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\:^ Aa.a^./j. \ (ft o % , S-T. ^ !nr^ 

i$Sf I (liSlftf Qtfi 


|)r(senteb bg 


The Library to be under the coalrol of the Dtree- 
ton, who may withhold such books from circokOJon, 
•8 they may deem expedient 

Each Member thall b« entitled to take from the 
Library, one folio, or one quarto, or two ofany leafter 
fold, with the plates belonging to the same, upon 
signing a receipt for the same, and promising^o mak« 
good any damage which may be sustained when Jo 
their possession, or to replace the same, if k>st. 

No person shall lend any book belonging to the 
Institute, except to a member, under a penalty ofon* 
dollar for «>very offence. 

The Directors may permit other persons than mem- 
bers to use the Library. No member shall detain 
any book longer than four weeks, a(\er being duly 
notified that the same is wanted by another member, 
under a penalty of twenty five cents per week. 

On or before the first Wednesday in May alt books 
shsU be returned, and a committee of the Directors 
appointed for that purpose shall examine the Library 
and make a report of the condiu'on at the Annual 




3 2044 097 030 407 






History. For Prinuury Schook ; on the same eeneral plan as 
the History of the United StateiL Embracing the most interest- 
i|ig and morally instraetiTe incidents and events in American 
History, commencing iHth the Life of ColmnboSb HandsomiAy 
iUnstrated. 160 pagea. 81 cents. 

ThU wortc It detlgiied fbr younger 
In Sehoola. Many of the leeMmt 
lie MoomiMmled by Judleions pietorlal 
ninstialknit ; alluston is eonttantly made 
to the geogropby of the parU described, 
and namerooB niapB aasodate pictorial 
erenU with their locaUtlM. 

**• Mr. Wiibon. to BTotd tbo ermn of 
hit pradecettort, htt Imrettf gtted clotely, 
has MlhMly eoltated sod rerifled hit 
Austt tad dalot, Bad, Bt a aatBnU ooiite> 
qeanoe, hat prodooed • amC atemrMU 
««rifc. The narratlTe It glren in a dear, 
timple ttyle, and the biographical sketchet 
i^^^^ ar» forcibly and Tiridly detoriptlTe.*' 


•— t 




States. 76 centa^ 

Plan iff tJit Siffire of Qwhff^ 

YiciNmrof avEW. 

GoiBiiMDdBg With the dlsooTery of 
America, and brought down to the mid- 
dle of the Nioeteeath oeotiUT. The 
work preienU the foltowlng clalme to 

Eublle faTor:— Iflt, superior aoearaey; 
1, chronological arrangement of datei, 
wholly In new ityle; 3d, illostratlre 
majpa and charts, and copious Geograph- 
ical Notes, exhibiting to the eye, and 
deacribing all important localities referred 
to t Hh. oonrenient Marginal Arrange* 
ment or tho Queatlona. An Appendix 
contains the OonsUtution of the United 
Statoa. with ISxptaoatory Notes, abrids- 
ed nnom the author's work on ^ClrU 
Polity,** or Ooostltuiional Law. 

WUlaon*8 History of the United 
States has been introduced Into the 
Public Schools of New York City, the 
Normal School in Albany, the Public 

Schools in New^k, Broiiklyn. Rochi 
Bufhlo, Cincinnati and SL Louis, ate, 
as well as In great numbers of Male 
and Female Academiea and Seminaries 
in all parts of the country. During the 
first year of Its publication, /aartMis 
tknuamd copies were sold. 

From the numerous recommendaUons and notioea of the woifc, the PubUahert 
select the followiDg:— 



*" Boston, Dec eUHl84&. 
**l eonalder it the best, and In raality the only 
School Histonr I hare erer seen, adapted to the 
wants of our Common Schools. 

** Principal of Brimmer Grammar SchooL" 

*«Bnritngton, N. J^ 11th mo. 6th, 1845. 
" Wi1l8on*s ristory of the United States for the 
use of School^ I have read through with peculiar 
satialhcUon. If any other book, oompUed for the 
_ same purpose, equals it In combining orevity with 
clearness of detail, impartiality with a manly regard 
for national interests, elevation of style with the simplicity due to jouih, end especially 
geogntphy with history, I am not acquainted with it 

''the wriier seems to be imbued with a Just peroepU'O of the wants of theschclar 
and the facililies due tn the teacher. 








AvraoK •r ^AMSBioAir MiaroRT," **auTOftT or tbb vmtbb lYArBf,* nVi 

0tl)O0l (fbition. 


(■occassoAt or iibwman * intoii, and makk b. mcwmam * co.) 
'^ OmOAOO : S. 0. GRIGGS A 00., Ill LAKE STREET. 
aubobh: •btmour * co. »«t«oit: a. mVabbbk. 
cmcimiATi : moorb, wxlitaoh % MTi. 


4«.*,«r^, %'irs~ 

BuTSKKD, MOOfdliig to Aet of OongrMt, ia the ywor iSA, bf 


b Ibe Ctek'k Offlee of the DiBtrict Oourt Ibr tti« Bontheni DUtriet of N«w Torib, 



SMWUUMoStrMWN.T. 18 8|»niM SireH. 


Thb Mithor of the foUowing woric sabmitB it to the Pnbtio with a few 
remaitB ezplanatoiy of its Plan, and of the endeayoTB of the writer ti» 
prepare a useftil and intereetiiig text^book on the aabjeot of General 

in tiie important departments of Greoian and Boman ffistory he haa 
aimed to embody the reenlts of the inyestigations of the beet modem 
writers, especially Thirlwall and Qrote in Grecian, and Niebnhr and 
Arnold m Boman HistMy ; and in both Ancient and Modem History he 
has eareftOly examined disputed poiats of mterest, with the hope .of 
avoiding all important antiqnated errors. 

By endeavoriDg to keep the attention of the student fixed on tha 
IdsCory of the most hnportant nations— grouping around them^ and treal>- 
iDg as of secondary importance, the history of otibers,— -and by bringing 
o«t in bold^ relief the main Bulfjecti of history, to^lie exclusion of com* 
paratiTely unimportant collateral details, he has given greater fUness 
than would otherwise be possible to Grecian, Boman, German, iVench, spmI 
Eogliih history, and preserved a oonBiderable degree of uaitgr in the nar^ 
latire ; while the importance of r^dering the whole as interesting to the 
stndent as possible, has been kept constantly in view. 

The numerous Notes throughout the work were not only thgughA 
neoesssry to the geogn^hical elucidation of the narrative, by giving to 
events a distmot ^ local habitation," but they also supply much psefol «Bh 
planafcory historical informadon, not easily attainable by the student, and 
which could not be introduced into the text without fireqaent digressioDS 
that would impair the unity of the snl^ect. 

In addition to the Table of Oonteots, which contains a general analyaia 
of the whole work, a somewhat minnte analysis oi each Chapter or Se04 
tion, given at the beginning of each, is deBignad for tha use of tc aa haii 
and pupils, in place of questions. 
• In tb» <* ackoQl Edition," itet nL, eaotdniog "^ OBtil^ 


Tli6 Mthor has derotod leeB space to the ICstory of the TJoited Stfttee 
of America than is found in most dmilar works, for the reasoi;^ that be 
has ahready published for the use of schools, a ^* History of the United 
States," and also a larger *^ American History ;*' and, furthermore, that 
as the present work is designed as a text-book for American stpdeutSi 
who have, or who should hare previonslj studied the separate history of 
their own country, it is unnecessary, and, indeed, impossible, to repeat the 
aame matter here in detail; and something more than so meagre an 
abridgment of our country's annals as a General History must neo- 
enaiily be confined to, is universally demanded. 

The author is not ignorant that he will very probably be charged with 
presumption hi heading Fart III. of the present work with the am- 
bitions title of *^ PhiloB<^hy of History,** although he profosses to give 
only its *^ Outlines ;** nor is he ignorant that a great critic has expressed 
the sentiment^ that as the vast Ohaos of Being is un&thomable by Human 
Experience, so the Philosophy of all Histoiy, could it be written, would 
require Infinite wisdom to understand it. But. although the whole mean- 
ing of what has been recorded lies far beyond us, the £act should not 
deter us from a plausible explanation of what ie known, ii^ haply, we may 
thereby lead others to a more just appreciation of the true spirit — ^the 
Oemue of Hiatoiy ^ »d the great lessons, social, moral, and poUtical, 
which it teaches. With the explanatoij remark that our brief and rery 
imperfect sketches of the Philosophy of History were not designed to en- 
lighten the advanced historical scholar, but to lead the ttuderU beyond 
the narrow cirde of facts, back to t^^ causes, and onward to some of 
the important deductions which the greatest historians have drawn from 
them, we present these closing chapters as a brief oompend oi the history 
of Civilization, in which we have aimed to do justice to the cause of Be* 
ligion, Infelligenoe, and Virtue,' and the cause of Democracy,-*the greai 
agents of regeneration and Human Progress ;— and we commend this 
portion of our work to the candor of those who have the charity to ap- 
predate our object, and the liberality to c<Hmeot with it our disclaimer 
ef any other merit than that of having laboriously gathered and analyzed 
the reBDUs of the researches of othern, and reconstructed them with some 
iegree of udI^ of plan, and for a good purpose, into these forms of («r 






L Tte OMttoo— AntedttorUmHlatoiy.— a. E^pUao Hfatoiy.— lU AabiUc Hblory. Page 11-90 



I. Geography of Greeoe.~IT. Grecfan Mythology.— HI. Earliest inbabltanta of Greece.— IT. 
PMgnMttlen In Greece.— V. The Hellenee.— VL The Heroic Age Page 20—43. 



I, Tlienaliaii eonqoeat— If. BcBotlan cooqaesL— Id. JRoWan migration.— IV. Retam of the 
HeradWSie.- V. Ipstltmiona of Lycurgns.— VI. First Measenian War.— VH. iJecond MeMo> 
ntan War.— VIII: Draco.— IX. Lexl>lation of Solon.— X. Expulsion of tlie Pisislratids.— 
XL lottk} ReTolt Page 43-58. 

OoTBJffORART HuTOBT. L PboBDfolan History.- II. Jewish History.— III. Roman History.— 
IV. Peniu History Page 56-73, 


BscTioE L— From tbc BKOiHHiNa or thb First War with Pkrsia; to thb Establxs** 

MBJrr or Pbilip on tkb Thronb or Macbdon : 490 to 360 a. c— 130 ykars. 
I. Fir* Persian War.— n. Second Persian War.— III. Third Mosaenian War.— IV. First Pelo- 
ponnesian War.— V. The Sicilian Expedition.— VI. Second Peloponneelan War.— Vll. Third 

PelopooiMsian War.— VIII. Second Sacred War Pago 73— Wl 

Sacnoii II.— From tbr EsTASLisiiMRfA or Philip oh thk Throhr op Mackdon, to thb 

BSDDcnoN or Grbbcb to a Rohak Provinck : 38) to 146 B. C— 314 ykars. 

L PklHp of Maoedon.— ri. Alexander the' Great— his contiuests, and death.— III. Achosan 

League, and conquest of Greece by the Romans Page 02-111. 

CoTBXroBABT HuTORT.r— L Hlstory of the Jews.— II. Grecian Oolonles.— III. Magna Orsecla. 
— nr. CjnmiRlca. Page 111— 133. 


or «IUBBCE AN1> CARTBAOB, 146 B. a — 607 TEAB8. 

Bbctioii I. Early Italy : Romb uiii>br thb Kiros : bndiro 510 B. C— S43 ybars. 
L Itolyw--IL IboBdlBg of Rome.- III. War with the Sabinea.— IV. Numa.-~V. Tullns Hoe- 
tttioa.— VI. Aacas liartiua.— VIL Tarqain the Elder.— Vill. Serviua TuUioa.— IX. Tarquin 

ftePrCNML Page 123— 134 

toenov II.— Tbb Roman Rbpitblic rsoM thb Abolitior or royalty, 510 B. C, to tbr 

BKOiHKixa or thb Wars witb Cabthaob, 983 B. C— 847 ybars. 

L OcnaBla.— U. Btruscan War.— III. Oflce of Dictalor.-IV. Plebeian Insurreetion.— V. Tri- 

bmm of the Peopkv-^VL VotedaD sod iBqaian wars.— VII. The DeoemTirs.- VIII. Ortlce 

orOenaovh-UL War wHh Veii.'-X. Oanio lDvaaion.-XI. Plebeian and Patrician con- 

'--I.— Xa OOceof Pnator.— XUI. First flamnlte War.— XIV. Second aamiilie War— XV. 

' ^ > War.-XVL War with the Xaranttnea and Flynliaa. JagR 1S4-1«C 


BscnoM in.-<-THs RoMAir RsrimtiCi rmox thb Bsennmis or mv Ca^kthammuh WaeIi 

963 B. a, TO TBB RB9VCTI01I or GbKBC* Aia> G^RTHAOK, IM B. C.-*] I7 TSARS. 

r. Ourthaee.— U. Flrat Pvnto W«r.--in. niyrteD War.— IV. War with tbe«Mls.~V. Seoonl 
PunlcWar.— VI. Grecian War.— VIL Syrian War.— VUI. Third Paoio War. Pago UO— 16S. 



I. Spain after the faU of Cartbage.-^II. Berrlle war In ffieUy.^III. DiaaeoBloDs of the GfMcfaL 
— rv. Jugurthine War.— V. Germanic Inyaslon.— VI. lie Social War.— VU. first M iUk- 
ridatic War.- V1IL Ciril wars between Marliis and Sylla.— IX. Servile war in ItsAy.— X. 
Second and Third Mllhridatic wark— XI. CtoospinM^ of Gktiline.— XII. The First TriumTl- 
▼frate.— XIII. Civil war between Otesar and Poropey.— XIV. The Second Triumvirate.— 
XV. OctaviaaAugwIiiBioleiiioaarchoriheKoniaBworid, BaffelM^MIi 



A. a 1 TO A. D. 476. 

BsonoK L— Roman History prok thb oommbncbmbiit or tbb OfenusTtAii bra f tbb 


t Earlier and later history of the Empire eompared.— IL Julius Csesar.— III. Aiuroitus.— IT* 
Tiberius— V. Caligula— VI. Claudrua—Vll. Nero.— VIU. Galba.-IX. Olho.— X. ViteUioa. 
—XI. Vespaai«n.-XII. Jewish war.-XUI. Titus.— XIV. Domiaaa....1... Page 188—303. 

Bbctiom IL— Roman History from thb dbatm op DovniAN A. D. 96^ to thb bstabubh- 


A.D.335:— J39TBARS. 
L Nerva.- IL Trajan.— III. Adrian.— IV. Titus Antoninus.— V. Marcus Anr611us Antoninoa. 
VI. Com' modus.- VU. Per' tinax.— VIII. Dfdios Jullaaus— IX. Septim'lus Severua.— X. 
Caracalla.— XI. Macrlnus.— XII. ElagabUua.— XUI. Alexander Severaa... . Page 20»— SIl. 

Bbction IIL— Roman History, prom tub bstabubrmbnt op military dbspotism aptbr 

THB rbion op Albzandbr Sbvb'rus, A. D. S3S, to tab avBVBRsiON or THE 

Wbstbrn Empirb op thb Romans, A. D. 476:— 341 tbars. 

I. Maxlmln.— II. Gordian.— III. Puplenosand Balbinus.— IV. Seoond Gordian.— V. Fbllip th« 
Arabian.-VI. Mclus.— VII. GaUus.-VllI. iEmm4nus.-IX. Valerian.— X. G«llieQUs.~XI. M. 
Aurelios CUudius — XII. QuintiliuB.- XIU. Aur^Iian.— XIV. Tacitus.— XV. Plonan.— XVI. 
Probu8.-XVlI. CArus.— XVIII. Num^rianandCafioua.— XIX. Diocletian.— XX. Maxlmln 
—XXL Galdrlus and Constan' Uus.— XXII. Oon'atantine.- XXIIL Consfantius IL— XXIV. 
Julian the Apostate.— XXV. Jovian.— XXVI. Valeniin'ian and Valeoa.— XXVH. Barbariaa 
inroads.— XX VI II. GraUan and TheodMus.— XXIX. Valentlnian IL— XXX. HontelHsand 
ArcAdlus.— XXXL Alaric the Goth.- XXXII ValentUi' Ian III— XXXIII. Oonqneato of 
Attlla.— XXXIV. The Vaadaia.— XXXV. AV itus-Mstiortan.— XXXVL BeT^me— XXXVU 
Bub version of the Western Empire Page SI Ir-SaS. 




AMERICA, A. D. 1492 : 1016 TBARS. 

Bbctiob Iw— Obnbral History, prom tmb ovbrtmrow op thb Wmstbrm Ehpirb op thb • 

Romans to thb bboinnino op thb tbnth cbmturt :— 494 years. 
I. Introductory.— II. The monarchy of the Henill.— HI. Monarchy of the Ostrogottia.— IV. Tb« 
eraof Justinian— V. The Lombard monarchy.— VL The Baraoen empire.— VII. Mooarahy 

oftheFranka^Via Bogllsh History Page SS— 964. 

Bbotiob IL— Gbnbral History dhriko thb tbrth, blbtbmth, twblpvh, ah» 
thirtbbnth ohrtvribs : a. D. 900 to 1300 »— 400 ybarb. 
L CampltU DuidMtian of Ms Bonds 9f ffMisCf .— L Obnflullon of Blslorie ms(arlals.--IL Ths 
Saraoeo world.— UL The BysanUne empire.— IV. CoodttlOB oT Itily.— T. OondMon dfOer- 
iB«qr.-VI- Condition of ninee ■. * t... ff i i siOl B?3L 


4 Tk9 HtH M l BfsUm, Okivtirf^and the OrM»adw.^L The Feudal «7sleni.~IL ChIr»lnr.-« 
ni. Ortelii of tlM OraHdKM.- IV. The Flwt Crasade.— V. The Second Crasade.— VI. Tbit 
ndtd Ommde.—VU. The Powth Cn]flMle.>-VUI. The Fifth Cnuade.— IZ. Tartar con 
t n aalii X . The abrth CrMadft. » PageS73— 888. 

H English HUt&rf^-^h England alter the death of Alfied.—II. Nonnan conquesL— IIT. Re- 
ducUflB or Irdaad^IV. 8ul]!}agaUon of Wales^V. Scouioh ware. Face S88— 297. 

Bm&wMm UL— GsasKAa HutoA acruMe tu rovKTasirlv jofs nmBHTV cBHTinuBa. 
t. £kif***' ""^ A«««« 4«rriur<A« .nmrtcmtJI aiui Fifteenth eaUMries.—L French and English 

wafB, laas to 14S3.— II. Wan of the <wo R<nee.—Ill. Reign of Henrr Vfl. of &ig- 

hwl Page297-^Si 

t. Other JiiU»»n9 at the ctoeeefthe Fifteenth century,— L Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.— II. 

The Rnttlah empire.— HI. The Ottoman empire.— IV. Tartar empire of Tamerlane.— V. 

Poland.— VI. The German empire. — VII. Switxerland.— VUl. Italian History. — IX. 

8p«h» -^ PBgeS08-3ia. 

% 2>tfc*e«rieff.—NaTigalion.r— Magnetic Needle.— Art of Printing.— The Canaries.— Cape de 

Verdnd Aiore lalanda.— The pDrtugnese.— Christopher Oolumbos.— Vasco de Gama 




1. AfreAieCafy.'-UBl^ of Ancient Hlalory.— The Middle Ages.- Modern History.— Plan of the 
■nhaequent perl of the work.— Europe, Asia, Egypt, The New World, at the beginning of 
the sixteenth eentory Page 3:»-325. 

%. The Jige efHemrf VIIL and Charles K.— I. The States-system of Europe.— 11. The rivalry 
between Francto 1. and Charles V.— Id. Heniy VIII. of England.— IV. The Reformation.— 
V. Abdication and reUrement of Charles V Pago335— 339 

a. ThsJtge if JEUaaheth^h Mavy of Scotland- IL avll and religious war in France.- III. 
Msirro of St. Bartholomew.— IV. The Netherlands.— V. The Spanish Armada.— VI. 
Bdiet of Nantes^— VU. Character of Elizabeth. Page 339—348. 

€, Cetew^taewf Hist»rf,—L The Portngaese Colonial Empire.— II. Spanish Colonial Empire, 
— m. The Mogol Empire in India.— iV. The Peralan Emphre. Page 348— 39& 



1. Tte mrtf Ftarf* Ffbrv-I. The PaUtttne period of the war.— II. Danish period of the 
war^ni. SwediA period of the war.— IV. French period of the war Page 353—361. 

t, English Bistsrv : TTks English Revolntlen.—J. Union of England and Scotland.— II. Jamea 
L-^ULChariesL-IV. Scotch RebelMon.-V. The Long Pariiamenu-VI. CItU war.- VII. The 
Bootdk Lsague.— VIIL Oliver Cromwell.— IX. Trial and execuUon of Charles I.— X. Aboll^ . 
flon of noDarehy.— XL War with Holland.— XII. The Protectorate.— XIII. Restoration of 
mooarehy.— XIV. James IL— X V. Revolution of 1086 Page 301—377. 

t, French History : Wars of J.o%is XJK-^l. AdministraUon of Cardinal Richelieu.— II. 
Maxarln's administration.— in. Louis XIV. Bis war with Spain.— With the Allied Powera- 
Engiand, Spain, Holland, and Sweden.— internal aflhirs of France.— General war againal 
Lonis FrencB at the end of the century Page 377—385. 

^ rwiyiiiif Bist0r9^-L Dennarfc, Sweden, and Norway.— IL Poland.— lit. Ruasla.— IV. 
Turkey.— V. Italy.- VL The Spanish Peninsuhu— VIL AslaUc Nation8.-rVIIL Colonial 
linahllshmenla -Amarlcan History Page 38S-.396. 


L W^ efthe Spanish smeeessiany and elo'e of the reign of Ixmis XIF.^L England, Germany, and 

HoUand dechM war agaiaM Fnmoe, 170-^.— II. Oimpaign of 1702.— lU. Events of 1703.— IV. 

events of 1701— V. Events of 1705-4J.— VL Campaign of 1707.— VII. Events of 1708.- VIII. 

mn.— IX. 'nvaty or Utrecht, 1713.— X. Character of the reign of Louis XIV . .. Page 396-407. 
& Petsrthe Great of Russia^ and Charles XII. of Sweden.— h The north and east of Europe.— 

n. Beginning of hostilities sgalnst Sweden.— III. I>efeat of the Russians at Narva.— IV. 

Vidortea of Charlea in the year iTDi.— V. March of Charies into Russia.— VL Battle of 

Pnltowa.— VIL The Turks.— Vl(L Return of Charies.— IX. Events of 1715.— X. Death of 

Ghariea.— XL His charaeter.— Xlt. Death and eharacter of Peter the Great.. Page 407—418. 
1 Spanish Wars and War of the AustHan Snceession,—!, European AUlanceu— 11. War 

»Mweett iBglaiiid aad Spabi.— HI. Ctoiaei of the war of the AoMitan fneeaaaloBu-lV. 



OoiaiUoa sgatnst Austria.- V. Efwitt of 17«-3.— VL KvautaoT 1744r-VlL ZwmM of tf4l 

— VllJ. iuvasion ofEitgland \ff the Young Pretender.— IX. Events In Anerica.— X. I14lh7. 
—XI. Treaty of Alx-la-ChapeUe, 1748 Page 4i8--493. 

«. IVi^- Seven Years^ War : 175<>— 1763.— I. Eiffbt yean of peace.*-Ii. Oawes of anotker war. 
—III. KeKiuuiiiff uf hoslililie» in America.— lY. European ADiaoceB.- V. Ftnt Gampaign 
of t>©derick, 1756,— VI. 1737.-VIL 175.S.-V11I. HiW.-IX. 17«0.-X. ITOI.-XL Peace 
of 17«3.-»Xll. Al lliUir>' characler of Frederick Page 43^—433. 

5k StaU ttf Kurvpe, The jfawrtcaa AeeoJutiM.— I. GeaerS peace Id Europe.— IT. Fraofe.— 
111. KuMm.—lV. DiMnembermmitofPulatid.— V. SbOeof parties in £oglaiii.—VI. Americaa 
Tuxa.ion.— VII. Opening oi the wnr with the Coloaice.— VIII. European relations with 
Eugiaud.- IX. Alliance Ixstween France and the American States.— X. Wsr between France 
and Kni(luii(i.— XI. Wur belweca Spain and England.- XII. Armed Neutmlity against Ens* 
land.— X 111. Rupture between Eugloud and HolUuid.— XLV. War in the East Indies.— XV. 
Trtaty of 17*«i.— X VI. General Treaty of I7«3 ftiye 433-449. 

ft. The FVencA Rrcoiution : 17rD— 1600.— I. Demooratio spirit.— II. Louis XVI.— HI. Flnaaaial 
difficuilies.— IV. Tlie Siate»-Gen«nil.'V. Revolutionary state of Paris.— VI. Great political 
changes.— Vli. Famine and mobs.— Vlf I. Nuw ConsUiutlon.— IX. Manhalllns of parties.— 
X. Tne Emigrant Nobility.— XI. Attempted escape of the Royal Family.— XII. War d^ 
elitred against Austria.— XIII. Masaaoe of the 10th of August.— XIV. Masaaere of Sep- 
tember.— XV. Trial and execution of Louis XVL— XVL Fall of the Girondists— XV If. 
The Ueigti of Terror.— XVIII Triumph of Infidelity.— XIX. Fall of the Dantonlsts— XX. 
Wur against Europe.- XXi. insurrection of La Vendee.— XXIL Insurrection in tb€ south 
of France.— XX ill. Fail of Robespierre, and end of the reign of Terror.— XXIV. The Engi- 
lish vicioriouii at iViX, and the French on land.— XXV. Second partition of Poland.— XXVL 
Third partition of Poland- i<96. XX VU. UissoluUon of the coalition against Franca.-* 
XXVlll. New Consiitutum.— XXIX. L.surrecUon in Paris.— 1796. XXX. Invasion of G*^r- 
many. -XXXI. The Ar:ny of Italy.— XXX II. Disturbances in England.- 1797! XXXIII. 
Napoleon'ri Ausiriaii Campaign.— XXXiV. Treaty of Campo Formlo.— XXXV. EsiabUsh- 
meni of Ai Hilary Deapoiism in France —1798. XXX VL Preparations for the inTaslon of 
England.— XXX Vll. Expedition to Egypt.-XXXVIU. Battle of the Pyramids.-XXXfX. 
Battle of (he Nile.— 17^M). XL. Syrian Expedition.— XLL Siege of Acre.— XLII. Battle of 
Mount I^bor.—XLIU. Battle of Aboukir.—XLIV. Overthrow of the Dlrectonr.—XLV. Nft* 
poleon FU^ Consul Pagf 44S— 479. 



Section L— Th« W^ahs or Namlkom : 1800—1815. 
1. EvenUoftheyearl80a Warwith Austria.— II. Events of 1801.— IIL Events of lf«3LttM7ear 
of peace.— IV. Ri'newai of the war, 1803.— V. Events of 1804. Napoleon Emperor.— VI. 1805, 
Coali Uon against France. Battle of A usterlits.- V II. 1806, Louis Napoleon king of Holland. 
Confederation of the Rhine. BatUee of Jena and AueratadU— VIIL 1807, Treaty of TUsiU— 
IX. It^ Events in ^pain. Beginuing of the Peninsular War.— X. I8U0, War with Austria. 
BatUe oi Wagram. Nupoleon^s divorce from Josephine.— XI. J810, Busaco and Torres 
Vedms.— XII. IHII, Badajoz and Albnera.-Xlll. im2, Russian Campaign. Smolensko— 
Borodino —Moscow. American War.— XIV. 1813, General coalition agvdnst Napoleon. 
Lutzoii— Bautzen— I^eipsic— XV. 1814, Capitulation of Paris. Abdication of Napoleon.— 
XVI. 1815, Napoleon's return fl-om Elba. Battlcof Waterloo Page 475—503. 

SccTioN 11.— From the Faul or Napoleoh to the pkbsbmt time. 

1. nu Period of Peace : 1815— 1820.— I. Treaties of 1815.-11. England.— IIL France 

Page 50«-n5ii. 

8. Revolutiong tn Spain, PertugoL JVbpfes, Pi*dm»nL, Grwes, Franca, Balgimn^ a$td Po> 

Und: ltiSO-1831 .?.T7 Page 5lt-SS0. 

S. Enflish ReformM. French Revolution of 1848. Revolution m tka Oerman SXatot, Prwtna, 
and Jiustria, Revolution in Italy. Hungarian IVar» Ueurvatiau of Louis M'apolo^n : 
1831—185'.' Page 550-509. 


1. Ancient Greece 5S4 

Sl At.iens anil its Harbors 506 

3. Islands of the iEgean Sea 568 

4. Asia Minor 570 

5. Persian Empire ."i?? 

0. Palestine 574 

7. Turkey in Europe 576 

a Ancient Italy 578 

9. Romah Empire 580 

10. Ancient Rome 589 

U. Chart of the World 584 

13. BatUe Grounds of Napoleon, Ace 560 

13. FranocT Spain, and Portugal 568 

14. Swirzeriaiid, DeiiroRrtc, &c 500 

1.5. NctherlandH, (Holland and Belgium).. SH 

16. Great Britain and Ireland 504 

17. Central Europe 59*i 

18. United SUtes of America. S98 

HOTS. For the ^ indaK to tha Geographical and Historical Notas*' ••• «id of tU toIuum^ 




AH ALYBI& 1. Tn Crbatiov. Tbe eartli a ohaolle man. Oraatloii of Ught 
of land and water.— 2. Vegetable life. The heavenly bodies. Animal life.--^ God's Ueaiiv 
en faia wofka. Olvatloa of man. Dominion given to Um. Inititution of tbe sabbath.— 4. Ay- 
TBavLUTiAN HuTORT. The ■at^Jeets treated oL-^ The earth tmmedialely after the deliigia. 
The btheritanee given to Noah and Us eliildrear>4k The building of Babel. [Eaphratee. Geo- 
ffapfalGal and Uslorieal t4»onnt of the surromiding eoontiy.] ConAiaion of tonguea, and dis- 
yenkm cf tbe hvnan ftarilj.— 7. ftqipoaed directions taken by Noah and his soim.~8. Eenv- 
uji HiaToav. His'raim, the fbonder of the Egyptian nation. [Eigypt*] The floveramanft 
ealabiiahed by hhn. Sabverted by M^nes, 9M0 B. C—9, Aceoonts given by Herod' otaa, Jos6- 
jjibam, and others. [Memphis and Thebes. DesoHptlon of.] Thditlons reflating to M«nea. 
HIa great eelebitty. [The NUe.]— 10. Egyptian history from M^nes to Abiahans, Tbe erectkm 
of tlw Egyptian pyramids. [Description of them.] Bvidenoee of Egyptian cIviUzatioa durlag 
Ihetlmeor Abraham^-11. The Shepherd Kings in Lower Egypt. Their final expulsion, 1900 
B. a Joseph, governor of Egypt [Goehen.] CDmmeneement of Grecian histoiy.-*lSL Acu«* 
TIC HuTORT. [Assyria. Nineveh.] Ashor and Nimrod. [Babylon.] Ihe worship of Nim* 
nd^iai Conflietfaig aeoomts of Ninas. Assyria and Babylon daring his reign, and that of hia 
■■ c esasoi ^ R Aoooont of SemiramlB. Her coaqwesti^ kc pndna B.] Tbe hiatoiy of Aaqp- 
Ha snbaeqaeDt to the reign of Sendr'amis. 

1. The luAtoTj of the world which we inhabit oommenoes with 
tibe first act of creation, when, in the language of Moses, 

the earliest sacred historian, " God created the heavens ^ ^i'**^* 
and tbe earth." We are told that the earth was '' with- 
out form, and vold'^ — a shapeless, chaotic^ mass, shrouded in a man- 
tle of darkness. But ^ Ood said, let there be light; and there was 
B^t" At the command of the same infinite power the waters rolled 
together into their appointed places, forming seas and oceans ; and 
the dry land appeared. 

2. Then the mysteries of vegetable life began to start into being f 
beantffol shrabs and flowers adorned the fields, lofty trees waved in 
the forests, and herbs and grasses covered thip grotfnd with verdure. 


The stars, those gems of erening, shone forth in tiie sky ; and two 
greater li^ts were set in the firmament| to diyide the day from the 
ni^^t, and to be " fmr signs, and for seasons, and for days and for 
.years." Then the finny tribes sported in " the waters of the seas," 
the birds of heavoi filled tke air with Iheir melody, and the earth 
brought forth abundantly '' oattle and creeping things," and '' erery 
living erealnre after its kind." 

3. And when the Almighty architect looked upon the objects of 
oreation, he saw that << all were good," and he blessed the works of 
his hands. Then he " created man* in his own image ;" in., the like- 
ness of Qod, "male and fomale created he them;" and he gave 
them " domini<m over the fl& of the sea, and over the fowl of the 
air, and over eyery living thing that moveth upon the earth." This 
was the last great act of creation, and thvs God ended the work 
which he had made ; and having rested from his labors, he sanctified 
a sabbath or day oi rest, ever to be kept holy, in gratefiil remem- 
brance of Him who made all things, and who bestows upon man ail 
the blessings whic^ he enjoys. 

4. The only history of the human feunily from the creati(»i of 
n. AzncDi- Adam to the time of the deluge,^ a period of more than 
tVTiAwms- two tiloosand years, is contained in the first six ohap- 

^^^' ters of the book of Genesis, supposed to have been iprritten 
by Moses more than fourteen hundred years after the flood. The 
fi^l of our first parents from a state of innocence and purity, the 
transgression of Gain and the death of Abel, together with a gen- 
ealogy of the patriarchs, and an account of the exceeding wicked- 
ness of mankind, are the principal subjects treated of in the brief 
history of the antediluvian world. 

5. When Noah and his family came forth from the ark, after the 
deluge had subsided, the earth was again a barren waste ; for the 
waters had prevailed exceedingly, so that the hill-tops and the moun- 
tains were covered ; and every fowl, and beast, and creeping thing 
and every man that had been left exposed to the raging flood, had 
been destroyed from the earth. Noah only remained alivte, and 
they that had been saved with him in the ark ; and to him, and his 
three sons, whose names were Shem, Ham, and Japheth, tlie whole 
earth was now given for an inheritance. 

6. About two hundred years after the flood, we find the sens of 
Noah and their descendants, or many of them, assembled on the 

ObmrL] SASLYAGB9. 18* 

iMika of ike Bnphnttes,' in a region fsaHed tke *«Ii«id <^ 8lmMr/* 
aiid there beginning to boild a dty, — ^together with a tower, whoae 
iopy ta^ boasted, dioold reach unto heaven. But the Lord oune 
down to see the dtj and the tower whidi the ohildren of mea in 
itmr pride and impiety were boilding ; and he there confotmded the 
language of the woricmen, that th^ might not vnderstand one an- 
other ; and ihoB the bnildhig of the tower, winch waa called Babel, 
was abandoned, and the people were soattored abroad over the whole 

7. It b generally supposed that Noah himself, after this event, 
joomeyed eastward, and fbtmded the empire of Ohina; that Shem 
was the fitiher of the nations of &)nthem Asia; that Httn peopled 
Bgypt; and ihat the desoendants of Japheth moated westward 
and settled m the countries of Enri^e, or, as they ara called m 
Scriptore, the *' Isles of the Gentiles." 

8. Soon after the dispersion of mankind from Babel, it is supposed 
that Mifl'raim, one of the sons of Ham, journeyed into 

Egypt," where he became the founder of the most ancient "^J^^^^ 
and renowned naticm of antiquity. The govemmeot es- 
tablished by him is believed to have been that of an aristocratic 

L Tlie EMfkratm, jhe act o o widwable riry of W«tem Aria, hM its MvroM liitU»talftl» 
lands of Anneoia, about nlneigr mUea fkom Ibe lomh-aaatcm boidara of tte Btoek Sea. like 
aooitea of tlie TXrru vt ia (b« Mone ragioiH Imt flurtber aotttlL Iha^anMaldlreettoikof both 
iiPBwtoaoiitbaaiir»tolhair<ti»noeiatoUiaheaAof tboPwriaaOalt (Sm .W<v, p. >&.) 8o 
lata aa Mia age of Ahgandar ttia Cwa^ each of Ihaae Htow pwaerrad a lapaiatB ocmwe to tba 
lea, bat not long aaertbay baeaoie vnttad aboat eighty mllea ftom ikelr monta, ttorn whkdt 
poiatllwybaiTeeverriiiaaooiitiBiiadtoflowiB a riagleatNam. Both liven are nafigable a 
oenridflrtbla ilriannT,— fririh have tbefar ragolar taiundationa; rfring tvtoa a fear-AM ta Be* 
OBoibai; to eoaaeqaenea of the anttimnal laiitt; and next ilroin Marah titt June, owfog lo the 
iMltfawaftliemiMinlalnanowB. The Seriptarea pline the Qtfdea of £deb on the bank* of tae 
n ^ liiatui , birt the exnet rite to tmlaown. 

We lean ttetaooB after the dehiBe, the ooontry in the Ttclnitgr of the tiro rirtn Ttgria and 
Eophxatai, where stood the tower of Babal« was knoWn as the Ltuui of Skiiur: aaerwanis the 
enpire of AM^riaor Babjkm Aoartahed hete; and still later, the toixntrjr between the two 
tfreis was esUed by the andent GreekSi Mmtp^Umia,-^ oompoand of two Greek words, 
(aweceand fwloaHWi) rig^Qrins ^between the riTen." In andent timea the banks of both 
rtreiB wars studded with dties of the trst rank. On the eastern beidc of the TIgrti Stood 
Nineveh; and oo both rides of the Buphralea stood the mighty Babylon, *^tbe glory of Unr 
doBH," and <*lhe beanly of the GhaUee>s eBBeeaeBey." Lower Mesopotamhs both above and 
below Babykmy was anaienOyhiterseetad by QanatoUererydheQllon, many of which sen sttU 
be tiaead; «id some of theoi eould eerily be restored to their original eonditlon. (Sm 

8. Aaelsnt BevpT, aalled by the Hsbrewa JMu'reAa, M7 be divfaied tato two principal per* 
tions; Upper or Sooikhemegypt, of Which Thebes waatbe capital, and Lower i^gypt, whoaa 
capital WM Memphis. That portion of Lower Egypt embrsced wttbtai the months or oodets of 
the MUs^ the Oieeks allarwards esBsd the Dtlu, from its resemblanoe to the Ibim of the 
Omsk letter of that namew<A) Aaalapt ggypt prebably embraced aB of the pr esen t »nWa» 
aadpsrhapsapwittfAbarsriBiib Modsn JlQVl to kssadad ^ tha aorih brU 

• u AKciKirr HisToar. 

primihood, whoie moaben w«retlie pn^nma of tli« arts and &«««»««», 
Mid it 18 supposed that tibe nation was divided into three distinoi 
olaasesy— the priests, the military, and the people ;— the two farmer 
holding the latter and most nnmerons body in sabjection. After 
this goremment had existed nearly two oentnries, mder mlers yHumm 
names haye perished, M^es, a military diieftain, is sapposed to 
have sabverted the anoient sacerdotal de^otism, and to have estab- 
lished the first civil monarchy, about 2400 years before the Ohristian 
era. M6nes was the first Fharaohj a name common to all the kin^ 
of Egypt 

9. Upon the authority of Herod' otos^ and Jos^phus,* to the first 
king, M6ne6, is attributed the founding of Memphis,* probably the 
most anoient city in Egypt Other writers ascribe to him the build- 
ing of Thebes* aJso ; but some suppose that Thebes was built many 

mail, oa the east by the lathmoB of San and the Bed Sea, on the sooth by Nubia, and on t]|e 
weat by the Great Desert and the province of Barca. 

The eolUTated portion of Egypt, embraced mosUy within a nairoir valley of flom Sto to 
twenty miles in width, ia indebted wholly to the annual inundationa of the Nile for iU IbrtiUty ; 
and without them, would soon become a bairen waste. T1m» river begins to swell, In its higlier 
parta, in April ; but at the Delta no increase ooema unUl the beginning of Jane. Ita greatest 
height there ia in September, when the Delta la atanost entirely under water. By the end of 
November the waters leave the land altogether, having deposited a rich aUuviuni. Then the 
ESgyptian spring commeneea, at a season corresponding to our winter, whan the whole eounliy, 
oovered with a vivid green, bears the aspect of a frnitAd garden. (JHBf,f.l5.) 

1. Herpd' •<«»— the earlieat of the Greek hlatorians: bom 484 B. G. 

& JiM^AiM— a cetobrated Jewish historian: bom at Jemaalem, A. D. 37. 

3. MemfhiB, a fiunous city of Egypt, whose origin dates beyond the period of anOentte huh 
tory, is sapposed to have stood on the western bank of the Nile, about flfleen miles sooth fhHn 
the apex of the Deltar-the point whence the waters of the river diverge to eater the sea by 
dlifereni oha nnw i n . But fbw reUca of Ita magnifloimce now ooenpy the ground where the eUf 
once stood, the materials having been mostly removed fbr the building of modem ediflces. At 
the time of our Saviour, Memphis vraa the seoon^ eKy In Qgypt, and next in importoilBce to 
Aleaandria, the capital; but ita detay had already begun. Even In the twelfth century of the 
Christian era, after the lapse of four thousand years fkom ita origin, It Is described by an Orli^ 
tal writer as oontainlng ^ works so ironderAiI that they cenfonnd even a reOecthig mind, and 
aaeh aa the moat eloquent would not be able to deacribe." (M^ p, IS.) 

4. The ruimrof 7%*be», *^thb capital of a by-gone world,** are sttnatod in (he narrow valley 
of the Nile, In Upper Egypt, extending about seven mUes along both banks of the river. Here 
•re stin to be aeen magnlfloent rains of temples, palaoea, ookjasal statues, obettsks, and lomba, 
which atteat the esBoeeding wealth and power of the eariy ESgyptiana. Hie ^ty is supposed to 
have attained ita greatest splendor about flfteen hundred years before the Ghiistlan era. On 
the east side of the river the principal ndna are thoee of Osraae and Loxor, about a mile and a 
htif apaii. Among the former are the remaina of a temple dedicated to Ammon, the Jupiter 
of the ESgyptiaoa, covering more than nine aerea of ground. A laige portion of this stopendoua 
structure is still standing. The principal ftont to (his building Is 368 feet in length, and 148 foot 
in height, with a door-way in the mkldle 64 foet high. One of the halla in this vast building 
ooven an area of more than an acre and a quarter; and ita rooi; eonalsttng of enormons slabs 
of stone, has been supported by 134 huge columns. Hie roof of what is supposed to have been 
tM sanctnary, or pboe flrom which the orades wera delivered, is composed of three blocks of 
gnaits^ pahited with doalera of gltt stars en a blve groond. The eotiaaoe to this room wae 

llVfewaoMe<dMttakB,«MhieftetUglV<hrar«rwhtahaMMfW8itfidl^ MUtwor 




oentanes later. M^nes appears to have been oooopied, dturing mosl 
of his reign, in wars with foreign naticms to us unknown. Aooordlif 
to namerons traditions, reeorded in later ages, he also coltiyated the 
arts of peace ; he protected religion and the priesthood, and erected 
temples ; he built walls of defence on the frontier oi his kingdom— 
and he dog numerous canals, and oonstructed dikes, both to draw off 



xir iLLimsATrTs or iarlt hbtoat. 

ft mngnltlrwit palace, sboot 800 teet In lenglli bySOOhiwiddk 
of fli6doonriyta»Mlo«ilflaine,iiiMsarttiff44fe0tfhMiitlMgrMiiMl. FNmlinf 
irav two oMllik% eMh IbiiMd or a lin^ bloek of fed grudte, flO fe«t In be^ 
soDtptnrad. A fe«r jmn a«D cm of Uiase obelMa wu taken down, and ettn* 
eocpenM^ to the city of Paria, wlwre H liaa*l>eeB ereeted In (he Place de ki Ooiv 
the ndm on the wett tide of the itrer, at'Medtaet Aboo, are two Mtdnir cokMad 
each alMraiW feet tn height, aaiHwrtedhjpedettelB of cerraapondtegdInieDitoiift On 
• tfdeoTthe river. In Ae moantalihiwige thirt Mai* ttacTalley, aad weatwmd eflM 
le the Amow aataaoiiAa^ or hwtelflnoea or a» aaele 
ioilAioek. iJUf,p,i$^ 

veyed, et great 

16 ' ANOXEBIT Bm(»tT. (Piltt L 

the waters of the Nile' for eBriokag the odtiTated Isncbs and to 
frovont inmidfttioD& His name is oomnum in anoient rooords, whflo 
many subsequent montfcfas of Egypt h«re been forgotten. Monn- 
ments still exist wlii)oli attest the veneration in iriiich he was hdid 
by his posterity. 

10. From the time of Mtees nniiil about the 2lBt eentory beftM 
Christ, the period when Abnduun is snp pos e d to hate risited Egypt,* 
little is known of Egyptian history. It appears, however, from 
hieroglyphic iosoriptions, first interpreted in the preset oentnry, and 
oorroborated by traditions and some vagne historic records, that the 
greatest Egyptian pyramids* were erected three or fonr hundred 
years before the time of Abraham, and eight or nine hundred years 
before the era of Moses, — showing a truly astonishing degree of 
power and grandeur attained by the Egyptian monarchy more than 
four thousand years ago. When Abraham visited Egypt he was re- 

1. Tlie MU9^ a kxge rirer ofeuteni AfHca, Is formed by Uie Jnnctfon of the Wfalte Rhrer aad 
the Blue Rirer In tlM ooviUy of Suuuar, whence tbe nrited streun Sows northwird, In a yery 
winding ooorae, through Nubia and E^ypt, and enters the Meditttnaeeii throuSh two aioattiti 
those of Eosetta and DamleUa, the former or most westerly of whldi Ins a width of about 1800 
ftet; aad the tauter of about 900. The Boeetta ch^nnd has a depth of abMt Are feet In the dty 
season, and the Damletta channel of set«n or eight feet when tbe river la lowest. Formeriythe 
Nile entered the sea by Wfren diflbrsnt channels, several of which still ocoasionally serve f» 
canals, and purposes of irrigation. During tbe last thirteen hundred miles of Its coone, the 
NUe leceives no tribatafy on either side. The Wkiu river, generally regarded as the true Nile, 
aboot whoee source no satisflietoiy iowwledge has yet been obttfned. Is supposed to hare Us 
rise in the bighlaMa of Oentxal Africa, north of the Equator. ( JMap, p. 15.) 

S. Thepyroau^ of Egypt are rest artificial straetures, moA of them of stone, aeatlered at 
irregular inlervals along the western valley of the Nile from Heroe, (Ifer-o^e) to modem 
Nubia, to the stte of andeotHeB^is near Oaiio.<iU-ro.) The laiy sl , best known, and mort 
celebrated, are the three pyrunids of Ghizeh, situated on « platform of rock about 150 fbet 
above the lerel of the sunooDding desert, near the ruins of Memphis, seven or eight miles 
south-west frwm Cairo. The laigest of these, the flimOuspyMinid of Cheops, Is a gigantic strao- 
tne, the base of which covers a suilhce of about eleven acres. The sides of the base oorre- 
spond in direction with tbe four cardinal poinia, and each measures, ai the foundation, 746 feet. 
The perpendicular height is about 480 foet, whkh ls43 foet Inches higher than St. Peters at 
Rome, the lofUesfc edifloe of modem times. This hitge Ihbrlc oonslsts of two hundred and rix 
layers of vast blocks of stone, rising above each other in -the form of steps, the thickness of 
which diminishes aa the height of the pyramid increases, the lower layers being neariy five Mt 
In thldOMsa, and the 1^H;Mr ones aboui eighteen teebes. The ai w ial t of the pyraasld npp sa iu 
to haTO been, originally, a IctoI platform, sixteen or eighteen foet square. JfVlthin this pyramid 
several chambers baTe been dlscoyered, lined with Immense slabs of granite, which must haye 
bean eoov^yed thhber from a great distanee op Um Hllei Tbe seoond pynald at GMaA is 
eoaledorer with poUahed stone 140 foet downwards from tbe auamrit, theniby lettovtag tha 
faMquaUtieeoceaBloned by the steps, and rsBdering the SBxfooesueoft aad UBlfo^ Herod'e» 
tas states, from infoimatlon derived from (he Egyptian pricals, that one hmidnd thoiaand man 
were employed twelify yean in coifctmclir^ tbe graact pyramid of Ohteh, aad that tan yean 
had been apent, previoi^, in qoairying thesioaes and oonwying them to ttteplaea. The re* 
maintaig pyramUs of Egypt eorNSpcadv in their general ehameter, with the one deaorfbod, wtth 
jhoaaoepUontlmt several of them am uasiiliiiulBil of aaa^wnit brtefc. Nor 
mm «xlBlt that tba pyamhia w«e daatpwa aatha bartalt>hnoa a. «■«». 

a. son B. G. 

Our.1] £ARIiTA0E8. IT 

Mved mA the lidflpiidity And lcbdn«08 beoeming a d^iliied Aiitiaft ; 
flod irhen he left Egypt, to return to his own country, the ruiinf 
monarch dismuaed him and all hia people, " rich in oattlci in silver, 
and in gold." 

1 1. Nearly a hundred years before the time of Abraham's yisit to 
Egypt, Lower Egypt had been invaded and subdued* by the Hyo' sofl^ 
or Shepherd Kings, a roving people from the eastern shores of the. 
Mediterranean, — ^probably the same that were known, i^t a later 
period, in sacred history, as the Philistines, and still later as the 
Phconicians. Kings of this race continued to rule over Lower Egypt 
goring a period of 260 years, but they were jSnally expelled,'* and 
driven back to their original seats in Asia. During their dominion, 
Upper Egypt, with Thebes its capital, appears to have remamed 
under the government of the native Egyptians. A few years after 
the expulsion of the Shepherd Kings, Joseph was appointed'' governor 
or regent of Egypt, under one of the Pharaohs ; and the femily of 
Jacob was settled*^ in the land of Ooshen.^ K was during the resi- 
dence of the Israelites in Egypt that we date the commencement of 
Grecian history, with the supposed founding of Argos by In' achus^ 
1856 years before the Christian era. 

12. During the early period of Egyptian histqry which we have 
described, kingdoms arose and mighty cities were found- 
ed in those regions of Asia first peopled by the iteme- ^ *"*•"" 
diate descendants of Noah. After the dispersion of 
mankind from Babel, Ashur, one of the sons of Shem, remained in 
the vicinity of that place; and by many he is regarded as the 
founder of die Assyrian empire,' and the builder of Nineveh.' But 

L "Ibe land or (?0«JUbi lay along the mort Msterly branch of the NQc^ and on the eaatiidt 
or U ; for it Is oTident that at the time of the £xode the laraelitea did not ctms the Nile. (Hale^a 
Analjriia of Cabionologyy i. 374.) ^''Die *land of Geaben* vaa between Efffpi and Ganaan^aoi 
ftr from ttMlsttunna of Sttex» on the eastern tide of the Nile." {S«eJliap,^ {Coekajfas^s 
HisL •/ tk0 J«w«, ^ 7.) 

8l The eaiiy ptOTinoe or kingdom of Assyilu is uaoally considered as having been on the 
eaaten bank of the rirer Tlgri^ having mnereh for its capital. But It is probable that both 
HhiPTdi and Babylon beloi^Bd to the early As^an empire^ and that these two dtlea were at 
Hmea the upltals of separate monarchies, and at Umae onited under one government, whoso 
tenitoiles were ever «^'*""c*»*g by conquest, and by slUancee with sarTounding tribes or nations. 

ai The dty otjfimevek is sappoeed to have stood on the east bank of the Tigris, opposite the 
nodem dty of MosoL (««« Map, p, 15.) Ito site was protobly idenUcal with that of the pro- 
aent smafl village ofNania, and what is called the ^tomb of Jonah ;" which areaunroonded by 
vast heape of minsy and vestiges of monnds, flt>m which bricks and pieces of gypanm are dog 
Oiit» wtth Inscriptions ctoady rewenshMiig those AhuvI among the rulna of Babylon. 

or the eariy history of Nineveh tttUe is known. Some eariy writ^ describe It aa largw thfli 
Bahyloo; butUtUe dupMeooowin be placed on their staHmeata tt la bettered, hodrasn^ 

•.8inB.c. b. itMBa •^ •. nflanQ. d.'iMiaa 


18 AKdESrr HIBTO&T. [Put I 

others' ascribe this honor to Nimrod, a grandson of Ham, who, as thejr 
suppose, haring obtained possession of the provinces of Ashvr, baih 
N ineveh, and encompassing Babel with walls, 8«d rebuilding the desert- 
ed city, made it the capital of his empire, under the name of Babylon,' 

Out the walls fndoded, besides the bondings of the dty, a large extent ofirdl-calUTaled ga^ 
dens and pasture grooads. In the ninth century berofdGbrlal,tt was deseiibed by the propbet 
Jonah as **an exceeding great city of three d«ys* Jouraey," and as containing **Riore than sbc 
•core thonaand persons that ooald not distinguish between their right hand and their left." II 
Is generally belieTed that the expression here need denoted tkOirm^ aod that the entire pop«- 
lotion of the city numlienxi seven or eight hundred thousand souls. 

mneveh was a city ot great commercial importance. The prophet Naham thus addresaaa 
her : "Thou hast multiplied thy merchants above the atari of heaTen." (lli. l<k) Nineveh wap 
besieged and taken by Aibaces the Mede, in the eighth oentuiy befi>re Christ; and In the year 
613 it fell into the hands of Ahasuerus, or Cyaxares, king of Media, who took great *< spoil of 
itflTer and gold, and none end of the store and glory, out of all her pleasant (hmlture,** making 
her « empty, and void, and waste.** (Map, p. 15.) 

1. According to our English Bible (Genesia, x. 11), ** ^tkur went forth out of the land of Shi- 
nar (Babylon) and builded NineTdL,** But by many this reading is supposed to be a wrong 
translation, and that the passage should read, '^From that land he (Nlmrod) went forth Into 
Ashur, (the name of a provinc^) and built Nineveh.** (''Do terra ilia egressus est Assur et 
edlflcavit Nineveh.** (See Anthonys aasslcal Olctlonaiy, article Assyria. See, also, (he subject 
examined in Helens Analj-sls of Chronology, i. 450-1.) 

S. Ancient Babylon, once the greatest, most magniacent, and most powerftil city of the wortd, 
•tood on both sides of the river Euphrates, about 350 miles ftom ttie entrance of that stream 
Into the Persian Gulf. Tlie building of Babel was probably the commencement of the city, but 
It is supposed to have attained lU greatest glory during the reign of the Assyrian queen, Semir"- 
amis. Diflbrent writers giro diflerent acooounts of the extent of this city. The Greek hisUMian 
Herod' otus, who visited it in the fourtl^entnry before Christ, while its walls wero stUl standlflg 
and much of its early lAigniflcenoe remaining, described it as a perfect square, the walls oC 
each side being ISO fUriongs, or fUloen miles in length. According to this computation the city 
embraced an area of 9St5 square miles. But DIodAnis reduces the supposed area to 72 square 
miles ;— equal, however, to three and a half limes the area of London, with all its suburbSL 
Some writers have supposed that the city contained a population of at least Ave millions of 
people. Others have reduced this estimate to one million. It is highly improbable that the 
whole of the immense area hidoeed by the walls was fllled with the buildings of a oompaet 

The wans of Babylon, which were built of large bricks cemented with bitumen, are said to 
have been 350 feet high, and 87 feet in thickness, flanked with lofty towers, and pierced by 100 
gates of brass. The two portions of the city, on each side of the Euphrates, were connected by 
a bridge of stone, which rested on arches of the same material. The temple of Jupiter Beloi^ 
fupposed to have been the tower of Babel, Is described by Herod' otos as an immense stractnre, 
square at the base, and rising, in eight distinct storiee, to the height of nearly 000 foot. Herod « 
otus says that when he visited Babylon the brazen gates of this temple were still to be seen, 
and that In the upper story there was a couch magnlfleently adorned, and near it a table of solid 
gold. Herod' otus also mentions a statue of gold tweire cubits high,— supposed to have been 
ttie "golden image** set up by Nebuchadnezzar. The site of this tempio has been Identified as 
that of the ruins now called by Uie Arabs the **BirB Nimroud,** or nmer of J^imrad. 

Later writers than Herod' otus speak of a tunnel under the Enphratee^^ubterranean banquet* 
Ing rooms of brass— and hanging gardens elevated three hundred feet above the dty; but as 
Herod' otus Is silent on these points, serious doubts have been entertained of the exlstenoe of 

Nothhig BOW ramidns of the bulkHngs of andnt Babylon but Immense and shapeless maaiet 
«rnilns; theh* dtes being partly ooeopled by the modora and meanly buitt town of Hlllah, on 
Iheweilarahniftwf (be Bophntea. TUt town» •urreunled bX mait wtila, oontalos a nilxid 
AiiMMMdJtorlApopiihUlM«r4s«rim«ChoiM&daoala (Jtfiy,fi.lA) 

ObakX] early ages. 19 

about 600 years after the deluge, and 2555 years before the Chris- 
tian era. After his deaths Nimrod wag deified for his great aetions, 
and called Belus : and it is supposed that the tower of Babel, rising 
high above the walls of Babylon, but still in an unfinished state, was 
consecrated to his worship. 

13. While some belieye that the monarch Ninus was the son of 
Nimrod, and that Assyria and Babylon formed one united empire 
under the immediate successors of the first founder ; others regard 
Ninus as an Assyrian prince, who, by conquering Babylon, united 
the hitherto separate empires, more than four hundred years after 
the reign of Nimrod; while others still regard Ninus as onljra per- 
sonification of Nineveh-* J)uring the reign of Ninus, and also 
daring that of his supposed queen and successor, Semir' amis, the 
boundaries of the united Assyrian and Babylonian empires are said 
to have been greatly enlarged by conquest ; but the accounts that 
are given of these events are evidently so exaggerated, that little re- 
liance can be placed upon them. 

14. Semir'amis, who was raised from an humble station to be- 
come the queen of Ninus, is described as a woman of uncommcm 
courage and masculine character, the main object of whose ambition 
was to immortalize her name by the greatness of her exploits. Her 
conquests are said to have embraced nearly all the then known world, 
extending as fur as Central A&ica on the one hand, and as far as 
the Indus,^ in Asia, on the other. She is said to have raised, at one 
time, an army of more than three millions of men, and to have em- 
ployed two millions of workmen in adorning Babylon — statements 
wholly mconsistent with the current opinion of the sparse population 
of the world at this early period. After the reign of Semir'amis, 
which is supposed to have been during the time of the sojourn of 
the Israelites in Egypt, little is known of the history of Assyria for 
more than thirty generations. 

L The rlfvr Hdmsj or Sbidei ilaeB tn tti« Rlmmaleh monntaiiM, and ruanlng In a MHOi hm A 
mUf (flimllnii «nt«n the Ambian Sea near the weetem extremity of Hinikwtan. 
a. Mlebuhx^ Ancient Hlet. L 5S. 

80 Aircanr mpio&T. Pi^i 



sirmffo wttB THs oixmoe or tbk tkojan wae, 1188 b a 

ANAJLYSia 1. BitMitof AaeienlGreeoa. Of Uodom Greaoe. Xto moek iBctelnaiM 4( 
tho coimtry.— a. Tbe two general diyisions of Modem Greece. Extent of NortlierD Gneoie. 
Of the Mor6a. Whole area of the country ao lenowned in hiatory.— a. Tbe gtneral Burihce of 
Itie ooontfy. ItiflDrtUity.--l. MouHainaofGraaoe. Riven. CUiBate. IhevaMiM. Sonocf. 
Oaaslcal aaaodaiions. 

5. OaaciAif Mttboloot, the proper Introduction to Grecian hlatoryw--6w C3iaos. Earth, and 
Heaven. Tbe oiftpring of Earth and U' ranna. [U' renna ; tbe Tltnna : tbe QyGl«pea.>-7. 17' ranna 
Is dethroned, and is aueceeded by aat'nm. (The Furies: tbe Giants: and the Helian Nympha. 
Yentii. Saturn. Jbpiter. Nep'tune. Plalo.]-^ War of thti Titana againat Saf nm. War 
of the Giants with Jupiter. The result. New dynaaty of tbe 8oda.~4. Tbe wivaa of Mpltcr. 
[Juno.] His oApring. [Mefcuiy. Mara. Apol'lo. Vul'can. Ditoa. Minei^vB.] Other 
celestial divinities. [Gires. Ves'ta.]— 10. Other deities not included among the celestiala. 
[Boe'chua. Ma. Hebe. Tbe Muses, l^e Fatea. TbeGnees.] Monsten. [Harpiea. Gor*- 
gons.] Rebellions against Jupiter. [Olym'pas.]— U. Nunben^ and chamoler, of tbe legeoda 
of the gods. Vulgar belief, and philosophical eKplamttioDs of them. 

IS. Eakuvst ImuarrARTs or GKcnos. The Pelas' ginna. Tribes inoliMted uxler fliia 
mwd.— 13. caiaracter and dTlUntton of fbe Bales' giaaa. [0!reI6pean alncturea. Asia 
Minor.>-14. FoRBieif Sbttlkrs iM GmcK. Reputed founding of Ar'goa. [Argoa. Ar'- 
fl:olis. Oo^anus. In'achua.] The accounts of the eariy Gredan settlements not reDabIe.~15. 
Hie foondlog of Athena. [At'tfca. Ogy'gea.] The elements of Gredan dvlUaation attrlbobad 
to 06cropa. The story of O^erops doubtless fkbulous.— 10. Legend of the contest between Mln» 
er'va and Nop' tune.— 17. Crsn'aus and Amphic'tyon. Dan' ana and Oad'mus. [BoeOtla. 
Thebea.]— U. General character of tbe aooounta of foreign seCtlera in Greece. Value of these tra- 
ditions. The probable truth in relation to them, which aoooonts for the Intennlxtnre of Ibreipi 
with Grecian mythology. [iEgean Sea.] 

19. Tbe HsLLBNBs appear in Thessaly, about 1384 B. G^ and beeome the ruling daas among 
the Gredans^SO. HeOen the son of DeucAlion. The seforal Grecian tiibea. The ASoUan trite. 
—21. Tbe Hkeoxc Aqb. Our knowledge of Grecian history during this period. 6haraeter and 
valne of the Heroic legends. The most important of them. [Ist. H6renles. ad. Thdseos. 3d. 
Argonatitlc expedition. 4th. Theban'and Ar'golic w«r.]'-4B. Tbe Aigonautie expadltloa 
thought the most important Probably a poetic fiction. [Semothrtee. Euxfne Sea.] Proba- 
bility of naval expediUonB at this early period, and thdr results. [Minos. Crete]— 23. Open* 
ing of the Ttojon war. [is alleged causes. [Troy. Lacedc' mon.]— 24. Paris,— th^ight of 
Helen,— the war which followed.— 25. Remarks on the supposed reality of the war. [flie fkble 
of Helen.]— 26. What kind ^ truth is to be extracted from Homer*s account. 

CoTncpoRART HisTOET.- 1. OuT limited knowledge of ootemporaiy history during tbia 
period. Rome. Europe. Oentral Western Asia. Egyptian History.— 2. llie conqueats of 
fiesos' tris. [Libya. Ethi6pia. Tbe Ganges. Thradons and Scythians.] The columns erect- 
ed by Sesos' tris.— 3. Statues of Seaostris at Ipeam'bouL Historical aculptnres.'4 Remarics 
on tbe evidences of the existence of this conqueror. Hie dose of his rdgn. Subsequent 
Egyptian history.— «. The Israelites at the period of the oommeDcemeot of Gredan blstoty. 
Tbdr situation aAer the death of Jaeeph. Thdr esodua from Qgypt, 1646 B. C.-6i Wande^ 
lags in the wildenieaa Passage of tha Jogdan. [Aiabta. Jonten. Paleetins.] Death at 


bnMldiiitaBatllBMaf AMhidiaMl 11m flU«»^7. &md rtalad ttSr JodgH tinffl th* 
lime of BuL Hm IvMlltM frequently apoetatiie to idolatry. [Htebites. G*naaiiltee.>~8. 
ThOt dellTenaiee Itom the Mid' Umltes and Am' aleidtes. [Loealitlfla of thoe tilbee.}-^. De> 
~ [Locamioe of thMd tribes.] 

I Uog orer bnel, 1110 B. C^IO. doOng t 

t. Gk£ece, wMch is the Roman name of the country whose his- 
1. ooomAPHi- *^ ^® ^^* proceed to narrate, but whi^h was called 
OAL DBGup- by the natives JSel' las, denoting the country of the. 
"**• Hellenes, comprised, in its^most flourishing period, 
nearly the whole of the great eastern peninsula of southern Europe 
—extending north to the northern extremity of the waters of the 
Grecian Archipelago. Modem Greece, however, has a less extent 
on the north, as Thes' saly, Epfrus, and Maced6nia hare been taken 
£rom it, and annexed to the Turkish empire. The area of Modem 
Greece is less than that of Portugal ; but owing to the irr^ularities 
of its shores, its range of seacoast is greater than that of the whole 
of Spain. The most ancient name by which Greece was known to 
other nations was I6ma, — a term which Josephus derives from Ja- 
van, the son of Japhet, and grandson of Noah : although the Greeks 
themselves applied the term I6nes only to the descendants of the 
&bulous I'on, son of Xtithus. 

2. Modem Greece is divided into two principal portions : — North- 
cm Greece or Hel' las, and Southem Greece, or Mor6a — anciently 
ealled Peloponn6sus. The former includes the country of the an- 
cient Grecian States, Acaradnia, JBt61ia, L6cris, Ph6cis, D6ris, 
Boe6tia, Eubce' a, and At' tica ; and the latter, the Peloponnesian 
States of E' lis, Achdia, Cor' inth, Ar' golis, Lac6nia, and Mess6nia; 
whose localities may be learned from the accompanying map. The 
greatest length of the northem portion, which is from north-west to 
sooth-east, is about two hundred miles, with an average width of 
fifty miles. The greatest length of the Mor6a, which is from north 
to south, is about one huivdred and forty miles. The whole area of 
the country so renowned in history under the name of Greece or 
Hel'las, is <mly about twenty thousand square miles, which is less 
than half the areH of the State of Pennsylvania. 

3. The general surface of Greece is mountainous ; and almost the 
only fertile spots are the numerous and usually narrow plains along 
the sea-shore and the banks of rivers, or, as in several places, large 
bsshis, which apparently once fomed the beds of mountam lakea 
The largest tracts of level country are in western Hel' las, and along 
the northern and north-western shores of the Mor^a. 


4. The mountains of Greece are of the Alpine oharaeter, and are 
remarkable for their nomeronfi grottos aod oaverns. Their abrupt 
Bammits never rise to the regions of perpetual snoif . There are no 
navigable rivers in Greece, but this want is obviated by the numerous 
gulfs and inlets of the sea, which indent the coast on every side, and 
thus furnish unusual facilities' to commerce, while they add to the 
variety and beauty of the scenery. The climate of Greece is for the 
most part healthy, except in the low and marshy tracts around the 
shores and lakes. The winters are short Spring and autumn are 
rainy seasons, when many parts of the country are inundated ; but 
during the whole summer, which comprises half the year, a cloud in 
the sky is rare in several parts of the country. Grecian scenery is 
unsurpassed in romantic wildness and beauty ; but our deepest inter- 
est in the country arises from its classical associations, and the ruins 
of ancient art and splendor scattered over it. 

5. As the Greeks, in common with the Egyptians and other Bast- 
em nations, placed the reign of the gods anterior to the 

race of mortals, there^Tore Grecian mythology* forms the ^^^^^ 
most appropriate introduction to Grecian history. 

6. According to Grecian philosophy, first in the order of time 
came Chdos, a heterogeneous mass containing aJl the seeds of nature ; 
then " broad-breasted Earth," the mother of the gods, who produced 
U' ranus, or Heaven, the mountains, and the barren and billowy sea. 
Then Earth married U' ranus^ or Heaven, and from this union came 
a numerous and powerful brood, the Titans* and the CychSpes,* and 
the gods of the wintry season, — Kot'tos, Briireus, and Gy'ges, who 
had each a hundred hands, — supposed to be personifications of the 
hail, the rain, and the snow. 

1. Httholooy, fifx>m two Greek words signUytng a V*^*" <uid a *^ dite^mrse,^ Is » syalflni 
of myths, or fiibulous opinions and doclrinas respecUng tbe deities wbloh heathen nations 
have supposed to preside over the world, or to Influenoe its aiBdrs. 

Sl VrMUM, flrom a Greek word signUying ^'heaTen,'* or j^sky,'' was Che most anolaDt of all 
tbe gods. 

3. Tbe Tiuuu were six males— Ooeanus, Ooioe, Crlos, Hyperion, Japetnsi and Kronos, or 
Bat' urn, and six females,— Th«la, Rhia, TMmis, Mnemos' yne, Fhoa' be^ and T6thys. OeiaatM, 
or tbe Ocean, espooaed his risterT^tbys, and their children were the rivers of the esrth, and the 
three thousand Oceanldes or Ocean-nymphs. Hyp^ri^n married his sister Th^ia, by whom he 
had Aur&rs, or tbe morning, end also the sun and mooau 

4. Tbe Oifci6f9M were a race of gigantic size, having but one eyei, and that placed in the oentn 
of tbe forehead. According to some accounts there were many of this race, but according to 
tbe poet Besiod, the princlpsl authority In Grecian mythology, they were only three in num- 
ber, Bro%' u», SUr' opes^ and JSr'gtt^ words which signify in the Greek, Thunder, Ligbtftlng^ 
and !be rapid Flame. The poets converted tbem Into smiths— the assistants of the flrenod 
Vuleaa. The Qrddpes were probably persooMoatlou of tte energisa of tiid **p<»w«n of ite 

HKATHKir jmehies. 


7. The Titans made war upon their father, who was wounded hy 
Sat' urn,^ the youngest and bravest of his sons. From the drops of 
blood which flowed from the Wound and fell upon the earth, sprung 
the Furies,' the Giants,' and the Melian nymphs '* and from those 
which fell into the sea, sprung Venus,* the goddess of love and beauty. 
XJ'ranus or Heaven being dethroned, Sat' urn, by the consent of his 
bt^thren, was permitted to reign in his stead, on condition that he 
woi^d destroy all his male children : but Rh6a his wife concealed 
from him the birth of Ji\piter,' Nep' tune,^ and Pluta* 

1. Sat' ttm, the youngest but moat powerfU of the Tltane, called by the Greeki, Kr6iMM, • 
word riRnMying ^^Time," is generaUy represented as an old man, bent by age and Inflnnlty, 
holding a scythe in bis right hand, together with a serpent that bites Its own tail, which is an 
eni>lem of time, and of the revolution of the year. In his left hand he has a ohild which he 
raises up as If to deroor It— as time deyours aU thlogs. ' 

When Sat' urn was banished by his son JCipiier, he Is said to have iled to Italy, where be 
employed himself in civilizing the barbarooa manners of the people. His reign there was so 
beneficent and virtuous that mankind have caUed it the golden agt, AcoordUng to Heslod, 
Bat' uni ruled over the Isles of the Blessed, at the end of the earth, by 'the *«deep eddying 

2. 11m Furies were three goddesses, whose names signified the <* Unceasing," the <*EnTler,'' 
and the ^ Blood-avenger.** They are usualy n^resented with looks foil of terror, each brand- 
iahbig a torch in one hand and a scourge of snakes In the other. Ibey torment guilty eon- 
scienoM, and punish Uie crimes of bad men. 

3b The Oianu are lepreeeoted as of uncommon stature, with strengUi proportioned to their 
gigantic size. The war of the Titans against Sat' urn, and that of the Giants against Jtipiter, pre 
very celebrated in mythology. It is believed that the Giants were nothing more than the ener- 
gies of natare personified, and that the war with Jupiter la an aUesorical rapresenlatioa of some 
tremendous convulston of nature in early times. 

4. In Grecian mythology, all the regions of earth and water were peopled with beautiflil lb- 
male forms called nymphs, divided into various orders according to the pttce of their abode. 
The Melian nymphs were those which watched over gardens and flocks. 

5w Finns, the most beautiftil of all the goddeeses, is sometimes represented as rising out of 
the sea, and wringing her locka,— sometimes drawn in a sea-shell by Tritons— sea-deities that 
were half fish and half human— and sometimes in a chariot drawn by swans. Swans, doves, 
and sparrows, were sacred to her. Her fkvorite plants were the rose and the myrtle. 

6. Jiipiter, called the " (hther of men and gods," is pbwed at the head of the entire system of 
the universe. He Is supreme over all : earthly mooarohs derive their authority from him, and 
bis will is fate. He is generally represented as mi^estio in appearance, seated on a throne, with 
a sceptre in one hand, and thunderbolts in the other. The eagle, which Is sacred to him, Is 
irtanrting by his side. Regarding J<ipiter as the surrounding ether, or atmo4>here, the numer* 
ous fiU>les of thia monarch of the gods may be considered allegories which typify the great geO' 
eratlve power of the universe^ diq>laying itself in a variety of ways, and under the greatest 
diversity of forms. 

7. J\r^' tmne, the ** Earth-shaker,** and ruler of the sea, la second only to JUpiter in power. 
He is represented, like JUpiter, of a serene and mi^eetic aspect, seated in a chariot made of a 
shell, bearing a trident in his right hand, and drawn by dolj^iins and sea-horses; while the 
tritons, nymphs, and other 8e»-monsters, gambol around him. 

& P/*(«, called also HAdea and Or' cus, the god of the lower worid, is represented as a man 
of a stem aspect, seated on a throne of sulphur, from beneath which flow the riven Lethe or 
Oblivion, Phleg* ethon, Ck>cy' tus, and Aoh' eron. In one hand he holds a bldent, or sceptre 
with two forks, and In the other the keys of heU. His queen, Proa'erpine, is sometimes seated 
byhim. HelsdeaerlbedbythepoelaaaabeingiaeaEonbieatti deaf losoppUoBlioi^aiida 


8. The Titand) informed ^t Sat' urn liad saved his children, 
made war upon him and dethroned him ; hut he was restored hj his 
son Ji^piter. Yet the hitter afterwards conspired against his father, 
and after a long war with him and his giant progeny, which lasted 
ten fall years, and in which a^ the gods took part, he drove Sat' urn 
from the kingdom, andT^then divided, between himself and his 
brothers Nep'tune and Pliito, the dominion of the universe, taking 
heaven as his own portion, and assigning the sea to Nep' tune, and 
to Pl^to Ihe lower regions, the abodes of the dead. With Ji\piter 
and his brethren begins a new dynasty of the gods, being those, for 
the most part, whom the Greeks recognised and worshipped. 

9. Jupiter had several wives, both goddesses and mortals, but 
last of all he married his sister Juno,' who maintained, permanently, 
ihe dignity of queen of the gods. The offsprmg of Jupiter were 
numerous, comprising both celestial and terrestrial divinities. The 
most noted of the former were Mer'cury,* Mars,' Apol' lo,* Vul' can,* 

objeetofaTersionMid haired to both gods and men. Faom his realms ttiere is no return, and 
aU mankind, sooner or later, are sore to be gathered Into his kingdom. 

As none of the goddeasee would many the stem and gloomy god, he seized Pros' erptaie, the 
daughter of Girea, while she was gathering flowers, and opening a passage through the earth, 
carried her to his abode, and made her queen of his dominions. 

1. Jitma^ a goddess of a dignified and matronly air, but haughty, Jealous, and Inexorable, ii 
repp BB cn ted sometimes as seated on a tlurone, holding in one hand a pomegranate, and in th« 
other a golden sceptre, with a cuckoo on its top ; and at others, as drawn in a chariot by pea* 
cocks, and attended by I' rls, the goddess of the rainbow. 

The maoy quarrels' athributed to Jupiter and Jiino, are supposed to be physical allegorieft— 
Jftpiter representing the ether, or upper r^ons of tlie air, and Jiino the lower strata-^henoe 
their quarrels are th« storms that pass over the earth : and the capricious and quick-ebanghig 
tamper of the spouse of Jove, Is typical of the ever-yarying changes that diatuH) our atmo» 

2. Jter* cufj, the confident, messenger, interpreter, and ambassador of the gods, was himself 
the god of eloquence, and the patron of orators, merchants, thieves and robbera, travellers and 
diepherda. Be ia said to have invented the lyre, letters, commerce, and gymnastic exercises. 
Bis thieving exptotts are celebrated. He is usually represented with a cloak neatly arranged 
OD his peracKi, having a winged cap <m his bead, and winged sandals on his f0& In hia%aad 
be bean his wand or stall; with wings at its extremity, and two serpents twined about it. 

3. Mart, the god of war, was of huge size and prodlglovs strength, and bis voice was louder 
than that often thousand mortals. He is represented as a warrior of a severe and menacing 
air, dressed in the style of the Heroic Age, with a cuirass on, and a round Gredan shield on hia 
ann. He la aomeUmes seen standing in a chariot, with Bellona his sister for a charioteer. 
Terror and Fear accompany him; Discord, in tattered garments, goes before him, and Anger 
■ad Oarnor follow. 

4. jfpgl' /o, the god of archery, prophecy, and music, la represented in the perfection of manty 
itoength and beaaty, with hair long and curling, and bound behind his head ; his brows are 
wreathed with bay: eometlmes he bean a lyre hi hta hand, aad sometimes a bow, with a goU- 
« quiver of arrows at hia baek. 

5. rui' emn was the fir»god of the Greeks, and the artificer of heaven. He was bom lame, 
iod bis mother Jiino was so shocked at the sight that she flung him from Olympus. H« 
fiMged the thuxkderbolta of J tapiser, also the arms of gods and demi-gods. He is usually lepre- 

I aa of rfpe age, with a serious counteoanoe and musfiolar tmb Bla hair tav^ hi ouria 

10 ANOHaiT HISTOBT. [PisrT. 

Di^a,' and Mmer'va." There were two other celestial diTinitieSy 
Cores' and Ves' ta,* making, with Ji^o, Nep' tone, and PlAto, twelve 
in all. 

10. The number of other deities, not included amiong the celestials^ 
was indefinite, the most noted of whom were Bac'chus,* I'ris,' Hebe,' 
the Muses,* the Fates,* and the Graces ;*"' also Sleep, Drepas^ and 
Death. There were also monsters, the offspring of the gods, pos- 
sessed of free will and intelligence, and having the mixed forms of 

on his ahooMen. He generally appeaira at hia anTH, in a diort tonic, with hie ric^ arm bare» 
and MmcUmes with a pointed cap on his bead. 

1. DiAna, the exact couaterpait of her Imxtber Apol'lOi, was queen of ttie woodSi cad the 
goddew of hunting. She deroted herself to perpetnal celibacy, and her chief joy was to speed 
like a D6rian maid over the hills, followed by a train of nymphs, in pursidt of the flyiiur game. 
She is represented as a strong^ active maiden, tigfaUy dad, wHh a bow or hmtting spear in her 
hand, a quiver of arrows on bpt ahoulden^ wearing the CMtan huating^oes, and attended by 

S. Miner^ oo, the goddess of wisdom and ddll, and, as opposed t^ Mara, the patroness and 
teacher of just and scientlAc warikre^ la said to have sprung, fUU armed, ttom the bntiu of Hk^ 
piter. She is represented with a serious and thoughtful countenance ; li^r hair hangs in riAg> 
lets over her shoulders, and a helmet covers her head: she wears a long ttmic or m<uj::23^ and 
.bears a spear In one hand, and an ngis or shidd, on which is a figure of the Gorgon^s head, in 
the other. 

3. dret was the goddess of grain and harvests. The most celebrated event fn her history is 
the carrying off of her daughtn* Pros' erpine by Fliito, and the search of the goddess after her 
throughout the whole world. The form of Geres is like that of Juno. She Is represented beai*- 
Ing poppies and ears of com in one hand, a lighted torch iu the other, and wearing on her head 
a garland of poppies. She is also repreeenled riding in a chariot drawn by dragons, aod dis- 
tributing com to the diflbrent regions of the earth. 

4. Fet' ta, the virgin goddess who prodded over the domestic hearth, Is represented *r a long 
flowing robe, with a veil on her head, <a lamp in one hand, and a spear or Javelin In the other. 
Li every Grecian city an altar was dedicated to her, on which a sacred flre was kept constantly 
burning. In her temple at Bome the sacred flre was guarded by six iMesteeses, called the 
Vestal Virgins. 

5. Bae: eAic«, the god of wine, and the patron of drunkenness and debauchery, is represented 
as an eflbminate young man, with long flowing hair, crowned with a garland of vine leavei^ 
and generally covered with a doak thrown loosely over his shoulders. In one hand tz holds a 
goblet, and in the othear clusters of grapes and a short dagger. 

6. / ri«, the *^ golden winged," was the goddess of the rainbow, and spedal messenger ot<b» 
king and queen of Olympus. 

7. The blooming Hebe, the godden of Tonth, was a kind of mald-eervant who handed around 
flie nectar at the banquets of the goas. 

S. The Muses, nine in number, were goddessea who presided over poetry, music, and all fh^ 
liberal arts and sciences. They are thought to be personifications of the inventive pcwers of 
the mind, as dlq)layed in the several arts. ' 

9. The Fates were three goddesses who presided over the destinies of mortals :— lit ClAthO| 
who held the distaff; 9d, Lach' osis, who spun each one> portion of the ttaoa^l of life ; and 3d^ 
At' ropos, who cut off the thread with her scissors. 

<*CI6tho and Ladi' esia, whose boundless sway,' 
With At' ropos, both men and gods obey T— HasioDb 

10. The Oraees wore three young and beautiful sistera, wlioie names signified, respectively. 
Splendor, Joy, and Pleasure. Th^ are supposed' to have been a symbolical representation of 
aU that Is beaut Ifbl and attraettveb They are rspnesented as dancing together, or standing wltb 
ttltff irini entvlned. 


ammalfl and men. Such were the Har'pies;' the'Gorgons;' the 
winged ]iorsc Peg'asus ; the fifty, or, as some say, the hundred head- 
ed dog Cer'bQros; the Cen'taurs, half men and half horses; the 
Ler^nean Hy'dra, a famous water serpent ; and Scyl'la and Charyb'- 
disj^'fearful sea monsters, the one changed into a rock, and the other 
into a whirlpool on the coast of Sicily, — ^the dread of mariners. 
Many rebellious attempts were made by the gods and demigods to 
dethrone JApiter ; but by his unparalleled strength he overcame all 
his enemies, and holding his court on mo'unt Olym'pus,' reigned su- 
preme god over heaven and earth. 

11. Such is the brief outline of Grecian mythology. The legends 
- of the gods and goddesses are numerous, and some of them are of 

exceeding interest and beauty, while others shock and disgust us by 
the gross impossibilities and hideous deformities which they reveal. 
The great mass of the Grecian people appear to have believed that 
their divinities were real persons ; but their philosophers explained 
the legends concerning them as allegorical representations of general 
physical and moral truths. The Greek, therefore, instead of wor- 
flfaipping nature, worshipped the powers of nature personified. * 

12. The earliest reliable information that we possess of the country 
denominated Greece, represents it in the possession of ^^^ iarliest 
» number of rude tribes, of which the Pelas'gians were inhabitants 
the most numerous and powerful, and probably the most ^' grkkce. 
ancient. The name Pelas'gians was also a general one, under 
whieh were included many kindred tribes, such as the Dol'opes, Chi- 
oneSy and Grse'ci; but still the origin and extent of the race are in- 

^reived in much obscurity. 

13. Of the early character of the Pelas'gians, and of the degree 
of civilization to which thoy had attained before the reputed found- 
ing of Ar'gos, we have unsatisfactory and conflicting accounts. On 
the one hand they sure represented as no better than the rudest bar- 
barians, dwelling in caves, subsisting on reptiles, herbs, and wild 
firuits, and strangers to the simplest arts^of civilized life. Other and 
mate reliable traditions, however, attribute to them a knowledge of 

I. The Hdr'piM were three-winged monatera who hsd female ftces, and the bodies, wlngi, 
■Ml d*wa of birds. They are Mippoaed to be personiflcationa of the terrors of the Btonn--de- 
■MMB riding upon the wind, and directing ita blaats. 

S. Ihe Oifr'gvma were three hideous female forms, who turned to stone all whom th«7 fixed 
teftr eyes apan. They are supposed to he peraoniacations of the terrors of the sea. 

a. Olfmytu ia a celebrated mountain of Greece, near the north-eastern coast of Tliessaly. To 
the highest nmmlt in the range the name Olympua was specially applied by the poets. It was 
QMikbledraBldflDOBorttiegodi; and hence the name *01ym'pus» was ftequently used for 

28 . ASCIERT EWroaT. IPawL 

agrioQltare, and some little aoqaaintailoe with naTigation; wUli 
there is a strong prohability that ^ey were the authored of those hxsg^ 
structores commonly oalled CyohSpean/ remains of which are still 
visible in many parts of Greece and Italy, and on the western eoasi 
of Asia Minor." • 

14. Ar'gos,' the eapital of Ar'golis,^ is generally considered the 
IT. roRKioif ^^^^ ancient city of Greece ; and its reputed foonding 
sETTLKu nr by In'achns, a son of the god Oc^anns/ 1856 years be- 

oRKBCfl. £qp^ ^q Oliristian era, is usually assigned as the period 
, of the commencement of Grecian history. But the massive Gycl6- 
pean walls of Ar' gos evidently show the Pelas' gio origin of the place, 
in opposition to the traditionary Phoenician origin of In'adiua, 
whose very existence is quite problematical. And indeed the ac- 
counts usuaUy given of early foreign settlers in Greece, who planted 
colonies there, founded dynasties, built cities, and introduced a 

l.'^Tbe C7d6peui strooUirM were worki of extnordlnary magnftode, oonaiaClQS of walU Wi4 
drcular botldinga, oonitnicted of Unmanae blocks of itooe placed vipoa eseh other wllhoot 
cemeiit, bat so nloely fitted a^ to Ibrm the moet solid inaMiiry. The moat remarkable are cer- 
tain valla at Tir" yna, or Tlryn' thasi aad the otronlar tower of At' reos at Hyo^na, botti dtfea 
of Ar' gOlls In Greeee. The-stmcture at MyoAiia Isa hollow cone fifty feet In diameter, and as 
many in height, formerly terminating In a point ; but the central stone and a few othef% have 
been removed. The Greek poets ascribed these stmctnres to ttie tfiree Gycl6pes BrSmtMy Sitr'' 
epes^ and Jlr' g—^ febaloua on»«yed giants, whose employment was to Ihbfteale the thsadfl^ 
bolts of Jupiter. (5m Oye/^^M, p. 82.) 

S. Jitia Mtnor, (or Lesser Asia,) now embraced mosUy in the Asiatic porMon of Toikey, 
comprised that western peninsnU of Asia which Ues between the walen of the MedttsRanaMi 
and the Black Sea. (S«e .Wop* No. IV.) 

3. JSr'g9»y a city of southern Greece, and anciently the capital ofthe'kbigdom of Ar'goHs, li 
altoated on the western bank of the river In'achns, two miles ftom the bottom of the Gnlf ct 
Ar'gos, and on the western side of a plain ten or twelve miles In leaglh, and feur or five In 
width. The eastern side of the plain is dry and barren, and here were altoated Tlr* yns, from 
which Her' cules departed at the commencement of his ^ labors^** and BfyoAna, the roynl flt^ 
ofAgamem'aon. The immediate vicinity of Ar* gos wasjqtured by exoass of moistqre. Bei«» 
near the GuU; was the marsh of JL$r' as, celebrated Ibr the Ler* nean Hy' dra, which Her'colot 

Bntfewvesttgesoftheandenfcoltyof Ar'gne are w>w to he seen. The elevated rock on 
which stood the ancient dtadel, Is now sarmonnted by a modem castle. The town suflbrsd 
much during the revolutionary struggle between th^ Greeks and Turks. The presenl popnhk 
tton is aboat 3^000. (Sm .Map, No. L) 

4. Jlr'ftlis, a country of Southern Greece, is property a neck of land, deriving Its name fh>m 
Its capital dty, Ar" gns, and extending in a soitth^eaaterly direction from Arc4dla fifty-four miles 
faktothe sea, where it teimlnales in the promontorr of Sdl' lasnaa. Among the noted plaOM tai 
Ar' golb have been mentioned Ar' gos, Myc^nas, TIr' yna, and the tier' nean marsh. Jfinu*, 
In the north of Ar golls, was celebrated for the ^rimmn Mm, and for the games Inslltuled there 
in honor of Nep' tune. JfiaMpiU, or Ntpoll dl Bomanl, whitih was the poet sod arsenal ct 
ancient Ar gos during the best period of Oredan history. Is now a flonriaUng^ enterpridaf, 
and beautlfrd town of about lfi,000 inhabitants. (8m ATsp, No. I.) 

5. Ociantu, (See *The7Vt«ffs,**p.S9) /m' seftM w» probably only a river, personiaed Into 
the founder of a Grecla:i state. 

a. ThlrwaU*s Greece Cp.^; Anthon^i Oaailcal Dlot., articles PtUsfi and Ar'g—; 9im 
BMran>B Manual of Andent Hlstoiy, p. lift. 


knowledge ef tlie srie hxlIcbowii to tiie roder natrrei, must be taken 
villi % greai degree of abatement 

15. Oecnqpe, an Egyptian, ia said to hare led a oolony from 
the Delta io Oreeee about l^e year 1556 B. 0. Two years later, 
proceeding to AtHica,' which had been desolated by a deluge a oen- 
toiy before, daring ih» reign of Og' yges,' he is said to hare founded, 
on the Oeordpian rock, a new city, whiefi he ofdled Athens,* in honor 
of the Grecian goddess Athe' na, whom the Eomans called Miner' ya. > 
To Cecrops has been ascribed the institution of marriage, and the 
introduetion of the first elemepnts of Grecian civilisation ; yet, not 
Mily has the I^yptian <nrigin of C6crops been doubted, but his very 
existeaee has been denied,^ and the whdie story of his Egyptian col- 
ony, and of the arts which he is said to have established, has been 
ftttrilmted, with much show of reason, to a homesprung Attic fable. 

16. As a part of the history of Oecrops, it is represented that in 
kk days the gods began to choose fayorite qK>ts among the dwellings 
of men for their residences; or, in other words, tiiat particular 
deities began to be worshipped with especial homage in particular 
ettaes; andiihaltwiien Miner' ya and Nep' tune claimed the homage 
of At' tica, C^ops was chosen umpire of the dilute. Nep' tune 
asserted that he had appropriated the country to himself before it 
had been oUimed by Miner' va, by planting his trident on the rock 
dTthe Acrop' die of Athens ; and, as proof of his claim, he pointed 

L ^r ttMjttMinortodebntted of UieOracUui states, and Che least proportioned, In extent, 
of nqr OD the ftce of the earth, to its fame apd importance, in the history of mankind, is sitn- 
aled at the sotith-eaatem extremity of Northern Greece^ liaving an extent of about forty-flve 
n»ii«a from «st to weat, and an ayerage breadth of about thirty-flre. As the soil of At' tica waa 
a mosC^jr rugged, and the surfiwe consisted of barren hilis^ or plains of little extent, its produce 
vaa nerer soffldent to supp^ Uie wants of its inliabitants, who were therefore compelled to 
look abroad for subalstence. Thus the barrenness of the Attic soil rendered the people indus- 
WoQi^ and ilDed them with that spirit of enterprise and actiVity fbr which they were so diSF 
tti^iiished. Secure in her sterility, the soil of At' tica never tempted the cupidity of her neigh- 
bors, and she boasted that the race of her inhabitants had ever been the same. Among the 
•dvantagee of At' tica may be reckoned the purity of its air, the fragrance of iU shrubs, and 
the «r ^fMmi>A of its frttlts, together with Ita form and position, which marked it out, in an emi- 
nent degree, for commercial pursuits. Its moat remarkable plains are those of Athens and 
Mar' athoo, and its principal rivers ttie Oephia' aos and Dys' sns. , (5m Map^ No. I.) 

^ G^«rsf la Ikblad to have been the flnt king of Athens and of niebes also. It is also said 
fliat in the time of Og'yges happened adehige, whichi>ieoeded that of DeucAUon ; and Og'yges 
Iseaklto have been the only penon saved when Greece waa ooTered with water. 

31 jSUimu. {Sm Map No. IL and daacription,) 

a. <>NoiwlUialaadlng the confldence with wUch this story (that of CMeropa) has been repeated 
la modem tlmos, the ^syp^ian origin of Cterops is extremely doobtftiL"— 7%trwa// 1. p, 53. 
*Tba story of his tending a colony from Egypt to Athens U entlUed to no credit.**—*^ The whole 
HrfM cTAtiie Ub«i who an add to hav»preeed«l'a«8eaB, Including pcrhapi ThAaeoa himself 
«i fcobably mere flottons.^'-wf sa#n'« Oat. DUt^ artiel* •• Ctcrapa,^ 

30 ANCnSNT mSTORT. [Pah L 

to the trident standing there erect, and to the salt spring wUoh had 
issued from the fissure in the cliff, and which still continued jto 
flow. On the other hand, Miner' ya pointed to the olive which she 
had planted long ago, and which still grew in native luxuriance bj 
the side of the fountain which, she asserted, had been produced at a 
later period by the hand of Nep' tune. Cecrops himself attested the 
truth of her assertion, when the gods, according to one account, but, 
according to another, Cecrops himself, decided in &yor of Miner' va, 
who then became the tutelary deity of Athens. 

17. Cran' aus, the successor of Cecrops on the list of Attic kings, 
was probably a no l^ss fabulous personage than his prideoessor ; and 
of Amphic' tyon, the third on the list, who is said to have been the 
founder of t^e celebrated Amphictyonic council, our knowledge is aa 
limited and as doubtful as of the former two.^ About half a century, 
after the time of Cecrops, another Egyptian, by name Dan' aus, is 
said to have fled to Greece with a family of fifty daughters, and to 
have established a second Eg3rptian colony in the vicinity of Ar'gos; 
and about the same time, Cad' mus,' a Phomician, is reported to have 
led a colony into Bad6ti&* bringing with him the Phoenician alphabet, 
the basis of the Grecian, and to have founded Cad' mea, which after- 
wards became the citadel of Thebes.' 

1. There is no good reason for belleylng that Cad' mw was the founder of Thebes, as his his- 
tory is evidently fobuloos, although there can be little doubt that the alphabet attributed' la 
him was originally brought trom Phoenicia. (See Thirwall,!. p. 107.) We may therefore yeu- 
ture to dismiss the early theory of Cad' mus, and seek a Grecian origin for the name of the sup- 
posed founder of Thebes. 

2. Biadtia, lying north-west of At'tica, is a high and well-watered region, mostly suironnded 
by mountain ranges, of which the most noted summits are those of Hel' loon and Cithas' ron 
in the south-west. Bae6tia is divided into two principal basins or plains, that of Cephis'sus In 
the north-west, watered by the river of the same name, and containing the lake of Copais; and 
that of Thebes in the south-east, watered by the river AsOpus. As many of the streams and 
lakes of Boeutia find their outlet to the sea by subterranean channels, marshes aboimd, and the 
atmosphere is damp, foggy, oppressive, and in many places unhealthy. The fertility of BoeOtla, 
however, Is such, that it has always an abundant crop, though eliewhere famine should pr^ 
yail. Bce6tia was the most populous of all the Grecian states ; but the very productiveness of 
the country seems to have depressed the intellectual and moral character of the B(»6Uans, and 
to have Justified the ridicule which their more enterprising neighbors of barren At'tica heaped 
upon them. (See Map, No. I.) 

3. Thebes, the ancient capital of BoB6Ua, was situated near the nnall river (or brook) Ib» 
m^nus, about five miles south of the lake Hyl' ica. The city was surrounded by high walla, 
which had seven gates, and it contained many magnificent temples, theatres, gymnasiums, and 
othfer public edifices, adorned with statues, paintings, and other works of art. In the most 
flourishing period of its history, the population of the city amounted to pertiaps 50,000. The 
modem town of l*heboe, (called Th'iva,) contains a population of about 5,000 souls, and is confined 
mostly to the eminence occupied by the Acropolis, or citadel, of the ancient city. Prodigious 
ramparts and artificial mounds appear outside of the town: it is surrounded by a deep fosse; 

a. ** There can be icaroely any reasonable doubt thai this Amphic' tyon ia a meraly flcUliow 
per80n.'*~7'Ainoa//, i. p, 149. 


1& These and many other aooonnts of foreign settlers in Oreeee ' 
4nrii:g this early period of Grecian history, are so interwoven with 
the absordest fables, or, rather, deduced from them, that no reliance 
ean be placed open their anth^iticity. Still, these traditions are 
not withoat their value, for although the particular -persons men* 
iioned may ^ave had no existence yet the events related can hardly 
have been without some historical foundation. It is probable that 
. after the general diffusion of the Pelas' gio tribes over Greece, and 
while the western regions of Asia and northern Africa were in an 
unsettled state, Tarious bands of flying or conquering tribes found 
tiieir way to the more peaceful shores of Greece through the islands 
of the Mk' gean,^ bringing with them the arts and knowledge of the 
oountrias which they had abandoned. It is thus that we can satis^ 
fiictorily account for that portion of Grecian mythology which bears 
evident marks of Phcenician orjgin, and for that still greater por- 
tion cf the religious notions and practices, objects and forms of Gre- 
cian worshi]^, which, according to Herod' otus, were derived from the 
Egyptians. * , 

19. At the time that colonies from the East are supposed to 
have been settling in Greece, a people called the Hel- y. rax 
lines, liut whether a Pelas' gio tribe or otherwise is un- hxlleneb. 
certain^ first appeared in the south of Thes' saly,' about 1 384 years 
before the Christian era, according to the received chronology, and 

and remfiintf of the old vaUs are stlU to be seen ; but the sacred and pubUc edifices of the an- 
cient city faETe wboHy disappeared. Previous to the Iste Greek Revolution the city had some 
kaadsom moaqoea, a bazadr ahaded by gigantie palna-trpea, and extensive gaxdena, but these 
vere almost wboUy destroyed by the casoaUties of wior. {See Map^t ^o. I.) 

1. The JETgean Sea is that part of the Mediterranean lying between Greece and Asia Mlnof, 
nsv called the GneclaB Axehlpeiago. (Ste Mapy No. III.) 

S. TkeM'salfh now included in Turkey in Bnrope, was bounded on the north by the Oambn- 
niaa moantalso, terminating, on the east, in the loftier heights of Olympus, and separating 
Thes'aaa/ fhna Macedonia; en the east by the iE'gean Sea, which Is skirted by ranges of Ossa 
and Pelion; on the south by the Malian gulf and the mountain ohain of CEta; bdA on the 
west tj *be chain of Pindus, which separated it th>m Eplrus. In the southern part of this ter- 
ritory, between the mountain chains of OSta and Othrys, is the long and narrow valley of the 
fiver fbvwchlui, which, thoqgh considered as a pert of Thes'saly, forms a aeparate region, 
widdy distingalahed from the rest by its physical featnres. Between the Othiys and the Camp 
bonian moimtains lies the great basin of Thes' saly, the largest and richest plain In Gr^ce, on- 
eoropasaed on all sides by a mountain barrier, broken only at the north-east comer by a deep 
and narrow def^ which parts Oaea from Olympus— the defile so renowned in history as the 
pass, ana in poetry as the yaie of Tem'pe, Through this narrow glen, of about five miles In 
length, the Peneua, the principal river (^ Thes' saly, finds its way to the sea; and an ancient 
legenu asserts that the waters of the I^neus and its tributaries covered the whole basin of 
Thea' saly, unti^the arm of Her' cules, or, as some assert, the trident of Nep' tune, rent asunder 
the goige of Tem'pe, and thus afforded a passage to the pent-up streams. Herod* otus says, . 
■^ To me the separatum of these moontalna appear t» have been the ellbct of an earthquake.** 


gradually difFdmng ihefmselyes over the whole eoontry, became, by 
their martial spirit^ and active, enterprising genius, the nxling class, 
and impressed new features upon the Orecian character. The Hel 
16nes gave their name to the population of the whole peninsula, al* 
though the term Grecians was the name applied to them by th» 
Romans. « 

20. In accordance with flie Ghreek custom of attributing the origir 
of their tribes or nations to some remote mythical ancestor, Hel'len* 
a son of the fabulous Deuc&lion, is represented as Ihe &ther of the 
Hel' lenic nation. His three sons were M' olus, D6rus, and XiHhus, 
from the two former of whom are represented to have descended the 
JEolians and D&rians ; and from Ach»'us and I'on,lM>nB of XiV 
thus, the Acha^ arts and I6mans^ — the four tribes into which t|i^ 
Hel' lenic or Orecian nation was for many centuries divided, and 
which were distinguished from eaok other by many peculiarities of 
language and institutions.^ Hel' len is said to have left his kingdom 
to M' olus, his eldest son ; and the ^6iian tribe was the one that 
spread the most widely, and that long exertea the greatest influence 

, in the affairs of the nation, although at a later period it was surpassed 
by the fame and power of the D6rians and I6niana 

21. The period from the time &[ the first appearance of the Hel* 
▼I. THK 16nes in Thes' saly, to the return of the Greeks from the 

HBRoxo AGS. ezpc^ition against' Troy, is usually called the Heroic 
Age. Our only knowledge of Orecian history during this j>eriod iw 
derired from numerous maryellous legends of wars, expeditions, and 
heroic achievements, which possess scarcely the slightest evidence of 
historical authenticity ; and which, even if they can be supposed to 
rest on a basis of fact, would be scarcely deserving of notice, as being 
unattended wiih any important or lasting consequences, were it not 
for the light which they throw upon the subject of .Grecian mythol- 
ogy, and the gradual fading away, which they exhibit, of fiction, in 
the dawn of historic truth. The most important of these legends are 
those which recount the Labors of Her' cules^ and the exploits of the 

1. Ber^evleay • celebrated hero, is reported to hare been a son of Ibe god Jupiter and Alo- 
meiia. While yet an infkiit, Jdno, moTod bj Jealousy, sent two serpents to devour him; but 
ttie child boldly seized thorn in both his hands, and squeezed them to death. By an oath of 
JQplter, imposed upon him by the artifice of Jdno, Ho" cules was made subsorvient, for twelve 
jfers, to the will of Eurys' theus, his enemy, and btXind to obey all his commands. Eary8'< 
fheos commanded him to achieve a number of enterpri^ the mott difHcult and aidaous ever 
known, generally caUed the ** twelve labors of Hor'oules.*' But the fbvor of the gods had com- 

a. <*We bellere Hel'ieo, M otoa, D6i1li, Ae&as'Qa,aiMl roii,to be merely fiettttoos pflneiii» 
iip i'M Cu tatlvea of the zaoes which bwe tluir namea.**— 7krnMi2/,l. p. 66. 


Athenian Th^sens ;^ tlie erenia of the Argonautio expedition ;' of 
the Th^ban and Ar' golic war of the Seven Captains ;' and of the 
saeoeeding war of the Epig' onoi, or descendants of the sorvivorS) in 

pleMy armed him for the undertaking. Be bad received a sword from Her'curjr^ a bow 
from Apor lo^ a golden bieaatplate from Vul' ean, horaes from Nep' tone, a robe from Mioer- ra ; 
awl be hImMlf eat bis elnb from the Nteoeaa wood. We bave merely room to enomerate bis 
twelve labors, wlibout describ'iqg them. 

IsL He jitraogled the N^mean lion, which ravaged (he oomitry near Myednae, and ever ailer 
doihed btmadf with its skin. 9d. He destroyed the Lemean hydra, a wate i e o r p e n t, which 
had nine heads, eight of them mortal, and one immortaL 3d. He brought into the presence of 
Borya' theus a stag, fiunous Ibr its incredible swUtness and golden horns. 4th. He brought to 
Mye^Bss the wild boar of EiymaA'thna, and daring this expedttton slew two of the Oentaors, 
imiMiifai s who were half men and half horses. 5th. He cleansed the Angean stables in one 
day, by changhig the courses of the rivers Al' phens and P^oeus. C^To cleanse the Augean 
stables?* has become a oommon proverb, end is applied to any undertaking where the obiJect 
la to reoBove a mass of moral eorrapUon, the aooumuhuion of which renders the task almost 
Impossible.") 6lh. He destroyed the carnivorous birds which ravaged the country near the 
L^be Btymph&lus Id ArcAdia. 7. He brought alive into I^loponndsus a prodigious wild bull 
wMeh ravaged the isUhd of Crete. 8tb. He brought from llir^ the mares of Diom^de, which 
fad oo human flesh. Olh. He obtained the fiunous girdle of Hlppol' yta, queen of the Amazons. 
leUi. Be killed, in an island of the Atlantic, the monster G^ryon, who bad the bodies of three 
mm OBHed, and bronglit away Iris purple oxen.' llth. He obtained from the garden of the 
Heaper' ides the golden apples, and slew the dragon which guarded them. l^h. He went 
down to the lower refl^ons, and brought upon earth the three-headed dog Cer* berus. 

1. To T^eus, who Is stated to have become king of Athens, are at^buted many exploits 
' r to those peift^rmed by Her'ouleB, and he evsa shared in some of the eeterprtses of the 
By his wise laws Theseus is said to have laid the principal foundation of Athenian 
; but his name, which signifles the Orderer, or R^iUat4irj seems to indicate a period 
hi Greehm history, rather than an individual. 

% The Xrgonautic Expedition Is said, in the popular legend, to have been undertaken by 
lason and flfly-four of the most renowned heroes of Greece, among whom were Thiseus and 
Ber' coles, for the recovery ^a 9. golden fieeeo which had been deposited In the capital of Gol'- 
dria, a province of Asia Minor, bordering on the eastern extremity of the Euxine. The advea- 
toren sailed from lot' cos in the ship Ar* go, and during the voyage met with many advenluresb 
Having arrived at CJbl' chls, they would have been unsuccessful i|^ the object of their expedl* 
doB^ad not the king's daughter, Medea, who was an enchantress, fltllen in love with Jason, 
and defoated the plans of her flitber for his destruction. After a long return voyage, filled with 
marvelioas adventures, most of the Argonauts reached Greece in safety, where Her'cules, is 
honor of the expedition, institnted the Olym' pic games. 

Some have supposed this to have been a piratical expedition ; others, that It was undertaken 
Ibr the p urpos e of discovery, or to secure some commercisl establishment on the shores of the 
Buxhie, wldle othen have regarded the legend as wholly fhbulous. Says Grote, ** I repeat the 
epinleo long sgo expressed, that the process of dissecting the story, in search of a basis of foct, 
Is one altogether fruitless.''— Or»(«'« HUL of Oreeee, i. 343. 

3l The following are said to have been the circumstances of the TkSban mnd Jlr'golie war. 
After the death of CE' dlpus, king of Thebes, It was agreed between his two sons, EtAoclee and 
Polyniees, that they should reign alternately, each a year. Et6ocles, however, the elder, 
after his flrrt year had expired, refused to give up the crown to his brother, when the latter, 
■eeiii« to Ar'gofl, Induced Adras'tns, king of that place, to espouse his cause. Adras' tua 
marehed tn army against Thebes, led by himself and seven captains ; but all the leaden were 
• siafai before the dty, and the war ended by a single combat between Et^ocles and Polyniees, 
In which both brothen felL This Is said to have happened twentT^seven yean before the 
tn^ war. Ten yean later the war was renewed by the Epig'onoit descendanta of those who 
wave klUed In the first Thdban war. Some of the Grecian slates espoused the eaoM of the 
Al' given, and ethers f kled tbs Tb^bani ; but In the end Thebes was abandoned by Its faihahit- * 
•Bis, and ptonderad by the <Vr' gives. 



which Thebes ia said to have been plundered by the oon&derata 

22. Of these events, the Argonautic expedition has usually been 
thought of more importance than the rest, as having been conducted 
against a distant country, and as prescntiog some valid claims to 
our belief in its historical reality. But we incline to the opinion, 
that both the hero and the heroine o{[ the legend are purely ideal 
personages connected with Grecian mythology, — that Jason was per- 
haps no other than the Samothrdcian* god or hero Jision,"' the pro- 
tector of mariners, and that the fable of the expedition itself is a 
poetic fiction which represented the commercial and piratical voy- 
ages that began to be made, about this period, to the eastern shores of 
the Euxine.' It is not improbable that voyages similar to that rep- 
resented to have been made by the Argonauts, or, perhaps, naval 
expeditions like those attributed to Minos,* the* Cretan* prince 
and lawgiver, may first have led to hostile rivalries between the 
inhabitants of the Asiatic and Grecian coasts, and thus have been 
the occasion of the first conflict between the Greeks and the Tro- 
jans> . 1 

23. The Trojan war, rendered so celebrated in early jQ-recian his- 

1. Samotkr&ce (the Thredan S&mos, now Samothraki,) is an Island in Uie nortbem part of 
the JE' gcaD Sea, about thirty miles south of theThracian coast. U was celebrated f<^ the mj^ 
teries of the goddess Cyb' ele, whose priests ran aboat with dreadAil cries and Jiowlings, b««U 
ing on timbrels, clashing cymbals, and cutting their flesh with knives. (5m M^ No. IU.) 

Z The Euzine (^oW tus Euxinus) is now caUed the Black Sea. It lies "between the soath- 
wcstem provinces of Russia In Europe, and Asia Minor. Its greatest length, ftom east to west, 
Is upwards of 700 miles, and its greatest breadth about 400 milea. Its waters are only about 
one-sevenih part less salt than the Atlaniic— a fact attributable to the saline nature of the^boftr 
torn, and of the northern coast. The Euxine is deep, and singularly tne from rocks and shoeli. 
{See Map No. V.) 

3. Minoa is said, in the Grecian legends, to hare been a son of JCipiter, fh>m whom hA 
learned those laws which he delivered unto men. It is said that he was the first among the 
Greeks who possessed a navy, and that he cohquered and colonized several islands, and finally 
perished in an expedition against Sicily. Some regard Minos simply as the con^niration of 
that spirit of order, which, about his time, b^ran to exhibit, in the island of Cr^te, a regular 
B}-stem of laws and government. He seems to be intermediate between the periods of mythol 
ogy and history, combining, in his person, the characteristics of both. 

4. Crite (now called Candia) is a largo mountainous Island in the Mediterranean Sea, 80 miles 
Boutli^ast IVoni Cape Matapan in Greece— 100 miles In lengtli fh)m east to west, with a breadth 
averaging about 20 miles. Cr6te was the reputed birth-place of Jupiter, ** king of gods and 
men.** The laws of Minos are said to h^ve served as a model for those of Lycur'gus; and th« 
wealth, ntmiber, and flourishing copdition of the Cretan cities, are repeatedly reCerred (o by 
Homer. (See Map No. III.) 

a. ThirwalTs Greece, i. 77-79. 

b. Recording u> Herod' otiw, i. 8; 3, the abduction of H6V en, the came of the Ttojan war, wu 
in retaliation oC^the abduction of Medea by Jason in the Argonautic expedition. But Herod'- 

' civM goes llanher back, and attributes to the Phcenksiana the flrrt eaose of eontentloii betwMB 
the AsiaUcs and the Grecians, in carrjlng away from Ar' gbs, lo^ a prieolees of Jano. 


tory Y>j the poems of Homer,^ is represented to have been under- 
taken about the year 1173 before the Christian era, by the oonfed 
erate princes of Greece, against the otty and kingdom of Troy,* 
utnated on the western coast of Asia Minor. The alleged causes 
of this war, according to the Grecian legend, were the following : 
Hel' en, the most beaatiful woman of Ker age, and daughter of Tyn'- 
daruS) king of Lacedse'mo]^ was sought in marriage by all the 
princes of Greece ; when Tyn' dams, perplexed with the difficulty of 
choosing one without displeasing all the rest, being advised by the 
fiage Ulys' ses, bound the suitors by an oath that they woxild approve 
of the uninfluenced choice of Hel' en, and would unite together to 
defend her person and charatter, if ever any attempts were made to 
carry her off from her husband. Menelius beciCme the choice of 
Her en, and soon after, on the death of Tyn' dams, succeeded to the 
vacant throne of Laceds^' mon.* 

24. After three years, Paris, son of Priam kmg of Troy, visited 
the court of Menelaus, and taking advantage of the temporary ab- 
sence of the latter, he corrupted the fidelity of Hel' en, whom he 
induced to flee with him to Troy. Men^lius, returning, prepared to 
avenge the. outrage. He assembled the princes of Greece, who, 
combining their forces under the command of Agamem' non, brother 
of Menelaus, sailed with a great armament to Troy, and after a siege 
of ten years finally took the city by stratagem, and razed it to the 
ground. (1183 B. C.) Most of the inhabitants were slain or taken 
prisoners, and the^ rest were forced to become exiles in distant 

L Slnii§r^ the greatest and earliest of tlie poeti) often styled fbefatk9r of poetry, was prob- 
aU| an AalaUe Greek, aUboagh seven Grecian dties oontendcd for the honor of his birth. No 
dreomstaooes of his life are known with any certainty, except that he was a %oanderin/f poet, 
and UimtL Tho principal works of Homer are the Jlisd and the Od' y«98y,^the former of 
whi<Ui relatas the drcumstaaoes of the Th>Jan war ; and the latter, the history and wanderings 
or U1}V ses aAer Ihe lUl of Troy. 

SL. Tr«|r, the scene of the battles described in the Blad, ^ tood on a rising gronnd betweeb XtM 
small rirer Simois (new the Dumbrek) and the Seaman' der, (now the Hendere,) on the coast 
of Asia Minor, near the entrsnoe to the Hel' le^ont. New ilinm was afterwards buHt on the 
q»ot now beliered to be the site of Che anoieni city, abontthrto miles fh>m the sea. (Se« Map 
No. UL and No. IV.) 

3. lMMdm:muny or Spar' to, the ancient capital of Lac6nia, was sltnated in a plain of con- 
siderable extent, embmeing the greater part of Lao6nia, bounded on the west by the mountain 
chain of Ts^getus, and on the east by tbe less elevated ridge of monnt Tbomax, betweep whlclt 
Sows :he £ar6tas, on tbe east side of the town. In early times Spar* ta was wiUioat walls, Ly- 
eoOsns having inspired his ca«mtrymen with the idea, that the i^ defence of a town oonsiated 
solely in the valor of its citizens ; but foHlflcatlons were erected after Sparta became su^itjeet 
to despotiG mien. The remahis oi Spar' ta are abont two miles nor lb-east of tbe modem town 


25. Sudi is, in brief) the oommonlj-received ftooonnt of the Tro- 
jan war, stripped of the incredible but gktwing fictions with which 
the poetio genius of Homer has adorned it. Bat although the 
reality of some such war as this can hardly be questioned, jet the 
causes which led to it, l^e manner in which it was conducted, and its 
issue; being gathered, eren by Homer himself, only from traditional 
legends, which served as the basis o^ other comg^tions besides 
the Iliad, are inyolyed in an obscurity which we cannot hope to 
penetrate. The accounts of Hel' en are yarious and contradictory, 
and so connected wil^ &bulou8 beings — with gods and goddesses — ^as 
dearly to assign her to the department of mythology ; while the 

- real erents of the war, if such erer oocAred, can hardly be separated 
from the fictions with whidi they are interwoven.* 

26. But although little confidence can be placed in the reality of 
the persons and events mentioned in Homer's poetic account of the 
siege of Troy, yet there is one kind of truth from which the poet 
ean hardly have deviated, or his writmgs would not have been so ae- 
oeptable as they appear to have been to his cotemporaries ; — and 
that is, a faithful portraiture <^ the government, usages, religious no- 
tions, institutions, manners, and ^eral condition of Grecian society, 
during the heroic age.* 

1. llius the most ancient account of Hel'en la, that die was a daoghter of the god Jih 
filter, bateh^ from tbo egg of a swan ; and Homer speakft of her In the Uiad a« ** begotten 
of JApIter." When iMily seven years of age, sn^ were her personal attncUona, that Th^sens, 
king of Athens, having become enamored of her, carried her off trom a festival at whldi be 
asw her danefaig ; but her brothers recovered her by force of anna, and restored her to her 
flkmlly. After her marriage with Menel&as, ft Is said that Jbplter, plotting a war for the por- 
poae of ridding the earth of a portion of its overstocked inhabitants, contrived that the beauty 
of Her en should Involve the Greeks and Trojans in hostilitleB. At a banquet of the gods, Dis- 
cord, by the direction of Jdpiter, threw into the assembly a golden apple, on which was f n- 
•Cribed, '^The i^Pple for the Rilr one," (T9 koX^ rd fiqXor,) or, as in ViTgil, P^lekerrima nu 
kaheiOf "Let the mool beautiftd hare me.** The goddesses Jiino, Miner* va, and Venus,- claim- 
ing it, Paris, the son of Priam, king <tf Troy, was made the arbiler. He awarded ^he prize to 
Venus, who had ]»omised him the beautlfU Hel' en in marriage, if he would deeido in her 
tevor. Venus (the goddess of love and beauty) caused Paris and Hel' en to become mutually 
«namored, and afterwards aided the TVoJans in the war that followed. Homer represents th£ 
heroes as performing prodigies of valor, shielded and aided by the gods ; and the gods them 
ielvee as mingling in the strife, and taking part with the combatants. The goddess Miner" va 
an unsuccessfla competitor for the prixe which Paris awarded to her rival Venus, planned tfat 
stratagem of the wooden horae, which concealed within its side a band of Greeks, who, borne 
with it into the dty, were thus enabled to open the gates to Uietr oonfoderstes without 

a. ** Homer was regarded even by the ancients as of historical authority."— "Truth was his 
eliject in his accounts and descriptions, as fkr as it can be the object of a poet, and e^en in a 
greater degree than was necessary, when he distinguishes the earlier and later times or ages. He 
la th« best aooroe of Information respecthig the heroic MgbJ*—Hegren*t Politic* ^ Orteet^p. 91^ 

Ctetf. n,] BaTPTIAK HISTORY. 8f 


1. Daring tlie period of early Grecian history which we have 
passed over in the present chapter, oui^ knowledge of the coterapo- 
rary history of other nations is exceedingly limited. Rome had not 
yet a be^ning :^— all Europe, except the little (Grecian peninsula, 
was in the darkness of barbarism : in Central Western Asia we in- 
deed suppose there existed, at this time, large cities, and the flour- 
ishing empires of Assyria and Babylon;' but from them we can 
gather no reliable historic annals. In north-eastern Africa, indeedf 
the Egyptian empire had already attained the meridian of its glory ; 
but of the chronological detail of Egyptian history during this pe- 
riod we know comparatively nothing. What is known relates prin- 
eipally to the conquests of the renowned S^sos' tris, an Egyptian 
monarch, who, as nearly as can be ascertained, was cotemporary 
with 0th' niel, the first judge of Israel, and with C6crops, the sup- 
posed founder of Athens, although some modem authors place his 
reign a hundred years later.* ^This monarch is said to haye achieved 
many brilliant conquests as the lieutenant of his father. After he 
came to the throne he made vBst preparations for the conquest of the 
world, and raised an army which is said to have numbered six hun 
dred thousand foot and twenty-four thousand horse, besides twenty- 
seven thousand armed chariots. He conquered Lib' ya* and Ethi6pia,' 
after which, entering Asia, he overran Arabia, subdued the Assyrians 
and Modes, and even led his victorious hosts beyond the Ganges :* 

1. lAk'ya is the name which the Greek wad Ronum poets gave to AfHcit In a more re- 
tffteled seoae, however, the name was applied to that part of Alrlca, bordering on the Mediter* 
maeao, which lies beiwecn ^gypt on the east and THpoll on the west^—the moat important 
part of which territory is embraced in the present Barca. 

S. Ancient EthUpU comprised, principally, the present ooontriee of Nabia and Abyssinia, 
aoMhoTEgypt ' 

X The 6«vM, fke sacred river of the Hindoos, flowing sooth-east throogh the north- 

a.Tbeeraoffbeacoe8slonof Sesoa'tris^maybeplaeedat IMS B.a; that of Oth'iUel al 
15M; and the supposed Ibonding of Athens at 1558,— the laUer two in aooordanoe with Dr. 
Bales. In SoUIb the dale for Sesoa' trie Is 1491 ; Hereen *»■ about 1500^ ; Rosseirs Egypt, 1308 ; 
Man, ^'belweeo 1400 awl 1410*'; 6Uddon*8 Egypt, 1565; and ChampoUoo Figeac (making 
Seaoe' tris the same as Bamsea IV., at the head of the 19th dynasty), 1473. Eosebiua, followed 
by Usher and PlayfUr, supposes that Bosos' tris was the immediate successor of the Pharaoh whe 
wm downed tn the Red Sea; while Marsham, foDowed by Newton, attempts to identify him 
with the Shishak of Scriptore who Invaded Jodea— a dUforenoe, according to various systems 
efchwinology , of ftwaaOS te 800 years. Mr. Biyant endeavors to prove that no such person 

» tka hit erprelatlOD of the Ueroglyiyhlea, however, the principal ground of dispute on this 
suliject among the learned, appean to be, whether the Seeos' tris so renowned in history was 
fhe flwae as Baases III., the fourteenth king of the 18th dynasty, or the same as RamsM IV, the 
flrst k1i« o( the lOlh dynasty, there Wt]« a diftrsnoe beiwewi the two of about * buddred years. 

dS AKGIEErr mffTGBY. fPAnl 

he Ib also said to have passed oyer into Europe, and to have ravaged 
the territories of the Thracians and the Scythians,^ when scarcity of 
provisions stopped the progress of his conquests. That the fame of 
hia^ deeds might long survive him, he erected columns in the countries 
through which he passed, on which was inscribed, ^^ Sesos' tris, king 
of kings, and lord of lords, subdued this country by the power of his 
arms." Some of these columns were still to be seen in Asia Minor 
in the days of Herod' otus. 

