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Full text of "An outline of North Carolina history"

THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 



C970 
E1320 



UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



00043180547 



FOR USE ONLY IN 
: NORTH CAROLINA COLLECTION 




No. A 368 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://archive.org/details/outlineofnorthcaOOeast 



AN OUTLINE OF 
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 

by 

John W. Easterly, Jr. 

and 

Jo Ann Williford 



W U I 




} 



Division of Archives and History- 
Department of Cultural Resources 

1979 



•«•»•« 




i 



r , 




COVER: John White's 1585 map of North Carolina. Copies of this as well as other 
maps, drawings, and photographs, may be obtained in the North Carolina State 
Archives. 



W. P. dimming. North Carolina in Maps Courtesy of The British Museum and 

(Raleigh: State Department of Archives the North Carolina Collection, Uni- 

and History, 1966), Plate 1. versity of North Carolina Library, 

Chapel Hill. 



AN OUTLINE OF NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 

by 

John W. Easterly, Jr. 
and 
Jo Ann Williford 



Raleigh 
Division of Archives and History 
Department of Cultural Resources 
197$ 




North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources 
Sara W. Hodgkins, Secretary 



Division of Archives and History 
Larry E. Tise, Director 



North Carolina Historical Commission 

Sarah M. Lemmon, Chairman 

Gertrude Sprague Carraway H. G, Jones 

T. Harry Gat ton J, C. Knowles 

Raymond Gavins R. M. Lineberger 

Samuel W. Johnson Clyde M. Norton 

Frontis W. Johnston John E. Raper 



EI22o 

CONTENTS 

Foreword vi 

Preface vii 

The Natural Setting: North Carolina Geography and Ecology 1 

Native Americans : the Indians of North Carolina 3 

European Exploration and Beginnings of Settlement, 1497-1660 6 

Albemarle County: Cradle of North Carolina, 1663-1689 8 

The Emergence of North Carolina, 1689-1729 11 

Immigration and Expansion, 1729-1775 14 

Agriculture and Industry, 1729-1775 16 

Transportation, Trade, Towns, and Communication in 

Colonial North Carolina 19 

The Social Order in Colonial North Carolina 21 

Religious and Cultural Development in Colonial North Carolina .... 23 

North Carolina Politics, 1730-1763: Constitutional 

Controversies and Anglo-French Wars 24 

Sectionalism in Colonial North Carolina 26 

The North Carolina Regulators, 1766-1771 27 

The Coming of the American Revolution, 1763-1775 30 

The Transition from Colony to Statehood, 1776 33 

The New State and Its Problems, 1776-1781 35 

The War in North Carolina, 1776-1781 37 

Aftermath of the Revolution, 1781-1789 39 

North Carolina and the Federal Union, 1777-1789 42 

North Carolina and the Federalists, 1789-1800 46 

North Carolina in the Jeffersonian Era, 1801-1815 48 

Early Nineteenth-Century North Carolina: "The Rip Van 

J Winkle State" 51 

fa 

;s ii:L 



The Murphey Program for State Development 54 

North Carolina's Changing Role in National Politics, 1824-1835 . . 57 

The Convention of 1835 60 

The Whigs Inaugurate an Age of Progress : North Carolina 

Politics, 1835-1850 62 

Continued Progress under the Democrats: North Carolina 

Politics, 1850-1860 65 

Economic Development of North Carolina, 1835-1860 68 

Intellectual Awakening in Antebellum North Carolina, 1835-1860 . . 70 

Religion in Antebellum North Carolina 73 

Society in Antebellum North Carolina 75 

North Carolina and the Coming of the Civil War 80 

North Carolina and the Civil War, 1861-1865 85 

Reconstruction in North Carolina, 1865-1877 89 

The Industrial Revolution in North Carolina, 1870-1900 94 

Agriculture in North Carolina, 1865-1900 98 

Education in North Carolina, 1860-1900: 

Slow Recovery after the War 100 

North Carolina Politics, 1877-1894: Conservative 

Democrats in Control 103 

North Carolina Politics, 1894-1900: Fusion Rule and 

the Return of the Democrats to Power 107 

North Carolina Politics, 1900-1920: Era of Democratic 

Dominance 113 

North Carolina's Economic Growth from the Turn of the 

Century to the 1920s 119 

Educational and Cultural Growth in North Carolina 

from the Turn of the Century to the 1920s 124 

North Carolina Politics, 1920-1932 128 

North Carolina and the New Deal, 1933-1941 132 

World War II and after: North Carolina Politics, 

1941-1952 135 

iv 



The Continuing Industrial Revolution in North Carolina, 

1930-1960S 138 

Agriculture, Transportation, and Trade in North Carolina, 

1930-1960S 143 

Education and Culture in North Carolina, 1930-1960s 146 

North Carolina Politics, 1952-1965 150 

Appendix I: The Nature of the North Carolina State Archives .... 157 

Appendix II: Resources of the Division of Archives and History. . . 169 

Appendix III: Comprehensive Resources 191 

Notes on Sources 194 



FOREWORD 



This publication represents more than two years of research, 
writing, and editing. Some time ago we recognized the need for a 
comprehensive overview of the resources of the Division of Archives 
and History as they relate to the basic chronology of North Carolina 
history. This outline is designed to fill that need. We hope that 
it will be useful to other agencies of government, institutions, and 
individuals who frequently draw on the resources of this division. 
We already know of the outline's immense potential as a basic 
planning source within our own programs . Certainly it will serve 
a similar function elsewhere. 

No effort of such duration could occur without the collaborative 
efforts of many talented people. John Easterly and Jo Ann Williford 
are listed as coauthors of this publication and rightly so. Upon 
them rested the primary work of gathering, digesting, writing, and 
editing the outline. They have done a splendid job. Yet as they 
would readily admit, they did not act alone. Every section chief 
of the division and staff members of the Director's Office assisted 
in creating the final product. In that sense this publication fits 
within one of the oldest and best traditions of the state's histori- 
cal agency; cooperation and collaboration conducted in an atmosphere 
of professionalism. 



Larry E. Tise 

Division of Archives and History 



vi 



PREFACE 



Through the years many North Carolinians have taken great pride 
in this state's history and have worked diligently to collect and 
maintain its historical resources. Yet, there are countless citizens 
who are unaware of the history that has taken place and the wealth 
of information contained within our borders. It is our hope that 
this volume will help remedy that situation by providing researchers 
with a comprehensive outline of North Carolina history and a general 
overview of the types of records located here. 

Within the body of the outline will be found several entries 
which begin "Inquiry concerning." These are areas of North Carolina 
history which have not been studied at length and which should provide 
possible research topics for students and other historians. The 
mammoth task of providing this outline fell to John Easterly, who 
changed jobs shortly after its completion. Whether one act is re- 
lated to the other is uncertain, as is the question of whether John's 
subsequent move to Louisiana was an attempt to remove himself further 
from the countless facts of North Carolina history which he amassed 
during this project. At any rate, his efforts have provided us with 
a very complete outline of the people and events that comprise our 
state's history. 

I was assigned the tasks of editing the outline and compiling 
the list of resources found in the appendixes. Appendix I, an essay 
entitled, "The Nature of the North Carolina State Archives," provides 
readers with an understanding of the broad categories of materials 
found there. To attempt to list the thousands of varied documents 
individually would be far beyond the scope of this project, but the 
essay should prove very useful to those who wish to learn something 
of our archival records. 

A catalogue of resources for the other sections — Archaeology 
and Historic Preservation, Historic Sites, Historical Publications, 
Museum of History, State Capitol/Visitor Services, and Tryon Palace — 
follows the essay on archival materials. Appendix II is divided by 
chapter headings which correspond to the chapters in the outline. 
The resources , catalogued by section under each heading , deal with 
that specific period of history. The list may include publications, 
manuscripts, sites, or artifacts. Appendix III, entitled "Compre- 
hensive Resources," contains information on those materials located 
within the individual sections which do not easily fit into one 
specific time frame or category. 

Finally, on behalf of John Easterly and myself, I would like to 
thank all of those who helped bring this project to fruition. I extend 
a special vote of appreciation to Dr. William S. Price, Jr. , Dr. Jeffrey 
J. Crow, and Ms. Terrell L. Armistead for their contributions and to 
Mrs. Myrle L. Fields for typing the appendixes. 



Jo Ann Williford 



vii 



THE NATURAL SETTING: NORTH CAROLINA GEOGRAPHY AND ECOLOGY 



1. Three geographic regions. 

A. Coastal Plain. 

1. Outer banks: "Graveyard of the Atlantic." 

2. Tidewater or Outer Coastal Plain. 

a. Amphibious landscape with abundant water-logged 

areas blur distinction between land and water surfaces, 

b. Necks of land project irregularly into sounds and 
are occupied by large areas of swamps and lakes. 

c. Prevalence of flat, poorly drained surfaces and 
absence of any conspicuous relief impose appearance 
of uniformity on landscape. 

3. Western or Inner Coastal Plain lies at higher eleva- 
tions than Outer Coastal Plain and has more pronounced 
relief. 

4. Influence of geographic factors concerning Coastal 
Plain on North Carolina history. 

a. Treacherous coast and lack of good harbors at 
first diverted, then retarded European settlement 
and have continued to be obstacles to economic 
development. 

b. Coastal Plain is well suited to agriculture — 
rich soil, abundant rainfall, mild climate. 

B. Piedmont. 

1. Much of it lies between 500 and 1,000 feet above sea 
level. Going east to west, it rises gradually at 
rate of three or four feet per mile to foot of 

Blue Ridge. 

2. Has rolling upland surface. 

3. Climate is mild but somewhat cooler than Coastal 
Plain. 

4. Region's rivers flow into ocean in South Carolina. 
Since trade routes followed valleys, North Carolina 
was to some degree split into eastern and western 
sections. 

C. Mountain region embraces southern Appalachians. 

1. Covers about 6,000 square miles. 

2. Characterized by alternations of mountains and valleys. 

3. Includes highest mountains of Appalachian system. 
Mount Mitchell, elevation 6,684 feet, is highest 
mountain in eastern United States. 

II. Contrasts between Coastal Plain and Piedmont were responsible 
for early development of assertion that western part of 
colony had greater productivity and potential for settlement, 
an assertion which has been borne out by the facts. 
A. Coastal Plain contains much greater amount of wetlands 
than Piedmont. Large proportion of wetlands impeded 
extension of settled area due to costs and difficulty 
of clearing such land. 



B. Coastal parts were held to be less healthful, less 
temperate, and less pleasant than interior, probably 
due to hurricanes and mosquitos. 

III. The wilderness as factor in early North Carolina history. 

A. Source of food, clothes, building materials. 

B. Forest industries, such as naval stores and lumber. 

C. Wildlife as problem for farmers. 

D. Inquiry as to whether frontier experience or European 
cultural heritage was greater factor in shaping lives 
of colonial and early national North Carolinians. 

IV. Mineral resources — large variety but little abundance. 

V. Inquiry concerning impact of social processes on geography and 
ecology at various stages of North Carolina history. 

A. Effects of coming of white man on natural environment. 

B. Effects of war, especially Civil War. 

C. Effects of population increase and migration, such 
as westward movement and urbanization. 

D. Effects of industrialization, such as pollution. 



NATIVE AMERICANS: THE INDIANS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



1. Indians seem to have migrated from Asia to America in 
prehistoric times. Investigations have yielded little 
evidence that Indian settlement in North Carolina dates 
back as early as that in several other areas of present 
U.S. 

EI. Tribes of North Carolina Indians. 

A. Weak coastal tribes rapidly came under subjection of 
whites, and their decline in population and power was 
due to effects of contact with whites. 

1. Hatteras Indians. 

a. Occupied sandbanks in vicinity of Cape Lookout. 

b. Evidence suggests that survivors of Lost Colony 
may have been incorporated into this tribe. 

c. About 1700 tribe numbered only around sixteen 
fighting men with total population of eighty. 

2. Chowan Indians. 

a. Were strong tribe when settlers began to move 
into Albemarle region about 1650. 

b. Assigned to reservation in late seventeenth 
century, by 1707 they had only one town with 
fifteen fighting men. 

c. In 1733, when only a few families remained, they 
incorporated themselves with Tuscarora. 

3. Others. 

a. Weapomeiok. 

b. Mattamuskeet. 

c. Pamlico. 

d. Bay River. 

e. Coranine. 

f. Neuse. 

g. Woccon. 

h. Cape Fear. 

B. Tuscarora. 

1. Were of Iroquoian stock. 

2. Were fierce and aggressive, unlike weak coastal tribes. 

3. Around 1700 they had 15 towns, about 1,200 fighting 
men, and approximately 5,000 in total population. They 
inhabited large area between coast and present 

Wake County. 

4. About 1710, after half century of apparent friendship 
between whites and Tuscarora, situation worsened; in 
part because large numbers of Tuscarora were being 
seized and sold into slavery. 

5. Tuscarora War broke tribe's power. With war's end in 
1713, many Tuscarora fled northward to join their 
Iroquois kinsmen. Others remained in eastern North 
Carolina and united with remnants of other tribes 
under leadership of Chief Tom Blount on reservation. 

6. Early in nineteenth century, remaining Tuscarora in 
North Carolina left to join brothers in New York. 



C. Minor Piedmont tribes. 

1. Saponi. 

2. Tutelo 

3. Occaneechee. 

4. Saura. 

5 . Keyauwee . 

6 . Eno . 

7. Saxapahaw. 

D. Catawba. 

1. Largest and most important tribe of Siouan stock 
in Piedmont. 

2. Lived along Catawba River. 

3. Sedentary, agricultural people. 

4. Hereditary enemies of Cherokee. 

5. Were always friendly toward whites except during 

Yemassee War in 1715. 

6. Tribe suffered rapid decline due to diseases intro- 
duced by contact with whites, especially smallpox. 

7. After death of their chief King Haiglar, in 1762 
at hands of Shawnee, tribe largely ceased to be 
of importance. 

8. In early seventeenth century, tribe's population was 
probably over 5,000. By 1826 it was about 110. 

9. By 1944 population was 280, most of them living on 
reservation along Catawba River . 

E. Cherokee. 

1. Since early European settlements tribe has occupied 
more prominent place in American history than any 
other tribe or confederation of Indians except 
Iroquois or Six Nations of New York. 

2. Throughout much of tribe's history, population has 
generally fluctuated between 20,000 and 25,000. 

3. Unlike other tribes of North Carolina, Cherokee 
offer many and varied sources for historians and 
other scholars. 

4. They are mountain people, detached branch of 
Iroquois stock. 

5. In 1730 North Carolina made treaty with Cherokee 
in which Cherokee acknowledged King George II as 
sovereign. 

6. Increasing conflicts between Cherokee and settlers 
led to determined campaign by whites against them in 
1761. This campaign led to destruction of fifteen 
Cherokee towns. There followed several years of 
peace. 

7. During the Revolution, Cherokee were allied with 
British against colonists, continuing their active 
opposition till 1792. 

8. In later years Indians ceded tract after tract 

of land to federal government . Disputes over land 
among Indians, settlers, and federal and state 
governments were complex. 



9. In 1835 Cherokee council assented to treaty which 

provided for tribe's removal to the Indian Territory, 
an area in northeast corner of what is now state of 
Oklahoma. Federal government forced its will on 
tribe by using minority delegation of Cherokee to 
push treaty through their council over opposition of 
majority of tribe's rank and file. 

10. Removal to Indian Territory began toward end of 1837. 
Hundreds died on journey. 

11. Some Cherokee resisted removal and became fugitives 
in mountains of western North Carolina and eastern 
Tennessee. After a time, however, they agreed to 
surrender due to influence of trader William H. 
Thomas . 

12. Thomas's extended negotiations with federal 
government led to permission for Cherokee to 
remain in their ancestral home. 

III. Inquiry concerning Indian societies prior to coming of 
white man. 

A. Geographic areas. 

B. Physical characteristics of peoples. 

C. Population. 

D. Family life. 

E. Economy. 

F. Social structure. 

G. Political organization (including warfare). 
H. Arts. 

I. Religion. 

IV. Impact of invasion of whites on history of Indians. 

A. Depopulation through disease, warfare. 

B. Migration, including removal and reservations. 

C. Radical alteration, in some cases destruction, of 
Indian cultures. 

D. Inquiry concerning evolution of white man's image of 
Indian and of his "Indian policy." 

V. Indian contributions to American civilization as it exists 
today, for example: 

A. Place names. 

B. Crops. 

C. Myths and traditions. 



EUROPEAN EXPLORATION AND BEGINNINGS OF SETTLEMENT, 1497-1660 



I. Discovery of North Carolina. 

A. John Cabot, sailing under auspices of England, 1497-1498, 
discovered North American continent. Although he may 
have touched Carolina coast, he probably did not. 

B. Giovanni da Verrazzano, Florentine navigator in service 
of France, is first European known to have explored 
coast of North Carolina. In 1524 he explored coast 
from Cape Fear northward to present Kitty Hawk and 
sent description of area to King Francis I. 

II. Spanish activities. 

A. Pedro de Quexoia led expedition from Santo Domingo to 
Carolina coast in 1520. 

B. Among members of this expedition was Lucas Vasquez 
de Ayllon, who in 1526 made unsuccessful attempt to 
plant colony, probably on Cape Fear River. 

C. Hernando de Soto in 1540 explored mountain region. 

D. In 1561 Angel de Villafane led Spanish expedition 
from Vera Cruz to Cape Hatteras. 

E. Juan Pardo and Hernando Boyano explored mountains 
of North Carolina in expedition of 1566-1567. 

III. First English efforts at colonization: Sir Walter 
Raleigh. 

A. Although his efforts failed, Raleigh is justly called 
"Father of English America." 

B. Raleigh obtained charter from Elizabeth I authorizing 
colonization in 1584. 

C. He then sent out expedition of Philip Amadas and 
Arthur Barlowe to explore country and recommend 
site for settlement. 

1. Expedition chose Roanoke Island as site for colony. 

2. Established relations with Indians and brought 
two back to England . 

3. Barlowe wrote encouraging report concerning area. 

D. Ralph Lane colony, 1585-1586. 

1. Expedition consisted of 7 ships, 108 men under 
command of Sir Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane. 

2. Arrived at Roanoke on August 17, 1585. 

3. Settlers had problems. 

a. Too much time spent exploring and seeking gold, 
too little cultivating soil and building houses. 

b. Scarcity of food. 

c. Indian hostility. 

d. Friction among leaders. 

e. Lack of solid basis for government. 

4. Colony returned to England with Sir Francis Drake's 
fleet in 1586. 

5. Expedition of Grenville, which had been sent to 
England for supplies, returned to Roanoke shortly 
after island had been abandoned. Grenville soon 
returned to England, leaving behind eighteen men 
who were never heard of again. 



6. Significance of Ralph Lane colony. 

a. First English colony in New World. 

b. John White's paintings depicted Indian life. 

c. Thomas Harlot's book on Roanoke, A Briefe and 
True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia . 

E. John White colony, or "Lost Colony," 1587. 

1. This expedition consisted of 110 people, including 
17 women and 9 children. 

2. Baptism of Manteo was first recorded Protestant 
baptismal service in New World. 

3. Birth of Virginia Dare, first child of English 
parents born in America. 

4. For a time colony fared well. But soon it ran 
low on supplies, and White sailed to England. 

5. He was not able to return until 1590, when colonists 
had disappeared. Their fate has remained mystery. 

F. Raleigh's efforts to found colony were thus failures, 
but his activities stimulated interest in New World. 

Permanent English colonization of North Carolina came 
through gradual settlement of Albemarle region by 
colonists from Virginia. 

A. Virginia Company of London promoted establishment 
of Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, first permanent 
English settlement in New World. 

B. Most of what became North Carolina was included in 
Virginia charter boundaries of 1606 and supplementary 
grant of 1609. 

C. Virginia began to expand about 1612, and explorers, 
hunters, traders, and farmers began to penetrate 
Chowan River-Albemarle Sound area. 

D. First recorded expedition into this area was made 
by John Pory (1622) . 

E. In 1629 Charles I granted his Attorney General Sir 
Robert Heath certain territory between 31 and 36 
degrees north latitude and from sea to sea, which 
was to be incorporated into "Province of Carolana." 
Heath failed to settle his grant. 

F. Gov. William Berkeley of Virginia sent two expeditions 
against Indians in Albemarle Sound region in 1646. 

G. Two mid-seventeenth century accounts of region were 
letter in Moderate Intelligencer of London, 1649, and 
Edward Bland ' s tract , The Discovery of New Brittaine , 
1650. 

H. Roger Green of Nansemond County, Virginia, in 1653 
received large grant of land in Carolina region. It 
is not known If his colonization project materialized, 
but if it did, it is probable that beginning of North 
Carolina settlement dates from this time. 

I. By 1660 there was steady flow of people from Virginia 
into Albemarle area seeking new lands and economic 
opportunities. 

J. First known permanent white settler in North Carolina 
was Nathaniel Batts, who in 1654 or 1655 settled on 
Chowan River in present Bertie County. 



ALBEMARLE COUNTY: CRADLE OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1663-1689 



I. Carolina proprietary charter of 1663. 

A. Issued by Charles II as means of paying political debt 
to some important men and retaining their support. 

B. Eight Lords Proprietors. 

1. Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon. 

2. George Monck, duke of Albemarle. 

3. William, earl of Craven. 

4. Lord John Berkeley. 

5. Sir William Berkeley. 

6. Sir George Carteret. 

7. Lord Anthony Ashley-Cooper (later earl of Shaftesbury). 

8. Sir John Colleton. 

C. Motives for charter other than personal ones of king. 

1. Spread Protestantism. 

2. Enlarge British empire. 

3. Promote commerce. 

4. Enrich proprietors. 

D. Second charter issued in 1665 extended boundaries 
of Carolina. 

E. Provisions of charter. 

1. Some powers of proprietors. 

a. To create and fill offices. 

b. To erect counties and other subdivisions of 
government . 

c. To establish courts of justice. 

d. To collect taxes and duties. 

e. To raise and maintain militia. 

2. Some limitations to proprietors' powers. 

a. Laws could be enacted only with advice and assent 
of "freemen" or their delegates. 

b. Settlers were guaranteed liberties and privileges 
of English subjects. 

c. Settlers were guaranteed rights of trade and freedom 
from taxation except by consent of "free people" 

or majority of them. 

II. Proprietors made plans for development of three counties. 

A. Albemarle consisted of land from Chowan River eastward. 

B. Clarendon included land south of Albemarle, extending to 
Cape Fear Valley. Lasted only from 1665 to 1667. 

C. Craven covered area south of Cape Romaine in what was 
to become South Carolina. 

III. Documents concerning government of Carolina Proprietary. 

A. "Declarations and Proposals to All That Will Plant in 
Carolina," 1663, outlined framework of government and 
conditions for granting lands. 

B. "Concessions and Agreement," 1665, proposed another 
plan. 



C. "Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina," 1669. 

1. Supposedly written by Shaftesbury and John Locke 
at instance of proprietors. 

2. Purpose was to revise previous documents, protect 
property rights, and promote settlement. 

3. Plan was elaborate, but little of it was actually 
put into effect. 

4. Proprietors abandoned document in 1693 due to 
colonial legislature's refusal to approve it. 

Actual government of Albemarle was vested in governor 
and his council which was chosen by proprietors and 
an assembly elected by freeholders. 

A. Governor had extensive executive, legislative, judicial, 
and administrative powers. 

B. Council assisted governor and had some executive, 
legislative, and judicial powers. 

C. Assembly went through several steps in its evolution. 

1. From 1665 to 1669 twelve men were elected 
annually to sit with governor and council as 
legislature. 

2. Beginning in 1670, when Albemarle was divided 

into four precincts (Chowan, Pasquotank, Perquimans, 
Currituck) , each precinct was allotted five delegates 
in assembly. 

3. In mid-1690s bicameral system was adopted and 
lower house elected its own speaker and exercised 
some "parliamentary privileges" similar to those 
of British House of Commons. 

4. Governor was dependent on assembly for his salary, 
and this body very gradually increased its power 
through control of appropriations. 

5. Controversies between assembly and governor ran 
through history of Albemarle and occurred throughout 
North Carolina's colonial history. Quarrels frequently 
centered around following issues : 

a. Governor's salary. 

b. Quitrents. 

c. Land patents. 

d. Rent rolls. 

e . Taxes . 

f. Paper currency. 

g. Defense. 

h. Selection of officials. 

D. Court structure. 

1. Headed by General Court, which was colony's appellate 
court. In 1712 Christopher Gale was appointed first 
chief justice. 

2. Court of Chancery was governor and council. 

3. Each precinct had court administered by justices 
of the peace. 



Albemarle County, 1663-1689. 

A. Main themes were unrest, confusion, slow growth, and 
rebellion. 

B. Reasons for bad situation. 

1. Isolation of settlement. 

2. Neglect by proprietors, who put more effort into 
South Carolina settlement. 

3. Failure to establish stable, efficient government. 

C. Problems. 

1. Confusion over land tenure. "Great Deed of Grant," 
1668, only partially alleviated situation. 

2. Efforts to stimulate settlement largely failed. 

a. Legislature passed several laws designed to 
encourage immigration. 

b. Proprietors circulated promotional literature. 

3. Hostility of Virginia, and fears among Albemarle 
settlers that their colony might be made part 

of Virginia also caused unrest. 

4. Minor Indian uprisings. 

D. Political instability, 1673-1689. 

1. Colonists resisted British trade laws, especially 
Plantation Duty Act of 1673, which required payment 
of duty if colonists shipped tobacco and certain 
other commodities to other colonies. 

2. In late 1673 two factions formed in Albemarle 
government . 

a. One, led by John Jenkins, George Durant, and 
John Culpeper, had control of government and 
opposed enforcement of trade laws. 

b. Second faction, led by Thomas Eastchurch and 
Thomas Miller, opposed them and sided with 
proprietors. 

3. Acting Governor Jenkins's arbitrary attempt to 
crush opposition led assembly to depose and jail 
him. Eastchurch and Miller went to England, gained 
support of proprietors, and in 1676 were awarded 
control of government to enforce trade laws. 

4. Miller was ousted in late 1677 in so-called 
"Culpeper' s Rebellion." Durant and Culpeper took 
control of government. Miller escaped jail and 
took his case to proprietors in England. 

5. Culpeper went to London to present his side but 
was arrested. After investigation he secured 
acquittal. 

6. Proprietors in 1678 appointed Seth Sothel as 
governor and collector of customs in Albemarle 
in effort to have neutral government. 

7. Sothel was captured by pirates, and Durant faction 
gained control until Sothel' s arrival in 1683. 

8. He turned out to be arbitrary and corrupt, and 
assembly banished him in 1688. 

9. Philip Ludwell was appointed by proprietors as 
governor of all Carolina "north and east of Cape 
Feare" in 1689. History of Albemarle as distinct 
colony ended and that of North Carol J na began. 

10 



THE EMERGENCE OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1689-1729 



I. Gibbs Rebellion, 1690, was settled when Ludwell and John 
Gibbs both went to London to argue their respective claims 
for governorship. Gibbs was repudiated. 

II. The period 1691-1706 was one of stable government and expansion 
of settlement. 

A. North Carolina was governed by a series of capable 
acting or deputy governors. 

1. Thomas Jarvis, 1691-1694. 

2. Thomas Harvey, 1694-1699. 

3. Henderson Walker, 1699-1704. 

B. Bath County created in 1696. 

C. French Huguenots began to settle in North Carolina, 
especially in Neuse-Pamlico region. 

D. Town of Bath was founded in 1704/5, first town in 
North Carolina. 

LII. New Bern was founded in 1710 by German Palatine settlers, along 
with some Swiss and a few English, under leadership of Baron 
Christoph von Graffenried. 

IV. Controversy over religion. 

A. Anglican church was only one that could have official 
encouragement, but In North Carolina it was in state 
of lethargy. 

B. Quakers grew in strength and at times held balance 
of political power in colony. 

C. Other Protestant denominations were present in small 
numbers. 

D. Vestry Act of 1701 provided for organization and support 
of Anglican church, but proprietors rejected it. 

E. Vestry Act of 1703. 

1. Provided that all members of assembly must take 
oath that they were communicants of Church of 
England . 

2. It denied right of affirmation which Quakers had 
enjoyed for many years, was passed by assembly despite 
Quaker opposition, and dissenters were banned from 
assembly. 

F. In 1707 proprietors ordered suspension of all laws 
concerning oaths, and controversy continued until 
legislature of 1715. 

V. Cary Rebellion, 1711. 

A. Thomas Cary (governor of North Carolina, 1705-1707, 

1708-1711) was embroiled in disputes between intolerant 
Anglicans and dissenters. During second term of office, 
he identified himself with interests of Bath County 
residents and dissenters as opposed to established 
Albemarle politicians. 



11 



B. Cary's successor Gov. Edward Hyde called for harsh 
legislation against dissenters and arrest of Cary 
at General Assembly meeting in March, 1711. 

C. Cary rallied his supporters to resist. 

D. After two inconclusive battles, Hyde received military 
aid from Virginia and routed Cary, who was captured 
and sent to England for trial, though never punished. 

E. Although effort to improve status of Anglicanism at 
expense of dissenters was important factor in rebellion, 
the growth of Bath County and its increasing demand 

for larger voice in government dominated by established 
Albemarle leadership were decisive elements. 

VI. Tuscarora War, 1711-1713. 

A. Indians' grievances against whites. 

1 . Encroachment on hunting grounds . 

2. Seizure of land. 

3. Kidnapping of Indians into slavery. 

4. Dishonesty of economic transactions. 

5. Failure of Indian protests. 

B. Immediate cause was whites' settlement of New Bern 
region. 

C. On September 22, 1711, Indians attacked settlements 
along Neuse and Pamlico rivers and killed at least 
150 colonists. 

D. Chief Tom Blount of northern towns of Tuscarora 
remained neutral. 

E. Governor Hyde drafted men into militia and asked for 
help from Virginia and South Carolina. 

F. Expedition of "Tuscarora Jack" Barnwell, 1712, ended 
in truce with Indians. 

G. Expedition of Col. James Moore, undertaken after 
Indians resumed attacks, broke power of Tuscarora, 1713. 

H. Results of war. 

1. Many colonists killed. 

2. Country laid waste. 

3. Immigration slowed. 

4. Most Tuscarora emigrated. 

5. Forced colonists to heal quarrels left over from 
Cary Rebellion. 

VII. Period of peace and quiet followed Tuscarora War. 

A. Reasons for stability. 

1. Removal of Indian danger. 

2. Effective leadership of Gov. Thomas Pollock, 
1712-1714. 

3. From 1710 proprietors appointed governor of 

North Carolina who was "independent of the Governor 
of Carolina." 

B. Administration of Gov. Charles Eden, 1714-1722. 
1. Legislature of 1715. 

a. Revised and codified colony's laws. 

b. Vestry Act established Anglican church on sound 
footing. 

c. "Act for Liberty of Conscience" g£.*e dissenters 
right of affirmation. 

12 



d. Enacted first slave code. 

e. Foundation was laid for struggles between governors 
and legislatures which would characterize royal 
period. 

2. "Golden Age of Piracy," 1689-1718. 

a. Blackbeard. 

b. Maj . Stede Bonnet. 

Administrations of Governors George Burrington, 1724-1725, 
and Richard Everard, 1725-1729, were marked by continued 
immigration and expansion. 

1 . New towns . 

a. Beaufort. 

b. Edenton. 

c. Currituck. 

2. Settlement of Lower Cape Fear Valley. 

a. Brunswick, 1727. 

b. Wilmington, 1740. 

3. Determination of boundary line between North Carolina 
and Virginia, 1728. 

4. Proprietorship ended in 1729, and North Carolina 
became royal colony. 

a. Royal government was wary of unsettled and 
disturbed situations in proprietary colonies. 

b. Proprietors never realized sizable returns 
from North Carolina. 



13 



IMMIGRATION AND EXPANSION, 1729-1775 

I. Royal government was more stable and efficient than proprietary, 

II. Royal period saw rapid population increase and settlement of 
new areas. 

A. In 1729 population of colony was 30,000 whites, 
6,000 blacks. By 1775 it was 265,000 whites, 
80,000 blacks. 

B. Changes were due mainly to immigration. 

C. Immigrants' motives for coming to America. 

1. Wars in Europe/ lure of peace and security in 
America. 

2. European poverty and unemployment/ cheap land, 
high wages in America. 

3. Religious persecution in Europe/ freedom of 
worship in America. 

4. Legal discriminations, harsh penal systems in Europe. 

5. Adventure, desire to start new life in New World. 

D. Trends in population and settlement. 

1. Settlement of Cape Fear Valley and Piedmont occurred. 

2. Settled area expanded steadily westward. 

3. Population density increased both in east and west. 

4. There was tendency for higher densities to occur 

in northern half of colony rather than southern half . 

III. Ethnic groups of new immigrants. 

A. Scotch-Irish. 

1. Most probably came from colonies to north of North 
Carolina, especially Pennsylvania. They usually came 
overland by way of "The Great Road from the Yadkin 
River thro' Virginia to Philadelphia." It became 
known as "Great Wagon Road." 

2. Others came directly from Ireland. 

3. Most settled in Piedmont region. 

B. Scottish Highlanders. 

1. Most came directly across ocean from Scotland. 

2. Their arrivals reached height in 1760s and 1770s. 

3. Most settled in southern Piedmont. 

C. German-speaking immigrants. 

1. They were from different Protestant religious 
denominations, especially Lutherans, Moravians, and 
Reformed. 

2. Almost all came to North Carolina via "Great Road" 
after stays in northern colonies. Original homes 
varied greatly. 

3. Settled almost exclusively in western North Carolina. 

D. Sizable proportion of immigrants were of English stock. 

1. Many came from colonies to north, especially Virginia. 

2. Came from all other directions as well. 

3. By 1775 only in oldest settled parts of colony was 
there markedly English culture. 

E. Others. 

14 



IV. Inquiry concerning "Old World" cultural patterns in new 
environment . 

A. Characteristics, customs, and beliefs of each ethnic 
group which settled in North Carolina. 

B. Degree of cultural identity each ethnic group of 
immigrants retained in new environment from generation 
to generation. 

C. Contributions of each ethnic group to history of North 
Carolina and of western civilization. 



15 



AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY, 1729-1775 



I. Agriculture. 

A. At least 95 percent of early settlers were engaged In 
agriculture. North Carolina became colony of small 
landowners. Less of a plantation elite developed here 
than in Virginia and South Carolina. 

B. Land and slaves as major forms of wealth. 

C. Land tenure system. 

1. Headright system. 

2. Purchase was customary way to obtain land after 1730. 

3. Primogeniture and entail. 

4. Quitrents. 

5. Land grants. 

D. Methods of farming were backward and unscientific. 

E. Farmers' problems: crop pests, overproduction, fluctuating 
prices. 

F. Three important themes in colonial North Carolina's 
agricultural development. 

1. Regional variations. 

2. Influences of distinctive cultural groups. 

3. Increasing commercialization of agriculture. 

G. Principal crops. 

1. Corn. 

a. Easy to raise, it could be put to many uses. 

b. Since surplus of corn was one of first consequences 
of settlement, some farmers produced for market. 

c. In 1753 about 12,000 bushels were exported, and 
in 1772 about 177,000. Most went through Port 
Roanoke . 

2. Wheat. 

a. It was unique, because apparently from outset it 
was raised primarily as commercial crop. 

b. Moravians regarded it as their most important crop. 

c. Wheat was grown most often in Piedmont and area 
north of Albemarle Sound to which immigrants from 
colonies to north settled. 

3i Tobacco. 

a.i Most important nongrain crop. 

b. Grown originally in Albemarle area and confined 
for some decades to northern part of colony. 

In years just prior to Revolution it spread 
southwest . 

c. Tobacco growers used large numbers of slaves. 

d. Although volume of exported tobacco increased in 
years before Revolution, total exports remained 
small relative to Maryland and Virginia. 

e. Role of Scottish merchants was significant in 
encouraging tobacco production. 

4. Rice and indigo. 

a. In first half of eighteenth century production of these 
crops began in small amounts. They were never widely 
grown. Production of indigo ceased entirely after 
Revolution with end of British bouaty on it. 

16 



b. Rice and indigo were significant for small area 
in lower Cape Fear Valley — New Hanover and 
Brunswick counties. 

1) Much labor was necessary to grow these crops, 
and producers invariably needed large numbers 
of slaves. 

2) Growing these crops accentuated lower Cape 
Fear's regional individuality. Area was 
different from rest of colony because it was 
settled relatively late, starting about 1725, 
by wealthy men who took possession of large 
landholdings and had many slaves. 

3) Naval stores and lumber yielded more income 
here than rice and indigo . 

4) Compared to South Carolina, there were few 
large-scale planters in Cape Fear region and 
average size of their slaveholdings was much 
smaller . 

H. Livestock. 

1. Raising livestock — cattle, hogs, draft animals — 
was as universal as growing corn. 

2. Livestock driving was common form of trade in eighteenth 
century, especially cattle and hogs. 

3. Commerce in dairy products — butter and cheese — was 
also carried on but was less valuable. 

4. Large herds of livestock were rare. 

5. Regional contrasts. 

a. Livestock holdings larger in east than in west. 

b. Commercial production of dairy products was 
confined to areas away from coast. 

c. In contrast to other segments of population, 
Scottish Highlanders placed more stress on 
raising cattle than hogs. 

II. Industry. 

A. Household manufactures stimulated by abundance of raw 
materials and of unskilled labor. 

B. Commercialized manufactures. 

1. Slow to develop due to: 

a. Scarcity of capital and skilled labor. 

b. Poor transportation facilities. 

c. Lack of good ports. 

d. High freight rates on exports and imports. 

2. Major commercialized industries. 

a. Naval stores (tar, pitch, resin, turpentine) were 
colonial North Carolina's chief contribution to 
commerce. 

1) Traditional synonym for North Carolinians — 
"Tar Heels" — suggests early importance of naval 
stores, though how and when name first came 

into use has never been satisfactorily established. 

2) Colony became great producer of naval stores 
due to abundance of longleaf pine. 

3) Bulk of naval stores was produced in southern 
part of colony. Several factors accounted for 
this situation. 

17 



a) South had greater extent of longleaf pine 
close to coast. 

b) Large holdings of land. 

c) Abundant slave labor. 

A) Bulk of naval stores was exported through 
southern ports of Brunswick, Wilmington, 
and Beaufort . 

a) Almost all naval stores were exported either 
to Britain or West Indies or to other 
American colonies. 

b) South had advantage in getting products to 
ports due to Cape Fear River and its 
tributaries. Albemarle Sound area had 

no such advantageous water facilities. 
b. Lumber industry: great variety of wood products 
were made in North Carolina but only three of 
these were exported in significant amounts. 

1) Sawn lumber: sawmilling industry developed 
in Cape Fear Valley. 

a) Large quantities of pine wood were available. 

b) Mills were usually located on body of water 
which served as both source of power and means 
of transport. 

c) Used slave labor. 

d) Often combined with naval stores industry. 

e) Most sawn lumber was exported from Brunswick 
and Wilmington. 

2) Staves were produced mainly in northern part 
of colony since that area contained necessary 
supplies of bottomland and swamp hardwoods. 
They were exported mainly through Port Roanoke. 

3) Shingles were produced mainly in area around 
Albemarle Sound due to its large amount of 
swampland containing the necessary white cedar 
and cypress trees. But most of eastern North 
Carolina produced some shingles, and export 
trade was fairly evenly distributed among 
ports. 



TRANSPORTATION, TRADE, TOWNS, AND COMMUNICATION IN COLONIAL 

NORTH CAROLINA 



I. Transportation. 

A. Sailing ships carried on foreign and coastal commerce. 

B. Although North Carolina had few good outlets for ocean 
commerce, it had excellent system of inland waterways — 
sounds, rivers, and creeks — for use by small craft. 
These became chief arteries of travel and trade. 

C. During seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, 
transportation was primarily by water — both inland and along 
coast. Towns developed along them. 

D. In eighteenth century roads became important. 

1. Colonists developed rudimentary, serviceable network 

of paths and roads as settlement expanded to areas away 
from waterways. By 1775 there was relatively large 
number of roads in colony, though few of them were very 
good. 

2. Regulations and laws were passed for construction 
and maintenance of roads but they were not rigidly 
enforced. 

3. Lack of bridges and ferries often hampered travel. 

4. Roads were adequate enough to make possible development 
of inland trading towns as well as to expand importance 
of seaport towns. 

5. Vehicles used on roads included two-wheel carts and 
four-wheel wagons. Travelers also walked and rode 
horseback. Lodging was rare and poor. 

II. Trade and towns. 

A. North Carolina commerce was probably aided more than 
hampered by British Navigation acts. 

B. Commerce was subject also to laws imposed by colonial 
legislature. 

C. Towns. 

1. Trade, most important function of all colonial North 
Carolina towns, dominated their growth and decline. 

2. Eastern seaports. 

a. There were six. 

1) Edenton ~") 

2) New Bern \ major seaports at end of 

3) Wilmington/ colonial period. 

4) Brunswick "^ 

5) Bath \ small seaports, declining in 

6) Beaufort J importance at end of colonial era. 

b. Seaports were urban expressions of colonial structure 
of economy. Through them went raw materials destined 
for overseas and items imported for sale within colony. 
There was little manufacturing, and merchants were 
most important occupational class. 

c. Differing fortunes among six towns, as colony expanded, 
resulted from process by which need and opportunity for 
merchandising services led to proliferation of 
merchants in three, leaving other three without important 
commercial base. 

19 



d. Major exports: naval stores, provisions, lumber 
products, tobacco. 

e. Major imports. 

1) From Britain — manufactured goods. 

2) From West Indies — sugar, molasses, salt, rum, 
slaves . 

3) Various items from other American colonies. 

3. Midland towns. 

a . There were four : 

1) Halifax. 

2) Tarboro. 

3) Cross Creek "") , 

4) Campbelltown J later became Fayetteville. 

b. They originated in third quarter of eighteenth century. 
Reason for existence was internal trade which utilized 
both overland and river transportation. These towns 
were links between east and west. 

4. Western towns. 

a. There were four. 

1) Hillsborough. 

2) Salem. 

3) Salisbury. 

4) Charlotte. 

b. Founded in 1750s and 1760s, they were reflections 
of influx of settlers into backcountry and 
development of rudimentary system of trade, 
transportation, and communication. They provided 
first generation of backcountry settlers with 
administrative, judicial, and commercial services. 

5. There were, in addition, scattered urban centers of 
strictly local importance. 

D. Decentralized trade away from towns also went on by way of 
country stores and itinerant traders. 

E. Most commercial transactions were made by barter or credit 
notes. Specie was scarce. 

III. Communication was slow and uncertain due to rudimentary postal 
system and dispersal of settlements. 



20 



THE SOCIAL ORDER IN COLONIAL NORTH CAROLINA 



I. The social order was product of two conflicting forces. 

A. European ideas about class distinctions. 

B. Pioneer conditions which tended to undermine these 
class distinctions. 

II. The gentry, or planter elite, probably comprised less than 5 
percent of the population. 

A. Homes: though planters' homes and furnishings reflected 
superior social status, there were few really large and 
imposing homes before Revolution; e.g., Orton, Cupola 
House, John Wright Stanly House. 

B. Furnishings: most planters lived quite comfortably; 
often things were imported from Europe or New England. 

C. Dress: considered a badge of social rank and frequently 
led to extravagance. 

D. Food: planter had abundance and variety in his diet, 
which came mainly from plantation and forest. 

E. Sports and recreation: consisted mainly of parties and 
suppers, dancing, cockf ighting, and horseracing (gambling). 

[II. Small farmers and artisans largest element of population. 

A. Yeoman farmers engaged in subsistence farming; did 
not own much land. 

B. Homes: usually only one room with homemade furnishings. 

C. Food: staples were corn bread, hominy, and pork. 

D. Sports and recreation: logrollings, house-raisings, and 
quilting bees. 

IV. Indentured servants. 

A. Voluntary servants — "redemptioners" — whose servant status 
was temporary. 

1. Term of service usually three to four years. 

2. Got "freedom dues" when term expired. 

B. Involuntary white servants — felons, paupers, political 
prisoners. 

V. Negroes: there was large increase in black population during 
royal period. 
A. Beginnings of slavery in North Carolina. 

1. Slavery in Carolinas was deliberately planted and 
cultivated. 

2. In 1660s group of enterprising gentlemen from 
Barbados, well-acquainted with slavery, proposed 
immigration with some blacks to new colony. Their 
agreement with proprietors made clear distinction 
between status of white servants and that of black 
slaves. 

3. Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, 1669, granted 
each freeman of colony "absolute power and authority 
over his Negro slaves." English civil authorities 
offered little or no resistance to growth of this 
idea of uncontrolled personal dominion. 

