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OUPv PvAILWAYS 



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• • • • 



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OPRKtVO or Tpat trORTH BRIDGE BT TUB PRIKCE OF WALES (p. 3G!). 



OUR RAILWAYS 



THEIR ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT, INCIDENT 

AND ROMANCE 



BY 

JOHN PENDLETON 

Author of "A History of Derbyshire^** ^^ Nnvs paper Reporting in Olden Tiru 

auti To-day," &*e. 



IN TWO VOLUMES 

Volume II. 



CASSELL AND COMPANY, Limited 

LONDON, PARIS &* MELBOURNE 

1896 

ALL MIGHTS XBSBRVBD 




> 



PAOK 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

BAILWAY BOMANCE, HUMOUR, AND TBAQEDT. 

The Romance and Incident of Travel — ^Perils to Children — The Head- 
strong Passenger*B Struggle — Pleasant Companions — Dangerous 
Sport : Throwing Stones at Railway Carriages — Flinging Bottles 
on the Track — A Miner's Solicitude about his Complexion — An 
Emphatic Invitation — Life in a Compartment — Mothers and their 
Ways— The Bachelor's Threat— Train Robbers— Station Thieves— 
The Countess's Jewellery — Dramatic Episodes on the Line — ^Two 
Noted Railway Tragedies — An Officer's Downfall — A Rascal in 
Preacher's Guise — The Agitation against Outrages — A Question 
in Parliament — "Not Safe for a Lady to Travel Alone" — The 
Railway to be Managed by Women ..... 1 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

MOBB INCIDENTS OF THE LINE. 

Mr. Gladstone's Speeches on Tour — Political Scenes a,t Railway 
Stations — Mr. Balfour's Dislike to Carriage- Window Oratory — 
Sir William Haroourt's Novel Experience — The Interminable 
Scotchman at Lockerbie — Stopping the Express — The Vanished 
Passenger — "Where's Tour Ticket?" — The Light Luggage Rack — 
The Crushed Hat — Peculiar Effect of Train Jolting — Bewildered 
at Trent — Juvenile Travellers and their Comments — An Awkward 
Fix — A Whimsical Search — The Terrible Highlander-7-Travelling 
Adventures — The Girl Passenger in Male Attire — An Exciting 
Exit — How the Old Lady (Jot Out — Escaping from a Maniac— 
Queer Visitors to Signalmen — Mad Engine-Drivers ... 29 

CHAPTER XXVIL 

80MS RAILWAY 8UBFBISES— SMOKINa IN TRAINS— SUKDAT TBAVBLLINO. 

Railway Surprises — A Special Train and the Wreck of the (?<>#<- 
jMi^rurifc— Kidnapping a Grand Duke — An Expensive Journey — 






▼I OUR RAILWAYS. 



PAQB 



Smoking in Railway Carriages— Implacable Enemies— Punishing: 
a Foreigner— The Eton Boys and the Strong Pipe— A Very Rude 
Smoker— Passengers' Hatred of Tobacco—" No Smoking Allowed " 
—"Smoking" Labels in Tall Hats— Sunday Travelling— " The 
Agitator's Manual"— Longing for a Change— Wordsworth's Pro- 
test—Prejudice against Sunday Trains— A Sunday at Llandudno 
— ^A Sunday Afternoon Train from Nottingham to Bakewell— 
Breaking Heads and the Sabbath at Strome Ferry— Remission of 
the Sentence 5] 

CHAPTER XXVIIL 

EXCURSIONS. 

A Vehicle of Erratic Ways — Two Remarkable Excursions — Trips in 
Cattle Trucks in France — Esoursions In and Out of London — 
Crowding to Epping Forest — Bank Holiday — The Lancashire 
Excursionists' Paradise — Blackpool in " the Season " — Warehouse 
Manchester and its Annual Holiday— How Cotton Operatives 
Enjoy Themselves—" Going- A way " Clubs— Enormous Sums Spent 
in Recreation — The Tourist Invasion of the Isle of Man — What 
it has Done for Douglas — The Holiday Disaster at Hampstead 
— Delayed Excursionists and their Pastimes 75 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

STRANGE TRACKS— RAILWAY STATION THRONG AND QUIET. 

Railways in Remote Lands — Opening a Station at Jerusalem — A 
Railway in an Arsenal — ^The Line up Vesuvius — Running Down 
the Liokey — Whimsical and Miniature Railways— Life's Movement 
at the Railway Station — Notable Passengers — Railways and the 
Drama— What Men do for Sport and Pastime — Animals, Wild 
and Tame, on the Line — Two Famous Railway Dogs — A County 
Court in a Train — Some Lost Luggage — Mrs. Gamp at the Book- 
ing Office— Lifting a Railway Station — "The Stationmaster of 
Lone Prairie" — ^A Mystifying Notice to Passengers , . , 99 

CHAPTER XXX. 

HUNGRY AND THIRSTY TRAVELLERS— THE RBFRBSHMENT-ROOM. 

The Refreshment-Room — ^An Early Visit — Buffets at Big Stations — 
The Hungry Man at Mugby — ^Manners at the Post Office — The 
Platform Boy — Passengers and their Appetites — Ten Minutes 
Stop at Swindon — ^The Humour of It— A Singular Aotion-at-law 



GOyTESTS. vii 

PAOK 

— Charsring for a Special Train — A Splendid Dijrestion— The 
Surjjeon and the Sausage- Rolls — An Enticing Refreshment- Room 

— The Navvy at the "First-Class" Bar^— "The Young Ladies" 
Behind the Counter — Their Duties, Hardships, and Prospects — 
The Railway Companies as Caterers — ^A Bishop's Church on WhiMls 
—The Travelling Hotel KO 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

QUAINT AND MODERN TIME-TABLES. 

A Faded Time-Table— The Train Service Half-a-Century Ago— Con- 
ditions of Travel — Good Advice— Smoking Forbiddei^^No Tips 
for the Porter — Riding Outside the Carriage — Passengers Con- 
veyed in Rotation — Line-Making Curiosities — Glowing Description 
of Railway Works — " Bradshaw " — The Official Tirae-Tablos — 
How they are Produced — An Old Time-Table from Stockton 
aad Darlington — Old Railway Stations 141 

CHAPTER XXXIL 

THE REVOLUTION IN RAILWAY FARES. 

Free Travel — The Old Parliamentary Train— A Lesson in Patience — 
An Enterprising North-Westem Train — The Midland Faro Policy 
— Sir James Allport on Journeying — An Old Train Speed — Tri- 
bute to a Useful Life— The New Manager of the Midland — The 
Third-Class (Jold Mine — Remarkable Expansion of Traffic — 
Threatened Extinction of First-Class — Clinging to the Second- 
Class Fare — What Railway Men Think and What the Railway 
Companies are Doing — The Sort of " Goods " to Carry . . • 102 

CHAPTER XXXin. 

RAILWAY CARRIA0E8 — HOW THEY ARE APPOINTED AND LIGHTED. 

Primitive Railway Carriages — A Mayor's Dodge — How Trains are 
Made up Now — Danger from an Improvement — The Pullman 
Car's First Run on an English Line — Carriages of Home Make 
— Modem Improvements in Railway Coaches — The Seclusion of 
the Compartment — Communication with the Driver — Telegraphing 
from a Speeding Train — Door Banging — The Old Lady and the 
Foot- Warmer — New Method of Heating Carriages — American 
Cars on the South-Eastem — A Princely Railway Carriage — The 
Gjieat- Western Corridor Train — Luxurious Travelling — Novel 



viii OUR BAILWAT,"^. 



PAQK 



Mode of Train Liphting — The "Candle Club" — Darkness and 
Murder— The Oil Lamp— Gas and the Electric Lijjht . . .180 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

RAILWAY SPEED. 

"Flying Coaches "^Locomotives Old and New — Leisurely Trains — 
Railway Speed — What the Passenger Thinks — The Real Pace and 
its Limit — The Railway Race to the North — Sir Edward Watkin 
in the Eight Hours Express— Fast Travelling in a Steady Train 
—The Old Fij^'ht for the Scotch Traffic— The Renewed Strugjrle 
— The First Month's Running — Great Northern Time — Quick 
Runs on other Lines — The Coming Railway : An Ingenious 
Project — American Railway Hurry — Ten Miles in Six Minutt>s — 
Charles Dickens as a Railway Traveller — The '* Greater Britain " 
— Fast Trains from Town — Railway Punctuality .... 222 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

THE DEMAND FOR SHORTER HOURS FOR RAILWAY MEN. 

"The Man in Charge of the Clattering Train "— Unrest Among 
Workers— The Strike Fever— How the School Boys "Came Out" 
—Strikes of Railway Men— The Stubborn Fight on the Scotch 
Lines — Folly and Riot — The Coal Struggle in England : Its 
Effect on Railways and Trade in General — Overwork on Rail- 
ways — Dismissing a Stationmaster, and What Came of It — The 
Terrors of a Breach of Privilege — An Interesting Night in the 
House — Directors at the Bar — The Speaker's Admonition — Re- 
commendations on Railway Work — The New Act — Robberies on 
the Line — Ned. Farmer, Detective and Poet 2ri9 

CHAPTER XXXVL 

ENGINE-DRIVERS AND SIGNALMEN. 

Aristocratic Engine-Drivers — Absence of Mind on the Footplate — 
Perils and Escapes — An Express in Collision — How an Engine- 
Driver is Trained — Curious Rides on Railways — Going Over a 
New Line — In Search of Facts at Railway Accidents — The 
Drivers' Strike on the Midland — An Exciting Night — Erratic 
Driving — A Driver^s Desperate Deed — The Signalman and His 
Work — Some Dramatic Incidents — Old Fashioned Signals — Modern 
Modes of Signalling — How to See Round a Comer . . .201 



N 



CONTENTS. IX 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

SOME NOTED TUNNELS, AND HOW THEY WERE MADE. 

Mining Years Ago — Harrowing Beneath a Snow-clad Mountain — The 



PAOC 



French and the Railway Under the Sea — The Lengths of Eng- 
lish Tunnels — The Toil and Danger of Making them — Under the 
Severn — Sir Daniel Gooch — On the Look-out for a Late Train — 
Creeping into the Tunnel — Tough Work in the Peak — Making 
the Totley Tunnel — Exploring the Underground Way — Trudging 
Beneath the Moorland — A Stormy November Day — A Jubilant 
Journey Through Woodhead Tunnel — The Box, Shugborough, and 
other Tunnela—The Thames Tunnel 314 

CHAPTER XXXVIIL 

VIADUCTS AND BRIDGES. 

Some Noted Bridges — A Rough Day on the Conway — The Drowning 
of the Irish Mail — The Square Box Bridge — In Monai Straits — 
"The Building of the Bridge "—The Chain Bridge and the Fool- 
hardy Cobbler — Brunei's Famous Cornish Bridge — A Wild Night 
on the Tay — The Tom Bridge and the Train's Doom— The New 
Road Across the River — The Great Forth Bridge — Its Shape and 
Strength — The Opening Ceremony — Crossing in a Storm — A Costly 
Undertaking and its Trade Value —London and Other Bridges— 
Happy-go-Lucky Bridge Builders 341 

CHAPTER XXXIX 

BNOW, FLOOD, FOO, AND FIRE. 

Snow — A Costly Foe — Lines Blocked with Drifts — Snowed-up in the 
West Country — Strange Adventures — Loss Through Storms — 
Floods in the Midlands and the North — Broken Viaducts— The 
Stationmastdr's Refuge — Fog — Accident and Incident — Fires at 
Wolverton, Leeds, and Salford 377 

CHAPTER XL. 

RAILWAY DISASTERS, 1840-1870. 

The Breakdown Train — Humorous Events — A Novel Cure — The 
'* Coo's" Revenge — How Railway Accidents are Caused — Malice 
and Mischief — Jumping Waggons — The Whims of the Light 
Engine — The Phantom Han(l on the Guard's Break — Railway 
Accidents, 1840-1870 898 



xii OUR RAILWAYS. 

PAOK 

Peterborough Station in 1845 loS 

George Bradshaw .. . ,., ... ... ... ... ... ... ... lo') 

Norwich Station in 1845... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... lo6 

Northampton Station in 1845 157 

Facsimile (reduced) of Advertiaement of Stockton and Darlington Trains in 

XOtJw ■•• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ■•• ••• ■•« ••• AW 

First, Second, and Third Glass to the Derby in 1845 165 

Derby Day in 1845 169 

Bit of the Cork, Blackrock, and Passage Railway in 1850 : Dundanion ... 177 

Lord Stalbridg^ ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 180 

Mr. F. Saunders ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..• 182 

Mr. Jonas Levy ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 184 

Mr. George Armytage 185 

A First-class Carriage (Eastern Counties Railway) in 1847 189 

Interior of a Second-class Carriage (Eastern Counties Railway) in 1847 ... 192 

1. South-Eastem Pullman Train. 2. Latest Type of SouthEastem Engine 193 

Third-class Passengers in 1844 194 

A Bogie Carriage (London and North- Western) 195 

Bedford Station ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 197 

London and South -Western Pullman Vestibule Parlour Car 199 

Sections of Carriage showing Electric Communication 201 

Interior of a London and South -Western Pullman Car 207 

Hastings and the Station in 1852 209 

Etchingham Station (Hastings Line) in 1852 210 

Wadhurst Tunnel (Hastings Lino) in 1852 211 

A Third-clasB Corridor Dining Carriage (London and North -Western) ... 213 

A Gas Lamp of 1845 (Interior) 216 

A Gas Lamp of 1845 (Exterior) 217 

Lighter of Gas Lamp of 1845 218 

Great Northern Engine (8 ft. driving wheel and outside cylinder) 222 

The "North Star" (Groat Western) 223 

Midland Engine, No. 1853 224 

The Machine Shop, Locomotive Dejmrtmcnt, at Diiby 225 

An Old Bristol and Exeter Double-bogie Tank Engine 226 

A Great Western Broad-Gauge Express Engine (8 ft. driving wheel) ... 229 

One of the Latest Types of Gt West. Express Engine (8 ft driving wlior ') 231 

The Erecting Shop at Crewe in 1849 ... 233 

Crewe Station tf»/tVd in 1843 234 

Preston Station 235 

Mr. F. W^. W^ebb ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 237 

Mr. Patrick Stirling; Mr. Wilson Worsdcll 238 

Mr. S. W. Johnson 241 

Latest Type of Great Northern Express Engine (7 ft 6. in. driving wheel) 243 
Latest Type of London and South -Western Express Engine (7 ft. 1 in. 

driving wheels) 247 

Railway Fftte at Crewe in 1843 249 

The Encting Shop at Crewe ... 251 

The Boiler Shop at Crewe ... 263 



I 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAnv 

Mr. J. H. Nettloship ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Sir Francis Head ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 12 

Balcombo Tunnel and Spot where Mr. Qold's Body was Found 17 

Mr. Gladstone Addressing a Crowd at West Calder Station in 1879 ... 33 

A Country Signalman 46 

A Smoking Carriage on the Eastern Counties Line in 1846 58 

Exterior of an Eastern Counties Smoking Carriage of 1846 59 

Llandudno Station 65 

Mr. G. H. Turner ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 73 

Benediction of the Havre and Rouen Railway in 1847 79 

Liverpool Street Station 81 

Blackpool ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 84 

Marine Park, Southport 85 

The Quay at Douglas 89 

Mr. William Ezton 93 

Hampstead Heath Station : the Staircase where the Crush Occurred ... 96 

The Station at JaCfa 100 

The Railway up Pilatus ... 103 

A Station (Tan-y-hwlch) on the Festiniog Riiil way 104 

A Luggage Scramble 109 

" Help," the Railway Dog 114 

Mr. John Climpson ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 115 

Frodsham Station in Course of Removal 117 

Double Engine used on the Festiniog Railway 119 

Refreshment-Room at Exchange Station, Manchester (Tjondon and North- 

w esiern I ••• ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1a1 

Swindon Station in 1845 124 

The Present Swindon Station 125 

The Dining-Room of Bradford Station (Midland) 129 

Leicester Station ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 131 

Chester Station in 1848 133 

A Railway Refreshment Buffet of 1852 139 

A Page (reduced) from Bradshaw's * * Railway Companion," 1839 141 

Facsimile (reduced) of Title-page of the First *< Continental '' Bradshaw, 1 84 7 142 

Mapof the Railways of Gr9at Britain in 1841 145 

Facsimile (reduced) of Page from Bradshaw's <* Railway Guide" of 

January, 1842, showing List of the Principal Railways then Completed 148 

Thompson's Railway Table 149 

The Works at Wolverton— the " Body Shop " 150 

A Liverpool Station (Tithebam Street) in 1850 151 



xiv OUB RAILWAYS, 

PAOI 

SDowstorm on the Highland Bail way in 1881 : Finding one of the Buried 

^ 1 cUxlo ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• «•« ,,, ,,« ,,, Ofw 

Snowstorm on tho Highland Railway in 1881 : Searching for the Lost 

■iveJiei Xxain ... ... ... ... ... ... ,,. ,.. ,., o7U 

The Great Western Express Snowed- up in 1891 381 

Damage toTelegraph Wires in Snowstorm of 1892 383 

The Victoria between Dover and Calais in the Snowstorm of 1891 385 

Floodat Crow Mills Viaduct in 1852 388 

Flood between Darlington and Ferry Hill Stations in 1852 389 

A Fog- Signalman... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 393 

Scene of tho Fire at Kentish Town Station in 1872 394 

Train on Fire at Clapham Junction 395 

Accident to the Czar*s Train on the Azov Railway 401 

Accident on a South-Eastem Bridge in 1846 406 

Collapse of the Dee Bridge, Chester 407 

The Accident at Granton 412 

The Accident at Kentish Town 413 

The Accident at Staplehurst 416 

The Accident at Swansea 417 

Train on Fire at Abingdon, on the Caledonian 419 

Tho Abergele Disaster 421 

The Accident at Newark 426 

The Accident at Wigan 433 

The Accident at Wennington 439 

After the Collisions at Oanonbury 441 

The Accident near Pemstone in 1 884 445 

Mr. F. Penny ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 448 

The Hexthorpe Accident 449 

The Collision near Taunton 453 

The Accident at Norwood 457 

Mr. S. Xifting ••• ... ••■ ••• •«- ••• ••• ••• •«• 474 

Robert Stephenson ... ... •.. ••• •.. ••• ... .., 478 

The Long Office at the Railway Clearing House 481 

Mr. Henry Oliver ... ... ... ... ... ••• ... ... 484 

Sir Courtenay Boyle ... ... .•• ... ••• ••• .-. ... 487 

Lord ^^h&mcliffe . . • ••• >•• ... «•• ••• ••• ■•• ••• 492 

The Right Hon. A. J. Mundella, M.P 495 

Mr. J. P. Bickersteth ; Mr. G. E. Paget 497 

Orphanage of the Railway Benevolent Lwtitntion at Derby 507 

Statue of Joseph Pease ... ... ... ... ... ... .* ... 512 

Procession of Engines past George Stephenson's House at Wyliim ... 513 

The House where George Stephenson was bom 516 

The Room in which George Stephenson was bom 517 



LIST OF PLATES. 



TO FACB PAQB 

Opening op the Forth Bbidoe by thb Pbikoe op Wales 

FrontUpiece 

The Incline Railway from Lynton to Lynmouth 106 

Lime Street Station, Liverpool 158 

Sectional Elevation op the "Queen Empress" Expbess Pas- 
senger Engine 252 

The " Queen Empress " : Outside View op Trailing End, and 

End View op Fire-box, etc 296 

Landslip between Doveb and Folkestone in 1877 430 

The Collision at Thirsk 462 

The Accident at Chblford 468 

The Prince op Wales's Saloon on the Great Northern Bail- 

v*J^Z ••« ••• ••• •■• ••• ■•• ••• ••« ••• ••• 0>^9 



4 



OUE EAILWAYS. 



■«0«- 



CHAPTER XXV. 

RAILWAY ROMANCE, HUMOUR, AND TRAC.KDY. 

The Romance and Incident of Travel — Perils to Children — The Headstrong 

Passenger's Struggle — Pleasant Companions — Dangerous Sport : 

Throwing Stones at Railway Carriages — Flinging Bottles on tlie Track 

— A Miner's Solicitude about his Complexion— An Emphatic Invita- 

^^ tion — Life in a Compartment — Mothers and their Ways— The Iiaehelor*8 

Threat— Train Robbers — Station Thieves — The Countess's Jewellery — 
Dramatic Episoiles on the Line — Two Noted Railway Tr.igeilies — An 
Officer's Downfall — A Itascal in Preacher's Guise— The Agitation 
Against Outrages — A Question in Parliament — "Not Safe for a Lady 
to Travel Alone*' — The Railway to be Maniiged by Women. 

The English railway system has grown so enormously 
that the passengers it carries are counted by hundreds 
of millions. The conveyance of so many human 
beings is only possible by constant thought and un- 
remitting work by day and night, and the transit is 
accompanied, though we arc supposed to live in a 
prosaic age, with much startling incident and romance. 
The railway, with its deep cutting and gruesome 
tunnel and crowded station, has provided the novelist 
with many a thrilling story ; indeed, the most dramatic 
fiction is only feeble in comparison with the dramatic 
fact and incident of the line. Man and woman, weary 
of struggling with poverty, or demented with grief, 
or seeking desperate escape from the law, find swift 
death in front of the express. A boy^ sheltering 
b 



2 OUR JRATLWAYS, ichap.xxv. 

beneath a truck from the rain, discovers to his dismay 
that the train has begun to move, and in a moment 
he is maimed for life. 

" Helen's Babies *' are not the only restless, frolic- 
some little ones in the world. Most of us are blessed 
with children. We caress them, punish them, sacrifice 
ourselves for them, and succeed fairly well in managing 
them at home ; but on a long railway journey they 
get entirely beyond control. They become hot, dust}'-, 
thirsty, weary ; yet they find it impossible to sit still — 
fidget hither and thither, crawl about the seats, try to 
climb on to the hat rail, toy with the carriage handle, 
yearn to get out and walk, chew the leather straps, 
flatten their noses against the panes, lean against the 
doorway, let down the window, and threaten to fall or 
jump out. It is then that parents endure torment. 
The English mother, ever a prey to the keenest 
maternal anxiety, becomes heart-sick and wan, pain- 
fully alert with nervous dread at the possible fate 
of her darlings. The father, hesitating to apply the 
Bishop of Chester's remedy in public, resolves to use 
the rod later on, and sits sternly passive, conscious, 
however, that the ordeal is making him haggard and 
grey. A load is taken off his mind if nothing happens 
on the journey. Now and then something does happen. 
There is a startled cry, a mother's hands and quivering 
lips at the window, and on the line a child's bruised 
or lifeless form. 

In the report presented to the Board of Trade with 
regard to the accidents that occurred on borne railways 



Chapxxv.i ACCIDENTS TO CHILDREN. 3 

during 1891, it is stated that " several cases were brought 
under the notice of the Department in which children fell 
out of trains in motion. Correspondence has taken place 
with the railway companies upon the subject. The use 
of inside handles, especially those downward pressure on 
which opens the doors of the compartment, has been 
proved to be a source of danger to children, and the 
employment in excursion trains of carriages with such 
handles has on some of the principal railways been 
discontinued. At the same time it should be borne 
in mind that the responsibility for such accidents 
often rests largely with the persons in charge of the 
children, and that no amount of precautions taken by 
the railway companies can wholly remove the risk 
of accidents if children are not kept under proper 
supervision in the compartment in which they may 
be travelling." 

A girl, crossing the line, catches her foot in the 
rails, is held a prisoner, and is only saved from a fear- 
ful death by the promptitude of the signalman, who cuts 
her boot away and frees her from frenzied captivity 
just as the express dashes up. A child thoughtlessly 
frolics on the line as a fast train approaches. The 
mother struggles in the stationmaster's grasp, shrieks, 
and swoons. The train rushes by; and the child, 
raising its head above the metals, rubs its eyes and 
shouts, " It*s gone, mother ! " half turning to watch 
the receding train. The little one has stumbled into 
a cavity in the ballast between the sleepers, and 
escaped without a bruise. 
62 



4 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chap.xxv. 

A group of school children, playing near a level 
crossing, dare each other to go the nearest to a passing 
train, and one of the girls gives a piteous shriek as 
she is drawn under the wheels. An old woman, 
who has come down by the market-train and made 
her purchases, and is returning home with her big 
basket filled with wares, does not hear the porter's 
warning at the busy station as she crosses the wooden 
way from platform to platform, and is cut to pieces 
by the express. A man, in earnest argument with 
his friend, moves too near the edge of the platform, 
and falls backward upon the line just as a train is 
running into the station ; but he is not killed : his 
presence of mind saves him, for he lies motionless 
between the rails, and the train, in passing over him, 
only grazes one of his ribs. A lad lingers too long 
on the carriage step as he bids adieu to his school- 
mate, and in jumping off is whirled between the 
platform rim and the train, and taken to the hospital 
a grievous wreck. 

The loud angry shout, " Stand back ! " has no sig- 
nificance to another person, who, even as the train is 
moving, persists in a final handshake with his friend, 
and, when he is obliged to relinquish his grip, is 
twisted round and falls in front of the guard's brake 
van, which passes over him. The passenger who goes 
through life too late rushes into the station just as the 
guard has blown his whistle and waved his green flag. 
Every carriage door is shut — the train is on the move ; 
but the passenger heeds not: shouts and cries are in 



aiiap.xxv.) A SCUFFLE. 5 

vain. He springs on the footboard and grips the 
carriage-handle simultaneously. Then there is a rush 
of porters. They seize him by the collar, the arms, the 
legs; they give a strong pull together; but the pas- 
senger, wild with rage or with fear, clings desperately 
to the carriage-handle. The speed of the train in- 
creases; the porters run alongside still retaining their 
hold ; they approach the end of the platform ; there 
is no further time for expostulation : the man must 
be dragged off the footboard ; and, with a deter- 
mined tug, they wrench him away, reel in a confused 
mass over a lamp-waggon, and fall a tumbled heap on 
the platform. 

Nothing, perhaps, in our modern life is so full of 
incident as railway travel. One day some foolish fellow, 
overstocked with pugnacity, will strip himself to the 
waist and offer to fight any passenger in the com- 
partment with one hand, pleading with you to tie the 
other behind his back. Another day a devoted student 
of natural history will enter a carriage with a bull-dog 
as his pet, gravely place the animal on the seat by his 
side, with the remark that his canine friend is pure 
bred, and quite capable of instantly settling the half- 
dozen passengers who huddle away in affright from the 
ferocious beast. Now you are amused or fleeced by the 
acute, eager, ever- journeying swindlers who, with per- 
suasive voice and marvellous finger dexterity, live upon 
the three-card trick or other thieving game. Then there 
may be a crash of glass, and some passenger's head is 
cut by a stone thrown in pure mischief, especially if he 



J jfJBL. recently, the damage in most 
• '^"S: (jf (jiig cases being due to 



6 OUB KAILWAYS. [Ctop.XXT. 

is travelling by West Bromwich, where the youths 

seem to have developed stoue-throwing at trains into 

an almost daily physical exercise. Mr. J. H. Nettleship, 

superintendent of the Great Eastern Railway, states 

that on this company's line 

alone one hundred and ninety- 

^^ nine carriage windows were 

%' """'""* 

^^iOt' W^^~ stones thrown at the trains 

■" '*' '^^'^ in London and the suburbs. 

It is, he says, a common 

practice for gangs of boys 

und youths to station tbem- 

MB. J. H. KETTLESHip. selves at a level crossing or 

CO.. c*«j-i<fc, B.c.i on an over-Ime bridge, or in 

the vacant land near the line 

in Bethnal Green and Stepney, and, when a favourite 

opportunity occurs, to stone a passing train, particularly 

if it is a passenger train. 

There are many ways of committing suicide, and the 
railway has not lessened the number. But perhaps 
the most remarkable suicide ever committed on the 
steel track was that of Giuseppe Dellvido, an Italian 
organ-grinder, who climbed the parapet of the District 
Railway bridge at Ealing, and sprang upon a passing 
train, alighting with his head on the roof of a second- 
class carriage, and rolling, after he had been carried two 
hundred yards by the train, upon the line. In Ireland 




Chap. XXV.] FLINGING BOTTLES FROM TRAINS. 7 

many strange manners and customs still linger. In 
some of the remote villages the men hug and kiss 
each other as a prelude to fight ; but a more erratic 
pastime even than that has lately aroused comment in 
Monaghan. While a special train was conveying 
excursionists to the opening of the new cathedral there 
some youths, with a more peculiar sense of frolic than 
that possessed by any of Charles Lever's characters, 
dropped stones from a bridge upon the moving car- 
riages, and one boulder smashed the roof of a first-class 
compartment, causing great alarm among the female 
passengers. 

The folly of throwing stones into trains is only 
equalled by the criminal thoughtlessness of passengers 
who fling bottles out of the carriages, and send them 
whisking gaily down the line, utterly regardless of their 
billet. Many a driver has been seriously injured by this 
pernicious practice, and it is also the terror of the 
signalman whose box happens to be within fire. Not 
long ago a passenger journeying by the morning ex- 
press from Liverpool to London threw a bottle out of 
the window just as the Euston express was passing 
Berkhampstead. The bottle struck the fireman of the 
Euston train, and nearly cut one of his eyes out. 

So many cases of injury have occurred through this 
thoughtless practice of pitching bottles out of railway 
carriage windows that the London and North -Western 
Company at the commencement of the tourist season 
now issue a notice, drawing attention to the evil 
and dangerous habit, making an earnest request that 



8 OUR RAILWAYS. [Cbap. xxv. 

passengers will absttain from the practice, and stating 
that empty bottles may be left in the carriages. 

In an industrial locality, where the miners smoke 
thick twist tobacco as they travel, you may run the risk 
of suffocation, for these men dislike a breezy carriage. 
Nay, one of them once emphatically upbraided a 
fashionable but third-class passenger for keeping the 
window down, saying as he Hung it up again with a 
gri'at bang, and a face as black and fierce as that of a 
captured Zulu at Ulundi, *' If thah wants to tak a chill, 
thaird l)etter tak it i' another carriage. Docs thah 
want to spoil us complexshuns ? " If you are travelling 
through Lancashire the carriage door may be flung 
open at some station, and a big box, an operative's 
wife, two children, and a baby, invade the already 
crowded compartment ; while the husband, standing in 
hesitancy on the platform, is encouraged to crush into 
the carriage by his wife's dulcet invitation : '* Nah 
then ; ger in, tha silly ! ' 

No phase of life or of death in a railway carriage 
surprises one. The thirsty passenger may produce her 
travelling tea-basket, fix it to the carriage window 
frame, and brew a cup of tea by the perilous aid of 
a spirit lamp. The smoker may thoughtlessly drop a 
lighted match into the window slot of the old-fashioned 
compartment and set the carriage on fire. Mother and 
nurse may enter a compartment, dive into the domestic 
hand-bag, bring out sponge, soap, puff-box, towel, safety 
pins, pretty ribbon, and dainty apparel ; then strip the 
bab^', wash it, dry it, puff it, kiss away its tears, fondle 



Chap. XX V.J THE IRASCIBLE BACHELOR. 9 

it, and threaten to eat it, remarking meanwhile : *' Did 
'era, then ? They shan't grieve it. Oh, my precious ! 
It's a lovey-dovey-darling — bless it ! " Or the precise, 
grim old bachelor may find to his annoyance that 
he has entered a compartment containing a mother of 
another sort — a woman wlio allows her child to cry 
and whine as it creeps about the carriage Hoor while she 
is immersed in cheap fiction. Perhaps the youngster is 
thrown by the train's lurch against the woodwork, and 
cries the louder ; but its mother is so absorbed in the 
story — in the love-making of the tall, handsome noble- 
man with the flashing eyes, and the lithe, fair girl with 
beauteous face, who clings to him as the shadows of 
the night fall on the moss-grown ivy-clad terrace — that 
she gives only scant and impatient notice to her own 
offspring, keeping the child away from her knees with 
her left foot, and saying : *' Shut up, yer young 
nuisance." But somehow the little one cannot ** shut 
up." It is hungry, weary, in pain ; or its little heart is 
well-nigh broken by its mother's neglect, and it sobs 
and cries the louder. The old bachelor surges with rage, 
and bending towards the woman with his body quiver- 
ing, and his face purple, says : " You'll pardon me, 
madam ; but if you don't stop this yelling, I shall be 
obliged to drop the child out of the carriage window ! " 
The cashier may place his thick leather bag, heavy 
with the week's wages of the men at the works yonder, 
on the carriage seat at the station for a moment while 
he gossips with the bank clerk on the platform, and 
suddenly discover that the bag has gone, has been 



10 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chap.xxv. 

stolen by some agile railway thief, who has climbed 
through the opposite window, grasped the bag, and 
escaped on the off side of the carriage. The dishonest 
side of railway travelling is not so romantic *in England 
as it is abroad. Masked robbers do not board the 
cars as in America; nor are railway passengers, on 
their way from London to Edinburgh, brought up 
at Shap by brigands in gay attire, carried off to wild 
moorland glen and held in close captivity till ran- 
somed. Still there have been some daring robberies 
from English trains. More than one mail-bag, rich 
with spoil, has been carried off; and in 1891, on 
the Wycombe branch of the Great Western, a man 
entered a van at midnight, released the brake, and 
sent the train down an incline in the hope that it 
would run into collision with an engine that was 
clearing the siding, so that he could, in the confusion, 
steal the mails. 

The luggage thief, though he or she occasionally 
gets five years' penal servitude, still turns up amid the 
bustle of the arriving train and steals your box. At 
Paddington terminus there was a good deal of half- 
suppressed excitement on the 12th December, 1874, not 
owing to railway disaster, but because the Countess of 
Dudley had been robbed of jewellery at first valued at 
£50,000. One of her ladyship's servants placed the jewel 
case on the platform for a moment to assist a fellow- 
servant from the cab. When she had done this kindly 
but thoughtless act, she found to her astonishment that 
the case had dij-appeared. One thousand pounds was 



\ 



Cii*p.xxv.i OEIME ON THE RAILWAY. 11 

offered for the discovery of the thief; but the jewels are 
still missing. Even the railway guard, invariably polite 
and attentive, and honest and honourable withal, does 
now and then lapse, one of the most notorious in- 
stances being that of one who, working a train from 
Birmingham to Rugby on the London and North- 
Western Railway, opened the boxes and trunks placed 
in his care by means of false keys, and stole necklaces, 
bracelets, and trinkets of all kinds, some of which, 
when detection seemed imminent, he hid in fields. 

Death, peaceful or tragical, sometimes enters the 
railway carriage. The business man steps eagerly into 
the express on his way to fulfil some important en- 
gagement, and makes no reply to the ticket collector 
at the next stopping-place. His restless activity, his 
hopes and fears, his business schemes and ambitions, 
have been checked by death. A jealous lover chats 
with apparent light-heartedness until the tunnel is 
reached, then whips out a bull-dog revolver and shoots 
his sweetheart and himself. The Slough signal box, 
on the Great Western Railway, has had a romance 
of its own. The cabin was erected in 1844, and one 
of the earliest messages the signalman wired to 
London was intelligence of the birth of the Duke of 
Edinburgh. The following year a man named Tawell 
committed a murder at Salthill, and escaped by the 
next train to London ; but information was telegraphed 
to Paddington, and he was arrested, tried, and hanged. 
Sir Francis Head has recorded how he was travelling 
along the line months after, in a crowded carriage. 



OUll RAILWAYS. 



" Not a word liad been spoken since the train left 
London, but as we nearcd Slough Station, a short- 
bodied, short-ncckcd, short-nosed, exceedingly re- 
spectable looking man in the corner, fixing his eyes 
on the apparently fleeting 
wires, nodded to us a-s he 
muttered aloud, ' Tliem's the 
cords that hung John 
Tawoll ! ' " 

Roderick Maclean fired 
at the Queen in March, 
1882, as slie entered her 
carriage at Windsor railway 
station ; and a disappointed 
suitor shot at, and severely 
injured, his honour Judge 
Bristowe as the latter was 
getting into the Derby 
train at Nottingham railway station in November, 
1S89; but on English railways the crime oE murder 
has been rare. You hear the reader say, "The papers 
are full of tragedies ; " but they are tragedies chiefly 
committed in crowded city or countryside, crimes that 
are the outcome of jealousy, drink, or passion, or of 
legislative disregard of the dangers that' arise from 
permitting the revolver to become a plaything among 
frolicsome boys, disappointed lovers, and political 
madmen.* 




* On Aijril 26, 1803, n gunmnkur's assistant vaa arrcsteil in London for 
ttutiiitciiing to ihoot Mr. (iludstono, aud For rerolvet-Gring in Uoivning Slroet. 



Chap. XX v.] MURDERS ON FRENCH RAILWAYS. 13 

" Railway travelling, especially by night, is," says 
one writer, " a risky business in France. In the 
course of the last thirty years there have been eight- 
and-twenty murders or attempted murdere on French 
railway lines. Most of these have been in express 
trains and during night journeys, and in almost every 
case the assault has been in a first-class carriaofe. 
Of the eight-and-twenty attempts there were con- 
victions only in thirteen cases. More than half the 
culprits escaped. One assassin, having secured his 
booty, had the courage to pull the cord, and in the 
confusion of the stopping train, escaped into the 
darkness on the off-side of the carriage. France takes 
the lead in this kind of crime. Her t\vent3'-eight 
cases are not approached by any other European 
country. Austria has had one, Spain two, England 
four, Italy five, Russia and Turkey each seven ; while 
in Germany, Switzerland, Holland, and Belgium there 
have been no instances of murder." 

One of the most thrilling crimes that have occurred 
on an English railway was the murder of Mr. Thomas 
Briggs on July 9, 18G4. On the arrival of the night 
train at Hackney from Fenchurch Street, on the 
North London Railway, a passenger entered a first- 
class compartment in No. 09 carriage, and was startled 
to find one of the cushions saturated with blood. 
The guard was told, and he noticed evidences of a 
fierce struggle. The floor and even the windows 
were flecked with blood, and the carriage seats were 
mauled. A hat, a walking-stick, and a small bag 



14 OUR RAILWAYS. [ChAp. xxv. 

were found in the compartment ; but no occupant, 
except tlie. passenger who had called attention to the 
condition of the seating. The mystery was soon 
solved. The driver of an engine running by the 
Milford Arms tavern discerned a figure upon the 
line, the form of a man, splashed with blood, chiefly 
from fearful wounds in the head. The man was 
alive, but speechless, and he died in a few minutes 
without giving a clue to his murderer. 

Circumstantial evidence, which has led more than 
one detective astray, proved in this case a trustworthy 
guide. The victim of the crime, it was ascertained 
from letters in his pocket-book, was Mr. Thomas 
Briggs, chief clerk in the Lombard Street banking- 
house of Messrs. Robai-ts and Co. He went from 
Peckham to Fenchurcb Street in an omnibus, and 
at the latter place entered the train for Hackney, 
his home. His money, nearly £5 in gold and silver, 
was untouched. A silver snuff-box was also found 
in one of his pockets. But his gold watch had been 
stolen, his albert guard ripped out of vest button- 
hole and broken ; and his gold eye-glass, which he 
usually wore with a hair guard, had gone. The 
stick and bag found in the railway carriage were the 
property of Mr. Briggs ; but the hat belonged to 
somebody else. 

The murder caused a great sensation. The railway 
had become an indispensable agent in national life ; 
everybody used it. But this crime gave travellers a 
fearful shock. They wanted to journey in groups for 



Ch*p.xxv.j ON THE MUBBERER'S TRACK. 15 

mutual safety. If a man entered a compartment alone, 
however inoffensive, God-fearing, and man-frightened 
he might be, he was immediately suspected of being a 
murderer, especially if he had a foreign look. For some 
days the police were at their wits' end, and not alto- 
gether unhampered by the fierce outcry for the criminal. 
The Government did a sensible thinof. Thev offered 
£100 for his arrest ; and the bank volunteered a 
similar sum. Mr. Briggs's watch-chain was first 
traced. It had been exchanged for another by a 
foreigner at the shop of Mr. Death in Cheapside. 
The hat found in the carriage was identified by a 
cabman as one he had bought for Franz Miiller, 
who had come from Cologne to seek his fortune 
in London, and had lodged at his house. Miiller, 
moreover, had given his children a little cardboard 
box bearing Mr. Death's name ; and at the time was 
wearing a gold chain and a ring. Putting this and 
that together, the police were confident that they were 
on the murderer's track, and their faith proved sound. 
MiUler, who was making love to the cabman's sister, 
gave the young woman his photograph. Mr. Death 
recognised it as that of the man with whom he had 
exchanged the watch-chain. Miiller had a sprained 
ankle, caused, it was believed, by the struggle in or 
fall from the train. He could not satisfactorily 
account for his possession of Mr. Briggs's hat, which 
he had ingeniously reduced in size ; or for his where- 
abouts on the night of the tragedy, so he quitted 
London in a hurry for Liverpool, and sailed for New 



16 OUR RAILWAYS. lCtap.xr». 

Tork in the ship Victoria. The detectives, discover- 
ing by raeans of a letter posted at Worthing that 
he was crossing the Atlantic, followed him in a 
faster boat, overhauled the Victoria, and apprehended 
Miiller at New York before be left the ship. He 
was brought back to England, tried on September 
17th at the Central Criminal Court, and sentenced 
to death b^' Mr. Baron Martin. Both on board ship 
and in court he protested that he was innocent. He 
told the judge that he was satisfied with the sentence 
because he knew it was the one the law of the 
country prescribed, but he asserted tliat be had been 
convicted on a false statement ; and he was so over- 
come, evidently by a sense oE injustice, that he wept 
bitterly. 

On November 14th he was pinioned and led to 
the scaffold. Singularly taciturn during the time he 
piissed in tlie condemned cell, he made no mention 
of the crime. Reported confessions found credence 
outside the prison, but Miiller kept his own counsel 
till he bad mounted the scaffold, when he at last 
confessed. 

"Miiller," said Dr. Cappel, his cluvphiin, as the 
hangman was about to begin bis woik, " in a few 
moments you will stand before God. I a.sk you again, 
and for the last time, are you guilty or not guilty? " 
Midler : " Not guilty." 
Dr. Cappel : " You are not guilty ? " 
Miiller: "God knows what I have done." 
Dr. Cappel : " God knows what you have done. 



A TARDY CONFESSION. 



Does He also koow that you have committed this 
crime ? " 

Muller (who had been placed upon the drop) 




muttered in German : 
" Jii ; Ich babe es ge- 
tlian " (" Yes ; I did 
it ") ; and the words 
had scarcely left bis 
lips when tlie bang- 
man drew the bolt, 
__ and the murderer was 

lifeless. 
A greater sensation still was caused by the murder, 
on June 27, 1881, of Mr. Gold, a merchant, while 
travelling in an express train from London to Brighton. 
The crime was committed in somewhat similar circum- 
stances. Thomas Mapleton Lefroy, who, after the 



18 OUR RAILWAYS. [Ch«i.. xxv. 

fashion of many men in scrapes, glibly described 
himself as a journalist, savagely attacked his fellow- 
passenger with revolver and knife, with the object of 
robbery, and inflicted many dreadful wounds upon him. 
Nevertheless Mr. Gold struggled desperately with his 
assailant, but was ultimately flung from the carriage, 
and found dead upon the line. Lefroy, after telling a 
specious story to account for his own injuries, escaped. 
The Government and the London and Brighton Railway 
Company offered rewards of £100 each for the man's 
arrest. He was reported to be in four places at once, 
and for a time securely hid himself in the labyrinths 
of London. 

At the inquest it was stated that when the body 
of Mr. Gold was found in Balcombe Tunnel the face 
was mutilated, and there was a gunshot wound in the 
throat. The tragedy was described by the coroner — how 
the guard, Watson, saw Mr. Gold apparently asleep in 
the carriage at Croydon ; how Lefroy, the only occupant 
of the compartment when the train reached Preston 
Park, was smeared with blood, and had had his collar 
torn away ; how a bullet was found embedded in 
the panel-work close to the electric communicator, and 
another in one of the cushions. Lefroy's statement 
that the crime had been committed by another pas- 
senger who had escaped was ridiculed, because Mr. 
Gold's watch, with a small piece of the chain, was seen 
in his (Lefroy 's) shoe as he stood on the platform at 
Preston Park. It was undoubtedly, in the coroner's 
opinion, the hand of Lefroy " that committed the foul 



CT.«p.xxv.) LEFROY ARRESTED. 19 

deed," and the jury returned a verdict of wilful murder 
against him. Placards offering the reward for his arrest 
were then issued by the police ; and the literature from 
Scotland Yard included a portrait of Arthur Lefroy, 
a/ias Lefroy Mapleton, otherwise Percy Lefroy Maple- 
ton, and contained a specimen of his handwriting. 

Two days afterwards Lefroy was arrested. In the 
name of Park he had taken lodgings in Smith Stroot, 
Stepney, and, describing himself as an engraver who 
required the utmost quietude, had kept the window- 
blind down. The announcement that " the coroner's 
verdict attaches a serious responsibility to anybody who 
conceals the accused," or the tempting reward, induced 
some person to indicate his hiding-place. The detectives 
found him in the shadowed room. He had not thriven 
on murder and the withholding of himself from the 
sight of men. He was haggard, miserable, starving; 
for, after admitting that he was the man they sought, 
he said, " I am very hungry. I have not had anything 
to eat all day." On July 10 Lefroy was taken to 
Lewes Gaol. Travelling by train, he chatted non- 
chalantly with the inspectors, and smoked cigarettes 
till he got to Balcombe Tunnel ; and then, like Mathias 
in " The Bells," he was demoralised by the recollection 
of his crime, and became too excited to smoke or speak. 
At Hayward's Heath, where he had to change trains, 
he received the sturdy execrations of the crowd, was 
bundled into a first-class compartment, and hidden by 
a drawn blind. Inspector Jarvis, giving evidence at 
the Lewes inquiry, said he found in the prisoner's 
c2 



20 OUR RAILWAYS. CCU|.. xxv. 

room a false moustache and whiskers, and some blood- 
stained garments. Lefroy voluntarily said to him, " I 
am glad you found me. I am sick of it. I should have 
given myself up in a day or two. I have regretted it 
ever since that I ran away." 

At Cuckfield Police Court on July 15 Lefroy was 
charged with the murder. The evidence showed that 
he took a revolver out of pledge on the day the ti-agedy 
occurred, that he got a first-class ticket at London 
Bridge Station for the two o'clock express for Brighton, 
and that he told a railway clerk at the end of his 
journey the following yarn : — *' When I got in at 
London Bridge there was an old man and a young man 
in the carriage. When I was going into a tunnel I saw a 
flash, and remembered no more till I got to the station." 
The question naturally arose, How did the old man and 
the young man manage to alight from the train ? And 
it was admitted that it was quite possible for a person 
to get out of a train running at the rate of sixty miles 
an hour, but that he would hardly be able after such a 
dramatic exit to run away and hide himself. The assize 
trial lasted three days in the crowded court at Maid- 
stone, the Attorney-General (Sir Henry James) prose- 
cuting, the late Mr. Montagu Williams defending, and 
Lord Coleridge, the judge, acting upon the legal 
maxim, ** Keep your mind quiet." But he summed 
up dead against the prisoner, saying that a mass 
of practical impossibilities must be believed before 
they coidd adopt Lefroy's story that the murder was 
committed by a third person. 



ciimp. xxv.i THB SUMMINO UP. 21 

What, he asked, are the proved facts? The prisoner aud Mr. 
Gold were in the carriage. At Merstham four shots were heard. 
Four bullets have been found, or the marks of them. That was 
seventeen miles from London ; and at twenty-five miles, at Horley, a 
struggle was seen going on in the carriage. The struggle would take 
some time. Mr. Gold was a powerful man ; but there was a knife as 
well as a revolver, and he hatl fourteen wounds with a knife. The 
body was thrown out, probably with life still in it, at the entrance 
to Balcombe Tunnel, thirty-one miles from London, so that the 
struggle lasted for eight miles. That is an awful thing to con- 
template, and what terrible incidents it must have given rise to ! 
It reminds one of the " Haunted House " by Hood, the story of a 
victim at once caged and hunted. The struggle must have been long 
and protracted. It began with the firing of a revolver, with the 
wounding of Mr. Gold, and his assailant went on till he had 
succeeded in casting his victim out, still alive, still struggling, 
as was shown by the dreadful piece of evidence, the marks of blood- 
stained fingers on the footboard. Mr. Gold was wounded unto 
death and thrown out, and the train stopped at Preston Park with 
the prisoner alone in the carriage. 

Ten minutes sufficed the jury to find the prisoner 
guilty, and with a deadly pallor on his face, and a strange 
muttering, he stood against the dock rail to receive 
sentence. Lord Coleridge, putting on the black cap, 
told him he had been found guilty on the clearest 
evidence of a ferocious murder, and then pronounced 
sentence. The convict, while the judge was speaking, 
regained confidence, was apparently unmoved at the 
mention of his doom, and said in a melodmmatic tone, 
" The day will come when you will know that you have 
murdered me ! " Robert Fisk, a hare-brained fellow, 
came forward to say that he was the murderer of Mr. 
Gold. Sympathisers with Lefroy — and it is amazing 
how easily sympathy is aroused for a murderer 



22 OUR RAILWAYS. ichar-xxv. 

nowadays — petitioned the Home Secretary for his 
respite ; but the " unscrupulous schemer " who, in the 
hope of prolonging his life for a few days, confessed 
to a series of crimes, was hanged in Lewes Prison on 
November 29, and the revolver with which he had 
committed the murder, found among the grass on the 
line-side near Earlswood, was added to the Scotland 
Yard collection of the instruments used in the perpe- 
tration of crime. 

The country, on June 18, 1875, rang indignantly 
with the name of Colonel Valentine Baker. On the 
previous day this gallant soldier, who was an officer 
in the 10th Hussars, and on the staff at Aldershot, 
a dean sabreur and the friend of those in high 
places, committed a gross outrage. He entered a 
first-class carriage at Liphook, on the London and 
South-Western Railway, and tried to make himself 
agreeable to a young lady, the only other occupant 
of the compartment. But not content with vivacious 
conversation, he asked her name and also for permission 
to write to her. She declined to give her name, and 
rejected his suggestion that she should receive his 
letters. Bat this military Don Juan was not abashed, 
and at last the young lady, half-mad with fear, 
found it necessary to endeavour to attract the guard's 
attention, but in vain. Then she uttered piercing 
shrieks, flung open the carriage door, sprang upon 
the footboard, and grasping the carriage handles, and 
with only slender and perilous foothold, travelled for 
five miles in imminent danger of death, and with 



Chap. XXV.] OOLONEL VALENTINE BAKER, 23 

her brain in a wild tumult, striving to make the 
passengers hear her cries. At last she was rescued. 
There was no doubt as to the truth of her story. 
Colonel Valentine Baker was arrested, committed for 
trial by the Guildford magistrates, convicted at Croydon 
assizes, and sentenced by Mr. Justice Brett to a fine 
of £500 and twelve months' imprisonment. Colonel 
Baker was one of the smartest cavalry officers of his 
time, and a man who might have attained to much 
loftier command in our forces ; but he wrecked a 
career full of promise by a moment's passion ; and 
he had to quit the army, ** Her Majesty having no 
further occasion for his services." A social outcast, 
he left England. Determined to regain his good 
name, he entered the service of the Sultan of Turkey, 
and greatly distinguished himself, particularly after 
the fall of Plevna. In Egypt, too, he had the oppor- 
tunity of showing how brave he could be in the field. 
But he revealed the noblest courage in his daily 
purpose and duty. His private life was, henceforth, 
beyond reproach, and he did much towards the efl'ace- 
ment of his dishonour. 

At Tamworth Station, on the Midland llailway, 
in January, 1892, a worthless fellow enters a carriage 
in the guise of a local preacher, proceeds to cant 
about religion, and endeavours to tempt a woman 
to wrong. She struggles out of his grasp escapes 
from the compartment, and raps with her um- 
brella at the next window for help, but slips off 
the footboard, is found unconscious on the line, and 



24 OUR RAILWAYS. [Ch«p xxv. 

for weeks remains demented from the shock. But 
her reason returns. Her assailant is tried at the 
Staffordshire assizes. There is no doubt about his 
mock piety, his impurity, his guilt ; and Mr. Justice 
Hawkins rigorously sees that justice is done, sentencing 
the man, whom he appropriately describes as " a sanc- 
timonious hypocrite,*' to two years' imprisonment with 
hard labour, saying that it is most necessary that 
everyone who enters a railway carriage should be free 
from annoyance, and that women especially should 
be protected. 

The assailant may, as we have already seen, be 
an aristocrat, like the man whose prosecution for 
assault caused some sensation in 1892. On the night 
of Easter Monday, while travelling on the London 
and Brighton Railway, he quitted a smoking com- 
partment at Hay ward's Heath, sauntered past the 
carriage in which a young lady was seated, and, just 
as the train was moving, entered the compartment of 
which she had been the only occupant. When the 
train was in motion he tried to engage her in con- 
versation, and at last lost all self-control. The lady 
screamed, struggled, and finally reached the communi- 
cation cord. The train pulled up at East Croydon, 
she complained to the guard, and continued her journey 
in another carriage to Victoria Station, where, after 
some maidenly hesitation, she decided to charge him. 
The defendant said, "Oh, this is a plant. It looks 
like a second Colonel Baker's case ; " but as the 
case developed it was proved that the lady had no 



Chap, xxv.i RAILWAY OUTRAGES. 25 

thought of blackmail, and that the defendant had 
undoubtedly assaulted her. At the London County 
Sessions he pleaded guilty to a common assault, his 
excuse being that he was under the influence of drink 
when he misconducted himself. It is often said that 
in England there is one law for the rich and another 
for the poor ; but at all events in this case justice 
was strictly impartial, for Sir P. Edlin, ignoring the 
prisoner's aristocratic lineage and the literaiy tradition 
of his race, sent him to gaol for six months with 
hard labour, and ordered him to pay the costs of the 
prosecution. 

At this time the air was filled with stories of 
railway outrages. A dressmaker swore she had been 
thrown out of a train by a tall, dark man near 
Armley Station. Another woman complained that 
while travelhng between Sheffield and Retford a man 
endeavoured to outrage her ; but, alarmed at her 
struggles to reach the communication cord, scrambled 
upon the footboard and disappeared. The story from 
Leeds proved to be the outcome of hysteria or a 
vivid imagination. But the case on the Brighton 
line raised a loud outcry. Under pressure of it 
the directors reserved compartments on every train 
'* for ladies only." Mr. Ernest Spencer, rising in 
his place in Parliament, asked the President of the 
Board of Trade whether he would take steps to 
provide all classes of trains with compartments for 
the exclusive use of women, and also with means 
of communication with the guard. Sir Michael Hicks- 



26 OUB RAILWAYS. [a.ap. xxv. 

Beach replied to his question with a polite snuh, 
saying he was not aware of general necessity existing 
for such legislation ; in fact, accommodation of the 
kind desired was provided by nearly every railway 
company, but seldom used. 

Nevertheless, on every side there was mdignant 
demand for separate compartments — separate compart- 
ments for ladies, for babies, and even for dogs. Men, 
as well as women, had their champions ; and one ex- 
perienced traveller, declaring that a man rarely offended 
against modesty unless encouraged to do so, gave this 
sensible advice to gentlemen travelling alone : " Select 
an apartment already occupied by at least two or three 
passengers, and do not search the whole length of a 
train for an empty carriage, as I so frequently see 
gentlemen doing, in the mistaken idea of safety. A 
particular sort of women invariably select either a 
smoking compartment, or a compartment where an 
unprotected man may be alone ; and the male traveller 
must remember that no twelve men, honest and true, 
will believe the word of a man against the word of a 
fairly good-looking woman." 

" It's really not safe for any lady to travel alone," 
said a female passenger in the writer's hearing at King's 
Cross, as she struggled with a copy of Mr. Gladstone's 
pamphlet on Women's Suffrage, a tangled woollen 
wrap, a long twine-knotted bag, and a lap-dog. " You 
must lock me up, porter," she said to the railway 
servant, as she stalked into the compartment, and 
turned her angular form and somewhat soured face 



Chap. XXV.) man-haters. 27 

towards him. He locked her up obediently; but 
there was a smile on his rugged features as he 
sauntered along the platform. "The old lady," he 
told the lampman, with a grin, "was frightened of 
being assaulted. She said she hated the sight of a 
man ; and wouldn't let me go in the compartment 
to fix her bundles. I expect she'll be stopping the 
train to get a separate compartment for the lap 
dog." 

The fear and abhorrence of men expressed by timid 
and strong-minded women on railway platforms are 
mere gentle protests compared with the remarkable 
outbursts of indignation in print. Women drive tram- 
cars and locomotives in America. It was suggested 
that in this country they should " man '* the entire 
railway system. One female thought that "when 
the equal citizenship of women was recognised by the 
possession of the parliamentary vote, they would be 
able to bring railway manners and customs up to 
date," and contended that tlierc ought to Ije women 
officials on all our lines. Her estimate of man was 
absolutely withering. While travelling between Al- 
trincham and Manchester one of these creatures dared 
to enter the ladies' compartment ; but she " got him 
hauled out bodily with ignominy." 

There is no crime more heinous than the railway 
outrage ; and the debased wretch who attempts to 
assatdt a defenceless girl should be flogged as well as 
imprisoned. But, at the same time, it is only fair to 
remember in the midst of the feminine scream that 



28 OUR RAILWAYS, cohap.xxv. 

there are still some gentlemen left in England, 
true gentlemen though they may be in fustian and 
broadcloth, whose demeanour to women in trains is 
courteous, considerate, and even chivalrous. 



i 



29 



CHAPTER XXVr 

MORE INCIDENTS OF THE LINE. 

Mr. Gladstone's Speeches on Tour — Political Scenes at Railway Stations— Mr. 
Balfour's Dislike to Carriage- Window Oratory — Sir William Hai-oourtV 
Novel Experience — The Interminable Scotchman at Lockerbie — A Crowd 
and a Return Fare — Stopping the Express — The Vanished PaMengcr— 
Where's your Ticket?— The Lijrht Luggage-Rack —The CrusluKl Hat- 
Peculiar Effect of Train Jolting— Bewildered at Trent— Juvenile Travel- 
lers and their Comments — An Awkward Fix — A Whimsical Search — The 
Terrible Highlander — Travelling Adventures — The Girl Passenger in 
Male Attire— Alighting from Trains— An Exciting Exit — How the Ohl 
Lady Got Out — Escaping from a Maniac — Queer Visitors to Signalmen — 
Mad Engine-Drivers. 

Mr. Gladstone set the fashion of making speeches 
out of railway-carriage windows to enthusiastic poli- 
tical supporters crowding the stations on his tour. In 
the South, East, and West of England he has made 
rhetorical progress of this kind, but he has been chiefly 
distinguished for these travelling utterances on his way 
to Midlothian. There have been some strange scenes at 
the various stopping-places on the West Coast route 
during Mr. Gladstone's journeys ; and railway officials 
have not been without anxiety lest some politician or 
pressman, indiscreet with zeal, should be ground under 
the carriage wheels. The eager crowds, catching sight 
of the venerable statesman's face, deeply furrowed with 
thought and age, never seemed to think of the peril of 
the platform edge. Everybody desired to gaze upon 
him, to shake hands with him, to thrust flowers and 



30 OUn RAILWAYS. ichap. xxvi. 

fruit upon him, and to offer him cigars, though he does 
not smoke, even while he was speaking to the local 
deputation in reply to their ardent address ; and re- 
porters were clinging to the carriage handles, trj-ing 
desperately to take notes meanwhile. 

Mr. A. J. Balfour, who succeeded the late Mr. 
W. H. Smith as Leader of the House of Commons 
in Lord Salisbury's second administration, did not in 
the campaign of July, 1S92, put much faith in tlio 
efficacy of pouring political principles, in hurried words, 
out of railway carriage- windows, remarking at Iludders- 
field Station, in response to cries for a speech, " In other 
circumstances I should be very pleased indeed to address 
you, but neither in this nor in any other particular am I 
anxious to imitate the methods of a very distinguished 
statesman whose habitual methods of electioneering 
consist of inconveniencing the officials of the various 
railways over which he travels, and the public who 
desire to travel in the same train with him." 

Sir William Harcourt, during the same campaign, 
was reminded of the imperative charaeter of railway 
travelling. Journeying to Manchester to address a 
political meeting, he was presented at Stockport Station 
with an address, wishing him *' God speed ! on the eve 
of the greatest political struggle of our generation.** 
But the engine-driver's working time-table allows no 
margin for political struggles, however vital to the 
nation; and Sir William Harcourt's speech was inter- 
rupted by the elbows and shoulders of the ticket- 
collectors, and before he could resume it, the guard 




Cb*p.xxvi.i A SCEKE AT LOCKEnPTR. 31 

waved his flag, and the express Avent on its way, 
" Historicus *' — or, as Lord Beaconsfield styled him in 
his novel "Endymion/* "Hortensius** — smiling at 
the annihilation of his own oratory, and howing in 
acknowledgment of the cheers of the people. 

Mr. Gladstone, on one of his journeys north, had 
a similar experience at Carlisle ; but no incident in his 
long experience of railway adventure outstrips in humour 
the whimsical scene that was witnessed at Lcx^ktTbio 
Junction on his journey to Midlothian in 1892. 
All along the line from Crewe he had been greeted with 
enthusiasm, and made many speeches. But at Lockerbie 
his eloquence was grotesquely frustrated. William Black, 
in one of his novels, gives an amusing description of the 
dismay of a grouse-shooting party dela3^ed in a country 
house on the morning of *' The Twelfth " by the inordi- 
nately long prayer of the Scotch pastor, and the quiet 
remark at the end of it, "We will now sing the 119th 
Psalm." The same type of man walked slowly upon the 
platform at Lockerbie, and when Mr. Gladstone arrived, 
gravely proceeded to read a long address of welcome. It 
was a thoughtful, sincere, appreciative address ; but it 
completely swallowed the few precious moments of the 
train's stoppage. On the faces of Mr. Gladstone's sup- 
porters there were looks of annoyance and despair. 
The Liberal Chief, with the reporters grouped about 
him, stood at the window of the saloon carriage eager to 
reply. But they do things methodically at Lockerbie. 
" The reader of the address insisted on reciting its glow- 
ing and prolix periods ; " and he had not got through it 



52 OUR liATLWAYSI, iCTnp.xxvi. 

when the guard blew his whistle, and Mr. Gladstone, 
with a bow and a smile, and "a twinkle in his eye," was 
borne away by the express without the opportunity of 
saying a single word. 

Mrs. Gladstone, in May of the same year, was 
more fortunate than most people who, in their hurry, 
leave articles in railway carriages. Journeying to 
Hatchlands, she placed a pair of diamond earrings on 
the carriage seat. She quitted the train, and did not 
miss the trinkets till some hours afterwards. In the 
meantime the carriage had been swept. Search was 
made among the litter on the line, and the earrings 
were found. Mrs. Gladstone was so delighted that she 
gave a substantial subscription to the Railway Orphan- 
age and a sovereign to the finder of the jewellery. 

On some railways a good deal of latitude is 
allowed to the passenger. In the crush of getting 
back from the St. Leger, when the platform at Don- 
caster was jammed with a great crowd, with struggling 
forms and faces pers])iriug or pale with effort, I once 
scrambled into a Manchester, Sheffield and Lincoln- 
shire train with a Midland return ticket. When I 
reached Sheffield the ticket-collector was very angry; 
and though I politely protested and talked wisely about 
the importance of an interchange of tickets between the 
two companies at such a busy time, I was obliged to 
pay the fare back. On writing to the Midland Company 
and pointing out how, through mishap, I did not use 
their train on the return journey, they sent me the 
return fare with a courteous note. 




84 OUR RAILWAYS. ich«p.xxvi. 

The liberty I took was not so great as that in- 
dulged in by the passenger who got a ticket at 
York for Thirsk, and finding there was not a train 
immediately, travelled to Harrogate, and ultimately 
arrived at Thirsk by a roundabout way, nearly 
double the distance. The time-table, he argued with 
considerable ingenuity, showed a through train from 
York to Thirsk via Harrogate, and he had a right 
to go that way if he liked ; but the North-Eastern 
Railway Company held that it was unjust that he 
should be wandering over their system at the price 
of the direct fare between the two places, and the 
judge, arriving at the same conclusion as the company, 
ordered the passenger to pay the excess fare with costs. 

In another work — " Newspaper Reporting in Olden 
Time and To- Day " — I have given some idea of the 
journalist's zeal to get information on the railway. " He 
has been known to ride to the scene of the accident 
dressed like one of the breakdown gang; he has been 
seen at night to slide down a cutting-side at the im- 
minent risk of breaking his neck, and alight almost on 
the funnel of the overturned engine ; he has had the 
audacity to pull the communication-cord of the express 
at a wayside station, get out of the window on the off 
side of the slowing train, and while the engine-driver 
and guard have wondered what was amiss, started on 
his way up 'the six-foot' to the wrecked train." Since 
then the ordinary passenger has apparently developed a 
good deal of assurance. On August 20, 1892, "soon 
after the Margate down express, which left Charing 



Chap.xxvi.i A SUDDEN DISAPPEARANCE. 35 

Cross at noon, had passed Ashford, where it does not 
stop, a gentleman in a first-class carriage pulled the 
communicator, and thus brought the train, which was 
going at express speed, to an abrupt stand. On the 
guard proceeding to the compartment the gentleman 
who had with him a little boy, coolly explained 
that he wished to alight at Ashford. Upon his giving 
his name and address he was suffered to depart. As 
he passed along nearly the entire length of the train 
leading the little boy by the hand, this cool person was 
greeted with a chorus of remonstrances from his indig- 
nant fellow-passengers, some of whom ironically desired 
to know whether they * should wait till he returned.' " 

A friend of mine, who had the misfortune to travel 
from Manchester to Euston by a parliamentary train in 
the days when the journey took over nine instead of 
four and a-quarter hours, was the astonished witness 
of a most extraordinai-y case of evading payment of 
fare. A woman, with a baby, and a youth got into the 
compartment at Crewe. The lad chatted to his mother 
about all sorts of topics to while away the time, and now 
knelt at one window and then another, pressing his nose 
against the glass, admiring the scenery, commenting 
on the live stock in the pastures, or breathing against 
the panes until the whole landscape was obliterated. 
The boy, his feet, and his voice were omnipresent in 
the compartment until the ticket-collector had his hand 
upon the door-handle — then he vanished. My friend 
was amazed. He looked round, rubbed his eyes ; looked 
again. There was no boy to be seen. The woman's 
d2 



36 OUR RAILWAYS. iai»p.xxvL 

face was innocent, impassive. She calmly gave up her 
ticket, and as the door banged to, whispered, " Johnny, 
come out ! " The lad had hidden beneath his mother's 
petticoat ! 

Amid the rush of feet and the banging of doors 
there is the ring of the clipper and the collector's 
shout, ** All tickets ready ! " then, as he puts his head 
aud shoulders into the compartment, the sharp query, 
" Tickets ? " or the polite request, " Tickets, please ! " 
The young lady opposite becomes almost sublime in her 
bewilderment. She searches the inside of her glove, 
her pocket, and her satchel. '* Come, be quick ; your 
ticket ! '' says the collector, losing patience. '* I can't 
find it," she says hopelessly. ** Where did you put it? '* 
asks the collector in a rage. " In my purse," she says 
in despair. ** Where's your j)urse?" he asks shortly. 
She searches for it with nervous despair ; then suddenly 
recollecting, says, with a gasp, ** It's in my box." 
"Where's your box? " he demands. ** It's in the guard's 
van," she says desperately, flushing and perspiring pite- 
ously; and he steps backward on the platform scowling, 
and bangs the door, and goes away muttering. 

It is disquieting if you are on your way to make an 
offer of marriage in a new suit and a silk hat of the 
latest fashion, to find as you take your seat in the 
crowded compartment that a rough, uncouth passenger, 
whose aggressive elbows and big hands and firmly- 
compressed lips indicate that he never submits to ex- 
postulation, has placed a tin trunk on the light luggage 
rack just above your head. While jou are screwing up 



Ghap XXVI.1 ^'WHAT A SIGHT THAU LOOKS l*" 37 

your courage to request as a special favour that he will 
put the lemon-drop tin — a hideous substitute for the 
now almost obsolete but capacious and accommodating 
carpet bag — beneath the seat, the hard sharp-edged 
thing is overbalanced, and tumbles with a thud on your 
new hat, crushing much of the gloss and all the shape 
out of it, and forcing it so tightly on your head that 
the passengers, at first inclined towards sympathy, grin 
again as the owner of the tin box tries to drag the 
ruined hat off your bruised head, innocently remarking, 
" Ay, mester, it*s made a nice mess on it. What a 
sight thah looks ! " 

The light rack has given accommodation to many 
a curious assortment of luggage since it was introduced 
into the railway carriage — hats, caps, bonnets, feeding- 
bottles, walking sticks, umbrellas, wraps, rugs, bird- 
cages, bayonets, rifles, fishing-rods, bait cans, cats, 
dogs, and, it is avowed, more than one sleeping 
infant placed there in bravado by a half -tipsy mother 
after an evening at the music-hall ; but the thing 
on the light rack that requires the most zealous 
watchfulness is the heavy portmanteau. It belongs, 
as a rule, to a nervous passenger, who is always in 
fear of robbery, and would not dream of putting his 
property in the guard's van. It is nearly alwa3"s 
double the width of the rack ; and, after a clumsy 
wobble or lurch on the outer mil, generally crashes 
down on the passenger's head just as the train is 
making its first spurt out of the station. At Gala- 
shiels railway station not long ago a portmanteau, 



38 OUR RAILWAYS. icup.xxvi. 

thoughtlessly placed upon the rack in a compartment, 
fell upon the head of Mrs. Dun, an unlucky passenger 
who was sitting just heneath it, and she was so 
seriously hurt that she could appreciate the railway 
company's warning that " the use of this rack for 
heavy and bulky luggage involves risk of injury to 
passengers." 

The pjissenger who considered a railway collision 
the best cure for rheumatism had more faith in 
the efficacy of railway travelling than the hop- 
picker who appeared at the Thames police court 
a short time back, and, to the amazement of the 
magistrate, solemnly remarked that " the jolting of 
the train had made her drunk," greatly to her 
surprise. The woman would have had more genuine 
cause for astonishment if she had travelled down to 
Trent. Sir Edmund Beckett, now Lord Grimthorpe, 
the great authority on clocks, historic and modem, 
has given an amusing description of the traveller's 
bewilderment there. " You arrive," he writes, " at 
Trent. Where that is I cannot tell. I suppose it is 
somewhere near the river Trent ; but then the Trent 
is a very long river. You get out of your train to 
obtain refreshment, and having taken it, you en- 
deavour to find your train and your carriage. But 
whether it is on this side or that, or whether it 
is going north or south, this way or that way, you 
cannot tell. Bewildered, you frantically rush to your 
carriage; the train moves off round a curve, and 
then 3'ou are horrified to see some red lights glaring 



ciup.xxvi.i AN AWKWARD FIX. 39 

in front of you, and you are in immediate ex- 
pectation of a collision, when your fellow-passenger 
calms your fear by telling you that they are only 
the tail lamps of your own train ! " 

A fond mamma, travelling with her three-year- 
old boy, may be astounded and gratified by his 
descriptive power and vivid imagination as on the 
train entering a tunnel, he exclaims, " Oh, ma ! The 
train has shut its peepies ; " .or he may embarrass her 
as he alights at some foul-smelling station on the 
Metropolitan — having been taught that Hades is 
underground — by asking, " Mother, is this Hell 
Station ? " 

The hero of the following anecdote is not the 
only boy who has got into a fix on the railway : " A 
numl^er of lads residing at Bedworth are in the 
habit of attending school at Coventry, and alight at 
Goundou Koad Station. Not long ago they hit upon 
a novel plan of amusement. One of them mounted 
on the shoulders of two comrades, and got his head 
through the empty aperture for the lamp in the 
roof of the carriage. He surve3"ed the scenery with 
great inward satisfaction, but at Goundou Road he 
discovered — like many far wiser than he — that it is 
easier to get into a tight place than to get out of 
it. He was unable to withdraw his head, and when 
a porter entered the compartment and endeavoured 
to assist him by tugging at his legs he complained 
with no small alarm that he was in danger of 
strangulation. There was nothing for it but to send 



40 OUR RAILWAYS. {Ctm,p. xxYh 

on the young gentleman, with his right- and left- 
hand supporters, to the next station. Here the 
astonished officials uncoupled the carriage and ran it 
into a siding. A file and saw were secured, and 
after considerable trouble the lad was released." 

Another remarkable story is told by a passenger 
who escaped uninjured from a serious railway smash in 
Suffolk. Seeing a fellow-traveller searching anxiously 
among the wreckage with a lantern he offered to 
assist in the search, and thinking the old man had 
lost his wife, asked in sympathetic tones, '* What 
part of the train was she in ? " Raising his lantern, 
and glaring at the kindly-disposed passenger, the old 
man shouted with indignant distinctness that tri- 
umphed over physical infirmity, "She, sir! She! I 
am looking for my teeth I " 

It was some 3^ears ago my good fortune to 
attend the Scottish Athletic Sports in a Yorkshire 
town, and to see a giant from over the border wrestle 
with the strength of Cacus. But the most startling 
picture at the festival was the figure of a respectable 
local artist, who, in honour of his Scotch ancestry, 
had donned the Highland costume, and absolutely 
staggered his best friends with his wild appearance, 
with his flying tartan, and kilt, and bare legs. "Is 
he tame ? '' asked one of his friends in an audible 
whisper ; and the Highland chieftain strode away 
scowling, no doubt with thought of dirk and blood- 
shed. But this story is mild enough compared with 
the dramatic incident at Perrache railway station, near 



I 



»f|i.xxvi.i A HIGHLANDER ON A FRENCH RAILWAY, 41 

Lyons. "A person arrayed in full Highland costume 
suddenly entered a railway carriage and caused a 
terrible commotion. Two ladies who were in the com- 
pai-tment shrieked as they saw the awful spectacle pre- 
sented by the entry into their compartment of a man 
without pantaloons. The Highlander, who was on his 
way to Nice, nevertheless took his seat with Caledonian 
coolness, whereupon the ladies screamed the louder. 
It was in vain that the apparition in the garb of 
old Gaul apologised and explained the situation in 
bad French, and equall}'^ futile were the efforts of 
the station master, who assured the ladies that the 
gentleman with the dirk, the sporran, and the tartan 
accessories or properties was perfectly harmless. 

* You don't run the shadow of a risk, mesdames, 
insisted the stationmaster in his blandest tones. 

* The gentleman comes from a country where the men 
wear petticoats and do not wear trousers.' Despite 
everything, however, which was said in order to 
calm their apprehensions, the over-timid lady travellers 
had to be placed in a carriage at a safe distance 
from that in which the Caledonian had taken up 
his position." 

It is awkward if one is unused to the coy 
and arbitrary ways of infants to find that the 
plea.sant-faced young woman who has just got out 
at the busy station and disappeared in the crowd 
has left her baby in the compartment. Travelling 
by the night mail from Dublin to Cork, and 
thinking perhaps that at last the Irish are 



42 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ch■^xxYL 

within measurable distance of Home Bule, it is 
disquieting to discover that the big parcel on the 
o])posite seat is dynamite. It is otherwise than en- 
joyable to journey with a passenger like Arthur 
Mayo, of Armley, who, riding through Cudworth, 
was confulent that "three devils and Charles Peace 
were after him,'* and sprang out of the carriage 
window, only escaping death through the prompt 
action of his fellow-passengers, who seized him by 
the lejfs as he was leaping to the line, and held 
him, dangling head downwards, till the porters came. 
Nor is it soothing to one's nerves to travel on the 
railway with a powerful lunatic, who insists, draw- 
ing an " ugly clasp knife " meanwhile, that you 
should tell him the names of all the stations the 
train is passing, and so terrifies you that you escape 
from the compartment, creep along the footboard, 
and seek refuge in the guard's van. Not less terri- 
fying to nervous travellers must have been the 
piissenger who, on the 15th September, 1880, was 
sentenced to be flogged, and to twenty years' penal 
servitude, for a ferocious attack upon a fellow-traveller, 
whom he robbed, and tried to fling out of a railway 
carriage at Kensington. 

These startling incidents of travel are hardly 
more dramatic than the experience of the commercial 
traveller journeying between Paris and Havre who 
was disturbed in his slumber by the pressure of a 
hand on his mouth, awoke startled to find that a man 
armed with a revolver was holding a handkerchief, 



Cli»p.xxvi.i A 0IBU8 FREAK. 43 

laden with chloroform, against his face, struggled 
to the alarm bell, and succeeded in getting the train 
stopped and the prisoner arrested. Nor can they com- 
pare in romance with Kate Evanson's freak on the 
Great Western Eailway. Tired of her quiet home life 
at Beading, and with her mind filled with stories of 
travel, adventure, and exploit on land and sea, she 
determined to become a sailor, and had also a yearning 
to be wrecked, to be cast by some storm-tossed wave on 
an uninhabited island, to live a free roving life like 
Eobinson Crusoe, far away from the torture of hairpins 
and the burden of school books. She left Eeading osten- 
sibly to return to school at Bristol, but when the train 
reached the latter place the young lady was missing. 
A bundle of girl's clothing was found in the compart- 
ment. The young lady had broken her journey at 
Gloucester, bought a ready-made suit of boy's clothes, 
and had her hair cut short. Then she took the train 
to Hereford, and while travelling alone in a compart- 
ment, changed her attire completely — transforming her- 
self, so far as apparel went, from a girl to a boy. If let 
alone she might have become the most intrepid female 
explorer of the century ; but she was traced to Shrews- 
bury by a common-sense brother, who considered it 
undesirable that she should masquerade either as 
errand lad or sailor, induced her to doff boy's attire 
and put on garments more suitable to her sex, and 
took her home again. 

There are many modes of alighting from a train. 
The most sensible mode is to heed the warning, " Wait 



44 OUn RAILWAYS. [Cii«i». XZTL 

till the train stops/' and then step carefiillj upon the 
platform. But some passengers spring out of the 
carriage while the engine is slowing, and roll head 
over heels towards the booking-office or on the line; 
and I have seen a football team leap from a train and 
charge across the platform as if they were storming the 
Itedan. One of the funniest exits in railway travel 
was made from an American sleeping car. A passenger 
told the train-boy, a negro, to call him at six in the 
morning, gave him a dollar to keep his memory awake, 
and said, ** Never mind if I'm a bit drowsy; put me off 
the car." ** Yes, boss," replied the negro, grinning ; and 
the traveller went for a snug night in his berth. But 
the next morning he jumped out in a rage. The train- 
boy had forgotten to call him. He made his way to the 
negro fuming, and angrily asked, "Why the deuce didn't 
you put me off ? " "I di " jerked out the train- 
boy, and then abruptly checked his utterance. *' Look 
yer here, boss," he said, utterly confounded, and staring 
out of " two lovely black eyes," blacker than Nature 
had given him, " who was it I did shove off ? " He had 
mistaken the identity of the traveller who had tipped 
him, aroused the wrong man, and, after a fierce fight, 
flung him off the train ! 

Humour of a quieter sort is affonled by a story in 
La?id and Wafers according to which an old lady travel- 
ling on the Underground, and finding that the train 
was approaching a station, addressed herself to a man 
in the farther corner of the compartment, her only 
fellow-passenger, and said, ** Would you tell me, sir. 




Ch«p.xxvi.i ATTACKED BY A MANIAC. 45 



what is the next station ? " ** Bayswater, madam," 
was the courteous reply. ** Then would you mind, sir, 
when we arrive, opening the door and helping me to 
get out?" "With pleasure," was the cordial assent. 
** You see," the old lady went on to explain, ** I am 
well on in years and afflicted, and 1 have to get out 
slowly, and backwards ; and when the porter sees me 
getting out he shouts, * Look alive, ma'am,' and gives 
me a push from behind — and I've been round the 
circle twice already." 

Comparatively few incidents in fiction can equal tlie 
reality of a young lady's experience on the London and 
North -Western llailway on August 27, 1887. Tra- 
velling between Wellington and Shrewsbury she was 
assaulted by a madman. In order to escape his fury 
she sprang from the compartment to the carriage foot- 
board, and stood there in peril, the train running at the 
speed of thirty miles an hour. Her cries attracted the 
notice of a gentleman in the next carriage, and he 
succeeded in rescuing her, keeping her foe at bay mean- 
while with a sword-stick, until the maniac fell upon 
the line, where he was afterwards found unconscious. 

The country signalman in his box, bristhng with 
gleaming levers, finds life rather monotonous, though 
he has to be careful with his bell signals and dials ; 
but occasionally he has his blood quickened by adven- 
ture, and his usually steady pulse beats as quickly 
as the signal needles. His excitement may arise, too, 
from a cause entirely different from a railway smash. 
He may just have signalled, with two beats of the 



46 OVR UAlLWAYd. ca-c-JXTi. 

nuedle to the right, " Liqc clear of train or engine," 
aud be looking out mechanically into the darkness, 
when the door is tliruiit open, and a niadman springs 




in. A signalman at Kii'kham, on the Preston and 
"Wyrc llailway, was lately startled after this fashion. A 
wild-looking man ran up the steps, pmuced into the 
cabin, and strove witli subtlety and cunning to stay all 
night. But the lever-puUcr was a practical man. He 



Chap. XXVI. A MAD WOMAN IN A SIGNAL BOX. 47 

did not listen very long to the maniac's arguments ; he 
grappled with him and flung him out of the box. 

A signalman in the Humberston junction box had 
a curious experience one afternoon in 1891. While 
busy with a message he was interrupted by a mad 
woman. She sprang into the box, and began tearing 
the plants with which his glass-house was brightened. 
He tried to fling her out ; but she was an Amazon, 
and nearly overpowered him. His cries brought several 
railway servants to his assistance, and the woman was 
removed, wildly threatening to cut the signalman's 
throat. 

In the summer of the same year a curious scene was 
witnessed at Heywood railway station. A self-styled 
poet, indulging in strange gesticulations, leapt off the 
platform, and threw himself across the railway. He 
was dragged out of his perilous position by a rail- 
way porter, to whom he confided the information 
that he was "The Monarch of Europe," "The Suc- 
cessor of Oliver Cromwell," and "The Friend of 
George Washington." 

A madman on a locomotive, with his hand on 
the regulator, is an even more dangerous person than 
a maniac in a signal cabin. Nearly seven years ago 
the present writer, in a story entitled " A Night of 
Peril," described how a passenger in the north 
express, alarmed at the fearful speed of the train, 
crept along the footboard, climbed the tiny iron 
steps at the end of the van nearest the tender, 
crawled over the coal heap, and managed to rea^^h 



4S OUR UATLWAYS. icbap. xxn. 

the foot])lato of the enijine. He found the fire- 
man had been strangled by the engine-driver, who 
liad gone mad. The story sounded improbable 
enough ; for an engine-driver, well-fed, and generally 
stout, good-tempered, and contented, seems an un- 
likely person to lose his reason — though he has been 
known during the severe winters of the past few 
years to lose his temper, driving the mail through 
the bitter night, with his feet and body almost 
seorched by the engine fire, and his face and ears 
frost-bitten and his l^eard and moustache snow- flecked 
and icy. As a rule, observant and practical, with 
mind concentrated on duty, the engine-driver, never- 
theless, docs occasionally go mad. Four years ago, 
a driver in the service of the London and North- 
Western Railway Company, wiis brought before the 
Salford magistrates under detention as a wandering 
lunatic. While driving an express from Chester to 
Manchester he showed symptoms of insanity, and the 
medical man who examined him said he would soon 
develop into a violent maniac. 

The driver of a train on the Oregon Short 
Railway went raving mad on the Ist February, 1892, 
and gave the passengers, one hundred in number, 
one of the most dramatic journeys in railway history, 
lie seized the fireman, and after a fierce struggle 
flung him off the engine. Then he fired up, took 
off the brake, and put on steam. The engine 
throbbed and swayed as it plunged wildly onward, 
and the terrified passengers were pitched off their 



XXTL1 A MAD ESGIXE-DMirER. m 

seats as the cars, larching from side to side, 
threatened to leap off the track. It is said that for 
a distance of forty-five miles the locomotive, almost 
red-hot, ran at the rate of one hundred miles an 
hour; and Mr. Julius Smith, of Kansas City, one 
of the passengers, gives a vivid description of the 
flying train under the madman's erratic control. 
"After the train left Tacoma nothing unusual 
occurred," he says, "until that part of the line 
which leads along the base of the mountain w;is 
reached, when suddenly it was noticed that the 
train was increasing in speed imtil it fairly flew 
along the rails. Faster and faster went the train 
until it bounded from side to side at a fearful rate, 
and the frightened passengers were thrown about the 
cars. Several stations at which the train should have 
stopped were passed at lightning speed, and it seemed 
a miracle what kept it on the line. The passengei*s 
had now become panic-stricken, and women and 
children were screaming. The conductor and brake- 
man had been appealed to, and they said that either 
the engine-driver had gone miid or had lost control 
of the engine. They crawled carefully along the 
tender and saw that the fireman had disappeared, 
and from the stmnge appearance of the engin(H»r, 
who was bare-headed and gesticulating, decided that 
he had become insane. They stealthily got behind 
him and struck him a heavy blow on the head, 
which felled him to the footplate. The conductor shut 
off the steam, and gradually brought the train to a 
e 



bO OUR RAILWAYS. tciutp.xxvi. 

stuDdstill. The driver was secured, and a despatch 
was sent over the road asking for information re- 
garding the missing fireman, who was subsequently 
discovered, seriously injured, by the side of the rails." 
In Spain life is not so rapid. The train does 
not start ''till the stationniaster has done his coffee, 
the driver his ilirting, and the guard has buckled 
on his swonl ; " and the driver has been known to 
j)ull up miles away from any station, "out of sheer 
curiosity." 



51 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

SOME RAILWAY SURPRISES — SMOKING IN TRAINS — SUNDAY 

TRAVELLING. 

Railway Surprises— A Special Train, and the Wreck of the Cospatrick— 
Kidnapping a Grand Duke — An Expensive Journey — Smoking in Rail- 
way Carriages — Implacable Enemies — Punishing a Foreigner — The 
Eton Boys and the Strong Pipe — A Very Rude Smoker — Passengers' 
Hatred of Tobacco — "No Smoking Allowed" — "Smoking" Labels in 
Tall Hats— Sunday Travelling—" The Agitator's Manual*' — Longing 
for a Change— Wordsworth's Protest — Prejudice against Sunday Trains 
— A Sunday at Llandudno — A Sunday Afternoon Train from Notting- 
ham to Bakewell— Breaking Heads and the Sabbath at Strome Ferry 
— Remission of the Sentence. 

Railway travelling and railway work are inseparable 
from surprises. The crank-axle of the ** Jubilee" ex- 
press engine breaks as the train leaves Higlibridge, 
and the express is three hours late at Bristol. A pas- 
senger in the West Coast night mail, finding the train 
powerfully slowed at Penrith Junction, peers out of the 
window with concern, and later learns that four waggons 
block the up-line, and that the signalman has saved the 
mail from disaster by sending a man along the track 
waving a danger-signal. At St. Helens smoke is noticed 
beneath three carriages of the Wigan train, and it is 
found that the wooden brakes are on fire. There is 
consternation in the third-class carriage of an express 
travelling between Sheffield and Leeds, caused by an 
ominous bumping and a violent rocking. The carriage 
e2 



58 OUB RAILWAYS. tChftp-xxYU. 

floor is suddenly smashed to fragments, the frightened 
passengers jump on the seats, the communication cord is 
tugged and the train pulled up, when it is discovered 
that one of the steel tyres has become dislodged, 
has worked to the middle of the axle, and at each 
revolution was banging through the floor of the 
carnage. 

A train from Leicester runs into Nuneaton Station 
on the North -Western; the brake does not act, or the 
rails are greiisy, and the engine dashes into a carriage 
at the end of the platform, tumbling the passengers 
about in dismay. An excursion train is leaving 
Old Hill when the coupling links between two of the 
carriages sna]), and ])art of the train starts down the 
incline towards Cradley Station. The brake has not 
strength enough to check its progress ; but, fortunately, 
the guard is a man of resource. He leaps from his 
van, pushes baulks of timber between the wheels, and 
averts a serious accident. On the Cornish branch of 
the Great Western a heavy up-train gets out of 
control wliile descending the incline west of St. Ger- 
mans Station. It rushes through the station and on 
to Nottar Viaduct, along which a down train is ex- 
pected. The driver and the stoker of the runaway 
train, now under control again, open the brake- whistle, 
leap from the engine, and run up the line showing 
danger-signals ; and though it is impossible to avoid 
a collision, there is comparatively little damage done. 
The Midland newspaper train from St. Fancras comes 
into collision with some overhead obstruction near 



Chap xxmi A SOBTINO TEN-DEB ON FIRE. 53 

Strines, and when the express engine reaches Marple 
its funnel is missing. No passenger is hurt, but the 
funnel-less engine is an object of considerable curiosity 
as it runs into the Manchester Central Station. A 
fiendish attempt is made to wreck the London and 
North -Western express, like that near Wolverhampton 
in 1881. Some miscreant fastens a sleeper on the 
track by means of two chains. The train cuts the 
sleeper in two, and quivers from end to end on 
striking the obstruction, but fortunately keeps the rails. 

The English mail, just starting from the Central 
Station, Glasgow, for London, has a narrow escape 
from destruction by fire. The signal *' Right away ! " 
has been given, when it is discovered that the gas- 
pipe in the sorting tender leaks, and the escaping 
gas, running to flame, sets the vehicle on fire. The 
mail bags are tumbled, amid much excitement, on to 
the platform, and the tender is shunted to the water- 
trough. The fire is soon put out, but the sorting 
tender is useless for the night; and the mails are 
flung into the guard's van, the train getting away 
twenty-five minutes late owing to this peculiar mishap, 
the first of its kind since the adoption of gas for 
train-lighting. 

The incidents to the traveller and the mishaps to, 
and narrow escapes of, the rolling stock are infinite; 
but one of the most remarkable surprises on any 
railway occurred in 1886. The Irish Parliamentary 
party, before the memorable difference in their ranks, 
met in Dublin for important business. Mr. Farnell 



51 OUR RAILWAYS. iciuip.xxvn. 

did not attend; but it was explained that the then 
great but taciturn and mysterious leader " had been 
accidentaUy left by the train at Crewe ! " 

The railway, at first sight, seems to have little 
connection with the thrilling and pathetic incident 
on board the emigrant ship the Cospafrici, which 
was burned at sea, four hundred miles off the Cape, 
on the 19tli November, 1874. No story of peril has 
ever equalled the grim fact of that wreck — more 
than four hundred passengers crowding the burning 
ship, the fire raging for two days, the fall of the 
mainmast dealing merciful death to many, the blow- 
ing up of the vessel's stern, the captain's leap into 
the sea hoping to save his wife's life, the two boats 
getting clear away, one only to founder, and the 
other to drift till some of its gaunt occupants died 
of hunger, or went mad with it, and sucked the 
blood of their comrades. Out of thirty persons in 
this starboard boat only five were alive on the 17th 
November, when the British Sceptre, homeward bound 
from Calcutta, fell in with the piteous crew and 
rescued them. Two of these five died on board the 
ship ; and the other three, including the second mate 
Macdonald, were put ashore at St. Helena. The 
news of the wreck soon reached England, and 
thrilled the people; perhaps the more because it ar- 
rived on Christmas Day, when everybody that could 
was making merry. In the newspaper offices there 
was much shrewd thought and calculation with the 
object of getting the earliest intelligence ; and 



aim.xxTii.) EiPSJLFrrxG A KrssTAX rsjyrR 3;.% 

Archibald Forbes, the noted special corw^^ndent 
in the Franco-Crerman war and in the Kuii^so-Turkish 
campaign for the Dai/j^ 3>ir*, showed considerable 
dash and enterprise on behalf of the newspaper, goin^ 
down the Channel in a special boat, boarding the 
steamer Xyaxra, that was bringing the survivors of 
the wreck from St. Helena, obtaining from MacdouiUd 
a graphic acconnt of the disaster, and taking K^th 
the narrator and the narrative up to town friMu 
Plymouth by special train, to the chagrin and dis- 
appointment of a number of rival pressmen who 
had been anxiously awaiting the vessel's arrival in [K)rt. 
The Boulogne correspondent of the ly^es has told 
an amusing story of the capture of a Uussian prince 
by an English railway company, so great \v:vs their 
eagerness to secure him as a passenger: 

"An improm]Aii comedy took place in NovemWr, 1892, at 
Boulogne Harbour, where representatives of the London, Chatham 
and Dover and South-Eastem Companies sought to o\itwit each 
otlier in order to gain possession of the Grand Duke Sorgius of 
Russia, who was awaited at Boulogne by rival steamers, to tnko 
him to England. The Grand Duke Sergius loft Paris by the 
Folkestone express, to embark at Boulogne for Dover. Owing to 
some inconsistent order issued at headquarters a steamer of the 
Calais-Dover line was dii*ected to proceed to Boulogne, and, instead 
of despatching a large steamer to meet the Queen's guest, the 
company's superintendent at Dover sent the Maid of Kfiut^ their 
oldest vessel, which was launched in 1861. The South-Kastern 
Company, determined not to accept this affront, had, ineanwhih^ 
provided a special steamer of their own. On tho arrival of tlu» 
train, the company by a clever ruse succeeded in kidnapping th«» 
Prince, not even so exalted a traveller as a Russian Grand Duk(» 
being sacred on French soil from the enterpiising ofUcials of 



56 OUR RAILWAYS. (chap, xxvit 

competing English railways. Mr. H. Farmer and his son, the 
South-Eastern representatives, effected the capture of the Grand 
Duke, and he and his suite embarked on the Albert Victor amid 
some excitement. The English and Russian Yice-Consuls were 
present. Confusion followed when Captain Blomiield, the Chatham 
Company's agent, went aboard to persuade the Grand Duke that 
the other boat had been sent expressly by her Majesty. His 
Imperial Highness disembarked, and appeared somewhat puzzled 
by these manoeuvres. Being informed that the Boulogne and 
Folkestone was the shorter and quicker route, and that the Queen's 
equerry with a special train was awaiting him at Folkestone, the 
Grand Duke decided to travel by the Albert Victor ^ which left 
immediately for that port." 

It is said that " a live collier is better than a 
dead cardinal ; " but, judging from a curious incident 
that occurred at Leamington Station in January, 1892, 
a lifeless person is more profitable on the railway 
than one able to get his own ticket. A bath-chair- 
man's widow, ignorant of railway rates and the cost 
of transit, gave instructions for the removal of her 
husband's corpse from Dover to Leamington. You 
can, as a rule, travel, if you are alive, for one penny 
per mile. On the Lough Swilly Eailway, in Ireland, 
they are glad to take you for three farthings a milci 
candidly admitting that if they raised the fares, the 
passengers, who find the days long, would prefer to 
walk. But if you are dead it is quite another 
thing — ^you cannot travel for less than one shilling 
per mile. The bath-chairman's widow discovered to 
her dismay that she was indebted to the railway 
company to the amount of £8 for the conveyance 
of her husband's mortal remains from Dover to 



\ 



amp zzYiLi 8M0KIKG CARRIAGES. 87 

Leamington. It was impossible for the poor woman 
to find the money ; so the corpse was detained for 
two days in the luggage department, but finally 
delivered by the company, on the widow's earnest 
promise to pay the carriage. 

Smoking in railway carriages has been productive 
of annoyance, diversion, and some hard knocks. The 
subject is always with us, and is never discussed 
calmly. There are few people so contented and philo- 
sophical as the man in the smoke-filled compartment, 
who coughed out the words, " I never smoke now ; 
but next to smoking I like the smell of it" Good 
manners often forsake smoker and non-smoker when 
cigar or pipe is produced in a railway carriage. The 
passenger longing for a whiff is in a condition of 
armed neutrality, or stoically stubborn, or violently 
aggressive. The hater of smoking makes no truce 
with his foe. He nails his colours to the mast of 
his own principle, and fights to his journey's end, 
and sometimes into the police court beyond, against 
the vile polluter of the atmosphere. 

Legislation is powerless to stop the strife. As 
far back as 1868 a clause, to pacify smokers, was 
introduced into the Eailway Eegulation Bill, making 
it imperative on the part of the various companies 
to put a smoking carriage on every train " consist- 
ing of more than one carriage of each class ; " and 
to appease the non-smokers every railway company, 
with watchful eyes for traffic, has adopted the by-law 
setting forth that any person smoking in shed or 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



covered platform of a station, or in anj carriage or 
compartment not specially provided for that purpose, 
is liable to a penalty not exceeding forty shillings. 




A MIOICINR CAIiniAOE OH THE EASTERN OOCJJTIEa LrtE IN UK. 

But the struggle still goes on. Like ii Corsican feud, 
it is lianded do\\'n from generation to generation, and 
it will continue, no doubt, till the crack of doom — 
till the earth is crashed up by a comet, or destroyed 
by fire and ends in smoke ! 

The stories and incidents that have sprung out 
of this fierce fight whicli defies all arbitration are 
legion. In the opinion of one of our bishops " the 
most self-satisfied Briton must own that we are in 
many details of railway travel far behind Germany." 
No doubt the foreign passenger who indulged in a 



Ci«p.xxvii.i TEACBING TBS FOREIGNER A LESSON. SB 

cigar while travelling between Brighton and London 
in September, 1842, held a similar view, and perhaps 
expressed it more emphatically. The guard, according 
to the Mechanics' Magazine, warned him that the 
practice of smoking was not allowed. Nevertheless, 
the gentleman continued to smoke, and finished his 




cigar. At the next station he was met by a demand 
for his ticket, ordered out of the coupe, and the guard, 
addressing one of the officers on the platform, warned 
him that " that person was not to be allowed to pro- 
ceed to London by any train that night," and there 
the gentleman was left. This was sufiiciently severe 
treatment ; but even in those early days the companies 
were not without some sense of the desirability of making 
the travelling emoker comfortable, as may be inferred 
from the illnstrations on this and the preceding page. 
One of the best stories is that about the Eton 
- boys crowding into a compartment and smoking 
cigarettes and all kinds of fancy tobaccos in supreme 
disdain of a quiet old man in the corner of the car- 
ri^e, who asked them in vain to desist from smoking, 



60 Orn RAILWAYS. [QULP.TT7TL 

and then furtively brought a short black pipe out 
of his showman's vest pocket, and with his eyes filled 
with twinkles and his pipe well loaded with thick 
twist, insisted on the windows being put up, and blew 
such a potent, insidious cloud that the lads became 
strangely silent. He made them all ill with the strong 
fumes of the tobacco that seems to be the breath of 
life to the ironworker, the miner, and the navvy. 