3. The deeds and triumjphs of Sesos'tris are also wrought, in 
sculpture and in painting, in numerous temples, and on the most 
celebrated obelisks, from Ethiopia to Lower Egypt At'lpsamboul,' 
in Nubia, is a temple "put out of the solid rock, whose front or fa- 
cade is supported by four colossal figures of exquisite workmanship, 
each sixty feet high, all statues of Sesos' tris, t^e faCfees of which bear 
a perfect resemblance to the figures of the same king at Mem' phis. 
The walls of the temple are covered with numerous sculptures on his- 
torical subjects, representing the ponquests of this prince in Africa. 
Among them are processions of the conquered nations, carrying the 
riches of their country and laying theTn at the feet of the conqueror ; 
and even the wild animals of the desert — antelopes, apes, giraffes, 
and ostriches — ^are led in the triumphs of the Egyptians. 

4. Were it not for the many similar monumental evidences of the 
reign of this monarch, which have been recently discovered, corrobo- 
rative of the deeds which profane authors attribute to him, we might 
be disposed to regard Sesos' tris as others have done, as no more than 
a mythological personification of the Sun, the god of day, " the 
giant that rejoiceth to run his course from one end of heaven to the 
other." But with such an amount of testimony bearing on the sub- 
ject, w;e cannot doubt the existence of this mighty conqueror, al- 
though probably his exploits have been greatly exaggerated by the 
vamty of his chroniclers ; and it is not improbable liiat the deeds 
of several monarohs have been attributed to one. After the return 
of Sesos' tris from his conquests, he is said to have employed his 
time to the dose of his reign, in encouraging the arts, erecting tern- 

eastern part of Hindoatan, entera Uie Bay of B«iigaV tbroofl^ a great numbflr of inoatli(i» aaar 

1. TAraee^ a large tract of country now embraced tn Turkey in Europe, and bordering on the 
nx>pont1a, or sea of Marmora, extended from Macedonia and the JE' gean Sea on the aootb-weeti 
to the Euxlne on the north-east. North of the Thradana, extending along the JSoxine to the 
river Danube, was the comitry of the Seytkiana, 

S. fpaambinU, so celebrated for its weU-known excavated temple^ la In the Borthen pait of 
Vabla, 9n the western bank of the Nile. 

. / 


Obat. n.] IHE ISRAELITKa v W 

ples^to the gods, and improving the reyennes cf his kingdom. After 
his time we know little of the history of Egypt until the reign of 
Pharaoh-Necho, in the^beginning of the seventh century, who is re- 
markable for his successes against Jerusalem. 

5. At the period which we have assigned, somewhat arhiti^arily, 
for the commencement of Grecian history, 1856 years before the 
Christian era, Joseph, the son of the patriai;ch Jacob, was governor 
over Egypt ; and his father's family, by invitation of Pharaoh, had 
settled in Goshen, on the eastern borders of the valley of the Nile. 
This is supposed to have been about three centuries before the time 
of Sesos' tris. On the death of Joseph, the circumstances of the de- 
scendants of Jacob, who were now called Israelftes, were greatly 
changed, i^ A king arose who knew not Joseph ;''& and the children 
of Israel became servants and bondi^men in the land of Egypt. Two 
hmidred years they were held in . bondage, when the Lord, by his 
servant Moses, brought^ them forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand 
and an outstretched arm, after inflicting the most grievous plagues 
upon their oppressors, and destroying the pursuing hosts of Pharaoh 
m th^ Red Sea. (1648 B. 0.) 

6. Forty years the Israelites, numbering probably two millions 
of souls,^ wandered in the wildemcis on the north-western confines 
of Arabia,' supported by miraculous interposition ; for the country 
was then, as now, " a land of deserts and of pits, a land of drouth 
and of the shadow of death, a land that no man passed through, and 
where no man dwelt ;^'d and after they had completed their wander- 
ings, and another generation had grown up since they had left Egypt, 
they came to the river Jordan,' and passing through the bed of the 

1. jfroKa is an extenslTe peninsula at the south-western extremitr of Asia, lying imroodiatel/ 
Mtt of the Bed Sea. It is mostly a roclcy and desert country, Inhabited by wandering tribes 
of Arabs, the descendants of Ishmael. They stili retain the character given to their ancestor. 
The desert has continued to be the home of the Arab ; he has been a man of war ttom bis 
joaih ; **his lumd against erery man, and ereiy nuui*8 hand against him.** (Gen. xvL. 13.) 

S. The river Jordan (See Map, No. VI.) rises towards the northern part of Palestine, on the 
western slope of Mount Hfrmon, and afler a south course of about forty miles, opens Into the 
tea of GalHee near the ancient town of Bethsaida. After passing through this lake or sea, 
which Is about lUteen miles long and seven broad, and on and near which occurred so many 
striking seenes in the history of Christ, it pursues a winding southerly course of about ninety 
miles through a narrow valley, and then empties its waters Into the Dead Sea. In this river* 
valley was the dwelling of Lot, "who pitched his tents toward Sodom** (Gen. xlll. 11, 13) ; and 
« in the vale of SIddim, which Is the salt sea,** occurred the batUe of the " four kings with five.** 
(Geo. zv.) The Israelites passed the Jordan near Jericho (Josh. 111. 14-17) ; the prophets Eiy«h 

a. Paraphrased by Josepbns aa meaning that the kingdom had passed to another dyiuttty. 

b. 1648^ B.C. 

c They had 608,550 men, above SO yean of age, not reckoning Levites. E!K^4ltts, xnTiU. SOL 
d. Jeremiah, 11. G. 


Stream, which rolled back its iraters on their approach) entered the 
promised land of Palestine/ The death of Moses had left the gov- 
ernment in the hands of Joshua. And " Israel served the Lord all 
the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that outlived 
Joshua, and which had known all the works of the Lord that he had 
done for his chosen people."^ 

7. From the time of the death of Joi^ua to the election of Saul 
as first king of Israel, whioh latter event occurred about seventy 
years after the supposed siege of Troy, Israel was ruled by judges, 
who were appointed through the agency of the priests and of the 
divine oracle, m accordance with the theocratic form of government 
established by Moses. After the death of Joshua, however, the Is- 
raelites often apostatised to idolatry, for which they wece punished 
by being successively delivered into the hands of the surrounding na- 
tions. First they were subdued by the king of Mesopotamia,^ aftet 
which the Lord raised up Oth'^niel to be their deliverer (1564 B. C.) . 
a second defection was punished by eighteen years of servitude to the 
king of the M6abite8,' from whom they were delivered by the enter- 

and SaUba aftorwardB dlyidad the waters to 4[>rove their divine mifliion 0t KlngB, xl. 8) ; tbe 
leper Naaman was eommanded to wash in Jordan and be clean (S Kiqga, iv. 10) ; and it is thla 
stream in wUcb Jeans was baptized beAne hft eoteted on Us divine mission. (Matt. lU. 1G> fro.) 
The Dead Sea, into which the Jordan empties, is so called from the heaviness and consequent 
stillness «f its waters, which contain one-fourth part of their weight of salts. The country 
around this lake is exceedingly dreary, and the soil is destitute of vegetation. Sodom and Go* 
moirah are supposed to have stood in the plain now oociq»ied by the lake, and ruins of tha 
overthrown dties are said to have been seen on its western borders. (Map No. VL) 

1. Palestiiuj a part of modern Syria, now embraced in Turkey in Asia, lies at the eastern 
estremily of the Mediterranean 8^ ; extending north and south akmg the coast about 906 
mass, and having an exTFeme breadth of about 80 miles. Though in antiquity the northern 
part of Palestine was the seat of the Phoenicians, a great commercial people, yet there are 
DOW few good bartKMm on the coast, those of Tyre 'and Sidon, once ao famous, being now for 
the most part blocked up with sand. The country of Palestine consists principally of rugged 
hills and narrow valleys, although it has a fbw plains of considerable extent. There are many 
streams Hailing into the Mediterranean, the largest of which is the Orontes, at the north, but 
none of them are navigable. The river Jordan, on the east, empties its waters into the As* 
phaltic Lake, or Dead Sea, which latter, about 55 miles in length, and 90 in extreme width, 
now flIlB the plain where once stood the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. North of the Dead 
Sea is the Lake of Gennesareth, or Sea of Galilee, the theatre of sdhie most remarkable mii^ 
acles. (Matthew vill. ; Luke viil. ; and Matthew xix. 25.) The principal mountains of Pale» 
tine are those of Lebanon, running in ranges nearly parallel to the Mediterranean, and Anally 
connecting with mounts Horeb and Sinai, near the Gulf of Sues. Jxrubalkm, the capital 
city of Palestine or the Holy Land, will be described in a subsequent article. (Step, 164, JUeCuh 
lock; articles Syria, Said, or Sldon, Dead Sea, Lebanon, fcc.) (Map No. VL) 

S. Tlie Moabitu, so called flrom Moab, the son of Lot (Gen. xix. ?7), dwelt bi the countiy oa 
fhe east of the Dead Sea. (MaplHo,Vl,) 

a. Joshua, xxiv. 31. 

b. Numbers, ill. H. Some think that the country here retared to was In the vldnlty of 
Damaacna, and not *< beyond tbe Euphrates,** as Mesopot4mla would imply. (Set Ctck^fiu^t 

^avU Hi9U 0f UU Jewy 80-43.) 

Csjff n.] THS ISRAELITES. 41 

prinng Talor of Ehud.* After his death the Israelitea again did evil 
in the sight of the Lord, and " the Lord sold fbem into ^e hand* of 
Jabin king of Canaan,'" nnder whose cruel joke they groaned twenty 
years, when the prophetess Deborah, and Bavak her general, were 
made the instruments of their liberation. The Canaanites were 
routed with great slaughter, and their leader Sisera slain by Jael, in 
whose tent he had 80ug;ht refuge> 

8. Afterwards, the children of Israel were delivered over a prey 
to the Midianites and Amalekites,* wild tribes of the desert, who 
^ came up with their cattle and their tents, as grasshoppers for mul- 
titude." But the prophet Qideon, chosen by the -Lord to be the 
liberator of his people, taking with him only three hundred men, 
made a night attack on the camp of the enemy, upon whom such fear 
feU that they slew each oth^r ; so that a hundred and twenty thou- 
sand men were left dead on the field, and only fifteen thousand es- 

* caped by flight. In the height of their joy and gratitude, the peo- 
ple would have made Gideon king, but he said to them, ^^ Not I, nor 
my son, but Jehovah shall reign over you."« 

9. Again the idolatry of the Israelites became so gross, that the Lord 
delivered them into the hands of the Philistines' and the Ammonites,* 
from whom they were finally delivered by the valor of Jephthah.<* 
At a later period the Philistines oppressed Israel forty years, bat the 
people found an avenger « in the prowess of Samson.® After the 
death of Samson the aged Eli judged Israel, but the crimes of his 
sons, Hophni and Phinehas, whom he had chosen to aid him in the 
government, brought down the vengeance of the Lord, and thirty 
thousand of the warriors of Xsrael were slain in battle by the Philis- 

1. The CoMMtnius, to called from Oanaan, one of the sons of Ham (Gen. x. 6-19), then dwelt 
In the lowIandB of the Galilee of the Gentiles, between the sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean. 
Bank, descending flpom Mount Tabor (see Map), attacked Sisera on the banks of the rirer 
Kiahon. (Jir«i»No.VL) 
I 2. The Jtidimiits*, so called ftom one of the sons of Abraham by Keturah, dwelt in western ' 
Arabia, near the head of the Red Sea. The AmalMiea dwelt in the wilderness between the 
Dewt Sea and the Rod Sea. (AfopNo.VI.) 

31 The PkUUiinea (see Map) dwelt on the south-western borders of Palestine, along the coast 
of the Mediterranean, as far north as Mount Carmel, the commencement of the Phoenician 
tmitoriea. Their principal towns were Gaza, Gath, Ascalon, and Meglddo, for which see Map. 
The Israelite tribes of Simeon, Ban, Ephraim, and Manasaeh, bordered on their territories. 
''The whole of the towns of the coast conUnu^ in the hands of the Philistines and Phoenicians, 
and nerer permanently felt under the dominion of Israel.**— Ci»eAayii«*« Hi»u of the Jetos, p. 44. 

4. The JtmntbnittM (see Map) dwelt on the borders of the desert eastward of the IsneUt« 
tribes that aettted east of the Jordan. 

». Judges, III. 15-30. b. Judges, !▼. e. Judges, tI.; Tf..; TiH. 

d. Jadgea,z.7;xi.33. «. Judges, xiii. 1 ; zIt. ; zr. ; xvL 

4S AiroiEirr bistort [p^*^ 

tines.* The prophet Samuel was divinely chQsen as the sucoessor of 
Eli. (1152 B. C.) flis administration Was wise and prudent, but 
in his old age the tyranny of his sons, whom he was obliged to em- 
ploy as hb deputies^ induced the })eople to demand a king who 
should rule over them like the kings of other nations. With reluct^ 
ance Samuel yielded to the popular* request, and by divine guidance, 
anointed SaUl, of the tribe of Benjamin, king over Israel.^ (1110 

10. We have thus briefly traced the civil history of the Israelites 
down to the period of the establishment of a monarchy over them, 
in the person o^ ^aul, at a date, according to the chronology which 
we have adopted, seventy-three years later than the supposed destruc- 
tion of Troy. It is, however, the religious history, rather than the 
civil annals, of the children of Abraham, that possesses the greatest 
value and the deepest interest • but as our limits forbid our enter- 
ing upon a subject so comprehensive as the former, and the one can- ' 
not be wholly separated from the other without the greatest violence^ 
we refer the reader to the Bible for fall and satisfactory details of 
the civil and religious polity of the Jews, contenting ourselves with 
having given merely such a skeleton of Jewish annals, in connection 
with profane history, as may serve to render the comparative chro- 
nology of the whole easy of comprehension. 

a. 1 aaxn. ir. la * . K z, L 





1183 TO 490 B. a = 698 years. 

.ANALYSIS. 1. fntrodnctory.— 3. Gonseqnences of the Trojan war.— 3. Thessa'lian coi^ 
QVBBT.— [Epi^us. Pln'dus. Fendus.}— 4.B<zo'tianconqukst.— iEo'LiAWMiGHATioN. [Les'- 
tMM. 5 Duris.] Rktvrm, or the Ukracu' d«.— 6. Numbers and military chancter of the 
INiriana,->PU8age of Uie Corinthian Gulf.— [€k)rinthiun Isthmua.— Corinthian GuIC—Naupac* 
toa.}— 7. I>6rlan conquest of the Peloponndsus. [ Arc&dia. Acbftia.] I6aian and D6rian ml 
graltoBS.— 8. Darian inTaaion of At' tica.—C Athens. Delphos.] S^lf-sacriflce of Cddroa. 
Govamment of At' tiau— 9. [Lticonia.] Its government. Lycur'gus.— 10. Travels of Lycur* 
/ goa. [The Brahmins.] Ii«8txtutiom8 or LTcua'ans.— 11. Plutarch's account— senate- 
MBemblle»— division of lands.— 13. Movable property. The currency.— 13. Public tables. 
ObjficA of Spartan education, and aim of Lycur'^us*— 14. Disputes about Lycur'gua. His 
supposed late, [Delphos, Cr6te. and E'lis.]— 15. The three classes of the Ionian population. 
Tkeataent of the Helots.— 16. The provincials. Their coodttion.- 17. [Mess^nia. Ithdme.] 
First Mssse' viak war. Results of the war to the Messenians.- 18. Its influence on the 
Spanana. SacoiTD MsssB' KiAN WAR. Aristom'enes.- 19. The PoetTyrtie'us. [Corfnth. Sic- 
yon.] Battle of the Pamisus. The ArcAdians. 30. Results of tlje war.— 31. Government of 
Alheoa. Dra' co.— 33. Severity of his laws.— 33. Anarchy. Legislation or Solom. Solon's 
tnlegrity.— 94. Distresses of the people The needy and the rich —35. The policy of Solon. 
Debtor»— lands of the poor— Imprisonment. Classification of the citizens.- 26. Disabilities 
and privil^es of the fourth class. General policy of Solon^s system.- 37. The nine arclvp&s. 
The Senate of Four Hundred.— 28. Court of the Areop' agus. Its powers. Institutions of 
Solon compared with the Spartan code.— 39. Party feuds. Plsts' tratus.- 30. His usurpation 
c# power. Opposition to, koA character of, his government— 31. The sons of Pisis' tratus. 
Coospfracy of Harm6dlus and Aristogiton.— 33. Expulsion or the Pibistratids. Intrigues 
of Hip' pias. [Lyd' la. Per' sia.]— 33. The Grecian ooloniea conquered by Croe' sub— by the 
Persians. Application (br aid.— 34. Ion' ic Revolt. Athens and Euboe' a aid the I6nians. 
[EuboB'a. Sardis. Eph'esos.] Result of the lOnJan war. [Miletus.] Designs of Uarius. 

CoTsitroRART History. — I. Phqbni cian History. 1. Geography of PhoBnicla.— 3. Early hia- 
lory of Phisnicia. Political condition. Colonies.— 3. Supposed circumnavigation of Africa.— 
4, Commercial relations, fl. Jewish History — continuation of.— 0. Accesrion of Saul to the 
throne. Slaughter of theAm' monites. [J&besl^ Gil' ead. Gil' gal.] War with the Philistines.— 7. 
Wars with the surrounding nations. SauPs disobedience.— 8. David— his prowess. [Gath.] 
Sanl^'sjealousy of David. David's fntegrity.— 9. Death of Saul. [Mount Gil' boa.] Division of the 
kingdom between David and Ish' bosheth. [Hebron.] Union of the tribes.- 10. Limited possess- 
ions of the fsraelltes. [Tjrre. Sidon. Joppa. Jerusalem.] David takes Jerusalem .—11. His other 
eonqnesla. [Syria. Damascus. Rabbah.] Siege of Rabbah. Close of David's reign.— 13. 
Solomon. His wisdom— fame— commercial relations.- 13. His impiety. Close of his reign. — 
14. Revolt of the ten tribes. Their subsequent history.- 15. Rehoboam's reign over Judah. 
Reign of Aha2. Hezekiah. Signal overthrow of the Assyrians.— 17. Corroborated by pro- 
fiuie history.— 13. Account given by Herod' Otus.— 19. Reigns of Manas' seh, A' mon, Josiah, 
and Jeboahaz.— 30. Reign of Jehoiakim— of Jeclfoniah.— 21. ReSgn of Hezekiah. Destruo- 
tion of Jeniaalem.— 33. OapUvIiy of the Jews.— 33. Rebuilding of Jerusalem. III. Ro- 
■AJi History.— 34. Foundinis of Rome.— IV. Persian History.- 85. Dissolution of the A»- 
qfrian emplre^~96. Establlahment of the empire of the Medes and Babyloniana. First and 

44 " AtfOXBar HISTOAT. [PatI 

' Meond eapttvltr of the Jews.— S7^ Other eonquMti of NebvcbadMB' car. HIa wv idlli Am 
PhGBmlcluu.— S8. With the Egyptians. Fulfilment of Ez^kiel's prophecy.— 39. Impiety and 
pride of Nebachadnez'zar.'* Mis punishment.— 30. Belshaz' car's reign. Rise of the separate 
kingdom of Media. Founding of the Persian empire.— 31. Cyrus defeats Cros' ras— subjogatea 
the Grecian colonies— conquers Babylon. Prophecies relathig to Babylon.— 32. Bemainderof 
the reign of Cyrus.— 33. Reign of Camby' ses. [Jupiter Am' mon.] — 34. Accession of Darius 
Bystas'pea. Revolt and deatmcUon of Babylon^-3Sw Expedition against th^ fioythlana. 
[Scythla. RiTor Don. lliraoe.]— 30. Other evenis in the history of Darius. His alms, policy, 
and goTemment.— 37. Extent of the PersSjn csuplre. 

1. Passing from the fabulcos era of Greoian history) we enter 
npon a period when thetsrude fictions of more than mortal heroes, 
and demi-goda, begin to give place to the realities of human exist- 
ence ; but still the vague, disputed, and often, contradictory annals 
on whi<^ we are obliged to rely, shed only an uncertain light around 
us ; and even what we have gathered as the most reliable, in the 
present chapter, perhaps cannot wholly be taken «& imdoubted his- 
toric truth, especially in chronological details. 

2. The immediate consequenoes of the Trojan war, as represented 
by Greek historians, were scarcely less disastrous to the victors than 
to the vanquished. The return of the Grecian heroes to their coun* 
try is represented by Homer and other early writers to have been 

. full of tragical adventures, while their long absence had encouraged 
usurpers to seize many of their thrones ; and hence arose fierce wars 
and intestine commotions, which greatly retarded the progress of 
Greoian civilization. 

3. Among these petty revolutions, however, no events of general 
L thxsba' liam interest occurred until about sixty years after the fidl of 

ooNQOEST. Troy, when a people from Eplrus,* passing over the , 
mountain chain of Pm' dus,' descended into the rich plains which lie 
along the banks of the Pen^us,* and finally conquered* the country, to 

1. The country of Epinii, comprised la the present Turkish proTince of Alb'&ina, was at 
the north-western extremity^of Greecej lying along the coast of the Adriatic Sea, or Gulf of 
Venice, and bounded on the north by Maceduniat and on the east by Macedonia and Tbes'- 
saly. The inhabitants in early times were proba^bly Pelas' gio^ but they %an hardly be consid- 
ered ever to hare belonged to the Hellenic race, or Grecians proper. Epirus is principaU/ 
distinguished in Roman history as the ooontiy of the celebrated Pyr' rhus (see p. 149.) The 
earliest oracle of Greece was that of Dod6na in Epirus, but its exact locality is unknown. 
There was another oracle of the Mime name in Thes' saly. {J\ia;p No. I.) 

2. Pin'dus is the name of the mountain chain which separated Thes' saly from Epirus. 
(Map No. L) 

3. PeniuSf the principal river of Thes' saly, rises in the Pin' dus mountains, and flowing In a 
oouno generally east, passes through the raU of Tom' pe, and empties its waters Into the Thor- 
maio Gulf; now the gulf of Salonica, a branch of the JS' gean Sea, or Archipelago. (JIfcji 

». AboallS94B.a 


wbich ihi^ gave ike name of Thes'saly ; drivu^ awaj most of th« 
mhabitaato, and reducing those who remained to the condition of 
serfiB, or agricoltoral slaves. 

4. The fugitives from Thes' sal jy driven' from their own oonntr7, 
passed over into B<B6tia, which they subdued after a long n. boo' tiajt 
etriiggle, imitating their own conquerors in the disposal ooftquisv. 
<yf the inhabitants. The unsettled state of society occasioned by the 
Thessilian and BoB6tian conquests was the cause of collecting to- 
gether various bands of fugitives, who, being joined by adventurers 
from Peloponnesus, passed over into Asia,^ constituting the JEoLian 
mdffrcaum, so called from the race which took tho prin- ni. iSo'Luir 
eipal share in it They established their settlements in xiorahoi^ 
the vicinity of the ruins of Troy, and on the opposite island of Les'- 
bofl,^ while on the main land they built many cities, which were com- 
prised in twelve States, the whole of which formed the JS61ian Con- 

5. About twenty years aftei: the Thessdlian conquest, the Ddriaas, 
a^eU6nic tribe, whose country, D6ris,' a mountainous region, was 
on the south of Thes' saly, being probably harassed by their northern 
neighbors, and desirous of a settlement in a more fertile territory, 
commenced a migration to the Peloponn6sus, accompanied by por- 
tions of other tribes, and led, as was asserted, by descendants of 
Her' cules, who had formerly been driven into exile from tha latter 
ooontry. This important event in Grecian history is ^^ KrnjRv 
etJ^ed the Return (f the Hisracltd€R, The migration of the of the 
D6rian8 was similar in its character to the return of the h**^^'"' ^-^ 
Israelites to Palestine, as they took with them their wives and chil- 

. dren, prepared for whatever fortune should award them. 

6. The D6rians could muster about twenty thousand fitting men, 
and although they were greatly inferior in numbers to the inhabit- 
ants of die countries which they conquered, their superior military 
tactics appear generally to have insured them an easy victory in the 

1. Les'hfti one of the moat celebnited of the Grodan Uanda, now called Mytil^ne, from its 
priocipel cUj, lies on the coast of Asia Minor, north of the entrance to the Gulf of Bmyma. 
AneieoUj, Lea' bos contained nine flourishing dttes, founded mostly py the ^61ians. The 
Lea'tofaat were notorious for their dissolute manners, while at the same time they were 
dMIagnfslied for intellectnal cultivation, and especially for poetry and music (Map Mo. UL) 

2. MMsj a small mountainous country, extending only about forty miles in length, was 
filiated oB the south of Thes' saly, fh>m which it was separated by the range of nount (£' ta. 
n* D6r1«M were the most powernal of the HeUAolc tribes (.Affl^'No. I.) 

II. About 1040 B.C. 


open field. Twice, however, they were repelled in tbeir attempts to 
break through the Corinthian isthmus,' the key to Southern Greeoe, 
when, warned by these misfortunes, they abandoned the guarded 
isthmus, and crossing the Corinthian Guir from Naupac' tus,' landed 
safely on the horth-western coast of the peninsula. (B. C. 11 04). 

7. The whole of Peloponn6sus, except the central and mountainous 
district of Arcddia^ and the coast proyince of Achdia,* was eventually 
subdued, and apportioned among the conquerors, — ^all the old inhab- 
itants who remained in the country being reduced to an Inferior con- 
dition, like that of the Saxon' serfs of England, at the time of the 
Norman conquest. Some of the inhabitants of the southern part 
of the peninsula, however, uniting under valiant leadersj' conquered 
the province of Achdia, and expelled its I6nian inhabitants, many 
of whom, joined by various bands of fugitives, sought a retreat on the 
western coast of Asia Minor, south of the •^61ian cities, where, in 

' 1. The Corinthian IsthmuBy betweeo the Corinthian Gulf (now Gulf of Lepan' to) on the 
DOitb-WMt, and tbe Saron' fc Gulf (now Gnlf of Athena, or JEgintL) on ttie foath^east, nnites the 
Peloponn^aaa to tbe northern paru of Greece, or Greece Proper. The narroweet part of thia 
oelebnited Isthmxia i» about six miles east from Corlntli, where the distance across is aboirt 
flre miles. The Isthmas is high and rocky, and many ansucoesBfiil attempts hare been made 
• to unite tbe waters on each elde by a canal. T^e Isthmus derived much of ita early celebrity 
from the Isthmian games celebrated there In honor of Pals'mon nod Nep' tune. Ruins of 
tbe temple of Nep' tune have been discovered at the port of Schaa' nus, on the east side of the 
lathmua. (Map Vo,L) 

S. The Corinthian Oulf (now caUed the Gulf of Lepan' to) is an eastern arm of the Adriatle^ 
or Gidf of Venice, and lies principally between the coast of ancient Ph6cis on the north, and 
of Ach&ia on the south. The entrance to the gnli; between two ruined castles, the Boum^Ha 
on the north, and the Mor6a on the south, is only about one mile across. . Within, the wateffi 
expand into a deep magnificent basin, stretching about seventy^eight miles to the south-east, 
and being, where widest, about twenty miles across. Near the mouth of this gulf was fought, 
In the year 157Q, one of the greatest naval battles of modern times. (Map No. I.) 

3. Jfaupae' tua (now called Lepan' to) stands on a hill on the coast of I.6cris, about three and 
a half miles from the ruined cast!-; of Room^lia. It is said to have derived its name Trom the 
cfroamstanoe of the Heraelidn haring there eonstructed the fleet In which they crossed over 
to the Peloponnesus. (AVitw, a ship, and Pegoy or Pifnumi, to construct) It was onoe a place 
of considerable importance, but is now a ruinous town. (Map No. I.) 

4. Aretydioy the central country of the Peloponnesus, and, next to Lao6tt)a, the largest of tti 
■be provinces, Is a mountainous region, somewhat similar to Switzerland, having a length and 
breadth of about forty miles each. The most fertile part of the country was towards the south, 
where were sevecal delightfVil plains, and numerous vineyards. The Alpheus Is the principal 
river of Arcidia. T^gea and Manttn^a were its principal cities. Its lakes ay 'small, but 
among them is the Stymph&lus, of classic fame. Tbe Arc4dians, scarcely a genuine Greek 
race, were a rude and pastoral people, deeply attached to music, and possesrix^ a strong love 
of freedom. (Map No. I.) 

5. Achtioy the most northern country of the PeIoponn6su8, extended along the Corinthian 
Gult; north of £' lis and Arc&dia. It was a country of moderate fertility ; its coast waiyitr the 
most part level, containing no good harbors, and exposed to Inundations ; and its snreanu 
wore of small size, many oC them mere winter torrents, descending from the ridges of ArcAdia. 
Originally Ach&ia embraced the territory of Sic' yon, on. the east, but the latter was finally 
wrested from It by tbe DOrlana. The Aoh»' ana are principally celebrated Ibr being the oric 
tDatonorUMeritfbiMed AobflBanlMgiie. (Soa p.l07.) (JIfiyNo. I.) 


prooesfl of time, twelve I6nian cities were built, the whole of which 
were united in the I6nian Confederacy, while their new country re- 
ceived the name of I6nia. At a later period, bands of the D6rians 
themselves, not content with their conquest of the Peloponnesus, 
l^onged to Asia Minor, where they peopled several cities on the 
coast of Cdria, south of I6nia ; so that the M' gean Sea was finally 
circled by Grecian settlements, and its islands covered by them. 

8. About the year 1068, the D6rians, impelled, as some assert, by 
a general scarcity, the natural effect of long-protracted wars, invaded 
At' tica, and encamped before the walls of Athens.* The chief of 
the'D6rian expedition, having consulted the oracle of DeFphos,* was 
told that the D6rians would be successful so long as C6drus, the 
Athenian king, was uninjured. The latter, being informed of the 
answer of the oracle, resolved to sacrifice himself for the good of 
his country; and going out of the gate, disguised in the garb of a 
peasant, he provoked a quarrel with a D6rian i^oldier, and suffered 
himself t^ be slain. On recognizing the body, the superstitious D6- 
nans, deeming the war hopeless, withdrew from At' tica ; and the 
Athenians, out of respect for the memory of C6drus, declared that 
no one was worthy to succeefd him, and abolished the form of roy- 
alty altogether.^ Magistrates called archons, however, differmg little 
from kings, were now appointed from the family of Codrus for life ; 
after a long period these were exchanged^ for arthons appointed for 
ten years, until, lastly,® the yearly election of a senate of Archons 
gave the filial blow to royalty in Athens, and established an aristo- 
cratical government of the nobility. These successive encroachments 

1. Jttkemt^ one of the moot fSunons cities of antiquity, If situated on the western side of the 
At' tie peoinenla, about Ave miles from the Baron' ic Gul^ now the Gulf of iEgina. Moet of 
the aneient city stood on the west side of a rocky eminence called the Acrop' oils, surrounded 
l)y an extensire plain, and, at the tAie when 1'^ had attained its greatest mai^tude, was twenty 
niies in circumference, and encompassed by a wall surmounted, at intervals, by strongly-for* 
tUod towers. The small river Cephis' sus, flowing south, on the west side of the city, and the 
rtver Ills' sus, on the east, flowing south-west, inclosed it in a sort of peninsula ; but botli 
ttwnms lost themselves In the marshes soulh-west of the city; The waters of the His' sus were 
Bostly drawn off to irrigate the neighboring gardens, or to supply the artiflciai fountains of 
Alheoa. (Af^No.I. See fkrther description, p. 5(14.) 

S. Del'pkotj or Del' phi, a small city ofPhocis, situated on the southern declivity of Mount 
famas' sua, forty-flre mllea north-west from Ck>r' inth, and eight and a half miles from tlio nearest 
point of the Corinthian GuU; was the seat of the most remarkable oracle of the ancient world. 
Above Del' phi arose the two towering cliffs of Paruas' bus, while from the chasm between 
ttiem florwed the waters of the CastAlian spring, the source of poetical inspiration. Below lay 
a rugged mountain, past which flowed the rapid stream Pits' tus ; while on both sldtra of the 
plain, where stood the Ultle city, arose sitep and ahnost iaacoeislble predpiooa. (.tt^ No. L> 

a.UMB..a b.7SBB.a e»flBiB.a 

48 AI3CIENT HI3T0BT. [PaitI 

on the royal prerogatives are almost the onlj events that fill the 
meagre annals of Athens for several centuries.^ 

9. While these changes were occurring at Athens, Lac6nia,' whose 
capital was Sparta, although often engaged in tedious wars with the 
Ar' gives," was gradually acquiring an ascendancy over the D6rian 
states of the Peloponn6sus. After the Heraclidse had obtained pos- 
session of the sovereignty, two descendants of that family reigned 
jointly at Lacedaa' mon, but this divided rule served only to increase 
the public confusion. Things remained, however, in this situation 
until some time in the ninth century B. C, when Polydec'' tes, one 
of the kings, died without children. The reins of government then 
fell into the hands of his brother Lycur' gus, but the latter soon re- 
signed" the crown to the posthumous son of Polydec'tes, and, to 
avoid the imputation of ambitious designs, went into voluntary exile, 
although against the wishes of the best of his countrymen. 

10. He is said to have visited many foreign lands, observmg their 
institutions and manners, and conversing with their sages — ^to have 
studied the Cretan laws of Minos — to have been a disciple of the 

" Egyptian priests — and even to have gathered wisdom from the Brah- 
mins* of India, employing his time in maturing a plan for remedying 
the evils which afflicted his native country. On his return he ap- 
plied himself to the business of framing a new constitution for Sparta, 
after consulting the Delphic oracle, which assured him that " the 
constitution he should establish would be the most excellent in the 
world. ^' Having enlisted the aid of the most illustrious citizens, 

v. DiOTTrt;- ^^ ^^^ ^P ^™^ ^ support him, he procured the 
T10N8 OF enactment of a code of laws, by which the form of 

LTouR OU8. government, the military discipline of the people, the 
distribution of property, the education of the citizens, and the rules 

1. ItteSnia^ ritnaW at the aoutheni extremity of Greece, had Af golls uA ArcMla on the 
north, Meas^nia on the west, and the sea on the sonth and east. Its extent wss about flAy 
miles from north to south, and fh>m twenty to thirty fPom east to west Its principal river was 
the EurOtaa, on the western bank of which was Sparta, the capital ; and its mountains were 
the ranges of Par' non on the north and east, and of Tayg'etus on the west, which rendered 
the fertile vall^' of the Eur6tas, comprising the principal part of L8c6nla, exceedingly diffi- 
cult of access. Tlie two southern promontories of Lac6nia were Hal^a and Taaniurlum, now 
callod St. Angelo and SAtapan. (Map No. I.) 

2. The Ar" gives proper were inhabitants of the state and cfly of Ar'gos ; but the word It 
often applied by the poets to oil tlie inhabitants of Greece. (Map No. L) ^ 

3. The Brahmins were a ctaus of Hindoo priests and philosophers, worshippers of the Indian 
god Brama, the supposed creator of the world. They were the only persons who understood 
the Sanscrit, the ancient language of Hlndoostan, in which the sacred books of the Hindooi 
were wrlttim. 



of domestic life, were to be established on a new and immutable 

11. The account which Plutarch gives of these regulations asserts 
that Lvcur' gus first established a senate of thirty members, chosen 
for life, the two kings being of the number, and that the former 
shared the power of the latter. There were also to be assemblies of 
the people, who were to have no right to propose any subject of de- 
bate, but were only authorized to ratify or reject what might be 
proposed to them by the senate and the kings. Lycur'gus next 
made a new division of the lands, for here he found great inequality 
existing, as there were many indigent persons who had no lands, and 
the wealth was centred in the hands of a few. 

12. In order farther to remove inequalities among the citizens, 
and, as far as possible, to place all on the same level, he next at- 
tempted to divide the movable property ; but as this measure met 
with great opposition, he had recourse to another method for accom- 
plishing the same object. He stopped the currency of gold and sil- 
ver coin, and permitted iron money only to be used ; and, to a great 
quantity and weight of this he assigned but a small value, so that, 
to remove one or two hundred dollars of this money would require 
a yoke of oxen. This regulation put an end to many kinds of in- 
justice, for " Who," says Plutarch, " would sfeal or take a bribe ; 
who would defraud or rob, when he could not conceal the booty, — 
when he could neither be dignified by the possession of it, nor be 
served by its use ?" Unprofitable and superfluous arts were excluded, 
trade with foreign States was abandoned; and luxury, losing its 
sources of support, died away of itself 

13. To promote sobriety, all the citizens, and even the kings, ate 
at public tables, and of the plainest fare ; each individual being ob- 
liged to bring in, monthly, certain provisions for the common use. 
This regulation was designed, moreover, to furnish a kind of school, 
where the young might be instructed by the conversation of their 
elders. From his birth, every Spartan belonged to the State; 
sickly and deformed infants were destroyed, those only being thought 
worthy to live who promised to become useful members of the com- 
munity. The object of Spartan education was to render children 
expert in manly exercises, hardy, and courageous ; and the principal 
aim of Lycur' gus appears to have been to render the' Spartans a na- 
tion of warriors, although not of conquerors, for he dreaded the ef- 
feotfl of an extension of territory boyond the boundaries of Lac6nia. 



14. Lycur' gufl left none of his laws in writing; and some of the 
regulations attributed to him were probably the results of subsequent 
legislation. It is even a disputed point in what age Lycur'gus 
lived, some making him cotempdtary with the Heraclidao, and others 
dating his era four hundred years later, after the close of the Messe- 
nian wars ; but the great mass of evidence fixes his legislation in 
the nmth century before the Christian era. It is said that after he 
had completed his work, he set out on a journey, having previously 
bound the Spartans by an oath to make no change in his laws untD 
his return, and, that they might never be released from the obliga- 
tion, he voluntarily banished himself forever from his country, 
and died in a foreign land. The place and manner of his death 
are unknown, but Derphos, Crete, and E'lis,* all claimed his 

15. There were three classes among the population of Lac6nia : — 
the Dorians of Sparta ; their serfs, the Helots ; and the people of 
the provincial districts.* The former, properly called Spartans, 
were the ruling caste, who neither employed themselves in agricul- 
ture nor commerce, nor practiced any mechanical art.^ The Helots 
were slaves, who, as is generally believed, on account of their obsti- 
nate resistance in some ^arly wars, and subsequent conquest, had been 
reduced to the most degrading servitude. They were always "viewed 
with suspicion by their masters, and although some were occasionally 
emancipated, yet measures of the most atrocious violence were often 
adopted to reduce the strength and break the spirits of the bravest 
and most aspiring, who might threaten an insurrection. 

16. The people of the provincial districts were a mixed race, com- 
posed partly of strangers who had accompanied the D6rians, and 
aided them in their conquest, and partly of the old inhabitants of 
the country who had submitted to the conquerors. The provincials 
were under the control of the Spartan government, in the adminis- 
tration of which they had no share, and the lands which they held 
were tributary to the State ; they formed an important part of the 

1. Del'pbos and Cr6te bave been described. The Buramlt of Mount T da, in CMte, was 
ncred to J<ip1ter. Here also Gyb' ele, tbe ** mother of the ffodt,** was worshf ppod. (The 
Moxuit I' da mentioned by tbe poets was in tbe Yicinity of ancient Troy.) E' lis was a district 
of tbe Peloponnesus, lying west of Arc4dla. At Olym' pia, situated on tbe rirer Alph^ua, ta 
tbts district, tbe celebratM Olympic games were celebrated in bonor of Jupiter. £' lUj the 
eapital of tbe districti was situated on tbe river Pen^us, thirty miles north-west (torn Olym pia, 

a. Tblrwall, i. 1£8. b. HiU^s Instilutlons of Ancient Greaee, p. lA 

€haf. m] GREOIAN HISTORY. 61 

militarj force of the country, and, on the whole, had little to com- 
plain of but the want of political independence. 

17. During a century or more after the time of Lycur'gus. the 
Spartans remained at peace with tlfeir neighbors, except a few petty 
contests on the side of Arcd.dia and Ar' gos. Jealousies, however, 
arose between the Spartans and their brethren of Messenia,' which, 
stimulated by insults and injuries on both sides, gave rise to l!he first 
Messenian war, 743 years before the Christian era. vi. firot mes- 
Afler a conflict of twenty years, the Messenians were sen i an wae. 
obliged to abandon theur principal fortress of Ith6me,' and to leave 
their rich fields in the possession of the conquerors. A few of the 
inhabitants withdrew into foreign lands, but the principal citizens 
took refuge in Ar' gos and Arcadia ; while those who remained were 
reduced to a condition little better than that of the Laconian He- 
lota, being obliged to pay to their masters one-half of the fruits of 
the land which they were allowed to till. • 

18. The Messenian war exerted a great influence on the character 
and subsequent history of the Spartans, as it gave a full development 
to the. warlike spirit which the institutions of Lycur' gus were so 
well calculated to encourage. The Spartans, stern and unyielding 
in their exactions from the conquered, again drove the Messenians 
to revolt (685 B. C), thirty-nine years after the termi- ^jj second 
nation of the former war. The latter found a worthy messenian 
leader in Aristom' enes, whose valor in the first battle ^^*" 
struck fear into his enemies, and inspired his countrymen with con- 
fidence. The Spartans, sending to the Delphic oracle for advice, 
lyoeived the mortifying response, that they must seek a leader from 
the Athenians, between whose country and Lac6nia there had been 
no intercourse for several centuries. 

19. The Athenians, fearing to disobey the oracle, and reluctant 
to farther the cause of the Spartans, sent to the latter the poet Tyr- 
tas' us, who had never been distinguished as a warrior. His patriotic 
odes, however, roused the spirit of the Spartans, who, obtaining Do- 
rian auxiliaries from Corinth," commenced the war anew. The 

]. Mi$$sinU WM a ooiintry west of Lac6nia, and at the aonth-westem extremity of the 
Feloponn^soa. It was separated from £' Us oo the north by the river Nddo, and from Arc&dia 
tnd Lacunia by mountain ranges. The Pamisus was Us principal river. On the western coast 
was tlie deep bay of Py'Ins, which has become celebrated in modem history under the name 
of A*a««r>ao (see pJlT)— the only perfect harbor of Southern Greece. (Map No. I,) 

SL Jtkdme waa tn Ceniral Uesa^nla, on a high bill on the western side of the vale of the 
Panlsns. (JM^NcL) 

H GkiKliii* waa ritaat«l near tte Isthmus of the same name, belweeo the Gulf of Lepaa' to 


Mo8S(*niana, on tho other hand, were aided by forces from Sic' yen* 
and Ar' jj^oh, Arcadia and K' lis, and, in a great battle near the mouth 
of tho Paniisus,' in Messonia, they completely routed their enemies. 
In tlio third year of the war thcw Arcadian auxiliaries of the Mesae- 
niaus, Reduced by bribes, deserted them in the heat of battle, and 
gave tho victory to the Spartans. 

20. -The war continued, with Various success, seventeen years, 
throughout the whole of which period Aristom^enes distinguished 
himself by many noble exploits; but all his efforts to save his 
eountry wore ineffectual. A second time Sparta conquered (668), 
and tlio yoke appeared to be fixed on Meas^nia forever. Thence- 
forward tho gn)wing power and reputation of Sparta seemed des- 
tined to undisputed preeminence, not only in the Peloponnesus, but 
throughout all Greece. 

21, At tho period of the close of the second Messenian war, 
Athens, as previously stated, was under the aris{ocratical govem- 
mont of a senate of archous-magistrates chosen by the nobility from 
thoir own order, who possessed all authority, religious, civil, and 
military. Tho Athenian populace not only enjoyed no political 
rights, but was reduced to a condition but little above servitude ; 
and it appears to have bi^en owing to the anarchy that arose from 
ruinous extortions of the nobles on the one hand, and the resistance 
, of the people on the other, that Dr4co, the most eminent 
* of the nobility, was chosen to prepare the first written 
code of laws for the government of the State. (622 B. C) 

on the north-WMt, nad of jR((lna on the aoath-Mat, two mDw fh>in ibe neamst point of ffte 
former, and vevoti fhim the Inllor. Tho site of the town was at the north foot of a ateep rock 
called the Acrop' oils of Cor' inth, 1,336 feet in height, the summit of which 1b now, as In an- 
tiquity, occupliHl as a fbrtreas. This eminence may be distinctly seen trom Athena, fh>m which 
It is distant no loss than forty-four miles in a direct line. Cor' inth was a large and popalona 
city when St. Paul preached the Gospel there for a year and six months. (Acta, xTilt. 11.) 
The present town, though of considerable extent, la thinly peopled. The only Gneian nlii 
now to be seen there is a dilapidated Doric temple. (Map No. I,) 

** Where is thy grandeur Corinth ? Shrunk fh>m 8ifl(bt, 
* Thy ancient troasnre^ and thy rampart's height, 

Thy god-like fanes and palaces ! Oh, where 
Thy mighty myriads and miotic fair ! 
ReientloM war has poured around thy wall, 
And hardly spared the traces of thy fall P 

I. Sie' yon, once a great and flourishing city, was situated near the Gulf of I^pan' to, about 
ten miles north-west flx)m Cor' inth. It boasted a high antiquity, and by some was considered 
older than Ar'gos. The ruins of the ancient town are aUU lo be aoen near the small modern 
Tillage of Baallioo. {Map No. I.) 

9, Tlie P*mU%t (now called th« FisMtM) was tlie principal rlw of.Mafi^nMt iMof Ho L) 

CfaAP. In.] GRE0IA1{ H/STORY. 63 

22. The severity of his laws has made his name proverbial. Their 
diaracter was thought to he happily expressed, when one said of them 
&at they were written, not in ink, bat in blood. He attached the 
game penalty to petty thefts as to sacrilege and murder, saying that 
the former offences deserved ddath, and he had no greater punishment 
for the latter. It is thought that the nobles suggested the severity 
of the laws of Drdco, thinking they would be a convenient instru- 
ment of oppression in their hands ; but human nature revolted . 
against such legalized butchery, and the system of Draco soon fell 
into disuse. 

23. The commonwealth was finally reduced to complete anarchy, 
without law, or order, or system in the administration of justice, 
when Solon, who was descended from the line of Codrus, was raised 
to the office of first magistrate (594 B. 0.), and, by the consent of all 
parties, was chosen as a general arbiter of their differ- ^^ legisla- 
ences, and inve^d with full authority to frame a new tion of 
constitution and a new code of laws. The almost unlim- *<^lo^- 
ited power conferred upon Solon might easily have been perverted 
to dangerous purposes, and many advised him to make himself ab- 
solute njaster of the State, and at once quell the numerous factions 
by the exercise of royal authority. And, indeed, such a usurpation 
would probably have been acquiesced in with but little opposition, 
as offering, for a time at least, a refuge from evils that had already 
become too intolerable to be borne. But the stern integrity of Solon 
was proof against all temptations to swerve from the path of honor, 
and betray the sacred trust reposed in him. 

24. The grievous exactions of the ruling orders had abeady re- 
duced the laboring classes, generallyj to poverty and abject depend- 
ence : all whom bad times or casual disasters had compelled to bor- 
row, had been impoverished by the high rates of interest; and 
thousands of insolvent debtors had been sold into slavery, to satisfy the 
demands of relentless creditors. In this situation of affairs the most 
violent or needy demanded a new distribution of property, as had been 
done in Sparta ; while the rich would have held on to all the fruits 
of their extortion and tyranny. 

25. But Solon, pursuing a middle coarse between these extremes, 
relieved the debtor by reducing the rate of interest, and enhancing 
the value of the currency, so that three silver minae paid an indebt- 
edness of four : he also relieved the lands of the poor from all in- 
oombrances \ he abolished imprisonment for debt \ he restored to 


liberty those whom poverty had placed in bondage ; and he repealed 
all the laws of Draco, except those against murder. He next ar- 
ranged all the citizens in four classes, according to their landed 
property; the first class alone being eligible to the highest civil 
offices and the highest commands in the army, while only a few of 
the lower offices were open to the second and third classes. The 
latter classes, however, were partially relieved from taxation ; bat in 
war they were required to equip themselves for military service, the 
one as cavalry, and the other as heavy armed infantry. 

26. Individuals of the fourth class were excluded from all offices, 
but in return they were wholly exempt from taxation ; and yet they 
had a share in the government, for they were permitted to take part 
in the popular assemblies, which had the right of confirming or reject- 
ing new laws, and of electing the magistrates ; and here their votes 
counted the same as those of the wealthiest of the nobles. In war 
they served only as light troops, or manned the i^ets. Thus the 
system of Solon, being based primarily on property qualifications, 
provided for all the freemen ; and its aim was to bestow upon the 
commonalty such a share in the government as would enable it to 
protect itself, and to give to the wealthy what was necessary for re- 
taining their dignity ; — throwing the burdens of government on the 
latter, and not excluding the former from its benefits. 

27. Solon retained the magistracy of the nine archons, but with 
abridged powers ; and, as a guard against democratical extravagance 
on the one hand, and a check to undue assumptions of power on 
the other, he instituted a Senate of Four Hundred, and foimded or 
remodelled the court of the Areop' agus. The Senate consisted of 
members selected by lot from the first three classes ; but none could 
be appointed to this honor until they had undergone a strict ex- 
amination into their past lives, characters, and qualifications. The 
Senate was to be consulted by the archons in all important mat- 
ters, and was to prepare all new laws and regulations, ^hich were 
to be submitted to the votes of the assembly of the people. 

28. The court of the Areop' agus, which held its sittings on an 
eminence on the western side of the Athenian Acrop' olis, was com- 
posed of persons who had hold the office of archon, and was the 
supreme tribunal in all capital cases. It exercised, also, a general 
Bupcrintendenoe over education, morals, and religion ; and it could 
suspend a resolution of the public assembly which it deemed fraught 
with folly or injustice, until it had undergone a reconsideration. 


Such is a brief outline of the institutions of Solon, which exhibit a 
mingling of aristocracy and democracy, well adapted to the char- 
acter of the age,* and the circumstances of the people. They exhibit 
less control over the pursuits and domestic habits of individuals than 
the Spartan code, but at the same time they show a far greater re 
gard for the public morals. 

29. The legislation of Solon was not followed by the total extinc- 
tion of party spirit, and ere long the three prominent factions in the 
State renewed their ancient feuds. Pisis' tratus, a wealthy kinsman 
of Solon, who had supported the measures of the latter by his elo- 
quence and military talents, had the art to gain the favor of the 
populace, and constitute himself their leader. When his schemes 
were ripe for execution, he one day drove into the public square, 
his mules and himself disfigured with recent wounds inflicted by his 
own hands, but which he induced the multitude to believe had been 
received from a band of isussassins, whom his enemies, the nobility, 
had hired to murder the friend of the people. An assembly was 
immediately convoked by his partizans, and the indignant crowd 
voted him a guard of fifty citizens to protect his person, although 
warned by Solon of the pernicious consequences of such a measure. 

30. Pisis' tratus took advantage of the popular favor which he had 
gained, and, arming a larger body, seized the Acrop' olis, and made 
himself master of Athens. But the usurper, satisfied with the power 
of quietly directing the administration of government, made no 
changes in the constitution, and suffered the laws to take their or- 
dinary course. The government of Pisis' tratus was probably a less 
evil than would have resulted from the success of either of the other 
factions ; and in this light Solon appears to have viewed it, although 
he did not hesitate to denounce the usurpation; and, rejecting the 
usurper's offers of favor, it is said that he went into voluntary exile, 
and died at Sal' amis.* (559 B. C.) Twice was Pisis' tratus driven 
from Athens by a coalition of the opposing factions ; but as the latter 
were almost constantly at variance with each other, he finally returned 
at the head of an army, and regained the sovereignty, which he held 
until his death. Although he tightened the reins of government, yet 
he ruled with equity and mildness, courting popularity by a generous 
treatment of the poorer citizens, and gratifying the national pride 
by adorning Athens with many useful and magnificent works, 

1. Sal' amis ia an ialaod in the Gulf of ^gina, near tho coast of At' tica, and twelTO or fUlaeB 
ml'ca floutli-WMt from Athena. (5m Map No. I.) 


31. On the death of Pisis tratus (528 B. C), his bodb Hip'piaa, 
Hippar' chuB, and Thes' salus succeeded to his power, and for some 
years trod in his steps and prosecuted his plans, only taking care to 
fill the most important offices with their friends, and keeping a stand- 
ing force of foreign mercenaries to secure theuiselves from hostile 
factions and popular outbreaks. After a joint reign of fourteen 
years a conspiracy was planned to free At' tica^from their rule, at 
the head of which were two young Athenians, Harmodius and Aris- 
togeiton, whose personal resentment had been provoked by an atro- 
cious insult to the family of the former. Hippar' chus was killed, 
but the two young Athenians also lost their lives in the struggle. 

32. Hip'pias, the elder of the ruling brothers, now that he had 
injuries to avenge, became a cruel tyrant, and thus alienated the af- 
fections of the people. The latter finally obtained aid from the 
7L EXPULSION ^partaus, and the family of the Pisistratids was driven 

OF THE from Athens, never to regain its former* ascendency ; al- 
pisisTRATiDs. though but a few years after its expulsion, Sparta, re- 
penting the course she had taken, made an ineffectual effort to restore 
Hip' pias to the throne of which she had aided in depriving him. 
Hip' pias then fled to the court of Artapanes, governor of Lyd' ia,^ 
tlicn a part of the Persian dominions of Darius, where his intrigues 
f^reatly contributed to the opening of a war between Greece and 

33. Nearly half a century before this time, Croe'sus,* king of 
Lyd' ia, had conquered the Grecian colonies on the coast of Asia 
Minor ; but he ruled them with great mildness, leaving them their 
political institutions undisturbed, and requiring of them little more 
than the payment of a moderate tribute. A few years later they 
experienced a change of masters, and, together with Lyd' ia, fell, by 
conquest, under the dominion of the Persians. But they were still 
allowed to retain their own form of government by paying tribute to 
their conquerors ; yet they seized every opportunity to deliver them- 

1. Lyd' ia was a country on Uie coast of Asia Minor, baring* M>'b' la on the north, Phryg'ia 
on the east, and Oftria on the south. The Grecian colony or Ionia was embraced within Lyd' ia 
and the northern part ofC^riaf extending along the coast. (Map No. IV.) 

2. Modem Persia, a large country of Central Asia, extends from the Caspian Sea on th0 
north, to the Persian Gulf on the south, having Asiatic Turlioy on tho west, and the provinces 
of Affghanistan and Beloochistan on the east. For the greatest extent of the Persian empire, 
which was during tbe reign of Darius Uystas' pes, see the Jittp No. V. 

3. Cret' «Krf, the last liing of Lyd' ia, was famed for his riches and munificence. Herod' otu* 
(1. 30-33, and 36, &c.) and Plutarch (life of Solon) give a very interesting account of the visit 
of the Athenian Solon to the court of that prince, who greatly prided himself on hit richea^ 
•Dd vainly thought himself the happiest of mankind. 


selves from this species of tliraldom, and finally the I^nians sought 
the aid of their Grecian countrymen, making application, first to 
Sparta, hut in vain, and next (B. C. 500) to Athens, and the Grecian 
islands of the J&' gean Sea. 

34. The Athenians, irritated at this time hy a haughty demand 
of the Persian monarch, that they should restore Hip' pias to the 
throne, and regarding Darius as an avowed enemy, gladly took part 
with the I6nian8, and, in connection with Euhoe' a,* fur- xi. ionio 
nished their Asiatic countrymen with a fleet of twenty- revolt. , 
five sail. The allied Grecians were at first successfol, ravaging 
Lyd' ia, and burning Sar' dis,' its capital ; but in the end they were 
defeated near Bph' esus;* the commanders quarrelled with each other ; 
and the Athenians sailed home, leaving the Asiatic Greeks divided 
among themselves, to contend alone against the whole power of Per- 
sia. Still the I6nian war was protracted six years, when it was ter- 
Bunated by the storming of Miletus,* (B. C. 494,) the capital of the 
I6oiaa confederacy. The surviving inhabitants of this beautiful 

i. Eubm' 0, (sow called Nog* nipont',) a long, narrow, and trregnlar Island of the M' geon 
Sea, (now Grecian Archlpel' ago,) extended one hundred and ten miles along the eastern coaat 
ofBceAtta and AV Uca, flrom which It was separated by the channel of Eurlpus, which, at one 
place, was only forty yards acroaa. The chief town of the island waa Chal' els, (now Neg' ro- 
poni',) on the western coast. (Map No. I.) 

tL 8ar^ dU, the ancient capital of Lyd' ia, was situated on both sides of the river Pactolus, a 
tOQfheni branch of the Her'mua, seventy miles east from Smyr' na. In the annals of Cliris- 
tianity, Sar* dla is distinguished as having been one of the seven churches of Asia. A mis- 
erable village, called Sart, is now found on the site of this ancient city. (Map No. IV.) 

3L £pk'*»u», one of the I6nlan cities, was situated on the south side, and near the mouth 
of the small river Gays' ter, on the coast of Lyd' ia, thirty-eight miles south from Smyr'na. 
Here stood a noble temple, erected in honor of the goddess Diana ; but an obscure individ- 
oal, of the name of Reros*iratna, burned it, in order to perpetuate his memory by the infamoua 
BoCmlelj which such an act would give him I The grand council of I6nia endeavored to dis- 
appoint the incendiary by passing a decree that his name should not be mentioned, but it was 
dSruIged by the historian Theopom' pus, A new temple was subsequently built, far surpassing 
the flnt, and ranked among the seven wonders of the world. When St. Paul visited Eph' esus, 
•tUl the cry was, ** Great is Diana of the Ephisians" (Acts, xix. 28, 34) ; but the worship of tho 
goddess was doomed speedily to decline, and here St. Paul founded the principal of the Asiatio 
ohorebes. Bat war, the ravages of earthquakes, and the desolating hand of time, have com- 
pleted the ruin of this once &mous city. " The glorious pomp of its heathen worship is no 
longer remembered ; and Christianity, which was there nursed by apostles, and fostered by 
general eounclta, until it increased to Ailness of stature, barely lingers on in an existence 
hardly visible." (Mapfio.IY.) 

4. MilitMMf the most dlaUnguished of the Ionian cities of Asia Minor, and once greatly cele- 
brated for its population, wealth, commerce, and civilization, was situated in the province of 
Ctfia, on the soofthem shore of the bay into which the small river Lat' mus emptied, and about 
tUrty-flve mlloa south from Eph' eaus. SU Paul appears to have sojourned here a few da}*8 ; 
woA here he assembled the elders of the Epb<^slnn church, and delivered unto them an affec- 
tfonate llvewell address. (Acta, xx. 15, 38.) MlK^tus is now a deserted place, but contains the 
rulm of a few once magnlflcent structures, and itiU )eani the name of Palat^ or the Palace»» 
iMof. Ifo. IV.) 



and opulent city were carried away by order of Darfas, and settled 
near the mouth of the Tigris. Darius next turned his resentment 
against the Athenians and Eubod'ans, who had aided the Ionian 
revolt, — meditating, however, nothing less than the conquest of all 
Greece (B. C. 490). The events of the " Persian War" which fol- 
lowed, will next be narrated, after we shall have given some general 
views of cotemporary history, during the period which we haye passed 
over in the preceding part of the present chapter. 

COTEMPORARY HISTORY : 1184 to 490 B. C. 

[I. Phcenician History.] — 1. The name Phoenicia was applied to 
the north-western part of Palestine and part of the coast of Syria, 
embracing the country from Mount Carmel, north, along the coast, 
to the city and island Aradus, — an extent of about a hundred and 
fifty miles. The mountain ranges of Lib' anus and Anti-Lib' anuB 
formed the utmoSt extent of the Phoenician territory on the east 
The surface of the country was in general sandy and hilly, and poorly 
adapted to agriculture ; but the coast abounded in good harbors, 
and the fisheries were excellent, while the mountain ranges in the 
interior afforded, in their cedar forests, a rich supply of timber for 
naval and other purposes. 

2. At a remote period the Phoenicians, who are supposed to have 
been of the race of the Canaanites,*^ were a commercial people, but 
the loss of the Phoenician annals renders it difficult to investigate 
their early history. Their principal towns were probably indepen- 
dent States, with small adjacent territories, like the little Grecian 
republics; and no political union appears to have existed among 
them, except that arising from a common religious worship, until 
the time of the Persians. The Phoenicians occupied Sicily before 
the Greeks ; they made themselves masters of Cy' prus, and they 
formed settlements on the northern coast of Africa ; but the chief 
seat of their early colonial establishments was the southern-part of 
Spain, whence they are said to have extended their voyages to Brit- 
ain, and even to the coasts of the Baltic. 

3. It is also related by Herod' otus, (B. IV. 42,) that at an epoch 
which is believed to correspond to the year 604 before the Chris- 
tian era, a fleet fitted out by Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, but 
manned and commanded by Phoenicians, departed from a port oa 

a. N]ebubr*» L«ct. on Ancient lUti. 1. 113. 


the Red Sea, and sailing south, and keeping always to the right, 
doubled the southern promontory of Africa, and> after a voyage of 
three years returned to Egypt by the way of the straits of Gibral- 
tar and the Mediterranean. , Herod' otus farther, mentioncr that the 
navigators asserted that, in sailing round Africa, they had the sun 
on their right hand, or to the north, a circumstance which, Herod'- 
otus says, to him seemed incredible, but which we know must have 
been the case if the voyage was actually performed, because southern 
Africa lies south of the ^uatorial region. Thus was Africa prob- 
ably circumnavigated by the Phoenicians, more than two thousand 
years before the Portuguese voyage of De Gama. 

4. The Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon had friendly connections 
with the Hebrews ; and through the Red Sea, and by the way of 
the Arabian desert, and across the wilderness of Syria, they for a 
long time carried on the commercial exchanges between Europe 
and Asia. From the time of the great commotions in Western 
Asia, which caused the downfall of so many independent States, and 
their subjection to the monarchs of Babylon and Persia, the com- 
mercial prosperity of the Phoenicians began to decline; but it was 
the founding of Alexandria by the Macedonian conqueror, which 
proved the final ruin of the Phoenician cities. 

[II. Jewish History.] — 5. The history of the Jews, which has 
been brought down to the accession of Saul as king of Israel, pre- 
sents to the historian a fairer field than that of the Phoenicians, 
and is now to be continued down to the return of the Jews from 
their Babylonian captivity, and the completion of ihe rebuilding of 
the second temple of Jerusalem. 

6. Saul, soon after his accession to the throne, (B. C. 1110,) 
which was about the tin^e of the D6rian emigration, or the " Return 
of the Heraclidae" to the Peloponnesus, gave proof of his military 
qualifications by a signal slaughter of the Ammonites, who had laid 
siege to Jdbesh-Gil'ead.' In a solemn assembly of the tribes at 
Gil' gal,* the people renewed their allegiance to their new sovereign, 
and there Samuel resigned his office. During a war with the Phil- 
istines soon after, Saul ventured to ask counsel of the Lord, and 
assuming the sacerdotal functions, he offered the solemn sacrifice, 

1. JUtah-OiV ead was a town on the east side of the Jordan, in GiV ead. (Map No. Vl.) 
% The OU'giJ boTB mentioned appean to have been a ahoit distance west or n^-th-weat 
of Sbechem, near the country of the Philistines. (Jlfiqi No. VI.) 

to ANCIKTr fflSTORT. [Pabt I. 

A dot J which the sacred law assigned to the high-priest alone For 
this violation of the law the divine displeasure was denounced agabst 
him hy the prophet Samuel, who declared to him that his kingdom 
should- not continue ; and so disheartened were the people, that the 
army of Saul soon dwindled away to six hundred men ; hut by the 
daring valor of Jonathan, his son, a panic was spread among the 
Philistines, and their whole army was easily overthrown. 

7. During several years after this victory, Saul carried on a suo- 
CCiwful warfare against the different nations that harassed the fron- 
tiers of his kingdom; but when Agag, the king of the Amalekites, 
had fallen into his hands, in violation 'of the divine command he 
spared his life, and brought away from the vanquished enemy a 
vast booty of cattle. For not fulfilling his commission from the 
Lord, he was declared unfit to be the founder of a race of kings, and 
was told that the sovereign power should be transferred to another 

8. David, of the tribe of Benjamin, then a mere youth, was di- 
vinely chosen for the succession, being secretly anointed for that 
purpose by Samuel. In the next war with the Philistines he dis- 
tinguihhcd himself by slaying their champion, the gigantic Goliath 
of Gath.* Saul, however, looked upon David with a jealousy bor- 
dering on madness, and made frequent attempts to take his life ; 
but the latter sought safety in exile, and for a while took up his 
residence in a Philistine city. Returning to Palestine, he sought 
refuge from the anger of Saul in the dens and caves of the moun- 
tains ; and twice, while Saul was pursuing him, had it in his power 
to destroy his persecutor, but he would not " lift his hand agamst 
the Lord's anointed." 

9. After the death of Samuel, the favor of the Lord was wholly 
withdrawn from Saul ; and when the Philistines invaded the country 
with a numerous army, several of the sons of Saul were slain in 
battle on 3Iount Gil' boa,* and Saul himself, to avoid falling alive 
into the hands of his enemies, fell upon his own sword. On the 
death of Saul, David repaired to Hebron,* and, with the support of 
the tribe of Judah, asserted his title to the throne ; but the north- 
em tribes attached themselves to Ishbosheth^ a son of Saul ; — " and 

1. OatJk, a town of Uie PhlllAUnes, was about twenty-Ore miles weft fh>m Jerusalem. (Map 
5o. vr.) 

9. Mount aw boa Is in the southern part of Galilee, a short distance west of the Joidaii 
{Xap No. VI.) 

3. Miknn^ a town of Judah, was about twenty miles south of Jerusalem. (.Map No. Vt) 


tliere was long war between the house of Saul and the house of 
David ; but David waxed stronger and stronger, and the house of 
Saul waxed weaker and weaker." The death of Ishbosheth, who 
fell by the hands of two of his own guards, removed the obstacles 
in the way of a unigti of the tribes, and at Hebron David was pub- 
licly recognized king of all Israel. 

10. After all the conquests which the Israelites had made in the 
land of promise, there still remained large portions of Palestine of 
which they had not yet gained possession. On the south-west were 
the strongholds and cities of the Philistines ; and bordering on the 
north-western coast was the country of the Phoenicians, whose two 
chief cities were Tyre* 'and Sidon." Joppa* was the only Mediter« 
ranean port open to the Israelites. Even in the very heart of Pal- 
estine, the Jeb'usit^s, supposed to have been a tribe of the wan 
dering Hyk' sos, possessed the stronghold of Jebus, or Jerusalem,* 
on Mount Zion, after David had become king of " all Israel," But 

1. 7>re, long the principal city of Phoenicia, anU the commercial emporium of tho ancient 
irorid, stood on a small island on the south-eastern or Palestine coast of tho Mediterranean, 
aJboat forty miles north-east from Mount Carrael. Tho modern town of Sur, (Soor,) with flftoen 
hnixlred Inhabitants, oocnpies a tite opposite the ancient city. The prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, 
snd Ezekiel, represent Tyre as a city of unrivalled wealth, " a mart of nations,*^ whose " mer- 
chants were princes, and her trafflcl^ers the honorable of tho earth.*' (Isaiah, xxiii. 3, 8.) 
Alter the destruction of the old city by Nebuchadnezzar, New Tyre enjoyed a considerable de- 
gree of celebrity and commercial prosperity ; but the founding of Alexandria, by diverting the 
commerce that had formerly centred at Tyre into a new chaimol, gave her an irreparable blow, 
and she gradually declined, till, in the language of prophecy, her palaces have been levelled 
with the dnat, and ahe has become *^ a place for th^ spreading of nets in the midst of tho sea.^ 
<Ecek. xxri. 5.) The prophet Ezckiel has described, In magnificent terms, the glory and the 
riches of ly re. (See Ezek. xxvii.) (Map^o.M.) 

^ 2. Sideny (now called Said,) was situated near the sea, twenty-two miles north of Tyre, of 
which it was the parent city, and by which it was early eclipsed in commercial importance. 
The modem town contains four or five thousand Inhabitants. The site of the ancient city is 
■nppoeed to have been about two miles farther inland. Sidon is twice spoken of In JoshUA 
ae the ^ great Sidon" (Josh. xl. 8, and xU. 28) ; and in the time of Homer there were ^ skillful 
SIdoDian artists" (Cowper»s 0. kxiii. 891). In tho division of Palestine, Sidon fell to the Ipt of 
Aflher ; but we leam (h>m Judges, (i. 31,) corroborated also by profane history, that it never 
eatmeinto the actual possession of that tribe. In the time of Solomon there were none among 
the Jews who had ** skill to hew timber like unto the Sidonlans." (1 Kings, v. 6.) The mod- 
em town of Saidf the representative of the ancient city, is on the north side of a cape extending 
teto the Mediterranean. (Jlfa;r No. VI.) 

3. Jop'pa^ (now called Jaflk, a town of aboTit (bur thousand inhabitants,) stands on a tongue 
of land prorjecting into the Mediterranean, and rising from the shore In the form of an am- 
phitheatre, thirty-two miles north-west from Jerusalem. The ** border before Joppa" was In- 

■ eluded In the possessions of the tribe of Dan (Josh. xlx. 46). In the time of Solomon It ap- 
pears to have been a port of some consequence. Hiram, king of Tyre, writing to Solomon, 
nya, ** We will cut wood out of Lebanon as much as thou shalt need ; and we will bring It 
thee In floats by sea to Jop' pa, and thou shalt carry it up to Jeni8:ilem." {Map No. VT.) 

4. Jerusalem^ first known as the city of the Job' usites, is in the southern part of Paieitine, 
nearly Intermediate between the northern extremity of the Dead Sea and Uie Mediterraneaai 
ttd ihlrty-two miles east fh>m Jaf fii. (See Ihrther description p. 1040 

02 ANCIENT fflSTORY. [Paet L 

Dayidf biviag resolved upon the conqaest of this important city, 
which its iDhabitants deemed impregnable, sent Joab, his general, 
against it, with a mighty army ; " and David took ihe stronghold of 
Zion ;" and so pleased was he with its situation, that he made U the 
capital of his dominions. 

1 1. After the defeat of the Jeb' nsites, David was involved in war 
with many of the sarreonding nations, whom he compelled to be- 
come tributary to him, as far as the banks of the Euphrites. 
Among these were most of the JStates of Syr' ia,' on the north-east, 
with Damas' cus," their capital, and also the £' domites, on the south- 
eastern borders of Palestine. It was in the last of these wars, dur- 
ing the siege of Bab' bah,* the Ammonite capital, that David pro- 
voked the anger of the Lord by taking Bath' sheba, the wife of 
Uriahj to himself, and exposbig her husband to death. The re- 
mainder of David's life was full of trouble from his children, three 
of whom, Amnon, Absalom, and Adonijah, died violent deaths — the 
latter two after they had successircly rebelled against their &ther. 
David died after a troubled but gi.irious reign of forty years, after 
having given orders that his son Solomon should succeed him. 

12. By the conquests of David the fame of the Israelites had 
spread into distant lands, and Solomon obtained in marriage the 
daughter of the king of Egypt So celebrated was the wisdom of 
Solomon, that the queen of Sheba "- came to visit him from a dis- 

1. Ancient Sfr' ia embraced the whole of PtieBtinu and Phoenicia, and waa boonded on the 
east by the Enphr&tes and the Arabian desert. Syi*' ia la called in Seripture ^ram, and the 
inliabitants Aranueana. The term Syr' la ia a oorraption or abridgment of Assyria. ( Jfi^ 
No*. V.) 

S. Damas' cim, one of the most ancient cities of Syr' ia, existed in the time of Abraham, 
two thousand years before the Christian era. (See Gen. xiv. 15.) It was conquered by David, 
but fipeed itself fh>m the Jewish yoke in the time of Solomon, when, beoominq the seat of a 
new principality, it often faiarassed the kingdoms both of Judah and laraeL At lat«r periods 
It fell successively under the poww of the Persians, Greeks, ai/d Romans. As a Roman city it 
attained great eminence, and it appears conspicuously in the histoxy of the Apostle Paul. (Acts, 
Ix.) It is now a large and Important commercial Mohammedan city, containing a population 
of more than a hundred thousand inhabitants. The city is situated in a pleasant plain, watered 
by a river, the Syriac name of which waa PAarpAar, on the eastern aide of the Antl-Lib' anua 
mountains, a hundred and fifty miles north-east (h>m Jerusalem. {Map No. VI.) 

3. Rabbak^ (afterwards called Philadelphia by the Greelcs, when it was rebuilt by Ptolemy 
Philadelphua,) was about thirty miles north-east i>om the northern extremity of the Dead Sea, 
at the source of the brook Jabbok. Extensive ruins, at a place now called Ammmt^ consisting 
of the remains of theatres, temples, and colonnades of Grecian construction, mark the site of 
the Ammonite capital. The ancient city is now without an inhabitant, but the excellent water 
found there renders the spot a desirable halting^place for caravan^ the drivers of which use 
the ancient temples and buildings oSwSheUer for their beasts, literally AilOlling the denunciation 

a. The queen of Sheba is supposed by some to have come fh>m Southern Arabia, but is mort 
generally thought to have been the queen of A> yasinia, which la the firm belief of the Abya* 
•InlaDS to this daj.-^KituI'* Palestine 


taut country, and the most powerful princes of the surroandmg na- 
tions courted his alliance. With Hiram, king of Tyre, the chief 
city of the Phoenicians, and the emporium of the commerce of the 
Eastern world, he was united by the strictest bonds of friendship. 
Seven years and a half was he occupied in building, at Jerusalem, a 
magnificent temple to the Lord. He also erected for himself a pal- 
ace of imrivalled splendor. A great portion of his immense wealth 
was derived from commerce, of which he was a distinguished patron. 
From ports on the Bed Sea, in his possession, his vessels sailed to 
Ophir, some rich country on the shores of the Indian Ocean. By 
the aid of PhoBuician navigators he also opened a communication 
with Tar' shish, in western Europe, while the commerce between 
Central Asia and Palestine was carried on by caravans across the 

13. But even Solomon, notwithstanding all his learning and wis- 
dom, was corrupted by prosperity, and in his old age was seduced 
by his numerous " strange wives" to forsake the God of his fathers. 

' He became an idolater : and then enemies began to arise up against 
him on every side. A revolt was organized in E'dom:* an inde- 
pendent adventurer seized Damascus, and formed a new Syrian king- 
dom there ; and the prophet Ahijah foretold to Solomon that the 
kingdom of Israel should be rent, and that the dominion of ten of 
the twelve tribes should be given to Jerob6am, of the tribe of .Eph- 
raim, although not till after the deatli of Solomon. 

14. Accordingly, on the death of Solomon, when Behob6am his 
son came to the throne, the ten northern tribes chose Jeroboam for 
their king ; and Israel and Judah, with which latter was united the 
tribe of Benjamin, became separate kingdoms. The separation thus 
effected is called " The Eevolt of the Ten Tribes." (990 B. C.) 
The subsequent princes of the kingdom of Israel, as the Ten Tribes 
were called, were all idolaters in the sight of the Lord, although 
from time to time they were warned of the consequences of their 
idolatry by the prophets Elijah, Elisha, Hosea, Amos, Jonah, and 
others. The history of these ten tribes is but a repetition of 
calamities and revolutions. Their seventeen kings, excluding two 

of EukM : <* I will make RaMxih of tho Ammonites a stable for camels, and a couching place 
for flocks." (Ezekiol, xxv. 5.) {Map No. VI.) 

1. The E' domites, inhabitants of Idum6a, or E' donL, dwelt, at this time, in the country south 
'and south-east of the Dead Sea. During the Babylonian captivity the E' domites took po«ies- 
rion of the aoathem portion of Judea, and made Hebron their capital. They afterwaitls tm* 
hraeed Judaism, and their territory became incorporated with Jndea although in the tloM of 
•V Saviour it still retaloiHl the name of Idum6a. {Mnp Xo. VL) 


pretenders, belonged to seven different families, and were placed on 
the throne by seven sanguinary conspiracies. At length Shalman^zer, 
king of Assyria, invaded the country; and Samdria,* its capital, after 
a brave resistance of tliree years, was taken by storm. The ten 
tribes were then driven out of Palestine, and carried away captive 
into a distant region beyond the Euphrates, 719 years before the 
Christian era. With their captivity the history of the ten tribes ends. 
Their Tate is still unknown to this day, and their history remains un- 

15. After the revolt of the ten tribes, Rehob6am reigned seven- 
teen years at Jerusalem, over Judah and Benjamin, comprising what 
was called the kingdom of Judah. During his reign he and his 
subjects fell into idolatry, for which they were punished by an in- 
vasion by Shishak, king of Egypt, who entered Jerusalem and car- 
ried off the treasures of the temple and the palace. We find some 
of the subsequent, kings of Judah practising idolatry, and suffering 
the severest punishments for their sins : others restored the worship 
of the true God ; and of them it is recorded that " God prospered* 
their undertakings." 

16. At the time when Shalmanezer, the Assyrian, carried Israel 
away captive, the wicked Ahaz was king over Judah. He brought 
the country to the brink of ruin, but its fall was arrested by the 
death of the impious monarch. ' The good Hezekiah succeeded him, 
and, aided by the advice of the prophet Isaiah, commenced his reign 
with a thorough reformation of abuses. He shook off the Assyrian 
yoke, to which his father Ahaz had submitted by paying tribute. 
Sennacherib, the son and successor of Shalmanezer, determining to 
be revenged upon Judah, sent a large army against Jerusalem (711 
B. C.) ; but " the angel of the Lord went forth, and smote, in the 
camp of the Assyrians, a hundred and fourscore and five thousand 
men." The instrument by which the Lord executed vengeance upon 
the Assyrians, is supposed by some to have been the pestilential 
simoom of the desert ; for Isaiah had prophesied of the king of As- 
syria : " Thus saith the Lord ; behold, t will send a blast upon 

17. It is interesting to find an account of the miraculous destruc- 
tion of the Assyrian army in the pages of profane history. Senna- 

1. Sav^rU, (ii6w called Sebasiieh,) the capital of the kingdom of brael, stood on Moimt 
flaoMroDy about forty mllea north from Jemaalem. {Map No. VI.) 

a. laalah, xzztiL 6, 7. 

Cbaf. HL] JEW/SH history. 65 

eh^rib was at this time marcbiDg against Egypt, whose alliance had 
been sought by Hezekiah, when, unwilling to leave the hostile power 
of Judah in his rear, he turned against Jerusalem. It was natural, 
therefore, that the discomfiture which removed the fears of the Egypt- 
ians, should have a place in their annals. Accordingly, Herod' otus 
gives an account of it, which he had learned from the Egyptians 
themselves ; but in the place of the prophet Isaiah, it is an Egj-ptian 
priest who invokes the aid of his god against the enemy, and pre- 
dicts the destruction of the Assyrian host. 

18. Herod' otus relates that the Egyptian king, directed by the 
priest, marched against Sennacherib with a company composed only 
of tradesmen and artizans, and that '^ so immense a number of mice 
infested by night the enemy's camp, that their quivers and bows, 
together with what secured their shields to their arms, were gnawed 
in pieces ;" and that, " in the morning the enemy, finding themselves 
without arms, fled in confusion, and lost great numbers of theiy men." 
Herod' otus also relates that, in his time, there was still standing in 
the Egyptian temple of Vulcan a marble statue of this Eg}'ptian 
king, having a mouse in his hand, and with the inscription : " Learn 
from my fortune to reverence the gods."* 

19. Hezekiah was succeeded on the throne of Judah by his son 
Manas' seh, who, in the early part" of his reign, revelled in the gross- 
est abominations of Eastern idolatry. Being carried away captive to 
Babylon by SaVdanapdlus, the Assyrian king, he repented of his sins, 
and was restored to his kingdom. The brief reign of his son A' mon 
was corrupt and idolatrous. The good Josf ah then succeeded to the 
throne. His reign was an era in the religious government of the 
nation ; but during an invasion of the country by Pharaoh Necho, 
king of Egypt, he was mortally wounded in battle. Jerusalem was 
soon after taken, and Jeh6ahaz, who had been elected to the throne 
by the people, was deposed, and carried captive to Egypt, where he 

20. Not long after this, during the reign of Jehof akim, the Egypt- 
ian monarch, pursuing his conquests eastward against the Babylo- 
nians, was utterly defeated by Nebuchadnez' zar near the Euphrdtes, 
— ^an event which prepared the way for the Babylonian dominion 
over Jttdea and the west of Asia. Pursuing his success westward, 
I^buchadnez' zar came to Jerusalem, when the Jting, Jeholakim, 
submitted; and agreed to pay tribute for Judah ; but as he rebelled 

au Herod' otna, Book IL p. 141. 



after three years^ Nebucbadnez' zar retaraed, pillaged Jerusalem, 
and carried away certain of the royal family and of the nobles as 
hostages for the fidelity of the king and people. (B. C. *605.) 
Among these were the prophet Daniel and his companions. Jo- 
choniah) tbe next king of Judah^ was carried away to Babylon, with 
a multitude of other captiycs, so that '^ none remained saye the 
poorest people of the land." 

21. The throne in Jerusalem was next filled by Zedekiah, who 
joined some of the surrounding nations in a rebellion agabst Ncbu- 
chadnez' zar ; but Jerusalem, after an eighteen months^ siege, whose 
miseries were heightened by the horrors of famine, was taken by 
storm at midnight Dreadful was the carnage which ensued. Zede* 
kiah, attempting to escape, was made prisoner ; and the king of 
Babylon slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, and put out the 
eyes of Zedekiah, and bound him with fetters of brass, and carried 
him to Babylon. Nearly all the wretched inhabitants were made 
companions of his exile. Jerusalem was burned, the temple levelled 
with the ground, and the very walls destroyed. (586 B. C.) 

22. Thus ended the kingdom of Judah, and the reign of the house 
of David. Seventy years were the children of Israel detained in 
captivity in Babylon, reckoning from the time of the first pillag- 
ing of Jerusalem by Ncbuchadnez' zar, a period that had been de- 
clared in prophecy by Jeremiah, and which was distinguished by the 
visions of Nebuchadnes' zar, the prophetic declarations of Daniel, 
Belshazzar's feast, and the overthrow of the kingdom of Babylon by 
the Medes and Persians. The termination of the Captivity, as had 
been foretold by the prophets, was the act of Cyrus, the Persian, 
immediately after the conquest of Babylon. (536 B. C.) 

23. The edict of Cyrus permitted all Jews in his dominions to 
return to Palestine, and to rebuild thq city and temple of Jerusalem. 
Only a zealous minority, however, returned, and but little progress 
had been made in the rebuilding of the temple, when the work was 
altogether stopped by an order of the next sovereign ; but during 
the reign of Darius Hystas' pes, Zerub' babel, urged by the prophets 
Hag' gai and Zechariah, obtained a new edict for the restoration of 
the temple, and after four years the work was completed, 516 years 
before the Christian era. The temple was now dedicated to 
the worship of Jehovah, the ceremonies of the Jewish law w^o 
restored, and never again did the Jews, as a people, relapse into 


[111. Roman History.] — 24. Having thus bronght the events of 
Jewish history down to the time of the commencement of the wars 
between Greece and Persia, we again 'turn back to take a view of the 
ootemporar J history of such other nations as had begun to acquire 
historical importance during the same period. Our attention is'&rst 
directed to Home — to the rise of that power which was destined event- 
uallj to overshadow the world Home is supposed to have been found; 
ed 753 years before the Christian era, about the time of the abolition 
of the' hereditary archonship in Athens — twenty years before the 
oommencement of the first war between Sparta and Messenia, and 
about thirty years before the reign of Hezekiah, king of Judah. 
But the importance of Eoman history demands a connected account, 
which can better be given after Rome has broken in upon the line 
of history we are pursuing, by the reduction of Greece to a Roman 
province ; and as we have already arrived at a period of correspond- 
ing importance in Persian affairs, we ' shall next briefly trace the 
events of Persian history down to the time when they became min- 
gled with the history of the Grecians. ^ 

[IV. Persian History.] — 25. In the course of the preceding 
history of the Jews we have had occasion to mention the names of 
Shalmenesar, Sennacherib, and Sardanapdlus, who were the last ' 
three kings of the united empire of Assyria, whose capital was Nine- 
veh. Not long after Sardanapdlus^had attacked Judah, and carried 
away its king Manas' seh into captivity, the governors of several of 
the Assyrian provinces revolted against him, and besieged him in his 
capital, when, finding himself deserted by his subjects, he destroyed 
his own life. (671 B. C.) The empire, which, during the latter part 
of the reign of Sardanapdlus, had embraced Media, Persia, Babyl6- 
nia, and Assyria, was then divided among the conspirators. 

26. Sixty-five years later, the Medes and Babylonians, with joint 
forces, destroyed Nineveh (B. C. 606), » and Babylon became the capi- 
tal of the reunited empire. The year after the destruction of Nine- 
vehy Nebuchadnez' zar, a name common to the kings of Babylon, as 
was Pharaoh to those of Egypt, made his first attack upon Jerusa- 
lem (B. C. 605), rendering the Jews tributary to him, and carrying 
away numbers of them into captivity, and among them the prophet 
Daaiiel and his companions. Nineteen years later (B. C. 586), he 

au aintoD, I 369. Groto, ili. 255, Note, says, ** During the last ten yean of the velgn of Cyax- 
L Qraacarea, tbe Mede, reigned lh>m 636 to 595. 


destroyed the very walls of Jerusalem and the temple itself, and 
carried away the remnant of the Jews captive tc Babylon. 

27. Soon after the conquest of Judca, Nebuchadnez' zar resolved 
to take vengeance on the surrounding nations, some of whom had 
solicited the Jews to unite in a confederacy against him, but had af- 
terwards rejoiced at their destruction. These were the Am' monites, 
M6abites, E'domites, Arabians, Sid6nians, Tyr'ians, Philistines, 
Egyptians, and Abyssin' ians. The subjugation of each was par- 
ticularly foretold by the prophets, and has been related both by 
sacred and profane writers. In the war against the Phoenicians, 
after a long siege of thirteen years he made himself master of insular 
Tyre, the Phoenician capital (B. C. 571), and the Tyr'ians became 
subject to him and his successors until the destruction of the Chal- 
dean monarchy by Cyrus."- 

28. In the war against Egypt (B. C. 570), Nebuchadnez' zar laid 
the whole country i^aste, in accordance with previous predictions of 
the prophets Ezckiel and Jeremiah. The prophecy of Ezekiel, that, 
after the desolations foretold, " there shall no more be a prince of 
the land of Egypt," has been verified in a remarkable manner ; for 
the kings of Egypt were made tributary, and grievously oppressed, 
first by the Babylonians, and next by the Persians ; and since the 
rule of the latter, Egypt has successively been governed by foreigners 
— by the MacedonJans, the Eomans, the Mamelukes, and lastly, by 
the Turks, who possess the land ©f the Pharaohs to this day. 

29. It was immediately after his return from Egypt that Nebu- 
chadnez' zar, flushed with the brilliancy of his conquests, sot up a 
golden image, and commanded all the people to fall down and wor- 
ship it. (B. C. 569.) Notwithstanding the rebuke which his impiety 
received on this occasion, after he had adorned Babylon with mag- 
nificent works, again the pride of his heart was exhibited, for as he 
walked in his palace he said, in exultation, " Is not this great Baby- 
lon that I have built for the head of the kingdom, by the might of 
my power, and for the honor of my majesty ?" But in the same 
hour that he had spoken he was struck with lunacy, and all his glory 
departed from him. Of his dreams, and their prophetic interpreta- 
tion by Daniel, we shall have occasion to speak, as the predictions are 
successively verified in the progress of history. 

a. The common statement that it was the Inland town that was reduced by Nebuchadnex'- 
nr, and that most of the inhabitants had previously withdrawn to an island, where thoy boUfi 
<* Mew Tjrre,*' seems to be erroneous. See Grote's Greece, ill. 866-7. 


30. Not long after the reign of Nebucbadnea' zar, we find Bel- 
shajt' sar, probably a grandson of the former, on the throne of Baby- 
lon. Nothing is recorded of him but the circumstances of his 
death, which are related in the fifth chapter of Daniel. He was 
probably slain in a conspiracy of his nobles. (B. C. 553.) In the 
meantime, the kingdom of Media* Had risen to eminence under the 
gaccessive reigns of Phraor' tes, Cyax' ares, and Asty' ages," the for- 
mer of whom is supposed to be the Ahasu6rus mentioned in the book 
of Daniel.^ While some writers mention a successor of Asty' ages, 
Cjaz' ares II., who has been thought to be the same as the Darius 
of Scripture, others assert that Asty' ages was the last of the Me- 
dian kings. In aocordanoe with the latter and now generally-received 
account) Cyrus, a grandson of Asty' ages, but whose father was a 
Persian, roused the Persian tribes against the ruling Medes, defeated 
Astj' ages, and transferred the supreme power to the Persians. 
(558 B. C.)l> ^ 

31. Cyrus the Oreat^^^ as he is often called, is generally considered 
the founder of the Persian empire. Soon after his accession to 
the throne his dominions were invaded by Croe' bus, king of Lydia ; 
but Cyrus defeated him in the great battle of Thymbria, and after- 
wards, besieging him in his own capital of Sardis, took him prisoner, 
and obtained possession of all his treasures. (B. C. 546.) The sub- 
jugation of the Grecian cities of Asia Minor by the Persians soon 
followed. Cyrus next laid siege Ur Babylon, which still remained an 
independent city in the heart of his empire. Babylon soon fell be- 
neath his power, and it has been generally asserted that he efiiected 
the conquest by turning the waters of the Euphrdtes from their chan- 
Bel, and marching his troops into the city through the dry bed of, the 
stream ; but this account has been doubted, while it has been thought 
quite as probable that he owed his success to some internal revolu- 
^on, which put an end to the dynasty of the Babylonian kings. 
(B. C. 536.) The prophetic declarations of the final and utter de- ' 

1. MedU, the botmdarles of which raried greatly at different times, embraced the oountfy 
immediately south and soath-west of the Caspian Sea, and north of the early Persia. {Map 
Ho. V.) 

2. These kings were probably In a measure subordinate to the mllng king at Babylon. 

a. Daniel, ix. 1. Hale's Analysis, I v. 81. 

b. Kiebtthr's I^cL on Anctent Hist. 1. 135. Grote's Greece, iv. 183. 

e, Tbe aoGOunta of the early history of Cy rus, as derived from Xon' ophony Herod' otus, Ct^aiai, 
ac^ are very contradictory. Tbe account of Herod' otus Is now generally preferred, as con- 
taining « greeUr yraportion. of historical truth than tbe others. Grole calls the Cy ropoe' dia of 
2en' ophon a ** philosophical noTel.** Niebohr sajs, **No raticmal man, in our dayS| can look 
■pon X«n' ophon's history of Gyrus in any >tber light than that of a romaooe.** 


stniction of Babylon, which was eyentoally to be made a desolate 
waste — a possession for the bittern — ^a retreat for the wild beasts of 
the desert and of the islands — to be filled with pools of water — and 
to be inhabited no more from generation to generation, have been fully 

32. In the year that Babylon was taken, Oyrns issued the famous 
decree which permitted the Jews to return to their own land, and 
to rebuild the city and temple of Jerusalem — eyents which had been 
foretold by the prophet Isaiah more than a century before Cyrus 
was bom. Cyrus is supposed to have lived about seven years after 
the taking of Babylon — directing his chief attention to the means 
of increasing the prosperity of his kingdom. The manner of his 
death is a disputed point in history, but in the age of Strabo his 
tomb bore the inscription : " O man, I am Cyrus, who founded the 
Persian empire : envy me not then the little earth which covers mj 
remains." ^ 

33. Camby'ses succeeded his father on the throne of Persia. 
(530 B. C.) Intent on carrying but the ambitious designs qf Cyrus, 
he invaded and conquered Egypt, although the Egyptian king was 
aided by a force of Grecian auxiliaries. The power of the Persians 
was also extended over several African tribes : even the Greek col- 
ony of CjrrenAica* was forced to pay tribute to Camby' ses, and the 
Greek cities of Asia Minor remained quiet under Persian governors ; 
but an army which Camby' ses sent over the Libyan desert to sub- 
due the little oasis where the temple of Ji^piter Am' mon* was the 
centre of an independent community, was buried in the sands; 
and another army which the king himself led up the Nile against 
Ethiopia, came near perishing firom hunger. The Persian king 
would have attempted the conquest of the rising kingdom of Car- 
thage, but his Phoenician allies or subjects, who constituted iia naval 
power, were unwilling to lend their aid in destroying the indepen- 
dence of their own colony, and Camby' ses was forced to abandon the 

34. On the death of Camly'ses (B. C. 521), one Smer^ dis, an 

1. Cffren&iea, a coantry on the Afiican roast of tbe Mediterranean, corresponded with the 
westeni portion of the modem Barca. It ^as Bomellmes called Pentap' olis, from its hariag 
five Grecian cities of note in it, of which Cyr^ne was the capital. (See p. 95, also Map No. V.) 

2. The Temple ofJkpUer ^m'mon was situated in what is now called the Oasis of Siwah, a 
fertile spot in the desert, three hundred miles south-west flnom Cairo. The time and the cir- 
camstances of the existence of this temple are unknown, bat, like that of Delphi, it was fiuned 
Ibr its treasures. A well sixty teet deep, which has been dlsooverad In Uxe oasiii Is supposed 
lo mark the site of the temple. 

Ob4p. hl] Persian history. 71 

impostor, a pretended son of Cyrus, seized the throne ; but the Per- 
man nobles soon formed a conspiracy against him, killed him in his 
palace, and chose one of their own number to reign in his stead. 
The new monarch assumed the old Median title of royalty, and is 
known in history as Darius, or Darius Hystas' pes. Babylon having 
revolted, he was engaged twenty months in the siege of the city 
which was finally taken by the artifice of a Persian nobleman, who 
pretending to desert to the enemy, gained their confidence, and 
having obtained the command of an important post in the city, 
opened the gates to the Persians : Darius put to death three thou- 
sand of the citizens, and ordered the one hundred gates to be pulled 
down, and the walls of the proud city to be demolished, that it might 
never after be in a condition to rebel against him. The favor which 
this monarch showed the Jews, in permitting them to rebuild the 
walls of Jerusalem, has already b^en mentioned. 

35. The attention of Darius was next turned towards the Scyth- 
ians,^ then a European nation, who inhabited the country along the 
western borders of the Euxine, from the Tan' ais or Don' to the north- 
em ^Krandaries of Thrace.' Darius indeed overran their country, 
but without finding an enemy who would meet him in battle ; for the 
Scythians were wise enough to retreat before the invader, and deso- 
late the country through which he directed his course. When the 
supplies of the Persians had been cut off on every side, and their 
strength wasted in useless pursuit, they were glad to seek safety by 
a hasty retreat. 

36. The next important events in the history of Darius we find 
connected with the revolt, and final subjugation, of the Greek colonies 
of Asia Minor, an account* of which has already been given. Still 
Darius was not a conqueror like Cyrus or Camby'ses, but seems 
to have aimed rather at consolidating and securing his empire, than 

1. SeftkU to a Dam« giren by the eariy Greeks to the country on the northern and weat«m 
borden of the Eoxine. In the time of the flnt Piolemy, however, the early Scythia, together 
vllh the whole region ftom the Baltic Sea to the Caspian, had changed its name to Sarmatioj 
white the entire north of Asia beyond the Himalaya mountains was denominated Scythia. 
(Map Nofl. V. and iX.) . 

8. The Dim (andenUy Tan' ais), rising In Central Russia, flows south-^ast until It approaches 
within about thirty-six miles of the Volga, when it turns to the south-west, and enters the 
nonb-eastem extremity of the Sea of Azof (anciently Polus Mosotis). (Map No. IX.) 

3. TTkraee^ embracing nearly the same as the modem Turkish province of Rnmllia, wat 
bounded on the north by the Hfemus mountains, on the east by the Euxine, on the south by 
tiw Propon' tia and the iE' gean Sea, and on the west by Macedonia. Its principal river wak 
Am P6braa (now Marttia), and its laigaat towns, excepting those in the Thraciaik Gherso^^as 
(He p. 9B.) w«TO HadrlanopoUs and DyxaBtiom. (Mtp No. m. and IX.) 

7*2 ANCIEirr HISTOBY. [PaetI 

at enlargmg it The dominions bequeathed him by his predcoessors 
comprised manj countries, united under one government only by 
their subjection to the will and the arbitrary exactions of a common 
ruler ; but Darius first organized them into one empire, by dividing 
the whole into twenty satrapies or provinces, and assigning to each 
its proper share in the burdens of government. 

37. Under Darius the Persian empire had now attained its great- 
est extent, embracing, in Asia, all that, at a later period, was con- 
tained in Persia proper and Turkey ; in Africa, taking in Egypt as 
far as Nubia, and the coast of the Mediterranean as far as Barca ; 
and in Europe, part of Thrace and Macedonia — ^thus stretching from 
the jSj' gean Sea to the Indus, and from the plains of Tartary* to 
the cataracts of the Nile. Such was the empire against whose united 
power a few Grecian communities were to contend for the preserva- 
tion of their very name and existence. The results of the contest 
may be learned from the following chapter. (See Map No. VII.) 

1. Tarurg Is a name of modem origin, applied to that eztaoslTe portion af Ceatnd Aiin 
wUob extendi eastward from the Caspian Sea to the Pacific Ocean. 





490 TO 860 B. a = 150 tkabs. 

ilNAl4Ynii FiRiT Pkr8ia,n War. 1. Preparations of Darius for the conquest of Greece. 
ilanl6niTia. betKniction of the Persian fleet. [Mount A' thos.] Return of Mard6nias.— 3. Re< 
Mewed i»«pk; r a;ions of Darius. Heralds sent to Greece. Their treatment by the Athenians and 
Spartans. Yh.9 .Cgio^tans. [iVgina.]— ^ Persian fleet sails for Greece. Islands submit. 
EabcB'a. Pe.*vi.xns at Mar'athon. The Platse'ans aid the Athenians. Spartans absent. 
[Mar* aihoit. Piste' a.]— 4. The Athenian army. How commanded.— 5. BatUe of Mar' athon. 
— 4L Remarks on the battle. Legends of the battle.— 7. The war terminated. Subeequen 
history of Mlltiadea. [Paros.] Themis' toeles and Aris^fdes. Their characters. Banish- 
ment of the latter. [Ostracism.]— 9. Death of Darius. Sbcohd Persian War. Xerxes ii^ 
▼ades Greece. Opposed by Leon' Idm. {Thermop' ylie.] Anecdote ofDien'eces.~10. Treachery. 
Leon' idea dinniSBes his allies. Self-devotion of the Greeks.— 11. Eurytus and Aristod^mus. 
—1%. The AtheQtans desert Athens, which is burned by the enemy. [Trez^ne.] The Greeks 
fiMtiiy ihe CorintMan Isthmus.— 13. The Persian fleet at Sal' amis. Euryb lades, Themis' toeles, 
and Aristides.— 14. Battle of Sal' amis. Flight of Xerxes. [Hel'lesponL] Battle of Plata' a 
—of Hyc'ale. [Myc'ale.] Death of Xerxes.- 15. Athens rebuilt. Banishment of Themis'- 
toelea. Cimon and Paus&idas. The Persian dependenctee. Ionian revolt. [Cy'prus. By- 
xan' ttom.}— 16. Final peaee with Persia.— 17. Diasenslons among the Grecian Statea. Per* 
Sdes. Jealousy of Sparta, and growing power of Athens.— 18. Power and character of Sputa. 
fiBrthquako at Sparta. BeTolt of the Helots. Third Mkssb' niah War. Migration of the 
Ifess^Bians.— 19. Athenians defeated at Tan^agra. [Tan' agra.] Subsequent victoiy gained bj 
the AtlieiiiaBs. 

90. Oauses which opened the First PcLoroRNR' siah War. [Corey* ra. PotldflB' a.]— 91. 
The Spartan aimy ravages At' Uca. The Athenian navy desolates the const of the Peloponn6- 
fiOB. [Heg'ara.]— 99. Second invasion of At'tica. The plague at Athens, and death of Per*- 
Idea. Pottdai' a surrenders to Athens, and Platss' a to Sparta.— iO. The peace of Nicias. Pre- 
texts for renewing the straggle.— 34. Character of Aldblades. His artifices. Reduction of 
lf«loa. [M^los.]— 25. Tax Siciliah Expedition. Its object. [Sicily. Syracuse.] Revolt 
and flight of Aleibiades.— 96. Operations of Nicias, and dissstrons result of the expedition. 

97. Sbcohd Pblopourb' biam War. Revolt of the Athenian allies. Intrigues of Aleibiades. 
Bevolotion at Athens^ [ErAtrla Gys' iens.] Return of Aleibiades.— S28. He is again banished. 
Tlie alBUrQ of Sparta are retrieved by Lysan' der. Cyrus the Persian.-^99. The Athenians an 
defeated at M' goa^Pot' amos. Treatment oj the prisoners.— 30. Disastrous state of Athenian 
■flUia. Submission of Athens, and .dose of the war.— 31. Change of government at Athens. 
The Thirty Tyrants overthrown. The rule of the democracy restored.— 32. Character, accusa- 
fioD, and death of Soc' rates.— 33. The dedgns of Cyrus the Persian. He is aided by the Greeks. 
—34. Result of his expedition.— 35. Famous retreat of the Ten Thousand.— 36. The Creek dtlea 
of Asia are involved in a war with Persia. The Third Pbi.otohice' siaw War. [Coroo^a.] 
Tbe peaee of Antal' cidss. [Im' brus, Lem' nos, and Scf rus.]— 37. The designs of the Persian 
king promoted by the Jealousy of the Greeks. Athens and Sparta— bow alTeoted by the peace, 
—as. Sparta is taivolvtsd in new wan. War with Manttn^a. With OlyB'ttniB. 


74 All ODSHT HIBTOSY. [Past L 

Olyii' thiM.] Selxura of Um Ttebui citadel.— 30. Tbe political monlUjr of the Spaftam.— 40. 
The Theban citadel recoTered. Pelop' Idaa and Epaminon' daa. Erenta of the Theban war. 
{Jtg'jnu Leuc' tra.}— 41. The Skcohd Bacrsp IVak. [Flnt Sacred War.] Gromb of the 
Seoood Sacred War. [Ph6da.}— 43. The partiea U> the war. [LOcriaiu.] Cmeltiea praeUacd. 

1. After the subjugation of the Ionian cities of Asia Minor, Darius 
made active preparations for the conquest of all Greece. A mighty 

L riBffT PBR- annament was fitted out and intrusted to the command 
BiAN VAK. oT his son-in Jaw Mard^nius, who, leading the land force in 
p^w)n through Thraoe and Macedonia, succeeded, after being once routed 
by a night attack,* in subduing those coimtries ; but the Persian fleet, 
which was designed to sweep the isknds of the M' gean, was checked 
in its progress by a violent storm which it encountered off Mount 
A' thos*, and which was thought to have destroyed tibree hundred ves- 
sels and twenty thousand lives. Weakened by these disasters, Mar- 
d6nius abruptly terminated the campaign and returned to Asia. 

2. Darius soon renewed his preparations for the invasion of Greece, 
and, while his forces were assembling, sent heralds through the 
Grecian cities, demanding earth and water, as tokens of submission. 
The smaller States, intimidated by his power, submitted -fi but Athens 
and Sparta haughtily rejected the demands of the eastern monarch, 
and put his heralds to death with cruel mockery, throwing one into a 
pit and another into a well, and bidding them take thenoe their earth 
and water. The Spartans threatened to make war upon the iEgine- 
tans' for having basely submitted to the power of Persia, and com- 
pelled them to send hostages to Athens.<^ 

1. Mount A' thos is a lofty tuminlt, more than sl^Nhousand feet high, on the most eaatera of 
three narrow penlnsnlaa which extend iVom llaoedonia into the Ji' goan aea. Tbe penlnaala 
which is about twenty-flre miles in kmgth by aboat four in breadth, has long been occupied 
in modem times by a number of monks of tbe Greek CSiarch, who lire in a kind of fortiilod 
monasteries, about twenty in number. No females are admitted within this peninsnla» whose 
modem name, deriTed flrom its sappoeed sanoUty, Is Monu StuUOy ** sacred mountain.** 
(,Mtgf No. I.) 

2. JSginOf (now Egina or £v*S) ^'"^ <^ island containing about fUtj square miles, In tbe 
centre of the Saron' ic GaU; (now Gulf of Athens,) between Attica and Ar'goUs, and sixteen 
miles south-west from Athens. The remains of a temple of Jupiter In the northern part of 
tbe island are among the most Interesting of the Grecian ruins. Of its thirty-six columns 
twenty-flve weie reoently standing. {Map No. I.) 

a. By the Brygl, a Thradaxi tiibe. Mard6nius wounded 

b. Among them, probably, the Tliebans and Thessalians ; also most of tbe islands, but nu 
£aboB' a and Nsx' oe. The Persians desolated Nax' os on their way across the £' gean. 

c. At this time Thebes and ^gioa had been at war with Athens fourteen years. Ar* gos, 
which had contested with Sparta the supremacy of Greece, had recently been subdued ; and 
Sparta was acknowledged to be the head of the political union of Greece against the Per- 
•laM. Gfote's Ofeee^ iv. 3U-3S8. 


3. In the third year after the first disastrous campaign, a Persian 
fleet of six hundred ships, conyeying an army of a hmidr^ and twenty 
tiiioiMMid men, oommanded by the generals DAtis and Artapher' nes, 
md guided by the exiled tyrant and- traitor Hip' pias, directed its 
oourse towards the Grecian shores. (B. 0. 490.) Several islands of 
the Mf gean submitted wxthoat a straggle ; Eubod' a was punished for 
the aid it had giyen the I6nians in their rebellion ; and without farther 
opposition the Persian host advanced to the plains of Mar' athon,' 
within twenty miles of Athens. The Athenians probably called on 
the Platoe' aas^ as well as the Spartans for aid \^ — the former sent 
iiieir entire feroe of a thousand men ; but the latter, influenced by 
jealousy or superstition, refused to send tiieir proffered aid before the 
foil of the moon. 

4. In this extremity the Athenian army, numbering only ten thou- 
aand men, and oommanded by ten generals, marched against the enemy. 
Vive of the ten generals had been afraid to hazard a battle, but the 
■rgumentsb of MBtiades, one of their number, jSnally prevailed upon 
tiie polemaroh Callim' achus to give his casting vote in favor of fight- 
ing. The ten generals were to command the whole army successively, 
eaeh for a day. Those who had seconded the advice of Miltiades 
were willing to resign their turns to him, but he waited till his own 
day arrived, when he drew up the little army in order of battle. 

1. JlfiM^«a#ii» wkMh iffil ntalnA ttt anelent name, is* smaU (owb of Attloa, twenty m\\m 
notfbent ftom Athena, and about three miles from the tea-coast, or Bay of Mar' athon. 'The 
plain in which the battle was fought is aboat flre miles In length and two in breadth, inclosed 
wm the land side by sleep slopes desoending (h>m the higher ridges of Pentet' icus and Paros, 
aad diTided Into two nneqnal parts by a small stream which fails Into the Bay. Towards the 
middle of the plain may still be seen a monnd of earth, twenty-five foot in height, which was 
rslaed orer the bodies of tl\e Athenians who fell in the battle. In the marsh near the sea. 
•om, also, the nnatns of trophies and marble monuments are still visible. Hie names of 
ttie one hnndred and ninety-two Athenians who were slain were Inscribed on ten pillars 
erected on the batUe-field. {Map "^o.l.) 

% Plmtm' a, a dty of Bfli6tta, now wholly In ralaa, wu situated on the nerthera side of the 
Ctthfls' ron mountains, seren miles south trom l^ebes. This city has acquired an immortality 
of renown from its baring given its name to the great battle fought in its vicinity in the year 
419 B. G. between the Persians under Mard6nius, and the Grseks imder PansAuias the Spar- 
tea. (See p. 80.) Ftcm the tenth of the spoils taken from the Persians on that occasion, and 
presented to the sbrine of Delphi, a golden tripod was made, supported by a braxen pillar 
WiiiabBng three ssrpents twined together. This identical brazen pillarmay still be seen in 
the Hippodrome of Constantinople. {Map No. I.) 

•. IhlrwBll says : ** Itjs probable that they snmmoned the Platss' ans.'* Orote says : ** We 
■re not UM that they had been hivlted.'* 

b. Herod' otas describes thts.debale as having occurred at Mar* athon, after the Greeks had 
taken posi In sight of the Pendaaa ; while OoneUus Nepos says it occurred before the army 
lift AthSBS. ThirwaU appean to ftrilow the ibmer: Groie declarsa his preference for the 


^5. The Persians were extended m a line across ilie middle of the 
plain, having their best troops in the centre. The Athenians were 
drawn up in a line opposite, but having their main strength in the 
extreme wings of their army. The Greeks made the attack, and, as 
had been foreseen by Miltfades, their centre was soon broken, while 
the extremities of the enemy's line, made up of motley and undisci- 
plined bands of all nations, were routed, and driven towards the shore, 
and into the adjoining morasses. Hastily concentrating his two 
wings, Miltiades next directed ihek united force against the flanks of 
the Persian centre, which, deeming itself victorious, was taken com- 
pletely by surprise. In a few minutes victory decided in &vor of the 
Greeks. The Persians fled in disorder to their ships; but many 
perished in the marshes ; the shore was strewn with their dead, — and 
seven of their ships were destroyed. The loss of the Persians was 
6,400 : that of the Athenians, not including the Platae' ans, only 192. 

6. Such was the fiunous battle of Mar' athon ; but the glory of 
the victory is not to' be measured wholly by the disparity of the 
numbers engaged, when compared with the result. The Persians 
were strong in the terror of their name, and in the renown of their 
conquests ; and it required a most heroic resolution in the Athenians 
to face a danger which they had not yet learned to despise. The 
victory was viewed by the people as a deliverance vouchsafed to the 
Grecians by the gods themselves : the marvellous legends of the battle 
attributed to the heroes prodigies of valor ; and represented Th^us 
and Her' cules as sharing in the fight, and dealing death to the flying 
barbarians ; while to this day the peasant believes the field of Mar' &- 
thon to be haunted with spectral warriors, whose shouts ore heard at 
midnight, borne on the wind, and rising above the din of battle. 

7. The victory obtained by the Greeks at Mar' athon terminated 
the first war with Persia. Soon after the Persian defeat, Miltiades, 
who at first received all the honors which a grateful people could be- 
stow, experienced a fate which casts a melancholy gloom over hia 
history. Being unfortunate in an expedition which he led agamst P&- 
ros,' and which he induced the Athenians to- intrust to him, without 
informing them of its destination, he was accused of having deoeived 

1. PAnt 1b an Uland of the M' gean bm, of the gronp of Um 0jo']^«8, abovt wer^tltf-ttn 
nllaa aoutb-east from Attioa. It is about twelTO mllea In length't>y elgbt In breadth, ragged 
and uneVen, bat generally very fertile. P&roe was ftnooa in antf qnlty for Ha maible, although 
that obtained from Mount Pentel' icua In AtUoa was of the pureat white. In modem timea 
Piros has become distingaWied for ihe diaooteiy there of the oelebrated ** Parian or Aninde- 
flan Chronicle," ont in a marble dab, and purporting to be a chronolegloal aeeount ofOnolaA 

Ostf . rr.] GREOIAN BISTORT. 77 

tin people, or, as 8ome say, of haying received a bribe. Unable to 
defend bis cause before tbe people on account of an injury which he 
had received at Pdros, he was impeached before the popular judica- 
ture as worthy of death; and although ihe proposition of his accusers 
was rejected, he was condemned to pay a fine of fifty talents. A few 
days later Miltiades died of his wound, and the fine was paid by his 
son Oimon. 

8. After the death of Miltiades, Themis' tocles and Aristides be- 
come, for a time, the most prominent men among the Athenians. The 
former, a most able statesoian, being influenced by ambitious motives, 
aimed to make Atiiens great and powqrful, that he himself might rise 
to greater eminence with the growing fortunes of the state ; — ^the latter, 
a pure patriot, had, like Themis' todes, the good of Athens at heart, 
but, unlike his rival, he was whoUy destitute of selfish ambition, and 
knew no cause but that of justice and the public welfare. His known 
IHTobity acquired for him Ihe appellation of The Just ; but his very 
int^ity made for him secret enemies, who, although they charged him 
with no crimes, were yet able to procure from the people the penalty of 
banishment against him by ostracism.* His removal left Themis' tocles 
in possession of almost undivided power at Athens, and threw upon 
him chiefly the responsibility of the measure for resisting another 
Persian invasion, with which the Greeks were now threatened. 

9. Darius made great preparations for invading Greece in person, 
when death put an end to his ambitious projects. Ten years after. 
tiie battle d Mar'athon, Xerxes, the son and successor j^, second 
of Darius, being determined to execute the plans of his fersun war. 
father, entered Greece at the head of an army the greatest the world . 
has ever seen, and whose numberi^have been estimated at more than 
two millions of fighting men. This immense force, passing through 
Thes^ S9ly, had arrived, without opposition, at the strait of Thermop'- 
jhdj* where Xerxes found a body of eight th6usand men, command- 

hWoi7ih»nUietlinaof06croiMtotb6 7«ar96tB.a Tbe preteoM of MQtbdes in ftttecMog 
P4ro8 was that the inbabitaots had aided the Persiaiu ; but Herod' otua aasures us that bli 
teal motive was a private grudge againit a P4rian citlzao. The injury of wblob he died waa 
cauaed by a fUi that he reoeired while attemptliig to visit by night, a Parian priesteaa of Ceres* 
who had promiied to reveal to him a secret that would place P4roB in hia power. {Map No. IIL) 

1. Tbe mode of 0»tracism waa as foUowa: Hie jyople having aasembled, each man took a 
Adl (MtralMny and wrote on it the name of the person whom be wished to have baniahed. 
If the number of votes thus given was leas than six thousand, the ostraeiam waa void ; but If 
man, then the penon whose name waa on the greaiaat number of ahella waa sent into banish 
nent for ten years. 

SL Tktrmtp'ylm is a nairow defile on the western shore of the Gulf which lies between 
Snbce'a and Thessaly, add is almost tbe only road by which Greece can be entered on tb« 


ed by tbe Spaitaa king Leon' idas, prepared to diflfmte the ] 
Xerxes sent a herald to the Greeks, oommanding them to lay down 
their arms; hut Leon' idas replied with true Spartan brevity, *^ ooma 
and take them." When one said that the Persians were 00 nomeroos 
that their very darts would darken the son, " Then," replied Dieni^oes, 
a Spartan, " we shall fight in the shade." 

1 0. After repeated and unavailing efforts, daring two days, to break 
the Grecian lines, the confidence of Xerxes had diaaged into de- 
q)ondenoe and perplexity, when a deserter revealed to him, for a large 
reward, a secret path oyer the mountains, by whidi he was enabied 
to throw a force of twenty thousand men into the rear of the Gre- 
cians. Leon' idas, seeing that his post was no longer tenable, dis- 
missed all his allies who were willing to retire, retaining with him 
only three hundred fellow Spartans, with some Thes' pians and Th^- 
bans, in all abo^t a thousand men. The Spartans were forbidden hy 
their laws oyer to flee from an enemy ; and Leon' idas and his oouii* 
trymen, and their Thes' pian allies,* prepared to sell their lives as 
dearly as possible. Falling suddenly upon the enemy, th^ pene- 
trated to the very centre of the Persian host, slaying two brothiers of 
Xerxes, and fighting with the valor of desperation, until every 
<me of their number had fallen. A monument was afterwards 
erected on the spot, bearing the following inscription : *^ Go stnmger, 
and tell at Laeedssmcm Uiat we died here in obedienoe to her 

1 1. Previous to the last attadc of the Spartaara, two of their num- 
ber, Etirytus and Aristod^mus, were absent on leave, suffering from 
a severe complaint of the eyes. Biibrytus, being informed that the 
hour for the detachment was come, called for his armor, and direet- 
ing his servant to lead him to his place in the ranks, fell foremost in 
the fight Aristod^mus, overpowered with pbysicai suffering, was 
carried to Sparta ; but he was denounced as a coward for not imi* 

aorllMart, b^ way of Tb/taulj. Thfa tkmmu pftst, wbich to ahiit In betwMn tteep praeV 
ptoes and the eea, at the eastern extremtty of Mount QES' ta, Is about flye mllee in le^igth, and, 
where narrowest, was not aocieDtfy, according to Herod' olns, more than half a pfethron, or 
Sfty (tot across, although Ury says sixty paces. The pas has long been grsdnally widening^ 
however, by the deposits of soil brought down by the mountain streams. In the naitoweet 
part of the pass were hot springs, from whkA the defile derives its name. (Tkenuty ^ hot,** 
andjni/«,a«gat^or«*paas.»0 (Jlf«pNo.I.) 

a. The Tbebans took part in the beginning of Uie flght, to save I4»peanneea| bat SnaUy soi^ 
rendered to the Persians, loudly proclaiming that they liad come to Thermop'ylm agalnat their 
OQDsent The atoiy that Leon' idas made a night attack, and penetrated Marly to tbe royal 
lent, is a mere fiction. (Bee OroCi^ t 08. |To(e.) -» 


titmg ids eomrftde — no one would speak or oommimioate with him, 
ix even grant him a light for his fire. After a year of bitter die- 
graee, he was at length enabled to retrieve his honor at the battle 
of Plat»' a, where he wta slain, after snrpassmg all his oomrades in 
heroic and even reckless valor.^ 

12. After the Ml of Leon' idas, the Persians ravaged At' tioa, and 
soon appeared before Athens, which they burned to the ground, bnt 
which had previonaly been deserted of its inhabitants, — ^those able to 
bear arms having retired to the island of Sal' amis, while the old and 
infirm, the women and children, had fonnd shelter in Trez^ne,^ a 
city of Ar' golis. The allied Qrecians took possession of the Corin- 
thian Isihmns, which they fortified by a wall, and committed to the 
deftnee of Gleom' brotas, a brother of Leon' idas. 

13. Xerxes next made preparations to annihilate the power of the 
Oreciaas in a naval engagement, and. sent his whole fleet to block up 
that of the Greeks in -the narrow strait of Sal' amis. Eory blades, 
the Spartan, who commanded the Orecian fleet, was in favor of sail- 
ing to the isthmos, that the naval and land forces might act in con- 
jnnction, but Themis' tocles finally prevailed npon him to hazard an 
engagement, and his counsels were enforced by Aristides, now in the 
third year of his exile, who crossed over in a small boat f^om JEglna 
with intelligence of the exact poeition of the Persian flee); ; — a cir- 
comstanoe that at once put an end to the rivalry between the two 
Athenians, and led to the restoration of Aristides. 

14. Xerxes had caused a royal throne to be erected on one of the 
neighbormg heights, where, surrounded by his army, he might wit- 
ness the battle of Sal' amis, in which he was confident of victory ; but 
be had the misfortune to see his magnificent navy almost utterly an- 
nihilated. Terrified at the result, he hastily fled across the Hel' les- 
pont,* and retired into his own dominions, leaving M(U'd6nius,^t the 
head of three hundred thousand men, to oomplete, if possible, the 
conquest of Greece. Marddnius passed the winter in Thes'saly, 
but in the following summer his army was totally defeated and him- 

L TVex^MwasMartbeaonth-eMtdmecKlremltyof Ar'goIiB. Its nUm may be seen near the 
■nan modem Tillage of Damala. 

% Hie jBW' Uapont (now caUed DariAnMt»\ Is the nanrow atrait which connecU the sea of 
Marmora with the iE'gean. tt'ta aboat forty mUea in length, and rartos in breadth firom three 
qoarten of a mile to ten miles. Ihe DardmuUesy from which the modem name of the stnit 
le derited, ut eoMtles, or forta, buUi on its banks. The strait, being ttie key to GonstanUnople 
and the Black Sea, has been rery strongly fortlfled on both sides by ttieTuriDk (Jifop No. IV.) 

a. Grote^ r. 96. 


self slain in the battle of Plat»' a. (B. G. 479.) Two hundred thon- 
sand Persians fell in battle, and only a small remnant e8Ci4[>ed across 
the Her lespont — the last Persian army that gained a footing on the 
Grecian territory. On the very day of the battle of Platsd' a, the re- 
mains of the Persian fleet which had escaped at Sal' amis, and whidi 
had been drawn up on shore at Myc' ale,* on the coast of I^nia, were 
bnmed by the Grecians, and Tigrdnes, the Persian commands, and 
forty thousand of his men, slain. Six years later the career of Xerxes 
was terminated by assassination, when he was succeeded on the 
throne by his son, Artazerx' es Longim' anus. . 

15. In the meantime, Athens had been rebuilt by the vigor and 
energy of Themis' tocles, uid the Piraa' us fortifled, and connected, 
by long walls, with the town, while Sparta looked with ill-disgdsed 
jealousy upon the growing power of a rival city. But the eminence 
which Themis' tocles had attained provoked the envy of some of his 
countrymen, and he was condemned to exile by the same process of 
ostracism which he himself had before directed against Aristide& 
Being afterwards charged with conspiring against the liberties of 
Greece, he sought refuge in Persia, where he is said to have ended 
his life by poison. Cimon, the son of Miltiades, succeeded Themis'- 
tocles in the chief direction of Athenian a&irs, while Pausiniaa, the 
hero of Plate' a; was at the head of the Spartans. Under these 
leaders the confederate Greeks waged successful war upon the de- 
pendencies of Persia in the islands of the M' gean, and on the coasts 
of Thrace and Asia Minor. The I6nian cities were aided in a suc- 
cessful revolt ; Cy' prus' was wrested from the power of the Per- 
sians ; and Byzan' tium,* already a flourishing city, fell, with all its 
wealth, into the hands of the Grecians. (B. C. 476.) 

16. Cimon carried on a successful war against Persia many years 
later, daring which the commercial power and wealth of the Athe- 
nians were continually increasing ^ but both parties finally becoming 
tired of the contest, after the death of Cimon a treaty of peace was 
concluded with the Persian monarch, which stipulated that the 16- 

t, Jfye' «/« was ft promontory of I6nU in Asia Minor, opposite the sonthem extremitj of tb* 
i8lsndofS4moe. (MapNoAV.) 

