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Dr. M. BEHR, 


* • * * • A * * * 

•*- vV '/.:: 

/;V ;;-//-/ 


THE A©Ili5S0N;-**' 


•' ••••/:*/:•/;.••,.• 







jenks, hickling, and swan. 

1854. f 

Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1853| 

Bt Jskks, Hicklxko, akd Swan, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachnsetta^ 

• ••••• •• • 

• •••••• • • 

•..••: •- • • . •• • 

;• : : •• . ••:•. :•-. 

• • . • • %••• • . 

• ••• •.•.••.••• 

• • • •••..••, • 

, •• •• •»• « • ^ ••• 


The Translatcnr of thk woric makes the following extract 
from the Author's preface to the German edition. 

<< Believing that a Guide to History can answer its object 
only when it awakens the interest of the ptypil, stimulates 
his desire for information, and excites his zeal for inquiry, 
I have everywhere arrayed the historical material in a narra- 
tive form, and have endeavored to give decurness, consistency, 
and animation to that form. My effort has been so to bring 
together the events of the world's history in their more 
prominent aspects and decisive moments^ tl^at the reader mfiy 
obtain a clear idea of them; that the imjgSMatitffqccts may be 
exhibited together with their causes and ^consequenrc^s,: iffi ^ 
thus be more strongly impressed upon thi' inya^rfatioji, and: 
consequently upon the memory; and tkkt:the..cbtrr3&^jQf the 
narrative may not be disturbed or broken 't^Vi^J^^i^tatfons 
or remarks which might require a further explanation. ^ Instead 
of following the usual course of compendiums, textbooks, and 
outlines, by heaping up a mass of materials in the smallest 
possible space, and thus forming a kind of skeleton register 
of the events of history, I have rather endeavored to limit 
my materials, giving place only to the most important and 
influential, and arranging these in historical succession. . • • 
• • Mere historical events, with names and dates, are not 
easily retained by the memory, and do not possess any in- 
stmctive or educative power. It is only when the historical 
fact is presented in combination with other objects, so that 


the imagination and thinking faculty are both employed upon 
it, that it permanentiy impresses itself upon the mind of 

The Translator justiy adds, that "the book is written 
throughout in the spirit of orthodox Protestantism, and is 
entirely untinctured with the neology and infidelity at this 
time so prevalent in Gtermany." 

Believing that the method here explained is the right one, 
and that the scheme is, in the main, carried out with fidelity 
and spirit, I have subjected the work to a thorough revision, 
in the hope of making it still more suitable for use as a 
textbook of instruction in American colleges and schools. 
Errors of the press and the pen had been multiplied by the 
translation and republication of the book in England; and 
the translation itself, though generally correct and elegant, 
was sometimes obscure and inade^iuate. Accuracy being an 
essential qualification of a school-book, every paragraph in 
these Outlines has been laboriously examined, and almost 
every name and date tested by reference to trustworthy 
sources of information. It would be rash to assert that it is 
now frec^ fi^om* Uetj^^h ; but it is certain that hundreds of 
•^tC!^ pffors**h^yQ.been weeded out by this scrutinizing pro- 
;Aesd. ' ]f tfit^y^mi^^y it is hoped that they may be discovered 
and jr^eve3*.]p*.^ Wbsequent edition. A few notes have 
t>eei^ $4^eBf. ipfki&Sies to explain, and sometimes to qualify^ 
stateikenfs in the text 

One very important defect was to be supplied before Dr. 
Weber's work could be considered worthy of republication 
in America. Except an imperfect sketch of the Revolutionary 
war, contained in four or five pages, the history of this 
country was entirely omitted. The gap thus left might have 
been cheaply filled by Isranscription and a judicious use of 
the scissors; but as the book would then have lacked unity 
of execution, I preferred to write out anew a sketch of the 
history of the United States, firom the period of the first set- 
tiements at Jamestown and Plymouth, down to the peace of 


1815. The addition thus made is considerable, as it occupies 
nearly one hundred pages, thus enlarging the bulk of the 
original about one" fifth. It consists of three parts ; — 1. a 
brief history of the Colonization of North America (pp. 291 
— 314); 2. a sketch of the French and Indian wars during 
the first sixty years of the eighteenth century, followed by a 
history of the War of Independence and the formation of 
the Federal Constitution (pp. 342 - 388) ; and, 3. a summary 
of political events from 1789 to 1815 (pp. 468 — 491). In 
preparing these historical sketches, I have sedulously endea- 
vored to follow Dr. Weber's original conception of his work, 
by passing lightly over all the details, and grouping together 
the leading events with a view to their causes and conse- 
quences. Only in this manner is it possible to preserve the 
interest of a continuous narrative, a proper distribution of 
light and shade, and a correct appreciation of personages and 
events, in a mere compend of history. The pages that are 
burdened with details are wearisome to read and difficult to 
remember. A compend of history must be a true compend, 
and not merely a complete history viewed through the wrong 
end of a telescope. The general plan, therefore, upon which 
these Outlines of History have been prepared, I am convinced, 
is a good one; tim^ and use will bring to light the defects 
in its execution. 

Cambbibox, February, 1858. 






L § 1. The first race of men, p. 1. IL § 2. The manner of liTing among the earliest 
races, p. 2. IIL \ 8. Forms of govenmient ; distinction of castes, p. 2. IV . § i. The 
religion of the heathen world, p. 8. 

A. THE EASTERN RACES, pp.5 — 23. 

I. ^ 5. The Asiatics, p. 6. H. \ 6. The Chinese, p. 6. HI. \ 7. The Indians, p. 7. f 8. 
Their religion, literature, art, p. 8. IV. Babylonians and Assyrians, p. 10. 4 ^' Nimrod, 
Semiramis, Salmanasser. § 10. The Chaldeans in Babylon ; Nebnchadnezzar. V. 
Egyptians, p. 11. \ 11. Division of Egypt. \ 12. Religion and arts. ^ IS. History. 
VI. Phcenicians, p. IS. \ 14. Navigation, commeroe, discoveries, f 16. History of Tyre 
and Sidon. VII. The people of Israel, pp. 16—20. \ 16. The Patriarchs. 4 17. Exodns. 
4 18. Moses as lawgiver. \ 19. Division of the promised land. \ 20. The Judges. \ 21. 
Samuel and Saul. \ 22. David; Solomon; division of the kingdom. ^ 28. Worship of 
idols; the prophets. \ 24. The Assyrian and Babylonian captivities. VIU. Medes and 
Persians, pp. 20 — 28. 4 ^' Zoroaster's religions system. | 26. Astyages and Cyrus. 
^ 27. CroBsusof Lydia. \ 28. Death of Cyrus. ^ 20. Cambyses; Ammonium. \ 80. 
Darius. \ 81. Manners and enstoms of the Persians. 

B. HISTORY OF GREECE, pp. 23—67. 

I. Geographical Survey, pp. 28—26. § 82. a. The Greek Continent, p. 28. f 83. 6. The 
Greek Islands, p. 24. H. \ 84. The religion of the Greeks, p. 26. 

L The time of the Trojan war, p. 26. \ 86. Pelasgi; eastern immigration, f 86. Helle- 
nic races; expedition of the Argonauts. \ 87. Trojan war. \ 88. Homer; epic poetry. 
^ 80. Immigration of the Dorians; Codrus. \ 40. Colonies. 2. The period of the wise 
men and lawgivers, p. 81. a. Genend view. \ 41. Greelu and barbarians, f 42. Am- 


| J ibl>yw i i D ooaaoa; Ddphie onoto; Olynpio guoBs. & Lyeurgiu tbA SpirtMi hnri^aiv 
p^at. ^41. LawtoTLyoiizgiis. a. Inslitiitioni of state. 6. ModeofUfe. § 44. W» 
v8ii tbe Meneniant. c Soto, the Iwrgivw of the Atheni«nii| p. 84. § 4(». Dnco; lawi 
of fioloii. d The tyiante, p^ •& § 46. Their ori|^ 4 47. Peiiaader of Corinth; Poly- 
emtesof Semot; Pbkmtaiof Atbeu. ^48. The seven wiMBoen; Pythagons. ^ 49. 
c Lyiiopoetiy. 

1. The Penian war. \ 60. InsaneotioD of the Greeks of Asia Minor. \ 61. Battle of 
Minthon 4 62. Azutides and Themistocies. f 68. Thermopylss. \ 64. Salamb. \ 66. 
Platsa ; MycUe ; EmymMon. S. The snpremacy of Athens, ind the ege of Pericles, 
p. 48. 4 68. PaosanJas, the traitor, f 67. Deaths of Themistocies and Aristides. \ 68. 
Cimon; Pericles. 8. The Peloponnesian war (b. c. 481-^404), p. 46. ^ 69. Origin of the 
war. \ 60. The war to the peace of Nicias. \ 61. Alcibiades ; battle of Mantinea. 
§ 62. Disasten of the Athenians in Sicily, f 68. Death of Alcibiades. \ 64. The fall of 
Athens; the thirty tyrants. 4. Socrates, p. 48. \ 66. Sophists; Socrates; Plato; Xeno- 
phon. 6. 4 66. The retreat of the ten thousand (b. c. 400), p. 49. 6. The time of Agesi- 
laos and Epaminondas. \ 67. The Corinthian war and the peace of Antalddas. { 68. 
Expedition agamst Olynthns and siege of Thebes. 4 69. The Theban war and the battle 
of Lenctra. \ 70. Epaminondas in Peloponnesus; battle of Mantinsea. 7. The most 
flourishing period of Greece in literature and the arts. \ 71. Dramatic poety; fschylus; 
Sophocles; Euripides; Aristophanes. \ 72. Prose literature; Plato; Herodotus; Thucy- 
dides; Xenophon. \ 78. Bhetoric; Isocratee; Demos^enes; iSschines. 4 7^* ^^^ ^ne 
arts of the Greeks. 


1. PhiUp of Maoedon (b. a 861 — 886). 4 76. Character of Philip. \ 76. The Sacred 
war. 4 77. Battle of ChsBronea; Phillp^s death. 2. Alexander the Great, p. 68. ^ 78. 
Fan of Thebes, f 79. Battle of Granicus. § 80. Battle of Issus. \ 81. Tyre and Alex- 
andria. 82. Arbela and Gangemala. \ 88. Expedition into Bactria. \ 84. March to 
India. ^ 86. Last years of Alexander. 