21 



B. Free blacks. 

1. Most acquired freedom through legal manumission. 

2. By end of seventeenth century North Carolina and 
several other colonies passed laws reassuring 
masters that conversion of their slaves to 
Christianity did not necessitate manumission. Such 
laws were response to occasional claims that a slave's 
Christianity made him free. North Carolina's law 

was part of "Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina," 
1669. 

3. In early eighteenth century several colonies passed laws 
to restrict number of blacks freed. During this period 
North Carolina barred freed slaves from remaining in 
colony. 

4. In nearly all southern colonies, free blacks were 
excluded from voting. In early eighteenth century 
North Carolina some free Negroes were able to vote, 
however. Although the colony prohibited Negro voting 
in 1715, it did not continue prohibition beyond 1730s. 

C. Slaves. 

1. Heaviest concentration was in eastern part of colony 
in tobacco- and rice-growing region. 

2. Prices varied widely according to time, place, and 
condition of slave. 

3. Control of slaves. 

a. Laws and plantation rules concerning slavery 
multiplied and became more complex with increase 
of slave population and passage of time. 

b. Mistreatment of slaves by masters ranged from 
outright cruelty to paternalism. 

4. White opposition to slavery. 

a. Religious opposition developed early. 

1) Quakers opposed slavery, brought Negroes to 
their meetings, and tutored white and black 
children together in some small schools. Still, 
they made no substantial effort to bring blacks 
into full membership in their religious society. 
In fact some Quakers tried to exclude them. 

2) Moravians. 

b. In last decade before Revolution, as slavery was 
spreading westward, general opposition increased. 

5. Other important issues concerning slavery. 

a. White culture's image of Negro. 

b. Retention of African heritage under institution 
of slavery. 

c. Everyday life of slaves. 

VI. Inquiry concerning social interaction and mobility among all 
classes in colonial North Carolina. 

VII. Inquiry concerning customs, manners, morals, beliefs among all 
classes. 

A. Ideas about roles of man and woman. 

B. Child-rearing practices. 

C. Courtship customs. 

D. Ideas about what constitutes adulthood; rites of 
initiation into adulthood. 

E. Ideas about old age, death. 

F. Moral and ethical codes. 

22 



RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN COLONIAL NORTH CAROLINA 



Religion. 

A. Anglicanism attracted wide membership but was not active. 
Vestry Act of 1765 was landmark. 

B. Quakers continued to flourish until Revolution. 

C. Presbyterians. 

D. Baptists had become most numerous sect by Revolution 
and led opposition to established church. 

1. Kehukee Baptist Association. 

2. Sandy Creek Church and Separate Baptists. 

E. German religious sects. 

1. Moravians — Bethabara. 

2. Lutherans. 

3. German Reformed. 

F. Methodists — last Protestant sect to appear in North 
Carolina before Revolution. 

Education and culture. 

A. Education was usually associated with the church. 
Pioneer educational agency was Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel. 

B. Planters tended to take interest in education. 

C. Education among the social classes. 

1. Children of wealthy were given instruction at home 
and then perhaps sent to college in England or 
another colony. 

2. Among poor, children were provided with some education 
through systems of indentured servitude and apprentice- 
ship. 

D. Scotch-Irish and Germans quickly established schools 
in their communities. 

E. Although some governors and legislatures endorsed the 
concept of public schools, it was left to church groups 
and individuals to establish schools. 

F. North Carolina's first college — Queen's College in 
Charlotte, 1771. 

G. Books were scarce in colony, but after 1730 libraries 
were common among planters. 

H. First printing press in colony was set up in 1749 to 
print the proceedings of provincial legislature. James 
Davis, the printer, soon founded the colony's first 
newspaper, The North Carolina Gazette. 



23 



NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1730-1763: 
CONSTITUTIONAL CONTROVERSIES AND ANGLO-FRENCH WARS 



I. The royal governors. 

A. George Burrington, 1731-1734. 

B. Gabriel Johnston, 1734-1752. 

C. *Nathaniel Rice, 1752-1753. 

D. *Matthew Rowan, 1753-1754. 

E. Arthur Dobbs, 1754-1765. 

F. William Tryon, 1765-1771. 

G. Josiah Martin, 1771-1775. 

*Presidents of council acting in absence of commissioned 
governor. 

II. English background: mercantilism, policy of "salutary 
neglect," and reign of George II. 

III. Points at issue between governors and assemblies. 

A. Governor's salary. 

B. Control over taxation. 

C. Colony's judicial system. 

D. Tenure of judges. 

E. Quorum in assembly. 

F. Quitrents and questions on land tenure. 

G. Granville district — "private proprietary grant" within the 
colony — deprived colony of much revenue. 

H. Issuing of paper money, use of commodity money. 

I. Tax system. 

J. Other quarrels between governors and assemblies. 

IV. North Carolina-South Carolina boundary dispute. 

A. Surveys of 1730s failed to end dispute. 

B. Problems about land tenure in disputed area. 

C. Anson County as scene of controversies over taxes, 
rents, etc. 

D. Difficulty of trade between the two colonies. 

E. Surveys of 1764 and 1772 were inconclusive; issue 
still unsettled at end of Revolution. 

V. North Carolina's role in Anglo-French wars of 1689-1763. 

A. Queen Anne's War, 1702-1713. 

B. War of Jenkins' Ear, 1739-1744, and King George's War, 
1744-1748. North Carolina troops fought for first 
time as part of British army. 

C. Decade of 1740s saw several Spanish attacks on North 
Carolina coast. 

D. The French and Indian War, 1754-1763. 

1. Background: European diplomacy. 

2. North Carolina assembly failed to vote on "Albany 
Plan of Union." 

3. North Carolina contributed along with other 
American colonies to British victory. 

4. The colony's troubles with Indians. 

a. French intrigue among Cherokees anu Creeks. 

b. Fort Dobbs built 1755 to defend whites. 

24 



c. Cherokees at Fort Dobbs, 1760. 

d. Battle of Echoee, 1760 — Cherokees defeated 
colonists. 

e. Grant's expedition of 1761 defeated Indians. 

f. Augusta Conference of 1763 — peace with Indians. 



25 



SECTIONALISM IN COLONIAL NORTH CAROLINA 



I. North-south sectionalism: conflict between Albemarle and 
Lower Cape Fear, 1730s-1754. 

A. Causes. 

1. Political: Albemarle area dominated representation 
in General Assembly. 

2. Economic: 

a. Albemarle traded largely through Virginia; its 
land rents were low. 

b. Cape Fear traded directly with outside world, 
having little connection to Albemarle; its land 
rents were higher. 

B. Events. 

1. Gov. Gabriel Johnston, whose interests lay in 

Cape Fear region, had prolonged quarrel with assembly 
during 1730s and 1740s over quitrents, accurate 
rent roll, and location of state capital. 

2. "Rump Assembly" of 1746 fixed seat of government 

at New Bern and reduced representation of Albemarle 
counties in legislature. 

3. Controversy erupted and was thrown in lap of king 
and Privy Council, which made no decision for 
seven years. 

4. In 1754 Gov. Arthur Dobbs brought with him 
instructions upholding Albemarle's position on 
representation. Legislature convened in New Bern 
and controversy subsided. 

II. East-west sectionalism. 

A. In past work, scholars have almost surely exaggerated 
degree of east-west sectionalism in colonial period of 
North Carolina history. 

B. Undoubtedly some east-west sectionalism existed, 
due to several contrasts between two regions. 

1. Nationalities. 

a. East settled mainly by English and by Scottish 
Highlanders . 

b. West settled by Scotch-Irish and Germans. 

2 . Economy . 

a. East had more of plantation economy based on 
slave labor and aristocratic ideals. 

b. West stressed small farms, free labor, democratic 
ideals. 

3. Religion: Anglicans fairly strong in east, very 
weak in backcountry. 

4. Commercial contracts. 

a. East traded primarily with England, West Indies, 
and New England . 

b. West traded primarily with Pennsylvania, Virginia, 
and South Carolina. 

C. Western opposition to location of colonial capital at 
New Bern, 1766, and to construction of Governor's Palace, 
1770, was prime example of sectional cor roversy in 
decades preceding Revolution. 

26 



THE NORTH CAROLINA REGULATORS, 1766-17 71 



Regulation was organized movement of white farmers which 
swept three counties of western North Carolina — Orange, 
Anson, and Rowan — from 1766 to 1771. Seven surrounding 
counties also exhibited sympathy for Regulators. 

Regulation was not merely sectional struggle between 
western farmers and eastern aristocrats but rather 
contained elements of class struggle. 

A. Regulators were class-conscious white farmers of 
West who attempted to democratize local government 
in their counties and to replace their wealthy and 
corrupt local officials with farmer representatives 
who would serve interests of farmers and all "the 
people." 

B. When Regulators attacked governor and eastern elite, 
it was merely because many of their problems were 
provincial in origin and demanded provincial rather 
than local solutions. They perceived their enemy 
not as East but as wealthy class of all sections of 
colony. 

Regulators attacked colony's wealthy class with good 
reason, for there was close interrelationship of wealth 
and political power. 

A. Royal governor and council appointed the affluent 
to local militia and civil posts. 

B. These men ensured their continued reappointment in 
administrative, judicial, police, and military 
functions of each county. 

C. Invariably these same officials were elected to vestry 
and assembly due to use of their wealth and appointive 
power, including control over nominating and electoral 
processes. 

D. Officials used offices to add to private fortunes in 
many ways . 

1. Awarding public contracts to favorites. 

2. Building roads, bridges, buildings, harbors, ferries, 
and towns for convenience of rich and powerful. 

3. Issuing licenses for mills to favorites. 

4. Insuring public offices held by wealthy to be 
remunerative. 

5. Granting compensations to masters for executed 
slaves. 

6. Awarding exorbitant commissions to favored few 
to handle currency emissions. 

E. Officeholders exploited their poorer and weaker 
constituents more directly, and this situation was prime 
source of Regulator grievances. 

1. Collected unlawful taxes and fees and corruptly 
handled public monies. Such actions misapplied 
money collected from the people and increased already 
high tax levels. 

27 



2. Instituted regressive tax system that depended 
primarily on poll taxes, duties, fees, and work 
levies, which disproportionately burdened poor. 

3. Scarcity of currency made burden of taxation 
greater. 

A. Creditors, merchants, lawyers, and public officials 
brought increasing number of court suits against 
indebted farmers while lawyers and officers charged 
exorbitant or extortionate court fees. Moneyless 
farmers lost much of their property, which was then 
corruptly sold at public auction below its value 
to members of in-group. 

5. Officeholders maintained these conditions by passing 
biased laws and manipulating their application. 

IV. Development of conflict, 1766-1771. 

A. Sugar Creek uprising, 1765, in Anson and Mecklenburg 
counties, broke out due to longstanding discord over 
land problems, which remained a grievance of some 
regulators. 

B. George Sims's "Address to the People of Granville 
County," 1765. 

C. Sandy Creek Association, organized in 1766 in Orange 
County, was forerunner of Regulators. 

D. Regulators organized early in 1768 in Orange County. 

E. Governor Tryon sent message in which he promised to 
consider Regulators' grievances, May, 1768. 

F. Governor Tryon' s next letter to Orange County, however, 
condemned Regulators' unlawful resistance to taxation 
and court decisions while offering no important 
concessions. 

G. Meanwhile farmers organized Regulator movements in 
other counties, especially Anson and Rowan. 

H. In July, 1768, Tryon went to Hillsborough. Communi- 
cations between Tryon and Regulators brought heightened 
tension, and in September Tryon gathered about 1,400 
militia in show of force which intimidated Regulators, 
who disbanded their own force. 

I. From September, 1768, to November, 1769, there was 
peaceful phase during which Regulators paid taxes and 
sought redress by petitions to legislature and 
election of farmer assemblymen. 

J. Peaceful tactics brought Regulators no relief, 

and disorders and mob actions occurred in Regulator 
counties during fall of 1770. 

K. Governor Tryon responded by beseeching legislature 
to raise army to crush Regulators. 

L. Assembly passed harsh Johnston Riot Act, January, 1771, 
which enraged Regulators. 

M. Battle of Alamance, May 16, 1771. 

1. Tryon ensured military confrontation by pursuing 
it relentlessly. Regulators were conciliatory, 
asking only that governor take steps toward 
redressing their grievances. 

2. Tryon' s forces consisted of 1,185 disciplined, 
well-armed men; Regulator force numbered 2,000 to 
3,000 undisciplined, poorly armed men. 

28 



3. After two-hour battle, Regulators retreated, having 
sustained losses of about 17 to 20 killed, over 100 
wounded. Tryon's forces listed 9 dead, 61 wounded. 
N. Aftermath of battle. 

1. Immediately after, Tryon summarily hanged one 
Regulator and destroyed large amount of their 
property. 

2. In June, 1771, fourteen Regulator prisoners were tried. 
Two were acquitted, six pardoned, and six hanged. 

3. Regulation was over as organized movement. 

4. Eventually, over 6,000 Regulators or supporters 
gained amnesty by signing oaths of allegiance. 

5. Many Regulators left colony. 

Controversy still exists over relationship of Regulators 
to American Revolution. 

A. Old view was that most Regulators opposed Revolution. 

B. Recently argument has been made that most were 
patriots, but it rests on inconclusive evidence. 

C. Best hypothesis may be that most remained neutral. 

D. Many old Regulator reforms became popular during 
Revolution and after. 



29 



THE COMING OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1763-1775 



I. Background. 

A. Mercantilism was basic principle on which British 
colonization was built. Navigation acts and other 
acts concerning trade translated mercantilistic 
principles into law. 

B. But 1713-1763 was period of "salutary neglect" in 
which England seldom interfered with the colonies. 

C. After 1763 England under Grenville ministry 
inaugurated its "New Colonial Policy" which led to 
clash of interests between mother country and her 
colonies. 

1. Program included strict enforcement of all trade 
laws. 

2. Standing army of 10,000 men sent to colonies. 

3. Guarantees of financial independence for royal 
officials in colonies. 

II. North Carolina's resistance to Stamp Act. 

A. Effect of new policy on North Carolina was small 
except for Stamp Act, passed in 1765. 

B. Controversy was reflected in pamphlets. 

1. Martin Howard's Letter from a Gentleman at Halifax 
to his Friend in Rhode Island . 

2. Maurice Moore's The Justice and Policy of Taxing 
the American Colonies in Great Britain . 

C. Stamp Act Congress of 1765 had no representative from 
North Carolina due to efforts of Governor Tryon. 

D. Demonstrations against Stamp Act in coastal North 
Carolina. 

1. Wilmington, October 19 and 31, 1765: demonstrators 
forced resignation of Stamp Master William Houston. 

2. Brunswick, February 18-21, 1765: armed Sons of 
Liberty, led by Hugh Waddell, John Ashe, and 
Cornelius Harnett, sabotaged British attempts to 
enforce Stamp Act. 

E. Repeal of Stamp Act, passage of Declaratory 
Resolution, 1766. 

III. North Carolina's resistance to Townshend Act. 

A. Townshend Act, passed 1767, placed import duties on 
several items. 

B. Massachusetts Circular Letter, Virginia letter on 
Townshend duties, 1768. 

C. North Carolina assembly's petition to king, 1768. 

D. North Carolina assembly's resolves, 1769. 

E. Assembly met illegally and formed "nonimportation 
association" under leadership of Speaker John Harvey, 
November, 1769. Effects on commerce difficult to assess. 

F. Townshend duties repealed in 1770 except for tax on 
tea. 



30 



Moving toward revolution. 

A. Period of calm, 1770-1773. 

B. Cornelius Harnett supported Massachusetts 's plan for 
Committees of Correspondence. 

C. North Carolina's first Committee of Correspondence, 1773. 

1. John Harvey. 

2. Robert Howe. 

3. Richard Caswell. 

4. Edward Vail. 

5. John Ashe. 

6. Joseph Hewes. 

7. Samuel Johnston. 

8. Cornelius Harnett. 

9. William Hooper. 

D. Clash between governor and assembly over colony's court 
system. 

E. Tea Act of 1773 and Boston Tea Party. 

F. "Edenton Tea Party," October, 1774. 

G. Coercive acts of 1774. 

H. North Carolina supported Boston and even sent supplies. 

I. First Provincial Congress assembled August 25, 1774. 

J. North Carolina sent three delegates — William Hooper, 
Richard Caswell, and Joseph Hewes — to First 
Continental Congress, September-October, 1774. 

K. Second Provincial Congress, April, 1775. 

L. Last royal assembly coincided with Second Provincial 
Congress. 

War. 

A. Lexington and Concord, April, 1775. 

B. During 1774-1775, eighteen counties and four towns set up 
safety committees. 

C. "Mecklenburg Resolves," May 31, 1775. 

D. Flight of Gov. Josiah Martin, May-June, 1775. 

E. Burning of Fort Johnston, July 19, 1775, was first overt 
act of armed rebellion in North Carolina. 

F. Governor Martin's "Fiery Proclamation," August, 1775. 

G. Hillsborough Provincial Congress, August, 1775, set up 
elaborate provisional government for colony and made 
preparations for war. 

H. Social divisions created by Revolution. 

1. Whigs were plurality of population; they were diverse 
group socially, probably composed mainly of small 
farmers and artisans, including some large landowners. 

2. Loyalists or tories were fairly strong in North 
Carolina and also included many different types 

of people, especially old official class, well-to-do 
professionals, wealthy merchants, and planters. 

3. Some people made conscious decision to remain 
neutral, especially many Germans and members of 
religious groups such as Moravians and Quakers. 

4. Apathy was also factor in province's social response 
to war. Many North Carolinians probably ignored 
Revolution as long as it did not touch their daily 
lives. Some probably shifted among several possible 
roles as situation changed. 

31 



I. Before fighting began in North Carolina, its Whigs 
gave military aid to Virginia and South Carolina. 

J. Governor Martin had plan for British conquest of 

North Carolina and entire South, and his proclamation 
of January, 1776, called for suppression of rebellion. 

K. Battle of Moores Creek Bridge, February 27, 1776, was 
victory for Whigs. 

L. After battle tide of war turned away from North Carolina 
for nearly three years. 



32 



THE TRANSITION FROM COLONY TO STATEHOOD, 1776 



I. Background to North Carolina's first state constitution. 

A. Before 1775 there was little talk among colonists of 
independence from England, even by Whig leaders. 

B. Military events of 1775-1776 caused shift in 
colonial opinion, gave momentum to movement for 
separation from empire. 

C. Such resolutions as "Mecklenburg Resolves" of May 31, 
1775, declared commissions by crown "null and void." 

D. Fourth Provincial Congress, April, 1776. 

1. Halifax Resolves. 

2. Council of Safety was set up to rule state 
temporarily. 

E. Declaration of Independence, July, 1776. 

F. Election of October 15, 1776. 

1. Rival groups of contestants. 

a. Conservatives, led by Samuel Johnston, James 
Iredell, and William Hooper, favored strong 
executive, independent judiciary, and property 
qualifications for voting and of f iceholding. 

b. Radicals, led by Willie Jones, Thomas Person, 
and Griffith Rutherford, favored "simple 
democracy" including strong legislature, 
weak executive, and religious freedom. 

2. Of 169 delegates chosen in the elections, conser- 
vatives and radicals got about an even number of 
seats with moderates holding balance of power. 

II. Adoption of state constitution and bill of rights — Halifax, 
December, 1776. 

A. Preamble gave reasons for revolt against crown. 

B. Declaration of Rights enumerated twenty-five rights of 
the people against any government. 

C. Three branches of government were established. 

1. General Assembly. 

a. Consisted of Senate and House of Commons. 

b. Significant salient feature of constitution was 
shift to legislative predominance and away from 
executive supremacy of colonial period. 

2. Executive. 

a. Governor. 

b. Council of State — consisted of seven members. 

c. Other major executive offices: secretary, 
treasurer, attorney general. 

3. Judiciary — consisted of judges appointed by joint 
ballot of General Assembly, commissioned by governor 
to hold office during good behavior. 

D. Structure of local government remained much as it had 
been in colonial times. Constitution provided for 
creation of offices of sheriff, coroner, and constables 
in each county. 

E. Delegates to Continental Congress were to be chosen 
annually by General Assembly. 

33 



F. Constitution provided for freedom of worship, although 
there were religious disqualifications for of f iceholding. 

G. There were property qualifications for suffrage and 
of f iceholding. 

H. There was no provision for amendment, which was to cause 

controversy for years to come. 
I. Final observations. 

1. The new government was relatively democratic — more so 
than royal government had been but less than government 
set up under Constitution of 1835 would be. 

2. Constitution was similar to that of other American 
colonies. 

3. The document was the work of many men, and its ideas 
came from many sources. Most influential men among 
members of drafting committee were Richard Caswell and 
Thomas Jones . 



34 



THE NEW STATE AND ITS PROBLEMS, 1776-1781 



The new government . 

A. Fifth Provincial Congress appointed Richard Caswell 
governor; his inaugural was in January, 1777. 

B. Cornelius Harnett chosen president of Council of 
State. 

C. General Assembly, which met for first time in April, 
1777, faced immediate problems. 

1. Military problems. 

a. Raising and equipping army. 

b. Loyalists. 

c. Indians, especially Cherokees. 

d. Maintaining navy and privateers. 

2. Economic problems such as taxes and currency. 

3. Necessity for political unity of state — war demanded 
centralization of power while constitution stressed 
decentralization. 

D. Major legislation of first General Assembly. 

1. New militia law and division of state into six 
military districts. 

2. Law defining treason and prescribing death penalty 
for it. 

3. Law to prevent domestic insurrections, especially 
among slaves. 

4. Laws setting up judicial system, election of six 
judges. 

5. Appointment of many new officials, especially in 
counties. 

6. Forgery of bills of credit or lottery tickets was 
made felony punishable by death. 

Defects apparent in new constitution. 

A. Undemocratic features disillusioned masses. 

B. Inequitable distribution of seats in General Assembly 
favored East and angered West . 

C. Weakness of executive. 

1. Governor had few powers, only one-year term. 

2. Executive weakness was significant factor in collapse 
of state government after David Fanning' s capture of 
Gov. Thomas Burke at Hillsborough in 1781. 

Development of divisions within Whigs. 

A. Radicals, strong in West, were mainly small farmers. 

B. Conservatives, strong in East, were mainly 
planter-slaveholders . 

Government's policy toward loyalists. 

A. At first it used conciliation and persuasion. 

B. Law of 1777, however, required tories to take oath of 
allegiance or suffer banishment. Persons found aiding 
enemy were subject to imprisonment for war's duration 
and to having half their estates confiscated. 

C. Law of 1779 listed sixty-eight tories whose estates were 
to be confiscated. 

D. Punitive laws, social ostracism led many loyalists to 
leave state. 

35 



V. The government's financial problems. 

A. Inflation. 

B. Taxation. 

1. General property tax was enacted and its rate 
increased as war continued. 

2. Taxes in kind. 

3. There was much inefficiency and corruption in 
tax system. 

C. Other sources of state revenue. 

1. Loan system. 

2. Sale of confiscated tory property. 

VI. Effects of war on commerce. 

A. Trade was Irregular but it continued; British could 
not blockade dangerous coast. 

B. Revolution ended old commercial order as British laws 
and markets disappeared. Exports changed in nature as 
tobacco, for example, became more important. Imports 
changed also as foremost need of colonies became arms. 

C. War gave impetus to shipbuilding. 

D. North Carolina privateers were more numerous and 
effective than state's navy. 



36 



THE WAR IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1776-1781 



I. Three kinds of troops from North Carolina fought in war. 

A. Regiments in Continental Line. 

1. Ten regiments consisted of about 6,000 soldiers 
during the whole course of war. 

2. Recruiting methods were bounty and conscription. 

B. State militia. 

1. Usual ratio of militiamen to Continental soldiers 
from state was about one to four. 

2. Militiamen were usually poorly armed and badly 
organized and led. 

C. Bands of partisans or irregulars operated under 
several outstanding leaders, notably William R. 
Davie and William Lee Davidson. 

D. Inquiry concerning daily lives of the three kinds of troops. 

II. After Battle of Moores Creek Bridge, there was little 

military activity In state till 1781, except for Griffith 
Rutherford's campaign against the Cherokee Indians in 
summer of 1776. 

A. Cherokees defeated. 

B. In Treaty of Long Island, 1777, Cherokees ceded to 
whites all lands east of Blue Ridge and all lands along 
Watauga, Nolichucky, Upper Holston, and New rivers. 

[II. Activities of North Carolina troops outside state, 1776- 
1779. 

A. Defense of Charleston, 1776. 

B. From 1777 to 1780 North Carolina troops under Washington 
saw action in New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. 

C. Francis Nash's brigade was at Battles of Brandywine 
and Germantown, 1777. 

D. James Hogun's brigade fought in Battle of Monmouth, 1778. 

E. During 1778-1779 soldiers were recruited from North 
Carolina for service all over South. 

IV. The second British invasion of South, 1778-1781. 

A. During 1778-1779 British restored royal rule in 
Georgia. 

B. British conquest of South Carolina under Clinton 
and Cornwallis, 1780. 

C. Cornwallis 's delays gave North Carolina time to 
organize its resistance to anticipated invasion. 

D. Small battles involving some of state's partisans 
broke out in summer of 1780. 

E. August, 1780, Gen. Horatio Gates took command of 
American forces in South but was defeated at Camden, 
South Carolina, leaving way clear for British 
invasion of North Carolina. 

F. Gov. Abner Nash suggested creation of special 
board to assist him in conduct of war. 

1. General Assembly created three-man Board of War 
in September, 1780. 

2. Board was replaced in early 1781 by Council Extraordinary. 

37 



G. Cornwallis occupied Charlotte, September 26, 1780. 
H. Battle of King's Mountain, October 7, 1780. American 

forces, made up primarily of militia from North 

Carolina, defeated Cornwallis 's subordinate Col. 

Patrick Ferguson. The victory, coming after long 

period of gloom, lifted morale of patriots everywhere 

and demoralized tories. 
I. Cornwallis retreated back into South Carolina. 
J. Gen. Nathanael Green took command of American 

forces in South in December, 1780. 
K. Battle of Cowpens , South Carolina, January 17, 1781. 

Greene's subordinate Daniel Morgan defeated Lt . Col. 

Banastre Tarleton. Cornwallis' s response was to 

pursue Greene, determined to destroy American forces 

in the area. 
L. Greene conducted masterful retreat across North 

Carolina Piedmont in dead of winter, pulling 

Cornwallis far from his base of supplies. 
M. Battle of Guilford Court House, March 15, 1781. 

Cornwallis won tactical victory over Greene but 

suffered strategic defeat, as his army was 

exhausted and deep in enemy territory. 
N. Greene returned to South Carolina and recaptured 

interior for colonists. 
0. Cornwallis joined British force at Wilmington, 

then decided to invade Virginia and took up a 

position at Yorktown. 
P. Hemmed in at Yorktown, Cornwallis surrendered 

to Washington on October 19, 1781. 



38 



AFTERMATH OF THE REVOLUTION, 1781-1789 



I. Closing phases of the war. 

A. British evacuation of Wilmington, November, 1781. 

B. Tory War of 1781-1782. 

1. Tories' attack on Hillsborough, led by David 
Fanning, September, 1781. Prisoners included 
Gov. Thomas Burke. 

2. Burke fled to freedom, January, 1782. 

3. Fanning departed from North Carolina, May, 1782. 
This marked end of Tory War. 

C. Treaty of Paris of 1783. 

II. North Carolina's problems during "critical period" of 
1783-1789. 

A. Long-range problems. 

1. Weak, inefficient state government. 

2. Unsatisfactory local government. 

3. Political strife and bitterness. 

4. Economic depression. 

5. Social and cultural demoralization. 

B. Immediate problems and their solutions. 

1. Background: political strife. Political divisions 
continued along lines similar to those drawn during 
Revolution. 

a. Conservatives had solid leadership. 

b. Radicals had majority support of electorate. 

c. Moderates. 

2. Prisoners of war: Gov. Alexander Martin 
successfully negotiated with British for exchange 
of prisoners, 1783. 

3. Veterans' legislation: Bonus Act of 1780 and 
Supplementary Act of 1782 gave grants of western 
lands to soldiers. 

4. Policy toward loyalists and their property. 

a. Confiscation acts of 1777 and 1779. 

b. Act of Pardon and Oblivion, 1783. 

c. Government continued to sell confiscated 
tory property. 

d. Bayard v. Singleton, 1786-1787. State court 
declared Confiscation Act unconstitutional. It 
was first decision under a written constitution 
declaring a legislative act unconstitutional. 

5. Location of state capital. 

a. New Bern remained capital until 1778. But by 
mid-1770s there were widespread demands, especially 
from West, for new, more centrally located capital. 

b. Hillsborough was capital, 1781-1782. 

c. During next few years, General Assembly met in 
several different places. 

d. Hillsborough Convention of 1788 adopted ordinance 
providing that capital be located within ten miles 
of Isaac Hunter's plantation in Wake County, 
leaving legislature to choose site. 

39 



e. Legislative commission chose site, 1791-1792. 
Legislature purchased Joel Lane's plantation 
and named new city Raleigh. 

III. Cultural recovery. 

A. Newspapers, pamphlets on popular controversies, drama 
clubs, interest in books were indicators of cultural 
recovery. 

B. Education. 

1. Constitution of 1776 provided for establishment by 
legislature of public schools, but legislature was 
slow to act. 

2. Instead it incorporated numerous private academies, 
chartering forty-one, for example, between 1777 and 
1780. 

3. Constitution of 1776 also provided that "Learning 
shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one or 
more Universities." 

4. Legislature passed act in 1789 providing for erection 
of state university. 

5. Chapel Hill chosen as site for university, 1792. 

6. UNC formally opened, 1795. 

C. Religion. 

1. Anglican church was officially disestablished by 
Constitution of 1776. Protestant Episcopal church 
not organized in North Carolina until 1817 . 

2. Quakers and Moravians were for most part pacifists 
during war. Their membership remained almost static. 

3. Lutheran and German Reformed churches declined as 
German immigration ceased. 

4. Baptists, who generally supported patriot cause, 
remained strong and after war expanded rapidly. 

5. Methodists declined during Revolution due to 
Wesley's statement that they should remain loyal 
to crown. But in 1780 Francis Asbury's visit to 
North Carolina resulted in renewed activities 
leading to formal organization in 1785. 

6. Presbyterians were firmly established in state by 
1777 and grew rapidly in postwar decade. 

7. By 1790 several churches had made much progress in 
North Carolina; however, only very small percentage 
of population belonged to any church. 

IV. The economy. 

A. Revolution left state in debt and its currency worthless. 
Agriculture, industry, and trade did not revive for 
several years afterward. 

B. Legislature passed many laws attempting to improve 
economic situation. 

1. Laws designed to increase sales of public lands. 

2. Laws providing for building of roads, bridges, and 
ferries . 

3. Laws seeking to provide security for titles to 
property. 

C. Prime means of transporting goods contii.aed to be by 
water. 

D. Shipbuilding flourished along the North Carolina coast. 

40 



E. Commerce began to revive in mid-1780s, but situation 
was changed from that of pre-Revolutionary North 
Carolina. 

1. Only 10 percent of foreign trade went to Britain; 
50 percent to West Indies; 40 percent to other 
states of United States. 

2. Leading imports and exports remained the same as 
before war, although proportions changed and there 
was much less exchange with Britain. 

3. Tariff duties were levied on several items such 
as pepper, sugar, molasses, cocoa, coffee, and 
slaves. All state tariff laws were discontinued 
with adoption of U.S. Constitution. 

Demography and expansion of settlement. 

A. Population increased from about 400,000 in 1790 to 
about 640,000 in 1820. 

B. Settlement continued westward. By 1775 there were 
settlements at foot of Blue Ridge. Asheville was 
incorporated in 1797. 

C. Trans-Allegheny region was beginning to be settled 
by 1770s. Tennessee lands were ceded to United 
States in 1789. 

Inquiry concerning impact of Revolution on society. 

A. Classes which benefited most. 

B. Classes which suffered most. 

C. Effect on certain groups. 

1 . Women . 

2. Blacks. 

3. Indians. 

D. Impact on other aspects of society. 

1 . Law . 

2. Art and architecture. 

3. Others. 



41 



NORTH CAROLINA AND THE FEDERAL UNION, 1777-1789 



I. Articles of Confederation. 

A. Main features of Articles. 

1. Each state retained its sovereignty and independence. 

2. Central government was weak. 

a. Congress's powers were severely limited. Essentially 
Congress depended on the states to make its decisions 
effective. 

b. Weak executive branch. No president. 

c. No federal judiciary. 

3. Stress on localism followed political ideas Americans 
developed during controversy with England. 

a. Taxing power remained in hands of states. 

b. States were free of external trade regulations. 

B. Continental Congress adopted Articles in November, 1777. 
North Carolina's delegation, while generally favoring 
"state's rights" views, was divided on issue of 
adopting Articles as John Penn and Cornelius Harnett 
favored adoption, while Thomas Burke opposed it. 

C. General Assembly ratified Articles in April, 1778. 

II. Controversy over North Carolina's western lands. 

A. State's claim to transmontane lands was based on 
colonial charter of 1663. 

B. Opinion in state was divided on issue of ceding lands 
to federal government. 

1. Easterners. 

a. Some opposed cession, advocated sale of lands 
to liquidate state debt. 

b. Others favored it to pay expenses of governing 
western region. 

c. Still others favored it, in case Congress adopted 
proposal to base state's taxes on total population. 

2. Westerners, both those in region beyond mountains 
and in Piedmont, generally favored cession. 

a. Hostility to East's domination of state and 
local government . 

b. Many people thought state government had neglected 
their interests, had not protected them militarily 
against Cherokees or commercially against Spanish. 

C. Cession Act of 1784, which provided for cession of 
western lands if certain conditions were met, was 
passed by General Assembly but soon repealed. 

D. "Lost state" of Franklin. 

1. Jonesboro Convention of August, 1784, presided over 
by John Sevier, urged Congress to accept Cession Act. 

2. North Carolina legislature, which repealed act, was 
conciliatory, creating judicial district of Washington 
and military district in the West. 

3. Second convention of westerners split and broke up 
in disorder. 



42 



4. Two factions, one led by Sevier, other by John 
Tipton, each drafted constitutions creating state 
of Franklin at third convention in December, 1784. 

5. Another convention in November, 1785, adopted 
constitution championed by Sevier and made him 
governor . 

6. "Franklin" failed to gain essential support from 
Continental Congress, North Carolina, and Virginia. 

7. State of Franklin collapsed, even though counties 

of Tennessee country were torn by strife for a time. 
E. North Carolina ceded its western lands to U.S., 1789. 

1. In 1790 territory South of the Ohio was created. 

2. In 1796 state of Tennessee was admitted to Union, 
with its constitution written largely by former 
North Carolinians. 

North Carolina and movement for "a more perfect union." 

A. Defects of Articles of Confederation became increasingly 
obvious. 

B. Annapolis Convention, 1786. No delegates from North 
Carolina were present . 

C. North Carolinians' positions reflected social and 
sectional conflicts. 

1. Those who favored reform were chiefly from East — 
townsmen, planters, and merchants. They were 
disturbed by chaotic condition of business and 
threat of political disorder. 

2. Great mass of small farmers from backcountry saw 
no need for stronger national government. 

D. North Carolina was not a leader in calling for 
Constitutional Convention. 

1. That North Carolina participated at all was due to 
activities of several eastern conservative legislators. 

2. On last day of legislative session in January, 1787, 
General Assembly elected five delegates to Constitutional 
Convention. 

3. Members of state's delegation were all from the 
upper class of society, well-educated, and 
conservative in outlook. 

a. William R. Davie. 

b. Richard Dobbs Spaight . 

c. William Blount. 

d. Alexander Martin. 

e. Hugh Williamson, most active and influential 
member of delegation. 

E. North Carolina's role in the Philadelphia convention. 

1. North Carolina usually voted with large states but did favor 
Great Compromise concerning basis of representation in 
House of Representatives and Senate. 

2. Delegation also supported three-fifths compromise, compromise 
on slave trade, and prohibition of taxes on exports. 

3. It opposed plan for single independent national executive. 

4. Among signers of Constitution were three from North 
Carolina — Blount, Williamson, and Spaight. 

43 



IV- North Carolina's initial refusal to ratify Constitution, 1788. 

A. Issue of ratification led to first definite party names 
in state politics. 

1. Federalists defended Constitution, were usually old 
Conservatives . 

2. Antifederalists were usually old Radicals. 

B. Federalist defense of Constitution stressed need for 
strong central government to end, in the words of 
James Iredell, "disordered and distracted" state of 
country. Iredell also stressed Constitution's 
provision for popular representation, its checks and 
balances, its provision for amendment, and how it 
would promote union of former colonists into one 
people. 

C. Antifederalists such as Thomas Person and Timothy Bloodworth 
agreed Constitution would lead to destruction of state's 
rights, removal of government from popular control, and 
promotion of industry at expense of agriculture. 

D. General Assembly, which convened at Tarboro in November, 
1787, was marked by heated debates on Constitution. 

E. In campaign to elect delegates to convention to consider 
ratification, Antifederalists swept to victory, 184 
delegates to 84. 

F. Hillsborough Convention, 1788. 

1. Ten states had already ratified Constitution by 
time convention met. An eleventh state ratified 
during convention. 

2. At end of deliberations, Antifederalists carried 
resolution proposing that a bill of rights be 

laid before Congress and a second federal convention. 

3. Antifederalist leaders were not opposed to union 
or to stronger central government, but only to 
central government strong enough to impair local 
self-government and endanger state's rights and 
civil liberties. 

V. North Carolina ratifies the Constitution, 1789. 

A. Second election of delegates to consider ratification 
in the summer of 1789 ended with Federalists victorious 
by wide margin. 

B. Fayetteville Convention voted for ratification, 195 to 
77 on November 21, 1789. 

C. Reasons for reversal. 

1. Censure of association with Rhode Island, with its 
reputation for radicalism. 

2. Effective Federalist promotional campaign. 

3. Favorable reports concerning new federal government 
under Washington. 

4. Need for increased southern representation in 
Congress. 

5. Need for protection from Indians, Spain, and Britain. 

6. Return of economic prosperity, attributed in part 
to new federal government . 



44 



7. Economic pressure of new federal acts relating to 
commerce, which regarded North Carolina as foreign 
nation. At the same time, temporary suspension of 
tonnage duties on North Carolina ships entering U.S. 
showed new government to be friendly. 

8. Bill of Rights, though not yet adopted at time of 
North Carolina's ratification, was in circulation, 
and its adoption was predicted. North Carolina's 
initial refusal to ratify was undoubtedly a factor 
in submission of Bill of Rights to states by 
Congress. 

All in all, North Carolina did not really like 
Constitution, but it liked notion of remaining 
independent even less. Result was delayed ratification. 



45 



NORTH CAROLINA AND THE FEDERALISTS, 1789-1800 

I. Party divisions in early national period. 
A- Federalists were followers of Hamilton. 
B. Republicans were followers of Jefferson. 

II. North Carolina voted Federalist from 1789-1793. 

A. Its first two U.S. senators were Federalists — 
Samuel Johnston and Benjamin Hawkins. 

B. Three members of its first delegation to House of 
Representatives were Federalists, while two were 
Republicans. 

C. Still, most of the people of state were dissatisfied 
with extreme nationalistic policies of Federalist 
administ rat ion . 

1. Negative reaction to Judiciary Act of 1789. 

2. Associate Justice James Iredell's dissenting 
opinion in case of Chisolm v. Georgia was 
popular in North Carolina. 

3. State's delegates to Congress, supported by its 
citizens, opposed funding national debt. 

4. There was wide opposition to federal government's 
assuming state debts. 

5. There was opposition to Bank of the U.S. 

6. Most people in state objected to excise tax on 
spirituous liquors. 

7. There was much opposition to Washington's 
Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793. 

8. Opposition to Jay's Treaty was widespread in 
North Carolina. 

III. State politics, 1789-1800. 

A. Of five governors during this period, two were 
Federalists. 

1. Alexander Martin, 1789-1792. 

2. Richard Dobbs Spaight, 1792-1795— Federalist . 

3. Samuel Ashe, 1795-1798. 

4. William R. Davie, 1798-1799— Federalist . 

5. Benjamin Williams, 1799-1802. 

B. General Assembly was predominantly Republican, especially 
after 1792. 

C. In delegation to House of Representatives, there was 
small Federalist majority, 1789-1793. During 1793-1799 
all representatives but one were Republicans. Nathaniel 
Macon, state's most powerful representative, entered 
Congress in 1791. 

D. After 1794 state never had another Federalist in U.S. 
Senate. 

E. Although George Washington had no opposition in election 
of 1792, state's electors manifested reaction to 
Federalism by voting for George Clinton rather than 
John Adams for vice-president. 

F. In 1796 state gave eleven of its electoral votes to 
Jefferson and one to Adams. 

46 



G. Strained relations with France, due to the XYZ 

Affair and undeclared naval war, led to revival of 
Federalist power in North Carolina in election of 
1798. 

H. Alien and Sedition acts of 1798 led to widespread 
controversy in state. 

I. There was much sympathy in state for the ideas 

expressed in Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798. 

J. In 1799 President Adams sent William R. Davie to France 
as part of mission to settle undeclared war. 

Decline of Federalism in North Carolina after 1798. 

A. Republicans and Thomas Jefferson triumphed in North 
Carolina in 1800, and Federalists never again 
threatened to gain control of state. 

B. Reasons for decline of Federalists. 

1. Removal of war threat. 

2. Reaction against Alien and Sedition acts. 

3. Retirement of Davie from politics. 

4. Spaight's shift to Republican cause. 

5. Joseph Gale's Raleigh Register . 

6. Reaction against strong central government. 

7. Federalist alliance with propertied classes and 
party's disregard of public sentiment. 



47 



NORTH CAROLINA IN THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA, 1801-1815 



I. Republican strength increased as Federalism declined. 

A. Republicans had young and influential leaders, especially 
Nathaniel Macon. 

B. Raleigh Register was powerful, pro-Republican newspaper. 

C. Republicans had control of federal, state, and local 
patronage. 

II. State soon had one-party system. 

A. Political contests were seldom about issues but rather 
about personalities. 

B. Party loyalty became considerable force. 

C. Ability of public officials declined after 1800. 

D. Republican governors, 1799-1817. 

1. Benjamin Williams, 1799-1802, 1807-1808. 

2. James Turner, 1802-1805. 

3. Nathaniel Alexander, 1805-1807. 

4. David Stone, 1808-1810. 

5. Benjamin Smith, 1810-1811. 

6. William Hawkins, 1811-1814. 

7. William Miller, 1814-1817. 

E. Republicans dominated state's delegation to Congress 
and its electoral vote for president from 1800 to 1816. 

F. Opposition to national administration by North Carolina's 
delegation to Congress. 

1. Small Federalist minority consistently but ineffectively 
opposed policies of Jefferson and Madison. 

2. More important was opposition from within Republican 
party. Quids, led by Macon (speaker of the House, 
1801-1807) , opposed Republican majority on certain 
issues. 

a. Yazoo land question. 

b. Embargo and nonintercourse acts. 

c. Declaration of war against England. 

III. Major political issues in North Carolina, 1801-1815. 

A. Economy in government. 

B. Politicization of the university. 

1. Republicans criticized Federalist influence on 
University of North Carolina. 

2. Legislature passed "Gothic law" of 1800, depriving 
university's trustees of escheats. 

3. In University v. Foy , 1800, court held that 
legislature could not deprive university of its 
means of support. 

4. Next legislature, however, refused to repeal 
"Gothic law." 

5. In 1805 escheats were restored to university, but 
governor was made chairman of Board of Trustees, 
legislature was given power to fill vacancies 

on the board, and fifteen additional trustees were 
chosen. 

C. Chartering of State Bank of North Carol_na, 1810. 

48 



Electoral system for presidential elections. 

1. During 1792-1808 electors were chosen by legislature 
voting by court districts, which enabled Federalists 
to get three or four electoral votes. 

2. Republicans changed law in 1811 vesting choice of 
presidential electors in General Assembly. All 
electoral votes went to Madison in 1812. 

3. New law passed in 1815 retained district system 
but provided for general ticket whereby each voter 
voted for fifteen electors, one of whom would 
reside in each congressional district. 

Indian removal and western land policy. 

1. In series of treaties, 1777-1798, Cherokees 
relinquished all their lands in North Carolina 
north and east of line approximating boundaries 
of present Haywood and Transylvania counties. 

2. State made hundreds of land grants in this area, 
most for modest acreages but some in excess of 
100,000 acres to single grantee. 

State judiciary. 

1. Complaints about system. 

a. Too few courts. 

b. Distances between court towns. 

c. Conflicting opinions of judges; no machinery 
for appeal. 

d. Courts were far from "the people." 

