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Jain literature Society 







LOS AMi^L*'" 


Cambridge : 

at the University Press 




1. The SYADVADA-MANJAEI of Malli-shena: English 

translation by Dr. N. D. Mironow, of the University of 

2. The SADDARSANA-SAMUCCAYA of Hari-bhadra Suri : 
English translation b}' Professor L. Suali, of the University 
of Pavia. 









Preliminary Note by F. W. Thomas 

Preface ...... 

Bibliographical Note 

Introduction and History 

Outlines — Chapter I : Theology 


,, ,, II : Metaphysics 





facing page 6 

facing page 36 

. 67-73 


„ „ III : Ethics 

,, ,, IV : Ritual 

Texts — Chapter I : Theology .... 77~81 

II: Metaphysics . . . 82-111 

Appendix I : Jain Logic .... 112-11H 

,, II: Cosmogony, Cosmology, Astronomy 119-125 

,, III : Sixty-three Great Persons, etc. . 126~12K 

IV: 143 Qualities, etc., of Saintly Souls. 129-134 

,, V: The Ancient Jaina Sacred. Literature 185-146 

Index 147 156 



The fact of Jainism cannot have been unknown 
even to the earliest European students of 
Sanskrit ; indeed, it is more than once mentioned 
by Sir William Jones himself. But the con- 
temporary existence of the monuments, litera- 
ture, and adherents of the religion seems to have 
been first brought to light by those two in- 
defatigable pioneers of Indian research, Colonel 
Colin Mackenzie and Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton : 
it was not long before its main tenets were 
expounded by Colebrooke, whose library of 
Sanskrit MSS. comprised a fair number of Jaina 
texts. The full exploration of the canonical 
literature and the determination of the true 
chronology were reserved for a later generation 
of scholars, among whom the greatest merit 
belongs to Professors Weber, Jacobi, Leumann, 
and Dr. Hoernle as regards the former task, and 
to Professors Btihler and Jacobi as regards the 
latter. In all systematic accounts of Indian 
literature and religion the Jaina doctrine 
has necessarily found a place ; but the present 


position of studies in relation thereto should be 
viewed in the light of Professor Jacobi's articles 
in the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. 

The present volume of Outlines is issued 
by the Jain Literature Society in advance of 
a series designed to consist principally, but not 
exclusively, of translations from authoritative 
texts. We are not, indeed, without convenient 
manuals in English treating of the subject, such 
as Dr. J. Burgess' edition of Blihler's On the 
Indian Sect of the Jainas (London, 1903). 
Mr. A. B. Latthe's An Introduction to Jainism 
(Bombay, 1905), Mr. U. D. Barodia's Histomj 
and Literature of Jainism (Bombay,. 1909), 
Mr. Hirachand Liladhar Jhaveri's First Prin- 
ciples of Jaina Philosophy (London, 1910), and 
Mr. H. Warren's Jainism (Madras, 1912) ; 
to which there has recently been added the 
substantial treatise of Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson 
(The Heart of Jainism, Oxford and London, 
1915, following upon the same author's Notes 
on Modern Jainism, Oxford and Surat, 1910) : 
but there is still, we think, room for a work like 
the present, furnishing' in a moderate compass 
a thorough exposition of the system and its 
terminology ; while the Texts (in several cases 
I >igambara) which follow the Outlines will be 


found, if we are not mistaken, an interesting 

and valuable feature. 

It will be seen that the author, though his 
aim is not propaganda, does not conceal his 
personal adherence to the Jaina faith ; and he 
is, in fact, an influential member of the lay 
community. In the case of a doctrine which 
is also a religion there seems to be an advantage 
in a treatment by one who is in a position to 
appreciate practically the several and relative 
values of the different parts. 

Mr. Jaini has generously placed his work at 
the disposal of the Jain Literature Society, to 
which he has further entrusted the task of editing" 
it. While performing this duty according to our 
lights (and with a view to readers in the west 
as well as in India), we have not modified 
Mr. Jaini's text to the extent of impairing his 
full responsibility for the arrangement, the 
matter, and . the form. On p. 8 it should 
perhaps have been more explicitly stated that 
the souls in air. water, fire, etc.. have for bodies 
the parts of these elements. 

The Index is the work of Mr. H. Warren. 

Preside.nt of the Jam Literature Social y. 


Contact between the East and the West is of 
a comparatively recent date : but it has already 
borne fruit. The East has shed its merely 
contemplative mood, while the West has outlived 
its merely materialistic tendencies. There is 
indeed a general willingness to exchange ideas, 
whereby the whole of humanity is benefiting. 

About a century and a half ago there arose 
in Europe a great desire to explore the buried 
and current treasures of the East. Among the 
religions of Indian origin Brahmanism, or 
Hinduism, was the first to attract attention, but 
Buddhism soon followed. Jainism, which came 
last, made its advent in unfavourable circum- 
stances. The Jainas of India were ignorant of 
the west and of western methods of study. 
Worse than this, they were religiously averse 
to letting non- Jainas read, or even see or touch, 
their sacred books. In consequence Jainism 
was misunderstood and misrepresented. Its 
tradition and teachings suffered from the scholar's 
partiality for his older and accustomed studies in 
Brahmanism and Buddhism. But. by the labours 


of men like Weber, Blihler, Jacobi, Hoernle, 
and others, the credibility of its tradition has 
been established, and it has been accorded the 
recognition due to its antiquity and importance. 
There are also evidences of a more general 
interest in Jainism as a practical religion. Many 
persons — Europeans and others — have asked for 
a small and reliable book on the subject, and 
not being aware of any work which precisely 
answers the requirements, I have ventured to 
put together these Outlines, addressed to a public 
in India and Europe. The vastness of the 
subject may help to excuse the inadequacy, of 
which I am fully conscious. 

The Outlines were sketched in England in 
1908 9, for the purpose of conveying to Brother 
H. Warren w r hat little I knew of Jainism. 
Mr. Warren typed his notes, which helped me 
considerably in preparing the English portion of 
the book. My friend Brother Jaina-bhushana 
Brahmachari Sital Pershadji, of Bombay, helped 
me to select the original texts at Allahabad in 
1913. In the same year in London Dr. F. W. 
Thomas, of the India Office Library and President 
of the Jaina Literature Society, London, most 
kindly undertook to help me with the publication 
of the book. For the labour which he has 


bestowed upon the revision of the manuscript, 
and upon the arrangements for printing and 
publication, I now beg to tender my cordial 
thanks. Without the help of these three friends. 
Dr. F. W. Thomas, Brothers Sital Pershad and 
Warren, it would have been impossible for the 
book to have seen the light. 

Last but not least, I must express my heartfelt 
obligation to His Highness Maharajadhiraj Raja 
Rajeshwara Sawai Shrl Tukojl Rao Holkar 
Bahadur. Chief of the Native State of Indore in 
Central India, for his gracious permission to 
dedicate the book to him. In this connexion, 
I must thank also my friends, Rai Bahadur 
Mr. Seraymal Bapna, B.A., B.Sc. LL.B., Home 
Minister, and Rai Bahadur Major Ram Prasad 
Dube, M.A.. B.Sc, LL.B., Revenue Minister, 
both of Indore State, for reading through the 
manuscript in London in 1913, before His 
Hig'lmess the Maharaja Holkar accepted the 

In conclusion, I must confess that the book 
is a very humble attempt to give a brief but 
accurate and authoritative sketch of Jainism. 
I am convinced that in its spirit and essentia! 
doctrines Jainism has that in it which satisfies 
the deepest and the most varied wants — mental 


and spiritual — of the men and women of our age; 
and if these Outlines should lead any of them to 
an understanding of the message and inspiration 
of Jainism, I shall be amply rewarded. 


Sadak Court, Indork. 
October, 1915. 


Two works by M A. Guerinot enable us to dispense 
with a special bibliography ; these are — 

Essaide Bibliographic Jaina (in Annales clu Musee Guimet, 

Bibliotheque d'Etudes, tome xxii). Paris, 1906. 
Repertoire d'Epigraphie Jaina (Publications de l'Ecole 
Francaise d'Extreme Orient, vol. x). Paris, 1908. 
Some more recent works in English are named in the 
Preliminary Note, and we may add — - 
Life o/Malidvlra, by Manik-chand Jaini. Allahabad, 1908. 
The Antagada-dasdo and Anuttarovavdiya-dasao, trans- 
lated from the Prakrit by Prof. L. D. Barnett 
(Oriental Translation Fund, New Series, vol. xvii). 
London, 1907. 
Also, from Germany — 

Die Lehre vom Karman in der Philosophie der Jainas, by 
Helmuth von Glasenapp. Leipzig, 1915. 

There are also numerous Indian texts and transla- 
tions, and articles in journals, etc., such as those by 
Professor Jacobi in the Encyclopedia of Religion and 
Eih ics and the Transactions of the Congress for the 
History of Religions (Oxford, 1908), by Professors 
Ballini, Belloni-Filippi, Pavolini, and Tessitori, in the 
Giornale della Societa Asiatica Italiana. In India there 
are several Jain periodicals, such as the Jain Gazette, 
published at Allahabad. 

The Indian texts cited on pp. 77-111 are the 
following : — 

1. Anuprekshd, by Swami-Karttikeya (in Jaina Grantha 

Ratnakara). Girgaum. 



2. Brihat-Svayambhu-stotra, by Samanta-bhadra (in 

Sanatana Jaina Grantha Mala I). Bombay, 1905. 

3. Dravya - samgraha, by Nemi - chandra Siddhanta- 

Cbakravartin (Jaina Siddhanta Pracbaraka Manrlali 
of Deoband). Benares, 1909. 

4. Gommata-sara, by tbe same (witb Sanskrit version by 

Pandit Manobar Lai). Bombay, 1911. 

5. Niyama-sdra, by Kunda-kunda Acbarya (MS.). 

6. Panchdstikdya-gdthd, by Kunda-kunda Acbarya 

(edited by Professor P. E. Pavolini in tbe Giornale 
della Societa Asiatica Italiana, Florence, 1901 ; also 
Raya-chandra Jaina Sastra Mala, Bombay, 1904). 

7. Paramdtma-prakdsa, by Yogindra Acbarya (MS. 

translation in tbe Jain Gazette for 1912). 

8. Purushd/rtha-siddhy-updya, by Amrita-cbandra Siiri 

(Raya-cbandra Jaina Sastra Mala I, and also in 
Sanatana Jaina Grantba Mala I). Bombay, 1905. 

9. Batna-karandaka Srdvakdchdra, by Samanta-bbadra 

(in Sanatana Jaina Grantba Mala I). Bombay, 1905. 

10. Samaija-sdra-kalasa, by Amrita-cbandra Suri (in the 

same). Bombay, 1905. 

11. Samdyika-pdtha (MS.; also several editions). 

12. Tattvdrtha-sdra, by Amrita-cbandra Suri (in Sanatana 

Jaina Grantha Mala I). Bombay, 1905. 

13. Tattvartha-sutra , by Uma-svati (in the same, Bombay, 

1905 ; text with commentary Sarvdrtha-siddhi, by 
Pujya-pada, Kolhapur, 1903 ; with commentary 
Tattvdrtha-rdjavdrttika, in Sanatana Jaina Grantha 
Mala, iv, Benares, 1913 ; text with German 
translation and commentary as Eine Jaina - 
Dogmatik by Prof. H. Jacobi in the Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 1906). 

F. W. T. 


Two facts stand at the basis of all philosophy and 
science. One of these is Man; the other, the Universe. 
All speculation attempts to answer the question : What 
is the relationship that exists between Man and the 
Universe ? All practical wisdom tries to solve the 
problem : In the light of such relationship what is 
the best mode of living for man ? All religions and all 
systems of ethics and metaphysics are attempts, more 
or less successful, to deal with the various aspects of 
the above two questions. 

The object of these pages is to try to reconstruct the 
answer which in India Lords Parsva-natha and Maha- 
vira gave to these questions in the eighth and sixth 
centuries B.C. respectively. The work has no very great 
antiquarian pretensions. It seeks rather to expound the 
main features of an ancient creed, which still retains the 
allegiance of an important section of the Indian people. 
A word as to the plan of the Outlines. The contents 
may seem to be almost presumptuously encyclopaedic. 
But the all-comprehensive nature of the questions 
makes it imperative to cast if only one glance upon the 
various points of view from which men and matters are 
looked at by the different sciences — practical and 

The subject might be divided into two parts: 
Part I : Religion ; Part II : Secular Knowledge, e.g., 


Logic ; Mathematics ; Science, including Cosmogony, 
Cosmology, Astronomy, Astrology, Palmistry, etc., 
Chemistry, etc., Medicine, Occult Sciences, Arts and 
Practical Sciences ; Law ; Language ; and Grammar. 
But the Outlines deal systematically only with Part I ; 
the second part is just touched in the Appendices. 

Part I. Religion 

The word "religion" is here used in the sense of 
its popular synonym " creed ", one's set of beliefs. 
As soon as man begins to think, he consciously or 
unconsciously asks himself certain questions about 
himself, about the universe, about his destination, 
and about his duties. Equally consciously or un- 
consciously he answers his questions, in a lucid or 
indistinct, in a partial or thorough, in a cogent or 
unconvincing manner. These sets of answers are his 
religion. Even if a man denies God, this means onl\- 
that he expresses his disagreement with the answer of 
a believer in God, and thus implicitly gives a different 
answer to the question " How has the universe come to 
be what it is ? " Accordingly a man's " religion " means 
his accepted answers to questions about himself, the 
universe, and his destiny and duty in life. 

The question " What am I ?" may be split up into its 
two aspects : theological and metaphysical. Theology 
teaches not only what our " I " or " ego " is, but also 
the relationship of this ego to God. Metaphysics 
teaches us the relationship between the " I " and the 
" non-I ", i.e. between man and the universe. 


The question "How best to live?" may be split up 
into its two aspects : ethical and ritualistic. The 
problem of ethics is the problem of man's conduct in 
society ; ritual deals with man's life with reference to 
his conception of God. 

Thus the subject may most conveniently be arranged 
under four heads — 

1. Theology : man's idea of God and his relation 

to Him. 

2. Metaphysics : man's conception of matter and 

force, life, time and space, etc. ; specially 
the problem of the physical universe and the 
thinking mind, to which through thought at 
least it is subject. 

3. Ethics : man's duty in life to himself and to 


4. Ritual : the way of manifesting his theology in 

the company of those who hold the same 
theological views. 
These four aspects may be considered one by one. 


These questions which we put to ourselves in theology 
proper are : " What is God ? " " What is our relation 
to God ? " The answer to the first question is : God 
is the highest ideal which man can think of. To the 
second question : We stand to God as the actual does 
to the ideal, and it is our duty to try and rise as far as 
we can to that ideal. 

The highest ideal is that which is best for the 
individual and for humanity. Xow it so happens 


that what is best for the former is also the best for 
the latter. It is something like the selfishness with 
which Goethe was charged. If every atom of humanity 
■ — and man is no more than that — were so to live as to 
put forth the best that is in him, he would discharge 
his duty to mankind. Thus our inquiry is limited to 
finding out the best ideal for the individual. There can 
be no doubt that in all ages and climes man has sought 
happiness and avoided pain and misery. "The greatest 
happiness of the greatest number " is only a practical 
paraphrase of the Jaina doctrine " absolute and eternal 
happiness for all living beings". So, in the highest 
ideal, happiness and virtue are identified. The Jaina 
god is the soul at its best, i.e. when, freed from all that 
is material, it has attained perfect knowledge, faith, 
power, and bliss. 

In metaphysics man through different ages and 
.stages of philosophy has observed the self and the 
non-self, and has always tried to apotheosize the one 
or the other, or to strike a sort of compromise between 
the two. He has formulated either one substance, like 
the Brahma of the Vedantist or the matter of the 
materialist, or else many substances like the Sarikhya, 
or else two substances. Jainism takes its stand upon 
a common-sense basis, which can be verified by 
everyone for himself. Jaina metaphysics divides the 
Universe into two everlasting, uncreated, coexisting, 
but independent categories — the soul (jiva), the non- 
soul (ajiva or non-jlva). Logically it is a perfect 


division and unassailable. The non-soul is dis- 
tinguished under five heads: matter, time, space, and 
the principles of motion and stationariness. The soul 
is the higher and the only responsible category. 
Except in its perfect condition in the final stage of 
liberation (nirvana), it is always in combination with 
matter. The bod}' — the non-soul — -is the lower 
categoiy, and must be subdued by the soul. The link 
of union between the soul and the non-soul is karma : 
and the production, fruition, and destruction of karma, 
together with the soul and the non-soul, are called the 
Principles (tattvas) of Jainism. 

Eth ics 
Jaina ethics is the most glorious part of Jainism, and 
it is simplicity itself. There is no conflict between 
man's duty to himself and to societ}\ The highest 
good of society is the highest good of the individual. 
The soul is to be evolved to the best of its present 
capacity, and one means to this evolution is the 
duty of helping that of others by example, advice, 
encouragement, and help. The Jaina discipline is hard. 
The rigour of this discipline will be evident from the 
rules of conduct given in the following pages under 
Ethics, for example the eleven stages of a householder's 
life (pp. 67-70)and the fourteen stages of the evolution of 
the soul (pp. 48-52). The first stage of a Jaina layman's 
life is that of intelligent and well-reasoned faith in 
Jainism ; and the second is when he takes a vow not to 
destroy any kind of life, not to lie, not to use another's 
property without his consent, to be chaste, to limit his 


necessaries, to worship daily, and to give charity in 

the way of knowledge, medicine, comfort, and food. 

And these virtues are summed up in one word : ahimsd 

(not-hurting). "Hurt no one" is not a merely negative 

precept. It embraces active service also ; for, if you can 

help another and do not — your neighbour and brother 

— surely you hurt him, although on the analogy of the 

legal damnum sine injuria it may be said to be 

a non-moral omission, for which you may not be 



Jaina ritual is, like all priestly matters, very 
elaborate and complicated ; but its principle is in 
conformity with the - simplicity of the whole creed. 
Its practical aspects are two : the devotional and the 
ecstatic. The devotional is like the devotion of wife 
to husband, or of child to father. The devotee feels 
near to, and in the presence of, the great, rich, brilliant, 
burning ideal which has presented itself to him 
as an ever-inspiring, ever-vivifying infinity of purity 
and joy. In the ecstatic it is the husband or 
father conscious of his power, of his reception of 
the devotion of wife or child. The soul in ecstasy 
feels itself to be the light. The Jaina ritual also 
circles round the one central Jaina ideal — the perfect 
sou ] — which is at once the goal, glory, duty, and 
destiny of the best of humanity. 

Part II. Secular Knowledge 
Jaina literature, even in its ruins, is very rich and 
varied. Professor Dr. A. Guerinot, of Paris, remarks 


as follows : — " Tous les genres y sont representes : 
d'abord la dogmatique, la morale, la polemique, et 
l'apologetique ; mais aussi l'histoire et la legende, 
L'epopee et le roinan, la grammaire, la lexicographie 

et l'astronoinie. voir le theatre"' (Essui de Bibliographie 
Jaina, p. xxxi). 1 The Outlines only touch in the 
Appendices a few out of this vast variety of topics. ■ 

1 Professor Jacobi in his article Jainism [Encyclopaedia of Religion 
and Ethic?) mentions in particular the numerous tales in Prakrit 
and Sanskrit employed to illustrate works of a dogmatical or 
edifying character; further, Sanskrit poems, in plain or ornate 
style, and Sanskrit and Prakrit hymns. ••Jain authors have also 
contributed many works, original treatises as well as commentaries, 
to the scientific literature of India in its various branches — grammar. 
lexicography, metrics, poetics, philosophy, etc." 

The original language of the canon was a Prakrit, i.e. an early 
derivative of Sanskrit, spoken in Bihar : it is known as Arsha or 
Ardha-Mdgadhi. In the existing Svetambara texts, modified by 
time, two dialects are distinguished, one being confined to verse : 
while the Digambaras employ a third. The early commentaries 
were in Prakrit. Sanskrit, first employed by the Digambaras, has 
been predominant since about 1000 a.d., although the Prakrit has 
continued in use. Of modern dialects the Marwarl, a special form of 
Hindi, and Gujarat! are preferred. — F. W. T. 

xxvi outlines of jajn1sm 

Jaina History and Chronology 

Time is infinite ; but there are in it {eons (Icalpas) or 
cycles. Each geon has two eras : the avasarpini, or 
descending era, in which piety and truth, etc. (dharma) 
go on decreasing, until in the end chaos and confusion 
reign over the earth ; and the utsarpini, or ascending 
era, in which there is an ever-growing evolution of 
piety and truth, etc. Each of these two equal eras 
is subdivided into six ages (Icalas) of unequal length, 
which have their distino'irishin£ features fixed for them 
for ever. The six ages of the avasarpini (the present 
era) are : (1) sushama-sushamd, the period of great 
happiness ; (2) sushama, the age of happiness ; 
(3) sushama- duhshamd, the age of happiness and 
some misery ; (4) duhshama-sushamd, the age of 
misery and some happiness ; (5) duhshama, the age of 
misery (this is the particular period in which we are 
living ; we have passed through about 2,400 years of it) ; 
(6) duhshamd-duhshaTnd, the age of great misery. 
The six ages of the utsarpini have the same names, but 
they occur in the reverse order, duhshamd-duhshaTnd 
being the first age. Thus the first three ages of the 
avasarpini, and therefore also the last three ages of 
the utsarpini, are of enjoyment (bhoga-bhumi). In 
these men have their birth and live and die without 
trouble or cai - e. Everybody gets what he .wants 
from the wishing-trees (kalpa-vrikshas). This means 
that in the earliest periods of their existence men knew 
neither the arts and industries, nor the pastoral 
pursuits, nor agriculture, and that they kept bod} T and 


.soul together by a diet of fruits, roots, etc., wearing 
leaves and the bark of trees. It was in this way 
that the kalpa-vrikshas yielded food and clothing 
to the people of the bhoga-bhumi. The remaining 
three ages, however, are of Icarma-bhvimi, the age or 
land of work. In these men have to work for their 
subsistence in this life and also for their comforts and 
blessings in the life to come. It is in the first of these 
last three, or in the fourth age of the era : that twenty- 
four Tirthankaras, or guides, arose. By pursuing the 
Jaina course of life, as laymen and ascetics, they 
obtained perfect knowledge and absolute and eternal 
freedom from the bondage of karmas, which alone 
keep a man in samsara (cycle of existences); and they 
preached and published the Jaina religion to the world. 
The last of the Tlrthankaras in the fourth age of the 
current cycle was Vardhamana, otherwise Mahavira. 
He was born in 599 B.C., 1 in the family of a ruling 
Kshattriya chief of the Naya clan (hence in Buddhist 
books he is called Nata-putta, a son of the Natri, or 
Naya lineage), in the republic of Vaisali (modern North 
Behar), in the town of the same name (hence he is called 
also Vaisajika), at the site of the modern village of 
Besarh, about 27 miles north of Patna. After living 
with his family during twenty-eight years as a married 
man with a daughter, 2 a wife, a brother, and sister, 

1 Traditional date for the Svetambaras, the Digambara tradition 
working out at 00 years earlier. Professor Jacobi would place 
the death of Mahavira in 477 0' B.C. and adjust the other dates 

- According to the Digambaras Mahavira never married and was 
a celibate throughout his life. 


Vardhamana, who had been from the beginning of 
a reflective turn of mind, bade a final farewell to his 
home and kindred, and retired into the solitude of the 
forests, very likely the Maha-vana, which skirted the 
village of his birth on its northern side. There he 
meditated upon the misery which tilled the earth, and 
sought to discover the means to a permanent release 
from the grasp of this eternal and inevitable suffering. 
After fourteen years of asceticism Mahavira felt that 
he had solved the riddle of human misery, and was 
prepared to preach it to the world as Jainism. This 
he did during a wandering life extending over thirty 
years from 557 B.C. to the year of his nirvana, or final 
liberation, 527 B.C., 1 at Pava-puri in modern Behar. 
Pava-puri is a place of pilgrimage : it is reached from 
Bakhtiarpur, a station on the East Indian Railway. 
The country abounds in clumps of tall palm-trees, 
which stand prominent and majestic against a calm 
and mild sky. A small river, now dried up, called the 
Paimar, is in the middle of the road to Pava-puri. 
Crossing the Paimar, we come in sight of the Paficha 
Paharl, the five hills on the site of the ancient city of 
Raja-griha, which also is a resort of Jaina pilgrims 
visiting Pava-puri. About 3 miles from the Paimar 
the journey is ended, and we near the calm and 
beautiful temples which constitute Pava-puri. It is 
a small place, rendered attractive by its simple 
surroundings and its sacred traditions. There are 
several resting-houses for Jaina pilgrims, and about 
half a dozen temples erected by pious Svetambaras 

1 Traditional dates : see preceding page, note 1. 


and Digambaras. The pilgrims are of both sexes and 
are numerous, chiefly on the occasion of the Dewali, the 
day on which Lord Mahavira attained nirvana. This 
is the great Indian illumination feast, which falls early 
in winter. The pilgrimage continues till the end of 
March, when the attendance begins to decrease. The 
main temple, which contains the sacred footmarks of 
Mahavira, stands in the middle of a tank, covered with 
lotuses and other aquatic plants, and thronged with 
fishes of various kinds. The insulated temple of our 
last lord is reached by a bridge of stone. In the temple 
itself, in a low chamber facing the east, there are three 
niches. The central one, the largest of the three, 
contains the footmarks of Lord Mahavira ; the niche 
on the right of it those of his disciple and apostle 
Gautama ; and that on the left those of his other 
great apostle Sudharma Acharya. Both these saints 
flourished in the time .of Mahavira and attained 
nirvana within sixt}*-two years of his death at Pava. 

It is not long since in the west both the personality 
of Mahavira and the originality of his doctrine were 
denied. His personality was merged in that of his 
great contemporary and rival, Gautama Buddha. His 
doctrine was stated to be an offshoot of Buddhism, 
or a rebellious variety of Brahmanism. Both these 
errors of western savants have now been abjured. As to 
the historicity of Mahavira, Professor Guerinot, among 
others, has emphasized five great points of difference 
between Lord Mahavira and Gautama Buddha, relating 
to their birth, the deaths of their mothers, their 
renunciation, illumination, and death. To this may 


be added the actual testimony of the Buddhist scrip- 
tures, which refer to Nata-putta and the sect of 
Nirgranthas. This almost alone is enough to establish 
the individuality of Mahavira and his sect. 

As to the relative antiquity of Jainism and Buddhism, 
Jaina study is deeply indebted to Professor Jacob! . 
His introductions, in 1884 and 1894, to vols, xxii and 
xlv of the Sacred Boohs of the East historically proved 
that, if there was any borrowing between Jainism 
and Buddhism, it was not on the side of Jainism. 
Dr. Jacobi's researches ma}' be briefty summarized : 
for details reference must be made to his learned 
discussions. He lays down four distinct lines of 
evidence to prove the antiquity of Jainism: — 

1. References in old Buddhist books to well-known, 
acknowledged doctrines of Jaina theology, metaphysics, 
and ethics : for example — 

(1) A reference to cold water possessing a soul (i.e. to 
jivas, or souls, of the jala-kdya) in the commentary on 
the Brahmajala Sutta of the Digha Nilcaya. 

(2) A reference in the same work to the Jaina 
rejection of the Ajlvaka doctrine that the soul has 

(3) A reference in the Samanna-phala Sutta of the 
same Nilcaya to the four vows of Parsva-natha. This 
is of special importance, as showing that the Buddhists 
were also aware of the older tradition of the Jainas 
with regard to the time and teachings of Parsva- 

(4) A reference in the Majjhima Nilcaya (56) to the 
conversion of Upali, a lay disciple of Mahavira, after 


a dispute with the Buddha as to the comparative 
iniquity of the sins of the body and the mind. 

(5) A reference in the same work (56) to the three 
sorts of dandas, ' hurtful acts,' namely, of body, speech 

and mind, in which the Jainas believe. 

(6) In the Anguttara Nilcayd (iii, 74) Abhaya, a 
prince of the Lichchhavis >>i Vaisall, refers to the Jaina 
affirmation of ability to attain full knowledge and to 
annihilate kat^mas, old and new, by means of austerity. 

i 7 i A reference in the same NiJcdya (iii. 70. 3) to the 
Dig-virati vow and the Uposatha day. The Dig-virati 
vow is: :; I shall go only in certain fixed direction- 
to-day." Uposatha is keeping a fast in which the 
layman is supposed to be in his thought and behaviour 
like an ascetic. 

(8) In the Maha-vagga (vi, 31) Siha, the general of 
the Lichchhavis, and a lay disciple of Mahavira, goes, 
against his master's prohibition, to see the Buddha, 
and is converted by him on being taught the alcriyd- 
Vdda doctrine of Buddhism, which made him relinquish 
the Jaina doctrine of kriyd-vdda, inculcating a belief 
in soul, in the world, and in action (believed to be our 
own. either by our performing it, by our having it 
performed, or by our allowing it to be performed). 

2. Indirectly also the Buddhist records attest the 
importance and probable high antiquity of Jainism : — 

(1) They mention the Jainas (Nirgranthas) as 
the opponents and converts of Buddha, and never 
imply, much less assert, that they are a newly 
founded sect. 

(2) Makkhali Gosala divides mankind into six 


classes, of which the third is the Nirgranthas. A new 
sect could not have held such an important place in 
a division of mankind. 

(3) The Buddha had a dispute with Sachchaka, who 
w r as a non-Nirgrantha son of a Nirgrantha father. 
This also proves decisively that the Jainas were not 
an offshoot of Buddhism. 

3. The third line of evidence consists of the Jaina 
books themselves. There are no reasonable grounds 
for rejecting the recorded traditions of a numerous 
class of men, as being a tissue of meaningless fabri- 
cations. All the events and incidents relating to their 
antiquity are recorded so frequently and in such 
a matter-of-fact way that they cannot be properly 
rejected, unless under force of much stronger evidence 
than that adduced by scholars who are sceptical as to 
the antiquitj^ of Jainism. In the Uttaradhyayana Sutra 
(xxiii) an interview between Gautama and Kesin, the 
followers of Mahavlra and Parsva-natha respectively, 
is held in a garden : after a conversation carried on in 
more or less occult terms the two leaders recognize the 
fundamental unity of the doctrines of their respective 
teachers, and leave the garden fully convinced that 
they are workers in the same field. This again points 
to an older Jaina faith, which prevailed before the 
advent of Mahavlra and which was so vigorously 
reformed by him. 

4. The last line of evidence is the ancient character 
of Jaina philosophy, e.g. : — 

(1) The "animistic " beliefs of the Jainas. 

(2) The absence of the category of Quality in their 


enumeration of the principal constituent elements of 
the Universe. 

(3) The inclusion of dharma and adharma, the 
principles of motion and stationariness, in the class of 

From the above considerations Professor Jacobi 
concludes that Jainism was evolved at a very early 
period of Indo-Aryan history. It is evident that the 
.Taina creed has at least as many centuries as Buddhism 
between its present state and its origination. 

Thus we see that Mahavlra, a prince-ascetic of 
VaisalL breathed his last at Pava-puri in 527 B.C. after 
having- preached Jainism for thirty years in Northern 
India : also that he was not the founder, but only 
a reformer of a previously existing creed, whereof 
Parsva-natha was the head. Parsva-natha died in 
776 B.C. This is in accordance with Jaina tradition. 
Epigraphical evidence — chiefly the Mathura inscrip- 
tions dealt with by Dr. Fuhrer- — shows that there are 
dedications and offerings of a very ancient date made 
to Rishabha. Xow Jainism claims that it was founded 
by Rishabha many and many a long century ago. and 
that this first preacher was followed by twenty-three 
others, of whom Parsva-natha was the twenty-third. 
being followed by Mahavlra, the last Tirthankara, who 
attained nirvana 250 years after Parsva-natha. Thus 
historical research allows the beginning and confirms 
the conclusion of the sacred Jaina tradition. Its main 
tenour has yet to be verified. The next Jink" in the 
Jaina tradition is the historicity of Nemi-natha, who 
was a prince in Kathiavadh and flourished before 


Parsva-natha. He is said to have preceded Parsva-natha 
by 5,000 years. But Indian history before 827 B.C. 
is mostly a reconstruction Irv analogy ; and we need 
not pause to reject or defend the exact five millenniums 
which are said to separate Nemi-natha from the 
historical Parsva-natha. But the authenticity of his 
life need not be rejected without strong evidence. He 
was a prince born of the Yadava clan at Dwaraka, 
and he renounced the world, when about to be married 
to Princess Rajamati, daughter of the Chief Ugra-sena. 
When the marriage procession of Nemi-natha approached 
the bride's castle, lie heard the bleating and moaning 
of animals in a cattle pen. Upon inquiry he found 
that the animals were to be slaughtered for the guests, 
his own friends and party. (It must be remembered 
that he was a Kshattriya and that the Kshattriyas 
as a rule hunt and take meat ; although many of them 
renounce it altogether, and their women, even in modern 
India, do not partake of it.) Compassion surged up in 
the youthful breast of Nemi-natha, and the torture which 
his marriage would cause to so many dumb creatures 
laid bare before him the mockery of human civilization 
and its heartless selfishness. He flung away his 
princely ornaments, and repaired at once to the forest. 
The bride who had dedicated herself to him as a prince 
followed him also in his ascetic's life and became 
a nun. He attained nirvana at Mount Girnar, in 
the small state of Junagadh in Kathiawadh; and on 
the same lovel} 7 mountain Js shown a grotto where the 
chaste Rajamati breathed her last, not far from the 
feet of Nemi-natha. There is a romance and idealism 


in the lives of these two wonderful souls : bui the 
tradition is perfectly matter-of-fact, and there is no 
ground for rejecting it. As to the question of date, 
Nemi-natha was a cousin of Krishna, the Lord of the 
Bhagavad-gita, and the great guide and friend of Arjuna. 
Krishna, and his clan the Yadavas, are known to have 
been in Dwaraka, a maritime city not far from the 
seat of Nemi-natha's activity and nirvana. Scholarsof 
Hindu literature may be able to throw light upon the 
activity of Jainas or Nirganthas (or had they still a 
third name in Kathiawadh under Nemi-natha?) of about 
the time of the Maha-bharata. A little more confirma- 
tion of the plausible and uncontroverted Jaina tradition 
will be a great point gained, as it will push back the 
light of knowledge of Jaina history by at least 
a thousand or more years. 

As the last Tirtharikara, then, Mahavlra is the direct 
source of the existing Jaina sacred books. Mahavlra's 
speech is stated to have been intelligible to all — even 
to the animals and birds — who were present at his 
sermons. It is a noticeable fact that Jainism is 
perhaps the only religion said to have been expounded 
to all living creatures, all understanding in their several 
wav's the message of peace and freedom which it 
brought. To the absent, and to all who came after his 
nirvana, Mahavlra's chief disciples and apostles, the 
Gana-dharas, explained the truth of things in accordance 
with the Jina's speech. Up till now the faith was 
promulgated only by word of mouth and by tradition, 
of which memory was the chief repository and means 
•of continuance. The preceding Tirtharikaras are, it 


may be said in passing, credited with having taught 
the same articles ot* faith and practice as Mahavira. 
Only a sarva-jna, one who knows all, can fully under- 
stand the whole truth as expounded by Mahavira; and,. 
as men's capacity of becoming omniscient goes on 
decreasing, so the real tradition of Jainism also becomes 
every day dimmer and more and more inaccurately 
represented. The whole of Mahavira's teachings, 
when systematized, consisted of (I) twelve Angas, the 
last Aiiga, the Drishti-vada, being subdivided into 
(a) fourteen Purvas, (b) five Parikarmas, (c) Sutra,, 
(d) Prathamanuyoga, and (e) the five Chulilcas; and 
(2) the Anga-bahya Sruta. A brief account of these is 
given in Appendix V. 