4 86. a. Alexander's successors. 6. Greece's last struggle; the Achaian league, p. 68. 
4 87. Athens; Phockm; Demosthenes; Demetrius. 4 ^* Sparta and the Achaian league. 
4 89. e. The Ptolemies and the Seleuddas, p. 64. f 00. d The Jews under the Maccabees, 
p. 66. e. State of oirUlsatkni during the Alexandrian period, p. 66. 4 ^1« Theocritus; 
Stofes and EpioureaM. 


4 92. The races and InstitutioDS of ancient Italy. 

1. Rome under the kings (n. c 768--609). \ 98. Borne built f 94. Borne under Ro- 
mulus. ^ 96. Kuma PompiUus. § 96. Tullus Hostilius and Ancus Marcius; origin of the 
plebeiaDS. ^ 97. Tarquinius Priscus and Servius TuUius. '§ 98. Taiquinius Superbus. 2. 
Rome as a republic under the patricians, p. 72. a. Horatius Coclos; the tribunes; Corio- 
lanus. 4 99. Contest between the republicans and PorBenna and Tarquin. f 100. Emi- 
gration to the sacred hill; Coriolanus. 6. The Fabii; Cincfamatus; the decemTirs, p. 74* 
4 lOL War with the Veians and JSqui. f 102. Agrarian hiw; Sp. Cassius. \ 108. The- 
decem v ir s . \ 104. Military tribunes and censors, c Sack of Rome by the Gauls (b. c. 
889), and the kws of Lindnius Stolo (b. c. 866), p. 76. \ 106. Taking of VeU by CamU- 
las. 4 106. Brenim hi Rome. § 107. M. Manlins and the laws of L. Stoto. 


l.Thet&Deof thewarwUfatheSamDites,and the battlee with Pynhiv. i 108. lint 


8«mnite war. 4 109. War with the Latins, f 110. Second Saamite war; Candiniaa 
passes ; Seotiniun. ^ 111. War with Taraitam and Pyrriras. 2. The time (^ the Pusio 
wan, p. 80. a. The fint Pimic war (». o. 208—241). \ 112. Carthage; Agathooles; the 
Mamertines. \ 118. Regnlus. f 114. Hamilear Barcas; temdnatkm of the fiwt Panio 
war. 6. The second Pnnic war (b. c 218—202), p. 82. § 116. Sicllj and Gallift Gisal- 
piua Roman Provinces. S IK'* Sagontum. S 117. Hanmbal*8 pAsaije over the Alps and 
through Italj. ^ 118. Fabius Maxlmiu and the battle of Ganns. ^ 119. Capna; Syra- 
cnse; Tarentum. 4 l^^* Hasdrabal's defeat on the Metanms. §121. Zama. c Mace- 
donia conquered; Corinth and Carthage destrojred, p. 80. § 122. Philip II. and Antiochus 
in. subdued by the Bomans. 4 128. Battle of Pydna and deatroction of Corhith. \ 124. 
Destruction of Carthage in the third Punio war. d* The mantfers and culture of the 
Romans, p. 80. \ 125. Contest between Consenratism and progrsss; Plautus; Terence; 


1. Numantia; Tiberius; Caius Gracchus. \ 120. Bome*s government of her provinces; 
Numantia*s insurrection and faU. § 127. Tiberius Gracchus, f 128. Caius Gracchus. 
2. The times of Marius and Sylla, p. 92. f 129. The JugurtUne war. f 180. Chnbri and 
Teutones. \ 181. The Social war. ^ 182. The first Hithridatic war. \ 188. The first 
civil war; death of Marius. ^ 184. The Cornelian law and Sy]bi*s death. 8. The times 
of Cneius Pompey and M. Tullius Cicero, p. 98. \ 186. Sertorius. \ 180. The Servile 
war. \ 187. War against the pirates. ^ 188. The second Mithridatio war. \ 189. Cata- 
line's conspiracy. 4. The times of Caius Julius Cssar, p. 98. ^ 140. The triumvirate. 
\ 141. Cnsar'B wan hi Gaul. \ 142. The second civil war. 4 148. CsBsar's victories. 
\ 144. Ca»ar*s death. 5. The last years of the republic, p. 101. \ 146. The second tri- 
umvirate; Cicero's death. \ 140. PhilippL § 147. Actium. 

1. The times of CsBsar Octavianus Augustus, p. 102. ^ 148. Rome's golden age. f 149. 
Roman literature. 2. The struggles of the Germans for liberty, p. 108. § 160. Hermann's 
victory in the Teutobuxger forest. \ 161. (lermanicus. ^ 162. Tacitus on the manners 
'and institutions of the Germans. 8. The Csnars of the Augustine race, p. 106. § 168. 
Tiberius. 4 164. Caligula; Claudius. 4 166. Nero. \ 160. Galba; Otiio; ^teUius. 4. 
The Flavii and Antonines, p. 107. \ 167. Vespasian. ^ 168. The destruction of Jerusa- 
lem ; destruction of the Jewish state. \ 169. Britain conquered by Agriooia. 4 100. 
Titus, f 101. Domitian; Nerva; Tnjan. § 102. Adrian; Plutarch. § 168. Antoninus 
Pius; Maieus Aurelins. \ 184. Cultivation and morals. 6. Rome under military govern- 
ment, p. 111. 4 106. Commodus; Pertinax; Septimius Sevems. \ 100. Caracalla; Hello- 
gabalus; Alexander Severus. ^ 107. Philip the Arab; Deoius; Ciallienus. § 168. Aure 
llaa. \ 109. Tacitus; Probns; Cams. \ 170. Time of Diocletian. § 171. Constantine's 
Tictoiy at the Milvian bridge and sole empire. 





1. The Christian Church of the first century. \ 172. Persecutions of the Christians. 

2. Constantine the Great and Julian the Apostate. \ 178. Constantino's proceedings in 
Church and state, f 174. Arianism; Augustine; the fiUhers of the Church. \ 176 
jQ]ifliithe.^x»tate. « 


n, THE MIGRATION OF NATIONS, pp. 117—125. 

1. Tlwodotivfl the Gseat ^ 176. Emu and West Goths. 8. West Goths; Bmgimdiuis 
and YuidBls, p. 118. f 177. Alaric ; StiUcho; Badaggis. § 178. Alario in Italy. ^ 179. 
The Vandals hi Aftioa. 8. Attila king of the Huns (a. d. 460), p. 120. § 180. Battle 
with the Huns; Aqnileja. 4. \ 181. Destruction of the Western Boman Empire (▲. u. 
476), p. UO. 6. \ 182. Theodoric the Ostrogoth (a. d. 600), p. 131. 6. Cloris, king of the 
Franks and the Merovingians, p. 121. § 188. Battle of ZUlpich. \ 184. The MeroThigians 
and then: Mayor of the palace. 7. ^ 186. The Anglo-Saxons, p. 122. 8. The Byzantine 
empire and the Longobards, p. 128. ^ 186. The coiq^; Justinian. \ 187. Subjection of 
the Vandals and the Ostrogoths. \ 188. Albom. 4 189. The Iconoclasts and the Iconoduli. 


4 19C. Arabia. § 191. Mohammed the prophet § 192. The Mohammedans 'hi Persia 
and Egypt \ 198. AH and the Ommiades. ^ 194. The Arabs in Spain and France. 
§ 196. The Abbassides hi Bagdad; the battles between Christians and Mohammedans in 
Spahi. \ 196. Arab cnltiyation and literature. 



L Pepin the Little (▲. D. 752—768); Charlemagne (768 — 814). § 197. Pepin the 
little and Bonifadus. \ 198. Saxons and Longobards. 4 l^^- ^^ ^^^ ^® Saxons, and 
defeat at Boncesvalles. ^ 200. Charlemagne, Boman emperor. 4 201. His mtemal 
gOTemment 2. Dissolution of the Frank empire, pp. 182, 183. ^ 202. Louis the Debon- 
naire; Treaty of Verdun. \ 208. Charles the Fat and Amulf. § 204. Charles the Shnple 
■nd Hugh Capet 

n. NORMANS AND DANES, p. 188. 

4 206. Scandinavia; Iceland; Russia. ^ 206. England; Alfred ; Canute; William tht^ 
Conqnerur. ^ 207. Lower Italy; Bobert Guiscard. 

EMPIRE, p. 135. 

1. The House of Saxony (919—1024.) \ 208. Henry the Fowler. \ 209. Otho the 
Great \ 210. Otho H. and UL 4 211. Henry H.; German cultiyation under the Othos. 
2. Tlie House of Franconia, pp. 187 — 140. 4 212. Conrad H. and Heniy HI. § 218. 
Henzy IV. and the Saxons. 4 ^l^* Henry IV. and pope Gregory VIL \ 215. Henry 
IV.'s death. § 216. Henzy V. and Lothaire of Saxony. 

THE CRUSADES, p. 140. 

1. The Crusades. 4 217. The assembly of the Church at Clennont \ 218. Peter of 
Amiens and Walter the Penniless. \ 219. The first crusade under Godfrey 0[ Bouillon. 
S 220. Conquest of Jerusalem. 4 221. The first king of Jerusalem. ^ 222. The second 
emsade. ^ 228. The third crusade. ^ 224. The fourdi crusade; the Latin emphe in Con- 
stantinople. \ 225. The fifth crusade; the emperor Frederick H. § 226. The sixth cru- 
sade, under Louis IX. 4 ^^' 11^® consequences of the crusades ; orders of knights. 
\ 228. War agamst tiie Albigenses. 2. The Hohenstaufens (a. d. 1188—1154), pp. 149— 
156. S 229. Welfs and Waiblings. ^ 280. Frederick Baxbarossain Italy; Arnold of 
Bnscia. f 281. Blilan destroyed; Alexandria founded. § 282. Battie of Legnano; Peace 
of Constance, f 288. Frederick Barbarossa and Henry tiie Lion. \ 284. Henry VL and 
PhiHp of Swabia. § 285. Pope Innocent UL and the Emperor Otho IV. \ 286. Frede- 
rick n.*i contest with the papacy. § 287. Bival emperor hi Germany. ^ 288. Frederick 


IL'Bdaatfa. \ 289. DmHi of MMfM at BatMreBtnm. \ UO. CoiindiM*t d«rtfa; te 
SidUan vetpen. 8. General view of the Middle Ages, p. 166. S Ml. The feadal lyrtem. 
§ S4a. ChMrj. f S48. Htorarcliy. f 844. Monaohlaiii. \ 846. Mendioaiit ordafa; Avh 
eiMana and BomkiioMa. \ 846. Stete of thatowna. f 847. Utentoie (1), fSnhnlartai 
andMjBtica. § 848. (8) Seieiiee and t^ wiltliig of Ualofy. f 84». (8) Poatqr- 

CHURCH, p. 168. 