3. Cyprus is a large and fertile island near the north-eastern angle of the Mediterranean, 
between Asia Minor and Syria :— greatest len|:th, one hundred and thirty4wo miles ; aTerage 
breadth, ttom thirty to thirty-flre miles. Under the oppressive rule of the Turks, who con- 
quered the Island fh>m the Venetians in 1571, agriculture was greatly neglected, aod the popu- 
lation reduced to one-eerenth of its former nu nber. {Maps Nos. IV. and V.) 

a. BfuiM' (laM, now Constantinopls. See iescription, p.S18. 


nian oities in Aaia dioold be left in the free enjoyment of their inde- 
pendence, and that no Persian army should come within three days' 
march of the sea-coast.^ 

17. While the war with Persia continued, a sense of common dan- 
gers had united the Greeks in a powerful and prosperous confederacy, 
but now jealouaes broke out between several of the rival cities, 
particularly Athens and Sparta, which led to political dissensions 
and civil wars, the cause of the final ruin of the Ghrecian republics. 
The authority of Cimon among the Athenians had gradually yielded 
to the growing influence of his rival Per' ides, who, bold, artful, and 
eloquent, — a general, philosopher, and statesman, — ^managed the 
multitude at his will, and by his patronage of literature and the arts, 
an'd the extension of the Athenian power, raised Athens to the sum- 
mit of her renown. Sparta looked on with ill-disguised jealousy as 
island after island in the M! gean yielded to the sway of Athens, and 
flaw not with unconcern the colonies of her rival peopling the wind- 
ing shores of Thrace and Maeedon. Athens had become the mis- 
tress of the seas, while her commerce engrossed nearly the whole 
trade of the Mediterranean. 

18. But Sparta was also powerful in her resources, and in the 
military renown and warlike character of her people, and she dis- 
^Lained the luxuries that were enervating the Athenians. Complaints 
and reclamations were frequent on both sides ; and occasions for 
war, when sought by both parties, are not long delayed. But while 
the Spartans were secretly favoring the enemies of Athens, although 
still in avowed allegianoe with her, Lac6nia was laid waste by an 
earthquake (464 B. C), and Sparta became a heap of ruins. A re 
volt of the Helots followed ; Sparta itself was endan- ^^ .^^^^ 
gered; and the remnant of the Mess^nians, making a visbbnian 
▼igorous effort to recover their freedom, fortified the ^^^^ 
memorable hill of Ith6me, the ancient citadel of their fathers. 
Here, for a long time, they valiantly defended themselves ; and the 
Spartans were compelled to invoke the Athenians and others to their 
assistance. (461 B. C.) After Efeveral years' duration, the third and 
last Mes86nian war was terminated by an honorable capitulation of 
the Mess^ians, who were allowed to retire from the Peloponnesus 

a. Tb» itarf <irthiB fhmoos treaty, however, generally called the Clmoniaa treaty, and attrib- 
uted to Cimon hlnuelf, has been regarded by some writers as a fiction, which, oiiglnatiDg in 
Ibe aehoola of Oreelc rfaetoridana, was transmitted thence through the orators to the historians. 
(See TkirwtU^ i. p. 905, and note.) Grote, however, v. 33G-42, admits the reality of the treaty 
Iral plaoea it after the death of Cimon. 


witk their propertj tnd their fiuniliei, aad to jon tke Atlwiiin odl- 
on J of Nanpae' tns. 

19. WhUe the Athenians were engaged in koatilitiflB with w f ua l 
of iheir northern neighborsL Sparta sent her forces into the Bqb6- 
tian territory, to counteract the growing inioenee of AAens in 
that quarter. The mdignant Athenians married out to meet them, 
bat were worsted in the battle of Tan' agra.' In the following year, 
howerer, thej were enabled to wipe off the stain of their defeat b j a 
victory OTer the aggregate Theban and BonStian forces then in jli- 
anoe with Sparta ; wherebj the anthority and inflneaee of Sparta 
were again confined to the Peloponn^sos. 

20. Other eyents soon occurred to embitter the ammosities of the 
rival States, and prepare the way for a general war. Corinth, a 
D6rian city favorable to Sparta, having become involved m a war 
with Corey' ra,* one of her colonies, the latter applied for and ob- 
tained assistance from Athens. Potidie' a," a Corinthian colony trib- 
utary to Athens, soon aft^r revolted, at the same time daiming and 
obtaining the assistance of the Corinthians ; and thns in two in- 
stances were Athens and Corinth, though nominally at peace, brov^t 
into conflict with each other as open enemie& The Corinthians, now 
accusing Athens of interfering between them and their colonies, 

IT riRsr ^^li'urged her with violating a treaty of tiie eonfoderated 
pjcLOPONifi- States of the Peloponnesus, and easily engaged the Laoe- 
SUM wAft. ^[jgm^QiiLiis in their quarrel. Such were the immo^to 
causes which opened the First Pdoponnesian War, . 

21. The minor States of Greece took sides as inclinati^m or bter- 
est prompted, and nearly all were involved in the contest The 
Spartans and their confederates were the most powerful by land, 
the Athenians by sea ; and each t>^an the war by displaying ita 
strength on its peculiar element. While a Spartan army of sixty 
thousand, led by their king, Arehidimus, ravaged At' tioa, and sat 
down before the very gates of Athens, the naval force of the Athen 

I. Tan' mgroj ft city iMwr the soatli-eutMni extremity of BcsbtU, was iltiiafted on aa eml^ 
nence on the northern bank of the rirer AabpoMf aad near its mouth. {Map No. L) 

SL Corey' ra^ now Or/it, the mo0t important, although not the largest, of the I6nian ialands, 
la situated near the coast of Bplnia, tn the l&nSan Sea. Al Ua northern extfeaaity it laaeparatoii 
from the coast by a channel only three-fiAha of a mile wide. Hie atrongly-fortifled eit;ii of OoiAi, 
the eapttal of the Idnlan Repubtte, atanda on the atte of the aneient dty of 0»rc!y'ra, on the 
^ftslemalde of the island. 

3. Potidm' a waa Situated on the isthmus that oonnecta the moat weaten of the three 1iae». 
doaian peninsulas In the JR' geao with the aoain land. Tliere ara no remains of the dty eodafc- 
Ing. (Jfap-No. I.) 


ianB, consisidng of nearly two hundred galleys, desolated the ooaats of 
the Peloponn^sQB. (6. 0. 431.) The Spartans being recalled to pro- 
tect their own homes, Per' icles himself, at the head of the largest 
force mustered by the Athenians during the war, spread desolation 
over the little territory of Meg^ ara,' then in alliance with Sparta. 

22. In the following year (B. 0. 430) the Spartan force a second 
time inTaded At' tioa^when the Athenians again took refdge within 
their walls ; bnt here the plague, a calamity more dreadful than war, 
attacked them, and swept away multitudes of the citizens, and many 
of the prinoipal men. In the third year of the war. Per' icles him- 
self fell a victim to its ravages. Before this, Potidse' a had surren- 
dered to the Athenians (B. 0. 430), who banished the inhabitants, 
and gave their vacant lands and houses to new colonists ; and when 
PUtse'a, after a siege of three years, was compelled to surren- 
der to the Spartans, the latter cruelly put the little npmnant of the 
garrison to death, while the women and children were made slaves 
(B. C. 427.) 

23. After the struggle had continued with various success ten. 
years, both parties became anxious for peace, and a treaty, for a 
term of fifty years, called the peace of Nic' ias, was, concluded, on 
the basis of a mutual restitution of all conquests made during the 
war. (421 B. G.) Yet interest and indmation, and the ambitious 
views of party leaders among the Athenians, were not long in find- 
ing plausible pretexts for renewing the struggle. The B€e6tian, 
Meg&rian, and Corinthian allies of Sparta, refused to accede to the 
terms of the treaty by making the required surrenders, and Sparta 
had no power to compel them, while Athens would accept no less 
than she had bargained for. 

24. At the head of the party which aimed at severing the ties 
that bound Athens and Sparta together, was Alcibiades, a wealthy 
Athenian, and nephew of Per' ides, — a man ambitious, bold, and 
eloquent, — an artful demagogue, but corrupt and unprincipled, and 
reckless of the means he used to accomplish his purposes. By his 
artifices he involved the Spartans in a war with their recent allies 
the Ar' gives, and induced the Athenians to send an armament 
against the D6rian island of M^los," which had provoked the enmity 

1. Mt^ vrtu, ft dtj of At'tica, and capital of a dbtiict of the same name, was about twenty.- 
Are miles west, or nortlFweet, of Athena, and was eonnooted with the port of Nls' aa on the 
Baron' le Gulf by two walla atinlltfr to thoae which connected Athena and the Pirn' na. The 
iBl4enib1e tillage of Meg* ara occupies a part of the ilte of the andent city. {Maf No. L) 

S. MUoM now caUed MUo^ la an Island belonging to the group of the QyC ladea^ about serenlf 

84 ' ANCIENT HI8T0BT. [PaktI 

of Athens hj its attachment to Sparta, and which was oompelledy 
after a vigorous siege, to surrender at discretion. With deliberate 
cruelty the conquerors, imitating the Spartans at the reduction of 
Plates' a, put to death all the adult citizens, and enslaved the women 
and children — an act which provoked universal indignation through* 
out Greece. (B. C. 416.) 

25. Soon after the surrender of Melos, the Athenians, at the in- 
stigation of Alcibiades, fitted out an expedition against Sicily,* uik> 
der the plea of delivering a people in the western part of the island 
firom the tyranny of the Syracusans,' a Ddrian colony ; but, in reality, 
to establish the Athenian supremacy in the island. (415 B. C.) 
T. noiuAif The armament fitted out on this occasion, the most 
KXPiDiTioN. powerful that had ever left a Grecian port, was intrust- 
ed to the joint command of Alcibiades, Nic' ias, and Lam' achus ; 
but ere the fleet had reached its destination, Alcibiades was sum- 
moned home on the absurd charge of impiety and sacrilege, con- 
nected with designs against the State itself Fearing to trust 
himself to the giddy multitude in a trial for life, he at once threw 
himself upon the generosity Of his open enemies, and sought refuge 

miles east from the southern part of Lao6nla. It has one of the best hsrbon In the Grecian 
Archipelago. Near the town of Castro htfve been discoTered the remains of a theatre bnUt of 
' the finest iiiart>le, and also nwnerofosoataoombs cut In the solid rook. (Map No. UI.) 

1. Sicilf, the largest, most Important, most fruitful, and most celebrated island of the Medi- 
terranean, is separated ttom the southern extremitj of Italy by the strait of Messina, only two 
milea across, and lseighty*llTe miles distant from Gspe Bon In AfHea. It is of a triaDfoIar shapsy 
and was anciently called TrinaeriOy from Its terminating in three promontories. SioUy, th* 
name by which it is usually known, seems to have been derived fh>m the SietUi, its earliest 
known inbabUanls. Its length east and west is about two hundred and fifteen miles ;— greatesi 
breadth, one hundred snd filly miles. The volcano iEtna, the most celebrated of European 
mountains, near the eastern cosst of the island, rises to the height of nearly eleven thousand 
feet above the level of the sea. > (Mtgi No. Vin. For history of SicUy, see p. 115.) 

S. Syraeiwa, the most famous of the cities of SicUy, wss situated on the south'^astem coast, 
partly on a small island, and partly on the main land. Among Uie existing remains of the 
aodent city are the prisons, cut in the soUd rock, which have been admirably described by 
Ctoero in his oration against Verres. Tlie catacombs, alao excavated in the solid rock, and 
consisting of one principal street and several smaller ones, are of vast extent, and may be truly 
called a dty of the dead. The modern city, however, containing a population of tn'elvo or tU- 
teen thousand inhabitants, has little except its ancient renown, its noble harbor, and the ex- 
treme beauty of its situation, to recommend It. {Map No. VIII.) "■ lu streets are narrow and 
dirty ; Its nobles poor ; its lower orders ignorant, superstitions, idle, and addicted to festivals. 
Much of its Cartile land Is become a pestilential mardi ; and that commerce which once filled 
the finest port in Europe with the vessels of Italy, Rhodes, Alexandria, Carthage, and every 
other maritime power, is now confined te a petty cossUng trade. Such .is modem Syracuse. 
Yet the sky which canopies it is still brilUant and serene ; the gokien grain is sdU ready to 
spring almost spontaneously from Its fields ; the axure waves still beat against its walls i» 
send its nsviee over the main ; nature Lb stlU prompt to pour ^rth her bounties with a liberal 
band ; but man, ahu ! is changed ; his liberty is lost ; and with that, the genius of a nation 
riss^ sinks, and is extinguished."— JVtc^As*^ Grttta, 


at^arta. When, soon after, he lizard that the Athenians had oon- 
denmed him to death, " I hope," said he, ^^ to show them, that I am 
still alive." 

26. By the death of Lam' achos, Nic' ias was soon after left in 
sole command of the Athenian forces before Sjrracuse, but he wasted 
his time in fortifying his camp, and in useless negotiations, until the 
Syraeusans, having received succor from Corinth and Sparta under 
the £unous Spartan general Gjlip' pus, were able to bid him defi- 
ance. Although new forces were sent out from Athens, yet l^e 
Athenians were defeated in several engagements, when, still linger- 
ing in the island, their entire fleet was eventually destroyed by the 
Syracusans, who thus became masters of the sea. The Athcnia^ 
forces tiien attempted to retreat, but were overtaken and compelled 
to surrender. (B. 0. 413.) The generals destroyed themselves, on 
learning that their death had been decreed by the Syracusan assem- 
bly. The common soldiers, to the number of seven thousand, were 
crowded together during seventy days in the gloomy prisons of 
Syracuse, when most of the survivors were taken out and sold as slaves. 

27. The aid which Gylip' pus had rendered the Syracusans again 
brou^t Sparta and Athens in direct conflict, and opened the second 
Peloponn^sian war. The result of the Athenian expe- ^ bbcond 
dition was the greatest calamity that had &llen upon pzloponnk 
Athens. Several of her allies, instigated by Alcibiades, ®'^^ ^^^ 
who was now active in the Spartan councils, revolted; and the 
power of Tisapher' nes, the most powerfiod satrap of the king of Persia 
in Asia Minor, was on the point of being thrown into the scale against 
the Athenians, when a rupture between the Spartans and Alcibiades 
dianged the aspect of afiGurs, and for awhile revived the waning 
glory of Athens. By his intrigues, Alcibiades, who now sought a 
reconciliation with his countrymen, detached Tisapher' nes from the 
interests of Sparta, and effected a change of government at Athens 
from a democracy to an aristocracy of four hundred of the nobility ; 
bat the new government, dreading the ambition of Alcibiades, re- 
fbsed to recall him. Another change soon followed. The defeat of 
the Athenian navy at Er^tria,^ and the revolt of Euboe' a, produced 
a new revolution at Athens, by which the government of the four 
hundred was overthrown, and democracy restored. Alcibiades was 
immediately recalled ; but before his return he aided in destroying 

t. Eritna waa a town on Um wettern ooaiiof the Uland of Euboe'a. Its ralna an ttUl to 
be fMB ten or twelvo mitoa aoutli-eaat ftom tbo priMn'. Neg' ropOnt. (^Xap Mo. I.) 


die PeloponnMan fleet in the battle of CjB'ioos.* (B. C. 411.) 
8oon after, Alcibiades was welcomed at Athena with great entiuifli* 
ftsm, a gelden crown was decreed hini) and he was appointed com- 
manderin-chief of all the forces of the oomm<Hiwealth both by land 
uid by sea. 

28. Alcibiades was stQl destined to experience the instability of 
fortune, for when one of his generals, contrary to instmctions, attacked 
the Spartan fleet and was defeated, an nnjnst saq^ioion of treadiery 
feU upon Alcibiades ; the former charges against him were reyived, 
and he was deprived of his command and again banished. Th« 
a&irs of Sparta were retriered by the crafty Lysan' der, a general 
whose abilities the Athenians ooold not match since they had de* 
prived themselves of the services of Alcibiades. The Spartan 
general had the art to gain the confidence and cooperation of Cyras, 
a yoimger son of Darius No' thus, the Persian king, whom the latter 
had invested with supreme authority over the whole maritime re- 
gion of Asia Minor. 

29. Aided by Persian gold, Lysan' der found no difficulty in man- 
ning a numerous fleet, with which he met the Athenians at ^'gos- 
Pot' amos.' Here, during several days, he declmed a battle, but 
seizing the opportunity when nearly all the Athenians were dispersed 
on shore in quest of supplies, he attacked and destroyed all their 
ships, with the exception of eight galleys, and took three thousand 
prisoners. The fiite of the prisoners is a shocking proof of the bar- 
barous feelings and manners of the age, for all of them were rc: 
morselessly put to death, in revenge for wme recent cruelties of the 
Athenians, who had thrown down a precipice the crews of two captured 
vessels, and had passed a decree for cutting off the right thumb of 
the prisoners whose capture they anticipated in the coming battle. 

30. Thus, in one short hour, by the culpable negligence of their 
generals, were the affairs of the Athenians changed from an equality 
of resources with their enemy, to hopeless, irretrievable ruin. The 
maritime allies of Athens immediately submitted to Lysander, who 
directed the Athenians throughout Greece to repair at once to 
Athens, with threats of death to all whom he found elsewhere ^ and 

1. Cfft' iau was an ialaiid of the Propon' tla, (now wa of MarmorB,) oa the northern coasi 
of Myi' ia. It was separated from the main land hy a very nairow channel, which has tinco 
Seen flUad up, and U to now a: peatarala. {Map No. IV.) 

S. JE' go»-Pot' omo»^ ("goat's river") was a small stream of the Thraclan Ohenon6sa8» which 
Sows into the Hellespent from the west The phwe where the Athenians landed, appeara te 
have been «" a mere open b«Beh, without any habitations.'* (ThlnraU, 1 4B9.) <Jir19R0.IV> 


niieii fianine began to prej upon the oolleoted mnltitade in the 
«ii]r, he appeared before the Pira' us with hiB fleet, while a large 
force from Sparta blockaded Athens by land. The Athenians had 
no hopes of effectual resistance, and only delayed the istoender to 
plead for the best terms that could be obtained from the conquerors. 
Compelled at last to submit to whateyer terms were dictated to them, 
they agreed to destroy the long walls, and the fortifications of the 
Pine'' US ; to surrender i^ dieir ships but twelve; to restore their 
exiles ; to r^lnquish their conquests ; to become a member of the 
Pelopontt6sian confederacy; and to serve Sparta in all her expedi- 
tions, whether by sea or by land. (B. C. 404.) Thus dosed the 
seoond Pelopomi^ian war, in the profotmd humiliation^of Athens. 

31. A change of government followed, as directed by Lysander, 
and eonformable to the aristocratic oharaot«r of the Spartan institu- 
tioDS. All anthonty was placed in the hands of thirty arohons, 
known as the Thirty Tyrants, whose power was supported by a 
Spartan garrison. Their cruelty and rapadty knew n^ bounds, and 
fiUed Athens with universal cUsmay. A large band of exiles soon 
accumulated in the friendly Theban territories, and choosing Thrasy- 
btilus for their leader, they resolved to strike a blow for the deliver- 
asDce of their counlnry. They first seized a small fortress on the 
frontiers of Attica, when, tiieir numbers rapidly increasing, they were 
enaUed to seiie the Pine' us, where they defeated the force which 
was bron^ against them. The rule of the tyrants was overthrown, 
and a council of ten was elected to fill their places ; but- the latter 
emulated the wickedness of their predecessors, and, when the popu- 
lace turned against them, applied to Sparta for assistance. But the 
Spartan councils were divided, and eventually, by the aid of Sparta 
herself, the ten were deposed, when, the Spartan garrison being 
witibdzawn, Athens again became a democracy, with tiie power in 
the httids of the people. (B. G. 403.) 

32. It was during the rule of democracy in Athens that the wise 
and virtuous Soerstes, the best^and greatest of Grecian philosophers, 
was condemned to dead) on the absurd charge of impiety, and of 
corrupting the morals of the young. His accusers appear to have 
been instigated by personal resentment, which he had innocently pro- 
voked, and by envy of his many virtues ; and the result shows not 
only the instability, but the moral obliquity also, of the Athenian 
character. The defence whfch Socrates made before his judges is 
in the tone of a man who demands rewards and honors, instead of 


the ptmiiihment of a male&otor ; and when the sentence of death had 
been pronounced against him, he spent the remaining days which the 
laws allowed him in impressing on the minds of his friends the most 
sublime lessons in philosophy and virtue ; and when the &tal hour 
arrived, drank the poison with as much composure as if it had been 
the last draught of a cheerful banquet 

33. Cyrus has been mentioned as one of the sons of Darius No' thus, 
and governor of the maritime region of Asia Minor. As his ambi- 
tion led him to aspire to the throne of Persia, to the exclusion of 
his elder brother, Artaxerxes Mnemon, he had aided Sparta in ihe 
Peloponnesian war, with the view of claiming, m return, her assist- 
Mice against his brother, should he ever have occasion tor it When, 
therefore, the latter was promoted to the throne in accordance with 
^e dying bequest of his father, Cyrus prepared for the execution 
of his 'design by raising an army of a hundred thousand Persian 
and barbarian troops, which he strengthened by an auxiliary force 
of thirteen thousand Grecians, drawn principally f^om the Cbreek 
cities of Asia. On the Grecian force, commanded by the Spartan 
Clear' chus, Cyrus placed his main reliance for success. 

34. With these forces he marched from Sardis in the Spring of ^ 
the^ year 401, and with little difficulty penetrated into the heart of 
the Persian empire, when he was met by Artaxerx' es, seventy mOes 
from Babylon, at the head of nine hundred thousand men. In the 
battle whidi followed, this immense force was at first routed ; bat 
Cyrus, rashly charging the centre of the guards who surrounded his 
brother, was slain on the field, when the whole of his barbarian 
troops took to flight, leaving the Gh'eeks almost alone in the midst 
of a hostile country, more than a thousand miles from any friendly 

35. The Persians proposed to the (Grecians terms of accommo- 
dation, but having invited their leaders to a conference they mer- 
cilessly put them to death. No alternative now remained to the 
Greeks but to submit to the enemy, or fight their way back to 
their native country. Where submission was death or slavery they 
could not hesitate which course to pursue. They chose Xen' ophon, 
a young Athenian, for their leader, and under his conduct ten thou- 
sand of their number, after a march of four months, succeeded in 
reaching Grecian settlements on the banks of the Eux' ine. Xen 'o- 
phon himself, who afterwards became the historian of his country, 
has left an admirable narrative of the ^^ Retreat of thf Ten Thou- 


sand," writteiK nith great clearness and singular modesty. It is one 
of the most interesting works bequeathed ns by antK^uity, as the 
Betreat itself is the most famous military expedition on record. 

36. The part whieh the Greek cities of Asia took in the expedi- 
tion of Cyrus inTolved them in a war with Persia, in which they ' 
were aided by the Spartans, who, under their king Agesilius, de- 
feated Tifiapher'nes in a great battle in the plains of Sirdis (B. 
395)'; but Agesilius was soon after recalled to aid his ^^^ third 
countrymen at home in another Peloponn6sian war, which p]>x.opoNitB- 
had bcMBn fomented chiefly by the Persian king himself, ^^^ ^^^ 
in order to save his own dominions from the ravages of the Spartans. 
Artazerx' es supplied Conon, an Athenian, with a fleet which defeat- . 
ed the Spartan navy ; and Persian gold rebuilt the walls of Athens. 
On the other hand, Athens and her allies were defeated in the 
vicinity of Ccmnth, and on the plains of Coron6a.' (B. 0. 394). 
Pinally, after the war had continued eight years, articles of peace 
were arnmged between Artaxerx'es and the Spartan Antal'cida^ 
hence called the peace of Antal' cidas, and ratified by all the parties 
engaged in the war, almost without opposition. (387 B. C.) The 
Greek cities in Asia, together with the islands Olazom'ensd* and 
Cy' pros, were giventip to Persia, and the separate independence of 
aU tiie other Greek cities was guaranteed, with the exception of the 
islandfl Im' brus, Lem' nos, and Scy^ rus,* which, as of old, were to 
belong to Athens. 

37. The terms of the peace of Antal' cidas, directed by the king of 
Persia, were artfully contrived by him to dissolve the power of 
Greece into nearly its original elements, that Persia might there- 
after have less to fear from a united Greek confederacy, or the pre- 
ponderating influence of any one Grecian State. It was the un- 
worthy jealousy of the Grecians, which- the Persian knew how to 
stimulate, that prompted them to give up to a barbarian the free 
cities of Asia^ and this is the darkest shade in the picture. Both 
Athens and Sparta lost their former allies ; and though Sparta was 

1. Cgrcnia was A cfty of BcB6tia, to the Boath-MAt of Ourrvnta^ and two or three miles 
■ootlMreBi fh>m the Oopslc Lake. South of CoronAa was Mount Helicon. ( Jft^p No. I.) 

2. The Clavm' ena here mentioned was a small island near the Lydian ooast, west of 
SmTrna, and in what is now called the Gulf of Smyrna. (Map No. IV.) 

X in' bnuj Lem' n««, sad Scjf' rua, (now Imbro, Statlmene, and Scyro,) are ielanda of the 
JR' gemn. Hie flnt is about ten miles west from the entranoe to the He^ lespont, and the second 
about forty miles southriTreBt. Scy'nu is ab>ut twenty-flre miles north-east from Eaboa'a. 
Olfap No. in.) 


tbe most strongly in &Tor of the terms of tiie treatj, yet Atlisnt 
was the greatest gainer, for she onee more became, althon^ a small, 
yet an independent and powerful State. 

38.* It was not long before ambition, and the resentment of past 
injuries, iuTolved Sparta in new war& She oompdied Mantin^a,^ 
which had formerly been her unwilling ally, to throw down her 
walls, and dismember the city into its <Nr]ginal divisionB, under the 
X pretext that the Mantindans had supplied one of the enemies of 
Sparta witii com during the preceding war, and had evaded their 
share of service in the Spartan army. The jealousy of Sparta was 
next aroused against the rismg power of Olyn'tiius,' which had 
become engaged in hostilities with some rival cities ; and the Spar- 
tans readily aoeepted an invitation of the latter to send an army to 
their aid. As one of the Spartan forces was marching through ^e 
Theban territories on this errand, the Spartan general fraudulently 
seised upon the Oadm^ia, or Theban citadel, although a state of 
peace existed between Thebes and Sparta. (B. C. 382.) 

39. The political moraliiy of the Spartans is clearly exhibited in 
the arguments by which AgesiOtns justified tiiis palpable breach of 
the treaty of Antal' cidas. He dl^lared that the only question for 
the -Spartan people to consider, was, whether they were gainers or 
losers by the transaction. The assertion made by the Athenians on 
a former occasion was confirmed, that, ^^ of all States, Sparta had 
most glaringly shown by her conduct that in her political transactions 
she measured honor by inclination, and justdce by expediency." 

40. On the seizure of the Theban citadel the most patriotic of 
the citizens fled to Athens, while a &ction, upheld by the Spartan 
/garrison, ruled the city. After the Thebans had submitted to this 
foke four years they rose against their tyrants and put them to 
leath, and being re-enforced by the exiles, and an Athenian army, 
soon forced the Spartan garrison to ci^itulate. (B. 0. 379.) Pelop'- 
idas and Epaminon' das now appeared on the field of action, and by 
their abilities raised .Thebes, hitherto of but little political import- 

1. Mamtinia was in the eastora part of AroAdIa, serenteen mUes west from Afgos. It was 
situated In a marshy plain through which flowed the small river A' phis, whose waten ftnmd 
a Bubterranean passsge to the sea. ManUn«a Is wholly indebted fbr its celebrity to the great 
battle fought in its ricinlty in the year 368 between the Spartans and Thebans. (See p. 91.) 
The locality of the batUe was about three miles southwest from the city. The mins of the 
ancient town may be seen near tbe wretched modem hamlet of Paiaiofli. (Map No. I.) 

8. oifn' tkut wos in the south-eastern part of Macedonia, six or seven miles north-east from 
PotldsB'a. (MapVo.l) 

Our. TV,] aRfiCIAlf mSTOET. ^t 

IBM, to ihe first rtaok in power among the Grecian States. AI- 
tliao^ Athena joined Thebes in the beginning of the contest, yet 
the afterwards took the side of the Spartans. At Teg'jra, ^ Pe- 
hp' idas defeated a greatly superior force, and k^led the two Spartan 
generals \ at Leno' tra,' Epaminon' das, with a force of fdx thousand 
Tfaebans, defeated the Lacedsemo' nian army of more than double 
that number. (B. 0. July 8, 371.) Epaminon'das afterwards in-. 
vaded Laodnia, and appeared before the very gates of Sparta, where 
a hostile force had not been seen during five hundred years ; and at 
Maatin^ he defeated die enemy in the most sanguinary contest ever 
foa^t between Orecians. (B. G. 362.) But Epaminon^das fell in 
the moment of yietory, and the glory of Thebes perished with him. 
A general peace was soon after established, on the single condition 
that each State should retain its respective possessions. 

41. Four years after the battle of Mantin^a the Grecian States 
again became involved in domestic hostilities, known as the Sacred 
War, the second in Grecian history to which that epi- yn^ sboond 
thet was applied.*^ Burmg the preceding war, th^h6- 8acrkd wae. 
eians,' although in alliance with Thebes by treaty, had shown such a 
predilection in favor of ^arta, thit the animosity of the Thebans 
was ronsed against their reluctant ally, and they availed themselves 
of the first opportunity to show their resentment. The Ph6cians 
having taken into cultivation a portion of the plain of Del' phos, 
which was deemed sacred to Ap611o, the Thebans caused them to 
he aeeosed of sacrilege before the Amphictyon' ic council, which con 
demned.them to pay a heavy fine. The Ph6cians refused obedience, 
and, enoouraged by the Spartans, on whom a similar penalty had 
been imposed for their treacherous occupation of the Theban citadel, 
took np arms to resist the decree, and, under their leader, Philom6- 
hm, plundered the sacred treasures of Del' phos to obtain the means 
for carrying on the war. 

1. Ti^yra was a amaU Tillage of BcB6tla, near the northem ahore of the Oopalc Lake. 

8. Leme' tra (now Lefka) waa a amall town of Bo»6tla, about ten mllea aontb-weat from 
TbebeBi and four or flye milea from the Ck)rlntUan Golf. It la now only a heap of rolna. 
(JIfap No. L) 

a. PMcis waa a amall tract of country, bounded on the north by Thea' aaly, -eaat by B<B6tlay 
aoafh by the Corinthian GuU; and weal by L6cria, ^tdlia, and Ddria. (Map No. I.) 

au The flrat aaerad war waa carried on agalnat the fnhabitania of the town of Cria' aa, on the 
northern ahore of the Corinthian Guli; In the time of Solon. The Criaeeana were charged witk 
•skxtioA and Tioleooe towmrda the atnmgera who paaaed through their territory on their way 
t» Hm Delphle aaaetiuuy. *<Oria'aa waa raaed to ttie ground, ita harbor choked up, tfnd tta 
fhdiftil plain tamed faito a wiklemeaC*— rktnaeU, i. 15S. 


42. The ThelMDS, L6oriaDS,* TheasiliaaB, and newly all ihe Stotea 
of Northern Greece, leagued against the Ph6cian8, while Athens 
and Sparta declared in their &Tor, bat gave ikcm little aotiye as* 
sistance. At first the Thebans, confident in their strength, * pat 
their prisoners to death, as abettors of sacrilege; bat Philomelas 
retaliated so sererely npon some Thebans who had fallen into his 
power, ad* to prevent a repetition of the crime. After the war had 
continued five years, a new power was brooght forward on the 
theatre of Grecian history, in the person of Philip, who had recently 
established himself on the throne of Mac' edon, and whom some of 
the Thessilian allies of Thebes applied to for aid against the Ph6- 
cians. The interference of Philip forms an important epoch in 
Grecian afiiairs, at which we interrapt oar narrative to trace the 
growth of the Maced6nian monarchy down to the time when its 
history became united with that of its southern nei^bors. 



360 TO 146 B. a = 214 tbabs. 

ANALYSIS. L GeognpUcal vsoomA of lfacod6nia.— S. Earl j hMory of Maeedinia. Gr»- 
elan nilera. Philip or mac' bdom.— ^ Philip^s residenoe at Thebea.— 4. HIa uauipatloii of Um 
kingdom of Mac' edon. Ula wan with the lUyr' lana and other tribes. His flrat efforts against 
the Ph6claiis.— <5. Philip redaces Ph^cia. Decree of the Amphictyon' ic council against Ph6ela. 
GrowinglnflaenoeofPhilip.— 6. The ambitions projects of Philip, [lllyr'ia. Epirus. Acar* 
ntoia.]— 7. Kuptore between Philip and the Athenians. [Cherson^sus.] Devotion of the 
orator ifis' chines to Philip. [Amphis'sa.] PhUi'p throws off the mask. [Elat«ia.]— 8. Thebes 
and Athens prepare to oppose him. Dissensions.— 9. The masterly policy of Philip. Hie ooi* 
fbderaey against him dissolved by the battle of Charonia. [Chaeronia.]— iOi Philip's treaiment 
of the Thebans and the Athenians. General congress of the Grecian States, and death of 

11. ALKZAKDia soeoeeds Philip. He qnells the revolt against him. ' His cruel treatment of 
the Thebans.— 12. Servility of Athens. Preparations of Alexander for his career of Eastern 
conqnest— 13. Results of his first campaign. [Oran' icofl. Halicarnas' sus.}— 14. j^e resumes 
his march In the spring of 333. Defeats Darius at Is* sas. [Cappaddcta. CillC la. Is' sua.} 
Besults of the battle. Eflbct of Alexander's kindness— 15. Reduction of Palestine. [Gaza.] 
Expedition into Egypt. [Alexandria.] Alexander returns and crosses the Euphrates in search 
of Darius.— 16. The opposing forces at Che battle of Arb^la. [Arb^la. India.]— 17. Results of 
the battle, and death of Darius.— 18. Alexander's residence at Babylon. His march beyond 

1. The LSeriaiu proper inhabited a small territory on the northern ahore of the GorintMan 
Gulff west of Ph6cis. There were other L6crian tribes northhoast of Ph6cia, whose tenitoiy 
pordered on the Eubca' an Gulf. (Map No. L) 


CHxphftiia B.>-10. RI» ratam to Persia. [PeraUai Gulf G«dr6sls.]- His meas. 
ures for conaoUdatiog his empire.— SO. His sickness and death.— 21. His character.— SS. As 
Judged ef by his actions. The resalts of his conquests. [Seteuda.}— S3. Contentions that followed 
hbdeatb^— 94. GTectancaofederaer against Maoed6nian supremacy. Sparta and Thebes. Atheoa 
Is finally oorapeUed to yield to Antip' ater.— SS. Gassan' der^s osurpatlon. Views and conquests 
of Antig* onus. Final dissolution of the Macedonian em)>tre. [Ip' sus. Phryg' la.] 

SS. Hie Ibar kjngdoms that arose on the ntlna of the empire. Those of flgypt and Syria the 
■KMk powerful.— S7. The empire of Ga«aan' der. Usurpation of Demetrius. Character of hla 
government. The war carried on against him.— 28. Unsettled state of Mac' edon, Greece, and 
WeHem Asia.— 29. CUtie Invasion of Mac' edon. [Adriat'lc. Panubnla.]— 30. Second Celtic 
IftTaaioa. The Celts are repelled by the Ph6Glans. Death of Brennua, their chief,- 31. Antig*- 
onus, son of Demetrius, recovers the throne of his father. Is invaded by P>-r' rhus, king of 
Epima.— 32. Pyr* rhas marches Into Southern Greece. Is repulsed by the Spartans. He enters 
Ar gosL Hla death^-33. Remarks on the death of Pyr* rhus. Ambitloua views of Antig' onus 

34. Thc AcHJE'Ajf Lkaocb. Ar&tus seizes Sicyon, which Joins the league.— 35. Ar&tus 
rescues Corinth, which at lint Joins the league. Conduct of Athens and Sparta.^^. Antig*- 
omis IL— 37^ League of the JBtdllans, who invade the MessAnians. [^t6Ua.] Defeat of Ar4- 
toB. General war between the respective members of the two leagues.— 38. Results of this 
war. The war between the Romans and Carthaginians. Policy of Philip fl. of Mac' edon.— 
SBl He enters Into an alliance with the Carthaginians. His deftet at Apolldnia. [ApoUOnla.] 
— IOl He causes the death of Ar&tos. Roman intrigues in Greeoe.-<41. Overthrow of Philip's 
power. The Romans promise independence to Greece.— 42. Remarks on the sincerity of the 
piooriaa. TVeatment of the iEtdliaaa. ExtlnetioQ of the Maoed6iilan monarchy. [Pyd' na.] 
—13. Ui^Jaat treatment of the Achte' ans. > Roman ambassadors Insulted.— 44. The Achss' an 
war, and reducUon of Greece to a Roman province. Remarks of Thirwall. — 45. Henceforward 
GvseiBnUsloiy Is absorbed In that of Rome. Condition of Greece shioe the Persian wars. In 

OoTKMvoKAKT HistokYv— 1* CotempOTsry aoualsof othoT wOlons:— PBTBian^— EgyptlaiM.— 
RxrroaT-or thb Jbwb.— 2l Rebuilding of the second temple of Jerusalem. The Jews during 
the reigns of Xerxes and Aitaxerxos. Nehemiah's administration.— 3. Judea a part of the saf 
lapy of Syria. Judea after the division of Alexander's empire. Judea Invaded by Ptolemy 
8iMery-4. Judea subject to Ilgypt. Ptolemy-PfaUadelpbus. The Jews place themselves under 
Ibe rule of Syria.- 5. Civil war among the Jews. Antiochus plunders Jerusalem. Attempts to 
astaUlsh the Grecian polythel8mv-«w Revolt of the Mac' cabees.— 7. ConUnuation of the war 
with ^ria. [Bethdron.] Death of Judas Maccabeus.— 8. The Syrtan^Jbeeome masters of the 
country. Prosperity of the Jews under Simon Maccabeus.- 9. The remaining history of the 

la GmnciAR CoLomaa. Those of Thrace, Mao' edon, and Asia Minor. Of Italy, Sicily, and 
Cyren&lca. 11. Maora Grjecia. Early settlements in western Italy and in Sicily. [CdnuB. 
Neep'olts. Nax'os. G^la. Messina. Agrigen' turn.]- 12. On the south-eastern coast of 
Baly. Hialory of Syb arts, Crot6na, and T^uen' turn. [Desori ption of the same.]— 13. First twa 
eeoturiea of Sicilian histoiy. [Him' era.] G^la and Agrigen' turn. The despot G^lo.- 14. Grow- 
ing power of Syracuse under his authority.— 15. The Carthaginians In Sicily— defeated by G6Io. 
[Vteor* viQa.}-^6. Hiero and Thrasybalns. [.fitna.] Revolution Aid change of goveramenk-^ 
17. Civil commotions and renewed prosperity. [Kamarina.]— 18. Syracuse and Agrigen' turn at 
fhe time of the breaking out of the PeloponnAslan war. The lon'lc and D6rian cities of Sidly 
daring the struggle. Sicilian oongress.--lQ. Ouairel between the dtiea of Belinua and Egea' ta. 
[Deaeription of the same.] llie Athenian expedition to Sicily. [Cat' ana.]— SO. Events up to 
tiie beginning of the siege of Syracuse.— 21. Death of Lam' achus, and arrival of Gylip' pus, the 
8paf«an^--«2. Both parties reinforced— various battlea— total defeat of the Atbenlans^83. Car- 
Oaghiian encroachments in Sicily— resisted by DIoays' iua the Elder. Division between the 
Greek and Carthaginian territories. [Him' era.]- 24. The administration of TimOleon. Of 
Agath'oclea. The Itomans become masters of Sicily. 

SS. CvaaHA' ica.— Colonised by Lacedcemdnians. Qyr«ne Its chief city. Its ascendancy ovet 
tha Libyan tribes. War with the Egyptians.— 26. Tyranny of Ageeilkua— founding of Bar' ca 
-4ie war which followed. AgesU&ua. Civil diesensiona. Camby' see.- 27. Sabseqaent hl»> 
tgqrofCyr^neaiidBar'ca. Diringolflhad Qfrtaeans. G^naaaa BDentioBed ta BIbto hManr. 

04 ANcnara histobt. [Pjwl 

1. Mic'EDON, or Macedonia, whose boondariea varied greatly at 
different times, had its south-eastern borders on the JE' geaa Sea, 
while further north it was bounded by the rirer Stry' mon, whidi 
separated it from Thrkce, and on the south by Thes' saly and Epi- 
nis. On the west Maoed6nia embraced, at times, many of the II- 
lyrian tribes which bordered on the Adriatic. On the north the 
natural boundary was the mountain chain of Has' mus. The prin- 
cipal river of Maced6nia was the Axius (now the Yardar), which feU 
into the Thermiic Gulf, now called the Gulf of Salon' iki 

2. The history of Macedonia down to the time of Philip, the 
father of Alexander the Great, is involved in great obscurity. Tha 
early Maceddnians appear to have been an Illyr' ian tribe, dilu- 
ent in race and language from the Hellenes or Greeks : but Herod'- 
otus states that the Macedonian monarchy was founded by Greeks 
from Ar'gos; and according to Greek writers, twelve or fifttoo 

% FHTLip OP Grecian princes reigned there before the aooession of 
mao'kdor. Philip, who took charge of the government about th* 
year 360 B. 0., not as monarch, but as guardian of the in&nt son 
of his elder brother. 

3. Philip had previously passed several years at Thebes, as a 
hostage, where he eagerly .availed himself of the excellent oppor- 
tunities which that city afforded for the acquisition of various kinda 
of knowledge. He successfully cultivated the study of the- Greek 
language; and in the conversation of such generals and statesmen 
as Epaminon' das, Pelop' idas, and their friends, became aoquamted 
with the details of the military tactics of the Greeks, and learned 
the nature and working of theii* democratical institutions. Thus, 
with the superior mental and physical endowments which nature had 
given him, he became eminently fitted for the part which he after- 
wards bore in the intricate game of Grecian politics. 

4. After Philip had successfully defended, the throne of Mac' edon 
during several years, in behalf of his nephew, his military successes 
enabled him to take upon himself the kingly title, probably with the 
unanimous consent of both the army and the nation. He annexed 
several Thracian towns to his dominioQS, reduced the IUjt^ ians and 
other nations on his northern and western borders, and was at times 
an ally, and at others an enemy, of Athens. At length, during the 
sacred war against the Ph6cians, the invitation which he received 
from the Thessdlian allies of Thebes, as already noticed, afforded 
him a pretence, which he had long eoveted, for a more active inter- 


ferenee m the a&irs of Ms southern neighbors. On entering Thes'- 
Balj, boweyer, on his southern march, he was at first repulsed by the 
Ph^dans and their allies, and obliged to retire into Maced6nia, but, 
soon returning at the head of a more numerous army, he d^eated 
the enemy in a decisiye battle, and would have marched upon Ph6ois 
at once to terminate the war, but he found the pass of Thermop' yl» 
strongly guarded by the Athenians, and thought it prudent to with- 
draw his forces. 

5. StiU the sacred war lingered, although the Phocians desired 
peace; but the revengefdl spirit of the Thebans was not allayed; 
Philip was again urged to crush the profaners of the nationsd re- 
ligion, and having succeeded, in spite of the warnings of the patriotic 
Demosthenes, in lulling the suspicions of the Athenians with pro- 
posals of an adyantageous peace, he marched into Ph6cis, and com- 
pelled the enemy to surrender at discretion. The Amphictyon' ic 
eooncfl, being now reinstated in its ancient authority, with the power 
of Philip to enforce its decrees, doomed Ph6ciB to lose her inde- 
pendence forever, to haye her cities leyelled with the ground, and 
her population, after being distributed in villages of not more than 
Mtj dwellings, to pay a yearly tribute of sixty talents to the temple, 
until the whole amount of the plundered treasure should be restored. 
Finally, tiie two yotea which the Ph6cians had possessed in the 
Amphictyon' ic eoxmcil were transferred to the king of Mao' edon 
aad his successors. The iafiuence which Philip thus obtained in 
tibe counoils of the Qrecians paved the way for the oyerthrow of 
their liberUes. 

6. From an early period of his career Philip had aspired to the 
soTcreignty of all Greece, as a secondary object that should prepare 
the way for the conquest of Persia, the great aim and end of all his 
ambitious projects ; and after the close of the sacred war he accord- 
ingly exerted himself to extend his power and infioence, either by 
arms or negotiation, on every side of his dominions ; but his in- 
trigues in At' tica, and among the Peloponn^sian States, were for a 
time counteracted by the glowing and patriotic eloquence of the 
Athenian Demosthenes, the greatest of Grecian orators. In his 
military operations Philip ravaged Illyr'ia* — ^reduced Thes'saly 
move nearly to a Macedbnian province — conquered a part of th» 

L The teqn lUffr' ia^ or Illyr' icmn was applied to the country bordering on the eastern ahore 
of the Adriatic, and extending from the northern ertremity of the Gulf aoath to the bonlttt 
oCKphrv. (jirapMo.VIlL) 


Thracian territory— extended his power into EpimB and AotmAnia' 
— and would have gained a footing in £' lis and Aoh4^ on the 
western coast of the Peloponnesus, had it not been for the watchful 
jealousy of Athens, which oonoerted a league among several of the 
States to repel his encroachments. 

7. The first open rupture with the Athenians occurred while 
Philip was engaged in subduing the Grecian cities on the Thracian 
coast of the Hel' lespont, in what was called the Thracian Cher8on6» 
BUS.* A little later, the Amphictyon' ic council, through the influ- 
ence of ^s' chines, an orator second only to Demosthenes, but 
secretly devoted to the interests of the king of M^' edon, appointed 
Philip to conduct a war against Amphis' sa,* a L6crian town, which 
had been convicted of a sacrilege similar to that of the Ph6cians. 
It was now that Philip, hastily passing through Thrace at the head 
of a powerful army, first threw off the mask, and revealed his de- 
signs against the liberties of Greece by seizing and fortifying 
Elat^ia* the capital of Ph6cis, which was conveniently situated for 
commanding the entrance into B<»6tia. 

8. The Thebans and the Athenians, suddenly awaking from their 
dream of security, from which all the eloquent appeals of Demosthe- 
nes had not hitherto been able to arouse them, prepared to defend 
their territories from invasion ; but most of the Peloponnesian States 
kept aloof through indifference, rather than through fear. Even in 
Thebes and Athens there were parties whom the gold and persua- 
siods of PhOip had converted into allies; and when the armies 
marched forth to battle, dissensions pervaded their ranks. The 
spirit of Grecian liberty had already been extinguished. 

9. The masterly policy of Philip still led him to declare that the 
sacred war against Amphis' sa, with the conduct of whioh he had 

1. JiemrnAnia^ lytqg aoiith of EpfitM, also bordored on tho AdrUttc, or Itelan Ma. Fmrn 
JEt6Ua on the east it was separated by the AcheloUs, probably the largest river In Greece. 
Hie AcamAniana were almost constantly at war with the ^BtAHans, and were tu behind the 
vest of the Greeks in mental coltnre. (JMqiNo.L) 

iiL The TTkraeian Chersonitiu (** Thracian peninsula") waa a peninsula of Tbrace, between 
the Mellan Gulf (now Gulf of S&ros) and the HeV lespont. The fertility of its soil early attracted 
the Grecians to ita sborea, whSeh soon became oowded with flooilahlnt and popnlar eitfeai 

3. Av^hu'ta^ the chief town of Lderis, was about seren miles west fhnn Ddphl, near tho 
head of ttfe Oriaean Gulf, now Gulf of flalOna, a brsneh of the Corinthian Gum xTha modem 
town of SalOna represents the ancient Amphls' sa. (Map No. I.) 

4. ElaUiu, a dty in tlie nortb-eaat of Pb6cis, on the left bank of the Oephis'aos, was about 
twenty-five miles north-east firom DelphL Ita ruins are to be seen on a site oalled FJtpkU, 

' (Map No. I.) 


been intruBied by the Amphictyon' ic eouncil, was his only objeot; 
and lie had a plausible excuse for enteriug BoeoCia when the* The- 
baas and Athenians appeared as the allies of a city devoted by the 
gods to destruction. At Chaeronea* the hostile armies met, nearly 
equal in number; but there was no Per' icles, nor Epaminou' das, to 
match the warlike abilities of Philip and the young prince Alex- 
ander, the latter of whom commanded- ar wing bf the Macedonian 
army. The day was decided against the Grecians, although their 
loss in battle was not large ; but the event broke up the feeble con* 
fiederacy against Philip, and left each of the allied States at his 

10. While Philip treated the Thebans with some severity, and 
obliged them to ransom their prisoners, and resign a portion of 
their territory, he exercised a degree of lenity towards the Athen- 
iaoB which excited general surprise — offering them terms of ^eace 
which they themselves would scarcely have ventured to propose to 
him. He next assembled a congress of all the Grecian States, at 
Corinth, for the purpose of settling the affairs of^Greece. Here all 
his proposals were adopted, war was declared against Persia, and 
Philip was appointed commander-in-chief of the Grecian forces ; but 
irhile he was making preparations for his great enterprise he was 
AMassinated on a public occasion by a Maced6nian nobleman, in re- 
T«Dge for some private wrong. 

11. Alexander, the son of Philip, then at the age of twenty years, 
saooeeded his father on the throne of Mao' edon. At once the lUyr'- 
ims, Thraoians, and other northern tribes that had been 

made tributary by Philip, took up arms to recover their dbb the 
independence; but Alexander quelled the spirit of re- orbat. 
ToU in a single campaign. During his absence on this expedition, the 
Grecian States, headed by the Thebans and Athenians, made prepara- 
tions to shake off the yoke of Mac' edon ; but Alexander, whose maiehes 
were unparalleled for their rapidity, suddenly appeared in their midst 
Thebes, the first object of his vengeance, was taken by assault, in 
which six thousand of her warriors were slain. Ever distinguished 
by her merciless treatment of her conquered enemies, she was now 

% lb* plain of ChmroHiOj on which the battle wai fought, is on the southern bank of the 
Oe]>his' ans riverain BoeOtUs a few miles from its entrance into the Cop&ic lake. In the J9U 
4C7 B. C. the Aibemaos had been defeated on the same spot by the Bcsutians ; and in the 
jmt S6 B. C. the same place witnessed a bloody ffiflignment between the Boraaas, uaOif 
%0a»aBdaietroopeofMithrkl4tei. (JUvNo^L) 



doomed to safier the extreme penalties of war whioli she had often 
inflicfed on othera Most of the oiiy was levelled with the ground, 
and thirty thousand prisoners, besides women and children, were oon** 
demned to slayer j. 

12. The other Grecian States which had provoked the resentment 
of Alexander, hastily renewed their submission ; and Athens, with 
servile homage, sent an embassy to congratulate the youthful hero on 
his recent successes. Alexander accepted the excuses of all, renewed 
the confederacy which his father had formed, and havUtg intrusted 
the government of Greece and Mac'edon to. Antip'ater, one of his 
generals, set out on his career of eastern conquest, at the head of an 
army of only thirty-five thousand men, and taking with him a treasury 
of only seventy talents of silver. He had even distributed nearly all 
the remaining property of his crown among his friends ; and when he 
was asked by Perdic' cas what he had reserved for himself, he an- 
swered, " My hopes." 

13. Early in the spring of the year 334, Alexander crossed the 
Hel' le^nt, and a*few days later defeated an immense Persian army 
on the eastern bank of the Gran' icus,' with the loss on his part of 
only eighty-five horsemen and thirty light infantry. Proceeding 
thence south towards the coast, the gates of Sardis and Eph' esus 
were thrown open to him ; and although at Miletus and Halicar- 
nas' sus' he met with some resistance, yet before the close of the 
first campMgn he was undisputed master of all Asia Minor. 

14. Early in the following spring (B. C. 333), he directed hia 
march farther eastward, through Oappad6cia* and Gilic' ia,* and »on 
the coast of the latter, near the small town of Is' sua,* again met 

1. Tlie Cfran' ieusy thd nme as the Turkish DeinoUko, ia a a araall strefun of Mjrs' la, in Asia 
Minor, which flowa from Mount I'da, eaai of Troj^ northward faito the Propon'tia, or Sen of 
Marm6rB. (^opNo. IV.) 

Sl Halieamiu' su*, the principal ^ity of C&ria, was situated on the northern shore of the 
Oef arate Onli; now Gulf of Koa, one hnndred milea aonth from SmTma. HaUoaraaa* sua was 
fihe blrlhrplaoo of Herod' otus the biatorlaa, of Dionya' tus the historian and critic, and of Hentr 
ditus the poeL It was Artemis' la, queen of Cfcrla, who erected the splendid mausoleum, or 
tomb, to her hvaband, Maosfrlos. The Turkish town of Bo^drotm, is on the site of the ancient 
Baficarnas' sua. Near the modem town are to be seen old walls, exquisite sculptures, frag^ 
ments of oolumns, and the remains of a theatre two hundred and eighty feet in diameter, 
which seems to hare had OilKy-six rows of marble seats. {Map No. lY.) 

3. CappadUia was an inWor province of Asia Minor, south-east of Galfctia. {Mop No. IV.) 

4. Cilie' ia was south of 0appad6ci8, on the coast of the Meditemnean. {Map No. IV.) 

5. /«' tu$ (now Aiasse, or Urzln) was a sea-port town of OUlc' la, at the north-eastern ft- 
tremlty of the Mediterranean, and at tbe head of the Gulf of Is' sua. The plain between the 
aea and the mountains, where the battle waa fought, was less than two miles in width,— a BQf> 
Ment space for the CTolutioos of Ihe Mae' edonlan phalanx, but not laiga anough for the maa- 
mnms of io great an army as that of Darius. {MnpTH^lV,} 

Cair. IV.] GRECIAJ^' HISTORY. ^ 99 

tlie Persian army, numbering seven hundred thousand men, and 
eommanded by Darius himself, king of Persia. In the battle which 
followed, Alexander, as usual, led on his army in person, and. fought 
in the thickest of the fight. The result was a total rout ofv the Per- 
sians, with a loss of more than a hundred thousand men, while that 
of the Oreeks and Maced6nians was les» than &ye hundred. The 
Persian monarch fled in the beginning of the engagement, leaving 
his mother, wife, daughters, and an infant son, to the mercy of the 
victor, who treated them with the greatest kindness and respect 
When, afterwards, Darius heard, at the same time, of the generous 
treatment of his wife, who was accounted the most beautiful woman 
in Asia, — of her death from sudden illness, and of the magnificent 
burial which she had received from the conqueror, — ^he lifted up his 
hands to heaven and prayed, that if his kingdom were to pass from 
himself, it might be transferred to Alexander. 

15. The conqueror next directed his march southward through 
northern Syria and Palestine. At Damascus a vast amoimt of 
treasure belonging to the king of Persia fell into his hands : the 
eity of Tyre, after a vigorous siege of seven months, and a desperate 
resistance, was taken by storm, and thirty thousand of the Tyrians 
sold as slaves. (B. 0. 332.) After the fall of Tyre, all the cities 
of Palestine submitted, except Gaza,' which made as obstinate a de- 
fence as Tyre, and was as severely punished. Prom Palestine Alex- 
ander proceeded into Egypt, which was eager to throw off the Per- 
sian tyranny, and he took especial care to conciliate the priests by 
the honors which he paid to the Egyptian gods. After having 
founded a new city, which he named Alexandria,^ and crossed the 

1. OazA, an early Pbillstine city of groat natural strength in tlie sonth-westem part of Palestine, 
vas dxteen miles aoath of Ascalon, and but a short distance trom the Mediterranean. The 
ptaoe was called Oonstaotia by the Romans, and Is now called Raesa by the Arabs. (Map No. \t) 

S. Alexandria la about fourteen miles south-west Trom the Canopic, or most western branch 
of the Nile, and Is bnilt partly on the xiidge of land between the sea and the bed of the old 
Lake Mare^tia, and partly on the peninsula (formerly island) of PbAros, which projects into 
the Mediterranean. Alexandria, the site of which was most admirably chosen by its founder, 
la the only port on ttie Egyptian coast that has deep water, and that is accessible at all tea- 
aooa. Lake Maredtls, which for many ages after the Greek and Roman dominion in Egypt 
waa tnoetly diiednp, and whose bed was lower than the surface of the Mediterranean, had no 
outlet to the sea until the English,' in the year 1801, opened a passage into it from the Bay 
' or Abookir, wh«n It soon resumed its ancient extent The ancient canal trom Alexandria to the 
mie, a distance of forty-aight miles, was reopened in 1819. While the commerce of the Indiev 
waa carried on by way of the Red Sea and the IsUimus of Suez, Alexandria was a great com- 
mercial amportani; but it rapidly declined aHer the discorery of the passage to India by way 
of the Ospe of Good Hope. It is probable that the commerce of the east, through the agency 
oTflleaiD, will again flow, to a great extent, in the ancient channel, and that Alexandria wlU 
agaio baoome a 9r«at oommerdai emporium. (Map No. V.) 

100 ANCH&RT HIST0B7. {FmbX 

Libyan desert to consult the oraole of Ji\piter Am' mon, he returned 
to Palestine, when, learning that Darfos was making rait propane 
tions to oppose him, he crossed the Enphrates, and directed his 
march into the Tery heart of the Persian empire, declaring that *' the 
world could no more admit two masters than two sons." 

16. On a beautiful plain twenty miles distant from the town of 
Arb61a,' whence the battle derives its name, the Persian mo^ardi, 
surrounded by all the pomp and luxury of Eastern magniftoenoe, had 
collected the remaining strength of his empir^^ consisting of an ' 
army, as stated by some authors, of more than a million of foot 
soldiers, and forty thousand cavalry, besides two hundred soythed 
chariots, and fifteen elephants brought from the west of India.' To 
oppose this force Alexander had only forty thousand foot soldiers, 
and seven thousand cavalry, but they were well armed and discip- 
lined, confident of victory, aud led by an able general who had never 
experienced- a defeat, and who directed the operations of the battle 
in person. (6. G. 331.) 

17. Darius sustained the conflict with better judgment and mora 
courage than at Is' bus, but the oool intrepidity of the Macedonian 
phalanx was irresistible, and the field of battle soon became a scene 
of slaughter, in which, some say, forty thousand, and others, three 
hundred thousand of the barbarians were slain, while the loss of 
Alexander did not exceed five hundred men. Although Dasius es- 
caped with a portion of his bodyguard, yet the result of the battle 
decided the contest, and gave to Alexander the dominion of the Per- 
sian empire. Not long after, Darius himself was slain by one of 
his own officers. 

18. Soon after the battle of Arbela, Alexander proceeded to 
Babylon, and during four years remained in the heart of Persia, re 
Aucing to subjection the chiefs who still struggled for independenoe, 
and regulating the government of the conquered provinces. Am- 
bitious of farther conquests, he passed the Indus, and invaded the 
country of the Indian king P6ru8, whoiik he defeated in a sanguinary 
engagement, and took prisoner. When brought into the presence 
of Alexander, and asked how he would be treated, he replied, " Like 
a king ;" and so pleased was the conqueror with the lofty demeanor 

1. ^rMa wu ftbont fortjr mllM Mst of tlie TIgrti, awl tworty mOm MOflKeMl from tli» 
pUin of 6wgam61a, where Oie teitto was. fought GmugamAIa, a ■mall hamlet, wae a ihoit 
diatanoe soatb-oaat from the tfte of Nineveh 

&Thetann/»iMiwaaappitodh7th»aaelwt«eognplMntoancfaMlvaMar Ailtowhtahli « 
«« or the river iBdM. (JWvNaV.) 


of the oapdre, and witb ibe ralor iriiioh he hed shown m batflo, that 
he not onlj re-instated him in his royal dignity, bnt conferred upon 
him a large addition of territory. Alexander continued his march 
eaatwsrd until he reached the Hyphiaisy' the most eastern tributary 
of the Indus, when his troops, seeing no end of their toils, refused 
to follow him farther, and he was reluctantly forced to abandon the 
career of conquest which he had marked out for himself to the 
eastern ocean. 

19. Besolving to return into Central Asia by a new route, he de- 
■ooided the Indus to the sea, whence, after sending a fleet with a 
portion of his forces around through the Persian Gulf' to the Eu« 
phrites, he marched with the rest of his army through the barren 
wastes of Gedr6sia,' and after^nuch suffering and considerable loss, 
arrived once more in the fertile provinces of Persia. For some time 
alter his return his attention was engrossed with plans for organizing, 
on a permanent basis, the government of tiie mighty empire which 
be had won. Aiming to unite the conquerors and the conqueredi 
00 as to form out of both a nation independent alike of Maced6nian 
and of Persian prejudices, he married Statira, the oldest daughter of 
Darius, and united his principal officers with Persian and Median 
women of the noblest &milies, while ten thousand of his soldiers 
were induced to follow the example of their superidrs. 

20. Bu€ while he was occupied with these cares, and with dreams 
of future conquests, his career was suddenly terminated by death. 

^ On settmg out to visit Bjibylon, soon after the decease of an inti- 
mate Mend, which had caused a great depression of his spirits, he 
was warned by the magicians that Babylon would be fiital to him ; 
but he proceeded to the city, where, haunted by gloomy forebodings 
■End superstitious fancies, he endeavored to dispel his melancholy by 
indulging more freely in the pleasures of the table. Excessive drink 
ing at length brou^t to a crisis a fever, which he had probably con 

1. Tb* MfpkdMiM, Bov adled SapaA, or Dm#, to tho miMi e«st«ra tributary of the Indoi 
no Swgedge, which enters the Beyah (torn the eaet, baa been mtotaken by 10100 writen for tk } 
aaeleAyphUto. (JtapTXcY.) 

9L Tbe Penian Ov^to an ezteoslte arm of the Indian oomb, feperatlBg Sonthem Perti* 
ttcm Arabia. Daring a long period It waa the thoroughflure for tlte commerBe between tko 
vejrtera world and India. Tbe navigation of the OuU; eapeeialty along the Arabian oo«M, a 
tediona and dlOccdt, owii« to ita irameroaa lalanda and reefe. Tbe Bahrein lalanda, near t ^ 
Arabian ahore, are celebrated for their pearl flahcriea, which yield peoiia of tbe talue of more 
Chan a million doltors annually. (Map No. V.) 

a. 0«dr<*M,corrMpondlngtothemodernPiBntonproTfaieeof Jtfaran,toaMndyandbBrf«ni 
ngioiHe]rtendii« along the ibora of thalndtoaOoean ttom the rtTer Indna to the moutftof 
" - ' iQolC (Jir^NaV.) 


tracted in the manhes of Assyria, and iduoh Baddenlj termiaatod hiB 
life in the thirtj-thir'd year of hia age, and the thirteenth of his 
reign. (B. C. May, 324.) 

21. The character of Alexander has afforded matter for much diseoa- 
sion, and is, to this day, a subject of dispute. At times he waa 
guilty of remorseless and unnecessary cruelty to the vanquished, and 
in a fit of passion he slew the friend who had saved his life; but on 
other occasions he was distinguished by an excess of lenity, and bj 

. the most noble generosity and benevolence. His actions and char- 
acter were indeed of a mixed nature, which is the. reason that some 
have regarded him as litUe more than a heroic madman, while others 
give him the honor of vast and enlightened views of policy, which 
aimed at founding, among nations hitherto barbarous, a solid and 
flourishing empire. 

22. If we are to judge by his actions, however, rather than by his 
supposed moral motives, he was, in reality, one of the greatest of 
men ; great, not only in the vast compass and persevering ardor of 
his ambition, which '' wept for more worlds to conquer," but great in 
the objects and aims which ennobled it, and great because his adven- 
turous spirit and personal daring never led him into deeds of rash- 
ness; for his boldest military undertakings were ever guided by 
sagacity and prudence. The conquests of Alexander were highly 
beneficial in their results to the conquered people ; for his was the 
first of the great monarchies founded in Asia that contained any ele- 
ment of moral and intellectual progress — ^that opened a prospect of ■ 
advancing improvement, and not of continual degradation, to its* 
subjects. To the commercial world it opened new countries, and 
new channels of trade, and gave a salutary stimulus to industry and 
mercantile activity : nor were these benefits lost when the empire 
founded by Alexander broke in pieces in the hands of his successors; 
for the passages which he opened, by sea and t)y land, between the 
Euphrates and the Indus, had become the highways of the commerce 
of the Indies; Babylon remained a famous port until its rival, Seleu'- 
cia,^ arose into eminence ; and Alexandria long continued to rAeive 
and pour out an inexhaustible tide of wealth. 

1. Seleu' eta, bi^lt by Selen' cos, one of Alexander's generalai was sitoated on the western 
bank of the Tigris, about tortj-fLve miles north of Babylon. Selea'cus designed It a^a (tee 
Grecian city ; and many ages after the flUl of the Maoed6ntan empire, it retained the charao- 
torlsUcs of a Grecian colony,— arts, military virtue, and the lore of fl-eedom. When at the 
taeight of its prosperity It contained a population of six hundred thousand dtteens, goTeroed bgr 
A lenate of tUree hundred nobles. 


23. The sodden death of Alexander left the goyemment in a very 
unsettled condition. As he had appointed no siieoessor, sevelral of his 
generals contended for the throne, or for ihe regency during the^ 
minority of his sons : and hence arose a series of intrigues, and 
bloody wars, which, in the course of twenty-three years, caused the 
destmction of the entire family of Alexander, and ended in the dis- 
solution of the Miaced6nian empire. 

24. When intelligence of the death of Alexander reached Greece^ 
Uie country was ah*eady on the eye of a revolution against Antip'- 
ater ; and Demosthenes, still the foremost advocate of liberty, now 
found little difficulty in uniting several of the States with Athens in 
a oonfisderacy against Maced6nian supremacy. Sparta, however, was 
too proud to act under her ancient rival, and Thebes no longer ex- 
isted. Antip' ater attempted to secure the straits of Thermop' yln 
against l^e confederates, but he was met by Leos' thenes, the Athe- 
nian general, and defeated. Eventually, however, Antip' ater, havmg 
received strong reinforcements from Mac' edon, attacked the confeder- 
ates, and completely annihilated their army. Athens was compelled 
to abolish her democratic form of government, to receive Maoed6nian 
garrisons m her fortresses, and to surrender a number of her most 
famous orators, including Demosthenes. The latter, to avoid falling 
into the hands of Antip' ater, terminated his life by poison. 

25. Antip' ater, at his death, left the government in the hands of 
Polysper' chon, as regent during the minority of a son of Alexander ; 
but Gassan' der, the son of.Antip' ater, soon after usurped the sover- 
eignty of Greece and Mac' edon, and, for the greater security of his 
power, caused all the surviving members of the family of Alexander 
to be put to dea^h. Antig' onus, another of Alexander's generals, 
had before this tim^ overrun Syria and Asia Minor, and his am- 
bitious views extended to the undivided sovereignty of all the coun- 
tries which had been ruled by Alexander. Four of the most powerful 
of the other generals, Ptol' emy, Seleu' cus, Lysim' achus, and Oas- 
san'der, formed a league against him, and fought with him the 
famous battle of Ip' sus,^ m Phryg' ia,* whioh ended in the defeat . 
and death of Antig' onus, the destruction of the power which he had 
raised, and the final dissolution of the Maced6nian empire, three 
hundred and one years before the Christian era. 

h J^'MUM wai a dt7 of Phiyg&Ja, dmot \h» ■oathflrn booodtfy of GaliUa, bat iti exact W 
edtty ia unknow-n. (AT^ No. IV.) 
a Pkrpg' ia waa tha central proviooe ^f weetern Asia Minor. {Mt^s Noi. IV. end V.) 


26. A new partition of the provinces was now made into fonr in- 
dependent kingdoms. Ptoremj was oonfirmed in the posaession of 

^gypt, together with Lib' ya, and part of the neighboring territories 
of Arabia ; Seleu' ens received the countries embraced in the east- 
em conquests of Alexander, and the whole region between the coast 
of Syria and the Euphrates ; but the whole of this vast empire soon 
dwindled into the Syrian monarchy : Lysim' aohus received the 
northern ^d western portions of Asia Minor, as an appendage to his, 
kingdom of Thrace ; while Cassan' der received the sovereignty of 
Greece and Mac' edon. Of these kmgdoms, the most powerful were 
Syria and £gypt ; the former of which continued under the dynasty 
of the Seleu' cidas, and the latter under that of the Plol' emies, until 
both were absorbed in the growing dominion of the Boman empire. 
Of the kingdom of Thrace under Lysim' achus, we shall have occa- 
sion to speak in its farther connection with Qreoian history. 

27. Cassan' der survived the establishment of his power only four 
years. After his death his two sons quarrelled for the succession, 
and called in the aid of foreigners to enforce their claims. Deme- 
trius, son of Antig'onus, having seized the opportunity of inter- 
ference m their disputes, cut off the brother who had mvited his aid, 
and made himself master of the throne of Mac' edon, which was en- 
joyed by his posterity, except during a brief interrupticm after his 
dealli, down to the time of the Boman conquest Demetrius possessed 
in addition to Mac' edon, Thes' saly. At' tioa, and B(B6tia, together 
with a great portion of the Peloponnesus; but his government was 
that of a pure military despotism, which depended on the army for 
support, wholly independent of the good will of the people. Aim- 
ing to recover his fetther's power in Asia, he excited tiie jealousy of 
Seleu' cus, king of Syria, who was able to induce Lysim' achus, of 
Thrace, and Pyr' rhus, king of Eplrus, to commence a war against 
him. The latter twice overran Macedonia, and even seized the 
throne, which he held during a few months, while Demetrius was 
driven from the kingdom by his own rebellious subjects ; but his son 
Antig' onus maintained himself in Peloponnesus, waiting a favorable 
opportunity of placing himself on the throne of bis father. 

28. During a number of years Mac' edon, Greece, and Western 
Asia, were harassed with the wars excited by the various aspirants 
to power. Lyisim' achus was Befeated and slain in a war with Se- 
leu' cus; and the latter, invading Thrace, was assassinated by 
Ptol' emy Cerau' nus, who then usurped the government of Thra ^ 


and Mac' edon. In this sitaati<m of a&irS) a stonn, unseen in the 
distance, bat which had long been gatibering, suddenly burst upon 
Mac' edon, threatening to convert, by its ravages, the whole Greciail 
peninsula into a scene of desolation. 

29. A vast horde of barbarians of the Celtic race had for some 
time been aeonmulating around the head waters of the Adriat' ic,^ 
making Pann6nia* the chief seat of their power. Influenced by 
hopes of plunder, rather than of conquest, they suddenly appeared 
on the frontiers of Mac' edon, and sent an embassy to Cerau' nus, 
offaring peace if he were willing to purchase it by tribute. A 
haiighty defiance from the Maceddnian served only to quicken the 
march of tibe invaders, who defeated and killed Cerau' nus in a great 
battle, and so completely routed his army that almost all were slam 
or taken. (B. C. 280.) The conquerors then overran all Mac' edon 
to the borders of Thes' saly, and a detachment made a devastating 
inroad into the rich vale of the Peneus. The walled towns alone, 
which the barbarians had neither the skill nor the patience to reduce 
by siege, held out until the storm had spent its fury, when the Celts, 
scattered over the ooxmtry in plundering parties, having met with 
0ome reverses, gradually withdrew from a country where there was 
little left to tempt their cupidity. 

30. In the followi^g year (279 B. C.) another band of Celts, esti- 
mated at two hundred thousand men, under the guidance of their 
principal Brenn or chief, called Bren' nus, overran Maced6nia with 
little resistance, and passing through Thessaly, threatened to extend 
ih^ ravages over southern Greece ; but the allied Qrecians, under 
the Athenian general, Cal'lipus, met them at Thermop' ylas, and at 
first r^ulsed them with considerable loss. Eventually, however, 
the secret path over the. mountains was betrayed to the Celts as it 
bad been to the Persian army of Xerxes, and the Grecians were 
ibroed to retreat A part of the barbarian army, under Bren' nus, 
then marched into Ph6cis, for the purpose of plundering Delphi; 
bat their atrocities roused against them the whole population, and 
they found their entire march, over roads mountainous and difficult, 

1. The Jliriat' ie or HadriMie (now most genenOIy called the Onif of reniU) it that large 
mm <tf the Meditamaeaa tea which Ilea between Italy and tite opposite shone of niyr'la, 
Eplraa» and Greece. The aouthem portion of the gulf Is now, as anciently, galled the I6nUn 
Ma. The Adriat' Ic deriyed Its name Arom the once flouriahing sea-port town of A' dria north 
or the river Po. The harbor of A' dria has long been filled np hj the mod and other depoaito 
brooght down bj the rlvera, and the town la npv nineteen miles inland. (Map No. VIII.) 

9L P««isMia, anerwards a Boman province, waa north of lUyr* ia, having the Daanbe tat Its 
wnteBB and eaataro boundary. {Map Ne. VIU Ic UL) 


beset with enemies boming for reTenge. The invaders also suffered 
greatly from the cold and storms in the defiles of the momitains. It 
was said that the gods fought for the- saored temple, and that an 
earthquake rent the rocks, and brought down huge masses on tiie 
heads of the assailants. Certain it is that the invaders, probably 
acted upon by superstitious terror, were repidsed and disheartened 
Bran' nus, who had been wounded before Delphi, is said to have killed 
himself in despair ; and only a remnant of the barbarians regained 
their original seats on the Adriat' io. • 

31. After the repulse of the Celts, Antig'onus, the son of Dem6- 
triu.s, was able to gain possession of the throne of Mac' edon, but he 
found a formidable competitor in Pyr' rhus, king of Epirus, who re- 
solved to add Mac' edon, and, if possible, the whole of Greece to his 
own dominion. Pyr' rhus had no sooner returned from his fiimous 
expedition into Italy, of which we shall have occasion to speak in 
Roman history,* than he seized a pretext for declaring war against 
Antig' onus, and invaded Macedonia with his small army, (274 B. C.) 
the remnant of the forces which he had led against Rome, but which 
he now strengthened with a body of Celtic mercenaries. When 
Antig' onus marched Against him, many of his troops, who had little 
affection or respect for their king, went over to Pyr' rhus, whose 
celebrated military prowess had won their admiration. 

32. Antig' onus then retired into Southern Ghreece, whither he 
was followed by Pyr' rhus, who professed that the object of his expe- 
dition was merely to restore the freedom of the cities which were held 
in subjection by his rival; but when he reached the borders of 
Lac6nia he laid aside the mask, and began to ravage the country, 
and made an unsuccessful attempt to surprise Sparta, which was lit- 
tle prepared for defence. He then marched to Ar' gos, whither he 
had been invited by one of the rival leaders of the people, but he 
found Antig' onus, at the head of a strong force, encamped on one 
of the neighboring heights. Pyr' rhus gained entrance into the city 
by night, through treachery, but at the same time the troops of Antig'- 
onus were admitted from an opposite quarter — the citizens arose in 
arms, and a fierce struggle was carried on in the streets until day- 
light, when Pyr' rhus himself wasislain (272 B. C.) by the hand of an 
Ar'give woman, who, exasperated at seeing him about to kill her son, 
hurled upon him a ponderous tile from the house-top. The greater 
part of the army of Pyr' rhus, chiefly composed of Maceddnians, 

A. Sm pig* 149. 


then went over to their former sovereign, who soon after gained the 
throne, of Mac' edon, which he held nntil his death. 

33. The death of Pyr' rhus forms an important epoch in Grecian 
history, as it pnt an end to the struggle for power among Alexander's 
saooessors in the West, and left the field clear for the final contest 
between the liberty of Greece and the power of Mac' edon, which 
was only terminated by the ruin ef both. When Antig'onus re- 
turned to MM edon, its acknowledged sovereign, he cherished the 
hope of ultimately reducing all Greece to his sway, little dreaming 
that the power centered in a recent league of a few Achae' an cities 
was destined to become a formidable adversary to his house. 

34. The Acha! an League comprised at first twelve towns of 
Achdia, which were aasociated together for mutual safety, forming a 
little federal republic — all the towns having an equality m, achjb'am^ 
of representation in the general government, to which i-eaque. 

all matters affecting the common welfare were intrusted, each town 
at the same time retaining the regulation of its own domestic policy. 
The Achae' an league did not biecome of sufficient political importance 
to attract the attention of Antig' onus until about twenty years after 
the death of Pyr' rhua, when Ardtus, an exile from Sic' yon, at the 
head of a small band of followers, surprised the city by night, and 
without any bloodshed delivered it from the dominion of the tyrants 
who, under Maced6nian protection, had long oppressed it with 
despotic sway. (251 B. C.) Fearful of the hostility of Antig'onus, 
Ardtus induced Sic' yon to join the Achse' an league, and although 
its power greatly exceeded that of any Achas' an town, it claimed no 
superiority of privilege over the other members of the confederacy, 
but obtained only one vote in the general council of the league ; a 
precedent which was afterwards strictly adhered to in the admission 
of other cities. Ardtus received the most distinguished honors from 
the Achae' ans, and, a few years after tlie accession of Sic' yon, was 
placed at the head of the armies of the confederacy. (B. 0. 246.) 

35. Corinth, the key to Greece, having been seized by a stratagem 
of Antig' onus, and its citadel occupied by a Maced6nian garrison, 
was rescued by a bold enterprise of Ardtus, and induced to join the 
league. (243 B. G.) Other cities successively gave in their adhe- 
rence, xmtil the confederacy embraced nearly the whole of Pelopon- 
ndsus. Although Athens did not unite with it, yet Ardtus obtained 
ihe withdrawal of its Macedonian garrison. Sparta opposed the 
league — ^induced Ar' gos and Corinth to withdraw from it— 4ind by 


her suceesaes over the Ach»' ans, eyentaally indaced them to eall ib 
the aid of the Maoed6nians, their former enemiea 

36. Antig' onus II., readily embracing the opportunity of restor- 
ing the influence of his family in Southern Greece, marched against 
the Laced83m6nians, oyer whom he obtained a deoisiye victory, 
which placed Sparta at his mercy. But he used his victory moder- 
ately, and granted the Spartsy;^s peace on liberal terms. On his 
death, which occurred soon after, he was Bucceede<J||pn the throne 
of Mao' edon by his nephew and adopted son, Philip II., a youth of 
Only seyenteen. 

37. The ^t61ians,^ the rudest of the Grecian tribes, who had 
acquired the character of a nation of freebooters and pirates, had 
at this time formed a league similar to the Ach»' an, and counting 
on the inexperience of the youthful Philip, and the weakness of>the 

^AchsD'ans, began a series of unprovoked aggressions on the sur- 
rounding States. The Mess^nians, whose territory they had invaded 
by way of the western coast of the Peloponnesus, called upon the 
AchsB' ans for assistance, but Aritas, going to their relief, was attack- 
ed unexpectedly, and defeated. Soon after, the youthful Philip was 
placed at the head of the Achso' ai) League, when a general war be- 
gan between the Maced6nians, Aclue'ans, and their confederates, 
on the one side, and the ^t61ian8, who were aided by the Spartans 
and E' leans, on" the other. 

38. The war continued four years, and was conducted with gre&t 
cruelty and obstinacy on both sides ; but Philip and the Achsd' ans 
were on the whole successful, and the ^t61ian8 and their allies be- 
came desirous of peace, while new and ambitious views more eagerly 
inclined Philip to put an end to the unprofitable contest At this 
time the Cartha^ians and Romans were contending for mastery 
in the second Punic war, and Philip began to view the struggle as 
one in which an alliance with one of the parties would be desirable, 
by opening to himself prospects of future conquest and glory. By 
siding with the Oarthaginians, who were the most distant party, and 
from whom he would have less to fear than from the ItoBU.n3, he 
hoped to be able eventually to insure to himself the sovereignty of 
all Greece, and to make additions to Maced6nia on the side of Italy. 
He therefore proposed terms of peace to the JSt61ians ; and a treaty 

1. JSUlim WM a oooatry of Northern Greaee, bounded on the north by Tbes' nly, on th* 
«ait by D6rla, Phteta, and L6cria, on the south by the Corinthian GulA and on the weal by 
Acamanla. It was In general a rongb and moimtainoni covntry, although lome of the valleya 
itNTtheirtetUlty. (JftyNcI.) 


was oonoluded at Naupao' tns, which left all the parties in the .war in 
the enjoyment of their respeotiye possessions. (217 B. 0.) 

39. After the great battle of Can' nse,^ which seemed to have ex- 
tingaished the last hopes of Rome, Philip sent enyojs to Hannibal, 
the Carthaginian general, and concluded with him a treaty of strict 
allianoa He next sailed with a small fleet np the Adriatic, and 
wliile besieging AppolI6nia,^ a town in Illyr' ia, was met and defeated 
by ^e Roman prsBtor, M. Valerius, who had been sent to snccor 
the Hlyr'ians. (215 B. G.) Philip was forced 'to bum his ships, 
and retreat over land to Maced6nia, leaying. his baggage, and the 
arms of many of his troops, in the enemy's hands. Such was the 
nnfortonate issue of his first encounter with the Roman soldiery. 

40. Soon after his return to Maced6nia, finding Ar&tna in the 
way of his projects against the liberties of Sonthem Greece, he' 
contrived to have the old general removed by slow poison ; — ^a crime 
which filled all Qreeoe with horror and indignation. In the mean- 
time, the Romans, while recovering ground in Italy, contrived to 
keep Philip busy at home, by inciting the ^t61ians to violate the 
recent treaty, and inducing Sparta and E' lis to join in a war against 
Mac'edon. Still Philip, supported for awhile by the AchsB'ans, 
under their renowned leader, Philopoe' men, maintained his ground, 
until, first, the Athenians, no longer able to protect their fallen for- 
tunes, solicited aid from the Romans; and Anally, the Achad'ans 
themselves, being divided into factions, accepted terms of peace. 

41. Philip continued to struggle against his increasing enemies, 
until, bdng defeated in a great battle with the JlomanSj^ he pur* 
ehaaed peace by the sacrifice of the greater part of his navy, the 
payment of a tcibnte, and the resignation of his supremacy over the 
Grecian Statea At the celebration of the Isth'mian games at 
Corinth the terms of the Roman senate were made known to the 
Grecians, who received, with the height of exultation, tiie proclama- 
tion that the independence of Greece was restored, under the au* 
spices of the Roman arms. (196 B. C.) 

42. Probably nothing was &rther from the intention of the Roman 
senate thim to allow the Grecian States to regain their ancient power 
and sovereignty, and it was sufficient to damp the joy of the more 

1. AfoU^U WM situated on the northern side of the rirer A6a» (now Vojutaa) near its 
month. Its ruins still retain the name of Pottinu Apo116nla was foanded by a colony from 
Ooiinlb tad Coicyra, and, aooording to Stnbo, was renowned ft>r the wisdom of iU laws. 

a.aMp.l«. h.Battto«rC3nieoephate,it7li.Q. ■Mp.JOl. 


ooDsidenite ^that the boon of freedom which Rome affected to bestow 
was tendered by a master who oodid resome it at his pleasure. At 
the first opportunity of interference, therefore, which opened to the 
Romans, the JESt61ians, who had espoosed the canse of Antfochas, 
king of Syria, the enemy of Rome, were reduced to poverty and de- 
prived of their independence. At a later period Per' sens, the sno- 
cesser of Philip on the throne of Mao' edon, being driven into a war 
by Roman ambition, finally lost his kingdom in the battle of Pydkia,' 
in which twenty thousand Maoed6nians were slain, and ten thousand 
taken prisoners, while the RoMan army, commanded by Lt^cius 
^mil'ius PaiUus, lost scarcely a hundred men. (168 B. C.) The 
Macedonian monarchy was extinguished, and Per' sens himself, a 
wanderer from his country, was taken prisoner in an island of the 
M* gean, and conyeyed to Rome to grace the triumph of the con- 

43. Soon after the fidl of Per' sens, the Achss' ans were charged 
with having aided him in the war against Rome, and, without a 
shadow of proof, one thousand of their worthiest citizens, among < 
whom was the historian Polyb' ius, were sent to Rome to prove their 
innocence of this charge before a Roman tribunal. (167 B. 0.) 
Here they were detained seventeen years without being able to obtain 
a hearing, when three hundred of the number, the only surviving 
remnant of the thousand, were finally restored to their country. The 
exiles returned, burning with vengeance against the Romans ; other 
causes of animosity arose; and when a Roman embassy, sent to 
Corinth, declared the will of the Roman senate that the Ach»' an 
League should be reduced to its original limits, a popular tumult 
arose, and the Roman ambassadors were publicly insulted. 

44. War soon followed. The Achss' ans and their aQies were de- 
feated by the consul Mum' mius near Corinth, and that city, then the 
richest in Greece, after being plundered of its treasures, was con- 
signed to the flames. The last blow to the liberties of the Hell6nio 
race had been struck, and all Greece, as far as Epirus and Maced6- 
nia, now become a Roman province, under the name of Achdia. 
(146 B. C.) " The end of the Achae' an war," says Thirwall, " was 
the last stage of the lingering process by wliich Rome enclosed her 
victim in the coils of her insidious diplomacy, covered it with the 

1. Pyd' na waa a dty near the Boutb-eaatorn extremity of Maced6niaf on the western shore of 
the Therm&ic GuIi; (now Gulf of .Salonikl.) The ancient Pydna la now oalled Kidm. Dr. 
Clarke observed here a vast mound of earth, which he considered, with much probability, aa 
marking the site of the great boittle fought there by ttue Romans and Macedunkma. {Map Na L) 

Otatf. VL] JEWISH BISTORT. 1 1 1 

dime of ber sycophants and hirelings, crashed it when it began to 
straggle, and then oaknlj preyed upon its vitals.'' 

45. We have now arrived at the proper termination of Grecian 
history. Niebuhr has remarked, that, " as rivers flow into the sea, 
so does the history of all the nations, known to have existed pre- 
viooBly in the regions around the Mediterranean, terminate in that 
of Bome." Henceforward, then, the history of Greece becomes in- 
volved in the changing fortones of the Roman empire, to whose early 
annals we shall now retom, after a brief notice of the cotemporary 
history of sorronnding nations. With the loss of her liberties the 
^ory of Greece had passed away. Her population had been gradu- 
ally diminishing since the period of the Persian wars ; and from the 
epoch of the Roman conquest the spirit of the nation sunk into de- 
spondency, and the energies of the people gradually wasted, until, no 
kfter iban the days of Strabo,' Greece existed only in the remembrance 
of the past Then, many of her cities were desolate, or had sunk to 
insignificant villages, while Athens alone maintained her renown for 
philosophy and the arts, and became the instructor of her conquer- 
ors ; — ^large tracts of land, qnce devoted to tillage, were either barren, 
or had been converted into pastures for sheep, and vast herds of 
cattle; while the rapacity of Roman governors had inflicted upon 
the sparse population impoverishment and ruin. 


1. Of the cotemporary annals of other nations during the authentic 
poiod of Grecian history, there is little of importance to be nar- 
rated beyond what will be found connected with Roman aflairs in ^a 
subsequent chapter ; although the Grecian cities of Italy, Sicily, and 
Cyrenaica, considered not as dependent colonies of the parent St$te, but 
as separate powers, will require some farther notice. Of the history 
of the Medes and Persians we have already given the most interesting 
portion. 04Egyptian history little is known, beyond what has been 
narrated,' until the beginning of the dynasty of the Ptol'emies (30 1 
B. 0.,) and of the events from that period down to the time of Ro- 
man interference in tiie affairs of Egypt, we have room for only occa- 
sional notices, as connected with the more important i. HisroRr 
histories of other nations. Of the civil annab of the <>» ™« "^^ 
Jews we shall give a brief sketch, so as to continue, from a preced* 

L «rift« wM a eetobntod geograplitr, bora al AmAtfa In Foatna, about llie year M B. a 

112 AHCIEMT msrORT. [Pjmtl 

ing chapter, the history of Jndea down to the time when that eouitry 
became a proyince of the Roman empire. 

2. It has been stated that the rebuilding of the second temple of 
Jerusalem was completed dm'ing the reign of Darios Hjstas'peSi 
about- twenty-five years before the commencement of the war betweea 
the Greeks and Persians. During the foUowing reign of Xerxes, the 
Jews appear to have been treated by their masters with respect, and 
also during the early part of the reign of Artazerx' es Longimtou^ 
who had taken for his second wife a Jewish damsel named Esther, 
the niece of the Jew Mor' decai, one of the officers of the palace. 
The story of Himan, the wicked minister of the king, is doubtfeas 
fmnilUr to all our readers. After the Jews had been delivered from 
the wanton malice of H&man, Nehemf ah, also an officer in the king's 
palace, obtained for them permission to rebuild the walls of the holy 
city, and was appointed g(fvemor over Judea. With the dose of 
the administration of NehemCah the annals embraced in the Old 
Testament end, and what farther reliable information we possess of 
the history of the Jews down to the time of the Eoman conquest ie 
mostly derived from Josephus. 

3. After Nehemiah, Judea was joined to the satr^y of Syria, a«* 
though the internal government was still administered by the high* 
priests, under the general superintendence of Persian officers — ^the 
people remaining qui^t under the Persian government After die 
division of the vast empire of Alexander among his generals, Judea, 
lying between Syria and Egypt, and being coveted by the monarchs 
of both, Bu£Fered greatly from the wars which they carried on against 
each other. At one time the Egyptian monarch, Ptol' emy S6ter, 
having invaded the country, stormed Jerusalem on the Sabbath day, 
when the Jews, from superstitious motives, would not defend their 
city, and transported a hundred thousand of the population to 
Egypt, — apparently, however, as colonists, rather than as prisoners. 

4. During the reigns of Ptol' mny 86ter, PtoV emy Phikdel'phuB, 
PtoFemy Euer'getes, and PtoFemy Philop'ater, Jud^ remained 
BuJKjeot to Egypt, but was lost by Ptol' emy Epiph' anes. PtoF emy 
PhUadel' phus, by his generous treatment of the Jews, induced large 
numbers of them to settle in Egypt He was an eminent patron of 
learning, and caused the septuagint translation of the scriptures to be 
made, and a copy to be deposited in the famous library whidb he es- 
tablished at Alexandria. On the accession of PtoF emy Epiph' anes 
to the throne, (204 B. C.) at the age of only five years, Antioohus 


^e Oreai, king of Syria, easily persoaded the Jews to place them- 
selves Tmder his rule, and in return for their confidence in him he 
conferred such favors upon Jerusalem as he knew were best calculated 
to win the hearts of the people. 

5. Antiochua Epiph' anes, the sacoessor of Antiochns the Great^ 
having invaded Egypt, a false rumor of his death was brought to 
Jerusalem, whereupon a civil war broke out between two fEiotions of 
the Jews who had long been quarrelling about the office of the high- 
priesthood. The tumult was quelled by the return of Antiochus, 
who, exasperated on learning that the Jews had made public rejoic- 
ings at his snpposea death, marched against Jerusalem, which he 
plundered, as if he had taken it by storm from an enemy. ( 169 B. C.) 
He even despoiled the temple of its holy vessels, and carried off the 
treasures of the nation collected there. Two years later he attempted 
to carry out the plan of reducing the various religious systems of his 
empire to one sbgle profession, that of the Grecian polytheism. He 
polluted the altar of the temple-— put a stop to the duly sacrifice — 
to the great festivals — ^to the rite of circumcision — ^burned the copies 
of the law — ^and commanded that the temple itself should be convert- 
ed into an edifice sacred to the Olympian Jupiter. 

6. These acts, and the insolent cruelties with which they were ac- 
companied, met with a fierce and desperate resistance from the brave 
&mily of the Mac' cabees,* or. Asmon^ans, who, under their heroic 
leader Judas, first fled to the wilderness, and the caves of the meun- 
tians, where they were joined by numerous bands of their exasperated 
countrymen, who, ere long, began to look upon Judas as an instru- 
ment appointed by heaven for their deliverance. Thoroughly ac- 
quainted with every impregnable cliff and defile of his mountain* 
land, Judas was successful in every encounter in which he chose to 
engage with the Syrians : — ^by rapid assaults he made himself master 
of many fortified places, and within three years after the pollution 
of the temple he had driven out of Judea |pur generals at the head 
of large and r^ular armies. He then went up to Jerusalem,''and 
although a fortress in the lower city was still held by a Syrian garri- 
son, he restored the walls and doors of the temple, caused the daily 
sacrifice to be renewed, and proclaimed a solemn festival o( eight days 
on the joyful opcuuon. 

a. The appalUUoii of Mae' utbtM wag glran ttiem (h>m the initial lettan ofthe text di^layed 
on ttwIritaiMlard, which wu. Mi Chanuka Hm/ur, JU«*/ *«Who la Uke unto thee among 
Ihe 9od% O Loid r-Aom Bxod. xr. 11. 


114 AKCIENT mSTORT. (Tiial. 

7. The war wHh Syria eontmned daring the brief reign of the 
yonthfiil son of Antiochns Epiph' anes, and was extended into the 
Bobaequent reign of Demetrius Soter, (B. C. 162,) who sent two 
powerful armies into Judea, the first of which was defeated in the 
defile of Beth6ron/ and its general slain. Another army was more 
saceessful, and Judas himself fell, after having destroyed a multi- 
tude of his enemies ; but his body was reooyered, and he was buried 
in the tomb of his fathers. " And all Israel mourned him with a 
great mourning, and sorrowed many days, and said, How is the 
mighty &llen that saved Israel" 

8. After the death of Judas a time of grea^ibulation followed; 
the Syril[ns beeame masters of the country, and Jonathan, the brother 
of Judas, the new leader of the patriotic band, was obliged to retire 
to the mountains, where he maintained himself two years, while the 
cities were occupied by Syrian garrisons. Eventually, during the 
changing revolutions in the Syrian empire itself, Jonathan was en- 
abled^to establish himself in the priesthood, and under his adminis- 
tration Judea again became a flourishiug State. Being at length 
treacherously murdered by one of the Syrian khigs, (B. 0. 143,) his 
brother Simon succeeded to the priesthood, and during the seven 
years in which he judged Israel, general prosperity prevailed through- 
out the land. " The husbandmen tilled the field in peace, and the 
earth gave forth her crops, and the trees of the plain their fruits. 
The old men sat in the streets ; all talked together of their blessings, 
and the young men put on the glory and the harness of war." 

9. The remaining history of the Jews, from the time of Simon 
down to the formation of Judea into a Ba>man province, is mostly 
occupied with domestic commotions, whose details would possess 
little interest for the general reader. The circumstances which 
placed Judea under the sway of the Bomans will be found detailed 
in their cojmection with Roman history.^ 

10. Before the beginning of the "authentic period" of Grecian 
history, various circumstances, such as the desire of adventure, com- 

n. GExciAN mercial interests, and, not unfrequently, civil dissensions 

ooLoiaKs. at home, led to the planting of Grecian colonies on many 

distant coasts of the Mediterranean. Those of Thrace, Mac' edon, 

and Asia-Minor, were ever intimately connected with Greece proper, 

in whose general history theirs is embraced ; but the Greek cities 

L Betk6r9H WM a vilUig* about ten miles north-west from Jenualoiw * 


of Italy, Sioily, and Cyren^ica, were too far removed from the drama 
that mis enactmg aroond the shores of the iB'gean to be more than 
oceaaionally and temporarily affected by the ohanging fortmies of the 
papeot States. Neyertheless, a brief notice of those distant settle- 
ments that eyentoally rivalled even Athens and Sparta in power and 
resoaroee, cannot be nnintereeting, and it will serve to give the reader 
more aooorate views, than he would otherwise possess, of the extent 
and importanoe of the field of Grecian history. 

11. At an early period the shores of southern Italy and Sicily 
were peopled by Greeks ] and so numerous and powerful did the 
Greeiantnties in those countries become, that the whole were comprised 
by Strabo and others under the appellation Magna m. xagka 
Gracia or " Great Greece"— an appropriate name for a osmjia, 
region containing many cities far superior in size and population to 
any in Greece itself The earliest of these distant Grecian settle- 
ments appear to have been made at Ctimse,^ and Neap' olis,' on the 
western coast of ttaly, about the middle of the eleventh century. 
Naz' 08,* on the eastern coast of Sicily, was founded about the year 
735 B. C; and in the following year some Corinthians laid the 
foondation of Syraousa Gela,^ on the western coast of the isknd, 
and Mess^a* on the strait between Italy and Sicily, were founded 

1. OtaM, a dtj of Gunpanla, on the western ooaet of Italy, a abort distance north-west from 
Keapolia, and about a hundred and ten miles sontli-eaBt from Rome, is supposed to have been 
tmnded by a Grecian colony ftom Eubcs' a about the year 1060 B. G. CumiB was built on a 
locfcy hin washed by the sea ; and the same name U stiU applied to the rains that Ue scattered 
aiooad its base. Some of the most splendid fictions of Virgil relate to the Cum»an Sibyl, 
whose caTe, hewn out of solid rock,* actually existed on the top of the hill of Cnmse. (^Map 
Now VOL) 

9L Jfeap' Msy (a Greek word meaning the nno etCy,) now called Jfiapln^ was founded by a 
eokmy from Cnm»* It is situated on the north side of the Bay of Naples, in the immediate 
■fkAaStf of BAoont VetuTlus, one hundred and eighteen miles aontb-eaa^ftom Rome. (Map 
Ko. vm.) 

3. /fax' 09 was north-east flrom Mount iEtna, and about equi^stant fh>m Mess&na and 
CU'ana. NaTos was twice destroyed; first by Dlonysius the Elder, and^ afterwards by the 
fltooll ; after which Tkuromenlum was built on its site. The modem Tagnmna occupies the 
Aa of the ancient dty. j(Jlf^ No. YIII.) 

4. Oila was on the southern coast of Sicily, a short distance flrom the sea, on a riTcr of the 
Moie name, and about sixty miles west from Syracuse. On the site of the ancient dlj stands 
the modem TWra JViwo. (.Wop No. VIII.) 

5. M€0§Ana^ stUI a city of conslderBble extent under the name of Mt*9ina^ was situated at 
the nortb-easCera extremity of the idand of Sicily, on the utralt of Ito own name. It was re> 
gaided by the Greeke as the key of the island, but the drenmsuince of its commanding position 
always made It a tempting prize to the ambitious and powerftil neighboring princes. It under- 
went a great rariety of changes, under the power of the Syracusans, CSarthaglnians, and Ro- 
nana. It was treadierously seised by the MamertinI, (see p. 19S) who slew the nudes, andtook 
Ihe wlaee and chOdien as their property, and called the city Hamertlna. Finally, a porUon of < 
IhetBhaMtaalaeiQed in the aid of the Bomam, and thus began the flntPunio war. nnsB.CO 

116 AiroIKNT mSTOBT. [Pj«i 

soon after. Agrigen' torn,' <m the Booth- wcrtcr n ootsti was fimnded 
about a oentoi^ later. 

12.' In the meantime the Greek cities Sjb'aris, Grotdna,* aad 
Taren' turn,* had been planted, and had rapidly grown to power and 
opulence, on the sonth-eastem coast of Italy. The territorial do^ 
minions of Syb' aris and Grotona extoided across the peninsola from 
sea to sea. The former possessed twenty-fiye dependent towns, and 
ruled over four distinct tribes or nations. The territories of Grotdna 
were still more extensive. These two Grecian States were at the 
pjATJi tii^m of their power about the year 560 B. G. — ^the time of ths 
accession of Pisis' tratos at Athens ; but they quarrelled with each 
other, and the result of the fatal contest was the ruin of Syb' aris, 
510 B. G. At the time ot the invasion of lUly by Pyr' rhos, (see 
p. 149.) Grotona was still a considerable city, extodding on both sides 
of the JBsirus, and its walls embracing a circumference of twelve 
miles. Taren' turn was formed by a colony from Sparta about the 
year 707, — soon after the first Mess^nian war. No details of its his- 
tory during the first two 'hundred and thirty years of its ezistenoe 

«TlM modflni d^ hai a moii impodaff spiMwuee from Um mh, fomlBg a Sdb olraulir 
■weep aboat two miles in Ieiii3:tti on ttie west shore of its magn!flcent haibor, from whieh It 
rises In the fonn of an amphillientre ; sikI being built of while stone, it sliikiDgljr oontrsoli 
with the daik fronts that eorer Uw forests In the backgronnd." (Map No. vm.) 

L Agrigok' tMM was situated near the southern shore of SleHy, about midwaj of the Island. 
Next to Sjmciise 11 was not only one of the largest and most fiunoos cities of Sicily, but of th» 
andent world ; and its rotns an stUl impoelngly grsnd and magnlfloenU The modem tows 
of OirgemU lies adjacent to the ruiBS» from which It Is separated by the small lirer Afoagaa. 
(Jfdy No. VIU.) 

Sl Sfb' arU was a dty of south-eastern Italy on the Tarenttae Golf. CMtina was aboia 
Berenty miles south of it Pythogorss redded at Crot6na during the latter years of his lite; 
and Milo, the most celebrated athlete of anUquity, was a natlTe of that city. The Sybarites 

were noted for the excess to which they carried the refinements of luxury and aensnality. 

The CTeats whieh led to the destmetion of Syb' aris, about 510 B. C, are thus related. A 
democratical party, having gained the aaoeodsncy at Syb' aris, expelled five hundred of the 
prindpal citizens, who sought reAige at Crot6na. The latter revising, by the advice of Pytha- 
goras^ to give up the ftagitivee, a war ensued. HUo led out the Grotoniats, ten thousand in 
number, who were met by three hundred thousand Syb' arites ; but the fomer gained a oomr- 
plete victory, and then, maaching immedlafdy to Syb' arts, totally destroyed the dty. (Map 
No. VUI.) 

3. TVirm' (tm, the emporium of the Greek towns of Italy, was. an important commsrolal 
city near the head of the gulf of the same name. It stood on what was formerly an isthmus, 
but wl)ioh is now an isUnd, separating the gulf from an imier bay fifteen or sixteen miles In 
drcumference. The earty Tarentloes were noted for their military skill and prowess, and for 
the cultivation of literature and the arts ; bat their wealth and abundaoAe so enervated their 
minds and bodies, and corrupted their morals, that even the neighboring barbarians, who had 
bated ami feared, learned eventuaUy to despise them. The Tarentines fell an easy prey to tha 
Romans, after Pyrrhus had withdrawn from Italy. (See p. 150.) The modera town of Toranl^ 
, containing a population of about eighteen thousand InhabltantSi oeeapies the dte of tha andm 
dty. (JfrjrNcVIU.) 


are knovm to qb; but m the fotorth centurj B. 0. the Tarentipea 
aland foremost among the Italian Greeks. 

13. During the first two oentories after the founding of Naz' os in 
Sicily, Grecian settlements were extended over the eastern, southern, 
«nd western sides of the island, while ^im' era' was the only Gre- 
eiAn town on the northern coast.' These two hundred years were a 

' period of pro^rity among the Sicilian Greeks, who did not yet ex- 
tend their residences oy^ the island, but dwelt chiefly in fortified 
towns, and exercised authority over the surrounding native popula- 
tion, which gradually became assimilated in mahners, language, and 
religion, to the higher dvilieation of the Greeks. During the sixth 
e«itary before the Ohristian era, the G^reek eities in Sicily and 
aonthem Italy were among the most powerful and flourishing that 
bore the Hellenic name. Gela and Agrigen' tum, on the south side 
of Sicily, had then become the most prominent of the independent 
Sicilian goyemments ; and at the beginning of the fifth century we 
find G61o> a despot, or self constituted ruler of the former city, sub- 
jecting other towns to his authority, and iinally obtaining possession 
of Syracuse, which he made the seat of his empire, (485 B. 0.) 
leaving G^la to be govemed by his brother Hiero, the first Sicilian 
nder of that name. 

14. G^lo strengthened the fortifications and greatly enlaiged the 
limits of Syracuse, while, to occupy the enlarged space, he dis- 
mantled many of the surrounding towns, and transported their inhab- 
itants to his new capital, which now became, not only the first city 
in Sicily, but, according to Herod' otus, superior to any other Helle- 
nic power; for we are told that when, in 481 B. C, the Corinthians 
aolicited aid from Gelo to resist the invasion of .Xerxes, the Syraou- 
aans could offer twenty thousand heavy armed soldiers, and, in all, an 
army of thirty thousand men, besides furnishing provisions for the 
entire Grecian host so long as the war might last ; but as G61o de- 
manded to be constituted commander-in-chief of all the Greeks in 
the war against the Persians, the terms were not agreed to. 

15. During the invasion of Greece by Xerxes, a formidable Oar* 
ihaginian force under Hamil' car, said to consist of three hundred 
thousand men, landed at Panor' mus,' a Carthaginian sea-port on the 

J. Bm' gra wu on the northern coast of Sicily, near tl>e month of the rirer of the i 
auM, one hundred and ten 'miles nortli-west from Syrsouseb The modem town of Tmrnimif 
ift tha noutit of the rlrer Leonardo, oocoplee the site of the ancient d^. (JO^ No. VZn.) 

ft ^MMKiMw, aappofltfd to have been flnt nittlMi by PboBDidaai, via in th^ natOtwmtam 

118 AKOIEirr mSTORT. IPinl 

BQftlieni coast of the ialand, and proceeded to attack ihe Gtreek city 
of Him' era. (480 B. G.) G6I0, at the head of fifty-five thousand 
men, marched to the aid of his brethren ; and in a general battle 
which ensned, the entire Carthaginian force was deslrojed, or com- 
pelled to surrender, Hamil' car himself being numbered among the 
riain. The victory of Him' era procured for Sicily immunity from 
foreign war, while at the same time the defeat of Xerxes at Sal' amis 
dispelled the terrific doud that overhung the Greeks in that quarter. 
16. On the death of O6I0, a year after the battle of Him' era, the 
government fell into the hands of his brother Hiero, a man whose 
many great and noble qualities were alloyed by insatiable cupidity 
and ambition. The power of Hiero, not inferior to that of G^lo, 
was probably greater than that of any other Gf ecian ruler of that 
period. Hiero aided the Greek cities of Italy against the Carthagi- 
nian and Tyrrii6nian fleets ; he founded the city of Mf^ih,^ and 
added other cities to his government He died after a reign of ten 
years, and was succeeded by his brother Thrasybdlis, whose cruelties 
led to his speedy dethronement, which was followed, not only by the 
extinction of the Gel6nian dynasty at Syracuse, but by aQ extensive 
revolution in the other Sicilian cities, resulting, after many years of 
civil dissensions, in the expulsion of the other despots who had relied 
fbr protection on the great despot of Syracuse, and the establish- 
ment of governments more or less democratical throughout the 
. 17. The G^6nian dynasty had stripped of their possessions, and 
banished, great numbers of citizens, whose places were filled by for- 
eign mercenaries ; but the popular revolution reversed many of these 
procecdmgs, and restored the exiles ; although, in the end, adherents 
of the expelled dynasty were allowed to settle partly in the territory 
of Messdna, and partly in Kamarina." After the commotions at- 
tendant on these changes had subsided, prosperity again dawned on 

part of Sicily, and had a good and capadons harbor. It early paatad Into the hands of the 
Oartha«inlana, and was their stronghold In Magna Gnaela. It Is now called PtUenMt and Is 
the capital city and principal searport of SlcUy, having a popuiatton of about one hondred and 
fifty thoosand inhabitants. It is bttilt on the south-west side of the Bay of Palenno, in a plain, 
which, from its luxuriance, and fhym Its being surrounded by mountains on three sides, has 
been termed the » golden shdl,*' eonca d* <nv. {Map No. VIIT.) 

1. JEV noy flnt called liUtgut^ Was a small town on the southern declivity of Mount JEi' na, 
near Oat' ana. The aivlent site, now marfcedwith ruins, bears ihe name Ckutro, {Map Ko, 


9. Kamarina was on the southern ccaat, about fifty miles south^wect fhua Syracuse^ and 
twenty miles southHsaat Awt f] C^REOXAK OOLONlSa 119 

Sicily, and the sabaeqaent period of more than fifty years, to the 
^me of ^e /^Ider Dionjsins, has been deisoribcd as by far the best 
and happiest portion of Sicilian history. 

18. At the time of the •breaking out of the Peloponn6sian war, 
431 B. C, Syracuse was the foremost of the Sicilian cities in power 
and resources. Agrigen' turn was but little inferior to her, while in her 
foreign commerce and her public jnonuments the latter was not sur- 
passed by any Grecian city of that age. In the great Peloponn^sian 
struggle, the Ion' ic cities of Sicily, few in number, very naturally 
sympathized with Athens, and .the D6rian cities with Sparta; and in 
^e fifth year of the war we find the Ion' ic cities soliciting Athens 
fi:>r aid against Syracuse and her allies. Successive expeditions were 
sent <mt by Athens, and soon nearly all Sicily was involved in the 
war, when at length, in 424 B. CL, a congress of the Sicilian cities 
decided upon a general peace among themselves, to the great dissat- 
isfaction of the Athenians, who were abeady anticipating important 
conquests on the island. 

19. A few years later, (417 B. C.,) a quarrel broke out between 
the neighboring Sicilian cities Selinus and Eges' ta,^ the latter of 
which, although not of Grecian origin, had formerly been m alliance 
with Athens. Selinus was aided by the Sjracusans ; and Eges' ta 
applied to Athens for assistance, making false representations of her 
own resources, and enlarging upon the dangers to be apprehended 
from Syracusan aggrandizement as a source of strength to Sparta. 
The Athenian Nic'ias, most earnestly opposed any farther interven- 
tion in Sicilian affairs ; but the counsels of Alcibiades prevailed, 
and in the summer of 415 B. C, the largest armament th^t had ever 
left a Grecian port sailed on the most distant enterprize that Athens 
had ever undertaken, under the command of three generals, Nic' ias. 
Lam' achus, and Alcibiades ; but the latter was recaUed soon after 
the fleet had reached Cat' ana,' on the eastern coast of the island. 

1. SeHmw wis a flovlahlng dty of moro than thirty thousand Inhabitant!, on the toutbern 
■bore or the W08t«ni part of the island. Ito ruina may still be seen near what ta called TVrra 
A' PMwu. Eget' ta, called by the Romans Segesta, was on the northern coast, near the 
modem AUnto. Selinus and Ege«' ta were engaged in almost continual wars with each other. 
After the Athenian expedition the EgesUns called to their assistance the Oarthaginlans, who 
IooIl, plundered, and nearly destroyed Selinus; but Eges' ta, under Oarthaginian rule,expe> 
rlcDCed a Ihte but lltUe better. (JITap No. VIII.) 

% Cat' ana, now Catania was at the southern base of Mount MV na, thirty-two milea north 
thmi Syracuse. The distance from the city to the summit of the mountain was ttiirty miles. 
ObtAnia haa been rqMatedly destroyed by earthqoakea, and by torrents of Uqnld Are fh>m the 
neisbto nog Tolcano ; but it has risen like the ihbled phcsolz» mora aplandid tma Its «riM% 

120 AKOmiT mSTORT. [Pa»]. 

20. From Gafftaa Nic'iM sailed uooxid tke nortlieni ootst to 
Eges' ta, whence he inarched the land forces back throng the island 
to Cat' ana, haTing achieved nothing hut the acqaisition of a few in* 
significant towns, while the Sjraoosans improved the time in making 
I^^arations to receive the invaders. At length, about the last of 
October, Nic' ias sailed with his whole force to Syracos e d efeated 
the Syracusans in the battle which followed — and then went into 
winter quarters at Nax' oe ; but in the spring he returned to his 
former station at Gat' ana, soon after which he commenced a regular 
fii^ of Syracuse. 

21. In a battle which was fought on the grounds south of the city, 
towards the river Anapus, Lam' achus was slain, althov^ the Athe- 
nians were victorious. Nic' ias oontinn^ to push forward his suc- 
cesses, and Syracuse was on the point of surrendering, when the ar- 
rival of the Spartan general Gylip'pus at ojnoe changed the fortune 
of war, and the Athenians were soon riiut up in tiieir own lines. 

22. At the solicitation of Nic' ias a large reenforcement, commanded 
by the Athenian general Demosthenes, was sent to his assistance in 
the spring of 413; but at the same time tiie Spartans reenforced 
Gylip'pus, and, in addition, sent out a force to ravage At'tica. 
During the summer many battles, both on land and in the harbor of 
Syracuse, were fought by the opposing forces, in nearly all of which 
the Syracusans and their allies were victorious ; and, in the end, the 
entire Athenian force in Sicily, numbering at the time not less than 
forty thousand men, was destroyed. " Never in Grecian history," 
says Thucyd' ides, " had ruin so complete and sweeping, or victory 
so glorious and unexpected, been witnessed.'' 

23. Soon after the termination of the contest between the Athe- 
nians and Syracusans, the Carthaginians again sought an opportunity 
of invading the island, and estabUi^ed themselves over ito enture 
western half; but they were ably resisted by Dionysins the Mder, 
" tyrant of Syracuse," who was proclaimed chief of the republic 
about 405 B. C. ; and it was owing to his exertions that any part 
of the island was saved from falling into the hands of the enemy. . 
It was at length agreed that the river Him' era' should form. the 
limit between the Grecian territories on the east and the Carthagi- 

■nd it atin a baanUftil citf. The slraeto an paved with Utb ; and hmuM, palMes, chiindMi, 
«d QOttvenls, am baUt of It Kemalu of ancient templee, aqaeduela, ImUm, *&, tn nvatK" 
wm. The environs are flvitftil, and weUealtlfated. (Map Vo. VUl.) 

1. The river Mim'$n iMre nenUoned, now tlie Sk^o^ ftUfe Into the : 
MaiiMniocNMlktotlioiifMefaaiB. (JK^KaVOL) 

<fB*p.fv.] ORTCIAN COLOIOES. 121 

nian dependencies on the west ; but the peace was soon broken bj 
the Carthaginians, who, amid the civil dissensions of the Greeks^ 
sought every opportunity of extending their dominion over the entire 
island. , 

24. Subsequently the aspiring power of Carthage was checked by , 
Timoleon', and afterwards by Agath'ocles. The former, a Corinthian 
by birth, having made himself master of the almost deserted Syra- 
cuse, about the year 340 B. C, restored it to some degree of its 
former glory. He defeated the Carthaginians in a great battle, and 
established the affairs of government on so firm a basis that tlie 
whole of Sicily continued, many years after his death, in unusual 
quiet and prosperity. Agath' ocles usurped the sovereignty of Syra* 
cuse by the murder of several thousand of its principal citizens in 
the year 317 B. C. He maintained his power twenty-eight years. 
Having been defeated by the Carthaginians, and being besieged in 
Syracuse, with a portion of his army he passed over to Africa, where 
he sustained himself during four years. In the year 306 he con- 
cluded a peace with the Carthaginians. He died by poison, 289 B. C, 
leaving his influence in Sicily acid southern Italy to his son-in-law, 
the tamoxis Pyr' rhus, king of Ef^ftus. After the death of A^ath'- 
ocles, the Carthaginians gained a decided ascendancy in Sicily, when 
the Romans, alarmed by the movements of so powerful a neighbor, 
and being invited over to the assistance of a portion of the people 
of Messdna, commenced the first Punic war, (265 B. C.,) and after a 
struggle of twenty-four years made themselves masters of the whole 
of Sicily, — ^nearly a hundred years before the reduction of Greece 
itself to a Roman province. 

25. On the northern coast of Africa, within the district of the 
modem Barca, the important Grecian colony of Cyreniica^ was 
planted by Lacedsemonian settlers from Thera,* an ,y, 
island of the iB'gaen, about the year 630 B. C. Its craiNA'icA. 
chief city, Cyrene, was about ten miles from the sea, having a 
sheltered port called Apollonia, itself a considerable town. Over 

•the Libyan tribes between the borders of Egypt and the Great 
Desert, the Cyreneans exercised an ascendancy similar to that which 
Carthage possessed over the tribes farther westward. About the 
year 550 B. C, one of the neighboring Libyan kings, finding the 
Cheeks rapidly encroaching upon his territories, declared himself 

L C|rrMUiM» Bee p. TD. ' 

% TUrtf mam «Mtori«, Mooged to the doHa eelled tbe J ^niu , (JKy ITg^ ID.) 


ndbjaet «o Egypi^ wben a large Bgyptian army marofaed to lua assist- 
•Boe, but tko EgjpiiaDB experienced so eomplete a defeat that few 
ef them e^er retomed to their own ooontry. We find that the next 
Egyptian king, Amisis, married a Cyrenean. 

26. Soon after the defeat of the Egyptians, the tyranny of the 
Oyrenean king, Agesilins, led to a rerolt among his subjecta, who^ 
being joined by some of the neighboring tribes, founded Uie city of 
Bar' ea, about seventy miles to the westward of Cyrene. In the 
war whkk followed, a great battle was fought with the allies of Bar' ca, 
in which Agenlius was defeated, and seven thousand of his men were 
left dead on the field. The successor of AgesiUus was deposed fnmx 
the kingly dfioe by the people, who, in imitation of the Athenians, 
then established a republican government, (543 B. €.,) under the di- 
rection of ]>em6nax, a wise legislator of Mantin^a. But the son of 
the deposed monarch, having obtained assistance from the people of 
Simos, regained the throne of Gyrene, about the time that the Per- 
nan prince Camby'ses conquered Egypt Both the Cyrenean and 
the Barean prinoe sent their submission to tlie great conqueror. Soon 
after this event the Persian satrap of Egypt sent a large force against 
Bar' ea, whidi was taken by perfidy, and great numbers of the in* 
habitants were carried away into Persian slavery. 

27. At a later period, Oyr6ne and Bar' ca fell under the power of 
the Oarthagmia^ ' they subsequently formed a dependency of Egypt ; 
send in the year 76 B. 0., they were reduced to the condition of a 
Roman province. Gyrtoe was the birth-place of the poet Callim'- 
achus ; of Bratos' thenes the geographer, ajitronomer, and mathema- 
tician ; and of Oam^ades the sophist Cyrenean Jews were present 
at Jerusalem on the day of pentecost : it was Simon, a Cyrenean 
Jew, whom the soldiers oempelled to bear the Saviour^s cross ; and 
Christian Jews of Cj^^ne were among the first preachers of Chris- 
tianity to the Greeks of Antioch. (Matthew, xxviL 32 : Mark, xt. 
21 : Acts, ii 10 : vL 9 : XL 2a) 

<3w 7.] tMlUK BIUX^T. U3 



OABTBAGX, 146 B. 0. = 607 TXAB5. 

XMLT iVAUr: BQMX DNDift KBX kibob: xMMKa 610 ■. a 

AVALTfflB. L Italt— names and cocte&t of/— ^ MoontatDa, and (Mtle plaitia.— 3. Climate^^ 
4. Prfadpal Statoa and trlbec^--<8L Ost earlieat iafbniiation of Italj. E'lrnacaD civilization. 
Clbe Etnucaiw. The Tlber.]-^ Bootbern Italy and Sicily colonized by Greeks. The rise of 
Borne, between the EtruseaDS on the one side and the Creelu on the other.— 7. Sources and 
chandar of early Bonm hlatoty^-a Tbe Roman legeoda, down to the fooixllng of Alba.- 
[Lavin'iam L4tlam. iUba.)^9. The Roman legends conilnned, ^wn to the saving ol 
Bom' nloa and R^mos.— 10. To the death of Amu' llus.— U. Augiules for selecting the site and 
aaoM of a efty.—lS. The Fovmiiiia ow Romk. [Description of Aneient and Modem Rome.]—. 
JA. filnitagnm oTRomulttS to procure wivea for his followers. [Sabinea.}— 14. War with thb 
Sabiiiks. Treachery and fhte of Tarp^ia.— IS. Reconciliation and union of the Sabines and 
Bomana. Death of TuUlns. [Laurentinea.]— 16. The interretaing period, to the death of 
Bom'Qina. DealbofRoni'iilas. 

17. Rnle of the senators. Election of Nuva, the 9d king. His Institutions, and death. 
tfAnna.}— IflL Reign of Tul' livs Hostil'ios, the 3d king, and first dawn of historic tmtb.-^ 
1ft Jieceod of the Horfctfi and OarUtlLr-ao. Tragic death of Horitla. Submladon, treachery, 
and removal of the Albans. Death of Tul' lias.— 81. The reign of An' ous Mar' tius, the 4th 
king. [Oflda.]— 8S. Tarqcin tbk Eldrr, the 5th king. His origin. Unanimously called to 
tto IteOBB^ CIteqiibi' U.JHO. Hia wars. Uto pnbUc worics. His daith.-«4. 8br' vids 
Tin.' uvs, the 6(h king. Legends concerning him. Wars, &;c.— 25. Division of the people 
Into oentmlea. Federal nnion with the Latins. Administration of Justice, &c— 26.' Displeas* 
VM «f Ibe paMdam, and moider of Serviiis.--S7. The reign of Tabquxk tb^ ^roud, the 7th 
king. His reign disturbed by dreams and prodigies.— 28. Tbe dispute between Sextns, hie 
brothers, and CoUatinus. How settled. [Ardea Coll&tia,}— 29. The story of Lucretia, and 
fcinliknaent ofthe TtsrqBins. 

1. Italt, known in ancient times by the names Hespena, Ausonia, 
Satur' nia, and <En6tfiay comprises the whole of the central penin- 
sula of southern Eorope, extending from the Alps ii/a i. ttalt. 
southern direction nearly seven hundred and seventy miles, with a 
breadth varying from about three hundred and eighty miles in north- 
em Italy, to less than eighty near its centre. 

% The mountains of Italy are the Alps on its northwestern bound- 
ary, and the Apennines, which latter pass through the peninsula nearly 
in its centre, and send off numerous branches on both sides. They 
•!• BiQoh Laos ragged than tibe Alps, and abound in riob forests and 


pasture land. But though for the most part moimtamoiiB, Italy, has 
Bome plains of considerable extent and extraordinary fertility. Of 
these the most extensive, and the richest, is that of Lombardy in the 
north, watered by the ri^er Po and its nnmeroos branches, embrac- 
ing an area of aboat two hundred and fifty miles in length, with a 
breadth varying from fifty to one hundred and t?renty miles, and now 
containing a vast number of cities. The next great plain stretches 
along the western coast of central Italy about two hundred miles^ 
from the river Amo in Tuscany, to Terraeina, sixty miles south-east 
from Rome. Although this plain was once celebrated for its fertility, 
and was highly cultivated and populous, it is now comparatively a 
desert, a consequence of the prevalence of fnalariay which inleots 
these districts to such an extent as to reader them at certain portions 
of the year all but uninhabitable. The third great plain (the Aptk- 
lian) lies along the eastern coast, towards the southern extremity of 
the peninsula, and includes the territory occupied by the ancient 
Daimians Peuc^tians, and Messipians. A great portion of this plain 
has a sandy and thirsty soil, and is occupied mostly as pasture land 
in winter. The plain of Naples^ on the western coast, is highly fer- 
tile, and densely peopled. 

