History of Dayton
Prepared from " Early Dayton, by Robert W. Steele and
Mary Davies Steele," and from the
"History of Dayton "
Published for the Board of Education
Vm of cOj^"^^^
-■"V 2 1896 ■
Untteb Brettjren piiblist^ing f^onse
W. J. Shuey, Publisher
If Dayton's centennial is properly to be observed, the schools —
including the three hundred teachers and the more than ten
thousand boys and girls— must fill an important place and take
a leading part. The children of to-day should become acquainted
with the past, and duly recognize the planning and struggles that
have made present advantages possible. Besides, every one who is
to become a useful citizen must be led to cherish a local pride and
public si)irit such as a worthy celebration of the founding and
growth of the city will surely tend to promote.
The Board of Education have therefore provided that necessary
books be supplied to the various schools and that a souvenir book-
let containing an outline history of the city be put into the hands
of each teacher and jjupil. Class exercises, covering the history of
Dayton and extending through a number of weeks, will be con-
ducted by the teachers, the course to be followed with a suitable
celebration in all of the schools.
Through the kindness of Miss Mtwy D. Steele, author of the
volume entitled "Early Dayton," and of Mr. W. J. Shuey, the
publisher of the same, the following summary of history and
excellent illustrations, chiefly taken from said volume, are made
The Board desire to congratulate the teachers and pupils and
the general public on the prosperity of the past, and to express the
hope that higher successes will crown the years to come.
For the Board,
Charles J. Hall,
A. H. Iddings,
H. C. Thomson,
Committee on Centennial Celebration.
Copyright, 1896, by W. J. Shuey.
All rights reserved.
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTON
The original inhabitants ol the region of which the Miami
Valley forms a part were the Mound -Builders. Nothing is
known of their origin, and they have left no trace of their his-
tory except the many relics found in the numerous mounds
which they built, and which still exist in various places. The
Mound-Builders were followed by the Indians, who were in
possession of the country when it was explored by white men,
and continued to occupy portions of it after settlements had been
made by the whites. The principal tribes inhabiting this por-
tion of Ohio were the Miamis and the Shawnees.
When the forests of the Ohio Valley were first penetrated by
Europeans, the region was claimed by Spain, France, and Eng-
land. England afterward gained possession of it, but in 1783, at
the close of the War of the Revolution, yielded it to the United
States. The title to the land northwest of the Ohio River was
also claimed by Virginia, but in 1784 was ceded to the United
States. In 1787 the Northwest Territory was formed by Con-
gress, including the present States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.
The land lying between the Great Miami and Little Miami
rivers was not inhabited by the Indians, but was reserved as a
hunting-ground, and it is probable that there was no Indian
village in all this region after the year 1700.
Long before any permanent settlement was made in the Miami
Valley, its beauty and fertility were known by the inhabitants of
Kentucky and the people beyond the Alleghanies, and repeated
efforts were made to get possession of it. These efforts led to
conflicts with the Indians, and until the close of the eighteenth
century the valley was known as the "Miami slaughter-house."
As early as 1749 the French Major Celoron de Bienville as-
cended the La Roche or Big Miami River as far as Piqua. In
1 75 1 Gist, the agent of the Virginians who formed the Ohio Land
4 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTON
Companj', visited the same region, and wrote a description of
it in English. The countrj^ he sa3S, abounded with "turkeys,
deer, elk, and most sorts of game, particularly^ buffaloes
It wants nothing but cultivation to make it a most delightful
countr}-. The land upon the Great Miami River is verj^ rich,
level, and well timbered, some of the finest meadows that can
be. The grass here grows to a great height on the clear fields,
of which there are a great number, and the bottoms are full of
white clover, wild rye, and blue grass." Buffaloes and elk were
found here until 1795.
In the summer of 1780 General George Rogers Clark led an
expedition against the Shawnees near Xenia and Springfield.
He defeated the Indians and destro3'ed their property. Among
the ofiicers under Clark was Colonel Robert Patterson, from 1804
to 1827 a citizen of Dayton.
In 1782 Clark led a second expedition of one thousand Ken-
tuckians to Ohio. They met the Indians at the mouth of Mad
River, and on the 9th of November a skirmish occurred on the
site of Da}' ton, in which the Kentuckians were victorious.
These two expeditions were campaigns of the Revolution, as
the Indians were friendly to the British.
In 1786 a force under Colonel Logan was sent against the
Wabash and Mad River villages of the Indians. One of the
brigades was commanded b}' Colonel Robert Patterson. On
their retvirn, the}- met a part\' of Indians at the mouth of Mad
River, and gained the second battle between whites and Indians
on the site of Dayton.
In 1789 Major Benjamin Stites, John Stites Gano, and William
Goforth formed plans for a settlement to he named Venice, at the
mouth of the Tiber, as they called INIad River, but their plans
In 1794 General Anthony Waj'ne defeated the Indians and
ended four years of Indian war. August 3, 1795, the General
concluded a treaty with the Indians, at Greenville, Ohio, which
was regarded as securing the safet}' of settlers in the Indian
August 20, 1795, seventeen daj'S after the treaty was signed, a
party of gentlemen contracted for the purchase of the seventh
and eighth ranges between Mad River and the Little Miami from
John Cleves Symmes, a soldier of the Revolutionar}' army, who,
encouraged by the success of the Ohio Company, had, after
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTON 5
much negotiation, obtained from Congress a grant for the pur-
chase of one million acres between the two Miamis. The
purchasers of the seventh and eighth ranges were General
Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the Northwest Territory; Gen-
eral Jonathan Dayton, afterward Senator from New Jersey ;
General James Wilkinson, of Wayne's army, and Colonel Israel
Liidlow, from Long Hill, Morris County, New Jersey. On the
2ist of September two parties of surveyors set out, one led by
Daniel C. Cooper to surve)' and mark a road and cut out some
of the brush, and the other led by Captain John Dunlap, which
was to run the boundaries of the purchase. On the ist of
November the surve3'ors returned to Mad River, and Israel
Ludlow laid out the town, which he named for General Da3ton,
Three streets were named St. Clair, W^ilkinson, and Ludlow for
the proprietors. Another was called, as a sort of compromise,
Jefferson, as the proprietors were Federalists. Daj'ton was
founded by Revolutionary officers and bears their names. It is
also linked to the War of 1S12 b3^ a street called for Commodore
On November i a lottery was held, and each one present drew
lots for himself or others who intended to settle in the new
town. Each of the settlers received a donation of an inlot and
an outlot. In addition, each of them had the privilege of pur-
chasing one hundred and sixty acres at a French crown, or about
one dollar and thirteen cents, per acre. The proprietors hoped
by offering these inducements to attract settlers to the place.
Forty-six men had agreed to remove from Cincinnati to Day-
ton, but only nineteen came. The following men and about
seventeen women and children were the original settlers of
Da^'ton : William Hamer, Solomon Hanier, Thomas Hamer,
George Newcom, William Newcom, Abraham Glassmire, Thomas
Davis, John Davis, John Dorough, William Chenoweth, James
Morris, Daniel Ferrell, Samuel Thompson, Benjamin Van Cleve,
James McClure, John jNIcClure, William Gahagan, vSolomon
Goss, William Van Cleve.
In March, 1796, the}^ left Cincinnati in three parties, led by
William Hamer, George Newcom, and Samuel Thompson. Two
parties came b\' land and one by water.
The party coming by water made the voj'age down the Ohio
and up the IMiami River in a boat called a pirogue. In the
pirogue came Samuel Thompson and his wife, Catherine ; their
O HISTORICAI. SKETCH OF DAYTON
children, Sarah, two years old, Martha, three months old, and
Mrs. Thompson's son, Benjamin Van Cleve, then about twenty-
five, and her daughter, Mary Van Cleve, nine years of age ; the
widow McClure and her sons and daughters, James, John,
Thomas, Kate, and Ann, and William Gaha^an, a young Irish-
man. The passage from Cincinnati to Da;, ^on occupied ten days.
Mrs. Thompson was the first to step ashore. Two small camps
of Indians were here when the pirogue touclied the Miami bank,
but they proved friendly and were persuaded to leave in a day or
two. The pirogue landed at the head of St. Clair Street April i,
1796. The Thompson party was the first to arrive. The other
two parties arrived a few days later.
As soon as possible after the arrival of the pioneers, the whole
of Water vStreet, now Monument Avenue, was cleared of brush
and trees. The country around for many- miles, with bixt few
exceptions, was covered with unbroken forest, or a thicket of
hazel bushes and wild fruit-trees.
Colonel George Newcom, one of the first settlers, built a log
cabin, immediatel}' after his arrival, on the southwest corner of
Main Street and Water Street, now Monument Avenue. Other
cabins also were built, all of them being one story' high and con-
taining only one room. In the winter of 1798-99 Colonel Newcom
built Newcom 's Tavern on the site of the first cabin. The new
cabin was two stories high and contained four rooms.