1. The Interregimm (a. d. 1860—1878). f 860. Club law; ooBfedendona of towoa. 
8. Origin of tiie Hoose of Hapabnrg and the HelTetio coDfedentioD^ pp. 164— 166. \ 861* 
Rudolf of Hapsbnrg. S 862. Rudolf's proceedings in the emphe. \ 268. Adolf of Nassan 
and Albert of Austria. S 264. The confedention of the RutU; WiUiam Tell; Moigaiten. 

8. Philip, the Fair of France and the emperor Louis the Bavarian, pp. 166 — 160. ^ 285. 
Philip IV. and pope Bonifiusius Vm.; the popes at Avignon. \ 266. Dissdntton of the 
order of the Temple. S 267. Henry of Luxemburg. \ 268. Loiiia the Bavarian and Frede- 
rlckthe Fair. S 269. Dietat Reuse; Lonia*s death. 4. The erapevoiaof the House of Lux- 
embuig, pp. 169—171. ^ 260. Chaiies IV. S Ml. Wenoeshius; the German town war. 
^ 262. Rupert of the Palatinate and Sigismund. 6. The division in the Church and the 
great councUs, p. 171. S 3^* The division in the Church; Wickliff and Huss. S S^- Tha 
council of Constance. \ 266. The Hussite war. S 866. The council of Basle. 6. Ger- 
manj under Foederick HI. and Maximilian*!., p. 176. § 267. Albert H. and Frederic HL 
^ 268. Maximilian L ; change in the German constitutkm. S 269. End of the middle age. 


1. France. ^ 270. a. France under the House of Capet (a. d. 987—1828). 6. France 
under the House of ValoU (a. d. 1828—1629), p. 177. S 271. Philip VI. and John the 
Good; Crecy and Poictiers. ^ 272. Charles V. and VI.; civil war. S 278. Battle of 
Aginoonrt. S 274. Maid of Orleans; Louis XI. 2. Enghind, pp. 180— 188. f 276. Heniy 
Plantagenet and Thomas k Becket § 276. Richard Lion-heart and John Lackland, f 277. 
Edward L and the war of liberty in Scotland, f 278. Edward IIL; the House of Un- 
caster. \ 279. The wars of the red and white rosea. 8. Spain, pp. 188 — 186. ^ 280. State 
of Spain hi the middle age. S 281. Aragon and Castile. S 282. Ferdinand and babella; 
the Inquisition. S 288. Expulsion of the Moors. 4. Italy, pp. 186 — 188. a. Upper 
Italy. S 284. Venice. \ 286. Genoa. S 286. Milan. S 287. Savoy and Piedmont 
6. Middle and Lower Italy, p. 188. S 288. Florence; Cosmo de Medici, f 289. Lorenzo 
the Magnificent; Savonar51a; fine arts. \ 290. State of the Church ; Femnu \ 291. 
Naples and Stoily. 6. The new Buiigundian territory, p. 190. \ 292. Condition of the 
kingdom under the first dukes. \ 298. Charles the Bold. ^ 294. The now Burgundian 
territory after the death of Charles. 6. Scandinavia, p. 192. f 296. Establishment 
of Christianty in the three Scandinavian kingdoms. ^ 296. Denmark before the 
union of Calmar. \ 297. Sweden before and after the union of Calmar. 7. Hungary, p. 
194. ^ 298. Stephen the Pious; the Saxons in Transylvania; the ** Golden Privilege.** 
^ 299. Louis the Great and Matthias Corvinus. 8. Poland, p. 196. f 800. State of 
Poland; Casimir the Great S ^1- The Jagellons; fonnation of the power of the nobles. 

9. The Russian Empire, p. 197. \ 802. The fanperial House of Ruric; Ivan Vasilyevitsch. 

10. Mogula and Turks, pp. 198—201. S 808. Zengis-Khan and his sons. \ 804. The 
Ottoman Turks hi Asia Muior. S 9^* B^uet and Timur. S 806. Murad H.; the Chris- 
tian anny defeated at Waina. \ 807. Taking of Constantinople; greatness and decay 
ef the Ottoman empire. 





1. Th6 sea putage to the East Indies, and tbe dlseorery of America, p. 202. \ 808. In- 
TentioD of the compass; gunpowder; printing, f 809. The Portngnese in the East Indies. 
^ 810. Christopher Colambus. f 811. Balboa; Cortez; Pizarro. S 812. Consequences of 
the discovery of America. 2. The reviTal of the arts and sciences, p. 206. \ 818. 
Italy; Germany (BenchHn, Erumua, Hntten); Humanists and Obscurantists. 


1. The German Reformation, pp. 208—212. a. Dr. Martin Luther. S ^^^ The sale of 
Indulge nces and tlie ninety-five theses. \ 816. Luther. \ 816. Ci^etan; Frederick the 
Wise; Miltiti. ^ 817. His disputation at Leipsic; burning of the pope*sbull. f 818. 
Diet of Worma» S SI^* I>r- Carlstadt and the Anabaptists; Philip Melancthon. § 820. 
Kxtension of the Reformation, b. The peasant war, p. 212. § 821. Thomas Munzer. 
\ SS2. Subjection of the peasants, c. The Augsburg confession, p. 214. S ^^* Activity 
of Luther 93»d Mefamcthon; Diet of Spbe. f 824. Diet of Augsburg, d, IJlric Zwingle, 
p. 216. \ 826. Reformation in Switzerland. S ^0- Religious war; battle of KappeL 
2. Wars of tbe House of Hapsburg against France, p. 217. § 827. Charles V. and Francis 
L; wars respecting Milan. S 828. Battle of Pavia ; taking of Rome; Ladies* Peace of 
Cambray. f 820. Campaign against Tunis; second and third war between Charies and 
Francis. 8. The war of religion in Germany, p. 220. ^ 880. The league of Smalcald; 
the gospel in Wirtemberg. \ 881. The Anabaptists in Munster. \ 882. Extension of the 
Reformation in Saxony, Brandenburg, the Palatinate, &c. S 888. The war of Smalcald; 
campaign on the Danube. S ^^- Charies V.^s triumphant expedition into Southern Ger- 
many, f 886. Battle near Mllhlberg; the elector of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse 
taken prisoners. S 886. The Augsburg interim. ^ 887. Maurice of Saxony; the treaty 
of Passan. § 888. The religious war of Augsburg. ^ 889. Charles V. dies. 4. Progress of 
the Reformation through Europe, p. 229. a. Lutheranism and Calvinism. ^ 840. Ger- 
many; the Lutheran and Reformed Churches. S 841. Switzerland; Calvmism. f 842. 
Calvinism in France, in the Netherlands, fai Scotland. 6. Establishment of the Anglican 
Church, p. 282. f 848. England; Henry Vin.*s ecclesiastical innovations. \ 844. Henry 
Vm. and his wives. S 846. Establishment of the Episcopal Church under Edward VL 
§ 846. The English Church under Maria and Elisabeth, c The Reformation hi the three 
Scandinavian kingdoms, p. 286. \ 847. Scandinavia; Sweden under Gustavus Vasa. 

4 848. The Refoimation hi Dennuuk. \ 849. Sweden under the sons of Gustavus Vasa. 
\ 860. Pohind. d. The Catholic Church, p. 288. § 861. Inquisition; p^acy; Council of 
Trent. S 862. Order of the Jesuits. 6. The times of Philip H. (a. d. 1666—1698) and 
Elizabeth (a. d. 1668—1608), p. 240. § 868. Philip H.; character and mode of govern- 
ment, a. Portugal united with Spain, p. 241. S 864. King Sebastian. 6. Straggle for 
liberty in tbe Netheriands, p. 242. § 866. Philip's attacks on the privileges of the Nether-, 
landers. \ 866. Compromise; the Gueses; sacrikge. ^ 867. Alba In the Netherlands.' 

5 868. Don Joan; Alexander, Famese; William of Orange. ^ 869. The Aimada; termi- 
nation of the war. § 860. Trade; government synod of Dort c. France during the war 
of religkm, p. 246. § 861. Position of parties, i 862. The first three wars of leligidL 
§ 868. The Bartholomew nig^t. S 864. Henry m. and the holy league. .§*866. Henry 
IV. dL Elizabeth and Mary Stuart, p. 261. \ 866. Difibrence fai the characters of the 
tbe two queens; Knox.' § 867. Mary Stuart hi Scotland. S 866. Mary Stuart hi Enj^aad. 
S 869. Riae of En^^d, and death of Elizabeth; Essex, e. Culture and literatore hi the 
eentuy of the Beftnaatkm. S 870. 1. Geimany; 2. Italy ; 8. Spain and Porta^; 
4. Enghmd, p. 264. 