3. The climate of Italy is in general delightful, the excennve 
heats of summer being moderated by the influence of the mountuns 
and the surrounding seas, while the cold of winter is hardly ever 
extreme. In the Neapolitan provinces, which lie in the latitude of 
central and southern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, snow is rare, and 
the finest fruits are found in the valleys throughout the wmter. At 
the very southern extremity of Italy, which is in the latitude of 
Richmond, Virginia, the thermometer never falls to the freezing 
point. From a variety of circumstances it appears that the dimate 
of Italy has undergone a considerable change, and that the winters 
axe now less cold than formerly ; although probably the summer- 
heat was much the same in ancient times as At present. 

4. The principal States of ancient Italy were Oisal'piae Gaul, 
Etruria, Um'bria, Picenum, Litium, Campania, Sam'nium, AptUia,. 
Caldbria, Lucdnia, and Bruti6rum A'ger, — the situation of which, 
together with the names of the principal tribes that inhabited them, 
may be learned irom the map of Ancient Italy accompanying this 
volume. (See Maps Nos. VIII. and X.) 

5. The earliest reliable information that we possess of Italy rep- 
resents the country in th^ possession of numerous indflpendent tribss, 

ChiT Y.] BbMAK HBTORT. 125 

aianj of iduoh, espeeially those in the soathera part of the pemnsula, 
were, like the early Grecians, of Pelas' gic origin. Of these tribes, the 
Etrnrftns or Etms' oans,^ inhabiting the western coaste aboye the 
Tiber,* were the most important; as it appears that, before the 
foonding of Rome, thej had attained to a considerable degree of 
power and civilisation ; and two oentories after that event they were 
masters of the oommerce of the western Mediterranean. Many 
works of art attributed to them still exist, in the walls of cities, in 
Tast dikes to reclaim lands from the sea, and in subterranean tunnels 
cot l^ugh the sides of hills to let off the lakes which had formed hi 
the craters of extinct volcanoes. 

6. It appears that during the height of Etrus' can power in Italy, • 
the southern portions of the peninsula, together with Sicily, jfirst 
began to be colonized by Grecians, who formed settlements at Camaa 
and Neap' olis, as early as the tenth or eleventh century before the 
Christian era, and at Taren' turn, Crot6na, Nax' os, and Syracuse, 
in the latter part of the eighth century ; and such eventuall^%e- 
came the nxmiber of the Grecian colonies that all southern Italy, 
in eonnection with Sicily, received the name of Magna Grecia. (See 
p. 115.) But while the old Etriirian civilization remained nearly 
stationary, fettered, as in ancient Egypt, by the sway of a sacerdotal 
easle, whose privileges descended by inheritance, — and while the 
Greek colonies were dividing and weakening their power by allowing 
to every city an independent sovereignty of its own, there arose on 
the western coast, betwe^i the Etrus' eans on the one side and the 
Gkeeks on the other, the small commonwealth of Rome, whose power 
ere long eclipsed that of all its rivals, and whose dominion was des- 
tined, eventually, to overshadow the world. 

L Hm EtritrUns, or Etrtu' ean$y were the Inhabltaots of Etruria^ a celebratod country ot 
Half, ly&s; to the north and west of the Tiber. They were farther advanced in civilizalion 
ttum any of their Eoropean cotemporariea, except the Greeks, but their origin Is involved in 
dMcarity, and of their early histopy little is known, as their writings have long since perished, and 
tbdr hieroglyphic inscriptions on brass are utterly unintelligible. {Maps Jfos. Vlfl. and X.) 

% The river Tiher^ called by the ancient Latins Albula^ and by the Greeks TJiijmbris, the 
OMMt eelebrated, though not the largest river of Italy, rises in the Tuscan Apennines, and hai 
a general southerly course about one hundred and thirty miles until it reaches Rome, when it 
tarns soutb-weat, and enten the Mediterranean by two mouths, seventeen milos fW>m Rome, 
temUnattng in a mUrshy pestiferous tract. Its waters have a yellowish hue, being discolored 
by ihe mod with which they are loaded. Anciently the Tiber was capable of receiving vessels 
of eoosklerable burden at Rome, and small boats to wilhln a short distance of iu source, but 
tbe flotraace of the river Arom the sea, and ita.aub«eqneut navigaUon, have become so difficult, 
that the harbor of OsUa at iU mouth has long been relinquished, and Cioita Fteekia is now 
tii0 port of Rome, although at the distance of thirty-aix miles north, with which it is coimecled 
BtybyaioadL (Afiyia Xqb. VUL and X.) 

IM AXOtSST HffinOBT. ^ tPMtut 

7. What hifltoriani hare related of liie fbundiiig of Rome, and of 
tbe first ooDtory, at least, of its existenoe^ has heen drawn fh>m 
Dnmeroiis traditionary legends, known, from their eharader, to be 
mostly fabuloos, and has therefuv no valid elsims to anflietttieity. 
Still it is proper to relate, as an introduction to what is better known, 
the story most accredited by the Romans fhemselres, and contained 
In their earliest writings, while at the same time we express tiie 
opinion that it has little or no foundation in trath > 

8. The Roman legends state l^at, immediately after the MI of 
Troy, Mn^, a celebrated Trojan wairior, escaping from his ^Moted 
coantiy, after seven years of wanderii^ aarrived on the western coast 
of Italy,. where he established a colony of his oomntrymen) and bnilt 
the city of Lavin' iom.' From Latfnns, a king of the coontry, whom 
he had slain in battle, and whoso subjects he incorporated witii his 
own followers, the onited people were called Laiini or LaHns, and 
their coontry LdHttm,* Afber the li^se of thirty years, which were 
ocApied mostly in wars with neighboring tribes, ^ Latins, now in- 
creased to thirty hamlets, removed their capital to Alba,' a new city 
which they bailt on the Alban Mcmit, and which continued to be the 
head of the confederate people during three centuries. 

9. The old Roman legends go on to state, that, at an nncertaiii 
date, Prdcas, king ef Alba, left two sons at his death, and that 
Ni\mitor the elder, being weak and spiritless, suffered Amtllius the 
younger to wrest the government from him, to murder the only son, 
and to consecrate the daughter of his brother to the service of ^e . 
temple, in the character of a vestal virgin. But the attempts of 
Amviltus to* remove all claimants of the throne were fruitless, fbr 
Syr via, the daughter of Niimitor, became the mother of twin sons, 


I. Lttvin' ittfR, a city of L&tittm, was abont eli^teen mHei aonfh of Rome. 11k*«modem 
Tillage of PnuticOf aboat three miles from the ooMt, Is supposed to occupy the site of tha 
ancient citj. (Mapt Nos. VIII. and X.) 

S. Ancient Ldtium extended (Vom the Tiber southward along the coast about fifty miles, to 
the Clrcssan promontory. It was afterwards extended farther south to the rlrer LIris, and at a 
itlU later period to the Vultumus. The early inhabitants of L&tlum were the Latins^ (also a 
general term applied to all the inhabitants of L&tlum,) Rntulians, Hemiclans^ and Volsbiana. 
{Maps Nos. VIII. and X.) 

3. Mba appears to have beon about fifteen miles south-east from Romeuon the eastern shora 
of the Alban lake, and on the western declivity of the Alban Mount The modem TlUa of 
Palazzuolo is supposed to mark the site of the ancient Alban city. (Map No. Z.) 

a. ** The Trojan legend is doubtless a home sprung fable, having not the least hlstorfeil tmth| 
nor even tlie slightest historical Importance."— Nlebuhr^ Rom. Hist., I. p. 107. 

** Niebttbr has shown the oariy history of Rome to be unworthy of credit, and mad* it bnpQS* 
rible for any one to rerlTe the old belief.^*— Antbon'B Oaa. Diet. ; aitiele Roma. 

CBif.T.] SOMAN HI8T0RY. 197 

Bom' ulna and R6mn8, by Mars, tiie god of war. AmdHnfl ordered 
tiiait tlie mother and her babes should be drowned in the Tiber ; but 
while 8jV via perished, the infants, placed in a cradle of rushes, float- 
ed to the shore, where they were fonnd by a she wolf, which carried 
them to her den, and nursed them as her own offspring. 

10. After awhile the children were discovered by the wife of a 
shepherd, who took them to her cotti^e on the Palatine hill, where 
they grew np with her twelve sons, — and being the stoutest and 
bravest of the shepherd lad*, they became their leaders in every 
wild foray, and finally the heads of rival Actions — ^ihe followers of 
Rom' alas being called Quinctil' ii, and those of Remus Fdbii. At 
length Remus having been seized and dragged to Alba as a robber, 
the secret of the royal parentage of the youths was made known to 
Rom' ulna, who armed a band of his comrades and rescued R^mufl 
from danger. The broU|ers then slew the king Amt!kHus, and the 
people of Alba again became subject to Ndmitor. 

11. Rom'ulus and R6mus next obtamed permission from their 
grandfather to build a city for themselves and their followers on the 
banks of the Tiber ; but as they disputed about the location and 
name of the city, each desiring to call it after his own name, they 
agreed to settle their disputes by auguries. Each took his station 
at midnight on his chosen hill, Rom'ulus on the Pal'atine, and 
R6mus on the Av' entine, and there awaited the omens. R4mus 
had the first augury, and saw six vultures flying from north to south ; 
but scarcely were the tidings brought to Rom'ulus when a flock of 
twelve vultures flew past the latter. Each claimed the victory, but 
the party of Rom' ulus, being the stronger, confirmed tie authority 
of their leader. 

12. Rom' ulus then proceeded to mark out the limits of the eity 
by cuttmg a furrow round the foot of the Pal' atine hill, which he 
inclosed, on the line thus drawn, with a wall and ditch, n. fodndikq 
But scarcely had the walls begun to rise above the sup- o» *oMa. 
face, when R^mus, still resenting the wrong he had suffered, insult- 
ingly leaped over the puny rampart, and was immediately slain, 
either by Rom' ulus or one of his followers. His death was regard- 
ed as an omen that no one should cross the walls but to his destruc^ 
tion. Soon the slight defences were completed, and a thousand rude 
huts marked the beginning of the " eternal city Rom:,'" within whose 

1. 8MdMerlpttoDorBoiM|M9e58SaiMilUpblfo»X 

128 AirCIENT^ HISTORY. [Pin I 

limits strangers from every land, exiles, and even oriminmis, and 
fugitives from justice, found an asylum. The date usually assigned 
for the founding of the city is the 753d year before the Christian era. 

13. But the Romans^ as we most now call the dwellers on the 
Par atine, were without wives; and the neighboring tribes scorn* 
fully declined intermarriages with this rude and dangerous horde. 
After peaceful measures had failed, Rom' ulus resorted to stratageoL 
He proclaimed a great festival ; and the neighborbg people, es- 
pecially the Lat' ins and Sdbines,* came in numbers, with their 
wives and daughters, to witness the ceremonies ; but while they were 
intent on the spectacle, the Roman youths rushed in, and forcibly 
bore off the maidens, to become wives of the captors. 

14. War followed this outrage, and the forces of three Latin 
cities, which had taken up arms without concert, were successively 
defeated. At last the Sdbine king, Titus Tatius, brought a power- 

m. wAa ^^ army against Rome, "which rlom' ulus was unable to 
WITH THK resist in the open field, and he therefore retreated to 
BA* BXKia.^ |.jj^ Q^^j^ ^jjQg j^g fortified and garrisoned the Gapitoline 
hill, over against the Pal' atine on the north, intrusting the command 
of it to one of his most faithful officers. But Tarpeia, the daughter 
of the commander, dazzled by the golden bracelets of the Sibines, 
agreed to open a gate of the fortress to the enemy on condition that 
they should give her what they bore on their left arms — ^meaning 
their golden ornaments. Accordingly the gate was opened, but the 
traitress expiated her crimes by her death ; for the Sibines over- 
whelmed her with their shields as they entered, these also being 
carried on their left arms. To this day Roman peasants believe 
that in the heart of the Gapitoline hill the fair Tarpeia is still sitting, 
bound by a spell, and covered with the gold and jewels of the Si- 

15. The S4bines next tried in vain to storm the city, and.Rom'- 
ulus made equally fruitless attempts to recover the fortress which he 
had lost While both parties thus maintained their positions, the 
Sabine women, now reconciled to their lot, and no longer wishing for 
revenge, but for a recoiftiliation between their parents and husbands, 
rushed in between the combatants, and by earnest supplications in- 

1. The territory of Uie SAbinu laj to the north-east of Rome. At the time whea Ita limita 
were most clearly defined it was separated from L&tiura on the south by the river Anio, from 
Etruria by the Tiber, IVom Umbria by the river Nar, and ttom Piceuum on the east by Um 
Apennines, (.tfapf Noe. VUL and X«) 


doced ihem to agfee to a suspension of hostilities, which terminated 
in a treaty of peace. The Sibines and Romans were henceforth to 
form one nation, having a common religion, and Rom'ulus and 
TAtius were to reign jointly. Not long after, Tatius was slain by 
some Lanrentines' on the occasion of a national sacrifice at Lavin^ 
ium, and henceforward Rom' nlus ruled over both nations. 

16. At this point in Roman history, remarks Niebuhr, the old 
Roman legend, oi poetic lay^ is suspended until the death of Rom'- 
ulus ; while the intervening period has been filled by subsequent writers 
with accounts of Etrus' can wars, which find no place in the ancient 
legend^ and which are probably wholly fictitious. Just before the 
death of Rom' ulus, who is said tQ have ruled thirty-seven years, the 
poetic lay is resumed. It relates that, while the king was reviewing 
his people, the. son withdrew his light, and Mars, descending in a 
whirlwind and tempest, bore away his perfected son m a fiery chariot 
to heaven, where he became a god, under the name of Quirinus.^ 
(B. C. 716.) 

17. The legend further relates that after the death of Rom' ulus, 
the chosen senators^, or elders of the people, who were also called 
patres, oxfcUhers, retained the sovereign power in their i^. numa. 
hands during a year ; but as the people demanded a king, it was 
finally agreed that the Romans should choose one from the Sdbine 
part of the population. The election resulted in the choice of the 
wise and pious Ndma Pompil' ius, who had married the daughter of 
Titius. After Ndma had assured himself by auguries that the 
gods approved of his election, his first care was to regulate the laws 
of landed property, by securing the hereditary possession of land to 
the greatest possible number of citizens, thereby establishing the 
most permanent basis of civil order. He then regulate^ the ser- 
Tioes of religion, prMending that he seceived the rituals of the law 
firom the goddess Eg^ria : he also built the temple of JAnus ;* and 

L Ibe Lnrgaiiniu were ttie people of Lawen' tmm^ the chief dty of ZrMntm. Laaren' turn 
wae eighteeD miles eouth from Rome, on Ihe ooest, aad near ibe spot now called PtAemo, 

8. JAnMB wu an •neteot lUUan deity, whoee origin is traced back to India.. He was repre- 
MDled acftioetlmea with two ftMes looking in opposile directions, and aomeUmes with font. He 
was the god of the year, and also of the d«y, and had charge of the gates of heaven through 

a. Riebohr deals sererely with those writers who, In attempting to deduce hlstorie truth 
ftom this poetical flctioil^ have made the supposition that, instead of an eclipse, there was a 
tanpesti and that the senator i themselves tore Bom' ulus to pieces. (See Niebuhr, i. 1S7-S-- 
tSm Schaiti^ Borne, p. 90.) 

13d AlfOIKNT mSTORT. [Pjjtri. 

*fter a quiet and prosperons reign of forty-two years lie ffell asleep 
f^l of days and peaceful honors. (673 B.' C.) The l^nd ad<b 
that the goddess Egeria, through grief for his loss, melted away in 
tears into a fountain. 

18. The deal^ of Ndma was followed by another interr^tiiny 
after which the young and warlike Tullus Hostilius was chosen king. 
A gleam of historic truth falls "upon his reign, uid Hie y, TULma 
purely poetic age of Roman story here begins to dtsap- «»««». 
pear in our confidence that such a king as TuUus Hostilius actually 
existed, and that durmg his reign the Albans became united with 
the Romans. Still, the story of the Alban war, and of subsequent 
WW8 during the life of Tullus, retam much of l^;endary fiction, des 
titute of historic certainty. 

19. A tradition of the Alban war, preserved by the early poets, 
relates, that when the armies of Rom^ and Alba were drawn up 
against each other, their leaders agreed to avert the battle by a 
combat between three twin brothers on the one side, and three on 
the other^ whose mothers happened to be sisters, although belonging 
to different nations. The Rt)man brothers were caUed Hordtii, and 
the Albans Curidtii. Meeting in deadly encounter between the two 
armies, two of the Hordtii fell, but the third, still unwounded, re- 
sorted to stratagem, and, pretending to flee, was followed at unequal 
distances by the wounded Curidtii, when, suddenly turning back, he 
overcame them in succession. 

20. A mournfid tragedy followed. At the gate of the city tlie 
victor was met by his sister Horitia, who, having been affiaLced to 
one of the Curidtii, and now seeing her brother cxultingly bearing 
off the spoils of the slain, and, among the rest, the embroidered 
cloak of her betrothed, which she herself had woven, gave way to a 
burst of grief and lamentation, which so incensed her brother tha( 
he sl^w her on the spot For this act he was condemned to death, 
but was pardoned by the interference of the people, although they 
ordered a monmnent to be raised 'on the spot where HoratiafelL* 
By the terms of an agreement made before the combat the Albans 
were to submit to the Romans ; but not long after this event they 
showed evidence of treachery, when, by order of Tullus, their city 

which the snn panes ; and hence all gates and doors on earth were sacred to him. JeamMJj^ 
ttie first month in the religions year of the Romans, was named after him. His temples at 
Borne were mimerons, and in time of war the gates of the principal one were open, but Im 
ttm* of pMce they were closed to keep wan^witbin. 

CkAP y.} BOHAN WmORY. 131^ 

was kvelled to the ground, and /the people were removed to the 
Caslian hill> adjoining the Pal' atine on the eaat After a reign of 
thirtj-tiro years, TuIIub and all his fiunily are said to have been 
kiUed bj lightning. (642 B. C.) 

21. We find the name of Anous Martins, said to hare been a 
grandson of Ndma, next on the list of Roman kings. He is rep- 
resented both as a warrior, and a restorer of the ordi- ^l angto 
nanees and ritnals of the eeremonial law, which had fiiUen hartius. 
into disuse dnring the reign of his predecessor. He subdued many 

• of the Latin towns — ^founded the town and port of ^ Ostia^ — built the 
first bridge over the Tiber — and established that principle of the 
Boman common law, that the State is the original proprietor of all 
lands in the commonwealtL The middle of his reign is said to have 
been the era of the legal constitution of the plebeian order, and the 
assignment of lands to this body out of the conquered territories. 
He is said to have reigned twenty-four years. 

22. The fourth king of Rome was Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin 
the Elder. The accounts of his reign are obscure and conflicting. 
By some his parents are said to hayeded from Corinth to Tarquin' ii,' 
a town of Etruria, where Tarquin was bom : by others y^. TABQuiii 
lie is said to have been of Etruscan descent ; but Niebuhr nn xldb. 
beiieyes^hn to have been of Latin origin. Having taken up his 
residence at Rome at the suggestion of his wife Tanaquil, who was 
celebrated for her skill in auguries, he there became distinguished 
for his courage, and the splendor in which he lived; and his liber- 
ality and wisdom so gained him the favor of the people that, when 
the throne, became vacant, he was called to it by the unanimous 
voice of the senate and citizens. (617 B. C.) 

. 23. Tarquin is said to have carried on successful wars against the 
Etms' cans, Latins, and Sdbines, and to have reduced all those people 
tmder the Roman dominion ; but his reign is chiefly memorable on 
account of the public works which he commenced for the security 
and improvement of the city. Among these were the embanking of 

L Of'tio, the early port and harbor of Borne, onoe a place of' great wealth, popolatioB, aaA 
trnportanoe, wai lituated on the east aide of the Tiber, near its mouth, fifteen miles from 
Borne. Oe'tia, which sttll retains its andent name, is now a miserable village of scaroely a 
hundred liihabitanto,aMi is aimoeliminhabitable, from Malaria ; the l^ver whUh U engeBderft 
carrying off annnally nearly all whom neceiijty confines to this pestilential region daring th* 
bot season. The harbor of Os' tin is now merely a shallow pool. {Map» N* is. VIII. and X.) 

9, Targmin' m, one of the most powerful dUes of Btruria, was aboot fr4^y mtles nortlMreei 
from Borne, on tHe left bank of the rirer Malta, seTersl miles from Its mouth. The ralna of 
TSuxkina mark the site of the andent dty. (Mapa Nos. vni. and X.) 


the Tiber ; the sewers, wldch je\ remain,- for draining the marshes 
and lakes in the vicinity of the capital ; the porticos around the 
market-place, the race-course of the circus, and the foundations of the 
city walls, which were of hewn stone. It is said that Tarquin, after 
a reign of Uiirty^eight years, was assassinated at the instigation of 
the sons of Ancus Martins, who feared that he would secure the suc- 
cession to his son-in-law Servius Tullius, his own &yorite, and the 
darling of the Roman .people. (579 B. C.) 

24. Notwithstanding the efforts of the sons of Ancus Martins, the 
senate and the people decided that Servius should rule over thern.^ 
The birth of this man is said, in the old legends, to have ym. ssRviin 
been very humble, and his infancy to have been^ attended ^ui^ids: 
with marvellous omens, which foretold his future greatness. Of his 
supposed wars with the revolted Etrus' cans nothing certain is known ; 
but his renown as a law-giver rests on more substantial grounds than 
his military fame. 

25. The first great political act of his reign was the institution of 
the census, and the division of the people into one hundred and ninety- 
three centuries^ whose rights of suffrage and military duties were 
regulated on the basis of property qualifications. The several Latin 
communities that had hitherto been allied with the Bomans by treaty 
he now incorporated with them by a federal union ; and^ render 
that union more firm and lasting, he induced the confederates to 
unite in erecting a temple on Mount Aventine to the goddess Diana, 
and there unitedly to celebrate her worship. He also made wise 
regulations for the impartial administration of justice, prohibited 
bondage for debt, and relieved the people from the oppressions with 
which they already began to be harassed by the higher orders. 

26. His legislation was received with displeasure by the patricians ; 
and when it was known that Servius thought of resigning the crown, and 
establishinga consular form of government, which would have rendered • 
a change of his laws difficult, a conspiracy was formed for securing 
the throne to Tarquinius, sumamed the Proud, a son of the former 
king, who had married a daughter of Servius. The old king Servius 
was murdered by the agents of Tarquin, and his body left exposed 
Ib the street, while his wicked daughter Tullia, in her haste to con- 
gratulate her husband on his success, drove hef chariot over her 
father^s corpse, so that her garments were stained with his blood. 
(535 B. C.) 

27 The reign of Tarquinius Superbus, or the Proud, was distiii- 

Ohap. y.] KOMAK HISTORY. 133 

gaifihed by a series of tyrannioal usurpations, wbich made his name 
odious to Jill classes; for although he at first gratified his supporters 
by diminishing the privileges df the plebeians, or the i^. tarquiic 
common people, he soon made the patricians themselves ™« p»oud. 
feel the weight of his tyranny. The laws of Servius were swept 
away — ^the equality of civil rights abolished — and even the ordinances 
a£ religion suffered to fall into neglect But although Tarquin was 
a ^nant, he exalted the Roman name by his successful wars, and 
alliances wiih the surrounding nations. In the midst of his successes, 
howeTcr, he was disturbed by the most fearful dreams and appalling 
prodigies. He dreamed l^at the sun changed its course, rising in 
the west ; and ths^ when the two rams were brought to him fbr sac- 
rifice, one of them pushed him down with its horns. At one time a 
serpent crawled from the altar and seized the flesh which he had 
brought for sacrifice : a flock of vultures attacked an eagle's nest in 
his garden, threw oiit the unfledged eaglets upon the ground and 
drove the old birds away ; and when he sent to Delphi to consult the 
oracle, the responses were dark and fearful. 

28. The reverses threatened were brought upon him by the wick- 
edness of Seztus, one of his sons. It is related that while the Ro- 
mans were besieging Ardea,^ a Rutulian city, Seztus, with his 
brothers Titus and Aruns, and their cousin Collatinus, happened to 
be disputing, over their wine, about the good qualities of their wives, 
when, to settle the dispute, they agreed to visit their homes by sur- 
prise, and, seeing with their own eyes how their wives were then em- 
ployed, thus decide which was the worthiest lady. So they hastily 
rode, first to Rome, where they found the wives of the three Tar- 
quins feasting and making merry. They then prpceeded to Oollitia,' 
the residence of Collatinus, where, although it was then late at night, 
they found his wife Lucretia, with her maids around her, all busy 
working at the loom. On their return to the camp all agreed that 
Lucretia was the worthiest lady. 

29. But a spirit of wicked passion had seized upon Seztus, and a 
fern days later he went alone to Oolldtia, and being hospitably lodged 
in his kinsman's house, violated the honor of Lucretia. Thereupon 

h jarieof a eitj of LAUmq, and the capital of the- RatuUaai; wu about twenty-fbor miles 
mnlh than Bimie, and lliree miles from the sea. Some ruins of the anelent city are still yislbl^ 
■Ddbeartbe'nameofAfdfl*. (Jlfs^ Nos^ VUI. and X.) 

fi, CMTAcia, a town of Litttmn, was near the sooth hank of the river Anio, twelve or thirteen 
■Bee east from Borne. Its miiis may atlU be tnoed on a hill which has obtained the name of 
CtoCiilari*. (Jlfi^.Soa.Vm.aBdX.) 


she sent in haste for her fkther, and hnsbaitd, and o&er rdttti?ea| 
and having told them of the wicked deed of Sextos, and made theai 
swear that they would avenge it, she drew a knife from her bosom 
and stabbed herself to the heart The yow was renewed over ^ 
dead body, and Lucius Junius Brutus, who had long concealed patri- 
otic resolutions under tibe mask of pretended stupidity, and thus 
saved his life from the jealousy of Tarquin, exhibited the corpse to 
the people, whom he influenced, by his eloquence, to pronoimoe sen* 
tence of banishment against Tarquin and his fi^mily, and to dedare 
that the dignity of king should be abolished forever. (510 B. C.) 



268 B. a = 247 tears. 

ANALTSIS. 1. Royalty aboUsbad. The laws of Serrioi reestablished. Comsuls etooted^- 
& Aristocratic character of the goTwnment. Tba straggle between the patricians and ple- 
beians begins.-~3. Ejctent of Roman territory. — 4. Conspiracy in foror of the Tarqulna. Enva'' 
CAM war.—S. Conflicting aeoonnts. Legend of the Etroa' can war. [Clttsiam.]— & Hm stoty 
of Mutlus Scasv' ola.— 7. Fsrttier account of the Roman legend. The probable truth.— 6. Hu- 
miliating condition of the plebeians afler the Ebus can war.— 9. Continued oontentiona. Hie 
oflloe of Dictator.— 10. Cljneanutaooes of the first Plbbciam Inscrrbcteor. [VolBdaDa.}— 11. 
Co&Aision. Withdrawal of the Plebeians. [Mons Sacer.]— 12. The terms of reconciliation. 
Office and power of the Tribunks.— 13. League with the Latins and Hemldans.— 14. Vol- 
BciAN AND JRnrnxx WARS. Coutradictory statements. [iEqniana. CerioO.] Propoaal of 
CorloUnus.— 15.. His trial— exilo— and war against the Romans.— 16. Tine stoiy of CindnAtus.- 
17. The public lands— and the fhte of Spurius Cassius.— 18. Coiftinued dexpands of the people. 
Election and office of ths Dbcbm' tirb.— 19. The lsw» of the decern' virs.— SO. The deeam'- 
▼trs are oontinned in office— thair additional lawa— and tyranny.— 21. Ibe story of Virginia.— 
S2. Orerthrow of the decem' rirs, and death of Appius.— 33. Plebeian innovations. The office 
of Cknsors.— 84. Rome, as viewed by the surrounding people. CiroumstaBees that led to the 
WAR WITH Vbii. [Situation of Veil.]— 25. Destroction of Veli, aiMi ezteBsloo of Rooub 

96. Gallic IinrAsioir, Circumstances of the Introduction of the Oauls Into Italy. [Clsalplna 
Gaul.}— 97 The Roman ambassadors. Conduct of Bronnns.— 96. The Romana deflaated by th* 
Gauls. General abandonment of "Rome. [The Allia. Roman Forum.]— 20. Entrance of the 
.Gauls IntQ the city. Massacre of the Senators. Rome plundered and burned.— 30 VaiiLat- 
tempts to storm the citadeL The Roman legend of the expulsion of the Gauls. The more 
probable account. [Tbe Venetians.]— 31. The rebuilding of Rome.— 39. Renewal of the Plb- 
BBiAN AND pATRiciAN coimsTs. Philanthropy and subsequent history of Manlius.— 33. Ooa-. 
tinned oppression of the plebeiaha.— 34. Great reforms made by Ltdniaa Stolo and fiudoa 8ex- 
tus. The office of Prjrtor.— 35. Progreas of the Roman power. The Samhite eo n te d eraqy 
[The Samnttes.]— 36. Piksr 8a«i«itb war. [Cap'oa.] League with the Bamnitee. Latlft 
war^— 37 Sbconb SAiiinTB war.— Deibat of the Romaoa, and rtMwed aUlanee. [Qaodia* 

Omm. 7.] SGirAK mSTORT. 185 

t.y-'m, TlM iOMto daelaiw Um trealj' void. MBgnonimttr of FooOhm-^ The nnmB 
OkJfinTS WAR. Fate of PodUob. [IJqi'bria.]— 40. War with the Tarkntinks akp Pyr* 
Ksva — 41. Fint encounter of Pyr' rbus with the Ronuuu.— 42. Pyr' rhuB attempts negotiation. 
Bte. aaeoiMl lMUUe.~4aL -Story of the generoelty of FaMeiaa, and magnanfanity of Pyr' rinis, 
fyf ttiam paaaes over to Slcilj— retuma, and ranewi the war-is defeated—Rod abaDdons Italy. 
Boman supremacy orer all Italy. [Rubicon. Amus. Tnscan Sea.]— 44. Alliance with Egypt. 
tlaffHiw Rflttra. Wldeninff drele of Soman hiHoiy. 

1. Aa narrated at the eiose of the preyions seotion, royalty waa 
ftbolidied at Borne, after an exktenoe of two hundred and forty 
years. The whole Boman people took an oath that whoever should 
express a widi to rule as king idionld bo declared an outlaw. The 
knrs of Servius were redsiablished, and, aeoording to the 

eode which he had proposed, the royal power was in- 

trusted to two eonsuls,^ anBually elected. The first chosen were 

Blitns and Collatinua 

2. From the expulsion of the Tarquins, and the downfall of mon- 
arehy, is* dated the^commeneement of what is called the B/yman 
RtpMic Yet the government was at this time entirely aristo^ 
eratieal ; ior all political power was in the hands of the nobility, 
from^whom th^ eonsuls were chosen, and there was no third party 
te hold the balanee of power between them and the peopla Hence 
arose a struggle be^een these two divisions of the body politio ; 
and it was not until the bahmce was properly adjusted by the in- 
ereaaed privileges of the plebeians, and a more eqiul distribution of 
power, tiiat the oommonwealth attained tha^strength and infiuence 
which predminenily exalted Borne above the surrounding -nations. 

3. The territory possessed by Bome under the last of the kings 
10 known, from a treaty made with Carthage in the first year of the 
Bepublio, to have extended at least seventy miles along the coast 
south of the Tiber. Yet all thb sea^eoast was destined to be lost 
to Bome by oiyil dissenffiens andbad government, b^ore her power 
was to be finoly established there. 

R. The tMndM had it tnt neaily the mow power aa the kings; and all other maglalrataa 
were ■nfejleei to them, except the tribmes of the people^ They summoned the meetings of the 
icmiitri and of the assemblies of the people— they bad the chief direction of the foreign aflkirs 
•r Ibe gu f ei UMW i t-they Med sofclieni appofaited moat of the military ofloers, and, hi time 
•r war, had aaprtme oomnaod of the armiee. In dangerous oo]]|)nBctures tbej were armed 
wHh absolute power by a decree of the senate that ** they should take care that the republic 
neeiTca no hRrm.** Their badges of office were the toga prmUxta^^r mantle bordered witl^ 
f«rpla» nnd an ln>ry aoeptre ; and When Ihey appeared In public they were accompanied by 
twelvn oflfeers called lUtart, each of whom carried a bundle of rods, C/m' cm,) with an axe 
^00*rt») placed in ihe mkUle of them »-~(be former denoting the power of aeousingi or of 
r liimiil nil ami Mm Itimy thn power of Ufe and tenth. 


4. The efforts of Tarquin to recoTer the throne gaye rise to a eon- 
spiracy among some lof the younger patricians who had shared in 
the tyrant's extortions. Anoiong the conspirators were the sons.c^ 
Bfutus ; and the duty of pronouncing their fate devolved upon the 
consul their father, who, laying aside parental affection, and acting 
the part of the magistrate only, condemned them to death. The 
n. snna' can oause of the Tarquins was also espoused by the Etrus'* 

WA&. cans, to whcmi they had fled for protection, and thus a war 
was kindled between the two people. 

5. The accounts of the events and results of this war are exceed* 
ingly conflicting. The ancient Boman legend relates that when 
Porsenna, king of Glusium,* the most powerful of the Etrus'can 
princes,, led an overwhelming force against Borne, the Bomans were 
at flrst repulsed, and fled across a wooden bridge over the Tib^ ; 
and that the army was saved by the valor of Horatius C6cleB, who 
alone defended the pass against thousands of ikie enemy, amtil the 
bridge was broken down in the rear, when he plunged into the stream, 
and, amid a shower of darts, safely regained the opposite shore. 

6. It is farther related, that when Porsenna had deduced Borne 
to extremities by fiunine, a young man, Mutius Sosbv' ola, undertook, 
with the approbation of the Senate, to assassinate the invading king. 
Making his way into the Etrus' can camp, he slew one of the king'ji 
attendants, whom he mistook for Porsenna. Being disarmed, and 
threatened with tortur% he scornfully thrust his right hand into the 
flame, whwe he held it until it was consumed, to show that the rack 
bad no terrors for him. The king, admiring such heroism, gave him 
his life and liberty, when Sc»v' ola warned him, as a token of grati- 
tude, to make peace, for that three hundred young patricians, as brave 
as himself, had conspired to destroy him, and that he, SceeV ola, had 
only been chosen by lot to make the first ^tempt 

7. The Boman legend asserts that Porsenna, alarmed for his life, 
offered terms of peace, which were agreed upon. And yet it is known, 
from other evidence, that the Bomans, about this time, surrendered 
their city, and became tributary to the Etrus' cans ; and it is prob- 
able that when, soon after, Porsenna was defeated in a war with the 
Latins, the Bomans embraced the opportunity to regain their inde- 

8. It was only while the attempts of the Tarquins to regain the 

L 0««<MHiMnrCaiw«,waiatowii of Etrirla, tlttttttd ontlMweftflni bank oTtlMrivw 
Ctaiil%atilt>iitai7ortlMTttNr,«bMl«lglil74T«aUM nortlepait fhsnttonM. {Mt^Vo. VUL} 


tbnme excited alarm, and the Etrus' can war condnned, that the goT- 
emment under the first consuls was administered with justice and 
moderation. When these dangers were over, the patricians again 
b^an to exert their tyranny over the plebeians, and as nearly all 
the wealth of the State had been engrossed by the former, the latter, 
were. reduced to a condition differing little from the most abject 
slavery. • A decree Against a plebeian debtor made not only him, 
but hia children also, slaves to the creditor, who might imprison, 
0Gonrge, or otherwise maltreat them. 

9. The contentions between the patricians and plebeians were at 
length carried to such an extent^ that in time of war the latter re- 
fused to enlist ; and as the consuls, for some cause now unknown, 
could not be confided in, the plebeians were induced to consent to 
the creation of a dictator , who, during six months, had ni. office o» 
supreme power, not only over patricians, plebeians, and dictatob. 
consuls, but also over the laws themselve& Under a former law of 
Valerius the people had the right of appeal from a sentence of the 
oonsul to a general assembly of the citizens; but from the decision 
of the dictator there was no appeal, and as he was appointed by the 
Senate, this office gave additional power to the p'^trician order.^ 

10. During a number of years dictators continued to be appointed 
in times of great public danger ; but they gave only a temporary 
calni to the popular dissensions. It \yas during a war with the Vol- 
sciaus^ and Sabines that the long-accumulating resentment of the 
plebeians against the patricians first broke forth in open ly. plebstan 
insurrection. An old man, haggard and in rags, pale insurebotion 
and fEimishing, escaping from his creditor's prison, and bearing the 
marks of cruel treatment, implored the aid of the people. A crowd 
gathered around him. He showed them the scars that he had re: 
ceiyed in war, and he was recognized as a brave captain who had 
fought for his country in eight and twenty battles. His house and 
farm-yard having been plundered bythe enemy in the Etrus' can war, 

L The Volieiantyrere the moat floathem of tbo tribes thai inhabited Litium. Their terri- 
tory, extandkig along the coast southward from Antiuin about fifty miles, twanned with cities 
fiUed with a hardy and warUke race. (Jlfap# Noa. VUI. and X.) 

a. The oflbe ot dictator had existed at Alba and other Latin towns long before this time. 
The authority of all the other magistrates, except that of the tribunes, (see p. 138,'; ceased as 
toom as the dictator was appointed. He had the power of life and death, except pcc- 
haps hi the case of knights and senators, and flrom his decision there was no appeal ; bat for 
aot abuse of his power be might be called to account after his resignation or the expiration of 
Ma term of oAca At first the dictator was taken from the patrician ranks only ; but about the 
year 350 B. C. It was opened by C. Marclna to the plebeians alao. See Nlebuhr's Rome, 1. 870 


ftunine bad finrt compelled him to sell bis all, and tben to borrow; 
and wben he could not pay, his creditors had obtained judgment 
against him and his two sons, and had put them in chains. (495 
B. C.) 

11. Confusion and uproar spread through the city. All who had 
been pledged for debt were clamorous for relief; the people spurned 
the summons to enlist in the legions ; compulsion was impossible, 
and the Senate knew not how to act. At length the promises of the 
consuls appeased the tumult; but finally the plebeians, after having 
been repeatedly deceived, deserted their officers in the very midst 
of war, and marched in a body to Mons Sacer,' or the Sacred Mount, 
within three miles of Rome, where they were joined by a vast mul- 
titude of their discontented brethren. (493 B. C.) 

12. After much negotiation, a reconciliation was finally effected 
on the terms that all contracts of insolvent debtors should be can- • 
celled ; that those who had incurred slavery for debt should recoyer 
their freedom ; that the Valerian law should be enforced, and that 
two abnual magistrates, (afterwards increased to five,) called trib- 

V. TRIBUNES **»«^* whose persons were to be inviolable, should be 

OF nn chosen by the people to watch over their rights, and pre- 

TxoFLK, ^^^ ^^y abuses of authority. It will be seen that the 

power of the tribunes, so humble in its origin, eventually acquired a 

preponderating infiuence in the State, and laid the foundation of 

monarchical supremacy.^ 

13. During the same year that the office of the tribunes wad 
created, a perpetual league was made with the Latins, (493 B. C.) 
and seven years later with the Hernicians, who inhabited the north- 
eastern parts of Litium, both on terms of perfect equality in the 
contracting parties, and not, as befbre, on the basis of Roman supe- 

L The Man» Sacar^ or ** Sacrad Bfountefav" is a low range of sandiloae hOto extendlas 
along the right bank of the Anio, near iU oonfloenoe with the Tiber, about three miles fton 
Rome. {Map* Nos. VIIL aod X.) 

a. The trVnuua of tJu fopU wore no external marks of disUnctlon ; but an officer called 
arator attended them, to clear the way and sammon people. Their chief pow«r at first com 
sisted in preventing, or arresting, by the word vet«, ** I forbid,'* iny measnre which tbey 
thought detrimental to the interteta of the people. 

b. After the plebeians had withdrawn to the ** Sacred Momit," the Senate despatched an 
embassy of ten men, headed by Menenius Agrippa, to treat with the insurgents. Agrippa is 
said, on this occasion, to have related to the people the since well-known fable of the Brtly and 
the Members. The latter, provoited at seeing all the flruits of their toil and cace applied to 
the use of the belly, refused to perform any more labor ; in consequence of whioh the wbola 
body was in dinger of perishing. The people understood the moral of Uie IhUe, and \ 
ready to enter upon a n^otlatlbn. 




riofitj. Tliese leagaes nRide with eitiesr that were once subject to 
tile RomaDB, sliow that the Roman power had heen greatly dimin- 
idied by the plebeian and aristocratic contentipns in the early years 
ef the BepnbHc. • 

14. In the interval between these treaties, occnrred important 
wars with the Yolscians and ^qnians.* The historical yj yolsoian 
emtradietions of this' period are so numerous, that little and iSQur- 
felianee can be placed on the details of these wars ; but ^ ^^*^ 
it is evident that the Yolscians and ^^uians were defeated, and that 
CmB MarcTQS, a Roman nobleman, acquired the surname of Coriold- 
Boa fh>m his bravery at the capture of the Yolscian town of Corf oli* 
and tbat Lucius Qninctius, called Cincinndtus, acquired great dis- 
linetioB by his conduct of the war against the ^quians. CorioUnus 
belonged te the patrician order, and was an enemy of the tribunes ; 
and it is related that when, during a &mine, a Sicilian prince sent a 
krge sn^y of com to relieve the dietresses of the citizens^ Coriold- 
AOB proposed in the Senate that the plebeians should not sh^re in 
the 8abfli<fy imtil they had sisrrendered the privileges which they had 
ttoipiitwd by their recent secession. 

15. The rage of the plebeians was excited by this proposition, and 
^y would have proceeded to violence against Goriolinus, had not 
the tribunes summoned him to trial before the assembly of the peo- 
ple: The senators made the greatest efforts to save him, but the 
eoaunoM condemned him to e»le. Enraged by this treatment, he 
Went over to tiie Yolscians— was appointed a general in their armies 
'^-Aiid, afier defeatmg the Romans in several engagements, laid siege 
to ihe city, which must have surrendered had not a deputation of 
Roman matrons, headed by the wife and the mother of CorioUnus, 
prevailed upon him- to grant his countrymen terms of peace. It is 
said that on his return to the Yolscians he lost his life in a popular 
tumult ; but a tradition relates that he lived to a very advanced age, 
Mkd that he waii often heard to exclaim, '* How miserable is the con- 
dition of an old man in banishment." 

16. It is related that during the war with the iBquians the eneipy 
had surrounded the Roman consul in a defile, where there was neither 
forage fot the horses nor food for the men. In this extremity, the 

L The JEqmiant dwelt prindpally in the upper TaHey^ the Anio^ north of thai atraem, and 
between the Sabines and the ATaral. (.»<};>« Nob. YIU. and X.) 

S. CvHWj ia sappoied to have been about twenty-two or twenty-three miles south-east fW)iii 
Bone. A hill now known by the name of MonU Oure«, is thou^^t, with some degree of prob- 
flMlty, to reprsient the site of this sneient Volsclaa dty. (JUtap No. X) 


Senate and people chose CmoinnAtiis dieter, and aending in haste 
to inform him of his election, the depnties found him at work in his 
field, dressed in the plain habit of a Roman farmer. .After he had 
put on his toga, or cloak, that he might receive the message of the 
Senate in a becoming manner, he waa saluted as dictator, and eon- 
ducted into the city. He soon raised an army, surrounded the enemj; 
and took their whole force prisoners, and at the end of sixteen days, 
having acoomplished the deliverance of his country, resigned his 
power, and returned to the peaceful pursuits of private life.^ 

17. The first acquisitions of territory made by the Romans appear 
to have been divided among the people at large ; but of late the con- 
quered lands had been suffered to pass, by connivance, occupation, or 
purchase, chiefly into the hands of the patricians. The complaints 
of the plebeians on this subject at length induced one of the consuls, 
Spurius Cassius, to propose a division of recently-conquered lands 
into sniall estates, for the poorer classes, who, he maintained, were 
justly entitled to their proportionate share, as their valor and labors 
had helped to acquire them. But while this proposition alarmed 
the Senate and patricians with danger to their property, the motives 
of Cassius appear to have been distrusted by all classes, for he was 
charged with aiming at kingly power, and, being convicted, was ig- 
nominiously beheaded, and his house rased to the ground. (458 B. C.) 

18. Still the people continued to demand a share in the conquered 
lands, now forming the estates of the wealthy, and, as the only way 
of evading the difficulty, the Senate kept the nation almost constantly 
involved in war. During thirty years succeeding the death of Cas- 
sius, the history of the Republic is obcupied with desultory wars 
waged against the iESquians and Yolscians, and with continued strug- 
gles between the patricians and plebeians. At length the tribunes 
succeeded in getting their number increased from five to ten, when 
tlie Senate, despairing of being able to divert the people any longer 
firom their purpose, consented to the appointment of ton persona, 

vii. THc hence called decern' virs^ who were to compile a body of 
DECKMYiRa laws for the commonwealth, and to exercise all the pow- 
ers of government until the laws shonld be completed. (451 B. C.) 

19. After several months* deliberation, this body produced a code 

a. It should be remarked here, that the story of Clndnn&tas formed the subject of a bean'tl- 
ftal poem, to the substance of which most writers have given the credit of historical authen- 
ticity, although Niebuhr has shown that the truth of the legend will not stand the test of 
criticism. (See Niebuhr, roL IL pp. 125-6. and AmoUTs Rome, 1. pp. 131-5^ and notel^ 

Our.T.] KOMAK mSTORT. 141 

of laws, engrayen on ten tables, which continued; down to the time 

of the emperors, to be the basis of the civil and penal jurisprudence 
of the Roman people, though almost concealed from view under the 
enormous mass of additions piled upon it. The new constitution 
aimed at establishing the legal equality of all the citizens, and there 
wasft^show of dividing the great offices of State equally between patri- 
oans and plebeians, but the exact character of the ten tables cannot 
now be satisfactorily distinguished from two others that were sub- 
sequently enacted. 

20. After the task of the decemvirs had been completed, all classes 
miited in continuing their office for another year ; and an equal num- 
ber of patrician§ and plebeians was elected ; but the former appear 
to have sought Sieats in the government for the purpose of overthrow- 
ing the constitution. The decemvirs now threw off the mask, and 
enacted two additional tables of laws, by which the plebeians were 
greatly oppressed, for, among the laws attributed to the tiffelve tables, 
we find that although all classes were liable to imprisonment for 
Uebt, yet the pledging of Ae person affected plebeians only, — that the 
latter were excluded from the enjoyment of the public lands, — ^that 
their intermarriage with patricians was prohibited, — and that consuls 
oould be elected from the patrician order only. Moreover, the de- 
cemvirs now refused to lay down the powers of government which 
had been temporarily granted them, and, secretly supported by the 
patrieiaos, ruled wi^out control, thus establishing a tyrannical oli* 

21. At length a private injury accomplished what wrongs of a 
more public nature had failed to effect. Appius Glauditis, a leading 
decemvir, had &llen in love with the beautiful Virginia, daughter of 
Yirginins, a patrician officer ; but finding her betrothed to another, in 
order to accomplish his purpose he procured a base dependant to 
claim her as his slave. As had been concerted, Virginia was brought 
befnre the tribunal of Appius himself, who, by an iniquitous decision, 
ordered her to be surrendered to the claimant. It was then that the 
distracted father, having no other means of preserving his daughter's 
honor, stabbed her to the heart in the presence of the Qourt and the 
assembled people. (448 B. 0.) 

22. A general indignation against the decemvirs spread through the 
dty ; the army took part with the people ; the power of the decern* 
virs was overthrown ; and the ancient forms of government were re- 
stored ; while odditiimal righto were ooooeded to the oommdUB, bj 

148 A5CISRT HniOKT. {PmI 

giTing to tkeir Toiety ia oerUm oaseSf &M anlliority of law. Apphu^ 
LftTuig i^een impeached, died in priBon, probably by his own ba&d, 
befofe the day appointed for his trial 

23. Other plebeian innovationB followed. After a difficolt strug- 
gle the marriage law waa repealed, (B. C. 445,) and two years later 
military tribunes, with consular powers, were choaen from the ple- 
beian ranks. One important dul^ of the consols had been the taking 
of the census once in every five years, and a new distrtbution of the 
people, at such times, among the different classes or ranks, aeoording 
to their property, character, and families. But the patricians, un- 
willing that this power should devolve upon the plebeians, stipulated 
that these duties of the consular office should be disjoined from the 
military tribuneship, and conferred upon two new o&oere of patrioiaa 

"TnLomox birth, who were denominated censors ;*^ and thus the 
OP CCN80MS. long-oontinued efforts of the people to obtain, from their 

own number, the election of officers with full consular powers, wer0 


24. But while dissensions continued to^ark the domestiocDuacik 
of the Romans with the appeacance of divided strength and waated 
energies, the state of affiiirs presented a different a^ct to the sur* 
rounding people. They saw m Rome only a nation of warriors that 
had already recovered the strength it had lost by a revolutionaiy 
change of government, and that was now marching on to increased 
dominion without any signs of weakness in the foreign wars it had to 
maintain. Veil,* the wealthiest and most important of the Etrusoan 
cities, had long been a check to the progress of the Romans north of 
the Tiber, and had often sought occasion to provoke hostilities with 

zz. WAB ^^ young republic. At length the chief of the people 
WITH vKii. of y ^ put to death the Roman ambassadors ; and the 
Roman Senate, being refused satisiEaction for the outrage, formally 
resolved that V^ii should be destroyed. 

25. The Etruscan armies that marched to the rolief of Yiii were 

1. FHi, mmwroiu ramaiDS of wMeb sdli exist, was ^bont twalTO m!lM north from Rome, at 
• plBM BOW known ^taeanM of r/ttMteAnMM. (JUyw Noa. VIIL anl Z.) 

a. An Imporiant dnty of tlie0in##r« waa that of loapeeUng the monla of the people. Hmt 
had the power of inflicting yariona marks of disgrace upon those who deserred it,-Hmoh aae» 
eluding a senator from the senate-house— depriving a knight of his pabllc horse If he did not 
take proper care of It ;— and of punishing, in Tarious ways, those who did not coltiTate their 
gmwds properly— (hoie who lived too loiig ainanied--«nd those who wweof diMolate avV" 
als. They had charge, also, of the public works, and of letting oat the public lands. Tha 
p of oenaor was esteemed highly honorable. In allusion to the severity with which Galo 
I Ui dAlei^ be to cnuntnlr MyM^ at tU pMMtt ddr, »€iMl> fte C 

Cmaa^y.] JKOCAK HSBIOBt: 14S 

Mpestedlj defeated by ihe Bomaa legions, and the people of Y^ 
weace finaliy eompelled to shut themselTes up in their city, which wae 
taken by the Roman dictator, Oamillus, after a blockade and eiege 
of nearly ten years. (396 B. C.) The spoil taken from the ooa- 
<{iiered «ty was given to the army, the captiyes were sold for the 
benefit of the State, and the ornaments and images of the gods were 
transferred to Bome. The conquerors also wreaked their vengeance 
OB tke towns which had aided Y6ii in the war, and the Romim territory 
was extended &rther north of the Tiber than at any previous period. 

26. Bat while tiie Bomans were enjoying the imaginary security 
wliifih these socceesfiil wars h^ given them, they were suddenly as- 
sailed by a new enemy, Irhich threatened the extinotion of the Bo- 
man name. Bnring the recent Etrosoa^ wars, a vast horde of barba^ 
nans of the Gallic or Celtic race had orossed the Alps z. <7aixio 
from the imknown regions of the north, and Jiad sat down n^Aaioy. 
in the plains of Northern Italy, in the country known as Cisalpine 
GaoL' Tradition relates that an injured citizen of Clusium, an 
fitmaoan city, went over the mountains to these Oauls, taking with 
him a quantity of the firuits and wines of Italy, and promised these 
rude people that if they would leave their own inhospitable country 
■ad foUow him, the land which produced ^U these good things 
afaoold be ^eirs, ^or it was inhabited by an unwarlike race ; where- 
apen the whole Glallic people, with their women and children, crossed 
die Alps, and marohed direct to Clusium. (391 B. C) 

27. Obtain it is that the people of Clusium sought aid from the Bo- 
mans, who sent three of the nobility to remonstrate with the Brennus, 
er ckiefiain ei tiie Gauls, but as the latter treated them with derision, 
liiey forgot their Btuared character as ambassadors, and joined the 
Ghtsiana in a sally against the besiegers. Immediately Brennus 
ordered a retreat, that ^ might not be guilty of shedding the blood 
of ambassadors, and £[)rthwith demanded satis&ction of the Boman 
K&ate; and when this was refused he broke up his camp before 
Chiaium and took up his march for Bome at the head of seventy 
thousand of his p^le. 

28. Eleven mil^ from the city, on the banks of the Al' ia,' a battle 

L dsalpins Oanl^ mining **Gaiil thia tide ofthe AlpA," to diBttngoSA it from *^ Gml be> 
yowl Ui» MpB^ embraced aU that portion of Northern Italy that wm watered by tbe rlter Vo 
and tto namecoaa tribuiaries, exteoding aonfh on the Adrialio coast to tbe river Kablcon, and 
OD Um Tnacan ooaat to tbe river Macra. (Map No. IX.) ^^ 

aite^'^iioirtlie^M,WMi a flMai aUvam tbat SmtmI Into UktTOmtttm tte taitf 


was foaght, and the Romiuis, forty thousand in number, were defeat- 
ed. (390 B. C.) Brennos meditated a sadden march to Rome to eon- 
summate his victory, but his troops, abandoning themselves to pillage, 
rioting, and drunkenness, refused to obey the voice of their lead^, 
and thus, the attack being delayed, the existence of the Roman na- 
tion was saved. The defeat on the Al' ia had rendered it impossible 
to defend the city, but a thousand armed Romans took possessiop of 
the capitol and the citadel, and laying in a store of provisions deter- 
mined to maintain their post to the last extremity, while the mass of 
the population sought refuge in the neighboring towns, bearing with 
them their riches, and the principal oljects of their religious venera- 
tion. But while the rest of the people quitted their homes, eighty 
priests and patricians of the highest rank, deeming it intolerable to 
survive the republic and the worship of the gods, sat down in the 
Forum,^ in their festal robes, awaiting deatL 

29. Onward came the Gauls in battle array, with horns and 
trumpets blowing, but finding the walls deserted, they burst open the 
gates and entered the city, which they found desolate and death-like. 
They marched cautiously on till they came to the Forum, where, ia 
solemn stillness, sat the aged priests, ^md chiefs of the senate, look- 
ing like beings of another world. The wild barbarians, seized witii 
awe at such a spectacle, doubted whether the gods had not oome 
down to save the city or to avenge it. At length a Gaul went up to 
one of the priests and gently stroked his white beard, but the old man 
indignantly repelled the insolence by a stroke of his ivory sceptre. 
He was cut down on the spot, and his death was the signal of a 
general massacre. Then the plundering commenced : fires htcke oat 
in several quarters ; and in a few days t^e whole city, with the ex- 
ception of a few houses on the Pal'atine, was burnt to the ground.* 
(390 B. C.) • 

30. The Gauls made repeated attempts to storm the citadel, but 
in vain. They attempted to climb up the rocks in the night, but 
the cackling of the sacred geese in the temple of Ji^no awoke Mar- 
cus Man'lius, who hurled the foremost . Gaul headlong down the 


1. Hie Roman F\>rum was a Urge open space between the CapitoUne and Pal' atine hills, snr- 
l^unded by poitiooa, shops, die., where aasembUea of the people were generally held, JnsUce 
administered, and public business transacted. It Is now a mere open space strewed for the 
most part with ruins, which, in the course of centaries, have accumulated to such an extent u 
^to raise the surface fh>m fifteen to twenty feet abore its ancient lerel. Seep. 563. 

a. DUferent'wTlten have given the date of the takiiig of Borne by the Qeida, lh>iB 38S to 


preeq>ioe, and prevented ihe ascent of those who were raoimttng after 
him. At length famine began to be felt bj the garrison. Bnt the 
host of the besiegers was gradually melting away by sickness and 
want, and Brennns agreed, for a thousand pounds of gold, to quit 
Borne and its territory. According to the old Boman legend, Ca- 
mil'Ius entered the city with an army while the gold was being 
weighed, and rudely accosting Brennus, and saying, " Itos the custom 
of us Bomans to ransom our country, not with gold, bnt with iron," 
ordered the gold to be carried back to the temple, whereupon a bat- 
tle ensued, and ihe Gkuls were driven fsom the city. A more proba-- 
ble account, however, relates that the Gauls were suddenly called 
home to protect their own country from* an invasion of the Venetians.^ 
According to Polybius this great Gallic invasion took place in the 
8sme year that the ^< peace of Antalcidas'^ was concluded between 
the Greeks and Persians. (See p. 89.) 

31# The walls uid houses of Bome had now to be built anew, and 
so great did the task appear that the citizens clamored for a removal 
to Veil ; but the persuasion of Camil' lus, and a lucky omen, in- 
duced them to remain in their ancient situation. Yet they were not 
aHowed to rebuild their dwellings in peace, for the surrounding iia-' 
lions, the Sabines only excepted, made war upon them ; but their 
attacks were repelled, and one after another they were made to yield ^ 
tcT&e sway of Bome, which ultimately became the sovereign city of 
Italy. t 

32. Soon after the rebuilding of the cit^the old contests between 
the patricians and plebeians were renewed, with all their former vio 
lence. The cruelties exercised towards helpless credit- xi. flvbsiaii 
org appear to have aroused the sympathies of the patrician ^^^/^^' 
if an' lius, the brave defender of the capitol, for he sold 

tiie most valuable part of his inheritwce, and declared that so long 
as a single pound remained no Boman should be carried into bondage 
for debt Henceforward he was r^arded as the patron of the poor, 
bat for some hasty words was thrown into prison for slandering the 
government, and for sedition. Beleased by ike damors of the mul- 
titude, he was afterwards .Accused of aspiring to kingly authority ; 
and the more common account states that he was convicted of treason, 
and sentenced to be thrown headlong from the Tarp^ian rock, the 
scene of his former glory. But another account states that, being 

I. The rtnetiaiu were » people of andcDt Italy who dwelt north of the moathTof the Fo, 
■nmod the bead-wa(«in of the Adriatic. (Mcf Ko. Vin.) 
G 10 

146 ANOnSHT mSIOfiT. [PiW L 

im iasiinreotioiif and in posMwdoB <xi tbe oapilol, a treaolMroiui wb^n 
buried him down the preo^ioe.* (384 B. C.) 

33. The plebeiiuifl mounied the fiiie of Man' Uus^ but hif deadi 
was a patrlmn triumph. The oppreaaion of the plebeiaiUB now inr 
oAaBed, until nniTersal difitress prevailed : debtors were eyerj day 
oQnsigned to aUvery, and dragged to private dnngeona; the number 
ef free tnfcisens was visiUj decreaaing; those who remained were re- 
daoed to a state of dependence by their ddi>ts, and Eome was on the 
point of degenerating into a miserable oUgarehy, when her deeline 
was wrested by the appearanoe of two men who ohaaged the fate 
of their oountry and of the world. 

34. The authors of the great reform in the oonstitutioa were Li- 
oinhis Stole and Luoius Sextius. Confining themselves strictly ta 
the paths peraoitted by the laws, they succeeded, after a stn^le of 
five years against every species of fraud and violence, in obtainiBg 
for the plebeians an acknowledgment of their rights, and all possible 
guarantees for their preservation. (376 to 371 B. 0.) The history 
of the a tr ii g g to would be too long for insertion here. As on a former 
occasion, it was only in the last extremity, when the people had 
taken up arms, and gathered together uiM>n the Aventine, that the 
patrician senate yielded its sanction to the three bills brou|^t forward 

4by Licinius. The first abolished the military t^ibuneship, and gained 

for the plebeians a share in the ccmsulship : the second regulated the 

sharesj divisions, and rents, of the4>ublic lands : the third regulated 

the rate of interest, gave present relief to unfortonate debtors, and 

seoored personal freedom against the rapacity of creditors. To save 

zn. oFFiox something from tiie general wreck of their power, the 

OF p&croft. patricians stipulated that the judicial functions of the 

, consul should be exercised by a new officer wilh the title of Frator^^ 

diosen from the patcidan ordef ; yet within thirty>five years afber 

the passage of the laws of Licinius, not- only the praetorship, but the 

dictatorship also, waji opened to the plebeians. 

35. The legislation of Licmius freed Borne from internal dissen* 
stos, and gave new development to her strength and warlike < 

1. Tb» pratffTB were Judidal maglstratoSy— ofBoem answering to the modern ehfef-jnctlee or 
dumoeilor. The modem English forms of JndleUl prooeedlngs tn the trial Oi eansea are moallEf 
taken ftom those obeerred by the Soman pr»ton. At fini but one prater wis chosen ; aftep> 
wards, when foreigners became nnmerous at Rome, another pnetor was added to administer 
jostlce to them, or between them and the citizens. In later times sabordlnate Judges, called 
provincial pneton, were appointed to administer Jastice In the provinces. 

a. See Niebahr, i. 87S. 

08MLY.] BcaiAir HisTOBY. Mr 

gioL OocrMJonaiHy tfie Osola eame down from ike north ad(d made 
inroads vpon the Roman teiritories, hnf thej were kiTariablj driTon 
babk with loss ; while the Etms' cans^ almost oonstantlj at war with 
Some, grew kes and lees formidable, from repeated defeat& On the 
aanthy however, a new and dangerous enemy appeared in the Sam- 
nite' confederacy, now in the fulness of its strength, and in extent 
of territory and popnlation far superior to Rome and her allies. 

86. Cap' na,* a WBidthy city of Campinia, having obtained from 
Kone the promise of protection against the Samnites, ^^ ^^^^^ 
tiie lalter hooghtily engaged in the war, and with a larger sAioran 
anny than Rome conld master invaded the territory of ^^^ 
Ganq^inia, hot in two desperate battles were defeated by the Ro 
maoa Twa years later the Samnites proffered terms of peace, 
which were accepted. (341 B. G.) ^league with ihe Samnites ap- 
pears to have lundten the connection that had loog existed between 
Rome and Latkun, and althon^ the hitter was willii^ to submit to 
a eommon government, and a complete^ union as one nati<m, yet the 
Romans, rejeoting all con^omise, haughtily determined either that 
their eity must be a Latin town, or the Latins be subject to Rome. 
The result of the Latin war was the annexation of all Latium, and 
of Campania also, to the territory of the Republic. (338 B. C.) 

37. The Samnites were alarmed at these successes, and Roman 
eiMroaehments soon involved the two people in another war. The 
Samnites lost several battles, but under their able general Pontius 
they effectually humbled the pride of Rome. The armies of the 
two- Roman consuls, amounting to twenty thousand men, ^^ sboond 
whiKe passing through a narrow defile call the Caudine i axnite 
Forks^* were surrounded by the enemy, and in this situa* ^^^' 
Uon, unable either to fi^t or to retreat, were obliged to surrender.- 
(321 B. C.) The terms of Pontius were that the Roman soldiers 

flheuld be allowed to return to their homeS} after passing under the 

• • 

L Hm SammiUt dwelt at the distance of aboat ninety miles south-east fh>m Rome, tl.elr 
tartflOTy tying betw«ea Apulia on the east andOaupAnia and L&timn on the west. (Mapg 

9L Cap' CM, the capital of Oamp4nia, was aboni three n^es from the left bank of the riTer 
TidtV BOfl, (BOW Tultarao;) about one hundred and five miles south-east ftom Rome. The 
MtnalBi oC ili aadeiil sapUtheatie, said to haTe been capable of oontalnlng one hundred 
ftonaand speetalors, and some of its tombs, 4e«^ attest its ancient splendor and magnificence. 
Two and a half miles ftrom the site of the ancient dty, is the modem city of Cap^ ua, on the 
iaftb«okortl»V«l«an». (JAyNo.vni.) 

X The Cmdine Fork* were a narrow pass in the Samnite territory, about thlrty-flvo mllea 
IfromtteGap'na. Tlftepraseiit vaUeyofdAfyaio, (prForchiadlArpaiaOnotfiurffOni 
k la tfaom^lo answer Id Ifate peas.* « 

148 AsaiBsv mfftonr. . [Pahi 

yoke ; that there sbould be a renewal of the ineieiii equal alliaDot . 
between Rome and Samniimi) and a restoration of all places that 
had been dependent upon Samnhim before the war. For the fnlfil* 
ment of tilese stipulations the oonsnls gave their oaths in the name 
of the republic, and Pontius retained mx hundred Roman ixughts«s 

38. But notwithstanding the reoent disaster, and the liard.&4a 
that mi^t be anticipated for the hostages, the Roman senate imme- 
diately declared the peace null and Toid, and deereed that those who 
had sworn to it diould "he given up to the Samnites, as persons who 
ha4 deceived them. In vain did Pontius demand either that the. 
whole army should be again placed in his power, or that the ttrms 
of capitulation should be strictly fulfilled ; but he showed magna- 
nimity of soul in refusing to accept the consuls and other ofiieers 
whom the Romans would have given up to his vengeance. Not long 
after, the six hundred hostages wwe restored, but on what oonditiona 
is unknown. 

39. The war, being again renewed, was continued with brief inter- 
vals of truce, during a period of thirty years ; and although the Sam- 

ZY. THIRD ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ times aided by Umbrians,' Etrus'cana, 

8AMMITB and Oauls, the desperate 'valor of the Romans repeatedly 

^^' triumphed over all opposition.- The^last great battle, 

which occurred fifty-one years from the commencement of the first 

Samnite war, and which decided the contest between Rome and 

Samnium, has no name in history, and the place where it was 

fought is unknown, but its importance is gaiSiered from the common 

statement that twenty thousand Samnites were left dead on the field 

and four thousand taken prisoners, and that among the latter was 

Pontius himself. (B. C. 292.) He was led in chains to grace the 

triumph of the Roman general, but the senate tarnished its honor 

by ordering the old man to execution. (291 B. 0.) One year alter 

*the defeat of Pontius, the l^amnites submitted to the terms dictated 

by the conquerors. (290 B. JC.) 

40. The Samnite wars had made the Romans acquainted with tiie 
Grecian cities on the eastern coast, and it was not long before they 

XVI. WAR ^o^»<i * pretext for war with Taren' tum, the wealthiest 
wirn THB of the Greek towns of Italy. The Tarentines, abandoned 
TARBNTiNEs. ^ ^^^^^ ^^^ luxuTy, had often employed mercenary Gro- 

1. a■l'^W«,t]Mt0rrilol7<>ra6l7mbrlflM^WM•Mtor«nlrii^OBtlMleAltel^ 
and Mrtb of th» atbiiie Urrltorjr. \JIUpt Jloi. Vkif. Mid X^ 


man troops in their wars with the rude tribes by which they were 
snrroimded, and now, when pressed by the Bomans, they again had 
reoomrse to foreign aid, and applied for protection to Pyr' rhos, king 
of Epirns, who has preyionaly been brought under onr notice in con- 
nection with events in Grecian history. (See p. 106.) 

41. Pyr'rhus, ambitious of military fame, accepted the iayitation 
of the Tarentmes, and passed over to Taren' tmn at the head of an 
army of nearly thirty thoosand men, having^among his forces twenty 
elephants, the first of those animals that had been seen in Italy. In 
&e first battle, which was fought with the consul LsdTinus, seven 
times was Pyr'rhus beaten back, and to his elephants he was finally 
indebted for his victory. (280 B. 0.) The valor and military skill , 
of the Bomans astonished Pyr' rhns, who had expected to encounter 
only a horde of barbarians. As he passed over the field «f battle 
after the fight, and marked the bodies of the Bomans who had fallen 
in their ranks without turning thdr backs, and observed their counte- 
nances, stem even in deaths he is said to have exclaimed in admira- 
tion: <^With what ease I could conquer th^e world had I the Bo- 
mans lor soldiers, or had they me for their king." 

42. Pyr^ rhu^ now tried the arts of negotiation, and for this pur- 
pose sent to Borne his friend Cin^as, the orator, who is said to have 
won more towns by his eloquence than Pyr' rhus by his arms ; but 
all his proposals of peace were rejected, and Oineas returned filled 
with admiration of liie Bomans, whose city he said, was a temple, 
and their senate an assembly of kings. The war was renewed, and 
in a second battle Pyr' rhus gained a dearly-bought victory, for he 
left the flower of his troops on the field. " One more such victory," 
he replied to those who congratulated him^ " and I am undone " * 
(279 B. C.) 

43. It is related that while tfie armies were facing each other the^ 
third time, a letter was brought to Fabricius, the Boman consul and 
eominander, fro^ the physician of Pyr' rhus, offering, for a suitable 
reward, to poison the king, and that Fabricius thereupon nobly in- 
formed Pyr'rhus of the treachery that was plotted against him. 
When ihe message was brought to Pyr' rhus, he was astonished at 
the generosity of his enemy, and exclaimed, " It would be easier 
to turn the sun from his course than Fabriciiis from the path of 
honor." Not to be outdone m magnanimity he released all his 
prisoners without ransom, and soon after, withdrawing his forces, * 
passed over into Sicily, where his aid had been requested by the - 

150 AKOmr HI810RT. fltetl 

Ch^koitiegftgfttnsttlieCarllMginiaiis. (276B.0. Seep. 1^1.) &•> 
turning to Italy aftor an absenoe of three yeafs, ke i«Beired hostOi* 
ties with the Ramans, bnt was defeated in a great liattle by the oonsiil 
Onrins Denta^ after which he left Itdy witii {w^eOipita^oo, and 
sought to renew his broken fortunes in the Grecian wars. The de- 
parture of Pjr'rhns was soon followed by the fiJl ef Taren'tum, 
and the establishment of Roman sopremaoy over all Italy, frcMb tka 
Rubicon' and the Amns,* on the northern frontier of Umbria and 
Etruria, to the Sicilian straits, and from the Tuscan* sea to the 
Adriat' ic. 
44. 8oTereigns of all Italy, the Romans nour began to extend tMr 
• infiuenoe abroad. Two years after the defeat ci Pyr' rhus, Ptol' eny 
Philadelphus, king of Egypt, songfat the friendship and alliance of 
Rome by embassy, and the Roman senate honored the proposal bj 
sending ambassadors in retom, with rich presents, to Alezandifak 
An interference with the affitirs of Sicily, soon after, bronght on % 
war with Carthage, at this time a powerfiol repuMio, soperiw in 
strength and resources to the Roman. - From this period the Roman 
annals begin to embrace the histories of surrounding nations, and 
the circle rapidly enlarges untO all the then known world it drawn 
within the Tortez of R,oman ambiti<m. 


ns BOittM BiroBuo, raoM i1b » i wa«auwi or nn oABnuoanlir inam, 
268 B. o , TO THs axDnonoir of obkbob anIi oaethagb to fES 


AKALTSI8. 1. Geographical aooomit of CARTlfI«fe. CTaiil8.>--t. AMen doniuloH ti 
Oirthige. Foraign pommAoot. Trade. [Swdiniiu Oortka. BftlMflo Ul«. Malte.}^^ 
CaivmBfltanoes of Roman inlerferenoe in tb« alUn of Slcn7.--4. Gommencemeiit of the TntiT 
Pumc War. The Caithaginlani driven from fflcfly. The Bomaaa take Agrtgentnm.^S. TlM 
OwthaglsiaiiB nrage Itdy. BvUdlngortteant Boinafteet FInt mnA enoonRter wllk lh» 

L The RuHcon^ which formed in part the bonndarj between Italj proper anS CSaalpiDO 
Ganl, Sb a amall stream which flOls Into ihe Adriat'ie, eighteen or twenty mUee aoalh of ]Ut>- 
Oina. (.¥ap No. VUI.) 

Sl The river Jmus (now the Jlmo) was the boundary of Etrcnia on the north until the tUne 
of Angustna. On both Its banks stood Florentla, the modern Pltrencs ; and eight mHea ihMa 
Ui month, on its right bmk, stood Ptoie, the modem PUa. (JUtf No. VIU.) 

a. The Tutcan Sea was that part of the MeditemaeMi which oileiMled along the ooaat of 
Etmrta, or Tuscany. {Map No. Vm.) 

teir. V.J ROMiJT RI8TORT. 151 

a BO i gbitoiW r--d. HwiMPdari^ofctytiigihairarlato AMm. fleeonS dofett of the Oh- 
CbagliiiaoA.— 7. Begnlus iRTadee tbe Oarthagtiriim terrlUNy. His irat inoMiaes, and Aial d»< 
teaL [HerauBan promontofy. cajpea.}— 6. Boman disasten on tbe aea. Redaction of the 
BomaB fleeL Bomao victory in Sldly.— fi. kegnlna is sent to Roiiio wUh propoiak of peaeo. 
His retoni to Quthage, and auboeqaeni firte.— 10. BaJbaegnont eyanta of ttia war. Oondlttooa 
of the peace, and extenaon of the Boman dominion. 

UL General peaee. GIraunalaneea that led to the Ilviwl'ux WAk. pUjr'laM.}— 18. Be- 
ndlB or the war. Gratttnde <rf the Oreeka. Wam wm thb Gajjuu [Claattdli]m.}-13. Hatt'- 
ikar*a derigna upon Spain. His enmity to the Bomana. [Spain.]— 14. Progreas of the Oartha)- 
gfBiana In Spain. Hannlbal'a oonqneati there. Boman emtMUMy to Otithage. (Bagontiun. 
Ibenia. Chtahmfat] 

- 15. Opening of the Sacoxn Pumc Was. Plana of the opposing generals. Hannibal's march 
to Italy. Batllea on the Tldnns and the Trebia. [OaoL Bfarsedies. Turin. Tldans. Nu- 
aiidSa. B.P01 TVeMa.}—l«. Batttoaof IWi^imemiaandanmaB. ITnAmmm, Oannn.]— 17. 
DeteCloB from the canse 'of Rome. Goucagei and renewed efforta, of the Romans.— Id. Bannl- 
toatCapna. Saeoessftdtaetioaof Fabius Maximas. HasdrubaL FUl of Syracuse. [Metaurua. 
Airhfan^dm]— 10. fidpio caiilee the war into AfHoa. Hla a o eoeasea. Beeail of Hannibal, 
from Italy. CUaca.3-ao. Oonfldenoe of the Oarthagialana in Hannibal. Battle of SSamu II0 
terms of peace; IMumph of Sdpio. [Zama.] 

SI. The dislreases which the war had brought npon fbe Bomana. Their iiq6on<inerable 
spirit, and ranewed prosperity.— 89L State of the world— flivorable to tike advancement of the 
Boman republic.— 523. A Gebciaii Wax.— 24. Syriaji War. Terms of the peace. Disposal of 
Hie eomiaered provinces. [Magneela. Pergamaa.]— 85. The Ihte of Bannib^ and 8dpio.-^aS. 
Reduction of Greece. Tboi Tb»o Puhio Was. Belatkma of the ^yth^wtflFf and BxAnana 
alnce the battle of Zama.— 27. .Condition of CarUiage. Boman armament. Demands of the 
Bomana.— 88. The exasperated Cartfaaglniana prepare for war.— 89. Events and results of ibb 
4MalesL JlestnictSQnOfOlBrlfaa8e,146B.O. 

1. Carthage, believedLto have b^en fonnded by a Pboenician colony 
from Tyre in tbe ninth century before the Christian era, was situated 
on a peninsula of the northern ooast of Africa, about 

twelve milA, according to Livy, north-east from the 
modem city of Tunis,' but, according to some modem writers^ 
only three or four miles. Probably the city extended over a great 
part of the space between Tunis and Cape Carthage. Its harbor 
was southward from the city, and was entered from«what is now ih6 
aulf of Tunis. 

2. The Carthaginians early assumed and maintained a dominioii 
over the surrounding Libyan tribes. Their territory was bounded 
on the east by the Oreoian Cyreniica; their trading posts ex- 
tended westward along the coast to the pillars of Hercules; and 
among their foreign possessions may be enumerated their depen- 

1. 7\uus is about four mllea flom the sea, and three milea south-west Bmn the rains of 
ancient Gartbage. Among theae rains have been discovered namerous reservoirs or lai^ 
daterna, and the remains of a grand aqueduct which brought water to tbe city from a distance 
of at least fifty miles. According to Strabo, Tunis, or 7Vn««, existed before tbe foundation of 
Gaithage. Tbe chief events in the history of Tunis an ita numerous aeiges and capturei^ 
^ee pp.33i^lQ. M^ No. VnL> 

152 AHCIEirr HISTOBT. [PawL 

denoies in BOiith-western Spain-, in Sioilj, and in Sardinia,^ Oornea,* 

the Balearic^ Isles,' and Malta/ It is believed that thej carried on 
an extensiTe caravan trade with Hhe African nations as far as th« 
Niger ; and it is known that they entered into a commercial treaty 
with Rome in the latter part of the sixth century ; ^et £bw details 
of their history are known to us previous to the beginning of the 
first Carthaginian war with Syracuse, about 480 B. C. 

3. At the time to which we have brought down the details of Ro- . 
man history, the Mamertines, a band of Campanian mercenaries, 
who had been employed in Sicily by a former king, having estab^ 
lished themselves in the island, and obtamed possession of Mess^na^ 
by fraud and injustice, quarrelled among themselves, one party seek- 
ing the protection of Carthage, and the other that of Rome. The 
Greek towns of Sicily were for the most part already in friendly al- 
liance with the Carthaginians, who had long been aiming at the com- 
plete possession of the island ; and the Romans did not hesitate to 
avail themselyes of the most trifling pretexts to defeat the ambitious 
designs of their rivals. 

4. The first Punic* war commenced 263 years B. C, eight years 
n. Wbst After the surrender of Taren' tum, when the Romans 

yoNio WAE. jxiBde a descent upon Sicily with a large army under the 

1. Sardinia la a hflly bnt fertile island of the Mediterranean, about one handred and thirty 
miles south-west from the nearest Italian coast. At an earlj period the OsTthaginians formed 
lettlements there, but the shores of the island fell into the haiids of the Ronuss in the intenral 
between the first and second Punic wan, 237 B. C The inhabitants of the interior bravely d». 
ftnded themselyes, and were never completely subdued by the Roman arms. (Map No. VIII.) 

2. Corgiea Ilea directly north of Sardhaia, from which it is separated by the strait of BoniiMo^ 
ten miles in width in the narrowest part. Some Greeks from Phdcis settled here at an early 
period, but were driven out by the Carthaginians. The Romans took the island from the latter 
831 B. a (Jtfop No. \iIII.) 

3. The BaUarie Met were those now known 9A Majorca and Minorca, the former of which 
Is on9 hondrod and ten miles east from the coast of Spain. By some the ancient Ebusna, now 
Jvica, ia ranked among the Baleares. The term Balearic is derived from the Greek word 
Hlieijt, ""to throw,*^— alluding to the lomarkable skill of the inhabitants in using the sling. 
At an early date the PhoBnicians formed settlements in the Baleares. They were succeeded by 
the Carthaginians, from whom the Romans, under Q. Metellos, conquered these islands 133 
B.C. (Jlfop No. IX.) 

4. Malta, whose ancient name was Mdita^ is an island of the Mediterranean, sixty miles 
■oath from fiidly. The Phasnicians early pHanted a oolony here. It fell into the hands of the 
Carthaginians about four hundred years before the Christian era, and in the second Punic war 
it was conquered by the Romans, who made it an appendage of their province of Sicily. See 
•]8op.4eOL (Jira^NcVIIt.) f 

a. The term Punic means simply ** Carthaginian.'* It Is a word of Greek origin, pkeinikta^ 
In its sense of ftarple, which the Greeks applied to Phmnlcians and Carthaghilans, in allusion 
to the flunous purple or crimson of t^re, the parent city of Carthage. The Romans, adapting 
fbe word to the analogy of the Latin tongue^ ohaogod it to PnnUnu, whence the S&gltsh word 

OBtf.t.] ROMAH HISTORY. 153 - 

temmand of the ocnuml Claudias. After they hod gained possession of 
Hessana, in the second year of the war, Hiero, king of Syracuse, 
the second of the name, deserted his former allies and joined the ^ 
Romans, and ere long the Carthaginians were driven from their mostv 
important stations in the island, although their superior naval power 
still enabled them to retain the command of the surrounding seas, 
and the possession of all the harbors in Sicily. The Carthaginians 
finrtlfied Agrigentnm, a place of great natural strength ; yet the Ro- 
mans besieged the city, which they took by storm, after defeating an 
immense army that h^ been sent to its relief. (262 B. C.) 

5. But while the Sicilian towns submitted to the Roman arms, a 
Carthaginian fl^t of sixty ships ravaged the coast of*Italy ; and the 
Bomans saw the necessity of being able to meet the enemy on their 
own element Unacquainted with the building of large ships, they 
must have been^obliged to renounce their design had not a Cartba- 
gnuan ship of war been thrown upon the Italian coast by a storm 
From the model thus furnished a hundred and thirty ships were 
built within sixty days after the trees had been felled. The Oartha- 
ghiians ridiculed the awkwardness and clumsiness of their structure, 
and thought to destroy the whole fleet in a single encounter ; but the 
Roman commander, having invented an elevated draw-bridge, with 
grappling irons, for the purpose of close encounter and boarding, 
lioldly attacked the enemy, uid took or destroyed forty-five of the 
Carthaginian vessels in the first battle, while not a single Roman ship 
was lost (260 B. C.) 

6. After the war had continued eight years with varied success, in- 
volving in its ravages not only Sicily, but Sardinia and Corsica alsQ, 
a Roman armament of three hundred and thirty ships, intrusted to 
the command of the consuls RegiOus and Manlius, was prepared for 
the great enteriNrise of carrying the war into Africa. But the Car- 
thaginians met these preparations with equal efforts, and under their 
two greatest commanders, Hanno and Hamil' car, went out to meet 
the enemy with three hundred and fifty ships, which carried no less 
than a hundred and fifty thousand men. In the engagement that 
followed, the rude force of the Romans, aided by their boarding 

/bridges, overcame all the advantages of naval art and practice. 
Again the Carthaginians were defeated, — ^more than thirty of their 
flhip§ being sunk, and sixty -four, with all their crews, taken. (256 
B C.) 

7. Regnlus proceeded to Africa, and landing on the eastern coast 

154 ANCIENT HfiSnyttT. [Piȣ 

of tho HermflBMi promontoiT* took Cljp^ea' bj Biorm, oosqnered 
Tunis, received the sabmiMion of aeTentjfoiir towns, and laid WMte 
the country to the yery gates of Carthage. An ombaMy sued for 
peace in the Roman camp ; but the t^ma oiTered by Regofaui wer6 
little better than destruction itself, and Carthage woold probably 
have perished thus early, had not foreign aid unexpectedly oome to 
her assistance. All of a sudden we find Xanthip' pus, a Spartaa 
general, with a small body of Grecian troops, among tibe Cartha|p« 
nians, promising them victory if they would give him the conduct of 
the war. A presentiment of deliyeranoe pemtded the people, and 
Xanthip' pus, after having arranged and exercised the Oarthaginian 
army before the city, went out to meet the greatly superior IbroeB of 
the Romans, and gained a complete viotorjbover them. (255 B. C) 
Regains himself was taken prisoner, and, out of tiie whole Romaa 
army, only two th(msand escaped, and shut themselves up in Olyp'efeb 
Of Xanthip' pus nothing is known beyond the events connected with 
this Carthaginian victory. 

8. A Roman fleet, sent to bring off the garrison of Clyp' ea, guned 
a signal success over the Carthaginians near the HermsMm promon- 
tory, but on the return voyage, while off the southern coast of Sioilji 
was nearly destroyed by a tempest. Another fleet that had laid 
waste the Libyan coast experienced a similar fate on its retnn^ — a 
hundred and fifty ships, and the whole booty, being tfirallowed up lA 
the waves. The Romans were discouraged by these disasters, and 
for a time abandoned the sea to their enemies, ike senate having at 
one time decreed that the fleet should not be restored, but limited 
to sixty ships for the defence of the Italian coast and the protection 
of transports. Still the war was continued on the land, and in Sicily 
the Roman consul Metellus gained a great victory over the Cartha* 
ginians^ear Panor'mus, killing twenty thousand of the enemy, and 
taking more than a hundred of their elephants. (250 B. C.) This 
was the last great battle of the first Punic war, although the contest 
Was continued in Sicily, mostly by a. series of^Jowly-conducted iiegeff, 
eight years longer. ^ 

9. Soon after the defeat at Panor'mus, the Carthaginians sent ail 
embassy to Rome with proposals of peace. Regulus was taken from 

1. Tbe Hermwam pnmonUrjf^ or ^^promonloiy of Mereoiy^ is the hum u the modem Oqw 
Bm, usueUy called the northern cape of Aftlee, at a distance of about fbrlj-llTe miles north- 
east from the site of Oarthage. (Jir<v No. vni.) 

S. Oyp' ««, DOW jiUib' M, was altoated on the peoiBsala which tvmliietes in G^ie Bm, a 
short distance south fh>m the oape. {Map No. VIIL). 

Obr.y.] BOMAK HISTOBT. 155 

ktf chmgeon to aooofiipany the embassy, the OarUiagbiians trnsting 
that, weary of his long captivity, he would urge the senate to accept 
the proffered terms ; bat the inflexible Bonum persnaded the senate 
to reject the proposal and contmne the war, assuring his cotmtrymen 
that the resources of Carthage were already nearly exhausted. 
Boond by his oath to retnm as a prisoner if peace were not con- 
eluded, he Tolxmtarily went ]>ack to his dungeon. It is generally 
stated that after his return to Oarthage he was tortured to death by 
the exasperated Carthaginians. But althou^ his martyrdom has 
been sung by Roman poets, and his self-sacrifice extolled by orators, 
there are strong reasons fbr belieTing that he died a natural 

10. The subsequent erentsi of the first Punio war, down to within 
s year of its termination, were generally unfortunate to the Romans; 
but enrentually the Cartha^nian admiral lost nearly his whole fleet 
in a naval battle. (241 B. C.) Again the Carthaginians, having 
exhausted the resources of their treasury, and unable to equip 
another fleet, sought peace, whidi was finally concluded on the con- 

^ ditions that Cartiu^e should evacuate Sicily, and the small islands 
lying between it and Italy, pay three thousand two hundred talents 
of silver, and restore the Roman prisoners without ransom. (B. 0. 
240^ SicOy now became a Roman province ; Corsica and Sardinia 
were added two years later ; and tiie sway of Rome was extended 
ever all the important islimds which Carthage had possessed in the 

1 1. Soon after the termination of the first Punic war, Rome found 
herself at peace with all the world, and the temple of Jinus was 
shut for the second time since the foundation of the city. m. nxTa'- 
But the interval of repose was brief A war soon broke "» ▼a*- > 
oat with the Illyr'ians,* which led the Roman legions, for the fi!i:st 
time, aoroas the Adriatic. (229 B. C.) The Illyr'ians had com- 
mitted numerous piracies on the Italian coasts, and when ambassa- 
dors were sent to demand reparation. Tea' ta, the Illyr' ia& queen, 
told them that piracy was the national custom of her subjects, and 
ahe could not forbid them what was their right and privilege. One 
of the ambassadors thereupon told her that it was the custom of the 

L Tbe Ilifr'ians were inhabltanta of lUfr' im or Jffyr'wiia, a coantiy bordering ob tke 
Adrlitt' ic see, oppodte Italy, and bordered on the loutti-eaBt by Spiral and Maoedtola. ( Jffp 

•. irUb«hr» B. in. p. STS. md 4t. TO. 


Bomans to do swaj witli bad castomB; and so inoeofled was the 
qneen at his boldness that she procured his assassLnation. 

12. The Illjr' ians, after saooessire defeats, were glad to condade 
a peace with the Romans, and to abandon their piracies, both on the 
Italian and Grecian coasts. (228 B. C.) Seyeral Greek communi- 
ties showed themselres grateful for the favor ; a copy of the treaty 
was read in the assembly of the Achssan league ; and the Corinthians 
conferred upon the Romans the right of taking part in the Isthmian 
games. Roman encroachments on the territory of the Gauls next 

^ ^^ brought on a war with that fierce people, and a vast swarm 
WITH THE of the barbarians poured down upon Italy, and adTsnced 
oAuu. irresistibly aS far as Clusium, a distance of only three 
days' journey from Rome. (226 B. C.) After four years continu- 
ance the war was ended by a great victory gained over the (jauls bj 
Claudius Marcellus, at Clastid' ium,* where the noted Gallic leader, 
Yiridomaros, was slain. (222 B. C.) 

13. While Rome was thus engaged, events were secretly ripening 
for another war with Carthage. Hamil' car, the soul of the Cartha- 
ginian councils, and the sworn enemy of Rome, had turned his eyes , 
to Spain,' with the view of forming a province there which should 
compensate for the loss of Sicily and Sardinia. ^< I have three sons," 
said this veteran warrior, " whom I shall rear like so many lion's- 
whelps against the Romans." When he set out for Spain, where 
Carthage then l^d several colonies, he toak his son Hannibal, ihea 
only nine years ef age, to the altar, and made him swear eternal 
enmity to Rome. 

14. In a few years the Carthaginians gained possession of all the 
south of Spain, and HamiF oat being dead, the youthful Hannibal, 
who proved himself the greatest general of antiquity, was appointed 
to the command of their armies. The rapid progress of his Spanish 
conquests alarmed the Romans. When the people of Sagun' tum,' 

L aasUd' t«m, (now Ckiasteggio^) vu In that part of Cisalpine Gaul called Ltgnrtt, south 
af the rlrer Po^ and a abort distance aoiUh-eiat fh>m the modem Pania, (See Pavia, Map No. 

3. Spain^ (oonaUllng of the present Spidn and Portugal,) called hj the Greeks Ihtna^ and bf 
the Romans MUpanui^ embraced all the great penlnsola tn the sooth-west of Europe.' Tba 
divisions by which it is best known in ancient history are those of Tarraconauit^ L%*iU%i^^ 
and Bmtiea, which were made during the reign of Augustus, when, for the first time, the 
oountry was wholly subdued by the Romans. {Map No. Xin.) 

3. Sagun' turn was built on a bill of black marble in the east of Spain, about four miles from 
Ibe Mediterranean, and fifteen miles nortb-east from the modem Valencia. Half way up tba 
hiU are still to be seen the ruins of a theatte, forming an exact seml-clrde, and capable of 
accommodating nine thousand spectetors. Other ruins ate «>uiid in the TiehiUy. Tbeoattlo«r 


a Greoiao-eiiy od the eMMm ooast, faund themselyes exposed to his 
rage, they applied. to Borne for aid; but the ambassadors of tha 
latter power, who had been sent to remonstrate with Hannibal, were 
treated with o<Hitempt ; and Sagon' torn, after a siege of eight months^ 
was taken. (219 B. G.) Hannibal then crossed the Iberus/ and - 
mTaded the tribes of Oatalonia,' which were in alliance with Borne. 
A Boman embassj was then sent to Carthage with the preposterous 
demand that Hannibal and his army should be deliyered up as satis- « 
fitustion for the trespass upon Boman territory ; and when this was 
lefosed, the Boman commissioners, according to the prescribed form 
of their country, made the declaration of war. Both parties were 
already prepared for the long-anticipated contest. (218 B. C.) 

15. The plan of Hannibal, at the op^iing of the second Punio 
war, was to carry the war into Italy ; while tiiat of the Boman con- 
aok, Publius Soipio and Sempr6nius, was to confine it to Spain, and 
to attack Carthage. Hannibal quickly passed over the y. moono 
Pyrenees, and rapidly trayersing the lower part of Gaul,* ^^^^^ ^^a. 
though opposed by the warlike tribes through which his march lay, 
and avoiding the army of Scipio, which had landed at Marseilles,* 
caroBSed the Alps at the head of nearly thirty thousand men, and had 
taken Turin* by storm before Scipio could return to Italy to oppose 

dtadel OD the top of One hin has been saoceeBlyely occupied by the Sagnn' tinea, Cartheginlan^ 
KomaiM, Moon, and Spaniards. Along the foot of the hill has been boUt the modem town of 
Mm^i0dr^ now contabdng a population of about six thousand Inhabltaats. ^Mmp Mo. XIU.) 

1. /Mtm, now the fftro, rifn in the north of Spahi, in the coontiy of the ancient Cantabrl, 
and flows with a sontb-eastem oourae Into the MeditemuMan sea. Before the second Punic 
war this river formed the bonndarj between the Homan and Oaithaglnian territories ; and. In 
tbm time of Charlemagne^ between the Mooriah and Christian dombilonSb {Map No. XIII.) 

SL Ctaalffmia is the name by which the north-eastern part of Spain has long been Icnown, and 
It la now a province of modem ^palo. ( Jfaj^No. XIII.) 

2. Gmml embraced nearly the aame territory as modem France. When Snt known it was 
divided amoi« the three great naUons of the Beign, the Oeltce, and the Aqultani, bat tb* 
XomaDScaBedaU the Inhabitants Ofl«^,wbUe the Greeks called them CWto. The Celts proper 
inhabited the northwestern part of the conntry, the Belgae the north-eaetem and eastern, and 
the Aqnitani the southwestem. The divisions by which Gaul is best known in ancient history 
an LiigdaneMis» Belglca, Aquttania, and Narbonensis,-H»Ued Um «^Four Gaols,** which were 
ealabllsbed by the BomaM after the oonqoest of ttieoountiy by Julius OsBsar. As for back as 
we can penetrate into the history of weatem Europe, the Gallic or Ceiac race ocnupied nearly 
an Gaol, together with the two gieat islands northwest of the country, one of which, (England 
aad BootiaiMl) they caned A]b4n, «« White Island," and the other (Ireland) they oaUed Er-in, 
••laleoftheWeet.'' gVap No. XIIL) 

4. JMbr^MttM, aneleiitly eaUed JtttOa, was originally settted by a Greek colony ftom 
Ph6da. It is aowa fatfgeeommereialolty,and sea-portottheMeditecranean,dtaal«lina 
beaoliftU plafB ott the east sMe of Ihe bay of the Ouif of Lyons. • ( JTstp No. XIII.) 

5. TWin, caUed by the Homans AmgMfta TawinanMh »«▼ » !««• ^ ^ northHwestem 
Italy, la altaated on the northen or western side of the river Po, eighty miles southwest oT 

156 AKOnERT HBSrORT. [PabtI 

hu progrei% In a puiial encoimter on tlie Tiolnns' the Samaa 
eaTnlry wm beaten by the Spanish and Nnmidian horBem«i,* and 
Seipio, who had been aetereljT wounded, retreated aeross the Po* to 
await the arriTal of 8empr6niiu and his army. Boon aflk^, the 
en^re Boman army waa defeated on the left bank of the Tr^bia,^ 
when the heaitating Gktnla at onoe eeponaed the oanae of Uie viotors. 
(218 B. C.) 

* 16. In the following year Hannibal advanced towarda Borne, and 
8empr6niaa, falling into an ambnacade near Lake Traflim6nnB,* waa 
dain, and hia whole army oat to pieces. (217 B. C.) In another 
campaign, Hannibal, after paaaing Borne, and penetrating into 
aouthem Italy, having increased hia army to fifty thoaaand men, de- 
feated the conaola JBmiliiiB and Yarro in a great batde at Cannae.* 

. (216 B. 0.) The Bomana, whose nnmbers exceeded thoae of die 
enemy, loat, in killed alone, according to the lowest calcolation, mor« 
than forty-two thousand men. Among the alain waa JBmilina, one 
of the consola. 

17. The calamity which had befallen Bome at Cannas shook the 
allegiance of some of her Italian aabjects, and the faith of her 
allies; many of the Grecian cities, hoping to recover their inde- 
pendence, made terms with the victors ; Syracuse, deserted the oaose 
of Bome ; and Philip of Mao' edon sent an embassy to Italy and 
formed an alliance ^rith Hannibal. (See p. 109.) But the Bomana 
did not despond. They made the most vigorona preparationa t0 
carry on the war in Sicily, Sardinia, Spain, and Africa, as well as 
in Italy : they formed an alliance with the Grecian States of 2St61ia, 
and ihns fonnd aofficient employment for Phttip at home, and in the 

1. Tub 7¥ei«««, now Ticinoy entan the Po fhim ttie nortti about tireatf wOm sooUFtrMt 
from Bnian. Nmt tto junollon with Ibo Po ■tood the netait eHf of TWImmn, now oalled 
Fmm. (JIAv Mo. vm.) 

S. A^taUrfte W88 a oonntry of northern AlHea, ad||oinlng the OarthaslBiaii terrNoffTon Che 
weat, and embracing the eartenvpart of the tanrltoiT of modem Alglera. (JM^ Ko. IX.) 

3. The river Po, the EHd' ntus or Padmt ot the andeata, riaes la the Alpa, on thft eonlnes 
ef Aance; and, flowing eaatwaid, reoetres dmtng Its long coone to the AdriaTle, a taal no»- 
ber of tribntary atieams. It dtrldea (he graat plain of Lombaidy Inio two neariy equal perla. 
(Map No. Vin.) 

4. The Tribta la a aouthem trfbntarj of the Fo, wbleh entera that ttream near the modem 
eltjr of PUumfy (anelently oaUed Plae^mtia) tbiny-Sre milea aonth-eMfc tnm Mlaa. (M^ 
No. vm.) 

5. Lifte TVoflaUmft, (now oaDed Pinyja,} waa In Brute, war the nber, elghtf milea 
north ftom Some. (JKvNo.Via) 

a Camnm, a* ancient ettf of Apulia, waa altoated near Oie rirer Anidvf (nowOfento) avw 
orrfz milea from (he Adrlat'le. The aeeoe of the great bettte between the Somana and Gbrlha- 
gfaidmia la maifeed by the name of ctmp* di gmnfrnty *^Md of blood ;«* and ipeara, heada of 
laneaa, and other pleeea of armor, itUloontiniie to be tamed np by the ploagfa. ( JIAip No. VUp 

Cut. T.J HOMAK HlEm>Ry. ISi 

4Bai redaeed him to the l»nn3a&g neceasity of making a separate 

18. From the field of CannaB Hannibal led his foroes to Cap'na, 
whieh at onoe opened its gates to receire him, bnt his veterans werd 
«n0ryated by the Inxnries and debauoheries of that lioentioos city. 
In the meantime Fabins Mazimns had been appointed to the com- 
mand of the Roman army in Italy, and by a new and cautions system 

*<xf tactics — ^by avoiding deeisiye battles — ^by watching the motions 
of ^ke enmiy, hMrassing their march, and intercepting their con- 
voys, he gradnally wasted the strength of Hannibal, who at length 
ffnunoned to his asi^tance his brother Has' dmbal, who had been 
eentending with the Scipios in Spain. Has'dmlMil crossed the 
Pyroiees and the Alps with little opposition, but on the banks of 
the fifetaams^ he was enlarapped by the consnls Livins and Nero,— » 
his whole army was oat to pieoes, and he himself was slain. (B. 0. 
207.) His gory head, thrown into the camp of Hannibal^ gave the 
latter the first intelligence of this great misfortune. Before this 
event the anoioit city of Syracuse had been taken by storm by the 
RooiaoB, after the siege had been a long time protracted by the me- 
^^Mt^n^'^l skill of the funoos ArohimMes.* 

19. At length the youthM Cornelius Scipio, the son of Publius 
Beipio, having driven the Oarthaginians from Spain, and being 
elected eonsui, gained the consent of the^ senate to carry the war 
into Afirica, although this boldJueasure wa» opposed by the age and 
eiperience of the great Fabins. Soon after the landing of Scipio 

Utica,* Masednis' sa, king of the Numidians, who had prenously 

L Ite Mtimmt, mom Oie Mktro^ wm • riTer of Umbria, wUob floired Into the Adriat' la 
Ite battle wu firagbt on the left bank of the rirer, at a place now oooopled by tbe yilbge of 
JteM«»rMM. {JfapHcXUL) 

SL Tbe city of Ckteaetood on tihe banks of tbe rirer Bagnda, (now tbe JWp«r4Uk,) a ftw 
vOea noilb^west from Ourtbage. Ita rains are to be seen at the present daj near tbe pw^ of 
■'-^- (JTarHo-Vin.) 

'a. jJrekJmUet^ the moat celebrated matbewiattdan among the ancients, waa a natlre of Slyii^ 
MSB. He'Waa highly skilled In aatronomy, meehanlos, geometry, hyd ro st ati cs, and optka, la 
aH oi which be produced many extnordliiary InTentkAS. Hts knowledge of the principle of 
ipecMc gravitlea enabled hfan to detect the fraudulent mixture of silver In the golden crown of 
Rfwe^ kl]« of Sytaeoee, by comparing the quantity of water displaced by eqniX weights of 
goldandsUTcr. The thoi«kt ooeorred to him vpon obaeiTing^ Vhile he waa In the bath, thai 
be displaced a bulk of water equal to his own body. He was so highly excited by the die* 
eoTcry, thai be 1e said to have ran naked oat of the bath Into the street, exchdming mreka t 
* I hare Ibond It.** His acquaintance with the power of the lever la evinced by his ftuaone 
deefihtlon to Hlero : **Give me where 1 ma^ stand, and I will move the worid." At the time 
tf lfaesli«eof ayiMWetetosaUICaJMfearBdtbeBomaaSeeibyBCaMef ImmeBsriefleet* 

160 AKOIENT mSTOBT. fPAiirl 

been in alUanoe with the Carthaginiana, went onar to the BomanBi 
and aided in snrpriBing and burning the Carthaginian camp of SLas'- 
drubal, still another general of that name. Both Tnnis and Utiea 
were next besieged ; the former soon opened its gates to the BoHkana, 
and the Carthaginian senate, in. despair, recalled Hannibal from 
Italy, for the defence of the oitj. (202 B. C.) 

20. Peace, which Hannibd himself advised, might even now have 
been made on terms honorable to Carthage, had not the Carthagi- 
nians, elated bj the presence of their fiivorite^hero, and confident 
of his snccess, obstinately resisted any concession. Both generala 
made preparations for a decisive engagement, and the two armies 
met on the plains of Zama ;* but the forces of Hannibal were mostly 
raw troops, while those of Scipio were the disciplined legions that 
had so often conqnered in Spain. Hannibal showed himself worthy 
of his former fame ; but after a hard-fongfat battle the Romans pre- 
vailed, and Carthage lost the army which was her only reliance. 
Peace was then conclnded on terms dictated by the conqueror. Car- 
thage consented to confine herself to her African possessionB, to keep 
no elephants in future for purposes of war, to give up all prisoners 
and deserters, to reduce her navy to ten small vessels, to undertake 
no war without the consent of the Romans, and to pay ten thousand 
talents of silver. (202 B. C.) Scipio, on his return home, received 
the title of Africani)s, and wlus honored with the most magnifioeni 
triumph that had ever been exhibited at Rome. 

21. The second Punic war had brought even greater distress upon 
the Roman people than upon the Carthaginians, for during the six- 
teen years of Hannibal's occupation of Italy the greater part of the 
Roman territory had lain waste, and was plundered of its wealth, 
and deserted by its people ; and famine had often threatened Rome 
itself; while the number of the Roman militia on the roUs had 
heem reduced by desertion, and the sword of the enemy, from two 
hundred and seventy thousand nearly to the half of that number. 
Tet in their greatest adversity the Roman people had never given 
way to despair, nor shown the smallest humiliation at defeat, nor 
manifested the least design of concession ; and when the pressure of 
war was removed, this same unconquerable sjHrit rapidly raised 
Rome to a state of prosperity and greatness which she had never at- 
tained before. , ^ 

1.1%eeifyorz«iiM,ttie iiteoT which is oooapled by the modfln vllh«» «r ZMMrfa, wai 
•boot a httndred mU«i aouttiweit ftom Oulhase. (Map No. VIU.) 

Cbup.T.] KOMAH HI8T0BT. 161 


22, The state of the world was now highly favorable ^or the ad- 
Tanoement ^f a great military republic, like that of Eome, to univer- 
sal dominion. In the ESast, the kingdoms formed from the fragments 
of Alexander's mighty empire were either still engaged in mutual 
wars, or had sunk into the weakness of exhausted energies; the 
Grecian States were divided among themselves, each being ready to 
throw itself upon foreign protection to promote its own immediate 
interests ; while in the West the Romans were masters of Spain ; 
their colonies were rapidly encroaching on the Gallic provinces ; and 
tibey had tributaries among the nations of Northern Africa. 
• 23. The war with Carthage had scarcely ended when an embassy 
from Athens solicited the protection of the Bomans against the power 
of Irnilip II. of Mac' edon ; and war being unhesitatingly yi. ^ orb- 
declared against Philip, Roman diplomacy was at once ^'^ ^^^ 
plunged into the maze of Grecian politics. (B. C. 201.) After a 
war of four years Philip was defeated in the decisive battle of 
Cynooeph' ake, (B. C. 197,) and forced to submit to svch terms as 
the conquerors pleased to dictate ; and at %hi Isthmian games the 
Greeks received with gratitude the declaration of their freedom under 
the protection of Rome. When, therefore, a few years later, the 
JBt61ians, dissatisfied with the Roman policy, invited Antiochus.of 
Syria into Europe, and that monarch had made himself master of 
EuboD'a, a plausible pretext was again offered for Roman inter- 
ference : and when the iBt61ians had been reduced, Antiochus driven 
back, and Greece tranquillized upon ^man terms, an Asiatic war 
was open to the cupidity of the Romans. 

24. After a brief struggle, Antiochus, completely overthrown in 
the general battle of Magnesia,* (B. C. 191,) purchased a peace by 
surrendering to the Romans all those portions of Asia yj^ btbian 
Minor bounded on the east by Bithyn'ia, GaUtia, Cap- "^^^ 
pad6cia, and Cilio'ia,^ pledging himself not to interfere in ^e affairs 
of the Roman allies in Europe — ^giving up his ships of war, and 
paying fifteen thousand talents of silver. The Romans now erected 
the conquered provinces, with the exception of a few Greek maritime 
towns, into a kingdom which they conferred upon Ei\menes, their 

h JUgnUia, (now JMmsm,) a dtj of Lydia, w«s aitnatadon the loathem tida of tbe riTw 
B^pam, (fMW IMtu,) twanty-aight mllea nortli-eaat ttom SmTraa. Tbe modam Maaln la 
one a< the naalMt towiw of Aaia Minor, and oontatna a populaUon of about thirty thoosand 
tehabilantiL Tbera was anolhar Magn^da, now in ruina, flf^ mUea aooth-east ftom Smyroa. 

a. Sea Map of AaU Minor, No. VL 


le^ ASamsr HISTORT. (Pmaft 

illy, a petty prince of PeT'.gamus," ifi^e to ^ Rhodiims, dao IIiot 
allies, they gave the provinces of Lyo' ia and Ciria.* 

25, Soon after the close of the second Pnnic war, Hannibal, 
having incurred the enmity of some of his couniaTmen, retired to 
Syria, where he joined Ant^ochns in the war against Rome. A danse 
in the treaty with the Syrian monarch stipulated ihAt Hannibal 
should be ddiivered np to the Romans ; but he avoided ihe danger 
by seeking refuge at the court of Prlisias, king of Bithjm' ia, where 
he remained about five years. An embas^ was finally sent, to de^ 
mand him of Prdsias, who, afraid of giving off^nee to the Romanfl^ 
agreed to give him up, but tjie aged veteran, to avoid Iklling into the> 
hands of his ungenerous enemies, destroyed himself by poison, iq the 
sixty-fifth year of his age. The same year witaiessed the deatili of 
his great rival and conqueror Scipia. (B. 6. 183.)^ The latter, 
on his return from carrying on the war against AiiKochnfl, was 
charged with secreting part of the treasure received from the Syrian 
king. Scorning to imswer tiie unjust accusation, he went as an exile 
into a country village of Italy, where he soon after died. 

5^. The events that led to the overthrow of the Maced6nian 
monarchy, and the reduction ^f Greece to' a Roman j^rovince, have 

ym. THIRD been related in a former ch^ter.^' Already the Uiird 

FUKio wAm. Punic war was drawing to a dose, and the same year 
that Greece lost her liberties under Roman dominion, witnessed the 
destruction of the miserable remains of the once proud republio of 
Carthage. During the fifty years that had elapsed since ike battle 
of Zama, the conduct of the Carthaginians had not afforded the Ro- 
mans wiy cause whatever for complaint, and amicable relations be- 
tween the two people might still have continued ; but the expediency 
of a war with Carthage was a favorite topic of debate in the Roman 
senate, and it is said that, of the many speedies which the elder Cato 
made on this subject, all ended with the sentence, delenda est Car* 
^ thagOf " Carthage must be destroyed." 

27. Carthage, still a wealthy, but feeble city, had long been har- 
assed by the encroachments of Massinis'^sa, king of Numid' ia, who 

1. The Per' gamut here Aentloned, tty» most tmpprtaiit dty of MyBia, waa sltqatod in the 
^em part of that country, in a pUOB wai^ 
Oatous. (Map No. TV.) 

a. See Map of Asia Minor, No. VI. 
c Seep, 110. 

Om0F,.r.j - HOltAl^ aiStOET. 168 

wpfwn^ to hare been iiusli^ted to bostOe ftcts bj tihe Bomans; and 
alihoii^ MaanniB' aa had wrested from Carthage a large portion of 
iier tvritor J, yet the Romans, seeking a pretext for war, cidled Gar- 
iiiage to aooonnt for her eonduct, and without waiting to listen to 
expoBtdadon or sabmission, sent an army of more than eighty 
thoaaaod men to Sioily, to be tiiere got in readiness for a descent 
upon tilie Afirican coast (149 B. 0.) At Sicily the Carthaginan 
ambassadors were received by the consols in command of the army, and 
required to give up three hundred dbildren of the noblest Carthaginian 
fiuailies a« hostages ; and when this demand had been complied with 
the army crossed over and landed near Carthage. The Carthagi- 
nians were now told that they must deliver up all their arms and 
munitions of war ; and,, hard as this command was, it was obeyed.* 
The perfidious Bomaos next demanded that the Carthaginians should 
abandon their city^ allow its walls to be demolished, and remove to 
a place ten miles inland, where they mi^ht build a new city, but 
witkottt walls or fortifications. 

28. When these terms were made known to the Carthaginian 
miate, the people, exasperated to madness, immediately put to death 
all the "Bomans who were in the city, closed the gates, and, for want 
of other weapons, collected stones on the battlementc( to repel the 
iinrt attacks of the enemy. Hasdrubal, who had been banished be- 
eauae he was an enemy of the Bomans, was recalled, Mid unexampled 
exertions made for defence : the brass and iron of domestic utensils 
were manufactured into weapons of trar, and the women cut off their 
long hair to be converted into strings for the bowmen and cordage 
for the shipping. 

29. The Bomans had not anticipated sudbi a display (^ courage 
and patriotism, and the war was prolonged until the fourth year 
after its eommenoement. It was the struggle of despair on the part 
of Carthage, and could end only in her destruction. The city was 
finally taken by Scipio ^mili&nus, the adopted son of the groat 
AfHcinus, when only five thousand citizens were found within its 
walls, fifty thousand having previously surrendered on different occa- 
sions, and been carried away into idavery. Hasdrubal begged his 
life, which was granted only that he might adorn the triumph of 
the Boman general ; but his wife, reproaching him for his cowardice, 
threw herself with her children into the flames of the temple in 

a. ^Boman wmmtMlonen were lent Into Che dt^, wbo oanied awaj tiro tboiiaand cattF 
pidl%aiMl tw« Inuidredthoiiiaiid iiiUeof anaor.* 


which she had taken refuge. The walls of Carthage were lereUed 
to the ground, the buildings of the oitj were burned, a part of the 
Carthaginian territory was given to the king of Numid' ia, and tiie 
rest became a Boman province. (146 B. C.) Thus perished the 
republic of Carthage, aft^r an existence of nearly eight hundred 
years, — ^iike G reece, the victim of Roman ambition. * 

We giTe below a deacripUon pf Jenuolem, which was omitted by mifltake ia its proper 

JtrutaUm, a (kmoua etty of aoatheni Palestine, asd long the capital of the idngdom of 
Judah, !• situated on a bill in a mountainous country, between two small Tall^r>> la one ot 
which, on the west, the brook Gibon runs with a south-eastern course, to Join tlie brook 
Kedron in the narrow valley of Jehoebapfaat, east of the otty. The modem city, built abool 
three hundred years ago, is entirely surrounded by walls, barely two and- a-half milea In 
circuit, and flanked here and there with square towers. The boundaries of the old city varied 
greatly at dtllbrent times ; and they are so Imperfectly marked, the walls having been wholly 
destroyed, that few fSscts can be gathered respecting them. The interior of Hie modern dty to 
divided by two valleys, Intenecting each other at right angles, into four hills, on which hlstoffy« 
■acred and profene, has stamped the imperishable names of Zion, Acra, Bezeiha, and Moriah. 
Mount Zion, on the south-west, the *^ City of Dayld,** Is now the Jewish and Armenian qoartert 
Acra, or the lower city, on the north-west, is the Christian quarter ; while the Most^oe of Omar, 
with iti sacred enclosure, occupies the hill of Moriah, which was crowned by the Hause ef tis 
L0rd built by Solomon. West of the Christian quarter of the eity ia Mount Oalvaiy, the eeeaa 
of the Saviour's crucifixion ; and on the eastern side of the valley of Jehoshaphat Is the Monat 
of Olives, on whuse western slope are the gardens of Gethsemane, enclosed by a wall, and sUn 
In a sort of ruined cultivation. A little west of Mount ZIon, and near the base of* Monnt Qsh 
vary, is the pool of Gihon, near which '* Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet aaototed 
Solomon king over Israel.** South of Mount Zion Is the valley of Hinnom« watered by the 
brook Glhon. A short distance up the valfey of Jehoshaphat, and issuing th>m beoeath th» 
walls of Mount Moriah, is 

<" snoa*s brook, that flow*d • 

Fast by the oracles of God.** 

Jerusalem and its suburbs abound with many interesting looallllea, well autbenUcated as the 
■oenes of events connected with the history of the patriardis, and the sufferings of Christ ; but 
to hundreds of othenf shown by the monks, minnte crltlclnn denies any claims to oor r espe cL 
Considered as a modem town, the city Is of very little importance: its populaUon ia about ten 
thousand, two-thirds of whom are Mohammedans : it has no trade— no Industry whatever^ 
nothing to give it commercial Importance, except the manufeotore^ by the monks, of diella^ 
beads, and reUcs, large quantiUes of which are shipped flnom the port of Jaife, for Italy, Spatoit 
and Portugal. 

Jerusalem is generally believed to be identical with the Salem of which Melefatoedek was 
king in the time of Abi«iam. When the IsraeUtes entered the Holy Land It was in th« 
possession of the Jebusites; and although Joshua took the city, ih%'Citadsl on Monnt Zion was 
held by the Jebusites untU they were dlsloiged by David, who made Jerusalam the metropoUt 
of his kingdom. 

Ctaiib Til BOMAN HIBTORT. 166 



miOM TBI ooNQunr of e^XKoi and oarthage, 146 b. c, to nnq 


AKALTSDS. 1. Sltaatlcm of Spaik avtce tsk fall or Gi stbaok. [OelttMrlsiH. Lvrf* 
IWaMLj-a. Chtraeler, eoq>loit% and death of VM&tlnu^-S. SnlMeqiient Uatoiy of the Loalti^ 
qlaiiiL War with tho Noman' tiaiw. [Naman' tia.] — 4. Sbryilb war ik Sicily. Situation of 
Bdly. Erenta of the Serrile war.-— 5. Dissbnbion^ or thb Gracchi. Gornipt state of societj 
■t Ram».-^ Ooonby and dty popolation.— 7. Bfforta of the tribunes Character asd efbrto 
of Ttbeitaa GiacchusL Condition of (he public land^^A The agrarian laws proposed bj 
TSberfna.— 9. Opposed by the nobles, but finally paased. Triumvirate appointed to enfbroe 
Oiam. IMspoaMon of the treuores of AV tahis.— 10. arcamitanoea of the death of Tlberiiia^^ 
11. Oonlhiiied opposition of the aristooraqr— tribuneship of Gains Gracchua— and circunvitancea 
of hb deaifa.— IS. Condition of Rome after the foil of the GrBcchi.<-13. Profligacy of the Ro- 
ma acBata, and ebeoBBtanees of the flrsk JnouRTaiNS war.— 14. Renewal of the wai; with 
Jagortlta. Events of the war, and Ihte of Jugurtha. [MauritAnia.]— 15w Grrma«ic Intasior. 
[Cfanbri and Tea' tones.] Successive Roman defeats. [Danube. Noreja.] 10. M&rius, ap- 
yokaHed to the eommand, defeats the Tea' tones. |11ie Rhone. Alx.] 17. The ambri. Great* 
MSB of the danger with which Rdme waa threalened.— 18. Thb social war.— 19. First 
MiTHHiOATic War. [Pontus. Eu'menes. Per* gamus.]— 20. Causes of the Mlthridatlc war, 
and Boocesses of MIthrldiites.— Civil war bbtwrbn Ma'rivs aicd Stlla.— 22. Triumph of 
9» MArtan Ihctlon. Death and character of M&rina.— S3. Conttooanoe of the olvil war. 
JSvenfa in the East: 9yUa master of Rome.-4{3. Proscription and massscres. Death of Sylla 
— S5. The M&rlan faction in Spain. Skrvilb war in Italy. 

SB. Sfeconi Ain» tbird •MmniiOATic warb. LqcoIIiis. Mantt' Ins, and the Ifanil' laa 
law^— ^. Pompey's successes in the East. Reduction of Palestine. Death of MithridMes.— 28. 
GkucBPiRACT OF Catilirb. Situation of Romo &t this poilod. Character and designs of GntUine. 
Ctrenmstaneea that Ihvored iiis schemes. By whom opposed.'— 29. Cicero elected consul. 
FUgfat^ defeat, and deatli of OatHine^— 30. Thb First Triuhviratb. Division of power.— 31. 
Cnaar's conquests in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. Death of Cmssos. Rivalry between Cnsar 
nd Fmnpcy. {Tl» Rhine. Paithia.]— 38. Conuneneementof the driL war bbtwbbn Ojbsar 
anv PoKTBT. FUght of the latter. [Raven* na.J— 33. GiB8ar*8 SHocesses. Sole dictator. Hla 
defeat at Dffrseh' ium.— 34. Battle of Phars&lia. Flight, and death of Pompey. [Phars&lla* 
PsiBB' slum.}— 3S. Cleopatra. Alexandrine war. Reduction of Pontoa. [pharos.]— 36. Cnsar*a 
ekmenej. Serriltty of the senate. Ihe war In Africa, and death of Oato. [Thapeua.]— 37. 
Honors bestowed upon Cesar. Useftil changea— reformation of the cslendar.— 38. The war in 
Spain. [Mnnda.]— 39. Cnsar^ dictator for life. His gigantic projects. He is suspected of 
idnitair «t wweign power.~>40. Conspiracy agohist Mm. His death.— 41. Conduct of Btuftis. 
Mark Antony% oration. ItTeffeets.— 48. Ambition of Antony, avil war. Scooin) Triumvi- 
KATB. The proaorlption that followed.— 43. Bratua and Cttssius. Their defeat al PhiUppl. 
CPblifpfl.}~44. Antony in Asia BAlnor,— at the eoort of aecpatra. [Tkrsus.] Civil war hi 
Italy.— 49^ ABteny*^ return. ReooDCillation of the rivals, and division of the empire among 
meoL [BraBdiisium.]— 40. The peace Is soon broken. Sextius Pompey. Lep'idua. Antony. 
^47. Th« war between Oct&vhia and Antony. Battle of Actlnm, and dlsgracefti] flight of 
ABt euj4 1 , Death of Antony and Cleopatra.— 49, Octa' vids solb hastbr of thb Romaw 
«»«A Honon and oflleea confemd upon him. Charaeler of his government— 50. Snooess* ' 
MwBfv-Mlowedhf ikgenamlpeaee. Sxtent of the Roman empire. Biith.of the SaTlflur, 


1. AmsK the fiJl of Carthage and the Oreoiaa npmblies, wfakh 

were the clonng eyenta of the weoeding chapter, the atisntion of 

the Boman 4>eo.ple was for a time principally directed to l^win. 

When, near the doee of the aecond Punic war, the Oar* 

1. BPADf 

AMTEM, THB thaginian dominion in Spain ended, that oountry waa lo- 

r ALL or * garded aa heing under Boman jariiMliction; althon^, 

beyond the immediate vicinity of the Bonum garriaoiuii 

the native tribes, the most prominent of which were the Geltib^rianji* 

and LositAnians,' long maintained their independence. 

2. At the close of the third Pnnic war, Yiriithos, a Lont^miaa 
prince, whose character resembles that of the Wallace of Scotland, 
had triumphed over the Boman legions in several engagements, sad 
had already deprived the republic of nearly half of her possessions i& 
the peninsula. During eight years he bade defiance to tiie most for- 
midable hosts, and foiled the ablest generals of Borne, when the 
Boman governor Ca»' pio, unable to cope with so great a genend| 
treacherously procured his assassination.* (B. C. 140.) 

3. So<m after the death of Yiriithus the Lusitinians submitted to 
a peace, and many of them were removed from their mountain &st- 
nesses to the mild district of Yalen' cia,* where they completely lost 
their warHke diaracter ; but the *Numaa' tians* rejected with soom 
the insidious overtures of their invaders, and continued the war. 
Two Boman generals, at the head of large armies, were conquered 
by them, and on both occasions treaties of peace were concluded 
with the vanquished, bx the name of the Boman people, but a£ber* 

1. Tkt CSrfctft^rtfaiw, wlKweeoaatiywwecaiietJiiiMoalM CWMMrusooeopled OwgraBlut put 
or the intortor of 8|mIb troinid Uk« hettd waters of ttie Ti«ai. 