For several years the settlers were much annoyed by the
Indians, and in 1799 a blockhoUvSe was built on the site of the
In 1798 Rev. John Kobler, of the Methodist Episcopp.. Church,
preached the first sermon in Dayton, and a class of eight persons
was formed, which has grown into the present Grace Methodist
In 1799 the First Presbyterian Church was organized, and in
1800 built the first meeting-house, on the northeast corner of
Main and Third streets. It was constructed of logs, and was
eighteen by twenty feet in size. From these small beginnings
the number of churches has grown until there are now in the
city eighty -one churches of all denominations.
In 1800 the first wedding in the little town occurred — that of
Benjamin Van Cleve and Mary Whitten. April 14. of the same year
was born the first child — Jane Newcom. During the same j^ear the
first store was opened in the second story of Newcom's Tavern.
- / ■"
^ i-v>-^ cs.-axv-f
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTON 9
The nine cabins which in 1799 constituted Daj'ton, contained
only a few home-made benches, stools, beds, tables, and cup-
boards, often of buckeye and beechwood. Doddridge in his
"Notes" sa3-s that a pioneer's table furniture consisted of
"some old pewter dishes and plates; the rest, wooden bowls
or trenchers, or gourds, and hard-shelled squashes. A few
pewter spoons, much battered about the edges, were to be
seen on some tables. The rest were made of horn. If knives
were scarce, the deficiency was made up bj- the scalping-knives,
which were carried in sheaths suspended from the belt of the
hunting-shirt." The cabin was warmed and lighted wholl}- by
the huge open hickory fire, over which, in pots suspended from
cranes or on the coals or in the ashes, the cooking was done. At
an earl}' date the pioneers raised flax, hemp, and wool, and the
women spun, wove, and dyed, with colors made from walnut
and butternut hulls, or wild roots, the fabrics from which they
made the clothes of the family. Ever}' cabin had its spinning-
wheel and loom, the latter built b})- the ingenious pioneer weaver,
Abraham Glassmire. One wonders whether pioneer women
were reallj' harder worked than their granddaughters. The}'
had little to occupy or amuse them outside their own homes —
no benevolent societies, clubs, receptions, calls, concerts, or
lectures, and only occasional church services. The}' had only
one or two rooms to keep in order, and no pictures, books, cur-
tains, carpets, rugs, table- and bed-linen, bric-a-brac, china, gla.ss,
or silver to take care of. Their wardrobes were scant}-, and the
weekly washing must have been small. Wheat flour could not
be obtained ; corn hoe-cake, ash-cake, johnny-cake, dodgers,
pone, hominy, and mush and milk were the principal articles
of diet. Meal was slowly and laboriously ground in handmills.
Wild plums, crab-apples, blackberries, and strawberries, sweet-
ened with maple sugar, furnished jellies and preserves. There
was an abundance of wild honey, and of wild goose and turkey
.md duck eggs. They often tired of venison, bears' meat, rabbits,
squirrels, wild turkeys, ducks, geese, quail, and pheasants, and
longed for pork. There was great rejoicing, no doubt, when,
in 1799, Mr. Cooper introduced hogs.
In the earlier years of our history settlers' families were often
dependent upon the father's gun for a breakfast or dinner, and
hunting was oftener an occupation than an amusement. Deer
and bears were killed in large numbers for both their pelts and
lO HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTON
flesh, and the bears also for their oil. Deerskin was made into
men's clothes and moccasins, and bearskins were used as rugs
and coverlets. The meat, and also that of wild birds, was salted
and eaten as we eat dried beef. Raccoon skins were in demand
for winter caps. Pelts of various kinds were used instead of
There was little money in circulation, and business in the
Northwest Territory was chieflj' conducted by barter of articles
that were easily transported on packhorses, such as ginseng,
peltries, and beeswax, which had fixed values. A muskrat skin
passed for twenty-five cents ; a buckskin for one dollar ; a doe-
skin for one dollar and fifty cents ; a bearskin for from three to
five dollars ; a pair of cotton stockings cost a buckskin ; a yard of
calico cost two muskrat skins ; a set of knives and forks, a bear-
skin ; a yard of shirting, a doeskin ; a pair of moccasins, a coon-
skin, or thirty-seven and a half cents. The want of small change
led the pioneers of the Ohio Valley to invent what was called cut-
money, or sharp shins. They cut small coins, chiefl}- Spanish,
into quarters, and circulated them as readily as money that had
not been tampered with. American merchants had not yet
learned to use the United States currencj', and their charges were
in pounds, shillings, and pence.
The habits and surroundings of the people were very primi-
tive. Wildcats and panthers strong enough to carry off a live
hog prowled in the surrounding woods, and wolves, which
destroyed stock, poultr}'-, and young vegetables, were shot by
moonlight through the chinks of the cabins. The wolves
howled from dusk till dawn like innumerable dogs, as any one
who has visited prairie countries can understand.
The settlement did not grow rapidl}'. As stated above, in 1799
only nine cabins constituted the town of Dayton, and in 1802, when
Ohio was admitted into the Union, only five families remained. In
1801 Daniel C. Cooper, who had settled in Dayton in 1796, became
titular proprietor of the town, and secured satisfactory titles by
patent and deed. He made several plats of Dayton, and was
very liberal in his treatment of settlers. To him we owe Cooper
Park and other advantages which we now enjoy.
In 1803 Mr. Cooper resuscitated the t.^wn, Montgomery County
was separated from Hamilton County, and Dayton was made the
The first county court was held on the 27th of July, 1803, in
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTON II
an upper room in Nevvcom's Tavern, Hon. Francis Dunlevy
being the presiding judge. Colonel George Newcom was sheriff.
There was no business to transact, and the court adjourned on
the same day. Afterward, when there were prisoners to be cared
for, white prisoners were confined in a dry well on the Colonel's
lot, and Indian prisoners were bound and placed in his corn-crib.
In 1806 the first Court-house was built, of brick, on the present
Court-house lot. In 1817 a new Court-house on the same site
was finished. The present old Court-house was completed in
1850, and the present new Court-house in 1884.
In 1804 a log jail was built on the Court-house lot. A rubble-
stone jail was completed in 1813, in the rear of which a cut-stone
building was erected in 1834 or 1835, which was used until 1845,
when the present work-house was built and used as a jail. This
was followed by the present jail building, completed in 1874.
In 1804 a postoflice was established, with Benjamin Van Cleve
as first postmaster. For many 5'ears the mails were carried on
horseback, and later by stage-coach. At first mail was trans-
ported only once in two weeks, between Cincinnati and Detroit,
via Dayton. The postage was from twenty to twenty-five cents.
In 1805 the town of Dayton was incorporated. Up to this time
the government had been conducted bj^ the county commissioners,
township assessors, and justices of the peace. In this year the
first town election was held, and seven trustees were elected, one
cf whom served as president. In 1829 John Folkerth was elected
the first Mayor. In 1841 Dayton was incorporated as a cit\% and
the City Council took the place of the Town Trustees.
In 1S04 Henry Brown built on ]\Iain Street, near the High
School, a frame building for a store — the first house erected here
specially for business purposes. In 1808 Mr. Brown built the
first brick residence in the town, on the west side of ]\Iain Street,
on the alley between Second and Third streets.
The town at first occupied only a small area near the river,
between Main and St. Clair streets. It was many years before
the business center moved as far south as at present. The orig-
inal plat of the cit}' included only the land as far south as Sixth
Street, as far west as to a block west of Perry, and as far east as a
little be3'ond the present line of the canal.
Communication between the early settlements was ver}^ diffi-
cult. The roads were narrow, muddy, and full of holes, and the
best mode of travel was on horseback. For manv vears there
12 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTOX
were no bridges across the streams, and it was necessary to ford
or use ferries. The first bridge in Dayton was built across Mad
River in 1817. In 1819 Bridge Street bridge was completed and
in 1836 Main Street bridge was opened for travel. In 1838 the
Third Street Bridge Company was formed. In 181S a stage-coach
line began to run between Dayton and Cincinnati. In 1825 a
stage line was established between Columbus, Dayton, and Cin-
cinnati. Between 1836 and 1840 several turnpikes were built,
leading to Cincinnati, Springfield, Lebanon, Covington, and other
In 1810 the Town Council passed an ordinance for the improve-
ment of the sidewalks on the principal streets. They were to be
laid with stone or brick, or graveled, and a ditch was to be dug
on the outeredge of the walks. In 1836 the Council ordered the
streets and walks through the town to be graded. The abundance
of gravel in the vicinity of the cit}' has been of great advantage
in the improvement of the streets and walks.
Within the last few years a -complete sewer system has been
projected and largely finished, the principal .streets of the city
have been handsomely paved with asphalt, brick, sandstone,
and granite, and many of the residence streets have been parked
by narrowing the roadway and making lawns along the borders
of tlie sidewalks. These improvements, together with the large
number of shade-trees which abound in the city, make the
streets very attractive.
In 1838 Cooper Park, donated by D. C. Cooper, was prepared
for the use of the public.
