," vol. iii. p. 209. 


I can only answer them, that I have not been able 
to find out anything about that subject in the Great 

But is that to be wondered at ? Only look at any 
piece of money whatever : whose image and superscrip- 
tion does it bear ? That of some earthly Caesar or other. 
Therefore is money of the earth, earthy ; i.e., in the 
sense of dust and ashes, human corruption and speedy 
passing away. But all the Great Pyramid measures 
hitherto investigated, being evenly commensurable in 
every case, either with the deep things of this planet 
world, or the high things of heaven above, are to be 
considered as impressed rather with a typical effigy of 
some of the attributes of the creation of God ; and we 
may find their purity, and almost eternity, presently 
borne testimony to by a closer and more direct link of 
connection still. 


Time is an admitted subject in every good system of 
metrology ; and yet is it an absolute imponderable ; 
one, too, of which, says the moralist, we take no 
account but by its loss. And if this be true, how all- 
important for us to know *' how much there is of it ;" 
especially how much still remains, of that finite section 
already told off by the Eternal, to witness the present 
manner of dominion, perhaps trial, of men upon the 

Just now these questions are above unaided man's in- 
tellect : and though the metaphysicians, following up 
their verbal disquisitions on the infinity of space, desire 
to tnake out also an absolutely infinite extension of 
time, and that both for time past and time to come, — 
the researches of the scientists are more to our purpose, 
for they dwell rather upon the unlimited divisibility 

272 OUR INHERITANCE IN [Part ill. 

of time. Divide it, for instance, into ever such minute 
portions, and it is time still ; and not like the chemi- 
cal elements of matter, which, after a certain amount 
of subdivision, exhibit, to the mathematician, their com- 
ponent molecules with totally different properties from 
what are possessed by larger portions of the substances. 

But whether time be long or short, and past, future, 
or even present, the human senses, unassisted by 
reference to the material world, are far more liable to 
error in this, than in any other branch of all* metrology. 
To some men, time slips away almost unheeded, unim- 
proved, too, until the end of life itself comes ; while 
with others, time is regarded as the most precious of all 
the usable gifts to men. With time and plenty of it, 
what splendid achievements may be realized ; and 
into a short time, how much can be packed away. While 
the involuntary action of our thinking system, even 
exceeds the utmost straining of our voluntary efforts in 
matters of time ; so that a single second between sleep- 
ing and waking has enabled a man to pass, without de- 
siring it, through the multitudinous experiences of a 
long and eventful life. 

On one side, again, in the study of time, the Natural 
History sciences give us the sober biological warning, 
that man, as he exists now, in materially uninterfered- 
with possession of the earth, is not going to last for 
ever ; for there is a settled length of time for the whole 
duration of a species, as well as the single life of an 
individual therein. But on the other side, the too ex- 
clusive study of certain of these very sciences has led 
their out-and-out votaries, in late years, to talk more 
flippantly of time than of anj^thing else under the 
sun. A few hundred thousand millions of years ac- 
cordingly are at one instant created, and at another 
destroyed, or at another still totally disregarded by 
some of these gentlemen, accordingly as their theories 


of the hour prompt them : and it is only the astronomer 
who stands up in rigid loyalty to this real creation by 
God alone, and tells mankind that time, is one only ; 
that it is the chief tester of truth and error ; and even 
down to its minutest subdivisions, it cannot be dis- 
regarded. The same eclipse, for instance, of sun by 
moon, as seen from the same place, cannot occur at two 
different times, only at one time ; and that one epoch 
is capable of the sharpest definition, even down to a 
fractional part of a second. 

To astronomy therefore only, of the modern sciences, 
can we reasonably look for some safe guidance in the 
practical measuring of time. 

In the broadest sense, timfe is said to be measured by 
the amount of movement of some body moving at an 
equable rate. And the most equable motion by far, 
the only motion that has not sensibly varied within the 
period of human history, is, I might almost say, the 
favourite, and fundamental. Pyramid phenomenon of, 
the rotation of the earth upon its axis. 

Not that even ihit movement is absolutely uniform 
through all possible time, in the eye of theory ; but 
that, tested practically in the most rigid manner, or by 
the determination of the length of a sidereal day, no 
alteration has been perceived either by practical or 
physical astronomy during the last 2,300 years. The 
next most equable movement, too, but of far longer 
period, is a secular consequence of that diurnal rotation, 
combined with a disturbing element ; producing thereby 
the "precession of the equinoxes ;" whose whole cycle 
is performed in about nine and a half millions of these 
days, or turnings of the earth upon its own axis before 
a distant fixed star ; and of which grand cycle not more 
than a sixth part has been performed yet, within all 
the period of human history. 


But though these two phenomena, — the sidereal day, 
and the precessional period, of the earth, may be the 
grand storehouses for reference in the regulation of time 
for high science, — some easy, simple, yet striking modifi- 
cation of each is required for the practical purposes of 
man in general. And then comes in the evident pro- 
priety of using, for the shorter period, a solar, rather 
than a sidereal, defined day ; and in place of the exces- 
sively long precessional period, the more moderate one 
of a year, i.e., the time of the earth's revolution round 
the sun ; though that is a movement experiencing many 
minute perturbations ; and at the present period of de- 
velopment of the universe, is by no means a nearly even 
multiple of the other movement, whether we define the 
year by reference to eithei* sidereal cwm solar, or purely 
solar, phenomena. 

These are points on which it is well worth while to 
spend a few more words, in order to try to make the 
case clearer to those of our readers who desire it. Let 
us begin then with the days. 

As the sidereal day is defined, in apparent astronomy, 
to be the interval elapsing between a star leaving the 
meridian of any place, through the earth's diurnal motion, 
and returning to it again ( -h an excessively small correc- 
tion for the precessional movement in the interval) ; so a 
solar day is the time elapsing between the sun being on 
the meridian of any one place and returning to it again ; 
and that portion of time is equal to a sidereal day -|- the 
amount, measured by the rate of solar motion, that 
the sun has, in that interval, apparently retrograded 
among the stars, by the really onward motion of the 
earth in its ceaseless orbit around that splendid light 
and heat-dispensing sphere. Hence a solar day is longer 
than a sidereal one, and in such proportion, that if a 


year contain 365^ of the former, it will contain roughly 
366^ of the latter. 

When absolute diurnal equality is required from day 
to day, the solar days have to go through a computation 
formula to reduce them from real solar days (as they 
may appear to an observer, and therefore also called 
apparent) to Tnean solar days ; or the successive places 
that the sun would occupy in the sky if, in place of the 
earth revolving in an elliptical orbit with a variable 
velocity, it revolved in a circular orbit with a constant 
velocity, the time of a whole revolution remaining the 
same. But as this is only a residual correction, 
which does not alter the beginning or ending of the 
year at all, or the beginning or ending of any day 
sensibly to the mere beholder of the general features of 
nature, — we may at once contrast the sidereal and the 
solar days together, as to their relative aptitudes to 
promote the greatest good of the greatest number of 

Of the beginning of a sidereal day, then, hardly more 
than a dozen persons in the kingdom are aware ; and, as 
it begins at a different instant of solar time each day (in 
the course of a year passing through the whole 24 hours), 
even those few doctHnaires can only inform themselves 
of the event, by looking at their watches under due 

But, of the far more easily distinguishable beginning 
of a solar day, it was thus that a devout, though not 
sacred or inspired, poet of the Talmud wrote centuries 
ago ; and he will probably be equally heart-appreciated 
still by every one : — 

" Hast thou seen the beauteous dawn, the rosy har- 
binger of day ? Its brilliancy proceeds from the dwell- 
ings of God : a ray of the eternal, imperishable Hght, a 
consolation to man. 

" As David, pursued by his foes, passed a dreadful 


night of agony in a dreary cleft of Hermon's rock, lie 
sang the most exquisitely plaintive of his psalms : — ' My 
soul is among lions : I lie in the dark pit among the 
sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows, and 
their tongue a sharp sword. Awake up, my glory, 
awake lute and harp, I myself will awake right early.' 

*' Behold ! the dawn then broke ; heaviness endured 
for a night, but joy came in the morning. With spark- 
ling eyes ' the hind of the morning,' the soft and rosy 
twilight, sprang forth, skimmed over hill and dale, 
bounding from hill-top to hill-top further than one can 
see ; and, like a message of the Deity, addressed the 
solitary fugitive on the sterile rock : * Why dost thou 
complain that help is not near ? See how I emerge 
from the obscurity of the night, and the terrors of 
darkness yield before the genial ray of cheerful light ! ' 

" David's eye was turned to the brightening hue of 
the morn. Light is the countenance of the Eternal. 
He saw the day-dawn arise, followed by the sun in all 
its matutinal splendour, pouring blessings and happiness 
over the earth. Confidence and hope returned to his 
soul, and he entitled his psalm in the Cave of Adullam, 
' The roe of the morning, the song of the rosy dawn ! ' " 

If any species of day, then, is marked in the Great 
Pyramid's metrological system, is it likely, after what 
we have- already seen of that building's kindly feelings 
for man, and its general objects and methods, — is it 
likely, I say, to be any other than the solar day (the 
mean solar day, too, if it be represented evenly and 
always by a cubit length) ? 

And for the same reason, the Pyramid year can be no 
other than the mean solar tropical year ; or that which 
is defined by the sun returning to the same tropic or 
place of turning in its apparent motion in the sk}? 
bringing on, therefore, the winter and summer, the 


typical day and the night of the year, in the same 
self-evident, powerful, beneficent manner to all mankind. 
And of the previous mean solar days, in such a solar 
tropical year, there are contained at present, according 
to modern astronomy, 

= 365-242242 + &c. 

= 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 49*7 -}- &c., seconds ; 

a length nearly 25 seconds shorter than the similar 
year in the time of the Great Pyramid. A difterence 
easy to write down on paper, but not practically sen- 
sible to men in the ordinary avocations of life. But 
no one will be asked to decide for either, which kind of 
day, or which kind of year, exists in the Great Pyramid 
Metrology, — without documents of contemporary date, 
and enduring kind in stone, being actually discoverable 

The next succeeding arrangement, however, of time, 
in all metrological systems, after days, is not this grand, 
natural, yet most inconveniently incommensurable, one 
of a year ; but the short, and, by days, perfectly com- 
mensurable one of, a week ; commensurable, however, 
not by 5 or by 10, but by the peculiar, and otherwise 
impressive, number 7. 

Indeed, the week of 7 days is something so important 
in itself, and forms so decided a stage of time whereon 
tradition conflicts with science, sacred opposes profane, 
and the Deistic contends with the rationalistic, — that it 
may be prudent for us to return, in our now ensuing 
Part IV., to further rigid practical examinations of the 
Great Pyramid ; endeavouring thereby to read off, with- 
out prejudice, what that primeval monument has to say, 
if anything, touching the voluntary, as well as the natural, 
subdivisions of time for the ruling of the life and work 
of man while on his trial here. 







Preliminary Note. 

POINTEDLY remarkable as is the assistance already 
afforded, as in Part III, chapter xiv., to the grand 
Government survey of Great Britain, now in course of 
execution, by the most ancient, and almost venerable, 
2 5 -inch linear standard of the original and mysterious 
design of the Great Pyramid, — that standard is 'likely 
to be found of further service, and even invested with 
peculiar power and meaning, in other of our national 
employments, not merely of the present, but the more 
important future, of time also. 

The reasons for this unexpected resuscitation of one 
of the oldest metrological institutions of the whole 
world, are partly scientific, and partly religious. 

In science, nothing better can be found. For this 
admirable standard may, as previously indicated, be 
described as one twenty millionth of the earth's axis, 
or rather, one ten millionth of the earth's semi-axis, of 
rotation ; and in astronomy distances are usually, indeed 
almost invariably, given by semi- axes or radii, and not 
by diameters, of the various globes or orbits concerned.* 
The distance from the earth to the sun, for instance, 

* And certainly never, as in the boasted scientific French system, in 
terms of the surface of any globe whatever. 


being much more frequently under discussion, tlian 
the space separating the earth's two positions at six 
month's interval ; and it is in such a radial form 
that the general problem is propounded and discussed 
by all mankind.* 

While in religion, there is the feature about this 
one length of Pyramid measure, which cannot fail, 
when fully apprehended, to constitute a most peculiar 
source of interest with some of the best minds in the 
world; viz., that, however it came there, i.e., in the 
Great Pyramid in the land of Egypt and in times before 
the calling of Abraham, — it is not only by its length 
the representative, or equivalent, of the sacred cuhit 
of the Hebrews, but it leads us to an understanding of 
why that length was styled amongst them, the " sacred " 
cubit ; and why we may so call it likewise. 

Of the Cvhits of Ancient Renown. 

The mere name of '' cubit " mounts up the question 
at once to the beginning of human affairs, for it is one 
of the earliest -named measures of which there is any 
notice. Not indeed that the word cubit is ancient in 
itself ; but that it is now the one English word always 
used by our translators to express whatever measure of 
length did form the working and practical standard of 
linear measure to, or for, any and almost et'ery nation 
in the ancient world. No nation could exist then, 
any more than now, without having some standard of 

* The distances of satellites from their primary planets are almost 
invariably given by astronomers, in their professional publications, in 
terms of radii of the said primaries ; the moon's distance from the earth, 
for example, in terms of earth radii. But what earth radii ? Alas ! in 
equatorial radii which vary with the meridian, and are not the radii by 
which the said distance is generally determined. 

In such observations it is almost always the Polar radius which is 
really employed, in whole or in part, by combining the meridian measure? 
of Pulkova or Greenwich as high northern, and the Cape of Good Hope 
or Melbourne as far southern, observatories. 


linear measure belonging to it ; but the standard of one 
nation was no more the necfessary standard of another 
in a different part of the world and in a different age, 
than the yard of the British Government, or two-foot 
rule of the British people, is of the same length, origi- 
nation, and meaning, as the metre of the French 
nation, the Rhynland foot, or the Turkish pike. 
National standards they are, all of them, but every one 
of a different length from the other. 

Hence, under the one name, convenient perhaps for 
modern times from its shortness, of cvJoit, our trans- 
lators have heaped together a number of totally different 
measures of length, conflicting metrological symbolisms, 
and diverse national distinctions. They have even done 
worse ; for most persons having Latin enough to derive 
cubit from cubitus, the elbow, they measure off 18 
inches from their own elbow somewhere to the end of 
the middle finger, and say, whenever the " cubit " of 
any time or any nation whatever is mentioned, — that 
was the length of their standard measure. 

Yet, though both the cubitus of the Romans and Trrjxv^ 
of the Greeks were very close to the length of 18 
inches, the standard measures of other and older nations 
were very different in length. 

What names, then, were they called by; or were 
there different names for different lengths of national 
standards, in those days ? 

In Egypt the standard was called, from 2170 B. c. 
to 100 A. D., according to different modem Egypt- 
ologists, "mah," "meh," " mahi," or ''mai:" and sig- 
nified, according to W. Osburn, an excellent interpreter 
of hieroglyphics, "justified" or "measured off." 

Amongst the Assyrians, according to Mr. Fox Talbot 
and Dr. Norris, their standard measure was generally 
termed, in the age of Nebuchadnezzar, or 700 B. C, 
"ammat;" and in more ancient times, "hu." 


Among the Hebrews, again, the standard measure 
was called " ammah."* There is discussion still amongst 
scholars whether this was the original, or Mosaic Hebrew, 
word, for the thing to which it is now applied ; for some 
authors maintain that ammah is an Assyrian word, and 
introduced only by Ezra when he was recopying the 
Scriptures in Babylon during the captivity. But they 
cannot prove the case absolutely ; and meanwhile, 
although there are some who will have it that the word 
alludes to "the fore part of the arm" — though too we 
are assured that the Hebrew standard was of a totally 
different length from such part of the arm — there 
are others who maintain that the word rather implies, 
" the thing which was before in point of tione," the 
thing which was " the first, the earliest, the ' mother ' 
measure," and even " the foundation of all measure." 

But these disputations of the philologists are not 
sufiicient for what we require now to know ; viz., what 
actually were the lengths of the several linear standards 
of ancient nations, in terms of modern British inches. 

Those of Greece and Rome (mediaeval, however, rather 
than ancient, as compared with the times of the Great 
Pyramid) were, by practical rather than philological 
inquiry, 18*24 British inches nearly, every one allows. 

That of Egypt, a far older land than Greece or 
Rome, was always longer, and close to 20*7 British 
inches, by almost equally unanimous and universal 

There has, indeed, been a solitary attempt in modern 
society, during the last four years, to assert that there 
was a short cubit, of the same length as the Grecian, or 
18-24 British inches, in use, and in great honour and 
prominence too, in Egypt, for the one purpose of mea- 
suring land, as early as the day of the Great Pyramid. 

* See " Edinburgh Astronomical Observations," vol. xiii. pp. R 79 to 

Chap.XVL] the great pyramid. 285 

And as the author of this assertion is the Director- 
General of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain ; and 
as he has been adopted, supported, and followed therein 
during the last year by the " Warden of the Standards " 
of our country, — it is necessary for me, a private author 
only, in metrology, to demonstrate even at some length 
the total baselessness of the idea. For otherwise these 
two giants absolutely stop the way, and prevent all 
further progress in Great Pyramid research. 

The, Old Egyptian Cubit ; and the recent attempt to 
shorten it. 

The mistake, — for actual and absolute mistake it 
undoubtedly is, — seems to have grown up thus. The 
Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, after having 
twice tried and failed in the Athenceum, to establish 
(against my " Life and Work at the Great Pyramid ") 
two other reasons for accounting for the length of the 
base-side of the ancient structure (using a different length 
with each of them), — at last brought out a third length 
and a third theory: this last length being 9,120 British 
inches, and its accompanying theory, the gratuitous 
statement that the base side of the building was intended 
to be 500 times the Egyptian " land-cubit." And if 
you grant, that besides the well-known cubit of old 
Egypt, 20 7 inches long, there was also in existence at 
the time of the Great Pyramid's foundation another 
cubit, whose length was 18*24 British inches, — evidently 
500 times that length, does make up 9,120 of the same 

But that length on paper, for the Great Pyramid's 
base-side, was only obtained by most improperly, and 
even dishonestly, keeping out of view the two largest, 
and perhaps best, of the socket measures of the Pyramid's 
base-side length ; viz., those of the French academicians 


in 1800, and Colonel Howard-Vyse in 1887; both of 
which measured-results the Director-General had before 
him at the time of producing his new theory, together 
with my own discussion of them and others. While, 
as for the same high officer's assertion that there was, 
besides the ordinary 207 inch cubit, also such a thing 
as a land-cuhit in ancient Egypt, of the mediaeval 
Grecian length too of 18*24 inches, — that depended on 
nothing whatever but a most obstinate mistake of the 
high military officer when reading a passage in Hero- 
dotus ; which passage, in reality, says nothing of the 

Herodotus, that charming relator of history as a 
pleasant family tale, we must remember, is telling his 
story to the Greeks ; and amongst other particulars of 
what he saw in Egypt, informs them, of an allowance of 
land to each of the soldiers there, of so many cubits 
square ; to which account he appends the explanatory 
remark, evidently for the benefit of his then hearers, 
the Greeks, — that the Egyptian cubit is of the same 
length as that of Samos. 

This is positively all that the Director-General of the 
Ordnance Survey has to go upon : and it will be observed 
that there is no allusion in the passage to there being two 
cubits in use in Egypt ; one only is mentioned, and that 
one cubit is stated to be the same in length, not as the 
Greek cubit, but as that of Samos. 

In fact, there is no case whatever for the great survey- 
ing military chief at Southampton ; except in so far as 
he, in addition to the above, chooses roundly to assert, 
— and his brother giant, the Warden of the Standards, 
to support him in the assertion, — that the cubit of Samos 
was just the same as, and meant therefore nothing but, 
the Greek cubit. 

Now, as there is nothing whatever of ancient authority 
existing in the world, as far as I am aware, touching 

Chap.XVL] the great pyramid. 287 

the absolute length of the cubit of Samos in the time of 
Herodotus, 445 B.C. (except that slight verbal compara- 
tive notice of his, saying that it was the same as the 
Egyptian, rather than the Greek), we must endeavour to 
ascertain from him, himself, what lie, Herodotus, meant, 
— when Ae explained to a Greek audience in Athens, that 
the length of the Egj^tian cubit was the same as the 
cubit of Samos. Why, for instance, did he not say 
that it was the same as the Greek cubit, if he meant 
the Greek cubit ? 

By turning to his book " Thalia," 55, we shall find that 
Herodotus there makes a Lacedaemonian speak of the 
Samians (in their isle so very close to Asia Minor and 
so far from Greece) as '' foreigners." And again, in 
'"Thalia," 5 6, he himself characteristically speaks of a siege 
of Samos by the Lacedaemonian Dorians as " their (the 
Greeks') first expedition into Asia." " Words," says the 
Rev. Professor Eawlinson, " which are emphatic. They 
mark the place which the expedition occupies in the 
mind of Herodotus. It is an aggression of the Greeks 
upon Asia, and therefore a passage in the history of the 
great quarrel between Persia and Greece, for all Asia is 
the king's " (i. 4)."^^ 

Samian, then, in the mind and feelings of Herodotus, 
eminently meant Asiatic or Persian, the antipodes of 
everything Greek ; and it was a rather delicate way of 
that admirable describer telling his polite Athenian 
audience, that the cubit of the strange and far-oft* 
Egyptians he had been travelling amongst, was of the 
same length as that of their hated and dreaded foes, 
the Persians ; but without offending their ears by the 
sound of the detested name. For Samos was but a poor 
little island, in itself altogether innocent of making 

♦ See also "Edinburgh Astronomical Observations," vol. xiii. p. II 70. 


aggressions on such a combination of states as Greece ; 
and since its invasion by the Lacedaemonians, was much 
better known to Greeks, than the continental and some- 
what mysterious country of the Persians themselves. 

Now, the Persian cubit, at and about the times of 
Herodotus, say from 332 B.C. to 600 B.C., according to 
Dr. Brandis, of Berlin, (whose investigations into the 
Babylonian measures, weights, and money before Alex- 
ander the Great, are original and most valuable), was 
somewhere between 20*866 and 20*670 British inches. 

Don Yincent Queipo, in his " Metrology " (Yol. I., pp. 
277-280), makes the same Persian cubit to be 20*670 
inches long. M. Oppert establishes the same length for 
the Babylonian cubit in the times of Darius and Xerxes. 
Dr. Hincks makes the cubit, equally too, of the Baby- 
lonian, Persian, and Assyrian empires, chiefly from cunei- 
form inscriptions iz= 21*0 inches. All of them, therefore, 
within their limits of error, coinciding sufficiently with 
a mean length of 20*69 inches nearly, for the Persian 
cubit of and about 500 B.C. And that cubit length, 
we may be sure, the said Persians established in Samos 
for as long as they had the upper hand there ; seeing 
that from the same Herodotus we learn (Book YL, 
ch. 24), that no sooner were the Ionian cities under 
Histioeus conquered by Artaphernes, than he took the 
measurement of their whole country in 'parasangs (a 
Persian measure of length, based on the cubit) and 
settled thereupon the tributes which they were in future 
to pay. 

Hence the Samian cubit alluded to, was no other 
than the Persian cubit of the day of Herodotus ; and 
that cubit being of the length of 20*69 British inches by 
universal, modern research, we may immediately see how 
close to the truth the Father of History was, in declaring 
the length of the Egyptian and the Samian, i.e., Persian, 
cubits to be the same, — when the Egyptian cubit has 

Chap.XVL] the great pyramid. 289 

been found by all modern Egyptological explorers to be 
within a few tenths, or even hundredths, of an inch, 
the very same quantity ; or, say for shortness, 20 '7 
British inches. 

Thus Sir Gardner Wilkinson in his " Manners and 
Customs of the Ancient Egyptians" (Vol. IV. pp. 24 
— 34, third edition, 1847), expressly declares against 
the idea of there having been intentionally two difterent- 
lengthed cubits in Pharaonic Egypt ; and gives the 
following as measures of accidental variations of the 
one and only Egyptian cubit belonging to any period 
between 2200 B.C. and 320 B.C. : — 

20-47 British inches. 


» )' 















And other more recent measures by other investigators, 
some from cubits, and some from ancient monuments 
where certain parts seemed to have been laid out, so 
as to be even multiples of 2, 4, or more cubits, — have 
yielded 2073 and 2066 British inches. 

In all these cases then, we see indeed inevitable small 
practical variations, but only of one and the same cubit- 
length ; no approach is manifested to the Greek and 
Roman length of 18-24 inches ; only a drawing together 
round about a most notable and notorious mean quantity 
of 20 '7 inches; and that tendency too was just as 
eminently observed in Babylon, Nineveh, and other 
Mesopotamian cities as in Memphis, Heliopolis or Thebes, 
on the Nile. 

There was thus something equivalent to a grand 
metrical combination among certain Eastern nations of 
early times ; a combination exceeding in its extent and 



duration all the spread and vital powers of language 
and race, of politics, war and peace amongst them ; in 
a large degree, no doubt, because the metrical matter 
concerned, .was bound up not only with their religions, 
but with the one primitive foundation of all those 
idolatrous religions alike. 

What then would have thought any of those nations, 
but more especially the Egyptians (of whose spiritual 
life we know most), of this recent most uncalled for 
attempt by an Ordnance Surveying General at South- 
ampton and a Standards administration official at 
Whitehall, not only to degrade that grand 20-7-inch 
standard of all the several great empires of the ancient 
East, but incontinently to cut it down to the petty 
size of the long subsequent cubit of the " impure 
Greeks ; " as every Egyptian who lived down to their 
times had the pleasure of terming them. What, too, 
more especially would have thought the Egj^ptians, 
when in their " Dead Book " (the souls' vade "mecu/m 
inserted in the coffin of every subject of Pharaoh), — 
there appears in black and yellow, — the most distinct 
ejaculation to be made by such souls when standing 
before the Judge of the dead ; viz., " I have not 
skortened the cubit." And when one of the first sights 
which " a justified soul " is supposed to behold after 
passing the terrestrial bounds is, " the god Thoth with 
the cubit in his hand " ? '''' 

I will not even attempt to say what those ancient 
Egyptians would have thought of our two modern 
official giants, whose carriages, in trying to stop the 
way of Great Pyramid research, have done them, the 
Egyptians, so hateful an injury ; for I am horrified to 
remember the Pharaonic pictures of human souls sent 

* See ** Seven Homilies," by the Eev. J. T. Goodsir. Appendix, with 
translaticn of the " Dead Book," by W. Osburn. Williams and Norgate, 


back from heaven to earth, in the bodies of pigs, for 
far lighter offences than ''shortening the national cubit." 

Origination of the Profane Cubit of the East. 

A particular length, then, and that something within, 
probably or even certainly, a tenth of an inch of 20*7 
inches, did undoubtedly and intentionally characterise, 
and for many ages, the ancient cubit both of Egypt and 
the far distant Babylon, Nineveh, and Persia, together with 
all the great kingdoms historically arrayed in religion 
against Israel ; and such cubit length was made a sacred 
matter amongst them. 

But in what else were their saxired ideas, i.e., chiefly 
of Egypt and Babylon, common or similar ? 

That very part of the " Dead Book " which enables 
the Egyptian who has bought it from his priests, to 
declare in words ready cut and dry for his use, that he 
is free from that sin (into which the Ordnance Surveyor 
and the Warden of the Standards have in these latter 
days tumbled headlong), viz., oi shortening the cubit, — 
puts a long string of other declarations into his mouth, 
protesting him to be also perfectly free from any and every 
other possible sin, great or small, that was ever heard of. 
And whether such unhappy being also believed and 
trusted, as most of them did, in idols of animal-headed 
gods, of whom there were sometimes more, and some- 
times less, in the Egyptian Pantheon, all that — dreadful 
as it is for human beings with souls to be saved, and 
special instruction from the Creator — sinks into com- 
parative insignificance before this unblushing assertion 
of absolute self-righteousness. For that principle lasted 
through all their varying theogonies ; and not only 
shows the innate, settled Cainite direction of their 
thoughts, but their continual antagonism also to the 
religion of Abel, and to the whole Revelation doctrine 


of the lost condition of man, with the consequent Chris- 
tian necessity of an atonement by sacrifice and pardon 
through the blood of. a Mediator. 

All this doctrine is of course to be found in the 
Bible, and something of it in Josephus's account of 
Genesis times also ; but where he obtained his further 
particulars of Cain, and how far they are to be, or 
should be, trusted, I know not. Yet they are pertinent 
to the present question, and run thus ; viz., that after 
Cain's expulsion from a more blessed society, and after 
the mark was put upon him, he went on from one 
wickedness to another until he at last invented " weights 
and measures :" not so much, apparently, that they 
were sinful in themselves, but that Cain employed them 
as instruments of rapacity and oppression : or as, in 
fact, the officers of the Assyrian king afterwards made 
use of them in exacting cruel tribute from conquered 

In self-defence therefore, implies Josephus, the descen- 
dants of righteous Seth, in whose line afterwards came 
Noah, Shem, Melchisedec, Abraham, and Moses, betook 
themselves to studying astronomy, with the special 
approval and help 9f Almighty God ; and when they 
had perfected those discoveries, they set forth from their 
own land (which was probably in Mesopotamia), to the 
land of Siriad (that is the Siriadic, or Dog-star, land of 
Egypt), and inscribed their discoveries there on two 
pillars, one of stone and one of brick. 

They did not therefore seek either to teach or enforce 
these things on the Egyptian people whom they found 
there ; they merely recorded their astronomical dis- 
coveries in their own way, to their own satisfaction in 
that land, because it was a more suitable land for that 
purpose than their own ; and they recorded them by 
means of masonry, most certainly illegible to all un- 
scientific natives around. And what such discoveries in 


astronomy could have been, to enable them to have a 
counter effect to the bad weights and measures of Cain, 
unless they were connected with a principle . of earth 
and heaven commensurability adapted to a people's 
measures in length, capacity, and weight, leading their 
souls therefore, and thereby, to think lovingly, sym- 
pathetically, harmoniously, and Abel-like, of God, — it 
is difficult to conceive. 

In fact, according to the nature of the things said to 
be inscribed, the above alluded to stone pillar, or monu- 
ment (which Whiston, wholly ignorant of hieroglyphic 
interpretation, proposed to identify with a Cainite 
obelisk of an idolatrous king of Egypt in Thebes during 
the 19th Dynasty), — can be no other than the Great 
Pyramid, While the similar hrick monument, erected 
by the same Sethite parties (descendants only of Seth 
through the Flood), must, if ever finished, have gone 
the way of all the brick pyramids of profane Egypt ; 
viz., subsided into a heap of decaying mould. 

But I do not ask any one to dejpend solely, for any 
one important thing, on Josephus ; though, from the 
large amount of accordance between him and the Bible 
in numerous other points, it would not be wise to alto- 
gether reject a whole argument in all its parts and 
ramifications, merely because it is found in Josephus 
and in no other preserved writing of olden times. 
The passage, however, quoted above, does, even when 
considerably pruned, open up a very suggestive view, 
of a metrological contrast, entirely agreeable with Bibljcal 
characteristics, though depending on microscopic re- 
finements only understood by modern science within 
the last century. It tells us, I venture to say, of a 
metrological contrast between Cain and Abel having 
been carried by some of their descendants through the 
Flood : and of these parties having been distinguished 
by the most opposite kinds of weights and measures. 


And when we further find by later researches that the 
anti-Israel, and decidedly Cainite nations, spread abroad 
even from the Nile to the Euphrates, though often warring 
vehemently with each other, were yet banded together 
to employ one and the same cubit length of 20 '7 inches, 
we must look upon that measure as the Cain-invented, 
Cain-descended, cubit. When, too, we find that that 
length is totally incongruous to the measures of both 
the earth and the heavens, and not evenly in any way 
commensurable thereto, or conforming .therewith, — it 
opens up the most intense anxiety to ascertain whether 
the cubit of the descendants of Seth, in the line of 
Abraham, and representative of the cause of righteous 
Abel, had any of the admirable earth-commensurability 
and nature harmonious properties which have been dis- 
covered in the standards of the Great Pyramid. 

The Sacred Cubit of the Hebrews. 

And here, alas for the Church of England ! from the 
time of Bishop Cumberland of Peterborough, down to 
the Bible dictionaries of Kitto and Smith, the annotated 
Bibles of the Government printers, and the maps of Jeru- 
salem prepared for the Palestine Exploration Association 
by the Ordnance Survey establishment at Southampton. 
For all these supposed unquestionable authorities merely 
indicate, lazily, ignorantly (both as Christians and 
scientists), " The Hebrew measures are impossible to 
find out by the mere words of the Bible, so we go to 
the (Cainite) Egyptians : and take, and give you, their 
(self-righteous, God-defying) measures as representing 
(the Inspired sacredness of) the Hebrew ! " And such 
numbers of inches too as these blinded men give, under 
that guise, are more often derived from mediseval or 
Grecianised, but still idolatrous, Egypt, than the Egypt 
of her most ancient, or even Exodus, day. 


In this dilemma of the flock's desertion, or misleading, 
by its proper shepherds, how thankful should we be, 
that it pleased God to raise up the spirit of Newton 
amongst us ; and enabled him to make it one of the most 
important discoveries of his riper years — though the 
opposition of the Church of England has caused it to 
remain unread almost to the present day, — that while 
there undoubtedly was in ancient times a cubit of 20 '7 
inches nearly, characterising the nations of Egypt, Assyria, 
Babylonia, and Phoenicia, and which cubit Newton calls 
unhesitatingly '' the profane cubit ; " there was another 
which he equally unhesitatingly speaks of as the sacred 
cubit ; and shows that it was decidedly longer than the 
above, and most earnestly preserved, treasured up, and 
obeyed, among some very limited branches of the house 
of Shem. The exact date of its promulgation Newton 
does not attempt to fix, but alludes to the certain fact 
of its having become the " proper and principal cubit " 
of the Israelites, long before they went doivn to Egypt^ 

Now the precise size of this remarkable cubit, and 
which seems eventually to have remained in the sole 
possession of the Hebrews, and to have been, after 
the Egyptian captivity, employed by them for sacred, 
Biblically sacred, purposes only, Sir Isaac Newton 
attempts to ascertain in various modes thus : — 

1 . By notices from Talmudists and Josephus in terms 
of Greek cubits, which on calculation give, as limits, 
something between 31 '24 and 24 '30 British inches. f 

2. From Talmudists by proportion of the human 
body, giving as limits, from 27*94 to 2328 British 

3. From Josephus' s description of the pillars of the 
temple, between 27*16 and 23*28 British inches. 

* See " Sir Isaac Newton's Dissertation on Cubits," reprinted in vol. ii. 
of my " Life and Work at the Great Pyramid." 

t On the mean determination by many authors that 1 Attic foot = 12*16 
British inches ; and one lloman uncia = 0*97 British inches. 


4. By Talmudists and " all Jews' " idea of a Sabbath 
day's journey between 27'16 and 23*28 Britisli inches. 

5. By Talmudists' and Josephus's accounts of the 
steps to the Inner Court, between 26*19 and 23*28 
British inches. 

6. By many Chaldaic and Hebrew proportions to the 
cubit of Memphis, giving 24*83 British inches. And, 

7. From a statement by Mersennus, as to the length 
of a supposed copy of the sacred cubit of the Hebrews, 
secretly preserved amongst them, concluded = 24*91 
British inches. 

Now in all these seven methods any one may observe 
that that heathen length of Egypt and Babylon, viz., 
20*7 inches, has no standing-place whatever; neither 
beside the single determinations, nor within the widest 
limits of the double determinations. What is indicated 
by the numbers, appears to be, — either 24 inches with 
a large fraction added to it, or 25 inches with a small 
fraction, or something between the two ; and if we say 
25 inches with an uncertainty of a tenth of an inch 
either way, depending on the rudeness of the references, 
we shall probably be borne out by every one who 
examines. Sir Isaac Newton's original paper ably, care- 
fully, and without prejudice. 

Most triumphantly, then, ended Sir Isaac Newton's 
researches, in showing that the cubit, or rather the 
linear standard, of that peculiar people who were 
religiously representative of Abel, was absolutely and 
totally different, in the radical and governing feature of 
length, from the cubit, or linear standard of all the 
unhappily numerous and powerful empires representing 
Cain, in the ancient world. And there he stopped. But 
now, with the new ideas opened up by John Taylor 
from his researches, literary though they were only, at 
the Great Pyramid, we find that a length of 25*025 
British inches, or a length abundantly within the limits 


of the conclusions to be drawn from Sir Isaac Newton's 
numbers for the Hebrew sacred cubit, — is not only 
earth commensurable, but earth commensurable, and 
nature harmonious, according to Sir John Herschel, in 
the best conceivable manner ; or with the earth's astro- 
nomical axis of rotation. So accurately, too, and in so 
difficult a subject, that as we have already shown in 
the first part of this book, no such conclusion could 
have been intentionally arrived at by any race or nation 
of men in the early age when the Great P^^amid was 
founded, — without their being favoured by some super- 
human and supranatural, that is. Divine, assistance. 

That the Hebrew race would have received such 
assistance from the Almighty, if they really needed it, 
no true believer in the Bible will doubt for a moment. 
And now when we find, and shall afterwards be able to 
confirm from other sources, that they had the very thing 
amongst them which, as the highest modern science 
testifies, could only have been a supranatural gift in that 
age, the further question is answered, as soon as it 
arises, — viz., whether the gift may really after all have 
come to them in the manner indicated by Josephus ; 
i.e., through primeval Divine assistance accorded to 
Seth, as represented in his earlier descendants ; and 
that it was granted to them, not merely to improve 
them in astronomy, but also to strengthen them against 
the religiously opposed descendants of Cain. 

Now the Egyptians were Cainites, not only from what 
has already been shown from their own " Dead Book," 
but from Biblical history indicating that they had, like 
Cain, refused the sin-offering lying at the door, and 
had scornfully banded themselves together to consider 
the Divinely-appointed means of reconciliation "an 
abomination unto them." '^ Therefore, when Israel was 
in Egypt, Abel and Cain tjqDically met once again, and 
* John Taylor's •« Great Pyramid," p. 217. 


we all know with what results of cruelty within the 
power of Cain to inflict. We also know in a parallel 
manner, by metrological research, that that Mizraite 
edition of Cain held then, and continued to hold 
through all his national existence, to his 20*7 inch 
standard measure ; while, through Sir Isaac Newton 
the astounding information first came, that the Hebraite 
Abel at the same time likewise kept true, through 
all his persecutions, to his oppositely derived, Seth- 
descended, 25*025 inch, better standard. 

These two opposing standards, therefore, clashed 
together in Egypt, B.C. 1500, and God gave the victory 
in the end to Abel's. 

But they met together again, as Sir Isaac Newton 
himself points out, after the Exodus, and even in the 
very presence of the Tabernacle in the wilderness ; for 
the Israelites would employ the Egyptian cubit of 20 '7 
inches long for many of their ordinary purposes ; though 
Moses was always most precise, and apparently successful, 
in seeing that in their sacred work they employed only 
their sacred cubit, i.e., " the cubit of the Lord their 
God;" viz., the earth-axis commensurable cubit of 
25-025 inches long. ;. 

The Mixed Presence of the Two Cubits, Sacred and 

But it may be asked. Why did the Israelites con- 
tinue to employ two cubits ? If, as Sir Isaac Newton 
states, they brought their own sacred cubit, which they 
had possessed of old, down with them into Egypt, pre- 
served it when there, and took it out with them again, 
— why was that one not enough for all their purposes ? 

The first answer to this question is by Sir Isaac him- 

" They, the Hebrews, brought," says he, " their own 


sacred measure to Egypt with them ; but living for 
above two hundred years (four hundred according to 
some chronologists) under the dominion of the Egyp- 
tians, and undergoing a hard service under them, 
especially in building, where the measures came daily 
under consideration, they must necessarily learn the 
Egyptian cubit." 

The second answer is, " Did the Israelites succeed in 
freeing themselves at the Exodus from every other 
taint and sin of the Cainite people they had been 
sojourning amongst ? Nay, indeed, were they free from 
the sins of many innate, born, and predestined Cainites 
among themselves ? Search the Scriptures, and the 
answer comes up too plainly. 

It was not, apparently, the purpose of God to create 
even his chosen people absolutely immaculate ; or to 
make it impossible for them to sin, even if they should 
try. Therefore was it that temptations to evil (though 
in a measure only) were left to prove them ; and amongst 
other forms of seduction, the insidious Cainite 207- 
inch cubit, as well as the true cubit of Abel of the 
25-025-inch length. 

Now, exactly as these two cubits were contending 
with each other, and either ensnaring or saving men's 
souls in the very camp of the Israelites ruled by Moses, 
so is it still in that wondrous erection in Egypt, the 
Great Pyramid, to this day. 

Sir Isaac Newton showed from the measures of Pro- 
fessor Greaves in 1638, that various minor parts of the 
Great Pyramid were laid out in terms of the 20*7 inch 
cubit of Memphis, i.e., the Cainite cubit sacred to Egypt 
but profane to the Israelites ; and I, having gone over 
some parts of the Pyramid, measuring-rod in hand, have 
testified, in Vol. II. p. 340 of my '' Life and Work," 
that Sir Isaac Newton is there perfectly correct ; and 
the instances may partly have been brought about by 


the necessity, even of a Seth-descended architect of the 
Great Pyramid, employing the idolatrous natives of 
Egypt with their one and only cubit familiar to them, 
as his working masons and mere hodmen in the great 
work whose ultimate object and purpose they were per- 
fectly ignorant of, and would have opposed if they had' 

But that does not destroy, nay, it rather rivets atten- 
tion to, the grander Pyramid fact which had escaped 
the understanding of all mankind until after the days 
of John Taylor ; (escaped them, too, though it was 
prominently in their midst, and with nothing to hide 
it from any one, even from the beginning of history) ; 
viz., that if you subdivide the base-side length of the 
Great Pyramid by the number of days in a year, you 
obtain, by such application of an astronomical time- 
measure, — the sacred Hebrew, earth- commensurable, 
aTi^i-Cainite cubit, and find that Sethite rod to be a 
ruling feature of the ultimate design of the whole vast 

T}ie, Sacred in Time, as well as Space. ' 

Now this conjunct employment in the Pyramid, of 
sacred measures of length and true measures of time, is 
all the more noticeable, because during their national 
slavery to the hardest of taskmasters, the Israelites got 
inevitably into the way of using, for secular purposes, 
something else besides the profane measures of length 
of the Egyptians ; for they adopted their imperfect 
mode of measuring time as well, or of telling off the 
days, first by lunar, and then by reputed solar months. 

Yet of all the Mosaic institutions, nothing is better 
appreciated, in our country at least, than that Moses 
contended gloriously with his countrymen for the non- 
Egyptian time-measure of, a week of six days, followed 
by a Sabbath of rest ; and that he so contended because 


such a time-measure was an original ordinance, not of 
man, but of the Lord his God, and to be observed by the 
faithful and God-fearing of mankind for ever and ever. 

Has the Great Pyramid, then (Sethite as we may call 
it now, though not Mosaic), any allusions to that most 
distinguishing time-measure of Kevelation, the week, as 
it is in the Bible ? 

Alas ! how little do we yet know of the Great Pyra- 
mid : and how much there is still to learn. To learn 
indeed; but not from our many modern Egyptologists, 
as they proudly call themselves. For surely by this 
time we should have acquired a wholesome fear of those 
who, instead of studying the Great Pyramid from a 
truly religious and Christian, or any, point of view, have 
rushed headlong into a Cainite desire to know more 
about the sanctified bulls and cats, crocodiles and 
ibises, snake and beetle gods, and all the other un- 
holy holies of that impure Egyptian nation ; — a people 
answering more closely than any other to St. Paul's 
description of the ancient world ; as composed of 
those, who are without excuse, — because that, "when 
(in primeval and patriarchal times) they knew God, 
they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful ; 
but became vain in their imaginations, and changed 
the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made 
like to corruptible man, and to birds and four-footed 
beasts and creeping things. A people who changed the 
truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served 
the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for 
ever. Amen." 

To those, then, who are happily freed, but not by 
human learning, from this dreadful hankering of modern 
Egyptological scholars, and keepers of Egyptian museum 
galleries, to become wise in old idolatry, — how grandly 
rise in noble aspirations, the thoughts of any fair, honest 
mind, on merely beholding the external mass of the 


Great Pyramid ! For thus writes a recent traveller, a 
plain and simple style of working-man almost, but with 
the higher feelings which spring from Christian edu- 
cation and the improving sentiments which labour of 
head and hand, in company with his brother men in 
an appointed path, irresistibly teaches, — thus he writes, 
(without, however, as might too probably be expected in 
a stranger, unfurnished with any scientific instruments 
of measure, sufficiently distinguishing the Great Pyramid 
from the other pyramids, its copies without souls, or 
minds either, in the immediate neighbourhood) : — 

" To view them merely as gigantic monuments is a 
novelty productive of impressions of sublime grandeur, 
of which words fail to convey any accurate conception ; 
but when they are viewed in connection with the history 
of the human race, as older than the oldest records, and 
marked with the antiquity of those ages long gone by, 
when the earliest of the patriarchs entered Egypt, the 
mind becomes absorbed, and I felt as though I could 
have lain, not for hours only, but even for nights and 
days, indulging in the sight of the greatest of these 
pyramids." " With the Hebrews, to look back beyond 
the time of Abraham, was deemed a glimpse of eternity ; 
and the passage, " Before Abraham was' I AM," is at 
once presented to the mind in connection with this view. 
Yet even in Abraham's time, it is supposed that these 
pyramids were works of venerable antiquity." ^'^ 

True, most true ; and in the Great Pyramid we have 
found enshrined, established in the solid architecture, 
but yet unseen from those pre-Abrahamic, down to 
these latter days, that identical sacred, earth-commen- 
surable, measure of space, which, according to Sir Isaac 
Newton, the leaders of the Hebrew race had received 
long before they went down to Egypt. 

* ** Notes on Egypt," by T. Sopwith, Esq., C.E., privately printed. 

Chap.XVL] the great pyramid, 303 

Is it possible, then, let us fear not to ask again, that 
any allusion to the earliest written Divine command, 
the measuring of time by a sabbatical week of seven 
days, may be found in that grandest, and most purely 
Sethite, of stone records also ? 

Search may be made ; but even the best of us should 
pray in the course of it, to be guarded against being 
led away by^mere coincidences, by mistaken observa- 
tions, and even intended stumbling-blocks and rocks of 
offence : for surely things exist in the Great Pyramid 
very much as they do in the world outside, and even 
as they did in the sacred camp of the Tabernacle under 
Mount Sinai itself, — to try us, and prove whether our 
faith be correct as well as strong. 




ON this important question there is but one mode of 
inquiry, viz., attention to the measures of the whole 
and its parts ; coupled with the quality of the work con- 
cerned, and followed by the theory, whatever that may 
ultimately prove to be, which explains the greatest 
number of facts. 

Now one ifime-measure has already been indicated in 
the circumstance that the sacred, Hebrew, or pyramid 
cubit is of such a length that it measures the base-side 
of the Great Pyramid by the number of days, and frac- 
tions of a day, in a year ; while another, includes a 
practical demonstration of our modern leap-year arrange- 
ment in the exhibition of the four sides, or years, which 
make up a cycle of years complete to a day ; or, as the 
symbolism of the ante-chamber indicates, almost a day ; 
for, of the four grand grooves there, of which three are 
hollow, and the fourth only, filled, that fourth one is not 
equal in breadth to the other three. (See Plate X.) 

But a still grander time-measure is obtained by view- 
ing the whole Pyramid's base periphery in the light of 
its equivalent circle, struck with a radius equal to the 
vertical height of the Pyramid ; w^hich, by its sun-distance 
commensurability, symbolises the sun in the centre of 
that circle ; for then ♦the interval of twenty-four solar 
hours, or the time elapsing between the sun apparently 

Chap.XVIL] the great pyramid, 305 

leaving the meridian of any place and returning to it 
again, by virtue of the rotation of the earth on its axis 
before the sun, i.e., a mean solar day, — is measured off 
on that circle's circumference by 100 pyramid inches 

French Savants on the Passages of the Great Pyramid. 

But if the time symbolism of the exterior of the 
Pyramid is thus clear and simple enough, that of the 
interior presents many difficulties. 

The entrance passage has indeed already been else- 
where shown to be connected with the meridian transit 
of a circum-polar star ; but why did the builders make 
both that passage and the first ascending passage so 
excessively low, that a man can hardly pass through 
them, even crawling on his hands and knees ; and 
another, the Grand Gallery, so astonishingly high, that 
the blazing torches of Arab guides seldom suffice, in its 
mere darkness rendered somewhat visible, to show the 
ceiling to wondering visitors ! 

No approach to a sufficient answer to these questions 
has yet been given anywhere ; and all that violent, and 
apparently unreasonable, contrast of heights, remains 
the most mysterious thing in its origin, at the same 
time that, in its existence, it is one of the best ascer- 
tained facts about the whole Great Pyramid. 

The French Academicians, even in their day, en- 
larged much and learnedly on the circumstance ; but 
could neither solve that nor many other points, about 
both the Grand Gallery and the smaller passages. 
Almost in despair at last, but the despair of an 
honest and well-read man, unashamed to confess the 
truth that such a case was too difficult for him, 
— M. Jomard exclaims at p. 198, '' Description do 
I'Egypte," " Everything is mysterious, I repeat it, in the 



construction and distribution of the monument ; the 
passages, oblique, horizontal, sharply bended, of different 
dimensions!" And again, at p. 207 of "Antiquit^s, 
M^moires," '' We are not at all enlightened either upon 
the origin, or the employment, the utility, or any motive 
whatever, for the gallery and various passages of the 
Great Pyramid ; but do we know anything more either 
about the well, or much rather about the 28 square 
holes or cavities worked with skill alon^ the sides of 
the high ascending gallery ? " 


Professor Greaves describes the Passages of the Great 

Where so many great men have failed, we must pro- 
ceed with caution indeed ; and commencing therefore at 
the beginning, with what has been known to, and con- 
fessed by, most travellers for ages, I will, at present, 
merely call attention to the extraordinary pains that 
were taken by the original builders with the structure 
of all these passages. 

Even with the first, or entrance passage, the most 
used and abused of the whole, both in mediaeval and 
modern times, — yet the regularity and beauty of its 
fabric composed of whiter, more compact, and homo- 
geneous stone than is to be seen anywhere else, and in 
enormous blocks admirably worked, seems to have been 
ever the admiration of all beholders. Professor Greaves, 
in 1638, exclaims (with almost a Tennysonian feeling of 
the romantic belonging rather to 1860), on beholding 
this passage some 3,800 years after its builders had 
been laid in the dust, and their spirits had returned to 
God who gave them, " the structure of it hath been 
the labour of an exquisite hand." 