1. The thirty yean* war (a. d. 1616 — 1648). a. Bohemia; PalatiDRte; Lower Germany; 
nily; appearance qT Wallenstein. f 871. Union and league. § 872. The letter patent, 
and the proceedings in Prague, f 878. Frederick V. and the battle of the White Hill. 
§ 874. Tilly in tlie Palatinate. § 876. Wallenstein in the North of Germany. S 87^- ^^^^ 
of restitution; Diet of Regensburg; Wallenstein^s deposition, b. Interference of Sweden; 
Gustavus Adolphns and Wallenstein, p. 262. § 877. Gustavus Adolphus in Pomorania; 
destruction of Magdeburg. \ 878. Battle of Breitenfield and Leipsic ; triumphant course 
of Gustavus Adolphus. § 879. Nuremberg; Lutzen. § 880. Alliance of Heilbron; Wal- 
lenstein*s death, c. Termination of the war; peace of Westphalia, p. 264. S '^1* ^^ 
nard of Weimar; Ban^r. f 882. Torstenson; Wrangel; termination of the war. § 888. 
Peace of Westphalia, d Sweden under Christina and Charles X.; change in the consti- 
tution of Denmark, p. 266. § 884. Sweden under Christina. § 886. Charles X., and the 
change in the constitution of Denmark. 2. The revolution in England, and the expulsion 
of the Stuarts, p. 268. a. The first two Stuarts (James 1. 1608 — 1626, Charles 1. 1626 — 
1649). § 886. James's character and principles, f 887. The gunpowder-plot; nuptial expe- 
dition of the prince of Wales; position m relation to parliament \ 888. Petition of right; 
StrafTord ; Laud. \ 889. Hampden and the Scottish covenant \ 890. The long pariiar- 
mont; Stmiford*s fall. §891. Civil war; Cromwell's appearance. §892. Victory of the 
Indepcr.dents ; Charles with the Scots. § 898. Death of Charles, ft. Oliver Cromwell p. 
275. § 804. Cromwell's victories at Dunbar and Worcester. § 896. Cromwell as Lord 
Protector; the parliament. \ 896. Restoration, c. The last two Stuarts (Charles 11. 1660 
— 1686, nnd James II. 1686 — 1688), p. 276. § 897. Government of Charles U. ; Test Act; 
Habeas Corpus Act ; Whigs and Tories. § 898. Government and fall of James IL § 899. 
William and Mary; Bill of Rights; union with Scotland. 8. The age of Louis XIV., p. 
281. a. Richelieu and Mazarin. § 400. Louis XIH. ; government and activity of Riche- 
lieu. § 401. Anne of Austria and Mazarin; war of the Fronde. 6. Government and con- 
quests of Louis XIV., p. 288. § 402. Louis XIV. and his mimsters and generals. § 408. 
The Spanish and Dutch war; peace of Aiz. § 404. Sasbach; Fehrbellin; peace of Nime- 
guen. § 406. Remiions ; Strasburg wrested from the empire, c. Austria^s distress an/ 
triumph, p. 286. \ 406. The Turks before Vienna; peace of Cariowitz. d. The wax- d 
Orleans, p, 287. § 407. Desolation of Ihe Palatinate; peace of Ryswick. e. Life at tbk 
oourt; literature; Church, p. 288. § 408. Industry; court of Versailles; art and literatnie 
\ 409. Jansenists ; persecution of the Huguenots. 


[a. d. 1606 — 1782.] 

\ 410. Early explorations of North America, and attempts to colonize it f 411. Settie- 
ment of Virgima, p. 292. § 412. Wars with the Indians ; loyalty of the settlers. \ 418. 
Bacon's rebellion. S 414. Colony of PlymouA^p. 296. S ^I^- SetUeitient of MastadmeUi, 
p. 298. \ 416. Form of government; religious faith and practice. \ 417. Manners and 
laws; republicanism of the people. \ 418. Care for education. § 419. Wan with the 
Indians. § 420. Dissension with the mother country; Andros governor; new charter. 
S 421. Salem Witchcraft. S ^22. Other New England Coloniet, p. 806. \ 428. New York, 
p. 806. 4 424. Maryland, f 426. The Carolinas. \ 426. New Jersey. \ 427. Pennsyl 
vania. f 428. Georgia. \ 429. Character of the American Colonists. 


1. The Spanish war of succession (1702 — 1714). ^ 480. Origin of the war; position of 
parties. S 481. Hochstiidt; Prince Eugene and Marlborough | 482. Ramilies; Turin; 
Spahi. \ 488. Humiliation of France; Malplaquet. \ 484. Change in affairs; peace of 
Utrecht \ 486. France; Orleans; duke-rcgent. § 436. Spain; Philip V.; Ferdinand 
VI. \ 487. England under the House of Hanover; attempts of the Stuarts finstratadJ 


9. Chariet Xn. of Sweden and Peter the GiMt of Bnisaa in the Northern war (17M 
§ 4S8. Sweden and Bnaeia under the House of Bomanofl^ S 489. Peter's nfonns. § 440. 
Polaad under Frederick Angostos the Strong. ^ 441. Charles XIL in Denmark and 
PdaBd; Stenislans Leezhiski. f 44a. Charles XIL in Saxonj; his charaoter. ^ 448. 
Peteron the Baltic; hattle of Poltowa. S ^^ Charles XIL in Tnikej. f 446. Death of 
Charles XIL ^ 44«. Beformation in Rnssia. f 447. Alexis; Menzikoff ; Elizabeth. 
f 448. The Polish war of suooession. 8. The rise of Prossla, p. 827. S 440. Frederick L 
4460. Frederick William L ^ 461. Toath of Frederick n. 4 . The times of Frederidk 
n. and Maria Theresa, p. 829. a. The Austrian war of succession (a. d. 1740 — 1748). 
4 462. Cause of the war; Pragmatic sanction; Charles Albert S 468. The first SUesian 
war; Charies's coronation. S 484. The Hnngarians; difficulties of Bavaria. S 466. 
Prague; Dettmgen. \ 466. The second Silesian war. ^ 467. Close of the war; peace of 
Aix. 6. The seven years* war (a. d. 1766 — 1768), p. 882. f 468. Austria's alliance 
with Bossia, France, and Saxony. 4 469. Dresden and Pima. S 460. Prague; Collin; 
Bosbach; Leuthen. f 461. Zomdorf; Hochklreh. \ 462. Kunersdoif ; Beigen; Kinden. 
4 468. Lelgnits: Torgan. § 464. Peter HL and Catharine n. of Russia. S 466. Close of 
war; Peace of Hubertsburg. e. The Gennan empire and the age of Frederick, p. 887. 
4 466. Condition of the Gennan empire. S 467. Frederick's mtemal government \ 468. 
The Bavarian war of succession and Uie alliance of princes, d. The inteUectuid popular 
Ute in Germany, p. 840. S 469. Poetry. S 470. Be%ion; historical writing; philosophy; 


or NORTH AMEBIGA, [A. D. 1700 — 1763,] p. 842. 

4 471. Character of the French in America; their explorations of the countiT'. S 472. 
SetdsBflnt of fioniaiana. 4 478. Kival chums of Uie French and English. 474. Firrt 
ookmial war between them. S 476. Second colonial war. S 476. Third cokmial war; 
captnre of Louisbuig. 4 477. Fourth colonial war; George Washington, f 478. Brad^ 
dock*s defeat; expatriation of tiie Aoadians; JohMon and Dieskan. 4 479. - 4lbortive 
attempt to form a union of the Colonies. S 480. Capture of Oswego and Fort William 
Semy. 4 481. Campaign of 1768; repulse at Tioonderoga. § 482. Battle of Quebec 
and death of Wolfe; cession of all French America to England. \ 488. Indian war; 
Pontiac § 484. Prosperity of the American Colonies. 


4 486. <)Mstion of taxatkm between England and the Colonies. 4486. Attempt to enforce 
flM revenue hiwa; Writs of Assistance. 4 487. Passage of tiie Stamp Act; great agitation 
in America; Cokmial Congress. 4 488. English advocates of American rights ; repeal of tiie 
Stamp Aet 4489. Duties on tea»&c; renewal of the agitation, f 490. Tumults at Boston; 
afftay witii the soMieiB. f 49L The tea sent back or destroyed; Boston Port BiU; Quebec 
Act; Dc.Franklfai. 4 402. Congress at Philadelphia. 4 498. Prepaimtions for war m Mas- 
sachuaetta. 4 404. Unanfanity of feeling ; quiet but resolute conduct of the patriots. 4 496. 
Battle of Lexington. 4 496. Punctilious regard for law; siege of Boston. S 497. Capture 
flf Tiooiideroga; battie of Banker Hill. § 498. Action of Congress; the Cokmies form 
new constitutiona of government 4 499. Washington, commander-in-chief. 4 800. Expe- 
dition to Canada; repulse at Quebec. \ 601. Evacuation of Boston. 602. Declaration 
of LidepeDdenoe. § 608. European sympathy with America; mission to France; Dr. 
FnmkUn. 4 604. Campaign of 76; defeats and losses of tiie Americans. 4 606. Batties 
af Tranton and Princeton. 4 606. Brandywine ; Gennantown ; Bed Bank and Fort 
Ififfin. 4 ^' ^tognu of Buigoyne ; surrender of his anny. § 608. Alliance with 


Fnnoe; dHWcwltia* of tfa« Amerieam. 4 509. Monmouth ; tbs.Fnnoh at XMrport^ 
Wyoming. \ 610. War atthesonth; pmiiihiiieDt of the Indians. 4 611. The Amed 
HeatavUty. § 612. Suraiider of Lincoln i Oamden and Klog't Moantain ; traaaon of 
Arnold. 4618.Theirarfai'Yiigfaiia;Gieeae*8oampal^ 4 614. Suiteiider of Oomiraffie. 
4 616. Condnslon of liia war. S 610. Ezhanitfon of the ooutry; patriotism of Waab- 
iagton. S ^^f' S^ll* from the want of nnkm and a eenteal govemmmit 4 ^^^ Lmiber* 
dfamtion, anxiefy, andf^oora. S «19- ArebeUion in Maasaehiuetts. \ 690. ronnation 
of the Fedend Gonstitolion. ^ 6U. Its mtilloadon by the States v the goverameni 




1. The literature of iUnmination. \ 622. Character of French literatnre. § 68S. Vol* 
taire; MonteBqnien; Boogseau. § 624. Effects of the llteratme of iUnmination; dissolntion 
of the Jesuits; society of illnminati. \ 626. Disorder and contests in Holland. 2. Inno- 
Tations of princes and ministers, p. 802. ^ 620. Character of politiold and ecclesiastical 
rsforms. S ^^' Portugal under Pombal; Spain under Charles IIL and Aranda; France; 
Cboiseul; Tutgot and Malasherbes. § 628. Stmensee in Denmark. ^ 629. Oustarns III. 
of Sweden. § 680. Reforms of Joseph JL in Austria. \ 681. Inte^ial government of Cathe- 
rine n. in Russia. 8. The partition of Poland, p. 807. \ 681. State of Poland; king 
Stanislans Poniatowski. ^ 688. The contest with the Dissidents ; Confederation of S»- 
dom and Bar. S B84- P^^ Turkish war; flnt partition of Poland. S &^ Tauis; 
second Turkish war; Poland's new oenstitntion. f 680. ConiedevatioB of Taifowics; 
second partition of Poland. \ 687. Pobuad^s end. 