The prim old lady, sitting stiffly in the railway 
carriage, with mittens and reticule on knee and 
thick-rimmed spectacles — a relic of the optician's art 
of 1828 — on her nose, must have been surprised when 
the rough-looking, but apparently courteous, man 
blundered into the compartment and said, "Marm, 
do you object to smoking ? " and on the shrill 
reply, " Yes, indeed I do ! " escaping from her lips, 
brusquely retorted, " Then shift ! " 

" A spinster " had a curious experience on the 
Macclesfield line some time ago. The train, a very 
long one, steamed into Longsight Station. " After 
running from one end to the other," she writes, " I 
found there was only one second-class compartment 
that was not labelled ' Smoking,' and that one was 
quite full. I was compelled to ' invade ' a smoking 
compartment or stay behind. There were three 
gentlemen in the carriage ; one was smoking. On 
entering the carriage I said, * Gentlemen, I do not 
willingly intrude. I never before saw such a long 
train with so many smoking compartments (second- 
class), and only one second-class non-smoking com- 



Ch.p.xxvii.1 *" SMOKING'' LABELS. 61 

partment/ A quiet smile passed round the carriage, 
which at the moment I could not understand. I 
soon, however, had the riddle read. A few stations 
past Stockport the gentleman who was smoking 
folded up his rug and newspaper, and, amongst his 
other preparations for leaving the train, removed the 
red * Smoking ' label from the window, folded it care- 
fully, and placed it inside the leather lining of his 
hat — for future use, I presume. I was anxious to 
know if this was a common occurrence, so when I 
reached home I examined mv brother's business hat, 
and there, sure enough, I found two * Smoking ' labels. 
I asked him how he came to possess these official 
labels, and was answered by a sly wink, and * Friends 
at court, my dear.' I said I thought it unfair, and 
gave as evidence of the unfairness my trouble at Long- 
sight that evening, and received for answer, ' Oh, all 
our fellows have them, and find them very handy.' " 
The opposition to railway travelling on Sunday 
still lives. It has displayed intermittent vigour for 
half a century; and some bitter things have been 
said about the here and hereafter of those who dare 
to go from home, except to worship, on the Sabbath. 
The London and South -Western Railway, as already 
hinted at, were early confronted with the difficulty. 
In 1839 the directors received a memorial from the 
Winchester clergy, complaining of the systematic 
desecration of the Lord's Day by Sunday travelling, 
which " tended to corrupt morals." The chairman of 
the company, however, seems to have silenced the 



62 . OUR RAILWAYS. (GtaAp.xxvn. 

protests of the clergy by the incontrovertible character 
of his reply. Kailway companies, he said, were com- 
pelled by Parliament to run trains on Sunday for 
the convenience of the post-office; and he pointed 
out, moreover, that inasmuch as travelling by rail- 
road liad greatly reduced the amount of animal 
labour employed on highways, they were rather 
Sabbath upholders than Sabbath breakers, for it was 
an undoubted fact that train-running on Sunday had 
done away with much manual labour — that it had 
" reduced the quantity of human labour required for 
conducting the emj^loyment of horses " — not to speak 
of the horses themselves. 

If the advice given in 1842 in "The Eailway 
Sabbath Agitator's Manual " had been taken; the 
country would perhaps have been saved a good deal 
of controversy. This treatise on the suppression of 
Sunday travelling tersely remarked: 

"It is much easier than may at first appear to establish an 
efficient agitation in any railway company. Let two gentlemen of 
principle and determination take at least as much stock as will 
afford to each of them a vote ; let one of them give notice at the 
6r8t meeting that takes place aft^r his purchase that, at the next 
meeting, he will move, * That no Sabbath traffic do take place on 
the railway.' Let him and his second be at their post on that 
occasion, and make their speeches — no matter how long or how 
short — calmly, resolutely, and with imperturbable good tem^ier. 
The thing is done." 

It is rather singular that in an age conspicuous 
for attempts to make Sunday more attractive by 
the opening of free libraries and museums, by the 




Cbap.xxvii.1 SUNDAY AT MANCHESTER. 63 

provision of music in parks, and the birth of what is 
called the " Pleasant Sunday Afternoon " movement, 
there still survives a ver}' strong feeling against 
Sunday travelling. London, unless you are in the 
religious, social, political, artistic, or dramatic swim, 
is a disheartening desert on the Sabbath. So is every 
large city in the north. Manchester has ventured 
to give a little variety to the day of public worship, 
formerly entirely devoted to psalm-chanting in cathe- 
dral and church, or to the dissenting ministers 
eloquence and the performances of the double-bass 
and the fiddle in chapel. The Reference Libraiy, 
one of the finest in the kingdom, is now open to 
the student. The Art Gallery is free to the public. 
The toiler, if he wishes to worship God in the 
open air, can stroll in the parks, and in '* The 
Whitworth '' hear excellent music, too. But there 
are some people so constituted that they must go 
further away for change and happiness. They weary 
of bricks and mortar, of the hard pavement and the 
gleam of the tram-line. The place in which they 
have worked hard through the week grows repugnant. 
They yearn for a ** Sunday at the seaside,'' or by river 
or lake, and get away to Cleethorpes, Blackpool, 
Southport, to the broad waters of the Mersey or the 
Dee, or to the Upper Ribble, where the stream murmurs 
among the moss-grown stones at Horton, or further 
away along the iron track to Windermere. 

Our ideas about railways, and also about keeping 
the Sabbath, have altered somewhat since the day 



64 OUB RAILWAYS. tCh*p.xxviL 

William Wordsworth wrote his sonnet on the pro- 
jected Kendal and Windermere Bailway, asking — 

*' Is there no nook of English ground seoore 
From rash assault 7 Schemes of retirement sown 
In youth, and 'mid the busy world kept pure, 
As when their earliest flowers of hope were blown, 
Must perish—how can they this blight endure 7 ** 

and sent to the Morning Post his indignant letter o£ 
protest against the construction of the new line, in 
which he said: 

**The directors of railway companies are always ready to deviit 
or encourage entci*tainments for tempting the humbler rrlannni to 
leave their homes. Accordingly, for the profit of the sharehddfln 
and of the lower class of innkeepers, we should have wresHing- 
matches, horse- and boat-races without number, and pothooMl 
and beershops would keep pace with these excitements and re cw^ * 
tionSy most of which might too easily be had elsewhere. The ii^iniy 
which would thus be dono to morals, both among this influx of 
strangers and tlie lower class of inhabitants, is obvious ; and, sap- 
posing such extraordinary temptations not to be held out, theio 
cannot be a doubt that the Sabbath day in the towns of Bowness 
and Ambleside, and other parts of the district, would be sabjeot 
to much additional desecration." 

Some worthy persons have been known to overwork 
their domestic servants, to sit down to a hot dinner, 
and to drive to church or chapel in brougham, cab, or 
hansom on the Sabbath ; but they draw the line at 
tlie railway, and, with regard to the Sunday train, 
rigidly observe the commandment. 

The Scotch people, in Scotland, appear to believe 
yet in the grave, dreary Sunday, with its monotony 
of long sermons and long faces, though they do 
not mortify themselves quite as much as their habit 




Oar. XXVI1.J SUNDAY TRAINS. ii5 

was in tlie late Professor Blackie's youth. Frolic and 
whisky are not altogether unknown in tlie great cities 
on the Sahbath. Yet the people look askance at 




Siioday trains ; and in some breasts lingers the old 
feeling expressed years ago at the Kirk Session in 
Edinburgh, when it was resolved not to accept any 
remuaeratioD, however large, for the passing of the 
Edinburgh and Glasgow line through the church- 
ywd, unless absolute security could be given that 
there would be no railway travelling on the Lord's 
day. 

The London and North -Western Railway Com- 
pany have rebuilt the station at Llandudno, and it 

/ 



66 QUE RAILWAYS. (Oiuip.xxyn. 

is now a bright-looking, spacious terminus, with four 
long platforms, two reserved for ordinary and two 
for excursion traffic, and capable of dealing with an 
enormous number of passengers, especially as beyond 
the station two miles of sidings have been put down. 
But on a Sunday the station is closed. The gates 
are locked. The place is deserted. In the town three 
or four thousand visitors, desiring a change from 
church-going, or from climbing the Great Orme, or 
from parading on the asphalt walk in front of the 
sea, are longing to get away by rail ; but there is 
no train unless you walk to the junction three miles 
away. Trains may come up to the junction ; but 
the line by Deganwy into Llandudno on a Sunday 
is sacred ground, and no train is allowed upon it,, 
although occasionally some locomotive, wearied of 
standing still and doing nothing in the engine shed, 
breaks away from the junction, and comes down with 
a scream till it reaches the signal cabin; when it is 
suddenly struck with the consciousness that it is 
doing wrong, and runs back puffing and sighing 
with repentance. 

In the summer of 1892 the writer was in Llandudno 
on a Sunday, but it was imperative that he should get 
away early on Monday. The friends with whom he was 
staying seldom travel, and had not realised the import- 
ance of the time-table. They thought he might get 
one at the chief hotel ; but he could not, without an 
uncomfortable conscience, break the law by entering a 
Welsh hotel on a Sunday. He went to the station 



ch«p.xxvii.i AT LLANDUDNO ON A SUNDAY, 67 

instead. It was shut up, and the facade of the 
building was entirely devoid of railway literature — 
there was not a solitary placard showing the train- 
time. Three men stood near the gates, with their 
hands deep down in their pockets and their minds 
deeply buried in reflection. He asked one of the men, 
who had a railway- employee look about him, if he 
happened to know what time the first train went 
out for Manchester in the morning. The man started, 
stuttered, and said something vehemently in Welsh. 
Perhaps he was in a rage. Anyhow, he jerked out 
volleys of strange words that sounded like curses ; and 
his interrogator thanked him and wandered, crestfallen 
and perplexed, to the parade. There fortune favoured 
him — he obtained the information he required without 
a breach of the law. On one of the grass-plots that 
skirt the promenade roadway he found a blackboard 
bearing a sheet time-table, and stepping over the rails, 
studied it to his heart's content, ascertained the time 
of the train's departure in English, and was happy ; 
still, it seemed odd that the railway company had not 
had the forethought to fix a few of these sheets on 
the outer walls of the station. 

Bail way companies have really no particular 
scruples about running Sunday trains. All the great 
English companies have for j^ears past sent two or 
three trains crawling over the country on the Sabbath 
— ^trains that stopped at eveiy station, and jogged 
along, as it seemed, haphazard, the drivers appar- 
ently indifferent as to whether they reached their 

/2 



^ 



68 OUB RAILWAYS. ichap.xxvn. 

destination that day or the next. Recently, with 
the steady demand for travelling facilities on Sunday, 
fast trains have been put on here and there for 
ordinary traffic, and trains more or less fast for ex- 
cursionists. But these innovations have to be made 
cautiously. The week-end ticket has become an insti- 
tution. You can go almost anywhere with it cheaply, 
and indulge in as much enjoyment as possible from 
Saturday to Monday. But many people look glum 
if you talk about takiug a railway journey on Sunday. 
They view such a journey as a desecration, and are 
certain that evil will come of it — that *' there's sure 
to be an accident ; '* and if one does happen, that 
* it's a judgment." Railway managers are between 
two stools. They do not like to refuse traffic on 
Sunday ; and they are anxious not to offend the 
good people who, whatever their objection to 
Sunday travel, make frequent use of the railways 
during the remainder of the week. 

It has been said that railway managers firmly 
believe '* that Providence, though disapproving of 
railway services on the Sabbath, may yet be molli- 
fied if those trains are worked so as to be of as little 
use to the passengers as possible." Probably this 
conviction prompts them to run Sunday trains early 
in the morning, when most people are in bed, or 
late in the afternoon, when everybody is at dinner or 
indulging in his after-dinner nap. There is little 
doubt that ultimately a thoroughly good service of 
Sunday trains will be instituted on all the important 



i 



Chap. XXVII.1 A BISHOP AS A SUNDAY PASSENQEB. 69 

lines. The convenience to the public would be great. 
The increased revenue to the companies would be 
enormous. The railway servants would suffer no hard- 
ship, for the men on Sunday duty might be easily 
relieved on Monday or some other week-day. The 
London and North -Western, the Great Western, and 
several other companies, have already recognised the 
principle that a working week consists of six days, 
and pay extra for Sunday work. With their rolling 
stock no longer idle on Sunday, and the help of a 
relief staff', they could give the men one clear day's 
holiday in the week instead. 

It does not follow that because a man travels on 
Sunday he flings away his chances of salvation ; 
nay, the author is told that an English bishop has 
been seen in a train on Sunday, and that his lordship 
appeared unconscious of the fact that he was com- 
mitting a grievous sin. The outcry about Sunday 
travelling is a little inconsistent. The people most 
strongly opposed to it do not seem to think Sunday 
labour in another direction reprehensible and wicked. 
It is the boast of one of our judges that he never 
reads the newspapers ; but prelate, clergyman. Non- 
conformist minister, and church member open the 
daily paper on Monday morning with interest. They 
do not avoid it with loathing. Yet is it the pro- 
duct of Sunday thought and of hard, unremitting 
work. The reporter has to be busy taking down 
sermons, or speeches at labour, socialistic, or other 
meetings. The sub-editor finds " Sunday duty ^' the 



70 OUB RAILWAYS. ichap. xxvii. 

severest duty of all the week, for he has to deal 
with two days' news instead of one, and the mass 
of intelligence he has to glance through and prepare 
for the printers, or reject, would dishearten a Prime 
Minister, though his despatch-bag is sometimes very 
heavy. The editorial staflF must be at the office, 
either choosing subjects, or reading up, or writing 
leaders. The composing-room is crowded with com- 
positors; and for hours there is the noise of engine 
and type-setting machine. 

A daily newspaper office on a Sunday night, with 
its rush of work, is a very diflFerent place from a 
cathedral, with its lioiy calm and sweet music. There 
is apparently a very wide gulf between them ; yet it 
is possible that the bishop, in his lawn sleeves, holding 
forth in the pulpit yonder on the duty of the people 
to observe the Sabbath as a day of worship and rest, 
is really making Sunday work for the newspapers. 
What he says — particularly if he is a popular bishop, 
like the late Bishop Fraser — is being reported, and 
will be set up in type that night — Sunday night. The 
newspaper is not rattled oflE the machines perhaps till 
after midnight ; but every reader of it, amid the 
mingled aroma of printers' ink and buttered toast at 
breakfast, has, however devout, insisted on Sunday 
work, and Sunday work on the railway, too ; for a 
good deal of the news the paper contains has been 
sent by train in news-parcel on Sunday, and before 
midnight the fireman has to be on duty at the shed 
to charge and light the engine fire, to get up steam. 



Ch»p.xxvii.i A PETITION AGAINST SUNDAY TRAINS. 71 

80 that the locomotive— of which he affectionately 
speaks as "she" — may be ready to dash along the 
line north, south, east, or west with the newspaper 
train. 

Tiiough the tendency of the age may be to make 
Sunday a day of enjoyment as well as a day of rest, 
quite a modern effort has been made to keep the 
day rigidly holy in Derbyshire, magistrates, clergy, 
and ministers conspiring to prevent town workers 
from getting a glimpse of the picturesque country on 
that day. The Midland Railway Company announced 
in the spring of 1892 that they intended to run a train 
every Sunday afternoon during May from Notting- 
ham to Bakewell, calling at all the intermediate 
stations. There were protests alike from the bench 
and the pulpit, from residents and visitors, especially 
in the Matlock locality; and these protests were 
embodied in a petition, which, to say the least, was 
somewliat uncharitable in its tone : 

" We respectfully beg to point out that this is a new, and in 
our opinion very undesirable, development in the railway service, 
and we beg to protest earnestly against it as being certain to 
become a source of great discomfort and disorder in the place, 
and to lead to great irregularities and desecration of the Sabbath, 
on the ground that it is extremely probable that the excui-sionists 
will (in the main) be drawn from the lower classes in the towns, 
and the only places open to them when here will be the public- 
houses, and that during the hours when such houses are usually 
closed We therefore respectfully urge upon you to reconsider 
the proposed step, and not to disturb the quietude of our neigh- 
bourhood by affording facilities for its inundation by excursionists 
on Sunday a.' 



^ 



72 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chap. xxvii. 

The train was run, notwithstandiDg this exten- 
sively and influentially- signed petition; and Mr. G. H. 
Turner, the general manager, politely, but firmly, 
replied to the memorialists as follows: 

"The company do not see their way to withdraw the Sunday 
afternoon train from Nottingham and Derby to Matlock. There 
has been a general desii'e on the part of those employed in the 
towns named, who are precluded by the nature of their employ- 
ment from visiting the Matlock district on week-days, to do so 
on Sundays. The train, however, is not in any sense an excui-sion 
train, as the ordinary fares are charged. It is evident, therefore, 
that there is a complete misapprehension on this point on the part 
of the memorialists, and that, judging from the experience of the 
mnning of the train on Sunday last, they are unnecessarily alarmed 
as to the results which are likely to follow." 

A remarkable scene was witnessed at Strome 
Ferry, the western terminus of the Highland Rail- 
way, on June 3, 1883. The people were determined 
at all hazards that others besides themselves should 
keep the Sabbath day holy. The railway company 
proposed to send a load of fish by special train, so 
that the provender might reach Inverness to be taken 
on by the limited mail to town. But the Strome 
Ferry men had been brought up with a rigid Ikith 
in the Commandments. When the fishing-boats, with 
their "harvest of the sea," came inshore to unload, 
the villagers mustered, armed with clubs and sticks, 
and evidently meant business. They menaced the crews, 
and prevented the landing of the fish. Not only the 
police but the railway officials interfered ; but the 
combined forces were overpowered by the indignant 



cb.p. XIV1I.I PEYSIOAL-FOBOE SABBATARIANS. 73 

coast-dwellers, who smote the Sabbath-breakers " hip 
and thigh," and took possession of the pier and 
the station. 

The chronicler of the time does not say whether 
the crowd celebrated their 
victory by sounding the 
timbrel and by the play- 
ing of trumpets and 
shawms; but they prayed 
and Bang in the railway 
station, and, to their credit, 
actually remembered the 
directors in their supplica- 
tions. The fervent crowd 
"held the fort" till mid- 
night, when traffic was 
resumed. Ten of the men, 

found guilty of mobbing and rioting, were sent to 
prison for four months each, and the period would no 
doubt have been longer, but that the judge gave due 
weight to the jury's recommendation that they should 
be dealt with mercifully " on account of their ignorance 
of the law, and the strong religious convictions they 
held against Sabbath desecration." The riot was the 
subject of questions in the House of Commons, and 
Sir William Harcourt, then Home Secretary, replied 
that if the men had really expressed their sincere 
regret for the offence into which they had been 
betrayed he would consult with the judge with 
a view to a remission of the sentence. He did 




^ 



74 OUB RAILWAYS. ioiiap.xxvn. 

consult with his lordship ; and on September 23rd, 
after undergoing fifty-six days^ imprisonment each, 
the men were liberated from Calton Gaol, Edin- 
burgh, and seven of them complied with the Home 
Secretary's condition that they should quit the city 
immediately they were released.* 

* At the Midland Railway meeting in the autumn of 1894 Mr. Richard 
Homeck, a shareholder, vigorously protested against Sunday work. He re- 
gretted that there was a tendency to increase the coal and mineral traffic on 
that day. It was, he said, a violation of Qod's commandments, and an injustice 
to the railway servants. He urged the company to do the week*8 work in six 
days instead of seven, and said if the Midland set the example their rivals 
would soon follow it. 



75 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

EXCURSIONS. 

A Yehiole of Erratic Ways — Two Remarkable Excarsions — Trips in 
Cattle«Tracks in France — Excursions in and out of London — 
Crowding to Epping Forest — Bank Holiday — The Lancashire Ex- 
cursionists' Paradise — Blackpool in *' the Season " — Warehouse 
Manchester and its Annual Holiday— How Cotton Operatiyes 
Enjoy Themselves— "Groing-A way" Clubs — Enormous Sums spent 
in Recreation — The Tourist Invasion of the Isle of Man — ^What it 
has done for Douglas — The Holiday Disaster at Hampstead — 
Delayed Excursionists and their Pastimes. 

The excursion train practically got a recognised place 
on the line in 1851, the year in which the country 
was freed from the "barbarous tax on light and 
air/* and in which, in the Great Exhibition, " all the 
nations of the civilised world were represented in 
one fair temple of industry and peace." The ex- 
cursion train has become the people's coach, friend, 
and servant. Its ways sometimes are erratic; but it 
endeavours to oblige everybody. It is out all day 
and up all night. Like the press, " it never sleeps," 
though it gets very drowsy with long travelling, 
and now and then shows a tendency to indulge in 
unaccountable rests. It starts at midnight — even on 
such a midnight as that of Easter Sunday, 1892, 
when snow fell, and the east wind cut like a knife 
— on a hoUday jaunt to Weymouth, or to town, or 
to Edinburgh. It has, like the rakes of Congreve's 



^ 



76 OUR RAILWAYS. ich»p.xxvia 

time, a weakness for the small hours, and often sees 
the sun rise. 

It starts at dawn from factory town or big city, 
and leisurely puffs its way to the seaside, conveying a 
crowd of passengers, who are fortified with prodigious 
supplies of food and drink in baskets and bottles — 
people with bulging pockets and aggressive voices. 
It takes the eager traveller everywhere — to boatrace, 
horserace, coursing meeting; to cricket-match and 
football-match ; to volunteer review and to the nearest 
port for naval manoeuvre ; to concert, opera, and panto- 
mime; to the Lord Mayor's Show, and to Smithfield 
Cattle Show, and to exhibitions of all kinds. 

The Cunurd Company gained the distinction 
of owning, in the magnificent Campania, the 
largest ship in the world ; Messrs. Bass, Eatcliffe, 
and Gretton, brewers, of Burton-on-Trent, have the 
distinction of sending out the largest excursion in 
the world. In 1892 the firm took their workpeople 
to Blackpool, for the annual trip, in fourteen trains. 
The entertainments and piers were free to the excur- 
sionists, and for those who cared to venture upon tlie 
water two steamers were provided. But a more re- 
markable excursion still, having its origin in America, 
was made in Europe in the same year. "A train, 
unique of its kind, started from Havre for a tour 
of one hundred and fourteen days through Europe, 
conveying about fifty Americans, who, on landing at 
Havre from New York, commenced their railway 
journey to Marseilles, the Biviera, Eome, Naples, 



auip.xxviii.i A BEMAEKABLE EXCURSION. 77 

Trieste, Pesth, Belgrade, Constantinople, Vienna, 
Munich, Berlin, Frankfort, Cologne, Amsterdam, The 
Hague, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Brussels, London, 
Windsor, and Paris. The train de luxe in which 
they started was inin hy the International Sleeping 
Car Company, which undertook to convey the ex- 
cursionists from place to place, the travellers heing 
relieved of all trouble with regard to tickets and 
hotel accommodation." 

The locomotive is iiot always appreciated as it 
should be, and seldom gets a blessing ; but at the 
opening of the Rouen and Havre Railway on March 
20, 1847, it obtained this rare consideration. The 
first train which ran to Havre aroused remarkable 
interest. It conveyed one hundred privileged passen- 
gers, including some of the most noted engineers and 
railway men of the day. At Havre it was eagerly 
awaited by " the rank, fashion, and beauty " of the 
place, and welcomed with cheering and the music of 
drums and trumpets. Then, puffing possibly with em- 
barrassment, the engine was surrounded by a striking 
group of clergy. State officials, national guardsmen, and 
spectators, and received the benediction from a high 
ecclesiastic. 

Humour and fun are not, fortunately, inseparable 
from luxury; and the Railway News has been enabled 
to give the following story relating to another variety 
of excursion train, the antithesis of the train de luxe: 

" During some cheap trips on the Paris-Havre Railway, many 
of the pleasure-seekers were put into a number of cattle cars, which 



78 OUB RAILWAYS, [Chap, xxviii. 

were quickly provided with seats made of boards set upon blocks 
of wood. No sooner did the ticket-taker enter to demand the 
passengers' tickets than he was greeted with a chorus of well- 
imitated ' moos ! ' and the joke extending itself to all the other 
cattle cars, he at last desisted from his attempt. At the next 
halting-station, the stationmaster began a remonstrance, but * moo ! 
moo ! moo ! ' sounded so overpoweringly that he retired. At the 
terminus of Montvillier, the passengers, imitating the awkward 
leaps of cattle, sprang through the gate by which ti'avelling beasts 
usually leave the station. The stationmaster caught one of them 
by the collar. This was the signal for the whole crowd to lower 
their heads and butt at him vigorously with terrible lowing, so that 
he was quickly obliged to ti\ke to his heels, followed by a final 
triumphant * moo ! ' The whole company, who had joined without 
premeditation in the joke, then broke out into a peal of laughter, 
and giving their tickets to a smiling official standing by, peacefully 
left." 

Excursion announcements are not always amusing, 
though the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire 
Company once issued placards giving particulars of a 
trip from the Midlands to the Isle of Man, in which 
it was intimated that passengers would be conveyed 
to their destination without change of carriage ! But 
they indicate something beyond the mere times of 
starting and return — they give information also as to 
the rapid growth of the population, the mode of 
travel, the recreations of the people, and do their 
part, though it may be a humble one, in recording 
the history of the time. One learned from the notices 
during the Easter holidays of 1892, for instance, that 
the railway companies, though observing Good Friday 
as a Sunday with regard to ordinary trains, did not 
abandon the newspaper trains — the Great Western 



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80 OUR RAILWAYS, [Chap. xxviii. 

sending out their newspaper train at 5.30 a.m. for 
Oxford, Exeter, and Swansea; and the Midland at 
5.15 a.m. for Leicester, Nottingham, Derby, Sheffield, 
Leeds, Manchester, and Liverpool, in strict fulfihnent 
of their contract ; and wondered, perhaps, whether the 
daily newspaper proprietors of London really thought 
it worth while to send out the newspapers at all on 
Good Friday, when nearly every fireside and every 
business-place was deserted, and the paper-buying 
multitude were on their way at dawn to hill, wood- 
land, and seashore. 

One noticed also that the Great Western, tem- 
porarily forgetting their troubles with the broad gauge, 
ran cheap trains to the riverside stations, and right 
away to Penzance, duplicating their long-distance 
trains; that the London and North -Western Railway 
Company despatched special expresses and extended 
their trains, and by permission of the Postmaster- 
General attached a carriage to the postal express 
from Euston on Good Friday night for passengers 
from London to Dumfries ; that on the North 
London trains ran every few minutes to and 
from Shoreditch for the Standard and Britannia 
theatres, which had day performances on Easter 
Monday, and every half-hour to Kew Bridge for 
Kew Gardens, and to Addison Road for "Venice 
in London" at Olympia, and from a dozen other 
stations to f^tes, galas, athletic sports, as well as to 
Highgate for Highgate Woods, and to Chingford 
for Epping Forest ; that the Great Northern ran 



^ 



Atf KASTEH HOLIDAY. 



trains to the Eeaside ami to the cities of the north ; 
that the Midland did likewise, hat aent many more 
trains from the north to town ; that the London 
and South-Weatem took passengers to- a score of 




LIVT^HPOOL STREET STATinS. 



pleasant haunts Devon way and also to the Isle 
of Wight; that the District Railway made up a 
Bpecially early train which left Hammersmith for 
Victoria, Charing Cross, Blackfriars, and the Monu- 
ment, for the convenience of passengers desiring to 
join the early excursion trains to the country ; that 
the Great Eastern put people in touch with the 
Norfolk Broads, and the quaint Belgian cities across 
the water from Harwich ; that the London, Cliathara 
and Dover trains took them to the fair Kentisli coast, 



8a OUB RAILWAYS. [Chap, xxvin. 

and started them on the road, at greatly reduced fares, 
for Brussels, with its sprightliness ; for Paris, with its 
gaiety ; for Rotterdam, with its spotlessly clean people 
and youthful smokers ; and for Amsterdam, reflective 
and slow-moving. 

Bank Holiday, Sir John Lubbock's gift to the 
nation, kept for the first time on Whit Monday, 1871, 
has in little more than twenty years greatly fostered 
travel and little outings to the country-side. The 
TimeSy commenting on the London holiday traffic on 
Whit Monday, 1892, showed that the excursion tide 
was still increasing in volume : 

'* The scenery of our downs and woodlands is in its most 
attractive phase, and the reports from the stations indicate that 
more people than ever enjoyed a short country outing. The Great 
Eastern Railway, which holds the key to Epping Forest, is always 
among the most sensitive barometers of the London holiday-makers' 
movements. On Bank Holiday it carried 135,000 passengers from 
London stations to stations within twenty miles of London, and 
5,000 more to Southend-on-Sea. If last year be taken as a standard, 
the increase is very striking, last year's total figures being only 
34,000. That was an exceptionally cold and wretched season. The 
year 1890 was a very brilliant and busy Bank Holiday; the weather 
was fine, and the working classes prosperous. The total movement 
on the Great Eastern Railway was then 135,000, as against at least 
140,000 on this year's Whitsuntide Bank Holiday ; and no such 
figures as 135,000 had been recorded before, the nearest totals having 
been 127,000 and 120,000." 

Blackpool is the paradise of the excursionist. A 
century ago it was a desolate-looking place with few 
houses, which were sprinkled on a flat, almost moor- 
land coast; and the sea swept in lonely grandeur 
among the sandhills and tufted grass on the south 



C1.I.P. xxvin.) BLACKPOOL A CENTURY AGO. 83 

shore, where dwellings are now barricaded against 
the incoming tide, and gipsies have their swarthy 
colony and tell the fortunes of Lancashire operatives. 
Catherine Hutton, writing in 1788, gives a frank de- 
scription of the health resort, mentioning its scattered 
habitations, the characteristics of its people, and the 
wintry blast which howled on three sides of the 
house in which she stayed. "Blackpool consists of 
a few houses, ranged in a line with the sea, and 
four of these are for the reception of company ; one 
accommodating 30, one 60, one 80, and the other 
100 persons. We were strangers to all, and on the 
recommendation of the master of the inn at Preston 
we drove to the house of 80, which is called the 
Lane's End. The company now consisted of about 
70, and I never found myself in such a mob. The 
people sat down to table behind their knives and 
forks, to be ready for their dinner ; while my father, 
my mother, and myself, who did not choose to 
scramble, stood behind, till someone, more considerate 
than the rest, made room for us. The general ob- 
servations I have been enabled to make on the 
Lancastrians are that the Boltoners are sincere, 
good-humoured, and nois}' ; the Manchestrians reserved 
and purse-proud ; the Liverpoolians free and open as 
the ocean on which they get their riches. I know 
little of the gentry, but I believe them to be 
generous, hospitable, and rather given to intemper- 
ance. All ranks and both sexes are more robust 
than the people of the south." 

y2 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



The population of Blackpool is now put down at 
24,000 ; but these figures give really no idea of the 
enormous size of the place, or of its immense capacity 




^■'(^'^ 



to accommodate visitors. Its buildings are not so 
palatial as the mansions and hotels that line the 
King's Road and the Hove at Brighton, but it has 
quite as much extent of sea-front, more piers and places 
of amusement, great markets, and streets upon streets 
stretching away from Claremont Park right down 
to the limit of the south shore. The town has the 
electric light and an electric tramway, and asserts that 
it possesses " the finest promenade in England." It 
spends more than £1,000 a year in advertising its 



BLAOKFOOL TO-LAY. 



attractions, and by moans of pictorial pesters at railway 
stations, thousands of handbills placed in return railway 
carriages, its foam-crested sea, and rough-and-rendy 




(fVvni a TJa/ta^rayh b^ 



enjoyment, has made a famous uaniu for itself. In fact, 
it has become the greatest holiday haunt in the world. 
Tlie trippers surge out of the stations in thousands, 
and pack themselves with adroitness and good humour 
into the houses that front the beach, or that stand 
shoulder to shoulder in the heart of the town. A 
" public room " in one of these houses in August, when 
twenty or thirty Lancashire operatives or Yorkshire 
mill-hands are taking high tea, amid an incessant 
clatter of crockery, and cry of babies, and joyous shout, 
and joke, laughter, and profuse perspiration tliat must 



86 OUR RAILWAYS. (Chap. xxvm. 

remind sorae of them of steaming in weaving-sheds, is 
a sight not easily to be reconciled with our national 
reputation for sadness and taciturnity. 

Southport, with its sands, marine lakes, gardens, 
and fine main street that reminds one of tree-shadowed 
thoroughfare in Paris or Brussels, also tempts many 
excursionists ; and on Whit Monday no fewer than 
twenty thousand people from Manchester alone go 
down to the pleasant beach. 

Manchester, in Whit-week, forgets its " commercial 
inclination to profit." The warehouses are closed. The 
merchant hardly heeds the price of spot cotton or the 
state of the yam market. The city, in fact, acts on 
Shakespeare's advice, and seizes time by the forelock 
with shrewd eagerness. The warehouse staifs formerly 
took their vacations in the summer; and business, 
what with Easter, Whitsuntide, Bank and summer 
holidays, was apt to get disorganised. Now the 
warehousemen and clerks are expected to take their 
summer holidays at Whitsuntide ; and though — ex- 
cept in such a year as 1893 — they find the weather 
invariably cold and stormy, they try to comfort them- 
selves with the fact that it is more bracing than 
in summer or autumn. A good deal of valuable time 
is thus saved. The city, for a week, practically puts 
up the shutters, partially suspends its foreign and home 
trade ; but it springs into vigorous business life again 
with a clear board, with a long stretch of trade enter- 
prise and steady effort before it until the end of the 
year, when it indulges in another long holiday. 



ciup. xxviiL) GOINO-AWAY CLUBS. W 

The industrial portion of Lancashire, however, does 
not so keenly husband its time, or show so much nice 
calculation in its holiday- making. The operatives 
work hard and deftly in the mills ; but they delight 
to break away from their toil, and they do this not 
only at the orthodox popular times, but at times 
peculiarly their own. They cling to the old-fashioned 
custom of celebrating feasts and wakes ; but they are 
no longer content with the ancient modes of enjoyment 
at them — with wrestling, clog-dancing, swarming the 
greasy pole, and club-walking. In many of the 
Lancashire towns the operatives contribute, methodi- 
cally, all the year round, to what are styled " going- 
away clubs." The mill-hand takes up one or more 
sixpenny shares in the club, and has a substantial sum 
to receive when the annual holiday or wakes come 
round. There are thrifty families that invest the whole 
or part of these savings in cotton-spinning companies, 
or co-operative societies, or real property ; but the bulk 
of them feel bound to spend the money in enjoying 
themselves — in " going away/' The mills are closed 
for a week, and the hands, with the plesisant ring of 
gold in their pockets, and feeling more like cotton lords 
than doublers and minders, buy fine raiment, and much 
food, and travel. In July, 1891, no fewer than thirty 
thousand excursionists left Burnley on this annual 
hoUday for the seaside. In August, 1892, when 
the Oldham wakes were held, the mills and workshops 
were closed for a week, the enormous sum of £80,000 — 
sufficient to build and fit a cotton mill — ^was paid out 



88 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chap. xxviii. 

to the operatives from the " going-away clubs/* and 
thousands of hands went to Blackpool, Southport, the 
Isle of Man , and more distant resorts, gratifying every 
wish as freely in this their " crowded hour of glorious 
life" as if they possessed the wealth of Midas. 

The tourist and excursion fever that now quickens 
the pulse of our national life has had, perhaps, the 
most marked effect on the Isle of Man. Eailway 
enterprise in England, particularly on the part of the 
companies running into Liverpool, Fleetwood, and 
Barrow, has not only encouraged, but developed the 
steamboat traffic; and one crosses to Douglas by day 
trip, forenoon service, extra sailings, or night boat 
with as little thought or concern as if one were simply 
going to Seacombe or New Brighton. Douglas has 
been revolutionised by the money-spending invasion 
of the English people. The rapidly- expanding town, 
crowded with visitors, is losing every Manx character- 
istic. Ten or twelve years ago the waves gently 
swished against the back of quaint old Strand Street. 
The narrow thoroughfares had a Continental look, 
reminding one of the bouldered by-streets of Antwerp, 
and the still more ancient ways of Bruges ; the lodgings 
were humble, but clean and cheap, and it was en- 
tertaining to have a landlady named ** Quark " or 
" Corkish," and to listen wonderingly as she addressed 
you in the Celtic tongue. Since then Douglas has 
imdergone a metamorphosis as great as that ex- 
perienced by Cinderella. It is now a city by the 
sea, and its chief highway, the Loch promenade^ is 



I 



Ch.p. XIVIII.1 ON DOUGLAS (iUA7. 89 

almost as tbrouged with vehicles and pedestrians as 
Market Street in Mancliester, or Lord Street in 
Liverpool. 

The old Manx proverb, " When one man helps 




another, God laughs," is seldom heard now on the 
quay. The crowd is too great ; there is too much 
hurrying, struggling, and shouting for the effective 
quotation of proverbs. Besides, the proverb has 
become obsolete. It has been superseded by the 
more worldly doctrine, " Every man for himself." 
Douglas has lost its simplicity and its sentiment. It 
is for three months every year a crowded city, 
with a crowded city's instincts ; and there is a good 



90 OUB RAILWAYS. [Chap. xxviii. 

deal of profit made out of its recreations and 
enjoyments. The mansions on its picturesque slope 
have been converted into great hotels; other large 
hotels stand shoulder to shoulder with the long line 
of boarding-houses on the sea-front, or climb up the 
steep streets that diverge from the parade; and away 
at the back of the main thoroughfare lodging- 
houses cluster thickly. There is a vast amount of 
accommodation, but in July and August it is taxed 
to the utmost. Nearly every house is crowded, the 
promenade is as thronged as the Strand, and at night 
the dancing halls on the heights, brilliant with 
electric light, are filled with people, who waltz or 
skip and jump impervious to fatigue, or watch with 
more or less interest the daring performances of 
music-hall atliletes. 

There is bathing at Port Skillion, boating in the 
bay, restful lounging on the wind-swept headland, 
pleasant excursions to Port Soderick, and delightful 
drives inland; but, after all, the enjoyments of 
Douglas are becoming more and more permeated with 
the flavour of city life. Some of the visitors never 
stir out of the town. They know nothing of health- 
ful roving about Snaefell, or the quiet beauty of the 
heather-clad bay of Fleshwick, or the picturesque 
charm of Port Erin. They prefer the wide pro- 
menade, and always like to keep within measurable 
distance of a house with a licence. They spend a 
great deal of their time in eating, drinking, smoking, 
and at public entertainment. They get through a 



Chap. XXVIII.) THE MANX TRAFFIC. 91 

large amount of money in a very small area ; and 
it is not surprising that the Douglas bank deposits 
should increase, or that the island, unworried by 
income-tax, and with wealth poured freely into her 
hands, should be in a state of prosperity. 

England, in the summer of 1892, was in the throes 
of a general election ; but the fight, intense and severe 
though it was, did not diminish the Manx traffic. 
The passengers who stepped on shore at Douglas ex- 
ceeded by five thousand those who disembarked there 
in July of the preceding year, totalling 73,000, of 
which number 87,000 arrived from Liverpool, 12,000 
from Fleetwood, and 5,000 from Barrow. In July, 
1893, there was an apparent decrease in the number 
of passengers landing from the English and the Irish 
ports, the figures given being only 61,000; but 
these statistics reveal no decadence of attractiveness 
of Douglas. 

In 1892 the Saturday preceding the August Bank 
Holiday fell in July, and large arrivals on that day 
were included in the July figures. During the tourist 
three months of 1893 the island was by no means 
deserted. The arrivals at Douglas numbered 110,000, 
at Bamsay there were 6,000, and there were also 
many boat passengers to Peel. More than 120,000 
visitors landed ; and the bulk of these passengers must, 
of course, have been carried first by the railway to 
the English, the Scotch, or the Irish coast. The 
figures are remarkable, indicating as they do the 
modem desire for travel, change of scene, and healthy 



92 OUR RAILWAYS. [cimr. xxviu. 

enjoyment fostered by quicker and cheaper means of 
communication. 

The Cheshire Lines advertise a day trip that would 
have astonished even William Clements if he had 
heard of it. He was appropriately described as the 
" Last of the Whips," and early in the century drove 
the famous coach " Tally Ho ! '* from London to 
Brighton. Neither broken axle, nor overturned vehicle, 
nor snowdrift, nor highwaymen perturbed him. But 
he got a little fidgety when the locomotive was born 
and began to show its paces. He grimly rac^d it 
for some years, but was obliged gravely to admit at 
last that the railway had "killed his coach." The 
calm, reflective life of the road had imbued him with 
fortitude ; and he lived on, though his coach was 
dead. He reached the age of ninety-one, dying in 
1891 — with a very mean opinion of railways; but 
his contempt of them would probably have been 
greater still if he had known that the Cheshire Lines 
were prepared, by arrangement with the Isle of Man 
Steam Packet Company, to run passengers down by 
express to Liverpool, to take them across in the 
Quee?i Victoria or the Prince of Wales to Douglas, 
and bring them back again the same day to Man- 
chester, for seven shillings. 

The Great Western, during their broad-gauge days, 
with their wide line and great roomy carriages like 
family coaches, though less prone to break down, felt 
a quiet satisfaction because their system had never been 
held up to public comment by big accidents. It was. 



k 



A BANK HOLIDAY DISASTER. 



in Sir Eichard Moon's time, tlie boast too of the 
London and North -Western that they had never had a 
great disaster ; but within the past few years the latter 
company have not been quite so fortaoate, and the 
memory of Easter, 1893, 
is a sad one in many a 
family on account of the 
piteous disaster that oc- 
curred at Hampstead Heatli 
Station. Thousands of holi- 
day-makers had climbed 
the hill and roamed aboui 
the Heath — joyous, exu- 
berant, light-hearted — a 

typical London crowd out 

on Bank Holiday, delighted ' 1 

with the consciousness that 

they were tree for a few 

hours from the city's roar of traffic and incessant 

round of toil. 

It is remarkable that in our comprehensive climate, 
which includes so many varieties of wet and boisterous 
weather — from the drizzle to the blizzard — the English 
people have such a dread of rain. An Englishman will 
face the fiercest foe in war, but is put to flight by a 
shower. An Englishwoman, self-sacrificing, enduring, 
and sometimes even more courageou^j than an English- 
man, becomes panic-stricken (if she has a new bonnet 
on) at the slightest rainfall. Clouds gathered this 
day on the Heath ; rain and sleet fell ; and the people, 




94 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ohtp. xxviii. 

among whom were many young children, surged 
towards the railway station. The platform was soon 
crowded, and the staircase leading down to it rapidly 
got into the same condition. The company were 
running trains every quarter of an hour to the City, 
with special trains in between ; but this train move- 
ment was altogether inadequate to carry away the 
struggling multitude. The passengers on the edge 
of the platform, fearing lest they should fall beneath 
the passing trains, pushed backward, and the crowd 
behind, having no outlet, found themselves in the midst 
of a frightful crush. The station was of curious make. 
The ticket-collector's box, instead of being at the top, 
was at the bottom of the staircase, encroaching on the 
passage way, and near it was a pair of gates that opened 
inwards. Beyond these gates — which, according to the 
stationmaster's story, were open on the day of the 
disaster — sl flight of thirty stairs led to the booking- 
office, and down these stairs the people hurried, until 
they were inextricably wedged into a dense mass, 
struggling and screaming for help. 

Such was the crush that the back of the ticket- 
collector's box was smashed in, and some of the panes 
were shattered. A man's head was forced through the 
glass on the right hand side of the box, and he was 
powerless, with his throat just across the broken glass. 
" For God's sake, stand back ; you will kill him 1 " cried 
Exton, the ticket-collector, trying in vain to push the 
excursionist's head away. On the other side of the 
ticket-box another man narrowly escaped having his 



Ch«p. xxviii.j THE INQUEST. 95 

ear shaved off by the broken edges of the glass ; and a 
boy had his head jammed between the box and the 
railings. This boy, tripping against one of the rail- 
foot projections on the staircase, fell against the box, 
others stumbled over him, and the pressure of the 
crowd, partly from the platform, but chiefly from 
behind, wrought the mischief. At the top of the 
staircase there were joke and frolic, and the refrain 
of the senseless song " Ta-ra-ra boom-de-ay." At the 
bottom of the staircase there were the cries and screams 
of an entangled mass of people. So fierce was the 
struggling that a child was dragged from its mother's 
arms, so fearful the crush that many women swooned, 
and one row of excursionists were pressed, as in a vice, 
till their faces became blue through lack of breath. 
When the peril was realised by those free to act, the 
work of rescue was prompt ; but it was found that no 
fewer than eight persons — two women and six boys — 
had been crushed to death. 

At the inquest one witness urged that the station 
should be rebuilt, saying that its capacity had not been 
extended for thirty years, though the population of 
Hampstead had in that time increased from 20,000 to 
70,000. The stationmaster gave a striking idea of the 
growth in holiday traffic since Thomas Cook ran his 
first excursion train from Leicester to Loughborough, 
for he reckoned that 38,000 passengers had passed 
through that station alone on Bank Holiday. Great 
importance, on behalf of the railway company, was 
attached to the fact that on no previous occasioo 



^ 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



had there been difficulty or accident in dealing with 
a great crowd; but Captain Fox, who, a-s an expert, 
condemned the station approach, the staircase pro- 
jections, and particularly the situation oE the ticket- 
collector's box, asserting that the whole staircase was 
twenty years behind 
its time, said it had 
been "a case of pro- 
vidence only." 

In the result the 
jury found that the 
ticket-box was placed 
in a most dangerous 
position, and further, 
that on the occasion 
in question the whole 
of the arrangements 
made by the company 
were totally insuffi- 
cient to cope with 
the increased traffic on 
public holidays. And 
they expressed them- 
selves as being of 
opinion that further 
general accommodation should be provided for the 
public at the station; tliat the ticket-box should be 
removed from the bottom of the staircase ; that 
farther and more complete arrangements should be 
made to regulate the traffic of passengers generally 




Ghap.xxvnL) A MISHAP AT SOUTHEND. 97 

to and from the platforms; and that an extra and 
separate exit should be at once provided. 

The company, acting on the jury's recommenda* 
tion and Major Marindin's suggestion, lost no time 
in removing the ticket-collector's box, in erecting an 
additional booking-office and waiting-hall, in making 
an additional platform and a new entrance to deal 
with "the large and increasing crowds that visit 
Hampstead Heath at stated periods of the yeiir." 

A remarkable scene, strangely contrasting with 
the foregoing one, was witnessed at Stepney some 
months ago. Owing to an accident at the junction, 
thousands of excursionists were delayed. Not only 
were the ordinary trains blocked, but there were nine 
Southend special trains stretching away behind the 
train that caused the accident. The passengers sat 
with patience in the carriages for some time, but, as 
hour after hour went by, and little progress was 
made, they swarmed out of the compartments, grouped 
themselves upon the station platforms, and "passed 
the time in singing and dancing." 

Experience of excursion-train delay is not always 
80 diverting. A passenger with whom the author is 
acquainted went, during the tourist season of 1893, on 
" a day trip " to a Welsh watering-place. The ticket 
permitted travel by the ordinary service ; and the 
journey coastward by express was rapid and delight- 
ful; but the return ride was decidedly uncomfort- 
able. The wag of the party said the railway company 
were trying the novel experiment of taking all their 
A 



Vd VVR UAILWATS. rhap. xxvm. 

passengers back in one train. Sundry carriages were 
added on the way; but they were soon crowded. At 
Chester a great throng of people sought seats in vain, 
•and more coaches were attached. Even then there 
was a crush in every compartment; and the heat was 
«o oppressive that men pulled off their coats, and 
women fanned themselves with books, newspapers, 
liats — anything that would disturb the still, sultry 
atmosphere. The American humorist's story about 
the long word that required a special train to reach 
the end of it, did not raise a laugh. The people were 
hot, thirsty, fatigued; besides, the train conveying 
them was far longer than any word fashioned by 
Yankee brain or even by Welshman's tongue. It 
was so long that it had to pull up twice at nearly 
every station ; and, as though overcome by the heat 
itself, it travelled so wearily that it took more than 
five hours to do what is usually a two hours' journey. 
" Ah say, Tom ; this 'as bin a settler ! Ah'm as stiff 
as an owd camel," remarked an angry lady, gathering 
her children and baskets on the platform. "Thah can 
talk as thab likes ; but thah'll get me on no more o' 
them excursions." 



99 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

STRANGE TRACKS — RAILWAY STATION THRONG AND 

QUIET. 

Railways in Remote Lands — Opening a Station at Jerusalem— A Railway 
in am Arsenal — The Line up Vesuvius — Running Down the Lickoy— 
Whimsical and Miniature Railways — Life's Movement at the Railway 
Station — Notable Passengers — Railways and the Drama — What they 
do for Sport and Pastime — Animals Wild and Tame on the Line 
— Two famous Railway Dogs — A County Court iu a Train — Some 
Lost Luggage— Mrs. Gamp at the Booking Office — Lifting a Railway 
Station — "The Station Master of Lone Prairie" — A Mystifying 
Notice to Passengers. 

There are railways everywhere, through prairies, 
beneath mountains, over chasms, across seas, under 
rivers, and in strange lands that seemed very unlikely 
a few years ago to be dominated by steel rail and 
locomotive. The Chinaman runs, with his pigtail 
flying, to catch the train ; the Maori, who once 
fought the English settler in New Zealand defile, 
now puts his knobstick peacefully under his arm, 
and takes a third-class ticket like a Christian. The 
American Indian does not go so frequently on the 
trail after scalps. He finds it easier to journey by 
train, and scarcely misses the savagery and poetry 
of his old life, with its hideous yell and crash of 
tomahawk, with its howl of wild beast, and rustle 
of grass, and whisper of wind in the forest. The 
Sepoy has become a railway passenger; .so has the 
A2 ■■'•- 



1 



100 



OXm RAILWA78. 



Ka£Sr ; and in a few years the strange tribes in 
Central Africa may be clamouring for thicker sun- 
shades to their railway carriage windows, and 




grumbling at the fines for smoking in non-smoking 
compartments, or at the heavy railway rates for the 
transit of goods to and from Mombasa, or along other 
lines in the interior. 

The navvy- has even been busy in Palestine. 
Obedient to the modem spirit of trade enterprise, 
he has broken into hallowed ground with his pick. 
The sacred associations of the land do not perhaps 



Chap. XXIX.) A MOHAMMEDAN BAILWAY-OFENINQ. 101 

impress him much, for the Biblical education of the 
navvy has been neglected. But the intelligence that 
a line has been made from Haifa to Damascus was of 
intense interest to the devout, whether they liked the 
enterprise or not. 

The slowly-moving caravan, the lurch and sway 
of the close- packed diligence , the patient plodding or 
erratic progress of the ass, are superseded. The rapid 
locomotion of the West is running towards the 
East. The opening of the Jaffa-Jerusalem Railway 
in the summer of 1892 was thus described: 

" The Jerusalem terminus was dressed out with palm branches, 
and Turkish cavalry kept a way open for the railroad directors 
and their guests, and for the official representatives of the Sultan. 
The iron road was opened according to the Muslim rite. Three 
white sheep with gilded horns were ditigge^ on to the rails, and 
there slaughtered after an Iman wearing a green turban had 
offered up a prayer. When the sheeps' veins were emptied the 
carcases were withdrawn by soldiers, and a locomotive advanced 
over the i-eddened spot, and the official world, the line being 
considered blest and free from the influence of evil genii, got into 
the compartments reserved for them. The other carriages were open 
to the public, which rushed into them. Three guns were next 
discharged, and the train started for Bitir, the first station outside 
Jerusalem." 

Railway engineering, so daring and oblivious of 
old landmarks, has always had a whimsical vein. 
Dr. William Anderson, in a paper read before the 
Institute of Mechanical Engineers, has given an inte- 
resting description of what may be called a survival of 
the early railway. " There is," he says, " a railway still 
worked in the old way at this moment — that is to say. 



102 OUR RAILWAYS. tchap. xxix. 

the drivers have to get off the engines in order to set 
the points, and sometimes in order to apply the brakes. 
The railway has an aggregate length of nineteen miles, 
and it has thirty-seven locomotives which run at a 
pretty good speed. The locomotives and the rolling 
stock present a remarkable variety. The railway is 
at the Itoyal Arsenal, at Woolwich, and is an example 
of how traffic can go on without rules or time-tables. 
The locomotives are curiosities in their way. Nearly 
every form of light locomotive that has ever been 
devised for the 18-inch gauge and for the 4-ft. 8^-inch 
gauge has a representative at the Koyal Arsenal. The 
engines do their work very well ; but it has at last 
been deemed advisable to appoint a traffic manager, 
draw up a time-table, and work the line according 
to some sort of rules." 

The Lickey incline on the Birmingham and 
Gloucester section of the Midland Railway is another 
curious survival. Brunei, the engineer, objected to 
such a steep descent, and suggested that the railway 
should be carried further west; but the erratic track 
was made, the urgent argument in favour of it being 
that it would more easily serve the populous places. 
The mountain railway over Mont Cenis includes some 
startling inclines, and the track which climbs up 
Pilatus, near Lucerne, has a gradient calculated to 
disturb the equanimity of the nervous passenger; while 
the railway up Vesuvius has not only an uncomfort- 
ably steep incline, but is disagreeably suggestive of 
the great fiery cauldron beneath, for a thick wall 



^ 



FANCY LINES. 



has been built " to protect the line from possible 
flows of lava ; and pillars of smoke frequently burst 
up from the ground close to the spot where the 
railway ends, and chasms open, swallowing up any- 
thing which may 
be on the spot." 
Travelling under 
these conditions 
is exciting, and 
would no doubt 
be pleasant to 
such passengers 
as the one once 
found hanging be- 
neatli a carriage 
of the Irish mail 
on its arrival at ] 
Chester — a triX- 
veller who con- 
sidered it irksome 
to pay any fare, 
and preferred to 
ride from Holy- 
head clinging with his hands and legs to the brake- 
rod in imminent risk of his life along every yard 
of the ninety-mile run. 

Some railways up mountains may be termed 
merely fancy lines. They have not, like the Lickey, 
settled down to steady everyday work. The Lickey 
has proved far more useful than the old High Peak 




THE RAILWAY UP PILATU9. 



OUR BAILWAYS. 



Railway, though in its day this line, when life was 
Blower and time did not always mean so much money, 
did a good deal of work both in the conveyance of 




A STATioir (tan-t-bwlcb) ok t 

(Fnm n /'AdlognijA hg FrUK t Co., fififolc) 

passengers and the transit of goods. The Lickey incline 
lias outlasted prejudice. It is not without a spice of 
danger ; the cost of it in waste, inconvenience, and 
loss of time would have constructed a level line, and 
yielded a big profit, but the Lickey works on still. 
It is one of the steepest inclines to be found on an 
English through main line. Pilot engines are used 
to help trains np it, but tbey run down unassisted. 
The difficulty, of course, is not to make them go, but 



Chap.xxix.1 SIR GEORGE NEWNES'S RAILWAYS. 105 

to check them, to hold them back, and before now, 
when the rails have been in a slippery condition, 
heavy trains have been known to run a mile or more 
along the flat line at the bottom of the incline before 
they could be pulled up. 

The miniature narrow-gauge railway, winding firom 
Dinas to Rhyd-du, four miles from Beddgelert, is a 
line that has caused some diversion; and the terraced 
railway which runs between Port mad oc and Pes- 
tiniog, with a gauge of 1 foot 11^ inches, is almost 
impressive. Sir George Newnes, Bart., and his co- 
proprietor, however, have the distinction of owning the 
steepest line in the world. Their track, which was 
opened on April 7, 1890, is only nine hundred feet 
long, but it serves a most useful purpose, connecting 
Lynton and Lynmouth, and effecting quick transit 
between the two places. The tiny railway, which 
has water for its motive power, cuts through a great 
cliff, and its rails, bolted to the solid rock, have an 
incline of 1 in If. It is a curiosity in gradients; 
but does its work well, and has practically super- 
seded the old cart-road down the slope, which 
reminded one of the Derbyshire sheriff's complaint 
about the highway leading to the Peak village — 
that it was " no use keeping a coach, for the town 
stood on one end." Sir George is now promoting a 
line from Lynton to Barnstaple ; and at Matlock, 
his native place, he opened, in March, 1893, 
an ingeniously constructed cable tramway, which, 
fitted with garden- seat cars, is a great convenience 



106 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ch.p. xxix. 

to visitors, and removes Defoe's quaint reproach, 
"This Matlock Bath would be much more frequented 
than it is if a bad stony road which leads to it, and no 
accommodation when you get there, did not hinder." 

Cassell's " World of Wonders " describes a curious 
little railway, a model line, built by Mr. Percival 
Ileywood in his grounds at Duffleld Hall, in Soutli 
Derbyshire : 

"The object ia a miniature railway, over and under ground, 
where an example of every engineering difficulty encountered in 
the construction of an ordinary railway system has been artificially 
created, so as to illustrate the working of this as completely as 
possible. In gauge the line is but 15 inchef^, and is laid partly 
with steel and partly with iron rails, of a rate varying from 
9 lbs. to 12 lbs. per foot. In length it is little short of a mile, 
and has many curves. On the way there are the features of 
embankment, cutting, bridge, a viaduct 22 feet in height, a tunnel 
hewn out of solid rock, points, crossings, and lastly a number of 
picturesque stations, named according to the nature or position 
of the ground. Passengei-s may get out at the Tennis Lawn, the 
Wood, the Manor Copse, or other convenient stations, the first- 
named being the central one. Mr. Heywood is a skilled workman, 
and has accomplished the task of putting together the rolling 
stock without much aid." 

A railway in East Frisia claims notoriety for 
diminutiveness : 

" Its entire length is only five miles, and its breadth only 
2^ feet. It employs the huge staff of one guard, one engine-driver, 
one fireman, and only one platelayer. The sum of £4 10s. is paid 
in wages every week. It has two engines, three carriages, four 
trucks, and a couple of vans. The engine and the tender together 
only weigh seven tons. The fares are in proportion to the size 
of the company, and average threepence halfpenny * all the way.' " 

To the nervous and irritable a railway station is 




• • • . 



^ 



Chap, xxix.i A RAILWAY STATION. 107 

an objectionable necesf5ity, a place of torture, where 
there is not only the banging of boxes, the discour- 
teous thrust of the crowd, the bumping and clattering 
of carriages, the shouts of porters, the blast of shunt- 
ing horn, but the hideous yells and shrieks of the 
" steam devils," which the engine-drivers liberate no 
doubt with inward chuckles, while preserving their 
grave and serious mien whenever they pull up at, or 
start out of, a station. The English engine-driver is 
absolutely without nerves. They have been completely 
shaken out of him, and he apparently takes placid 
delight in the locomotive's shriek and in letting off 
steam ; while the passengers cease their converse, 
quiver with nervous shock, put their hands to their 
ears, or hold on the tops of their heads. 

But, apart from its incessant noises, there is 
something interesting in the station; or, rather, in 
the quickly-changing picture of human life it presents 
— the robustness, the feebleness, the pathos, the pas- 
sion, the humour, the grief, the love, the hate, and 
the tragedy of it. Mr. Frith caught its earnestness 
and reality in his familiar picture " The Railway 
Station,'' which forms the frontispiece to Vol. I. of 
this work. The figures look gawky, and the garb 
antiquated and old-fashioned to modern eyes ; but 
there is truth and fidelity in this remarkable repre- 
sentation of early railway travelling, and Henry Graves, 
the noted printseller, the friend of Turner, Constable, 
and Landseer, thought so highly of it that he bought 
the picture, with the copyright, for £20,000. 



108 OUR RAILWAYS. [Ch*p. xxix. 

At every station there is some study of character. 
Tlie stout, perspiring nurse, struggling with the new 
haby; the diffident, self-conscious honeymoon couple; 
the little group of quiet men, in shabby black, who 
make a business of death, and are lifting a coffin from 
the train. Here a girl is blushingly meeting her lover ; 
there a husband his wife ; and almost before the lad 
has got off the carriage step the mother is fondly 
embracing her son. Meanwhile, a business man calls 
a hansom and clatters away; a portly, glossy bishop 
crosses the platform with stately tread, and is 
escorted by his solicitous host to a carriage ; and 
a ragged thief, or poverty-stricken Ishmael, who 
has, in his sincere desire to economise the ticket- 
collector's time, tmvelled unobtrusively beneath the 
carriage seat, slides furtively from the compartment 
and is lost in the crowd. 

That group of serious-faced men on the platform 
may include pilgrims on their way to some shrine, 
or missionaries destined for Uganda, or explorers 
bound for Somaliland or Thibet. Perhaps the slim, 
hardy, self-reliant man, in tough and warm apparel, 
standing reflectively near the bookstall yonder, is 
Dr. Nansen, the intrepid traveller, who, undismayed 
by the hardship and sad fate of Franklin, took his 
railway ticket for the first stage of his journey 
towards the grim sea of ice, which he has resolved 
shall give up the secret of the North- West passage. 
At the railway station you may get a glimpse of the 
Queen's face, and make acquaintance with her humblest 



DiaTINQUIBBBD PA88SN(iES,8. 



subjects — the melancholy shoeblack, the versatile and 
persistent seller of wax lights, and the feckless wretch 
who has seen better days and is desperately bent, 
as he lurches or shambles by your side, on carrying 




BC BAUBLE. 



your hag or your parcel. You may rub shoulders 
with some great soldier who is arriving or departing 
amid the crash of music, or some great statesman 
who is welcomed with wild shout of victory in 
political Bght, or some great actor, who as his 
company crowds about, is not bestowing a thought 
on fame, but wondering whether the twenty-four 
truclts laden with costumes and scenery, with dresses 
and armour, with stage castles and palaces and hovels, 
with sylvan landscape and rugged glen, will escape 



no OUR RAILWAYS. laiap xxix. 

the crush and ruin of collision, and reach the next 
town safely. 

The railway has revolutionised the drama. The 
stock company is not only dead, but almost forgotten. 
In a provincial theatre some )'^ears ago, when a player 
uttered the line in Hamlet, " How came you hither ? '* 
he was startled by the reply, ** Sum on us com hi 
t' coach, and sum on us bi t' train ! " The incident, 
humorous in itself, was rudely indicative of the change 
that has been wrought by the railway in theatrical 
life. The actor, be he even Irving or Toole, has to 
pack himself up and go on tour. He travels by 
8pe<;ial train to play before the Queen ; he quits town 
by train with almost as much baggage as an army, 
on his way to Liverpool, to star in the States; and 
when playing in his own land the railway carriage 
is his home, though not alwajs a comfortable one, 
on Sunday. To the actor the railway is indispens- 
able. It takes him swiftly through the country. It 
gives him quick opportunity of appealing to different 
masses of people with widely different sympathies; it 
takes him onward to fame and sometimes to fortune. 
Not only is it a trusty agent that enables him to 
keep his engagements ; but it takes a good deal of 
trouble about the transit of his properties, be they 
dead crusaders or live lions. The author has on 
Saturday night at the theatre, in '* Pepita,'' watched 
with some alarm the fierce charge of the live bull ; 
and on Sunday morning, at the railway station, seen 
the animal, subdued and apparently docile, led to the 




cimp. xxra.i CLASSIFYING A MONKEY. Ill 

truck by a dainty member of the company, who must 
have been at least the " first walking gentleman " out 
that (lay. 

The railway has also proved a great encourager 
of sport and pastime. It takes the stalker to the 
fringe of the deer forest, and the grouse-shooter to his 
moor ; while, in the words of Anthony Trollope, the 
railway ** has done so much for hunting that it may 
be said to have created the sport anew on a wider 
and more thoroughly organised footing than it ever 
held before." The cricketer, on his way to county 
♦engagement; the footballer, all striped like a zebra, 
as he hurries to the final ; and the golf-player, 
as he journeys to his links — are all beholden to the 
railway. 

These conspicuous figures in our myriad-sided 
civilisation give variety — sometimes, indeed, very 
boisterous variety — to the movement of life at the 
railway station ; but hardly such exciting movement 
as that created at the up-country station in India 
when the stationmaster, in despair, telegraphed to 
the nearest official : ** Tiger jumping about on plat- 
form — please arrange 1 " Wild beasts have occasionally 
caused embarrassment on English lines ; but not 
so much perplexity as the late Frank Buckland's 
pets. ** On one of his railway journeys his baggage 
included a mookey. Jacko was a stumbling-block 
to the man on duty at the booking-office, who 
carefully went through the schedule of charges for 
the carriage of animals. 'Cows is horses, and so is 




112 OUE RAILWAYS. (Ohap uix. 

donkeys/ he murmured. 'Cats is dogs, and fowls 
is likewise, and so is monkeys. Please, sir, that 'ere 
wiU 'ave to go as a dawg,' he said, not without 
lingering doubt, as he pointed to the monkey. 
' Indeed,' said Buckland ; and, putting his hand into 
the pocket of his coat, he pulled out a tortoise. 
' What will that go as ? ' he asked. Once more the 
schedule was pei*used, but it gave no instruction as 
to the carriage of tortoises. ' They are nothing,' said 
the porter with scorn. *We don't charge nothing for 
them. They are an insek.' " * 

Another railway servant was unable to express such 
contempt for a gimflfe. Eesponsible for the transit of 
the lofty animal from Liverpool to town, he managed 
to get it upstanding in a truck ; but the stupid thin{3f 
declined to lie down or even to be seated. He coaxed 
it, pleaded with it, and tried to leg it down, but in 
vain. The giraflTe was hopelessly dense. It gave the 
man a stony stare, and continued its melancholy 
clatter on the truck floor. " What are tha struggling 
with, Jim ? " asked the goods guard, with a winsome 
smile, as he walked by. " Well," replied the panting 
servant, " Buffin calls him a jaraff ; but a'U call him 
a long-legged clattering fool; and a'U reckon tha'U 
have some strugglin' wi' him thisen when t' train 
gets t' first bridge. If tha doesn't tie his neck in a 
knot, he'll have his head knocked off ! " 

The railway horse, whether shunting or pulling 
dray, is, as a rule, well developed in body and shrewd 

• << Our Iron Boada," by Frederiok S. Williamfl. 



I 



Chap, xxix.i FAMOUS RAILWAY DOQS, 113 

after a fashion ; but it does not rival the dog in the 
quality of its instinct, and has never yet acted as station- 
master. For many years a black-and-tan collie dog did 
duty practically as deputy stationmaster at Lowestoft, 
on the Great Eastern Railway. He had no need to 
study the working time-table. It is said that he 
knew the exact time at which a train should begin its 
journey, and a restless excitement characterised him as 
the moment drew near. As the bell uttered its first 
sound, he would scamper down the platform, and, 
planting himself close to the engine, bark furiously 
until the wheels began to move. Satisfied apparently 
in this respect, he would next make a move for the 
guard's van, and hurry the guard to his post. As the 
train passed out of the station he retired, and no more 
was seen of him till a similar operation had to be 
repeated on the departure of another train. 

Another famous dog on the railway was " Help." 
The animal, which, after a very useful life, died in 
December, 1891, was indefatigable in asking for sub- 
scriptions. It pleaded down the line, at the congress 
of railway men, at any gathering that was likely to 
recognise zeal in philanthropic duty. " The dog was 
trained by John Climpson, who has been thirty-five 
years guard of the tidal train from London Bridge to 
Newhaven, and the idea was to get 'Help' to act 
as a medium for the collection of money in aid of 
the Orphan Fund of the Amalgamated Society of 
Railway Servants. It was the late Rev. Norman 
Macleod who, struck with the excellence of the object 




I 



Ui OUS RAILWAYS. ICtep. zxix 

for which the dog was to be trained, obtained a 
fine Scotch collie from Mr. W. Riddell, o£ Hailes, 
Haddiogton. The mission of ' Help ' was made 
known by a silver collar, to which was appended a 
silver medal, having on it the following inscription : 




"BKLP," TBS RAILWAS COO, 

" ' I am " Help," the railway dog of England, and travelling agent 
for the orphans of railway men who are killed on duty. My office 
is at No, 65, Colebrooke Row, London, wLero 8ubsciii>tioaB will le 
tbankfully received and duly acknowledged.' 

"At the Bristol Dog Show in 1884, 'Help' was 
presented with a silver medal, and bis visit realised ten 
guineas. Altogether the faithful >i^mal, which was 
very docile, was instrumental in . ning upwards of 
£1,000 for the orphan fund." 

The railway station lias been used for many a novel 
purpose. It has been used as a barrack, as u coroner's 



Oitp. XX1Z.1 A GOGBT IN A RAILWAY OARRIAQB. 




I. JOHN CLIUF8 



court, and as a county court. His honour. Judge 
Williams, County Court Judge of South Wales, had 
the distinction of converting a railway carriage into 
a civil court, of hearing a case in a compartment, 
and giving his decision at a railway station. He 
sat at Bridgend, and had before him an action in 
which the plaintifi' claimed the 
sum of fifty pounds as compen- 
sation for damages caused by 
furious driving. When the time 
arrived for his honour to leave 
by train, the case was not finished 
— a most important witness had 
still to be examined. What was 
the judge to do ? He could not u™-. . i** tv Bictro« 
well leave the action unfinished. 

He did not wish to kick his heels (if such an irre- 
verent remark may be applied to a judge) in Bridgend 
all night. There was a whispered conference. His 
honour rose from his seat and bowed to the court, and 
the court rose and bowed to his honour, who then 
dofied his wig and gown, and went, with such haste 
as the dignity of his appointment would permit, to 
the railway station. On the platform he was joined 
by the advocates representing the litigants, and also 
by the material witness. The train ran in. His 
honour, and the persons interested in the action, jumped 
into a compartment ; and the guard had scarcely waved 
his arm, as a sign that all was clear for the train 
to start again, when the hearing of the action was 
(2 



116 OUB RAILWAYS. [Chap, xxix 

continued. The advocate for the defendant does not 
appear to have quoted any clause, section, or case 
showing that there was no precedent for turning a 
railway carriage into a travelling county court. The 
witness was examined and cross-examined while the 
train sped on its journey. At Llantrissant his honour 
and the court alighted ; and the judge, sitting iu 
the stationmaster's oflSce, gave a verdict for the 
plaintiff. 

The Lost Luggage OflSce at every station is really 
an epitome of human life — of forgetfulness and folly. 
It is the last desperate hope of thoughtless people who 
have left feeding-bottles, gloves, reticules, purses, dolls, 
pinafores, books, hats, or bagpipes in trains miles away. 
During the year 1889 alone the Eailway Clearing House 
succeeded in returning to their owners no fewer than 
600,000 articles found in railway carriages or on the 
line ; but none of these things, which included an 
immense variety of articles for use or wear, was so 
extraordinary in character as the luggage left at 
Swindon Station some years ago, and completely 
forgotten by the owner — " a pair of bright bay 
carriage horses, sixteen hands high, with black switch 
manes and tails, sold to pay expenses ! " 

The railway station has been the scene of many 
a humorous incident, of which Mrs. Gamp's well- 
known experience was typical. The old lady would 
have been in a greater fluster, probably, if she had 
tried to get a ticket at Frodsham Station in August, 
1892. Complaints had been made for some years of 



lih'MOVIXG A STATION liODILY. 



inadequate platform accommodation, and finally it was 
decided to remove the stationmaster's house, booking- 
offices, and general waiting-room some six feet baclc. 









% 


% 








fe;'^-.._. 


1 ^ 








ufl 


P^^H 




L "'- 


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^^^H 


■ 


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1 



FRODSHAM BTATIOW IN COUBSB OF REMOVAL. 

ihroH II rA..I"j™p)l l>v it. W. Morrli, Chi^tr.) 



In order to accomplish the task without taking down 
the structures, excavations were made beneath them 
until they were supported on large baulks of timber. 
Then came the crucial point, whether they would slide 
intjj their new situation. Eleven powerful jacks were 



118 OUB RAILWAYS. [Chap. xxix. 

brought into operation under the superintendence of 
Mr. Johnson, the company's engineer. Although the 
mass to be moved weighed quite 400 tons, the work 
was successfully accomplished, save that a chimney- 
stack, which cracked, had to be taken down. 

In England, though the country is said to be over- 
crowded, there are many lonely and almost weird 
stations ; but none so queerly desolate as the one Bret 
Harte describes in his poem "The Station-Master of 
Lone Prairie : " — 

" An empty bench, a sky of greyest etching, 
A bare bleak shed in blackest silhouette, 
Twelve yards of platform, and beyond them stretching 
Twelve miles of prairie glimmering through the wet. 

" Nothing beyond. Ah, yes ! From out the station 
A stiff, gaunt figure, thrown against the sky, 
Beckoning me with some wooden salutation, 
Caught from his signals as the train flashed by, 

"... The spell of desolation 

Broke with a trembling star the far-off cry. 
The coming train ! I glance around the station, 
All is empty as the upper sky. 

" Naught but myself — nor form nor figure waking 
The long hushed level and stark shining waste — 
Naught but myself, that cry, and the dull shaking 
Of wheel and axle stopped in breathless haste. 

" Now then — look sharp ! Eh, what 1 The station-master ? 
ThcLT^a none / we stopped here of our own accord. 
The man got killed in the down train disaster 

This time last evening. Bight there ! All aboard !" 



CI,,,!., ssix.j ENGLTSn AS WniTTEN IN WALES. 1V» 

America, which has produced much that is tragic 
in railway travel and disaster, is supposed to be the 
home of quaint humour; but it has not yet given us 
so whimsical a railway notice as that placed over 
the Welsh booking-office, and quoted in a newspaper 
of 1875: 



"You [>assengers must be careful. For have them level monej 
for ticket, mul to apply at once for asking tickets when will booking- 
window o{ieu. No tickets to have after departure of the train." 




■: I^.VOINB J3BKD OH THE FESTINIOO RAILWAT, (Poft 106.) 
{From a PlMvra^Jt by FrUk t Ca.. fiit^ott) 



120 



CHAPTER XXX. 

IICNGRY AM) THIRSTY TRAVELLERS THE REFRESHMENT- 
ROOM. 

The Refreshment-Room—An Early Visit— Buffets at Big Stations— The 
Hungrry Man at Magby — ^Manners at the Post-Office — ^The Platform 
Boy — Passengers and their Appetites-^Ten Minutes* Stop at Swindon 
— The Humour of It— A Sinjrular Action at Law — Charjrinf: for a 
Special Train — A Splendid Digestion — The Surjreon and the Sausage 
Rolls — An Enticing Refreshment- Room— The Navvy at the "Firat- 
Class " Bar— The " Young Ladies " Behind the Counter— Their Duties, 
Hardships, and Prospects — The Railway Companies as Caterers — A 
Bishop's Church on Wheels — The Travelling Hotel. 

The refreshment system on our railways is not quite 
perfect yet ; or, at all events, if it is impossible to 
find much fault with the system, the mode in which 
it is carried into practice is sometimes productive of 
exasperation. The early bird is always supposed to 
get, according to its peculiar taste, the most delicious 
worm; but the early traveller, who has dressed in 
haste, and rushed from home without breakfast in 
his anxiety to catch the train, seldom gets any 
toothsome morsel to satisfy his hunger if he depends 
on the railway refreshment-room. The waitresses are 
sometimes sleepy or curt; the waiters, who later 
on will appear in evening dress, with serviette on 
left arm and with dignified deportment, are now in 
shabby mufti, busy dusting the tables, the seats, 
and the marble-topped counter. 



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'Ir'^K 



122 OUB RAILWAYS. ichap. xxx. 

There is only three minutes in which to get your 
meal. You ask, in desperation, for a sandwich and a 
cup of coffee. The coffee is hot and nourishing. The 
sandwich is an overnight one. It has been in its 
glass prison for eight hours at least. The bread is 
stale, hard, and curled at the corners, and the ham 
looks the reverse of tempting. You take one hopeful 
bite at the sandwich, thinking that it may not taste 
amiss, notwithstanding its somewhat suspicious ap- 
pearance. Then you place it on the plate again, 
without comment, but with your mind crowded with 
indignant thought, and wonder as you hurry to the 
train why the modern refreshment-room, with its pretty 
adornments in coloured glass and electro-plate, and 
its really good food and drink supply throughout 
the day, should endeavour to foist on the early and 
most particular traveller the stale, oft-pronged, smoke- 
dried sandwiches that have curled up in the night 
with gradual loss of vitality, though folded in the 
damp cloth that pretends to keep them fresh and 
appetising. 

The railway traveller nevertheless has something to 
be thankful for in the way of refreshment. At most 
of the great stations — at Euston, King's Cross, St. 
Pancras, and Charing Cross ; at Manchester, Liver- 
pool, Norman ton, Leeds, York, Carlisle, Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, and at the stations of a hundred other 
places — he can, as a rule, obtain all he desires in 
the way of food and drink served quickly at a 
moderate price ; and would now find it difficult to 



Chap. XXX.) MUGBY JUNCTIONS. 123 

discover such a den on the English railway system 
as the one to which Charles Dickens introduced ''the 
gentleman from nowhere," who, under the whim- 
sical name of Bardox Brothers, tried to travel beyond 
the memory of his own birthday, and alighted at 
Mugby Junction at three o'clock in the morning in 
the beat of rain and the bluster of wind. 

Bardox Brothers made a long and instructive 
study of this junction for days after the guard had 
said : " Stand clear, sir, if you please. One, two, 
right ! " and the engine had shrieked and the train 
gone out into the darkness. The pictures he gives 
of the precocious boy and the uncompromising missis, 
and the young ladies, the repellent room, and the 
extraordinary food supply, are turned to again and 
again by lovers of fiction, and by travellers who have 
grimly striven to get sustenance in remote refresh- 
ment-rooms that in some features remind them of 
the famous but uninviting resort at Mugby. 

The sardonic spirit of the boy at Mugby has 
flitted from its original dwelling-place, and now 
seems to lurk chiefly in the breast of the post-office 
clerk, who can " line-survey " you with consummate 
skill and coolness, secretly enjoying your hurry, 
flutter, and irritation as he calmly cashes your order 
or serves you with stamps at his own convenience.* 

* Official notice has been taken of the incivility that had become a scandal, 
and a few years ago the then Postmaster- General (Sir James Fergusson), 
by a hint about the importance of courtesy in the transaction of business, 
gave a lesson in good manners to those behind the poet-office counter that 
was badly needed. 



12* OUR RAir.rVAYS. [Ci,,^|., \-M. 

The boy at Mugby has improved. There is no boy, 
in fact, so smai*t, alert, obliging, and polite as the 
boy at the railway station, whether lie moves quickly 
at your behest in the refreshment-room or marches 
up and down the platform with his wicker basket, 




selling his viands, or goes from carriage to carriagts 
with his itinerant bookstall slung around his nock, 
and offers you, in cheerful tones, the last new book 
or the latest venture in periodical literature, or the 
choice of a dozen daily newspapers and weekly 
publications. The refreshment-room has improved, 
too. Charles Dickens wrote " Mugby Junction " as a 
Christmas piece shortly before his second visit to 
America, which took place in 1807. By the time the 
story saw the light it was possible to obtain good 
food at many a railway station. 

" The ten minutes' stop at Swindon," a privilege 



TSB STOP AT SWINDON. 



conceded in order 
that the refreshment- 
room keeper might 
be able to make a 
steady profit, soon be- 
came an unmitigated 
nuisance. It was irri- 
tating to the Great 
Western Company, in- 
asmuch as it delayed 
all their trains going 
west. It was an exas- 
perating stop to all 
passengers who re- 
quired no refreshment, 
and were anxious to 
i*eauh their destina- 
tion. It lias prompted 
far more impatient in- 
quiry than any sadden 
pull-up iu timnel or 
on viaduct, or in deep 
cutting, with the sig- 
nal atdanger. "Guard 
— porter — Hi ! you, 
there. What the deuce 
are we kicking our 
heels for here?" "Ten 
minutes for refresh- 
ments, sir," replies the 




126 OUB RAILWAYS. (Ohap. xxx. 

guard respectfully, trying meanwhile to keep his face 
straight; or, maybe, the porter mechanically answers 
the question which has been put to him with more 
or less vigour a thousand times, and perhaps mutters 
to himself, " My stars. The old gentleman is wild ! " 

The company were always in a dilemma about this 
stoppage. Whenever the train stopped ten minutes 
the passengers would fidget about the compartments, 
bang the windows down, and drag them up again, 
stamp on the carriage floors, hurl grim satire at the 
lamptnen, the porters, the guards, the stationmaster, 
and curse the company. If the company, anxious to 
oblige their customers, lopped off a minute or two from 
the waiting-time, and ventured to start any train after 
a stoppage of only seven or eight minutes, some 
passenger who had, on the solemn assurance that the 
train would stop ten minutes, got comfortably into 
the middle of his dinner in the refreshment- room, 
would find to his dismay that the train was running 
out of the station ; and if he was hasty and choleric in 
temperament, there was a dramatic scene. The com- 
pany have at last got out of the difficulty by buying 
out the proprietor of the hotel and refreshment-room, 
and now few of their trains stop at Swindon for so 
long as ten minutes. 

A novel action, arising out of this train stop 
came before the courts a few years ago. It disclosed 
quite a railway *' comedy of errors." A wealthy 
passenger, named Lowenfeld, travelled first-class from 
London to Teignmouth on August 7, 1891, the 



Chap. XXXI LEFT BEHIND AT SWINDON, 127 

express leaving Paddington at 3 p.m. The train 
was timed to arrive at 7.42 p.m., and to stop the 
inevitable t^n minutes at Swindon from 4.27 p.m. 
to 4.37 p.m. He was told by the servants of the 
company that the express would undoubtedly make 
a stop of ten minutes on this occasion; and he 
went to dine. But the train made a stop of only 
seven minutes; and when the first-class passenger 
came upon the platform again, congratulating himself 
that he had put the ten minutes to excellent use, 
he found that the train had gone. Any expression 
of annoyance at Swindon would have been idle. 

The indignant passenger, feeling that he had 
been hoodwinked by the company, went on to Bristol, 
and from that city took a special train to Teignmouth, 
arriving at the latter place at 8.20 p.m. The special 
train cost £31 17s., and he gave a cheque for that 
amount to the stationmaster, but afterwards stopped 
the cheque. The Great Western Railway Company 
then sued him for the cost of the special train; and 
he counter-claimed against the company for damages 
because they had failed to convey him by the express 
from London to Teignmouth, and had broken their 
contract, inasmuch as the train did not stop ten 
minutes at Swindon. 

His Honour Judge Stonor, who heard the case in 
the Brompton County Court, held that sending on 
the train three minutes before its time was an act 
of wilful misconduct on the part of the Swindon 
stationmaster, and that the passenger was entitled 



128 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chop xxx. 

to damages for his detention and its consequences. 
Then arose the interestmg point as to what the 
damages really were. It had been laid down by Lord 
Justice Mellish that " it would be unreasonable to 
allow a passenger, delayed in his journey, to put the 
company to an expense to which he could not think 
of putting himself if he had no company to look to." 
If the object of the passenger's journey had been 
some important public or private business, and still 
more the performance of some public or private duty 
which would not admit of any delay, the expense 
of a special train could, his honour thought, be in- 
curred without any exceptional extravagance ; but he 
was not prepared to say that joining your own 
family and friends three hours sooner — the only 
object in this case — [justified the expenditure on a 
special train; therefore he considered that the pas- 
senger was not entitled to recover the cost of that 
special train from the company. But the judge 
decided that he was entitled to recover his first-class 
fare from Bristol to Teignmouth, seeing that the 
company had not completed their contract, and that 
he should be repaid the three shillings he had spent 
in sending telegrams to his family. The passenger, 
the judge further held, was entitled to damages for 
the discomfort, annoyance, and inconvenience suffered 
by him. Mr. Justice Hawkins, in the case of 
Woodgate V. the Great Western Kailway Company, 
had held that detention for two hours in winter, 
pacing up and down a cold platform, facing a 



130 OUR RAILWAYS. ichap. xxx 

refreshrnent-stall with nothing but jam tarts and bottles 
of soda-water, and being sent on by a slow train, 
entitled the passenger to damages; and though the 
passenger in the present instance did not seem to 
have incurred a great deal of physical suffering, his 
separation from the party with whom he was 
travelling, and from family and friends in the 
evening, and his loss of the comfort of a direct 
express train, entitled him, in his own interest and 
in that of the public, to reasonable damages, which 
his honour assessed at forty shillings. While only 
allowing the passenger the cost of the counter-claim 
on the amount recovered, the judge gave the rail- 
way company full costs ; and passengers who have had 
experience of the freaks of trains at Swindon may 
be excused for considering that the Great Western 
were very leniently dealt with for their "wilful mis- 
conduct." 

The humour of the refreshment-room is varied and 
inexhaustible. A solicitor from St. Neots, according to 
Mr. F. S. Williams, arrived ravenous at Leicester Station, 
entered the refreshment-room, and then returned to 
the compartment with a piece of very heavy pork-pie 
and a flask of sherry. " Can you digest that ? '* 
sceptically inquired a fellow-traveller. "Digest it?" 
was the reply. " Do you think, sir, that I allow my 
stomach to dictate to me what I think proper to put 
into it ? " 

O" a different temperament was the passenger 
..hose conduct aroused humorous comment in Chester 



c]«p.xxx.i AN ACTION FOB LIBEL. 131 

in 1888, and led to an action at law, the refreshment 
contractors at the station suing Mr. Ernest Solly, 
a surgeon at St. Thomas's Hospital, for libel. The 
defendant purchased a sausage-roll at the refreshment- 
room counter, examined it suspiciously, ventured to 




LE1CB8TEB STATION. 



bite it, asserted that it was stale, and declined to 
eat it, notwithstiinding the manager's earnest de- 
claration that the roll was fresh and wholesome. 
What the surgeon really thought about the delicacy 
may be gathered from his subsequent conduct. He 
went on his journey, indignant, leaving the roll 
behind him, and telegraphed to the Inspector of 
/2 



132 OUR TiAILWAYS, [Ci.ap. xxx. 

Nuisances at Chester : " Please examine sausage rolls, 
refreshment rooms at station. Bad meat. Will write 
to-night.'' The sanitary authorities took the telegram 
seriously. They swooped down upon the refresh- 
ment rooms, seized the sausage rolls, and found that 
they were wholesome. The defendant, undisma3'^ed 
by the consensus of opinion against him, still main- 
tained that the roll supplied to him resembled 
venison — that it was "high." The verdict showed 
that the world is not without sympathy for those 
who travel by train, and are obliged to eat by the 
line-side. The plaintiffs were only awarded one far- 
thing damages, each side being ordered to pay its 
own costs. 

Many class barriers are breaking down. Tlie time 
has gone by, for instance, when the officers in the 
Guards would think of giving a significant hint to the 
young fellow who last joined — that he had better get 
a commission in another regiment, inasmuch as he was 
a manufacturer's son. Purchase in the army has be- 
come obsolete, and much foolish pride and class hauteur 
has gone with it. The public school no longer closes 
its portals to the parvenu. It takes his fees, and tries, 
with its academic manner and classical learning, to 
mould him into shape. But the class barrier is still 
strong and sturdy in the railway refreshment-room. 
The bishop and the blacksmith may travel third-class 
together, and chat by the way; but they will not be 
permitted to take luncheon side by side in the first- 
class refreshment-room, if the blacksmith like the 



CJup, XXX.i A DLACK^iitlTH I2i tllE WRONG PLAOE. 133 



bishop, wears the 
apron of his call- 
ing. " You must 
go to the other 
room, sir," says the 
graceful girl behind 
the counter firmly 
to the blacksmith ; 
and the great robust 
worker, blushing 
through the grime 
that streaks his face, 
awkwardly protests, 
perhaps, but with- 
draws. The first- 
class refreshment- 
room is sacred to 
the well-dressed and 
those free from toll- 
stain. 

The author once 
saw a rigid applica- 
tion of this rule. He 
was standing at the 
counter of the first- 
class refreshment- 
room in a large 
railway • station in 
the north which it 
is not necessary to 




134 OUB RAILWAYS, [Chap. xxx. 

name, when a navvy came clumping in. He was 
a great, muscular fellow, with a pleasant face. When 
he put his feet down the fancy glasses on the 
shelves jingled again; and when he placed his 
bundle and his pick and shovel on the floor, the 
exquisites who had been whispering soft nothings 
to the young lady, looked round in dismay, thinking 
there must have been an earthquake ; still, they were 
afraid to smile at the gigantic figure. The man had 
put down his things as gently as he could, and 
after tightening the cords at his knees, looked up, 
and said, " Ahll tak' a glass of y' ale, miss/' "I 
cannot serve you here," she said coldly; "you must 
go to the other bar I " *' Ay ! — wha-at ! " he ex- 
claimed in surprise. " Ain't my money as good as 
other folks's?" "Oh! yes," she replied; "but I 
cannot serve you, all the same — you must go to the 
other bar.'' 

The man was dumbfoundered. " Ay ! " he muttered, 
" it's a rum 'un — by gosh ! " and he slowly picked up 
his bundle, and left the room. But he did not go to the 
other bar. His feelings had received such a shock that 
he wandered about the platform, muttering to himself, 
and he went without refreshment. It seemed odd 
that this man, who was sober, inofiensive, and ready 
to pay for what he needed, could not be served at 
that bar. It was, indeed, almost grotesque that this 
navvy, who had delved and shovelled to make the line, 
and without whose tireless physical effort, and that of 
his kind, there never would have been a station or 




Ch*p.xxx,j THE STATION BARMAID. 135 

refreshment-room at all, should be kept at bay, as 
altogether unfit to herd with ordinary men. 

The position of the barmaid at a railway station 
refreshment-room, hard as it is, is not altogether a 
hopeless one. Her rest is broken, and in many cases 
her houre of duty are long and jading. But .-he 
has this solace in a career often of hardsiiip and 
endurance — that she generally marries well. In the 
group of men, or mther mashers, who daily buzz 
around her, there is probably one worth having for 
personal regard or position, and she marries him, 
and is perhaps " happy ever afterwards,*' for there 
may be good even in the gaitered, bangled, high- 
collared fop of to-day, just as there was in Robert- 
son's stage exquisite. 

To-day, the marriage of the actress to the nobleman 
causes very little surprise. Nor is it phenomenal 
for the railway station barmaid to marry a lawyer, 
or an architect, or a banker, or even that exceedingly 
busy and practical man the stationmaster himself. 
The condition of those doomed by fate to remain 
behind the counter is also improving. The Barmaids' 
Guild, and the Home of Rest for Barmaids, estab- 
lished by Lady Wolverton, promise to have a most 
beneficial infiuence on the life of the girl, whether 
she is in or out of employment ; and legislation is 
also interesting itself in her career. But, after all, it 
is to the railway companies and the refreshment 
contractors that she must look for immediate relief 
in the shape of shorter hours and better pay. In 



136 OUR RAILWAYS, [CUap. xxx. 

fact, at many railway stations the reform, so far as 
the arrangement of duty is concerned, has begun. 
For instance, at Liverpool Street Station, on the 
Great Eastern Railway, an entirely new system of 
hours has been introduced, of which a London news- 
paper has given the following account: 

"Under the new regime one division of young women is on duty 
with half an hour's respite for dinner, from seven in the morning till 
four p.m., and is then quite free for the rest of the day ; for at that 
hour a second lot takes up the work till closing time, with intervals 
for tea and supper. In addition three or four special barmaids have 
to be up at ^yq a.m., and end their service entirely at two p.m. In 
short, the time of labour is lessened by about one hour daily. Week 
by week the two large divisions exchange hours, and are enabled 
alternately to spend the mornings or the evenings during the seven 
days with their friends. Or they can rest in the comfortable house 
at Hackney Downs, where they are lodged and boarded, everything, 
even a piano and a housekeeper, being provided for their comfort and 
recreation. Their average salaries amount to ten shillings a week, 
and they have no expenses except laundry bills. Every year they 
have a week's holiday, and can always, if necessary, obtain two or 
three days' extra leave. These rules only apply to Liverpool Street, 
the young ladies * down the line ' having to keep hours suited to the 
local requirements, and being housed in cottages, or, in some cases, in 
the stations themselves/' 

The halcyon time desired by Mr. Harry Furns^ 
— and no doubt by many other people — of free book- 
stalls and free restaurants on all railways, has not 
yet come ; but railway literature is wonderfully varied 
and cheap, and the refreshment-rooms, though the 
proprietors still insist on payment, are differently 
conducted from what they were in the days when 
Mrs. Sniff taught the young ladies behind the high 



% 



ciiap.xxx.1 RAILWAY COMPANIES A8 CATEBEB8. 137 

counter how to " smooth their cuffs, and look another 
way while the public foamed " with hunger and rage. 

It is only within the last few years that the railway 
companies have realised the importance of refreshment 
to the passenger, and discovered that they can make 
a profit out of him, in addition to his fare ; but having 
made the discovery, they are doing their utmost to 
get all the refreshment-rooms into their hands, and 
will, no doubt, ultimately achieve their object, absorb- 
ing, perhaps, the pioneer and familiar business of Spiers 
and Pond. It is also not improbable that they may 
cater for the mind as well as the body of the passenger, 
and acquire the whole of the railway station bookstalls. 
There is apparently no limit to the business enter- 
prise of the great companies ; indeed, one of them, not 
content with the provision of sleeping cars and dining 
cars, and the acquirement of hotels in great cities, 
intends to erect a number of " light hotels, on the Swiss 
style, for the accommodation of visitors to some of their 
tourist haunts." 

The question of refreshment and rest is thus be- 
coming almost as important, not only to the passenger, 
but to the railway shareholder, as the joui-ney itself. 
Mr. Towle, the manager of the Midland Eailway 
Company's hotels and refreshment-rooms, holds that 
" if it be the duty of a railway company to carry a 
passenger safely to his destination, it may be properly 
and equally its duty to make reasonable provision for 
his personal comforts ; '' and directors do not now 
dissent from this opinion, especially as they see in 




138 OUR RAILWAYS, (Chap, xxx, 

the supplementary business a means of increasing 
dividend. The passenger has the notion that every 
railway refreshment -room is the sole property of 
Messrs. Spiers and Pond; yet the Great Western 
own four large hotels, and intend to' take over the 
whole of their refreshment-rooms. The London and 
North -Western work ten hotels and twenty-seven 
refreshment-rooms; the Midland have six hotels and 
forty refreshment-rooms; the Great Eastern three 
hotels and twenty-five refreshment-rooms ; the Great 
Northern four hotels and fifteen refreshment-rooms; 
and the North-Eastern six hotels and twenty-eight 
refreshment-rooms, only three of the latter, however, 
being worked by the company. Many of the hotels 
are not merely rich, but comfortable in appointment ; 
and, as the coimtry reporter once remarked to the 
head waiter at the county banquet, "the cuisine 
leaves nothing to be desired." But many of the 
refreshment-rooms might be improved both in arrange- 
ment and in their food supply. On the question of 
the tariff, Mr. Towle says : 

** This should be so arranged as to include food and drink for 
every class of travellers, and special stress is laid on the necessity for 
the provision of luncheon baskets, trays of tea, milk, and fruit being 
served at the trains, especially to women and children, and the free 
provision in every buffet of a glass of cold filtered water willingly 
served to any passenger applying for it. Wherever the journey 
occupies several hours, and the traffic is sufficient to require express 
trains, restaurant cars should be attached, and made available at a 
uniform charge for meals for all passengers whilst travelling by the 
particular train, and the tariff should be moderate, say, four shillings 
the first series of dinners, and two shillings and sixpence for the 




A OHUROH ON WBEEL8. 



139 



second serieB, thus enabling persona of moderate means to satisfy 
their wants. Befi-eshments ordinarily obtained in buffets should also 
be provided for passengers who do not wish to sit down to a meal." 
In some refreshment-rooms Mr, Towle's suggestions 




have already been adopted ; the travelling buffet has 
also become an institution. The Bishop of Dakota 
goes through his diocese, wherever there is a railway 
track and no place of worship, in a travelling church 
— a long carri^e with two divisions, the small one 
being fitted up as a house for his use, while 
the large compartment is set out as a church, with 
aitar, pulpit, font, and organ, and so spacious that 



140 Om HAILWAYS. icup. xxx. 

it will seat seventy people. In this country there 
is comparatively little need of a travelling church, 
but the train is becoming a travelling restaurant and 
hotel. 

The Great Northern, the Midland, and the London 
and North -Western are, as has already been pointed 
out,* running third-class as well as first-class dining 
cars, admirably appointed, and all keeping good tables ; 
and one seems almost within measurable distance of 
the time when every long- journey English train, like 
the German Emperor's new train de luxcy will contain 
dining, sleeping, and bath car, though at a penny a 
mile even our richest railway companies may find it 
impossible to provide the passengers with a library 
hung with Gobelin tapestry. 

• VoL 1., p. S8i> ff 




i MNDos 1 i_f nil 1. \li\i 




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1 PAGE (nEDUCED) yjlOM E 



CHAPTER XXXI. 



QUAINT AND MODKRN TIME-TAlll.KS. 

A. Tailed Timo-TabU— Thu Train Service Halt-K-Centnry Ako— ConditioM 
o( Travi'l — fiooil Advice — Smoking Forbidden^No Tips for the 
Portx'C— Riding Outside the Carriage —PaBacrRera CoDTDywl in Rota- 
tion — Line- Making CurioeiCies — Glowing Description of Rallwav 
Works—" Brad^baw "—The Official Time-Tablea— Ho\¥ thcj are 
Frodnoed— An Old Time-Table from Stockton and Darlingtoa— Old 
MMwuy Stations, 

A FADED, well-thumbed time-table was lent to the 
author last year by a bookworm, who treasures 
everythinfj in the way of transient literature, from 
playbills to waybills. This tiny book, that you 
could almost slip into your vest pocket, is a 
"Bradshaw's Railway Time-Table. and Assistant to 



142 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chap. xxxi. 

Railway Travelling." It is dated October 25, 1839, 
and opens with an " address " to the effect that the 




BRADSHAW'S 

CONTINENTAL RAILWAY, 

STEAM NAVIGATION, & CONVEYANCE 







AND TRAVELLEK\S MANUAL 

WHOLE CONTINENT OF EUROPE: 

CONTAISISO EVmV INKORMATlUX CONNliCTKII WITH U.VILWAtS. ^TLAXl 

X\V|V;ATI0N. and COSVtYANtH'*; 

AND PRACTICAL INSTKUCTrONS FOR TRAVKLLEUS. 



PUCE oiE vmmf 

ACCOMrANlEli WITH A IVL-1.C fiXLCUTKll MAP UP Till. KAILWW) 



PARIS. 

rt'llLISHED BY UALLIGN'AMI 4 Co., 18. BUE VIVIKNS'K: W C bLKNAK(»r. 
13, CITK VISDE. BOCLT DL LA MADKLKlNil: 

BRUSSELS :—W. UiODtROK. K. MoKTAGMK Ok la Cooa. 

LONDON :—PuBLi«HKO at BaAMRAWs TSimoiAL RAitwAT PcBUCATiojt Orricjc. 

bO, PLUT-CTkUXi— W. J. ADAJU, AOtNT. 

MANCHtlSTKR :-Uiaimiiai% AMD Blacuxkx. S7, laowM-iTSKn. 



■aADSBAW AMD aiLkcKtocji, i>a>ifrus. 



FAC-SIMILE (reduced) OP TITLE-PAOE OP THE FIRST "CONTINENTAL" 

BBADSHAW, 1847 

book "is published by the assistance of several 
railway companies, on which account the information 
it contains may be depended upon as being correct 




Ourxxxi] BAILWAT TRAVELLISG IX 1839. 143 

and authentic. The necessity of such a work," it 
adds, ''is so obvious as to need no apology ; and 
the merits of it can be best ascertained by a refer- 
ence to the execution, both as regards the style and 
correctness of the maps and plans with which it is 
illustrated." 

The table gives the number of trains daily between 
London and Birmingham ; between London and Twy- 
ford on the Great Western ; between Birmingham, 
Liverpool, and Manchester ; Manchester and Liverpool ; 
and Newcastle and Carlisle. Its maps of the country 
the railways traverse, and its plans of Birmingham, 
Manchester, and Leeds are admirable. It contains 
tables of hackney coach fares, and of coach routes 
to Liverpool and Manchester from Carlisle, and also 
a table by which the passenger may calculate the 
rate of speed per hour. Between London and Bir^ 
mingham there were ten trains per day, six mixed, 
two first-class, and two mail trains, the last mail 
train quitting town at half-past eight o'clock at 
night, being the mixed mail. The fares were 
32s. Cd. each person, in a *' four inside car, by day, 
or first-class, six inside, by night;" 30s., in a "first- 
class carriage, six inside, b}' day; " 258., in a "second- 
class carriage closed, by night ; " and 208., in a " second- 
class carriage, open by day.'* 

In these days some of the companies are providing 
sleeping accommodation on long journeys for third- 
class passengers ; fifty years ago the first-class mail 
carriage bad one compartment that could be converted 




144 OUR RAILWAYS. ia.ap. xxxi. 

into a bed-carriage if required. Now that so manj? 
corapanies have abolished the second-class carriage, 
and given the passenger quite as comfortable a com- 
partment for a third-class fare, it is interesting to 
read in this old time-table that the second-class car- 
riages in the mixed trains were " open at the side, and 
without linings, cushions, or divisions in the com- 
partments/' " Infants in arms, unable to walk,** 
were permitted to travel free of charge; carriages 
and horses, unless they reached the station five 
minutes before the train's arrival, were not forwarded ; 
and passengers were subjected to the same rigid rule, 
for the station doors were closed, and no matter 
how late the train, or how many tardy travellers 
raged outside, nobody was admitted. The railway 
companies were inexorable. Nevertheless there was 
some thought for those who went by train, inasmuch 
as one of the notices says : " A passenger may claim 
tlie seat corresponding to the number of his ticket ; " 
and another : "To guard against accident and delay, 
it is especially requested that passengers will not 
leave their seats at any of the stations except 
Wolverton — half way — where ten minutes are allowed 
for refreshment." It was the custom to place the 
luggage on the roofs of the coaches, to advise passen- 
gers (at all events, on the Liverpool and Manchester 
Kailway) " to get in and out of the railway carriages 
on the left hand side as they face the engine," and 
"for better security," they were requested "to take 
carpet bags and small packages inside the carriages.'^ 





MAP OF THE RAILWAYS OF GREAT DRITAIN IN 1811. 