After the nirvana of Mahavira in 527 B.C. the 
knowledge of the eleven Angas and fourteen Parvas was 
to a greater or lesser degree extant during 683 years, 
i.e. down to a.d. 156. 1 The tradition continued to 
disappear, and its history, as recorded in the Jaina 
Pattavalw, is as follows : During sixty-two years after 
Mahavira. i.e. until 465 B.C., three Kevalins, Gautama, 
Sudharma, and Jambu, were the propagators, and all 
these three attained nirvana, Jambu being the last in 
the present era. After these, during 100 years, 
i.e. until 365 B.C., five Sruti -kevalins, Vishnu-nandin, 
Nandi-mitra, Aparajita, Go-vardhana, and Bhadra-bahu, 
carried on the tradition. So far the different Pattavalls 
agree in dates and names, as well as in the number of 
Munis who flourished in the two periods. But hence- 
forward the different traditions divide the remaining 

' Concerning this and the following dates see note 1 on p. xxvii. 


521 years into different sub-periods and with different 
ascetics in them. But they generally agree in holding 
that the Sruti-kevalins were followed by the Dasa- 
Purvins, the Dasa-Purvins by the Ekadasa-Angins, and 
the Ekadasa-Angins by the minor or Catur-Arigins and 
Eka-Angins. After this all the Pattavalis agree that 
no one was left with the knowledge of even one Aiiga, 
as it was first preached by Mahavira and then explained 
to the world by his chief disciples, the Gana-dharas. 1 

In the time of Mahavira and the Kevalins writing 
was not employed to record the teachings of Jainism. 
Like the Brahmans, Buddhists, and others, the Jainas 
(they were called the Nigganthas or Nirgranthas) also 
had recourse to a highly trained memory for the 
preservation and propagation of their faith. But, as 
we have seen above, the knowledge of the Jaina 
scriptures was decaying generation after generation ; 
and in the fourth century B.C. the Jainas had also 
begun to split up into the Svetambaras and Digambaras. 
The Jaina Siddhanta was considered to be in imminent 
peril of being quite destroyed, if matters were left as 
they then were. Recourse was had to the art of 
writing, which for about four centuries had been 
progressing in the land. 

According to the Svetambaras, the Canon was 
reduced to fixity by the Council of Patali-putra 
(modern Patna, in Behar) near the end of the 
fourth century B.C. But its final form was due to 
the Council at Yalabhl, under the presidency of 

1 For the whole subject see Dr. Hoernle"s articles in Indian 
Antiquary, vol. xx. pp. 341 sqq. ; and vol. xxi. pp. 57 sqq. 

xxxviii OUTLINES OF jainism 

Devarddhi ganin, nearly eight hundred years later, about 
454 A.D. 1 Eighty-four works were now recognized : 
forty-one Sutras, thirty Painnas (or Praklrnakas, or 
unclassified works), twelve Niryuktis (or commentaries ), 
and one Mahabhdshya. The forty-one Sutras contain 
the eleven Aiigas (according to the Digambaras they are 
lost), twelve Upangas, five CJthedas, five Mains, and 
eight miscellaneous, of which one is the Kalpa Sutra 
of Bhadra-bahu, translated by Dr. Jacobi in the Sacred 
Books of the East, vol. xxii. 

The Digambaras seem to hold that their sacred 
books came to be written after the Vikrama year 114, 
or A.D. 57, when the almost total extinction of men 
learned in the Aiigas made it necessary to have the 
sacred lore reduced to writing. And then they took 
down, according to the remembered words spoken by 
Mahavira and the Kevalins who followed him, the 
scriptures relating to the seven tattvas, the nine 
paddrthas, the six dravyas, the five astilcdyas, the 
hells, the heavens, the siddha-kshetras, the madhya-loka 
with its many seas and continents, the jivas with their 
classes, and the eighty-four lakhs ( = 8,400,000) of 
conditions in the cycle of existences. 

As to the later history of these scriptures, the Jaina 
tradition proceeds to relate that they were sunk in 
boatfuls by Sarikara Acharya (A.D. 788-820) about 
the Vikrama year 846 (a.d. 789). Some of the books, 
however, were saved in Nepal in the North, in Sravana 
Belgola (Mysore), and in the Mewar country by pious 
Rajas and Maha-rajas. After Sarikara Acharya's death 
1 Professor Jacobi would correct this date to 514 a.d. 


and under more tolerant kings the followers of Jainism 
sought out these books and published them all over 
the country. These, then, are the direct originals of 
the man\' translations and commentaries which con- 
stitute the largest proportion of the books in the 
Jaina libraries attached to the temples or established 
apart. 1 

Thus it would seem that the Jaina Sastras are very- 
far from being the direct representatives of the 
teachings of the last Tlrthaiikara, whose word alone, 
according to them, is infallible and deserving of 
unquestioned faith. The above sketch of the vicissi- 
tudes of Jaina sacred literature is sufficient to make us- 
think twice before accepting the trite saying of Jaina 
pandits and others that the word of Kevalins must be 
taken as truth itself. Jainism claims to be eternal. 
But Jainism, or the spirit of Jainism, is not identical 
with the body of written Jainism, as it exists to-dav r . 
Twenty-four centuries have passed since Mahavira 

1 The division of the Jain community into the two seel- of 
Svetambaras, "White-robed,'* and Digambaras, "Sky-robed,"' i.e. 
naked, took place, according to their concurrent testimony, 609 years 
after Mahavira, i.e. about SO a.d. But in germ it existed as early 
as the time of the First Council. The points of difference are minor 
ones, the Digambaras holding that the Perfect Saint lives without 
food, that a monk should not own anything, even clothes, and thai 
salvation is not possible for a woman, for which last reason they do 
not admit of nuns. They also disown the canonical books of the 

Later divisions gave rise to various other sects, such as that of the 
Lm'ikas 1 1452 a.d.), which denounces idols, and that of the still 
somewhat numerous Sthanaka-cdsis, orDhundhias (165.3 a.d.), holding' 
the same view. Other sects, ancient and mediaeval, are mentioned 
in literary and epigraphical documents. 


taught his simple creed. And many minor points in 
Jainism will be found to be additions and excrescences 
upon the parent stock which was planted in the 
sixth century B.C. To my mind three doctrines of 
Jainism must be specially noted as being the basic 
principles of the faith. 

In theology, in addition to the beliefs in karma, 
reincarnation, etc., which Jainism held in common with 
other Indian religious and metaphysical systems, it 
boldly laid down the principle that man, by following 
the requisites of faith, knowledge, and conduct, can 
attain divinity ; that God is only the highest, the 
noblest, and the fullest manifestation of all the powers 
which lie latent in the soul of man. 

In philosophy Jainism holds the doctrine of many 
points of view. The universe may be studied in many 
aspects, and different view-points give rise to different 
statements and conclusions. As to details, the most 
important sections of Jaina philosophy deal with the 
three jewels, the seven tattvas, the nine padarthas, 
the six dravyas, and furnish a detailed description of 
the first tattva, soul, and of the last, nirvana, the souls 
final liberation. 

In ethics the first principle is aJtimsd, non-hurting of 
any kind of life, howsoever low may be the stage of its 

It is upon these three doctrines that the whole of 
Jainism is found mainly to rest. 

Chapter I.— THEOLOGY 

The fundamental principles of Jainism are these : — 

I. Man's personality is (hud, material and spiritual 
(1, 2 l ). The duality of the dead matter and the living 
principle which animates the human body is evident. 
There may be differences as to the nature of it ; but as 
to the fact of the duality there cannot be any question. 
This is in striking contrast with the Hindu doctrine of 
Brahman, or one soul which is all and in all. 

II. Man is not perfect. He can improve, i.e. he can 
advance in the direction of perfection. The human soul 
can attain perfection. In its perfect condition the soul 
enjoys its true and eternal character, whereof the 
characteristic is the four infinities : infinite perception 
or faith ; infinite knowledge ; infinite power ; and infinite 
bliss (3). 

The four infinities are respectively named: ananta- 
darsana, ananta-jndna, ananta-virya, and ananta- 

III. By Ids spiritual nature man can and must 
control his material nature. It is only after the entire 
subjugation of matter that the soul attains perfection, 
freedom, and happiness (4, 5). 

It is such a free and happy soul that is called Jina 
(Conqueror) or Tirthankara (Guide) (6). 

1 The thick numerals in brackets correspond to the order in which 
the original texts are numbered below. The texts are the authority 
for the statements in the Outlines. 


These free souls are of two kinds — ■ 

1. Disembodied and in nirvana at the summit of the 
Universe, steady and in bliss unending. These are called 
Siddhas (9). They are also distinguished into two 
kinds according as in their embodied condition they did 
or did not preach and propound the Truth. If they did, 
then in nirvana they are Urthankara-siddha (8). There 
have been twenty-four such in the current cyclic period, 
avasarpini (10). (See below, p. 15.) If they did 
not preach and propound the truth, they are samanya- 
s iddha. 

2. Embodied souls which have attained omniscience, 
but have not yet discarded the last vestments of human 
body. These are the Arhats (7). 

Both these classes have innumerable qualities, 
but eight of the first and forty-six of the second 
class are specially mentioned. (These are named in 
Appendix IV.) 

Besides the omniscient Arhats, there are sages, or 
human souls in a higher spiritual condition than other 
men : these are saints, sadhus or munis. They are 
distinguished into three classes — 

1. Acharya — the head of the saints. He has among 
others thirty-six qualities (11). Appendix IV. 

2. Upadhyaya. This is a teaching saint ; he has 
twenty-five qualities (12). Appendix IV. 

3. Sadhu. This is the saint or ascetic simply ; he 
has twenty-eight qualities (13). Appendix IV. 

The above five classes — siddha, arJtat, acharya , 
upadJtyaya, and sadhu — are called the pancha-'para- 
meshthin, or the five supreme ones, of Jainism. To these 


the most popular Jaina invocation is addressed millions 
of- times every day in India. It runs — 

Namo arahantdnam, namo siddhdnam, 
run/mo dyd r iyd n a n i, namo u vajjhd yd nam, 
namo loye sabbo -soli u nam. 
" I bow to the arhats, I bow to the siddhas, I bow to 
the dclidrya8, I bow to the upddhydyas, I bow to 
all the sadhus in the world." 
The repetition of these words is accompanied by 
bowing with folded hands in all four directions : east, 
north, west, and south. 

Four points must be noticed: (1) The catholicity of 
the Jaina attitude. The worship and reverence are 
given to all human souls worthy of it, in whatever 
country or clime they may be. (2) The worship is 
impersonal. It is the aggregate of the qualities that 
is. worshipped rather than any particular individual. 

(3) The arhat, the living embodiment of the highest 
goal of Jainism, is named before the free soul who has 
left the world and cannot be approached by humanity, 
which requires to see truth before it can seek it. 

(4) The Jaina incantation Aum or Om is composed of 
five sounds : a, a, a, u, and m, which stand respectively 
for arhat] asarvra = " disembodied ", i.e. the siddhas; 
dchdrya; upddhydya; and muni = the silent, or the 
sad /hi. 

IV. The last basic principle of Jainism is this: Man 
himself, and he alone, is responsible for all that is good 
or bad in his life (14, 15). 

Jainism, more than any other creed, gives absolute 
religious independence and freedom to man. Nothing 


■can intervene between the actions which we do and 
the fruits thereof. Once done, they become our 
masters and must fructify. As my independence 
is great, so my responsibility is coextensive with it. 
I can live as I like ; but my choice is irrevocable, and 
I cannot escape the consequences of it. This principle 
distinguishes Jainism from other religions, e.g. Christi- 
anity, Muhammadanism, Hinduism. No God, nor His 
prophet or deputy, or beloved, can interfere with 
human life. The soul, and it alone, is directly and 
necessarily responsible for all that it does. 

A tabular account of classes of souls in Jainism may 
now be given : — 

Souls are 

liberated and in nirvana 

or mundane, or entangled with matter 



Tirthankara- Sdmdnya- 
siddhas, siddhas, 

those who all other 
preached liberated 
Jainism souls, 

in their 





await their 

going to 

nirvana after 

shedding the 

kdrmana body. 



heads of teaching all other 

groups of saints or saints or 

ascetics. ascetics. ascetics. 

As compared with most other religions, it is important 
to notice that Jainism has a very definite and uncom- 
promising attitude towards the conception of God. It 
is accused of being atheistic. This is not so, because 
Jainism believes in Godhood and in innumerable gods ; 
but certainly Jainism is atheistic in not believing its 


gods to have created the Universe. Creation implies 
volition, a desire to create. A desire can only relate to 
some thing or fact which is not, but ought to be: therefore 
it implies imperfection. And God cannot be imperfect. 
This is the most common-sense argument against the 
theory of God as the creator of the universe. In 
a word, believers in the creation theory make God 
a man, bring him down to the level of need and imper- 
fection ; whereas Jainism raises man to Godhood and 
inspires him to reach as near Godhood as possible by 
steady faith, right perception, perfect knowledge, and, 
above all, a spotless life. 

In Jaina hagiology sixty-three persons are pre- 
eminently spiritual. They are — 
24 Ththarikaras. 
12 Chakravartins. 

9 Narayanas or Vasudevas. 

9 Prati-narayanas or Prati-vasudevas. 

9 Balabhadras. 

These are not all " saints", i.e. sadhus, but spiritually 
great souls. Besides these a few other important classes 
are recognized, e.g. — 
9 Xaradas. 

11 Rudras. 

24- Kamadevas. 

24 Fathers of the Tirthahkaras. 

24 Mothers of the Tirthahkaras. 

14 Kulakaras. 



It is impossible to deal with all the details of the 
lives of Jaina Tirthahkaras. A friend in India showed 
me a mammoth map, recording in tabular form sixty-four 
points concerning each of the twenty-four Tirtharikaras. 
I wonder if the map will ever be complete and 
published! I content myself with giving (in the 
folding Table annexed) after the name of each Tirthari- 
kara nine points concerning his life in the following 
order : his father's name ; his mother's name ; birth- 
place ; nakshatra, or the zodiacal sign of his birth ; 
his height ; his colour ; his age ; the number of his 
ganadharas, or apostles ; his place of nirvana ; the 
sign or emblem on his statues or images; and the 
interval between him and the next Tirthahkara. 


K)of purvas 

of pi'irras 

of y.ears 

Number of 


!ll ) 








Place oi 

Mount 1 

Mount J 
( = Samei 



ira, palya, are names of very high nu 


1 NambopTFrtdakkab; 

]. Rishabha or 
Adi-nfil ha 

_• \ |i{ 'i In 

;{. Sftinbluii-a-nulliii 

i abhinandana- 

ii.-.i I, .1 
". Samabi nntha 

6 Padmo i ih(i 

; SupursVn nntlin 

8 Chandra prubha' 
■ i dauta or 


Sltala-n Ltha 
3, Vimala-natlm 

1 \ i... Ill ., ho 

5. Dhurmn nathti 

I] Santi-iitttha 

7 K I, u niitlia 

s. Ara-nittha 

'.< Hall ha 

20 Muni-suvrata 

21 Nami-nutha 

3 : Ne ha 


-I Mahu virtu 


1 Thevatia 

Nabhi raja 

.III. ...■or i n 

Megha prabhn 

\ ishnu 
Vaeu pajya 
Siinha seno 

Sudai Sana 

K ha 


Niiniinlia \ ij:i\ ,. 

M:u udt- 
Vijiiyn -I 






\ ijayii [Jaya I 


Vapra [Vipra] 


Pi iya-karii 





Bliadriku pui I 

Biii ha-pui i 


K pilj .i 


Km na-pui i 

M- pura 



Kn iogra-nagara 
-.i Raja-griliu 

Mithila-pui i 

Saui E-puro oi 

l i barushadhii 








Pun Lshudha 




Knit ika 

Mounl Katlasn 


i square brack 

iinK jvetarabara bradition. 

95,000 ye 
. [Blue] 55 000 

Black wuli i c I. 

tinge of lotus i ed 
Blue 100 ,, 

(ioldon yellow 72 

I cubil ■ . 


9 lakhs ol 

M i Parasnatli 




< 'in leu 

IA i) 

K' 'I L - 

Si astika 

Spike he ided 

- of n'lv high nuinbei 8 1 c 

l'»l li'Uls III. 't 


Jaina pliilosophy is characterized as much by logic, 
comprehensiveness, and cogency as Jaina theology is by 
its simplicity, common-sense, and straightforwardness. 
The topics of Jaina Metaphysics may be arranged as 
follows : — 

i. The soul and the non-soul; ii. the kinds and qualities 
of soul; iii. substance and attributes; iv. the six 
.substances; v. the five magnitudes; vi. the karmas, or 
actions; vii. their kinds; viii. the seven principles ; ix. the 
nine pada/rthas (categories) ; x. the effect of karmas on 
the body and soul; xi. the live kinds of bodies; xii. the 
four forms of existence ; xiii. the six tints of the soul ; 
xiv. the stages in the evolution of the soul. 

In conclusion we give, xv, the Three Jewels of Jainism. 

I. Jivajiva : the Soul and the Xox-Soul 
There are two great categories: soul, jiva ; and non- 
soul, ajiva. The whole universe falls under this division, 
which is logically perfect ; it is division by dichotomy. 
The division is not the same as that into " the I and 
non-I " : the jiva class includes much of the non-I class. 
It is when we look upon the universe from the point of 
view of life or consciousness that we divide all things 
which it contains into living beings (jiva) and non- 
living beings (ajiva). The division into the I and 
non-I, or into self and non-self, helps us, however, to 
understand the division into jiva and ajiva, since 
" self" or " I " is the most immediate and ever-available 
kind of jiva that we can study, and one which from 
the earliest times we have been advised to stud}* (1). 


II. Kinds and Qualities of Soul 

Souls are of two kinds according to the bodies which 
they inhabit. 

A. Sthavara souls, literally "immobile" souls, but 
probably rather souls with hardly more than a kind 
of tactile perception. These are of five kinds — 

(1) Souls of mineral bodies, e.g. stones in a quarry, 
diamond or coal in a mine, etc. It includes only what 
has the capacity of growing. 

(2) Souls of water. Modern science has demonstrated 
the wonderful living organisms in a drop of water. 
It is interesting to remark how Jaina philosoph} T — 
in its way — divined this marvel of nature, and how 
more than two thousand years ago the Jainas preached 
and practised compassion towards these tiny and 
invisible fellow-beings of man by prohibiting an 
extravagant or careless use of water. 

(3) Souls of living beings in fire : the salamander of 
olden days is an illustration. 

(4) Souls of air : the air that we breathe is held to 
be full of little living creatures. 

(5) Souls in the vegetable kingdom : the recent 
researches of science, and, curiously enough, very much 
indebted to the exertions of an Indian scientist 
(Professor J. C. Bose, of Calcutta University), have 
demolished the hard and fast distinction between 
organic and inorganic biology. This is the result of 
experiments showing that plants live and grow and 
respond to human and other forces applied to them. 
Jainism has long credited plants, and, indeed, even 


minerals (as above), with the possession of a soul having 
consciousness of a very low order. 

B. The other class of souls is trasa, or mobile. The 
distinction is that the sthdvara soul cannot move at its 
own will, while the trasa to a greater or lesser extent 
can. The trasa souls have sense-organs, and are 
classified accordingly into four classes: namely, into 

(1) those which have two senses, of touch and taste : 

(2) those which have three senses, i.e. of smell also : 

(3) those which have four senses, i.e. of sight also ; 

(4) those which have five senses, i.e. hearing also (2). 
Nine qualities of the soul are given (5); but the chief 

of them is consciousness (or chetand). Jiva is that 
which lives, whether a worm, an ant, a rose, a nightin- 
gale, a horse, or a man. It is capable of seeing and 
knowing all, and it desires happiness and avoids pain. 
Of the mundane form of body and soul the soul is the 
higher, and the only responsible, partner. Or rather the 
bod}', except in the drag of its dead inertia, is merely 
the sleeping partner (3). The powers of the soul are 
limitless, as we have seen in theology. The whole 
universe is its scope. Its knowledge and perception 
cover all ; its happiness is not measured by time, 
because time cannot run beyond it; and its power is 
divine, because it is joined to omniscience. This oreat 
principle of Jainism, this little "I ", which is the ever- 
agitated centre of our brief lives, is eternal. Matter 
may capture it, keep it back from its light and 
freedom and bliss ; but matter cannot kill it. Jainism 
exposes the hollowness of death. The string of life is 
continuous ; the migrations are only knots in it. Or 


life is a journey on a long line of railway; we stop at 
different stations, the soul looks out of the carriage 
window, long at one station, a mere glance at another, 
attentively and interestedly at one group of men and 
things, carelessly and casually at another. The six to 
ten decades of time are not the span of all our lives. 
An unremembered aeon preceded the moment when the 
mother brought us into the world ; and an endless, 
unknown road lies before the soul when the janitor of 
death turns the key and we enter, not the limited hall 
of Yama or Mors, but those free fields, for the journey 
across which these six to ten decades are our time of 
preparation ! The soul is immaterial, of course; it has 
neither touch, nor taste, nor smell, nor colour. It is 
the essence of wisdom and power, and eternally happ} T . 
Who will gauge its possibilities ? It is a king in rags. 
It has faint memories of the richness and glory and 
power that were its own. But the rags are tangible, 
and make it feel incredulous of ever having been 
a king. "How can I be a king and in rags? No 
one would allow that." Long accustomed to nothing 
but pain and limitations, the human soul is sceptical 
about its power and bliss. The hurry of modern 
civilization, the proud materialism of science, and the 
brilliant applications of inventions and discoveries 
to the creature comforts of man are feeding this 
scepticism. These things are not against religion : 
the}' make material life easier, brighter. But they go 
beyond their province in trying to scoff or laugh out of 
existence the non-material aspect of human life. It 
is the beautiful and well-dressed maid becoming 


impertinent to the good mistress who brought her up 
and allowed her to dress well and develop her charms. 

III. Substance and Attributes 
Let us see what we mean by dravya, which is the 
generic name for soul, matter, time, and space, and the 
principles of motion and stationariness. A dravya 
exists in its own nature, and has its own attributes and 
modifications (7). It has what is technical^ called 
sattd. This sattd connotes three accidents: utpada, 
coming into existence, or origination ; vyaya, going out 
of existence, or perishing; and dhrauvya, continuous 
sameness of existence, or continuance. The utpada and 
vyaya relate to modifications (paryaya) of substances ; 
dhrauvya relates to its inner nature, to its essential 
attributes. SoxA-dravya exists, or has sattd, which 
means that the soul exists with its soul-ness, and with 
its qualities and modifications. These qualities may 
refer to its essential nature, e.g. that the soul has con- 
sciousness ; or to its transitory condition, to its paryaya, 
e.g. that the soul of Mahavlra is the most white of all 
(see lesyds below, pp. 45-7). The soul's sattd, in the 
utpada and vyaya aspects, relates to its embodied con- 
dition in samsdra. It comes into existence and goes out 
of it, as A or B. But as soul itself, it has continuous 
existence throughout time : it is the same soul now as 
when it animated the body called A or B. Before our 
birth, in our life and after death, until our highest 
evolution, the soul remains the same individual. This 
is the dhrauvya aspect of the soul's sattd. 

The important matter is this : birth or death (utpada, 


and vyaya) are of a condition of a dravya. The 
dravya is uncreated and indestructible; its essential 
qualities remain the same (dhrauvya) ; it is only its 
parydya, or condition, that can, and does, change. And 
it is logically necessary from the first position taken 
up by Jainism : namely, that substances and attributes 
are distinguishable, but not distinct. The attributes 
are not all fixed ; they come and go (utpdda, vyaya) ; 
but the substance remains (dhrauvya). 

As to the threefold consideration under substance, 
attribute, and condition or modification, in the light of 
satta substance is dhrauvya, the modification or con- 
dition is utpdda and vyaya, and the attributes are 
partly one and partly the other. Substance, even in 
its dhrauvya aspect, is only a sum-total of eternally 
existing attributes, e.g., the soul is consciousness, matter 
is non-consciousness, and space is the capacity of giving 
place to substances. Thus the attributes of conscious- 
ness, etc., are dhrauvya. But the conditions of sub- 
stances are also the sum-total of attributes which attach 
to the substances and then leave them. The soul in the 
condition called A had certain attributes as A, e.g., name, 
size, colour, nationality, character, religious tendency, 
scholarship, etc. ; all these attributes attached to it at 
some time, at its birth or after, and then ceased at 
its death. These attributes come under the utpdda 
and vyaya of the condition or modification of the soul 
called A. The other dravyas, besides soul, may in the 
same way be considered with reference to satta and with 
reference to substance, modification, and attributes (8 9). 
Let us deal with the six separately. 


IV. The Six Substances 
The Soul 
This is the only knowing substance ; its essential 
characteristic is consciousness. The other substances, 
matter, time, space, and principles of motion and 
stationariness, are devoid of consciousness (10). I know, 
the table does not know; the pen with which I am 
writing is not conscious of my using it or of its 
existence. The month and date of my writing are not 
conscious, nor are the principles or forces which make 
it possible for me to stand up or sit down. Matter, 
time, dharma and adharma, and space are devoid of 
consciousness. But of these, matter, soul, and time are 
innumerable; whereas dharma and adharma and 
space are only one each. 

Matter (11) 

That which has not consciousness, but can be touched, 
tasted, seen, and smelled is matter. Things enjoyable 
by the senses, the five senses themselves, the body, the 
mind, the karmas, and all other material objects are 
called pudgala, or matter. This will be dealt with 
more fully under astiJcdyas, or magnitudes. 

Of course material objects are innumerable. 

Dharma (12) 
This is devoid of taste, touch, smell, sound, and colour, 
and is conterminous with the universe (loka). It is the 
principle of motion ; the accompanying circumstance 
or cause which makes motion possible, like water to 
moving fish. The water is a passive condition or 


circumstance of the movement of a fish, i.e. it is 
indifferent or passive (uddsina) and not active or 
solicitous (preraka) cause. The water cannot compel 
a fish at rest to move ; but, if the fish wants to move, 
water is then the necessary help to its motion. 
Dkarma cannot make soul or matter move ; but, if they 
are to move, they cannot do so without the presence of 
dharma. Hence it is that at the end of the loka or 
universe, there being no dharma, the soul which, urged 
by its natural tendency to move upward, has risen 
to the siddha-sild, or the place of liberated souls, attains 
perfect rest. It cannot move, because there is not the 
necessary motion-element, dharma. 

DJtarma is one only, like adharma and space, and 
unlike soul, matter, and time, which are innumerable. 

Adharma (13) 

This is the opposite of dharma, equally coeval and 
conterminous with the universe. It is also an indifferent 
or passive cause of stationariness ; like the earth to 
falling bodies. Its nature and substance are the same 
as those of dharma. It is immaterial, and one. 

Space (14) 

This is what gives to all souls and to all other 
substances their places in the universe. 

Like dharma and adltarma, space is one only. 

Space includes our universe and beyond. The 
universe is loka, and the beyond is aloha. The five 
substances, dharma, adharma, soul, matter, and time, 
are found in the universe only. 

metaphysics: IV. the six substances 15 

Time (15-18) 

That which is the cause or circumstance of the 
modification of soul and other dravyas is time: it 
is immaterial, and is the necessary element in our 
dealings with other dravyas. It is without taste, 
colour, smell, or touch. It has only its own attributes, 
and the peculiar attribute of helping the modification 
of the other substances. Like the souls and matter, 
it is innumerable. 

The two divisions of time into avasarpini and 
utsarpinl eras, and the six ages of each, have been 
noticed above in the Introduction. In practice time is 
divided as follows : — ■ 

samaya is the unit of time ; its measure is the time 
taken by a unit of matter in going from one unit of 
space to the next unit of space with slow motion. 

iiimisha, time taken in raising the eyelid. It 
consists of innumerable samayas. 

kashtha = 15 ni m ishas. 

kala = 20 Jcdshthas. 

nali or <jhafl= 20 leal as and a little over. 

m n h u Ha = 2 ghatis. 

ahordtra (day and night) = 30 muhiirtas. 

mdsa (month) = 30 days. 

ritu = 2 months. 

ayana = 6 months or 3 ritus. 

samvatsara (year) = 2 ayanas (16). 

V. The Five Astikayas (Magnitudes) (19-32) 

Jaina philosophy really starts with a perfect division 
of the universe into living and non-living existences,. 


jiva and ajiva. But the contents of this division are 
arranged and considered in two more ways. Ajiva 
being sub-classified into matter, space, time, dharma, 
and adharma, we get the six dravyas, substances, of 
Jainism. These six are then considered as having or 
not having constituent parts (pradesas). From this 
point of view time is the only continuous substance 
which does not consist of many i^radesas, like our 
bodies. A pradesa is an infinitesimal unit of space ; 
kdya (or body) is the technical name given to a thing 
which has pradesas. Time has only one pradesa ; 
therefore time has not kdya, is not an astilcaya, or 
a magnitude. The other five are astikdyas (19-21). 
These astikdyas are uncreated ; they have the quality 
of sattd or the characteristic of modifying their con- 
dition and continuing their substratum (utpdda, vyaya, 
and dhrauvya) (22). They are also the constituent 
elements of the Universe(24). They are called astikdyas, 
because they have sattd and are therefore asti ; and 
because they have many pradesas and are therefore 
kdya (20). Dharma and adliarma have innumerable 
pradesas (units of space). Matter has pradesas which 
may be numerable, innumerable, or infinite. Thus, a mole- 
cule (or skandha) may be numbered as to its atoms. 
But some masses cannot be numbered as to their 
atoms, e.g. a mountain. Some other skandhas may 
contain an infinite number of atoms, as an ocean, the 
world. Space has infinite pradesas. But the soul has 
innumerable pradesas (22-3). 

The soul, space, dharma, and adharma are immaterial 
(a hi \Rrtika), unbreakable, and cannot be said to have 


parts. The soul has great elasticity : it can expand, 
if need be, and fill the whole universe. But its pradesas 
cannot be divided. 

The Soul (5, 30-1) 

The soul, we remember, is either liberated (siddha) 
or mundane. The mundane soul is in combination with 
karmic matter. We are not perfect : we can improve. 
These two facts are the cogent indications of the 
capacity of the human soul to evolve. Evidently it is 
in an impure state, and the cause of impurity is not 
far to seek : the gross body speaks for the demand of 
dead matter on the living man. What, then, is the 
pure soul ( Every soul is potentially pure. Matter is 
only a cruel parasite, an unclean veil. The soul is 
ever all-perfect, all-powerful. By ignorance it identifies 
itself with matter, and hence all its troubles and 
degradation. In its pure condition it has four enjoy- 
ments : those of perfect perception, perfect knowledge, 
infinite power, and infinite bliss. 

In the impure state nine properties of the soul may 
be mentioned — 

1. It lived in the past, is living now. and shall live 
for ever. 

2. It has perception and knowledge. 

3. It is immaterial, i.e. has no touch, taste, smell, 
or colour. 

4. It is the only responsible agent of all its actions. 

5. It completely fills the body which it occupies, 
e.g. that of an ant or an elephant (30-1). 

6. It enjoys the fruits of all its karmas. 



7. It wanders in samsdra. 

8. It can become in its perfect condition siddha. 

9. It goes upward. 

The cause of its impurity being karmic matter, the 
nine qualities may, more or less, be derived as con- 
sequences of this eternal combination of life and 
lifelessness. The soul is a dravya ; therefore, like every 
other dravya, it is eternal. Its peculiar attributes are 
perception and knowledge. It is, of course, different 
from karma, or matter ; therefore it must be immaterial. 
It has identified itself with matter; therefore it 
assumes a body, which it must fit. It is responsible 
for its Jcarmas, because it has the power to get rid of 
them all. It must reap the harvest of all seeds that it 
has sown ; and therefore must remain in the field of 
samsdra, or cycle of existences. And still all these 
evils are self-assumed ; and in its pure condition the 
soul is siddha (5). 

To get at even a working conception of our innermost 
nature is as difficult to-day as when the philosopher 
taught his pupils, " Know thyself." After all, there 
is a good deal of truth in the saying " After me the 
deluge ". Nothing can interest me, unless it directly 
or indirectly relates to me, to the " I ". This " I " is for 
me the centre of all life and of all theories and ideals 
of life. 

In the Introduction (p. xvii) we have seen the first 
great question of philosophy and theology to be : 
" What am I ? What is this soul?" The duality of 
matter and life is evident, except perhaps to the 
extreme monism of materialism or idealism, which, 


in Hume's phrase, may be said to be " subversive of 
all speculation". Thus the soul is this life only when 
identified with a particular individuality. Jainism 

here steps in to elaborate the characteristics of this 
spiritual man within the man of flesh. 

In every man, every living being, a demand for 
happiness and aversion to pain or trouble is the first 
universal feature of life. Jainism seizes this as the 
most important characteristicof soul. It seeks happiness. 
It seeks this, because it has it not. To science soul or 
life is only a mysterious something that lurks behind 
the marvel of matter. To Jainism and to all religions 
this is an incomplete account of reality : the soul is as 
real as matter itself. The body is rough and gross : 
it is fit only for the struggle with its own kin — matter. 
The soul is subtle and refined, not meant for struggle 
with matter : it is what feels pain and pleasure. The 
senses and the mind bear messages to it. It is the 
entity between which and the phenomena of life the 
body is the visible link. It is the something which 
still feels discontented when the body and even the 
mind have found all that they want. It is a more 
inner principle of life than even mind. It is that 
which has the instinct of peace and bliss. Despite all 
our pangs and sorrows we still hope for the best. This 
unkillable hope is the faintest index to the eternal bliss 
which is an ever-present characteristic of soul. The 
hurry and competition of life soon tire us. This is due 
neither to laziness nor to love of weakness. It is only 
the germ of compassion which is the soul of man. It 
is the pursuit of peace, of undisturbable tranquillity, 


that is a great feature of the soul in its pure condition. 
The peace and bliss are the twin goals aimed at by the 
soul. They cannot be everlasting, unless based on 
deep, detailed, and well-digested knowledge. Perception 
and conviction are conditions of perfect knowledge. 
Thus perception, knowledge, peace, and bliss are the great 
characteristics of soul. In combination they imply an 
enormous power in the fully evolved soul. Thus we 
come once more to the Infinite Quaternary (ananta- 
chatushtaya) of Jainism. (Theology, p. 1 supra.) 

The doctrine of soul is not in the Jaina view a mere 
matter of faith, it is a matter of observation and 
common-sense. If people shut their eyes to the noon- 
day sun and go on asking : " Where is the sun, we can't 
see it. There is no sun," there is no remedy ; they 
cannot see the light. By shutting one's eyes to facts, 
or explaining them away, if they oppose our pet 
theory or scepticism, we cannot kill facts, although 
truth is shut out, in part or wholly. I try to make this 
clear, as Jainism cannot be properly understood and 
followed, unless we believe in a soul and clearly realize 
our belief and analyse in details the meaning thereof. 