2. Laws of 1798 and 1800 provided for additional judges. 

3. Law of 1806 provided for superior court to be held 
in each county twice a year. 

4. Law of 1801 created a "Court of Conference" made 
up of all superior court judges. By 1805 it was 
designated state Supreme Court. 

5. In 1818 legislature created separate, independent, 
full-time Supreme Court of three judges. 

North Carolina and Republican foreign policy. 

1. Republicans generally gave wholehearted support to 
national administration's foreign policies while 
Federalists opposed them. 

2. Relations with British reached critical point in 
years after 1810, and Congress was dominated by 
War Hawks. North Carolina had no conspicuous 
War Hawks. 

3. There was considerable opposition to war among 
state's delegation in Congress. 

4. War of 1812. 

a. Though the North Carolina coast was largely 
undefended and many citizens resented this 
neglect by national administration, British 
chose not to consider area as major objective. 

b. State furnished its quota of militia — 7,000 
men in 1812, 7,000 more in 1814. 

c. Three heroes of war from North Carolina. 

1) Lt. Col. Benjamin Forsyth. 

2) Capt. Johnston Blakeley. 

3) Otway Burns. 

49 



Criticism of war from North Carolinians in Congress. 

1) Republicans, while not outspoken against the 
war itself, criticized its management. 

2) Federalists were against the war and its 
management and were thoroughly discredited 
in eyes of the public. 



50 



EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY NORTH CAROLINA: "THE RIP VAN WINKLE STATE" 



North Carolina's problems after War of 1812. 

A. Agriculture, state's dominant occupation, generally 
yielded only bare living. 

1. Problems. 

a. Primitive methods of cultivation led to soil 
exhaustion. 

b. Poor transportation to markets. 

c. High prices for necessary articles. 

2. Regional picture. 

a. Piedmont and Mountain areas were most backward 
sections of state. 

1) Small subsistence farms with diversified 
crops prevailed. 

2) Main crops were corn, wheat, fruits, cattle, 
hogs, whiskey. 

3) No staple crops in most of these areas, except 
for pockets of cotton planters in southern part of 
state and tobacco planters to the north. 

b. Coastal Plain. 

1) Conditions were somewhat better in Albemarle- 
Pamlico Sound area. Chief products — corn, 
beans, peas, hogs, lumber — could be shipped 
by water to eastern towns and outside markets. 

2) Middle-eastern region featured considerable 
areas of staple crop production. Tobacco, 
rice, corn, pork, and naval stores were 
leading staples. There was high density of 
slave population. This was most attractive 
and wealthy area of state. 

B. Commerce. 

1. Internal, coastal, and foreign commerce was small. 

2. Dangerous coast was major handicap. 

3. Exports were mainly naval stores, lumber, tobacco, 
cotton, rice, corn, wheat, flour, pork. 

4. Wilmington was chief port. 

C. Roads were poor, virtually impassable in wet weather, 
and this was great handicap especially to commerce 
within state. 

D. Manufacturing did not develop until long after 1815. 

1. Mountain and Piedmont regions had ample resources 
for development of manufacturing, including climate, 
raw materials, water power, and cheap labor. 

2. Scarcity of capital, inadequate transportation, 
and impoverished home market discouraged building 
of factories. 

3. Schenk-Warlick Mill, established about 1815 in 
Lincoln County, was state's first cotton spinning 
mill. 

4. There were twenty-five cotton mills by 1840, but they 
served only local areas. 

5. State became increasingly dependent on North for its 
manufactured goods. 

51 



E. Finance. 

1. There were few banks. 

2. Specie was scarce; barter was widely used in local 
trading. 

3. Impossible for government to make adequate expenditures 
for state development due to inadequate public revenues 
collectible from a poor, tax-hating populace. 

F. Intellectual conditions. 

1. Probably half the population was illiterate in 1840. 

2. Few libraries, theaters, and newspapers. 

3. No state aid to education and thus no opportunity 
for education among the mass of children. 

4. Prevailing attitude was that education was private 
matter and not responsibility of state. 

G. Emigration increased. Driven by unattractive conditions in 
their native state, thousands of North Carolinians moved to 
other areas. 

1. Many of those leaving were young, energetic, and 
ambitious. Three future presidents of U.S. migrated. 

a . Jackson . 

b. Polk 

c . Andrew Johnson . 

2. State's rank in population fell from fourth in 1790 
to twelfth in 1860. 

II. Fundamental factors behind North Carolina's backwardness. 

A. Natural handicaps. 

1. Poor water transportation facilities. 

2. Natural differences among areas encouraged sectionalism. 

B. Ill-suited system of government. 

1. Undemocratic local government was dominated by county 
court composed of justices of the peace appointed for 
life by governor and upon recommendation of county's 
representatives in Ceneral Assembly. 

2. Undemocratic state government was not representative 
of or controlled by the people. 

a. Restrictions upon voting and office holding 
favored those with property. 

b. General Assembly, which made laws and elected 
governor and U.S. senators, was virtually 
all-powerful . 

3. Dominance by the East, which continued to control 
creation of new counties and thus to keep a majority 
in General Assembly. Situation became grossly 
unjust by 1830, when West surpassed East in 
population. 

4. One-party system. 

a. Republicans became party of inaction, of status 
quo . 

b. Personal rivalries and patronage were more 
important in politics than public issues. 

c. Nathaniel Macon dominated and symbolized North 
Carolina politics in this era. 



52 



1) His personal integrity and simplicity pleased 
the people; his conservative views on public 
questions pleased East and dominant landlord 
group. 

2) Eventually his rigid program of economy, state's 
rights, strict construction, and his opposition 
to schemes for national development such as the 
tariff and internal improvements led to decline 
of his influence on national politics. 



53 



THE MURPHEY PROGRAM FOR STATE DEVELOPMENT 



I. Background: national changes after 1815. 

A. Peace, patriotism, and prosperity helped inaugurate 
nationalistic reform movement throughout country. 

B. During Monroe's first term, 1817-1821, Republican 
party abandoned its negative, state's rights program 
and embarked on constructive, nationalistic program 
stressing national defense, protective tariff, 
national bank, and internal improvements. 

II. North Carolina shared in enthusiasm by carrying out 

several projects for general welfare even though they 
required larger government expenditures. 

A. State paid for education of orphans of Captain 
Blakeley and Colonel Forsyth. 

B. Purchase of Canova ' s statue and Sully's portrait 
of Washington. 

C. Legislature set aside Agricultural Fund in 1822 to 
aid local agricultural societies. 

D. Publications of state geological survey in mid-1820s 
were first in nation. 

III. The Murphey program. 

A. Archibald D. Murphey. 

1. Intelligent, well-educated, public-spirited lawyer 
of Hillsborough. 

2. Represented Orange County in state Senate, 1812-1818. 

3. Collected masses of facts on backward conditions 
in state. 

4. Led new movement built around idea that democratic 
government should serve the people and encourage 
development of state. 

5. His brilliant reports to state Senate from 1815 to 
1818 contained his program. 

B. The program. 

1. Internal improvements: state government should 
provide means to create unified system of land and 
water transportation to increase commerce. Among 
projects would be deepening of harbors and inlets, 
improved roads, canals. 

2. Education: state-supported system of public education 
for all white children. Advanced study in academies 
and university, however, would be available only 

to intelligent males. 

3. Constitutional reform: constitutional convention 
would remedy defects of Constitution of 1776, chief 
among them the system of equal county representation 
in legislature. 

4. Drainage of swamp lands. 

IV. Response of state to program. 

A. Internal improvements program was adopted in part, but 
it failed to improve transportation system greatly. 

54 



1. Actions by legislature. 

a. Hiring of Hamilton Fulton as engineer for state. 

b. Surveys of rivers and proposed canals and inlets. 

c. Authorization of subscriptions of stock for canal 
and navigation companies. 

d. Creation of state fund for internal improvements. 

e. Creation of state board to direct new policy. 

f. Direction and funding of construction of 
several new roads. 

2. Reasons for overall failure. 

a. Funds were insufficient, poorly invested. 

b. Rivalry of local interests precluded efforts 
to build unified system. 

c. Lack of experienced engineers. 

d. Hard times after 1819. 

e. Coming of railroad. 

3. Despite failure, North Carolina had adopted new 
policy of state aid to internal improvements, and 
extension of this policy finally solved the trans- 
portation problem. 

B. In public education, little V7as accomplished due to 
public indifference and legislature's lack of cooperation. 

1. Literary Fund was created in 1825 "for the establish- 
ment of common schools," but its receipts were low. 

2. Literary Board was created to manage it. 

C. Eastern-dominated legislature refused to act on 
constitutional reform and swamp drainage. 

D. Despite failure of Murphey's program, he had drawn 
blueprint for state development, and he ranks first 
among North Carolina's state-builders. His program 
also revealed basic sectional conflict in North 
Carolina, which was accentuated by panic of 1819. 

V. Conflict among sections was evident on several important 
issues . 

A. On internal improvements, West supported Murphey 
program while East opposed it . 

B. West favored constitutional reform, while East was 
against it. 

C. On issues of banking and finance, West and Sound 
region were strongholds of antibank, inflationary, 
unsound money sentiment, while middle-eastern section 
was conservative. 

D. West protected legislature's caucus system which 
determined state's electoral vote for president and 
which insured domination by eastern interests. 

E. West attacked general-ticket system, which also 
helped East to deliver undivided electoral vote for 
Republican presidential candidate. 

F. National issues. 

1. On federal internal improvements, West and Sound 
area favored national program while middle-eastern 
area was opposed. 

2. North Carolina, being primarily agricultural, was 
antitarif f . 

55 



3. Votes in Congress on Missouri Compromise revealed 
that West's senators and representatives were 
willing to restrict spread of slavery while those 
from East opposed any restriction. 

VI. Sectional conflicts reveal that there was an insurgent 
reform movement in state after 1815, based mainly on 
sectional needs and self-interest, which was challenging 
dominant conservative champions of status quo. 



56 



NORTH CAROLINA'S CHANGING ROLE IN NATIONAL POLITICS, 1824-1835 



I. From 1824 to 1835 conservative East determined state's 
role in national politics just as it dominated state 
politics. 

A. Reasons for eastern dominance in national politics. 

1. East controlled Republican party. 

2. General Assembly elected U.S. senators. 

3. Prestige of Nathaniel Macon. 

4. Caucus system and general-ticket system for 
choosing presidential electors. 

B. Eastern dominance led to widespread resentment in 
West and to division of Republican party, division 
which was first indicated at time of Missouri 
Compromise when state's delegations in Congress 
split evenly over question of excluding slavery 

in Louisiana Territory north of 36° 30' . 

II. Presidential campaign of 1824 was first major blow at 
eastern dominance. 

A. Party regulars including Macon favored William H. 
Crawford for president. He stood for strict 
construction of Constitution, state's rights, 
economy in government , and opposed internal 
improvements and tariff. 

B. Certain elements from West, led by Charles Fisher of 
Salisbury, favored John C. Calhoun, young leader of 
party's nationalistic wing and advocate of internal 
improvements. Calhoun leaders formed "People's 
Ticket" of presidential electors opposed to Crawford 
ticket chosen by caucus. 

C. Calhoun men soon discovered that Andrew Jackson had 
best chance of defeating Crawford, and most of them 
shifted their support to Jackson, who was represented 
as champion of common people and advocate of internal 
improvements . 

D. "People's Ticket" swept to decisive victory with 20,000 
votes based in West and Sound region to Crawford's 
15,000 based in middle-eastern region and along Virginia 
border. 

E. Significance of election of 1824 in North Carolina. 

1. Victory for lower social orders. 

2. Revolt of West. 

3. Revolt against influence of Virginia. 

F. Election was thrown into House of Representatives. 

1. John Quincy Adams won due to Clay's support. 

2. Although North Carolina had gone for Jackson, 
ten of its representatives voted for Crawford. 
Of these, five were defeated in next election. 



57 



III. Political developments, 1824-1835. 

A. Macon and eastern interests soon shifted allegiance 

to Jackson since Adams was New Englander with nationalistic 
program and opposed slavery. 

B. In 1828 and 1832 Jackson carried reunited North 
Carolina. 

C. As president, Jackson disappointed West and Sound region 
and pleased East. 

1. East liked Jackson's first term for several reasons. 

a. Maysville Road veto suggested opposition to 
internal improvements. 

b. Appointment of John Branch of Halifax County as 
secretary of the navy (state's first cabinet 
member) . 

c. His devotion to economy in government and state's 
rights. 

2. Dissatisfaction of West and Sound region became 
open during Jackson's second term due to several of 
his actions. 

a. Force Bill of 1833. 

b. Jackson forced resignation of John Branch. 

c. Unpopular Van Buren was Jackson's heir apparent. 

d. Veto of Clay's bill to distribute proceeds of 
public land sales to states. 

e. Destruction of Second Bank of the U.S. 

f. Growing friendliness of middle-eastern section 
with Jackson due to his state's rights policies. 

IV. Formation of Whig party. 

A. Whig party as national organization was founded in 
1834, and its elements were not unified except in 
their opposition to Jackson. 

1. Majority wing was made up of National Republicans, 
devoted to Clay's program of internal improvements, 
protective tariff, and national bank. 

2. Minority wing consisted of state's rights group of 
cotton planters in lower South. 

B. Whigs were formally organized in North Carolina in 1835. 

1. North Carolina Whigs belonged to National Republican 
wing of party, which favored policies that would aid 
in developing West and Sound area. 

2. Whig alliance between West and Sound area seriously 
challenged dominance of East, which remained 
predominantly Democratic (as Jackson's party had 
come to be known) . 

a. Democrats were party of strict construction, 
state's rights, economy, and inactive federal 
government . 

b. In North Carolina they were based in areas of 
heavy slave-holding and staple-crop farming on 
plantation basis--middle-eastern section and 
two small regions of Piedmont. 

3. Whigs carried all presidential elections in North 
Carolina from 1840 through 1852, and it was one 
of strongest Whig states in South. 

58 



Whig-Democrat split encouraged development of 
parties in modern sense. After 1835 both parties 
gradually developed effective organization and 
machinery for use in campaigns — party caucus, 
state and district conventions, clubs, state and 
local committees, county meetings, local mass 
meetings, party newspapers. In election contests 
they used party emblems, slogans, circulars, 
processions, barbecues, joint debates. Campaigns 
were often marked by personal attacks and violent 
partisanship. 



59 



THE CONVENTION OF 1835 



I. Reasons for dissatisfaction with Constitution of 1776. 

A. Requirements for suffrage and of f iceholding favored 
propertied class. 

B. Inefficient, wasteful government due in large part 

to weak executive and nearly all-powerful legislature. 

C. Borough representation in General Assembly. 

D. Intolerant religious provisions. 

1. Provision that no minister while actively discharging 
his pastoral duties could be member of legislature 

or Council of State. 

2. Provision forbidding public office to anyone who 
denied existence of God or truth of Protestant 
religion. 

E. Free Negro suffrage under attack due to slavery issue. 

F. Chief grievance against constitution was system of 
equal county representation in General Assembly. 

II. Since Constitution of 1776 contained no provision for 
amendment, constitutional convention was necessary 
to change it. 

A. From 1787 to 1833 numerous efforts to have convention 
called ended in failure, usually due to eastern 
opposition in legislature. 

B. After 1830 western demands for convention became so 
strong that there was talk of revolution and secession. 

III. In 1834 legislature passed law to submit question of 
convention to statewide referendum. A few eastern 
legislators joined with West to pass law for several 
reasons. 

A. Eastern sentiment to reform illiberal religious 
provisions and abolish free Negro suffrage. 

B. Support by West for removal of capital to Fayetteville 
and against rebuilding of Capitol in Raleigh won some 
eastern support for convention. 

C. Diminishing contrasts between East and West, especially 
westward spread of plantation system. 

D. Concern about emigration draining state's population. 

E. Leadership of Gov. David L. Swain. 

F. Whig party tended to unite West with commercial portion 
of East. 

IV. The convention of 1835. 

A. Referendum resulted in victory for those favoring 
convention. 

B. Convention had 130 delegates, 2 from each county. 

C. Governor Swain and William Gaston were probably 
most important leaders. 

D. Major amendments to state constitution. 

1. Abolition of borough representation and free 
Negro suffrage. 

2. Equalization of poll tax for all persons subject 
to it. 

60 



3. Provision for impeachment of public officials. 

4. Provision for constitutional amendment. 

5. Substitution of "Christian" for "Protestant" in 
religious test for of f iceholding. 

6. General Assembly sessions changed from annual 

to biennial; its power to enact private legislation 
was restricted. 

7. Governor was to be elected every two years by all 
adult male taxpayers. He would be eligible for 
reelection but could not serve more than four 
years of any six. 

8. Equal county representation in legislature was 
abolished . 

a. Senate would contain fifty members from districts 
whose inhabitants paid equal amounts of state 
taxes . 

b. House of Commons would contain 120 members 
distributed among counties according to population 
but with each county guaranteed one representative. 

c. Result was that East would control Senate, which 
represented wealth, while West would control House 
of Commons, which represented population. 

E. Statewide referendum ratified amendments. 

F. Convention of 1835 was turning point in North Carolina 
history. Represented victory for democratic principles and for 
West. 

V. Whig-Democratic rivalry led to two-party system of 

government, which began to operate along with constitutional 
reforms of 1835. 

A. Whigs won control of state government in election of 1836. 

1. Leaders chiefly from West, usually men of wealth, 
education, and aristocratic views. 

2. Geographic base was West and Sound region. 

3. Classes it appealed to were small farmers, merchants, 
and businessmen who favored programs for state 
development . 

4. Program was initially old Murphey program: public 
schools, internal improvements, sound banks and 
currency, promotion of industry. 

B. Democrats. 

1. Party of aristocratic planters and their followers. 
Leaders and supporters came from wealthy plantation- 
slaveholding counties of middle-eastern section 

and from northern and southern staple-growing 
counties of Piedmont. 

2. For several years after 1835, program was mainly 
negative, urging economy and laissez-faire, holding 
that education and internal improvements were matters 
of individual and local concern. 



61 



THE WHIGS INAUGURATE AN AGE OF PROGRESS: NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 

1835-1850 



I. Whig governors. 

A. Edward P. Dudley, 1837-1841. 

B. John Motley Morehead, 1841-1845. 

C. William A. Graham, 1845-1849. 

D. Charles Manly, 1849-1851. 

II. Whigs in control of state government. 

A. State's share of federal surplus was about $1,433,000, 
which helped make possible program for state development. 

1. Used $100,000 for current expenses of state 
government . 

2. Used $600,000 for purchase of bank stock. 

3. Used $533,000 for purchase of railroad securities. 

4. Used $200,000 for internal improvements such as 
draining swamp lands. 

5. Since these investments were (all except $100,000) 
assigned to Literary Fund, federal surplus went 
largely to cause of public schools. 

B. Railroad building: by providing state aid to railroads, 
Whigs began era of railroad construction which revolu- 
tionized life in state. 

1. New Greek Revival Capitol Building, begun in 1833 and 
completed in 1840, was constructed of stone brought 
from nearby quarry on mile-and-a-quarter "Experimental 
Railroad" — first one in state. 

2. Only two of several railroad companies chartered by 
legislature between 1830 and 1835 succeeded in 
getting enough capital to begin construction. These 
were the Wilmington and Weldon and the Raleigh and 
Gaston railroads which, with state aid, were completed 
and began operation in 1840. 

3. Before 1854 state lost nearly $1 million aiding 
Raleigh and Gaston, but railroads were so beneficial 
that people still favored state aid for them and 
demanded more be built. 

4. In 1849 legislature chartered North Carolina Railroad 
from Goldsboro through Raleigh to Charlotte, which 
was completed in 1856. 

5. Effects of railroads were far-reaching. 

a. Freight rates cut in half. 

b. Encouraged production of surplus crops for 
market and increased farmers' profits while 
reducing their costs. 

c. Increased land values and productivity. 

d. Marked growth of towns, trade, factories, wealth, 
and state revenue. 

e. Promoted state unity and pride. 

f. Helped check emigration. 

C. Program for drainage of swamp lands was ineffective. 

D. Public schools. 

1. Joseph Caldwell's "Letters on Public Education," 1832. 

2. Constitutional reform of 1835 paved way for public 
schools, and federal surplus provided economic means. 

3. Public School Law of 1839 soon led to establishment 

62 



of public schools in every county in state. By 1850 
there were 2,657 common schools operating with 
over 100,000 pupils. 

4. Leaders and legislative support for school law 
came mainly from East . 

5. In establishing legal provision for primary education 
of every white child in state and putting into 
operation statewide system of free public schools, 
North Carolina took advanced position among states 

of South and nation. 

6. Schools were still disappointing for decade or more 
due to several weaknesses. 

a. In 1841 school law was changed. 

1) Basis of allocating Literary Fund to counties 
was changed to federal population, which 
discriminated in favor of heavy slaveholding 
counties (slaves were not allowed in public 
schools) . 

2) County courts were no longer required to 
levy taxes to support schools but were only 
authorized to do so. 

b. No state administrative control of schools. 

c. County systems lacked uniformity. 

d. Local authorities were negligent in making 
reports. 

e. People tended to remain conservative and 
disliked paying taxes to local schools. 

f. Lack of good teachers. 

g. Lack of vigorous political leadership. 
Humanitarian reforms. 

1. North Carolina Institution for the Education of 
the Deaf and Blind. 

2. State Hospital for the Insane promoted by Dorothea Dix. 

3. Agitation for improved system of caring for poor 
and for state institutions for orphans proved 
unsuccessful. 

4. Efforts to reform criminal law along more humanitarian 
lines were basically ineffective, although some progress 
was made. 

a. Subjection of married women to their husbands 
was lessened by law forbidding husband to sell 
or lease real estate belonging to wife at time 
of marriage without her consent. 

b. Number of capital offenses reduced from twenty-eight 
to twelve. 

5. Legal rights of Negroes — both slave and free — 
further curtailed in this period for several reasons. 

a. Rising value of slave property. 

b. Fear of insurrection. 

c. Reaction to growth of antislavery movement. 

d. Prominence of slavery as national political issue. 
Fiscal system. 

1. Increased government expenditures necessitated 
larger tax revenues. 

2. Reassessments of property values and reenumerations 
of polls helped little. 

63 



3. Dominance of rural interest in legislature led to 
new taxes in 1840s on inheritance, incomes, 
licenses, and luxuries. 

4. Light tax on slaves was glaring inequity in tax 
system. 

5. State revenue doubled between 1835 and 1850 from 
about $70,000 to about $140,000, but increase 

was insufficient to maintain government's solvency. 

6. In 1848 policy of issuing and selling interest- 
bearing bonds to borrow money was inaugurated, marking 
beginning of use of bonded state debt as feature of 
fiscal policy. 



64 



CONTINUED PROGRESS UNDER THE DEMOCRATS: NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 

1850-1860 



I. Causes of Whigs' decline. 

A. Long lease on power encouraged conservatism and 
machine control. 

B. Elder statesmen of party dominated, discouraging 
ambitious young leaders from joining it. 

C. Whigs relaxed constructive policies such as aid to 
education and railroads. 

D. They became less sensitive to public opinion, becoming 
inattentive to masses of farmers and more attached to 
townspeople, commercial and manufacturing interests, 
and failing to respond to demands for a more democratic 
government . 

E. Stands on national issues weakened Whigs. 

1. Opposition to war with Mexico and to expansion. 

2. Party was divided on issues of legislature's right 

to instruct U.S. senators and of extension of slavery 
into territories. 

3. Whigs had poor image in South because most northern 
antislavery leadership was centered in their party. 

4. National party's support of national bank, protec- 
tive tariff, internal improvements, and other measures 
also weakened party in North Carolina. 

II. Causes of Democrats' rejuvenation. 

A. On national issues its stands were consistent with 
dominant sentiment in state and in South. 

1. It supported Mexican War and expansion. 

2. It insisted on primacy of state's rights and 
opposed exclusion of slavery from territories. 

B. New, young leaders emerged — such as William W. Holden 
and David S. Reid — who were determined to commit 
party to constructive, progressive program. 

III. The Democrats gain control of state government. 

A. In election of 1848 Reid, running against Whig 
Charles Manly, made free suffrage — abolition of the 
50-acre qualification for voting in senatorial elections 
— the issue of gubernatorial campaign. 

B. Manly came out against free suffrage and was hurt by 
this stand in small farm Whig West, but he still won 
narrow victory. 

C. After election of 1848 Democrats continued agitation 
for free suffrage, while Whigs were divided and 
vacillating on question. 

D. In election of 1850 Reid defeated Manly as Democrats 
came out for free suffrage amendment by legislative 
method. Democrats won majority in both houses of 
legislature. 

E. Democratic governors, 1851-1861. 

1. David S. Reid, 1851-1854. 

2. Warren Winslow, 1854-1855. 

3. Thomas Bragg, 1855-1859. 

4. John W. Ellis, 1859-1861. 

65 



IV. Democrats' record, 1851-1861. 

A. Free suffrage amendment adopted in 1857 by popular 
referendum. Much of opposition to it came from eastern 
Democratic slaveholding counties. 

B. Continued state aid to railroads. In 1850s 641 miles 

of track were built, and by 1860 state's railroad system 
comprised 891 miles. 

C. State support for plank roads. 

1. About a dozen plank roads comprising about 500 miles 
of road were built at cost of $1 million. 

2. For a few years they flourished but by 1860 most 
were worn out. They were never rebuilt. 

D. Public education. 

1. Creation of office of state superintendent of common 
schools, 1852. 

2. This office was filled from 1853 to 1865 by the able 
and efficient Calvin H. Wiley. 

a. With writings and speeches he popularized public 
schools . 

b. Improved quality of instruction. 

c. Required reports from schools. 

d. Edited North Carolina Journal of Education and 
wrote North Carolina Reader . 

E. Support and expansion of state institutions for deaf, 
blind, and insane. 

F. Tax reform: Democrats increased taxes to finance their 
program of state development, and tax revenues rose 
from $142,000 in 1850 to $668,000 in 1860. 

V. Political developments, 1850-1860. 

A. Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, and 
consequent union of antislavery forces in North destroyed 
Whig party. In North Carolina it broke up in 1854. 

B. Know-Nothing party attracted some former Whigs from 
1855 to 1859. 

C. Democrats. 

1. Toward mid-1850s, old aristocratic eastern 
slaveholding wing of party took control again, 
making Democratic party guardian of state's rights, 
property rights, slavocracy, and southern interests. 
Put Reid-Holden group on defensive. 

2. Preconvention contest of 1858 between gubernatorial 
aspirants William W. Holden and John W. Ellis 
threatened unity of party. Ellis, backed by eastern 
aristocratic leaders, won nomination. 

3. Democrats developed what might be called a "democratic- 
aristocratic cleavage," as Holden and many of his 
supporters became cool toward party's eastern 
aristocratic leaders. 

4. In 1858 Duncan McRae — a Democrat who unlike the 
majority of the party favored distribution of 
public lands or their proceeds to states — waged 
unsuccessful independent campaign for governor. 

5. Issue of ad valorem taxation of property including 
slaves came to fore in years leading up to 1860, and 
it too threatened Democratic unity. State's laborers, 

66 



tradesmen, and small farmers were becoming more 
class conscious due to tax discrimination in favor 
of slave property. 

a. Role of Moses Bledsoe as champion of ad valorem 
taxation in General Assembly. 

b. Raleigh Workingmen's Association. 

Election of 1860. 

A. Whig party reorganized in 1859 in effort to elect 
unionist leaders. 

B. In 1860 Whigs came out for ad valorem taxation and 
nominated John Pool for governor. 

C. Democrats renominated incumbent John W. Ellis for 
governor and tried to dodge ad valorem issue. 

D. Democrats won close victory aided by popular conviction 
that their party was only true defender of southern 
interests. 

E. On issue of ad valorem taxation, party roles were 
once again reversed. Democrats were again, as in 
1835, defenders of status quo while Whigs were 
advocates of reform. 



67 



ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1835-1860 



I. Agriculture. 

A. Continued to be state's chief industry. Rising crop 
prices and improved transportation increased farmers' 
production and profits. 

B. Tobacco production increased remarkably. 

1. Discovery of bright-leaf tobacco. 

2. New curing process worked out by Abisha Slade and 
his slave Stephen. 

C. Cotton production increased from about 35,000 bales in 
1840 to over 145,000 bales in 1860. 

D. Rice, wheat, and corn production also increased. 

E. Movement in this era attempted systematically to 
improve farming methods and rural life. 

1. Agricultural journals such as Farmer's and Planter's 
Almanac . 

2. Agricultural societies including State Agricultural 
Society, which sponsored first state fair in 1853 
in Raleigh. 

II. Mining. 

A. Gold mining. 

1. Reed Gold Mine, Cabarrus County. 

2. Gold Hill, Rowan County. 

3. Christopher and August Bechtler had private mint 
in Rutherford County. 

4. Total capital investment in North Carolina gold 
was about $100,000,000, mainly from northern states 
and foreign countries. 

5. Total production before 1860 was probably between 
$50,000,000 and $65,000,000. 

6. Industry declined after 1848 due to scarcity of 
accessible gold and discoveries in California. 

7. For a time, however, North Carolina had been one 
of nation's leaders in gold-mining; and gold- 
mining had been state's second leading industry. 

B. There was some iron and coal mining in state and to 
lesser degree mining of corundum, copper, and silver. 

III. Fishing: in 1860 North Carolina ranked second in South 
in commercial fishing. 

IV. Manufacturing. 

A. Handicaps to its development. 

1. Poor transportation. 

2. Scarcity of coal and iron. 

3. Scarcity of capital and skilled labor. 

4. Attitude of distaste for manufacturing. 

5. Dispersed population. 

B. Factors encouraging its development. 

1. Abundant water power. 

2 . Cheap labor . 

3. Proximity to cotton and tobacco plantations and 
forests . 

68 



C. After 1815 state became increasingly dependent on 
outside world for its manufactured goods. 

D. This period also witnessed laying of foundation 
for industrialization of North Carolina. 

1. Turpentine, state's only manufacturing industry 
on export basis. 

2. Flour and meal. 

3. Tobacco. 

4. Lumber. 

5. Pioneers in state's cotton industry. 

a. Edwin Michael Holt. 

b. Battle family. 

c. Francis Fries. 

6. Iron manufacturing, major industry in early nineteenth 
century, declined after 1840. 

7. Construction of railroads and plank roads. 

8. Distilled and fermented liquors. 

V. Growth of towns in both number and size reflected state's 
expanding economy. 

71. Number of banks increased by 1860 to thirty-six. 

LI. Despite striking economic development before 1860, North 

Carolina was still relatively poor and backward, excessively 
rural and isolated. It made little improvement in its 
rank among states since most other states were experiencing 
equal or greater development. 



69 



INTELLECTUAL AWAKENING IN ANTEBELLUM NORTH CAROLINA, 1835-1860 



Education. 

A. Establishment of publicly supported common schools for 
all white children was greatest social and intellectual 
achievement in antebellum North Carolina. 

1. System was disappointing in 1840s. 

2. From 1853 to 1865 Superintendent Calvin H. Wiley 
revolutionized it. 

a. Certification of teachers after examination. 

b. Improvement of textbooks. 

c. Better buildings and equipment. 

d. Establishment of school libraries. 

e. Beginning of graded schools. 

f. Formation of teachers' library associations. 

g. Founding of Educational Association of North 
Carolina. 

h. Increase in number of schools, pupils, and 
teachers, as well as increased funding. 

3. Still school system faced many problems. 

a. Many people were indifferent toward education 
or resentful toward taxes for schools. 

b. Poor buildings inadequately furnished. 

c. Teachers were often men unfit for the work. 

d. Teachers' salaries were low. 

e. School term lasted less than four months. 

f. Curriculum included only reading, writing, 
arithmetic, grammar, and geography. 

g. Pupils of all ages studied and recited in same 
room under one teacher. 

B. Private schools funded by tuition payments were 
attended by some children. 

1. Subscription or "old field school." 

2. Private academies were best schools in state below 
college level. 

a. Had good buildings and equipment. 

b. Employed superior teachers at good salaries. 

c. Taught classical curriculum. 

C. Special schools. 

1. Lawyers and judges sometimes conducted private 
law schools. 

2. Doctors occasionally offered instruction in medicine. 

3. Military schools. 

4. Farmers' School of Elijah Graves. 

5. Manual labor schools. 

D. Development of University of North Carolina. 

1. Before 1835, largely under leadership of Pres. Joseph 
Caldwell, university struggled along — small, poverty 
stricken, uninf luential — as typical classical college. 

a. Caldwell built up library. 

b. Assembled able faculty. 

c. Broadened curriculum to include natural sciences, 
literature, history. 

70 



2. New era began in 1835 as David L. Swain assumed 
presidency. 

a. Popularized university, increased enrollment. 

b. Founded North Carolina Historical Society, 1844. 

c. Shifted stress of University of North Carolina 
Magazine to biographical and historical articles 
relating to state. 

d. Expanded curriculum to include law, modern languages, 
and agricultural chemistry. 

E. Leading religious denominations established colleges. 

1. Wake Forest founded by Baptists, 1834. 

2. Davidson College established by Presbyterians, 1837. 

3. Trinity College (forerunner of Duke University) 
founded by Methodists, 1839. 

4. New Garden Boarding School (Guilford College) 
established by Quakers, 1833. 

F. Establishment of several colleges for women occurred 
in this era. 

1. Greensboro Female College, 1838, and Davenport 
Female College, 1858, founded by Methodists. 

2. St. Mary's School at Raleigh, founded under 
Episcopal influence, 1842. 

3. Chowan Baptist Female College, 1838, and Oxford 
Female College, 1851, established by Baptists. 

4. Presbyterians began Peace Female Institute, 1857, 
and Floral College, 1841. 

II. Journalism. 

A. Newspapers. 

1. Circulation rose from 416,000 in 1810 to almost 
5,000,000 in 1860. 

2. First daily newspapers were the Raleigh Register , 
1850, and the Wilmington Daily Journal , 1851. 

B. Magazines and other periodicals. 

1. University of North Carolina Magazine was state's 
first permanent literary magazine. 

2. Outstanding professional magazines were North Carolina 
Journal of Education and Medical Journal of North 
Carolina . 

3. Other types of periodicals included religious and 
temperance magazines. 

4. Almanacs, such as Gales' North Carolina Almanack . 

5. Pamphlets such as Joseph Caldwell's Numbers of 
Carlton and Letters on Popular Education . 

[II. Literature was in pioneer stage. 
A. History and biography. 

1. Several state histories, some of them mult ivolume. 

2. Joseph Seawell Jones defended Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence. 

3. Biographies of public figures such as James Iredell 
and David Caldwell. 

4. Hinton Rowan Helper, author of The Impending Crisis 
of the South , was native of North Carolina. 

71 



B. Humor. 

1. Hamilton C. Jones, "Cousin Sally Dillard." 

2. John C. Bunting, Life as It Is . 

3. H. E. Taliaferro, Fisher's River Scenes . 

4. Johnson Jones Hooper's Simon Suggs stories. 

C. Drama exemplified by works of Lemuel H. Sawyer. 

D. Works of historical fiction included Calvin H. Wiley's 
Alamance and Roanoke . 

E. Poetry. 

1. George Moses Horton, a slave. 

2. Mary Bayard Clarke's Wood-Notes . 

3. Sarah J. C. Whittlesey. 



72 



RELIGION IN ANTEBELLUM NORTH CAROLINA 



I. Overall changes between 1800 and 1860. 

A. In 1800 only fraction of population were church 
activists. By 1860 Protestant denominations had 
successfully brought large part of common people to 
church membership and attendance. In fact, half of 
adult white population belonged to churches in 1860. 

B. In 1800 the educated upper class was indifferent or 
skeptical about organized religion but by 1860 had 
largely become active in church. 

II. Protestant Episcopal church. 

A. First bishop, John Stark Ravenscroft, not appointed 
until 1823. 

B. Levi Silliman Ives, bishop from 1831 to 1853, created 
dissension due to his leaning toward Catholicism. He 
became a Catholic in 1853. 

C. His successor, Bishop Thomas Atkinson, sought to 
appeal to masses and enlarge membership. By 1860 
there were over 50 congregations with more than 

3 ,000 members. 

D. Episcopalians more influential than figures imply 
because members were well-to-do planters, 
professionals, businessmen, and public officials 
who lived in towns mainly in the East. 

E. It was unpopular among common people. Its influence 
was small west of Coastal Plain. 

III. Baptists. 

A. Appealed to small farmers in rural areas for several 
reasons. 

1. Democratic organization. 

2. Simple services. 

3. Stress on revivals and emotions. 

4. Indifference toward educated ministry. 

B. In 1860 Baptists had more members than any other 
church in state — 65,000 members in 780 congregations. 

C. In 1830 Separate Baptists broke away from rigidly 
Calvinistic Primitive Baptists to become more evangelistic 
and progressive. In 1860 743 of the 780 congregations 
were Separate Baptists. 

IV. Methodists. 

A. Grew rapidly, rivaling Baptists in popular appeal. 

In 1860 there were 966 congregations with 61,000 members. 

B. First annual conference in North Carolina was in 1785. 
For awhile thereafter, church grew very slowly 
because its ministers criticized slavery, preached 

to blacks, and appealed to emotions. 

C. It soon began to catch on among common people for 
various reasons. 

1. Efficient organization. 

2. Aggressive, constant evangelism. 

73 



3. Use of circuit riders. 

4. Shift to defense of slavery. 

5. Disregard of ritual, stress on camp meetings, 
humanitarianism, prayer. 

V. Presbyterians. 

A. Third-strongest church in antebellum North Carolina. 

B. Prior to 1850 it grew slowly for several reasons. 

1. Cold, austere Calvinism. 

2. Rigid discipline. 

3. Indifference to evangelism. 

4. Stress on educated ministry. 

C. Rate of growth increased after 1850 due to greater 
emphasis on evangelism, missions, and education. 

D. In 1860 it had about 15,000 members in 182 congregations. 

E. Membership was mainly from gentry and middle class, 
tended to be from towns, and was strongest in Piedmont 
and Cape Fear Valley where Scottish culture was prevalent. 

VI. Other denominations. 

A. Quakers. 

B. Lutherans. 

C. German Reformed church. 

D. Moravians. 

E. Disciples of Christ. 

F. Roman Catholics. 

G. Jews. 

VII. Revival spirit and camp meetings swept over state 
periodically from 1800 to 1860. 

VIII. Churches were powerful influence on social life. 

A. Promoted home and foreign missions, Bible and tract 
societies, movement for Sunday schools, temperance 
movement, education, relief for poor.. 

B. Some churches tried their members for various offenses. 

C. Provided women with opportunity for activity, 

D. Established colleges and academies. 

IX. Churches were usually critical of slavery in early nineteenth 
century but gradually shifted to defense of -it- On most 
social questions, churches championed prevailing local attitude. 



74 



SOCIETY IN ANTEBELLUM NORTH CAROLINA 

Prevailing social characteristics of North Carolina as 
of 1860. 

A. Provincialism. 

B. Conservatism. 

C. Sectionalism — split between East and West. 

D. Intense individualism. 

E. Impatience toward orderly processes of legal and 
social control and cooperation. 

F. Superstition. 

G. Social stratification and heterogeneity. 

Demographic facts about North Carolina in 1860. 

A. Population 992,622 (968,068 rural and 24,554 urban). 

B. Negroes: 331,059 slaves, 30,463 free. 

C. Indians: 1,168. 

D. White population predominantly English with large 
elements of Scottish and German nationalities. 

Social classes: though there was much social mobility, 
there were six reasonably distinct classes in 1860. 

A. Gentry or planter elite: consisted of owners of large 
plantations with more than twenty slaves, highest public 
officials, professional men, and business leaders. 
About 6 percent of total white population. 

B. Middle class: small slaveholding farmers owning fewer 
than twenty slaves, small merchants and manufacturers, 
lesser public officials and professional men. Constituted 
20 to 25 percent of white population. 

C. Yeomen and mechanics: were independent, small, nonslave- 
holding farmers, naval stores workers, miners, mechanics, 
tradesmen, overseers, some farm tenants. Made up 60 to 
65 percent of total white population. 

D. Poor whites: included landless tenants, poor laborers. 
5 to 10 percent of white population. 

E. Free blacks were almost 10 percent of black population. 
About 70 percent of these were mulattoes. 

1. Sources of free Negro population. 

a. Chief source was manumission, but legal restrictions 
made manumission difficult after 1830. 

b. Purchases of freedom by slave himself. 

c. Births by free Negro and white mothers, despite 
law against miscegenation. 

d. Immigration, despite law prohibiting it. 

2. Most were scattered through rural slaveholding 
areas although there were pockets of them in 
cities and towns. 

3. Increasing legal restrictions gradually curbed 
free blacks' freedom to move about, associate 
with slaves, keep arms, trade, teach, preach, 
vote, or engage in other activities. 

4. Special features of North Carolina's laws concerning 
free blacks. 

75 



a. Emancipated slave had to leave state within 
ninety days of his emancipation unless superior 
court made exception due to "meritorious 
service. " 

b. Unlike most other states, North Carolina 
allowed free blacks to serve in militia until 
1812, after which they could serve as 
"musicians" only. 

c. Free Negroes were allowed to vote in North 
Carolina until 1835. Only other southern 
state that allowed free Negro suffrage this 
far into antebellum period was Tennessee. 

d. North Carolina and several other states 
attached severe penalties to kidnapping free 
Negroes. A North Carolinian was executed for 
this offense in 1806. 

5. Many free blacks were skilled artisans, businessmen, 
and farmers, and a few rose to positions of 
prominence such as Baptist preacher Ralph Freeman 
and Presbyterian minister and teacher John Chavis. 

Slaves made up almost one third of state's total 

population in 1860. 

1. Occupations of slaves. 

a. Most worked on farms and plantations, many of 
which were concentrated in staple— crop-growing 
areas of Piedmont and East. 

b. In Dismal Swamp, slave gangs worked as lumber- 
jacks. 

c. In eastern pine belt, several thousand slaves 
worked in turpentine industry. 

d . Some mined gold . 

2. Differences in social status among plantation 
slaves. 

a. Slave drivers, personal and household servants 
had higher status. 

b. Vast majority were field hands. 

3. Prices of slaves increased greatly between 1800 
and 1860, due to end of international slave trade 
in 1808 and high demand for slaves in lower South. 

4. There was flourishing domestic slave trade between 
upper and lower South. Between 1830 and 1860 North 
Carolina exported about 100,000 slaves. 

5. Slave code. 

a. Functions. 

1) Protecting rights of owners of slaves. 

2) Restricting mobility and activities of 
slaves . 

3) Minimizing slave unrest by excluding them from 
education. 

4) Providing machinery for control in emergencies. 

b. Examples of provisions. 

1) Slaves accused of capital crimes were tried in 
superior courts and law required that their 
trials be conducted as if they were freemen. 
In practice, when passions of whites ran high, 
slaves found it difficult to get fair trials. 



76 



2) Act making it crime to kill slave was first 
passed in 1774, although such a crime was 
not designated felony. 

3) In 1791 North Carolina designated malicious 
killing of slave as murder, subject to same 
penalty imposed on murder of freeman. 

4) In 1795 state barred entry of slaves from 
West Indies over fifteen years of age due to 
fear that such blacks were disorderly and 
dangerous. This move was reaction to slave 
revolution in Santo Domingo. 

5) In 1794 state banned hiring out of slaves 
as dangerous to social order. 

6) Penalty for concealing a slave "with the 
intent and for the purpose of enabling 
such slave to escape" was death. 

7) North Carolina authorized "outlawing" 

of "vicious" runaway slaves. Court could 
declare such slave subject to being shot 
on sight. 

c. Turning points in development of North Carolina's 
slave code. 

1) In aftermath of Revolution, legislature 
exhibited some sympathy for liberal 
manumission and emancipation. But tide 
began to turn about 1788. 

a) In 1785 lower house passed bill which 
would have allowed persons of conscientious 
scruples to manumit their slaves, but 
measure failed in upper house. 

b) In 1786 legislature ordered that slaves 
brought into state from states which had 
"passed laws for the liberation of slaves" 
be returned within three months. 

c) During next few years, several slaves 
were freed by private acts of assembly 
carrying out wishes of deceased owners. 

d) Then trend began to reverse itself. In 
1788 legislature continued existing 
manumission procedures but pointed to 
dangers from blacks freed due to masters 
with religious scruples. 

e) In 1801 assembly cited likelihood of 
indigence of freed slave and required 
owners to post h 100 bond for each slave 
freed. 

2) Slave code was made much more harsh and 
restrictive after Nat Turner Rebellion 
in 1831 in Virginia. 

d. In actual practice, slaves were regulated more 
by will of masters than by law. 