At the time of the settlement of Dayton and for many years
after, the Miami River was regarded as a navigable stream, and
flatboats and keel -boats were -used to carry merchandise between
Dayton and Cincinnati, and Dayton and New Orleans. A ware-
house stood for some years at the head of Wilkinson Street, but
was floated away in the freshet of 1828. 'Navigation, however,
was often obstructed, and in 1825 the Legislature authorized the
construction of a canal between Dayton and Cincinnati. This
was completed in 1828, and in January, 1829, the first canal-boat
arrived from Cincinnati. In 1841 the canal was extended north-
ward, and forms the present Miami and Erie Canal.
The first railroad which entered the city was the road from Day-
ton to Springfield, which was finished in 1851. In the same year
the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad was completed.
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTON 15
Other roads followed, until the city now has eleven railroads,
which form parts of four great railway S5'stems.
The first street-railroad was chartered in 1869, as the "Dayton
Street-Railroad," though generally known as the "Third Street
Railroad." Others followed rapidly until in 1896 there are few
parts of the city not reached by street-cars. Electricity has taken
the place of horse-power on all but one road.
The blockhouse built in 1799 was never needed for defense
against the Indians, but was used as a church and school-house.
In this rude building, on the ist of September, 1799, Benjamin
Van Cleve opened a private school, the first school in Dayton, but-
taught for only a few months. ]\Ir. Van Cleve was an enter-
prising citizen, and to him we owe most of our knowledge of
the settlement and early histor}- of the cit}-.
For many years the town was dependent entirely upon private
schools for the instruction of the children. Among these schools
was the Dayton Academy, incorporated in 1807 and continuing
until 1850. Cooper Female Seminary was opened in 1845, in
charge of E. E. Barney, and at once became known throughout
Ohio as an attractive and scholarly institution. Mr. Barney was
also principal of the Dayton Academy from 1834 till 1839, ^"^ in
1S49 became one of the founders of the Dayton Car Works.
The first Dayton public school was opened Decembers, 1831, by
S3'lvanus Hall, in a school-room on Jefferson Street, between
Water and First streets. Public money was appropriated to sup-
port it, but the amount not being sufficient, each pupil paid a
dollar per quarter for tuition. Three additional rooms were soon
afterwards opened in different parts of the town. Before 183 1
schools had been partly supported hj taxation, but in this year
the school district of Dayton was formally organized. In 1838
the first public-school buildings were erected on the sites now
occupied by the old Second District and the Fourth District
buildings. In 1850 the Central High School was opened in the
present First District building, but was removed in the fall of
that year to the old Academy building, located where the Central
District building now stands. The present Steele High School
building was occupied in the fall of 1893. The Normal School
was opened in 1869, and the Manual-Training School January 2,
1896. There are now nineteen district schools, with twentj^-nine
buildings. The growth of the schools is shown by the follow-
ing table :
l6 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTON
Av. dally attend..
No. of teachers...,
$321,706 i$600,000 i$l,323,525
The interests of the public schools were under the control of a
Board of Directors until 1842, and of a Board of Managers under
direction of the City Council from 1842 to 1855. Since the latter
date the schools have been in charge of a Board of Education.
Ofiicers of the schools may be named as follows :
Presidents of the Board of Education : 1842, E. W. Davies ;
1843, W. J. McKinney; 1844, E. W. Davies; 1845, Thomas
Brown ; 1846, Henry Stoddard, Sen. ; 1847, R. W. Steele ; 1848-
49, H. ly. Brown ; 1850-61, R. W. Steele; 1861-63, H. L. Brown;
1863-64, Thomas F. Thresher ; 1864-69, H. L. Brown ; 1869-73,
E. Morgan Wood; 1873-75, Charles Wuichet ; 1875-78, E. M.
Thresher; 1878-79, C. L. Bauman ; 1879-80, J. K. Webster; 1880-
82, E. M. Thresher; 1882-83, S. W. Davies; 1883-87, R. M.
Allen; 1887-90, C. H. Kumler ; 1890-92, John E. Byrne; 1892-93,
A. W. Gump ; 1893-95, A. H. Iddings ; 1895-96, A. W. Drury.
Superintendents of Instruction : 1855-59, James Campbell ;
1866-68, Caleb Parker; 1873-74, Samuel C. Wilson; 1874-84,
John Hancock ; 1884-88, James J. Burns ; 1888-96, W. J. White.
Principals of the High School : 1850-58, James Campbell ;
1858-66, John W. Hall; 1866-72, William Smith; 1872-95,
Charles B. Stivers ; 1895-96, Malcolm Booth.
Principals of the Normal School: 1869-71, F. W. Parker;
1871-73, Miss Emma A. H. Brown ; 1873-74, W. W. Watkins ;
1874-83, ]\Iiss Jane W. Blackwood ; 1883-90, Miss Mary F. Hall ;
1890-94, INIiss E. Kate Slaght; 1894-95, Mrs. Jane B. Marlay ;
1895-96, Miss Grace A. Greene.
Principals of the District Schools in 1896 : First District,
James M. Craven ; Central, Miss Margaret Burns ; Third ( Nor-
mal), Miss Grace A. Greene; Fourth, G. A. Lange ; Fifth, S. A.
Minnich ; Sixth, Sigmund Metzler ; Seventh, W. J. Patterson ;
Eighth, J. T. Tuttle ; Ninth, A. J. Willoughby ; Tenth, Miss Ella
Beistle ; Eleventh, Miss INIary B. Westfall ; Twelfth, Perry A.
Winder ; Thirteenth, C. C. Davidson ; Fourteenth, Miss Eeoti
E. Clark; Fifteenth, J. R. Fenstermaker ; Sixteenth, A. l,.
» Including the Public Library building
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTON 1 7
Girard ; Seventeenth, Miss INIary K. Teriy ; Eighteenth, Harrj^
Weidner ; Nineteenth, J. M. Ebert.
St. Mar3''s Institute was founded in 1850.
Union Biblical Seminary was founded in 1871, and this year
celebrates its quarter-centennial.
In 1805 the citizens of Da3'ton obtained from the Legislature
the first act of incorporation for a public library granted by the
State of Ohio. This library existed until 1835, when it was sold
at auction. In 1832 the Dayton Lj'ceum was established, and in
connection with it a library. About 1833 there were no less than
six public libraries in Da3'ton. The Dayton Library Association
was formed in 1846, and soon collected an excellent librar3\
After a few 3^ears it was removed to an elegantly furnished room
in the Phillips building, on the southeast corner of INIain and
Second streets. It is said of it that at that day there was no library-
room in Ohio, outside of Cincinnati, that would compare with it in
beauty and convenience. A reading-room was connected with the
library. In the fall of 1855 the Public School Library was opened
in a room on the second floor of the United Brethren Publishing
House. W. H. Butterfield was the first librarian. In 1858 the
library was removed to the Central High School building. In i860
the library of the Library Association was united with it, and it
came into possession of the elegant rooms of the Association. In
1867 the library was removed to the City Hall. In 1876 it occupied
temporarih' a room in the building next north of the Court-house.
When the new City Hall was completed, it was given excellent
quarters in the second stor3', at the INIain vStreet end, where it re-
mained until its removal to the elegant library building in Cooper
Park in 1S88. ]\Iiss ]\Iinta I. Dr3'den is the present librarian.
The first newspaper was published in 1806. Only a few num-
befs were issued, and its name is now unknown. Its editor was
a Mr, Crane, from Lebanon, Ohio. In 1808 the Repertory vidiS
published, and was succeeded in 1810 by the Ohio Centinel.
Since that time Dayton has never been long without a news-
paper. The Da3^ton Journal is the oldest of those now in
existence, and traces its history back to the period preceding
1826. The city now has six dail3^ papers, and forty-nine periodi-
cals of all kinds are now published.
Daytonians have always been generous toward all philan-
thropic movements. The Young INIen's Christian Association,
the Woman's Christian Association, the Young Women's
r8 HISTORIC AI. SKETCH OF DAYTON
League, the Young Men's Institute, St. Joseph's Institute, the
St. Elizabeth Hospital, the Deaconess Hospital, are all examples
of what has been done for the good of the city. The many
literary, musical, and social societies prove that Dayton people
are interested in whatever cultivates the mind.
The first member of the Dayton bar. Judge Crane, with his
well-trained mind, legal learning, courteous and commanding
bearing, simple life, and kind and helpful friendliness, had
uncon.sciously done much to mold the character and ambitions
of the young lawyers who were his companions and successors,
so that the spirit of integrity came to be a characteristic of the
early Dayton bar. Of the members of this early bar, Charles
Ander.son became Governor of Ohio, four were judges, two mem-
bers of Congress, and ten members of the Ohio Legislature.
Several of the later attorneys have been members of Congress,
and some of them are known throughout the country.
The medical profession has been represented in Daj-ton by
many excellent physicians. Karly in the history of the city
medical societies were formed, and some of the later physicians
have acquired more than local reputation.
Dayton's most di.stinguished citizen was General Robert C.