Matter (Pudgala) (11, 25-9) 

Wedded to the soul is the great lifeless substance 
of matter. Whereas the soul's qualities are life, 
consciousness, knowledge, perception, peace, bliss, and 
power, matter has for its characteristics lifelessness (6), 
touch, taste, smell, and colour (25). 

The distinction of matter into atoms (anu) and mole- 
cules (skandha) has been known to Jainism for centuries. 

metaphysics: v. the five magnitudes 21 

" In an atom there is only one pradesa (or unit of space)" : 
so says the Bravyasamgrahou-gaiha 26 (27). But, as 
atoms unite, they become a molecule. The finest kind 
of matter is that of the karmas, forming the karmic 
body, which always attends the soul and is the last 
to be discarded before the entry into the region of 
liberated souls. A group of karmic atoms is technically 
called a karma-vargand (28). 

Science recognizes three conditions of matter: solid, 
liquid, and gaseous. Jainism recognizes six con- 
ditions — ■ 

1. Gross-gross, or very gross matter ( = solid), e.g. a 
mountain, a pillar of iron, etc. This class of matter, 
when divided, cannot be united without the use of 
a third something ; 

2. Gross ( = liquid), e.g. water, oil, etc. On division 
this can be united without the intervention of a third 
thing ; 

3. Gross-fine, e.g. shade, sunshine. It is interesting 
to compare this with the corpuscular theory of light in 
Western physics, before it was replaced by the modern 
wave-theory of Huygens. It is matter which looks 
gross or tangible, but cannot be grasped ; 

4. Fine-gross, e.g. fragrance, sound, sweetness, etc.; 
the distinction between this and gross-fine being that 
gross- fine is more gross than fine, because it can be seen 
as light, shade, etc. ; whereas fine-gross cannot be seen, 
although its origin may be gross. The gases of science 
would be fine-gross. Fine-gross includes all things that 
may be perceived by the senses of touch, taste, smell, 
or sound ; 


5. Fine : matter capable of becoming karmic matter. 
It cannot be perceived by the senses (28) ; 

6. Fine-fine : still finer molecules, in the karmic 
body, which is the finest. Fine-fine matter has for its 
atoms the combination of two or more ultimate atoms 
(paramanu). (According to some it is the ultimate 
atom itself.) 

Space (Akdsa) (14) 

Things in the universe occupy each some place. That 
which gives things their places is space. 

Space has two divisions : (1) the universe (loka), (2) the 
non-universe or the beyond {aloha). 

In the universe all the six dravyas (magnitudes and 
substances), soul, matter, space, time, principles of 
motion and stationariness, find their places. In the 
aloha there is only endless space. 

In the universe also, which is in the form of a human 
body standing akimbo, there is only a small portion of 
space occupied by living beings. Of these, again, onlj* 
a small part form the miserable and active mankind, 
which inhabits the madJiya-loha. (See under Cosmology, 
Appendix II.) 

Principles of Motion (Dharma) and Stationariness 
(Adharma) (12-13, 32) 
This and the next substance are the greatest 
peculiarity of Jainism. There is no other system, 
religious or speculative, which has anything corre- 
sponding to the Jaina dharma and adharma. These 
must be considered in some little detail. 


The term dharma is used in many senses. In Indian 
philosophy it meant "property ", " quality'", "character- 
istic ", and in theology " duty ", specially religious duty, 
and thus religion itself. In modern times it popularly 
means " religion ", and sometimes the " highest duty " 
of a man or a community. Originally it meant "rule", 
" law " also, as in dharma-sastras, "law-books" ; but now 
this use is obsolete, except in that phrase. Dharma is 
also used as equivalent to piety ; a dharmdtman is a man 
who is pious, good, benevolent. Further, dharma means 
meritorious deeds ; as so-and-so has done a work of 
dharma, e.g. by feeding or clothing the poor, by building 
a temple, etc., etc. 

This variety of uses has had a confusing effect upon 
all. Jaina philosophy has suffered especially. The 
technical and peculiar sense in which dharma and 
adharma are employed in Jaina metaphysics is some- 
times entirely missed, even by leading Orientalists : 
e.g., in Dr. Guerinot's excellent Essai de Bibliographie 
Jaina, at pp. xvii and xviii, we read : " D'autre part 
Vajiva, qui se subdivise en cinq especes : 

1"' Le dharma, la loi religieuse, le merite, la droite 

2° TJadharma, ou principe contraire au precedent, 
soit le demerite, le peche." 

The universe is divided into jiva and ajiva. " Ajlva 
is subdivided into five species: (1) dliarma, religious 
law, merit, right conduct ; (2) adharma, or the principle 
contrary to the preceding, say, demerit, sin." 


Here the meaning of the terms dharma and adJtarma 
in Jaina philosophy is quite misconceived. The popular 
and modern connotation of the terms is certainly most 
misleading. These facts are significant. Why should 
the Jainas adopt such misleading terms for their 
peculiar doctrines ? If the term dharma had been 
fixed as signifying even law or merit when the 
Jaina doctrine arose, it is impossible to see why 
Jainism should adopt it as meaning the principle of 
motion. A better suggestion is that dharma, in its 
technical Jaina sense, must have been used before the 
meaning of it as law and merit was fixed. This is 
another indication of both the great antiquity and 
genuineness of the Jaina system, and must be added to 
Professor Jacobi's classical lines of evidence set forth 
in the Introduction. 

To come to the usage of the two terms, an ancient 
text says : " dharma is devoid of taste, colour, smell, 
sound, and touch, is conterminous with loka (the 
universe), is unbreakable or indivisible, is all-pervading 
by its nature, and has innumerable pradesas (or units 
of space) " (12). 

It is well to remember that astikaya, = magnitude, 
does not mean material something. There are five 
astikayas — matter, time, space, dharma, and adharma. 
And of these only one, pudgala, is matter, i.e. capable 
of touch, taste, smell, and colour (25). All the other 
as/ikdi/as are devoid of these four distinguishing 
attributes of matter. The five astikayas, or along with 
jiva (soul) the six dravyas, all exist eternally. They 
cannot be destroyed ; they were never created. They are 


independent of one another, except of course that in 
a sort of neighbour]}' contact or conflict they keep the 
universe going. They are not ignorant of the principle 
of division of labour. Matter goes to struggle with the 
unwary or infatuated soul ; time times the conflict ; 
space makes possible the arena ; dharma helps the 
combatants to struggle on ; and adJtarma assists them 
when they are inclined to rest. This is the whole 
struggle for existence. This is the genesis, the evolution, 
and the destiny of the universe. It cannot be changed, 
it cannot be stopped. The soul seeks to act, to move 
itself or matter, and dharma, which is omnipresent in 
the univei*se, is ever-ready to assist it to move itself or 
its adversary matter. If the soul seeks to cease moving, 
or matter loses its grip and drops down inactive in the 
form of a matured and fallen-off karma, there is 
adharma to help the soul and matter to cease work and 
to be in a condition of stationariness. Accordingly 
dharma-dravya is eternal, indestructible, the essential 
circumstance for all moving bodies, and itself the 
product of the activity of none (12). 

Itis noticeable, too,that the most in.portantmagnitudes 
and substances are two : soul and matter. The other 
four are a sort of setting to these two. Space and 
time are the necessary conditions to make the drama 
visible to knowledge; dharma and adharma are the 
necessary conditions of its continuance in its endless 
vicissitudes, merit and demerit, high and low, happi- 
ness and misery, as far as disturbance and tranquillity. 
Of course, dharma and adharma are in their nature 
and modus operandi the same (13). It is the same 


sword in the hand of a devoted soldier or a fanatic 

Finally, dharma and adharma are everywhere in 
the universe. Beyond the universe they are not: there 
is only empty space, extending on all sides in its 
undisturbed, eternal void and eternal unchangeableness. 

VI. Karma 

The two most important substances are soul and 
matter, as the two real categories are soul and 
non-soul, matter being only one of the five classes 
which make up non-soul. Soul is living, matter is 
not. The union of the two cannot conduce to freedom, 
perfection, or peace. The mind desires to pursue 
a train of thought or action ; the body obeys up to 
a certain point, then refuses to work further. The 
mind is impotent to goad it on ; and is pained at being 
so dependency mated to a partner of such grossness and 
limitations. This is a matter of everyday experience. 

Matter is without consciousness : soul is conscious. 
Matter has no choice but to be moulded by the soul. 
The connexion of soul and matter is material ; and it 
is effected by the soul's activity. The bondage is called 
karma, since it is the karma or deed of the soul. It is 
material, forming a subtle bond of extremely refined 
karmic matter which keeps the soul from flying up to 
its natural abode of full knowledge and everlasting 

VII. Kinds of Karma (33-5) 

In this last-mentioned condition the soul, we 
remember (pp. 1, 20 supra), has four great attributes: 


perfect perception of, and faith in, the reality of things ; 
perfect knowledge; perfect power; and perfect happi- 
ness. Karmic matter keeps the soul from the realization 
of this fourfold greatness, obscuring its perception and 
knowledge, obstructing its progress and success, and 
disturbing the equanimity of its existence. It is there- 
fore called the four ghatiya or destructive karmas. 
Their names are — 

jiidndvaraiiiya, or knowledge-obscuring karma ; 
darsandvaraniya, or faith-obscuring or perception- 
obscuring karma ; 
antardya, that which hinders or obstructs the 

progress or success of the soul ; 

mohaniya, that which infatuates or deludes the 

soul (or makes it lose equilibrium of thought and 


These destructive karmas retain the soul in mundane 

existence, the character of which is conditioned by 

another quartet of karmas, the latter not destructive, 

but determining merely the body and the environments 

in which the mundane soul must exist. They are called 

ar/hatiya, or non-destructive, karmas. Their names are — 

dyus, the karma which determines the duration 

of our lives or other conditions ; 
ndma, that which determines the character of our 
individuality, i.e. our body, height, size, 
colour, etc. ; 
gotra, that which determines our family, nation- 
ality, etc. ; 
vedaniya, that which gives pleasure or pain in 
mundane life. 


This division of Jcarmas is neither arbitrary nor 
fantastic : it is based upon everyday observation and 
experience, and it is necessary. In Jainism every 
effect has a cause. The obvious differences in people's 
conditions are not for nothing : they are the effects of 
some cause. Three possible causes suggest themselves : 
(1) a personal God, who for some mysterious reasons of 
His own, or for His whim merely, brings about these 
differences in mankind ; (2) the constitution and modi- 
fication of matter itself ; (3) the soul. A personal God 
has no place in Jainism : He is not needed. Matter 
is dead, inert, and cannot be the responsible agent 
of these differences. There remains, therefore, the 
conscious soul, which by its actions (icarmas) is 
responsible for the changes in our status of life, etc. 
Once this position is realized, the classification of 
Jcarmas is readily understood. 

Connected with the idea of karma is the famous 
doctrine of incarnation or transmigration of souls. 
Much unnecessary difficulty is raised about this. 
There are two aspects of it. In one the very existence 
of the soul is denied ; and to this Jainism has nothing 
to say. In the other the soul is believed to exist, but 
its full possibilities are not considered. Simplicity is 
gained at the expense of exactness and truth. The 
soul's life is cut up into two sharp and arbitrary 
divisions : this life and the life beyond until eternity. 
Man sows here, and he reaps here and in the existence 
after death, in hell or in heaven, till the day of 
judgment. This is the Muhammadan and Christian 
doctrine. The reward and forgiveness are also dependent 


upon the will of God, wlio may be guided b}^ what 
His beloved Muhammad or His Son Christ may interpose. 
To Jainism this simple and anthropomorphic doctrine 
seems unsatisfactory. There is double intermediation 
and arbitrariness in it ; a sinful life can be purged of 
its bitterness and sorrow by the simple intermediation 
of Christ or Muhammad ; and the working of the divine 
law is arbitrary, for no one can know the results of his 
actions till the Day of Judgment is over ! Jainism 
denies both intermediation and forgiveness ; of what 
we have done we must bear the consequences. It is 
not fate, nor even predestination ; but it is the ever 
continuous balancing of the different accounts that we 
keep with the forces of life. There can be no mistake, 
no suppression, and no evasion. The credit and the 
debit side go on automatically ; and whatever is due 
to us is paid us ungrudgingly and without demand. 
The continuity cannot be broken by change of house : 
the debts of London are not extinguished by going to 
Berlin ; nor is liquidation suspended till the Day of 
Judgment. The karmas are not extinguished simply 
because we give up the body called A. When we are 
dead as A, the karmas must still bear full fruits. The 
karmas constitute the karmic body ; and it drags us 
into another state of being, it maybe the ethereal 
structure of a god's luminous and plastic embodiment, 
or the grosser and limited frame of a human or a sub- 
human being. The last day of Jainism is the day 
when the last karma falls off; matter bids good-bye to 
the soul, and the jiva enters nirvana. It is a day of 
perfect calm, of serene being, of everlasting happiness. 


By the experiences and sufferings of innumerable lives 
every error, every weakness has been detected, outlived, 
and purged ; in the light of samyag-jndna the substances 
shine forth transparent and mysteryless in their eternal 
attributes, and their power to fascinate is exposed as 
the child of infatuation and ignorance. Reincarnation, 
then, instead of being an evil or a terror, is the necessary 
principle of enabling the soul to go on rectifying its 
errors and realizing its powers and purposes in life. 
Karma stands to reincarnation as cause to effect. 

The eight varieties of this cause have been given 
above. There are four points of view from which the 
bondage of soul by matter may be considered : from 
the nature of the bondage (prakriti) — of this there are 
eight kinds, as given above ; from its duration (sthiti) ; 
from the intensity with which the karmic matter binds 
the soul (anubhaga) ; and from the number of particles 
or quantity of matter attaching to the soul (pradesa). 
Sthiti may be said to be karma considered with 
reference to time ; anubhaga, with reference to space ; 
pradesa, with reference to matter ; and prakriti with 
reference to soul. 

The eight kinds of /carinas from the prakriti point 
of view are subdivided into 148 main classes called 
the " 148 prakritis " of karmas. They are as 
follows : — 

I. Jnanavaraniya : jndna, knowledge, is of five kinds 
(see pp. 59-60), and so also the knowledge-obscuring 
karmas are of five kinds according as they obscure 
(1) mati, (2) sruti, (3) avadhi, (4) manahparydya, 
or (5) kevala jndna. 


II. Darsandvaranlya, faith-obscuring or perception- 
obscuring karmas, are of nine kinds — 

chaksltur-darsartdvaraniya, that which obscures the 

physical sight, which is perception by means of 

the eyes ; 
acliakshur-darsandvaranvya, that which obscures 

other kinds of perception ; 
avadhi-darsandvaraniya, that which obscures per- 
ception of the past; 
kevala-darsandvaraniya, that which obscures full 

perception ; 
nidrd-vedaniya, that condition of sleepiness which 

obscures perception ; 
nidrdnidrd-vedaniya, condition of heavy sleep which 

obscures perception ; 
p rachald-vedaniya, condition of restless sleep which 

obscures perception ; 
prachalaprachald-vedaniya, condition in which sleep 

is very restless and which obscures perception ; 
stydnagrddhi-vedaniya, somnambulistic condition, 

in which there is hardly any perception of the 

acts done. 

III. Of the obstructing (antardya) karmas there are 
five kinds — 

ddna-antardya, that class of karmas, which obstructs 
charity ; 

labha-antardya, which obstructs profit of any kind; 

bhoga-antaraya, which obstructs enjoyment ; 

upabhoga-antardya, which obstructs the circum- 
stances attending enjoyment ; 

vlrya-antardya, which obstructs power. 


IV. Of the delusive (mohaniya) karmas there are 
twenty-eight kinds. According as the infatuation affects 
perception or conduct it is called respectively perception- 
infatuating (darsana-molianiya) or conduct-infatuating 

A. Darsana-mohaniya is of three kinds: (1) sam- 
yalctva-, infatuation which affects or blurs perfect 
perception ; (2) mithydtva-, infatuation which occasions 
fals % e perception ; (3) misra, infatuation which is a 
mixture of the first two. 

B. Chdritra-mohaniya is of twenty-five kinds. It 
relates partly to the four passions (kasltaya) — -anger, 
pride, deception, and greed, each one of which may (1) 
accompany false belief (anantanubandhi) ; (2) obstruct 
partial renunciations, i.e. the rise of soul to the fifth stage 
of its evolution (see guna-sthdnas, pp. 48-52), then it is 
called apratydkliydna-dvaraniya ; (3) obstruct total 
renunciation, i.e. the sixth guna-stJtdna, then it is called 
pratydkhydna-dvaranlya; and (4) keep self-restraint 
(samyama) impure (sanjvalana). These give us sixteen 
kinds of conduct-infatuation. The remaining nine 
(akashdya) are: hdsya, frivolity; rati, sentiments of 
attachment (or Eros); arati, sentiment of aversion; solca, 
sorrow; bhaya, fear; jugupsd, dislike; stri, effeminacy; 
purusha, masculine behaviour in women : napumsaka, 
spadonic behaviour in man or woman (35). 

The classification of the four non-destructive karmas 
is : I. Ndma, which determines the character of our 
body, size, colour, height, etc., etc., is of two kinds: pinda- 
prahriti, concrete qualities, and apinda-prakriti, non- 
concrete qualities. A piiida-prakriti is of sixty-five 


Four gat is, or kinds of states of existence : (1) of 
gods, (2) of denizens of hell, (3) of human beings, (4) of 
non-human beings, as animals, insects, plants, and 
mineral beings : 

Five jcitis, or kinds of living beings : (1) with the 
sense of touch only, (2) with senses of touch and taste, 
( 3 ) with touch, taste, and smell, (4) with touch, taste, 
smell, and sight, and ( 5 ) with touch, taste, smell, sight, 
and hearing ; 

Five sarlras, or bodies: (1) anddrika, the physical 
body of all men and animals, (2) vailcriyika, the body 
of gods and denizens of hell, (3) dhdraka, the special 
body of saints in doubt (see p. 44), (4) taijasa, the 
magnetic, and (5) kdrmana, or karmic, bodies of all 
embodied souls ; 

Three angopdngas, members and sub-members, 
relating to (1) auddrika, (2) va ikriyika, and (S)dhdraka, 
bodies. The aiiga-ndma-karma is of many kinds, as 
being Hro-nd/ma (head), uro-ndma (breast or chest), 
prishtha-ndma (back), bdhu-ndma (arms), udara- 
rulma (stomach), and pdda - ndma (feet). The 
upd iiga-ndma-karma is sparsa-ndma (touch), rasa- 
ndma (taste), ghrdna-nama (smell), chakshur-ndma 
(sight), and srotra-ndma (hearing) ; the updngas of 
siro-ndma (head) are also many, as forehead, skull, 
palate, cheek, chin, teeth, lips, brow, eyes, ears, 
nostrils, etc. ; 

Two sthdna(or vihdyah)-ndma-karmas, relating to 
pramdna, size, and nirmdna, position of members. 

To " bind ", i.e. keep these members and sub-members 


together, we need a binding force, which is called 
bandhana-ndma-karma, and is of five kinds— 

Five bandhana-ndma-karmas, according as they 
keep together the five kinds of bodies ; e.g. the nervous 
system in the physical body ; 

Five sanghdta-ndma-karmas, which relate to the 
unifying principle in the five bodies ; 

Sixsamsthdna-ndma-karmas,re\ixtingto proportionate 
form or build of the body : (1) sama-chatura, all-round 
symmetry ; (2) nyagrodha-parimandala, more or less 
round, like the banyan or vata-tree, on the upper part 
of the body, and small or short in the lower limbs; 
(3) sdchi (svdti), the reverse of (2), i.e. short at the top 
and long in the lower limbs ; (4) Jcubja, hunchback ; 
(5) vdmana, dwarf; (6) hundaka, with knotty limbs; 

Six samhanana-ndma-karmas, relating to the joints, 
bones, and sinews of the body: (1) vajra-vrishabha- 
ndrdcha-samhanana, unbreakable and strong like 
adamant; (2) vajra-ndrdcha, like stone ; (3) ndrdcha, 
unbreakable ; (4) ardha-ndrdcha, semi-unbreakable ; 
(5) kllikd, as strong as a riveted body ; (6) sphatika, 
crystal-like, or asamprdptdsrpdtika ; 

Five varna-ndma-karmas, determining the colours of 
the body : (1) krishna, black ; (2) harita, green ; (3) pita, 
yellow ; (4) rohita, red ; (5) sveta, white ; 

Two gandha-ndma-karmas, determining the odorous 
or malodorous character of the body ; 

Five rasa-ndma-karmas, determining the taste ; 
(1) pungent, (2) bitter, (3) saline, (4) acid or sour, 
(5) sweet ; 

Eight sparsa-ndma-karmas, determining the qualities 


of touch: (1) light, (2) heavy, (3) soft, (4) hard, 
(5) rough, (6) smooth, (7) cold, and (8) hot; 

Four dnupurvi-ndma-karmas, determining the 
condition and character of the state of existence to which 
the soul is proceeding after leaving its present body. 

B. The next large division of ndma-Jcarma com- 
prises apinda-prakritis, non-concrete qualities. These 
have twenty-eight main subdivisions as follows : — 

Eight kinds of prakritis: (1) upaghata, having a 
body fatal to oneself, as ostrich's feathers, ante- 
lope's antlers, the navel of the musk-deer, etc. ; 
(2) paragliata, having a body likely to be fatal to 
others, e.g. lion's teeth, claws, etc. ; (3) dtapa, warm body ; 
(4) uddyota, brilliant body ; (5) uchchhvdsa, respiration ; 
(6-7) vihdyo-gati, the ability to move or fly in the 
air, approved and not approved ; (8) agwndaghu, body 
which is neither heavy nor light ; 

Ten kinds of prakritis, which are : (1) trasa, body of 
a movable soul ; (2) bddara, heavy or gross ; (3) sthira, 
steady or stationary ; (4) parydpta, complete ; (5) 
pratyeka, peculiar or individual ; (6) subfia, auspicious ; 
(7) subhdgya, fortunate; (8) susvara, sweet- voiced ; 
(9) ddeya, influential ; (10) yasah-kirti, famous ; 

Ten opposite kinds of prahritis: (l)sthd vara, body of 
an immovable soul ; (2) sukshma, fine ; (3) asthira, 
unsteady ; (4) aparydpta, incomplete ; (5) sddhdrana, 
shared with others ; (6) asubha, inauspicious ; (7) 
durbhdgya, unfortunate; (8) duhsvara, harsh-toned; 
(9) anddeya, without influence; (lO)apayasah, infamous. 
II. Ayuh-karma determines the duration of existence 
and relates to the four kinds of existence of (1) gods, 


(2) denizens of hell, (3) human beings, (4) non-human 

III. Gotra-karma determines the high or low family 
and nationality, and is accordingly of two kinds, 
(1) uchcha-gotra, (2) nicha-gotra. 

IV. Vedaniya-karma in its working causes to the 
individual pain or pleasure, and is accordingly of two 
kinds, (1) asata, (2) sdta. 

A tabular account of the 148 prakritis may be 
given here (see Folding Table). 

The details of the eight kinds of karmas, or their 
148 subdivisions, can be worked out at an infinite 
length. One may call this doctrine of Jainism almost 
spiritual mathematics. Every effect in the world, every 
phenomenon, every feeling, every hope, every disappoint- 
ment is a natural and necessary consequence of some 
action or inaction of the soul. Ignorance, infatuation, 
the passions may be the cause of it. But the cause 
never was set in motion by the soul without the effect 
being forced upon the soul's acceptance. And yet the 
soul's choice is as unlimited to-day as ever. The only 
mode of exercising it is to doff ignorance, indetermina- 
tion, and weakness, face facts, recognize in the bondage 
of matter and our identification with it the sole source 
of its power ; and then determine to suppress it, to 
remove this alien matter from ourselves. And then, as 
&ri Amritachandra Suri tells us: "by destroying the 
destructive and non-destructive karma perfect freedom 
will be acquired, the soul will shine out in the fulness 
of knowledge, its sight of truth will be perfect, its 
conviction in the eternity of things will be undisturbed 


liich does not obscu 

NAM A, body, e 


Six Samhananaa 
(bones, joints, 
elc. ) : — 

83. Like adama 

84. Like stone. 

85. Unbreakabl 

86. Semi -un lire; 

ST. Riveted. 

88. Crystal-like 
Fire colours : — 

89. Black. 

90. Green. 

91. Yellow. 

92. Red. 

93. White. 
Tiro smells : — 

94. Odorous. 

95. Malodorous. 
Five tastes: — 

96. Pungent. 

97. Bitter. 

98. Saline. 

99. Sour. 

100. Sweet. 
Eight touches : — 

101. Light, 

102. Heavy. 

103. Soft. * 

104. Hard. 

105. Rough. 

106. Smooth. 

107. Cold. 

108. Hot. 
Four Anupurvis ' 

109. Angels. 

110. Men. 

111. Animals. 

1 12. Infernal beii 

lclination to choose 

Tlie soul is bound by karmir matter 

\s liiil< obscures tli.' soul's essential nature, and 1- enlled destructive 

which does not obscure the • •s.x.-ntiiil nut ure of s 

ill, and is called 

•jhitiya karma 

ghatiya karma of four kinds 

fii I'uiii kind- 



UARSANAl u:\\iVA, MOHANTYA, or infatuating. 


NA.MA, bodi . etc 



\ EDANh 

NIYA, or know 

01 percept or 

faith obscuring, 

obstructive, of five 
kinds, affecting 

life duration, of 

family, etc 
.,( two kinds 

Ifit^e-dti-i'iiriiii;- "I 



five kinds 

of nine kinds: Perception oi Couduci 






145. Higb. 

147. Pleasu 

8 Chaks Infatuation 



/■Ji'llii pr/tkritii : — 

II '.".I- 

146. Low. 

14S Pa,ti. 

2, Srui] 

7. Aohakshiili- of three kinds, offcwenty -five kinds: 



Four Gatit - 

Sir S,i ,„!„< h'OI-i* 

113. Upagfiata. 

142 Denizens 

3. Avadhi- 

8. A; udhi- Ka*haya 

is Gods 

bones, joints. 

1 14. Paragluila. 

of Hell. 

■1. Manalipaivavi. 

9. Kevala- ),-,. Full pei- ( M-pri..n Kc suiting in false 

of enjoyment, 

49. Hell, 

1 16, Atapa. 

.. Kevahv 

)( '- Nidrfi [ft, p a i 8e .„.,,., !>t belief 

11. Nidrfi-mdrii 17 ,\i, x .-d j »f« . ■♦ pt imi iv Am^/i 

12. Prachala- mi pride. 

50. Men, 

51. X .en, 

Five Jittit — 

83, Like adamant 

S3. IT 11 breakable. 

Ulj. Uddvota. 
117. Uchcbl.vusa. 


13. Pracliala- jn [nfatuatiou. 

52. One sense. 

si; Semi-un break- 

1 ihalfi 21. Ureed. 

120 Iguru-Iagbu. 

14 Styana-gnddhi- obstructing partii 


54. Three sene< s. 

55. Pout senses. 

ss Crystal-Hke. 

Ten prakriti* — 
lL'l Tras'a. 

23. Pride. 

56. Five senses 

122. Badara. 

Fivt bodit* 

89, Black. 

123. Sthira. 

_'4. liifm uation. 

",7 Men - bodies, 

90. Green. 

124. Paryapta. 

25. Ureed, 

"i.s 1. ...Is' bodies. 

91. Yellow. 

125. Pratyeka. 

< ilisiiii.tiii;.' tniul 

59. Aharaka. 

92. Red. 

126. fjubha. 

60. Magnetic 

9.1. White. 

IJT Subbagya. 

•26. Anger. 

61. Kanmc. 

Two tmtils -- 

27. Pride. 

28. Infatuation. 

29. (Jreed. 
Disturbing reel 

30. Anger. 

31. Pride. 

32. Infatuation. 
33 1 in 1 d 

/':,,-,■ . 1 hgo- 


(12. Members"! nh\ 

sical bodies. 
63. Members of 

94. Odorous. 

95. Malodorous. 

96. Pungent. 

97. Bitter. 

129. Adeya. 
130 Vasal 

T-ii ,,/>/.,.>.' ..... 

kntit :— 
131. Stbavara. 

gods' bodies. 

98, Saline, 

132. Suksbma. 

64. Members of 

'."I s 

133. Astbua. 


100. Sweet. 

134. Apaivaptu. 

;.-. 1: ,1, 
36. Arati 

3S. Bhaya. 
39, lugupsa. 
411 St 11 

Two Sthauaa.— 

65, Pramana, 

66. NirmAna. 

Fivt Bandhawu — 

67 71 (If five kinds 
of bodies. 

ICi'llil Imirhm ■— 

101. Light. 
102 ffeavj 
10.1. Soft, 

104. Hard. 

105. Rough. 

13.-. Sldbirana. 

136. Aiubba. 

137. Durbhagya. 
1:1s Dulisvara. 
1.19. Anadeya. 
im Apavasali. 

Fir. Snmtfhdtait - 

106. Smooth. 

41. Purusha. 

72 76 "1 five kind 

ln7 Cold 

42 Nupumsakn. 

Six Sayi&tkdnai ■ 

77. Perfectly 

78. Round, 

79. Animal inline. 
SO. Hunchback. 

81. Dwarf. 

82. Hundaka. 

ins. Hut. 

FOUT Anufitirri* ' - 

109. Angels 

110. Men 

111 Animals 

112 Infernal being 

1 AllllfJItlil -Mill- Ijf ill.- Mil)] 1 


g from one body 

1 iitmtln'i-. and tin- irn hunt In elmose a particular ijuli. 



and undisturbable ; pain and pleasure and their 
attendant agitation will be no more : calm and peace 
with bliss ineffable will be the lasting and rightful 
possession of the soul " (34). 

VIII. The Seven Principles (Tattvas) (36-53) 
Jlva and Ajiva 

The principles of Jainism are seven : jlva, soul ; ajiva, 
non-soul; dsrava. Icarma-movement ; bandha, karma- 
bondage ; samvara, karma-check: nirjara, karma- 
f ailing off; moksha, fcarma-liberation. 

The great importance of the logically perfect division 
into soul (jlva) and non-soul {ajiva) has been already 
seen : it is the basis of the six substances and of the 
five magnitudes. It is further the foundation of the 
seven principles, and later on, we shall see, also that of 
the nine categories (padarthas). The two great cate- 
gories are soul and non-soul : these are in combination ; 
and the link between them is that of karma (Theology 1). 

The soul and the non-soul have been considered. It 
now remains to deal with the forging and the falling 
away of the fetter of karma. There are two steps in 
the forging — the movement of karmic matter towards 
the soul (dsrava), and the actual inflow of, or bondage 
of the soul by, karmic matter (bandha). There are two 
steps also in the freeing of the soul from matter — the 
stoppage of any fresh material ties (called sain vara.), 
and the shedding of the matter in which the soul is 
actually entangled. The end of the process is moksha 
or nirvana, the goal of every true Jaina's life. 


Asrava (38-9) 

The soul is affected by attachment (raga), aversion 
(dvesJia), affection (rati), and infatuation (moJta), in the 
form of the four passions, anger, pride, deception, and 
greed, helped by the activity of mind, body, and speech. 
Such a soul is in a state to receive karmic matter into 
it (37). The technical name given to this activity is 
yoga; and the attraction of karmic matter thus brought 
about is called fcarwia-movement (asrava), the third 
tattva or principle (38). 

The condition of the soul which makes asrava 
possible is called bliavasrava (subjective asrava). It is 
of thirty-two kinds (39). The actual matter, of various 
colours, etc., etc., attracted by the soul is dravydsrava 
(objective asrava). 

The past Jcarmas of the soul affect its present activity. 
Its present Jcarmas help or modify these, and the joint 
effect determines the character and tendency of the 
actual surroundings, etc., of the soul. The soul must 
pay for what it has acquired. If it has acquired more 
than it can maintain, it must break under the load of 
matter, i.e. it must become spiritually bankrupt. The 
Jcarmas are themselves indifferent ; they do not desire 
to come or to stay away. But, if the soul is in a mood 
to receive them, they are attracted to it as readily as 
fine iron filings by a magnet. It is the vicious, relentless 
vigilance of matter to run to and embrace the soul, in 
its ignorance and infatuation as much as in its enlighten- 
ment and discrimination, that is in Jainism called 

The psychical condition which makes the inflow of 


karmic matter into the soul possible (hlidvdsrava) may 
take the form of false or perverse belief, an undisciplined, 
vowless, characterless life, careless use of mind, body, 
and speech, or yielding to the passions. The physical 
matter which is actually drawn to the soul (dravyasrava) 
is invisible. It cannot be perceived by the senses, as it is 
siikslLina or line, or even salcslima-su.ksh,mo.,OT very fine. 

Bandha (40-3) 

The actual investing of the soul by the karmic matter 
which has flowed into it is called bondage (ba/ndha i. 
The psychical condition which allows this is called 
bhava-bandha. It corresponds exactly to bhdvdsrava, 
and arises from false belief, want of character, etc., etc. 

The actual mingling of karmic matter with the 
particles (pradesas) of the soul is dravya-bandlta. 

This bondage is of four kinds, according to (1) the 
nature of the karmic matter which has invested the 
soul; (2) the period during which it is capable of 
remaining attached to the soul: (3) the character — 
mild or strong — of the actual fruition of this karmic 
matter ; and (4) the number of the karmic atoms. 

Samvara (44—6) 
But the inflow of karmic matter may be stopped ; 
for the soul is a free agent and can, if it chooses, 
refuse to take in any more of this mischievous substance. 
Restraint of body and mind, a deliberate attitude of 
indifference to matter's traps and temptations, induce 
a calm evenness of the soul, which gives no opportunity 
to the Icarmas to approach and cleave to or dig into it, 
The mind is freed from love, hatred, attachment, and 


aversion ; there is no yoga or asrava vibration, and the 
inflow of karmas is stopped. 

The psychical condition which makes this possible is 
bhava-samvara. This is reached by following the rules 
of conduct under vows, by religious observances, by 
the threefold restraint of body, mind, and speech, by 
performance of duties, by compassion towards all living 
beings, by contemplating the true character of the 
world and our relation to its objects and persons, by 
concentrating the mind on our chief purpose in life, 
and by enduring all kinds of troubles and tortures for 
the achievement thereof (46). 

Nirjara (47-50) 
Nirjara means the falling away of karmic matter 
from the soul (47-8). The fetters may by themselves 
gradually wear out and leave the soul free : but it is 
a long process. Therefore a shorter method is adopted ; 
deliberate activity may hasten the ripening of a karma 
and the shedding of its matter. To illustrate : we wish 
evil to our neighbour A ; the thought-activity invites 
the karmic matter into the soul (asrava), the matter 
comes and binds the soul (bandha). This karma 
may take two months to bear its full fruits; in the 
meantime it is an evil load for the soul. To gain 
lightness and to get rid of the karma, the soul may 
deliberately feel an opposite kind of feeling towards 
other neighbours B, C, and D. A still surer way is to 
practise austerity. By removing the mind from the 
demands and impulses of the body, and by mortifying 
the physical man through not listening to its greed and 


temptations, matter may be overcome and the soul 
freed from the bondage (47-8, 50). 

The natural maturing of a karma and its separation 
from the soul is called savijpdka-nirjard. Inducing a 
karma to leave the soul by means of a contrary karma, 
or by means of ascetic practices, is called avvpalca- 
nirjard (riddance without fruition). 