1. The last days of absolute monarchy, pp. 408 — 488. \ 688. Louis XY. and tbe 
empire of the passions, f 680. Taxation; parliament. \ 640. Louis XVX and his 
court ; increasing financial <^culties ; Necker ; Calonne. S ^^ Contest with the pailifr- 
ment; summoning of the estates-general. 2. The period of the national assembly, p. 400. 
^ 642. The thurd estate declares itself a national assembly. \ 648. Storm of the Bastille. 
i 644. The new system. S ^*^' '^^ king <uid the national assembly at Paris, f 640. 
Ceremony of the federation; death of fifirabean; flight of the king. 8. The legislatiTo 
assembly and the fall of the monarchy, p. 410. ^ 647. Position of parties ; Girondist 
minister, f 648. The tenth of August. ^ 640. The days of September. 4. Republican 
France under the goTcmment of the National Conyention, p. 414. \ 660b Execution of 
tlie king. ^ 661. The war; Dumonrier. S ^^ P^U of the Girondists. \ 668. Ruto 
•f the Jaoobins. § 664. 1. Persecutions of the aristocrats. \ 666. 2. Horrors in the 
south. \ 660. Bloody scenes in La Vendue. ^ 667. Fall of tiie Dantonists. i 668. 8. 
Wars of the republic; first coalition. ^ 668. Peace of Basle. 4 600. Robespierre's iUL 
4 661. The last days of the oonTention. 6. France under the Directory, p. 426. f 602. 
Bonaparte in Italy. S <^- Internal state of France; Babeuf; royalists. S M4« The 
repnbUeans in Italy ; rerolution in Switseriand. \ 606. War of the second eoaUtion. 
f 600. Bonaparte hi Egypt and Syria. \ 607. The eif^teenth of Bnmalra. 


I. The consulate (1800—1804). S ^^9* The consular oonstitntion. \ 660. Marengo 
and HohenUnden. § 670. Egypt; the peace of Amiens; murder of the emperor PauL 

oonmrs. xv 

%'m. Th* BOW 6oni and the eoaoovdat. ^ 811. ConspinMsies. IL Napoleon emperor 
(I0M^1814X p. 4S9. 1. f STB. The empin. 3. AvsteilHaB; PmlnuK; OoofedeimtioB 
cf llie Rhine, p. 440. ^ 674. Hamver; Hal/; ProMia. S 675. Ukn) Trafalgar. ^ 670. 
Att B te rMta ; peaee of Pieab«|k ^ 677. EstablUbmeat of the Rhenish Gonfederatioik 
t. Jena; Tflalti Erfnit, p. 444. f 678. Oooaaiont of the Pniasian war. f 679. Battte 
«r Jeaa, asMl its hmnediate eonaeqaenoei. ^ 6881. Pmom Eylan; Friedlandf peaee of 
TiUt { 181. Pnoeedioga in Sweden and Denmaih; Napoleon and Alexander in ErfinC^ 
^ The e¥«Bto in the FTreneao peniaanla, p. 448^ § 681. Janot in Lisbon ; intrigaes in 
Bayonne; Joseph Bonaparte king of SpiUa. f 688. hunigent war in Spain; Dnpont's 
eafiitiilation. ^ 684. Guerilla war; La Romana; constltation of the year *11. \ 686. End 
of the Peninsular war. ^ 688. Imprisonment of the pope. 6. The seoond Austrian war; 
Boter; Schill (1809), p. 468. f 687. Aspem and Wagrun. S 688. Popular war in 
the Tyrol; the peace of Vieona. § 689. Sohill; William of Bnmswick; Stein; Scham- 
hcnt 4 690. The Fkenoh Empire at its heif^t. 8. The war against Russia (181SX 
p. 458. 4 69L Origin of the war. § 692. Napolemi in Fdand. S ^M. March to Moaeew. 
4 604. Retreat of the grand army. 


I. The Gennan war of liberation, and the fkll of Napoleon, p. 469. § B^* ^"^ ^ 
Germany. \ 696. German war of liberty fhnn the year 1818. ^ ^^* Battle of Leipsie, 
and its results. 4 (^* Napoleon's last struggle. 2. The restoration and the Hundred 
Days, p. 468. \ 699. Napoleon's abdication; the first peace of Paris. \ 600. Congress 
of Vienna, and the first period of the restoration. \ 601. Napoleon's return, and the 
goreinment of the hundred days. 4 <^* Triumph of legitfanacy, and Murat's death. 
4 808. Waterloo. 4 604. St Helena. 4 606. Second peace of Paris; seoond restoration. 


Waahington's administration, p. 468. 4 ^^* Character and policy of Washington. 
4 807. The finances; ftinding the publio debt; growing prosperity of the people. 4 ^^' 
Indian war at the northwest 4 609. Insurrection in Pennsylvania. 4 610. Jay's treaty. 
4 611. Effect of the French Revolution in America; state of parties. 4 ^l^* Washfaigton's 
retirement and Farewell Address. Adams's administration, p. 474. 4 ^^8. State of 
paitiee; quarrel with Fiance. 4 ^^^ Naval actions; convention with Bonaparte. 4 ^I^ 
Defeat of the Federalists; choice of a President Jefferson's Administration, p. 477. 
4 818. Prosperity of the country; purchase of Louisiana. § 617. War with the Barbery 
powers; the navy. 618. Peace and war parties. 4 619. Aggressions on neutral trade; 
the embargo. Madison's administration, p. 480. 4 ^0* Negotiation with Eng^d; affair 
of the Chesi^peake. 4 ^^1. Progress of the quarrel with France and England; aflhir of 
tiie Uttie Belt 4 622. Battie of Tippecanoe witii the Indians, f 628. War witii England. 
4 824. Want of preparation; character of the contest 4 ^^' Surrender of General Hull; 
disasters on the Niagara frontier. 4 626. Triumphs af sea; the finances. \ 627. Whi^ 
Chester's defeat; operations on the northern finontier; Perry's victory; battie of tiie Thames. 
4 828. Naval actions. 4 629. War with the Creeks and Cberokees. 4 680. Campaign 
of 1814. 4 681. Battles of Chippewa and Bridgewater; siege of fort Erie. 4 682. Pre- 
vost's defeat; McDonough's victory. 4 688. Attack on Washington and Baltimore. 
4 684. Battle of New Orleans. 4 686. Conclusion of the war. 


1. The Holy ADianoe and tiie position of parties, p. 491. 4 688. the Holy Alliance. 
4 687. Liberals and conservatives. 2. France, p. 492. 4 688. Louis XVUL 4 689. 
Beign of Charles X. 8. The constitutional struggles in the Pytenean peninsula and hi 
Italy, p. 494. 4 640. Ferdinand Vn. and tilie GamariUa. 4 641. Victory of tiie oonstita 


tkmaUsto. ^ 649. Intenrantian of the Holy AlUanoe in Ital^r. ^ 648. DestraeUcm of tii0 
Cortes* government in Spain. S 644. GcnstitatioDal itngglet in PortngaL 4. Qnat 
Britain, p. 497. § 645. State of En^^d; increaBing poverty. ^ 646. Gout and govern- 
ment \ 647. Ireland. 6. Qennany, p. 600. ^ 648. Straggle of opinions and position of 
parties. S ^0- F^^t of the Wartbnrg; Sand; decrees of Oarisbad. 6. Greece's stmggla 
for liberty, p. 608. f 660. YpsUanti and the sacred band. S ^^ Greece's straggle tin the 
iUlofMis8o]onghi;thePhilheUenists. ^ 662. Navartno; Adrianople; conchiaion. ^668.7. 
The new romantio Uteratnie, p. 606. ^ 664. 8. The July revdation of Paris and its ooose- 
qoences, p. 507. §654. The July revolution. §655. General oonseqnenoes. §656. The revo- 
lution m Belginm. § 657. Bise and fiill of Poland. § 658. Liberal movements in Germany. 
§ 658. Insnrrections in Italy; straggles between throne and constitation in Spain. 9. Over- 
throw of the throne of Jaly,.and the latest revolntionary tempests, p. 614. a. The yean 
of political and social agitation. § 660. Internal stats of France. § 661. Italy ; Germany ; 
Switzerland. 5. The Paris revelation of Febroary and its conseqaences, p. 518. § 662. The 
revolation of Febroary and the French republic. § 668. The Karoh days hi Vienna and 
Berlin, and commotions in Germany. § 664. Preliminory pariiament; committee of fifty; 
national assembly. § 665. Italy's rise and fall. § 666. The truce of Mahno, and the 
Frankfort September horron. § 667. The Vienna October days. § 668. Programme of 
Gagem; dissolution of the Betlhi National Assembly. § 069. Kremsier; Hongary's rise and 
falL § 670. The imperial constitation, and deputation to the emperor. § 671. Bevolu- 
tionaiy movements in Saxony, Palatinate, and Baden, and the rump parliament § 67& 
Schleswic-Holstehi; conclusion. 






§ 1. After God in the beginning had created the heavens and the 
earth, had adorned the heavens with the sun, moon, and stars, had 
clothed the earth with plants, and animated it with living animals ; he 
made man in his own image, the crown of creation, and designed him by 
the gifts of speech and reason for the ruler of the world. The first pair 
came forth pure and spotless from the hands of their Creator, and lived 
in childlike innocence in their native dwelling-place. Paradise, until 
seduced hj the tempter, the serpent, thej ate of the forbidden tree of 
knowledge, and, by this violation of the commands of God, lost their un- 
conscious innocence and the possession of their first dwelling-place. 

After this, they and their posterity were obliged to spend their lives 
in labor and trouble, and to eat their bread in the sweat of their face. 
Evil passions and desires were awakened, and disturbed the peace of 
fiociety ; the violent impulses of a savage and unrestrained nature plunged 
the later generations deeper and deeper into the disorders of vice and 
crime, till at length a great fiood, called the deluge, destroyed the whole 
race, with the exception of Noah and his descendants, from the face of 
the earth. Noah's posterity, however, increased again so rapidly, that 
the later generations, descended from his three sons, Shem, Ham, and 
Japheth, were compelled to spread themselves abroad over the neighbor- 
ing countries, on account of their home being no longer large enough to 
contain them. It then entered into their minds to erect the Tower of 
Babel, ^ whose top was to reach unto heaven,"* and to be a perpetual 
memorial to them. God frustrated this presumptuous attempt by con- 
fusing their language, and by this diversity of speech brought about their 

• Geii.xL4. 


sepaiation. They dispersed themselves to all the four quarters of the 
earth, and colonized the three oldest divisions of the globe, Asia, Africa, 
and Europe, forming themselves into different peoples and nations, 
according to the varieties of their language* 


§ 2. Men chose different occupations and manners of living, according 
to the diversities in their places of residence. The iohabitants oi steppes 
and deserts, interspersed only here and there with fruitful pasture grounds, 
chofie the life of shepherds, and roved as wandering tribes from place to 
place, with their tents and herds. These are called nomads (wanderers), 
and their principal occupation is the breeding of cattle. Those who settled 
upon favorably situate parts of the sea-coast soon discovered, with 
increasing population and development, the advantages of their position. 
Thej practised navigation and commerce, and sought after wealth and 
comfort, and, in furtherance of these objects, were incited to lay out towns 
and erect elegant dwelling-houses ; whilst the inhabitants of inhospitable 
shores supported a joyless existence by means of fisheries* Those who 
lived on plains devoted themselves to agriculture and the arts of peace; 
whilst the rude and hardy mountaineer gave himself up to the chase, 
and, urged on by a violent impulse for freedom, sought his ddight in wars 
and battles. 