SL llw lAuUimiams, wboM wantrf was oslled LtuiUitiiaf dwelt on ttw Attsnttc otmitt, and 
wh«ii ttm known, principally between the tiren Douro and 1^^raa> 

S. Hie modem district or prorinoe of Falmuia extends about two budred milea along tbs 
soath-eastern coast of Spain. Tbe dty of Valenela, situated near the month of the river 
Goadalayiar, (the ancient Tosia,) Is Us o^itaL (.Ifa^ No. XIU.) 

4. JVkauw'c^ a odebialed town of the Oelliberians, was sitoaled near the sonroeof tho 
rfTer Donro, and near the site of the modern vlUage of Otooalsr, and about one hundred and 
twenty^hre miles north-east lh>m Madrid. 

a. F$r4tkm»i9idni a shepherd, caUed by the Remans a robber, tlhen a goeriUa cfaM; and 
finally an eminent military hero, aroused the LusttAniana to aTeage the wkh^b and ii^oriea t» 
flicted vpqfk them by Boman am|illto& He waa nnrlvaUed in fertility of rssonroes under deftati 
sun in the conduct of his tro^ and eounge in the hour of battte. Aoeustomed to a Ikua 
life la the mountataS) he nerer^indul^Bd himself with the luxury of a bed: brs«il and naaal 
were his only fojd, and water his only berenge; and being robust, hardy, ndroM, alwas* 
eheerAil, and dreading no danger, he knew how to sTaU himoetf ofttue wild (AiTahy of his 
oonntrymea,aDdtokeepaUvelnthemthesplrttof fteedom. During eight yews he coastanUir 
barsased the Boman amlea, and defa alort many Boman genanda, seveeslof wkom loit MmIv 
ttvwiftbaitte. °T -ft-t tlill IItm hi fbfl songi aatf IihimIs nf iiaiij r|i ito 



wmrdB sejeetod hj the Romaa smate. Soip'io .Amilidhtua, at the 
kead of sixty thottsand mea, iras thai sent to ^oondoot the war, and 
hji]^ siege to Nmnaii' tia, garrisoned by leas than ten thousand 
men, he finally reduced the city, but not until the Numan' tians, 
von cni by toil and limine, and finally yi^ding to deq>air, had de- 
stroyed all their women and ohildren, md then, setting fire to their 
etty, had peridied, almost to a man, on their own swords, or in the 
iamea. (B. G. 183.) The destruotion of Numan' tia was followed * 
fay the submiiwion of nearly all the tribes of the peninsula, and Spain 
henoefbrtli became a Boman pro^oe. 

4. Two years before the fisdl of Numan' tia, Sicily had become the 
Hieatre <^ a serrile war, which merits attmoition principally on ao< 
eoont of the yiew it gires of l^e state of the eonqsered countries 
thttn vkder the jurisdiction of Borne. The calamities which usually 
fiillow in the train of long-continued war had swept away n, bsbytlb 
most of the original pc^pulation of Sicily, and a large 'vmu ^ 
portion of the cultivated lands in the island had been added, by con- 
quest, to the Boman jpublio domain, whu^ had been formed into 
large estates, and let out to (peculators, who paid rents for the same 
into the Boman lareasury. In the wars of the Bomans, and indeed 
of most nations^at this period, laige numbers, of the m^tiyes taken 
ig war were sold as slaves; and it was by slave labor the estates in 
EBeily were cultivated. The slaves in Sicily were cruelly treated, 
and aa most of them Bad once been free, and some of high rank, it 
is j^ot surprising that thiay should seek every &vorable opportunity 
to rise against their masters. When once, therefore, a revolt had 
brakan out, it ^ead ri^idjy over the whole island. Seventy thou 
sand of the slaves were at <me time under arms, and in four success- 
ive campMgns four Boman pnetorian armies were defeated. The 
most frigh^il atrocities were perpetrated ea both sides, but the' re- 
bellion was finally quelled by tiie destruction of most of those who 
had taken part in it. (B. 0. 133.) 

5. While these events were occuring in the Boman provinces, af- 
fiy»»in the capital, generally known in history as the '< dissensiona 
of the Gracchi," were hgit ripening for civil war. More 


than two hundred years had elapsed since the animosi- bioms op 
tiee of patricians and plebeians were extinguished by an ^^™^ 
eqmd participation in public honors ; but the wealth of 
conquered provinces, and the numerous lucrative and honorable 
offees, both civil and mititavyy thai had been created, had produced 

168 AirotSRT HIBTORT. t^mtL 

oonrnption at home, by giving rise to faotiona whidi ooniended for 
the greatest share of the spoils^ while, apart from these, nev dis- 
tinotioBS had arisen, and the rich and the poor, or the illnsteioQS and 
. the obscore, now formed the great parties in the States 

6. As the nobles availed themselves of the advantages of ih^ 
station to aocomnlate wealth and additional honors, the large slave 
plantations iw^eased in the country to the dispaSragement of free 
labor, and the detriment of small landholders, whose numbers were 
•constantly diminishing, while the city gradually became erowded 
with an idle, indigent, and turbnlent populace, attracted thither by 
tiie frequent cheap or gratuitous distributions of com, and by the 
frequency of the public shows, and made up, in part, 6f emancipated 
riaves, who were kept as retainers fai the fronilies of their fanaet 
mastecB. So long as large portiona of Italy remained unsettled, 
there was an outlet for the redundancy of this growing populace ; but 

* the entire Italian territory being now occupied, Uie indigent could 
no longor be provided for in the country, and the practice of colo- 
nizing distant provinces had not yet been ado|>ted. 

7. The evils of such a state of society were numerous and for- 
midable, and such as to threaten the stabilUiy of the republic 
Against the increasing political influence of the artstooracy, iiie 
tribunes of the people had long struggled, but rather as fiMtiouf 
demagogues than as honest defenders of popular ri^ts. At length 
Tiberius 6rac' chus, a tribune, and grandson of Scipio Afrioanns, 
one of the noblest and most virtuous among the young men of his 
time, commenced the work of reform by proposing to enforce the 
*Licinian law, which declared that no individual should possess more 

Uian five hundred jugers,^ (about two hundred and seventy^five acres) 
of the public domain. This law had been lopg neglected, so that 
nunlbers of the aristocracy now cultivated vast estates, the occupancy 
of which had perhaps been transmitted from father to son as an in- 
heritance, or disposed of by purchase and sale ; and although the 
republic rtiU retained the fee simple in such lands, and eovld at any 
time legally turn out the occupants, it had long ceased to be thoo^t 
probable that its rights would ever be exercised. 

8. The law of Tib^us Orac' chus went even beyond strict legal jna> 
tice, by proposing that buildings and improvements on the public lands 
shoidd be paid for out of the public treasury. The impression has 
generally prevailed that the Agrarian laws proposed by Tiberius 

IL Ai^avirwuiiMrlyJftMiUitliforoorMrtk 

Qbap. YI] JftOMAH HISTOBT. 109 

Orae^ohns were a direct and violent infringement of the rights of 
private property; but the genius and learning of Niebuhr have 
shown that thej effected the distribution of public lands only, and 
not those of private citisens ; although there were doubtless instances 
' where, inoidentally, they violated private rights. 

9. When the senators and noises, w^p were the principal land- 
holders, perceived tl^t their interests were attacked, their exaspera- 
tion was extreme ; and Tiberius, whose virtues had hitherto been ac- 
knowledged by all, was denounced as a factious demagogue, \ disturber 
of (he public tranquillity, and a traitor to the conservative interests 
of the republic. When the law of Tiberius was about to be put to 
the vote in the assemblies of tUe people, the corrupt nobles engaged 
Octavins, one of the tribune's colleagues, to forbid the proceecUngs ; 
but the people deposed him from the tribuneship, and the agrarian 
law was passed. A permanent triumvirate, or committee of three, 
ofmsisting of Tiberius Grac' ohus, his brother Caius, and Ap' plus 
Clan' dius, was thefl appointed to enforce the law. , About the same 
time a law was passed, providing that the treasures which At' talus, 
king of Per' gamus, had recently bequeathed to the Roman people, 
should be distributed among the poorer citizens, to whom lands were 
to be assigned, in order to afford them the means of purchasing the 
Deoessary implements of husbandry.*^ 

10. At the expiration of the year 4>f his tribuneship, Tib6riu8 
offered himself for reelection, conscious that unless shielded by the 
saer^dness of the <^lce of tribune, his person would no longer be 
safe from the resentment of his enemies. After two of the tribes 
had voted in his fiivor, the opposing party declared the votes, illegal, 
and the disputes which followed occupied the day. On the following 
morning the people again assembled to the election, when a rumor 
was circulated that some of the nobles, accompanied by bands of 
armed retainers, designed to attaek the crowd and take the life of 
Tiberius. A tumult ensued, and a false report was carried to the 
senate, then in session, that Tiberius had demanded a crown of the 
peopla The senate seiied upon this pretext for violent interference; 
but when the consul refused to disturb the people in their legal as- 
sembly, the senators rose in a body, and, headed by Soip' io Nasica, 

t. In 133 B. C. At' tains Fhilomitor bequeathed his kingdom and all his treasures to the Ro- 
mm people. M' talu was one of the wont specimens of Eastern despots, and toolc grsat 
iWlttit In dispatching his nearest reUtivea hj poison. The Romans bad long looked upon 
Ma ki^pdom as their propertgr, and bis wUl was pit>babl7 dmwn op bgr Bomaa dlotatkm. 



and aooompanied by a crowd of armed dependants) proceeded to ^ 
assembly, where a oonflict ensaed, in which Tiberius and about three 
hundred of his adherents were slain. (B. C. 132.) « 

1 1. Notwithstanding this di^;racefal victory, and the persecutioiifl 
that followed it, the rnling party could not abolish the triumvirate 
which had been appointed to execute the law of Tiberius. Borisg 
ten years, however, little Was accomplished byihe popular party, 
owing to the powerful opposition of the aristocracy ; but after Cdjns 
Grac' chus, a younger brother of Tiberius, had been elected tribane, 
the cause of the people received a new impulse ;- an equitable diyision 
of the public lands was commenced, and many salutary reforms were 
made in the administration of ihe government. But, at length, 
C^us being deprived of the tribuneship by hiae returns and bribery, 
and his bitter enemy Opim' his having been elected consul by the 
aristocratic faction, and afterwards appointed dictator by the senate, 
tiie followers of Ciius were driyen from th6 city by armed violence, 
and three thousand of their number slain. (B. 0. 120.) The head 
of Ciius was thrown at the feet of Opim' ius, who bad o£fered for it 
a reward of its weight in gold.*^ 

12. Thus ended what has been termed the ^< dissensions of the 
Gracchi;'' and with that noble family perished the freedom of the 
republic. An odious aristocracy, which derived its authority from 
wealth, now ruled the State : the tribunes, becoming rich themiselves, 
no longer interposed their authority between the people and their 
oppressors ; while the lower orders, reduced to a state of hop^esB 
subjection, and xlespairing of liberty, became factious and torlmkit, 
and ere. long prepared the way, first for the tyranny of a perpetoal 
dictatorship, and lastly for the establishment of a monarchy on the 
ruins of the commonwealth. 

13. The profligacy and corruption of the senate were mamfest itf 
the events that led to the Jugur' thino war, ^Hiioh began to embroil 

_ •. TiMrioi aod C&iiu Grac ohus, tboogti of the noblest origin, and of superior natural eo- 
dowmenta, are sold to hare been indebted more to the Judiciona care of their widowed motbcr 
Oomelia, tban-to natore, for the ezoeUenoe of their ^haraetera. Thla diatlngolshed Konaa 
matron, the daogfater of Solp' to AMetaua the Elder, occaples a high rank for the purity and 
excellence of her private character, as well aa for her noble an(L elevated sentiments. The M- 
lowing anecdote of Cornelia is often cited. A Oam^intan ladjr who waa ai the time on a vWI 
to her, baring diaplayed to ComeUa soma very beantiAU ornaments which she possessed, de> 
aired the latter, iu return, to exhibit her own. The Roman mother purposely detained her ia 
^ conversation until her chHdren returned ttom school, when, pointing to them, she exelalmsd, 
•* There are my omamenta." She bore the untimely death of her sons with great magnanimity, 
and tn honor of her a statue waa afterwards erected by the Roman people, bearing tbr m ^ 
terlptiou ttie wordi^ « <WMtta, wMAAr ^ a« Oi-aeeU** 

Char VI] ROMAN fflSTORY. 171 

the republic soon after the fall of the Grac'chi. The Numid'iaa 
kiDg Micip' sa, the son of Massinis' sa, had divided iv. jugue'- 
his kingdom, on his death-bed, between his two sons thine war. 
Hieittp' sal and Adher' bal, and his nephew Jognr' tha ; but the 
latter, resolving to obtain possession of the whole inheritance, soon 
murdered Hiemp' sal, and compelled Adher' bal to take refuge in - 
Rome. The senate, won by the bribes of the usurper, decreed a 
division of the kingdom between the two claimants, giving to Jugur' tha 
the better portion ; but the latter soon declared war against his cousin, 
andf having gained possession of his person, put him to death. The 
senate could no longer avoid a declaration of war against Jugur' tha; 
but he would have escaped by an easy peace, after coming to Rome 
to plead his own cause, had he not there murdered another relative, 
whom Kfe suspected of aspiring to the throne of Nuniid' ia. (B. C. 

14.^ Jugur' tha was allowed to return to Africa ; but his briberies 
of the Roman senators were exposed, and the war against him was 
begun anew. After he had defeated several armies, Metel' lus drove 
him from his kingdom, when the Numid' ian formed an alliance with 
Bac' ohus, king of Mauritania,* but their united forces were success- 
irely rout^ by the consul Mdrius, formerly a lieutenant in the army 
of Metel' lus, but who, after obtaining the consulship, hiid beeij sent 
to terminate the war. Eventually the Moorish king betrayed Jugur'- 
tha into the hands of the Romans, as the price of his own peace^and 
security, (B. C. 106,) and the captive ntonarch, after gracing the 
triumph of Mdrius, was condemned to be starved-to death in prison. 

15. Soon after the fall of Jugur' tha, Marius was recalled from 
his command in Africa to defend the northern provinces of Italy 
against a threatened invasion from immcnse*^ hordes of the Cim' bri 
and Tea' tones,* German nations, who, about the year v. oermanio 
113, had crossed the Danube* and appeared on the east- invasion 

1. MamHUtM was an extemdf« Mimtry of Nortbera Aftiea, west of Namid' ia, embraclog 
tb0 preaent Moroooo and part of Algiers. {Map No. IX.) 

S. The Vmube^ the laigeat river in EaropO) exeept the Volga, rises in the sontb-westem part 
9t Gennanj, in the Dochj of Uaden,*oni7 about thirty miMS from the Rhine, and after a general 
wntli-easlem tourse of nearly eighteen hundred miles, falls into the Black Sea. (Map No. VUI.) 

«.TIie barbarian torrent of the dm' bri «od 7Vh' f(nu« appears to bare originated beyond 
a* ERmw The original seat of the dm' hri was probably the CImbrlan peninsula, so called by 
tbe Bomana,— the same as the modem Jntland, or Denmark. Opinions differ concerning the 
TcNT tones, some believing Ihem to have been tbe oollectlye wanderers of many tribes between 
tbe Viitnis and tbe Elbe, while others fix their original seats in northeni Scandinavia— that is, 
hk Urn north of Sweden and Norway. 

172 AJfOIKNT HSSTCttY. [Pj» L 


era declmtiea of the Alps, whtre the RomaiiB goArd^ tiie prnwrn 
into Italy. The first year of the appearance of these mikiMmm 
tribes, from which is dated the beginning of (German history ,» thej 
defeated the Roman consul Papir' ins Gar' bo, near Noreja,^ in the 
%mountains of the present Styr' ia. Proceeding thence towards south- 
era Gaol they demanded a country from the Romans, for which they 
promised military assistance in war ; but when their request was re- 
fused they determined to obtain by the sword what was denied them 
by treaty. Four more Roman armies were successively vanqui^ed 
by them, the last under the consuls Man' lius and Gsa' pio in the year 
105, with the prodigious loss of 80,000 Roman soldiers dain, and 
40,000 of their slaves. 

16. Fortunately for the Romans, the enemy, after this great vic- 
tory, turaed aside towards the south of France and Spain, while 
Marins, who had been appointed to the command of the northern 
army, marching over the Alps towards Oaul, formed a defensive 
camp on the Rhone.* The Germans, returaing,. in vain tempted 
Marius to battle, after which they divided into two hands, the Gim'- 
hri taking up their march for Italy, while the Teu' tones remained 
opposed to Mdrius. £ut when the Teu' tones saw that their chal- 
lenge for battle was not accepted, they also hroke up, and mardung 
past the Romans, jeeringly asked them " if they had any commissions 
to send to their wives.'' M^ius followed at their side, keeping upon 
the heights, but when he had arrived at the present town of Aix,* in the 
south of France, some accidental skirmishing at the outposts of the 
two armies brought on' a general battle, which continued two days, 
and in which the natioiT of the Teu' tones was. nearly annihilated, 
(B. G. 102,) — two hundred thousand of them being either killed or 
taken prisoners. ^ 

17. In the meantime the consul Gatul'lus had been repulsed by 
the Gim' bri in northera Italy, and driven south of the Po. M4rius 
hastened to his assistance, and their united forces now advanced 
across the Po, and defeated the Gim' bri in a great battle on the Rau- 

1. Alvr^ro, or Jf^rnm, wm the cftpttai of the Roman pr^TlMe^of ^eriefm, TIm rito of UUt 
dty it In tbe prmeOL Amriam provfuee of Stfrio, about sUty bbIIm nortii-eMt ft«a LaylMeh. 
(,Mt^ No. vnL) 

St. The JUkon4 risea in SwiUerlaod, paatei ttarongh the Lake of Oentfa, and after onltias 
with the Bttone flows toutb through the aoulh-eaatem part of Ftanee, and dlachaigei lit waMn 
bjr four Btomhs into the MedUenraaeaa. (Mapmo.Xnh) 

3. ^t'zjcaUedby theBoiDaBa.4fiM£te<«,lafiti]atedinaplala>Uleeni]iileaiiorth€rii^ 
MUiea. (.«vKo.XUL) 

a. Kohlrauaoh^ Germany, ph 43 

OHtf.yii. Boujkjs mxroRT 173 

£aik pkins.* (B. C 101.) Thus ended the irar with ihe Oermaa 
«atioii8. The dimger with whidi it for a time threatened Rome was 
eompared to that of the- great Gallie inyasion, nearly three hundred 
jears b^ore. The Romans, in gratitnde to their deliverer/ now 
Btjled Marine the third founder of the oity. 

18. A still more dangeronsjwar, called the social war, soon after broke 
oat between the Bomans and their Italian allies, caused ^^ ,.^ 
bj the tmjnst treatment of the latter, who, forming part of booxal war. 
the commonwealth, and sharing its burdens, had long in vain de- 
manded for themselves the civil and political privileges that were 
enjoyed by citizens of tiie metropolis. The war continued three 
years, and Rome would dod}tle6S have fallen, had she not, toon after 
the commencement of the struggle, granted the Latin towns, more 
tium fifty in mmiber, all the rights of Roman citizens, and thus se- 
cured their fidelity. (90 B. G.)^ The details of this war are little 
known, but it is supposed Uiat, during its continuance, more than 
Ihree himdred thousand Italians lost their lives, and that many 
iloarishing towns were reduced to heaps of ruins, ^he Romans 
were eventually compelled to oBer the rights of citizenship to all' 
that should lay down their arms ; and tranquillity was thus restored 
to most of Italy, although the Samnites continued to resist until 
they WCT'C destroyed as a nation. * 

19. While these domestic dangers were threatening Rome, an im- 
portant African war had broken out with MithriddteS) king of Pontus.* 
It has been related that in the time of* Antiochus the ^^ „^g. 
Great, king of Syria, the Romans obtained, by conquest MTHairtAno 
and treaty, the western provinces of Asia Minor, most ^^ 

of which they conferred upon one of their allies, Etimenes, king of 
Per'gamus, and that At' talus, a subsequent prince of Per'gamus, 
gave back these same provinces^ by will, to the Roman people. (See 
p. 161 and p. 169.) 

20. The Romans, thus firmly established in Asia Minor, saw with 
jealousy the increasing power of Mithridates, who, after reducing 
the nations on the eastern coasts of the Black Sea, had added to his 

L Pwhu v« a oooDtry of A«Ui Minor, on tba ioutb-«a8leni eoMt of the Enxina^ bavkig 
Oalohki on tlie flMt, and Paphlagftnift and GaI4ti« on Um west. 

a. The anetloealtty la unknown, but it waa on a nortliera bimnch of Uie Po, between Ver. 
eeOi ami Verana,i»Qbablj near tba praMotMUan. Some eaj near VeroeUi, on the weet bank 
of tba fHiiiftM 

b. Tbta waa done hj the oelebraled Ltz Jmlioj or JoUan Uw, propoaad l^ L. Jnliua Cbht, 

174 AirOIE5T HISTOET. [PabvL 

diKiuiiioiiB on the west, Paphlag6iiia and Oappadoeia,* wlikii bB 
claimed by inlieritanoe. Nioomedes, king of Bithjn' la, diaputing^ 
with him the right to the hitter proyinoes, appealed to the Koman 
senate, which decUred that the diluted difltricts should be firee 
States^ subject to neither Nioom^des nor MithridAtes. The latter 
then entered into an alliance with TigrAnea, king of Ann6nia, — 
seized the disputed prorinces — drove Nicom6de8 from his kingdom-^ 
defeated two large Roman armies, and, in the year 88» before the 
end of the social war, had gained possession of all Asia Minor. All 
the Greek islands of the ^gean, except Rhodes, yolontarily sub- 
mitted to him, and nearly all the Grecian States, with Athens, 
throwing off the Roman yoke, placed themselyes under his protectioB. 
Mithridates had received a Greek education, and was looked upon 
as a Grecian, which accounts for the readiness with which the Greeks 
espoused his cause. 

21. The Roman senate gave the command of the ]V{ithridatic war 
to Sylla, a man of great intellectual superiority, but of profligate* 
morals, who had served under Mirius against Jugur' tha and the 

no. CIVIL Cim' bri, and had rendered himself eminent by his ser- 
WAR BE- vices in the social war. The ambitious Mdrius, though 
aius AND - iiu)re than twenty years die senior of Sylla, had long 
BYLLA. regarded the Httter as a formidable rival, and now he 
succeeded in obtaining a decree of the people, by which the com- 
mand was transferred from Sylla to himself. Sylla, then at the 
head of an army in the Samnite territory, immediately marched 
against Rome, and entering the city, broke up the faction of Mirius, 
who, after a series of romantic adventures, escaped to Africa.^ 
(88 B. C.) 

22. Scarcely had Sylla departed with his army for Greece, to carry 
on the war against Mithriddtes, when a fierce contest arose within 

a. See Map of Asia MiDor, No. IV. 

b. MAriiiB fled first to Oatia, and tbeDoe along the sea-ooaat to Mintor' na, where be «w P^ 
on shore, at the raouth of the Liris, and abandoned by the crew of the vessel that carried him- 
Afler in vain seelcing shelter in the cottage of an old peasant, be was forced to hide himMlf in 
the mud of Cbe Pontine marshes ; bat be was discovered by his vigilant pursuers, dragged oat, 
and thrown into a dungeon at Mintur' nas. No one, however^ had the courage to put blm to 
death ; and the maglstratee of Mintur' nm therefore sent a public slave into the prison to kill 
him ; bat as the barbarian approached the hoary warrior his courage Mled him, and Use Min- 
tur' nians, mcyved by compassion, put M&rioa on board a boat and transported )nm to AlHot* 
Beinff set down at Carthage, the Roman go^mor of the district sent to inform him that uniosi 
he left Africa he should treat him as a public enemy. ** Go and tell him,*' replied (he wanderer, 
** that you have seen the exile M&rius silting on the ruins of Carthage." In the following year 
during the absence of Sylla, he returned to Italy. For localities of Pontint MartkUt lArih 
and Mtntw nm, see Hap No. X. 


tbe eiij between the partisans of S jUa and M^ins ; one of the oon- 
Bvls, Oiona, esponsing the caose of the latter, and the other, Oct^- 
Tins, that of the former. Cinna recalled the i^^ed Mdrius ; both 
parties flew to arms ; and all Italy became a prey to the horrors of 
ciTil irar. (B. C. 87.) The senate and the nobles adhered to Octi- 
▼ins ; but Rome was besieged, and compelled to surrender^ to the 
adrerse faction. - Then commenced a general massacre of all the op- 
ponents of Mdrins, which was continued five days and nights, until 
the streets ran with blood. Haying gratified his revenge by this 
bloody victory, MArius declared liimself consul, without going through 
~ tiie formality of an election, and chose Cinna to be his colleague ; 
but sixteen days later his life was terminated by a sudden fever, at 
tiie age of seventy-one years. Mirius has the character of having 
been one of the most successful generics of Rome ; but after having 
borne away manj» honorable offices, and performed many noble ex- 
ploits, he tarnished his glory by a savage and in&mous old age. 

23. During three y^ars after the death of Mirius, Sylla was con 
ducting the war in Greece and Asia, while Italy was completely in 
th« hands of the party of Cinna. The latter even sent an army to 
Asia to ^ttack Sylla, and was preparing to embark himself, when he 
was slain in a mutiny of his soldiers. In the meantime Sylla, hav- 
ing takeni Athens by storm, and defeated two armies of Mithriddtes, 
condoded a peace with that monarch ; (84 B. C.,) and having induced 
the soldiers sent against him to join his standard, he returned to Italy 
at the head of thirty thousand men to take vengeanee upon his ene- 
mies, who had collected an army of four hundred and fifty cohorts, 

, numbering one hundred and eighty thousand men,* to oppose him. 
(B. C. 83.) But none of the generals of this vast army were equal, 
in military talents, to Sylla ; their forces gradually deserted them, 
and after a short but severe struggle, Sylla became master of Rome. 

24. A dreadful proscription of his enemies followed, far exceed* 
ing the atrocities of Mdrius ; for Sylla filled not only Rome, but 
all Italy, with massacres, which, in the language' of the old writers,' 
bad neither numbers nor bounds. He caused himself to be appointed 
dictator for an unlimited time, (B. C. 81,) reestablidied thp govern- 
ment on an aristocratioal basts, and after "having fuled nearly three 
years, to the astonishment of every one he resigned Ms power, and 
retired to private life. He died soon after, of a loathsome disease, * . 

B. '*From tbe time of M&rlag, the Soman military forces are always eomited by eoborta or 
tauS biitinofii, eadi eontaintng tout hundred and twenty meo.*'— Mlebnhr, tr. 19Si 

176 ANcnarr histoet. [Pm l 

at the a^ of sixty years^ leayisg, by hk own direction, tke foUowinf^ 
oharacteriBtio inscription to be engrayed on his tomb. " H^ lias 
Sylla, who was neyer ontdone in good offices by his friend, nor in 
sots of hostility by his enemy." (B. G. 77.) 

25. A Marian fftction, headed by Sert6riiis, a man of great mili- 
tary talents, still existed in Spain, threatening to soTer that province 
from Rome, and establish a new kingdom there. * After Sert6riiii 
had defeated seyeral Roman armies, the youthful Pompey, after- 
wards sumamed the Great, was sent against him ; but he too waa 
Tanquished, and it was not until the insurgents had been depriyed of 
their able leader by treachery, that the rebellion was quelled, and 
Spain tranquilliaed. (B. G. 70.) During the continuance of the 
Spanish jrar, a formidable revolt of the slaves, headed by Spar' taeua, 

n. snviLs ^ celebrated Radiator, had broken out in Italy. At first 
WAR IN Spar' tacus and his companions formed a desperate band 
"^^' X of robbers and murderers, but their numbers eventually 
increased to a hundred and twenty thousand men, and three praeto- 
rian and two consular armies were completely defeated by them. 
The war lasted upwards of two years, and at one time Rome itself 
was in danger ; but the rebels, divided among tiiemselves, were finally 
overcome, and nearly all exterminated, by the pr»tor Gras' sua, the 
growing rival of Pompey. (B, G. 70.) 

26. During the progress of these events in Italy, a seccmd war had 
broken out with Mithriddtea, (83 B. G.,) but after a continuance of 

two years it had been terminated by treaty. (81 B. 0.) 
AND THUD Seven years later, Mithridates, who had long been pre- 
xxTHEiDATio paring for hostilities, broke the second treaty between.^ 

him and the Romans by the invasion of Bythyn' ia, and 
thus commenced the third Mathridattc war. At first LucuUus, who 
was sent against him, was successful, and amassed immense-treasures; 
but eventually he was defeated, and Mithridates gained possession 
of nearly all Asia Minor. Manil' ius, the tribune, then proposed 
that Pompey, who had recently gained great honor by a successful 
war agaiost the pirates in the Mediterranean, should be placed over 
all the other generals in the Asiatic provinces, retaining at the same 
time the commaad by sea. This was a greater accumulation of 
power {han had ever been intrusted to any Roman citizen, but the 
* law was adopted. It was on this ocasion that the orator Gicero 
pronounced his famous oration Fro lege Manilia^ (^^ for the Manilian 
law.*') Caesar also, who was just then rising into eminence^ approved 

Csin VI] ttOMAN HIBTOET. 177 

Iba measore, wbSe the friends of Ctsb'sob in vain attempted to de* 
feat it 

27. Pompey, then passing with a large army into Asia, (B. C. 66,) 
ID one campaign defeated Mithridites on the banks of the Euphrates, 
and drove the monarch from his kingdom ; and in the following year, 
after fedncing Syria, thns putting an end to the empire of the Seleu'- 

*cid2e he found an opportunity of extending Boman interference to the 
a&ita of Palestine. Each of the two claimants to the throne, the 
Ivothers Hyreanus an«^ Aristobtilus,' sought his assistance, and as he 
decided IB &yor of the former, the latter prepared to resist the Boman, 
and skat himself up in Jerusalem. After a siege of three months 
the city was taken ; its walls and fortifications were thrown down ; 
Hyreanus was appointed to be high-priest, and goyemor of the 
country, but was required to pay tribute to the Romans; while 
Aristobdlus, with his sons and daughters, was taken to Rome to 
grace the triuni)>h of Pompey. From this time the situation of 
Judea diCered li|tle from ihat of a Boman province, although for a 
>hile later it was goyemed by natiye princes ; but all of ihem were 
more or less subject to Boman authority. About the time of Pom- 
poy's conquest 6f Jerusalem, Mithridates, driven from one province 
to another, uid finding no protection even among his own relatives, 
terminated his life by poison. ($. 0. 63.) His dominions and vaat 
weaMi were variously disposed of by Pompey in the name of the 
Boman people. 

28. While Pompey was winning laurels in Asia, the republic was 
Inronght near the brink of destruction by a conspiracy headed by the 
infamous Oatiline. Bome was at this time in a state of compete 
anarchy; the republic was a mere name; the laws had ^ oonspi 
lost their power ; the elections were carried by bribery; raoy of 
and the city populsce was a tool in the hands of the °^'''^^°^ • 
nobles in their feudB again&t one another. In this corrupt state of 
tilings SergiuB Oatiline, a man of patrician rank, and of great abili- 
ties, but a monster of wickedness,, who had acted a distmguished 
part in ihe bloody scenes of Sylla^s tyranny, placed himself at the 
head of a confederacy of profligate young nobles, who hoped, by 
derating their leader to the consulship, or by murdering those wh) 
opposed them, to mike tibemselves masters of Borne, and to gain 
possession of the public treasures, and the property «f the citizens. 
Many oiroomstaDces, favored the audacious schemes of the conspira- 
tors. Pompey was abroad — ^Gras' sus, striving with mad eagerness 

H* 12 ' 

178 AiroiEirr hibtobt. [p^mL 

for power and rlclies, countenanced the growing inflaence of OatOine, 
OS a means of his own aggrandizement — Csssar, laboring to reviTe 
the party of Marias, and courting the &7or of the pec^le bj pnblio 
shows and splendid entertainments, spared Catiline, and perhaps se- 
cretly encouraged him, ^hile the only two eminent Romans who 
boldly determined to uphold their falling country wei« Gato the 
younger, and the orator Cicero. * 

29. While the storm which Catiline had been raising was threat- 
ening to burst upon Rome, and every one dreaded the arch-conspira* 
tor, but no one had the courage to come forwarcl against him, Cicero 
offered himself a candidate for the consulship, in'opposition to CatUinOi 
and was elected. An attempt of the conspirators to murder Cicero in his 
own house was frustrated by the watchful vigilance of the consul ; and 
a fortunate accident disclosed to him all their plans, which he laid be- 
fore the senate. Even in the senate-house Catiline boldly confronted 
Cicero, who there pronounced against him that famdhs oration which 
saved Rome by driving Catiline from the city. Catilme then fled to 
Etruria, where he had a large force already under lurms, while sevB-* 
ral of his confederates remained in the city to open the gates to hiia 
on his approach ; but they were apprehended, and brought to punish- 
ment. An army was then sent against the insurgents, who were 
completely defeated ; and most of them, imitating Catiline^ fou^t 
to the last, and died sword in hand. (B.'C. 63«) Cicero, to whom 
the Romans were indebted for the overthrow of the conspiracy, wafl 
now hailed as the Father and Deliverer of his country. 

30. Soon after the return of Pompey from Asia, the jealousies 
between him and Cras' sus were renewed ; but Julius Csesar succeeded 

xn THE ^ reconciling the rivals, and in uniting them with him- 
FIRST TRi- self in a secret partnership of power, called the First Tri- 
uMviRATB. ,iniy irate. (60 B. C) These men, .by their united in- 
fluence, were now able to carry all their measures ; and they virtually 
usurped the powers of the senate, as well as the command of the 
legions. CsBsar first obtainei the office of consul, (B. C. 59,) and, 
when the year of his consulship had expired, was made commander 
of all Gaul, (B. C. 58,) although but a small portion of fhsi country 
yas then under the Roman dominion. Cras' sus, whose avarice was 
unbounded, soon after obtained the command of- Syria, famed for its 
luxury and wealth ; while to Pompey were given A£rica and Spain, 
although he left the care of his provinces to oth^s, and stiU remained 
in Italy. 


31. In ihe course of eight years Oseaar conquered all Oaol, whioh 
consisted of a great ni:ynber of separate nations — twice passed the 
Bhine' into Germany — and twice passed over into Britain, and jimb- 
doed the sonthem part of the island. Hitherto Britain had been 
Imown only by name to the Greeks and Romans ; and its first inva- 
sion by Gassar, in the year 55 B. C., is the beginning of its authentic 

•history. The disembarkation of the Bomans, somewhere on the 
eastern coast of Kent,^ was firmly disputed by the natives ; but stem 
discipline . and steady valor overawed them, imd they proffered sub- 
mission. A second invasion in the ensuing spring was also resisted ; 
but genius and science asserted their usual superiority;^ and peace, 
and the withdrawal of the invaders, were purchased by the payment 
of tribute. In the meantime Cras' sus had fallen in Parthia,' (B. C. 
52,) thus leaving but two masters of the Boman world ; but Pompey 
bad already become jealous of the greatness of Osesar's fiune, and on 
the death of Julia, the wife of Pompey and daughter of Caesar, the 
last tie that bound these friends was broken, and they became rivals, 
and enemies. Pompey had secured most of the senate to his inter- 
ests ; but Caesar, though absent, had obtained, by the most lavish 
bribes, numerous and powerful adherents in the very hearjb of Borne. 
Among others, Mark Antony and Quintus Cassius, tribunes of the* 
people, favored his interests 

32. When Caesar requested that he might stand for the consulship 
in his absence, the senate denied the request. When or- zm. civil 
dered to disband his legions and resign his provinces, he ^^^^^^^^ 
immediately promised compliance, if Pompey would do and pomw. 
the same; but the senate peremptorily ordered him to disband his 

L Hie KiiM riMft to SwttzertaiMl, only ft few mfles from flie loiirce at the Rhone— ptuee 
tfarooQ^ Lake ConsUmoe— then flows weet to the town of Bule^ near the borden of FraiMW^ 
theooe generally north-west to the North Sea or German Ocean. It formed the ancient 
botuMlary between Gaol and the German tribes, and was first passed by Jalius Ciesar in hto 
faiTaaion of the German nation of the Sicambri. 

9. Parikia was originally a. small extent of conntry, south-east of the Caspian Sea. After 
Ihe death of Alexander the Great a separate kingdom waa formed there, which gradaaUy es- 
tcnded to the Indus on the east and the Tigris on the west, nntil It embraced the fklrost prov- 
Ineea Of the old Peoian monarchy. By the victory over Crassas the Parthlons obtained a great 
Increase of power, and during a long time afler this event they were almost oonstantly at war 
with the Romans. The Parthian empire was overthrown bflhe sonthem Persians S9S years . 
sAer the CShristian era, when the later Persian empire of the Sasaanidm was established. «The 
mode of fighting adopted by the Parthian cavalry was peculiar, and well calculated to annoy^ 
lit hen apparently tai ftaU retreat, they would turn round on their steeds ^nd diseharge their 
afrowB with the most unerring accuracy ; and hence, to borrow the language of an ancient 
writer, It was victory to themjif a counterfeit flight threw their pursuers into disorder." 

a. Ibe plaoe where OBesr ft believed to have landed Is at the town of Deal, near what la 
called the Sooth Fofeland, sizty-Blx miles aOQUMast froa London. 

180 AKODSNT mSTOBT. [Past 1 

amiy before a i^eoified daj, tmder tiie penalty of bein^ dedar^ a 
public onemj; (B. C. 49.) The tribunes Antony and Caasius fled 
to the artny of Gsesar then at Rayen' na,^ bearing with them the hois- 
tile mandate of the senate, and by their harangues inflaming the sol- 
diers against the meamires of the senatorial party. CaBsar, eonfldeni 
of the support of his troops, now passed the Rubicon in hostile array, 
an act deemed equiyalent to an open declaration of war f^ainst his' 
country. The senate and Fompey, alarmed at the rapidity of kia 
niOYements, and finding their forces daily deserting them, fled across 
the Adriat' ic into Greece ; and in sixty days from the passage of the 
Rubicon; Csesar was master of all Italy. 

33. Caosar soon obtained the surrender of Sicily and Sardinia^ 
after which he passed over to Spain, where Pompey^s lieutenants 
commanded, — rapidly reduced the whole Peninsula, took Marseilles 
by siege on his return through Gkiul, and, on his arrival at Rome, 
was declared by the remnant of th^ senate sole dictator ; but niter 
eleven days he laid aside the office, and took that of consul. Pompey 
had already collected a numeroxis army in the eastern provmces, 
and -thither Caesar followed him. Near Dyrraoh' ium,* in lUyr' i- 
onm, he assaulted the intrenched camp of Pompey, but was re- 
pulsed with the loss of many standards, and his own camp would 
have been taken had not Pcmipey called off his troops, in i^prehoi- 
sion of an ambuscade; on which O^esar remarked that "the war 
would have been at an end, if Pompey had known how to profit by 

- 34. Caesar then boldly advanced into Thes' saly, followed by Pompey 
at the head of a superior force. The two armies met on the phuns 
of Pharsdlia,* where was fought the battle which decided jbhe ^ite of 
the Roman world. (B. C. 48.) Caesar was completely victorious, 

1. Raven' ma was originallj bolU on the ahora of the AdrUt' Ic, near the moat sontbem 
month of the river Pp. Angnstua conatmcted a new harbor three mllea from the old town, 
and henceforward the new harbor became the principal station of the Roman Adriat' ic fleet} 
bnt such was the aecamulatioB of mud brought down by the streams, that, as Gibbon relate^ 
■0 early as the fifth or sixth century after Christ, ** the port of Augustus waa converted inio 
pleasant orchards ; and a lonely grove of ipines eoyered tho ground where the Roman lleei 
once rode at anchor." Baven' na was the capital of Italy daring the last years of the Western 
empire of tho Romans, and it stiU contains numerooa interesting specimens of thB arehitectura 
9f that period. 

8. Dyrrack' iuMy which waa a Grecian dty, at first called Efiiamnut^ was situated on tb« 
niyrian coast of Macedonia, north of ApoUonla. Its modem name is />Mrazz«, an onhealthy 
village of Turkish Albania. 

3. PkaraAlia was a city situated in the central portion of Tbesaaly, on a southem tribatai7 
of the Peneus. ^ The name of Pharta^ applied to a few ruins about fifteen miles south-weat 
fr<ta LarlMa, nurka the site of the ancient city. ^ 


aaA Pompey, ileeiiig in disgdae fSrom the field of battle, attended 

only l^y his son Sextus, and a few followers of rank, punraed his 

i way to Mytil6ne, where he took on board his wife Cornelia and 

1 1 sailed to Egypt, inteiufing to claim the hospitality of the yt^mg king 

i Ptol' emy, whose fitther he had befriended. PtoF emy, then at war 

\ with his sister Cleopatra, was encamped with his army near Pehisi- 

am,* whither Pompey directed his course, after sending to infenn 

the king of his approach. In the army of Ptol' emy there was a 

Boman, named JSeptim' ins, who advised the yonng prince to put 

!i Pompey to death, in order to secore the fayor of CsBsar ; and jnst 

fj as Pompey was stepping oa shore from a boat that had been sent to 

reeeive him, he was stabbed, in the i^ight of his wife and son. Soon 

sdfter CsBsar arriyed at Alexandria in l&gypt in pursoit of the fugi* 

tiyes; when the ring and head of Pompey, which were presented to 

him, gave him the first information of the &te of his riyal. He 

shed tear9 at the sight, and torned away with horror from the spee- 

tede. He afterwards ordered the head to be burned with perfumes, 

in the Boman method, and loaded with fayors those who had adhered 

to Pompey to the last 

35. Gsesar, in his eager pursuit of Pompey, had taken with him 
to Alexandria only a small body of troops, and when, captivated .by 
the fhEBcma and beauty of Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen, who ap- 
plied to him for protection, he decided against the claims of her 
brother, the party of the latter conceived the plan of overwhelming 
him in Ale^nndria, so that his situation there was similar to that of 
Cortes ia Mexico. The royal palace, in which Cseear had fortified 
himself^ jna set on fire, and the celebrated^ library established there 
by PtoFemy Philadelphus was burnt to ashes. With difficulty 
Caesar escaped from the city to the ishmd of Pharos,* where he 
maintained himself until reinforcements arrived. He ^n over- 
threw the power of Ptol' 6my, >rho lost his life by drowning, and 
after having established Cleopitra on the throne he marched against 
Phainioes, king of Pontus, son of Mithridites, whose dominions he 
ndoeed with sodi rapidity that he announced the result to the Bo* 

L P«MMim WM » ftontier dtj of ligypt, at tbe entnaoe of tiia Mftcm mouth of Um 
Kite. '^ 

& FftcTM WMmttinntalMKltiiflie^bay of Alexandria, at tlM eoiraiioa of the prtndpal bar- 
feor, one nile ftx>m the Bhore, with which it was oonoeoted by a canieway. The celebraled 
«1^wer or Phoioa'* waa Imilt on tbe Idand fai the reign of Ptol' emy Philadelphiia, to urve 
ma Wgh thn tHo ThemodemUghthonielower, which •tandaon the liland, has nothli« of the 
besatjandtrudenrortheoldriia. « 


man senat3 in the well known words, veniyVidij vid, " I oame, I mwy 
I conquer 3d." 

36. On CsBsar's return to Borne, (B. G. 47,) after an absence of 
nearly two years, he granted a general amnesty to all the followers 
of Pompey, and by his clemency gained a strong ho}d on the a&eo- 
tions of the people. The servility of the senate knew no bounds, 
and the whole republic was placed in his hands. Still there was a 
large and powerful party in Africa and Spain opposed to hiip, headed by 
Cato, the sons of Pompey, and other generals. Caesar, passing over to 
Africa, defeated his enemies there in the decisive battle of Thapsus,' 
after which the inflexible Cato, who commanded the garrison of Utioa, • 
having adviat^ his followers not to continue their resistance, commit- 
ted suicide. (46 S. C.) He had seen, he said, the republic passing 
away, and he could live no longer. Caesar expressed his regret that 
Cato had deprived him of the pleasure of pardoning hiuL 

37. The war in Africa had been finished in five months Fresh 
honors awaited Caesar at Rome. He enjoyed four triiunphs in one 
month ; the senate created him dictator for ten years ; he was ap- 
pointed censor of the public morahs, and his statue was placed oppo- 
site that of Jupiter, in the capitol, and inscribed, ^> To C8Q^ar, the 

t demigod." He made many useful changes in the laws, corrected 
many abuses in the administration of justice, extended the privileges 
of Roman citizens to whole cities and provinces in different parts 
of the empire, and reformed the calendar upon principles established 
by the Egyptian astronomers, by making an intercalation of sixty- 
seven days between the months of November and December, so thai 
tiie name of the December month was transferred from the time of 

, ths .autumnal equinox to that of the winter solstice, where it still re- 

38. From the cares of civil government Caesar was called to Spain, 
where Cn^us and Sextus, the, two soife o£ Pompey, had raised a large 
army against him. In the spring of the year 45 he defeated them in a 
hard-fought battle in the plains of Munda,* after having been obliged, 
in order to encourage his men, to fight in the foremost ranks as a 
common soldier. Caesar said that he had often fought for victory, 

. but that in this battle he fought for his life. The elder i>f Fompey^s 

L Tkapnu, now Dem§a»^ was a town of UtUe importance on the aea-ooaat, about one 
hiudred miles south-east from Carthage. ^ 

a. Munda was a town a short distance from the Mediterranean in the soothem part of ^Mda. 
Tbm little Tillage of Mtnda in Grenada, twenty-flre miles west ttom Malaga, is sappoaed lo be 
near the site of the ancient d^. ^ 


moB was slain in^the pnrsait after the battle,-but Sextos the younger 
eflcaped. After a campaign of nine months Caesar returned to Kome, 
and eajojed a triumph for the reduotion of Sj^ain, which had termi- 
Dated the oiyil war in the Boman provinces. 

39. Caesar was next made dictator for life, with the title of impera^ 
tor and the powers of sovereigBtj, although the outward form of the 
republic was allowed to remain. His ever active mind now planned 
a series of foreign conquests, and formed vast designs for the im- 
provement of the empire which he had gained. He ordered tiie laws 
^ be digested into a code, he undertook to drain the great marshes in' 
tiie vidnitj of Bome, to form a capacious harbor at the mouth of 
the Tiber, to cat across the isthmus of Corinth, to make roads across 
^ Apennines, dig canals, collect public libraries, erect a new 
theatre, and build a magnificent temple to Mars. But whiler he was 
oeeapied with these gigantic projects the people became suspicious 
^ he courted the title of king ; and at his suggestion, as is sup- 
posed, Mark Ant<m7 offered him a royal diadem during the celebra- 
tion of the feast of the Lupercalia ; but no shout of approbation fol- 
ded tiie acty and he was obliged to decline Uie bauble.* 

40. A large number of senators, headed by the prsetorif Casaius 
ttd BrutuSy regarding Caasar as an usurper, soon after formed a con- 
piracy to take his life, and fixed on the fifteenth (the Ides) of March, 
s day appointed for the meeting of the senate, for the execution of 
^^ plot As soon as Oaesar had taken his seat in the sepate-house, 
^ eonspirators crowded around him, and as one of them, pretending 
^ vge soxne request, laid hold of his robe as if in the act of sup- 
plication, the others rushed upon him with drawn daggers,' and he 
^11 pierced with twenty-three wounds, at the base of Pompey's statue, 
*UA was sprinkled with his blood.b (B. C. 44) 

41. As soon as the deed of death was consummated, Brutus raised 


a. *> Yoa all did aeoi that on the Lnpercal, 
I thrice preaeDled him a kiogiy crown, 
Which he did thrice raftue» Waa this ambition t 
Te^firntua eaya, he waa ambitiova ; 
And aorc^ he ia an honorable man." 

Antonyms Oration. Shak*pear«?» Jnlhu Cmot. 
b* *'Forwben the noble GBBaar aajir him atab, 
lagratitade, mere atrong than traitora arma, 
Qnlte vanqniahed him : then bant hla mighty heart ; 
^ And, in hia mantie mnflfling np hia Amc^ 

Even at the baae of fompey'a atatoe, 
Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar felL" 

Antwing** OrotUm. 


Ilia Uoodj dagger, and oongratolated the aenate, and Oieero in par* 
tieolar, on the reeorery of liberty; but the greater part of the senn^ 
tore fled in diamaj from Rome, or ahnt themaelyea up in their honaes; 
and as the conspirators had formed no plana of fdtnre action, the 
minda of the citiaena were in the ntmoet sia^enae ; bat tranquillity 
preyailed uitil the day i4>pointed by the senate for the foneraL 
Then Mark Antony, who had hitherto nrged coneiliation, ascended 
the rostmm to deliver the fikneral oration. After he had wnraghl 
vpon the minda of the people in a most artful manner by ennmerating 
the great exploits and noble deeda of the mordered Caesar, he lifted 
up the bloody robe, and showed them fite body itseli^ 'all marred by 
traitora.' The multitude were seised with such indignation and 
rage, that while some, tearing up the baefaes of the senate-house, 
l^;Rnned^ them a funeral pile and burnt the body of Cttsar, othera 
ran through the sti^ets with drawn weapons and flamuig torchea, de- 

, nounmng Tengeance against the conspirators. Brutua^and Gasdus, 
and their adherents, fied firom Rome, and prepared to defend them- 
selyes by force of arms. * 

42. Antony, assisted by Lep' idus, now sought to plaoe himself at 
the head of the State ; but he found » rind in the young Octavina 
Cseear, the grandson of Gsraar's sister Julia, and princ^al heir of the 
murdered dictator. The senate adhered to the interests of OctaTius, 
and declared Antony a public enemy, and several battles had already 
been fougl^ between the opposing parties in the north of Italy and 
Oaul, when the three leaders, Antony, Lep' idus, and Ootavius, hav- 
ziY THx ^^ ^^^ ^ private conference on a small idand of the 
nooKo TBI- Rhine, agreed to settle their differences, and take up<m 
*™'^^'^"' themselves tibe government of the republic for five years — 
thus forming the Second Triumvirate. (B. O. 43.) A cold-blooded 
proscription of the enemies of the seversd parties to the compact fol- 
lowed. Antony yielded his own^bnde, and Lep' idus his own 
broiler, while Octavius, to his eternal in&my, consented tathe sac- 
rifice of the virtuous Cicero to satisfy the vengeance of his colleagues. 
Cicero was betrayed to the assassins sent to dispatch him, by one of 
his own domestics ; but, tired of life, he forbade his servants to de- 

'fend him, and yielded himself to his fiite without a struggle. 

43. Brutus and Caasius, at the head of the republican party, had 
by this time made themselves masters of Macedonia, Gre^, and 

the Asiatic provinces ; and Octavius and Antony, 'as soon as they 
had settled the government at Rome, set out to meet them. At 

Gu».TI] . ^ BOMAN HIBTORT. 185 

Plillip'pi,^ a town in Thi^aee, Wo batUes were foaght^ and fortimep 
rathar than talent, gare the victory to the triumyirs. (B. C. 42.) 
Both Oassias and BrutoSy giving way to despair, d^troyed them- 
aelves ; their army was dispersed, and most of the soldiers af&r- 
narda entered the service of the victors. Ootavins returned with 
his l^ons to Italy, while Antony remained as the master of the . 
Eaatem provinces. 

44 From Greeoe Antony passed over into Asia Minor, where he 
eaoaed great distress hy the heavy tribute he exacted of the inhab- 
itants. While at Tarsus,' in Oilioia, the celebrated Cleopatra came 
to pay him a visit; and so captivated was the Boman wi^ the 
diarms and beauty of the Egyptian queen, that he accompanied her 
on her return to Alexandria, where he lived for a time in indolence, 
dissipation, and luxury, neglectful of the calls of interest, honor, ^d 
ambition. In the meantime a civil war had broken out in Italy ; for 
the brother of Antony, aided by Fulvia, ihe wife of the latter, had . 
taken up arms against Octavius; but it was not until the rebellion 
had^been quelled, and Octavius was everywhere triumphant, that An- 
tony saw the Necessity of returning to Italy. 

45. On* his way he met at Athens his wife Fulvia, whom he blamed 
as the cause of the recent disasters, treated her with the utmost con- 
tempt, and leaving her on her death-bed hastened to fight Augustus 
All thought that another fierce struggle for the empire was at hand ; 
bat the rivals had a personal interview at BrundAsium,' where a re- 
conciliation was effected. To secure the permanence of the peace, 
Antony married Octavia, the half-sister of Octavius. A new division 
of the empire was made; Antoqy was to have the eastern provinces 
beyond the Ionian sea ; Octavius the western, and Lep' idus Africa ; 

1. PkU^^ a cUj' in the western part of Tluraoe, aflerwarde indottod In Maced6nla, was 
ibom aerenty-llTe miles nortlKeasI fh>m the present Sslonlki. In adiUtion to the rictory gained 
here by Antony and Octavliu, it is rendered more Interesting ftrom the circumstanoe of its 
befaig the first place where the Gospel was preached by St. Paal, (see Acts, xvl.,) and also ftom 
the Epistle addressed by him to the PhilippiaM, The mlns of the city stUl retain the name 
of JFUibaM, pronounced nearly the same as Philippi. (Map No. I.) 

8. 7Vir«a«, the capital of Cllicia, was situated on the river Cydnus, about twelve miles flrom 
die Bteditenanean. It was the birth-place of St. Pan], of Antlp' ater the stole, and of Athen- 
odtoua the philosopher. It is still a viUage of some six or seven thousand inhabitants, and 
ibme remains of ita ancient magnificence are still visible. The visit of Cleopatra to Antony-^ 
beraelf atfiied Uke Venus, and her attendants like cuplds. In a galley covered with gold, whosd 
sails were of purple, the oars of sliver, and cordage of sillc— is finely described in Shakspeare'e 
play of Antony and aeopfttra, Act II. scene % (Map No. IV.) 

SL Brumdktivm^ now BriiuUti^ one of the moat important otUes of ancient Raly, and the 
port whence the intercourse between Italy and Greece and the East was oaually canied on, 
was sttAaied on the coast of Apulia, about three hundred miles sonth-east ftom Bonie. It once 
bad an ozoellent harbor, wUflh is BOW neaily filled up. (Jlffsp No. VUO 

186 ANOtoT mSTOBT. . [PamL 

and soon aflter, Sextius Pompej, who had }ong maintained himself in 
, Sicily against the triomyirs, was admitted into the partnership, and 
assigned Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Achaia. 

46. The peace thus concluded was of short duration. Octaviua, 
without any reasonahle pretext for hostilities, quarrelled with Sextius 
Pompey and drove him from his dominions. Pompey fled to Phrygia, 
where he was slain by one of Antony's lieutenants. Lep' idus and 
Octavius next quarrelled about the possession of Sicily ; but Octaviua 
corrupted the soldiers of Lep' idus, and induced them to desert tiieir 
general, who was compelled to surrender hi» proyince to his riyaL 
Amtony, in the meantime, had been engaged in an unsuccessful expe- 
dition agaii^t the Parthians; after which, returning to Egypt, he 
once more became enslayed by the charms of Cleopatra, upon whom, 
he conferred several Roman provinces in Asia. When his wife Oc- 
tavia set out from Rome to visit him he ordered her to return, and aftei^ 
wards repudiated her, pretending a previous marriage with Cleopatra. 

47. After this insult Octavius could no longer keep peace with him, 
and as the war had long been anticipated, the most formidable prepa- 
rations were made on both sides, and both parties were soon in 
readiness. Their fleets met off the promontory of Ac' tium,* in the 
I6nian sea, while the hostile armies, dra^hi up on opposite sides of the 
strait which enters the Ambra^ian Gulf, were spectators of the battle. 
(B. C. 31.) While the victory was yet undecided^ Cleopatra, viho 
had accompanied Antbny with a large force, overcome with anxiety 
and fear, ordered her galley to remove from the scene of action. A 
large number of the Egyptian ships, witnessing her flight, withdrew 
from the battle ; and the infatuatecl Antony, as soon as he saw that 
Cleopitra had fled, apparently losing his self-possession, hastily fol- 
lowed her in a j^uick-sailing vessel, and being taken oh board the 
galley of Cleopatra, became the companion of herflight. The fleet 
of Antony was annihilated, and his land forces, soon after, made 
terms with the conqueror. 

48. Octavius, after first returning to Italy to tranquillize some dis- 
turbances there, pursued the fugitives Ajo Egypt Autony endeavored 
to impede the march of the victor to Alexandria, but seeing all his 
efforts fruitless, in a paroxysm of rage he reproached Cleopitra with 
being the author of his misfortunes, and resolving never to fall alive 
into the bands of his enemy, he put an, end to his own life. When 

1. The promontory of Ae' tittm was a amall neck of land at the nortb-westera extremity o( 
Aeanania, at the eatraaoe of the AnbracuM Gu^f^ now Gulf oTdflrU. 


Oleopdtra, who lad shut herself up in her palace, found that Oota-' 

[\ Tins deigned to spare her only to adorn his triomph, she caused a 

i" poisonous viper to be applied to her arm; and thus followed Antony 

f in death. (B. C. 30.) Egypt immediately submitted to the sway 

of Octayhis, and became a proyince of the Roman empire. 

49, The death of Antony had put an end to the Triumvirate ; and 
Octavius was now left sole master of the Roman world. While 
taking the most effectual measures to secure his power, zr. oota- 
he dissembled his real purposes, and talked of restoring ^^* ^^" 
the republic; but it was evident that a free constitution ^hs aoMAH 
eould no longer be maintained ; — the most eminent citi- wokld. 
KBs bedougl^t him to take the government into his own hands, and at 
the beginning of the 28th year before the Ohristian era, the history 
of the Roman R^mMic ends. All the armies had sworn allegiance 
to OctavioB ; he was made pro-consul over the whole Roman empire — 
he gave the administration of the provinces to whomsoever he 
pleased — and appointed and removed senators at his wiU. In the 
27th year B. C. the senate conferred upon him the title of Augustus, 
or " The Divine," and of Imperator, or *' chief governor," for ten 
years, and gave his name to the sixth month of the Roman year, 
(August) as that of Julius Caesar had been given to the fifth, and 
fimr years later he was made perpetual tribune of the people,^ which 
rendered his person sacred. Although without the title of a mon- 
arch, and discarding the insignia of royalty, his exalted station con 
5erred upoji him all the powers of sovereignty, which he exercised, 
nevertheless, with moderation, — seemingly desirous that the triumvir 
Octavius should be forgotten in the mild reign of the emperor Augustus. 
50. After a series of successful wars in Asia, Africa, and in Spain, 
and the subjugation of Aquitdnia, Pann6nia, Dalmdtia^ and Illy'ria, 
by the Roman arms, a general peace, with the exception of some 
trifling disturbances in the frontier provinces, was established 
througiioat the vast dominions of the empire, which now extended 
on the east from the cataracts of the Nile to the plains of Scythia, 
and on the west from the Libyan deserts and the pillars of Hercules 
to the German ocean.* The temple of Jdnus was now closed ^ for 
the third time since the foundation of Rome. It- was at this auspi- 
eioas period that Jesus Christ, the promised Messiah, was born ; 
ind thus, literally, was his advent the herald of << peace on earth, 
and good will toward men." 

a.(B.aia 8mh^>no.ix,) bi(ii.ato.) 









ANALYSIS. 1. Easlibk Ain> latbk bistokt or tbs BiiniiB comyakvu.— 3.. Tte •nipiiii 
■t tiM eml of (he flnt oeotofy of Um Gbriatian era. Hie feeUng with which we bmy over the 
doeiag toeoet of Honuui history. Importaooe of the history of the ** decline and fkQ ** of the 
empire. Sabjects of the present chapter. 

a. Juuoa Cmuam. OommeDoement of the Romeo empire.— 4. The reign of Auovrmi. 
Rebellion of the Gemuns.— <S. Grief of Augustas at the loss of his legions. The danger of inva- 
sion averted.— 6. Theacccasion of Tibb' kius. The aeiection of Aitnre sovereigns.— 7. Character 
of Tiberloa, and oommenoement of his reign.— & German wai»--€lerman' Icus.— Hi 8e|*Bui| 
the jninister of Tiberius. [C&pree.]— 10. The death of S^&nus. Death of Tiberius. Cmd- 
flxion of tlie Savioar.- 11. Calio' uljl. His character, and wicked actions.— IS. Bis follies. 
His extravaganoe. His death.— 13. Clausids proclaimed emperor. Bii charaeter.— 14. Hie 
two wtvea. His deaths— 19. Foreign events of the reign of Claudius.— 16. Nbro. The first five- 
years of his reign. Death of Agrippina, and of Burrhus, Seneca, and Lucan. Oonflagratloo 
of Rome — 17. PersecnUons of the Christians. Nero's extravagant^— 1& The provtifoee pU- 
leged by him. His popularity with the rabble. Revolts against him. His death.T-U». Foreign 
events of the reign of Nero. [Druids. Thelc^nl London.] 

SO. End of tlie reign of the Julian fhmlly. Brief reign of Galba.— 81. Character, and reign 
of Omo.— SS2. Character, and reign of Vitbe.' uos. Revolt in Syria.— 83. Vitel' llus, forced to 
rssist, Is finally pot to death by the populace.— 94. Temporary rule of Domitlan. Character, 
and reign of Vbspasia.k.— 25. Beginning, and causes of the Jbwish war.- i(6 Situation of Jem* 
salem, and eommeneement of the siege by the Roman army. Expectations of Titus.— ST. Prom- 
ises made to the Jews. Their strange infiUuation.— 28, The horrors of the siege.— 20. Dreadfal 
mortality in the city. The fall of Jerusalem.— 30. The number of those who perished, and of 
those made prisoners. Fate of the prisoners. Destruction of the Jewish natkm— 31. Compl»> 
Hon of the conquest of Britain. The enlightened policy of Agrlc' ola. [Caledonia.}— 32. Trrcs 
wicceeds l^espaslan. His charaeter. Evento of his brief reign. [Vesuvias. HeronlaneinB. 
PompeU.>-l3L DoKiTUH. His chameter, and the otaarsoler of his reign. Penecaliontr-^ 


PMvtodU aflhira. Tbe tvinmphs of DomMan. [Bf oeda. Dacfau Gennanjr.]— 35. Death of 
I>Diidtian.— 3& Cloae of the reign of the ** Twelve Ciesara.*' Their flereral deaths. Cbaracter 
eCOieUatory of the Boman empetora thus &r«— 37. The dtj of Home^ and the Bomiui empire. 
( of Btttiooal decay. / 

1. As we enter upon the tinie of the Roman emperors, Roman his- 
tory, 80 highly pleasing and attraotiTe in its early stages, and during 
the erantfol period of the Republic, gradually declines in interest to 
the geo^ral reader ; forHhe Roman people, whose many i. baelikk 
Tirtnes and Bufferings awakened our warmest sympathies, ^^ ^^'^^^ 
had now become corrupt and degenerate ; the liberal^in- ths emfirb 

I of their popular assemblies, and the freedom of oohparkdl 
the Roman senate, had given place to arbitrary force ; and although 
the splendors of the empire continue to dassle for a:;rhile, hencefor- 
ward the political history^ of the Romans is little more than the 
biographies of individual rulers, and their few advisers and asso- 
eiates in power, who controlled the political desUnies of more than 
a hundred millions of people. 

2. We shall find Uiat, at the end of the first c^tury of the 
Christian era, the empire, having already attained its &11 strength 
and Aiatnrity, began to verge towards its d^line ; and we are apt to 
hurry over the closing scenes of Roman history with an instinctive 
Useling that shrinks from « the contemplation of waning glories and 
national degeneracy, ^ut while the history of the Republican era 
may exceed in interest that of the " decline and fall " of the empire, 
yet the latter is of fiir greater political importance tiian the former ; 
for, including the early history of many important sects, and codes, 
and systems, whose influences still exist, it is the link that connects 
the past with the present — ^the Ancient with the Moduli world. 
The theologian and jurist must be £&miliar with it in order to under- 
stand much of the learning and history of their respective depart- 
aenta ; and it deserves the careful preparatory study of every reader 
of modem European history ; as nearly all the kingdoms of modem 
Surope have arisen from the fragments into which the. empire of 
the CsBsars was broken. We proceed then, in the present chapter, 
to a brief survey, which is aU that our limited space will allow, of^ 
first, the overtowering greatness, and, second, the decline, and final 
overthrow, in all the west of Europe, of that mighty fabric of em- 
pire which valor had founded, and enlightened policy had so long 
sustained, upon the seven hills of Rome. 
3. Tbe raU of Julius OsBsar, who is oaUad the first of the twelve 


CaBBKB, although be was not nominally king^ was that of one who pos- 
n. JvuDs Bessed all the eflsential attributes of Bovereignty ; sad 
o^BAR. firom the battle of Pharsalia, which decided the &te 
of the Roman world, might with propriety be dated the oommenoe- 
ment of the Roman empire, although its era is usually dated at the 
beginning of the twenty-eighth year before the Christian era, — ^the 
time of the general acknowledgment of the sovereignty of AngnstiiB. 

4. The reign of Angostus continued on til the fborteenth year 
m. AVQV9- ^^^^^ ^he birth of Christ — ^forty-fonr years in all, dating 

^^^^ from the battle of Ac' tium, which made Augustas sole 
sovereign of the empire. After the general peace which followed the 
early wars and conquests of the emperor, the great prosperity of his 
reign was disturbed by a rebellion of the Germans, which had been 
provoked by the extortions of Varus, the Roman commander on the 
northecn frontier. Varus was entrapped in the depths of the Oermaa 
forests, where nearly his whole army was annihilated, and he himself^ 
in despair, put an end to his own life. (A. D. 9.) Awful vengeance 
was taken upon the Romans who became prisoners, many of them 
being sacrificed to the gods of the G-ermans. 

5. The news of the defeat of his general threw Augustus into trans- 
ports of grief, during which he frequently exclaimed, ^^ Varus, restore 
me my legions 1" It was thought that the Germans would cross the 
Rhine, and that all Gaul would unite with them in the revolt ; but 
a large Roman army under Tiberius, the son-in-law and heir of 
Augustus, ^as dent to guard the passes of the Rhine, and the danger 
was averted. 

6. Augustus, having designed Tiberius for his successor, associated 
him in his oounsels, and conferred upon him so large a share of present 
power, that on the death of the emperor, Tib6rius easily took his 

place, so that the nation scarcely perceived the change 
of masters. (A. D. 14.) The policy of Augustus in 
selecting, and preparing the way for, the future sovereign, was sue-' 
eessfully imitated by nearly all his successors during nearly two cen- 
turies, although the emperors continued to be elected, ostensibly at 
least, by the authority of the senate, and the consent of the soldiers. 

7. Tiberius, a man of reserved character, and of great dissimula- 
tion, — suspicious, dark, and revetigefiil, but possessing a handsome 
figure, and in his early years e^ibiting great talents and unwearied 
industry, having yielded with feigned reluctance to the wishes of the 
senate that he would undertake the govenunent, oommsboed his 

Chi^.I] : HOMAN HISTORr. 191 

reign wiih the appearance of jostice and moderation ; Imt after nine 
years of dissimulation, his sensual and tyrannical character openlj 
exhibited itself in the Yioions indulgence of every base passion, and 
the perpetration of the most wanton cruelties. 

8. The early part of his reign is distinguished by the wars carried 
on in Germany by his accomplished general and nephew, the virtu- 
oils Qerman' icus ; but Tiberius, jealous of the glory and tame which 
German' icus was winning, recalled him from his command, and then 
sent him as governor to the Eastern provinces, where all his under- 
takings were thwarted by the secret commands of the emperor, who 
was supposed to have caused his death to be hastened by poison. 

9. The only confidant of Tiberius was his minister Sejdnus, whose 
diaracter bore a great resemblance to that of his sovereign. Secret- 
ly aspiring to the empire, he contrived to win the heart of Tiberius by 
exciting his mistrust towards his own funily relatives, most of whom 
he caused to be poisoned, or condemned to death for suspected trea- 
son ; but his most successful project was the removal of Tiberius 
from Kome to the little island of Cdprese,* where the monarch re- 
mained during a number of years, indulging his indolence and de- 
baacheries, while Sej&nus, ruling at Rome, perpetrated the most 
shocking cruelties in the name of his master, and put to death the 
most eminent citizens, scarcely allowing them\he useless mockery of 
a trial. 

10. But Sejinns at length fell under the suspicion of the empe- 
ror, and the same day witnessed his arrest and execution — a mem- 
orable example of the instability of human grandeur. His deaths 
was followed by a general massacre of his friends and relations. At 
length Tiberius himself, after a long career of crime, felling sick, 
was smotj^red in bed by one of his officers, at the instigation of the 
base Galig' ula, the son of German' icus, and adopted heir of the 
emperor. It was during the f%ign of Tiberius that Jesus Christ was 
crucified in Judea, under the prsetorship of Pontius Pilate, the Ro- 
man governor of that province. 

11. Calig'ula, whose real character was unknown to the people, 

1. C*prt«y now called Capri, is a small Island, about ten miles in drcumferenoe, on the 
soQih side of the entrance to the iMy of Naples. It is sorr^nnded on all sides but one hf loAy 
and peipendicular diflb ; and in the centre is a sedaded vale, remarlEable for Its beauty and 
sslobrity. The tyrant was led to select this spot for his abode, as well from its difficulty of ao- 
eesB, as flrom the mildnen and salubrity of its climate, and the unrivalled magnificence of the 
prospects which it aflbids. He is said to have built no less than twelve viUas in different parts 
or the Island, and to hav^ named them after the twelve celestial divinitiei. The ruins of om 
ftfOiflm thit VUla of JoTe-fl» ittll to be teeo on the rammit ofa ellff opporttd B^rmu. 

IM MODmH H1BT0ET. n^ixrU 

received from them an eDtlnisiMiic welcome ob Us ftooeision to ih% 
T. cALio'. thronC) {A, B. 37,) bat they aoon foimd him to be a 
ULA. greater monster of wickedneas and diasimilation than his 
predecessor. A detailed description of his wicked actions, which 
some have attributed to madness, woold afford Uttle pleasore to the 
reader. Not satisfied with mere mnrder, he ordered all the prisoners 
in Rome, and numbers of the aged and infirm, to be thrown to wild 
beasts ; he claimed divine honors, erected a temple, and instituted a 
college of priests to saperinten4 his own worship ; and finding the 
■enate too backward in adulation, he aeriouslj contemplated the 
massacre of the entire body. 

12. His follies were bo less conspicuous than his rices. For 
his favorite horse Incitdtus he claimed greater respect and rever- 
ence than were due to mortals : he built kim a stable of marble 
and a manger of ivory, and frequently invited him to the imperial 
table ; and it is said that his death alone prevented him from con- 
ferring upon the animal the honors of the consulship 1 A fortune 
of eighteen millions sterling, which had been left by Tiberius, was 
squandered by Oalig' ula, in a most senseless mannerj in little more 
than a year, while fresh sums, raised by confiscations, were lavished 
in the same way. At length, after a reign of four years, Calig' ula 
was murdered by his own guards, to the great joy of the senators, 
who suddenly awoke to the wild hope of restoring the Republic. 

13. The illusion soon disappeared, for the spirit of Roman liberty 
no longer existed. The Pra&torian gaards,^ who had all the power 
in their own hands, insisting upon being governed by a monarch, 
proclaimed the imbecile Claudius emperor, at a time when he expected 

TL nothing but death ; and their choice was sanctioned by 

CLAUDIUS. . the senate. Claudius was an uncle of the late emperor, 

and brother of Qerman' icus. He was so deficient in judgmoit and 

reflection as to be deemed intolerably stupid ; he was not destitute of 

•. Tbe PreUrian guarda ware gnuiiuUy Imtitatod by Aaga^ to proteei hit ponoD, ftw* 
tbe miAte, keep th« Tetenna and legions in check, and prevent or crush the lint moTecoenta 
of rebellloo. Something similar to them bad existed from Che earliest times In tbe body of 
a&ined gnidt* who accompanied the general In his mllltaiy expedltloos. AC first Augustus 
stationed three cohorts only in the eapiul : bat llbirlus assembled sll of (hem, to the nnmber 
of ten thousand, at Rome, and assigned them a permanent and wetMbrtified camp dose to tho 
walls of the city, on tbe broad summit of the Qnlrinal and Vhnlnal hills. This measure c/ 
Tiberius forerer rlroted the fbUers of his country. The Pnetorlan bands, soon learning tb«lr 
own strsngtb, and the weakness of the dvil government, became eyentually the real master* 
of the •mplre.-Otbbon's a6me, 1. 61 ; sad Niebuhr, v. 7S. 


good nature, bnt nnfortuimtely lie was made the dupe of abandoned 
&Torites, for whose crime history has unjustly held him responsible. 
14 For a time his wife Messalina, the mpst dissolute and aban- 
doned of women, ruled him at pleasure ; and numbers of the most 
worthy citizens were sacrificed to her jealousy, avarice, and revenge ; 
bat finally she was put to death by the emperor for her shameless in- 
fidelity to him. Claudius then married his niece Agrippina. theu a 
widow, and the mother of the afterwards infamous Nero. 8he was 
no less cruel in disposition than Messalina ; her ambition was un- 
^ bounded, and her avarice insatiable. After having prevailed upon 
Claudius to adopt as his heir and successor her son Nero, to the 
exclusion of his own children, she caused the emperor to be poisoned 
by his physician. (A. D. 54.) As Agrippina had gained the captain 
of the Pradtorian guards to her interest, the army proclaimed Nero 
emperor, and the senate confirmed their choice. 

15. Th3 foreign events of the reign of Claudius were of greater 
' importance than his domestic administration. Julius Caesar had 

first carried the Homan arms into Britain in a brief and fruitless in- 
TBoon ; but during the reign of Claudius the Romans began to 
think seriously of reducing the whole island under their dominion. 
At first Claudius sent over his general PlauHus, (A. B. 43,) who 
gained some victories over the rude inhabitants. Claudius himself 
then made a journey into Britain, and received the submission of the 
tribes that inhabited the south-eastern parts of the island ; but the 
other Britons, under their king Carac' tacus, maintained an obstinate 
resistance until the Boman army was placed under the command of 
Ostorius, who defeated Carac' taous in a great battle, and sent him 
prisoner to Kome. (A. D. 51.) 

16. Nero, the successor of Claudius, was a youth of only seventeen 
when he ascended the throne. (A. D. 54.) He had been nurtured 
in the midst of crimes, and the Roman world looked upon 

him with apprehension and dread ; but during five years, 
while he still remained under the influence of his early instructors, 
Seneca aiid Burrhus, he disappointed the fears of all by the mildness 
of his reign. At length his mother Agrippfna fell under the sus- 
picion of designing to restore the crown to the still surviving son of 
Claudius; and the emperor caused both to be put to death. After 
this he abandoned himself to bloodshed, in which he took a savage 
delight He is accused of having caused the death of his able mm- 
I 13 


ister BorrhuB by poison ; Seneca^ the philosopher, Lueanl* the poet, 
and most of the leading nobles, were condemned on the charge of 
treason ; and a conflagration in Rome which lasted nine days, and 
destroyed the greater part of the city, (A. D. 64,) was generally be 
lieyed to have been kindled by his orders ; and some reported that 
in order to enjoy the spectacle, he ascended a high tower, where he 
amnsed himself with singing the Destruetion of Troy. 

17. In order to remove the suspicions of the people, he oansed a 
report to be circulated that the Christians were the authors of the 
fire ; and thousands of that innocent sect were put to death under ^ 
cbcumstances of the greatest barbarity. Sometimes, covered by the 
skins of wild beasts, they were exposed to be torn in pieces by de- 
vouring dogs ; some were crucified : others, wrapped in combustible 
garments, which were set on fire, were made to serve -as torches to 
illuminate the emperor^s gardens by night. Nero often appeared on 
the Roman stage in the character of an actor, musician, or gladiator ; 
he also visited the principal cities of Oreeoe in succession, where ha ' 
obtained a number of victories in the public Grecian games. 

18. While he was engaged in these extravagances, the provineea 
of the empire were pillaged to support his luxuries and maintain his 
almost boundless prodigalities. To the lower classes, who felt no- 
thing of his despotism, he made monthly distributions of com, to the 
encouragement of indolence ; and he gratified the poptUace of Rome 
by occasional supplies of wine and meat, and by the magnificent 
shows of the circus. Nero was popular with the rabble, which ex- 
plains the &ct that his atrocities and follies were so long endured 
by the Roman people. At length, however, the standard of revolt 
was raised in Gaul by Yindex, the Roman governor, and soon after 
by Galba in Spain. Yindex perished in the struggle; and Galba 

ft. StueetL, Oia morel philoeopber, was bom at Cordova in Spain, in the Mcond or third 
jear of the Chri«tian em; bat aft an early age he went to reside at Roma Mesaalina, 
who bated him, caused him to be banished to Corsica, where he remained eight years ; but 
Agrlppina recalled him from banishment, and appointed Mm, in conjunction with Bnnbns, 
tDtor to Nero. Burrtras, a man of stem Tlrtne, instructed the prince in military seieaee : 
Seneca taught him philosophy, the One arts, and elegant accomplishments. Although Seneca 
laid down excellent rales of morality for others, his own character is not above reprosoh. 
Being ordered by Nero to be his own executioner, he caused his reins to be opened in a hot 
bath ; but as, at his age, the blood (lowed alowly, he drank a dose of hemlock to acoelemte 
bto death. 

b. LncaiL, a nephew of Seneca, and abo a native of Cordova, was an eminent Latin po«k| 
although he died at the early age of twenty-seven yean. Of his many poems, the PkanalU^ 
or war between Gisaar and Pompey, is the only one that has eaeaped deatmctton. Bt lacviW 
flneoailigr oTKeK) by vaoqvlihtaw Idm !n a poetloil codIMI. 


would have been ruined had not the Praetorian gaards, under the in- 
fluence of their commander Otho, renounced their allegianoe. With 
this latter calamity Nero abandoned all hope ; and when he learned 
that the senate had declared him an enemy to the country, too cow- 
ardly to kill himself, he sought death by the hands of one of his 
freedmen, from whom he received a mortal woxmd. {A^D. 68.) 

19. During the greater part of the reign of Nero the empire en- 
joyed, in general, a profound peace ; the only wars of importance 
being with the Parjthians and the Britons. The form&r were defeated 
and reduced by Cor' bulo, the greatest general of his time. This 
virtuous Roman had kept his faith even to Nero ; but the only re- 
ward which, he received from the Snperor for his victories, was — 
death. In Britain, Suet6nius PauHnus defeated the inhabitants in 
several battles, and penetrating into the. heart of the country, de- 
stroyed the consecrated groves and altars of the druids.^ After- 
wards the Ic^ni,*> under the command of their queen Boadio' ea, re- ' 
Tolted, burned London,*^ then a flourishing Roman colony, reduced 
many other settlements, and put to death, in aU, seventy thousand 
Romans. Suet6nius avenged their fate- in a decisive battle, in 
which eighty thousand Britons are said to have perished. The heroic 
Boadic' ea, rather than submit to the victor, put an end to her life by 
poison. During the reign of Nero also occurred the famous rebel- 
lion in Judea, and the beginning of the war which resulted in the 
destruction of the Jewish nation. 

20. With the death of Nero the reign of the Julian family, or 
the true line of the Caesars, ended ; although six succeeding empe- 
rors are included in what are usually styled " the twelve Caesars." A 
series of sanguinary wars, arising from disputed succession, followed. 

«. The imidg wen the prieata or ministers of religion among the anoienl Gaols and Britona. 
Their chief KBt waa an lAnd of the Irish Sea, now called AngUtey^ which was talcen by Sue- 
t6fdiia after a fhnatical resistance. This general cut down the groTes of the drulda, and nearly 
«xtermlnatod both the priests and their religion. The draids believed in the existence of one So- 
prane Bdns, a state of Aitore rewards and punishments, the immortality of the soul, and its 
mMOiigntlon through diftrent bodies. They possessed some knowledge of geometry, natural 
pliiloeopliy, and astronomy ; they practiced astrology, magic, and sooth-saying ^ tbey regarded 
fbe Hilatletoe as the holiest objoct hi nature, and esteemed the' oak sacred ; they abhorred im- 
ages ; they worshipped fire as the emblem of the sun, and in their sacrifices (rften immoI»> 
ted human Tictims. Tbey exercised great authority in the goTemmeat of the State, appointed 
tte highest officers fai the cities, and were the chief administrators of Justice. On the intro- 

I dnctiott of Christianity hiio Britain, the druldical order gradually ceased. 

I b. The lUni inhabited the country on the eastern coast of England. Their chief town WM 

I » place BOW called Csal«r, about three miles ttom Norwich. 

c. /.ea^M, aadantly LemdiMiwm^ was In eTisteBne, as a town of the THnohaDtea, before the 
af Jnliva Gawr. 

196 MODEBir H13T0RT. [PadE 

At first GMba, then in the seventy-third year af hiB ure, a man of un- 
blemished personal character, was uniyersallj acknowl- 
edged emperor ; bat he soon lost the attachment of the 
soldiery by his parsimony, while the inflaence of injudicious fayorltes 
led him into unseasonable severities for the suppression of the eno^ 
mous vioes of the times. Several revolts against his authority 
rapidly succeeded each other, and finally, Otho, who had been among 
the foremost to espouse his cause, finding that Oalba refused to 
nominate him for his successor, procured a revolt of the Prsetorian 
guards in his own favor. After a brief struggle in the streets of 
Romoy Galba was slain, after ajeign of only seven months. 

21. While the unworthy OtR, a passive instrument in the hands 
of a licentious soldiery, remained at Rome, with the title of emperor, 

immersed in pleasures and debaucheries, Yitel' lius, a 
man more vulgar and vicious than Otho, was proclaimed 
emperor by the legions under his command on the Qerman frontie^ 
A brief but sanguinary struggle followed, and Otho, having sustained 
a defeat in the north 6f Italy,- fell by his own hand, after a reign of 
ninety-five days. 

22. Vitel' lius, entering Rome in triumph, ordered more than a 
hundred of the praetorian guards to be put to death ; but he en- 

X. vitbl'- deavored to win the favor of the populace by large 
LIU8. donations of provisions, and expensive games and enter- 
tainments. His personal character was cruel and contemptiliie. 
Under the most frivolous pretences the wealthy were put to death, 
and their property seized by the emperor ; and in less than four 
months, as stated by historians, this bloated and pampered ruler ex- 
pended on the mere luxuries of the table a sum equal to ab^ut 
seven millions sterling. But| while wallowing in the indulgence of 
the most debasing appetites, he was startled by the intelligence iJiat 
the legions engaged in the Jewish' war in Syria had declared their 
general, Vespasian, emperor, and were already on their march 
towards Rome. 

23. As province after province submitted to Vespasian, and his 
generals rapidly overcame the little opposition they encountered, 
Vitel' lius in dismay would have abdicated his authority, but the 
Praetorian guards, dreading the strict discipline of Vespasian, com- 
pelled the wretched mouarch to. a farther resistanoe. Rome how- 
ever easily fell into ■ tbe hands of the oonquerors, and ViteV lins, 
having retained the scep'^rc only eight months, was igncH&uaiouBlj 

OUfit] BOHAK mSTORT. 197 

put to deatJi, and his mangled oaroass thrown into the Tiber, amid 
the execrations of the same fickle multitude that had so recently 
welcomed his aceession to power. (A. D. Dec. 69.) 

24. Daring seyeral months, Domitian, the second son of Vespasian, 
ruled at Rome in the absence of his father, taking part with the 
contending Actions, committing many acts of cruelty, and already 
exhibiting the passions and vices which characterized his later years ; 
but at length the arrival of the monarch elect restored tranquillity 
and diffused universal joy. (A. D. 70.) Vespasian was xi. tespa- 
universally known and respected for his virtues, and his bian. 
mild and happy reign restored to the distracted empire some degree 
of its former prosperily. He improv^^ the discipline of the army, 
enlarged the senate to its former numbers, and revived its authority, 
reformed the courts of law, and enriched Rome with many noble 
bnildiligs, of which the Colosseum still remains, in much of its 
ancient grandeur — ^the pride and glor j of his reign. 

25. Three years before his accession to the throne, Vespasian had 
been sent into Judea by Nero, (A. D. 67,) at the head of sixty 
thousand men, to conduct the war against the Jews, who xii. jswibh 
had revolted a^nst the Roman power. T\\fj had "^ab. 
been driven to reoellion by the execution and tyranny of Floras the 
Roman governor, and having once taken up arms they were so 
strangely in&tuated as to believe that, although without a regular 
anny, or munitions of war of any kind, they could resist the united 
force of the whole Roman empire. The war thus commenced was 
one of extermination, in which mercy was seldom asked or i^hown by 
either party 

26. While the war raged around Jerasalem, and city after city 
taken, and desolated by the massacre of its inhabitants, there 
three hostile factions in Jerusalem, afterwards reduced to two, 

hoLdinft possession of different parts of the city, and wasting their 
strength in cruel conflicts with each other. When Vespasian depart- 
ed for Rome to assume the royal authority, he left the conduct of 
the war to his son Titus, who soop after commenced the siege of Je- 
rusalem, during the time of the feast of the passover, when the city 
was crowded with -people from all Judea. Titus expected that al- 
though Jerusalem was defended by six hundred thousand men, such a 
multitude gathered within the walls of a poorly-provisioned city, 
would occasion a famine that would soon make a surrender inevitable. 

27. Although the Jews were promised liberty and safety if they 

198 MODERN HI8T0BT. [PabU 

would snrrender the city ; and Josephofl, the fotore historian of his 
country, who had been taken prisoner by the Romans, was sent to 
expostulate with them on the folly of longer resistanoe ; yet they re- 
jected all warnings and counsel with scorn and derision ; and although 
the opposing Jewish factions were embroiled in a cItII war, with a 
strange infatuation both declared their resolution to defend the city 
to the very last, confident that God would not permit his temple and 
city to fall before the heathen. 

28. The horrors of the siege surpassed all that the pen can de- 
scribe. When the public granaries had become empty the people 
were plundered of their scanty stores, so that the famine devoured by 
houses and by fiunilies. At length no table w%^ spread, nor regular 
meal eaten in Jerusalem. People bartered all their wealth for a meas- 
ure of com, and ate it in secret, uncooked, or snatched half baked from 
the coals. They were often compelled, by torture, to discoyer their 
food, or were still more cruelly treated if they had eaten it. Wives 
would steal the last morsel from their husbands, children from 
parents, mothers from children ; and there were instances cif dead 
infants being eaten by their parents ; so that the ancient prophecy, 
in which Moses hi^ described the punishments 6f the unbelieving 
Jews, was fulfilled.* 

29. At length the dead accumulated so &st that they were left un- 
buried, and were cast off the walls by thousands down into the val^ 
leys \ and as Titus went his rounds, and saw the putrefying masses, 
he wept, and, stretching his hands to heaven, called God to witness 
that this was not his work ! * By slow degrees one wall after another 
was battered down ; but so desperate was the defence of the Jews 
that it was three months after the lower city was taken before the 
Romans gained possession of the temple, and, in its destruction, com- 
pleted the fall of Jerusalem. (A. D. 70.) Titus would have saved 
the noble edifice, but was unable to restrain the rage of his soldiery, 
and the Temple was burnt. 

30. Josephus computes the number of his countrymen who 
' perished during the war at more than one million three hundred 

thousand, with a total of more than a million prisoners. Thousands 

of the latter were sent to toil in the Egyptian mkes ; but such were 

' their numbers that they were offered for sale " till no man would 

bu} them,'^ and then they were sent into different provinces as pre- 

s. Deat xiTllk 96, ff7. 

Gnff.1] EOMAN HISTORY. 199 

leots, wliere tiiey were consumed by the sword, or by wild beasts in 
the amphitheatres. With the destritetion of the holy city and its 
&moii]s temple Israel ceased to be a Dation, and thus was inflicted 
the doom which the unbelieving Jews invoked when they cried out, 
^' His blood be on us and on our children." 

31. Britain had been only partially subdued prior to the reign of 
Yespasian, but during the two years after the fall of Jerusalem its 
conquest was completed by the Roman^goyernor Julius Agzic' ola, 
who was justly celebrated for his great merits as a general and a states- 
man. Carrying his victorious arms northward he defeated the Brit- 
tons in every encounter, penetrated the forests of Caledonia,' and 
established a chain of fortresses between the Friths of Clyde and 
Forth, which marked the utmost permanent extent of the Roman 
domini6n in Britain. The Justnesses of the Scottish highlands were 
ever too formidable to be overcome by the Roman arms. By an 
enlightened policy Agric' ola also taught the Britons the arts of 
peace, introduced laws and government among them, induced them 
to lay aside their barbarous customs, taught them to value the con- 

' venieneies of life, and to adopt the Roman language and manners. 
The life of Agric' ola has been admirably written by Tac' itus, the 
historian, to whom the former had given his daughter in marriage. 

32. On the death of Vespasian (A. D. 79) his son Titus succeeded 
to the throne. Previous to his accession the general opinion of 
the people was un&vorable to Titus, but afterwards his 

JQIL TirUfl. 

conduct changed, and he is celebrated as a just and 
humane ruler ; and so numerous were his acts of goodness, that his 
grateful subjects bestowed upon him the honorable title of '* benefac- 
tor of the human race." During his brief reign of little more than 
two years, Rome and the provinces were in the enjoyment of peace. 
snd prosperity, only disturbed by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius,' 

1. Ancient CaledSnia comprehended that portion of Scotland which lay to the north of the 
FbrUk and the Clyde. A frith is a narrow passage of the sea, or the opening of a river into 
the aee. AgriC ola penetratedjiocth aa far aa the river TViy. (See Map No. XVI.) 

2. Jf»unt Vea%viu»^ ten miles south-east fh>m the city of Naples, la the only actlre volcano 
■t present existing on the European continent Its extreme height is three thousand eight 
hundred and ninety feet— about two^Ulhs of that of JEX' na. Its first known eruption occurred 

• <Ni the 24th of August, A. 0. 79, when Ifercul&neum and Pompeii were burled under showers 
of volcanic ashes, sand, stonesi, and lafa, and the elder Pliny lost his life, being suflTocated by 
ttke solphnrona vapor as he approached to behold the wonderM phenomena. It is related tliat, 
mA waa the immense quantity of volcanic ashes thrown out during Aiis eruplion, the whole 
coontry waa Involved in pitchy darkness ; and that the aahes fell In Egypt, Syria, and varioua 
perta of Aala Minor. Since the destruction of Hercul4neum and FOmp^U there have been 
aeaily fiflj authenticated eroptioni of VeaaviuiL 

200 MODERK HIST02T. [Fjttli 

wbich caoficd the deftnictioii of Herenlanenm' snd Pompeii,* 
(A. D. 70.) and bv a great tire at Kome, wbich was followed by a 
pestilence. (A. D. 80.) 

33. Domitian raceeedcd hi9 brother without oppositioii, (A. O. 81,) 
although the perfidy and cnieltv of his character were notorious. 

xiY. He began hu reign by an afiectation of extreme irirtae, 
poMrriAH. if^i ^jin unable long to disiniiae hifl vicea. There was 
no law but the will of the tjrant, who caused many of the most 
eminent senators to be pnt to death without eren the form of trial ; 
and when, by his infamous vices, and the openness of his debaucheries, 
he had sunk, in the eyes of his subjects, to the lowest stage of 
degradation, he caused himself to be worshipped as a god, and ad- 
dressed with the reverence due to Deity. Both Jews and Christians 
were persecuted by him, and thousands of them put to death because 
they would not worship his statues. This is called in ecdesiastioal 
history the second great persecution of the Christians, that under 
Nero being the first. 

34. It was m the early part of this reign that Agrie' ola com- 
pleted the conquest of Britain ; but on the whole the reign of Bomi- 
tian was productive of little honor to the Roman arms, as in Mce 'sia,' 
and Ddcia/ in Germany,* and Pann6nia, the Romans were defeated, 

1. Hereuldnemm wtt close to lh« Mft, wath of VMavtm, mod eight miks HMlh-MSt ftam the 
dty or Naples. Uttl« b known of U except Ub destraciioo. It was completely buried under 
ft ibower of tabes, over vhich a stream of lara (lowed, and afterwards hardened. So changed 
waa the aspect of the whole ooontry, and even the oatlines of the coast, that an knowledge «r 
Ihe dtj, beyond its name, was soon lost, when, In 1713, after a ooDcealoient of more than six- 
teen centuries, accident led to the discovery of its ruins, seventy feet below the surface of the 

a. Pot^iii was llfteea miles south-east fh>m Naples, and was not buried by lava, but by 
ashes, sand, and stones only, and at a depth of only twelve or fifteen feet above the buildings. It 
has b««n excavated much more extensively than Hescul&neam— dlschwlng the city walls, 
atreel^ temples, theatres, the forum, hatha, momimenta, private dweUinga, domestic utensib^ 
Jcc,— the whole conrejring the Impression of the actual presence of a Roman town in all the 
circumstantial reality of its existence two thousand years ago. "The discovery of Pompeii has 
thrown a strouc^ and steady flt^ht on many points >counected with the private life and economy 
of the ancientA, that were previously Involved in the greatest obscurity.**— The small number 
of skeletons clidcovcrcd in HerculAnenm andTomp«ii render It quite certain that most of tha 
Snhabltanls saved themselves by flight. 

3. Mv' gia, extending north to the Danube and eastward to the Kiixine, ecMresponded to the 
present Turkish provinces of Ser' via and Bu'ghria. {Map No. IX.) 

4. D&cia was an extensive frontier province north of the Danube, extending easi to the- 
Euxine. It embraced the northern portions of the present Turkey, together with TtansylTtnla 
and port of Hungary. {Map No. IX.) 

5. The word Ornnknia was employed by the Romans to designate all the oountry east of the 
Khlne and north of the Danube as far as the German ocean and the Baltic, and esstward m 
fu as Sarm Atla and D&da. The limits of Germany, as a Roman piorlDce, were very IndcSolta 
{Map No. IX.) 

CtoF.I] ROMAl* HISTORY. 201 

md whole provisoes lost. In Moe' sil, Domitian himself was several 
times defeated, yet he wrote to the senate boasting of extraordinary 
victories, and the servile body decreed him the honors of a triumph. 
In a similar manner other triumphs were decreed him, which caused 
Pliny the younger to say that the triumphs of Domitian were always 
evidence of some advantages gained by the enemies of Rome. 

35. At length, after a reign of fifteen years, Domitian was assassi- 
nated at the instigation of his wife, who accidentally discovered that 
her own name was on the fatal list of those whom the emperor designed 
to put to death. The soldiers, whose pay he had increased, and with 
whom he often shared his plunder, lamented his fate ; but the senate 
ordered his name to be struck from the Roman annals, and obliter- 
ated from every public monument. 

36. The death of Domitian closes the reign of those usually de- 
nominated " the twelve Cawars," only three of whom, Augustus, 
Yespasian, and Titus, died natural deaths. Julius Caesar fell under 
the da^ers of conspirators in the very senate-house of Rome. Ti- 
berius, at the instigation of Calig' ula, was smothered on a sick bed : 
Calig' ula was murdered in his own palace while attending a theatri- 
cal rehearsal : Claudius was poisoned, at the instigation of his own 
wife, by his favorite physician : Nero, by the aid of his freedman, 
committed suicide to avoid a public execution : the aged Galba was 
slain in the Roman forum, in a mutiny of his guards : Otho, on 
learning the success of his rival Y iter lius, committed suicide : Yi- 
tel' lius was dragged by the populace through the streets of Rome, 
put to death with tortures, and his mangled carcass thrown into the 
Tiber ; and Domitian was killed in his bed-chamber by those whom 
he had marked for execution. The heart sickens not more at the 
Teoital of these murders than of the crimes that prompted them ; 
and thus far the history of the Roman emperors is little else than 
a series of constantly recurring scenes of violence djid blood. 

37. But as we pass from the city of Rome into the surrounding 
Roman world, we almost forget the revolting scenes of the capital in 
view <^ the still-existing power and majesty of the Roman empire — 
an empire the greatest the world has ever seen — and still great in 
the remembrance of the past, and in the influences which it has be- 
queathed to modern times. While the emperors were steeped ta the 
grossest sensuality, and Rome was a hot-bed of infamy and crime, 
the numerous provincial governments were generally administered 
with ability and success ; and the glory of the Roman arms was 


202 MODERN HISTORT. [Piifll 

Bosiained in^ repellmg the bafbluroos hordes that preaeed upon the 
frontiers. But national valor cannot oompenflate for. the want of 
national virtue : the soul that animated the Bepublio was dead ; the 
spirit of freedom was gone ; and national progress was already be- 
ginning to give place to national decay. 




ANALTSTS. 1. Nbrva. His character, reign, and death. [Um'brla.]— S. Trajah. Rlf 
ehaiacter, and eharaoter of hia reign. Remarkable words attributed to blm.— 3. HU wan 
and conqiieflts. His death. [Ctee' Iphon. Tmjan*s column.]-^. Penecutiona of the ChriiliBn 
daring the reign of TV^Jan. The proverbial goodness of TraJan^s charBct«r.— 5. Acoeisiott of 
AnaiAN. His peaceAil policy. General admintBtimtion of the goTemmemt His visit to ths 
provinces.— C. Revolt of the Jews. Resnlts of the Jewish war. Defences la Britain. [Bolway 
Frith. River Tyne.]— 7. Doubirul estimate of Adrian's character and reign. His ruling 
pa8SlonB.~-8. Accession of Titvs Airroin' irvs.— 9. His cluuracter, and the cfaaracter of faii 
reign.— 10. Makgus Auax' lios Amtoni' mus. Virus associated with Urn. — IL War with the 
Parthiana. With the Germans. Remarkable deliverance of the Roman army.— 12. CSiarsder 
of the five preceding reigns. The evils to which an aibitivy government is liable. lUnstiated 
in the annals of the Roman emperors.— 13. Accession of Cox' modus. Beglnnfiig <^ his gov^ 
ernmeot.— 14. The Incident which decided his fluctuating character. His aobseqnent wicked- 
ness.— 15. His debaneheries and craelties. His death.— 16. The brief reign of Pbktihai.— 17. 
Disposal of the empire to Dm' ids Juua' Ncrf.- 18. Dangerous position of the new ral«r.r-19. 
His competitors. [DalmatU.] Successes of StPTiii' lus Bkvb' rds, and death of ^nlitavs. 
—90. Dissimulation of 8ev«rus. He defeats Niger at Issus in Asia. His oonUnned duplicity. 
Overthrow and death of Albinos. [Lyons.]— SI. Subsequent reign of Sevens. Hia last tUnsi* 
and death. [York.]— 92. Caracal' la and G6t«. Death of the Utter. Character, reign, snd 
death of Caracal' la. Brief relgn of Macrx' mus.- 23. Accession of Elaoaba' lus.- **• H** 
ch^hicler and foUies. Clrcnmslances of his death.— 25u ALRXAivnRR Ssvn' nus. His atteav** 
to reform abnses. Chsracter of his administration. His death. His suoceesor. 

1. Domitian was succeeded by Nerva, who was a native of Vto!- 
bria,* but whose family orignally came from Crete. He was the 
first Roman emperor of foreign extraction, and was chosea 
by the senate on account of his virtues. His mild and. 
equitable administration forms a striking contrast to the sanguinary 
rule of Domitian ; but his excessive lenity, which was his greatest 
ffiult, encouraged the profligate to persevere in their accustomed 

J. Un'bria was a conntry of Italy east of Etriirla and north of the Sabbie terrttoiT* 
The ancient Um' brians were one of the oldest and most nomerous nations of Italy* ("^^ 



peooIatioiusL At length the ezoesses of his awn goards con^dnoed 
him that the governmeDt of the empire required greater energy than 
he poaaeesed, and he therefore wisely adopted the excellent Trajan 
as his successor, and made him his associate in the sovereignty. 
Nerva soon after died, (A. D. 98,) in the seventy-second year of his 
age, having reigned but little more than sixteen months. 

2. Trajan, who was by birth a Spaniard, proved to be one of v 
Bome's best sovereigns ; and it has been said of him that he was 
equally great as a ruler, a general, and a man. After 

he had made a thorough reformation of abuses, he re- 
stored as much of the free Roman constitution as was consistent 
with a monarchy, and bound himself by a solemn oath to observe the 
laws ; yet while he ruled with equity, he held the reins of power 
with a strong and steady hand. Np emperor but a Trajan could have 
used safely the remarkable words attributed to him, when, giving a 
sword to the prefect of the Praetorian guards, he said, " Take this 
sword and use it ; if I have merit, for me ; if otherwise, against me." 

3. In his wars, Trajan, commanding in person, conquered the 
Ddcians, after which he passed into Asia, subdued Armenia, took 
Seleiicia and Ctes'iphon,' the latter the capital of the Parthian 
kingdom, and sailing down the Tigris displayed the Roman standards 
ioft the first time on the waters of the Persian Gulf, whence he passed 
into the Arabian peninsula, a great part of which he annexed to the 
Roman empire. But while he was thus passing from kingddm to 
kingdom, emulatmg the glory of Alexander, and dreaming 'of new 
conquests, he was seized with a lingering illness, of which he died 
in Cilicia, in the twentieth year of his reign. (A. D. 117.) His 
ashes were conveyed to Rome in a golden urn, and deposited under 
the famous column which he had erected to commemorate his Dacian 

1. cut* ipk4m was a dty of Paithia, on the eastern bank of the Tigris, opposite to and piree 
uOm dUani fkom 9ele<icla. 

. a. Tr^an^ oolunin, which la stf II standing, is the most beantlAiI mansolonm erer erected to 
departed greatness. Its height, not Indodhig the baae^ which is now cofwed with rabblah, la 
one hundred and fifteen feet ten inches; and the entire column is composed of twenty-four 
great blocks of marble, so curiously cemented as to seem one entire stone. It is ascended on 
the Inside by one hundred and eighty-are winding steps. The noblest omameni of this pillar was 
e brxmze statue of Tndan, twenty-flTO feet in height, representing him in a ooat of anns, holding 
In the left hand a sceptre, and in the right a hoUow globe of gold, in which, It has been sasert- 
ed, the sshes of the emperor were deposited. The column is now surmounted by a statue of 
8L Peter, which Sixtus V. had the bad taste to substitute in place of thai of Tntfan. Or the 
external fece of the column is a series of bas4«lie&, running in a vpinl course np the shofli 
lepreeenting Tr^)an*s rictoriss, and containing two thousand five hundred human flgureSb 


A. The rfiarscter of Trajan, otbennFC just md antmUcls staitied 
bf the approral whicb lie zave to the persecntion of Cbristians in 
tte eastern prorinces of the empire ; for mlthongb be did not directly 
promote that per?e<ntion, he did little to check its progress, and al- 
lowed the enemies of the Christians* to triumph over them. Still, 
the goodnes!* of his character was long prorerbial. inasmnch as, in 
later times, the senate, in f.'licitating the accession of a new emperor, 
were accustomed to wish that he might surpass the prosperity of 
Angostns and the rirtne of Trajan. 

5. Whether Trajan, in his last moments, adopted his relative 
Adrian as his sncceswr, or whether the will attributed to him was 
fbrged by the empress Plotina, is a doubtful point in history; but 

Adrian succeeded to the throne with the unanimous dee* 
laration of the Asiatic armies in his &vor, whose choice 
waa immediately ratified by the senate and people. His first care 
was to make peace with the surrounding nations ; and in order to 
prescrre it he at once abandoned all the conqnests made by his pre- 
decessor, except that of Dacia. and bounded the eastern proyioces 
by the riTer Euphrates. He diminished the military establishments, 
lowcfed the taxes, reformed the laws, and encouraged literature. He 
also passed thirteen years fn risiting all the provinces of the empire, 
inspecting the administration of government, repressing abuses, and 
erecting and repairing public edifices. 

6. During his reign occurred another war with the Jews, who, in- 
oensed at the introduction of Roman idoktry into Jerusalem, were 
excited to revolt by an impostor who called himself Bar-C6cbab, (the 
mm of a star,) and who pretended to be the expected Messiah. Two 
hundred thousand devoted followers soon flocked to the Jewish stand- 
ard, and for a time gained important advantages ; but Sev^rus, after- 
wards emperor, being sent against them, in a sanguinary war of three 
years' duration he accomplished the almost total destruction of the Jew- 
ish nation. More than five hundred thousand of the mie^ided Jews 
are estimated to have fallen by the sword during this period ; ^^ 
thosa who survived were " scattered abroad among all the nations of the 
earth." — In Britain, Adrian repaired the frontier fortresses of Agric • 
ola as a bulwark against the Caled6nians, and erected a second wall) 
firom the Solway Frith* to the Tyne,' remains of which are still visible. 

1. Sottoay FritA, the north-eutern arm of the Irbh sea, dlTldes EoglaiMi from ScoUini 
{Map No. XVI.) 

t. The Tifne, an Important river In the north of England, enters the sea on the easWro oos«S 
■t the feottthem •zfrainity of Northumberland ooonty. {Map No. X VI^ 


7. AltLougli the general tenor of the reign of Adrian deserred 

S raise for its equity and moderation, yet his character had some 
ark stains npon it ; and the Bomans of a later age donhted whether 
he should be reckoned among the good or the bad princes. He al« 
lowed a severe persecution of the Jews and Christians; he was 
jealous, suspicious, superstitious, and revengefjil ; and although in 
general he was a just and able ruler, he was at times an unrelenting 
ftod cruel tyrant. His ruling passions were curiosity and vanity j 
and as they were attracted by difierent objects, his character as- 
sumed the most opposite phases. 

8. Adrian, a short time previous to his death, (A. D. 138,) adopted 
for his successor, Titus Antoninus, sumamed Pius, on iv. Tmm 
condition that the latter should associate with him, in ahtoni' Nua. 
the empire, Marcus Aur^lius, and the youthful Y^rus. Antoninus, 
immediately after his t accession, gave one of his daughters in mar- 
riage to Marcus Aur61ius, afterwards called Marcus Aurelius Anto- 
ninus ; but while he associated the worthy Aur6Iius in the labors of 
government, he showed no regard for the profligate V6rus. 

9. During twenty-two years Antoninus governed the Ropian world 
with wisdom and virtue, exhibiting in his public life a love of re- 
ligion, peace and justice; and in his private character goodness, 
amiability, and a cheerful serenity of temper, without affectation or 
vanity. His regard for the future welfare of Rome is manifest in 
the fevor which he constantly showed to the virtuous Aurelius : the 
latter, in return, revered the character of his benefacter, loved him 
as a parent, obeyed him as a sovereign, and, after his death, regulated 
his own administration by the example and maxims of his predecessor. 

10. On the death of Antoninus, (A.- D. 161,) the senate, distrustr; 
inff V^rus on account of his vices, conferred the sever- ^ „.„^„„ 
eignty upon Marcus Aurelius alone ; but the latter im- aurelius 
mediately took V^rus as his colleague, and gave him his ^^'^wi' nub. 
daughter in marriage ; and notwithstanding the great dissimilarity 
in the characters of the two emperors, they reigned jointly ten 
year's, until the death of V6rus, (A. D. 171,) without any disagree- 
ment ; for V6rus, destitute of ambition, was content to leave the 
weightier affairs of government to his associate. 

1 1. Although Aur6lius detested war, as the disgrace of humanity 
and its scourge, yet his reign was less peaceful than that of his pre 
deccssor; for the Parthians overran Syria; but they were eventually 
repulsed, and some of their own cities captured. Daring five years 


Anr^Utts, in person, oondocted a war against the Oennac tribes, 
withoat onoe returning to Rome. Daring the German war occurred 
that remarkable deliverance of the emperor and his army frofll 
danger, which has been related both by pagan and Christian writers 
It is said that the Bomans, dra?m into a narrow defile, where they 
could neither fight i|or retreat, were on the point of perishing by 
thirst, when a yiolent thunder-storm burst upon both armies, and 
the lightning fired the tents of the barbarians and broke up their 
«amp, while the rain relieved the pressing wants of the Romans. 
Many ancient fi&thers of the Church ascribed the seasonable shower 
to the prayers of the Christian soldiers then serving in the imperial 
army ; and we are told by Eus^bius that the emperor immediately 
gave to their division the title of the " Thundering Legion," and 
henceforth relaxed his severity towards the Christians, whose perse- 
3ution he had before tolerated. , 

12. The reigns of Nerva, Trajan, Adrian, and the two Atonines, 
oomprised a happy period in the annals of the Roman empire. 
These monarchs observed the laws, and the ancient forms of civil 
administration, and probably allowed the Roman people all the free- 
dom they were capable of enjoying. But under an lurbitrary gov- 
ernment there is no guarantee for the continuance of a wise and 
equitable administration ; for the next monarch may be a profligate 
sensualist, an imbecile dotard, or a jealous tyrant; and he may 
abuse, to the destruction of his subjects, that absolute power which 
others had exerted for their welfare. The uncertain tenure by which 
the people held their lives and liberties under despotic rule, is ^y 
illustrated in the dark pictures of tyranny which the annals of the 
Roman emperors exhibit. The golden age of Trajan and the An- 
tonines had been preceded by an age of iron ; and it was followed 
by a period of gloom, of whose public wretchedness, the shortness, 
and violent termination, of most of the imperial reigns, is sufficient proof. 

13. Com' modus, the unworthy son of Aurelius, succeeded to the 
VL ooM.'- throne on the death of his father, (A D. 180,) amidst 

MODUS, the acelamations of the senate and the armies. During 
three years, while he retained his father^s counsellors around him, he 
ruled with equity and moderation ; but the weakness of his mind 
and the timidity of his disposition, together with his natural indo- 
lence, rendered him the slave of base attendants ; and sensual indul- 
gence and crime, which others had taught him, finally degenerated 
into a habit, and became the ruling passions of his soul. 


14. A &tal incideiit decided his fluctuating charact'er, and sad- 
deolj developed his dormant cmelty and thirst for blood. In an 
attempt to assassinate him, the assailant, aiming a blow at him with 
a dagger, exclaimed, " the senate sends jou this.'' The menace pre- 
vented the deed ; but the words sunk deep into the mind of Com'- 
modus, and kindled the utmost fury of his nature. It was found 
that the conspirators were men of senatorial rank, who had been in- 
stigated by the emperor's own sister. Suspicion and distrust, fear 
and hatred, were henceforth indulged by the raiperor towards the 
whole body of senators: spies and informers were encouraged; 

' neither virtue nor. station afforded any security; and when Com'- 
modus hacf once tasted human blood, he became incapable of pity or 
remorse. He sacrificed a long list of consular senators to his wanton 
sospicion, and took especial delight iA hunting out and exterminating 
all who had been connected with the family of the Antonines^ 

15. The debaucheries of Com' modus exceeded, in extravagance 
and iniquity, those of any previous Roman emperor. He was 
averse to every rational and liberal pursuit, and idl his sports were 
mingled with cruelty. He cultivated his physical; to the neglect of 
his mental powers ; and in shooting with the bow and throwing the 
javelin, Rome had not his superior. Delighting in exhibiting to the 
people his superior skill in archery, he at one time caused a hundred 
lions to be let loose in the amphitheatre ; and as they ran r&ging 
around the arena, they successively fell by a hundred arrows from 
the royal hand. He fought in the circus as a common gladiator, and, 
always victorious, often wantonly slew his antagonists, who were less 
completely armed than himself. This monster of folly and wicked- 
ness was finally slain, (A. D. 193,) partly by poisoning and partly by 
stranding, at the instigation of his favorite concubine Marcia, who 
accidentally learned that her own death, and that of several officers 
of the palace, had been resolved upon by the tyrant. 

16. On the death of Com' modus the throne was offered to Per'ti- 
nax, a senator of consular rank and strict integrity, who yu, per' ti- 
aocepted the office with extreme reluctance, fully aware wax. 

of the dangers which he incurred, and the great weight of responsi- 
bility thrown upon him. The virtues of Per' tinax secured to liim 
the love of the senate and the people ; but his zeal to correct abuses 
provoked the anger of the turbulent Praotorian soldiery, who pre- 
ferred the &tor of a tyrant to the stem equality of the laws ; and 


after m reign of three month?, Per^ timz was afaun in the imperial 
palaee by the same goards who had plaeed himMm the throne. 

17. Amidst the wild disorder that attended the violent death of 
the emperor, the Praetorian gnards proclaimed that they would dis- 
pose of the sovereignty of the Roman world to -the highest bidder; 
and while the body of Per' tinax remained mibaried in the streets 

Tin. Dm' ick of Rome, the prize of the empire was purchased by a 

jcua'vol yi^^ and wealthy old senator, Did' ins JnliAnns, who, 

repairing to the Praetorian camp, outbid all competitors, a^ actually 

paid to each of the soldiers, ten thousand in number, more than two 

hundred pounds sterling, or nearly nine millions of doUars in all. 

18. The obsequious senate, overawed by the soldiery, ratified tlie 
unworthy negotiation ; but the Praetorians themselves were ashamed 
of the prmce whom their avarice had persuaded them to aooept ; the 

• citixens looked upon his elevation with horror, as a lasting insult to 
the Roman name ; and the armies in the provinces were unanimotu 
in refusing allegiance to the new ruler, while the emperor, trembling 
with the dangers of his position, found hinself, although on the 
throne of the world, scorned and despised, without a friend, and 

^ even without an adherent 

19. Three competitors soon appeared to contest the throne with 
Julidnus, — C16dius Albfnus, who commanded in Britain, — Pescen'- 

IX. bkftim'- iii«8 Niger in Syria, — and Septim' ius Scv6rus in D«l- 
m BST^ro. mdtia' and Pann6nia. The latter, by his nearness to 
Rome, and the rapidity of his marches, gained the advance of his 
rivals, and was hailed emperor by the people : the Pithless Pneto- 
rians submitted without a blow, and were disbanded ; and the senate 
pronounced a sentence of deposition and death against the terror- 
stricken Juliinus, whose anxious and precarious reign of sixty-fiv« 
days was terminated by the hands of the common executioner. 

20. While Sev^rus, employing the most subtle craffc and dissimu- 
lation, was flattering Albfnus in Britain with the hope of being asso- 
ciated with him in the empire, he rapidly passed into Asia, and after 
several engagements with the forces of Niger completely defeated 
them on the plains of Issus, where Alexander and Darius had long 
before contended for the sovereignty of the world. Such was the 

1. D^tUtiMy laelaitlj a put of fflyr' icam, and now the most ioiitbeni protfaee of tM 
AMtrlan empira, oompritet a loi« and narrow terrttory on tiM eaiUin ■horo of tlM Aiito^''^ 
After the divlalon of the Roman provinoea under Con' itantine and TheodAilni, Dalmiti* h0 
came one of the moat Important pnrta of the empire. 

Oaip. I] ROMAK HISTORY. 209 

dnplicitj of Sev^TOS, that even in the letter in wbich be annonnced 
tie Tictory to Albiiius; he addressed the latter with the most friendly 
salutations, and expressed the strongest regard for his welfare, while 
at the same time he intrusted the messengers charged with the letter 
to desire a private andience, and to plnnge their dagger to the heart 
of his rival. It was only ^hen the infamous plot was detected that 
Albinus awoke to the reality of his situation, and began to make 
vigorous preparations for open war. This second contest for empire 
was decided against Albinus in a- most desperate battle near Lyons,^ 
in Gaul, (A. D. 197,) where one hundred and fifty thousand Romans 
are said to have fought on each side. Albinus was overtaken in 
flight, and slain ; and many senators and eminent provincials suf- 
fered death for the attachment which they had shown to his cause. 

21. After Sev6rus had obtained undisputed possession of the em- 
pire, he governed with mildness : considering the Roman world as, 
his property, he bestowed his care on the cultivation and improve- 
ment of so valuable' an acquisition, and after a reign of eighteen 
years he could boast, with a just pride, that he received the empire 
oppressed with foreign and domestic wars, and left it established in 
profound, universal, and honorable peace. In his last illness, Sev6rus 
deeply felt and acknowledged the littleness of human greatness. Bom 
in an African town^ fortune and merit had elevated him from an 
humble station to the first place among mankind ; and now, satiated 
with power, and oppressed with age and infirmities, all his pros- 
pects in life were closed. " He had been all1;hings," he said, " and 
all was of little value." Calling for the urn in which his ashes were 
to be inclosed, he thus moralized on his decaying greatness. " Little 
urn, thou shalt soon hold all that will remain of him whom the 
world could not contain." He died at York,' in Britain, (A. D. 21 1 ,) 
having been called into that country to repress an insurrection of the 

I. Z,vonSf called by the Bomans Lugd^num, Is sltaated at the confluence of the riven 
Shone and Saone. The Roman town was at the foot of a hill on the western bank of the 
Rhone. Giesar conqnered the place from the Ganls : Augustus made !t the capital of a proT- 
inoe ; and, being enlarged by succeeding emperors, it became one of the principal cities of the 
Roman worid. It is now the principal manufacturing town of France, containing a population 
Of about two hundred thousand inhabitants. (Map No. Xlfl.) 

9L Tin-k, caned by the Romans Ebor' antm. Is situated on the river Ouse, one hundred and 
■evQOty miles N. N. west fh>m London. It wa^ the onpital of the Roman province, and next 
to London, the most important city in the Island. It was successivelj^ the residence of Adrian, 
fierfirua, G«ta and Oaracal' la, Constan' tius ChlOms, Con' stantine the Great, &c The modem 
city can sUll show many y&A\ge6 of Roman power and magnificence. Constan' ttus Chl6ni% 
the (kUier of Con' stantine the Great, died here. (Map No. X VL) 



22. Sererns had left the empire to his two sons Gftneal' h aod 
X, C2AEA- Geta, bat the former, whose mbcondact had imbittered 
^^^ *^ the last daj8 of his father, soon after his accession slew 

his brother in his mother's anna His character resembled that of 
Com'modos in cruelty, bat his extortions were carried to a &r 
greater extent After the Roman world, had endured his tyranny 
nearly six years, he was assassinated while in Syria, at the instiga- 
ZL «Acii'- tion of Macrinus, the captain of the guards, (A. D. 217,) 
MM. ^iiQ succeeded to the throne ; but after a reign of four- 
teen months, Macrinus lost his life in the straggle to retain his 

23. Bassi^us, a youth of foorteen, and a cousin of Caracal' Is, 
had been consecrated, according to the rites of the Syrian worship, 
to the ministry of high-priest of the sun ; and it was a rebellion of 
the Eastern troops in his favor that had overthrown the power of 
Macrinus. Although these events occurred in distant Syria, yet the 
Roman senate ai^d the whole Roman world received with servile 

ziL xLAOA- submission the emperors whom the army successively 
ba' LU8. offered them. As priest of the sun Bassidnus adopted 
the title of Elagabilus,^ and on his arrival at Rome established 
there the Syrian worship, and compelled the grandest personages of 
the State and the army to officiate in the temple dedicated to the 
Syrian god. ^ 

24. The follies, gross licentiousness, boundless prodigality, and 
cruelty of this pagan priest and emperor, soon disgusted even the 
licentious soldiery, the only support of his throne. He established 
a senate of women, the subject of whose deliberations were dress 
and etiquette ; he even copied the dress and manners of the female 
sex, and styling himself empress, publicly invested one of his officers 
with the title of husband. His grandmother Mob' sa, foreseeing that 
the Roman world would not long endure the yol^e of so contemptible 
a monster, artfully persuaded him, in a favorable moment of fond- 
ness, to adopt for his successor his cousin Alexander Severus ; yet, 
soon after, Elagabilus, indignant that the affections of the army 
were bestowed upon another, meditated the destruction of Severus, 
but was himself massacred by the indignant Praetorians, who dragged 
his mutilated corpse through the city, and threw it into the Tiber, 
while the senate publicly branded his name with mfamy. (A. D. 222.) 

a. A name derived fh>m two Syrian words, e/a a god, and fahal to Torm :— stgnlOrfoK ^ 
temlng, or phutlc god,— a proper and even bappy epitbet for the luii.— Gibbon. L A 


25. At the age of seventeen Alexander Sey^ras was raised to the 
tiirone by the Praetorian guards. He proved to be a ^^^^ -ald- 
wise, energetic, and virtuous prince : he relieved the andbe sb- 
provinces of the oppressive taxes imposed by his prede- '"'^^'s. 
eeflsoTB, and restored the dignity, freedom, and authority of the 
senate; bnt his attempted reformation of the military order served 
(mly to inflame the ills it was meant to cure. His administration of 
the government was an unavailing struggle against the corruptions 
of ^e age ; and ^fter many mutinies of his troops his life was at 
length sacrificed, after a reign of fourteen years, to the fierce discon- 
tents of the army, whose power had now increased to a height so 
dangerous as to obliterate the faint image of laws and liberty, and 
introduce the sway of military despotism. Mjax' imin, the instigator 
d the revolt) was proclaimed emperor. 





ANAI^YSIS. 1. Earliest aocoant of the Thraclan Max' iHiit.— 8. HU origin. HIb history 
down to the death of Alexander Sev^ms. [The Goths. Al&ni.]— 3. Max' imln proclaimed 
em p e r u f bj the army. OommeDcemeot of his reign.— 4. Goa' vikv. Pufik' ifua amd Balbi'- 
MXTM. Death of Max' imln. The Sbcokd Gor' bian.-^. Crerman and Persian wars.— d. S&por, 
Ihe Ptera&an kin^. Death of Gor* dian, and accession of Philip the Arabiax.— 7. Insnirectiona > 
and rebelliona. Db' cxus proclaimed emperor, and death of Philip. CVer6na.]-& War with 
the Goth«,'and death of D^cios. Reign of Gallus Emilia' bus. Accession of Valb' rian. — 
9. Wortby charadler of Valerian. Ravages of the barbarians. Spain, Gaol, and Britain. 
^The Penians. (The Frsnks. Hie Aleman' ni. Lombardy.]— 10. Valerian taken prisoner. 
B!a treatment. Gailib' bus.— 11. Odenitns, prince of Palmyra. He ronts the Persians. 
(Palmyra.}— 13. Nmnerons competitors for the throne.— 13. Death of Galii^nus, and accession 
«r Claudivb. [Milan.]- }4. Character, reign, and death of Claodloa. [Sir* mtam.]— 15. Quxn- 
tax.iUB.— 10. Th6 reign of Aure' liab. His wars. Zenubia. Character of Aur61ian. His 
death. [Tibar. Byzan' tium.]— 17. An interregnnm. Election of Tacitus. His reign and 
death. [Bos' poms.}— 16. Flo'rxab. The reign, and death, of Probus. [aarmatia. Van'- 
dals*}— 19. Reign of Ca' rub. His character, and death. Numb' rian and Cari' nus^— SO. Su- 
perstition, and retreat, of the Roipan army in Persia. Character of Carinas, and death of 
Kmniftrlan.— 21. Garlnus marches aguinst Diocletian. His death. Dioclb' tiaji acknowledged 
•mperor. His treatment of the vanqolshed. 