146 OUR RAILWAYS, ich*p.xxxi. 

Smoking was not allowed either in the carriages or at 
the stations ; and every railway servant who accepted 
a tip was in fear of instant dismissal. 

On the latter point the "Grand Junction Eailway 
Guide Book " half-a-century ago was very emphatic : 

** The regulations of the company do not admit of gratuities to 
any of its servants. The consequence is that, instead of that un- 
pleasant and selfish obsequiousness and that disj>osition to insult 
which persons of that class usually practise, the greatest civility is 
experienced, questions are replied to in a respectful manner, and 
when you have received the attention you require, without any 
request on the part of the porter to bo * remembered,' either by a 
touch of the hat or an insolent scowl, he walks quickly to attend to 
the next person who happens to arrive." 

The railway porter has recovered from his early 
trepidation about the tip. The by-law still threatens 
him at nearly every station with the worst of all 
pains and penalties; but he quietly treats the by-law 
with contempt and takes the tip. Like the keeper 
on the moors, the valet in the country house, and the 
waiter in hotel or restaurant, he looks upon the ti[) 
as his perquisite. He expects it, and he invariably 
gets it, and probably few passengers begrudge hira 
the pence. 

The same book gives novel advice to the passenger 
who is a good climber and does not wish to miss 
anything on the journey : 

•* If you wish to see and hear all about the matter, take your 
place outside. You will want an extra great coat, and a pair of 
gauze spectacles to keep the dust and smoke out of your eyes ; but 
in all other respects, you will enjoy it ten times more than your 
fellow-travellers. I shall suppose ^ou are mounted on the box-seat, 



k 



wiap.xxxLi ON THE "BOX 8EATr 147 

You look round and see several engines with red-hot fires in their 
bodies, and volumes of steam issuing from their tall chimneya One 
of them moves slowly towards you. The huge creature bellows at 
first, like an elophant Deep, slow, and terrific are the hoarse 
heavings that it makes. . . . There it is, roaring, groaning, 
and grunting, like a sea-horse, and spouting up steam like a whale. 
You feel a deep, strong, tremulous motion throughout the train, 
and a loud jingling rattle is heard, analogous to what is experienced 
in a cotton mill. . . . The passengers pi'etty generally avail 
themselves of the excellent accommodation in the first- class carriages 
for repose ; and as they feel perfectly secure, many of them sleep 
soundly the whole distance. When the train stops, a long and loud 
creak is felt and heard throughout the wliole line of carriages, 
and a few little ones afterwards — this is all the inconvenience which 
is found on stopping." 

In ** The Midland Counties' Eaihvay Companion/' 
published in 1840, which has already been referred 
to,* it is set forth that "passengers at the road 
stations will only be booked conditionally — that is to 
say, in case there shall be room in the train for 
which they are booked ; in case there shall not be 
room, passengers booked for the longest distance will 
be allowed the preference; and passengers booked for 
the same distance will have priority according to the 
order in which they are booked/* Nearly everything 
in this book, written more than fifty years ago, is 
described in glowing periods. The old station at Derby 
" is a handsome brick structure of very great extent,'* 
with " handsome '* refreshment-rooms ; and we are 
ingenuously told that in the carriage-houses and 
workshops it " is intended to repair everything on the 
spot/' In the making of the line at Borrowash^ 

• Sh VoL L, p. 128. 

k2 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



just outside the town, the navvies unearthed eighty 
skeletons. Nine of them were of gigantic stature; and 



LIST OF TBI FBINCITAL RAILWAYS ifl GREAT BRITAIN. 



K A R L & L A N (i S 'r I) N , 



mv^^ 






if 



i:':; 



= lp;!jL. 



mn^ 



7. I'C y. 'iTz!^, 



PAr-siuiLE (beduced) of pa.oe from bbadsuaw's -'kailwat guide" < 

■j lUa, BHOWIHG LIBT OF THE FBISCIPAL RAILWATS THEN 
COMPLETED. 



in one of the skulls was the head of an arrow. " A 
singular box, lined with gold, which contained some 
amulets and jewels, was also discovered." But even 



A YESKRABLB TOAD. 



these relics, enpposed to be the fomis and property of 
ancient Britons, can hardly be looked upon as objects of 
antiquity in comparison with the toad that was dug out 
of a railway cutting at Greenock, in September, 1888. 





SHEWIKO XaE JIATE OF TKiVELLIKG VV.r. HODH. 


A Qawntt 
or a Mile 


^r. 


A Quartet 
oI*M<1o 


13S 


*.(Ji»rin 

gfuMlle 


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wr 




per 


■*ia. 


S,t. 


H^ 


Su, 


Hom. 


Min 


s,,. 


Hour. 


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ju 






43 


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¥ 


17 




41 






ii 


^i* 




m 


h'I 










41) 


Mi 




sa- 


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» 






30 




314 






S 








Mi 










£3 








»l' 




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41 










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30 












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93 






31 


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10 


IS 




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a?) 




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100 




a 















THOHPSON'tl R&ILWAI TABLE. 



The reptile was found alive, but limp and lazy, in a 
clay bed through which the navvies were working ; and 
an expert gave its age as thirty thousand years ! " The 
Midland Counties' Railway Companion " also says the 
old station-house at Leicester was " a magnificent 
building;" that the Birmingham terminus was "a 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



magnificent building " fronting the town ; and that the 
train stopped beneath an "elegant metallic shedding." 

About Wolverton, the centre of the London and 
Birmingham Railway, the writer groivs enthusiastic. 




THE W0EK3 AT WOLVEETOS— THE 



"The extent of the works for the railway," he saj-s, 
"excites the admiration of every beholder. It is a 
little artificers' world in itself: engine manufactories, 
machinery, a grand dep6t, dwellings for the workmen, 
the whole establishment laid out on an excellent plan, 
the sight of which, as the model of a pei'fect work-town, 
would have delighted Peter the Great. The locomotive- 
engine station is a noble work. No trade but has here 
its appropriate and perfect exercise. A large wharf and 
storehouses render this grand establishment, with its 



RAILWAY hlTEUATU&E. 



fine architectural stnictuues, combining elegance and 
beauty with utility, and every accommodation and 
luxury a traveller can desire, more like the fabled 




[tithebabn stkest) IX issa 



mansions of German gold-hunters and dwarfs than the 
work of a single English company." 

The increase in railway literature is almost as 
amazing as the growth of the railway itself. Trains 
have become so numerous, and are run so often, that 
it would be idle for even the most famous mathe- 
matician to attempt to " carry them all in his head." 
In fact, he is relieved from this responsibility, for 
"officially every month" is issued, under the Queen's 



152 OUR RAILWAYS. (Cinp.xxxi. 

patronage, "Bradshaw's General Kailway and Steam 
Navigation Guide for Great Britain and Ireland," and 
in its seven liundred pages, more than an incii thick, 
it yields remarkable reading, and tells you much about 
the nation's work. The study of " Bradshaw " is sup- 
posed to indicate one of two mental conditions — that a 
man has a brain like Babbage or some modern "chess 
fiend," or that he is a hopeless lunatic, and should 
forthwith be removed to an asylum. There is to the 
average eyesight and mind, shrinking from small type 
and detesting bother, something bewildering about 
" Bradshaw." You wonder where the proprietor got 
the precise men who set it up, and how on earth it is 
done; for after a glance at the key, with its instructions 
as to what new stations have been opened, what places 
on the railway track have, like brides, just changed 
their names, how to tell '' shunts," and when the train 
is going to stop by signal to take up, you gradually 
become disheartened as you wade through the index 
with its interminable list of railway stations, orna- 
mented with asterisks, daggers, double daggers, and 
other mysterious typographical signs, showing that at 
this station there is a refreshment- room, at that a 
telegraph office, and at the other no telegraph office 
whatever, though there is one in the town or village 
half-a-mile away. 

W hen you get into the maze of this huge monthly 
magazine that scorns fiction and is congested with 
facts, amid the intricate tables of place-names, dots, 
figures, warning hands, dark lines, notes, references, 



154 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chap. xxxi. 

indications of trains "up'' and "down/* trains that run 
on " week days," trains that run on " Wednesdays 
only," and trains that run on "Saturdays only,'' and 
when, after striving in vain for half an hour to 
ascertain really what time you will arrive at your 
destination, you alight, with your head in a fog and 
your eyes aching, on the encouraging words in italic 
"see above," or "vice versa," you feel inclined to fling 
*' Bradshaw " out of the window. Yet, if the book is 
properly approached, and studied with method, it is 
full of interest; indeed, for some men who like nicety 
of work, calculation and research, and understand " the 
philosophy of figures,' it has a fascination that no 
other book possesses, and there is a tradition to the 
effect that a statesman, much given to calculation and 
finance, peruses it daily in the solitude of the recess. 

The controversy as to the originator of " Bradshaw's 
Guide," like the controversy with regard to the writer 
of the " Letters of Junius," will never die. There are 
people who still believe that John Gadsby, the 
Manchester printer, issued the first railway guide ; 
but those who are confident that George Bradshaw 
did invent the now noted time-table may be interested 
in this gossip from a Lancashire journal about him: 

** George Bradshaw was the originator and publisher of * Brad- 
shaw 's Railway Guide,' the first edition of which appeared on 
October 19th, 1839. This contained twenty-four pages only, and a 
number of maps. In 1844 it had increased to fifty-nine pages, puny 
indeed when compared with the thick guide of to-day, and which, 
like the * Post Office Guide,' is every year becoming more unwieldy. 
In course of a holiday ramble in Norway and Sweden, in 1874, T 



ciM{kXXZL) GEORGE BBADSSAW. 155 

one day went into an old village churchyard At OptJo, and there saw 
George Bimlshaw's grave. It had a headstone and low border of red 
granite, with the inscription as follows : ' George Bradgliaw, of Man- 
chester, England, who died Cth September, 1853, aged 53 years.'" 

Another business man, it should be reraerabered, 
was associated with the impiovement o£ " Bradshaw." 
On the cover of the guide for 1843 appears tlie 
name and address, "W. J. Adams, 170, Fleet Street, 
London." Mr. Adams was the agent and publisher 
oE the little work in town. He made many valuable 
and persistent suggestions for the enlargement of the 
guide, ultimately got his own way, and thirty years 
ago the . time-table consisted of 200 pages, and gave 
the departures and arrivals on throe hundred lines. 

Innumerable time-tables are printed in addition to 
"Bradshaw." The railway 
companies produce official 
time-tables giving informa- 
tion with regard to the 
running of their own pas- 
senger trains and connec- 
tions. They also get out, 
for the use of their ser- 
vants, elaborate " working 
time-tables," giving the 
running of every train, and 
particulars as to the shunt- 
ing and marshalling. In 
nearly every large town there are time-tables, too, 
the product of private commercial enterprise, time-tables 




15« OUtt RAILWAYS. (Ctaj.. xxxi. 

with diaries attached, or time-tables half buried in 
advertisements. Some of these time-tables are con- 
spicuous for their accui-acy aud handy make-up ; and 
one of the most notable is " Cassell's Time-Tables 




and Through-Route Guide," which includes every 
railway station within one hundred mile» oE town 
and mauy of the principal places beyond, gives you 
an admirable railway map, and a useful index con- 
taining not only the stations, but the single and return 
fares to them. 

The ofiBcial time-tables of the various companies 
are, however, the most surprising productions. They 
are sold at the price of one penny ; but they cost nearly 
sixpence per copy. These time-tables are not merely 
instructive as to the running of trains, but give a host 



THE OOUPANIES' TmE-TABT.E8. 



of hints to passen- 
gers as to how they 
can travel, lunch, 
(line, sleep, utilise 
country coaches or 
town omnibuses, 
catch the boat for 
the Continent, or 
the liner for New- 
York. They are in 
some sense edu- 
cators, for their 
maps of the United 
Kingdom, and their 
plans of the great 
cities, extend one's 
geographical and 
topographical know- 
ledge. They tell 
also, in tlieir blunt, 
practical way, the 
story of the restless 
railway development 
of the age, one bear- 
ing on its title-page 
the announcement 
that you can run 
from London to 
Aberdeen in eleven 
and a half hours, 




158 OUR RAILWAYS. [Ch»p.xxxi. 

and that there are sleeping saloons on the night 
trains ; another that the new through express service 
has started to and from the West of England by 
way of the Severn Tunnel; another that the direct 
route is open to the north along the Forth Bridge; 
and another taking you mentally away from the roar 
of the city and the striving of business to the quiet 
CQuntry-side, and tempting you by its list of farm- 
house apartments. 

The plan adopted for the production of the official 
time-table is practically the same on every railway. 
At the conference of the officers of the system, held 
the third week in every month, questions relating to the 
working of the line and the conduct of traffic are dis- 
cussed, and it is at this conference that the alterations 
in the train service are decided upon. The time-table 
must be carefully and rapidly revised. However drastic 
the change in the running of a train from London to 
Holyhead, or from the metropolis to Glasgow, and 
however great the upset of the time of trains running 
on branch lines in consequence, the alterations must be 
made in a few days, and the time-table be in the hands 
of passengers by the first of the month. The work, pre- 
suming it is a London and North -Western Company's 
time-table, is done in this way: "The printing con- 
tractors have their offices at Newton-le-Willows. To that 
town, within a few days of the train alterations having 
been decided upon, there repairs a clerk for each of the 
ten districts, who is called the ' time-table clerk,' and 
with these ten clerks comes an official from the office of 



i 



• » ■ 
• . r • • 



Chap.xxxLj PBODUOTION OF TIME-TABLES, 169 

the superintendent of the line to supervise their labours 
and assist them with his experience. Taking the 
minutes of the officers' conference as their guide, these 
clerks proceed to revise the time-table, each working 
out the times of his own section of the line, but all 
comparing notes to ensure a harmonious result. As 
they progress the results of their labours are placed in 
the hands of the printers, who are on the spot, and the 
proof sheets are afterwards revised and corrected by the 
clerks who have prepared them.*' Now and then tlie 
work is done under great pressure, requiring zeal and 
toil by night as well as by day ; and the production of 
the time-table in the final rush of copy, and the last 
quick correction, rather reminds one of the bustle and 
rapid movement in a daily newspaper office when the 
first edition is going to press. Fifty-seven years ago 
the production of the time-table did not require so 
much forethought and typographical skill, judging 
from the one given on the following page, and 
formerly in use on the Stockton and Darlington 
Railway. 

There are no fewer than sixteen weekly and monthly 
newspapers and periodicals devoted to railway news and 
literature, in addition to the multitude of time-tables ; 
and the official guides issued or sanctioned by the great 
railway companies — books filled with useful informa- 
tion, brightened by many illustrations, and rendered 
additionally instructive by maps of the country and 
plans of great cities — make a* valuable library in 
themselves, 



100 OUR RAILWAYS. {CiuikXxxi. 



SvMinBB OF 1 S36. 
COACHES. 



Sepirate Enfinet htrtnc l«rii apnointnl fnr the Cnnfeyance of P M y n grrt and M«firtitn4lM, «Dd 
« Coakch attaclird t» fbc latter Train, ihc Oppor>unitirt of fjommunici* too between the Tovna off 
Darlingtoa and blocktoo are doubled, and between l>arlingt«n aud Sbildoa tbey arc uom fear.tkiMa 
• day. 

DAB&inOTON «c ST. BSLSH'S AUCXftAHD TBAIV. 

Fnret : Intide, It. 6d.*-0utside. It. 3d each wa/, 

STATIONt. TIMRtOr STAftTlirO 

From l>arliii|rtun.al . Iair|«at 8 o'clock 

Do . . lairpait I '* 

Do. . balf|M»i ft ** 

!»«» to<liild«n . 8 



•TATIOirt. TIMBS Or 8TARTIIIO 

Shiltlon. at . 6 o'clock. 

St. dclco'a Auckland qoarler bet 7 *• 
Uo. . - . II - 

Do. • qiiarlrr lirf . 4 



From the LANDS at a quarter |iaal 8 in the Morning, and from DARLINUTllN to the LaNDS at 

H. D. The TVain will leave Shildoiiliairau iinurarirr leaving M llclen'a Auckland A CAR from 
nnbop Auckliod to 9U Helen's or New Shildon. meeuracli off tlieac Tnina in goinf aftd rcturuing . 

Fares (o Sliitdoo : ln>idc, U — Ouiiid0» 9d 



DABLINQTON AMD STOCXTOH TBAtH. 

First.clttM Faiet: Inside, St— OuUide, is 6d , each way. 
Secoiid-class, or Merchamliie Fare*: lusiJo, it. 6«l.«>0iilside, U , each leay 



4k P^oraDarUogloo,(Merchd)athair|iaM 6u'clock 

Da. • lialf|ian 8 ** 

I Dob (Merchandise) II ** 

Do. : halfpast I ** 

Da (Merchaadiie) 3 •• 

Do . . half past ft ••' 



From Stockton, al qiiarler past 7 o'clock 
l»o (Ncrotaandise) ** 
Do quarter bcC IS ** 
Do (Mcrcliandise) . I ** 
Do qoarterpasC 4 ** 
half " * 



Do (Merchandize) half past 

One 
Fint.claM Coach Trmiu. 



«lB MON DAYS iitd W£DNESDA Y$._a Second cl«t. or^Ont SbiUiag Carriise, «iU accompany iha 



STOOXTOV AXD BBIDDLSi^BO' TBAIX. 



JPlTftB MiddlcSbra* a « halfiast 8 o'clock 

Ho ' • • halfpasi 8 

Ooi • • II 

Do. • • faairpastia 

Do • • 9 

Do • liairpaa 'J 

Do. • • G 

r Do. • - • 7 



Fartt: Intid^, 0d.— Outside, dd., aacb way. 

F«oo Stockton, at • halfpaaC yo'«lac>i 

Do. . . bairpani D *• 

Do: • • half past II •* 

Do. • • halfpast C *» 

DO • • halfpast S * 

im • • hair:iarf 4 ** 

Da • Kalfpnit 6 ** 

Do. , • • lulfpast 1 •■ 

All tha Osrllngfoaaa4 Middicsbro* Tralnsare in immediate c«Minc«ioa with etch ottter. esc^tiQjp 

IlifKc lOirked tliun # i 

. Tilt MUrcrahDIZI Train will lie Mll'twrdthtni Otir 4imJ a Half lo Two Hours between DSr- 
liactoa'and Stnektm^ whilsi vnri«ms 4|i|ilH«ii4cri liavduc ncrn nude by tinitlcmrn i>i Hie Neixtiboui^ 
l«ood.lohavctheC*«M(iiTra>i»»eieiMNtit>-4a*Ml imiinivert. Air4u«*-int*ni« fuve tired made to mo tho 
Darlinttnn af*d M'icktitM riipM FORTY FIVK MINUTES. a New Kn^incaifl OiiitHle Coich are 
providM. and tlie Hirc9i»««f|iar4MfNf il«««(*la«S4f«coNSniu<ntlvalMulo«Ui*»iaaul other K«tlwa«« 

FAC-SIMILE (reduced) OF ADVERTISEMENT OF STOCKTON* AM) 

DARLINGTON TRAINS IN 1836. 

While gossiping about old time-tables it is ai)pro- 
priate to mention some of the old stations at which 



Cft«p.xxxi.i OLD STATIONS. 161 

they were perused in a hurry. A Liverpool station 
in 1850 — though ** Drake's Eoad Book of the Grand 
Junction Railway" states that at that time the city 
by the Mersey had busy quays and crowded docks — 
does not give such a bracing picture of life, bustle, 
and business energy as Lime Street Station in 189G. 
Passengers were in 1845, iiccording to the illustration, 
going with quick step to catch the train at Peter- 
borough; but there is evidence in the scene outside 
the station that tlie coaching days still lingered, and 
that the family carriage had not l^een discarded by 
the squire. Peterborough has since become one of 
the most important railway avenues in England ; and 
John de Sais, the Norman abbot, if he had been 
engaged in building the cathedral now, would have 
marvelled at the daily throng of people, and the train- 
loads of coal that are ever crossing '* the frontier " 
at this place of exchange and transit. There has, 
too, been railway improvement at the beautiful city 
of Norwich and in the boot-making centre North- 
ampton; but no express has yet gone through the 
latter town at the pace attained by the late Mr. 
Bradlaugh's thought and utterance. 



Itt 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

TIIK REVOLUTION IN RAILWAY FARES. 

Free Travel— The Old Parliamentary Train— A Lesson in Patience— Aji 
Enterprising North- Western Train— The Midland Fare Policy— Sir 
James AUport on Journeying- An Old Train Speed— Tribute to a 
Useful Life— The New Manager of the Midland— The Third-Class 
Gold Mine— Bemarkable Expansion of Traffic — Threatened Extinction 
of First-Class- Clinging to Uie Second-Class Fare— What Railway Men 
Think and What the Railway Companies are Doing— The Sort of 
" Goods " to Carry. 

The tendency in English political and social life is 
towards freedom — free speech, free libraries, free parks 
and museums, free education, free dinners; and it 
would have been strange and little in accord with 
what Mr. Goschen calls our "imaginative foresight" 
if no one had suggested free railway travel. The 
bold proposal has been put into cold type, however, 
one writer taking much pains to show that the time 
has come when the State should acquire the railways 
for the purpose of making them free to the use of 
the public, and that the project would prove a saving 
to the nation; that shameful waste would be avoided 
by paying traffic expenses out of rates and taxes, 
instead of fares; and that free travel would mean 
a healthier people, inasmuch as it would provide an 
easy and pleasant remedy for the overcrowding in our 
great cities. 

Lord Derby did not go quite to this length. 



Ch.p.xxxii.1 THE STATE AND THE RAILWAY. 163 

DealiDg with the suggested purchase of railways by 
the State, in a speech he made at the Society of 
Arts on June 18, 1873, he said the public had no 
security that railways would not be superseded like 
coaches and canals, for the inventive power of the 
human mind was unlimited. " What," he asked, 
" would have happened if the Government of the 
day liad bought up stage-coaches and canals P " The 
State administration of railways would, he added, put 
the Government in possession of a powerful engine 
of corruption. Nevertheless, he thought, in the future 
the question of the State purchase of railways would 
be worth considering. 

The State, in the guise of a philanthropist, eager 
to give us free travel, and also to sweep squalor, vice, 
and despair from reeking courts, makes a splendid 
figure. Notwithstanding Mr. Gladstone's saying that 
'' it is the business of a Government not to trade, 
but to govern," and uninfluenced by the annoyance 
of railway directors and shareholders, the State may 
enter upon this herculean task, for no change seems 
too drastic in these days of political, industrial, and 
social revolution. But it is doubtful whether travel, 
and especially free travel, worked by the State would 
be such a blessing and monetary relief as some 
imagine; whether the State would not bungle this 
vast enterprise, and whether, in the just application 
of the restrictions and penalties it has imposed 
with regard to the transit of goods and the safety 
of the passengers, it would not be in quite as 
/2 



IM OUR EAJLWAYS. [CUap. xxxii. 

awkward a position as the Mikado's Lord High 
Executioner, who was brought face to face with the 
embarrdiising duty of punishing, and finally executing, 
himself. 

The most profitable passenger is the third-class 
passenger, but formerly he received little consideration. 
The parliamentary train, by which he was graciously 
permitted to travel, lacked speed and vigour. It went 
slowly, and needed frequent rests. *' Neither through 
tickets nor through journeys could be taken, and 
travellers had to get forward as best they could by 
a series of fragmentar}"^ journeys over tlie lines of 
diflerent, rival, and often conflicting companies." The 
third-class passenger had no social position on 
the railway, and he was often handled as roughly 
as merchandise. He looked with a feeling akin to 
awe on the luxury of the first-class train, for the 
convenience of which he was nearly always igno- 
miniously shunted. He had practically to touch his 
cap to the first-class traveller. There was almost as 
great a gulf between the one and the other as 
between the agricultural labourer and the squire or 
the parson. Both had to wait on their ** superiors," 
or, to paraphrase the words in the Catechism, ** to 
order themselves lowly and reverently to all their 
betters." Indeed, it is related that a parliamentary 
train was once delayed so long at Darlington that 
the reverence of the passengers for the upper classes 
was transformed — so unreasonable is human nature — 
into rage, and they indignantly complained that at 







^^»^W^•^iPl^ « 




''i'tftSEHw**^"''!' 



FinST, BSCOKD, AKD THIRD CLASS TO THB DEKBT IN li 



166 OUR RAILWAYS. [Ch»p.xxxir. 

that rate they would never get to their journey's 
end ; but the porter was cool and contemptuous, and 
said : " Ye mun bide till yer betters gaw past ; ye 
are only the nigger train ! " 

The third-class passenger for a long time had to 
be content with a truck-like carriage, with low sides, 
and seldom roofed. How he had to go to the Derby 
in the early days of the railway, if he did not go 
by road, may be seen from the illustration on page 165. 
It is the Midland Eailway Company that have always 
taken the most interest in the third-class passenger. 
On April 1st, 1872, they began to run third-class 
carriages by all trains. The bold step was viewed 
by mauy a railway magnate as suicidal, and the 
company were actually besought to reverse their 
policy. Sir James AUport, then the general manager, 
received the influential hint respectfully, but he did 
not budge. The rugged face that surmounted his 
tall form was not mobile; but it was not a compre- 
hensive index of his mind. Ever since he began 
his career on the Birmingham and Derby Railway, 
all through the railway mania, and during his long 
and clever management of the Midland, he was 
quiet in manner, actuated by a sense of right, polite 
but resolute, and not accustomed to let the mere 
money-maker have things all his own way. After 
half-a-century as a railway worker, he retired in 
1880 from the position of general manager, and was 
presented by the shareholders with ten thousand 
pounds, and made a director ; but, much as he valued 



ciup. XXXII) SIB JAMES ALLPOBT. 1G7 

these recognitions of his earnest work, he was 
proud of his knighthood, conferred upon him in 
1884, not for political toadyism, but for saving the 
time of the poorest, and insisting that they should 
travel with cheapness and comfort. " If there is," he 
said, *' one part of my public life on which I look 
back with more satisfaction than on anything else, 
it is with reference to the boon we conferred on 
third-class travellers. I have felt saddened to see 
third-class passengers shunted on a siding in cold and 
bitter weather — a train containing amongst others 
many lightly-clad women and children — for the con- 
venience of allowing the more comfortable and warmly- 
clad passengers to pass them. I have even known 
third-class trains to be shunted into a siding to 
allow express goods to pass. When the rich man 
travels, or if he lies in bed all day, his capital 
remains undiminished, and perhaps his income flows 
in all the same. But when the poor man travels, he 
has not only to pay his fare, but to sink his capital, 
for his time is his capital ; and if he now consumes 
only five hours instead of ten in making a journey, 
he has saved five hours of time for useful labour — 
useful to himself, his family, and to society. And I 
think with even more pleasure of the comfort in 
travelling we have been able to confer on women and 
children. But it took twenty-five years to get it 
done.'* 

In the year of his knighthood, he had further 
honour conferred upon him by his friends and 



168 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chap. xxxn. 

colleagues of the Midland, who entertained him at 
dinner, and presented him with an address which 
showed how great was the esteem in which he was 
held by those among whom the great part of his 
earnest life had been spent. 

For nearly six years Sir James Allport continued 
a conspicuous and respected figure on the directorate 
of the Midland, giving the company the benefit- of 
his shrewd counsel. He lived to see the jubilee of 
the railway of which he was practically the father, 
and to see the jubilee also of the Clearing House, 
in the establishment of which he took so much 
interest, and he lived to see a great development on 
every side of train services and train speeds ; but he 
was not amazed at any modern acceleration of travel- 
ling, quietly remarking that on February 2f)th, 1848, 
express speed was not unknown in England, inas- 
much as on that day, at the request of Messrs. 
Smith and Son, he sent a train, with newspapers 
containing a report of the Budget speech, from 
London to Newcastle in nine hours and seven 
minutes, the train travelling at the rate of fifty miles 
an hour. Sir James Allport outlived his old chair- 
man, Sir Matthew Thompson, six months, and died — 
full of years and honours — on April 25th, 1S92, 
at the Midland Grand Hotel, London, practically on 
the premises of the company for which he had so 
long and worthily toiled. 

Mr. George Ernest Paget, the chairman of the com- 
pany, gave graceful tribute at the next sliareholder^' 



170 OUli RAILWAYS, [Chap.xxxii. 

meeting to their old director's sturdy character and 
personal worth, remarking : 

"We mention in the report the death of Sir James Allport. 
He has been intimately and universally identified with the Midland 
Railway for a very long period. Sir James joined the Midland Rail- 
way service in 1839, or, I should say, he joined the service of the 
Birmingham and Derby Railway Company, which was then only 
forty miles in length, and had a capital of about one million and a 
half. Sir James lived to see the system of the Midland Railway 
Company grow up around him until at length it had a mileage of 
something near 1,500 miles, with a revenue of £9,000,000 per 
annum, and with a capital of £100,000,000. While I should be 
very far from wishing in the slightest degree to disparage, or to take 
away from the services which others have rendered to the Midland 
Railway Company, still I think it is without doubt that, had it not 
been for the very far-seeing policy, and for the indomitable persever- 
ance and energy of Sir James Allport, the Midland Company would 
not now be in the very prominent and independent position which it 
occupies. While that is the case as far as the Midland Company is 
concerned, I think that you will agree with me that the British 
nation itself is indebted to Sir James Allport, more than perhaps 
anyone else, for the policy of accommodating and encouraging the 
third-class passengeins.*' 

The Midland Railway have in Mr. G. H. Turner, 
the new general manager, a man of great business 
capacity and ceaseless eflfort. His rise has been rapid. 
His first practical connection with railway working 
was in 1853, when he joined the Midland Bailway 
at Bristol. From the old city by the Avon he 
climbed gradually northward, improving his position 
at Birmingham, at Nottingham, and at Derby, so 
mingling courtesy and consideration with trade insight 
and unremitting work that he found himself popular. 
Then he broke away across the border; but at the 



I 



Chap. XXXII.) MR, 0. H. TURNER, 171 

end of two years in Scotland as goods manager on 
the Glasgow and South -Western, he returned to the 
Midland, and in 1891 was practically appointed to the 
position of general manager of the company. 

Congratulation on his success was sincere, and it 
was accompanied by generous gifts. He said that 
his progress reminded him of a romance ; but, after 
all, it was a romance of the old-fashioned type, such 
as Richardson would have written, a romance of 
honest struggling, and of virtue rewarded — a refreshing 
romance in these days when sterling, unassuming merit 
does not always get recognised, when the shallow 
and conceited swagger to the front, and the charlatan 
is often taken at his own estimate by a world too 
busy to inquire about him. " George Turner," writes 
a railway man, "may be safely left to consolidate 
and extend the work initiated by James Allport." 

It has, in connection with this work, been my 
good fortune to have considerable communication with 
the general manager of the Midland. He has no 
sinecure. He is up to the eyebrows in business. Not 
long ago I went to Derby to see him, in the old 
offices, bordering the station platform. There was 
a crowd of people in the ante-room, where clerks 
were busy appeasing discontented customers by letter, 
and the directories and railway books stood in rows 
over the fireplace, apparently in the same order they 
occupied years ago when I went down to see Sir 
James Allport with regard to the guards' strike. An 
architect with his plans, a deputation seeking a branch 



172 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chai». xxxii. 

line to their village, the general manager of another 
line — altogether a score of people were waiting. The 
door was incessantly on the swing as oflicers went in 
and came out. There were the voice of the telephone 
and the ring of the electric bell. 

I sent in my card, and at last my turn came. 
I was heartily greeted ; and I found that Mr. Turner, 
though he gave a gesture of half-mock despair, at 
the thousand things he liad to do, was really more 
skilful than Sir George Findlay. It was the latter's 
motto to " do one thing at a time : " Mr. Turner 
could easily do three things at once, reminding one 
of the smuggler in the play, who found it possible 
to hold a sword in each hand and a pistol in the 
other. He had his luncheon in one hand, ami a 
bundle of papers in the other, so that he was build- 
ing up his own system while extending that of the 
Midland ; and he managed meanwhile to take an 
interest in the object of my visit, and to promise 
and arrange for the information I sought. Yet it 
was an unusually busy day even in his busy life ; 
for not only had he to dispose of the " Oh, I-must- 
see-him " group in the ante-room, and of the shoal 
of work on his table, but to travel to Scotland that 
night, with the directors, who had decided to go 
over the Glasgow and South -Western system, with 
the intention, perhaps, of ultimately merging it into 
the Midland.* 

♦ As indicating Mr. Turner's alertness in railway management it is 
worth recording that he has prepared a charming litt^e book, sty^led " Visito^'ft' 



Chap.xxxn.j ABOLISHING THE SECOND 0LA88. 173 

Sir James Allport's concession to the third-class 
passenger turned out a good thing for the company 
and a great convenience to the public. By permitting 
him to travel in any train there were fewer empty 
compartments, and less wear and tear of rolling stock. 
Some of the old parliamentary joggers, that wheezed, 
and clattered, and jolted from station to station, were 
taken oft' the line altogether, and the total mileage 
much reduced. The company obtained 2,000,000 addi- 
tional passengers in the first year of the concession, 
with £220,000 additional receipts, and they saved 
£37,000 through the more general use of their trains. 
The reform, so satisfactory in its results, encouraged 
the company, three yeai"s afterwards, to venture upon 
even a bolder course. On January 1st, 1875, they 
practically wiped the second-class passenger out of 
existence on their line. There were no longer any 
second-class fares or second-class carriages on their 
system. They eased the first-class fares, and at the 
same time improved tho third-class carriages, making 
them with separate compartments, cushioned seats 
and backs, hat racks — converting them, in fact, into 
quite as comfortable coaches as the second-class. The 
innovation startled many. It was styled a revolution, 
a mistake, a nuisance. It was asserted that it would 
lead to the extinction of that " powerful middle- 
class " to which Lord Beaconsfield paid a compliment 

Souvenir of the World*B Fair, Chicago, presented by the Midland Railway 
Company of England *' to travellers between the Old World and the New, and 
giving a pen-and-picture description ot the Midland route from town to the 
Mersey. 



174 OUB RAILWAYS. c<»»p.MXii. 

in his novel " Endymion." One journal went so far 
as to say that " it would inflict great annoyance on 
every lady, and some annoyance on every man with 
a black coat, who travelled by that system." Sir 
James Allport was characterised as the " Bismarck 
of railway politics ; " and the plutocracy shook their 
heads, thought the Midland directorate had gone 
mad, and that they were courting financial ruin. 
But what has been the result ? Not financial ruin ; 
but the most conspicuous prosperity. 

In the lifetime of the present generation there 
has been an enormous increase in the number of 
passengers travelling on home lines. The report made 
to the Board of Trade in 1890 stated that "in the 
last ten years the total number of passengers carried 
yearly, exclusive of season-ticket holders, has grown 
from just under 604 millions to 81 7f millions, the 
third-class having increased in the same time from 
500 millions to over 724^ millions. The figures as 
to third-class traffic continue to give proof that in 
affording increased and improved accommodation for 
this class of passengers the railway companies have 
benefited their own shareholders as well as the 
travelling public." Mr. Giffen and Mr. Hopwood 
have a similar story to tell in the report they issued 
in August, 1893. They hazard the opinion that the 
railway companies are really doing more work for 
less money than formerly; but state that what 
attracts attention in the mass of statistics they have 
marshalled to ascertain the cost of working, and the 



I 



Chap, xxxn.] THE 0LA88 THAT PATS. 175 

profit obtained on our railways, is " the enormous 
preponderance of the third-class traffic, the increase 
of over 20 millions in 1892 following, as it does, 
increases of 27 millions in 1891, 42 millions in 
1890, and 33^ millions in 1889. Since 1888 there 
has been an increase of 122^ millions of third-class 
passengers,'* and the following array of figures is 
eloquently indicative of the growth of this traffic in 
the past three years : — 

1890. 1891. 1892. 

No. No. No. 

Firstrclass 30,187,000 30,424,000 30,602,000 

Second-class ... 62,860,000 63,378,000 61,848,000 

Thiixi-class ... 724,697,000 751,661,000 771,985,000 



Total 817,744,000 845,463,000 864,435,000 

The Midland Company were the first to discover 
that the third-class passenger was the life and soul 
of the English railway, and they have reaped the 
most benefit from accommodating him. It is a sig- 
nificant fact that in the first half of 1891, when coal 
was high in price, when labour was dearer owing to 
shorter hours or wage concessions, when goods traffic 
was shrinking and railway stocks depressed, the 
Midland alone of the great railway companies were 
enabled to give an increase of ^ per cent, in the 
dividend, chiefly because they were no longer dragging 
second-class carriages at their heels, but steadily de- 
veloping their third-class traffic, which showed an 
increase in receipts for the six months of nearly 
£12,000, while the increased gain on the first-cUvss 



176 OUR RAILWAYS. [Otop.xxxn. 

traffic in the same period amounted to tbe trifling 
sum of £92. 

The prosperous working of the Midland during 
this particular half-year, with its many grave diflS- 
culties, aroused a good deal of comment in the 
railway world. The secret of the success was attri- 
buted to the profitable . character of the third-class 
traffic, and there were all kinds of rumours in the 
air as to contemplated reforms by other companies. 
It was even said that the extinction of the first- 
class passenger was at hand. The statement was 
perhaps a little premature; nevertheless he is on his 
probation. He exists rather by the courtesy of the 
companies and the dignity of his deportment than 
as a profit-making institution. Probably he knows 
how slender is his tenure, for he does not presume 
so much on his position as formerly. He no longer 
" insists on a seat for which he pays, and another 
for his feet for which he does not pay." He does 
not, except in a few instances, sprinkle his rugs, 
shawls, and newspapers everywhere as if he had 
engaged the entire compartment, and he does not 
now make it an absolute condition of travelling that 
a through carriage should be specially run out of 
the shed, and coupled to the train, for his use only. 
But on some lines he is treated more luxuriously than 
ever ; perhaps because his life, as a first-class passenger, 
is likely to be a short one. 

The falling receipts for first-class and second-class 
passengers point not only to the universal abolition 



cup.«iu.| THE ZOSB SYSTEM. 177 

of second-class fares, but to the ultimate abolition 

of first-class fares also, to the time when all lines 

will provide only one class of carriages, spacious, 



well-appointed, comfortable, at a still cheaper rate — 
when all our trains will run, so far as fares are 
concerned, like tramcars and omnibuses, with every 
compartment open to all at the same price, unless 
special accommodation at a special fare is desired. 
Or it may be that the zone system, which works 
profitably on the Continent, and is now on trial in 
Ireland, will be adopted.* 

* TkB toae ayet«ui ^aa adopted on the Cork, BUolcrock, nnd Fassage 
Bailmy on Hsy 1, 1891, the diitaiiM bmog conndered one zone. The iaxea 



^ 



178 OUE RAILWAYS. [Oh»p.xxxii. 

In the meautime there has been some concern on 
the boards of the various railway companies* with 
regard to the second-class traffic. There is no doubt 
it is doomed ; but there are directors who are loth 
to see it die. Sir Richard Moon, who maintains his 
interest in the London and North -Western, though 
he has ceased to be chairman, does not think the 
abolition of the second-class fare either necessary or 
politic. He clings to that highly respectable fare as 
tenaciously as one would to the old house in which 
he was born, or to an old book, or an old friend. 
"Upwards of three million people," he wrote in the 
autumn of 1891, "are willing to pay an extra price 
for a little extra accommodation in second class 
compartments, and if they cannot have it will travel 
third-class at a lower price. Why should we in- 
convenience them, and refuse their extra pay? It 
is, in fact, a mere question of management, of ac- 
commodating the number of compartments to the 
probable number of occupants, and this has been 
done at Euston for years." But, with all respect for 
Sir Richard Moon, it will not be done at Euston 
much longer. The fate of the first-class and second- 
class was foreshadowed even by Sir George Findla}-, 
who wrote : " The companies have spent and are 
spending large sums of money in providing the most 

were small, and in the first mouth there was an increase of 2,500 in the 
number of passengers. At the end of the first year the chairman said the 
directors were satisfied with the experiment— that tlie zone system was 
admirably adapted to the requirements of the company and to the convenience 
of the majority of the travelling public. 



Oh.p.xxxiLi 8E00ND-0LAS8 tBAFflO. 179 

luxurious accommodation and every facility and con- 
venience for the benefit of the superior classes, but 
they are doing this practically at their own expense, 
and it is really the humble and despised third-class 
traveller who furnishes the sinews of war ! While 
it may still be profitable to carry first-class season- 
ticket holders or passengers by local and suburban 
trains, it may well be doubted whether upon first- 
class passengers carried long distances by express trains 
there is any profit at all." 

What does this statement really mean? That 
there is little to choose between the first-class 
passenger and the second-class passenger. They are 
not profit-yielders. They are more or less a drag on 
the dividend. But the London and North - Western 
do not like to abandon their old-fashioned style of 
three classes. At the meeting in the spring of 1892, 
Lord Stalbridge, the new chairman of the company, 
said in the passenger receipts there was one peculiar 
feature — that the first-class traffic had still decreased, 
while in the second-class they had carried more pas- 
sengers, but received less money. The latter fact was 
accounted for by the large intrease in the number of 
passengers carried to and from Rock Ferry in connec- 
tion with the Mersey Eailway, for which they only 
received one halfpenny per head ; but it appeared that 
the second-class traffic had still some vitality about it. 
The directors, he added, saw that the abandonment 
of this traffic must result in considerable loss, and they 
had decided at present not to interfere with it. 
m2 



180 ODB BAIIWAYS. [CUp.xxxu. 

A significant cODfession was made at the meet- 
ing in August of 1893 by Lord Stalbridge. The 
company, he said, had built fourteen new second- 
cliiss Ciirriagcs, because bo long as they carried a 
million and a half second-class passengers, they 
must provide coaches for their accommodation ; but 
these carriages were con- 
structed with a view to 
easy and cheap conversion 
into third-class when the 
iiiillenuium prophesied by 
one of the sjicakers came. 
Tl;e approacliiug demise 
of the second-class traffic 
fills the hearts of the 
directors with sadness ; 
aud the cliairmau, white 
«.» sTA,...iD»r.. iulmittliig that during the 

{FntH a riuios.a]>i, b, tht Lm.da» last hall'-ycar they had 

earned 1,105,732 more 
third-class passengers, yielding £40,000 additional re- 
ceipts, gravtdy remarked that " the average receipt 
per passenger was rather less, poiuting to shorter 
journeys and bad times." The probability is that 
though the second-class will obtain a little longer on 
the North- Western, the company will presently drop 
their second-class fares without a word, and astonish 
their third-class passengers by the i)rovisiun of carriages 
more comfortable and luxurious even than those they 
now run. 




Ch*p.xxxii.i SEGOND'OLASS TRAFFIO. 181 

Other railway companies have been guided by the 
Midland rather than by the London and North -Western 
on this point. The second-class passenger made some 
protest when his particular conveyance was placed in 
the third-class rank. He expressed himself eager to 
pay the extra fare in order to escape contact " with 
workmen covered with lime and clay " and " hawkers 
carrying stale fish," and generally demanded protection 
in his railway travelling from *'dirt, overcrowding, 
and rowdyism." But on many lines the second-class 
carriages have, nevertheless, been abolished, and the 
fastidious second-class passenger, finding that he gets 
in the modern third-class carriage accommodation as 
excellent as that he obtained in the old second-class 
coach, and at a less price, has adapted himself, without 
further grumbling, to the new conditions of travelling. 

The Manchester, Sheflfield and Lincolnshire Railway 
Company were the first company to follow the example 
of the Midland, abolishing the second-class fares on 
some parts of their system — as a prelude to total ex- 
tinction — on April 1, 1891. On November 1 in the 
same year the Great Northern Railway Company took 
a similar course. In the same month the Marquis of 
Tweeddale wrote : " We have practically abolished the 
second-class on the trains of the North British Railway 
Company, and we propose to entirely abolish that 
class." The railway shareholder is very much like his 
neighbour engaged in any other business : he does not 
like to give up a source of income; and though the 
Midland, the Great Northern, the Shefl&eld Company, 




182 OUR RAILWAYS. VJUv-mn. 

the Cheshire Lines, and the North British Eailway 
have practically aboliBhed the second-class, some im- 
portant companies still cling to it. 

There was do hesitancy about the passenger-traffic 
policy of the Great Western. Mr. Saunders, the 
then chairman, said, early in 1892, 
that they were always receiving sug- 
gestions from ingenious minds as to 
what they ought to do ; but the 
directors had come to the conclusion 
that so long as they had five millions 
oE second-class passengers, it would be 
foolish to abolish second-class. Never- 
"fr^'a mwX theless, he admitted that the company 
f. o. Ofirimj, were not buildine; so many first-class 
and second-class carriages as in the old 
days, and that the great bulk of traffic was drifting 
towards third-class ; in fact, in the previous half-year the 
increase in the number of third-class passengers had 
been one million and a-balf 

The Q-reat Eastern remained in a condition of in- 
decision. Somewhat influenced by the action of other 
companies, they hesitated to take the step. Lord Claud 
Hamilton announced that they were paying careful 
attention to the question of the abolition of second-class 
carriages on some portions of their line, but, so far as 
their suburban lines were concerned, the idea would 
not, be thought, be entertained. But the directors did 
entertain it; and on January 1, 1893, they declared 
that the second-class fare was extinct on their system. 



Chip. XXXII.) SECOND-GLASS TRAFFIC. 188 

While admitting that the increase of traffic was due 
chiefly to third-class passengers, the late Mr. Jonas Levy, 
deputy-chairman of the London and Brighton Company, 
said in January, 1892, that there were objections to the 
total abolition of second-class on a pleasure line like 
their own. At least 3,268,000 second-class passengers 
travelled on their system in the year, and he certainly 
thought it would be a retrograde and unpopular 
measure to abolish the second-class, unless the company 
were prepared to reduce the first-class fare to a second- 
class level — a step that could not be taken without the 
most serious thought. 

The London and South -Western Company have reso- 
lutely made up their minds to retain second-class fares, 
Mr. Portal telling the shareholders in February, 1893, 
that the board had no idea of doing away with these 
fares. Pressed on the subject again at the summer 
meeting in the same year, he said that while they 
carried, as they did at present, 4,000,000 second-class 
passengers annually, they might well hesitate about 
abolishing this class of fares. 

The London, Chatham and Dover Eailway, on the 
other hand, might shunt the second-class carriage 
into oblivion with profit. The third-class passenger 
is undoubtedly the dividend-earning traveller on this 
line. The first-class and second-class passengers are 
diminishing in number ; but though London, so far 
as road and railway traffic is concerned, is in a fever 
of competition, with cheap 'bus fares, cheap tram 
fares, cheap electric line fares, and the privilege of 



OUR ItAILWAYS. 



journeying a long way south of the Thames for a 
halfpenny, the London, Chatham and Dover Company 
find their third-class traffic steadily increasing. 

The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company, 
with their cross-country tracks, and chiefly short- 
distance journeys, are naturally reluctant to abolish the 

second-class passenRor, Mr. 

Armytatr^, the chairman, 
holding that three classes 
of accommodation are re- 
quired on the system, does 
not see why the company 
should refuse the extra 
fare the second-class pas- 
senger is willing to give, 
especially as it would mean 
a loss of £20,000 a year 
in recei]>ts. In a recent 
utterance on this point he 
says : 

" I do not tliink tlie time bos quite come for the change. We 
finrl the big lines, the Great Northern and so forth, have taken off 
a good deal of Becond doss, Ijut they have maintained it in suburbat) 
districts, and our traffic in cliieBy suburban, I venture to think there 
are still three classes of peojile near the lai'ge towns. We are so made 
up of large towns that it would bo a dangerous expeiiment to take 
this class olT, and difficult indeed to put it on again." 

The dividends on most of the great lines showed 
a reduction in 1893, owing to the increased cost of 
working in the way of shorter hours and better pay 




Chipk XXZIL) 



WOBKING-OLASS TRAFFIC. 



185 



for the servants, to the shrinkage o£ traile, aiul, in 
somo instances, to the Durham strike. Lord Stal- 
bridge explained to the shareholders of the London 
and North -Western that their reduced dividend was 
also owing to " an entire absence of speculation all 
over the world, and low 
prices evory where." The 
proprietors of the great 
undertaking did not derive 
mwh consolation from this 
reference to the causes of 
the stagnation ; and one of 
them, Mr. Beavis, created 
a little well-bred surprise 
among the directors by 
asserting that the board 
were responsible for the 
decreased dividend, owing 
not only to their obstinate 
maintenance of a worn-out crotchet in favour of retain- 
ing the second-class, but to the fact that the company 
was the worst of the great railways, except the Great 
Western, in its treatment of the workpeople of the 
metropolis, for though tlie working-class traffic was 
said to be good and remunerative, yet the board 
would not cater for it. 

What dread fate would have awaited him if he had 
dared to utter this heresy during Sir Richard Moon's 
reign one hesitates to suggest. But, as it happened, 
his speech did good. It was a strong breeze that blew 




:. OBOKOE ABMTT40K. 
11 fltotoqraph by Arthur Jtforc, 



186 OUE RAILWAYS. [Chap, xxxil 

away some cobwebs from the minds of the directors ; 
and the chairman, while clinging, as we have seen, 
to the second-class, said they intended to put on 
more workmen's trains, and to do all they could to 
develop this traffic — a policy which, although alien to 
the aristocratic traditions of the London and North- 
western, will give many a shareholder satisfaction. 
There was irony in the chairman's remark that their 
line happened to be one not much used by working- 
men. It was one of Sir Eichard Moon's boasts, when 
he was at the head of affairs, that he " was not a 
suburban traffic man," and the inadequate provision 
hitherto made by the company for industrial traffic 
in town is notorious, the London and North -Western, 
like the Great Western, not having yet condescended 
to run many workmen's trains. 

Sir Edward Watkin in July, 1892, told the share- 
holders of the South-Eastem that they were now 
carrying more passengers than at any former time, and 
the reason why they were not receiving much more 
money was that every one was travelling by third- 
class. In regard to this matter, too, they had had 
to follow the example of their neighbours and com- 
petitors, and the third-class carriages had been very 
greatly improved. He frequently travelled in them 
himself, and saw a good many very respectable persons 
doing the same; but, of course, if persons who could 
afford to pay higher fares chose to travel third-class, 
they had occasionally to put up with certain incon- 
veniences. For instance, a gentleman — a respectable 



Ckipcxxxn.] THB RAILWAYS m 189a 187 

merchant — the otber day wrote complaining that a 
third-class carriage in which he and some ladies were 
travelling was entered by a policeman with a prisoner, 
and that two seats were occupied by these persons. 

There was a farther abolition of second-class fares 
in 1893. Not only have the Great Eastern, the 
North-Eastem, and the Cambrian Railways discontinued 
them, but the London and North -Western liave 
actually done away with second-class fares on their 
West Coast route, and on May 1st labelled their 
second-class carriages running through to Scotland 
*• Third Class/' Owing to the abolition of second-class 
carriages on various lines in 1892, there was a decrease 
of one million and a half in second-class passengers, and 
a loss of income of £151,000 ; but the decreased revenue 
from this source was " largely counterbalanced by the 
increase of receipts from season ticket holders," and 
rendered trifling by the increase in the number of third- 
class passengers, for twenty millions more were carried 
than in the previous year, and the additional receipts 
amounted to £407,000. The Great Northern, like the 
London and North -Western, had a gratifying increase in 
the third-class traffic during the first six months of 1893, 
carrying 624,041 more passengers, yielding £19,872 in 
additional receipts. The results in the same period 
on the Midland were almost equally satisfactory, 
though obtained in a curious way. The company 
created a problem that would have delighted Lord 
Dundreary. In the half-year ending December, 1892, 
they carried more third-class passengers by 179,576, and 



188 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chap. xxxii. 

received less money by £4,272. In the first six months of 
1 893 there was a decrease of 21,278 in the number of third- 
class passengers, but the receipts were £14,000 more I 

To this it may be added that the results of the pas- 
senger traffic of the United Kingdom in 1894 further 
illustrate the triumph of the third-class. The increase 
of £545.150 was accounted for entirely by this class and 
by season and periodical ticlcots, the first class showing a 
decrease of £70,300, and the second-class of £102,728. 

It is the policy of the modern Government to 
propitiate the working man. It is the policy of 
the modem railway management to propitiate the 
third-class , passenger ; and the three great trunk 
lines north from town are not only prepared to carry 
him, but to provide him with " rest and refresh- 
ment." They have realised that he is really the 
customer to conciliate. They have tardily taken a 
leaf out of the book of the district traffic manager 
who, standing some years ago on the platform " as 
a crowded train ran in and emptied its passengers, 
nearly all third-class," said, ''That is the kind of 
goods I like to carry. It loads and unloads itself. 
It requires no porterage, no delivery. It makes few 
complaints, and does not get damaged on the road. 
It gives the very smallest possible amount of trouble, 
and its station charges are next to nothing. All we 
want is more of it/' 




r -CLASS VXRBl. 



CHAPTElt XXXni. 



RAILWAY CARUIAGKS — HOW THLI ABt AProiNTKD 
AND LIGIITF,]). 

rrirailiTe liiiilway Carriagm-A Mayor's Dmijci— How Trains iiro Sladu Up 
Now — Douycr from an Improvemenc — ^Tho Fuilmau Cur's First Ilim 
on an English Iiioo — Carriui^cs uf Hume Make — Modern Improvomonti 
in Railivaj Coaolies — The Seclusion of the Compartineut — Cuinmunioa- 
tion n'iUi tlie Driver— Telegraphing from a Speeding Train— I>oor> 
Bangia;; — Tho Old Lady and the Foot- Warmer— New Method of 
Ueatin^; Carriages — American Card on the South -Hub turn— A I'rinoely 
Railway Carriage — The Qrcat Western Corridor Train — Luxnrioua 
Travelling— Novel Mode of Train-Lighting- Tho "Candlu Club" — 
Darkness and Harder- The Oil I^mp— Qoi and the Elootrio Lij^'ht. 

Lord AiUNCiEB laid it down in the Court of Ex- 
chequer, during the struggle of railways into public 
favour, "that it would be a great tyranny if tho 
court insistud that a witness should only travel by 
the new method, and if he were a witneEs, in the 
then state of railways he should refuse to come by 



190 OUB RAILWAYS. cckip. xxxm. 



such a conveyance/ In addition to the feeling of 
insecurity that prevailed in the passenger's breast, 
he had to put up with wretched accommodation. 
Still he took full advantage of the Englishman's 
privilege to grumble, and by this means slowly 
brought about reform. The old waggons, mostly seat- 
less, and open to wind and rain, did not satisfy 
him. The inconvenience of traversing tunnels, nearly 
stifled with engine-smoke, and sprinkled -with soot, 
made him indignant, and the railway companies were 
strongly urged to provide better vehicles, or at all 
events to cover them in. Mr. Punch joined in 
the passenger's plea and protest, with the following 
parody : 

" Pity the sorrows of a tliird-chiss man, 

Whose trembling limbs witli snow are whitened o*er, 
Who for his fare has paid you all he can ; 

Cover him in, and let him freeze no mora 
This dripping hat my roofless }jen bespeaks, 

So does the puddle reaching to my knees \ 
Behold my pinched red nose, my shrivelled cheeks ; 

You should not have such carriages as these." 

By-and-by the carriages were covered in, and 
fitted with benches and toast-rack backs, that left 
the entire vehicle a roaming-place to all the passen- 
gers, and fostered indulgence in the game of leap- 
frog, men climbing over the partitions to get more 
comfortable seats or gossip with their friends. The 
first-class carriages, as may be seen from the illustration 
on the preceding page, were fairly comfortable, though 
prim and straight-backed; but the traveller in the 




ciiap.xxxiiLi AN UN80BUPUL0US MAYOR. 191 

second-class or the third-class was usually discontented, 
and apt to complain that he got more jogging than 
comfort for his money. Perhaps on this account he had 
less scruple in attempting to defraud the railway com- 
pany. Anyhow, there was a spirit of scheming abroad. 

The effrontery of the passenger was not so glaring 
as that of the betting men who in 1891 went to the 
booking-office at Sheffield and stole a bundle of tickets 
to take them north to Ayr races; but occasionally 
he tried to hoodwink his carriers, to travel without 
paying his fare, and to sneak out of the compart- 
ment, sometimes eluding the detective's searching gaze 
and adroit grasp. He was not always so fortunate, 
however; and the passenger without conscience, who 
thinks it no sin to travel without paying his fare, 
or to ride to and from business with a phantom 
season ticket, has afforded a good deal of amusement 
to the public, and considerable trouble to the rail- 
way companies, and work for the magistrates. 

One of the most curious stories that have sprung out 
of this tendency to defraud has reference to a magistrate 
himself. "The first compartment of the leading 
carriage in the first-cla«s trains — the post of danger, 
and therefore, perhaps, the post of honour — was some 
years back, according to a practice which had sprung 
up, reserved for servants in attendance upon their 
employers, who were thus allowed to travel by first- 
class trains at second-class fares. It is related that 
the mayor of a certain borough in the South of 
England, travelling with his daughter twenty years 



192 OUR BAILWATB. [Ob^XZXUI. 

of age, conceived the idea of passing himself off as 
her attendant, and thus effecting a saving of three 
shillings in his fare. Placing her alone in a first-class 
carriage, he obtained a servant's ticket, and betook 
himself to the servants' compartment. Unfortunately, 




COI'.STIES BAILWAT) 



however, for the success of liis artifice, the humble 
traveller was recognised, and the authorities at the 
terminal station being apprised of the ch'cumstaDces, 
he received on his arrival an unpleasant reminder 
that he had rendered himself liable to a fine of 
forty shillings, which he was glad to commute by 
payment of the difference of the fare." * 

The old-fashioned practice ut allowing travelling 
privileges to servants has fallen into desuetude, and 
the modem solicitude for the safety of the passenger 

■ '■ HaDch«itat Bulw«7i " : ■ reprint from the Manchttltr City Xta: 



OUR BAILWAYS. 




has wisely ordained that the first compartment of the 
leading carriage shall be lockal and unused. An im- 
portant regulation is now enforced, too, with regard 
to the make-up o£ the train. Many passengers, if 
obliged to travel by a composite 
train at all, have been under 
the improssion that it is safest 
to couple the trucks to the 
tender, with the passenger car- 
riages miming behind the goods 
waggons, so that " if anything 
happens" the trucks will bear 
the brunt of the collision or 
other mishap. Experts, how- 
ever, recommend that the pas- 
senger coaches should be placed 
next the tender, with the goods 
waggons in the rear of the train, the operation of the 
continuous brake being in that case unbroken. The 
common-sense suggestion has so impressed the Board 
of Trade that this make-up of the composite train is 
now compulsory. 

Another danger, arising, singularly enough, out of 
railway-carriage improvement, has been discovered, 
and, wherever possible, guarded against. Tbe bogie 
carriage, with its great long body, supported on bed 
frames that turn beneath it on pivots, can easily 
run round sharp curves ; but tlie old-fashioned railway 
carriage, in which all the wheels are fixed rigidly to 
the frame, finds the track difficult to keep, if pu.'^hed 



,>* 



THIBD-CLA33 PASSEKOESa IN 



A SiyaULAR 31 IS II A r. 



sharply onward 
by a heavy bogie 
down a falling 
gradient, and may 
be forced off tlie 
line. The tail end 
of a train left the 
rails at Borough 
Market Junc- 
tion, near London 
Bridge, on Janu- 
ary 7th, 1892. 
and one of the 
carriages, thrown 
upon its side, 
killed a plate- 
layer. The cause 
of the accident 
was for some days 
a mystery. There 
was no defect in 
the line, and one 
hundred and fifty- 
three trains and 
light engines liad 
passed in safety 
round the curve 
in the twenty -four 
hours ; in fact, 
there had not been 
«2 




196 OUR RAILWAYS. (Chap, xxxni. 

an accident on the curve for twenty years. Examina- 
tion of the track and of the rolling stock upheld Major- 
General Hutchinson's suggestion that a bogie carriage 
had pushed a third-class carriage, just half its weight, 
over the outer rail of the curve ; and at the inquiry 
a recommendation was made that heavy bogie carriages 
should not be run with lighter coaches on this par- 
ticular bend. Kailway companies are not eager to 
court accident, and hints of this kind are readily 
taken. The old jerking, rattling, jumping third-class 
carriage is not j^et extinct; but to the utmost extent, 
on English lines, trains are now made up of bogie 
carriages, and drawn by bogie engines. 

Travelling has become not only rapid and cheap, 
but exceedingly comfortable ; and while the locomotive 
designer and constructor have made marvellous im- 
provements in the engine, the carriage-builder has also 
been busy with brain and hand, and produced travel- 
ling coaches that not only run easily, but are elegantly 
appointed. The Midland Kailway Compan}- have given 
English travellei's the luxury of the Pullman cars. Sir 
James Allport, impressed with their suitability for long 
journeys during his visit to the United States in 1 872, 
made an arrangement, with the sanction of his board, 
for the introduction of the cars on the Midland system. 
The first journey was made on June 1st, 1874, from 
St. Pancras to Bedford, and the cars were the talk 
for some days of the railway world. One passenger 
has given his impressions of travel by this Pullman 
train : — 




<%»v. ZXxni.1 PntBT PULLUAN TRAIfT IS SNOLAND. 197 

" literally nothing seemed left to desire. Entering the tmn from 
one end, you were introduced to the parlour car — a luxurious con* 
trivance for short lines and day travel only. It was a tastefully and 
richly decorated saloon over fifty feet long, light, warm, well 
Tentilated, and exquisitely carpeted, upholstered, and furnished. 




BBDrOBD STATIOa, 



Along each side, and close to the windows, were crimson-cushioned 
easy chairs, in which, by means of a pivot, you might swing yourself 
round to converse with your neighbour, or, by means of one of 
the thousand ingenious contrivances with which the whole train 
abounded, you might tilt yourself back to the proper angle of enjoy- 
ment. The centre is free for passing to and fro. There are various 
little saloons of the private-box order, in which a family party might 
make themselves happy. Then you come to the drawing-room, 
sleeping car, and the long well-appointed saloon, with fixed seats at 
the window, like short sofas, two and two, and facing each other. 
Between them a firm convenient table could be planted, and upon 



198 OUB RAILWAYS. tchtp. xxxm, 

one of them we were able, while the train ran at over 6fty miles an 
hour, to write without difficulty. The tables removed, the seats, 
lowered to meet each other, became an admirable bedstead ; while 
some beautifully ornamented and finished panels overhead, that 
ap|)eared to be merely |)art of the sloping roof of the saloon, were 
unfastened, and in a moment converted into equally comfortable 
upper 1)6^118. By-and-by the saloon was restored to its normal 
drawing-room aspect, the tables were again put up, waitera entered 
with snow-white cloths, pantries and ante-rooms were brought 
into operation, and there appeared a dining-hall complete in its 
requirements." 

The Pullman train is no longer a novelty, and 
many passengers have become accustomed to its free- 
dom and its luxury ; but, after all, there is an old- 
fashioned liking for the railway carriages that have 
been made in English workshops and are the out- 
come of home design. In fact, the passenger coaches 
lately placed on various English lines vie with the 
Pullman cars in the beauty of their appointments 
and the number of their travelling comforts, and are 
preferred by numerous passengers because they are 
so cosy. The new Midland bogie passenger-carriage, 
with its four first-class and four third-class compart- 
ments, with its sycamore woodwork and maple mould- 
ings, its rich cushions, is good enough for a prince; 
the dining-saloon cars, with their dainty table-d'hote 
dinners, run by the Midland and London and North- 
western Companies between Manchester and London, 
combine ease of travelling with epicurean satisfaction ; 
and the " Flying Scotsman," tearing away from King's 
Cross by Grantham and York to Edinburgh, is made 
up of carriages well adapted for its long journey, 



k 



cup Tiim.1 



BECL'ST lilPRur£Jli:.\TS. 



vehicles that do 
iii6nite credit to 
the Great North- 
ern. Eren the 
third-class car- 
riages are pro- 
vided mth lava- 
tories, and the 
company, abreast 
at all e%'ent^ with 
other leading svs- 
t«ms in respect 
of enterprise, are 
now proposing to 
give sleeping ac- 
coiumodatioD to 
third - class [las- 
sengers on the 
East Coast route. 
There is an- 
other improve- 
ment still required 
in the compart- 
ment railway car- 
riages. The com- 
partments are too 
rigidly separated. 
The jxirtitions 
should he topped 
with glass, or the 





8 










H 




1 





- 5 

ii 



200 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ch»p. xxxui, 

bulkheads removed altogether, so that in emergency 
passengers might be able to see and communicate with 
each other. The plan has already been partially 
adopted on some railways, and if generally carried 
out would tend to prevent railway tragedy, and check 
and perhaps put an end to the gross assaults on 
women and the scandalous blackmailing of men to 
which the compartment system gives encouragement. 
There is an opportunity awaiting the inventor in 
the present mode of communication with the driver. 
No doubt often, on a long journey, when you have 
looked through your daily paper, and ascertained how 
the pulse of commerce beats, and the political tongue 
wags, and what new freak crime has been indulging 
in, and when you have skimmed through the last 
new book, and stared abstractedly at the rapidly - 
flitting country-side, and yawned and dozed — your 
eyes, wandering towards the hat strings in the carriage 
roof and to the light luggage rack just beneath, 
you have read the familiar notice : 

" To call the attention of the guard or driver, passengers must 
pull down the cord which will be found out^de the carriage, 
close to the cornice, over the window of the carriage door. There 
are cords on both sides of the train, but that on the right hand side 
in the direction in which the train is travelling is the one by which 
alone the communication can be made." 

The communication-cord has been of service in 
preventing disaster, and in bringing help to defence- 
less passengers ; but it is an erratic and unstable 
friend, often obstinate and disinclined to work, and 



Otap.XXXlll.1 COMMUNICATION WITH THE DBIVER. 201 

there have been cases in whicli it has proved grievously 
useless in time of peril. Surely a more trustworthy 
communicator could be generally adopted ; something 
in the form of an electric bell, for instance, with the 
ivory knob at your elbow, a system of communication 







:d: 




07 CABRIACE SHOWING ELECTBIC COMMIJKICATION. 



already in use on some lines. By such a method 
communication would be swift and certain, and the 
passenger would have no need to stretch himself 
half-way out of the carriage-doorway in wild attempts 
to reach the cord, at the risk of having his head 
knocked off by coming in contact with bridge, or 
post, or p^issing train. 

" Sir Edward Watkin," says the writer of " Man- 
chester Itaiiways," " has more than once claimed 
for his company that it was the first to warm the 
carriages with hot-water tins ; the first to take 



202 OUR RAILWAYS. [Ch«p.xxxrn. 

into Manchester a train to which was applied the 
communication between guard and driver; and the 
first to provide cushioned carriages for the second- 
class passengers and to permit them to travel by 
express trains. The same company may also fairly 
claim a foremost place in the provision of continuous 
brakes in more recent times, and have not been 
behindhand in the introduction of comforts and 
conveniences for third-class passengers." 

The company further may take credit for another 
reform — for an improved system of communication 
between passenger, driver, and guard. A handle is 
fixed just beneath the hat rack, and immediately 
the handle is pulled down the automatic brake is 
applied. The carriage alarm has been officially sanc- 
tioned, and is to be brought into general use on the 
line. It is a development of the method suggested 
by Lieutenant Le Count years ago, when, urging the 
importance of communication between the guard and 
driver, he wrote : 

"The guard should have a check-string to the arm of the 
engine-driver ; and a flexible hollow tube should be fixed from the 
guard's carriage to the engine, through which the men can converse, 
which the noise of the engine and train will otherwise render 
difficult." 

Science is certainly coming to the help of the 
passenger in this travelling difficulty. By-and-by, 
perhaps, he will be able to use the telephone and 
the phonograph in the moving train, to hold a sort 
of running comment with friends miles away as he 



Ckqi.xxxm.1 TELRGRAFHIXi: FRtW A THAIS. Sft^ 

speeds through the land, Altwidy he is within 
measnrahle distance of beinsj aWe to send a teU>5?ww 
anywhere fn>ni the train in which he is travelHnjf, 
If he has foi^>tten at King's Cross to teU^graph to 
his partner that business needs him in Si>me distant 
citr; or to his constituents that he is Oi>nuusj down 
to speak, but must got Ixiok for an inqn^rtant division ; 
or to his wife that he is hurrviuij honu^ to dinner— 
he will be able to send a mosv^igo fi\>m the carrijijjt* 
in which he sits, to the telegraph win\^ overhead 
by the line-side, and the thing will Ih^ done ! 

" At the meeting of the Kailway Tongtyss in 
Paris, an interesting paper," says the lunffntjif XrH\t^ 
" was read by Mr. W. IMlitt, general managt^r of 
the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincohishiro Huilway, 
on the means of communication Wtween trains whiU^ 
on their journey and stations along i\\o line. Tlio 
main advantages of such a system an^ that in the 
event of an engine or train running away, the trains 
and stations could be simultjineously advised ; that 
trains broken down at out-of-the-way ])la(H»s eoiild 
stop approaching trains and signal for h(»lp ; that 
train despatchers would be in direct comnnminition 
with all moving or standing trains ; and that in the 
event of an error having been made by a Higiuilnum 
the driver and guard could be warned. Tlwro iivo 
also, he contends, many commercial and otlu^r iwl- 
vantages. Train telegraphy can be ac<j()mi)liHhed by 
means of the frictional or direct contiict HyHt<»nj, or 
by the induced current method. The frictional HyHt^'inn 



204 OUR RAILWAYS. rOh»p.xxxin. 

axe those of Perl and Baillehache, but the inductive 
systems are, it is claimed, vastly superior in detail, 
in simplicity, and in economy. The inductive circuit, 
capable as it is of so many and various practical 
adaptations, has never been employed in a more in^ 
genious or novel manner than in enabling a code 
of signals to be passed from a station to a train, 
without any direct contact, even if travelling at the 
rate of a mile a minute. To accomplish this with 
wires specially laid for the purpose is remarkable, 
but to arrive at precisely the same results by making 
use of the ordinary telegraphic wires upon which 
messages are being sent from station to station at 
the same time is both striking and unique. This 
system is the joint invention of Edison and Phelps, 
and has been used in America for the last few years." 

Meanwhile, the man of resource who succeeds in 
inventing contrivances for the noiseless shutting of 
carriage doors,* and for the gagging of locomotives, 
so that they may for ever cease their shrieking, will 
earn the gratitude of the public, and deserve to be 
canonised. These reforms will no doubt come in 
time ; and when they are introduced, they will make 
a pleasant climax to the series of improvements that 
have been effected in modern railway carriages, now 
fitted with alarm signals, heating apparatus or old- 

• The Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway have taken 
sensihlo action to check this nuisance. *' The company are providing india- 
rubber stops between the door and body of their carriages running upon this 
railway, and a most stringent order has been issued to the staff against the 
slamming of carriage doors." 




FuspendrTs, lixg^a^re rAci^ elbow rcists. draTXcbt p^^• 
rentiers, dust sraardi^ sp^rnig bands, jmd other devices 
for ensuriiig a comfortable jourDey, 

There aT>e urtirraiefQl passen^is who bare always 
declined Vj ai-^v-pi the fcK^t-warmer or hot-water tin 
as an iTni:»r': Tement. Sir Edwaid Wattin tells a stonr 
of an old laav who th'jUirht one of these hideous foot- 
pans was an iiifemal inaehine, atd aerQa:ly stopped the 
train, ai.d insisted up:n the ren^oval of the thing 
from the compartmrnt. l>urinir the craze a few year? 
ago for weariniT gutta-percha lx»ots the foot-\i':irmer 
was a sc^uree alike of annoyance and diversion : scores 
of passengers unthinkingly stuck to it. Opinions 
diflVr as to when the foot- warmer is the sjreatest 
nuisance. It is a terror to a woman with a new dress 
when it is hot ; it is a stumbling-block to a man 
when it is cold. The onh' good worti that can be 
said for the foot-warmer is that it diffused what heat 
it could in its day ; but no one will regret that i^s 
day is nearly over. More rational methods of making 
trains comfortable have been devised, and in January, 
1S92, the Midland ** aired'' the carriages in their 
expresses running from St Paucras to liradforil 
b}^ means of pipes connected with the engine, and 
so placed beneath the seats of the compartments 
that they are warmed evenly, the passenger no 
longer having ** hot ache " in his feet, and anathema 
at the weather and at tb^ railway company on his 
tongue. 



206 OUR RAILWAYS. [Ch.^xxx^I. 

The South-Eastern Railway Company Lave at- 
tempted to bring carriages on tlie American pattern 
into gi'eater popularity. On March 2nd, 1892, they 
made a trial run from Charing Cross to Hastings 
with a train consisting of four drawing-room cars, a 
buffet car, and a smoking car, all built by the Gilbert 
Manufacturing Company, whose works are at Troy, on 
the Hudson River. The cars were sent over to this 
country piecemeal, in six hundred packages, and put 
together and fixed on American bogies at the works at 
Ashford. The drawing-room cars have saloons thirty 
feet long, decorated with antique oak work, and fur- 
nished with fourteen revolving chairs and three fixed 
seats, upholstered in frieze plush of blue and gold. 
Adjoining each drawing-room car is a comfortable 
smoking-room, where you may lounge and lazily admire 
the scenery, or day-dream, or wat<;h the smoke-wreath 
from cigar or pipe drift with filmy grace into oblivion. 
The dining car, a little longer tlian the saloons, has 
seats and side tables fixed on either side of the central 
gangway for twenty-eight persons, and at one end is 
a handsome buffet. Fitted with the electric light, and 
warmed with the Baker stove, the train, on its trial 
journey, was like a brilliantly-lighted, sumptuously- 
furnished house on wheels ; and the swift run down 
to the seaside, a distance of between sixty and seventy 
miles, was one of the pleasantest ever made on an 
English line, for the travelling was not only luxurious 
but easy, the hinged-bridge plates of the gangway 
connections and the bogies enabling the train to take 




INTERIOU OF A I/)!(DON AND 90UTH.WESTKItN PULLMAN TAIt, 



208 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chapixxxia 

the bends which occur on this section of the line 
without jolt, jar, or peril. 

The luxury of the American train is to some minds 
and bodies greater than that of the English express. 
The London and North -Western, the Midland, the 
Great Northern, and the Great Western have provided 
very comfortable carriages, but they have not yet 
introduced such cars as the one lately constructed for 
the Montreal and Toronto line of the Central Pacific 
Railway — a car CO feet long, with a drawing-room 
32 feet long and 9 feet wide, with six bay windows, 
and a ceiling beautiful with frescoes illustrating the 
seasons; a car sprinkled with easy chairs by day, and 
converted into a bedroom at night ; a car that con- 
tains a private state-room, a library, a writing-desk, 
a medicine chest, and lavatories so scientifically con- 
structed that on the pressure of a button, powdered 
soap slides into the richly-ornamented basins ! 

Many carriages on English railways are unlike this 
princely car. On the suburban lines, and on some of 
the northern tracks, scarcely a day or a night passes 
without fierce growl from some passenger infuriated 
because there is no foot-warmer, or the compart- 
ment is in darkness, or the carriage is only "fit for 
a cattle truck." But, despite the apparent indifference 
of some companies to the comfort of their passengers, 
it must be allowed that there is on our great railway 
systems an earnest desire towards the improvement of 
rolling stock generally and the better design and 
appointment of carriages. 






M 


^ 


■ J 


^ H. If m 


V flF 


I P-^ ■ '^ 



210 OUB RAILWAYS. v»tf.m.m. 

A significant example of the keenness of railway 
competition in this respect was afforded hj the Great 
Western Railway Company five days after the Soutb- 
Eastem ran their train of the American pattern to 
Hastings. On March 7th, 1892, the first " corridor 
train" placed on the Great Western steamed out of 
Paddington Station on its way to Birkenhead in the 




irOHUaHUf BTATIOS (HAaTIXaS UKK) IN IBSl 



I 



presence of an interested group of spectators. The 
Great Western carriages are joined together by covered 
gangways, and, if needful, tbe guard can make his way 
along the corridor throagh the train. The passengers, 
however, are restricted to the corridors of their own 
carriages, lest the third-class traveller should take a 
walking tour into the first-class carriage, and recline on 
its morocco and broadcloth, fo^tfal of the &ct that 
he has not paid the first-class fare. There are four 



Ok.p. zzzni.1 GREAT WSSTSBIT OORBIDOa TBAItT. 211 

carri^es, each fifty feet in length, and ibey include 
one second-class carriage, for this company are not un- 
mindful that thej Btill derive considerable revenue from 
the Becond-class passenger, and rather flinch from driving 
him into the third-class. The corridors are at the side 




WADHnRBT TCNNItL (BAaTIHOB LINE) DT IBM. 



of the carriages, and each carriage contains a gentle- 
men's lavatory, a smoking saloon, four ordinary-shaped 
compartments, the fourth being reserved for lady 
travellers, and beyond this compartment the ladies' 
lavatory. The carriages are warmed by engine steam, 
and well lighted with compressed oil-gas. There is 
an electric bell in every compartment, and if you 
wish to call the guard, you push the button. Nay, 



212 OUR RAILWAYS. [Ghap.zxznL 

you can not only summon the guard, but control the 
driver ; for a tug at a wire that runs along the cornice 
will open a valve in the train pipe, destroy the 
vacuum, apply the brake, and stop the train! 

Though the three great trunk lines were tra- 
versed in July, 1893, by the new corridor trains, 
the regular service of these luxurious cars between 
London and Scotland may be chronicled as really 
beginning on August 1st in that year. The Midland, 
the Great Northern, and the London and North- 
western availed themselves of all their mechanical 
and decorative skill in the equipment of these trains, 
which consist of first-class and third-class dining 
cars and corridor carriages, so well constructed and 
so prettily adorned and furnished that each train 
costs no less than £11,000. The corridor train 
certainly has added to the comfort of travel. You 
may dine, take tea, smoke, and stroll through it; 
and the most testy passenger, after a wholesome 
luncheon or table d'h6te well served in a brightly- 
appointed dining car on the north express, is no 
longer justified in repeating the old reproach about 
the Silurian age of railway refreshment. 

The latest made carriages on all the great lines are, 
in fact, models of comfort and luxury. The "American 
Eagle Express," running on the London and South- 
western with the liner passengers from Southampton, 
is a palace on wheels; and the new train on the 
London and Brighton Bailway resembles a lady's 
boudoir. " The carriages/' saya the Daily Nev)%, '* are 



ci^zxziuj PALACES OH WBBBL3. 213 

constmcted on what is known as the 'vestibule' system, 
the three waggons of which the train is composed 
having covered passage-ways between them. They 
are fitted with bay windows, and the interiors are 




finished in a style of unusual splendour. Mirrors ai-e 
all around ; the chairs are upholstered in old-gold 
velvet ; the windows are draped with crushed straw- 
berry damask; the floors are covered with "Wilton 
carpets ; and the electric light is everywhere." 



214 OUB RAILWAYS. tOhApc xxxm. 

Perhaps the greatest progress in railway carriage 
comfort has been in train-lighting. The oil-lamp has 
swayed^ and flickered, and shone in the roof for years, 
looking down with its feeble but kindly light on 
many strange sights, reaUsing more vividly even than 
the passengers that life is one long journey in which 
through carriages are scarce, and doing its duty in 
the grim darkness of tunnel and amid the crash of 
collision until its oil was spent and its light went out. 

There was a time when no pretence whatever 
was made to light railway carriages, and journeys 
were made chiefly in the daytime. When oil-lamps 
were introduced the light was so erratic and feeble 
that it was impossible to read by its aid alone, and 
here and there one meets even now with old railway 
travellers who never think of entering a train with- 
out their portable reading-lamp, so accustomed have 
they been to provide their own light.* A novel 
form of train-lighting was to be seen years ago on 
the Bolton and Kenyon junction line. The driver of 
a passenger train on that track has left it on record : 

** The lamp in f rant of the engine used to be a coal fire. A sort 
of crane with a hook at the end of it stuck out from the buffer- 
plank, and from the hook hung a fire-grate, about a foot in 
diameter, filled with burning coal, the same sort that we used for 
the engina The draught created bj the engine as it ran forward, 
and as it oscillated from side to side, kept the fire bright, and the 
ashes dropped on the road. We could see the line well before ua 
I have ridden on such an engine many a time." 

* On October 29th, 1882, a Pallman oar, rmming from London to Aberdeen, 
on the Midland Railway, was set on fire by a pasBenger't reading lamp, and Dr. 
Arthur, a government official from Ceylon, was burned to death. 



oii»p.xxxia) TEE *' PADDY MAIL.'' 215 

In another part of this work the anthor has re- 
ferred to the '^ Paddy Mail/' the ramshackle old train 
that conveys the workmen daily from their homes to 
a Derbyshire pit; but he had no idea until quite 
recently that the battered conveyance, impregnated 
with the odour of tobacco, aflForded a novel example 
of train-lighting. When the train goes out in the 
darkness of the winter morning a light is placed in 
the brake van. The illumination is not provided at 
the cost of the railway company. The members of 
the " Candle Club " find the money. The subscription 
is not a heavy one — only a halfpenny a quarter; 
and there is a whimsical rule among the toilers that 
any member thoughtlessly increasing his subscription 
shall be fined. Wright, of Derby, the noted painter 
of candle-light pictures, has, in "The Orrery," given 
some almost dramatic effects of light and shadow on 
the features of those listening to the philosopher's 
lecture; but the brake-van of the "Paddy Mail" 
would afford even a better subject, with its erratic 
light, its flare and flicker of candle, on the rough 
faces of the pitmen grouped about the van stove, 
listening to anecdote or laughing loudly at story or 
witticism. 

Passengers in the forenoon express from Man- 
chester to St. Pancras, whisking through the tunnels 
of the Peak, have observed how easily the electric 
light is turned on as the engine gives its warning 
whistle and plunges into night, and how deftly it 
is turned off as the train runs into daylight 



iie 



OVtt ItAILWAyS. 



and 8unshine again. But until a few years back 
little or no attention was given to train-lighting in 
the daytime, and the passengers had to traverse 
tunnels in darkness with snch patience as they 
could muster. A noted crime did much to rouse 
the railway companies to more 
efficient train-lighting — the tra- 
gedy in which Ijefroy was the 
conspicuous and notorious figure. 
'When the Lefroy job was on," 
said a lampman questioned by 
Mr. F.S. Williams on the subject 
of lighting, " we had orders to 
Tip some trains by day that 
go through short tunnels — trains 
we had never lamped before — 
and we have lamped them ever 
since." 

The railway lamp-man, as you are rushing to catch 
your train, seems a rather insignificant person, who 
makes a good deal of unnecessary noise, and con- 
tinually gets in your way ; but in trains yet nnlighted 
with gas and the electric light you would do badly 
without him, and it is better to grin philosophically 
as you bark your shins against his lamp barrow on 
the platform, and forgive the bang yon get from the 
porter's elbow as he catches the lamp thrown from the 
carriage roof, than to travel in the dark. The old 
rape-oil lamp, stout and dumpy, that is dropped, 
amid the clatter of hurrying feet, into the circular 




(iktkbiob). 



THE ELBCTRIO LIGHT. 



aperture in the carriage roo£ just as the train is 
about to start, dies hard. It will linger for years 
yet on branches and by-lines ; but, whether filled 
with rape-oil or paraffin, it is gradually becoming 
superseded on main lines by 
compressed gas and eleci.icity. 
The Metropolitan Bail way Com- 
pany, the London and South- 
Western, the Great Eastern, 
the Glasgow and South-Wcst- 
ern, the Caledonian, and some 
of the English trunk lines have 
used compressed gas with ad- 
vantage; but the electric light 
seems to have the greatest 
attraction for experts respon- 
sible for train-lighting. 

On the London, Brighton 
and South Coast Bailway the 

electric light has been in use for some years, and as far 
baclc as October, 1881, a Pullman car was fitted with 
accumulators and worked in the regular traffic on 
this line between Victoria and Brighton, causing some 
comment among the fashionable throng that go down 
to the sea for the winter season. The Brighton Com- 
pany ten years later had sixteen traioa lighted by 
electricity ; but the Tivies soon afterwards stated that 
the company, " after experimenting for some years with 
the electric light, have announced their intention of 
lighting their carriages with gaa. Meanwhile the 




218 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



lOhap. ZZXIH. 



passengers continue to travel in darkness/' The 
Great Northern Company applied the electric light in 
July, 1886, to one of their suhurhan trains, and 
are at the present time making extensive use of it. 
The Cheshire Lines followed their example, the 
dynamo, together with the accumulator cells, heing 

placed in the guard's van, and 
driven from the axle of the 
vehicle. The London and 
North -Western introduced the 
electric light into a train run- 
ning between Manchester and 
Liverpool, in August, 1884, but 
accumulators were not used. 
The dynamo, coupled to a 
Brotherhood engine, drawing 
steam from the locomotive 
boiler, was placed in an iron 
closet fixed behind the tender, so as to be under the 
control of the engine-driver, two wires were carried 
from the dynamo through the train, and from them 
the lamps in each compartment were fed, the djmamo 
revolving and the lamps becoming luminous imme- 
diately the Brotherhood engine was put under steam. 
The light here depended entirely on the dynamo; 
but in the system adopted on the Brighton Eailway, 
even if the dynamo got out of circuit the light 
could still be obtained from the batteries. 

In 1888 the Midland Company gave instructions 
for the equipment of two trains with the electric 




LIGHTER OF GAS LAMP OF 
18i5. 



1 



xxxmj ELECTRK' UGBT OS TEE MimjLSIi ti$ 

light to mn between London, Mancketster, tnd Lii>N^ 
pool. The first tnin, wired on the {Htfmllel syt^tem, 
was ready in May, 1SS9, and the seccmd, equipped 
on the series system, was placed cm the line soon 
afterwards. According to Mr. Langdon, in his in* 
teresting paper on "Bailway Train Lighting/* i^ad 
in 1891 before the Institution of Ciril Engineers: 

^'The main adTmtage of the pumUd system is that luiy 
deficieiicj in the electricml energy o£ one v^ude is wholl j, or to a 
great extent^ m^ by the efficiency of those adjacent to it — the one 
can borrow from the other. The main disadvantage of the series 
system is that a break in any part of the train — a looso connection — 
cuts off the charging circnit, and throws the entire onus of the 
lighting upon the batteriea But it is somewhat less costly, in that 
smaller conducting cables may be used. Experience sjieedily dis- 
played the advantages of the parallel over the series system, and 
the arrangement of the second train was modified accordingly. In 
each case the electricity was generated by a dynamo driven by 
belting from the wheels of the guard's van. These installations 
have continued in use since they were placed upon the ^line. The 
success thus attained encouraged the directors to proceed farther 
in this direction, and a number of main-line trains are now equip|)od 
with the electric light. 

*' These trains are broken up, or are capable of being broken 
up, on the journey. Each vehicle carries its own lighting power 
in the shape of accumulators, and the electricity for the whole 
is generated by a dynamo driven from the wheels of the guard's 
van. At present — in 1891 — there are on the Brighton lino 
sixteen trains running lighted by electricity, and six more Imng 
fitted, making a total of 223 coaches and 23 vans. On the Groat 
Northern Metropolitan service there are six, and two being fitted, 
in all 72 coaches and 17 vans. On the Midland there are eight 
main-line and two local trains, either in operation or being fitted, 
comprising 70 coaches and 7 vans, making a grand total of 365 
coaches and 57 vans electrically lighted. For a long time eleotrio 
lighting was limited to trains which ware not broken up, but the 



220 OUB RAILWAYS. (Ohap. xxxin. ' 

Midland experiments have carried the application to a point which 
would fairly seem to meet all the requirements of railway service." 

What development the future has in store with 
regard to train-lighting it is impossible to prophesy, 
for it would be idle to attempt to gauge the possibilities 
of such a dynamo as the human mind, which has 

• 

resources and energies practically inexhaustible. It 
has been demonstrated that electricity, though it 
occasionally indulges in curious whims, sometimes 
leaving the passenger in total darkness in tunnel, 
and now and then shining down upon him vdth 
excessive brilliance in broad daylight, vieing with 
the sunshine, is on the whole a steady, safe, and 
comparatively economical light, capable, with already 
available apparatus, and under proper supervision, of 
illuminating any train. 

Some experts, however, are not altogether satisfied 
with it. Mr. A* M. Thompson, for instance, while 
admitting that a train running en bloc may be success- 
fully lighted by electricity, and at a cost comparing' 
favourably with that of oil or gas, scarcely thinks the 
light could be satisfactorily used on a train leaving 
London for the north and changing its character on 
the way, passenger carriages, horse hoses, milk trucks, 
and the stock of foreign companies being attached 
and detached. Sir George Findlay was open to con- 
viction as to the absolute superiority of the electric 
light. It was, he admitted, more brilliant than gas 
for train lighting, and for local and suburban trains, 
filled with passengers returning from business to 



xxxnu THE LIGHT OF THB FUTTRE. ^l 

their homes and desiring to raid, this wiks an important 
consideration; but in his opinion it was extremely 
doubtful whether this advantage extendeil to long^^ 
journey trains starting at night« The brilliancy ot 
the light, he thought, would become rather objection* 
able to passengers wishing to sleep, and even with 
the gas-lights now in use on the North* Western it 
had been found expedient to provide shades to olisoure 
the light. Finding that compressed giu? was a suoih^ss 
in their carriages, the company introduced it int<^ the 
Royal train; but the Queen preferred the oil-lam[>s, 
which were quickly restored. It must be iuUUhI, 
however, that the impression prevails among many 
railway men that notwithstanding the extensive use 
of oil-lamps and compressed gas, the electric light 
will be generally adopted in England for train- 
lighting ; but " whether the current will eventually 
be generated from the wheels of the carriage or 
direct from a separate engine is a question which rests 
equally with the engineer and with the electrician." 

As this work was being written, the author learnt 
that the Midland Company had withdrawn the electric 
lighting apparatus from all the trains in which it was 
in use, and were substituting compressed oil-gas. U\ 
view of such facts as these, it is wise not to prophesy 
too boldly. 





OBEAT NOBTUERH BNUINE (S-FT. DRIVINO WBKRL AHD ODTSIDR CTUXDEB). 
(Am a P^kobvmpk btJ.R. THobjum, nmauhr.) 



CHAPTEE XXXrV. 

RAILWAY 8PEKD, 

"FlfittK Ooftohea" — LooomotiTea, Old and New — Lsiinrolj Traina — RmilwMy 
Bpeed— Wh»t the Pusenger Thmki— The Be«l Pnoe and ita Limit— 
The RailwBj Raoe to the North— Sir Edward Watkin in the Eight- 
Hour* Expreaa— Fast TiaToUinK in a Btoadj Train— Th* Old Fight 
for the Sootoh Traffic— The Renewed StrnKgle-Ths -First Honth*« 
Rnnning — Great Kortberu Time — Qoiok Rnna on Other LiQes — The 
Coming Railxa; : An Ingeoioiu Projeot — Amerioan Railway Hnrcy — 
' Ten Milei in Six Minatea— Charln Diokena as a Railway Traveller— 
The "Greater Britain"— Fast Train* from Town— Railway Ponotaallt;. 

"There is," said a writer in 1692, "an admirable 
commodiousness both for men and women of the better 
rank to travel from London, the like of which has not 
been known in the world, and that is by stage-coaches, 
wherein one may be transformed to any place, sheltered 
from foul weather, and with a velocity and speed equal 
to the fastest posts in foreign countries ; for the stage- 
coaches, called ' Hying coaches ' make forty or fifty miles 
a day." Not long ago, through the courtesy of Mr. 



Chip. XXXiT-I THROUGH THE WOBKS AT DEBBY, 228 

John Noble, the then general manager of the Midland 
Company, the anthor had an opportunity of seeing 
many flying coaches that travel as far in an hour as 
the old stage coaches did in a day. With a sort of 
roving permit throogh the company's works at Derby 
he obtained access along the high bridge that crosses 
the maze of lines behind the station to the locomotive 
department, and learned much about the locomotive 
that has superseded the coaching team, and takes us 
in what may be more truthfully styled " flying 
coaches " through the land at any hour, often in the 
teeth of storm. 

The great machine shop, with its clang of labour, 
has seen in its busy life many types of locomotive, by 
no means the least notable being the Midland bogie 
express passenger-engine No. 1853, built from the 




TBB "KOBTK BT&B" (QBUT WUTIRH). 



Ona BAII WAYS 




(lesif^^ns of Mr. S, W. 
Johnson, the locomo- 
tive superintendeDt, 
and shown at the Paris 
Exhibitioninl889. It 
is a powerful, rakish- 
^lookiag engine, weigh- 
ing forty-three tons in 
working order, and ca- 
pable of taking loads 
of from nine to sixteen 
coaches. It is fitted 
with 18 J in. cylinders, 
has one pairof 7ft. 6 in. 
driving wheels with 
tyres of Vickers steel, 
and, working at a pres- 
sOre of 160 lbs. per 
square inch, does it3 
work between London, 
Nottingham, and 
Leeds at 53^ miles 
per hoar, its longest 
run without a stop 
heing 124 miles. A 
ship captain always 
feels the greatest se- 
curity on his own 
deck, and an engine- 
driver has very little 



628 OtTS RAILWAYS. t(»*p.xxii». 

tbonght of peril on his own footplate. With Buch an 
engine, skilful in design and worthy in workmanship, 
the chance of mishap is very small ; for, notwithstand- 
ing its high speed, it runs with great steadiness, and 




works so smartly and with such ease that the driver's 
attention is seldom distracted from the signals. 

The contrast between a locomotive of this type and 
some of the engines used in the early days of railway 
endeavour is not only interesting, it is almost ludicrous. 
Hedley's " PuflSng Billy," constructed in 1813, and 
tried with success on the Wylam line, was somewhat 
whimsical in shape ; still, it was a better-behaved 
engine than Brunton's, patented in the same year — a 
steam-horse, that moved on its hind legs wit^ futile 
strength. The development of the locomotive since 1814, 



a>^zxxiT.| A 3PB0IAL TRAIN IN 1830. 227 

when Geoi^e Stephenson placed his engine " Bliicher " 
on the Eillingworth Bailway, is an instructive study. 
" Locoraotiou," the " Esperiment," the " Twin Sisters," 
the "Lancashire Witch," the "Rocket," the "Invicta," 
the " Northumbrian," the " Planet," " Mercury," 
" Samson," " George Stephenson," the " Comet," 
"Hercoles," ^^^HBBM^Iowed each other on various 
lines. The '^^^^N^^ & great improvement on 
Stephenson's earlie^tforts af locomotive construction, 
and its cylinders were placed inside, under the smoke- 
box, and its driving wheels at the traihng end of the 
engine. On November 23rd, 1830, this locomotive 
" worked a specid train to convey voters from Man- 
chester to Liverpool for an election. The time of 
setting out was delayed, rendering it necessary to use 
extraordinar^dfl^^h, in order to convey the voters 
to Livei-p^fl^^^^y ^nd the journey was performed 
in sixty u^H^^HcIiming a stop of two minutes on 
the road for^^^^' * 

The "Comet," which worked from West Bridge to 
B^worth at the opening of the Leicester uid Swan- 
nington Railway in 1832, had its cylinders low down, 
the piston-rod passing under the leading axle, and its 
reversing gear on the footplate was always moving 
backward and forward while the engine was in motion. 
Its chimney, which was thirteen feet in height from the 
rail level, was knocked down in the Glenfield Tunnel on 
the opening day, and bad to be reduced in stature. The 

* From Uie Joonud of the Aiwodttad Sooietf of Locomotive Engineen 

T2 



228 OUR RAILWAYS. [Oap.zzxn. 

" Hercules " was noted as a powerful goods engine, and 
the "Atlas," which had six coupled wheels and its 
reversing gear worked by treadles on the footplate, was 
consideted an improvement upon it, and had a wider 
reputation. Perhaps of these earlier locomotives the 
" Lancashire Witch," a four-wheeled coupled engine, 
constructed in 1828 for us^^flflfl^B|Bn and Leigh 
Railway, had the most disti^QP^^^^^and met with 
the worst fate. After dofiog its ^^re well for several 
years, it was consigned to the scrap heap. 

AmoDg more modem engines was Bruuel's "Hurri- 
cane," constructed in 1838 for the broad gauge, with a 
pair of ten-feet driving wheels ; Trevithick's "Cornwall," 
with a driving wheel of eight feet six inches, built at 
Crewe in 1847 for the London and North -Western 
Railway ; and Crampton's " Liveri^^|^erected, with 
eight-feet wheels, for the same c|^^^BB^miirkable 
progress has heeu made in tm.>^^^B^bl build of 
express, mineral, and goods eugii^WWing the jjast 
few years. Nearly every line has its own particular 
class of engine, adapted to its special traffic ; and loco- 
motive superintendents are continually suggesting or 
devising some improvement likely to steady the running 
or increase the power and speed. 

There are whimsical stories told of railway travel- 
ling in remote parts of America, and on the free-and- 
easy lines over which the trains saunter in some parts 
of Ireland and the Isle of Man ; how the driver pulls 
up opposite some homestead to chat with a relative, 
or gets ofi the footplate at a level-crossing to help the 



SLOW TRAVELLING. 



farm lad to push his 
milk-cart across the 
track, or drives his 
train so slowly " that 
passengers get out 
when tired of sitting 
still, and aft( 
ing a few 
until the train 
takes thera." An ex- 
traordinary incident 
comes from Now Zea- 
land. It is recorded 
tiiat an engine-driver 
in that colony "no- 
ticed ft la^y -wa' 
her hand All 
where he 
timed to 

pulling up his train, 
he asked her if she 
wished to get on 
hoard; but she said 
she was not travel- 
ling. She would be 
real grateful if the 
driver would ask the 
passengers if any- 
one could oblige her 
with change for a £1 




230 OUR RAILWAYS. [O-p. xxxir. 

note ! " Even more remarkable is the sporting tale 
given in the Port Elizabeth Telegraph with regard to 
Mr. William Mackenzie, a noted shot : 

" Wbile travelling by goods traia between Oookbouse and 
Cradock he happened to have his gun with him in the guard's 
van. Ob ascending a curve with an incline, for a distance of 
orer a mile, of 1 in 40, he esjue^M^M^^^auietly grazjng on 
the veldt at a distance of ',^^9B^^B^^P^ railway line. 
XTnable to resist the temptati(|4p^|q;^^^Eot^ he seized hia gnn, 
sprang from the van, ran ft f^ yards sIHK the veldt, fired, and 
shot the buck, picked him. up, ran and overtook the train, put 
the buck in the van, gol in himself, dressed the bnck, and had it 
hang np in the von before the summit of the hill was reaohed. 
The curious part of the story is that the driver of the train 
knew nothing of the occurrence until the next station wafi reached, 
and, when apprised of the fact, would not believe it until he saw 
the carcass of the buck still reeking in the van." 

The speed of the locomotive is 
ing topic with the traveller, i 
is planging along a falling \ 
staggers for the fraction of a secoiH 
the points. " That was a close Bhave," 
lurching nearly off his seat, and bending until his face 
is florid in search of his bag that has leapt from the hat 
rack to the carriage floor. He is quite certain that the 
engine has been running down the sloping track at 
the rate of 100 miles an hour, and feels a sense of 
relief now she is panting up a steep gradient, and 
getting some collar work. But the probability is that 
the locomotive has been going at little more than half 
the speed the passenger imagines. When an engine is 
travelling at from 50 to 00 miles an hour, she is 




TItAIN SPEEDS IN 



running at no snail's 
pace, and the express 
bogie passengerengine 
tliat glides along the 
line at a booked speed 
o£ 100 miles an hour 
has not yet 
common use. 