By the taming of wild cattle, man procured for himself at an early 
period those indispensable assistants of labor, domesticated animals. 

A mighty instrument in the civilization of the human race was axn- 
merce, and the intercourse among different nations that sprang out of it. 
Those who lived on fruitful plains, or on the banks of suitable riven, 
carried on an inland trade ; the dwellers on the shores, on the cmitrary, 
a coasting trade. At first, men exchanged one article for another (bar- 
ter), and it was not till a later period that it occurred to them to fix a 
certain value upon the precious metals, and to employ coined money as 
an artificial and more convenient means of exchange. The inhabitants 
of towns addicted themselves to trade and inventions, and cultivated arts 
and sciences for the enriching and embellishment of life and the develop- 
ment of the human understanding. 


§ 3. With the process of time, nations were divided into the civilized 
and uncivilized, according as the development of their intellectual powers 
was furthered by talents and commerce, or cramped by dulness and isola- 
tion. Uncivilized nations are either wild hordes, under the command of 
a chief who possesses uncontrolled power over life and death, or wander. 
ing nomadic tribes, guided by a leader, who, as father of the family, 
exerdses the functions of prince, judge, and high priest Neither these 


nomadic races with their patnarclial govenmieiit,iK>r the wild hordes that 
dweU in the unknown deserts of Africa (Negroes), in the steppes and loftj 
moantain ranges of Asia, or in the primeyal forests of America, find any 
pkce in history. This concerns itself only with those civilized nationSi 
who, from sinuJarity of manners and for mutual convenience, have united 
themselves in peaceful intercourse and fellowship. 

States are divided into republican and monarchical, according to the 
form of their government or constitution. A state is called a monarchy, 
when a single person stands at the head and manages its affairs. This 
single person is called Emperor, or King, Duke, or Prince, according to 
the extent of his dominions. The term, Free State, or Republic, is given 
to that form of government in which the supreme power is placed in the 
hands of an elective body, composed of numerous members. The repub* 
lican form of government is sometimes aristocratic, that is, when only a 
. few families, distinguished by birth or wealth, govern the community | 
sometimes democratic, when the whole body of the people make the laws 
and select the responsible officers of government. 

The most ancient states were simple and uniform in their forms of 
government, and possessed for the most part that great hinderance to free- 
dom, the system of castes. By this is to be understood, a strict separation 
of men according to their states and callings, which descended in unalter- 
able succession from father to son ; by which means, all interchange of 
conditions, or passing from one state to another, was rendered impracti* 
cable. The priests, who alone possessed a knowledge of the religious 
customs and institutions, and who bequeathed their knowledge to their 
descendants, constituted the first' caste. The second caste comprehended 
the soldiers, who were aflerwards successful in raising themselves to an 
equality with the priestly condition. These two castes divided the govern- 
ment between them. The third caste were the cultivators of the soil. 
The fourth, the artisans. If shepherds constituted a distinct caste, they 
were the lowest and most despised. The institution of castes was pre- 
served for the longest time, and in the greatest purity, in India and Egypt. 


S 4. As men dispersed themselves over the earth, the original belief m 
the one true God (Monotheism) was lost, and people fell into the worship 
of many deities (Polytheism), adoring the visible works of creation, more 
particularly the sun and the stars of heaven, instead of their Creator, or 
else re%'erencing the operative powers of nature as divine beings. The 
faith in a single divinity was preserved among the Jewish people alone, 
in the worship of their hereditary Grod, Jehovah. The religions of all 
other nations, diversified as they may be, are included under the term 
Paganism. Instead of regarding the Supreme Being, the Creator and 
Preserver of the universe, as a Spirit, and worshipping him in spirit and 


in truth, the ancient nations gave him the figure of a man, deified his dif- 
ferent powers and attributes, and then represented them under the greatest 
variety of forms. Idols were fashioned from stone and metal, wood and 
clay; temples and altars were erected, and sacrifices offered \o them; 
partly to appease their wrath, and partly to obtain their favor. The sacri- 
fices varied in character with the civilization of the people who offered 
them. The Greeks and Romans instituted joyous festivals to their gods, 
In which the fruits that were presented, and the animals that were slain, 
from the modest gift of a firstling of the flock to the solemn sacrifice ot 
a hundred oxen, (hecatomb), were socially consumed; whilst savage 
tribes slaughtered human beings upon their altars, for the purpose of ap- 
peasing by blood the wrath of hostile powers, for such they considered 
their divinities to be. The Phoenician and Syrian tribes actually placed 
their own children in the arms of a red-hot idol, Moloch. If, at first, the 
image of the idol was only a visible symbol of a spiritual conception, or 
of an invisible power, this higher meaning was lost in the progress of time, 
in the minds of most nations, and they.came at length to pay worship to the 
lifeless image itself. The priests alone were acquainted with any deeper 
meaning, but refused to share it with the people ; they reserved it under 
the veil of esoteric (secret) doctrine, as the peculiar appanage of their 
own class. With the same object, they invented legends, stories, and fa- 
bles about tlie gods whom they worshipped, clothed these in poetical 
forms, and thus gave origin to mythology, or the science of the gods. In 
these stories, the actions and histories of the different deities, and the re- 
lations of men in regard to them, are described, not in clear and inteUi- 
gible language, but veiled in enigmatical allusions, allegorical histories, 
and figurative forms of expression. The greater the amount of creative 
imagination and religious impulse possessed by a nation, the richer is its 
mythology. If these legends of the gods served to excite the people to 
superstition, the solenin worship in the sacred spaces of the temple, with 
its mysterious ceremonies and symbolical usages, was no less calculated 
to maintain in them a feeling of veneration and religious awe ; and, for 
the purpose of establishing a belief in the presence of God, and his in- 
terference in human affairs, more firmly, sacred places and temples of 
note were provided with oracles, from which the credulous multitude 
might gain information of -the future, in obscure, and oflentimes am- 
biguous, language. In this way, the mind of man was led aw^y from 
Divine Truth, and ensnared in lifeless ceremonies ; the simple relations 
and inward tendency of the creature to the Creator were disturbed and 
torn asunder ; the priesthood ruled the people by the might of supersti« 
tion, and acquired wealth, honor, and power for themselves. 




§ 5. Asia, called from its situation the Eastern land, was the cradle 
of the human race. The^situation of Paradise must he sought for in the 
attractive neighborhood of the Himalaya mountains, the tops of which 
lose themselves in the clouds. In the East arose those great nations and 
cities whence other lands have derived a part of their civil institutions, 
their religion, and their culture, and which have consequently received 
the name of cities of civilization. In the East, the land of the camel, 
^ the ship of the desert,'' first originated the splendid inland traffic called 
the caravan trade, which exercised so important an influence on the pro- 
gress of human culture. For the purpose of more easily undergoing the 
difficulties and perils of lengthened journeys through regions but little 
known, and thickly inhabited by predatory tribes, the Eastern merchants 
assembled themselves in companies, and escorted their wares, packed 
upon camels, from one place to another, in large, and frequently armed, 
bands. These commercial journeys were the occasion for building towns 
and places for traffic, and for the erection of storehouses and caravan- 
saries. They brought about intercourse between the inhabitants of dis- 
tant places, and were the means of communicating not only the produc- 
tioD% but also the religious institutions and the social policy, of one land 
to another. Temples and oracles of celebrity frequently served for mar- 
kets and warehouses. It was in the East that nearly all the varieties of 
religion took their origin, and gained their perfect development ; not only 
the belief in one God, which prevailed among the Jews, and which after- 
wards reappeared with renewed strength and purity in Christianity, 
bat the pagan worship of idols, in all its multiplied varieties, with its 
priestly power, its sacrifices, and its ceremonial worship. For upon 
every thing that concerns the relation of the creature to its Maker, the 
people of the East have thought most deeply and zealously, and have 
attained results at which no other nation has arrived. 

The forms of Eastern governments and constitutions were less nume- 
rous than the religions. Among the nomadic races, the heads of the 
tribes ruled with patriarchal authority ; in countries where the distinc- 
tion of castes prevailed, the privileged classes were priests and soldiers : 
from both arose, in the course of time, the unlimited kingly power, (des- 
potism), which gave to the ruler the uncontrolled sovereignty of the 
nomadic chie^ and the religious sanctity of the priestly king. In this 
manner, the kingly authority gradually grew to such a height in the East, 
that the possessor shared a respect almost equal to that which was paid 


the Divinitj. In relation to the ruler, all the officers of state were re- 
garded as slaves and menials, without either personal rights or property. 
The king "disposed at will of the lives and possesalonff of his subjects ; he 
gave or took away at his pleasure ; and no one dared to appear in his 
presence, except with his bodj prostrated on the ground. He lived like a 
god, in the midst of pleasure and enjoyment, surrounded by slaves, who 
complied with his wishes, executed his commands, and submitted them- 
selves to his pleasures ; and he was encircled by all the riches and pos* 
sessions, by all the pomp and magnificence, of the earth. Such govern* 
ments as these, in which law and human rights go for nothing, where 
despotism and slavery are alone to be met with, possess no vital energy 
and no capability of permanent civilization ; and for this reason, all ori- 
ental states have become the prey of foreign conquerors, and their early 
civilization has either been destroyed, or prevented from making farther 

By original disposition, the Orientals are more inclined to contempla- 
tive ease and enjoyment than to active exertion ; hence it has come to 
pass, that the Eastern nations have never attained to freedom or sponta- 
neous activity, but have either silently submitted themselves to their na- 
tive rulers, or groaned under the yoke of foreign oppressors. 