Yes, truly ; but to bring back the " tender grace of 
a day so very lon^ since 4ead," and receive a clear intel- 


lectual explanation of wherefore these things came to 
pass, — ^how vain it would be merely to sigh, and ever so 
anxiously wait, for — 

" The touch of that vanish'd hand, 
And the sound of a voice that is still." 

Nor does the Savilian professor abandon himself to vain 
regrets ; but goes on methodically to describe the 
mechanical elements of the excellence which he had 
noted ; such as, " the smoothness and evenness of the 
work," " the close knitting of the joints," and the 
accuracy with which the exact breadth of 3 '4 6 3 of 
the English foot,* is kept up through a length of 
92-5 feet. But when Greaves comes soon afterwards 
over against a portion of that rough fragment of 
a side-passage forced in barbarous times of spolia- 
tion by Caliph Al Mamoun, he correctly describes 
that as "a place somewhat larger, and of a pretty 
height, but lying incomposed ; an obscure and broken 
place, the length 89 feet, the breadth and height 
various, and not worth consideration." And again, " by 
whomsoever (among the moderns) it was constructed, 
is not worth the inquiry ; nor does the place merit the 
describing ; but that I was unwilling to pretermit any- 
thing, being only an habitation for bats, and those so 
ugly and of so large a size, exceeding a foot in length, that 
I have not elsewhere seen the like." f (See Plate VIII.) 

* Equivalent to 41*51 pyramid inches, my measures in I860 havinjf 
given for extremes 4r58 and 41*46, and the mean of all, 41*49 of the same 
inches ; or differing from my astronomical predecessor, after two cen- 
turies, by only 2i)\)oth of the whole. 

t Murtodi, an Aiabian author, says, "As big as black eagles." Pro- 
fessor Greaves evidently did not recognise in 1638, neither indeed did 
Dr. Clarke in 1800, that this "incomposed hole" was really the rough 
passage of forced entrance made by the early Arabian Caliph ; and 
it required Colonel Howard- Vyse's clearing away of the rubbish mound 
outside, in 1837, to prove the fact, by exhibiting the outer end of the hole 
as well. But the very circumstance of Professor Greaves not boiuif 
acquainted with these latter day facts, makes his correct description of 
the interior all the more creditable to him. 


When, ' on the contrary, the same Professor Greaves, by 
aid of that yawning hiatus in the masonry to the west of 
the portcullis, got round and above that granite block 
obstruction between the entrance, and first ascending, pas- 
sages proper, and reached this latter work of the ancient 
builders, — a passage of the same breadth, nearly as the 
entrance or descending passage, — he then resumes his 
more graceful imagery, and writes : " The pavement of 
this rises with a gentle acclivity, consisting of smooth 
and impolished marble (limestone), and, where not 
smeared with filth, appearing of a white alabaster (cream) 
colour ; the sides and roof, as Titus Livius Burretinus, 
a Venetian, an ingenious young man, who accompanied 
me thither, observed, were of impolished stone, not so 
hard and compact as that of the pavement, but more soft 
and tender." And I, in my turn, have now, 285 years 
after King Charles the First's professor of astronomy left 
the Pyramid, to report, as an apparent consequence of 
that tender softness described by him, that the upper 
part of the walls, and more especially the roof of much 
of this passage, have exfoliated or decayed to the extent 
of a foot or more in many places, — while the floor, on 
the other hand, has rather hardened to the feet (usually 
naked feet, though) of Arabs, and exhibits a peculiar 
change of the limestone actually verging upon the 
consistence of flint, yet keeping nearly true still to the 
ancient test marks of the floor level on either side wall. 

And then when he arrives in the far freer and more 
elevated space of the second ascending passage, or the 
Grand Gallery, the fine old Oxford professor, who well 
knew what architectural beauties were, speaks of iif as "a 
very stately piece of work, and not inferiour either in 
respect of the curiosity of art, or richness of materials, 
to the most sumptuous and magnificent buildings." And 
again, " this gallery or corridor, or whatsoever else I 
may call it, is built of white and polished marble (lime- 


stone), the which is very evenly cut in spacious squares 
or tables. Of such materials as is the pavement, such 
is the roof, and such are the side walls that flank it ; the 
coagmentation or knitting of the joints is so close, that 
they are scarce discernible to a curious eye ; and that 
which adds grace to the whole structure, though it 
makes the passage the more slippery and difficult, is the 
acclivity and rising of the ascent. The height of this 
gallery is 26 (more nearly 28) feet ; the breadth 6 '870 
feet, of which 3*435 feet are to be allowed for the way 
in the midst, which is set and bounded on both sides 
with two banks (like benches) of sleek and polished 
stone ; each of these hath 1*7 17 of a foot in breadth, 
and as much in depth." '"'" 

" Upon the top of these benches, near the angle 
where they close and join with the wall, are little 
spaces cut in right-angled parallel figures, set on each 
side opposite one another, intended, no question, for 
some other end than ornament.'' 

*' In the casting and ranging of the marbles (lime- 
stone), in both the side walls, there is one piece of 
architecture in my judgment very graceful, and that is 
that all the courses or ranges, which are but seven (so 
great are these stones), do set and flag over one another 
about three inches ; the bottom of the uppermost 
course overflagging the top of the next, and so in order 
the rest as they descend." 

In the edition of Greaves's works by Dr. Birch in 
1737, from which I quote, there is an attempt to 
represent these things graphically, by the book being 
*' adorned with sculptures," and " illustrated with cuts 

♦ By my measures in I860, in pyramid inches, and taking a mean of 
all the variations caused hy the tile-setting of the stones forming the 
ceiling or roof, the vertical height between sloping floor, and parallel 
sloping roof, was = 339-2, and the computed transverse height = 304*1, 
the whole breadth being 82*2 ; the lower breadth between the ramps = 42-0 ; 
and thfi ramps themselves 20-07 broad, and 20-96 high in the transverse, 
or shorteat, direction. 


by a curious hand;" and in the great French work 
some efforts in a high class of design are engraved in 
Hne, to represent perspective views looking both upward 
and downward in the Grand Gallery ; but they are all 
of them to some extent failures. The circumstances 
are above the scope of orthodox pictures by reason of 
the narrow breadth, the lofty vaulting height, and the 
very peculiar sloping angle of the long floor ; a floor, 
when one looks from its north end southward, ascending, 
and ascending through the darkness apparently for 
ever ; and with such steepness, that no artist's view of 
it, painted on a vertical plane, could ever hope to 
represent more than a small part of that floor, rising 
upward through the whole canvas and going out at the 
top. While on looking northward from the south end 
of the gallery, you lose the floor instantly, and see on 
the level of your eyes in the distance, part of the 
steeply descending ceiling ; descending, too, still further 
and going out at the bottom of the picture, if your 
means of illumination extend so far. (See Plate XII.) 
Otherwise, it is the solemn overlappings of the high 
dark walls, passing you by on either side, to draw 
together in dim and unknown perspective beyond, 
which encase you in on every hand ; but all on an 
uneasy slant, speaking of toil in one direction, danger 
in another, and a mountain of strength for a prison 
house, if so required, everywhere. 

Modem Measures of the Passages. 

In the first edition of this book, I was positively 
puzzled to make out, let alone the mysterious Grand 
Gallery, the simple sizes of the smaller passages ; and 
erred considerably in choosing among the conflicting 
testimonies of former travellers. But a four months' resi- 
dence on the spot, most completely settled all that class 



of difficulties ; and enables me now to speak confidently 
thus : — Although there are some pieces of horizontal 
passage in the Great Pyramid, their length is as nothing 
compared to the length of the inclined passages. The 
angle of inclination in a vertical plane of these pas- 
sages is 26° 18' nearly, being the same whether the 
passages are ascending or descending (within errors 
of construction amounting to 1-1 20 th of the whole) ; 
and the transverse size, that is, breadth and height, 
excepting only the utterly diverse Grand Gallery, being 
also the same ; or at least, having certainly been so, 
before the abrading and exfoliating of the more " soft 
and tender " of the stones began. Confining my- 
self, however, to well-preserved portions of the ancient 
surface, and just now to the entrance-passage alone, I 
obtained the following measures for its breadth and 

Entrance Passage. 
Breadth and transverse height as measured in 1865. 

Place where the 
measure was 
made referred to 
the flour-joints. 

Breadth from east 
to west. 

Transverse height. 


of wallK. 

top of 

East side 


West side 


4th joint from 
north end of 
passage . 

7th do. . 

8th do. . . . 

11th do. . 
16th do. . 

2l8t do. . 

Brit. ins. 















fThe peculiar Uttle 
J holes of rough 
] decayed surface 
L avoided. 

rSupposed to he Pro- 
fessor Greaves's 
j place of measuie, 
"] which gave him 
41-56 of his KtigUsh 
L inches. 

f Broken holes in this 
J pai't of the floor 
] from 12 to 18 inches 
L deep. 
[ The top of wall mea- 

surcd.was wliat was 
< indicated by the 

plane of the roof 
L produced. 


The manner in which these numbers run, will indicate 
to any practical man the degree of opportunity which 
the Great Pyramid still presents for respectable accuracy 
of measure, by those who Avill trouble themselves to 
seek out the best-preserved parts, and endeavour to 
do them justice. But what is the meaning of the 
word height in the above table being qualified as 
" transverse height " ? 

These Pyramid passages being all of them inclined, 
have two sorts or kinds of height ; 1, transverse height, 
or the shortest distance between floor and ceiling, and 
which was the easier kind of height to measure accurately 
with the sliding scales which I had had constructed for the 
purpose ; and, 2, vertical height, or height in the direc- 
tion of a plumb-line, and the more usual, indeed almost 
the universal, mode of measuring heights in masonry 
structures elsewhere. 

Now, putting all the observations together, I deduced 
47*24 Pyramid inches to be the transverse height of 
the entrance passage ; and computing from thence with 
the observed angle of inclination the vertical height, 
that came out 52*76 of the same inches. But the sum 
of those two heights, or the height taken .up and down, 
= 100 inches: which length, as elsewhere shown, is 
the general Pyramid linear representation of a day of 
24 hours. And the mean of the two heights, or the 
height taken one way only, and impartially to the 
middle point between them, = 50 inches ; which 
quantity is, therefore, the general Pyramid linear 
representation of only half a day. In which case let 
us ask, what the entrance passage has to do with half, 
rather th|in a whole, day ? 

Astronomy of the Entrance Passage. 

If you descend at night a certain distance down the 
sloping floor of the entrance passage, and then turn 


round and look upwards and towards the north, to its 
open mouth, you will see any large star whose distance 
is 3° 42' nearly from the Pole, if it should chance to be 
crossing the meridian at that moment in the lower part 
of its daily circle : — always supposing that there is at 
this present time a star at that distance, bright enough 
to be easily seen by the naked eye ; and indeed there is 
such a one very nearly in the required position, viz., 
8 Ursse minoris, 3° 24' from the Polar point. 

But that star was not always there ; being carried 
on and on through an immense celestial round at the 
rate of about 1 2 degrees nearly, for every thousand years, 
by that grand mechanism of the earth and the heavens 
called amongst astronomers the precession of the equi- 
noxes ; — the most important too of all celestial pheno- 
mena for fixing the exact chronology of the earlier periods 
of man upon earth. It was Sir John Herschel who, in 
answer to a letter from Colonel Howard- Vyse on his 
return from his immortal Pyramid explorations in 
Egypt, in 1837-8, first laid down the application of 
that essential astronomical law with regard to the Great 
Pyramid. And, indeed, he did more ; for, assuming 
the ^prevailing idea of his then time, that the Great 
Pyramid's foundation was somewhere about 4,000 years 
ago, he searched the starry heavens, as moving under the 
influence of precession, and found that, for all the last 
5,000 years, only one notable star had been at the re- 
quired Polar distance, so as to look exactly down the 
descending entrance-passage of the Great Pyramid at its 
— the star's — lower meridian culmination ; and that 
star — a Draconis by modern name — was in that critical 
position somewhere about 2160 B.C. That date there- 
fore made up with 1838 (and excluding for the time 
four possibly unrecorded years at the beginning of our 
era), 3,998 years ago as the epoch of the passage angle 
being laid, to suit a chronological phenomenon of ex- 


cellent astronomical kind, and peculiar to the Pyramid 
builders' day. 

This near agreement of general Egyptological theory, 
as it was in London in 1840 A. D., with the result of 
computations by modern astronomy when adapted to 
measures of still existing facts at the Great Pyramid, 
seemed to take the English world by a storm of 
admiration ; and every one allowed, for a while, that the 
whole affair was quite settled. But, alas ! those were 
simple, innocent days under good King William and 
the quiet Queen Adelaide. The up- springing of German 
theology in this country, and the demands of natural- 
history science overleaping itself, and calling out every- 
where for long dates, were scarcely begun ; and the 
only opposition then ventured was from certain literary 
Egyptologists, who protested that the astronomy of Sir 
John Herschel's paper was only an accidental coincidence 
with the passage-angle; because said passage, having 
been made, as they knew, merely to slide a sarcophagus 
down to its resting-place, and having been filled up 
choke full to its mouth, after that was done, with solid 
blocks of stone, it could not have been used as an 
observatory by astronomers. 

The first answer to this Egyptologic protest, was easy 
enough. Sir John Herschel had not said that the pas- 
sage was intended to serve as a permanent observatory ; 
but that its cream-white, stone-lined, long tube seemed 
to memorialize a particular phenomenon of the day when 
it was being built, and of that day only ; a record, 
therefore, by m^em^orial astronomy (whatever other prac- 
tical use the passage may, or may not, have served), 
of a special sidereal fact, to become increasingly impor- 
tant in distant ages for the purpose of chronology. 

That explanation holds perfectly true still. But 
with regard to the other part of the question, as to 
whether Sir John Herschel's astronomical conclusion 


is still to be held as confirming, and confirmed by, the 
date arrived at by the very latest studies of the Egypto- 
logists among the uncertain documents of profane and 
idolatrous Egypt (generally too, long subsequent to the 
Great Pyramid's foundation) ; alas ! what a change had 
passed over London society by the time that it had 
come to be my turn to go out to the Great Pyramid 
in 1864, and print upon it in 1867, 8, and 9 ! 

Then to talk of 4,000 years ago for the Great 
Pyramid's date of foundation ! All Egyptologists of any 
pretension had learned to scorn such a petty conception ; 
and had begun to assert entirely new epochs, ranging any- 
where between 5,200 and 6,600 years ago. Where- 
upon, one-half at least of Sir John Herschel's hitherto 
applauded grounds, of confirmation, for his astronomical 
date of the Great Pyramid, fell to pieces at once ; and 
he was left, with his astronomy alone, in enormous 
opposition to, and violent discrepance from, instead of 
singular agreement with, the idol-studying Egyptologists 
of our universities and museums. 

Moreover, as soon as I came to extend Sir John 
Herschel's computations, it appeared that when the star 
a Draconis, had in a manner chanced to come to that 
passage-angle distance from the Pole in about 2160 B.C., 
— it was from a nearer, instead of a further, polar distance 
which the star had previously occupied. In which case, 
the said star must have been at some still earlier age 
at the passage-angle distance once again. Indeed, instead 
of merely approaching the precession circle from the out- 
side, it had passed through a small segment of it, and 
so made a double appulse ; but the star's first occasion 
of being at the Pyramid passage angle distance from 
the Pole was earlier still, and had taken place some- 
where about 3440 B.C. 

Here then was a most divided duty : 3440 B.C. 
might satisfy some of the Neologians among our too 


learned Egyptologists of the last ten years, tliougli 
certainly not all. But then, what case could be made 
out, independently of all Egyptology of the profane 
order, for choosing 3440 B.C., as better than 2160 B.C., 
or vice versa ? There were no astronomical reasons 
then known applying to one occasion, more than the 
other ; Colonel Howard- Yyse was dead ; Sir John 
Herschel remained silent ; a noisy military man would 
persist that Sir John now agreed with him in main- 
taining that the peculiar passage-angle was chosen for 
easy sarcophagus sliding alone ; and the astronomical 
world, whatever the reason why, would give the subject 
no attention. 

The Great Pyramid's Use of a Polar Star. 

But there was happily more in the ancient Great 
Pyramid than any one had suspected, and it began to 
manifest itself thus, — 

Did not the very entrance passage, chiefly concerned 
in the affair, speak by its 50, in place of 100, inch 
height, to a half, and not a whole day ; or a 1 2 -hour 
interval for some purpose unknown ? And did not the 
axis of the passage point, not to the one, central pole 
of the sky, where, if visible at all, the upper and lower 
culmination of any close polar star would be equally 
seen, but to a region of lower culmination only ? 

This was indeed the fact ; and no one had yet asked, 
" Why did the builders memorialize, out of the two 
meridian passages of their circumpolar star in every 24 
hours, only the lower, less visible, less important culmin- 
ation of the two ?" Neither had any one yet inquired, 
" What did any reasonable man, whether of the Pyramid, 
or any other, day intend or mean, if time was his object, 
by observing the transit, whether above or below the 
Pole, of a close circumpolar star ; and of that kind of 
star only?" 


Why ! sucli a star moves so slowly, by reason of the 
very small size of its daily circle in the sky, that the 
instant of its passing the meridian is difficult to observe 
and decide on even with modern telescopic power ; and 
no observer in his senses, in any existing observatory, 
when seeking to obtain the time, would observe the 
transit of a circumpolar star for anything else than to 
get the direction of the meridian to adjust his instrument 
by. But having done that, he would then turn said 
instrument round in the vertical plane of the meridian 
so ascertained and observe an equatorial, or at least a 
zodiacal, star : such star moving diurnally at great speed 
through the sky, by reason of its large circle extending 
through the heavens above, and the heavens below, the 
earth. And then such astronomer would obtain the 
time with proper accuracy and eminent certainty. 

Now to myself, who have been an astronomical transit 
observer for a great part of my life, it immediately 
occurred, that the narrow entrance-passage of the Great 
Pyramid directed up northward, looked very like a polar 
pointer ; while the grand gallery rising up southwards 
at an opposite angle, and with its high walls scored 
with long and broad bands, looked amazingly like a 
reminder of the equatorial zone ; though being a closed- 
in passage it could be only for memorial, and not at all 
for observing, astronomy. And as in the meanwhile 
my daily apprentice work in 1865 to the original 
builders, by measuring every joint of the stones where- 
with they had constructed the Pyramid's interior, had 
inevitably led me to see, that wherever there was any 
size, shape, or position executed in superior workman- 
ship and better quality of stone, there was a reason for 
it, — why then I ventured to argue thus, — 

The ancient architect's reason why the entrance- 
passage points to the lower or less important culmina- 
tion only of its polar star, a Draconis, is because a more 


important star was at the same moment 12 hours 
distant from it ; and therefore at its upper culmina- 
tion, or crossing the meridian above the Pole ; and 
for chronological purposes such more important star 
must be a zodiacal, if not absolutely an equatorial, one. 
Was there then at either the date 3440 B.C., or the later 
2160 B.C. (at each of which dates, but at no other for 
25,000 years, a Draconis was, when crossing the 
meridian each day below the Pole, equally at the 
entrance-passage angle of height), was there any notable 
zodiacal or equatorial star in the general southern direc- 
tion of the grand gallery, rather than in the northern 
one of the entrance-passage, and crossing the meridian 
at that moment high in mid-heaven there ? 

Now here was a question put by the Pyramid's actual 
construction, and to be answered by astronomy alone ; or 
without any of the Egyptologists, with all their lore of 
false gods and animal idolatry, having anything to do 
with it. 

The answer too might have come out, either that 
there was no signal zodiacal star in such a position at 
either date ; or there might have been such stars at both 
dates, and then no discrimination could have been 
effected. But the answer that did come out was, that no 
such star existed at the circumpolar star's lower transit 
of 3440 B.C., but that there was one most eminently 
and exactly in position at the 2160 B.C., or rather 2170 
B.C., circumpolar transit ; and that well-fitting zodiacal 
star was ^ Tauri. (See Plates XIY., XY.) 

The Pleiades Year^ 

. Now fj Tauri is not a very large or bright star in 
itself, but then it is the centre of a group of stars more 
bound up with human history, hopes, and feelings than 
any other throughout the sky, viz., the Pleiades ; and 

Chap.XVIL] the great pyramid. 319 

there have been traditions for long, whence arising I 
know not, that the seven overlappings of the grand 
gallery, so impressively described by Professor Greaves, 
had something to do with the Pleiades, those proverbially 
seven stars of the primeval world, though already re- 
duced to six (i.e., six visible to the ordinary naked 
eye), so early as the time of the Latin poet Virgil. 

Here then is what those overlappings had to do ; viz., 
to symbolize the Pleiades in the memorial, not observing, 
astronomy of the Pyramid in an earlier day than "Virgil's; 
for the Pleiades evidently were, de facto, the superior, 
equatorial, or time, star to be taken in concert with the 
inferior transit of the circumpolar a Draconis on the 
opposite side of the sky. And how well they performed 
their part, and how capable they were of it, appeared 
from this further result of calculation, that when they, 
the Pleiades, crossed the meridian at midnight above 
the Pole, while a Draconis was crossing below the Pole, 
for the second cosmical occasion, at the particular dis- 
tance fromi the Pole indicated by the entrance-passage, — 
that night was the evening, or autumnal, beginning of 
the primeval year, and because the Pleiades were then 
at 0^ right ascension, or in the celestial meridian of 
the equinoctial point. Or again, they were by the same 
fact at the commencement of that grand celestial cycle 
of the precession of the equinoxes, wherein and whereby 
they are destined, in apparent movement, to progress 
onward and onward at the rate of a little more than 3 
seconds of time in a year, until after not less than 25,827 
years they return to the same position again. 

This grand quantity, or peculiar celestial cycle, is 
further Pyramidically defined by, amongst other inten- 
tional features, the length of the diagonals of the base, 
which so eminently lay out the whole Great Pyramid's 
position ; when their sum is reckoned up in inches, at 
the rate of a Pyramid inch to a year. 


In the little portion of history which is all that 
modern astronomy can claim to have flourished in, the 
following are some of the principal determinations of 
this period of the precession of the equinoxes : — 

By Tycho Brahe = 25,816 years. 
„ Ricciolus = 25,920 „ 
„ Cassini = 24,800 „ 

„ Bradley = 25,740 „ 

„ Bessel = 25,868 „ 

No one whatever amongst men, from his own, or 
school, knowledge knew anything about such a pheno- 
menon until Hipparchus, some 1,900 years after the 
Great Pyramid's foundation, had a glimpse of the fact ; 
— and yet it had been ruling the heavens for ages, and 
was recorded in Jeezeh's ancient structure. 

Virgil, 200 years later still than Hipparchus, just as 
might be expected of a poet, was greater in tradition 
than astronomical observation ; and when he uses the 
phrase,* that it is " the constellation of the white Bull 
with the golden horns, which opens the year," many of 
our own scientific commentators have wondered what 
Roman Yirgil could mean, by claiming as a phenomenon 
for his own day, that which the precession of the 
Equinoxes had caused to cease to be true 2,000 years 
before his time, and had given to Aries instead. 

No profane philosopher or academic observer of any 
country in the world is known to have lived at the epoch 
when that Yirgilian phrase about Taurus was true. 
How and wherefore then came such an appearance of 
the heavens, true only in the Pyramid's age, to become 
fixed in the minds of the Romans, and Etruscans too, 
not themselves much given to observing science of 
any kind, for twenty centuries ? How also came it 
about, according to the documents collected with so 
much rare skill and research (and partially published 

* Candidus auratis aperit cum cornibus Taurus. 


many years ago) by Mr. R. G. Haliburton, of Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, that amongst the origines of almost all 
nations, and among many unaltered savage tribes still, 
such as Australians, Fijians, Mexicans, and many others 
(peoples never reached by the Romans), a similar 
beginning of the year to that described by Yu'gil 
is still perpetuated ; the Pleiades, or the star group 
chiefly characterising the constellation of the Bull, being 
annually appealed to ; and in Australia, most strange 
to say, by precisely the Pyramid method, in so far that 
the natives there begin their year on the night when 
" they see most of the Pleiades ;" otherwise, when they 
continue to see them all the night through, from their 
rising at sunset to their setting at sunrise ; and that 
must be when they, the Pleiades, cross the meridian at 

But, just as the Romans stuck to those stars in them- 
selves alone, and saw not that they had left the fiducial 
test of the equinoctial point by 30°, — so the Australians 
stick to them still, implicitly, not seeing that the same 
point is now 5 4° removed from them ; and that the 
Pleiades stars themselves, from the effect of 4,000 years 
of precession, never tww rise high in those southern 
skies. But that is a test, in so far, of when those 
peoples first received that system of sidereal chronology 
to hold, which is only found in all its completeness, 
and with testimony as to the date of its beginning, and 
fitness then for all inhabited lands, laid up in the Great 
Pyramid building. (See Plates XV. and XVI.) 

Transcendentalisms of the Great Pyramid Astronomy. 

Now the only source from whence one uniform system 
of sidereal chronology, and which, though endued with 
a change in respect to the seasons, yet changes so slowly 
year by year and generation after generation as to 



require 25,000 years before it passes througli all the 
seasons, — the only source, I say, from whence it could 
have emanated in that early age of the world, and been 
impressed upon the origines of all races of mankind, is, 
was, and can only be. Divine inspiration. Not the in- 
fallible Divine power in itself : that would have created 
stars for such purpose alone ; and then they would 
have been absolutely perfect for such end : but Divine 
inspiration accorded to more or less fallible men. 

Here, accordingly, what we are called upon to 
observe, may rather remind one of that which Josephus 
records of the descendants of Seth, viz., that they studied 
astronomy of themselves first, though eventually under 
the approval of, and with some peculiar assistance from, 
the Almighty. The Sethites then, as men, only sought 
to make the best use, and turn to the most practical 
account, whatever was already created and existing in 
the sky, in the shape of stars suitable for observa- 
tion: — and which stars we shall find, in the present 
day, on pushing both observation and calculations to 
the extreme of modern science, were by no means in 
themselves absolutely perfect. The orbs of heaven had 
indeed been created long before the foundation of the 
Great Pyramid, and doubtless for many "other purposes 
than defining the Pleiades year to mankind upon 
earth. But, take those stars 4,000 years ago, as they had 
been already set in motion by the Divine power seons 
on seons of ages before the Pyramid day, — and you will 
find that they did, at that epoch, come quite near 
enough to form an excellent practical chronological 
system of the kind indicated ; and no better mode of 
utilizing those actual phenomena of the starry sky, nor 
any better choice among the stars, ever has been 
i'nagined since then, in any country of the world. 

Thus, to moderate observation (and with far greater 
accuracy than the annals of profane history of mankind 


have been kept to), all these hereinafter following fea- 
tures may be said, in ordinary terms, to obtain ; — 

1. Tlie Great Pyramid is astronomically oriented in 

its sides ; and its passages are in the plane of 
the meridian. 

2. The , entrance-passage points 3° 42' vertically 

below the Pole of the sky. 

3. In the year 2170 B.C. a Draconis was 3° 42' from 

the Pole of the sky, and therefore looked right 
down the axis of the entrance-passage, when at 
its lowest culmination. 

4. When a Draconis was so looking down the 

entrance-passage, 'y] Tauri, the chief star in the 
Pleiades group, was crossing the local terrestrial 
meridian, at a point high up in the sky, near 
the equator, and simultaneously with the celes- 
tial meridian of the vernal equinox. 

5. That whole stellar combination had not taken 

place for 25,000 years previously, and will not 
take place again for 25,000 years subsequently. 
It has not consequently repeated itself yet in all 
the history of the human race, as the Sothiac 
cycle, the Phoenix cycle and other chronological 
inventions of the profane Egyptian priests, long 
after the Pyramid day, have done again and 
again, to the lamentable confusion of dates in 
the Pagan world. 

But if the calculations on which the above Pyramid 
results are founded, shall be pushed to much greater 
refinement, or to portions of space invisible to the 
naked eye, — it then appears that (1) the Pole-star, when 
it was 3° 42' from the Pole, (2) the equatorial star 
opposite to it, and (3) the celestial meridian of the 
equinox, were not all of them on the Pyramid's meri- 


dian, below and above the Pole, 'precisely at the same 
instant, either in the year 2170 B.C., or in any other 
year ; and this from failure of the physical stars to be 
mathematically accurate. 

But OUT present difficulty is not by any means entirely 
confined to the stars, in their places, not being as exact 
as if they had been created originally for no other than 
the above purpose ; for there are hindrances also to 
modern astronomy, in precisely realizing everything 
that has taken place in Nature during the last 4,000 
years. Two astronomers, for instance, using the same 
data, may compute back the place of a given star 4,000 
years ago from its present place, and they shall agree 
to a second in the result ; but it does not therefore follow 
that the star was as precisely there at that time, as though 
a contemporary chronologist had observed it then ; for 
proper motion, and variations of proper motion, may 
exist, quite unknown to the short period of surveillance 
over the stars yet enjoyed by modern astronomy, and 
totally overturning the physical accuracy of the calcu- 
lations. Some of the quantities, too, of the celestial 
mechanics concerned, such as the precise amount of the 
very precession of the equinoxes itself,. may have been 
erroneously assumed, and never can be ascertained per- 
fectly by man. The numerical values of such quantities 
do, in fact, vary at the same time between one astro- 
nomer and another (unless both were brought up in the 
same school), and also from one generation to another 
of astronomers at different times ; just as most of the 
living directors of Observatories are disputing at this 
present moment as to what is the precise distance of 
the earth from the sun ; and all of them differ, even by 
a large total quantity, from what all their brethren, and 
themselves too, used to hold only twenty years ago. 

After, therefore, doing my best with the Pyramid star 
calcidations, and publishing my result, together with a 


repetition of Sir John Hersdiel's, so far as it went, I 
advertised, after a manner, in the name of science, for 
help from other astronomers, — in the way of each of 
them computing the whole of the quantities with the 
data he now thinks best, and also with the data most 
approved in the astronomical world of his youth, as well 
as with the quantities thought correct at the end of the 
last century. 

But none of them have ventured to expose to modem 
society the weaknesses of their favourite science, mul- 
tiplied by 4,000 years ; and I should have been left 
without anything whatever to show from other modern 
quarters, but for the kindness of Dr. Briinnow, Astro- 
nomer-Royal for Ireland, who, kindly and without 
needing any second asking, performed the first part of 
my request : that is, with the quantities which he now 
thinks should be adopted as correct, he most ably, and 
by special methods of astronomy which no one in all 
the world understands better than himself, computed 
the following numbers : — 

(1) a Draconis was for the first time at the distance of 

3^ 41' 50" from the Pole in the year . . . = 3443 B.C. 

(2) It was at the least distance from the Pole, or 0° 3' 25", 

in the year = 2790 „ 

(3) It was for the second time at the distance of 3° 41' 42" 

from the Pole in the year = 2136 „ 

(4) If Tauri (Alcyone of the Pleiades) was in the same 

right ascension as the equinoctial point in the year = 2248 „ 
when it crossed the meridian above the Pole, 3^ 47' 
north of the Equator, with a Draconis crossing below 
the Pole, nearly, but not exactly, at the same 
instant, and 3° 3' from the Polar point. 

(5) a Draconis and r\ Tauri were exactly opposite to each 

other, so that one of them could be on the meridian 
above the Pole, and the other on the meridian below 
the Pole, at the same absolute instant, only at the 

date of = 1674 „ 

but when all the other data diverged largely. 

We have now to deal with the three last dates. Of 
these three, the two first evidently include between 
them my own previous mean quantity of 2170 B.C. ; 


but tlie third differs extravagantly. Nevertheless, the 
visible effect in the sky of that one apparently very large 
difference in absolute date, is merely this, according to 
Dr. Brlinnow's computation ; viz., that when 'v] Tauri, 
or the Pleiades, were crossing the meridian above the 
Pole, at my Pyramid date of 2170 B.C., a Draconis was 
not doing the same thing, exactly beneath the Pole, at 
the same instant ; for the star was then at the distance 
of 0° VI ' west of the meridian. But it would have been 
doing the same thing perfectly, according to an entrance- 
passage observation of it, if the northern end of that 
passage had been made to trend 17' westward, still 
keeping to its observed angular height in the vertical 
plane ; viz., 26° 18'. 

Whereupon comes the question whether, — granting 
temporarily that Dr. Briinnow's excellent calculations in 
modern astronomy replace everything that has happened 
in Nature during the last 4,000 years,^ — whether that 
17' of the Pole-star's west distance from the meridian 
was a thing of moment ; — and if so, is this the first 
occasion on which it has been discovered ? 

Seventeen minutes of space, or less than the thousandth 
part of the azimuthal scale, is but a small quantity for 
any one to appreciate in all the round of the blue 
expanse, without instruments ; and the first effort of 
Greek astronomy 1,800 years after the Pyramid was 
built, is reported to have been the discovery that the 
Pole-star of that day, then 6 degrees from the Pole, 
was not as they, the Greeks, had previously held, exactly 
on the Pole. 

Greek and other profane nations, then, had been in 
the habit of overlooking, long, long after the epoch of 
the Pyramid, an error twenty times as great as this 
which is charged on the Great Pyramid astronomy by 
the science of precision which has now been elaborated 
amongst men after a lapse of 4,000 years. 


And yet it was not all error either, on the part of the 
Great Pyramid. For here we should take account of 
the result of my observations in 1865, when I succeeded 
in comparing the directions of both the outside of the 
Pyramid, the axis of the entrance-passage, and the axis 
of the azimuth trenches"'" separately and successively 
with the Polar star. These observations were made 
with a powerful altitude-azimuth instrument, reading off 
its angles with micrometer-microscopes to tenths of 
seconds ; and the results were, that everything trended 
at its north end towards the west, — the azimuth trenches 
by 1 9 minutes, the socket-sides of the base by 5 minutes, 
and the axis of the entrance passage by more nearly 4 
minutes and a half 

What could all these features have been laid out for 
with this slight tendency to west of north ? was a 
question which I frequently pondered over at the Great 
Pyramid, and sometimes even accused the earth's sur- 
face of having shifted with respect to its axis of rotation 
during 4,000 years. But now the true explanation 
would appear to be, that the Seth-descended architect, 
knowing perfectly well the want of exact correspondence 
between his polar and equatorial stars (though they 
were the best in the sky), had so adjusted in a minute 
degree the position of the Great Pyramid when building 
it, as to reduce any error in his Pleiades system of 
chronology, arising out of the stellar discrepance, to a 
minrnium. Whence the fact of the western divergence 
of the north pointing of the entrance-passage as detected 
by the modem astronomy observations in 1865, com- 
bined with the computation in 1871, — becomes the most 
convincing practical proof of intention, and not accident, 
having guided all these time-arrangements at the Great 

• See " Life and Work," vol. ii. pp. 185 to 196. 




IN the circles of those very learned men in modern 
society who go on continually studying the idolatrous 
contents of the Egyptian galleries in the British, and 
other, museums (and are known as hierologists, hiero- 
glyphiologists, Egyptologists, anti-Biblical archaeologists, 
&c.), are found the doughtiest of those champions who 
are so ready in these days to insist, that "whereas 
Genesis was written by Moses, and Moses was for many 
years of his life a priest among the Egyptians, who were 
a wealthy and civilized nation when the progenitors of 
the Israelites were still merely wandering shepherds, 
always on the verge of starvation ; while moreover, 
according to the New Testament itself (Acts vii. 22), 
Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," 
— that therefore Moses must have copied all the best 
things he has put into Genesis, and his other books 
also, from those deeply wise instructors he had lived 
with for forty years, viz., the Egyptian priests. 

On this question, much defence of the Divine in- 
spiration, versus the Egyptian education, of the re- 
sponsible author of the Pentateuch has been written in 
the world, from the literary side ; but not always with 
so much special point as might have been done from 
the mechanical, or rather the scientific, point of view. 

Mere literature, for instance, is nonplussed at once 


by the hierologists when they contend with positivism, 
by methods where classic book-learning is powerless, for 
a civilized Egypt during 13,000 years and more; some 
of them even mounting up to 300,000 years, and 
declaring that they are just as firmly convinced of its 
history so obtained (and therefore of the gradual 
human growth, and natural progressive development of 
all that knowledge, utilized at last so happily by 
Moses) as of any event in English history under the 
reigns of the Stuarts. These men also allege points of 
community between the laws of Moses and those of 
ancient Egypt; which laws they say he must have 
read, because they were actually written and in books 
long before his time, together with a vast amount of 
literature, including even novels, and something very 
like the story of Joseph, in the highly-polished society 
flourishing, according to them from time truly imme- 
morial, on the quiet banks of the Nile. 

The refuge here (and in so far, a very proper one) 
of the Biblical literary men, seems to be chiefly, that 
those tremendous hierologist and Egyptologist dates 
have never been proved to the satisfaction of others 
than the dangerous, if not soi-disant, hierologists 
themselves ; while, as for the points of community, or 
rather, merely similar complexion, between the Egjrp- 
tian and the Mosaic laws, they exist only in certain 
subsidiary forms required for social order and political 
independence ; and are such as a common human 
nature, with a like geographical position, chronological 
epoch, and traditional information from Babel, would 
have infallibly produced, more or less, amongst any 
set of people endowed with brains, and some little 
desire to amend their position in the world. And then 
there comes also, to every real believer in the funda- 
mental doctrine of Christianity, this further and 
grander result, flowing from a philosophical investiga- 


tion of the two systems as wholes ; viz., that the real 
essence of the Mosaic law is as totally distinct from 
that of the Egyptian, as any two antagonisms in the 
world of man can possibly be. For while they are both 
founded on, and for, religion, — the Egyptian system 
bases on Cainite assertions and re-assertions of self- 
righteousness, and a multitude of gods, half animal 
and half man — some of them, too, not a little obscene 
(to an extent w^hich makes us wonder at several modern 
European governments reproducing their portraits one 
after the other in costly folios and large-sized plates, 
for the information of the public of the present day), — 
who is there, of those who have felt the saving grace 
of Christ's sacrifice, who cannot see, as the ruling prin- 
ciple in Moses, the most magnificent, and particular, 
rebellion against all that would-be power of man. in 
the high places of the earth ; and a grand assertion 
both of the one, true, and only living God, the Creator 
of all things, and the sinfulness of man in His sight ? 

The holy zeal, too, of Moses, and his earnest self- 
sacrificing for the cause of God, and his anxiety to 
show Him at once accessible by prayer, through an 
appointed method of sin-offering and mediation to every 
one both rich and poor, are the liveliest contrasts that 
can well be imagined to the sordid routine of an 
Egyptian priesthood, placing itself immovably, for its 
own gain, between the people and their gods, such as 
they were. 

Of the Number Five. 

But the most decided overthrow of the modern 
hierologists comes involuntarily from themselves, when 
they attempt to handle the mechanical part of the 
question ; for, to a great extent, what they, the hiero- 
logists, have long been contending for, and have suc- 
ceeded at last in proving, — is precisely that which 


enables us to say most positively tliat a cubit measuring- 
rod of the Mosaic, and Newton-proved, length of 25 
Pyramid inches, and which has such extraordinary 
scientific value in its earth-axis commensurability, and 
was made so much of by Moses in the Tabernacle of 
the Wilderness, — was no part or parcel of the wisdom 
of the profane Egyptians during any portion of their 
historical career ; and could not, therefore, have been 
learned or borrowed from them by any one. 

And though the best ethnological theory of the 
Eg3^ptians be that which makes them, not Ethiopians 
descending the Nile from the interior of Africa, nor 
Indian Aryans migrating by sea from Bombay, but 
Asiatics and Caucasians entering by the Isthmus of Suez 
into Lower Egypt, and ascending the course of the river 
— there seems no reason whatever to conclude that 
they had previously, wherever their previous existence 
had been passed, either received or adopted that peculiar 
measure of 2 5 inches, which Sir Isaac Newton considers 
the Israelites possessed, long before their going down 
into Egypt. 

Not only, too, may it be further said, from this cubit- 
measure side of the question, that recent researches have 
proved the astonishing vitality of standards of measure 
through enormous intervals of time ; and that an invo- 
luntary change of a people's standard from the Egyptian 
20 7 to the Hebrew and Pyramid 2 5 inches, or vice 
versa, was never yet seen in the history of the world ; 
but it may be argued, that the ancient Egyptians, 
whatever faults they may have had, were both politically 
and socially a most conservative, methodical, and or- 
derly people, with an immense taste for mechanics, and 
a marvellous appreciation of measure ; so that they 
would be the last nation in the world, let alone their 
religious ideas on the topic, to lose or mistake their 
hereditary standards. In fact, one of the chief accusa- 


tions which a late French writer brings against those 
ancient Egyptians is, that they had no genius, no in- 
vention ; that they were only dull plodders at routine 
work ; and, besides never having had a great poet or a 
great warrior, they were actually so low in the scale of 
humanity, as never to have had a revolutionist of any 
kind or degree amongst them. 

We may therefore with perfect safety, and hierolo- 
gists' support too, regard the length of 20 '7 inches as 
the veritable and admitted hereditary measure of all 
Pharaonic Egyptians ; and the one which, if they had 
been copied from by any other nation or mere indi- 
vidual, would have been the length imitated and faith- 
fully reproduced. 

Moses, consequently, in making the distinguished use 
which he did, not of that length of 20*7, but of the 
very different length of 25 inches, was decidedly not 
taking anything out of the known wisdom-book of the 
Egyptians ; or anything which their amount and species 
of learning would have enabled them intentionally to 
arrive at and perceive the cosmical virtues of. 

And not only so, too ; for if, with the absolute 
length of the Pyramid standard, Moses adopted its 
Pyramidic sub-division also into 5x5 parts, he was 
adopting something which was particularly hateful to 
the Egyptians. Why it was so, does not appear ; but 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson speaks of 5 as being the " evil 
number " in Modern Egypt * still ; it is marked by 
on their watches ; and 5 x 5, or anything made up of 
5, would seem to have been always repulsive there. 

Particularly galling, therefore, to the old Egyptians it 
must have been to have seen the Israelites, when they 
escaped from bondage and went out of the country 
**with an high hand," itself a symbol of 5, — especially 

* Murray's 1864 " Handbook for Egypt," p. 142. 


galling to their spirits to see their late slaves go up, 
marshalled by " 5 in a rank," out of the land of Egypt ; 
for so is the literal translation of the word expressed 
'' harnessed," in Exodus xiii. 18 of the English Bible. 

The whole of that affair must, no doubt, have been 
hateful, as well as disastrous, to the Egyptians ; and 
they indulged themselves afterwards in some very con- 
temptuous phrases about it. They said, for instance, as 
appears from the relics of Manetho,* handed down to us 
from various authors, that some persons, under a rene- 
gade priest of Heliopolis named " Moyses," had been 
thrust out of Egypt by the king ; and they were a very 
abominable set indeed, for not only were they all lepers 
and unclean, but their number is given as the very evil 
one of 250,000, or 5 x 50,000. 

Their real number is given by the Bible as soraething 
very different from this, as well as their state ; but it 
was a mode of blackening them to the Egyptians for 
Egyptian purposes in more ways than one ; and simi- 
larly, when the ** Hyksos," or "Shepherd Kings," t also 
much abominated by the Egyptians, established them- 
selves in Avaris, in a remarkably inconvenient manner 
to Egyptian polity, they were described as men "of an 
ignoble race," and in number also " 250,000." 

Of the Book of Job, 

But Moses had none of this unwise and anti-Pyramid 
hatred of 5 and times of 5 ; and though his first 
arrangement of years was the Sabbatical one of a "week 
of years," his next, and by far the most important one, 
the grand standard, in fact, of sacred time, was the 
jubilee of 5x10 years ; a number wliich, with the 

• " Penny Cyclopa5dia," p. 118. 

t Gliddon's "Ancient Egypt," p. 63. 


similar arrangement of days for the feast of Pentecost, 
brings up again the number of inches frequently 
referred to as an important standard in the King's 
Chamber and the passages of the Great Pyramid. 

It is also worthy of note, that the whole of the sacred 
law was arranged on a system of five books ; five, too, 
expressly so called in the " Pentateuch ;*' and this over- 
shadowing of Israel, in this place, by the number 5, 
seems even to have had some special intention in it. 
For when the best critics have pronounced so decidedly 
as they have done, and on completely other grounds, 
that the Book of Job was cither completely written, or 
finally put into its present shape, by Moses, and by no 
one else, in spite of some modern theories, — yet cannot 
find the smallest reason for its anomalous position in the 
Bible, far away from all the other books of the same 
inspired writer, — it may be suggested that one reason was, 
to prevent the unity and proportions of the five books 
of the '' Pentateuch," as a system and symbol of 5, being 
interfered with. 

Each of the books of the " Pentateuch " depends on 
the other ; or, at least, Deuteronomy refers to Exodus, 
Leviticus, and Numbers, and they refer to Genesis ; but 
not one of them refers to Job, and Job does not refer to 
any of them. 

Yet surely the Bible itself would have been incom- 
plete without the Book of Job, and all its lessons of 
supreme piety, humility, and wisdom. In the " Penta- 
teuch," somewhat fettered to a particular purpose, the 
full genius of Moses and the whole of the wisdom he 
was privileged to receive from on high, had not their 
full range ; but in the Book of Job there came an 
opportunity, which was not lost or slighted, of alluding 
more clearly to the immortality of the soul, and the 
necessity of a divine redemption. 

Again, to return to more moderate subjects, it was 


not till lately that any one scientifically understood, and 
thoroughly appreciated, the full tenor of some of the 
concluding passages of that remarkable book. In Job 
xxxviii., the Lord, "with whom is terrible majesty," 
proceeds to answer Job out of the whirlwind ; confound- 
ing him in a moment with the grandeur of elemental 
phenomena, the form and size of the earth, the laws 
of solids and fluids, of light and darkness, of sea and 
air, of clouds, sunshine, rain, frost, and lightning ; the 
series of wonders is appalling, their magnitude and 
duration verging on the infinite. But then, though 
softened by a gradation of truest descriptions of the 
tender herb springing forth all the wide world over, — 
there had seemed, to every exact scientist's ideas, some- 
thing like a descent from sublimity, in the Biblical 
account coming down to, and concluding with, a de- 
scription of two or three particular animals. 

What the Egyptian wisdom, with its infantile know- 
ledge of physical science anjj cosmical relations would 
have said to that, is hardly worth a serious inquiry ; 
but this is what modem wisdom in the scientific age of 
the earth has involuntarily illustrated very lately, or in 
the last-published number of one of those large book-sized 
Reviews, which undertake to show existing intellectual 
society, through the medium of the ablest writers, what- 
ever the best minds have been producing within the 
latest few months of time. 

The author reviewed on the occasion alluded to, 
treated of the new science of thermo-dynamics ; show- 
ing that heat is a form of motion ; and, from that simple 
beginning, enumerating the laws of the earth's atmo- 
sphere, and the medium filling space ; calculating the 
store of useful mechanical and chemical work still in the 
world ; predicting the duration of sun, moon, and all 
material things ; and then boasting, quite in the pro- 
fane Egyptian manner, that now that this new prin- 


ciple in natural philosophy — i.e., mere solar radiation, 
computed by a particular formula — is proved to be 
the one principle which supports everything we see, — 
that it may be said to "create the muscle and build 
the brain of man ; to be heard in the roar of the lion, 
and the song of birds ; is seen in the gliding of the 
serpent," &c., &c. 

Whereupon comes down the reviewer, with a higher 
philosophy and more religious truth, regretting that 
the author does not see that, to whatever extent he 
can compute some few changes in the form of mere 
dead matter, or inorganic elements, — extending though 
they may through space, — he has not made the smallest 
approach to accounting for a single organic phseno- 
menon : the mystery of life is left wholly untouched 
by him ; so is any attempt, even, at an explanation 
of how fibre is joined to fibre in the animal structure ; 
and infinitely more, wise Job's idea, '* how wisdom is 
put into the inner part^," and by what means the 
different created beings take up their appointed cha- 
racters in life's varied drama. 

In fact, the best and latest of modern science has here 
represented the difficulties of nature for man to explain, 
to be culminating, precisely in the manner they were 
described to do, in the sacred Book of Job 4,000 years 

Moses, then, in that inimitable work, instead of copy- 
ing anything from the profane Egyptians of his day, was 
rather anticipating the march of science in the Christian 
ages of the world. And when we further find that in 
other important things, he was likewise going directly 
against the standards of the Egyptians, but coincidently 
with those of the Kosmos of God and the Great Pyra- 
mid ; of those inner parts, too, of the Great Pyramid 
which the Egyptians knew nothing about, and which 
he, Moses, as a man, could never have seen — when we 


meet with all these telling circumstances, and so many 
parallel features between the inspired writings and the 
Great Pyramid versus all Egypt, it certainly would 
appear that we must be coming close to the Biblical 
source of the wisdom of that mighty fabric. 

Yet there are some additional points of contact be- 
tween the Great Pyramid and Mosaic metrological sys- 
tems, which it will be well worth our while to study 
in their detail, before venturing to proceed further 
with the grand question of the whole. 

Of the Sacred Ark of the Covenant 

The length of the Great Pyramid's cubit having been 
2 5 02 5 British inches cannot, I presume, now be re- 
sisted ; and to all minds capable of grasping the sub- 
ject, Sir Isaac Newton's testimony for the Mosaic cubit 
having also been close to that length, is probably equally 
conclusive ; yet at the same time, these able minds may 
desire to hear, if there is any further direct Biblical 
evidence for that end, over and above what Sir Isaac 
Newton adduced in his invaluable Dissertation ? Now 
something of this sort there does appear to be in the 
Pentateuch's account of the Ark of the Covenant, the 
most sacred feature of the whole of the Tabernacle's 
arrangement under Moses. 

That Ark was kept in the Holiest of Holies, occupied 
its chief place of honour, and was never to be looked 
on by any but the High Priest alone, even during a 
journey. Near it was placed an ephah measure ; and 
immediately outside its compartment, as Michaelis has 
shown, were various other standards of measure ; 
though no metrological purpose, that I am aware of, 
has been hitherto assigned to the Ark itself 

As its original name, " area," implies, the Ark was a 
box or chest ; and its first-stated purpose as such was, 



to hold the Divine autograph of the law written on 

This Ark-box, then, made of shittim, or acacia, wood, 
was further lidless, so far as anything attached to it was 
concerned ; though a crown of gold was afterwards 
added round about the rim, and a separate or loose lid 
was made for it of pure gold, called the mercy-seat. 
The 'actual seat, however — said to be occasionally occu- 
pied as a throne, by an expression of the Divine 
presence — was not that lid, but was formed by the 
wings of two angels, constructed in gold at either end 
of the lid ; which lid, at such time, together with the 
Ark below, then formed Xkud footstool. ^^ 

With the lower part only of this arrangement, or the 
Ark itself, have we now to do ; and the Ark, on'its loose 
lid of gold being removed, was merely a box — a lidless, 
rectangular, rectilinear box, made of a hard and tough 
wood common to the hills of Sinai. 