Slave revolts and conspiracies and whites' responses. 

a. There was widespread fear of revolts following 
Gabriel conspiracy in Virginia in 1800. In 
Halifax County in 1802, one Negro was convicted 

77 



of conspiracy but was pardoned when whites 
decided there had been no conspiracy. They 
forwarded petition to governor, who granted 
pardon. 

b. Some Negroes in Martin County plotted revolt 
for June 10, 1802, but two days before whites 
heard rumors of it. Militia was called out 

and black males were placed under guard. Special 
committee of enquiry took over and questioned 
prisoners individually, obtaining confessions. 
Two leaders were hanged, and other conspirators 
were chastised and ordered home. 

c. In 1805 whites in Wayne County discovered plot 
to poison whites and enslave survivors. One 
slave woman was burned alive for poisoning her 
mistress, three other slaves were hanged, one 
transported, and one had ears cut off. Others 
were whipped . 

d. Turner rebellion of 1831 produced insurrection 
panic throughout South. In eastern North 
Carolina, scores of slaves were arrested and 
over a dozen executed. 

e. One of last antebellum slave conspiracies in 
South occurred near Plymouth in eastern North 
Carolina in October, 1860. About twenty slaves 
met in swamp to plan insurrection. They 
planned to persuade several hundred fellow 
slaves to join in march on Plymouth. They 
would kill all whites they met on road, burn 
town, take money and weapons, and escape by 
ship through Albemarle Sound. Slave betrayed 
plot and whites prevented its execution. 

Miscegenation in antebellum North Carolina was 
fairly common. 

a. In 1789 case, law confirmed planter's leaving 
property to his bastard children by his Negro 
slave Hester and freed her and her children. 

b. In 1802 white man in Wilmington killed Negro 
husband of the mulatto woman with whom he had 
sexual relations. 

Whites generally strongly opposed sexual relationship 
between white woman and Negro male. 

a. Around 1800 lynching party burned Negro rapist, 
and such punishment became traditional. 

b. About same time, whites castrated slave who 
remarked he was going to have some white women. 

North Carolina as source for some significant 
evidence of white attitude toward blacks, 
a. Between end of Revolution and beginning of 
War of 1812, churches began splintering along 
racial lines in North Carolina as in other 
states. Trend was symptomatic of increasing 
separation of blacks from whites. 

1) In one community, some free Negroes established 
church that whites attended but which later 
became all white. 



78 



2) Another church had mixed congregation which 
split apart when whites erected separate 
church for blacks, 
b. Dr. Hugh Williamson, member of North Carolina 
House of Commons and Continental Congress and 
signer of Constitution, was also scientist who 
wrote book on climate. In this book he 
claimed that Negroes' color and features were 
being altered due to climatic conditons in 
America. In long run he predicted that they 
would become white. His work illustrates how 
climate persistently remained explanation to 
whites' troublesome question of why Negroes 
were black. 

IV. Inquiry concerning aspects of social life of the six 
classes. 

A. Homes and furnishings. 

B. Clothing. 

C. Diet. 

D. Work. 

E. Family life. 

F. Recreation. 

G. Arts and education. 
H. Religion. 

I. Community and political life. 
J. Customs, manners, morals, beliefs. 
K. Opportunities for social mobility. 

L. Interaction with other classes; attitudes toward other 
classes. 

V. Crime and punishment in antebellum North Carolina. 

A. Crime was widespread and frequent; leading major 
offenses were murder, perjury, grand larceny, burglary, 
conspiracy, and maiming. 

B. Criminal code was so harsh that it discouraged 
indictments and convictions and increased pardons. 



79 



NORTH CAROLINA AND THE COMING OF THE CIVIL WAR 

Development of sectional conflict in the Union. 

A. Natural conditions encouraged diversity between North 
and South. 

1. Colonists found that North was especially suitable 
for fishing and commerce. 

2. South was especially suited to farming, in particular 
production of tobacco, rice, and indigo, which could 
be profitably cultivated by slaves. 

B. Northern economic development. 

1. By 1830 manufacturing superseded commerce in 
importance in most of North. 

2. Protective tariff became important to North 
and source of resentment to South. 

3. North bought raw materials, especially cotton, 
from South and sold manufactured goods to South. 
North soon outgrew South in wealth and population. 
In respect to commerce, manufacturing, and credit, 
South became economic dependency of North. 

C. Southern economic development with spread of "Cotton 
Kingdom" after 1793 led to three distinct and 
dominant characteristics of southern life. 

1. Staple-crop production. 

2. Negro slavery. 

3. Plantation system. 

D. South soon became conscious and defensive minority 
in U.S. Congress. 

1. In early national period, disputes between North 
and South centered on federal economic legislation. 

2. Southern opposition to protective tariff culminated 
in crisis over nullification in 1832-1833. 

3. Most serious conflict was over slavery, which 
ultimately led to secession. 

a. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 applied principle 
of compromise and division to U.S. territory 
east of Mississippi River by making slavery 
illegal north of Mason-Dixon line and Ohio 
River and legal south of that line. 

b. After 1830 abolition movement focused attention 
on slavery issue and excited resentment, fear, 
and guilt in South. 

c. Territorial expansion raised issue of spread of 
slavery into new territories and states, and 
this was immediate controversy that finally 
led to war. There were several major 
national events in the conflict over this 
question. 

1) Missouri Compromise, 1820. 

2) Defeat of Wilmot Proviso, 1846. 

3) Compromise of 1850. 

4) Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854. 

5) "Bleeding Kansas." 

6) Dred Scott Decision, 1857. 

80 



7) John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry, 1859. 

8) Election of Lincoln, 1860. 

9) Secession of South began, December, 1860. 
10) Conflict at Fort Sumter, April, 1861. 

Although North Carolina aligned itself with the South 
in virtually all disputes between the sections, it was 
less extremely southern in its way of life than states 
of lower South. 

A. Fewer wealthy planters with extensive plantations and 
many slaves in state. 

B. More small farmers. 

C. More opposition to slavery, both among public leaders 
and organizations. 

1. Editorial of 1825 in Raleigh Register , entitled 
"Ought Slavery to Exist?" stated that it presumed 
few would justify it as right in itself or would 
justify it on any grounds other than necessity. 

2. Pamphlet published in 1830 by Manumission Society 
of North Carolina condemned slavery as "radically 
evil" and "founded in injustice and cruelty." 

3. Judge William Gaston argued against slavery and 
also defended rights of free blacks, for example, 
objecting to their disfranchisement at Constitutional 
Convention of 1835. In case of State v. Will , 1834, 
his decision that slave could resist white man to 
save his own life was landmark. 

4. Eli W. Caruthers, Presbyterian minister of Greensboro, 
argued against notion that Negroes were suited only 

to slavery and defended their natural rights as 
human beings. 

5. Daniel R. Goodloe argued that slavery was hurting 
South economically and also opposed it on grounds 
that blacks were human beings. Among his many 
antislavery pamphlets was one basing his economic 
argument on huge amount of statistical data. 

6. Native North Carolinian Hinton Rowan Helper's 

The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet it , 
1857, was most widely read tract against slavery 
ever written by southerner. But Helper despised 
Negroes as much as he did slavery. He believed 
that they were inferior and should be removed from 
country. In later years his attitude toward blacks 
was one of outright hatred. 

7. Benjamin S. Hedrick was fired from his job as 
professor of chemistry at UNC in 1856 for favoring 
Republican John C. Fremont in presidential contest. 

8. That open opposition to slavery was still possible 
in North Carolina even in 1850s is demonstrated 

by careers of Daniel Worth and Alfred Vestal, who 
openly expressed their ideas right down to John 
Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry. But soon after 
raid Worth was sentenced to a year in jail for 
circulating The Impending Crisis . 

81 



III. Political developments, 1832-1860: North Carolina, the 
South, and the Union. 

A. Of state's two major political parties, Democratic 
party took on image of more dependable defender of 
slavery and the South. Whigs were more friendly to 
Union but gradually split into two factions on 
slavery issue, Unionist Whigs and State's Rights Whigs. 

B. In 1832 when South Carolina adopted its ordinance of 
nullification, General Assembly condemned federal 
tariff legislation but refused to back South Carolina, 
expressing attachment to Union and Constitution. 

C. Parties divided on Mexican War. 

1. Whigs opposed annexation of Texas, Mexican War, 
and expansion, though they also opposed Wilmot 
Proviso. 

2. Democrats favored annexation of Texas, Mexican 
War, and expansion and were stronger than Whigs 
in denouncing Wilmot Proviso. 

D. Compromise of 1850. 

1. Most of populace was largely indifferent. Most 
of state's delegation to Congress favored it. 

2. Some radical Democrats denounced it as defeat 
for South. Thomas L. Clingman and some State's 
Rights Whigs joined Democrats. 

E. Kansas-Nebraska Act. 

1. Great majority of people in North Carolina favored 
it, especially Democrats. 

2. Whigs in Congress voted for act but feared its 
effect on North. 

3. Aftermath. 

a. Break up of national Whig party. 

b. Rise of antislavery Republican party. 

c. War in "Bleeding Kansas." 

d. Bitter, violent sectional debates in Congress. 

F. Presidential election of 1856. 

1. Holden, Clingman, and other radical Democrats 
urged secession of South if Republican John 
C. Fremont were elected president. 

2. Election of Buchanan eased crisis. 

IV. Events of 1860-1861. 

A. In election of 1860, southern Democratic candidate 
John C. Breckinridge carried state by close margin 
over Constitutional Union candidate John Bell, who 
was supported by state's reorganized Whig party. 

B. Overwhelming majority of North Carolinians opposed 
secession in immediate aftermath of Lincoln's 
election. Indeed, North Carolina displayed strong 
Unionist sentiment from 1850s on through Civil War. 

1. Many former Whigs, including Kenneth Rayner and 
Zebulon B. Vance, joined Know-Nothing party in 
1850s in effort to avoid slavery issue. 

2. Vance was typical of many North Carolina Unionists 
during secession crisis in that he fought secession 
until Lincoln's call for troops. After his state 

82 



seceded, he joined Confederacy rather easily. 

3. Jonathan Worth carried on unyielding fight 
against secession even after Lincoln's call for 
troops. After much soul-searching, he went along 
when North Carolina seceded. 

4. William W. Holden opposed secession and throughout 
war continued to work for peace and state's 
withdrawal from Confederacy. 

5. In western counties of state there were many 
"mountain Unionists" who remained loyal 
throughout war. 

C. Cause of secession gained strength in North Carolina 
during winter of 1860-1861. 

1. Disunion was accomplished fact. 

2. Clearly no compromise would be made in Congress. 

3. State's Unionists were divided; secessionists were 
united. 

4. Visiting commissioners from seceded states worked 
for secession. 

5. Public campaign for secession featured local 
meetings, oratory, editorials, petitions to 
legislature, military preparations. 

6. General Assembly passed Convention Act in January, 
1861. 

D. North Carolina, however, voted against convention to 
consider secession — 47,323 to 46,672, even though 
some Unionists had favored convention. Of 120 
delegates chosen for proposed convention, only 42 were 
secessionists while 28 were conditional 

Unionists and 50 unconditional Unionists. 

E. Events still went against Unionists. 

1. Compromise proposals in Congress were defeated. 

2. North Carolina's commissioners to Montgomery, who 
hoped to encourage peaceful settlement, got no 
favorable response from delegates of seceded 
states. 

3. Peace conference of February, 1861, in Washington 
failed and hurt image of Unionists in North Carolina. 

4. Armed conflict at Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861. 

5. Lincoln's call for 75,000 troops and his procla- 
mation of blockade of southern ports. 

F. Outbreak of hostilities largely unified North 
Carolina in favor of secession. 

1. Gov. John W. Ellis, an early advocate of secession, 
ordered seizure of U.S. forts in state and called 
for 30,000 volunteers. 

2. He summoned special session of legislature, which 
in turn called for election of delegates to meet at 
convention in Raleigh. 

G. North Carolina seceded from Union on May 20, 1861. 

1. Only point at issue was means by which state should 
leave Union. 

a. One ordinance, introduced by George E. Badger, 
based on right of revolution. 



83 



b. The other, based on right of secession, was 
introduced by Burton Craige and adopted 
unanimously. 

Convention also ratified Provisional Constitution 

of Confederate States of America. 



84 



NORTH CAROLINA AND THE CIVIL WAR, 1861-1865 

North Carolina's overall contributions to war effort. 

A. Troops from state were in every important battle from Bethel in 
June, 1861, to General Johnston's surrender at Bennett House in 
April, 1865. 

B. North Carolina furnished 125,000 troops for Confederate army, an 
amount equal to about one-sixth of all southern soldiers, although 
state had only one-seventh of total southern population. 

C. Two North Carolinians served as attorney general in Confederate 
cabinet — Thomas Bragg, 1861-1862 , and George Davis, 1864-1865. 

D. State's greatest contribution came in 1864 when Lee was being 
pushed back toward Richmond by Grant. Lee depended on North 
Carolina for soldiers, food, supplies, and some of his best young 
generals. 

Details of North Carolina's military role. 

A. State was site of eleven battles and seventy-three skirmishes. 

B. Strategic role was significant. 

1. All during war, men and supplies went through North Carolina 
by railroad to Lee's army. 

2. Sounds of state were important because they made it relatively 
easy to run Federal blockade and because of proximity to Lee's 
army. 

3. Near end of war, Lee got supplies through Wilmington via 
Wilmington and Weldon Railroad. 

C. Four important military operations in North Carolina. 

1. Capture and occupation of Sound region by North. 

a. Generals Benjamin F. Butler and Ambrose E. Burnside captured 
Hatteras Inlet, Roanoke Island, New Bern, Washington, Fort 
Macon, and Plymouth during 1861-1862. 

b. Federal forces occupied entire Sound region and held it through 
much of war. They were constant threat to rest of state and 
Lee's army as well as source of friction between state and 
Confederate governments. 

c. In 1864 Confederate General Hoke, aided by ram Albemarle, 
captured Plymouth and Washington and was attacking New Bern 
when he was called to join Lee. 

d. In late 1864 enemy sank Albemarle a nd recaptured Plymouth, 
retaining control of eastern North Carolina until end of war. 

2. Port of Wilmington, defended by Fort Fisher, was South 's chief 
center of blockade-running through most of war. In January, 
1865, Federal land and naval forces captured fort and occupied 
Wilmington, sealing fate of Lee's army. 

3. Sherman's campaign in North Carolina, 1865. 

a. He entered Fayetteville on March 11, 1865. 

b. Battles at Southwest Creek near Kinston and at Averasboro. 

c. Battle of Bentonville, March 20-21, 1865. 

d. Johnston surrendered at Bennett House near Durham, April 26, 
1865. 

4. Stoneman's Raid in the Piedmont, 1865. 

D. The home front. 

1. Problems of arming and equipping soldiers. 

a. Factories established for production of arms. 

b. North Carolina was only state which provided clothing for 
its own soldiers. 

85 



2. Blockade led to severe shortages of some items and high prices. 
Poor transportation facilities also contributed to rising prices. 

3. Relief of distress and destitution among civilians was huge 
problem. State appropriations and aid of local authorities and 
organizations eased situation. 

4. Role of women on home front. 

a. Managed farms and plantations. 

b. Tended sick and wounded. 

c. Little organized activity among women. 

5. Role of blacks on home front. 

a. Contemporaries testified that about 80 percent of slaves in 
entire South remained on their masters' plantations during war. 

b. Black labor was especially important to North Carolina's war 
effort, due in part to state's strategic position between 
battle zones in Virginia and along South Carolina coast. 
"Without steady black labor to build fortifications and produce 
the crops," according to Eugene Genovese, "Confederate North 
Carolina would have collapsed early in the war." 

c. There was also increased concern among whites about possibility 
of black insurrection, and this concern was manifested 

most clearly in several laws aimed at further tightening 
controls over blacks. 
E. Blockade-running. 

1. Wilmington was most important Confederate port for blockade- 
running . 

2. Nearly a hundred blockade-runners made over four hundred trips 
to West Indies, returning with vital supplies, enriching owners 
with huge profits. 

3. Advance exemplified state-supported blockade-running. 

III. Wartime politics. 

A. In aftermath of secession, unity prevailed in state and secessionists 
got control of state government during initial enthusiasm for war. 

B. Political divisions soon arose. 

1. Confederate party. 

a. Composed mainly of original secessionists such as Governor 
Ellis. 

b. Gave strong support to Pres. Jefferson Davis and Confederate 
government; willing to adopt almost any policy that would 
bring southern independence; favored strong centralized 
Confederate government and disregard of states' rights. 

2. Conservative party. 

a. Composed mainly of old Whigs and Democrats who had been 
Unionists and included W. W. Holden, William A. Graham, 
John M. Morehead, and most of state's prewar leaders. 

b. Though they favored Confederate victory and southern inde- 
pendence, they blamed war on abolitionists and unwise 
policies of secessionists; they were unwilling to surrender 
rights of individuals to central Confederate government or 
military dictatorship. 

C. Election of Zebulon B. Vance as governor over William J. Johnston in 
1862 gave Conservatives control of state government, which they held 
for remainder of war. Vance won by vote of about 54,000 to 20,000. 

D. Vance was popular war governor due to both his exertions on behalf 

of southern independence and his dasher with Confederate government. 

E. Conflicts between North Carolina and Confederate government. 

1. Vance charged that Davis discriminated against North Carolinians, 
especially Conservatives and prewar Unionists, in making major 

86 



appointments to civil and military positions. 

2. Both Vance and Gov. Henry Clark (who held office from 1861 to 
1862) complained that central government's removal of both citizens 
and arms from state was leaving it defenseless. 

3. Controversy over Confederate Conscription Act of 1862 was bitter. 
Vance secured exemption of several thousand employees of state 
government and vital industries on grounds that they were 
necessary to civilian war effort. 

4. North Carolinians protested Confederate impressment of private 
property, especially food. 

5. Although state and local taxation also increased during war, most 
of the bitterness at taxes was directed toward Confederate taxes, 
especially the tax in kind. 

6. Controversy developed also over state government's insistence that 
North Carolina's resources — especially cloth and clothing — 
should be directed primarily to state and its soldiers and only 
secondarily to remainder of Confederacy. 

7. Vance objected to requirement that privately owned blockade- 
runners or those owned in part by states must carry half their 
cargoes "on Confederate account." 

8. State government officials strongly opposed suspension of writ 

of habeas corpus; General Assembly passed law making it mandatory 
for state judges to issue writ of habeas corpus thus effectively 
nullifying this Confederate policy in North Carolina. 

Manifestations of the state's war weariness. 

A. Desertion from army, civilian indifference, and noncooperation were 
widespread. 

1. Some 23,000 soldiers from state deserted Confederate army, 
but 8,000 returned to service. 

2. Reasons for desertion and noncooperation. 

a. Resentment toward Confederate conscription. 

b. Long absence of soldiers from home. 

c. Sense of futility. 

3. Still there was little outright disloyalty. 

B. Unionist and/or peace sentiment in North Carolina during war. 

1. Unionism in mountains persisted beyond secession into war. 

a. Order of the Heroes of America was secret organization of 
Unionists with passwords, handgrips, and rituals. 

b. In 1863 several Unionist groups in mountains engaged in 
guerrilla attacks on Confederate property and installations 
so frequently that six companies of cavalry were 
dispatched against them. 

2. State's leaders in Unionist and/or peace causes. 

a. William W. Holden. 

1. Had defeatist newspaper Raleigh Standard . 

2. Ran for governor as peace candidate against Vance in 
election of 1864 but was soundly defeated. 

b. Thomas Settle stood for peace and reunion whenever possible. 

c. State's judiciary, under leadership of Chief Justice Richmond 
Pearson, was strongly Unionist. In decision of 1864 Pearson 
held that resisting arrest for desertion was not a crime and 
that members of state Home Guard could not be forced to 
arrest deserters or conscripts unless the accused was liable 
for militia duty. 

C. Although Governor Vance often caustically criticized Confederate 
government, to end of war he urged North Carolina to be loyal to 
Confederacy. 

87 



V. Impact of the war. 

A. Military casualties included over 40,000 dead, many others wounded 
and maimed. Human cost of war at home front was also large in 
terms of deaths and impaired health. 

B. Economic cost of war. 

1. Amounted to millions of dollars worth of property destroyed 
or carried off. 

2. Abolition of slavery wiped out capital investment of $200 
million. 

3. Millions in Confederate government revenues had gone into 
prosecution of war. 

4. Many individuals, banks, and institutions faced bankruptcy 
due to repudiation or depreciation of government bonds. 

5. With Confederate and state currency worthless, there was 
little cash and few credit facilities. 

6. Many businesses, colleges, factories, and banks had closed. 
Many farms were devastated. 

7. Thousands of individuals were reduced from affluence to 
poverty. 

C. Emancipation of slaves and destruction of plantation system was 
social revolution, and white North Carolinians wondered how 
black people would respond to their freedom. 

D. Initial developments in postwar race relations. 

1. Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery. 

2. Most whites in state were willing to give blacks more 
rights than they had possessed under slavery but were 
against allowing them the ballot, legal or social 
equality with whites, or schools. 

3. Meeting of black leaders in Raleigh in 1865 did not ask 
for ballot but demanded protection, justice, schools, and 
basic civil rights. 

4. Freedmen's Bureau created, 1865. During its three years 
of existence it was very active in North Carolina. 

a. Distributed $1.5 million worth of food and large 
amounts of clothing. 

b. Established hospitals, cared for over 40,000 patients. 

c. Organized 431 schools for over 20,000 pupils. 



88 



RECONSTRUCTION IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1865-1877 



Early phase. 

A. State government collapsed in early 1865 under military pressure. 
Gen. John M. Schofield took command of state. 

B. Moderate reconstruction plans of Lincoln and Johnson provided 
for quick and relatively easy restoration of southern states 
to Union. 

C. President Johnson's two proclamations of May 22, 1865. 

1. Amnesty Proclamation offered pardon to all southerners 
(with certain exceptions) who would take oath of allegiance 
to Constitution and promise to obey laws of Congress. 

2. Second proclamation appointed William W. Holden as provisional 
governor of North Carolina and ordered him to call for 
convention to restore state to Union. 

D. Convention of 1865: 120 duly elected delegates met in Raleigh 
on October 2; Judge Edwin G. Reade presided over meeting. 

1. Repealed Ordinance of Secession. 

2. Declared slavery abolished. 

3. Provided machinery for election of state government officials. 

4. Repudiation was demanded by Johnson, even though it would 
injure banks, colleges, and private investors. 

E. Election of 1865. 

1. Jonathan Worth opponent of repudiation, ran against Holden 
for governor. 

2. Worth defeated Holden, 32,000 votes to 26,000. Voters 
approved convention's actions. 

3. Radical Republicans of North viewed Holden' s defeat as 
indication of North Carolina's disloyalty to Union. 

F. New General Assembly pleased Johnson. 

1. New U.S. senators — William A. Graham and John Pool — 
were Unionists. 

2. Ratified Thirteenth Amendment. 

3. Declared North Carolina to be loyal to Union. 

Beginnings of Radical Reconstruction. 

A. Congress, when it met in December, 1865, refused to seat 
southern senators or representatives. 

B. Report by Congress's Joint Committee on Reconstruction 
maintained that South was neither loyal to Union nor fair 
to freedmen. 

C. North Carolina legislature of 1866 enacted Black Code which 
did not provide blacks with vote or with equal legal rights. 

D. Other factors strengthened Radicals. 

1. Reports of southern outrages against blacks and Union 
soldiers. 

2. Obstinacy of President Johnson. 

3. Congressional elections of 1866. 

E. North Carolina and other southern states rejected Fourteenth 
Amendment . 

F. Holden broke with Johnson and became leader of Radicals in 
state. 

G. Congress passed Reconstruction Act of 1867, which divided 
South into military districts and required each state to call 
convention to write new constitution providing for black suffrage. 
State could return to Union only when its voters and U.S. Congress 
approved constitution and when new legislators ratified 

89 



Fourteenth Amendment. 

H. North Carolina along with South Carolina comprised Military 
District Number Two, initially under command of Gen. Daniel 
Sickles and later of more radical Gen. E. R. S. Canby. 

I. Republican party was formally organized in North Carolina in 
1867. State's Republican party was one of two largest in 
South, in terms of both numbers and proportions of white 
Republicans. 

1. In its early years it was composed of three main elements. 

a. Several thousand native whites or "scalawags," including 
small farmers, strong Unionists, some old Whigs, admirers 
of Holden, and some people who wished to appease the North. 

b. Blacks, who were at least half the party. 

c. "Carpetbaggers," or northerners who served in Union 
army or came to state after war. 

2. Republican leaders. 

a. Some had been prominent political leaders before war. 

1) William W. Holden. 

2) Robert P. Dick. 

3) Thomas Settle. 

4) Richard Pearson. 

5) William Bynam. 

b. Some joined party because it offered hope for reform. 

1) Settle thought he saw chance to promote state's 
economic development. 

2) John Pool, Tod Caldwell, and Alfred Dockery were 
active on behalf of better roads and schools. 

J. Most of native whites were probably Conservatives, but they 
were divided and disorganized, while many other whites became 
indifferent to politics. 

K. In late 1867 voters approved constitutional convention by 
about 93,000 votes to 33,000. 

III. The events of 1868: North Carolina returns to Union. 

A. Convention of 1868 was made up of 107 Republicans and 13 
Conservatives. Included among Republicans were 18 carpet- 
baggers and 15 blacks. 

B. Despite their small numbers, carpetbaggers exerted great 
influence on convention. Several of them were men of experience, 
ability, and ambition. Perhaps most influential was Albion W. 
Tourgee. 

C. Constitution of 1868 was modern, democratic, and well thought 
out. Most significant changes included the following: 

1. Abolition of slavery. 

2. Universal manhood suffrage. 

3. Elimination of all property and religious qualifications 
for of f iceholding, except prohibition of atheists. 

4. Popular election of state and county officials. 

5. Abolition of county court system and adoption of township- 
county commission form of local government. 

6. Provision for Board of Charities and Public Welfare. 

7. Provision for system of public schools to be open at 
least four months per year. 

8. Provision for establishment of Departments of Agriculture, 
Mechanics, Mining, and Normal Instruction at UNC . 

9. Creation of four new elective offices: lieutenant governor, 
auditor, superintendent of public works, superintendent of 
public instruction. 

90 



10. Term of office of governor changed to four years. 

11. Capital offenses reduced to four — murder, arson, burglary, 
and rape . 

D. State election of 1868. 

1. Ku Klux Klan and Union League were active in campaign. 

2. Republicans swept to victory over Conservatives. 

a. New constitution adopted, 93,000 to 74,000 votes. 

b. Holden elected governor over Thomas S. Ashe. 

c. Conservatives elected only one judge, one solicitor, 
and one representative to Congress. 

E. General Assembly of 1868. 

1. Ratified Fourteenth Amendment. 

2. Chose two Republicans as U.S. senators: John Pool 
and Joseph C. Abbott. 

F. Congress approved new state constitution and admitted North 
Carolina's representatives and senators on July 20, 1868, and 
state was back in Union. 

G. Presidential election of 1868 was characterized by violent 
partisanship. 

1. Grant carried state with about 96,000 votes to 84,000 
for Seymour. 

2. Republicans won all seats but one in U.S. House of 
Representatives . 

Reconstruction politics, 1869-1877. 

A. Republicans were extravagant and frequently corrupt in issue 
of bonds for railroad construction, especially Milton S. 
Littlefield and George W. Swepson. Led to investigations by 
Bragg and Shipp legislative committees. 

B. Preservation of law and order was difficult due to several 
conditions. 

1. Whites resented blacks' voting, of f iceholding, and demands 
for equality with whites. 

2. Old political leaders were resentful at being replaced by 
Republicans and at political activity of Freedmen's Bureau. 

3. Whites disliked presence of Federal troops. 

4. Union League persuaded blacks to vote Republican and en- 
couraged their distrust of whites, especially Conservatives. 

5. Ku Klux Klan was active from 1867 to 1870 in form of threats, 
whippings, and murders in efforts to combat Union League 

and Republicans. 

6. Legislature passed several laws in efforts to curb Klan, 
including Shoffner Act, which gave governor power to declare 
martial law in any county to protect life and property. 

C. Kirk-Holden War, 1870. 

1. In response to outbreaks of violence apparently inspired by 
Klan, Holden placed Alamance and Caswell counties under martial 
law, and this action led to arrest of many citizens. Troops 
were commanded by Col. George W. Kirk. 

2. Kirk and Holden refused to honor writs of habeas corpus 
issued by courts. 

3. Holden had Kirk arrest Josiah Turner, Jr., editor of Raleigh 
Sentinel and bitter enemy of governor. 

4. Conservatives charged that Holden 's goal was not preservation 

of order and breakup of Klan but rather winning election of 1870 
through use of military power. 

5. Federal judge issued writ of habeas corpus requiring prisoners 
to be brought before him at forthcoming session of court. 

91 



After consulting President Grant, Holden obeyed writ and 
declared insurrection at end. 

D. Election of 1870. 

1. Conservatives made several charges concerning Republican 
record. 

a. Doubling of state debt due to corrupt issuance of 
railroad bonds. 

b. Increased taxes due to waste and extravagance. 

c. Kirk-Holden War. 

d. Blacks voting, holding office. 

e. Presence of Federal troops. 

f. Widespread crime and violence. 

g. Poor quality of Republican judges and other officials. 

2. Klan was active in election, intimidating Republicans both 
white and black. 

3. Conservatives won overwhelming victory, gaining five seats 
in U.S. House of Representatives and large majorities in 
both houses of General Assembly. 

E. Impeachment of Governor Holden. 

1. General Assembly of 1870-1871 convicted Holden on six charges 
of impeachment relating to his actions in "Kirk-Holden War" 
and removed him from office. 

2. He was replaced by Lt . Gov. Tod R. Caldwell. 

3. Legislative session acted on several other matters: 

a. Reduced cost of state government. 

b. Investigated charges of fraud in railroad bond issues. 

c. Repealed Shoffner Act. 

d. Declared secret political societies illegal. 

F. Klan trials of 1871 and election of 1872. 

1. U.S. Congress sought to curb Klan, restore Republican strength 
in South, and secure better treatment for blacks through 
passage of several laws authorizing additional federal 
controls over southern states. 

2. Federal grand jury in Raleigh indicted 981 persons for alleged 
Klan depredations. Of these 37 were convicted. Klan 
gradually ceased its activities. 

3. In election of 1872 Republican candidate Caldwell was narrowly 
reelected governor over Conservative A.S. Merrimon, but 
legislature continued to be controlled by Conservatives. 

G. Changes in state constitution, 1873-1875. 
1. Changes by legislative process in 1873. 

a. Abolition of Code Commission and office of superintendent 
of public works. 

b. Power to elect trustees of university taken from State 
Board of Education and given to General Assembly. 

c. Biennial sessions replaced annual sessions of legislature. 

3. General Assembly of 1875 voted to call convention. In 
election of delegates to convention, there were almost an 
equal number of Conservative and Republican votes. Delegates 
consisted of fifty-eight Conservatives, fifty-eight Republicans, 
and three independents. 

4. Convention of 1875 added thirty amendments to Constitution of 
1868. Among most significant were the following: 

a. General Assembly was authorized to appoint justices of 
the peace and thus given virtual -ontrol over county 
government. This move would insure white Conservative 
dominance . 

b. Secret political societies declared illegal. 

92 



c. White and black schools were to be kept separate. 

d. Marriages between whites and blacks made illegal. 

e. Residence requirements for voting raised. 

f. Number of supreme court judges reduced from five to 
three and superior court judges from twelve to nine. 

H. Election of 1876: "Battle of the Giants." 

1. Issues of Radical Reconstruction, black domination, and 
white supremacy placed Republicans on defensive. They 
nominated Thomas Settle for governor. 

2. Conservatives, cooperating with national Democratic 
party, adopted name "Democrats" and nominated Zebulon 
Vance for governor. 

3. Vance defeated Settle with 118,000 votes to 104,000. 
Democrats also won in voting for legislators, congress- 
men, and president. "Redemption" had been achieved. 

I. President Hayes withdrew last Federal troops from South in 
1877, and Reconstruction was over throughout region. 

Inquiry concerning long-term impact of Civil War-Reconstruction 
period on state. 

A. Changes in North Carolina's social structure. 

B. Effects on politics, especially: 

1. On attitudes of blacks and whites on race question. 

2. On party system. 

C. Other effects. 



93 



THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1870-1900 



I. Aftermath of war. 

A. In immediate aftermath of war, several North Carolina newspapers 
called for development of diversified agriculture, manufacturing, 
and railroads as means to overcome military defeat and achieve 
economic independence. 

B. Until end of Reconstruction there was little evidence that 
their advice had been heeded. In fact, Reconstruction may 
have discouraged and delayed industrialization. 

C. Most people returned to staple crop agriculture for several 
reasons. 

1. Scarcity of capital. 

2. Habit and custom. 

3. Inexperience with industry. 

II. Industrial recovery and beginning of expansion, 1865-1880. 

A. By 1870 North Carolina industry had regained its prewar level. 
Leading types of enterprise were cotton mills, tobacco fac- 
tories, and factories making turpentine and other naval stores. 

B. Decade of 1870s witnessed transition and expansion of industry 
and the real coming of Industrial Revolution to state. 

1. Cotton mills became more numerous, larger, and, benefiting 
from prewar experience of mill owners and managers, nearly 
doubled output between 1870 and 1880. 

2. Tobacco industry expanded even more rapidly. 

a. R. J. Reynolds established factory in Winston, 1874. 

b. Washington Duke and Sons set up factory in Durham, 1874. 

c. By 1880 North Carolina had 126 tobacco factories, and its 
tobacco was in national market and entering export trade. 

III. Industrialization from 1880 to 1900. 

A. "New South creed" put great stress on need to industrialize. 
Many newspapers, magazines, organizations, and public figures 
voiced pleas for more industry. 

1. Raleigh News and Observer . 

2. Watauga Club of Raleigh. 

3. "Mummy Letters" of Walter Hines Page. 

4. "Cotton mill campaign" in Piedmont. 

B. Census figures on manufactures, 1880 and 1900. 

1. Invested capital in industry increased from $13 
million in 1880 to $76.5 million in 1900. 

2. Value of manufactured products grew from $20 
million in 1880 to $95 million in 1900. 

3. Number of workers in industry increased from 
18,000 in 1800 to 70,500 in 1900. 

4. Growth of industry was national phenomenon in this 
era. Rate of increase in manufactures in North 
Carolina was less than that of the nation from 1865 
to 1900 and only slightly above national average 
from 1880 to 1900. 

C. Cotton textile industry, 1880-1900. 

1. Despite tremendous growth, it still lagged behind cotton 
textile industries of Massachusetts L.id South Carolina. 

2. Concentrated in Piedmont region. 

3. Products improved in quality and increased in variety. 

94 



4. Based mainly on local leadership, capital, and labor. 

5. During 1890s considerable northern capital was invested 
in state's cotton mills. 

6. In 1895 Caesar and Moses Cone opened textile mills in 
Greensboro area. 

7. Daniel A. Tompkins promoted his mill as patriotic, 
cooperative enterprise as well as profit-making concern. 

8. Labor in textile mills. 

a. Townspeople and small farmers from nearby depressed 
areas dominated labor force. 

b. Family groups were often employed. In 1900 42 percent 
of workers were men, 34 percent women, and 24 percent 
children. 

c. Annual wages in 1900 averaged $216 for men, $157 for 
women, $103 for children. 

d. Workers often lived in cheap company-owned housing. 

9. Use of steam power as substitute for waterpower increased 
between 1880 and 1900. 

10. In 1898 Fries Manufacturing and Power Company installed 
hydroelectric plant on Yadkin River — first in state. 

D. Tobacco industry. 

1. James Buchanan ("Buck") Duke. 

a. In 1882 the Dukes began to manufacture cigarettes. 

b. J. B. Duke won supremacy in cigarette field, first 
in state and then in nation, due to several factors. 

1) Mechanizing industry through introduction of 
Bonsack cigarette-rolling machines and other 
inventions. 

2) Effective advertising. 

3) Rigid economy in both production and distribution. 

4) Efficient, sometimes ruthless business methods. 

c. Era of overproduction and intense competition ended in 
1890 with Duke's establishing American Tobacco Company. 

d. By 1904 Duke interests controlled three fourths of 
tobacco industry in U.S. and exerted virtual control 
of world tobacco trade. 

2. Other tobacco pioneers. 

a. In Winston — Hamilton Scales and R. J. Reynolds. 

b. In Durham — J. R. Green, W. T. Blackwell, Julian S. 
Carr, and John R. Day formed partnership which produced 
"Bull Durham Smoking Tobacco." 

E. Furniture industry. 

1. Industry began in form of small shops with little capital, 
producing for local markets. It grew because of increasing 
demand, cheap labor, and proximity to raw materials. 

2. High Point Furniture Company, specializing in wooden beds 
and sideboards, was first furniture factory in state, 
established 1888. 

3. By 1890 there were six factories producing furniture valued 
at $159,000. 

4. By 1900 there were 44 factories employing over 2,000 
workers producing furniture valued at $1.5 million. 

5. Center of industry was Piedmont, especially High Point. 

6. Capital was almost entirely local. 

7. Used cheap primarily adult male labor from towns and farms. 

IV. Other developments related to industrialization. 
A. Rapid growth of cities and towns. 

95 



1. In 1880 urban population was 55,000 and rural 1,345,000. 

2. In 1900 urban population was 187,000 and rural 1,707,000. 
Development of state's educational and cultural resources 
lagged far behind that of its economic resources. 

State's industrial interests became attached to state's 
Democratic party, which became party of staunch conservatism 
and guardian of industrialists' special interests. 
Labor . 

1. Grievances of new industrial working class. 

a. Low wages. 

b. Child labor. 

c. Long hours. 

d. Separation from rest of population. 

e. Exploitation by "company stores." 

f. Identity of employer and landlord. 

2. Several factors discouraged unions. 

a. Opposition of employers. 

b. Ignorance of workers, persistence of individualistic 
outlook. 

c. Laborers' sense of dependence on employers for home 
and j ob . 

3. Knights of Labor organized their first North Carolina 
assembly in Raleigh in 1884. Similar assemblies expanded 
into most other counties of state, but Knights made little 
progress toward effective unionization. 

4. American Federation of Labor made its first effort to 
organize North Carolina textile workers in 1898, but it 
made little headway. 

5. General public as well as manufacturers were hostile to 
union idea and to government regulation of industry. 

6. In General Assembly, although bills for regulation of 
work hours of women and children were introduced frequently 
from 1887 on, manufacturers defeated every important piece 
of labor legislation before 1900. 

7. Two pieces of labor legislation which did pass were the 
State Bureau of Labor Statistics, set up in 1887, and the 
Mining Act of 1897. 

Transportation. 

1. Railroads. 

a. Between 1865 and 1880 only 600 miles of railroads were 
constructed in North Carolina. 

b. After 1870 Democrats abandoned policy of state aid to 
railroads, and private companies moved in to develop 
state's rail transportation. 

c. By 1900, after two decades of extensive construction 
and consolidation, three major systems of railroads had 
emerged in state. In that year there were 3,831 miles 
of track in North Carolina, controlled by capital 
chiefly from outside state. 

1) Southern Railway Company dominated Piedmont and West. 

2) Atlantic Coast Line dominated Coastal Plain. 

3) Seaboard Air Line Railway dominated region between them. 

2. Highways. 

a. There was little effort to Improve roads, which were 
rough and dusty in dry weather, i...passable in wet. 

b. "Labor tax" of about six days per year from able-bodied 
adult males was still in effect. Local authorities were 
in charge of keeping up roads. Materials and tools were 

96 



inadequate, which along with the indifferent, unskilled 
labor force and poor supervision, added up to a system 
which accomplished little. 

c. Some towns improved streets and sidewalks. 

d. In 1889 first electric street railway began to operate 
in Asheville. 

F. Communication. 

1. State's first telephone exchanges were set up in 1879. 
By 1898 there were thirteen exchanges and seventeen 
telephone companies doing business in North Carolina. 

2. In 1896 first rural free delivery postal route was 
established in Rowan County. 

3. Circulation of newspapers and magazines increased. 

4. In 1879 there were 279 newspapers and magazines being 
published in North Carolina. 

Inquiry concerning overall impact of industrialization on 
North Carolina society in such areas as the following: 

A. Family patterns. 

B. Social and religious norms. 

C. Attitudes toward race and class. 



97 



AGRICULTURE IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1865-1900 



I. Postwar recovery: although agriculture soon recovered to prewar 
levels, there were several handicaps which had to be overcome. 

A. Destruction of farms, loss of livestock. 

B. Lack of capital and credit. 

C. Inadequate and expensive transportation. 

D. Temporary federal tax on cotton. 

E. Revolution in labor system wrought by emancipation of slaves. 

II. Trends in North Carolina agriculture, 1865-1900. 

A. Great increase in total production of farm crops. 

B. Marked increase of specialization in cotton and tobacco. 

C. Rise in farm tenancy. 

1. Statistics. 

a. Number of farms increased from 75,000 in 1860 to 
225,000 in 1900, while for same period average 
acreage per farm decreased from 316 to 101. 

b. From 1880 to 1900 number of tenants increased from 
53,000 to 93,000. Percentage of farms operated by 
tenants increased from 33.5 to 41.4. 

c. Ratio of sharecroppers to cash tenants dropped 
from 5:1 in 1880 to 3.5:1 in 1900. 

d. Tenancy was closely associated with cotton and 
tobacco regions and with areas of richest and high- 
est-priced land. 

2. Advantages of tenancy were few. 

a. Provided labor and means of making living for large 
class of landless, moneyless, unskilled people. 

b. Allowed farming to continue without much operating 
capital. 

3. Disadvantages were great. 

a. Tended to decrease size of farms. 

b. Tended to decrease efficiency. 

c. Depleted soil fertility. 

d. Discouraged use of machinery. 

e. Perpetuated system of money crops and crop liens. 

f. Discouraged rise in standard of living. 

g. Hindered growth of rural organization and cooperative 
enterprise. 

h. Hampered overall cultural development. 

4. Despite magnitude of problem, political leaders virtually 
ignored it until after 1900. 

D. Other problems of North Carolina farmers. 

1. Declining prices, overproduction. 

2. High transportation costs. 

3. Prices of essential items farmer purchased remained 
stable or increased. 

4. Farmers were heavily taxed under antiquated, discriminatory 
system based primarily on land. 

5. Exorbitant credit costs. 

6. Crop lien system. 

7. Deflation of currency. 

8. Declining social prestige and self-co f idence. 

98 



E. Problems added up to depression In late 1860s and early 1870s 
which became even more serious in 1880s and 1890s. 

Farmers' response to their plight. 

A. Criticism of "money power." 

1. Farmers vented wrath on tariff, corporations, trusts, 
railroads, banks, middlemen, and Wall Street. 

2. Role of The Progressive Farmer as organ of protest. 

B. Farmers' organizations. 

1. Grange organized in North Carolina in 1873 but largely 
died out by mid-1880s. 

2. Farmers' Alliance began in state in 1887 under leadership 
of Col. Leonidas L. Polk and by 1890 had over 90,000 
members. 

C. Farmers' demands. 

1. On federal government: 

a. Tariff reduction. 

b. Regulation of railroads and trusts. 

c. Expansion of currency, especially through "free and un- 
limited coinage of silver" at ratio of 16:1 with gold. 

2. On state government: 

a. Tax reform. 

b. Legal limitation on interest rates. 

c. Railroad regulation. 

d. Educational reform. 

3. Farmers found national government unresponsive to their 
demands. North Carolina farmers found state's Democrats 
either indifferent or hostile to their program. 



99 



EDUCATION IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1860-1900: SLOW RECOVERY AFTER 

THE WAR 



I. Wartime developments. 

A. Most colleges and academies closed. 

B. System of academies continued to operate but only in 
skeletal form. 

C. State Superintendent of Common Schools Calvin Wiley 
resisted movement to use Literary Fund for war purposes. 

D. UNC remained open even though its enrollment and activities 
suffered great decline. 

II. Aftermath of war. 

A. Several colleges reopened in 1866. 

B. Many academies resumed operations, but some had to close 
down again due to poverty. 

C. UNC, 1865-1875. 

1. Constitution of 1868 merged university with public 
school system. 

2. New president as of 1868 was Solomon S. Pool. 

3. University closed in 1870 due to lack of public 
confidence, funds, and students. 

4. Constitutional amendment of 1873 restored government 

of university to board of trustees chosen by legislature. 

5. New board of trustees, aided by Mrs. Cornelia Phillips 
Spencer, reopened university in 1875 under Pres. Kemp P. 
Battle. 