Schenck. He came to Dayton in 1S31 and began the practice
of law. He afterwards became a member of Congress, United
States Minister to Brazil, a general in the Civil War, Minister to
Great Britain, and a menilier of the Joint High Commission
providing for the Geneva Conference. He was said by President
Lincoln to have been the first man who in a public address
named him for the Presidency.
The first male child born in Dayton was John W. Van Cleve,
the son of Benjamin and Mary Whitten Van Cleve, born June 27,
1801. He had a very tender feeling for this corner of the earth,
which his father had helped to hew out of the wilderness. Orig-
inal in character, odd in appearance, the J0II3' band of children
who followed his burly figure through many holida}^ excursions
grew wiser, happier, and healthier. Men and women found in him
an intelligent, cultivated, and agreeable companion, and a very
true and loyal friend. As a citizen he was advanced, enterpris-
ing, and of unbending integrity. He was a graduate of Ohio
University, at Athens, and was especially di-stingiiished for his
fine scholarship. He was a lawyer, editor, musician, painter,
engraver, engineer, and botanist, and served at different times as
From a water-color portrait
BENJAMIN VAN CLEVE,
THE FIRST SCHOOL-TEACHER, THE FIRST POSTMAfSTKB, AND THE
FIRST HISTORIAN OF DAVTON.
DANIEL C. COOPER.
HISTORICAL SKETCH OP DAYTON 21
Maj'or, cit}- engineer, and chief of the Fire Department. In 1839
he made a map of the cit}-. To him more than to an}- other we
are indebted for onr beantifnl Woodland Cemetery. He made the
suggestion of a rural cemetery, and from the organization of the
Woodland Cemeter}- Association, in 1842, to the time of his death,
in 1858, served as its president and gave to its affairs an amount
of labor and watchful supervision which money could not have
purchased. In June, 1843, the cemetery was opened, being the third
rural cemetery of any importance established in the United vStates.
Calvary Cemetery and the Hebrew Cemetery are also beauti-
fully situated on the bluffs below the city.
Cooper's Mills were burned on the 20th of June, 1S20, and four
thousand bushels of wheat and two thousand pounds of wool
destroyed. This was the first fire of any importance that
occurred in Dayton, and led to the organization of the first
fire-compau}-. Council provided ladders, which were hung on
the outside wall of the market-house on Second Street, and also
passed an ordinance requiring each householder to provide two
long, black, leather buckets, with his name painted thereon in
white letters, and keep them in some place easily accessible
in case of an alarm of fire. Before this no public provision
for putting out fires had been made.
In 1827 a fire-engine was purchased, and the first volunteer
fire-compau}^ was organized. At the same time a hook-and-ladder
company was formed. The church bells sounded the fire-alarm,
and fifty cents were paid to each sexton when the fire happened
after nine in the evening. The one who rang his bell first received
a dollar. The engine was a small affair, filled with the leather
buckets, and the water was thrown b}- turning a crank in its side.
An alarm of fire brought oiit the whole population of the town,
and the greatest excitement and confusion prevailed. Double
lines were formed to the nearest pump, one line passing down
the full buckets and the other returning the empt}- ones. Women
were often efiicient workers in these lines. The water in a well
would soon be exhausted, and a move had to be made to one more
remote. It was hopeless to contend with a fire of any magnitude,
and efforts in svicli cases were only made to prevent the spreading
of the flames.
In 1863 the first steam fire-engine was purchased, and our
present splendidly equipped and perfecth* ordered paid department
22 HISTORICAIv SKETCH OF DAYTON
In 1S69 the citizens voted to introduce water-works, and the
present admirable water-works system was established in 1870.
January 3, 1834, an ordinance was passed by Council for the
appointment of one or more watchmen. The marshal and these
watchmen constituted the police of Dayton. After 1841 two
constables were elected each year in addition to the marshal and
deputy. In 1850 sixty men were added to this body. In 1873 the
metropolitan police force was organized. The cit}- had no prison
before 1858, its few offenders being confined in the county jail.
The first market-house was opened July 4, 1815. The markets
were held from four to ten o'clock in the morning on Wednesdays
and Saturdays. The house was a frame building, and stood on
Second Street, between Main and Jefferson. In 1829 a new
market-house was built on Main Street, between Third and
Fourth streets. In 1836 this was extended to Jefferson Street.
In 1876 the present market-house was built.
In 1812 Dayton furnished a company of soldiers for the war
with England. It was also an important camping-place for the
soldiers of this region, and was honored with visits from Gov-
ernor Meigs, General Harrison, General Hull, and other men
prominent in the war. Among the citizens of Dayton in com-
mand of troops were Colonel Robert Patterson, Captain William
Van Cleve, Captain James Steele, Captain A. Edwards, and
Sergeant-Major Joseph H. Crane. A militarj^ hospital was located
on the Court-house corner, in charge of Dr. John Steele. The
business of the town was very much increased by the war, as
Dayton furnished large quantities of supplies for the arm}'.
In 1846-4S occurred the Mexican War. Several companies
were organized in Dayton and fought in numerous battles.
The city of Da^'ton did loyal service in the War of the Rebel-
lion. The great majority of its citizens were on the side of the
Union, and man}' of them laid down their lives for their coun-
try. The city furnished for the United States service 2,699 ^o^
diers ; under special calls of the vState, 965 ; or a grand total of
3,664. Prominent among these were General Robert C. Schenck,
General T. J. Wood, Admiral James F. Schenck, and Rear-Admi-
C. E. Vallandigham, one of Dayton's most talented citizens,
and the Representative of the Third Ohio District in Congress at
the opening of the War, was opposed to the War. He was
arrested at his residence in Da3'ton May 5, 1S63, on a charge of
HISTORICAI, SKETCH OF DAYTON 23
" declaring S3aupathy for the enemy." His arrest was followed
the next night by an attack on the Jo7ir)ial oiBce, which was
burned by a mob composed of men who sympathized with the
South. In 1864 the Empire office was mobbed by a small number
of Union soldiers.
Citizens who could not enlist in the army helped to support
the families of those who became soldiers; societies of ladies
were formed, who made clothing and prepared hospital supplies ;
and in various ways assistance was rendered to the Union.
Soon after the close of the War, the Central National Military
Home was located near Dayton, and there the Government is
providing for the soldiers who, having imperiled their lives for
their country, are so disabled that they can no longer care for
In 1S84 a soldiers' monument was erected by the county, at
the head of Main Street, in memory of the brave men who went
forth to battle never to return.
Numerous floods have caused damage to propert}' in the city.
The most destructive w^as that of September, 1866, which cost, in
losses to individuals and to public property, no less than two
hundred and fifty thousand dollars.
In 1832 there were a number of deaths in the town caused by
cholera. The first Board of Health was appointed in that year.
In 1849, t)y a cholera epidemic, Dayton lost more than two
hundred of her people.
Houses were first lighted by gas in 1849, but street-lighting
came a little later. At present the city is well supplied with
both gas and electric light.
In 1889 natural gas was introduced in Dayton for fuel pur-
poses. Although not sufficiently plenty to supply many fac-
tories, it has proved a great convenience to housekeepers.
The manufacturing interests of Dayton have long been prom-
inent. There has been a steady and substantial gro*vth in the
number and size of manufacturing establishments, until in 1894,
according to the report of the State Labor Statistician, the city
ranked as the third in the vState in number of industries, capital
invested, and wages paid, and fourth in the value of its manu-
factured products. INIany of its establishments are very large,
some employing from one to two thousand persons, and a number
of them are known in almost every part of the globe.
The stores, banks, building-associations, insurance companies,
24 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTON
and other branches of trade conduct a large amount of business,
and rank high in the commercial world.
On the 226. of October, 1892, the Columbian Centennial was
appropriately celebrated in Dayton by an immense procession of
school-children with historical floats exeniplifN'ing the discovery
and the growth and prosperity of the nation, and of military and
civil societies and industrial exhibits, followed by appropriate
addresses and music in Cooper Park.
The Fourth of July was a grand occasion in Dayton in the first
quarter of the nineteenth century. It was often celebrated with
processions, speeches, and dinners, and many of the prominent
citizens served on the committees. The first "jubilee of the
United States," commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the
Declaration of Independence, was celebrated July 4, 1826, by a
procession from the Court-house, services at the brick church, —
First Presbyterian, — a dinner at Mr. Rollman's tavern, — -formerly
Nevvcom's, — and a picnic at the medical spring near the present
buildings of St, Mary's Institute, on Brown Street. The Declara-
tion was read by J. W. Van Cleve, and an oration was delivered
by Peter P. Lowe.
Never in the history of the Northwest has there been a more
exciting Presidential campaign than that which preceded the
election of General W. II. Harrison in 1840, and nowhere was the
enthusiasm for the hero of Tippecanoe greater than in Dayton.
A remarkable Harrison convention was held here on the loth. of
September, the date of Perry's victory on Lake Erie, and tradition
has preserved extravagant accounts of the number present, the
beauty of the emblems and decorations displayed, and the hospi-
talit5rof the citizens and neighboring farmers. A procession five
miles long met General Harrison at the junction of the Troy and
Springfield roads, and escorted him into the cit}'.