The terminology of the distinction is derived from 
botany. A seed grows into a fruit. It may ripen by 
itself (savipdka) ; or it may be plucked half-ripe, or 
even unripe, and then ripened by artificial means (49). 

Molcsha (51-3) 

The complete freedom of the soul from karmic matter 
is called moksha. 

It is attained when the two mighty entities part 
and stand separate : the soul in the calm and bliss of 
perfect knowledge ; and the matter inert but for its 
mechanical readiness to fasten itself upon some other 
unemancipated soul. 

The separation is effected when all the learmas — the 
four destructive (ghdtiya) and the four non-destructive 
(aghdtiya) — have left the soul, and no more karmic 
matter can be attracted towards it. 

IX. The Nine Padarthas (54 8) 
The above seven tattvas together with punya, merit, 
and papa, demerit, are the nine paddrtkas (54). 

Punya is the meritorious kind of learmas. The 
desirable kind of thought-activity is punya ; e.g. love 
for righteous living, devotion to Arhats, etc. 


Papa is the sinful kind of karmas. It includes acts 
done with negligence, engrossment in sense-objects, 
causing pain to others, talking evil of others, etc. This 
results in the movement (dsrava) of sinful karmas 
and the corresponding bondage (55-7). The matter of 
punya and papa is the same. It is only the desirable or 
undesirable character of the thought-activity that gives 
rise to the distinction (58). The distinction has so much 
reference to dsrava and bandlta (inflow of karmas 
and bondage thereby) that sometimes the paddrtJtas 
are not treated as a separate topic at all, but only 
as a subsidiary part of those tw r o tattvas (principles). 
So it is said : " Both are the means of bondage ; therefore 
they are one, and are certainly by themselves the cause 

of bondage " (58). 

X. Bodies, etc. 

The connexion of jiva and ajlva, linked by karmic 
matter, leads to two results : (1) it causes the soul to be 
clothed with matter ; (2) it imposes upon the soul the 
duty of getting rid of this matter. 

Under (1) three topics have to be considered : (a) the 
number of bodies according to the nature of their 
matter; (b) the kinds of bodies according to their 
form or class ; (c) the colours of this bodily matter and 
its reflection in the soul. 

Thus we must deal with : (a) bodies ; (b) conditions 
of existence ; (c) lesyds, or tints ; (d) guna-sthana.8, or 
stages in the evolution of the soul. 

XL The Five Bodies (59-60) 

The non-soul invades the soul (dsrava) and invests it 
with the finest karmic matter (bandha). This is the 


innermost body. It is called the karma body (Jcdrmana 
sarvra), and it is found in all embodied or mundane, 
unliberated souls. The next grosser kind of body 
is the magnetic (taijasa) body : this also is extremely 
fine and invisible, and it is found in all unliberated souls. 
Added to these two bodies, common to all souls except 
those of siddJtas in moksha, there are the vaikriyika 
and audarika bodies — the former is the plastic sheath 
of angels and denizens of hell, and the latter the body 
of human and other mundane beings. Like Christianity, 
Jainism gives to angels and devils the same constitution 
and origin. The angels — gods or denizens of hell — are not 
born like mortals. They simply rise into their conditions 
— narake devdndm upapdtah (Tattvdrtha-sutra, ii, 35). 
Another interesting comparison may be instituted 
between Christianity and the very first Jaina principle 
with which this book opens : jivo ti . . . kamma- 
samjutto, " the soul in the world is in combination with 
karma" {Panchdstikdya, 27). This is the Christian 
doctrine of original sin, and it has some analogy to the 
scientific doctrine of heredity. The soul almost auto- 
matically chooses the body which it best deserves by 
its total condition in regard to the karmic matter of 
passions, affections, tendencies past and present. 

Thus Jainism gives three bodies to all souls on 
this side of liberation, or vioksha. The karmic and 
the magnetic bodies are common to all ; the angels 
have in addition vaikriyika, and the other souls 
audarika, or our ordinary physical bodies, derived from 
the mother's womb. It may be remarked that the 
karmic and magnetic bodies are so subtle (finer than 


ether) that nothing can check them ; they pass through 
all and they stand in the way of nothing else. In the 
language of the Tattvdrtha-sutra (ch. ii, 41) they are 
apratighata, i.e. there is no resistance in them and 
they can pass through all. Their union with the soul 
is, of course, without beginning : for, in the last resort, 
they are the bases of operation of the binding forces of 
karmic matter on the soul (60). 

There is a fifth body, peculiar to Jainism : it is called 
aharaka. The perfect Jaina saint who has attained 
full knowledge and is waiting to shed the last body 
(karmana-sarira) is rare. And the less advanced Jaina 
ascetic may be in doubt as to certain points in the 
ethics or metaphysics of Jainism. By the vows which 
he has taken he might be hindered from going to see 
the enlightened master. Therefore, on rare and urgent 
occasions, in consequence of the highly developed occult 
faculties of his soul, a spiritual man-like body emanates 
from his head and flashes across space to the feet of the 
master, where it solves the doubt; then it rushes back 
and re-enters the ascetic's head. This body is the 
aharaka body. 

Of these five bodies, physical, angelic, special saintly, 
magnetic, and karmic, each is lighter and more refined 
than the preceding, and each surpasses the preceding 
by an infinite ratio in respect of the number of atoms 
which it contains (59). Of course, these bodies, except 
the physical, are invisible to ordinary human eyesight. 
But that cannot be a conclusive proof of their non- 
existence. The positive proof is in one own's experience. 
Ordinary experience, analogy, and reasoning may point 


to the possibility of their existence, and then reasoned 
faith plus an active pursuit of the Jaina doctrine, for 
some time at least, will prove their existence and their 
limitless potentiality. 

XII. Forms of Existence (61) 
The two kinds of bodies, angelic and physical, dis- 
tribute themselves into four kinds of existence. Angels 
may be gods or denizens of hell ; and physical bodies may 
attach to men or non-human beings, other than angels. 

Thus we have the four gatis of Jainism : deva, 
celestial; ndraka, hellish ; mdnushya, human ; tiryag, 
others. The process of evolution onwards into the 
complication of material bondage is described by Kunda- 
kunda Acharya (61). 

XIII. Lesyas (62) 

Lesyd (tint) is said to be that by means of which 
the soul is tinted with merit and demerit. Inflow of 
karmas is, we know, effected by yoga and by kashdya, 
i.e. by the vibrations due to the activity of body, mind, or 
speech, and by passions, mainly anger, pride, deception, 
and greed. The vibrations determine the nature and 
material of the bondage, i.e. the kind of karmas and 
kind of bodies which are augmented ; whereas the 
passions determine the duration and intensity of the 
bondage. The two processes correspond to the twofold 
activity of the lesyas. 

The colour of karmas or of the souls invested by 
them is determined by their particular tint of merit or 
demerit, i.e. by their particular lesyd. Six colours are 
given : black, blue, grey, red, lotus-pink, and white (62). 


We may consider lesyas as to their origin, as to their 
kinds, and as to their character. 

As to their origin, lesyas arise from yoga or kashdya, 
i.e. (1) the vibrations due to activity of body, mind, or 
speech ; or (2) the passions. 

As to their kinds, they are meritorious or sinful. 
Sinful lesyas give rise to black, indigo, and grey colours. 
Meritorious lesyas to orange-red, lotus-pink, and white 

Black. A man affected with this lesyd wishes 
entirely to destroy anything that has excited his 
anger, etc. In an illustration occurring in Jaina books 
he is compared to one who wants to eat mangoes. 
He comes to a mango-tree, and uproots the whole 
tree in order to eat a few fruits. Hatred of a man or 
woman, say at first sight from a distance, will be 
a good example. 

Indigo or blue. This is a little better than the last. 
A man with this does not go to the root of the tree ; 
still, he causes greater pain and loss than is necessary or 
just. It is like the man sparing the root, but cutting 
the trunk of the mango-tree. In practical life, e.g. because 
one foreigner behaves badly in his country, a man with 
this lesyd might hate all foreigners. 

Grey. This is slightly better than the last. A man 
wishes to cause pain or loss, in order to gain his end. 
" Achieve by any means, fair or foul," " the end justifies 
the means," will belong to this lesyd. In the case of 
the mango-tree it would be the man who spares the 
trunk and the root, but chops off' all the big boughs of 
the tree. 


The other lesyds are meritorious. Coming to these is 
like dealing with the last three periods of the ascending 
era (utsarpinl) in Jainism, when intense demerit is 
over, and a gradual elevation to merit and happiness 
is in sight. 

Orange-red. The man here wishes to achieve his 
end with as little harm to others as possible. But he 
is still rather careless and illogical: e.g. the man who 
only cuts off small branches of the mango-laden tree. 

Lotus-pink. This is a brighter hue. A man with 
this is careful not to injure others even for his own 
good. The mango-eater merely plucks mangoes from 
the tree. 

White. This is the colour of the best-thoughted 
persons. It indicates purity, compassion, and a life 
involving no loss or, pain to others. The mango-eater 
merely picks up ripe fruit that has dropped to the foot 
of the tree. The man of the world who is near to this 
lesyd is the one who has mild and necessary enjoyment 
of sense-objects, but without hurting others in the least 
and without losing his grip upon his own right belief 
and conduct. 

It may be that the six lesyds are the colours of the 
aura of the human body in occult Jainism. The theo- 
sophical view of the colours of the aura may be compared : 
the aura of the saint is ethereal — bluish, like the 
shimmering blue of pure-white ice ; that of the angry 
man is red, that of the wicked and sinful man black, 
and so on. 1 

1 The six colours of the lesyds affect all embodied souls. The 
doctrine is treated by Jaina writers with their usual wealth of details 


XIV. Stages in the Evolution of the Soul 

(GUNA-STHANAS) (63-4) 

In Jainism fourteen stages are indicated, through 
which the soul progresses from impurifying matter on 
to final liberation. 

The psychical condition of the soul due to the rising, 
settling down, perishing, or partly settling down and 
partly perishing, of karmic matter (udaya, upasama, 
Jcshaya, Icshayopasama) is called guna-stJtdna. 

The names of the fourteen stages are — 

1. mithydtva. 8. apfirva-karana. 

2. sds(y)ddana. 9. anivritti-karana. 

3. misra. 10. sTikshma-sampardya. 

4. avirata-samyaktva. 11. upasdnta-moha. 

5. desa-virata. 12. ksltina-moha. 

6. pramatta-virata. 13. sayoga-kevalin. 

7. apramatta-virata. 14. ayoga-kevalin. 

1. Mithyatva 
In this the soul, affected by the manifestation of 
karmic matter which is due to delusion or infatuation 
arising out of false belief or false perception, does not 

and fondness for elaborate and symmetrical classifications : e.g. the 
denizens of hell have the black lesyd ; the inhabitants of the best 
bhoga-bhumi (like the first age of our avasarpinl era) have white 
like the sun ; those of the middle bhoga-bhumi have white like 
the moon : those of the lower bhoga-bhumi have grey ; and the 
inhabitants of the heavens (angels) have lesyds according to their, or the colour of their thought-matter. Gross forms of 
waterdife are said to have white lesyd ; fire-souls have orange-red 
lesyd ; the three atmospheric envelopes of the world have it respectively 
pale-yellow, light emerald green, and a colour that is avyakta 


believe in the right path to salvation. From this stage 
it always passes on to the fourth stage. 

2. Sds(v)ddana 

When, in the fourth stage, there is a manifestation 
of the four anantdnubandhl kashdyas, or the four 
conduct-infatuating passions, due to false or perverted 
belief, the soul slips down from the fourth stage to the 
h'rst. In doing so it passes through the second stage, 
and the psychical condition in the passage is called 

3. Misra 

If from the fourth stage the soul slips down to the 
first, because of the manifestation of the faith- or per- 
ception-infatuating karmas due to blurred or false or 
mixed r)eYce\)t\cm(samyak,mitliyd-,OYmisra-mohaniya), 
it passes through the third stage on its downward career 
to the starting-point. 

4. Avirata-samyaktva 

Right perception, or samyaktva, is produced by the 
suppression of the four passions (anantdnubandhl 
kaslidyas) and one or three kinds of faith- or perception- 
infatuation. One kind of faith-infatuation is in the 
case of a man who has been in possession of samyaktva ; 
the three other kinds are for one who has never been in 
possession of such samyaktva. In this stage the soul 
has faith in the moksha-mdrga, or the path to salvation, 
but cannot observe the rules of conduct necessary for 
the pursuit of it. 

Here three kinds of psychical condition may be 
noticed — 


(1) Upasama-samyaktd, or samyaktd, by precipita- 
tion of karmic matter, It is attained by the 
suppression of five or seven prakfitis of infatuating 

(2) Kshdyaka-samyaktd, attained by kshaya, or 
perishing of karmas. It is reached by the annihilation 
of seven prakritis of infatuating karmas. 

(3) Kshayopasama, or combined precipitation and 
perishing of karmas. It is attained by the suppression 
of six and the continuous manifestation of the seventh 
(i.e. samyaktd - mohaniy a - prakriti) of perception- 
infatuating karmas. This is characterized by chala, 
mala, agddha, i.e. the three defects of (1) being shaken 
in right belief, e.g., thinking that worship of Sdnti- 
ndtha (the sixteenth Tirtharikara) will bring sdnti 
(peace) or that of Pdrsva-tidtha will remove obstacles, 
etc., because all arhats are the same ; (2) having an 
impure psychical condition, being soiled by one or 
more of the defects : saiikd, doubt ; kdiikshd, desire of 
worldly objects as rewards for piety ; vichikitsd, want 
of settled conviction ; anyadrisJdi-prasamsd, praising 
wrong faith ; anyadrisliti-samstava, holding a wrong 
faith to be the correct one ; (3) losing firm hold of the 
right faith, e.g. dedicating a temple and still thinking it 
to be one's own property. 

5. Desa-virata 

Partial renunciation of the world. Under this head 
come all the eleven pratimds, or stages of a layman's 
life. (For these see under Ethics, pp. 68-70.) 


6. Pramatta-virata 

After renunciation of all worldly objects still 
occasionally to turn the mind to the service or needs 
of the body. This is pramdda-bhdva. Henceforth all 
the stages belong to the life of a muni, or ascetic. 

7. Apramatta-virata 

Renouncing the pramdda-bliava of the sixth stage. 
In this the soul is absorbed in spiritual contemplation. 

From here there are two ways of progressing (two 
irenis, or ways of ascent): (1) upasama, in which 
the conduct-infatuating karma is being suppressed ; 
(2) kshdyaka, in which it is being destroyed. This last 
is the necessary way to molcsha, or final liberation. 

8 . Ap ur va -Jeara na 

Karana,or bJidva, thoughts which had not yet found 
entry into the saint's soul. This is the beginning of 
the first sukla-dhyana, or white contemplation, i.e. pure 
contemplation of the pure soul. 

9. Anivritti-Jearana 

Special thoughts (bhdvas) of still greater purity ; 
a stage of the first pure contemplation. 

1 0. Sulcsh ina-sa niparaya 

All passions are destroyed or suppressed, except 
sukshma-sanjvalana-lobha, i.e. the most subtle, nominal 
desire (of attaining molcsha, for example). This is also 
the first pure contemplation. 


11. Upasdnta-moha 
A thought (bhdva), or psychical condition, which is 
produced by the suppression of the entire conduct- 
infatuating karmas. This is also the first pure 
contemplation. From this a saint falls. 

12. Kshina-moha 

In this stage the entire conduct-infatuating karmas 
are annihilated, and the psychical condition produced 
belongs to the second pure (or white) contemplation. 
The saint attains this directly after the tenth stage, 
without passing through the eleventh. 

13. Sayoga-kevalin 

Before commencing this stage the soul must have 
destroyed the three remaining destructive karmas — 
knowledge-obscuring, faith-obscuring or perception- 
obscuring, and the hindering or obstructive karmas. 
Here, the soul becomes arltat, or perfect soul in human 
body, vibrating with the fast approaching glories of 


11. Ayoga-kevalin 

This is attained when there is before the sayoga- 
kevalin s death just enough time to speak out the five 
letters a, i, u, ri, Iri. In this stage — a very brief one 
indeed — the vibrations of the holy body cease. 

XV. The Three Jewels (65-7) 
These are : (1) samyag-darsana, right conviction, 
faith and perception combined ; (2) samyag-jndna, 
right knowledge; (3) samyak-cliaritra, right conduct. 


The reason why right faith or conviction is put first 
is that right principles of conduct are derivable from 
right convictions. And, as precious stones and ordinary 
stones are of the same nature, but a whole load of 
mountain stones does not equal in value a small piece 
of precious stone, so conduct based on false convictions 
may be the same in external manifestation as that based 
on right convictions ; but the former leads to error and 
waste of energy, whereas the latter leads to final 
liberation. (Atmdnusdsana, v. 15, translation published 
in the Jaina Gazette, vol. iv, 1907, p. 67.) 

All the three, i.e. right conviction, knowledge, and 
conduct, combined together lead to moksha, or final 
liberation of the soul from karmic matter (65). 

A. Right Conviction (66-7) 
Right conviction in Jainism has a twofold object : 
one negative, the other positive. 

In the negative aspect it is against scepticism of a 
kind which hampers all serious thought. Such scepticism 
is based on ignorance or weakness — in the technical 
language of Jainism, on the uprising (or udaya) of 
some very gross kind of conviction-obscuring karmas. 
There are always men and women in the world who 
are afraid of the truth. For such right conviction can 
hardly ever exist in its highest form. Such people's 
faith is again and again assailed by doubt : they are 
not sure of their own existence, of the existence of the 
world, or of their relation to it. Such persons are 
incapable of any kind of constructive effort to explain 
the entirety of life and see its real aim and object. To 


such Jainism gives guidance and help in the positive 
aspect of right conviction. 

In its positive aspect right conviction in Jainism 
counsels the conscious retention of what we have or 
have gained. By happy intuition, or by deliberate 
acquisition of knowledge, the calm of faith takes rise in 
the mind. Jainism counsels us to take hold of it and 
press this faith deeper and deeper in the consciousness, 
so that, instead of being blighted by cold logic and 
cunning sophistry or eaten away by the corrosion of 
scepticism, it may grow into the tree of knowledge and 
fructify . into the world-blessing fruit of righteous 

Right conviction is of two kinds — 

1. Right conviction from the practical point of view, 
or vyavaJidra-samyag-darsana. It is right and steady 
conviction of the true nature of the six dravyas, the 
five astikdyas, the seven tattvas, the nine padartltas. 
The man who has this conviction knows also the relative 
importance and the true significance of the tattvas (66). 
It also includes faith in true ideal, scriptures, and 
teacher (67). 

2. Right conviction from the real point of view, or 
nischaya - samyag - darsana, right conviction of the 
true nature of one's own soul. It is realization of 
oneself as a pure soul — as something not distinct from 
the attributes which are peculiar to a perfect soul, 
namely, perfect knowledge, power, and bliss (67). 

Right conviction is free from three errors of con- 
founding it with false (1) gods, (2) place, and (3) teacher. 
The idea of God should be purged of all materialism or 


anthropomorphism. It should be the highest ideal of 
the most perfect soul conceivable. There is from the 
highest point of view no special sanctity attaching to 
any place. The teacher also must be such as knows 
these doctrines and teaches them clearly and with 

It must be free from all the kinds of pride. Eight 
are usually given : pride of one's mother's or father's 
relations ; pride of greatness, strength, beauty, know- 
ledge, wealth, authority, and asceticism or spiritual 

Then it must be steady and with eight qualities, 
which are given in the text (67). 

Right conviction arises in ten ways or in two ways. 
In two ways : nisarga, or by intuition ; adhigama, 
or by external instruction (Tattvdrtha-sutra, ch. i, 3). 

In ten ways : e.g. from discourses of Jaina Tirthari- 
karas (djnd), or of learned men, or Jaina sacred books, 
from renunciation of worldly objects (mdrga), from 
knowing the topics of Jainism in outline (jsamkshepa- 
drisJdi), etc. [See Atmdnusdsana, vv. 11-14; Jaina 
Gazette, vol. iv, 1907, p. 67.] 

It may be considered from six points of view : 
nirdesa, the chief characteristics of a thing ; svdmitva, 
possession; sddhana, means of acquisition; adhilcarana, 
vehicle; sthiti, duration ; v idhdna, mode. 
What is samyag-darsana ? It is tattvdrtha- 
sraddhana, i.e. faith in the significance of the seven 
principles ; in other words, conviction of the inner 
realitv of things. 


Who has it ? The soul, of course. But in details the 
question may be considered from the point of view of 
(1) kinds of existence (four gatis) ; (2) senses (five senses 
or less) ; (3) bodies (possessors of living or immobile 
bodies) ; (4) yoga (or asrava, vibrations of body, mind, 
and speech, which bring about the inflow of karmic 
matter and make bondage possible) ; (5) veda, or 
the three sexes (masculine, feminine, and neuter) ; 
(6) Jcashdya, the four passions (anger, pride, deception, 
and greed) ; (7) knowledge, five kinds of knowledge 
(see under Second Jewel) ; (8) samyaina, control or 
restraint ; (9) darsana, sense-perception, mental per- 
ception, etc.; (10) lesyds, six kinds of tints of the 
soul; (11) samyaktd, from the real point of view; 
(12) thinking or non-thinking souls (sanjilin,asanjnin). 


How is it acquired ? In two ways, internally and 
externally, i.e. nisarga and adhigama. 


What is its vehicle ? (1) In reality the soul ; (2) but 
from the external point of view, the trasa-nddl, that 
portion of space which is 1 rajju wide, 1 rajju long, 
and 14 rajjus high. There cannot be any right con- 
viction outside this. (See Cosmology , Appendix II.) 

What is its duration ? It depends upon whether tin- 
right conviction is due to upasama, or precipitation of 


karmic matter in the soul, in which case the maximum 
and the minimum are each one antara-muhurta ; or to 
Jcshaya, or perishing of karmic matter , when in mundane 
souls the minimum is one antara-muhurta,the maximum 
thirty-three sagaras, while in liberated or disembodied 
souls it has a beginning, but lasts for ever ; or to 
kshayopamma, mixed precipitation and perishing of 
Icarmas, with a minimum, one antara-muhurta: 
maximum, sixty-six sagaras. [One muhurta is forty- 
eight minutes.] 


The way in which it is acquired — 

Really there is only one way, namely, the suppression 
and removal of karmic matter. But it may be in two 
ways: internal, nisarga, intuitive; external, adhi- 
gama, by instruction. It may also be in three ways, 
according as it arises by precipitation, perishing, 
or combined precipitation and perishing of karmic 

Right conviction may also be considered from the 
point of view of sat, does it exist or not ? samkhyd, 
how many is it ? kshetra, up to where does it extend ? 
sparsana, what extent of space and time does a man of 
right conviction comprehend ? kola, how long does it 
last 1 antara, the extent to which the minimum and 
maximum durations are separated from each other, or 
the duration of its absence ; bhdva, which psychical 
condition gave it rise, precipitation or perishing, or 
both ? alpa-bahutva, are the last-named three kinds 
equal or unequal ? 


B. Right Knowledge (68-77) 

Right conviction makes us perceive the reality of 
life and the seriousness of our object in life. It saves 
us from the soul-emptying, puzzling void of scepticism. 
It brings us nearer to the feeling and touch of the solid, 
substantial reality of our own and other souls, as also 
of the matter in union, with which the soul gives rise 
to the phenomena of life. 

Right knowledge makes us examine in detail the 
matter brought into the mind by right conviction. Of 
course, both are mental processes ; the difference is in 
degree. I see a nurse taking a boy on the pavement 
outside. This is perception. I have the right conviction 
that there are a woman and a boy out there. I also 
perceive that the woman is a nurse. But I do not know 
the details — who they are, where they live, why they 
are in this particular locality, and so forth. If I saw 
or heard or read about them, I should gain right 

This knowledge must be free from doubt, i.e. it must 
be retained steadily and based on firm conviction. . 

Error is also recognized in Jainism. It reminds one 
somewhat of the ignorance (avidyd) of the Vedanta, 
the want of discrimination (aviveka) of the Sainkhya, 
and the illusion (mdyd) of the Buddhist S3 7 stems of 
philosoph\ r . Jainism insists that right knowledge 
cannot be attained, unless belief of any kind in its 
opposite (i.e. in wrong knowledge) is banished (69). 

The soul of man is indivisible, and our intellect 
cannot really consent, even temporarily, to what our 


faith has not grasped ; and our conduct cannot but he- 
coloured by our intellect, from which it springs. Faith 
and knowledge leading to right conduct are at once the 
process and the goal ; for right faith dispels weak 
doubt, right knowledge preserves us from ignorance, 
indifference, and laziness, and right conduct enables us 
to create the best life of which we are capable. 

Right knowledge is of five kinds (70) — 

Ma I i-j nana : knowledge which is acquired by means 
of the five senses, or by means of the mind of man (71 >. 

Sruta-j nana : knowledge in which on the basis of 
mati-jndna one acquires knowledge about things other 
than those to which the mati-jndna relates (72). 

The difference between the two is thus stated. 
Mati-jndna deals with substances which exist now, 
and, having come into existence, are not destroyed ; 
sruta-jnana deals with all things now existing, and 
also with those which were in the past or may be in 
the future, e.g., an eclipse to-day may be known by 
mati-jndna, but one in the time of Alexander, or one 
to happen next year, can now only be known by sruta- 
jnana. Even a mineral or plant soul with one sense 
only can have sruta-jndna. 

Avadhi-jndna: knowledge of the remote or past. It 
is possessed always by celestial and infernal souls ; 
ascetics also sometimes acquire it by austerities (74). 

Manahparyaya-jndna : knowledge of the thoughts 
and feelings of others. It is possessed by Samyamins 
only, i.e. by persons who are masters of self-control and 
who have practised the restraint of body, mind, and 
speech (75). 


Kevala-jndna : full or perfect knowledge, which is 
the soul's characteristic in its pure and undefiled 
condition (76). 

False Knowledge 

The first three kinds of knowledge, i.e. sense- 
knowledge, study-knowledge, and knowledge of the 
past, may also be perverted or false. The senses may 
deceive us ; our studies may be incomplete or erroneous ; 
and the angel's vision of the remote or past may not be 
perfect in detail or clearness (77). 

But mind-knowing cannot be false. We cannot have 
it, unless we can have knowledge of the exact thought 
or feeling in another's mind. 

Full or perfect knowledge obviously cannot be false. 

Before we take up the five forms of knowledge 
separately, it is interesting to compare them with the 
five " bodies " in Jainism {supra, pp. 42-5). 

The five kinds of bodies, we remember, are : auddrika, 
or the physical body ; vaikriyika, or the angelic body 
of angels and denizens of hell ; dhdraka, the special 
body emanating from a saint to resolve his doubts ; 
taijasa, or magnetic body; kdrmana, or karmic body. 

These five bodies are distributed as follows: a man 
has the physical, magnetic, and karmic bodies : an angel 
has the angelic, magnetic, and karmic bodies. 

This accounts for four, the remaining dhdraka being 
a special body manifested in a saint temporarily and 
for a special purpose. 

Now the five kinds of knowledge may be considered 
thus in relation to the five kinds of bodies: — 

Man with his physical body acquires sense-know- 


ledge and study-knowledge. Also with his physical 
body he acquires, e.g. by means of austerities, 
knowledge of the remote. With his magnetic body 
he acquires knowledge of the thoughts and feelings 
of others. It is literally sympathy, on the analogy 
of symphony between chords or strings in music, 
which are tuned exactly alike. If a man's magnetic 
body is in the same tune with another's, the thoughts 
and feelings of the one will meet with a ready 
response in the other. It is everyday observation that 
a mother or a devoted wife anticipates and exactly 
realizes the needs or wishes of her beloved children or 
husband. With his karmic body the man acquires 
full knowledge. And it must be remembered always 
that acquisition of knowledge means the removal of 
knowledge-obscuring hennas, the gradual demolition of 
the karmic body. The matter of the other bodies acts 
simply like the workman employed to demolish the 
karmic structure ; as soon as his work is accomplished, 
he is automatically dismissed. So, as soon as the 
bondage of karma is severed, the physical and angelic 
bodies fall off, and the magnetic and karmic bodies 
await their definite final dissolution before the eternal 
soul is set free in molcsha. 

To take the five kinds of knowledge in detail — 

Mati-jnana, or sense-knowledge, is also called 
smriti, samjna, chinta, abhinibodha. It is acquired 
(1) by means of the five senses, (2) by means of 
the mind. 

It is divided into four parts — 

1. Avagraha, perception, taking up the object of 


knowledge by the senses. It is also called tilochana, 
grahana, or avadltarana. 

2. Ihd, the readiness to know more of the things 
perceived. It is also called alia, tarka, parikshd, 
vicdrand, or jijndsd. 

3. Apaya, finding out the perfection or otherwise 
(samyaktd or asamyalda) of a thing. It is also called 
apavdya, apagama, apanoda, apavyddha, apeta, 
apagata, apaviddha, or apanutta. 

4. Dharana, retaining the detailed reality of a thing. 
It is also called pratipatti, avadhdrana, avasthdna, 
nischaya, avagama, or avabodha. 

To illustrate : I see the nurse and boy going along 
outside : this is avagraha. I wish to know more about 
them : this is ihd. I go and make inquiries about them, 
and know all kinds of details about their ages, family, 
etc. : this is apaya. I grasp the full significance and 
characteristics of the details which I have gathered : 
this is dharana. 

Each of the above four classes of sense-knowledge 
has twelve sub-classes: bahu, much; bahuvidha, 
manifold ; Jcshipra, quickly ; anisrita, without the help 
of symbols or signs ; anukta, without being taught ; 
dhruva, steady; alpa, less; alpavidha, in few ways; 
akshipra, slowly ; nisrita, with help of signs ; ukta, 
taught ; adhruva, not steady. 

Thus mati-jndna is 4 x 12 = 48 kinds ; and, as each 
kind may be acquired by five senses or the mind, in all 
it is of 48 x G = 288 kinds. 

Again, the above distinctions apply to sense-knowledge 
with reference to artlta, the object itself. With 


reference to vyanjana, or [intermediating] sensation, 
sense-knowledge is of only one kind, the avagraha (or 
perception) kind. This is never manifested in the case 
of the eye or the mind. Therefore it can only be of 
4 x 12 (the twelve classes above referred to) = 48 kinds. 

Thus the total kinds of sense-knowledge are 288 + 
48 = 336. 

Sruta-jnana, or study-knowledge, is of two kinds — ■ 
scriptural and non-scriptural. The scriptural means 
knowledge derived from the study of the Jaina 
Scriptures, i.e. the Twelve Aiigas (see Appendix V). 
Non-scriptural is knowledge that is derived from 
outside the Aiigas. 

Avadlii-jndna, or knowledge of the remote, is of two 
kinds : (1) innate, as in the case of angels in Heaven or 
fallen ones in Hell ; (2) acquired, by the precipitation 
or annihilation of kai'mic matter. The former is called 
This latter is acquired by men and animals, and is of 
six kinds — 

1. Andnugdmika, limited to a particular locality, 
i.e. outside those limits the man loses this faculty. 

2. Anugdmika, not limited to any locality. 

3. Hiyamdna, knowledge of the remote, compre- 
hending innumerable worlds, seas, continents, etc., 
becomes less and less, till it reaches the minimum. 

4. Vardhamdnaka, acquired from very slight 
beginnings ; it goes on increasing. It is the converse 
of Itiyamdna. 

5. Anavasthita, unsteady, so that it fluctuates 
according to circumstances. 


6. Avasthita, never leaving the possessor in the 
locality where it is acquired, and retained by him even 
in another form of existence. 

(For these see Tattvartha-sTdra, ch. i, 21-3.) 
Manahparyaya, or mind-reading knowledge, is of 
two kinds — 

1. Riju-mati : this arises from the straightforwardness 
of man's mind, speech, and body, and consists in 
discerning and knowing the forms of thoughts in 
other's minds. 

2. Vipida-mati : by this the finest karmic activity in 
the minds of others can be read. 

The distinction between the two kinds is this : 

(1) vipula-mati is finer and purer than riju-mati ; 

(2) vipida-mati cannot be lost, whereas the possessor of 
the riju-mati mind-reading power may lose it. 

Mind-reading knowledge is distinguished from far 
knowledge as follows — 

1. Mind-reading knowledge is purer and more refined 
than far-reading knowledge. 

2. Mind-reading knowledge is confined to the locality 
where men live. Far knowledge is not so limited, and 
may be extended to the whole universe. 

3. Mind-reading can be acquired onty by men, and 
also only by samyamins, i.e. men of control. Far 
knowledge can be acquired by all souls in all conditions 
of existence. 

4. By mind-reading we can know all forms of 
thought, etc., even their minutest modifications. By 
far knowledge we can know forms with only a few 
of their modifications. 


From this point of view sense- and study-knowledge 
applies to all substances, but only in some of their 
modifications. Far-knowledge applies to coloured 
substances, but not to all their modifications. Mind- 
reading applies to all coloured objects, even in their 
infinitesimal parts. (See TaUvdrthasatra, 25-7.) 

Full Knowledge 

Kevala-jnana, full or pure or perfect knowledge, 
applies to all things and to all their modifications. It 
is, in fact, a characteristic of the soul entirely liberated 
from the bondage of matter. 

To conclude, a soul can have one, two, three, or four 
kinds of knowledge at one and the same time. If one 
kind, it must be perfect knowledge ; if two kinds, it is 
the sense- and the study-knowledge ; if three kinds, it 
is the sense- and the study- and the past-knowledge; 
if four kinds, it is all except perfect knowledge (73). 

C. Right Conduct (78) 

This is the third jewel of Jainism. It consists in 
living a life in accordance with the light gained by the 
first two jewels: right conviction and right knowledge. 
The subject is dealt with at more length under Ethics 
( i afro., pp. 67-73 ). Here its character may just be noted. 

The goal is mqlcsha, or final liberation (79). The 
barrier is the karmic matter which obscures the true 
nature of the soul. From this the principles of right 
conduct are easily derivable. Right conduct must be 
such as to keep the body down and elevate the soul ; it 
means not doing bad actions and doing good ones. In 



practice it resolves itself into taking the five vows, 
observing the five rules of conduct, and practising the 
threefold restraint. The five vows are: non-killing, 
truth, non-stealing, chastity, and non-attachment to 
worldly objects. The five observances are ; careful 
walking, speaking, eating, use of things, and toilet, etc. 
The threefold restraint is of body, mind, and speech. 

Chapter III.— ETHICS 

The aim of Jaina ethics is so to organize the combined 
activity of a society that its individuals may have the 
greatest possible number of facilities for attaining 
moJcsha or nirvana, i.e. perfect peace and bliss of the 
soul. Thus, obviously, the rules of conduct, both for 
laymen and ascetics, must directly or indirectly be 
conducive to this central aim. Naturally the rules for 
ascetics are stricter than those for laymen, and provide, 
as it were, a shorter, albeit harder, route to nirvana, 
which is the goal for the layman also, but one which 
he reaches by a longer and slower process. 

Here we do not propose to go into the rules of 
conduct for ascetics. Those who are interested in the 
subject will find the details in the Achardnga-sutra, 
which is translated by Dr. H. Jacobi in vol. xxii of 
the Sacred Books of the East (pt. i, pp. 202-210), and 
in Bhagavati-Arddhand by the monk Sivakoti, an 
ex-Maharaja of Benares. 