D. State system of common schools collapsed early in Reconstruction 
for several reasons. 

1. Loss of most of Literary Fund due to repudiation of state 
war debt and sale of its bank and railroad stock at de- 
preciated prices. 

2. From 1865 to 1868 Conservatives refused to appropriate 
funds to schools and gave towns and counties responsibility 
for public education. 

3. Most local governments failed to fund schools due to poverty, 
public apathy, and public aversion to taxes. 

III. Republicans and education, 1868-1870. 

A. Constitution of 1868. 

1. Set up superintendent of public instruction as elective office. 

2. Required legislature to provide general and uniform system of 
free public schools for all children between ages of six and 
twenty-one. 

3. Board of Education would have power to make rules for school 
system and manage educational fund. 

4. Schools would be financed by remains of Literary Fund, proceeds 
from sale of swamp lands and estrays and from fines and 
penalties, legislative appropriations, and proceeds from state 
and county poll taxes. 

B. Public School Law of 1869. 

1. Provided for separate schools for whites and blacks. 

2. Required a four-month school term for all children. 

3. Provided for levy, if necessary, by county commissioners 
of township tax to finance a four-month school term. 

4. Legislature of 1869 also appropriated $100,000 for schools. 

100 



C. Viable school system was not established for several reasons. 

1. Lack of public confidence in school officials. 

a. Superintendent S. S. Ashley was carpetbagger and 
advocate of racially mixed schools. 

b. His assistant, J. W. Hood, was black carpetbagger. 

2. State's resources were limited, and legislative appropriations 
for schools were severely cut after 1869. Even the appropri- 
ation of 1869 was not immediately available. 

3. School buildings were few and run down. 

4. Many townships failed to provide schools in accordance with law. 

D. In 1870 there were about 1,400 schools operating at cost of $43,000 
with 50,000 pupils or about one sixth of total number school-age 
children. 

Higher education, 1877-1892. 

A. State university struggled along with inadequate financing, small 
enrollment, lethargic staff. 

B. State Agricultural and Mechanical College established in 1887 
with aid of funds from Morrill Act. 

C. State established four additional colleges during 1877-1891. 

1. Fayetteville Colored Normal School was first teacher-training 
school for blacks in South. 

2. State Normal and Industrial School for white girls. 

3. North Carolina Agricultural and Mechanical College for the 
Colored Race. 

4. Elizabeth City Colored Normal School. 

D. Trinity College, with support from Julian S. Carr and Washington 
Duke, moved to Durham in 1892. 

Secondary education, 1870-1900. 

A. Private academies slowly revived, expanded, and came to bear 
greater part of burden of secondary education. 

B. Some city graded public schools were established. 

C. Public education made little progress under conservative 
Democratic leadership of state government from 1870 to mid-1890s. 

1. State tax for public schools rose from 6 2/3 cents on each 
$100 valuation of property and 20 cents on each poll in 1871 to 
15 cents for property and 45 cents for polls in 1891. Still, 
funding remained inadequate. 

2. In 1875 constitution was amended to provide explicitly for 
separate schools for whites and blacks. 

3. Teacher-training program was begun with normal schools and, 
after 1889, teachers' institutes. 

4. By 1877 legislature had gradually worked around to position 
of requiring by law that county commissioners levy special 
school taxes, if necessary, to provide a four -month school term. 

5. In 1872 public schools cost $155,000, enrolling about 20 percent 
of children for a few weeks. In 1900 they cost $950,000 
providing school term of about 70 days with enrollment of 

58 percent . 

6. In 1900 school system was worse than it had been in 1860 
and perhaps the worst in the U.S. North Carolina had 
failed dismally to institute educational requirements of its 
own constitution and laws. 



101 



Reasons for state's educational backwardness. 

1. Poverty due to war and low income. 

2. Scattered population. 

3. Bad roads. 

4. Large school population relative to number of taxpayers. 

5. Maintenance of dual, segregated system. 

6. Basic reasons. 

a. Colossal public indifference to education. 

b. Reactionary political leadership. 

1) Governors and legislature failed to press 
for improved education. 

2) State supreme court decisions, Lane v. Stanly , 1870, 
and Barksdale v. Commissioners , 1885, discouraged 
educational progress, making it impossible to 
finance constitutional four-month term. 

Impact of outside forces on state's educational system. 

1. Freedmen's Bureau established over 400 schools during 
its existence. 

2. George Peabody Fund granted money to some schools during 
1860s and 1870s. 

Despite state's educational backwardness, some leaders were 
agitating for improved schools. Their efforts would help 
convince populace of necessity for educational reform. 

1. Charles D. Mclver and Edwin A. Alderman held teachers' 
institutes in every county. 

2. Walter Hines Page and The State Chronicle . 

3. Farm leaders L. L. Polk and Marion Butler. 



NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1877-1894: CONSERVATIVE DEMOCRATS 

IN CONTROL 



I. Democrats maintained uninterrupted contro^ of state government from 
1877 to 1894, as state's white majority subordinated every issue to 
maintenance of white supremacy. 

[I. Significance of impairment of local self-government. 

A. Democrats abolished choice of county commissioners by popular 
vote and vested their election in justices of the peace, who 
were appointed by General Assembly. 

B. Since legislature was always Democratic, new system insured control 
of county governments by Democrats. County governments generally 
fell under control of "courthouse rings" composed of local 
Democratic leaders. 

LI. Debt settlement law of 1879. 

A. Special tax railroad bonds of 1868-1869 were repudiated completely. 

B. Of remainder of debt, all accrued interest was repudiated, and 
principal was classified into three groups, each scaled from 60 
percent to 85 percent. 

C. Net result was that state decided to pay $6.5 million of entire 
state debt of $43.75 million. 

CV. Conservative control of Democratic party. 

A. Democrats stimulated railroad, industrial, mercantile, and banking 
development by allowing unrestricted private enterprise protected 
and aided by state government. 

B. Democratic politicians formed alliance with business interests. 
They held railroad stock, rode on free passes, and enjoyed other 
benefits in return for aiding railroads to secure special 
legislative favors. 

C. Democrats opposed demands for changes on grounds that they would 
necessitate higher taxes, discourage business, split the party, 
and bring back Negro-Republican rule. Yet demands for reform grew. 

1. Demands for regulatory railroad commission, lower freight 
and passenger rates, abolition of favoritism. 

2. Demands for adjustment of discriminatory system of taxation. 

3. Demands for social legislation to correct evils of long hours 
and low wages of mill workers. 

4. Demands for expansion of public education. 

D. Undesirable features of conservative Democratic control. 

1. Impairment of self-government in counties. 

2. Open threats, violence against black voters. 

3. Ballot-box stuffing, fraudulent counting of votes. 

4. Small groups of leaders held control of state government. 

5. Party loyalty was valued above all else, and public officials 
soon came to be conservative, mediocre, barren of states- 
manship, and reluctant to lead. 

V. Opposition to conservative Democrats. 
A. Republicans. 

1. Party drew bulk of its support from blacks and substantial 
group of whites from among common people. It furnished 
steady opposition to Democrats, consistently drawing over 40 
percent of vote in statewide elections; but it was never 
formidable enough to take power. 

103 



2. Handicaps of Republicans. 

a. Few able and prominent leaders. 

b. Poor party press. 

c. Past record during Reconstruction. 

d. Whites' resentment of Negro contingent. 

e. Party was unable to bring out total black vote due 
to blacks' indifference and white intimidation. 

f. Party failed to formulate effective program. 

3. Republicans soon became resigned to state defeat, content 
to monopolize federal patronage jobs since national party 
was often in power in Washington. 

B. Liberal Democrats, 1881-1884. 

1. Democratic legislature of 1881, under pressure from churches, 
authorized referendum on manufacture and sale of intoxicating 
liquor. 

2. Some Democrats bolted party in 1882 to join with anti- 
prohibitionists to organize Liberal Anti-Prohibition Party, 
which was endorsed by Republicans. 

3. Platform. 

a. Opposition to prohibition. 

b. Restoration of local self-government. 

c. Extension of public education. 

d. Pure, untampered ballot box. 

4. In election of 1882 new party elected only one legislator 
and one congressman — Tyre York. Prohibition was soundly 
defeated. 

5. Democrats were not saddled with prohibition. In 1884 York 
attempted to gain governorship through assembling coalition 
of Republicans and Democrats. But Democrats' appeal for 
party loyalty and unity as safeguard against return of Negro- 
Republican rule was effective. 

C. Small farmers. 

1. Farmers suffered from low crop prices, high freight rates, 
discriminatory taxes, high and restricted credit, inadequate 
currency, and high costs. 

2. They became disgruntled at conservative Democrats who gave 
business special privileges and ignored grievances of 
farmers and laborers. 

3. Granger movement of 1870s started farmers thinking in terms 
of organization. 

4. Farmers' Alliance. 

a. In 1887 North Carolina Farmers' Association organized in 
Raleigh under leadership of L. L. Polk, editor of The Pro- 
gressive Farmer . 

b. Many North Carolina farmers' clubs soon joined Farmers' 
Alliance, and by 1890 state had 2,147 local organizations 
and about 90,000 members. 

c. Polk became significant figure in national organization, 
was elected president of national Farmers' Alliance in 1889. 

d. Alliance performed several functions for state's farmers. 

1) Promoted agricultural college and more powerful 
State Department of Agriculture. 

2) Sought to educate farmers In better methods of producing 
and marketing crops. 

3) Organized some local cooperative stores and state pur- 
chasing agency to eliminate middlemen. 

e. Alliance, however, did not solve farm problem. Most cooperatives 
failed, for instance, due to poor management, crop-lien 

104 



system, hostility of merchants and manufacturers. 

Agrarian revolt of 1890. 

A. Background: demands of farmers. 

1. Railroad regulation. 

2. Limitation on interest rates. 

3. Better public schools. 

4. Higher crop prices. 

5. Expansion of currency. 

6. Agricultural college and inexpensive state-supported 
college for girls. 

B. In 1888, under pressure from farmers, Democrats officially 
endorsed legislation providing for commission to regulate 
railroads, but Democratic legislature of 1889 defeated railroad 
commission bill. 

C. In elections of 1890 Alliance elected many farmers to General 
Assembly and captured control of Democratic party. 

D. "Farmers' legislature" of 1891. 

1. Increased tax rate for public schools. 

2. Established normal college for white girls. 

3. Established agricultural college and normal college for blacks. 

4. Increased state appropriations for university and state colleges. 

5. Railroad regulation. 

a. Outlawed rebates and rate discrimination. 

b. Set up railroad commission of three members elected by 
legislature and given power to reduce rates and eliminate 
special tax exemptions and law assessments given to 
railroads. 

E. Farmers' plight still grew worse in early 1890s, and Farmers' 
Alliance proposed national program. 

1. Stressed subtreasury plan. 

2. Stressed free and unlimited coinage of silver in ratio 
of sixteen to one. 

Election of 1892. 

A. Both national Democrats and Republicans were hostile to farmers' 
program. Most North Carolina Democrats were hostile. 

B. Strong faction of Alliance organized People's or Populist party 
for elections of 1892. 

C. North Carolina Alliance split. 

1. More radical half followed Polk in support of Populists. 

2. Conservative members followed Elias Carr and S. B. Alexander 
in support of Democrats. 

3. Polk would probably have been Populist presidential candidate 
if he had not died. Marion Butler succeeded him as leader of 
state's Populists. 

D. Campaign of 1892. 

1. Populists nominated W. P. Exum for governor. 

2. Populist platform. 

a. Economy in government. 

b. Tax reform. 

c. Election reform. 

d. Ten-hour work day for labor. 

e. Limit of 6 percent on interest charges. 

3. Democrats nominated Elias Carr for governor and ran on status 
quo platform. Campaign was managed skillfully by F. M. Simmons. 

4. Democrats appealed to party loyalty and fear of Negro- 

105 



Republican rule and relied on control of election machinery. 

5. Republicans nominated D. M. Furches for governor on platform 
calling for new election laws and return of county self- 
government . 

6. Populists 1 handicaps. 

a. Polk's death. 

b. Weak candidates. 

c. Partisan election laws. 

E. Democrats were victorious with about 136,000 votes to 95,000 for 
Republicans and 48,000 for Populists. Democratic victory of 1892 
was thus based on minority of total vote. 

VIII. Elections of 1894. 

A. Democrats refused to conciliate Populists. 

1. They ridiculed them, ostracized them politically. 

2. Legislature refused to enact any significant agrarian reform. 

3. It attacked the Alliance by making changes in its charter. 

B. Depression following panic of 1893 increased farmers' grievances. 

C. Populists and Republicans entered into "fusion" in 1894. 

D. Their platform. 

1. Four-month school term. 

2. State reformatory. 

3. Reform of election laws. 

4. Nonpartisan judiciary. 

5. Restoration of county self-government. 

6. End to corruption and subservience of government to business. 

E. Democrats offered no reform program. 

F. Populist-Republican fusion was successful. 

1. Populists and Republicans each elected three members of national 
House of Representatives. 

2. In General Assembly "fusionists" had majorities over Democrats, 
42 to 8 in Senate and 74 to 46 in House. 



106 



NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1894-1900: FUSION RULE AND THE RETURN OF 

THE DEMOCRATS TO POWER 



"Fusion legislature" of 1895. 

A. Local self-government was restored to counties. 

1. Legislature gave voters power to elect justices of the 
peace and to choose biennially three county commissioners. 

2. As impediment to Negro rule in East, 200 voters in any 
county could petition for appointment by superior court 
judge of two additional county commissioners of different 
political party from the three elected by the people. 

B. New election law required: 

1. New registration of voters. 

2. Appointment of local election officials made by elective 
clerks of court representing each party. 

3. Preservation of ballots. 

4. Itemized account of campaign expenditures of candidates 
for office. 

C. Farmers' Alliance charter restored to old status. 

D. Legal interest rate fixed at 6 percent. 

E. Increased appropriations for state university and other state- 
supported colleges and normal schools. 

F. State property tax for public schools was increased. 

G. Offices of county superintendent and county boards of education 
were abolished. Control of local schools was vested in board 
of county commissioners. 

H. Some eastern town charters were altered to permit increased 

local self-government. 
I. Populist Marion Butler and Republican Jeter C. Pritchard were 

elected U.S. senators. 
J. Government expenditures and taxes were increased to moderate 

degree. 
K. Distribution of patronage led to some quarreling between 

Populists and Republicans. 

Role of Negroes in fusion rule. 

A. Blacks' participation In politics Increased. 

1. More blacks could vote under new election law. 

2. Negroes were occasionally elected to minor offices in 
eastern counties. 

3. General Assembly elected some blacks to minor positions. 

4. Legislature passed resolution in honor of Frederick 
Douglass on occasion of his death. 

B. Democrats once again began to agitate issue of Negro in politics. 

C. Black participation in government — both during Reconstruction 
and in 1890s — was never substantial. 

1. Blacks never made up more than one fifth of General Assembly. 

2. Four North Carolina blacks served total of fourteen years in 
national House of Representatives. 

a. J. A. Hyman, 1875-1877. 

b. J. E. O'Hara, 1883-1887. 

c. H. P. Cheatham, 1889-1893. 

d. G. H. White, 1897-1901. 



107 



III. Campaign of 1896 was one of great bitterness and confusion in 
both state and national politics. 

A. Both North Carolina Democrats and Republicans attempted to 
form alliance with Populists. 

1. On national issues state's Democrats were in close accord 
with Populists. 

2. On state issues Tar Heel Republicans and Populists were 
close to agreement. 

B. Each party made separate nominations for state offices, in- 
cluding governor. 

1. Cyrus B. Watson — Democrat. 

2. Daniel L. Russell — Republican. 

3. William A. Guthrie — Populist. 

C. In September a complex fusion arrangement was worked out. 

1. Democrats and Populists fused to support presidential 
candidate William Jennings Bryan. 

2. Republicans and Populists fused in support of divided 
ticket of nominees for state, legislative, and con- 
gressional offices. Each party, however, kept its 
own nominees for highest state offices. 

D. Results. 

1. Bryan carried state by 20,000 votes. 

2. Fusion scored victory in state, legislative, and con- 
gressional offices. 

3. Russell won governorship with 154,000 votes to 145,000 
for Watson, and 31,000 for Guthrie. 

4. Increased black vote was major factor in Russell's 
victory. 

E. Significance. 

1. Elections of 1894 and 1896 in North Carolina were the 
most successful electoral efforts by southern Populists. 
Their success, however, was dependent on Republican help. 

2. Victory by fusionists was only second example in South 
s5.nce Reconstruction of successful political alternative 
to Democratic party. 

IV. Administration of Governor Russell. 

A. Public education. 

1. Constructive leadership of Superintendent of Public 
Instruction Charles H. Mebane. 

2. Office of county superintendent of schools restored. 

3. Every school district was required to vote on school 
taxes and to vote every two years until taxes were 
approved. 

4. Legislative appropriation of $50,000 was made for 
schools in those districts which voted for school taxes. 

B. Powers of railroad commission were enlarged. 

C. County government was vested in three commissioners elected 
by voters of each county. 

D. Fusionists began to break into factions on some questions. 

1. Reelection of Republican Jeter C. Pritchard to U.S. Senate. 

2. Governor Russell's attack on Southern Railway. 

a. Russell challenged J. P. Morgan's Southern Railway 
and its right to rent state-owned North Carolina 
Railroad for ninety-nine years. 

b. He aligned agrarian Populists with "progressive" 
Republicans and Democrats to wage aggressive but 

108 



unsuccessful war against lease in legislature and courts. 
Struggle lasted more than a year. 

c. After it became clear that he had lost first round of 
fight, Russell gambled that he, Marion Butler of Populists, 
and Democrats such as Walter Clark and Josephus Daniels, 
could forge coalition of reformers in 1898 and win control 
of General Assembly of 1899. 

d. During course of long struggle, Russell had lost some 
supporters and white supremacy campaign of 1898 ended 
his scheme. 

E. Increased black voting and office-holding discredited fusion 
rule among many whites of state. Democrats again began to talk 
of "Negro domination" and of certain eastern counties being 
"Negroized." 

V. North Carolina's role in Spanish American War, 1898. 

A. Several North Carolinians in standing armed forces became heroes. 

1. Ensign Worth Bagley of Raleigh was first naval officer killed 
in conflict. His funeral was held at State Capitol. 

2. Another naval officer, Edwin A. Anderson of Wilmington, was 
cited for heroism for his role in night operations at Cuanbeno 
Bay and for cutting ocean cables while exposed to enemy fire. 

3. Lt. William E. Shipp of Lincolnton was killed while leading 
charge up San Juan Hill . 

4. Others. 

B. Efforts of Tar Heel volunteers were less successful. 

1. State called on militia to volunteer for service. Piedmont 
and West responded enthusiastically; most eastern counties 
refused to send their companies. 

2. Three regiments eventually raised. 

a. First Regiment never saw action in Cuba but did four 
months occupation duty following cessation of hostilities. 

b. Second Regiment was mustered out of service due to incom- 
petence after only few weeks of guard and garrison duty. 

c. Third Regiment, composed entirely of blacks, was most unique. 

1) North Carolina was one of only three states in Union 
with an all-black regiment . 

2) Appointment of Shaw University graduate James H. Young 
as regimental leader was viewed by many as attempt by 
Governor Russell to gain Negro vote. 

3) Regiment, stationed respectively in North Carolina, 
Tennessee, and Georgia, continually faced harassment 
from other soldiers and civilians. While assigned 

to Camp Haskell, near Macon, Georgia, four members were 
killed by whites who claimed justifiable homicide and 
were easily acquitted. 

4) Returned home in 1899 to face equally hostile and 
prejudiced populace. 

VI. "White supremacy" campaign of 1898. 

A. "Red Shirts" revived some methods of Ku Klux Klan to deter 
blacks from voting. 

B. F. M. Simmons ran campaign for Democrats, who engaged in unprece- 
dented degree of organization, correspondence, publicity, and 
stump speaking — all the while stressing issue of white supremacy. 

C. New group of young, aggressive Democratic leaders emerged along 
with Simmons . 

109 



1. Examples: 

a. Charles B. Aycock. 

b. Cameron Morrison. 

c. Locke Craig. 

d. Claude and William Walton Kitchin. 

e. Robert B. Glenn. 

2. They rejected conservative leadership of older generation 
and were relatively progressive in outlook. There were 
several elements in new order they envisioned. 

a. Elimination of blacks from politics. 

b. Government regulation of corporations. 

c. Improved public education. 

d. More activist state government. 

D. Republicans and Populists were on defensive. They warned 
that Democratic victory would lead to educational test for 
voting. Democrats denied charge. 

E. Business interests also seemed to have been important factor 
in election. 

1. Democrats probably received large contributions from 
corporations in return for promise not to increase corporate 
taxes in legislative session of 1899. 

2. Marion Butler and some other political leaders believed 
that business interests, especially the railroads, used 

the white supremacy issue to capture the legislature of 1899. 

F. Role of denominational leaders may have been significant, for 
Simmons may have promised them not to increase legislative 
appropriations to state institutions of higher learning during 
the 1899 session. 

G. Results. 

1. Democrats were elected to 134 seats of legislature, Republicans 
to 30, Populists to 6. 

2. Democrats won 5 seats in national House of Representatives, 
Republicans 3, Populists 1. 

3. Many blacks did not vote, in part due to intimidation. 

VII. Background to campaign of 1900. 

A. Wilmington race riot of November, 1898, was revolution in literal 
sense of term. 

1. Organizer and leader was Alfred M. Waddell, a fervently anti- 
Negro Democrat. 

2. In 1890s Wilmington had substantial black middle class, 
including several lawyers, educators, public officials, 
especially federal customs collectors, and even black 
newspapers. 

3. "Declaration of White Independence" called for closing 
of Alex Manly 's Daily Record , a black newspaper, and 
banishment of its editor. 

4. Since black community did not encourage Manly' s departure, 
400 whites demolished his office and burned it. 

5. Many black and white Republicans forced to flee city. 

6. Armed whites roamed streets, insisting on complete control 
of city. 

7. When quiet was restored toward evening, between eleven and 
thirty blacks were dead. No whites were killed, only 
three were wounded. No whites were crested. 

110 



8. Vigilantes ordered aldermen to resign. As each did so, 
his successor was chosen by city council from list of 
names provided by vigilantes. Waddell became mayor. 
B. Actions of General Assembly of 1899. 

1. Repealed school law of 1869 but appropriated $100,000 
for public schools. 

2. Reasserted legislative control over county government. 

3. Made commissioner of agriculture elective office. 

4. Replaced railroad commission with corporation commission 

of three members to supervise railroads, banks, telephones, 
telegraphs, street railways, and express companies. 

5. New election law provided for new registration of voters 
and election by legislature of State Board of Elections to 
choose county election boards. 

6. Most significant action was passage of suffrage amendment, 
which would in effect disfranchise blacks. 

a. Applicant for registration had to pay poll tax and be^ 
able to read and write any section of state constitution. 

b. In addition, "grandfather clause" provided that no 
person entitled to vote on or before January 1, 1867, 
or his lineal descendant should be denied registration 

due to his education qualifications, provided he registered 
before December 1, 1908. 

c. Amendment had to be approved or rejected by the people in 
election of 1900. 

7. Law providing for separate accommodations for blacks and whites 
on steamboats and railroads was first "Jim Crow" legislation. 

Election of 1900. 

A. Democrats. 

1. Nominated Charles B. Aycock for governor. 

2. Ran on platform advocating minimum school term of four months, 
better care for insane, statewide district primary election 
law, and ratification of suffrage amendment. 

B. Populists were seriously handicapped by fractionalism. 

1. Nominated Cyrus Thompson for governor, but he later withdrew 
as part of fusion arrangement with Republicans. 

2. Populist party ceased to be significant force in politics. 

3. Inquiry concerning nature of North Carolina Populism. 

a. Question of whether in its ideals it was primarily 
racist, reactionary movement or racially tolerant, 
forward-looking movement anticipating progressivism 

and New Deal. 

b. Question of relationship between Populists of 1890s 
and progressives of years after 1900. 

C. Republicans. 

1. Nominated Spencer B. Adams for governor. 

2. Platform denied charge of black domination of state government, 
endorsed fusion rule, and denounced suffrage amendment as 
undemocratic and unconstitutional. 

D. The campaign. 

1. Blacks were generally quiescent, though group of prominent, 
educated Negroes protested suffrage amendment. 

2. Democrats' campaign was again organized by Simmons and built 
around suffrage amendment and white supremacy. 

a. Aycock and other Democrats argued that disfranchisement 
would be conducive to political peace and prosperity, 

111 



beneficial to both races, and stimulating to wholesome 
division of whites on political issues, 
b. Aycock asserted that whites were superior to blacks, 
and justified disfranchisement of ignorant blacks while 
maintaining that ignorant whites had right to vote by 
inheritance. When fear was raised that amendment might 
disfranchise illiterate whites, Aycock turned white 
supremacy campaign into crusade for universal public 
education. 

3. Although Republican party officially opposed amendment, some 
Republicans and Populists favored it. 

4. "Red Shirts" were again very active in support of Democrats. 
Result. 

1. Suffrage amendment was successful by vote of about 182,000 
to 128,000. 

2. Aycock defeated Adams by about 187,000 to 126,000 votes. 

3. Democrats won big majorities in General Assembly. 

4. Democrats won seven of nine seats in House of Representatives. 
Aftermath. 

1. Actions of General Assembly of 1901. 

a. Required permanent registration of voters under grandfather 
clause . 

b. Enacted partisan election law permitting dominant party 
to practice fraud and intimidation. 

c. Rearranged state senatorial and congressional districts 
by gerrymandering, which almost deprived Republicans of 
any representation. 

d. Rejected statewide primary law it had advocated in campaign. 

e. Lower house attempted partisan impeachment of two 
Republican Supreme Court judges, but senate blocked it. 

2. In elections of 1902 Democrats made clean sweep of all state 
offices and seats in national House of Representatives. 

3. Before end of 1903 Democrats controlled all departments of 
state government and entire North Carolina delegation to 
Congress. 

4. Republican state convention of 1902 excluded all Negro delegates, 
making party "lily white." Platform declared suffrage amendment 
had eliminated blacks from politics. 

Significance of campaign of 1900. 

1. Disfranchisement largely ended black participation in North 
Carolina politics, depriving Republicans of more than 30,000 
voters. 

2. One-party system of Democratic control was strengthened. Chief 
divisions on issues were henceforth between factions of Democrats. 

3. Issue of white supremacy continued to be used effectively by 
Democrats in political campaigns. 

4. Still, fusion rule had large impact on Democratic party. No 
longer would it be staunchly conservative, wholly resistant to 
reform, and subservient to business interests. Democrats 
returned to power with positive program of public education and 
state development, and attitude of greater responsiveness to 
changing needs of growing state. 



112 



NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1900-1920: ERA OF DEMOCRATIC DOMINANCE 

I. Democratic dominance of state government after 1900. 

A. Unbroken succession of Democratic governors from Charles B. 
Aycock, 1901-1905, to Robert W. Scott, 1969-1973. 

B. Although Republican vote was substantial, that party elected 
no governor, no U.S. senator, and only three representatives 
to Congress between 1900 and 1920. 

C. General Assembly between 1900 and 1920. 

1. In state Senate containing 56 members, usually only 2 or 
3 were Republicans. 

2. Among 120 members in state House of Representatives, usually 
only 5 or 6 were Republicans. 

II. Status of Republican party. 

A Republicans usually controlled federal patronage in North 
Carolina, which often led to friction between federal and 
state officials. Democrats feared federal courts, for 
example, as potential source of attack on suffrage amendment 

B. Federal officeholders usually controlled state s Republican 
party and did not care to attempt to wrest control of state 
from Democrats. 

C. Only an uninf luential minority of Republicans wanted to see 
party manifest aggressive interest in state problems. 

D. Republicans failed to be an effective opposition party in 
state politics. 

E. In North Carolina elections after 1900, Republican vote was 
generally larger for president than for governor. This 
indicated that many voters were attracted to conservative 
policies of national Republican party and fearful of national 
Democratic party. 

III. Factions of Democratic party. 

A. Conservatives dominated party most often. 

1. They sought to encourage business as best means of state 
development but were reasonably responsive to demands 
for reform. 

2. General themes of their campaigns. 

a. Pointed to record of state's economic development from 
1900 and of efficient, honest government. 

b. Asserted friendliness to all classes. 

c. Charged that liberals would, if in power, frighten business 
and hamper economic growth and social progress. 

3. Economic and geographical base. 

a. Piedmont region was chief conservative stronghold. 

b. Industrial interests of West, business interests and 
large-scale farmers of East also supported them. 

4. Organization. 

a. Conservatives usually had control of election machinery, 
greater financial support, more numerous and abler 
leadership, and more widespread publicity. 

b. Smooth-functioning organization led to charges of machine 
control" and "boss rule." 

113 



c. U.S. Sen. F. M. Simmons was "boss" of Democratic 
"machine" until his defeat in 1930 following his 
refusal to support Democratic presidential nominee 
Alfred E. Smith in 1928. 
B. Liberals or progressives. 

1. General themes of their campaigns. 

a. Accused conservatives of being subservient to special 
interests — tobacco and power companies, cotton mills, 
railroads, businessmen, and urbanites — and neglectful 
of interests of common people — mass of farmers and 
industrial laborers. 

b. Liberals depicted themselves as democratic and pro- 
gressive, sympathetic to farm and labor interests, and 
aspiring to make business bear greater share of tax 
burden. 

2. Base was predominantly agricultural East. 

3. Progressive leaders, 1900-1920. 

a. Robert Glenn. 

b. William W. Kitchin. 

c. Thomas W. Bickett. 

d. 0. Max Gardner. 

e. Robert N. Page. 

f. Walter Clark. 

g. Josephus Daniels. 

IV. Political developments through election of 1912. 

A. Off year elections of 1902. 

1. Democrats swept all state and congressional offices. 

2. General Assembly elected Lee S. Overman to succeed Republican 
Jeter C. Pritchard in U.S. Senate, and every North Carolinian 
in both houses of Congress was a Democrat. 

3. Ardent liberal Walter Clark won contest for chief justice of 
state Supreme Court despite bitter opposition from big business 
interests and some influential Protestant leaders and cool 
attitude of Simmons machine. 

B. South Dakota Bond Case, 1904. 

1. U.S. Supreme Court ordered state of North Carolina to pay 
South Dakota $27,400 covering principal and accrued interest 
on ten state railroad construction bonds which had not been 
turned in for settlement in accordance with state debt settle- 
ment of 1879. 

2. Marion Butler and former Gov. Daniel L. Russell were attorneys 
for Schafer Brothers, New York firm which donated the bonds to 
South Dakota because one state could be sued only by another. 

3. Many Democrats urged resistance to decision, charging Butler 

and Russell were trying to inspire holders of millions of dollars 
worth of repudiated Reconstruction bonds to sue for payment. 

4. Governor Aycock recommended compliance with decision and 
General Assembly followed his lead. 

C. "Attempted Larceny" of Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad, 1904. 

1. At behest of outside financial interests trying to get control 
of road, Republican District Judge Thomas R. Purnell twice 
threw it into receivership. 

2. Aycock successfully fought this effort to try to force state 
into unfavorable lease by getting courts to put state back in 
possession of road. 

3. Late in 1904 Aycock leased road to Howland Improvement Company. 

114 



4. Josephus Daniels was cited for contempt of court, fined, 
and imprisoned for harsh criticism of Judge Purnell until 
ordered discharged by new U.S. Circuit Court judge. 

Election of 1904. 

1. Democrats were not well unified but Simmons played down 
differences, arguing that his party had rescued state from 
fusionism and had contributed to educational progress. 

2. Robert B. Glenn won gubernatorial nomination. He championed 
cause of organized labor and opposed use of taxes paid by 
whites for education of blacks. He had reputation as critic 
of Aycock. 

3. Glenn defeated Republican C. J. Harris by vote of about 129,000 
to 80,000. Democratic presidential candidate Alton B. Parker 
carried state over Theodore Roosevelt. 

Administration of Governor Glenn, 1905-1909. 

1. General Assembly passed several acts which were attacked as 
"detrimental to business." 

a. One of these reduced passenger rates on railroads to 2 1/4 
cents per mile. 

b. Federal court issued injunction restraining state officials 
from enforcing penalties against Southern Railway for 
disobeying this law. Controversy developed in which Glenn 
took position that he would resist federal court decision. 

c. President Roosevelt intervened to help arrange compromise 
by which railroads would charge rates of 2 1/2 cents per 
mile. 

2. Statewide prohibition was adopted in series of steps. 

a. Watts Act of 1903 prohibited sale and manufacture of 
spirituous liquors except in incorporated towns. 

b. Ward Law of 1905 prohibited liquor traffic in all communities 
except incorporated towns of at least one thousand people. 

c. In 1908 General Assembly responded to urging of Governor 
Glenn by providing for referendum on statewide prohibition. 

d. In May, 1908, people adopted statewide prohibition by vote 
of about 114,000 to 69,000. 

e. Turlington Act of 1909 made it effective. 

f . North Carolina Anti-Saloon League was active throughout 
campaign. 

Election of 1908. 

1. William W. Kitchin nominated by Democratic state convention 

on sixty-first ballot over Locke Craig. Kitchin was considered 
antimachine candidate. 

2. In general election he defeated Republican J. Elwood Cox by 
vote of about 145,000 to 108,000. 

3. Bryan carried state over Taft in presidential contest. 
Election of 1912. 

1. Locke Craig, nominated at Democratic convention by acclamation, 
easily won governorship. 

2. Primary contest for U.S. senator ship was one of most spec- 
tacular battles ever against "Simmons machine." 

a. William W. Kitchin and Judge Walter Clark ran against Simmons. 

b. Simmons won surprisingly easy victory with about 85,000 
votes to 47,000 for Kitchin and 16,000 for Clark. 

3. In presidential race, Woodrow Wilson carried state over Roosevelt 
and Taft. 

115 



V. Politics from 1912 to 1920. 

A. Several North Carolinians were prominent in Wilson administration. 

1. Josephus Daniels, secretary of the navy. 

2. David Houston, secretary of agriculture. 

3. F. M. Simmons, chairman of Senate Finance Committee. 

4. Lee Overman, chairman of Senate Rules Committee. 

5. Claude Kitchin, House Democratic leader. 

6. Edward W. Pou, chairman of House Rules Committee. 

7. E. Yates Webb, chairman of House Judiciary Committee. 

8. Walter Hines Page, ambassador to England. 

B. Election of 1916, 

1. First election held under statewide primary law passed in 1915. 

2. Contest marked by lack of bitterness. 

3. Thomas W. Bickett won Democratic nomination over E. L. 
Daughtridge by vote of about 63,000 to 37,000. Turnout was 
extremely small . 

4. Bickett defeated Republican Frank A. Linney by about 
168,000 votes to 121,000. 

5. President Wilson carried state over Charles Evans Hughes. 

C. North Carolina's role in World War I. 

1. There were 86,457 North Carolinians in armed forces, 
including 20,340 blacks. 

2. Losses were 629 killed in action, 204 deaths from wounds, 
and 1,542 deaths from disease. 

3. Two divisions containing many North Carolinians became 
famous . 

a. Thirtieth or "Old Hickory" Division helped break 
Hindenburg Line. 

b. Eighty-First or "Wildcat" Division took part in 
Meuse-Argonne offensive. 

4. Several military training camps were established in state. 

a. Camp Green at Charlotte. 

b. Camp Polk at Raleigh* 

c. Fort Bragg near Fayetteville, only one which became 
permanent installation. 

5. Role of women. 

a. Many women worked through Red Cross, YMCA, YWCA, Knights 
of Columbus, and other organizations to help war effort. 

b. There were 135 North Carolina women who became nurses for 
American soldiers. 

6. State's citizens contributed $3 million to Red Cross and over- 
subscribed to quota of war bonds by $10 million. 

7. War forced people to economize on food and fuel; made industry 
step up production in shipyards and munitions plants. 

8. Naval war twice came close to North Carolina in August, 1918. 

a. Diamond Shoals Lighthouse sunk by German submarine. 

b. British tanker Mirdo torpedoed and sunk by German submarine 
off Rodanthe. 

D. Post war changes in state's tax structure. 

1. "Bickett Revaluation" of 1920 increased assessed value of all 
property in state from $1,099 billion to $3,139 billion as part 
of effort to eliminate tax discriminations and inequities. 

2. Legislature proposed amendments to tax incomes at graduated 
rate not to exceed 6 percent and to limit general property tax 
(except for school purposes) to 15 cents on $100 valuation. 
Citizens approved amendments in referendum. 

116 



3. In early 1920s state government ceased to levy general property 
tax, leaving property as exclusive and main source of revenue 
for local governments. 

Woman's movement and changes In status of women. 

1. Changes in legal status of women began to release them from 
shackles of common law, which originally had transferred 
virtually all a woman's property to her husband on her marriage 
day and which had allowed a husband to chastise his wife by 
whipping her. 

a. Late in nineteenth century court held that old notion that 

a man had right to whip his wife with switch "no larger than 

his thumb" was not law in North Carolina, and that "the 
husband has no right to chastise his wife under any circum- 
stances." 

b. General Assembly of 1911 passed legislation removing limi- 
tation on married woman's right to make contracts, permitting 
her to go into business for herself and to sue and be sued 

in her own name . 

c. General Assembly of 1913 passed legislation permitting 
married woman to sue in her own name for injuries to her 
person and keep the money for herself. 

d. As of 1920 married woman could sue her husband for injuries 
to her person and keep the money for herself. 

e. Not until 1951 were husband and wife allowed to sue each 
other for damages to property or person; and only in 1962 
did courts recognize married woman's right to her earnings 
and services. 

2. Three movements, beginning around turn of century, were instru- 
mental in women's struggle to free themselves from shackles of 
custom and tradition in North Carolina. 

a. Woman's Club movement. 

1) In late nineteenth century women began to organize book 
clubs, music clubs, and nature clubs. 

2) By early twentieth century these expanded into Village 
Betterment Societies and other groups with goal of 
improving community life. 

3) In 1911 Sally Southall Cotten gave examples of their 
activities. 

a) Sponsoring Clean-up Day. 

b) Getting garbage ordinances passed. 

c) Getting trash cans installed on streets. 

d) Writing county histories. 

e) Awarding scholarships. 

f) Improving conditions at railroad stations. 

g) Agitating for medical inspection in schools and 
other health measures. 

h) Equipping playgrounds. 

b. Movement for education beyond high school had as its goal 
opening of professions and occupations which had been 
closed to women by custom and tradition. Progress of this 
movement can be exemplified by four major breakthroughs 

at UNC. 

1) In 1877 women were admitted to UNC summer normal school 
for teachers. 

2) Postgraduate courses were opened to women in 1894. 

3) Women were admitted to junior and senior classes in 1895. 

117 



4) In 1917 Pres. Edward K. Graham called for dormitory 

for women. It was opened in 1925 as Cornelius Phillips 
Spencer Dormitory, 
c. Woman's Suffrage movement. 

1) In 189A forty-five men and women met in Mayor Patton's 
home in Asheville and organized first Woman's Suffrage 
Association in North Carolina, with Helen Morris Lewis 
as president. 

2) First bill to allow women to vote in North Carolina 
was introduced in 1897 by J. L. Hyatt, Republican 
senator. It was referred to committee on insane asylums. 

3) Statewide organization, Equal Suffrage Association, 
was organized in 1913. 

4) In 1920 special session of North Carolina General 
Assembly had opportunity to become thirty-sixth state 
ratifying Nineteenth (woman's suffrage) Amendment. 
Had it done so, North Carolina would have been the 
state which gave amendment the necessary three-fourths 
majority. But legislature refused to ratify it and in 
addition sent delegate to Tennessee legislature to 
discourage it from ratifying. Tennessee ignored North 
Carolina's advice and ratified amendment. 

5) North Carolina General Assembly then refused to support 
resolution ratifying the fait accompli. Not until 1971 
did it ratify Nineteenth Amendment. 

VI. Inquiry concerning North Carolina progressivism, 1900-1920. 

A. Total accomplishments or degree of impact progressivism had 
on state. 

B. Types of voters who supported progressivism. 

C. Organizations in North Carolina which reflected progressivism. 

D. Progressivism at municipal level. 



118 



NORTH CAROLINA'S ECONOMIC GROWTH FROM THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 

TO THE 1920s 



Demographic trends. 

A. State's total population increased from 1.9 million in 1900 
to 3.2 million in 1920. 

B. Per capita wealth in 1922 was $1,703, ranking forty-second 
in nation. 

C. Percentage of urban population increased from less than 10 
percent in 1900 to more than 19 percent in 1920. 

D. Causes for increased urbanization. 

1. Higher wages and social appeal of towns. 

2. Low prices of farm crops. 

3. Soil exhaustion and erosion. 

4. Extension of city limits to include suburban areas. 

Agriculture: North Carolina continued to be state of small farms. 

A. Farm statistics. 

1. Number of farms increased from 225,000 in 1900 to 283,000 
in 1925. 

2. However, acreage of farmland declined from twenty-three 
million acres in 1900 to nineteen million in 1925. 

3. Tenancy increased. 

a. Tenants operated 41 percent of farms in 1900, 45 percent 
in 1925. 

b. Counties with largest tenant ratios were in areas producing 
cotton and tobacco. 

c. In 1925 there were more than thirty counties in which over 
half the farmers were tenants. 

d. Number of white tenants was always greater than number of 
black tenants. But in 1920 only 33 percent of all white 
farmers were tenants as compared to 71 percent of all 
black farmers. 

B. Leading crops. 

1. Cotton. 

a. Annual production rose from 460,000 bales in 1900 to 
1,102,000 in 1925, raising state's rank from eighth to 
seventh among cotton-producing states. 

b. Yield per acre was usually highest of all states for 
several reasons: 

1) Well-cultivated farms. 

2) Greater use of commercial fertilizer. 

3) Relative scarcity of boll weevil. 

c. Cotton was usually largest single source of farm income 
prior to 1900. After that date tobacco replaced it. 

2. Tobacco. 

a. Production increased greatly: in 1900 state produced 
127,503,000 pounds valued at $8 million on about 200,000 
acres. In 1925 it produced 380,165,000 pounds valued at 
about $87 million on 547,000 acres. 

b. North Carolina was second to Kentucky in tobacco production. 

3. Corn. 

a. Raised primarily as food and feed rather than as cash crop. 

b. Acreage in corn dropped from 2.7 million in 1899 to 2 

119 



million in 1924, while number of bushels produced decreased 
from 35 million to 31 million. 

4. Peanuts became commercial crop after 1900. 

5. Wheat cultivation continued. 

6. Hay was still produced in large quantities. 

7. Irish potatoes became important crop in 1920s. 

8. Sweet potatoes also became significant. 

9. Soybeans: North Carolina led all other states in production 
by 1920s. 

10. Other crops in which state was among leaders. 

a. Peas. 

b. Strawberries. 

c. Peaches. 

d. Rye. 

C. Livestock played extremely small role in state's agricultural 
system of this era. 

D. State's agricultural situation was backward, with most of its 
farmers living from hand-to-mouth. 

1. Farmers failed to cooperate effectively. 

2. Lonely life on isolated farms encouraged social and economic 
inertia that was resistant to change. 

E. Farmers' Union. 

1. Agitated for legislation to improve plight of farmer. 

2. Entered North Carolina in 1905. From 1912 to 1913 it 
reached its peak, with state membership of over 33,000 
which was over one third of national membership. By 
late 1920s it was in deep decline. 

3. Carolina Union Farmer was its publication. 

F. Other efforts to solve farm problems. 

1. Farm colonies of European immigrants established under 
leadership of Hugh McRae. 

a. St. Helena (Italian). 

b. Castle Hayne and Van Eden (Dutch). 

c. New Berlin (German). 

2. 4-H Clubs. 

3. Tobacco Experiment Station near Oxford. 

4. Credit unions of farmers were organized after General Assembly 
passed Credit Union Law of 1915. 

5. In 1920 Tobacco Growers Cooperative Marketing Association of 
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia was organized. 
It lasted until 1926, when it went into receivership. 

III. Manufacturing underwent remarkable development. 

A. Statistics. 

1. Value of manufactures increased from $95 million in 1900 
to $217 million in 1910, to $944 million in 1920. In 1920 
value of manufactures was twice that of agriculture. 

2. Number of wage earners grew from 72,000 in 1899 to 158,000 
in 1919, to 205,000 in 1927. 

B. North Carolina became the leading industrial state of Southeast 
and nation's largest producer of cotton textiles, tobacco products, 
and wooden furniture. Leading manufactures were closely associated 
with raw materials produced locally. 