In early times, when hotel and boartling-house accommodations
in Dayton were vfery limited, it was the custom, whenever there
was a political or religious convention, or any other large public
meeting here, for the citizens to freel}'* entertain the delegates at
their homes. At night straw-beds were laid in rows, with a nar-
row path between the rows, on the floors of rooms and halls in
both stories of dwellings, and in this way accommodation was
furnished for many guests. When a meeting was of a religious
character, the different denominations assisted in entertaining
the guests. A great part of the labor of preparing for the
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DAYTON
hiiiigr}' crowd of guests Avas performed by Dayton ladies with
their own hands.
Among the men prominent in the early history of the city may
be mentioned D. C. Cooper, Benjamin Van Cleve, Colonel George
Newcom, Robert Edgar, Henry Brown, Judge Isaac Spining,
William King, John H. Williams, Cyrus Osborn, Colonel Robert
Patterson, George S. Houston, Joseph Peirce, Judge Joseph H.
Crane, Charles Russell Greene, Judge James Steele, Dr. John
Steele, Matthew Patton, Abram Darst, Dr. H. Jewett, Rev. James
Welsh, M.D., Dr. John Elliott, Alexander Grimes, Henrj' Bacon,
Luther Bruen, Jonathan Harshman, William Eaker, George
W. Smith, William Huffman, Horatio G. Phillips, J. D. Phillips,
Thomas Brown, Obadiah B. Conover, Samuel Forrer, Colonel
Jerome Holt, Judge George Holt, Dr. Job Haines, James Perrine,
Henry Stoddard, John W. Van Cleve, Collins Wight, INIilo
G. Williams. E. E. Barney, James Hanna, John Folkerth, Aaron
Note.— For a full account of the history of Dayton, the reader is referred
to the booli entitled "Early Dayton," just issued by the publisher of this
pamphlet. Price, in paper, 60 cents; cloth, $1.25.
^^■jt^tiC^ ^_^^^^- -^-r^
EEPBESENTATION OP THE BUILDING IN WHICH THE FIKST SCHOOL IN DAYTON
WAS TAU(iHT, IN 1799.
From a drawing by Kiigene
THE ACADEMY BUILDING, 1833-1857.
OCCUPIED BY THE HIGH SCHOOL FROM 1850 TO 1857.
HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLES
LOCATION AND AREA.
Dayton, the county-seat ot jioxitgomery County, Ohio, is located on both
banks of the Great Miami River, at the confluence of Stillwater, Mad River,
and Wolf Creek with the Miami, and on the line of the Miami and Erie
Canal, sixty miles north-northetist ot Cincinnati, and seventy-one mile.^ west
by south of Columbus. Its latitude is thirty-nine degrees forty-four minutes
north, and its longitude is eighty-four degrees eleven minutes west from
Greenwich, or seven degrees eleven minutes west from Washington. It is an
important station on eleven railroads, which belong to four great systems,
namely: The Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis and the Dayton
& Western, of the Pennsylvania Lines; the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago
& St. Louis and the Dayton & Union, of the "Big Four" System; the Cin-
cinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Dayton & Michigan the Cincinnati, Dayton
& Ironton, and the Cincinnati, Dayton & Chicago, of the C, H. c: D. System;
the New York, Pennsylvania & Ohio, of the Erie System; th;- Dayton,
Lebanon & Cincinnati Railroad, and the Home Avenue Railroad. Thirty-
six hard-graveled roads radiate in all directions from the city, with an
aggregate length of over six hundred miles. The extreme dimensions of
Dayton are: east and west, five and one-eighth miles; north and south, three
and one-half miles. Its area is about ten and three-quarters square miles.
CITY GOVERNMENT AND INSTITUTIONS.
(Compiled from latest reports.)
Elected for two years; ex officio president of Board of Police Directors and
Board of Health, and organizes the City Council; appoints the Board of City
Affairs, the Tax Commission, Board of Work-House Directors, and Board of
BOARD OF CITY AFFAIRS.
Four members; term of office four years, one being appointed each year
by the Mayor; powers executive.
2» HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLES
Sixteen members, elected from eight wards by tlie voters of the wards;
term of office two years, half expiring each year; powers legislative.
Measures involving expenditure and public franchises must be approved
by both City Council and Board of City Affairs.
BOAKB OF ELECTIONS.
Four members, appointed by the Mayor, one secretary.
BOARD OF EQUALIZATION.
Six members, elected by the City Council.
M ISCELL AN EOUS.
City clerk, elected by the Council; treasurer, elected by the people; comp-
troller, solicitor, engineer, sealer of weights and measures, mariiet-master,
superintendent of levees, appointed by the Board of City Affairs; wood-
measurer, elected by the people.
Board of Education.— i^x-aieen members, elected for two years from eight
wards by the voters of the wards, half being elected each year.
Officers and Teachers.— Cler^, superintendent of instruction, superintend-
ent of buildings, truant officer, city board of examiners with three members,
twenty principals, twenty-five High School teachers, throe Normal School
teachers, two Manual-Training School teachers, four special teachers, 251
district-school teachers; total number of teachers, 305.
Enumeration of School Youth ( Between six and twenty-one years of age). —
Public schools, 10,960; private schools, 210; church schools, 2,102; not attend-
ing, 7,276; grand total, 20,578.
Xumber of Pupils in Public iS'e/ioofe.— District schools, 5,143 boys, 5,037 girls,
or a total of 10,180; High School, 207 boys, 474 girls, or a total of 771; Normal
School, 31; grand total, 10,982. In Manual-Training School, 45 pupils from the
High School and 76 pupils from the eighth grade of the district schools;
/ScTwo^s.— Nineteen district schools, one high school, one manual-training
school, one normal school, two night grammar-schools, two night drawing-
Buildings.— Tvfeniy-nine district buildings, including annexes, one high-
school building, one library building. Total value in 1895, $1,269,416.50; in-
cluding personal property, 81,323,525.50. Value of High School: lot, $60,000;
building, $255,000; personal property, ^11,358; total, $326,358.
i^'monces.— Receipts, exclusive of temporary loans and bonds, for the year
ending August 31, 1895, $314,878.14; expenses, exclusive of bonded debt and
temporary loans, $355,700.81; bonded debt, August 31, 1895, $485,000.
Board of six members, elected by the Board of Education; librarian, cat-
aloguer, five library assistants; occupies a fine stone library building, fire-
proof, erected in Cooper Park in 1886-87, and valued at $100,000; contains
35,325 volumes and 1,292 pamphlets; card and printed catalogues; museum
attached; expenses, 1894-95, $10,830.50, of which $2^01.70 was spent for the
purchase of books and periodicals, and $1,094.03 for the museum.
CITY GOVERNMENT AND INSTITUTIONS 29
Organ kation.— Mayor and four police directors, secretary, police judge,
clerk of the police court, superintendent, captain, five sergeants, detective
sergeant, surgeon, seventy-five patrolmen (eight mounted), two turnkeys,
court bailiff, two telephone operators, one police matron.
Headquarters.— In City Building.
Equipment.— One ceiitral station, two substations, one patrol house, two
patrol wagons, one ambulance, sixteen horses.
Finances.— lS9i : Receipts, $76,622.31 ; disbursements, $69,959.99; balance, Jan-
uary 1, 1895, $6,662.32.
A police benevolent association.
WORK - HOUSE.
Four directors, appointed l)y the Mayor, superintendent, matron; one
Organization.— ¥onr fire commissioners, chief and secretary, first assistant
chief, second assistant cliief, seventy-six firemen.
Equipment.— TweWe engine, hose, and hook-and-ladder houses; a fire-
alarm telegraph system, with over one hundred boxes; four steam fire-
engines; two chemical engines; thirteen hose wagons; three hook-and-ladder
wagons; two telegraph wagons; three buggies; thirty-six horses.
Finances.— l9ldo: Cost of maintenance, $67,217.29; value of. real estate, $90,500.
iSeri'tce.— Number of alarms in 1895, 344; total loss, t21, 978.05; total value of
property where fires occurred, $2,012,675; total insurance, $1,611,5.57. The loss
amounted to only about twenty-five cents per capita of the population.
A firemen's benevolent association.
Organization.— Three tmstees, secretary, assistant secretarj', chief engineer,
first assistant engineer, second assistant engineer, superintendent of street
department, two inspectors and collectors.
Equipment.— One pumping-house; three engi"nes, with combined daily
capacity of 29,000,000 gallons; eighty-five eight-inch tube-wells, driven to a
depth of forty-five to fifty feet; over ninety-six miles of street mains, 987
fire-hydrants, 8,607 service connections, 1,300 meters.
Finances.— TotuX expenditures, 1870 to December 31, 1895, $1,792,560.39; total
income to December 3L, 1895, $938,872.77; net cost to December 81, 1895, $853,-
687.62; water-works bonded debt, November, 1895, $765,000, which is gradually
being paid; cost of pipe, hydrants, etc., and laying of same, 1870-95, $700,000;
received from sale of water, 1870-95, $860,926.83; net earnings, 1870-95, $342,000.