Now in so far, there was nothing new or peculiar in 
this arrangement of Moses ; for of boxes there was an 
abundance in the world, even in the very temples of 
Egypt, when time had waxed so late in human history 
as 1500 B.C. In fact, those very purposes of "rapacity," 
in subservience to which Josephus relates that Cain 
invented weights and measures, would seem to require 
that he should have made big and strong chests, as 
treasuries wherein to keep the fruits of his spoliation 
and oppression ; as well as the stone strongholds, banks, 
or ''oers," of which more presently, for the -custody of 
the said chests. 

The only feature, therefore, of distinctive importance 

* " The lid, or cover of the ark was of the same length and breadth, and 
made of the purest gold. Over it, at the two extremities, were two 
cherubim, with their ibur faces turned towards each other, and inclined a 
little towards the lid (otherwise called the mercy-seat). Their wings, 
which were spread out over the top of the ark, formed the throne of God, 
the King of Israel, while the ark itself was the footstool." (Exodus xxv. 
10—22; XXX vii. 1— 9.)— Kitto's *' Bible Cyclopsedia," p. 214. 


which we need expect to find in the particular box con- 
structed by Moses for a sacred purpose, should be some- 
thing akin to that which distinguished his sacred cubit, 
from the profane cubit of the Egyptians : mere measur- 
ing sticks, both of them ; and yet one, not only of a 
different length to the other, but implying by that 
difference a commensurability with the Divinely grand 
in nature, far too difficult for man to have discovered 
for himself in that age. Now the size of that Ark-box 
of Moses is given in Holy Scripture as being, 2-5 cubits 
long, and 1 '5 cubits broad, and 1 '5 high ; which mea- 
sures being reduced to Pyramid inches, on Sir Isaac 
Newton's and our own, evolution of the sacred cubit 
of Moses, = 62*5 x 37'5 x 37'5 of those inches. 

But was this outside measure or inside measure ? for 
that must make a very material difference in the cubical 

Outside measure, without a doubt, and for the two 
following reasons : — 

1st. Because the vertical component is spoken of as 
height, and not depth. 

2nd. Because the lower lid of gold, or the mercy- 
seat, being made only of the swme stated length and 
breadth as the Ark itself, it would have stood insecure, 
and run a chance of tumbling down to the bottom of 
the box, if that length and breadth had signified the 
top of the box's inside, and not its outside, area. 

Hence, with the true length of the sacred cubit 
(obtained after so many ages of error), and the above 
understanding how to apply it, we may now approach 
the cubical contents of the Ark. We are not, indeed, 
informed in Scripture what was the thickness of the 
sides, and therefore do not know exactly how much to 
subtract from the outside, to give the inside dimen- 
sions ; but the outside having been given, and the 
material stated, the limits within which such tliickness 


must be found, arc left very narrow indeed. Let the 
thickness, for instance, be assumed 1*8 Pyramid 
inches ; then the length, breadth, and depth will be 
reduced from an outside of 62-5 x 37'5 x 37*5 to an 
inside of 58-9 x 33-9 x 357 ; which gives 71,282 cubic 
inches for the capacity contents of this open box with- 
out a lid. 

Or, if we consider the sides and ends 1*75 inch 
thick, and the bottom 2 inches, — also very fair propor- 
tions in carpentry for such a sized box in such a 
quality of wood, — then its inside measure would be 
59*0 X 34 '0 X 35 -5 ; which yield for the cubical con- 
tents 71,213 cubic Pyramid inches. 

Thus, in any mode almost of practically constructing 
the Ark-box, on both the name and number data given 
by the Bible, and the Hebrew cubit value first 
approached by Sir Isaac Newton, we cannot avoid 
bringing out a cubical capacity result almost identical 
with that of a still older box, known for several cen- 
turies past to moderns as a lidless box, but never 
known at all to the ancient Egyptians ; viz., the coffer 
in the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid. 

Wherefore, with that coffer's cubic capacity, the Ark 
of the Covenant immediately acquires all the commen- 
surabilities of that coffer's interior with the capacity 
and mean density of the earth as a whole : a some- 
thing both utterly distinguishing it from any profane 
Egyptian box yet measured ; and most appropriate to 
the Scripture-stated use of the Ark under circumstances 
of Divine presence, as a footstool ; agreeably with the 
words of the Lord in Isaiah and Acts, " the earth is my 

Of Solomons Molten Sea. 

Such, then, looked at in the light of science, 3,300 
years after its day of construction, must have been the 



sacred Ark of the Covenant built according to the in- 
spiration commands received by Moses, after he had 
left Egypt for ever ; — and that was the Ark which 
subsequently overthrew the idol gods of the Philistines, 
and was a source of safety to Israel on many and many 
a national occasion. Yet what eventually became of it, 
or what was its latter end, Scripture does not inform us. 
The Eastern Churches have their traditions, but I do not 
care to occupy time over theifn. And this only further 
piece of solid information has been made out by the 
metrological researches of John Taylor and others in 
recent years ; viz., that within narrow limits pf un- 
certainty, the brazen lavers of Solomon's TempFe were 
also of the same cubic capacity as the coffer in the 
Great Pyramid ; and measured, on the Hebrew system, 
40 baths, or 4 homers. Those lavers, then, through 
the coffer, were — what no human science could have 
intentionally made them in that day — earth com- 

But there was a still larger capacity vessel in the same 
Temple of Solomon ; was it also, earth commensurable, 
and harmonious with the world of God's creation ? 

This vessel, by name the ** Molten Sea," was grandly 
cast in bronze, though of a shape and size which has 
defied all essayists hitherto to agree upon. Even in 
the Bible, something of what is there said about it, is 
stated variously in different books thereof ; as that in 
Kings, the cubic contents are given as 2,000 baths, 
while in Chronicles they are set down as 3,000. The 
latter account being but fragmentary, I adhere to the 
former ; and then find, according to the simple state- 
ment in baths, that the " Molten Sea " would have 
contained the contents of a laver 50 times ; or a 
Pyramid number at once. 

Next we are told (1 Kings vii. 23 — 26) that 
the " molten sea " " was ten cubits from the one brim 


to tlie other ; it was round all about, and his height 
was five cubits ; and a line of thirty cubits did compass 
it round about ; and it was an hand-breadth thick." 

The first point here, is to realise the shape. Some 
good men have imagined it cylindrical ; some of a 
swelling caldron form ; but the greater numbers, a hemi- 
spherical shape ; and this, perhaps, is most agreeable 
(1) to the phrase " round all about," (2) to its diameter 
being twice its height, and (3) to the traditionary tes- 
timony of Josephus that it was hemispherical. 

This point settled, are the measures inside, or out- 
side ? By the rule established for the Ark, the breadth 
and height are outside, of course ; but in that case, 
what is the meaning of a circle of 1 cubits in diameter, 
having a circumference of 30 cubits ? That is a total 
impossibility ; and wholly against the chief part of the 
teaching of the Great Pyramid itself, which proves in 
various ways that the circumference of a circle having 
10 for diameter cannot be less than 31*4159, &c. 

In this dilemma, I venture to conclude (especially as 
here an indication of the thickness of the vessel is given, 
viz., at a hand-breadth) that the inside circumference 
was alluded to. 

Take, then, a hemisphere with an inside circum- 
ference of 30 Pyramid cubits, its diameter would be 
238*73 Pyramid inches, giving, with an outside diameter 
of ten cubits, nearly 5-5 inches for the thickness (or a 
space which the hand of a strong man spread out would 
easily cross). The cubic contents, then, of such internal 
hemisphere will be 3,562,070 Pyramid cubic inches ; 
and divided by the Pyramid number 50, give 71,241 of 
the same cubic inches ; i.e., within a seven-thousandth 
part of the same, as either the Ark of the Covenant or 
the coffer of the Great Pyramid. 

But why did Solomon go to such pains and expense 
in making the *' molten sea " so ver}^ much larger thi 


Chap.XVIJI.] the great pyramid. 343 

his already large brazen vessels, the layers ; and larger 
too, by the exact multiple of 50 ? 

No profane Egyptian would have chosen that number, 
as we have already seen ; but in the Great Pyramid, 
planned certainly by a Seth-descended, Abel-following, 
God-inspired, man, and by no Cainite Egyptian, — the 
lower course of the King's Chamber has been so ad- 
justed in height, by the removal from sight of its lower 
5 inches, that the cubic contents of that lower course 
amount, as already shown at p. 150, to 50 times the 
coffer's contents ; or, as we now see, were exactly equal 
to the contents of Solomon's molten sea ; unless we 
should rather say that Solomon's molten sea was made 
to be equal to the lower adjusted course of the King's 
Chamber of the Great Pjrramid. 

Yet if we have been already obliged to conclude that 
Moses, though he lived long in Egypt, could never have 
been inside the Great Pyramid, and had, therefore, no 
opportunity of humanly copying the cubic contents of 
the coffer; vastly more certain may we be that King 
Solomon was never inside the Pyramid either, or in a 
position to note the exact amount of cubic contents of 
the lower course of the coffer's containing chamber. 

Whence, then, came the metrological ideas common to 
three individuals in three different ages ; and involving 
reference to deep cosmical attributes of the earth, under- 
stood by the best and highest of human learning at 
none of those times ? And the answer can hardly be 
other, than that the God of Israel, who liveth for ever, 
equally inspired t© this end the Seth-descended architect 
of the Great Pyramid, the prophet Moses, and King 

Of Stone Sanctuat^a and Pyramids. 

So far, for the vessels contained in the several 
sanctuaries, whether Pyramid, Tabernacle, or Temple. 


But something now requires to be said, touching these 
sanctuaries themselves ; and chiefly on account of the 
new light thrown on them by Mr. Henry Tompkins.* 

The chief instrument with which he voluntarily 
works, is indeed linguistic only, and therefore rather 
outside my methods of procedure ; but involuntarily 
he brings to bear certain necessary business features 
essential to the very existence of any, and every, com- 
munity of men, whether large or small. All such, for 
instance, must have amongst them, in whatever age 
they live or have lived, something approaching to a 
safe, or treasure-stronghold ; even, and perhaps much 
more so, if they be a community of robbers, rather 
than of peaceful men. 

Now the first builder of such a safe, according to 
this new author, was Cain ; and Moses told us of it 
long ago, though bad translations have hid the fact 
from our eyes, by speaking rather of " the city " which 
Cain built in the land of Nod. Yet Moses only said 
an " oer," meaning thereby, some chambered tumulus 
of earth and stones, which one man might possibly, or 
even easily, have built single-handed ; and might then 
with full right " call it after his son's name.'! Such an 
"oer" was rude probably, yet exactly adapted to serve 
both as a stronghold and strong room, or a neces- 
sary practical addition to what Josephus tells us of 
Cain, at that very period of his life too, when "he 
invented weights and measures, and used them only for 
the purposes of rapacity and oppression." 

Hence every few Cainites might well have an "oer'* 
amongst them, but not " a city ;" and in freeing us from 
this latter word, where Moses wrote "oer," Mr. Tompkins 

* " The Pyramids and the Pentateuch," by Henry Tompkins, of 
2, Augusta Place, Lansdowne Eoad, Clapham Road, Loudon, Oct. 22, 1873. 

Chap.XVIIL] the great pyramid. 345 

seems to have done excellent service ; though when he 
proceeds further, to call every " oer " a Pyramid, he 
wanders from the provable stone facts. 

The word Pyramid (by sound of course, rather than 
by letter) is not read in any of the Pharaonic hierogly- 
phics, nor proved to have been known earlier than the 
visit of Herodotus to Egypt in 445 B.C. There too, it 
was applied to a particular form of the " oer " seen 
nowhere else ; and the progress of mathematics since 
then has still more strictly confined its application. 
Hence, when we read in Genesis of the rebellious and 
Cain-following men, after the flood, uniting together to 
build '' a city and a tower whose top may reach unto 
heaven," according to King James's translators, — and 
when Mr. T. tells us rather to read, " Let us build a 
Pyramid, and one of great extent, whose top," &c., — let 
it be our part to endeavour to ascertain mechanically 
what VMS built. 

Nor is this very difficult ; for though Babel's old 
structure may long since have been buried in the soft 
alluvial earth of its foundations, yet the researches of 
Laj^ard, Botta, Loftus, and others in Mesopotamia, all 
unite in showing, that the buildings which served the 
purposes of " oers " next in order of time to Babel, in 
that part of the world, were invariably oblong, elevated, 
terraced temples, and not to be called pyramids in any 

Similarly too the chambered tumuli of the Lydians, 
Etruscans, Pelasgi, and many other early people, were 
all of them " oers," and many of them treasury " oers " 
too, but not one of them a pyramid. In Egypt only 
did the " oers " become truly pyramidal ; and though 
in that land, their primitive Cainite purpose of strong- 
holds for treasure rapaciously acquired, was gradually 
overshadowed by sepulchral service, yet they were not 


always wholly merged therein, whatever the modern 
Egyptologists choose oracularly to declare.* 

To the intense Cainites, that all Egyptians were, some 
form of " oer " was most necessary in their early 
national life ; and though they did perhaps begin in 
two or three small examples with chambered tumuli, or 
Babel terraces, or even round towers,t the captivating 
example of the Great Pyramid soon led them off into 
that shape alone ; and they put its mark so effectually 
on themselves, that the really Sethite character of the 
Great Pyramid was lost to general view among newly 
pyramidised Cainite *' oers." 

And yet to a deeper insight there was, even in the 
mere putting together of the material, the most essen- 
tially different character in the one Great Pyramid 
original, and all its supposed copies. 

The Egyptians, for instance, according to Dr. Lepsius's 
law of their Pyramid building (pages 76 and 77), pro- 
ceeded in exactly the same exogenous manner as all 
Cainites with their chambered tumuli ; i.e., beginning 
with a chamber centre, and extending the structure 
around and above, more or less, as opportunity offered 
or accident determined at last. 

But the Great Pyramid, as testified through the 
whole of this book, and by the accounts of Herodotus 
also, was commenced on the opposite, or endogenous 
method ; viz., by the laying out of a long previously 
settled plan, and building up within that outline only. 

* Besides the many early local traditions, which must have some 
foundation, of treasure having been deposited in the Egyptian Pyramids 
by kings who lived close before, or after, the flood, — Colonel Howard- 
Vyse and Mr. Perring (on pp. 45, 46 of the former's 3rd vol. of " Pyra- 
mids of Gizeh"), give an account of a chamber in the Great Terraced, 
and rather oblong, Pyramid of Saccara, closed by a granite stopper of 
four tons weight, and declared by them to have been " a treasury," "a 
secure and secret treasury," and one that had certainly "never been put 
to tombic use." 

t The round- towers standing beside Christian churches in Ireland are 
an architectural picture of Cain and Abel over again. 


Chap.XVITL] the great pyramid. 347 

While, therefore, the Cainite Egyptian Pyramids were 
" Epimethean," or speaking to one hasty act and too 
late thought afterwards, — the Great Pyramid was essen- 
tially Promethean, or the result of careful act following 
upon previous wise and provident thought. 

The former, even according to classic tradition, 
brought infinity of ills on all humanity ; but the latter 
told mysteriously, from far earlier ages, of one who 
voluntarily sacrificed himself in order that he might 
(in antagonism to the false gods of heathen idolatry), 
bring down sacred fire, or regeneration life, from heaven 
to men. 

But of this primeval phase of the Promethean myth, 
long before the Greeks polluted its purity and truth in 
deference to all their own obscene rout of gods and 
goddesses of Olympus,* we shall have still more posi- 
tive evidence, on studying more advanced features of 
construction found only in the Great Pyramid. 

* See ** Seven Homilies on Ethnic Inspiration," by the Rev. Joseph 
Taylor Goodair ; and " The Eeligions of the World," by William Oaburn, 




Air Channels. 

FROM time to time in the modern history of the Great 
Pyramid, faults have been found, or improvements 
suggested, or difficulties raised with regard to its con- 
struction ; and, where such remarks have been the 
produce of able minds, it is well for instruction's sake, 
in the present day, to turn back to their very words. 
Also, if such criticisms have, since they were uttered, 
been answered by further discoveries at the Pyramid, to 
note how they have been answered. 

A case in point is offered by the conversation of Dr. 
Harvey, the learned discoverer of the circulation of the 
blood, with Professor Greaves, in or about 1640. The 
doctor, unable to leave his patients in this country, had 
revolved at home in his truly capacious mind, and from 
his own peculiar scientific point of view, one of the 
descriptions given to him by the great Eastern traveller 
of that day, and had seen a difficulty which had not 
struck him. 

To one so well versed in biological phaenomena (though 
living long before the day of a knowledge of oxygen, or 
the nature of gases, or, indeed, any sort of scientific 
chemistry), it seemed strange to Dr. Harvey, " how 
several persons could have continued so many hours in 


the pyramid and live. For," said he, " seeing that we 
never breathe the same air twice, but still new air is 
required to a new inspiration (the succus alibilis of it 
being spent in every expiration), it could not be, but by 
long breathing, we should have spent the aliment of that 
small stock of air within the Pyramid, and have been 
stifled ; unless there were some secret tunnels conveying 
it to the top of the Pyramid, whereby it might pass out, 
and make way for fresh air to come in at the entrance 

Now that was a remark full of wisdom in every way, 
and if duly received and respected, might have led to 
invaluable discoveries at an early period, — but Professor 
Greaves, a good linguist, and with eminent dexterity 
at solving algebraic equations, unfortunately could 
not see the vital importance of Dr. Harvey's succus 
alibilis mixed up in common air ; neither had he con- 
sidered very accurately the motion of aeriform fluids, 
when he thought that both the old air might so easily go 
out, and new air as easily come in, by one and the same 
lower entrance passage, of small bore and crooked, almost 
" trapped," in the course of its length ; and finally he 
was certain, as one who had been at the Pyramid, and 
was therefore not to be lightly contradicted, that, " as 
for any tuhuliy or little tunnels, to let out the fuliginous 
air at the top of the Pyramid, none could he discovered 
within or without'' 

To this Dr. Harvey replied most discreetly, "They 
might be so small, as that they could not be easily 
discovered, and yet might be sufiicient to make way for 
the air, being a thin and subtile body." 

But poor Professor Greaves on this occasion would not 
listen to such homely reason, and only answered con- 
futingly, he himself having chronicled his own words, 
that, " The less they, the tuhuli, were, the sooner they 
would be obstructed with those tempests of sand, to 


which those deserts are frequently exposed ;" and with 
these and similar positivisms he obliged the stay-at-home 
medical doctor, in a phrase of that day, and which may 
then have been classic and aristocratic English with all 
the elder dons of Oxford, " To shut up all." '''" 

Yet what would Professor Greaves have thought, if 
he could have known before he died, that 200 years 
after his remarkable conversation with the discoverer of 
the most important anatomical and physiological fact 
even yet known to science, — Colonel Howard- Vyse 
would actually have proved the existence of, and found, 
two such tuhuli, leading to the upper parts of the 
Great Pyramid : and formed for no other purpose than 
that which Dr. Harvey had indicated, i.e., to serve as 
ventilating channels : and that he. Professor Greaves, 
had himself actually seen their lower extremities in the 
walls of the King's Chamber ; and proved the fact, by 
inditing the following almost photographic likeness of 
them : — 

" The ingenious reader will excuse my curiosity, t if, 
before I conclude my description of this Pyramid, I 
pretermit not anything within, of how light a consequence 
soever. This made me take notice of two inlets or 
spaces, in the south and north sides of the chamber, just 
opposite to one another ; that on the north was in 
breadth 0700 of the Enghsh foot, and in height 0*400, 
evenly cut, and running in a straight line six feet and 
further, into the thickness of the wall. That on the 
south is larger, and somewhat round, not so long as the 
former, and, by blackness within, it seems to have been 
the receptacle for the burning of lamps." 

Upon which he indulges in a classical speculation 
upon "the eternal lamps, such as have been found in 

* Page 161, vol. i., of " Greaves," by Birch. 

t The exact meaning of this word has altered greatly within the last 
two hundred years. 


Tulliola's tomb in Italy ;" and regrets (in so far, just like 
a mediaeval scholar, rather than a modern physicist), 
actually regrets to think how much better Pliny might 
have filled his pages, if he had described therein the 
composition of one of those lamps of " noble inven- 
tion," rather than occupied them with lesser matters of 
natural phaenomena. 

But the blackness adverted to at the Pyramid, would 
seem to have been caused mainly by the fires which 
were occasionally made in the hole, since Caliph Al 
Mamoun's time, by Arabs with an inquisitive turn of 
mind, and merely for the chance expectation of seeing 
what would come of it. During the two following 
centuries, also, the fashion grew up for each visitor and 
tourist to conclude his sight-seeing of the Great Pyra- 
mid, by firing his pistols into these holes. 

What for ? 

Even the decorous Dane, Captain Norden, who wrote 
in 1740 to explain how young men going out to the 
Great Pyramid " should join in a company with their 
seniors, that, by the discourses they hear on the road, 
they may be more emulous to observe everything in a 
better manner, and make more exact remarks ; " — even 
he, the worthy countryman of the learned Arabian 
traveller, Niebuhr, explains, — " when you are in the 
saloon (the King's Chamber) you commonly make some 
discharges of a pistol, to give yourself the ^pleasure of 
Jtearing a noise that resembles thunder; and then, as 
there is no hope of discovering more than what others 
have already remarked, you resume the way by which 
you came, and return in the same manner, as well as 
with the same difficulty." 

Innumerable persons, therefore, besides Professor 
Greaves, had portions of the air-channel system in their 
hands ; but, through not respecting sufficiently the 
design of the Great Pyramid, and the duty of using 


the best of tlieir own intellect, they went away no wiser 
than they came, and the realizing at last of the best 
ventilated, or rather ventilatable, room in the world 
remained to another age. 

Ceiling of Kings Chamber, 

Again, certain early authors of a critically mechanical 
turn, looked up at the ceiling of the King's Chamber, 
roofed with horizontal beams of granite blocks, and ex- 
pressed their thoughts in the manner of a judgment and 
condemnation, that " those beams had a vast weight to 
bear" (all the weight of the upper two-thirds of the 
Pyramid above them) ; and, with some allusion to the 
" arch," and no knowledge of any of the numerical and 
physical symbolisms required in this chamber, they 
rather hinted " that they could have made a better dis- 
position of the material." 

It has been supposed that the boastful legend in- 
scribed by King Asychis on his pyramid of brick at 
Dashoor, one thousand years after the building of the 
Great Pyramid, referred to the invention or earliest 
construction of arches in brick : — " Compare not me with 
the Pyramids built of stone, which I as far excel as 
Amun doth the other gods. For striking the bottom 
of the lake with long poles, and gathering the mud which 
stuck to them, men made these bricks, and formed me 
in this manner." 

Contemporary science applauded that invention, and 
thought it perfect ; but contemporary science, even up 
to the present hour, is always marvellously well pleased 
with its last and latest performance, however imperfect 
the next generation may find it to have been ; and in 
the case before us, 4,000 years have reduced nearly all 
the brick pyramids to rubbish : giving us reason for 
thanks, that that scientific improvement was not invented 


early enough to have been adopted in the Great Pyramid. 
By itself no doubt the arch was good, and a brick arch 
stronger than a brick beam ; but neither a brick arch, 
nor an arch of little stones, has stood so long as a beam 
of solid granite in circumstances similar to those of the 
King's Chamber. 

If the roof of that chamber Aac? at any time fallen in, 
and crushed the coffer below, which it was meant to 
preserve, — then all the scientific critics might have 
started up with reason, to propose a more durable mode 
of roofing ; but in presence of that roof's perfect perfor- 
mance of its duty, for a longer period than any other 
human building has lasted, it was strange, to say the 
least of it, that such a readiness to find fault and proffer 
advice should have been manifested ; for, as M. Jomard 
most admirably expresses it, " under this view of the 
perfect state and condition of the whole room, the archi- 
tects have eminently attained the end which they pro- 
posed to themselves more than 3,000 years ago." 

" Ah ! but if they have only saved themselves by the 
skin of their teeth," urges another writer unabashed ; " if 
they have been indebted to happy chance for a result, 
of which the precise contrary might have at any moment 
befallen them ! " Well, that is an objection which would 
have been perhaps excusable in Professor Greaves' day, 
when men knew nothing of what the means for strength 
employed by the architects were ; or even, whether they 
had had their attention directed to the importance of 
the point. But ever since the discovery in 17G3 of 
Davison's Chamber (so called, but really only a hollow 
in the masonry not intended to be trod by the foot of 
man), — the learned must have seen, that some of the 
requirements of the case had been skilfully entered into 
by the builders ; though no person had any idea, until 
Colonel Howard- Vyse made his celebrated explorations 
in 1837, of the still further measures of extraordinary 

A A 


completeness with which this scientific mechanical object 
had been carried out ; a completeness so striking, that 
we have never heard since then, of any more complaints 
or fears for the safety of the ceiling. 

Plate XL gives an idea of the arrangement adopted. 
Besides the large, and pyramidally typical, number of 
five hollow, closed spaces or j9seu(io-chambers, one over 
the other, and the topmost one roofed with opposed 
sloping plates, — it will be observed that the upper 
surface of every set of long horizontal blocks, in place 
of being formed into a flat floor, is left rough and 

This is a feature, the truth of which, and perhaps the 
importance also, entirely escaped the French savants of 
1800, even in such limited part of the whole scheme 
as they had before them ; whence it came, that they 
represented the floor-surface of Davison's pseudo-chsimher 
or hollow, as absolutely level, and also parallel to the 
King's Chamber true ceiling below, in the otherwise 
beautiful and microscopically finished engravings of 
their great work ! 

Yet, had the Pyramid architect so prepared and cut 
away the upper original surface of each set of horizontal 
granite beams, he would have notably weakened their 
strength, and not have done good to any one ; for as 
those hollows of construction were, with one proble- 
matical exception indicated in the plate, built up solid 
all round about, and therefore not intended to be 
entered, it signified not in the least whether their floors 
were even or uneven to any degree. 

The whole arrangement was indeed a similar exhibi- 
tion of mechanical genius, looking for efiiciency rather 
than show, to that one described by Professor Rigaud 
in an early transit-instrument of the Oxford Observatory; 
where the artist optician had left, for strength's sake, the 
rough, original skin on the outside surface of the brass, 


though he had planed the under surface true, wherever 
a joint had to be made, or a bearing secured. But in 
the Pyramid, there was ultimate symbology also. 

Modern Promiscuous Quarrymg. 

Then again, no one seems hitherto to have had any 
respect, and that because no understanding, of why the 
mass of solid masonry was so overwhelmingly large, 
compared with the hollow portion of the Pyramid ; the 
latter being only about 1 -2000th of the former. 

Firmness of construction, they thought, would have 
been given by a far less amount of solid substance ; 
wherefore, and for that mere fancy, bred of their own 
brain alone, feeling sure that there must be many 
chambers still undiscovered, they immediately began 
ruthlessly boring and cruelly blasting here, there, and 
everywhere into the exquisitely-arranged, squared, lime- 
stone blocks, and to a depth often of a great many feet, 
merely to see what blind chance might possibly lead 
them to. Forgetful, also, of a really very sage piece of 
advice, said by an Arab tradition, shaming Herodotus, 
to have been engraved on the ancient casing stone 
surface of the Pyramid by its unknown architect : "I 
have built them, and whoever considers himself 
powerful may try to destroy them. Let him, however, 
reflect that to destroy is easier than to build." 

Had Mehemet Ali been inclined to intellectual 
tyranny, what sport to him to have had up before his 
judgment-seat each of these quarrying geniuses, and made 
them render forth, if they could, a presentable reason, 
based on Pyramid knowledge, for the dark hope that 
was within them, as to why they should have met with 
success by making a hole in the particular direction 
they did. And if they could not give such a reason 
clearly and convincingly, order them to put back every 


stone they had pulled out, precisely as it was before ; a 
more than sufficient occupation for the remaining term 
of their natural lives.* 

Who too, among Egyptologists, would escape such a 
judgment ? Not even the excellent Sir Gardner Wil- 
kinson ; who, when describing the Queen's Chamber in 
the Great Pyramid, says with the most inimitable calm- 
ness, and without a pang on his conscience for the 
mischief he had done to so precious a work, " I ex- 
cavated in vain below in quest of a sepulchral pit." t 
And a pretty pit, indeed, I found he had made of it, 
when I visited the place in 1865 ! 

The Key-signs of the Great Pyramid's Architect. 

Yet infinitely more blameable were those before him, 
who made similar, but yet more destructive, excavations, 

* Connected with this view, the following is given from the Arabian 
author, Abd Allatif, who wrote more than five hundred j-ears since, and 
who, ill times ot boasting and romance, described his own exploits in such 
modest terms, but terriWe truth, as this : — " When I again visited the 
Pyramids, I entered this passage with several people, but having pene- 
trated about two-thirds into the interior, and having through fear com-\ 
pletely lost my senses, I returned half dead." 

A bad explorer, then, but an unflinching historian, Abd Allatif relates 
in the latter capacity : — 

" When Malic Alaziz Othman Ben Youssuf succeeded" his father, he 
was prevailed on by. some persons of his court— people totally devoid of 
sense and judgment — to attempt the demolition of the Pyramids. He 
accordingly sent miners and quarrymen, under the superintendence of 
some of the officers and emirs of his court, with orders to destroy the red 
pyramid, which is the best of the three. They encamped near it, col- 
lected labourers from all parts of the country at a vast expense, and 
endeavoured, with great assiduity for eight months, to execute the com- 
mission with which they were entrusted, removing each day, with great 
difficulty, one or two such stones. At length, having exhausted all their 
pecuniary resources, their resolution grew proportionally weaker as their 
labour and difficulties increased, and they were at last obliged to give up 
the undertaking as hopeless. VVhile they were still engaged in the work, 
observing one day the extreme labour it required to remove one of the 
hlocks, I asked an overseer, who was superintending the operation, 
whether, if a thousand pieces of gold was offered to him, he w^ould under- 
take to replace the block in its original position : he answered, that it he 
v/ere to be given many times that sum, he could not do so." — Col. Howard 
Vyse's second vol. of " Pyramids of Gizeh." 

t Murray's "Handbook for Egypt," p. 167. 


with the absurd idea of finding a passage leading to the 
Sphinx ! As if there was any community in science or 
religion, feeling or age, between the built Great Pyramid 
and the carved stock or stone called the Great Sphinx. 

As if, too, I may add, there was anything of original 
importance in the Great Pyramid's structure which had 
not had both a proper and a regidar access prepared 
to it, requiring no smashing with sledge-hammers or 
cannon-balls, when the proper time should arrive, to 
open it up to view and use. 

The passages lined, or rather built, with blocks of 
whiter stone different from the bulk of the masonry, 
and leading thereby right on to the ultimate point 
required through the whole mountainous mass of the 
building, are a case directly in point ; and are admitted 
by, and known now to, every one, even including the 
Egyptologists. But there are more minute features also, 
not so generally known ; yet showing equal design and 
intention, in these very Pyramid passages. 

Thus every one has been told how Caliph Al Ma- 
moun, after blasting his way through the solid fabric 
for six weeks, was just about to give up the research 
when he heard a stone fall in a hollo^v space close 
on one side ; and breaking his way in that direction, he 
presently found himself in the entrance-passage ; and 
the stone which had fallen at that precise instant, was 
a prism-shaped block that had been anciently inserted 
in the ceiling. There it had for ages formed a merely 
ordinary part thereof, and yet was covering all the time 
the butt-end of the granite portcullis at the bottom of 
the first ascending passage, now at last exposed to view. 

Would that first ascending passage, then, never have 
been discovered, if that faithless, perhaps timeous, block 
had not fallen out, whether in Al Mamoun's or any 
other day ? Let the following facts indicate. 

When measuring the cross joints in the floor of tb« 


entrance-passage in 1865, I went on chronicling their 
angles, each one proving to be very nearly at right 
angles to the axis, until suddenly one came which was 
diagonal, another, and that was diagonal too ; but after 
that, the rectangular position was resumed. Further, 
the stone material carrying these diagonal joints was 
harder and better than elsewhere in the floor, so as to 
have saved that part from the monstrous excavations 
elsewhere perpetrated by some moderns. Why then 
did the builders change the rectangular joint angle at 
that point, and execute such unusual angle as they 
chose in place of it, in a better material of stone than 
elsewhere ; and yet with so little desire to call general 
attention to it, that they made the joints fine and close 
to that degree that they had escaped the attention of 
all men until 1865 a.d. ? 

The answer came from the diagonal joints themselves, 
on discovering that the stone between them was oppo- 
site to the butt-end of the portcullis of first ascending 
passage, or to the hole whence the prismatic stone of 
concealment through 3,000 years had dropped out 
almost before Al Mamoun's eyes. Here, therefore, was 
a secret signjn the pavement of the entrance-passage, 
appreciable only to a careful eye and a measurement 
by angle, but made in such hard material that it was 
evidently intended to last to the end of human time 
with the Great Pyramid, and lias done so thus far. 

Had, then, that ceiling-stone never dropped out at 
all, still the day might have come when the right men 
at last, duly instructed, would have entered the passage, 
understood that floor sign, and, removing the ceiling- 
stone opposite to it, would have laid bare the begin- 
ning of the whole train of those subaerial features of 
construction which are the Great Pyramid's most dis- 
tinctive glory, and exist in no other Pyramid in Egypt 
or the world. 


Uses of the Queens Chamber, 

But if in this simple manner of a small trap-door in 
the ceiling of the descending entrance-passage, the 
ascending system of the Great Pyramid was so long 
concealed, there was once in that ascending system, 
viz., at or just inside the lower end of the grand 
gallery, and in the floor thereof,— a more extensive 
trap-door, which concealed the access to the Queen s 
Chamber and the horizontal passage leading to it. 

At present, when the traveller enters the north end 
of the grand gallery from the first ascending passage, 
he is delighted to meet with a level floor ; but following 
that southward, he finds that it leads presently, not to 
the farther end of the grand gallery, but to a hole 
under a steep escarpment of its floor close by ; in fact, 
to the beginning of the low horizontal passage leading 
to the Queen's Chamber. (See Plates VIIL, XII., and 
XIII.) The floor of the grand gallery itself is inclined 
at the typical angle of 26° 18' (my measures by three 
difl*erent methods, with far more powerful instruments 
than ever taken inside the Great Pyramid before, 
made it 26° 17' 37"); antl runs, from the lowest north 
end right up to the great step at the south termina- 
tion of the gallery, in one continued slope, except for 
the interruption caused by the absolute removal of a 
portion of the floor near the north end, to allow of 
that sub-floor horizontal passage to the Queen's Chamber 
being approached on a level. But there are traces still 
visible in the masonry on either side of that hole 
in the gallery's floor, well interpreted, first by Mr. 
Perring, and more recently by Mr. Waynman Dixon, 
engineers both ; showing, that a neatly-laid and joist- 
supported flooring, nine inches thick, did once exist 
over that hole, completing thereby the whole long slope 
of the grand gallery's floor ; and in that case entirely 


concealing and utterly shutting up all approach to, or 
knowledge tou'ching the very existence of, the Queen's 

Who amongst mediaeval men pulled away that con- 
cealing floor, removed its supporting cross-beams, and 
pushed on into the Queen's Chamber, is not known 
now, any more than why it was so concealed by the 
original builders. Mr. Perring imagined that the 
chamber must have been used as a store-room during 
the building of the Pyramid, for the big blocks of stone 
which were, at the finishing, slided down into the first 
ascending passage until, from the portcullis at its lower 
end, that passage was full up to its very top ; and 
the workmen then escaped by the deep well and its 
subterranean communication with the entrance-passage. 

Quite willing am I to allow to the honest working 
engineer, that such a store-room purpose may have been 
served : but was that all that the place was intended 
for ? And if so, to what end are all the following 
features; features too, which are much more certain 
than that use ; for the features exist still, and can be 
seen every day, but who witnessed the use ? 

1. The central axis of the niche in the east wall 
(and that niche this Queen's Chamber's only architec- 
tural adornment) is removed southward from the centre 
thereof by one scientific Pyramid, or sacred Hebrew, 
cubit length. (See Plate IX.) 

2. The top of the niche is one similar Pyramid, and 
sacred Hebrew, cubit broad.* 

3. The height of the niche, multiplied by that 
grandly fundamental quantity in the Great Pyramid, tt, 
and that multiplied by the Pyramid number 10 = the 

* 25-3 inches in each case by measure, in place of 25*025 ; but the 
measures very rough. 


height of the Great Pyramid ; orl85x7rxl0 = 5812 
in place of 5813.^ 

4. The height of the niche, less the height of its 
inner species of long shelf, equals similarly the half 
of the base-side length of the Great Pyramid ; or 
185 — 39*6 X 10 7r=4568, in place of 4566 inches.! 

5. The height of the north and south walls of the 
Queen's Chamber measured = 18222 Pyramid inches 

± 1 inch, and assumed 182 '6 2, give — 


182'62 y 10 

(1) ~ — = 9131 = length of Great Pyramid's base-side in P. in. 

(2) 182-62 X 2 = 365-24 = solar days in solar tropical year. 

6. The breadth of the Queen's Chamber measured 
= 205 "6, assumed 205*0, gives — 

182-62 : 205 ; : 205 : 230-1 = height of King's Chamber from floor to 


7. The square root of 10 times the height of the 
north or south walls, divided by the height of the 
niche = tt ; or, 

' = V 18.3 

182-62 X 10 

All the above theorems, save the two first, are the 
discoveries of Professor Hamilton L. Smith (of Hobart 
College, Geneva, New York), who, without having been 
to Egypt, and without any other Pyramid measures than 
those contained in " Life and Work," has, by success- 
fully interpreting them, constituted himself in a most 
unexceptionable manner the citizen-king of the Queen's 

A fuller account of his researches has appeared in 
the November number of the American Journal of 

* The height of the niche uncertain, by the measures, between 185 and 
186 inches. 

t The shelf's height is, by the very rough measures, between 38 and 
40 inches. 



[Part IV. 

ScicTice and Art; which number, too, at the time I 
write (Dec. 1873) seems to have reached London, but 
not Edinburgh. And I must beg my readers to refer 
to his very paper for themselves ; for, while the said 
London journals merely and most miserably say of the 
memoir, " Professor H. L. Smith finds that the arrange- 
ments of the Queen s Chamber were scientific," — ^he 
wrote to me positively and particularly some time ago, that 
his conclusive arrangement of the whole of what he had 
discovered took the form of the twd* horns of a dilemma, 
on either of which he left the opponents of the sacred 
and scientific theory of the Great Pyramid to impale 
themselves, as they preferred. 

" Either," said he, '' there is proof in that chamber 
of supranatural inspiration granted to the architect ; 
or — 

" That primeval official possessed, without inspiration, 
in an age of absolute scientific ignorance, 4,000 years 
ago, scientific knowledge equal to, if not surpassing, 
that of the present highly-developed state of science in 
the modern world." 

This is so radically different a state of things to what 
is implied in the London journals, that, in. the absence 
still of his own printed paper, I refer to some of Pro- 
fessor H. L. Smith's private letters of last summer ; 
and would direct attention to the remarkable number 
of characteristic angles which he has discovered in this 
chamber, and all of them well within the limits of some 
of my measurements ; a few of them running thus : — 

Casing-stone angle, again and again 



Upper culmination of a Draconis 
Lower culmination of a Draconis 
Upper culmination of ij Tauri . 

51° 51' 
33° 41' 

26° 22' 

= 4° 21' North of Equator. 


Newly-discovered Air-channds in Queens Chamber. 

Now here we have seen a whole series of connections 
between the actually existing measurable facts of the 
Queen's Chamber, and scientific portions of the ulti- 
mate, and originally secret, design of the Great Pyramid ; 
a design utterly unknown to the ancient Egyptians, 
and alien to everything that belonged to them and 
their "wisdom," such as it was ; teste the Egyptologists 
themselves ; — features, too, all of them entirely un- 
necessary to a mere store-room for stone blocks, or to a 
chamber for holding a simple sarcophagus. Therefore, 
although some of the early travellers have spoken fear- 
fully of "the grave-like and noisome odour of this 
room, causing them to beat a rapid retreat," the room 
must have acquired that odious character from modern 
vilifying, rather than ancient construction ; for what its 
builders put into it, as we see above, is not of a nature 
to experience any fleshly corruption. 

Indeed, in its ancient planning, the Queen's Chamber 
would appear to have been, still further, intended some 
day to be ventilated. Eor the chief item of latest 
discovery at the Great Pyramid, is that one which was 
made last winter by Mr. Waynman Dixon, in company 
with his friend Dr. Grant, and with the assistance of 
one of his English workmen from the bridge he was 
then erecting over the Nile ; and is to the effect, that 
this Queen's Chamber has two ventilating channels in 
its north and south walls, nearly similar to those in the 
King's Chamber. 

Perceiving a crack in the south wall of the Queen's 
Chamber, which allowed him at one place to push in a 
wire to a most unconscionable length, Mr. W. Dixon 
set his carpenter man-of-all-work, by name Bill Grundy, 
to jump a hole with hammer and iron chisel at that 
place. So to work the faithful fellow went, and with a 


will which soon began to make a way into the soft 
stone, when lo ! after a very few strokes, flop went the 
chisel right through, into somewhere or other. So the 
party broke away the stone round about the chisel hole, 
and then found a rectangular, horizontal tube about 
9 by 8 inches in breadth and height, going back 7 feet 
into the wall, and then rising at an angle of about 32°. 

Next, measuring otf a similar position on the north 
wall, Mr. Dixon set the invaluable Bill Grundy to work 
there again with his hammer and iron chisel ; and 
again, after a few strokes, flop went the said chisel 
through, into somewhere ; which somewhere was pre- 
sently found to be a horizontal pipe or channel like the 
other, and rising at a similar angle, but in an opposite 
direction, at a distance of 7 feet from the chamber. 

Fires were then made inside the tubes or channels ; 
but although at the southern one the smoke went away, 
its exit was not discoverable on the outside of the 
Pyramid. Something else, however, was discovered inside 
the channels, viz., a little bronze grapnel hook ; a por- 
tion of cedar-like wood, which might have been its 
handle ; and a grey granite or green-stone ball, which, 
from its weight, 8,325 grains, as weighed by me in 
November, 1872, must evidently have been one of the 
profane Egyptian inina weight balls, long since valued 
by Sir Gardner Wilkinson at 8,304 grains.* 

These relics approached so nearly in character to the 

* A month after I had made the ahove measure and deduction, and com- 
municated them to Mr. John Dixon, who had kindly sent me the articles to 
examine, the ball was weighed by the "Warden of the Standards, found to 
be 8324-97 grains (see his paper in Nature, Dec. 26, 1872) ; whence it is also 
concluded that the stone may have been an old Egj-plian mina weight. A 
closeness of agreement, especicillj'^ in the weight, which is remarkable, if 
the Warden of the Standards had not heard of my previous measuring 
and conclusion, and which he certainly does not allude to. 

Thin flakes of a very white mortar, exuded from the joints of the 
channels, were also found; and on being recently analysed by Dr. William 
Wallace, of Glasgow, were proved to be composed not of carbonate., as 
generally used in Europe, but sulphate, of lime; or what is popularly 
known as ** plasler-of- Paris " in this country. 


ordinary nick-nackets of most men's archaeology, that 
they excited quite a furore of interest, for a time, in 
general antiquarian circles ; but nothing more has come 
of them. The ball and the hook are supposed to have 
been dropped down the channels unintentionally by 
some of the mason's labourers or boys at the passages' 
upper ends, when the place of those ends was still open 
and accessible ; but the things thus strangely found, 
belong merely to the forced labourers, the hodmen, of 
profane Egypt ; not to the architect and head admi- 
nistrator of the scientific and inspired design. 

An Unexplained Feature in the Queens Chamber s 

Something of the mysterious, however, still remains 
touching Mr. Waynman Dixon's air-channels of the 
Queen's Chamber. 

When their inner ends, or ports, were proved to 
have been separated from the air of said chamber 
merely by a thin plate of soft limestone (so easily 
pierced by Bill Grundy's chisel), every one leaped to 
the conclusion that they had originally been in use, but 
had been stopped up by some mediasval interloper with 
a paltry stone patch. But this was not the case ; for 
Mr. Dixon has successfully proved that there was no 
jointing, and that the thin plate was a " left," and a 
very skilfully and symmetrically left, part of the grand 
block composing that portion of the wall. 

That block, therefore, had had the air-channel tube 
(9x8 inches) sculptured into it, neatly and beautifully 
as far as it went, but that distance was not quite through 
the whole block by a mere finger's breadth. Th^ whole 
air-channel, save that little unmade bit, was in place ; 
but could never have been used. Not, too, that it had 
been tried, found inconvenient, and was then stopped 



up by the original builders ; for they would in that 
case either have filled the port with a long plug, or 
would have replaced the whole block carrying the inner 
end of the channel, with another block quite solid. 

But the arrangement which these builders left behind 
them was one which, if simply described according to 
the facts which have already occurred in history, was 
this ; viz., that after the chamber has been for long 
ages ill-treated and maligned by the idle and ignorant 
of civilized peoples, — it should yet be possible for a 
well-informed man to enter, and, by little more than 
pressure with his fingers on a particular part of the 
wall, establish (if the upper ends have in the meanwhile 
remained intact), a complete system of ventilation by 
means of air-channels, extending through solid masonry 
on either side no less than 300 feet in thickness. 

Scheme of the Masonry in First Ascending Passage. 

Besides making this strange discovery, in concert 
with his friend Dr. Grant, of Cairo, Mr. Waynman 
Dixon performed a great work in the first ascending 
passage of the Great Pyramid. 

My examination of that passage in 1865, was con- 
fined to little more than its angle and floor length ; 
partly on account of the bewildering varieties of the 
jointing, as they appeared on a cursory examination. 
But Mr. Waynman Dixon, in 1872, applying himself 
long and steadily to this special task, and mapping 
down everything measurable, presently perceived a most 
admirable order pervading the apparent disorder, and 
tending also to good masonic construction. For the 
chief discovery was, that at stated intervals the blocks 
forming separately the walls, floor, and ceiling of the 
passage, were replaced by great transverse plates of 


stone, with the passage bore cut clean through them, 
so as to form walls, floor, and ceiling, all in one piece. 

As an engineer he admired this masonry. But he 
had not perceived, until I was recently able to point it 
out to him, on his own careful measures, that the 
intervals of passage-length at which these remarkable 
stone 'plates were introduced, were no other than 
breadths of the King's Chamber. 

The first interval, indeed, at the top of the passage 
was a double one, and therefore equalled the length of 
the King's Chamber ; but then followed five plates, with 
that chamber's breadth, or 206 inches, between every 
pair of similar surfaces ; and after that, or in the lower 
part of the passage, near the granite plugs, the plates 
were contiguous. 

This unexpected illustration of the builders working 
by measure, and in terms of that one chamber which is 
now confessed to be the focus of the whole scientific 
design, but which was not then built into fact, may be 
taken as a proof of the Promethean, or forethought, 
character of the whole of the Great Pyramid building. 
And it may justify me, I hope, before my readers, in 
concluding this chapter, intended to be of mere 
mechanical details, with some further references to 
structural connections, bearing on deep physical results, 
between the said King's Chamber, and its one con- 
tained treasure, — the coffer. 

Relatione of King's Chamber to Coffer, 

That coffer being loose on the King's Chamber floor, 
without either niche or socket prepared for its reception 
or fixaftion, there was much fear expressed only a few 
years ago, that it might not be the original coffer, or 
sarcophagus, intended for the Great Pyramid by its 


Yet never has theoretic fear been more abundantly 
quieted by actual discoveries of solid facts. 

Some of these discoveries have been already stated 
in Part II., but others have come to light since then, 
chiefly through the researches, quite independently of 
each other, of Professor Hamilton L. Smith, and Mr. 
Jalnes Simpson ; and may be stated thus : — 

1. The coffer belongs essentially to the King's Cham- 
ber, because it is tt shaped (first ascertained by Mr. 
St. John V. Day), and after the same manner nearly, 
though in a different plane, as that chamber which is 
also of TT proportions. For while height of coffer = 
radius of a circle, whose circumference is of the same 
length as the coffer's extreme outer boundary ; so the 
King's Chamber half breadth (made so much use of in 
obtaining the equations of the " sums of the squares "), 
is radius to a circle, whose circumference = the peri- 
phery of either north or south wall of King's Chamber 
with their full height, or measured from their own 
granite bases five inches beneath the floor. 

2. The coffer belongs to the King's Chamber, be- 
cause its cubic contents are Vo of the chamber's lower 
course contents; and the chamber is also on the 50th 
masonry course of the whole Pyramid. 

3. The coffer further belongs to the King's Chamber, 
because its height is \ (Pyramid number) of the cham- 
ber's breadth, and -h (Pyramid number), of its length ; 
and its height squared = A (Pyramid number) of the 
area of the chamber. ■"'' 

4. The coffer still further belongs to the King's 
Chamber, because the outside periphery of the coffer's 
base is equal to half the most important line that can 

* The measured height of the coffer, as already given, lies hetween 
41'23 and 41-13, and tlie breadth and length of the chamher.are respec- 
tively 2(16 07, and 412-13 Pyramid inches, to within less than the tenth of 
an inch, which will enable any one to compute how near the above stated 
proportions came. 


be drawn in the room, viz., its solid diagonal ; for the 
half of this is 257"58 inches, and the coffer's base 
periphery by measure is 257'24, but with an anomaly 
in the measure of the west side (see p. 137), which 
being corrected would bring it up more nearly to 

5. Again, the coffer belongs to the King's Chamber, 
because all three of its dimensions, external, are given 
by the half of the chamber's magistral radius (i.e., the 
half of its solid diagonal), 12879 inches, when typically 
divided, or thus : — 


^|-^ X T = 40-996 = central height of coffer = 41-13 — 4f 

. X 3 = 38-637 = breadth of coffer outside = 3S-61 


X 7 = 90154 = length of coffer outside = 89-92» 

Of which multipliers, while tt is evidently the Pyramid 
number, 3 and 7 are very important coadjutors to it.f 

6. The coffer was not necessarily intended for nothing 
but a coffin, as the Egyptologists assert, merely because 
it is long enough for a man to lie down in ; for the 
above is one of its many consistent, numerical and 
scientific features, which demand its actual full length ; 
and another still is shown by Professor Hamilton L. 
Smith thus : — 

Let the number of inch-days in a year, or 365*24 
inches = 360° ; then 

Coffer's inside width measured = 26-73 in. = 26° 18' = angle of Pyramid 

passages. " 
., depth „ = 34-34 in. = 33° 48' = upper cultiiination 

of a Dniconis. 
„ length „ = 77-93 in. = 76°48' =Sutnniit angle of 

Pyruinid nearly. 