By dint of their intellectual capacity, they quickly attained to a certain 
grade of civilization, but taderwards gave themselves up to an unenter- 
prising pursuit of pleasure, until they gradually sunk into sloth and 
effeminacy. This effeminacy was furdier promoted by the practice of 
polygamy, a custom peculiar to the East, which is subversive of the 
family affections, and of the domestic purity and morality which are their 

As regards the art of the'Orientals, the gigantic designs of their build- 
ings, and their incredible patience and perseverance in erecting and 
completing thein, are most worthy of admiration ; but their architecture 
never displays the symmetry, the hannonious beauty, or the adaptadon 
of means to ends, which characterize the architecture of a free people* 
The productions of their arts and industry afford evidence rather of man- 
ual dexterity, attidned by long practice, and rendered inalienable by the 
tyranny of castes and guilds, than of inventive genius or active handi- 
crafl. Slavery hung like a leaden weight on every outward manifesta- 
tion of life in the East. 


§ 6. As the progress of the human race has in general followed the 
course of the sun, it will be most advisable to commence its history with 
the tribes of the extreme East In the vast empire of China has lived, 
since the earliest period, a race of Mongolian origin, which has preserved 
unchanged for ages the same culture and the same institutions* Every 


duDg is there regulated by bereditaiy laws and castomsi and freedom is 
eatirelj banished. This want of progressive deyelopment is occasioned 
partly by the tenacious character of the people^ which induces them to 
eUng fast to the customary and traditionary modes of living; partly by 
the empire being cut off, by mountains, ^^as, and the lofly and extensive 
wall of China, from all intercourse ;v^ith foreign nations, and from all 
strangers being strictly prohibited^ from entering the kingdom; and is 
partly produced by political instUmions. The emperor, who is possessed 
of absolute power, and regarded with almost religious veneration, and the 
numerous and privileged aristocratic class (mandarins), alike compel the 
slavish and despised people to a strict observance of their traditionary 
customs and usages, and deprive them of every thing new. As the Chi- 
nese are thus prevented from profiting by the experience of foreign na- 
tions, they remain inferior to other people in civilization ; though they 
have been acquainted from the earliest ages with gunpowder, the art of 
printing, and the mariner's compass. Notwithstanding they have long 
been celebrated for their skill in the manufacture of silk, and in the pre- 
paration of porcelain, writing materials, carved work, and simikur produc- 
tions, their industry cannot be compared with the commercial activity and 
diligence in the arts of the cultivated states of the West. The object of 
their education is not such a development of the intellectual powers as 
would lead to the cultivation of the whole of the human faculties, but 
rather the teaching of that which their predecessors have known and 
practised before them. This education, this mode of life, and form of 
government, render the Chinese weak and cowardly ; they entertain, nev- 
ertheless, the highest opinion of their own excellence, and regard all 
other nations with lofty contempt. Their language is so clumsy and diffi- 
cult, that it requires several years to learn even to read it The Chinese 

pay great respect to Confucius (Hong-fu-tse) as the founder 

of their religion. 


§ 7. To the south of the snow-covered heights of the lofty Himaldya, 
extends a fertile and prosperous region, blessed with a healthy and vary- 
ing dimate, and rich in productions of the most diversified character. In 
this hind, watered by the Indus, the Ganges, and other large rivers, lived, 
ages ago, a remarkable people, called Hindoos, or Indians, whose former 
greatness is still attested by numerous buildings, ruins of towns and 
temples, surprising memorials in inscripticms on stone, and innumerable 
historical recollections. 

The Indians are descended from the Aryans, who at one tune under- 
took an expedition from their native highlands, and subjected the less 
powerful aborigines of India. They soon changed their native nomadic 
customs for the system of castes, which they adopted in its severest form. 


The most important caste were the priests, a wealthy, honorable, and pri- 
vileged class, who were called Brahmans, or Brahiiuns. This caste was 
considered sacred and inviolable ; thej could not be subjected to corporal 
punishment for any crime, they were exempt from taxation, formed the 
chieif council of the king, and filled all offices. Next to the Brahmins 
came the wannors, who, in return for their pay and certain privileges, 
were responsible for the security and defence of the kingdom. As, how- 
ever, the frequent necessity for waging war or encountering enemies was 
precluded by the remote situation of the country and the peaceful charac- 
ter of its inhabitants, these soldiers soon became slothful and degenerate, 
and thus rendered it easy for the priests to retain their political ascend- 
ancy. The kings belonged to the caste of soldiers. The farmers and 
artisans were heavily impressed with imposts, and held their land only 
in fee.* The Pariahs, from whom the Gipsies are said to be descended, 
are the dark-colored descendants of the wild aborigines, and are regarded 
by the other Indians as the refuse of mankind, and treated with the deepest 
contempt. " They do not venture to dwell in the towns, cities, or villages, 
or even in their neighborhood ; every thing they touch is looked upon 
as unclean, and it is pollution even to have seen them." Any intermix- 
ture o( castes, by means of marriage, was severely prohibited. Persons 
who were guilty of an infringement of this law, were cast out of society, 
and exposed to contempt. This rigorous division into castes, which the 
priests laid down as a divine ordinance, checked the progress of civil- 
ization, and was the occasion that it never passed beyond a certain point, 
and then lapsed into a state of repose and stagnation. 


§ 8. The Indians reverenced in Brahma a divine first principle, which 
appears under three forms, as Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer ; and 
besides him, a crowd of spirits and inferior divinities. The central point 
of their religion is the doctrine of the transmigration of the soul (me- 
tempsychosis). According to this doctrine, the human soul is only joined 
to earthly bodies for the purposes of punishment, and its aim and effort are 
to again unite itself with the Divine Spirit of the universe. The Indian, 
therefore, regards existence in this world as a time of trial and punish- 
ment, which can only be abridged by a holy life, by prayer and sacrifice, 
by penance and purification. If man neglects this, and sinks himself 
still deeper into vice by departure from God, his soul after death will be 
joined to the body of a different and inferior animal, and will have to 
commence its wanderings afresh. On the other hand, the souls of the 
wise, of heroes and penitents, enter upon their upward path through shin- 

* The phnseolog^r here is ambigaous and not strictly oozxect The actoal cnltitators 
of the soil had only a right of occupancy, not of ownership. Jm, Ei, 


11^ Stars, and are finally united with the spiritual first principle whence 
Ihtj proceeded. This doctrine was interpreted hj the Brahmins to sig- 
nify that man could attain the end of his being only bj the uninterrupted 
contemplation of divine things, and by abstraction from earthly concerns. 
They placed, therefore, a higher value upon silent meditation and ab- 
straction, Uian upon an active life ; withdrew from the inferior castes, and 
believed, that, by acts of penance and self-inflicted tortures, by alms-giv- 
ing and acts of outward holiness, and by the strict observance of innu- 
merable laws, rules, and precepts, they brought themselves into closer 
union with the Deity. Since it followed from the doctrine of transmi- 
gration, that the souls of men might inhabit the bodies of animals, the 
Brahmins dared not kill or injure anything endowed with life, or eat any 
fiesk unless it had been offered in sacrifice. 

The Indians possessed sensibility and a creative imagination. This is 
partkularly apparent in their copious literature. Many of their works 
and poems, the whole of which are composed in the sacred and now ob- 
solete Simscrit language, and are intimately related to their religion and 
theology, are ahready three thousand years old. The most important 
worki are the four books of the Vedas, which are held in the most pro- 
found respect, as the sources of the Brahminical religion. They contain 
religicns hymns and prayers, directions respecting sacrificial offerings, 
and mt ral precepts and proverbs. Next to the Vedas, the code of Menu 
is held in the greatest estimation. Besides these, the Indians possess a 
great nultitude of poetical works of all descriptions, distinguished by 
highly fgurative language, as well as deep sensibility and religious feel- 
ing. Meuiy of these works were brought to Europe by the English who 
oonquerei the country, and were afterwards translated by learned men 
into Grerman and other European languages. Indian art^ as well as lite- 
rature, is intimately connected with religion. More particularly worthy 
of remark are the rock-hewn temples and grottos, of which the most cele- 
brated are to be found at EUorainthe middle of Lower India, at Salsette 
nexir Bombay, and at the ishmd of Elephanta in the bay of Bombay. In 
these places, we meet with temples, grottos, dwelling-houses, and passages, 
covert with images and inscriptions he^vn one above another in the rock, 
and extending for miles. These grottos contain an incredible quantity 
of works artistically and elaborately executed, which must have required 
the labor of many thousand hands for numberless ages, and the greatest 
patience and perseverance for their completion. 

The abundance of the productions of nature and art, pearls, precious 
stones, ivory, spice, frankincense, and silks, made India, from an early 
period, the great centre and emporium of the maritime and caravan trade; 
but it also proved a lure to foreign invaders. Disunited and dismembered, 
as well by the system of castes as by their political institutions, and ener- 
vated and stupefied by their want of freedom, the Indians fell an ea^ 
prey to their warlike enemies. 



§ 9. The fertile regions watered bj tbe Euphrites and Tigris, and the 
grassy uplands of Mesopotamia, were formerly inhabited by Semide 
Nimrod, tribes, including the Babylonians and Assyrians. Nimrod, 

B. c. 2100. it a mighty hunter before the Lord," is named as the founder 
of the Babylonian empire, and its chief city Babylon. This city was 
built in form of a square, and washed by the waters of the Euphrdte^, 
Ninus, which flowed through it A hundred years later, Ninus U said 

B. c. 2000. to have built the great city of Nineveh, on the banks of the 
Tigris, and to have subjected the Babylonians to his rule. The wife and 
successor of Ninus, the legendary Semiramis, is descri)>ed as 
an heroic and victorious woman, who carried her conquests 
as ffm as India, embellished Babylon with magnificent works, (the hang- 
ing gardens, raised upon terraces,) and provided her land with skilfully 
constructed roads, canals, and buildings of every description. Beneath 
the rule of her incapable and ejQTeminate successora, the Assyrian empire 
fell gradually into decay, till at length the warlike governor of the Medes 
rose against the unworthy sovereign, took possession of Nineveh, and 
Sardaiiapalus. reduced the last king, Sardanapdlus, who was notorious for 
B. c. 888. his luxury, intemperance, and voluptuousness, to such straits, 
that he burnt himself in his palace, together with his wives and trea- 
sures. Nevertheless, in the following century, a few warlike sovereigns, 
Saimanasscr (*°iong whom were Salmandsser and Sanherib, who were dis- 
B. c. 730. tinguished by their deeds and fortunes in Palestine,) were snc- 
Sanheiib, ccssful in again restoring the Assyrian empire, and increasing 
B. c. 720. it by fresh conquests. But the new Assyrian monarchy was, 
like the old, but of short duration. A hundred and twenty-five years 
Nineveh ^^^^ ^^® reign of Salmandsser, Nineveh was taken and 
destroyed, destroyed by the Medes and Chaldeans, and tlie victors 
B. c. 605. divided the land among themselves. Babylon fell to the lot 
of the Chaldeans. Antiquities and works of art are still dug from the 
ground where Nineveh once stood. 