S2L The reign of Diocletian, an Important epoch. [Copts and AbyssinJana.}— S3. Division 
of the imi«rf%l authority.— S4. The 'rale of Maxim' ian. [NicomAdia.] Of his colleagn* 
' tins, dbantries ruled by Diocletian, and his colleague Gaierins.— 25. Important 
I of the reign of DiocieUan. The insurrection in Britain.— SO. Revolt in Egypt and 
AMca. [Bosirii and Cop'tos. The Moors.:~S7. Hie war with Parria. [Antioell. 


K««Mtii.>-«L PeiwciitlfM or tlM ChrtsttaM. DIodAIlM'^ «dicl ^iImI tW. ^ Bcwtla, 

and effecU of ihis per*ecution.^30. DiocletUo aod Maxim' ian lay down the iceptfe,aiMi retire 
to prirale Ufe. <»alb axra axd Cohstah' nra acknowledged aoTereigna. Dlaeord and con- 
Anion.— 31. Death of ConMin' tioai Com' rrAim!«K proclaimed emp ei w . Six ooinp«ttton for 
tbe Ibrone. Death of (^al^riua.— 32. ("onTerMon of l>m' staotine, and uiumph of Cbri»tiuaily. 
— 33w Moat important orenta in the rvign of 0»a' ttantloe. The choice of a new capital.— 34. 
Eemoral of tbe aeai of goTerameat 10 Byian' tlnm, and tbe diancea that followed* Oon' ito- 
tine divides the empire among hi/ three tons and two nephews. His d«atb.~35b Sixteen yean 
of Civil wan. CoMSTAiv'Tit' a II. becomes sole emperor. His reign of twenty-foiir yean. His 
Jcaih. (The Saxons.}— 38. JoLi AN T«B ArosTATB. Hiaebancter. HosUlitjr to the Christiana. 
—37. His eflbrU against Christianity. Tbe res«ilt.— 38. His attempt to rebuild Jemaalem.— 38. 
Causes of the sospension of the work. — 10. Julianas invasion of Penia. His death.— 31. Tba 
lirief Pbign of Jo' tun.— 4SL Valbntin' i ah elected emperor. Aesociales Ua brothar Va' lbkb 
wHh him. Final diviston of tbe empire. The two capitals. Borne. 

43. Baebabian inroads. Picts and Scots.— 44. Death of Vaientin' ian, and w^ward pro- 
gress of the Hana. Tbe Vis' igoths are allowed to settle in Thrace.— 4S. Tbe Os' trogotbs crom 
the Danube In anns. The two dirisioos raise tbe staodard of war. Death of Vilena. 
[Adrian^ple.]— 44. Gea' tian emperor of the West. Thbodo' sios emperor of tbe East. The 
Goths. Many of tbem settle Ih Thrace, Phrygia, Ifcc— 47. Death of Grltlan. Valbntik' iak 
11. His death. Theoduslus sole emperor. Death of Tbeoduains. Dirlsion of the empfiw b»> 
tween Hono' rics and Arca' dius.— 48. Civil wars. Al' aric thb Gotr ravages Greece, and 
then passes into Italy. [Julian Alpsw]— 49. Hon6rius Is relieved by SUI' icho. [As' U PoUen'- 
tla.] Rome saved by Stil' icbo.-^50. Raven' na becomes the capital of Italy. Deloge of bar- 
barians. [Raven' na. Van' dais. Su^vL Buigim' dlan&}— Sf. Italy delivered by 8iU' Icbo. 
[Florence.}— as. Stil' icbo pat to death. Massacre of the Goths, and reroll of the Gothie 
aokiiers.— S3. Rome besieged by Al' aric. His terms of rttn8om.-^Sl Tbe terms flnally agreed 
upon. Rejected by Hoooriua. [Tineany.} Al' aiie retnras and redocos Rome.— AS. Pillage 
of Rome. Al'aric abandons Rome. His death and burial.— 50. The Goths withdraw from 
Italys The Vis' igoths in Spain and Gaol. Saxons establish themselves in England.^57. The 
Van' dais in Spain and Africa. Valbntim'iah llf. CoiiqDBSTs or At'tila. [Andaloala. 
TheHonai ChahNMb Venetian Republlc.]-^S8. Extinction of tbe empire of the Huns. Sita- 
ation of the Roman worid at this period. Rome pillaged by the Van' dals, A. D. 455.— 5BL 
Avx'TUS. Majo' BiAN.— 00. Sbvb' BUS. Van' dal in vftslons. Expedition against Carthage.— 61. 
RevoluUonary changes. Demands of the barbarians, and scbvbbsioii or thb Wbstbrk 
Ekpirb. [Her'aU.] 

1. * Thirty-two years before the murder of Alexander Sey6riis, 
the emperor Septim' ios Sev^rus, returning from his Asiatic expe- 
dition, halted in Thrace to celebrate with military games the birth- 
day of his younger son Geta. Among the crowd that flocked to 
behold their sovereign was a young barbarian of gigantic stature^ ' 
who earnestly solicited, in his rude dialect, that he might be allowed 
to contend for the prize of wrestling. As the pride of 
' discipline would have been disgraced in the overthrow of 
a Bomao soldier by a Thracian peasant, he was matched with the 
stoutest followers of the camp, sixteen of whom he successively laid 
on the ground. His victory was rewarded by some trifling gifts, and 
a permission to enlist in the troops. The next day the happy bar- 
barian was distinguished above a crowd of recruits, dancing and ex- 
ulting after the fashion of his country. As soon as. as be perceived 
that be had attracted the emperor's notice, he ran up to his honBi 

Cbat.IJ ^- EOHAJf BISTORT. 218 

and fottowed him on foot, without the least appearance of &tigae, in 
a long and rapid career. " Thracian," said Sey^rus, with astonish- 
ment, " art thou disposed to wrestle after thy race ?^' " Most wil- 
lingly, sir," replied the unwearied youth, and almost in a breadth 
o?erthrew seven of the strongest soldiers in the army. A gold collar 
was the prize of his matchless vigor and activity, and he was imme- 
diately appointed to serve in the horse-guards, who always attended 
on the person of the sovereign.'^ 

2. Max'imin, for that was the name of the Thracian, was de- 
scended from a mized race of barbarians, — ^his father being a Groth,' 
and his mother of the nation of the Alani." Under the reign of the 
first Sevenjs and his son Caracal' la he held the rank of centurion ; 
bat he declined to serve under Macrinus and £lagabalu8. On the ac- 
cession of Alexander he returned to court, and was promoted to vari- 
oos military offices honorable to himself and useful to the nation, 
but, elated by the applause of the soldiers, who bestowed on him the 
names of Ajax and Hercules, and prompted by ambition^ he con- 
i^ired against his benefactor, and excited that mutiny in which the 
latter lost his life. 

3. Declaring himself tlie friend and advocate of the military order, 

1. Tbe Ootis, a poweifal northern nation, who acted an important part in the orerthrow of 
tbe Boman empire, wera probably a Scythian tribe, and came origioally from Asia, whence 
tb^ paaeed north into Scandinavia. When flrat Icnown to the Romans, a large dtviaion of 
tfa^ nation 11 red on the northern shores of the Euxine. About the middle of the third 
eentary of our era tbey crowed the Dnles' tar, and detraatated DAoia and Thrace. Tbe emperor 
IMdiiB loat hia life in opposing them ', after which his successor Gal' lus iuduced them by 
noney, to withdraw to their old seats on the Dnles' ter. (See p. 315.) Soon after this period 
fbe 6otfaa appear in two grand divisions ;— the Os'trogoths, or Eastern Goths, passing the 
Eoxine into Asia Minor, and ravaging Bythin' ia ;— and the Vis' igoths, or Western Goths, 
gradoally pressiug upon the Roman proyinces along the Danube. About the ye^r 375, tbe 
Bom, eoming ftom the East, fell upon the Os' trogoths, and drove them npon th£ Vis' igoths, 
who weoe then living north of the Danube. A vast muIUtade of tbe latter were permitted by 
tbe emperor V&lens to settle in Moe' siii, and on the waste lands of Thrace ; but being soon oftor 
Jollied by their Eastern brethren, they raised the standard of war, carried their rarages to the very 
0tfeB of Oonstantinople, and UUed V41en8 in battle. (8eep.8S8.) It waaAi' arte, king of tbe 
Via' igotlis, who plundered Rome in the beginning of the flAh century. (See p. 331.) Tbe Vis' i- 
fotfas afterwards passed into Spain, where they founded a dynasty which reigned nearly three 
eentarfoe, and waa finally oonqnered by tbe Moors, A. D. 711. In the meantime the Os' trogoths 
had been following in tbe path of their brethren, and in the year 493 theb* great Iring Theod' oric 
defeated Odoaeer, and seated himself on the throne of Italy. (See p. 339.) The Gothic kingdom 
laarrirt only till the year 554, when it was overthrown by Nar' ses, the general of Jnstin' ian. 
^5«e p. 341.) From this period the Goths no tonger occupy a promineal place In hlstoiy, 
•xoept In Spain. 

SL Tbe Mimi, Dkawlae a Scythian race, when flnt known oeenpied Om eonntry between tbe 
Vol^a and the Don. Being oonquered, erentually, by the Huns, roost of the AJans united 
-with their oonqueior^ and proceed with them to Invade the Umits of the Gothlo ompiro of 

a. Gibbon, 1, W. 



Max' imin was unanimously proclaimed emperor by the applftnding 
legions, who, now composed mostly of peasants and barbarians of 
the frontiers, knowing no country but their camp, and no science but 
that of war, and discarding the authority of the senate, looked npon 
themselves as the sole depositaries of power, as they were, in reality, 
the real masters of the Roman world. Max' imin commenced his 
reign by a sanguinary butchery of the friends of the late monarch; 
but his avarice and cruelty soon provoked a civil war, and raised 19 . 
against him several competitors for the throne. 

4. At first the aged and virtuous Gor'dian, pro-oonsol of Afiica, 

was declared sovereign by the legions in that part of the 

' Roman world, but he persisted in refusing the dangerous 

hdnor until menaces compelled him to accept the imperial title. At 

Rome the news of his election was received with universal joj, and 

confirmed by the senate; but two months after his accession he 

perished in a struggle with the Roman governor of Mauritania, who 

still adhered to Max' imin. Two senators of consular dignity, Pu- 

m. puPM- P^^^'^; (sometimes caUed Max' imus) wid Balblnus, were 

ia» AND then declared emperors by the senate ;*and soon after, 

BALBi HUB. ji^j' imjjj^ whiltf ou his march from Pann6nia to Rome, 

was slain in his tent by his own guards. (A. D. 238.) Only a few 

IV. SECOND <^y8 ^^1" ^^^ Pupi6nus and Balblnus were slain in 

00a' DiAN. a mutiny of the troops. 1 The youthful Gor' dian, grand- 

son of the former Oor' dian, was then declared emperor. 

5. During these rapid changes in the sovereignty of the Roman 
world, the empire was involved in numerous foreign wars, which 
gradually wasted its strength and resources, and hastened its down- 
fall. Oq the north, the German nations, and other barbarian tribes, 
almost constantly harassed the frontier provinces ; while in the east 
the Persians, after overthrowing the Parthian empire, and establish- 
ing the second or later Persian empire under the dynasty of the 
Sassan' idae, (A. D. 226,) commenced a long series of destructiTe 
wars against the Romans, with the constant object of driving the 
Utter from Asia. 

6. At the time of the accession of the second Gor' dian to the 
sovereignty of the Roman empire, Sdpor, the second prince of the 
Sas' sanid dynasty, was driving the Romans from several of their 
Asiatic provinces. The efforts of Gor' dian, who went in person to 
protect the provinces of Syria, were partially suooesaful ; but whik 

Chaf.I] EOMAir HISTORY. 215 

the jontbfiil conqueror was pursuing his adyantages, he was supplanted 
in the affections of his army by Philip the Arabian, the ^ philip 
prefect or commander of the Praetorian guards, who caused toe 
hia monarch and benefactor to be slain, (A. D. 244.) ^*^'^n- 

7. It is not surprising that the generals of Philip were disposed 
to imitate the example of their master, and that insurrections and 
rebellions were frequent during his reign. At length & rebellion 
having broken out in Pann6nia, Decius was sent to sup- ^^ 
press it, when he himself was proclaimed emperor by 

the fickle troops, and compelled, by the threat of instant death, to 
submit to their dictation. Philip immediately marched against De- 
dua, but was defeated and slain near Ver6na.* (A. D. 249.) 

8. Several monarchs now succeeded each other in rapid succession. 
B^cins soon fell in battle with the Goths, (A. D. 251,) large num- 
b^s of whom during his reign first crossed the Danube, and deso- 
lated the Roman provinces in that quarter. Gal' lus, a vn. gal'- « 
general of Decius, being raised to the throne, concluded ^^^ 

a dishonorable peace with the barbarians, and renewed a violent per- 
secution of the Christians, which had been commenced by Decius 
As new swarms of the barbarians crossed the Danube, the pusillani 
mous emperor seemed about to abandon the defence of vni. jooli 
the monarchy, when iEmilianus, governor of Pann6nia a' "us. 
and Moe' sia, unexpectedly attacked the enemy and drove them back 
into their own territories. His troops, elated by the victory, pro- 
daimed their general emperor on the field of battle ; and Gal' lus 
was soon after slam by his own soldiers. In three months a. vale- 
a similar fate befel ^milianus, when Valerian, governor ^"^• 
of Gaul, then about sixty years of age, a man of learning, -wisdom, 
•ad virtue, was advanced to the sovereignty, not by the clamors of 
the army only, but by the unanimous voice of the Roman world. 

9. Valerian possessed abilities that might have rendered his admin 
istration happy and illustrious, had he lived in times, more peaceful, 
and more favorable for the display and appreciation of virtue ; bat 
his reign had not only a most deplorable end, but was marked, through- 
out, with nothing but confusion and calamities. At this time the 
Goths, who had already formed a powerful nation on the lower Dan- 

L FtrAM, • large and floiifWhiiiff Boman dty of GftBlpine Gaul, still retalnt tto anelent nani«^ 
It i» sitnated on both lidas ofthe riyer Adiga, aixty-fonr miles west trom Venice. The great glory- 
«C Vertna ia Its amphitheatre^ one of the noblest «x]sting monnments of the ancient Romam, 
ittd,euiptli«tliaOoloaiAam at BoiM» the laigest extant edifice or Its class. ItlssappoiHl 
to h«y» been enable of amwnmndiitlng twenty thonaand tpeemxm, (Mdp Vo. XVHi^ 

816 HODEBN BISTORT. [Fait a 

ube and the northern coasia of the Black Sea, raraged the Boman do- 
minions on their horderB, and penetrating into the interior of Greece, 
or Achdia, destroyed Ar' gos, Corinth, and Athens, bj fire and by 
the sword : the Franks/ who had formed a kingdom on the lower 
Rhine, began to be formidable : the Aleman' ni* broke through their 
boundaries, and advanced into the plains of Lom'bardj*: Spain, 
Gaul, and Britain, were virtually torn away from the empire, and 
governed by independent chiefe; while in the East, the Persians, 
uider their monarch Sapor, fell like a mountain torrent upon Syria 
and Cappadocia, and almost effaced the Roman power from Asia. 

10. Valerian in person led the Roman army against the Persians, 
bat, penetrating beyond the Euphrates, he was surrounded and taken 
prisoner by Stipor, who is accused of treating his royal captive with 
wanton and unrelenting cruelty, — using him as a stepping-stone when 
he mounted on horseback, and at last causing him, after nine years 
of captivity, to be flayed alive, and his skin to be stuffed in the form 
X. OALUB- ^^ *^® living emperor — dyed in scarlet in mockery of 
WU8. his imperial dignity, and preserved as a trophy in a 
temple of Persia. Gallienus, the unworthy son of Valerian, receiv- 
ing the news of his father's captivity with secret joy and open in- 
difference, immediately succeeded to the throne. (A. J). 259.) 

H. At the time when nearly every Roman town in Asia had sub- 
mitted to Sapor, Odenatus, prince of Palmyra,* who was attached 

1. Tbe F)rank*y or ^ Freemen,'* were a oonrederatfon of the rudest of the Gemunle trfbei, 
and were llni known U> tbe Bonans ea iahabitii^ tbe nniiMroiu Uleto formed by the mouth of 
the Rhine ; but they aflerwarda croeaed into Gaul, and, in the hitter paK of lue fifth oeolai7, 
under their leader CloTia, laid the foundation of tbe French monarchy. (See also p. ^0 

S. Tbe jf /email' Hi, or "^ali umw,** that la, men of aU tribes, wtera also a German conttAtneft 
rituated on the aortbem borders of Switzerland. They were finally OTerthrown by Clovis, after 
which thoy were dispersed over Gaul, Switzerland, and northern Italy. 

3. /^W kardj^ embraced most of the great plahi of northern Italy watand }fjihm^o^aAf» 

4. Palmyra^ "The ancient '♦Tadmor in the wilderness'' built by king Solomon, (2. <*">"• 
▼lit. 4,) was situated in an oaata of the Syrian desert, about one hundrad and forty mUsi 
north-east from Damaacns. The flnt notioe we bare of it in Boman htsiory is at the eomr 
menoement of the wars with the Parthlans, wtien it was permitted to maintain a state of inde- 
pendenee and 'neutrality between the contending parties. Being on the cal^ran route Itoa the 
coast of Syria to the regions of Mesopotimia, Persia, and India, it was Iwc^ the principal em* 
porium of commerce between the Eastern and Western worlds— a city of merchants and fso- 
tors, whose wealth Is still attested by the. number and msgniflcence of Its ruins. Afl«r the 
▼ictorles of "nrnjan had estabUsbeii the unquestionable praponderanoe of the Boman ana«» H 
became allied to tiie empire as a free SUUe, and was greatly favored by Adrian and the Antih 
nines, during whose reigns it attained its greatest splendor. OdMiAtua maintained its glorTi 
and for his defeat of the Persians the Boman senate oontored on him the UUe of Augustus 

associated him wlih Galii^nus in the empir*^ but hia queen and auc t e s ao r , ths 
US Zeabbia, brokn the aUUuioo with ttm imbecUn GnIUAaiia» aim«nd JBr'o'k mbs'^ 


to the Boman interest, desirous mt least to secure the forbearenoe of 
the conqaeror, sent Sipor a magnificent present of camels and m&e- 
chandise, accompanied with a respectfal, but not servile, epistle ; bat 
the haughty monarch ordered the gifts to be thrown into the Eaphrd« 
tes, and returned for an answer that if Odenatus hoped to mitigate 
his punishments he must prostrate himself before the throne of 
Sapor with his hands tied behind his back. The Palmyrean prince^ 
reading his fate in the angry message of Sapor, resolved to meet the 
Persian in arms. Hastily collecting a little army from the villages 
of Syria, and the tents of the desert, he fell upon and routed the 
Persian host, seized the camp, the women, and the treasures of 8i- 
yoTj and in a short time restored to the BoMans most of the prov- 
inces of which they^had been despoiled. 

12. The indolence and inconstancy of Oallienus soon raised up a 
host of competitors for the throne, generally reckoned thirty in all, 
although the number of actual pretenders did not exceed nineteen. 
Among these was Odenatus the Palmyrean, to whom the Koman 
senate had intrusted the command of the Eastern provinces, after 
associating him with Oallienus. Of all these competitors, several 
of whom were models of virtue, two only were of noble birth, and 
not one enjoyed a life of peace, or died a natural death. As one 
after another was cut off by the. arms of a rival, or by domestic 
treachery, armies and provinces were involved in their falL During 
the deplorable reigns of Valerian and Gallienus, the contentions of 
tiie imperial rivals, and the arms of barbarians, brought the empire 
to the very brink of ruin. 

13. Gallienus, after a reign of nine years, was murdered while he 
was besicjging one of his rivals in Mediolanum ;^ {Milan, 

A. D. 268 \) but before his death he had appointed Mar- ^ 

cos Aurelius Claudius, a general of great reputation, to succeed him, 
and the choice was confirmed by the joyful acclamations of the army 
and the people. 

mlnSonsi and uMuned the tilto of ** AuguaU, Queen of the East.** The emperor Aor^Uea 
nurcbed againet tbe Ul-Cated Palmyra with an irrwistible force ; the walls of the clly were 
fazed lo the groimd ; and* the aeat of commerce, of arta, and of Zenobia, gradiiaUy auuk into 
an obapure town, a trifling fortress, and, at length, a miierable Arab Tillage. 

X. MsdMAntm^ now Milan, was a city of Cisalpine Ganl, one hundred and fifty miles weat 
fhMD Venice, sitoated in a beautiful plain between two small streams the Olona and Lambm, 
which unite at San Angelo and form a nor|;hem tributary of the Po. Mediolanum was ao- 
naxed to the EU>man dominions by Scipio Naaica, 191 a C. A good apecimen of ancient fio- 
aan areblMciure may still be seen a^ Mian, being a range of sixteen beauUAil GoiiAthlaa 
coIamna,wUh their ai9hltisv%MbreL^ church at San Lonnso. {Jfa^NaVIUOk 



14. A Baooeflskm of better prinoes now restored for awh3e the de^ 
oayiDg energies of the empire. Claudius merited the confidence 
which had been placed in his wisdom ^ valor, and virtue; and his 
early death was a great misfortune to the Roman world. After 
having overthrown and nearly destroyed an army of three hundred 
and twenty thousand Goths and Van' dais, who had invaded the em- 
pire by the way of the Bos' poms, Claudius was cut off by a pesti* 
lenoe at Sir' mium,' as he was making preparations to march against 
the &mous Zendbia, the '^ Queen of the East," and the widow and 
successor of Oden^tus. 

15. Qubtil'ius, the brother of Claudius, was proclaimed emperor 
zn. Qom- by ^^ acclamations of the troops ; but when he learned 
hl' icb. that the great army of the Danube had invested Aur61iaa 

with imperial power, he sunk into despair, and terminated his life 
after a reign of seventeen days. 

16. The reign of Aur^lian, which lasted only four years and nine 
zm. Auai- months, was filled with lAmorable achievement& After 

"^- a bloody conflict, he put an end, by treaty, to the (jh)thio 
war of twenty years' duration ; he chastised and drove back the 
Aleman' ni, who had traced a line of devastation from the Danube 
to the Po ; he recovered Oaul, Spain, and Britain ; and passing into 
Asia at the head of a large army, he destroyed the proud monarchy 
which Zen6bia had erected there, and led that unfortunate, but heroic 
princess, captive to Rome. Being presented irith an elegant villa 
at Tibur,' the Syrian queen insensibly sunk into a Roman matron, 
and her daughters married into the noblest families of the empire. 
With great courage and superior military talents, Aur^lian possessed 
m^ny private virtues ; but their influence was impaired by the stern- 
ness and severity of his character. He fell in a conspiracy of hia 
X officers near Byzan' tium,' while preparing to carry on a war with 
Perma. (A. D. March, 275.) 

1. Sir' mium wu an important dty In the 80Qth'«88t6rn part of Pann6nla, on tho nortboRi 
■ld« of the rirer Sure. It» ruins may be seen near the town of Mitrmiti^ in Austrian Slaronia. 

a TYfrvr, now Tivolif (te^-ro-le) was sltnateil at the cascades of the A' nio, now the Terer> 
6ne, eighteen miles north-east from Rome. Its andent inliabitanU frere called the Ti^rtinu 
The declivities in the Tictnity of Tibur were anciently interspersed with splendid villas, the 
fltYorite reeldences of the reflned and luxurious cltlxens of Rome, among which may bo men- 
tioned those of Sallnst, MsBoinas, Tibnl' lus, V&ma, At' tleni, Csssius, Brutus, «te. Here Vfrgll 
and Horace elaborated their immortal works. Although the temples and theatres of sncient 
TIbur hare crumbled into dust, its orohards, its gardens, and its cool recesses, still bloom and 
flourish in unfading beauty. {Map No. X.) 

9. Bytan' tt'itin, now Oonstantlnople, a oeiebrateif dty of Thrsoe on the western shore of fha 
Tbiadan Boa' porta, ia soppoMdto ha^ boan flrandwi by a Dortin ooloiij fttMn. Meg* an, lad 

Chur. I] -ROMAK HISTORY. 219 

17. On the death of Atir61ian, a generous and unlooked-for dis- 
interestedness was exhibited by the army, which modestly referred 
the appointment of a saccessor to the senate. For six months the 
■enate persisted in declining an honor it had so leng been unaccus- 
tomed to enjoy ; and daring this period the Roman world remained 
without a sovereign, without a usurper, and without a sedition. At 
length the senate yielded to the continual request of the 

legions, an3 elected to the imperial dignity Marcus 
Claudius Tacitus, a wealthy and virtuous senator, who had already 
passed his seventy-fifth year. Tacitus, after enacting some wise 
laws, and restoring to the senate its ancient privileges, proceeded to 
join the army, which had remained assembled on the Bos'porus' for 
the invasion of Persia ; but the hardships of a inUitary life, and the 
cares of government, proved too much for his constitution, and he 
died in Cappad6cia, after a reign of little more than six months. 
(A. D. Sept., 275.) 

18. F16riuK, a brother of Tacitus, showed himself unworthy to 
reign, by assuming the government without even con- ^v. fl(/- 
suliing the senate. His own soldiers soon after put him iuan. 

to death, while in the meantime the Syrian army proclaimed their 
leader, Pr6bus, emperor. The latter proved to be an zyj. p^o'- 
exoellent sovereign and a great general ; and in the wars ^^ 
whioh he carried on with the Franks, Aleman'ni, Sarmatians,' Goths, 
and Van' dais,' he gained greater advantages than any of his prede- 
oessoHL In the several battles which he fought, four hundred thou- 
sand of the barbarians fell ; and seventy cities opened their gates to 

Iff Bftma a TbradaD prlnoe, aboat tbe middle of the aerenth oentnxy before the CbristUa era. 
n was destroyed bj the Peralans in the reign of Dariua : it raaisted successfully tbe arms of 
VWOp of Mae' edon : dnrtng the reign of Philip IL it placed itself uoder Roman sway : it waa 
deetfoyed, and aftenrarda rabpUt« by Septlm' ins SevAras ; and in the year 338 A. D^ Con'stan* 
tine made it tbe capital of the Roman empire. On tbe subjagatlon of the western empire by 
ttw barbaifansi) A. D. 47ll| it oontinned to be the capital of the eastern empire. It was taken 
by tte emeadere In tbe year 1S04; aad in 1453 it fetl into the hands of the Turks, when tbe 
bat remnant of the Roman empire was flnally snppressed. (Map No. III.) 

1. The B09'f9ru9y (eorrapted by modem orthography to Bos'phorusi) is the strait which 
eoDUBeu the Snzino or Black See, with the Propon' tie or Sea of Marm6ra. Tbe length of thia 
remarkable channel is abont soTenteeen mileef with a width varying ttom half a mile to two 
Bllea. (.VarNaVli^ 

8. ABdem «ar«aiM extended ftom the Ball^ Sea and the TU' tola to the Ouptan Sea and the 
Volga. European Sarm&tla embraced Poland, Lithotoia, Prussia, and a part of Rtusla. 
Ailatic Serm&tia oonpriaed the oonntry between the Caspian Sea and the river Don. 

a The Fea' iaU were a people of Germany, and are supposed to have been of Gothic origin. 
Tbey fbnned one of tbe three divisions of the great Slavonian rsoe ;— via.. Vandals, An' tes^ 
and atavoniaiis proper. The Slavoniaa laogaa^a is the stem from which have, issued the 

fi20 IfiODEEET HBTQ&T. [Pivli 

him. After be had secored a general peacebj his vielorM, he em- 
ployed his armiee in nmfiil public works ; but the soldiers disdained 
such employment, and idiile they were engaged in draining a manib 
near Sir' miom, in the hot days of summer, they bn^ out into a 
furious mutiny, and in their sudden rage slew their emperor. (A. D. 

19. The legions next raised Oiros, prefect of the Prasioriaa 
zYii. guards, to the throne. He was fiill of warlike ambttioa, 

oa'bus. hq^ the desire of military glory, and seems to hxve held 

a middle rank between good and bad princes. He signalised the 

beginning of his reign by a memorable defeat of the Sanmaiians in 

lUyr' icum, sixteen thousand of whom he slew in batti.& He then 

marched against Persia, and had already carried his yictorioQs anna 

beyond the Tigris, when he was killed in his tent, as was 

NuicsRiAV generally believed by lightning. (A. D. 288.) Num6- 

AND rigrQ^ one of the sons of Cdrus, who had accompanied his 

father in his eastern expedition, and Garinus his elder 

brother, who had been left to gorem Rome, were immediately a«v 

knowledged emperors by the troops. 

20. On the death of Gdms, the eastern army, superstitioosly re- 
garding places or persons struck by li^tning as singularly devoted 
to the wrath of heaven, refdsed to advanoe any farther; and the Per- 
sians beheld with wonder the unexpected retreat of a victorious 
army. — While Carinus remained at Rome, immersed in pleaeiffCi, 
and acting the part of a second Com' modus, t^M virtnous Num^riaa 
perished by assassination. The army of the latter then chose for 
his successor Diocletian, the commander of the domestic body guards 
of the late emperor. (A. D. Dec, 285.) 

21. Carinus, being determined to dispute the suoceasion, marched 
with a large army against Diocletian, whom he was on the point of 
defeating in a desperate battle on the plains of Margus, a small city 
of Ma' sia, when he was slain by one of his own officers in revenge 
for some private wrong. The army of Carinus then acknowledged 

xiz. DiooLib- Diocletian as emperor. He used his victory with mild- 
TiAN. nessy and, contrary to the common practice, respected 
the lives and fortunes of his late adversaries, and even oontinued in 
their stations many of the officers of Cirinus. 

22. The reign of Diocletian is an important epoch in Roman 
history, as it was one of long duration and gensrai pvaqperity, and is 

OhuAl] ftOMAK HIBIOftT. 821 

the begimtbig of ihe dirinon of tbe Boman world into the Eastern 
and WeBtem empire. The aooeesion of Dioel^tian also marks a new 
efaronologreal era, oalled the '^ era of Dioel^tian," or, << the era of 
mar^^," which was long reoognised in the Christian ohiirch, and is 
still used by the Copts and Abjssinians.* 

23. The natural tendency of the eastern parts of the empire to 
beeome separated from the western, together with the difficulties of 
mling singly over so many provinces of different nations and diverse 
interests, led Diocletian to form the plan of dividing the imperial 
authority, and goveming the empire from two centres, although the 
w&ole was still to remain one. He therefore first took as a oolleagoe 
hiB friend and fellow soldier Maxim' ian ; but still the weight of the 
publie administralaon appearing too heavy, the two sovereigns took 
eadi a subordinate coUeagoe, to whose name the title of CsBsar waa 

24. Maxim' ian made Milan his capital, while Diocletian held his 
court at Nicom^dia,' in Asia Minor. Maxim' ian ruled z^. maxim'- 
orer Italy and Africa proper ; while his subordinate col- '^• 
league, Gonstan' tins, administered the government of Gaul, Spain, 
Britain, and Mauritania. Diocletian reserved, for his personid su- 
pervision, nearly all the empire east of the AdriaV io, except Pann6- 
nia and Mo' sia, whidi he conferred upon his sflbordinate colleague 
Chlerius. Eadi of the four rulers was sovereign within his own 
jurisdiction; but each was prepared to assist his colleagues with 
eomisel and with arms; while Diocletian was regarded as the father 
and head of the empire. 

25. The most important events of the reign of Diocletian were 
the insurrection of Carausius in Britain, a revolt in Egypt and 
throughout northern Africa, the war against the Persians, and a long- 
eontinued .persecution of the Christians. During seven years, CaraiV 
sius, the commander of the northern Roman fleet, ruled over Britain, 
and diffused beyond the columns of Hercules the terror of his name. 
He was murdered by his first minbter Alec' tus ; but the latter, 
soon after, was defeated and slain in battle by Constan' tins ; and 
after a separation of ten years, Britain was reunited with the empire. 

26. The suppression of a formidable revolt in Egypt was accom- 

L 9h« Coptt are Cauirtlans— deaeendAiito of the anotont Egyptiaoi, as diftiagaltfaed flrom the 
Anblaiia and oOier Inhabltanta of modern EgypV llie AkfsBiniaMs, Inhabltaals of AbyMinla, 
In CMten AMca, proAaa ChriHiaiiity, bat it haa imie tnflaeDee orer thetr conduct. 

«. XUmiUdia was la BIQiyn'la, at tbe eastern extremitj of tbe Propon' tls, or Sea of Ifar- 
m^bn, tb«Bndmlir-Jr«<«aQpleeflieilleorttienoleBteliy. 


pliahed bj Diod^tian himasl^ who took % ieniUe yengeaBee upoD 
AlezAndria, aod atterlj destrojed the proad citieB of Bmins and 
Gop' to8.* In the meantime a oonfederaey of fiye Moorish' nations 
attacked all the Roman provinees of Africa, from the Nile westward 
to Mount Atlas, but the barbarians were vanquished bj the arms of 
Maxim' ian. 

27. Next commenced the war with Persia, which waa carried on 
by Galerius, although Diocletian, taking his station at An' tiooh," pre- 
pared and directed the military operations. In the first campaign 
the Roman army received a total overthrow on the very ground 
rendered memorable by the defeat and death of Craaaos. In a second 
campaign Galerius gained a complete victory by a night attack ; and 
by the peace which followed, the eastern boundary of the Roman 
world was extended beyond the Tigris, ao as to embrace the greater 
part of Carduchia, the modem Kurdistan'/ 

28. The triumphs of Diocletian are sullied by a general pme- 
cntion of the Christians (the tenth and last), which he is said to 
have commenced at the instigation of Ghil^rius, aided by the artifices 
of the priesthood. (A. D. 303.) The famous edict of Diod^tian 
-against the Christians excluded them from all offices, ordered their 
churches to be pulled down, and their sacred books to be burned, and 
led to a general aoMndiscriminate massacre of all such as professed 
the name of Jesus. 

L Poor dUet or Egypt bore ttaeiuuna of S««<rt». TIm one deiiroTed bj DtocMtiiB «*• to 
the Thebiiia, or soothem Egypt,— geoerally celled Upper EgypL Cap' Us wee Ukewlte is 
Upper E^pt, eeet of the Nile. Its Ikvoreble eitaetlon tor ooaunerae eeoeed H egain to eriie 
aAer its deetniction by Dioel^Uan. 

S. The Moor*, whose name Is derived fifom a Greek word (JHevrM) eignMyiiig ''dark,'' *'ob- 
•cure," are nellves of the northern coast of AfHea, or, more properly, of the Roman Jfoar** 
UnU. The Moon were originaUy fkom Aala, awl are a people dietinet fton the mUtf Arsh^ 
Berbera, ice. The modem Moors are dttoendants of the ancient Mauritinians, intennUed 
with their Arab conquerors, and with the remains of the Van' dais who once itiled over the 

3. A»' tioek, onoe eminent for its beauty and greatneas, waa situated In northern Syria» en 
the Icfl bank of the Oron' tee, (now the Aasxy,) twenty miles fh>m Its entrance Into the Medi- 
terranean. An'tioch waa the capital of Uie Maoed6nlan kingdom of Qyria; and about the 
year 65 B. C the conquests of Pompey brought it, with the whole of Syria, under the control 
of the Romans. It was long the centre of an extensive commerce, Uie residence of the gov^ 
emor of Syria, the frequent resort of the Roman emperors, and, next to Rome, Ihe most eele* 
brated city of ibe empire for the amusemenu of the circus and the theatre. Paul and Baniabsa 
planted there the doclriues of Christianity; and **the disciples were called Christians Ibvt In 
An' tioch."-.Acta, xi. 20. (Jlf^^ No. VIL) 

4. Kurdutnn\ comprised chiefly within the basin of the Tigris, IsoUimed partly by Tarfcer 
and parily by Persia. It is the country of ihe Kurds, in whoae character the love of theft and 
brigandage is a marked feature ; but, at the same time, when visited by traveHers they eierdM 
Uie moat generoua hoapitalUy, and oOeii Ibroe handaooM preaaDta on their d^Mitiflg foeA 

Oiup.I] ROMAir HISTORY. ^ 223 

29. Daring ten years the persecation ooniiniied with Boaroely miti- 
gated horrors ^ and such mnltitades of Ohristums soffMred death that 
at last the imperial murderers boasted that tfaey4tad extbgoished 
the Christian name and religion, and restored the worship of the 
gods to its former parity and splendor. In spite, howeyer, of the 
efforts of tyranny, the Christian Chorch sorvived, and in a few years 
reigned triumphant in the very metropolis of heathen idolatry. 

30. After a reign of twenty years^ Diocletian, in the presenoe of 
a large conoourse of citizens and soldiers who had assembled at* 
Nicom^dia to witness the spectacle, voluntarily laid down the sceptre, 
and retired to private life ; and on the same day Maxim' ian, accord- 
ing to previous agreement, performed a similar ceremony 

at Milan. (May Ist, 305.) Gal^rius and Constan' tins uni akd 
were thereupon acknowledged sovereigns ; and two sub- oonstan'- 
ordinates, or Caesars, were appointed to complete the 
system of imperial government which Diocletian had established. 
But this balance-of-power system needed the firm and dexterous 
hand of its founder to sustain it ; and the abdication of DiocUtiaa 
was followed by eighteen years of discord and confusion. 

31. One year after the abdication of the sovereigns, Constan'tioa 
died at York, in Britain, when his soldiers proclaimed his eon Con'- 
stanUne emperor. In a short time the empire was divid- yrrr oom'- 
ed between six sovereignfr; but Con'stantine lived to arAaiTuiK. 
see them destroyed in various ways ; and, eighteen years after his 
accession, having overcome in batUe Licin' ius, the last of his rivals, 
he was thus left sole master of the Roman world, whose dominions 
extended from the wall of Scotland to Kurdistan', and from the Bed 
Sea to Mount Atlas in Africa. Oal^rius had already died of a 
lo^hsome disease, which was considered by many as a punishment from 
Heaven for his persecution of the Christians. 

32. Con' stantine has been styled the first Christian emperor. 
Daring one of his campaigns (A. D. 312) he is said to have seen a 
miraculous vision of a luminous cross in the Heavens, on which was 
inscribed the following words in Greek, " By this conquerP Certain 
it is that from this period Con' stantine showed the Christians marks 
of positive favor, and caused the cross to be employed as the imperial 
standard : in his last battle with Licin' ius it was the emblem of the 
cross that was opposed to the symbols of paganism ; and as the latter 
went down in a night of blood, the triumph of Christianity over the 
Boman world was deemed complete. 


33. The most Importuit events in the feign of Oon' stantine, after 
he had restored the outward unity of the empire, were bis wars with 
the Sarmitians and Goths, whom he severely chastised ;^hi8 domestic 
difficulties, in which he showed little of the character of a Christian ; . 
and the establishment, at Byzan' tium, of the new capital of the Ro- 
man empire; afterwards called Constantinople, from its founder. 
The motives which led Con' stantine to the choice of a new capital, 
on a spot which seemed formed by nature to be the metropolis of a 
great empire, were those of policy and interest^ mingled with feel- 
ings of revenge for insults which he had received at Rome, where 
he was execrated for abandoning the religion of his forefathers. 

34. The removal of the seat of government waa follovred by an 
entire change in the forms of civil and military administration. The 
military despotism of the former emperors now gave place to the 
despotism of a court, surrounded by all the forms and ceremonies, 
the pride, pomp, and circumstances, of Eastern greatness : all mag- 
istrates were accurately divided into new classes, and a uniform sys- 
tem of taxation was established, although the amount of tribute was 
imposed by the absolute authority of the monarch. Finally Con^- 
Btantine, as he approached the end of his life, went back to the sys- 
tem of Diocletian, and divided the empire among his three sons 
Con' stantine, Constan' tins, and Con'stans, and his two nephews, 
Dalmatius and Hannibalianus. After a reign of thirty-one ye^rs 
Con' stantine the First died at Nioom6dia, at the age of sixty-three 
years. (A. D. 337.) 

35. The division of sovereign power among so many rulers in- 
volved the empire in frequent insurrections and civil wars, until, 

xxTiT. oo!<- sixteen years from the death of Con' stantine, Constan • 
btaw'tios u. tins, or Constan' tins II., after having seen all his ri«rf» 
overcome, and several usurpers vanquished, was left in the sole pos- 
session of the empire. During his reign of twenty-four years h« 
was engaged in frequent wars with the Franks, Saxons,* Aleman' ni, 
and Sarmitians, while the Persians continued to harass the Eastern 

1. The SAx«ns were a people of Germany, whose origliial seats appear to haTe been on Ih* 
neok of the Cimbric peninsula, (now Denmark,) between the Elbe and the Baltic, and embrs^ 
log the present Slevnrick and Uolsteln. (&Up No. XVH.) Jhe eailjr Saxons were a nation or 
flahemien and pirates ; and it appears that attor they had extended their depredaUons to the 
coasts of Britain and eastern and southern Gaul, numerous auxiliaries from the shores of ^ 
BalUc Joined them, and, gtadually coalescing with them into a aaUooal body, accepted the nsfl« 
and tbo laws of the Saxons. In the early part of the fifth oontary, the Saxons were convertea 
to Christianity by the Roman missionaries ; and half a century later they had obtained a p(*- 
t establishment in Britaio. 


proTineea While Oonstan' tins was Bustaming a doubtful war in 
the East, his eousiii Jtlilian, whom he had appointed to the command 
of the Western provinces, with the title of Gieear, was proclaimed 
emperor by his victorious legions in GauL Preparations for civil 
war were made on both sides ; but the Roman world was saved from 
the calamities of the struggle by the sudden death of Constau' tins. 
(A. D. 361.) 

36. J\ilian, commonly called the Apostate, on aeoount of his relaps- 
ing from Christianity into paganism, possessed many ami- ^^ 
able and shining qualities, and his application to business jv' uan tbb 
was intense. He reformed numerous abuses of his prede- ^'^^^'^^ 
oessor, but, in the great object of his ambitiop, the restoration of 
ancient paganism, Although he had issued an edict of universal toler- 
ation, he showed a marked hostility to the Christians, subjecting 
them to many disabilities and humiliations, and allowing their ene- 
mies to treat them with excessive rigor. 

37. Trained in the most celebrated schools of Greciai^ philosophy at 
Athfflis, Jt\lian was an able writer and an artful sophist, and, employ- 
ing the weapons of argument and ridicule against the Christians, ho 
strenuously labored to degrade Christianity, and bring contempt upon 
its followers. In this effort he was parj;ially suooeesfnl; but ere 
long the sophisms of the '* apostate emperor" were ably refuted by 
St Cyril and others, and the result of the controversy was highly 
favorable to the increase and spread of the new religion. 

39. Not relying upon the weapons of argument and ridicule alone, 
Jt^lian aimed what he thought would be a deadly blow to Christi- 
anity, by ordering the temple of Jerusalem to be rebuilt, hoping 
thus to ftlsify the language of prophecy and the truth of Revela- 
tion. But although the Jews were invited from all the provinces of 
the empire to assemble once more on the holy mountain of their 
fiitfaers, and every effort was made to secure the success of the under- 
taking, both by the emperor and the Jews themselves, the work did 
not prosper, and was finally abandoned in despair. 

39. Most writers, both ' Christians and pagans, declare that the 
work was frustrated in consequence of balls of fire that burst from 
the earth and alarmed the workmen who were employed in digging 
the foundations. Whether these phenomena, so gravely and abun- 
dantly attested, were supernatural or otherwise, does not affect the 
authenticity of the prophecy that pronounced desolation upon Jen;- 
salem. The most powerful monarch of the earth, stimulated by 


226 lommv msrcMiT. [Pmii 

prid«, pa»ion and interest, and aided hj a Maln^t people^ i 

ed to erect a building in one of his citieB, but fiMmd all liis efiirts 

ram, because '^ the finger of God was there."' ^ 

40. During the same year in which Jnlian altwpted the rs- 
bnildbg of the temple, he set oat with a large army for the con- 
quest of Persia^ The Persian monardi made oi^ eitttr e a of peaoi 
through his ambassadors ; bat Julian dismissed them with the decla- 
ration that he intended speedOj to yisit the court of Persia. He 
marched with great rapidity into the heart of the ooontry, overcom* 
ing all obstacles, bat being led astray in the desert by treaeheroos 
gaides, his army was redoced to great distress by want of provisiom^ 
and he was forced to oommenoe a retreat At length Jdlian fcitnaalf^ 
in a skirmish which proved &Torable to the KoriianSy was mortally 
woonded by a Persian jayelin. He died the same night, qpending 
his last moments, like Socrates, in philosophical disooorse with his 
friends. (A. D. 363.) 

41. In the death of JiUian, the race of the great Con' stantine was 
extinct ; and the empire was left without a master and without an 

zxT. heir. In this situation of affiura, Jovian, who had held 
icfyiMt. Bome important offices under Con' stantine, was pro* 
daimed emperor by the army, whidi was still surrounded by the 
Persian hosts. The first care of J6Tian was to. conclude a dishono^ 
able peace, by which five provinces beyond the Tigris, the whole of 
Mesopatamia, and several fortified cities in other districts, weve sur- 
rendered to the Persians. On his arrival at An' tioch, J6viaii re- 
voked the edicts of his predecessor against the Christians. Soon 
after, while on his way to Constantinople, he was found dead in his 
bed, having been accidentally sa£focatecl, as was supposed, by the 
fum^s of burning charcoal. (Feb. A. D. 364.) 

42. After an interval of ten days, Valentin' ian, the commander 

of the body guard at the time of J6vian'8 death, wss 
bmtik' iax elected emperor. One month later he sssooiated wit^ 
f^ himself, as a colleague in the empire, his brother Y ^ilen<i 
upon whom he conferred the government of the Eastern 

Va' LE>-8. 

ft. The pfobabie explanation of the remarkable IneideDU atteodins Ihe attempt of JuUaa ^ 
rebuild the temple, is, that the ntimeroui tubtemuiean excarationa, reMrvoIra, kc^ benealb 
and arouiid the ruins of the temple, which bad been negleeted during a period of ihne hnndred 
yean, had become flUed with Inflammable air, which, taking Are ftom the torches of Ihe woifc- 
men, repelled, by terrific expln«lon% those who attempted to explore the mine. fVom a aim'' 
lar cause terrible accidents sometimes occur In deeply-exeavated mtnas.— S«s JMVsm»'« ^f'^ 
M Oibhin ; OiMm, roL U. p. 4C7. 

0ta4r.I] BOMAN HISTORT. 227 

|»OTinces, from the lower Dannl^e to the oon&ies of Persia ; while 
^e reserved for nimself the exleusiye territory reaching from the 
extremity of GreeceL to the wall of Scotland, and from the latter to 
the foot of Mount Atlas. This was the final division of the Roman 
world into the Eastern and Western Empire. The capital of tlie 
former was established at Constantinople, and of the latter at Milan. 
The eity of Rome had long been fiilling into negfect and insignifi- 

43. Soon after the period at which we have now arrived, the 
inroads of the barbarian tribes upon the northern and xxvn, 
eastern frontiers of the empire became more vexatious barbarian 
and formidable than ever. The Picts and Scots* ravaged ^^^oads. 
Britain ; the Saxons began their pirtCbies in the Northern seas ; the 
German tribes of the Aleman' ni harassed Graul ; and the Goths 
crossed the Danube into Thrace; but during the twelve years of 
Yaientin' ian's reign, his firquiess and vigilance repulsed the barba- 
rians at every point, while his genius directed and sustained the 
feeble counsels of his brother Yilens. 

44. About the time of the death of Yalentm' ian, (A. D. 375) 
Yalens was informed that the power of the Goths, long the enemies 
of Rome, had been subverted by the Huns, a fierce and warlike race 
of savages, till then unknown, who coming from the East, and crossing 
the Bon and the sea of Azof, had driven before them the European 
nations that dwelt north of the Danube. The Yis' igoths first solicited 
from the Roman government protection against their ruthless in- 
vaders; and a vast multitude of these barbarians, whose numbers 
amounted to near a million of persons, of both sexes, and all ages, 
were permitted to settle on the waste lands of Thrace. 

45. In the meantime the Os' trogoths, pressed forward by the un- 
relenting Huns, appeared on the banks of the Danube, and solicited 
the same indulgence that had been shown to their countrymen ; and 
when their request was denied they crossed the stream with arms in 
their ^nds, and established a hostile camp on the territories of the 
empire. The two divisions of the Gothic nation now united their 
foroes under their alke general Frit' igem, and raising the standard 

1. Tht Piett were a 0B]ed6iiIaii raoe, ftaaed. for their marauding expeditions into the eoontry 
•onlh of tbem. Tlie Seats wece also a Caledonian race, who are believed to have oome, origin* 
aOy, ftom Spain into Inland, whence they paoed over into SeoUand. The genuine descend; 
oiior the ancient Scotch aito beUeved to be the Gals, or Hlghlanden, who speak the Eno 
«r O^eUo langiiAge, which diifen biU Utile from the Irish. 


of war derutated Thrace, Mac' ed<m, «od Thes' walj, and eairied 
their ravages to the very gates of Gonatantinople. In a decisive battle 
fought near Adnan6ple* the Romans were defeated, and Yileos him* 
■elf was slain. (A. D. 378.) 

46. Oritian, the son of Valentin' iaa, and hia suooeasor in the 

Western empire, was already on his march to the aid of 

eaA'nAV V41ens, when he heard the tidings of the d^eat and 

AifD death of his unfortunate colleague. Too weak to avenge 

nooDo aiTO. j^.g ^^^ ^^^ conscious of his inability to sustain alone 

the sinking weight of the empire, he dtose as his associate Thted6- 

■ius, afterwards called the Great, assigned to him the government of 

the East, and then Tetnmed to his own provinces. Theod6sius, by 

his prudence, rather than his valor, delivered his provinces from the 

%oourge of barbarian warfare. *" The Ooths, after the death of their 

great leader Frit' igem, were^distracted by a multiplicity of counsels « 

and while some of them, falling back into their forests, carried their 

eonquests to the unknown regions of the North, others were allowed 

to settle in Thrace, Phrygia, and Lydia, where, in the bosom of des* 

potism, they cherished their native freedom, manners, and language, and 

lent to the Roman arms assistance at once precarions and dangerous. 

47. Five years after the accession of Theodosius, Gritian perished 
zxxz. vAtr ii^ An attempt to quell a revolt of Max' imus, governor 

■MTiif' IAN n. of Britain, who had been joined by the legions of Ganl. 
Valentin' ian II., who succeeded Gritian, was driven from Italy by 
tiie usurper, and forced to take refuge in the court of Theod6eiiis; 
but the latter, marching into Italy, defeated and slew Max' imus, and 
restored the royal exile to his throne. (A. B. 388.) The murder 
of Valentin' ian by the Gaul Abrogas' tes, and the revolt which 1m 
excited, (A. D. 392,) again called for the interferenoe of Theod6sins 
in the affairs of the West His arms soon triumphed over all oppo- 
fttion ; and the whole empire again came, for the last time, into the 

, hands of one individual (A. D. 394.) Theod6sius died 

aim AND four months after his victory, having previously bestowea 
aboa' DIC8. ^pQQ ijjg youngest son, Hon6rius, the throne of Milan, and. 
upon the eldest, Arcidius, that of Constantinople. 

1. ^driafOpUj one of Uie mott important dtiet of Tbraoe, itood on the toft bank aCfbBti^ 
HelmM, now the JfortlM, In one of the rteheet and Snest plaint of the world, one hendrad iBd 
fUnj4wit mtlet north-weat from Conitantinopta. li waa fomMled by and named afler the en* 
peror Adrian, although in early timet a amaU Ibndan Tillage eaialed thera» called Utka^^^ 
It la now the leoond otty in ttae Tariiiah emplra^ containing a population of nol le« than oat 
bnndrtd Uiouaaod ioiila. (Map JHo, VU.) 

CtaAtkl] BOMAN HIBTOItY. 229 

48. Tbe oi^il ware Aat followed the aceemion of the new empe- 
ror were booo mtemipted by the more important events of new bar- 
b«rian myasiona. Soaroely had Theodosins expired, when the Gothic 
Bation, guided by the bold and artful genius of Al'ario, ^^^ j^^,^ 
who had learned his lessons of war in the school of uo tbs 
Frit' igem, was again in arms. After nearly all Greece *^"' 
had been ravaged by the invader, StiVioho, the able general of 
HoD6riaB, came to its assistance ; but Al' aric evaded him by passing 
into EpiruB, and socm after, crossing the Julian Alps,' advanced 
toward Milan. (A. t). 403.) 

49. Hon6riuB Ited from his capital, but was overtaken by the 
•peed of the Gt>thic cavalry, and obliged to shut himself up in the 
little fortified town of As' ta,' where he was soon surrounded and 
besieged by the enemy. Stil' icho hastened to the relief of his sov- 
ereign, and suddenly fitHing upon the Goths in their camp at Pollen'- 
tia,* routed them with great slaughter, released many thousand prison^ 
era, retook the magnificent spoils of Corinth, Athens, Argos, and 
Sparta; and made captive the wife of Al'aric. The Gothic chief, 
undaunted by this sudden reverse, hastily collected his shattered 
army, and breaking through the unguarded passes of the Apennines, 
spread desolation nearly to the walls of Rome. The city was saved 
by the diligence of Stil' icho ; but the withdrawal of the barbarians 
from Italy was purchased by a large ransom. 

50. The reoent danger to which Hon6riu8 had been exposed at 
Milan, induced the unwarlike emperor to seek a more secure retreat 
in the fortress of Raven' na,* which, from this time to the middle of 

1. AogiMiiB dlTlded the Alpine chain, which extends fh>m the GuIfofQenoft to the Adriat'- 
le, ts a creacent form. Into seren portions ; of which the Julian range, terminating in Illyr"- 
ieom. Is the moet eaateni. 

9L ^t'ta (now Atti) was on the north ride of the river Taniraa, (now TVmAro) in Lig<iriai 
twenty-eight mllee aonth-east from Turin. ' 

3. ** Tbe Toettges of PMen' tia are twenty4lTe miles to the sooth-oast of Turin.** (Oibbtn, It 
S91.) <*The inodem Tillage of PMtniA stands near the site of the ancient city.**— OaiMr*s 
/coif, L 88. 

4. Ra.v€%*nik was sttoated on the coast of the Adriat' ic, a short distance below the mouths 
of flie Po. A *.thongh originally founded on the sea-diore, in the midst of marshes, In the dayt 
of Strsbo th« marshes had greatly increased,' seaward, owing to tbe accumulation of mud 
hvongfat dowi by ttie Po and other rivers. In the latter limes of the republic it was the great 
MTal station of the Romans on the Adriat' ie. Augustus constructed a new hari)or three miles 
Ihym the old town, but In ooTery long time this was filled up also, and, ** ss eariy as the fifth or 
rixth eeotnry of the Christian era, the port of Augustus was eonverted into pleasant gardens; 
and a lonely grove of pines coversd the ground where the Roman fleet once rode at anchor.* 
iOiHvfk, U. »4.) But this very eircumstanee, though H lessened the naval importance, in- 
ereised the strength of the place, and the shallowness of the water was a barrier against large 
ships of the «oems . The only meana ef aooe« Inland was by a long' and hutdw oauseway 

ssa MODXBN manroRx: [Paitil 

the eighth oentarj; waa oonsidered as the seat of gOTemmaDt and the 
capital of Italy. The fears of Hon^rins were not without Comida> 
tion ; for scarcely had Al' aric departed; whea another deluge of bar- 
i>arian% consisting of Vandals,' Suevi,' Borgnn' dians/ Gbths, and 
Alani, and numbering not less than two hundred thousand fighting 
men, under the command of Radagiisus, poured down upon Italy. 

51. The Roman troops were now called in from the proyinces for 
the defence of Italy, whose safety was again intrusted to the counsels 
and the sword of Stil' icho. The barbarians passed, without resist- 
ance, the Alps, the Po, and the Apennines, and were allowed by the 
wary Stil' icho to lay siege to Florence,* when, securing all the passes, 
he in turn blockaded the besiegers, who, gradually wasted by famine, 
were finally compelled to surrender at' discretion. (A. D. 406.) The 
triumph of the Roman arms was disgraced by the execution of 
Ritiagaisus ; and one-third of the vast host that'had aooompanied 
him into Italy were sold as slavea 

Mranl mlln In extant, over an otharwiae impaaiable moraai ; and thla nTwraa might ba tuSit 
guarded or destroyed on the approach of a hostile army. Being otherwiae fortified, it waa a 
plaoa of great atrength and safety ; and daring the last yean of the Weatem empire was the 
c^iltal of Italy, and snooeaalTely the resklenoe o( Uondrtua, Valentin' Ian, Odo4oer, Iheod' ork, 
and the aucoeedlng Gothic monarcha. It is now a place of about sixteen thonaand inhabitant^ 
and ia chiefly deserving of notice (br its numerona architectural ranains. (Mmp No. Vin.) 

L r«n'4«te,aeep.S10. 

SL The Suivi were a people of eastern Germany who Anally settled In and gare their name 
to the modem Su^ia. 

3. Ibe Bmynn'^MNu— dwellers in hirfB or towna— a name giTcn lo them by the mors 
notnade tribes of Germany, were a numerous and warlike people of the Gothic or Vas' dal 
race, who can be traced back to the banks of (he Elbe. DriTen southward by the Gep'i<to> 
ihey preaaed upon the Aleman' ni, with whom they were in almoat continual war. Hmt ^^^ 
granted by HonOrius, the Eoman emperor, the territory extending from the I^ke of Geneva to 
the Junction of the Rhine with the MoeeUe, as a reward for having aent him the head of the 
nauiper Jovlnus. A part of Switzerland and a large portion of eastern France l>ek>nged to 
their new kingdom, which, as early aa the year 470, was known by the name of Buiguody- 
Their seat of government was sometimes at Lyons, and sometimes at Geneva. OonliDUsIly 
endeavoring to extend their limits, they were at last completely subdued, in a war wiUi the 
Franks, by the son of Qovia, after aovia himaelf had taken Lyona. Their name was ibr a 
long time retained by the powerAil dukedom, aOcrwarda province of Buigundy, now dirided 
Into several departmentt, 

4. rurmctf (anciently FhrnUia;) la a cUy of central Italy on the river Amo, (andenOy Ammi) 
ood hundred and eighty-seven miles norih-weat (torn Rome. It owes its first distinction to 9yll>» 
who planted In It a Roman colony. In the reign of Tiberius it waa one of the principal dtfes of 
Italy. In 541 it was almoat wholly deatroyed by Totiia, king of Uie Gotha, but was restored bf 
Charlemagne, aAer which it was, for a long time, the chief city of one of the moat fiunous of tiia 
Italian republics. It Is now Uie capital of the grand-docby of TWcaaf , which comprises ih* 
northern part of ancient Etrdria. With a population of one hundred thousand. It bears the 
aspect of a city filled wiUi noblea and their domesUce— a city of bridges, churches, and palace^ 
It haa produced more celebrated men tiuin any other city of Italy, or perhaps of ^^"^^ 
among whom may be specified Dan' te, Petrarch, Bocc&cio, Lorenzo de Medid, ^'^^^ 
Mlchml An' gelo^ MacchiavoUi,— the Popes Leo X an4 2LU and Clement VII, VUI^ tad Xll. 

Obat.!] ROHAN HISTOBT. .231 

52. Two years after the great victory of StU'icho, that minister, 
wheee genius might have delayed the fall of the empire, was treach- 
erously murdered by the orders of the jealous and unworthy Hon6- 
riu& The monarch had soon reason to repent of his guilty rashness. 
Adopting the counsels of his new ministers, he ordered a massacre of 
tiie families of the barbarians throughout Italy. Thirty thousand 
Gothic soldiers in the Roman pay immediately revolted, and invited 
Al'aric to avenge the slaughter of his countrymen. 

53. Again Al'arie entered Italy, and without attempting the 
liopeless siege of Eaven' na marched direct to Bome, which, during 
a period of more than six hundred years, had not been violated by 
the presence of a foreign enemy. After the si^ had been protracted 
until the rigors of fuuine had been experienced in all their hc^rror, 
and thousands were djring daily in their houses or in the streets for want 
of sustenance, the Romans sought to purchase the withdrawal of their 
invaders. The terms of Al' aric were, at first, aU the gold and silver in 
ih» city, all the rich and precious movables, and all this slaves of bar- 
barian origin. When the ministers of the senate asked, in a modest 
md suppliant tone, " If such, King, are your demands, what do you 
intend to leave us ?" " Tovn lives," replied the haughty conqueror. 

54. The stem demands of Al' aric were, however, somewhat re- 
lazed, and Rome was allowed to purchase a temporary safety by pay^w 
ing an enormous ransom of gold and silver and merchandize. 
Al' aric retired to winter quarters in Tuscany,' but as Hon6riu8 and 
Mb ministers, enjoying the security of the marshes and fortifications 
of Raven' na, refused to ratify the treaty that had been concluded 
by the Romans, the Goth turned again upon Rome, and, cutting off 
the supplies, compelled the city to surrender. (A D. 409.) He 
then conferred the sovereignty of the empire upon At' talus, prefect 
of the city, but soon deposed him and attempted to renew his nego- 
tiations with Hon6rius. The latter refiised to treat, when the king 
of the Goths, no longer dissembling his appetite for plunder and re- 
venge, appeared a third time before the walls of Rome ; treason 
opened the gates to him, and the city of Romulus was abandoned, 
to the licentious fury of the tribes of Germany and Scythia* 

1. Tiucanf^ tfttr the Call of the Western empire, soccenfvely belonged \o Che Ootha lad 
liOmbarda. Chailcmagne added it to his dominiona, bat ander his sneoesaors it became in- 
dependent. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries It was dirlded among (he famoos repab- 
fica of Florence, Piao, and Sienna: in 1531 theao were reunited into a dochy which, in 1737, 
Ml bxto the honda of the houae of Aostrla. In 1801 Napoloon erected It Into the kingdom of 
nrtete:lttltOSHiraalnooipotBt«lwUhtlie Franchenpiret aiidtAlS14itreTer.edlo Aoatria. 

55. The piety of tlie Goths spared tlM dmebes and religknu 
hovses, for Al' ario himself, sod numy of his so uairym eii, p t ofes i od 
the name of Christtsns ; hut Rome was pillaged of her wealth, and 
a terrihle slaughter was made of her citiaen& * Still Al' aric was im^ 
willing thai Rome should be totally mined ; and at the end of six 
days he abandoned the city, and took the road to noathen Italy. As 
he was preparing to invade Sieily, with the niterior design of sobjii> 
gatmg Africa, his oonqnests were terminated by a premmtnre death. 
(A. D. 410.) EQs body was interred in the bed of a small riynlet* 
and the captives who prepared his grave were murdered, that the 
Romans might never learn the plaoe of his sepnltnre. 

56. After the death of Al'aric, the Goths gradually withdrew 
from Italy, and, a few years later, that branch of the nation called 
Vis' igoths established its supremacy in Spain and the east of GaoL 
Toward the middle of the same oentory, the Britons, finally aban- 
doned by the Romans, and unable to resist the barbarous inroads of 
the Picts and €cots, applied for assistanoe to the Angles' and Sazflos, 
warlike tribes from the coasts^of the Baltic. The latter, after drir 
ing back the Picts and Soots, turned their arms against the Britoos, 
and after a long struggle finally established themselves in the island. 

57. During these events b the north and west, the Van' dais, a 
Gothic tribe whidi had aided in the reduction of Spain, and whose nam^ 
with a slight change, has been given to the fertile province of Andalusia, 
passed the straits of Gibraltar under the guidance of their chief G^ * 

yy^„ serio, and, in the course of ten years, completed, in tM 

vAuonn'' Cloture of Carthage, the conquest of the Roman pro^' 

*^ ""• inces of northern Africa. (A. D. 439.) Hondrius wai 

already dead, and had been succeeded by Valentin' ian III., a yoatn 

j^j^^jjj only six years of age. In the meantime At' tila, ivsuj 

ocmQuasm called the '< soourge of Qod ^' for the ohastisem^t of 

or AT'ni.A. ^^ |j^^ y,^ i„^ become the leadw of the BvaaaA' 

hordes. He rapidly extended his dominion over all the tribes of 

Germany and Scythia, made war upon Persia, defeated Theodseicfl) 

1. Jingitt, From tbem the English hare derirod thatr name. own^ 

& Andaiiuia^ bo called from the Fm' dmlty oomprieed the fovr BloorMi kJagdooiB ^^'^j**^ 
CordoYm, JteD, and GranAda. It ta the moat loatheRi diTlaloii of Spain. Tn^ •^ ^ 
Beaeeaa were nativea of this provioGe. (Jf<y Mo. XIII.) « ^^^^ 

3. Ibe ifaiu, when flnt known, in the cenlory before the Christian era, dwelt on the '^'^^'^ 
boiden of the OMplan sea. The power of the Huns fell with At' tfla, and the nation wss 0M« 
sAer dlspened. The present H%ngarUn» are descended from the Hans, IntenBisfll^ 
TmrtEish, SteTonie, and Gennan races. 

a. The B«««»ctfnw, a small stream thai waabes tha waJla of OBOSOilia, MW Q ss a t 


the emperor of &e East, in three l)loody battles, and after rayaging 
Thraoe, Maoeddoia, and Greece, purnied hie deeolating march west- 
ward into Gaol, hat was defeated by the Eomans and their Gothic 
aUies in the bloody batUe of Chalons.' (A. D. 451.) The next 
year the Hnns ponred like a torrent upon Italy, and spread thcii* 
imTages over all Lomhardy. This visitation was the origin of the 
Venetian republic," which was founded by the fogitives who fled at 
the terror of the name of At' tila. 

58. The death of the Hunnio chief soon after this inroad, the ciTil 
wars among his followers, and the final extinction of the empire of 
the Hnns, might have afibrded the Romans an opportunity of esoap- 
mg frcm the ruin which impended oyer them, if they had not been 
lost to all feelings of national honor. But they had admitted iiumer- 
ons bands of barbarians in their midst as confederates and allies; 
and these, courted by one faction, and opposed by another, became, 
ere long, the actual rulers of iAie country. The provinces were pil- 
laged, the throne was shaken, and often overturned by seditions ; and 
two years after the death of At' tila, Rome itself was nxiv. thb 
taken and pillaged by a horde of Van' dais from Africa, ▼an' pals. 
eonducted by the fiunous Gen' serio, who had been invited across the 
Mediterranean to avenge the insults which a Roman princess^ had 
received from her own husband. (A. D. 455.) 

1. aUcnt (flbafa-Ioiig) is ■ dtj of France, on the river Mame, a branch of the Seine, nlnety- 
iv« mOee eiit ftom FBria, and twenly-MTen mile* aoulh-eaflt ftom Rheims. It ia altoated In 
tbe mkkUe of eztenaiTe meadows, which were formerly known as the Oatalaaniaa flekls, 
(OtMra, iii. 340.) In the battle of Cb&lons the nations from the Oaapian sea to the Atlantic 
ftv^ht toflrBdier ; and the nomber of the barbarians slain lias been Tario&ly estimated at from 
cme handled and sixty-two thousand to three bimdred thousand. {M^p No. XIIL) 

5L Tbe origin of Feniee dates flrom Oie inrasion of Italy by the Hans, A. D. 453. The city is 
bant on a doater of numeroos small Islands in a shallow bat extenslYe higoon, In the north- 
vealem part of the Adriat' lo, north of the Po and the Adiga, abont four miles fh>m the nttla 
land. It is dirided into two principal portions by a wide canal, crossed by the principal bridge 
In tbe city, the celebrated Rialto. Venice is traversed by narrow lanes instead of streets, sel- 
dom more than five or six lieet in width 1 but the grand thorougUkrea are ih» canals; and 
gondolaa, or canal boats, are the onivenal sabstitute for carriages. 

VenSee gmdoally became a wealthy and poweriVd Independent oommerolal dty, maintaining 
tta fteadom agsinst Cbariemagne and bis suoeessors, and yielding a merely nominal allegiaae» 
to tbe Greek emperors of Constantinople. Towards the middle of the fifteenth century tbe n^ 
pabljc was mistress of several populous proTinees In Lorn' bardy,-H>f Crete and (^ma— of ^ 
Ibegrsaler part of southern Greece, and most of the isles of the .£gean sea; and it contiooed ' 
to ei^roas the prindpal trade in £astera pioduota, tUI the discovery of a route to India by Um 
Ckpe of Good-Hope turned this trafflc into a new channeL From this period Venice npmr 
declined. Stripped of independence and wealth, she now -jgr only a preearioas eiiste n es^ 
a«l Is slowly sinking into tbe wares lh>m which she aroae. (Map No. Vm.) 

a. Badosfla, llie widow of Valendn' tan UI., had tieen'^eompelled to marry Bfax' tmna, Um 
vmderavand successor In the empire^ of her Into liuabund, and U was she who invUed ttaa 
Van' dal oUef to avenge h«r wroi«i. 


59. Afler tha wididnnral of tlM Ymii'dals, wkidi ooooned the 
jmr of Uie dMlh of Yalootiii' kn IIL, At' Hqs, a Gwai, wu insUUed 

2^^^^ Emperor by the infliMDoe of the gentle andhamane 

Aw'ncB. Theod'onc, king of the Vis' igothfl ; bot he was aoon de- 

KAjo UAX. p^jg^ 1^^ j^l^r ^^^^ ^^ Gothio commander of the barba* 

, rian allies of the Romans. (A. D. 456.) The wise and benefioeot 

Hajorian was then adranoed to the throne by Bic' imer ; bat his 

Tirtoes were not appreciated by his subjects ; and a sedition of the 

troops compelled him to lay down the soeptre alter a reign of four 

yeara (A. D. 461.) 

60. Ric' imer then advanced one of his own creatores, Serums, to 
TXTfL ^^ nominal sovereignty; bnt he retained all the powm 

n^rAu"- of state in his own hands. Annnally the Yan' dais from 
Africa, having now the control of the Mediterranean, sent out from 
Carthage, their seat of empire, piratical vessels or fleets, which 
Spread desolation and terror over the Italian coasts, and entered at 
will nearly every port in the Roman dominions. At length applica- 
tion for assistance was made to Leo, then sovereign of the Eastern 
empire, and a large armament was sent from Constantinople to Car 
thage. But the aged Gen'seric eluded the immediate danger by a 
truce with his enemies, and, in the obscurity of night, destroyed by 
y fire almost the entire fleet of the unsuspecting Romans. 

61. Amid the frequent revolutionary changes that were occurring 
I in the sovereignty of the Western empire,* Roman freedom and dig- 
nity were lost in the influence of the confederate barbarians, who 
formed both the defence and the terror of Italy. As the power of the 

I Romans themselves declined, their barbarian allies augmented their 

I demands and increased their insolence, until they finally insisted 

I with arms in their hands, that a third part of the lands of I^J 

I should be divided among them. Under their leader Odoicer, a chief 

of the barbarian tribe of the Her' uli,' they overcame the little re- 

1. or all ttia btrbftriMM who thraw ttiemadTM on the rains of the Romin empire, It if f^ 
I . 41flloaIt to traee the origin of the Her' a/t. Their names, the only remains of their langa«8^ 

an Gothic ; and it Is believed thai they came originally from Scandinivla. They were a flerca 
I peoplOi who disdained the use of armor : their braTery was like madneas : in war they showed 

no pity for age, nor respect for sex or condition. Among themselres there was the same 
tirodty : the side and the aged were pot to death at their own request, daring a solemn festi- 
val ; and the widow hung henelf upon the tree which shadowed her hosband's tomb. ^^ 
Her* ull, though bnve and fom|^labie, were few in number, cfadming to be mostly of royal 
blood ; and they soem not so mScb a nation, as a confederacy of princes and nobles, boand hf 
an oath to Uve and die togeUier with their arms in their haada. (0«MoN,iil.8;aiidNote^4BM-) 

a. Hie remaining soTcreigna of the Western empire, down to the thne of Us snbrenlOB 
wtn AathemLu% Olyb' fins, Glyceras, Ndpos^ and Aimu** tad»« 



Btstance that was offered them ; and the conqueror, abolishing the im- 
perial titles of Ctesar and Augustus, proclaimed him« 
ie!f king of Italy. (A. D. 476.) The Western em- ykbsxon o» • 
pire of the Romans was subverted : Koman glory had ™' wnr- 
passed away : Roman liberty existed only in the remem- 
hranoe of the past : the rude warriors of Germany and Scythia pos- 
sessed the city of Romulus ; and a barbarian occupied the palace of 
Ae Csesars. 







I A. D. 476, TO THB DuoovntT or amkuca, A. D. 1492 = 1016 tkai& 



ANALYSIS, h lirrmoDvcTOBTT The period embraced In the Middle Ages.-8. Unfai- 
■tnicUve character of lu eeriy hialory. At what period lis uflerol hlstoiy begine.-^ Extenl 
of the bartMiriau irnipthMM. The Eeatem Roman empire. Remainder of the Roman worid.— 
4. The poeeeesioat of the oonqneron toward the doae of the itxth eentniy. Tlie chanfM 

I -wrought by them. Plan of the preeeat chapter. 

i 5. Tna Monarcbt or tbk Hta' cli. Its orerthrow.— «. Monabcst op th« Of 'TaotfOTSt. 

Theod' oric Treatment of hte Roman and barbarian sabjecta.— 7. General prosperity of ^^ ^^^ 
Bxtent of hla empire. The Os' trogoth and VU' Igoth nationa again dtfided.— 8. The saeeenort 
of Theod' oric The emperor of the Eaat. -0. Thb »▲ or JuanR' ian. Stale of the kii«don< 
Persian war.— 10. Justin' ian^ armiea. Absence of military spirit among the people— H- AP 
rtcaa war. First expediUon of Beliairiua, and oyertbrow of the kingdom t>r the Van'dslSi 
FMe of Gel' imer. His Van' dal sabjecta.— 13. Sicily subdued. BellsArius advances Into Italy. 
Besieged In Rome.— 13. The Gothic kii« Vit'iges surrenders. Float redaction of Italy bT 
Kar' ses.— 14. Second war with Pwsla. Barbarian Inyasion repeUed by BelisArios. Mourdtil 
Ihte of BellsArios. Death and character of Justin' ian.— IS. His reign, why memorable. Iti 
brightest ornament. Remark of Gibbon. History of the » Pandects and Code."— 16- Subse- 
quent history of the Eastern empire. Invasion of Italy by the Lombards.— 17. Tas Lo»baV> 
MORAncHT. Its extent and charseter.— 18. Period of general repose throughout Wea«n 
Europe. Events In the EasL— 19. The darkness that rests upon European hLatory at Ihi* 
period. Remark of SIsmondi. The dawning light ftom Arabia. 

90. Tbb Saeacbn Empirb. History of the Arabiansr- 91. Ancient religion of the Arabs. Be- 
llgious toleration In Arabia. [Judaism. The Magian Idolatry.]— 33. Mahomet begins to preach a 
new religion.— 93. The decUued medium of divine communication with him. Declared origta ^ 
the Koran.— 34. The materials of the Koran. Chief points of Moslem Ikith. Punishment of tM 
wicked. The Moslem paradise. Eflbcto of the predestinarian doctrine of MahomeU Practical pari 
•r the new religion. Miradce attributed to Blahomet. [Mecca.]— 85. Beginning of Mabome» 
piwching. TheHeginu— 96. Mahomet at Medina. [Medina.] ProgresBofthe new religion tbroagb 
out all Arabia. [Mussulman.]— 97. The apostasy that followed Mahomet's death. RestoraUoo of 
religious unity.— 9a Saracen conquoats in Persia and Syria. [Saracens. Bozrah.]— 3^- ^^ 
quest of all Syria. [Ernes' sa. Baalbec Yermouk. Aleppo.]— 30. Conquest of P&t^ ^ 
expiration of the dynasty of the Sassan' Idn. [Cadisiah. Review of Persian History. j-^'* 
Conquest of Egypt. DestrocUon of the Alexandrian library.— 39. Death of Omar. Oslipb'*' 
of Othman.— 33. Military events of the reign of Othman. [Rhodes. Tripoli.] Othman'k suo* 
ceeaora. Conquest of Carthage, and all northern AfHca.-34. Introduction of the Saraceof ifl<^ 
«paln^-35. Deisat of Roderie, and final conquest of Spain. [GuadalAte. Guadalqulver. ll«ri- 
da.]— 30. Saracen eneroachmenta In Ganl. Inroad of AbdetFahnum. [Tbid Fjnat&k]r^' ^^^^ 

Our.nj lilDDLlS AOSB. 88T 

ttaworthsflvMsenlMrtibyGbttleslIaitd. bBportaneeorflHsTfotorj. [fom. PoMta^ 
— «3. IbeEMteni SaiaeenB at this period. [Hfndoetao.] Termioatlon of tiie civil power of 
flie eentnl cailptuite.— 39. The power that next promlnenUy occupies the fleid of history. 

40. HmuLKcsT ow nu Frakks: Its orlgtn. CToumay. Osmbray. Teroiune. ODlogne.] 
Gtork. Bxtflofc of his monarchy. [Soiasons. Paris.]— 41. Religious character of Qorls. Hl« 
terbarlties.— 4S. The desoeniants of CIotIs. Royal murders. Regents. Charles MarteL 
PtaplB, me llrat monarch of the OsrloWnglaa dynssty. [Papal anlhorlty.]— 43. The reigii, and 
fbe charaetei^ of Pepin. His divtilon of the kiiigdom.-~44. Firsi aeU of the velgn of caiarl»> 
Biagne. [The Loire.] The Saxons. Motives that led Charremagne to declare war against them. 
(Tbe EIhe.}-45. His first lirnpUon into their territory. [Weaer.] History of Wttikind. Baxon 
tebdHon. Changes produced by these Saxon wan.— 4& Oauses of the war with the Lombarda. 
Orerthrow of the Lombard kingdom. [Geneva. Pavia.]— 47. Charlemagne's expediUon into 
8pa±D.^ [Ostaldnia. ' Pampeluna. Saragos' sa. Roncesralles.] — 48. Additional conquests. 
CfaailenegBecrownedemperoratRoiM.—4d. importance of 0iis event. Qenerai charaeier of 
fbe reign of Chariemagne^ [Aix-Ia-Chapelle.] His pffvate lilb. His cruelties. Concluding 
caOmate.— 50. Causes that led to (he division of the empire of Charlemagne.— 51. Invasion of 
the MocthmeAr--98. Ravages of the Hongarians. The aenoens on the Mediterrftaean ooaati. 
Cfaaagea, and increadng oonlbsion, in European aociety. The island of Britain. 

S3. EaeusH Histost. Saxon conquests. Saxon Heptarchy.— 54. Introduction and spread 
«r ChrMianity.-40. Union of the Saxon kingdoms. Reign of Egbert, and ravages of the 
Korlhaaen^— Ml The sneeeaioca of Egbert. Aooeaaion of Alfted. State of the khigdom^-jnr. 
Alfred withdrawa from public life— lives as a peasant— visits the Danish camp.— 58. Defeata 
ihe Denea, and overthrows the Danish power. Defence of [he Idngdom.— 59. Limited sov*- 
«nignty of Alfred. Daniih Invasion under Hastli«a. The Danes wHhdraw. Alfred's power 
«t the time of his death.— «a Institutions, character, and laws, of Alfred. 

1. The "Middle Ages," to which it is impossible to fix aocnrate 
limits, maj be considered as embracing that datk and j^ intbo- 
gloomy period of about a thousand years, extending from wotoby. 
the fidl of the Western empire of the Romans nearly to the close 
of the fifteenth century, at which point we detect the dawn of mod- 
em eiYiltzation, and enter upon the dearly-marked outlines of modem 

2. The history of Europe during seyeral centuries after the orer- 
tiirow of the Western Roman empire offers little real instruction to 
repay the hibor of wading through the intricate and bloody annals 
of a barbarous age. The fall of the Roman empire had carried 
away with it ancient civilization ; and during many generations, the 
elements of society which had been dismptured by the surges of 
barbarian power, continued to be widely agitated, like the waves of 
the ocean, long aft«r the fufj of the storm has passed. 'It is only 
when the victors and the vanquished, inhabitants of the s!|me country, 
had become fused into one people, and a new order of things, new 
bonds of society, and new institutions began to be developed, that 
the useful history of the Middle Ages begins. 

8. We must bear in mind that it was not Italy alone that was 

a. ** The ten eontnriea, from the fUlh to the flfieenth, seam, in a general point efTiev, to ooD> 
the paiforl «r «M Middle il«M^"-iiraflsin. 


affscted bj tlie tide of barbftiiaa oonqnert ; but that the Btoim sproid 
likewise oyer Oaul, Spain, Britain, and Northern Africa ; while the 
feeble empire which had Constantinople for its centre, alone escaped 
the general min. Here the majesty of Rome was still faintly rep- 
resented by the imaginary saooessors of Augustus, who continued 
until the time of the g-usades to exercise a partial sorereignty 
oyer the East, from the Danube to the Nile and the Tigris. Th^ 
remamder of the Roman world exhibited one scene of general ruin ; 
for wherever the barbarians marched in successive hordes, their 
route was marked with blood : cities and villages were repeatedly 
plundered, and often destroyed ; fertile and populous provinces were 
converted into deserts ; and pestilence and famine, following in the 
train of war, completed the desolation. 

4. When at length, toward the close of the sixth century, the 
frenzy of conquest was over, and a partial calm was restored, the 
Saxons, from the shores of the Baltic, were found to b^ in possession 
of the southern and more fertile provinces of Britain : the Franks 
or Freemen, a confederation of Germanic tribes, were masters of 
Oaul : the Huns, from the borders of the Caspian Sea, occupied 
Pann6nia ; the Goths and the Lombards, the former originally from 
northern Asia, and the latter of Scandinavian origin, had established 
themselves in Italy and the adjacent provinces; and the Gothic 
tribes, after driving the Van' dais from Spain, had succeeded to the 
sovereignty of the peninsula. A total change had come over the 
state of Europe : scarcely any vestiges of Roman civilization re* 
mained ; but new nations, new manners, new languages, and new 
names of countries were everywhere introduced ; and n^w forms of 
government, new institutions, and new laws began to spring up out 
of the chaos occasioned by the general wreck of the nations of the 
Roman world. In the present chapter we shall pass rapidly over 
the history of the Middle Ages ; aiming only to present the reader 
such a general outline, or framework, of its annals, as will aid in the 
search we shall subsequently make for the seeds of order, snd the 
first rudiments of policy, laws, and civilization, of Modem Europe. 

5. After "Odoicer, the chief of the tribe of the Her'uli, had con- 
quered Italy, he divided one third of the ample estates of the nobles 

u. TOT MOW- *°^^g ^^^ followers; but although he retained the gov- 
AftcHT OP emment in his own hands, he allowed the ancient forms 
THE HEa'uLL ^£ administration to remain ; the senate continued to Bit, . 
as usual ; and after seven years the consulship was restored ; whilo 

Obap.II] MIBBLE ages. 239 

Bone of the mnni^pal or provincial authorities were changed. 
Odoaoer made some attempts to restore agriculture in the provinces ; 
but still Italy presented a sad prospect of misery and desolation. 
After a duration of fourteen years, the feeble monardiy of the 
Her' nil was oyerihrown by the Os' trogoth king, Theod' oric, who, 
disr^arding his plighted faith, caused his royal oaptive, Odo^cer, to 
be assassinated at the close of a conciliatory banquet. (A. D. 493.) 

6. Theod' oric, the first of the Os' trogoth kings of Italy, had 
been brought up as a hostage at the court of Constantinople. At 
times the friend, the ally, and the enemy of the imbecile 
monarehs of the Eastern empire, he restored peace to aeohy or 
Italy, and a degree of prosperity unusual under the ™* oe'Tao- 
sway of the barbarian conquerors. Like Odoaeer, he in- ^*'™*- 
dulged his Roman subjects in the retention of their ancient laws, 
language, and magistrates; and employed them chiefly in the ad- 
ministration of goyemment ; while to his rude Qothic followers he 
confided the defence of the State ; and by giving them lands which 
they were to hold on the tenure of military service, he eudeavored 
to unite in them the domestic habits of the cultivator, with the ex- 
ercises and discipline of the soldier. 

7. Theod' oric encouraged improvements in agriculture, revived 
tlie spirit of commerce and manufactures, and greatly increased the 
population of his kingdom, which, at the close of his reign, embraced 
nearly a million of the barbarians, many of whom, however, were 
soldiers of fortune and adventurers who had flocked from all the sur* 
rounding barbarous nations to share the riches and glory which 
Theod' oric had won. Theod' oric reigned thirty-three years ; and 
at the time of his death his kingdom occupied not o&ly Sicily and 
Italy, but also Lower Ckul, and the old Roman provinces between ^ 
the head of the Adriat' io and the Danube. If he had had a son to 
whom he might have transmitted his dominions, his Gothic succes- 
sors would probably have had the honor of restoring the empire of 
the West ; but on his death, (A. D. 526) the two nations of the Os'- 
trogotlft and the Vis' igoths were again divided ; and the reign of 
the Great Theod' oric passed like a brilliant meteor, leaving no per- 
manent impression of its glory. 

8. Seven Os' trogoth kings succeeded Theod' oric on the throne 
of Italy during a period of twenty-seven years. Nearly all met 
with a violent death, and were constantly engaged in a war witlf 
Jfustin' ian, emperor of the East, who finally soooeeded in reducing 

240 uomaus hbiwt. [PiMa 

lUlj under his domiiiioB. The rei|;ii of thii moiMTOh m ths mort 
brillmnt period in the history of the Eastern empire; and u it M- 
lows immediately after the career of Theod'oric in the West, and 
embraces all that is interesting in the history of the period which k 
occupies, we pass here to a brief survey of its annals. 

9. The year after the death of Theod' oric, Justin' ian succeeded 
^ ^^^ his uncle Justin on the throne of the Eastern empire. 
SKA c9 His reign is often alluded to in history as the '^ Era of 

jimui'uy. Jos'tijuan." On his accession he found the kingdom 
torn by domestic factions ; hordes of barbarians menaced the fron- 
tiers, and often adranced from the Danube three hundred miles into 
the country ; and daring the first five years of his reign he waged an 
ezpeDsive and unprofitable war with the Persians. The conclusion 
of this war, by the purchase of a peace at a costly price, enabled 
Justin' ian, who was extremely ambitious of military fame, to tarn his 
arms to the conquest of distant provinces. 

10. Justin' ian never led his armies in person ; and his troops oon* 
sistod chi^y of barbarian mercenaries — Scythians, Persians, Her' uli, 
Van' dais, and Ooths, and a small number of Thracians : the ei^ai 
of the empire had long been forbidden, under preceding emperors, 
to carry arms,— « sin^'t-sighted policy which Justin' iaa^s timidity 
and jealousy led him to adopt : and so little, of military i^irit re- 
mained among the people, that they were not only incapable of fight- 
ing in the open field, but formed a very inadequate defence for tbe 
ramparts of their cities. Under these ciroumstancesy with bat a 
small body of regular troops, and without an active militia from 
which to recruit his armies, the military successes of Jastin' ian are 
among the diffcult problems of the age. 

1 1. Africa, still ruled by the Van' dais, first attracted the military 
ambition of Justin' ian, althou^ his designs of concftiest were con* 
oealed under the pretence of restoring to the Van' dal throne its 
legitimate successor, of the race of the renowned Gen' seric I^^ 
first expedition, Ubder the command of Belis&rius, the greatest gen- 
eral of his age, numbering only ten thousand foot soldiers and fi^^ 
thousand horsemen, landed, in September 533, about five days' jour- 
ney to the south of Carthage. The Afrricans, who were A^ill called 
Jiomans, long oppressed by their Van' dal conquerors, hailed BeUsi- 
ritts as a deliverer; and Gel' imer, the Van' dal king, who ruled o^*' 

%ight or nine millions of subjects, and who could muster eigbty tbou' 


■and warriors^ of Ufl own nation, fonnd himself middenlj alone with' 
his Van' dais in the midst of a hostile population. Twice Gel' imer 
was routed in battle ; and before the end of November Africa was 
eonquered, and the kingdom of the Van' dais destroyed. GeV imer 
himself, having capitulated, was removed to Galatia, where ample 
possessions were given him, and* where he was allowed to grow old in 
peace, surrounded by his friends and kindred, and a few faithful fol- 
•lowers. The bravest of the Van' dais enlisted in the armies of Jus- 
tin' ian ; and ere long the remainder of the Van' dal nation in Africa, 
being involved in the ooavulsions that followed, entirely disappear^. 

12. Justin' ian next projected the oonquest of the Gothic empire 
of Italy, and its dependencies ; and in the year 535 Belisdrius land- 
ed in Sicily at the head of a small army of seven thousand five hun- 
dred men. 'In the first campaign lie subdued that island : in the 
second year he advanced into southern Italy, where the old Eoman 
population welcomed him with joy, and the Goths found themselves 
as onfiavorably situated as the Van' dais had been in Africa ; but, 
deposing their weak prince, they raised Vit'iges to the throne, who 
wy a great general and a worthy rival of Belisdrius. The latter 
gained possession of Rome, (Dec. 536,) where for more than a year 
he was besieged by the Goths ; and although he made good his de- 
fence, almost the entire population of the city in the meantime per 
ished by famine. 

13. Yit'iges himself was next besieged in Baven'na, and was 
finally forced to surrender the place, and yield himself j)ri8oner. 
(Dec. 539.) He was deeply indebted to the generosity of Justin' ian, 
who allowed him to pass his days in affluence in Constantinople 
The jealousy of Justin' ian, however, having recalled Belisirius from 

.Italy, in a few years the Goths recovered their sway ; but it was over 
a country almost deserteot of its inhabitants. At length, in the year 
552, Justin' ian formed in Italy an army o£ thirty thousaM men, 
which he placed under the command of the eunuch Nar' ses, who 
unexpectedly proved to be an able general. In» the following year 
the last of the Os' trogoth kings .was slain in battle, and the empire 
of Justin' ian was extended over the deserted wastes of the once fer- 
tile uid populous Italy. (A. D. 554.) 

14. In the Bast, Justin' ian was involved in a second war with 
Ghosroes, or Nashirvan, the most celebrated Persian monarch of the 

L tiibbon, iii. C3, Miy» one huudred and sixty thousand ; and aUmondi, Fall of tlio Roman 
Empire, 1. 221, haa tho ume number. Sue the correction In Milman's Notes to Gibbon. 

•fc i« 


StfSMiid dynasty. HostiliiieB were carried on daring sixteen yeara 
(A. P. 540 — 556) with dtrelenting obstinaey on both sides; but after 
a prodigious waste of human life, the frontiers of the two empifea 
remained nearly the same as they were before the war. When Jos- 
tin' ian was nearly eighty years of age he was again obliged to have 
reoonrse to the serrioes of his old general Belisdrins, not less aged 
Ihan himself, to repel an invasion of the barbarians who had ad- 
vanced to the very gates of Constantinople. At the head of a amaS. 
band pf veterans, who in happier years had shared his toils, he drove 
back the enemy ; but the applauses of the people again excited the 
jealousy and fears of the ungrateful monarch, who, charging his 
faithful servant with aspiring to the empire, caused his eyes to be 
torn out, and his jrhole fortune to be confiscated ; and it is said thai 
the general who had conquered two kingdoms, was to be seen Uind, 
and led by a child, going about with a wooden cup in his hand to so- 
licit charity. Justin' ian died at the age of eighty-three, after a 
reign of more than thirty-eight years. (Nov. 565.) The character 
of Justin' ian was a compound of good and bad qualities ; for al- 
though personally inclined to justice, he often overlooked, through 
weakness, the injustice of others, and was in a great measure ruled 
during the first half of his reign by his wife Theod6ra, an unprin- 
cipled woman, under whose orders many acts of oppression and 
cruelty were committed. 

15. The reign of Justin' ian forms a memorable epoch in the his- 
tory of the world. He was the l^t Byzantine emperor who, by his 
dominion over the whole of Italy, reunited in some measure the 
two principal portions of the empire of the Caasars. But his exten- 
dve conquests were not his chief glory : the brightest ornament of 
his reign, whicli has immortalized his memory, is his famous compi? 
lation of the Roman laws, known as the " Pandects and Code of 
Justinian." " The vftin titles of the victories of Justin' ian," says 
Gibbon, "are crumbled into flust: but the name of the legislator 
is inscribed on a fair and everlasting monument." To a commission 
of ten emiment lawyers, at the head of which was Trib6nian, Jus- 
tin' ian assigned the task of reducing mto a uniform and consistent 
code, the vast mass of the laws of the Boman empire ; and after this 
had been completed, to another commission of seventeen, at the 
head of which also was TriB6nian, was assigned the more difficult 
work of searching out the scattered monuments of ancient jurispru- 
dence)-— of collecting and putting in order whatever was useful in 

CMkp.n] MIDDLE AGES. 243 

tlie booios of farmer jnrisconsults, and of extracting the true spirit 
of' the laws from questions, dii^utes, conjectures, and judicial de- 
cisions of the Koman civilians. This celebrated work, containing 
the immense store of the wisdom of antiquity, after being lost during 
several centuries of the Dark Ages, was accidentally brought to light 
* in the middle of the twelfth century, when it contributed greatly to 
the revival of civilization ; and the digest which Gibbon has made 
of it is sow received as the text book on eivil Law in some of the 
universities of Europe.^ 

16. The history of the Eastern or Greek empire, during' several 
cmturies after Justin' ian, is so extremely complicated, and its an- 
nals so obscure and devoid of interest, that we pass ftemKby, for sub- 
jects of greater importance. Three years after the death of Justin'- 
ian, Italy underwent another revolution. In the year 568, the whole 
Lombard nation, comprising the fiercest and bravest of the Germanic 
tribes, led by their king Alboin, and aided by twenty thousand Sax- 
ons, descended from the eastern Alps, and at once took possession 
of northern Italy, which, from them, is called Lombardy. The 
Lombard monarchy, thus established, lasted, under twenty-one kings, 
during a period of little more than two centuries. 

17. As the Lombards advanced into the country, tjie inhabitants 
shut themselves up in the walled cities, many of whichj ^ ^^ 
after enduring sieges, and experiencing the most dread- Lombard 
ful calamities, were compelled to surrender; but the ^^**^™^- 
Lombard dominion never embraced the whole peninsula. The 
islands in the upper end of the Adriat' ic, embracing the Venetian 

' League, the country immediately surrounding Raven' na, together 
jrith Rome, Naples, And a few other cities, remained under the juris- 
diction of the Eastern or Greek emperors, or were at times inde- 
pendent of foreign rule. The Lombards were ruder and fiercer than 
Hhe Gk)ths who preceded them ; and they at first proved to the Ital- 
ians far harder task-masters than any of the previous invaders ; but 
the change from a wandering life exerted an influence favorable 
to their civilization ; and their laws, considered as those of a barba- 
rous people, exhibited a considerable degree of wisdom and equality. 

18. The period at which we have, now arrived, towards the close 
of the sixth century, exhibits the first interval of partial repose that 
had fallen ilpon Western Europe since the downfall of the Roman 
empire. Some degree of quiet was now settling upon Italy under 

a. Votai to Gibbon, UL 19L 


the rule of the Lombard kings : the Goths were coDSoUdatmg their 
power in Spain : a stable monarchy was gradually rinng in Franoey 
from the union of the Gallic tribes ; and the Saxons had firmly es- 
tablished themselves in the south of Britain. The only events in 
the East that attract our notice consist of a series of wars between 
the Gree'k emperors and the Persians, during which period, if we are 
to rely upon doubtful narratives which wear the air of fables, at one 
time all the Asiatic provinces of the Eastern empire were»conqaered 
by the Persians; and subsequently, the whole of Persia, to the 
frontiers of India, was conquered by the monarchs of the Eastern 
empire. Eventually the two empires appear to* have become equally 
exhaust cd^; and when peace was restored (A. D. 628) the ancient 
boundaries were recognizeii by both parties. 

19. But while a degree of comparative repose was settling upon 
Europe, a night of darkness, owing to the absence of all reliable 
documents, rests upon its history, down to the time of Charlemagne. 
" A century and a half passed away," says Sismondi, " during which 
we possess nothing concerning the whole empire of the West, except 
dates and conjectures."^ This obscurity lasts until a new akkd unex- 
pected light breaks in from Arabia ; when a nation of shepherds and 
robbers appears as the depository of letters which had been allowed 
to escape from the guardianship of e^ry civilized people. 

20. Turning from the darkness which shrouds European hiatory 
in the seventh century, we next proceed to trace the remarkable rise 
and establishment of the power of the Saracens. In the parched, 

vr THE 8^ii^.y> ^^^^ 1^ freat part, desert Arabia, a country 
8ARA0EN. nearly four times the exlent of France, the hardy Arab, 
KMPiEK. ^£ ^^ original and unmixed race, had dwelt* from time 
immemorial, in a constant struggle with nature, and enjoying all the 
wild freedom of the rudest patriarchal state. The descendants of 
Ishmael — the " wild man of the desert" — ^havo always been free, and 
such they will ever remain ; an effect, at once, of their local position, 
and, as many believe, the fulfilment of prophecy ; and although a • 
few of the frontier cities of Arabia have been at times temporarily 
subjected by the surrounding nations, Arabia, as a country, is the only 
land in all antiquity that never bowed to the yoke of a foreign conqueror. 

21 . The ancient religion of tlie Arabs was Sabaism, or star-worship, 
which assumed a great variety of foi^ns, and was corrupted by adora> 
tion of a vast number of images, which were supposed to have 8om0 

a. Sismondi, FaU of the Romao Empire, i. 356. 

OuaU] middle AGE& 245 

mysterious aBmtj to the^ heavenly bodies. The Arabs had seyen 
temples dedicated to the seyen planets : some tribes exclusively re- 
vved the moon, others the dog star : Judaism^ was embraced by a 
few tribes, Christianity by jsome, an^ the Magian idolatry* of Persia 
by others. So completely free was Arabia, each sect or tribe being 
independent, that absolute toleration necessarily existed ; and numer- 
ona refugee sects that fled from the persecution of the Roman empe- 
rors, found in the wild wastes of that country a quiet asylum. 

22. About the beginning of the seventh century, Mahom'et or 
Moham'med, an Arabian impostor, descended Irom the Sabaean 
priests of Mecca, where was the chief temple of the Sab»an idola-, 
try, began to preach a new religion to his coitntrymen. He repre- 
sented J» them the incoherence and grossness of their religious rites, 
and called upon them to abandon their frail idols, and to acknowl- 
edge and adore the One true God, — ^the invisible, all good, and all- 
powerful ruler of the universe. Acknowledging i^he authenticity 
both of the Jewish scriptures and the Christian revelation, he pro^ 
feeaed to restore the true <uid primitive faith, as it had been in the 
days of the patriarchs and the prophets, from Adam to the Messiah. 

23. Like Numa of old, Mahom' et sought to give, to the doctrines 
which he laught the sanction of inspired origin and miraculous ap- 
proval ; and as the nymph Egeria was the ministering goddess of the 
former, so the angel G-abriel was the declared medium of divine 
eommnnioation with the latter. During a period of twenty-three 

L TIm MAfimn. idoU$rf oomisted of the religiotu belief and worship presided over by the 
Hftgtan priesthood, who comprised, originally, one of the six tribes ^nto which the nation of 
fte Medes was divided. The MAg^L, or "^ wise men,'' had not only religion^ bat the higher 
Immrlicis of all learning also, in their charge ; and they practised different sorts of divination, 
Mtrology, and enchantment, for the purpose of disclosing the (Uture, influencing the present, 
and caUIng the past to their aid. So fhrnous were they that their name has been applied to all 
Oidan of magicians and enchanters. Zoroas' ter, who is supposed to have lived about the 
aaveotb century before Christ, reformed the Mkgian religion, and reuKxleiled the priesthood ; 
and by some he Is considered the founder of the order. 

Tbe Hftgtan priests taught that the gods are the spfritoal essences of Are, earth, and water,— 
that there are two antagonistic powers in nature, the one accomplishing goo<l designs, the other 
evil;— that each of thew shall subdue and be subdued by turns, for six thousand years, but 
ftaat, at last, through the Intervention of the stitt higher lynd Supreme Being, the evil principle 
jball perish, and men shall live Ln happiness, neither needing food, nor yielding a siindow. 

Tbe great influence of the Magi is well illustrated in the boolc of Daniel, where Nebuchad- 
nsazar Invoked the aid of the dlflerent classes of their order— magicians, oslroloj^era, sorcerers, 
ChaJdeaos, and soothsaycre. In the time of the Saviour, the Mftgian system was not extinct, 
aa we have evidence of in the allusion made to Simon Magus, who boasted himself to be 
•'■ome gprt one.** (Acts, viii. 9— ziii. 6, &c.) 

a. By the term Jadaism la meant the religious rites and doctrines of the Jews, as e^jQlnod 

S46 H(H>EBK HI8T0RT. [PinU 

yean oocanonal revelations, as droomBtanoes reqcured, are said to 
have been made to the Prophet, who was eonaequently never at a 
loss for authority to justify his oonduot to his followers, or for authov^ 
itative counsel in any emergency. These revelations, carefully treas- 
ured up in the memories of the fiuthful, or committed to writing by 
amanuenses, (for the Moslems boast that the founder of their religion 
could neither read nor write,) were collected together two years after 
the death of tiie Prophet, and puMtshed as the Koran^ or Moham'- 
medan Bible. 

24. The materials of the Koran are borrowed chiefly from the 
Jewish and Christian Scriptures, and from the legends, traditions, 
and fables of Arabian and Persian mythology. The two great 
points of Moslem faith are embraced in the declaration — ^^ There is 
but one Ood, and Mahom' et is his prophet'' The otber prominent 
points of the Moslem creed are the belief in absolute predestina 
tion, — the existence and purity of angels, — ^the resurrection of the 
body, — a general judgment, and the final saltation of all the dis- 
ciples of the Prophet, whatever be their sins. Wicked Moslems are 
to expiate their crimes during different periods of suffering, not to 
exceed seven th|)usand years ; but infidel contemners of the Koran 
are to be doomed to an eternity -of woe. A minute and appalling 
description is given of the place and mode of torment, — a vast re- 
ceptacle, full of. smoke and darkness, dragged forward with roaring 
noise and fury by seventy thousand angels, through the opposite ex- 
tremes of heat and cold, while the unhappy objects of wrath are tor- 
mented by the hissing of numerous reptiles, and the scourges of 
hideous demons, whose pastime is cruelty and pain. The Moslem 
paradise is all that an Arab imagination can paint of sensual felioi* 
*y i-^groves, rivulets, flowers, perfumes, and fruits of every variety 
to charm the senses ; while, to every other conceivable delight, sev- 
enty-two damsels of immortalyouth and dazzling beauty are assigned 
to minister to the enjoyment of the humblest of the faithful. The 
promise to every faith^ follower of the Prophet, of an unlimited 
indulgence of the corporeal propensities, constitutes a fundamental 
principle of the Moham' medan religion. The predestinarian doctrine 
of Mahom' et led his followers towards fatalism, and exercised a 
marked influence upon their lives, and especially upon their warlike 
chUracter ; for as it taught them that the hour of death is determined 
beforehand, it inspired them with an indifference to danger, and gave 
a permanent security to their bravery. Mahom' et promised to thoM 

OBAT.n.] ' MIDDLE AGES. 247 

of his followers who fell in battle an immediate admission to the joys 
of paradise. The practical part of the new religion consisted of 
praj^ five times a day, and frequent ablutions of the whole body, 
alms, fostings, and the pilgrimage to Mecca.^ Tradition asserts that 
Mahom' et confirmed by miracles the truth of his religion ; and a 
mysterious hint in the Koran- has been conyerted, by the traditionists, 
into a cireumstantial legend of a nocturnal journey through the seyen 
keayens, in which Mahom' et oonyersed familiarly with Adam, Moses, 
and the prophets, and eyen with Deity himself. 

25. It was in the year 609, when Mahom' et was already fort/ 
' years old, that he began to preach his new doctrine at Mecca. His 

irst proselytes were made in his own family ; but by the people his 
pretensions were long treated with ridicule ; and at the end of thir- 
teen years he was obliged to fiee from Mecca to saye his life. (A. D. 
622.) This celebrated flight, called the Hegira, is the grand era of 
the Moham' medan religion. ^ 

26. Repairing to Yatreb, the name of which he changed to Medi- 
na,' (or Medinet el Nobbi, the city of the Prophet,) he was there rQ- * 
oetyed by a large band of conyerts with^eyery demonstration of joy ; 
and soon the whole city acknowledged him as its leader and prophet 
Mahomet now declared that the empire of his religion was to be es- 
tablished by the sword : eyery day added to the number of his prose- 
lytes, who, formed into warlike and predatory bands, scoured the 
desert in quest of plunder ; and after experiencing many successes 
and seyeral defeats, Mahom' et, in the seventh year of the Hegira, 
with scarcely a shadow of opposition, made'himself master of Mecca, 
whose inhabitants swore allegiance to him as their temporal and 
spiritual prince. The conquest or voluntary submission pf the rest 
of Arabia soon followed, and at the period of Mahom' et's IsLtfi pil- 
grimage to Mecca, in the tenth year of the Hegira, and the year of 
his death, a hundred and fourteen thousand Mfssulmen' marched 
under his banner. (A. D. 632.) 

L MwM, the birth-ptace of Bfabom' et, an4 the great centre of ettnedon to all pUgrlma of 
the Moham' medan fiiith, ia in western Arabia, aboat forty miles east fko'm the Red Sea. 
Formeriy the oonconrse of pflgrims to the "holy city" was immense; bnl the taste for pll- 
grimagea is now rapidly declining thronghoot the Moham' medan world. 

S. Medina is sltaated in western Arabia, one hundred mites north-eaat from Its port of Tembo 
on the Bed Sea, and two hnndred and sixty mil«B north from Mecca. It is surrounded by a wall 
iboot forty feel high, flanked by thirty towers. It is now chiefly important as being in posses- 
sion of the tomb containing the remains of the prophet. 

a. The word JlfM«ii/aMis which U naed to designate a foDower of Mahom* et,slgnUK In 
Ike Tkizkish language^ *^ a trae beUeTer." 


27. Mahom' et died without having formed any organised govem- 
ment for the empire which he had so speedily established ; and al- 
though religious enthusiasm supplied, to his immediate followers, the 
place of legislation, the Arabs of the desert soon began to relapse 
into their ancient idolatries. The union of the military chiefs of the 
Prophet alone saved the tottering fabric of Moslem faith from dis- 
solution. Abubekr, the first believer in Mahom' et's mission, was 
declared lieutenant oj caliph; and the victories of his general 
Khaled, sumamed *^ the sword of God," over the apostate tribes, in a 
few months restored religious unity to Arabia. 

28. But the spirit of the Saracens* needed employment ; and pre- 
parations were made to invade the Byzantine and Persian empires, 
both of which, from the long and desolating wars that had raged 
between them, had sunk into the most deplorable weakness. Khaled 
advanced into Persia and conquered several cities near the ruins of 
Babylon, when he ^as recalled, and sent to join Abu Obeidah, wHo 
had marched upon Syria. Palmyra submitted : the governor of Bos- 

* rah^ turned both traitor and Mussulman, and op^aed the gatcDs of the 
city to the invaders ; Damascus was attacked, besieged, and finally 
one part of the city was carried by storm &t the moment that an- 
other portion had^capitulated.' (Aug. 3d, 634.) Abubekr died the 
very day the city was taken, and Omar succeeded to the Caliphate. 

29. The fall of Emes'sa,* and Baalbec' or Heliop'olis, soon fol- 

1. The word SarneeHf from sara^ ** a desert," means an Arabian. 

S. Boirahy was fifty miles 89ath Us>m Damascus, and eighty miles north-east from Jerusalem. 
Thoogh now almost deserted, the whole town and its enTirons are oorered with pillars and 
other ruins of the finest workmanship. It is frequently mentioned in Scripture.^ In Jeremiah, 
adlx. 13, we read, **For I have sworn by myself, saith the Lord, that Bbrrah shall become a 
desolation, a reproach, a waste, and a curse.** (Map No. VI.) 

3. Ei^*' so, now He^, a city of Syria, was on the eastern bank of the Oron' tea, now the 
^Aaazy, eighty-five mile* nortb-east from Damascus. It was the birth-plaoe of the jEtoman^m- 

peror Elagab&las. (Jfa^ No. VI.) 

4. Baaibec, or Heliop' olis,— the former a Syrian and the latter a Greek word^both meaning 
the ** city of the sun,** was a large imd splendid city of Syria, forty miles north-west from D»- 
masena, and about thiny-flye miles from the Mediterranean. The reraahiff of ancledt arcblte*** 
tural grandeur in Baalbec are more extensive than in any other city of Syria, Palmyra excepled. 
It is believed that Baal-Ath, built by Solomon in Lebanon, (2. Ciiron. vlli? 6,) was ideoiical with 
Baal-fiec While under the Roman power it was famed for its wealth and splendor ; and the 
terms of its surrender to the Saracens Sufficiently attest its great resources at that period :^ 
two thousand ounces of gold, four thousand ounces of silver, two thousand siUcen vests, and 
one thousand jwords, besides those of tho garrison, being the price demanded and paid to pre- 
serve it from plunder. Although repeatedly sacked and dismantled, yet the changes that bftv« 
taken place in the channels of commerce are the principal causes of its decay ; and, judging 
from its decline during the last century,— from five thousand inhabitants to less than two hun- 
dred,— probably the day Is not far distent when, like many other Eastern dtleSk it wiU oesae to 
be inhabited. (JIfa/ No. VX.) 

• Cmv. h] middle ages. , 249 

lonned that of Damasons. Herac' lius, the Byzantine emperor, made 
ODft great effort to save Syria, bat on the banks of the Yermouk' his 
lest generals were defeated by Khaled with a loss of seventy thousand 
Boldiers, who were left dead on the field. (Nov. 636.) Jerusalem, 
sfter a siege of four months, capitulated to Omar, who caused the 
groond on which had stood the temple of Solomon to be cleared of 
its rubbish, and prepared for the foundation of a mosque, which still 
bearff the name of the Caliph. The reduction of Aleppo' and An- 
tiooh, six years after the first Saracen invasion, completed the con- 
qaest of Syria. (A. D. 638.) 

30. In the meantime the conquest of Persia had been followed 
jMp by other S^acen generals. In the same year that witnessed the 
battie of Yermouk, the Persians and Saracens fought on the plains 
of Cadesiah' one of the bloodiest battles on record. Seven thousand 
ihse fanndred Saracens and one hundred thousand Persians are said 
to kaye &llen. The fate of Persia was determined, although the 
PersiaB monarch kept together some time longer the wrecks of his 
empire, but he was finally slain in the year 65 J , and with him ex- 
pired the second Persian dynasty, that of the Sassan' idae.^ 

31. Soon after the battle of Cadesiah, Omar intrusted to his lieu 

L Ibe Terwuuk^ the Hleromax of the Greeks, la a rtrer that empties into the Jordan from 
a»«Mt, mwvxij-Are miles south-west from Damascos. {Map No. VI.) 

S. Aleffo^ In northern Syria, is one hnndred and ninety-six miles north-ea^t from Damascus, 
nd fifty-flve mOes east from Antlocb. It is sorrowided by massive walls thirty-feet high and 
twenty broad. It was once a place or considerable trade, commonicaling with Pentia and 
India by way of Bagdad, and with Arabia and Egypt by way of Daraaacu^l but the discuTery 
of a passage to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope strucic a deadly blow at its greatness, 
and it la now litUe more than a shadow of its former self. 

3. Caditiah was on the borders of the Syrian desert, south-west from Babylon. 

4. The overthrow of the last of the great .Persian dynasties is an appropriate point for a brief 
leriew of Peraan history. * 

It has beerf stated that, after the overthrow of the Persian monarchy by Alexander the Croat, 
A^ continued to be a tlieatre of wars waged by his ambitious successors, t^ntll Selcucus, 
about the year 307 before our era, established himself securely in possession of the countries 
between the Euphrates the Indu.s, and the Oxili, and thu;» founded the empire of the Selriieidte, 
This empire continued undisturbed tmtil the.yoar 250 B. C, w^hen the Pnrthians, under Ars&ees^ 
revolted, and established the Parthian empire of the Arsac' itUe. The Parthian empire at 
tained its highest grandeur in the reis^n of its sixth monarch, Mithrid&tes I., who carried his 
anv even farther than Alexander himnelf. The deHcendunts of Arsftccs ruled until A. D. S^'Q, 
a period of 480 years, when the last prince of that family was defeated and taken prisoner by 
Ar'deabir Bab' igan, a revolted Persian noblo of the family of Sansan, who thus became the 
Ibander of the dynasty of the Stusan' ida. The period of nearly five centuries between the ' 
I of AJexander the Great and the reign of Ar' deshir, Is nearly a blank in Eastern history ; 
litUe is known of it is obtained from the pages of Roman writers. No connected 
B aeoomt of this period can bo given. The dynasty of the Saason' idte continued until 
Ito ovMtbrow of the Persian hosts on the plains of Cadesiah, when the religion of Zoroaster 
I to Che triampb of the Mussulman fiiitb. 


tenant the conquest of Egypt, then forming a part of tiie Bjiaatiiie 
or Greek empire. Peleu'siom/ after a month's si^, opened to the 
Suraceiis the entrance to the ooontry (638) ^ the Coptic inhabitants 
of Upper Egypt joined the invaders against the Greeks ; Memjjhis, 
after a siege of seven months, capitulated; Alexandria made a 
longer and desperate resistance, but at length, at the dose of the 
year 640, the city was surrendered, a success which had cost the be- 
siegers twenty-three thousand lives. When Amru asked Omar what 
disposition he should make of the famous Alexandrian library, the 
caliph replied, *^ If these writings agree with the Koran, they are us^ 
less, and need not be preserved ; if they disagree, they are pcmicious, 
and should be destroyed." The sentence was executed with blind 
obedience, and this vast store of ancient learning fell a sacrifice to 
the blind fanaticism of ^n ignorant barbarian.^ 

32. Four years after the conquest of Egypt, the d&gger of an a^ 
sassin put an end to the life and reign of Omar. (Nov. 6th, 644.) 
Othman, the early secretary of Mahom' et, succeeded to the caliphate; 
byt his extreme age rendered him poorly capable of supporting the 
burden laid upon him. Various sects of Moslem believers b^an to 
arise among the j^ple : contentions broke out in the armies ; and 
Othman, after a reign of eleven years, was poniarded on his throne, 
while he covered his heart with the Koran. (June 18th, 655.) 

33. The conquest of Cyprus and Rhodes,* and the subjugation of 
the African coast as far westward as Tripoli,' were the principal 

1. Paeiutumy an Important city of Egypt, waa at the entrance of the Peleosiac, or moot east- 
ern branch of the Nile. It was snrrounded by marsbee ; and the name of the city was derf red 
from a Greek word signifying mmd. Near its rains stands a dilapidated castle named TmA, 
the Arabic term for mire. 

S. Rhodes^ a celebrated island in the Mediterranean, is off the south-west coast of Asis 
Minor, ten miles south fh>m Gape Volpe, the nearest point of the main land. Its greater 
length is forty-five miles ; greatest breadth eighteen. The city of Rhodes, one of the best buitt 
and most maghiflcent cities of the ancient world, was at the north-easlem extremity of the 
island. The celebrated colossus of Rhodes,— a brazen sUtue of Apollo, about one hundred 
and five feet in height, and of the most admirable proportions,— has been deservedly reckoned 
one of the seven wonders of the world ; bat the ssiertlon that it stood with a fbot on each side 
the entrance to the port, and that the largest vesaelts under full sail, passed between its iegii i> 
an absurd ilction, for which there is not the shadow of authority in any ancient writer. The 
■toiy originated with one Blaise de Vlgenere, In the 16th century. (Map No. IV.) 

3. Tripolif a maritime city of northern Africa, Is west of* the ancient Barca and CyreoAftAt 
and about two hundred and seventy miles south fi^om Sicily. 

a. Sismondi, il. p. 18, distrusts the common account of the loss of the Alexandrian lUntfT* 
Gibbon, voL Hi. p. 430, says, ''For my own part, I am strongly tempted to deny both the f^ 
and the consequences.*' But since Gibbon wrote, several new Moham' medan authorities baTS 
been addnoed to sipport the common rersion of the story. See Note to Gibbon, lU. S8S > *^ 
Crichton's Arabia, 1. 359. 

Otatf.n.] MIDDIiE AGSS. 251 

military events tiuit distingiuBhed the reign of Othman; bnt the 
political fends and civil wars that distracted the reign of his sno- 
eeasors, Ali and Moawiyah, suspended the progress of the western 
oonqnests of the Saracens nearly twenty years.^ Gradually, how- 
ever, the Saracens extended their dominion over all northern Africa ; 
and in the year 689 one of their generals penetrated to the Atlantic 
coast ; bat Carthage, repeatedly succored from Constantinople, held 
out nine years longer, when being taken by storm, it was finally and 
utterly destroyed. From this epoch northern Africa became a section 
of the great Moham' medan empire. All the Moorish tribes, resembling 
the roving Arabs in t%ir customs, and bom under a similar climate, 
being ultimately reduced to submission, adopted the language, name, 
and religion, of their conquerors ; and at the present day they can 
with difficulty be distinguished from the Saracens. 

34. Scarcely had the conquest of Africa been completed, when a 
Yis' igothic noble, irritated by the treatment which he had received 
from his sovereign, the tyrant Boderio, secretly despatched, a mes^ 
senger- to Musa, the governor of Africa, and invited the Saracens 
into Spain. A daring Saracen, named Taric, first crossed the straits 
in the month of July, 710, on a predatory incursiop ; and in the fol- 
lowing spring he passed over again at the head of seven thousand 
men and took possession of Mount Calpe, whose modem name of 
Gibraltar (Gibel-al-Taric, or Hill of Taric), still preserves the name 
of the Saracen hero. 

35. When Boderic was informed of the descent of the Saracens, 
he sent his lieutenant against them, with orders to bind ^e pre- 
sumptuous strangers and cast them into the sea. But his lieutenant 
was defeated, and soon afterward, Boderic himself also, who had 
collected, on the banks of the Guadal6te,' his whole army, of a hun* 
dred thousand m^. Boderic, a usurper and tyrant, was hated and 
despised by numbers of his people ; and during the battle, which 
continued seven days, a portion of his forces, as had been previously 

: The Omadalita is s ftream thftt onten the harbor of Owlli, about sixtf milet north-west 
ftem Gibraltar. The battle appears to bare been fought on the plains of the modem Xeres da 
It Ptontera, abont ten miles north-west ftom Oadis. {Map No. XIII.) 

a. Mahomet had pipmised IbrgiTeness of sina to the ftrst army which should besiege the 
Bjiantine capital ; and no sooner had Moawiyah ddMroyed his rivals and established his 
lhiocia» tiwn he sought to expiate the gallt of dvll blood by shedding that of the failldeis ; 
1m*daili« erer: sammer fbr seven years (0OB-S79) a Mossntanan annylnvain attacked the 
wills of OoaatanUniTpla, and the tide of ooa<iaest was toned aside to fsek another ehund tan 

252 MODSBN mSTORT. [Pj»a 

MTangedy deiertod to the SaraoenB. The Ooths were finally rooted 
with immense slaughter, knd Boderio avoided a soldiera death only 
to perish more ignobly in the waters of the GuadalquiTer :* bat the 
victory of the Saracens was purchased at the expenee of sixteen 
thousand lives. . Most of the Spanish towns now submitted without 
opposition ; Mer' ida,* the capital, after a desperate resistance, ea- 
pitufatted with honor ; and before the end of the year 713 the whole 
of Spain, exoept a solitary corner in the northern part of the penin- 
sula, was oon<|uered. The same country, in a more savage st^te, had 
resisted, for two hundred years, the arms of the Romans; and it re- 
quired nearly eight hundred years to regain it from the sway of the 
Moors and Saracens. 

36. After the conquest of Spain, Mussulman ambition b^gan to 
look beyond the Pyrenees :* the disuniW Gallic tribes of the 
Sputhem provinces soon began to negotiate and to submit ; and in a 
few years the south of France, from the mouth. of the Garonne to 
that of the Rhone,^ assumed the manners and religion of Arabia* 
But these narrow limits were scorned by the spirit of Abdelrahmaa, 
the Saracen governor of Spain, who, in the year 732, entered Gaol 
at the head of a host of Moors and Saracens, in the hope of adding 
to the faith of the Koran whatever yet remained unsubdued of France 
or of Surope. An invasion so formidable had not been witnessed 
since the days of At' tila ; and Abdelrahman marked his route with 
fire and sword ; for he spared neither the country nor the inhabit- 

37. Everything was swept away by the overpowering torrent, until 
Abdelrahman had penetrated to the very centre of France, and 

1. The river Chudalquiver (in EnRllah gau-dH-quiv'-er, {n Spanish (fwa**t*^^®*'^ ** 
whleh stands the clUes SerlUe and Cor' dova, enters the AUanUc about flfteen miles north from 
Cadiz. Its ancient name waa Bati» : its preeent appellation, WadyHU^Mr, sigDifyinff ""^ 
great river," is Arabic. {Map No. XIII.) 