♦ But 90'09, on the removal of the anomaly from the west foot, already 

t See a paper by "William Petrie, in my "Life and Work," vol. iii., 
p. 602. 

B B 


Whereupon, and with reference to previously noted 
commensurabilities, Professor H. L. Smith remarks, very 
happily, if this stone box was intended for nothing but 
a coffin, what a nice kind of a coffin it must have been ; 
and are there any of our modern mathematicians who 
would undertake to give the dimensions of such another 
coffin, combining as many scientific data ; especially 
too, in order to make it a parallel case in everything, — 
scientific data not yet known to mankind, but to be 
known 4,000 years hence ? 

7. Lastly, of the coffer's cubic contents, its most im- 
portant element as a vessel of capacity. 

I have already published, as the result of my direct 
measures taken in combination with the earliest com- 
mensurabilities which I had discovered in 1868, the 
following quantities : — 



But all the last three of these should probably be 
slightly increased for that anomaly in the measure of 
the lower west side of the coffer (see p. 1 1 8 vol. ii. of 
" Life and Work,") which has just been brought into 
more evident existence by the light of some of Mr. 
James Simpson's more recent commensurabilities ; and 
he now adds the following results of coffer-contents 
from his own calculations : — 

A First wall course of King's Cham'ber -f- 50 . . . = 71,470 
B The same when height is made to correspond to ic pro- | «, .„, 

portion J — /M^l 

Outside contents of coflFer deduced from cubic semi-diagonal \ », .^^ 

of King's Chamber, and -^ 2 j — '^'*"" 

D From the same, made to correspond to tt . . . . t= 71, -^88 
E Squareof inside breadth (measured = 26-703) X 10 . =71,307 

F Product of interior measures =71,318 

G Soliddiagonalof Queen's Chamber X 200 . . . =71,394 

H United length of the 8 arris lines of the Great Pyramid . = 71,276 


The mean of all the quantities, first and last, being 
near 71,310; and the resulting figure for the earth's 
mean density, on the principle mentioned in Part II., 
being 5*705. And Mr. James Simpson further adds, 
that whereas the cube-root of 71,310 = 41 4 68 and 
the cube-root of the earth's bulk in cubic Pyramid 
inches* -j- 10^ (the cubit into earth's semi-axis of ro- 
tation number) =z 40'389, these numbers include the 
height of the coffer between them. Whereupon, dividing 
the height of the King's Chamber 230*4247 by the 
earth-bulk derived quantity of 40*389, — there comes 
out as the number, which we may assume in symbology 
to represent the earth's mean density, 5*70511 ; i.e., 
confirming the previously arrived at 5*705 so far as it 

Earth's Density, closely approodmated to. 

Now these corrections by Mr. Simpson of my earlier 
5*70, I venture to regard as of the utmost practical 
importance : for if the Pyramid weights and measures 
had to be re-enacted by ourselves for national use, we 
should require to know most accurately either the con- 
tents of the coffer, or the mean density of the earth, or 

But the poor coffer is now so broken by mischief- 
mongers (more broken too in 1873 than it was in 
1865 A.D.) that no improved measures will in future be 
obtainable from it, over those which have already been 
procured ; and the earth's mean density is too dtfficult a 
subject for modern science to deal with to the requisite 

From the Great Pyramid, I had deduced for that 

* Computed very carefully by Mr. Petrie for the ellipsoidal earth, and 
corrected for the terr-aqueous level, a refinement not yet adopted even in 
the best geodesy of the dny, at 65 | 892,118 | 000,000 | 000,000 | 000.000 
Pyramid cubic inches. (See my " Antiquity of Intellectual Man," p. 472.) 


earth feature, in 1867, the quantity 5-70 : expressly 
saying that it might be considered certain to '01 of 
unity; and that it certainly was not so small as 5 "69, 
nor so large as 5-71 ; and now behold, after Mr. James 
Simpson, with admirable skill and quite unknown to 
me, has made all the correction he can through his 
further discoveries of Pyramid data, his efforts do not 
alter the final quantity beyond 5 '706. 

And what has modern science to compare against 

5700, and 

She has two results ; her two last, and in so far they 
should be her best. One of them is by Sir George Airy, 
Astronomer-Royal, representing the Greenwich Observa- 
tory and all the men and money power of the mighty 
British Admiralty ; and the other is by Captain Ross 
Clarke, R.E., C.B., under the superintendence of General 
Sir Henry James, R.E., representing the Ordnance Survey, 
and all the men and money power of the equally 
mighty British Army War Office ; and these two great 
national efforts of modern times stand thus, — 

6-565, and 

Well, these two quantities evidently include a long 
way between them all the Pyramid results ; but are so 
absurdly far, one from the other, that they not only do 
not serve to test the Pyramid's accuracy, much less to 
replace it in any very practical question, but they may 
assist too well in showing some Joseph Hume redivivus, 
that much money of our country has been expended 
over and over again in getting had results in science. 


They may also succeed in salutarily proving, at least 
to somie, modern science so-called, and in the words of 
my venerable friend, Rev. F. R. A. Glover, — 

** That Science of every kind is after, and not before, 
God (Job xxxviii. 4, 5, 6) : and, that the right use of 
all Science is, to make the human mind capable of 
appreciating God, — the God of Revelation — God of the 
Dispersion — God of the Exodus — God of Calvary — The 
God due to come, — and not by it to attempt to de- 
throne Him." (Isaiah xxix. 14; 1 Cor. i. 19). 





THERE was once a well-supported piece of special 
flooring in the Grand Gallery, near its northern end, 
concealing from view the horizontal passage leading to 
the Queen's Chamber. Just so much indeed was stated 
in the last chapter ; but there was also a manner of 
performing the work peculiar to the Great Pyramid, 
and that still remains for due description, assisted by 
Plates YIIL, XIL, XIII. 

Thus the supporting beams or joists, as shown by the 
holes for them on either side, within and below the level 
of the ramps, were 5 in number ; a Pyramid 5, too, 
inasmuch as one of them was larger and thicker than 
the other four. But more noteworthy is the height of 
the Grand Gallery's permanent stone floor at the inner 
or southern end of the hole in it, and where that floor's 
long slope coming down from the south is suddenly cut 
off; or descends vertically to a lower level, to allow of 
a flat approach, from the north beginning of the Grand 
Gallery to the Queen's Chamber's horizontal passage end. 

That steep escarpment of the Grand Gallery's floor, 
looks almost like a little cliff, being, together with the 
dark passage mouth it overhangs, 8 6 '2 5 inches high to 
any one standing on the level area in front of it.* But 
that area is 6 inches higher, nearly, than the very begin- 

* "Life and Work," vol. ii., pp. 70 and 71 ; also for height, p. 59. 


ning of the Grand Gallery ;* and the escarpment itself is 
under-estimated by the amount of 9 inches, which depth 
has been removed for a short distance to allow of the 
overlapping of the special floor which once covered the 
hole. The entire height, therefore, of the frontal cliff 
for symbolical purposes is not much short of 101 '25 
inches ; and this quantity, though in rough approxima- 
tion only, stands before us here very much in the guise of 
the leading Pyramid symbol for a day : viz., 100 inches. 

But is there anything at this point concerning a day ? 

If of days at all, it should be of seven days, seeing that 
the feature of the Grand Gallery most usually attractive 
to travellers, next after its commanding height, is, the 
seven overlappings of its walls. 

Now the Pyramid's entrance-passage has already been 
shown to have something to do with days ; and the 
inclined passage which enters the north end of the Grand 
Gallery is very similar in size to it, being by measure 
5 3 2 inches high vertically. The passage, however, 
which exits from the south end of the Grand Gallery, 
is only 43 6 inches high vertically ; and as we cannot use 
either one or other exclusively in referring to the Grand 
Gallery between them, we have to take the mean of the 
two, or 48 4 ; and then find, that that quantity goes 
seven times, exactly to a hundredth, into 339*2, which 
is the vertical height of Aie Grand Gallery at a mean 
of 1 5 points in its whole length ; speciall}^ measured 
too with a grand 3 to 400 inch slider measuring-rod, 
presented to mo for this very purpose by Andrew 
Coventry, Esq., of Edinburgh, in 1864.t 

Now this result may, or it may not, be intended in 

♦ " Life and Work," vol. ii. p. 61. 

t See " Life and Work," vol. ii. pp. 84—86. Former travellers' mea- 
sures of the iK'itrht of tho Grand GitUery vary from 270 to "aboiit 600 " 
inches, and art- jjfiven without detail. The inclined tioor length being by 
my measures 1881 Pyramid inches, tho angle 'iG** 17' 37", »i»d the hori- 
zontal length computed 1686 -4 Pyramid inches, Mr. James Simpsoa hat 


this part of the Pyramid to assist in typifying 7 days 
(more strictly 7 half-days taken twice over) ; and 
is of only subsidiary importance in itself; because 
7 days merely, is a pagan mystical number which any 
one might hit upon, and without its having anything to 
do with the sabbatical week of Scripture : for that was 
an institution which, though including or spanning over 
7 days in its entirety, was far more noteable for com- 
memorating 6 working days and one day of rest with a 
totally distinct character, and a special ordination by 
inspired command to be held sacred to God the Creator 
of all. 

TAe Biblical Week 

We have not, therefore, yet found anything in the 
Great Pyramid touching, in any clearly discriminative 
manner, on the week of the Bible. But if we now 
follow along that level passage with the hundred inch 
day symbol overhanging its entrance, viz., the horizontal 
passage leading to the Queen's Chamber, — the last part 
of that passage is found to be one half nearly greater in 
depth than the rest ; and the length of that deeper part is 
one-seventh of the whole length of the floor from the be- 
ginning of the Grand Gallery up to the Queen's Chamber 
w^all itself'''' This looks like a beginning of a sabbatical 
week symbolism ; and while the passage, of necessity, 
ends by debouching into the Queen's Chamber, its 
seventh deeper portion, which has a length of 215*9 
inches, is found to be roughly a mean between the 

pointed out that the typical fifth part thereof = 337*3 Pyramid inches: a 
close approach to the 339-2 measurpd, seeing that the variations, in places, 
Hmonnted to anything between 333*9 and 346*0, by reason chiefly of the 
tilt of each of the long roof-stones to the general shape of the whole roof. 
* See "Life and Work," vol. ii. pp. 55, 61. The whole distance 
r=: 1517*9, and the smaller distance with the lower plan level = 215*9 
Pyramid inches, with an inch of possible error. 


length and breadth (2265 and 206) of the floor of 
that chamber on the same deeper ievel.* 

In that chamber behold we a fair, white stone, 
apartment, exquisitely built originally (except as to its 
present floor, which, for some reason or other, is rough, 
and composed of mere untrimmed building blocks) ; but 
with this special and overriding feature accompanying 
and distinguishing it from the other Great Pyramid 
chambers; viz., that by reason of its having for ceiling 
a double inclined slope, the whole room may be said 
to have seven sides ; of which seven, the floor, which 
has not had a tool lifted up against it within the building 
(though the others, of more finished character, had), is 
decidedly larger than all the rest in area. 

Those other sides, however, are not quite equal and 
similar amongst themselves, unless reductions are made, 
founded on some features which do exist, marked into the 
walls ; t but whose full signification has yet to be accu- 
rately made out. It may be better, therefore, at present, 
to conclude this part of the argument for the sabbatical 
week of Scripture being indicated in this chamber, from 
Mr. James Simpson's sums of the squares, and which 
are given by the chief proportions of the room to a 
higher, though not an absolute, degree of certainty. 

Taking the room, then, with an artificial ceiling, 
assumed in plan just beneath the angular beginnings 
of the roof (or at the greatest height to leave the apart- 
ment with six sides, such as ordinary rooms possess), 
the sums of the squares of its radius into every 
dimension amount to 60 ; or, says Mr. Simpson, to 6 
working days of 10 each. But next take the major 
height, or that central and superior height which effec- 

* Salt incrustations prevent very accurate measures in this room, but 
the 206- width is alrnoMt a reproduction of the King's Chamber breadth ; 
which feature would have been lost, if the Chamber had been m ide 216* 
square in plan. 

t *• Life and Work," vol. iii. pp. 229—232. 


tively gives the room its seventh side, and the sum of 
the square there, and there alone, is 7;* or typical of the 
divinely-ordained day of rest ; and without interfering 
with what has already been ascertained for this chamber's 
indicating the tt proportion of the Pyramid, its angles, 
its absolute size, and the length of the Sacred Cubit. 

■ Grand Qallerys Cubical ComTnensurahilities. 

Let us now return from this Queen's Chamber, so" 
called (which to ordinary corporeal research is a cul de 
sac), and we shall find a certain amount of connection 
between it and the Grand Gallery. Only a small amount, 
but of a somewhat similar kind to what there is between 
a week and a year ; inasmuch as both of them are 
measures of time, though the week does not march along 
evenly and decimally with the year in questions of 
history and the chronological fixation of events. 

In this manner, then, while the Queen's Chamber, 
with its cubit-defining niche, contains cubic inches to 
the typical number for that cubit of ten-millionth 
earth-reference — the Grand Gallery contains 36 millions 

* Mr. Simpson's sums of the squares are not quite so cogent in the 
Queen's as the King's Chamber, already given in chapter x. ; and his 
radius length for it, 92-17 inches, is not so well proved. The proportions, 
however, which are more certain than the absolute lengths, run thus : — 

Height, divided by radius of chamber . . =z 2- square = 4 

Breadth = 2-2361 „ = 5 

Length = 2-4495 ., = 6 

Sums of the squares .... = l«5 

Diagonal of end = 3- ,, = 9 

Diagonal of side = 3-1623 „ = 10 

Diagonal of floor — 3-3166 „ := 11 

Sums ot the squares .... =30 

Solid diagonal = 3-8730 „ = 15 

Sums of the squares of all the dimensions, except the \ _ ^^ 

major, or gable, or central height of the chamber . ) ~ 

Major, or gable, or central height . . . = 2-6458 „ = 7 


of cubic inches : or one million to every one of the 36 
inclined stones forming its long sloping roof. 

The number of these Grand Gallery roof-stones had 
been given in 1837 at 31 by Colonel Howard-Vyse, and 
at 30 by the great French work, so that I was a little 
disconcerted in 1865 at finding them 36. But as these 
authors gave no particulars, and as I took much pains 
(duly described in "Life and Work, "Vol. II, pp. 86—88), 
there can be very little doubt about the larger number. 
And in 1872, Mr. Simpson seems to confirm it as an 
intentional feature of the architect, by finding the round 
number of one million cubic inches to be repeated just 
36 times in the contents of the whole Grand Galler}', 
carefull}^ computed for every overlapping.* 

The, Ramps, and the WelVs Upper Mouth. 

Let us next attend to the ramps, or inclined stone 
benches on either side of the Grand Gallery's floor, 
running from the very north end right up to the great 
transverse step which forms the south end thereof. 
They are alluded to so conflictingly in the great French 
work, as containing sometimes 26, and sometimes 28 
holes, that I recorded, in " Life and Work," several sets 
of measures of various kinds, to set this very simple 
point beyond all dispute. 

If the ramps are supposed to include the great stone 
step at their upper or southern end — and which stone step 
has an almost similar kind of hole at either inner corner 
— then there are actually and positively 28 holes, clear 
and distinct, along the eastern wall of the Gallery (27 
in the ramp itself, and 1 on the step) ; and there are as 
many along the western wall ; for though the lowest and 

* Mr. Simpson has a further Bpeculation on the apparently 50-inch 
length of each roof-«tone ; but the lengths having struck mo at the 
place as irregular, I did not attempt to measure them. 


nortliernmost hole is not very clear,* that is merely from 
part of the ramp which held it having been broken 
away. Of these 28, too, on either side, 25, viz., all 
except the lowest two, and upper one, are distinguished 
by a piece of stone 13 inches broad and 18 high, being 
let into the wall vertically and immediately over them ; 
while certain of them are crossed by another piece, giving 
them a faint approach to an oblique cruciform aspect. 

Something may come of that, in the hands of future 
explorers ; but meanwhile we have to notice another 
feature, and a most important one, already established 
or brought to light hj the removal of part of the ramp- 
stone in the lower north-west corner of the Grand 
Gallery ; for the removal of that mass just there, long ago 
disclosed a constructional secret of the original builders ; 
viz., the upper end, — or rather a small and low outlet 
leading to the upper end, — of a very deep and solemn 
kind of shaft, usually called '' the well," in the annals 
of early Pyramid exploration. 

At those times nothing was known of the Pyramid's 
entrance-passage further down than its junction with 
Caliph Al-Mamoun's forced hole and the entry to the 
first ascending passage. Therefore, when men ventured 
to look into the well mouth from the north-western corner 
of the Grand Gallery, at, or near, the broken ramp-stone 
as above, they found themselves not far from overhang- 
ing a dark and dismal abyss, no one knew how deep or 
where leading to. 

What Caliph Al-Mamoun and his immediate followers 
thought of it, is not recorded ; but soon after his time, 
" the well " begins to figure in Arab accounts, as an open 
pit of preternatural depth and fearful qualities. A 
party of twenty men, from the Faioum district, was once 
formed to investigate the mystery, but was frightened 
by one of their number falling down the aperture such 
a terrible distance, that he was said to have been three 


hours in the act, uttering horrible cries all the time ; 
and he was never heard of again except in an apocryphal 
manner, and as having become an enchanted being. 

Again, a Sultan of Cairo, of impatient character, and 
determined to know all the secrets of the Great Pyramid 
in his own day, elected to blow it up by filling this same 
well with gunpowder : and only relinquished the design 
on being assured by his Italian architect, that the explo- 
sion of so vast a quantity of powder would endanger the 
safety of all the buildings in Cairo. 

Again, at a later age, the Cambridge traveller, Dr. 
Clarke, visited the place with a large military party, and 
on throwing a stone down the well, and hearing it end 
by splashing, as they all considered, in water, — he called 
impressive attention to the faithfulness of classic authors, 
for had not Pliny mentioned that there was a water-well 
in the Great Pyramid, 80 cubits deep ; and hei*e it was, 
if not before their eyes, at least within range of their 
fallacious ears. 

Again, in 1818, Signor Caviglia cleared out the 
entrance-passage of the Great Pyramid throughout the 
whole distance right down to the deep subterranean 
chamber ; and lo, near the bottom of it, on the western 
side, was a low door-way leading into a dark passage : by 
pushing into which and following its lead, and clamber- 
ing in the darkness higher and higher and yet higher, 
or 170 feet vertical altogether, he at length found him- 
self at the well mouth, and entering the lower north- 
west corner of the Grand Gallery. Very thirsty, too, as 
well as hot and tired was he, for not a particle of water 
existed in any portion of the so-called well ; the whole 
of which, including the lower end of the entrance-pas- 
sage and the subterranean chamber, is far above the 
level of the Nile inundation, the only source of water in 
that scorched and almost rainless land. 

Again, in 1830 and 1837, came in the age of explora- 


tions, i.e., Egyptological and builders' explorations with 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Colonel Howard- Vyse, and Mr. 
Perring. For they set forth, as already indicated, that 
the ancient workmen who had filled up with stone plugs 
the first ascending passage, must have afterwards escaped 
by this long and deep well-like hole, or vertical shaft, to 
the lower part of the entrance-passage, and so attained 
to the outward air once again. 

The Missing Ramp-stone. 

Perhaps they did. But in that case let us ask, " in 
what state would they have left the ramp-stone over the 
well's mouth ? " 

Certainly not blown from within outwards, as if by 
uncontrollable explosive force, breaking off part of the 
wall with it, and leaving the hole's mouth exposed ; for 
that would have defeated their whole object. They would, 
on the contrary, have contrived a temporary support for 
the stone when in a position impending over the hole, 
partly in the floor and partly in the wall ; or a support 
such, that when the last man had come away, the prop 
would be easily withdrawn, and the stone would fall 
neatly into a seat already cut for it and cemented round 
the edges with freshly-applied lime to make the work 
permanent and secure. For then such stone would 
be flush with the rest of the ramp, and would utterly 
conceal from any one who should ever enter the 
Grand Gallery by the regular method of the first 
ascending passage, that there was any well-mouth what- 
ever behind the surface of the ramp. (See Plate XIII.) 

The original builders, then, were not those who 
knocked out, from within on the well side, that now 
lost, ramp-stone, and exposed the inlet to the well 
mouth as it is presently seen, near the north-west corner 
of the Grand Gallery. Neither was Al-Mamoun the 


party, for no one could have done it except by entering 
the well from the very bottommost depths of the 
subterranean region ; and he, the son of Caliph Haroun 
Al-Raschid, and all his crew, did not descend further 
down the entrance-passage than merely to the level of 
his own forced hole, which is not subterranean at all. 
Nor is the credit claimed for any of his Arab suc- 
cessors, who rather allude to the well as an already 
existing feature in their earliest time, and one they 
did not understand ; in large part, too, because they 
had only seen, and only knew of, the upper end of it in 
the north-west corner of the Grand Gallery floor. 

Who then did do it ? 

Who indeed ! For the whole band of Egyptological 
writers we have mentioned, appear to be convinced that 
ages before Caliph Al-Mamoun made his way by blun- 
dering and smashing, long ages too before Mohammed 
was born, and rather at and about the period of Judah 
being carried captive to Babylon, — the Egyptians them- 
selves had entered the Great Pyramid by cunning art 
and tolerable understanding of its mere methods of 
construction, and had closed it again when they left. 

Either some fanatics of the late dynasties of Ethiopic 
intruders, or the following Persian conquerors, are con- 
sidered to have been those spoilers and sealers-up again : 
and not only of the Great, and all the other Pyramids 
too, but of every royal tomb throughout Egypt in what- 
ever style of architecture it may have been built, whether 
subterranean or subaerial. The spoilers also and at the 
same time of those far more repulsive tombs and bigger 
sarcophagi, tlie profanely sacred ones of the deified 
Egyptian bull Apis ; recently brought once more to the 
notice of man by Mariette Bey's too successful excava- 
tions of ancient idolatries. 

Precisely who those men were, as Colonel Howard- 
Vyse well remarks, who committed tlint fir«t spoiliTi** 


*' will now never be known ; " but that the royal tombs 
were spoiled, and that both early Mohammedan and 
later Christian explorers throughout both Upper, and 
Lower, Egypt, equally found nothing but emptied sar- 
cophagi, is positive matter of fact. By the aid, too, of 
features still existing, it can be mechanically demon- 
strated how those far earlier men may, in the case of 
the Great Pyramid, have descended to the subterranean 
depths of its entrance-passage, entered the bottom of the 
well, ascended the said well to its mouth, knocked out 
part of the closing ramp, ascended the then clear and 
open Grand Gallery, entered the King's Chamber, made 
what changes they could there ; and then, descending 
again the same" way, closed all the passages behind 
them so effectually that no one else ever attempted to 
follow their steps, until after a lapse of 2,000 years, or 
close within our own times. 

Of the Sacred, touching the Great Pyramid. 

That is the end then of the first use which the Great 
Pyramid's Grand Gallery, deep well, but not a water- 
well, and entrance-passage served. But .that was evi- 
dently not all which those features were intended for. 

In the course of the summer of 1872, in a correspon- 
dence with Mr. Charles Casey, of Pollerton Castle, Carlow 
(then preparing his work " Philitis "*), that straightfor- 
ward and vigorous thinker considered himself called on 
to tell me, that while he had followed and adopted all 
that I had attempted to explain as to the metrology of 
the Great Pyramid being of more than human scientific 
perfection for the age in which it was produced, — yet to 
call it therefore Divinely inspired or sacred, seemed to 
him to be either too much, or too little. It might have 

* " Philitis : A Disquisition." By Charles Casey, Esq. Published 
bv Carson Brothers, Grafton Street, Dublin. 1872. 


been sufi&cient in a previous day, but not in these times 
in which we live ; for with rationaUsm continually ex- 
tending on every side, the only vital question left in 
religion, the only question really, efficiently, sacred, is 
*' What think ye of Christ ? Whose son is he ? " The 
question to which we must all of us, sooner or later, 
come at last. 

"Now," said Mr. Casey, "unless the Great Pyramid 
can be shown to be Messianic, as well as fraught with 
superhuman science and design, its ' sacred ' claim is a 
thing with no blood in it ; it is nothing but mere 
sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal. That idea 
seized me the other night," said he, " when I was 
thinking on my bed, and took me with such a giant's 
grip that I have never been able to get quit of it since." 

You are not the first Pyramidist man, I was obliged 
to reply, to whom the same idea has been vouchsafed ; 
for it has long formed a matter of frequent and earnest 
discussion among several of them : but they have not 
published on it yet, thinking the necessary preliminary 
part of the subject, or the Pyramid's attestation to 
superhuman scientific abilities for its age, not yet 
brought up to the required degree of exactness to com- 
mand the respect of, and induce assent from, sceptically- 
minded men. 

At the time I wrote to Mr. Casey, the uncertainties of 
the base-side measure of the Great Pyramid, by modern 
surveyors, were simply horrible ; the best of them both 
erring to any extent between 9,100 and 9,170 inches, and 
laying the fault thereof upon the Pyramid. At that time, 
therefore, the only solution of the difficulty seemed to 
be, to beseech some superlatively rich men to expend of 
their spare thousands, first in clearing the four base-sides 
of the Great Pyramid from their impracticable hills of 
rubbish, and then in measuring between the terminal 
points with proper accuracy. And there, at those rich 

c c 


men's luxurious doors, the matter stood ; and had 
stood uncared for by them or treated with base con- 
tumely for seven long years, until at last the Pyramid's 
purpose could wait no longer. So, partly in 1872, and 
still more signally in July, 1873, it passed them all 
by ; and in revealing the reason why the King's Cham- 
ber was made in measured length 41 2 '132 Pyramid 
inches, has shown both the true base-side length and 
the vertical height of the structure, its tt theory and 
the inch and cubit metrological system, to a degree of 
accuracy ''^ too, combined with certainty of intention, 
which leaves nothing more to desire ; and makes Great 
Pyramid studies quite independent henceforth of all 
those rich men and their long wasted or squandered or 
unused riches, confided to them for some better pur- 
pose. They had had, in this Pyramid cause, such an 
opportunity of doing high, pure, and noble good to all 
the ages, as wealth had never enjoyed before, since the 
foundation of the world ; but the opportunity has from 
this time departed from them for ever. Wherefore the 
least that can be said is in terms of James v. 1^—3, 
''Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your 
miseries that shall come upon you. Your riches are 
corrupted, and your garments are moth-eaten. Your 
gold and silver is cankered ; and the rust of them 
shall be a witness against you." But mankind may 
well rejoice, for the flood-gates of the Great Pyramid's 
sacred history, or the last pages of what it has to tell, — 
and has had to tell ever since the beginning of human 
life and story, — are henceforth open to all. 

The Sacred pronounced to he Messianic. 

It was in 1865 that a letter reached me at the Great 
Pyramid, transmitted, with some high recommendations 

* Some 700 times more accurate than tlie previous measures on the 
ground. (See forward, chap, xxv.) 


of its author, by that most upright, knightly man the 
late Mr. Kenmure Maitland, Sheriff Clerk of the county 
of Edinburgh. ** He is a young ship-builder," said he, 
" a son of a ship-builder, an accomplished draughtsman, 
and I hear that he lately turned out, from his own 
design, one of the most perfect ships that ever left 
Leith Docks : from his childhood upwards he has been 
an intense student of whatever could be procured 
concerning the Great Pyramid; and though his family 
surname is now Menzies, he has reasons for believing 
it to have been originally Manasseh." 

This Israelite, then, but no Jew, it was, who first, to 
my knowledge, broke ground in the Messianic sym- 
bolisms of the Great Pyramid, so intensified sub- 
sequently by Mr. Casey : and, after long feeling his way 
in a humble and prayerful spirit,'"'" at length unhesi- 
tatingly declared that the immense superiority in- 
height of the grand gallery over every other passage] 
in the Great Pyramid, arose from its representing thel 
Christian Dispensation, white the passages typified only 
human-devised n^ligions, human histories, or little else. 

From the north ])eginning of the Grand Gallery floor, 
said Robert Menzies, there, in southward procession, 
begin the years of the Saviour's earthly life, expressed 
at the rate of a Pyramid inch to a year. Tliree-and 
thirty inch-years therefore, or thereabout, bring us right 

• « that mo«t mysterious edifice, the Great Pyramid, which has been 

a puzzle to all ag^'s. It in a very serious view indeed which I entertain of 
its purix)se, and not one to be approached in a spirit of levity. I have 
endeavoured, hiri^dy led by a careful perusal of Mr. Taylor's book, and 
your own upon iho subject, to follow out much further than you do, the 
Scriptural alluHioim to the Great Pyramid, with a result which appears, 
slightly as I hnvf iiij.p«;d into it, truly astonishing?. Extreme cauticm in 
requiHito in Hiblicil lesearth, for, as Peter says, • No scripture is tf 
private iiit<v'"' » ■'•'!' I have humbly and prayerfully ondtavoured to 
avoid anyi ii may bo misconstrued, and if my humble remarks 

are of any to you in the elucidation of this grand and holy 

mystery, I uhiJl U» truly glad. 

(Signed) "RouBUT Mbnzibs. 

"8ba Cot, Lbith, February 2bth, 18G6." 



\over against the mouth of the well, the type of His 
death, and His glorious resurrection too ; while the 
long, lofty Grand Gallery shows the dominating rule in 
the world of the blessed religion which He established 
thereby, over-spanned above by the 36 stones of His 
months of ministry on earth, and defined by the floor- 
length in inches, as to its exact period. The Bible 
fully studied, shows that He intended that first Dispen- 
sation to last only for a time ; a time too which may 
terminate very much sooner than most men expect, and 
shown by the southern wall impending. 

Whereupon I went straight to the south wall of the 
Grand Gallery, and found that it was impending ; by 
the quantity too, if that interests any one, of about 1° ; 
while the Coventry clinometer I was measuring with, 
was capable of showing 10";* and where Mr. Menzies 
could have got that piece of information from, I cannot 
imagine ; for the north wall is not impending : he, too, 
was never at the Great Pyramid, and I have not seen 
the double circumstance chrctoicled elsewhere. The first 
ascending passage, moreover, he explained as representing 
the Mosaic Dispensation. I measured it and found it 
to be, from the north beginning of the - Grand Gallery, 
the natal year of Christ, to its junction with the roof of 
the entrance passage northward and below, or to some 
period in the life of Moses, 1,483 Pyramid inches : and 
when produced across that passage, so as to touch its 
floor, 1,542 inches. t 

* See " Life and Work," vol. ii. p. 90. 

t The Rev. W. B. Galloway, M.A.,Vicar of St. Mark's, Eegent's Park, 
in his "Egypt's Eecord of Time to the Exodus of li^rael," after deeply 
studying the question, more from Alexandrian Greek than Egyptian pro- 
fane, sources, makes the date of the Exodus 1540 B.C. ; see his p. 371. And 
at p. 429 he arrives at the conclusion, that the birth of our Saviour was 
actually in the course of our reckoned year b.c. 1, and needs only a 
fraction of a year to make the dates a.d., as usually given, truly con- 
tinuous with the patriarchal. 


The Floor Roll of Human Religious History. 

But the chief line of human history with Robsrt 
Menzies was the floor of the entrance-passage. Begin- 
ning at it^s upper and northern end, it starts at the rate 1 
of a Pyramid inch to a year, from the Dispersion of' 
mankind, or from the period when men declined any 
longer to live the patriarchal life of Divine instruction, 
and insisted on going off upon their own inventions ; 
when they immediately began to experience that uni- 
versal " foAjilis descensus Averni " of all idolaters ; 
and which is so sensibly represented to the very life 
or death, in the long-continued descent of the entrance- 
passage of the Great Pyramid, more than 4,000 inch- 1 
years long, until it ends in the symbol of the bottomless) 
pit, a chamber deep in the rock, well finished as to itsi 
ceiling and top of its walls, but without any attempt at| 
a floor . 

One escape, indeed, there was in that long and f 
mournful history' of human decline ; but for a few only, [ 
when the Exodus took place in the first-ascending 
passage, which leads on into the Grand Gallery ; show- 
ing Hebraism ending in its original prophetic destination 
— Christianity. But another escape was also eventually 
provided, to prevent any immortal soul being necessarily 
lost in the bot tomless pit ; for before reaching that 
dismal abyss, there is a possible entrance, though it 
may be by a strait and narrow way, to the one and 
only gate of sjilvation through the death of Christ 
— viz., the well representing his descent into Hades : 
not the bottondess pit of idolaters and the wicked at 
the lowest point to which the entrance-pa.ssage subter- 
raneously descends, but a natural grotto rather than 
artificial chamber in the course of the well's furtlier 
progress to the other place ; while the stone which 
once covered that well's upper mouth is blown out- 


wards into the Grand Gallery with excessive force (and 
was once so thrown out, and is now annihilated), car- 
rying part of the wall with it, and indicating how 
totally unable was the grave to hold Him beyond the 
appointed time. 

That sounds fair and looks promising enough, so far, 
said Mr. Casey ; but it is not enough yet to be the 
turning-point with me, when interests so immense are 
at stake. We must have more than that, and some- 
thing not less convincing than a proof of this order. 
Measuring along the passages backward from the north 
beginning of the Grand Gallery, you find the Exodus at 
either 1483 or 1542 B.C., and the dispersion of man- 
kind in 2528 B.C., up at the beginning of the entrance- 
passage. Now you have already published, years ago, 
that you have computed the date of building of the 
Great Pyramid, by modern astronomy, based on the 
Pyramid's own star-pointings, and have found it 2170 
B.C. That date, according to this new theory, must be 
three or four hundred inches down inside the top or 
mouth of the entrance-passage. Is there then any jnark 
at that point ? for I feel sure that the builder, if really 
inspired from on High, would have known how many 
years were to elapse between his great mechanical work 
in the beginning of the world, and the one central 
act of creation in the birth of the Divine Son ; and he 
would have marked it there as the most positive and 
invaluable proof that he could give, of the truly Divine 
inspiration under which the building had been planned 
and executed ? 

The Crucial Test. 

Now it had never occurred to me before to confront 
the sacred and scientific theories in this manner ; the 
idea was Mr. Casey's entirely. But if any trial was ever 


Chap. XX.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 39 1 

to be considered a crucial one, surely it was this. So 
away I went to my original notes to satisfy him ; and 
beginning at the north end of the Grand Gallery, 
counted and summed up the length of every stone back- 
ward all down the first ascending passage, th^n across 
the entrance-passage to its floor, then up its floor-plane 
towards its mouth, and soon saw that the 2,170 B.C. 
would fall very near a most singular portion of the 
passage — ^viz., a place where two adjacent wall-joints, 
similarly too on either side of the passage, were 
vertical, or nearly so ; while every other wall-joint 
both above and below was rectangular to the length 
of the passage, and therefore largely inclined to the 

This double joint fact, in itself most easy to see, though 
not, I believe, recorded before 1865, has frequently since 
then been speculated on by various persons as possibly 
pointing to some still undiscovered chamber ; just as 
the diagonal joints in the floor at a lower level, are now 
clearly seen to point to the upper ascending passage 
and all . that it leads to. But while no such fourth 
chamber has yet been discovered, and no Egyptologist 
attempts to give any explanation of the anomalous 
joints, they seemed from their upright position, — at least 
to one who believed from theory that they were very near, 
and shortly before, the Great Pyramid's date of building, 
— to have something representative of setting up, or 
preparations for the erecting of a building. And we 
are told by Herodotus, that many preliminary years luere 
consumed in preparing the stones and subterraneous 
excavations of the Great Pyramid ; while Dr. Lepsius 
assures us, in modern times, with all the lights, what- 
ever they may be, of the Egyptologists, that preliminary 
preparation was never practised by any chance, in any 
case whatever, of all ordinary Egyptian pyramid building. 
For their work was Epi-methean only, or from hand to 


moutli, year by year, and each year in itself and by 
itself only. 

Neither of these ^'icasi-vertical joints, however, would 
exactly suit the 2170 B.C. date; they were both of 
them tob early. But on the surface of the stone fol- 
lowing the last of them, and containing the 2,170 
distance within its length, there was a more unique 
marking still. Something it was, more retiring, more 
difficult to discover, and yet commending itself still 
more when discovered, though not having the slightest 
approach to either letter of language, or form of drawing, 
and certainly not to any species of idolatry. 

This mark was a line, nothing more, ruled on the 
stone, from top to bottom of the passage wall, at right 
angles to its floor. Such a line as might be ruled with 
a blunt steel instrument, but by a master-hand for 
power, evenness, straightness, and still more eminently 
for rectangularity to the passage axis. I had made 
myself a large square at the Pyramid in 1865, a wooden 
square well trussed and nearly the whole height of the 
wall, and therewith tested the error of rectangularity of 
every masonry joint therein ; and in every case had 
found some very sensible quantity of such error ; but 
on coming to the ruled line, I could find no certainly 
sensible error there. If I suspected it occasionally, a 
reversal of the square then and there proved that heat 
or strain had caused some temporary twist in my in- 
strument's wooden frame ; but it could positively and 
permanently accuse the ancient line on the stone, of 
nothing wrong.* 

There was one such line on either wall, the west and 
the east, of the passage ; and the two lines seemed to 
be pretty accurately opposite each other ; while the 
two pair of g^tas^-vertical joints were not exactly so ; 

* See "Life and Work," vol. ii. p. 29. 


and the other joints in the walls pretended to, and 
generally had, no correspondence whatever. All things, 
therefore, both in symmetry, beauty of truth, and 
correctness of position, culminated in favour of these two 
thin lines ; viz., the one anciently ruled line on the west 
wall, and the similarly ruled line on the east wall ; and 
I looked at them with still more interest afterwards, 
when there appeared good reason to consider them the 
work of the very same hand that laid out, in Pvome- 
thean manner, the entire proportions of the whole Great 
Pyramid. For when Messrs. Alton and Inglis excavated 
and (with my assistance) laid bare the south-west socket 
of the Great Pyramid in April, 1865, — there, upon the 
fair white flattened face of the said socket rock, while 
three sides were formed by raised edges of stone, the 
fourth and outer side was defined simply by a line ; 
but a line ruled apparently by the very same hand and 
selfsame tool which had also drawn these other truthful 
lines in the entrance-passage. 

Yet though I had admired these lines so much, — 
witness the passes of " Life and Work," published in 
18G7, — I had never thought of them before in connec- 
tion with possible indications of date, or, indeed, of 
anything else, by virtue of their precise and absolute 
jylace ; and hence it was, that when Mr. Casey required 
in 1872 to know exactly where, on the floor, the line 
on either side tcjuched that plane (measured, too, not 
from the toj) of the entrance-passage comparatively close 
by on the north, but from the beginning of the Grand 
Gallery far away to the south), there was no rejidy 
prepared record to say. That is, nothing more than 
the reading's of the masonry joints next above and 
below the spot, together with a mere memorandum 
that the ruled line was within " a few inches " of one 
of them. Every intervening measure by joints be- 
tween the two extremes, and over scores of joints, had 


been procured, printed, and published to the world in 
1867; but just the last item required, merely the 
small distance from the nearest joint to the drawn 
line, was wanting. (See Plate XYII.) 

So I wrote out to my friend Mr. Waynman Dixon, 
C.E., then (1872) actively engaged in erecting his 
brother's bridge over the Nile, near Cairo, requesting 
him to have the goodness to make and send me careful 
measures of the distance, whatever he should find it to 
be, of the fine line on either passage wall at the Pyra- 
mid, from the nearest one of the two gitasi- vertical 
joints ; not giving him any idea what the measure was 
wanted for, but only asking him to be very precise, 
clear, and accurate. And so he was ; taking out also 
as companion and duplicate measurer his friend Dr. 
Grant, of Cairo ; and their doubly attested figures were 
sent to me on diagrams, where they were written into 
their places, in a manner which left no room for any 

With this piece of difference measure thus happily 
obtained at so late a date, I set to work again on my 
older joint measures of the whole distance ; and was 
almost appalled when, on applying the above difference, 
the east side gave forth 2170*5, and the west side 
2 170 -4 Pyramid inches. 

" This testimony satisfies me and fills me with 
thankfulness, and joy," wrote Mr. Casey ; while I, 
never expecting to have measured so closely as that, 
along either side of those lengthy, dark and sloping 
Pyramid passages (where the measuring- rods, if not 
tightly held by hand to the floor, have a knack of 
slipping away and shooting down to the bottom), I, 
not understanding how such apparently close agreement 
came about, and knowing that it was not my desert, — 
can only conclude this chapter with a condensed, 


small-type representation of the figure work involved 
in bringing out the results ; results more laboriously, 
and also, perhaps, more rigidly, impartially, and un- 
exceptionally gained, than can well be imagined by any 
one else without going through some conspectus of the 
many details. 





The measures of these lines from the nearest masonry joint, were \ 
kindly sent to me by Mr. Waynman Dixon, from Egypt, with attestations 1 
by his friend, Dr. Grant, of Cairo, on August 19, 1872, thus : — 

" East Wall — Entrance Passage. 

" Distance of Ruled Line from masonry wall joint north of it, 
at the top of the wall . . = 13-25 British in. 
at the bottom of the wall . . = 4-37 „ 

** West Wall — Entrance Passage. 

" Distance of Ruled Line from masonry wall joint north of it, 
at the top of the wall . . = 17 '80 British in. 

at the bottom of the wall . . = 7*55 „ 

•*The above distances were measured by Mr. Waynman Dixon, C.E., 
and checked by Dr. Grant," and were accompanied by drawings showing 
that the lines were assumed to be rectangular (which they are) to the 
length of the passage, while the masonry joints they were referred to 
were nearly vertical, and were the southernmost members of a pair of 
such $^%«»t- vertical joints on either wall. 

Examination for Accuracy. 

The above measures are generally agreeable to my own approximate 
indication of the position of the lines, though I was rather surprised to 
find by Mr. Dixon's numbers, that the line on the west wall is farther from 
its reterence joint, than that on the east wall is from its reference joint 
there, by so large an amount as nearly 4 inches. 

It became therefore prudent, before embarking in any speculation on 
the whole return, to make an independent inquiry into the degree of 
accuracy of Mr. Dixon's measures, in one feature at least, where they 
admitted of that wholesome scientific discipline. 

Accordingly, if we subtract, in the case of each wall separately, 
Mr. Dixon's lower difference reading from the upper, we attain a ditierence 
of the differences, East = 8-88 inches, and West = 10*25 inches. And 
on the assumption of the lines being rectangular to the length of the 
passage, those residual quantities show how much ihQJo%nts deviate from 


rectangularity towards verticality, as measured along the top of the wall ; 
or they form the shortest side of a plane triangle, of which the longest 
side is the gwase- vertical joint, and the medium side the transverse height 
of the wall, equivalent to the length of the ruled line. 

Now the shortest side of that triangle I did in a manner measure in 
1865 ; for in pp. 29 and 30 of vol. ii. of " Life and Work," the deviation 
of each of the said ^-wasi- vertical joints (from rectangularity towards ver- 
ticality) is stated as being, or amounting to, at the top of the wall, — 1st, 
by an approximate method : — 

The east ^■Masi-vertical joint . . . = 8 ± a: inches, 

And the west „ . . . z=. ^ ±_ x inches. 
2nd, by a more accurate method : — 

The east 5^?-^asi- vertical joint ....::= 9*1 inches, 

And the west „ . . . . rz 10*4 inches; 

while the line ruled on the east wall deviated from rectangularity by only 
0-04 inch, and that on the west wall by less than 0-01 of an inch. 

Now Mr. Dixon's numbers for the same two joints' deviations being — 

For the east 5'«<J5{- vertical joint . . . r=: 8 88 inches, 
And for the west „ . , . = 10-25 inches, 

they come between my two pairs of quantities, and closer to that pair of 
them which was previously stated to be by the more accurate method. 
The result of examination is therefore highly gratifying, and shoM's that 
we may certainly depend on Mr. Dixon's measures, say, to the tenth of an 
inch, at least ; and that is no more than the fortieth part of the apparently 
anomalous difference of his absolute distances of each line from its nearest 
joint at the bottom of its own wall. 

That difference, then, of the absolute distances must be a real quantity 
at the Pyramid ; and the line on the west wall must be actually 4 inches 
or so further from the joint there, than that one on the east wall is from 
the joint there. Wherefore much may perhaps depend at last on what 
effect such large difference may have, in modifying the final result on a 
certain whole quantity which has now, after a repose of several years, 
been suddenly required, in order to furnish a test for a new hypothesis. 

Trial of Mr. Casey* s Hypothesis. 

Mr. Casey had thus far simply announced, that to fulfil certain important 
theoretical ends, the passage floor distance in the Great Pyramid (measured 
from the north end of the Orand Gallery, down the floor of the first 
ascending, and up the floor of the entrance-passage, to where that floor is 
at last touched on either side by the lower ends of these two ancientl)' 
ruled wall lines) should amount to 2,170 Pyramid inches, neither more 
nor less within the probable errors of measurement. 

At present I need only state that tlie north end of the Grand Gallery is 
a very well preserved and sharply defined plane ; a good starting-point 
therefore for measures ; and that, excepting some rather troublesome, but 
by no means impossible, features at the junction of the two passages, the 
whole distance is plain, clear, and perfectly amenable to modern measure. 

Indeed every inch of the way (excepting only the small piece now 
supplied by Mr. Dixon) has been, at one time or another, measured by 
me, and its chief portion even two or three times over, and on either 

Chap. XX.] 



side of the passages, with results too which have heen published before the 
world for five years. The numerical facts therefore are, so i'ar, very firm ; 
and if the measures, as originally taken, have as yet only been presented 
tinywhere piecemeal, and with numbers increasing in two difi"erent serie* 
from north to south, in place of, as now required, in one long accumulation 
from south to north — that is an additional guarantee that the measures 
taken in 1865 could riot have been influenced by any desire to bring out 
the result of Mr. Casey's hypothesis in 1872. 

We proceed therelore to the first portion of the whole distance now 
demanded, viz., from the north end of the Grand Grallery, down the floor of 
the first ascending passage, until that floor produced cuts the opposing 
floor of the entrance-passage. This poriion we may call a. 

The elements for the length a are given in " Life and Work," vol. ii., 
in the shape, — 

1st. Of the floor distances, in British inches, joint by joint, from a 
specified joint near the lower end, up to the terminal joint at the upper or 
southern end of the first ascending passage, and they have been measured 
twice over by me on either side of the passage. 

2ud. The portcullis length, from that lower specified joint downwards 
to the still lower butt-end of portcullis, measured only once, and on the 
east side of the passage only. 

3rd. The distance from that lower butt-end, slantingly across the 
entrance-passage to its floor, in the direction of the opposing floor of the 
first ascending passage produced downwards, and given here in three 
portions, each of which has been measured on either side of the passage. 

The following Table contains all these distances required for a, and 
they are finally reduced from British, to Pyramid, inches in the two right- 
hand columns. 

Table I. 

Floor- JOINT distances from north beginning of Grand Gallery, towards lower 
end of first ascending passage ; or complements of the numbers in third 
columns of pages 48 atid 49 of ^^ Life and Work," vol. ii. 

MeA8UI!K8 in 

Bbitish Inches. 

Summations in 

Summations in 

BaiTisH Inches. 

Pykamid Inches. 

Number of Floob 




East side 

West side 

1291-2 — 

1291-1 — 

East side. 

West side. 



Starting joint of 

first ascending- 

passage of (ireat 

Pyramid ; at the 

top or upper end 

of that passage, 

near the Grand 

QaUery . 


























































[Part IV. 

Table I. 



Measures in 

British Inches. 

Summations in 

Summations in 

British Inches. 



Number op Floob- 




East side 
1291-2 — 

West side 
1291-1 — 

East side. 

West side. 



. 10 


















































794-4 ■ 








































Lower part of first 26 





ascending pas- 27 





sage, near the 28 






Portcullis . . 29 





Special AoDrriONS. 

Portcullis length (see 

p. 54 of" L. 

and W.") . 







To roof of entrance- 

passage, or c/ (see 

p. 41, vol, ii. of "L. 

and W.") . . . 







To axis of entrance- 

passage ; or the 

quantity /i 







To floor of entrance- 

passage ; in direc- 

tion of the first 

ascending passage 

produced down- 

wards, oxil 







Whole distance from no 

rth beginning of 

jrand Galle y, down 

the floor of first as( 

sending passage ] 

)roduced downwards 

to touch the floor of 

descending entra 

nce-passage ; or the 

quantity A, in pyra 

imid inches . 



• Not directly measured, only inferred, on this western side of the Passage. 

We next take up the remaining portion of the whole quantity required 
for Mr. Casey's hypothesis, or the distance from the intersection plane of 
the floors of the two passages, up the entrance-passage's floor northward ; 
to where that floor is touched on either side by the bottoms of the two 
ruled wail lines : a portion we shall call b. 

Chap. XX.] 




But this portion b we must necessarily compute in two steps ; first, in 
Table II., setting forth the readings of all 'Ci\%Jioor joints of the entrance- 
passage on the floor, the supposed sheet of, or for, historic record ; and 
second, in Table III., setting forth first for the east side, and then for 
the west side, the readings of every wall joint, on the floor's above de- 
scribed record plane ; this will be the b which we are in search of; and 
will have a added to it in the two last columns, so as there to present the 
quantity A -j- b, for the wall-joints in the entrance-passage. 

Finally, to the wall-joint reading A -|- b, for the particular joint mea- 
sured from by Mr. Waynman Dixon, we must apply his measured dif- 
ference of the lower end of the ruled line therefrom. 


II. • 

Floor-joint distances from contact plane in Descending Entrance Fassage^ 

upwards and northwards to its upper north end, or beginning. 


Summations in 


Bhitish Inches. 

Pybamid Inches. 

The starting - point 

being not a joint, 
but the contact plane 

East side. 

West side. 

East side. 

West side. 

with the floor of first 
ascending passage 

produced down - 



wards, or line "i" 

987-2 — 

985-6 — 



on p. 42, vol. ii.. of 





"L. &W." 

(See p. 42, 

-f 1543-8 

(See p. 42, 

+ 1544-0 





of Grand 

of Grand 

& W.") 

& W.") 



Starting-line ."I" 







Joint from "i" low 

down in en- 

trance-passage . 1 















































' 1826-4 







? 1877-2 





































The lino on the 

wall is due some- 

where between 

ihese two floor- 





























Near b eginning or 18 







upper, or north 19 







end of the en- 

trance-passage . 20 









[Part IV. 