Quality of the Water.— The quality of the water, by recent analysis, has
been found to be first-class. It is clear, cold, and remarkably free from
injurious matter. In a recent analysis an average of only forty-eight germs
to the cubic centimeter were found in the samples examined. The average
temperature in the pipes is about 50'.
BOARD OF HEALTH.
Mayor and six members of the board, health officer, secretary, meat
in.spector, four sanitary policemen.
30 HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLES
Three directors, superintendent, clerk, city physician.
Two marliet-bouses, with street markets adjoining; one market-master.
Six members, appointed by the Mayor.
City Expenses, 1891,-95,
Board of Health and Sanitary 10 mills f4,104 82
Bridges 25 mills 10,262 05
Elections 15 mills 6,157 23
Fire Department 1.75 mills 71,834 37
General Expense 60 mills 2-1,628 93
Hospitals ( Deaconess and St. Elizabeth ) 05 mills 2,052 41
Infirmary 05 mills 2,052 41
Lighting 70 mills 28,733 75
Police Department 1.10 mills 45,153 03
Parks and Levees 05 mills 2,052 41
Street Cleaning 75 mills 30,786 16
Street Improvement 35 mills 14,366 87
Sewers 05 mills 2,052 41
Work - House 05 mills 2,052 41
School Paving 10 mills 4,104 82
6.10 mills KoO,3!)4 08
City Interest and Sinking Fund 5.45 mills 223,712 73
Board of Education, 1895-96.
Regular Levy 7.00 mills $288,974 49
Manual-Training School 20 mills 8,256 41
Public Library .25 mills 10,320 52
Taxes for All Purposes, 1S95-96.
s^vy. County, and State 20.00 mills $1,073,333 82
Tax Valuation, 1895-96.
Taxable Property $41,282,070
(Principal and interest payable from a direct tax upon the General
Outstanding March 1, 1895—
Bridge $68,000 00
City Hall 71,000 00
City Prison 10,000 00
Extending Indebtedness 150,000 00
Fire Department 24,000 00
Funded Debt 249,000 00
PERIODICALS — CHURCHES
Outstanding March 1, 1895—
General Street and Improvement ^,(XIO 00
Levee 30,000 00
Park Street Sewer 126,000 00
Police Deficiency 36,000 00
Se iver 150,000 00
Street Paving 528,000 00
Southwestern Sewer 17,000 00
Street Improvement 150,000 00
Wolf Creek Improvement 50,000 00
"Water -Works 505,000 00
Water- Works Enlargement 3,000 00
Water-Works Improvement 280,000 00
Total $2,497,000 00
(Principal and interest payable from assessments upon abutting or
Outstanding March 1, 1895—
Street Paving $1,178,000 00
Sewer 180,000 00
Special Assessment 36,165 00
Total $1,394, 165 00
Daily. — Six, one of which is Gerinan.
Weekly.— ^ii\Q, one of which is German.
Weekly. — Eleven, one of which is German.
Semimonthly.— 'Nine, one of which is German.
Quarterly.— Nine, one of which is German.
rotoi.- Thirty -two.
Grand Total.— Forty-nine.
Baptist Brethren, 1.
Disciples of Christ, 2.
Evangelical Association, :
Methodi-st Episcopal, 10.
Methodist Episcopal, African, 2.
Methodist Protestant, 1.
Methodist, Wesleyan, 1.
Protestant Episcopal, 3.
Roman Catholic, 7.
Salvation Army, 1.
United Brethren in Christ, 12.
United Presbyterian. 1.
32 HISTORICAIv AND STATISTICAL TABLES
CHURCH AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS.
Union Biblical Seminary, the theological school of the Church of the
United Brethren in Christ; four professors, one general manager, and forty-
St. Paul's German Lutheran School, common branches.
Eight parochial schools and academies.
St. Mary's Institute; twenty-one officers and professors, 275 students in
institute, and 120 students in normal department.
Miami Commei-cial College. Young Ladies and Misses' School.
Dayton Commercial College. Home School for Boys.
English Training School. Conservatory of Music.
Deaver Collegiate Institute. Dayton College of Music.
BENEVOLENT AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS.
Young Men's Christian Association.— A Protestant institution, founded in
1870; occupies a fine stone-front building on the south side of Fourth Street,
between Main and Jefferson; value of property, over $100,000; membership,
over 2,500; conducts religious, educational, and physical departments, includ-
ing manual training and industrial education; has reception-room, par-
lors, reading-room, junior room, educational rooms, shop, entertainment
hall, gymnasium, bath-rooms, and athletic park; receipts in 1894-95, 119,386.95;
Woman's Chi-istian Association.— A Protestant institution, founded in 1870;
occupies excellent brick buildings on the south side of Third Street, between
Ludlow and Wilkinson; value of property, $60,000; membership, about
350; includes a young woman's department; conducts religious, charitable,
educational, and physical departments, lunch-room, and exchange; has
reception-room, parlors, reading-room, educational rooms, entertainment
hall, industrial class-room, gymnasium, bath-rooms, etc. ; receipts in 1894-95,
$4,279.41; expenses, $4,242.92.
Young Women's League.— Founded in 1895; occupies a brick building on
the west side of Jefferson Street, between Fifth and Sixth streets; member-
ship, 450; conducts religious, educational, and physical departments, and
Young Men's Institute.— A Roman Catholic institution; occupies a brick
building on the south side of Fourtli Street, lutwcon Ludlow and Wilkinson.
St. Joseph's Institute.— Condwcied by tlic (alliolic Gcsellen-Verein, for the
benefit of young men; organized in ISdS; furnislies reading-room, gymna-
sium, and free circulating library; building located on Montgomery Street.
Protestant Deaconess Home and Hospital.— Founded in 1890 by the Protestant
Deaconess Society of Dayton; occupies an expensive pressed-brick building
on south side of Apple Street, between Main and Brown, costing, with
equipment, about $150,000; capacity, 175 patients.
St. Elizabeth Hospital.— A Roman Catholic institution, founded in 1878;
conducted by the Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis; occupies a large brick
SOCIETIES AND CIvUBS 33
building on the west side of Hopeland Street, between Wasliington and
Albany, costing over 165,000; capacity, 242 patients.
Widoios' Home.— Founded in 1875, by the Woman's Christian Association;
occupies a brick building on the northeast corner of Findlay and May
streets; capacity, twenty-eight inmates; endowment, 137,3.58.79; receipts,
lor year ending October .5, 189.5, $3,124.99; expenses, $2,911.59.
Montgoimry County Children's i/oHie.— Founded in 1866; occupies a bricli
building on the east side of Summit Street, south of Home Avenue; number
of inmates in February, 189.5, fifty-one, of whom thirty-eight were boys and
thirteen were girls; total received from the founding, 1,864.
Christian Deaconess Home. — Monument Avenue, West Side.
Children's 7/ome.— 116 South Ringgold Street.
Bethany Home.— For homeless girls and women; 159 East Park Street.
National Soldiers' Home (Central Branch).— Founded in 1867; located a
short distance west of the city; grounds cover six hiindred and twenty-flve
acres; number of inmates, about 6,000.
Southern Ohio Asylum for the Insane. — Founded in 18.52; located at the south
end of Wayne Avenue; capacity, 800 patients.
Women's Christian Temperance Union, No. 1.
Women's Christian Tcmjjcrance Union, No. 2.
St. Joseph's Oerman Catholic Asylum.
Other Societies.— 'Swraerous lodges of Masons, Knights of Pythia.s, Knights
of St. John, Odd Fellows, Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, Grand Army
of the Republic, Sons of Veterans, Woman's Veteran Relief Union, Order of
United American Mechanics, Knights of Labor, trades unions, and other
LITERARY AND MUSICAL SOCIETIES.
Present Day Club. Shakespeare Club.
Woman's Literary Club. Philharmonic Society.
" H. H." Club. Mozart Club.
Emerson Club. Harmonia Society.
Friday Afternoon Club. Maennerchor.
Garfleld Club. Tliurman Club.
Jackson Club. Lincoln Club.
Gravel Hall Club.
SOCIAL, CYCLING, GYMNASTIC, AND OTHER CLUBS.
Dayton Club. Dayton Gymnastic Club.
Dayton Bicycle Club. Dayton Turngemeinde.
Y. M. C. A. Wheelmen. Stillwater Canoe Club.
Dayton Lawn Tennis Club. Ruckawa Canoe Club.
Dayton Angling Club. Dayton Camera Club.
Phoenix Light Infantry, Company G, Third Regiment Infantry, Ohio
Gem City Light Infantry, Company I, Third Regiment Infantry, Ohio
34 HISTOx --^i^T, A.ND STATISTICAL TABLES
City Hailivay.— Third Street Line, from the east end of Third Street to the
Soldiers' Home; electric; len^h of line, over six miles of double track and
less than one-quarter mile of single track.
Fifth Street Line, from the east end of Huffman Avenue to the Soldiers'
Home; electric; length of line, six and one-half miles of double track and
about one-half mile of single track.