S. M«r' idA, the Augmsta Emer' if of the Romans, whence its modem name, was fomiAtd 
by AogQstiis Cffisar 25 B. G. It is la the south-western part of Spain, on the north bank of the 
Gnadlana, and in the province of Estremadora. It is now a decayed town ; but the arcbit^o- 
toral remains of the power and ma^^niflcence of its Roman masters render it an object of great 
Interast It remained in the hands of the Saracens ftx>m 713 to IS^ when it opened its gates to 
Alphonso IX., after his signal victory over the Moors ; and ft-om Uiis period downward, it bsa 
been attached to the kingdoms ef Castile and Leon. (Jlfap No. XUI.) 

3. The Pyrenees mountains, which separate Spain from France, extend from the Atlantic to 
the Mediterrsnean, a distance of about two haodred and seventy miles, wUb an average breeds 
of about thirty-eight miles. (Map No. Xfll.) 

4. Pot the territory thus embraced under the Saracen sway, see Mnp No. Xllf; The Oaronna, 
rising near the Spanish border, runs a north-westeriy course. From Its union with the IXh^ 
dogne, forty41ve miles from Its entranoe Into the Bay of Biscay, it Is called the OfrwM**-*^ 
which the noted ** department of the Gironde'* tales iU name. 

CaM.II] lODDLB AGES. 253 \ 

pitched his oamp between Toura' and Poictiers.' His progress had 
not *boen unwatdied by the confederacy of the Franks, Which, torn 
asund^ by IntFignes, aq^ the revolts of discontented chiefe, now 
united to oppose the common enemy of all Christendom. At the 
head of the confederacy was Charles Martel, who, collecting his^ 
forces, met Abddrahman on the plains of Poictiers, and, after six 
days' skirmishing, engaged on the seventh in that fearful battle that 
was to decide &e fate of Europe. In the light skirmishing tJie 
archers of the East maintained the advantage ; but in the close 
onset of the deadly strife, the German auxiliaries of Charles, grasp- 
ing their ponderous swords with ^^ stout hearts and iron hands'' stood 
to the shock like walls of stone, and beat down the light armed 
Ar^ibe with terrific slaughter. Abdelrahman, and, as was reported 
by the monkish historians of the period, three hundred and seventy- 
five thousand • of his followers, were slain. The Arabs never re^ 
Bumed the conquest of G-aul, although twenty-seven years elapsed 
before they were wholly driven beyond the^i^yrenees. Europe to . 
this day owes its civil and religious freedom to the victory gained 
over the Saracens before Poictiers, by Charles, the Hammer^ which 
shattered the Saracen forces* 

38. About the time of the conquest of Spain, the Saracens made 
a second -unsuccessful attempt to reduce the Byzantine capital; 
but farther east they were more successful, and extended their do- 
minion and their religion into Hindostan',' and the frozen regions 

1. Toura is ftUoated between the rivers Cher and Loire, near the point of their confluence, 
one hundred and twenty-seven miles south-west from Paris. Tours was anciently the capital 
of the TWmm, oooqnered by CiBaar 55 B. C. Aner many ylctssltudas il fell Into the hands 
of the PlaDtageoeta, and formed part of the Engliab domiiiions till 1904, when it was annexed 
to the Frenrti crown. (Jfe^ No. Xill.) 

S. Pvkturaj or /^«t»fr«, (andpntly called lJm6nwm^ and aHerwafd PieUvif) sixty miles 
toalh-west from Toura, is the capital of the department of VIenne. It is one of the moat 
andcint towns of Gaul f and the vestiges of a Soman palace, an aqueduct, and an ampblthe- 
atra, aro still'Tisibie. Besides the celebrated defeat of the Saracens in 73S, Poictiers is mem- 
orable fior the signal victory obtained in its victeity Sept, 19th, 1350, by on English army 
cctnmaoded by Edward the Black Prince, over a vastly superior Frendi force commanded by 
kimrJoha. <8eepw300. .«apN6.XIIL> 

3b HiMJm*UM\ a vast triai^lar country beyond the Indus, and south of the Himalaya 
irmmtniiM tho eouotfy of tbo Hindoos--has no aulhonticeariy history, although there Is evi- 
dsDoe to show that it was one of the eariy seals of Esstern civiUzaUon. The incursion of Al- 
oander (325 B. C.) first made Hindostan' known to the European world. In the earty part of 
the 11th centnry it was repeatedly hivaded by the Moham' medans of AllQihanistan, who, is 

a. This was probably the whole number of the afuisulman force, not the number slain. See 
Grtehlon's Arabia, i. MO, Note. 

b. Charles wielded a huge mace ; and the epithet of ^le mar|el,^' of ^ the Hsmner^ is e» 
praaslve of Uie resistless force with which he dealt his blows. ^ 


of Tartary. lint tlie ammoflities of oontending sects, domestic broOs, 
revolts, MSSSBiiiations, and ciTil wars, had long been weakenmg the 
central power which. held together the unwieldy Saracen empire; 
and before the close of the eighth ocntorj, the citU power of the 
central caliphate had broken into fragments, although the spiritaal 
power of the religion of the Prophet stiR maintained its asoendancj 
in all the r^ons that had once adopted the Moslem fidtL 

39. We hare thos briefly traced the history of the tise and es- 
tablishment of the civil power and the religion of the Saracens, and 
their progress ontil effectually checked by the arms of the Franks 
and their confederates on the plains of Poictier& The power which 
thus obtrudes i^wn our view, as the bulwark and defence of Christ- 
endom, is the one that next prominently occupies the field of History, 
while that of the Saracens, weakened and distracted by its divisions, 
declines in historical interest and importance. 

40. The origin of the monarchy of the Franks is generally traced 

back nearlyJ;wo caitnries and a half prior to the defeat 
MORABOHT of thc Ssrscens by Chjurles Martel, about the era of the 
OP n» downftdl of the Western empire of the Romans. It is 
said that the (Germanic tribes of the Franks or Free- 
men, occupied, at this early period, four cities in north-eastern or 
Bdgic Gaul, viz. : — Toumai,' Gambray,' Terouane,' and Cologne,^ 
which were governed by four separate kings, all of whom ascribed 
their origin to MerovsBus, a half fobulofis hero, whose rule is dated 
back a century and a half earlier. Of tha four kings of theJPranks, 

IU9; made DdU llieir capltaL In ISSS the eomitry wu ooaqoerad hj Iteber, ttie flith In da* 
■oeat from **Tlmoiir ttie Tartar ;** and with him began a race of Mogul priaooa. Anmgiebe) 
who died \n 1707, was the greatest Of the Mogul eovereigns. The diaoorery of a passage to 
India, by way of the Gape of Good Hope, opened the oountry to a new and mora fonnidable 
race of eonqueron. The Portuguese, the Dutch, and the French, obtained pbaaession of por- 
ttoBS of the Indian tetrttory ; but in the end they were overpowered by the English, who have 
eitabUsbed beyond the Indus a great Asiatic empire. 

L TWnu^ a town of Belgium, on the riTer Scheldt, (skelt)forty-aT» miles aoulb-woatftam 
Broasela, and^one hundred and ihi^y north-east from Paris, is the Ore' iimt JirtrvUrum taken 
by Julius Cnaar. It has since belonged to an almost infinite numbei of masten. ( J/a^ No. XV.) 

8. Qtm^af on the Scheldt, (skelt) is thirty-three mUes south from Tonndy. It was a dty 
or considerable importance under th» Romans, and has been the scene of many important 
erenis in modem history. It was long ftmous for its manufhcture of fine linens and lawns; 
whence aU shnllar Csbrlcs are caUed, in EngUab, cMm^ries. {Mf No. XV.) 

3. TertuatU (ter-oo-anO appears lo have been west from Brussels, near l>unkiTk. 

4. Cologne is in the present Prussia, on the left bank of the Rhine, one hundred and twelTU 
nllflaeast from Bruawls. A Roman colony was planted in Cologne by Agrippina, the daughter of 
Gennan' if us, who was bom pMre. Hence it obtslhod the name of JigrifpinA Col&nia : aftei^ 
waids U n la called Col6nU, or »the colony,** whence the t<tm CaUgMS. {Map No. XVU.) 

Catf.II] MIDDLE AQES. 255 

the aiiil»}tioii8 Olovis,* who ruled oyer the Irihe at Tonmai wm the 
most powerful. Being joined by the tribe at Cambray, he made 
war upon the last remains of the Roman power in Oaul ; enlarged 
his territory by conquest, and established his capital at Soissons.^ 
(A. D. 484.) At a later period he transferred the seat of soyereignty 
to Paris ;* (A. B. 494) and at the time of his death, in 51 1, nearly 
the half of modem France, eml»racing that portion north of the Loire, 
was comprised in the monarchy of which he is the reputed founder.^ 

41.^ Gloyis, like many of the barbarian chiefs of tiiat period, was 
a nominal conyert to Christianity ; and being the first of his nation 
who embraced the orthodox faith, he reoeiyed from the Gaulish 
clergy the title of most Christian kingj which has been retained by 
his enooessors to the present day. But his religion, a matter of mere 
form, seems to haye exerted no infiuencte in restraining the natural 
ferocity and blood thirstiness of his disposition, as all the riyal mon- 
archs or chieftains whom he could ^nquer or entrap ^ere sacrificed 
to his jealousy and ambition. He put to death with his own hand 
most of his relations, and then, pretending to repent of his barbari- 
ty, he offered his protection to all who had escaped the massacre, 
hoping thus to disooyer if any suryiyed, that he might rid himself 
of them also. 

42. The descendants of Cj^oyis, who are called Meroyingians, from 
their suppose^ founder, reigned oyer the Franks for nearly two cen- 
turies and a half; but the repulsiye annals of this long and barba- 
rous period are one tissue of perfidy and crime. It was usually the 
first act of a monarch, on ascending the throne, to put to death his 
brothers, uncles, and nephews ; and thus consanguinity generally led 
to the most deadly and fatal enmity. These.murders so thinned the 
race of Cloyis as often to produce the reign of kings under age ; 

!• B9i»s0HM^ (aooahtODg) now a fbrtiflod town on the i1y«r Altne, sixty-eight miles north- 
eMi fhmi Pai1a,~-anclontly ^rovioditnum,'-'W9B a dty of the Suett&net^ In Belgic Gaul, which 
Mbmltted to Jallns deaai*. Here Clovls exUngoUhed the last remains of the Western empire 
by Us Tlelory over the Roman general Sytgrtus. The town then became the capital of the 
Fnaka^ and, afterwards, of a kingdom of Its own name, In the sixth and aefventh centuries. 
{Mmp No. XIU.) 

9. PmriM^ the metropolis of France, Is sitoated on the river Seine, (sane) one hnndrod and 
teamilss ftom Its mooih, and two hundred and ten miles soath^east Itom London. When 
6aal was Invaded by Jullns Caesar, Paris, then called Lntitia, was the chief town of the 
Beigle tribe of the Paru- tif— whence the city deriyes its modem name. It was at Lot^lhi 
I th« Apostate was sainted emperor by liis soldien. (Map No. XIII.) 

«. The Boman corniption of Chlodwig, or. In modera German, Lndwig: In modem Franek 
L^mUr-'&Ummmdl, i. 17S, Note, 
b. See Jftwirioy Note, p. S7S. 


and erentiiAUy the oastom was estaUiahed of electhig r^giats or 
guardians for them, who, by exeroising the rojal functions during the 
minority of their wards, aoquired a power above that of the monaroh 
himselL At the time of the Sanusen invasion of France, Charles 
Martel the guardian of the nominal sovereign, governed France With 
the humble title of mayor or duke. His son Pepin succeeded him, 
and during the minority of his royal ward, the imbedle Childerie 
III., vrielded ihe power, without assuming the name and honots of 
royalty ; but at length, in 752, he threw off the mask, obtained a 
.decree of pope Zachary in his &vor, detiironed the last of the Mero- 
vingian kings, and caused himself to be crowned in the preseocd of 
the assembled nation, the first monarch of the Carlovingian dynasty. 
' It was upon this occasion that the popes firjst exercised the authority 
of enUironing and dethroning kings/ 

43. Of the reign and the character of Pepin we know little, ex- 
cept that he exhibited a profound deference for the priesthood, and 
was engaged in a long stru^le Trith the former Grerman allies of the 
Franks ; and that at the time of his death, in 768, there was no 
portion of Gaul that was not subject to the French monarchy. He 
divided his kingdom between his two sons, Charles the elder, usually 
called Charlemagne, and Carloman the younger ; to the former of 
whom he bequeathed the westem portion of the empire, and to the 
latter, the eastern ; but as Carlomaa died soon after, Cltftfles stripped 

1. The ft«qMBt«UvBioii8 made in bUtory to papal auQiorlty and papal i 
neoeasaiy iome explanation of the grawth of the papal power. 

Tile word po^ cornea fh>m the Greek word pcptL, and signiflee father. In the early times of 
Chriatiantty thia appellation waa gtren to all Christian priests ; bnt during maAy oeoturles past 
it has been appropriated to the Bishop xft Rome^ whom the HoniBA CalhoUca look upon as the 
common father of all Christians. ' 

Boman Catholics beliere that Jesus Christ constituted St. Peter the chief pastor to watch 
oyer his whole flock here on earth— that he la to have sacoessors to thdiend of Ume— and thai 
the bishops of Borne, elected by the cardinaU or chief of the Bomish dergy, are his legltlmala 
soccessors, popes, or (atfaers of the cborch, who have power and Jurisdiction over all Ohiiatlaaa, 
in order to preserve unity and purity of fUth, doctrine, and worship. 

During a long period aller the introduction of ChrisUanily into Rome, the bishops of Rotae 
were merely fatkera of tlu Ckurtk^ and possessed no temporsl pOw«r. It waa coslomary, 
however, to consult the pope in temporal matters ; and the powerf\il Pepin fonnd no diflteulty 
In obtaining a papal decision in favor of dethroning the imbOoUe QtlUeric, and indoolng tba 
pope to come to Puis to ol&ciate at his coronatioii Soon after, in 75&, Pepin invested the 
pope with the exarchate of ^ven' na ; and it is at this point— the union of teesporal and 
spiritual jurisdiction—that tlie proper history of the papacy begins. Charlemagne and ano 
ceeding princes added other provinces to the papal government ; but a long atn^pgle ftir su- 
premacy followed, between the popes and the German emperors ; and under the pontiflcate 
of Gregory VIl^ towards the dose of the eleventh oentmy, the claims of the Roman pontiflfe 
to supremacy over all the sovereigns of the earth, were boldly asserted as the baste of the po- 
ntieal system of the papacy. 

Ob4f. U] "^ MIDDLE AGES. 257 

liis brother's widow and children of their inheritance, which he added 
to his own dominions. 

44. The first acts of the reign of Charlemagne showed the warrior 
eager for ccmquest ; for, advancing with an arfuj heyond the Loire/ 
he compelled the Aquitanians, who had been subdued by Pepin, but 
had since revolted, to submit to his authority. His next enemies 
were the Saxons^ who bounded his dominions on the north-east, and 
whose territories extended along the German ocean from the Elbe* 
to the Khine. While all the other German tribes had adopted 
Christianity, the Saxons still sacrificed to the gods of their fathers ; 
and it was both the des'ire of chastising theii repeated aggressions, 
and the merit to be derived from their conversion to Christianity, 
that led Charlemagne to declare war against these fierce barbari- 
ans. (A. D. 772.) 

45. His first irruption into the Saxon territory was successful ; for 
lie destroyed the pagan idols, received hostages, and on the banks of 
the Wcser** concluded an advantageous peace. But the free spirit of 
the Saxons was not quelled : again and again they rose in insurreo* 
tion, headed by the fstmous Witikind, a hero worthy of being the 
rival of Charlemagne ; and the war continued, with occasional inter- 
ruption, during a period of thirty-two years. At length, however, 
peace was granted to Witikind, who received baptism, Charlemagne 
himself acting as sponsor ; and Saxony submitted to the Frankish 
institutions, as well* as to those of Christianity. A few years 
later the Saxon youth, who had taken no share in ^he previous con- 
flicts, arose in rebellion, but they were eventually subjugated, 
(A. D. 804,) when ten thousand of their number were transported 
into the country of the Franks, where they were gradually merged 
into the nation of their conquerors. It was in the midst of the 
ravages of these Saxon wars that the north of Germany passed from 
barbarism to civilization ; for monasteries, churches, and bishoprics, 
immediately sprung up in the path of the conquerors ; and although 

1. The Latre^ (looar) (andently I^er), Is the princlpAl river of France, through the central 
pert of which it flows, in a W. direction to the Atlaniic. Its basin comprises nearly one-foorlb 
part gf the kingdom. Tlie Loire was the northern boundary of the country of the ^quitAniatu. 
Hm eaiiy seat of the empire of Charlemagne was therefore north of the Loire. {Map 

S. The El^e, (anciently J3f bity) rising in the mountains of Bohemia, flows north-west 
through central Europe, and enters the German ocean, or North sen, at the southern extremity 
of DeunarlL This stretfm was the eaatemmoBt extent of the Germanic expeditions of the Ro- 
xuuM. iMmpHo.Xyih) 

X The fTesery (anciently Vi$ur'gisy) a river of Germany, enters the north sea between th$ 
Bheoottaeeoataiidtbe&iiioiithftweat. (Map Vo. X\n.) 




the religion which they planted was snperficial and ooirapt, they at 
least diffused some respect for the arts of civilixed life. 

46. Soon after the commencemeDt of the Saxon wars, Charle- 
magne found another, hut less formidahle enemy, in the Lomhards 
of Italy. The Lombard king had given protection to the widow of 
Garloman, the deceased brother of Charlemagne, and had required 
pope Adrian to anoint her sons as kings of the Franks ; and upon 
Adrian^s refusal, he threatened to carry war into hi« little territory 
of a few square miles around Rome. The pope demanded aid from 
Charlemagne, who, assembling his warriors at Greneva,' crossed the 
Alps into Italy and eompelled the Lotaibard king, I>esid6rius, to 
shut himself up in his capital at P4via,* which, after a siege of six 
months, surrendered. Desid^rius became prisoner, and was sent to 
end his days in a monastery, while Charlemagne, placing the iron 
crown of the Lombards up9n his head, caused himself to be pro- 
claimed king of Italy. (774.) 

47. A few years after the overthrow of the kingdom of the Lom- 
bards, Charlemagne carried his conquering arms into Spain, whither 
he had been invited by the viceroy t>f Catalonia,* to aid him against 
the Moham' medans. (677-8.) Pampeldna^ and Saragos' sa* were 
dismantled, and the Arab princes of that region swore. fealty to tho 
conqueror, but on the return of Charlemagne across the Pyrenees, 
his rear guard was at^cked in the famous pass of Roncesvalles,' and 

1. 0€iuva, dMCribed ^j Oonr •■ being "• the frontier town of the AUobrfrglaofl^" retahM Ut 
nnefeot name. It Is on the Rhone, at the Bouth-weslem extremity of the Lake of Geneva, 
(anciently Iceman' nus)^ and is the most populous city of Swltzertand. In the year 4S6 it was 
taken by the Burgun' diana, and became their capItaL It aflerwiirdB belonged, saooeaalirely, to 
the Os' trogothfl and Franks, and also to the second kingdom of Bur' gundy. On the (Ul of the 
latter H was governed by ito own bishops; but at the time of the Reformation the bikhops 
were expelled, and Geneva became a republic (M^s No. XIV. and X VIL) 

2. PAoto, (anciently TYeiaani,) is situated on the Ticino (anciently Ticinua,) north of the P<S 
and twenty miles south from Milan. P&via has* sustained many sieges, but is principally dis- 
tlnguUhed for the great batUe fought in its vicinity Feb. S4th, 1S8S. See p. 3S7. (Map No. X VH.) 

3. CataUnia wss the north-western province of Spain. It was successively subject to the 
Romans, Goths, and Moors ; but in the 8th and 9th centuries in connection with the adjoining 
Frenoh province of Rous' siUon, it became an independent State, subject to the counts or earls 
of Barcelona. (JtfopNo.XIIL) 

4. Pampelitnit, a forlided city of Spain, supposed to have been built by Pompey after the de- 
feat of Serl6rlua, (see p. 176,) Is a short distance south of the Pyrenees, and forty miles ftom 
the Bay of Biscay. It was the capital oflhe kingdom, now province, of Navarre. (MapHo-XlU.) 

5. Sarag-ot' to, (ancienUy Cmsor Augutta) situated in a flne plain on the Fbro, (anciently 
Jbtnu^ is elghty^eeven mHes south-east from Pampeluna. It is a very ancient city* "b^' ^ 
■aid to have been founded by the Phasnicians or Carthaginians. Julius Osssar greatly va^arf^ 
it, and Augustas gave it the name of Gasaar Augusta, with the privUeges of a free colony* 
iJHof No. xrii.) 

0. B^ucesvaUes (IZm'^o-voO is about twenty mlloe north-eaat from PampeKma. {Map No. XIH.) 


eotireij oat to pieoeet. Poesy and fiible have combined to render 
memorable a defeat of which history has preserved no details. 

48. After Charlemagne had extended his empire oyer Fsanoe, 
Germany, and Italy, minor conquests easily followed ; and many of 
the other sorronnding nations, or rather tribes, fell under his power, 
or Bolidted his protection. Thus the dominion of the Franks pene- 
trated into Hungary, and advanced upon the Danube as far as the 
frontiiers of the Greek em]iire. A conspiracy in Rome having forced 
the pope to seek the protection of Charlemagne, in the year 800 
the latter visited Home in person to punish the evil doers. While 
he was there attending services in St. Peter's Church, at the Christ-. 
mas festival, the gratified pontiff plaoed upon his head a crown of 
gold, and, in the fprmula observed for the Roman emperors, and 
amid the acclamations of the people, saluted him by the titles of 
Emperor and Augustus. This act was considered as indicating the 
revival of the Empire of the West, after an interruption of about 
three centuries. 

49. Charlemagne, asking of the German Franks, was thus seated 
on the throne of the CsDsars. Nor was the circumstance of his re 
oetving the imperial crown unimportant, as by the act he declared 
himself the representative of the ancient Roman civilization, and not 
of the barbarism of its destroyers. In Italy, Charlemagne sought 
teachers for the purpose of establishing public schools throughout 
his dominions: he encouraged literature, and attempted to revive 
commerce ; and his capital of Aix-laChapelle' he so adorned with 
sumptuous edifices, palaces, churches, bridges, and monuments of art, 
as to ~give it the appearance of a Roman city. By the wisdom of 
his laws, and the energy which he displayed in executing them, he 
established order and regularity, and gave protection to all parts of " 
hia empire. But with all the greatness of Charlemagne, his private 
life was not free from the stain of licentiousness ; and where his 
ambition led him he was unsparing of blood. He caused four thou- 
sand five hundred imprisoned Saxons to be beheaded in one day, las 
a terrible example to their countrymen, and as an act of retribution 
for an army which he had lost ; and as a right of conquest he de- 
nounce the penalty of death against those who refused baptism, or 
who even eat flesh durmg Lent. Still his long reign is a brilliant 

I. Jiipia-Okapdle (j^ithtkapptf) the ftvorite raaldenoe of Chaiiemagiie^ Is an old aod 
vetUniUt dty of Praatlan Gennaoy, wett of the Bhine, and MTent;jF^h( mUes eai4 fton. 
(Jlf^* No. ZUL aail XVQ.) 


period in the history of the middle ages ; — ^the more interestiiig, from 
the preceding ohaos of disorder, nnd the- disgraces and miseries yr\nxh 
followed it ; — ^resembling the coarse of a meteor that leaves the dark- 
ness still more dreary as it disappears. 

50. The posterity of Charlemagne were unequal to the task of 
preserving the empire which he had formed, and it speedily fell 
asunder by its own weight. To the mutual antipathies of different 
races, — the German on the one side, including the Franks, knit to- 
gether by their old Teutonic tongue, — 4md the nation of mingled 
Gallic, Roman, and Barbarian origin, on the other, which afterwards 
assumed, the name of Franks, and gave to their own country the 
appellation France, — ^was added the rivalry of the CarloviDgian 
princes; and about thirty years after the death of Charlemagne 
(A. I). 814), at the dose of a period of anarchy and civil war, the 
empire was divided among his descendants, and out of it were con- 
stituted the ^separate kingdoms, — France, Germany, and Italy. 
(A. D. 843.)^ 

51. The motive that led the Oarlovingian princes to put an end 
to their unnatural wars with each other, was the repeated invasion 
of the coasts of France and Germany by piratical adventurers from 
the north, called Northmen or Danes, a branch of the great Teutonic * 
race, who, issuing from all the shores of the Baltic, annually ravaged 
the coasts of their more civilized neighbors, — and, by hasty incur- 
sions, even pillaged the cities far in the intorior. During more than 
a century these Northern pirates continued to devastate the shores 
of Western Europe, particularly infesting the coasts of Britain, 
Ireland, and France. 

52. In the meantime central Europe became a prey to the Hun- 
garians, a warlike Tartasian tribe, whose untamed ferocity recalled 
the memory of At' tila. The Saracens also, masters of the Medi- 
terranean, kept the coasts of Italy in constant alarm, and twice in- 
sulted and ravaged the territory of Rome. Amid the tumult and 
confusion thiXs occasioned, European society was undergoing a 
change, frbm the absolutism of imperial authority to the establish- 
ment of numerous dukedoms, having little more than a nominal de- 
pendence upon the reigning princes. ' Power was transferred^from 
the palace of the king to the castle of the baron ; and for a'time 
European history, — that of France in particular — is occupied with 
the annals of an intriguing, &ctious, aspiring nobility, rather than 

a. By the traaty of Verdun, Aug. llth, 8«8» 

Cstf.IL] . MIDDLE AGES. ' 261 

witii those of moBarehs and the people. From the confosion inoi- 
dent to snoh a. state of society we turn to the neighboring island of 
Britain, where, a few years after the dissolution of the empire of 
Charlemagne, the immortal Alfred arose,, drove back the tide of bar- 
barian conquest, and laid the foundation of those laws and institu- 
tions whidh have rendered England the most enlightened and most 
powerful of the nations of Europe. 

53. We have mentioned that, towards the elose of the sixth oen- 
tarj, the Saxon tribes from the shores of the Baltic had made them* 
Belves masters of the southern and more fertile provinces y^^ 

of Britain. After having extirpated the ancient British enouhh 
population, or driven it into Cornwall and Wales on the ^^*™*^- 
western side of the island, the kindred tribes of ihe Angles and Sax-' 
ons, under the common name of Anglo Saxons, established in England 
seren independent kingdoms, which are known in history as the Saxon 
Heptarchy. The intricate details, so far as we can learn them, of the 
history of these kingdoms, are uninteresting and unimportant ; and 
from the period of the first inroads of the Saxons clown to the 
time of the coronation of Alfred the Great in 872, the chronicles of 
Britain present us with the names of numerous kings, the dates of 
many battles, and frequent revolutions attended with unimportant 
results ; — the history of all which is in great part conjectural, apd 
gives us little insight into individual or national character. 

54. It appears that about the year 597 Christianity was first intro- 
duced into England by the monk Augustine, accompanied by forty 
missionaries, who had been seBt out by pope Gregory for the con- 
▼ersion of the Britons. The new faith, such as it pleased the church 
(o promulgate, being received cordially by the kings, descended from 
them to their subjects, and was established without persecution, and ' 
without the shedding of the blood of a single martyr. The religious 
seal of the Anglo Saxons greatly exceeded that of the nations <5f the 
continent ; and it is recorded that, during the Heptarchy, ten kings 
and eleven queens laid aside the crown to devote themselves to a 
monastic life. 

55. In the year 827 the several kingdoms of the Saxon Hep- 
tarchy were united in one great State by Egl^t, prince of the West 
Saxons, an ambitious warrior, who exhibits some points of compari- 
son with his illustrious cotemporary Charlemagne, at whose court he 
had spent twelve years of his early life. The^axon union, und^r the 
firm administration of Egbert, promised future tranquillity to the in* 

982 IfeDKBK HDTORT. [?4»IL 

habitantfl of BriCMn ; bnl wsuMljluid a regular goreniBeni been «* 
iabliahed wbon the piratical SeandinaTiaiia, known in Franoe under 
the name of Normans, and m Si^land bj that of Danee, landed in 
the aoathem part of the ialand, and after a bloody battle irith Eg- 
hfiiri at Cbarmonth in Doreetahtre, made good thmr retreat to their 
ships, carrying off all the portable wealth of the district (A. B. 833.) 
This was the beginning of the rayages of the Northmen- in Bngland; 
and they continued to plunder the coasts for nearly two centuries. 

56. From the death of Egbert in 838, to the aooeasion of Alfred 
the Great in 871, the throne of England was oocopied by four Saxon 
princes;* and the whole of this period, like the corresponding one 
in French history, is filled irith the disastet>us inyasions of the Danes.^ 

' In the course of a single year nine sanguinary battles were fought 
between the Saxons and their inyaders ; and in the last of ihese bat- 
tles king Bthelred received a 'wound which caused his death 
(87U2.) His brother Alfred, then only twenty-two years of age, 
succeeded to the throne. He had served with distinction in the 
numerous bloody battles fought by his brother ; but on his aoceasiott 
he found nearly half the kingdom in the possession of the Danes; 
and within six years the almost innumerable swarms of these in- 
vaders struck such terror into the English, that Alfr^, who strove to 
assemble an army, found himself suddenly deserted by all his war 

57. Obliged to relinqmsh the ensigns of royalty, and to seek 
shelter firom the pursuit of his enemies, he disguised himself under 
the habit of a peasant, and for sonw) time lived in the cottage of a 
goatherd, known only to his host, and regarded by his hostess as an 
inferior, and occasionally intrusted by her with the menial duties of 
the household. It is said that, as he was one day trimmmg his ar- 
rows by the fire-side, she desired him to watch some cakes that were 
bakltag, and that when, forgetting his trust, he suffered them to burn, 
she severely upbraided him for his neglect Afterwards, retiring 
with a few fiuthful followers to the marshes of Somersetshire, he 
built there a fortress, whence he made occasional suooessfol sallies 
upon the Danes, who knew not from what quarter the blow eame. 
While his very existence was unsuspected by the enemy, under the 

a. ElbelwoU; Ethelbald, Ethelbert, and Ethelrad. "^ 

b. As the term Mtrmmtu wm at a later period exdmlTelj appropriated (o that tnnch ofthe 
BeandlnaTiaiw wklch aettled in Normandy, we shaU foUow the English writers and apply ^ 
term Danu to those barlMrians of the samelkmlly whoso long ranged ttie EngUatiW^ 

Oup.H] MIDDLE AGEa 263, 

dtsgnise of a barper he yisited tbeir camp, where his musical skill 
obtained for him a welcome reception, and an introduction to the 
tent of the Danish prince, Guthrum. Here he spent three days, wit- 
ne^ed the supine security of the enemy, thoroughly examined the 
camp and its i^proaches, and then went to meet his countrypaen, for 
whom he had appointed a gathering in 8elwood forest.^ ^ 

58. The Saxons, inspired with new life and courage at the sight 
of their beloved prince, whom they had supposed dead, fell upon the 
unsuspecting Danes, and cut nearly all of them to pieces. (A. D. 878.) 
Ghithrum, and the small band of followers who escaped, were soon 
beei^ed in a fortitess, where they accepted the terms of peace that 
were offered them. Guthrum embraced Christianity; the greater 
part of the Danes settled peaceably on the lands that were assigned 
Uiem, where they soon intermingled with the Saxons ; while the more 
turbulent spirits went to join new swarms, of their countrymen in 
their ravages upon the French and German coasts. The shores of 
England were unvisited, during several years, by the enemy, and 
Alfred employed the interval of ^epose in organizing the future de- 
fence of his kingdom. In early life he had visited Italy, and seen 
the Greek and Boman galleys, which were greatly superior to 
the Danish unarmed vessels, that were fitted only for transport. 
Alfred now formed a navy ; and his vessels never met those of the 
Danes without the certain destruction of the latter. 

59. The Danes, however, who had settled in England, still occu- 
pied the greater part of the country, so that the acknowMged sov- 
ereignty of Alfred did not extend over any of the countries north-' 
ward of the city of London, — and fifteen years after the defeat of 
Guthrum, Hastings, another celebrated Danish chief, threatened to 
deprive the English king of the limited possessions which he still re- 
tained. After having plundered all the northern provinces of France, 
Hastings appeared on the coast of Kent with three hundred and 
thirty sail, and spreading his forces over the country, committed the 
most dreadful ravages. (A. D. 893.) The Danes in the northern 
pa^-ts of England jomed him ; but they were everywhere defeated, 
and eventually Hastings withdrew to his own country, taking back 
with him the most warlike portion of the Danish population, from the 
English channel to the frontiers of Scotland, after which the whole 
of England no longer hesitated to acknowledge the authority of Al- 
fred, although his power over the Danish population in the northern 

«. AtBrizloiHoaai0boi«lenorttelbnit,taWttWitra. WaWilnIi6Mfc«rfl 


port of the kingdom was still little more Uian nominaL He died 
ufier a reigu of twenty- nine years aad a-half^ baying deKnredly at- 
tained the appellation of Alfred the Great, and the title of fouadtt 
of the Englisli monarchy. (A. D. 901.) 

- 60. To Alfred the Englieih ascribe the origin of many of those in- 
stitutions which lie at the foundation of their nation V prosperity and 
renown. Aa the founder of the English navy, he planted the seeds 
of the maritime power of England : with bim arose the grandeer 
and prosperity of London, the place of the assembling of the national 
parliament or body of prelates, earls, barons, «nd burghers, or depu- 
ties from the English burghs, or associations of freemen : he fuade a 
collection of the Saxon laws, to which he added others framed or 
sanctioned by himself; he reformed the Saxon division of the coantry 
into counties and slures ; diyided the citiiens into oorporatioDS of 
tens and hundreds, with a regular system of inspection and police, 
in which equals exercised a superyision over equals ; and in the mode 
which he adopted of settling controversies, we trace the first indica- 
tions of the gjory of the English judiciary — the trial by jury. The 
ottltivation of letters, which had been interrupted at Uie first inva- 
sion of the then barbarous Saxons, was revived by Alfred, who was, 
himself, the most learned man in the kingdom : he founded schools 
at Oxford — the germ of the celebrated university of that name; 
and he set aside a considerable portion of his revenues for the pay- 
ment of the salaries of teachers. The character of Alfred is almost 
unrivalle(^in the annals of any age or nation ; and in the details of 
his private life we 'cannot discover a vice, or even a fault, to stain or 
sully the spotlessness of his reputation. 



TBKNTH centuries: AD.. 900 TO 1800 = 400 tbabs. 

ANALYSIS. 1. Causes of the coiirDsiON or Historic xatkrial*^ al lhS» period.— 2. State 
OF TiiK Sarackn WORLD. [B>u<da<J. Cordova. KhoraMan*.}— 3. Xhe Byz*stink kmfir»» 
Tftrkiah invaj»iona and congests. ICeonfia.]— 4. T»ie divfmons of the CaMovinifian emplrft 
Condition or Italy. Btrenger duke of FriiiH. Prince of Burgundy. , Hugh count ofPro- 
vence. Surrender of Ihe kiii^fdora lo Otho. [J'riuli. Switzerland. Provenci\]--5. Italy uii4« 
\he GermaD etnpcrorB. GuelA aud GblbeUioM. Dukes, Burqaiaco 

Cmjof. n,] lODDLE AGES. 265 

FBttjKftHaiiraiNiblies.— «.Coin>moNor6nMAifT. Itasii dukedoms. [Gtaucooy. lliiirin'gia. 
Tnaobaia. Bayftria. Suibta. J«ornuiie.] EDcrOAChmeiiU of the dakeflb Belgn of Oonnid. 
Hcoiy L of Saxony. Powen of the Saxon nden.~7. Gorditior or Frakoc. Charles the 
Simple. Other prinoes. DepoeltioD of Charles. [Tnaiq)urB]ie Baisnody. Proveqoe. Brit. 
ImnyT^—S. Setltemeat of the Northmen in Fruxoe. [Normandy.] Importance of this eveot.-^ 
91. The eoonts of Finis. Hogh Capet. [Rhelms.] SttmUion of France tor two hondrad and 
ftn7 jeais aAer the ioeesrion of Hugh GapeU 


1. Europe In the eentrsl period of the Ifiddle Agea. Origin of the Fcvbal Srmx. Us 
damiion and Impoitanoe.— S. Partition of lands by th^ barbarians who oyerthiew the Bomaa 
edkplrsw Conditions of the aUotment gradations of the system^— 3. Nature of the estates 
thus obtained. Crown lands— how disposed of. The woid /nui.— 4. Tlie feudal syatem in 
ftance. Charienagne's efforts lo check its progreta. Eflbets apon the nobilf ^. (3#owth of 
ihe power of the nobles after the overthrow of royal aathority. Thdr petty soverelgntiea.— 5. 
Condition of the allodial proprietors. They are forced to become feudal tenants.--6b Legal 
qvalltSes and resnlts tliat grew out of the feudal system. • BeUefls ^^"i^ eaeheats, aids, wtrd- 
ahip and marriage.— 7. The feudal goTemment in lis best state. Its influence on the character 
or Boeiety. General ignorance at this period. Sentiments of independence in the nobiUty. 

8. Sin of CmvALar. Our first notices of iu Its origin.— 0. Its rapid spread, and its good 
eflbeta— in. Its spirit based on noble impulses. Eixtrsct (h>m Hallam: From James. Cus- 
toms and pecttHarities of chivalry. Who were members of the institution:— 11. The profeaalon 
of anna among the Germans. Education of a knight. The practice of knight-errantry^— IS 
Sxieot of chivalry in the 11th century. Its spirit led to the crusades. 

OaioiM or THE CausiJDXB.— 13. Pilgrimages to Jerusalem. General expectation of the ap- 
pcoaefaing end of the workl^— 14. Extortion and outrage practiced upon the pilgrims. Honror 
and indignation excited theraby in Europe. The preachiBg of Peter the Hermit, [^mlens.]' 
1&. The councils of Placentia and Clermont. [Placentia and Clermont.] (Sathering of the 
eraaaderB fer the Ferbt CavsAna.- KL Conduct and fete of the feramosi bands of the cm- 
aadera. The genuine army of the crusade. [Bouillon.]— 17. Conduct of Alexius, emperor of 
Constantinople. His proposals spumed by the crusaders.— 18. Number of the crusaders col- 
lected in Asia Minor. First enooonter with the Turks. [Nice. Bithyn'ia. R6um.] The 
march to Syria. [Dorila' um.]— 19. The siege and capture of Antioch. The Persian and 
l^nkiBh hosts defeated before the town.— SO. Civil wars among the Turks. The caliph of Egypt 
lakea Jerusalem. Proposal to unite his forces with the Christians n^ected.- 81. March of the 
crwaders to Jerusalem. [ML Lib' anus. Trip'olL Tyre. Acre. Ciesar^a.] Transports of 
Ibe Christians on the fl»st view of the city. Attack, and repulse.— S2. Capture of Jen^leniv 
Acts of veneration and worship. Beoeptlon given to Peter the Hermit. His ultimate fete^- 
23. The new govenmient of Jerusalem. Minor Christian States. Defenceless state of Jerusac 
lem under Godfrey. Continued pilgrimages. Orders of knighthood established at Jerusalem. 
The noted valor of the knights. 

94. OMrtthned yeariy emigration of pilgrim warriors to the Holy Land. Six principal om- 
•adea. Ilwir general clnracter.— 35. The Sacoirn Csosadx. The leading army under Conrad. 
The army of Freaeh and Germans.— S6. Jerusalem taken by Saladin. The Third Crubadk, 
fkle of the German emperor. Bnooesses of. the French and English. Retnm of PhiUp. 
Slebaid oonclndes a truce with Saladin. [Ascalon.]— S7. The Fourth Crvsadb, led by Bonl- 
feee. Tim crusaders take Zara, and conquer Constantinople. No benefit to Palestine. [Mont* 
•arrai. Zaia.}— sa The Fifth CRosAns. Partial aoooeasea, and final min, of the expedition. 
[Damletia.] Expedition of the German emperor, Frederic IL Treaty with the sultan, by 
which Jcniaalem is yielded to the Christians. Jerusalem sgain taken by the sultan, bat re- 

n. ODMmpomry events In JUMlhem Asia. Tartar CotrqirasTs in Aala and in Eorope. 
[Oilna. Rosaia. Kiev, kosoow.] Alarm of the Christian nations of Europe. Recall of the 
eoaqnering hordes.— 30. The Corasmlns. They ovemm Syria and take Jerusalem, but sre 
•mUT expelled by the united Turks and Christians.— 31. The Si^th Cbusadb, led by Louis 
DL, wkD attacks Egypt. The second crusade of Louis. Attack upon Carthage. Result of the 
expedition.— 3S. Acre, the last stronghold of the OhrisUaas in Syria, taken by the Turks, 1991. 

M • 



1. OvrlutnilBreawtotheblaloiyof b^tattl. The presMt oontiAitttlon.--4; GooditloD of 
Slr«LAH» AFTBm tvB BBATS or Ai.ntK9. Bigtaul duliig lli« ftlgD of EttMlrad II* MuMora 
or the Dmios. Eflbelo of tbto inpotMe iimmoio. Ouolo. BoeoU of Elhelnd. Edmund 
KroDfllde. Cbanto aolo nioBBf«h^-4. Hit eoDcillotory pollojr. His nst po Mw io t ia. Chaneter 
or Ub adndiilBtnllon oT tbo goTonnioaft— 4. Horold and Uaidieainito. Tbe ndgn of Bdwud 
tlM OoBtewr. BtohU. thai dlainrbod bla ioIsil Aooewion of HaiokL The Normm 
OoiiQVBST. ^onex. Hintingn "}—&, Gradual coaqaoBi of ali England. WllUam^i treatoMot 
of hit oonqiwred subjoeta.— 4L Tbe feudal BTStem fai EnglaiMl. Tbe Doomadajr Booi^. Saxom 
md NonMBB^T. BolgnBor WmiBm BiiAHi and Beoiy L— & UauipaUoii and reign of Stepben. 
Hjbht n. CPlBntaganot.]— fti Beanr'a oztooilTe poaaowlona. Rkpuctioii op Ublaho. [His- 
tory of Ireland.] Ibo trooblea of HewyV relgnv— 10. Reign of RIebaid, the Lion Hearted.— >L 
Baigftof John,wiiaBa>od UclUaad. Lom of bla oonUnental poaaeaaloBa. Qoaneli wlOa the 
popo :— vltb Ibe bafona. JMyao CSkarU. QrU war, and death of John.— 13. Tbe long reign 
or Bonrj HI. Hie diflloqitlea with the barons. Ftnt gemaaof popular repceseotatloo. 13. 
Hm reifn oT Bdwaid L Sub^ooation or Walks. [History of Wales.]— 14. RelaUons be- 
tir«pn Bi^land and BooUand. The priaosaa MBigBret--15. BaUol and Bnioe. Beginolngof 
theSoomsB WABs. Submlasloo of BalioL [Dunbar.]— 10. William Wallace reooverv Scoir 
land,bvt Is defeated atFUkMc [attrUng. Fitlklrflc] Fate. of WaUjaco.>-17. Robert Bnica 
ttmmad kli« of Sootlaod. Bdward IL defeated by him. [Bcoae. Bannockburo.] 

1& Northern natlona of Bnropedurii« this period. Wars between the Moors and CbriidBBi 
!■ the flpanlah panlnaala. Final orarthipw of the Baracen power In the penlnwihu 


Mntnry brings us to the central period of what has been denomi- 
nated the Middle Ages. The history of the known world presents 
L ooNTuaioy ^ gf^^f oonfusion and discordance of laaterials at this 
or BisToaio than at any preceding epoch ; for at this time we have 
1CATSUAL8. neither a great empire, like the Grecian, the Persian, or 
the Boman ; nor any great simultaneoos movement, like the mighly 
tide df the barbarian invasions, to serve as the starting and the re- 
turning point for our researches, and to give, by its prominence, a 
sort of unity to cotemporaneous history ; but on every side we see 
States falling into dissolution ; the masses breaking into fragments ; 
dukes, counts, <and lords, renouncing their allegiance to kings and 
emperors ; cities, towns, and castles, declaring their independence , 
and, amid a general dissolution of the bonds of society, we find 
almost universal anarchy prevailing. 

2. In the East, the empire of the caliphs, the mighty colossos of 
Muflsqlmaa^dominion, was broken ; the Saracens were no longer ob- 

n. ram i^ ^^ terror to all their neighbors, and the frequent 
■▲aAOKN revolutions of the throne of Bagdad,' the central seat 
woatD. Qf t]jQ religion of the prophet, had geased |o have any 

t Bagdad^ a fkfcoua dty of Astatic Turlcey,— long tbe chief aeat of Moslem power in AjJi» 
—the cupltal of the Eastern caliphate, and of the scientific world daring the '* Dark Agea> » 
dtuated on the river Tigris, slxty-eighl miles north of the ruins of Babylon. * 

BafldsdiiBsfeaAdcdbf tlk»«aiphAl.lIao«DanA.D.7ei;aiidls8^ ba?e b«tt priA«* 

a] unmuL agbs. M7 

I on ilie roBt of tiie world. About the middle of the oi^tli 
eeninrj, the Mo<»r8 of Spaiii ht^d eeparated themselves from their 
Xaston brethren, and made Cor' dova' the seat of their dominion ; 
aad little more than two oentmries and a half later, (A. D. 1031) 
the diTiflioii of the Western Oaliphate into a great number of small 
principalities, which were weakened by civil dissensions, contributed 
to the enlargement of the Christian kingdoms in the northern pajrt 
of the peninsula. Soon after the defection of the Moors of Spain, 
an indq[>endent Saracen monarchy had arisoA in Africa proper : this 
was followed by the establishment of new dynasties in Egypt^ 
Khorasosn',' and Persia ; and eventually, in the tenth century, we 
ibd the Caliphate divided into a great number of petty States, whose 
annals, gathered firom oriental writers, furnish, amid a labyrinth of 
almost unknown names and coimtries, little more than the chronology 
of princes, with the civil wars, parricides, and fratricides of each 
reign. Such was the condition of that vast population, comprising 
many nations and languages, which sftll adhered, although under dif; 
ferent forms, and with many departures from the originals, to the 
general principles of the moslem faith. 

3. The Bysantine empire still continued to exist, but in weakness 
and ooimption. ^' From the age of Justin' ian," says Gibbon, " it 

paQf fbmwd out of tbe rolM of Otos' f pbon. U was greaOj •nlnrged aad adomed by the 
graadflOD of it* foander, the fiunoos Haroan-al-Raaehid. It continued to flourish, and to bo 
tte principal-seat of learning and the arts tlU 1356, when Hoolaku, grandson of Gengis Khan, 
'•Bdoeed the ei^ after a alege of two months, andi^ye It up to plunder and massacre. It is 
mM that the norobierof the slain in the eity alone amounted to eight hundred thousand. Since 
that event Bagdad has witnessed various other sieges and revolutions. It was burnt and 
L by the isroelens Tlmour A. D. 1401, who erected a pyramid of human heads on its 
In 1S37 it Ineuned the vengeance of Amunth IV., the Turkish sultan, who barbarously 
a large portion of the Inhabitants. Since that period the once illustrious city, now 
BBBberlag less than a hnttdred thowsand Inhabltanta, has been degraded to tbe seat of a Turk- 
ish pashalSc. The Jlch merchants and the beaatifttt princesses of the Ambian Tales have all 
dlaappeared ; but it retains the tomb of the charming Zobelde, the most beloved of the wives 
of Harovn-iMlaadild, and ean stilt boast of iU numerous gardens and well stocked bazaars. 

1. 0»r' rfsee, a dty of Andalusia In Spain, is situated on the Guadalqttiver,*one hundred and 
ei8ht2,-Sve miles south-west (h>m Madrid. It is supposed to have been founded by the Ro- 
nana, oader whom 11 attained to great distinction as a rioh and populous dty, and a seat of 
iMinIng In 579 It was taken by the Goths, and in 711 by the Moors, under whom it after* 
wanb became the splendid capital of the ** Caliphate of tbe West;"* but with the extinction 
«f the Western caliphate, A. D. 1031, the power and tbe glory of Oor'dova passed away. 
OoT'dera oonthraed to be a separate Moorish kingdom unttl the year A. D. 1336, when it was 
taken and almost wholly destroyed by the hnpolitic zeal of Ferdinand TIF. of Castile. It haa 
nevwr sinoe recovered Its prevtons prosperity ; and Its population has diminished since the 11th 
eentory, ftom five hundred thousand to less than forty thousand. (Map No. XI If.) 
a. Atfrassaa*, (the <* region of tBe sun,**) Is a piprince of Modem Persia, at the soutb-eastertt 
r of the CasgJan Sea^lnhahHwl by Peftjans proper, Tgrimiaiii, and Koidt. Thexr 

S68 MODraV mSTOBT. [PiwH 

was sinking below its fonner level : the powers of destruction were 
^ ^^ more active than those of improvanent ; and the calam- 
BTSAirmrK ities of War were imbittered bj the more permanent 
^^^'^ evils of ci^l and eoclesiastical tyranny.'^ It was daily 
becoming more and more separated i^bm Western Europe; its^re- 
lations, both of peace and war, being chiefly with the Saracens, who, 
in the period of their conqnests, overran all Asia Minor, and were 
forming permanent establishments within si^t of Constantinople. 
Toward the close of the tenth oentory, however, a brief display of 
vigor in the Byzantine princes, Niceph' oros, Zimf sns, and Basil II., 
repeUed the Saracens, and extended the Asiatic boundaries of the 
empire as fur south as An^ooh, and eastward to the eastern limits 
of Armenia; bat twenty-five years after the death of Basir(1025) 
his effeminate successors were suddenly assaulted by the Turks or 
Turcomans, a new race of Tartar barbarians of die Mussulman fiiitb, 
whose original seats were beyond the Caspian Sea, along the northern 
boundaries of China. Durinff%e first invasion of the Turks, under 
their leader Togrul, (1050]^ one hundred and thirty thousand 
Christians were sacrificed to the religion of the prophet His 8ao> 
cesser. Alp Arslan, the << valiant lion," reduced Georgia* and Arme- 
nia, and cUfeated and took captive the Bysantine emperor Rom^os 
Diog' enes ; and succeeding princes of the Turkish throne gatiiiered 
the fhiits of a lasting conquest of all the provinces beyond the Bos'* 
porus and Hellespont. 

4. Turning to the West, to examine the oonditioi^ of-the three* 

great divisions of the empire of the Carlovingians — ^Italy, German j, 

and Gkiul, — we find there but the wrecks of former greatness. In 

Italy, the dukes, the governors of provinces, and the leaders of 

IT. ooNDi- <^i'D:^i^) were possessed of far greater power than the 

TioH or reigning monarch. Having for a long period perpetu- 

"^^' ated their dignities in their families, they had becpme 

in fact petty 'tyrants over their limited domains ; ever jealous of the 

royal authority, and dreading Hop loss of their privileges, they con- 

1. Otorgia is between tbe Owptan and the Black Sea, feftving Ch-eeasia on the north and Ar- 
menia on the aouth. Thia ooonUy waa annexed to the Reman empire by Pom|»ey, in the jeer 
65 B. C. During the dth and 7th oenfeuriea it waa a theatre of conteit between the Greek ea- 
pttt and the Perriana. In the 8th centory a prince of the Jewish fuallj of the Bagtat' idea ea- 
tabltshed there a monarchy wlUch, with few interruptions, continued in his line down to the 
eommenoement of tbe 19th century. In 1801 the emperor Paul of Busala declared himseli^ at 
the request of the Georgian prince, soyereign of Georgia. ^ 

a. Gibbon, It. 4. 


«|Hr6d agamst their aov^reign as often ti he Bhowed an inclination «o 
teaone the people from the oppreamye fizactiona of their masters. In 
the early part of the tenth centnry thej arose against Berenger, 
duke of Fritili/ who had been proclaimed king, and offered the 
erown to the prinoe of Bar' gondy, who daring two years onited the 
goyemment of Italy to that of Switzerknd.* (923-925.) Soon 
abandoning him, the tarbulent noblei^ elevated to the throne Hogh, 
count of Proyenoe;* and finally Italy, exhausted by the animosities 
and struggles of the aristooracy, iiade a voluntary surrender of the 
kingdom to Oiho the Great, the Sazon piinoe of Germany, who, in 
thY year ^2, was crowned at Milan with the iron crown of Lorn'* 
bardy, and at Rome ifith the golden crown of the empire. 

5. Daring several succeeding centuries the German emperors were 
nominally recognised as sovereigns of the greater part of Italy ; bat 
as they seldom crossed the Alps, their authority was soon reduoeH 
to a mere shadow* The pretensions of the court of Rome were op- 
posed to those of the German princes ; and during the- quarrels that 
arose between the Guel£s and Ghibellines,* — the former the adherents 
of Rome, and the latter of Germany— Italy was thrown into the 
greatest confusion. While some portions were under the immediate 
jurisdiction of the G^erman emperor, a large number of the dukes, 
marquises, counts, and prelates, residing in iheir castles which they 


1. JBHUt to an Ilalian prorinoe at tbo bndof the Adriatic, and at the north-eastern ex 
tiemitj of Italy. 

SL BmUurUatd^ anefentty caHed HelT^Ua, la an Inland and monntalnona country of Eoropc, 
having the German StatM on the north and east, Italy on the aoath| and France on the west. 
JoUna Caoar lednced the HelT«tUna to snhmlaslon 15 years B. a ; after which the Romana 
flMmdad in U sereral flowtebing dtles, wUeh were afterwards destroyed by the barbarians. In 
the b^taming of the 5ih oentory the Borgnn' dlana OTenan the western part of Switzerland, 
and flzed their aeaU aroond the lake <tf Geneva, and on the banks of the Rhone and theSaone. 
Filly yean latd the Aleman'ni orerran the eastern part of Switzerland, and a great part of 
Gennany, oTerwhelmimc the momimenta of Roman power, and blotting out the Christianity 
wUch Borne had planted. At the close of the fifth centaiy the Alenum' nl were oreribrown 
\fj Clovls;— the first Buimn'dlan empire feU A. I>. 535 ; and for a long period afterward Hel- 
T^tia fbrmed a {Art of tie French monarohy. The partition of the dominions of Charlemagne 
threw Switzerland into the German part of the empire. In the year 1307 the three fbrest 
cantons^ Url, Soh^rytz, and Vnterwaldeu, entered into a confederacy against the tyranny of the 
Anatrian booae oTfi^wboig, then at the head of the German empire. Other cantons from 
time to time joined the leaguOi or were conquered fh>m Aostria ; but it viras not till the time 
of Napoleon that all the prasent exiatli^ cantons were brought into the confederacy. {Map9 

3. PrvvMM, see p. S7I. 

4 These party names, obscure in origin, were imported ftom (Sermany. In the wars of 
nedeilc Baibarossa, (the BedbeardO the Owelfa were the champions of liberty : bi the 
ooaadea which the popea dirscted against that princess unfortunate descendanU they were 
nenly the partlaaiM of the Church. The name soon ceased to signify princlplesi and merely 
Mned the ame purpose as a watchword, or the color of a standard. 

29D MODUS mSTOET. t^jmll 

bid ttvoDi^j fbrtillei agahiit'tfae dapnobtiEg iMp^ads of tiie VonnMui, 
Baraoeni, ftad HunguiMUi, ezflrdaed an alscNrt ndependnit Mttkorit^ 
within their limited domaiiiB ; while a nomber of pettj republies, ihe 
uoBt important of whieh w«re Yeniee, Piaa, and Geaoa, forlHyiBg 
their oitiei , and electing their own magistrate!, set the aothority of 
the pope, the nobles, and the emperor, eqnaUy at defiaoea Such 
was the eonliised state <^ Italy in the central period of the Middle 
Ages. • 

6. Germany, at the hegiming •f the tenth oentnry, imder the nde 
of a i^mWf Louis lY., the last of the CarloTingian fitmily, was har- 
Y CON- ^^'"^ ^y frequent invasions of the Hnngarians ; wmle 
Dmoif or the nx dukedoms into which the eolimtry was diTided, 
awMNT. ^^ . g^^ji Thnrin' gta,' Pranc6nia,» BayAria,* SnAbia,* 
and Lorraine,* appeared like so many distinct nations, ready to de* 
olare war against each other. The dnkes, originally regarded as 
ministers and representatiTCs of their king, had long been encroach- 
ing on t^ royal prero^tires, and by degrees had arrogated to them* 
selres sach an increase of power, that the dignities temporarily eon- 
fisrred upon them became hereditary in their fiimilies; Th^ynext 
seised the royal rerennee, and made t^iemselyes masters of the pe(^e 

1. 8ax9*f, tba moit powerftd of the andest dudhiet of Germaqy, embraced, at the period 
of its greatest development, the whole extent of northern Germany between the months of the 
Bhine and the Oder, (^ay No. XVIL) 

8. Tkurin'fia was In the central part of Germany, west of PnoBlan Saxony. Ta the 13th 
century It was sabdirfded among many petty princes, and Incorporated with other States, after 
which the name fell gradually into disuse, tl is still preserred, in a Ihntted sense, in the 
Tkurin'frian forut, a hilly and woody tfact hi the hiterior of Germany, on the northern oott> 
floes of Bavaria. (Map No. XVII.) 

3. f^anc&nia was situated on both tides of the river Hafaie, and ia now taMloded moaOf 
within the limits of Bavaria. (Map No. XVn.) . 

4. Bavdrto— comprising most of the Ylndelida and Nor* learn of the Romans, Is a eovalry 
in the soulbero part of Germany. Tt was anciently a duchy— afterwards an electorate— and has 
now the rantc of a kingdom. {Map No. XVII.) 

5. SuAbia, of which Ulm was the capital, was in the sonth-westem part of Germany, weit 
of BavuriiL, nnd north of Switzerland. It is now Included in Baden, Wurtembargi and Bavaria. 
(Map No. XVII.) 

«. Lorraine^ (German l^tharinfia^) so called Prom Lothalre II., to whom this part of the 
country fell (n the division of the empire between him and his brothers Louis U. and Charles, 
In the year B54, eleven years after the treaty of Verdan, (see p. 880,) waa dlTlded into Upper 
and Lower Lorraine, and extended from the confines of Swltzeriaod, westward of the Rhine, 
to iU mouths, and the mouths of the Scheldt. (Skelt) A part of the Lower Lorraine waa af- 
terwards embraced in the French province of Lorraine, (see Map No. Xill.,) and la now oom- 
prised in the departmenU of the Mease, the Vosges, the Moselle, and the Mearlhe. I^rratDe 
was for centuries a subject of dispute between France and Germany. 

The relative position of the six German dukedoms was therefore as follows ^-Saxony oeeo* 
pied the northern portions of Germany ; Thurin' gla and Fkanc6nla the centre ; Bavaria the 
south-eastern ; Suibla the south-western ; and Lorraioe the oorth-westem. (Jhp» Ifo, JUL 
and XVIL) 

tnd their landa On the death of Lovis IV., (A. D. dll,) they set 
mside the legitimate clahnftnt, snd elected for their sovereign one of 
their own number, Conrad, duke of Frano6ffia. His reign of seven 
years was passed almost wholly in the field, cheeking the incursionii 
of the Hungarians, or quelling the insurrections of the other duke- 
doms against his authority. On his death (A. B. 918), Henry I., 
Bomamed the Fowler, duke of Saxony, was elected to the throne, 
which his family retailed little more tikan a century. (Until 1024.) 
The 8axon rulers of Germany, however, were not, Hke Ohaiiemagne, 
tlie sovereigns of a vast empire ; l^ut rather the ehiefis of a oonfeder* 
84^ of prinoes, reckoned of superior authority in matters of national 
ooncem, whfle the nobles still managed (heir provincial administra- 
ii<Mi mostly in their own way. The history of the little more than 
nominal sovereigns of Germany, therefore, during this period, con« 
tains but little of the history of the Oerman people. 

7. In Fiknce, the royal authority, at &e beginning of the tenth 

eentory, exercised an influence still more' feeble than in 

Oermany, and was little more than an empty honor. Dirioir o» 
Oharles the Simple, whose name bec^eaks his character, I'^nob. 
was the nominal sovereign; but fbur otiier princes in Oaul, bendes 
himself, bore the title of king, — ^those of Lorraine, Transjurane- 
Btkrgundy,' Provence,* and Brittany ;• — ^while in other parts of the 
country, powerful dukes and counts governed their dominions with 
absolute independence. At length, in the year 920, an assembly of. 
nobles formally deposed Oharles, but he continued his nominal reign 
nearly three years longer, while the people and the nobility were 
•scarcely cqniBcious of his existence. ' 

L Trantjurane-Bur' gundf, U thai portion of Bar' gundy that wu embraced in Switzeiland— 
bcffond the Juru, or western Alpa. 

SL Prwenee was in tbe ■onth-eastern part of France^ on the Mediterranean, bounded on tbm 
eaat by Italy, north by Daupbiny, and west by Langedoc Greek cofoniea were founded hers 
at an earty period, (see Marseilles, p. 157,) and the Romans, havlag' conquered the country, 
(B. G. 1S4,) gare it the name of JVoviimm, (the prorlnce,) whenee Its later name was derived. 
After the three-lbld dirislon of the empire of Louis le Debonnaire, the son and suecessor of 
Ohariemagne, by the treaty of Verdun in 843, (see p. 260,) Provence fell to Lothalre ; but It 
■flarvaids became a separate kingdom, under the name of the kingdom of Aries. In 134(( It 
passed to tbe bouse of Ai^ou by marriage ; and \n 1481 Louis XL united it to the dominions 
of the FVench crown, (.tfap No. XIII.) 

3l Brittanf^ or Brelagner was one of the largest provinces of France, occupying tbe penln- 
nla al tbe north-western extremity of the Ungdom, and Joined on the east by Puitou, Ai^ou, 
Maine, and Normandy. It now forms tbe lire departments, Flnisterie, Cotes du Nord, (coat- 
doo-aoO Mdrtoihvit lUe and VUalne, and Lower Loire. Brittany Is supposed to have derived 
Ito name fh>m the Briloos, who, expelled ftom England by the Anglo Saxona, took reftige 
hen to the llflh century. It formed one of the doefales of FhUMe till It vu united to the 
ibyFhmdaLtoiaaL (V^NaXllL) 

S72 MODSBK HttrrORT. [FiarXL 

8. The only really important eyeat of Fren^ history during tiie 
teuth century was the final settlement of the Northmen in that part 
of Nenstria/ which received from them the name of Normandy.* 
In the year 911, during the reign of Charles ^e Simple, the Norman 
chief RoUo, who had made hims^ the terror of the West, ascended 
the Seine with a fornudable fleet, and laid siege to Paris. 'After the 
purchase of a hrief tmoe, Charles made. him the tempting ofier, to 
cede to him a vast prorinoe of France, in whibh he might estahlish 
himself on condition that he would abstain from ravaging the rest of 
ihe kingdom, acknowledge the sovereignty of the crown of France, 
and, together with his followers, make a public profession of Christi- 
anity. The terms were a<Aepted : a region that had been completely 
laid waste by the ravages of the Normans was now assigned to them 
for an inheritance ; and these ruthless warriors, abandoning a life of 
pillage and robbery, were soon converted, by the wise regulations of 
their chiefe, into peaceful tillers of the soil, and the best and bravest 
of the citizens of France. This remarkable event put an ead to the 
war of Norman devastation, which, during a whole century, had de- 
populated western (Germany, Gaul, and England. 

9. Of the independent aristocracy of JPrasce, after the death of « 
Charles the Simple, the most powerful were tbe counts of Paris, who, 
during the last few reigns of the Carlovingian princes, exercised 
little less than regal authorily. At length, in the year 987, on the 
death of Louis Y., the fifth monarch after Charles the Simple, Hugh 
Capet, count of Paris, was proclaimed king by his assembled vassab, 
and anointed and crowned in the cathedral of Rheims,* by the arch-* 
bishop of that city. The rest of France took no part in this election; • 
and several provinces refused to acknowledge the suocessors of Hugh 
Capet, for three or four generations. The aristocracy still monopo- 

1. JVoMtrio. On the death of QotIs A. D. 511, (lee p. 3550 his four aons dirided the llf«r»- 
Tlagian Ungdom, embracing northern Gaol and Germany, Into two parts, caUing the eaitera 
Jtustrasioj and the western JWMtrta,— the latter term being derived from the negative particle 
M **not," and Austria :—^ustrasia, meaning the Eastern, and JiTeustria the Western monarchy. 
Jfmttria embraced that portion of modem France north of the Loire and west of tlie Meosa. 
(J»fap No. XIIL) 

2. Jformandff was an ancient province of France, adjoining Brittany on the north-east. 
(See Map No. XIIL) It became annexed to England through the aoeession of William, duke 
ofNormandy,totheEnglishthrone,A. D. 1066. (See p. 290.) PhlUp Augustus wrested It ftom 
John, and united it to Fnfllce, in 1303. 

3. AkeiiMf a city of France ninety-five miles north-east fh>m Paris, was a place of consldei^ 
able importance under the Bomans, who called It DurocorUrunu It become a biahoprio 
before the iiraption of the Franks, and reeelTed many piivilages from the MaroTlngi*& klngs^ 
Jir^ No. XHL j 

Gfttf.IL] mxasfLK AGSa ' -278 

Uadd all the prerogatives of royalty; and the power <^ tiie niblea 
alone, flourished or subsisted in the State. The period of two hun- 
dred and forty years, — ^from the accession of Hugh Capet to that of 
Louis IX., or Saint Louis, — ^is described by Sismondi as << a long in- 
i»r^gnam, during which the authority of king was eztinot, although 
tibe name contuiued to exist" 

IL The Fsudai. Ststeh, Oht^alry, and the Orusadbs. — 1. A 
ghiaoe at the state of Southern and Western Europe in the central 
period of the Middle Ages will show tha^ with the waning power, 
and final overthrow, of the Oarloyingian dynasty, a new order of 
things had arisen ; that kingdoms were broken into as many separate 
principalities as they contained powerful counts or barons; that 
legnkrly-constituted authority no longer existed ; and that a numer- 
ouB class of nobles, superior to aH restraint, and inyolved in petty 
feuds witii each other, oppressed their fellow subjects, and humbled 
or insulted their sorereigns, to whom they tendered au allegiance 
merely nominaL The rude beginnings of this state of society may 
be traced back to the germinating of the first seeds of order after 
the spread of barbarism over the Roman world ; its growth was 
checked undd^ the first Oarloyingians, who reduced the nobles to the 
lowest degradation; but with the deolme of royal authority in 
France, Germany, and Italy, it started into new life and ^irigor, and, 
towards the end of the tenth century, became organized under the 
nwne of the FeudeU System, It mamtained itself itntil , .^^^ 
about the end of the thirteenth century ; and during the fkudal 
period of its existence is the prgminent object that en- ^^^^'^ 
gages the attention of the historian of the Middle^ Ages. The unity 
of this portion of history will best be preserved by a brief historical 
outline of the system itself, and of the relations and events that 
grew out of it 

2. The people who overturned the empire of the Romans, made a 
partition of the conquered lands between themselves and the original 
poasesBors; but in- what manner or by what principles the division 
was made cannot now be determined with certainty; nor can the 
exaet condition in which the Roman provincials were left be ascer- 
tained, as the records of none of the barbarous nations of Europe 
extend back to this remote period. It is, however, evident that the 
chiefii, or leaders of l^e conquering invaders, in order to maintain 
their acquisitions, annexed, to the apportionment of lan^ among 
M* 18 * . 

874- MQBIBV UnOKSr. [nkirlL 

their ibllowf ra, tiie condittoii that eveiy freemn who noeifed a ahaiv 
should i4)poar in arms, whon oallod jxpon, againai the eaevHes of th« 
commiinity ; and militarj lerviee was probaUy at first the only eon- 
dition of the allotment. The imikiediate grantees of lands from the 
leading chief, or king, were prohahly the most noted warriors who 
served under him ; and these divided their ample estates among thehp 
more immediate followers or dependents, to be held of themselvee 
hy a similar tenure ; so that the system extended, throi^h several 
gradations, from the monarohs down tiurough all the sahordinales la 
authority. Each was bound to resort to the standard of his iomie- 
diate grantor, and thenoe to .that of hk sovereign, with a band of 
armed followers proportioned, in numbers, to the extent of the terri- 
tory which he had reoeived. 

^The primary division of lands among the oonquierora, wae 
probabfy cUlocUal; that is, they were todesoend by inheritaaoe from 
father to son ; but in addition to the lands thus distributed amoi^ 
the nation, others were reserved to -the crown &»* its support and dig- 
nity ; and the greiter portion of the latter, frequently extending to en- 
tire counties and dukedoms, were granted out, sometimes as hereditary 
. estates, sometimes for life, sometimes for a term of years, and on various 
eonditions, to favored subjects, and especially to the provincial gov- 
enKM-s, who made under-grants of them to their vassals or t^iants. 
On the f&ilu^e of the tenant to perform the stipulated conditions, 
whether of military service, or of certain rents and payments, the 
lands reverted to the grantors; and as ^e word fettd signifies ^m 
estate in trust,^' hence the propriety of calling this the Feudal 

4. In a very imperfect state this syst^n edsted in Fnaase in the 
time of Charlemagne ; but that monarch, jealous of the ascendancy 
which the nobles had already acquired, checked it by every means in 
his power, — ^by suffering many of the larger grants of dukedoms^ 
counties, &c., to expire without renewal,-7-by removing ihe adminis 
tration of justice from the hands of local* officers into liie hands of. 
his own itinerant judges, — ^by elevating the ecclesiastical author!^ 
as a counterpoise to that of the nobility, — and by the creation of 
a standing army, which left the monarch in a measure independent 
of the military support of the great landholders. Thus the nobles, 
desisting from the use of arms, and abandoning the task of defend- 
ing the kingdom, soon became unable to defend themselves; but 
when in tie ninth and tenth centuries the royal authority was entire- 

Ctaui^IL] - ysn&VL MJSKL «^ 

Ij prostraled, wlten the proYiaoea were sabjoet to frequent inroadtf 
of the Nonaans and HnngariaDfl, and gOYornmeat ceased to aff($rd 
proteeiioa to uiy class of society, the proprietors of large estates 
found in their wealth a means of defence and security not wi^in the 
reach of the great mass of the people. They converted their j^aces 
of abode into impregaable castles, and covered their persons' with 
knightly armor, jointed so as to allow a free movement of every part 
of the body; and this proteotion, added to the increased physteal 
strength aoqoired by constant military exercises, gave l^m an im* 
portance in war over hmvdreds of the plebeiana* by whom they were 
Borronnded. In the confusion of the times, the governors of prov- 
inces, nnder the varions titles of dukes, counts, and barons, usurped 
their governments as little sovereignties, and transmitted them byin- 
keritance, subject only to the feudal st|>eriority of the king> 

5. Meanwhile the small allodial profHrietors, or holders of lands in 
their own right, exposed to the depredating inroads of barbarians^ 
oTy more frequently, to the rapacity of the petty feudal lords, sunk 
into a omdition much worse than that of the feudal tenantry. Bx- 
poaed to a system of general rapine, without law to redress their in- 
juries, and without the royal power to si]^port their rights, they saw 

' no safety but in making a con^romise with oppression, and were se- 
duced to the necessity of subjecting themselves, in return for pro- 
tection, to the feudal lords of the- country. During the tenth and 
eleventh centuries a large pn^ortion of the allodial lands in France, 
Germany, and Italy, were surrendered by their owners, and recdted 
back again upon feudal tenures ; and it appears that the few who re- 
tained their lands in their own right universally attached themselves 
to some \<x^ although ip these cases it was the pftvilege of the free- 
BDMn to choose th«r own superiors. 

6. J^uch was the state of the great mass of European society when 
the feuda'. system had reached its maturity, in the tenth and eleventh 
centuries. Among the legal incidents and^ results that grew out of 
the feudal relation of service on the one side acd proteotion .on the 
other, were those of rdirfs^ or money paid to the lord by each vassal 
on taking a fie^ or feudal estate, by inheritance ; fineSy on a change 
of tenancy; escheat^ or forSnture of the estate to- the lord on ac- 
count of tiie vassals delinquency, or for want of hnirs ; ands^ or sums 
of money exacted by the lord on various occasions, such as the 
knitting of his eldest son, the marriage of his eldest daughter, or 
fi>r the redemption of his per8<m from prison ; HMrdihipi or the 

376 - IfOlOBir KIBTOBY. ^ [PawIL 

piiTiil^ of gnardhawhip of the tenant by the lord dnriag tbe mi- 
nority of the former, with the nae of the profttB of his estate ; mar- 
riage, or the ri^t of a lord to tender a husband to his female wards 
while under age, or to demand the forfeiture of the value of the 
marriage. These feudal serritndes, whieh were unknown in the time 
of Charlemagne, distinguish the maturity of the system, and show 
^ gradual enoroaehments of the strong upon the weak. 

7. b?he feudal gpyemment, in it8l)e6t state, was a system of op- 
pression, w^iieh destroyed all feelings of brotherhood and equality 
between man and mao : it was admirably calculated, when the nobles 
were united, for defence against the assaults of any foreign power ; 
but it possessed the feebfest bonds of political union, and contained 
innumerable sources <^ anarchy, in the interminable fends of rival 
chieftains. It exerted a fatal influence on the character of society 
in general ; while individual man, in the person of the lord or baton, 
was doubtless improved by it ; and the great mass of the population 
of Europe, during the three or four centuries in which it was under 
the thrald(Mn of this system, was sunk in the most profound igno- 
lanee. Literature and science, confined almost wholly to the cloister, 
eould receive no fevor in the midst of turbulence, oppression, and 
]^apine : judges and kings often could not write their own names : 
many of the idergy did not understand the liturgy which they daily 
recited : the Ohristianity of the times, " a dim taper which had need 
of snuffing," degenerated into an illiberal superstition ; and every- 
thing combined to fix upon this period the distmctive epithet of the 
Dark Aoes. Still the sentiment of independence — ^the pride and 
consoiouBness of power — and the feelings of personal ocmsequence 
and dignity with wAh the feudal state of society inspired the nobles, 
contributed to let-in those first rays of light and 6rder which dis- 
pelled barbarian and anarchy, and introduced the virtues of a J^jdtter 

6. In the midst of ccmfusion and crime, while property was held 
by the sword, and cruelty and injustive reigned supreme, 
' the spirit of chwalry arose to turn back the tide of op- 
pression, and to plant, in the very midst of barbarism, the seeds of 
the most noble and the most generous principles. The precise time 
at which chivalry was recognised as a military institution, with out- 
ward forms and ceremonials, cannot now be ascertained; but the 
first notices we have of it trace it to that age when tiie disorders in 
the feudal system had attained their utmost p<Hnt of excess, towards 

Oatf. H] MIDDUC A6SS.. 277 

the dose of tibe tenth oentnry. It was then that some noble barons, 
filled with charitable leal and religious enthusiasm, and mored with 
eompasraop for the wretchedness which they saw around them, com- 
bined together, under the solemnity of religious sanctions, with t^ 
holy purpose of protecting .the weak from the oppression of the pow- 
erful, and of defending the right cause against the wrong. 

9. The spirit and the* institution of chiyalry spread rapidly ; 
treachery and hypoerisy became detestable ; while courtesy, magna- 
nimity, courage, and hospitality, became the virtues of the age ; and 
the knights, who w^e ever ready to draw their swords, at whatever 
odds, in defence of 4nnoeence, received the adoration of the populace, 
and, in public opinion, were exalted even above kings themselves.' 
Th^meed of praise and esteem gave fresh vigor and purity to the 
cause of chivalry ; and under the influence of its spirit great deeds 
were done by the ti'atemity of valiant kiiigl^ts who had enrolled 
themselves as its champions. " The baron forsook his castle, and 
the peasant his hut, to maintain the honor of a family, or preserve 
^e saeredness of a vow : it was this sentiment which made the poor 
serf patient in his toils, an^ serene in his sorrows : it enabled his 
Blaster to brave all physical evils, and enjoy a sort of spiritoal ro- 
mance : it Jxnmd the peasant to his master, and the master to his 
kii^ ; jmd it was the principle of chivalry, above all others, that was 
needed to coimteract the miseries of an infant state of civilisation."* 

10. Though in the practical exemplifications of chivalry there was 
oHen much of error, yet its spirit was based upon the most generous 
impulses of human nature. " To speak the truth, to succor the 
he^less and oppressed, and never to turn back from an enemy," was 
the first vow of the aspirant to the hcmors of chivalry. In an age 
ef darkness and degradation, chivalry developed the character of 
woman, and, causing her virtues to be appreciated and honored, made 
her the' equal companion of man, and the object of his devotion. 
** The love of God and the ladies," says ^allam, *< was enjoined as a 
nngle duty. He who was faithfid and true to his mistress, was held 
sore of salvation in the theology of castles, though not of cloisters. "^ ^ 
In the language of another modem writer, << chivalry gave purity to 
enihuBiasm,.crushed barbarous selfishness, taught the leart to ex- 
pand like a flower to the sunshine, beautified glory with generosity, 
and smoothed even the rugged brow of war."o ^ description of the 

ft. InlrodiioaoB to Froiflnrt's CbroololM. b. Hallam's Middle Ago*, p. 91& 

e. JttDM'* GhrlTalry aad Um OrvmOm, p. 31. 


luions eustoms tad pecoliarillei of ohirBlry, ma they grew up by de- 
grees into a regular inaiitoiioii, would bo requisite to a fall derelop- 
nefit of the character of the age, but we can only glaaoe at theee 
lopios here. Ab ehiTalry waa a military institutbn, ita membera 
were taken wholly from Uie military elaas, whioh oomprtaed none but 
the deaoendanta of the n<*them oonquerora of the aoU ; for, with few 
exceptions, the original inhAbitants of the western Roman empire 
had been reduced to the condition of serfr, or Tasaals, of their bar- 
barian lorda 

1 1. The initiation of the German youth to tfa§ profession of arms 
had been, from the earliest ages, an occasion of solemnity ; and wheo 
the spirit of chivalry had established the order of knigh^ood, aa 
the concentration of all that was noble and valiant in a warlike^ge; 
it. became the highest object of every young man's ambition one day 
to be a knight. A long and tedious education, consisting of instnuy 
lion in all manly and military exercises, and in the first principfes of 
religion, honor and courtesy, was requisite as a preparation for this 
honor. Next, the candidate for knighthood, after undergoing his 
pr^aratory &sts and vigils, passed through the ceremonies which 
made him a knight Armed and caparisoned he then sallied forth 
in quest of adventure, displayed his powers at tournaments, and 
often visited foreign countries, both for the purpose of jousting with 
otiier knights, and for instruction in every sort of chivalrous knowl- 
edge. It cannot be denied, however, thai the practice of kni^t- 
errantry, or that of wandering about armed, as iho avowed cham- 
pions of the right cause against the wrong, gave to the evil-minded 
a very convenient cloak for the basest purposes, and that every ad. 
venture, whether just or not in its purpose, was too liable to be ea- 
teemed honorable in proportion as it was perilous. But these w^e 
abuses of chivabry, and perversions of its early spirits 

12. During the eleventh century we find that chivalry, altJioug^ 
probably first appearing in jGbul, had spread to all the surrounding 
nations. In Spain, the wars between the Christians and the Moors 
exhibited a chivalric spirit unknown to former times: about this 
period the institution of knighthood appears to have been introduced 
among the Saxons of England ; and it was first made known to the 
Italians, in the beginning of the eleventh oentury, by a band of 
knights from Normandy, whos^ religious seal prompted them, as 
they were returning from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, to under 
take the relief of a small town besieged by the Saracens. As the 

fcndal fljstem spread oyer Btffope, chivalry followed in ite path. Ite 
spirit, eombined with religious enthastasm, led to the omsadoe ; and 
it was dmiiig the progress of those holy wars/whidi we now prooeed 
to describe, tha^ it attuned its chief power and i&flaence. 

13. Pilgrimages to Jerusalem, and other hallowed localities ia 
Palestine, had been common in the early ages of the church ; and 
towards the dose of the tenth century they had mcreased „, ^ _.^ 


to a perfect innndation, in consequence of the terror that or thk 
arose from tiie almost universal expectation then enter- obobadis. 
tained, of the af^roaching end of the world.* The idea originated 
in the interpretation ^en to the twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse, 
whese it was annotmced that, after the lapse of a thousand years, 
Satan would be let loose to deceive the nations, and to gather them 
togetiier to battle againdt the holy city, but that, alto a little seaami 
the army of the Deceiver should be destroyed by fire from heayen. 
Bat the dreaded ^[KHsh, the year 1000, passed by; yet tiie oorrent 
of pilgrimage still continued to flow towards the Sast ; Ibr fiuiati- 
cisra had taken too strong hold of the minds of the people to be 
eaaly diverted from its course. 

14. After Palestine had fallmi into the possession of the TuricB, 
about the middle of the seventh century, (see p. 249,) the pilgrims 
to Jerusalem were subjected to every species of extortion and outt 
rage frvm this- wild race of Saracen conquerors ; and the returning 
Ohnstkns spread through all ^e countries of fiurope indignation 
and horror by the pathetic tales which they related, of the injuriei 
and insults which they had suffered from the infidels. Among^ 
others, Peter the Hermit, a native of Amiens,^ returning from a pil- 
grimage to Palestine, where he had spent muoh time in conferring 
with the Christians about the means of their delivwanoe, complained 
in loud terms of these grievances, and began to preach, in glowing 
language, the duty of the Christian world to unite in expelling the 
infidels from the patrimony of the Saviour. 

15. The pope. Urban II., one of the most eloqtlent men of the 
age, engaged aealously in the project, and at two general councils, 

L AmUmt la a fbrOlled dty of FraDoe In ttie aneient prorlnoe of Plcardj, BeTentj^two miles 
north from Parte. (.Mc^ No. Xm.) 

a. TIm aiddvai of Euopean oocmtiiM eoDtalii a great mmiber of diarten ttf tike lenUi 
mtsaarf^ beglimtiig -with theie words: Aypropinquunujbu imiii^— ** As the end of the woiM' 
te apprMohiiig.*-~8laDioiidl's Roman Bmpfre, ti. 956. 


held at Plaoen' tut,* and Glarmont^' and attended by a munemiui 

train of bishops and ecdesLssticg, and bj thousands of the laity, the 

mnltitade, harangued by the lealous enUinsiasts of the cause, eanght 

the spirit of those who addressed them, and pledged themselTes, and 

all they possessed, to the orusade against the infidel possessors of the 

Holy Land. The flame of enthusiasm spread so rigidly throughout 

Christian Europe, that although the. council of Clermont was held in 

November of ^e year 1095, yet in the following qxring large bands 

IT THx of ^^ crusaders, gathered chiefly from the refuse and 

vnsT dregs of the people, and consisting of men, women, and 

^^°^^^ children— of all ages and professicms — ^and of many and 

distinct languages, — w^e in motion toward Palestine. 

16. Walter the Peniiiless, leading the way, was followed by Peter 
the Hermit ] but the ignorant hordes which* they -directed, marching 
without order and discipline, and pillaging the countries which they 
traversed, wore nearly lil cut off before they reached Constantinople; 
and the few who passed over into Asia Minor fell an easy prey to 
the swords of the Turks. Immense bands that followed these hosts, 
mingling the motives of plunder, licentiousness and vice, with a 
foul spirit of fimatical crudity,' which prodaimed the duty of eztor- 
minatmg all, whether Jews or Pagans, who rejected the Saviour, 
were utterly destroyed by the enraged natives of southern Germany 
and Hungary, through Whose dominions they attempted to pass. The 
loss of the crusaders in this first adventure is estimated at three 
hundred thousand men.* But while these undisciplined and barba- 
rous multitudes were destruction, the flower, of the chiv- 
alry of Europe was collecting — ^the genuine army of the crusade — 
under six as distinguished diiefii as knighthood could boast, headed 
by Godfrey of BouiUon,* aae of the most oelel»ated generals of the 
age. In six separate bands they proceeded to Constantinople, some 

1. Plaemi'tia, now pMxmza, was a dty of northern Italy, near the Joneiioh of the Tk«bla 
vltb the Po, fhirty-fleven mllee MtatlneMt ftom Milan. When eotofiaed hj the Ronuuu, 819 
B^GL, It was a atroiig and Important eltj; and It aflbidedthem a aecnre retreat after the inifof>- 
tonate batUet. of Tlclnm and Treb' bla. (Map No. XVIL) 

a Cltrmontf a city of Fraooe, In the ancient proyfnce of Anretsne, to e}fl^t74wo mllee wait 
from L/one, and two hundred and eight aonth fiom Faria, (JIfiy Mo. XIIL) 

3b JBouiUom waa a amall, woody, and moontalnoua dlatiict, nine mUes wide and eighteen 
hmgi now included in the dnehy of Luxembouzg, on the bordera of France and Belgium. Hie 
fMDw of Bouillon la flftynnilea north-weat firom the dty of Luxembourg. Bouillon, wtien In 
flie poaaeaalon of Godfreji waa a dukedom. In order to aupply himaelf with Ainda for Ua 
avpedltSon to the Holy Land, Godfrey, who waa likewise duke of Lower Lorraine^ Oaota^ 
p. 970^) mortgaged Bouillon to the blahop. (Map No. Xin.) 

a. Gibbon, tr. 110— ISS. . « 

Cbap.IL] middle ages. 281 . 

by way of Italy and the Adriat' io, and others by.way of the Daxmbe; 
but their condaot, unlike that of the first crusaders, was in general 
remarkable for its strict discipline, order, and- moderation. 

17. Alez'ius, the Greek emperor of Constantinople, had before 
Grayed, in abject terms, assistance against the infidel Turks ; but 
now, when the Turks, occupied with other interests, no longer men- 
aced his frontier, his conduct changed, and alarmed b^ the vast 
Bwarms of crusaders who crossed his dominions, he Btrove, by treach-r 
eiy and dissimulation, and eyen by hostile annoyances, to diminish 
ilusir numbers, and thwart their designs, and to wring from their 
chiefs acts of homage to his own person. With some of the chiefs, 
IJie crafty Qreek succeeded ; but others spumed his proposals with 
mdignatioir, and at the htzard of war resolred to mamtain their in- 
dependent position ; and when at length the seyeral detachments of 
the army of the crusaders passed into Aida, they left behind ^em 
in their treacherous auxiliaries, the.GhristianB of the Byzantine' em- 
pire, worse enemies than they had to encounter in the Turks. 

18. It is said that after the crusaders had united their forces in 
Asia Minor, and had been joined by the remains of the multitude that ' 
bad followed PeteAie Hermit, the number of their fighting men^ 
without including those who did not carry arms, was six hundred 
thousand, and that, of these, the number of knights alone was two 
hundred thousand.* At Nice,' ^ Bithyn'ia,* the capital of the 
Sultany of Eoum,' they first encountered the Turks, and after a siege 
of two months compelled the city to smrender, in spite of the efibrts 
of the Sultan, Soliman, for its relief. (A. B. 1097.) From Nice 
they set out for Syria ; and after having gained a victory over Soli- 
man 'near Dorilsd' um,^ in a march of five hundred miles they trav- 
ersed Lesser Asia, through a wasted land and deserted towns, without 
finding a friend or an enemy. • 

19. The siege of Antiodb, unparalleled for its difficulties, and the 

L Altec, caned 1»7 the Roman! A%«' a, WM the oapttal of Bithyn' la. Tbe Tarklflh town of . 
/ma oceopies the site of the BUhyn' Ian dtj. ( JTap No. IV.) 

8L Biikpi' ia wui a country of Asia Mtnor, haying the Etudne on the north, and the Propon^ 
ttaandHjriaonthewest (JTopNo.IV.) 

3l Rfmm (meaning the kingtbm of the Amimm), was the name given by Soliman, saltan of 
the Torks, to the present JThtSlia^ (the western part of Asia Mhior,) when he tavaded and 
became master of it in the 11th oentory. 

4 J>9rUm' Km was a city of Phrygia, on the confines of Bithyn' la. The plain of Dorllas' ma 
li often mentioned in history as the place where the armies of the Eastern empire assembled 
.in their wars against the Turks. (Jfop No. IV.) 

I Bistoty of Ibo OrnMdMi p. UL 

. 389 MOI»BBN jnsnOBY. (PivIL 

I oa bolli sides, wms the aezt obstede to the OBwaird mardi of 
te orasaden, wjm rednoed to half the number that had been ooUeet- 
ed at the oaptore of Nice; bat whm the enterpriae ae^med hopeleai^ 
the town was betrayed into their hands by a Syrian renegado, (June 
1098.) A few dajB later, the Tietors themsdves, snffering the ex- 
tremity of privatimi and fiunine, were enoompaased by a splendid 
Tn^ieh and Persian anny of three hondred thonsand men; yei 
the Christians, collecting the relios of their strength, and urged on 
by a belief of miraeolons interposition in their iator, sallied from 
the town, and in a single memorable day annihilated or diflperaed 
the host of their enemies. 

20. While the siege of Antioeh was progreasing, the Tnfkish priiiees 
consamed their time and resooroes in civifrwars beyond the Tipns; 
and the caliph of Bgypt, embracing the opportunity of weakness and 
discord to recover»his ancient possessions, besieged and took Jerusa- 
lem. The Egyptian monarch ofiered to join his arms to those of 
the Christians, for the purpose of sabduing all Palestine ; but it was 
evident that he purposed to enjoy the fruits <^ victory without par- 
tidpation ; and the answer of the crusading ohiefr was firm and uni- 
form : " the usurper of Jerusalem, of whatevlP nation, was their 
enemy, and they would conquer the huAj dtywith the sword of 
Christ, and keep it with the same." 

"21. With an army reduced to 1^ than fifty thousand armed men, 
the crusaders, in the month of May, 1099, proceeded from Antioeh 
towards Jerusalem. Marching between Mount Lib' anus' and the 
seashore, they obtained by treaty a free passage through the petty 
Turkish principalities of Trip' oli,* Sidon, Tyre,* Acre/ and Csesar^a,* 

1. To the four chains of moantaliu moning parallel to the sear^oaat through northern ^jrrl* 
or PateMlnei the name Lih' anna has been applied. To a chain ftrther eaiA the Greeks gave 
ihtnaMBe Anti-Lib' Mhs, (JVop Now VI.) « 

2. Ti-ip' o/t, at this day one of the neatest towns of Syria, is a seaport, seventy-flre miles 
north-vest ttom Damascus. It was one of the most flonrt|^ing«eeats of ancient Hteratnre, and 
contained an extensive libruy, numbering, it is said, one hundred thousand Tolames, wUeh 
was destroyed by the crusaders in tbe year 1 108. On this occasion the crusaders displayed the 
same fimalical zeal of which the Saracens have been accused, though some think nqjostly, in 
the case of Uie Alexandrian library. A priest, having vLsiled an apartment In the library In 
which were several copies of the Koran, reported that It contained none but impious works of 
Mahomet ; and the whole was forthwith committed to the flames. (Map No. VI.) 

3. Tyrt and Sidon^ see p. 61, and Map No. VL 

4. Jicr» is a town of Syria on the coast of the Mediterranean, al the norCi-eastem Umit of 
the bay of Acre. Mount Osrmal terminates on the south-western side of the bay. This town Is 
rendered fismous in modem history by its determined and successful reslsf^noe to the arms of 
Napoleon In 1799. Seep.)?!. (Jlfop No. VI.) 

5. Qs«srie was an ancient Koman town on the sea-coast of Palestine, thirty miles soath-weeC 
fronAcn. UwwaOovlshlngeity tiU A.D.689, wheattMilaibiaohMdeof ttieSMieiMi 

Ctatf.n> lUDDIiE AOXS. ' v .MS 

wiooh promiBed to remain, f<» the time, neutral, and to follow the * 
oom^^le of the oapitaL When at length the hol^ city broke npon 
ik» view of the Christian host, a sodden enthnsiasm of joy filled 
every boaom ] past dangers, fittignes, and privations, were forgotten ; 
die name Jerusalem was eohoed by every tongue ; and while some 
riioated to the sky, some kneit and prayed, some wept aloud, and 
some east themselves down and kissed the earth in silence. But to 
the excess of rejoicing succeeded the extreme of wrath at seeing the 
etty in the hands of the infidels ; and in the first ebullition of rage, 
» aimultaneons attack was commenced on the town ; but a vigorous 
repulse tau^t the necessity of more judicious methods of assault. 

22. Passing over the details of the siege which followed, it is suf- 
iflient to state, that, within forty days^ Jerusalem was taken by a 
desperate assault, and that the blood of seventy thousand Moslems 
washed the pavements of the captured city ; for the soldiers of the^ 
ehMS believed that they were doing God good service in exterminat- 
iBg the blasphemous strangers; and that all mercy to the infidds 
was an injury to religion. When the bloody strife was over, the 
loadera and soldiers, washing the marks of gore firom their persons, 
and easting aS their armor, in the guise of penitents and amid the 
loud anthans of the dergy, ascended the Hill of Calvary^ on their 
knees, and proceeding to the holy sepulchre, with tears of joy kissed - 
the stone which had covered the Savioilr, and then offered up their 
prayers to the mild Teacher of that beautiful religion whose princi- 
ples are ^ peace and good will to men." Peter the Hermit, whose 
preaching had excited the crusade,, had followed the army through 
all its perils ; and when he entered the city with the conquerors, the 
Christians of Jerusalem recognized the poor pilgrim who had first 
iq>oken to them words of hope, and promised them delivetance from 
the oppresuon of their Turkish master& The reception which he 
B0W met with from the enthusiastic multitude, who in the fervor of 
their gratitude attributed all to him, and casting themselves at his 
feet, invoked the blessings of heaven on their bene&etor, more than 
a thousand fold repaid the Hermit for all the anxiety, the toils, and ' 
dangers, which he had endured. The ultimate fiite of this extraor- 
dinary individual is unknown. . 

lallOiftfenintoUMhaiidaortfaecrqiMlei^whAnUiQDkfeDitoenomora. GBMf««WMtb« 
phce wb6i« Pttt«r cbnTorted OonMlluB and bis houae, (Acta, x. 1,) and where Paal UMHle hie 
memorable qMediM to Fau and Agrippa. (Aota, xxir., xztr, xxtI.) 
VMiU^G^hmt^ 8eedeaedpdonortaQialeaip.l64,eiidJr9N«.Va) 


23. Jenualem was now delivered from the hands of tbe bfidelii: 
the great objeet of ihe expedition was aooomplished ; and the leadal 
institutions of Europe were introdnoed into Palestine in all l^eir 
purity. Godfrey of Bouillon was chosen the first soYereign of Je- 
rusalem ; and the (^uristian kingdom thus established oontinued to 
exist nearly a century. ScTcral minor States were established in 
the East by the crusaders, but as they seldom united cordially for 
mutual defence, and were continually assailed by powerful eneodea, 
none of them were of long duration. Even during the soTcreignty 
of Godfrey, the kingdom of Jerusalem, owing to the return of many 
of the crusaders, and their losses in battle, was left for % time to be 
supported by an army of less than three thousand men. But the 
q>irit of pilgrimage was still rife ; and it is estimated that, between 
the first and second crusade, fiye hmidred thousand people set out from 
Europe for Syria, in armed bands of several thousand men each ; and 
although the greater portion of them perished by the way, the few wUo 
reached their destination proYed exceedin^y serviceable in supporting 
the Christian cause, and in re-peopleing the devastated lands of Pales- 
tine. The period between the firat and second crusade is remarkable 
for the rise, at Jerusalem, of the two most distmguished orders of 
Imighthood — the' Hospitallers, and the Bed-Cross Knights, or Temp- 
lars. The valor of both orders became noted : the Hospitallers ever 
burned a light during the night, that they might always be prepared 
against the enemy ; and it is said that any Templar, on hearing the 
cry << to arms," would have been ashamed to ask the number of the 
enemy. The only question was, " where are they ?" 

24. During nearly two centuries after the council of Clermont, 
each returning year witnessed a new emigration of pilgrim warriors 
for the defence of the Holy Land, although but six principal cru- 
sades followed the first great movement ; and all these were excited 
by some recent or impending calamity to Palestine. A detail^ ac- 
count of these several crusades would only exhibit the perpetual 
recurrence of the same causes and effects ; and would appear but so 
many faint and unsuccessful copies of the original Avoiding detail, 
we dudl therefore speak of them only in general terms. 

25. Forty-eight years after the conquest of Jerusalem, ihe loss 
v THB ^^ *^® principal Christian fortresses in Palestine led to a 
sBooifD second crusade, which was undertsdcen by Conrad III., 

oauBADx. ^mpejQj. ^f Germany, and Louis VIL, king of France 
(A. D. 1147.) The Pope Eugenius abetted the design, and com- 

OaAtilt} MIDDLE ACOSS. fiBf 

mianoDed the eloquent St. Bernard to preach the ooroBS through 
France and Germany. A yaet army tmder Conrad took the lead m 
the expedition ; but not a tenth part ever reached the Syrian boun- 
daries. The army of French and Gkrmana was but little more for- 
tanate ; and the poor remains of tliese mighty hosts, still led by the 
emperors of France and Germany, after reaching Jerusalem, joined 
the Christian arms in a fruitless siege of Damascus, which was the 
termination of the second crusade. 

26. Forty years after the second crusade, Jerusalem was taken by 
Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt, whose authority was. acknowledged 
abo by the greater part of Syria and Persia. (A. D. 1 187.) The 
loss of the holy city filled all Europe with consternation ; and new 
expeditions were fitted out for its recoyery. France, y^^ ^^^ ' 
Germany, and Enghind, joined in the crusade ; and the tBiao 
armies of each country were headed by their respectiye o*"*^**- 
soyereigns, Philip Augustus, Frederic Barbarossa, and Richard I., 
sumamed the lion-hearted. Frederic, after defeating the Saracens 
in a pitched battle on the plains of Asia Minor, lost his life by im- 
prudently bathing in the riyer Orontes ;* and his army was reduced 
to a nnali body when it reached Antioch. The French and English, 
more successful than' the Germans, besieged and took Acre, after a 
dege of twoity-two months (July, A. D. 1191); but as Richard 
and Philip quarrelled, owing to the latter's jealousy of the superior 
military prowess of the former, Philip returned home in disgust ; 
and Richard, after defeating Saladin in a great battle nesr Ascalon,^ 
and penetrating within sight of Jerusalem, oonduded a three years' 
truce with his rival, and then set sail for his own dominions. (A. D. 
Oct 1192.) ^ 

27. The fourth crusade i> was undertaken at the beginning of the 
thirteenth century, (A. I>. 1202,) at the instigation of ^ ^^ 
pope Innocent III. No great soyereign joined in the fourth 
enterprise ; but the most- powerful barons of France <^™^*-^ 

1. Aaeaiony a rery ancient dty of the Pbllistlnee, was a lea-port town of the Hedltwiraneeii, 
fbrty-flre itfles south-west (h>m Jerasalem. Its rains present a stnuige mixtuM of Syrian, Greek, 
Qolhie^ aad Roman remains. There is not a single inhabitant within (he old wsIIb, whioh are 
■tin standing. The prophecy of Zecbariab, ** Ascalon shsU not be inhabited,'' and that of 
Zsekiel, *^U sbsU be a desolation,'* are now actually fulfilled. (Jdap No. VI.) 

a. Some authorities say the Cydnus. See Jaitfes's Chiralry and the Crusades, p. '939. 

bw Senna Important ezpedltloiM that were made to the Holr Lsnd a short time preTlous to 
lUs, and that were promoted by the exhortations of pope Oelestine UI., are reprssented by 
eoBM writers as the firartherasade. In this way some writeneoomeiate nine diedftotaraesdea . 
tNma BBore^ while oibsia deetflba only itx. 

xoMRK snrroftT. t^mll 


took the oroM, uid g»^ tho oommand to Bod&oe, muqulfl of 
Mootoemt.' They hired the YeneiiMie to transport them to Pales- 
tine, and agreed to reoaptore for them the oity of Zara,' in Balmitia ; 
and this object was aoconplished, while the pope in Tain launched 
the thunders of the chnreh at the refiractorj crusaders. Instead cf 
sailing to Palestine, the ejq[>edition was thei| directed against the 
Greek empire, under the pretence of dethroning a osarper ;• and the 
result was the conquest of Constantinople by the Latins, and the 
founding of a new Latin or Roman empire <m the ruins of the By- 
lantine. (A. D. April 1204.) The new empire existod during a 
period of fifty^seven years, whan the Greeks partially reooyered their 
authority. The fourUi crusade ended without producing any benefit 
to Palestine.. 

28. The fifth crusade, undertaken fourteen years after the &11 of 
Tm. THB ^^ Bysantine empire, wa6 at first conducted by Andrew, 

nrm monarch of Hungary. The Ohristtan army, after spend 
0RU8ADB. ^ g^jQQ ^^^ '^ ^^ yicmity of Acre, sailed to Egypt; 
but after some successes, among which wa& the taking of Bamietta,' 
ultimate ruin was the issue of the expedition. A few years later, 
(A. P. 1228), Frederic IL, emperor of Germany, then arrayed in 
•pen hostility with the pope, led a formidable army to Palestine, and 
after he had advanoed some distance from Acre towards Jerusalem, 
eondaded a treafy with the sultan Melek ELamel, whereby the holy 
city and \kt greater part of Palestine were yidded to the Ohristiana.- 
After the return of Frederic to Europe, new bands of crusaders pro- 
ceeded to Palestine : the sultan Kasnd retook Jerusalem, but the 
Ohristians agab obtained it by treaty. 

29. While these events had been passing in Palestine a new dy- 
nasty had arisen in the north of Asia, which for a time threatened 
a complete revolutAn of all the known countries of the world. In 

the early part of the thirteenth century Gengis Khan, 
^Smfo^mi ^^ '^^ ^^ ^ P^^^ Mongol prince, had raised himself to 

be the lord of all the pastoral nations throughout the 
Tast plains of Taxtary. After desolating China,* and adding its fiye 

1. MonU^rrut wu an RaUan marqnlaato in western Lombardy, now Included In Piedmont 
Hie marqntoea of Montaemt, xlalng flrom smaU begtnnlngs In the conree of the tenth oentary, 
and gradnally exle&dlng their territories, acted, during the twelfth and thirteenth ceotorie^ 
one of the moflft MUlaiii ppria aUoled to any leignlng honae In Enmpei 

a. Zw^simtlieea|»ttaiornBlna4tKlaaB8aporton tbaeastflneoaatof Ite Adriat' k, oqa 
kandred and Afty milea MraflMaat fWrni Venioe. 

a. i>mJfla«laeBllMOamletta,orpriBol|MLaaalainbnMh allliaim«k alx nilaaihiBlla a^^ 

4. QtoM, a iwwt ooomiy af wiitlni Aiia, wiy lit i^a^-iyd t»hsi»a» liKir/^ i 


ncrtheni prorinoefl to his empire, at tlie head of seyen htuidred thoa- 
sand warriors ^ he invaded and oyerran the dominions of the saltan 
of Persia. His saooessor Octal directed his resistless amis west- 
ward, nnder the condilbt of his general Baton, who, in the course of 
six years, led his warricnrs, in a conquering march, from east to west, 
oyer a fourth part of the circumference of the globe. The inun- • 
dating torrent, passing north of the territories of the Byzantine em- 
pire, left them unharmed ; but it rolled with all its l^y upon the 
more barbarous nations of Europe. A great part of Bussia' was 
desolated ; and both Kiev' and Moscow,' the ancient and modem 
oapiial, were reduced to ashes : the Tartars penetrated into the heart 
of Poland,' and as fiir as the boilers of Ge>many, whence they 
turned to the south and spread over the plains of Hungary. Already 
the refliote nations of the Baltic trembled at the approach of these 
barbarian warriors ; and Germany, France, England, and Italy, were 
on the point of arming in the common defence of Christendom, when 
Baton and the five hundred thousand warriors who still accompanied 
him were recalled . to Asia by the death of their sovereign. (A. D. 

30. Among the many tribes and nations that had been driven from 
tiieir original seats by the great Tartar inundation, were the Coras- 
mins, embracing numerous hordes of Tartar origin, that had attached 
themselves to the fortunes of the sultan of Persia. They now pre- 
cipitated themselves upon Syria and Palestine, and massaored indis- 

tana to the gMWfal mder, it bu » few reTokatloiw or polltioal ohaogM to record. The 
sDlbcntie htoloiy of tlie Chinese begins with the compilations of OonfUctns, who was bom 
B. C 550. From that period the annals of the mnpire have been carefully noted and preserved 
taa an nnbnken Uoe to the present da7--lbnnins a series of more than five hundred Tolomes 
of unlntcrsstlng chronological details. 

L Ruttia, the largest, and one of the most powerful empires, either of ancient or modem 
tfines, extends fhnn BehriDg*s straits and the Paoiflc on the east, to the Ooif of Bothnia on the 
westr-* distance of neariy six thousand miles, with an average breadth of about flOeen bmw 
drsd miles. In this immense empire about fortf distinct languages are in use, having attached 
to then a great number of dlflbreat dialects. In the year 1535 the extent of the Ruaslan do- 
Bilnlnw wn eeUmated ai thirty-seven thousand German square mUes; but in the year 1890 it 
aed increased to ten times that amount (For early history of Russia see p. 309.) 

% JSee, or ri«B, the capital of the modem Russian province of the same nttne, is on the* 
Dnieper, two hundred and twentr miles norih of Odea'sa, Ihe nearest port on the Black Sea. 
Kiev was the fbrmer residence of the grand dukes of Russia— the earliest seat of the Oiristian 
niigion In Russia— and for a considerable period the capital of the empire. (Mtip No. XVIl.) 

X Jifo««»«, still one of Uie capitals of the Russian empire, and Oie grand entxepM of its te^ 
fvnal coomerce, la sltaated on the navigable river Moskwa, a branch of the Volgs, four hutt* 
drad miles south-east IW>m St. Petersburg. It was founded In the year 1147. (.tfaji No. XU.) 

4. Ps^Md^seep.^11. 


288 MOBmr HISTORY. [PiarlL 

oriminately Turks, Jews, and OhriskiaiiB who opposed them. Jem* 
salem was taken ; and it is said every soul in it was put to the sword ; 
bat at length the Turks and Christians, uniting their fbrcea, utterly 
defeated die Corasmins, and thus delivered Palestine from one of 
the most terrible scourges that had ever been inflioted on it. 

31. The ravages of the Oorasmins in Palestine called forth 
X. THX ^® ^^^ crusade, which was led i>y Louis IX., king 
mzTH of France, commonly called St Louis. He h^an by an 

caoEADs. f^iifyf,^ on ^gypt ; but after B0i6e successes he wss de- 
feated, made prisoner when enfeebled by disease, and forced to 
purchase his liberty by the payment of an immense ransom. ( A. D. 
1250.) Twenty years later St. Louis embarked on a second cru- 
sade — the last of those great movements for the redemption of the 
Holy Land. The fleet of Louis being driven by a storm into Sar 
dinia, here a change of plans took place, and it was resolved to at 
tack the Moors of Africa. The French landed near Carthage, and 
took the city ; but a pestilence soon carried off Louis and the greater 
portion of his army, when the expedition was abandoned. 

32. From this time the fate of the Eastern Christians grew daily 
more certun ; and in the year 1291 a Turkish army of two hundred 
thousand men appeared before the walls of Acre, the last strong- 
hold of the crusaders in Palestine. After a tedious siege the dty 
was taken ; and thus the last vestige of the Christian power in Syria 
was swept away. The crusades had occupied a period of nearly two 
centuries, and had led two millions of Europeans to find their grayes 
in Eastern lands ; and yet none of the objects of these expeditionB 
had been accomplished ; — a sad commentary upon the folly and fa- 
naticism of the age. The effects of these holy wars upon the state 
of European society will be referred to in a subsequent chapter.* 

III. English History. — 1. Our last reference to the history of 

England was to that period rendered brilliant by the 

AF^a^THB ^^^gf^ o^ Alfred the Great, the real founder of the Eng- 

^ DEATH OF lish monarchy ; and we now proceed to give a brief but 

connected outline of the continuation of English history 

daring the central period of the Middle Ages, which has just passed 

in review before us. 

2. After the death of Alfred, in the first year of the tenth cen- 
tury, (A. D. 901,) England, still a prey to the rayages of the Danes^ 

A. Sm Pvt m. cfa. Ix. ofUM Unlvmitj Bdiiton. 


and intestine disorder, relapsed into confusion and barbarism ; and 
under a succession of eight sovereigns,* from the time of Alfred, its 
history presents little that is important to the modern reader. 
Daring the reign of Ethelred II., the last of these rulers, the 
Danes and Norwegians, led by Sweyn king of Denmark,' acquired 
possession of the greater portion of the kingdom ; and on several 
occasions Ethelred purchased a momentary respite from their rav- 
ages by large bribes, which only increased their avidity, andnnsured 
their return. At length the weak and cruel monarch ordered the 
massacre of all the Danes in the Saxon territories. (A. D. 1002.) 
The execution of the barbarous mandate occasioned the renewal of 
hostilities : the English nobles, in contempt of their sovereign, of- 
fered the crown to Sweyn ; while Ethelred fled for refuge to the 
ooort of Richard, duke of Normandy, whose wster he had married. 
On ^e death of Sweyn, in the year 1014, the Danish army in Eng- 
land chose his son Canute to succeed him ; while the Saxon chiefe, 
with their wonted inconstancy, recalled Ethelred. On the death of 
the latter, his son Edmund, surnamed Ironside, from his hardihood 
and valor, was chosen king by the English ; but by hid death, (A. D. 
1016,) after a few months, Canute, in accordance with a previous 
treaty, was left in undisturbed possession of the whole of England. 

3. Canute, surnamed" the G-reat, proved to be the most powerful 
monarch of the age. By marrying Emma, the widow of Ethelred, 
he conciliated the vanquished Britons, and disarmed the hostility t>f 
the duke of Normandy ; while the earl of Gk)dwin, the most power- 
ful of the English barons, was gained to his interests, by receiving 
the hand of the king's daughter. In the year 1025 he subdued 
Sweden, and Norway* two years later, and on his death (Nov. 1036) 
he left his vast possessions of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Eng- 
land, to be divided among his children. His administration of the 
government of England was at first harsh ; but he gradually emerged 
from his original barbarism, embraced Christianity, encouraged liter- 
ature, and adopted some wise institutions for the benefit of his 
Anglo Saxon subjects. 

4. After the death of Canute, two of his sons, Harold and Hardi- 
Canute, reigned in succession over England; after which, in 1041, 

1. Denmark^ Sweden^ and JWioay ;— «ee p. 308. 
SL Sweden and Xoricaff. See Denmar\, p. 308. 

a. Edward I. tbe Elder, 90L Atbelstaa, 925. Edmund I., 941. Bdrod, Mfi. Bdwy, 9S^ 
Edgar, BSa Kdn^rd 11., tbe Murtjr, 975. Ethelred IT., 978. 



the crown retiumed to the ancient Saxon fitmilj, in the person of 
Edward the Confessor, a jonnger son of Ethek-ed. The mild char^ 
acter of Edward endeared him to h^ Saxon sahjectSj Dotwithstand-. 
ing the partiality which he showed to his Norman fekvorites ; hnt his 
reign of twenty- fiYe ybars was weak and inglorioos, and it was dis^ 
torhed by the rebellion of the earl of Godwin, by occasional hostili- 
ties with the Welsh and Scotch, and by intrigues for the succession. 
On his death, (1066,) Harold, son of Oodwin, took possession of the 
throne ; but scarcely had he overcome his brother Tostig, who dis- 
puted the supremacy with him, when he found a more formidable 
competitor in William, duke of Normandy, to whom the late king 
had either bequeathed or purposed the succession. On the 25th of 
September, 1066, Harold gained a great victory over his brother ; 
but, three days later, William landed in Sussex,' at the head of oixtj 
thousand men, and on the fourteenth of October fought 
ooM^v^ ^^^ Harold the bloody batUe of Hastings,' which ter- 
minated the Saxon dynasty, and put William the Nor- 
man in possession of the throne of England. Harold was killed in 
battie ; the English army was nearly destroyed, and a fourth part of. 
the Normans slain. The victory gave to William the title of th« 
Conqueror ; and the subjugation of the realm by him is termed, in 
English history, the Norman conquest 

5. This conquest, however, was gradual, for the immediate resulta 
of the battle of Hastings gave to William less than a fourth part of 
the kingdom ; and his wars for the subjugation of the West, the 
North, and the East, were protracted during a period of seven years. 
William treated the English as rebels for appearing in the field 
against him, and distributed their lands among his Norman followers. 
To this distribution, the tides and revenues of many of the English 
nobility owe their origm.* The northern Saxons made a vigorous 
resistance, and William treated them with a severity in proportion 
to the valor and pertinacity of their defence— laying waste lihe 
country with fire and sword, until, in some countries, the danger of 
rebellion was removed by a total dearth of inhabitants. 

- '««« li a •onthern ooonty of Bnglwid^ on (he Busllth channel, west of Kent 
JL 4a»Ha^aj new m town of ten thonflend Inbabitanla, is flfty-foor mtlee soath-eest ttam Imo* 
don. It la pleaiently ritnated in a rale, tonoanded on every ude, except toward the tea, by hlU 
and diilk On a hUl east of the town are still to be seen banks and trenches, supposed to hat» 
kMn the work of tba Nonnam at the time of the invasion. (Map No. XVI.) 
a. 0BeNoti% Vansieft, JUstomd; lus^ p. 308. 

Obat.JL] ' MIDDLE AGBS. 291 

6. The foandations of the feudal system had existed in England 
before the conquest ; but the distribution of the conquered lands 
among the Norman followers of William, gave that prince the op- 
portunity of fully establishing the system as it then existed, in ito 
maturity, on the continent. Preparatory to the introduction of the 
feudal tenures, William caused a survey to be made of all the lands 
in the kingdom, the particulars of which were inserted in what is 
called the Doomsday Book, or Book of Judgment, which is still in 
being. Under the iron rule of the conqueror the Anglo Saxons be- 
came vassals of their Norman lords ; the name Saocon was made a 
term of reproach ; and the Saxon language was regarded as barba- 
rous ; while the Norman-French idiom was employed in all the acts 
of administration. 

7. On the death of William, in the year 1087, his second son, 
William Rufus, took possession of the throne, to the prejudice of his 
elder brother Robert, then absent in Normandy. His reign, and 
that of his brother and successor, Henry I., are distinguished by few 
eTents of importance ; but both plundered the kingdom : an aifcient 
Saxon chronicle says that the former was " loathed by nearly all his 
people, and odious to God ;" and of the latter it is said that "justice 
was in his hands a source of revenue, and judicial murder a frequent 
inBtmment of extortion." 

8. Henry had married a Saxon princess ; and to his daughter Ma- 
tOda, by iJiis marriage, he designed to leave the crown ; but his 
nephew Stephen defeated his intentions by immediately seizing the 
vacant throne on the death of Henry. (1135.) A long civil war 
that followed was terminated by a general council of the kingdom 
wlach adopted Henry Plantagenet,' Matilda's son, as the successor 
of Stephen. One year later the boisterous life and wretched reign 
of Stephen were brought to a close, when Henry II., the first of 
the Plantagenet dynasty, ascended the throne of England. (A. D. 

9. By inheritance and marriage, Henry possessed, in addition to 
tbe duchy of Normandy, the fairest provinces of north western 

1. PlanUgenft Is the surnama of the kings of England from Henry II. to Richard III. 
fndulvei Andqnarlans are much at a Iom to account for the origin of this name ; and the 
best deriration they can find for It is, that Folk, the first earl of Anjon of that name, being 
■tang with remorse for some wicked action, went In pilgrimage to Jerusalem as a work of 
fttonemeat; where, being soundly scourged with broom twigs, which grew plenUftilly on th« 
ipot, be ever atter took the sumaiae of P/aatdymati or ^roMMfa/A, which was retained by hU 
BtfUa poMflrity. (EaoyelopedlA^ 

99a MODERK H]6T0BT. fTAnU 

Frimce; fund these, in connection with his English dominiooj, xen- 
HL EBDuo- ^®^^^ ^^™ ^^^ ^ *^® ™®®^ powerful monarchs in dtriB* 
TioN OF tendom. He also reduced Ireland* to a state of subjeo- 
XKBLAKD. ^j^^^ j^^ formally annexed it to the English crown, al- 
though the complete conquest of that country was not e^ted until 
nearly four centuries later. By a wise and impartial administration 
of the government, Henry gained the affections of his people ; but he 
was long engaged in a kind of spiritual warfare with the pope, aad 
the close of his life was clouded by domestic misfortunes. His sons, 
instigated by their mother, and aided by Louis VII., kuig of FraneCi 
repeatedly rebelled against him ; and he finally died of a broken 
heart, after a long reign of thirty -five years. (A. D. 1 1^9.) 

10. Henry was succeeded by his eldest son Richard, sumiuned 
the Lion-hearted, who immediately on his accession, after plundering 
his subjects of an immense sum of money, embarked on a crusade 
to the Holy Land. After filling the world with his renown, being 
wredced in his homeward voyage, and travelling m disguise through 
Germany, he was seized and imprisoned, and only obtained his lib- 
erty by an immense ransom, which was paid by his subjects. The 

1. Ireland is a largo island west of England, fh>m which it is separated by the Irish Sea aad 
6l 6eorge*a Channel. Its dirisions, best known in history, are the four greal provinces, Ulatar 
In the north, Leinster in the east, Connaught in the west, and Munstor in the loath. 

Irish historians speak of Greek, Phcenlcian, Scotch, Spanish, and Gaalic colonies in Iraland« 
before the Christian era ; for which, however, there is no historical foondaUon. The oMesI 
authentic Irish records were written betwe^ the tenth and twelfth eentofies ^ bni eome ot 
them go back, with some consistency, as for as the Christian era. The early inhabitants of 
IreUnd were evidently more barbarous than even those of Britain. In the flfUi century Chriail- 
anlty was introduced among them by St Patrick, a native of North Britain, who in his youtti 
hHd been carried a captive into Ireland ; but the new faith did not flourish until a eentniy ot 
two later; and it appears that, even then, the learning of the Irish clergy did not extend ba- 
yond the walls of the monasteries. In the ninth and tenth oenturiea the DaBes aiada tbant- 
seWes masters of the greater part of the coasts of the island, while the interior, divVied Bmaag 
a number of barbarous and hostile chiefs, was agitated by internal wars, whidi no sense of 
common dangers could Interrupt. In the eariy part of the eleventh century, Brian Bora, ktaf 
of. Munster, united the greater part of the island under his sceptre, and ejcpdUiMl Use DaiMa; 
but soon afler his 4eath, A. D. 1014, the kingdom was again divided ; and sanguinary w^an 
continued lo rage betwi^n opposing princes until the invasion by Henry II. of England, hii tlie 
year liflO. 60 early as 1155 Henry had projected the oonqoeat of Ireland, and hiyl obtained 
fh>m pope Adrian IV. AUl permission to invade and subdue the Irish, for the poipoee of v^ 
forming them. The grant was accompanied by a stipulation fbr the payment to St P<»ter« of a 
penny annually from every house iu Ireland,— this being the price for which the Indepeadeooa 
of the Irish people was coolly bartered away. Henry, however, oonqoered only th» f^Mir 
counties Dublin, Meath, Louth, ancf Kildar^ being a part of Leinsier, oa the eastern ooaa^ 
In 1315 Edward Bruce, brother of Uie king of Scotland, being Invited over by the Irish, landed 
In Ireland, and caused himself to be proclaimed king ; but not being well supported, he was 
finally defeated and killed in the battle of Dumlalk, in the year 1318, after which the Scotch 
forces were withdrawn. It was not until the time of Cromwel^ that fiagUsh supranuu^ was 
fhllf «sitabJahedlnevei7partofthelalaod. (JVap No. XVL) 

Oktf.n] MIDDLE AG£3. 9S6 ' 

miga of iSkiB fBmons knight is ehiefiy signalized by his deeds in Pal- 
estcne, and is of Httle importance in English history. 

11. Richard was succeeded by his profligate brother John, sor* 
Bainied La<Aland. (A. D.*1199.) In a long struggle with Philip 
Angostos of France, John lost most of his dontinental possessions : 
by stripping the c]pirch of its treasures he made the pope his enemy ; 
snd after a vain attempt to brave the storm of his vengeance, he 
toM^B 'a cowardly submission, swore allegiance to the pope, and 
agreed to hold his kingdom tributary to the holy see. The barons, 
provoked by Ihe tyranny and vices of their sovereign, next took up 
arms against him : they received with indignation the pope^s decla- 
ration in &vor of Ms vassal, — took possession of London, — and 
'finftlly compelled the king to yield to their demands, and to sign the 
Magna Charta^ or Great Gharfer of rights and liberties, which laid 
the flirst permanent foundation of British freedom.^ John attempt- ^ 
ed to annul the conditions imposed, and, being absolved by the pope 
fi^m the oath which he had taken to the barons, he collected an 
afmy of mercenary soldiers from Germany, and proceeded to lay 
Wailte the kingdom ; but the barons proffered the crown to Louis, the 
eld^t son of the French monarch, who came over with a large army to 
enibrce his claims, when the sudden death of John arrested impending 
dangers, and prevented England from becoming a province of France. 
12. On the death of John, his eldest son, Henry III., then in 
the tenth year of his age, was acknowledged king by the nobility and 
tlie people. Henry was a weak and fickle sovereign ; ' and during his . 
long r^ign Of more than half a century, the country was agitated by 
internal comniotions, caused by the king's prodigality, favoritism, op- 
pressive exactions, and continual violation of the people^s rights in direct 
opposition to the principles of the Great Charter. Again the barons 
resisted, and called a parliament, when the king was virtually de- 
posed. (A. D. 1258.) An attempt to regain his authority led to 
all the horrors of civil war. In another parliament, called by the 
luurons, (A. D. 1265,) and embracing -delegates from the counties, 
eities, and boroughs, we find the first germs of popular representa- 
tion in England ; and although, eventually, the baronial party, whoso 
tyranny was found scarcely less than that of the king, was over- 
tiirown, yet their incautious innovation had already laid the basis of 
the fatare House of Commons. 

a. The Graat Charter wm ilgiied on the 10th of Jnne^ 1915> tfc Buanymede^ on the Th a nie^ 
beliren Sletaiei and Wlndaor. 