N.B. — Had Mr. Waynman Dixon measured the lower end of the ruled 
lines from a j^oor-joint, we should now have been in a position, with this 
table, to have obtained for each ruled line the ultimate reading required. 
But his measure of a difference being from a wall-]omt, we must now 
prepare a further tabular representation of the readings, on the floor-plane, 
of each of the w^a^^-joints, and this for either wall separately ; or thus : — 

Table III. 

Wall-joikt distancesot their lower ends ; or where they touch the floor in the 
Entrance Passage ; reckoned from that floor's contact plane with the 
floor of first ascending passage {produced downwards) ^ and proceeding 
upwards to the upper or north end of Entrance Passage. 

EAST WALL (by itself). 

Floor's contact plane 987-2 British inches from its beginning at north end. 

(See page 42 

vol. 11., of " 

Life and Work.") 

The same + 1543*8 ; or 



whole distance from the 

Number of Wall-joint, referring 

south from 

distance, or 

north beginning of 
Grand Gallery = A + B. 

only to the bottom thereof. 



(See p. 24, 
vol. iL.) 

from contact 

British Ins. 


1st wall-joint, above, or north 

of floor's contact plane 










3 " \, „ 




















" " " 





O J> 5> )> 

























The wall line due somewhere 


13 ! Approximately vertical 





14 ! Approximately vertical 





15, half-height . . . . 





16, half-height .... 





17, half-height .... 





North beginning of basement 

sheet of entrance-passage . 





Chap. XX.] 




BY rrSELF). 

Floor contact plane 985-6 British inches from basement beginning. 
(See page 42, vol. ii., of "Life and Work.") 


The same + 1544-0; or 

south from 


whole distance from the 


distance, or 

north beginning of 

Number of Wall-joint, &c., &c. 



Grand Gallery = A + B. 

(See p. 21, 

vol. ii., 

"L. &W.'') 

from contact 


British Ins. 


1st wall-joint, above, or north 

of floor's contact plane 










3 ',' »' ," 




























































The wall line due somewhere 


15 ! approximately vertical 





16 ! approximately vertical 





17, half-height .... 





18, half-height .... 





19, half-height .... 





North beginning of basement 

sheet of entraiice-passage . 





The absolute place, then, on \kiQ floor's scroll of history, in terms of our 
A -|- B, of the base of that wall-joint from which Mr. Dixon measured the 
ruled line, is on the 

East side 

And on the west side 

= 2174-9 Pyramid in. 
= 2178-0 „ 

And Mr. Dixon's measured difference at the base amounting to- 

On the east side . 
And on the west side 

4-4 inches. 
7-6 „ 

And the signs of these quantities being negative, or showing that they are 
to be subLracted, we have for the absolute readings or dates of the two 
ruled lines, in terms of the strictest requirements of Mr. Casey's 
hypothesis — • 

On the east side . 
And on the west side 

= 2170-5 Pyramid inches. 
= 2170-4 

D D 



[Part IV. 

Or exhibiting an agreement with the hypothesis to less than s^footh part 
of the whole ; and one side agreeing with the other to within 2ooo"oth of 
the whole. 

This is a much closer degree of approach than I had expected my 
measures were capable of, or still think they deserve ; and I should have 
had some scruple in publishing the case, had not the whole of the data 
been so perfectly impossible to have been knowingly influenced at the time 
they were made, printed, and published. 

But I must leave it to the candid reader to say, whether the rest of this 
book's contents tend to raise that one case of agreement above or below 
simple coincidence only. 








^0 land has been so variously treated in chronology 
as the valley of Egypt ; for even if the early mysti- 
cisms of so-called divine kings during 36,500 years be 
exploded, there are equally extraordinary modern 
theories. By some of the rationalistic writers on, and 
inventors of, history, for instance, in latter times, the 
earliest Egyptian kings have been pushed forward far 
above all monumental dates up to 10,000, 20,000, and 
even 300,000 years ago ; with the accompanying state- 
ment, too, that even at that remote epoch there were no 
signs of any gradual emergence out of a primitive savage 
condition, but only of an already highly organised and 
well-governed community, which must therefore on the 
human hypothesis, have commenced to run its civilized 
course an infinite length of time previously. 

More recently still, not only have geologists claimed 
to have discovered proofs (in fragments of pottery dug 
up at a great depth in the alluvial deposit of the Nile) 
of an existence of first-rate human manufactures there 
during more than 13,000 consecutive years ; but there 
are many very worthy men who still attach much im- 
portance to the computajiions made, astronomically, 
from certain configurations of the ecliptic and equator 
in the celebrated zodiacs of the Nilotic temples of 
Dendera, Esneh, and E' Dayr. 


The first class of authors mentioned, in a great mea- 
sure, either stand or fall with the two latter ; and upon 
the proofs, more or less material, which they have been 
supposed to offer in confirmation of their theories. 

Now, of the geological evidence, it has lately been 
argued by the acute Professor Balfour Stewart, of 
Owen's College, Manchester, that a solid mass of any 
substance of notable size, has an effective tendency to 
work its way downwards through a bed of finely- 
divided particles of both similar, and extraneous, matter ; 
wherefore it is no positive proof, ages after a big bone, 
or piece of pottery, or flint hammer of comparatively 
large dimensions, was deposited on a certain soil, that 
it should be of the same date as the smaller particles of 
the stratum it is subsequently found in ; for it may 
have worked its way downwards while these particles 
were still mobile. 

This law its author illustrated in the case of celts im- 
mersed in finely-divided silex powder ; and if it is true at 
all, it must be especially applicable to the later Egyptian 
geology. For there, all the valley is not only composed 
of the so-called slime of the Nile (microscopically fine 
particles of granite, porphyry, limestone, and the other 
rocks washed and rolled over by the mighty river in its 
long course from the equator), but is visited every year 
by the inundation ; which may be regarded as a grand 
tide of a secular order, producing amongst the slime's 
small component particles the same sort of lively quick- 
sand effect, but in a superior degree, which is witnessed 
on the Goodwin Sands, whenever an ordinary periodical, 
or only twelve-hour, tide rises there. 

The geological evidence, then, for a very long 
chronology, under such circumstances, is specious in 
the extreme ; while the supposed astronomical, is con- 
siderably worse ; having even had a decided refutation 
given to its very essence, through means of recent 


hieroglyphical readings, and in this way. The painted 
Egyptian zodiacs already alluded to, no matter how 
grossly they caricatured the positions of the stars, had 
been fondly considered, by those who sought a high 
antiquity for Egypt, to have been invariably constructed 
so as to represent something in the heavens as seen in 
their own day ; and if they were found to have made a 
very badly drawn equator crossing the ecliptic, equally 
murdered, 180° from its present position, that was taken 
as a proof that the ceiling, or the walls containing those 
things must have been sculptured when the equator did 
cross the ecliptic in that longitude ; i.e., 12,900 years 
ago, according to the now known rate of the precession 
of the equinoxes in good Newtonian astronomy. 

But this is plainly no scientific proof ; for any stone- 
mason can at any time, if you give him an order so to 
do, and a pattern to go by, carve you a zodiac with the 
equator crossing the ecliptic in any constellation what- 
ever ; and with vastly more scientific accuracy of detail 
than any of those profane Egyptian temple pictures 
have yet been accused of. 

There was never, therefore, any real stability in the 
groundwork for those pseudo-astronomically computed 
chronologies ; while during the last thirty years the 
whole of such false growth has been felled to the 
ground, by the successive discoveries of the new hiero- 
logists. Young, ChampoUion, and their followers ; who 
have proved incontestably, by interpreting the hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions mixed up with the pictures, that 
the zodiac temples were the latest of all the Egyptian 
monuments ; that they dated only from the time of 
the late Ptolemies, and even some of the Roman 
emperors ; and were the work of house-painters rather 
than astronomers. 

Had hieroglyphic study, therefore, done nothing else 
than demolish the absurd antiquity given, on mistaken 


grounds, to the astronomico-idolatrous Egyptian temples 
of late date, it would have deserved well of mankind ; 
but it has done more than that, though perhaps not 
quite so much, nor always quite so well, as its ardent 
students have claimed for it. 

Egyptian Hieroglyphics versus Greek Scholarship. 

Commenced by the discovery of the Rosetta stone in 
1802 ; vivified by Young and Champollion about 
1820 ; and, since then, most ably developed by Rossel- 
lini, Gardner Wilkinson, Birch, Osburn, Lepsius, Poole, 
l)e Saulcey, De Rougd, Brugsch, Mariette, and many 
others, — hieroglyphical interpretation has rendered the 
nineteenth century vastly more intimately acquainted 
with the home life of early Egypt, than any century has 
been since the times of actual Apis and Osiris worship- 
ping by the Egyptians themselves. 

The sudden ability thus acquired, to read the writings 
of a people who departed all visible life nearly two 
thousand years ago, infused at the time extraordinary 
enthusiasm into all the hieroglyphic students ; who 
congratulated each other, and ancient Egypt too, un- 
ceasingly, on the treasure-house of human wisdom which 
they had so successfully opened up. 

" Dark," said they — 

"Dark has been thy night, 
Ob, Egypt ! but the flame 
Of new-born science gilds thine ancient name." 

And how does that science gild it ? Not by having set 
forth any grand philosophy or estimable literature; for 
such things are so very far from existing in the hiero- 
glyphics, that at last the late Sir George Cornewall 


Lewis, impatient of the Egyptological boastings, and 
judging of what had been produced, from his favourite 
stand-point of Greek authors, — both condemned all the 
Mizraisms which had up to that time been inter- 
preted ; and concluded from their sample, that there is 
nothing w^orthy of being known remaining to be inter- 
preted in all the rest of the hieroglyphics of the 
reputedly vnse land of Egypt. 

So if there is anything worth gilding at all, it is 
perhaps rather to be looked for in chronology than 
literature ; for the Egyptians were, of all men, the 
record keepers of the early world : not only per- 
petually erecting monuments, but inscribing them all 
over with their clearly-cut-out hieroglyphic inscrip- 
tions ; w^hile the dry climate of their country has 
preserved even to these times almost whatever they 
chose to inscribe, large or small. 

Yet after years of study, our great Egyptologic and 
hieroglyphic scholars are agreed on nothing chrono- 
logical, except something like the order of precedence, 
or comparative succession, of old Egyptian kings, and 
dynasties of kings ; — for when they come to give the 
absolute dates of any of the reigns, they differ among 
themselves by 1,000, 2,000, 8,000 or more years wdth 
the utmost facility, just as they choose to consider the 
literary dynasties of Manetho more or less successive, 
rather than coexistent, in different cities or provinces 
of ancient Eg^^pt. 

But while Manetho, though an Egyptian priest, was 
not contemporary with the most critical times he alludes 
to (having lived under the Macedonian subjugation of 
his country, and his work having only come down to 
us in fragmentary quotations in late monkish authors), 
certain good Greek scholars amongst ourselves (men 
who would have been thoroughly approved of by Sir 
G. C. Lewis), have, after studying the purely Alexandrian 


writers most deeply and extensh^ely, and at those historic 
periods when they declare hieroglyphics were still inti- 
mately and generally understood in that land, — they 
have, I repeat, raised the standard of opposition against 
the modern soi-disant Egyptologists, or ChampoUionist 
interpreters of the monumental inscriptions ; and op- 
pose both the order, and absolute dates, as well as the 
names for the early Egyptian kings and chief events, 
as usually given by those gentlemen.* 

Of the whole merits of this grand contest, neither is 
this book the place, nor myself the author, wherein and 
by whom, it should be discussed. But there are certain 
of the results, from either side, which cannot be passed 
by, in connection with our proper Great Pyramid sub- 

Differential Chronology of the Egyptologists. 

When the Egyptologists, for instance, confess, as they 
have done most distinctly even within the last year, 
that they know, amongst all their profane monuments 
of Old Egypt, not a single one capable of expressing, or 
giving, in its inscription an absolute date, while we have 
seen abundantly from what is already set forth in this 
book, that the Great Pyramid does assign its absolute date 
most distinctly, and more and more distinctly the higher 
science it is examined by, — evidently an invaluable 
type of separation has been ascertained between the one 
Christianly sacred monument in Egypt on one hand, 
and, on the other, the whole herd of that land's 
profane monuments, the only research -ground which our 
modern Egyptologists seem to care for. 

* See " Egypt's Kecord of Time to the Exodus of Israel," critically 
investigated by the Rev. W. B. Gralloway, M.A., Vicar of St. Mark's, 
Regent's Park, London. 



Again, while the leading principle, and very sheet- 
anchor, of the best Egyptological-chronologists is, to 
seek out and confide in " ^monuments ; " to consider 
nothing fixed in Egyptian history or fact, unless there 
is a monument to show, and that monument contem- 
porary, or nearly so, with the facts to which it relates, 
— they allow faithfully that they know of no monuments 
whatever, earlier by more than a very few years, even if 
by so much, than the Great Pyramid. 

Dr. Lepsius is very clear on this point. In his 
" Letters from Egypt," he wrote from the tombs before 
the Great Pyramid in 1843 : — ''Nor have I yet found 
a single cartouche that can be safely assigned to a period 
previous to the fourth dynasty. The builders of the 
Great Pyramid seem to assert their right to form the 
commencement of monumental history, even if it be 
clear that they were not the first builders and monu- 
mental writers." And again, he says, " The Pyramid 
of Cheops, to which the first link of our whole monu- 
mental history is fastened immovably, not only for 
Egyptian, but for universal history/' And in his great 
work of illustrations, the " Denkmaeler " of subsequent 
years, the Doctor adheres to the above view, and opens 
that immense chronological series with the Great 

Hence we may dismiss entirely all the 300,000 years 
of civilised life in Egypt before the Great Pyramid, as 
rashly asserted by a late rationalistic writer, because he 
has no " monuments " to show for that long period. 
But for such period as the Egyptologists do bring up 
monuments ; viz., from the Great Pyramid downwards, 
almost without a break, — there we can hardly but pay 
some attention to their schemes of the differential 
chronologic history of Egypt, and which they place 
variously thus : — 



[Part V. 

Beginning of each Dynasty of Angient Egypt, according to various 
Egyptological Scholars, guided partly by Manetho, whose own 
book they have not ; and partly by the monuments, which they 
confess do not give absolute dates. 








Date according to the Average of 



Eenan, &c. 

B c. 











































architecture at 

the Dates. 

Mem phi an 
Builders ? 

The Great 
and smaller 


and Rock- 
Tomb Builders, 

Now when a scientific pyramidist, on the other 
hand, or from his point of view and sources of informa- 
tion, confines himself to stating relatively that the 
Great Pyramid was erected in the times of the "Fourth 
Dynasty," — he is evidently in accord with all the 
Egyptologists of every order and degree ; but when he 
further defines that it was erected at the absolute date 
of 2170 B.C., he is in accord with one only of the whole 

Chap. XXT.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 4 1 3 

of them, viz., William Osburn, for lie makes the fourth 
dynasty to extend from 2228 to 2108 B.C. 

On finding this solitary case of agreement, in the 
course of 1866, I immediately obtained a copy of that 
author's two-volume work, '' Monumental History of 
Egypt ;" and was so well satisfied with the vigour and 
originality of his mind, his linguistic power, and his 
conscientious labours, that I sought out every other 
work that he had written ; and was eventually rewarded 
with a long correspondence with himself; and found 
him a man who, though he did not please his fellow- 
Egyptologists, yet seemed worthy to be regarded as the 
king of them all. Partly, too, by the light of his 
writings, reading Lepsius and Howard- Vyse over again, 
I am now enabled to give the following comparative, but 
still only approximate, view of the Great Pyramid 
among the other pyramids of Egypt, and in probable 
date, as well as shape, size, and position, {^ee Table.) 

The Great Sphinx. 

And now it may be remarked by anxious readers, that 
though I have said so much about the Great Pyramid, 
and something touching almost every other pyramid 
in Egypt also, — I have said nothing about the Sphinx. 

That was just what the Reviewers wrote against Pro- 
fessor Greaves after the publication of his Pyramidogra- 
phia, 230 years ago. Though indeed one of his querists 
presently answers himself, by supposing, that the Pro- 
fessor must have found at the place, that the said Sphinx 
had in reality no connection with the Great Pyramid. 

Exceedingly right, too, was the critic in that sup- 
position ; for not only has the oval of a king, one 
thousand years and several dynasties later than the 
date of the Great Pyramid, been found unexceptionably 
upon the Sphinx, — but that monster, an idol in itself, 


witli symptoms typifying the lowest mental organiza- 
tion, positively reeks with anti-Great Pyramid idolatry 
throughout its substance ; for when the fragments or 
component masses of its colossal stone beard were dis- 
covered in the sand excavations of 1817, it was per- 
ceived that all the internally joining surfaces of the 
blocks had been figured full of the animal-headed gods 
of the most profane Egjrpt. 

Strange therefore that Dean Stanley's professional eye 
should have seen in so soul-repulsive a creature, " with," 
as he himself further and more objectively describes, 
*'its vast projecting wig, its great ears, the red colour 
still visible on its cheeks, and the immense projection 
of the whole lower part of its face," — an appropriate 
guardian to the Sethite, and most anti-Cainite, Great 
Pyramid, whose pure and perfect surface of blameless 
stone, eschews every thought of idolatry and sin. 

The Recent Discovery about the Sphinx. 

But the reign of the Great Sphinx over the souls of 
some men, is not over yet. 

Long since I had remarked that there is no agree- 
ment possible between the Great Sphinx and the Great 
Pyramid. Those who admire the one, cannot appre- 
ciate the other. 

As a rule, it is Frenchmen and Roman Catholics 
(though there are happily brilliant exceptions amongst 
them), who get up the most outrageous enthusiasm for 
the Sphinx ; and it was given to one of these lately, in the 
person of the eminent Mariette Bey, to set the w^hole 
world agog (for a time) with a supposed monumental 
proof that the Sphinx, instead of belonging, as hitherto 
so generally supposed, to the 11th or loth Dynasty, 
was far older than the Great Pyramid in the 4th 
Dynasty ; and was in fact so ancient, that it had be- 


come an object of dilapidated, but revered, antiquity 
in the times of King Cheops himself, who immortalised 
his name, in his very primeval day, by repairing it. 

The latest description of this case by Mariette Bey 
himself, is at p. 211 of the fourth edition of his Cata- 
logue of the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities at Boulak. 

No. 581 is there spoken of as "a fragmentary stone, 
which may be supposed to have formed once part of a 
wall, of a certain building, or temple, some problematical 
ruins only of which have been found near one of the 
small pyramids on the east side of the Great Pyramid." 
The stone is abundantly inscribed with little hierogly- 
phics ; "in good preservation but of mediocre style,'' 
euphuistically puts in Mariette Bey, — but, " Tnore like 
scratches than anything else,'' writes my plain-speaking 
friend, Dr. Grant of Cairo. 

This circumstance of bad, or of no, style, or of an 
idle modern scribble in place of a serious piece of deep 
and well-performed ancient sculpture, which carries 
great weight with it in monumental research, — is not 
represented in the version of the inscription given with 
honour (and with well-cut hieroglyphic types from other 
models) by Dr. Birch in the last volume of Bunsen's 
"■ Egypt's Place in History." For the Doctor prints 
good, thick-set, well-formed, hieroglyphics, looks only 
to one possible interpretation of them, and adopts that 
with positivism. No wonder either, in some respects ; 
for a great day it must have been for the idolatries of 
old Egypt and its latter day, not worshippers, only 
sympathetic admirers, when Mariette Bey first published 
his discovery of this astonishing inscription. There is 
good news in it for almost every one of the Mizraite 
false gods ; so that all profanely devout readers may 
learn with thrilling interest that the images of the 
hawk of Horus and the ibis of Thoth, in that pro- 
blematical temple, of which this single stone may be 


supposed to have once formed a part, were of wood 
gilt ; the boat of the " three times beautiful Isis " was 
in gilt wood with incrustations of jewels ; that the 
principal statue of Isis was in gold and silver ; the 
statue of Nephthys in bronze gilt, and &c., &c., as to 
many other ordinary idols ; but surpassing words of 
admiration and adoration were added touching the 
Great Sphinx of Horem-Kou, the biggest idol of all, 
and declared to be situated just to the south of the 
" Temple of Isis, the Ruler of the Great Pyramid." 

On showing this version of the inscription to Mr. 
Osburn, he instantly pronounced it to be an anachro- 
nism; it had, he said, nothing to do contemporaneously 
with Cheops, or the 4 th Dynasty either ; it was merely 
a rigmarole by certain revivifiers of the ancient Egyp- 
tian idolatry, with additions, under the late 26 th 

But William Osburn was a firm believer in the Divine 
inspiration of the Bible, and the rebellious human 
origin of the Egyptian gods; that they had been in- 
vented, as very refuges of lies, in slavish fear of, but 
determined Cainite opposition to, the God of Heaven, 
whose supranatural acts in the Deluge and Dispersion 
were then recent and overwhelming to the human mind, 
rendering atheism in that day perfectly impossible to 
even the least reasonable being. Wherefore the most 
fargone of the modern Egyptological scholars utterl}" 
refused to attend to his, Osburn' s, condemnation of 
Marie tte's wonderful stone ; and preferred to go on 
trusting themselves entirely to its reputed statements 
for the implied profane nature of '' the Great Pyramid, 
ruled over by Isis," though no symptoms of either 
Isis, or any other, profanity had been found there ; and 
though the ancient Great Pyramid is still an existency 
in the world, vocal with knowledge and wisdom, while 
the later invention of " I^is " has already faded away 


from the Egyptian land like a summer cloud or the 
morning dew. 

At last, however, one of their own number has 
informed upon his fellow Egyptologists ; and he is the 
best and ablest man amongst them too; viz., the Ger- 
man Brugsch Bey ; equally on the spot with Mariette 
Bey, and said to be ''a more learned hieroglyphic 
scholar." For thus writes the trusty Dr. Grant from 
Cairo, date June 3rd, 1873, "I have been learning 
much from Brugsch Bey lately, and he tells me that 
Mariette' s stone hears a lie on the face of it — that the 
style of sculpture is not very ancient, and that the whole 
inscription is simply a legend that has been scratched 
upon it at a late date, and that it cannot be quoted as 
an authority on any of the points mentioned in it." 

So now the Sphinx, with its body pierced through 
and through with long iron rods by Colonel Howard- 
Vyse, and found to contain nothing ; and its nose 
knocked off by a mediaeval Mohammedan dervish to 
prevent its both ensnaring his countrymen by idola- 
trous beauty, and leading them to inquire too curiously 
(as Moses warned the Israelites against their attempt- 
ing to do, on entering Canaan), — " now how did the 
people of this land worship their gods ? " and with its 
actual size a mere molecule at the very base of the hill, 
of whose summit the Great Pyramid is the pure and 
unexceptionable crown — need not be referred to again 
by any Christian man looking for instruction from the 
Rock of Ages alone. 

E B 




IN the Third Pyramid of Jeezeli — admired by the 
sadly Egyptological Baron Bunsen, on account of its 
expensive red-granite casing, far above the Great Pyra- 
mid and all its intellectual excellencies — Colonel 
Howard-Vyse found, not only the genuine sepulchral 
sarcophagus, together with parts of the inscribed coffin- 
board, but — a portion of a mummy as well. 

In that case, of what or of whom was such frag- 
ment the mummy ? 

'' Of King Mencheres," insisted every Egyptologist, 
" for he it was who built the third Pyramid some 60 years 
after the Great one had been erected." Whereupon the 
remains were transmitted with honour to the British 
Museum ; and the learned Baron, in his " Egypt's Place 
in History," has an eloquent eulogium on the " pious " 
king whose ancient remains, if removed at last out of 
their old mausoleum, are now vastly safer in the distant 
isle of the Queen-ruled empire, whose free institutions 
preserve her liberty and prosperity for ever. 

But here William Osburn (whom Bunsen never liked) 
steps in with the wholesome reminder, that none of the 
mummies df the Old Empire have come down to our 
age : their bodies, fragrant for a while with spices and 
myrrh, sooner or later returned, dust to dust ; and a 
little of such dark matter at the bottom of sarcophagi, 


is all that has yet been discovered in any of the tombs 
of the earliest period. It was reserved, says he, to the 
over-clever Egyptians of the New Empire, when Thebes 
rose above Memphis, to discover the too efficacious method 
of embalming with natron — a method which has enabled 
the bodies of that later period to last down to our 
times ; and has thereby put it into the power of fanatic 
Mohammedans to treat Pharaonic corpses with every 
contumely, male and female, old and young, rich and 
poor, dragged out of all their decent cerements, to be 
exposed in these latter days on the dunghill, or broken 
up for fuel. 

Wherefore the parts of a body found in pretty tough 
preservation by Colonel Yyse in the Third Pyramid, 
could not have belonged to either King Mencheres or 
any of his subjects ; or to any genuine Egyptian so 
early as the fourth dynasty. But presently this further 
discovery was made, that the cloth in which the remains 
were wrapped up, was not composed of the proverbial 
linen of ancient Egypt, but of sheep's wool, — a textile 
material which was a religious abomination to all 
Pharaonic Egyptians. 

Then wrote certain scholars, quickly framing up a 
theory to suit the occasion, " Both King Mencheres and 
all the other Jeezeh Pyramid builders must have been, 
not Egyptians, but of that ancient and most mysterious 
class of invaders of, or immigrants into, ancient Egypt, 
the Hyksos or Shepherd Kings." 

How little is positively known of tliem, may appear 
from one modern author, who writes, — 

« When investigating the early history of the world, 
the Hyksos cross our path like a mighty shadow ; 
advancing from native seats to which it baffled the 
geography of antiquity to assign a position, covering for 
a season the shores of the Mediterranean and the banks 
of the Nile with the terror of their arms and the renown 


of their conquests, and at length vanishing with a mys- 
tery equal to that of their first appearance." 

While the learned Dr. Hincks writes, " Later investi- 
gations have rather increased than removed my difficul- 
ties ; and, as a matter of argument, it would be in- 
different to me to sustain, that the, Hyhsos once occupied 
Lower Egypt ; or that they were never there at all." 

But Dr. Hincks was perhaps more of an Assyrian, 
than an Egyptian, scholar ; and the pure Egyptologists 
have no doubt whatever about a period of Hyksos' rule 
in Egypt just before the time of the Israelites' captivity, 
and perhaps including a part of it. They consider, 
indeed, that there is still monumentally visible the most 
decided separation between the Old and New Empires 
of Ancient Egypt, caused altogether by the domination 
of those whom they call the " Shepherds;" for they drop 
the aggrandizing word of " Kings," as needless, when 
talking of those who, if there at all, ruled on the banks 
of the Nile with a rod of iron through three successive 
dynasties, viz., the 15th, 16th, and 17th; and caused 
an almost total blank or perversion for that period in 
the architectural history, as well as much modification 
in the religion, of all the Lower and Middle country. 

Of the precise nature of that change and the origin 
of the party bringing it about, William Osburn has some 
special ideas, which, with more space at command, we 
might do well to inquire into : though now, as the 
limits of this book are drawing to a close, and as he 
agrees with all the other Egyptologists as to what 
dynasties such party occupied, viz., the 15th, 16th, 
and 17th, — we may rest assured that all men of those 
dynasties, whether they were native or foreign shep- 
herds, lived far too late in the world's history to have 
had any hand in building the Jeezeh Pyramids under 
the much earlier fourth dynasty. 

Hence the Shepherds that Colonel Yyse alludes to 


(on the strength of the woollen- wrapt body from the 
Third Pyramid), if ever really existing, must have been, 
in order to have helped to build the Pyramids, of a 
period belonging to the said ve'ry early fourth dynasty ; 
and were therefore totally different, in time and fact, 
from the later Shepherds so well known to Egyptologists. ' 

That these later, or 15th, 16th, and 17th dynasty. 
Shepherds did not build the Jeezeh, or indeed any of 
the Egyptian, Pyramids, does not by itself overthrow 
the whole theory, or possibility of there having been 
an earlier, and quite distinct. Shepherd invasion, or 
temporary rule of Hyksos in Lower Egypt, and perhaps 
even during the 4 th, or chief Pyramid-building dynasty ; 
for pastoral tribes existed in the East from the earliest 
times, and were much endued with tendencies to western 
emigration. But whether they really did enter Egypt 
in force, during the 4th dynasty, must be settled on 
direct evidence of its own. Such evidence, indeed, the 
worthy Colonel thought he had obtained ; though now 
we may see clearly that his reasoning was founded too 
much on the piece of flannel, and too little on the 
whole of the grand masonried facts of the Gre^t Pyra- 
mid and their purity from all idolatry ; whereupon he 
soon loses himself in illogical conclusions ; arguing in 
a preconceived circle, thus — 

*' It has been assumed (in my, Vyse's, opinion satis- 
factorily) by Bryant, that these mighty Shepherds (his 
supposed Pyramid builders in the 4th dynasty) were 
the descendants of Ham, expelled, on account of 
apostacy and rebellion, from Babel, from Egypt, and 
from Palestine ; and who afterwards, under the name 
of Cyclopes, Pelasgi, Phcenices, &c., were pursued by 
Divine vengeance, and successively driven from every 
settled habitation — from Greece, from Tyre, and from 
Carthage, even to the distant regions of America, where 
traces of their buildings, and, it has been supposed, of 


their costume, as represented in Egyptian sculpture, have 
been discovered. These tribes seem formerly to have 
been living instances of Divine retribution, as the dis- 
persed Jews are at present. They appear to have been 
at last entirely destroyed ; but their wanderings and 
misfortunes have been recorded by the everliving genius 
of the two greatest poets in the Greek and Latin lan- 
guages ; and the Pyramids remain, enduring yet silent 
monuments of the matchless grandeur of this extraor- 
dinary people, of the certainty of Divine justice, and of 
the truth of Eevelation." 

But while it is perfectly impossible that such sinful 
men could have been the genuine authors of all the 
pure and holy features we have found in the Great 
Pyramid, — or that Hamitic Cainites would have found 
ainy difficulty in amalgamating with the Mizraite Egyp- 
tians, — it is most satisfactory to know that the mere 
piece of woollen cloth found in the Third Pyramid can 
be explained in a much easier manner than by going up, 
in the teeth of masonried facts, to the primeval antiquit}' 
of the world ; or thus — " The remains found by Colonel 
Yyse were those of a mediaeval Arab, who, having 
died at Caliph Al Mamoun's breaking into the Third 
Pyramid, was straightway wrapped up in his own bur- 
nouse, and thrust down the entrance-passage for his 
burial, when the Mohammedan workmen came away and 
closed the place up, as it turned out, for 1,000 years. 
And if the poor man's bones are so well preserved as to 
have allowed of their safe transport to London, it is on 
account of the short time they have been sepultured, 
compared with anything belonging to the real Fourth 
Dynasty and the building of its Pyramids." 

Of Primeval Shemite Shepherds. 
That simple explanation, therefore, completely settles 
the value of the mistaken lumber on the shelves at the 

Chap.XXIL] the great pyramid. 423 

British Museum ; but leaves us still with a historical 
question on our hands, as to whether there were, after 
all, any Hyksos or Shepherd Kings from the East, 
descendants too of Shem, rather than Ham (for of 
Hamites there were always enough and to spare, keepers 
of their own sheep too, in the persons of the Egyptians 
themselves), in Egypt during the fourth dynasty ? 

Some strangers from the eastern direction were in- 
deed continually filtering into Lower Egypt through 
the Isthmus of Suez, the natural channel of immigra- 
tion in all ages from Asia, and the path by which the 
Egyptians themselves had originally come. But it is 
our more particular business now to ascertain, if pos- 
sible, whether during the period of that particular 4th 
dynasty, say from 2300 to 2100 B.C. (or an age pre- 
vious to the calling of Abraham), there were any re- 
markable eastern men in position of lordly rule, power, 
or notoriety in the Egyptian land : and whether they 
either had, in the general estimation of all men, any- 
thing to do with the building of the Great Pyramid ; 
or were likely to have been able to furnish any part of 
its design, as manifested by modern science; or had an 
interest in preserving its religiously pure character, in 
the midst of an age and a nation given up to the 
worst forms of idolatry. 

What then does history say to the point ? 

History is scanty enough, every one will allow, for 
times before Abraham ; and though something may be 
occasionally made out for even those dates in such a 
land as Egypt, it is to be gained, even there, only by 
a conflict with difficulties. There is actually a dispute, 
for instance, between the Egyptologists on one side, 
and Alexandrian classics on the other, whether there 
was ever a fourth dynasty at all. We must, therefore, 
when everything is disputed or disputable, interrogate 
either party very closely. 


Egy^tologic Details of Early Kings. 

To begin with the Egyptologists; the literary founda- 
tions for what they assert, are confined to Manetho 
(270 B.C.), or to what has come down to us of his 
own writings in fragments of authors SOO or 400 years 
later ; and whose words may be conveniently examined 
in the volume of " Fragments," by Isaac Preston Cory, 
of Caius College, Cambridge (1832 a.d.) 

There then, most undoubtedly, a fourth dynasty is 
mentioned ; but it begins with a puzzling statement ; 
for while the third dynasty is simply said to be com- 
posed of so many Memphite kings, and the fifth dynasty 
of so many Elephantine kings, this fourth dynasty is 
stated to be composed of " eight Memphite kings of a 
different race'^ 

This is a curious statement, and I do not know what 
it means ; but the list proceeds as follows for the kings 
concerned : — 

(1) Soris reigned 29 years. 

(2) Suphis reigned 63 years. He built tlie largest Pyramid; which 
Herodotus says was constructed by Cheops. He was arrogant towards 
the gods, and wrote the sacred book ; which is regarded by the Egyptians 
as a work of great importance. 

(3) Suphis II. reigned 66 years. 

(4) Mencheres 63 years. 

(5) Rhatoeses 25 years. 

(6) Bicheres 22 years. 

(7) Sebercheres 7 years. 

(8) Thampthis 9 years. 
Altogether 284 years. 

This literary foundation, the Egyptologists further 
contend that they can confirm in all its main par- 
ticulars from the monuments, by finding, even in the 
Great Pyramid itself, evidently alluded to by Manetho, 
rude original quarry-marks with two royal names which 
they interpret Shofo and Noumshofo, and declare to be 
the two Suphises mentioned above ; while they find the 
further royal name of Mencheres in the third Pyramid, 


notoriously a later construction than both the Great and 
Second Pyramids ; which Second Pyramid is elsewhere 
attributed to Suphis II., as the Great one is here to 
Suphis I. 

But the rest of the sentence attached to the name 6f 
the first Suphis is a difficulty which the Egyptologists 
cannot altogether master. They can understand, for 
instance, easily enough, that he either built the Great 
Pyramid, or reigned while it was being built ; but what 
was his " arrogance towards the gods ? " and what were 
the contents of " his sacred book ? " 

Of all these things the Egyptologists knew nothing 
from contemporary monuments ; although they can 
adduce abundant proof therefrom, that Mencheres of 
the Third Pyramid was an out-and-out idolater of the 
Egyptians. That was the " piety " which Baron Bun- 
sen praised ; while Osburn, though he condemned 
rather than praised, so far allowed what the other 
Egyptologists founded upon, that he shows, at much 
length. King Mencheres to have been, not indeed the 
original inventor and theotechnist of animal and other 
gods for his countrymen, — but the greatest codifier in 
all history of those things. He, Mencheres, was the 
establisher, too, of a priesthood for those things' con- 
tinual service ; and was an extender of the mythological 
system into new and mysterious ramifications ; the very 
man, in fact, who put Misraite idolatry into that en- 
snaring form and artistical condition with Isis, Osiris, 
Horus, Typhon, Nepthys, and all the rest of his inven- 
tions, in addition to the older Apis, Mnevis, and the 
Mendesian goat, that it became the grand national and 
lasting system of his country, — monopolising the souls 
of all Egyptians for two thousand years, and even 
then dying hard. 

Mencheres was, in point of fact, in and for the land 
of the Nile, just what the too eloquent author, of 


" Juventus Mundi," with such longing admiration 
amounting almost to ill-concealed envy, describes 
Homer to have been for the Greeks in the same line 
— viz., in " theotechny." Worldly success in which 
ethereal art or elevated occupation, as it is according to 
Aim, but much more probably an abomination before 
God, — the English Prime Minister (unhappily not 
seeing it in that light) declares to be a far more noble, 
more satisfying pinnacle for human ambition, than any 
amount of excellence whatever either in poetry or 
prose, civil administration, or even military glory. 

But of Shofo, the hieroglyphists can pick up but 
little, if anything, positively of that kind of informa- 
tion. The worship, indeed, of bulls and goats had 
been already set up in Egypt during the previous 
dynasty, so that he found it in force on succeeding to 
the throne ; and it perhaps went on during his reign 
until such time as he is reported on one hand to have 
become " arrogant towards the gods," and on the other 
to have closed their temples and stopped their public 
worship, as we shall now see detailed on turning to the 
Classic authorities. 

Classic Names for Early Egyptian Kings. 

Amongst all these authors, indeed — i.e., men who 
either were Greeks or followed the Greeks and did not 
know Egyptian — whether with Herodotus in 445 B.C., 
Eratosthenes 236 B.C., Diodorus Siculus 60 B.C., and 
Strabo B.C., there is no fourth dynasty at all : nor, for 
that matter, any allusion to any dynasty or arrange- 
ment by dynasties whatever. "While the chronological 
order of the kings by name, is at one point altogether 
dislocated from its sequence in the Manethoan dynasties ; 
the kings' names of the very early fourth dynasty of 
the Egyptologists, being, with the classics, placed after 


those which are found in the comparatively late nine- 
teenth dynasty of the same Egyptologists. 

Sir Gardner Wilkinson * explains this terrible ana- 
chronism for Herodotus (and if for him, for all his 
copying fellow-countrymen and successors at the same 
time), by suggesting that he (Herodotus) was furnished 
by the Egyptian priests with two separate lists of kings' 
names ; and as they read out to him (through his 
interpreter, he not understanding Egyptian) the later 
one first (and he put them all down in faith as he heard 
them in one long row), he, of course, got the old Mem- 
phite sovereigns coming in after the more modern 
Thebans. The priests began with the Theban kings 
of the 19 th dynasty, because they were fresh in their 
memory ; and they remembered well the glorious times 
of their priestly order under those reigns, whereof, 
too, they told the innocent Halicarnassian a variety 
of pleasant, gossiping tales ; and only when that stock 
was ended, did they touch, very unwillingly, on the 
Memphite kings, chiefly of the fourth dynasty, and the 
hard times the priests had had under tkeifn. 

Some such explanation, too, of the dislocated chro- 
nology of the Greek history of Egypt, must apparently 
be the true one ; for the whole philosophy of archi- 
tecture, as elaborated on ten thousand examples by 
James Fergusson, makes it as impossible historically 
and mechanically for the Pyramids of Lower Egypt 
to have followed the palace-temples and sculpture of 
Upper Egypt, — as historically and socially it is utterly 
impossible, that after Thebes had once risen to supreme 
power in Egypt, the rulers there would have allowed by 
far the chief work of their age to be executed on the 
borders of their kingdom in the " provinces," or near 
the then ancient, decaying and conquered city of 

* See note to p. 199 of Bawlinson's " Herodotus," vol. ii. 



[Part V. 

Memphis. As well might we expect the British Parlia- 
ment to give its largest grants for the year to Edinburgh, 
instead of London ; and men will have to wait until 
the whole river of history passes by, and runs itself 
absolutely dry, before we see such a phenomenon as 
that ; although too Scotland was never fairly conquered. 
Setting aside, then, agreeably with Sir Gardner Wil- 
kinson and all the Egyptologists, this one large fault or 
mistaken order of a group of the Egyptian kings in 
Greek and classic authors, — from Herodotus in 445 
B.C. to the Rev. Mr. Galloway and Mr. Samuel Sharpe, 
in 1869 A.D., — as simply and altogether a book-mistake 
of theirs, we shall find in the smaller details, subsequent 
to the dislocation, much agreement. As, for instance, 
in the names of the three successive kings of the three 
chief and successive Pyramids of Jeezeh ; which kings' 
names are always given in their proper, or, both monu- 
mental, hieroglyphic, and Manethoan sequence to each 
other ; though the scholars have certainly agreed to 
accept a remarkable variety of names as meaning the 
same word or man ; as thus — 

Names of the Builders op the three largest Pyramids op Jeezeh 
according to various authorities. 


Of the Great 

Of the Second 

Of the Third 



Diodorus Si-") 
cuius. j 

Modem ( 
Egyptologists j 

Suphis I. 
( Saophis ] 
< Comastes, or V 
( Chematistes. ] 



Suphis II. 

Saophis II. 






( Heliodotus. 




Tlie, Lives of the Kings. 

But what, after all, is there in a name ? It is the 
character of each individual king of many names, which 
we require ; and especially if there be anything in it, 
which may indicate whether that royal personage could 
have built the Great Pyramid. 

There the conversational style of Herodotus (the 
oldest existing author in the world, it is said, next to 
Moses), dipping deep into the feelings of men, will 
serve us better than the bald rigidity of hieroglyphic 
inscriptions ; though, as Herodotus gathered up every- 
thing without sifting it, and as between the purposed 
falsities of what the Egyptian priests often related to 
him, in a language which he did not understand and 
his interpreters did not faithfully translate to him, — it 
is little more than the involuntary evidence, under cross- 
examination, that can be trusted. Here, however, as a 
beginning, are his own simple statements. 

(124) "Cheops," according to the Egyptian priests,* "on ascending 
the throne, plunged into all manner of wickedness. He closed the 
temples, and forbade the Egyptians to offer sacrifice, conipelling them 
instead to labour one and all in his service ; viz., in building the Great 

(128) " Cheops reigned fifty years ; and was succeeded by his brother 
Chephren, who imitated the conduct of his predecessor, built a pyramid — 
but smaller than his brother's — and reigned fifty-six years. Thus, during 
106 years the temples were shut and never opened." 

(129) "After Chephren, Mycerinus, son of Cheops, ascended the 
throne. He reopened the temples, and allowed the people to resume the 
practice of sacrifice. He, too, left a pyramid, but much inferior in size to 
his father's. It is built, for half of its height, of the stone of Ethiopia ; " 
i.e., expensive red granite. 

(136) "After Mycerinus, Asychis ascended the throne. He built the 
eastern gateway of the Temple of Vulcan (Phtha); and being desirous of 
eclipsing all his predecessors on the throne, left as a monument of hia 
reign a pyramid of brick." 

Now here we have four successive kings, each of 
whom erected a Pyramid ; and the last of them entered 

* Ch. 124, p. 199, of Rawlinson's Translation of Herodotus, vol. ii. 
See also a very salutary note, No. 9, on p. 205, by Sir G. Wilkinson. 


into the work no less enthusiastically than the first. 
Therefore it could not have been Pyramid-building 
in itself, or as known to, and understood by, the natives, 
which had the discriminating effect of causing the two 
last kings to be approved, and the two first to be hated, 
by all Egyptians to the terrible and intense degree de- 
scribed by successive classic authors. This difference of 
estimation must have risen from some difference of pro- 
ceeding in either pair of kings ; and such an opposite 
manner is religiously found in this circumstance, that 
the two first kings closed the temples, and stopped the 
worship of the bulls, cats, goats, beetles, and other 
Egyptian gods ; while the two last kings re-opened 
those temples, enlarged them, beautified them, and 
re-established the soul-degrading theotechnic inventions 
of Egypt in greater splendour than ever: though, too, 
they were the very idols which the Lord declares " He 
will destroy, and cause their images to cease out of 

Tlie Right Man at last. 

But there is more than this to be gathered from the 
classic records ; for there comes up ampngst them a 
something suggestive, even to the extent of a ray of 
positive light, upon that very question which, even to 
Diodorus Siculus, was so much more important than 
who were the kings who ordered, viz., who were the 
architects who designed or built, the Pyramids ; for 
Herodotus further states : — 

** (128) The Egyptians so detest the memory of these (the two first) kinpfs 
(Cheops and Chephren), that they do not much like even to mention their 
names. Hence, they commonly call the Pyramids (the Great and the 
Second) after Philition (or Philitis), a shepherd who at that time fed his 
flocks ahout the place." 

Seldom has a more important piece of truth been 
unintentionally issued in a few words. Sir Gardner 


Wilkinson, in his note to that passage,* allows at once 
the Hyksos, or Shepherd-princely, character and stand- 
ing of a stranger who could be so distinguished in con- 
nection with the greatest of the monuments of Egypt ; 
and is only anxious to guard his readers as to the par- 
ticular personage alluded to, having really lived in the 
early fourth dynasty, and not having been one of those 
later, better known, but totally different individuals who 
figured as the Shepherd Kings in the 15 th, 16 th, and 
17th dynasties. While Mr. Kawlinson, in another note 
on the same page, seems equally ready to allow, — not 
only that Philitis was a Shepherd prince from Palestine, 
and perhaps of Philistine descent, — but so powerful and 
domineering, that it may be traditions of Ms oppressions 
in that earlier age, which mixed up afterwards in the 
minds of later Egyptians with the evils inflicted on 
their country by the subsequent shepherds of the better- 
known dynasties ; and knt so much fear to their 
religious hate of " Shepherd " times and that name. 

If this theory of Mr. Kawlinson's be correct, we may 
learn something further of the Great Pyramid's fourth 
dynasty Shepherd — Prince Philitis — by attending to 
what Manetho has written of the subsequent Shepherds ; 
and especially by eliminating therefrom, certain features 
which cannot by any possibility be true of those men 
such as they were in that later day. For thus wrote 
the Sebennyte priest :t — 

" We had formerly a king whose name was Timeus. 
In his time it came to pass, I know not how, that God 
was displeased with us : and there came up from the 
East, in a strange manner, men of an ignoble race, who 
had the confidence to invade our country, and easily 
subdued it by their power without a battle." 

This, it will be observed, is a very peculiar phrase ; 

* P. 207, vol. ii., of Rawlinson's "Herodotus." 
t Cory's "Fragments," p. 169. 


and lends much colour to the suggestion that Philitis 
was enabled to exert a certain amount of control over 
King Shofo and his Egyptian people, not by the vulgar 
method of military conquest, but by some supernatural 
influence over their minds. 

*' All this invading nation," Manetho goes on to say, 
" was styled Hycsos, that is, Shepherd Kings ; for the 
first syllable, Hyc, in the sacred dialect denotes a king ; 
and Sos signifies a shepherd, but this only according to 
the vulgar tongue ; and of these is compounded the 
term Hycsos : some say they were Arabians." 

Yet if they were Arabians, why did they not return 
to Arabia, when they afterwards, " to the number of not 
less than 240,000, quitted Egypt by capitulation, with 
all their families and effects?" And went — where to? 
" To Judsea, and built there," says Manetho, " a city of 
sufficient size to contain this multitude of men, and 
named it Jerusalem." * 

Now here is surely a most important tale, if anything 
written in books by ancient authors is worthy of any 
modern attention. For, making all due allowance for 
some of the references, and much of the expressed hate 
and abuse being due to the more modern and largely 
native t Egyptian shepherds of the 15 th to the 17th 
dynasties (and who, according to W. Osburn, were chiefly 
conquered and oppressed within the bounds of Lower 
Egypt by invasions of Thebans and fanatic Ethiopians), 
we have as much as testifies to the earlier and truer 
Shepherd Prince Philitis, after having long controlled 
King Shofo during the very time that the Great 
Pyramid was building, — to that Prince Philitis, I say, 
then leaving the country with a high hand, or by 
special agreement, with all his people and flocks, — pro- 
ceeding to Judaea, and building there a city which he 

* Cory's "Fragments," p. 173. 

t According to William Osburn iu his '* Monumental History." 


named Jerusalem ; and which must have at once taken 
a high standing among the primeval cities of the earth, 
if he made it large enough to contain not less than 
240,000 persons. 

Of the Early Life of Melchizedek 

Now the man who did that, after assisting at the 
foundation of the Great P3^ramid in 2170 B.C., must 
have been a contemporary nearly of, but rather older 
than, the Patriarch Abraham, according to the best 
Biblical chronology. Or he must have been, as to age, 
standing, country, and even title, very nearly such a 
one as that grandly mysterious kingly character to 
whom even Abraham offered the tenth of the spoils, 
viz., Melchizedek ; further called King of Salem, which 
some consider to have been Jeru-salem. 

The Bible does not, indeed, directly mention Mel- 
chizedek' s ever having been sent into Egypt on any 
special mission ; the grandest of missions, if then to 
erect, or procure the erection of, a prophetical monu- 
ment which was only to be understood in the latter 
days of the world ; but was destined then to prove the 
Inspiration origin and Messianic character of its design 
to both religious and irreligious. But the Bible does 
not describe anything of the earlier life of Melchizedek ; 
though it has allusions elsewhere which may possibly 
indicate a grand occasion in the life of one, concern- 
ing whom so very little is said, though by whom so 
much must have been done, in the course of his long, 
heaven-approved, and gloriously- terminating career. 

In Deuteronomy, ch. ii., for instance, there appears 
something of the kind ; when Moses,* encouraging the 
Israelites to be of good heart in their march, under 
Divine favour, out of Egypt into Palestine, — mentions 
two other and long preceding occasions on which God 

F F 


liad shown similar favour to other peoples, and they 
were established successfully in consequence. 

First, " the children of Esau ; " and afterwards, '' the 
Caphtorims which came forth out of Caphtor." Or, as 
alluded to again, long after the times of the Exodus (in 
Amos ix. 7), " have not I (the Lord) brought up Israel 
out of Egypt and the Philistines from Caphtor ?" 

This Caphtor alluded to on both occasions, is generally 
considered to mean Egypt, the Pyramid region, too, of 
Lower Egypt ; and although in the one instance, the 
people are spoken of as Caphtorim, that may imply 
not necessarily native Egyptians, but men who had 
been sojourning in that country for a season ; even as 
the testimony of Herodotus infers that Philitis (a name 
looked on by some as implying a Philistian descent or 
country), with his flocks and herdsmen (appropriately 
then called Philistines in Caphtor), had been doing 
during all the thirty years occupied in the preparations 
for, and then the building up of, the Great Pyramid. 

In short, the Biblical evidence touching this mighty 
and most unique monument of sacred and prophetic 
purport, is deserving of more intimate and peculiar 
study than we have yet bestowed upon it. 




Biblical Views of Metrology in General. 

TTIEWING the Great Pyramid first of all as a monu- 
* ment of metrology alone, that subject has been 
shown from Scripture- by many writers (as Michaelis, in 
Germany ; Paucton, in France ; and more recently, 
John Taylor, in England) to have been deemed worthy 
of Divine attention, or providence, for the good of 
man ; such instructions as the following having been 
issued through the approved medium of inspired men 
honoured with the commands of Revelation, viz. : — 

" Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard, in weight, 
or in measure. 

"Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall ye 
have : I am the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of 

"Therefore shall ye observe all my statutes, and all my judgments, and 
do them : I am the Lord." — Leviticus xix. 35 — 37. 