Green Line, from the east end of Richard Street to the corner of Fifth
and Wilkinson; electric; length of line, over two miles of double track.
Authorized capital, $2,100,000; total length of lines operated, over fourteen
and one-half miles of double track and about three-quarters of a mile of
Oakivood Street-Railway.— Yrova. the north end of Salem Street in Dayton
View to Oakwood, at the south end of Brown Street; electric; capital, $;300,-
000; length of line, about four miles of double track.
White Lhie Street -Railway. — Frora the corner of Main Street and Forest
Avenue in Riverdale, via Main, Third, Ludlow, Washington, and German-
town Ntrc'cts to the Soldiers' Home; electric; capital, $400,000; length of line,
about >ix inil<s of double track.
Wdlinc Aviiiiw and Fifth Street Railway.— From, the south end of Wayne
Avenue, via Wayne Avenue, Fifth, Jefferson, First, Keowee, and Valley
streets to the east end of Valley Street in North Dayton; horse-cars; capital,
$100,000; length of line, about three miles of double track and about one
mile of single track.
Dayton Traction Company. — South Main Street, from the corner of Fifth and
extending to Calvary Cemetery; electric; capital, $250,000; length of line, one
and one-half miles of double track and one and one-half miles of single track.
Total length of street railways operated, over twenty-nine miles of double
track and about three and one-quarter miles of single track. About two
and one-half miles of double track being used jointly, the net length of
double track is about twenty-six and one-half miles.
Total length of streets in the city, one hundred and fifty-eight miles, of
which nearly twenty-five miles are paved, as follows: asphalt, fourteen
miles; brick, nearly nine miles; granite, over one mile; Medina stone, over
one-half mile. Total cost of paving, $l,800,iX)0. Eighty-three miles of streets
are graded and graveled, and fifty miles are unimproved.
Thirty-nine miles of sanitary sewers and forty miles of storm sewers have
been laid, at a cost of $495,000.
COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL.
Board of Trade.— Officers : president, first vice-president, second vice-pres.
ident, secretary, treasurer, fifteen directors.
National Banks.— Seven, with combined capital of $2,.500,000, and cash assets
of over 1:3,000,000; a clearing-house.
Building and Loan Associations.— Beventeen, with combined capital amount-
ing to $43,350,000.
Fire-insurance Companies (Home).— Seven, with investment of $700,000,
and net assets amounting to $1,213,204; one underwriters' association.
Incorporated Companies.— One hundred and seventy, with capital stock of
COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 35
Siiilders' Exchan(/e.— Officers: president, first vice-president, second vice-
president, secretary, treasurer.
jS'atural Gas Company.
Electric Light Company.
Telegraph and Cable Compaiiies. — Two.
District Telegraph Company.
.^"'hvays: — Eleven, with sixty-four passenger trains daily.
: aiu/acturing Establishments.— dumber, about one thousand; capital in-
vested in 1S94, $11,6.50,043; value of manufactured products, 1894, $10,103,913.60;
wages paid, 1894, 8^2,176,156.15. In number of factories, in capital invested in
manufacturing industries, and in wages paid, Dayton ranks as the third
city in the State; in value of manufactured products, fourth.
POSTOFFICE STATISTICS, 1895.
Postage Receipts S178,451.08
Expenses of Office $74,648.98
Number of Money Orders Issued 19,852
Value of Money Orders Issued $154,367.35
Number of Money Orders Paid 60,058
Value of Money Orders Paid $;i33,093.77
Pieces of First-Class Mail Received 4,480,000
Pieces of All Other Classes Received 3,948,800
Special Letters Received 9,831
Pieces of First-Class Mail Dispatched 7,620,907
Pieces of All Other Classes Dispatched 7,054,850
Special Letters Dispatched 6,257
Registered Letters and Parcels Received . 40,920
Registered Letters and Parcels Dispatched 19,742
Total Number Pieces Received and Dispatched 23,120,645
"S^'eight in Pounds of Second-Class Matter Mailed by Publishers... 47,441
Number of Carriers 40
Mail Trains Arriving Daily 39
Mail Trains Departing Daily 42
1749— French Major Celoron de Bienville ascended the La Roche or Big Miami
1751 — Gist visited the Twightwee or Miami villages.
1780— General George Rogers Clark led an expedition against the Indians of
the Miami region, one of his officers being Colonel Robert Patterson.
1782 — November 9, A skirmish between American soldiers under General
Clark and the Indians on the site of Dayton, in which the Amer-
icans were victorious.
1786— Americans under Colonel Logan again defeated the Indians on the site
of Dayton, one of the brigades being commanded by Colonel Robert
1789— Plans formed for a town named Venice on the site of Dayton.
1795— August 3, A treaty of peace made with the Indians at Greenville, Ohio,
by General Wayne — August 20, The site of Dayton purchased by
Generals St. Clair, Dayton, and Wilkinson, and Colonel Ludlow —
November, The town laid out by Colonel Israel Ludlow.
36 HISTORICAI, AND STATISTICAL TABLES
1796— April 1, Arrival of first settlers, by the Miami River, landing at the
head of St. Clair Street; two other parties coming a few days later
by land— Newcom's first log cabin built.
1798— First sermon preached in Dayton by Rev. John Kobler, of the Metho-
dist Episcopal Church — First Methodist Episcopal class, now Grace
Church, organized, with eight members — Newcom's Tavern built—
Taxes paid, S29.74.
1799— First Presbyterian Church organized — Blockhouse built— First school
opened — First industries established, consisting of di^illery, saw-
mill, and corn-cracker mill — First lime made — First fiatboat left
for New Orleans — Dayton three years old and contained nine cabins
— Only two houses on Main Street— D. U. Cooper appointed Justice
of the peace.
1800— Presbyterian meeting-house, eighteen by twenty feet in size, built of
logs, on northeast corner of Main and Third streets — August 28,
First wedding in Dayton, that of Benjamin Van Cleve and Mary
Whitten— April 14, First child born in Dayton, Jane Newcom— First
store opened, in Newcom's Tavern.
1801— First male child born in Dayton, John W. Van Cleve.
1802— Only five families in Dayton — Oliio admitted into the Union.
1803 — D. C. Cooper resuscitated the town — Montgomery County organized —
Dayton made the county-seat — First court held in Dayton — New-
corn's Tavern used as court-house, jail, church, and country store.
1804— Postoflice and mail-route established — Benjamin Van Cleve, first post-
master—Mail every two weeks, between Cincinnati and Detroit, via
Dayton — Letter postage twenty to twenty-five cents — Log jail built
on Court-house lot — First grist-mill erected —Taxes for the year,
1805— The town of Dayton incorporated — First town election held — Presby-
terian lofi meeting-house sold for twenty-two dollars and services
continuccl in log tavern — Dayton Social Library Society incorpo-
rated—First brick building erected — First disastrous flood.
1806 — First Court-house built, of brick, on present Court-house lot — Two
brick stores erected— First newspaper published.
1807 — Dayton Academy incorporated.
1808— First brick residence built — 196 votes cast— Repertory first published.
1809— Freigiat line of keel-boats established between Dayton, Laramie, and
St. Mary's — Fourth of July celebrated with a procession —First
drug-store opened — First political convention in the county.
1810— Population, 383— New sidewalks ordered by Select Council— OAio Centi-
nel first published.
1811— Nine flatboats left for New Orleans, with products of the surrounding
country — A comet visible, and severe earthquake shocks felt.
1812— A company enlisted for the War of 1812 — Ohio militia encamped in
1313— First society of mechanics organized— First Dayton bank chartered —
August 13, Present Grand Opera House lot, on southeast corner of
Main and First streets, purchascLl by James Steele and Joseph
Peirce for twenty dollars.
1814— First Methodist church completed— Ferry began to operate at Ludlow
Street— OMo Repuhhcan first published — First Dayton bank opened
for business — A flood.
1815— Dayton Female Charitable and Bible Society organized — First market-
CHRONOLOGICAL RECORD 37
house opened — About cue liuudrcd dwellings in Dayton, chiefly log
cabins— Moral Society and Society of Associated Bachelors formed
— First school for girls opened.
1S16 — First theater held in Dayton— O/iio Watchman first published.
isi7_Xe\v Court-house finished- Presbyterians erected a brick church —
St. Thomas Episcopal Parish organized — Bridge across Mad River
built — Bridge Street Bridge Company incorporated — First Sabbath-
School Association organized — Only two carriages owned in Dayton.
1}^18_ Stage-coach line began to run between Dayton and Cincinnati.
lj^iy_A keel-boat arrived from Cincinnati — St. Thomas Episcopal Church
organized— An African lion exhibited at Reid's Inn — Bridge at
Bridge Street completed.
1820 — Cooper's Mills burned — Population, 1,000.
1822— Montgomery County Bible Society organized — Lancasterian method of
instruction introduced — The Gridiron published— Seven flatboats
and one keel-boat left for New Orleans.