Mr. Clement 
ton, who is an autho- 
rity on the locomotive 
tax^Jt^lfpeed, says ; 
"Ij^^^^ one of the 
BrinH and Exeter 
nine-feet engines was 
oflici 
apeed 
miles an' 
short distau' 
falling gradient with 
a light load. Upon 
several occasions 
tween 1847 and 1854 
Brunei and Gooch 
tried their eight-feet 
Great Western en- 
gines, and they reached 
speeds just over 73 
railes an hour, but 
the engines could 





OUn RAILiVAYS. 



not reach the speed of SO. The Great Northern 
eight-feet-one-inch engines have attained speeds of 79| 
miles an hour. During the railway race of 1888 
several trains on various lines ran on falling gradients 
at 76 miles an hour; and in ordinary traffic, speeds 
on certain portions of railways are daily run of 70, 73, 
and occcasionally 75 niiles^M^^^^^^Bf^ be said that 
Bniotive's pace, 
liles an 
, the back pres^re and 
icome so great^ 
fft the engine, 
instructive book ■ 
Oeyelopment," the sani* 




tre ssUre and 



80 miles an hour is 
and the cause of t)*^ 
hour, the resistanc*^ 
the friction togeth' 
absorb the whole poj 
In the preface ti 
Locomotive and its 
says: 

" During the past twenty-five 
many engines, ttnd hatt travelled i] 
railways in this country, for tlio nfid 
rate of speed. Upon ct few occasions, afl 
stances, he haa i-ecorde<l the very high speed of 799 miles an hour, 
bat be has never been able to time a trun or engine at actually 
80 miles an hour. Am long ago as 1853, SI miles an hour was run by 
enginefi upon the Bristol and Exeter Eailway, but these have now 
been altered and their speed reduced. It is not wise to predict what 
may be done in the future, but at present 80 miles an hour is the 
maximum pace. The average speed of the fastest express train, over 
a long run, without a Bt«p — say 70 or 100 miles — is 54 or 55 miles 
an hour, and to muntain this it is not necessary to run at more than 
70 or 76 miles an hour upon any part of the journey." 

The railway race to the north in 1888 has already 
been incidentally mentioned (Vol. I., p. 133). The North- 
Western, determined not to be beaten by the Great 




SM OUR SAILWATB. lohip. zxxir. 

Northern, put on a new series of special erpressee in 
August. The first train, which left Euston at ten 
o'clock in the morning, conBisted of four vehicles, 
and was worked in turn bj three engines. The first 




locomotive ran to Crewe ; the second took the train 
to Carlisle ; and the Caledonian Company continued 
the running with one of their own engines to Edin- 
burgh, which was reached at 5.52 p.m., or eight 
minutes to spare. A epeed of 75 miles an hour was 
attained on one stretch, and the longest ran with- 
out stopping was from London to Crewe, 158 miles. 
The entire distance covered was 400 miles, and the 
actual time, excluding stops, seven hours twenty-five 
minutes. 

Sir Edward Watkin was a passenger in the " Eight 



dup. XIIIV.1 THE "EIOBT nOUBS EXPBESS." 235 

Hours Erpress," aa it was csalled, on the third day of 
the new service, and gave the foUowing account of 
his experience: 

" I have travelled all over the world, and I have 




PBBSTOir BTATIOK. 

never had a pleasanter journey. There was steadiness, 
noiselessness, continuity of speed; no rushing up and 
down ; no block, except just once at Atherstone ; 
always before time. It was capital in every way. 
And then the refreshment part — the lunch, at Preston 
—soup, choice of meat, sweets, cheese, and a cup of 
coffee, and all for three shillings. It is a train de luxe, 
in fact. The highest speed travelled was not more than 
65 miles an hour. The great secret in getting a steady 



236 OUa BAILWA73. ic*.p.xxxiv. 

train is to have the vehicles the Bame, length, the same 
weight, and all coupled well together. That was the 
case to-day, and I never experienced easier running. I 
remember when I was a boy of eleven, and Huskisson 
had been injured at the opening of the Liverpool and 
Manchester Kailway, that George Stephenson ran down 
on one of his engines to Manchester to get doctors ; and 
the newspapers said : ' ]IaAV*i|f to relate, the engine 
bearing George Steph^^n to Manchester attained the 
extraordinary speed of 34 miles an hour.' There is 
really no danger in 70 miles an hour, exce^ii cross- 
ings and sidings, and not there if the poi^^^re kept 
properly cleaned and oiled. I should say on the whole 
that the West Coast is physically better 4v ^^^ 
running than the East Coast. The advantages of the 
West Coast are that tlicy have^fne^nola^ large 
amount of level ground. Thej^^^^^Rifr 99 almost 
all the way to Preston, excepl^^^^^l^BR^ne, which 
is a still gradient — one in 80. TwBPBRhe old Lan- 
caster and Carlisle there is about one in 70 — up Sbap 
Fell — and there is Beattock. On the East Coast the 
disadvantage is that they have not quite so level a line 
on the balance, and they have a very much larger 
number of points and crossings to pass through — all the 
colliery districts of the north-east. You dare not go 
banging through all these points and crossings at the 
same speed as on an unobstructed line. 

" The Forth Bridge is an important thing in 
this new railway struggle. But the fact is, you 
always find Scotchmen will fight. I believe the real 





AUGUST, 


1888. 












C'UULl. 


Km^BO^H. 




Timc-Tihle 


Arr. 4.ST. Dtp 4.3S. 


Arrive <«0. 




.te. 


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Min, 


Hn. 




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Rwttuk*. 


AllgltBt 1 


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4.42 




"ti" 




"04 


TT7 


~4~ 




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36 


4.32 


"l 






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6 






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.27 


4.33 








C.27 


3 






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4.37 




3 




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Acrderitled. 


Arr. 4.1. Dtp.t.i.' 


Arrivu a p.in. " 




August 6 


I 55 


4.8 


8 




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"5752 


8 






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1.57 


4.8 


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;: i 


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.. .-.1 


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Preslcm to Cnrliale 


.. 'J^t 


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Carli=li; to Ediulmrgh . . 




'Jo O-np 230 





















3 CROSS, DUEING AUOUST, 1888. 



rk, S3BI 


1«M01, 


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TolJln 


Bui]!^"! 


IX."^' 


ivrk. 




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CbilUi 

g1iu<v( 






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ilojii,»U. 


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t.33 




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53-0 



TBS RACE TO EDINBURGH. 



combatants in this battle are the Caledonian and the 
North British. The East Coast last year managed 
by a little dodging to filch away some traffic from 
the West Coast. My impression is that the com- 
bative Caledonian people have 
said to the North -Western, 
' Come, you must help us — 
we won't stand this any 
longer.' " 

Sending me an extremely 
interesting table {see front 
of fly-sheet) showing the 
first month's running in this 
railway^ race, Mr. F. W. 
Webb, the locomotive sup- 
erintendent of the Iliondon 
and Nortl^- Western Itailway, 
says : Appended is a copy 

of the time occupied by the fast trains in the so-called 
race from Euston to Edinburgh. The speeds then run, 
however, were very little, if anything, in excess of those 
often obtained on the line. The particularly fast trains 
ran at the time were very light, and we constantly 
used our small types of engines. For oar heavier 
trains we principally used the six-feet compounds and 
tlie seven-feet compounds." 

I am indebted to the late Mr. Patrick Stirling, the 
locomotive engineer, for information with regard to fast 
running on the Great Northern Railway. Writing on 
September 10th. 1892, he said : " As regards the speeds 




OUR BAJLWATS. 




of trains, I cannot do better 
than send the records of the 
running of our Scotch train 
from King's Cross to York 
during the so-called race. I 
also enclose an account of a 
special run with the Lord 
Mayor of London in July, 
1880, as well as particulars 
of the running of one of our 
HB. PATRICK sTiBLiKo. Manchester expresses, taken 

DmadT^ ' ' by Mr. Martin, the locomo- 
tive engineer of the New 
Zealand Railway." Few more remarkable stories have 
ever been told by figures; and if George Stephenson 
— notwithstanding his curious prophecy that the 
company's trains would never be able to r^ch York 
on this track in foggy weather — were alive now, and 
could study them, he would 
be more surprised even than 
he was, in the early part 
of his career, when he was 
presented with a silver cup 
and one thousand guineas 
for his discovery of the rude 
wire-cased safety lamp. The 
records of the race to Edin- 
burgh will be found at the 
hack of the fly-sheet; ihe 
other tables are as follow : — 




Obap. ZZXIV.] 



TRAIN 8PESD8. 



299 



Speed of a Special Train run from London to York on 
31 ST July, 1880, with the Lord Mayor of London. 

Klng*8 Cross, London, to York, 188 miles, in 3 hours 37} minutes. 

Miles per Hour 

King's Cross to Grantham ... ... ... ... 52^ 

Grantham to York . . ... ... ... ... 57 

King's Cross to York, including 10 J minutes' 

stoppage 
King's Cross to Peterboro' (76J miles in 84^ 

minutes) ... ... 

Peterboro' to Stoke Box, rise of 320 feet (23| miles 

in 28^ minutes) 
Hatfield to Peterboro' (58|- miles in 60J minutes) 
Claypole to Selbj (59 miles in 60} minutes) 
Barkstone to Tuxford (22^ miles in 20| minutes) 
Grantham to York . . . 



} 
} 



52 
54 
50 



59 
64i 
57 
57-9 

58J 
58^ 
59 



Speed Recorded by Mr. C. R. Martin, Locomotive Engineer 
New Zealand Railway, whilst Travelling in the 2 p.m. 
Special Express from Manchester to London by the Great 

Northern Railway. 



)} 


„ KfKil.K/y 


» 


„ Doncaster 


l> 


,, Retford 


9> 


„ Newark 



H. 

Passed Stoke Box 4 


M. 

27 


Sees. 

21 p.m. 


MUet. 

. • • 


Speed. 
Miles per Hour. 

••• 


„ Corby 4 


30 


20 „ 


... 


• . . 


„ Tiittle Bjtham 4 


34 


15 „ 


m 


75-45 


y, Essendine 4 


37 


10 „ 


3f* 


77-10 


,, Tallington 4 


40 


1 » 


3H 


79-40 



Distance 12U mIS^ 17715 

per Hour j 

Mr. Worsdell, the locomotive superintendent of the 
North-Eastern Eailway, sent me the following state- 
ment, showing the speeds of the express trains on that 



line:- 



OUB RAILWAYS. 







-a ti 


TJ 


13 


_ 




S 3 


g a 


a 


9 


i 


lilt 


If 


If 


If 




TB o 15 o 








1^1^ 


1^ 




i^ 


m^up<^ 










'P ^ 






■* 


EjS-^-^Sgc 






71 




"gt^lS^^ag 










Sfi/SS^ -s 










-^ilol^- 


O O 13 t^ 


— o m 


o t- — O 1- 


.no 


g-n^;an£°.n 


<p ■* 0)0 


"r "?* 


_ -J-cp « -*1 




IlllcS^sg 










<&S£5a^8 




sss 
















h 






"P 


?■ 


— CJ 


o 






■ = " 




in 






£i^ 






■ ^ 








w o to 


0> to lO O 00 




h'' 


moo<~(0 


c-i tpi:- 


t- * ,- « cp 




^OOlOl 




« CO 51 to CO 


■fl-m 






S'-JS 




-w •n 


tt 


Srl-a,^^ 


OtD — 


Ol t-oot- 


•vai 


Kto^nM 


<M-*in 




(M — 


^i 


^, . 


— o o 


ooooo 


oo 


U 


















Ol-O 1- 


1- to 'f 






a " 


■50 to :0 !C 


to to-j- 


— (M ^ !M 


■-"^ 




















^ „ '■ 


■^i'^ 


1 ^ 


1 


, 


ill 


ll 


Durham 

Darlingto 

Northalle 

Thirsk 

York 


5 
II 








: ; i ; 


:| 




1 

i 


■3 ^ 


'If 


Iflll 


ll 






o o □ o 


III 


iai^'i 






tn^^Hl?; 


«z 




■g 


< . - 


1 = = .- . 


•J , 




■^ - - . 




S s :; = s 






3 : = = 


"g 

1 = = 


1= = = = 


1 = 




o . . . 


S 


ooooo 






^q -=> m o 


,ooo 


■^ T T ■*. T 


oo 








oo- 















cb.[. xxxiv.i A HUNDRED 4s FIFTT MILES AN EOUR. 241 




I. a. W. JOBNBOR. 



Mr. Johnson, the locomotive superintendent of 
the Midland, writes ; " So far as my knowledge goes, 
72 to 75 miles per hour is frequently made by 
Midland express trains." The " Flying Dutchman," 
the "Wild Irishman," and 
the " Flying Scotsman " go 
fast enough to satisfy most 
passengers with finely-strung 
nerves. There is some pros- 
pect, too, of the construction 
of a railway that will pro- 
vide travel sufficiently rapid 
to gratify the earnest haste 
of the Bishop of Eipon. A 
German engineer, confident 
that the locomotive has now 
done its best, and that its 
speed can never attain a much greater rate than 
sixty miles an hour, has devised a method of 
travelling calculated to make even a bishop breathless. 
His idea is to supersede the old-fashioned railway, 
with its ballast, and sleepers, and light rails. His 
line, with the up and down track ten yards apart, 
must be made of much heavier rails set in solid 
masonry ; and along this substantial road electrical 
express cars are to run at a speed varying from 
120 to 150 miles an hour. Each car will be prac- 
tically a train to itself, giving accommodation to forty 
passengers, dashing away unattached, projected from 
town to town by electricity supplied from the rails. 



242 OUB RAILWAYS. (oiuip. xxxi?. 

It is explained that the two sets of rails will 
have to be fixed far apart, lest the passing cars, 
raising a hurricane in their flight, should blow each 
other o£E the track ; and that a special system of 
signalling will have to be introduced, inasmuch as 
ordinary signals would be useless with such flying 
cars. The signalman seems to be entrusted with a 
good deal of responsibility on this marvellous rail- 
way, for he is expected to stop the car by shutting 
off the electric current from his stretch of line. 
One shudders to think what would become of the 
forty passengers if the signalman happened to fall 
asleep, or fell dead among his levers; but a distinct 
advantage is promised on the new line — there will 
be no time-table : no wild hunt, no frantic turning-out 
of drawers in search of it, at breakfast-time; for the 
cars will start every ten minutes. 

A human being can adapt himself to anything, 
and would probably soon become accustomed to this 
new style of locomotion, though its tendency might 
be to flatten him out like the aerial voyager's dog 
that became a satellite in "The Journey to the 
Moon ; '* still, considering the enormous amount of 
capital expended on the present system of railways, 
and the objection shown by so many passengers to 
such unnecessary haste, it is doubtful whether this 
latest form of railway enterprise will be widely adopted 
in the present generation. 

Meanwhile there is a desire to get the highest 
speed possible out of the existing railway system, 



I 



TERES NOTABLE BUHS. 



and the speed trials, 
particularly on the 
American lines, have 
produced some aston- 
ishing results, as will 
be seen from the fol- 
lowing extract from 
I^e Engineer ; 

" Three notable runs 
have been made recently 
on American railroads. 
The first of these took 
place in connection with 
a special effort to accele- 
rate the transport of 
mails from Yokohama to 
Queenstown. The steamer 
Empmt of Jtxpan left 
Yokohama on August 
19th, 1891, at 8.45 a.m., 
and arrived at Vancouver 
at noon on August 29th. 
A special tniin on the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, 
consisting of one mail 
and baggage car, and one 
slee|)ing car, started at 
I p.m. with thirty-three 
bags of mails, and ran 
to Erockville, a distance 
of 2,792 miles, in 76 
hours 31 minutes actual 
time, the average ttpced 
being thus 3623 miles an 
hour. At Brockvillu the 
train croaiied the ferry to 




2U OUR RAILWAYS, routp-xxxiv. 

Morristown, where it entered the Rome, Watertown, and Ogdensburg 
line, and ran to Utica. There it got on the New York Central and 
Hudson Kiver systems, and reached New York on September 
2nd. From Morristown to New York the distance is 361 miles, 
which was traversed in 6*58 hours, the rate being 51.81 miles an 
hour. The second run took place on August 27th. It was made by 
a special train on the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. This train 
was run for the purpose of ascertaining how fast it was possible to 
go, and the quick running was made on the section between Jenkin- 
town and Langhome, a distance of 12 miles. The total weight of the 
engine and a train of three cars was 150 English tons and the 
average speed over the 12 miles is given as 82*7 miles an hour, while 
one mile is said to have been traversed in 39 4-5 seconds, or very 
nearly 90*5 miles an hour. The third run was by far the most note- 
worthy of the three. It took place ou September 14th on the New 
York Central and Hudson River Railroad, from New York to East 
Buffalo, a distance of 436^ miles. The train consisted of an engine 
and three cars, the total weight being 230 American tons. The 
distance was traversed in 439 J minutes. The engines were changed 
three times, and there was a short delay caused by the heating of an 
axle-box. The actual running time was 425 minutes 12 seconds, and 
excluding stops, the average speed was 61*56 miles an hour. This 
performance has never been equalled. The speed was very uniform, 
the quickest mile being done at the rate of 76*5 mih*^ an hour. 
Taking the American run as a whole, it constitutes a distinct de- 
parture in railway work." 

These records were, according to an Americaa 
correspondent, broken in February, 1892, by a run- 
away locomotive. The chronicler of this marvellous 
run, possessing both a vivid imagination and a facile 
pen, writes: 

"* Locomotive running wild — clear the main track,* was a message 
sent along the Pennsylvania and Poughkeepsie Railway the other 
day. The truant locomotive had been standing on the main line at 
Blairstown, when a goods ti*ain coming up behind ran into it. The 
throttler was thrown wide open by the shock, and before anyone 



Ch«p.xxxiv.j A RUNAWAY ENGINE. 245 

could leap on board the engine it was tearing down the track at 
the rate of a mile a minute. The small knots of people at the various 
stations heard a rushing roar, and saw a flash of burnished brass as 
the engine flew by. A passenger train for New York, on the Susque- 
hanna and Western road, was almost due at Portland, and everyone 
expected a collision on the tracks, which are used jointly by the two 
roads; but the runaway reached the Poughkeepsie Road crossing, 
and was switched on to that road two minutes before the Susque- 
hanna train came along. The switch was turned half a minute 
before the engine reached it, otherwise nothing would have saved the 
passenger train. The truant engine dashed along the long brir^jge at 
Portland at the mte of seventy-five miles an hour. Steam began 
failing on the heavy gradient of the bridge, the engine slackened its 
speed, and a man leaped on board from another engine, climbed over 
the coals to the throttle, and stopped the runaway. The run from 
Blairstown to Portland, ten miles, had been made in six minutes." 

America always has gone through life in a liurry. 
It would be strange if Brother Jonathan, who is 
always telling the world that he can lick creation, 
did not reach a higher railway speed than any 
other people. But with all the luxury of his cars, 
the romantic look of his locomotives, that pant across 
the prairie and toss buffaloes and red Indians out 
of their path with fan-like cow-catchers, and the 
tearing speed of his trains, it is doubtful whether 
he gives such comfort in travelling as is to be 
found on any of the best managed English rail- 
ways. His pace is faster, his permanent way less 
trustworthy, and his railway disasters more numerous 
and altogether more sensational and thrilling than 
the most serious railway accidents that occur in this 
country. His tracks and rolling stock have, it is 
true, been greatly improved since Charles Dickens 



246 OUB RAILWAYS. (Chftp. xxxiv. 

visited America, but on some routes even yet the "fix" 
of the rails does not tend to a feeling of security. 

"I have often asked Americans in London," 
wrote the novelist, " which were the better rail- 
roads — ours or theirs. They have taken time for 
reflection, and generally replied on mature considera- 
tion that they rather thought we excelled, in respect 
of the punctuality with which we arrived at our 
stations and the smoothness of our travelling/' "I 
wish," he wrote, during his visit to Philadelphia and 
the South in 1842, "you could see what an American 
railroad is, in some parts where I have now seen 
it. I won't say I wish you colild feel what it is, 
because that would be an unchristian and savage 
aspiration. It is never enclosed or warded off. You 
walk down the main street of a large town ; and 
slap-dash, headlong, pell-mell, down the middle of 
the street, with pigs burrowing, and boys flying 
kites, and playing marbles, and women talking, and 
children crawling, close to the very rails — there comes 
tearing along a mad locomotive with its train of 
cars, scattering a red-hot shower of sparks (from its 
wood fire) in all directions ; screeching, hissing, 
yelling, and panting; and nobody one atom more 
concerned than if it were a hundred miles away. 
You cross a turnpike road ; and there is no gate, 
no policeman, no signal — nothing to keep the way- 
farer or the quiet traveller out of the way but a 
wooden arch on which is written in great letters 
'Look out for the locomotive;' and if any man. 



AMSBIOAN EAILWAYS. 



woman, or child 
don't look oat, 
why it's hia or 
her fault, and 
there's an end of 
it." 

When he re- 
visited the States 
in the year 1807, 
he seemed rather 
angry with some 
phases of his rail- 
way journeying, 
" The railways," 
he declared, "are 
truly alarming — 
much worse (be- 
cause more worn 
I suppose) than 
when I was here 
before. We were 
beaten about yes- 
terday as if we 
had been aboard 
the Cu6a. Two 
rivers have to be 
crossed, and each 
time the whole 
train is banged 
aboard a big 




248 OUR RAILWAYS. cch*p.xxxrr. 

steamer. I'he steamer rises and falls with the river, 
which the railroad doesn't do; and the train is either 
banged up-hill, or banged down-hill. In coming oflE 
the steamer at one of these crossings yesterday, we were 
banged ,up such a height that the rope broke, and one 
carriage rushed back with a run downhill into the 
boat again. I whisked out in a moment, and two or 
three others after me ; but nobody else seemed to care 
about it. The treatment of the luggage is perfectly 
outrageous. Nearly every case I have is already 
broken. When we started for Boston I beheld to 
my unspeakable amazement, Scott, my dresser, lean* 
ing, with a flushed countenance, against the wall of 
the car, weeping bitterly. It was over my smashed 
writing desk. Yet the arrangements for luggage 
are excellent, if the porters would not be beyond 
description reckless." 

Charles Dickens has not been allowed a monopoly 
on this subject. American criticism of our railways 
has been as severe as the novelist's strictures of the 
tracks in the States. A favourite run of American 
travellers on reaching the Mersey is to go down to 
the Peacock Inn, at Rowsley, on the Midland, for 
Chatsworth, the Duke of Devonshire's place. They 
are delighted with the old grey-stone house, and 
its quaint garden in the village, and with the park, 
and the art treasures of the Cavendish mansion; but 
they find the ordinary railway c^irriages crampy and 
stuffy, and going through the tunnel they calculate 
that the train is indulging in a *' darned crawl." 



AMERICAN CRITICS. 



At a watering-place two or three years ago the 
author was dining with an American lady and her son. 
They were travelling through England, and thought 




BAILWAT piTE AT CBEWE IN 



it a worn-out country. The lady was particularly 
incensed against our mode o£ railway travelling. 
She had come down from Scotland by the West Coast 
route, and the express, lurching a little at Shap, had 
disturbed her equanimity, and given her son such a 
fright apparently that his hair was still standing on 
end. She was nearly choked in the small compart- 
ment, uneasy because she was locked in, and so upset 



250 OUE RAILWAYS. [GhAp.xzxiv. 

by the rattle and roar of the express that she wished 
she was back on her clearing in " Am-meri-ka." Our 
stations were dirty and noisy, our railway porters rude 
and uncouth, and our carriages execrable ; but she" 
was quite satisfied with our railway speed. The train, 
nevertheless, was not running a mile a minute, and its 
speed was accelerated and its clatter intensified in the 
lady's mind by the state of hel: nerves. 

A locomotive has been placed on the London and 
North -Western Railway that can travel a mile a 
minute without much straining. It is the outcome 
of Mr. Webb's engineering skill — a compound engine, 
with a long boiler and an intermediate combustion 
chamber, carried on four pairs of wheels, uncoupled, 
its high and low pressure driving-wheels, seven feet 
one inch in diameter, being in front of the firebox. 
The locomotive, designed to work the heavy passenger 
traffic over the West Coast between Euston and Carlisle, 
weighs in working order 52 tons 2 cwt., and is 6j tons 
heavier than the ordinary express passenger-engine. 
It is conspicuous for its length and look of power; 
and when the " Greater Britain," of which a view has 
already been given,* cleared Crewe Works on the 29th 
October, 1891, and with its huge body and large 
wheels, a picture of burnished brass and shining steel, 
took its preliminary canter to Chester, it aroused 
much admiration by its strength, speed, and bearing. 
Romance ran much faster than the locomotive, how- 
ever, and it was glibly asserted that the new engine 

• Sm VoL I., p. 9. 



252 OUR RAILWAYS. tdutp. xixiv. 

could easily traverse one hundred miles in an hour. 
What speed she could make if her fire was hanked up, 
and the driver let her have free play, it is difficult to 
estimate. Probably she would exceed eighty miles an 
hour ; but on such a run, though the leading wheels are 
fitted to a radial axle, and can take the sharpest curves 
with safety, the passengers in the bogie carriages would 
be apt to sway, and the more timid travellers perhaps 
feel rather uncomfortable. On her trial trip from Crewe 
to London on November 4th the same year, the loco- 
motive made very good running, especially considering 
that all her parts and gearing were quite ne^, and had 
not been worked into condition. The train consisted of 
the engine, tender, and twenty-five coaches, and ran to 
Euston in four hours two minutes, including a stop of 
twenty-one minutes at Rugby.' Between Crewe and 
Rugby her average speed was 4ri8 miles per hour, and 
between Rugby and town 44' 5 9 miles per hour. The 
following is the official record of her working: 



Running Timea. 

Crewe dep. 11. 4 


a.m. 


Distance 
Milea. 

... 


Speeds 

... 


Whitraore 
Rt^fford 


pass 11.25 
„ 11.42 


99 


m 

14 


3000 
49-41 


Rugeley 
Lichfield 


„ 11.55 
„ 12. 6 ] 


99 

[>.m. 


H 

8 


42-69 
43-63 


Tamworth 


„ 12.14 


»» 


61 


46-87 


Nuneaton 


„ 12.33 


)9 


13 


4105 


Rugby 
Blisworth 


arr. 12.54 
dep. 1.16 
pa&s 1.46 


91 

I) 


• • • 

19 J 


41-42 

... 
38-22 


VVolverton 


„ 2. 


99 


lOJ 


45 00 


Bletcliley 


„ 2. 7 


9 


H 


49-28 





i 


k 


A^^JM 


g- 


m 


■ *; !-ji>". ^3i.3i;3j\; 


l! 




I'li 


m 


Pt 




4 


MP^hi 




li^ 


Mj 


F 




uufc! 




^; 


m 


I*-/ 


Ti^^^\ 


Fi 


]^y 


4 






M: 


:i^ 


^ 




^l=^-««)!^S3= ■• 


^- H * ^-^^S 


TT J 



■■-.rfd 




*■* ;;it 






H 




j*i 




Hi 




n 


f i 


a 


rj' 




4.5- 


5 










I". 
i 

I :::: 



1:1:: 
fill 



••• 

• • •■ •< 



'• 



FBOU OBEWE TO LONDON. 



Official record 


(coniinued): 






,. 


nnlngXIma. 


"SS" 


Bpuda 


LeightOD 


pass 2.15 p.m. 


6} 


48-75 


T,ing 


„ 2.28 „ 


8! 


39 33 


Walford 


, 2.*5 „ 


"1 


50-29 


WiUerien 


„ 2,58 „ 


12 


55-38 


Euaton 


•rr. 3. 6 „ 


H 


39-37 



The latter part of her journey was through rain, and 




TBB BOILEB BHOP AT CBBWB. 



iill along the tracks she waa buffeted by a strong side 
wind ; but in the twelve-mile run from Watford to 
Willesden she went at a speed of 5538 miles per hour. 
Opposite this page, and facing page 21)0, iire given 
views of sections of a later engine of the same type, 
the " Queeu Empress." 



OUB RAILWAYS. 



At the request of Sir Walter Foster, a return was 
placed on the table of the House of Commons in 
]892, showing the number of fast trains running 
between London and fifteen great English towns, and 




BDOBI STATION— TUB 



the speed they made. The service between London 
and Bristol by the Great Western included seventeen 
expresses ; the Great Northern sent eighteen down to 
Hull, the same number to Newcastle, and back again ; 
the Great Eastern had twenty-three going to and from 
Norwich; Birmingham had thirty up and down, Sheffield 
had thirty, Bradford had thirty-two, Leeds thirty-four, 
Nottingham thirty-five, Liverpool forty, and Manchester 



Omp-zzut.] BLOWB8T AND QniOKEST SPBSDS. 255 



forty-six. The 
slowest speed per 
hour was on the 
Great Eastern, the 
quickest Norwich 
train only making 
a pace of 38 "3 
miles. The fast- 
est train was on 
the Great North- 
ern, the afternoon 
train from town 
to Sheffield. It 
left London at 
two o'clock, was 
due in Sheffield 
at ten minutes 
past five, did the 
journey in three 
hours and ten 
minutes, and tra- 
velled at the aver- 
age speed of 
51157 miles per 
hour. The Great 
Western and the 
London and 
North-Western 
maintained an 
average speed of 



•1 


m 




iV 1^01 H 


. in 


■ 1 


In 


11 


1 


"1 MlH 


j 


^IHIr' 



OVB SAILWAY8. 




from 45 to 47 miles 
an hour; and the 
Midland, in their 
express service from 
London to Notting- 
ham, upheld the 
s" average speed of 
" 5r6 miles per 
e liour. 

£ A writer in the 

<= 'limes, who is an 
t nuthority on " Rail- 
^ way Punctuality," 
z has analysed and 
" criticised the par- 
S liamentary return, 
S He points out that 
£ the average rate of 
a speed for the Mid- 
^ land Company is 
(, based upon the ac- 
^ tual running time 
S hetween stations, 
3 stops at stations 
being deducted; 
while in the case 
of every other com- 
pany the calcula- 
tion of speed in 
based on the total 



Chtp. XXXITJ 



RAILWAY PUNCTUALITY. 



257 



time occupied between the two terminal points. In 
concluding this chapter a few words must be said 
about the great race to the North in 1895, to which tliere 
has been occasion to refer elsewhere (Vol. I., p. 530). 
The following table gives the arrival times at Aberdeen, 
from the 9th to the 22nd of August inclusive, of the 
West and East Coast expresses, starting respectively 
from Euston and from King's Cross at 8 p.m. : — 

Arrival Times at Aberdeen. 

East C(MSt 





West CoMt 


East Coast 




West Gout 


Aug. 9 


6-5 


6-23 


Aug. 16 


610 


» 11 


611 


6 30 


„ 18 


6-23 


» 12 


6-12 


6-20 


„ 19 


5-15 


„ 13 


615 


6-28 


„ 20 


4-58 


» H 


613 


6-22 


» 21 


4-51 


„ 15 


6-18 


6-25 


» 22 


4-32 



6-27 
6-17 
5-31 
511 
4-40 
6-23 



From this it will be seen that the 540 miles of the 
West coast route was covered on the 22nd of August 
in 512 minutes; while the best run from King's Cross 
was that on the 21st, when the journey of 523 miles 
was accomplished in 520 minutes. It is necessary, 
however, to point out that the Euston train which did 
this record-breaking run was reduced to three carriages. 
Up to this time the record long-distance run in this 
country was that between Preston and Carlisle, in the 
race of 1888, a North-Western express doing the 90 
miles in as many minutes. On the 22nd of August, 
1895, the distance was run in 79 minutes, an extra- 
ordinary achievement when it is remembered that the 
train has to do the seven miles' climb up the Shap bank. 
r 



268 OtJR RAXtWAtS. t<*•^XIJtlV. 

Between the summit of tlie bank and Carlisle, 82^ 
miles, the speed was 74 miles an hour. 

The Great Western also beat its record in the same 
year, the train which carries the Hambui^-American 
mails running on one occasion from Plymouth to 
Paddington — 247 miles — in 267 minutes, while the 194 
miles between Exeter and Paddington were covered iu 
just 194 minutes. 

The locomotive bears the impress of power ; but in 
the eyes of the ordinary passenger it possesses little 
beauty. The modern type of engine, however, is a 
vast improvement on the old style of machine, such 
as the "Twin Sisters" of the year 1827, which was 
a combination of telescope and tower, built on six 
wheels. Not only the Midland, but the Great Northern, 
South -Western, Great Eastern, and Brighton expresses 
illustrated in this chapter axe models of symmetry, 
sound construction, and mechanical movement ; and 
their paces show that tlie engineer and his craftsmen 
have not laboured in vain. 




259 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

THE DEMAND FOR SHORTER HOURS FOR RAILWAY MEN. 

"The Man in Charge of the Clattering Train " — Unrest Among Workers — The 
Strike Fever — How the School Boys " Came Out *' — Strikes of Railway 
Men — ^Tho Stubborn Fight on the Scotch Lines— Folly and Riot — ^The 
Coal Struggle in England : Its Effect on Railways and Trade in General 
— Overwork on Railways — Dismissing a Stationmastcr, and What Came 
of It — The Terrors of a Breach of Privilege — An Interesting Night 
in the House — Directors at the Bar — The Speaker's Admonition — 
Recommendations on Railway Work — ^The New Act — Robberies on 
the Line — Ned Farmer, Detective and Poet. 

Mr, Punch, the clever reflector of our national life, 
who has given us such humorous " Sketches in a Train/* 
full of Mr. Harry Furniss's grotesque caricatures of Mr. 
Gladstone and his collar, Sir William Harcourt and his 
numerous chins, and Mr. Balfour, the demon golf- 
player, can be serious and pathetic enough if the event 
is fitting, and he has rarely produced a more striking 
and touching picture than that of " Death and his 
Brother Sleep," a title taken from " Queen Mab." 
There had been a railway collision at Eastleigh, and 
Major Marindin attributed it to the fact that the 
engine-driver and the stoker had failed to keep a 
proper look-out. Both men werp asleep, or nearly 
asleep, on the engine, for they had been on duty for 
sixteen hours and a half at a stretch! 

Particularly during the past twenty years there have 
been unrest and dissatisfaction among workers by hand 
r2 



260 OUB EAILWAY8. (Chap.xjixv 

against small pay and long hours of labour. There has 
been cause enough for this impatience and discontent. 
The shuflSer, whose life is a pretence, and who has 
always one eye on the clock in his anxiety to cease his 
so-called employment, is only worthy of contempt ; but 
the working-man^ who comes punctually to duty, who 
takes a pride in his work, who puts brain as well as 
hand into his handicraft, who has learned the lesson of 
thrift, and who brings up his family uprightly, is the 
backbone of England, and deserves the best considera- 
tion, for it is on him that the prosperity of the nation 
depends. Genius, inventive skill, and capital are of 
little account unless there are also the willingness 
and the strength to execute — to weld, mould, and 
handle the material they supply. 

The sense of right in the English breast has begun to 
recognise that the artisan has aspirations and feelingps 
outside the workshop and that he has a mind capable 
of sensible thought. The trade union has spoken em- 
phaticaUy, and fought desperately on his behalf. The 
legislator has pleaded the toiler's cause. Parliament, 
glib in talk but chary in act, has at last listened to 
the imperative outcry of the industrial community, and 
has done much towards improving the conditions of 
labour, which were in many trades a disgrace to our 
civilisation and our Christianity. The political econo- 
mist, the employer of labour, and the shrewd working- 
man who gives a comprehensive glance at the world's 
trade, all look askance at a universal eight-hour day ; 
but without enforcing such a rigid limit of toil, and 



I 



oi»p.xxxv.i 8H0BTEB HOURS. 261 

withoat imperilling Great Britain's commercial position, 
much can still be done to make our industries more 
acceptable, especially to the crowding hands in our 
great cities, and to the servants on our great lines 
of railways. 

There is a disposition here and there to treat 
industry fairly. Some employers, persuaded by trade- 
union, arbitrator, or conscience, have given higher 
wages, and instances have recently arisen in which firms 
have made the experiment of profit-sharing, to the 
mutual advantage of themselves and their workers. On 
some railways, at an uncomplaining sacrifice of dividend, 
generous concessions have been made in the way of 
shorter hours and better pay. On others the greed of 
gain, or the fear of vanished dividend, still obtains ; and 
men toil wearily and hopelessly at their tasks till 
Nature can endure no longer, and confusion, error, and 
disaster make a tragic scene in life's drama. The time 
is at hand, however, when these cases of overwork will 
surely become only a tradition. The signalman and 
the engine-driver are the two servants by whose steady, 
faithful work railway travelling is made possible and 
safe; and even the old-fashioned, proud, pompous, 
obstinate director is beginning to doubt the wisdom of 
his policy towards the men on the line; to wonder 
whether, after all, quite apart from any sentiment, it 
would not be more profitable to ease a little in hours 
and pay those who, with courage and vigil, earn his 
dividend, than gloomily to sanction the drawing of big 
cheques as compensation for injuries sustained in railway 



262 OUR RAILWAYS. (cautp-xxxv. 

smashes. Besides, public opinion has been loudly and 
incessantly wagging its tongue on this question of rail- 
way overwork; and Parliament, not only by Select 
Committee of the House of Commons, but by Labour 
Commission, has during the past few years been making 
earnest and patient inquiry into industrial grievances, 
with the intention of doing what it can to remedy them. 

Hope is sanguine that the era of strikes is drawing 
to its close ; that arbitration and conciliation will take 
the place of the old rough methods of settling labour 
disputes. These duels remind one of the passionate, 
unthinking couple who, differing in opinion as to the 
amount necessary for household expenses, wrecked all 
the furniture and parted, with hatred in their hearts. 
Strikes always prove more of a curse than a blessing. 
Homes are broken up, men demoralised and embittered; 
and trade, driven to other localities, or, worse still, to 
other lands, never returns in its old bulk or with its 
old profit. 

The strike of servants on the Taff Vale, Rhymney, 
and Barry Railways, which began on August 7th, 1890, 
was not in itself of long duration; but it led to the 
Cardiff strike, which dragged on for some time, and out 
of which sprang the prosecution and imprisonment of 
a trade-union leader. At this time there was much 
restlessness among many toilers of the country as to 
their conditions of labour. The London Dock Strike, 
in August of the previous year, did much to paralyse 
trade, and drove some shipping altogether from the 
Thames. The loss to commerce was roughly estimated 




a^^XxxT.) AN ERA OF STRIKES. 263 

at three millions, but the men practically sacceeded 
in their demands, obtaining increased pay and shorter 
hours. Both skilled and unskilled labour became dis- 
satisfied, and within the next few months there were 
many strikes — strikes of bakers, omnibus men, gas 
stokers, policemen, postmen, and railway men. Six 



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companies of the Grenadier Guards strack at Welling- 
ton Barracks, finding the drill and guard duty un- 
endurable, and were sent, on their good behaviour, to 
Bermuda ; but the most grotesque development of 
modem ^itation against the duties and responsibilities 
of life was the strike of schoolboys. 

In several towns the little fellows, brimming with 
the courage that made "Tom Brown's School Days" 
breezy, resolved that they would not be downtrodden by 
the masters, and " marched through the streets, demand- 
ing shorter hours, half-holidays on Wednesdays, ' no 
cane, and no home work.' " Some of these strikes 
were difficult to settle, but the schoolboys were easily 



264 OUB RAILWAYS. tcauip.xxxv. 

overcome, for there are people who believe in another 
definition of " striking *' — in the doctrine " no cane, no 
character." The Welsh railway men greatly embarrassed 
the companies. The passenger and goods traffic on the 
lines affected were almost entirely suspended, and the 
trains that did run were so erratic with regard to time 
that they made traders waiting for merchandise, and 
travellers anxious to get homeward, marvel. When the 
block had lasted a week, the most urgent demand of 
the men was conceded, and they returned to work. 

But the strike on the Scotch railways at the end of 
the same year was far more stubborn and disastrous. 
The men demanded a ten-hour day, an eight-hour day 
for shunters, more pay for overtime and Sunday work, 
and the estabUshment of a mileage system for passenger 
and goods trains. The railway workers, thinking it an 
astute move, left their duties abruptly in Christmas 
week, confident that by this course they would utterly 
disorganise the traffic. On Christmas Eve no fewer than 
nine thousand railway servants were idle ; and on the 
North British, the Caledonian, and the Glasgow and 
South -Western Kiiilways travelling developed itself into 
two phases. It was either quick and hazardous, or so 
slow, and affording such long pauses for expletive and 
reflection, that it was better not to start on a journey at 
all. Manufacturers were crippled for want of fuel and 
means of transit. Goods trains were massed here and 
there, hopelessly blocked or without drivers. Merchants 
and traders were at their wits' end. People became 
unpunctual and uncertain; for some trains made no 



THE SCOTCH BAILWAY STRIKB. 



pretence of starting, and others were so late in arriving 
tbat many a business engagement was broken, many 




KtOT AT M0TI1EBWKI.L : WBECKINQ THB 



a maftter's equanimity disturbed, and many a workman's 
tenure shaken. The public, at first, were inclined to 
sympathise with the men, who had requested con- 
cessions in vain, and had, in some cases, been kept at 



266 OUB RAILWAYS. (Char.xxxv. 

work for grievously long periods without rest; but 
people entirely free from selfishness are rare, and when, 
owing to the strike and utter disorganisation of traffic, 
passengers were subjected to irksome delay and the 
spoiling of their holiday, loving couples had to put off 
their weddings, and heads of families suffered bitter 
disappointment at the non-arrival of turkeys, geese, 
and venison intended for Christmas feasting, there were 
murmurs and at last indignant protests. 

The railway companies were condemned for permit- 
ting the traffic to enter chaos. Even the President 
of the Board of Trade was asked — ^just as though he 
possessed the goodi fairy's wand in the pantomime — ^to 
stop the strike. The companies, in their desire to guard 
the interests of the shareholders, declared the profits 
on working to be so little that they were not justified 
in granting the concessions, that the men had committed 
an unpardonable wrong in deserting their posts, and 
that they could not treat with trade-union leaders in 
the difficulty. The traffic receipts decreased ominously. 
The public clamour grew louder. The companies re- 
mained firm through loss and storm. The men — or, 
at least, the reckless, thoughtless section of them — 
finding that they were unable to move the companies 
by the embarrassing method they had adopted, and 
that with the employment of outside engine-drivers 
and patient working the directors were gradually 
improving the traffic, had recourse to violence. The 
most exciting scene was at Motherwell. The railway 
servants resisted the ejectment of some of their mates 




Gk^xxKTj ST&IKK SCEXESi d57 

from the cottages, and a riot followed. Givat damage 
was done to the station-house and the signal-boxes. 
Some of the rioters frolicked with a locomotive on the 
turn-table, and others threw stones at passing trains. 
The Riot Act was read. The military were called out. 
The disturbance was crushed, some of the men were sent 
to prison. Attempts were made to wreck trains, but, 
fortunately, ther were unsuccessful, and onlv one serious 
accident occurred. There were some cowardly deeds 
done during the strike. One man, fierce with hate, 
crept upon a bridge, waited for a train to pass, and 
threw a missile at the driver, splitting his head open. 

The strike on the Glassrow and South -Western 
Railway only lasted a fortnight; but on the North 
British and the Caledonian it continued for nearly six 
weeks, the directors refusing to accept the trade-union 
officials as the representatives of their old servants in 
any negotiation. The men finally abandoned their 
demands on condition that the companies withdrew all 
prosecutions against them, restored as many to work 
again as possible, and consented to receive deputations 
from the different groups of workers to consider their 
grievances. On January 30th, 1891, the drivers, guards* 
and signalmen were busy trying to cope with the work 
of the North British line, and the Caledonian nicMi soon 
followed their example ; but many days elapsed before 
the traffic resumed its old regularity. 

The loss in traffic receipts alone during the six weeks 
of the strike was estimated at £128,000, and the Earl of 
Wemyss stated in the House of Lords that the dispute 



268 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ohap.xxxv. 

had resulted altogether in a loss to the railway com- 
panies of nearly £300,000, and to Scotland of one 
million sterling. The Times said : ** The result of the 
strike established two points. In the first place, the 
ability of the companies to cope with a strike of large 
dimensions ; and in the second place, their power to 
ignore the officials of the union." On the other hand, 
the men said the result of the strike established this 
point — that the fight between capital and labour, though 
it had proved disastrous in many ways, had convinced 
the directors that the grievances of the men, particularly 
with regard to the long hours of labour, must be 
ameliorated. 

The men correctly gauged the effect of the strike. 
Capital is frequently more powerful than labour, a fact 
that came piteously home to the wives and children of 
the Durham miners in the prolonged strike during the 
spring of 1892 — a struggle that paralysed the iron 
trade of the north so completely that the platelayers 
working on a new line in Essex had to suspend their 
labour because they could not get the rails. But capital, 
though bound to fight for its own hand, dislikes to 
fritter away its gold in conflicts with workmen. The 
Scotch railway companies undoubtedly won. The men 
were worsted, and it was a bitter experience to them to 
find that their trade-union leaders were merely the scoff 
of railway directors. Yet, as is often said by both 
political parties when hopeful in defeat, the railway 
servants gained a " moral victory.** 

Not long after the Durham miners* strike, the country 



OtopLXXXT.] THB QBE AT GOAL 8TEIKS. 269 

was in the throes of another industrial struggle. 
In July, 1893, the coalowners gave notice to the miners 
that, owing to the depression in trade, they must 
insist upon a reduction of 25 per cent, in wages. 
The men refused to submit to the reduction, and 
quitted the pits. At first little inconvenience was 
felt. The demand for coal was met by the accumu- 
lated stocks at the collieries, and sellers not under 
contract did a profitable trade at rising prices. By- 
and-by, however, the demand far outran the supply. 
Many mills were closed because manufacturers could 
not get fuel, and the railway companies had to 
suspend sections of their train services. Produc- 
tion in various industries ceased, trade was checked, 
and passengers made only imperative journeys. All 
the mineral-carrying lines suffered severely, and in 
the middle of October the loss to the Midland 
Railway Company in decreased goods traffic was put 
down at more than half a million. In the mean- 
time the miners endured much want and misery. 
The trade-union funds became exhausted, and public 
sympathy and help waned, the trader and the 
householder buttoning up their pockets at last, and 
expressing their indignation at the stupidity of the 
conflict. In Yorkshire and Derbyshire some of the 
miners grew desperate in their need. They attempted 
to wreck a train ; they demolished more than one 
colliery office ; and at Featherstone, near Pontefract, 
they made such a serious disturbance that the Riot 
Act was read, the military called out, and two men 



270 OUB RAILWAYS. [OhaiMXXV 

shot dead. Fuel became so scarce that house-fire 
sorts were sold in London at £2 per ton ; and the 
poor, who by the irony of misfortune are driven to 
a dearer market than the rich, gave 2s. 6d. per cwt. 
for slack that was little better than pit-bank dirt. 
Masters and men held independent conferences to 
consider the situation ; a few coalowners permitted 
the miners to resume work at the old rate of wages; 
and a notable effort was made by Mr. Batty Langley, 
the Mayor of Sheffield, to settle the dispute by the 
pacific influence of conciliation. But it was not till 
the fourteenth week of the struggle had been reached 
that a joint conference of masters and mining leaders 
was held in London with the earnest purpose of 
ending the quarrel. The pitmen by this time were in 
dire necessity, grimly fighting for what they styled 
" a living wage ; " and some of the coalowners, though 
they scarcely liked to confess it, were feeling the 
stoppage keenly. The proposals for settlement were 
futile. So grave did the situation become that at last 
Mr. Gladstone suggested Government intervention, with 
Lord Eosebery as mediator. The offer was accepted ; 
and the then Foreign Secretary, presiding at another 
conference in London, on November 17th, succeeded 
by common-sense and tact in bringing the disastrous 
dispute to an end. The men returned to work on 
November 20th at the old rate of wages; but the 
most important outcome of the conference was the 
establishment of a Board of Conciliation, consisting of 
an equal number of coalowners and miners, with an 




xxxTj TES E^'VES OF £JULSUr 1C£X 



independent cittirmaiL which v;is inTested with the 
power to deUnuDe the nte of wa^:^^ Thxv*ugh 
indnstiial disorganisaiioii and loss of tzade the struggle 
cost the OGUDtzT neariT twentr millions : and amon^ 
the effects <tf the pn>Iong>ed tussle wei>e the £^11 of 
railway stc«eks and the shrinka^ of dividends. * 

In the discnssion on the railway strikes spoken of 
above, fair-minded people did not deny that both on 
the English and Scotch railway systems the day*s work 
was too long, in some cases to a grievous extent. At- 
tention was called to the sabject in Parliament, and 
a Select Committee of the House was appointed to 
inquire how the excessive hours of labour on the line 
could be lightened, or, if needful, restricted by legis- 
lation.t Evidence was given by men in the service 
of all the great railway companies, by signalmen, 
shunters, platelayers, and porters ; and by drivers, fire- 
men, and guards. Some of the testimony was diverting. 
Some of the stories were piteous, showing that even 
on prosperous, good dividend-paying railways, the men 
were kept on duty a scandalous length of time. 

During the sitting of the Committee a remarkable 
case of overwork aroused public indignation. James 
Choules, a goods guard on the Midland and South 

* In January, 1894, the Manchoeter, ShcfiBeld and Lincolnnhiro dinx^tort 
announced that not only would the ordinary stock rocoivo no dividend for the 
second half of 1893, but that as many as seven proforonco stocks wore aUo 
left out in the cold. 

t The Select Committee on Kailway Sorrants (Hours of lial)Our) wai 
appointed in 1891 after debate in the House of Commons on the motion 
introduced by Mr. F. A. Channing, in which he assorted that the ozcumivo 
hours of railway servants constituted a grave social injtutico, and woro % 
constant source of danger both to the men and the travelling publio. 



272 OUR RAILWAYS. coutp-xxxv. 

Junction Eailway, was crushed to death between the 
buffers of two waggons at Weyhill sidings on October 
16, 1891. The accident, which occurred at three o'clock 
in the morning, was not the fault of the shunters. 
The weather was wild and stormy; and Choules, who 
had been on duty as much as 22 hours 18 minutes 
consecutively, was in such a condition of physical 
collapse, or so nearly asleep, that he could not see how 
far the waggon rebounded, or how closely the engine 
followed it up. Major Marindin attributed the accident 
to the terribly long hours the man had been called upon 
to work; and on making a searching inquiry into the 
man's railway life for some days previous to his death, 
was amazed at the enormous number of hours he had 
been on duty — at what appeared the almost sardonic 
heartlessness of the railway company in keeping the 
man at his post to the utmost limit of his endurance. 
His daily record of duty for nearly a fortnight, without 
Counting the time spent in coming from and going to 
his home, was never less than 12 hours 58 minutes, and 
one day it actually reached 23 hours 15 minutes. 

The man was practically at work day and night. 
His short and wearied glimpses of home must have 
been a mockery. He had not time to go to bed. He 
had to snatch sleep, as locomotives take in water, as he 
went along. His only consolation — if he thought at all 
in the dreary time that led up to his dreadful death — 
was that he was not the only slave in the sidings ; for 
Annalls, the driver, had been on duty 23 hours 48 
minutes; the fireman 18 hours 40 minutes; and the 



% 



THE CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS CASE. 



porter 14 hours 8 niiniites. "Tiic booked liours were 
too long, while the actual hours worked were beyond all 
reason," said Major Marindin in his report, and he 
added: "The company have, since this accident, made 
some alterations in their time-table which have, I am 
told, somewhat improved the 
punctuality of the trains ; 
and something to lessen the 
fearfully long hours of duty 
might be done by a re-ar- 
rangement of the Iiours and 
the institution of a proper 
system of relieving tlie men 
when necessary, but I fenr 
that notliing but a consid- 
erable addition to the staff 
will altogether remove the 
evil, which has become in- 
tolerable." 

Out of this inquiry into 
the hours of railway servants arose one of tiie most 
remarkable scenes that characterised the last session 
of Lord Salisbury's second administration. The 
Select Committee took some startling evidence con- 
cerning the time on duty and the condition of the 
permanent way on the Cambrian Railways; and soon 
after they had taken it, John Hood, the station- 
master at Montgomery, was dismissed from his appoint- 
ment. The action of the company caused a good 
deal of comment in the country. There were whispeis 




OtTB RAILWAYS. 



about coercion and vindictive management ; then oat- 
Rpokcn indignatiou among the railway servants them- 
selves. The outcry became louder when tlie directors 
declined to reinstate Hood on the petition of the people 
of Montgomery. A question was asked in Parliament, 
and many more were asked 
outside, as to the real cause 
of the man's dismissal. The 
Select Committee, determined 
to sift the matter, and to 
give both sides fair play with 
their tongues, took evidence 
from men and masters. 
The chairman of the Cam- 
brian Railways, and the then 
manager, were examined. 
They denied that Hood had 
been dismissed simply for 
giving evidence before the Committee, and alleged 
certain derelictions of duty against him. They also 
denied the statements made by Humphreys, a railway 
servant, as to the condition of the line and the 
excessive hours of duty. The Select Committee, 
shortly before Parliament adjourned for the Easter 
recess, issued a report in which they said : 

"The witness, Jolm Hood, wiw, by a resolution of the directors 
of the Cambrian Railways Compiiny, at a meeting held on the 6th 
of August, diamissed from the service of tlie company, mainly in 
conHoqueiice of charges arising out of tlio evidence given by him 
before your Committee, and laid l>efore the directors by Jolin 
Conacher, then manager of the railway ; and James Frederick 




Oh«p.xxxv.i A QUESTION OF PEIVILEQB. 275 

Buckley, John William Maclure (a member of this House), and 
William Bailey Hawkins, directors of the company, and John 
Conacher, did, at a meeting at Crewe on the 30th September, 1891, 
held in consequence of an application by John Hood for the rehear- 
ing of his case, at which John Hood was present, call him to account, 
and censure him for the evidence he gave before your Committee, 
in a manner calculated to deter other railway servants from giving 
evidence before your Committee. Your Committee have not deemed 
it to be part of their duty to express any opinion as to how far the 
conduct of John Hood, and the irregularities disclosed by his evidence, 
as well as the character of his evidence, were calculated properly to 
forfeit the confidence of the directors of the Cambrian Company." 

Kobert Collingwood, a mineral guard on the North- 
Eastern Railway, said he had been called a renegade, 
and dismissed by his fellow railway servants from his 
position as secretary to the Tyne Dock Branch, because 
he had given evidence before the same Committee ; and 
Sir Michael Hicks- Beach suggested that both sides — 
that both sets of charges — should be considered by the 
House together. A distinct breach of privilege had, 
however, been alleged •against the directors of the 
Cambrian Railways. The House was averse to deal 
with the Collingwood case in association with Hood's 
dismissal ; and at the sitting on April 5th, Sir Michael 
Hicks-Beach felt bound to move " that Mr. John 
William Maclure do attend in his place, and that 
Mr. James Frederick Buckley, Mr. William Bayley 
Hawkins, and Mr. John Conacher do attend this 
House." 

Jealous of its honour and power, the House never 
brooks delay on a question of privilege. The most lenient 
honourable members of both political creeds thought 
s 3 



276 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ohap.xxzT. 

that the directors had acted indiscreetly. Some strong 
partisans considered that they ought tx) be severely 
punished for the grave misdemeanour of intimidating 
witnesses giving evidence for the benefit of the House 
and the nation ; that they should, at least, like the late 
Mr. Bradlaugh, be imprisoned in the Clock Tower. 
Years ago Mr. Speaker Onslow wondered what calamity 
would happen after "naming" a member; but his 
curiosity was scarcely so intense as that in the railway 
world as to the fate of these unhappy directors. What 
would become of them when they appeared on the floor 
of the House for judgment ? Even Parliament was not 
quite clear on this point. In some quarters there was a 
notion that they would be served like the enter- 
prising newspaper proprietors of the eighteenth century, 
who, daring to report the speeches of honourable mem- 
bers, were heavily fined, and compelled to apologise on 
their knees at the bar of the House. 

The offending directors were summoned to the bar 
on the night of April 8th, 1892. The House was 
crowded. Every seat was occupied in the body of the 
building, and honourable members thronged the gang- 
ways. The peers clustered over the clock. The Strangers' 
Gallery was filled. The ladies in their gallery looked 
with curiosity through the grating from behind their bar 
at the men standing at the other bar beneath. The 
scene was an impressive one. There had been a little 
tendency to joke about the incident, but the House 
thoroughly realised that it must not merely uphold its 
own dignity, but defend freedom of speech and guard 



Oh*p.xxxv.i A CONDITIONAL APOLOGY. 277 

truth. Mr. Maclure, with a bow to the Speaker, 
stood up in his place. Mr. Buckley, Mr. Hawkins, 
and Mr. Conacher, who had been escorted from the 
lobby by the Sergeant-at-Arms, stood in a row at the 
bar. Mr. Speaker Peel, gravely addressing the 
directors, informed them of the purport of the special 
report, and said it was alleged against them that 
they had dismissed the stationmaster mainly in con- 
'icquence of charges arising out of the evidence given 
by him before the Select Committee, and had censured 
him for that evidence in a way calculated to deter 
other railway servants from giving evidence before a 
Committee of the House. 

The gentlemen grouped at the bar were then 
asked if they had anything to say in answer to the 
charge, and Mr. Maclure, not at all perturbed, promptly 
replied from his place on the front bench below the 
gangway on the Ministerial side of the House. He read 
his speech in a loud but not aggressive voice, saying, 
amid indications of dissent from the Liberals, and 
cheers and cries of " Order ! " from the Conservatives, 
that in dismissing the stationmaster they had acted 
entirely in what they believed to be the discharge of 
their duty as trustees of the Cambrian Railways Com- 
pany, and for the general interests of the public. They 
had not the slightest intention of deterring any railway 
servant from giving evidence before the Committee, and 
if they had unintentionally infringed any privileges 
of the House, they tendered the fullest expression of 
their unqualified regret. Mr. Buckley took a manuscript 



278 ODB RAILWAYS. [Oh.p. ixiv. 

out of the depths of his tall hat, and, speaking in a low 
tone, said he fully concurred in the words that had 
fallen from Mr. Maclure's lips, vaguely adding, " I 
thank you." 

The directors, at the order of the Speaker, then 
withdrew from the bar, and the House proceeded to 
consider what penalty should be meted out to them. 
Sir Michitel Hicks-Beach moved that they should he 
called in and admonished for committing a breach of 
privilege. Mr. T. P. O'Connor moved an amendment 
that they would not have purged their contempt till 
they reinstated the stationmaster or compensated him, 
Mr. Channing, the champion of the railway servants in 
the House and out of it, was in favour of giving 
Mr. Buckley and Mr. Conacher into the custody of the 
Serjeant-at-Arms. During the debate many a member 
betrayed his search into parliamentary record, or recalled 
some exciting breach of privilege in the past; and Mr. 
Gladstone, still vigorous and enthusiastic, said he recol- 
lected hearing a reprimand delivered from the Chair to 
one of the most distinguished merabere of the House 
— Mr. O'Connell, but in that case it was, he thought, a 
charge of perjuiy, or something very near it, and Mr. 
O'Connell refused to apologise for what he had done. 
The amendment was iu the end rejected, and the 
original motion carried by the lai^e majority of 349 
against 70. 

It was past midnight when the Seqeant-at-Arma, 
hearing the mace, again conducted the offenders to the 
bar in the midst of the crowded House. Though 



Chap.xxxv.j THE SPEAKER'S ADMONITION. 279 

they may have ** felt their position acutely/* their 
demeanour in very trying circumstances was never- 
theless quiet and dignified. In the course of his 
austere rebuke the Speaker said : 

" The privilege of which a breach has been committed by you is 
that you liave, by your conduct, intimidated a witness before a Com- 
mittee of the House. Your conduct towards him is calculated to 
deter othei*s from giving evidence. So dear is this special privilege 
to this House that I must remind you that at the commencement of 
every Session, and therefore at the commencement of this Session, in 
the very first day of the meeting, two resolutions are passed by this 
House. In one of these it is declared that if any person has given 
false evidence in any case before this House or its Committees, this 
House will proceed with the utmost severity against such person. 
The second of these resolutions expresses the determination of the 
House that if it shall appear that any peraon has been tampering 
with any witness in respect to any evidence to be given to this House, 
or to any Committee thereof, or — and tliis is a point to which I would 
sjiecially direct your attention — shall directly or indirectly endeavour 
to deter or hinder any person from appearing to give evidence, the 
same is declareil to be a high crime and misdemeanour, and this 
House shall proceed with the utmost severity against such pei-son. 
These are resolutions which are fresh in the memory of this House, 
and which I am surprised that those gentlemen whom I now see 
before me at the bar should have so liglitly passed over. It is a very 
grave and serious offence you have committed. The House in its 
judgment, and in its mercy, I should add, has decided that I should 
admonish yon. I do most seriously admonish you, and I warn you 
that any repetition of this offence, for it is an offence, will be visited 
by this House with its very severe rebuke and disapproval. A great 
principle has been infringed, the principle that evidence given before 
this House shall be free and unrestrained. I warn you against ever 
repeating an offence of this kind. The offence is a very serious one, 
for it is no less an offence than that of trying, however unintention- 
ally it ma}' be in certain circumstances, to deter witnesses from giving 
evidence before Committees of this House, and thus to disturb and 
taint the very sourpe gf truth. J believe J aw acting, as J wi*.U to 



280 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ohap xxxT. 

act, as the interpreter of the feelings of this House, when I say that 
I seriously admonish you, and hope that your example will act as a 
deterrent to others, and that it will also act as a warning to your- 
selves never again to presume to commit a like offence against the 
character, the dignity, and the purity of this House." 

There is in the English heart a strong sense of 
justice; and John Hood, though dismissed, was not 
neglected or forgotten. His cause was championed 
on many a platform, and he became a conspicuous 
figure in the world of labour. It was generally con- 
sidered that he had been harshly treated. People 
were quite ready to admit that employers must act 
with firmness; but it was thought that he had been 
held too tightly in the grasp of discipline. A vast 
number of workers sympathised with him, and their 
sympathy was not a mere sentiment. The platelayer, 
the shunter, the signalman, and the driver subscribed 
to a fund for his benefit, and Members of Parliament 
interested themselves in his welfare. A substantial 
sum was presented to him, and he shrewdly applied 
it to the erection of a dwelling at Ellesmere, which 
he has styled " Trevelyan House," as a reminder of 
the staunch support of Sir George Trevelyan, who had 
ably and courageously defended him. John Hood's 
chequered career proves that good does sometimes 
spring out of evil ; and his dismissal, though it caused 
him much anxiety and misery, was a blessing in 
disguise. 

The Select Committee on Eailway Servants' Hours 
of Labour, after many sittings, expressed the following 
opinion : — 



282 OUR RAILWAYS. (Chap.xxxv. 

Overwork on the railways of the United Kingdom is widespread 
and, in general, systematic, and not accidental or exceptional. 

The demands of the men for a fair day's work, so far as they 
have been formulated through their various Unions, are reasonable, 
but cannot under existing circumstances be obtained by means of 
conciliation or arbitration. 

While steps have been taken on some railways in the right 
direction to bring hours within fair limits, the returns of overtime 
work and the evidence proved that there has not been, and is not 
likely to be, general and effectual reform, if this matter is left to 
take care of itself. 

Hallways are State-granted monopolies, and the State has the 
right and the duty to insist on safe working and just conditions of 
labour, including reasonable hours. 

The State can exercise this right and discharge this duty better 
through the Board of Trade, the department to which the conditions 
of safe railway working are refened, than by direct legislative 
restriction. 

The varied conditions of the railway service make it advisable 
for the Board of Trade to deal with each case on its merits. 

The Board of Trade must have compulsory powers to enforce 
their recommendations. 

The Railway Commissioners should be made a court to enforce 
penalties and adjudicate on questions arising out of the exercise of 
their powers by the Board of Trade in the i-estriction of houi*s of 
labour. 

Your Committee therefore recommend that the necessary powers 
be given to the Board of Trade and to the Eailway Commissioners 
by legislation without delay. 

Since these recammendations were raade. Parliament 
has been busy on behalf of railway servants. With 
the return to power of Mr. Gladstone's Government 
in July, 1892, and the appointment of Mr. Mundella 
to the Board of Trade, industrial questions gained 
in interest; and that of railway servants' hours 
speedily received earnest attention. The Kail way 



i 



Oh.p.xxxv.) AN AOT TO PREVENT OVERWORK. 283 

Servants* Hours of Labour Bill was introduced by 
Mr. Mundella, read a third time in both Houses, 
and passed. It set forth that, if it is represented 
to the Board of Trade by any class of railway 
servants that their hours of labour are excessive, 
and do not provide sufficient intervals of rest, 
the Department may order the railway company to 
submit to them such a schedule of time for the 
duty of the servants as will bring the actual hours 
of work within reasonable limits, regard being had 
to all the circumstances of the traffic. It also provided 
that if the railway company fail to comply with 
the order, the Eailway Commission may compel them, 
or inflict a daily fine so long as the default con- 
tinues. Mr. Mundella was confident that the Act 
would kill overwork on railways; nevertheless Sir 
John Gorst on the one hand, and Mr. John Burns 
on the other, sought to make it more drastic, 
being convinced that a legislative limit of eight 
hours for signalmen and ten liours for other servants 
should be fixed. 

The difficulty of fixing a maximum was, however, 
deemed insurmountable, so varied are the conditions 
of railway labour. Mr. Mundella said there were 
signal boxes in London where more than ninety 
trains passed in an hour, and where no signalman 
could work eight hours. The author knows a signal- 
box in the country in which eight hours' duty 
would be a delightful holiday. The cabin is just on 
the fringe of the village. A hawthorn hedge divides 



OVB RAILWAYS. 



the line from the bowling-green, and the doorway 
to this pleasant haunt is not more tlian a dozen 
yards from the signal-box steps. Trains are few. 
The signalman is a dandy, and an adept at bowling. 




He spends bis leisure on the green ; and the last 
time the writer saw bim be bad partly doffed tlie 
corduroy of the company, and wore a lavvn-tonuis 
blouse and lawn-tennis shoes, and altogether looked a 
good deal more like a prosperous shopkeeper than a 
humble signalman, as he skilfully sent the ball towards 
the jack. 



THE FORCE OF PUBLI0IT7. 



The Act, notwithstanding the difficulty of equit- 
able legislation on railway labour, is an admirable 
safeguard f^ainst excessive work on the line, trusting, 
as Lord Playfair remarked, " very much to the force 




i COUNTRT SlONiL-OABIK. 



of publicity," rather than to a rigid limit of hours 
tliat would make capital shy, fetter trade, and tor- 
ment the passenger ; for, however sincere may be the 
traveller's zeal for the welfare of the railway servant, 
he becomes an awkward customer if the train is five 



286 OUR RAILWAYS. ccn«ip.xxxv. 

minutes late, even though the five minutes may have 
been lost in relieving driver or signalman.* 

England has fortunately produced no such daring 
railroad speculator as Jay Gould, the well-known 
American millionaire, who died fabulously wealthy, 
but quitted the world amid few regi-ets. George 
Hudson, the "Railway King," was a puny financial 
operator in comparison with this selfish figure. Sharp 
practice has not loomed conspicuously in our home 
railway management; still there have been some cases 
in which railway officials and servants have brought 
upon themselves disgrace and discredit. 

At an inquest in Loudon, a few years ago, relative 
to the death of a railway fireman, who was killed 
by the open carriage door of a passing train, as he 
was leaning over the footplate, a juryman bluntly 
remarked : *' I should like to hang a director." This 
frank citizen would, no doubt, have derived a 
mitigated satisfaction from the position of the chair- 
man of the Tenbury, Worcester and Ludlow Railway 
Company, on August 27th, 1846, for on that day he 
appeared at the Mansion House to answer a charge 
of forgery. It was alleged that the figures on a 
cheque, signed by the prisoner as chairman of the 
company, had been altered to a much larger amount, 
and paid in notes, which were cashed by the accused 

♦ The RaUway Servants' Houra of Labour Act duly received the Royal 
assent; and on September 19th, 1893, a circular was issued by the Board of 
Trade to the railway companies, calling their attention to its provisions, and 
asking what steps they were taking voluntarily to bring the actual hours of 
work of their servants within reasonable limits. 




0b.p,xiiT.j AS UNPLEASANT ANNOUNCEMENT. 



at the Bank of England. The prisoner was duly 
committed for trial ; but the grand jury ignored 
the Bill. 

Tlie directors of the Charnwood Forest Railway 
Company, on April Uth, 1885, made the unpleasant 
announcement to the share- 
holders that al though only 
£46,000 of debenture stock 
had been authorised, at least 
£150,000 worth had been 
dealt in. Tiie fraud aroused 
much indignation and cha- 
grin, especially as it was 
ascertained that the official 
who had so dishonestly en- 
riched himself bad fled, had 
managed to escape to the 
wrong-doer's refuge — Spain.* "" "™' 

The then secretary of a Scottish railway, who had been 
"held in high esteem for works of benevolence," was 
sentenced at Glasgow, on December 28th, 1879, to 
penal servitude for life, for fraud. 

In the collection of Derbyshire books given to the 
county town by the late Duke of Devonshire is " Ned 
Farmer's Scrap Book." Ned Farmer was for many years 




JAY OOULD. 



* A coireepoodent writes to tha author: "It should, in justice to the 
ditectora, be explained that they were no parties to the fraud. An official 
embexzled the money, and the directors had to make up the loss. I knov, 
because the anxiety in connection with tbs matter caused my father's dcalh. 
Through no fault of his own, ho had to find £40,000 tovards meeting tha 
deficienof.'' 



288 OUR RAILWAYS. [Cb»p.xxxv. 

a railway detective. Like H!awkshaw, the detective in 
"Tlie Ticket-of-Leave Man/' he was not only brave, 
but tender-hearted ; and the constant contact with the 
seamy side of life in nowise blunted his fine nature. 
His recreation — a strange contrast from his business 
of thief-catching — was the composition of the songs 
and poems contained in his " Scrap Book," and through 
all these rhymes there is evidence of kindliness. His 
piece "Little Jim," which gives a pathetic picture of 
the death of a pitman's child, is more than a rhyme 
— it is a poem, and is worthy of a higher place in " the 
niche of fame " than it has reached, though it has 
become a school-book ballad, and is a familiar piece 
in many a home, nearly every English lad knowing 
the pathetic story beginning — 

The cottage was a thatched one, the outside old and mean. 
Yet everything within that cot was wond'rous neat and clean. 

There is a robust ring and swing in his verses to 
" King Steam ":— 

Hurrah for the rail 1 for the stout iron rail, 

A boon to both country and town, 
From the very first day that the permanent way 

And the far-famed fish-point was laid down. 
Tis destined, you'll find, to befriend all mankind, 

To strew blessings all over the world ; 
Man's science, they say, gave it birth one fine day. 

And the flag of King Steam was unfurled. 

Then hurrah for King Steam, whose wild whistle and 
Gives notice to friends and to foes, [scream 

As he makes the dust fly, and goes thundering by, 

So stand clear, and make room for King Steam. 



b 



Cb.p.xxxv.i KING STEAM. 289 

Aye ! a monarch, I say, hath he been from the day 

He was bom ; on that glad happy hour, 
Until now, when we know the vast debt that we owe 

To his daring, his speed, and his power ! 
See the birds left behind, as he outstrips the wind 

By the aid of key, sleeper, and metal ; 
Great Watt little thought what a giant he'd caught, 

When the infant was boiling a kettle. 

They may tell, if they will, that our monarch can kill, 

'Tis a fact, I admit, and well known. 
But fairly inquire, and there's this to admire, 

The fault is but rarely his own. 
With fhe high and the low he's his failings, we know, 

And his moments of weakness, no doubt. 
Since the world first begun there were spots on the sun, 

Then why should King Steam be without? 



Ned Fanner was succeeded by a detective who 
apparently became demoralised by his own occupation, 
for, after quitting the company's service, he was, on 
November 20, 1877, sentenced to two years' imprison- 
ment, for the Goncourt turf frauds. As a rule, how- 
ever, the men in the detective department of a great 
railway do not fall, like the persons they track, into 
disgrace. They are perhaps a little restive under 
criticism when they fail in their quest; but on the 
whole they are patient, enduring, smart, and some- 
times do clever and important work that has more 
than money value to the company. They plan and 
watch without much hope of fame ; but when they 
have run their man to earth — or rather caught him at 
dawn in a siding encumbered with stolen goods, 



290 OUE RAILWAYS. [Oh»p.xxxv. 

or at noon on the station platform as he is stepping 
jauntily into the express, or considerately stop the 
mail for him at a wayside station at midnight just 
as he is congratulating himself on escape — they do 
their duty as neatly as the gentlemanly-looking 
oflBcers who are acting strictly according to law in 
Frith 's picture. 




291 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

ENGINE-DRIVERS AND SIGNALMEN. 

Aristocratic Enjjrinc -drivers — Absence of Mind on the Footplate — Perils and 
Escapes— An Express in Collision — How an Engine-driver is Trained 
— Curious Rides on Railways — Goinjr Over a New Line — In Search of 
Facts at Railway Accidents — The Drivers* Strike on the Midland 
— An Exciting- Night — Erratic Driving — A Driver's Desperate Deed 
— The Signalman and His Work — Some Dramatic Incidents — Old 
Fashioned Signals— Modern Modes of Signalling — How to See Round 
a Corner. 

Some years ago an English aristocrat, with a liking for 
more robust recreation than the ordinary patrician 
cherishes, donned the garb of an engine-driver, took his 
place on the footplate, and controlled the locomotive, 
even on a long journey, with care and skill. The 
Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria has a similar 
fondness for railway work. He has considerable knowledge 
of the mechanism, action, and habits of the locomotive, 
and is, for an amateur, a very capable engine-driver. 
Not long ago he drove the express from Wiener- 
Neustadt to Glogguitz, and kept well up to his working 
time-table, arriving punctually at his destination. In 
fact, he was far more careful than the engine-driver on 
the Northern Railway of France, who steamed out of 
Beaumont for Paris, and found, to his utter confusion, 
after going some distance, that he had left the train 
behind him ! He had been signalled out by the station- 
master, but the carriages were not coupled to the 



OUB RAILWAYS. 



tender, and away went the engine, leaving the passengers 
laughing, scowling, and shrugging their shoulders. 

The engine-driver of sound mind requires more nerve 
than the soldier, for sometimes he drives fast towards a 
certain peril, knowing all the while that if he escapes 
death it will be only by a 
miracle. Take the case of 
Mark Inglis, for instance. In 
November, 1890, he was the 
driver of a special train char- 
tered to convey an officer of 
the Scots Guards from Car- 
lisle to Langholm. The train 
was despatched in front of 
the Pullman express, and 
went like the wind until it 
reached Diamond points, 
when it plunged down the 
embankment, killing the 
driver and breaking the fireman's legs. Both men had 
had ugly shakes previously at the very spot wliere 
the train struck the points, and felt thankful when 
they got over it in safety ; but they did not like to 
complain to the officials of the line. The engine- 
driver has had far more hair-breadth escapes than 
Othello. He has been burned by the back-draught, the 
rush of fire and smoke out of his engine fire-hole, and 
yet kept his hand on the regulator. He has been blown 
off his engine in a gale ; and blown off his footplate by 
explosion. He has been knocked from his post, aud 




(Prtm a Pliolt)tnph by AOiU, VUnim.) 



Chjip.xxxvr.i SHARP WEATHER, 293 

seriously injured, by a tree that fell down an embank- 
ment and across his locomotive ; and in winter he has 
often been frost-bitten — the upper half of him nearly 
frozen to death. 

" Yes, it's sharpish in cold weather," said one 
driver. " I once had a fireman — he'd been a fitter, 
and been brought up in a warm shop. It was Christ- 
mas Eve. When we were getting water at Tam- 
worth he put his hand into the tender to feel if it was 
getting full, and then he put his hand on the engine 
rail, which was covered with ice, and in a minute his 
hand was frozen to it. As he tore it away the skin 
peeled off his fingers just for all the world as if he had 
put them on a red-hot bar. He was also frost-bitten 
in the chest, and was eight weeks oft' work." 

In the shock of collision the driver has been flung 
off the footplate, pitched on his head, and been 
seriously injured. Now and then, having done all he 
can to avert disaster, he leaps off the engine that is 
plunging to destruction, and, perhaps, escapes unhurt. 
He has had to run his train for miles with a lifeless 
fireman for his comrade, his mate's head having come in 
contact with some low bridge ; he has had to choose 
whether he should slacken speed or increase it on finding 
a bullock, a horse and cart, a pack of hounds, a flock of 
sheep, or a herd of elephants on the track. 

At Gaberston, Alloa, on the North British Eailway, 
a carter was crossing the line with a horse dragging a 
soil-laden wagon when the animal took fright, breaking 
away from the cart, which stood on the up-line in the 



2d4 OUB RAILWAYS. cob»P.xxxvi. 

path of the express from Edinburgh. The locomotive 
dashed against the cart, smashing it to pieces, overtook 
the horse, and actually ripped the harness off its back, 
but did not injure the animal. It is too often a human 
being that the engine strikes, and tosses, with grim 
contempt, out of its way, or pounds to ruin. The 
driver finds a splash of blood on the head-light, or a 
shred of clothing clinging to the driving-wheel, and 
these apparently trifling discoveries account for the 
scarcely perceptible jerk his locomotive gave ten 
miles south, where a mangled body is lying in the 
four-foot. '* A few months ago," says a writer in the 
Strand Magazine^ " I was shown by a locomotive super- 
intendent of one of the principal northern lines a dead 
bird which, strange to say, though a very rapid flyer, 
had met its doom through the agency of the locomotive. 
This bird was a sparrow hawk. The driver of the train 
relates that he was travelling at the rate of sixty miles 
an hour near Melton, when, just on the point of entering 
a long tunnel, he observed fluttering in front of the 
engine some object which he at first mistook for a rag, 
but when, on leaving the tunnel, he went forward, he 
discovered, to his astonishment, that it was a sparrow 
hawk, which had become entangled between the hand- 
rail and smoke-box of the engine, and was held there 
firmly by the pressure of the wind. It was not quite 
dead when taken out of this curious death-trap, though 
one eye had been destroyed. There is no doubt that it 
met its death accidentally, as a hawk can fly quicker than 
the fastest trains travel — so the drivers say, who often 




Chap. XXXVI.) ACCIDENT TO MANCHESTER EXPRESS. 295 

observe them flying low down in the hedgerow and 
keeping up with the train till some unwary small bird, 
frightened bj- the noise, flie^ out of the fence, when the 
hawk pounces on it and devours it." 

However freely one gives imagination the rein, it 
cannot outrun the incidents of the driver's life. He 
runs the express from London Bridge to Dorking, and 
is going through the station at a speed of forty miles an 
hour, when he sees a heavy portmanteau fall from the 
platform on the line, and a porter leap down in the face 
of death to drag it away. Driving the Stockport and 
Leeds express through Marsden, he hears a startled cry, 
and finds that his train, going at the rate of forty-five 
miles an hour, has struck a shunter walking in the 
six-foot, whirled him completely over into a sitting 
position, then struck him on the head with the foot- 
board, dislocating his neck. 

There are few more thrilling stories of railway travel 
than the incident that befell the Manchester express 
on its way from town, by the Midland, on January 27, 
1892. It was running at full speed, near Leicester, with 
that light, easy, swinging motion that deceives you as to 
the real quickness of progress, when two goods trains, 
shunting on the other line, came into collision, and one 
of the trucks fouled the track of the express. The 
powerful engine dashed the goods waggon in pieces ; 
but the shock of collision was so severe that the 
locomotive, tender, three horse-boxes, and two bogie 
carriages jumped the rails, ploughing the permanent 
way for eighty yards. The Pullman car and other 



296 OUB RAILWAYS. (Chap.xxxvi. 

carriages in the rear part of the train, however, kept the 
track. The express was crowded with passengers, but, 
though there was much alarm, no one was injured. Sir 
James All port, who was travelling in the Pullman car, 
said he scarcely felt the shock ; but in the front portion 
of the express there was ample evidence of its force. 
The driver trembled, not with fear, but with the 
shake of the impact. The engine was disabled. The 
tank of the tender was pierced. The front of the horse- 
box next the tender was wrecked ; *and there is no doubt 
that if a carriage occupied by passengers had been 
coupled next the tender, even though the front com- 
partment was empty, there would have been loss of 
life. The escape of the passengers from serious injury 
was remarkable, and will be quoted by the advocates of 
quick travelling as a proof that highest speed is the 
safest, the inference being that if the train had been 
running at only thirty instead of nearly sixty miles an 
hour, the engine would have been forced back on its 
own carriages, and there would have been a scene of 
disaster and death. 

A young man, discontented with the wages he got 
for pushing a barrow laden with Manchester goods, gave 
up the work in disgust, saying, " I'll go and be an 
engine-driver." But a locomotive, with a train-load of 
l)Jissengers behind it, is not a plaything for a novice to 
toy with, and the cotton-goods porter found his attempt 
to get on the footplate of an engine a hopeless one. 
The engine-driver requires a special training. Not 
only must he possess good sight, be free from colour- 



^ 




THE '■QUEEN EMPRKSS." 
{FordOaiUnflhii Engint, la Iht illiilnilion fiirh 



Cbap.xxxvi.1 HOW DRIVERS ARE MADE. 297 

blindness,* and strong in nerve; but he must know 
how to drive and take care of his engine. The driver, as 
a rule, grows up on the railway. He begins work, when 
a boy, in such engine sheds as those at Crewe, Derby, 
and Doncaster, and, as a cleaner, gets to know the make 
of a locomotive. In time he is promoted to be a fireman. 
He is the mate, the comrade, of an experienced driver. 
He is taught to feed the locomotive, and finds that she 
requires almost as much dieting as a human being, now 
going well with a low fire, and now needing fuel right 
away up to the fire-hole. He becomes familiar with the 
controlling mechanism of the engine, with her beat and 
tricks in ranning. He learns the lay of the line. He 
grasps the meaning of the signals. He gets many a 
shrewd hint from the fat driver who has driven the 
express for years ; and some day, when he is secretly 
congratulating himself on the fact that he is acquainted 
with everything about the line, from the loneliest signal 
cabin to the busiest junction, that^e is capable of taking 
the West Coast mail through to Scotland on the wildest 
night that ever lowered on Shap Fell, his day-dream is 
broken by the instruction that he must, for awhile, try 
his hand as the driver of a goods train. If he puts the 
brake on his ambition, and drives the goods train well, 

* Professor Hardy, in a paper read before the British ]\(cdical Association in 
1891, urged that the railway compjinies should employ a skilled ophthalmic expert 
to test the eyesight of their servants, and mentioned *' the case of a man who 
had been so short-sighted for years that he could not distinguish a man from a 
woman at ten yards* distance, and yet, within twelve months, had been re- 
examined and passed by the railway surgeon with the so-called practical tests — 
that is, naming coloured lights shown through a long tube, and naming signals 
exposed at a certain distance." 



298 OUR RAILWAYS. [Ch»p. xxxvi. 

he is afterwards elevated to the position of driver on 
some local passenger train ; and finally, possessing both 
experience and shrewdness, climbs proudly on the foot- 
plate of an express bogie passenger engine, and, perhaps, 
realises his dream as the fearless bnt careful driver of 
the night mail. 

Some years ago, in my capacity as a journalist, it 
was my duty to spend a good deal of time on railways. 
I have caught trains at all times in all sorts of remote 
places. I have ridden on the engine. I have jogged 
along at night in the guard's van, trying to write by 
the help of the flickering light of the stove and the 
lamp. I have — like the Duke of Edinburgh, when the 
express left him stranded at a wayside station — ridden 
in a fish train to keep an important engagement. I 
have ridden, too, in a coal truck, in a contractor's office 
on wheels, and in a van converted for the time into a 
prison, on the floor of which, among the straw, a 
desperate criminal reClined, shamming feebleness and 
prostration, and on the watch to escape. On January 9, 
1884, I had a very long day on a railway. Making 
my way to Stairfoot Junction early in the morning, 
I climbed the roughly-made embankment, and started 
in a curious train, made up of heavy uncushioned 
carriages, along the Hull and Barnsley line, which at 
this time had not carried a passenger for money, though 
it was within measurable distance of opening. I 
jogged and jolted for miles along the newly-made track 
with many adventurous holders of railway stock. In a 
deep cutting we all crowded the permanent way, and 



Oh«p. XXXVI.) A JOURNALISTS EXPEBIENOES. 299 

the line was unlocked by Colonel Gerard Smith, with a 
silver key. Then the directors spread themselves fan- 
like across the track, and half-a-dozen pressmen climbed 
upon the engine, grouping about the head-light, and 
everybody was photographed amid laugh and jest, for 
hope, throbbing within the investor's breast, said that 
the railway would soon pay a good dividend, and that 
the Great Alexandra Dock at Hull would get a lion's 
share of the shipping of the port. In fact, no one 
dreamt that he would have to wait until the first half 
of 1892 for a dividend, and that it would then be at 
the rate of f per cent, for one year. 

I have gone to railway accidents in prosy and also 
in dramatic fashion. Once I narrowly escaped being 
cut to pieces by an express as I was making my way 
down the line to an accident at South Wingfield, a 
fearful accident, in which the engine ran off the line 
into the country lane below, and then plunged into a 
stream, the tender overturning on the driver or stoker 
and crushing him terribly as he lay on the embankment. 
I have been chased in the dead of night by an in- 
furiated householder and his ferocious dog, as I crashed 
through his garden and his cucumber frame, and rolled 
into the cutting at Parkwood Springs, in my eagerness 
to get information with regard to a serious accident that 
occurred there. I have ridden to the scenes of railway 
accidents, now on the footplate of an engine, and then 
in the breakdown van. I have been allowed to run 
down to the disaster in a first-class bogie carriage, 
and, through the kindness of officials, the express 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



has been slowed to drop me practically in tlie midst o£ 
the wreckage. T have been fetched away from a dance 
to go to a railway collision ; I have been roused from 
sleep, after a hard day's work, to be told at two o'clock 
on a wintry morning that a hansora is waiting outside, 
and that I must get down the line somehow to a railway 
smash twenty miles away. On New 

©Year's Day, 1885, when busy with note- 
book in the midst of a crowd of people 
who were listening to a speech by Mr. 
Mundella, M.P., on the site of a new 
building in Sheffield, a little printer's 
devil wriggled towards me, and rudely 
interrupted my task of reporting the 
siEM.w. THOMPSON, right hon. gentleman's utterances by 
'*''^^' thrusting a telegram into my hand. 

4. Sack,. BT«4fi>rd.) It Tcud : Anothcr smash at Feni- 
.stone. Many killed and injured. Send 
reporter." Leaving the statesman in the midst of his 
rhetoric, I hurried to the scene of an accident that 
accentuated the notoriety of the stretch of line asso- 
ciated with previous disaster; for the killed, the in- 
jured, and the wrecked train brought very sharply 
to mind the peril of travelling with flawed axle or 
cracked tyre. 

But 1 do not recollect a more exciting night on a 
railway than that of August 5, 1887, when nearly four 
thousand engine-drivers, firemen, and cleaners came 
out on strike on the Midland Railway. The directors, 
for the better working of the traffic, insisted upon making 



Chap. XXXVI.) DRIVERS AND FIREMEN ON STRIKE. 3Ul 

new terras with the drivers. These men alleged that 
they were entitled to be guaranteed six days' work per 
week. They thought they were roughly handled by the 
company, and determined, at a certain time, generally 
agreed upon, to desert their engines. The directors, 
who have always pursued a bold policy, resolved to 
insist upon the new conditions of work, and to cope 
as best they could with the traffic, should the drivers 
take the extreme step of forsaking the line. 

Sir Matthew Thompson, the then chairman of the 
company, firmly indicated the attitude of the Midland 
in a letter that aroused admiration on one hand and 
indignation on the other, writing : 

"The Midland aloiio among the large railway companies has 
hitherto included in its conditions of service a guarantee that drivers 
and firemen shall be paid for six days of ten hours, although they 
may not have been employed for the full time. After many yeara' 
experience the directors and chief officers were satisfied that this 
condition — although undoubtedly valued by the men — was prejudicial 
to the efliciency and discipline of the service, and on that account 
only felt it to be their duty to alter it. I need not say how deeply 
my colleagues and I deprecate a dispute of this kind, with its attend- 
ant inconvenience to the public, loss to shareholdei-s and tradera on 
the Midland Railway, and separation from old and hitheito zealous 
and faithful servants. I told the delegates that we would do any- 
thing consistent with our duty to secure them against injury or 
injustice under the new regfllations. Unfortunately, nothing would 
satisfy them but tlie withdrawal of the circular, which was impossible. 
I do not wish to speak harshly of the action of the men ; the public 
must form their own opinion. It is, perhaps, inevitable that in a 
large railway service there should be agitators who consider it their 
mission to foment discontent amongst their fellow-s(;rvants, even by 
gross and shameless mis-st;itement8. Unfortunately for themselves, 
the men appear to have listened to the suggestion that by a concei*ted 



302 OUB RAILWAYS. [Chap, xxxvl 

strike they could cause such an amount of public inconvenience as 
would force the Board to give way to them. Directors who would 
surrender to such pressure what they have deliberately and for good 
reasons adopted, and believe to be essential to the efficiency of the 
service, would be unworthy of the trust reposed in them." 

The entire Midland system was in a ferment. Tele- 
graphic messages were sent hither and thither by trade- 
union leaders, urging the drivers to maintain a firm 
attitude, and to come out on strike at all hazard. The 
company in the meantime were busy promoting drivers 
from their shops, or engaging them from other lines. 
At Derby, Birmingham, and St. Pancras there was 
suspense and anxiety. When I reached Derby station 
at night, the platform was thronged with hurrying 
messengers, or obstructed with whispering groups. 
Loiterers were driven off the platform by the police, and 
towards midnight the doors leading from the station to 
the town were closed. Gossip was in her wildest mood, 
and passengers were in a flutter. The strangest stories 
were current — that the drivers intended to put on the 
brake at midnight, and to leave the trains in deep 
cutting and in tunnel, indifferent as to what became of 
the passengers. In some cases they actually took this 
step, and one driver was sent to prison '* for deserting 
his engine on the main line." A^twelve o'clock struck, 
several drivers, who had run into Derby station, left 
their engines and walked doggedly across the platform, 
wiping the oil and grit off their faces and shaking the 
company's coal dust from their feet. 

The next day the traific of the Midland was in a 



^ 



oiap. xxzYi.] AMATEUR DBIVEE8. 303 

curious jumble. The engines, as far as possible, were 
manned by officials and old drivers or firemen secured 
by hook or by crook. But some whimsical men got 
on the footplate in the company's need, and the 
adventures of drivers and passengers were for a few 
days exasperating, exciting, and by no means free 
from peril. Scarcely an engine ran out of the dep6t 
or station without three or four men grouped about 
the firehole, and it did not beat very far on its 
way before there was dismay in the quadruple 
driver's breast with regard to some blunder that 
threatened disaster. There were errors in firing, in 
watering, bungles with regulator and with brake, and 
the misreading or ignoring of signals. The narrow 
escapes from collision were amazing, and nobody would 
have been very surprised if the engines had blown up, 
and flung their amateur drivers into space. There 
were several humorous breakdowns; but the companj'' 
were fortunate, and managed to struggle through the 
fight with the men without serious accident, though not 
without much dissatisfaction on the part of the public, 
for passengers were woefully late or stranded on their 
journeys, and goods were delayed so long in transit that 
some perished by the way. 

The drivers on strike were, in the meantime, miser- 
able. They sat brooding at home, or sought comfort 
in taverns. In the public-houses about the Morledge, 
in Derby, there were many contrasts. In some tap- 
rooms out-of-work drivers, maudlin, wept over their 
rashuess and folly. In others the men bragged about 



304 OUB RAILWAYS. [oiuip.xxxvi. 

their wrongs, and swore they would not be trodden 
upon by the directors, and cursed the company. 
When passion and drink had lost some of their power, 
the men endeavoured to get back to work again. 
It was suggested, on their behalf, that the dispute 
should be settled by arbitration ; but the directors, 
unflinching, and determined at any cost to teach 
disaflfection a lesson, said the vacancies on their 
engines had been filled, and ''there was nothing 
to arbitrate upon." Places were, however, found for 
some of the drivers, and they were content, after 
their bitter experience, to man their engines on the 
company's terms. 

The traffic was gradually worked into its old 
regularity and punctuality, and the strike was soon 
almost forgotten, but it had two sad sequels. One 
driver, in despair lest he should be unable to get work, 
drowned his three children and himself in the river 
Derwent, and in his pocket was found a scrap of paper, 
containing this desperate commentary on the strike. 
" Those villains of traitors have brought me to this, 
and the directors and officers of the Midland Railway 
Company. May God forgive me for this rash act." 
The other grievous outcome of the strike was the 
emigration of a number of drivers who could not get 
work at home. They bade farewell, with many a pang, 
to the pleasant Midland tracks with which they were 
familiar, and to the engines they had driven in sun- 
shine and storm, and went out, with sad hearts, to 
seek fortune in the colonies. 



Ch.p.xxxvi.1 TEE SIGNALMAirS RESPOSSIBILITT. 305 

The signalman leads a lonely but often an exciting 
life ; and if he were prone to laziness and carelessness 
he is always strung up to duty by responsibility. He is 
nndoubt^ly the most responsible servant on the rail- 
way. He is the arbiter of life and death. By omitting 
to give five beats of the needle to the man in the next 
cabin, telling him that there is a goods train on the 
line in the track of the express, he may cause a disas- 
trous collision ; by a pull of the wrong lever he may 
wreck the night mail. In sheer forgetfulness he may 
cause a lamentable accident, like the one that occurred 
to the Fleetwood train on the Lanciishire and Yorkshire 
line in July, 1891, when Mr. Eichard Hinchcliffe, a 
Lancashire cotton spinner, was killed. The pointsman 
at the Salford Hoist Cabin received a signal that a train 
was approaching ; he accepted it on the loop line, 
lowered the home and caution signals, and on ran the 
train, crashing into an engine and four empty carriages 
that had been placed on the loop 4ine a few minutes 
previously by the same pointsman's instructions. When 
asked why he lowered the signals, he said he entirely 
forgot that he had put the engine and carriages on 
the loop line. 

The accident which took place at Norwood Junc- 
tion, on the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway, 
in D^ember, 1891, illustrates the occasional bewilder- 
ment of the signal clerk. A special train, crammed 
with rollicking schoolboys, was run into during a 
dense fog by a passenger train, and nearly forty 
lads were injured. The signalman omitted to giv(» 
u 



806 OUR RAILWAYS. [Ch»p.xxxvi. 

the second signal for the train ; but the signal clerk 
actually entered the special train as having passed the 
junction, though he acknowledged that he had not 
heard the bell-signal given. Major-General Hutchinson 
thought he must have made two other entries — the 
second signal of the special train, and the first signal of 
the passenger train — without having heard the bells of 
those signals, and added : 

**The difficult question of providing a mechanical or electrical 
fog-signal to fulfil all necessary conditions is now receiving consider- 
able attention, and there is reason to hope that a satisfactory solution 
may be shortly arrived at. The mistake on the part of signalman 
Glift, which was the immediate cause of this collision, might have 
been rendered harmless had a system of electrical interlocking been 
in force between the two junctions." 

" Ulysses," who appears to be as adventurous as 
his classical namesake, going up factory chimneys, 
and down coal pits, and riding on locomotives, has 
given in Chums an interesting account of how he 
spent "A Day in-^ft Signal Box," and heard two good 
stories from the quiet man with the lever : — 

*' Once, some four years ago, the famous three o'clock express 
from Paddington had the narrowest shave possible. My signalman 
had given " Line clear " for her, and she was thundering on towards 
him, when he received this dramatic telegram, * Stop express ; a 
man has been seen trying to pull the danger cord.* Hardly had he 
read the message when he heard the thunder of the train, but with 
lightning speed he threw up the starting signal on his platform, and 
waved his red flag. Had the driver seen him 1 He could not tell, 
but the perspiration carao cold on his forehead when, looking at the 
central first-class carriage, he saw that the axle of the front pair of 
bogies was broken. That minute must have been a terrible one. 
Would the train stop or crash to atoms when the carriage dropped 1 




A NABBOW ESCAPE. 



307 



Happit/ t)ie driver had se«n htm, and applying his vacuum brake 
witli all its force he pulled the train ap jaac as the axle flew all to 
pieces. 

"Another story e>juullr dmioatic. It was a. summtrr's evening, 
and the signalniHu sat waiting for the fast up express. She w.is 
ju8t doe when he heard the sonnd of a gallopins horse, and anoa 
a gig drove up at the station, while a bn>iitliless man sliout(>d, 
' Stop all trains^tlie w.io<l<?ii bridge is on lii-e : ' The signalni.in 
on hearing the words siniply dasbeil at bis levers, tlirowiiig Ibem 
back at dancer, and then listening. Ilsd the express time to 
stopT Would Rhe tliundor on the b'uziiii; bnd;,'e to her destruction t 
He listened from the window of his l>ox, heard her dist:int whistle, 
knew by tiio hum of the mils that she liiul not slackentKl speed, 
felt every nerve in his body st rallied to its utmost tension as she 
came still nearer— then at last he lieard her daiiger whistle, and 
with a grCiit cry of joy fainted in his box. She had stopped at the 
very threshold of the burning bridge." 



The signalman's task 
especially in contrast to his 
by. When railways were 
first opened in this country 
there were no signals what- 
ever. On a train that rail 
from Shildon to Middles- 
brough " there was no 
guard and no brake-van, 
and everything depended 
on the driver and fireman. 
It was necessary in the 
daytime to put a board up 
on the last waggon, so as 
to be sure they bad not 
lost any of the train. At 



a very onerous one, 
isy duty in years gone 




UAJOB OKNKttAL MIJTCIIINHOIt. 
{From a WotofntI* *» Wn"" * *«, 



308 OUR RAILWAYS. [CJbap. xxxvl 

night a large pan of fire was fixed to the front 
of the tender and to the last waggon for the same 
purpose, and it was the duty of the fireman to 
keep both alight. There were no signals, and no 
pointsmen, each man taking care of himself and 
his train, and keeping out of the way of the few 
passenger trains run." One of the earliest signals 
was in use on the North- Eastern Railway at Whit- 
wood junction. It consisted of a board which was 
turned to let the train go by. At night a fire 
was lighted on the line, and though it could scarcely 
be called a signal, it was a welcome beacon to many 
a driver. 

On the Stockton and Darlington Railway one of 
the station masters hit upon a novel though homely 
mode of signalling. He placed a lighted candle in 
the window of the station-house if it was imperative 
that the driver should stop; and left the window in 
darkness if the line was clear, and the train was 
free to go on its wdy. Flags waved by hand, or 
run up on poles, were afterwards used as signals by 
day ; and at night lamps showing red or white 
lights were hoisted on lofty posts. The disc signal 
was used on the Grand Junction Railway in 1837. 
It was fixed on a pole twelve feet high, and sur- 
mounted by a lamp. If the disc faced the train 
and the lamp gleamed red, the driver pulled up; 
but if it merely showed its edge, and the lamp- 
light was white, the driver ran on. The old disc 
signal gradually gave place to the semaphore, which 




RAILWAY SIGNALS IN 1311. 



310 OUR RAILWAYS. [Char xxxvi. 

was adopted in 1842, and which indicated three 
conditions: *' all right," '' slacken speed," and " danger." 
Fourteen years afterwards, in 1850, John Saxby dis- 
covered a plan of interlocking the levers working 
points and signals, and his idea was put in practice 
at a junction in London with success; but it was not 
till 1859 that the first interlocking frame, the invention 
of Austin Chambers, was placed on the North -Western 
at AVillesden. 