" But thou shalt have a perfect and just weight, a perfect and just mea- 
sure shalt thou have : that thy days maybe lengthened in the land which 
the Lord thy God giveth thee." — Deuteronomy xxv. 15. 

" A false balance is abomination to the Lord : but a just weight is his 
delight." — Proverbs xi. L 

" A just weight and balance are the Lord's : all the weights of the bag 
are his work." — Proverbs xvi. IL 

"Thus saith the Lord God; Let it suffice jou, princes of Israel: 
remove violence and spoil, and execute judgment and justice, take away 
your exactions from my people, saith the Lord God. 

" Ye shall have just balances, and a just ephah, and a just bath. 

" The ephah and the bath shall be of one measure, that the bath may 
contain the tenth part of an homer, and the ephah the tenth part of an 
homer: the measure thereof shall be after the homer." — Ezekiel xlv. 


This was a department of the Holy Service which 
King David had appointed, in his days, a portion of the 
Levites to attend to ;* and his son Solomon established 
the grand standards of measure in the noblest propor- 
tions :t while Moses had been, in his still earlier day, 
exceedingly particular in all his metrological institutions, 
and impressive in his method of carrying them out;]]; his 
chief standard measures being, as already shown, the 
earth and heaven founded standards of the Great Pyra- 
mid itself ; if they were not also those which had been 
elaborated (according to Josephus) by Seth and his 
descendants in opposition to the bad inventions of Cain, 
and under the direct approval of the Almighty. 

With the structure of the Pyramid building, indeed, 
in its main design and ultimate purposes (though never 
so distinctly or categorically alluded to in Scripture, as 
thereby to give men any excuse for turning aside to it, 
like a broken bow, for any kind of spiritual worship), the 
inspired writers of both the Old and New Testaments 
have evinced a very considerable acquaintance. And 
not dry knowledge only; for those men, "gifted with 
thoughts above their thoughts," have shown an amount 
of feeling, only to be explained by a holy consciousness 
of the part which the monument is one day to serve, in 
manifesting forth in modes adapted to these and the 
approaching times, the original and ineffable inspiration 
of Scripture, — as well as the practical reasons for ex- 
pecting the return of our Lord to an undoubted personal 
reign for a miraculous season over the entire earth. 

* 1 Chronicles xxiii. 29. 

t 1 Kings vii. 29 \ and 2 Chronicles iv. 5. 

X See John David Michaelis, of Gottingen, " On the Plans which 
Moses took for the Regulation of Weights and Measures ; " at pp. 454 — 
470 of vol. ii. of his ''Hehrew Weights and Measures." See also my 
"Life and Work," pp. 498—507 of vol. iii. 


Old Testament Witnesses to the Great Pyramid. 

So well, too, were the mechanical steps for the founda- 
tion of the Great Pyramid understood (these steps being 
the heavy preliminary works of preparation and subter- 
ranean masonry described by Herodotus as having 
characterised the Great Pyramid, and declared by Lepsius 
to have been eschewed in every other pyramid erected 
altogether by, and for, Cainite Egyptian idolaters), — so 
well, I say, were these features understood by the in- 
spired writers, that the mysterious things of Nature, 
visible to, but not easily apprehended by, men in the 
early ages, were occasionally described in terms of 
these more exact features of the Great Pyramid. 

Thus, when we read in Job xxxviii., marginally cor- 
rected, that the Lord answered the patriarch out of the 
whirlwind, demanding with power, — 

""Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth ? declare, 
if thou knowest understanding. 

'* Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest ? or who hath 
stretched the line upon it ? 

" Whereupon are the sockets thereof made to sink ? or who laid the 
corner- stone thereof ; 

"When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God 
shouted for joy ?" 

— it is quite plain (since at least John Taylor first pointed 
it out; for to him we owe almost entirely this branch of 
the subject) that if the creation of the earth is here 
alluded to, it is described under a type of something 
else, and not as the earth .really was created ; or both as 
we know it by modem science to be, and as it was 
described in chap. xxvi. of the same book of Job, in the 
following words : — 

" He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the 
earth upon nothing." 

The earliest of the first quoted descriptions might 
apply to the building of any ordinary house ; but as 


successive practical features are enumerated, the build- 
ing of a stone pyramid by careful measure, and in the 
Promethean, and forethought, manner of the Great 
Pyramid, on a previously prepared platform of rock, is 
the only known work that will fully correspond. 

The stretching of the line wpon it, is more applicable 
to the inclined surface of a pyramid with an angle to 
the horizon of 51° 51', than to the vertical walls of any 
ordinary house ; and — after the pointed and most 
apposite question, " Canst thou bind the sweet influ- 
ence of Pleiades?" — the further Divine interrogation, 
— " Knowest thou the ordinances of the heavens ? 
Canst thou set the dominion thereof in the earth?" — 
has been happily explained very lately by the Rev. 
F. R. A. Glover. For he shows it to be, the Great 
Pyramid's chronological use of the grand celestial cycle 
of the precession of the equinoxes, taken in connection 
with a particular polar distance and meridian transit 
of the circumpolar star a Draconis ; the memorial of 
which stellar position, "dominant in the earth," is 
exhibited by the lower portion of the entrance-passage 
of the Great Pyramid, set backwards and downwards 
into, and deep, deep into, the solid rock of the hill, in 
precisely such a direction as to suit the critical position 
of that star under the influence of precession at the 
very epoch of the Pyramid's foundation. 

But what was meant by " the sockets thereof being 
made to sink," — might have been uncertain, had it not 
been for the researches of the French savants at the 
Great Pyramid in 1800; for the}^ described, without 
reference to this sentence, the remarkable sockets which 
had been formed in the previously levelled area of rock 
on which this Pyramid stands ; and (with the assistance 
of the more modern investigations in 1865) the manner 
in which each of the lower four corner-stones of the 
Pyramid were fitted into these prepared hollows in the 

Chap.XXIIL] the great pyramid. 439 

rock, — causing them to become at once the fiducial 
points from which all measurers have, ever since then, 
stretched their measuring-lines on the building. 

Four of the five corner-stones of the Pyramid are thus 
indicated as of Scriptural notice ; while the fifth, which 
is in fact of an entirely diverse character and greater 
importance, being not one of the foundations, but the 
topmost portion of the whole building, is alluded to 
in Job separately ; more gloriously ; and even as being 
the finishing and crowning portion of the whole in- 
tended work. For when that topmost corner-stone, 
emphatically called " the corner-stone," was finally 
placed, — it is said that the act was greeted by " the 
morning stars singing together, and all the sons of God 
shouting for joy." 

The Biblical interpretation of the passages here 
alluded to is, of course, "the faithful and the true 
converts;" "as many as are led by the Spirit of God, 
they are the sons of God." And all such who were 
present at the time, rejoiced in seeing the completion of 
the Great Pyramid with a joy far exceeding what the 
erection of any ordinary building, however palatial, 
might have been expected to give them ; for their cry, 
when the head-stone of this one " great mountain was 
brought out with shoutings," took the exquisite form of 
" Grace, grace unto it !"* And if they so cried, and it 
is so reported in the Holy Bible, was it not because 
they recognised that that stone had been appointed by 
Divine wisdom, and in the mystery of God's primeval 
proceedings towards man, to recall some essential ideas 
connected with the one central point about which all 
Scripture revolves ; viz., the Son of God, His incarnation 
and sacrifice for the salvation of man. But of this we 
shall be instructed more clearly in the New Testament. 

* Zech. iv. 7. 


l^ew Testament Allusions to the Great Pyramid. 

From a practical worker like St. Paul, we have even 
a most methodical illustration, in the use which he 
makes of certain constructive differences between the 
four lower corner-stones, and the single corner-stone 
above ; constructive differences which, if applicable to 
any other building at all, are only fully applicable to 
the wonderful Great Pyramid ; for his words are — 

" Ye are fellow-citizens of the saints, and of the 
household of God ; and are built upon the foundation 
of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being 
the chief corner-stone, in whom the whole building, fitly 
framed together, groweth unto an holy temple in the 

This fitly framing of the whole building as it grows 
from a broad base upwards into one corner-stone above, 
and which is called the chief, the upper, corner-stone, — 
was shown by John Taylor to be an unmistakeable allu- 
sion to the Great Pyramid ; and this same noble figura- 
tive employment of that particular topmost stone, viz., 
its representation of the Messiah, and His crowning the 
scheme of the redemption of man, — is one frequently 
employed in Holy Scripture ; as in Psalm cxviii. 2 2 ; 
in the Gospels, and the Epistles.t The stone is there 
alluded to, not only as the chief corner-stone, " elect 
and precious," made " the head of the corner " (which 
is only perfectly and pre-eminently true of the topmost 
angle of a pyramid), but as having been for a long time 
*' disallowed by the builders," and existing only as " a 
stone of stumbling and a rock of offence to them."| 

* Ephes. ii. 19. See also J. Taj^lor's " Great Pyramid," pp. 208—243. 

t Matt. xxi. 42 ; Mark xii. 10 ; Luke xx. 17 ; Acts iv. 11 ; 1 Peter ii. 4. 

X In the important theological work by the Rev. John Harrison, D.D., 
"Whose are the Fathers," there is, at pp. 163—172, a very able repre- 
sentation of the special exigences of mere ecclesiasticism in the narrow, 


* The simile is easily and perfectly applicable to our 
Saviour's appearance on earth ; yet evidently, from the 
very principle of all such figurative allusions, a some- 
thing bearing on the nature of the figure made use of, 
must, Mr. Taylor urged, have been existing on the earth 
before ; or it would never have been employed. 

Now we know that the Great Pyramid did stand on 
its desert hill before any of the inspired authors wrote; 
and also, that they seem to have been spiritually con- 
versant with many principles of its construction, although 
they were not visitors to the land of Egypt ; and it is 
they who allude to some notorious objections by the 
builders against the head corner-stone, while their work 
was in progress. 

What were these ? 

The stones required for building the Great Pyramid 
Avere evidently, from the quarry-marks and instructions 
to the masons still Legible upon some of them, prepared 
at the quarries according to the architect's orders a long 
time beforehand. For the vast majority, too, of stones, 
nothing but one unvarying figure, rather flattish and 
chiefiy rectangular, was required. But amongst them, 
and different therefrom, one was ordered which did not 
chime in with any of the Egyptian building notions, 
certainly not of their temples, tombs, or palaces. For, 
in place of being cubic, or with nearly parallel sides and 
rectangular comers, this single stone was all acutely 
angled, all sharp points ; so that turn it over on any 
side as it lay on the ground, one sharp corner was 
always sticking up in the air ; as, too, could not but be 
the case when the stone was a sort of model pyramid 

albeit learned, view which ecclesiastics take of all those texts, and all this 
long line of symhology founded in all architecture and all history. For the 
one point to and tor which everything else is there made to exist, is, the 
phrase used hy our Lord to Peter (Matt. xvi. 18) ; and what advantage 
the Roman Catholic Church has, or has not, though it is denied by Pro- 
testants that it has any, over other Christian churches, in consequence of it. 


in itself, with five sides, five corners, and sixteen distinct 

Such a stone was of course " a stone of stumbling 
and a rock of offence"! to builders whose heads did 
not understand, and hearts did not appreciate, the work 
they were engaged upon. It was to them " the terrible 
crystal ; " + the pointed stone " on which whosoever 
shall fall, shall be broken;" and so huge a stone as a 
coping for the vast structure of the whole Great 
Pyramid, that "on whomsoever it shall fall, it will 
grind him to powder." § 

Yet when once this unique, five-cornered, and many- 
angled stone was raised up to its intended place on the 
summit of the Great Pyramid, the propriety of its 
figure must have appeared evident to every impartial 
beholder ; though the Egyptian workmen, as may be 
gathered from Herodotus, forcibly prevented from 
breaking out into open opposition, yet went on con- 
cealing sinful hatred in their hearts ; and did — after 
the deaths of Cheops and Chephren, and after the 
Shepherd-Prince Philitis had left the country — return 
with renewed vehemence to their bestial idolatry under 
Mencheres, "like dogs to their vomit or the sow that 
was washed to her wallowing in the mire." II 

For such determined resisters of grace was surely 
prepared, in their very midst, that type of the bottom- 
less pit, the subterranean chamber in the Great Pyramid, 
yawning to receive them : — 

" For they are all delivered unto death, to the nether parts of the 
earth, in the midst of the children of men, with them that go down to the 

"This is Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord God." — 
Ezek. xxxi. 14 and 18. 

But again, and now for the instruction of . back- 
sliding Israel, this prophetic and historic monument — 

* John Taylor's "Great Pyramid," pp. 262—275. 

Chap.XXIIL] the great pyramid, 443 

which, like Melchizedek, had no predecessor, was 
without architectural parentage or descent, and yet 
took rank at once as the greatest of all architecture up 
to the present time, — this more than historic monu- 
ment, I say, seems to speak to us in the words of the 
only wise Architect : — 

"I have declared the former things from the beginning; and they 
went forth out of my mouth, and I shewed them ; / did them suddenly y 
and they came to pass." 

" I have even from the beginning declared it to thee ; before it came to 
pass I shewed it to thee ; lest thou shouldest say, Mine idol hath done 
them, and my graven image and my molten image, hath commanded 
them." — Isa. xlviii. 3 and 5. 

Never, then, was there any building so perfect as the 
Great Pyramid in fulfilling both the earliest words of 
the Lord given by Inspiration, and also the New Testa- 
ment types of the Messiah. And if the Great Pyramid 
is not mentioned in so clear a manner in the New 
Testament, that all men may instantly see it, whether 
by name, or figure, that may arise from — as circum- 
stances still to be related will indicate — its being con- 
nected with the Second and future, rather than with 
that First and past. Coming of Christ, which the New 
Testament was mainly to chronicle and expound. 




THOUGH everything else may fail to convince some 
minds that our nation is born to noblest heritages; 
that the Biblical history of mankind (no matter what 
protoplasm philosophers on one side, and believers in 
German linguistic theories on the other, may choose to 
aver) is a living and material reality ; and that, too, not 
only for what has already come to pass in history 
touching the favoured family of the Hebrews, but also 
for the working out of the prophecies still remaining to 
be accomplished respecting the two opposed, and distinc- 
tive, branches of that people; viz., the Israelites of the 
captivity of the Samarian Kingdom of Israel on the 
one hand, and the Jews of the destruction of, and dis- 
persion from, Jerusalem under Titus, on the other ; — 
though everything else, I add, may fail to convince 
some minds, that our nation may reasonably consider 
itself to a large extent descended from the former 
(though they were lost to the view of mankind 2,500 
years ago), and owes its present unexampled prosperity 
and power to the special favour of God, far above 
its own intrinsic deserts (and should bow in humility 
and adoration accordingly), — the most convincing 
proof, I say, of these things to some minds may 
be, — to note certain recent episodes of our national 
history ; and to mark what disasters might well have 



befallen us according to the ruling of our statesmen for 
the time being, whether on one side of politics or the 
other, — yet how the nation was preserved, and even 
strengthened, notwithstanding. 

Shall our public ministers then continue in their 
erring courses in order that the nation may abundantly 
prosper ? — God forbid ; that were to tempt God. And 
though the whole science of statesmanship may be far 
too mysteriously deep and difficult for any one man to 
presume to point out to another where the whole duty 
of a Prime Minister lies, — yet there is one rather neg- 
lected department of that officer's duty, wherein the 
very nature of the case allows of clear and simple 
mathematical views, capable of all men's understanding, 
being introduced ; and this subject is the Great Pyra- 
mid's special one of metrology : a national as well as 
sacred matter too, though not yet studied from that 
side of the question by any British minister. 

A worthy science, indeed, long ill treated and despised 
of almost all men, is metrology ; and yet there cannot 
be the shadow of a doubt, that we are now on the eve 
of movements of the whole human race in connection 
with it ; all educated communities beginning now to 
acknowledge it to be a marvellous power with germs of 
political influence of the highest order; specially adapted, 
too, for the working out of some of the grandest 
developments of the future. Every nation until now 
has had its own hereditary system of weights and 
measures ; curiously intertwined no doubt with those 
of other nations in their distant primeval origins, vul- 
garized perhaps and even largely debased in times of 
mediaeval darkness, as well as pestiferously meddled 
wdth and complicated by the doctrinaires of new-born 
modern and o'ervaulting schools, — but still there was 
hitherto something more or less national to every nation 
in its metrology, as 'in its language; and serving the 



same purposes as tlie diversity of tongues in keeping 
up the heaven-appointed institution of nations; — the 
chief characteristic of all mankind from the days of the 
dispersion ; unknown before that event, but never for 
one moment ceasing since then. What, therefore, is 
likely to be the result of man seeking in these days, 
by mean of his own devices, to undermine that institu- 
tion of nations, and even endeavouring to quench it off 
the face of God's earth ? 

Whatever the result, the action to produce it has 
already begun ; and the first weapon ordained to be 
used, and the first breach to be made in the barriers of 
national distinctions, is that of weights and measures. 
So that, without probably having distinctly contem- 
plated the issue, yet most of the existing civilized 
nations have for years past been tending, not to go 
forward, but to bring all men back to the old, old state 
they were in when they attempted to build the Tower 
of Babel ; and from which nothing drove them then, 
but a supra-natural manifestation of the power of God. 

Progress of the Communistic French Metre. 

Several centuries ago, and even less, there were nearly 
a hundred varieties of linear standards in use through 
Europe, but one of them after another has latterly 
dropped out of view, until it was reported at the 
French Exposition of 1867, that only thirteen could 
then be discovered ; and since that epoch, all save 
three or four of them, are said to have practically 
perished, and the metre to be gaining adherents from 
even their votarigs, every day.* 

" There 'SaF^-therefore," says the pro-French metric 
President Barnard, ''been large progress made toward 

* ** The Metrical System," by President Barnard, Columbia College, 

U.S., 1872. 



uniformity, and the most important steps, and the most 
significant steps, are those which have been taken within 
our own century !" — "No man not totally regardless of 
the history of the past, and not absolutely blind to what 
is taking place under his own eye in the present, can 
possibly pretend to believe that the world is to be for 
ever without a uniform system of weights and measures ; 
we cannot suppose that the progress already indicated is 
going to be arrested at the point at which it has now 
reached ! " — ■" Of the two systems, therefore, just now 
indicated as the systems between which the world must 
choose, unless in regard to this matter it shall hence- 
forth stand still for ever, — one or the other must 
sooner or later prevail ! ! " And he considers that of 
these two, the British yard and the French metre, the 
latter is certain to triumph in the end. 

This result has by no means come about altogether 
spontaneously, or through unseen and only natural 
influences ; the mind of man has had much to do with 
it, and it has been the one polar point to which French 
ambition has alone been steady and true during the 
last eighty years ; always working for it whether 
sleeping or waking : whether in war or peace, always 
endeavouring to throw the net of her metrical system 
of weights and measures over other nations as well as 
her own people ; and though not without some Im- 
perial ambition to chain many conquered nations to the 
chariot wheels of France, yet with the far deeper Com- 
munistic feeling of converting all the nations of the 
earth into one great people, speaking one language and 
using but one weight and one measure, and that of 
human, as directly opposed to Divine, origination. 

France had been consistent in her own case ; she 
had begun, at her first Revolution, by slaughtering off 
all the accessible individuals of her reigning family ; 
who, as such, were the very type and symbol to the 


French people of their being a nation, one amongst 
many nations ; or of their living under that post-Babel 
institution. Having then, at that dreadful close of the 
last century, killed off, as far as she then could, all her 
royal family, her priests also, and openly abrogated 
belief in the God of Scripture, she (France) could, at 
that time, of all nations consistently, and with show 
of demonstrable reason, become the champion of the 
metric, or anti-nation-existence metrological system ; a 
system since then everywhere secretly adopted by the 
Socialists, Internationalists, Communists in all countries ; 
and, strange to say, by certain scientific men also, in 
some cases claiming, in others scorning, to be reputed 

The task of spreading this nationally suicidal scheme 
over all the nations of the world, might seem at first 
quite Quixotic ; and would be, but for schemes and 
forces in the destiny of man, which man knows little or 
nothing about, until they have accomplished their ends 
and left him to rue their effects. So that it is owing 
at least as much to those unseen influences as to the 
direct action of any visible Frenchman, that the French 
metric system has been going forward during the last 
few years of history at a continually accelerated rate ; 
and that one country after another has been persuaded 
to adopt it, until suddenly it has been found, to our 
exceeding astonishment and practical isolation, that 
almost every nation in Europe, and many peoples in 
Asia, Africa, and America, have already been converted. 

France herself, strango to say, has not profited by 
the system either in war or peace. In war she has been 
lately defeated with greater overthrows than even the 
Persian empire of old ; and the fighting faculty has 
abandoned her soldiers almost as completely as it did the 
Babylonians towards the calamitous end of their once 
powerful independence, or the grandsons of the soldiers 


of Alexander the Great, when the Romans slaughtered 
them in battle with the utmost ease ; while in peace, 
France's commercial transactions, though continually 
being ** re-organized " on metrical science, remain far 
below those of Great Britain. Yet still she (France) calls 
upon all nations, and so many of these nations answer her 
call with delight, and madly encourage each other, to 
clothe themselves with this latter-day invention of hers ; 
which, if successful, must, in so far as it goes, tend to 
decrease the nationality, if not to hasten on the final 
disappearance, of every nation adopting it. 

Only three years ago there was published by a 
committee of Columbia College, United States, an excel- 
lent little book entitled the " Metric System." Drawn 
up chiefly by their Professor of the higher mathe- 
matics (Charles Davies), and approved by those then in 
power, — this work demonstrated unsparingly the artifi- 
cial character of the French metrical system, the innu- 
merable patches which it required in practice to make 
it hold water at all, the errors of its science, its inap- 
plicability to the ordinary affairs of the mass of human 
kind ; and concluded with reprinting the celebrated 
report on weights and measures by John Quincey 
Adams : which report, after indulging in the utmost 
oratorical vehemence for saying whatever could be said 
as a partisan for either side of the question successively, 
concludes with recommending all good United States 
men to have as little as possible to do with the French 
standards ; but to feel hopefully confident that the in- 
evitable development of the world's history would, 
sooner or later, bring up some far better system for the 
future happiness and prosperity of mankind. 

But three short years have so accelerated the growth 
of French metric influence, or the predestined metro- 
logical temptation and trial of the whole world, — that all 
the parties to that first book upon thfe Metre seem now to 

G G 


have vanished out of existence ; and a new work, with 
the same title but totally opposite principles, was 
produced last year, to order of new governors, by the new 
President (Barnard) of the same college. An enormous 
issue of this last book is now being thrown off for dis- 
tribution gratuitously far and wide, and (as our extracts 
from it have already indicated) it is ecstatically in favour 
of the French metric system being adopted by all 
Americans with the utmost possible speed. And when 
that is brought about, the author declares that Britain, 
Russia, and the Scandinavian countries will be the only 
known dissentients among educated peoples. 

Scandinavia, however, it is asserted, has already been 
exhibiting some leanings towards the metric system ; 
Russia is in the hands of her German officials, who are 
all now metric men, both at home and abroad ; and 
Britain herself, who has hitherto successfully resisted 
private Bills in the House of Commons in favour of 
French metricalism, is told at last that there shall be a 
Government Bill next year. If that be carried, Russia 
and Scandinavia are expected immediately to yield ; and 
all the nations of the world will then have .passed through 
the great French mill, whose whirling stones will never 
cease to grind, until, excepting only those sealed by 
God, " it has caused all, both small and great, rich and 
poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right 
hand or in their foreheads ; and that no man might buy 
or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the 
beast, or the number of his name." (Rev. xiii. 16, 17.) 

Preparations made hy the British Government. 

Meanwhile, what have the ministers of Great Britain 
been doing either to fend off this dire calamity, or to 
embrace and make the most of this happy invention. 


whichever of the two they may deem it to be ? In parlia- 
mentary bills, nothing at all : and in private study, there 
is reason to fear, as little. Our Prime Minister's last 
work on the old, old subject of the poems of Homer, 
came out almost simultaneously with the announcement 
from Paris of twenty nations being about to meet there 
in fraternal union and international congress on their 
growing metric system ; and since then, cruelly remind- 
ing of Nero playing his lyre while Rome was burning, 
the same eloquent orator has written on the superior 
glory of that man who invented a fiddle, over him who 
achieved the modern locomotive, the support of millions 
on millions of mankind ! 

Perhaps it was better for the British country that that 
minister should have been so employed ; for he might 
have done worse than merely let us drift on under 
other guidance than his. But things cannot and will 
not, stop there : this view, the pro-French metric 
champion. President Barnard, makes very plain. We 
may indeed thus far have been saved from a pit of 
evil vastly more profound than appears on the surface ; 
but politically we have not as yet reached any haven 
of metrological safety ; no soundings are touched ; no 
secure principles for anchoring to, reached ; and no argu- 
ments of sufficient power to stand before the specious 
insinuations of French metrical agitators have yet been 
uttered in the House of Commons. We have our 
ancient national measures still, but with all their 
mediaeval and modern imperfections on their head ; and 
the attacks, open and concealed, of the metrical party 
upon them on that account, are unceasing. That party, 
moreover, has gained over the School Board Commis- 
sion ; the new office of the Warden of the Standards has 
been gorgeously supplied with expensive apparatus for 
French vacuum weighing and measuring ; and men 
who ought to have died rather than give up their 


opinions of a dozen years ago, have swallowed them 
all, and join now in recommending the total de- 
nationalization of our ancient metrology. 

How long will our plastic rulers, accustomed to take 
demagogic pressure from without, in place of principle, 
knowledge, and understanding, stand firm against such 
agitation ? 

The very anxiety of President Barnard and the 
metricalists to bring on the final struggle as between 
the French metre and the English yard, shows that 
they have good reason to know that there is weakness 
in the supporters of the latter. Some involuntary 
throbbing, moreover, in the pulse of humanity is now 
telling all nations, with deeper truth than any philo- 
sophy can, that these are the last times of this dispensa- 
tion ; and that we are now or never to decide a long, long, 
future. " If the work was to be done over again," writes 
President Barnard, with an admirable sense of justice, 
*' the French metric system ought to adopt, and doubt- 
less would adopt, not their superficial earth measure 
the metre, but the Pyramid axial reference of the cubit, 
on account of its immense superiority in science.* But 
it is not to be done over again," he says, " and never 
can or will be ; we must choose the metrical system as 
it is now or not at all ; it has already been taken up 
by half mankind, and no able system of human inven- 
tion will ever have such a chance of universal adoption ; 
while no system that cannot and will not become uni- 
versal, is to be tolerated for a moment. Now the British 
yard, or its third part, the foot," adds the President, 
" being only the measure of one nation, will always be 

* This acknowledgment of President Barnard, at pp. 93 and 94 of his 
book, does him immense honour, he being an out-and-out pro-metre man; 
and it is of all the more weight that he gives an abler discussion of the 
present condition of the earth-size and shape question by modern geodesic 
measure, in all its most scientific ramifications, than has ever yet been 
seen in print, in a readable form. 


resisted by the majority of nations, — therefore the metre 
must in the end gain the day." 

The, Bione jprepared without Hands. 

But is the final contest only between the metre and 
the British yard or foot ? The anti-metric men in the 
House of Commons have hitherto succeeded in estab- 
lishing nothing against the idea ; and President Barnard 
says, both that it is so, and that all the wealth and 
numbers of mankind throughout all the world are 
divided on these two sides only. He does, indeed, allow 
in one place that there is a phantom of a third side, 
viz., the Great Pyramid metrology ; but declares that 
that, having only a religious foundation, will never 
accumulate any large party about it.* 

Since the days of Sennacherib defying the God of 
Israel, was there ever a speech more likely to call forth 
proof, in its own good time, that the arm of the Lord is 
not shortened ? We see in Scotland already what the 
belief, that it is the Lord who appointed the chrono- 
logical institution of the week, will do to make that 
one time-measure binding on a whole nation ; and 
will the men of that land not also adhere to any such 
other weights and measures in the future, as they shall 

* The exact words are, at p. 56 : — "And one who, like Professor Piazjd 
Smyth, bases his metrologieal theories on religious grounds, and prefers 
tlie Pyramid inch as his standard, as a matter of conscience, is not likely 
to concentrate around him a very powerful party of opposition." 

Here everything in the way of linear standards for the Pyramid system 
is made by President Barnard to rest on the inch ; and he intensifies that 
accusation at p. 73 by writing : — " C. Piazzi Smyth almost fanatically 
attaches himself to the inch, a measure which he believes with implicit 
fiith to have been divinely given to Cheops, builder of the Great 
Pyramid, and ai^ain to Moses in the wilderness; and in what he, no 
doubt, reyjards as the great work of his life, ho uses no other term to 
express the largeist dimensions." I can only therefore refer my readers 
to all that I have written in this book, as well as others, upon the grand 
standard of the Pyramid, and the only one certainly common to it and 
Moyes, being the cubit. 


come in time to understand were likewise appointed 
from the same Divine source ? 

President Barnard, in stating the conquests of the 
French metrical system at the utmost, bows involun- 
tarily to the religious element ; by the act of stating, not 
merely that, the metre has been adopted by 160,000,000 
men, but by that number of civilized people "in 
Christian lands." Yet in that case, if those inhabitants 
are truly Christian, will not they all, as well as 
Britons, delight to obey in the end, whatever shall 
be proved to have been appointed by Christ in the 
beginning of the world ? Especially if in evident an- 
ticipation of present and future times ; viz., of " the 
last days, when scoffers are to appear, walking after 
their own lusts and saying, Where is the promise of 
His Coming (Christ's Second Coming as a King) ? for 
since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they 
were from the beginning of creation." 

The Parties to the Final Contest. 

It is, indeed, most curiously but intimately, between 
the French metre and the Messianic Great Pyramid cubit, 
that the final contest must come ; for the present Britfsh 
weights and measures, as established by recent parlia- 
mentary laws only, are evidently doomed to fall. 

Now the metric and the Pyramid systems, though on 
every other point utterly opposed, are yet in this one 
feature, perfectly similar to each other ; viz., that they 
both tend to break down the post-Babel separation of 
men into nations, and combine them all into one grand 
government : but then, how is this principle carried out, 
by whom, for whom, and to what ends, in either case ? 

The French metric system, though it is not a hundred 
years old, is wanted by its promoters to override every- 
thing else in the world, of whatever age, and whatever 
origin. All nations are to bow down to it ; and though 


it is found, as it has been at every essential point, full of 
scientific blunders, and teeming with sacrifices of the 
comforts and conveniences of the poor and many, to the 
mere crotchets of a few doctrinaires in the upper classes, 
— it is never to be altered, never improved on, never 
replaced in its rule over all mankind by anything else 
of similar human invention ; — no, not though the pre- 
sent order of human life, national distinctions ex- 
cepted, goes on upon this earth, as the human prophets 
of the system say it will, for so very many hundreds 
of thousands of millions of years that the physical earth 
itself will have grown out of shape and size to that 
degree, as to become totally unfit to serve as a standard 
of reference for the mighty metre, the grand symbol of 
human rule in man, for man, and by man himself alone. 
Wherefore President Barnard already, in concert with 
other metricalists, though introducing the metre to the 
world, first of all as a scientific earth-measure, yet 
finally allows that they do not care whether it is, or is 
not, of that character; for they intend, by-and-by, to 
shut out all commensurable reference to the heavens 
above and the earth below ; and simply adopt, within a 
closed chamber, a particular bar. of metal made by man, 
as the grand metrological term in which all men, — of 
many nations originally, but soon, they think, to be 
swept together into one vast commune, — shall live and 
move and have any understanding of material things. 

The Great Pyramid system, on the other hand, is the 
oldest metrological system in the history of the world ; 
has its traces extensively among European peoples ; and 
is next to perfect in all those scientific points where the 
French system fails. It is moreover full of benevolence 
and compassion for the poor and needy, besides teaching 
that their anguish and woes will last but a few years 
more ; for then, agreeably with the Scriptures, Christ 
himself will again descend from heaven, this time with 


angels and archangels accompanying, and will give to 
man at last that perfect and righteous government which 
man alone is incapable of; and so shall the Saviour 
reign over all nations brought under his one heavenly 
sceptre, until that Millennial termination arrives, when 
time shall be no more ; and the mystery of God with 
regard to the human race will be accomplished. 

HuTKian, versus Divine, Ultimate Rule. 

Even within the moderate bounds of only one nation, 
and for a short space of time, how totally insufficient is 
the best human government, to check the evils of 
humankind ! 

With all England's present wealth and science, or not- 
withstanding it all, pauperism is increasing in the land ; 
rich men are richer, but poor men are more numerous 
and more hopelessly poor, and chiefly in the great cities ; 
for there, in truth, the distressed, the miserable, the sick, 
the vicious, the under-educated, the persecuted and the 
persecutors of society, multiply beyond the rate of all 
government, all philanthropy, to procure any permanent 
relief or hope of amendment. A good country landlord 
may perhaps be able to supervise, help,. and befriend to 
some limited extent every person in his little provincial 
community of men of humble ambition and simple life ; 
but in the large towns, whence the great wonders of 
modern civilization emerge — there, in precise proportion 
as the towns are large, and a few of the inhabitants 
rich beyond all measure — there the houses of the dregs 
of the population, and the progressive debasement of 
humanity are beyond belief, and go on increasing every 
day ; — recalling with awe the denunciations of Scrip- 
ture against those who join house to house beyond 
human power of controlling results.* 

* " The truth is that our wealthy and upper classes do not fully realize 
the manifold dangers to society arising in the overcrowded dwellings of 


But, throw all nations into one vast community or 
family of the human kind, as the universal adoption of 
the French metrical system would be the beginning of, — 
and then, no matter whether the movement had been 
made sicker (Scottic^ for surer) by the First French 
Revolution plan of decapitating all members of royal 
families, and whether socialistic communes had been 
established in more or fewer lands, — the scales for doing 

the poor. They see only the wonderful advances made every day in 
whatever can add to the comforts, conveniences, pleasures, and' luxuries 
of their own living. They never dream that their wealth, splendour, and 
pride, is surrounded by a cordon of squalor, demoralization, disease, and 

" The higher classes are slow to realise the fact, that in all our large 
centres of population there is an ever-increasing amount of poverty, 
immorality, and disease." 

"From statistical returns in London, bearing on the condition of St. 
Giles's, it appears that there were in one district 600 families, and of these 
570 severally occupied but one room each. In another, of 700 families, 550 
occupied but one room each. In another district, out of 500 families, 450 
occujied one room each. Jn one of these rooms, 12 feet by 13 feet, by 7^ 
feet high, eight persons lived. In another room, 13 feet by 5 feet, by 6^ 
feet high, five children and their parents lived." 

" In Manchester small houses are packed together as closely as possible, 
and in them are stowed away an enormous amount of the poorer part of the 
population. Six persons in one room, — only one room to live in, sleep in, 
and in which to transact all the avocations of life." 

" In Liverpool, 26,000 houses are occupied by families in single rooms, 
or a third of the whole population exists under these unsatisfactory con- 
ditions, — producing disease, immorality, pauperism, and crime ; truth and 
honesty are, to human beings so debased, mere names." 

** Our railway extensions, street improvements, the erection of new 
houses, public and other buildings, rendered necessary by our ever- 
increasing prosperity, act with the force of a screw, forcing decent families 
to quit comfortable houses, and in many cases they have no alternative 
but to accept shelter in already over-crowded and demoralised neighbour- 
hoods, where there is little light, drainage, water, or ventilation, and no 
proper convenience for natural wants— and what happens ? After a few 
weeks the strong man is bowed down, and the children are left an increase 
of pauperism to society." — Extract from the "Social Crisis in England," 
by W. Martin: Birmingham, 1873. 

" At the Manchester City Police Court lately, a man and woman, 
baby-farmers, living at 126, Knightly Street, Queen's Road, wore charged 
with the murder of a ffjmale infant. They wore also charged with attempt' 
ing to murder two female infants and one male. The former were dis- 
covered lying together on some dirty straw, covered with an old damp 
blanket; the latter was being nursed by a boy, and the woman was 
detected in the act of trying to conceal the body of the dead child. Two 
ounces of mouldy flour was the only eatable thing found in the house." — 
Edinburgh daily paper, 1873. 


mercantile business and for speculating on in every 
element of life, must enlarge enormously : v/iththe inevit- 
able result, on one side, of a few clever geniuses making 
more colossal fortunes, whether honestly or otherwise, 
than ever ; but on the other side, of the wretchedness, 
the woe, the wickedness, and the degradation of the chief 
mass of the population going on increasing in all large 
centres of gathering together, and becoming more terrible 
in the long future ages than anything chronicled yet. 

Contrast this inevitable outcome of human rule, in- 
creasing infinitely in disaster if continued for unlimited 
time unchecked by anything above the laws of nature as 
philosophers see them now, — with the sacred system of 
the Messiah's monarchy when He shall be in presence 
and power over all. . A faint idea of only one of the 
characteristics of that kingdom was given in the happy 
condition of equality in health and relative prosperity, 
in the camp of the Israelites, when setting forth out 
of Egypt with Moses ; not under human rule only, but 
under the guidance also of the Angel of the Covenant : 
and when " there was not one Aveak one amongst them." 

What are all the triumphs of human learning to that 
glorious result in a great nation ; and where has anything 
like it been seen either before or since ? 

But in place of approaching such a desirable consum- 
mation for our perishing, yet increasing, millions, modern 
science and the churches, politics, war, and police, 
are swerving further and further from it every day. 
Yet poor science, in so far as it is for once truly so 
called, often maligned and never wealthy, — viz., the 
exact mathematical science of such men as the late 
Archdeacon Pratt, and which was " not at variance with 
Revelation," — has yet proved herself of precious service 
to all mankind, if she has enabled us in the present 
day of growing doubts, and hearts failing them for fear. 


to read off the great pre-historical, and prophetic, 
monument of Melchizedek in the land of Egypt ; an( 
to find that, besides scientific metrological knowledge, 
it utters things which have been kept secret from the 
foundation of the world ; things which not even the 
Apostles were permitted to know of, 1840 years ago, 
viz., times and seasons which are in God's power alona. 
Wherefore thus it is, that the Gre9,t Pyramid is now, 
and only now, beginning to announce that a termination 
to the greatest misery of the greatest numbers of human 
beings, or to their continuing indefinitely under mere 
human rule, whether of kings or of republics, — is v^ 
length drawing nigh, 




T ET US now cast a rapid glance over the principal 
-*-^ results obtained in the course of our long research. 

(1.) The Great Pyramid, an entirely prehistoric monu- 
ment, is found, though in Egypt, not to be of Egypt ; 
i.e., belonging to, or participating with, anything spiri- 
tually characteristic of that land and people in their 
long course of rebellion against the God of Revelation. 

(2.) By being in Egypt, which is central to the land 
surface of the whole world, the Great Pyramid becomes 
similarly central to the Kosmos of man's earthly life and 
habitation : but yet has no Egyptian building to compete 
with it for architectural intention to be in that remark- 
able position ; because it alone visibly stands with appro- 
priate topographical attributes, over the outspring of that 
country's delta, or rather fan-shaped, area of soil. At 
the centre of physical origination of the Lower Egyptian 
land, therefore, the Great Pyramid was placed ; yet by 
virtue of the sector-shape, both at the centre, and also at 
one side, of it, — -just as with that " altar or pillar to the 
Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt," and " at the 
border thereof" which is to be manifested in the last day 
(Isaiah xix. 18 — 20) : expressly to serve at that ultimate 
time "for a sign and witness unto the Lord of Hosts," 
as well as for a parable and wonder to all intervening 
ages (Jeremiah xxxii. 18 — 20). 

Chap.XXV.1 the great pyramid, 461 

(3.) At every structural point at which it is examined 
with sufficient minuteness, ability and knowledge, the 
Great Pyramid is found not only unlike the most charac- 
teristic buildings of the ancient people of Egypt, but 
is actually antagonistic to them. Especially is this the 
case in ih€,iT inveterate tendencies to idolatry, animal 
worship, assertions of self-righteousness, Cainite boastings 
of themselves, with contempt and hatred of all other 
peoples. And while all these native and indigenous 
buildings, together with the gigantic stone idols of 
Egypt, are doomed in the Scriptures to bow down, and 
their country to become the basest of kingdoms, — the 
Great Pyramid is alluded to in the most honourable 
manner, both in the New and Old Testaments ; its head- 
stone being even taken as a type of the Messiah ; and 
its being brought forth to view, having been described 
there, as a sight which caused the morning stars to sing 
together, and all the sons of God to shout for joy, with 
ci-ies of *' Grace, grace unto it ! " 

(4.) The Great Pyramid, in a land where all other 
characteristically Egyptian buildings are profusely deco- 
rated and covered from top to bottom, and both inside 
and out, with inscriptions of portentous length and size 
both in writing, painting, and sculpture, — the Great 
Pyramid has, in and upon its finished parts, "^'"^ no decora- 
tion, no painting, no inscription, no destination given 
to it, in any human language under the sun. 

And yet, while no other Egyptian buildings can speak 
to their own absolute dates, and have set all the scholars 
of mankind grievously astray on impossible, ridiculous, 
and totally anti-Biblical chronologic schemes, — the Great 
Pyramid sets forth its own absolute date on unerring 
grounds of astronomical science. Whereupon, being 
already allowed by the best Egyptologists to be relatively 

* Excepting, therefore, the oft-mentioned rude qnany-marks on the 
rough atouei* iu Col. Vyse'a " Hollows of Conbtruction.'* 


older than all other known buildings of any kind of 
pretence, whether in Egypt or any other part of the 
ancient world, — the Great Pyramid takes at once the 
lordly position of prescribing limits in time to all those 
other buildings, or we may say to all architecture what- 
ever ; and those Pyramid limits are now found to be in 
an eminent manner confirmatory of Holy Scripture. 

(5.) While every other ancient structure of Egypt, 
and in so far of the world, was built for its own time 
and its then owners, and has had in their day its utili- 
sation, its attendants, worshippers, frequenters or in- 
habiters, either living or dead, — the Great Pyramid has 
had no use ever made of it : no living man could enter its 
stone-filled passages when finished ; no dead body either 
was, or could have been regularly deposited there ; the 
coffer or so-called sarcophagus is too broad to pass in 
any way through the lower part of the first ascending 
passage ; — the king of that time, according to triple 
historical tradition, and recently found local indication, . 
was buried elsewhere ; neither, until the last very few 
years, was the building in any degree understood by any 
nation, though all nations have guessed at its hidden 
mystery, its parable in stone ; a prophetic and portentous 
parable, long since thrown in the very way of the ungodly 
in order that, " seeing they might see and not perceive, 
and hearing they might hear and not understand." 

A thousand years ago Al-Mamoun broke violently into 
the building, but discovered nothing of its design as now 
known ; and though others smashed many of the stones, 
chipped the edges of more, and performed whatever 
mischief man could perform with axes, hammers, and fire, 
— yet they have no more prevented certain grand ideas 
with which the whole was fraught in the beginning of 
the world, coming to be appreciated in these last very 
few years, — than did the destruction of the Temple of 
Solomon and the carrying away of all its golden vessels 


to assist in the service of idols in Babylon, — prevent 
the accomplishment of the Hebrew prophecies touching 
their chief end, the appearance of the Saviour of Man- 
kind among the Jews in Jerusalem. 

(6.) What then, is, or is to be, the end or use for 
which the Great Pyramid was built ? 

The confident public is too apt to override this ques- 
tion with the far lower demand to be promptly told, "Who 
built the Great Pyramid, and what was his name ? " 

If you mean who plodded at fulfilling in masonry the 
orders given to, and exacted from, them according to 
patterns furnished (some of which are still to be seen 
on the Pyramid Hill in the azimuth trenches and the 
trial passages),* — I answer,- — the subjects of the Fourth 
Dynasty's Egyptian king, Cheops in Greek, Shofo or 
Khoufou in Coptic ; and they were legion. 

But if you mean who furnished the design of the 
building and saw to its being realised, — even as the 
authorship of Milton's " Paradise Lost " was a far higher 
work than the hand labour of him who first set it up 
in type, — the answer is, Philitis in Greek, Shem or 
Melchizedek in Scripture. 

And now, those answers to interposed calls being 
rendered, let us return to the practical end for which 
the Great Pyramid was both designed and built. The 
manner of that end appears — on putting facts together 
— to have been, to subserve in the fifth thousand of 
years of its existence certain pre-ordained intentions of 
God's will in the government of this world of man. For 
the Pyramid was charged by God's inspired Shepherd- 

♦ A description of both of these very remarkable features, unexplain- 
able on any but the strictest *' Promethean," and scientific, theory, is 
given on pp. 125 and 185 of vol. ii. of '* Life and Work." While an 
account of the happy manner in which W. Petrie was enabled to elicit 
the " testimony of the trenches " in favour of the circle-squaring iu- 
tentiotial figure of the Great Pyramid, is to be fotmd in my " Antiquity of 
latoiloctual Man," at pp. 191—193. 


Prince, in the beginning of human time, to keep a 
certain message secret and inviolable for 4,000 years, and 
it has done so ; and in the next thousand years it was 
to enunciate that message to all men, with more than 
traditional force, more than the authenticity of copied 
manuscripts or reputed history, — and that part of the 
Pyramid's usefulness is now beginning. 

Only as yet beginning ; wherefore let no one jump 
too hastily at what the whole purpose may eventually 
prove itself to be. I, at least, — who have been drawn 
on by a train of events too wonderful for me to resist, 
to devote my best energies to this work ; in presence of 
which, I by myself am of the weakest of the things of 
the world, — I presume not to speak to any other than 
such parts of the building as have already practically 
developed themselves. Herein, too, enough seems now 
to have shone forth to enable any one to state roundly, 
that the message wherefor the Great Pyramid was built, 
is largely of a duplicate character ; or thus — 

(a.) To convey a new proof to men in the present 
age, as to the existence of the personal God of Scripture ; 
and of His actual supra-natural interferences, in patri- 
archal times, with the physical, and otherwise only sub- 
natural, experience of men upon earth. Or to prove 
in spite, and yet by means, of modern science which 
in too many cases denies miracles, the actual occurrence 
of an ancient miracle ; and if of one, the possibility of 
all, miracles recorded in Scripture being true. 

(b.) In fulfilment of the first prophecy in Genesis, 
which teaches, together with all the prophets, that of 
the seed of the woman without the man, a truly Divine 
Saviour of Mankind, was to arise and appear amongst 
men ; a man apparently amongst men ; in poverty, too, 
and humility ; in further fulfilment thereof, the Great 
Pyramid was to prove, — that precisely as that coming 
was a real historical event, and took place at a definite 


and long pre-ordained date, — so His second coming, 
when He shall descend as the Lord from heaven, with 
the view of reigning over all mankind and ruling them 
all with one Divine seeptre, and under one all-just, 
beneficent, omnipotent sway, that that great event will 
likewise be Kistorical, and will take place at a definite 
and also a primevally pre-arranged date. 

Now let us look a little closer into the first of these 
two reasons, or purposes ; viz. — 


In an age when writing was a rarity indeed, and barely 
more locomotion was indulged in by any of mankind 
than merely to roam with flocks and herds from summer 
to winter pasturage and vice versa, and this only in little 
more than one central region of the earth, — in that 
primitive age it was announced that the day would 
come, when of the multiplication of books there should 
be no end, — when knowledge should bo wonderfully 
increased, and men run to and fro over the whole earth, 
even as they are doing now by railway and steamer from 
London to the very Antipodes. In the interests of 
commerce they do it every day ; and in the interests of 
science, they are on the eve of specially doing it from 
every country of Europe and America, at unlimited ex- 
penditure of national wealth, — though only to gain a 
little more knowledge of the exact numbers to be set 
against a particular datum in astronomy which has 
already been ascertained within a hundredth of the 
whole amount, and has had thousands and tens of thou-- 
sands of money spent upon it. And all these countries 
are highly encouraged and applauded for so continuing* 
to spend their national resources and results of taxation 
of the people, because this is the scientific age of the 

H H 


world, when science-knowledge to the most minute and 
microscopic degree has so excessively developed amongst 
mankind, that every one is open-mouthed for science ; 
and science is supposed to enter into, and support, and 
deserve the best of, every ramification of life. 

Therefore, it would seem to be, that an Omniscient 
mind which foresaw in the beginning the whole history 
of the world under man, ordained that the message, 
arguments, proofs, of the Great Pyramid should not be 
expressed in letters of any written language whatever, 
whether living or dead ; — ^but in terms of scientific facts, 
or features amenable to nothing but science, i.e., a medium 
for the communication of ideas to be humanly known 
and interpretable, only in the latter day. The employ- 
ment of a written language, moreover, would have been a 
restricted mode of conveying the message essentially and 
characteristically to one nation alone ; whereas the Pyra- 
mid's message was intended for all men, even as Christ's 
kingly reign at His second coming is to be universal. 

Trace, too, the several scientific steps by which this 
purpose of the Great Pyramid is being, and has been, 
accomplished ; and note how each and every one of those 
steps, while of the most important class for all science, is 
yet of the simplest character to be looke'd on as being 
any science at all : — so that the poor in intellect, and 
neglected in education, who are the many, may partake 
of it, as well as the more highly favoured who are only 
a very few. 

Not in the day of the Great Pyramid at all, but rather 
since the revival of learning in Europe, no 'pure miathe- 
Tnatical question has taken such extensive hold on the 
human mind as, the " squaring of the circle." Quite 
right that it should be so, for a time at least, seeing that 
it is the basis alike of practical mechanics and high astro- 
nomy. But as its correct quantity has been ascertained, 
now more than one or two hundred years ago, and, under 

Chap. XXV.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 4.6^,. 

the form of tt, or the proportion of the diameter to the: 
circumference of a circle, is found in almost every 
text-book of mathematics to more decimal places than 
there is any practical occasion for (see page xvi.), — 
men might rest content and go on to other subjects. 
But numbers of them do not, and will not ; hardly 
a year passes even in the present day, but some new; 
squarer of the circle appears. Generally a self-educated 
man, and with the traditional notion in his head, 
that the proportion of length between the one line- 
already straight and the other to be made straight in a. 
circle, has never been ascertained yet ; and that either 
the Academy of Sciences in Paris or the Royal Society 
of London has offered a large reward to whoever will 
solve the problem : so down he sits to the task, and 
sometimes he brings out a very close approximation to. 
the first few places of figures in the fraction, by prac-. 
tical mechanics ; and sometimes by erroneous geometry 
he produces a very wide divergence indeed. But occa- 
sionally the most highly-educated university mathema- 
ticians also enter the field, and bring out perchatice 
some new algebraic series, by which a more rapid con- 
vergence than any yet invented to the true numbers of tt 
may be obtained ; see for instance such a case in the last 
volume (XVII.) of that most important one now amongst 
the scientific serials of the world, the Smithsonian con-, 
tributions to knowledge (Washington, 1873) ; besides its 
references to similarly intended formulae in other recent 
mathematical works. Wherefore that numerical expres- 
sion 3 14159 -h&c, is shown on all hands and in all 
countries, to be one of the most wonderful, lasting, char 
racteristic, and necessary results of the growth of science 
for all kinds and degrees of intellectual men ; and in an 
increasing proportion as they arrive at a high state o^ 
civilization, material progress, and practical development. 
Is it not then a little strange, that the first, aspect 


which catches the eye of a scientific man looking with 
science and power at the ancient Great Pyramid, is, that 
its entire mass, in its every separate particle, all goes to 
make up one grand and particular mathematical figure 
expressing the true value of tt, or 3 '141 59 + &c. 