1823 — J/ia«u Republican and Dayton Advertiser first published.
1824— First Baptist Church organized— First cotton factory erected, by Thomas
1825 — Law passed authorizing the construction of a canal from Dayton to
Cincinnati— Stage-line established between Columbus, Dayton, and
Cincinnati— 497 passengers by stage passed through Dayton during
1826— The Waichman and Miami Republican consolidated, and named the
Ohio yational Journal and Montgomery and Dayton Advertiser, after-
ward becoming the Dayton Journal.
1827— First volunteer fire company organized— Baptist society built a church.
1828— Water first turned into the canal — First canal-boat launched — Twenty
stage-coaches arrived every week — First iron foundry established,
now the Globe Iron Works — A flood.
1829 — First arrival of canal-boats from Cincinnati — First temperance society
formed— A new market-house built — Last factory established, now
Crawford, McGregor & Canby's Dayton Last Works — Steele's dam
constructed— A majority of the First Baptist Church established a
Campbellite church, now the Church of Christ.
1830— Population, •l^'i'A — Dayton Republican flrst published.
1831 — First public school opened — Christ Church Parish organized- First
Catholic family arrived in Dayton — R. C. Schenck began practice
of law in Dayton.
1832— A fugitive slave captured in Dayton — First Board of Health appointed
— Fifty-one brick and sixty-two wooden houses built — A silk man-
ufactory established — Dayton Lj^ceuni organized — First parochial
schoolopened— Aflood — Mad River & Lake Erie Railroad Company
1833— First Reformed Church organized — Mechanics' Institute orgajiized —
Population, 4,000 — Thirty- three deaths from cholera.
ISi^— Democratic Herald first published — Police Department organized.
1835— Firemen's Insurance Company chartered.
1S3G— Main Street bridge opened for travel — First book published.
1837 — Emmanuel Catholic Church dedicated.
1838— The " public square," now Cooper Park, prepared for and planted with
trees— Convention held in the interest of free schools— Dayton and
Springfield turnpike constructed— Montgomery County Agricul-
38 HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLES
tural Society organized— Erection of public school-liouses ordered
— Tliird Street Bridge Company formed.
1839 — Dayton Township first divided into election precincts — First county
agricultural fair held — Day ton Silk Company organized, with capital
of $100,000— First English Lutheran Church orgr.uized.
1840— Harrison campaign —General Harrison visited D:. , ton — Dayton Journal
began to issue first daily paper— Emmanuel Church of the Evangel-
ical Association organized— Population, 6,067— Paper-mill established
— Montgomery County Mutual Fire Insurance Company organized.
1841— Dayton incorporated as a city— The works of W. P. Callahan & Com-
I&i2— Western Empire, now Daj'ton Times, established.
1843— Woodland Cemetery opened— John Quincy Adams ente tained— Bank
of Dayton chartered by the State Legislature.
1844— St. Henry's Cemetery opened.
1845— Bank of Dayton ( a State bank ), now the Dayton National Bank, organ-
ized—Dayton Bank, to which the Winters National Bank traces its
1846— Dayton furnished soldiers for the Mexican War.
1847 —Disastrous flood— Dayton Library Association organized — First United
Brethren Church organized— First telegraph message received.
1849— Two hundred and twenty-five deaths from cholera— The Barney &
Smith Car Wcriis established— Dayton lighted by gas— St. Mary's
Institute founded— W. C. Howells purchased the Daytoa Transcript.
1850 — Central High School established — Present old Court-house completed
— City Bank and Farmers' Bank opene;^ — D. L. Hike, now tLi; C'^'y:
Dry Goods Company, began business — First Hebrew Congregt tion
organized- Population, 10,976.
1851— First railroad, from Dayton to Springfield completed- Cincinnati,
Hamilton & Dayton Railway coiapleted to Dayton — First passenger
station located at northeast co.'ner of Jefterson and Sixth streets-
Miami Va'ley Banli estaul. shed — Dayton Insurance Company
organized — Hebrew cemetery opened.
1852— Probate Court of Montgomery County first opened -southern Ohio
Insane Asylum located at Dayton — Exchange Bank, successor of the
Dayton Bank, opened — Dayton & Union Railroad opened for traffic.
1853— United Brethren Publishing House, established in 1834 at Circleville,
Ohio, removed to Dayton— Dayton & Western Railroad opened.
1854— First Orthodox Congregational Society organized.
1855— Public Library established — Works of Pinneo & Daniels established.
1856— Union Passenger Station erected.
1857— Old Central High School building erected.
1859— Stomps-Burkhardt chair factory established.
1860— Miami Commercial College established— Population, 20,081.
1861-65 — Dayton furnished to the United States service 2,699 soldiers; under
special calls of the State, 965; grand total of Dayton men in the
1862— Lowe Brothers' paint factory founded.
1863— First J^ational Bank, no>«v the City National Bank, established- Sec-
ond National Bank chartered — Miami "Valley Insurance Company
organized — First steam fire-engine purchased — Vallandigham ar-
rested — Jounml office burned — Dayton & Michigan Railroad opened.
186i — Empire office mobbed— The-Bro^nell Company began business.
CHRONOLOGICAL RECORD 39
1865— Miami Valley Boi.er Works established— Teutonia Insurance Com-
pany organized- Ohio Insurance Company began business — Atlan-
tic & Great Western Railroad, now the New York, Pennsylvania &
Ohio, formed by the consolidation of several roads.
18ed— Great destruction by flood — National Soldiers' Home located near
Dayton— Stil well & Bieree Manufacturing Company began business
— T'b?A-s-^eiYu?!g' established — Christian Publishing Association, estab-
lished in 1843, reincorporated and located in Dayton.
1867— Central Branch National Military Home established near Dayton —
Dayton Buildi'-g Association No. 1 organized — Montgomery County
Children's Home founded — Cooper Insurance Company incorpo-
1868— McHose & Lyon Architectural Iron Works established — John Dodds
began to manufacture agricultural implements.
1860- First street-railway constructed, on Third Street — Normal School
opened — Dayton Malleable Iron Company incorporated— Thresher
& Company began to manufacture varnish— Sunday, May 16, 1 a.m.,
Turner's Opera House and adjoining buildings burned; loss, $500,000 ;
1870— Holly Water- Works established — Young Men's Christian Association
organized— Woman's Christian Association organized — Population,
30,473— Cincinnati "Short Line" Railroad, now a part of the Cleve-
land, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, incorporated.
1871— Union Biblical Seminary opened —Merchants National Bank incorpo-
rated—Wayne and Fifth Street Railway and Dayton View Street-
1872 — Calvary Cemetery opened.
1873 — Metropolitan police force organized — Mutual Home and Savings Asso-
1874— Philharmonic Society organized — New jail completed — Smith &. Vaile
Company began business.
1875— J. W. Stoddard & Company began business.
1877 — Free night schools established— Crume & Sefton Manufacturing Com-
pany established — Dayton & Southeastern Railroad, now the Cin-
cinnati, Dayton & Ironton, opened.
1878 — St. Elizabeth Hospital founded— Woodhull's carriage and buggy works
1879— Dayton Daily Herald first published.
1880 — Fifth Street Railway Company incorporated — Population, 38,678.
1881 -St. Elizabeth Hospital erected.
1882— Third National Bank chartered — Columbia Insurance Company organ-
ized—Reformed Publishing Company organized.
1883— Serious flood — Montgomery County Bar Association organized — Elec-
tric light introduced — Dayton Manufacturing Company incorpo-
rated—Historical Publishing Company incorporated.
1884 — New Court-house completed— National Cash Register Company organ-
ized—Montgomery County Soldiers' Monument dedicated — Ohio
Rake Company incorporated.
1886— A destructive flood, damaging West Dayton.
1887— White Line Street-Railway, the first operated by electricity, constructed
— Union Safe Deposit and Trust Company incorporated — Pasteur-
Chamberland Filter Company incorporated— Board of Trade organ-
HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLES
1888— New Public Library building occupied — Fourth National Bank incor-
porated—Davis Sewing-Macliine Company removed to Dayton —
First street-paving laid, on East Fifth Street.
1889— Woman's Literary Club organized — Natural gas introduced — Teutonia
National Bank chartered.
1890— Protestant Deaconess Society organized — First sanitary sewei-s laid —
Lorenz & Company, music publishers, began business — Population,
1891 — Dayton Computing Scale Company incorpoi'ated — Dayton Under-
writers' Association incorporated — Deaconess Society opened a
temporary hospital— Dayton P?-e«s established.
1892— Columbian Centennial celebrated— Sey bold Machine Company incor-
1893— New High School building completed — Thresher Electrical Company
1894— Deaconess Hospital completed and dedicated— Police matron appointed.
1895— All street railways except one operated by electricity —Dayton Traction
Company began to operate its line — Present Day Club organized-
Young Women's League organized.
1896— Manual-training school opened- Population, about 80,000— Sixty-four
passenger trains daily — April 1, Centennial celebration begun.
FIREPLACE AND SPINNING-WHEEL.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
014 750 163 8 #1