C. Development of electric power helped make possible rapid industrial- 
ization. 

120 



1. James B. Duke and Duke Power Company. 

2. Other power companies. 

a. Carolina Power and Light. 

b. Tidewater Power Company. 

c. Virginia Electric and Power Company, 

D. Textile industry was state's most important industry. 

1. Chief textile products. 

a. Greensboro had largest denim mill in world. 

b. Roanoke Rapids had world's largest damask mill. 

c. Kannapolis had world's largest towel mill. 

d. Winston-Salem had largest men's underwear factory 
in world . 

e. Hosiery. 

f . Yarns . 

g. Blankets. 

h. Dyeing and finishing of men's, work clothes. 

2. Total value of textile products grew from $30 million in 1900 
to $450 million in 1930. 

3. Number of textile workers increased from 32,000 in 1900 to 
125,000 in 1930. 

4. Most mills were in Piedmont between Durham and Shelby. 

E. Tobacco products. 

1. Value of tobacco manufactures — mainly cigarettes and pipe 
tobacco — increased from $16 million in 1900 to $413 million 
in 1927. 

2. Industry was extensively mechanized, causing number of 
workers to increase at relatively slow pace of 7,000 in 
1900 to 16,000 in 1927. 

3. Companies and cities. 

a. R. J. Reynolds — Winston-Salem. 

b. Liggett-Myers — Durham. 

c. American Tobacco Company — Reidsville. 

F. Furniture industry. 

1. Value of furniture products rose from $1.5 million in 1899 
to $54 million in 1929. 

2. Number of laborers increased from 2,000 to 15,000 for same 
period. 

3. By 1925 North Carolina led nation in producing wooden furni- 
ture and was fifth in production of all furniture. 

4. High Point was most important furniture town but other towns 
were also significant, especially in Piedmont. 

G. Other manufactures. 

1. Lumber and lumber products. 

2. Flour and meal. 

3. Cottonseed oil. 

4. Fertilizer. 

5. Leather. 

6. Railway car construction and repair. 

7. Printing and publishing. 

8. Paper. 

IV. Organization of labor proceeded slowly. 
A. Obstacles to organization of labor. 

1. Hostility of employers, who usually refused to recognize 
workers' right to bargain collectively. 

2. Hostility or indifference of state government and of public 
opinion. 

121 



3. Large number of unskilled workers. 

4. Division of industrial workers among many scattered factories. 

B. North Carolina State Federation of Labor formed in 1905, largely 

of unions of skilled workers such as printers, carpenters, engineers, 
machinists, and railway workers. 

C. In 1900 there were 82 labor unions in state, including 16 in 
textile industry. However, failure of several strikes that year 
led to decline of union movement. 

D. In 1919 United Textile Workers organized 43 unions with 
estimated membership of 30,000. Major strike and lockout in 
Charlotte area was partially successful. 

E. In 1921-1922 major textile strikes failed and another lapse of 
union activity followed. 

V. Extractive industries. 

A. Mining. 

1. Total value of state's mineral production increased from about 
$1.6 million in 1901 to about $12.6 million in 1927. 

2. Building materials such as granite, brick, tile, sand, gravel, 
and cement products accounted for most of increase. 

3. After 1911 North Carolina ranked first in production of 
feldspar. 

4. State produced most of America's kaolin, about 70 percent of 
its mica, and 35 percent of its titanium. 

B. Commercial fisheries. 

1. In 1920s average annual value of seafood products was about 
$3 million. 

2. Most important food fish: 

a. Shad. 

b. Trout. 

c. Herring. 

3. Nonfood fish, especially menhaden used for oil in manufacturing, 
were also Important . 

4. Oysters, shrimp, and scallops were also caught by state's 
fishermen. 

VI. Banking and insurance. 

A. Banking experience accelerated growth. 

1. In 1900 state had 120 banks with resources of $33 million; 
by 1918 it had 543 banks holding $288 million. 

2. Only five states had smaller per capita bank resources than 
North Carolina's $176.77. 

B. Building and loan associations underwent dramatic increase in early 
1920s. By mid-1920s almost 10,000 new homes were being built 
annually through building and loan plans. 

C. Several of state's major insurance companies were organized during 
this period. 

1. North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company was organized by 
blacks in Durham, 1899. 

2. Pilot Life Insurance Company of Greensboro was formed in 1903. 

3. Jefferson Standard Life Insurance Company was formed by merger 
of two older companies and became largest insurance company in 
state. 

4. Number of fire insurance companies also increased. 



122 



VII. Railroads. 

A. Railroad mileage increased to 5,522 by 1920. 

B. Fourth large system emerged — Norfolk Southern Railroad. 

C. In addition to large systems, more than thirty companies operated 
short lines in state. 

D. Continuing grievances against railroads. 

1. Excessive and discriminatory rates. 

2. Poor service. 

3. Tax-dodging. 

4. Making excessive earnings. 

5. Stock-watering, pooling, giving rebates. 

6. Charging more for short haul than long haul over same road. 

7. Corruptly influencing legislators through lobbyists and free 
passes. 

8. Influencing judges. 

E. Corporation Commission was state's regulatory agency, and after 
1900 its power increased. 

1. Could require adjustment of train schedules. 

2. Could order provision of adequate warehouses. 

3. Could promote improved handling of freight. 

4. Could regulate electric light, power, and gas companies and 
supervise motor vehicles. 

CI. Highways and automobiles. 

A. Use of automobiles rose from 2,400 in 1910 to 150,000 in 1921. 

B. In 1911 there were only 1,175 miles of macadamized, 1,502 
miles of sand-clay, and 683 miles of gravel roads out of total 
mileage of about 48,000 in whole state. 

C. North Carolina Good Roads Association was organized in 1902, 
with P. H. Hanes as president. 

D. State Highway Commission was created in 1915 by General Assembly 
to cooperate with counties in road building. 

E. In 1916 Congress passed Federal Highway Act and began to allocate 
funds to states on matching basis to improve federal interstate 
roads. 

F. State Highway Commission was authorized to receive federal funds 
and state automobile license fees to maintain roads, 1917. 

G. With passage of Highway Act of 1921, North Carolina began to emerge 
as "Good Roads State." 



123 



EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL GROWTH IN NORTH CAROLINA FROM THE TURN 

OF THE CENTURY TO THE 1920s 

Public education. 

A. Causes of progress in public education in this period. 

1. General economic prosperity. 

2. Widespread awareness of intellectual backwardness. 

3. More enlightened leadership by Democrats. 

B. Beginnings of crusade for public schools. 

1. Aycock stressed public education in campaign of 1900. 

2. Once in office, Aycock and Superintendent of Public 
Instruction Thomas F. Toon (who soon died and was succeeded 

by James Y. Joyner) led promotional campaign for public schools. 

a. Southern Education Board in 1902 began contributing $2,000 
per year to campaign. 

b. Governor Aycock, at suggestion of Charles D. Mclver, called 
conference of educational workers which issued widely 
publicized "Declaration Against Illiteracy." 

c. Central Campaign Committee for the Promotion of Public 
Education in North Carolina was set up to lead campaign. 
Members were Aycock, Joyner, Mclver, and Eugene C. Brooks. 

d. Most remarkable educational campaign in state's history 
apparently convinced North Carolinians of value of public 
education. 

C. In case of J. R. Collie v. Commissioners , 1907, state Supreme 
Court reversed Barksdale decision, laying basis for increased 
school funding by local government. 

D. Achievements in public education, 1900-1910. 

1. Nearly 3,000 schoolhouses were built. Total value of school 
property increased from $1 million to $5 million. Annual 
state appropriation for equalizing school term among counties 
almost doubled. 

2. State government loaned money to aid counties in building 
and improving schools. 

3. Services of office of superintendent of public instruction 
expanded, especially in distribution of educational bulletins 
and in school supervision. 

4. Number of special local tax districts increased from 18 to 
1,167. 

5. Number of rural school libraries increased from 472 to 2,272. 

6. Nearly a month was added to length of school term. 

7. Enrollment and average daily attendance increased, as did 
teachers' salaries. 

8. Compulsory school law enacted 1907. 

9. Illiteracy among persons ten years old and above dropped 
from 28.7 percent to 18.5 percent. 

10. Normal schools for blacks were improved and three were estab- 
lished for whites. 

a. Appalachian Teaching School at Boone, 1903. 

b. Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School (later Western 
Carolina University), 1905. 

c. East Carolina Teacher's Training School at Greenville, 1907. 

11. General Assembly of 1907 passed "act to stimulate high school 
instruction in public schools," which was especially aimed at 
encouraging rural high schools. By ^911 about 200 rural high 
schools had been established in 93 of state's counties. 

124 



E. Public school progress was even more rapid during 1910-1920. 

1. General Assembly of 1913 levied statewide property tax of 
5 cents (on $100 valuation) to enable schools to lengthen 
terms to as much as six months. 

2. It also enacted better compulsory school law requiring all 
children between eight and twelve years of age to attend 
school at least four months per year. 

3. It likewise made provision for teaching of agriculture and 
domestic science in schools. 

4. General Assembly of 1917 created State Board of Examiners 
and Institute Conductors to examine and certify applicants 
for teaching positions in public schools and to direct 
teachers' institutes. 

5. It also created Educational Commission to make study of 
school system, which led to additional improvements in 
financing and administering schools and in training and 
certifying teachers. 

6. In 1918 voters approved constitutional amendment extending 
minimum school term to six months . 

F. Progress was also made in Negro public schools in similar pattern, 
but improvements were always less expensive and poorer in every 
respect. 

1. Jeanes Fund, Slater Fund, Rosenwalk Fund, and General Education 
Board cooperated with counties and state government in improv- 
ing black schools. 

2. Disparity between black and white schools remained great. 

In 1918-1919, for example, monthly salary for white teachers 
was $62; for Negro teachers, $37.18. 

Higher Education. 

A. Facilities were revolutionized at pace similar to public schools. 
Several factors were responsible. 

1. Support by state government. 

2. Educational foundations such as Carnegie Foundation. 

3 . Churches . 

4. Philanthropic individuals. 

B. State-supported Institutions. 

1. Annual appropriations for maintenance of UNC and state colleges 
increased from $155,000 in 1901 to over $2 million in 1920s; 
and for improvements from $95,500 to about $2 million. 

2. Increased funds led to expansion of physical plants, faculties, 
and breadth and quality of educational program. 

3. UNC underwent remarkable development under three presidents. 

a. Francis P. Venable, 1900-1914. 

1) Financial condition improved. 

2) Physical plant expanded. 

3) Large increases in enrollment. 

4) Athletics encouraged. 

5) Creative scholarship was required of faculty. 

6) Graduate and professional schools improved in 
quality. 

b. Edward K. Graham, 1914-1918. 

1) University's services to state at large increased. 

2) Administration and building programs were better financed. 

c. Henry W. Chase, 1919-1930. 

1) Rapid physical expansion. 

2) University achieved reputation for high standards of 
scholarship and freedom in research and writing. 

125 



4. Agricultural and Mechanical College at Raleigh. 

a. Several new buildings were added. 

b. Enrollment grew from 301 in 1901 to 1,040 in 1920. 

5. Appropriations for state normal schools and teachers' 
colleges also increased. 

a. Regular appropriations grew from $32,000 in 1901 
to over $500,000 in 1920. 

b. Appropriations for permanent improvement grew from $5,000 
to $500,000 in same period. 

C. Denominational colleges also grew. 

1. Davidson. 

2. Wake Forest. 

3. Meredith. 

4. Trinity College made most spectacular strides. 

a. Presidents were John C. Kilgo and W. P. Few. 

b. Duke family supported it. 

c. South Atlantic Quarterly founded, 1902. 

d. Trinity became center of controversy in 1903 when 
Prof. John Spencer Bassett was criticized for his 
praise of Booker T. Washington. Kilgo and faculty 
defended him, and when Board of Trustees voted not 
to dismiss him, their action was considered great 
victory for academic freedom in South. 

III. Library facilities. 

A. In 1897 Durham established state's first tax-supported public 
library. Several cities followed its example. 

B. State Library was maintained by government, but its appropriations 
remained woefully small. 

C. At start of this period, school libraries were almost nonexistent 
and college libraries were poor. 

D. State government took lead in encouraging library development. 

1. Offered limited funds to aid in establishing public school 
libraries. 

2. Made more liberal appropriations for libraries in institutions 
of higher learning. 

3. Established Library Commission of North Carolina in 1909, 
which stimulated improvement and reorganization of existing 
libraries and establishment of new ones. 

E. North Carolina still suffered from backwardness in its library 
facilities in 1920s. 

IV. Newspapers. 

A. Although number of newspapers decreased in first quarter of 
twentieth century, there was improvement in their quality. For 
example, they increased in size and covered greater variety of 
topics. 

B. Circulation increased from 612,000 in 1901 to over two million 
in 1926. This was due to several factors. 

1. Technological improvements in newspaper printing. 

2. Development of rural free delivery system. 

3. General improvement of transportation facilities. 

C. Leading newspapers. 

1. Charlotte Observer , Joseph P. Caldwell, editor. 

2. Raleigh News and Observer , Josephur Daniels, editor. 

3. Greensboro Daily News , Gerald W. Johnson, editor. 

126 



V. Writers: for first time in many years literary production of North 
Carolinians achieved more than local attention. 

A. History and biography. 

1. Writers untrained in research methods produced some 
worthwhile books. 

a. Samuel A. Ashe wrote History of North Carolina , 1908-1925, 
and Biographical History of North Carolina , (8 volumes) , 
1905-1917. 

b. Kemp P. Battle, History of the University of North 

Carolina , 1907-1912. 

c. Walter Clark edited Confederate regimental histories (5 
volumes), 1901, and State Records of North Carolina (16 
volumes), 1895-1907. 

d. Charles L. Coon edited documentary records on state's 
public schools. 

e. Marshall DeLancey Haywood wrote Governor William Tryon , 
and Lives of the Bishops of North Carolina , 1910. 

2. Professional historians trained in modern research methods. 

a. John Spencer Bassett. 

b. William K. Boyd. 

c. R. D. W. Connor. 

d. William E. Dodd. 

e. J. G. de R. Hamilton. 

3. North Carolina Historical Commission established 1903 with 
goal of collecting, preserving, and publishing state's 
historical sources. 

B. Literature: 

1. Poets. 

a. John Charles McNeill. 

1) Songs, Merry and Sad , 1906. 

2) Lyrics from Cotton Land , 1907. 

b. John Henry Boner. 

c. Henry Jerome Stockard. 

2. Fiction. 

a. Thomas Dixon. 

1) The Leopard's Spots , 1902. 

2) The Clansman , 1905. 

b. Charles W. Chesnutt, America's first significant black 
novelist. 

1) The Wife of His Youth , 1899. 

2) The Conjure Woman , 1899. 

3) The House Behind the Cedars , 1900. 

4) The Colonel's Dream , 1905~ 

c. William Sidney Porter (0. Henry). 

1) Cabbages and Kings , 1904. 

2) The Four Million , 1907. 

3) Rolling Stones , 1912. 

d. Francis Christine Tiernan (Christian Reid) . 

e. Olive Tilford Dargan (Fielding Burke) wrote plays, poetry, 
and sketches as well as novels and stories. 



127 



NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1920-1932 



I. Hallmarks of era. 

A. Nativlsm: Ku Klux Klan active in state. 

B. Fundamentalism: though it was strong, efforts to pass 
antievolution legislation in North Carolina failed. 

C. Prohibition: 

1. Most North Carolinians supported prohibition and 
Eighteenth Amendment, 1919. 

2. Still, Eighteenth Amendment was not rigidly enforced. 

3. Although Twenty-first Amendment, 1933, repealed national 
prohibition, most of North Carolina remained legally dry 
until 1937. 

II. Administration of Gov. Cameron Morrison, 1921-1925. 

A. Election of 1920. 

1. Democratic presidential candidate James M. Cox carried state 
over Republican Warren Harding, though Harding won nationally 
by landslide. 

2. Main issues of gubernatorial campaign were "machine control" 
and female suffrage. 

3. "Machine" candidate Morrison, who opposed female suffrage, 
led 0. Max Gardner and Robert N. Page in Democratic primary 
and then went on to win second primary over Gardner, 70,000 
to 61,000 votes. 

4. In general election he defeated Republican John J. Parker, 
308,000 to 230,000. 

B. North Carolina became "Good Roads State." 

1. Highway Act of 1921. 

a. Increased personnel and powers of Highway Commission. 

b. Directed building and maintenance of system of 6,000 
miles of improved roads. 

c. Authorized bond issue of $50 million for highway 
construction. 

2. Sale of bonds enabled roads to be built rapidly and paid for 
later by income from state taxes on motor vehicles and gasoline. 

3. Important people in program included Harriet Morehead Berry, 
secretary of Good Roads Association, and Frank Page, chairman 
of Highway Commission. 

C. Higher education. 

1. State greatly increased appropriations for colleges and UNC, 
which continued program begun in 1900. 

2. Trinity College was expanded and transformed into Duke 
University via creation of Duke Endowment in 1924-1925. 

D. Public schools continued to improve. 

1. Term of E. C. Brooks as superintendent of public instruction, 
1919-1923. 

a. Six month school term effected. 

b. Salary schedules adopted for teachers and administrators. 

c. Certification regulations strengthened. 

d. Counties were loaned $10 million for erecting schoolhouses. 

e. Many small rural schools consolidated. 

f. School bus transportation system began. 

g. Vocational education extended. 

2. Term of Arch T. Allen, 1923-1934. 

128 



a. School building program continued. 

b. Stress placed on standardization of schools. 

c. Curriculum revised. 

d. State School Facts, monthly publication, begun. 

e. New emphasis placed on library facilities. 

E. Morrison's plan to appropriate $8.5 million to develop state's 
ports and provide water transport competition for railroads 
failed when voters defeated constitutional amendment. 

F. Other changes during Morrison years. 

1. State ad valorem property taxes abolished. 

2. Income taxes increased. 

3. North Carolina College for Negroes in Durham became full- 
fledged state institution. 

4. Gastonia Orthopedic Hospital for children came under state 
control. 

G. Morrison administration was illustrative of trend of expanding 
government power, evident throughout 1920s. 

Administration of Angus W. McLean, 1925-1929. 

A. Election of 1924. 

1. In Democratic primary, issue was once again "machine control," 
but McLean, candidate of "machine," soundly defeated Josiah 

W. Bailey. 

2. In general election, he defeated Republican Isaac M. Meekins, 
294,000 to 186,000 votes. 

3. Democrat John W. Davis carried state in presidential contest 
over Coolidge, who won nationwide. 

B. Economy in government was watchword of McLean's term. 

C. Budget Bureau was created. 

D. General Assembly of 1925 created some new agencies and consolidated 
some others. 

1. Revenue Department given power to collect all taxes. 

2. Salary and Wage Commission created to correct inequities in 
state employees' compensation. 

3. Department of Conservation and Development replaced Geologic 
and Economic Survey. 

4. Transportation Advisory Commission created to study problem 
of freight rate differentials. 

5. Educational Commission created to attend to needs of public 
schools and state-supported institutions of higher learning. 

E. Other actions of General Assembly of 1925. 

1. Authorized $20 million bond issue for highways. 

2. Increased tax on gasoline to 4 cents per gallon. 

3. Continued liberal appropriations to public schools and 
institutions of higher learning. 

F. General Assembly of 1927 created three important state agencies. 

1. Tax Commission. 

2. County Government Advisory Commission. 

3. State Board of Equalization. 

G. General Assembly of 1927 also allocated unprecedented $3.25 
million for public schools during biennium. 

H. Antievolutionist crusade. 

1. In both 1925 and 1927 Rep. D. Scott Poole of Hoke County, 
backed by organized antievolutionist campaign, introduced 
bills in state House of Representatives aimed at prohibiting 
teaching of evolution in public schools. Bills were defeated 
in both cases. 

2. Leaders of antievolutionist crusade tended to be impolitic 

129 



and sensationalistic in their appeals. Many moderate funda- 
mentalists became disenchanted with them. 
3. Efforts of educators Harry W. Chase and William Louis Poteat 
helped defeat proposed antievolutionist legislation. 

IV. Election of 1928. 

A. In presidential contest, Republican Herbert Hoover, Protestant 
advocate of prohibition, went against Democrat Alfred E. Smith, 
Catholic opponent of prohibition and native of New York City's 
"East Side." 

B. Sen. Furnifold M. Simmons opposed Smith's nomination and, once 
Smith won it, stated that he would vote for neither candidate. 
Many North Carolinians probably followed him. 

C. Hoover carried North Carolina by vote of 349,000 to 286,000, and 
four other southern states also went for Hoover. Simmons' anti- 
Smith organization may have been just enough to turn state to 
Hoover . 

D. State elected two Republicans to Congress — Charles A. Jonas and 
George M. Pritchard. 

E. Republicans won more seats in General Assembly than they had in 
years, although Democrats still retained control of both houses. 

F. Democrat 0. Max Gardner, unopposed for nomination, defeated 
Republican H. F. Seawell by vote of 362,000 to 289,000 to win 
governorship. 

V. Gardner administration, 1929-1933, and beginning of Great Depression. 

A. General Assembly of 1929. 

1. Adopted Australian (or secret) ballot but defeated short 
ballot. 

2. Passed Workmen's Compensation Act, created Industrial Commission 
to administer it. 

3. Enacted some county road relief measures. 

4. Placed all state agencies under Budget Bureau. 

B. Great Depression began in late 1929. 

1. Prices dropped sharply and continued to do so until 1933. 
Wages and salaries were cut. 

2. Many businesses closed; individuals and companies went 
bankrupt. Numerous banks failed. 

3. Unemployment rose to alarming proportions. 

4. Many could not pay their taxes. 

C. Depression's impact on government. 

1. Counties and towns were unable to maintain roads, schools, 
and other services and had to cut salaries of employees. 

2. State government likewise had to reduce its services and 
salaries of its employees. 

D. Events of 1930-1931. 

1. People across state called for reduction of taxes. Tax relief 
associations called for special legislative session. 

2. Gardner refused to call special session but ordered several 
investigations of state government, including one by Brookings 
Institution of Washington, D.C. 

3. Josiah Bailey defeated seventy-four-year-old Senate veteran 

F. M. Simmons in senatorial primary of 1930, winning majority of 
68,000 out of total vote of 333,000. Many Democrats turned 
against Simmons due to his refusal tu support Smith in 1928. 

E. Major actions of General Assembly of 1931. 

1. Although many days were spent debating sales tax and luxury 
tax, legislators failed to enact either. 

130 



2. Corporate income taxes were increased by about $2 million and 
franchise taxes by about $2.25 million. 

3. State took over operation of county roads, which would lead 
to substantial reduction of local taxes. County roads had 
been costing $8.25 million per year. 

4. Local Government Act set up Local Government Commission with 
supervisory authority over financial affairs of both county 
and municipal units of government. It took control of local 
budgets and restricted power of local units to incur additional 
debt. 

5. UNC at Chapel Hill, State College, and Woman's College were 
consolidated into UNC system. 

6. McLean Law provided that a six month constitutional school term 
should be supported by state from sources other than ad valorem 
taxes . 

7 . Total cost of state government was reduced by $7 million and 
tax burden was reduced by $12 million through school and road 
legislation. 

Election of 1932. 

A. In first Democratic primary J. C. B. Ehringhaus, champion of 
Gardner administration, led Richard T. Fountain and A. J. Maxwell. 

B. In second primary, Ehringhaus defeated Fountain by vote of 182,000 
to 169,000. 

C. Ehringhaus defeated Republican Clifford Frazier in general election 
by vote of 498,000 to 213,000. 

D. Race for Democratic nomination for U.S. Senate between Cameron 
Morrison who had been appointed at time of Sen. Lee S. Overman's 
death, and Robert R. Reynolds attracted wide attention. In first 
primary Reynolds emerged with narrow lead over Morrison, with two 
other candidates trailing far behind. 

E. In second primary Reynolds portrayed himself as champion of the 
common people and overwhelmingly defeated Morrison, 228,000 votes 
to 120,000. 

F. In presidential election, Franklin Roosevelt carried North 
Carolina by wide margin, defeating Herbert Hoover. 



131 



NORTH CAROLINA AND THE NEW DEAL, 1933-1941 



I. Administration of Governor Ehringhaus, 1933-1937. 

A. Ehringhaus took office at low point of Great Depression. 

B. General Assembly of 1933. 

1. Provided for revaluation of property. 

2. Repealed 15 cents ad valorem property tax. 

3. Some proposals to reorganize and consolidate state agencies 
passed . 

a. Parole and Pardon Commission created. 

b. State Board of Equalization replaced by State School 
Commission. 

c. State Highway and Prison departments were merged. 

d. Utilities Commission replaced Corporation Commission. 

4. After long debate, 3 percent general sales tax was enacted. 
It became largest source of revenue for general fund and 
made possible balancing of state budget . 

5. Minimum school term was extended from six to eight months. 

6. State government took over almost entire support of public 
schools from localities. 

7. Salaries of teachers and state employees were again reduced. 

C. End of statewide prohibition. 

1. General Assembly of 1933 authorized statewide referendum on 
prohibition. In November election, about 293,000 North 
Carolinians voted against calling convention to consider 
proposed amendment that would repeal Eighteenth Amendment, 
while only 120,000 favored convention. 

2. But antiprohibitionists would not give up. Legislature of 
1935 passed bill exempting Pasquotank County from prohibition 
law and establishing Alcoholic Beverage Control Board. Bill 
was amended and passed to grant local option to Pasquotank 
and fifteen other counties. 

3. In 1935 first county-operated liquor store opened at Wilson. 

4. Meanwhile, national prohibition was repealed in 1933. 

5. Also in 1933 Congress legalized sale of light wine and beer 
with 3.2 percent alcoholic content. On May 1, 1933, sale of 
such beverages became legal in North Carolina. 

II. The New Deal and its impact on North Carolina. 

A. Measures to end financial crisis. 

1. Bank holiday and Emergency Banking Act of 1933, which provided 
for reopening of banks when their solvency was assured. 

2. Grants to banks and businesses from Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation, 1932-1933, which had been initiated by President 
Hoover and continued under Franklin Delano Roosevelt. 

3. Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 curbed speculation by banks and set 
up Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. 

4. Banking Act of 1935 strengthened Federal Reserve System. 

B. Relief: from 1933 to 1938 North Carolina received about $428 
million in federal aid. Though figure seems large, North Carolina 
received lowest per capita amount of all states. 

1. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) : by end of 1935 76 camps 

had been established in state and nearly 27,000 men had enrolled, 

2. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) : during 1933- 
1935, North Carolina received about $40 million in funds. 

132 



3. Public Works Administration (PWA) : from 1933 to 1935 state 
received about $12 million. 

4. National Youth Administration (NYA) . 

a. Created mid-1935. 

b. By mid 1936 475 projects were being carried on in state, 
25,000 youths had received part-time jobs, and 13,000 

had received jobs to aid in continuance of their education. 

5. Works Progress Administration (WPA) , created in 1935, super- 
seded FERA and took over some aspects of PWA. 

C. Aid for agriculture. 

1. Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), created 1933. 

a. Made "benefit payments" to farmers for limiting production 
and for soil conservation. 

b. Declared unconstitutional, 1936. 

c. Replaced to some degree by Soil Conservation and Domestic 
Allotment Act, 1936, and by second AAA, 1938. 

2. Rural Electrification Administration (REA) , 1935. 

3. Farm Security Administration, (FSA) , 1937. 

4. Under New Deal program of controlled production, crop prices 
rose and income of North Carolina farmers increased from 
about $150 million in 1932 to $305 million in 1935. 

5. From 1933 to 1940 state's farmers received almost $100 million 
in federal benefits. 

D. Business and labor. 

1. National Industrial Recovery Act, 1933. 

a. Created National Recovery Administration (NRA) , whose 
purpose was to regulate businesses. 

b. Its section 7(a) sought to protect rights of labor to 
organize and strike. 

c. Declared unconstitutional, 1935. 

2. Wagner Act, 1935, insured right of workers to bargain collectively. 
Under this stimulus, organization of labor in North Carolina 
proceeded rapidly. 

3. State established Unemployment Compensation Commission under 
federal encouragement . 

4. Wages and Hours Act, 1938. 

E. Social Security Act of 1935 led state to embark on program under 
which needy aged, blind, and dependent children received monthly 
payments. 

F. New Deal instituted several other major programs, such as Tennessee 
Valley Authority (TVA) , and increased regulation of utility 
companies, telegraph, telephone, and radio. 

G. Impact of New Deal on state government. 

1. By 1935 improved conditions in North Carolina enabled state 
government to increase salaries of its employees and of 
teachers and to make larger appropriations for all state 
services. 

2. By 1939 every important state service had been restored to 

more tban its 1930 level of appropriations except public schools 
and state-supported institutions of higher learning. 

3. However, many North Carolina political leaders had little 
enthusiasm for New Deal and Its reforms. 

H. Many North Carolinians held high federal office under FDR, including 
several who achieved posts of major influence. 



133 



1. Robert L. Doughton, chairman of House Ways and Means 
Committee. 

2. Lindsay Warren, comptroller general of U.S. 

3. Josephus Daniels, ambassador to Mexico. 

4. R. D. W. Connor, first archivist of U.S., 1934-1941. 

III. State politics, 1936-1941. 

A. Election of 1936. 

1. President Roosevelt carried state over Republican Alfred 
M. Landon. 

2. In gubernatorial election, Clyde R. Hoey narrowly led Dr. 
Ralph McDonald in Democrats' first primary, with A. H. 
Graham distant third. 

3. Hoey defeated McDonald in second primary by about 266,000 
to 214,000 votes and went on to win general election over 
Gilliam Grissom of Republicans. 

4. J. W. Bailey was reelected to U.S. Senate. 

5. In 1938 Robert R. Reynolds was reelected to U.S. Senate. 

B. Administration of Governor Hoey, 1937-1941. 

1. General Assembly raised prohibitory age for employment of 
children to sixteen years and to eighteen for certain jobs. 
It rejected proposed federal Child Labor Amendment. 

2. Limited hours of industrial labor to forty-eight for women 
and fifty-five for men with numerous exceptions. 

3. Enacted statewide county option liquor bill and created State 
Board of Alcoholic Beverage Control. ABC stores were soon 
established in more than a quarter of state's counties, 
largely in East. 

4. Legislature repealed absentee ballot laws for primaries. 

5. Free textbooks authorized for public schools in elementary 
grades and textbook rental system for high schools. 

6. Two state-supported Negro colleges were authorized to establish 
graduate and professional schools in liberal arts, agriculture 
and technical studies, law, pharmacy, and library science. 

C. Election of 1940. 

1. In Democratic primary for governor, J. Melville Broughton led 
field of seven candidates. Runner-up W. P. Horton failed to 
demand second primary, and Broughton became nominee. 

2. Broughton defeated Republican Robert H. McNeill, 609,000 to 
195,000 — largest majority ever given gubernatorial candidate 
to that time. 

3. President Roosevelt won presidential contest in state over 
Wendell Willkie. 



134 



WORLD WAR II AND AFTER: NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1941-1952 



Administration of Governor Broughton, 1941-1945. 

A. General Assembly of 1941. 

1. Increased appropriations to state agencies and public schools. 

2. Doubled support for vocational education. 

3. Made beginning for addition of twelfth grade in public schools. 

4. Increased salaries for public school teachers. 

5. Established pension and retirement system for state employees. 

6. Increased financial support to state institutions of higher 
learning. 

7. Created Twelfth Congressional District. 

B. Elections of 1942. 

1. Sen. Josiah Bailey was reelected. 

2. Voters elected solid Democratic delegation to Congress. 

3. Overwhelming majority of General Assembly was Democratic. 

4. Voters approved constitutional amendment centralizing authority 
over public schools in appointive State Board of Education. 

C. General Assembly of 1943. 

1. Emergency war powers granted governor and council of state. 

2. Provision made for nine-month school term. 

3. State school for delinquent Negro girls was authorized. 

4. Appropriations made to North Carolina Art Society and to North 
Carolina Symphony Society — first time any state gave aid to art 
and music. 

5. Provision made for unified administrative control of public 
schools, state correctional institutions, and state mental 
institutions. 

6. Further increased appropriations for schools and various state 
agencies without raising taxes. 

D. Governor Broughton took lead in working out plans for statewide 
medical program with goal of providing adequate medical care for 
every North Carolinian. 

E. America's involvement in World War II coincided with Broughton 's 
term. North Carolina felt impact of war in many ways. 

1. Many military camps and stations were established in state. 
Among most important were the following: 

a. Fort Bragg was expanded. 

b. Camp Lejeune — marine base. 

c. Cherry Point — marine air base. 

d. Camp Butner and Camp Davis — infantry camps. 

e. Camp Mackall — airborne training center. 

f. Elizabeth City and Edenton had large air installations. 

g. Wilmington had naval receiving station. 

2. From state's population of 3.6 million, 362,000 North 
Carolinians, including 7,000 women, entered armed services. 
Of these, 4,088 were killed. 

3. War had large economic effect on state. 

a. Unemployment almost disappeared. 

b. Taxes, wages, and prices all rose. 

c. North Carolinians purchased $1.8 billion worth of U.S. 
savings bonds. 

d. Almost $2 billion were spent in North Carolina by armed 
forces for manufactured war supplies and materials. 

135 



e. Leading war goods. 

1) Textile products. 

2) Tetraethyl lead. 

3) Mica. 

4) Lumber . 
F. Election of 1944. 

1. Governorship went to Gregg Cherry, who defeated Dr. Ralph 
McDonald for Democratic nomination and then defeated 
Republican Frank C. Patton in general election. 

2. Former Governor Hoey won Democratic nomination for U.S. 
senator over Cameron Morrison and defeated Republican A. L. 
Ferree in general election. 

3. President Roosevelt carried state for fourth time over 
Republican candidate Thomas E. Dewey. 

II. Administration of Governor Cherry, 1945-1949. 

A. Large appropriations were made to state agencies and public schools. 

B. Five million dollars were earmarked for aid to World War II veterans. 

C. Three percent general sales tax was removed from some items. 

D. Tax on wines was sharply increased. 

E. New State Board of Education was set up and given control of 
school funds . 

F. Beginnings were made on four -year medical school and hospital at 
UNC at Chapel Hill and statewide system of hospitals, health 
centers, and clinics. 

G. Five-Year Hospital Plan, inaugurated in 1947, was virtually 
completed by 1953; 127 projects having been authorized at cost 
of $68 million in federal, state, and local funds. 

H. Election of 1948. 

1. W. Kerr Scott trailed Charles M. Johnson in first gubernatorial 
primary, with two other candidates finishing far behind. 

2. In second primary, Scott scored surprising victory over 
Johnson— 218,000 votes to 183,000. 

3. Scott easily defeated Republican George M. Pritchard in 
general election. 

4. Former Governor Broughton won primary for U.S. senator over 
William B. Umstead, the man appointed to fill out term of 
Senator Bailey, who had died in office. 

5. President Truman carried state in presidential contest over 
Republican Thomas Dewey and States' Rights candidate Strom 
Thurmond . 

III. Administration of Governor Scott, 1949-1953. 
A. Scott's "Go Forward" program. 

1. Voters agreed to bond issue of $200 million for secondary 
road construction. During Scott administration, state paved 
about 12,000 miles of secondary roads and stabilized over 
15,000 miles for all-weather travel. 

2. Increased state tax on gasoline from 6 cents to 7 cents per 
gallon. 

3. Allocated $25 million to counties for construction and repair 
of school buildings. 

4. Legislature of 1949 appropriated unprecedented $401 million 
for biennium to operate state agencies and institutions. 



136 



5. Allocated about $73 million for buildings and other 
improvements at state institutions and agencies. 

6. Authorized $7.5 million in bonds for construction and 
improvement of state's port facilities. Terminal 
facilities equipped to handle ocean shipping at Wil- 
mington and Morehead City were completed by 1952. 

7. North Carolina joined compact of southern states for 
development and maintenance of regional educational 
services in South in many fields. 

8. UNC at Chapel Hill was authorized to establish standard 
dental school. 

B. Desegregation of UNC. 

1. In 1951 Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed 1950 
district court decision and ruled that blacks had to be 
admitted to UNC Law School if they met standard require- 
ments . 

2. During summer and fall terms of 1951, Negroes were admitted 
to law, medical, and graduate schools at UNC. 

C. Removal of Wake Forest University to Winston-Salem. President 
Truman made principal address at ground-breaking ceremony, 1951. 

D. Contest for U.S. senator, 1950. 

1. In Democratic primary for U.S Senate seat left vacant by 
death of Senator Broughton, liberal Frank P. Graham was 
defeated by Willis Smith. Desegregation of public schools 
was significant issue. 

2. In general election Smith defeated his Republican opponent, 
and Sen. Clyde R. Hoey won reelection. 

E. Many North Carolinians held office in Truman administration. 
Among more important ones were the following: 

1. Kenneth Royall , secretary of war, secretary of the army. 

2. Gordon Gray, secretary of the army. 

3. 0. Max Gardner, under secretary of the treasury. 

4. James Webb, director of the budget, under secretary of the 
treasury. 

5. John S. Graham, assistant secretary of the treasury. 

6. Dan Edwards, assistant secretary of defense. 

7. T. Lamar Caudle, assistant attorney general. 

8. George Allen, ambassadorships to Iran, Yugoslavia, and India. 

9. Jonathan Daniels, briefly press secretary to president. 

F. Election of 1952. 

1. In Democratic primary for governorship, William B. Umstead 
defeated Judge Hubert B. Olive, who had Governor Scott's support. 

2. Umstead easily defeated Republican H. F. Seawell, Jr., in 
November election. 

3. North Carolina's electoral votes in presidential contest went 
to Democrat Adlai Stevenson, although Republican Dwight D. 
Eisenhower won nationwide. 



137 



THE CONTINUING INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1930-19606 



Industry: North Carolina continued to be leading industrial state 
in Southeast. 

A. Trends and statistics. 

1. Total value of state's manufactures grew from $1.3 billion 
in 1930 to $15.1 billion in 1967. Growth was steady except 
for decline during Great Depression. 

2. North Carolina continued to rank first in nation in value of 
textile, tobacco, and furniture manufactures. 

3. While manufacturing in state continued to be decentralized, 
with large industrial plants located in all three major 
geographic regions, there was notable concentration in Pied- 
mont and to less degree in Mountain region due to proximity 
of cheap labor and hydroelectric power. 

4. Total number of wage earners increased from 270,000 in 1939 
to 468,000 in 1967. 

B. Textile manufactures continued as state's biggest industry. 

1. Statistics. 

a. Value of textile manufactures grew from $459 million in 
1930 to $5.9 billion in 1967. 

b. Number of workers increased from 125,000 in 1930 to 
257,000 in 1967. 

c. Number of textile mills in state grew from 609 in 1940 
to 1,262 in 1967. 

2. School of Textile Design at North Carolina State University 
developed into largest textile research department in nation. 

3. North Carolina continued to lead nation in manufacture of 
cotton goods. In this period it became leader also in nylon 
hosiery. Manufacture of synthetics (especially nylon, rayon, 
orlon, and dacron) and woolens increased rapidly after 1945. 

a. Durham has largest hosiery mill in world. 

b. American Enka Corporation, one of earliest and largest 
producers of rayon and nylon, began operation in 1939. 

4. Some northern mills established branches in state. 

a. Dupont Dacron manufactured at Kinston. 

b. Union Carbide Dynel at Eden. 

5. Consolidation of textile mills became trend. 

a. Burlington Mills. 

b. Cone Mills. 

6. Textile industry spread itself over wider geographic area. 

7. Mill villages were passing away, as owners began selling 
their "company houses" to employees. 

C. Tobacco products. 

1. For brief period in late 1920s, tobacco replaced textiles as 
leader in total value of products; but after 1939 textile 
industry was supreme. 

2. Statistics. 

a. Value of tobacco manufactures increased from $413 million 
in 1927 to $2.5 billion in 1967. North Carolina by 1960s 
manufactured more than half of nation's tobacco products. 

b. Number of workers increased from 16,500 in 1939 to 39,000 
in 1959, but due to mechanization fell back to 27,300 in 
1967. 

138 



3. Tobacco manufacturing concentrated in four cities and four 
gigantic companies. 

a. R. J. Reynolds, Winston-Salem. 

b. Liggett and Myers, Durham. 

c. American Tobacco Company, Reidsville. 

d. P. Lorillard, Greensboro. 

4. Ecusta Corporation near Brevard manufactured most of cigarette 
paper in America. 

D. Forest products. 

1. Total value grew from $139 million in 1930 to $1.85 billion in 
1967. 

2. Furniture. 

a. Was leading branch of forest products industry throughout 
period except for early 1950s. 

b. Some companies began to manufacture upholstered as well as 
wooden furniture. 

3. Other important forest products were lumber and paper. 

a. Champion Paper and Fiber Company at Canton was one of 
world's largest paper mills. 

b. Reigel Corporation in Acme manufactured great variety 
of paper products. 

E. Other industries. 

1. Food products, especially flour, bread, and butter. 

2. Chemicals, notably fertilizers, medicines, and cottonseed oil. 

3. Electrical machinery. 

4. Printing and publishing. 

5. Construction. 

6. Tourist industry achieved most spectacular growth of all of 
state's industries. It had reached value of $802 million 
by 1970. 

F. Mineral production and commercial fisheries continued to be 
significant industries, as they had been during early decades 
of century. 

Economic and demographic trends. 

A. Total estimated wealth of state rose from $682 million in 1900 
to $4.7 billion in 1930 to $14.7 billion in 1969. 

B. Per capita annual income rose from $255 in 1930 to $3,188 in 1970. 
Figure from 1970 was $722 below national per capita annual income. 

C. In wage rates, state consistently ranked near bottom among states. 
In 1971 average hourly earnings of North Carolina's industrial 
workers was $2.54, compared to $3.49 for nation. 

D. State's rate of population growth dropped sharply after 1930. 
Population increased from 3,170,276 in 1930 to 5,082,059 in 1970. 

E. In 1950s many people began moving from North Carolina into other 
states. 

F. Census of 1960 pointed out that great majority of North Carolinians 
were no longer "rural farm" people. 

1. "Rural nonfarm" comprised 42.7 percent. 

2. "Urban" comprised 39.5 percent. 

3. "Rural farm" comprised only 17.8 percent. 

G. Urban population increased from 25.8 percent in 1930 to 45 percent 
in 1970. 

H. State's five largest cities in 1970. 

1. Charlotte, 241,178. 

2. Greensboro, 144,076. 

3. Winston-Salem, 132,913. 

4. Raleigh, 121,577. 

5. Durham, 95,458. 

139 



I. Growing cities were centers of wealth, more diverse opportunity, 
education, culture, and political influence. 

III. Banking and insurance. 

A. Banking continued to expand in terms of deposits though number 
of banks declined. 

1. In 1939 state had 41 national banks, 186 state banks, and 
about $400 million in deposits. In 1970 state had 22 national 
banks, 82 state banks, and total deposits of over $6 billion. 

2. Wachovia Bank and Trust Company was largest bank in Southeast 
and thirty-ninth in nation. 

B. Building and loan associations continued to prosper. In 1970 
there were 180 such companies with over $3 billion in assets. 

C. Insurance companies. 

1. In 1969 there were 22 life insurance companies with home 
offices in North Carolina and 276 other companies doing 
business in state. 

2. Six largest companies based in state. 

a. Jefferson Standard. 

b. Security Life and Trust. 

c. Pilot Life. 

d. State Capital. 

e. Home Security Life. 

f. Durham Life. 

IV. Labor. 

A. From 1929 to 1934 there were several serious labor disputes. 

1. Strike at Gastonia, 1929. 

a. Lagging wages and poor working conditions made many 
workers receptive to unionization. 

b. Fred Beale of Communist-party-controlled National Textile 
Workers Union led efforts to organize Loray Mill, largest 
in area. 

c. Strike collapsed quickly, as almost entire community turned 
against strikers due to presence of Communist party repre- 
sentatives among strike leaders. 

d. Violence in aftermath of strike led to deaths of Police 
Chief F. 0. Aderholt and of mill worker Ella May Wiggins, 
union's minstrel who sang protest ballads in mountain style. 

e. In trials that gained national attention, Beale and six 
others were given long prison terms for murder of Aderholt. 
No one was convicted for slaying of Wiggins, although nine 
people were tried and acquitted. 

2. Strike at Marion, 1929. 

a. Textile workers struck against low wages and against working 
and living conditions so bad that Federal Council of Churches 
investigator could only describe them as "unbelievable." 

1) Shift was twelve hours, work week sixty hours. 

2) Children worked illegally. 

3) Wages of $8 to $10 per week were typical. 

4) "Stretch-out" — requiring workers to man excessive 
number of machines — was introduced in crudest fashion. 

5) Girls worked first thirty days for nothing followed by 
four months at 5 cents per hour. 