The rigour of the ascetic life may be estimated to 
a certain extent by considering the more or less severe 
conditions which the Jaina householder must adopt, if 
he rightly follows the Jaina principles. The best way of 
exhibiting the rules of conduct for the Jaina layman is 
to make clear the eleven stages in his life, i.e. the eleven 
pratinids. They are given below. 

But before a Jaina can go on to the pratinids, he 
must pass through two preliminary stages — 

1. He must have faith in Jainism. He must study 
the doctrine and believe in it thoroughly and sincerely. 


2. Then he must become what is called a pdkshika 
srdvaka, a layman intent on following the path of 
salvation. His duties, as laid down in the Sdgara- 
Dharmamritahy Pandit Asadhara about Samvat 1292 = 
1235 A.D., are — 

(1) To have faith in Jainism ; 

(2) To abstain from intoxicants ; 

(3) To abstain from flesh food : 

(4) To abstain from fruits which contain, or are 

, likely to contain, insects ; also from honey : 

(5) To abstain from taking four kinds of food at 

night. The four kinds are : eatable, tastable, 
lickable, drinkable. Eatables, at least, he must 
give up at night ; 

(6) To take clean, i.e. filtered, water; 

(7) To abstain from gambling ; 

(8) To follow in the main the five small vows. The 

vows relate to non-killing, etc. ; 

(9) To abstain from hunting ; 

(10) To abstain from adultery or lasciviousness ; 

(11) To perform some religious exercises daily ; 

(12) To abstain from making his living by any of the 

following means: (a) agriculture, (6) learning, 
(c) trade, (d) army, (e) crafts, (/) singing, 
(g) music. 

The eleven pratimds are — 

1. Darsana (faith). — A true Jaina must have perfect 
and intelligent, well-reasoned faith in Jainism, i.e. he 
must have a sound knowledge of its doctrines and their 
applications in life. 


2. Vrata (vow). — He must observe the live minor 
vows (anu-vratas), the three guna-vratas, and four 
Okshd-vratas. To give details : he must uot destroy 
any kind of life, must not tell a lie, must not make use 
of another person's property without the owner's consent, 
must be chaste, must limit his necessities of life and 
avoid the use of food which involves unnecessary killing 
of living beings. The three guna-vratas are special 
vows relating to the limitation and determination of his 
daily work, food, and enjoyment. The remaining four 
vows relate to his worship in the morning, noon, and 
evening, to his keeping fast on certain days, and to his 
duty of daily giving charity in the form of knowledge, 
medicine, comfort, and food. 

3. SamayiJca (worship). — He must worship regularly. 
in general for forty-two minutes, three times daily. 
Worship means self -contemplation and purifying one's 
ideas and emotions. 

4. Poshadhopavdsa (fortnightly fast). — He fasts 
regularly., as a rule, twice a fortnight each lunar 

5. Sachitta-tyaga (abstinence from the flesh of 
conscious creatures). — He refrains from taking fresh 
vegetables, because they are living, and to hurt any 
living thing is in Jainism a deadly sin. 

6. Rdtri-bhidda-tydga (abstinence from eating at 
night). — He must not take food at night. There are 
minute living beings which no amount of light can 
reveal or disperse, and which must be consumed with 
meals after sunset. 

7. Brahma-char yd, — Celibacy. 


8. Arambha-tyaga. — Abandonment of merely worldly 
engagements and occupations. 

9-11. The remaining three stages are preparatory 
to the monk's life. Their names are 'parigralia-tyaga, 
anumati-tyaga, and uddisthta-tydga, and they enjoin 
a gradual giving up of the world and retiring into 
some very quiet place to acquire the knowledge of 
truth and ultimately to become fit to be a teacher of 
the path to salvation. 

But undei'lying every rule of conduct in Jainism is 
the one important principle of ahimsa (non-killing, 
non-hurting). It will be useful here to consider the 
effect of this principle of non-injury on (1) food, 
(2) drink, (3) trades and industries, (4) social behaviour, 
(5) civil and criminal wrongs. 

It may be noted that injury by thought, word, or 
deed to other living beings is the chief, if not the 
sole, cause of misery, ignorance, weakness, pain, and 
disease to oneself. It is something like the necessity of 
" purging the defendant's conscience " in Courts of 
Equity in England. By doing wrong to the plaintiff, 
e.g. by not doing something promised to be done, the 
defendant is soiling his conscience, and equity forces 
him to clean it. Constituted as human nature is, 
Jainism facilitates our right living by showing that the 
luxury of injuring our neighbour is really an injury to 
ourselves, and an injury, too, from the evil effects of 
which the neighbour may possibly escape, but we 
cannot ! Altruism may have its basis upon a deeper 
and more refined kind of self-saving and self-serving. 

As to the effect of the principle of non-injury on— 



Food which involves the slaughter of living beings, 
animals, fish, birds, or anything that has five or Less 
sense-organs, must not be taken. 

One thing must here be made clear. Life thrives on 
life. The ideal practice of non-injury is possible only 
to the soul in its perfect condition, i.e. when it has freed 
itself from the last particle of karmic matter (karma- 
varganas). On this side of that happy state, do what- 
ever we will, some life must be transformed into our 
life in order to sustain it. Therefore what is meant 
and enjoined is simply this : " Do not destroy life, unless 
it is absolutely necessary for the maintenance of a higher 
kind of life." The purer souls will, of course, not like 
to sanction even this. But. as formulated above, the 
rule does not sanction hurting or injury : it limits it to 
the lowest possible minimum. As a supplementary 
rule we have : <; And then begin with the least evolved 
kind of life, e.g. with the sthdvaras" (pp. 8-9 supra i. 


All kinds of intoxicants, or even stimulants, are 
prohibited. They are not necessary for the life and 
well-being of the body. They feed the passions, and 
passions are the bitterest foes of the soul. There is also 
wholesale destruction of small life in the fermentation 
of brewing and distilling. 

Trades and Industries 

Certain trades are prohibited to Jainas as Jainas — 
brewing, fishing, butchering, and anything that involves 
wholesale slaughter of living beings for purposes of 


trade and commerce. But even a brewer or a butcher 
may be a Jaina : then he will be in the vowless stage of 
soul's evolution (a virata-gunasthdna). 

Social Behaviour 

A true Jaina will do nothing to hurt the feelings 
of another person, man, woman, or child ; nor will lie 
violate the principles of Jainism. 

Jaina ethics are meant for men of all positions — for 
kings, warriors, traders, artisans, agriculturists, and 
indeed for men and women in every walk of life. The 
highest will find in the Jaina rules of conduct satis- 
factory guidance for their affairs ; and the meanest can 
follow them. " Do your duty. Do it as humanely as 
you can." This, in brief, is the primary precept of 
Jainism. Non-killing cannot interfere with one's 
duties. The king, or the judge, has to hang a murderer. 
The murderer's act is the negation of a right of the 
murdered. The king's, or the judge's, order is the 
negation of this negation, and is enjoined by Jainism 
as a duty. Similarly the soldier's killing on the 
battlefield. It is only prejudiced and garbled accounts 
of Jainism that have led to its being misunderstood. 

Civil and Criminal Wrongs 
The Indian Penal Code, originally drafted by Lord 
Macaulay, takes account of almost all offences known to 
and suppressed by our modern civilization. Mr. A. 13. 
Latthe, M.A., of Sholapur, has shown by a table how 
the rive minor rules of conduct (the five anu-vratas of 
Jainism) cover the same ground as the twenty-three 
chapters and 511 sections of the Code. 


The Jainas of to-day do not follow all the vows 
■without faults"': but. still, they profess the practice 
of the vows and live on the whole in view of them. 
I desire to conclude the chapter " Ethics " with the 
statement of two bare facts. 

In criminal statistics the Jaina percentage of 
criminality is the lowest — remarkably lower than 
among the Hindus. Muhammadans, and Christians. 

In commercial matters the Jainas are a well-to-do 
and influential community. Colonel Tod in his 
Rajasthdn, and Lord Reay and Lord Curzon after 
him, have estimated that half the mercantile wealth of 
India passes through the hands of the Jaina laity. 
Commercial prosperity implies shrewd business capacity 
and also steady, reliable character and credit. 

The above shows that far from being an impracticable 
religion, Jainism is eminently fitted to give the State 
good subjects and the country successful business men." 


This relates to the pursuit of the path of salvation 
in communion with people living in accordance with 
Jainism. The object of ritual is the ideal, the goal., 
namely, truth, perfection, the perfect soul. Ritual is 
the way in which we manifest our love and reverence 
for our ideal. It is the enjoyment of what is beyond 
us, until devotion becomes ecstasy and we feel that we 
are what we considered to exist outside us, that we are 
one with the goal, and that the ideal is realized within 

The subject is long and complicated and concerns, in 
the main, the occult side of Jainism. But one or two 
points may be noticed. 

Knowledge may be derived by considering four 
aspects of the thing known : nama, stha'pana, dravya, 
and bhdva, or its name, status, substance, and nature, 
e.g. we may adore our ideal soul as typified in Lord 
Mahavira. The name of Mahavira evokes the ideal 
before our eyes in all its glory ; the thrill with which 
it is accompanied is our true worship. So in the 
soldier's breast "Napoleon" and "Alexander" arouse 
thrills of reverence which are akin to feelings of 
worship. This is the nama point of view. 

The second method, sthapand, is the installation of 
the adored one in a material representation : photograph, 
picture, keepsake, image, model, statue — these are 
examples. Absent friends can be loved and remembered 
by this means ; absent guides can be reverenced ; 


absent ideals can be worshipped. It is a mistake 
to call this idol- worship ; it is ideal- worship and 
eminently useful. Like all useful things, it may be 
abused; but that is hardly a sufficient reason f<>r 
discarding it. 

The third view-point is dravya, the thing or person 
which is to become in the future : for example, 
respect given to the Prince of Wales as the future 
King of England, and so forth. It is in this way 
that the future Tirtharikaras can be worshipped in 

But it must never be forgotten that it is no one person 
in particular that the Jainas worship. They worship 
the ideal and nothing but the ideal, namely, the soul in 
its perfect condition. This ideal may be Christ, Sarikara, 
Vishnu, Brahma, Muhammad, Jehovah, or any other 
type of perfection ; and this indicates at once the 
rational basis and the catholic breadth of the Jaina 

The fourth way is bhava, whereby the thing or person 
in its actual nature is meant, e.g. Lord Mahavira to his 

It must be noticed that, as faith is the first, ritual is 
the last part of religion in its widest sense. Faith 
brings us to truth ; philosophy makes us grasp it ; 
ethics makes us practise it ; and ritual makes us one 
with it. In Jainism faith tells us that we have a soul 
and that it has in it an untold wealth of knowledge, 
purity, power, and bliss. Jaina philosophy gives us 
a detailed grasp of this principle, and tells us how 
karmic matter obscures this Infinite Quaternary ; Jaina 


ethics takes us along the patli to conquer matter and 
its children pain, ignorance, and weakness; and Jaina 
ritual makes us move on and on until the last speck of 
matter is removed and the soul shines resplendent, all- 
pure, all-powerful, as the brightest embodiment of 
encouragement for the knower, of hope and power and 
inspiration and peace for the faithful ! 

Part II.— TEXTS 
Chapter I.— THEOLOGY 

i. whfr fm ^wr^rft 11 

Panchdstikdya-gdthd, by Kundakunda Acharya, 

v. 21. 

The soul exists [in sainsdra] in combination with karma 
[karmic matter]. 

2. ^ffafa^r fa WhfT ^I^^TTTIT ^>wt II 

Ann prck slid :- sloka , by Swami Earttikeya, 184. 
The soul in combination with the body is the doer of 
all actions. 

Panchdstikdya-gdthd, 28. 

The soul, purified of the dirt of karmic matter, goes up 
to the end of loka, acquires complete knowledge and 
perception and attains infinite and [supra- or] non- 
sensual bliss. 

Ibid. 172. 
Thus, desirous of quiescence, the soul shall not submit 
to the slightest attachment to anything. Having thus 
become free from attachment, it crosses the ocean of 
samsdra (cycle of mundane existences). 

Ibid. 151. 


By the absence of karma, omniscient and embracing' the 
whole world in its view, it attains undisturbable, supra- 
sensual, and infinite bliss. 

Paramtitma-prakdsa, by Yogendra Acharya, 330. 
The soul which has perfect perception, perfect knowledge, 
infinite bliss, and infinite power, is a perfect saint, and, 
being self-manifested, is known as Jina-deva (or the 
divine conqueror). 

Ibid. 325. 
A soul which, having broken through all kinds of 
hindering thoughts, dwells on the way to the status of 
godhead, and whose four karmas [the destructive karmas; 
see under Metaphysics, p. 27] are destroyed, is called 

^frf^rofircroajTiT ^frw^T irf<*rr %tf?r 11 

Niyama-sdra-gdthd, by Kundakunda Acharya, 71. 
Those wbo are rid of the (four) destructive kinds of 
karmas, possessed of perfect knowledge and of the 
highest qualities, and equipped with thirty-four kinds 
of supernatural powers {atisaya), such are Arhats. 
8. ij*T Tiwfa TTO VTOcft^ ^H ^T^T: TITO W?lfir\ ^'M I 
Brihat-Svayambhu-stotra, by Samanta-bhadra 

Acharya, 9. 
A Tlrthankara is] he by whom was shown the broad 
fording-place of virtue, the best of all, reaching which 
men overcome sorrow. 

TEXTS: theology 79 

Panchdstikaya, by Kundakunda Acharya, 85. 

Those whose is the nature of a pure soul, and in whom 
is never any non-being — such souls, when disembodied, 
are Siddhas : they are above all powers of speech. 

3tT*rRnrr ^m fa^r ^tt?^ ^rt^rf^iT^ 11 

Dravya-samgraka, by Nemi-chandra Siddhanta- 

chakravartin, 51. 
Having destroyed the eight kinds of karmas (see below, 
pp. 91-2) and the body, sublime in knowledge of the 
Universe and Beyond (loka and aloha), the self in the 
form of a man, steady at the summit of the Universe 
(loka), should be meditated upon as Siddha. 

"ft^Tfe^T fWWT fa^T ^ HfW fffa II 

Niyama-sdra, 72. 
Having destroyed the bondage of eight karmas and 
being possessed of eight great qualities ' [of the soul], 
perfect souls, eternal, and steady at the summit of the 
universe (loka) — those who are such are Siddhas. 

10. ^JTt^pjprsTCT *JWTf?n^T f^TW ^ I 

^TI^ faiTTT% ^"3^ ^ ^W II 

Samayika-pathti . 
I salute the Jinas, illuminators of the universe and 
founders of the beautiful fording-place of religion : such 
twenty-four Arhats, Kevalins, will I celebrate. 
1 Appendix IV, pp. 130-1. 


1 1 . xr^T^TT^wn tit^f^i^^iMRj^Huii i 

\ftTT ^WI'fftTT ^T^tT^T tfW fffa II 

Niyama-sdra, 73. 

Perfect observers of five kinds of rules of conduct, and 
quellers of the intoxicated-elephant-like pride of the 
five senses, wise and of deep qualities — such are the 

12. T qi ll Tlil^ Tn f3rap«ff^re?^**n UT I 
1rrpz&<=WPmf^n ^^T^T QfW fTfrT II 

Ibid. 74. 

Equipped with the three jewels [faith, knowledge, and 
conduct] and preceptors of the doctrines preached by the 
Jinas, brave and full of selfless feeling — such are the 

13. crnnTfa^^T ^T^fafTTTWwn^T i 

Ibid. 75. 

Free from all worldly occupation, ever engrossed in four 
kinds of devotion [darsana, ' faith,' jnana, ' knowledge,' 
chdritra, 'conduct,' and tapah, 'asceticism'], without 
worldly ties, without delusion — such are the Sadhus. 

14. ^ifr *i^f^ g^ Tifr vfif% ftfttf«ft<M i 

Anitprckshd, 7G. 
Alone he accumulates merit ; alone be enjoys the various 
happiness of heaven; alone he destroys karma; alone 
also he attains to moksha. 


15. nfTw*TOwr f^-m fiT*\faw$T?r(T%&f{(sn i 

Purushdrtha-siddhyupdya, by Amyita-chandra 

Suri, 10. 
And in an eternal succession ever changing its state 
through the illusions of its thoughts, the soul is the 
[only] causer and experience!' of its states (parindma). 


I. The Soul and non-Soul 

Dravya-samgraha, 23. 
Thus sexpartite, this, according to the division into jlva 
(soul) and ajlva (non-soul), is two dravyas (substances). 

II. Kinds and Qualities of Soul 

2. ^^sftcrTSpR^TfPT: ^T3TT: II ^3 II 

ftf^T^*n3ST: ii q g it 

Tattvartha-sutra, ch. ii, 13, 14. 

Sthdvara (stationary) souls are earth souls, water souls, 
fire souls, air souls, vegetable souls. Trasa (mobile) 
souls are those which have two or more sense-organs. 

3. snxsrf^ wf^ SI" X^t ^ faHf^ T^ T ^ I 
gilf^ ff^ff^ ^T ^f^ WtTT ^ %fa II <^R II 

Panchastikaya, 122. 
The soul knows and sees all ; desires happiness ; is afraid 
of pain ; does friendly or unfriendly actions, and enjoys 
[or suffers] the fruits of them. 

*fr ^*fr tttot g^n ^faf^jjrre? ^wr^r u 30 11 

Ibid. 30. 
That which by means of the four prdrias (living 
principles animating the body) lives, shall live, and 
has previously lived, is [called] & jlva (or mundane soul). 
The prdnas, again, are (l) power (bala) (of body, 
mind, or speech); (2) the (five) senses; (8) vitality 
(dijuh) ; (4) respiration. 


mTTT ^^ttt^Tt ftwft *fr f^RTf if; 11 r ii 
^^f ttt *fr sftTt fww^nre^r ^ %^rrr *PST II 3 II 

Dravya-samgraha, 2, 3. 

It (the soul) is (l) jiva (that which lives) ; (2) possessed 
of upayoga, _which is of two kinds, the power of 
perceiving (darsana) and knowing (jnana)}; (3) amurta 
(immaterial) ; (4) kartd (the doer of all actions) ; (5) 
svadeha-parimdna (of the size of its body, which it 
completely fills) ; (6) bhoktd (enjoyer of the fruits of 
actions) ; (7) samsdrastha (located in the changing 
universe); (8) siddha (in its perfect condition a Siddha); 
(9) urdhvagati (of an upward tendency). That which in 
the three times has four jjrdnas (senses, power, vitality, 
and respiration) is conventionally soul : but from the 
ial point of view that which has consciousness 
is soul. 

III. Attributes of the non-Soul 

flfa ^%^ir7T Mf^t *TT*HST ^m^T II <^8 II 

Panchdstikdya, 12-1. 
Space, time, matter, dharma, and adharma have not 
the qualities of soul ; they are said to be non-conscious, 
whereas soul has consciousness. 

IV. The Six Substances 

^fa^f^ i^f\ rrrt frrt ^^trr^srit^ ^ i 
^ra ft *t3ft ww^ <r ^Trr^r ii o. ii 

Panchdstikdya, 9. 
That which runs, i.e. passes, into such and such natures 
and modifications is called dravya (substance). It is 
never distinct from existence (sattd). 


8. ^im fawT tit ?twt jwff ^t t^xnr w ^h^; i 
^wf^fTTfr *tt^t ^w*rcrn!! i^ w h ^ 11 

Pahchdstikdya, 18. 
Attributes cannot exist apart from substance. And there 
can be no substance without attributes. Therefore the 
existence of attributes and substance is inseparable. 

9. ^t wwfxrr^ ^n^w*Hprrrch|Ti i 

^Ibid. 10. 
That which is distinguished as existent (sat) and which 
is associated with coming into existence, going out of 
existence, and continuous sameness of existence, and also 
is the substratum of attributes and modifications, that 
the omniscient ones term substance (dravya). 

l o. ^ftcf ^*nn^f ^fin tjtt w^m ^w i 

Paramdtma-prakdsa, 142. 
Soul (jiva) is the only conscious or knowing substance. 
The remaining five are without consciousness : (i.e.) 
matter (pudgala), principle of motion (dharma), principle 
of stationariness (adharma), space (dkdsa), and time 
(kdla) are different (from jiva or soul). 

1 1 . ^^jfr^rt^f^ntf ^ if^^T^T *x!t t ^ ^wnfifi i 

Paiichdstikdya, 82. 

Things enjoyable by the senses, the five senses them- 
selves, the bodies [including the five kinds of bodies], the 
mind, the karmas, and the other material objects — all 
this know as matter (pudgala). 


12. \*wTf?srerr^RT*T -^cppi^ ^r^tqrra' i 
?Tf ■^T^^77r«TTTTf v^t *w fcra-pTrff n cq h 

Panchastikaya, 83-5. 
Dharmdstikdya is devoid of taste, colour, smell, sound, 
touch, is coterminous with the universe (loka), is 
indivisible, all-pervading, and has innumerable spatial 
units (pradesas) ; ever operating in virtue of its infinite 
attributes, including heavy and light; is eternal, and is 
the essential condition for all moving bodies, and is itself 
the product of none. As in the (normal) world water 
is a help to the motion of fishes, in a like manner is the 
substance dharma, be assured, to that of soul (Jiva) 
and matter (ajiva). 

13. 5Tf fff^ V^T^W fTf * wrfwi ^¥*TO«^i I 

Ibid. 86. 

Know that the substance called adharma is of the same 
kind as the substance dharma. It is the essential 
condition of stationary things, like the earth. 

14. ^ffa ^tTP!r wrcr *% ^ vn\*nm ^ i 

Ibid. 90. 

That which gives place in this universe to all souls and 
likewise to all other matter — that, as a whole, is tin- 
substance space (dkdsa). 


15. sftcrr^^ww ^fr^f^i^TTnr i^ ^t^t n 

Niyama-sdra, 33. 

That which is the cause of the modification of soul and 
other substances {dravyas) would be time {kala). 

16. cTcR^tpgw^r ^'r^wsriF^T^rr ^ i 

PaficJidstikdya, 24, 25. 

That which is devoid of five colours [hrishna (black), 
harita (green), pita (yellow), rakta (red), and sveta 
(white)] ; of five tastes [tikta (pungent), katuka (bitter), 
kshdra (saline), kashdyila (acid), and mishta (sweet)] ; 
of two smells [sugandha (agreeable) and durgandha 
(disagreeable)] ; of eight kinds of touch [light and heavy, 
smooth and rough, soft and hard, and hot and cold] ; 
and which has the agurulaghit, attribute (i.e. the set of 
central attributes which sustain the others), is immaterial 
and is characterized by modifications [of other substances] 
— is time (kdla). Samaya (unit of time), nimisha, 
kdshthd, kald, nail, divdrdtra, vidsa, rtu, ayana, 
samvatsara — these are secondary time. 

17. *Pr*TRn*nji£% ^IE# % f^TT ¥ ^Is^T I 

Dravya-savigralm, 22. 

In each pradcsa of lokdkdsa each atom of time is fixed 
like a heap of jewels. These atoms of time are innumerable 
and substances. 


18. \*m^mnrR^i*ut^^^fa^m i 

Tattvartha-sara, by Amrita-chandra Suri, 17. 

Dharma, adharma, and akasa are each a single dravya, 
whereas time, matter, and souls are held to be in- 
numerable dravyas. 

V. Astikayas (Substances) 

19. TH W 5 ^^ ^faTaftTO^^t^l" I 

Dravya-sarngraha, 23. 

These are six kinds, but the principal division is into 
two categories (dravyas), soul (jiva) and non-soul 
(ajiva). These, excepting time (kdla), know to be the 
five astikayas. 

20. ^frT *T^t 3*0 1 ^^ ^ **^ fao&TJ ^*U I 

Ibid. 24. 

Since these things exist (i.e. have sattd), the Best 
of Jinas [or Tirthankaras] call them asti ; and since, 
like bodies, they have many spatial units (pradesas), 
therefore they are called kaya and astikaya. 

21. Wt^T gT^^rRn ^"RIT^ ^f^^T^T €*TT I 

Panchastikaya, 22. 

Soul (jiva), matter (pudgala) and bodies, space (akasa), 
and the other [two] astikiiyas (dharma and adharma, 
the principles of motion and stationariness) are uncreated, 
possessed of the quality of existence, and the causes (or 
condition) of the universe. 


22. WNT gur^TCT ^WT^T cif *r ^n^rr* I 

Ibid. 4. 

Soul (jlva), matter (pudgala) and bodies, principle of 
motion (dharma), principle of stationariness (adharma), 
and space (dkdsa) are steady in their state of existence, 
and are not distinct from their existence (sattd). These 
have many atoms (anu). 

23. ^^i^t: "ff^T wra^wt^TRTJT ii *= ii 
^T^Tsi^TRnn: ii o. ii ^fpn^ffsrg xjin?rr*n^ mo n 

Tattvdrtha-sutra, v, 8-10. 

Principle of motion (dharma), principle of stationariness 
(adharma), the individual soul (jlva) — each has in- 
numerable units of space (pradesas). Space has infinite 
pradesas. Matter (pudgala) has pradesas which may 
be numbered or which may not be numbered [and 
which are infinite]. 

[Note. — Molecule (skandha) can be numbered as to 
its atoms (])aramdiiu) . Some skandha s cannot be 
numbered, as their constituent atoms may be number- 
less, e.g. a mountain. Some skandhas will contain an 
infinity of atoms, as an ocean, the world.] 

24. %fa -^rtrer *f rsTr ^fl *w ^"ssntfw fafaiff i 
§r llfa ^f^nsTCT fxii^TO ^ff ?i*fN> ii m II 

Pafichastikdya, 5. 

Those of which the existence is accompanied with 
various attributes and modifications, and which are 
substances (astikdya), form the constituent elements of 
the three worlds. 


Tattvartha-sutra, v, 28. 
Material things (pudgaldh) are distinguished bypossession 
of touch, taste, smell, and colour. 

26. ixw*' ^fi*rrs n ^m ii 

Ibid. 25. 
Matter is either atom (ami) or molecule (skandha). 

27. TTCTT^ft fa ^TH[ xUTTTTT^\p*T!*Qfr ^^ ' 

*r¥^fr ^^nrr ^m ^ ^rnrt *nrrfa ^i"^ ii ^ ii 

Dra vya-sa mgra ha, 26. 

The atom, though it has only one spatial unit (pradcsa), 
yet, since in combination to form a molecule it fills 
many units, is by the all-knowing ones through associa- 
tion called body (kdya). 

28. ^tar^ra^ratii «ra nwfi ^ wro^r ^ i 

httw^t^^t ^fw^T ^t.^5*n?rfaf^ ^^rr i 
wr Tfa; faqfcrr *pxft*r*nfa*rr^taT 11 ^ 11 
WT*rnre*rr^teT ^^r^^fafa; fa^nwTfi i 
*j?*r^%f^ ^ff^■^■[ T=j\rr ^^f^raT ^ 11 ^ 11 

■afa^fUn ^T ^S^*T Tfa; q^fa ii ^tf ii 

Niyama-sdra, 21-4. 

Matter is of six kinds — very gross-gross (atisthfila- 
sthiila), gross (sthula), gross-fine (sthCda-stlkshma), fine- 
gross (sukshma-sthfda), fine (sukshma), and very fine 
(ati-sukshma). Masses such as earth, mountains, etc., 
are called very gross-gross ; as gross should be understood 
butter, water, oil, and so forth; shade, sunshine, and so 


forth know to be gross-fine masses ; fine-gross are called 
those molecules which are the objects of the four senses; 
fine, again, are the molecules which compose the matter 
of karma; and fine-fine, observe, are those which surpass 
these last-named. 

29. ir*n;*rcwTO ^r^rr^ ^^tt^^r^ i 
T=hi7TfT^ ^w tf^^Tw rr fwrcrfw ii 

PaficJidstikdya, 81. 
The substance (dravya) which has one taste, one colour, 
one smell, and two kinds of touch, is a cause of the 
production of sound, but is itself soundless, and is 
distinct from molecule {skandha), know that to be 
ultimate atom (paramdnu). 

^wjw^r ^ittt friiw^^Tr ^*ra^ft *n 11 e 11 

Dravya-samgraha, 9. 

This soul through expansion or contraction becomes 
big or small according to the body occupied by it, 
except in samudghata [the condition when some particles 
{pradesas) of the soul expand and go out of the body 
and then come back to it, as in the case of the dhdraka 
body]. This is from the practical point of view : but 
from the real point of view the soul has innumerable 
spatial units {pradesas). 

31. -H^I^fTT-fa^TqTWrf TT^t^^^ It <*§ II 

Tattvartha-sutra, v, 1G. 
In respect of the expanding and contracting of its 
particles, it [the soul] is as a lamp [the light of which 
equally fills a small and a large space]. 

32. -JTfTTf^m^fr ^twrtj^^WfiTT: ii q^ 11 ibid. 17. 

The support of motion and rest respectively is the service 
of dharma and adharma. 


VI, VII. Karmas 
33. *TT3T> WR^^THl i«H <4^^f ^^^T*TO>^TnT- 

TT^t: II g ll Tattvartha-sutra, viii, 4. 

The first is jndiidvaranlya (knowledge - obscuring), 
darsandvaraniya (faith- or perception-obscuring), veda- 
nlya (sensation-, pleasure-, and pain-, causing), mohaniya 
(infatuating), ciyuh (vitality), nama (characterizing the 
individual's body, etc.), gotra (family), antardyu 
(obstruction) . 

34. ^TTRTWfT^Tr^ ^^T^if^r: 11 
ifrf^V^wj^^TWiPW^ar fwr: 11 z^ 11 

*TT»?3|W*!$"^^T^rcTf*TOTf*rc: II 30. II 

^TTTT^^^^^T^^rTTt^JTTf^fTT: II 8° II 

Tattvartha-sara, viii, 37-10. 
Through the removal of knowledge-obscurance the souls 
have perfect knowledge. Through the destruction of 
perception-obscurance (or faith-obscurance) there arises 
in them perfect perception (or faith). Through the 
destruction of the vedaniya karmas they attain immunity 
from affliction. Through destruction of the mohaniya 
they attain unshakable perfection. Through destruction 
of dyuh (vitality) they acquire supreme fineness. 
Through destruction of nama they acquire the capacity 
of allowing all objects to occupy the same place with 
them (avagdhana). Through destruction of gotra the 
souls are always neither light nor heavy. Through 


destruction of obstructive karmas they attain infinite 

*ftW II Q. II Tattvdrtha-sutra, viii, 9. 

Mohanlya karma is of two kinds, darsana and charitra ; 
vedaniya karma is of two kinds, dkashaya and kashaya ; 
darsana-mohanlya is of three kinds ; chdritra-mohanlya 
is of two kinds ; akashdya-vedanlya is of nine kinds ; 
kashdya-vedanlya is of sixteen kinds. 

Darsana-mohanlya karmas are samyaktva (that 
which makes right faith or perception defective), 
mithydtva (that which leads the soul away from right 
faith or perception), samyaktva-mithydtva (mixed right 
and wrong faith). 

Chdritra-mohanlya karmas are akashdya (by which 
only a light kind of passion is experienced), kashaya 
(by which passion is experienced). 

Akashdya-vedanlyas are hdsya,rati, arati, soka,bhaya, 
jugupsd, strl-veda, purusha-veda, napumsaka-veda. 

Kashdya-vedanlyas are four anantdnubandhis (which 
accompany mithydtva or false belief; ananta = mith- 
ydtva) ; four apratydkhydndvaranlyas (which obstruct 
partial renunciation, i.e. the fifth Guna-sthdna ; see 
above, p. 50) ; four pratydkhydndvararilyas (which 
obstruct total renunciation, i.e. the sixth Guna-sthdna ; 
see above, p. 51) ; four sanjvalanas (which grow with 
samyama, but do not destroy it, though keeping it 


VIII. The Tattvas (Principles) 

36. ^r^T^t^T^^^^rR^Tf^wrr^^rr^^'T 11 8 11 

Tattvdrtha-sutra, i, 4. 

The principles (tattvas) are j'ica (soul), ajiva (non- 
soul), asrava (influx of karma), bandha (bondage), 
samvara (stopping of inflow), nirjara (falling off), 
vioksha (or nirvana, final liberation). 

37. WTTfafaTT ^t^ttt WffT *W*IU1<*M^<I I 

Panclidstikdya, 14*. 

Penetration by matter is due to activity (yoga), and 
activity arises from mind, body, or speech ; bondage of 
the soul is due to thought-activity, and that thought 
is accompanied by desire, passion, inflammation, and 
infatuation (or intoxication). 

•38. ^T^nrrfpr.^w sffrn n <ui h ^rra^: h r ii 

Tattvdrtha-sutra, vi, 1, 2. 
Action on the part of body, mind, or speech is yoga. 
It is asrava (influx of karma). 

39. ^TH^f^; inn ^w xrfTwmujaiurt ^ fa%^fr i 

T7TTTtTT[r i|Ui4^ ffT^^f 3i*reT 5*^Tf ^W^T II 30 II 

^gumH *r %^n ^rci^w^h" I^w^it^t ii ?q 11 

Dravya-samgraha, 29-81. 

That activity of the soul whereby karma Hows into 
it is said by the Jina to be bhdvdsrava (subjective 


influx) : Jravydsrava is other. False belief (mithydtva), 
non - renunciation (avirati), heedlessness (pramada), 
activity {yoga), and anger (krodha), etc. — these are to 
be recognized with varieties five, five, fifteen, three, 
four, according to the differences of the previous 
karma. Matter of various colours, etc., which flows 
into the active soul is to be known as dravydsrava 
(objective influx) : it is described by the Jina as of 
various kinds. 

Note. — The varieties mentioned are the following : — 

1. Of mithydtva: (l) ekdnta, a one-sided belief in 
a thing ; (2) viparlta, belief in the opposite of what 
is really right ; (3) vinaya, a universal respecting of 
right and wrong belief, with attention only to conduct ; 

(4) samsaya, unsettled belief, scepticism or doubt ; 

(5) aj nana, ignorant indifference to right belief. 

2. Of avirati : (l) kimsd, killing or injuring living- 
beings ; (2) asatya, untruth; (3) stcya, stealing or using 
another's property without his consent; (4) abrahma, 
unchastity ; (o) parigraha, worldly concerns. 

3. Of pramada : (l) stri-kathd, gossip about women ; 
(2) bhojana-kathd, idle talk about food; (3) rdshtra- 
katha, idle talk about politics; (4) avani-pala-kathd, 
idle talk about kings ; (5-8) the four kashdyas or 
passions — krodha, anger ; mava, pride; maya, deception 
or illusion ; lobha, greed ; (9-13) the five senses— use 
of the sense of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch ; 
(14) nidra, sleep ; (15) sneha, affection. 

4. Of yoga : those due respectively to mind, body, 
and speech. 

5. Of kashdya : anger, pride, deceit, greed (of .a 
different quality from the same four as appearing under 


Tattvdrtha-sutra, viii, 2. 
Being associated with passion (kashdya), the soul takes 
in matter adaptable for action (karma), and this is 
bondage (bandlia). 