The semaphore, so familiar to every traveller by 
rail, is the signal that has been fixed on every 
English railwa3^ When its great arm stretches 
horizontally at the top of the post, it warns the 
driver to " stop ; " and when it is lowered it tells 
him, in semaphore language, that he may ''go on." 
At night a lamp is lighted on the mast, and as it 
shines through the frames of coloured glass, the 
signal " spectacles " that work with the semaphore 
arm, the driver knows by the red light that there 
is ** danger," by the green light that there is need 
of "caution," and by the white light that he can 
dash along with a clear line and a sense of security. 
The signal is the engine-driver's adviser, and whether 
it is a home signal fixed near the signal cabin, or 
a distant signal put up a thousand yards away 
from the home signal, or a junction signal giving 
its warning near the facing points, it invariably 
proves a true friend. The signalman is generally 
thoughtful. Whether his many-windowed cabin stands 
sentinel near the railway bridge that crosses a wide 



Chii|..xxxvLi THE BLOCK SYSTEM. 311 

thoroughfare m a great city, and all about him is the 
roar of traffic and the hum of the multitude, or is 
perched on the breast of some crag, far away from 
big town and drowsy hamlet, in the midst of solitude 
only broken now and then by the voices of nature, 
or by the shriek of the express engine as she tears 
through the dale, he gives no heed to his surroundings. 
His work occupies his thoughts. He moves carefully 
along his iron frame, which bristles with levers, 
pulling one this way, or pushing one that way, open- 
ing the track here, closing it there, and raising the 
signal to '' danger. " 

"It is astonishing," writes Mr. Dorsey in his 
book, *' English and American Eailroads Compared,'* 
" to see the blind faith the English engine-driver 
places in the block signals. In dense fogs where 
he cannot see a hundred feet ahead ; or dark nights, 
when his vision is also very limited, for his head 
light is only an ordinary lantern, useless for illu- 
minating the track and only used as a signal, the 
same as a tail light ; or frequently where he has 
both the dark night and the dense fog to run through, 
yet he runs at full speed, and generally on schedule 
time, feeling sure that he is perfectly safe, because 
his block signals have told him so, and they cannot 
make a mistake or lie/' 

By the use of the block system the signalman 
enables the driver to bring on his locomotive with 
a more fearless hand, and gives a feeling of greater 
security to the passenger. Even the timid now 



3i^ OtiR RAILWAYS. [c*»r. xixVt. 

place their faith in it, for they know that the 
telegraph is ever flashing message from cabin to 
cabin, that by bell or dial signal, repeated to the 
sender before being acted upon, the man on guard 
in his glass-house by the line-side has got the track 
clear. The signalman is the last person one would 
suspect of frolic. To him "life is no joke." He 
does not often get a rollicking visitor like the 
gentleman sketched in Punchy Mr. Foozler, who, 
while waiting for the last train, wandered to the end 
of the platform, opened the door of the signal-box, 
watched the signalman's manipulations for some time 
in hazy perplexity, and tlien suddenly remarked, 
" 'Arf a Burt'n birrer V me, Gov'nor," thinking, as 
he tried to pull himself together, and to keep 
his silk hat balanced on the back of his head, that 
he was again in his favourite bar parlour, and that 
the levers were beer-pump handles. Nevertheless, 
the signalman occasionally indulges, in the way of 
business, in a little quiet humour. He may not 
boast of his cleverness, like some people one meets, 
who flatter themselves that they "can see into the 
middle of next week ; " but it is a fact that the 
signalman " can see round a corner." If Dick 
Swiveller had possessed this wondrous power of vision 
he would undoubtedly have used it to confound his 
creditors ; but the signalman is more sturdy in 
principle than the graceless medical student whom 
Dickens pictured, and only uses his capacity to see round 
a curve or along two lines inclining to each other 



Obai.. xxxvt.i OnlGlX OP TtiK DISTANT StOXAL 313 

when on duty, and lie does it by means of an 
electric current which leaps from the signal post 
round the corner into his cabin, and tells him by 
its words of light " lamp in," or *' lamp out," in 
the little frame just above his head, and its ding 
on the alarm bell if the lamp has gone out, that 
he must be on the alert to warn any passing driver.* 

*The distant signal had a curious introduction to railway work, judging 
from the primitive way in which, according to Sir George Findbiy, it was first 
used. In 184G, ho suys, a pointsman who had to attend to two station signals, 
some little distance apart, in order to save himself the trouhle of walking to and 
fro between them, procured some wire which he attached to the lovers of the 
signals, using a broken iron chair as a counter- weight, and so found 
himself able to work both signals without leaving his hut. Since those 
days science lias come to the help of the signalman ; and it is ix)S8iblo 
now to signal in foi^ and in timnel by a touch of the electric battery in tho 
signal-box. An electric current is sent through the locomotive as it goes 
by; the circuit is msidc by the contact of a brush at the rail-side with the 
footplate, and the current rings a bell on the weather-guard. 



314 



CHAPTER XXXVTI. 

SOME NOTED TUNNELS, AND HOW THEY WERE MADE. 

Mining Years Apo — Burrowing Beneath a Snow-clad Mountain — The French 
and the Railway Under the Sea— The Lenjrths of Enjrlish Tunnels — 
The Toil and Danjrer of Making Them — Under the Severn — Sir Daniel 
Gooch — On the Look-out for a Late Train — Creeping into the Tunnel 
— ^Tough Work in the Peak— Making the Totlej Tunnel — Exploring 
the Underground Way — Trudging Beneath the Moorland— A Stormy 
November Day — A Jubilant Journey through Woodhoad Tunnel — 
The Box, Shugborough, and other Tunnels -The Thames Tunnel. 

English industry litis always tended towards burrowin{]f 
in the earth. It is natural for us to dive underground 
in search of mineral wealth ; and in the far-back time 
they delved in Cornwall for tin, in Somerset for lead, 
and in the north for iron. Coal was worked near 
Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1239, though three centuries 
later London housewives had not become accustomed 
to its use, memorialising the Crown against it, saying 
that "it flew abroad, fouling the clothes that are 
a-drying on the hedges." There is ample evidence of 
the daring of the early lead miners in the Peak of 
Derbyshire, and of their rough-and-ready justice : the 
punishment for the thief caught stealing lead for the 
third time being that he 

Shall have a knife stuck through his hand to the haft 
Into the stow,''*' and there till death shall stand, 
Or loose himself by cutting loose his hand. 

In the High Peak, which seems now to be the latest 

* A small windlass, also several pieces of wood placed together to indicate 
possession of the mine. 



€te]i.xxxnL] MTSIKG AXT^ TTKyEIJ.jyt^, ^n 

prospecting grouiid of railway engineers, the country is 
honeycombed bv lead mining: ; and at Oastloton, one of 
the quaint-est and mc»st delightful viliagi^s in the 
Midlands, there is a prc»of in the Speedwell Mine of the 
lead-getter's temerity. Years ago, it is Ix^lieved in the 
middle of the last century, he drove a p;iss;igt^ under* 
ground, through the rock, for more than a thous;ind 
vards beneath hill and craij, findinir a i^\it oavern, a 
subterranean canal, and a deep abyss down which a 
torrent roared. Xo fewer than 40,(H>0 tons of nx^k 
duff out of the tunnel was flunij into the chasm ; but 
this mass of stone, if it reached the be<l of the gulf, 
made no impression, and the place to this day is known 
as '' The Bottomless Pit." 

Eailway tunnelling, compared to the haziirdous work 
of the lead-miner or the pitman, does not seem perilous, 
still it is not free from danger, as has been incidentally 
shown in an earlier chapter. There have been many 
lives lost and many narrow esciipes from death in 
tunnel-making, chiefly owdng to sudden falls of roof 
and startling inrushes of water. Notwithstanding the 
peril, however, the w^ork goes on. The trade, social, 
and recreative needs of the nation demand incn^ased 
facilities of communication, and the navvy's pick and 
the driller's form are seen in what half a century ago 
would have been considered most inaccessible places. 
Engineers are prepared to tunnel anywhere, beneath 
houses and churches, under canals, rivers, and seas, and 
to dive through the loftiest mountains. The St. (Jot- 
hard tunnel is a remarkable example of their skill and 



316 OUR liAJLWAYS, [Chap, xxxvii. 

persistence. The line, which links together the rail- 
way system ending at Lucerne with that which runs to 
the Italian Lakes from Milan, is four thousand feet 
above the sea level, and traverses, by steep gradient and 
sharp curve, rugged pass and chasm, where in winter 
the snow falls thickly and drifts fiercely, and the 
avalanche, libemted from the lofty breast of the moun- 
tain, crashes, making strange noises in its fall, into 
the deep valley. In certain. parts of the line there are 
sheltering galleries to protect the track from the storm's 
rage ; but the tunnel is the most effective shelter, for it 
is nine miles and a-quarter in length, and dives through 
the heart of the mountain range. The Mont Cenis 
tunnel, opened in 1871, though considered a railway 
marvel at the time, did not cause so much comment 
as the St. Gothard, completed later, for the great 
tunnel that opens its mouth in response to the humble 
excavator's toil at Goschenen had both political and 
commercial significance. 

Neither of these tunnels, both important in their 
way, has created the hubbub that has been aroused by 
the bolder scheme originated by Sir Edward Watkin — 
the tunnelling of the English Channel, to which we 
have already had occasion to refer. So determined 
has been the opposition to the project that it would 
seem we are rapidly losing faith in the old maxim 
that " One Englishman is equal to ten Frenchmen." 
There appears to be a very decided fear, wholesome or 
unwholesome, of foreign invasion. Vivid pictures of 
stealthy surprises have been conjured up — of thousands 



Chip xxxm.] 



A jfjBB-.'irj.Yi; Fion-RJT- 



S17 



of Frenoh soKiiers maivliing. iu uotT*elo*s lxK>ts. in the 
gileooe of night, through the Ohauool tunnel, niassing 
on our shore while the sentinels werv asltvp ami the 




cuuntiy shi-oudt.'d iu I'oj^, and then, at the word of 
command, conquorinj,' Kngland. Sir Kdwiird Wiilkin 
pointed out that the niakinj^ oT tho tunni'l had bcH'U 
lianctioucd by u Tory CJovcrniuunt, under Jiurd Derby, 



318 



QUE RAILWAYS. 



(Chap. XXXVII. 



and by a Liberal Government, under Mr. Gladstone ; 
but, though he maintained that there was little danger 
of the tunnel being seized by a foreign Toe, and showed 
how beneficial the railway under the sea would be, not 
only to trade, but in the provision of a second line 
of supply, military men looked askance at his. submarine 
way to France. 

The following are the chief tunnels with a length of 
over 1,000 yards : — 



Severn 
Totley 

Stanedge ... 
Woodhead ... 

Cowbum ... 

Bramhoi»e ... 

Medway 

Festiniog ... 

Scvenoaks ... 

Morley 

Box ... ... 

Littleborough 

Sapperton ... 

Polehill 

Mersey 
Bleamoor ... 
Queensbury 
Kilsby 
Dove Holes 
Shepherd's Well ... 
v/xteci ... . . , 

East Junction 
Wapping (Liverpool) North- Western ... 



Great Western ... 

Midland 

North- Western ... 

Manchester, Sheffield [ 

and Lincolnshire J " 
Midland 

North-Eastern ... 
South-Eastern ... 
North- Western ... 
South-Eastern ... 
North- Western ... 
Great Western ... 
Lancashire and York- ) 

shire j " 

Great Western ... 
South-Eastern ... 
Mersey ... 
Midland ... 
Great Northern 
North -Western ... * 
Midland .. 
Chatham and Dover 



Brighton and South- 



}■■ 



Clayton 



••• 



Brighton and South [ 
Coast J '* 



Yards. 

7,664 
6,226 
5,342 

5,297 

3,727 
3,745 
3,740 
3,726 
3,600 
3,350 
3,227 

2,869 

2,800 
2,759 
2,700 
2,600 
2,502 
2,423 
2,420 
2,376 

2,266 

2,250 

2,200 



Chap. XZZVII.] 


TH 


E SEVERN TUNN 


EL, 


Yards. 


Sydenham ... 




Chatham and Dover 




2,190 


Drewton 




Hull and Bariislcy 




2,116 


Dronfield ... 




Midland 




2,024 


Lough 




Tiaucashire and York- 
shire 


}■■■ 


2,018 


Abbot's Cliff 




South- Eastern ... 




2,000 


Honiton 




South-Western ... 




1,881 


Merstham . . . 




Brighton and South 
Coast 


\ 


1,830 


Clay Cross . . . 




Midland... 




1,826 


Milford 




South-Western ... 




1,813 


Belsize 




Midland... 




1,800 


Harecastle ... 




North Stafford ... 




1,763 



319 



The Severn Tunnel, the greatest of the hite Sir John 
Havvkshaw's engineering feats, is the longest tunnel in 
England. Its total length is 7,664 yards, or 4 J miles, 
and for 2^ miles of this distance the tunnel dives 
beneath the river. The first stroke of the pick was 
made in it in March, 1873, and the tunnel took 
fourteen years to excavate and build. The work was 
not only laborious, but perilous, and the men had 
occasionally to run for their lives, owing to the inrush 
of water. There were, indeed, many exciting scenes in 
the tunnel way; and this underwater and underground 
road, dug, driven, and blasted through the hard rock 
and new red sandstone with the help of the electric 
light, is associated with the daring and self-sacrifice 
of many a rough toiler. In 1879, when five shafts 
had been sunk and three miles bored, a land spring 
on the Welsh side of the river suddenly Hooded the 
workings ; and the same spring burst in again in 
1883, surging into the tunnel at the rate of 27,000 



/ 



S20 OUB RAILWAYS. (Ohap.xxxvn. 

gallons per minute. But the water was pumped out, 
and the spring practically built up ; while outside, in 
order to protect the tunnel approaches, which are dug 
in low-lying marsh lands, great sea banks were placed 
to keep back the high tides. 

In January, 1886, the first mineral train, loaded 
with steam coal, ran through the tunnel in nineteen 
minutes on its way from Aberdare to Southampton ; 
and in December of the same year the tunnel, thoroughly 
finished at a cost of over two millions sterling, was 
opened for passenger traffic, rendering obsolete the 
cumbersome method of transit, that had obtained so 
many years, of shifting travellers and merchandise from 
train to steam ferry, saving no less than one hour and a 
half in the journey between Bristol and Cardiff, giving 
a gratifying and well-deserved impetus to the Great 
Western traffic, and not only developing trade on the 
Gloucestershire and Monmouthshire banks of the estuary, 
but having a commercial influence in town and in some 
of the northern cities. 

The great work was carried out under the chairman- 
ship, and with the staunch encouragement, of Sir Daniel 
Gooch, who prided himself on two things in his long 
and useful life — that he could look back on fifty years' 
worthy service with the Great Western Kailway Com- 
pany, and that, with the aid of the Great Eastern, the 
leviathian steamship, now broken up and almost for- 
gotten, he laid the first effective cable across the 
Atlantic. His diaries are full of interesting reminis- 
cences of his railway career, and no one can peruse 



Chap, xxxvii.i SIR DANIEL GOOCH. 821 

them without coming to the conclusion that this sturdy 
Englishman was an engineer of repute, a slirewd rail- 
way administrator, and a man of sterling integrity. 
He believed in action rather than in words, and main- 
tained that silence was golden, even in Parliament, 
candidly confessing that during the twenty years he 
was the representative for Swindon, he had not taken 
part in any of the debates, and asserting that it would 
be an enormous advantage to business if a greater 
number of people followed his example. Early railway 
travelling, according to his description, had a flavour of 
daring and romance about it. " When I look back upon 
that time," he wrote, " it is a marv^el to me that wo 
escaped serious accidents. It was no uncommon thing 
to take an engine out on the line to look for a late train 
that was expected, and many times have I seen the 
train coming, and reversed the engine, and ran back 
out of its way as quickly as I could.'' 

The secret of Sir Daniel Gooch's success in life was 
the steadfastness and thoroughness of his work. He 
thought everything was worth doing well, and if he did 
not actually do it himself, he took care that others did 
not shirk it. He kept a sharp eye on the progress of 
every undertaking, and made many visits to the Severn 
Tunnel. One of the latest of these, on October 27th, 
1884, he records, saying : 

" I went this morning to the Severn Tunnel. Lord Bessborough 
met me there, and we inspected the surface work, and after lunch 
went below. It fortunately happened that the headings were just 
meeting, and, by the time we had finished lunch, the men had got a 

V 



322 OUIl BAlTAVAYf^, [Chap, xxxni 

small bole through, making the tunnel open throughout. I was the 
first to creep through, and Lord Bcssborough followed ma It was a 
very difficult piece of navigation, but by a little pulling in front and 
pushing behind we managed it, and the men gave us some hearty 
cheers. I am glad I was the first to go through, as I have taken 
great interest in this great work, which is now getting fast towards 
completion.*' 

Next to the great Severn Tunnel, the Totley 
Tunnel, on the new line of the Midland, from SheflBeld 
to Manchester, is one of the most important in 
English railway enterprise. It has been dug under 
nearly four miles of bluff moorland that rises 1,300 
feet above the sea-level ; persevered with in the face 
of extraordinary difficulty, for the contractors, though 
willing to pay high wages, did not find it easy 
to get workers, even old hands at tunnel-making 
shying at toil in this deep underground way, in 
which there has been continual bother with inrushes 
of water, and into which, as the tunnel slowly made 
its way into the heart of the moorland, fresh air 
had to be pumped by machinery, the depth from 
the surface being too great for shafting. 

I heard so much about the hazard of constructing 
the tunnel and of the exciting incidents met with 
by the men, that I determined to explore the sub- 
terranean road myself, and through the kindness of the 
general manager of the Midland, and of Messrs. Parry, 
the engineers, was enabled to penetrate to the heading 
from the Totlev ♦Mid. What I siiw is indicated in the 
following sketch, written for the MoMcies/tr Guardian : — 

*"I shall be glad,' wrote Mr. Parry to those in 



Chap, xxxvii.j A WILD DAY, 323 

charge of the new line, ''if you will allow the 
bearer to go through the tunnel, and ride upon the 
engines. He, of course, takes upon himself all lia- 
bility for accidents/ With this suggestive note of 
introduction I reach Dore Station, on the Midland 
Railway, and am cordially welcomed by Mr. Percy 
Rickard, the resident en«rineer. 

** * You have chosen a wild day to go over the new 
line,' he saj^s sympathetically, as he clutches th(» rim 
of his hat with one hand and wipes the rain off his 
face with a handkerchief in the other. 

" It certainly is a wild day. The rain does not come 
down in torrents. It is driven against you horizontally 
by the fierce gusts of wind that sweep across the 
country from the moors, so you soon have a wet- 
through, bedraggled look. The riot of wind and 
rain is such that even Ariel might find it difficult 
to direct the storm. But we are well equipped to 
brave the weather, with thick watertight boots, 
leggings, and mackintoshes, and soon strike the Dore 
end of the new railway that is to give a more direct 
Midland route from Sheffield to Manchester, striding 
resolutely westward along the track, through pools 
and over slippery sleepers, by the screen bank that 
hides Abbeydale Park from the line, by the upper 
length of the river Sheaf, and on to Totley 
Rise. The Totley Tunnel, which is the most 
important work on the new line, opens its mouth 
in a deep cutting just below the Rise. The bank 
is very high at the entrance to the underground 
v2 



324 OUR RAILWAYS. (Chap, xxxvn. 

way, and has yielded so much owing to the rain that 
men are busy planking it up. On the line there 
is the shriek of engine, the rattle and jolt of 
waggons, and the shouts of workers. 

"'Is he going in, sir?' asks one of the officials. 

'* * Oh, yes,' replies the engineer, in a brisk, en- 
couraging tone ; * he's come many miles to go 
through the tunnel.' 

" * I'll get the lamps, then,' says the man, moving 
away ; and a grimy Hercules, sludged to the thighs, 
and with his face claj'-splashed like an American 
Indian's, advises me in a whisper that reminds me of 
the voice of the oboe, to *tak' that fancy thing off,' 
meaning my waterproof. I am, with considerate kind- 
ness, provided with another overcoat, thick and stiff 
as buckram, and with a railway lamp in my hand am 
speedily slipping, sliding. Jumping, stumbling, splashing 
along the rude road into the darkness. 

** The way is not unlike the main road from the 
bottom of the shaft to the far workings in a coal- 
pit. Here it is bricked ; there it is propped with 
great timbers. Now we are in the deepest gloom ; 
then, through a thick, almost choking vapour that 
makes your lamplight feeble, we can just discern 
the shadowy forms of men who look like gigantic 
phantoms fighting as they strike, not at each other, 
but at the rock. One is startled by a hoarse cry 
that sounds something like * Howd up ! ' and dragged 
into a refuge-hole, dug, like a watchman's box, in 
the tunnel side, while a train of laden waggons clatters 



0iitp.xxxviL) A DIFFICULT PIECE OF WORK 325 

by to the tunnel mouth. The last flicker of day- 
light from the fourth shaft, on the fringe of the 
moorland, has been passed, and we are in the depths 
of the tunnel. The shafts are all within three- 
quarters of a mile of the Totley end ; and though 
air is continuously pumped into the subterranean 
road, the atmosphere as we get further away from 
the last shaft becomes dense and oppressive. The 
brick-lined arched part of the tunnel is now behind 
us. There the way is 27ft. wide and 22ft. Gin. in 
height. Here it is at present narrow, rough-hewn, 
and low-roofed. The road, only just wide enough 
to enable the waggons to come down, is being dug 
and cut through the coal measures. The black 
shale is easy to deal with ; but the intersecting 
rock requires more patient working. Watching the 
drillers and strikers at their toil, one is inclined to 
think that to delve 3^ miles of track beneath the 
moorland from Totley Rise to the Derwent Valley 
is almost a hopeless task. Yet considerable progress 
has been made with the work. There is still a 
mile of heading to pierce ; but men are driving 
from both ends of the tunnel, and are looking for- 
ward with pleasure to shaking hands with each other 
in the underground junction. 

"A useful friend in tunnel-making is found in 
gelignite, an explosive, which blasts away the most 
obstinate bulk of rock with scant ceremony; but the 
men have an annoying enemy in water. In the earlier 
lengths of the tunnel they were much embarrassed 



326 OUR RAILWAYS. rchap. xxxvil 

b^ it. Every man seemed to be possessed of the 
miraculous power of Moses. Whenever he struck a 
rock water sprang out of it. The rills and brooklets 
playing hide-and-seek on the rugged land high above 
the railway level leaped downward and bubbled and 
splashed into the tunnel. Water dripped from the 
roof and flowed from the rock and sprang from the 
tunnel floor. The flow became so constant that the 
men had to work in mackintosh suits, and looked 
like divers wading through deep pools and torrents. 
At the faults particularly tlie inrush of water was 
considerable — at one time not less than 1,200 gallons 
per minute. The men were never in danger ; but 
the flow was too great for their liking, and for 
the reasonable progress of the undertaking. A head 
wall of bricks and cement, 4ft. Gin. in thickness, 
was at last run up not far from the fourth shaft 
to keep the water back. Behind this wall the water 
rose and dashed ominously , but the gangs in the 
meantime made a drain in the tunnel bed, and ulti- 
mately through this drain and along the culvert 
by the railway side the flood- water was carried into 
the river Sheaf The water in the Totley length 
has been successfully coped with by the diversion 
of the underground stream that now flows beneath 
the line ; but the irruption in the Padley heading 
was recently gauged at 5,000 gallons per minute. 
The flow wius so great that the men had to go to 
work on a raft. Then the water rose so high that 
they could not get in at all without fighting a 



Ch.p. xxxvir.j A SINGULAR TUNNEL ROOF, 327 

subterranean flood that almost rivalled the under- 
ground torrent Jules Verne evolved from his fancy. 

" I learn all this piecemeal and haphazard as I 
stumble along in the uncertain lamplight at the 
heels of my friend. Now we pause to watch the 
men — by the light of candles stuck in their caps 
or in the interstices of the rock — toiling and drilling, 
or penetrating by means of ladders into the breakups ; 
then we climb over waggons that obstruct our progress. 
By-and-by we reach the heading, the most distant 
point excavated from the Totley end. The rock and 
shale is as dry as tinder. There is not a drop of 
water here. The air is hot and heav^'. Perspiration 
bursts from every pore and trickles in fantastic courses 
down your face. The men, great muscular fellows, 
perspire too ; but they pick and dig on. The shale 
is steadily shovelled down to the waggons. At the 
face a sturdy tunnel-hewer inserts his pick in a 
crevice and brings down a great mass of rock that 
threatens to crush him as it gives way and thuds 
on the floor ; but he leaps aside, reels, and comes on 
his back on the shale heaj), causing some diversion. 
From the soles of his boots, your ejes, with scarcely 
perceptible efl'ort, have roamed to the tunnel roof. 
It is alt(>geth(?r a surprising roof — a huge flat, smooth- 
faced slab of shale, many yards in length, that 
complet<»ly covers in the tunnel-way ; a vast natural 
roof that may not be a curiosity in geology, but is 
certainly rare enough in tunnel-making. Since I 
emerged from the tunnel by the deep shaft, bathed 



328 OUB RAILWAYti, [Ch*p. xxxvu. 

in perspiration and splashed with mire, the measure- 
ment of the natural roof has heen taken. It stretches 
121 yards along its first length, then after a hreak 
continues for another ten yards, and beyond a further 
break it has been worked for an additional forty-five 
yards, without its edge being readied." 

My experience of tunnel-making was, as it happened, 
obtained on an extraordinary day. There were compara- 
tively few men in the workings. In the places furthest 
from the shafts one felt a weight on the chest, and 
gasped for breath. The oppressiveness of the atmosphere 
was almost disquieting, and it did not seem surprising 
that tunnel-makers were difficult to get, if they were 
required to work under such conditions. Some days 
after I had returned again to the bustle and whirl of 
city life, and the deep shafts and the tunnelled way, 
and the gloom of the underground workings had become 
scarcely more than a picture in the brain, I received a 
letter from the resident engineer on the Totley Tunnel 
length that revived my interest in the subterranean 
work, for it said : " Your experience of railway tunnel 
works here was made during a remarkable depression 
of the barometer. I wondered, as we went along, 
how it was there were so many empty working-places ; 
and I afterwards ascertained that a large proportion 
of the workmen were laid up, owing to the bad air, 
and that this exceptional occurrence accounted for the 
small number of drillers at work when we were going 
through." 

The weather on that day — November 11th, 1891 — 



Gk«pL xxxriLj A OALE. 339 

fras certainly a meteorological curiosity. The gale rioted 
through the land. Buildings were blown to the ground, 
trees uprooted, and houses flooded, for the rain fell in 
torrents for hours, and rivers spread far beyond their 
banks. It was a trying day for the engine-driver, who 
had to face the fierce wind and the rain that struck 




THK TOTLET 



him as sharply as though every drop was a needle-point. 
With his engine windows all blurred with rain and sleet, 
lie had to keep a sharp look-out uncovered, and now and 
then narrowly escaped being blown off his footplate. 
A singular and alarming incident occurred near Leather- 
head Station. While a passenger train was running 
from Horsham to London a tree was blown across the 
railway track. The engine and driver got clear of it. 



330 . OUR RAILWAYS, [Chap. xxxvii. 

The tree just missed the locomotive, but it caught the 
carriages, crashing against the panelling, breaking the 
windows, and tearing off the handle bars, to the fear 
and consternation of the passengers, not one of whom, 
however, was hurt. The fall in the barometer was 
exceptional. The reading at noon was 28*456 inches, 
and the depression had been exceeded only five times 
in thirty-four years ; so there was some excuse for the 
tunnel-hewers at Totley, working a mile underground, 
breaking away from their toil with drill and hammer 
and pick in the stifling air. 

The men working the Totley Tunnel met on October 
19th, 189:2, and, breaking through the heading with 
strong blows and loud shouts, shook hands. Five days 
afterwards the first gang, headed by the engineer, went 
through ; and the tunnel, which took more than four 
years to delve, and which has been hewn with dogged 
perseverance and skill through difficult strata without 
a shaft to startle the grouse, or offend the Duke of 
Rutland's love of the picturesque, gave a clear track 
from end to end. Much, however, still remained to be 
done before the new line between Sheffield and Mau- 
chester, passing through some of the most delightful 
scenery of the Peak, giving access to the Vale of the 
Derwent, and the beauty of the Woodlands, was ready 
for passenger traffic, and it was not opened till 1894. 

The tunnel under Cowburn, at the north-west end of 
the line, did not hamper the excavators like the J)ore 
and (Jhinley underground way. it is nearly 2^- miles 
long, and though the tunnel passes beneath a part of 



i 



Chap. xxxviLi COWBUliN AND WOuDllEAD TUSNELS. 331 

the Peak watershed, it is ahiiost as dry as tinder. There 
has practically been no inrush of water ; but the rock 
was driven through with difficulty, and a vast amount 
of work was done with drill, explosive, pick, and trowel 
before tlie tunnel could be opened out from end to 
end. One wonders how the contractors would have 
fared if they had been commanded to make two such 
tunnels in Egypt in Pharaoh's time. The outcry 
for straw would have been much louder than that 
from the Israelites, for the Totley Tunnel required 
the enormous number of 30,000,000 bricks to line it, 
and Cowburn no fewer than 20,000,000, in addition to 
its walling of stone. 

Woodhead Tunnel, on the Manchester, Sheffield 
and Lincolnshire Railway, is one of the best known 
engineering works in England. It runs through a wild 
track on the Yorkshire and Derbyshire border, is more 
than three miles long, and took six years to build. No 
fewer than 1,500 men were employed in making it, 157 
tons of gunpowder were used in blasting, and the fallen 
rock had to be lifted 600 feet to the shaft mouth. 
There are two things that strike the traveller as he 
goes through it. One is the strength of its odour, 
which can hardly be eclipsed on the Metropolitan 
Railway, and the other is the tardiness of the (jompany 
in attempting some modern method of ventilation. 
Why, for instance, could not a trial be made with 
the Guibal fan, which has proved so elfective in the 
ventilation of the Mersey Tunnel. 

A journey through Woodhead Tunnel is instructive 



OUR BAILWATS. 



[Clwp. xxzvii. 



in many ways, and particularly for rapid variations of 
the English climate. You may ran from Hadfield in a 
blaze oE sunshine, congratulating yourself that summer 
haa really come at last, hear the passengers laconically 




SKUOBOEOVail TUNKEL, NORTH END (p. tM). 



ejaculating " Woodhead," watch them banging the 
windows up, closing the ventilators, and some of the 
fastidious putting handkerchiefs to their mouths, catch 
a glimpse of a grim stone archway and a mass of 
clinging smoke, cough, gasp, or patiently bear your 



Ohip. xxxviL! THE WEATHER HEAR PBNJ8T0NK 



ride through the tunuel, and emerge from it io a 
blinding snowstorm or a torrent of rain, swept fiercely 
by the icy wind across the desolate valley, to beat 
against the breasts of the sombre hills. The weather 



THK FJBST 




BLETCHINOLKT 



between Woodhead and Penistone is full of character, 
chiefly bitterly cold and boisterously windy ; and a few 
years back a storm rioted there so persistently that 
several trains were snowed up, and many passengers 
spent the night, half frozen, in the carriages on the line, 
instead of lying snugly in bed. These belated travellers 



334 OUR RAILWAYS, (Cliap. xxxvil. 

were not so merry as the venturesome persons who 
made an experimental journey through the tunnel on 
December 22, 1845, when, according to the pamphlet 
on " Manchester Railways,'* — 

** A train of about twenty carriages left the Sheffield Station at 
ten o*clock in the morning drawn by two new engines, accompanied 
by the chairman, Mr. J. Parker, M.P. for Sheffield, the other directors, 
and their friends. Precisely at live minutes past ten the train was put 
in motion, and got under rapid way. The weather was extremely 
unpropitious, in consequence of a tremendous fall of snow. The 
train reached Dunford Bridge in three-quarters of an hour, where it 
remained twenty minutes for water. It then proceeded through the 
tunnel at a steady pace. It was 10 J minutes passing through this 
great subterranean bore ; and on emerging into the * regions of light ' 
at Woodhead, the passengers gave three hearty cheers, making the 
mountains ring. It speedily passed over the wonderful viaduct at 
Dinting,* and arrived at Manchester at a quarter past twelve 
o'clock, the baud playing * See the Conquering Hero Comes ! ' " 

The making of the Box Tunnel, on the Great 
Western, between Chippenham and Bath, though not 
so romantic in its incident as the construction of some 
other tunnels, was a difficult task, for the water gushed 
so freely through the crevices in the freestone rock that 
men and horses had to be brought quickly out of the 
underground way, and it was found imperative to 
suspend work in one section of the tunnel till adequate 
machinery to cope with the great inflow of water had 
been put down. No fewer than 30,000,000 bricks were 
used to line this tunnel, and a ton of gunpowder was 
used every week in blasting. 

♦ A viaduct with seven stone and five timber arches, Die latter being 120 feet 
high, and 125 feet span. 



% 



336 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ch*p. xxxvii. 

Nor was the construction of the tunnel through 
Shakespeare's Cliff, on the South-Eastern Railway, 
devoid of peril. The workers did not meet with such 
a mishap as the ten men buried in the Watford 
Tunnel by a huge slip of chalk and gravel, but they 
were now and then in considerable danger from falls 
both in the vertical shafts and horizontal galleries. 
The tunnel is most picturesquely placed. It has not 
such a stately entrance as Shugborough Tunnel, with 
its towers and parapet; it does not look out on a 
scene of sylvan beauty like the High Tor Tunnel, 
Matlock Bath ; it does not struggle out of the depths 
of a desolate land like the Blea Moor Tunnel ; it does 
not nestle beside a fir-clad mountain like the tunnel 
at Spruce Creek, on the Pennsylvanian Eailway; or peep 
out on rugged path, and rushing stream, and great 
shoulders of mountains, some snow-capped, like St. 
Gothard Tunnel; but it dives beneath the cliffs, and 
travellers, just before they are whisked through its 
portals, get a fine picture of massed rock and tumbling 
surf. 

There are practically two tunnels running parallel 
with the sea, and to facilitate the making of these 
underground ways, a road was dug along the breast of 
the cliff ; and the tunnels were made by means not only 
of vertical shafts, but of horizontal galleries, the material 
dug out being taken along the level roads and tipped 
into the water. Sightseers were admitted during the 
progress of the work, and much surprise was ex- 
pressed at the ingenuity of construction; and some of 




838 OUE RAILWAYS. icimp. xxxvii 

the labyrinths, into which only a mystic light pene- 
trated from the lofty shafts, looked very weird and 
tmcanny. The curious had an opportunity of seeing 
a strange sight during the making of this line. The 
course of the track was impeded by a gigantic rock, 
three hundred feet in height and seventy feet thick, 
known as the " Round Down Cliff," which it was in- 
expedient to tunnel and too costly to dig away; but 
19,000 lbs. of powder, exploded by galvanism, soon 
moved the hnge mass, which collapsed seaward, almost 
without a sound, and now lies a lichened heap lapped 
by the waves. 

The navvy is busy still on many a new line, notably 
on the railway from the east to the west coast; but 
the most difficult piece of work in which modem 
engineering is striving is the tunnel now being made 
under the Thames. The great river, rich in history, 
tradition, trade, and, some say, in odour, has always 
had a fascination for the engineer. He does not seem 
eager to go upon it; but he is always filled with zeal 
to bridge it or tunnel it. The first attempt to get 
beneath the waterway was disheartening. When nine 
hundred feet of the tunnel between Eotherhithe and 
Wapping had been bored, the engineer met with 
quicksands, and abandoned his task; but the elder 
Brunei overcame the difficulty, and in 1843, at a cost 
of nearly £470,000, the Thames Tunnel was finished. 

For many years it was rather an object of curiosity 
than a financial success, but now the East London line 
runs through it, and the track has become an important 




Ctop. XXXViL} TBE THAMES TUNNEL. 339 

railway link in London's endless chain of traffic. 
During the making of the tunnel there was much 
exciting incident and many a narrow escape. The 
under-river way suddenly flooded in the autumn of 
1837, and an assistant of Brunei's got out only just in 



d^ 


\ia 




j* 


l«"i? 




^^^--^ 


m 


2 


M 




^S 


1 








'1^^ 


m/f 






f^ 



time. " Seeing a quantity of loose sand falling near 
the gallery," he wrote in bis account of the mishap, 
" I gave the signal to be hauled into the shaft. I bad 
scarcely done so when I observed the ground give 
way, and the water descending in a thousand streams, 
tike a cascade." 

The engineer has given us many ways across the 



340 OUR RAILWAYS. [Cimp. xxxvii. 

Thames, some on bridges of great dignity and beauty ; 
but the latest thoroughfares, through Blackwall Tunnel 
and along the Tower Bridge, are undoubtedly the 
most surprising low-way and high-way of which the 
river can boast. Of this latest addition to the bridges 
tf the metropolis, however, we must speak in the 
next chapter. 




EKTBAKOI TO TBE THAIUS TDSKU. IN ISA 




CHAPTER XXXVIII. 



VIADUCTS AND BRIDGES. 

Som« Noted Bridgei— A Hough Day on tie Conway — The Drowning ot tba 
Irish Mail— The Square-Box Bridge— In Menai Straito— " The Bnild- 
ing of the Bridge" — The Chain Bridge and the Foolhardy Cobbler 
-Brunei's Faraoua Coniish Bridge— A Wild Night on the T»y— 
The Tom Bridge and the Train's Doom— The New Road AoroM tbe 
River— The Great Forth Bridge— Ita Shape and Strength— Th* 
Opening Ceremonj— Orouing in a Storm— A Costly Undertaking 
and its Trade Value— London and Other Bridges- Happj-gO-Lookj 
Bridge Baildere. 

The bridges on English lines are legion. There are 
bridges in remote moorland that hold ancient rights 
of way sacred, archways for the access of live stock 
from field to field, bridges over country lanes, canals, 
and rivers, bridges over arms of the sea, and across 
great thoroughfares in crowded cities. Over the 
Arun, on the South Coast Kailway, a telescope bridge 
(a view of which will be found on p. 488, Vol. I.) 
moves in and out as the exigencies of railway or 
shipping traffic require. The New Holland Ferry across 
the Humber, extending fifteen hundred feet into the 



842 OUB RAILWAYS. ichap. xxxviil 

river, and taking the trains down to the boats, is 
an old-fashioned but striking evidence of diflBculty 
overcome; and the High Level Bridge over the river 
at Newcastle ; the Royal Border Bridge over the 
Tweed at Berwick; the Runcorn Bridge, with its 
thirty-three arches, over the Mersey ; the Dee, Duddon 
Sands, and Congleton Viaducts, with dozens of others, 
are proofs that the railway engineer is not easily 
daunted, and with a free hand and unlimited means 
is prepared to span anything. 

People taking their holiday at Llandudno, when 
tired of promenading and music, often go by train 
to Deganwy and by boat up the river. If you are 
rowing across the water to the modest landing at 
Conway, where river current and tide meet, or, worse 
still, rowing back again to Deganwy in the teeth 
of the wind, your experience is rough and exciting. 
A few years ago the author tried it, and was bound 
to say he would rather round Longships Lighthouse, in 
what the British sailor whimsically calls half a gale, 
than row across this river in a storm, for you are 
sure to be completely drenched with spray, even if 
you are not flung into the water. The swell and 
the wind combined have such power that the stem 
of the boat is lifted high out of the water, and 
you might imagine a hippopotamus or a whale was 
gambolling beneath the keel. 

The frolicking of water here has been respons- 
ible for many a sad accident; and it is recorded in 
the Annual Register that " On Christmas Day, 1806, 



844 OUB RAILWAYS. [Chap, zxxtiii. 

owing to a heavy swell on the river Conway, the 
boat conveying the Irish Mail, with eight passengers, 
the coachman, the guard, and a youth, in all fifteen 
in number, including the boatmen, was upset, and only 
two persons saved." 

It is unnecessary now to ferry travellers across 
the river. You run by the London and North- 
Western Railway, along the embankment, through 
the tubular bridge, and beneath the ivy-clad walls 
of the lofty ruined castle. The bridge, which is 
really a square, box-shaped tunnel, made of cast-iron, 
weighs over one thousand tons. The Chester end of 
the bridge is free, so that it may expand and contract 
by heat and cold, while the Conway end is fixed on 
the pier. 

Robert Stephenson had to solve a difficult problem 
before he stretched the gigantic tubular bridge across 
Menai Straits. How was he to carry a railway over a 
turbulent arm of the sea P He settled the question to 
the satisfaction of himself and thousands of passengers 
who go through the tunnel every year, in a hurry, 
with a rattle and a roar, to catch the Dublin boat at 
Holyhead. Going down the Straits from Beaumaris, 
on your way to the quaint old town of Carnarvon, by 
the little steamer Columbus^ you are not at first im- 
pressed with the proportions of the bridge. The ripple 
of the water about the chocolate-coloured rocks, a 
yacht lying high and dry on a sandbank, the swift- 
flowing current in which the helmsman carefully 
keeps the boat, the richly-wooded slopes, and the 



I 



346 OTJB RAILWAYS. [ca»»p xxxviii. 

picturesque scene beyond the steamer's stem, rather 
divert your attention from the bridge ; or if you 
look at it, the most prominent thought in your 
mind is that it lies very low towards the water, 
and that the boat will surely rake the bridge with 
her masthead. 

But by-and-by the bridge seems to grow higher 
and higher, and the boat to shrink as fast as Mr. 
Bider Haggard's heroine "She." Passing beneath 
the great structure, everything on board becomes 
dwarfed, and nearly every stranger among the passen- 
gers expresses admiration at the massive piers and 
the great tunnel that rests upon them a^s it spans 
the Straits. The bridge, small compared with that 
colossal work the Forth Bridge, is nevertheless a 
striking evidence of engineering daring and skill; and 
it seems a pity, in these days of technical education and 
science teaching, that the original intention of placing 
a gigantic figure of Science at the summit of the 
Britannia tower, or central pier, that rises from the 
rock in the middle of the Straits, should have been 
abandoned. Britain's power is represented on the land 
abutments by two lions couchant; but there is no 
figure to remind one of the genius that conceived and 
the toil that fashioned the great structure. 

The building of the bridge, like the Building of the 
Ship in Longfellow's poem, created a great commotion. 
Workshops clustered by the waterside. There was the 
clang of labour on the great platform crowded with 
artisans fitting the boiler plates; the ring of the striker's 



I 



Otap. XXXTUL] OPENINO OF BRITANNIA BRIDGE. 347 

hammer in the foi^; the echoing ding-dong of the 
riveter in the great tube; the rumble of lony and 
wa^on ; the noise of unloading timber, iron, and stone 
brought by water. In the erection of the central tower, 
which is 230 feet high, no fewer than 150,000 cnbic 
feet of Angleaea marble, 160,000 feet of sandstone, and 
400 tons of cast-iron beams and girders were used. By 




BTATrOS IN tsts. 



means of powerful tackle, and the help of an army of 
workmen and sailors, the tube was floated and slung 
to the foot of the piers, and then adroitly hoisted to the 
summit by a Bramah press. The bridge, which is 1,841 
feet in length, was opened on March 5th, 1850, when 
three heavy engines, gay with flags, went out of 
Bangor Station and disappeared within the tube. 

The disaster at Tay Bridge had not happened 
then, and there was no record in English railway 



OUR SAILWAYS. 



history o£ a 
train plunging 
from a col- 
lapsed bridge 




S50 OUB RAILWAYS. [Chap, xxxviii. 

in no antics, its greatest deflection not transgressing 
the inelastic ethics of engineering. In fact, it next 
carried a coal-laden train weighing 300 tons, and a 
further testing train of three locomotives, waggons 
containing 200 tons of coal, and carriages containing 
nearly seven hundred passengers, without flinching; 
and even the most timid traveller soon came to have 
faith in the bridge.* 

Menai Bridge, swinging its graceful length across 
the Straits, is within sight. It has no relation to rail- 
ways, except as a link between the travel of the past 
and the present ; but this great chain bridge, fashioned 
by Telford to connect the London and Holyhead roads, 
is a remarkable example of fearless engineering, as 
the passengers must have thought on January 30th, 
1826, when '* this stupendous, pre-eminent, and 
singularly unique structure was opened to the public 
at thirty-five minutes after one o'clock a.m. by the 
Boyal London and Holyhead mail-coach, conveying 
the London mail-bag for Dublin." During the con- 
struction of the bridge the men engaged upon it 
occasionally indulged in foolhardy feats. When the 
first chain, having a suspension of nearly 600 feet, was 
stretched across the Straits, three workers traversed, 
or rather swung themselves along it ; and later, one of 

* The bridge has four spans, and the tube, altogether 1,613 feet in length, 
rests on three piers — the Carnarvon, the Britannia, and Anglesea Towers. No 
fewer than 186,000 pieces of iron and 2,000,000 rivets were used in the con- 
struction of the tube, which forms an ing^ous tunnel, varying from 23 feet 
to 30 feet in height. The bridge, which was built in less than five years, 
oost over £600,000. 



352 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chap. xxxviiL 

the men, sitting down " quietly on the centre of the 
curved part of the upper suspension chain, with his 
feet resting on the one below it," and maintaining 
his perilous position there for two hours, coolly made 
a pair of shoes ! * 

Another notable bridge is that over the Tamar, with 
its nineteen noble spans and its length of nearly half 
a mile (2,240 feet). It may well elicit the admiration 
of the crowds who pass beneath it in taking the 
delightful trip up the river from Plymouth. 

It was on December 28th, 1879, that the country 
was astounded and thrilled by the news of the Tay 
Bridge disaster. The structure, which spanned the 
mouth of the river, had often withstood the fury of 
storm, though not without vibration and tremble. One 
of the railway men had made no secret of his fear that 
the bridge was unstable, and had anxiously watched the 
train, many a night, start along the slender * track over 
the tumbled waters into the darkness. It seemed to the 
cautious Scotchman a foolish exploit. He prophesied 
that the train would go once too often. He saw it 
start on its last journey. AU through this Sabbath 
day the wind had blown a gale. Off the coast the sea 
was high, and many a ship had run for shelter. The 
night closed in wild and dark, chaotic almost in its 
gloom, except at rare moments, when the storm, 
impatient of its own sombreness, tore the clouds from 
the moon's face, and there was a fitful glitter on the 

* This bridge, which has a siupension of 679 feet from pier to pier, 
contains 2,000 tons of chain work, and cost £120,000. 




Chip. zzxviiLl AT ST. GEORGE. 353 

foam-flecked waters. People drew their chairs nearer 
to the fireside as the wind smacked the house wall and 
shrieked in the chimney, and the devout prayed for 
the safety of travellers by land and sea. 

When the train, which was running from Edin- 




(FroiM a i'ADlivmpJI ^ Hudim.) 



burgh to Dundee and carried about seventy passengers, 
reached St. rinnrgn, the nearest station to the bridge 
on the south side, it was a little behind time. The 
wind blew so fiercely that there was difficulty in 



854 OUB EAILWAY8. [Chap, xxxviii. 

collecting tickets ; and Thomas Barclay, the signalman, 
after giving the permit baton to the fireman, had 
almost to crawl to his cabin, so tremendous were the 
gusts. The wind howled about the cabin, threatening 
to lift it from its base, and Watt, the surfaceman, 
who was sheltering in it, told Barclay, as he struggled 
in breathless, that he did not think the bridge would 
hold up through the night. The two men had a 
presentiment of coming evil, and they watched the 
train with suspense as it travelled slowly in the wind's 
teeth above the storm-tossed river and beneath fantastic 
cloud-drift along the bridge. It seemed to go cautiously 
enough. Its tail light gleamed red in the darkness, and 
then almost golden in the moon's cold light. The train, 
clattering and swaying with the buflTeting of the hurri- 
cane, travelled at the rate of three miles an hour, 
without mishap, till it reached the high girders. The 
track was level with the girder-tops until the central 
spans were reached, but in the middle of the river, to 
make navigation easier, the rails were placed on a level 
with the bottom of the girders. When the train reached 
this point, and was making its way through the central 
spans, the storm suddenly concentrated all its fury on 
the bridge. On shore it made wayfarers cling to rail 
and wall and gable for support, and toyed grimly with 
life and property ; along the river it swept with howl, 
and shriek, and roar, and struck the bridge with savage 
might, tearing four hundred yards of it away. 

What happened at that supreme moment on board 
the train, " no man knoweth." The passengers 







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356 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ch»p. xxxvici. 

dozing, or reading Christinas story, or chatting, or 
thinking of home and those they loved, or listening 
to the storm's anger and wondering whether they 
would get through, had their career rudely interrupted 
by fate. The startled look on the engine-driver's 
face, the guard's instinctive grasp of the brake, the 
desperate momentary struggle of the passengers to 
escape their doom, are known only to Heaven. Some 
say there were piteous voices in the wind's wail ; 
others that they heard a voice as of thunder, and saw 
a flash of sparks as the iron fractured and the girders 
fell asunder. Whether the train was flung off* the rails 
by the hurricane and broke through the girders, or the 
bridge was blown down by the gale and the train 
hurled into the gap, has never been conclusively ascer- 
tained. Meteorological investigation and railway science 
lean towards the latter theory. Anyhow, the ill-fated 
train, the rails, and the girders plunged, a tangled mass, 
into the black foam-crested waters of the Tay. There 
was, no doubt, many a piteous shriek and half-stifled 
cry ; the headlong descent of the locomotive, seething 
with fire and steam ; the crash of breaking carriages ; 
the ring and clang of iron ; a great splash and bubble 
as the train disappeared beneath the river's surface; 
and then the grim silence of death. Not a soul 
escaped ! 

Before most people had recovered from the shock 
of the calamity, skilful and daring efforts were made 
to get at the wreckage. By hard work, patience, and 
courage many bodies were recovered ; but that of David 




Chap. xxxvuLj THE NEW TAY BBIDQB. 357 

Mitchell, the driver, was found nowhere near the train — 
it had been drifted by ebb and flow of water four miles 
below the bridge. Some bodies were never discovered, 
and the accident gave one or two unscrupulous men the 
opportunity of effacing themselves. It was given out 
that they had gone down in the Tay Bridge disaster, 
whereas they had disappeared in another fashion alto- 
gether. One embezzled the money of his firm, and 
roamed in a foreign land. Another tired of his wife, 
and did not, like the great Napoleon, trouble to get a 
divorce. These men did not fall into the waters of the 
Tay. They broke through the girders of honesty and 
virtue, and fell into the abyss of fraud and licentious- 
ness. Meantime a searching inquiry was made into 
the disaster, and it was found that the bridge had been 
badly designed, constructed, and maintained — that, 
practically, it had never been secure. 

Sentiment is soon hustled out of hard work and 
business; and, though the shadow of the Tay Bridge 
disaster darkened many a home, trade could not stand 
idly by while people grieved, and the rebuilding of the 
bridge was not only speedily projected, but actually 
begun not long after the accident. The new bridge, 
which has 85 piers, and is two miles long, is erected 
60 feet higher up the river than the old structure. It 
is built with double lines on a steel floor, and its height 
above highwater-mark is 77 feet under four of the 
spans in the navigable channel. The bridge, which 
finds connection, by seven piers on land, with the North 
British system running into Dundee, was opened for 



358 OUB BAILWAY8. [Chap, xxxvm. 

traffic in the summer of 1887; and the company 
obtained the leave of Parliament to let the piers of the 
old bridge remain in the river, practically as bulwarks 
to the four spans of the new viaduct, on condition that 
they were built up to the water-mark and lighted ; so 
the passengers who pass in the hundred trains daily 
across the new bridge have a vivid reminder of the fate 
that befell the travellers on the wild night when the 
old bridge plunged into the seething waters. 

Dr. Siemens' prophecy that the Firth of Forth 
would be " spanned by a bridge exceeding in grandeur 
anything yet attempted by engineers " has come true ; 
and the Midland Eailway Company were enabled to 
place on the title-page of their time-table in the summer 
of 18^0 the modest announcement : " Opening of the 
direct route to and from Dundee, Aberdeen, Perth, and 
the North of Scotland, June 2nd," and further to in- 
form passengers that as travel by the bridge materially 
shortened the distance between London and the land of 
Highland chieftains, glens, lochs, and salmon, they 
intended considerably to improve the train service. 
Some of the shareholders scarcely relished the tax for 
the use of the bridge. The company had been rash, 
they considered, in promising to assist in making up 
any possible deficiency in receipts ; but everybody in 
the pursuit of business, and many in the pursuit of 
pleasure, were delighted when the bridge was ready 
for use, and so transient is the depressing influence of 
a great calamity that the first travellers across the 
gigantic structure were not disturbed by the memory of 




360 OUR RAILWAYS. [Clu.p. Mxviii. 

the Tay Bridge disaster. Even the traditional old 
woman, stout, and doubtful as to the stability of the 
bridge, sitting as ligbtlj as she could in the comer of 
the carriage, and holding her breath and her tongue so 
resolutely, that the train passed by pillar, girder, and 
through the lattice with safety, was thoroughly con- 
vinced, when she got to the other side of the Firth, 
that the bridge was " as safe as a rock." 

One writer on the look-out for a comparison saj's 
that " gigantic as the tallest guardsman is to a newly- 
born infant, so is the Forth Bridge to other bridges." 
Its piers are nearly as high as St. Paul's Cathedral, 
its big spans are a third of a mile long, and its strength 
is such that it will carry two trains, a rolHng load of 
140 tons, and bear a wind-pressure on its main spans of 
nearly 8,000 tons. The structure is built on the canti- 
lever principle. The unlearned in engineering and in 
the fixing of brackets for house decoration may ask. 




IBB OLD TAT BBIDQK. 



Chap. xxxyni.j TRE FORTH BRIDGE. 861 

without any tannt of ignorance, "What is a canti- 
lever?" The reply is that — 

'* A cantilever is simply a bracket, and the principle of the bridge 
is merely that three huge towers have brackets, over an eighth of a 
mile in length, projecting out from them on either side. The 
brackets are pairs of steel tubes — long enough for a coach and 
horses to drive through — rising from the base of the piers, meeting 
at their further end the horizontal girders along which the railway 
runs, and supported at the same point by equally huge steel bands 
stretching downwards from the tops of the piers. . . . Mr. 
Baker has given a graphic illustration of the design of the bridge by 
photographing a living model, in which the piers are men seated on 
chairs, and stretching out their arms to grasp with either hand one 
end of a stick which is attached at the other end to the seat of 
the chair."* 

Mr. F. E. Cooper, who was the resident engineer, 
has been good enough to supply the author with a 
terse description of the structure. " The Forth Bridge," 
he says, ** is the most important link in the direct 
communication which the North British Railway and 
their allies, the Midland and the East Coast Companies, 
have completed between Edinburgh on the one hand, 
and Perth and Dundee on the other, to enable them 
to compete with the West Coast Companies for the 
North of Scotland traffic. The total length of the 
viaduct is 8,296 feet, or nearly If miles, and there 
are two spans of 1,710 feet, two of 680 feet, fifteen 
of 168 feet girders, four of 57 feet, and three of 25 
feet. The clear headway for navigation measures 
150 feet in the centre of the 1,710 feet spans. The 
main piers, which are three in number, consist each 

• '< The Banwayi of Scotland,'* by W. Acwoiih. 



362 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ohap.xxxvra. 

of a group of four masonry columns, faced with 
granite, 49 feet in diameter at the top, and 36 feet 
high, resting either on the solid rock or on concrete. 
The superstructure of the main spans is made up of 
three enormous double cantilevers resting on the three 
piers. Those on the Queensferry and Fife shore side 
are 1,505 feet, and that on Inch Garvie — an island 
which divides the deep-water space into two channels 
of nearly equal width — 1,620 feet in length. The 
centre portions of the two 1,710 feet spans on each 
side of Inch Garvie are formed by two lattice girders 
350 feet in length and 50 feet deep in the centre. No 
fewer than 140,000 cubic yards of masonry and con- 
crete have been used in the foundations and piers, and 
there are 35,000 tons of steel in the superstructure." 

The great Forth Bridge is a triumph of modern 
engineering ; and when Mr. Gladstone strode along the 
steel track, on one of his Midlothian tours, he was 
earnest in his admiration of the work, which indicates 
in a colossal fashion how rapid has been the progress 
of science, manufacture, and engineering since he, to 
quote his own words, " crossed the Forth, in a little bit 
of an open boat tumbling about, as far back as 1820." 
The bridge was formally opened on March 4th, 1890, 
with considerable ceremony. The Prince of Wales, 
standing in the middle of the north connecting girder, 
attended by Sir W. Arrol, the contractor, and by 
Lord Eosebery, Sir Benjamin Baker, the Marquis of 
Tweeddale, and others,* drove in the last rivet, a gilded 

* See the frontiBpieoe to this volume. 



k 



36i OUB BAILWAYa. [Chap, xxxvra. 

one; and, amid a storm of wind and rain, declared 
the bridge open. At a banquet the same night in 
Edinburgh the Prince proposed " Success to the Forth 
Bridge/' and announced that the Queen had made 
Sir Matthew Thompson, the chairman of the Forth 
Bridge Company, a baronet; that she had conferred 
a similar honour on Sir John Fowler, the chief 
engineer; that Mr. Benjamin Baker had received the 
distinction of Knight Commander of the Order of St. 
Michael and St. George, and that Mr. Arrol, the 
contractor, had been knighted. 

A railway journey across the bridge on a boisterous 
night has a spice of romance. The gale was fierce 
on January 29th, 1892, and how the great struc- 
ture comported itself in the blustering wind was 
vividly described by a passenger : 

*' To one who has not travelled on such a night it is difficult to 
afford an adequate idea of the unnerving influence which a hurricane 
shrieking amongst the lattice work of the bridge, and positively 
making the caniage dance upon the rails, has on the mind. As 
we came up to the signal-box at the north end of the bridge the 
train was brought to a standstill, the line not being clear, and 
there we stood five minutes in the- full fury of the storm as it 
swept down the Forth unchecked by any obstacle, waiting till the 
pointsman permitted us to cross. I do not know what scientific 
observations may have revealed the velocity of the wind at the 
time to be, but I have no hesitation in saying that^ though I have 
travelled a good deal in my time, I never before have been in a 
train so severely shaken by the wind. Though stationary, the train 
seemed to be dancing about on the rails as if stetuning over a rough 
road at express speed, and the noise of the roaring wind was by no 
means pleasant music to those who were about to cross the bridge. 
A gust more powerful than any we had yet experienced had just set 



^ 



ciup. xxxviii.j THE FORTH BRIDGE. 365 

the train shivering from end to end when our driver got the signal 
* All clear.' Slowly and stubbornly, as if the elements were holding 
us back, we crept on to the bridge, and in a few seconds we were 
on the first cantilever. The bridge itself was no more affected by 
the storm than, according to the engineer's calculations, it ought 
to have been in a wind of such velocity. The Forth Bridge stands 
fast in the face of the wildest storm. It rears itself majestically 
amid the waters, and presents an invulnerable front to the elements. 
To cross it on such a night is to repose implicit confidence in it 
hereafter, for though at the time I was not sorry to find myself on 
land again, I could not help but feel that any misgivings I had 
previously cherished respecting the stability of the structure were 
swept away for ever." 

Discussing the commercial aspect of the costly 
undertaking, the Railway News says: 

''The capital authorised in the original Act of 1873 was 
£1,250,000. The fall of the Tay Bridge gave the death-blow to the 
first scheme, that of Sir Thomas Bouch^ which gave place to the 
designs for the more costly and more substantial structure, prepared 
by Sir John Fowler and Sir Benjamin Baker. The ultimate cost 
was £3,367,610. The total length of the Forth Bridge (including 
the lines of approach) from Dalmeny to In verkei thing, is 4 miles 
16 chains. The cost, therefore, averages £800,000 per mile, and it 
is unquestionably the most expensive piece of line in the world. 
The receipts in the last half of 1890 were £40,953, the interest on 
debentures, loans, and dividends £61,931, and the deficiency 
£11,977. In the first half of 1891 the receipts were £47,460, 
the interest £61,449, and the deficiency £13,998. The deficiency 
has been made up from a trust fund ; but, trust fund or no trust 
fund, the shareholders have nothing to fear. Their interest is 
strongly guaranteed. The four companies using the bridge — the 
Midland, North British, North-Eastem, and Great Northern — are 
under an obligation to make up any deficiency in receipts required 
to pay interest at the rate of 4 per cent per annum on the nominal 
called-up capital of the company. The Midland, Great Northern 
and North-Eastem Companies are protected to the extent that the 



366 OUR RAILWAYS. [CJutp. xxxvin. 

North British are required to guarantee a minimum earning of 
£40,000 per annum, and further that if the North British pay 
5 per cent, continuously for four years on their ordinary stock, 
the remaining companies are to be relieved of half the guarantee 
in perpetuity. The bridge is on North British territory, the traffic 
over it is worked by the North British at 50 per cent, of the receipts 
on actual mileage, and as they are the greatest gainers, they are 
necessarily the most heavily handicapped with the guarantee." 

The bridges across the Thames indicate by pier, 
parapet, and lattice the engineering progress of Eng- 
land. There is a world of romance associated with 
these water-lapped fabrics. Westminster Bridge spans 
the river with stately grace, in the neighbourly 
light of the Clock Tower, and every inch of ground 
near it prompts thought of the great in religion, in 
art, in literature, and in government. London 
Bridge suggests the ceaseless striving and struggling 
of modern life, and now and then its failure, bitter 
misery, and profound despair. Higher up the Thames 
there are bridges that look down upon the out- 
rigger, balanced in the current by strong-armed, 
brown-legged youth, on foliaged banks, on lichened 
boat-house, on garden, orchard, and woodland ; but 
the railway bridge, even though it is built amid 
such a tempting scene of restfulness, has its work to 
do. There are no fewer than eleven railway bridges over 
the Thames. They stretch across the river at Kingston, 
Richmond, Kew, Barnes, Putney, Battersea, Victoria, 
Charing Cross, Blackfriars, St. Paul's, and Cannon 
Street, and these structures, some of them magnificent 
in span and gigantic in proportions, have cost nearly 



OUS RAILWAYS. 



(Chip. XZXVIIL 



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six millions sterling. 
Bat none of them is 
qnite so sarprising as 
the latest addition to 
the hridges of the 
Thames. The new 
Tower Bridge, with its 
huge towers of steel 
and masonry, its three 
great spans, its lofty 
girder-way for foot 
passengers when the 
doable drawbridge is 
raised for the passage 
of vessels, is indeed a 
remarkable outcome of 
engineering thought 
and work ; and the 
fifteen thonsand tons 
of iron and steel used 
in its construction 
have been put to better 
purpose than the iron 
and steel in the 
weather-beaten, historic 
Tower close by, where 
there are many indica- 
tions of the mineral 
wealth of the country, 
&8hioned in a merciless 



370 OUB RAILWAYS, [Chap, xxxviii. 

period of the nation's history into axes and instru- 
ments of torture that were not always applied to 
the heads and bodies of traitors. 

The attention of the railway companies was sharply 
drawn to the condition of their roads by a disquieting 
accident that happened on the London, Brighton and 
South Coast Eailway on May 1st, 1891. The 8.45 
morning express train from Brighton for London 
Bridge Station was travelling rapidly over Portland 
Eoad Bridge, near Norwood Junction, when it left 
the rails, part of the bridge having given way through 
the collapse of a girder. The accident aroused a good 
deal of misgiving among passengers not only on this, 
but on other lines, and the feeling of insecurity was 
accentuated by Major-General Hutchinson's report to 
the Board of Trade. " The cast-iron girder which failed 
on this occasion had,'* he said, " been in its place for 
about thirty-one years, and during the whole of this 
time had had concealed in the interior of the web and 
in the outer part of the lower flange a very serious 
flaw, abstracting at least one-fourth from the strength 
of the girder. This flaw was invisible to even careful 
inspection after the girder had been placed in position ; 
nor was it visible when the girder was cast, owing to 
the practice of using sheet iron in the foundry opera- 
tions at special parts of the castings, such as gussets. 
Independent, however, of the flaw in this girder, it did 
not possess a sufficient theoretical margin of safety for 
the passage of the engines now in use on the line." 
The company, he said, were deserving of much blame 



ciiap. XXXVIII.1 LOSDON ASD BRIGHTON BRIDGES. 371 

for not substituting stronger girders, and he urged 
that throughout the system cast-iron girders should 
be replaced by wrought-iron ones. 

The frank and breezy opinion of the Government 
inspector caused a rustle among the directors. Sir 
John Fowler, the consulting engineer of the company, 
was instructed to examine and report on the condition 
of all the bridges and viaducts on the line, and he 
presented his report on June 17th of the same year, 
as follows : 

" Mr. Banister has suj)plied me with full information respecting 
the cast-iron bridges on the Brighton Railway and its branches. 
The total number is 171, of very varied size and character. I have 
personally inspected the Victoria Bridge over the Thames, the Ouse 
Viaduct, the Shoreham Viaduct, and several typical bridges. The 
Victoria Bridge is a strong and good bridge in every respect, 
and will be so for very many years. The timber of the permanent 
way now requires renewal, and this is being done. Being an arch 
bridge, passing trains cause a movement which may be termed 
* vibration ' as distinguished from the movement or deflection of an 
ordinaiy girder bridge, which has less vibration, although probably 
more movement. No anxiety whatever need be felt about the Victoria 
Bridge. I walked over the ground of the site of the Ouse Viaduct 
and examined every pier and arch. I found this fine structure, 
which is exceptionally strong, in excellent condition. The Shoreham 
Viaduct consists of 36 spans of 30 feet each, with cast-iron girders 
resting on timber piers. The time has anrived when this viaduct 
would require renewal in a few yeai*s by substituting iron cylinders 
for timber piers and wrought-iron girders for cast-iron. I recom- 
mend, however, that this renewal be carried out as soon as arrange- 
ments can be made, and whilst the viaduct is in a perfectly safe 
state. Besides the Shoreham Viaduct, there are about twenty 
bridges which, in my opinion, should bo reconstructed by the sub- 
stitution of wrought-iron (or preferably steel) for cast-iron during 
the next twelve months, or sooner if possible, and about sixty others 

y2 



OUR ItAILWAYS 




ahonld then be reconstructed The advice given in thia report for 
the gradual reconstruction of the bridges is based upon conBiderations 
affecting the vast majority of railways in the kingdom — namely, the 
great increase in the weight of modem locomotives and the superior 
endurance of wrought-iron or steel as compared to cast-iroa when 
high speeds, heavier engines, and consequently a greater vibratory 
action, have to be provided for. Tlie result of my investigation does 
not indicate any unusual weakness iii the Brighton bridges, which 
are neither better nor worse in that respect than those on simihu' 
lines of raOway at home or abroad." 

The great companies took heed of the report. They 
set about strengthening and improving their bridges, 
and did all they could to re-assure passengers. Lord 
Stalbridge, on behalf of the London and North- Western, 
said neither the shareholders nor the public need be 
perturbed as to the state of the permanent way, for the 
engineers would see to it that the line was kept, with 
regard to bridges and everything else, up to the re- 
quirements ot the present day. Mr. Paget, the chairman 
of the Midland, said, with regard to their bridges, 
there was a large margin of safety. The company had 
993 wrought-iron and 181 cast-iron bridges, and they 



oh.^MXVIII.l A COSTLY AC0IDE2fT. S73 

now asked the shareholders to allow them to reconstruct 
the 181 cast-iron bridges, for which purpose they 
proposed to spend £85,000. The failure of the Tay 
Bridge had, he said, made the directors so anxious for 
the stability of the bridges on the Midland system, 
that during the past ten years they had spent at least 
£1,000 per week on the maintenance and renewal of 
these important parts of the permanent way. Mr. 
Dent Dent, the then chairman of the North-Eastern, 
pointed out that there need be no alarm as to the 
condition of the bridges on their system, for the most 
important bridges over the Yorkshire rivers, such as 
the Wharfe and the Swale, had already been replaced. 
Other chairmen, at the half-yearly meetings, spoke in 
a similar strain ; and bridge rebuilding and repair were 
carried on with zeal on many an English railway — 
" with one accord " directors sought to make their lines 
secure. The giving way of the girder proved a costly 
mishap to the London, Brighton and South Coast 
Railway Company. Ko passenger's life was lost. The 
cases of serious injury were few. Nevertheless, chiefly 




OUR RAILWAYS. 




owiog to the class of 
persons injured, the 
company had to pay 
heavy compensation ; 
and the broken girder 
practically cost them 
£20,000. 

The collapse of a 
railway bridge was not 
regarded as so serious 
a matter some years 
ago as it is now. A 
humorous conversation 
on this subject took 
place in the early days 
of railway construction. 
"The letters A B C," 
says the writer who 
recorded it, " must 
suffice to stand for 
the names of three 
engineers of the 
greatest repute in 
those times, some fifty 
years ago. Mr. A 
related that, on reach- 
ing his London offices 
one day, he received a 
report that another 
bridge had fallen. The 



diip. XXXVIII.1 LIUHT-HEAUTRD SURVEYORS. 



sub-engineers in 
the department, 
hearing of this, 
held a conference, 
and began to bet 
' on whose bridge 
it was.' Heavy 
odds were laid on 
its being one by 
Mr. X, who had 
earned a grim no- 
toriety in this re- 
spect. But Mr. X 
confidently denied 
it, and declared he 
would accept odds 
to any amount ; 
and as this cooled 
the ardour of his 
brother engineers, 
he quietly ex- 
plained : ' I knew 
right well it could 
not be mine, ns 
my last fell in a 
couple of days 
ago.' Mr. A then 
acknowledged that 
ten of bis bridges 
on aa important 




376 OUR RAILWAYS. [ciup. xxsviii. 

line had failed; Mr. B owned to fifteen; and Mr. 
C said : ' I really cannot undertake to say how many 
bridges of mine have fallen down, but one has certainly 
&iled «ut times.'" 




uu:iulilIo.s vuiJUOT 




CHAPTER XXXIX. 

8NOW, FLOOD, FOG AND FIRE. 

Sdow— A. Oostly Foe— Lines Blocked irith Drifts— Snowed Up in the Wert 
Country — Strange Adventures— Loea thronfrh Storms — Floods fn 
the MicUtind:! and the North— Broken ViaducU— The Station-Muter'* 
Refuge — Fog — Accident and Inoident— Firea »t Wolverton, Leed*, 
and Sal ford. 

The most costly foe to the railway is the snow- 
etorm. NotwithstaDding the utmost vigilance in the 
way of line-firea and snow-ploughs, it is by no 
means difficult for a train to get snowed up, and 
this not only means a complete block of the line, 
and a serious interruption of passenger and goods 
traffic, but a matted depreciation of the rolliug-stock 
embedded. There were, before the invention of the 
snow-plough and the better organisation of digging- 
out gangs, many whimsical experiences of passengers 
in snowed-up trains ; but we have not, even yet, 
learned thoroughly how to cope with Nature's winter 



OUB RAILWAYS. 



frolic on the line. The Great North of Scotland 
Railway was, on December 26th, 1880, blocked on 
several lengths by a heavy snowstorm, and between 
Forfar and Aberdeen five trains were snowed up. 




Throughout the north-west of England in the follow- 
ing year the snowfall was as heavy as any that led to 
mishap and delay in the coaching days. The storm 
was severe in Scotland too. On the Highland Eail- 
way the snow-block was four miles long. Three trains 
were buried beneath a huge drift, and a relief train 
sent to their rescue was also lost for some time. Dava 
Station, snow and ice-bound, looked like an explorer's 
hut in the Arctic regions ; but there was a busy scene 
near it, gangs of men digging day and night to release 
the trains, in one of which many cattle had been 
smothered by the snow. 



A SNOWSTORM. 



The cliairraan of tlie Great Western Railway 
Company made this dismal statement to the share- 
holders, after the snowstorm of 1881 : — " We had 
every reason, up to the middle of January, to 




anticipate that we might have been able to offer the 
shareholders a dividend in excess of what they had 
previously received, hut you all know that in the 
middle of that month a snowstorm occurred, the 
Brst we have had in the history of this ra.ilway 
to interfere with our traffic, and wiped off 
something like £56,000 of the amount available for 
dividend. There is no doubt the storm was much 
more severe on our line than on any other. Its 
great weight fell on the counties of Berks, Wilts, 



880 OUB BAILWAY8. (Chip, xxxix. 

and down towards Weymouth. We had to excavate 
111 miles of snow, varying according to the drift 
from three feet down to ten feet in depth. We had, 
unfortunately, fifty-one passenger trains and thirteen 
goods trains huried in the snow, making a total of 
sixty-four, and we had hlocks on 141 different parts 
of the system." 

A fierce storm swept over the west country on 
March 9th and 10th, 1891, and many trains were 
snowed up, the lines in some places being blocked 
by huge drifts against which no snow-plough could 
prevail. The evening mail from Princetown to Yel- 
verton, on the Great Western, was snowed up " in 
one of the wildest parts of Dartmoor," from Monday 
night till Wednesday morning. The snow, driven 
by the boisterous wind, beat through the tiniest 
crevices into the compartments, and the passengers — 
four men and two women — had a wretched experience, 
for they were not liberated until thirty-six hours 
had elapsed, when they were nearly dead Mrith hunger 
and cold. 

One of the imprisoned travellers, describing the 
efforts to dig the train out of the snow, and the 
way they passed the time when they found that 
further progress was impossible, says: "The driver, 
fireman, and guard went to the front of the train 
with shovels to try and dig a way for her, but it 
was no good. The place where we stopped is on a 
bit of decline, but the engine was choked with snow. 
The guards having told us that we could not get 



382 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chap, xxxix. 

on without assistance, proceeded in the direction of 
Dousland to get help. He had been gone about an 
hour, when he returned with the intelligence that 
he had lost his way, and that it was no use for 
him to attempt to reach Dousland, as the snow 
blinded him. We decided to make ourselves as 
comfortable as we possibly could under the painful 
conditions to which we were subjected — six men and 
two ladies huddled together in one compartment — 
the cold being most bitter, and none of us having 
anything to eat or drink. We lived the night through, 
but in what way I can hardly tell. In the morning 
the wind was blowing as strong as ever, and the 
snow as it fell melted on the window-panes, and 
the lamp — our only light — was extinguished at 7 
a.m. Just at this time the guard and fireman left 
us, saying that they were going to try and reach 
Dousland with the 'staff.' 

"Some little time afterwards the driver, who had, 
I believe, been seriously ill, announced his intention 
of going to Dousland. We then felt in a particularly 
sad condition, feeling our only hope was gone now that 
the driver had abandoned us. The storm was raging 
as fiercely as on the previous night, but at 3 p.m. we 
were agreeably surprised to find three packers, who 
had tramped up from Dousland with refreshments for 
us, knock at our door. We were heartily glad to 
receive the refreshments, although they only consisted 
of cocoa, bread and butter, and cake, with a bottle 
of well-watered brandy to follow. We found there 



CtapLSXXix.1 SNOWED UP. 383 

was eoough For us to have one piece of bread and 
butter and one piece of cake each. This was not 
a very substantial bill of fare for people who had 
had nothing to eat for over twenty hours, but we 
were thankful for small mercies. We then awaited 




the result of events. The wind was fearful, and we 
were all bitterly cold. We were nearly dead in the 
afternoon, and drank all the brandy by eight o'clock. 
If it had not been for that, some of us would have 
given way. The weather was milder after midnight. 
About seven o'clock the next morning, one of us, 
looking out of the window, saw Mr. Hilson, of 
Horsford, farmer, whose farm is only about 350 yards 




384 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ch«p. xxxix. 

from where our train was lying, picking sheep out 
of the snow, and he assisted in effecting our rescue. 
The engine of the train when we left was completely 
covered with snow, and the snow had drifted as high 
as the carriage, with a blank space between the 
body and the wheels. All the compartments into 
which I looked — although the windows and venti- 
lators were closed and doors locked — were full of 
snow above the hat-racks. It was the most horrible 
experience of my life/* 

In the same storm the driver of the mail train 
from Launceston found the line strewn with trees, 
hurled across the track by the wind. One he man- 
aged to push along for some distance ; but another 
became wedged beneath the engine, and the great 
piece of timber was with diflGiculty removed. Finding 
it impossible to get the train through, the driver 
took the passengers on his engine, and in two 
journeys got them safely to Horrabridge, though 
the running was very perilous, owing to the blind- 
ing snow and the obstructions on the line. No 
fewer than ten trees were found lying across the 
rails, and they had to be sawn or crowbarred out 
of the locomotive's path before it could make any 
headway. The officials who went out to the rescue 
of the disabled train found life at first exciting and 
then made up of endurance and patience. Some, 
after a gallant fight with drifts and with the hurri- 
cane, which actually rocked the carriages, passed the 
night as best they could in the relief train, the 



386 OUB RAILWAYS. [Cbap.xxxix. 

engine of which had finally to be dug out ; and 
others took refuge for the night in a waiting-room. 

At Kingsbridge the roads were impassable, and 
several men, determined at all hazards to get to their 
homes at Iv}' bridge, "wriggled along on their stomachs, 
Indian fashion," over the snow, which had fallen so 
deeply that highways and hedges were alike obliterated. 
When they reached Ivybridge their faces and forms 
were covered with frozen snow. This curious exploit, 
during which they had to pass under many natural 
archways of snow built by the storm's whim, was 
very exhausting, and one of the crawlers confessed: 
"For thirty years have I been a teetotaller; but 
several times during the journey I had to take a 
nip." Some of the snowdrifts were two hundred 
yards long and twelve feet deep ; and several of the 
passengers in a snowed-up train at St. Austell made 
a bridge of foot-warmers across one great drift, 
managed to reach the turnpike, and struggled on to 
warmth and shelter. 

The storm figured in the company's balance-sheet, 
and Mr. Saunders, the then chairman, announced at the 
August meeting in 1891 that in consequence of the 
bad weather in the early part of the half-year, in- 
cluding a snowstorm such as had never been known 
before, which absolutely closed the line for some days, 
and owing in part also to an unfortunate slip in the 
Marlay Tunnel, traffic and receipts had been somewhat 
diminished, while the cost of working and of the 
maintenance of the lines had been seriously increased. 




Chap. XXXIX.] FLOOD, 2J87 

The snowstorm caused a serious increase in the 
expenses, and although their earnings had increased 
£131,000, their expenses were nearly £150,000 more. 

Great havoc was made among the telegraph wires 
on the line-side by the snowstorm of 1892; in the 
previous year there was anxiety as to the safety of the 
cross-Channel steamer, Victoria, on her voyage over the 
rough, snow-swept sea, between Dover and Calais ; and 
in March 1889, a severer storm rioted at Bristol, Taun- 
ton, and Creech. Eailways and streets were flooded, 
and on the Bristol and Exeter track one train, drawn 
by three engines through the rising waters, tossed the 
spray almost as if it were flung from a steamer's bows. 

The damage done to the permanent way by flood 
is never repaired without great outlay. The year 1852 
was notable for its heavy rainfall. On and about the 
Midland there were many serious floods which caused 
great damage to embankments and cuttings, and 
undermined even the strongest railway fabrics. The 
waters surged fiercely about the piers of the Crow 
Mills Viaduct, at Leicester, and a miller who lived 
near had scarcely given warning of the insecurity of 
the structure when it collapsed with a crash into the 
river, and made a huge gap in the line that would, 
if undiscovered, have led to grievous disaster. In the 
first week of October, while a brilliant meteor flashed 
in the night sky, a flood surged through the North 
of England, doing enormous damage at Darlington and 
elsewhere. There had been heavy rains for days; 
many fields along the G-reat Northern route were 

z2 



388 OVB BAILWAYS. (Chip, zxxix. 

submei^ed; scarcely any landnmrk, except the tops 
of the hedgerovre, conid be seen, and the water was 
so deep about the line at FenyhiU that one train had 
to put back to I^ewcastle. 

The Apperley Viaduct across the river Aire is asso- 




CKOW HILLS VUDUCT IH ISO. 



ciated with a dramatic incident. On November 16th. 
1866, the river, swollen by floods, overflowed its banks 
to a breadth of half-a-mile. Returning from his work 
over the viaduct, a platelayer chanced to notice a 
break in the masonry in the arch, and ran to Apperley 
Station with the news. The down trains were stopped, 
and the stationmaster hastened ap the line to stop 
a goods train that was almost due. But before he got 
to the viaduct, he saw the train emerging from the 



Cb«p.xxxix.i THE FLOOD OF 1872 389 

tunnel on the other side. He waved his red light, and 
the driver and fireman, having shut off steam and put 
on the hreaks, but without waiting to reverse the 
engine, jumped off and escaped without serious injury, 
while the train went on, and broke through the viaduct. 




•I DABLINOTOH A.SD rERUI BILL BTATIONS IS IBSS. 



A severe storm swept over the country on June 
19th, 1872, and the water, percolating through the 
highlands, caused a serious slip at the north end of 
Dove Holes Tunnel on the Peak line, stopping the 
traffic for nearly six weeks, and costing the Company 
£10,000 in repain. 



890 OUB RAILWAYS. [Chap. xxxix. 

One of the most remarkable hindrances to traffic in 
recent years occurred in London on April 18th, 1892. 
The city was swept by a rain-storm of such violence 
that the main sewer burst under the down line of the 
London and North -Western Eailway at Hampstead 
Heath, and the brickwork was hurled across both lines, 
which were deeply flooded. 

In his book on railway management, Sir George 
Findlay wrote: 

" A notable illustration of what can be done in an emergency 
by a company like the London and North- Western, possessing 
great resources, occurred when, in the great storm of Sunday, August 
17th, 1879, the Llandulas Viaduct, on the main line of the Chester 
and Holyhead Railway, was undermined by flood and washed 
completely away, interrupting, for the time being, the traffic between 
England and Ireland. For two days, until the flood subsided, nothing 
could be done, but within the space of five days aftei-wards the rail- 
way was deviated for about half a mile, so as to strike the river at 
the narrowest point, and a temporary trestle bridge was erected, over 
which the first train passed at two o'clock in the afternoon, on 
August 24th, exactly seven days after the mishap occun-ed. . . . 
The new pei-mancnt viaduct was, meanwhile, rapidly constructed, 
and was actually completed and opened for traffic on September 14tli, 
less than one month after the mishap ; a very quick piece of work 
when it is considered that the viaduct is 224 feet in length, 50 feet 
in height, and has seven spans." 

At Scorton, in Lancashire, in 1891, the line was 
seriously flooded, many acres of land being under water. 
The stationmaster's house was inundated, and he had 
to seek refuge, with his family, in the booking-office. 

Fog on the railway, again, means greater ex- 
penditure and diminished receipts. The grey -yellow- 
orange chocolate mystery, that chokes people in town 




Chap, xxxfx.) FUG. 391 

and exasperates travellers in northern cities, is more 
costly than most people understand. The bang, bang, 
on the line throughout day and night, that tells you 
the fog-signalman is steadily at work warning the 
drivers of trains, proves an expensive pastime when the 
accounts are made up, for at one station alone as many 
as forty gross of these penny-shaped signals, made of 
gun-caps and powder, have been placed on the rails 
during a fog that was rather tardy in lifting. 

The strike of London gas-stokers on December 
3rd, 1872, gave passengers on the Underground Rail- 
way a novel experience. For some hours there were 
no lights at many of the stations ; and at Ludgate 
Hill the trains had to feel their way to the platform 
through chaos, much to the astonishment of some 
nervous travellers, who thought the sudden and 
dense darkness portended the break-up of the universe. 
London was shrouded in a fog of even more than 
characteristic density on February 10th, 1886, and 
while the great city was in a tantalising condition 
of murkiness and resultant confusion, no fewer than 
thirty persons were injured in an accident at Finsbury 
Park Station, on the Great Northern Railway. 

One of the densest fogs experienced in this country 
enveloped Birmingham in the middle of January, 
1888, and greatly delayed railway traflGic. A modern 
prophet had predicted that about this time *'the 
world would come to an end," and the murky at- 
mosphere inclined the timid to think that the dread 
performance was about to begin ; but no more harm 



392 OUB RAILWAYS. [Cha^xxxIX. 

came of the temporary chaos than from the magic 
almanac and the darkening of the moon in ''King 
Solomon's Mines ; ** and there is enough bustle of 
travel at New Street Station to-day to knock the 
conceit and folly out of a large staff of prophets. 
There was also a great deal of fog during November 
and December, 1891, when Nature (and house-fire smoke) 
took a leaf out of " Bleak House,*' and there was 
**Fog everywhere. Fog up the river, where it flows 
among green aits and meadows; fog down the river, 
where it rolls defiled among the tiers of shipping, and 
the waterside pollutions of a great and dirty city. Fog 
in the Essex marshes. Fog on the Kentish heights.*' 
The railways were greatly bothered by this dense 
ogre of fog, that seems, in its sluggish might, like 
an unwieldy giant, incapable of thought and action, 
after it has nestled down in the city. In the two 
months during which the fog managed once or twice 
to turn over, but had not the will to leave us, the 
South-Eastern Eailway used 72,000 fog signals, carry- 
ing on the traffic without mishap, except one at the 
Borough Market, although no fewer than 800 trains 
per day passed in and out of Cannon Street. Nor 
was it much better in the country, for the fog 
wrapped itself about Manchester, Leeds, and Shef- 
field ; and the Great Northern Railway Company, apart 
from the cost of fog signals, were put to an extra 
expenditure of £1,500 for gas and electricity, so that 
their drivers might see and their passengers grope 
their way. 




THE FOa OF 18»1. 



Sir George Findlay, in his evidence, given in March, 
1893, before the Select Committee inqaiiing into the 
hours worked by railway servants, described, with some 
touches of humour, the inconvenience caused on the 
London and North- Western by the fog in December of 
the previoos year. 
For the four days 
preceding Christ- 
mas Day, at the 
time when every 
part of the line 
was congested 
with traffic, the 
fog was so dense 
that the fog- 
signalmen stand- 
ing at the foot of 
the signal posts, 
which were 18 feet 
or 20 feet high, 
were unable to see 
the signals, and 
the whole business 
of the railway had 
to be carried on by 
fog-signalling, by sound, and not by sight at all. 
There were serious delays in the marshalling of trains, 
and many of the trains ran two hours behind time. 
One distinguished member of Her Majesty's Govem- 
ment. Lord Halsbary, who resided some ten miles out 




L roa-BiQiiAuuv. 



3»4 OVU RAILWJ YS. ichtp. xxxix. 

of London, was, on one of those days, two hours 
travelling that distance, and liis lordship testified that 
in all his knowledge of London fogs he had never 
known one so bad. Not only was there the fog, but 
there was frost at the same time, and the difficulty of 




getting tlirough the streets of London was such that 
the Post Office vans arrived too late for the mail trains, 
and the mails had to be despatched by subsequent 
trains. As to the goods trains, they were several hours 
behind time, many as much as twelve or fifteen hours, 
and some never reached their destination at all — for 
they were broken up and their constituent parts sent 
on by other trains. 

The management of a great railway. Sir George 
Findlay continued, was all right so long as things went 




TBAIK DN FIRE AT CLAPHAM JUNCTION, 



396 OUB RAILWAYS. (Cbtpc xzxcL 

smoothly^ but when such a fog came the whole system 
was disorganised. During those four days he was 
perfectly helpless, except to give advice; but it was 
impossible, on the spur of the moment, to attempt to 
set things right as if by a magician's wand. The Com- 
mittee concurred in his opinion, that "it is a marvel 
that the whole of the business did not come to a 
standstill, and that the greatest credit is due to the 
men who have been willing to work these long hours 
in order to get the traffic through." 

Fire has wrought much destruction on railways. 
Carriages, goods trains, warehouses, stations have been 
in flames, and sometimes the lines and rolling-stock 
have been damaged by fires that have broken out 
independently of railway working or neglect. But 
conflagrations are very much alike, unless they occur at 
sea, or in a twelve-storey American hotel ; and with 
faithful watchmen, trained brigades, and steam fire- 
engines it is unlikely that we shall have another " Great 
Fire of London." There have been, nevertheless, two 
or three notable railway fires within the past few years. 
In August, 1872, a fire creeping out of the arches in 
Prince of Wales £oad, Kentish Town, suddenly 
wrapped the district station of the North- Western in 
flames, and utterly destroyed it, leaving nothing but 
wreck of platform, booking-office, and waiting-room. 
In 1882 the London and North -Western carriage- 
building shop at Wolverton was gutted, flfteen hundred 
men were thrown out of employment, and damage 
was done to the extent of £100,000. Ten years later 




Ch*p.xxxix.i OBEAT RAILWAY FIRES. 397 

there was the disquieting spectacle of a train on fire 
at Clapham Junction. 

One of the most destructive fires that have occurred 
on English railway property broke out in Leeds on 
January 13th, 1892. It originated in the Dark Arches, 
beneath the Midland and the joint London and North- 
western and North-Eastern stations, a gruesome- 
looking place of tunnelled roadways and dingy ware- 
houses, and murky water of canal and river. In the 
ten acres of darkness, in arch after arch, were stored 
wines and spirits, resin, tallow, and oil. The fire 
sprang into life in a great vaulted chamber by the 
canal-side, and spread till the joint station above was 
threatened with destruction, the flames sweeping over 
the fifteen sets of metals, and playing about the main 
lines of the Midland. The damage to railway property 
amounted to a quarter of a million. 

A fire that caused considerable loss broke out at 
the Irwell goods yard, Salford, in one of the arches be- 
neath the London and North -Western and Lancashire 
and Yorkshire main lines, soon after midnight on 
September 3rd, in the same year, and the fire, though 
twenty jets were played upon it, spread to three 
arches, all stored with lubricating oil. The heat 
was so intense that railway servants were obliged 
continually to drench the firemen with water to enable 
them to keep at their posts ; and from the fear that 
the heat might undermine the railway no train was 
permitted on the line for seven hours. 



398 



CHAPTER XL. 

RAILWAY DISASTERS. 

1840—1870. 

Tho Breakdown Train— Humorous Events— A Novel Cure — "The Coo's" 
Revenge — How Railway Accidents are Caused — ^Malioe and Misohief — 
Jumping Waggons — The Whims of the Light Engine— The Phantom 
Hand on the Guard's Brake— Railway Aooidents, 1840-1870. 

On every railway of any note one train is always kept 
in readiness for speedy use, and yet it carries neither 
passengers nor goods, and its journeys, always made 
against time, are fortunately comparatively rare. The 
breakdown train is a curious-looking object beside the 
express that it may have to run after some day to 
succour. It is built for the roughest and most urgent 
work on the line, and is never heard of except in 
emergency and accident. Then is its opportunity ; and 
the great chimsy train, with its powerful engine, tool 
vans, huge breakdown crane, its load of bars, shovels, 
screw-couplings, sets for severing shackles and bolts, its 
waggon filled with planks or packing, its riding-van 
crowded with workmen, and containing in its capacious 
cupboard a large assortment of fog signals, train lamps, 
and danger flags, becomes interesting as it dashes 
through station after station on its mission of help. 
There is a flutter all down the line when the news has 
flashed by that there has been an accident — ^that the 
night mail from Southampton has run into a goods 



amp. XL.] THE HUMOURS OF RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. 399 

engine, that the midday express north has plunged 
down an embankment, that there has been a big smash 
owing to a faulty tire at Penistone, or that two trains 
have been crushed up at Doncaster. 

A few railway accidents have had their humorous 
side. There is, for instance, plenty of humour in the 
remark of the collier who, walking along the line 
during the prosperous coal- trade time in 1874, was 
tossed down the embankment by a passing locomotive, 
and said, on being picked up, "If arVe damaged 
t' engine a'rm ready to pay for't ! " And there was 
something grotesque in the sentiments of the lady 
who, travelling between Brookfield and Stamford on 
her first journey by rail, was pitched down an embank- 
ment, and, crawling from beneath the wreckage, asked 
a passenger, "Is this Stamford?" "No, madam," 
replied the man, who was pinned down by a piece of 
timber. " This is not Stamford : it is a catastrophe ! " 
"Oh!" cried the lady; "then I hadn't oughter got 
off here ! " 

There are passengers who go through life so 
philosophically, or are of such sardonic vein, that they 
are indifferent to, or actually derive physical and mental 
benefit from, railway disaster. In one of Ouida's novels 
a railway smash is dramatically described ; but the 
hero, who coolly continues playing whist amid the noise 
and wreckage, is simply annoyed at the accident because 
the trumps have been disturbed. In November, 1869, 
a gentleman wrote to the Times stating that while in 
Manchester " he was threatened with rheumatic fever, 



I 



4 



400 OUB RAILWAYS. [Chap. XL. 

and resolved to make a bold sortie, well wrapped up, for 
his home in town." He started, full of pain and 
misery, by the Midland afternoon train. It got into 
collision, and gave him such a shaking that his bodily 
vigour and elasticity returned to him, and he had not 
had ache, or sweat, or tremor since. 

The irony of fate has oft^i been illustrated by the 
erratic conduct of the cow on the railway. George 
Stephenson's prophecy, that in the event of a collision 
"it would be 4he worse for the coo," has not always 
been fulfilled. On the contrary, it is often the worse 
for the railway. The cow, during half a century of 
locomotive ruthlessness, has managed to get a fair pro- 
portion of revenge, one of the most notable instances 
of its malice being afforded on the South -Western 
Bailway on September 9th, 1873, when a bullock, 
charging down the line near Guildford, wrecked the 
train, no fewer than three passengers being killed, and 
twelve injured. 

The gang in the breakdown train do not, as a 
rule, come across many humorous incidents. It is 
a serious work they go to ; and they see much that 
is painful and pitiful, though the sad and grim 
picture is often brightened by brave deed, by patient 
endurance, by devotion and self-sacrifice. The causes 
of railway accidents are legion. A cracked axle, a 
broken tire, a snapped coupling, an open point, a 
signalman's mistake, a waggon, a sleeper, or a bullock 
on the track, a fall of rock, a weak bridge, a give- 
way in tunnel, a flooded line, will cause disastei 




ACaWENXa AND THEIR UAUSES. 



perhaps death ; aod oc- 
casionally serious accident 
is produced by a spirit of 
mischief, or worse still, by 
diabolical malice. A group 
of lads, mad with frolic, 
climb the embankment, 
thrust the points aside, 
the express dashes along 
the branch to some dead- 
head, and is wrecked. An 
old railway servant, dis- 
charged from the service of 
the company, nurses spite, 
walks along the line at 
night, "swarms " the signal- 
post, removes the lamp, 
and pitches it upon the i 



On the Hull and 
Withernsea Railway a 
man dra^ a heavy chain 
across the line, and ties 
each end of the chain to 
a post, in the foolish 
belief that the barrier will 
stop the train. Near 
Basildon Bridge, on the 
Great Western Railway, 
three pieces of metal and 
a a 




402 OUR BAILWAX8, (OhAp.XL. 

three sleepers are placed on the line just before 
the London express and the ordinary train from Ply- 
mouth are timed to pass. The obstructions are 
thrown down at a point at which there is a 
steep embankment, and below the river Thames is 
in flood. To the malicious mind no better place 
could be chosen for a railway smash ; but for- 
tunately the heavy, broad-gauge trains that by-and- 
by come tearing along are not displaced. They dash 
over, or rather cut through, the loose rails and sleepers, 
and continue their journey in safety. The passengers, 
however, have been made decidedly uneasy by the 
ugly jerk, and wonder when the law will take a 
graver view of these offences, and become severe 
enough absolutely to stop such wholesale attempts at 
murder. 

One of the most bewildenng and unexpected causes 
of accident is the jumping of waggons. At Oxen- 
holme, near Kendal, not long ago, the waggon of a 
luggage train jumped the rails and fouled the track 
of the express. The driver applied the brake, but 
a collision was inevitable, and the passengers, though 
they were unhurt, were considerably alarmed by the 
train's contact with the broken waggons, which ripped 
off footboards and handles, ai.d crashed against the 
carriages ominously. 

The light engine is another cause of accident. It is 
absolutely necessary to railway working ; but it is a sort 
of Uhlan of the line, and the secret dread of the engine- 
driver, for he is never quite certain at what nasty curve 



k 



Chap. XL.] THE LIGHT ENGINE. 403 

or awkward point it will turn up. Whether it is 
smoothly running or demurely standing he mistrusts it, 
for its movements, like those of a kicking donkey, are 
not to be foreseen. The light engine has a partiality 
for inclines, and pu£Es up them and gallops down 
them unweai'iedly. On Christmas Eve, 1890, the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire express, running into Leeds 
from Manchester, was surprised by one of these 
engines at Copley Hill Junction. The engine was 
on a steep incline. The express locomotive struck 
it, and away went the light engine at the rate of 
thirty miles an hour, ran into the Central Station 
at Leeds, dashed against the buffer stops, and bounded 
upon the arrival platform, filling the people who 
were waiting for friends travelling by the incoming 
express with dismay. Nor did the accident result 
merely in alarm. The tender of the light engine, 
which was running first, toppled over, fell upon a 
woman, and killed her instantaneously. 

It is apparently hopeless to expect the light 
engine to abandon its reckless pastime of tilting 
against more dignified and respectable engines ; still 
it does not always succeed in making great havoc. 
Its playful designs have been frustrated on the 
line by a mystic power, though whether by hypnotic 
touch or phantom hand it is impossible to declare. 
In a comparatively recent accident at Waterloo Sta- 
tion, in London, a passenger train was run into by 
a light engine, and considerable damage was done 
to the rolling stock and the permanent way; but 
a a 2 



40i OUB RAILWAYS. {ChAp.xu 

the accident would have heen much more serious 
except for a remarkable incident that stands con- 
spicuously alone even in the varied romance of the 
line. The ghost perhaps of some old engine-driver, 
familiar with the vices of that particular light engine, 
applied the break to the passenger train, and reduced 
the collision force almost to a minimum. The story 
sounds ludicrous, but it is vouched for by Major 
Marindin, who says : 

" The passenger train pulled up very sharply by the application 
of the automatic vacuum brake but, curious to say, no one can tell 
how this brake was applied. Neither the driver nor the guards did 
80, and no brake pipe was severed, so that it was not automatically 
applied ; but the valve in the rear guard's van flew open and the 
brake went on the gauges on the engine and in the vans, showing 
a reduction of the vacuum to 12 in. in the one case and to zero in 
the other. There were two brake carriages in the centre of the 
train without guards in the brake compartments, and it is possible 
that some passenger had got into one of these compartments 
and that he applied the brake, but it is not known that such 
was the case. It may be that the valve on the guard's van was 
jerked open by the shock of the collision and that the brake was 
thus applied, but I have never before heard of such a thing 
happening." 

At Kibworth, near Leicester, a curious incident 
occurred on October 9th, 1880. The driver of the 
Scotch express, thinking his engine ran in a peculiar 
fashion, stopped her, made a careful examination of 
the gear, and found she was all right. On re- 
starting he somehow reversed the engine. Neither 
himself nor the fireman noticed that the train was 
backing instead of going forward, till it crashed into 



Ghap. XL.1 A NARROW E80APE. 405 

a mineral train. Two Pullman cars were shattered 
and five passengers injured. 

The accident to the late Czar's train in October, 
1888, caused a flutter in the Imperial Court, and sad- 
ness in many a home. When the train wa« approaching 
Borki Station, it ran, owing to the bad state of the line, 
down an incline, and was completely wrecked, one of 
the engines, decorated with foliage and flowers, making 
a bright but odd picture of colour amid the mass of 
broken woodwork. The Czar, Czarina, and children 
escaped ; but several of the Emperor's attendants, six 
soldiers, and five railway servants were killed. 