140 



b. Strike failed when troops were brought in. Managers 
agreed orally to cut hours to fifty-five per week 

and rehire most strikers without discrimination. Mill 
management later violated agreement. 

c. Attempt to strike again led to confrontation between 
strikers and sheriff with his deputies, culminating in 
deaths of six strikers. 

d. In controversial trial, sheriff and his deputies were 
acquitted on grounds of self-defense. 

3. Strikes occurred in 1932 at several cotton mills in High 
Point, Rockingham, and other places due to drastic wage 
cuts and difficult working conditions. 

a. Strikers had sympathy of considerable part of their 
communities, unlike Gastonia strikers of 1929. 

b. Strikers achieved some success at High Point but none 
in other places. 

4. General textile strike of Labor Day, 1934. 

a. Some 65,000 workers of almost 100 textile mills in North 
Carolina joined in strike under leadership of United 
Textile Workers (U.T.W.). 

b. Strike was as of that time "the greatest single indus- 
trial conflict in the history of American organized 
labor." 

c. Although there was violence in other states, there was 
little if any in North Carolina. 

d. Board of inquiry into textile industry recommended that 
U.T.W. call off strike and all in all prescribed little 

of tangible benefit for strikers. U.T.W. ordered strikers 
back to work, having sustained crushing defeat. 

e. Despite President Roosevelt's plea that textile firms 
take back strikers, they practiced wholesale discrimi- 
nation in rehiring. 

B. During two decades of Democratic leadership at national level, 
1933-1953, North Carolina's labor movement was greatly stim- 
ulated by federal laws and agencies. National Labor Relations 
Board, for instance, had power to order reinstatement of dis- 
charged workers, to issue "cease and desist orders" against 
employers, and to conduct hearings. 

C. By 1930s State Department of Labor was rendering valuable 
services. 

1. Collected labor statistics. 

2. Sought to settle strikes and other industrial conflicts. 

3. Directed public employment service. 

4. Gave aid to unemployed children of working age and to deaf 
and blind persons. 

5. Assisted war veterans in their claims for disability com- 
pensation and hospitalization. 

6. Inspected factories, stores, and other places. 

7. Administered Workmen's Compensation Act through Industrial 
Commission. 

8. Enforced other labor legislation. 

D. Growth of organized labor after 1936. 

1. In 1937 Committee on Industrial Organization, headed by 
John L. Lewis, began aggressive drive to unionize southern 
textile industry; and many unions were successfully organized 
in North Carolina. 

141 



Active intervention of New Deal administration brought several 
changes to state's labor scene. 

a. Unionization was greatly facilitated. 

b. Cessation of use of state troops in strikes. 

c. Peaceful collective bargaining became common, and violent 
strikes were rare. 

d. Influence of labor grew at expense of management, which 
became less paternalistic and autocratic. 

State's political leaders were frequently unsympathetic to 
labor policies of FDR and Truman. 

a. General Assembly rejected proposed Child Labor Amendment 
to Constitution. 

b. In 1947 legislature rejected mild wages and hours bill and 
made it illegal to enter into labor contract providing for 
closed shop, union shop, checkoff of union dues, or mainte- 
nance of union membership. 

Although organized labor continued to make headway after World 
War II, vast majority of state's labor force remained unorganized 
through 1960s. 

a. In 1953 some 83,800 workers were union members. 

b. By 1968 figure had grown to 124,000, but this represented 
only 7.5 percent of total industrial labor force. 

As of 1970s North Carolina industrial workers were still paid 
lowest average wages of fifty states, and state was also the least 
unionized in nation. 



142 



AGRICULTURE, TRANSPORTATION, AND TRADE IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1930-1960 s 



Agriculture. 

A. Trends from 1930 to 1950. 

1. Number of farms and farmers increased. 

2. Total production and per acre yield decreased, especially in 
cotton and tobacco. 

3. Production of cattle and poultry increased. 

4. Tenancy became much less common. 

B. Turning point in state's agricultural history: striking changes 
occurred in 1950s. 

1. Number of farms declined rapidly and size of farms increased 
greatly. 

2. Tremendous gains in mechanization. 

3. Marked trend toward large-scale agriculture. 

4. Decline of tenancy: percentage of state's farms operated by 
tenants declined from 49 percent in 1940 to 27.1 percent in 
1964. 

5. Great increase in value of farms. 

C. In 1970 17.7 percent of state's population was classified as "rural 
farm." North Carolina had second largest number of farms in nation 
(148,202), exceeded only by Texas. 

D. Crops. 

1. Tobacco: from 1930 to 1960s tobacco was "king" in North 
Carolina agriculture. 

a. Production increased from 454 million pounds in 1930 to 
815 million in 1969. 

b. North Carolina produced about two fifths of nation's tobacco 
in this era — chiefly bright-leaf, flue-cured tobacco used 

to make cigarettes and pipe tobacco. 

c. Cash income was consistently greater than all other crops 
combined. 

d. Chief areas of production. 

1. Old Bright Belt — northern Piedmont. 

2. New Bright Belt — central Coastal Plain. 

3. South Carolina Belt — border counties in Coastal Plain. 

4. Burley Belt — in mountains. 

2. Cotton. 

a. World overproduction and falling prices led to vast reduction 
in cotton acreage and yield in late 1920s and early 1930s. 

b. Production dropped from high of 740,000 bales in 1948 to 
only 160,000 bales in 1970. 

c. North Carolina seemed destined for decreasing role in 
cotton production. 

3. Corn continued as state's third major crop, grown mainly as food 
and feed rather than as money crop. 

4. Other cash crops. 

a. Peanuts. 

b . Hay . 

c. Soybeans. 

d. Irish potatoes. 

e. Sweet potatoes. 

f. Fruits and vegetables. 

E. State's farmers began to diversify by increasing production of 
livestock. 

143 



1. Cattle. 

2. Poultry and eggs. 

3. Hogs. 

F. Cash income from agriculture grew from $329 million in 1940 to 
$1.4 billion in 1970. 

G. Migrant labor. 

1. With decline of tenancy, many farm owners began to depend on 
migrant labor during growing and harvesting seasons. 

2. In mid-1960s it was estimated that 10,000 to 13,000 migrant 
workers were employed in state each year. 

3. Tobacco farms and truck farms were most frequent employers of 
migrant labor . 

4. Most migrants were southern blacks, but by 1960s they had been 
joined by many Spanish-speaking whites. 

H. Federal government provided much aid to farmers. 

1. Loans and "benefit payments" for limiting acreage. 

2. Aid to North Carolina State University in its agricultural 
and extension work. 

3. Aid to supplement state and local funds for vocational education 
in agriculture, home economics, trade and industries in public 
schools. 

4. North Carolina Rural Electrification Authority, created in 1935, 
brought electricity to farms. 

5. U.S. Department of Agriculture performed many services. 

a. Supplied information on farm problems. 

b. Operated test farms. 

c. Worked on extermination of pests. 

d. Analyzed foods, feeds, fertilizers, seeds, and soil. 

e. Inspected fruit trees offered for sale. 

f. Maintained record of leaf tobacco sales. 
I. Some factors in progress of twentieth century North Carolina agriculture 

1. Heavy use of fertilizer. 

2. Mechanization. 

3. Careful seed selection. 

4. Crop rotation. 

5. Improved planning. 

6. Terracing. 
J. Means by which state's farmers learned new techniques. 

1. State and federal government agencies. 

2. County agents. 

3. Home demonstration agents. 

4. 4-H clubs. 

5. Future Farmers of America. 

6. Radio and television programs. 

7. Farm journals, especially The Progressive Farmer . 
K. Developments which, along with increased production and income, 

helped broaden the farmer's social and intellectual horizon and 
decrease his isolation. 

1. Consolidated public schools. 

2. Telephone. 

3. Automobiles and good roads. 

4. Rural free delivery. 

5. Radio and television. 

6. Electricity. 

II. Transportation, communication, and trade. 

A. Development of highways continued after 1920s. 

144 



1. As of 1949 there were about 10,000 miles In state highway 
system and about 51,000 miles of county roads maintained by 
state, of which about 15,000 miles were hard surfaced. 

2. By 1971 state highway system included about 73,000 miles, of 
which about 49,000 were paved. There were also over 500 miles 
of interstate highway. 

3. Other improvements in addition to increased mileage. 

a. More and better bridges. 

b. Relocation of roads along better routes. 

c. Underpasses and overpasses eliminated many railroad grade 
crossings. 

4. In this era North Carolina was only state which maintained all 
public roads without resort to state tax on property. Revenues 
for roads came from automobile, bus, and truck licenses, from 
gasoline taxes, and from federal sources. 

B. Bus and freight lines. 

1. In 1971 state had 60 regulated motor passenger carriers operating 
1,838 buses, and there were 16,090 trucks registered with 

State Utilities Commission. 

2. North Carolina's trucking industry has been especially active. 

a. In 1954 it was fourth largest in nation. 

b. McLean Trucking Company was one of top ten in nation. 

C. Railroads. 

1. Became relatively less important than they had been in era before 
automobiles and airplanes. 

2. Total track mileage in 1970 was 4,349. 

3. In 1967 Atlantic Coast Line and Seaboard Air Line systems merged 
to form Seaboard Coast Line. 

D. State's ports, especially Wilmington and Morehead City, underwent 
development with aid of state government. 

E. Air transportation became important in 1940s. By 1960 six 
regularly scheduled commercial air lines served state. 

F. Improvements in communication have been dramatic. Examples Include 
the following: 

1. Telephone. 

2. Television: by 1971 North Carolina had 18 commercial television 
stations and 2 noncommercial ones. 

3. Radio: by 1971 state had 231 commercial and 7 noncommercial 
radio stations. 

G. Trade: by 1950s North Carolina had become the leading state in 
South Atlantic region in wholesale and retail trade. 



145 



EDUCATION AND CULTURE IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1930s-1960s 



I. Public schools. 

A. Trends from 1933 to 1955. 

1. Increasing state government expenditures for operation of public 
schools. 

2. Increases in teachers' salaries. 

3. Value of school property rose. 

4. Volumes in public school libraries grew from 1.5 million to 5 
million. 

B. Rapid progress: 1955-1960s. 

1. Public school property, in terms of buildings and equipment, 
increased in value from $480 million in 1955 to $1.2 billion 
in 1969-1970. 

2. Facts concerning public schools, based on school year 1971-1972. 

a. State had 2,054 public schools, of which 1,546 were elementary 
and 508 were high schools. 

b. Number of pupils was 1.2 million. 

c. Number of teachers was 52,000. 

d. Average annual salary for teachers was $8,604. 

e. Average daily attendance was 1.1 million. 

f. North Carolina had one of best school bus systems in nation. 

3. Statistics on financing public schools from school year 1970- 
1971. 

a. Expense of public schools amounted to $725 million, of 
which about two thirds came from state funds and remainder 
from local and federal . 

b. Per pupil expenditure was $663. 

c. Three major sources of state public school funds. 

1) Income taxes, 43 percent. 

2) Sales tax, 30 percent. 

3) Franchise taxes, 6 percent. 

d. About 88 percent of local funds for schools came from property 
taxes. 

C. Recent significant innovations. 

1. Special training for physically handicapped pupils. 

2. Lunch program for over 1,600 schools. 

3. Public school insurance program. 

4. School health program. 

II. State-supported institutions of higher learning. 

A. UNC: emergence of "Consolidated University." 

1. Frank P. Graham was president, 1930-1949. 

2. "Consolidated University of North Carolina" was created out of 
main campus at Chapel Hill, North Carolina College of Agriculture 
and Engineering at Raleigh, and Woman's College at Greensboro. 

3. At all three schools, period from 1930s through 1960s was marked 
by proliferation of courses and additions of departments, schools, 
and divisions. 

4. Expansion of UNC system. 

a. Charlotte campus was added in 1965. 

b. Campuses at Asheville and Wilmington were added in 1969. 

5. As of 1970 more than 45,000 students were enrolled in "Consoli- 
dated University," including 18,000 ut Chapel Hill and 13,000 
at Raleigh. 

B. System of regional universities developed out of state's four-year 
colleges. 

146 



1. General Assembly of 1967 created four regional universities. 

a. East Carolina at Greenville. 

b. Western Carolina at Cullowhee. 

c. Appalachian State at Boone. 

d. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical University 
at Greensboro. 

2. In 1969 five more were added to system. 

a. Pembroke State at Pembroke. 

b. North Carolina Central at Durham. 

c. Elizabeth City State. 

d. Fayetteville State. 

e. Winston-Salem State. 

3. Total enrollment in 1970-1971 was about 35,000 with East 
Carolina having 10,000 of that number. 

II. Private institutions of higher learning. 

A. Duke University continued to develop and expand. 

1. Duke University Hospital and Medical School became widely known. 

2. Duke University Library had over 2.1 million volumes in 1970 
and was largest library in Southeast. 

B. Wake Forest College. 

1. In 1940s college was beneficiary of several large bequests, 
including one which led to establishment of its medical school. 

2. College began operation at new site in Winston-Salem in 1956. 

3. In 1967 it achieved university status. 

C. Other church-related colleges. 

1. Leading examples: 

a. Davidson. 

b. Meredith. 

c . Greensboro . 

d. Elon. 

e. Guilford. 

f. Catawba. 

g. Lenoir Rhyne. 

h. North Carolina Wesleyan. 
i. St. Andrews. 

2. Trends, 1930s-1960s. 

a. Increasing endowments. 

b. Greater diversity of courses. 

c. Expanding student bodies. 

d. Expanding physical facilities. 

D. In 1971 there were twenty-nine senior nonpublic colleges and univer- 
sities with total enrollment of about 39,000. 

IV. Rapid growth of two-year community colleges and technical institutes 
occurred in latter part of this period. 

A. In 1972 there were thirty-nine technical institutes and seventeen 
community colleges in operation. State appropriation for them, 
1972-1973, was $58 million. Enrollment in 1970 was 294,000. 

B. Several two-year junior colleges soon converted to four-year senior 
colleges. 

1. Pfeiffer. 

2. Mars Hill. 

3 . Campbell . 

V. Expansion of public libraries occurred after 1935. 
A. Situation in 1937. 

147 



1. There were twelve county and seventy city public libraries 
with about 800,000 books and circulation of about four 
million. There were also nine Negro public libraries. 

2. However, no public library met American Library Association's 
minimum standards, and 54 percent of state's population was 



without library service. 



B. Situation in 1970 was greatly improved. 

1. There were 313 libraries, including 15 regional, 53 county, 
34 municipal, and 211 branch. 

2. Number of volumes was 5.7 million and total circulation 14 
million. 

3. All of state's population had access to library. 

C. North Carolina State Library was formed in 1956 from merger of 
Library Commission and State Library. 

VI. Newspapers experienced decrease in number, increase in size and 
circulation, and improvement in quality. 

A. Statistics. 

1. In 1939 there were 227 newspapers, including 41 dailies. 

2. In 1971 there were 179 newspapers, of which 131 were weeklies 
or semiweeklies, and 48 dailies. 

B. Newspapers with leading circulation. 

1. Dailies. 

a. Charlotte Observer. 

b. Raleigh News and Observer . 

c . Greensboro Daily News . 

2. Weeklies. 

a. Asheboro Courier-Tribune . 

b. Smithfield Herald . 

c. Stanly News and Press . 

VII. Book publishing. 

A. State had two outstanding publishers of scholarly books. 

1. Duke University Press. 

2. UNC Press. 

B. Leading commercial publishers. 

1. John F. Blair of Winston-Salem. 

2. Heritage Printers of Charlotte, 

VIII. North Carolina writers. 

A. Nonfiction: many outstanding volumes, both scholarly and popular, 
in fields of history, biography, sociology, literary history and 
criticism, science, education, and religion were written by North 
Carolinians during 1930s-1960s. 

B. Novelists. 

1. Thomas Wolfe of Look Homeward Angel fame was most renowned. 

2. Betty Smith wrote best-selling A Tree Grows in Brooklyn . 

3. Inglis Fletcher wrote many novels relating to North Carolina 
history. 

4. Reynolds Price won William Faulkner Award for year's outstanding 
first novel with A Long and Happy Life , 1962, and continued to 
write novels, stories, and essays. 

5. Others. 

a. James Boyd. 

b. Bernice Kelly Harris. 

c. Robert Ruark. 



d. James Street. 

e. Doris Betts. 

f. Frances Grey Patton. 

g. Ovid Pierce. 

C. Poets. 

1. Two famous poets, Carl Sandburg and Randall Jarrell , adopted 
North Carolina as their home. 

2. Others. 

a. James Larkin Pearson. 

b. Guy Owen. 

c . Sam Ragan . 

D. Dramatists. 

1. Paul Green won Pulitzer Prize in 1927 for In Abraham's Bosom . 

2. Kermit Hunter wrote Unto These Hills and Horn in the West . 

E. Folklore. 

1. Several writers published works on folklore. Frank C. Brown 
Collection of North Carolina Folklore (7 volumes) was out- 
standing work. 

2. North Carolina Folklore , scholarly journal, was founded in 1948. 

3. Two state organizations to promote folklore were formed. 

a. North Carolina Folklore Society. 

b. North Carolina Folklore Council. 

Art. 

A. North Carolina Art Society, led by Mrs. Katherine Pendleton 
Arrington, helped make state's citizens more aware of art. 

B. In 1929 General Assembly placed Art Society under patronage 
and control of state. 

C. State Art Gallery opened in 1943 in Raleigh. 

D. General Assembly of 1947 appropriated $1 million for purchase of 
paintings for proposed state art museum. 

E. State Art Commission was appointed and funded in 1951 for purpose 
of buying paintings. 

F. North Carolina Museum of Art opened in Raleigh in 1956. 

Music. 

A. North Carolina Symphony organized by Dr. Benjamin Swalin. 

B. Transylvania Music Camp at Brevard. 

C. Grass Roots Opera Company. 

D. North Carolina Civic Ballet Company. 

E. Folk festivals sponsored by Bascom Lamar Lunsford. 

Church membership . 

A. In 1960 total church membership was 2.4 million, which was about 
53 percent of state's population. 

B. Leading denominations: 

1. Baptists — 50 percent. 

2. Methodists — 26 percent. 

3. Presbyterians — 8 percent. 



149 



NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1952-1965 



I. Crisis of early 1950s. 

A. State's industry continued to grow, but North Carolina was losing 
ground relative to other states. 

B. In per capita income, state was also losing ground relatively. 

C. Migration out of state was increasing. 

D. Agricultural income was leveling off. 

E. Demand for government services grew faster than tax receipts. 

II. Administration of Gov. William B. Umstead, 1953-1954. 

A. General Assembly of 1953 authorized issuance of $14.25 million 
in state bonds for permanent improvements at institutions of 
higher learning, correctional and charitable institutions and 
departments. 

B. It authorized special election on $50 million bond issue to aid 
counties in construction of school buildings and on $22 million 
bond issue for permanent improvements at mental institutions. 
Voters approved both bond issues. 

C. Legislature passed joint resolution providing that governor appoint 
Commission on Higher Education to study all state-supported insti- 
tutions of higher education and make recommendations for their 
improvement . 

D. Integration question. 

1. U.S. Supreme Court decision of 1954 outlawed racial segregation 
in public schools. 

2. State Board of Education in summer of 1954 voted to continue 
segregation for school year 1954-1955. Committee was appointed 
to study legal aspects of problem. 

3. Governor Umstead appointed nineteen member committee headed by 
Thomrs J. Pearsall and including three Negroes to study integration 
question and make recommendations. 

E. Umstead died in office in November, 1954, and was succeeded by 
Lt. Gov. Luther Hodges. 

III. Elections of 1954. 

A. Former Gov. W. Kerr Scott gained Democratic nomination for U.S. 
Senate by defeating Alton A. Lennon, who had been appointed upon 
death of Sen. Willis Smith. Scott defeated his Republican opponent 
in November. 

B. Sam J. Ervin, who had been appointed to U.S. Senate at death of 
Sen. Clyde R. Hoey, was elected without opposition to fill out 
remaining two years of Hoey's term. 

IV. First administration of Governor Hodges, 1954-1957. 
A. General Assembly of 1955. 

1. Made minor changes in tax structure. 

2. Created several new state agencies, most important one being 
nine-member State Board of Higher Education, which was recom- 
mended in report of Commission on Higher Education. 

3. Passed enabling act calling for referendum on question of 
whether state retirement system should be combined with Federal 
Old Age and Survivors Insurance of Social Security system. 
Change was overwhelmingly approved in November. 

150 



4. Changes in school laws in response to integration crisis. 

a. Elimination of any reference to race in school laws. 

b. Transfer of authority over enrollment and assignment of 
pupils from State Board of Education to local boards. 

c. Transfer of ownership, operation, and control of state's 
school buses to local units. 

d. Substitution of yearly contracts for teachers and principals 
instead of continuing contracts. 

5. General Assembly passed resolution stating that integration 
could not be accomplished and "if attempted would alienate 
public support of the schools to such an extent that they could 
not be operated successfully." 

Continued controversy on integration question. 

1. In August, 1955, Hodges urged the people to "avoid defiance or 
evasion of the opinion of the United States Supreme Court" by 
having their children "voluntarily attend separate public schools.' 

2. Many of state's newspapers praised Hodges' statement, but NAACP 
denounced it . 

3. In late August, 1955, "Patriots of North Carolina" — all white 
organization aimed at maintaining "the purity of the white race 
and of Anglo-Saxon institutions" — was formed. 

4. Public schools opened in September, 1955, without serious 
incidents and also still completely segregated. 

5. In fall, 1955, three black graduates of Durham High School were 
admitted as undergraduates to UNC at Chapel Hill — first in 
school's 160-year history. Event took place following ruling 

by three federal judges that university must consider applications 
without regard to race. 
Research Triangle. 

1. Governor Hodges led efforts beginning in 1955 to develop state 
and regional center of industrial, governmental, and academic 
research laboratories. 

2. Efforts culminated in Research Triangle, with Chapel Hill, 
Durham, and Raleigh forming Triangle's points. 

3. By 1961 start had been made. 

a. Five-thousand -acre Research Park had been established in middle 
of Triangle. 

b. Chemstrand Corporation had located its main research center 
there. 

c. U.S. Forestry Service built laboratory. 

d. Research Triangle Institute, contract research organization, 
had been established. 

Democratic primaries of 1956. 

1. Hodges easily won nomination for governorship. 

2. Ervin easily won nomination for U.S. senator. 

3. Four of state's congressional districts experienced bitter 
contests in which Southern Manifesto, urging resistance to 
integration, was issue. In general, backers of the Southern 
Manifesto defeated their opponents, as only one nonsigner of 
Manifesto won nomination. 

Special session of General Assembly — July, 1956. 

1. Purpose was to cope with integration question. 

2. Main action was proposed constitutional amendment recommended by 
"Pearsall Committee." 

a. "Pearsall Plan" would enable parents who did not want their 
children going to integrated schools to withdraw them and 
receive private tuition grants from state. 

151 



b. Voters approved amendment by wide margin at special election. 

c. Little came of plan, and it was declared unconstitutional 
by federal court in 1966. 

F. Election of 1956. 

1. Hodges won governorship over Republican Kyle Hayes by vote of 
760,000 to 375,000. 

2. Democrat Adlai Stevenson barely carried state over President 
Eisenhower — 591,000 votes to 575,000. 

3. Democrats carried state, electing all state officials and eleven 
of twelve representatives in Congress. 

Governor Hodges 's second administration, 1957-1961. 

A. General Assembly of 1957. 

1. Moved toward reorganization of government. 

a. Created Department of Administration, consisting of Budget 
Division and Purchase and Contract Division. 

b. Director of General Services replaced Board of Public 
Buildings and Grounds. 

c. Seven-member State Highway Commission replaced State Highway 
and Public Works Commission. 

d. Prison system was separated from Highway Department and 
established as State Prison Department. 

2. Many changes in tax laws were made to ease taxes of multistate 
corporations. Partly due to these changes and to extensive 
advertising campaign, new industries worth over $100 million 
had been brought to state by end of 1957. 

B. Elections of 1958. 

1. B. Everett Jordan, who had been appointed to U.S. Senate 
following death of W. Kerr Scott, overwhelmingly won race 
for U.S. senator. 

2. Democrats won eleven of twelve seats in national House of 
Representatives . 

C. North Carolina recovered rapidly from recession of 1957-1958, as 
Hodges 's program to attract industry gained momentum. 

1. Many new industries were established, and old ones expanded. 

2. Industrial investment in state reached unprecedented high. 

3. There was marked development of food processing and other 
industries related to agriculture. 

4. Spectacular expansion occurred in electronics and chemicals. 

D. General Assembly of 1959. 

1. Proposed several bond issues for capital improvements which 
were approved by voters. 

a. Total amount involved was over $34 million. 

b. Over half was for higher educational institutions; over 
one third was for state mental institutions. 

c. Remainder was for community colleges, state hospitals, 

state ports, state training schools, and state rehabilitation 
center for blind. 

2. Provided for construction of legislative building. 

3. Passed minimum hourly wage law setting wage at 75 cents for 
employees in companies hiring more than five people. North 
Carolina was first state in Southeast to enact minimum wage law. 

4. Made polio vaccination for children compulsory. North Carolina 
was first state in nation to do so. 

5. Despite adoption of largest budget in state's history up to that 
time, $2.1 billion, legislature passed no new taxes. 

152 



E. Elections of 1960. 

1. Integration of schools was major issue in Democratic primaries 
for governor . 

2. In first Democratic primary for governor, Terry Sanford led 

I. Beverly Lake, 269,000 votes to 182,000, with two other can- 
didates receiving about 100,000 votes apiece. 

3. In second primary Sanford defeated Lake, an outspoken 
opponent of integration, by vote of 352,000 to 276,000. 

4. In general election Sanford defeated Republican Robert L. Gavin 
by vote of 735,000 to 614,000. 

5. Democrats won all major state offices, again won eleven of 
twelve seats in national House of Representatives, and maintained 
control of General Assembly. 

6. Democrat John F. Kennedy defeated Republican Richard M. Nixon 
in state's presidential contest — 713,000 votes to 656,000. 

Integration in North Carolina, 1957-1961. 

A. Public schools. 

1. North Carolina became first state in Southeast to move volun- 
tarily toward integration when school boards in Charlotte, 
Winston-Salem, and Greensboro voted in July, 1957, to admit 
twelve Negro pupils to formerly all-white schools. These same 
schools admitted several additional black pupils in 1958. 

2. In 1959 Craven and Wayne counties admitted blacks to formerly 
all-white schools. 

3. As of October, 1959, some fifty-four Negro pupils were attending 
integrated schools in seven cities and towns. 

4. Chapel Hill, Durham, and several other towns and counties 
admitted blacks to their formerly all-white schools in 1960. 

5. By 1961 there were more than 200 black students in desegregated 
schools in North Carolina. 

B. By 1961, mainly due to pressure by federal government, segregation 
had been eliminated on many buses, trains, airplanes, and at many 
bus terminals, railway stations, and airports. 

C. Eating places and theaters. 

1. One of earliest lunch counter sit-in demonstrations in South 
was carried out by several young black students at Woolworth's 
in Greensboro on February 1, 1960. 

2. Sit-ins continued and spread across state. Most were peaceful 
and without incident, though some arrests were made under state 
trespass law. 

3. Many lunch counters began to serve on integrated basis. Others 
discontinued lunch counter service or operated on stand-up basis. 
Still others, especially in small towns, continued segregation. 

4. Many theaters were picketed, and some, especially in Piedmont 
cities, did away with segregation. 

D. Civil rights movement, led by NAACP and CORE, got under way 
stressing voting and voter registration. As of 1960 they had made 
little progress, with only about 30 percent of potential nonwhite 
voters registered. 

Administration of Gov. Terry Sanford, 1961-1965. 

A. General Assembly of 1961 enacted more far-reaching legislation 

than any other session in twentieth century. 

1. Many changes were made in state's administrative machinery. 

153 



a. Ten new state agencies created. 

b. Three boards established relating to existing agencies. 

c. Three agencies were abolished. 

d. Many agencies underwent some statutory change, ranging from 
complete reorganization to gaining or losing a board member. 

2. Governor Sanford's campaign had stressed "quality education," 
and legislature made large appropriations for education. 

a. Appropriated $461 million for public schools, which made 
possible a 21.8 percent increase in teachers' salaries. 

b. Appropriated $61 million for higher education. 

3. About $44 million was appropriated to state mental institutions. 

4. To finance program, all exemptions including food were removed 
from 3 percent sales tax, except for some special items such as 
prescription drugs and school books. 

5. Legislature also submitted to voters proposal that $61.5 million 
in capital improvement bonds be issued . 

a. Half was to be spent on educational institutions. Almost 
one fourth would go to state ports. 

b. Other funds were to be spent on mental institutions, state 
government buildings, community colleges, correctional 
schools, and new building for State Library and Department 
of Archives and History. 

c. In November, 1961, voters overwhelmingly defeated entire 
bond issue proposal. 

6. Additional 19,000 workers brought under state minimum wage law. 

7. Stringent law against gamblers and point-fixers in athletic 
contests was passed. 

8. State House of Representatives was reapportioned. Efforts to 
reapportion state Senate failed. 

9. Due to state's loss of one seat in national House of Represen- 
tatives, General Assembly created new Eighth Congressional 
District, gerrymandering it in effort to insure defeat of 
Charles R. Jonas, North Carolina's only Republican in Congress. 

10. General Assembly adopted six proposed constitutional amendments, 
which were approved by the people in referendum of November, 1962. 

a. "Court reform" amendment made significant changes in state's 
judicial system. 

1) Set up General Court of Justice which would be unified 
judicial system consisting of three divisions. 

a) Appellate division. 

b) Superior Court division. 

c) District Court division. 

2) Judges of district courts were to be elected to four -year 
terms. 

3) One or more magistrates for each county would be appointed 
by senior resident judges upon nomination by clerk of 
superior court. Magistrates would serve two-year terms. 

b. Procedure was established for automatic reapportionment of 
state's House of Representatives by Speaker after each federal 
census. 

c. Third amendment clarified constitutional provisions controlling 
succession to offices of governor and lieutenant governor 

in event of death, resignation, removal from office, or 
temporary incapacity. 

154 



d. General Assembly was given authority to reduce residence 
requirement for voting in presidential elections. 

e. General Assembly was authorized to fix and regulate salaries 
of elective state officers constituting Council of State and 
Executive Department. 

f. Final amendment clarified legislature's powers to provide 
for uniform, statewide classification and exemption of 
property for purposes of taxation. 

B. Trade and industry. 

1. Governor Sanford continued effort begun by his predecessor to 
attract industry to state and to increase trade. 

a. Extensive public relations campaign. 

b. North Carolina Trade Fair at Charlotte, 1961. 

2. Results of effort as of late 1961. 

a. Increase in research activities in Research Triangle. 

b. Investments in new industries and expansions in 1961 reached 
record high of $279 million — increase of $44 million over 
preceding year. 

c. Shipments through state ports of Wilmington and Morehead City 
reached all-time high in 1961 of $1,135 million, almost 
double revenues of four years earlier. 

C. North Carolinians filled many high federal posts in Kennedy admin- 
istration. Outstanding examples include the following: 

1. Luther Hodges, secretary of commerce. 

2. Voit Gilmore, director of U.S. Travel Service. 

3. J. Spencer Bell, judge of Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. 

D. Elections of 1962: Republican upsurge. 

1. Two Republicans were elected to national House of Representatives. 

a. Charles R. Jonas won in new Eighth District, where A. Paul 
Kitchen was defeated. Effort to gerrymander Jonas out of 
Congress failed. 

b. James T. Broyhill won in Ninth Congressional District. 

2. Republicans boosted strength in state's House of Representatives 
to twenty-one seats. 

3. GOP showed strength in many counties, especially in Piedmont. 

E. General Assembly of 1963. 

1. Was first to meet in new legislative building. 

2. Increased teachers' salaries. 

3. Provided for establishment of state system of community colleges, 
industrial education centers, and technical institutes. 

4. Changed name and status of three branches of UNC : 

a. Original university became UNC at Chapel Hill. 

b. Woman's College became UNC at Greensboro. 

c. Raleigh campus became North Carolina State University. 

5. Three state-supported, two-year colleges — Asheville, Wilmington, 
and Charlotte — were made into four -year colleges. 

6. Most controversial action was passage of "Speaker Ban Law," 
which provided that no state-supported college or university 
could allow its facilities to be used by a speaker who was 
Communist party member; advocate of overthrow of U.S. or 
state of North Carolina; who had pleaded the Fifth Amendment 
in refusing to answer any question concerning Communist or 
subversive activities. 

F. Elections of 1964. 

1. In first Democratic primary for governorship, Judge Richardson 
Preyer ran first, receiving 281,000 votes. Former Judge Dan 

155 



K. Moore was second with 258,000 votes. I. Beverly Lake was 
third with 217,000. 

2. In second primary Moore defeated Preyer, who had Governor Sanford's 
support, 480,000 votes to 294,000. 

3. In general election Moore defeated Republican Robert L. Gavin, 
790,000 votes to 606,000. 

4. Pres. Lyndon Johnson defeated Republican Barry Goldwater in 
state'9 presidential balloting, 800,000 votes to 625,000. 



156 



APPENDIX I 
THE NATURE OF THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE ARCHIVES 
by Paul P. Hoffman 



The records and manuscripts that comprise the North Carolina 
State Archives fall into three broad groups: records of the colony 
and state of North Carolina; records of the counties and municipalities 
of North Carolina; and manuscripts and records whose origin is other 
than governmental but that relate in some way to the history and develop- 
ment of North Carolina and that are designated as private collections. 
Together these three groups of records and manuscripts document all 
facets of the history of the state from early colonial days to the present. 
The amount and quality of documentation for this broad time span, however, 
is uneven and as variable as were the individuals who created the 
documentation . 

Prior to the Treaty of Paris, 1783, records created in the course 
of the conduct of governmental business were theoretically the property 
of the proprietors or the British crown and were regularly shipped 
back to England when their active purpose had been served in the colony. 
By terms of the 1783 treaty, those records remaining in the former colony 
became the property of the new state. For many years the Division of 
Archives and History has employed an agent in England to copy official 
records in British repositories relating to North Carolina. These 
copies are available at the State Archives and are continually being 
supplemented since the program is an ongoing one. 

Documentation of all activities and subjects appearing in the 

157 



outline should exist in the archives. Archives exist for the purpose 
of maintaining the recorded documentation of governmental and human 
activity, and absence of such documentation suggests human failure on the 
part of the record creator or keeper or accident in the form of records 
destruction. Except for several counties where fires have destroyed 
records and some loss of records due to war, any gaps in the recorded 
history of the state and counties of North Carolina are due to human 
error. Fortunately such gaps are rare in this state, and most of the 
important records documenting the history of North Carolina have 
survived . 

The only limitation placed on the scope of the North Carolina State 
Archives is that accessioned material must relate in some manner to 
North Carolina. There is no limitation on the subjects which may be 
encompassed nor the human activities which may be documented. The 
state, in its sovereign capacity, has the power to honor and place 
accolades upon its most outstanding citizens, on the one hand, and to 
condemn, incarcerate, or execute (according to due process of law) those 
less fortunate. These extremes of human experience as well as those 
between are documented in the State Archives. The vast majority of 
governmental records are impersonal and businesslike in nature, usually 
reflecting business intercourse between people who do not know each 
other. On the other extreme, the general nature of a "private collection" 
is intimate and personal, often consisting of the general letters of a 
family such as those of a husband and wife or a parent and child. The 
character of a governmental record is different from the private manu- 
script, but together they reflect and document all life experiences 

158 



both publicly formal and privately informal. 

Nearly all of the records and manuscripts in the archives are 
available for consultation. A few series of records are restricted 
from use by statute law, a few by the common law (privileged communi- 
cations), and a few by administrative fiat. The reason for the 
restriction in most cases is for the protection of the privacy of the 
individual or the beneficial interests of the state. The donors of 
several private collections have restricted public access to them for 
varying periods of time and for various reasons. 

To aid a researcher, three general guides to the three broad 
categories of records and manuscripts have been prepared: Summary 
Guide to Research Materials in the North Carolina State Archives , 
Section A: Records of the State Agencies , 1963, is a listing of records, 
by records series, that were in the archives at the time of preparation 
of the guide. This Guide is out of date and currently out of print. 
Guide to Research Materials in the North Carolina State Archives , Section 
_B: County Records , revised 1977, is a listing by records series of all 
local records in the archives and available on microfilm. Beth Crabtree, 
A Guide to Private Manuscript Collections in the North Carolina State 
Archives, 1964, is a listing and abstract of 1,175 private collections 
with a valuable index which also serves as a subject index to the private 
collections. This Guide is presently being updated and expanded to 
include all private collections now in the archives. In addition, 
numerous highly specialized and very specific finding aids have been 
prepared for many groups of records and manuscripts and are available 
in the State Archives Search Room. 



159 



THE RECORDS OF THE COLONY AND STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The records of the colony and state of North Carolina are 
created in a variety of ways and document activities instituted 
according to crown decree, constitutional mandate, statutory mandate, 
Or administrative prerogative in the execution of these mandates. 

The Legislative Papers, dating from the late seventeenth century 
to the present, reflect all aspects of the legislative process in the 
colony and state of North Carolina. They contain information about 
a wide range of subjects but unfortunately are difficult for a re- 
searcher to use due to the absence of an adequate finding aid. Court 
records of the various colonial and state higher courts are in the 
archives, are relatively easy to research, and are thoroughly described 
in finding aids. Of particular research value are the records of the 
Supreme Court: Original Cases, 1800-1909, for which a comprehensive 
name index has been prepared. These records are probably the easiest 
to research of the major archival groups because of the extensive finding 
aids available. It must be borne in mind that the concept and practice 
of higher courts as arbiters of constitutional review is fairly recent 
and will not be found until its developmental maturity in the first 
quarter of the nineteenth century as a function of the Supreme Court of 
North Carolina. 

Governors' records of the colony and state are more voluminous than 
those of the other two branches of government, and they document the 
full scope of government operating in its sovereign capacity. Most of 
the papers of the colonial governors that have survived are in the Public 
Record Office in England where they were placed as the property of the 



British crown, but a few documents for the years 1694 to 1776 are in the 
archives. Some governors' papers for the late colonial period were cap- 
tured and confiscated by the new state when it declared independence 
from Great Britain. Copies of many of the colonial governors' papers 
have been obtained from British repositories and are contained in two 
collections in the archives entitled "British Records" and "English 
Records." From independence in 1776 until the present the public records 
of the state governors are continuous and serve as the documentation 
of the functions of the governor and the governor's office. There are 
no major gaps in this group of records, and as a body these records 
are about equal in historical value to the legislative papers. The 
governors' papers are thoroughly described in a variety of finding aids 
and are relatively easy for researchers to use. 

The Office of Secretary of State developed from that of Secretary 
of the Province who received his appointment from the Lords Proprietors 
and later the king. The office has been continuous since the chartering 
of the colony, and the documentation to be found among the records of 
the secretary are of extraordinary historical significance due to the 
fact that he has been the principal records keeper of North Carolina. 
Records of many one-time or sometime executive functions such as the 
laying of the boundaries of the state can be found among the records of 
the secretary due to the fact that legislatively mandated executive 
functions were overseen, but not directed, by him. Documentary material 
found among the papers of the secretary of state, then, are broader than 
the operations of the office itself. This is an exception to the 
normal archival standard which is that the records of a specific function 
document only that function, and for this reason the secretary's records 

161 



take on added significance from the standpoint of historical research. 
The records of the Office of the Secretary of State are adequately 
described in finding aids; but the finding aids are old and not as 
comprehensive as those prepared by present archival standards. Many 
records remain in the current secretary of state's office, particularly 
those relating to land. 

The records of the Offices of Treasurer and Comptroller (in some 
periods entitled Auditor), although separate offices, became mingled 
in the nineteenth century and their provenance or origin lost. These 
records, a few dating back to the seventeenth century, are of particular 
significance because they document the uses to which the colony's and 
state's liquid and capital assets were put. In addition they account 
for the accumulation and disposal of the wealth of North Carolina and 
deal with money matters of many types. The finding aids to these records, 
like those of the secretary of state, are adequate but not as compre- 
hensive as present archival standards mandate. 

There are records documenting thousands of other functions and 
from hundreds of colonial and state offices, departments, commissions, 
boards, agencies, and other bodies included among the archives of North 
Carolina. The most valuable aspect of the records of these functions 
and offices is usually that which documents the creation and implemen- 
tation of public policy. Examples are the minutes and other records of 
the North Carolina Board of Education and the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction. These document the creation, development, implementation, 
and alteration of policy in regard to public education, its response to 
public opinion, and philosophical developments relating to the subject. 
Another good example, selected from a modern agency, are the records 
of the Department of Social Services which reflect the changing attitudes 

162 



and theories as the concept of "public charity" developed into "public 
welfare," and further into "social service" as a mainstream public 
function and a part of governmental policy incorporated into law. In 
summary, the colonial and state records of North Carolina encompass 
all aspects of a government acting in its political capacity as sovereign. 

THE RECORDS OF THE COUNTIES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The nature of a county government is very different from that of a 
state or national government. The major function of a sovereign body 
such as a state is the creation and implementation of public policy; 
but a county does not exercise sovereignty nor does it create policy . 
Rather it executes the orderly administration of a defined geographical 
area for the general welfare and safety of its inhabitants. It is the 
county in its welfare capacity acting through its creature the county 
court, and in later days the county commissioners in addition to the 
court, whose functions are reflected in the county records. 

The county then is the next level of authority and organization 
above that of the family, and its functions are an extension of the 
family in the sense that it affords the same sort of protection and 
privilege to its citizens both weak and strong, old and young, that a 
good man in the prime of life would afford his children, spouse, 
siblings, and parents. One of the basic principles of a civilized society 
is the exaction of public vengeance for private wrongs through the impartial 
enforcement of law. The chief executive officer of a county, the sheriff, 
is charged with the maintenance of law and order as well as other executive 
functions, and he is directly responsible to the county court. 

Another familial type of county function is that of caring for the 

163 



person and affairs of those unable to care for themselves. This 
function, a direct responsibility of the county court, extends to 
protection of the unborn, the orphaned, the insane, the incompetent 
the poor, the indigent, the bound, the elderly, and the dead. These 
responsibilities are usually executed through established institutions 
such as insane asylums, homes for the elderly, and hospitals or 
through citizen agents functioning as guardians, administrators, 
executors, or masters of apprentices. Citizen agents are usually 
required to post performance bonds and to report regularly to the court; 
and the institutions, as a part of the county government, create records 
of their own. Other institutions often found as a part of county 
governments include jails, reform schools, public schools, poor houses, 
and libraries. These institutions, although seemingly unrelated, all 
reflect the county functioning for the welfare of its inhabitants. 

An administrative function of counties is the maintenance of 
various registries to record events for the protection of the principals 
concerned and the advertisement of the events to the public at large. 
Among these are the registration of births, deaths, marriages, divorces, 
property transfers, major debts, military discharges, and wills. All 
of these registers contain the records of what is traditionally accepted 
as the most important changes in status and in wealth in an individual's 
life. The registers are open to the public from the moment of creation 
and serve both as a constant record of the individual's changes in 
condition and as a record of the second step from a primitive society: 
the accretion of dependents and property. 

This second level of civilization — publicly proclaimed respon- 
sibilities and exclusive claims in the form of marriage, family, and 

164 



property — has been recognized as an underlying force behind western 
society since history has been recorded. It is only natural then that 
the disposition of one's property should be of utmost concern to 
individuals aware of their own mortality. Property, as the ultimate 
measure of the state of a person's welfare, has since ancient Rome been 
disposed of according to the wishes of the owner in the form of a will. 
The enforcement of the terms of a will is a function of the county court, 
and if the will is prepared according to the proper forms, it is the 
only time that an ordinary individual has the opportunity to create 
policy that will be carried out with the force of law by a duly consti- 
tuted court of record. An ordinary man, then, is able to play the role 
of sovereign only in the drawing of his will. Such an important court 
function is recorded in minute detail from the probate of the will 
itself, to the swearing and posting of bond of the administrators or 
executors, to the registering of the will, to the inventory of the 
estate, its disposition, and its closing. Records relating to estates, 
which include the disposition of the property of those who die without 
a will, constitute one of the most important groups to be found among 
the county records due to the fact that they document the actual 
transfer of parts of the land of the county and the personal property 
of its inhabitants. 

The welfare of the inhabitants of a county is addressed in a wide 
variety of other functions such as the control of land usage, the 
issuing of building permits, the issuing of licenses for the right to 
exercise various privileges, the maintenance of roads and of a health 
department among others. Until the state constitution of 1868 all 
actions in a county were a function of the court. After 1868 with the 

165 



introduction of the system of county commissioners, a clear line was 
established between the judicial and the administrative functions. 
Judicial actions such as trials, proving (probate of wills, etc.), 
and swearing (of witnesses, officials, etc.) remained the responsi- 
bility of the courts. Administrative actions such as the issuing of 
licenses, land use permits, and the maintenance of health departments 
became the responsibility of the commissioners. 