41. faWT^lT^faTfa^TT^T^^T ^^f n^: II =| II 

Ibid, viii, 1. 
The causes of bondage are mithyddarsana (false 
perception or faith) ; avirati (non-abstention, i.e. not 
refraining from doing what is prohibited by the five 
vows, such as non-killing, etc.) ; pramdda (irreverence 
towards knowledge and the sources of it) ; kashdya 
(passions) ; yoga (the three kinds of activity by body, 
mind, or speech : see above, pp. 93-4). 

<*wn^^inni ^Tfr^q^TTf ^rr 11 3^ 11 

Dra vya-samgraha, 32. 
The thought-activity of the soul through which karmic 
matter can bind it is called bhdva-bandha. The (actual) 
intermingling of karmic matter with the particles 
(pradesas) of the soul is the other (i.e. dravya-bandha) . 

43. •R^frif^cg^TT'nfiTT^f^tn?: II 3 II 

Tattvdrtha-siltra, viii, 3. 
The forms of it (i.e. of bandlia) are (l) prakriti (according 
to the nature of karmic matter which actually binds the 
soul) ; (2) sthiti (according to the duration of the 
attachment of matter to the soul) ; (3) anubhdga 
(according as the fruition is likely to be mild or strong) ; 
(4) pradesa (according as to the number of atoms 
{karma-vargands) of karmic matter which attach to 
the soul). 


44. *TW 5T^T *=[^ 3^ *f|*T TR ^ TUt^T f^T^W I 

PailcJidstikdya, 143. 
At the moment when on the part of an ascetic detached 
from desire no good or bad actions (of mind) are in 
operation, at that moment such an ascetic attains 
stoppage (samvara) of good or bad karmas. 

45. f%5lffrT ^T tf *TtTT Trer^T: "g^TIT: 

^diXd i *rr<J -s|lfa«i: ^fe**: II $ ll 

Samayasara-kalasa, v, 6. 
Though karmas which became attached to the soul in 
the past do not give up their existence, and though at 
their mature time they take the form of substances ; still, 
in consequence of the expulsion of all love, hatred, and 
attachment, the binding by karma does not befall one 
who has knowledge. 

46. %^7TprfT*UT*fr ^r ^wrerT^TftrTt^ if; i 

^^rfa^NTft^fr ^wrw^i t q^faf "sr^fr ^ i 
^Ttt^ *ra?wr *!!tcwt *n«i^rTfawr n $m ii 

Dravya-samgraha, 34-5. 
The thought-activity of the soul by which the inflow 
of karma is stopped is called bliava-samvara. That 
which actually stops the inflow of matter is another. 
The following are the species of bhdva- samvara : — 
Vratas, or vows. [These are five : (l) ahimsa (not 
to cause or tend to cause pain or destruction to any 
living being by thought, speech, or conduct) ; (2) sat>/<i 


(truth in speech, thought, and deed); (3) asteya (to take 
nothing, unless, and except, it is given); (4) brahma- 
charya (chastity, lit. the devoted contemplation of the 
self by the soul) ; (o) parigraha-tydga (renunciation 
of worldly concerns).] 

Samitis, religious observances. [These are five: (1) 
Iryd (walking carefully, so as not to hurt any living 
being) ; (2) bhdshd (speaking relevantly and without 
hurting anyone's feelings) ; (3) eshana (taking only 
pure food, not specially prepared for the saint) ; 
(4) adananikshepana (careful handling of the few 
things, such as water-bowl, brush, and scriptures, which 
ascetics may keep) ; (5) pratishthdpana or utsarga 
(great care as to where to answer the calls of 
nature, etc.). j 

Gupti, or restraint. This is of three kinds : of body, 
mind, and speech.] 

Dharmas, or pious duties. [These are ten : (l) supreme 
forgiveness, suppression of all feelings of anger or 
retaliation, and ready forgiveness of all injuries, real 
or otherwise ; (2) humility, ever-present and sincere 
humility ; (3) frankness ; (4) integrity ; (o) truth 
in feeling and action ; (6) restraint of the senses and 
compassion towards all living beings ; (7) austerity 
and self-denial : (8) renunciation of merely worldly 
concerns; (9) realizing that the world and its things 
cannot belong in reality to the true ' I ' ; (10) chastity. 

Anuprekshd, or contemplation. [It is of twelve kinds : 
(l) anitya — the world is transient ; (2) asarana — no 
one can protect us from the fruition of karmas ; 
(3) samsdra — these karmas keep us in the cycle of 
existences till they have all matured and left us finally 
in nirvana; (4) ekatva — we are ourselves the doers 
and enjoyers and makers of our life here or hereafter ; 


(5) anyatva — all else (the body, etc.) is separate from 
us ; (6) asuchitva — the various impurities of the 
body, which cannot have the qualities of soul ; 
(7) a snivel — karmic matter is flowing into the soul, and 
thus new bonds are forged for the captivity of the soul 
in the world; (8) samvara — we must stop this inflow 
of karmas ; (9) nirjard — we must free the soul from 
matter, which has already attached to it in the past ; 
(lO) loka — the world is eternal ; its six elements, the 
dravyas, souls, matter, time and space, principles of 
motion, and rest, are eternal too ; (11) bodhi-durlabha — 
it is difficult to attain wisdom, i.e. right faith, knowledge,, 
and conduct ; we must strive to get these ; (12) dharma, 
the Law — our duty is to get freedom and happiness.] 

Parisaha-jaya, troubles and sufferings, the overcoming 
of which leads to samvara. [These are twenty-two : 
(1) hunger; (2) thirst; (3) cold; (4) heat; (5) insect- 
bites, etc. ; (6) nakedness ; (7) troubles arising from the 
conditions of a particular time or country, e.g. in 
warfare, plague, etc. ; (8) women ; (9) careful walking ; 
(10) posture adopted must be continued; (ll) sleeping 
on hard ground after soft beds in royal palaces; (12) 
abuse of ourselves or of our doctrine by others; (13) 
ill-usage; (14) begging; (15) ill-success in begging; 
(1G) disease; if self-imposed duties weaken the body, 
renounce the idea of strengthening it by means of 
medicine, etc.; (17) thorns and pebbles prick the 
wandering ascetics ; (ltt) dirt ; (19) no reverence 
is given to the ascetic by people ; he should not 
mind ; (20) he never feels proud of his victory even 
over the most learned ; (21) waiting for illumina- 
tion ; (22) waiting for the evolution of the soul's 

Chdritra, conduct of many kinds. 


47. -faqwT 4«JW II W II cffi^r f^^TT II *3 II 

Tattvdrtha-sutra, viii, 21, 2H. 

The fruition of a karma upon its maturing is experience 
(anubhava). Thence follows (savipdka) nirjard. 

4*. ^TWt^tf si^t rr?ff Wt f^3% STUfafff I 

Panchdstikdya, 144. 
Whoso, occupying himself with the activities which stop 
the inflow of karmas, persists in ascetic practices of 
various kinds — verily such an one makes many karmas 
fall away from his soul. 

49. ^qTTp^w: *rmt fwrr f?rfwr ^ *n i 

^T?IT f^tJT^^TT cT^ f^fftoT xrrf^T^T II R II 

eR*TT«fqrer ^^ ^^ *TT t^xjT^i^TT II 3 II 

H?I ^3I?T 3W m *ref^I ^lf*RT3fi*rT II g II 

^*fiT% tfV "ff^^ r!^T ^tfTTfUT ^ff ttt II M II 

HWTWT *WT f^fft^T 7T r^f^TTR II $ II 

Tattvdrtha-sdra, vii, 2-6. 
The falling away of karma attaching to the soul is 
called nirjard. It is of two kinds : of these the first is 
called ripeness-born (vipdkajd), th^ second unripeness- 
born (avipaka ). When in a soul which is subject to 
the ripening of karmas attached to it from eternity 
the karmas fructify and perish — the process is called 
ripeness-born. When by force of ascetic practices 


(tapas) those karmas which are not yet ready to operate 
are made to enter the class of those ready to operate, 
and are experienced — the process is called avipdka 
nirjard. As a mango or pine-apple can be made to 
ripen by artificial means even out of time, similarly 
the karmas of embodied souls. The first belongs to 
all souls which get rid of matured karma in due 
course by experiencing it, whereas the other is found 
in ascetics only. 

50. fTtmT fa^TT ^ II 3 II Tattvdrtha-sutra, ix, 3. 
Falling away may be through asceticism (tajias) also. 

51. spt 3*rw ^Tft ftpsrwrcpf ** ^w^wrrftr i 
^*r^^rwt *j*if^ vi ttw ^r *ftwt ii ^ ii 

Pafichdstikdya, 158. 
When a soul has attained samvara and is getting rid of 
all karmas, and on withdrawal of the vedaniya, dyuh, 
etc. {gotra and ndma, i.e. the four aghdtiya or non- 
destructive) karmas, takes leave of existence, that is 
therefore [called] moksha ("leaving")- ..;-- 

52. Wf<wnrf*i3TTwri" WM^fwiWt *iW: II R II 

Tattvdrtha-sutra, x, 2. 
Complete release from all karma through non-existence 
of causes of bondage and through nirjard is moksha. 

iH * H H^ «ri^ ^wMtwt ^ qjwrj^HT^r 11 ?e 11 

Dravya-samgraha, 37. 
The evolution (parmdma) of the soul which is the 
one cause of annihilation of all karmas is called bhdva- 
moksha. The actual freedom from all karmic matter is 
called dravy a -moksha. 

texts: METAPHYSICS IX 101 

IX. The Nine Padarthas 
54. whrrafaT *TRT 3^ W ^ ^T*R Tffa I 

Pafwhdstikdya, 108. 
Soul (jiva), non-soul {ajlva), merit (punya), sin or 
demerit (2)dpa), inflow of matter (dsrava of meritorious 
or sinful karmas), its cessation {samvara), falling 
away {nirjard), bondage (bandha), and final liberation 
(moksha) are the (nine) principles (padarthas). 


^t*tf xftT^T^r^Tft *n<ft ^WW ^tTT II <^* II 

Ibid. 132. 
The good evolution (parindma) of the soul is merit 
(punya) ; the bad evolution is sin {papa). It is the 
materialization of these two which becomes (good or 
bad) karmas. 

Note. — The former is merit or sin of thought 
(bhdva) ; the latter is realized (dravya) merit or sin. 

f*niff irrfar ^f * tjw wt^ra ^n*r*rf^ 11 °i3M ii 

Ibid. 135. 
Whatever soul has attachment only to right conduct 
'e.g. devotion to the Arhats, etc.], whose evolution is 
penetrated with compassion, and the inner nature of 
which is without impurity of a grosser kind, punya 
(meritorious karmas) flows into it. 


Ibid. 139. 


Action full of negligence, impurity, distraction among 
the objects of the senses, causing pain to or talking 
evil of others, produce an inflow of sin. 


Samayasdra-kalasa, by Amritachandra 8uri, iv, 1-3. 

Then, reducing to unity the karma, which is distinguished 
into two kinds according to good or bad (thoughts), this 
flood of nectar in the form of full knowledge arises of 
itself, annihilating all the dust of infatuation. One, 
falsely considering himself to be a Brahman, keeps 
away from wine ; while another, knowing himself as 
a Sudra, constantly bathes in the same ; and the two 
have come forth together from the womb of the same 
Sudra mother, and therefore are obviously Sudras, but 
are pursuing different rules of conduct because of 
imaginary differences of caste. 

The cause, nature, experience, and support of these 
two \])tnji/<( and papa] being the same, therefore there is 
no difference in the karma. Therefore they are best 
regarded sis one, dependent upon the manner of 
bondage, and are certainly all by themselves a cause 
of bondage. 


X, XI. Bodies 
r >!». ^^fT^tfafa^f TT^tw^T^WTfa ITftTTfW II $£ II 

t?^ TTt mzm II ^ II 

"R^rPt W#*TJW HT5fi tw^Tci:. II $^ II 

^Tifl3% xr^ || $<£ II Tattvdrtha-sutra, ii, 36-9. 

Bodies are : audarika (the physical body of all men and 
animals) ; vaikriyika (the body of gods and denizens 
of hell, which they can change at will) : dhdraka (the 
spiritual man-like emanation that flames forth from the 
head of a saint when he wants to remove his doubt on 
some momentous and urgent point) ; taijasa (the 
magnetic body of all embodied souls) ; kdrmana (the 
body of karmic matter of all embodied souls). Each 
is more refined than the preceding. The bodies pre- 
ceding the taijasa (i.e. audarika, vaikriyika, and 
dhdraka) have each untold times the number of atoms 
which are in the one preceding it; the two others 
(taijasa and kdrmana) each an infinite number of times. 

00. 'SRTf^TW xT il 8^ II 1W II BR II Ibid. -11-2. 

(The magnetic (taijasa) and the karmic (kdrmana) 
bodies) have been attached (to the soul) from everlasting. 
To all souls (i.e. to all embodied souls ; in other Avoids, 
to all souls except the Siddhas). 

XII. Forms of Existence or Gatis 
7Tf| ^ f^TSl^Tli fTTff T^ft ^ ^fUTT ^T II <^<» II 


xf$ fsnrrcTTfw *rf%^r ^mif^fwwr ^fxirwr ^t h ^q ii 

Panchastikaya, 128-30. 

Verily the soul which is in samsara (cycle of existences) 
has (impure) evolution. From evolution comes karma* 
and from karma the state of existence (gati) in 
[various] existences. And the soul, going into any 
state of existence (gati), assumes a physical body : 
from this body the sense-organs arise ; these come into 
touch with sense-objects ; thence arises attachment or 
aversion — thus thought-state is produced in the soul 
within the bounds of transient existences. And this 
thought-state may be without beginning and end or 
else with end. So have the best of Jinas declared of it. 

XIII. Lesyas (Paints of the Soul) 
62. -faqi; wt^T?; xr^ firr^SWg^ ^ I 

^ft^TTT^Tft %W ^T*J"3^Tf<fwr fK I 

tttTt ^TTrf ^m cj\r^3^ **jffT ii tf c £ ii 
f^tf t tot^t ^tst *N» tot ^ ^mwmi ^ i 

^WTXjr fw^T i^lN f^frT tW^W II 80-^ II 

*3T^3 ^STTt Tf^ ^T TT^ITTT ^TTT ^ ofiWT II MOO II 

Gonvniata-sdra,Jivakaijda, by Nemi-chandra Siddhanta- 
chakravartin, 488-9, 492, 507. 

That whereby the soul is tinted, identified, with merit 
and demerit (jtniji/n and papa) is called lesyd • ; so it is 
taught by those who know the qualities of lesyds. The 
lesyd due to mental application and action becomes 


tinged by the interposition of the passions. Thence 
arises a double effect and a fourfold bondage. Black, 
indigo, grey, fiery, lotus, and white are the designations 
of the lesyds, sixfold according to rule. Uprooting, 
trunk, cutting bough or branch, plucking, eating fallen 
fruit— thus would be the action in accordance with these. 


63. %ff f ^f^53Wf ^^TTf^lJ W%t% HT^ff I 
^t % ^Tnrwr twt^f T ^W^T^tl II c II 

Gommata-sdra, Jivakanda, 8. 
Those states by which, arising in them at the maturity. 
etc., of k annas, the spiritual position of souls is recog- 
nized and determined, are by the all -seeing ones 
designated under the name gunas. 

64. fa^r *rrcrcrfa*fr ^rfar^*fr ^ t^faT^r ^ i 
faT^roHTT ^vr trvw ^fwvi *js*fr ^ ii e II 

^^T Wt^WRTT 3WTT ftni ^ TiTT^WT HO II 

Ibid. 9-10. 

There are fourteen stages of the soul (guna-sthanas) : 

(1) False belief (mithyatva). [The thought-state 
(bhava) of the soul due to the manifestation of karma s 
that produce false knowledge or belief (or perception). 
From this the soul always goes to the fourth stage. 

(2) Backsliding (sdsddana). [When the soul from the 
fourth stage falls back into the first on account of false 
belief, it passes through the second stage, and the 
thought-states (bhdvas) in the passage are called 
sdsddana.] (3) Mixed right and wrong belief (misra). 

down from the fourth to the first 


stage, on account of mixed right and false belief at one 
and the same time, it passes through the third stage, 
and its thought-state then is called misra.] (i) Eight 
faith, but not acted on (avirata-samyaktva) . [The soul 
has faith in the path to salvation, but cannot observe 
the vows (vratas).} (5) Beginning of right conduct 
[desa-virata, Partial renunciation of the world.] (6) 
Slight negligence as to right conduct {pramatta-virata). 
[After renunciation of all worldly objects, still occasionally 
to turn the mind to the service or needs of the body.] 
(7) Right conduct free from all negligence {a pramatta- 
virata). [Renouncing the last-named occasional care of 
the body too.] (8) Initiation to the higher life (apurva- 
karana). [Karana, or bhdva, which had not yet found 
entry into the saint's soul. This is the beginning of 
the first sukla-dhydna, or white contemplation.] (9) 
Incessant pursuit of the higher life (anivritti-karana) . 
[Special bhdvas of a still greater purity.] (10) Condition 
almost devoid of desires {sukshma-sampardya). [All 
passions {kashdya) are destroyed or suppressed except 
mere nominal desire (sukshma - sanjvalana -lobha).] 
(11) Condition entirely devoid of desires {npasanti). 
[A psychic condition {bhdva) which is produced by the 
suppression of the entire conduct-disturbing — char it ra- 
mohanlya — karma.] (12) Infatuationlessness (ksJuna- 
vioJia). [In this stage all the intoxicating karma is 
annihilated.] (13) Omniscience in the embodied condition 
(sayoga-kevalin). [Here the knowledge-obscuring, faith- 
or perception-obscuring, and the obstructive karmas are 
also destroyed. The soul becomes arhat. But vibrations 
in the soul remain.] (ll) Omniscience (ayoga-kevalin) . 
[This is attained when there is before the sayoga- 
kevalin s death enough time to speak out the five letters 
^, ^, ^3, "^7. ^. The vibrations in the soul cease, 


and unbreakable harmony and perfect peace are attained 
in final liberation (moksJia) from mundane bondage. 
In due course after this the souls are Siddhas. So it 
must be known ! 

XV. The Three Jewels 

65. ^^T^^^T^T^T^ifT^Tfiir *fr^*TR: II S II 

Tattvartha-siitra, i, 1. 
Right faith (or perception), right knowledge, and right 
conduct constitute the way to moksha. 

66. -fa^fa^ ^rrr$ ^mt ^N^wito* i 
*?frr^Tn*"fa*T^: etc: *Hff sfa wrr: ii m ii 
^w wtviTJl ^^^tt ^iraran^rnfc i 

^fTT^ ^N^ff?! ^^t^ ^irt *rrf% ii i ii 

^flT TFf ff W2TT fa^cTT *rTSrf%W^ II a II 
^fTTfaWT V "^^T tra*T ^Tfa WIW- I 

■RT^rfrT <ut«ti«ii: * t& niwrafa^ ftp*: 11 *= 11 

Purushdrtha-siddhyupdya, by Amrita-chandra Suri,5-8. 

The nischaya mode (of statement) they describe as real; 
the vyavahdra mode as not real. All mundane souls 
are mostly opposed to knowledge of the reality of 
things. The great saints {muni) teach the non-real 
mode, so that the ignorant may understand : who so 
understands only with practical mode, in him there is 
no teaching. As to a man who has not seen a lion 
a cat is the only lion, so a man who knows not the real 
method takes the practical method itself for reality ! 
That disciple alone who understands both the real and 


the practical method, and takes a higher view equally 
distinct from both, obtains the full fruit of the teaching. 

67. ^ttr ^T*n^rr*nFT*rofiTmfT"ra; i 

f%1J5T*Tr£JRSTt *W*^N*TOTO*i: II 8 II 

Bat no ka ra n/Ja-snl vakachurya , by Samanta-bhadra 
Acharya, 4. 
Right faith (or perception) consists in believing the true 
ideal (apta), scriptures (cigama), and teacher {guru). 
Such right faith is free from the three follies, has eight 
members, and no pride. 

Note. — The three follies relate to false gods {deva), 
place (loka, e.g. bath in the Ganges will wash off sins), and 
teacher (guru). The eight members (angas) are freedom 
from doubt, from desire for worldly comforts, from 
aversion to or regard for the body, etc., from inclination 
for the wrong path ; redeeming the defects of ineffective 
believers ; sustaining souls in right conviction, 
loving regard for pious persons, and publishing the 
greatness of Jaina doctrines. Their names are nih- 
sankita, n isJi kaii ksh ita , nirvich ikitsita , a m udhadrishti, 
npaguhana, sthitikarana, vatsalya, prabhdvand. The 
eight kinds of pride are pride in family (kula), con- 
nexions (jndti), strength (bala), beauty {sundaratd), 
knowledge (Jndna), wealth (dhana), authority (djfid), 
asceticism (tapah). 

68. *ft ^Tfo wrf^ ^f\ ^ttnw ^*wr ^wro I 

*ft ^TfTTT WTT!T ^xufaf^ fW^^t ftf^ II S§R II 

Panchustikaya, 162. 
He who acts, knows, and realizes himself through 
himself as in no way distinct (from the attributes of 
perfect knowledge, etc.) becomes convinced as to conduct, 
knowledge, and faith. 


*niri Tm wrw «wTK*i*iW <j ii 8' ii 

Dravya-samgraha, 42. 
Right and profound knowledge of the nature of the soul 
and non-soul, devoid of doubt, of belief in opposite of 
right, and of illusions is Sahara (definite) and of many 

7( ». *ffT^mTfa^:^T^%^T"fa wr^r 11 q ii 

Tattvartha-sutrd, i, 9. 

Knowledge is (l) mati-jnana (knowledge acquired by 
sense-perceptions) ; (2) sruta-jndna (knowledge acquired 
by reading the scriptures) ; (3) avadhi-jndna (knowledge 
of the distant, non-sensible — in time or space — possessed 
by divine and infernal souls); (4) manahparyaya-jndna 
(knowledge of the thoughts and feelings of others) : 
(o) kevala-jndna (fall or perfect knowledge). 

71. frf^f^rrf*rf^f«rf*»w n s 8 ii ibid. 14. 

Mati-jnana is occasioned through the five senses and 
tbe non-sense (sc. intellect). 

72. ^?i *rf?T^5 st^^t^t^^t 11 \o w ibid. 20. 

Sruta-jndna comes after [and includes] mati-jnana. U 

is of two kinds, of many kinds, and of twelve kinds. 

73. T?^rr^if^T ^mTfa ^jni^f^arsfjwh 11 30 11 

Ibid. 30. 
Together in one soul there may be one, two, three, as 
far as four, kinds of knowledge. 

Note. — If one kind only, it is kevala-jndna ; if two 
kinds, the first two; if three kinds, the first three; if 
four kinds, the first four. For five kinds see 70 above. 

I ■). 


74. H^TTc€l^fr ^f^^nWTTTTJT II *«J II 

^*ftTrcr?TfM*TTi: ^ferwr: St^-rit^ ii ^ 11 

^fq^^: || p;o || Tattvdrtha-sfctra,21, 22, 27. 

Avadhi-jndna in gods and denizens of hell is conditioned 
by birth (innate). In others avadhi-jndna is produced 
by reason of annihilation and tranq utilization {kshaya 
'and upasama of karmic matter) and is of six kinds. 
The range of avadhi-jndna is restricted to bodies having 
form (i.e. material bodies, maurttika). 

Si v» > 

fT^T5rm"R *^r:T?lfr^I || ?c || Ibidi 28, 28. 

Manahparydya-jndna is (l) riju-mati (knowledge of 
the present thoughts and feelings in the minds of others 
or in one's own mind) ; (2) vipula-mati (knowledge of 
the thoughts and feelings of others, whether present 
now or relating to the past or future time). 

Manahparydya extends to infinitesimal parts thereof 
(i.e. of that which is known by avadhi-jndna) . 

^3^tHiT^ ii^^l II "*<> II Ibid. 29. 
Kevala-jndna extends to all modifications of substances. 

JTffTWPTfc^fr faWSTS H 3=1 II Ibid. 81. 
Mati-jndna, sruta-jndna, and avadhi-jndna may be 
perverted (or false) also. 

^ig^T^r fafwfaTft g| xjfwt ^ srrcHrrfr% i 
cr^faf^rfT^cj cTc^TWsrrf faumfrRT 11 8 m ii 

WTfxro ^ fmaTJ ?i TTT:*t ^wr^ifTTJ ii 8$ H 

Dra vya-sa mgraha , 4 5-6. 


Avoidance of bad (asubha) and activity in good, as 
regards thought and conduct, is from the practical point 
of view described by the Jina as the vows (i.e. the five 
vratas), the observances (i.e. the five samitis), and the 
restraints (i.e. the three guptis). But what is by the 
Jina mentioned as the checking of internal and external 
action with a view to destroying for the wise soul the 
cause of migratory existence, this is the highest, the 
right conduct. 

'.». IrTr^^nn^!! ajftr^ft faff 3ff *»nff 3pt ¥ *rr ^*m i 
w $ wf^ faif^r fa w w **rf^ ^r «ft^§ wrt faring 11 

Panchdstikdya, 161. 

When the self, properly so named, being intently 
occupied with those three, does nothing other, and 
leaves nothing undone, that is the way of liberation 



Western logic is material or formal and inductive 
or deductive. Its chief topics are the term, the 
proposition, and the syllogism. Its aim is consistency 
in argument — formal truth mostly. 

Jaina logic has for its aim to remove ignorance ; to 
acquire knowledge ; to know what is harmful, what 
is beneficial and to be adopted, and to what it is fit to 
be indifferent. The whole of Jainism follows the 
maxim : Do not live to know, but know to live. Logic 
is not mental training merely ; it is a necessary help in 
ascertaining the truth, as we move along. 

How to achieve this aim ? By proving things 
througl \ i >ra man a . 

What is pramanal It is that by which is 
established the knowledge of the self and of that 
which was not known before. 

It also means the way of knowing a thing without 
doubt, perversion, and indifference ; e.g. I know a jar 
by myself. Conviction in this proves existence of the 
self and the jar both. [Compare the conclusion of 
Descartes : Cogito, ergo sum.] 

Besides (i) pramanas we have (ii) nayas and (iii) 

Pramdnas are of two kinds : pratyaksha and 


It is of two kinds: sdmvyavahdrika-pratyaksha, 
or the way of knowing things by means of the five 
senses and the mind ; paramarth Uca-pratyalcsha,the way 
of knowing things by the soul itself through removal 
of all karmic matter that obscures its knowledge. 


This is of five kinds : 

1. smriti, remembrance; 

2. pratyabhijnana, memory by sight, i.e. recognition: 

3. tarka, argument from association ; e.g. birth and 
pregnancy ; smoke and tire : rain and wet pavement ; 
dawn and lotus-blossoming; 

4. anumana, inference; this is of two kinds : 

(1) upalabdhi, establishing an affirmative or 

negative proposition by a positive middle. 

(2) anupalabdhi, establishing an affirmative or 

negative proposition by a negative middle. 

5. dgama, sabda, knowledge from what the Teacher 
has said. 

Under 4 {anumana) upalabdhi is of six kinds, 
which are aviruddha, viz. according as the (positive) 
middle term is : 

1. vyapya, comprehended : infer fire by smoke : 

2. Jcarya, effect : wisdom by eloquent speech : 

3. kdrana, cause : shade by tree : 

4. purva-chara, priority : darkness by sunset : 

5. uttara-chara, posteriority: sunset by darkness; 

6. saha-cJiara, concomitance: sweet - mango by 


Seven kinds, which are viruddha, viz. according as the 
(positive) middle term is: 

1. svabhdva, property of major : no cold by heat; 

2. vydpya : no quiescence by anger ; 

3. kdrya : no cold by smoke ; 

4. Jcdrana : no happiness in the world by soul is 
impure ; 

5. piirva-chara : no sunset by daylight ; 

6. uttara-chara : no daylight by sunset ; 

7. saha-chara : no not-sweet by yellow-ripe mango. 


also has sub-kinds : aviruddha and viruddha. 

Seven aviruddha kinds, viz. according as the (negative) 
middle term is : 

1. svabhdva : no jug here, because none is visible ; 

2. vydpaka : no mango-tree, because no tree ; 

3. kdrya : no good seed, because no sprout ; 

4. Jcdrana : no smoke, because no fire ; 

5. purva-chara: no rise of Rohinl (constellation) in 
two ghatis, because Krittikd has not risen now ; 

G. uttara-chara : no rise of Bharanl two ghatis ago. 
because Kr it tiled has not risen now ; 

7. saha-c/iara : no rise in one scale-pan, because there 
is no lowering of the other. 

Five Viruddha-anupalabdhis (with negative middle): 

1. svabhdva: things are many-sided, because we 
cannot get a purely one-sided thing ; 

2. vydpaka : shade by no heat : 


3. kdrya : this man is ill, because lie has no 
appearance or sign of health ; 

4. kdrana : this man is in pain, because he has not 
attained his desire. 

5. saha-chara : false view by no true view. 

The objects of pramdna are sdmdnya, common 
qualities, i.e. generic attributes; or visesha, distinguishing 
attributes, i.e. differentia, This twofold distinction is 
applied to substances, attributes, and modifications. 

Promdndbhdsa (Fallacy) 

Modes of acquiring knowledge, which look like 
pramdna, but are not really so. They are : 

1. a-sva-samvidita : knowledge by which the self 
cannot be known, e.g. the Naiyayika system : 

2. grilutdrtha: knowing what is already known: 
(IhOrdrdhi-judna, e.g. it is a jug, it is a jug, it is a jug. 
This does not add to our knowledge ; what is not 
known before (<i.jiOrvdrtha) is what we must know ; 

3. nirr'thalpa-darsanoj : intuitive perception. This 
cannot be true pramana ; 

4. samsaya : doubtful or ambiguous knowledge 
cannot be pramdna ; e.g. Is it a tree-trunk or a man '. : 

5. viparyaya-jndna : perverted knowledge cannot 
be true pramdna ; 

6. anadliyavasdya-jnana: uncertainty: e.g. treading 
a twig under foot, and saying : let it be ; 

7. pratyakshabhdsa : misleading appearance: e.g. 
something appears to the senses to be A, but really is 
not A ; as a mirage : 


8. parolcshabhdsa : by mistake supposing what is 
apparent to the senses to be something which can be 
known only by an inner mental process ; e.g. the 
Mlmamsaka system of philosophy. It is of many kinds ; 

9. samlchydbhdsa : believing in more or less than two 
pramdnas ; 

10. vishaydbJtdsa: believing in more or less than two 
vishayas, or subjects; 

11. 'phaldbhdsa: the fallacy of believing the conclusion 
to be entirely distinct and separate from yyramdna. It 
is a fallacy, because in the conclusion we get only what 
we put into the premises. There are many other 
dbhdsas (fallacies) in the details of the syllogism. 


Nayas are modes of expressing things. 

There are two nayas, each with several subdivisions : 

1. dravydrthika, from the point of view of substance ; 

2. parydydrthika, from the point of view of modifica- 
tion or condition. 


The «reat and distinctive doctrine of Jaina logic is 
the sydd-vdda. Its chief merit is the anekdnta, or 
many-sided view of logic. This, it would be seen at 
once, is most necessary in order to acquire full 
knowledge about anything. It is a corrective of the 
fallacy into which fell the two knights who saw the 
different sides of the shield. Tom Smith, for example, 
may be a father with reference to his son Willy Smith ; 
and he may be a son with reference to his father John 
Smith. Now it is a fact that Tom Smith is a son and 


father at one and th»* same time ; and still some may 
declare it impossible for a man to be a father and a son 
simultaneously. This fallacy is not quite so obvious 
in other cases, and is a fruitful source of much mis- 
understanding. Two seemingly contrary statements 
may be found to be both true, if we take the trouble 
of rinding out the two points of view from which the 
statements are made. Seven classes of points of view 
are noted. They are : 

1. sydd asti: A is. A rose is: 

2. sydn ndsti : A is not. A rose is not, from tin- 
point of view of a clock ; 

3. sydd asti ndsti : A is and is not. A rose is and 
is not. as in 1 and 2 ; 

4. sydd avaktavya: from a certain point of view it 
is impossible to describe A ; e.g. from the point of view 
of integral calculus it may be difficult to describe a rose; 

5. sydd asti cha avaktavya : A is. and it is impossible 
to describe A. This is a combination of 1 and 4 : 

6. sydn ndsti dm avaktavya : A is not, and it i> 
impossible to describe A. This is a combination of 
2 and 4: 

7. sydd asti cha ndsti cha avaktavya : A is and A is 
not, and it is impossible to describe A. This is a com- 
bination of 1. 2. and 4. 

From these seven modes of expression the system 
derives also its second name : sapta-bhaiigi, 'sevenfold 
system of logic' 


The Jaina syllogism, like that of Gautama's Nyaya, 
but unlike the svlloofism of Aristotelian locnc. consist-- 


of five propositions. To take an elementary example : 

Man is mortal. 

John is a man. 
.'. John is mortal. 
The Jaina logician would argue thus : 

Jack died, Fox died, Herbert died, and so did 

William ; 
Jack, Fox, Herbert, and William are truly 
universal types of man. 
.". All men die. 

John is a man. 
.". John will die. 
It seems wasteful to have five propositions in 
a syllogism, when three would do. But really the 
great merit of Jaina logic is to combine the inductive 
and deductive methods, and so by its very method more 
or less to answer in anticipation the criticism that logic 
is a barren kind of intellectual gymnastics, and to 
a certain extent also that logic is merely formal and 
has nothing at all to do with the matter of the 

[Note. — As authorities for this chapter we may 
cite the Tattvdrthddhigama-siitra of Uma-svati, the 
Pramdywb-naya-taUvdlohdldmkdra of Vadideva Sun', 
the Sydd-vdda-manjarl of Malli-shena, the PariJcsd- 
mukha of Mdnikya-nandin, and the Nydya-bindu of 
Siddlia-sena Diva-kara, edited with English translation 
by Professor Satischandra Vidyabhiishana, also the 
English work by Mr. Jhaveri cited in the Preliminary 


cosmogony, cosmology, astronomy 


The world is infinite. All the magnitudes (astikdyas) 

in it may change their forms or their conditions : but 

none of them can be destroyed. 

The world was never created at any particular 
moment. It is subject to integration and dissolution. 
Its constituent elements — the six substances, or five 
magnitudes together with the soul — are the soul, matter, 
time, space, and the principles of motion and stationari- 
ness. These are eternal and indestructible: but their 
conditions change constantly. 

This change takes place in the two eras avasarpinl 
and utsarpinl. But this division of time does not 
apply to the whole universe; it exists only in 
Arya-khanda of the Bharata and Airavata kshetras 


The universe, or the loka, i.e. all space except the 
beyond (aloha or non-loka), has the form exhibited on 
the following page. 

The total volume is 343 cubic rajjus (rajju — a 
certain, inconceivably great, measure of length), as maj' 
be calculated from the dimensions given on the map. 

The cosmos (loka) is 14 rajjus high (ht), 7 rajjus 
from north to south, and 7 from east to west (EW). 
But from east to west it tapers up till at the height of 
7 rajjus, i.e. the middle of the universe, it is only 
1 rajju wide, like the waist of the akimbo headless 
figure in the diagram (MD). From here it again 


increases till at half the remaining height it reaches 
the breadth of 5 rajjus (EjWj). From here once more 
it grows less and less, till it is at the top of the universe 
(hh,) 1 rajju. 

west I I M 1 L. IE* I East 


The whole is enveloped in three atmospheres called 
the vata-valayas, or wind-sheaths. They are: 

I. the thick wind or very dense atmosphere 
(ghanodadhi-vdta-valaya) ; 

II. the less thick or dense atmosphere (ghana- 
vdta-valaya) ; 

III. the fine wind or rare atmosphere (tanu-vdta- 

valaya ). 