If this was accident, it was a very rare accident ; for 
none of the other thirty-seven known pyramids of Egypt 
contain it.* But it was not accident in the Great 
Pyramid, for the minuter details of its interior, as 
already shown, signally confirm the grand outlines of 
the exterior, and show again and again those peculiar 
proportions, both for line and area, wliich emphatically 
make the Great Pyramid to be, as to shape, a tt shaped, 
and a tt memorializing, Pyramid ; or the earliest demon- 
stration known of the numerical value of that particular 
form of squaring the circle which men are still trying 
their hands and heads upon.f 

Physical Science of the Great Pyramid. 

Again, in physics, as a further scientific advance on 
the foundation of pure mathematics, is there any ques- 
tion so replete with interest to all human kind as, 
what supports the earth ; when, as Job truly remarked, 
it is hung from nothing, when it is suspended over 
empty space, and yet does not fall ? In place, indeed, 

♦ The learned Dr. Lepsius enumerates sixty-seven pyramids ; where- 
upon Sir Gardner Wilkinson remarks, with irresistible pMthos of modesty 
and feeling, " hut it is unfortunate that the sixty-seven pyramids cannot 
now he traced." 

t In further reference to the ante-chamher case in chap, x., where the 
Ahhe Moigno had already produced the neat expression, from its measure 

in inches, of — 2 = tt, — Professor Hamilton L, Smith, including the 

anterior and posterior passages with the length of the ante-chamher, and 
taking account also of the breadth, similarly in Pyrairid inchps, finds, 
in those terms, (1 -f- ,r) X 10; (tt -f tt"^) X 5 ; and (tt^ + tt^) X 5,— 
all of them given well within the limits of error of the best modem 
measures, as set forth in " Life and Work," vol. 2. 


of falling destructively, tli6 earth regularly revolves 
around a bright central orb, and in such a manner as to 
obtain therefrom light and heat suitable to man, and 
day and night. What is the nature, then, of that path 
which the earth so describes, and what is the distance 
of the physical-life luminary round w^hich it now 
revolves, but into which it would fall straightway as to 
its final bourne and be destroyed by fire, if that onward 
movement were arrested ? As in squaring the circle, 
so in measuring the distance of the earth's central sun, 
both learned and unlearned have been working at the 
question for 2,300 years, and are still for ever employing 
themselves upon it ; and nothing that all nations can do, 
whether by taking their astronomers away from other 
work, or enlisting naval and military officers as tem- 
porary astronomers, and furnishing them profusely with 
instruments of precision of every serviceable science, 
and sending them to every inhabitable, and some unin- 
habitable, parts of the earth, is thought too much to 
devote to this question of questions in physics for the 
future behoof of a world grown scientific. Yet ilmre is 
the numerical expression for that cosmical quantity nailed 
to the mast of the Great Pyramid from the earliest 
ages ; for it is its mast or vertical height, multiplied by 
its own factor, the ninth power of ten, which is the 
length all modem men are seeking, and struggling, and 
dying, and will continue to die, in order to get a 
tolerably close approach to the arithmetical figure of: 
and this accurate sun-distance at the Pyramid is accom- 
panied by an exhibition of the space travelled over 
during a whole circle of the earth's revolution, and the 
time in which it is performed. 

And if from solar-system quantities we turn to matters 
of our own planet world in itself alone, — does not every 
inhabitant thereof yearn to know its size ; and yet was 
not that impossible to all men, of all the early ages, to 


attain with any exactness ? In illustration whereof it is 
recorded, that the Deity confounded Job at once with 
the words : " Hast thou perceived the breadth of the 
earth ? Declare if thou knowest it all." * 

And the only answer that Job, one of the chief and 
wisest men of the earth at that time, could return, 
was — 

" Therefore have I uttered that I understood not ; 
things too wonderful for me, which I knew not. 
Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and 
ashes." f 

But precisely that thing which all mankind from 
the Creation up to the day of Job, or of Moses, had not 
accomplished, and had no idea or power how to set 
about to perform it, and did not make even any rude 
attempts in that direction during the following 2,500 
years — -though they do know it now with considerable 
accuracy — was not only well known to the author of 
the design of the Great Pyramid, but was there em- 
ployed as that most useful standard, in terms of which 
the base-side length is laid out ; or with accurate decimal 
reference to the earth's peculiar figure, its polar com- 
pression, the amount thereof, and the most perfect 
method of preserving the record for all men. 

Who but the Lord could have done that wonder 
above man's power then to do ? For, " Have ye not 
known ? have ye not heard ? hath it not been told you 
from the beginning ? have ye not understood from the 
foundation of the world ? It is He that sitteth upon 
the circle of the earth." It is He also "Who hath 
measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, and 
meted out heaven with the span, and comprehended 
the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the 
mountains in scales and the hills in a balance." J 

* Job xxxviii. 18. f Job xlii. 3, 6. 

'■ - J Isaiah xl. 12, 21, and 22. 



Who, indeed, but the God of Israel could have 
performed this last-mentioned still greater wonder than 
any mere linear measure, so far as its exceeding diffi- 
culty to men even in the present scientific generation 
is concerned ; and could have actually introduced, both 
into the King's Chamber Coffer, and the said chamber 
itself, an expression for the next most important quality, 
after size, of the earth-ball we live upon — viz., its 
" mean density ;" besides expressing in the base dia- 
gonals of the Pyramid the enormous cycle of years 
composing the earth's disturbed rotation or precession 
period of the equinoxes ; a period six times as long as 
the whole historic life of man yet accomplished, and 
the only known phenomenon for keeping longest records, 
suitable at once to all degrees and states of men. 

Science not the Great Pyramid's Final Object. 

Yet with all this amount of science brought before 
us out of the Great Pyramid, yea even with all this 
quintessence of scientific results, let us not be run away 
with by the notion of some, — that to teach science, 
was the beginning and end for which that building was 
erected. Certain men, I do indeed know only too well, 
"will not go astray in that direction ; for they have 
already wandered off into the opposite error of assum- 
ing, that the many successive results deduced from the 
measures of the Great Pyramid, cannot be each and 
every one of them intentional, or indicative of any 
wisdom of Divine Inspiration, — because each of them, 
after the first, was a necessary mathematical result 
from, and consequence of, any Pyramid whatever, if it 
had a shape and size so far given. 

This reasoning is strangely short-sighted ; because in 
the first place, both the shape and size required the supe- 
rior mind to choose and decide them ; and then, no 


second or third cosniical result has been yet deduced, 
from any necessary subsidiary features in the size of the 
Great Pyramid, without introducing, at the same time, a 
second or third unit of measure of diverse order, and 
connected with the first, by no features of the mere 
geometry of the Pyramid, but rather by allied physical 
researches and Biblical readings. As, for instance, after 
the whole vertical height, undivided, was appropriated 
for sun-distance, — ^then the unit of a sacred Hebrew cubit 
was employed for the days of the year when applied to 
the base-side length ; and finally the earth's axis com- 
mensurable inch for the amount of a year's precession, 
in conjunction with the length of the base-diagonals. 
While the earth's mean density, if expressed in the same 
inches cubed, is obtained, not from the same parts or 
any necessary deductions from those parts of the whole 
Pyramid, but from the totally independent features of 
the King's Chamber and the Coffer ; which were abso- 
lutely separate results of the mind of the designer of 
the whole structure, and are to be found in no other 
Pyramid, temple, or tomb whatever. ' 

Further Fallings Away from Simple Fact and Truth. 

Another class of modern educationists, however, have 
lately deviated towards still another point of the compass 
of error ; as thus : — Throughout all Sir Isaac Newton's 
dissertation on cubits, he dwells on nothing more for- 
cibly, and explains nothing more clearly, than the abso- 
lute antithesis between the cubit of the Hebrews and 
the cubit of the Egyptians. Each of them was sacred to 
its own party ; but, while the sacredness of one of them 
is confirmed by Scripture, the sacredness of the other is 
sinfulness there ; it is profane in Scripture. Yet some 
men have been lately deceived into fancying that there 


are just as many glorious cosmical coincidences in the 
size of the sacred Great Pyramid and its parts when 
measured by the profane cubit of idolatrous Egypt, as 
by the cubit which Moses told the Israelites was the 
cubit of the Lord their God. 

This cannot be, if the Pyramid contains original 
Messianic allusions. But it may be ahnost so ; for again 
and again Scripture warns us to beware of temptation 
and the wiles of the tempter, — that sin can put on so 
specious an appearance of sanctity, that almost all men 
shall be carried away by its devices ; and the danger 
will never be greater than in the very last times 
immediately preceding the Lord's Second Coming ; for 
then Anti-Christ shall appear personally, giving out 
that he is Christ, and working such signs and wonders 
as shall deceive, if it were possible, even the very elect. 

A nearly parallel case, in the ancient land of the 
Great Pyramid (recorded doubtless for our guidance), is 
that of the enchantments of Pharaoh's Egyptian priests 
with their rods, against the heaven-performed miracles 
of Aaron's rod. The enchantments of either side for 
a while were almost the same, for either party turned 
their respective rods into serpents large or small ; but 
in the end, Aaron's grand rod swallowed up all the 
unholy brood of petty snakes from the rods of the Egyp- 
tian priests : and then those unhappy men were totally 
unable to go on any further with their enchantments. 

Now apply this case to the metrological rods still 
surviving, — viz., the sacred cubit of Moses on one side, 
and the profane cubit of Egypt on the other, and both 
of them in the Great Pyramid. The former has its first 
grand acknowledgment of its really ruling there for the 
Lord its originator, in giving forth the days of tbe year, 
when applied as the standard of measure to the side of 
the base of the whole structure ; i.e., the side of the 
ancient base, divided by the days of the year, gives the 


length of the sacred cubit of Moses, and shows it to be 
the lO^th part of the earth's semi-axis of rotation in 
length. But the profane cubit of Egypt is not so pro- 
duced, or producible by, or from, any of the leading 
dimensions either of the bodies of the solar system, or 
of the Great Pyramid. No, indeed, it is only by going 
to a much smaller part — the King's Chamber, and 
chopping up its length into twenty little bits, that then 
an approximate representative of the profane cubit of 
Egypt, 20-61, rather than 20-7, Pyramid inches long, 
is obtained ; and some secondary physical phenomena 
are said to be evenly commensurable therewith. 

But what Pyramid authority is there for any Chris- 
tian, for sacred purposes, chopping up that grand unit, 
the King's Chamber length, into twenty parts and pro- 
ducing all this vermin swarm ? None that I know of, 
for there is no twenty marked in the room ; and the 
floor length is, in actual fact, one noble whole, which 
no one should dare unauthorizedly to destroy as such. 

Yet still, what one given scientific reason, intellectual 
men are obstinate in asking, can be shown, for preserving 
that lenofth of the Kinof's Chamber untouched ? It is 
a fact, so far ; but does it mean anything in, and by, 
that whole length ; a length which, so far as we can 
superficiaUy see, says nothing in favour of the sacred 
Hebrew cubit, or decimal numeration, or notable Pyra- 
mid parts, — but rather the contrary ? Up to July, 
1873, I myself had not the slightest idea ; and it was 
only when in pain and distress at the falling away of 
some of my best friends towards both the profane cubit 
of Egypt, and the sidereal year of a few doctrinaires and 
two of the Pyramid measurers only, in place of going to 
the solar year of all humanity and of all of the Pyramid 
measurers taken fairly, — that suddenly, not by my own 
penetration, but rather by a veil being withdrawn from 
my eyes, I suddenly understood what had been before 


me for eight years, as well as published for six years to 
all the world, and yet had never been guessed at either 
by me or the world. 

The length of the King's Chamber, as taken from 
the mean of all my measures (because far more numerous 
than those of any one else), is 41 2 '132 Pyramid inches : 
it is moreover the longest granite line in the Pyramid, 
and admirably adapted, with its level position, polished 
rectangular ends, and uniform temperature, for a good 
measure being made of it. Indeed, it is the best 
modern measured line of the best preserved of the 
ancient parts of the whole Great Pyramid.* 

But still, demand the querists, why was not so con- 
spicuous a length made a round number of sacred cubits ? 

Because it was intended to typify reasons as well 
as facts, I am now enabled to reply ; for it expresses,— 
1, the length of the base-side of the whole Great Pyra- 
mid, agreeably with the mean of all the direct measures 
thereof ; 2, its vertical height ; 3, its tt shape ; 4, the 
metrological combination of sacred cubits and earth- 
commensurable inches ; and, 5, the absolute length of 
that sacred cubit which was ordained of God, in after- 
ages, to Moses and the Israelites. 

* My original measures of the King's Chamber are given in " Life and 
Work," vol. ii. pp. 101, 102, in British inches, and with the mean taken 
rouglily. They are also given similarly at page 178 of this book. Here, 
with the same original numbers, they are turned from British into Pyra- 
mid inches, and the mean taken more exactly, or to three places of 
decimals ; introducing the breadths observed also ; a necessary refine- 
ment, now that from Mr. James Simpson's sums of the squares (see page 
181), the breadth of the chamber may be inferred to be theoretically and 
exactly half of the length, and •wilh the following result for the final 
mean of the whole : — 

Final means for each element, giving double J 

weight to the lengths directly measured . ^ 412'054 



Grand mean of all the elements concerned = 412*132 P. in. 


All these several things out of one and the same set 
of numbers ? 

Yes, out of one and the same set of numbers, when 
used on certain principles of calculation of which plain 
indications are given on the walls of the ante-chamber 
to the King's Chamber by the original builders ; viz., 
the diameters of a circle and square of equal area with 
each other ; together with a reference of this theorem to 
a length of four times 103 inches and a fraction long.* 

That length can, of all lengths thereabouts, of course 
be no other than the 41 21 32 of the King's Chamber 
floor itself. 

Now 412*132 is, no doubt, an awkward-looking 
fractional and uneven number, bearing no easy or 
self-evident proportion to the known length of base-side 
or vertical height of Great Pyramid, or to Pyramid 
numbers of inches, or cubits, or to the value of tt. 
But, following the hint given in the ante-chamber 
(Captain Tracey's most suggestive discovery), and 
calling those 412-132 Pyramid inches 41 2 '132 
Pyramid, or sacred, cubits (of 25 such inches each), — 
consider that number, I say, of cubits the diameter of a 
circle ; and then, — 

* Four lines of thut length, deeply and grandly cut, are on the south 
wall of the ante-chamber. We have already taken them as symbolising 
a division of that Wall-surface, transversely into 5; as they do, and have 
led us from that circumstance to recognise thw division of the walls of the 
King's Chamber into five courses. But they do not, therefore, cease to be 
four lines; four lines, too, of a certain length. The exact original 
length is now a problem, for the lower part of them is broken away in 
the general modern breakage of the top of the anle-chamber's south 
doorway, and it niay have been as much as 105*6 inches (viz., the dif- 
ference between the height of the doorway and that of the ante-cham- 
ber), if the lines were continued to the very corner. But wliile that 
original completeness is not proved, the 105-6 is quite close enough to 

— ' and distant from any other competing line, for all the ante- 
chamber's purposes as a mere synopsis of what is to he found in the 
King's Chamber, to refer one to the 412- 132, and leave all cxa;titu(ie to 
be obtained from that length, as there laid down, in one whole accurate 

Chap. XXV.] 



(1). That circle has equal area with a square (see 
coraputation below *), each side of which measures 
365-242 + &C. sacred cubits ; or is equal in those cubits 
to the length of the socket side of the Great Pyramid 
from the mean of all the measures ; and equal also, in 
days, to the universally acknowledged number of days 
and parts of a day in a mean solar tropical year; i.e., 
a solar year for the general times and season purposes 
of all mankind. 

Next (2), consider that same length of 412-132 
cubits to be the side of a square, — that square is of 
equal area with a circle whose radius z=z 232-520 H-&C. 
sacred cubits \'\ also = the already concluded height of 
the Great Pyramid from all the measures ; equal also, 
when reduced back from cubits to inches, very nearly 
to the mean of the two distinct heights which the 
King's Chamber so curiously possesses in simultaneous 

412-132 = diameter of a circle 
Find ita area . 

Add log. of ^ 

Log. area of required circle 
Find length of square of equal area . 

Log. side required 

Nat. number of side required 

t 412-132 = Bide of pquare . 

Find area of that square 

Log. of area required 
Find radius of circle of equal area 
Subtract log. of — 

Log. diameter 

Nat. number of diameter 

Kadi us required 

= log. 2-6150363 
X 2 


. = 9-8950899 

. == 5-1251625 

. 2)5-1251625 

. = 2-5625812 
. = 365-242 -I- &c 

log. 2-6150363 
X 2 

. = 6-2300726 


. = 9-8950899 

-r 2 

= 2-6674914 

= 465041 

= 232-620-1- kt. 


existence ; or to double the 11 6*26 length of the ante- 
chamber floor. 

Further (3), the diameter of a circle having 
232*520 + &c. for radius : {is to) the periphery of a square 
whose side length = 365*242 + &c.. of the same units 
: : 1 : TT, the grand and leading Pyramid proposition. 

(4.) When Pyramid inches inside the King's 
Chamber are found to tally with sacred cubits measured 
outside the Great Pyramid to the 1,000th part of 
unity, not only in giving a coincidence in numbers, 
but in assigning a good scientific reason for them, — 
we cannot but allow that those Pyramid inches and 
those sacred cubits were acknowledged and used by the 
designer of the entire structure. And finally, 

(5.) The absolute length of the sacred cubit of the 
Great Pyramid and Moses, is deducible now to the ten- 
thousandth of an inch from a direct measure of the 
most glorious and best preserved part of the ancient 
structure, viz., the King's Chamber, on being simply 
computed according to the modern determination of 
the value of tt and length of the year ; and comes out 
from the local measure of 412*545 British inches to be 
2 5 -0 2 5 -f- &c. British inches. 

In which case that whole quantity of length of the 
King's Chamber floor has an importance of symbology 
and signification in its integrity, which enables it in a 
moment to overcome and swallow up all that artificial 
'brood of little, useless, profane cubits which ill-advis6d 
persons had attempted to manufacture out of its supposed 
cutting up ; and defies them to produce, in terms of their 
units, or by means of their enchantments, overthrown 
like those of the old Egyptian priests, anything of equal 
importance to men, religion, and history, — either in 
the Pyramid's structure or the cosmical order of nature. 

These modern Pharaonists have even brought them- 
selves under more solemn cognizance ; for — 


" Produce your causes, saith the Lord ; bring forth your strong reaaons, 
gaith the God of Jacob. 

" Let them brinu: them forth and shew us what shall happen : let them 
show the former things, what they be, that we may consider them, and 
know the latter end of them ; or declare us things for to come." — 
Isaiah xli. 21, 22. 

— i.e., things which the scientific and sacred theory of 
the Great Pyramid seems to enunciate in its second 
part, — 


This second part of the end wherefore the Great 
Pyramid was built, I have already said, appears to begin 
somewhat thus; viz., to show the reality, and the settled, 
as well as long pre-ordained, times and seasons for each 
of the two comings of Christ. Both for that one which 
has been, i.e., which was 1873 years ago, and under whose 
then commenced spiritual dispensation we are still living ; 
and also for that other one, in kingly glory and power, 
which is yet to beam upon us. 

When, that second coming has been appointed to take 
place, must be a most momentous question ; and is one to 
which I can only reply, that, so far as the Great Pyramid 
seems to indicate at present in the Grand Gallery, the 
existing Christian dispensation must first close (in some 
partial manner or degree), the saints be removed, and 
a period of trouble and darkness commence ; for how 
long, it is difficult to say, seeing that the scale of a 
Pyramid inch to a year appears to change there. 

Very long the time can hardly be, if the Pyramid 
standards of the metrology of that universal kingdom, 
the only successful universal kingdom that there ever 
will be on earth, the kingdom of the Lord Christ, are 
already beginning to appear from out of the place of 
security where they were deposited in the beginning of 
the world. 

But that place of security, the Great Pyramid, is ia 
Egypt. Is Egypt ready to receive the Lord ? 


Of Egypt in the latter day, incomprehensibly won- 
derful things are recorded in Scripture. It is apparently 
to be the first of the three, — Egypt, Assyria, and Israel ; 
and the Lord of Hosts shall bless it, saying, " Blessed be 
Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, 
and Israel mine inheritance." (Isaiah xix. 24, 25.) 

But previously to that day, and after the Great Pyramid 
shall have become manifested as a sign and a witness to 
the Lord of Hosts, — there shall go up a great cry unto 
the Lord from the land of Egypt : "for they shall cry 
unto the Lord because of the oppressors, and he shall 
send them a saviour and a great one, and he shall deliver 
them. And the Lord shall be known to Egypt, and the 
Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day, and shall 
do sacrifice and oblation ; yea, they shall vow a vow 
unto the Lord and perform it. And the Lord shall 
smite Egypt ; he shall smite and heal it ; and they shall 
return even to the Lord, and he shall be entreated of 
them and shall heal them." 

The New Policy of Old Egypt 

Now what is this great cry to go up unto the Lord 
from Egypt and because of the oppressors ? 

Of old, all men who drank the waters of the Nile on 
either side of the lower part of the course of that river, 
say from Assouan, say even from the Second Cataract in 
Nubia down to the sea, i.e., from the very furthest distance 
that can pretend to any Coptic civilization or people, — 
all these men were considered to belong to Egypt. 

But within the last few years an insane ambition, or 
a hardening of the heart, has touched the Court at 
Cairo, to apply the ancient proverb to length all along 
the stream, as well as distance on either side of the 
lower part only ; and to maintain, that all lands through 
which the Nile flows, and from which it comes (though 


those lands have remained utterly unknown to, and un- 
visited by, Egyptians from the beginning of the world), 
belong by right to Egypt. The main reason, as yet 
given forth, why modern Egypt should have a right to 
attack and take possession of the other Nile countries, 
and not they, take Egypt, seems to be, — that Egypt is the 
only one of them all which has astonished and delighted 
mankind (but oftended God) through forty centuries with 
.triumphs of ornamental architecture, glories of sculpture, 
and mysteries of painting and wisdom. Wherefore every 
zealous paid servant of the Egyptian state has now to 
argue this case to the outside world ; and to maintain 
victoriously against all comers, that His Highness the 
Khedive, being the direct successor of Rameses the 
Great, is fully justified in sending up armies to make 
war on all men and countries so far as they may be 
found eventually on the course of the Nile ; because he 
has an hereditary right forcibly to annex them all, even 
right away into the southern hemisphere, and bring 
them under Egypt's inevitable Pharaonic rule. 

The scheme has a certain air of grandeur about it ; 
so majestically ignoring all ordinary ideas of what con- 
stitutes a casus belli ; and the very notion of present- 
day Turks, who cannot draw at all, and are bound by 
their religion to eschew everything in the shape of 
human portraiture, — the idea of them of all men claiming 
the reward due to Egypt's ancient artistical skill, and her 
sculptured idolatry too, — is rich beyond expression. But 
the wisdom wherewith the subtle measures for accomplish- 
ing the purpose are being taken, is a feat transcending 
diplomacy ; and yet, — " the Egyptians are men, and not 
God ; and their horses flesh, and not spirit ; "^^ wherefore 
out of those very steps and means, as the pride that goeth 
before a fall, it may be that the close of the Turkish 
rule will come. 

Isaiah xxx. 1, 3. 
I I 


Slave-holders possess Egypt 

In setting up again, and in a new French garden, as 
the officials of the Khedive are now doing, the statues 
of Rameses, and the stone and metal idols of old Egypt, 
in order to claim aesthetic credit with European dilet- 
tanti (who themselves dabble far too much in the 
accursed thing), these Egypto-Turks are losing their 
only claim, as Mohammedans, to any favour from the 
God of Israel over the reprobate, image and relic-wor- 
shipping. Christians of the East. These degraded men 
being apparently the wretches who, though plagued by 
the locust and scorpion-like Saracen armies that pro- 
ceeded out of the smoke from the bottomless pit, yet, 
to the last, " repented not of the works of their hands, 
that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold 
and silver, and brass and stone, and of wood ; which 
neither can see, nor hear, nor walk." (Rev. ix. 20.) And 
the Khedive's ruse of sending up a large army to the 
sources of the Nile, under an Englishman forsooth, to 
annex all the negro countries he should discover, to the 
slave-power of Egypt, — for the pretended purpose of 
putting down the slave-trade, when its result can only be 
to give into the slave-holding hands of the Egyptian 
Government more extensive and uncontrolled supplies 
of slaves than ever, — while that ruse carries deception 
to a point beyond which probably the arch-deceiver 
himself could no further go, it may be the very item that 
was required to fill the catalogue of woe, and bring the 
question of the slavery of mankind to its last footing. 

The English emancipation was great ; the Russian 
greater ; the American still greater ; but the Egyptian, 
may prove to be the greatest of all ; for with it, the slavery 
of Constantinople and of the Mohammedans generally, 
will fall too ; and that slavery of theirs includes another 
horror within itself, far beyond all that Christian slavery 


ever did ; for it requires Government manufactories for 
converting boys into odious machines, fit to guard the 
multitudinous hareems of rich Mohammedans ; and the 
pains, the woes, the slaughter amongst the poor innocents, 
before the fell purpose of their tyrant masters is accom- 
plished, can be known to God alone. 

'' Oh, but when the slaves do reach Cairo (for these 
heinous manufactories are a long way up the river), they 
are well treated," say some would-be apologists for the 
secret system of slave-marts which they know go on in 
Egypt, in spite of all the counter protestations to Europe 
by a Government which profits by, and uses, them. ' ' When 
the slaves do reach Cairo," say these well-meaning but 
weak apologists, "they get considerate masters, enter rich 
households, and pass far more easy, comfortable lives, 
than any of the independent Arab, or Coptic, fellahs in 
their agricultural villages." 

" But the principle is bad," insists a man of sterner 
mould, ''and the results must therefore be degrading 
to the master as well as the slave ; not to say anything 
of all the previous and some following cruelties, which 
shall make so many afficted ones in the land of Egypt, 
cry to the Lord because of the oppressors. And though 
the Lord may have long tarried, the time will come, and 
the Great Pyramid indicates it to be near, when, in some 
supranatural manner, God shall send them a saviour and 
a great one, and he shall deliver them." 

The Egypt of the Lord Christ. 

If, then, the present possessors of Egypt be not those 
of whom the Lord Christ is likely to say (at least, in their 
present and most unrepenting state), when His personal 
reign begins, — *' Blessed be Egypt, my people, and 
Assyria, the work of my hands, and Israel, mine in- 


heritance," — who are those favoured ones, in and for 
Egypt, likely to be ? 

Of the present localities of the ancient Assyrians, we 
do not know much, though there is a growing idea that 
they have drifted with the human current of history 
westward from their original habitats, and are now to 
be found amongst those whom the ethnologists delight 
to call Indo-Germans ; but who seem phlegmatically con- 
tent to be, and remain, an inland, continental people 
without a single foreign possession. But of Israelites 
our nation is now becoming, even year by year, through 
means of the works of John Wilson and Edward Hine, 
far less blind than it has been through all the previous 
period of its occupation of these Isles of the Sea which 
contain us now ; from whence too we have overflowed 
both to rule with order, enlightened justice, and a firm 
hand among many Eastern nations, and to occupy and 
make to blossom the '' desolate heritages " of distant 
parts of the earth. While the resemblance of our 
earliest Saxon, or Ephraiifnite, metrology to the system 
of the Great Pyramid, both gives us a species of " Inherit- 
ance" interest in that building, and may include some- 
thing else still more noble in connection with the coming 
universal Messianic kingdom : when, " All the ends of 
the world shall remember, and turn unto the Lord : and 
all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before him." 
That is, when such kingdom of the Lord's shall at last 
be established. But before then, — what ? 

Only last year, when the Abbd Moigno, in Paris, was 
advocating amongst his countrymen, with a heavenly 
patriotism higher than all patriotism usually so-called, the 
weights and measures of the Great Pyramid ; and pleading 
for them as belonging to that government whose Father 
and King is God, — he was met by a noted savant of the 
Academy with the argument, " No ! let us keep to our 
own invented French metre ; because Great Britain, 



with an inch so very like the Great Pyramid's inch, 
would have a glorifying advantage over us if that ancient 
system were to be universally adopted."'"" 

Alas ! has national rivalry or national envy driven 
modern Frenchmen to so suicidal a policy as this ! 
And at the same time, has national apathy, if not 
apostacy, brought some Englishmen so low, that it is 
even now, within these last very few years, that they 
have begun to talk about abolishing their own heredi- 
tary measures, and propose to throw in their metrolo- 
gical lot with the all-compelling republic, to be perhaps for 
a moment, under the Communistic French metric system, 
and amid the general drifting (which is now going on) 
of all the classically descended nations into infidelity. 

If, on the one hand, in the coming contest of the 
standards of measure, the promises of God made to our 
nation of old, are abundant beyond what the heart of 
man could conceive ; — on the other, our responsibilities, 
perhaps dangers, are most grave. For though on one 
side we are Scrip turally told (in connection with the pre- 
parations for setting up the Messiah's kingdom), that it 
shall be " when God has bent Judah for Him, filled 
the how with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, Zion, 
(Israelites of both houses,) against thy sons, Greece^ 
and made thee as the sword of a mighty man," — 

Let us "be not high-minded but fear," when on the 
other side we also read, in the same undying scroll, — 
*' The children of Ephraim, being armed and carrying 
bows, turned back in the day of battle." 

May the Lord in his mercy, preserve all those who 
have once put their hand to the plough, from ever 
looking back. 

• "Lea Mondes," November 7, 1872, p. 393. 












nPHIS fine example of one of tlie old casing-stones of the 
-*- Great Pyramid, is a recent acquisition in further illus- 
tration of Chapter II., and was discovered by Mr. Wajmman 
Dixon, C.E., in 1872, loose, and forming part of the mediaeval 
hill of rubbish on the north side of the Great Pyramid. 

Not only is it the largest casing-stone fragment which has 
yet been brought to Europe, but it has this superior feature 
of interest above aU known examples; viz., that it has 
portions of the two original, worked, end surfaces, as well of 
the top, bottom, and sloping front. 

It is therefore the only casing-stone from the Great Pyramid 
of which we know, or may measure, the ancient length from 
one end side to the other. Eor although the far larger 
casing-stones in situ discovered by Colonel Howard-Vyse near 
the middle of the north foot of the Great Pyramid, might 
easily have been measured in similar length, — and perhaps 
were, before being mischievously broken to pieces by night 
depredators, as related by the Colonel, — still no actual 
measures of the length of those stones are extant, so far as I 
am aware. 

There is not indeed any theoretical necessity, in view of the 
first and chief purpose for which casing-stones of the Great 
Pyramid are usually interrogated (viz., the angle of slope or 
bevel of the front, compared with the horizontal planes of the 
top and bottom surfaces of the stone), that we should know 
their length from side-end to side-end. But in the example of 
this, Mr. Waynman Dixon's casing-stone, when its length was 
at last, and very recently, measured by him, it was found so very 
close to the formal quantity of 25 inches, as inevitably to raise 


some question whether tliat lengtli had been intended. For 
such intention would have been equivalent in that place, both 
to exhibiting the length of the linear symbolical standard of 
the Great Pyramid, and showing, by its proportion to the 
whole base-side length of the monument, the number of days 
and parts of a day in a year, — a piece of practical astronomy 
far in advance of all men in that early age. 

This at present unique stone, then, having been kindly pre- 
sented to me by Mr. Waynman Dixon, has been formally 
deposited in the Library of the Royal Observatory, Edin- 
burgh, at 15, Royal Terrace, and is roughly of the following 
leading dimensions : — 

20*6 inches high, from level bottom to level top surface ; 

36'7 ,, deep, or from front to back, at the bottom ; 

20-3 „ ^ „ „ „ „ top; _ 

26-2 ,, in slope, from bottom foot up to top of sloping bevelled face; and 

25-5 „ long, from side end to side end, at front. 

But on attempting to arrive at much accuracy of measure- 
ment, there are several further details to be taken into 
account, as thus ; — The original worked surface forming the 
back of the stone, is entirely gone or broken away, and only 
fragments (sometimes much less than the half) of each of the 
other five worked surfaces remain. Hence a necessary pre- 
liminary -to any exact measure proved to be, the making up 
of each broken surface-plane to its ancient completeness of 
superficies by appl3dng thereto either a flat drawing-board or 
a sheet of plate-glass held in contact position. 

Even this method, unfortunately, was not quite accurate or 
fair to the ancient masons, because the full truth of their sur- 
faces was intended by them to be tested only by the circum- 
ferential border thereof, — ^the central region of every surface, 
except the bevelled slope, being slightly lowered beneath the 
borders ; and in no case is there now any opportunity of 
measuring all across one of these surfaces, or from border to 
border. Making, however, between such parts of any worked 
surface as were still extant, the best compromise which the 
case admitted of, the following results have been obtained 
since the earlier chapters of this book were written : — 

1. The top and bottom surfaces of the stone are not quite 
parallel ; for, while their mean distance apart (or height) is 
20*63 British inches, their particular distance is, — 


(1) At back of stone . on east side =• 20-41, and on west side = 20-42 

(2) At front top ... „ „ =20-62 „ „ =20-65 

(3) At front top, pro- 

duced 80 as to be 
vertically over the 
front foot of the 
stone, .... „ „ =20-78 „ „ =20-71 

2. The errors, or variations of height seen above, are evi- 
dently of a nature which would have tended to being cor- 
rected, had the back borders of both bottom and top surfaces 
been in place. But it is otherwise with the length of the 
stone from side-end to side-end, both at different heights, and 
still more at different distances from front to back ; for the 
error there is not only in the other direction, but is far 
larger ; and is directly of such a kind, as to make the back of 
the stone broader than the front, or to cause it to be wedged in 
and held fast when built into place. And this was the very 
feature of Great Pyramid masonry, combined often with stone 
cramps, which gave Colonel Yyse so much trouble when 
excavating into the south side of the monument ; for he could 
only get each stone out by breaking it into pieces in situ, and 
drawing it forth piecemeal. Accordingly we find for Mr. 
Dixon's casing-stone, — 

Length from end side to end side, at back foot . . . = 28-2 ins. 
„ „ „ at back top . . . == 27-8 „ 

„ „ „ at front top . . . = 26-2 „ 

„ „ „ at front at middle level . = 26-6 „ 

„ „ „ at front foot at lowest level = 24*9 „ 

3. Hence the sloping or bevelled front of the stone cannot 
be said to be accurately, or simply, 25 inches long from side 
end to side end. It is indeed of that length at a level of 
about 6 inches above its base, because it is 0*3 inch shorter 
than that at the very base, and 1*2 inches longer at the top ; 
but that is a very different thing from being 25 inches broad 
all the way up and all the way down. 

4. The vertical height of the stone having been determined 
= 20-63 inches, to within '01 inch at the best part of the 
block for measuring the slope length of the bevelled front ; 
and the latter having been determined to be somewhere 
between 26*22 and 2624 inches ; that is equivalent to saying 
(after trigonometrical computation) that the angle of slope is 
between 51° 53' 15" and 51° 49' 55". And these quantities 


evidently contain the theoretical angle of the Great Pyramid, 
51° 51' 14", between them very fairly. 

The angle of the stone might perhaps have heen obtained 
closer than the limits of the 3 minutes above given, had 
the mass been either larger, or in that exceptionally fine 
state of preservation which Colonel Yyse's magnificent ex- 
amples in situ were in, when he discovered them. But this 
other example which we are discussing, besides having 
experienced some tremendous violence by falls or blows (as 
testified to, by its great conchoidal bases of fractures) has 
certainly weathered somewhat, even on the best-preserved 
parts of its front slope ; so that near the bottom thereof, in 
one place, there is part of a fossil shell (a very unusual feature 
too in the Mokattam limestone) sensibly projecting above the 
general surface, and capable of vitiating the result of measure, 
if not specially guarded against, by 0'05 of an inch, amounting 
there to 8' of angle. 

"Wherefore it is more than ever to be regretted, that 
Colonel Yyse's two colossal casing-stones, so exquisitely 
preserved almost intact for 4,000 years, or from the primeval 
and prehistoric days of the earth down to the year l-SST a.d., 
have been wiKuUy destroyed within the last forty years of 
the scientific and educated age of the modern world, for no 
known object. 



GEEAT PYEAMID. By Letter dated 8th December, 

(a) the coffer's pathway into its present abode. 

Prelimina/ry Explanation hy P. S. 

Although it is usually held, on the sepulchral theory of the 
Egyptologists, that the passages of the Great Pyramid were 
formed, both in size and angle, for nothing but the convenience 
of introducing the coffer, or sarcophagus, to its present final 
resting-place, yet there are some remarkable limitations 
opposed to that idea by leading mechanical features, thus : — 

1. The cofi'er being, without any lid, of the same height 
as the door of the King's Chamber, within the fraction of an 
inch, — and an orthodox granite sarcophagus lid having always 
stood 6 or 7 inches higher than the sarcophagus itself, — the 
cofi'er could only have been introduced lidless, or not in 
sarcophagus fashion at all. 

2. Even lidless, the cofi'er could not have been got in under 
the corner in the ceiling of the entrance-passage when trying 
to pass from that passage into the first ascending passage. 

Both of these objections are generally admitted by every one 
who has been at the Great Pyramid, measuring-rod in hand ; 
but the latter of the two difficulties was recently sought to be 
obviated by the suggestion thrown out by a London engineer 
— that the cofi'er had never been required to turn the above- 
mentioned comer, because, instead of being introduced into 
the Pyramid by the descending entrance-passage, it had been 
brought into an unknown chamber on the base level, from 


whence lie conceived that an ascending passage commenced to 
rise, in the exact angular line of the first ascending passage 
produced downwards, through the floor of the entrance- 
passage and the masonry beneath it. 

This would evidently have been a complete method of 
avoiding the one alleged difficulty of turning a corner, if 
indeed such a lower chamber and continuation passage 
really existed; but though the engineer went out to the 
Grreat Pyramid, and bored in divers directions, he could dis- 
cover no symptoms of either one or the other. The question 
was then started, whether, even if such a passage did exist, 
the cofi'er could pass end first (and also without a lid) through 
the whole length of the known and existing Pyramid passages 
to the King's Chamber. And then came up the circumstance, 
hitherto chronicled only in ''Life and Work," that the lowest 
part of the first ascending passage is so much contracted in 
breadth, in order to enable the conical granite block there to 
act as a cork-portcullis, that the coffer could not get through 
by an amount of about 0-3 of an inch. 

The engineer, however, refused to accept these measures, 
and after going to the place, announced that he had found 
that the coffer wouU pass the contracted point by a quarter of 
an inch clear ; a statement which both raised hopes again in 
many minds that the lower chamber and passage really 
existed, and even produced some indignation against my 
measures in ''Life and Work" being so erroneous^ "that by 
themselves they would have prevented any search being made 
for so promising an addition to our knowledge of the Pyra- 
mid's interior." 

Now my measures of the breadth of the coffer, and the 
breadth of that contracted part of the first ascending passage, 
had not been made either relatively to each other or with the 
knowledge of any important question depending on a com- 
bination of the two ; each had been measured by itself in 
absolute terms at the several times I was in each part of the 
Pyramid referred to ; — and they were only confronted with each 
other several years after the thus separately obtained results 
had been printed. Knowing therefore, on one side, how pos- 
sible it is for any one to make a larger error in two separate 
■ absolute measures, than in a difference ; but on the other 
side, that no one who measured the end of the coffer simply 
and hastily in the present day, would get either the original 


breadtli of that end, or the present breadth of the chief part 
of the length of the vessel (by reason of the chipping that 
has been perpetrated all the way up and down the corner 
edges, requiring special methods of elimination, and not easy 
ones, in the darkness of the King's Chamber), — knowing, I 
say, these conflicting practical difficulties, I requested Dr. 
Grant, if his manifold official employments should permit him 
so to do, to go out to the Great Pyramid from Cairo, and make 
a new and careful mensuration of the two breadths, one after 
the other, with the same measuring-rod, and with attention 
to the coffer's peculiarities of fracture mentioned above. 
This he has now happily done, and describes thus, — 
*' On December 5th I went out to the Pyramid, taking Mr. 
Waller (an English dentist in Cairo) with me. For the 
breadth of the lower end of the ascending passage, I measured, 
not as you did, the breadth of the portcullis stopping it up, 
but the breadth of the passage itself, at that point. Not, how- 
ever, that that should make any sensible difference, for I 
don't think it would be possible to insert the thinnest kind of 
paper between the portcullis and the passage wall. 

'' The result of my measurement confirms yours, viz., the 
coffer in King's Chamber, although turned straight into axis 
of ascending passage, could not have been passed along it. 


Lower End of AscBNDixa Passage, measured close to North End 
OP Portcullis, in British Inches. 

Breadtli from east to west, across top or north edge . 38-38 

Ditto, across middle 38'44 

Ditto, across bottom or south edge .... 38*12 

Coffer in King's Chamber. 

Breadth of north end 38-62 

Breadth of south ead 38-76 

"These are my measures, and I can vouch for their accu- 
racy within \ inch. 

"• I think this strengthens the theory of the coffer having 
served some other purpose than that of a sarcophagus, as all 
sarcophagi have been introduced to their chambers hy the 
passages leading to themP 

4q6 appendices, [II. 

(b) comparative qualities of material and work of 
several granite parts of great pyramid. 

Writes Dr. Grant : '-'■ Mr. Waller has taken for me a perfect 
cast or rather impression of the boss on the granite leaf, also 
of a normal part of the ante-chamber, also of a normal part of 
wall of King's Chamber, and also of a normal part of outside 
of coffer. 

'' These show distinctly that the coffer has had a finer polish 
than the walls of the chamber containing it ; still the King's 
Chamber has been remarkably well polished, only the granite 
appears of a coarser grain than that of which the coffer is 

''Neither the ante-chamber, nor granite leaf, nor boss 
have been polished, but simply very accurately picked. Be- 
tween granite leaf and north wall of ante-chamber no attempt 
seems to have been made even to level the surface of that 
part of the wall, so that on the east side there is quite a large 
bulging on the granite wall." 

(c) This part of the letter refers to a small peculiarity of 
one of the five ''pigeon-holes " on either side of the chasm at 
the north beginning of the Grand Gallery (see Plate XIII.), 
and' also to the oblique, cruciform stones let into the wall, 
over against each of the holes in the ramp, beginning with 
the fourth from the north end. But this inquiry is not yet 
concluded (see p. 380). 




The late venerable and Eev. Dr. Leider, of Cairo, enlarged 
much to me, in December, 1864, on the beauty (in German- 
English) of a little pyramid which was just visible on the 
western horizon, or far away in the Libyan desert, as seen 
from the summit of the Great Pyramid. 

In April, 1865, on ascending that monument, I verified the 
account so far, that there was out there in that direction a 
conical eminence, which might be either a natural hill or a 
rounded and ruined pyramid, I could not, at so great a dis- 
tance, say which." 

Only after my return home did I fully appreciate the 
singularity, if the eminence was a pyramid, of such an erec- 
tion being found so far away from the desert frontier line of 
Egypt, when all her other pyramids conform closely thereto. 
I made inquiries, therefore, far and wide as to any traveller, 
living or dead, having been into the desert in that direction, 
but without success. In the meanwhile, both Dr. and Mrs. 
Leider were dead ; and three different parties whom I had 
successively primed on this particular pyramid subject when 
they were going out to Egypt, failed to perform their promised 
little piece of exploration. 

At last, in 1872, Mr. Waynman Dixon, fortified by the 
companionship of Dr. Grant, of Cairo, took the field. A for- 
midable party of their special acquaintances among the 
pjramid Arabs rushed to accompany them, on camels, with 
long guns and ancient battle-axes ; and after a ten-hours' 
march into the thirsty and barren desert, westward from 
the Great Pyramid, they reached the conical mound — the 
veritable Dr. Leider's pyramid; but, as it turned out, not 
a true or built pyramid, or artificial structure of any kind ; 

K K 


merely a natural eminence; to which fact a reef of rock 
cropping out near the summit sufficiently and immediately 

A useful negative was thus given to sundry pyramid specu- 
lations, on a passage from Josephus, touching the second of 
the two scientific monuments built by the righteous descend- 
ants of Seth in their anti-Cainite visit to the land of Siriad, 
which had been flying about for several years ; and the party 
was rewarded in the way of natural-history science by find- 
ing close to the hill the remains of a petrified forest, in the 
shape of silicified and jasperised trunks of trees ; some of 
them remarkably well preserved, and others worn out of 
shape by the long ages of driving desert sand which they 
had been exposed to. But Mr. Waynman Dixon and Dr. 
Grant having visited the scene of this geological discovery of 
theirs several times since then, a further and fuller account 
may, I believe, shortly be expected from their pens. 



CULATIONS: m A Letter from Himself. 

Edinburgh, \bth December^ 1873. 

My dear Sir, 

I have the pleasure to return the four letters on Great 
Pyramid measures which you kindly sent me on 8th current, 
and in doing so would take the opportunity of mentioning 
the following points, some of which you may not have 

As before stated, the diagonal of either end of King's 
Chamber bears to length of Pyramid's base the same pro- 
portion nearly, that one day bears to the number of days in a 
lunation. The error is however too great to be neglected, 
for it makes the base-side 9127'84 Pyramid inches, instead 
of 9131-05, or more than three inches too short. Yet the 
relation seems intentional ; for when all four sides, of the base 
are taken as the measure of a lunation, then, instead of the 
above-mentioned diagonal, we have the circuit of the King's 
Chamber floor — equal to 12 of the chamber's units, and also 
to the 24 arris lines of the coffer — as a not altogether 
unfitting representative of the cycle of a day. To represent 
the year on the same scale would however require a circle 
with radius 71,871 inches. In connection with this it maybe 
noted that the King's Chamber floor consists of two squares, 
each of which has an area in exact decimal miniature of the 
surface of a sphere described about the sun, at the mean 
distance of the earth ; in other words, each half of the floor 
would receive 1-1 0^2 of the rays of a vertical sun, shining 
constantly upon it, or the whole floor would intercept the 
same fraction of its rays, shining 12 hours out of the 24. 
This decimal relation is a simple deduction from the theorem 


which, connects the King's Chamber's proportions with the 
Pyramid's vertical height, and that which connects the 
vertical height with the sun's mean distance. The division 
of the said sphere-surface into lO^^ equal areas is in a manner 
contemplated in the origin of the Pyramid : for, dividing the 
sphere's equator into 10^^ equal parts for meridians, and its 
axis into 10^^ equal parts for latitude planes, — these parts 

will be respectively 365*242 and — inches. The portion 

of the sun's surface corresponding to one of these parts would 
be about -9148 square inch. 

It is a fact curious enough in itself, and which perhaps 
furnished the Pyramid builders with a natural precedent for 
their extensive adoption of the same ratio, — that the volume 
of the sun is so nearly 1-10^ of that of the sphere just referred 
to ; the mean radius for the sun which would give that ratio 
exactly, being 426,272 British miles. Prom which it would 
also follow that the sun's volume is 10^^ times that of a 
sphere whose radius is the height of the Pyramid : for the 
latter sphere is to the sphere of the earth's mean distance 
from sun, as 1 : lO^x^ ; and lO^x^ divided by 10^ is lO^o. 

There is another and smaller sphere which may have some- 
thing to say here. You have shown that Solomon's '^ Molten 
Sea" was, as to its general form, almost certainly a hemi- 
sphere, and its hollow contents a remarkable gauge of the 
size and weight of the earth. If its outer diameter were 
250*4756 Pyramid inches, or but a fraction, greater than the 
10 S. cubits assigned to it, the contents of the whole sphere 
would be just 1-10^^ of the sun. And nearly the same result 
would be brought out by considering its form as slightly 
spheroidal, so as to make the vessel a perfect model, on a 
scale of 1-2,000, 000th, of one hemisphere (in equatorial section) 
of the earth. Then, if the hollow interior were similar, and 
its contents 50x71,588 Pyramid cubic inches, — or l-20th of 
the sphere described about the King's Chamber, — the thick- 
ness of the brass, varying from 5*7244 and 5*7229 on the 
principal equatorial axes, to 5*7146 on the polar axis, would 
be eminently expressive, in inch-units, of nearly the same 
earth-density as is denoted by such interior capacity — namely, 

There is implied in the foregoing a certain near commen- 
surability in size between the earth and sun, which can 



be readily shown by comparing both with the Pyramid's 
altitude. Let the mean diameter of the earth (say 501, 106, 000 
Pyramid inches) be divided by a million, and by the cube 
root of 10 ; the result will be 232-5924, or the number of S. 
cubits in 5814-81 inches, while the theoretical height of the 
Pyramid is 5813-01, or 1-8 inch less. Letting this difference 
pass, it will be seen that if the earth's mean diameter were 
half as great as it is, the volume of the earth would then be 
10^^ times the sphere whose radius is the Pyramid's height, 
while the sun is 10^^ times the same, and is therefore = 
1,250,000 earths. But in order that this should be exactly 
true, the earth's mean diameter would require to be 500,950,000 
Pyramid inches. 

The ratio of the Pyramid's height to the earth's diameter 
is the duplicate or square of that of the earth's ellipticity at 
some one meridian — the ratio to the mean diameter being 
l-293'606th, which is probably not far from the ellipticity of 
the Pyramid's own meridian. Let E = linear value of this 
ratio, M = earth's mean diameter (or its diameter at the 
Great Pyramid ?), and A = Pyramid's height. Then 

A:E: : E: M; orAM=:E2 

and expressing M in terms of A (see preceding paragraph), 

A (40,000 v^To A) = E2; or 40,000 \/iTA2 = E^ 
Square root of which =. im V\^ k = E 

And 100 ^10 A -% 

From this and previous propositions it appears that 
(neglecting small differences) the Pyramid's height is commen- 
surable, in terms of integral powers and roots of 10, with — 

1. The difference between the polar and some one equa- 
torial radius of the earth ; 

2. The earth's mean semi-radius ; 

3. The sun's mean radius ; and, 

4. The mean distance of the sun, or moan radius vector of 
the earth's orbit ; 

or with decimal parts of these quantities. 