994 UODBfS mBTORT. [FmvH 

13. Henry was saooeeded by hb Bon, Bdward L, who, ai the iime 
of his father's death, was absent on the last onisade to the Holy 
Land. (A. D. 1272.) The actiYO and splendid reign of this prinoe, 
who left behind him the oharacter of a great statesman and com- 
mandei^was mostly oooupied with the attempt to unite the whole of 
Great Britain under one soyereignty. When Llewellyn, prinee of 

XT. MjBJu- ^^^/ refused to perform the customary homage to the 
' QATioN or English crown, Edward declared war against him, oyer* 
^^■^ ran the country, and subdued it, after a brave resistanoe. 

14. The remainder o£ Edward's reign was filled with attempts to 
subjugate Scotland, to which country the English monarch laid 
claim as lord paramount, by the rights of fealty and suooeasioa. A 
Scotch king, taken prisoner by Henry II., had been compelled, aa the 
price of his release, to do homage for his crown ; and the same bad 
been demanded of later princes, in return for lands which they held 
in England. By the death of Alexander III. of Scotland, in the 
year 1283, the crown deyolyed on his grand daughter the princea 
Margaret, who was a niece of Edward I. of England. This lady 
was soon after affianced to Edward's only son, the prince of Wales; 
and^ thus the prospect of uniting the crowns of the two kijJgdoins 
seemed near at hand, when the fraU bond of union was suddenly 
destroyed^ by the untimely death of the princess. 

15. The two principal Scotch competitors for the crown were noif ^ 
John Baliol and Robert Bruce, who agreed to submit their claims to 
the decision of Edward. The latter decided in favor of Baliol, on 
condition of his becoming a vassal of the English king. (A. B- 1^^*) 

1. Wales, anolenOy called CamMoy m prindiMaitgr in tho west of Grott^Brltain, baring OA 
the north and. west the Irish Sea, and on the aoath and aonth-west Bristol Channel, i» about one 
htuidred and tUlj miles in length fh>m north to south, and from Mtj to eighty in braadtfa. ^^ 
Welsh are descendant* of the ancient Britons, who, being driven oat of Bi^and by the Anglo 
Saxons, took refUge in the monntabi fiutnesses of Wales, or fled to the continent of Borop^ 
where they gave their name to Brittany. In tho ninth centozy Wales was divided Into tbrss 
aovoreignties, Morth Wales, South Wales, and the intermediate dlslriet called Powia,-^be 
reigning princes of which were held together by some loose Ues of confederacy. In the yetf 
033 the English king Athelstan compelled the Welsh prindpaliUes to become his tiibstaiM; 
and upon the treaty then concluded with them, founded on the feudal relation of lord and vta- 
sal, the Normans based their claim of lordship paramount over all Wales. Dnring &« 
elevenlh and twelfth centuries. South Wales waa the scene of frequent contests betvoe° tbe 
Welsh and Normans. When Edward I. claimed feudal homa«p of Llewellyn, the duty » 
fteliy was acknowledged by the latter ; but he was unwilling, by going to London, to pl«o* 
himself In the power of a monarch who had recently violated a solemn treaty vlth hUn; *^ 
hence arose a war which resulted in the death of Llewellyn, and the 8iibJi«ntlon of bk 
•c«nt*y. A.D.ia3-S. (Jlf^^No-XVL) 


The impatient tamper of Baliol ooiild not brook the hmniliating acta 
of yaasalage required of hbn ; and when war broke out between 
France and England, he refoaed military aid to the latter, and eon- 
d^ded a treaty of alliance with the French monarch. (A.. D. 1292.) 
Warlwtween England and Scotland followed; and Baliol, after a 
brief resistance, being defeated in the great battle of 
Danbar/ was forced to make submission to Edward in ^* ^^^JJ^" 
terms of abject supplication. The victor returned to 
London, carrying with him not only the Scottish crown and sceptre, 
but also the sacred stone on which the Scottish monarchs were placed 
wlflb they received the royal inauguration. (A. D. 1296.) 

16. Scarcely, however, had Edward crossed the frontiers, when the 
Scots reasserted their independence, and under ^e brave Sir Wil- 
liam Wallace, a man of obscure birth, but worthy to be ranked 
among the foremost of patriots, defeated the English at Stirling,* 
and recovered the whole of Scotland as rapidly as it had been lost 
Again Edward advanced, at the head of a gallant muster of all the 
English chivalry, and the Scots were defeated at Falkirk-' (A. D. 
15298.) The adherents of Wallace mutinied against him; and a 
few years later the hero of Scotland was treacherously betrayed into 
the hands of Edward, and being condemned for the pretended crime 
of {reason, was infamously executed,' to the lasting dishonor of the . 
English king. (A. D. 1305.) 

17. The cause of Scottish freedom was revived by Robert Bruce, 
grandson of the Bruce who had been competitor for the throne 
against Baliol. In the spring of the year 1306 he was crowned 
king at Scone* by the revolted barons. In the following year, Ed- 

L IhMhar Is a leaport of ScoOuid, fcirenty-aevm mnes nortb-«ui from EdinbunG^ Tho 
aadent cntfe of Doabar, the iceiie of many warlike exploits) stood on a lofty rock, ihe base 
ct wkkh was WMhed by«tbe sea. It was taken by Edward L in 1906 ;— four times It reeelved 
within lis walls the unfortunate Qoeen Mary ;— and it waa in the Ticinity of Dunbar that Qpom- 
weD defeated the ScoU under GenemI LesUe, in 1050. (^Map No. XVI.) 

S. Uirling is a river port and fortress of Scotland, on the Forth, thirty miles nortb-westftom 
Edinburgh. Its (taie old casUe is placed on a basaltic rock, rising abruptly three hundred fset 
from the riv«r*s edge. {MapVo,X\L) 

a. Falkirk is an ancient town of Scotland, twenty-two mHes north-west from Edinburgh, and 
three m>iea south of the Frith of Forth. In the valley, a litUe north of the town, the Scotcb, 
onder Wallace, were defeated on the l^d of July, 1908. In thU batUe feU Sir John Stewart, 
the commander of the ScotUsh archers, and Sir John the Grahame, the bosom friend of W'al- 
Ittoe. The tomb of Orshame, which the gratitude of hU countrymen has thrice renewed, is 
lo be seen fai the churchyard of Falkirk. On a moof, half a mile south-west from the town, 
Charies Stuart, the Pretender, gained a victory over ihe roval army in 1746. {Map No. XVX. r.) 

4. AcMM, now a msatt village of Scotland, is a UOle above Perth, on the river Xsy, eighloai 
west from Dundee^ and thirty-five north-west from Edinbui^ It was ftmnetty the i«ri« 


ward, aaaembling a mighty anny, to render reBistance hopelefls, took 
the field against him, but he died on his march, and the expedition 
was abandoned by hia son and successor, Edward II., in opposition 
to the dying injunctions of his father. (A. D. 1307.) Still the war 
continued, and the Scotch were generally successful \ but after seTen 
years Edward himself marched against the rebels at the bead of 
more than a hundred thousand men ; but being met by Bruce at the 
head of little more than a third of that number^ he experienced a 
total defeat in the battle of Bannockbum,* wiiich established the in- 
dependence of Scotland. (A. D. June 24th, 1314.) • 

18. The northern nations of Europe, during the tenth, eleveDtii, 
twelfth, and thirteenth centuries, were much less advanced in ciTilization 
than those which sprung from the wrecks of the Boman empire ; and 
their obscure annals offer little to our notice but the germs of rude king- 
doms in the early stages of formation. In the south-west of Europe, 
the wars between the Moors and Christians of the Spanish peninsula 
had already continued during a period of more than five centuries, 
with ever -varying results ; but the^ overthrow of the Western cali- 
phate of Cordova, in the year 1030, followed by the dismemberment 
of the Moham'medan empire of Spain, into several independent 
States, (A. D. 1238,) struck a fatal blow at the Saracen dominion. 
But, unfortunately, the Christian provinces bIso were little united, 
and it was not uncommon for the Christian princes to form alliances 
with the Moors against one another. The founding of the Moorish 
kingdom of Granada, m 1238, for a time delayed the fall of the 
Moslems ; but the Christians gradually extended their power, until, 
near the close of the fifteenth century, Granada yielded to the tor- 
rent that had long been setting against it, and with its fall the su- 
premacy of the Christian faith and power was acknowledged through- 
out the peninsula.* 

dence of the Seottlah kings-ttw place of Uielr eoronatlon— and hm been the scene of ib^ 
historical erents. The remains of its ancient palaee are incoiponted with Uie mansioo of vb 
earl, of Mantfeld. ^Map No. XVI.) 

1. Sannoekbumj the name of whlA is inseparably connected wiUi one of the most mem- 
orable erents in British history, is three mUee eouUi-west (Vom SUriix«. About one mHe ««> 
fK>m the TiHage James III. was defetted in 1188, by his rebelUoos subjects and his »oo ^*^ 
IV., and, aHer being wounded in Uie engagement, was ■tf«Bff''^n«H at a mill in the vicialw* 
sMap,Vo. XVI.) 

a. See next SecUon, pp. 3t7-]6. and Notea. 

thur.lLl MIDDLE AGES. »7 




ANALYSI& 1. ContlnuaUon of the historiefl of France and England.— 3. Defeat of Edwuti 
H. Ill tlie battle of Bannockbnm. Edward offends the barons. [Gascony.] The Great Charter 
^QBOmied, and annual. parliaments ordained.— 3. Rebellion of the barons, and death of Ed- 
vanL Rflign of Edward UI. Invasion of Sooaand. [Ualidon Hill.] 

FssvcB Ann EiiauaH waks. — 4. Edward disputes the succession to the throne of France. 
Invwioa of Fnmce^ and batUe of Cressy. [Creasy.] Defeat of the Scots, and capture of Calais. 
£l>utem. Otlaia.]— ^ Renewal of the war with France, and victory of Poictiers. (1356.) 
Aaarehy In n«ncet. Treaty of Bretigny. The conquered territory. [Bretigny. Aqultaine. 
Bordeaux.]— (k Renewal of the war with France in 136a Relative oondilion of the two powers. 
Ibe n«Dch recover their provinces. [Bayonne. Brest, and Cherbourg.]— 7. Death of Edward 
m. of Kngla ad, and Charles V. of France. The distractions that followed in both kingdoms. 
tOftoana. Lancaster. Gloucester.] Wat Tylei> insurrection. [Blacicheath.]— 8. Character 
of Rf«ikard II. 'He is deposed, and succeeded by Henry IV. (1389.) Tlie legal claimant. 
Origin or Ibe bontentions between the houses of Yoric and Lancaster.— 9. Insurrection against 
BBBiy. [Sfarewsbuxy.]— 10. Accession of Heniy V., and happy change in his character. He 
Invades Frvice, and defeats the (^ench in the batUe of Agtncourt.— 11. Civil war in France, 
mod rotam of Henry. The tiieaiy with the Borgundlan fiiction. Opposition of the Orleans 
party. (The Stales General. The dauphin.]— 13. The infant king of the English, Henry VL, 
and fba French king Charles Vn. Joan of Arc Her deckired mission.— 13. Successes of the 
Tianeli, and fUe ot Joan.— 14. The English gradually lose all their continental possessions, ez- 
eeptOOda. Tranqolllity in France. 

15L Unpopularity of the reignhig English family. Popular insurrection. Beginning of tho 
WAxa or THK Two Rosks. [Bt. ATbans.]— 16. Sanguinary character of the strife. First period 
of Oieirsr doeea with the aecesilon of Edward IV., of the house of York.— 17. The French 
kfi^. The reign of Edward IV. The earl of Warwick. Overthrow of the Lancastrians. 
Hi^ Cite of Margaret, her sop, and the late king Henry IV. [Warwick. Tbwkesbury.]— 18. 
Tlie ooMuporaiy reign of Loois XI. of Prance. The relations of Edward and Louis.— 10. 
Fitfo of Bdwaid V., and accession of Richard IIL Defeat and death of Richard, and end of 
the** Wars of the Two Roses." [Richmond. Bosworth.] 

m. En«n or BtNKT VIL Hie imp<)etorB Simnel and Warbeok. [Dublin.]— 81. lYeattes 
wtlh Vmed and H'v^iin'* The Scottish marriage.— 22. Why the reign of Henry VIL Is an 
important epoch in English history. 


L IhrtnfAEK,Sw«niNAia>NoEWAT. Union of Oalmar. [CUmar.] ^ 

9, The RuasuM sitriaB. Its early history. [Dnieper. Novogorod.] Divisions of the 
kii^dom in the eleventh centttry.— 3. Tartar invasions. The reign of John ID. duke of Mos- 
cow. Rnvia at the end of the tfAeenth century.— 4. Founding of the Ottom ah cicriRK, on the 
ndaa of the Eastern or Greek empire. [Emir.] The Turkish empire at the close of the four- 
teenth oeotnry. The sultan B^jazet overthrown by Tamerlane.— 5. The Tartar xxriRR or 
Tajcerlakk. Defbat of the Turks. Turks and Christians unite against the Tartars. Death 
of ttmOma. [Somarcand. AngcoaJ-^). Taking of Conatanthiople by the Turiu, and 
eodinetlon of the Eastern empire. 

7. Poland. Gommenoement and early history of Poland. Extent of the kingdom at the 
does of the flfteenth cenUuy. [Poland. Lithuania. Teutonic knights. Moldavia.]— 8. The 
Obemae exkeb at the close of the fifteenth century. Elective monarcha.— 9. Causes thai 
tEMlsr the hlstoiy of Germany exceedingly complicated. The three powerful States of Ger- 
flHugraboEt (be middle ofthe fourteenth century. [Luxemburg. Bohemia. Moravia. SICMLa. 

M8 M0DKB9 HiaTOET. [PamIL 

BollHid. lyniL Aoibrte.}-!*. Av 
|KNUutfdni«nn«tedarii« ikeralgBorifuiailiaa. CWonM.>-lL I 
' •from Aotfria. I^M^-csoiiUaaed wan. SvtlaertaMl h d ep w i de rt at tka ckM cTlha f 

eeoiunr. [RotoU. William TdL Mof^ulcB. .fleinpacfc }— 1«> Itaxiah BirroftT dortag tte 
central period of Ibe Middte Agca. lh$ ItaHaa rafMbllca. [Gcwm.] Dacfty of MUaa^lS. 
TL« PloreaUaei. Coolnta between Ibe C eaoeie and Vanartai [LevaaL] Genoa at Ibn 
dow or Ibe Klcenlb eentvry.-l^. Blauwy of Veniea. Her power m Ibn end eT tba lAeenlb 
muJHil. [Sloffca.] The popea, and kiagB of Naplea. bMerfmnee oT fcralSB powen^lS. 
Stazh. Union ^ the nKMlpowcfftdCbritfiaafliaiei. Oveftbrow ofthe Bmean doaalnioM Im 
Bpain. [NavarA Ar^oa. GbitUe. Leon. Gnanda.}— 1& HiHofyoTPMrnmAL. [Fkrtber 


1. If aaisalioa, and geopapUcal knowledge dortavtbe DaAAgea. msfirtl o€ ctmrntanb, 
[Pfaa.] DiMovery of Ibe magnelic needle. The art of priatln«. DtoooTenroT theCMMne. 
Porti«QeM diwoveriea. [Caniriea. Capt de Verd and Anore ldaMl«.]~S. Viewa and ofefeeli 
or Prince Henry. Uls death. Fkoie of Ibe dtaeoreries patranlaed by htm. GhrMoplwrCb- 
lamboaw Hm bold project concelred by him. [Liabon. IielaBd. Gvinea.]— 3. The trfato of 
' Cotombna. Ula final triumph. In the diaooreiy of America. Vano de Gama. Cloibf 

1. England akd France during thb foitrteenth a^ FiFTEEmna 
CENTURIES. — 1. France and England occnpj the most prominent 
place in the history of European nations daring the dosing period 
of the Middle Ages ; and as their annals, during most of this period, 
are so intimately connected that the history of one nation is in great 
part the history of both, the unity of the subject will best be pre- 
seryed, and repetition avoided, by treating both in connection. 

2. The reign of Edward II. of England, whose defeat by the 
Scots in the &mous battle of Bannockbum has already been men- 
tioned, although inglorious to himself, and disastrous to the BritijBh 
arms, was not, on the irhole, anfavorable to the progress of consGta- 
tional liberty. The unbounded favoritism of Edward to Oaveston, 
a handsome youth of Gasoony,' whom the king elevated in wealth 
and dignities above all the nobles in England, roused the resentmoit 
of the barons ; and the result was the banishment of the favorite, 
and a reformation of abuses in full parliament. (A. D. 1313.) The 
flfreat Charter, so often violated, was again confirmed ; and the im 
poitant provision was added, that there should be an annual aasem 
bling of parliament, for protection of the people, when " aggrieved 
by the king's ministers against right" 

3. Bat other favorities supplied the place of Oaveston : the 
nobles rebelled against their sovereign : his faithless queen Isabella, 
•ister of the king of France, took part with the malcontents, and 

L Om«m|f, before the Fnach Rerolotton, was a provlnee of IVanee, dtnatod belweM ihn 
Oaronna, Uie lea, and the Pyreneee. TheGaaoooaareapeopIeofmiiehtplrit; bntttialrenr 
fontion In deMribiaK their exyloltahaa made the term ^MCMMdfproTHbiaL (JM^Ko.ZBP 

Chap.ILJ middle ages. 8B9 

Sdward was deposed, impriaoned, and afterwards murdered. (A. D. 
ia27.) Edward til, crowned at fourteen years of age, unable to 
endure the presence of a mother stained with the foulest crimes, 
caused her to be imprisoned for life, and her paramour, Mortimer, 
to be executed. He then applied himself to redress the grievances 
which- had proceeded from the late abuses of authority; siter which 
he invaded Scotland, and defeated the Scots at- Halidon Hill ;» but 
on his withdrawal 'from the country, the Scottish arms again tri- 

4. On the death, in the year 1328, of Charles IV. of Prance', the 
last of the male descendants of Philip the Fair, the 
crown of that kingdom became the object of contest be- aitd xvoubb 
tween Edward III. of England, the pon of Philip's ^^"• 
daughter Isabella, and Philip of Valois, son of the brother of Philip. 
After war had continued several years between the*two nations, with 
only occasional intervals of truce, in the year 1346 Edward, in per- 
flon, invaded France, and, supported by his hewic son Edward, called 
tbe Black Prince, then only fifteen years of age, gained a great vic- 
tory over the French in the famous battle of Cressy* — ^slaying more 
of the enemy *han the total number of his own army. (Aug. 26th. 
1346.) A few weeks after the battle of Cressy, the Scots, who had 
seized tie opportunity of fidward's absence to invade England, were 
defeated in the battle of Durham," and their king David Bruce taken 
pTiJBoner.' (Oct. 17, 1346.) To crown the honors of the campaign, 
the important seaport of Calais,* in France, surrendered to Edward, 
after a vigorous siege ; and this important acquisition wag retained 
by the English more than two centuries. 

L ir^Udcn ma is aiLendnence north of the river Tweed, nol Ikr tttatk Berwick. 

2. Crtasy^ or Oeey} Is a small Tillage, In the former proyince of Plcardj, ninety-Are milei 
nortb^weat from Paris. Tt ia believed that cannon, bnt of very rude oonatmotlon, were lint 
emplored by the Engliah In thla batUe. {Mmp No. XUI.) 

a. Durham^ the capital of the county of the same name, la an important city In the north of 
T i ngfanrt ) two hundred and thirty miles north-weet from London. The field on which the bat> 
tto was fioaght, some distance north of Durham, on the road to Newoaatle, (Oct. 17th, 13«^ 
was eaned J^evUle's Croaa. (Map No. XVI.) 

4. CalaU (Bag. Oal-fs, Ft. Kab-la',) a seaport of France, on the Straits of Doveti fai the 
tinaer province of Plcardy, la flAy miles north of Cressy. In 1S58 Calais waa retaken by snr- 
ptise by the duke of Guise. In 1596 it was again taken by the Engliah under the archduke 
Albert, but hi 1508 was restored to France by the treaty of Nervins. 

The cbathiate reeistance which Calais made to Edward IIL in 1347, la said* to have so mneh 
lotemeif the conqueror that he determined to put to death aix principal burgesses of the town, 
who, to save their MIow citizens, had magnanimously placed themselves at his disposal ; but 
OmA he waa turned from his poipoae only by the tears and entieaUerof hia queen Philippa. tt 
to heUeved, however, that Froiasart alone, among hla cotemporariea, reUtes thU stoiy ; ii4 
dooMiavvwrrsMoiMblybeentertdaedorttitruth. (Jtfiv No. XIO.) 


5. After a trace of eight jears, daring which ooearrod the death 
of the French monarch, Philip of Valoifl, and the acceauon of his 
0on John to the throne of France, war was again renewed, but was 
speedily terminated bj a great yictorj, which the Black Prince ob- 
tained over king John in the battle of Poictiers. (Sept. 1356.) The 
French monarch, although taken prisoner, and conveyed in tnunph 
to London, was treated with great moderation and kindness ; but his 
captivity produced in France the most horrible anarchy, which was 
carried to the utmost extreme by a revolt of peasants, or aerb, 
against their lords, in most of the provinoes surrounding the capital* 
At length, while king John was still a prisoner, the two nations con- 
cluded a treaty at Bretigny,* (A. D. 1360,) which provided that king 
John should be restored to liberty, and that the English monarch 
should renounce his claim to the throne of France, and to the pos- 
session of Nornuindy and other provinces in the north ] but that the 
whole south-west of France, embracing more than a third of the 

'kingdom, and extenoing from the Bhone nearly to the Loire, should 
be guaranteed to England. The territory obtained from France 
was erected into the principality of Aquitaine,* the government of 
which was intrusted to the Black Prince, who, during several years, 
kept his court at Bordeaux.* 

6. The treaty with France was never fiilly ratified ; and in the 
year 1368 war between the two countries was commenced anew, the 
blame of the rupture being thrown by each nation upon the other. 
In the interval since the late treaty a great change had taken plsoe 
in the condition of the rival powers : king Edward was now declining 
in age; and his son the Black Prince was enfeebled by disease ; and 
the ceded French provinces were eager to return to their native king ; 
while, on the other hand, France had recovered from her great losses, 
and the wise and popular Charles Y. occupied the throne, in the 
place of the rash and intemperate John. France gradually recovered 

1. Bretignf to ft sraftU baml«t six miles soaUi-«ftat ftom GhartTM, and (Uty milM •oath-««>( 
fhim P&rtt, in ttie former proTlnce of Orleans. 

2. AfuUanu (jtqtuUtnia) was the name of Uie Boman provinoe in Gaul sonth of the Loll*' 
BInoe the time of the Romans it has been sometimes a kingdom and sometimes a duchy. Bs> 
tbn the rerolution, what remained of this andeot provinoe passed under Ihe name of Ot^ 
enne. Bordeaoz was its eapitaL (.Va^ No. XIII.) 

3. Bordeaux^ called by the Romans Bmrdignla^ an important commercial city and seaport of 
fhmoe, is on the west bank of the Garonne, flfly-flTo miles fh>m its month, and three hondrad 
and seren miles south-west fhnn Paris. Montesquieu and Montaigna, Edward the Black Prino^ 
pope Clement V., and RItdiard H. of Snghmd, were natlTes of this city. (Jlfs^ No. XHI.) 

•.Feb.l3SS. lUs NToU was oaUed£«Jii«fii«ru»ftomJ^iMa Bob BeSBMbt^l**^ 

Ohap.H] Mn)DL£ AGES. 301 

most of her provinceis without obtainming a single victory, although 
the keys of the country — Bordeaux, Bayonne,* Calais, Brest, and 
Cherbourg* — ^were still left in the hands of the English. 

7. On the death of Edward (A. D. 1377) the crown fell to the 
son of the Black Prince, Eichard II., then only eleven years of age. 
Three years later, Charles V., by his death, left the crown of France 
to his son Charles VI., a youth of only twelve years. . Both kingdoms 
Buffered from the distractions attending a regal minority : — in Frances 
the people were plundered by the exactions of the regents, and the 
kingdom harassed by the factious struggles for power between the 
dukes of Bur' gnndy and Orleans ;' and in England similar results 
attended the contests for the regency between the king's uncles, the 
dukes of Lancaster,* York,* and Gloucester.* In the year 1381 the 
injustice of parliamentary taxation occasioned a &mous revolt of 

1. Bttfonne is od the eonth side of the Adoar, four miles fyom Its mouth, near the south- 
weeteni eztremltx of France. Bsyomie Is strongly fortified, and, although often besieged, has 
never been taken. T^e miUtaiy weapon called the bayoiui takes its n^me ttota this dty, where 
it is said to have been first invented, and bKught into ustf^t the siege of Bayonne, during the 
war between Francis I. and Charles V. (Map No. XIII.) 

2, Sregt and Cherbourg are small bat ^ngly-fortified seaport towni in the nortlnwest of 
FnuBoe. ChertKrarg was the last town in Normandy retained by the English. (Map No. XLIL) 

3L Bnr' gundy and Oriearu, An account of Bur* gundy has already been given. Orleans^ a 
city of France, and formerly capital of the province of the same name, is situated on the 
Loire^ sizty^eigiht miles sottth>west flrom Paris. Orleans occupied the site of the ancient G«n4- 
bum, the empoiium of the Ck>mute«, which was taken and burned by Caesar. (Gojsar B. 
Vn. IS.) It sabeequently rose to great eminence, and was unsnccessftally besieged by At' tlla 
and Odoteer. It became the capital'of the flret kingdom of Bur' gundy under the first race of 
French kings. Philip of Vaiois erected it into a duoftiy and peerage in favor of his son ; and 
Orleans has rince continued to give the title of duke to a prince of the blood royal. Charles 
VI. conferred the tiUe of **duk6 of Orleans" on his younger brother, who became the fbunder 
of the Valois-Orleans line. LoHls XIV. confetred it on his younger brother Philip, the founder 
of the Bourbon dynasty of the house of Orieans. Louis Philip was the first and only rullug 
prince of the BooriionJOrleans dynasty. (^ojrNo.XIIL) * 

4. Lamtaster, which has'given its name to the ** dukes of Lancaster," is a seaport town on 
the coast of the Irish Sea, forty-six miles firom Liverpool, and two hundred and five milea 
north-west from Ixmdon. Lancaster is supposed, (h>m the nma, altars, and other antiquities 
IboBd there, to hare been a Roman station. The first earl of Lancaster was created in 1966. 
In 1351 Henry, earl of iWby, was made duke of Lancaster: John Gaunt, fourth son of Ed- 
wevd nL, mairled Blanch, the dnke^ daughter, and, bjTvirtae of this alUanee, succeeded to 
the title. His son Henry of Boliagbroke became duke of Lancaster on his (kther's death In 
laH^ and finally Benry IV., king of England in 1399, fh>m which time to the present this 
dwiiy baa been associated with the regal dignity. (Mt^ No. XVL) 

5. r«rft, 80eNota,p.9O9. (Jlfap No. XVI.) 

,t. aivmefUr Is on the east bank of the Setem, ninety-three miles north-iresft from London. 
llwwlbandedbytfaeBemansA.I>.44; and Boman coins aqd antiquities are frequently dog 
«p on the soppeeed site of the ^rid encampment. RIchaid IL created his uneles dukes of York 
and 6k>iieester; and since that time the dncal title has remained the highest tltte of SngUsh 
aobUity. Tlie duke of Lsnesster was the only one wko naUy possessed a duchy (the coonty 
of Lancaster; sol^ect to his gOTemment, and liiat was remitad to the crown In 146L (Map 

802 MODSBN HI8T0R7. [PinlL 

tlie lower bbases, headed by tlie Bladomiitli Wat Tyler, aLmflar to 
the insorreotion of the French peasants which raged in 1358* In 
both nations these events mark the advance of tJie serfe, in thdr 
progress toward emancipation, to that stage in which their hopes are 
roused, and their wrongs still unredressed The serfe of England 
demanded equal laws, and the abolition of bondage : to the number 
of sixty thousand they assembled at Blackheath,* — obtained possess- 
ion of London^ and put to death the chancellor and primate, as evil 
counsellors of the crown, and cruel oppressors of the people ; but 
the fiiJl of their leader struck terror into the insurgents, and the re- 
volt was easily extinguished, while the honor of the crown was sal- 
lied by a revocation of the promised charters of enfranchisement 
and pardon. More than fifteen hundred of the mutineers perished 
by the hand of the hangman. 

8. It was not till the ugd of twenty-three that Richard escaped 
from the tutelage of his uncles ; and then his iudolenoe, dissipation, 
and prodigality, brought him into contempt ; and during his absence 
in Ireland a sucQessful revolution elevated his cousin, Henry of Lan- 
caster, surnamed Bolingbroke, to the throne. (A.. D. 1399.) The 
parliament confirmed the deposition of Richard, who wlw soon after 
privately assassinated in prison.* The accession of Henry IT. to 
the throne met with no opposition, although he was not the 1^1 
claimant, the hereditary right being in Edward Mortimer, who was 
descended from the second son of Edward III., whereas Henry was 
descended from the third son. The claim of Mortimer was at a 
later period vested by marriage in the family of the duke of York, 
descended from the fourth son of Edward ; and hence b^gan the 
contentions between the houses of York and Lancaster. 

9. The discontented friends of Henry proved his most dangerous 
enemies ; for the Percys, who had enl^oned him, dissatisfied with 
his administration, took up arms and involved the country in civil 
war;b but in the great battle of Shrewsbury* (July 21, U03) A« 

L Bla€kkeath to an etoyatod mooiy tnei lattie Ttdnltj of tbe Britlah matropoUiy ■oattHNrt 
oCUwdtjr. The gretlcr porlloo Is in the pariflli of Greenwich. 

S. Skrtwahmrf ]M sitnated on the Sevenif4>ne handrod and ttdrty-oight mUea nortlhirait froa 
London. WlUlam the Conqneror ^ve the town and aurroundlng country to Roger dc Vank 
Spmary, who bnilt here a strong t>aronlal oaatto ; bat la 1108 the caaUo and property ^**'?^ 
lUted to tbe crown. Sbrdwtbory, from its lilnation doae to Waiei^ was the acene of aw 
bontar frays between tbe Welah and Bn^djib. InthebatUeof July 1403, tbe fldl of tbe Snneai 
Lord Percy) somamed Hotapurj by an unknown baiMl, deekM tbe Tktoiy i^tbe fclni^ ^^'^'' 

a. Bead Sbakipean^ •* King BUbard IL» 

b. Bawl Bbakapean^ •* Flnt Part of KloK Heoiy nr 

Qutf.II] HIDDLS AOEa ^ 803 

iBBorgenaiB were defeated, although the inBurrection waa atill kept up 

a niunber of years, chiefly by the successful valor of Owen Glendower, 

the Welsh ally of the Percys. 

10. Henry IV. was succeeded by his son Henry T. in the year 
1413. The previous turbulent and dissipated character of the neir 
aoyereign had given little promise of a happy reign; but immediate- 
ly after his accession he dismissed the former companions of his 
viceSj — ^took into his confidence the wise ministers of his father', — 
and, laying aside his youthful pleasures, devoted all his energies to 
t^e tranquillizing of the kingdom, and the wise government of the 
people.* Taking advantage of the disorders of France, and the tem- 
porary in^fanity of its sovereign Charles YI., he revived the English 
elaim to the throne of that kingdom, and at the head of thirty thou- 
sand men passed over into Normandy to support his pretensions. 
After bis army had been wasted by a contagious disease, which re- 
duced it to eleven thousand men, he met and defeated the French 
army of fifty thousand in the battle of Agincourt,* — slaying ten 
thousand of the enemy and taking fourteen thousand prisoners, among 
whom were many of the most eminent barons and princes of the 
realm. (Oct 24, 1415.) 

11. The Orleans and Burgundian factions which had temporarily 
laid aside their contentions to oppose the invader, renewed them on 
the departure of H^nry, and soon involved the kingdom in the hor- 
rors of civil war. In the midst of these evils Henry returned to 
follow up his victory, and fought his way to Paris, when the Bur- 
gundian faction tendered him the crown of France, with the promise 
of its aid to support his claink A treaty was soon concluded with 
the queen of the insane king and the duke of Bur' gundy, by which 
it was agreed that Henry should marr]|||Patherine, the daughter of 
Charles^ and succeed to the throne on the death of her father ; while 
in the meantime he was to govern the kingdom as regent. (May, 
1420.) The Stateii General* of the kingdom assented to the treaty; 
and the western and northern provinces owned the sway of England ; 
but the central and south-eastern districts adhered to the cause of 

1. jagime0mn to s anudl Tillage of Fhmee in ttie Ibrmer proiinoe of Artois, one himdied and 
Ian nOlee north ftmnPtols. (Jir^ No. XIU.) 

& Of Ike auu» Ommrol ia meant the great eonneil or general parliament of the nation, 
nnimiimil ef itpwaenfativea ftom the noblUtj, the deigy, and the monidpalitlaa. The country 
JtaKetaastnoraiweaeBtallTea. (8ee Unlfcnl^ Edition, p. 884.) 

a. Happilj portnqred Im Shak^aara'ft (*SeooBd Paa of King Haorj IV," Aet t., 8o«ie 0. 

S04 MODSBK mSTORT. t^^^ li- 

the datxphiD,' afterwards Charles VII., the only sarriring son of his 
father, and the head of the Orleans party. Henry Y. did not live to 
wear the crown of France ; and the helpless Charles survived \nxa 
only two months. (Died A. D. 1422.) 

12. The English king left a son, Henry YL, then only nine 
months old, to inherit his kingdom. France, however, was now 
openly divided between the rival monarchs — ^its native sovereign 
Charles YII., and the English king, in the person of the infant 

*Henry. In the war which followed, the prospects of the English 
were gradually improving, when they received a fatal check ftom the 
extraordinary appearance of a heroine, the famous Joan of Arc, 
whom the credulity of the age believed to have been divinely com- 
missioned for the salvation of the French nation. Moved by a sort 
of religious phrensy, this obscure country girl was enabled to inspire 
her sovereign, the priests, the nobjes, and the army, with the truth 
of her holy mission, which was, to drive the English from Orleans, 
which they were then besieging, and to open the way for the crown- 
ing of Charles at Kheims, then in the hands of the enemy. 

13. Superstition revived the hopes of the French, and inspired 
the English with manifold terrors---the harbingers of certain defeat^ 
in a short period all the promises of the maiden were fulfilled, and 
in accordance with her predictions she had the happiness to see 
Charles YII. crowned in the cathedral. Her mission ended, she 
wished to retire to the humble station from which Providence had 
called her, but being retained with the army, she afterwards fell into 
the hands of the English, who inhumanly condemned and executed 
her for the imaginary crime of sorcery. 

14. In the death of Joan of Arc the English indeed destroyed the 
cause of their late reveriA ; but nothing could stay the new impulse 
which her wonderful successes had given to the French nation. In 
the year 1437 Charles gained possession of his capital, after twenty 
years exclusion from it ; the Burgundian faction had previously be- 
come reconciled to him, and thenceforward the war lost its serious 
character, while the struggle of the English grew more and more 
feeble, until, in 1453, Calais was the only town of the continent re- 
maining in their hands. From this period until the death of 

1. Dnpkin to UietlUe of (be eldest ton of Uie kli«or Fniioe. In 1910 H«Bb«t U.ttmf 
ftmd hie estate, Uie prorlDoeor Dampkimf, to PhUlp of Valois, on oondlHoii that 11m eUast 
■on of the kiagof Fhmoe ehool^ In Aitare» be eaUed ttie Uupkin^uA gOTarn this tanttoiy. 
The danphto, however, rotalne only the tttte, the estates ^Tii« loiw b^ vailed with the 


Charles VII., in' 1461, France enjoyed domestic tran4uillity, while 
civil wars of the fiercest violence were raging in England. 

15. The hereditary claim of the house of York to the Euglish 
throne has already been mentioned, (p. 302.) Henry was a weak 
prince, and subject to occasional fits of idiocy ; but his wife, Marga- 
ret of Anjon,* a woman of great spirit and ambition, possessing the 
allurements, but without the virtues, of her ^x, ruled in his name. 
The haughtiness of the queen, the dishonor brought on the English 
arms by the 'loss of France, and the imbecility and insignificance of 
Henry, when contrasted with the popular virtues of Biohard duke 
of York, rendered ^the reigning family unpopular with the nation ; 
and when Bichard advanced his pretensions to the crown, a powerful 
party rallied to his support. A formidable rising of the people in 
the year 1450, under a leader who is known' in history under the 
nickname of Jack Cade, first manifested the gatherbg ^^ ^^^^ ^ 
diacont0:it. Five years later civil war between the York- of thb two 
jstff and Lancastrians broke out in different parts of the ^<^^™- 
kingdom ; and in the first battle, at St. Albans,* King Henry was 
taken prisoner. The Yorkists wore, as the symbol of their party, a 
white rose, and the Lancastrians a red rose ; and the contests which 
marked their struggle for power are usually called the " wars of the 
two roses." 

16. We have not room to enter into details of the sanguinary 
strife that followed. " In my remembrance," says a cotemporary 
writer,* " eighty princes of the blood royal of England perished ^n 
these convulsions ; seven or eight battles were fought in the course 
of thirty years ; and their own country was desolated by the English 
as eraelly as the former generation had wasted France." After many 
vicisaitudes of fortune, in which Henry was twice defeated and taken 
prisoner, and Bichard and his second son were slain, at the close of 
the first period of the war the white rose triumphed, and Edward 
lY., eldest son of the late duke of York, became king of England. 
(A. D. 1461.) 

17. Charles YII. of France died the same year, and was succeed- 

1. Jtnjau was an ancient province of France, on both sides of the lA)lre, north of ^Itoa. 
In the year 1246 Louis IX. of France bestowed this ];m>Ylnce cu bis younger brother Charles, 
with the tUle of count of Aq)ou ; but in 1338 It fell to the crown, at the accession of Philip VI. 
BobaaqinenUy diiferent princes of the blood bore the title of Ai^ou ; and Margaret, who b«- 
tamb queen of England, was the daughter of Ren6 of Ai^jou. (Map No. XIII.) 

%J^ JOban* Is a small town twenty miles north-west Arom London. 

■• FUlip de Gominea. 



ed OD the tlirone by hb son Louis XI. The reign of Sdward IV 
of England was a reign of terror. Once he was deposed, and Henry 
reinstated, by the great power and infiuenoe of the earl of Warwick/ 
to whom the people gave the name of king-maker. But Warwick 
afterwards fell in battle ; and in the year 1471 the heroic Margaret 
and her son wer^ defeated and taken prisoners, and the power of the 
Lancastrians was OTcryirown in the desperate battle of Tewkesbury,' 
which ooncluded this sanguinary war. Margaret was at first im- 
prisoned, but afterwards ransomed by the king of France : her son 
was assassinated : Henry Y I. breathed his last, as a prisoner, in the 
Tower of London ; and Edward was finally established on the throne. 

18. The reign of Edward lY. was throughout ootemporary with 
that of Louis XI. of France, a prince of a tyrannical, superstitious^ 
crafty, and cruel nature, but who possessed such a fund of comic 
huinor, and such oddities of thoughts and manner, as to throw his 
atrocious cruelties into the shade. The relations of these two princes 
with each other were in a high degree dishonorable to both. Ed- 
ward, by threatening war upon France, obtained from Louis *the 
secret payment of exorbitant pensions for himself and his ministers; 
and the latter were with much reason charged with being the hired 
agents of the French king. Both these princes died in 1483, and 
both were succeeded by minors. 

19. Edward Y., at the age of twelve years, succeeded his fJE^ther 
as king of England ; but after a nominal reign of little more than 
two months, the young king and his brother the duke of York were 
Murdered in the Tower, at the instigation of their uncle the duke of 

Gloucester, who caused himself to be proclaimed king, with the title 
of Bichard III. But the whole nation was alienated by the crimes 
of Bichard : the claims of the Lancastrian fitmily were reviyed by 
Henry Tudor, earl of Bichmond ;* and at the decisive battle of Bos- 

1. The ^teldom of VTarwUk dates fhrai the time of WQUam Uie Ckmqaeror, who beiU>wed 
the town and caatle of that name, F^th the title of eari, on Henry de Newbnis, one of his fbl> 
lowers. The town of Warwick, capital of the county of the same name, is on the riTcr Avon, 
«ighty-two miles north-west fh>m London. ( Jfop Na XVI.) 

S. ToDkfhury is on the river Avon, near ita confluence with the Sevenii thlrty-three mllea . 
ioulh-weM from Warwick, and ninety miles nortb-wett from London. The field on wUch the 
batUe was fought, in the immediate >icinity of the town, is still called the ** Bloody Meadow.** 

3. Rickmandy which gave a liUe to the dukes of that name, is in the north of England, forty- 
one miles north-west from York. Ita castle waa founded by the first earl of Richmond, who 
redeived lh>m William the Conqueror the forfeited estates of Cbe earl of Merda, and built 
Bichmond caatle to. protect his family and property. The tiUe and property, after being ' 
possess e d by dUferenl persona allied to the blood royal, were at length vested in the CRrtrn by 
the aeoessioa of Beniy, earl of Richmond, to the throi », with the tlUeof Heniy VIL (JMBy 

Ommf.JL] middle AGEa 807 

worth jfield,' Richard was defeated and sJain (1486). The erown 
which Bichard wore in the action waa immediately placed on the head 
of the ear} of Richmond, who was proclaimed king, with the title of 
liearj YII.' His marriage soon after with the princess Elizabeth, 
heiress of the house of York, united the rival claims of York and 
Lancaster in the Tudor fiunily, and put an end to the civil contests 
which, for more than half a century, had deluged England with blood. 

20. The early part of the reign of Henry VII. was disturbed by 
two singular enterprises, — ^the attempt made in Ireland, 

by Lambert Simnel, to counterfeit the person of the 'i^,^^' 
young earl of Warwick, nephew of Edward lY., and the 
only remaining male heir of the house jof York ; and the similar 
attempt of Perkin Warbeck to counterfeit the young duke of 
York, one of the princes who had been murdered in the Tower at 
the instigation of Richard III. Both impostors, claiming the right 
to the throne, received their principal support in Ireland ; but the 
former, after being crowned at Dublin,* and afterwards defeated in 
battle, (1487,) ended his d#ys as a menial in the king's household, — 
while the latter, after throwing himself up6n the king's mercy, being 
deteeted in subsequent plots, expiated his crime on the scaffold. 

21. The most important of the* foreign' relations of Henry were 
a treaty 'with France, which stipulated that no rebel subjects of 
either power should be harbored or aided by the other ; and a treaty 
of peace with Scotland, by which Margaret, eldest daughter of Hen(y, 
was given in marriage to the Scottish king, James Y., a marriage 
from which have sprung all the sovereigns who have reigned in Oreat 
Britain since the time of Elizabeth. The reply^ of Henry to his 
counsellors who objected to the Scottish marriage, that the kingdom 
of England might by that connection fall to the king of Scotland, 
shows a great degree of sagacity, that has been verified by the result 
" Scotland would then,'' said Henry, " become an accession to Eng- 
land, not En^and to Scotland, for the greater would draw the less : 
it is a safer union for England than one with France." 

22. The reign of Henry YII. may justly be considered an im- 
portant era in English history. It began in revolution, at the dose 


1. Bonnrth Is m smaU town nlnsty-llTe mtlea nortti-VMt from London. In the Iwttto^leld, In 
the Yielnfty of this town, is an eminence called Crown HUl, where Lord Stanley Is said to hare 
placed Riehard^s crown on the earl of Hiebmond*B head. (Map No. XVL) 

S. DtMimj the capital of Inland, is on the eastern searooast of the island, at the month of 
the Titer Ltflhj, two hundred and ulneiy4wo miles north-west from London. It was called 
by the naaes Dioeiim, or DtMUnif "the black pool,** from its Ticinltyto the motdyawampsat 
the month of the ilTer. It has a popnlation of two hundred and fifty thonaand. (.Vi^No.XVI.) 


of the long ancTbloody wars between the houses of Torlc and Lan- 
caster : it effected a change in descents : it marks the decline of the 
feudal s^tem, the waning power of the baronial aristocracj, and a 
corresponding increase of rojal prerogatives : it was cotemporary with 
that greatest of events in Modem Historj, the discovery of Amer- 
ica, — ^with the advance in knowledge and civilization that dawned 
upon the closing period of the Middle Ages ; with the consolidation 
of the great European monarchies into nearly the shape and extent 
which they retain at the present day ; and with the growth of tiie 
'^ balance of power" system^ which neutralised the efforts of princes at 
universal dominion. A general survey of the condition of the prin- 
cipal States of Europe at this period will better enable us to com- 
prehend the relations of their subsequent history. 

II. Other Nations at the close of the fifteenth cENnmY.*^ 

1. Of the States of Northern Europe — Denmark/ Sweden, and Nor- 

L DBNMXu. """^y^ — constituting the ancient Scandinavia, merit our 

BiTKDKN, AND fifst attcution. After the^^ kingdoms had long been 

HoawAY. agitated by internal dissensions, they were finally, by 
the treaty of Cahnar,* (1397,) united into a single monarchy,, near 

1. DenwMrk embraow the whole of Uie penitMiila north of Germanj, etrly known m the 
dmhri* Chert9n*90j and aflerwanU M JkI/m^ Ita earliest known inhabitants were the Cimirk • 
(See p. 171.) The famous but myslerioua Odin, the Mara as well as the Mohammed oT Scan- 
dluarlan history, Is said to hare emigrated, with a band of followers, fW>m the banka ef tha 
Tan' aSs to ScandlnaTia abont the middle of Uie first oentuiy before the Chxlstian era, and to 
have eslabUshed his authority, and the Scythian religion, orer Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. 
Skiold, son of Odin, Is said to hare ruled oyer Denmark ; but his history, and that of his pea* 
terity for many generations, are tnrolTed in Ihble. Henglst and Horsa, the two Saxon chMb 
who oonquerad England in the fifth oentnry, reckoned Odin, (or Wodin in their dialect,) as 
their sncestor. Gorm the Old, son of Hardicanute I., (Horda-knut,) united all the Danish 
States under hfs soeptre in the year 883. His grandson Bweyn, subdued a part of Norway In 
Oie year 1000, and a part of Knglanrl in 1014. His son Canute completed tte conquest of big- 
land in 1010, and also subdued a part of Scotland. Canute embraced the Christfan rellgieii, 
and Introduced it Into Denmark; upon which a great ehange took plaee In tbe efaaracter of dM 
people. At his death, in 1090, be left the crowns of Denmark and England to his son Hardi- 
canute n. In 138S, Margaret, daughter of the Danish prince Waldemar, and wifo of Haqufai 
king of Norway, styled tbe Semlr' amia of the North, ascended the throne of Norway and 
Denmark. In 1389 she was chosen by the Swedes as their sOTcrelgn ; and In 1307 the trsaty 
of Calmar united the three crowns— it was supposed forever. In 1448, the princes of tbe 
funily of Skiold having become extinct, the Danes promoted Christian L, eounk of Oldenbvrg, 
to the throne^ He was the founder of the royal Oanllh fkmily which has ever sinoe kept 
possession of the throne. In 1SS3 the Swedes emancipated themselves fh>m the erael and 
tyrannical yoke of Christian IT., king of Denmark. In their struggle for Independenee they 
were led by the fkmous GustaYus Vasa, who was raised to the throne of Sweden by th« nnanl- 
mous suflhiges of his fellow dtisens. Norway remained* connected with Denmark tlU 1814| 
when the allied powers gave it to Sweden, as indemnity for FihlsaML (Mmp Now XIVO 

S. Co/mar, rendered famous by the treaty of 1397, is a seaport town tm the smaU Uaad of 
Qnamholm, which Is in the narrow strait that separates the tdwd of Olind freai the nalh* 
•astern coaat of Sweden. (^aj» No. XIV.) 

Pmr. H] IffPDLE AGES. S1Q9 

tl|» close of tbe fourteenth centarj, throngh tlie mfluenoo of Harga- 
ret of Denmark, whose extraordinary talents and address have ren- 
dered her name illu^trioQS as the " Semir'amis of the North. ''^ But 
the union of Calmar,- although forming an important epoch in Scan- 
dinayian history, was never firmly consolidated ; and after haying 
beei:^ renewed several times, was at length irreparably broken by 
Sweden,^ which, in^the early part of the sixteenth century, (1521,) 
mider the conduct of the heroic Gustavus Yasa, recovered its ancient 

2. Eaflt and south-east of the Scandinavian kingdoms were the 
numerous Sclavonic tribes, which were gradually gathered into the 
empire of Russia. The original cradle of that mighty 

empire which dates back to the time of Rurick, a chief- ^^^j^lf^ 
tain cotemporary with Alfred the Great, was a narrow 
territory extending from Kiev, along the banks of the Dnieper,' north 
to Novogorod.* Darkness for a long time rested upon early Russian 
history, but it has been in great part dispelled/by ^e genius and re- 
search of Karamsin, and it is now known that as early as the tenth 
century the Russian empire had attained an extent and importance, 
• as great, comparatively, among the powers of Europe, as it boasts at 
the present day. ^About the middle of the eleventh, century the 
system of dividing the kingdom among the children of successive 
monarchs began to prevail, and the result was ruinous in the ex- 
treme, occasioning innumerable intestine wars, and a gradual decline 
of the strength and consideration of the empire. 

3. Toward the middle of the thirteenth century the Tartar hordes 
of Northern Asia, falling upon the feeble and disunited Russian 
States, found them an easy prey ; and during a period of two hun- 

. dred and fifty years, Russia, under the Tartar yoke, sufiered the 
direst atrocities of savage cruelty and despotism. At length, about 
the year 1480, John III., duke of Moscow, the true restorer of his 

L I>niep§r, the Barfstktnes of the aodenta) still flreqQMitly called by its endent mmei Is s 
IWieilfwof BofopeeA fiuistft. U rises oear BoKdeiisko, nuts SDUtb, sod fUla iMto Ike Bleek 
See, iiorth-eest of (he mpuths of the Daoabe. {Map No. XVII.) 

9. Jf0o»fr04t Off NoTgorod, called also F§liki, or "* the Great,", formerly the meet Important 
etty la the Suseian empire, Is situated on the river Volkhoi; near Its exit twm liake Ilmsn, 
eoe himdred mUee south-east from St. Petersbwsb, and three hundred and five noith-ireei 
ttim. Uoeeow. The Volkhof runs north te Lake Lsdoga. So Impregnable was Korgovod 
oioo deemed as to give rise to the proverb, 

Qnis contra Dto» U mafnam Jfovofordiam t 
** Who can resist the Gods and Oreat Novgorod 1" 

ftam 1l9f«on>d t» KieT ts a dHtflMe of nearly MX MBdrsd miles. 


oooAtry'i glorj, soooeeded in abolidiiiig the rnrnons system bywhidi 
the regal power had been frittered away, while at the same time he 
threw off the yoke of the Moguls, and repulsed their last inTaaon 
of his country. Under the reign of this wise and powerful prince, 
the many petty principalities which had long divided the sovereignty 
were consolidated^ and, at the end of the century, Russia, altbou^ 
scarcely emerged from its'^rimitiye barbarian darkness, was one of 
the great powers of Europe. 


4. Sooth of the country inhabited by the Knssians, we look in 
vain, at the close of the fifteenth century, for the once 
famed Greek empire of Justinian, or, as sometimes called, 
the Eastern empire of the Romans. The account which 

we hare given of the crusades represents the Turks, a race of Tartar 
origin, as spread over the greater part of Asia Minor. About tiie 
beginning of the fourteenth century, a Turkish emir,* called Otto- 
man, succeeded in uniting several of the petty Turkish States of the 
peninsula, and thus laid the foundation of the Ottoman empire. 
About the year 1358 the Ottoman Turks first obtained a foothold in 
Europe ; and at the close of the fourteenth century their empire ex- 
tended from the Euphrates to the Danube, and embraced, or held as 
tributary, aiftsient Oreece, Thes' saly, Macedonia, and Thrace, while 
the Roman world was contracted to the city of Constantinople, and 
even that was besieged by the Turks, and closely pressed by the ca- 
lamities of war and famine. The city would have yielded *^ the 
efforts of Bajazet, the Turkish sultan ; but almost in the moment of 
victory the latter was overthrown by the &mous Timour, or Tamer- 
lane, the new Tartar conqueror of Asia. 

5. About the year 1370, Tamerlane, a remote descendant of the 
Great Gengis Khan, (p. 286,) had fixed the capital of his new do- ' 
minions at Samarcand,' from which central point of bis power he 

1. Smmmnmn d, andeDUy ealled Marrnkmndt, now a dtj of IndependMrt Ttftwy, In Bokhtf** 
WW Um capital of the Persian aatrapj of SogdlAiia. (Sm Afay No. IV.) Atennder to tbovK^ 
to havo pttlagad It U was takaa firom the soltaB Makomet, bf 6«i«to Khaa, fai 1990; nd 
■Bdarjlmoiv or'nuneriaM, It beoanw the capital of one of the laigert empIrM In the woiM, 
«Dd the oea^r? or Aalatle learning and drllizaUon, at the same time Oat It roie to high dto* 
ttnoOoDonaoecnuitorilaesteiiiuveoomnieroewlft aUpartaer Alia. Samarcand to now te * 

a. Emir^ an Arable woid, OManlog a leader, or eommaader, waa a title fliat siTcn to the 
caUphi ; bat when thqr aaawned the Utle of mltant that of enir wai applied to their chiWitB* 
At length it waa bertowed upon ^whowece (teraght to he dMowdaata of llalM^i^ >» ^ 
Um er hto daqghttv niteah. 

Oaat.H) HIDDIiB AGES. 311 

made thirty-fire victorio as campaigns, — conquering all Persia, Nortli- 
crn Asia, and Hindostan, — ^and before his death ho had j^ tamtam 
placed the crowns of twentj-seyen kingdoms on his xmpx&b or . 
head. In the year 1402 he fought a bloody and decisive tamkblakb. 
battle with the Tiarkish sultan Bajazet, on ^the plains of Angora,^ io 
Asia Minor, in which the Turk sustained a total defeat, and fell into 
the hands of the conqueror. Tamerlane would have carried his 
conquests, mto Europe ; but the lord of myriads of Tartar horsemen 
was not master of a single galley ; and the two passages of the Bos- 
porus and the Hellespont were guarded, the one by the. Christians, 
the other by the Turks, who on this occasion forgot their animosities 
to act with union and firmness in the common cause. Two years 
later Tamerlane died, at the age of sizty-niiie, while on his march 
for the invasion of China * 

6. The Ottoman empire not only soon recovered from the blow 
^ which Tamerlane had inflicted upon it, but in the year 1453, durinja^ 

the reign of Mahomet II., effected the final conquest of Constanti- 
nople. On the 29th of May of that year the city was carried by 
aasanlt, and 'given up to the unrestrained pillage of the Turkish 
soldiers : the last of tne Ghreek emperors fell in the first onset : the 
bhabitanta were carried into slavery ; and Constantinople was left 
without a prince or a people, until the sultan established his own 
residence, and that of his successors, on the commanding spot which 
had been chosen by Constantlne. The few remnants of the Greek 
or Roman power were soon merged in the Ottoman dominion ; and 
at the close of the fifteenth century the Turkish empire was firmlj 
established in Europe. 

7. While at the close of the fifteenth century the three Scandina- 
vian kingdoms of the North, and Russia, formed, as it 

Were, separate worlds, having no connection with the 

rest of Europe, Poland,' the ancient Sarmatia, supplying the connect* 

ttmr9A eoiidittoo:sHdeiM,fl0idfl,uid pbtntedoos, oocopj Uw pUwe of Ita nomeraiu sUmU 
mA motqna; and we wmth laTainforito iiicleDt imImm* wboM bMUty it lo hlgU j toto- 
ffiatd hf Anb blatoriaitt. 

L dfiyfro, a town of NatoUa In Asia Minor, (see Note, XMi«,p.S81,) is the MmeMtbe 
andeniwfiwvra, which, in the time of Nero^waetbe capital of OeUtU. Here St. Paul preached 
IB the flalaittwii 

%, Tk0 P0U9 wera a Sdanmle tribe (a branch of the SamatlaM), who, in the aerenth ceo 
iWT.paaBri ny the Dnieper, and thaoce to the Nlemen and the ViatuLi. About the middle of 
Ike tenth eanHiiythajeiBbnoadCariallaBilytand towaid the end of the lame cntory warn 
PWm, that tai SdeeMieae e/tte ^^N. Thai 


ing link between tlie ScUvonian and Gemaa tribes, had risen to a 
considerable degree of eminence and power. The history of Poland 
commences with the tenth century ; bat th^ prosperity of the king- 
dom began with the reign of Casimir the Great (133S-1370.) In 
the year 1386 Lithuania* was added to Poland ; and about the mid- 
dle of the following century the Polish sovereign, Wladislas, was 
presented with the crown of Hungary, which he had nobly defended 
against the Turks. But Hungary soon reverted again to the Oerman 
empire. After long wars with the Teutonic knights,* who, since the 
crusades, had firmly established their order in the Prussian part of 
the GermaAic empire, the knights were everywhere defeated during 
the reign of Casimir IV., (1444-1492,) who added a large part of 
Prussia to the Polish territories. The Turkish province of Mol- 
davia* also became tributary to Poland ; and at the close of the fif- 
teenth century this kingdom had extended its power from the Baltic 
to the Euxine, along th^ whole frontier of European civilisation, 
thus forming an effectual barrier to the Western States of Europe • 
against barbarian invasion. 

8. The German empire, at the dose of th^fifteenth^oentury, oam*. 
prised a great number of States lying between France and Polsad, 
extending even west of the Rhine, and embracing the whole of oen- 

th« Poles were divided w«re first united into one kingdom in 1035, nnder king Boleslsns I.; 
bni Polnod wm altenrardfi mibdlTld«d among ttie fiunUy of (he PiMts until ISOS, when Wladlf 
las, king of Cracow, united with bias overelgnty the two principal renuuning divisioDa, GxttA 
and Little Poland. From 1370 to 1382 Hungary was united with Poland. The union with 
Lithuania In 1396s occasioned by the marriage of the grand dnke of Lltfaoanla wUh the qneM 
or Poland, was more permanent. After the Uthuania nobility, in 1569, united ntfth Great ai4 
Little Poland, In one diet, Poland became the most powcrf\d Slate in the North. Although Po- 
land has ceased to constitute an independent and single State— Its detached fhigmeota hsTinf 
becmne Austrian, Prussian, or Russian provinces -still the country ia distinctly separated torn, 
those wliicb surround it, by national character language, and manners. The present Poluxi 
po««e«sing the name without the privilege of a kingdom, and reduced to a territory extending 
two hundred miles north and south, and two hundred east and weat| la, MUMtantiaUyf a ptf^ ^ 
the Russian empire. {Map No. XVIL) 

]. The greater part of Lithuania, once forming the north-eastern division of Poland, biS 
been united to Russia. It is comprlaed In the preaent govemmeaU of MotaileiR, Wil^iri^ 
Minsk, Wllna, and Grodno. (Map No. XVII.) 

8. The Teutonic Knigku composed a religious order founded in 1190 by FVederic, duke of 
Boabla, during a crusftde In the Moly Land, and Intended to be oonflned to Germans at ooMs 
rank. The origfud oliject of the association was to delbnd the CfarisUan religion against the 
Infidels, and to take care of Uie sick in the Holy Land. By degrees the order made seT«il 
conquests, and acquired great riches ; and at the lieginning of the fifteenth eeotory it po9Mtf«i 
a large extent of territory extending from the Oder to the Gulf of Finland. The wsr irilh 
the Poles greatly abridged its power, and finally the onier was abolished by Napoleon, In the 
war with Austria, April 94tb, 1909. 

3. Moldaxia^ nominally a Turkish province, but In reality nnder the preteedon of I 
•mbraoee the north-eatteru part of the aaoleot Dieia. ( Jir4i^ Noa. IX. and XVEL> 

okap.ii] middle AOEa dl3 

tral Europe. The CarloviDgian soyereigns of GermanjNwere hcrcd* 

itary monarchs ; but as early as the year 887 the great 

vassals of the crown deposed, tlieir emperor, and elected ^^ "^bmaw 

another sovereign, and from that remote period the em- 

|>erors of Germany have continued to be elective. , 

9. Owing to the great number of the Germanic States, which were 
of different grades, from large principalities down to free cities and 
tEe estates of earls of county — ^the frequent changes of territory 
among them, by marriages, alliances, and conquests, — the weaknesa 
of the federal tie by which they were united — and their conflicting 
interests, and frequent wars with each other and with the emperor, — 
the history of Germany is exceedingly complicated, and generally 
devoid of great points of interest. Many of the States had their 
own sovereigns, subordinate to their common emperor. About the 
middle of the fourteenth century there were three powerful States in 
Germany^ which had absorbed nearly all the rest. These were 1st, 
LuxenUmrg^ which possessed Bohemia,' Moravia,* and part of Si- 
lesia,* and Lusatia :* 2d, Bavaria^ which had acquired BrfCudenburg,* 
Holland,^ and the Tyrol :* and 3d, Austria^ which, in addition to a 

1. Hm Grand Dneby of Luxemburg was divided In the year 1839, between Holland and Bel- 
ghim. The town of Loxemburg, one han'dred and Hghly-flve miles norlh.eu8t from Pari^ 
c wmft i nin g ene of the stroogeat fortreaaes In Europe, belongSf^Ui a portion of Uie surround- 
ti« country, to lloUond. (JIfap No. XV.) \ 

SL Bohemia, having Silesia and ^xony on the north, Moravia and the areh-dnehy of Anatria 
«n the aootlMUt, and Bavaria on the west, fonna on important portion of the Austrlaa empire. 
{Map No. XVIL) 

3. MoraoUj an Important province of Austria, lies east of Bohemia. In 1783 a portion of 
OEtafai was Ineorporated with ik Moravia is the country anciently occupied by the Q^adi and 
JUarcomanni, who waged fierce wars against the Romans. {Map No. XVII.) 

4. Siieoim is north-east of Bohemia and Moravia, embracing the country on both sides of the 
Oder. (jtfarNoXVlL) 

5. Lusatia was a tract of country having Brandenburg on the north, Silesia on the east, Bo- 
iMmia and Bavaria on the south, and Meissen on the west. It is now embraced In the east- 
cm part of the kingdom of Saxony, east of Dresden, the southern part of Brandenburg, and 
the north-western part of Silosia. It was divided into Upper and Lower Luaalla, the former 
being the southern portion of the territory. ^Map No. XVII.) 

a Braniemburg, the most Important of the Prussian States, lies between Mecklenburg and 
Ponenmia on the north, and West Prussian Saxony and the kingdom of Saxony on the south. 
It Includes Berlin, the capital of the Prussian empire. iMap No. XVII.) 

7. HoUamd has the Prussian German States on the south-east, Belgium on the soulb>.and 
the see on the wesL {Mapo Nos. XV. and XVU.) 

a The Tprol, (comprising the ancient Rhostla with a port of Noricum, see Majf No. IX.,) 
is a province of the Austrian empire, eosi of Switzerland, and having Bavaria on the norths 
■ml liombardy on the south. Tlie Tyrolese, although warmly attached to liberty, have alwayi 
beu ateedliut adherenu of Austria. {Map No. XVII.) 

9. The arclKduchy of wf ocCrto, the nucleus and centre of the Auatrton empire, lies on both 
Ales of the Deaobei having Bohemia and Moravl* on the norths and Slyrta and Garinthia on 
la the time of Ohorieauiinei about the yeer 80E^ the meigrame of Aoatria wee 


large number of hereditary Statee, poMessed mneh of the Svabiaa 
territory. (See Suabia^ p. 270.) 

10. Id the year 1438 the German princes elected an emperor from 
the hoose of Austria; and, eyer since, an Austrian prince, with 
scarcely any intermission, has occupied the throne of Germsny. 
Near the close of the fifteenth century the German States, then 
under the reign of Maximilian of the house of Austria, made an im- 
portant change in their condition, by which the private wars and 
feuds, which the laws then authorised, and the right to carry on 
which against each other the petty States regarded as the bolwark 
of their liberty, were made to give place to regular courts of jostioe 
for the settlement of national controversies. In the year' 1495, at a 
general diet held at Worms,^ the plan of a Perpetual Public Peace 
was subscribed to by the several States : oppression, rapme,. and yio* 
lence, were made to yield to the authority of law, and the publie 
tranquillity was thus, for the first time in (Germany, estabU&ed on a 
firm basis. 

U. For a considerable period previous to the beginning of the 
fourteenth century, Switserland, the Helvetia of tiie Bo- 
mans, had formed an integral part of the Germanic em- 
pire;, but in the year 1307 the house of Austria, under 
the usurping emperor Albert, endeavored to extend his sway over the 
rude mountaineers of that inhospitable land. The tyranny of Aus- 
tria provoked the league of Rutuli ;' the &mous episode of the hero 
William Tell ' gave a new impulse to the cause of freedom ; and in 

0N11IM1 tonlh of ttie Itairabe, by a body of mffltU which pioteeted Uie soath-eMt of 0«nnU7 
fh>m the Ineoniooa of (he Aalatio tribeB. In 1 156 Its territory wtt extended north of the Du^ 
nba^ and made a ducby. In 1438 the raUng dynasty of Austria obtained the eleetonl ciowa 
or Uie German emperora, and in 14S3 Austria was raised to an arch-dnehy. In 1586 it acqiiiiaA 
Bohemia and Hungary, and attained the rank of a European monarchy. {Map No. X VIL) 

1. W»rmM ts on the west bank of the Bhine, Ibrty-two miles south-west fkom Rankftrt. 
iMof No. XVIL) 

9l Rvhdi was a meadow alope under the Salzburg mountain, in the canton of CrI, and ^ 
the west bank of the Lake of Lnoerae, where the oonfBderates were wont to assemble at daad 
of night, to consult fbr the salvation of their ooontry. {Map No. XIV.) 

a. The story of WOliam Tdl^ one of the confederates of RutuU, is, brieSy, as IbHowi. Gsai' 
ler the Austrian governor had carried hia insolence so fhr as to cause his hat to be placed 
upon a pole, as a symbol of the sovereign power of Austria, and to order that all who ps«ed 
diould uncover tiaeir heads and bow before \<L Tall, having passed the hat wlthont msking 
ob«laanoe, waa summoned before Geasler, who, knowing that he waa a good archer, commsad- 
•d him to ahoot, fhym a great diatance, an apple placed on the head of hia own aon,— promii|' 
tng him Ua llfo if he succeeded. Tell hit the apple, but, aeddentaUy dropping a eoDoaiasd 
arrow, was askAl by the tyfant why he had brought two arrows witt him? *'Had I shot of 
tfiUd,* replied the anher, ^the aecood shaft waa for thee r-Md» be iara^ I should Ml kavt 

▼n. swiT- 




€hvp.II] MIDDLE A0B9. 815 

tiie year 1308 the linked cantons of Uri, Schwjtz, and Unterwalden,* 
BtrnoK their first blow for liberty, and expelled their oppressors from 
ihe oonntry. In 1315 the Swiss gained a great victory over the 
Anstrians at Morgarten,' and another at Sempach' in 1386 ; bnt they 
were regarded as belonging to the Germanio empire until about the 
l^lose of the fifteenth century, when, in the famous Suabian war, army 
after army of the Austrians was defeated, and the emperor Maxi- 
mOian himsdf compelled to effect a disgraceful retreat. This was 
ihe last war of the early Swiss confederates in the cause of freedom ; 
and tiie peace ooncluded with Maximilian in 1499 established the 
independence of Switserland. 

T2. The condition of Italy during the central period of the Mid- 
dle Ages has already been described. (Sec II.) At the close of ^ 
that period Italy still formed, nominally, a part of the \ 

Gkrmanic empire ; bpt the authority of the German em- ^™* "^"^ 
peFors had silently declined during the preceding cen- 
turies, until at length it was reduced to the mere ceremony of ooro 
^ nation, and the exercise of a few honorary and feudal rights over the 
Lombard vassals of the crown. In the twelfth and thirteenth .cen- ' 
torieS) numerous republics had sprung up in Italy ; and, animated 
by the spirit of liberty, they for a time enjoyed an unusual degree 
of prosperity ; but eventually, torn to pieces by contending factions, 
and a prey to mutual and incessant hostilities, they fell under the 
tyranny of one despot after another, until, in the early part of the 
fifteenth century, Florence, Cknoa,^ and Venice, were the only im- 

■to e d my maA a aeeond time." Qeaeler, in a rage not nnmized with tarror, decl^C^ecUtbat 
allhoagh he had promised Tell hia Ufei he should i>am it in a dungeon ; and taking his captive 
bound, started in a boat to cross the Lake of Lucerne, to his fortress. But a violent storm 
aiWiiKy 1^ ^M Mt at liberty, and the helm committed to his hands. He guided the boat suo- 
cesifUly to the shore, when, seizing his bow, hy a daring leap he sprung upon a rock, leaving 
th0 barque to wrestle with the billows. Gessler escaped the storm, but only to foil by the un- 
enlBgaiTOw oTTelL The death of Gessier was a signal for a general rlalng of the Bwlas cantons. 

1. C^, SUbiryez, Duterwaidem^ see Map No. XIY. 

& Mtrfarten, the narrow pass In which the battle was fought, is on the eastern shore of the 
snan Lake of I^gerl, in the canton of Schwyta, seventeen miles east fh>m Lucerne. (Jlfep 

91 SMyoeA Is a smaO town on the east bank of the small lake of the same name, seven miles 
■orfhwest fh>m Lucerne. (Jtfa^ No. XIV.) 

^ 0«aM,a maritime elty of northern Italy, la at the bead of the gulf of the same name; 
li witi- Jve miles soutb-eaal from Turin. After the downlUl of the empiro of Ghariemagne, ^ 
Qwiea eieoled Itself Into a lepublio. In 1 174 It possessed an extensive territory in north-west- 
ern Italy, neariy all of Provence, and Ihe Island of Oorsica. Genoa carried on long wars with 
Pfsa and Vaalee,--that with Oie latter beli« one of the moat menonble In the Italian annals or 

816 MODBKK ^aMNET. ffjm:^ O. 

portant States that had eaeaped Ihe general eataetrojpbe. Nearly ^1 
the numeroae free towns and repuhlies of Lombardj had beon eon* 
quered bj the dnohy of MilaD, whieh aeknowledged a direet de- 
pendence on the (}enBan emperor. 

13. The Florentines, who greatly enriehed themselTee hy their 
oommeree and manafaotoreay maintained their repuUioan form of 
government, from aboat the dose of the twelfth eentary, during a 
period of nearly two hondred and fifty years. The Geooeee and Ve- 
netians, whose oommercial intweets thwarted each other, both m iSbe 
Levant* a^d the Mediterranean, qnarreled repeatedly ; but eveDia- 
ally the Venetians gained the snperioril^, and retained the eommaad 
of the sea in their own hands. Of all the Italian republics,' Genoa 
was the most agitated by internal diasensions ; aad the Genoese, vol- 
atile and inconstant, underwent frequent voluntary changes of mas- 
ters. At the close of the fifteeaih eentury Genoa was a d^^endwiey 
of the duchy of Milan, although subeequently it reoovered onee moie 
its apcicnt state of independence. * 

i4. Venice, to whose origin we have idready alladed, w«u9 the 
earliest, and, for a long time, the most eonsiderable, oommercial <Hly 
of fpodern Europe. At a very early period the Venetians began to* 
trade with Constantinople and other eastern oities ; the crusades, to 
whieh their shipping contributed, iuiereased their wealthy and extend- 
ed their commerce and poaeeasiens ; aad toward the end of the §i- 
teenth century, besides several rich provinces in Lombardy, the re- 
public was mistress of Crete and Cyprus, of the greater part of the 
Morea,' or Southern Greece, and of most of the isles in the .Sgoan 
Sea. The additional powers that at this time shared the dominion 
of Italy, were the popes, and the kings of Naples ; but the temporal 
domains of the former were small, and those of the latter soon passed 
into other hands ; for the oontinual wars whieh all the Italian States 
waged with each other had already encouraged foreign powers to 
form plans of conquest over them. In the year 1500 Ferdisttid of 
Spain deprived France of Naples ; and from this time the Spaniaifds, 
who were already masters of Sieily and Sardinia, beeame, for ] 
than a hundred years, the predominating power in Italy. 

]. The X.«Mii< is a tenn appUed 16 dorigMto the waKin ooMteor the MeditornMU, f 
■ooUMrn Greece to Bgypt In the Middle Ages tiie towle wtth these eomtHesvifl i 
exdostvely in the hands of the ItaUwis, who gare tolhein Ite general s^>peUa>tonef Z waniSj 
or easlem ooootries. (Italian, LewatOt : Fieneh, Lmmd.) 

S; JfcTM, Uw andeot Pirfs ^ e aa toaa, oit ewitheni fliaeo% l»» said toderiva tti»«Ddeni.HBn 
» i» • malheny laa£ (Graek, «m»«B| a molbanrr tiwi) 


15. Tvarmog to Spain, we bekold tbete, in Hhe beginning of the 
fifteenth eentuy, the three GhrxBiiMi Steteaof NaTarre,' 
Aragon,* Gaetile? and Leon* united, and the Mooriish 
kin^Bbni of Chanado.* Freqnent dijBsensions among the Christian 
States had long presented unity of aotion among them, hut in the 
year 1474 Ferdinand Y. aaoended the throne of Aragon ; and, aa 
he had preyiously married Isabella, a princess of Castile, the two 
Host. powerM Christian States were thfos nnited. The plan of ex- 
pelling tbe Moors tsna Spain had long been agitated ; and in 1481 
the war for that pnrpose waa oommeaoed bj Ferdinand and Isabella. 
Ten yearsy howeyer, were spent in the sanguinary strife, before the 

1. Jfkvarre is In the northern part of Spain, haWng France and the Pyrenees on tbe north, 
An^fotk en fb& east, Old Oisdle on llie sontli, snc^the Si8<|ue provfnoes (Biscay, Gulpuzcoa^ 
mA Alava) oa t]i» west A portion of ancient NaTarre extended north of tbe Pyrenees, and 
aAenrarda formed the French prorlnce of Beam. . (See Map No. Xtll.) During many cenr 
turfCls Kavwre waa an Independent kingdom, buC In 1S84 It became united, by Intermarrfoge, 
vWiitat of Fnnce. IniaBaitagalBoblainedasoiTenfgnof lUown. Although stiU claimed 
Vy France, In 151S Ferdinand of Arsgon nnited all the country south of the Pyrenees lo the 
crown of Spain. In 1590 fienry IV., grandson of Henry king of Navarre, ascended the throne 
dTIHaee; and ftoaor that Ifaae to fhe reign of CflMrlee X«, the French monarehs, (With the ex- 
. eepllon of Napoleon,) lasamed the title of **king of France and Navarre ;** but only the smalt 
portion of Navarre north of the Pyrenees remained annexed to the French monarchy. Span- 
Mi HvrafTO to slilt governed bjr Its separate laws^ and has^ nominally at least, the same con- 
■UtailoB wluek It enjoyed when U was a separate monaieby ; biii Its sovereignty is yetted Ia 
the Spanish crown. (.Vaji No. XIII.) 

% Armg&u was bounded on tbe north by the Pyrenees, east by Oatalonla, sonth by Valencia, 
and west by Castile and Navarre. While a separate kingdom It was the most powerful of the 
poiliMntar Staiea, and comprised. In 1479, under the sovereignty of , Fonttnand, exeloalTe of 
ibacm proper, NawfcGatakmla, Valencia, and Sardinia. (Ar«i» No. XtU.) 

a. CkatOe to Ow eentml and taigesi dlTMon of modem Spain. Tbe northern portion beln^ 
flMt ai«t reeorered ftom the Saracens, Is called OW Oasllle, and comprises tbe modem prov- 
IMC9 of B«fgo^ Sorla, Sefovia, and Avlta J the southern portion, ctfled New OBstll^ comprtoet 
flie pvovfnoes of Madrid, Onadaiaxara^ Coenea, Toledo* and La Mnncha. After the expulsion 
•r the SaneenSf and varlom vietorttades, tbe sovereignty of Osstlle was vested by marriage in 
Btodbtt m. king of Navarre^ wtaoae son FOrdlnand was made king of GuUle In 1034. Three 
y««« laler be wm erowned Mag of Leon. The crowns of OasUle and I>on were repeatedly 
gepMMed and miHed, UU, by the marriage of Isabella, iTbo held both crowns, with Ferdinand, 
tiag of Aragon, In 14ir7, the three kingdoms tfere consolidated Into one. (Map No. X IIL) 

4. Tbe kingdom of Lm% was bounded north by Asturias, east by Old Outtle, south by Bt- 
Huiiiarinri. and west by Oaltela and Portugal. During the eighth century, thto district, after 
the expotoien of the Mooie, was formed Into a kingdom, called after Ito capital, and connected 
VMhAstortas. nwasflntadded loCasttlelB 1037, in the reign of Ferdinand 1. king of Gae* 
tile, who was king of Leon In right of hto wife ; but It continued In an unsettled sUto till 129«, 
wlien It was flaally united, by Inheritance, to the domlntons of Ferdinand HI. khig of CasUle. 

& Srmaia, conrfsting of the eemtfreaalem part of aaeleal Andalusia, (Note p. 238.) to on 
mm Mediterranean coast, in the south-eastern par^of Spain. On the breaking up of the AM- 
en emphe In Spain, In the year 1238, Mohammed ben Alhamar founded the Moorish klng- 
Aditi of Granada, making the dly of Granada hto capital. Granada remained In the possession 
er the Moot! two hundred and fifty years, which eomprise the season of Ito prosperity. In 
14R It smreMderod to FerdfauDd the Oathoika, being fiie toil foothoM of Saracen power la 
ipda. (JMivK6.XHL) 

S18 UOD^fX HBmttT. - [BwIL 

Chrirtiaiis were enabled to besiege Onnada, ibe Mooriik «apitol; 
but the capitnUtion of that oity in January, 1492, put en end to ike 
Saracen dominion in the Spanish peninsula, after it had existed there 
daring a period of eight hondred years. In the year 1512 Ferdi- 
nand mvaded and conquered Navarre ; and thus the whole of Spain- 
nas united under the same goyemment. . 

16. Toward the dose of the eleventh owtury, the ^^tier prevmoe 
of Portugid,' whioh had been conquered by the Chris^ 
^!^^ tians from the Moors, was formed into an earldom 
tributary to Leon and Castile ; but in the twelfth oen- 
tmy it was erected into an independent kingdom, and in the early 
pakt of the thirteenth it had reached its present limits. The history 
of Portugal is devoid of general interest, until the period of those 
voyages and discoveries of which the Portuguese were the early pro- 
moters, and which have shed immortal lustre on the Portugaeee name. 

IIL DiscovEKiES.— 1. A brief aocount of the discoveries of the 
fifteenth century will close the present chapter. Prom the eabrer- 
sion of the Roman empire, until the revival of letters which succeed- 
ed the Bark Ages, no advanoe was made in the art of navigation; 
and even the little geographical knowledge that had been acquired 

1. FMtiva', MMlciiUy cdtod iMnUaua, (Note i». 106,) was taken powwrion of bytbe B<>- 
maiiiabonliwohvttlredyMnbcrora the GlifirtUn «n ; pi«vk>iulj to wliieh th« flMan^^ 

oentnry it was ioaiidaled by th« Germanic tribea, and In 71S was conqiierod by the ^"'^ 
Soon after, the SpanlaAto of OaaUlft aul Leon, aided by the natiTe faihabikattlB» wrttUdJiaKf^' 
era Portugal, between Uie Mlnbo and Uie Douro, from Uie Moon, and placed ooonta or «PT*^ 
on orer ihU r««ion. About the dose of the eleventh century Heniy, a Bugnadian pria^^ 
came into SiMdn to aeek hia fi>rtane by hU awoid, in ttae wan against tiie Moon. Alpboiao 
VI. king or OutUe ahd Leon, gave to Uie chlYaliicatnnger. Uie hand of his daughter iaiB^ 
liage, and also the earldom of the Christian provinoea of PortngaL In 1139 Uie Fortiig»Bt» 
eari, Alphonao I., having gained a brUUant victory over Uie Moors, his sohlien proelsimed Un 
Ui« on the fleld of battle ; and Portugal became an independent kingdom. Itspowernow 
npidly increased : it maintained iu Independence agahut the claims of QMlUe and LMn» ^ 
Alphonso extended his dominions to the borden of Algarve, in the south. In 1349 AlphoDS» 
in. eonqtiered Algarre, and thus, In the final overthrow of the Moorish power In Portafsl, «* 
tended the kingdom to its present limits. ^^ 

The language of Portugal is merely a dialect of the Spanish ; but the two people regsw 
each other with a deep-rooled national antipathy. The character attributed to the Fortogatf^ 
is not very lattering. ** Strip a Spaniard of all his virtues, and you make a good Portogo^ 
of him," says the Spanish proverb, ^l have heaid It more truly said," says Dr. SouOMf* 
**add hypocrisy to a Spaniard's vices, and you have the Portuguese character. Tbe t^^°*[ 
ttons dilfer, perhaps puipoeely, in many of their habits. Almost every man in Spsio imokss* 
the Portuguese never smoke, but most of them take snofll None of the SpenUuds will p*^ 
wheelbarrow : none of the Portuguese will carry a burden : the one says, Mt is only ^^^^^ 
todraw oarriages;' the other, that 'it is fit only for beasts to carry buidens,* » (M^ T^^ ^^^ 

mm nearij lost during that gloomy period. Upon the retoniiag 
dawn of eivilLEation, however, oommeroe again reyiyed; and the 
Italian States, of which Yenioe, Pisa,' and Genoa, took the lead, 
floon became distingnished for their enterprising oommercial spirit. 
The disooTcrj of the magnetic needle gave a new impulse to naviga- 
tion, as it enabled tiie mariner to direct his bark with increased bold- 
ness and confidence farther from &e coast, out of sight of whose 
landmarks he before seldom dared venture; while the invention of 
the art of printing disseminated more widely the knowledge of new 
discoveries in geography and navigation. In the fourteendi century 
the Canary' islands, believed to be the Fbrtunate islands of the 
ancients, were accidentally rediscovered by the crew of a French 
ship driven thither by a storm. But the career of modem discovery 
was prosecuted with the greatest ardor by the Portuguese. Under 
the patronage of prince Henry, son of king John the First, Gape 
Bojador, before considered an impassable limit on the African coast, 
was doubled ; the Cape de Y erd ' and Asore^ islands were discovered ; 
and the greatest part of the African coast, from* Cape Blanco to 
Gape de Verd, was explored. ( 1419—1 430.) 

2. The grand idea which actuated prince Henry, was, by circum- 
navigating Africa, to open an easier and less expensive route to the 
Indies, and thus to deprive the Italians of the commerce of those 
fertile r^ions, and turn it at once upon his own country. Although 
prince Henry died before he had accomplished the great object of 
his ambition, the fame of the discoveries patronized by him had 
rendered his name illustrious, and the learned, the curious, and the 

1. P£m, ttie eapltal of one of 1h6 moat eelebnled rapabllos of Rilj, and oow the eipHal of 
Ibe proTlnoe of Its own Muiie fn the gnad duchy of TuManj, Is on the rlrer Anio, about 
eight mlies from Its eotranoe into the HediterraneaiH and thirteen miles north^eesl from Le^ 
hon. In the ienth oeotory Pisa took the lead among the oommercial repnUlcs of Italy, and 
in the elerenth oentory its fleet of gnUesrs maintained a superiority in the Mediterranean. In 
fbe tlrirtetath oentory a straggle with Genoa commenced, which, alter many vlolasitodea) ended 
In the total ndn of the Pisans. Pisa subeeqnently became the prey of Tarfoos petty tyranti^ 
and was flnaily united to Florence in 1400. 

9L The CanArieg are a gronp of fourteen Islands belonging to Spain. The peak>>f Tenerifta^ 
a balf eztlnet TOleano, on one of flie more distant Islands, Is about two hundred and fifty mOea 
flom the nortb^est coast of Africa, and eight hundred milea soutb>weat from the straits of ' 

3. TbeCs^dff Fertf Islands, belonging to Portugal, are off the west coast of Africa, about 
Oiree hundred and twenty miles west from Cape de Vsrd. 

4. The ^ttru (azures') are 'about eight hundred miles west from PortugaL The name Is 
•aid to be deriTod from the rest number of hawks, (called by the Portuguese o^sr,) by whkh 
tiMy «rere frequented. At the time of their dbeorery they were uninhabited, and ooTcred with 

920 . llODSRir BISTORT. [Pim II 

td venturous, repaired to Lisbon ' to increase their knowledge by the 
discoveries of the Portuguese, and to join in their enterprises. Among 
them Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa, arrived there about 
the jear 1470. He had already made himself familiar with the 
navigation of the Mediterranean, and had visited Iceland f and he 
now accompanied the Portuguese in their expeditions to the coast of 
Guinea' and the African islands But while others were seeking a 
passage to India by the slow and tedious process of sailing around 
tho southern extremity of Africa, the bold and daring mind of Co- 
lumbus conceived the project of reaching the desired land by a west- 
ern route, directly across the Atlantic. The spherical figure of the 
earth was then known, and Columbus doubted not that our globe 
might be circumnavigated. 

3. Of the gradual maturing and development of the theory of Co- 
lumbus,— of the poverty and toil which he endured, and the ridicule, 
humiliation, and disappointments which he encountered, as he wan- 
dered from court to court, soliciting the patronage which ignorance, 
bigotry, prejudice, and pedantic pride, so long denied him, — and of his 
final triumph, in the discovery of a new continent, equal to the old 
world in magnitude, and separated by vast oceans from all the earth 
before known to civilized man,— our limits forbid us to enter into 
details, and it would likewise be superfluous, as these events have al- 
ready been familiarized to American readers by the chaste and glow- 
ing narrative of their countryman Irvbg. In the year 1492, the 
genius of Columbus, more than realizing the dreams of Plato s 
famous Atlantis^* revealed to the civilized world another hemisphere, 

1. LM<m^ the oapltal and prindpnl Mapori of Portugal, is siuuted on the right benk, flixi 
Mtf the mouth, of the Tigua. The Moors captiued the city in the year 7lti, and, with some 
ritght«icoepklon8, It remataied In their power till, in 1145, Aiphonao L made It the capital of 
hla kingdom. (jtfa^NaXlU.) 

2. leeUnd ia a large island in the Northern Ocean, on the oonflneo of the polar drele. U 
waa diacoVered by a Norwegian pirate in the year 861, and was soon after setlled by Norwe- 
gians. In the year flS8 the inhabitants Ibrmed themselves into a republic, which existed aesriy 
fi>ur hundred years ; after which Iceland again became subject to Norway. On the HUiexatioa 
«f that kingdom to Denmark, Iceland was trsnsferred with it. 

^. Ovinta is a name applied by European geographers to designate that portion of the AlH* 
eaii coast extending fh>m about eleven degrees north of the equator, to seventeen degrees 

4. ^^UoiUM was a celebrated island supposed to hare existed at a very early period in ^ 
Atlantic Ocean, and to have been, eventu&Uy, sunk beneath its waves. Plato is the flnl vbo 
gives an account of It, and he obtained bis inrormatioo fh>m tlie priests of £gypt> The state* 
ment which he furnishes is substantially as follows : 

*^ la the Atlantic Ocean, over against the pillars of Hercules, lay a very Urge and 1^ 
tsland, #hose surfooe was variegated by mountains aikl valleys, its coasts indented with maay 
aavlgable riven, and iu fields weB cultivated. In iu vicinity wen other islands from wbicb 


6^^ aj KDfitLE A0aeL m 

and first opened a commimiGation between Europe and America that 
will never cease while the waters of the ocean continue to roll be- 
tween them. Five years after the discovery of America, Yasco de 
Grama, a Portnguese admiral, doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and 
had the glory of carrying his national flag as far as India. These 
were the dosing maritime enterprises of the fifteenth century : they 
opened to the Old World new scenes of human existence : new na- 
tions, new races, and new eontinents, rapidly crowded upon the 
nnoii 4 aad imitation tired in oontempUting the future wonders 
ihskl the genius of discovery was about to develop. 

fbara was a pimHBB to a lai^e oontiimt Ijio^ b^jrood. Tbe laland of AUantto was thickly ttt- 
Hed and very powerful : Its Ungi eitended thoir sway over Africa as fiir m fgjrpt, and oyer 
JSiBop* uatll tlwj were checked by the Athenians, who, opposing themselves to the Invaden, 
hecame the conqocron. . But at length that Atlantic island, by a flood and eaithqnake, was 
f'**'*»^^^j destroyed, and Ibr a longtime afterwards the sea thereabouts was PaUl of rocks and 

Adiqpittta aroae among the anetent phUoiophera whether Plato% atatenent was based npon 
naltty^ or waa « iMre cmhUod e€ ftncy. PoaldoaSaa fbooght It worthy of belief: Pliny re- 
ualBs undedded. AnMMig modem wrlteia, Rndbeok hihpn to prove that Sweden waa the 
Aflanite or fbe aBd«nta: Baffly plaeea It in ttw Ihrtheet regions of the north, beUeving that Um 
1 Hyperboreans ; while others eonneet AmerUa, with its Mexican 
lofaremote civlllaatton,wlth tl^ tagendoftheloBtAUanll^ Inoon- 
melloft with this tiew they point to the peeiriiar oonformaition of oar continent along the 
f^Kfttm of tto omf of Mexico, wliere evefythlug indleatea the sinking, at a remote period, of a 
Ingetnctof famd, the place or which la now ooonpied by the waters of the 'Gnlt And may 
sat Ite aooMata tope of Mda aanken tend stm appear to view as the Islands of the West Indian 
group; and may not the large continent lying beyond Atlantla and the adyaeant I 

)• 21 




AHALYSOL LrbmmMj<tfmdkmAhtitary. How btokn, te Ite Iditoiy tf ft* MUili 
AgMi auil iMt oalty la modem Uitoiy. How, only, oooAnkm eu bo aToldodL— Sl Appiwit 
notkm towirdt a knowlodgo of onlvwHl hWory. Fotnn pkui of tho work. WtaatmwtBoC 
bo OTorlooked, and what otons wo con hopo to ooeompttdi.— 3l fluto of BoNpo at Uio begb- 
iiii« of tho aiztoeath oeotary. Oondittoa of Foraia. Moffol omplrs in HhidoatMi. CUaib 

E^Tpt TboNow World. Wbore, only, Wo look Ibr hiatoric onity. 



1. Blao of tbo STATSo-aranM or Buaora. Growing Intrleaey of ttio ntatioBs bofcwofln 
B to t co. ^ ? OaBaeaofthofatdoTOtepinotoftboatafnjiloia>~a. Tho Graal poww of Anrtrta 
nBdoraiari«iV.-4. Ferdinand, tho biotlMrorGhartoa. Phfflp IL, aon of Chariaa.-^ Boglnlag 
of rmm mtruMt nsTwnnv Fkavou L axo OmAMhMM V. Tho teror of Hixrt VIIL or E»«- 
LAKB oonrted by bodi.-.«. Fkrorablo poaltton of Honry at tho timo of hU M C O Mlon.— 7. Ef- 
ftwto of Chariot and Fkaaete to win hia ikvor. Tho reaoU.-^ Eflbrta of Ftanda to raoorer 
Mavam. ^ Ilattan war that fbttowod. FWuda defcotod, and uMdo priHiMr, In (he battio 
of Bftvlo. [Uooao of Bmrhtm,}-^ IflftprlaonnMBt, and reloaaa, of F^naacia^~ia A geneial 
toagnoi^ynatChohoaV.— IL OporathMMOf thodukoof Bouiboatailldy. PIllagoofEon^ 
and death of-Boorbon.— 18. Oi^vl^ of tho po|io. Tho Frenofa amy la Ita^. Tho paaoa of 
Ounbray^lX Tho domeaUc relations of Haoiy VIIL>-14. The riae, power, and IhU, of Woiaay. 

15. Tan EsroEHAiioif. Tho maxim of roUgknu ft«edom. Papal power and pralenalona at 
this period. Fecioeatlon of reAmnenb [WkkUflb. OovncU ct Oonitanoo. The AIbigeii8es.J 
Eflbct of advancing dTlIiaatloa on papal power. Avartee of pope Leo. X. Inrlnlynoea. 
Martin Lather. [WIttemberB.]— 10. Lothor^ that oppoeltton to the Ghorefa of Boma. Hit 
gradoalprogreeainrqlectlivthodootrlaeaaBdrlleaorpopeiy. His wiitinga declared horellcaL 
Ho boms the papal boll of oondomnalton.— 17. Deolaratton of tho Soibonno. [Boi^Nma.] 
the diet of Worms. Henry VUI. joins In opposing Lather.— 1& araometaaoes in Luther^ 
IhTor. Decrees oftho diet of Spkos. Protest of tho BeAHrmen. [8plrBS.>-l9. Thodletof Aagi- 
borg, 1530. CAogabarg.J— HOianolhon. Reaolt of the diet. Leagoo of the Protestants Honry 
vm. md Fhmds L (hvor tho Protestant eanso.— M. InToslon of Hongary by tho 'Quka. Gh»- 
sade of CBiarieeV.sgBlnit the Moors. [Algiers] Renewal of tho war by tho FMidi monanh. 
[8aToy.] Invasion of Fhmee by Ohsrlea.— 81. Brief frooe, and renewal of tho war. [Znoe.] 
The Parties to this war, and Its results. [Oerlaolea. Boulcgne.]— 8S. War carried on by Chariaa 
against his Protestant German safefeots. Bovolt of Maarioe of Saxony^-SS. Btfrprlae and mor 
tlfleatioh of Charles, and flnal treaty of Aogsbnrg. [Passaa.] 

94. Ctroomstances which led to tho Abpicatioh ako RsnaaHairr or OaAaLas y. [BL JasL>- 
8S. llioemperor la his retbomenL— S6. The ProtestaatStateaof Earopow Character of tho Belbr* 
maUoB In Rngland. Betigloos Intoloranoe of Honiy. Character of flenry^s govommeBftr-87. 
Brief reign of Edward VI. Reign of Mary. Character of her rdgn. War with France. {BL 
Qoentln.] Death of Mary, and accession of Elixabeth, 1588. 

1. Tlio claims of Elizabeth not reeognlaed by the Catholic SCatea. Mabt or BooTLAan.— ff. 
Ftagrew of Protectant principles In England. PhlUpU. Eflbct of tho rivalry between Ftaaoa 
and 8pala^-3. Death of Henry a of Franca. Fraads U. and Oharies IX. Mary pr e sea ds to 



aooflaad. PriM^0f«iitionMrreigii. She ttmm* hvwlf <m tb« pnHeeUon of EUailwIlu-- 
4. The attflmpte to eatebltoh the InqnJaitlaii on the eontineikt. Clramutances wM^ led to th* 
cirn. Aim asuaiove wam, m Fkamcs. [Hwre'de^moeO— 9> Ghanetar of this irar. Atrodp 
tScB committed on both sides. [Gnienne. DaQphiny.>-6. Battle of Dreiu. Oftpture of the 
opposing genenls, and condosIoD of the war hj the trea^ of Amboiae. [ Amboise.]— 7. Be- / 
nsival of the WW. The** Lame Peace.*' IVeachecy of the CathoUos. Peaoe of St Germain 
£Bt. nennain.}— 8. Deslgna of the French oourU Preparations for the destracUon of the Prot- 
estants.— 0. VUmbacwlz or St. Baktholokbw.— 10. General massacre thronghoat the king- 
dML N<Me eondoot of some oOoerB. The princes of Navanre aad OoadA. The Joy excited 
bj the maasaere.— 11. Elbcta produced. Benewal of the civU war. The foeliags of G3iaile»' 
Us al4^ness, and death. ' 

12. Thedukeof AUra^aadmtailsttmttoaofnuNBTRSRLAjnM. The **PaelfloattOB of Ghent,* 
nd opiilaiaii of the Bpaniaids. CGhent.}— 13. Gaoses thai led to thlb **miioa of Utreehl.'' 
[Uti«cbt] The Statee^neral of 1580. [Antwerp.] Ck>ntinuanoe of the war by Philip.— 14. 
The r«mainiiv history and flite of Maiy of Sootland.— IS. Resentment of the Catholics. Oook* 
pUntSi and pn^eota of Philip^— Id. Vast prepanitiona of Philip against Knglanri, and sailing of 
TBS Spakisb AaXADA.' PraparaUons for resistance.— 17. Disasters, and final deatmotion of 
the fleeC Important leaolta. Decline of the Spanish power.— 18- Hlstoiy of France during 
the ramalBdsr of the sixteenth centniy. Gbaries UL, Heniy lit, and Hflnry lY. TBnainattOB 
of tbe religious wars by the Edict or NAirrxsv— 10. History of England after (he defoal of the 
i ^^iiA Armada. Irish insnrreotion of 1506.— 90. Oha.ea.otbr or ELtzABCTR. 

t. Prominent erents of tbe sixteenth oeiltury not included in European history. The Por 
vvaVBSB coLOKUL XMYiRB. Unlon of Portugal with Spain. Tbe HoUanders. [OrauM. 
Go«.>-Sl SrAmaa ooi.oirxA.L BicriRB. Services of Cortei, and the treatment which he r»- 
oelTed.— a. The conquests of Pi^arro. The Spanish empire fai America at the dose of the slx- 
leeoih esotniy. Inflnenee of the precious metals upoa Spain.— 4. Thb Moaxn. ^rwa ui 
IioiA^-5. ToB pRssxAif BHPiRB. Tho rslgn of lsmaeL-4. The reign of Tluna^k. Hla three 
''aonaL The youtbfol Abbas becomes ruler of the empire.— 7. General character of hla reign. 
His character as a parent and rplatlTe. How he ia regarded by the Fenlana.-a Bemaining 
hiiftoiy of Peniaa 

I. iNTRopiTCTORY. — 1. In the history of ancient Europe, two pre- 
dominating nations, — ^first the Greeks, and afterwards the Romans, 
occnpy the field ; preserving, in the mind of the reador, a general 
miity of action and of interest. ' In the history of the Middle Ages 
this nnity is hroken by the forcible dismemberment of the Roman 
empire, by the confusion that followed the inroads of the barbarians, 
and that attended their first attempt at social organization, a^ by 
the introduction of a broader field of inquiry, embracing countries 
and nations previously unknown. In Modem History, subsequent 
to the fifteenth century, there is still less apparent unity, if we con- 
sider the increased extent of the field to be explored, and the stM 
greater variety of nations, governments, and institutions, submitted 
to our view ; and to avoid inextricable confusion, and dry summaries 
of unintelligible events, we are under the necessity, in a brief oom- 
pend like the present, of selecting and developing the principal ^ 
paints of historic interest, and of rendering all other matters subor- 
dinate to the main design. ^ 


2. Bat while it would be in yain to attempt, witliin the limits of a 
work like the present, to give a separate history of OTerj nation, the 
reader should not lose sight of any, — that, as op|>ortunitie8 occur, 
he may have a plaoe in the general framework of history for the stores 
which subsequent reading may aocumulate. It was in accordance 
with these views, that, near the close of the preceding chapter, Hre 
took a general survey of the nations of Europe ; and although a few 
of the European kingdoms will still continue to claim our chief at- 
tention in the subsequent part of this history, we most not shut our 
eyes to the (act that they embraced, daring this period, but a small 
portion of the population of the globe ; and that a Histoiy, strictly 
universal^ woul4 comprise the cotemporary annals of more than a 
hundred different nations. The extent of the field of modem his- 
tory is indeed vast ; m it we can select only a few verdant spots, with 
which alone we can hope to make the reader familiar; while the 
riches of many an unexplored region must be left to repay the labcff 
of future researches. 

3. At the opening of the sixteenth century. Great Britain, Scot* 
land, France, Spain, Portugal, Oermany, Poland, Prussia, and 
Turkey, were distinct and independent nations ; Hungary and Bo-, 
hernia were temporarily united under one sovereignty; Denmark, 
Sweden, and Norway, still feebly united by the union of Galmsft 
were soon to be divided again ; the Netherlands, known as the do- 
minions of the house of Burgundy, had become a dependence of the 
Austrian division of the Germanic empire ; and Italy, comprising 
the Papal States, and a number of petty republics and dukedoms, 
was fast becoming the prey of surrounding sovereigns. In the Eastf 
Persia, after having been for centuries the theatre of perpetual civil 
wars, revolutions, and changes of no interest to foreigners, again 
emerged from obscurity at the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
and, toward the end of that period, under the Shah Abbas, somamed 
the Great, established an empire embracing Persia Proper, Medisi 
Mesopotamia, Syria, and Farther Armenia. About the same time a 
Tartar or Mogul empire was established in Hindostin by a descend- 
ant of the great conqueror Tamerlane. China was at this time, as 
it had long been, a great empire, although but little known. EgTP^ 
under the successors of the victorious Saracens, still preserved the 
semblance of sovereignty, until, in 1517, the Turks reduced it to the 
oondition of a province of the Ottoman empire. Such were the 
prinoipal States, kingdoms, and oations, of the Old World, wkofli 


lumah find a place on the page of universal history ; and, turning 
to tiie West, beyond the wide ocean whose mysteries had been so re- 
cently nnyeiled by the Genoese navigator, we find the germs of civil- 
ized nations already starting into being ; — and History must enlarge 
its volume to take in a mere abstract of the annals that now begin 
to press forward for admission to its pages. Amidst this perplexing 
profiuion of the materials of history, we turn back to the localities 
already familiar to the reader, and seek for historic unity where only 
it can be found, — ^in those principles, and events, that have exerted 
a world-wide influence on the progress of civilization, and the des- 
tinies of the human race. 

II. The Age of Henrt VIII. and Charles V.*— 1. About the 
period of the beginning of thd sixteenth century a new era opens in 
European history, in the rise of what has sometimes been called *' the 
Btaies^stem of Burope ;" for it was now that the re- ^ ^^ otatb3. • 
«iprocal mfluenoes of the European States on each other btbtem o? 
began to be exerted on a large scale, and that the weaker *^»<>^^=- 
States first conceived the idea of a balanceofpower sy^m that 
should protect them against their more powerful neighbor^. Hence 
the increasing extent and intricacy of the relations that began to 
grow up between States, by treaties of alliance, embassies, negotia- 
tions, and guarantees ; and the more general combination of powers 
in the wajrs that arose out of the ambition of some princes, and th^ 
attempts of others to preserve the political equilibrium. 

2. The inorditiate growth of the power of the houi^ of Austria, 
m the early part of the sixteenth century, firsti^ developed the de- 
fensive and conservative system to which we have alluded ; and for 
a long time the principal object of all the wars and alliances of 
Europe was to humble the ambition of some one nation, whbse pre- 
ponderance seemed to threaten the liberty and independence of the 

3. It has been stated that the marriage of Maximilian of Austria, 
with Mary of Bur' gundy, secured to the house of Austria the whole 
of Bur' gundy, and the "Low Countries," corresponding to the 
modem Nedierlands. In the year 1506, Charles, known in history 
Aa Charles Y., a grandson of Maximilian and Mary of Austria, and 
also of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, inherited the Low Countries: 
on the death of Ferdinand, in 1516, he became heir to the whole 
Spanish succession, which comprehended Spain, Naples^ Sicily, and 


Ghidiiuft, together with SpMiiah Amerioa. To theeevaflt poMeanoba 
were added his patrimonial dominicma in Anslria; and in 1519 the 
imperial dignity of the Germanic empire was oonlisrred upon him hj 
the choice of the elebton, when he wa^ only in hia nineteenth year. 

4. Charles soon resigned to his brother Ferdinand his hereditary 
Austrian States \ but the two brothers, acting in concert for the ad^ 
TUioement of their reciprocal interests, were regarded bat as oim 
power by the alarmed aoyereigns of Borope, who b^gaa to sospeei 
that the Austrian princes aimed at anirersal monarchy ; and their 
jealousy was increased when Ferdinand, by marriage, seoored the ad- 
dition of Hungary and Bohemia to his dominions ; and, at a later 
period, Charles, in a similar manner, obtained for his son, afterwards 
Philip II. of Spain, the fatore sovereignty of PortngaL 

5. When the imperial throne of (Germany became yaeant by the 

death of Maximilian, Francis I. of France and Charles 

TAui?B» ^* ^'^^'^ competitors for the crown ; and on tiie suoceai 

TWBBirBAN-of the latter, the mutual claims of the two princes 

^^J^^ on each other's dominions, especially in Italy and the 

Low Countries, soon made them deolired enemies. 

France then took the lead in attempting to regulate the balance of 

m. BaimT po^^ against the house of Austria { and the &yor of 

no. ow Henry YIIL of England was courted by the rival mon- 
sNOLAHa m.^^ 1^ ^^ prince most likdy to secure the victoty to 
whomsoever he should give the weight of hi^ influence. 

6. In year 1509 Henry YIIL, then at the age of eighteen, had 
sndoeeded his father Henry YII. on the throne of England, — re- 
ceiving at the same time a rich treasury and a flourishing kingdom, 
and uniting in his person the opposing claims of the houses of York 
and Lancaster. The real power oi the English monarch was at this 
time greater than at any previous period ; and Henry YIII. might 
have been the arbiter of Europe, in the rivalries and wars between 
Francis I. and Charles Y., had not his actions been the result of 
passion, vanity, caprice, or resentment, rather than of enlightened 

7. Each of the rival princes sedulously endeavored to enlist the 
English monarch in his favor : both gave a pension to his prime 
minister, cardinal Wolsey; and each had an interview with the 
king — ^Francis meeting him at Calais, and Charles visiting him in 
Bn^and, — ^but the latter won Henry through the influence of Wd- 
sey, who^ ^gregrious vanity he duped by encoura^ng his boj^ea of 


praootum to ihe pspal erown. Moreover, Henry was, at the begiii- 
ning) ill-diflposed towards the king of Franoe, who virtoallj geyemed 
Sootland through the influence of the regent Albany ; and, by an 
alliance with Charles, he hoped to reoover a part of those domains 
which his ancestors had formerly possessed in France. Charles also 
gained the aid of the pope, Leo X. ; but, on the other hand, Francis 
was sapported by the Swiss, the Genoese, and the Venetians. 

8. In the year 1520 Francis seized the opportonity of an insor- 
reetion in Spain to attempt the recovery of Navarre, which had been 
united to tfa^ Frcmch crown by marriage alliance in 1490, and con* 
qnered by Ferdinand of Spain in 1512. Navarre was won and lost 
in the course of a few months, and the war was then transferred to 
Italy. In two successive years ike French governor of Milan was 
driven from Lombardy : the Duke of Bourbon,' ocmstable of France, 
thr best g^eral of Francis, who had received repeated affronts from 
the king, his master, deserted to Charles, and was by him invested 
with the chief command of his forces ; and in the year 1525 Francis 
himself was defeated by his rebellious subject in the battle of Pavia, 
and taken prisoner, but not until his horse had been killed under 
him, and his armor, which is still preserved, had been indented by 
numerous bullets and lance& Li the battle of Pavia the French 
army was abnost totally destroyed. In a sin^e line Francis con- , 
veyed the sad intelligence to his mother. " Madam all is lost but 

9. Francis was conveyed a prisoner to Madrid ; and it was only 
at the expiration of a year that he obtained his release, when a fever, 
ocoasioned by despondency, had already threatened to put an end, 
at once, to his life, and tiie advantages which Charles hoped to de* 
rive from his captivity. Francis had already prepared to abdioate 
the throne in &vor of his son the dauphin, when Charles decided to 

3. Tba bODM of Bvmrbon derives ita uune ftom tb^tman TiUaga of Bourbon In the Ibnner 
provlnoe of BoiurbonnalB, now in Che departmeDt of AUIer, Chirteen mllee west flx>ni Monlinii 
•nd one bondred and rixtjr-SvemUeeMMiUi ftom Fkirlt. iMapJXo.Xai.) fai earty timee thle 
lawn bad lords of ita own, wbo bore the tllto of barooa. Aimer, wbo lived in the early part 
jT the tenth century, is the first of these barons of whom history gires any aoooUht The male 
pffteeas of thie ttne baTlng become exUnet, Beatrix, dnehess of Bonrbon, married Robert, 
seeondaonorstljools; andtheirsonLoaia»dukeofBowbon, who died in 1141, became the 
fooader of the boose of Bourbon. Two branches of this honse took their origin from the two 
SODS of Louis. The elder line became extinct at the death of the oonsUble of Bourbon, who 
ditaled FMMis at Fatla, and was himself killed in 1»7, In the asaauU of the city of Roma, 
ftom the other line hare 8prui« scTeral branches,— Arat, the royal branch, and that of Oond« | 
tfnee wMeh the fbrmer haa undergone seTeral subdlTlslona, gtrlng sorereigns to ftao'sa, to. 


release the eaplm nKmardi, alter exaotbg from him a atapolatien ta 
sarrender Bnr^gundj, to renounoe hie pretensions to Milan and Na- 
ples, and to ally ^imse^f, bj marriage, with the &milj of his enemy. 
But Franeis, before his release, had seeretly protested, in the pres- 
enee of hie ehanoellor, against the Taliditj of a trenty extorted from 
him while a prisoner ; and, once at liberty, it was not difficnlt for 
him to elode it His joy at his release was nnbonnded. Being es- 
eorted to the frontiers of Franee, and haying passed a small stream 
that diyides the two khigdoms, he mounted a Tnridsh hone, and 
putting him at full speed, and waving hie hand oyer his head, ex- 
ehumed alond, sever^ times, " I am yet a king I" (March 18, 1526.) 

10. The liberation of Francis was the signal- for a general league 
against Charles T . The Italian States, which, since the battle of 
Payia, had been in the power of the Spanish and German armies, 
now regarded iht French as liberators ; the pope put himself at'tbe 
head of the leagae ; the Swiss jomed it ; and Henry YIIL, altfmed 
at the increasing power of Charles, entered into a treaty with Franois, 
so that the very reyerses of the French monarch, by ezciting the 
jealousy of other States against his riyal, rendered him much stroqgtf 
in alliances than before. 

U. During these eyents, the rebel Duke of Bourbon rem^ed in 
Italy, quartering his mercenary troops on the unfortonate inhawt- 
ants of Milan ; but when the Italians declared against ^e emperor, 
all Italy was delivered up to piUage. To obtain the greater plunder, 
Bourbcm marched upon Rome, followed not only by his own soldiers, 
but by an additional force of fourteen thousand brigands from G^ 
many. Pope Clement, terrified by the greatness of the danger whieh 
menaced the States of the Holy See, discharged his best troops, and 
ishut himself up in the castle of St Angelo. Rome was attacked, 
and carried by storm, although BourbiMi fell in the assault; ihe ^' 
lage was uniyersal, neither convents nor churches being spared; 
from seven to eight thousand Romans were -massacred the first day; 
and not all the ravages of the Goths and Huns surpassed these of 
the army of the first prince in Christendom. 

1^ The pillage of Rome, and the captivity of the pope, excited 
great indignation throughout Europe ; and the hypocritical OharleSr 
instead of sending orders for his liberation, ordered prayers for his 
deliverance to be offered in all the Spanish churches. At this fa- 
vorable moment Francis sent an army into Italy, which penetrated 
*to the very waUa of Naples ; but hese his prosperity ended ; and tk* 


fanpolicj of the iVencli king, in disgusting and alienating his most ' 
&itlifal allies, lost for him all the advantages which he had gained. 
Both the rival monarchs now desired peace, but both strove to dis* 
semble their real sentiments : although Charles had been generally 
fortunate in ^he contest, yet all his revenues were expended ; and 
he desired a respite from the cares of ^war to enable him to crush 
the Reformation, which had abeadj made considerable progress in 
his German dominions. A peace was therefore concluded at Gam- 
bray, in August 1529, which was as glorious to Charles as it was dis- 
graceful to France and her monarch. The former remained supreme 
master of Italy ; the pope submitted ; the Venetians were shorn of 
their conquests ; and Henry VIII. reaped nothing but the emperor's 
enmity for his interference. 

13. The conduct of Henry VIII. in his domestic relationrreflects 
disgrace upon his name, and is a dark stain upon his character. He 
was first married to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand 
and Isabella of Spain, and aunt of Charles V. of Germany, a woman 
much older than himself, but who acquired and retained an ascend^ 
aney over his affections for nearly twenty years. For divorcing her, 
ttdd marrying Anne Boleyn, he was excommunicated by the pope, — ^a 
measure which induced him. to break of all allegiance to the Holy 
See, and declare himself supreme head of the English church. Three 
years after his second marriage, a new passion for Jane Seymour, one 
of the queen's maids of honor, effaced from his memory all the vir- 
tues and graces of Anne Boleyn ; and seventeen days saw the latter 
pass from, the throne to the scaffold. The marriage ceremony with 
the lady Jane, was performed on the d«y following the execution. 
Her death followed, in little more than a year. In 1540 Henry 
married Anne of Cleves, on the recommefidation of his minister 
Cromwell ; but his dislike to his new wife hastened the fall of that 
minister, who was unjustly condemned and executed on a charge of 
treason. Soon after, Henry procured a divorce from Anne, and 
married Catherine Howard, niece of the duke of Norfolk ; but on a 
charge of dissolute ^conduct Catherine was brought to the scaffold. 
In 1543 the king married Catherine Parr, who aJone, of all his wives, 
survived him ; and even she, before the king's death, came near being 
brought to the block on a charge of heresy. 

14. Soon after the accession of Henry, the celebrated Wolsey ap- 
peared on the theatre of English pDlities. Successfully ^urting the • 
&yor of the monarch, he aeon obtained the first place in the royal 


fcvor, and became imoontrolled nuniater. Nomeroos eooksiartical 
dignities were conferred upon him : in 1518, the pope, to ingratiate 
himBelf with Henry, created Wobej cardinal Courted by the em- 
perors of France and Germany, he received pensionB firom both; 
and ere long his revenues nearly equalled those of the crown, part 
of which he expended in pomp and ostentation, and part in laudable 
munificence for the advancement of learning When Henry, seized 
with a passion for Anne Boleyn, one of the queen's maids of honori 
formed the design of getting rid of Catherine, and of making l^e 
new favorite his wife, Wolsey was suspected of abetting the delays 
of the court of Rome, which had been appealed to by Henry for a 
divorce. The displeasure of the king was excited against his minis- 
ter ; and, in the course of three years, Wolsey, repeatedly acoised 
of treason, and gradually stripped of all his possessions, died of a 
broken heart (1530.) In his last moments he is said to have ex- 
claimed, in the bitterness of humiliation and remorse, '' Had I bat 
served my <jU>d as diligently as I have served my king, he would not 
have given me over in my gray hairs. "^ 

•. TlMfoUowliig tolUoquj It put by ShakspMra Into the mooth of tiie humbled fliTortto « 
tbenooMloii of hia fumodarii^ to Henry the gieet wat^-'^ai also hto drying mMcb to hbilp 

<* Firewell, e long Ikrewell to eU 1117 greetaeai I 
Thia li the atote of maa; T<Mfaij he puU iMih 
The tender letTes of bope» t<Miiorrow bloMonu 
And bean his blufhiog boDors thick upon bim: 
The third daj cornea a froet, a kJmi« ftxMt ; 
And,— when he thinkti good ea^ man, tuii tuynif 
Hla greatness la a ripening,— nlpa bla root, 
And then he (Ula, aa I do. I hare TentnrM 
Uke Uttle wanton boya that awlm on bladden, 
Thla many aummers In a aea of gloiy ; 
Bat tu beyond my depth ; my high-blown pride 
At length broke nader me; and now baa left me^ 
Weary, and old with aerrice, to the mercy 
Of a rode stream, that moat forerer hide me. 
Vain pomp and glory of thla worid, I hate ya ; 
I Ibel my heart new openM : O, how wretched 
la that poor man, that hanga on prlnoea Ikrora I 
There la, betwixt that amUe we would aqrfra le^ 
That sweet aspect of prineea, and their min, . 
More pAnga and fean than wara or women bare ; 
And when be flOla, he fldla Uke LnoUte, 
Nfiver to hope again.'* 

** Oromwell, I charge thee, fling away ambition ; 
By that afn ftll the aagela ; how can man then, 
Tlie image of hla Bfaker, hope to win byH Y 
Love thyaelf last ; oherlah those bearta that hate theei 


15. During tiie stirring and efrentfiil period of die eariy rivalriM 
of Francis I. and Charles Y. — a period fall of great 
events, of oonqnests and reverses, all arising oat of the ^bi^onT 
selfish YiewB of indiyidual monarchs, bat none of them ' 
oaosiDg any- lasting enange or progress in human affairs, the great 
principle of Ireligioos freedom began to agitate all classes, and to 
gi?e fresh life to the pnblio mind ih Earope. At this time the 
pope, as the head of the Oatiiolio religion, assamed io himself bol^ 
flpiritoal and temporal power over all the kingdoms of the world : 
often, amidst the blackest crimes, and immersed in the grossest sensa* 
alities, he avowed, and his adherents proclaimed, t^he doctrine of his 
vtfalhbiiitif, OT '< entire eztoption from liability to err;" and al- 
though bold men in every age had protested against papal pretensions, 
yet the great mass of the people, the clergy, the nobility, and the 
m(Miarchs, still regarded the pope as sapreme and infallible authority 
over the thoughts and the actions of men. ' The memory and opin* 
ions of Wickliffe' the reformer had been solemnly condemned by the 
eoundl ofiDonstance' thirty years after .his death : John Hues, and 

L WieUif0, bom In Eoi^aiMl «boat the year 1384-caUed tbe *« morning itar oT the B«fonn»- 
ttOB^— was an emimeni divine and eoclealaatical reformer. He ylgoronaly attacked papal 
■snrpadon, and tbe abuaes of the church. The pope inaiated on hU being brought to trial aa a 
heretic; but he waaeflbetoaliy protected by his patron, the duke of Lancaster. He died in 1384. 

8. GnMtaxM, a dty highfy interesting flrom its historical aasociationa, is situated on the rirer 
RhlBei at the point where the river onites the upper part of the Lake of Constance with the 
lover. Tboogh moaUy within the natural limita of Swltieriand, the dty belonga to the grand 
dnehy of Baden. (JW4»« Noa. XTV. and XYU.) 

The great oli^ect of the oelebrated Cautica of ContUnet^ which continued In eesalon from 
1414 to 141fl^ was to remove the divisions in the churoa, setde controveraiesi and vindicate the 
anflmri^ of general oooncUa, to which the Roman peQtiff was declared to be amenable. 
When, in 1411, Slgismnnd aacended the throne of Gennany, there were three popes, each of 
whom had •wttimMriMrf the two others. To put an end to theae disorders, and stop the In- 
flaence of John Hues, a native of Bohemia, who had adopted and zealously propagated the 
doctrines of WIckllflb, Slglamund summoned a general eoundl. The pretended heresies of 
WioUtflb and Hnas were condemned ; and the latter, notwithstanding the asaorances of safety 
given him by the German emperor, was burnt at the stake, July 6th, 1415. His friend snd 
eompenion, Jerome of Prsgue, met with the same ihte, Hay 30th, 1416L AAer the ecdeslastlF 
eri digBllarlea supposed they >uMi suffldently checked the progreas of hereaiea by these exeai- 

smi in thy right hand eairy gentle peace, 
' To silence envloas tongves. Be Just and foar not: 
Let all the enda thbu almat at, be thy country^ 
Thy GodV, and trath*a ; then if then fUl'st, O Orornwell 
Thoa faH'st a bteesed martyr." ■ - 

^ O Cromwell, CromweU, 
Had I bat 8erv*d my God with half the seal 
I servM my king, he would not tn mine age 
Have left me naked to mine enemies.*' 

Shflkspeutt^ Henry vnL, Aot nL| 

882 ' MODSBK HIBTOBT. (n»a 

Jerome of Prtgoe, wiih a lioet of leas oelefanied martjn, loMi been 
publicly burned for professing heretical opimons ; and the oreed of 
the unfortunate Albigenses' had been eztingviflhed in blood. Yet 
as civilisation advanced, the moral power and authority of, the popes 
deolined ; and the spirit of rdigions inquiry daily grew more rife ; the 
pope was less popular in his own dominions than at a distance; and 
while the imperial city was saoked by the hau^ty Bourbon, and the 
pope himself was held a prisoner by a tumultuoua soldiery, his earn 
saries were oollecting tribute in the German dominions, and along 
the shores of the Baltic. The avarice of the pope, Leo X., was 
equal to the credulity of the G^mans ; and billets of salvation, or 
indulgencies professing to remit the punishment due to sins, even 
before the commission of the contemplated crime, were sold by thoor 
sands among tiie German peasantry. Martin Luther, a man of hi^ 
reputation for sanctity and learning, and then professor of thedo^ 
at Wittemberg* on the Elbe, £rst called in questicm the efficacy of 

ttoM, tkqr proceeded to depOM ttie three p«p«, «rintl-pop«a, /obaJUOn., Gi^^iy^n^*^ 
Benedict Xm. Tliey next elected Martin V^ and thus put an end to a echism that had tealed 
forty yean. 

TVavellen are elUI ihown the hall when the eovnell aeeerabled ; ttie ehaln on whMfa set the 
emperor and the pope ; the house in which Haas was apprehended ; his dungeon hi tbe 1)^ 
Inlcon monastery ; and, in the nave of the ealhednl, s braxen plate let into the floor on 0» 
fpot where the venerable martyr listened to his sentence of death ; also the plaoe, in a gardO) 
where be was bomU 

The decrees and exoommnnlcatlons of the council were despised la Bohemia ; and in * 
bloody war of seventeen years* duration the Bohemian adherents of Rasa took tenrible ve» 
geanoe i^on the emperor, the empire, and the clergy, for his death— « nv^nge which the gentle 
and pious mind of Hnas would never have approved. After the dose of this war, tb^ reHgfous 
freedom of the Huirites continually suAred more and more; and the atrleter ftct of the dh 
mlnlshod band was thially merged iu the fraternity of Bohemian and Moravian brethren, whIA 
arose in 1457, and, under the most violent persecutions, exhibited as honorable steadfaatne* 
of fiUth, and the most exemplary purity. __, 

1. ^thifenset is a name given to several heretical sects In the south of FYanee^ who agreed 
in opposing the dominion of the Roman hierarchy, and In endeavoring to restore the sim- 
plicity 4f primitive Chri