Through the centre of the universe runs the region 
of mobile souls (trasa-nddi) ihtTjH,). It is 14 rajjus 
high, 1 rajju thick', and 1 rajju broad. All living 
beings are here, i.e. all men. animals, gods, and devils, 
and also immobile souls. But it is called trasa-nddi 
because the mobile (trasa) souls cannot live outside it. 

At the lowermost point of the region of mobile souls 
(at TTj is the seventh or the lowermost hell. Its pain is 
so acute, and its horrors are so great, that our degenerated 
race of the fifth age of the avasarpini era is not strong 
and capable enough to sin so as to deserve being sent 
to this blackest spot in the universe ! Next above it 
is the sixth hell, and so on till we reach the mildest of 
them, the first. The names of the hells are: 

7th. Mahd-tamah-prabhd, very dark: 

6th. Tamah-jyrabha, black; 

5th. Dhuwia-prabhd, smoke : 

4th. Panka-prabhd, mire or mud ; 

3rd. Vdlukd-prabhd, sand : 

2nd. SarJcard-prabhd, sugar; 

1st. RatTia-prabhd, gem or jewel. 

After the first hell, — we are still ascending the 
trasa-Ttddi from TTi towards hh p — we come to the 
Middle World (Madhya-loka), the region where we 
ourselves live. It is 100,040 yqjanas high; 1 yojana 
being = nearly 4,000 miles. 

Our earth is an immense circular body consisting of 
a number of concentric rings called islands (dvipas), 
separated from each other by ring-shaped oceans. In 
the centre stands Mount Meru. Around this at its 
foot runs the first continent Jambu-dvipa. This is 


surrounded by the Lavana-samudra, or the Salt Sea. 
Then come the other continents, each followed by 
a sea-ring. The names of the first eight continents 
beginning from Jambu-dvipa outwards are: 

1. Jambu-dvlpa, the Jambu island ; 

2. Dhataki-dvipa, the Grislea Tomentosa island ; 

3. Pushkaravara-dvipa, the " lotus " island ; 

4. Varunivara-dvipa, the " water " island ; 

5. Kshiravara-dvipa, the " white milk " island ; 

6. Ghritavara-dvipa, the 'ghee (clarified butter)' 
island ; 

7. Ikshuvara-dvipa, the " sugar-cane juice " island ; 

8. Nandisvara-dvipa, the Nandisvara island. 

This Middle World is 1 rajju broad and long (at 
md), and is 100,040 yojanas high. 

The sea between Dhataki-dvipa and Pushkaravara- 
dvipa is the Kalodadhi. The Pushkaravara-dvipa is 
divided by Mount Manushottara, which is the ultimate 
limit of the region inhabited by human beings. Thus 
human beings live in two and a half continents: Jambu- 
dvipa, Dhataki-dvipa, and half of Pushkaravara-dvipa. 

The name of the last sea is Svayambhu-ramana. 

Non-human beings (tiryag-ja) live in the whole of 
the Middle World ; immobile souls (sthavara) in the 
whole Universe. Aquatic souls are only in the first 
two seas (Lavana and Kalodadhi) and in the last. 

We are concerned mainly with Jambu-dvipa. It has 
six mountains running through it east and west. These 
are, from south to north: (1) Himavan ; (2) Maha- 
himavan; (3) Nishadha ; (4) Nila ; (5) Rukmin ; and 
(6) Sikharin. These divide it into seven zones. 


From the south the names are : (1) Bharata-kshetra : 
(2) Haimavata-kshetra ; (3) Hari-kshetra : (4) Videha- 
kslietra ; (5) Ramyaka-kshetra : (6) Hairanyavata- 
kshetra; (7) Airavata-kshetra. 

Bharata-kshetra is the part to which we belong. Its 
form is something like this : 

Bharata - kshetra is divided by the Vijayardha 

Mountain into a northern and a southern region (w). 
The northern region is peopled by Mlecchas (barbarians >. 
The southern region is divided into three sections by 
two great rivers — the Maha-Sindhu in the west and 
the Maha-Gariga in the east. The barbarians again 
people the extreme eastern and western sections. We 
belong to the middle section called the Arya-khanda 
(A,A 9 A S A 4 ). It is bounded by the Great Ganges on the 
east, by the Vijayardha Mountain on the north, by 
the Great Indus on the west, and by the Salt Sea on 
the south. 


Bharata-kshetra is 526^ yojanas broad. The two 
rivers, the Great Indus and the Great Ganges, and the 
mountain Vijayardha divide it into six sections as 
seen above. 

Our whole world, with its Asia, Europe, America, 
Africa, Australia, etc., are included in Arya-khanda. 

Going upwards again in the trasa-nadi (ht\\u 1 on 
p. 121) we get into the Upper World. This has two 
parts, called: (1) Kalpa ; (2) Kalpatita. The parts, 
etc., of Kalpa can be counted ; those of Kalpatita 

The parts of Kalpa are the Sixteen Heavens 
respectively called (beginning from bottom to top) : 
(1) Saudharma ; (2) Aisana ; (3) Sanatkumara ; 
(4) Mahendra ; (5) Brahma; (6) Brahmottara ; 
(7) Lantava (Lantaka) ; (8)Kapistha; (9) Sukra ; (10) 
Mahasukra; (ll)Satara; (12) Sahasrara; (13) Anata : 
(14) Pranata ; (15) Arana ; and (16) Acyuta. 

In the Kalpatita portion we have the nine Graiveyakas 
and the rive Pafica-anuttaras. 

After all these, at the summit of the universe, is the 
Siddha-sila. This is situated in the middle of the 
Ishat-pragbhara world, which is 1 rajju wide, 1 rajju 
long, and 8 yojanas high. 

The Siddha-sila is in the form of a brilliant canop}\ 
It is round, 45 lakhs of yojanas in width and 8 yojanas 
in breadth, tapering up towards the top. Above this 
Siddlui-sila. at the end of the Tanu-vata-valaya or the 
outermost atmosphere (III in the map on p. 120), the 
liberated souls rest in the blissful possession of their 
infinite quaternary (SS in the map). 

cosmogony, cosmology, astronomy 125 

The system of Jaina astronomy is characterized by 

the doctrine of two (different) suns, two moons, and 
two sets of constellations. The doctrine supposes that 
three appearances of a planet, or of sun or moon, are 
required in order to compass Mount Mem and return 
to the starting-point. Therefore the doctrine allots 
two suns to Jambu-dvipa. This means that the second 
appeai'ance of a sun, for instance, in the sky at a given 
spot is not that of the sun that appeared first: the two 
suns appear alternately, so that the third appearance is 
the return of the first sun. 

The Jaina books and the Purdnas of the Hindus 
both hold that the sun, moon, etc., revolve round Mount 
Meru. The Pauranic opinion was that the revolution 
took twenty-four hours, and that it was night north of 
Mount Meru, when the sun was making its half- 
revolution round the south of Mount Meru and vice versa. 

The Jainas, therefore, held that there are four 
directions, and the sun's orbit should be divided into four 
quarters, corresponding to the four directions; and it 
should bring day in succession to the countries in the 
south, west, north, and east. The sun must take equal 
time to traverse each quarter. Therefore, when it has 
left one quarter, say the eastern, and gone to the 
southern, it is night in the east and day in the south. 
When it goes to the western quarter, it is day in the 
west and night in the south: but in fact it is day in the 
east ; therefore there must be another sun, which keeps 
opposite to this sun, on the opposite side of Mount 
Meru. The same argument applies to the two moons. 



The names of the twenty-four Tirthankaras have 
been already given under Theology (Table to p. 6). 
The twelve Chakra-vartins are : 

1. Bharata : 7. Ara(ha)-natha ; 

2. Sagara ; 8. Su-bhauma ; 

3. Maghavan ; 9. Padma-nabha ; 
4-. Sanat-kumara ; 10. Hari-shena ; 

5. Santi-natha ; 11. Jaya-sena ; 

6. Kunthu-natha ; 12. Brahma-datta. 
The nine Narayanas (Vasu-devas) are : 

1. Tri-pushta (or prishtha) ; 6. Pundarlka ; 

2. Dvi-pushta (or prishtha) ; 7. Datta-deva; 

3. Svayam-bhii ; 8. Lakshmana ; 

4. Purushottama ; 9. Krishna. 

5. Nara (Purusha)-simha ; 

The nine Prati-Narayanas (Vasu-devas) are : 

1. Asva-giiva : b\ Prahlada; 

2. Taraka; 7. Bali; 

3. Naraka ; 8. Ravana ; 

4. Nisumbha ; 9. Jara-sandha. 

5. Madhu-kaitabha ; 

The nine Bala-bhadras (Bala-devas) are : 

1 . Vijaya ; 6. Nandi (Ananda) ; 

2. Achala ; 7. Nandi-mitra 

3. Dharma-prabha (Bhadra) ; (Nandana) ; 

4. Su-prabha ; 8. Rama-chandra : 

5. Su-darsana ; 9. Padina. 
The above are the sixty-three Salaka-purushas. 



Further may be mentioned — 

The nine Naradas : 

] . Bhima ; 

' 2. Maha-bhinia ; 

3. Rudra ; 

4. Maha-rudra ; 

5. Kala ; 

The eleven Rudras : 

1. Bhima-bali ; 

2. Jita-satru : 

3. Rudra ; 

4. Visvanala ; 

5. Su-pratishtha ; 

6. Achala ; 

The twenty-four Kama-devas : 

(J. Maha-kala ; 

7. Dur-mukha ; 

8. Naraka-mukha ; 

9. Adho-nmkha. 

7. Pundarika ; 

8. Ajita-dhara ; 

9. Jita-nabhi ; 

10. Pitha ; 

11. Satyaki. 

1 . Bahu-bali ; 

2. Praja-pati ; 

3. Sri-dhara ; 

4. Darsana-bhadra ; 

5. Prasena-chandra ; 

6. Chandra- varna : 

7. Agni-yukta ; 

8. Sanat-kumara ; 

9. Vatsa-raja ; 

10. Kanaka-prabha ; 

11. Megha-prabha ; 

12. Santi-natha ; 

13. Kuntliu-natha 

14. Araha-natha ; 

15. Vijaya-raja ; 

16. Sii-chandra ; 

17. Nala-raja ; 

18. Hanumant ; 

19. Bali-raja ; 

20. Yasu-deva ; 

21. Pradyumna ; 

22. Naga-kumara : 

23. Jivan-dhara; 

24. Jambu-svami. 

Twenty-four Fathers and twenty-four Mothers of the 
Tirtharikaras are given under Theology (Table). 


The fourteen Kula-karas : 

1. Prati-svati : 8. Chakshushmant ; 

2. Sammati ; 9. Yasasvin ; 

3. Kshemam-kara ; 10. Abhichandra ; 

4. Kshemam-dhara ; 11. Chandrabha ; 

5. Simam-kara ; 12. Maru-deva ; 

6. Slmam-dhara ; 13. Prasena-chandra ; 

7. Vimala-vahana ; 14. Nabhi-narendra. 

[Note. — For most of the statements in Appendixes 
II and III authority will be found in Professor Jacobi's 
Eine Jaina-Dogmatik (see Bibliographical Note above), 
in Colebrooke's two essays on the Jains in his Collected 
Essays (ed. Cowell, London, 1873) ; also (for II) in 
the Samghayani of Hari-bhadra Suri (in Laghu- 
prakarana-samgraha, Bombay, 1876) and the Lokandlu- 
dvdtrimsikd (in Prakarana-ratnakara II, Bombay, 
1876); and (for III) in the Uttara-pv/rdna of Guna- 
bhadra Acharya, and in Hemachandra's Abhidhdna- 




I. Perfect Soul < in the human body of a Tlrfchankara i 

By birth such a perfect soul attains: ( 1) a supremely 
handsome body, with (2) a natural fragrance emanating 
from it, and (3) free from the ugliness of sweating 
and (4) excreta: (5) sweet, sound, and harmless 
speech: (6) immeasurable strength: (7) blood of 
milk-white purity ; (8) 1,008 lucky signs on the body : 
(9) perfect proportion of limbs ; (10) joints, bones, and 
sinews strong and unbreakable like adamant. 

By virtue of his achieving omniscience the perfect 
soul attains a sanctity whereby he (1 ) averts famine 
in a circular area of 800 miles' radius: (2) remains 
always raised above the ground, whether walking, 
sitting, or standing; (3) seems to be facing eveiyone 
in all the four directions: (4) destroys all hirnsic 
(destructive) impulses in persons around him; (5) 
is entirely immune from all kinds of pain and dis- 
turbance (upasarga): (6) is able to live without food: 
(7) possesses mastery of all arts and sciences ; (8) nails 
and hair which do not grow ; (9) eyes which are 
always open — the lids do not wink; and (10) a body 
which never casts a shadow. 

In virtue of his omniscience the following effects are 
produced by the heavenly bodies : ( 1 ) general mastery 
of the Ardha-Magadhi language ; (2) friendly feelings 
in all who are near him ; (3) clear skies : (4) in all 



directions; (5) the proper fructifying and blossoming 
of fruits and flowers of all seasons ; (6) clean space all 
round over a radius of 8 miles (1 yojana) ; (7) in walking 
golden lotuses are alwa}^ placed by the gods under his 
sacred feet; (8) space resounds with shouts of "Jail 
Jai ! ", " Victory ! Victory ! " ; (9) mild and fragrant 
breezes blow all around ; (10) sweet-scented showers 
cool the earth; (11) the gods of the air take care to 
remove thorns from the earth; (12) all living beings 
become joyous ; (13) the dharma-cJiakra precedes the 
sacred procession; (14) eight kinds of auspicious things 
attend the procession; i.e. umbrella (chhattro), chowrie 
(chdmara), flag (dhvaja), svastika, mirror (darpana), 
a kind of vase (kalasa), a powder-flask (vardha manaka), 
and a throne seat (bhadrdsana). 

Eight kinds of heavenly signs (prdtiJtdrya) appear : 
(1) an Asolca tree is always near the Tirtharikara; (2) a 
throne-seat; (3) three umbrellas (chhattra) and a lion 
throne (simhdsana) ; (4) aura of a beautiful radiance 
(bha-mandala) ; (5) wordless speech flowing from the 
Lord (divya-dhvani) ; (6) showers of celestial blooms : 
(7) the sixty-four YaJcsha gods attend to fan the Lord 
with chowries ; (8) heavenly music. 

The perfect soul enjoys four attributes in their 
infinity. These are called atianta-chatushtaya and 
are: (1) infinite perception; (2) infinite knowledge; 
(3) infinite power; (4) infinite bliss. (Total 46.) 

II. Perfect Soul, without body (Siddha) 
Such a soul has innumerable qualities. Among them 
eight are specially noted: (1) perfect faith ; (2) perfect 


perception; (3) perfect knowledge; (4) quality of being 
neither light nor heavy ; (5) infinite capacity for giving 
place (penetrability); (6) extreme refinement beyond 
sense-perception: (7) infinite power: (8) immunity 
from disturbance of all kinds. 

III. Head of Groups of Saints 
These have thirty-six special qualities, besides main- 

1. Twelve Tapas: (l)Aiiasana: not taking food. 

(2) Anavdpta : eating less than what one may desire. 

(3) Vrato,-parisarahh;/dn'i : a pledge taken by a saint 
on the way to receive food, that he will accept it only 
if a particular thing is fulfilled, otherwise go without 
it. This pledge, of course, is secret and extempore. 

(4) Rasa-parityaga : renunciation and suppression of 
taste and of tasteful things. Six such things are 
specially mentioned : milk, ghee (clarified butter), curds, 
sugar, salt, and oil. (5) Vivikta-sayydsana : sitting 
and sleeping alone. (6) Kaya-Jclesa: mortification of 
the body ; not by deliberately hurting it, but by 
controlling it through refusing it many comforts. 

These six are called external tapas. 

(7) Prayaschitta: penance in expiation of any fault, 
committed consciously or unconsciously. (8) Vvnaya 
eager zeal and belief in the pursuit of (i) right faith : 
(ii) right knowledge: (iii) right conduct; (iv) proper 
tapa or restraint; and also loving obedience and ready 
submission to one's superiors. (9) Vaiydpritya : sincere 
service and actual attendance on old, infirm, and sick 
sadhus. (10) Svddhydya : reading the Scripture. 


(11) Vyutsarga : non-attachment to the body. (12) 
Dhydna : meditation. 

These last six are internal tapas. 

2. Ten Dharmas — pious duties: (1) Uttama-kshama : 
suppression of all feelings of anger and ready forgive- 
ness of all injuries, real or otherwise. (2) Mdrdava : 
ever-ready and sincere humility. (3) Arjava: frank 
straightforwardness. (4) Satya : truth in feelings and 
in conduct. (5) Saucha : purity from defilement of 
greed. (6) Samyama : This is of two kinds: (i) 
restraint of the senses, and (ii) practice of compassion 
towards six kinds of living beings, namely, (a) lowest 
(mineral) life, (b) aquatic life, (c) fire-life (cf. salamander), 
(d) air-life, (e) vegetable life, and (/) animal life. 
(7) Tapa: asceticism. Mainly of the kinds enumerated 
above. (8) Tydga : renunciation of all worldly con- 
nections. In the Acharyas it also includes the gift 
of knowledge, etc., by means of lessons and advice. 
(9) AJcinchana : developing the instinct, " nothing is 
mine in the universe." (10) Brahma-charya : chastity. 
Literally it means the devoted contemplation of the 
self by the soul : and this is attainable and preservable 
by securing self-concentration through celibacy and 
other means of freeing the mind from the bondage 
of worldly care and attachment. 

3. Six Avasyakas : daily duties: (1) Sdmdyika : 
practising peaceful indifference to worldly objects and 
to attain tranquillity of mind. (Equanimity of soul.) 
(2) Vandand : bowing to perfect souls and their 
images in the temples. (3) Stuti : praising the qualities 
of the holy beings. (4) Pratlkramana : repentance 


for faults that already attach to the soul. (5) Svd- 
dhydya : reading the Scriptures. 

Note. — In some books pratydkhydna is given in 
place of svddhydya. It means the forethought and 
endeavour so that in future no faults may attach to 
the soul. Roughly pratikramana and pratydlchydna 
correspond to nirjard and sarrivara respectively. 

(6) Kayotsarga : giving up attachment to the body 
and practising contemplation of the self. 

4. Five kinds of exercises (dchdra): (I) Dariand- 
chd/ra : to induce strong and steady faith. (2) JndTid- 
chdra : to increase knowledge. (3) Ghdritrdchdra : to 
improve one's daily life. (4) Twpdchdra: to become 
a great ascetic. (5) Vvrydchdra : to increase the power 
of one's inner self. 

5. Three Guptis : the threefold restraint of mind, 
body, and speech. (Total 36. > 

IV. Teaching Saints 
These have twenty-five qualities, inasmuch as they 
have to study and teach the eleven Angas and fourteen 

V. All Saints 

They have twenty-eight essential qualities among 
others as follows : — 

1. Five Mahd-vrata8 — five great vows: ( l )Ahim8d . 
not to cause, or tend to cause, pain or destruction to 
any living being, by thought, speech, or conduct. 

(2) Satya : truth in speech, thought, and deed. 

(3) Asteya : to take nothing, unless and except it is 


given. (4) Brahma-charya : as above. (5) Parigraha- 
tyaga: renunciation of worldly concerns. 

2. Five Samitis — five religious observances: (1) Irya: 
walking with the eyes carefully directed 3£ yards 
ahead. (2) BJiasha: speaking relevantly and according 
to the Scriptures. (3) Eshana : taking only pure food, 
and not specially prepared for the saint. (4) Addna- 
nikshepana : careful handling of the few things, such 
as water-bowl, peacock-brush, and Scriptures, which 
saints may keep. (5) Pratishthdpana : great care as 
to where to answer the calls of nature, etc. 

3. Six daily duties, as above. 

4. Restraint of the five senses. 

5. Seven other duties: (l)Not to bathe. (2) Sleeping 
on the ground. (3) Nakedness. (4) Pulling the hair 
out with one's own hands. (5) Taking only a little 
food once a day. (6) Not applying a brush to the 
teeth. (7) Taking food in a standing posture, and 
only in the hollow of the folded hands. 

[Note. — Concerning the subject of this Appendix we. 
may refer to Hemachandra's Abhidhdna-chintdTnani, 
Indra-nandin's Pafica-paramesJitJii-pvjd, and Amrita- 
chandra Suri's Purushartlta-siddliyiipdya.] 

The Ancient Jaina Sacred Literature 

The knowledge of Sruti (Sruta-jnana) may be of 
things which are contained in the Aiigas (sacred books 
of the Jainas) or of things outside the Aiigas. There 
are 64 simple letters of the alphabet. Of these 33 are 
consonants, 27 vowels, and 4 auxiliary (which help in 
the formation of compound letters). The total number 
of possible combinations of these 64 simple letters into 
compounds of 2, 3, 4, or more up to 64 letters, is 
18,446.744,073,709,551,615. These are the letters 
(simple and compound) of Sruti in its entirety. This 
number being divided by 16,348,307,888, which is 
the number of letters employed in the central portion 
( iitnd/njama-pada) of the Paramdgama, gives us the 
number of padas of the Aiigas as 11,283,580,005. 
The remainder 80,108,175 gives us the letters of that 
part of Sruti which is not contained in the Angus. 
This part is divided into 14 Pra/arncdcas, such as the 
Dasa-vaikdlika, Uttaradhyayana, etc. 

I. The Twelve Axgas 

The A ngas are twelve, as follows : — 

1. The Acltdra-anga comprises a full exposition of 
the rules of conduct for ascetics. It contains 18,000 
padas ( words). 


2. The Sutrakrita-anga comprises a detailed exposi- 
tion of knowledge, humility, etc. ; of religious rites and 
difference between the rites of one's own religion and 
those of the religions of others. It contains 36,000 

3. The Sthdna-aiiga comprises an exposition of one 
or more sthdnas, or points of view in considering jiva 
(soul), pudgala (matter), and other dravyas. While the 
jiva-dravya, or soul, is from the point of view of con- 
sciousness the same everywhere ; from the point of view 
of being liberated (siddha) or mundane (samsdrin) it is 
of two kinds. Similarly, the samsdrin, or mundane 
jiva, that is, the soul not yet perfectly freed from the 
bondage of karmas, which keep it moving in the cycle 
of existences, is of three kinds, stationary (sthdvara), 
deficient in the organs of the senses (vikalendriya), 
and in possession of all the organs of the senses 
(sakalendriya). The liberated souls, too, are of many 
kinds from the point of view of place, time, etc. This 
Anga contains 42,000 padas. 

4. The Samavdya-anga gives an account of the 
similarities that arise from the point of view of draiiya 
(elements of the universe), kshetra (place), kola (time), 
bhdva (character). From the point of view of dravya, 
dharma and adharma are alike (that is, both are 
elements of the universe). From the point of view of 
place, the place of mankind and the first indraka-bila 
of the first hell and the first indraka-vimdna of the 
first heaven are alike. From the point of view of 
time, the utsarpini and avasarpini eras ;tre alike. 
From the point of view of bhdva, perfect faith and 


perfect knowledge are the same. This Aiiga has 
164.000 padas. 

5. The Vydkhyd-prajnapti, or Bhagavati, ot Vivdha- 
prajnapti, gives an account of the 60.000 questions 
which the chief disciples put to the omniscient Lord, 
the Tirthaiikara, with the answers. It has 228,000 

6. The JndtridharTna - kathd - aiiga is also calied 
Dharma-kathd-anga. It gives an exposition in detail 
of the nature, etc., of the nine paddrthas, jiva, etc. : as 
well as the answers to questions which the Gana-dharas 
put to the Lord. It has 556.000 padas. 

7. The Updsakddhyayana-anga gives details of the 
eleven stages of a householder's life, the vows of 
chastity, etc., and other rules of conduct for the house- 
holder, as well as aphorisms, and lectures on the same. 
It has 1,170,000 padas. 

8. The Antakrid-dasd-aiiga gives an account in 
detail of the ten ascetics who, in the period of each of 
the twenty-four Tlrthaiikaras, undergo very strict 
tortures of asceticism and final 1\' set themselves free 
from the bondage of I:" rum. It has 2,328,000 padas. 

9. The Anuttaropapddaka - darn - anga gives an 
account of the ten great ascetics who, in the period of 
each Tirthaiikara. practised asceticism of a very high 
type and in virtue of that took birth in the live 
Anuttara-vvrndnas, or heavens, such as Vijaya. etc. 
It has 9,244,000 padas. 

10. The Praina-vydJcarana-anga gives instructions 
as to how to reply to questions relating to past and 
future time, gain and loss, happiness and misery, life 


and death, good and evil, etc. That is, it furnishes an 
account of the four kinds of narration (kathaui, viz. 
dkshepani, vikshepani, samvedani, nirvedanl). It has 
9,316,000 2xidas. 

11. The VipdJca-sutra-anga contains an exposition 
of the bondage, fruition, and continuance of karmas, 
and of their intensity or mildness from the point of 
view of dravya, kshetra, Icala, and bhdva. It has 
18,400,000 padas. 

12. The Drishti-pravdda-anga has 1,086,856,005 
padas. It is divided into five parts: five Parikarmas, 
Sutra, Prathamdnuyoga, fourteen Purva-gatas, and 
live Chulikds. These five parts will be considered one 
by one. 

A. Five Parikarmas 

1. The Chandra-prajnapti parikarina contains 
accounts of the motion, period, satellites of the moon; 
the variations of lunar days and months ; and the 
celestial influence of the moon ; its eclipses, etc. This 
has 3,605,000 p>adas. 

2. The Sibrya-prajnapti deals with the greatness, 
influences, satellites, etc., of the sun. It has 503,000 

3. The Jambtb-dvipa-prajnapti contains an account 
of Jambu-dvipa with its Meru Mount, mountain ranges, 
lakes, rivers, etc. It has 325,000 padas. 

4. The Dvipa-prajfiapti contains an account of all 
the continents and seas and the residences of the 
Bhavana-vasin, Vyantara, Jyotisha kinds of gods, and 
the sites of Jaina temples. It has 5,236,000 padas. 


5. The Vyakhya-prajnapti contains a numerical 
account oijiva, ajlva, etc., the nine padarthas. It has 
8,436,000 padas. 

B. Sutra 

This contains an account of 363 false creeds, or 
heretic faiths. Some of their doctrines are viewed in 
their application to the soul. Some say : soul cannot 
be bound by Icarmas. Others say: it does nothing; lias 
no attributes ; does not bear the fruit of action : is 
self-manifesting or self-evident; can be manifested only 
by non-self: is real; is unreal, etc., one-sided views of 
soul. These views are refuted and the true description 
of soul given. This text has 8,800.000 padas. 

C. Prathamdnuyoga 

This contains an account of the 63 pious persons, 

2-i Tirthankaras, 12 Chakra-vartins, 9 Narayanas, 

9 Prati-narayanas, and 9 Bala-bhadras. This has 5,000 

D. Fourteen Pwrvagatas (lost in an early period ). 

1. The Utpdda-purva contains an exposition of the nature of jlva 
{soul), pudgala (matter), kdla (time), etc., from the point of view of 
their becoming, remaining, and then being destroyed in different 
places and at different times. It has 10,000,000 padas. 

2. The Agrdyaniya-purva contains an account of the seven tattvas, 
nine padarthas, six drain/as, and things with or without nayas. It 
has 9,600,000 padas. 

3. The Viryumirdda-piirva gives an account of the powers of the 
soul, of the non-soul, of both, of place, time, of nature or character 
(bhdva-vlrya), of austerity (tapo-virya), and of the powers of the 
Narendras. Chakra-dharas. Bala-devas, etc. It has 7. 000, 000 padas. 

4. The Aatindsti-pravdda-pfirva gives an account of jlva and other 
dravyas, as they may be considered to be existent or non-existent 


from the point of view of place, time, nature, etc. Account is also 
given of the Sapta-bhangl, or seven ways of considering things, and 
their use in taking a comprehensive view of things. It has 6,000,000 

5. The Jmma-pravdda-purva contains a detailed account, analysis, 
and subject-matter of the matt, sruta, avadhi, manah-parydya, and 
la fitht-jiidna and of Icu-mati, ku-sruta, and vibhaiigani-jnana ; i.e. of 
the five kinds of right, and three kinds of wrong, knowledge. It has 

6. The Satya-pravdda-purva deals with silence and speech, with 
the twelve kinds of speech, kinds of speakers, and with many kinds 
of false speeches and ten kinds of true speeches. It has 10,000,006 

7. The Atma-pravdda-purva deals with the soul as the doer of and 
enjoyer of the fruits of action, from the point of view of niichaya and 
ryarahara, i.e. of philosophy and common-sense. From the common- 
sense point of view jtra has four or ten prdnas ; and from the point 
of view of philosophy only one, namely, consciousness ; and is such as 
has been, is, and will be, imbued -with prdna. From the common-sense 
point of view it does good or bad deeds ; from the philosophical 
standpoint it remains absorbed in its own nature. In common -sense 
it is said to speak falsely or truly ; in reality it has no speech. It is 
called pranin, because the prdnas are found in it both internally and 
externally, both in philosophy and in common-sense. In reality it 
enjoys nothing ; in common-sense it enjoys the fruits of its actions, 
good or bad. In common-sense it absorbs the material karrnas and 
is material ; in reality it is not matter. From both points of view it 
exists at all times and knows all the things of the past, present, and 
future. In common-sense it fills the body, or by imagination the 
whole world ; but in realit}' by knowledge it may be said to fill the 
whole world, and is therefore called Vishnu. Although in common- 
sense it is worldly, yet in reality it is itself, i.e. identical with its own 
knowledge and faith, and therefore is called Svayam-blin. Although 
it is corporeal, because it lias auddrika (natural) and other bodies; 
yet in reality it is incorporeal. In common-sense it is called man 
\iiidiiarn) because of its present incarnation in a human bod}'; but 
in reality it should be called mdnava because of its possession of 
mind, or the faculty of knowing. And many other things 
concerning the soul are given in this purva. It has 260,000,000 

8. The Karma-pravdda-purva gives the various conditions, such 
as bandha (bondage), saltd (reality), udaya (mature appearance), 


udirand (expedited operation), utkarshana (prolongation), apakarshaim 
(diminution), samhramana (transformation), upa&ama (subsidence), 
nidhatti (amassing), and nishkonch\ta (a form of existence), etc., of the 
eight kinds of karmas from the points of view of primary {prakriti), 
secondary (vUara-prakriti), and tertiary nature (uttarottara-prakriti). 
It also deals with the various conditions of minds and also such 
actions as Iryd-patha, etc. It has 18,000,000 padas. 

9. The Pratydkhydna-purva deals with the things which should he 
renounced by man for all time, or for a fixed period of time in 
accordance with the condition of his body, strength, etc.. from the 
points of view of noma, sthapand, dravga, kshetra, kdla, and bhdva ; 
also with fasts, with the five s<i7nitis and the three guptis : and also 
with the renunciation of absolutely bad tilings. It has 8,400,000 

10. The Vidydnuvdda-purva contains the 700 minor sciences, such 
as palmistry (?), etc., and the 500 kinds of higher learning, beginning 
with astronomy (?), etc., etc. It gives the nature of the learning, the 
qualities requisite to attain it, the ways of pursuing it, its formula;. 
instruments, and diagrams, and the advantages that accrue to one 
who has mastered it. It also deals with the eight kinds of knowledge. 
It has 11,000,000 padas. 

11. The Kaiydna-vdda-purva gives an account of the grand cele- 
bration of the great points (kaiydnaka) in the lives of Tlrthankaras, 
Chakra-dharas. Vasudevas, etc., and of the sixteen causes and 
austerities that lead to a soul becoming a Tirthankara. or that make 
it deserving of these high positions in life; and also an account of 
the influence of the motions of the planets, sun, moon, and nakshatras, 
and that of their eclipses and of the auguries. It has 260,000,000 

12. The Prdua-vdda-purva contains an account of eight kinds of 
medical science, of removal of pains caused by spirits and ghosts, by 
means of chanted formulae, or offerings made under certain conditions. 
of antidotes to venoms of serpents, etc., and of how to ascertain the 
auspiciousness of occasions by examining the respiration of men ; of 
the ten currents of vitality in man"s body ; and of things which 
are agreeable or disagreeable to these currents in various forms of 
existence (such as that of men, animals, etc.). It has 130,000,000 

13. The Kriyd-visdla-purca treats of music, prosody, figures of 
speech ; of the 72 arts ; of the technical arts ; of dexterity ; of 04 
qualities of women ; of their 84 rites, such as pregnancy, etc. ; of 
108 rites, such as perfect faith, perfect knowledge, etc. : and of 25 


rites, such as bowing to the gods, etc., etc., and also of necessary 
and occasional rites. It has 90,000,000 padas. 

14. The Triloka-bindu-sara-purva gives an account of the three 
worlds, the 26 parikramas (preparatory rites?), S vyavahdras (kinds of 
occupation), 4 bija-ganitds (4 branches of mathematics, algebra, etc.), 
etc., and the way of attaining molcsha and the glory and happiness of 
having attained it. It has 125,000,000 padas. 

E. The Five Chulikas 

1. The Jalagata-chidika gives the methods of 
staying water, of walking through water, of stopping 
fire, of passing through fire, of eating fire, by means of 
incantations or offerings. It has 20,989,200 padas. 

2. The Sthalagata-chlUiJcd gives an account of the 
methods of incantations and offerings, by which to go to 
the Meru mountain and other countries, to travel swiftly, 
etc. It has 20,989,200 padas. 

3. The Mayagata-chulikd contains the incantations 
and offerings for performing miracles and tricks of 
sleight of hand. It has 20,989,200 padas. 

4. The RUpagata-chuliJcd contains the methods of 
transformation into the shape of a lion, elephant, horse, 
ox, deer, etc., by means of incantations, offerings, and 
austerities, etc. It also contains an account of the 
processes of artificial transformation in the vegetable 
world, as well as that of combination or alteration of 
the metals and elements under chemical processes. It 
has 20,989,200 padas. 

5. The Akdsagata-ch ul ilea deals with the incanta- 
tions, offerings, and austerities by which man is enabled 
to travel in space, etc. It has 20,989,200 padas. 


II. The Anga-bahya Sruta, or Scriptures other 


This contains 80.108,175 letters, divided into fourteen 

1. The SdTnayiJai-Prakirnaka contains an account 
of the six kinds of sa/mayilca : nama (name), sthapand 
(position i. dravya (substance), Jcshetra (time), Jcala 
(place), and bhava (nature). 

2. The Sanjistava-pralcirnaka gives an account of 
the five stages in the lives of Tirtharikaras, their 
thirty-four powers, eight Pratihdryas (miracles), most 
refined, astral body. Samavasarana, and preaching of 
dharma or religious doctrine. 

3. The VandaricL-praklrnaka deals with the temples 
and other places of worship. 

4. The Pratikrarnana-prakirniaka gives an account 
of those methods that are necessary for the removal of 
those defects that are related to the day. to the night, 
to the fortnight, to the four months, and to the year ; 
relating to the irydpatha, and those defects which arise 
in the perfect condition of the death of a pious man. 