A locomotive, like fire, is " a good servant, but 
a bad master." In one respect it resembles Mazeppa's 
steed. It is a very awkward thing to ride uncontrolled. 
Now and then, like some men, it wearies of the straight 
road, and runs down an embankment, or leaps a bridge, 
or plunges into a river to wreck and ruin. But there 
are comparatively few instances of a locomotive be- 
coming so utterly abandoned as the engine on the 
Fumess Eailway, which, on September 22nd, 1892, dis- 
appeared altogether. Between Lindal and Ulverston 
part of an embankment subsided. The driver of a 
goods train noticed the ballast slipping away from 
the rails and the ground yielding, and quickly jumped 
off the footplate. Almost immediately the engine 
broke through the rails, and plunged funnel down- 
ward into a big gap. The tender, which was only 
slightly embedded, was rescued ; and a vigorous effort 
was made to drag the locomotive out of its awkward 



«6 UUB RAILWAYS. [Chip, tl. 

position, but in vain. It was determined, apparently at 
any sacrifice, to escape further toil, and sank lower and 
lower, finally crashing into the depths of an ironstone 
mine, where it will probably remain till it is raked up 
by the geologist or archasologist of some future age. 
There have been about three hundred serious 




ACCIDBNT ON A SOUTH EABTEHN BBIDOG IS 1M6. (_Pa}e 408.) 



accidents on "Our Kailways " since Mr. W. EaskisBon, 
M.P., was killed at the opening of the Liverpool and 
Manchester Bailway, and among tbem the following 
are memorable ; — 

1840. 
HowDEN, Aufpiat 7. 
At Howden Station, on the Hull and Selby Railway, 
five passengers were killed by a large iron casting that 
fell from one of the trucks. The jury gave a verdict of 
accidental death, "but laid a deodaud of £500 on the 
engine and carriages." 



Ou(K XU) ACCIDENTS. 407 

ISil. 
SoNNiKfliiiLL, December 24. 
On this day an engine was thrown off the line by 
a fall of eartli in Sonninghill Cutting, near Reading. 




COLbAPSI! OF 



(.Pofff 403.) 



Eight persons were killed, and seventeen injured, 
chiefly workmen employed in the erection of the new 
Houses of Parliament. 



1845. 

Mabborodou, October 20. 



The mail train broke down during a fog on the 
Midland Railway at Masborough, and while it was dis- 
abled a special engine ran into it, killing two persona 
and injuring others. 



i08 OUB RAILWAYS. [OhapcXU 

1846. 
Mbdwat Tributary, January 20. 

An extraordinary accident occurred on the South- 
Eastem Railway on the above date. A bridge, 
spanning a tributary of the river Medway, between 
Tunbridge and Penshurst stations, collapsed soon after 
midnight, through press of flood- water; and the engine, 
tender, and several waggons of the up goods train 
crashed through the broken woodwork into the river. 
The driver was dreadfully injured, and died soon after 
reaching the bank, to which he was dragged by the 
stoker, who had bravely brought him through the 
torrent. 

1847. 

Deb Bridge, May 24. 

An accident happened to a train crossing Dee 
Bridge, on the Chester and Shrewsbury Railway. The 
iron girders of the third arch suddenly collapsed. The 
engine and tender safely cleared the gap, but the 
carriages fell into the river. Five persons lost their 
lives, and the rest of the passengers were injured, with 
the exception of one man, who, full of resource and 
daring, sprang from a carriage window and coolly swam 
ashore. 

WoLVERTON, June 5. 

A collision occurred at Wolverton, on the London 
and North -Western line, killing seven passengers and 
injuring many others. The Liverpool mail was sig- 
nalled into the station, but veered off into a siding 



Ohap. XL.J A00IDENT8. 409 

and ran into a luggage train. The accident was caused 
by the pointsman's forgetfulness, and he was sentenced 
to two years' imprisonment. 

1848. 

Bhrivbnham, May 10. 

At Shrivenham, on the Great Western Railway, a 
cattle-truck fouled the track of the Exeter express, and 
seven persons were killed. 

1850. 

COWLAIBS, August 1. 

An excursion train, taking holiday folks from Perth 
to an agricultural show at Glasgow, was divided at 
Cowlairs. While the first part was standing in a 
tunnel the latter portion dashed into it, demolishing 
two passenger "trucks," and killing five people. 

1851. 

Frodsham, April 30. 

A train broke down in Frodsham Tunnel, on the 
Chester and Warrington Junction Railway, causing 
three collisions, by which six passengers were killed. 

BiCESTEB, September 6, 

At Bicester Station, on the Buckinghamshire line, 
an engine ran off the rails. Three carriages were over- 
turned, and six persons killed. 

1852. 

BuBNLBT, July 12. 

An excursion train of Sunday-school children was 



410 OUR RAILWAYS. [Cbip. xu 

driven, through a pointsman's mistake, on the wrong 

track into the station, and dashed against the buffers 

in the bridge wall, one teacher and three scholars 

being killed. 

1853. 

Oxford, January 3. 

A singular accident occurred outside Oxford Station. 
Owing to the partial collapse of Wolvercote Tunnel, 
only the up-line could be used for traffic. The signal- 
man showed a wrong light to the driver of a passenger 
train, which dashed into a coal train that was cominjr 
down the same line. The effect of the collision was 
remarkable. The passenger engine was turned com- 
pletely round, and pitched into a ditch. The first 
engine of the coal train mounted it, and the second 
mineral engine also plunged into the dyke. Two 
carriages were shattered, two engine-drivers, three 
stokers, and two passengers killed, and many persons 
injured. 

DiXENFOLD, March 4. 

The driving-wheel of an express engine, running 
at the rate of forty-five miles an hour, broke near 
Dixenfold, on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. 
The locomotive was hurled across the line, three car- 
riages were wrecked, and five passengers and the driver 
were killed. 

Straffan, October 5. 

The express from Cork broke down at Straffan, on 
the Great Southern and Western Railway of Ireland. 
The driver and stoker ran back waving danger signals. 




Chap. XL.1 A00IDENT8. 411 

but a goods train, the driver of which did not see or 
ignored the warning, crashed into the standing express. 
Thirteen passengers were killed, and many injured, 
three so seriously that they died soon afterwards. 

1856. 

DuNKiTT, November 19. 

At Dunkitt, on the Waterford and Kilkenny line, a 

mail train from Dublin ran into several ballast waggons, 

the siding-points having been thoughtlessly left open. 

The workmen, seeing the mail's approach, strove 

desperately to climb a steep embankment, but fell on 

the line in the train's track, and seven were cut to 

pieces. Many of the passengers in the mail were 

seriously injured. 

1857. 

Lbwisham, June 28. 

A train at Lewisham Station, on the North Kent 
Railway, drawn up in obedience to a danger signal, 
was run into by another train. The guard's van and 
a carriage of the standing train were smashed, and 
eleven persons killed. The shareholders were heavily 
hit, after this accident, by successful actions for com- 
pensation. 

Newark, September 24. 

The express from Manchester to London, on the 
Great Northern line, left the rails when crossing the 
viaduct over the Newark and Tuxford highway, and 
five passengers were killed. 



412 



QUli RAILWAYS. 



1858. 

RoDMD Oak, August 23. 

An excursion train, crowded with Sttnday-scbool 

children, was sent, in two sections for safety, along the 

Worcester and Wolverhampton line. At Boimd Oak 




AT OBANTON. 



BtatioQ one of the couplings in the first section of the 
train broke. A number of carriages moved quickly 
backward down an incline, and smashed in the front 
portion of the second section of the train. Fourteen 
persons were killed, and some of the bodies wore 
dreadfully mangled amid the wreckage. 

18G0. 

Tottenham, February 20. 

Ad engine-wheel broke at Tottenham Station, on 

the Eastern Counties Railway, and the train ran off 

the line. Altogether seven deaths resulted from th» 



ACOWBNTS. 



accideot, among the killed being the driver and stoker. 
"The deceased," the coroner's jury recorded, " met with 
their deaths from the breaking of the tire of one of the 
leading wheels of the engine, in consequence of the 




defective weld; and had proper caution and vigilance 
been used, the same might have been detected." 
Okahton, July 8. 
On July 8, 1860, a singular accident occurred on the 
Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee Railway near Granton. 
An engine, after doing duty, was returning to the loco- 
motive station at Edinburgh, when it dashed over the 
embankment at Wardie Cottages into the sea. The 
engine driver, his son, brother-in-law, and pointsman 
were killed ; but a porter, who was also riding on the 
engine, escaped death, though be wa« severely scalded. 



414 OUR RAILWAYS. {(M^TU 

Hrlmshore, September 4. 

Two excarsion trains were in collision at Helmshore, 
on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, and eleven 
passengers were killed, and many injured. 

Athebstonb, November 16. 

The mail train and a cattle train were in collision 
on the London and North -Western at Atherstone, ten 
persons being killed, including the mail fireman. 

1861. 
Olatton Tunnel, August 25. 
A collision took place in Clayton Tunnel, on the 
London and Brighton Bailway, when twenty-three 
persons were killed, and one hundred and seventy-six 
injured. The driver of an excursion train, seeing a 
hand danger-signal, backed his train. The signalman 
then passed the words " line clear '^ to a parliamentary 
train, which crashed into the rear of the excursion 
train. The sufferings of the injured were intensified 
by the steam that escaped from the boiler. 

Ebntish Town, September 2. 

A collision occurred at Kentish Town, on the 
Hampstead Jimction line, between a railway servants' 
excursion train and some ballast waggons, sixteen 
persons being killed and twenty seriously injured. 

1862. 

WiNOHBUBO, October 18. 

A pointsman at Winchburg, on the Edinburgh and 
Glasgow Railway, sent a train from the west along a 
single line in use during the repair of the track. The 



Ohap.XL.] AOOIDENTS. 415 

fast train from Edinburgh met it, and the collision was 
fearful in its results. Both engines were shattered, 
two carriages were smashed to bits, and other carriages 
were piled high above the wreckage. The accident took 
place at night, in a deep stone cutting, and the dark- 
ness, and the diflBculty of extrication in this ravine-like 
part of the line, added to the terrors of the disaster. 
No fewer than fifteen passengers were killed, and one 

hundred injured. 

1863. 

Stbbatham, May 30. 
At Streatham, on the London and Brighton Rail- 
way, a locomotive boiler exploded, the driver subjecting 
it to very high pressure. The greater part of the train 
was dragged down an embankment, four persons 
were killed and thirty injured, the latter being chiefly 
Grenadier Guards returning from drill. 

Lynn, August 3. 

Part of a train overturned near Lynn, on the 
Lynn and Hunstanton Bailway, owing to a bullock 
getting on the track. Five people were killed, one of 
the passengers being so dreadfully crushed that it 
was difficult to identify him. 

1864. 

Eqham, June 7. 

A collision occurred at Egham, on the South- 
western Railway. Four persons were killed and 
twenty-five injured. They were chiefly excursionists 
to Ascot races. 



CtoiLXL-i THE STAPLEHURST AOOIDEST. 417 

train ran into a gap made for the purpose of repair- 
ing the line. Through the opening eight carriages 
fell into the river's bed, and were crushed into one mass 
of shattered woodwork. Ten passengers were killed 
or drowned, and many others were fearfully injured. 




THE ACGIDBHT AT SWANSEA. (Pd^e 41S.) 

Charles Dickens was a passenger by this train, but 
fortunately occupied one of the carriages that kept 
the rails. In the second volume of " The Lite of 
Charles Dickens," by Mr. John Forster, there is this 
reference to the accident -. " Saturday, June 10, 1865. 
I was in the terrific Staplehurst accident yesterday, 
and worked for hours among the dying and the 
dead. I was in the carriage that did not go over, 
but went off the line, and hung over the bridge in 
an inexplicable manner. No words can describe the 



418 OUn RAILWAYS. fphap.xh. 

scene." In his postscript to "Our Mutual Friend," 
the novelist makes humorous allusion to the narrow 
escape of his MSS. in the disaster, saying, "Mr. and 
Mrs. Boffin (in their manuscript dress of receiving 
Mr. and Mrs. Lammle at breakfast) were on the 
South-Eastern Railway with me in a terribly de- 
structive accident. When I had done what I could to 
helj) otluTs, I climbed back into my carriage — nearly 
turned over the viaduct, and caught aslant upon the 
turn — to extricate the worthy couple. They were 
much soiled, but otherwise unhurt. The same happy 
result attended Miss Bella Wilfer on her wedding day, 
and Mr. Uiderhood inspecting Bradley Headstone's 
red handkerchief as he lay asleep. I remember with 
devout thankfulness that I can never be much nearer 
parting company with my readers than I was then." 

Swansea, November 29. 

The section of a telescope bridge near the Swansea 
terminus of the Vale of Neath Railway had not been 
closed after the ])assage of a vessel ; but the signalman, 
in forgetfuhiess, sent message *' line clear." A coal 
train came on, plunged into the lock of the North 
Dock, and the driver and stoker were killed. 

18(57. 
Walton Junction, June 29. 

A passenu^er train, through a pointsman's error, 

collided with a coal train at Walton Junction, near 

Warrington, on the London and North -Western, and 

seven persons were killed. The passenger engine 

plunged inside the guard's van and stuck fast in it. 





H3 



420 OUB RAILWAYS, aokap^Xh. 

Abingdon (Calrdonian) October 14. 

A goods train, laden ydth inflammable material, 
got on fire as it was running between Elvanfoot and 
Abingdon on the Caledonian Railway. The mail ex- 
press from Stirling dashed into it; but the driver, 
seeing the peril ahead, had applied the brake, and the 
collision was more alarming than disastrous, the eng^ines 
only being thrown off the rails. A shift of the wind, 
however, would have set the express on fire ; and even 
the most courageous passengers deemed it advisable to 
climb the embankments, which presented a strange scene 
of hurrying figures in the fierce light and deep shadow. 

1868. 

The Abergele Disaster, August 20. 

The disaster at Abergele stands out conspicuously 
in English railway history, not only because of its 
extent, but because of the piteous helplessness of its 
victims. The accident bore some resemblance to the 
one at Versailles. The Irish limited mail started from 
Euston at a quarter past seven o'clock in the morning, 
as it had done with almost invariable punctuality for 
eight years. The run to Chester was safely accom- 
plished, and the train, after attaching some local 
carriages, started out on the North Wales track on 
its eighty-five mile run to Holyhead. Near Abergele 
the mail had got into full swing, and was making 
high speed on what the driver believed was a clear 
track, when it crashed into some trucks. A man 
sitting on a rail by the line side, and smoking his 
pipe reflectively, saw the waggons come down the 



422 OUB RAILWAYS. iOm^lLL. 

incline. They were oil-laden, and should have been 
shunted at Llandulas, but the siding would not take 
the entire goods train. The driver and brakesmen 
knew the time the mail was due, and, aware that 
they had not the regulation ten minutes for making 
up the train aright, in the hurry of the operation 
they gave too much speed to the kick-off trucks, and 
these, knocking against the paraffin-laden waggons, 
impelled them on to the main line. Arthur Thomp- 
son, the driver of the mail, did not notice the 
obstruction till his train was almost on it. He had 
just time to give a warning signal, shout to his mate, 
and leap off the footplate, when the crash came. A 
hiss of steam, a cloud of smoke, and a loud noise 
heralded the disaster. The mail engine, dashing into 
the trucks, broke many of the oil barrels in pieces, 
and drove on through the wreckage till it was dis- 
abled, and three carriages were thrown across the line. 
Seventeen hundred gallons of paraffin were liberated 
by the force of the collision, and the fore part of the 
train, as by a lightning flash, was wrapped in flame. 

The train consisted of thirteen carriages. Next to 
the front guard's van was a composite carriage, then 
two first-class carriages, a second-class carriage, the 
travelling post office, the mail tender, a parcel van, 
a first-class carriage, three composite carriages, and a 
guard's van in the rear. The guard's van next the 
engine and all the carriages down to the post 
office were consumed. So quick and intense was the 
heat that scarcely a cry was heard, or a sti*uggle 



Chap.XL.1 THE ABERGELE DISASTER. 423 

noticed, in the doomed carriages, about which the 
fire leapt. No fewer than thirty-three persons lost 
their lives; and of these, twenty-eight were burned 
to death, some of the remains being so thoroughly 
charred that it was impossible to identify them. 
Lord and Lady Farnham were among the victims; 
but the Duchess of Abercorn, who, with her family, 
occupied a carriage near the end of the train, escaped 
injury. 

One passenger, who crept out of the carriage 
window after the collision, said he saw a sight never 
to be forgotten. With the violence of the concussion 
some of the petroleum barrels had been thrown on the 
embankment, and others rolled under the carriages, 
but all exploded together. The engine, the coaches, 
aud the luggage van were enveloped in fire. When 
a portion of the train had been pushed away from 
the burning mass, there were among the broken 
timbers and the hot ironwork smoking skeletons, all 
that was left of men, and women, and children, and 
they moved horribly along with the wreck. 

A curious story was told by Catherine Dickens, a 
platelayer's wife. When the accident occurred she ran 
on the line from her cottage, and, going to one of 
the carriages towards which the fire was leaping, 
urged a lady to throw her child out, and she held 
up her frock to catch the little one ; but the mother 
to whom she pleaded seemed indiflferent, and declined 
her help. The story was discredited, though the plate- 
layer's wife adhered to her tale, and said the carriage 



424 OUR RAILWAYS. fCk»LXL. 



handle was so hot when she first sought the child's 
safety that she instantly relinquished her grasp. 

The heat around the train was unhearable, the 
vapour from the unconsumed oil sufiocating, and 
the flame of the paraffin terrible in its devastation. 
An expert said the awful stillness which character- 
ised the occupants of the leading carriages was due 
to the shock caused by the sudden exposure of the 
entire body to fire. No one, at all events in the fore 
part of the train, seems to have made any very de- 
termined attempt to escape. The passengers, as they 
sat at ease, perhaps admiring the landscape, or look- 
ing out across the pebbly beach to the sea, or 
reading, or sewing, or anticipating, in thought and 
chat, a pleasant voyage across the Irish Channel, gave 
one startled cry, and then, by anaesthesia or asphyxia, 
were deprived of sensation. The salvage taken from 
the wreckage was remarkable. In the heap of human 
dust, diamonds, rubies, opals, and emeralds were found. 
The furnace fire had robbed them of their settings, 
of their gold and filigree; but they sparkled, and 
glittered, and gleamed impervious to the heat amid 
their ghastly surroundings. Twenty-four watches were 
picked out of the ashes ; and strewn about the line were 
the remnants of bracelets, brooches, rings, smelling- 
bottles, scissors, and many half-calcined ornaments. 

The inquiry concerning the disaster lasted many 
days. The jury found that most of the victims died 
from suffocation before the fire touched them ; they 
suggested a drastic reform in shunting operations; 



Chap.XL.1 REGULATIONS MADE TO BE BROKEN. 425 

tbey censured the Llandulas stationmaster, and found 
the brakesmen in charge of the goods waggons guilty 
of manslaughter — ^but at the assizes these men were 
acquitted. Colonel Rich, in his report of the disaster, 
pointed out the unwisdom of locking the carriage doors, 
strongly condemned passengers for their thoughtless- 
ness in treating railway officials, and, making sarcastic 
reference to the management of the line, said: 

" I fear that it is only too true that the rules printed and issued 
by railway companies to their servants, and which are generally 
very good, are made principally with the object of being produced 
when accidents happen from the breach of them, and that the 
companies allow many of them to be broken daily, without taking 
the slightest notice of the disobedience." 

The accident caused a profound sensation througli- 
out the country, and comment upon it was continually 
revived, particularly when the mail engine-driver died 
from his injuries, and when the brakesmen were put 
on their trial. The railway company revised their 
instructions, and set about making better siding 
accommodation ; but the travelling public were not 
easily pacified. The taunt was thrown out that the 
directors ought to make a siding aU the way from 
Chester to Bangor, and there was an emphatic demand 
that passenger and goods trains should run on dif- 
ferent sets of metals, ''that the two services should 
be separate, and conducted on lines of their own.'' 

The passenger, quitting the bustle and noise of 
the enlarged station at Chester, on his leisurely 
way by the sand-banked Dee, and quaint Flint, and 



OUB RAILWAYS. 



thriving Ehyl, to some more remote Welsh watering- 
place, seldom thinks as he goes along the line that 
nurses the shore, looking out of the carriage window 
at the pastoral and wooded beauty of Abergele, that 
beyond the shadowed roadway, in the graveyard, by 




{Page 4a».) 



the village. He the remains of those who on this 
memorable day had their life's journey so abruptly 
checked. In the summer of 1893 the author, visiting 
Abergele, found that the railway accident of a quarter 
of a century ago was the talk of the village still. 
The disaster is the great historic event of the locality. 
It is a grim calendar in the records of the place. 
This villager died about a year before the railway 
smash ; that woman was married three years after 
it. Nearly everything is reckoned from the day the 



dup. XL.1 VICTIMS OF THE ABERGELE AGOIDENT. 427 

Irish mail was wrecked and partially destroyed by 
fire. " Would you like to see the grave, sir ? " said 
the old verger, who was full of reminiscences of the 
dread time. It was on the far side of the church- 
yard, near the toipb of the men who were cast ashore 
after the burning of the emigrant ship Ocean Monarch 
in the bay in 1848. A large granite monument marks 
the spot where the victims of the railway disaster 
are buried, and it bears an inscription *' sacred to the 
memory " of the thirty-three persons who perished ; — 

Tlie Right Hon. Henry Lord E. Lovell FarrelL 

Farnham. Joseph Holmes. 

The Lady Farnham. Jane Ingram. 

The Rev. Sir Nicholas Chinnery, Mary Ann Kellett. 

Bart. Caroline Simcox Lea. 

The Lady Chinnery. Augustus Simcox Lea. 

Judge Berwick. William Townseud Lund. 

Elizabeth Mary Berwick. W. Henry Owen. 

John Harrison Aylmer. Edward Suten. 

Kosanna Louisa Aylmer. W. Bradley Parkinson. 

Arthur Fitzgerald H. Aylmer. Christopher Slater Parkinson. 

Rosalie Franks. Mary Annie Roe. 

Kate Sophia Askin. Whitmore Scovell, 

Fanny Soi)hia Tliornburgh Kathleen Scovell. 

Askin. William Smith. 

Charles Cripps. Caroline Stearn. 

Capt. J. Priestly Edwarda Elizabeth Strafford. 

Priestly Augustus Edwards. Louisa Symes. 

1869. 

Long Eaton, October 9. 

A collision occurred on the Midland Railway, at 
Long Eaton Junction, between the mail and two 
excursion trains on their way from Nottingham Goose 



i28 OUR RAILWAYS. {Obm^XL, 

Fair, " a great holiday -time in the lacemaking town/* 
The express dashed into one set of carriages, '' there 
to be run into because the driver was afraid he 
would otherwise run down another excursion train in 
front, detained on its journey because it had already 
run down a luggage train." In this remarkable 
jumble of rolling-stock nine passengers were killed, 
and eleven seriously injured. 

1870. 

Newark, June 20. 

This was an unusually disastrous collision. Soon 
after midnight an axle in the Manchester goods 
train broke, and several waggons were flung off the 
line. An excursion train from London dashed into the 
obstruction, and eighteen passengers were killed. 

Carlisle, July 10. 

At the Citadel Station, Carlisle, a collision occurred 
between a goods train and the London mail at the 
point at which the North-Eastern crossed the Lan- 
caster and Carlisle track. The signals at the crossing 
needed careful watching; but the regular driver of 
the goods train was temporarily absent, and the fire- 
man, who was characterised at the inquest as "reckless 
and incompetent," took little heed of the instruction 
that he must keep his mind entirely fixed on his duty. 
He ran his train into the mail, killing five passengers 
and injuring twenty. 

Tamworth, September 14. 

At four o'clock in the morning, at Tamworth, 




dutp. XL.1 AOOIDENTS. i29 

on the London and North -Western, the Irish mail, 
arriving late, was sent into a siding, owing to a 
pointsman's mistake, and, smashing through a buttress, 
dashed into the river Anker. Three persons, including 
the driver, were killed. 

Harrow, Noyember 26. 

The Liverpool and Manchester express ran into 
some coal waggons on the London and North -Western 
Railway at Harrow, and seven persons, including the 
driver, were killed. 

Brockley Whins, December 6. 

A collision occurred between the Sunderland ex- 
press and a coal train at Brockley Whins, on the 
North-Eastem Railway, through a pointsman's error, 
resulting in the death of four passengers and a guard. 

Barnslbt, December 12. 

A collision was caused by a number of goods 

waggons breaking away on the Sheffield Company's 

line, and crashing into a passenger train at Stairfoot 

Station. Fourteen persons were killed and a large 

number injured. 

Hatfield, December 26. 

The tire of a wheel broke on a train at Bell 
Bar, near Hatfield, on the Q-reat Northern Eailway. 
The guard's brake and several carriages were over- 
turned, eight persons being killed, including two 
women who happened to be crossing the line. The 
tire was reported by experts to be sound; but the 
severe weather had made the material brittle. 



-tao 



CflAPTEH XLI. 
RAILWAY DISASTERS {continued). 

1872—1895. 

The Risk of Travol — Comforting the Passenger — Recent Diiatten — Sleep 

and Signala^Memorable Aooidents, 1872 — 1895. 

The railway traveller is occasionally comforted by the 
statement that " nearly as many people are killed in 
the streets of London every fortnight as there are 
passengers killed on all the railways in Great Britain in 
a year from causes beyond their own control." It is a 
comparison that reminds one of Mr. Labouchere's in his 
" Diary of the Besieged Resident," in which he says 
that there was less danger in the streets of Paris during 
the bombardment by the German army than in crossing 
the crowded Strand. Sir Edward Watkin, always em- 
phatic in his championship of railways, once remarked : 
** I have proved that railway travelling is safer than 
walking, riding, driving, than going up and dov/n stairs, 
than watching agricultural machinery, and even safer 
than eating, because it is a fact that more people choke 
themselves in England than are killed on all the rail- 
ways of the United Kingdom." Discussion on the 
question whether it is safer to ride by rail or on horse- 
back, or whether it is more desirable to be killed by a 
six-course dinner or the shock of collision, would be 
improfitable, inasmuch as there is a great vai'iety of 



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Cha^XLI.) PREVENTABLE ACC [BENTS. 431 

taste in the English character. But it must be asserted 
that railway accidents are too frequent. 

It is hardly necessary, as was the case in 1873, for 
the Board of Trade to issue a circular to the railway 
companies, pointing out that "the great proportion of 
accidents during the year had arisen through causes 
entirely within their own conti'ol; " still, the record of 
mishap during the past few years is not quite so enter- 
taining as Sir Edward Watkin would make it, including, 
as it does, the big Penistone accident, the disaster at 
Doncaster, and the collision at Thirsk. In 1887 the 
railway traveller was congratulated on the fact that, 
with the exception of the lives lost by the collision at 
Hexthorpe on the St. Leger day, not a single passenger 
was killed by accident to rolling-stock; but in 1892, 
in addition to the crash at Manor House Cabin, it was 
necessary to chronicle the collision at Bishopsgate, the 
singular accident on the railway approach to Birming- 
ham, and the wreck of a train at Esholt. " Sleep and 
signals" were chiefly responsible for these casualties, 
in which twenty-one passengers were killed. Those 
who travel by rail may derive some consolation from 
the fact that all the railway companies, zealous of 
their reputation, are, by a better system of relief, 
guarding against the slumber of men on duty, and 
by improvements in signalling apparatus, working, 
and regulation, endeavouring to lessen the peril of 
journeying. The following are the most notable 
accidents that have occurred within the past twenty- 
four years: — 



i32 OUR RAILWAYS. [Oha^XLL 

1872. 
Cmfton, August 3. 

At Clifton Junction, on the Lancashire and York- 
shire Railway, a collision occurred between an express 
and a goods trsiin, and five persons were killed and 
some others injured. 

KiRTLRBRIDOE, Octobor 2. 

A disastrous collision occurred at Kirtlebridge» on 

the Caledonian Railway. The Scotch express for 

London ran into a number of shunting waggons. 

Three carriages were broken into fragments, and 

eleven pa.ssengers killed. Captain Tyler said the 

driver, fireman, and guard of the passenger train had 

done their duty. The accident was caused by the 

moving of c(»rtain points not interlocked with signab ; 

it was duo in the first place to the stationmaster's 

forgetfulness. The stationmaster and the pointsman 

were arrested, and tried for manslaughter; bnt the 

jury took a merciful view of the case, and the men 

were acquitted. 

1873. 

WiGAN, August 2. 

The tourist train from Euston to Scotland, fiUed 
chiefly with sportsmen and their friends going north, 
met with a fearful disaster at Wigan. On nearing the 
station at a speed of nearly forty miles an hour, seven 
carriages, fouling at the facing points, broke from the 
rest of the train, and dashed into a siding. Three 
carriages mounted the platform and overturned, one 




434 OUR RAILWAYS. [Cb»p. xu. 

being flung actually upside down ; and a fourth 
carriage travelled over a wall into a foundry yard, 
taking a lady passenger with it in its strange journey. 
Several carriages were smashed to pieces, ten persons 
killed and thirty injured. 

1874. 

Manuel Junction, January 27. 

A dreadful accident occurred on this day near 
Manuel Junction, on the North British Railway. The 
London express, running at high speed, crashed into 
a shunting mineral train. The two trains were forced 
into a rugged mass of hroken wood and twisted iron. 
The havoc was piteous. Fourteen passengers and two 
firemen were killed. Many of the travellers were 
severely injured ; but some, though completely buried 
beneath the wreckage, and held for a long time in 
bondage by displaced tires and timber, were rescued 
unscathed. 

The Thorpe Collision, September 10. 

The Thorpe accident, one of the most conspicuous 
in railway history, occurred on this night. The Great 
Yarmouth mail, joined at Beedham by a train from 
Lowestoft, ran to Brundall. Beyond this point the 
line was only a single one, and the united train should 
have waited for the Norwich express to pass. But 
the Great Yarmouth train was permitted to go on the 
single line before the express had cleared. The two 
trains met with a terrific crash on a curve at Thorpe, 
and a pyramid was formed of the locomotives and 




Chap. XLI.J THE THORPE AND 8UIPT0N AGCIDENTS. 435 

shattered carriages, among which lay the wounded, 
dead, or dying passengers. No fewer than twenty- 
five persons, including drivers and firemen, were killed, 
and fifty injured. The accident was due to an error 
in telegraphing, an error that was discovered before 
the trains actually met ; but the ominous reply was 
** Mail train gone ! " and at Norwich there was dismay, 
and then hurried preparation made to help and succour 
the passengers in the inevitable disaster. 

Shipton, December 24. 

Festivity does not always reign supreme at Christ- 
mas. Calamity, fierce and relentless, now and then 
dashes it in pieces. A grievous example of the 
pitilessness of fate was seen on the Great Western 
Railway at Shipton -on -Cher well, near Oxford, on 
Christmas Eve, 1874. When the express from Pad- 
dington, which was crowded with people on their 
way to join country house-parties, or to indulge in 
Christmas pleasure in a humbler fashion in crowded 
town or by cottage fireside, reached this village, the 
tire of one of the carriage wheels broke. The carriage 
lurched, and the coupling-chain snapped. The train 
was running at a speed of forty miles an hour, and the 
coaches at the rear of the fractured coupling, set 
suddenly free, swayed for a moment on the line, and 
then toppled some down one side and some down 
the other side of a steep embankment. One vehicle, 
knocking away the stone parapet of the canal bridge, 
plunged a wreck into the water ; and two others, tamed 
cc2 



496 OUB RAILWAYS. iGbmp, XLL 

completely upside down, were crushed into splinters on 
the slope. No fewer than thirty-four persons were 
killed and seventy injured. 

1875. 

KiLDWioK, August 27. 

The Scotch express, on the Midland Railway, ran 

into an excursion train at Kildwick, near Skipton. 

Seven passengers were killed and forty injured. The 

excursion train had been detained for the lighting of 

the tail lamps. 

1876. 

Abbots Ripton, January 21. 

In the well-remembered disaster on the Great 
Northern, at Abbots Eipton, six miles north of Hunt- 
ingdon, the Scotch express ran into a shunting mineral 
train, and the Leeds express from London, seeing no 
danger signal on running through Huntingdon, dashed 
into the wreckage. The accidents occurred during a 
snowstorm ; and the havoc was fearful, fourteen persons 
being killed and many injured. 

Radstock, Angast 7. 

At midnight a terrible collision occurred on a single 
line of the Somerset and Dorset Eailway, near Badstock, 
between an excursion train and a special train which 
was returning from a regatta at Bath. Fifteen persons 
were killed and no fewer than one hundred injured. 

Ablesby, December 23. 

A goods train was delayed at Arlesey siding, near 
Hitchin, on the Great Northern Railway, owing to 
a breakdo¥m. The signals were at danger, but the 



caiap.xu.| ACCIDENTS AT ARLESEY, ETC. 4S1 

driver of tlie Manchester express did not notice them, 
and dashed into the luggage train, cutting his way 
through it, but at fearful sacrifice. Five persons were 
killed, including three ladies, and thirty passengers 
were injured. The driver lost his life through his 

own carelessness. 

1877. 

Abbotts Cliff Tunnel, January 15. 

This accident may be noticed as an exjimple of the 
dangers to which the toilers on the line are exposed. 
On the 12th of January a huge mass of chalk and rock 
fell in the tunnel on the main South Eastern line near 
Dover, and on the 15th, while the obstruction was being 
removed, there was another extensive landslip. Some 
five hundred men were at work in the tunnel at the 
time, but fortunately only two of them were buried. 
Seeing the danger, the poor fellows ran for their lives, 
but were unable to escape. 

Morpehh, March 25. 

The night express running on the North-Eastem 
Railway from Edinburgh to London got off the rails at 
Morpeth, and tore up the permanent way for a consider- 
able distance. The vehicles were crushed back on each 
other, and five passengers were killed, including Mr. 
James Donald, the editor of Chambers's Etynwlogical 

Dictionary. 

1878. 

SiTTINOBOURNE, AugOSt 31. 

An excursion train from Bamsgate, travelling at the 
rate of forty miles an hour, crashed into a number of 



438 OUR nAILWAYS. fOhap. ZLL 

waggons that bad been slipped on to the main line 

at Sittingbonrne Station, on the London, Chatham and 

Dover Railway, and six persons were killed and forty 

injured. 

Pontypridd, Ootolier 19. 

A collision took place near Pontypridd Junction, on 
the Taff Vale Kiiilway, through a mistake in signalling. 
Two passeng(T trains cra.shed into each other at the 
bend, and thirteen persons were killed and forty injured. 

1880. 

BuRSCOUcsii, January 14. 

Through a signalman's error a collision occurred on 
Brickfield siding, near Burscough Junction, on the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, and seven persons 
were killed and thirty injured. 

Wknnington, August IL 

A Midland train went off the rails while rounding a 
curve at Wennington Junction, near Skipton, and seven 
passengers were killed and twenty injured. On the 
previous day the " Flying Scotsman " ran oflF the rails 
in a similar fashion at Marshall's Meadows, near Berwick, 
and the driver, stoker, and one passenger were killed. 

Paislky and Nine Elms, September 8 and 11. 

September, 1880, was a month particularly crowded 
with railway accident and incident. On the 8th a fast 
train from Glasgow to Greenock ran into a mineral train 
near Paisley on the joint line, and five passengers and 
the guard were killed. The signalman had been on duty 




440 OUR RAILWAYS, cC3h*p.xu. 

ten hours, and, forgetful or weary, placed the mineral 
train on the wrong track. On the llth, at Nine Elms 
Station, on the London and South-Western Railway, 
while a locomotive was standing on the main down line, 
the night train from Waterloo to Hampton Court was 
signalled forward, and dashed into the motionless 
engine. Both engines were flung off the track, one 
or two carriages demolished, three passengers and the 
fireman killed, and thirty persons injured. 

1881. 

Blackburn, August 8. 

At Blackburn, on the Lancashire and Yorkshire 
Eailway, a collision occurred between two expresses, one 
from Manchester, and the other from Liverpool, five 
persons being killed and forty injured. 

Canonbury, December 10. 

At Canonbury Junction, on the North London 
Railway, an astounding series of collisions occurred 
on the above date. Two trains pitched into each other 
in the tunnel. They were run into by a third train, 
and a fourth train dashed into the disabled mass. 
Five persons were killed and many injured. 

1882. 

Fairfield Road Bridge, January 28. 

By the collision of a passenger train with some 
broken-down coal trucks on the North London Rail- 
way, near Fairfield Road Bridge, five passengers were 
killed. 




COLLAPSE OF A BlilDGS. 



Adcberless, November 27. 



A mixed passenger and goods train was wrecked by 
the fall of a bridge over the Tariff turnpike road, near 




Aucherless, on the Macduff section of the Great North 
of Scotland Railway, and five persons were killed. 

1883. 

I/OCKERDtE, May 14. 

The Scotch express was wrecked in peculiar cir- 
cumstances at Lockerbie Junction, on the Caledonian 
Railway. While the Stranraer train and some trucks 
were in coUision the express dashed into the confused 



442 OUR RAILWAYS. (Ci«p.XLL 

mass at a speed of nearly sixty miles an hour. The 
pilot engine, though the driver promptly reversed 
it and applied the brake, shattered one of the goods 
waggons, and then leapt the platform. The rest of the 
train swayed forward, the trucks that had foaled the 
line ripping out the sides of the carriages and completely 
wrecking one vehicle. Seven persons were killed, but 
it was feared that the loss of life would be much 
greater, for the train was unusually crowded, containing 
a large number of passengers who were returning south 
after the Whitsuntide holidays. 

1884. 
Breamork, June 8. 

The coupling of a passenger train broke near Brea- 
more, on the South -Western Railway. The carriages 
fell over an embankment, and five persons were killed 
and forty injured. 

Thb First Penistone Disaster, July 16. 
The disaster on the Manchester, SheflBeld and 
Lincolnshire Railway at the BuUhouse curve, near 
Penistone, on July 16, almost rivalled the Abergele 
catastrophe in the number killed and the damage done 
to rolling stock ; but the accident fortunately had 
not the dread accompaniment of fire. Sam Cawood, 
who had driven the newspaper train for years, got on 
the footplate of his engine at London Road Station, 
Manchester, for the return journey to town, and went 
out with the express, which was crowded with pas- 
sengers, at half-past twelve o'clock at noon. He ran 




ciuip.XLi.1 THE FIRST PENISTONE AOCIDENT. 443 

without mishap, at the rate of nearly fifty miles an 
hour, till he had passed Hazlehead, and then the 
crank axle of the leading wheels of the four-wheeled 
bogie engine broke. The driver applied the brake 
with all his might, but the impetus of the train 
forced the carriages off the line. With the exception 
of the engine, tender, and a horsebox, all the vehicles 
were flung from the permanent way. The first and 
second carriages were hurled down the steep embank- 
ment into a field, and the next two coaches were 
pitched into the country lane and smashed, their 
occupants beitig killed or fearfully injured. The other 
five vehicles were overturned, with their wheels in the 
air, and the guards in the brake van had remarkable 
escapes from death. 

The broken carriages were heaped in almost in- 
extricable tangle ; and out of the wreckage on the 
embankment and near the bridge nineteen bodies — 
ten women, six men, and three children — were taken. 
A passenger cut his way out of a shattered compart- 
ment, but many others were so grievously injured 
that they could do nothing to help themselves, and 
their cries and moans were heartrending. There was 
some element of romance and superstition in the 
accident. One traveller was delayed on his way to 
a wedding party, and the silence that reigned for 
a moment after the disaster was disturbed by the 
crowing of a cock that had escaped from the dark- 
ness of a hamper in the van, and thought it was 
morn. No fewer than twenty-four persons were killed 



4M OUB RAILWAYS. [Oh*p.XLL 

instantaneously or died from the effects of the acci- 
dent, and the number of injured was never accurately 
known. The Queen expressed her deep sympathy 
with the relatives of the killed and with the injured ; 
and in every part of the country the wreck of the 
express was the chief topic of conversation for msmy 
days. 

There was much inquiry, and from the mass of 
evidence two simple stories stand out clearly. The 
signalman said the express passed his box at twenty 
minutes past one o'clock in the afternoon, and three 
minutes afterwards the train was a wreck. He had 
only just time to readjust his signals, when he heard 
a crash; and looking out of the window, he saw the 
engine, tender, and horsebox staggering along the line 
— the rest of the train was down the embankment 
and over the bridge. The driver's account was even 
more dramatic. At Manchester he went beneath his 
engine, examined the crank axle, and was confident 
it was thoroughly sound. At Bullhouse he noticed 
something wrong with the motion of the wheels, 
heard a crack, and felt the locomotive lurch. He 
put on the brake, but the engine scrambled somehow 
beyond the bridge. Then, looking back, he exclaimed : 
"Oh, dear me! wherever is the train?" 

The outside web of the right-hand crank of the 
driving axle had broken, causing the engine par- 
tially to leave the rails. The draw hook at the end 
of the horsebox had snapped, and the remainder of 
the train had fallen pell-mell down the bank, making 




Ot»p.XLLi AN INVISIBLE FLAW IN AN AXLS. M5 

havoc and death, The crank axle that cansed the 
mischief had only run fifty thousand miles, one-sixth 
tibe ordinary life of an axle, and was made of solid 
steel ; but inside the web was " an invisible flaw, 
which had matured, by continual vibration, into an 




absolute fracture." Major Marindin said the accident 
to the crank was not one that could have been 
foreseen or prevented, though a powerful continuous 
brake ought to have so reduced the speed that the 
consequences would have been far less fatal. He 
held that not the smallest fault could be found with 
the servants of the company for the manner in which 
they had performed their duty ; and the jury retamed 
a verdict of accidental death, recommending, however, 
that some more searching mode of testing axles should 
be adopted. 



446 OUR RAILWAYS. (Cbap ill 

1885. 

The Second Penistonb Accident, January 1. 

On nearly the same section of the Manchester, 
Sheffield and Lincolnshire Bailway another calamitous 
accident occurred on this date, and perturbed pas- 
sengers to such an extent that they began to look 
upon Penistone as an ill-fated place. Even commercial 
travellers, who seem to thrive on banging about, 
shied at the track, longed for another and safer route 
to Manchester, and were thankful when they had 
traversed curve and viaduct, and safely reached Guide 
Bridge. The second disaster occurred between Barnsley 
Junction and Penistone, not very far from Bullhouse, 
the scene of the previous wreck. In the morning an 
empty goods train left Ardwick for Kivetor Park, 
and on getting within a mile of Penistone Station, 
ran into an excursion which was on its way from 
Eotherham and Sheffield to Liverpool and Southport. 
Just as the two trains were crossing on opposite lines 
the axle of a private waggon in the goods train broke 
— was clean fractured, either owing to the frost or the 
hardness of the road. The truck jumped the metals, 
struck the engine of the excursion train, and re- 
bounded; but, suddenly heeling over, fell with great 
force against the fourth carriage, crashing it in pieces, 
and then dragged along the coaches behind it, wreck- 
ing them also. The progress of the passenger train, 
which at the time of the mishap was running at the 
rate of nearly thirty miles an hour, was abruptly 




nh4p.XLi.i THE SECOND PENI8T0NE ACCIDENT. 447 

checked, and the vehicles in the middle and end of 
the train piled high in a heap of ruin. The wood- 
work had to be sawn away before some of the injured 
persons could be liberated, and the rescuers were almost 
unmanned by the stream of blood that poured upon 
the rails beneath the wreckage of the fifth and sixth 
carriages. 

Four persons were killed and forty-seven injured, 
but there was one marvellous escape. An old gentle- 
man sitting in the Liverpool portion of the train fell 
through the floor when the carriage collapsed, and 
was crushed among the broken timber; but his wife, 
who had been by his side, quietly kept her seat, and 
was uninjured. The rapidity of the accident was 
vividly described by one of the witnesses, who said: 
"The carriages seemed to fly asunder, nothing being 
left but the floor. The passengers in the compart- 
ment were flung violently together, and my son 
dropped through to the line, dying instantly. The 
whole thing was like a hideous dream, and came 
and went as quickly as a flash of lightning." The 
Sheffield Company in this, as in the BuUhouse 
disaster, escaped the payment of compensation, Major 
Marindin reporting that the breakdown of the goods 
train was an accident beyond the power of any rail- 
way servant to avert. He urged, however, that more 
careful attention should be given to the condition of 
rolling stock, and that there should be systematic 
periodical examination of all goods waggons, whether 
of private owners or of railway companies. 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



The Wreck of the " Rack Train " at HExrnoRPK, September 16. 

Doncaster, with its racing memories, can tell many 
stories of accident and incident — how ray lord, driving 
home from the course with his coach and six, came to 
grief in ditch ; how a jockey, 
coming up the straight like 
the wind amid ' a Gutter of 
gay silk and the flash of 
lioofs, was ground at the 
rail and carried off the turf 
hruised and helpless. There 
has been blood spilled, too, 
in fight and crush at the 
station after the winning 
numbers have gone up and 
the huge crowd has began 
to surge homewards again. 
But the disaster which took place at Hexthorpe, 
on "The Cup Day," Friday, September 16, 1887, 
stands out with lamentable conspicuousness in contrast 
to these somewhat trifling mishaps. A Midland excur- 
sion train from Sheffield, filled with people eager to 
reach the Town Moor to picnic, to bet systematic- 
ally with the recognised bookmaker, to hazard their 
pocket-money with the welsher, to watch the race, and 
to shout as the winner went by, stood at a little-used 
ticket platform, when an express from Manchester to 
Hull, ignoring the signal against it, dashed into the 




MB. p. PKNNT. 



450 OUB RAILWAYS. iamp.ZLi. 

excursion train at the rate of twenty-five miles an hour. 
The passengers in the fast train escaped with a severe 
shaking, but the havoc in the special was very great. 

Most of the carriages were shattered, driven back 
BO powerfully on each other that they were ground 
and crushed to bits. The excursion engine was forced 
upon the wreckage of its own creating, and partially 
mounted a mass of broken woodwork, beneath which 
eight passengers lay lifeless. Many of the injured 
suffered the most frightful torture, not only because 
of their wounds, but owing to the difficulty of rescue, 
several persons being jammed so inextricably in the 
carriage frames that the timber had to be hacked 
away. The effect of the accident upon one passenger 
was singular. He was apparently unhurt, sprang out 
of a compartment, ran swiftly across the line, and then 
fell to the ground, sobbing and laughing like a woman 
with hysteria. 

Twenty-five persons were killed and sixty injured 
in the disaster. Many of the latter found a true 
friend in Mr. F. Penny, the house-surgeon at the 
Doncaster Infirmary, who distinguished himself in 
succouring the wounded. The accident led to a re- 
markable offer from the servants of the Manchester, 
Sheffield and Lincolnshire Company, to whom the 
express belonged. The men of all ranks on the line 
decided to give up one day's wage each to pay the 
expenses of the disaster. A deputation, on behalf of 
the servants, proffered this thoughtful help to the 
directors at Manchester; but Sir Edward Watkin, 



Giuip.XLL] A GENEB0U8 OFFER, 451 

pointing out that the self-sacrifice on the part of their 
workers would mean a handsome gift to the company 
of £13,000, said the Board had concluded not to accept 
it, thinking that it would not be consistent with their 
duty to tax to such an extent those who lived by " the 
sweat of their brow." At the same time, the directors 
were deeply touched by the sympathy of the workmen, 
and tendered to them, by resolution, their heartiest 
thanks. 

In the meantime the inquest relative to the passen- 
gers killed was held, and the jury, finding that' the 
accident was due to the negligence of Samuel Taylor, 
the driver of the express, and Robert Davis, his fire- 
man, returned a verdict of manslaughter against them ; 
but at the assizes the men were acquitted. Major 
Marindin, in his report, urged that when block- 
working was suspended, every train should be stopped, 
not merely brought up or checked, at the block-signal 
cabin, and the driver verbally informed of the state 
of affairs. 

The company had to pay heavily for the fault of 
their driver, who said he was looking ahead, and did 
not notice the red flags on the line. 

Mr. Tom Vernon, a Sheffield cork merchant, one of 
the injured passengers, was awarded damages that ran 
into four figures, partly on the novel ground that he was 
a handsome man who had a keen sense of enjoyment 
and had been passionately fond of dancing, a recreation 
in which he could no longer indulge, seeing that he was 
doomed henceforth to limp about with a cork leg. 
dd2 



452 OUR RAILWAYS. iCkap.TU, 

Life moves so rapidly in the present centuij 
that disister and merry-making quickly become mere 
shadows of the past, aTid the Hexthorpe accident was 
soon nearly forjjotten. But out of it sprang a most 
romantic incident that is talked about yet by the 
mothers of Doncaster and Sheffield. A child that had 
lost its parents was found unhurt among the wreckage, 
and a titled lady offered to adopt it on condition that 
its humble relatives would recognise it no more ; but 
the humble relatives preferred to keep the little one in 
their fold. 

1888. 

Hampton Wick, August 8. 

At Hampton Wick an engine ran into a passenger 
train, five persous being killed and many injured; but 
the London and South -Western Company, on whose 
line the oolHsIun occurred, were held blameless, the 
coroner's jury returning a verdict of " misadventure,'* 

1889. 

Warren Point, June 12. 

The worst disaster that has happened on an Irish 
railway occurred at Warren Point, near Armagh. An 
excursion train had considerable difficulty in getting 
up the incline. The engine, in fact, was not powerful 
enough to pull the load behind it. The thoughtless 
driver got off his footplate and divided the train into 
two parts by uncoupling it in the centre, intending to 
take the first portion of the train up the slope, and 
then return for the rear part of the train. But to 



j 

7i ■-' - 






i%L: 


k^ 


^^ 






0m 


^^hUHI^^ 


.^.:-;^r •* 


^H^^^^^I^^^^H 



THE COLLISION AT THIRSK (p. IMI), 



f» I 




ct.^I;.lj THE IVARRUX FolXT P:<:A>rEB. *:vi 

his disniav he discovered, imnietliatoly he reloasi'd the 
coupling, that the rear part of the train, whioh was 
crowded with school clnhlren and toachers on a holiday 




H TAITNTOH. (/Vlji' 454.) 
lo If A. a. IVttrrki, rmindiiL) 



began to move backward. Efforts to checit its pn>{jn'Hs 
were in vain. Faster and faster it sped, amid tlie 
terrified cries of the passengers, to the bottom of 
the incline, where it dashed into another train. The 
excursion train was wrecked, and from tlie snuished 
carriages, and out of the great lieap of twisted iron 
and shattered wood, many bodies were taken. No 
fewer than eighty persons were killed by tliis disaster, 



454 OUR RAILWAYS. [0»iip.XLL 

which filled many a home with grief and called forth 
many messages of sympathy, including one from the 
Queen. At the inquest a verdict of culpahle negli- 
gence was returned against three of the company's 
servants, and one was tried for manslaughter, but 
acquitted. Such primitive notions of railway working 
obtained on this section of the line before the accident 
that stones were placed on the rail to prevent the 
rear part of the tmin backing down the incline, just 
as a carrier's cart is " scotched " on a hill side. Now 
engines of greater power, fitted with more effective 
brakes, pull heavy trains up the steep. 

1890. 

Norton Fitzwarren, November 11. 

The railway accident near Taunton, on the Great 
Western Railway, on this night, sent a thrill through 
the South of England. A special train running to 
London with passengers who had reached Plymouth 
by the mail boat Norham Castle from the Cape, and 
were full of thoughts of home and friends, crashed 
into a goods train. The disaster was a terrible one. 
It occurred at Norton Fitzwarren, where George Rice, 
the signalman, had, through lapse of memory, left 
the luggage train on the up line. When he received 
the message asking if the road was open for the 
special mail, he signalled "All clear." The train of 
three coaches, containing about fifty passengers, was 
sent out, and came flying towards the junction at the 
rate of sixty miles an hour. The goods train did not 



k 



cittp.XLLi THE NORTON FITZWAKBEN 00LLT8I0N 455 

even show a red light, and the special dashed against 
it without the slightest warning. The goods driver 
and stoker sprang off the footplate on hearing the 
roar of the coming train, and saved their lives. Then 
came a crash that made the permanent way tremhle, 
a shock the vibration of which was felt in the village 
of Norton. The two locomotives were wrecked. The 
driver and the fireman of the mail were flung, by 
the resistless power of the impact, on the carriage 
roofs, and miraculously escaped. But the fate of the 
passengers was dreadful. Ten of them were killed 
and many fearfully injured. The first carriage was 
not only broken up, but got on fire; and the blaze 
in the darkness, and the cries and moans of the 
injured, made a scene more vivid than any that 
ever leapt out of Dante's imagination. Help was 
speedily at hand, and the fire quenched, otherwise 
the disaster would have been even more appalling; 
for the three carriages were piled in a heap, and the 
injured were so tightly imprisoned in the wreckage 
that they had to be liberated with axes. Some of 
the incidents were pathetic; others ghastly and revolt- 
ing. Several of the passengers, miners, were coining 
home with wealth from the diamond fields to spend 
their days in peace and plenty. One traveller, crushed 
hopelessly beneath the splintered carriages, cried in 
vain for release; then, realising that death was near, 
murmured, "Thank God; I can die happy," and 
expired. Another passenger had his head forced 
through the jagged glass of a carriage window, and 



456 01 R RAILWAYS. ici-p.iLF 

his face was as cruelly cut as though he had been 
subjected to torture by the Spanish Inquisition. 
Tht» fate of Titus Baylis, a negro, was even more 
startling. After the fashion of his tribe, he was good- 
huinuured, light-Iuarted, making and laughing at jest; 
but his merriment was suddenly checked by death, 
his head being completely cut off. An entire card- 
])aity in one compartment were killed ; and the 
cards, blood-stained, were eagerly sought for on the 
lino, when daylight came, by morbid people who gloat 
over tragedy. The signalman, aged sixty-four, was 
arrested and tried for manslaughter, but acquitted. 
The coroner's jury had brought in a verdict that the 
accident was entirely due to his negligence, but at the 
assizes justice did not rigidly demand its pound of flesh. 
A merciful view was taken of the old man's lapse of 
memory ; but it was emphatically held that no man of 
the prisoner's age ought to have been left alone in a 
signal box at night, and the grand jury asked that 
the attention of the Government should be called to 
the great danger involved in allowing trains to stand 
shunted on main lines. 

1891. 
Norwood Junction, May 1. 

The iron bridge over Portland Koad collapsed as 
the express from Brighton to London was passing 
over it. The accident was caused by a latent flaw 
in one of the girders. The train ran off the rails, 
and the guard's van, after hanging in mid-air, fell 




Ota|. XL1.I AVOIDBNTS AT NORWOOD AND BABNBY. 457 

upon the roadway. The accident was curious rather 
tlian disastrous, there being no loss of life, though 
several passengers were injured. 

Babnby Junction, December 24. 
At this junction on the Great Eastern Railway 




the rails are so laid that passenger trains may pass 
each other, the line forward to Lowestoft being 
single, and worked on the staff system. While the 
Beccles train was waiting here on December 24th, 
the driver of a train from Lowestoft, unable to see 
the signals owing to the fog, dashed into it. Both 
engines were wrecked, one carriage was completely 
telescoped, three passengers were killed, aud nearly 
thirty injured. 



458 OUR RAILWAYS. [Oittp.xii. 

1892. 
Birmingham (Lawlbt Street), May 27. 

The down express left Euston in the afternoon 
of May 27th, divided at Eughy, and the latter part 
of the train ran on towards Birmingham. When 
it approached the junction at Lawley Street, a quarter 
of a mile from the tunnel entrance to New Street 
Station, the driver noticed that the Midland express 
from York was coming. The fireman said to him, 
" That Midland man's going a bit too far ; " and 
had scarcely spoken when the Midland train ran 
across their track. The North - Western driver applied 
the brake ; but his engine crashed into a Midland 
horsebox, and went, with the tender and first van, 
over the viaduct into a goods yard. The horsebox 
was smashed in pieces, and the groom, and a horse 
and foal, crushed to death. Eobert Sexton, the guard 
of the North -Western tratn, was killed, and several pas- 
sengers were seriously injured. Fear, the driver of the 
Midland train, said that all the signals were off into 
New Street, and that he saw no indication of danger 
till the signalman at Perley Junction hurriedly held 
up his hand from the window. George Brotherton, 
a commercial traveller of Wolverhampton, who was 
permanently maimed in this accident, obtained a 
verdict, with £1,150 damages, against the Midland 
Company. 

EsHOLT, June 9. 

At Esholt Junction, near Quiseley, in Yorkshire, 



c&Ep. XLI.1 A00IDENT8 AT E8H0LT j- BI8H0P8GATE. 459 

two Midland trains, one from Leeds and the other 
from Bradford, came into collision. The engine 
of the Leeds train struck one of the carriages in 
the Bradford train at an acute angle, and completely 
wrecked the coach. The impact was such that the 
locomotive was flung on its side on the line, where 
it made much havoc. No fewer than five persons 
were killed and twenty injured. Major-General Hutch- 
inson, in his report on the accident, said: "The 
occurrence of this collision and of the other recent 
one near Birmingham under somewhat similar cir- 
cumstances, directs special attention to the practice 
of the Midland and other companies of allowing 
trains — which cannot be prevented by facing points 
from coming into collision — to approach junctions 
simultaneously. It is certainly high time that no 
junction should be allowed to be approached simul- 
taneously by trains which can come into collision 
by junction signals being overrun." 

BisiiopsGATB Station, June 14. 

A disastrous collision occurred at the under- 
ground platform at Bishopsgate Street Station, on the 
above date. An Enfield train dashed into one from 
Walthamstow, wrecking many carriages. The place 
for some minutes was shrouded in smoke, dust, and 
steam, and there wa& great panic among the passen- 
gers, many of whom were artisans or work-girls on 
their way to business. " For God's sake, mates, jump 
out quick I " shouted a workman who saw the Enfield 



460 OUB RAILWAYS. ich»p. xu. 

train approach ; but the warning was too late, and 
so great was the crash that four persons were killed 
and forty injured. 

The Thirsk Disaster, November 2. 

One of the most disastrous and pathetic accidents 
that have ever happened on an English railway was 
this at Thirsk, on the North-Eastem line. The 
second part of the Great Northern East Coast route 
expr(\ss left Edinburgh at eleven o'clock on the night 
of November 1st, on its long run to town. Early 
the next morning, when going at the speed of 
nearly sixty miles an hour between Otterington and 
Thirsk, in Yorkshire, it dashed into the goods train 
that had just started from the signal station at 
Manor House Junction. Ten passengers were killed 
and as many as thirt3'^-nine seriously injured. The 
leading third-class carriage of the express was broken 
in pieces, six other carriages were wrecked ; and the 
brake van of the goods train and eight trucks were 
destroyed by a fire which broke out near the engine 
soon after the accident. It was thought that the 
train had been fired by the compressed gas with 
which the vehicles were lighted ; but investigation 
proved that the outbreak was caused by the wreckage 
igniting at the engine fire. 

Anyhow, the havoc was piteous. The express loco- 
motive, when it struck the goods train, rebounded at a 
right angle across the line, and then pitched on its 
side. Pell-mell over it and against it crashed the 




Ohap.XLi.) A REMARKABLE ESCAPE. 461 

carriages, and about the great heap of dedris the 
fire, which was so small at first that it could easily 
have been beaten out with a shovel, crept stealthily 
until it got thorough hold, and blazed away like 
a huge bonfire, with the rolling-stock for its prey. 
The rescuers made some sad discoveries. The calcined 
remains of two passengers were dug out of the heap 
of embers and dust left by the fire ; and a little girl 
was so fearfully scorched by the flames that she died 
before she could be liberated from the charred network 
of timber, out of which the headless body of her doll 
was afterwards taken. 

The driver of the express, Rowland Ewart, was 
seriously injured, but had a remarkable escape from 
death, being flung from the footplate of his engine 
into a pasture. The line was thick with fog after 
he passed Northallerton ; but he could discern that 
the Otterington signal and the Manor House up 
distant signal were *'oflF.*' While he was on the 
look-out for the home signal at Manor he caught 
sight of three red lights on the line ahead of his 
engine, about thirty yards away. He had not time 
to shut off steam, or even to get to his brake handle. 
He was dashed by the impact against the tender, 
but did not remember how he was thrown from the 
engine. When he regained consciousness he was lying 
in a field outside' the fence of the line. He did not 
know where the engine was, or where he was lying; 
but he could hear the steam escaping, and he saw the 
fire break out amongst the wreckage; it was only like 



402 OUR RAILWAYS. lObMt xu. 

the flicker of a candle, and lie could have put it 
out quite easily if he had been able to crawl to it. 
And he also saw another remarkable thing. As he 
was lying * maimed on the ground he glanced at the 
Manor House home signal, and noticed that it was 
still " off ; '* but he had scarcely caught sight of it 
when the signal suddenly went to " danger." 

James Holmes, on duty in the cabin, had put 
the signal to "danger," but he had moved his lever 
too tardily, and was responsible for the accident. 
Yet he had caused it in circumstances so pathetic 
that the man received sympathy instead of condem- 
nation. Unnerved at his child's death, and feeling 
incapable of doing his work properly, he had asked 
to be relieved from duty for the night ; but there 
was no relief signalman at hand, and his plea was 
in vain. " Can you send relief to Manor House 
cabin to-night? Holmes's child is dead," was the 
telegram sent to traffic-inspector Pick, and the 
reply, from a deputy, came, "No relief can be sent." 
Holmes had had only four hours' broken rest after 
twelve hours on duty. He had been running about 
all day in domestic stress. With his body weary, 
with his heart filled with grief at his child's death, 
and his mind in a "bother about his wife," he went 
j, into the cabin to guide the express through the in- 

tricate points and to see her tail lights swing safely 
away in the darkness. He so distrusted his own 
power of endurance that he candidly said he was 
unfit for duty. 







(a».p.XLLi AN UNFORTUNATE SIGNALMAN, 463 

Still he had to go to his hox. He worked 
absolute block system in both directions under 
ordinary rules. At 3.35 he got the *'Be ready" 
signal for the Scotch express from Otterington, and 
accepted it. The train passed at 3.37, and at 3.38 
he signalled " Line clear." The express passed, and 
he saw thafc it had a double tail-light, indicating 
that the second portion was coming. Then he got 
the signal "Be ready" for tlie goods train, and 
accepted it ; and, overcome with fatigue, he fell 
asleep. Meanwhile the second part of the' Scotch 
express was dashing southward. The signalman was 
startled out of his slumber by the " Be ready " 
signal from Otterington. He sent back *' Line clear," 
and the goods train, after its patient stand, acted on 
the signal meant for the express, and started on its 
way. He suddenly realised, with sickening dread, 
what was going to happen. He seemed powerless, 
for a moment, to do anything. Then in desperation 
he threw his signals to danger; but it was too 
late. The second portion of the express had dashed 
into the goods train, and the mischief was done. 

Holmes was tried at York Assizes for the man- 
slaughter of George Fetch, the guard of the goods 
train, and was found guilty, with a recommendation 
to mercy. The man, utterly broken down by sorrow 
and remorse, wept bitterly. Mr. Justice Charles 
thought he had been punished enough by the 
fact, seared on his mind for life, that his negligence 
had caused the disaster; and when the judge merely 



464 OUR RAILWAYS. ICh.p. XLi. 

ordered him to come up for judgment if called 
upon, the old court-house rang with cheering, which his 
lordship officially thought was most impmper, though 
there may be hidden away among Sir Frank Lock- 
wood's whimsical sketches a caricature of the judge 
pulling ofiF his wig and cheering too. 

To the students of ZadkieFs almanack, to the super- 
stitious, to the believers in fate, the experience of two 
passengers in the train afforded some comment. Captain 
Duncan McLeod, of the 1st Eoyal Highlanders, after 
going safely through the Soudan War, was killed, 
and his medals found scorched by the line-side. The 
Marquis of Tweeddale, chairman of the North British 
Railway Company, who is apparently becoming accus- 
tomed to railway accidents, was only rudely shaken. 
His lordship travels a good deal, and not without 
adventure. In 1886 he was a passenger in the express 
that was snowed up at Morpeth ; a little later he ran 
into Gateshead in a carriage that left the rails and made 
havoc all along the track. At Thirsk he was in his 
berth in the Pullman car when the crash came. The 
''■ forward end of the car was knocked off, but the strong 

framework withstood the shock, and all the Pullman 
passengers escaped injury. Lord Tweeddale probably 
owes his escapes not to supernatural agencies or to 
mere luck, but to the fact that he invariably travels 
in a Pullman car, which is at once a place of safety 
and a vehicle of peril. 

If you happen to be a passenger in it at the time 
of accident, you are tolerably secure. But if you are 



{' 



4 

f. 



i: 







Oh.p. XLI.1 MAJOR MABINDIirS REPORT. 465 

unfortunate enough to occupy an ordinary carriage, 
sandwiched between two heavy bodies, the Pullman 
car and the engine, the chances are that you will be 
crushed up. The only method of equalising the security 
is to run expresses composed of Pullman cars, or if 
these cars must be used on composite trains, to make 
the frames of the ordinary carriages as strong as those 
of their American brethren. 

The Thirsk accident resulted in a great outcry with 
regard to signalling, and the concern was accentuated 
by the evidence given at the coroner's inquiry by the 
signalman at Otterington, who admitted that he should 
not like to say he had never fallen asleep in his 
cabin, although he had never been found asleep. 
The company were, so to speak, quite knee-deep in 
suggestions as to train-lighting, signalling, and t/ie 
employment of their men. Henceforth there must be 
two signalmen on duty in every box; the signalmen 
demanded a ten-hour day, and some actually looked 
upon the disaster as a godsend in their attempt to 
obtain it. Major Marindin, in his report, said it was 
the duty of all railway companies to adopt some com- 
bination of mechanical and electrical appliance which 
would make such an accident impossible, unless the 
driver deliberately ran past fixed signals, and he also 
urged the engagement of relief signalmen, and the 
importance of the men being housed near their 
work. 

The directors put aside £25,000 to meet the claims 
for compensation made by injured passengers j and at 

* ec 



466 01712 RAILWAYS. cci»pl ill 

the next half-yearly meeting Mr. Dent Dent, then 
chairman of the company, announced that they had 
decided to increase the nnmber of relief signalmen in 
every district. He also said a word for himself and 
his colleagues. After expressing sympathy with the 
sufferers in the accident, and thanking the people in 
the locality for the kindly aid they had given to the 
maimed and helpless, he said he thought the press 
was very cruel to the directors and servants of a 
company when a disaster of this kind occurred. He 
claimed that they had as much sentiment as other 
people, that it was to them a matter of great personal 
sorrow and grief; and he said that for some time 
after the accident the matter was never out of his 
mind ; it was, in fact, a great burden, and very hard 
to bear. 

The reproach falls lightly on the English press. 
The record of 1892 shows that there is still need 
of reform in railway working. No fewer than 21 
passengers were killed and 601 injured by accidents 
to trains and rolling stock, and 108 passengers were 
killed and 747 injured by accidents from other causes. 
Including trespassers, suicides, mishaps at level cross- 
ings, and accidents to railway servants on rolling stock 
or in works, the total number killed was 1,204, and 
injured 10,476. 

1893. 
PouLTow (Blackpool), July 1. 

Two serious accidents at sharp curves happened 
this year. On May 22nd a special train, running 



Ch»p. XU.1 THE POULTON AOOIDENT. 467 

down a steep gradient to a viaduct on the Tralee 
and Dingle Light Bailway, sprang off the metals, 
and plunged over the hridge parapet into a glen, 
* killing three passengers, pig huyers, who were on 
their journey to Dingle Pair. The second accident, 
which aroused far more comment, occurred on July 
1st, on the Preston and Wyre Joint Eailway, which 
is worked by the London and North -Western and 
the Lancashire and Yorkshire companies. The level 
crossing and sharp curve at Poulton-le-Pylde had long 
been subject of reproach, and parliamentary powers had 
been obtained to make a new station at Poulton to 
obviate the dangerous meeting of the two tracks, the 
one to Fleetwood and the other to Blackpool. 

Nothing in the way of improvement had, however, 
been carried out on this night, when an excursion 
train left Talbot Boad Station on its return journey to 
Wigan and Stockport. It was in charge of Cornelius 
Eidgway, a driver new to the road, and passed 
Poulton crossing soon after eleven o'clock at a higher 
speed than was usual. The fireman, who had pre- 
viously warned the driver to be careful at the bend, 
shouted " Steady " as they approached it. When they 
got on the curve, as the pace did not decrease, he 
shouted "Whoa!" and he remembered nothing more 
till he found himself scrambling out of a hole by the 
line. The engine, tender, and two vehicles of the 
four of which the train was made up, had jumped 
the rails at "the nasty comer." The driver went 
over with his engine, and was crushed to death. Two 

ee2 




468 OUR RAILWAYS. [ChMj^TLL 

passengers were killed and thirty-five injured, nearly 
all people from Wigan. 

The jury held that the accident was due to the 
culpable negligence of the two companies in allowing 
such a dangerous curve on the main line, and in 
appointing a driver not sufficiently acquainted with 
the track. Major-General Hutchinson made careful 
inquiry into the disaster, and reported that the high 
speed was the main cause of the accident, though 
the irregularity of the curve and the worn rails con- 
tributed to it. The driver, with a powerful engine 
and light train, reached the curve before he was aware 
of it, and neglected to reduce his speed, though he 
doubtless intended to do so. Before the train left 
Blackpool, Saunderson, the inspector, in spite of all 
protest, turned some of the passengers out of the fiirst 
carriage, vigorously adhering to the rule that the com- 
partments nearest the engine should run empty; and 
in his report Major-General Hutchinson complimented 
this servant, saying that his enforcement of the regu- 
lation had undoubtedly saved the lives of some of the 
passengers. 

Llantbissant Junction, Angiist 12. 

The most serious accident of the year was that 
at Llantrissant Junction, on the Taff Vale Railway, 
thirteen passengers losing their lives, and twelve pas- 
sengers and railway servants being injured, owing 
to a passenger train leaving the rails and falling down 
an embankment thirty feet deep, the result of a flaw 
in one of the wheels of the engine. 



« • « 



o 



CUp. XLL] THE AOOJODENT REOOBD OF 1894 469 

1894. 
Chelfobd, December 22. 

The record for 1894 was a comparatively light one, 
the number of passengers killed and injured being 
respectively sixteen and 847. Of these, fourteen were 
killed and seventy-nine injured in a single accident, 
that at Chelford, on the London and North Western 
Railway. The afternoon express from Manchester to 
London, crowded with holiday-makers, and drawn by 
two engines, was travelling at from fifty to sixty miles 
an hour when it ran into an empty goods waggon which 
was being shunted, and was wrecked. As the train 
approached Chelford Station, about fifteen miles north 
of Crewe, the drivers thought they saw hand-lights 
waving in front of them on the up-track, and heard 
men shouting. They immediately applied their brakes, 
reversed their levers, and sounded their whistles ; but 
before speed could be appreciably reduced the collision 
occurred. Both engines were overturned, with nearly 
all the carriages, but none of the drivers or stokers 
were killed, and those of the second engine escaped 
without serious harm. 

1895. 

St. Nbots, November 10. 

In consequence of the splitting of a rail, the Great 
Northern midnight express to Edinburgh was almost 
totally wrecked. Only one passenger, however — a 
lady — was killed on the spot, but another afterwards 
succumbed. 



470 



CHAPTEE XLH. 

STORIES OF CLAIMS AND COMPENSATION THE RAILWAY 

CLEARING HOUSE. 

The British Jury — Ingenious Litigants— A Clever Fraud — Genuine Actions 
— Heavy Damagres — A Railway Chairman and Compensation — The 
Sleepy Passenger — Locomotive Sparks — Singular Action — Trivial 
Claims— Dipping into Railway Earnings— The Clearing House — How 
it was Established— Its Jubilee— Two Notable Letters— The Work 
of a Great Department. 

The word "compensation** has a just English ring, 
and every substantial railway company knows that 
a British jury thoroughly understands the meaning 
and scope of the term. It is one that has often given 
work to the judges in the Nisi Prius Court, that has 
filled the pockets of barristers with gold, provided 
many shrewd travellers with comfortable incomes (that 
they have been enabled to enjoy for years, notwith- 
standing their grievous injuries), and brusquely reduced 
the dividends of shareholders. Railway companies are 
liable for the negligence of their servants resulting in 
the death of, or personal injury to, any person. In the 
case of death the relatives can claim compensation if 
the action is brought within a year ; and in the case of 
injury the person hurt can make a sort of wholesale 
claim, for he is entitled to recover compensation for loss 
of salary or business profits, the amount of his doctor's 



Chap.XLii.i FRAUDULENT 0LAIM8. 471 

bill, the charge for nursing, his seaside or change of air 
expenses, and substantial damages for pain, suffering, 
and permanent injury. 

The special jury, no matter at what assize, are, as 
a rule, almost unconsciously susceptible to two classes of 
action — those for personal injury and those for breach of 
promise. They are sorry for the passenger who, owing 
to the company's negligence, has been smashed in body. 
They sympathise deeply with the pretty girl, dark or 
fair, who, owing to her lover's whim, has been broken 
in heart. In both cases the sentiment is creditable to 
human nature ; nevertheless, this sympathetic conscience 
is, with regard to railway actions — whatever it may be 
in blighted love cases — a temptation to fraud on the 
part of the unscrupulous and the avaricious. Some 
people think lightly of cheating a board of directors. 

The purses of railway companies, ever since the pass- 
ing of Lord Campbeirs Act in 1846, have been dipped 
into by many brazen liars and cool suave adventurers 
who have successfully foisted their stories of sham 
injuries on credulous courts. There is an old story 
about the eye-witness of a railway accident running 
down an embankment, creeping into an overturned 
carriage, giving himself a couple of black eyes, and 
suing the company for compensation for personal 
injuries. The author has himself known a case in 
which a passenger was so seriously injured internally 
that he was completely swathed in flannels and necker- 
chiefs, and limped about with a stick, till the assize 
jury gave him substantial damages ; and then he bought 



472 QUE RAILWAYS. ichap. xui. 

fine raiment, and flung away his crutch as carelessly as 
if he had been cured by the waters of St. Anne. 

At Birmingham, in April, 1892, Thomas Nock 
recovered £50 damages from the Great Western Rail- 
way Company for the loss of his mother. The woman, 
while waiting for an excursion train at Kidderminster 
on September 5th in the previous year, was flung by the 
rush of the crowd between two carriages, and was so 
seriously injured that she died. It was somewhat whim- 
sically contended that, considering the small sum paid 
by excursionists, it would be unfair to make the 
company responsible for the sudden act of a crowd : 
which really meant that if passengers insisted upon 
travelling cheaply, they must rather expect to be killed. 
Mr. Justice Cave speedily brushed away this peculiar 
sophistry, remarking that the mere exhortation of the 
porters to the people to "stand back " was as superfluous 
as if it had been addressed to the coming tide, and the 
simplest precaution would have been to admit ticket- 
holders only, and that there was clearly evidence of 
negligence to go to the jury. 

" Insurance ? ** is the swift laconic question put 
by the booking-clerk, as he pushes your railway 
ticket and change across the worn counter to the 
aperture in the window. It is to many passengers an 
unpleasant question, and they frequently hurry oS in 
disdain ; but accidents will happen on the best regulated 
railways, and surely it is wiser, if it is your fate to be 
killed in a collision, to have an insurance ticket about 
3'ou, and to be the means, though lifeless, of bringing 



ch.p.XLU.1 AN AUDA0I0U8 ARGUMENT. 473 

substantial benefit to your family. It is a gruesome 
way of making money; still, after the ruling of 
Mr. Justice Day at the Leeds assizes in 1892, few 
thoughtful railway travellers will enter a train without 
an insurance ticket. One of the passengers killed in 
the Esholt accident was Joseph Allen, travelling 
inspector and agent of the Law Life Insurance Com- 
pany. It is said that doctors never take their own 
physic; but Mr. Allen encouraged his own business, and 
had insured his life for £1,700. His wife sued the 
Midland Company for damages for the loss of her 
husband. The company admitted their liability, but 
contended that the amount for which the man was 
insured ought to be deducted from the damages; in 
fact, it was plausibly argued that inasmuch as £1,000 
of this amount represented an accident insurance, his 
premature death, from a pecuniary point of view, was 
really a gain to the widow, because in the event of his 
natural death, she would have received absolutely 
nothing on a policy of that kind. The barristers 
fought long on the point, but his lordship ended the 
argument by holding that "the company were not 
entitled to the benefit of Mr. Allen's prudence." The 
jury awarded the widow and her child damages to the 
amount of £8,000. 

The havoc wTought by railway disaster seldom 
comes home to one. When it does, it is not easily 
forgotten. Though it was nine years ago, the scene 
at the first Penistone accident rises vividly before 
the author now — the officials, among whom was 



474 OUn RAILWAYS. cch.?. XLn. 

&fr. Sacr^, his usually merry face saddened with the 
thought of the death and pain around him, the tom-up 
permanent way, the disabled engine, the wrecked 
carriages, the cries of the injured, and the two rows 
of lifeless forms in the shed near the inn just below 

®the station. The disaster was not 
the outcome of any railway servant's 
negligence, and the Sheffield Com- 
pany were not liable for damages ; 
but railway companies seldom escape 
so fortunately, and Mr. S. Laing, when 
speaking to his shareholders on this 
point, remarked that compensation was, 
\f^'^BiT'ZZ'i'w\ '° effect, very much an insurance, 
depending not so much on the gravity 
of the accident as on the wealtli and position of the 
persons injured. It might seem a hard saying, he 
added, but it was true, that an accident which killed 
lialf a dozen third-class passengers might cost the 
company less than a slight collision which gave a 
shock to a rich merchant or a stockbroker. 

Sometimes the railway companies are a little too 
fastidious, as was the case in 1888 on the London 
and Chatham line. A passenger, peacefully asleep in 
a compartment, was taken beyond the station at which 
he had intended to alight. The company aroused 
him, and demanded the extra fare ; but the traveller, 
now wide awake, refused to pay it, and was summoned 
before a magistrate ; but his worship, who evidently 
thought it a pity that a man should be disturbed 



Cb.p.xLii.) DAMAGE TO SCENERY. 475 

when " fast lock'd up in slumber," found that the 
defendant was not liable to pay the extra fare. 

An infinite variety of actions and claims have arisen 
out of railway travel and transit. The locomotive has an 
appetite that is costly to appease, and indulges also in 
two expensive recreations — the emission of sparks and 
the flinging out of black smoke. The former habit is 
grievously destructive, and in consequence of it railway 
companies have been obliged to pay compensation for 
the loss of a woman's eyesight, for the burning of a 
horse and cart, and for damage to crops. 

A singular claim was brought against the Manchester 
and Yorkshire Eailway Company in December, 1891. 
The scenery used in Messrs. Pettitt & Sims' drama 
Master and Man was damaged during its conveyance 
from Wakefield to Preston. The scenic artist tried to hide 
the cracks with ivy and other foliage, but the damage 
was beyond complete obliteration, and the business 
director of the dramatic company felt bound, in honour, 
to alter the theatre bill, simply contenting himself with 
the tame description " special scenery," instead of 
"new and beautiful scenery," which he was honestly 
entitled to say before the pastoral and idyllic scenes 
had been knocked about on the line. The railway 
company sought to prove that the scenery was old and 
had been patched before the latest mishap; neverthe- 
less, they were obliged to pay £25 damages. 

Our railway companies have daily, almost, to fight or 
satisfy claims for the merest trifles, and to compensate 
people sometimes for boxes that have never been lost, 



476 OUB RAILWAYS. [Oii*p.XLlL 

and for goods that have never been consigned. But 
so far they have not encountered a litigant like Eva 
Frear, who in 1892 claimed from the New York 
Central Railway Company £10,000 damages for the 
loss of her lover ! 

Earnings are dipped into for a variety of purposes 
never contemplated by George Stephenson. But as a 
rule the shareholder, realising the necessity of railway 
enterprise and even the claims of philanthropy, seldom 
grumbles at the shrinkage of these earnings if the 
money is applied usefully to develop his own property 
or to improve the condition of his servants. There 
is one outgo of revenue, however, that he detests, and 
that is the ever-increasing sum at which the railway 
is rated. The drain is so serious that the companies 
are becoming restive about it ; and Mr. Saunders, 
the ex-chairman of the Great Western, said on one oc- 
casion, with a tinge of sarcasm, that they had been 
obliged to pay no less than £8,000 in higher rates, 
and that if the public had to feed and educate 
all the children in the country, which seemed to be 
the fashion just now, the sum might swell to any 
amount. 

"The Railway Clearing House exists," as one writer 
has said, "for the purpose of being, as a neutral concern, 
able to reconcile the conflicting interests of the various 
railway companies throughout England and Scotland, 
in their dealings with each other." The great advantage 
of this is that all railways, as far as the public are 
concerned, are almost like a single system. A person 




Obap.XLn.1 THE RAILWAY CLEARING HOUSE. 477 

may travel, or goods may be conveyed, from Land's 
End to John o' Groats, say, without necessitating more 
than one booking. But for the Bailway Clearing House 
this would be impracticable, if not impossible, and 
instead of one booking at the beginning of a journey 
travellers would have to re-book with every company 
whose rails they passed over. It should be understood 
that railways settle their own local traffic — that is, 
traffic in which only one company is concerned, for the 
Railway Clearing House only deals with " foreign," as 
the traffic is called in which more than one company is 
interested. It might at first seem strange, and even 
unbusinesslike, to learn that intermediate companies 
keep no record of goods or passengers passing over their 
lines, and that they are entirely at the mercy of the 
forwarding and receiving stations for their share of any 
money earned in through transactions. However, the 
friendly offices of the Railway Clearing House obviate 
all concern on this score. In the case of a passenger, 
his ticket is forwarded to Seymour Street, in Euston 
Square, with all its punchings, by the company that 
collects it at the journey's end. In proportioning the 
amount due to the several companies concerned in a 
transaction, the fare is divided among them in the ratio 
of the distance that each company carried the passen- 
ger. For convenience there is a separate department 
to deal with each kind of traffic in the Railway Clear- 
ing House. Although, roughly speaking, all receipts 
are divided according to mileage, there are so many 
special agreements and exceptions to general rules in 



OUB RAILWAYS. 



force, that the work could only he accomplished by 
persons familiar with it through length of service. This 
is particularly true of goods traffic. For every coasign- 
meot of goods the forwarding and receiving stations 
send each an abstract to the Railway Clearing House 
on a printed form, setting 
forth their nature, whether 
carted or not cfuied, paid 
or to pay. These abstracts 
are compared, and should 
they differ in the slightest 
particular, the mistake must 
be found out and rectiBed 
before anything further can 
be done. If the abstracts 
agree, after deducting cer- 
tain fixed charges from the 
sum received, according to 
the class of goods, what 
remains is divided, the fixed charges, called terminals, 
going to the terminal companies as extras for their 
trouble in collecting and delivering the goods. The 
division is the diiBculty, as perhaps one company claims 
a toll of so much, another something additional for this, 
another for that ; and to do right, let alone pleasing 
them all, our Eailway Clearing House clerks require to 
be very sure of their ground. 

For half a century this work has gone on at the 
llailway Clearing House, expanding year by year with 
the opening of new lines and the growth of trafSc. 




Ob*p.XLii.) OBIQm OF THE CLEARINQ HOUSE. 479 

The system was established in the year 1842, with Mr. 
George Carr Glyn (afterwards the first Lord Wolverton), 
Mr. Eobert Stephenson, and Mr. Kenneth Morison as 
its supporters. A statement that it originated with 
Sir James Allport, who found the old plan of booking 
passengers on the Birmingham and Derby Eailway 
cumbersome, and so was led to work out the idea of 
a clearing system, provoked an interesting correspond- 
ence in 1892. 

One of those who took part in it was Sir Edward 
Watkin, M.P., who bore the following testimony: 

** Those who lived in those days knew very well that the sug 
gestor of a railway clearing house to promote settlements between 
railway companies as regards division of traffic — very much like 
tlie clearing house in operation with the bankers — was Mr. George 
Carr Glyn (afterwards Lord Wolverton), chairman of the London 
and Birmingham Railway, and he employed that distinguished 
man, Mr. Kenneth Morison — who had been .an Indian Civil 
servant, and was an eminent mathematician, and who seemed to 
have a genius for figures — ^to work out the idea, which he did. 
Nearly fifty years ago I remember, as the employes of the Clearing 
House, Mr. Zachary Macaulay, Mr. H. Oliver (still in the service, 
and to whom, on the completion of his fiftieth year of service, a 
testimonial is about to be given), Mr. Philip W. Dawson, Mr. 
Brown, and Mr. Gilbert. At the time my recollection commences, 
the business was transacted in a small house in Druramond Street, 
adjoining the Eiiston Hotel (west wing), and was worked by a small 
number of clerks. From the outset Mr. Glyn was the chairman." 

Feeling disinclined to let Mr. Carr Glyn have the 
honour without comment. Sir James Allport wrote a 
letter of uncommon interest to explain the part he him- 
self took in the establishment of the Clearing House : 



480 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ohap. xlil 

<' I entered the service of the Birmingham and Derby Railway 
Company in the year 1839, and subsequently I was intrusted with 
the traffic arrangements of that company. The communication estab- 
lished between the various railway companies for the interchange 
of traffic, necessarily brought me into conference with other 
companies, as to the mode of dividing and adjusting the receipts from 
the traffic. The process of settlement at that time was tedious and 
difficult, and it occurred to me that this work would be very much 
better done by an independent tribunal, which should act under the 
written instructions of the companies concerned. The difficulties led 
to frequent discussions, and many suggestions were made, and ulti- 
mately one by myself, that we should adopt a system similar to that 
which existed in London, and known as the Bankers' Clearing House. 
Mr. Robert Stephenson was then the engineer of the London and 
Birmingham, the Birmingham and Derby, and the North Midland 
Railways. These three companies had through bookings and settle- 
ments with each other such as I have indicated. Mr. Stephenson was 
not only an engineer, but a man possessing broad and accurate views 
upon commercial questions, and at a meeting of the Birmingham and 
Derby directors, at which, to- the best of my recollection, Mr. Stephen- 
son and Mr. Samuel Carter were present, the subject was discussed. 
Mr. Samuel Carter was the solicitor of the London and Birmingham 
and Birmingham and Derby Companies. Mr. Stephenson undoubtedly 
discussed the subject with Mr. George Carr Glyn, the chairman of the 
London and Birmingham Railway Company, and both concurred in 
the desirability of establishing a railway clearing house. Mr. Glyn 
selected Mr. Kenneth Morison, formerly in the service for a short 
time of Messrs. Macaulay and Babington, East India merchants, 
Calcutta, and afterwards, on his return to England, in that of *the 
London and Birmingham Railway Company, in their audit office, 
than whom no better man could have been found for the purpose of 
organising the system. 

**The result of these various discussions was the establishment 
of the Railway Clearing House, and its operations commenced 
in 1842. I have now before me the minutes passed at the first 
meeting of the delegates on the 26th of April, 1842, which 
was presided over by Mr. Glyn. At that meeting Mr. Moriaon 
reported * that all the arrangements having been completed, on 
January 2nd last, the clearing system came into operation on nine 



k 



ai.p.xui.1 8IR JAMES ALLP0RT8 TEaTIMOHT. 481 

raUwayR,' of which the Birmingham and Derby was one. Mr. Glyn 
was chairman of the committee of delegates until his death in 1873, 
and he was succeeded by Mr. Benson, deputy-chairman of the London 
and North-Weatem Railway Company, who died in 1875, After the 
death of Mr. Benson, I became the sole survivor of those who took 




TBK hOSa OFFICE AT TH8 RAILWAY CLBABINt) ROnSl. 

part in the establishment of the Clearing Hoose, and, at the first 
meeting of the committee after his decease, Colonel Salkeld, who 
presided, alhided to this fact. 

"There can be no doubt that the early adoption of the system 
was due to the great infiuence and advocacy of Mr. Stephenson, 
but it ia equally certain that the extensioD of railways and 
rapid development of the traffic of the country would have 
sooner or later forced upon the companies its adoption. The 
above shortly describes the origin and estAblishment of the Railway 
Clearing House," 

The little Cleariog House had a modest beginning, 
dealing with the business of nine railway companies, 
in the small house in Brummond Street, London, 
and now and then the sta£f of clerks, not more than 

// 



482 OUB RAILWAYS. nn.XLiL 



six in number, found time hang rather heavily on 
their hands. But before long the work increased. 
By-and-by nearly every railviray company in the 
kingdom found it absolutely necessary to adopt the 
clearing system, the old house at last became too 
small, and a move had to be made to the great 
dingy ])uilding8 in the neighbourhood of Euston 
station. 

When the jubilee of the Clearing House was 
celebrated in 1892, some interesting figures were 
given as to the growth of the labour in it. The 
capital of the English railways had increased from 
£50,000,000 to £900,000,000. The miles of track 
had extended from 1,C00 to 20,000. The number 
of passengers carried yearly had increased from a 
mere handful to 850,000,000, exclusive of season- 
ticket holders ; and the miles run by our trains had 
reached the total of 300,000,000 per year. The 
receipts of the railway companies cleared the first 
year amounted to only £195,000. Now the receipts 
cleared every year exceed £22,000,000; and during 
the half century the receipts dealt with have swollen 
to the enormous sum of £500,000,000. The days of 
demurrage charged on waggons ** numbered 18,000,000, 
or nearly 50,000 years, a period which is eight times 
greater than that which has elapsed since the Creation, 
according to the Biblical chronology ; while the miles 
run by such stock accumulated to a total of 
18,020,931,374 — figures which may perhaps best be 
left to the astronomical mind to digest." 



oiuip. XUL] GROWTH OF THE OLEAEING H0U8B. 483 

The six clerks soon found their office leisure 
cropped. Now they were struggling with moun- 
tains of work. The more they did, the greater the 
heaps of papers and the huge layers of tickets became. 
The staff was increased again and again, and it is 
increasing yet. The Clearing House now employs no 
fewer than 2,100 clerks — 1,650 doing duty in Seymour 
Street, " and 450 being employed at railway junctions 
in the country, where night and day throughout the 
year they are engaged in recording the number, 
name of the owner, and intended destination of 
every railway company's waggon, passenger carriage, 
van, and tarpaulin, which passes from one company 
into the hands of another company ; the same process 
being gone through when the vehicle or sheet is 
returned." 

What patient research and quiet industry there 
has been in these plain, almost grim-looking build- 
ings since George Hudson, the " Eailway King," 
reigned, and was dethroned ; what examining of 
ticket-punchings, and goods abstracts ; what calculating, 
thinking, and writing; what delicate negotiation, and 
what adroit settlement of disputes by the busy brains 
and hands that here control the nation s traffic ! The 
Clearing House has given several illustrations of the 
fact that steady honest work kills slowly. Mr. Philip 
Henry Dawson, who was one of the six clerks first 
engaged in this calculating hive, toiled for half a century 
at the desk, first as penman and then as secretary, 
dying in 1890, while still on duty. Even a longer, 
//2 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



if not more notable career, has been that of Mr. 
H. Oliver, the head of the mileage department. He 
entered the bouse when its 
doors were first opened to 
this kind of work, and for 
more than half a century 
has kept account of the 
strides of tbe English 
railway system — a system 
that on the face of it 
looks severely practical, 
and hideously dry as a 
study, with its statements 
about capital authorised 
and capital created ; about 
revenue and working ex- 
penditure, with its end- 
less tables of traffic and mileage and its eternal 
reckoning'Up ; and yet has a good deal of romance 
weaving around its steel track. 




435 



CHAPTER XLnr. 

THE STORM AMONG THE TRADERS. 

• 

A Clergyman's Hobby — The "Differential Calculus" — ^An Intercstinjr Treatise 
— Trade Driven to the CoaiiBt — Revising the Rates — Disappointment of 
the Traders — Indignation and Agitation — Sending Goods by Canal 
and Highway — Lord Winchelsea's Threat — Ruined M.P.'s — Lord 
Whamcliffe*s Speech and Opinion — Modifying the Rates — Cheap 
Transit Imperative — " Bringing the Railway Companies to thc'r 
Senses" — Annoyed Directors — ^Mr. Mundella's "Rude Assertion "-- 
A Committee of Inquiry — ^Their Report — Legislation. 

The mind has many strange leanings, and is able to 
get interest out of the most abstruse studies and the 
driest facts. The author, in his youth, knew a clergy- 
man who, after a distinguished career at the University, 
wasted the best years of his life and sapped all the 
vitality out of his system in working out a re- 
markable book on a branch of higher mathematics. 
When he died, and people began to ask what he 
had done, his great work on " DiflTerential Calculus *' 
was sought, and found on the shelf of a Philosophic 
Society's library, covered with dust, and with the leaves 
uncut. 

A treatise on railway rates would be almost 
equally interesting, especially as there are one thousand 
Acts of Parliament giving to railways certain maximum 
charges and classifications, and as the new rates 
make a library themselves, filling nearly forty volumes. 
It is sufficient here to say that for years the railway 



486 OUB RAILWAYS. [Ohap. xlui. 

rates have been a hardship and a grievance to manu- 
facturer and trader. Dronfield, a little Derbyshire town, 
was practically ruined by the removal of the steel rail 
trade to the Cumberland coast, and the migration of 
the workmen consequent upon the charges for railway 
conveyance. At one time it was gravely stated that you 
could buy a couple of houses there for a five-pound 
note; and certainly when the author walked through 
the place it had a desolate look, for many of the 
cottages were tenantless, with windows boarded up 
or broken, and the large works, that formerly echoed 
with the thud and ring of labour, and were bright 
with the glare and gleam of furnace fires, were dis- 
mantled and silent. One could almost have imagined 
that Cromwell, who had a particular fancy for knock- 
ing things over in Derbyshire, had been round there 
again with his " great guns," and iron drakes, and 
pikes and halberts. 

The grumble against railway rates has been grow- 
ing louder since the trade decline that followed the 
prosperous period in 1874. The exodus of firms to 
the sea-coast, to avoid the cost of carriage, and the 
reviving interest in canal construction, encouraged it ; 
but it was the incessant cry of agricultural depression 
that forced the subject on the attention of Parliament. 
By the Eailway and Canal Traffic Act of 1888, the 
companies were compelled to prepare new schedules. 
The Board of Trade did not consider these satisfactory, 
and ''the whole question of rates," as the Times 
wrote, "was referred to Lord Balfour of Burleigh 



i 



RAILWAY RATES. 



and Sir Courtenay Boyle, who, after an inquiry 
lasting for three-quarters of a year, reported in the 
summer of 1890. The recommendations ot this tri- 
bunal, incorporated in thirty-five provisional orders, 
were submitted to Parliament in the Sessions of 
1891 and 1892, and. after 
a further investigation be- 
fore an influential Joint 
Committee of both Houses, 
under the Duke of Rich- 
mond as chairman, obtained 
statutory sanction. Thus 
thirty-five separate Acts of 
Parliament, one for each 
company or group of com- 
panies, now regulate the 
power of fixing rates and 
the classification of goods. 
The system is the same in 
principle for all. All goods are divided into eight 
classes, and the Board of Trade, while catting off 
certain rates above a fixed level, declined to inter- 
fere with the responsibility of the companies in 
settling what the rates shall he that fall below 
that level." 

The system seemed fair enough. Some of the 
railway companies expressed themselves satisfied, and 
the traders looked hopefully forward to the beginning 
of 1893, for easier rates of carriage and a steady 
development of their trade. In the offices of the 




BIB COURTENAT BOTLE, KXl.B. 
(JTm a PlulograiA bv A. 1. IffUaUk, 

ta. rwi Hall, 8.W.) 



488 OUB RAILWAYS. [Oiup.XLni. 

railway companies there was, day and night, the 
arduous work of preparation. Thousands of new rate 
books had to be got out. On the London and North- 
western Bailway no fewer than twenty millions of 
separate rates had to be overhauled. On the Midland 
Bailway as many as fourteen millions of rates had 
to be revised. At last the work was accomplished. 
The books were ready for the instruction of the 
trader in the new rates and charges, in the new 
classification of minerals, stock, and merchandise, in 
the graduated scale of maximum rates, and the mys- 
teries of terminal charges; and the trader soon 
showed his abhorrence of the lesson. The informa- 
tion he derived from these instruction books filled 
him with distrust and disgust. So far as he could 
gather from the maze of figures, the railways had 
won the wrestling match before the Joint Committee. 
The new rates seemed, on the face of them, as 
difficult to solve as a problem of Euclid; but the 
trader soon discovered two unpleasant facts — that the 
carriage rates on most kinds of merchandise had been 
increased, and that the terminal charges were in some 
cases manifestly excessive. 

New Year's Day, instead of a day of good wishes, 
was a day of consternation and protest. The coal- 
owner found to his dismay that he would no longer 
be able to run twenty-one hundredweight for a ton ; 
the milk dealer discovered that the cost of carriage 
per chum had gone up ; and the trader was Avell nigh 
in despair because the old method of charging so 



Ohap.ZLni.] IN0EEA8EB RATES. 489 

much per ton per mile had been superseded by a 
graduated scale of so much per ton for the first ten 
miles, so much for the next ten miles, and so on, 
till in a long distance transit^ the goods, as it were, 
swallowed their own profit. 

The increased rates were more than the farmers, 
manufacturers, and traders could bear. They meant 
the ruin of the agriculturist, and the arrest of trade. 
Merchants, colliery proprietors, chambers of commerce, 
and city councils met, and adopted resolutions 
protesting against the increased cost of carriage. 
There was, in some breasts, secret satisfaction that 
the new rates would make the German merchant 
hesitate before exporting his goods to the English 
market ; nevertheless, on every side, there were threats 
to boycott the railways. The friction became so 
acute in some quarters that the farmers not only 
distrusted the railway companies, but the traders 
too : one agriculturist remarking, " The cunning trades- 
man says to the simple farmer, 'You come and 
help us to pull the chestnuts out of the fire.* The 
simple farmer does so, and gets his fingers burnt. 
The cunning tradesman gets his rates reduced in 
many cases, and the simple farmer can now clothe 
himself in sackcloth and ashes, and curse his 
own folly." 

The agriculturists of the eastern counties de- 
termined to send their stock by road. In some 
districts the waggon and carrier's cart were again 
brought into requisition for the carriage of goods. 



4f>0 OUR RAILWAYS. [Ch«p.XLiiL 

Canal and sea were utilised in opposition to the 
railways, and traders chartered their own boats and 
sent cargoes from quay to quay, to the annoy^ance 
of the railway manager. Barges and hoys, congested 
with the produce of the field, plied between the 
southern ports and town ; but they could not cope 
with the demand, and the London poor were threatened 
with a vegetable famine, while the gardener and 
agriculturist of Kent, in a land of plenty, said they 
were on the verge of ruin because they could not get 
their produce to market at a profit. 

The country for a few weeks was in a sort of 
commercial civil war. In the midst of it. Lord Win- 
chelsea (perhaps better known as the energetic and 
versatile Mr. Finch-Hatton) went about the land in 
the dual character of Dictator and Peacemaker. With 
one breath he said he had made the railway companies 
climb down from their high rates, and cried Va 
Victis, for he meant to make every railway shareholder 
in the country tremble. With the next he spoke 
with kindliness and persuasiveness to the farmers, and 
asked them to join his Agricultural Union. He 
dofied the character of Giant Blunderbore in the 
nursery rhyme, and assumed that rather of William 
Penn, the Quaker. If you joined his Agricultural 
Union it would bring you happiness as surely as the 
sowing of hempseed on All Hallows' Eve would 
bring the maiden a lover. Not only were the lion 
and the lamb to lie down together and eat grass, but 
a much stranger thing was to happen — the landlord, 



i 



Ohiip.XLiiL] AQBI0ULTX7BAL DEPRESSION. 481 

the farmer, and the agricultural labourer were to sit 
at the same table and divide the profits derived 
from their investments and toil. It was a delightful 
picture; but the agriculturist, like the "Northern 
Farmer'* in Tennyson's poem, has still the fear, 
especially if he does not live thriftily, and avail himstlf 
of the best methods of cultivating the soil, that 

", . . Summon 'ull come ater mea, mahap wi' 'is kittle o' steam, 
Huzzin' and maazin' the blessed feiilds wi' the DiviFs o'an team ;" 

and the labourer has still to work in the field and in 
crowded city at the market price without much profit- 
sharing. In fact, according to Major Easch, M.P., 
the depression has been singularly acute. In seconding 
the motion early in the session of 1893 for the adjourn- 
ment of the House over '^ Derby Day," the honourable 
member said, that what with bad seasons, swine fever, 
and wheat at twent3^-three shillings a quarter, it would 
be an act of charity to allow honourable members 
representing agricultural constituencies to go down 
to the Derby, possibly for the last time. He felt 
morally certain that before long, many of them would 
be so poor that they would not be able to pay for 
their own tickets 1 

Lord Wharnclifie was the first railway chairman 
who touched the vexed subject of rates in the presence 
of shareholders. Sir Edward Watkin was ill ; and his 
deputy, who has since succeeded him as Chairman, 
had to step into the breach, as he has often done in 
his adventurous life, in time of danger. Lord Wharn- 
cliffe, if not a model speaker, is a man of common 



OWB RAILWAYS. 



sense and business capacity. It was, he said — speak- 
ing to the proprietors of the Manchester, Sheffield and 
Lincolnshire Railway — a great error to suppose that 
railway companies had any interest in crippling trade. 
On the contrary, it was to their interest to promote 
trade. The companies now 
knew how much they could 
charge, but they were 
careful not to charge the 
maximum amount in all 
cases. Tlieir main duty was 
to get a dividend for their 
ehareholders, but if in doing 
that they proceeded to kill 
the goose with the golden 
egg — that was, the trader 
— there would he nothing 
left for dividend. It was 
therefore very much to the 
interest of railway managers 
to agree with the traders. He counselled the traders 
to let the officials of the company know where the shoe 
pinched, in order to see if the pressure could not be 
reheved. It was to the interest of both parties to be as 
conciliatory as possible, and he was glad to know there 
was, on the part of the company, a disposition to do 
what they could to meet the legitimate wishes of the 
traders. 