In summary, the county records relate to the welfare of the 
individuals living in the county in a variety of ways. The basic 
function of the county is the welfare of these inhabitants; and its 
records document the functions necessary to protect that welfare such 
as the policy-making functions, relief at court, the existence of 
institutions, the maintenance of registries, licensing, and land use 
as well as the orderly transfer of property. The county records are 
well described in finding aids and are not difficult to research, 
with the exception of the court minutes which are in chronological 
order but are seldom indexed. 

THE PRIVATE COLLECTIONS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA ARCHIVES 

Unlike the county and state records which flow into the State 
Archives in an orderly and logical manner as prescribed by law, the 
private collections are usually received as gifts from a private 
individual or group. As a result, there is no readily discernible 
logic to the comprehensiveness, type, volume, or nature of private 
collections. The only things they share in common are their non- 
governmental origin and their relationship to North Carolina. 



166 



The bulk of the private collections are family letters and 
personal business papers. Many important North Carolina families 
are represented, and the information contained in the collections 
usually concerns the interest of the writer, current events, and 
family affairs. Family papers are particularly valuable for the study 
of social history, and they often afford a first-hand look at how 
people lived in various periods. Usually family collections include 
documents relating to financial matters; but they are best characterized 
as intimate and personal, and they often afford an insight into the 
development of ideas and the thought processes of the principals. 
Correspondence with people other than family members is usually limited 
to incoming letters since easy methods of maintaining copies are 
relatively new, and few people went to the trouble of manually copying 
outgoing correspondence. These collections, more than 1,600, are 
described in finding aids with autograph and subject index cards. As 
noted earlier in this essay, the Crabtree Guide 's index offers an ex- 
cellent sense of the range of subjects covered by private collections. 

Among the private collections are account books of businesses and 
plantations, some records and transcripts of colleges, church minutes, 
and records of a number of North Carolina clubs and organizations. 
The archives is markedly weak in its holdings relating to political 
parties and business activities in the state as well as material re- 
lating to current events. 

THE MILITARY COLLECTION OF THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE ARCHIVES 

A special collection devoted to the military actions of the colony 



167 



and state has been assembled from a variety of sources. The Military 
Collection is unique in the archives and consists of records and 
manuscripts which document both governmental and private activities. 
The collection was actually created by archivists and is "artificial" 
in the sense that it does not flow from specific governmental functions 
nor private actions but rather is a variety of materials grouped 
together because they relate to the subject of military actions. The 
collection, dating from 1742 to 1956, consists of materials under the 
following headings: Spanish Invasion, 1742-1748; Frontier Scouting 
and Indian Wars, 1758-1788; the War of the Regulation, 1768-1779; 
Troop Returns, 1747-1859; the War of the Revolution; the Cumberland 
Battalion, 1786-1792; the War of 1812; the Mexican War; the Civil 
War; the Spanish- American War; World War I; World War II; naval 
miscellaneous papers, 1770-1956. The collection has not been expanded 
to include the wars in Korea or Vietnam. 

During the two world wars special history committees and records 
collectors were appointed early in the conflicts at both state and 
county levels, and the results of their efforts are included in this 
collection. In the cases of other conflicts, the collecting was done 
retroactively. The collection is uneven in coverage and eclectic in 
character but is of significant value to researchers in the field of 
military history. The collection is comprehensively described in 
finding aids . 

This introduction to the North Carolina State Archives is intended 
to demonstrate the scope of the materials available with emphasis upon 
the nature of the most important holdings. The outline offered here deals 
primarily with subjects and events, any study of which should be sub- 
stantially enhanced by the information available in the collections 

of the State Archives. 

168 



APPENDIX II 
RESOURCES OF THE DIVISION OF ARCHIVES AND HISTORY 



Unless otherwise stated, all unpublished resources are found 
in the office of the Archaeology and Historic Preservation Section, 
and all published resources are publications of the Division of 
Archives and History. 



THE NATURAL SETTING: NORTH CAROLINA GEOGRAPHY AND ECOLOGY 

a. Historical Publications 

Camp , Cordelia. The Influence of Geography upon Early North 
Carolina . 1963.** 

Corbitt, David L. Explorations , Descriptions , and Attempted 
Settlements of Carolina , 1584-1590 . Revised, 1953. 

dimming, William P. North Carolina in Maps . Reprinted, 1973. 

NATIVE AMERICANS: THE INDIANS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Cashion, Jerry C. Fort Butler and the Cherokee Indian 
Removal from North Carolina . 1970. 

Garrow, Patrick H. The Mattamuskeet Documents : A Study in 
Social History . 1975. 

b. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Town Creek Indian Box 306, Mount Gilead, N.C. 

Mound 27306 

c. Historical Publications 

Lee, E. Lawrence. Indian Wars in North Carolina , 1663-1763 . 
Reprinted, 1968. 

Spindel, Donna. Introductory Guide to Indian- Related Records 
in the North Carolina State Archives' . 1977. 

South, Stanley A. Indians in North Carolina . 6th printing, 
1972. 

d. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts available in the collections include: 
Indian artifacts (tools, weapons, clothing, implements). 



169 



EUROPEAN EXPLORATION AND BEGINNINGS OF SETTLEMENT, 1497-1660 

a. Historical Publications 

Corbitt, David Leroy, ed. Explorations , Descriptions , and 
Attempted Settlements of Carolina , 1584-1590 . Revised, 1953, 

Parker, Mattie Erma Edwards, ed. North Carolina Charters and 
Constitutions , 1578-1698 . 1963. 

Stick, David. Dare County : A History . 3rd printing, 1975. 

b. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: weapons, books, Sir Walter 
Raleigh portrait, coins. 

ALBEMARLE COUNTY: CRADLE OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1663-1689 

I 
a. Historical Publications 

Parker, Mattie Erma Edwards, ed. North Carolina Charters and 
Constitutions , 1578-1698 . 1963. 

, ed. North Carolina Higher - Court Records , 



1670-1696. 1968. 



Powell, WilliamS. The Carolina Charter of 1663 . 1954.* 

. The Proprietors of Carolina . 1968. 

. Ye Countie of Albemarle in Carolina . A Collec - 
tion of Documents, 1664-1675 . 1958. 

b. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: pictures of Lords Proprietors 
and John Locke . 

THE EMERGENCE OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1689-1729 

a. Historical Publications 

Boyd, William K. , ed. William Bvrd ' s Histories of the 

Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and North Carolina . 1929.* 

Parker, Mattie Erma Edwards, ed. North Carolina Higher - Court 
Records, 1670-1696 . 1968. 

, ed. North Carolina Higher - Court Records , 



1697-1701. 1971, 



170 



Price, WilliamS., Jr., ed. North Carolina Higher - Court 
Records , 1702-1708 . 1974. 

, ed. North Carolina Higher - Court Minutes , 



1709-1723 . 1977. 

Rankin, Hugh F. The Pirates of Colonial North Carolina . 
5th printing, 1975. 

Todd, Vincent H. , ed. Christoph Von Graff enreid' s Account of 
the Founding of New Bern . 1920.* 

b. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: North Carolina currency, 
counterfeiting stamps. 



IMMIGRATION AND EXPANSION, 1729-1775 

a. Historical Publications 

Meyer, Duane. The Highland Scots of North Carolina . 1968. 

Newsome, A. R. , ed. Records of Emigrants from England and 
Scotland to North Carolina , 1774-1775 . 4th printing, 1976, 

b. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: firearms, currency, coins. 

AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY, 1729-1775 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Brunswick Town P.O. Box 356, Southport, N.C. 28461 
. Historic Halifax P.O. Box 406, Halifax, N.C. 27839 

b. Historical Publications 

Cathey, Cornelius 0. Agriculture in North Carolina before 
the Civil War . 1966. 

c. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: silver collection. 



TRANSPORTATION, TRADE, TOWNS, AND COMMUNICATION IN COLONIAL NORTH 
CAROLINA 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Brunswick Town P.O. Box 356, Southport, N.C. 28461 

Historic Bath P.O. Box 124, Bath, N.C. 27808 

Historic Halifax P.O. Box 406, Halifax, N.C. 27839 



171 



b. Historical Publications 

Cumming, William P. Captain James Wimble , His Maps , and the 
Colonial Cartography of the North Carolina Coast . 1969. 

Lennon, Donald R. and Kellam, Ida Brooks. The Wilmington 
Town Book , 1743-1778 . 1973. 

Journal of colonial town includes information on consumer 
protection, price controls, maintenance of streets, fire 
protection, etc. 

Parker, Mattie Erma Edwards. Money Problems of Early Tar 
Heels . 5th printing, 1960. 



THE SOCIAL ORDER IN COLONIAL NORTH CAROLINA 

a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Iobst, Richard W. "Report on Hezekiah Alexander House." Un- 
published research report. 

Simms, Anastatia. "Report on William King House, Bertie 
County." Unpublished research report. 

b. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Brunswick Town P.O. Box 356, Southport, N.C. 28461 
Historic Bath P.O. Box 124, Bath, N.C. 27808 
Historic Halifax P.O. Box 406, Halifax, N.C. 27839 

c. Historical Publications 

Allcott, John V. Colonial Homes in North Carolina . 1975. 

Crow, Jeffrey J. The Black Experience in Revolutionary North 
Carolina . 1977. 

Cutten, George B. Revised by Mary Reynolds Peacock. Silver - 
smiths of North Carolina , 1696-1850 . Revised, 1973. 

Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh, ed. The Pettigrew Papers . Vol. I, 
1685-1818. 1971. 

Matthews, Alice E. Society in Revolutionary North Carolina . 
1976. '"' ' " " ' 

Watson, Alan D. Society in Colonial North Carolina . 1975. 

d. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: snuff boxes, fire tongs, re- 
production clay pipes, music staff, writing pen. 



172 



RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN COLONIAL NORTH CAROLINA 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Brunswick Town P.O. Box 356, Southport, N.C. 28461 
Historic Bath P.O. Box 124, Bath, N.C. 27808 
Historic Halifax P.O. Box 406, Halifax, N.C. 27839 

b. Historical Publications 

Calhoon, Robert M. Religion and the American Revolution in 
North Carolina . 1976. 

Fries, Adelaide L. , ed. Records of the Moravians in North 
Carolina . Vol. I, 1752-1771. Reprinted, 1968. 

, ed. Records of the Moravians in North Carolina . 



Vol. II, 1752-1775. Reprinted, 1968. 

Hall, Clement. A Collection of Many Christian Experiences , 
Sentences , and Several Places of Scripture Improved . 
Edited by William S. Powell. 1961. 

First nonlegal work published in North Carolina. 

Hudson, Arthur Palmer. Songs of the Carolina Charter Colonists , 
1663-1763 . 1962. 

Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh, ed. The Pettigrew Papers . Vol. I, 
1685-1818. 1971. 

Powell, William S. Introduction to The Journal of the House 
of Burgesses of the Province of North Carolina . Reprinted, 
1958.** 

Pruett, James and Rigsby, Lee. A Selective Music Bibliography 
from the Period 1663-1763 . 1962. 

Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: bell, book, candle, tokens. 



NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1730-1763: CONSTITUTIONAL CONTROVERSIES 
AND ANGLO-FRENCH WARS 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Fort Dobbs Route 9, Box A 415, Statesville, N.C. 

28677 

b. Historical Publications 

Lee, E. Lawrence. Indian Wars in North Carolina, 1663-1763 . 
Reprinted, 1968. 



173 



Powell, William S., ed: The Papers of William Tryon . 
Forthcoming. 

Robinson, Blackwell P. The Five Royal Governors of North 
Carolina , 1729-1775 . Reprinted, 1968. 

c. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: weapons. 



SECTIONALISM IN COLONIAL NORTH CAROLINA 

a'. Tryon Palace Mailing Address 

Tryon Palace P. 0. Box 1007, New Bern, N.C. 28560 

THE NORTH CAROLINA REGULATORS: 1766-1771 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Alamance Route 1, Box 108, Burlington, N.C. 

Battleground 27215 

b. Historical Publications 

Powell, William S. The War of the Regulation and the Battle 
of Alamance , May 16 , 1771 . 5th printing, 1975. 

Powell, William S. , Huhta, James K. , and Farnham, Thomas J., 
comps. and eds. The Regulators in North Carolina : A 
Documentary History , 1759-1776 . 1971. 



THE COMING OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1763-1775 

a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Hatch, Charles E. , Jr. "The Battle of Moores Creek Bridge." 
Unpublished research report. 

b. Historical Publications 

Boyd, William K. , ed. Some Eighteenth Century Tracts Con- 
cerning North Carolina , 1927* 

Butler, Lindley S. North Carolina and the Coming of the 
Revolution , 1763-1776 . 1976. "~ 

Higginbotham, Don, ed. The Papers of James Iredell . Vol. I, 
1767-1777. 1976, " 

Keith, Alice Barnwell. The John Gray Blount Papers . Vol. I, 
1764-1789. 1952. 



174 



Price, William S . , Jr. Not a Conquered People : Two 
Carolinians View Parliamentary Taxation . 1975. 



THE TRANSITION FROM COLONY TO STATEHOOD, 1776 

a . Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Historic Halifax P#0 . Box 406, Halifax, N.C. 27839 

b. Historical Publications 

Ganyard, Robert L. The Emergence of North Carolina's 
Revolutionary State Government . 1978. 

Mitchell, Memory F. North Carolina' s Signers : Brief Sketches 
of the Men Who Signed the Declaration of Independence and 
the Constitution . 2nd printing, 1969. 

c. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: currency. 



THE NEW STATE AND ITS PROBLEMS, 1776-1781 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Caswell- Neuse P.O. Box 3043, Kinston, N.C. 28501 
Iredell House 105 E. Church Street, P.O. Box 474, 

Edenton, N. C. 27932 

b. Historical Publications 

Fries, Adelaide L. , ed. Records of the Moravians in North 
Carolina . Vol. Ill, 1776-1779. Reprinted, 1968. 

Higginbotham, Don, ed. The Papers of James Iredell . Vol. I, 
1767-1777. 1976. 

, ed. The Papers of James Iredell . Vol. II, 



1778-1783. 1976. 

Troxler, Carole Watterson. The Loyalist Experience in North 
Carolina. 1976. 



THE WAR IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1776-1781 

a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Meier, Kathleen E. "General William Lenoir and Fort 
Defiance." Unpublished research report. 



175 



Historic Sites Mailing Address 

House in the Route 3, Box 924, Sanford, N.C. 

Horseshoe 27330 

Historical Publications 

Calhoon, Robert M. Religion and the American Revolution in 
North Carolina . 1976. 

Crow, Jeffrey J. A Chronicle of North Carolina Pur ing the 
American Revolution . 1975. 

. The Black Experience in Revolutionary North 



Carolina . 1977. 

Matthews, Alice E. Society in Revolutionary North Carolina . 
1976. 

Moss, Patricia B., comp. and Crow, Jeffrey J., ed. A Guidebook 
to Revolutionary Sites in North Carolina . 1975. 

O'Donnell, James H. III. The Cherokees of North Carolina in 
the American Revolution . 1976. 

Rankin, Hugh F. Greene and Cornwall is : The Campaign in the 
Carolinas . 1976. 

. The North Carolina Continental Line in the 



American Revolution. 1977. 



North Carolina in the American Revolution. 4th 



printing, 1975. 

Robinson, Blackwell P. The Revolutionary War Sketches of 
William R. Davie . 1976. 

Still, William N. , Jr. North Carolina's Revolutionary War 
Navy . 1976. 



AFTERMATH OF THE REVOLUTION, 1781-1789 

a. Historical Publications 

Fries, Adelaide L. Records of the Moravians in North 
Carolina . Vol. IV, 1780-1783. Reprinted, 1968. 

Higginbotham, Don, ed. The Papers of James Iredell . Vol. II, 
1778-1783. 1976. 

Keith, Alice Barnwell, ed. The John Gray Blount Papers . 
Vol. I, 1764-1789. 1952. 



176 



Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh, ed. The Pettigrew Papers . Vol. I, 
1685-1818. 1971. 

Walser, Richard, ed. The Poems of Governor Thomas Burke of 
North Carolina . 1961. 

b. Tryon Palace Mailing Address 

John Wright Stanly P.O.Box 1007, New Bern, N.C. 

House 28560 



NORTH CAROLINA AND THE FEDERAL UNION, 1777-1789 

a. Historical Publications 

Mitchell, Memory F. North Carolina's Signers : Brief Sketches 
of the Men Who Signed the Declaration of Independence and 
the Constitution . 2nd printing, 1969. 

NORTH CAROLINA AND THE FEDERALISTS, 1789-1800 

a. Historical Publications 

Keith, Alice Barnwell, ed. The John Gray Blount Papers . 
Vol. II, 1790-1795. 1959. 

Masterson, William H. The John Gray Blount Papers . Vol. Ill, 
1796-1802. 1965. 

Wagstaff, H. M. , ed. The Papers of John Steele . Vol. I, 
Vol. II, 1778-1815. 1924.* 

b. State Capitol/Visitor Services Center 

Treasurer and Comptroller Papers, 1793-1808. North Carolina 
State Archives. 

See "Capital Buildings-Statehouse." 

NORTH CAROLINA IN THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA, 1801-1815 

a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Iobst, Richard W. "Personal Life of David Stone of Historic 
Hope Plantation." Unpublished research report. 

b. Historical Publications 

Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh. North Carolina and the War of 1812 . 
1971. 



177 



Wagstaff, H. M. , ed. The Papers of John Steele . Vol. I, 
Vol. II, 1778-1815. 1924.* 



EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY NORTH CAROLINA: "THE RIP VAN WINKLE 
STATE" 

a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Cashion, Jerry C. "James Knox Polk and North Carolina." 
Unpublished research report. 

Cathey, Boyd D. "Nathaniel Macon and Buck Spring." Unpub- 
lished research report. 

Harris, Max F. The Andrew Johnson Birthplace Problem . 1963. 

"Report on Andrew Johnson Birthplace." Unpublished research 
report. 

b. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Historic Bath P.O. Box 124, Bath, N.C. 27808 
Polk Memorial P.O. Box 475, Pineville, N.C. 28134 
Vance Birthplace Route 1, Box 465, Weaverville, N.C. 

28787 

c. Historical Publications 

Cathey, Cornelius 0, Agriculture in North Carolina before 
the " Civil War . 1974. 

Coon, Charles L. , ed. The Beginnings of Public Education in 
North Carolina : A Documentary History , 1790-1840 . 1908.* 

North Carolina Schools and Academies , 1790-1840 . 



1915.* 



Fries, Adelaide L. , ed. Records of the Moravians in North 
Carolina . Vol. VII, 1808-1822. Reprinted, 1970. 

Hamilton, J. G. de Roulhac, ed. The Pa pers of Thomas Ruff in . 
Vol. I, 1803-1830. 1918.* 

Wagstaff, H. M. , ed. The Papers of John Steele . Vol. II, 
1806-1815. 1924.* 

d. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: tools and equipment. 



178 



THE MURPHEY PROGRAM FOR STATE DEVELOPMENT 

a. Historical Publications 

Hoyt, William Henry, ed. The Papers of Archibald D. Murphey . 
Vol. I, Vol. II, 1777-1832. 1914.* 

Shanks, Henry Thomas, ed. The Papers of Willie Person Mangum . 
Vol. I, 1807-1832. 1950. ~ 

b. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: printing press. 

NORTH CAROLINA'S CHANGING ROLE IN NATIONAL POLITICS, 1824-1835 

a. Historical Publications 

Hamilton, J. G. de Roulhac, ed. The Papers of William 
Alexander Graham . Vol. I, 1825-1837. 1957. 

Shanks , Henry Thomas , ed . The Papers of Willie Person Mangum . 
Vol. II, 1833-1838. 1953. 

THE CONVENTION OF 1835 

a. Historical Publications 

Hamilton, J. G. de Roulhac, ed. The Papers of William 
Alexander Graham . Vol. I, 1825-1837. 1957. 

Shanks, Henry Thomas, ed. The Papers of Willie Person Mangum . 
Vol. II, 1833-1838. 1953. 

THE WHIGS INAUGURATE AN AGE OF PROGRESS: NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 
1835-1850 

a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 
Clauser, John W. Seaboard Excavations . 1977. 

b. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Spencer Shops P.O. Box 165, Spencer, N.C. 28159 

c. Historical Publications 

Hamilton, J. G. de Roulhac, ed. The Papers of Thomas Ruff in . 
Vol. II, 1831-1858. 1918.* 

, ed. The Papers of William Alexander Graham . 



Vol. II, 1838-1844. 1959. 

179 



, ed. The Papers of William Alexander Graham . 



Vol. Ill, 1845-1850. 1960. 

Shanks, Henry Thomas, ed. The Papers of Willie Person Mangum . 
Vol. II, 1833-1838. 1952. 

, ed. The Papers of Willie Person Mangum . Vol. Ill, 



1839-1843. 1953. 



, ed. The Papers of Willie Person Mangum. Vol. IV, 



1844-1846. 1955. 

c. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: banners, campaign memorabilia. 

d. State Capitol/Visitor Services 

Beck, Raymond L. "The Restoration of the Cabinet of Minerals 
Room in the North Carolina State Capitol." Unpublished 
research report located in offices of the State Capitol. 

Treasurer and Comptroller Papers, 1831-1840. North Carolina 
State Archives . 

See "Capital Buildings-Capitol." 

York, Maury. "Report on the North Carolina State Library." 
Unpublished research report located in offices of the State 
Capitol. 



CONTINUED PROGRESS UNDER THE DEMOCRATS : NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS , 
1850-1860 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Spencer Shops P.O. Box 165, Spencer, N.C, 28159 

b. Historical Publications 

■ 

Brawley, James S. Rowan County : A Brief History . 1974. 

Hamilton, J. G. de Roulhac, ed. The Papers of William 
Alexander Graham . Vol. IV, 1851-1856. 1961. 

Shanks , Henry Thomas, ed . The Papers of Willie Person Mangum . 
Vol. V, 1847-1894. 1956. 

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1835-1860 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Duke Homestead 2828 Duke Homestead Road, Durham, 

N.C. 27705 
Reed Gold Mine Route 2, Box 101, Stanfield, N.C. 

28163 

180 



Stagville Center P.O. Box 15628, Durham, N.C. 

27704 

b. Historical Publications 

Brooks, Jerome E. Green Leaf and Gold : Tobacco in North 
Carolina . Revised, 1975. 

Cathey, Cornelius 0. Agriculture in North Carolina before 
the Civil War . 1966. 

Hamilton, J. G. de Roulhac, ed. The Papers of Thomas Ruff in . 
Vol. II, 1831-1858. 1918. 

Knapp , Richard F . Golden Promise in the Piedmont : The Story 
of John Reed's Mine . 1975. 

c. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: Bechtler gold coins. 



INTELLECTUAL AWAKENING IN ANTEBELLUM NORTH CAROLINA, 1835-1860 

a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Gadski, Mary Ellen. "The History of New Bern Academy." Un- 
published research report. 

b. Historical Publications 

Coon, Charles L. , ed. The Beginnings of Public Education in 
North Carolina : A Documentary History , 1790-1840 . 1908.* 

, ed. North Carolina Schools and Academies , 



1790-1840 . 1915.* 

Powell, William S. Higher Education in North Carolina . 
Revised, 1970. 

Walser, Richard. Literary North Carolina : A Brief Historical 
Survey . 1970. 

. Young Readers ' Picturebook of Tar Heel Authors . 



4th edition, 1975. 

Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: books, writing implements. 



181 



RELIGION IN ANTEBELLUM NORTH CAROLINA 

a. Historical Publications 

Fries, Adelaide L. , ed. Records of the Moravians In 
North Carolina . Vol. VII, 1808-1822. 1947. 

Fries, Adelaide L. and Rights, Douglas L. , eds. Records of 
the Moravians in North Carolina . Vol. VIII, 1823-1837. 
1954. 

Hamilton, Kenneth G. , ed. Records of the Moravians in North 
Carolina . Vol. X, 1841-1856. 1966. 

, ed. Records of the Moravians in North 



Carolina . Vol XI, 1852-1879. 1969. 

Smith, Minnie J. , ed. Records of the Moravians in North 
Carolina . Vol. IX, 1838-1847. 1964. 



SOCIETY IN ANTEBELLUM NORTH CAROLINA 

a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Iobst, Richard W. "Report on the Smith-McDowell House, Bun- 
combe County." Unpublished research report. 

Morrill, Dan. L. and Morrill, Mary Lynn. "A Physical History 
of the Old Burke County Courthouse." Unpublished research 
report. 

Moye, William T. "Report on 'Stonewall 1 , Nash County." 
Unpublished research report. 

"Preliminary Report on Bernard Franklin House, Surry County." 
Unpublished research report. 

b. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Duke Homestead 2828 Duke Homestead Road, Durham, N.C. 

27705 
Polk Memorial P.O. Box 475, Pineville, N.C. 28134 
Somerset Place P.O. Box 215, Creswell, N.C. 27928 
Stagville Center P.O. Box 15628, Durham, N.C. 27704 

c. Historical Publications 

Brawley, James S. Rowan County : A Brief History . 1971. 

Cutten, George Barton. Revised by Mary Reynolds Peacock. 
Silversmiths of North Carolina, 1696-1850. Revised, 1973. 



182 



Hamilton, J. G. de Roulhac, ed. The Papers of Thomas Ruffin . 
Vol. II, 1831-1858. 1918.* 

ed. The Papers of Thomas Ruffin . Vol. Ill, 



1859-1865. 1920.* 

, ed. The Papers of William Alexander Graham . 



Vol. I, 1825-1837. 1927. 

_, ed. The Papers of William Alexander Graham . 



Vol. II, 1838-1844. 1959. 

, ed . The Papers of William Alexander Graham . 



Vol. Ill, 1845-1850. 1960. 

, ed . The Papers of William Alexander Graham . 



Vol. IV, 1851-1856. 1961. 

Lee, E. Lawrence. New Hanover County : A Brief History . 1971. 

Powell, William S. Annals of Progress : The Story of Lenoir 
County and Kinston , North Carolina . 1963. 

Stick, David. Dare County : A History . 3rd printing, 1975. 

Wall, James W. Davie County : A Brief History . 1976. 

Williams, Max R. , ed. The Papers of William Alexander Graham . 
Vol. V, 1857-1863. 1973. 

NORTH CAROLINA AND THE COMING OF THE CIVIL WAR 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Polk Memorial P.O. Box 475, Pineville, N.C. 28134 

b. Historical Publications 

Hoffmann, William S. North Carolina in the Mexican War . 3rd 
printing, 1969. 

Johnston, Frontis W. , ed. The Papers of Zebulon Baird Vance . 
Vol. I, 1843-1862. 1963. " 

Shanks , Henry Thomas , ed . The Papers of Willie Person Mangum . 
Vol. V, 1847-1894. 1956. 

Tolbert, Noble J., ed. The Papers of John Willis Ellis . 
Vol. I, 1841-1959. 1964. 

Williams, Max R. , ed. The Papers of William Alexander Graham . 
Vol. V, 1857-1863. 1973. 



183 



NORTH CAROLINA AND THE CIVIL WAR, 1861-1865 

a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Bright, Leslie S. The Blockade Runner MODERN GREECE and Her 
Cargo . 1977. 

Honeycutt, A. L., Jr. "Fort Macon: Preservation and 
Restoration." Unpublished research report. 

b. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Bennett Place 4409 Bennett Memorial Road, Durham, 

N.C. 27705 
Bentonville P.O. Box 27, Newton Grove, N.C. 

Battleground 28366 

Brunswick Town P.O. Box 356, Southport, N.C. 28461 
Caswell -Neuse P.O. Box 3043, Kinston, N.C. 28501 
Fort Fisher P.O. Box 68, Kure Beach, N.C. 28449 

Vance Birthplace Route 1, Box 465, Weaverville, N.C, 

28787 

c. Historical Publications 

Barrett, John G. North Carolina as a Civil War Battleground . 
4th printing, 1975. ' ' " " 

Corbitt, D. L. and Wilborn, Elizabeth W. Civil War Pictures . 
5th printing, 1973. 

Hamilton, J. G. de Roulhac, ed. The Correspondence of Jonathan 
Worth . Vol. I, 1841-1866. 1909.* 

_, ed. The Papers of Randolph Abbott Shotwell . 



Vol. I, 1861-1863. 1929.* 



, ed . The Papers of Randolph Abbott Shotwell . 



Vol. II, 1863-1871. 1931.* 

_, ed. The Papers of Thomas Ruff in . Vol. Ill, 1859- 



1865. 1920.* 

Johnston, Frontis W. , ed. The Papers of Zebulon Baird Vance . 
Vol. I, 1843-1862. 1963. 

Manarin, Louis H. and Jordan, Weymouth T. , Jr. North Carolina 
Troops , 1861-1865 : A Roster . Vol. I, artillery. 1966. 

North Carolina Troops , 1861-1865 : A Roster . 



Vol. II, cavalry. 1968. 



North Carolina Troops , 1861-1865 : A Roster . 



Vol. Ill, infantry. 1971. 



184 



North Carolina Troops , 1861-1865 : A Roster . 



Vol. IV, Infantry. 1973. 



North Carolina Troops , 1861-1865 : A Roster . 



Vol. V., infantry. 1975. 



North Carolina Troops , 1861-1865 : A Roster . 



Vol. VI, infantry. 1977. 

Patton, James W. and Crabtree, Beth G. , eds. "Journal of a 

Secesh Lady " : The Diary of Catherine Ann Devereux Edmonds ton , 
1860-1866 . 1979. 

Tolbert, Noble J., ed. The Papers of John Willis Ellis . 
Vol. II, 1860-1861. 1964. 

Williams, Max R. , ed. The Papers of William Alexander Graham . 
Vol. V, 1857-1863. 1973. 

The Papers of William Alexander Graham . Vol. VI, 



1864-1865. 1976. 

d. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: military articles, confederate 
currency. 

RECONSTRUCTION IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1865-1877 

a. Historical Publications 

Hamilton, J. G. de Roulhac, ed. The Correspondence of Jonathan 
Worth . Vol. II, 1866-1869. 1909.* 

, ed . The Papers of Randolph Abbott Shotwell . 



Vol. II, 1863-1871. 1931.* 

, ed. The Papers of Randolph Abbott Shotwell . 



Vol. Ill, 1871-1873. 1936.* 

_, ed. The Papers of Thomas Ruff in . Vol. IV, 1865- 



1870. 1920.* 

Williams, Max R. , ed. The Papers of William Alexander Graham . 
Vol. VII, 1866- . Forthcoming. 

Zuber, Richard L. North Carolina during Reconstruction . 
2nd printing, 1975. 



THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1870-1900 



185 



a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Glass, Brent D. , ed. North Carolina ; An Inventory of Historic 
Engineering and Industrial Sites . 1975. 

Little-Stokes, Ruth, ed. An Inventory of Historic Architecture : 
Greensboro , N.C. 1976 . 

Shoemaker, Mary, ed. An Inventory of Historic Architecture of 
Hamilton , North Carolina . Forthcoming. 

, ed. An Inventory of Historic Architecture of 



Smithfield , North Carolina . 1978. 

b. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Duke Homestead 2828 Duke Homestead Road, Durham, 

N.C. 27705 
Reed Gold Mine Route 2, Box 101, Stanfield, N.C. 

28163 
Spencer Shops P.O. Box 165, Spencer, N.C. 28159 

c. Historical Publications 

Brooks, Jerome C. Green Leaf and Gold : Tobacco in North 
Carolina . Revised, 1975. 

Zuber, Richard L. North Carolina during Reconstruction . 
2nd printing, 1975. 

d. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: machinery, textiles, tobacco 
collection, furniture. 



AGRICULTURE IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1865-1900 

a. Historical Publications 

Yearns, Wilfred Buck, ed. The Papers of Thomas Jordan Jarvis . 
Vol. I, 1869-1882. 2nd printing, 1975. 

b. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: machinery, farm implements. 

EDUCATION IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1860-1900: SLOW RECOVERY AFTER THE WAR 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Aycock Birthplace P.O. Box 207, Fremont, N.C. 27830 

b. Historical Publications 

Powell, William S. Higher Education in North Carolina . 
Revised, 1970. 

186 



Williams, Max R. , ed. The Papers of Wi lliam Alexander Graham , 
yol, 711, 1866-, Forthcoming. 

c. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: desks, writing implements. 



NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1877-1894: CONSERVATIVE DEMOCRATS IN 
CONTROL 

a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Honeycutt, A. L. , Jr. "Executive Mansion Report." Unpublished 
research report. 

b. Historical Publications 

Jordan, Joye E. Thomas Jordan Jaryis . 1945.* 

Yearns, Wilfred Buck, ed. The Papers of Thomas Jordan Jaryis . 
Vol. I, 1869-1882. 1969. 

c. State Capitol/Visitor Services 

The Executive Mansion Fine Arts Committee. The Executive 
Mansion . Revised edition, forthcoming. 

Treasurer and Comptroller Papers, 1877-1886. North Carolina 
State Archives. 

See "Capital Buildings-Governor's Mansion." 



NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1894-1900: FUSION RULE AND THE RETURN OF 
THE DEMOCRATS TO POWER 

a. Historical Publications 

Steelman, Joseph F. North Carolina's Role in the Spanish 
American War. 1975. 



NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1900-1920: ERA OF DEMOCRATIC DOMINANCE 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Aycock Birthplace P.O. Box 207, Fremont, N.C. 27830 

b. Historical Publications 

Jordan, Joye E. The Wildcat Division. 1945.* 

Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh. North Carolina's Role in the Firs t 
World War. 2nd printing, 1971T 



187 



Martin, Santford, comp. and House, R. B. , ed. Public Letters 
and Papers of Thomas Walter Bickett , Governor of North 
Carolina, 1917-1921. 1923.* 



NORTH CAROLINA'S ECONOMIC GROWTH FROM TURN OF THE CENTURY TO THE 
1920s 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Duke Homestead 2828 Duke Homestead Road, Durham, 

N.C. 27705 
Spencer Shops P.O. Box 165, Spencer, N.C. 28159 

b. Historical Publications 

Brooks, Jerome E. Green Leaf and Gold : Tobacco in North 
Carolina . Revised, 1975. 

c. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: military articles. 



EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL GROWTH IN NORTH CAROLINA FROM THE TURN 
OF THE CENTURY TO THE 1920s 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Aycock Birthplace P.O. Box 207, Fremont, N.C. 27830 
Wolfe Memorial P.O. Box 7143, Asheville, N.C. 28807 

b. Historical Publications 

Powell, William S. Higher Education in North Carolina . 
Revised, 1970. ' 

Walser, Richard. Literary North Carolina : A Brief Historical 
Survey . 1970. 



Young Readers ' Picturebook of Tar Heel Authors . 



4th edition, 1975. 

NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1920-1932 

a. Historical Publications 

Corbitt, David Leroy, ed. Public Papers and Letters of Angus 
Wilton McLean , Governor of North Carolina , 1925-1929 . 1931.* 

Gill, Edwin, comp. and Corbitt, David Leroy, ed. Public Papers 
and Letters of Oliver Max Gardner , Governor of North Carolina , 
1929-1933. 1937 . * 



188 



Richardson, William H. , comp. and Corbitt, David Leroy, ed. 
Public Papers and Letters of Cameron Morrison , Governor of 
North Carolina , 1921-1925 . 1927.* 

b. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: campaign memorabilia. 



NORTH CAROLINA AND THE NEW DEAL, 1933-1941 

a. Historical Publications 

Corbitt, David Leroy, ed. Addresses , Letters and Papers of 

John Chris toph Blucher Ehringhaus , Governor of North Carolina , 
1933-1937 . 1950.* 

, ed. Addresses , Letters and Papers of Clyde Roark 



Hoey , Governor of North Carolina , 1937-1941 . 1944.* 

WORLD WAR II AND AFTER: NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1941-1952 

a. Historical Publications 

Corbitt, David Leroy, ed. Public Addresses , Letters , and Papers 
of Joseph Melville Broughton , Governor of North Carolina , 1941- 
1945 . 1950.* 

_, ed. Public Addresses and Papers of Robert Gregg 



"Cherry, Governor of North Carolina , 1945-1949 . 1951.* 

, ed. Public Addresses , Letters and Papers of 



William Kerr Scott , Governor of North Carolina , 1949-1953 . 
1957.* 

Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh. North Carolina's Role in World War 
II. 2nd printing, 1969. 

b. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: military articles. 



THE CONTINUING INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1930-1960 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Duke Homestead 2828 Duke Homestead Road, Durham, N.C. 

27705 

b. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: Governor Luther Hodges 
collection. 



189 



AGRICULTURE, TRANSPORTATION, AND TRADE IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1930-1960 s 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Duke Homestead 2828 Duke Homestead Road, Durham, N.C. 

27705 
Spencer Shops P.O. Box 165, Spencer, N.C. 28159 

b. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: rolling stock. 

EDUCATION AND CULTURE IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1930-19608 

a. Historic Sites Mailing Address 

Wolfe Memorial P.O. Box 7143, Asheville, N.C. 28807 

b. Historical Publications 

Walser, Richard. Literary North Carolina : A Brief Historical 
Survey . 1970. 

. Young R eaders ' Picturebook of Tar Heel Authors . 



4th edition, 1975. 

c. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: entertainment equipment. 



NORTH CAROLINA POLITICS, 1952-1965 

a. Historical Publications 

Corbitt, David Leroy, ed. Public Addresses , Letters , and 
Papers of William Bradley Umstead , Governor of North 
Carolina , 1953-1954 . 1957.* 

Mitchell, Memory F. , ed. Messages , Addresses , and Public 
Papers of Daniel Killian Moore , Governor of North Carolina , 
1965-1969 . 1971.** 

, ed. Messages , Addresses , and Public Papers of 



Terry Sanford, Governor of North Carolina , 1961-1965 . 
1966.** ~' 

Patton, James W. , ed. Messages , Addresses , and Public Pa pers of 
Luther Hartwell Hodges , Governor of North Carolina , 1954-1961 . 
Vol. I, 1954-1956. I960.* 

, ed. Messages, Addresses, and Public Papers of 



Luther Hartwell Hodges , Governor of North Carolina , 1954-1961 . 
Vol. II, 1957-1958T 19627** 



, ed. Messages , Addresses , and Public Papers of 

Luther Hartwell Hodges , Governor of North Carolina , 1954-1961 . 
Vol. Ill, 1959-1960. 1963.** 

b. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts include: campaign memorabilia, governors' 
effects. 



* Out of Print 
** Limited Number Available 



191 



APPENDIX III 

COMPREHENSIVE RESOURCES 
(encompassing a variety of topics and periods) 



a. Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

Architectural Research Reports. 

These are generally unpublished research reports on pres- 
ervation and restoration projects. 

Bishir, Catherine W. North Carolina Entries in the National 
Register of Historic Places . Forthcoming. 

Files on Archaeological Investigations. 

Projects conducted and reviewed by the Archaeology Branch 
at approximately 1,000 sites throughout state. 

Guide to North Carolina Historical Highway Markers . 
6th edition, 1964. 7th edition, forthcoming. 

Historical Highway Marker Files. 

Includes files on 1,200 extant historical markers and 
approximately 1,250 additional rejected or future marker 
subjects. 

Historic and Architectural Resources of the Tar-Neuse 
River Basin . 6 vols. 1977. 

Inventory of resources in twenty-nine counties of central 
and eastern North Carolina ranging over 200 years of history. 

Hood, Davyd Foard, ed. An Inventory of Historic Architecture 
of Rowan County , North Carolina . Forthcoming. 

Little-Stokes, Ruth, ed. An Inventory of Historic Architecture 
of Caswell County , North Carolina . 1978. 

, ed. An Inventory of Historic Architecture 



of Iredell County , North Carolina . 1978. 

Morrill, Dan L. Historic Properties Commissions : A Manual of 
Practice . 1976. 

Guide to organizing and operating a historic properties 
commission. 

National Register Files. 

Includes information on approximately 10,000 of state's 
historic properties. 



192 



The National Register of Historic Places . Washington: 
Government Printing Office. 1969-present. 

See North Carolina Section. Contains basic information 
on over 500 of state's historic places. 

North Carolina Archaeological Council Publications. 5 vols. 

Reports on archaeological investigations of both prehistoric 
and historic sites. Additional volumes forthcoming. Publication 
number one is of special interest: David Sutton Phelps, ed. 
Anthropological Bibliography of North Carolina . 1974. 

"A Selective Bibliography of Architectural References with 
Particular Emphasis on North Carolina and Related Areas." 
Unpublished research report. 

Shoemaker, Mary McCahon, ed. An Inventory of Historical Architecture 
in the Town of Smithfield . 1977. 

Smith, McKeldon, ed. An Inventory of Historic Architecture of 
Guilford County , North Carolina . Forthcoming. 



b. Historical Publications 

Corbitt, David Leroy. The Formation of the North Carolina Counties , 
1663-1943 . 3rd printing, 1975. 



Secretaries of the U.S . Navy : Brief 



Sketches of Five North Carolinians . 1958.* 

Crabtree, Beth G. North Carolina Governors , 1585-1973 : Brief 
Sketches . Revised, 1974. 

Crow, Jeffrey J., ed. Public History in North Carolina , 1903- 
1978 . 1979. 

Cumming, William P. North Carolina in Maps . Reprinted, 
1973. 

Edmonds, W. R. Revised by David Leroy Corbitt. The North 
Carolina State Flag . 7th printing, 1974. 

Grimes, J. Bryan. Revised by David Leroy Corbitt. The History 
of the Great Seal of North Carolina . 9th printing, 1974. 

Newsome, A. R., ed. North Carolina Documents , 1584-1868 . 1967. 
Facsimile documents • 

The North Carolina Historical Review (1924-present) . 

Contains articles on many phases of North Carolina and southern 
history, documentary materials, and book reviews. 



193 



The Old North State Fact Book . 1976, 

Contains information on state's government and history, 
as well as other pertinent facts relating to North Carolina. 

Wilborn, Elizabeth W. North Carolina Historical Almanack , 
4th printing, 1964. 

Calendar-almanac with facts of North Carolina history 
for each day of the year. 

c. Museum of History 

Relevant artifacts available in the collection include: 
housewares, clothing, furniture, weapons, currency, tools 
and equipment, campaign memorabilia, books, jewelry, and 
military articles. 



* Out of Print 



194 



NOTES ON SOURCES 



By far the most complete history of the state is North 
Carolina : The History of a Southern State (Chapel Hill: 
University of North Carolina Press, 1954), by Hugh T. Lefler 
and Albert Ray Newsome. Other histories consulted in the writing 
of this outline are: Samuel A. Ashe, History of North Carolina 
(Greensboro, N.C.: C. L. Van Noppen, 1908-1925; reprint, 
Spartanburg, S.C.: Reprint Co., 1971); William K. Boyd, History 
of North Carolina : The Federal Period , 1783-1860 (Chicago: The 
Lewis Publishing Co., 1919; reprint, Spartanburg, S.C.: Reprint 
Co., 1973); Robert D. W. Connor, History of North Carolina : The 
Colonial and Revolutionary Periods , 1584-1783 (Chicago: The 
Lewis Publishing Co., 1919; reprint, Spartanburg, S.C.: Reprint 
Co. , 1973) , and North Carolina : Rebuilding an Ancient Common- 
wealth , 1584-1925 (Chicago: The American History Society, Inc., 
1929); and J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, North Carolina Since 1860 
(Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Co., 1919; reprint, Spartanburg, 
S.C.: Reprint Co., 1973). Another work by Lefler, A Guide to 
the Study and Reading of North Carolina History (Chapel Hill: 
University of North Carolina Press, 1969), is also a useful 
source. 

For information concerning the status of blacks in early 
North Carolina history, White Over Black (Chapel Hill: University 
of North Carolina Press, 1968) by Winthrop Jordan, is particularly 
good. Eugene Genovese, Roll , Jordan, Roll (New York: Pantheon 
Books, 1974) and Kenneth Stampp, The Peculiar Institution (New 
York: Knopf, 1956) are good sources for researching slaves and 
slavery in the state. 

"The North Carolina Regulation, 1766-1776: A Class Conflict" 
by Marvin L. Michael Kay (in Alfred Young, The American Revolu - 
tion . Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1976) discusses 
the Regulator movement. Gov. Daniel Russell's fight with Southern 
Railway is dealt with in an article by Jeffrey J. Crow entitled 
'"Populism to Progress ivism' in North Carolina: Governor Daniel 
Russell and his War on the Southern Railway Company" (The 
Historian , August, 1975, pp. 649-667). 

Other sources used for this work are listed in the 
appendixes. 



195 



n*