The theory of squares in Queen's Chamber gives for the 
cuhic diagonal of that room 356*915 Pyramid inches. This is 
doubtless nearer the truth than the 356-04 derived from your 
mean measures, which are uncorrected for wall-incrustations, 
— and accords very nearly with another theoretical quantity 
obtained as follows. Ten million is the number of S. P. 
cubits in the earth's semi-axis of rotation, or of 50-inch cubits 
in the whole axis. If 10,000,000 square inches be formed 
into a circle, the diameter of that circle, divided by 10, will 
be 356'8246, or the cubic diagonal of Queen's Chamber. But 
356-8246 is the diameter of a sphere whose contents are 

= 1000 coffers divided by 3, or -3- 71,365 ; and 356-8246 x 

l^is also 71,365. Again, if 10,000,000 cubic inches (the 

capacity of the Queen's Chamber) be formed into a sphere, 
the diameter of that sphere, divided by 10, wiU be 26*73008, 
or the interior breadth of the coffer ; and 267*3008 squared 
is 71,449. A" more direct connection between Queen's 
Chamber and coffer is this, that the cubic diagonal of the 
former is just 4 times the cubic diagonal of the interior of 
the latter : 356-8246 ~ 4 = 89-206 ; or 356-915 -r 4 = 89-229 ; 
as compared with 89-168 from your mean measures of coffer. 
Hence, if 10,000,000 square cubits be taken, and made into a 
circle, that circle will have a diameter of 89,206 inches, = 
1000 coffer diagonals. But it is possible th-at the 4 interior 
diagonals of this vessel (perhaps also the 4 exterior dia- 
gonals) were purposely of different lengths. For instance, 
the mean length of the Pyramid's arris lines^ divided by 100, 
is either 89-0946 or 89*3404, according as the base-side is 
called 365*242 or 366*25 S. cubits; and the latter number 
cubed gives 10 times the coffer's contents, or 713,090 cubic 
inches; while the mean (89*2175) agrees with the coffer 
diagonals derived above from Queen's Chamber. 

If the cubic diagonal of the exterior of the coffer were 4 
times the interior breadth, or 106-920 (my measures however 
give only 106*468), it would make the circumscribed sphere 
just one-tenth of that inscribed in the King's Chamber's 

height : for 230*3886 -^ y'To'= 106*912. 

Perhaps the coffer's size, shape, and position in the 
Pyramid may be indicated in the following way. Mr. F. 


Petrie lias observed that it stands at a level of 100 times 
its own height, below the Pyramid's summit : — 

Let 40*9954 (King's Chamber semi-diagonal -r- 2 tt) = 
least or central height of coffer ; then Pyramid's height, 
O813-01, —4099-54 = 1713-47,= level of toj^ of coffer 
above Pyramid's base. 

Let 41*4096 = greatest or corner height of coffer ; then 
5813-01 — 4140-96 = 1672-05, = level of hottom of coffer 
above Pyramid's base. 

And the square roots of 1713*47 and 1672*05 are 41*4 
and 40*9 nearly. 

Let 5813-01 be divided into two parts, such that the 
square root of the less shall be 1-1 00th of the greater, 
these parts will be 

ia) 4117*57, 

(J) 1695-44, 
and will represent the mean level of coffer, or level of its 
centre. And the square root of (5) = 41*1757 is the coffer's 
mean height; while the square root of [a) = 64*1683 is 
the mean of its mean length and breadth : which dimen- 
sions, combined with a proportion of 3 : 7 for length and 
breadth, give for cubic contents of exterior 142,704, or 
71,352 X 2. 

Also if 4117*57 be taken as radius, then circumference 
(or perimeter of plane through Pyramid at level of coffer's 
centre) =25,871*5 or the years in Precession Period; 
agreeing closely with cubic diagonal of King's Chamber, 
measuring to foot of walls, X 100, = 25,873. 

As the sum of the 24 arris lines of coffer is = circuit of 
King's Chamber floor, their mean length, and also the 
difference between length and breadth of base, will be 
51*5165 inches, = diameter of a sphere whose contents are 
71,588, which, though larger than most of the values for 
coffer's contents, seems entitled to some weight, as it is 
repeated in the sphere described about King's Chamber. 

It would appear that the numbers 3, 5, 7, and 10 (whose 
sum is 25) play a prominent part in both the King's and 
Queen's Chamber, with this difference, that while in the 
King's Chamber 3 is coupled with 7, and 5 with 10, — as in 
the arrangements of the coffer, tt proportions, and general 
*'fiftiness" of the room; — in the Queen's Chamber it is 3 


that is associated with 5, and 7 with 10, — as in the 3x5 

arrangement of the squares, the 7 sides and 10 angles of the 

room, its 5 X 3 an is lines, and its 10''' inches' capacity. 

I am, my dear Sir, 

Yours very truly. 

Professor Piazzi Smyth, JAMES SIMPSON. 

15, Royal Terrace. 

king's chamber heights. 

With reference to the collection of my theoretic results for 
the size of the King's Chamber in Pyramid inches at p. 181, 
it is correct so far as it goes, but would have been completer 
for all the other problems to be solved — ^besides the one you 
were then treating of, viz., my sums of the squares — if you 
had added the second height which the room possesses ; and 
which, if the first height = 230-3886, is according to your 
measures at the place, = 230-3886 + 5*0 Pyramid inches ; 
say 235-3886. 

My theoretic results acknowledge the necessity of such a 
second height to the room; for while its geometrical sym- 
metry and some connections with outside of Pyramid, as well 
as an apparent reference to the earth's size and density (in 
height H- a density of 5-70424 being = to? side of a cube 
equal to the earth), depend on and come out excellently with 
the first height ; the cubic capacity of 20 million inches, and 
the TT relation between length of room and circuit of north or 
south wall — ^results not less important to a scientific monu- 
ment — only come out on using the second height. At the 
same time, however, theory is not able to assign in every 
case one and the same precise value to the increment of 
second over first height; for in one problem it makes the 
quantity 4*85, in another 5-11 Pyramid inches, indicating on 
the mean 5-0 inches very nearly. "While finally, the reference 
from chamber length to vertical height of Grreat Pyramid 
demands a chamber height almost equal to the mean of the 
two heights ; viz., 232-52 Pyramid inches. A quantity, how- 
ever, specially known to the architect, its exact half being 
represented in the 116-26 length of the ante-chamber, mul- 
tiplied by 50 in place of 25. 

J. S. 




Under tlie first half of the above title, the chief philosophic 
architect of our time, James Fergusson, D.O.L., has published 
during the last year an important octavo volume of 532 pp., 
and 234 illustrations: and the book is abundantly descrip- 
tive of rough Cyclopean stone circles, such as Stonehenge, 
Avebury, Stanton-Drew, &c., and of all the occasional rows 
or groups of stones which, however rough, have evidently 
been brought to their places and set up by the hand of man, 
and are now known as dolmens, kistvaens, menhirs, crom- 
lechs, trilithons, &c., &c., both in Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

After brushing away the dust of supposed prehistoric, and 
with some persons even geologic, ages of antiquity ; and after 
disestablishing the Druids from temples they were only theo- 
retically promoted to, long after they had disappeared from 
the surface of the earth under the sword of the E-omans — 
Mr. Fergusson successfully shows (avoiding indeed the earlier 
chambered tumuli of Lydians, Pelasgi, Etruscans, &c., and 
keeping chiefly to the extreme west of Europe) — he shows, I 
repeat, that the dates of all the chief examples of these rough 
and rude stone, or stone and earth, erections are certainly 
confined within periods of from 300 to 900 a.d., and were 
commemorative chiefly of the successful military exploits of 
those various new peoples who appeared in Europe at that 
time from the North and East, and established themselves on 
the ruins of the Roman Empire. 

In so far this author's subject has nothing in common with 
the Great Pyramid, whether in its perfection of finish or 
vastly earlier date of erection ; yet for all that is the Great 
Pyramid lugged into his book, and with such an effort at 


mischief to the sacred and scientific Pyramidal theory, that a 
few words in explanation of what he considers he has accom- 
plished towards that destructive end and aim of his ambition, 
may not be thought unsuitable here. 

Under pretended cover, then, of following the method of the 
Pjnramid scientific theorists, Mr. Fergusson demurely speaks 
of the size of his rude stone circles (which he knows were 
built some 1,200 years ago) being, as a rule, either 100 feet, 
or 100 metres, in diameter. 

Whatever may be said for the feet, of course Mr. Fer- 
gusson understands, and no one better, that the old circle 
builders could not have had any modern French metre 
among them : but he asserts that such a standard is what 
legitimately comes out, as the rule, when the scientific 
Pyramid methods of theorising are applied to the measui'es 
of the size of his stone circles ; and that he therefore and 
thereby not only obtains a short and easy method of de- 
scribing their size, but also of reducing to absurdity what- 
ever has recently been written for the sacred and scientific 
character of the Great Pyramid. And yet he is so mortally 
afraid of his character being injured in London society, 
by any one possibly supposing that he has admitted the 
truth of the smallest part of the said sacred and scientific 
theory of the Great Pyramid, merely because he has touched 
upon it at all, — that although he has " Piazzi Smyth his 
theories " in his index, — ^yet the subject-matter so alluded to 
does not appear in the large and readable letterpress of Mr. 
Fergusson' s book, but in the almost invisible small print of 
a note, and even then with the following bashful apology for 
himself: — 

''I am almost afraid to allude to it, even in a note, lest any 
one should accuse me of founding any theory upon it, like 
Piazzi Smyth's British inches in the Pyramids, but it is a 
curious coincidence that nearly all the British circles are set 
out in two dimensions. [Mark that, if you please, gentle 
reader: Nearly all the British circles are set out in two 
dimensions.] The smaller class are 100 feet, the larger are 
100 metres, in diameter. They are all more than 100 yards. 
The latter measure (metres) is, at all events, certainly acci- 
dental, so far as we at present know, but as a nomenclature 
and memoria technica, the employment of the term may be 
useful, provided it is clearly understood that no theory is 




based upon it:" and there then follow throughout Mr. Fer- 
gusson's book his frequent allusions to the stone circles, as 
being either 100 feet, or 100 metre^ circles. 

Now, though in the above extract I could not but be 
shocked at the learned architectural D.O.L.'s triple blunder 
of '''' Piazzi SmyWs discovery of British inches in the Pyra- 
mids," — in place of ^^ John Taylor^ discovery of earth-com- 
mensurahle inches being founded upon in the unique, primeval, 
and anti-Egyptian design of the Great Pyramid;''^ still I 
thought myself bound to accept, until the contrary had been 
proved, that the celebrated Mr. Fergusson had really alighted 
on a very curious numerical coincidence having the degree of 
closeness alone recognised in modern Grreat Pyramid theoris- 
ing, amongst his rude stone circles. In which case, all honour 
to Mr. Fergusson, no matter what the consequences of his 
discovery might ultimately prove to be. 

With the best desire therefore to appreciate the truth and 
cogency of James Fergusson' s remarkable 7?w(?, I have noted 
one after another, as they came up, the following measures of 
the stone circles, out of his own hook:— 




chambered tumulus, stated, in diameter 

. = 



"sacred" stone circle, by scale, in diameter = 



great stone circle, stated, in diameter 

. z=. 



smaller circle, stated, in diameter 

• =: 



still smaller, stated, in diameter . 

. = 



two interior circles, each, by scale, ii 



. ZZ. 



stone circle, stated, in diameter . 

. z=. 

138 to 155 


do. do. 

, ZZ 

45 to 51 


Silbury tumulus, stated, base diameter 
do. do. top diameter 

. z=. 



, zz 



mound, stated, diameter . 




stone circle, stated, diameter 




do. do. 

. z= 



do. do. 




circular platform, stated, diameter 




rampart, stated, circumference -f- tt 




stone circle, by scale, diameter . 




tumulus, stated, diameter . 


70 to 80 


oval ring, stated, diameter . 


156 to 243 


stone circle, stated, diameter 


345 to 378 


do. do. 

. zz 



do. do. 




cist circle, by scale, diameter 




stone circle do. 

, zz 



do. do. 

. = 



do. do. 




do. do. 






age 161, stone circle, by scale, diameter 

= 57 

„ 161, do. do. 

= 50 

„ 161, do. do. 

= 40 

„ 182, do. do. 

= 120 

„ 182, do. do. 

= 80 

„ 182, do. do. 

= 60 

„ 182, do. do. 

= 40 

„ 194, oval mound do. 

- 430 to 550 

„ 194, curved mound do. 

r= 140 

,, 194, circular mound do. 

= 110 

„ 19 i, do. do. 

= 75 

„ 202, stone circle, stated, diameter 

= 333 

„ 214, do. do. 

= 116 

„ 228, circular rampart do. 

= 580 

„ 241, stone circle do. 

= 340 

„ 241, do. do. 

= 104 

„ 259, do. do. 

= 60 to 100 

„ 259, do. do. 

= 42 

„ 262, do. do. 

=1 60 

„ 264, do. do. 

. - »46 

„ 266, tumulus do. 

= 70 

„ 266, stone circle do. 

. = 100 

„ 266, tumulus do. 

. = 60 

„ 266, stone circle do. 

. =: 80 


Now when we find here, that out of more than fifty of Mr. 
Fergusson's own examples, only one of them measures 100 
feet, and not one of them 100 metres, and that the remainder 
vary from 24 to 1,200 feet in diameter, — it is pretty plain 
that he must have a positive deficiency in some part of his 
head touching numbers, though a large ambition in his 
heart to immortalise himself therein. And as to his accom- 
panying dread of being possibly suspected in the London 
clubs of having become a veritable scientific Grreat Pyramid 
theorist, through means of his fallacious 100-metre circle 
discovery, — so that he conceals, at the same time that he 
publishes, such supposed discovery by consigning it to the 
small print only of a note at the foot of a page, and covered 
over, even there, with a particular apology: — alas! it may 
rather remind other men of a certain courtier in Asia Minor, 
who, while bursting with desire to tell of Ms then recent, 
and too wonderful, discovery, yet was so timid about it 
withal, that he must needs go far away from the haunts of 
men, dig a hole by the bank of a secluded river, breathe 
into it the suicidal words, that ''Midas has the ears of an 
ass," and then hastily fill in the earth again : but which 
refused to retain the secret so confided to it ; for the sedges 
which afterwards grew over the place, whenever a wind of 




heaven rustled among their leaves, still murmured forth, 
*' Midas has the ears of an ass." 

But Mr. Fergusson is not always timid, for how he does 
delight to stamp upon painstaking Dr. Stukely, the lion of 
200 years ago, who himself measured and mapped in the field 
so many of the rude stone circles. That work was perhaps 
Dr. Stukely' s forte; wherefore, when Mr. Fergusson, at his 
own p. 149, makes such a mull as to name a ciicle of 345 
feet in diameter, ''a 100 -metre circle," 100 metres amounting 
only to 328*09 feet, why did he not remember to say that his 
predecessor. Dr. Stukely, had remarked two centuries ago 
on many of those old circles having been laid out in round 
numbers of the far older, and indeed contemporaneous, 'pro- 
fane cubit of Egypt ; especially when that cubit, being taken 
in its double form of the cubit of Karnak, is equal, in its 
100 midtiple, to exactly 345 feet, or the very quantity which 
Mr. Fergusson had then before him to explain, if he could, 
without sinning against both mensuration truth and the 
sequence of history ? 

But there is worse to come. 


In his p. 31, speaking of the Great Pyramid, Mr. Fergus- 
son truly allows it to be '' the most perfect and gigantic speci- 
men of masonry that the world has yet seen;" and that, 
according to mere human methods of developmei^t and pro- 
gression, almost infinite mjrriads of years must have intervened 
between the first rude tumuli, or stone sepulchres erected in 
Egypt, and the building of such a pyramid. 

But in that case there ought to be vastly more stone monu- 
ments in Egypt hefore the day of the Great Pyramid, than 
after it, especially as in the dry Egyptian climate we are told 
again and again that '* nothing decays ;" and then comes the 
stunning announcement, both from Mr. Fergusson, Dr. 
Lepsius, and every good Egyptologist, that there are no 
monuments at all in Egypt older than the Great Pyramid. 
The Great Pyramid, therefore, according to all the known 
facts of the longest known country on the face of the earth, 
led oft' the art of stone architecture in Egypt in a sudden uprise 
to excellency, or a totally difi'erent manner from all human 


experience of what always is, and must be, wlien man works 
by bis own powers alone, unassisted by direct Divine inspi- 

Of this astounding, and humanly unexplainable, abyss of 
nothing of architectural remains at all before, but an abun- 
dant train after, the majestic Grreat Pyramid, — Mr. Fergusson 
says in another foot-note, '' it is so curious as almost to justify 
Piazzi Smyth's wonderful theories on the subject." 

And what does Mr. Pergusson therefore do ? Does he 
consent to the cogency of these, as well as all the other, 
facts of his own professional science, and his own still more 
peculiar methods of philosophising upon them in order to 
elicit the monumental history of man ; and confess, that so 
far as they go, they do lead to nothing less than a Divine 
intervention in the history of man having here occurred in 
the primeval times of the human race ; to the end that this, 
even still unequalled, glory of building, the Great Pyramid, 
appeared suddenly on the stage of history ; as when the Lord 
says through Isaiah (xlviii. 3), ''I did them suddenly and 
they came to pass " ? 

Nothing of the kind. The unhappy man merely wraps 
his mantle of prejudice more tightly than ever around him ; 
and after actually attempting to thrust down the throats of 
the public the same improper unction which he has been 
applying to keep down the conscience-pricks of his own soul, 
exclaims, in the forced words of endeavour to shame the facts 
— '* But there is no reason whatever to suppose that the pro- 
gress of art in Egypt differed essentially from that elsewhere. 
The previous examples are lost, and that seems all." 

That all, indeed ! Why, that is admitting everything ; and 
implies the destruction and total disapi)earance, without leav- 
ing a wrack behind in the most preservative of all climates, 
of more architecture than is now standing on the surface of 
the whole globe: and the admission may further worthily 
include what Mr. Fergusson nowhere allows (though the 
Great Pyramid scholars do), viz., the truth of the Noachic 
deluge, the dispersion of mankind according to the Bible, 
and the innate wickedness of the human heart. 






The following short paper, — having been sent to the Eoyal 
Society of London on October 27th, 1873, and not having been 
heard of again by me, except that it was received there, up 
to the time of going to press with this Appendix in January, 
1874, it is printed here in the interests of truth and fact. 

P. S. 

On the Length of a Side of the Bme of the Great Pyramid, ly 
Piazzi Smyth, F.R.S. 

My attention has been directed to the abstract of a paper 
in the Proceedings of the Eoyal Society for June, 1873 
(pp. 407 and 408), through its having led Professor Clerk 
Maxwell into a serious error in an Egyptian allusion ventured 
by him in his otherwise most admirable address on " Mole- 
cules " before the British Association lately at Bradford. 

The error, published by so influential a body, is far too 
grave to be passed over; because, not only does it fight 
against the time-honoured conclusions of the first Egyptolo- 
gists of the age as to what was *' the common " and indeed 
universal cubit length of ancient Egypt ; not only too does it 
imply a metrological equality between Egypt and Greece, 
instead of Egypt and Babylon — but because the new length 
now assigned to the so-called "common" cubit of Egy|)t is 
only brought in at all by its author. General Sir Henry 
James, E.E., by means of — 

1. An unfair selection, twice repeated, of the modern 


measured lengths of the base-side of the Great Pyramid. 

2. A meaning attributed by him to certain words in 
Herodotus, making them tell the very opposite story to what 
they were intended by their real author to do. 

These things were indeed shown by me, in their simple 
and true light, in Yol. XIII. of the '^ Edinburgh Astronomical 
Observations," pp. E 67 — E 72. But as Sir Henry James now 
returns to his errors as though they had never been ques- 
tioned, and produces them as part of the regular work of the 
Ordnance Survey of Great Britain ; and as they are moreover 
on the present occasion issued to the world (in abstract at 
least) under the name of the Eoyal Society, and have been 
further spread, with damaging effect to the truth in the 
minds of many, by the British Association — on all these 
accounts it seems necessary to make some public protest in 
the name and for the sake of the three noblest attributes of 
scientific man, viz., accurate measuring, truth stating, and 
just doing, with a glowing allusion to which Professor Clerk 
Maxwell closed his able and eloquent discourse. 


''The most recent measures of the Great Pyramid's base 
side," says Sir Henry James, in the 'Eoyal Society's Proceed- 
ings,' " are those made by the Eoyal Engineers and Mr. Inglis, 
a civil engineer, and give a mean length of 9,120 British 
inches." Whereupon Sir Henry James adopts that quantity 
as exactly proving an hypothesis lately invented by himself, 
and mentions no other competing measures. 

Yet Sir Henry James knew of other measui'es, and quite 
worthy ones too of being brought into the general mean 
determination. For while in that very Proceedings' paper he 
quotes Colonel Howard- Yyse and Mr. Perring for the base- 
side lengths of several other pyramids, though he does not 
quote them there for the more important Great Pyramid's 
base-side length, — he not only did quote those authors in a 
former paper in 1867 for that feature of that pyramid, but he 
erected them then, under the name of Colonel Howard- Yyse 
alone, into his sole authority, not even allowing Mr. Inglis's 
result at that time to appear by the side of it. 


And the reason why Sir Henry James quoted so honourably 
Vyse's 9,168 inch measure and extinguished Mr. Inglis's 
9,110 inch measure in 1867, was because he (Sir Henry 
James) had just then published an hypothesis declaring that 
the Great Pyramid's base-side ought to measure 9,168 British 

While the reason on the contrary why Sir Henry James 
does not now continue to quote Yyse's 9,168 inch measure, 
but in place of it adopts Inglis's 9,110 (after having meaned 
it with his own men's 9,130) inch measure, is, — because he 
has now dropped his first hypothesis, and adopted another 
of totally different construction and requiring only 9,120 
inches to measure the Great Pyramid's base-side. 

In face of a method so unusual in science, as this alternate 
selection of some, and concealment of other data to suit 
quickly successive, and rashly launched, hypothetical views, 
it is but a small, and yet a proper, point for the Poyal Society 
to be further informed of; viz., that Mr. Inglis's measures 
should not be quoted by any one (and least of all by any 
general commanding, and profiting in name and fortune by 
the acts of, British subalterns and soldiers), under Mr. Inglis's 
name alone ; seeing that he, Mr. Inglis, was sent to the 
Pyramid by his then master, Mr. Alton, to do whatever he 
did for Mr. Alton at his (Mr. Alton's) expense, and according 
to his (Mr. Alton's) previous arrangements for it also on the 

Mr. Inglis, moreover, was assisted by me when at the 
Pyramid in finding two out of his four station points, when 
all his own efforts had failed ; and his final mensuration 
results were communicated to me by Mr. Aiton for the first 
and only full and authentic publication they have had yet, 
viz., in my book, '' Life and Work," published in April, 1867. 
All these circumstances too have been knowingly Aeglected 

* See Athenceum, November 16, 1867, p. 650. The hypothesis was, tliat 
the sole reason wherefore the Great Pyrainid had been built of its actual 
basal size was, to allow a side ot the base to measure 360 cubits of 26-488 
inches each. That number was stated by Sir Henry James to amount to 
764 feet= 9,168 inches, which made the accord appear perl* ct with Vyse's 
measure of 9,168 inches. But afterwards it was pointed out to Sir Henry 
Jamei that 360 x 25-488 amounted to 9,175-68 inches ; and as, moreover, he 
could not find any authority for an ancient cubit 26-488 inches long, ho 
abandoned that scheme and subsequently invented a new one, which has 
landed him in a totally different set of numbers. 


by Sir Henry James, whose first entry into the Pyramid 
subject was an attack, in November, 1867, upon the book 
which contained them all; the attack beginning in these 
words : — 

"Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton, 
" November 9, 1867. 

" The publication of the elaborate work on the Great Pyramid of Egypt, 
by Professor Piazzi Smyth, has led me to an examination of the propor- 
tions and dimensions of this Pyramid " 

But although Sir Henry James may now choose to throw 
Colonel Howard-Yyse and Mr. Perring's measure overboard, 
— and has led both the Poyal Society and Professor Clerk 
Maxwell unwittingly to confirm the act, — the Eoyal Society 
may be assured that the French nation has not abandoned 
our greatest Pyramid explorer. Neither has that gallant 
people forgotten their own Academicians in the most scientific 
of all military expeditions. On the contrary, they cherish 
the remembrance that it was their savants of the Egypto- 
Prench Academy under Napoleon Bonaparte, who first dis- 
covered two of the only true station points for Great 
Pyramid base-side measuring, and ascertained the length of 
that base-side by their measures (certainly not inferior in 
care and skill to those of any one who has been there since) 
to be 9,163 English inches. 

Indeed, it so chances that within the last few weeks there 
have been discussions in Paris, in the learned Abbe Moigno's 
journal, ^'Les Mondes," as to whether, on one side, a certain 
M. Bufeu was right in recently taking, as the only worthy 
authorities for the Great Pyramid's base-side length, the 
Napoleonic Academicians and Colonel-Howard Yyse, giving 
a mean of 9,166 inches; or, on the other side, the Eoyal 
Society and Sir Henry James in keeping back those mea- 
sures and publishing a selection of other persons' measures 
only, implying a length of no more than 9,120 inches. 

But as this subject is pretty certain now to be attended 
to in the interests of international justice by more able men 
than mygelf, — I hasten on to the second part of this short 
paper, or to what Herodotus did really say in the passage 
referred to. 



As regards " the common cubit " of Egypt, says Sir Henry 
James in the '' Proceedings of the Eoyal Society," and already 
quoted from thence to the whole British Association, — ** we 
have the statement of Herodotus that the Egyptian cubit was 
equal to the Greek cubit, that of Samos." 

Three years ago I had the honour of showing, before 
classicists as well as scientists, that Herodotus made no such 
statement about the Grreek cubit. He said that the Egyptian 
cubit was equal to the cubit of Samos ; but Samos was not 
Greece. It was on the contrary, for the dates referred to, 
the opposite of Greece ; especially in the eyes of Herodotus, 
who regarded it as Asian and Persian ; and the first attack 
upon it by the Lacedaemonian Dorians, he terms their expe- 
dition into Asia, words which the E-ev. Canon Eawlinson de- 
clares are emphatic as to the sense in which Herodotus used 
the term Samian. 

In this sense also, and with its metrological application 
as well (or of the Samian cubit being of the same length as 
the Egyptian, viz., 20-7 inches nearly, and both of them the 
same as the Babylonian of 500 B.C.), the phrase of Herodotus 
was understood by Sir Isaac Newton nearly two centuries 
ago ; also by our own chief Egjrptologist, Sir Gardner Wil- 
kinson ; and likewise by the learned Babylonian scholar, Dr. 
Brandis, of Berlin, with almost all other authorities. 

Hence, unless the Eoyal Society is consenting that a 
general officer of the Eoyal Engineers shall ride over both all 
the facts and all the best interpreters of the facts from Sir 
Isaac Newton downwards, they can hardly object to my 
bringing up once again, in the interests of the world, the 
most notable metrological equation of all antiquity ; viz., that 
the Samian cubit, which the Egyptian cubit was said to be 
equal to by '' the Father of History," was, together with the 
then contemporary Asiatic cubit, = 20*7 British inches in length 
±0-1 inch nearly. Hence we may be absolutely certain that 
the Samian cubit of Herodotus was not 18'24 British inches 
long only, as was the Greek cubit ; and then see the unhappy 
I)osition in which Sir Henry James has placed himself and the 
Eoyal Society. 

He, erroneously imagining that the Samian cubit was no 



more than 18*24 inches long, not only freely announced, on 
his own authority, the other day that the Great Pyramid 
was built to have a measured length of base-side = 500 
of those cubits, viz., 9,120 British inches; but, in order to 
show an appearance of confirmation of his idea, he actually 
proceeded a second time to misrepresent the list of modern 
observations of the base-side of the Grreat Pyramid, by drop- 
ping out now the biggest ones and taking up only the smallest 
ones ; and the Boyal Society has pubKshed the perverted 


Modern surveyors, even with the true Great Pyramid's 
base station points given them to measure between, have 
been lamentably wide of each other, whether they have 
measured one side only, or all four, and then taken a mean 
of the sides, of what every observer assumes to be a squarej. 
horizontal plane. 

But though wide of each other, the four chief and extreme 
authorities may, I trust, be regarded as both honest and not 
very far from equal to each other in ability. Whence, if the 
results of different observers were — 

(1) French Academicians in 1799 and 1800, on the ) o ic-^ r? -4- • 

north side only ^ = y,lbd i3rit. ms. 

(2) Howard-Vyse and Perring in 1837, on the north \ q ^rt 

side only J = y,lb« 

(3) Aiton and Inglis in 1865, mean of all four sides* = 9,110 „ 

(4) Ordnance Surveyors in 1869, mean of all four \ o ion 

sides ) "~ ^'^'^^ " 

— modern science, I presume, cannot pretend to say that the 
true result should be anywhere else than near the mean of 
the whole. 

This was the conclusion which I came to in 1867; 
deducing, for reasons given in " Life and Work," 9,140 British 
inches, as the real Great Pyramid original and intended 
base-side length. A length, too, which I have been enabled 
to find within the last few months, is remarkably, even 
brilliantly and exactly, confirmed by the mathematical rela- 

* In the Aiton and Inglis individual measures of each side, the north 
side appears aa 9,120 Biitish inches ; indicating a constant difference in 
their measures ua compared with those cited here as 1 and 2. 


tions of tlie mucli more accurate measures (chiefly taken by 
two Professors of Astronomy, separated from each other by 
230 years) of the King's Chamber, so-called, in the Great 
Pyramid. But as tliat striking case is already discussed at 
length in a work now at the press, I will not detain the 
Society any further \^ith it at the present time. 


Towards the end of his abstract-paper in the ''Royal 
Society's Proceedings," Sir Henry James alludes to the 
breadth of the entrance passage of the Great, as well as of 
other, Pyramids ; but quotes only certain measures nearly forty 
years old, and taken to no more refinement than the nearest 

As such a proceeding misrepresents both the present-day 
literature of the Great Pyramid, and its metrical capabilities 
also, — may I request that the Poyal Society will be pleased 
to accept the following copy of jny measures, taken in 1865 
and published in 1867,* of both the height and breadth of 
the Great Pyramid's entrance-passage, at several different 
points in the course of its length, and registered in all cases 
to the nearest hundredth of an inch. 

P. S. 

lo, Royal Tekrace, Edinburgh, 
October 27, 1873. 


This morning's post has brought important news, both 
public and private. 

The public news is to the startling effect, that Parliament 
has been suddenly dissolved. If this should prevent Govern- 
ment from performing their promise of bringing in a Metrical 
Bill this year, it will add yet another example to the many 
previous ones, already alluded to on page 214, of such 

* These measures being chiefly the same as those which appear on 
page 311 of this book, need not be repeated here. 


intended bills having again and again been broken without 

The private news is a letter from the Royal Society of 
London, rejecting and returning me the original MS. forming 
the subject of Appendix YI., on the plea of a secret sub- 
committee of their own having reported, that it was not of a 
nature suited for reading before the Society. 

Looking to the errors and something worse of the previous 
antagonist paper from the Southampton Office, which wm 
thought suitable by the officers of the Society to be read, and 
honourably printed too, first in the Society's "Proceedings" 
and afterwards in its "Transactions," — and comparing them 
with the simple contents of this plain paper in reply, which 
the secret committee (the Star-chamber of the Society) will 
not allow, for suitability s sake, to be read nor to appear in 
any way before the meetings, — the general public may form 
their own conclusions, — 

1. As to whether the Eoyal Society really desires its pub- 
lications, in matters relating to the science of the Great 
Pyramid, to represent " accurate measuring, truth-stating, and 
justice doing ; " or, the exact opposite of those things ? And, 

2. How far modern science by itself alone, ruling in high 
places of the earth, is likely to satisfy the hopes of perishing 
humanity through all time to come ? 


ABD-ALLATIF, an Arabian author 
on the Great Pyramid. 356 
Abel and Cain, contest between, 10 
Absolute temperature in the King's 

Chamber of Great i'yxamid, 168 
Acts, 328, 440 

Adams, John Quincey, 199, 233, 449 
Adderley, Mr., on bushels, 203 
Age of exploration, 381 
Agnew, H. C, "Letters on the Pyra- 
mids," 94 
Air channels, 348—352 
Air channels, discovered by Col. Howard- 

Vyse, 93 
Air channels in Queen's Chamber, 363— 

Airy, Sir G. B., 38, 63, 160, 163, 210, 

Alton and Inglis, 32, 178, 393, 513, 

Al-Mamoun, Caliph, 79-82, 86—88, 92, 

307, 351, 356, 357, 380, 422, 462 
American " Joiunal of Science and Art," 

361, 362 
Amos, 434 

Angle measures, 26, 27, 269 
Angle of rise of Great Pyramid, 26 
Anglo-Saxon chaldron, 228 

„ com measure, 108 

„ ignorance of granite, 112 

„ race, 37 
Anomalies corrected by Great Pyramid 

system, 265 
Antagonist of the Great Pyramid theory, 

Ante-chamber, measures of the, 186 

„ symbolisms, 14G, 186 
"Antiquities Description," 20 
Antiquity of intellectual man, 145, 175, 

Apology for the errors of earlier ob- 
servers, 21 
Arabs stopped up ventilating channels, 

Architectural facts of the Great Pyramid, 

209, 210 
Armstrong, Sir "W., 245 
Arris lities, careful measure of, 26 
Arthur's Seat, Ordnance Suivey experi- 
ment on, 159, 163 

Astronomical law with regard to the 
Great Pyramid, 313 

,, Orientation, popular ideas of, 59, 60 
Astronomy of the entrance passage, 312 
Athenaeum, 6, 23, 40, 513 
Austrian Meteorological Society, 170 
Authorities for the names of the buildera 

of the three pyramids, 428 
Authors, variety o^ and their measures, 



Baily, Francis, 119, 161—163, 168, 175, 20G, 

Baird, Sir David, 97 
Barnard, President, 44, 446, 450-455 
Barometric pressure, 266 
Base-side lengths, 31, 32, 511, 512 

„ measures by French Academicians 
and Howard Vyse, 20, 516 

,, original, not present, size, required 
to test John Taylor's proposition, 

„ variations of measures of, 33, 516 
^Beginning of reference to the Great 

Pyramid's numbers, 35 
Biblical views of Metrology in general, 

Biblical w eek, 376—378 
Birch, Dr. Samuel, 6, 309, 408, 416, 416 
Birch, Dr. Thomas, M.A. (of 1737), 850 
Bird's copy of Exchequer yard standard, 

Bonaparte, 16, 65, 101, 188 
Boss on the granite leaf, 190 
Bramah, 161 
Brandis, Dr., 288, 615 
Brettell, Mr. (C.E.), 23 
British Association, 121, 511, 512 
British Government, weights and meo- 

Bui es, 450 
British inch, 36, 37, 247 

„ Metrology, 199 
Brugsch Bey, 408, 416 
Briinnow, Dr., calculation of stars in the 

Pleiades, 325, 326 
Bryant, 421 
Brougliam, Lord, 226 
Bunsen, Baron, 412, 418 
Buri*ctinu8, dcsoription of the limestone 

in the Qroat Fyrtuuid passage*! 8Utt 



Capacity measures, tables of, 229, 230 
„ references in the Queen's Chamber, 

„ relations between King's Chamber 
and coffer, 183 
Cartouches of King Cheops foimd in 

Wadee Maghara, 111 
Casey, Mr., 176, 384, 385, 390, 391, 393, 

394, 396, 398 
Casing-stone, Mr. Dixon's, 489 — 493 
Casing-stones, Howard-Vyse's, 22 

„ Howard-Vyse's, found large, 25 
„ search for, 16, 17 
„ Dixon's search in Cairo for, 17 
,, Sir J. Herschel's angle of the, 

„ Howard-Vyse's angle of sup- 
ports, J. Taylor's proposition, 
Catalogue of the Boulak museum, 415 
Cavendish, Mr., 160, 162, 165 
Caviglia, Signor, 75, 78, 381 
Ceiling of King's Chamber, 352—355 
Celsius, 258 

Challenger, H.M.S., letters from, 213 
Chalmers, Dr., 219 
Champollion, 407, 408 
Cheop's coffin ! 144 
Chisholm, Mr., 207, 208 
Christison, Sir R., 252 
Chronicles, 431, 436 
Chronology, essence of, 34 
Clarke, Dr., 97, 113, 148, 307, 381 
Clarke, Colonel Ross, 44, 159, 372 
Classic antiquity on the interior of the 
Great Pyramid, 78 
„ names for early Egsrptian kings, 
Cobden, Mr,, 211, 212 
Cocker, Mr., 233 
Coffer, capacity of the, 143 
„ capacity size by Joseph Jopling, 

„ capacity size by John Taylor, 123 « 
„ contents of pure water, 231 
„ cubic contents, 145 
„ determination ofcapacity by Greaves 

and Vyse, 106 
„ drawing in the French work on 

Egypt of the, 131 
„ ledge, anomaly of the, 130 
„ measured in British inches, 134 — 

„ often measured, 99 
„ Perring's drawings of the, 131, 133 
„ sarcophagus theory of the, 141— 

„ Taylor's suggested use of the, 118 
,, weight, temperature, and pressure 

data for the, 172, 173 
„ why of that size, 118 
Coloured Pyramid, 116 
Commensui abilities in the Pyramid, 

Communistic French metre, progress of 

the, 446 
Confirmations, 174 — 176 
Corner-sockets, discovery of, 20 
., measurements of the, 29 
Cory, J. P., *' Fragments," by, 424, 431, 432 

Coventry, Andrew, 375 
Crucial test, 390—402 
Cubit, Greek, 33, 515 

„ hereditary measures of the, 252, 253 

„ lengths, by Sir G. Wilkinson, 289 

„ of Egypt, 36, 515, 516 

„ of Great Pyramid, 36 

„ of Memphis, 299 

„ of Persia, 288 

„ of Samos, 286, 287, 515 

„ old Egyptian, 285 

,, origination of the profane Eastern, 

„ sacred, 36 

„ sacred, by Sir Isaac Newton, 295, 
298 — 302 

„ sacred, of the Hebrews, 281, 294 
Cubits, Dr. Hincks on, 288 

„ of ancient renown, 282 
Cumberland, Bishop, 294 

Davies, Prof. C, 449; 
Davison's chamber, 354 
Date of Great Pyramid, 313, 316 
Day, Mr., 176 
„ on the area of the Pyramid's right 

section, 13 
„ on the excentric position of the 

boss, 192 
„ on the shape of the coffer, 368 
Day and year standard indicated in the 
Pyramid, 29 
„ standard of lineal measure at the 
Great Pyramid, 36 
" Dead Book" of tlie Egyptians, 290, 291 
Defterdar Bey, 20 
De Launay, M., 50 
De Morgan, Prof., 175 
Density and temperature, 146 
De Saulcey, 408 
Deuteronomy, 435 

Differential chronology of the Egyptolo- 
gists, 410—413. 
Diodorus Siculus, 91, 426, 430 
Director of the Ordnance Survey, mis- 
reads a passage in Herodotus, 28G 
,, of the Ordnance Survey on the 
Egyptian cubit, 285 
Divine inspiration, 31 
Dixon, Mr. John, 155, 156, 364 
„ Mr. Waynman, 16, 20, 134, 135, 144, 
155, 191, 359, 363, 365, 366, 394, 
395, 399, 401, 497, 498 
,, Mr. Waynman, great measuring 
work in first ascending passage, 
,, Mr. Waynman, made cast of boss, 

,, Mr. Waynman, measures by, 395 
„ Mr. Waynman, on air-channels in 

Queen's Chamber, 363—365 
„ Mr. Waynman, requested to make 
special measures, 394 
Dufeu, M., 126, 127, 514 

Earth and Pyramid analogies bv John 
Taylor, 40 



Earth-axis and year, commensurable 

result indicated, 34 
Earthquakes unusual in Egypt, 16 
Earth's density, closely appi-oximated to, 
„ equatorial diameter, 31 
„ mean density, 157 
,, mean density. Captain R. Clarke's 

result for, 372 
„ mean density, mountain determina- 
tion of the, 158 
,, mean density, natural philosophy 
determination of the, 160 • 

., mean density, Sir G. B. Airy's result 

for the, 372 
„ Polar-axis, latest determination of, 
Edinburgh astronomical observations, 

284, 287, 512 
Egmont, Lord, 149 
Egypt of the Lord Christ, 4a3 
Egyptian cubit, length of the profane, 28, 
36, 37, 515, 516 
„ dynasties, table of, 412 
„ hieroglyphics versvs Greek scholar- 
ship, 408 
Egypto-Arabians held the Pyramids in 
esteem, 80 
„ -French Academy of 1799, 132, 514 
Egyptologic details of early kinjs, 424 

Egyptologists' date of Great Pjrramid, 
315, 316 
,, ideas of pyramids, 75, 76 
,, portcullis system, 153 
Engineer-general, questionable theories 
of an, 155, 156 
, , officers employed on trigonometrical 
surveys, 42 
Enquiry into the data, 14 
Entrance passage of the Great Pyramid, 

Ephesians, 440 

Equal surface projection, 68, 265, 266 
Equality of areas, 181 
Equatorial and other diameters of the 

earth, 45 
Eratosthenes, 426 
European mind enters into the question 

of the Great Pyramid, 90 
Exchequer standard ell, 248 
iixodus, 333, 338, 4M, 473 
Ewart, Mr., 212, 214, 221 
Ezekiel, 280, 435, 442 

Fahrenheit's thermometer, 257 
Fallings away from simple fact, 472 
Fergusson, James, 64, 412, 427, 505—510 
Fiffure of the earth and sun distance, 40 
First discovery of John Taylor's, 12, 14 
Foot measures, 254 

„ of man, size of, 27 

,, standard unsuitable for w on the 
Pyramid's scale, 27 
Forbes, Professor J. D., 162 

„ Mr., travels (in 1776), 114 
Fox Talbot, Mr., 28;^ 
Freemasons' inarks, 128 

„ on the origin of the coffer, 128 

French Academicians, 121, 1.S6, 188, 305 
Academicians base-side length, 31, 

515, 516 
Academicians made first socket 

measure, 22 
and Howard-Vyse base-side mea- 
sures, 20, 512—516 
Metre, 37 

Metre's derivation, 38 
Metric System, 37, 38 
metrical reference for capacity 

measure, 119 
metrical system, 217 
metrical temperature and pressure, 

261, 262 
observed depth and height of the 

coffer, 132 
philosophers' metrological scheme, 

37, 38 
savants on the passages of the Great 

Pyramid, 305 
Further confirmations of J. Taylor's 
proposition, 25 

Galloway, Rev. W. B., " Esrypt's Record 
of Time," 388, 410 
„ Rev. W. B., on Egyptian kings' 
names, 426 
Gteneral summation, secular and sacred, 

Genesis, 334, 433, 464 
Geodesic science, growth of, 38 
„ science, knowledge of at the Great 
Pyramid, 39 
Geogrraphical aptitudes of the Great 

Pyramid, 65 
Gteography and the exterior, 1 
Geometrical derivation of the passage 
angle, 188, 189 
„ proportions of the Great Pyramid, 
Gibbon's accoimt of Al Mamoim, 79 
Gibson, Mr. Mihier, 212 
Gliddon, Mr., 59, 97, 333 
Glover, Rev., F.R.A., 176, 373, 438 
Goodsir, Rev. J. T., 176, 290, 347 
Graham, standards compared by, 24.8 
Grand gallery's cubical commensura- 

bilities, 378, 379 
Grander Pyramid and Solar Analogy, 48 
Granite, ancient and modem ignorance 
of, 113—116 
„ leaf, 154 

„ leaf, place of the bos* on the, 191 
„ the material of the coffer, 109 
„ where used in the Great Pyramid, 
Grant, Dr., of Cairo, 16, 134, 497, 498 
„ Dr., of Cairo, assists Mr. Dixon at 

the Pyramid, 363, 366, 396 
„ Dr., of Cairo, on Mariette Bey's 

wonderful stone, 416, 416 
, , Dr., of Cairo, on some crucial points 
in the Great Pyramid, 493, 496 
Great Pyramid, alleged error of its orien- 
tation, 60 
„ all the other pyramids unlike the, 

„ Al Mamoun at the, 81— » 



Great Pyramid, always the favourite one, 

„ an anthropological monument, 47 
,, an effective surveying signal, 65 
„ architectural facts, 509, 510 
,, before science, 53 
„ comer-sockets, uncovering all four, 

„ directors of the building were not 

Egyptian, 69 
„ earth's density number in the, 164 
„ expresses the value of ir, 26 
„ free from aU idolatrous inscriptions, 

„ geographical indications in the, 55 
„ geographical position, a testimony 

against some earth theories, 62 
„ grand standards, 224 
„ height of, 49 
„ history and the interior, 71 
„ latitude of the, 61 
„ linear standard contrasted with 

French metre, 37 
„ made of a particular size, 34 
„ meridian, 67, 68 
„ metrology of time, 276, 277 
„ Mr. Heniy Mitchell on the position 

of the, 65, 66 
„ no Freemasons' marks in or on the, 

„ non-idolatrous, 64 
„ not of Egypt, 8, 9 
„ number of wall courses in the 

King's Chamber of the, 149 
„ orientation of, opposed by all early 

structures, 64 
„ orientation of the sides of the, 55 
,, position as described in Isaiah xix., 

20, 67 
„ position in the delta land of Egypt, 

,, present appearance of the, 16 
„ quasi-copies of the, 7 
„ scenes transacted in the, 171 
„ scientific knowledge of the, 11 
„ shape of the, 49 
,, subterranean chamber of the, 74 
„ use of a polar star by the, 316 — 

,, versus rude stone monuments, 505, 

„ why was it built, and who built it ? 

„ Sphinx consigned to its proper 

place, 413—417 ; no community 

between it and the Great Pyra- 
mid, 357 
Greaves, Prof., 16, 57, 102, 127, 299, 307, 

309, 353 
, , con\ ersation with Dr. Harvey, 348— 

i „ description of the passages, 306, 

' „ figurative expression misled Jo- 

mard, 177 
,, first named the granite leaf, 154 
„ his useful work at the Great Pyra- 
mid, 58 
„ on the bxiilder of the Great Pjrra- 

mid, 91 
„ on the nature of the stone of the 

coffer. 111 

Prof., on the wall courses in 
King's Chamber, 147 
„ the Oxford astronomer (in 1637), 
Greek cubit, 33, 515 
Gregory, Dr. Olinthus, 14 
Grey, Sir George, 208 

Haliburton, R. G. on the Pleiades, 321 

Saroun al Raschid, 79, 82 

Harrison, Dr., 440 

Harvey, Dr., 348, 349, 350 

Heat and pressure, 257 

Heat, angle, money, time, 257—277 

Hebiew measures, Bishop Cumberland 

on, 294 
Hekekyan Bey, 126—128 
Hereditary inch measures, 255 
Herodotus, 6, 9, 19, 49, 78, 92, 104, 287, 

288, 345, 391, 4-26-430, 437, 512, 514 
Herschel, Sir John, 23, 175, 297, 324 

„ advocates the inch as the unit stan- 
dard, 220—223 

„ confirmed J. Taylor's earth and 
Pyramid analogies, 40, 41 

„ on the astronomical law with regard 
to the Pyramid, 313-316 

„ on the diameter rather than the 
circumference of a circle, 38 

,, on weights and measures, 220, 221 
Hierologists and chronologists, 405—408 
Hincks, Dr., 419, 420 
Hine, Edward, 484 
Hipparchus, 320 
History and the interior of the Great 

Pyramid, 71 
Hooke, Dr., 57, 58, 61 
Hopkins, Mr. Evan, on earth's motion, 

Human religious history, 389, 390 
Human versus divine ultimate rule, 456 
Hume, Joseph, 372 
Hutton, 159 

Ibn Abd Alkokm, 81 
Inches typified in the granite leaf, 189 
IngUs, Mr., 150, 513 

International appendix to Great Py- 
ramid capacity measure, 229 

,, linear measure, 252, 253 

,, weight measure, 242 
Intellectual man, antiquity of, 145, 175, 

Introductory statement touching the 

Great Pyramid, 3 
Iron measuring-rod of Prof. Greaves, 177 
Isaiah, 2, 198, 373, 404, 443, 470, 480, 481, 


James, Sir H., 32, 49, 159, 372, 511—515, 

Jeezeh, its varieties of orthography, 4 
, Jeremiah, p. vi. 
I Jerusalem, when founded, 432 



Job, Book of, 72, 334, 336, 373, 437, 438, 

Jomard, M., 19, 56, 95, 96, 132, 133, 169, 

170, 177, 305, 353 
Jopling, Joseph, 125 
Josephus, 292, 293, 29S, 338, 342, 493 
Joseph Well, city of Cairo, 169 
" Juventus Mundi," 425, 428 

Kamak, double cubit of, 124, 509 

KeUy, Dr., 200, 205, 215, 229, 253 

Kepler, 51 

Key signs of the Great Pyramid's archi- 
tect, 356 

Khedive, his highness the, 481 

King Charles I.'s astronomer, 308 

King, Mr. Clarence, on atmospheric 
pressure, 263, 264 

Kmg's Chamber and coffer mutually 
commensurable, 150 
„ its temperature, 168 
„ measures, 178, 182 

Kings, 341, 436 

Kitto, 294, 338 

La Caille, 51 
Land and sea miles, 270 
Lane, Mr., 148, 178, 412 
Latitude, further test by, 61 
Law, H., 14 

Law of Egyptian pyramid building, 76 
Layard, Mr., on Fieemasons' marks, 128 
Legend on the Pyramid of Dashoor, 352 
Loider's, Dr., supposed pyramid, 497 
Length and breadth of the Ark of the 
Covenant, 337 

„ and breadth of the coffer, 134, 135 
"„ in Britisli inches of hereditary 
measures, 252—256 

„ measure by Prof. Greaves of the 
coffer, 105 

„ measures of the coffer, 100, 136—141, 

„ of the ante-chamber, 186—188 

„ of the base-side of the Great Py- 
ramid, 31—33, 331 

„ of the earth's polar axis, 41 — 44 

„ of the Egyptian cubit, 36, 515, 516 

„ ofthe King's Chamber, 177—182, 475 

„ of the Queen's Chamber, 185 

„ standard of, employed in the Great 
Pyramid, 27 

„ true base-side, 17, 21 

„ varieties of measures of, 32, 33 
Lepsius, Dr., 6, 76—79, 97. 142, 391, 408, 

411—413, 468 
"Les Mondes," 187, 486, 614