Meantime, every available mode of pressure was used 
to make the railway companies ease the rates. Counsel's 




flh»p.XLiiLi SIB HENRY OAKLETS BEFLT. 493 

opinion was taken, petitions rolled in against railway- 
managers, and traders besought the help of Parliament 
in their stress. Sir Henry Oakley, the general manager 
of the Great Northern Eailway, was called upon by the 
Board of Trade to state what action the railway com- 
panies were taking with respect to the objections ; and 
he wrote on January 24th, stating that a committee of 
goods managers had been sitting to consider specific 
complaints of the adverse operation of new rates, and 
that many modifications had been adopted. The railway 
companies adhered to the view that this process, steadily 
continued, would remove all just causes of dissatisfaction. 
"They are not," he added, "prepared to regard the 
revision of rates under the recent Act as one solely of 
reduction, without such fair and moderate alterations in 
an upward direction as will recoup their stockholders a 
portion of the loss sustained ; but they are prepared to 
give the Board of Trade, and, through them, the trading 
community, the assurance that it is neither their interest 
nor their intention to maintain any rates which will 
prejudicially affect the trade of the country." 

Notwithstanding this dignified reply, made practic- 
ally on behalf of the companies, there was a general 
feeling in the industrial and trading sections of the 
community that the railways had made a mistake. 
Their policy with regard to passenger traffic had been 
to give travellers as much as they could for the money, 
and third-class receipts had increased enormously, 
becoming on some lines the most gratifying source of 
revenue. Their new policy with regard to goods was on 



4M QUE RAILWAYS. fOtepuXUiL 

entirely different lines. It was a niggardly and close- 
fisted policy, and it was, moreover, economically unsound. 
The Times, in defending the attitude of the companies, 
said : '' Railway companies, after all, are traders selling 
transport, and many of their members are very small 
traders, who can ill afford any reduction of their trading 
income. They get, on the average, not more than three 
and a-half per cent, for their money — a rate which, 
according to common report and belief, no tradesman 
would condescend to look at." Quite so. The trades- 
man getting only three and a-half per cent, on his 
capital would find it difficult to keep his shop door 
open, and his gas-lights flaring on the announcements 
that his tea is the best in the world, and that he is 
seUing everything at an immense reduction. But his 
percentage of gain would certainly shrink if he com- 
mitted the folly, in an age when everyone goes to the 
cheapest market, of suddenly increasing the price of 
nearly everything he sold. It is not by increasing the 
cost of transit, but by lowering it, that the railways 
can make better dividends. It should be the policy of 
the railway companies not to contract, but to expand 
trade ; and undoubtedly the railway property that is the 
most prosperous in the future will be the one that aims 
to carry an enormous bulk of traffic at a cheap and easy 
rate ; that, to quote Mr. Mundella's words to the agri- 
culturists and traders of the kingdom, " encourages 
efforts of the home producer to place his goods as 
cheaply as possible within the reach of the consumer." 
The railway companies, in the force of circumstances. 



OtonxmLi TBE OOMFANIEB QWINQ WAY. «6 

and amid the storm of indignation raised by their 
ciistomers, were obliged to look at the question in that 
light. It was an irksome lesson ; but they had to learn 
it. In a month many of the new rates were revoked. 
The London and Korth -Western, the Midland, the 
Great Nortliem, and the 
Great Western went hack, 
in numerous instances, to 
the scale of rates in force 
prior to the revision, and 
to some customers, notably 
the milk dealers, gave re- 
bates calculated from the 
beginning of the year. 
On February 7th, 1893, 
Mr. Mundella, rising in 
his place in the House 
of Commons, read a letter thb bt. ho». a. j. mundella, m.p. 
irom Sir Henry Oakley, m ojiib™isi™i. r.) 

which it was stated that 

the companies were busy readjusting the rates, with 
generally satisfactory results to the traders; and the 
then President of the Board of Trade expressed the hope 
that no time would be lost in bringing the rates within 
reasonable limits, and that the result of the further 
revision would render parliamentary interference unneces* 
sary, adding, with a touch o£ sly humour somewhat rare 
in ministerial answer, that there were a vast number 
of lower rates, and concerning these his department 
had received no complaint. The traders, nevertheless 







»• 

i 



" I 



/ 



/ 



• 



'* 



i 
t 



496 OUR RAILWAYS. ichap-xuii. 

held that they had very substantial grievances. They 
derived little solace even from Punch, who sought to 
introduce humour into the dry land of arithmetic 
and argument by remarking : " Whatever question there 
may be on this subject, there can be none as to the 
rates at which the * Bournemouth Express/ the ' Gran- 
ville, L. C. and D.,' and the ' Flying Dutchman ' 
severally travel. Such rates are first rate." 

The traders maintained that the railway companies 
begrudged what they were obliged to concede, and 
that they were by no means conceding enough. The 
agitation was continued with vigour by meeting, 
deputation, and question in Parliament. Mr. Mun- 
della was frankness itself in his attitude towards the 
offending companies. He told them that they had 
promised not to raise their actual rates, that they 
had broken faith, that he would give them till Easter 
to complete their revision and to go back to the old 
rates, and practically said that if their repentance 
and restitution were not thorough and sincere, he 
should introduce a Bill that would bring them to 
their senses. There were fierce glances at the limes, 
and ejaculations at many a railway board, when Mr. 
Mundella rode along the line and threw down the 
gauntlet against " the Black Knight, Monopoly.'* His 
language was not the language of diplomacy. It was a 
new, surprising, and unpleasant departure from the 
traditional language of officialism. It was altogether 
too blunt, too abrupt, "too impertinent." The railway 
captains of England are men of vast wealth and power. 




MR. MUNDELT.A'S PLAIN SPEAKINO. 




and they have a lofty pridr 
of position ; and tliey could 
ill tolerate what they con- 
sidered downright insolence 
from this " browbeating 
fH)Iitician." 

But they were too dis- 
creet to express their opinion 
of the President of the Board 
of Trade in public. It is 
true that Mr. Bickersteth, 
upholding the dignity of 
the London and North- 
Westem Company, felt 

bound to say that Mr. Mnndelia's statement " was 
a very improper one ; " while Mr, G. E. Paget, for the 
Midland, said the strength of tlie right hon. gentle- 
~" man's language did not 
frighten him in the least; 
but, as a body, they kept 
their chagrin to themselves, 
and on the night of Feb- 
ruary 2l8t the President 
of the Board of Trade wan 
enabled to inform the House 
that the railway companies 
were anxious to arrive at a 
settlement, and that they 
were doing all that was 
'^ ■ "^Tt^rT""'' possible to meet the wishes 




.} 498 OUR RAILWAYS. [Chap. xun. 

of the traders. Mr. Saunders, as chairman of the Great 
Western, was quite as frank as Mr. Mundella, but in 
another direction. He said there had been senseless 
criticism by gentlemen who seemed to live and thrive 
chiefly upon agitation. The Q-reat Western represented 
about one-tenth of the whole railway system of the 
j country, and the commercial interests affected by 

I the ramifications of the 2,500 miles of line of which 

I their undertaking consisted were quite one-tenth of 

the commercial industry of England. It was, in these 
circumstances, absurd to suggest that they would 
do anything to check the trade of the country, 
upon which their prosperity depended. No injustice 
would be knowingly done to any of the company's 
customers ; and if they would only bring theii 
j grievances to the responsible officers, instead of taking 

j them to Chambers of Commerce, and Members oi 

1 Parliament whose object it was to secure votes, it 

i would be to their benefit. 

'j The dissatisfaction among the traders continued. 

At one sitting of Parliament in March no fewer than 
sixty Railway Bills stood for second reading; but sc 
acute was the feeling against the companies with 
regard to the rates that two hon. members gave 
notice to move the rejection of all these BiUs. The 
railway companies were given parliamentary grace 
till Easter. They made both promises and concessions, 
but failed to pacifiy their customers ; and finally, 
another Select Committee of the House of Commons 
was appointed to inquire into the manner in which 



Ch«p.XLin.i ANOTHER SELECT COMMITTEE. 499 

the railway companies had dealt with the traders 
under the revised rates, and, if necessary, to suggest 
further legislation for the settlement of the dispute 
which had caused so much friction and seriously 
checked trade. 

The Committee held a long and patient inquiry. 
They had abundant evidence that the managers of 
the great railway companies had, by mutual agree- 
ment, raised many of the rates to the maximum, in 
order to recoup themselves for the losses they expected 
to sustain from the lowering of other rates. On the 
Great Western, for instance, the delicate process was 
carried out with genius. The company anticipated 
that they would lose £93,000 a year by the reduction 
of the old actual rates to the new maxima. Con- 
sequently they raised the rates of all classes of goods 
to the maximum. It was soon discovered, however, 
that this course would recoup them too handsomely, 
so they simply increased by five per cent, the rates 
which were below the maxima. Now they stood to 
lose £80,000 by reduced rates; but the increased rates 
were so numerous, on the other hand, that they had 
the prospect of wiping out the loss, and of handling 
an extra £50,000 still in pocket after their adroit 
commercial transaction. The traders began to feel like 
bewildered victims of hocus-pocus in the village fair; 
they were very angry, and insisted on further reduc- 
tions. Even then, under the rates revised for the 
benefit of the traders, the traffic profits of the com- 
pany showed a prospective gain of £14,000. What 



u. 



500 OVH RAILWAYS. [{9Bp.XLnL 

had happened was this ■ — the company, to guan 
themnelveR against the loss of £80,000 on one clas 
of traders, were about to make a profit of £94,00( 
on another. 

Crowning the mass of evidence taken at the inquir; 
on behalf of the companieB and the traders was thii 
fact, that the railway managers, in their natnral aii( 
earnest desire to do the very best for the shareholders 
had utterly checkmated the rates revision. They ha< 
not only shielded their profit-making traffic fron 
attack, but had actually gained advantage in th. 
fight ; nor were they particularly submissive, thougl 
they received many hard knocks from the traders 
Sir Henry Oakley made perhaps the most signifi 
cant statement. He said the only restriction thi 
railway companies recognised was that there shouh 
be no undue preference. The proposal for the estab 
lishment of a tribunal to intervene between tin 
companies and the traders really meant that somebod' 
should be appointed to fix rates without regard fc 
any Act of Parliament; and the eifect of that wouh 
be to interfere with the basis on which the companie 
had expended their money, and seriously to damag 
their eredit. There could, he firmly declared, be d< 
half way between damage to the credit of th 
companies and the acquisition of the railways by th 
country. 

The Committee presented their report to Parlia 
ment in December, 1893. They came to the conclusioi 
that the course the companies took in chargini 



Oh»i).XLiii.i THE OOMMITTEE'8 FINDING. 501 

the maximum rates was unsatisfactory and unjustifi- 
able, leading to the dislocation of trade and the 
alarm of many commercial interests. It was never 
the intention of Parliament that they should raise 
their non-competitive actual rates by five per cent, 
all round for the purpose of recouping themselves for 
the reductions of the other rates which Parliament had 
pronounced to be unreasonable. The Committee were 
not surprised that there should be strong feeling on 
the piirt of large bodies of traders whose rates had 
been raised, and also a sense of insecurity, a fear lest 
rates might again be raised to the maximum authorised 
by the recent Acts, or that a demand should have 
arisen for the intervention either of the Board of Trade 
or of a tribunal, such as the Eailway Commission, to 
fix rates in future. But, after serious consideration, it 
did not seem advisable to the Committee to give the 
Board of Trade power to enforce its decisions in cases of 
dispute between the companies and traders, nor to give 
to an administrative department of the Government, 
responsible to Parliament, the power of deciding in 
any or every case what should be the rates for the 
conveyance of goods or other matters in dispute. 

Nevertheless the Committee thought that matters 
cannot be left as they now are ; that some further step 
must be taken to protect traders from unreasonable rais- 
ing of rates, even within the maximum charges defined 
by Parliament. They held that where a trader complains 
that the increase is excessive, and the conciliation 
clause fails to result in an amicable settlement, the 



602 OtTB RAILWAYS. (Oh.p. XLrn. 

petitioner should be able to go before tlie Railway 
Commission, and that that body should have power 
to decide whether tlie increase is just and reafiooable 
or not. 

So far the decision of the Committee has brought 
"cold comfort" to the trader. He regards an appeal to 
the Kuilway Cuiiiinis.sion with less hope than Miss 
Flight, the " little mad old woman, with reticule filled 
with documents," waited for the decision in a famous 
friendly suit in the Chancery Court. The Railway 
Commission has drifted into a coveted sinecure. In 
the days of Mr. Price, who was formerly chairman ot 
the Midland Company, and one of the most experienced 
men of his time in railway adiiiinistmtion, it did sonic 
practical work; but it has always been a costly court of 
appeal, and its members, two of whom get salaries of 
£3,000 a year, now meet seldom and do little. The 
remarkable statement was made not long ago that the 
Railway Commission bad only sat on an average 
twenty-tiiree days a year, and that there was no 
member on it who had had any experience in com- 
mercial affairs, or who was specially acquainted with 
the requirements of traders. 

Very properly the Committee said they could no! 
recommend the continuance of the body in its presenl 
form. They thought one of the members should ht 
experienced in trade to balance the experience in rail- 
ways of the other niemhera, and that the appointmeni 
of lay commissioners should not be permanent, oi 
necessarily carry the right to pensions. Tliey insisted 






Gh*p.xuiLi A 8UG0E8TI0N. 608 

too, lest the costly nature of the Railway Cora mission 
should still deter traders from applying to it, that 
the Commission should not have power to award 
costs, unless either the claim or the defence has been 
frivolous and vexatious. But why did they not suggest 
the abolition of the Railway Commission altogether, 
and the appointment of a Railway Board of Concilia- 
tion, composed of railway managers and representative 
traders, with an independent chairman, by whom the 
settlement of disputes would be easy and cheap ? 

As a result of the Committee's report, a new Rail- 
way and Canal Traffic Act was passed in lS9t. This 
Act, which is noteworthy as the first measure under 
which Parliament has ventured to interfere with the 
maximum charging powers of the companies, so far as 
goods traffic is concerned, makes it incumbent upon the 
companies to prove the reasonableness of any increase 
of rate, either direct or indirect, made since the end of 
1892. It prescribes that complaint be made first to 
the Board of Trade, and afterwards, if necessary, to the 
Railway Commission. As soon as the Act came into 
operation, the Board of Trade found itself flooded with 
complaints, which continued to come in at such a rate 
that the period allowed for their reception had to be 
extended by three months. Whether the traders will 
find reason to take a different view of the Commission 
from that indicated above remains to be seen. 



504 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

THE LAST CHAT. 

The Wonderful Development of Railways — Their Extent— The Money 
Invested in Them — The Employment They Give— A Worthy Insti- 
tution — The Prince of Wales's Carriage — Railway Men and Courteny 
— A Gratifying Subscription — The Railroad to Distinction — Cele- 
brating the Birth of Railways — Professor Tyndall— New Railway 
Projects — The Railway Congress — ^A Word from the Prince of Wales 
— Science and Travel — ^A Faithful Servant — ^What the Locomotive 
has Made Possible. 

The world has marched quickly in this century. It 
has flung the strength and resource of its most 
vigorous life into scientific experiment, engineering 
achievement, into earnest, methodic, skilful industry, 
and into adventurous trade projects that have swiftly 
followed the explorer's tread. But we only realise 
how fast the world has moved when we compare 
its modern speed and high pressure with the lives 
of those who are in it, and yet not of it — with the 
old-world, uneventful, placid existence, for instance, 
of the gardener's wife near Northwich, who, in tlie 
spring of 1892, on her husband's death, travelled 
to live with her son, and on the journey rode ia a 
cab for the first time, saw a railway for the first 
time, and first looked upon a gas light. There are 
people still alive who remember George Stephenson's 
tall figure, and kindly face, and north-country talk. 
Half a century ago, with the satisfaction of many a 




oup, XLi V. : STA TISTIOAIm 505 

railway made and much difficult work accomplished, 
he was strollinjj about his garden at Tapton House, 
delighting in the simple pleasures of a country life, 
yet fond of looking back into the past, and of 
j)rophesying a great career for the locomotive in 
the future. 

Yet it is doubtful whether he imagined the wonder- 
ful development of railways that the next half-century 
was destined to see. The surveyor, the engineer, the 
navvy, the platelayer, the engine-driver, have pene- 
trated to nearly every land. At the beginning of 
1891 there were no fewer than 385,803 miles of 
railway open in different parts of the world. Of 
these, according to a table presented in that year 
at the International Railway Congress in St. Peters- 
burg, 167,755 are in the United States, 14,082 miles 
in Canada, and 5,025 miles in Mexico and the Argentine 
Kepublic. In Europe, the German Empire comes 
first with 26,790 miles; France second, with 24,310 
miles ; Great Britain and Irehuid third, with 22,685 
miles; and Kussia fourth, with 19,345 miles. There 
are 110,000 locomotives running on the world's 
railways, and of these 63,000 are at work in Europe, 
40,000 in America, 3,300 in Asia, 2,000 in Australia, 
and 700 in Africa, Great Britain alone possessing 
17,000. 

There are more than 11,000 miles of double line 
open in this country; and of these, 10,700 miles are 
worked on the absolute block system, a great im- 
provement on the state of things in 1875, when 



506 OUU RAILWAYS. [Gii«p.XLiT. 

there were 8,776 miles of double line open, and 
only 5,582 miles worked on the absolute block system. 
Various safeguards, including the absolute block, 
permissive block, and train staff with tickets, are 
employed in the working of single lines ; and on 
these safeguards the Great Eastern Railway Company 
alone have spent one and a half million of money. 
Figures are not always eloquent ; but they become 
striking when they show how vast and intricate is 
the network of English railways — " that there are 
6,032 cases in which a passenger line is crossed on 
a level by another passenger line, and 2,074 cases 
of such lines crossed by goods lines, 23,672 crossed 
by sidings, and 9,079 by over-cross roads." 

The capital invested in the railways of this king- 
dom amounts to nine hundred and eighty-five millions 
of money ; nine hundred and eleven millions of 
passengers travel by rail every year; three hundred 
and twenty-five millions of tons of merchandise and 
minerals are conveyed ; and the receipts reach the 
enormous sum of eighty-four millions. The lines 
give employment to four hundred thousand railway 
servants ; and that directors and shareholders are not 
altogether indifferent to the home life of these men 
and their children is shown by the establishment of 
various institutions and funds for their benefit. 

One of the most important of these is the Kail- 
way Benevolent Institution, whose Orphanage, estab- 
lished for children of railway men who have lost their 
lives on the line, is at Derby. Speaking on its behalf. 



Cfc.p.XMV.I RAILWAY BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION. 607 

in 1873, the Prince of Wales said: "Nobody advo- 
cates its claims more ardently than I, and nobody 
will continue to take a greater interest in everything 
connected with our railways. To show yoa that 1 




INSTITUTION AT DEBBV. 



am not using mere stereotyped phrases, I may tell 
you that no week elapses without my travelling once 
or twice at least by train. I have, therefore, the 
opportunity of seeing, as well as anybody can see, 
how admirably our railway system is worked ; not 
only the managers and directors, but the officers and 
servants, have my warmest admiration for doing 
their utmost in the execution of their duty, and 
also for their unvarying courtesy and attention." 

On no hne is this consideration more apparent 
than on the Great Northern, where a Boyal saloon is 



508 OUR RAILWAYS. [Oha^XLlT. 

kept for the Prince's use. Mr. Brickwell, describing this 
vehicle in a recent book entitled ** Round the Works 
of Our Great Kailways," writes : ** There are six 
compartments and a corridor. The first compartment 
is the Princess's sleeping apartment, trimmed in sage 
green, and decorated with white enamel, and hand- 
painted ceiling. The saloon and dining apartment 
is lined with rosewood, and painted ceiling, trimmed 
with peacock blue. It contains two tables and six 
easy chairs. One of the tables is telescopic, and 
although it appears similar to a very light card 
table, it will assume a length enough for six people 
to dine at. The smoking apartment (which is oak 
lined) immediately adjoins; it contains three chairs^ 
and is hung with amber. Next in order comes the 
Prince's sleeping apartment, lined with cedar, and 
fitted with a couch and bed, exquisitely upholstered." 
A question in Parliament in September, 1893, 
with regard to the Queen's messenger special train in 
Scotland, which is paid for by the Treasury, reminded 
many people that the railway hiis something to do 
with the government of the country. At all events, 
it makes daily communication between the Ministry 
and the (^ueen possibh*, and whenever her Majesty 
stays at her Scutch huust*, messengers go to and fro 
between London and Balmoral at her command, and 
sometimes they carry despatches of grave import. 
Like the Prince of Wales, the Queen now and then 
makes the express her home. She eats, sleeps, reads, 
and writes in it. On her long journey from Balmoral 



a • ' 



1 



CIUP.XLIV.) RAILWAY MEN. 609 

she has pondered on many a political move and Court 
intrigue, and wondered whether that statesman was 
worthy of his portfolio, or this courtier should receive 
indication of her displeasure at his heinous fault. 
She has, in the railway carriage, given her assent 
to proposals that, if resisted by foreign Power, would 
mean war. She has signed documents heralding 
peace, and Bills that, after running the gauntlet of 
both Houses, have given greater political freedom to 
the British people. The Queen, in fact, has swayed 
the Empire in her cosy Royal saloon, with its comfort- 
able furniture, and thickly-carpeted floor, and paddings 
of quilted silk that keep out the wind's blustering 
voice and deaden the train's vibration, but fail to 
prevent the urgent affairs of State from creeping in. 

The humblest passenger does not, perhaps, on 
every line receive so much " unvarying courtesy and 
attention " as these Royal personages. Some men are 
prone to rudeness, or have a nervous system easily 
irritated; and the author has, in a crowded station 
on a hot day, heard a porter shout, as he struggled 
with luggage-laden barrow through the throng : " By 
leave, mar'm." " Mind yourself." " Now then ! look 
alive, you old fool ! " 

Still, the railway men of England, as a rule, 
do their work cheerfully, courteously, bravely, often 
when very weary, or in trouble, or in the midst 
of peril; and any institution that gives them relief 
in accident is worthy of the most generous support. 
That many shareholders and passengers hold a 



510 OUB RAILWAYS. iciuip.xxxf. 

similar opinion is evident from the fact that the 
Eailway Benevolent Institution, which hegan in 1859 
with an income of £2,000, has now an income 
of £50,000, and affords help by pension, annuity, 
and the care of orphans, in no fewer than four 
thousand cases a year. The great railways not only 
liberally subscribe to the funds, but endeavour to 
induce everybody to do likewise. In 1892 the 
London and North- Western contributed and raised 
£9,500 for its support; and at the annual dinner 
in 1893, Mr. Paget, the chairman of the Midland, 
made the gratifying statement that during the year 
his company, with the assistance of a host of friends, 
,had succeeded in obtaining a total subscription of 
£15,608. 

Tliere is much hard work and poor pay on the 
railway, but it has many lucrative positions in its 
numerous departments, and is occasionally the road to 
wealth ; for Sir James Allport, who entered the ser- 
vice of the Birmingham and Derby Eailway in 1839, 
as chief clerk, at a by no means princely salary, died 
worth £193,000. The railway track is also steadily 
leading to distinction. Formerly the devious paths 
of politics, the secret ways of diplomacy, and the 
rugged roads across the battlefield, heaped with human 
ruin, alone led to dignities and honours. Now art, 
philanthropy, and earnest work are recognised. The 
painter, and even the actor, as well as the Mayor 
who entertains her Majesty, are knighted. The man 
who gives of his riches to the poor; who strives to 




ch*p.XLiv.) A RAILWAY JUBILEE. 511 

brighten their lot by better housing, or by founding 
institutions to meet their physical and mental need, 
is called to Windsor, to bend the knee before the 
Queen. Giants of industry are made baronets and 
peers; and there is scarcely a general manager on 
a prominent railway who has not been knighted— 
"Dan" Gooch, on the Great Western, became Sir 
Daniel Gooch ; Myles Fenton, of the South Eastern, 
Sir Myles Fenton ; James AUport, on the Midland, Sir 
James AUport; George Findlay, on the London and 
North- Western, Sir George Findlay ; Henry Oakley, 
on the Great Northern, Sir Henry Oakley ; Charles 
Scotter, on the South Western, Sir Charles Scotter; 
Allen Sarle, on the London, Brighton and South Coast, 
Sir Allen Sarle. It is possible that the railway servant 
is, after all, more fortunate than the French soldier who 
carries the marshal's baton in his knapsack; for some 
day, the water-splashed carriage-cleaner, the lad who 
black-oils the wheels of the express, or the dirt- 
begrimed youth who stands in the sidings blowing 
his shunting horn, may be the chairman of a great 
railway company, and have **a handle to his name." 
The fiftieth anniversary of the opening of the 
Stockton and Darlington Eailway was, on September 
27th, 1875, celebrated at the latter place with great 
rejoicing, in which the Lord Mayor of London and the 
Lord Mayor of York took part. A statue was unveiled 
by the Duke of Cleveland to the memory of Joseph 
Pease, and a banquet was given, at which reference was 
made to railway and national progress. 



OTTR RATLWATS. 



The centenary of George Stephenson's birth was 
conimeniorateil both at Newcastle and at Chesterfield 
on the 9th of June, 1R81. At the banquet in the 
latter town, Mr. Frederick Swanwicfe, one of George 
Ste]>heuBOD's pupils, was 
a guest, and said he went 
through all the work on 
the Liverpool and Man- 
chester Railway, The 
duty of the engineer 
at that time was not 
simply to lay out the line, 
to make drawings and 
specifications. George 
Stephenson had to design 
the waggons to move the 
earth, and the cranks tc 
lift the stone, and the 
instruments to make the 
permanent way. Almosl 
(fr.,m <. ii.ofc.(n.pft h„ tm»k If. (!",«■, thc last tiTcte he saw hi* 

Darlinglim.) 

old master he was in tht 
society of Emerson ; and, singular to relate, he wai 
propounding to the American thinker the theory thai 
magnetism and electricity would become great powen 
in the world. Lord Edward Cavendish, who preaidefl 
at the Chesterfield festivity, spoke of the ma{^niBcenl 
results of the great engineer's perseverance, and tele- 
graphed to the Mayor of Newcastle: " Thirty thousand 
people hare assembled in Chesterfield to-day to dc 






614 OUB RAILWAYS. tCh«p.XLiv. 

honour to the memory of George Stephenson. We 
join hands with you, and wish you all success ; ** 
and his worship replied r " We reciprocate your kindly 
feeling. At least, 100,000 men assembled here to-day 
to do honour to the memory of Stephenson, and all 
has passed off well." 

The north of England will never possess a more 
striking reminder of honesty, genius, and earnestness 
of purpose than the lowly cottage, clay-floored and 
bare-raftered, at Wylam, in which George Stephenson 
was born ; nor will a more remarkable demonstration 
soon be witnessed anywhere than the procession of 
engines past his birthplace. This was by far the most 
interesting feature of the centenary celebrations. 

English tourists sauntering through the streets 
of Brussels, on August 16th, 1885, saw an almost 
unique demonstration in the city, the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the introduction of railways into the country 
being celebrated with much pomp and ceremony. A 
procession, a mile long, representing vehicles of travel 
in olden time as well as of the present day» went 
through the thoroughfares, and included "a faithful 
reproduction of the first train that ran from Brussels to 
Malines in 1835," on which journey George Stephenson 
was an observant passenger, no doubt thinking much 
but saying little of the habits and customs of the 
Belgian-French, whose ways were apt to be held in 
rough contempt by John Bull in the first half of this 
century. 

Professor Tyndall's pathetic death on December 



ciup.XLiv.1 PB0FE880B TYNDALL AND THE BAILWAT. 615 

4th, 1893, not only drew attention to the progress 
of scientific discovery in this century, but also 
recalled the fact that ** Our Eailways '* havo been 
developed in the span of one man's Lfe. The hot 
disputant, the traveller in the cause of science, the 
climber of glaciers, was at the age of twenty-four 
a railway engineer; and in the railway mania he 
joined the surging feverish crowd that sought to 
make money quickly by dabbling in stock, though 
he soon wearied of the clamour and fight for gain, 
for he wrote to a friend that during his professional 
connection with railways he endured three weeks' 
misery. It was not, he said, defeated ambition, or 
a rejected suit, or hardship endured in office or 
field ; but the possession of shares in one of the 
lines then afloat. He was haunted by the Stock 
Exchange, and became at last so savage with him- 
self that he went to his brokers, and without 
loss or gain, put away his shares as an accursed 
thing. 

History, as we have seen, is now made rapidly. The 
Midland Railway Company run their expresses, with 
first- and third-class dining cars, through the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire station in Manchester, and by Hellifield 
and Carlisle, in connection with fast trains to Glasgow ; 
but there is a project to make a more direct line 
between the two cities. Other promoters are busy 
with schemes for the construction of additional lines 
in Yorkshire and Derbyshire; and the Lancashire 
and East Coast Eailway (clinging to its old name) 



SU OUR nA/LWAYa. [Ctap-XUT. 

is about - to be opened. In Manchester, Sheffield 
Glasgow, and several other cities, there have heet 
further developments of the steel track, and of appli- 
ances for tbe quick handling of increasing traffic. 

Railway enterprise has penetrated into a remote 
part of North Cornwall, as far as Wadebridge. H 




THU HOUSB WHEBK QEOBOE BTBPHBNSON WAS BOKN (.Page 614). 

has moved higher up the western country, too ; ant 
the Midland and Great Western Companies have ac 
quired the Severn and Wye and Severn Bridg< 
Itailway ; the North Wales and Liverpool line, con 
necting Mr. Gladstone's home with the city in whicl 
he was born, is now completed ; and the mouotaii 
railway has been carried up Snowdon with draioati 



ch.^ XLiv.i RECENT RAILWAY ENTERPRISE. 517 

results. The navvies have tipped the last barrowload 
on the Manchester Ship Canal and tramped to new 
toil. The great waterway, which cost six years in 
time and fifteen millions of money to construct, is now 
in full swing ; and is, if in some sense a rival, already 
a feeder of the railways. 




THB BOOM lir WHICH OEOBOE BTKPKENSOH WAS BORN (,Pagt GU), 

Two of the most novel forms of railway lighting 
and engineering have been prompted by the applica- 
tion of electricity as an illuminant and as a motive 
power. On the Underground Kailway, for instance, 
the passenger, by putting a penny in the slot, can 
turn on the electric light, which glows from the disc 
for half an hour, and enables him to read with far 
more comfort than he was wont to do by the fitful 



518 OUB RAILWAYS. lOtap. xuv. 

gleam of the roof light, or the flicker and splutter 
of the old-fashioned reading lamp. 

From the roar of London traffic to the wind- 
swept summit of the great Orme's Head, in North 
Wales, is a long step ; but the railway engineer takes 
little thought of distance, and one of his latest climbs 
with theodolite has been up the back of the crag 
that stands sentinel to Meuai Straits. The adven- 
turous think that he will yet carry an electric railway 
over the shoulder of the Great Orme from the Llan- 
dudno side, run the line along the slope behind Church 
Walks, up the ravine to a point beneath Ty'n-y-Coed, 
reach the cliff top through a cutting, and go by 
the little church of St, Tudno to the highest point 
of the mountain. 

The Eailway Congress held in London in June, 
1895, was a significant gathering. The exhibition, 
with its quaint relics of engines, carriages, signal 
apparatus, and rails, showed how crude were the first 
efforts at railway making and equipment. The 
attendance at the Imperial Institute of delegates from 
many lands denoted that the system of locomotion, so 
humbly originated, had spread throughout the world. 
The experts deliberated on railway construction, mo- 
tive power, bridge building, and light railways ; but 
the speech of general interest was that given by the 
Prince of Wales. His Royal Highness said: — 

" Nearly seventy years ago the first railway that was constructed 
in the world — that between Stockton and Darlington — ^was opened. 
Five years later — in 1830 — under circumstances of the most tragio 



Chap.XLiv.i THE FUTURE. 619 

kind, the first railway constructed under Parliamentary powers, and 
by money publicly subscribed, was inaugurated for passenger traffic 
between Manchester and Liverpool, and a ceremony of gre^t interest 
and of greater promise was marred by the lamentable accident which 
led to the death of Mr. Huskisson. In the sixty years which have 
since elapsed the development of railways has progressed throughout 
the world, and we have fitly met here to show our interest in tliat 
celebrated industry which, probably more than any other, has 
enhanced the wealth and fostered the commerce of the world, and 
has tended to promote international friendship and universal good- 
will. The Railway Congress had its origin in 1885, when a number 
of leading railway men met in Brussels to celebrate the jubilee of 
the Belgian railways. Congresses have since been held in Milan in 
1887, and in Paris in 1889, and the last congress, which assembled 
in St. Petersburg, in 1892, was mside memorable by the splendid 
hospitality and great encouragement given to it by the late lamented 
Emperor of Russia. I fear that we cannot promise you the beauty 
of Italy, the gaiety of Paris, or the magnificent reception which was 
accorded to you on the last occasion upon which you met ; but we 
can show you in Manchester, Liverpool, Cardiff, and Crewe, great 
centres of industry, from which I hope you will be able to derive 
useful knowledge, and in which you will be able also to see examples 
of the most beneficial work. I venture to say this even to our 
friends from the United States (a country which owns nearly half 
the railway mileage of the world) as well as to the representatives 
of India and our Colonies, who have helped forward the work 
of railway development with a speed and a success which I think 
deserve the utmost commendation." 

What development of travel may take place in the 
next half -century, no man can tell. Science has done 
much in the past fifty years, but it is only in its early 
manhood, full of strength and resource, and restless to 
achieve. In the words of M. Zola, it is impossible to 
imagine what " it will wrest from the unknown.'* It 
may perfect the mechanical appliances to hand, so that 
the engine, with electric headlight, will run at greatly 

h h .6 



JBO OUn RAILWAYS. tcb-p. iLiv. 

accelerated speed ; that the passengers will he able to 
enter and alight from the rushing express, like post-bags 
from the night mail, but with less concussion ; and that 
work on the line will be so safe that railway disaster 
will occur no more, and become merely a fable. It 
is even possible that science may discover a new 
motive power that wiU eclipse steam and electricity, 
and make our progress through the world not less 
graceful and easy, and even swifter, than the swallow's 
flight. 

In the meantime, we have not much to grumble at. 
It is the fashion to talk of the greatness of the past, 
particularly of the industrial skill, the art, and the 
culture of ancient Egypt. The people were clever in 
painting, in pottery, in making flower-garlands, and in 
tlie melancholy work of building tombs ; but, though 
they had a knowledge of the expansive force of steam, 
they failed to apply it. The great of the past had to be 
satisfied with the lurch and jolt of the camel. Notwith- 
standing the glamour that spreads right away from the 
Twelfth Dynasty down to the " good old times," one 
feels that, taking eveiything into consideration, it is 
better to be alive now ! Certainly, we have the advan- 
tage in the matter of travelling. Professor Thurston 
says the steam engine is the source and foundation, to 
a great extent, of our material, intellectual, and moral 
wealth ; that it stands or runs, " a mist-giant, a genius 
of more than Aladdin-like power, the maker and 
guardian of modem life." 

It is also a quick and faithful servant, driven by 



Chap XLIV.) FINIS. 521 

industrial heroes, and guarded on its danger-crossed path 
by watchful men, who, amid the incessant roar of 
passing train on city track, or in lonely vigil in country 
cabin, have to find their chief satisfaction and solace in 
duty well done. Now it is possible, even to the poorest, 
to break the monotony of life; to run on a half-day 
trip from the stifling air of the mill to the shaft of 
sunlight that gleams on the wild flowers in the glade, 
or plays about the old boat that after many a run and 
tack in storm, now leans at rest on shore, with its rusty 
keel half buried in the sand. To the rich the locomo- 
tive has opened up an exquisite variety of existence, of 
travel even in the remotest land ; and at home it pulls 
us so quickly from city to city, in such roomy, comfort- 
able carriages, that there is hardly any point now 
in Touchstone's half- reproach in As Yo?i Like It: 
" When I was at home, I was in a better place ; but 
travellers must be content." 



^1^ " 



I 

■ 






i 



I 

I 







INDEX. 



Abercom, Duchess of, and the Abergele 

accident, ii. 423 
Aberdeen, The express journey to, i. 65, 

530; ii 257-258 
Aborgele accident, ii 420-427 
Abingdon (Caledonian Railway), Acci- 
dent at, ii. 420 
Abinger, Lord, on railways, ii. 189 
Accidents, Railway : — 

Abbot's Cliff, Tunnel, ii. 437 

Abbots Ripton, ii. 436 

Abergele, ii. 420, 422-427 

Abingdon (Caledonian), ii. 420 

Apperley, ii. 388, 389 

Arlesey, ii. 436 

Athcrstono, ii. 414 

Auchterless, ii. 441 

Azov, Ac<:ident to the Czar's train 
at, ii405 

Bamby Junction, ii. 457 

Barnsley,i.l89; ii 429 

Bicester, ii. 409 

Birmingham (Lawley Street), ii. 
458 

Bishopsgate Station, ii. 459 

Blackburn, ii. 440 

Blackheath, ii. 416 

Borough Miirket, ii. 195, 196 

Broamore, ii. 442 

Brockley Whins, ii. 429 

Burnley, ii. 409 

Burscough, ii. 438 

Canonbury, ii. 440 

CarUsle, ii. 292, 428 

Clayton Tunnel, ii. 414 

Chelford, ii. 469 

Clifton, ii. 432 

Copley HiU, ii. 403 

Cowlairs, ii. 409 

Dee Bridge, ii. 408 

Dixenfold, ii. 410 

Dunkitt, ii 411 

Egham, ii. 415 

Esholt, ii 458, 459 

Frodsham, ii. 409 

Fumess, ii. 405 

Qaberston, ii.293 

OxMAton, ii 418 



Accident, Railway {eoniinu^d) — 
Guildford, ii. 400 
llampstead Ueath, ii. 03-97 
Hampton Wick, ii. 452 
Harrow, ii. 429 
Hatfield, ii. 429 
Helmshore, ii. 41 Ji 
Hexthorpe, ii. 448-452 
Howdon, ii 406 
Kentish Town, ii. 414 
Kibworth, ii 404 
KiUwick, ii. 43t> 
Kirtlebridge, ii. 432 
Leatherhead, ii. 32i», 330 
Leicester, ii. 295 
Lewisham, ii. 411 
Llan Wissant Junction, ii. 468 
Lockerbie, ii. 441 
Long Eaton, ii. 427 
Lvnn, ii. 415 
IVfanuel Junction, ii. 434 
Masborough, ii 407 
Me<lway Bridge, ii. 408 
Morpeth, ii. 437 
Newark, ii. 411; (second) 428 
Nine Elms, ii. 438 
North London, ii. 440 
Norwood Junction, ii. 370, 456 
Oxenholme, ii. 402 
Oxford, ii 4 10 
Paisley, ii. 438 
Park wood Springs, ii. 299 
Penistone,ii 300, 442-445; (second) 

446, 447 
Pontypridd, ii. 438 
Poulton (Blackpool), ii 460-468 
Preston, ii. 432 
Radstock, ii. 436 
Rednal, ii. 416 
Round Oak, ii. 412 
St Neots, ii. 469 
Shipton, ii. 435 
Shrivenham, ii. 409 
Sittingboume, ii. 437 
Sonninghill, ii. 407 
South Wingfield, ii. 299 
Staplehur8t,ii. 416-418 
Straffan, ii. 410 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



SKavisx.. ii. 41S 
Timworth, ii. 428, 429 
Taunton, ii. 454-4aS 
Tay Bridge, ii. 352-357 
Think, i. 99, ii. 460-4ea 
Thorpe, ii. 4.14 
Tottenham, ii, 412,413 
Vcrsaille*, i. 107, 108 
Walton Junction, ii. 418 
Warren Point, ii. 452.16* 
Waterloo, ii. 4ii;i 
Wennington, ii, 438 
WeyhiU.ii. 271-273 
Winnhbiirgh, ii, 414 
Wolverton, ii, 408 
Accidents, liailway, iji the early days 
of railways, i. 63 ; the Uuecn'eletU'r 
to directors on, 98, S'j ; ii. \-5. 
61-63, 398-469; humour of, 399; 
number ot,in 1892,467 
" Active " locomotive. The, L 38 
Activity of Nature, i. 1 
Actora and rail way B, ii. 110 
AciTorth, W. M., his " Railways of 
England "quoted.!. 60 ; hia deacrip- 
tioQ of conducting goods traffic, 138, 
of the sulitorraneaTi rvstem at St. 
I'ancnis, 230 ; on King's Cross 
Station, 298 ; hie definition of canti- 
levers, ii. 361 
"Adventures of Philip," Thackeray's, 

allusion to, i. 206 

Advertisement ot the London and 

Edinburgh coach, i. 17; of the 

" Experiment " railway coach, 37 

Advertisements, liailway. Cost of, 

during the railway mania, i. 197 
Africa, Modes of travelling in, i. 2 
Agrieota, Julius, his communication 
between London and Chester com- 

Kred by Sir Robert Peel with the 
indon and North- Western Railway, 
i, 128 



i. 179 

Alarms, Cairingo, ii, 200, 202 
Albert, Prince, and railway travelling, 

i. 91,92; and George Hudson, 199; 

at Orimsby Docks, 354 
Alitrt Vieti/r steamboat, i, 465 
Alderaon, Baron, his views on the 

uneuitability of Chat Moss for a 

Alightios'fromtrainB,ii,43,44 
AlkaU work! at Widuea, i. 71, 72: 



their effect on nilway tel^raph 
wires, 121 

Allen, Mr, JosefJii, Cbiim agaiiut 
the Midland Railway Company of 
widow of, ii. 473 

Allport, Sir James, Death of, i. 169, 
ii. 163; and Hudson's election for 
Snnderland, i. 200, 201 ; on the pro- 
posed Midlnnd hno in Scotland, 237; 
nnd third-class passengers, ii. I6S, 
167 : testimonial to, IGti ; aa director, 
16B; "the BismanJt of railway 
politics," 174 ; and Pullman Cara, 
196: in an accident, 296 ; and the 
RailwHv Clmring House, 4i9, 480; 
hia fortune, SIO 

Alma-Tadcma. Mr,, his opposition to 
the mil way through St. John'* Wood, 
i. 358, 365 

Amalgs mated. Society ot Bkilway 
Servants, ii. 113,114 

Ambcrgate, Line to Rowiley from, i- 
247 

America, Railway travelling in remoto 
parts of, ii, 228 ; speed of trains in. 
243; Oiarles Dickens on railways 
in, 245-248 

American can on the South-Eaatem 
Railway, ii. 206 

American drawing-room car, ii, 207 

American aleeping-car, Incidant in an, 
ii. 44 

American Eagle Train, i, 443 

American eicundon from Havre, ii. 77 

Anderson, Dr., Account of Woolwich 
Arsenal Railway by, ti. 102 

Anecdote of the locomotive and the 

Angling otiiaak Walton in tho Dore, 

i. 166, 167 
Animals, Carriage of, iL 111, 112 
" Annals of our Time," On the railway 

mania of 1845,1. 197, 108 
Annesley, Line from Slaveley to, L 

367 
Apperley Viaduct, Accident at, ii, 388, 



291 

Arkwrigbt, Mrs. William, tuma first 
Bod of the Lancaahire, Derbyahire 
and East Coast RaUway, i. 380, 381 

Armour-plated trains, i, 225 

AnnytBge, Mr., Chairman of the Lan- 
cashire and Yorkshire Railway,ii.lS4 

Arnold, Dr., of Rugby, on ths Lond<al 
and Binniogham Railway, i. 8S 



INDEX. 



525 



Arrol, Sir W., and the Forth Bridge, 

ii. 364 
" Arrow " locomotive, The, i. 68 
A» You Like It quoted, ii. 521 
Ashbourne, Railway from, i. 156, 158, 
note; attractions of, 156; Izaak 
Walton at, 156, 157; Dr. Johnson 
at, 403 
Ashford, Incident in an express at, ii. 

86 
Assault on the railway, ii. 22-25, 42 
Athcrstone, Accident at, ii. 414 
Atlantic Cable, The, i. 413, 414 
*' Atbis " locomotive. The, ii. 227, 228 
Aylesbury, Extension of Metropolitan 

Railway to, i. 367, 516 
Ayrshire and Wigtown Railway, i. 
554, 555 ; transference to the Glas- 
gow and South- Western Railway of 
the, 555 
Azov, Accident to the Czar's train at, 
ii 406 



Bainbridge, Mr. Emerson, Chairman 
of the Lancashire, Derbyshire and 
East Coast Railway, i. 382 

Baines, Sir Edward, i« 185 

Baker, Sir Benjamin, and the proposed 
bridge across the Channel, i. 460 ; 
and the Forth Bridge, ii. 364 

Bakewell, Railway through, i. 249 

Balcombe Tunnel, Incident of discon- 
nected truck with passenger in the, 
i. 60; and the Lefroy murder, ii. 
17—22 

Balfour, M.P., Mr. A. J., on speeches 
from railway carriages, ii. 30 

Balfour of Burleigh, Lord, and rail- 
way rates, ii. 486, 487 

Ballater, The Queen's journey to, i. 
100-103 

Balmoral, The Queen's journey to, i. 
100-103 

Bank Holiday, The first, ii. 82; ex- 
cursions on, 82-86 

Banner Cross, i. 299 

Barmaids, Railway, ii. 135, 136 

Bamby Junction, Accident at, ii. 457 

Bamsloy* Railways at, i. 281, 282 

Barrow, i. 288 

Barry Docks, i. 399, 402 

Barry Railway, Strike of servants on 
the, iL 262, 264 

Bass, Mr. Michael Thomas, i. 186 

Bass, Ratclifie and Gret ton's, Messrs., 
excursioDa to Blackpool, ii« 76| 77 



Bassett, Sir William, and the super- 
stitions of Buxton, i. 156 

Bath, Great Western station at, i. 427 

** Battle of Saxby Bridge," i. 214 

Bazaar at Chunng Cross for the Rail- 
way Temperance Union, i. 438, 439 

*• Beak " Engine, A, i. 452 

Beatrice, Princess, opens Saltaire Ex- 
hibition, i. 98 ; companion of the 
Queen in railway travelling, 105, 106 

*' Beatrice " locomotive, i. 98 

Beavis, ^Ir., on second- and third-class 
traffic on the London and North- 
western Railway, ii. 185 

Beckett, Sir Edmund [see Grimthorpe, 
Lord) 

Beefsteak dinner at which the Midland 
Railway originated, i. 171 

Boer traffic on the Midland Railway, 
i. 228 

Belper, The Strutts of, their opposition 
to the railway, i. 179 

Boresford Dale, i. 157 

Berkeley, M.P., Mr., on railways, L 90 

Bormondsey, Price of land in, i. 448, 
449 

Boss of Hardwick, i. 273 ; her char- 
acter, and her work at Hardwick 
Hall, 274 

Bessemer, Mr., on steel mils, i. 416 

Beasoner aiesunhoaX, i. 457 

Bickersteth, Mr., of the liondon and 
North- Western Railway Company, 
on the Forged Transfers Act, i. 159 ; 
and railway rates, ii. 497 

Bidder, Q.C., Mr., and the opponents 
of the Manchester, Sheffield and 
Lincolnshire Railway extension to 
Ijondon, 1. 365 

" Bilberry and Besom Line, The," i. 
247 

Bill, for the Liverpool and Manchester 
liailway, i. 42-46 ; for tlio I/ondon 
and Birmingham Railway, 80, 81 ; 
for the Sheffield Railway, 180 ; for the 
London and York Railway, 216, 217; 
for new line of the Lancashire, 
Derbyshire, and East Coast Railway, 
276 ; for extending the Manchester, 
Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway 
to London, 361, 363 ; Cheap trains, 
390, 394, 395 ; Great Northern and 
City Railway, 522; Clapham Junc- 
tion and Paddxngton Electrio Riul- 
way, 623, 624 

« Billy " locomotive, i 338 

Binna, Mr. Charles, secretary to Q^rge 
StepheMon, i. 176 



OUB BAILWAT3. 



Birds, Speed of, compared wiUi nilway 
BpMd,i.64 

Bird's nest in a goods train, i. !S 

Birley, M.P„ Mr., i. 43 

BirminKhain, Accident at, ii 46B 

Bimiingham, Boilwa]' from St. Helens 
to, i. 72 ; coostruction of railway to 
London from, 72-74, 78-82, 84-88 
(itf also London and BinninKham 
Bailway) ; line to Gloucester bum, 
18», 223; the Midland traffic at, 
239; its activity and procperity, 
239 ; self-praise of tho people of, 
239 : its warehouses and varieties of 
Irad^, 240; New Street Stnlion, 
244, 245, ii. 149; last trains to, ii, 
264 ; fog at, 391 

Birminghtim and Derby Bailvay, 
mergod into the Midland Railway 
vith the North Midland and Mid- 
land Counties liuilways. i. 189 

Bishops and the North-Eaatera Rail- 
May, i. 3.'!1, 332 

Bishopsgate warehouses, i. 338 

UiNhopatoke, London and South. 
Western works at, i. 436 

"Bismarck of railway politius, Tho," 
ii. 174 

Blackburn, Population of, L 164 

Bhickie, Professor, i. 462 

Blackpool to Manchester, The journey 
from, i. 163 ; number of vlaitaia to, 
166; eicunion from Burton to, ii. 
77; population, buildings, pro- 
menade, ele, , of , 84 ; the paradise 
of eicuraionista, 83, 86 

Blackwall tunnel, ii. 340 

Blackwell MiU Junction, i. 353 

Blea Moor, i. 290, 292 

Block-ayatem, Introduction of, i. 8 

Block system of signalling, ii. 311 

" Bliicher " engine. The, i. 30 ; ii. 226 

Boodicea, Queen, and her defeat by 
the Eomans near present site of 
King's Cross Station, i. 299 

Board of Trade, and workmen's trains, 
i. 389, 391 ; regulations of, for 
composite traioa, ii. 194 ; and tbo 
Scotch railway -atrike, 266 ; and 
railway accidents, 431 ; and railway 
rates, 4BI>, 496, 497, 601 

Board-room, Discipline in the, i. 136 

Bogie carriages, ii. 194-196, ISS 

Bogie engines, ii. 223 

Bolsover, Ancient biatory of, i. 272. 
273 ; coal trade of, 273 ; buckles and 
spuraot, 273 ; theLancasliire.Derby- 
Uaze mod Eut Coast Railway at, 381 



Bolton, PopidAtiDn ot L IM; axenr- 

sionists of, ii. S3 
Bolton and Kenyon Junction lin^ 
Train-lighting on the, iL 214 

Bolton and Leigh Railway, i. 69, TO 

Booking-office, Cuiioiu notice in a, 
ii. 119 

BookatsUs, Railway, ii. 136, 137 

Bottles, 'Throwing, out of carriage- 
windowa, ii. 7 

■' Bottomleaa Pit, The " u. 316 

Bourne, tti., hit history of the 
Orcat Western Railway qooled, i. 
403 

Box Tunnel on the Great Western 
line, ii. 334 

Boy, The, and the lamp-hole, iL 39, 
40 

Boyle, Sir Couitonay, and railway 
rates, ii, 487 

Braboume, Lord, on third-class passen- 
gers on the South-Esstem Railway, 
1. 461 ; on the proposed amalga- 
mation of the South -Eastern and 
London, Chatham and Dover Rail- 
ways, 468, 469. 470 

Bradford, the Midland station at, L 
242, 2B4 ; the Great 'Northern 
Company at, 284 ; fast trains to. 



" Biadshaw's Railway Manual, "quoted, 

i. 376 

Biadahaw's Time-tables, ii. 141-143, 
162, 164, 156 

Biaith waite's and Ericsson's " Novelty " 
locomotive, trial of, at Rainhill, L 
63, 64, 66 

Brakes. Failure in action of, ii. 52 ; 
continuous, 202 

Brandling Junction Railway, i. 339 

Break-down trains, ii. 398 

Brassoy, Lord, and the amalgamation 
of railway companias. i. 467 

Brasaey, lliomaa, hia work on the 
Ponkricigo Viaduct, i. 109; con- 
structs the Pahs and Rouen Rail- 
way, 110; and the Trent Vallev 
Line, 181 

Breach of privilege by Cambrian 
Railway directors, ii. 276-280 

Brickwali, Mr., of the Great Northern 
staff, on the Manchester express to 
London, i. 307, 308; "Round the 
Works of Our Oreat Bailwaya" 
quoted, ii SOB 



INDEX. 



627 



Bridge, across the Dee, i. 369, ii. 342 ; 
across Ludgate HiU, i. 406 ; at 
Friargate, Derby, 406 ; the Wicker 
Sheffield, 406 ; Briggate, Leeds, 406 
in Manchester, 406; Saltash, 410 
Maidenhead, 410; Clifton Suspen- 
sion, 411 ; project for one across the 
Channel, 460 ; of London, Chatham 
and Dover Bailway across the 
Thames, 462 ; over the Arun, ii. 
341 ; Humber, 341 ; Newcastle, 342 ; 
Royal Border, 342; Runcorn, 342; 
Duddon Sands, 342 ; Congleton, 
342 ; Conway, 344 ; Menai, 344-350 ; 
connectiug the London and Holy- 
head Road, 350, 352 ; Tamar, 352 ; 
Tay, 352-358; Forth, i. 369, 370, 
530; ii. 236, 358-366; Westminster, 
366; London, 366; Tower, 368; 
Appork'V, 388; Llandulas, 390; 
Crow Mills, 387 

Bridges, Heads coming in contact 
with, i. 63; made at Crewe, 123; 
collapse of, ii. 374-376 

Bridgewater, Countess of, her opposi- 
tion to the London and Birmingham 
Railway, i. 74 

Bridgewater, Duke of, the survey of 
his land for the Liverpool and Man- 
chester Railway, i. 41, 42 

Brighton, as a fashionable resort, i. 
473; speed of trains to and from, 
474 ; journey in the time of George 
IV. to, 474 ; Prince George and the 
Duke of Norfolk at, 474, 475 ; coach 
traffic at the beginning of the century 
between London and, 475 ; railway 
traffic to, 475 ; incident of a bad 
coal-fire and the Yorkshireman at 
an hotel in, 478 

Brighton steamship. The, i. 484 

Bristol, Line from Gloucester to, i. 
189 ; express trains to, ii. 254 

Bristowe, Judge, fired at by a disap- 
pointed suitor, ii. 12 

Broad Street Station, Goods traffic at, 
i. 140 

Broadstairs, Fondness of Charles 
Dickons for, i. 446 

Brotherhood engines. The, ii. 218 

Brougham, The, i. 6 

Brougham, Lord, and the Bill for the 
London and York liailway, i. 216 

Brougham, William, counsel for the 
promoters of the Liverpool and 
Manchester Railway, i. 43 

Brunei, I. E., portrait of, i. 408 ; swal- 
lowing a hidf-BOvereign, 409, 410 ; 



works day and night at the Thames 
Tunnel, 410 ; appointed engineer to 
the Great Western Railway, 411; 
builds the Oreat Western^ 411; 
recommends Daniel Gooch to the 
Great Western Railway, 413; and 
the Lickey incline, ii. 102; his 
locomotive "Hurricane," 228. 

Brunei, Marc Isambard, and the mak- 
ing of the Thames Tunnel, ii. 338 

Brussels, Fiftieth anniversary of in- 
troduction of railways into, ii. 514 

Buckingham, Duke of. Coach driven 
by, i. 5 

Buckland, Frank, and his animals, ii. 
111,112 

Buckley, Mr. J. F., and the case of 
John Hood, ii. 275, 277, 278 

Bugsworth, Landslip at, i. 255 

Bullock-waggon, Travelling in a, i. 3 

Burnley, Population of, i. 164 ; ex- 
cursions from, ii. 87 

Bums, M.P., Mr. John, and the Rail- 
way Servants' Hours of Labour Bill, 
ii. 283 

Burstall's " Persevei-nnce " locomotive, 
i. 63, 56 

Bury^, Population of, i. 164 

Busmess, Customs of, before the ad- 
vent of railways, i. 131 

Bute Docks, i. 399, 401 

Buxton, Opposition to the railway to, 
i. 124 ; brought nearer town by the 
new line from Ashbourne, 156 ; 
Lord Cromwell and the superstitions 
of, 156; the waters and baths of, 
156; as a fashionable resort, 156; 
extension of the Midland system to, 
247 

Buxton and Topley pike, Coaches 
between, i. 26 



Cabriolet, or cab. The, L 6 

Calais and Dover, First proposals for a 
tunnel between, i 52 

Calais- Do uvres steamboat, i. 455 

Caledonian Railway, Shape of, i. 539 ; 
capital of, 539 ; extent and earnings 
of, 639 ; reduction in dindends in, 
541 ; its fight with the North British 
Company, 546-548; carriages and 
signalling apparatus on, 648 ; strike 
of servants of, ii. 264-268, 271 ; train 
on fire at Abingdon on, 420 

Cambrian Railways Company, i. 399 ; 
case of John Hood and (he directors 
of, ii. 273-280 



528 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



Camden, Traina worked by itationary 
engine between Euaton and, L 127 

Cameron, Commander, travelling in a 
hammock in Africa, L 2 

Cmmpania, The, ii. 76 ^ 

Canal, Leeds and lirerpool, L 70; 
Manchester, Bolton and Borv, 71 ; 
Sankey, 71; Manchester Ship, 88, 
174, 269 ; Shropshire Union, 123 ; 
at Spondon, diverted for the Midland 
Counties Railway, 174; Bamsley, 
177 ; Aire and Calder, 179 ; Crom- 
ford, 210 ; Grand Junction, 400 

Canal- boat. Transit of goods by, L 6, 
21 

Canal-boats, m<ade at Crowe, i. 123 

Canals, C'Onstruction of, i. 20 

Carnarvon, ii. 344 

Canterbury and Whitstable Bailway, 
i. 69 

Cantilevers, il 360, 361 

Capital, Diversion of, to railway enter- 
prise, i. 69; subscribed for the 
Kuncom Railway, 69 ; increase in 
fifty years of railway, ii. 482, 606 

Car, Irish, travelling in an, i. 3 

Card-sharpers, ii. 5 

Cardiff, Train service to, i. 401, 405 

Caricatures of George Hudson, i. 203 

Carlisle, Midland line to, i. 287, 288 

Carlyle, Name applied to George 
Hudson by. i. 206 

Camforth, i. 286 

Carriages in England and France in 
the sixteenth century, i 4 

Carriers* carts. Travelling by, i. 6, 7, 16 

Cartoons ridiculing the Eastern 
Counties Railway, i. 377, 378 

*• Cassell^s Time Tables and Through- 
Route Guide," il 166 

Castalia steamboat, i, 467 

Castleton, Lead-mining at, ii. 316 

Cavendish, Lord Edward, and the cen- 
tenary of George Stephenson's birth, 
ii. 612 

Central London (Electric) Railway, i. 
623 

Central Pacific Railway, Drawing-room 
car on, ii. 207 

Central Railway, Glasgow, i. 652 

Central Railway of New Jer8ey,Engine- 
driver on the, L 648 

Central Statipn, Liverpool, i. 259, 260 

Central Station, Manchester,! 256-258 

Chairman of a railway company, 
Duties of, i. 136, 137 

Chamberlain,M.P., Mr. Joseph, quoted, 
L80,81 



Channel, Project for buildiii^ a bridge 
acroos the, i. 460; difficulties d 
steering a ship in the, 461 

Channel Tunnel, First proposals for, i. 
52; Mr. Gladstone supports Sir 
Edward Watkin's scheme for, 369 : 
works near Folkestone of, 467; 
romance concerning the, 469; ob- 
jections to, ii. 316, 317 

dumning, M.P., Bir. F. A., and the 
excessive hours of railway servants, 
ii. 271, note ; and the directors of 
the Cambrian Railways, 278 

Charing Cross Hotel, L 449 

Chariot, of Ericthonius, Travelling in 
the, i. 8 ; in the later days of Athens, 
3 ; of Romans, 8, 4 ; of Uie Ethiopian 
officer, 4 

Charles, Prince, his retreat in Scotland, 
i. 632 

" Qiarles Dickens*' locomotive, i. 16S 

Cham wood Forest Railway, ii. 287 

Chartist riots at Sheffield, i. 345 

Chat Moss, The soil and exposed 
position of, i. 46 ; drained by George 
Stephenson, 47 ; cost of draining, 48; 
Sir W. B. Forwood*s allusion to, 
263 

Chatsworth, ii. 248 

Cheap Trains Act, L 390, 394 

Cheltenham, Great Western station at, 
i. 428 

Chesham, Watercresses of, i. 407 

Chester, Railway from Crewe to, i. 122; 
widening of line from Birkenhead to, 
373, 374 ; racecourse at, 374 ; Bir. 
Solly and the refreshment con- 
tractors at, ii 131, 132 

Chester and Birkenhead Railway, 
Fighting amongst navvies on the, 
i. 112 

Chester and Holyhead Railway, 
acquired by the London and Norw- 
Westem Railway, i. 143 

Chesterfield, as a coaching town, i. 274; 
railway associations of, 276; Mr. 
Ruskin and, 276 ; Midland Railway 
at, 276 ; the Manchester, Sheffield 
and Lincolnshire Railway at, 276 ; 
the Lancashire, Derbyshire and East 
Coast Railway at, 276, 380; com- 
memoration of centenary of George 
Stephenson's birth at, ii. 612 

Children, Accidents to, on railways, 
ii. 2, 3 

Chinley, Railway to, L 88 

Choules, Jamei^ goods guard, Oaaa of, 
ii 271-278 



INDEX. 



529 



^Christmas Eve, Mail trains on, i. 508- 

Church, Bishop of Dakota*s travelling, 
ii. 139 

Churchyard, St. Pancras, i. 234 

CUif of Berlin, i. 443 

City and South London Electric Rail- 
way, i. 518-522 

Citi/ of Cheater, i. 443 

City of New York, i. 441, 443, 445 

City of Farit, i. 441,445 

Civilisation of England partly effected 
by the railway, i. 16, 89 

ClanHcarde, Lord, and the broker's 
clerk, i. 191 

Clapham Junction and Paddington 
Electric Railway Bill, i. 523, 524 

Clarence, Duke of, Death of, i. 103, 
104 ; the train carrying the body of, 
104 

Class distinctions, partly removed by 
railways, i. 90 

Clay Cross Tunnel, i. 181 

Cleethorpes, The growth of, L 352 

Clements, William, the **La8t of the 
Whips," ii. 92 

Cleveland, Duke of, unveils statue of 
Joseph Pease, ii. 511 

Clifton Suspension Bridge, Brunei's 
design for, i. 411 

Club Train, i. 451,452 

Clubs of mill-hands in Lancashire, ii. 
87 

Coach, Building of the first, i. 17; 
incidents of travelling by, 5, 6, 18- 
20 ; Prince George driving from 
Brighton by, 475 

Coaches in England, the first, i. 4-6 ; 
of the 17th and 18th centuries, 17, 
18 ; in the present day, 26, 27 

Coal, Seam of, at Dover, i. 461, 478 ; 
prices of, in 1873, 465 ; at Brighton, 
478; when first used, ii. 314 

Coal Agreement of 1863, i. 315 

Coal-pits, Tram-roads from, i. 21 ; 
in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, 
172 

Coal trade. Impetus given by Midland 
Railway to, i. 172; disputes in the, 
339 ; strike of 1893 in the, ii. 269, 
270 

Coal traffic. Block of, during Exhibition 
of 1851, i. 227 ; dispute between 
Great Northern and Midland Rail- 
ways, i. 316-317 

Coat of- arms of the London and North- 
western Railway, i. 154 

Cockshott, Mr. Francis, and the St. 
• • 
f f 



Leger traffic on the Great Northern 

Railway, i. 309, 310 
Coffin, Sir Isaac, his opposition in 

Parliament to the Liverpool and 

3Ianchester Railway Bill, i. 46 
CoUingwood, Robert, and the North- 

Eastem Railway, Case of, ii. 275 
Colville, Lord, ez-chairman of the 

Great Northern Railway, i. 313, 310 
« Comet " locomotive. The, i. 58, 172 ; 

ii. 227 
Comical trains, i. 34-36 
** Commodore " caach. The, i. 18 
Communication-cord, The, ii. 200 
Compensation to landowners for the 

London and Birmingham I^iilwuy, 

i. 81 
Compensation claims against railways, 

u. 470-476 
Competition, Locomotive, at Rainhill, 

i. 53-56 
Composite trains. Board of Tnulo 

R^ulations for, ii. 194 
Conacher, Mr. , general manag<?r of the 

North British Railway, i. 549 ; and 

the ease of John Hood, iu 275 
Congleton Viaduct, The, i. 252 
Continuous brakes, ii. 202 
Convict carriage trucks, i. 115 
Conway, Itiver, iL 342 ; bridge at, 344 
Cook, Mr. J. M, on the excursions 

to the Exhibition of 1861, i. 222. 223 
Cook, Thomas, Death of, i. 159 ; his 

first excursion train, 210, 213, ii. 

96 ; his excursions to the Exhibition 

of 1851,222 
Cooper, Mr. F. E., engineer of Forth 

Bridge, ii. 361 
Cork, Blackrock, and Passage Rail- 
way, The zone system on the, il 

177, note 
Combrook Viaduct, i. 259, note 
" Comishman " express, The, i. 404 
" Cornwall " locomotive. The, a 228 
Corpse, Detention of a, by a railway 

company, ii. 55, 66 
Corridor train. The, i. 16; on the 

Great Western, ii. 210; to Scotland, 

211,212 
Cotpatriek, Burning of the, ii. 64 
Costermonger and his donkey, and the 

Eastern Counties Railway, 1. 377, 

378 
Cotton, Charles, and Isaak Walton, i. 

167 
Cotton trade dispute. Effect on the 

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway 

o2,L 168 



5to 



OtJB BAiLWAtS. 



Cotmtryman in London, L 494 

County Court case in a railway car- 
riage, ii. 115, 116 

Goyentry, Bailway through, i. 73 

Cow, The locomotiye and the, i. 44 ; ii. 
400 

Cowburn Tunnel, ii. 330 

Crampton*s locomotive, "Liverpool," 
ii 228 

Crest of the Midland Bailway Com- 
pany, i. 154 

Crewe, its condition before the advent 
of railways, i. 115; as a centre of 
industrial life, 115; the first train 
through, 115 ; its rapid growth, 122 ; 
the centre of the London and North- 
Western system, 122 ; extent of 
works at, 123 ; number of hands 
employed and locomotives made at, 
123 ; the eighteen-inch line at, 123 ; 
erection of houses and institutions 
for the workpeople at, 125 ; holidays 
and travelling concessions to work- 
people at, 132 

Cncket, English love of, i. 2 

Cromford, Railway to, i 156 ; canal, 
210 

Cromwell, Lord, and the superstitions 
of Buxton, i. 156 

Cropper, M.P., Mr., i 43 ; urges ex- 
pedition on George Stephenson in 
constructing the Liverpool and Man- 
chester Railway, 48 

Cross, King's, L 298 ; Queen £leanor*s, 
at Charing Cross, 299; Holywell, 
299 ; Banner, 299 

Crowded carriages, ii. 8 

Ciillen, Lord, and the Rushton estate, 
i. 234 

Culloden Moor, Railway on^ L 532 

Csar, the late. Train of, i. 98; pre- 
cautions for his safety in railway 
travelling, 106, 107; accident to 
train of, ii. 405 

i)at/y NewSf and newspaper trains, i. 
502; the mail train described by, 
509-513 ; and the survivors of the 
Cospatriekf ii. 55 ; on the drawing- 
room train of London and Brighton 
Company, 213 

Daili/ Telegraphy and newspaper trains, 
i. 502 ; on barmaids at Liverpool 
Street Station, ii. 136 

Dakota, Bishop of, and his travelling 
church, ii. 139 

Dalarossie, Armed men a century and 
a half ago at, L 532 



Dalrymple, Marten, and Soottiflti rail- 
ways, i 542 

Darlington, North-Eastem eng^e 
works at, i. 335 

" Dart " locomotive. The, i. 58 

" David Grieve," quotation from Mia. 
Humphry Ward's, i. 257 

Dawson, Mr. Philip Henry, and the 
Railway Clearing House, ii 483 

**Day excursion to London," i. 212 

Dead Meat Market, Number of carcasei 
stored at, i 143 

Dean, Mr. W., on the express service 
on the Great Western Railway, i 
404 

Death, Sudden, in railway carnageB, 
ii 11 

Dee, Bridge acroes the, i. 369 

Defoe's description of Derby, i. 236 

Denison, Mr., counsel for Great 
Northern Railway during coal dia- 
pute, i 316 

Dent-Dent, Mr., ex-chairman of North 
Eastern Railway, i. 325, 340 ; and 
the bridges on 'the Norih-Eastem, 
ii. 373 ; on the Thirsk disaster, 467 

Dent Head viaduct^ i 252, 293 

Deptford Market, i. 143 

Derby, Lord, declines to allow George 
Stephenson on his land for survey- 
ing the ground for the Liverpool 
and Manchester Railway, i. 41 ; 
opposes the Bill for the Liverpool 
and Manchester Itailway in the 
House of Lords, 46 ; in favour of . 
the London and Binningham Rail- 
way, 73 

Derby, (the late) Lord, cuts the sod 
of St. Helen's and Wigan Junction 
Railway, i 349; on the poesible 
purchase of railways by the State, 
u. 163 

Derby, the centre of the Midland 
system, i. 169, 236 ; manufacture of 
china at, 169 ; opening of railway 
to, 174; opening of railway from 
Leeds to, 181 ; Midland station at, 
235; Midland workshops at, 236, 
238 ; Defoe's description of, quoted, 
236 

Derbyshire, Mr. Ruskin's description 
of, i 250, 251 ; milk supplied by, 
314 

Derbyshire, South, Railways in, L 158, 
note 

Detective, Railway, Ned Farmer, The, 
ii. 287-289 

Devonshire, Duke of, sale of Lis 



INDEX. 



531 



Londesborough estate to Hudson, L 
199 

Devonshire, (sixth) Duke of, and the 
proposed railway through Chatsworth 
Park, i 248 

" Diary of the Besieged Resident," by 
Mr. Labouchere, Allusion to, ii. 430 

** Diary of C. Joames De La Pluche, 
Esq.," Allusion to Thackeray's, i. 
191, 192, 193 

Dickens, Charles, his sketches of 
coaching incidents, i. 18 ; his love 
for Broadstairs, 446 ; and " Bardox 
Brothers " at " Mugby Junction," 
ii. 123,124; on American Railways, 
245-248; his "Dick Swivellcr," 
312 ; in the Staplehurst accident, 417 

" Dickie," the skull, and the supersti- 
tion respecting it at Buxton, i. 124, 
125 

"Dickie" locomotive, i. 123, 124 

"Dictator of railway speculation," The, 
i. 205 

Didcot, Express service to, 1. 403 

Diligence, Travelling in a, i. 3 

Dinas and Rhyd-du Railway, ii. 106 

Dingwall and Skye Railway, i. 535 

Dining-cars, Third-class, i. 307, 388; 
ii. 140 

Dinting, Manchester, Sheffield and 
Lincolnshire Railway at, i. 346 

Dinting Viaduct, The, i. 252 

Disc signal. The, ii. 308 

" Disraeli and His Day," Sir WiUiam 
Fraser's, Allusion to, i. 201, 202 

Distant signal. The, ii. 313, noto 

Docks, at Southampton purchased by 
the London and South- Western Rail- 
way, i. 270, 433, 440,445, 472, note; 
at Bristol, 270 ; Garston, 270 ; Mersey, 
270 ; HuU, 324-326, 11 299 ; Tyne, 
i. 326, 327 ; Grimsby, 352, 354, 355 ; 
Bute, 399, 401; Barry, 399, 402; 
Empress, 444 

Doe Lea Branch of the Midland Rail- 
way,! 271-274 

Dogs, Railway, Famous, ii. 112-114 

Donald, Mr. James, killed in the Mor- 
peth accident, ii. 437 

Doncaster, Midland Railway at, i. 
281 ; industrial headquarters of the 
Great Northern Railway, 281, 312; 
races at, 309-311 

Dore and Ghinley line, The, i. 82, 83, 
207, 277, 319, 383; tunnel on, ii. 
322-328 

Doric portico in Eostoa Square, Hie, 
L127 

If 2 



Dorsey, Mr., " English and American 

Railroads Compared," by, quoted, 

ii. 311 
Douglas, Rapid development of, ii. 88 ; 

piist and present, 88-91 ; visitors and 

excursionists to, 90-92 
Dove, River, Izaak Walton angling in 

the, i. 167 
Dovcdalc, i 157 
Dover, Soa-going traffic at, i. 455; 

fortifications and harbour of, 456 ; 

Admiralty Pier at, 456 ; cost of now 

harbour at, 457 ; cail seam at, 461 
Dover and Calais, First proposals for 

a tunnel between, i. 52 
Doyle, Mr., at a meeting to discuss 

the amal^ramation of the South* 

Eastern and London, Chatham and 

Dover Riilways, i. 469 
Drunkenness alleged to be caused by a 

jolting train, ii. 38 
"Duke of Sutherland's Railway," i. 

535, 536 
" Dukeries, The,*' Proposed railway 

through, i. 248 
" Dunrobin " locomotive, i. 636 
Durham, The railway mania at, i. 

195 
Dutton, Mr. Ralph, late chairman of 

the London and South - Western 

Railway, i. 433 ; Mr. Portal's tribute 

to, 435 
Dutton viaduct. The, i. 252 
Dynamite in a railway-airriage, ii. 

42 
Dyson, Arthur, Murder of, by Charles 

Peace, i. 61 

Earth, Velocity of the, and a moving 
train, i. 415 

East Frisia, Diminutive railway in, iu 
106 

East London Railway, i. 492 

East to West Railway {»ee Lancashire, 
Derbyshire and East Coast Rail- 
way) 

Eastern Counties Railway, Goorge 
Hudson's policy as chairman of the, 
L 199; incorporated with other 
railways into the Great Eastern 
Railway, 375 ; its bad n patation in 
its early davs, 376, 377; rolling- 
stock seized lor debt, 385 ; prospects 
held out to shareholders of, 385 * 
narrow gauge on, 396 

Eastern and Midltuid Railway, L 279, 
noto 

Eastwood, MeeUng ttt» to 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



Eopoaed pltui for nilmf from 
nxton to Xeicester, i. 173 
Edge HiU Tiuuel, i. 46 ; completion 

of, 60 
Edinburgh, Cuaches to, i. 17 ; nulwsjr 

nice to, 133, ii. 232-240; Oreat 

Northern Railway journey to, 30fi ; 

railway! in, 662 
Gdinbnrgh, Buke of, Birth of, ii. 1 1 
Edinburgh and Olaagow Bailwajr, 

Mnrdar by Iriah navries on the, i. 

112 

Ediaon, Ur., and electric powar, L 
61S 

Ediion and Fhelpa, their syatem of 
railway conununication, ii. 20i 

Egyptian campaign, Armoul-pUted 
train in ths, i. 226 

EiKht-houTB day. The, ii. 360 

Eldon, Lord, on railways, i. 24 ; advice 
given by, i. 160 

Electric light. The, on Uie Midland 
RaUway, i. 240-242 ; ii. 216 ; on the 
London and Brighton Railway, 217 ; 
on the Great Northern, 21S ; on the 
Cbeahire linee, 2IS ; On the London 
and North-Weatem, 218 

Electric Railway, at Liverpool, i. ZS2- 
266 ; Waterloo and City, 437 ; City 
and South London, 61S-S22; Qreat 
Northern and City, 622; Centi&l 
London,fi23; Claphaia Junction and 
Faddington, 623; in the Isle at Man, 
626 ; a Oarman engineer's lugges- 
tion for an, ii. 241, 242 

Electric reading- Umpi in the Under- 
ground Railway, ii. S 1 S 

Electricity, Changes in England 
through the application of, i. 7 ; 
and train communication, ii 203, 
204, 211 

Etephanta, TraTelling on, i. 3 

Eliot, George, Letters of, i, 166 

Elizabeth's leign. Carriages of, i. 4 

Ellis, Mr. E. S., tonner chairman of 
the Midland Railway, i. 183 

EUia, M.P., Mr. John, on free tele- 
grams of railway compantea, i. 119 

Ellis, Hr. John, of Leicester, indnces 
George Stephenson to inspect the 
ground for the UidUnd Bailway, 
i. 171, 264 ; chairman of the Midland 
Railway, 183, 186 ; on the decieaae 
of traffic on tome routes owing to 
the EshibiUoQ of 1861, 223 

Emenoo, and George Stephenton, ii. 
612 

'' Hniptm d RoMia" locomotive, i. 401 



.Smprttt steamboat, i. 466 

Engine, Travelling on footplate 
i. 3 ; mad driver of an, ii. 48 

Engine-driver, Arehduke Francia 
dinand as an, ii. 291 ; on the No 
em Railway of France, 291, 1 
Mark Inglis, the, 202; perils 
escapes of an, 2U2, 293; a fi 
bitten, 293; and «panow-ha 
294 : Id an accident near Leicei 
296; traioing of an, 296,297; aul 
of an, 304 

Engine-driveia' strike on tbe Midli 
ii. 300-304 

Engiatrr, The, on railway speed 
America, ii 243, 244 

England, Early modea of travel 
in, i. 4 ; " old-toaching days" 
6, 6 ; changes by applicatioi 
steam and electricity m, 7 ; 
iileas retpecting a railway train 
7 ; the railway in the ctTilisatioi 
16; building of the first coach ii 

"English and American Railn 
Compared," by Mr. Dorsev, que 
ii 311 

" English Journalism and the '. 
who have Made It," quoted, i. M 

Englishman's dread of lain ii. 93 

Enthuiiaam for railways after 
success of the Liverpool and &I 
Chester Kaitway, i 62 

Erewash Valley Line, i. 173, 214 

Ericthonius, Travelling in the cha 
or, i. 3 

Ethiopian ofBcei, Chariot of the, i. 

Euston terminus. Arrangements ci 
127, 128 

Evanson, Eate, Freak of, ii. 43 

Ewart, M.P., Mr., i. 13 

Excnnion, trains, i 16; early preju 
against, 130 ; on the London 
North-Western Rulway, 132; 
first, 210, 211; ii. 76; described, 
76; Messn. Bass, Batcliife 
Gretton's 78, 77 ; American, f 
Havre, 77 

Exorcise, physical, Necesmty of, i 
Engliidi devotion to, 1, 2; anc 
love of, 1 

Exhibition of 1861, The ezcnisionl 
i 222 ; ii 76 

" Experiment " locomotive, ii. 22] 

" Experiment " railway coach, Th 
37 

Express train, Poetry of an, i. 
eecape of Charles Peace from 
41,62; speed of, 04, 86 



INDEX. 



533 



Eyesight of cngine-driyen, ti. 296, 
297, note 

Faber, lilr. Beckett, on the proposed 

amalgamation of the Sonth-E^tem 

and iiondon, Chatham and Dover 

Railways, i. 468 

Fairbaim, Sir Andrew, at the Railway 

Congress at St. Petersburg, i 261 
Family, A, travelling to the seaside, i. 

146, 147 
Farmer, Ned, railway detective,** Scrap 
Book " of, and verses by, ii. 287-289 
Farmers, Opposition of, to the London 

and Birmingham Railway, i. 82 
Fnmham, Lord and lAdy, killed at 

Abergele, ii. 423 
Fenton, Sir Myles, i. 462 : ii. 511 
Fergnsson, Sir James, on the invest- 
ments of navvies in the Post Office 
Savings Bank, i. 114 
Ferry-boat for crossing the Channel, 

Proposal for a, i. 457 
Feudality, influenced by railways, i. 89 
Fiction, and incidents on railways, ii. 1 
Fighting in railway carriages, ii. 5 
Findlay, Sir George, his ** Working 
and Management of an English 
Railway," quoted, i. 52, 137; on the 
precautions taken for the Queen's 
safety when travelling on the London 
and North- Western Railway, 100- 
102; on the mileage of telegraph 
wires on the London and North- 
western Railway, 121 ; on a case of 
fossilised remains, 140, 141 ; death 
of, 169 ; chamcteristics of, 160, 161 ; 
honours bestowed upon, 162; his 
love of angling, 162 ; and the mails, 
506; on third-class passengers, ii. 
178,179 ; and the distant signal, 313, 
note ; and the floods on the Holyhead 
railway, 390 ; on inconveniences to 
railways caused by fog, 393 
Fire, in a Pullman car, ii. 214, note ; 
at Wolvcrton carriage works, 396 ; 
at Leeds, 396, 397 ; at Salford, 397 
First-class passengers, ii. 176,177 
Fish consumed in London, Amount of, 

i. 143 
Fish trade of Grimsby, i. 353 
Fitzwilliam, Earl, and the opening of 

the line to Sheffield, i. 178 
Fleet sewer. Diversion of the, i. 230 
Fleetwood, Lancashire and Yorkshire 

station at, i. 168 
Floods, Damage on Midland Railway 
through, ii« 387; on the Great 



Northern, 387 ; at Apperley, 388 ; 
in Dove Holes tunnel, 389 ; on the 
Hampstead Heath line, 390; on 
Chester and Holyhead line, 390 ; 
at Scorton, 390 

Flowers in London streets, i. 407 

** Flute Line, The," i. 247 

** Flying Childers" engine. The, i. 30 

** Flying Coach," The, i 17 

** Fljnng Dutchman,*' The, Speed of, 
ii. 241 

Flying machines, i. 616 

•* Flying Scotsman," The, i. 1 1 ; speed 
of, 20, 335 ; accident at Thirsk to, 
99 ; duties of the guard of, 305 ; the 
driving of, 335 ; variety of pass<'n- 
gcrs carried by, 529 ; accommodation 
in, ii. 198 

Fog, in London, 1886, ii. 391 ; at 
Birmingham, 391; of 1891, 392 
on the London and North- Wostem, 
393 

Folkestone, Sea-going traffic at, i. 
455 ; works of Channel Tunnel near, 
457 

Food supply of London, i. 143 

Football, English love of, i. 1 

Footplate of express engine. Travel 
ling on, i. 3, 65, 66 

Forbes, Mr., and the proposed amalga- 
mation of the South-Eastem and 
London, Chatham and Dover Rail- 
ways, i. 467 

Forbes, Mr. Archibald, and the sur* 
vivors of the Cotpatriek^ ii. 55 

Forged Transfers Act, and the railway 
companies, i. 158, 159 

Forth Bridge, Mr. Gladstone at, i. 369, 
370 ; opening of, 530 ; ii. 236, 358- 
366 

Forwood, Sir W. B., at the opening 
of the Overhead Railway, Liverpool, 
i. 263 

Fossilised remains, A case of, at Broad 
Street Station, i. 140,141 

Foster, M.P., Sir Walter, and fast 
trains running from London, ii. 254 

Fowler, Sir J(mn, and the proposed 
bridge across the English Channel, 
i. 460; and the Forth Bridge, ii. 
364 ; and the bridges on the London 
and Brighton line, 371 

Fox, Captain, and Hampstead Heath 
Station, ii. 96 

France, Carriages in the 16th century 
in, i. 4 

Fnincis^ Mr. John, his '* History of the 
English Railway," quoted, i. 78 



534 



OUB RAILWAYS. 



Francis Ferdinand, Archduke, his 

fondness for railway work, ii. 291 
Francis Joseph, £inperor, Kailway 

trainof, i.93,94, 95 
Franking letters, i. 156 
Fraser, Sir William, ''Disraeli and 

his Day/' hy, allusion to, i. 201, 202 
Frauds on railway companies, ii. 191, 

192, 286, 287, 471 
Free railway travelling. Suggestion 

for, ii. 162 
Frith's ''Railway Station," ii. 107 
Frodsham Station, Removal of, ii. 116, 

117 
Froggatt Edge, i. 247 
Frost-hitten engine-driver, ii. 293 
Funeral train of the Duke of Clarence, 

i. 104 
Fumcss Railway Company, i. 286, 287 

Gamett, M.P., Mr., i. 43 ; his conlri- 
hution to the London and Birming- 
ham Railway, 73 

Gkmkirk Railway, i. 542 

Garston Docks, i. 270 

Gas, Edge Hill tunnel Ut with, i. 50 ; 
compressed, in carriages, ii. 217 

Gateshead, North-Eastem locomotive 
department at, i. 335 

Gatty, Rev. Alfred, " Sheffield, Past 
and Present^" hy, quoted, i. 346, 347 

Gauge, The hroad and narrow,Que8tion 
of, on the Bristol and Birmingham 
line,i. 189 ; the hroad on the Great 
Western Railway, 403; Brunei's, 
416; on the Ulster Railway, 416 ; 
costliness of hroad, 416 ; discon- 
tinuance on the Great Western of 
the hroad, 416-422 

Gelignite in tunnelling, ii. 325 

General managers of railways, Duties 
of, i. 137 

General Post Office, Development of 
the, i. 155 ; night- workers at the, 
498; and the service of railways, 
504-513 

George IV., Statue at King's Cross of, 
i. 298 ; at Brighton, 474, 475 

"(George S^phenson" locomotive, 
The, ii. 227 

German engineer, Method of travelling 
hy electric trains suggested hy a, ii. 
241, 242 

German Empci'or, Incident during 
a journey on the Great Western 
Rfulway of, i. 95 

Giant, The Irish, O'Brien, in London, 
L142 



Giant's Causeway, fossilised remains 
discovered at, i. 141 

Giffen, Mr., his report on railways, it 
174 

Gilhert Manufacturing Company, The, 
Cars on South-Eastern Railway of, 
ii. 206 

Giles, Francis, on the unsuitahility of 
Chat Moss for a railway, i. 45 

Giraffe, A, on a train, ii. 112 

Girl dressing in hoy's clothes on the 
railway, ii. 43 

Gladstone, Mrs., presented with silver 
model of wheelbarrow at the cutting 
of the first sod of the Wirral Rail- 
way, i. 370, 371 ; her loss of diamond 
canings on the railway, ii. 32 

Gladstone, M.P., Mr. Robert, i. 43 

Gladstone,^. P., Rt. Hon. W. E., places 
first cylinder of Dee bridge, i. 369 ; 
on the Channel Tunnel scheme, 
369 ; at the Forth Bridge, 369. 370 ; 
cuts first sod of the New Wirral 
Railway, 370 ; allusions to his early 
days and railways in Wales, 371, 
372 ; and his services on behalf of 
the Sheffield Company, 373; hints 
at more tunnels under the Mersey, 
374 ; 8|»eaking from railway car- 
riages, iL 29, 31 ; his saying on 
the business of a Government, 163 ; 
and the Cambrian Railways, 278; 
his home and native city, 516 

Glasgow, Tramroad in 1778 in, i. 541 ; 
docks and quays in, 542 ; Marten 
Dalrymple and the railway to Ber- 
wick from, 542; railway develop- 
ment in, 642, 544 ; Central Railway, 
552 

Glasgow and South- Western Railway, 
Route of, i. 553; capital of, 553; 
receipts of, 553; development of, 
553 ; its service to Belfast, 554 ; 
strike of servants on, ii 264-268, 

271 
Gloucester, Line from Birmingham to, 

i. 189; line to Bristol from, 189 ; 

broad and narrow gauge at, 417 
Glyn, Mr. George Carr (Lord Wol- 

vcrton), and the Railway Clearing 

House, ii. 479-481 
Godley, Alanchester, Sheffield and 

Lincolnshire Railway at, i. 344, 

346 
" Going-away clubs " in Lancashire, 

ii. 87 
Goncourt turf frauds, ii. 289 
Gooch, Sir Daniel, takes charge of the 




INDEX. 



535 



royal train on the Great Western 
liailway, i. 92; rocommondod to 
the Great Western by Brunei, 
413; and the Atlantic cable, 413, 
414; ii. 320; and the Severn Tun- 
nel, ii. 320, 321 

Grooch, Mr. J. V., Engine designed for 
Great Eastern Railway by, i. 370 

Good Friday ezcurHiuiiH, ii. 80-82 

Goods traffic, at ISlanchester, i. 138, 
139; rapidity in conducting, 139; 
at Broad Street Station, 140 

Goods-manager, Duties of, i. 137 

Gordon, Mr. W. J., on the Highland 
express from IVilh, i. 35 

Gorst, Sir John, and the Railway 
Servants' Hours of Labour Bill, ii. 
283 

(}o8port. The Queen's journey to Scot- 
land from, i. 103 

Gould, Jay, ii. 286 

Grate, Mr. W. G., and the proposed 
railway through lA)rd*.i Cncket 
Ground, i. 358, 359 

Grand Junction Canal, First passenger 
barge on, i. 400 

Grand Junction Railway, i. 72; open- 
ing of, 109; the contractor of, 109; 
work of Thomas Brassoy in con- 
nection with, 109 ; amiilganrntiou with 
the Manchester and Birmingham, 
and London and Birmingham Ittil- 
ways, 114 

"Grand Junction Railway Guide 
Book," quoted, ii. 146, 147 

Granton, Accident at, ii. 413 

Gratuities to railway servants, ii. 146 

Graves, Henry, and Frith's ** Railway 
Station,*' ii. 107 

Great (Eastern liailway, Date of incor- 
poration of, i. 375 ; extent of, 375; 
Lord Salisbury as chairman of, 378 ; 
additional capital obtained by, 378 ; 
the works at Stratford of, 379 ; the 
"Petrolea" locomotive on, 379, 380; 
coal traffic of, 380 ; its subscription 
to the Lancashire, Derbyshire and 
East Coast Railway, 380, 384 ; en- 
terprising spirit of, 386, 387 ; pre- 
sent capital of, 387 ; earnings of, 
and number of passengers on, 387 ; 
live-stock and merchandise traffic on, 
387 ; number of locomotives of, 387 ; 
its extension to Doncaster and York, 
387 ; dining-trains on, 388 ; atten- 
tion to third-class passengers on, 
388 ; its warehouses at Bishopsgate 
«sd Spitalfields, 388; Goodman's 



Yard stores of, 388 ; conveyance of 
cattle to Norfolk and to Tufnell 
Park, and of the paper used by the 
Tinu*^ 388, 389; workmen's trains 
on, 389, 391, 395 ; presentation to 
retiring chairman of, 395, note ; at 
Parkeston Quay, 396 ; boats of, 396 ; 
opening of Liverpool Street Station 
of, and its extension, 397 ; night- 
workers* train on, 497 ; abolition of 
second-class passengera on, ii. 182 ; 
fast trains on, 254 ; average speed on, 
255 

Great Eattem steamship, i. 4 1 2 ; bravery 
of pilot of, 413 

Great North of Scotland Railway, i. 
536 ; route, extent, and capital of, 
536 ; number of passengera carried 
by, 536 ; its works at Kittybrewster, 
538 ; fish traffic on, 538 ; treatment 
of passengers on, 538, 539 ; snow- 
storm on, ii. 378 

Great Northern and City (Electric) 
Railway, i. 522 

Great Northern Railway, R«ce with 
the London and North- Western 
to Scotland of the, i. 133, 530; ii. 
237-239, 257-258; biith of the, L 
217 ; its excursions to the Exhibi- 
tion of 1851, 222; its competition 
with the Midland Company, 223 ; 
the Midland seizes an engine of the, 
225; at Doncaster, 281, 282; at 
Leeds, 284 ; mileage of, 297 ; rapid 
progress of, 297 ; old roof of King*s 
Cross terminus of, 298 ; coal and mer- 
chandise traffic of, 300 ; capital and 
receipts of, 301 ; number of passen- 
gers, and amount af goods traffic on, 
301; season-ticket holden on, 301, 
302; dishonest passengera on the, 
303 ; journey from London to York 
on, 304 ; guards* duties on, 305 ; 
introduction of dining-cars, and 
abolition of second-class carriages 
between England and Scotland on, 
307 ; exprecses from Manchester of, 
307, 308 ; expressed to Donoistcr of, 
309 ; engine-sheds on, 31 1 ; its works 
at Doncaster, 311, 312 ; milk traffic 
on, 313, 314 ; competition with the 
Midland coal traffic of, 315; its 
opposition to Sir Edward Watkin's 
project for bringing the Sheffield 
Railway into London, 317, 360 ; its 
new arrangements with the Man- 
chester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire 
Company, 318; its coming increased 



536 



OUR RAILWAYS. 




competition with other lines, 319 ; 
and the Lancashire, Derbyshire and 
K.i8t Coast Railway, 883 ; its advan- 
tage in Scotland, 530; abolition of 
second-class carriages on, ii. 181 ; 
corridor trains on, 212 ; the electric 
light on, 218; express service to 
Hull on, 264 ; average speed on, 255 ; 
royal saloon on, 507 

Great Northern Railway of Ireland, 
liifeof a servant on the, i. 29 

"Groat Western" locomotive, i. 419; 
its last broad-gauge journey, 426 

GiTflt Western Railway, The Queen's 
journeys on the, i. 91, 92 ; its eager- 
ness for a lino to Birmingham, 189 ; 
bad times of the, 195; its conveyance 
of passengers to the Ascot racecourse, 
311; workmen's trains on, 393; 
track of, 398 ; opening, from Lon- 
don to Bristol, of, 401 ; cost of, 
401 ; development of, 401 ; coal 
traffic on, 4U1 ; present capital of, 
402 ; number of passengers carried 
yearly by, 402; passengers taken 
to •' Venice in London," 402; " the 
fine old English gentleman," 403 ; 
Mr. Bourne's history of, 403 ; con- 
veyance of carriage and horses on, 
403; the broad gauge on, 403, 416, 
422 ; Brunei and Gooch's engines 
on, 403 ; a proposed bargain with 
an engine-driver, 404; winter ser- 
vice on, 404; express trains on, 
404 ; train service for Waterford 
and Jersey boats on, 405; carriage 
of flowers and fruit on, 407, 408 ; 
work of I. K. Brunei on, 410-412, 
413; works at Swindon of, 421; 
conversion of carriages from broad 
to narrow gauge on, 421 ; work of 
the navvies in altering the line from 
broad to narrow gauge, 422-425 ; 
" farewell " to the broad gauge on, 
426 ; the chairman's remarks on the 
broad gauge of, 427; Good Friday 
excursions on, ii. 80 ; its exemption 
from groat disasters, 92 ; Mr. Lowen- 
frld's action against, 126-128; Mr. 
Woodgate's action against, 128, 130; 
refreshment rooms on, 138; sccond- 
and third-class passengers on, 182; 
corridor train on, 210, 211 ; express 
service to Bristol on, 254 ; average 
speed on, 255; beating the record, 
258 ; snowstorms on, 378-386 

Great West'*rn steamship, i. 411 

*' Greater Britain " locomotive, The, i. 



10, 153, and note ; ii. 250; trial trip 

of and speed attained by, 252, 253 
Greece, Chariots of, i. 3, 4 
-Greenwich Park, Proposal to tunnel, 

i. 195 
" Greyhounds of the North," The, L 

336 
Grierson, Mr., of the Great Western 

Railway, i. 488 
Grimsby, The growth of, i. 352 ; the 

fish tnide of, 353; the docks at, 

354, 355 
Grimthorpe, Lord, and Trent Station, 

ii. 38 
Grossmith, Mr. George, Miniature 

railway of, i. 164 
Guards (tee Railway Guards) 
Guernsey, Charles, the broker's derk, 

and his railway speculation, i. 191 
Guibal fan. The, for the ventilation 

of tunnels, i. 75, 267 
Guilford, Lord, his visit to Newcastle 

in 1676, i. 21 



>* 



Hackworth,Timothy, the ' ' Sanspareil 
locomotive of, i. 63, 64, 55 

Haddon Hall, Railway near, i. 248 

Hadley, Mr., at a shareholders* meet- 
ing, i. 186, 186 ; and the Midland 
line to Carlisle, 289 

Haifa to Damascus, Railway from, ii. 
100 

Hamilton, Lord Claud, chairman of 
Great Eastern Railway, i. 395, note 

Hammock, Travelling in a, i. 2 

Hampshire, Objections to the railway 
in, i. 194 

Hampstead Heath, Accident at railway 
station at, il 93-97 

Hansom, The, i. 6 

Harborough, Lord, his objectiona to 
railways, i. 214 

Harcourt, M.P., Sir William, speaking 
from a railway carriage, ii. 30 ; and 
the Strome Ferry rioters, 73 

Hardy, Professor, and the eyesight of 
engine-drivers, ii. 297, note 

" Harlequin Train," Mr. W. J. Goi-don 
on, i. 35 

Harrison, Mr. Frederick, general 
manager of the London and North- 
western Railway, i. 162, note. 

Hartti, Bret, his poem on "The 
Station-Master of Lone Prairie," 
ii. 118 

Hard wick. Midland station at, i. 272 

Hardwiok Hall, Proportions, builder, 
and contents of, i 237 



INDEX, 



537 



Harting^n, Villago of, i. 167 ; Izaitk 

Walton at, 167 ; tho " Silent Woman" 

at. 157 
Harvestmen, Irish, Characteristics of, 

and railway facilities offered to, i. 