5. The Vinaya-praklrnaka gives an account of five 
kinds of vinaya (humility and becoming modesty of 
behaviour), relating to faith, knowledge, conduct, 
austerity, and behaviour. 

6. The Kriti - karma - prakvrnaka gives detailed 
accounts of the modes of the worship, etc., of the Jinas 
( Tirthankaras) : and of the significance of obeisance 
and reverence paid to Arhats, Siddhas, Acharyas. 


Upadhyayas, Sadhus, Jainism, images of Jaina Tlrthan- 
karas, the word of Jinas, and the Jaina temples, by 
making three bows to them and by going round them 
three times, by making twelve obeisances and by 
bending the head in the four directions. 

7. The Dasa-vaikdlilca-praMrnaJca contains rules of 
conduct and of purity of food for ascetics. 

8. The Uttaradhyayana-pr(tl-lv ii< ilea gives details 
and effects of four kinds of disturbances and twenty- 
two kinds of troubles that an ascetic may have to 

9. The Kalpa-vyavahara-prakirnaka gives the right 
practices of ascetics and also details of purificatory 
methods after following wrong practices. 

10. The Kalpalcalpa - praMrriaka considers the 
things, places, or thoughts that may be allowable for 
use by a monk, from the points of view of substance, 
place, time, and nature. 

11. The Mahdlmlpa-sanjnaha-prahlrnalxi gives an 
account of the rules of ascetic practices (yoga) in the 
three acres (?past, present, and future) that are suitable 
to Jina-kalpin (independent) monks, with reference to 
body, etc., and in accordance with the substance, place, 
time, and spirit (which surround them) ; and also an 
account of the rules of conduct of Sthavira-kalpin 
monks (members of orders), relating to initiation, 
teaching, maintaining ascetics, self-purification, and 
sal-lekhana and high forms of worship performed in 
sacred places. 

12. The Pundarilca-prahiirnaka gives details of 
charity, worship, austerity, faith, self-control, etc., that 


lead the soul to incarnation in one of the four classes 
of gods; also an account of the birthplaces of the gods. 

13. The Mahu-pundarika-praklrnaka gives details 
of the causes, austerity, etc., that lead to a soul being 
reborn as Indra, Pratmdra, etc. 

14. The Nishldika-praklrruiha gives many methods 
of purifying oneself from the faults arising from care- 

The above account (Digambara, reproduced, with 
modifications, from the Jaina Gazette for 1905, 
pp. 133-40) of the Jaina Scriptures, as unfolded in 
the Angas and outside them, is largely based upon 
the Gommata-sara by Sri Xemi-chandra Siddhanta- 
Chakravartin, Jiva-kdnda, 348 sqq. (for a similar list 
see the Tattvdrthasdra-dipaka of Sakala-kirtti, chapter i. 
quoted by Sir R. G. Bhandarkar in his Report on 
the Search for Sanskrit MSS. 1883-4- (Bombay, 
1887), pp. 106-10). It includes, as will be seen, works 
supposed to have been lost even at the time of the 
Council of Patali-putra in B.C. 312 : it is therefore of 
the nature of a dogma or canon. In the Samavdya- 
aiiga and in the Nandi-sutra of the Svetambaras we 
find similar lists, with variations, however, in the huge 
numerical figures and in other particulars. The more 
usual enumeration, based upon the surviving literature, 
is as follows (see the article "Jainism", by Professor 
Jacobi, in the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 
vol. vii): — 



1. Eleven Angas, as above, with the omission of 
No. 12. 

2. Twelve Updngas: AupapdtiJca, Rdja-prasniya, 
Jivdbhigama, Prajiiapana, Jambudvipa - prajnapti, 
Ghandra-prajnapti, Swrya-prajnapti, Nirayavali (or 
Kalpika), Kalpavatamsikd, Pushp ilea, Pushpa-chulikd, 

3. Ten Painnas (Prakirnakas) : Ckatuh-sarana, 
Samstdra, Atura - pratydkhydna, Bhakta -parijnd, 
Tandula-vaiydll, Chanddbija, Devendra-stava, Gani- 
bija, Mahd-pratydkhydna, Vlra-stava. 

•A. Six Chheda-sutras: Nisltlia, Malm -nisitha, 
\ T y{ ivahdra, Da sa-sruta-ska ndh a , Br Ui a t-ka // >a , Pa ncha- 

5. Two Sutras : Nandi, Anuyoga-dvdra. 

6. Four Mula-sutras : Uttarddhyayana, Avasyaka, 
Dasa-vaiJcdl ilea, Pinda-niryukt i. 

It will be seen that there is a partial correspondence 
between the two lists. 


(Subjects, Sanskrit Technical Expressions, and Titles) 

Abhasa, 115-16 
Abhinibodha, 61 

Abrahmaf-charya], 94 

Acbara, 133. See also Ethics 

Acharaiiya-sutra, 67, 135 (con- 

Acharya, definition of, 2, SO 

Actions, soul the doer of, 77. 
See also Karma and Yoga 

Adana-nikshepana, 97, 131 

Adeya, 35 

Adharma, meaning of, xxxiii ; 
substance, 13, 14, 22, 25 ; not 
in empt}' space, 26 ; texts con- 
cerning, 85, 87, 90 

Adhigama, 55, 56 

Adhikarana, 55, 56 

Agadha, 50 

Agama, 108, 113 

Aghatiya-karma, 27 

Agrayaniya-purva, 139 (contents) 

Agurulaghu quality, 35, 86 

Aharaka body, 33, 44. 60 

Ahimsa defined, xxiv ; duty of, 
70', 96, 133 

Ahoratra, 15 

Air, souls of, 8 

Airavata-kshetra, 119 

Ajiva, "non-soul," xxii, 7, 82-4, 

Ajivaka doctrine, xxx 

Ajna, 55, 108 

A j nana, 94 

Akasa, 85, 87 

Akdsagata-chi'ilikd , 142 (contents) 

Akinchana, 132 

Akriya-vada, xxxi 

Akshepani, 138 

Alochana, 62 

Aloka, 14, 22, 119 

Alpa-bahutva, 57 

Amrita-cliandra Suri quoted, 


Amudha-drishti, 108 

Aniurta. 83 

Amurtika, 16 

Anadhyavasaya-jnana, 115 

Ananta-chatushtaya, 20 

Ananta-darsana, 1 

Ananta-jnana, 1 

Anantanubandhi, 32 

Anantanubandhi-kashaya, 49 

Ananta-sukha, 1 

Ananta-virya, 1 

Ananugamika, 63 

Ana^ana, 131 

Anavapta, 131 

Anavasthita, 63 

Anekanta, 116 

Anga-bdhya Sruta, 143 

Ahgas, 108, 135 f. (contents), 14f> 

Angels, body of, 43, 60 

Anger, 94 

Angopanga-nama- karma, 33, 

Anihsrita, 62 

Anitya, 97 

Anivritti-karana, 51 

Antakrid-dasa-anga, 137 (con- 

Aritara, 57 

Antara-muhurta, 57 

Antaraya-karma, 27, 31 

Anthropomorphism, 55 

Ann, 20 

Anubhaga, 30, 95 

Anubhava, 99 

Anugamika, 63 

Anumana, 113 

Anumati-tyaga, 70 

Anupalabdhi, 113, 114 

Anupreksha, 97 

Anuprekshd-Alokdh quoted, 77 

Anupurvl, 35 

Anuttara gods, 124 

A nuttaropapddaka-dasd-avga, 137 



Anu-vratas, 69 

Am'aclrishti-prassamsa, 50 

Anyadrishti-samstava, 50 

Anyatva, 98 

Apagama, 62 

Apagata, 62 

Apanoda, 62 

Apanutta, 62 

Apavaya, 62 

Apaviddha, 62 

Apavyadha, 62 

Apaya, 62 

Apayasah, 35 

Apeta, 62 

Apinda-prakriti, 35 

Apramatta-virata, 51 

Apratvakhyana, 32 

Apta, 108 

Apiirva-karana, 51 

ApQrvartha, 115 

Arambha-tyaga, 70 

Ardha-magadhi language, xxv, 

Arhats, 2, 4, 52, 78, 106 
Arjava, 132 
Aksha language. See Akdha- 


Artha, 62 

Arya-khanda, 119 

Asadhara quoted, 68 

Asanjnin, 56 

Asarana, 97 

Asarlra, 3 

Asatya, 94 

Asrava, 37, 38 1'., 56, 98 

Asteya, 133 

Astikayas, 13, 15, 16, 87 

.4 sti-nusti-j)rav(lda-purv<t , 1 39 

Astronomy, Jain, 125 

Asubha, 111 

Asuchitva, 98 

A-sva-samvidita, 115 

Atapa, 35 

Atisaya, 78 

Atisthula-sthula, 89 

Atmdnuidsana quoted, 53, 55 

Atma-pravdda-purva, 140 (con- 

Atmospiikres, 120 

Atoms, 21, 89 

Attributes, substance and, 1 If. , 

Audarika body, 33, 43, 60 
Authority. See Agama and Ajfia 
Avabodha, 62 
Avadharana, 62 
Avadhi-jfiana, 59, 63, 109, 110 
Avagahana, 91 
Avagama, 62 
Avagraha, 61, 63 
Avasarpini, 15, 119 ; divisions 

of, xxvi 
Avasthana, 62 
Avasthita, 63 
Avasyakas, 132 
Avaya = Apaya, 62 
Avidya, 58 
Avipaka, 99, 100 
Avirata-samyaktva, 49 
Avirati, 94, 95 
Aviruddha, 113, 114 
Aviveka, 58 
Ayana, 15 
Ayoga-kevalin, 52 
Ayuh-karma, 27, 35 

Badara, 35 

Bala, 82, 108 

Bala-bhadras, 5, 126 (list) 

Bandha, 37, 39, 95 

Bandhana-nama-karma, 34 

Beings, kinds of living, 33 

Bhadrasana, 130 

Bhagavati, 137 (contents) 

Bhagavatl-arddhand, 67 

Bharata-kshetra, 119, 123 

Bhasha-samiti, 97, 134 

Bhava, 57, 74 

Bhava-bandlia, 95 

Bhava-samvara, 96 

Bhavasrava, 38, 39, 93 

Bhoga-bhumi, xxvi-vii 

Bhojana-katlia, 94 

Bodhi-durlabha, 98 

Body, kinds of, 7, 33, 42-4, 60, 
101 ; karma and, 7 ; mineral, 
8 ; soul and, 9 ; time not a, 
16, 87 ; members of, 33 ; tran- 
sition to new, 35 ; abandon- 
ment of, 42-4 ; filled by soul, 
83 ; atoms of, 103 



Bondage, explanation and cause 

of, 37, 39, 95 
Books. See Literature 
Brahnia-charyii, 69. 97, 132 
Brihat-Svayambhu-stotra quoted. 

Buddhism, Jainism not a sect of, 

xxix f. 
Buddhist references to Jainism, 

xxx f. 

Canon, Jaina. See Literature 

Categories, 7 

Cause. See Karana 

Celibacy, 69 

Chakra-vartins, 5, 126 (list) 

Chakshur-nama-karma. 33 

Chala, 50 


Charitra. See Condu< t 

Chastity. 69, 97. 132 

Chatur-angin, xxxvii 

Chetana, 9, 83-4 

Chheda-sii/rus, 146 (contents 

Chinta, 61 

Chulikds, 142 

Conduct, right, 52, 65-7, 89 

[OUSNESS, characteristic of 
soul, 9, 83-4 

Contemplation, white, 51, 106 ; 
pure, 51-2 ; on twelve sub- 
jects, 97 

Conviction", right, 52-4 

Cosmogony. Appendix II 

Cosmology. Appendix II 

Creation of conditions only. 12 

Criminality low among Jainas, 

Cycles, world-, 15 

Danda, xxxi 

Darsana, 56, 68 

Darsanavaramya-karma, 27, 31 

Dasa-purvin, xxxvii 

Dasa - vaikdlika - prakirnaka, 144 

Dasa -vaikdlika -mitra, 135 (con- 

Death, hollowness of, 9 

Desa-virata. 50 

Development, stages of moral, 

48, 105 
Dharana, 62 

Dharavahi-jnana, 115 

Dharma, meaning of, xxxiii, 13, 
22 f., 26, 97 ; as Asti-kaya, 85, 
87, 90 ; limited range of, 97 

Dharma-chakra, 130 

Dharmastikaya, 85, 87, 90 

Dhiativya, 11 

Dhundhias. xxxix n. 

Dhyana, 132. See also Sukla- 

Digambaras, dialect of, xxv ; 
views of, xxxvii f. , xxxix n. ; 
Canon of, xxxviii, 135 f. 

Dig-virati, xxxi 

Divya-dhvani, 130 

Doubt, 50, 94, 115 

Dravya, 11, 24 (six eternal), 74, 
83, 84 

Dravya-bandha, 95 

Dravyarthika-Naya, 116 

Dravya-aamgraha quoted, 79,82, 
83, 86, 87, 89, 90, 93, 95, 96, 
100, 109, 110 

Dravyasrava. 38, 39, 94 

Drink, kinds to be avoided, 71 

Drishti-pravdda-ahga, 138 (con- 

Duality, man's evident, 18 

Dvesha, 38 

Dvipa, 120 f., 138 

Dvipa-j>r'iji~"ij>'i, 138 (contents) 

Earth, stationary, 85 ; shape of . 

Eating at night, 69 
Eka-angin, xxxvii 
Ekadassa-aiigin. xxxvii 
Ekanta, 94 
Ekatva, 97 
Eras, xxvi ; not universal, 119. 

See also Avasarpinl and Ut- 

Error recognized, 58 
Eshaiia, 97, 134 
Ethics, introductory remarks on. 

xix, xxi, xxiii ; principle-, of 

Jaina, xl, 67 f. 



Existence, forms of, 7, 33, 104 : 
and substance, 83 

Faith, right, 52, 68 (layman's), 

Fallacies, 115 f. 

Fasts, regular, 69 

Feelings, knowledge of, 59 

Fire, souls of, 8 

Food, not to be taken at night. 
69 ; non-injury and, 71 ; talking 
of, 94 ; accepting, 97 ; ab- 
stinence from, 131 

Freedom, religious, 3, 41 (when 

Gana-dhara, xxxv, xxxvii 

Gandha, 34 

Ganges, Great, 124 

Gati, 33 

Gautama, xxix, xxxii, xxxvi 

Geography, 122 

Ghanodadhi-vata-valaya, 120 

Ghatl, 15 

Ghatiya-karma, 27 

Ghrana, 33 

God, notion of, xx-xxii ; Jain 

view of, 4, 28-9, 54 
Gommata-sdra quoted. 104 5 
Gotra-karma, 27, 35 
(* rah ana, 62 
Graiveyaka gods, 124 
Great persons, sixty-three, 126 

Greed, 94 
Grihitartha, 115 
(iiKKiNOT, Dr., quoted, xvii, 

xxix, 23 
Guna, 105 

Guiia-sthana, 42, 48, 105 
Guna-vrata, 69 
Gupti, 97, 133 
Guru, 108 

Hagiologv, Jain, 5, 126 f. 
Happiness, the summum bonum, 

Heavens, number and place of, 

Hell, divisions of, 120-1 
Himsa, 94. See also Ahimsa 
History, Jaina, xxvi 
Hlyamana, 63 
Human beings, location of, in the 

universe, 120 
Hundaka, 34 

Ilia, 62 

Images, worship of. 74 
Indus, Great, 124 
Inference, 62, 115 
Infinities, 1 

Inflow of matter. See Asrava 
Insight. See Darsana 
Intuitive knowledge, 115 
Invisibility, not proof of non- 
existence, 44 
Invocation, Jain, 3 
Try a, 97, 134 

Ishat-pragbhara world, 124 
Islands, 122 

Jacobi, Prof., on Jain literature, 
xxv, 145 ; on antiquity of 
Jainism, xxx f. 

Jainas, modern, 73 (prosperity of) 

Jainism, early Buddhist refer- 
ences to, xxix f. ; antiquity 
of, xxix f., 24 ; persecution of, 
xxxvii f. ; fundamental prin- 
ciples of, xl, If.; not atheistic, 
4 ; a practical religion, 73 ; 
occult side of, 74 

Jalagata-chulikd, 142 (contents) 

Jambu-dvipa, 121 f. , 138 

Jambu-dinpa-prajnapti, 138 (con- 

Jati, 33 

Jewels, Three, 7. 52, 107 

Jijnasa, 62 

Jina, 1. For list see Table 

Jina-deva, 78 

JIva, xxii, 7, 9, 82 4 

Jnana, 108 

Jndna-pravdda-purva, 140 (con- 

.1 Banavaranlya-karma, 27, 30 

Jnatridharma - hatha - niiga, 137 



Kala, 15 

Kala, 57, 86 

Kalpa, 124 

Kalpdkalpa-praMrnaka, 144 (con- 

Kalpatita, 124 

Kalpa - rya vahdra -praklrnaka ,144 

KalyCtna-vdda-purva, 141 (con- 

Kama-devas, 5, 127 (list) 

Kanksha, 50 

Karana, 51, 113-15 

Karma, kinds of, 26 f. , Table; 
aspects of, 30 ; accumulation of, 
37-8 ; riddance of, 37-41, 99 

Karma-bhumi, xxvii 

Kannana body, 33, 43, 60 

Karma-pravdda-purva, 140 (con- 

Karma-vargana, 21, 71, 95 

Karta, 83 

Karya, 113-15 

Kasha3'a, 56, 94-5 

Kashtha, 15 

Kathani, 138 

Kaya, 16, 87, 89. See Body 

Kaya-klesa, 131 

Kayotsarga, 133 

Kesin, xxxii 

Kevala-jnana, 60, 65, 109-10 

Kevalin, xxxvi f., xxxix, 79 

Kings, talk concerning, 94 

Knowledge, secular, xxiv; right, 
52, 58 ; perfect, 60 ; false, 60 ; 
kinds of, 61, 109 f., 140 ; logic 
of, 61 f. , 112 f. ; concurrent 
kinds of, 65 ; ways of deriving, 
74 ; and karma, 96 

Krishna, cousin of Nemi-natha, 

Kritikarma-jirakirnaka, 143 (con- 

Kriya-vada, xxxi 

Kriyd-visdla-purva, 141 (contents) 

Krodha, 94 

Kshaya, 57 

Kshayika, 51 

Kshayika-samyakta, 50 

Kshayopasama, 50, 57 

Kshetra, 57, 119 (list) 

Kshina-moha, 52 
Kula-karas, 5, 128 (list) 
Kuuda-kunda Acharya quoted, 

Language of Jain canon, xxv 
Layman, rules for, 67-8 ; stages 

in life of, 67-8 
Lesya, 42, 45 f., 56, 104 
Literature, Jaina sacred, 

xxxvi f. , 135 f. 
Lobha, 94 

Logic, Jaina, 61 f., 112 f. 
Loka, 13, 14, 22, 98, 119 
Luiikas, xxxix n. 

Madhya-loka, 22, 120 
Magnitudes (asti-kayas), 7, 15, 24 
Maha-ganga, 123 

144 (contents) 
Maha-puiidarika-prakirnaka, 1 45 

Maha-sindhu, 123-4 
Mahavira, doctrine of, xix ; life 

of, xxvii 
Maha-vrata, 133 
Makkhali Gosala, xxxi f. 
Mala, 50 

Man, 1 (dual personality, per- 
fectibility), 60 (bodies) 
Mana, 94 
Manaliparyaya-jhana, 59, 60, 64, 

Ma ngala, eight auspicious objects, 

Mardava, 132 
Marga, 55 
Masa, 15 

Mati-jnana, 59, 61-2, 109-10 
Matter, 13 (nature of), 20 

(atoms, etc.), 20 (qualities), 21 

(gross and fine), 38 (tendency 

of), 88-9 (texts) 
Maurttika, 110 
Maya, 58, 94 

Maydgata-chvlika, 142 (contents) 
Medical science. See Prana- 

vdda-purva-'jata, 141 



Memory, xxxvii (literary trans- 
mission by), 61, 113 

Meru, Mount, 121, 125 

Metaphysics, subject of, xix ; 
defined, xxi ; introductory re- 
marks on, xxii ; Jain, 7f. , 82 f. 

Mind, material, 84 

Mind-knowing knowledge. See 

Miracles, see Jalagata-Chulikd % 
etc., 142. See Pratiharva 

Misra, 49 

Mithyatva, 48, 94 

Mlecchas, 123 

Modes of expression (Nayas), 116 

Modifications in substance, 11 

Moha, 38 

Mohaniya-karma, 27, 32, 92 

Moksha, 37, 41, 43, 65, 100 

Molecule, atoms in, 88 

Moon, 125. See also Chandra- 

Motion, medium of, 13, 22, 85 

Mountains, great, 122 

Muhurta, 15, 57 

Afvla-mtras, 146 

Muni, 2 

Nadi, trasa-, 120 

Nail, 15 

Nama, 74 

Nama- karma, 27, 32 

Naradas, 5, 127 (list) 

Narayanas, 5, 126 (list) 

Natil-putta. See Mahavira 

Nayas, 112, 116 

Nemi-chandra Siddhrinta-chakra- 

vartin quoted, 79 
Nemi-natha, history of. xxxiii 
Nidra, 94 
Nihsankita, 108 
Xiiisritii, 62 
Nimisha, 15 
Nirdesa, 55 

Nirgrantha, xxxi t.. xxxvii 
Nirjara, 37, 40, 98-9 
Nirmana-nama-karma, 33 
Nirvana, 29 
Nirvedani, 138 
Nirvichikitsita, 108 
Nirvikalpa-darsana, 1 15 

Nisarga, 55-6 

Nischaja, 62, 107 

Nischaya-samyag-darsana, 54 

Nishidikd-praklrnaka, 145 (con- 

Nishkankshita, 108 

Nisrita, 62 

Xiyamasdra-gdthd quoted, 78-80, 

Non-injury, importance of, 70 ; 
social effects of, 72. See also 

Non-scriptural knowledge, 63 

Non-soul. See Ajlva 

Xon-universe, 22, 119 

Nyagrodha-parimandala, 34 

Occupations, worldly, abandon- 
ment of, 70 
Om, 3 
Omniscience, 106 

Pada-nama-karma, 33 
Padarthas, 7, 41 f., 101, 137 
Painnas, xxxviii, 146 
Pakshika-sravaka, 68 
Paiichdstikdya-gathd, quoted, 77, 

79, 82-8, 90, 93, 96, 99-101, 

104, 108, 111 
Papa, 41, 101 
Paraghata, 35 
Paramanu, 22, 88, 90 
Paramarthika-pratyaksha, 113 
Paramdtma-prakdsa quoted, 78, 

Parameshthins, Five, 2 
Parigraha, 94 

Parigraha-tyiiga, 70, 97, 134 
Parikarmas, 138 (contents of) 
Pariksha, 62 
Parinama, 81, 100 
Parisaha-jaya, 98 
Parisamkhyana, 131 
Paroksha, 113 
Parokshabhasa, 1 Hi 
Parsva-natha, teachings of, xxx : 

death of, xxxiii 
Parts, substances and their. 16 
Paryapta, 35 
Pa iv ay a, 11 
Paryayarthika-naya, 116 



Passions, 56 

Patali-putra, Council of. xxxvii. 

Pattavalls. Jain, xxxvi 
Pava-Puri, Mabavlra's death at, 

xxviii f. 
Penal Code, Indian, 72 

Penitence. See Prayaschitta 

Perception, right, 49, 52; in 
logic, 61-2, 113 

Perfections, four infinite, 1 

Persecutions of Jainism,xxxviiif. 

Phalabbasa, 116 

Philosophy, basis of, xix ; Jaina 
principles of, xl 

Planets, influence of, 141 

Points of view (nay as), 117 

Politics, talk of, 94 

Poshadhopavasa, 69 

Prabha, 120 

Prabhavana, 108 

Pradesa, 16, 85, 88-90, 95 

Praklrnakas, 135 (contents of), 146 

Prakrit, Jain use of, xxv 

Prakriti, 30, 95 

Pramada, 94-5 

Pramada-bhava, 51 

Pramana, 33, 112, 115 

Pramanabhasa, 115 

Pramatta-virata, 51 

Prana, 82 

Prdna-vdda-purva, 141 (contents) 

Prasna-vydkarana-anya, 137 (con- 
tents | 

Prathamdnuyoga, 139 

Pratiharya, 130 

Pratikramana, 132 

Prattkramana-prakirnaJca, 143 

Pratimas, 50, 67 

Prati-narayanas, 5, 126 (list) 

Pratipatti, 62 

Pratishthapana, 97, 134 

Prati-vasudevas, 5, 126 (list) 

Pratyabhijnana, 113 

Pratyakhyana, 133 

Pratydkhydna-purva, 141 (con- 

Pratyaksha, 113 

Pratyakshabhasa, 115 

Pratveka, 35 

Prayafichitta, 131 
Predestination, denied, 29 
Preraka, 14 

Pride, eight kinds of, 55, 108 
Principles, 7. 93 (seven), KM 

Prisht ha -naina- karma, 33 
Pudgala. 13, 20 1. 84, 87-9 
Pundartka-prakirnaka, 144 (con- 
Punya, 41, 101 

quoted, 81, 107 
Purva-chara, 1 13- 1-1 
Purva-gatas, 139 (contents) 

Qualities and attributes, 11. 84 ; 

of saints, 129 f. 
Quality, category of, xxxii 
Quaternary, infinite, 20 

Raga, 38 

Rajju, 119 f. 
Rasa, 33 

Rasa-parityaga. 131 
Ra.-htra-katha, 94 
Rati, '38 

quoted, 108 
Ratri-bhukta-tyaga. 69 
Reasoning, modes of, 113-16 
Reflection. 62 
Re-incarnation, 28, 30 
Religion, the question for, xix ; 

" creed" a svnonym, xx ; Jain. 

c.I, 77 f. 
Renunciation, 133 
Responsibility, man's, 3 
Riju-mati, 64, 110 
Rishabha, xxxiii 
Rita, 15 
Ritual, purpose and definition 

of, xxi ; introductory remarks 

on, xxiv ; Jain. 74 f. 
Rudras, 5, 127 (list) 
Rupagata-chulika, 142 (contents) 

Sabda, 113 
Sachi, 34 
Sachitta-tvaga, 69 



Sadhana, 55, 56 

Sadharana, 35 

Sadhu, 2, 80 

Sdyara-dharmdmrita , 68 

Sages, classes of, 2 

Saha-chara, 113, 114 

Saints, characteristics of, 129 

Sakara-jnana, 109 

Salaka-purusha, 126 (list ) 

Sama-chatura, 34 

Samanta-bhadraAcharya quoted, 

Samanya, 115 

Samavaya-anga, 136 (contents) 

Samaya, 15 

Samayasdra-lcalasa quoted, 96, 

Samayika, 69, 132 

Sdmdyika-pdtha quoted, 79 

Samayika'praklrnalca, 143 (con- 

Samhanana-nama-karma, 34 

Samiti, 97, 134 

Samsara, 11, 77, 97 

Sarnsara-stha, 83 

Samsaya, 94, 115 

Samstava - praklrnaka, 143 (con- 

Samsthana-nama-karma, 34 

Samudghata, 90 

Sam vara, 37, 39 f., 96, 98 

Samvatsara, 15 

SamvedanI, 138 

Samvyavaharika-pratyaksha, 113 

Samyag-darsana, 52 

Samyag-jnana, 52 

Samyak-charitra, 52 

Samyakta, 56 

Samyama, 56, 132 

Samyamin, 59 

Sanghata-nama-karma, 34 

Sanjna, 61 

Sanjnin, 56 

Saiika, 50_ 

Sankara Acharya, Jains perse- 
cuted by, xxxviii 

Sankbya, 57 

Sankbyabhasa, 116 

Sanksbepa-drisbti, 55 

Sanskrit, Jain use of, xxv 

Sapta-bhangi, 117, 140 

Sarlra. See Body 

Sas(v)adana, 49 

Sat, 57 

Satta, 11, 83 

Satya, 96, 132, 133 

Satya-pravdda-purva, 140 (con- 

Saucha, 132 

Savipaka-nirjara, 41, 99 

Sayoga-kevalin, 52 

Sciences, treated in the Vidydnu- 
vdda-purva-gata, 141 

Scriptures. See Literature 

Sense, organs of, 9 ; channels of 
knowledge, 59 

Sexes, 56 

Shade, matter of, 89 

Siddha, 2, 18, 79, 83, 107. 130 

Siddha-sila, 14, 124 

Sight, second. See Avadhi-jnana 

Siksha-vratas, 69 

Sin, original, 43 

Siro-nama-karma, 33 

Siva-koti, 67 

Skandha, 16, 20, 88 

Sleeping apart, 131 

Smriti, 61, 113 

Sneha, 94 

Sorrow, 78 

Soul, free, 2, 4 ; place of liberated, 
2, 18, 124 ; embodied, 2, 103 ; 
kinds and qualities of, 8 f. , 
82-3 ; and non-soul, 7, 82 ; 
conditions, etc., of, 13, 17- 
18, 82-3; parts of, 16; size 
of, 17, 90; as agent, 28, 81 ; 
denned as conscious, 83-4 ; 
penetrability of, 91 

Sound, production of, 90 

Space, divisions of, 14, 22 ; unit 
of, 16 ; as container, 85 

Sparsa-nama-karma, 33 

Sparsana, 57 

Sreni, 51 

Srotra-nama-karma, 33 

Sruta-jnana, 59, 63, 109-10 

Sruti, 1.'!") 

Sruti-kevalin, xxxvii 

Stacks of moral development, 7 : 
of soul, 48 f. ; of layman's life, 
68 f. 



Starvation, self-, 131 
Stationariness, means of, 14, 22 
Stationary souls, five kinds of, 

Steya, 94 

Stludagata-ch ulikd, 142 (con tents] 
Sthdna-anga, 136 (contents) 
Sthanaka-vasls, xxxix n. 
Sthana-niima-karma, 33 
Sthapana, 74 
Sthavara, 8, 35, 71, 82 
Sthiti, 30, 55, 56. 95 
St hula, 89 
Stri-katha, 94 
Stuti, 132 
Substance, and attributes, 7. 84 ; 

doctrine of, 1 1 
Substances, 7, 13 (kinds of), 25 
(chief), 119 (increate and in- 
Sudharma Acharya, xxix. xxxvi 
Sukla-dhvana, 51 
Sukshma, 35, 39, 89 

Sukshma-samparaya, 51 

Sukshma-sanjvalana-lobha. 51 

Sun(s), two, 125, 138. See also 
Surya -prajnapti 

Sundarata, 108 

Surya-prajnapti, 138 (contents) 

Sutra, 139, 146 

SutraJerita-anga, 136 (contents) 

Svabhava, 114 

Svadeha-parimana, 83 

Svadhyaya, 131. 133 

Svamitva, 55, 56 

Svati, 34 

Svetambaras, origin and views 
of, xxxvii, xxxix n. ; dialect of. 
xxv ; canon of, xxxvii f . , 145 f. 

Swami lvarttikej-a quoted. 77 

Syad-vada, 112, 116, 117 

Syllogism, Jain, 117 

Taijasa, 33, 43, 60 

Tapas, 100, 108, 131-2 

Tarka, 62, 113 

Tattva(s) enumerated, xxiii ; 37 f., 

Tattvartha-aara quoted, 86, 91, 


Tattvdrtha-autra quoted, 82, 88, 
90-3, 95, 99, 100. 103, 107, 109, 

Teacher, 55. See Qpadliyaya. 

Theology, defined, xxi ; Jain, 
xl, c. I, 77-81 

Thoughts, knowledge of. See 

Time, doctrine as to, 15; divisions 
of, 15, 86 ; as cause of modifica- 
tions, 86 

Tints of the soul, 7, 45 f. . 56. 
See Lesya 

Tirtbankaras, era of, xxvii ; 1. 5. 
(i. 78, 129, Table 

Trades, prohibited, 71 f. 

Transmigration of souls, 28 9 

Trasa souls, 9, 35, 82 

Trasa-nadi, 56 

TrUoka-bindusdra, 142 (contents) 

Truth, conventional and absolute. 
See Vyavahara and Nischaya 

Truthfulness, 94 

Tyaga, 132 

Uchchhvasa, 35 
Udara-nama-karma, 33 
Udaslna, 14 

Uddishta-tyaga, 70 

Uddj-ota, 35 

Uha, 62 

Universe, xxii : creation of, 
denied, 5 ; inhabited, 13. 14 ; 
shape of, 22, 119; summit of, 
79, 124 ; causes of , 87 ; dimen- 
sions, 119; life in, 120 

Upadhyaya, definition of, 2, 80 

Upaghata, 35 

Upaguhana, 108 

Upalabdhi, 113 

Updngas, 33. 145 (list) 

I T pdaalcddhyaya na-a it<j<< , 1 37 (con- 

Upasama, 51, 56 

Upasama-samyakta, 50 

Upasanta-moha, 52 

Upasarga, 129 

Uposatha, xxxi 

[Jrdhva-gati, 83 

Cro-nama-karma, 33 



Utpada, 11 

Utpd da-pur va, 139 (contents) 

Utsarga, 97 

Utsarpini, era, 15, 119 ; divisions 

of, xxvi 
Uttama-kshama, 132 
Uttara-chara, 113-14 
Uttarddhyayana, 135 (contents) 
Uttarddhyayana-praklrnaka, 144 


Vaikriyika body, 33, 43, 60 

Vaisali, birthplace of Mahavira, 

Vaiyapritya, 131 

ValabhT, Council of, xxxvii 

Vandana, 132 

Vandana - praklrnaka, 143 (con- 

Vardhamana. See Mahavira 

Vardhanianaka, 63, 130 

Vasu-devas, 5, 126 (list) 

Vata-valaya, 120 

Vatsalya, 108 

Veda, 56 

Vedaniya-karma, 27, 36 

Vegetables, fresh, 69; souls of, 8 

Vicarana, 62 

Vichikitsa, 50 

Vidhana, 55, 57 

Vidydnuvada - purva, 141 (con- 

Vihayo-gati, 35 

Vihayo-nama-karma, 33 

Vijayardha mountains, 123 

Vikshepanl, L38 

Vinaya, 94, 131 

Vipaka-ja, 99 

Vipaka-sutra-ahgn, 138 (contents) 

Viparlta, 94 

Viparyaya-jnana, 115 

Vipula-mati, 64, 110 

Virtue, identical with happiness, 

Viruddha, 114 

Viryachara, 133 

] r irydnnrdda-puri'a,\39{ contents) 

Visesha, 115 

Vishayabhasa, 116 

Vinllia-prajnapti, 137 (contents) 

Vivikta-saj'yasana, 131 

Vows, layman's, 69 

Vrata, 69, 96 

Vydkhyd-prajnapti, 137 (con- 
tents), 139 (contents) 

Vyafijana, 63 

V}'apaka, 114 

Vyapya, 113 

Vyavahara, 107 

Vyavahara-samyag-darsana, 54 

Vyaya, 11 

Vyutsarga, 132 

Water, souls of, xxx, 8 
Women, talk concerning, 94 
Worship, of qualities, not persons, 
3 ; modes, etc., of, 69, 75, 143 
Writing, Jain employment of, 

Wrongs, civil and criminal, 72 

Yoga, 38, 56, 95 

Yogindra Acharya quoted, 78 

Zones, geographical, 122 

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