144-146 
Hatton, Mr. Joseph, A picture of old 

coaching days hy, i. 19 
Havre, American excursion through 

Europe from, ii. 77 
Hawkins, Air. W. B., and the case of 

John Hood, ii. 275 
Hawkshaw, Sir John, Death of, i. 159 ; 

constructs Lancashire and Yorkshire 

Railway, 163 
Head, Sir Francis, his '* Stokers and 

Pokers,*' quoted, i. 82, 83 ; incident 

on a railway journey of, ii. 11, 12 
Hoating carriages, ii. 201, 205, 211 
Ileaton, M.P., Mr. Henniker, and the 

postal service, i. 154 
" Help," the railway dog, ii. 113, 114 
Herhert, Sir Henry, on travelling 

hy coach hetween Edinburgh and 

London, i. 17 
"Hercules" locomotive. The, ii. 227- 

228 
Hero of Alexandria's idea of the power 

of steam, i. 23 
Herscnt, 31., and the scheme for a 

bridge across the Channel, i. 460 
Hetton Pits railway, i. 31 
Hoxthorpe accident. The, ii. 448-452 
Heywood, Mr. Percival, Miniature 

railway of, i. 164 ; ii. 106 
Hicks- Beach, Sir Michael, and ladion* 

compartments in railway carriages, 

ii. 26 ; and breach of privilege by 

Cumbrian Railway Directors, 275, 

278 
High Peak, Lead-mining in the, ii. 

.'{14, 315 
High Peak Railway, Tho, i. 158, 210, 

238 ; ii. 103 
" lliffh Pique Line, The," i. 248 
Highland express from Perth, i. 35 
Highland Railway, Track of, i. 531, 

532 ; traffic in sheep on, 532 ; ex- 
tension of, 532, 533 : express en- 
gines, 533 
Highlander, A, in a French railway 

carriage, ii. 41 
Highlanders fighting with English 

soldiers, i. 632 
Highwaymen and coaches, i. 6, 6 
Highwaymen, The days of the, i. 303 
Hill, Sir Rowland, and the postal 

terviofl^ I. I6i 



** History of the English Uuilway,"by 
Mr. John Francis, quoted, i. 72 

Holden, Mr., builder of the '* Petrolea" 
locomotive, i. 379 

Holiday-making, New method of, 
created by excursion trains, i. 210 

Holmes, James, and the Thirsk disaster, 
ii. 463-465 

Holyhead, Goods traffic at, i. 142 ; 
food-supply passing through, 143; 
fleet of steamers at, 143 ; passenger 
riding under a carriage from, ii. 103 

Holywell Cross, i. 299 

Hood, John, stationmaster at Mont- 
gomery, Case of, ii. 273-275 

Hop-pickers carried by the South- 
Eastern Railway, i. 432 

Hop wood, Mr., his report on railways, 
ii. 174, 175 

Horseback, Early travelling on, i. 7 

Horwich, Lancashire and Yorkshire 
Railway works at, i. 168 

Hot-water tins, ii. 201, 205 

Hotel, St. Pancras, i. 232 ; Tontine, 
Sheffield, 346 ; Charing Cross, 449 ; 
Viaduct, 447 

Hotels, Railway companies', ii. 138 

Howdah, Travelling in a, i. 3 

Hudson, George, his liking for respon- 
sibility, i. 190 ; early life and 
characteristics of, 198 ; becomes a 
pioneer of railways, 199 ; his popu- 
larity, 199 ; Lord Mayor of York 
and Member of Parliament, 200 ; and 
Bernal Osborne, 202 ; doubts as to 
his integrity, 202 ; his defence, 203 ; 
attacked and caricatured, 203; de- 
nounced at York, 204 ; his action 
for libel against a Yorkshire paper, 
204 ; action of the York and Midland 
Railway against him, 204 ; retires 
into obscurity, 205 ; name applied 
to him by Sydney Smith, 206 ; his 
death, 206 ; maxim of, 215 ; his 
opinion of the London and York 
Railway, 215, 300 ; his opinion of 
the Midland engines, 218 ; his 
reference to tho death of George 
Stephenson, 219 ; his resignation of 
the chairmanship of the Midland 
Company, 221 

Hugessen, Mr. KnatchbuU {s&e Bni- 
boume, Lord) 

Hull, Fast trains to, ii. 254 

Hull and Bamsley Railway, i. 324, 
325 * ii 298 

Hull Docks, i. 324; ii. 299; and tho 
North-Eastem Railway, i. 326 



538 



OUB RAILWAYS. 



Humuur of railway accidents, ii. 399 
Hunslet, Midland deppt at, i. 242 
** Hurricane" locomotive^ The, ii. 228 
Huakisson, Mr., fatal accident on the 
Liverpool and Manchester Hail way 
to. i. 67, 68 
Hutchinson, Major-General, and cau- 
tioniug paasengers in passing through 
tunnels, i 448 ; on the accident at 
Borough Market Junction, ii. 196 ; 
on fall of bridge near Norwood 
Junction, 370; on the Esholt acci- 
dent, 469 ; on the Poulton accident, 
469 
Hutchinson, Mr. W., former chairman 

of the Midland Railway, i. 183 
Hutton, Catherine, her description of 
Blackpool and of Lancastrians in 
1788, ii. 83 
Hydros, The Queen's visit to, i. 106 

Incidents on the railway, ii. 29-60 

Inclines, Steep, ii. 102-106 

Indian jungle, Travelling in the, i. 3 

Infants in railway carriages, ii. 8, 9 ; 
loft in trains, 41 

Inglcborough Midland Bailway, at, i. 
286 

Ingleton, i. 291, 292 

Ininan Line, The, i. 440, 446 

Inner Circle Railway, i. 492 

Inns, Old, i. 18 

Inspectors, District, Duties of, L 137 

Inspectors, Travelling, Duties of, i. 137 

Insurance tickets, ii. 472, 473 

International Navigation Company at 
Southampton, i. 467 

International Riiilway Congress in St. 
Petersburg, ii. 606; in London, 
618-619 

International Sleeping Oar Company, 
ii. 77 

Inventions for utilisation of steam- 
power. First, i 22 

" Invicta" locomotive, i. 338 ; ii. 227 

Ireland, Merchandise and live-produce 
shipped to England from, i. 142, 
143; traffic between England and, 
1G7 ; Sir Edward Watkin's proposal 
for public works in, 366 ; dropping 
stones on trains in, ii. 7 ; slow 
railway tiavelling in some parts of, 
228 

Ireland, Great Northern liailway of, 
Life of a servant on, i. 29 

Irish car. Travelling in an, i 3 

Irish hurvestmcn, Characteristics of, 
i. 144-146 ; fighting of, 146 



Ironworks of Sussex, i. 476 

Isle of Man, Traffic between Ireland 

and the, i. 167 ; electric railway in, 

626 ; excursions to, ii. 78, 88-92 ; 

slow railway travelling in, 228 
Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, 

iL92 



Jackson, Mr. W. L., i. 319 
Jaffa- Jerusalem Bailway, ii. 101 
James, William, his inspection of the 
ground for the Liverpool and Man- 
chester Bailway, i. 41 
** Jeanie Deans '* locomotive, i. 98 
Jersey, Great Western route to, i. 406 
Jerusalem, Railway at, ii. 101 
John de Laval de Bois- Dauphin, Coach 

of, i. 4 
Johnson, Dr., at Ashbourne, i. 403 ; 

and Scotland, 627 
Johnson, Mr. S, W., locomotive super- 
intendent of the Midland Railway, 
ii. 224 
** Journal of the Associated Sociotv of 
Locomotive Engineers and Firemen,** 
quoted, ii. 227 
Journalists, Enterprise of, on railways, 

ii. 34 
Journey, Life compared to a, i. 2 
" Journey to the Moon, The,*' allnsion 

to, ii. 242 
Jubilee express engine. Accident to 

the, ii. 61 
Jungle, Travelling through the, L 3 



Earslake, Sir John, his arbitration on 
the coal dispute, i. 316 

Katchiba, King, his mode of travelling 
in Africa, i. 2 

Kemble, Fanny, riding on a locomotive, 
i. 63, 64 

Kendal and Windermere Railway, 
Wordsworth's sonnet on the pro- 
jected, ii. 64 

Killingworth Railway, George Stephen- 
son's first locomotive on the, i. 23 ; 
laughable incident on the, 30 

Kilsby Tunnel, Discovery of a quick- 
sand in the construction of, i. 83 ; 
death of contractor of, 84; Robert 
Stephenson's success in removing 
tho water from, 84-86 

•* King Steam," Ned Farmer's, ii. 288, 
289 




INDEX, 



639 



King's Crofla, Origin of name, i. 298, 

299 
King's Cross Station, roof of, i. 298 
Kingsbridge, Fall of Snow at, ii. 386 
Kingsley, Charles, i. 407 

Laboachere, M.P., Mr., '* Diary of the 
Besieged Resident," by, Allusion to, 
ii. 430 

Labour troubles on the North- Eastern 
RaUway, i. 338-341 

Ladies' compartments in trains, ii. 
25-27 

Laing, Mr. S., rhaiinian of London, 
Brighton and South Coast Railway, 
on decrease in passenger traffic, i. 
482, 484 ; on punctuality, 486 ; his 
labours, 487, 488 ; on claims for 
oompensiition, ii. 474 

Lakes, English, Catches at the, i. 26 

Lamb, Charles, i. 429 

Lamberhurst, Ironworks at, i. 476 

Lambert, Mr., geneml nmna<;iT of 
Great Western Railway, i. 420 

I«nmp-hole, llie boy and the, ii. 39, 
40 

lianciishire. Feasts and wakes of, ii. 
87 

Lantiishire, Derbyshire and East Coast 
Railway, viaduct at Moasal Dale of 
the, i. 252; proposed new lino of, 
276; sanction given by Parliament 
to the new line, 362 ; subscription of 
the Great Eastern Railway to, 380 ; 
cutting the first sod of, 380 ; pro- 
spects of, 382 

Lancashire man in London, The, L 
494 

"Lancashire Witch," The, i, 10; ii. 
227, 228 

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, 
Management and rolling-stock of, i. 
162, 163; slowness of, 163; early 
dividends of, 163; extent of, 163; 
contractor of , 163; cost of, 163, 164 ; 
in touch with populous districts, 
164; at Blackpool, 165; its Man- 
chester terminus, 166; its develop- 
ment, 167 ; its station at Fleetwood, 
and works at Uorwich, 168; effect 
of cotton trade dispute on the, 168 ; 
the question of the abolition of 
second-class carriages on, ii. 184 

Lancaster, Midland Kailway at, i. 286 

Landowners, Compensation to, for the 
construction of the London and Bir- 
mingham Railway, i. 81 

Landslip at Bngsworth, i. 256 



Langdon, Mr. W., and the number of 
telegrams sent on the Midland Rail- 
way in 1S90, i. 119 ; on the electric 
light on the Midland Railway, 240- 
242; ii. 219 

Langley, J^Ir. Batty, Mayor of Shef- 
field,'and the coal-strike of 1893, ii. 
270 

laundry at the Wolverton works, i. 
123 

Liwrena\ Mr., one of the inspectors 
of IVimroso Hill Tunnel, i. 77 

liSw^rence, M.l\, Mr., i. 43 

Laycmk, Siunuol, the liiincashii'e p<»ot, 
and the "Dickie" bkuU, i. 124, 
125 

Le Count, Lieutenant, his description 
of a journey in a tunni'l, i. 77-79 ; 
his idea for method of lomniunii-u- 
tion between guard and diiver, ii. 
202 

Lead-mining in the High Peak, ii. 314, 
315 

Lean, Charles, towinjj: the raft during 
the construction of Kilsby Tunnel, i. 
85 

Leech, John, his skeUh of ourly rail- 
way travelling, i. 390 ; and the Un- 
derground Railway, 514 

Leeds, Opening of railway from Derby 
to, i. 181 ; population, trade, and 
enterprise of, 283 ; railway service 
of, 284 ; North-Eastern at, 327 ; 
fast trains to, ii. 254 ; great fire at, 
396 

Leeds and Bradford Railway aciiuired 
by the Midland Company, i. 222 

lioeds and Liverpool Canal, I 70 

Leeds Northeni Railway, i. 323 

Lefroy, the murderer, ii. 17-22, 216 

Legend associated with the Rushton 
estate, i. 234, 235 

Leicester, Opening of line from Swan- 
nington to, i. 172; lino from Pinx- 
ton to, 173; Thomas Cook*s iirft 
excursion from, 213; Midland sta- 
tion at, 235 

Leicester, Earl of, drinking the waters 
at Buxton, i. 156 

Leicester and Bedford lino, ac(iuirod 
by the 31idland Railway, i. 218 

Leicester and Swannington Railway, i. 
207; purchased by the Midland 
Company, 214 

Leisurely habits of the people before 
the advent of railways, i. 131 

Letters, Franking, i. 155 

Level croasingt, Guarding, on the 



540 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



approach of a royal traio, i. 102; 
accidents at, ii. 3, 4 

Levy, Mr. Jonas, \Mo deputy-chairman 
of the LfOndon, Brighton and South 
Coast Ilailway, ii. 183 

Lihcl, Action for, by Oteorge Hudson 
agaioRt a Yorkshire paper, i. 204 

Lickey incline, The, on the Midland 
Railway, ii. 102, 104 

Life compared to a journey, L 2 

Light engines, ii. 402, 403 

Lighting carriages, ii. 211, 214-220 

Lime Street Station, Liverpool, i 
269 

Lincoln, Mr., Speech on American 
traffic to Southampton by, i. 444 

"Little Jim," Ned Farmer's, ii. 288 

Littler, Q C, Mr., and the Manchester, 
Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway, 
i. 366 

Litton Dale, i. 262 

Liverpool, fossilised remains exhibited 
at, i. 141 ; goods traffic at, 139 ; Lon- 
don and North- Western Station at, 
164 ; line from Warrington to, 268; 
railway stations at, 259 ; proposed 
bridge across the Mersey at, 261 ; 
the project for a plated road at, 
261 ; the Overhead Railway at, 261- 
266 ; the Mei-scy Tunnel at. 267- 
269 ; excursionists of, ii. 83 ; fust 
trains to, ii. 254 

** Liverpool" locomotive, The, ii. 228 

Liverpool and Manchester Railway, i. 
24; opening of, 40; Sunday traffic 
on the, 40, 41 ; opposition to the, 
41 ; George Stephenson's survey of 
the land for the, 41 ; resistance from 
land proprietors to the, 41, 42 ; oppo- 
sition in Parliament to the, 42, 43, 
46 ; Dr. Smiles on the opposition to 
the, 42, 43 ; prospectus oi the, 43 ; 
discussion and withdrawal of the Bill 
in Parliament for the, 42-46 ; intro- 
duction and passing of New Bill for 
the, 46 ; survey by Charles Yignolcs of 
the proposed, 46 ; appointment of 
George and John Rennie as engineers, 
and of George Stephenson as chief 
constructive engineerof the, 46 ; cost 
of the Bill in Parliament, and cost 
of draining Chat Moss for the, 48 ; 
opening of the, 60 ; its success, 51 ; 
service of the " Rocket " on the, 66 ; 
fatal accident to Mr. Huskisson at 
the opening of the, 67, 68 ; pro- 
cession of engines at the opening ot, 
58 ; dividend of, 194 



Liverpool Street Station, Enlargement 
of, 1. 396 ; number of passengers at, 
397 

Liverpool TimeSj on goods traffic at 
Liverpool, L 139 

Llandudno, Escape from becoming a 
goods-traffic centre of, i. 143 ; Lon- 
don and North-Westem station at, 
ii. 66-67 ; project for an electric 
railway at, 518 

Llangollen Viaduct, The, i. 252 

Locke, Mr., engineer of the Man- 
chester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire 
Railway, i. 348 

Lockwooo, Sir Frank, and his carica- 
tures, ii. 466 

"Locomotion " engine, i. 338 ; ii. 227 

Locomotive, The first, i. 22, 4C6; 
George Stephenson's first, 23; Fanny 
Eembleridingona, 63, 64 ; Sinclair's 
single- wheel outside cylinder, 379; 
madman on a, ii. 47, 48 

** Locomotive and its Development, 
The," by Mr. C. Stretton, quoted, ii. 
232 

Locomotive competition at Rainhill, 
i. 53-66 

Locomotives, Modem improvements 
in, i. 10 ; improvements in those 
that followed the " Rocket." 67, 68; 
express, 68 ; their construction at 
Crewe, 123 : |>ropoBals to propel 
thom by sails and rockets, 195 ; on 
the Woolwich Arsenal Railway, ii. 
102 ; the Brotherhood, 218 ; modem 
improvements in, 228, 260 

Londesborough, Hudson's purchaBO of, 
i. 199 

London, First coach-travelling from 
Oxfoni to, i. 17 ; coaches in the 
present day from, 26 ; food supply 
of, 143; subterranean, 229, 230; 
passenger traffic in and out of, 491 ; 
railways the arteries of, 491 ; popu- 
lation and area of, 492 ; number of 
railway stations in, 492; its two 
circles of railways, 492 ; miles of 
railway track in, 492; the ice and 
the Lancashire man in, 494 ; a coun- 
tryman's ignorance of, 494 ; number 
of persons entering in one day the 
City of, 495 ; number of railway pas- 
sengers entering, 495 ; season-ticket 
holders of, 496; night- workers in, 
496-500 ; markets of, 497 ; news- 
pa}>er work in, 499; newspaper 
trains from, 600-504; work at the 
Post Office in, 504, 606 ; rapid growth 




INDEX. 



541 



of traffic in, 616 ; Bills for electric 
railways in, 522 ; goods stations in, 
516 
London Docks, Strike at, ii. 262 
London and Birmingham Bailway, 
Mixed directorate of, i. 73 ; George 
and Robert Stephenson appointed 
engineers of, 73; opposition to, 73, 
74 ; Countess of Bridgewater's oppo- 
sition to, 74; trial journey through 
a tunnel of the, 77, 78; incidents 
during the survey of the, 79 ; Robert 
Stephenson's survey of the, 80 ; cir- 
cular of the promoters of the, 80 ; 
discussion in Parliament of the Bill 
for the, 80 ;> the Lords reject the 
Bill for the, 81 ; compensation to 
landowners for the construction of 
the, 81 ; Purliamentary costs of the, 
81, 82; opposition of Northampton 
to the, 82 ; the construction of the 
Kilsby Tunnel for the, 83-86 ; cost 
of the, 88 ; Dr. Arnold on the open- 
ing of the, 89 ; its amalgamation with 
the Grand Junction and Manchester 
and Birmingham Railways under 
the title of the London and North- 
Western Railway, 114, 116; junc- 
tion of the Midland Counties Kail- 
way with the, 173; dividend of, 
194 
London, Brighton and South Coast 
Railway, Season-ticket holders to 
Brighton on the, i. 475 ; celebration 
of jubilee of, 475 ; number of pas- 
sengers in 1890 on, 475; develop- 
ment of goods traffic on, 475, 476 ; 
coal traffic on, 476 ; various plans 
for the construction of, 479 ; formed 
by the amalgamation of the London 
and Croydon and the London and 
Brighton Companies, 481 ; capital 
of and miles open on, 481 ; London 
termini of, 481 ; ** Derby " traffic 
on, 481 ; Mr. Laing on the decrease 
in receipts on, 482, 484 ; " shortest 
and cheapest" route to Paris by, 
484 ; Channel boats of, 484 ; its 
joint- ownership of boats with the 
Western of France Railway Com- 
pany, 485 ; engine-drivers and their 
engines on, 485 ; its endeavours to 
maintain punctuality, 486 ; Mr. 
Laing's labours on, 487, 488 ; direc- 
tors of, 488 ; number of passengers 
carried in 1892 on, 489 ; workmen's 
trains on, 490 ; the question of the 
abolition of second-class carnages 



on, ii. 183 ; drawing-room train on, 
213 ; electric light on, 217 ; faU of 
bridge near Norwood Junction on, 
370 

London, Chatham and Dover Railway, 
route to Paris by the, i. 462 ; date of 
incorporation of, 462; first line of, 
462 ; development of, 462 ; Viaduct 
Hotel of, 462; carriage of Continental 
mails by, 463 ; dividends of, 463 ; 
price of its stock in 1886, 466 ; its 
bold policy, and its recent new lines, 
466 ; its payment of a full dividend 
on preference stock, 467 ; proposals 
for amalgamating with the South- 
Eastem Railway, 467 ; delays caused 
by running into Cannon Street, 
468 ; ^Ir. Beckett Faber on tlio 
proposed amalgamation scheme, 
468; the meeting on the scheme, 
469-471 ; the question of the 
abolition of second-class carriages 
on, ii. 183 

London County Council and the 
Mancliester, Sheffield and Lincoln- 
shire extension to London, i. 364 ; 
and workmen's trains, 391 

London and Dublin Mail, i 150 

London and North- Western Railway, 
journeys of the Queen on the, i. 100- 
103 ; formed by the amalgamation 
of the Grand Junction, the Man- 
chester and Birmingham, and the 
London and Birmingham Railways, 
114, 115: Sir Richard Moon joins 
the board of directors of, 116; the 
telegraph on the, 116, 121 ; works 
at Crewe of the, 115, 122, 123, 125 ; 
works at Wolverton, 115, 122, 123 ; 
opposition to the Buxton line of the, 
124 ; its development and branches, 

126 ; its expresses, 127 ; trains 
worked by a stationary engine 
between Camden and Euston on the, 

127 ; the Doric portico at the Euston 
terminus of the, 127; opening of 
the Trent Valley line of the, 128 ; 
mileage and number of trains in 1874 
on the, 129 ; number of passengers, 
amount of merchandise, and revenue 
in 1893, 129 ; increase In third-class 
passengers on the, 130 ; privileges to 
work-people of the, 132; the race 
with the Great Northern of the, 133, 
530, ii. 232-235, 257-258 ; the rule 
of Sir Richard Moon on the, i. 134- 
136 ; management of the, 136, 137 ; 
goods traffic of the, 138.143 ; Irish 



542 



OUB RAILWAYS. 



harvestmen on the, 144-146 ; guards 
of the, 148-150 ; engine decoration 
on the, 148 ; the London and Dublin 
Mail on the, 150 ; modem locomotives 
of the, 153 ; coat-of-arms of the, 154 ; 
its development in Yorkshire and 
Derbyshire, 155 ; its new line from 
AshbouiTie to Cromford and the 
High Teak, 156 ; and the Forged 
Transfers Act, 158 ; recent dividend 
of the, 159 ; Shrewsbury and Here- 
ford line purchased by, 161 ; newly 
appointed general manager of, 162, 
note ; and the " amalganuition 
fever," 162 ; its opposition to the 
Midland extension to Manchester, 
254 ; workmen's trains on, 393 ; 
assault by a madman on the, ii. 45 ; 
mad engine-driver on the, 48 ; its 
exemption from g^eat disasters, 93 ; 
accident at Hampstoad Heath station 
on the, 93-97 ; time-tables of, 158 ; 
second-class passengers on, 178, 179, 
180 ; abolition of second-class on the 
West Coast route of, 187 ; corridor 
trains on, 212 ; the electric light on, 
218; average speed on, 255, 256; 
fogs on, 393 ; rates for merchandise 
on, 495 

London Road Station, Manchester, 
Goods depOt at, i. 40 ; description of 
a guard's duties at, 149, 150 ; 
enlargement of, 350 

London and South -Western Railway, 
purchase of docks at Southampton 
by, i. 270, 467 ; workmen's trains 
on, 391-393 ; suggestion to prevent 
sea-sickness by a shareholder of, 
432, 433 ; loss from snow-storms and 
fogs on, 435 ; receipts and develop- 
ment of, 436 ; date of incorporation 
of, 436 ; its locomotive shops at Nine 
£lms, 436 ; its works at Bishopstoke, 
436 ; its new line to Bournemouth, 
436 ; its new line from Poole to 
Ham worthy, 436 ; constructing an 
electric railway from Waterloo to 
the City, 437 ; mileage and pas- 
sengers on, 437 ; merchandise traffic 
on, 438 ; capital of, 438 ; super- 
annuation to servants o^ 438 ; Rail- 
way Temperance Union in connec- 
tion with, 438 ; Largest signal-box 
in the world at the Waterloo ter- 
minus of, 439 ; its enterprise at 
Southampton, 440 ; purchase of land 
for a new dock by, 440 ; Inter- 
national Navigation Company and 



the, 440-445 ; prospects of growing 
American trade on, 443, 445 ; second- 
class passengers on, ii 183 

London to York, Railway from, i 215 ; 
opposition to, 216, 217 

Lord, Thomas, and Lord's Cricket 
Ground, i. 359, 363 

Lord's Cricket Ground, L 358-360 

T^oughborough, First excursion train 
from Leicester to, i. 213 

Louis Dagmar steamboat, i 455 

Louis Philippe, and railway travelling, 
i. 107 

Lover, Claim against a Railway Com- 
pany for the loss of a, ii. 476 

Lowenf eld's, Mr., case ag^nst the 
Great Western for failure of con« 
tract, ii. 126-128 

Lubbock, Sir John, and Bank Holiday, 
ii. 82 

Lucas, Mr., one of the inspectors of 
the Primrose Hill tunnel, i. 77 

Luggage, packed on the roof of rail- 
way carriages, L 69, 63, ii, 144; 
modem facilities for the conveyance 
of, i. 147; thefts of, ii. 10, 11; 
lost, 116 

Lynton Mountain Railway, iu 105 

Macdermott, Mr. F., his "Railway 

System of London," quoted, i. 494 
Mackenzie, Mr. W., alighting from a 

train to shoot a buck, ii. 230 
Mackintosh, Mr., contractor for the 

Grand Junction Railway, i. 109 ; 

sub-contractor for the Midland 

Counties Railway, 174 
Maclean, Robert, The Queen fired at 

by, ii. 12 
Madeod, Rev. Norman, and the dog 

«Help,"ii. 113 
Maclure, M.P., Mr. J. W., and the 

case of John Hood, ii. 275, 277 
Mad engine-drivers, ii. 48, 49 
Madman, in a signal-box, ii. 46, 47 ; 

on a locomotive, 47, 48 ; as an 

engine-driver, 48, 49 
Madmen, in railway carriages, ii. 42, 

45 
Madwoman, in a signal-box, ii. 47 
Magistrates of the West Riding, and 

the delays on the North-Eastem 

Railway, i. 334 
Maidenhead, Bridge at, i. 410 
Mail train. The, i. 16 ; the London and 

Dublin, 150 ; on Christmas Eve, 

509-513 ; on fire, ii. 53 
Mails, expeditious delivery of, L 109, 




INDEX. 



543 



506 ; transatlantic, from Southamp- 
ton, 440 ; and the railway com- 
panies, 504-513 ; robberies of, ii. 10 

Manchester, Coadies to, i. 17, 19; 
description of the trade and ware- 
houses of, 38-40 ; its indebtedness 
to the railway system, 40 ; goods 
traffic at, 138, 139; popuLition of, 
164 ; Victoria Station at, 166 ; Mid- 
land extension to, 253-256 ; Central 
Station, 256-258 ; London Kond 
Stiition, 40, 149, 150 ; its reputation 
for abundance of rain, 258 ; railway 
distance from Sheffield to, 277 ; 
Great Northern expresses from, 307 ; 
growth of, 361, 352 ; bridges in, 
406 ; Sunday opening of tho Refer- 
ence Library and the Art Gallery in, 
ii. 63 ; excursionists of, 83 ; in 
Whit-week, 86 ; fast trains to, 254 

** Manchester Railways," quoted, ii. 
192, 201 

Manchester and Birmingham Railway, 
Amalgamation with the Gnind Junc- 
tion and London and Birmingham 
Railways of the, i. 114 

Manchester, Bolton and Bury Canal, 
and the construction of a railway at 
its side, i. 71 

Manchester and Bolton Railway, open- 
ing of, i. 71 

Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire 
Railway, its agreement with tho 
Midland Company, i. 253 ; its sub- 
urlmn line at Manchester, 256 ; its 
line to Chesterfield, 276 ; project to 
bring it into London, 317, 356 ; the 
line from Manchester to Godley on 
the, 344, 348; the line to Dinting, 
348; effect of the railway mania 
on, 348 ; quarrel with tho London 
and North- Western Railway, 350; 
its various lines, 351 ; Sir Edwnrd 
Watkin*s work for, 352 ; its de- 
pendence on other railways, 353 ; 
fish traffic on, 353; its steamers, 
354 ; the money spent on the 
Grimsby Docks by, 354 ; opposition 
to the scheme for bringing it to 
lx)ndon, 357-3G5; cutting the first 
sod, 367 ; opening of Staveley and 
Annesley line on, 367 ; its bridge 
across the Dee, 369 ; the Wirral 
line of, 370, 373; and tho Lan- 
cashire, Derbyshire and East Coast 
Rjiilway, 383; workmen's faros on, 
394 ; excursions on, ii. 78 ; abolition 
of second-class carriages on, 181 



Manchester Ship Canal, Cost of the, 
i. 88 ; difficulty in the construction 
of, 17^ ; impetus given to trade by 
the, 269 ; in f^l swing, ii. 618 

Manchester, South Junction and Al- 
trincham Railway, and the slamming 
of doors, ii. 204, note 

Manchester and Southport Railway, i. 
165 

Mania, Railway, The, i. 190, 191, 193- 
198 

Maple, M.P., Sir J. Blundoll, and tho 
Cheap Trains Bill, i. 394 

Marindin, Major, and the accident at 
Hampstead Heath Station, ii. 97; 
and his report on the accident to 
James Choules, 272, 273 ; on the 
accident at Waterloo Station, 404 ; 
on the Penistone accidents, 445, 447; 
on the Hexthorpo acci<lent, 461 ; on 
the Thirsk accident, 466 

Marion de Lorme, his visit with the 
Marquis of Worcester to the Bicetro 
at Paris, i. 21, 22 

Markets of London, Men employed in, 
i. 497 

Martin, Mr. C. R., locomotive en- 
gineer of New Zealand railway, his 
record of the Gr^at Northern speed 
to Edinburgh, ii. 239 

Mart/ Beatrice steamboat, i. 455 

Matlock line. The, i. 223 ; cable tram- 
way at, ii. 105 

Matheson, Sir Alexander, and tho 
Highland Railway, i. 635 

Maxim, Mr., and flying machines, i. 
516 

May, Princess, Marriage of, i. 104, not« 

Maynard, Edward, i. 380 

McLeod, Captain Duncan, killed in the 
Thirsk accident, ii. 466 

Menai bridge, ii. 344-350 

Merchandise, Early modes for tho 
transit of, i. 6, 20 ; amount carried 
by railways yoiirly, ii. 606 ; railway 
rates for, 485-503 

" Mercury " locomotive^ The, ii. 227 

Merewether, Sergeant, and the T^on- 
don, Brighton and South Coast 
Railway, i. 479, 480 

Mersey Docks, i. 270 

Mersey Tunnel, The, its construction, 
extent, and ventilation, i. 267 ; 
amount of traffic through, 268 ; its 
cost, 269 ; prospects of its acquisition 
by the Sheffield or the Great 
Western in conjunction with tha 
North -Western, 378, 374 



544 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



Merstham and Wandsworth line, i. 
30 

Merthyr Tydvil, Running of first 
locomotive at, i. 22, and note 

" Meteor " locomotive, The, i. 68 

^letropolitan Railway, its extension to 
Aylesbury, i. 367 ; workmen's trains 
on, 393, 394 ; difficulties in construc- 
tion of, 513 ; atmosphere in, 513 ; 
compensation to tenants during the 
construction of, 513; Fuiieh and the, 
514; opening of, 514; number of 
passengers carried by, 615; connec- 
tion at King's Cross with the Great 
Northern, 615 ; competition of om- 
nibuses withy 515; and Hades, ii. 
39 

Middlesbrough, created by the Stock- 
ton and Darlington Railway, i. 38 

Middleton, James, carries the news on 
an engine from Birmingham to 
Liverpool of the birth of the Prince 
of Wales, i. 115 

Midgeholme Railway, The service of 
the " Rocket " on the, i. 66 

Midland Counties Railway, Opening 
of, i. 174-176 ; merged with the 
North Midland and the Birmingham 
and Derby Railways into the Mid- 
land Railway, 189 ' 

" Midland Counties Railway Com- 
panion," i. 127, 128 ;ii. 147 

Midland Railway, the tunnel between 
Dore and Chinley on the, i. 82, 83 ; 
accident to navvies in the construc- 
tion of, 113, 114 ; telegraph messages 
on the, 119; crest of the, 154; and 
the Forged Transfeia Act, 168 ; its 
centre at Derby, 169 ; its extent, 
169 ; its penetration to London, 170 ; 
St. Pancras Station of the, 170; 
abandonment of second-class car- 
riages, 170, ii. 173 ; authorised 
capital of the, i. 170; number of 
passengers carried by the, 170 ; 
origin of the, 171 ; inspection by 
George Stephenson of proposed route 
of the, 171; Robert Stephenson 
appointed engineer of the, 172 ; a 
meeting of the shareholders de- 
scribed, 183, 184, 186; the North 
Midland, the Birmingham and 
Derby, and the Midland Counties 
Railways merged into the, 189; 
purchases the Leicester and Swan- 
nington Railway, 214 ; its opposition 
to the London and York Railway, 
216 ; various proposed extensions in 



1845 and 1846 of the, 217; George 
Hudson's opinion of tiie engines of 
the, 218; the competition of the 
Great Northern with the, 221 ; it« 
junction with the London and North- 
Western at Birmingham, 221 ; con- 
nection made with the Mansfield 
and Erewash Valley lines, and the 
Oxford, Worcester and Wolver- 
hampton Railway opened by the» 
221, 222 ; Leeds and Bradford Rail- 
way acquired by, 222 ; its excursions 
to the Exhibition of 1851, 222; 
seizes a Great Northern engine, 225; 
block during 1851 on the, 227 ; rais- 
ing of capital for the extension to 
Ix)ndon of the, 228 ; beer traffic on 
the, 230; St. Pancras Station and 
Hotel of the, 23 1-234 ; route, branches 
and growth of traffic on the, 234, 
236 ; Leicester station on the, 235 ; 
Derby station on the, 236, 236 ; 
St. Pancras goods station of the, 
236; shops at Derby of the, 236, 
238, ii. 223, 224; Birmingham 
station of the, i. 239, 240, 244 ; the 
electric light on the, 240-242, 244 ; 
its advance into Manchester, 253- 
256; its track through Derbyshire, 
246-253 ; its agreement with the 
Manchester, Sheffield and Lincoln- 
shire Railway, 253 ; Doe Lea branch 
of, 271-274; at Chesterfield, 275; 
at Sheffield, 278-280 ; track through 
Yorkshire and Scotland of, 284-295 ; 
coal-traffic competition with the 
Great Northern Company, 315 ; and 
the Lancashire, Derbyshire and 
East Coast Railway, 383; and tJhe 
Scottish railways, 556 ; protest 
against Sunday trains on, li. 71 ; 
Lickey incline on, 102, 103 ; refresh- 
ments on, 137, 138; successful 
working of the, 176 ; introduction 
of Pullman cars on, 196-198 ; heating 
carriages on, 206 ; corridor trains on, 
212 ; the electric light on, 218, 219 ; 
speed of express trains on, 241 ; 
average speed on, 256-257; strike 
of engine-drivers on, 300-304 ; 
floods on, 387 ; projected new line 
between Manchester and Glasgow, 
515 ; rates for merchandise on, 
495 

"Midland Railway, The," by Mr. 
WUliams, quoted, i. 172, note 

Mileage of railways. Increase in fifty 
years in, ii. 482 




INDEX. 



545 



Milk traffic to London, i. 818 

Miller's Dale, i. 249 

Minen on railways, ii. 8 

Monsal Dale, I 249 ; viadnct at, 252f 
382, 383 

Mont Cenis Railway, iL 103 

Mont Cenis Tunnel, ii. 316 

Montgomery, Case of the station- 
master of, iL 273-275 

Moon, Sir Richard, joins the directorate 
of the London an4 North- Western 
Railway, i. 115; his character and 
his role of the London and North- 
Western Railway, 134; his close 
obsenration and industiy, 134 ; the 
I'itnet notice of, 134, 135 ; and the 
porter at Tyidesley Banks, 135 ; his 
severity, 135, 136 ; his earl^ rifdng, 
and insistence on punctuahty, 136 ; 
his discipline in the boara-rooin, 
136; on second-class passengers, ii. 
178 

Moors, Travelling over the, L 347 

Morecambe, i. 286 

Morland, Sir Samuel, Coach built by, 
i. 14 

Morley, M.P., Mr. Arnold, on free 
telegrams of railway companies, i. 
119, 120 

Morning PmI, Wordaworth*8 letter on 
the projected Kendal and Winder- 
mere Railway in the, ii. 64 

Morrison, Mr. Kenneth, and the Rail- 
way Clearing House, ii. 479 

Moss, M.P., Mr., i. 43 

" Mugby Junction," ii. 123, 124 

Miiller, the murderer, i. 439 ; ii. 13-17 

Mundella, M.P., Mr., The Queen's 
letter on the accident to the " Flying 
Scotsman " to, i. 99 ; on the Cheap 
Trains Bill, 395 ; his Railway Ser- 
vants' Hours of Labour Bill, li. 283, 
285 ; and railway rates, 494-498 

Murder by navvies on the Edinburgh 
and Giasgow Railway, i. 112; of 
Mr. Briggs by MuUer, 439 ; ii. 13- 
17 ; of Mr. Gold by Lefroy, 17-22 

Murderer, Charles Peace, the, his 
escape from an express train, i. 61 ; 
Miiller, the, 439; Tawell, the, ii. 
11; Lefroy, the, 17-22 

Murders on French railways, ii. 13 
My Lord " locomotive, The, I 23 



Ii 



Napoleon, G^rge Stephenson's retort 

about, i. 48 
Napoleon III. , his railway train bought 

by the Czar, i 93 

• • 



Narcissi, loads of, on Great Western 
Railway, L 407 

Navvies, Description of, i. 109, 110; 
Thomas Brassey's influence over, 
110; in the construction of the 
Paris and Rouen Railway, 110; 
English and French, working to- 
gether, 110, 111 : nicknames of, 
HI; appetite and thirst of, 111; 
their roughness and fighting pro- 
pensities, 111; their fighting en- 
counters on the Chester and Birken- 
head Railway, 112; murder com- 
mitted by, 112; generosity and 
bravery of, 112; accident on the 
Rouen line to, 112 ; accident in the 
construction of the Midland line to, 
113; their unthrifty ways, 114; 
their investments of late in the Post 
Office Savings Bank, 114; and the 
Duke of Sutherland, 534, 535 

Navvy in a first-class refreshment- 
room, A, ii. 133, 134 

" Ned Farmer's Scrap Book," ii. 287- 
289 

Neele, Mr. G. P., Presentation from 
the Queen to, i. 102, 103 

Nettloship, Mr. J. H., on stone-throw* 
ing at trains, ii. 6 

New Milford, i. 405 

New Street Station, Birmingham, L 
244, 245 

New Zealand, Incident of railway 
travelling in, ii. 229 

Newbigg^n, The Midland Railway at, 
and the landowner's oak, i. 294 

Newcastle, Coaches to, i. 17; fast 
trains to, ii. 254 ; commemoration 
of the centenary of George Stephen- 
son's birth, 512 

Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, i. 52, 
323 

Newcastle, Duke of, and the pro- 
posed railway through the Dukeriet, 

L 248; and the Lancashire, Der- 
byshire and East Coast Railway, 
380 

Newnes, M.P., Sir George, and his 
railways in Wales and at Lynton, 
and his tram-road at Matlock, ii. 
105 

Newspaper trains, i. 499-50 ii. 78, 
80 

Newspapers, of London, Workers on, 
i. 497-503 ; of the provinces, 603 ; 
Sunday work on, ii. 69-71 ; railway, 
160 
I Nicknames of navvies, i. Ill 



546 



OUB RAILWAYS. 



Night- workers in London, i. 496^. 
504 

Nine Elms, London and South- Western 
locomotive shops at, i. 436 

Nith, Valley of, Coaches in the, i. 
27 

" Noah*8 Arks," i. 4 

Noble, Mr. John, ex-general manager 
Midland Railway, letter to author 
declining permission to ride on the 
footplate of an express engine, i. 67 ; 
and the viaduct over Monsal Dale, 
383 

Norfolk, Duke of ("Jockey of Nor- 
folk "), at Brighton, i. 474 

Norfolk Mills, i. 389 

Normanton, Station at, i. 282 

North, Roger, his description of tram- 
roads from coal-pits, i. 21 

North British Railway, route of, L 
644 ; capital and extent of, 644 ; 
traffic on, -644 ; receipts of, 544 ; the 
Marquis of Tweeddale on, 545 ; Par- 
liamentary expenses of, 545; its 
fight with the Caledonian Railway, 
545-548 ; signal system on, 549 ; bad 
times of, 649 ; abolition of second- 
class carriages on, ii. 182; strike of 
servants on, 264-268, 271 

North* Eastern Railway, i 293 ; pur- 
chase of tracks by, 320 ; mileage, pas- 

. senger traffic, goods traffic,and capital 
of, 320 ; route of main trunk-line of, 
822 ; its fight with small railways, 
823 ; a declaration of a Parlia- 
mentary committee respecting, 324 ; 
Colonel Smith on the Bills of, 824 ; 
its amalgamation with the Hull 
Dock Company, 326, and note ; the 
Tyne Dock and, 326, 327 ; at Leeds, 
327 ; at York, 327, 329, 330 ; alleged 
delays on, 331, 333; Bishops and 
the, 331, 332 ; express and corridor 
trains of, 334 ; at Sunderland, 335 ; 
worksat Gateshead, Darlington, and 
York of, 335 ; Mr. WorsdelFs com- 
pound engines on, 335 ; high speed 
reached on, 336 ; early and modem 
locomotives on, 338 ; labour troubles 
on, 338-340; hindrances from snow- 
storms and fogs on, 341, 342; in- 
crease of wages on, 342; cottages 
for workpeople of, 343 

'* North-EIastem Railway and its 
Engines," by Mr. Worsdell, quoted, 
i. 320, 322, 337, 338 

North of France Railway, i. 437 ; an 
engine-driver on the, ii. 291 



North Midland line, i. 178 ; early days 
of the, 186 ; abuse of privileges hy 
shareholders of, 187; increase oi 
revenue in 1842, 187; objections to 
large refreshment-rooms on the, 188 ; 
economical measures on the, 188 ; 
accident at Bamslev Station on the, 
189 ; its amalgamation with the Bir- 
mingham and Derby and Midland 
Counties Rail ways, 189; construction 
of line from Birmingham to Bristol 
on the, 189 ; dividend of, 194 
" North Star " locomotive. The, i 68 
North Union Railway, i. 165 
Northampton, Opposition of, to the 
London and Birmingham Railway, 
i. 82 
Northumberland, Earl of. Coach 

driven by, i. 5 
"Northumbrian" engine, The, i 24, 

50, 67, 58 ; ii. 227 
Norton Bridge, Journey of a royal 

train through, i. 101 
Norwich, Fast trains to, ii. 254 
Norwood, Railway accident at, ii. 456 
Nottingham, Opening of railway at, 
i. 174 ; swift journey to, 313 ; fast 
trains to, ii. 264 
Novelists* pictures of old coaching days, 

i. 18, 19 
'* Novelty'' locomotive, Braithwaite*s 
and Ericsson's^ i. 63, 54, 55 

Oakley, Sir Henry, and season-ticket 
holders on the Great Northern Rail- 
way, t 30^ ; and the new electric 
railway, 522 ; on railway rates, ii. 
493, 495, 500 

O'Brien, the Lrish giant, in London, 
i. 142 

O'Oannor, M.P., Mr. T. P., and the 
directors of the Cambrian Railways, 
ii. 278 

Oil-lamps in carriages, ii. 214, 216 

*' Old coaching days," Incidents of, 
i. 5, 6 ; first coaches in the, 17, 18 ; 
novelists' pictures of, 18, 19 ; 
leisurely habits in, 20 ; end of the, 
27, 28 

Oldham, population of, i. 164 ; wakes 
at, ii. 87 

Oliver, Mr., and the Railway Clearing 
House, ii. 484 

Onslow, Mr. Denzil, and the opposition 
to Manchester, Sheffield and Lin- 
colnshire extension to London, i. 362 

Oregon Short Railway, Mad engine- 
driver on the, ii .48, 60 



I 



INDEX. 



547 



Osbonvd, Bemal, and G^rge Hudson, 
i. 202 

Ouidii, Description of a railway acci- 
dent by, ii. 399 

"Our Iron Roads," by Frederick 
Williams, quoted, ii. 112, 130 

Overhead Bailway at Liverpool, its 
construction and stations, i. 262 ; 
generating station of the, 263 ; its 
opening by Lord Salisbury, 263, 264, 
266 

Overworked artisans, ii. 261 

Oxford, First coach travelling from 
London to, i. 17 

Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhamp- 
ton line opened by the Midland 
Railway Company, i. 221, 222 

Pack-horse, Transit of goods by, i. 6, 
17, 18, 347, 348 

Packets to the Continent, Early, i. 454, 
455 

Paddington, at the beginning of the 
century, i. 400 

Paddint^n Station, i. 399 

" Paddy Mail," The, L 34 ; lighting, 
ii. 215 

Paget, Mr. Oeorge Ernest, chairman 
of the Midland Railway Company, 
ii. 168 ; on Sir James Allport, 170 ; 
and the bridges on the Midland, 
372 ; and railway rates, 497 

Palestine, Railways in, ii. 100, 101 

Parcel Post, The, i. 604 

Parcel traffic on railways, i. 505, 506 

Paris, siege of. Armour-plated train 
at the, i. 225 

Paris, Ihr., one of the joint-inspectors 
of Primrose Hill Tunnel, i. 77 

Paris-Havre Railway, Amusing inci- 
dent on the, ii. 77, 78 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Rail- 
way, i. 452 

Paris and Rouei) Railway, English 
navvies sent to help in the construc- 
tion of the, i. 110 ; constructed by 
Thomas Brassey, 110; accident and 
rescue of navvies on the, 112, 113 

Parker, Mr., secretary to the loco- 
motive superintendent of the Great 
Eastern Railway, on the Stratford 
works, i. 378, 379 

Parkes, Mr. C. H., late chairman of 
the Great Eastern Railway Com- 
pany, i. 395, and note 

Parkeston Quay, i. 396 

Parliament, Bill to prevent coach- 
riding introduced into, i. 5 ; 



discussion of Bill for promoting 
the Liverpool and Manchester Rail- 
way in, 43-46 ; railway Bills from 
1844-46 in, 198 ; its declaration re- 
specting North-Eastern Railway, 
324 ; returns of fast trains made to, 
ii. 254 ; and industrial grievances, 
262 ; Select Committee appointed to 
inquire into the excessive hours of 
labour on the Scotch railways, 271 ; 
and the case of John Hood, 274- 
280 ; and railway rates, 4 86, 495, 496, 
498, 501 

Parliamentary debates and the tele- 
graph, i. 116-118 

Parliamentary trains, ii. 164 

Parnell, Mr. Chjis., left behind at 
Crewe, ii. 54 

** Passenger follows the Trade, The," 
i. 138 

Passengers, in a train, Cosmopolitan 
character of, i. 13, 14 ; number 
entering London of, 495 ; number 
carried yearly, ii. 174, 506 

Payment, evadhig, Incident on the 
railway of, ii. 35, 36 

Peace, Charles, Escape from an express 
train of, i. 61, 62 ; execution of, 63 

"Peacock," The, Row8ley,ii. 248 

Pease, Edward, and the Stockton and 
Darlington Railway, i. 30 ; his inter- 
view with George Stephenson, 32; 
his visit to Killingworth to see 
Stephenson's locomotives, 33 ; his 
opinion of the prospects of railways, 
414 

Pease, Joseph, Statue to the memory 
of, ii. 511 

Pebody, Mr. Charles, his ''English 
Journalism and the Men who have 
Made It," quoted, i. 502 

Peel, Sir Robert, compares the London 
and North - Western Railway to 
Agricola's communication from 
London to Chester, i. 128 ; Mr. 
Gladstone*s allusion to the railway 
deputation waiting upon, 372 

Penistone, Accident at (1884), ii. 442- 
445 ; second accident at (1885), 446, 
447 

Penloidge Viaduct, The work of 
Thomas Brassey on the, i. 109 

Penny Postage, i. 165 

Perl and Baillehache's frictional 
systems for train communication, 
ii. 204 

" Perseverance" locomotive, Burstall's, 
i. 63, 66 



yy2 



548 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



Peter the Great in the Admiralty 
dockyard, i. 143 

Peterborough, Line from Syston to, i. 
214 

« Petrolea " locomotive, i. 379, 380 

Phaeton, The, i. 6 

Philip, Mr., lecturer on chemigtry, one 
of the inspectors of Primrose Hill 
Tunnel, i. 77 

" Phoenix,'* locomotive, The, i. 68 

Pilkington, Sir William, and the sur- 
vey of his land for a niilway, i. 177 

Pilot engines, i. 101 

Pinxton to Leicester, Railway from, 1. 
173 

"Planet" locomotive. The, i. 68; ii. 
227 

Playfair, Lord, and the Railway 
l^rvants* Hours of Labour Bill. ii. 
285 

Plymouth, Express service to, i. 404 

Pochin, Mr., on the opening of the 
Metropolitan line to Aylesbury, i. ol 6 

Poetry of the railway, i. 13 

Pollitt, Mr. W., general manager Man- 
chester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire 
Railway, ii. 203 

Ponsonby, Sir Henry, i. 99, 103 

iW< Elitabeth Telegraphy Incident on 
the railway recorded in, ii. 230 

Port Erin, ii. 90 

Port Patrick and Wigtown Railway, 
i. 654 

Port Skillion, ii. 90 

Port Soderick, ii. 90 

Portal, Mr., Chairman of the I.iondon 
and South-Western Railway, i. 432 ; 
his tribute to Mr. Button, 436 ; on 
the prospects of trade between 
America and Southampton, 445 ; on 
second-class passexigers, ii. 183 

Portico, Doric, The, in Euston Square, 
i. 127 

Portland, Duke of, and his St. Leger 
party, i. 310 

Portland Street, Manchester, i. 38, 39 ; 
goods traffic at, 138 

Portmadoc and Festiniog Railway, ii. 
105 

Post-chaises, L 347 

Postal service. The, improvements in, 
i. 154, 156; and the railways, 604 

Potter, M.P., Mr.j I 43 

Pretoria, Trayellmg in a bullock- 
waggon in, i. 3 

Precautions taken before a royal 
journey, i. 100-102; in Russia for 
a journey of the Csar, 106, 107 



Preston Railway, i. 70 

Price, Mr. W. E., former chairman of 
the Midland Railway, i. 183, 433 

Primrose Hill Tunnel, Report of in- 
spection of, i. 77-79 

•« Puffing Billy " engine, The, L 30, 
347 ; a 226 

Pullman cars, i. 16 ; their introduction 
on the Midland Railway, iL 196- 
198; on the South-Eastem, 206, 206; 
places of safety and of danger, 466, 
466 

Funek^ and the railway mania, i. 349, 
350 ; on the Eastern Counties Rail- 
wav, 377; on the broad ^oge, 418; 
and the Underground Railway, 614 ; 
on the discomforts of third-olass pas- 
sengers, ii, 190; cartoon on over- 
worked engine-drivers in, 269 ; and 
the visitor to a signal box, 312 ; cm 
railway rates, 496 

" Quaker's line," The, i. 24 
Quarterlif Review^ The, on coaches and 

railway travelling, i. 26 
** Queen Empress "locomotive, i. 153 ; 

ii 253 
Queen's messen^ train, ii. 608 
Quicksand in Kilsby Tunnel, i. 83 

Race, Railway, to the North in 1888, 
i. 133: ii. 232-240; in 1896, i. 630, 
u. 257, 268 
Races at Doncaster, i. 309 
Rack, carriage. The, ii. 36-38 
Rae, W. Eraser, «'The Businioss of 

Travel " by, quoted, i. 214 
Rails, Substitution of steel for iron, i. 

8, 416 ; stabiUty of, 429, 430 
Railways: — 

Ambergate and Rowsley, i. 247 
Ashbourne, LI 66, 168, note 
Bala and Festiniog, ii. 106 
Barry, ii. 262, 264 
Birmingham and Derby, i. 189 
Bolton and Leigh, L 69, 70 
Brandling Junction, i. 339 
Cambrian, l 399 ; iL 273-280 
Canterbury and WhitsUUe, i. 69 
Central London (Electric), i. 623 
Central Pacific, ii. 207 
Chamwood Forest, it 287 
City and South Lcoidon (Electric), 

i. 618-622 
Cork, Blackrock and Passage, ii. 

177, note 
Crewe and Chester, i. 122 
Dinas and Rhyd-du, ii 105 
East Frisian, U. 106 




INDEX. 



549 



Ballways {(tmtinuiS^ — 

Eaat London, I 492 

Eastern and Midland, i. 279, note 

FumeflB, i. 286, 287 

Grand Jnnction, i. 72, 109, 114 

Great Eastern, i. 875-397, 497; 
iL 182, 254, 256 (ei passim) 

Great Northern, I 133, 217, 222, 
223, 225, 281, 282, 284, 296- 
319, 360, 383, 530; u, 181, 212, 
218, 237-239, 254, 255 (et pas- 
sim) 

Ghreat Northern and City (Electric), 
i. 522 

Great Western, i. 72,91, 109, 114, 
189, 195, 311, 393, 398-429 ; ii. 
80, 92, 126, 128, 138. 182, 210, 
211,254, 255 {st passim) 

High Peak, i. 158, 210, 246 

Hml and Bamsley, i 324, 326 

Inner Circle, i. 492 

Jaffa- Jerusalem, ii. 101, 102 

Kendal and Windermere, ii. 64 

KUlingworth, i. 23, 30 

Lanca&ire, Derbyshire and East 
Coast, i. 252, 276, 362, 380, 382 

Lancashire and Yorkshire, i, 162- 
168 ; u. 184 

Leeds and Bradford, i. 222 

Leeds Northern, i. 323 

Leicester and Swannington, i. 207 

Liverpool and Manchester, i. 24, 
40-51, 194 

Liverpool Overhead, i. 262-266 

London and Birmingham, i. 72-74, 
76-82, 84-88, 114, 173, 194 

London, Brighton and South 
Coast, i. 475-490; ii. 183,213, 
217, 370 

London, Chatham and Dover, L 
462-471 

London and North- Western, i. 
116, 116, 121. 126-146, 149-159, 
162, 254, 393 ; ii. 46, 93-97, 
158, 178-180, 187, 212, 218, 
232-235, 256, 256 (et passim) 

London and South- Western, i. 
270, 391-393, 432-445 ; ii. 183 

Lynton and Lynmouth, ii. 105 

Manchester and Birmingham, L 
114 

Manchester and Bolton, L 71 

Manchester and Oldham, i. 70 

Manchester, Sheffield and Lincoln- 
shire, i. 253, 276, 317, 344-374, 
383, 394 ; ii. 78-181 

Manchester, South Junction and 
Altrincham, ii. 204, note 



Railways ((OonUnusdS — 

Manchester ana Southport, i. 165 
Mersev Tunnel, i. 267-269 
Merstnam and Wandsworth, i. 

30 
Metropolitan, i. 367, 393, 394, 

513-616; ii. 39 
Midgeholme, i. 66 
Midland, i. 82, 83, 113, 119, 169- 

172, 183, 189, 207, 214-218, 

221-249, 252-269, 271, 276, 278- 

280, 284, 286-295, 315, 383, 

656; ii. 71, 102, 137, 173, 176 

196-198, 206, 212, 218, 241, 

223, 256-268, 300-304, 368, 387, 

615 {et pitssim) 
Midland Counties, i. 174-176, 

189 
Mont Cenis, ii. 103 
Newcastle and Carlisle, L 62, 

323 
North of France, i. 452 
North Midland, i. 178-189, 194 
North Union, i. 166 
NorthEastem, i. 293, 320-343 
Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean, 

i. 462 
Paris and Rouen, i. 110, 112 
Preston, i. 70 
Runcorn, i. 69 

St. Helens and Widncs, i. 72 
St. Helens and Wigan Junction, 

i. 349 
Shrewsbury and Hereford, L 161 
South-Eastem, i. 446-449, 461- 

464, 461, 467-471; ii. 206, 

206 
Stockton and Darlington, i. 30, 

33-38, 63, 194, 323; ii. 160, 

511 
Stone and Rugby, i. 361 
TViff Vale, i. 399 ; ii. 262, 264 
Tenbury, Worcester and Ludlow, 

U.286 
Vesuvius, ii. 103 
West Hartlepool, i. 323 
Whaley Bridge and Boxton, L 

124, 125 
Wigan, i. 70, 165 
Wirral, i. 370 
Woolwich Arsenal, ii. 102 
York, Newcastle and Berwick, i. 

323 
York and North Midland, i. 323 
{See also under names of various 

railways) 
(For Scottish railways, m» under 

Scotland) 



550 



OUB RAILWAYS. 



Railway acddents, in darly days of 
railways, i. 63 {see abo Accidents) 

Bail way advortisements during the 
mania, i. 197 

Bailway Benevolent Institution, ii. 
606,610 

Bailway bridges, Accidents to pas- 
sengers in coming in contact with, 
i. 63 

ailway carriages, their clumsy con- 
struction at the opening of the 
Liverpool and Manchester Railway, 
i. 69 ; g^ven names, 69 ; without 
doors, 69 ; luggage packed on the 
roof of, 69; the ^'iirst class and 
mail/' 69 ; for families, 69, 60 ; made 
at Crewe, 123 ; madmen in, ii. 42, 
46 ; smoking in, 67-61 ; discomforts 
of primitive, 192 ; with toast-rack 
backs, 190; improvements in, 196- 
199 ; communication cord in, 200, 
201 ; slamming doors of, 204 ; heating, 
201, 205, 211; lighting, 211, 214- 
220 ; latest made, 212, 213 

Railway Clearing House, Purpose of 
the, ii. 476, 477 ; system at the, 478 ; 
its originators, 479-481 ; its first 
premises, 482; jabilee of, 482; 
statistics of, 482 ; number and duties 
of clerks at, 483 ; Mr. P. H. Dawson 
and the, 483 ; Mr. Oliver and the, 
484 

Railway Clearing House, and lost 
articles, ii. 116 

Railway Congress at St. Petersburg, i 
260, 261 ; in London, ii. 618-619 

Railway guards, in scarlet cloaks, i. 
69 ; on the London and North- 
western Railway, 148-150 ; of the 
•* Flying Scotsman," 305 

*' Railway King," The, i. 202, 206 

Railway mania, The, i. 190, 191, 193- 
198 * 

Railicay News, The, incident on the 
Paris- Ha\Te Railway in, ii. 77, 78 ; 
Mr. Pollitt's paper, on train com- 
munication, in, 203, 204 ; on the 
Forth Bridge, 366 

Railway race to the North, i. 133, 
630 ; ii. 232-240, 257-258 

Fiilway rates affecting factories, ii. 
486 ; revision of, 486 ; report of 
Lord Balfour of Biivlcigh and Sir 
Courtenay Boyle on, 487 ; provisional 
orders and Acts of Parliament on, 
487 ; dissatisfaction of traders with, 
488-490; Lord WharncliflFe and, 
491, 492; Sir Henry Oakley and. 



493 ; Mr. Mundella and, 496, 497 ; 
report of the Select Committee, 600. 
603 ; a new Act, 603 

'* Railway Sabbath Agitator's Manual, 
The," quoted, ii 62 

Railway servants, Treatment of, i. 10, 
132 ; overworked, ii. 269, 261 ; strike 
in Wales of, 262, 264; strike on 
Scotch railways of, 264-268, 271; 
gratuities to, 146; Parliamentary 
inquiry into hours worked by, 271, 
282 ; Mr. Mnndella's BiU on behalf 
of, 283, 286 ; number employed, 606 ; 
courtesy of, 609 

Railway Servants* Hours of Labour 
Bill, ii. 283, 286 

Railway signalling, i. 8, 120 

Railway speed, L 10 ; at the opening 
of the Liverpool and Manchester 
Railway, 68 ; compared to the speed 
of birds, 64 ; the race to the North 
in 1H88 and 1895, i. 133, 630: ii. 
232-240, 257, 268; of a Midland 
bogie engine, ii. 224; of early en- 
gines, 227, 236 ; errors respecting, 
230; Mr. C. Stretton on, 231, 232; 
in the race of 1888, 232-240; in 
America, 243 ; returns to Parlia- 
ment of, 264-266 

Railway stations, Improvements in, i. 
8; appearance ox large, 12, 13; 
varieties o^ 231 ; described, 107, 
108, 109 

Railway system, Rapid development 
of, i. 16 ; its networks, 16, 16 ; the 
<< father" of the, 24 ; and the Post 
Office, 604-613 

" Railway System of London," by Mr. 
F. Macdermott, quoted, i. 494 

Railway Temperance Union, i. 466 

Railway-theatre tickets, i. 316 

Railway ticket. The earliest^ L 208, 
209 

Railway train. First ideas in England 
regarding a, i. 7; improvements 
in the, 8, 10 ; cosmopolitan character 
of passengers in a, 13, 14 ; running 
after a, 72 ; County Court case in a, 
ii. 115, 116 

** Railway Train Lighting," by Mr. 
Langdon, quoted, ii. 219 

Railway travelling. Prejudices against, 
i. 14, 74 ; safety on the London and 
North -Western of, 129; John Leech's 
sketch of, 390; on Sunday, iL 61- 
74 

Railway tunnels (tee Tunnel) 

Railways, Enthusiasm for, after the 




INDEX. 



551 



Mocess of the Liverpool and Man- 
chester Railway, i. 62 ; the comedy 
and tragedy of, <>0, 61 ; social power 
of, 90; prejudice against, 14, 74, 
90; goods traffic on, 138-143; and 
the penny postage, 155 ; accidents 
on, 63, 98, 99, 107, 108, 189, 447 ; 
ii. 1-6 ; assaults on, 22-28 ; murders 
on, i. 112, 439; ii. 13-22; various 
incidents on, 29-50 ; in remote lands, 
99 101 ; English compared with 
American, 246, 249 ; American 
criticism of English, 248-250 ; statis- 
tics of the development of, 505 

"Railways of England," by Mr. W. 
M. Acworth, quoted, i. 60, 230 

" Railways of Scotland," by Mr. W. 
M. Acworth, quoted, ii 361 

Rain, Englishmen's dread of, ii. 93 

Rainhill, Locomotive competition at, 
i. 53-56 

Ramsey, ii. 91 

Rasjh, MP., Major, and agricultural 
depression, iL 491 

Rates paid by railway companies, il 
476 

Ravcnsworth, Lord, supplies George 
Stephenson with money to build his 
first locomotive, i. 23 

Receipts of railway companies yearly, 
ii. 506 

Reed, Sir Edward, and a tubular 
railway from England to France, i. 
460 

Refreshment rooms, ii. 120-140 ; early 
visitors to, 120, 122; Charles 
Dickens and, 123; amusing incidents 
at, 130-132; class barriers in, 132, 
133; barmaids at, 135, 136 ; on the 
Midland liailway, 137, 138 ; on the 
Great Western liailway, 138; on 
the London and North- Western, the 
Great Northern, and the North- 
Eastem Railways, 138; at Preston, 
235 

Rpg'ulations for railway travellers, 
Early, ii. 144 ; for composite trains, 
194 

Rcigate, Line to Dover from, i. 449 

Remote lands. Railways in, ii. 99-101 

Rcnnie, George, appointed one of the 
engineers of the Uvcrpool and 
Manchester Railway, i. 46 

Rennie, John, appointed one of the 
engineers of the Liverpool and Man- 
chester Railway, i. 46 

Reporters at meetings of shareholders, 
L 184 



Revolver - carrying mania, IL 12, 
note 

Rheumatic fever prevented by a rail- 
way accident, ii. 400 

Ribblehead Viaduct, The, i. 252 

Rich, Colonel, on the Abergele dis- 
aster, ii. 425 

Richmond, Duke of, and railway rates, 
ii. 487 

Rickard, Mr. Percy, and the Totley 
Tunnel, ii. 323 

Riot on the Sunday question at Strome 
Ferry, ii. 72-74 

Ripon, Bishop of, delayed on the 
North-Eastcm Railway, i. 332 ; and 
railway speed, ii. 241 

Roads of the 17th century, i. 17 

Robberies on railways, ii. 9-11 

"Rocket," The, i. 10; wins in the 
competition at liainhill, 54, 56 ; its 
subsequent service, 56 ; now in 
South Kensington Museum, 66, 68, 
338 ; ii. 227 

Rochdale, Population of, i. 164 

Rockets, Proposal to drive locomotives 
by means of, i. 195 

Rolls Court, Judgment given in, 
against George Hudson, i. 204 

Rome, Chariots of, i. 3, 4 

** Round the Works of our great Rail- 
ways," by Mr. BrickwoU, quoted, 
ii. 508 

Rowsley, Line from Ambergate to, 
i. 247 ; the " Peacock " at, ii. 248 

Rowthom, i. 271 

Royal CoUe^ of Science, and electric 
railways, i. 523, 524 

** Roval MJail Route to Scotland and 
Irdand," i. 154 

Royal train of the Queen, i. 95-98 ; 
of the Czar, 93 ; of ,the Emperor 
Francis Joseph, 93, 94*; of the late 
Emperor William, 96 

Runaway train, A, ii. 62, 244 

Runcorn Gapj^ Railway to, i. 72 

Runcorn Railway, Eagerness to secure 
stock in the, i. 69 

Running, Exercise of, i. 1 

Rushton estate. Legend associated 
with the, i. 234, 235 

Ruskin, Mr., his prejudice against 
railway travelling, i. 14; his de- 
scription of Derbyshire, 250, 251; 
and Chesterfield, 2'76 

Russian immigrants at the Central 
Station, Liverpool, i. 260 

Rutland, Earl of, builder of the first 
coach in England, i. 17 



&52 



OUR RAILWAYS. 



Rutland, the late Duke of, and the 
railway through his Derbyshire 
estate, i 248 

Kylandsand Sons, Messrs., Manchester, 
Warehouses of, i. 39 

Sacr6, Charles, engineer of the SheAeld 

Bailway, i. 336 ; ii. 474 
Safety lamp, The discoverer of the, L 

24 
Sails, Proposal to propel engines by, 

i. 196 
St. Albans, Coaches running through, 

i. 27 
St. Gothard Tunnel, ii. 315, 316 
St. Helens, Subscribing for capital 

in the Runcorn Railway at the. 

Fleece Inn, i. 69 ; population of, 164 
St. Helens and Widnes Railway, i. 72 
St. Leger, Excursions for the, i. 309 ; 

incident in returning from the, ii. 82 
St. Pancras Churchyard, i. 232 
St Pancras Hotel, i. 232 
St Pancras Station, at night, i 228 ; 

likened to an iceberg, 230 ; its 

beauty and dimensions 231, 232 ; 

the electric light at, 241 
St. Petersburg, Railway Congress at, 

i. 260 
Salford, Population of, i. 164 ; fire at, 

ii. 397 
Salisbury, Lord, opening of the Over- 
head Railway, Liverpool, by, i. 263, 

264 ; chairman of the Great Eastern 

Railway, 378 
Salt, Sir Titus, i. 285 
Saltaire, Alills at, i. 285, 286 
Saltaire Exhibition, Opening of, by 

Princess Beatrice, i. 98 
Saltash Bndge, i. 410 
"Samson*' locomotiTe, The, i. 68; ii 

227 
Sanders, M.P., Mr., i. 43 
Sankey, George Stephenson at, i. 49 
Sankey Canal, i. 71 
"Sanspareil" locomotive, Timothy 

Hackworth*s, i. 53-66 
Saturday half-holiday, The, i. 181 
Saunders, Mr., ex-chairman of Great 

Western Railway, on the broad 

gauge, i. 427 ; ana the snowstorm of 

1891, ii. 386 ; and railway rates, 498 
" Saxby Bridge, BatUe of," I 214 
Scarsdale, Vale of, i. 272 
Scener}', theatrical. Claim for 

damaged, ii. 475 
jhneider, M., and the proposed bridge 

across the Channel, i. 460 



Schoolboys, Strike of, ii. 263, 204 

Scilly Islands, Export of narcissi from, 
i. 408; the "King "of, 408 

Scorton, Floods at, ii. 390 

Scotland, Dr. Johnson on, i. 627 ; Sir 
Walter Scott*s andR. L. Stevenscm^s 
pictures of, 628 ; of today, 628, 629 ; 
variety of passengers by the *' Flying 
Scotsman *' to, 629 ; competition for 
railway traffic in 629; Great Northern 
Railway in, 530 ; number of rail- 
ways in, 531 ; Highland Railway 
in, 531, 532 ; armed men a century 
and a-half ago in, 632 ; navvies on 
Culloden Moor in, 632 ; the Duke 
of Sutherland's interest in railways 
of, 534, 536 ; Dingwall and Skye 
Railway in, 635 ; Sutherland Rail- 
way, 536 ; Golspie and Helmsdale 
Railway, 536 ; Sutherland and Caith- 
ness Railway, 536 ; Grotit North of 
Scotland Railway, 636-539 ; Cale- 
donian Railway, 539, 546-563 ; tho 
incf'ption of the railway system in, 

541 ; Glasgow Central Station, 542 ; 
Marten Dalrymple's railway work in, 

542 ; the Gamkirk line, 542-544 ; 
North British Railwav, 644-563; 
Glasgow and South -Western Rail- 
way, 553-554 ; Port Patrick and 
Wigftown Railway, 564 ; Ayrshire 
and Wigtown Railway, 554, 655 ; 
Sunday in, ii. 64, 65 ; Sunday 
travelling in, 65 ; speed of Midland 
express to, 257. 258 ; railway raco 
to, i. 133, 530 ; li. 232-240, 257-258; 
strike on railways of, 264-268, 271 

Scott, Sir Walter, and his pictures of 

Scottish life, i. 628 
Sootter, Sir C, general manager of 

the London and South- Western 

Railway, and the American line to 

Southampton, i. 441 
"Scrap Book," Ned Fanner's, ii. 287- 

289 
Seafordf The^ Loss uf, in the Channel, 

i. 485 
Sea-sickness, Suggestion of a London 

and South- Western shareholder to 

prevent, i. 432, 433 
S<^ide recreation, English custom of 

taking, i. 2, 146, 147 ; excursion 

trains and, 212 
Season-tickets on the Great Northern 

Railway, i. 301-303 ; holdei-s of, in 

London, 496 
Sedan chairs, Travelling in, i. 6 ; in 

Manchester, 347 




INDEX, 



553 



Sefton, Lord, declines to allow hU land 
to be surveyed for the Liverpool and 
Manchester Railway, i. 41 

Belby, James, and the '' Old l^roet*' 
coach, i. 27 

Semaphore, The, ii 309, 310 

Sergius, Grand Duke, and the railway 
companies at Boulogne, ii. 55, 56 

Servants, Ck)nce8Bions to, on railways, 
11191 

Settle, Midland Railway at, i. 286, 
287 ; line to Carlisle from, 287, 288 

Severn Tunnel, Rush of water in the 
construction of, L 83 ; death of 
engineer of, 159; length and con- 
struction of, ii. 319, 320, 321 

*' Shakespeare Country,*' Coaches in 
the, L 27 

Shareholder, The over-sanguine, of 
the Eastern Counties Railway, i. 386 

Shareholders, Characteristics of, i. 182 ; 
description of a meeting of, 183, 184 ; 
abuse of privileges by, 187 

Sharland, engineer of the Midland line 
to Carlisle, i. 289, 290 

Sharpe, M P., Mr., i. 43 

Sheffield, The old Wicker SUtion at, 
i 178, 279 ; railway distance to 
Manchester from, 277 , Midland 
system at, 277-280 ; need of a 
central station in, 280 ; extension of 
line from Dinting to, 348 

Shitjleld Independent, on the opening 
of the railway to Wicker Station, 
Sheffield, i. 178 

" Sheffield, Past and Present," by Rev. 
Alfred Gatty, D.D., quoted, i. 346, 
317 

Shirehampton Station on a Bank 
Holiday, i. 427 

Shopkeepers in snmll towns, preju- 
dicial effect of railways and tram- 
ways on, i. 351 

Shrewsbury and Hereford line pur- 
chased by the London and North- 
western Railway, i. 161 

Siemens, Dr., and the Firth of Forth, 
ii358 

Si^al box, the lar^st in the world, 
1. 439 ; madman m a, ii 46, 47 ; 
madwoman in a, 47 

Signalling, Railway, early methods 
replaced by the block system, L 8 ; 
in the early days of railways, ii. 
307, 308 ; disc, 308 ; by the sema- 
phore, 309, 310; by block signals, 
311 

Signalmen, and the telegraph, L 121 ; 



labours, ii. 288; in the country, 
283 ; responsibility of, 305 ; acci- 
dents through, 305, 306; in the 
earlv days of railways, 307-311 ; and 
block signals, 311 ; humour of, 
312 

Sinclair's single-wheel outside-cylin- 
der passenger-engine, L 379 

Skipton, Midland Railway at, L 284 

Skull, The <* Dickie,*' and the Buxton 
RaUway,L 124, 125 

Slamming carriage doors, ii. 204, and 
note 

Sledges, Travelling on, i 3 

Sleeping in a railway carriage, ii. 474, 
475 

Sleeping-car, American, Incident in 
an, ii. 44 

" Sleepy Leeds '* coach. The, i. 27 

Slough Station, fitted and decorated 
for the reception of royalty, i. 92, 
93 

Smardale Viaduct, i. 293 

Smiles, Dr., on the opposition to the 
Liverpool and Manchester Railway, 
i. 42, 43 ; his *' Life of George 
Stephenson ** quoted, 48 

Smith, Colonel Gerard, chairman of 
the Hull and Bamsley Railway, i. 
324, 325; unlocks the Hull and 
Bamsley line, ii. 299 

Smith, Mr. Dorrien, «* King of Scilly," 
i. 408 

Smith, Sydney, on railway travelling, 
i. 108; on George Hudson, 206 

Smith and Son, Messrs. W. H., dis- 
tribution of newspapen by, i. 497, 
500, 502 

Smokers* carelessness on railways, iL 8 

Smoking carriages, ii. 57-61 

Snaefell Railway, i. 626 

Snibston, coalpits at, i 173 

Snow^ Travelling through the, i. 8i 
trains on North of Gotland Rail- 
way blocked by, ii. 378 ; loss of 
Great Western from trains blocked 
by, 379 ; train on Dartmoor blocked 
by, 380-384 ; and the Launceston 
mail, 384, roads impassable at 
Kingsbridge through, 386 

Snow-block on the North-Eastem 
j Railway, i, 341, 342 ; on the South- 
I Western, 435 

Snowdon Railway, ii. 516 

Snowstorms and telegraph wires, L 
121, 122 

Society of Friends, Speech and garb 
of the, i. 32, 33 



554 



OUE RAILWAYS. 



Solomon, King, Qnoen of Sheba*! 

J'oomey to, i. 2 
croon de Cans confined in a mad- 
house at Paris, i. 21 

South Derbyshire, Railways in, i. 158, 
note 

South- Eastern Railway, Growth and 
present extent of, i. 446; the 
capital and train milea<^e of, 44G; 
the hop-pickers carried by, 447 ; 
accident to a passenger at the 
mouth of the Shakespeare Tunnel, 
447 ; cost in Bermondsey of widen- 
ing the line of, 448, 449 ; Charing 
Cross, terminus of, 449 ; first line 
and first extensions of, 449 ; com- 
plaints against, 451 ; Lord Braboume 
on third-class passengers on, 451 ; 
the run from Cannon Sti'eet to Dover 
on, 451 ; the Club train on, 451, 
452 ; its co-operation with the North 
of Franco, and the Paris, Lyons and 
Mediterranean Companies, 452 ; 
Continental service of, 452, 453 ; 
number of passengers from Dover 
to Calais by, 454 ; collieries of, 461 ; 
proposed amalgamation with the 
London, Chatham and Dover Rail- 
way, 467 ; American carriages on, 
ii. 205, 206 

South Kensington Museum, The 
" Rocket " placed in the, i. 56 

Southampton, Docks at, i. 270, 433, 
440, 445, note; the International 
Navigation Company at, 440 

Southampton Water, Description of, 
i. 466 

Southportj Railway to, i. 165 ; excur- 
sions to, ii. 86 

Spain, Travelling in a diligence in, i. 
3 ; railway travelling in, ii. 50 

Sp>irrow-hawk and the engine, The, 
ii. 294 

Speaker of the House of Commons, 
The, admonishes the directors of 
Oimbrian Railways, ii. 279 

Speeches made from railway carriages, 
ii. 29-32 

Speed of railway travelling, i. 10, 11, 
58, 64 ; ii. 222-258 [see also Railway 
speed) 

Spencer, M.P., Mr. Ernest, and ladies' 
compartments on railways, ii. 25 

Spcns, Mr. Nathaniel, on the proposed 
amalgamation of the South-Eastem 
and r«ondon, Chatham and Dover 
Railways, i. 469 

Spiers and Pond, Messrs., ii. 137, 138 



Spitalfieldt warehooMJ, L 888 

Spondon, Difficulty in oonsfemotion ol 
the Midland Counties Railway at, 
i. 174 

Sports and pastimes, and railways, ii 
111 

Stafford, Jonmey of a royal train 
through, L 101 

Stage-oMtches, First, i. 5, 6; mined by 
railways, 26 ; in the present day, 26, 
27; robberies from, 848; to Brixton, 
475 ; speed of, ii 222 

Stalbridge, Lord, on the conceenons of 
the Lcmdon and North- Western Rail- 
way to the workpeople, i 130; on 
second-class passengers, ii 179 ; and 
the bridges on the North- Western, 
372 

Stalybridge, population of, i. 164 

Standard^ The, and newspaper trains, 
i. 502 

Staplehurst, Accident at, ii 416-418 

State pun^Ase of railways, The, ii 
163 

Stationmaster, Duties of, i 137 

" Stationmaster of Lone Prairie, Tha,^ 
Bret Harte*s, quoted, ii 118 

Stations, Railway, improvements in, 
i 8 ; appearance o^ 12^ 13 ; described, 
107, 108 

Staveley, Opening of line from An- 
nesley to, i. 367 

Steam, First inventions for the utili- 
sation of, i. 22 

Steam engine. Invention by James 
Watt of the, i 21 

Stephenson, George, i. 15; builds his 
&vt locomotive for the Killing worth 
Railway, 23, 24; prejudice against 
him, 24 ; his perseverance, 24 ; his 
after-Buocess, 24 ; his prediction re- 
garding railways, 25, 26 ; the *' father 
of the railway system,** 24; his 
activity, 30 ; his railroad from Het- 
ton Pits to the Wear, 31 ; his inter- 
view with Edward Pease, 32; con- 
structs locomotives for the Stockton 
and Darlington Railway, 33 ; his 
knowledge of embroideiy, 33; his 
survey of the land for the Livetpool 
and Manchester Railway, 41 ; ex- 
amined before the Committee of the 
House of Commons on the Bill for 
the Liveipool and Manchester Rail- 
way, 44 ; his reply to the question 
about the locomotive and the cow, 
44; appointed chief constmotive 
engineer of the Liverpool and 



I 



INDEX. 



555 



Moncheeter Railway, 46 ; drains 
Chat Moss, 47; his reply to Mr. 
Cropper respecting Napoleon, 48 ; 
constructs the Liverpool and Man- 
chester Railway, and opens the 
line (1830), 49, 50 ; his locomotive 
** Rocket " wins in the competition 
at Rainhill, 54, 56; with Fanny 
Kemble on a locomotive, 64; ap- 
pointed joint-engineer with his son 
Robert of the London and Birming- 
ham Railway, 73; inspects the 
ground for the Midland Railway, 
17 1 ; recommends his son Robert as 
engineer for the Midland Railway, 
1 72 : surveys the land for line from 
Derby to Leeds, 176; his dislike of 
speculation, 196 ; his death, 219 ; 
anecdote of the young man with the 
gold-headed stick and, 220 ; his dis- 
taste for ostentation, 220; George 
Hudson*8 opinion of him, 221 ; 
burial place of, 276 ; his plan for 
the Brighton line, and his examina- 
tion by Sergeant Merewuthor, 47^- 
481 ; simplicity of his habits, ii 
505 ; centenary of his birth, 612 ; 
his birthplace, Wylam, 514 

Stephenson, Jumcs, driving an engine 
and calling to his wife for help, i. 
30 

Stephenson, Robert (brother of George 
Stephenson), i. 58 

Stephenson, Robert (son of George 
Stephenson), i. 58 ; appointed juint- 
cngineer with his father of the 
London and Birmingham Railway, 
73 ; his podestrianism on the track 
of the London and Birmingham 
Railway, 80 ; removes the water 
from Kilsby Tunnel, 84 -86; appointed 
engineer of the Midland Railway, 
172; and the Menai Bridge, ii. 344; 
and the Railway Clearing House, 
479 

Stepney Station, Remarkable scene at, 
ii. 97 

Stirling, Mr., late superintendent of 
Doncaster railway works, i. 312; on 
the speed of the Great Northern in 
the railway race of 1888, il 237 

Stockbrokers in the early days of rail- 
ways, i. 190, 191 

Stockport Viaduct, The, i. 262 

Stockton and Darlington Railway, Bill 
sanctioned for the construction of 
the, i. 30 ; the decision to use 
Stephenson*! looomotiret on the. 



38 ; its opening, 33, 34 ; first engine 
and coaches employed on the, 36 ; 
the '* Experiment" coach on the, 
37 ; advertisement of train-service 
on the, 37 ; first dividend of, 38 ; 
the makinff of Middlesbrough, 38 ; 
large dividend of, 194 ; time-table 
of, ii. 160; fiftieth anniversary of 
the opening of, 511 

" Stokers and Pokers," by Sir Francis 
Head, quoted, i. 82, 83 

Stone and Rugby Railway, i. 361 

Stone- thro wing at trains, ii. 6 ; Mr. 
Nottleship on, 6 

Stratfoixl, Great Eastern Railway 
works at, i. 379 

Stretton, Mr. Clement, on the speed of 
locomotives, ii. 231, 232 

Strike, Coal, in Durham, i. 339 ; on 
the Taff Vale and Barry Railways, 
ii. 262; at Cardiff, 262; at the 
London Docks, 2G2 ; of Grenadier 
Guards, 263 ; of schoolboys, 263 ; 
on Scotch railways, 261-269 ; of 
coal miners (1893), 269, 270; of 
engine-drivers, 300-304 ; of gas 
stoicers, 391 

Strikes, Effect of, ii. 262 

Strome Ferr^, Riot on the Sunday- 
triin question at, ii. 72, 73 

Strutts, The, of Belper, their opposition 
to the railway, i. 1 79 

Subterranean London, i. 229, 230 

Suburban railways. Complaints on, 
ii. 208 

Suicide on the railway, iL 1 ; of 
Giuseppe Dellvido, 6 

Sunday newspaper work, ii. 69-71 

Sunday railway travelling, ii. 61-74 

Sunday traffiio on the Liverpool and 
Manchester Railway denounced by 
ministers, i. 40, 41 

Sunderland, George Hudson's election 
for, i. 200, 201 

Superintendents, district, Duties of, i. 
137 

Superintendents of lines. Duties of, i. 
137 

Surprises on the railway, ii. 51-54 

Sussex, Ironworks of, i. 476 

Sussex, Earl of, drinking the waters at 
Buxton, i. 156 

Sutherland (the late), Duke of, his 
interf«t in railways, 533-536 ; the 
"Iron Duke," 634 ; his youth, 534 ; 
on a fire engine, 534 ; down a coal- 
pit, 634 ; uie navvies' respect for, 
634; 'akespartin the extension of 



556 



OUB RAILWAYB. 



the Highland Railway, 686 ; his 
interest in the Dingwall and Skye, 
the Sutherland and other railways, 

635, 636 
Sutherland Railway, i. 636 
Sutherland and Outhness Railway, i 

636, 636 

Swannington to Leicester, Opening of 
line from,* i. 172 

Swansea railway accident, ii. 418 

Swanwick, Mr. Frederick, surveys the 
land for line from Derbyshire into 
Yorkshire, i. 176, 177 ; at the cen- 
tenary of George Stephenson's birth, 
ii. 612 

Swindon, i. 399 ; the ten minutes' 
stoppage at, ii. 124-128 ; Mr. 
Lowenfeld's action for failure of 
contract at, 126-128 

Syston, Line to Peterborough from, 
i. 214 

Taff Yale Railway, i. 399 ; strike of 

servants on, ii. 262, 264 
'* TaUsman, The," Allusion to, i. 144 
Tamar, Bridge over the, ii. 362 
Taplow and Didcot line, Widening of, 

1.419 
Tapton House, GhesterlSeld, residence 

of George Stephenson, i. 219, 220 
Taunton, Accident at, ii. 454-466 
Tawell, John, the murderer, ii. 11 
Tay Bridge, The, ii. 362 ; disaster at, 

352-367 ; the new, 367, 358 
Tea-making in railway caiTiages, ii. 8 
Tebay and Darlington Branch of the 

North-Eastem Railway, i. 293 
Teeth lost on a railway, ii. 40 
Teleg^rams sent from a train, ii. 203 
Telegraph, The, its first use on the 
London and North- Western Rail- 
way, i. 116 ; in the transmission of 
Parliament^y debates, 116, 117 ; 
its effect on newspaper enterprise, 
118 ; various uses of, 118; in rail- 
wa}* management, 119, 120 ; on the 
Midland Railway, 119 ; Post Office 
concessions to nulways for messages 
by, 119, 120 ; mileage of wires on 
the London and North- Western 
Railway for, 121 ; duration of wires 
of, 121 ; effect of storms on, 121, 122 
Telegraphy, Train, ii. 203 
Tenbury, Worcester and Ludlow Rail- 
way, ii. 286 
Tennant^ Mr. Henry, and the rivalry 
of the North-Eastem Rulway with 
small lines, i. 323 



Teversall and Pleasley branch of the 
Midland Railway, i. 271 

Thackeray his burlesque of the for- 
tunate broker's derk, i. 191, 192 ; 
allusion to his ''Adventures of 
Philip," 206 ; on the broad ^uge, 
418 ; allusion to his " Vanity Fair," 
454 ; on the Duke of N(nrfolk at 
Brighton, 474 

Thames Tunnel, ii. 338, 389 

Third-class passengers and the London 
and North- Western, i. 130 ; on the 
Midknd, ii. 166, 167 ; on the Great 
Northern Railway, 188; the traffic 
in 1894, 188 

Thirsk, Railway accident at, i 99, 
342 ; ii. 460-467 

Thomas, Mr. Sutcliile, on Sir Edward 
Watkin, i. 366 

Thompson, Sir Matthew, former chair- 
man of tiie Midland Railway, i. 183, 
184 ; and the strike of engine- 
drivers, ii. 301, 302 ; receives a 
baronetcy, 364 

Thorp, Claud, i. 167 

Thurston, Professor, on the steam 
engine, ii. 620 

Ticket-collectors, i. 209, 210 

Tickets, railway, First, i. 209 ; railway- 
theatre, 315 ; incidents in collect- 
ing, ii. 36, 36 

Tiger on a platform in India, ii. Ill 

Time-table, Bradshaw*s first, ii. 141 ; 
" Grand Junction,'' 146 ; " Midland 
Counties," 147-160 ; Bradshaw*8, 
162, 154 ; Cassell's, 156 ; London 
and North- Western, 168 ; Stockton 
and Darlington, 160 

Time*, The, on Sir Richard Moon, i. 
134, 136; and Geolrge Hudson^s 
election for Sunderland, 200, 201 ; 
the paper nsed by, 389; on the 
financial condition of railway com- 
panies, 466; chiefs of, 499, 500; 
its distribution by the railways, 
502 ; on street improvements in 
London, 625, 626; on the agreement 
between the North British and 
Caledonian Railways, 652 ; and the 
capture of a Russian prince by a 
railway company, ii. 65, 56; on 
Whit-Monday holiday traffic, 82; 
on lighting the carriages of the 
Brighton Company, 217 ; letter on 
"Railway Punctuality," in, 256, 
257; on the strike on Scotch rail- 
ways, 268 ; on railway rates, 494 

Toad dug ont of railway cutting, ii. 149 



INDEX. 



557 



Tontine Hotel, Sheffield, i. 346 

Totlcy Tunnel, ii 322-328 

Tower Bridge, ii. 340, 368 

Towle, Mr., and refreshment rooms 
on the Midland Bailway, ii. 137, 138 

Trade, formerly crippled by slowness 
and cost of carriage, i. 16 ; customs 
in, before the advent of railways, 
131 

Train telegraphy, ii. 203 

Training of an engine-driver, ii. 297 

Trains, Comical, i. 34-36; excursion, 
130, ii. 75-97 ; royal, i. 93-98 ; news- 
paper, 499-504 ; mail, 504, 506, 508- 
513; on fire, ii. 51, 53; Parlia- 
mentary, 164 ; corridor, i. 16 ; ii. 
110; break-down, 398; attempts to 
wreck, 401, 402 

Tram-road, The primitive, i. 20 ; first 
uses of, 21 ; iron rails used on, 21 ; 
Roger North's description of a, 21 ; 
to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, 
70 ; in Manchester, 351 ; at Glasgow 
in 1778, 541 

Transit of merchandise, Early modes 
for, i. 6, 20 

Travelling, Difficulties in some coun- 
tries of, i. 2 ; in Africa, 2 ; in an 
Lrish car, 3 ; in a diligence, 3 ; in a 
bullock- waggon, 3 ; on sledges, 3 ; 
on an elephant, 3 ; in the chariot of 
Ericthonius, 3 ; on the footplate of 
an engine, 3, 63-65, 66; early 
English modes of, 4 ; in France in 
16th century, 4; in " whirlicotes " 
or "Noah*s arks," 4; by the first 
coaches in England, 5, 6 ; in sedan 
chairs, 6 ; in cabriolets, cabs, han- 
soms, broughams and phaetons, 6; 
in carrier's cart, 6, 7 ; on horseback, 
7 ; by railway train, 7, 8 

** Travelling Post Office," The, i. 160 

Trent, Station at, and Lord Grim- 
thorpe, ii. 38 

Trent Valley line. Opening of, i. 128 ; 
engfineers of, 161 

Trentham, Elizabeth, and the Rushton 
estate, i. 235 

Treshams, The, and the Rushton 
estate, i. 234 

Trevithick, Richard, engines made by, 
i. 22, note ; his enterprising schemes, 
and boring under the Thames, 23; 
his '' Cornwall " locomotive, ii. 228 

•*Tripper8,"i. 211, 212 

Tunnel, Edge Hill, i. 46 ; completion 
of, 50; CSuuinel, 52, 460, ii. 317, 
818 ; incident in the Baloombe, 60 ; 



prejudice against travelling in a, 
74; the Guibal fan recommended 
for the ventilation of a, 75; foul 
air in a, 75 ; Woodhead, 75, ii. 
331-334; as an obstacle to railway 
enterprise, i. 77 ; inspection of Prim- 
rose Hill, 77-79 ; dangers disproved 
of travelling in a, 78, 79 ; the 
Kilflby, 82-86, ii. 334 ; between Dore 
and Chinley, i. 82, 83, ii. 322- 
328; the Severn, 83, ii. 319-321; 
dangers of walking through a, i. 
87, 88 ; Clay Cn)88, 181 ; Midland at 
Manchester, 254 ; the Mersey, 267- 
269: Bradway, 276; Blea Moor, 
288, 292, ii. 336; Black Moss, i. 
293; smoke in a, ii. 190; Glenfield, 
227; St. Gothard, 316, 316; Mont 
Cenis, 316; Cowbum, 330; Box, 
334 ; Shakespeare's Cliff, 336 ; Shug- 
borough, 336 ; Spruce Creek, 336 ; 
Monsal Dale, 336; Thames, 338; 
Blackwall, 340 ; Dove Holes, 389 

Tunnelling, Dangers incurred in, ii. 
315 ; gelignite in, 325 ; rush of water 
in, 326 

Tunnels in England over a thousand 
yards long, ii. 318, 319 

Turner, Mr. G. H., General Manager 
of the Midland Railway, ii. 170- 
172 

Tweeddale, Marquis of, and the North 
British Railway, i. 545; and the 
Thirsk accident, ii. 465 

" Twin Sisters" locomotive, ii. 227 

Tyldesley Banks, The porter at, and 
Sir Richard Moon, i. 135 

Tyndall, Professor, Early connection 
with railways of , ii 515 

Tyne Docks, i. 326, 327 

Underground Railway, Incident of an 
old lady travelling in the, ii 44, 
45 

Dnston, Viaduct at, i 276 

«» Valley of Desolation," Yorkshire, i. 

47 
Vanderbilt, Cornelius, his fortune 

compared with the income of the 

London and North- Western Rcdl- 

way, i 129 
Velvet Street, Manchester, i. 39 
Ventilation of tunnels, i. 76, 267 
Vernon, Sir George, and Haddon Hall, 

i 248, 249 
Versailles, Railway accident at, i. 107, 

108 



558 



OUB RAILWAYS. 



VesuviuB, Railway up, ii. 103 

Viaduct, Penkriqo^e, and Sir Thomas 
Brassey, i. 109 ; at Monsal Dale, 
252, 383; the Dutton, 262; the 
Stockport, 262 ; the Dent Head, 252, 
293 ; the Conglcton, 252 ; the Dint- 

. ing, 252 ; the Llangollen, 252 ; the 
Ribblehead, 252; Combrook, 259, 
note ; at Unston, 276 ; Batty Moss, 
292 ; Arten GiU, 293; Deep Gill, 293 ; 
Smardale, 293 {se^ also Bridge) 

Victoria, Uueen, her first railway trip, 
i. 92 ; saloons used in travelling by, 
96-98 ; her concern on account of 
railway accidents, 98, 99 ; her letter 
to IVIr. Mundella after the accident 
to the " Flying Scotsman," 99 ; pre- 
cautions for her safety in railway 
travelling, 100-102; her memento 
of her journeys on the London 
and North-Westem Railway, 102, 
103 ; her railway journeys on the 
C!ontinent, 105, 106; opens Grimsby 
Docks, 354; fired at by Robert 
Maclean, ii. 12; her despatch of 
State affairs whilst travelhng, 508, 
509 

Victoria Station, Manchester, extent 
and opening of, i. 166; stationary 
engine at, 166 ; traffic at, 166, 167 

Victoria steamboat, i. 455 

Vignoles, George, his survey of the 
ground for the Liverpool and Man- 
chester Railway, i. 46; incident of 
his chain-bearer and the theodolite 
in the construction of the Wigan 
Railway, 70 ; engineer of Midland 
Counties Railway, 173 ; in favour of 
a high level route from Derbyshire 
into Yorkshire, 176, 177; his plan 
for the Brighton line, 479 

Wakefield, Railways at, i. 282 
Wales, Coaches in, i. 27 ; Mr. Glad- 
stone on the mountains and railways 
of, i. 371-373; railways of, 398, 399; 
ii. 516 
Wales, Prince of, Christening of the, 
and the decorations at Slough 
Station, L 92, 93 ; news of his birth 
carried on an engine from Birming- 
ham to Liverpool, 115; opens the 
Alexandra Dock at Grimsby, 355; 
engine used on the Great Eastern 
Railway on his wedding-day, 379 ; 
opens the City and South London 
Electric Railway, 518; at Forth 
fridge, iL 362; and Railway 



Benevolent Insfitution, 506; Great 
Northern saloon for the, 508 

Walker, Mr. John, late ^neral manager 
of the NorUi British Railway, i. 
549 

Wtilton, Isaak, fishing in the river 
Dove at Ashbourne, L 156, 157; 
drinking ale in the Peak, 314 

Ward, Mrs. Humphry, her description 
of a Manchester station, quoted, i, 
257 

Warehouses of Manchester, i. 38, 39 

Warrington, Railway from St Helens 
to, L 72 ; railway from Liverpool to, 
258 

Water in the Kilsby Tunnel, and 
Robert Stephenson's feat in re- 
moving it, L 84-86 

Waterloo Station, i. 437-439 

Waterton, Mr. Charles, and the pro- 
posed railway through his land, i. 177 

Watkin, Sir Edward, and the foul air 
in the Woodhead Tunnel, L 76 ; his 
project for bringing the Manchester, 
Sheffield and iQnoolnshire Railway 
into London, 317, 356; the effect 
of his work on Grimsby and 
Cleethorpes, 352; on the Man- 
chester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire 
Railway, 355, 360, 363, 366; his 
daring proposal for public works 
in Lreland, 366; his retirement, 
367 ; and the price of land in B«)r- 
mondsey, 433, 434 ; his expectations 
of completing the Channel Tunnel, 
460; and the coal seam at Dover, 
461, 462; called the ** Railway 
Macchiavelli," 47 1 ; his probable ideas 
regarding the amalgamation of the 
South-Eastem and London, Chatham 
and Dover Railwajrs, 471 ; and the 
railway race of 1888, ii. 234-236 ; on 
third-class passengers, 186 ; and im- 
provements in carriages, 202, 203; 
on the Channel Tunnel, 317, 318 ; on 
the safety of railway travelling, 
430; and the Hexthorpe accident, 
450, 451 ; on the Railway Clearing 
House, 479 

Watson, Dr., one of the inspectors of 
Primrose Hill Tunnel, i. 77 

Watt, James, Discovery of the steam 
engine by, i. 21 

Webb, Mr. F. W., his test of the 
"Greater Britain" locomotive, i. 
163, note; on the railway race of 
1888, ii 237, 250; his '< Queen Em- 
press,*' ii. 253 



»» 



I>sk» ol ML 1^ 
EK^vmr. L Sfl^: aa£ Mr. HaskuMK. 



W«il Hutkpool BttOvmr, L S;2S 
Wot U .clilmad RuHrmr, i. ^^^ 
WerBOQth.I>oedc4iuid Sooth^W^stem 

Imt to. L 4)5. 437 : tbe lUror of. 4Su 
Whaler Bridge. To BoxUm from, i 1:^5 
WluuiicHire, Laid, and the Woodh«wi 

Tonnc-L L 76 : on the fuluiv' of the 

Lundon and Birminghani BilL 81 
Whamdiffe (the pment) Lord, Letter 

from Sir Edwd Watkin to, i. 367. 

368; appointed Chairman of the 

Manchester, Sheffield and Lincohi- 

shire Company, 367 ; and imilway 

rates, ii. 491 
mistle. The Stnm, i. 207, 208 
Wickham, Henrv, maid poet, ii. 47 
Widnea, AlkaU'works of, i. 71, 72; 

railway through, 72 
Wigan Bailway, i. 70; extended to 

Southport, 165 
Wild Boar Fell, L 294 
" WUd Irishman,'' The, Speed of, ii. 

241 
Wiles, BIr., of Sheffield, and his 

questions at meetings of railway 

shareholders, i. 76, and note 
William, the late Emporor, Royal 

train of, i. 96 
Williams, Judge, trying a case in a 

railway carriage, ii. 116, 116 
Wills, Making, before taking a long 

journey, i. 303 
Winchilsea, Lord, and railway rates, 

ii. 490 
Wirkswortb, i. 210 
Wirral RaUway, i. 370 
Wolverton, Engine repairing dopAt at, 

i. '115; ii. 150; railway carriage 

bmlding at, i. 122, ii. 150 j the 

laundry at, 123 ; fire at, 396 



W*x\iho»i rvi5t»<;. i T.^ : ii. Ji.M-W4 
W«Cwh Arfvsul Kjul^nny^ u. «^ 
VToevvvs^ Mu>)«u$ oi. h);jt tiiat k^ iW 

BaokiY at rVovs i :^K :k':i 
WomM9«r \MMurf, l^rm)r«^:ham« KW« 

tncH$ht at^i. :24l 
WoTMcvl, Mr. hi* d<:^^Ti|>liv>n »\f t>w» 

tnM'kof the NiYth«Ka$t<Nm KAil>ir%\« 

i. S20-Si2 ; his v\W){xnu)U onjptnv*^ 

35\ 3S6 
WordswuMlh, hi* i>iM\n»^ vm iho |vrvv. 

kvt^ KendAl :ind WiudrmH'w 

Railway, and hi* Mi^mt Io tho 

M*itntim4 /\wt/, ii. 64 
Workixvplt\ tm>Yninff i\nu>>Mi\m* f\x 

thv*so on tho l^mium and N\Mih» 

Wosatem Hailway, i. 1:^0; of \\\t^ 

NorthKAstom lUilwnv, 34.1, .H4.i 
Workew, Nijjht, in lA>m\\m, i, 497>MK1 
** Workinir and Man^i^^niont of an 

English liailway,** Sir lit^rgo b^nd* 

lay\ quottnl, i.\2, 137 
Working-men, National innu(«ntH» of, 

i. 390 ; ii.260 ; tho oighthouw drtv, 

260 
Workmen's trains, i, 389-396 
Worksop, Esttipe of CharUni PoatH* 

from an oxjtnvM tmin at, i. 61» 62 
Wrecking trams, Attempts ut, ii. 401, 

402 
WyUm, Goorgo Htophonson^s birth* 

place, ii. 514 

York, Coftchos to, i. 17 i tho mil way 
journey to, 303 \ North- Krfinteni 
lUiilwny at, 327, 329} trnvoUom* 
terminus ia tho oonohing days at, 
329 \ antiquity of, 329 { t)io Htittioa 
at, 329, 330 ) ongino worlcN at, 33*^ 

York and Midland liitilwav, Action 
aKainnt Oeorgo Iludiion iiy tho, I, 
204, 323 

York, Nowcastlti and Ilorwlfh Mall 
way, i. 323 

Zone system of railway fiiros, It, 177 



Thu Sno. 



PanrriD bt Casskll 4 OoMrAWT, Umitiu, La UcuJi lAirvAaa, Lomuom, H.CL 



■ 



:i 






i 



i. 



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