§ 10. From this period, the Chaldeans or Babylonians possessed the 
ascendancy, particularly during the reign of the warlike and powerful 
Nebuchad- Nebuchadnezzar, who laid Judah under tribute. But the 
nezzar, splendor of Babylon soon passed away. A generation later, 

B. c. 600. ^jjg Medes were the dominant race, and after them came the 
Persians. Babylon was provided with wonderful architectural works by 
the Chaldees. A broad and lofty wall surrounded the whole city, which is 
said to have had a circumference of nearly sixty miles. The two impe- 
rial palaces on the banks of the Euphrates, the square and lofty temple 
of Baal, the god of the sun, which was magnificently adorned with sta- 
tues and ornaments of gold, and served the purposes of an observatory, 
were, together with the hanging gardens, the most remarkable objects. 


in Imilding, the Chald^ns made use of burnt bricks. Their Water 
bmldingSy bridges, canals, dams, dikes, and so forth, were the most re< 
maikable of their works. The worship of the heavenly bodies led the 
Babylonian priests (who were more especially called Chaldeans) to make 
astronomical observations ; they reckoned the course of the sun, and di- 
vided the year: but as they mingled astrological speculations with their 
science, they fell into errors, and wandered about the world at a later 
period as diviners, interpreters of dreams, and magicians. We are also 
indebted to the Chaldeans for the divisions of weights and measures, and 
for the elements of geometry and medicine. The fertility of the land, 
and their extensive commerce, brought wealth and its necessary attend- 
ants, splendor and luxury. The Babylonians were, in consequence, not 
less celebrated for their luxurious productions, their fine linen, their 
sumptuous carpets, &c., than they were renowned and infamous for their 
sensuality, their luxury, and their voluptuousness. Masses of ruins, and 
heaps of rubbish, and a few monuments with inscriptions, mark the spot 
where once stood the world-renowned Babylon. 


§ 11. The Greeks called Egypt a gift of the Nile; for it is from the 
regular annual overflow of the river, occasioned by rains in the high lands 
of Abyssinia, the waters of which are drawn off by all sorts of means, 
canals, dams, and cisterns, that the land preserves its reniarkable fertility. 
The valley of the Nile was divided, even at a remote period, into three 
parts. First, Upper Egypt, where the vast and striking ruins of Thebes, 
with their gigantic fragments of statues and columns, their colossal 
sphinxes, (lions with women's heads), the tQpbs of kings hewn in the 
bore rock, the subterranean catacombs, and the prostrate colossal statue 
of Memnon, which is reported to have uttered musical sounds at the 
rising of the sun, yet testify to the former splendor and magnificence of 
the priestly city. Secondly, Middle Egypt, with its capitd, Memphis, 
the viciiiity of which is also distinguished by the magnificent remains of 
an historical antiquity. Among these are the ruins of the Labyrinth, a 
building consisting of a number of intricate passages communicating with 
each other, and the group of pyramids, which to this day are gazed upon 
with amazement, as the miracles of architectural science. These pyra- 
mids are built of hard freestone, rise from a square base, and terminate 
at an immense height, in a point, or small fiat surface ; they appear to 
have served as the sepulchral memorials of kings. Thirdly, Lower 
Egypt, with its ancient metropolis, Helidpolis, which was, however, after- 
wards eclipsed by Alexandria, and the historically remarkable places, 
Sdis, Naiicratis, Sec Two branches of the Nile inclose Lower Egypt, 
and, together with the sea, ^ve it the triangular form whence it derives 
its name, Delta. ' 


§ 12. Egypt possessed^ at an inoonoeiTably early period, nnmberlefls 
towns and Tillages, and a high amount of dyilization. Arts, sdencesi 
and civil professions were cherished there, so that the Nile-land has always 
been regarded as the mysterious cradle of human culture ; but the system 
of castes checked free development and continuous improvement Every 
thing subserved a gloomy religion and a powerful priesthood, who held 
the people in terror and superstition. The doctrine, that, after the death 
of man, the soul could not enter into her everlastuig repose unless the 
body were preserved, occasioned the singular custom of embalming the 
corpses of the departed to preserve them from decay, and of treasuring 
them up, in the shape of mummies, in shafl-like passages and mortuary 
chambers. Through this belief, the priests, who, as judges of the dead, 
possessed the power of giving up the bodies of the sinful to corruption, 
and by this means occa^sioning the transmigration of their souls into the 
bodies of animals, obtained immense authority. The religion of the 
Egyptians consisted partly in the worship of the heavenly bodies, but 
also bore relation to the Nile and the natural qualities of the country. 
Their principal deities were Osiris, Serdpis, and Isis; but as, besides 
these gods, the animals sacred to them were objects of veneration, the 
Egyptian religion gradually degenerated into the most monstrous animal 
worship. This degeneracy became apparent in their art. At first, the 
statues of their gods were represented with the human figure, although 
in stiff attitudes and in stem and solemn repose ; but they appeared, at a 
later period, with the heads of beasts, and soon afler, under an exclusively 
animal form. Notwithstanding the magnificence of their architectural 
productions, and the vast technical skill and dexterity in sculpture and 
mechanical appliances which they display, the Egyptians have produced 
but little in literature or the sciences ; and even this little was locked up 
from the people in the mysterious hieroglyphical writing, which was 
understood by the priests alone. There were three kinds of these hiero- 
glyphics, which are met with on the writing-rolls which the Egyptians 
prepared out of an aquatic plant called papyrus, and on the obelisks, — 
pointed, four-cornered columns, hewn from a single block of granite, and 
erected before the porticos of the temples. 

Egypt was already an object of wonder and curiosity, in the time of 
the Romans ; and such she remains, even to the present day. The fact 
is attested by the eleven obelisks and the innumerable Egyptian carvings 
in the hardest stone, at present in Home, and by the multitude of mum- 
mies, ancient utensils, trinkets and ornaments, rolls of papyrus, and so 
forth, that are to be met with in all the museums and cabinets of natural 
history in Europe. But much as we may admire the patience of the 
Egyptians, and their skill and dexterity in the practice of their arts, we 
are everywhere struck with a want of free development, creative industry, 
and personal freedom. The curse of the caSte-system lay upon every 


external manifestation of life, whilst superstition and religious oppression 
gare a gloomy coloring to existence, and disturbed every cheerful and 
pleasurable feeling. 

§ 13. So long as the priestly class possessed the government and 
elected the king, the " hundredrgated " Thebes may have remained the 
principal city ; but when the Egyptians were subjected to hostile attacks 
from neighboring nations, and the military caste attained in consequence 
to greater importance, Memphis appears to have been chosen as the me- 
tropolis of Middle Egypt. Warlike sovereigns were about this time suc- 
cessful in raising the military caste to an equality with the priestly, so 
that they divided their privileges between them, and were boUi subjected 
SeMSstris, to the kingly power. Sesdstris, who reduced the Ethiopians 
B. a 1600. to tribute, and who is said to have reigned over a consider- 
able portion of Asia and Africa, is particularly mentioned as one of these 
Mcexu and victorious monarchs. After him, Moeris and Cheops are the 
Cheops, 1080. most renowned kingly names. The first, on account of the lake 
which he constructed, and which was named after him, and which appears 
to have served the purpose of regulating the inundations of the Nile ; the 
second, as the builder of the largest of the .pyramids, which is 450 French 
feet in height, and on which 100,000 men are said to have been employed 
for 40 years. The lives and actions of these ancient kings are shrouded in 
darkness. The gloom begins to disappear about the middle of the seventh 
oentury, when the royal house of Sdis, in Lower Egypt, assumed the 
sovereignty, in the person of Psamm^ticus. For the purpose of weakening 
the power of the priests, Psamm^ticus entered into alliance with the 
Greeks, and received Greek soldiers and colonists into Egypt. Disgusted 
at this pix>ceeding, 240,000 Egyptians migrated into Nubia, and there 
founded a state of their own. Among the successors of Psamm^ticus, 
N«chQ, Necho, the founder of the Egyptian naval and maritime 

9. c 800. power, and the warlike Amisis, are particularly to be men- 
-tioned. The son of the latter, Psammenftus, lost both kingdom and vic- 
tory to the Persians, in the bloody battle of Peliisium (Suez). The 
Persians- afterwards reigned over Egypt for a period of 200 years. But 
the Egyptians did not unite themselves with their conquerors ; they re- 
tained their own manners, institutions, and religious customs, together 
with their aversion to every thing foreign. 


§ 14. On the narrow strip of coast between the Mediterranean and 
Lebanon, dwelt the maritime and commercial people of Phoenicia, in 
many populous towns, among which Tyre and Sidon were the most 
remarkable. The Phoenicians, an active and energetic race, would not 
subject themselves to the restraints imposed by the caste-system. On the 
contrary, every city, with the territory adjacent to it, constituted an inde- 


pendent commonwealth, at the head of which stood an hereditaiy soye- 
reign, whose power, however, was greatly restricted bj the priests and 
nobles. Collectively they formed a leagae of towns, of which, at fint 
Sidon, and afterwards Tyre, was the chief. Intellectual activity and dili- 
gence in business led this people to many discoveries ; among them wero 
glass, the art of dyeing purple, and of writing by means of lettero. They 
were also distinguished by their skill in casting metals, weaving, archi* 
tecture, and various other matters. Sidonian garments, Tyrian purple, 
Phoenician glass, and articles of ivory^ gold, and other metals, were pre* 
cious and coveted wares in all antiquity. The favorable situation of their 
country made them sailors, and the cedars of Lebanon supplied the mate- 
rials for ship-building. Not only did the Phoenicians navigate the coasts 
and islands of the Mediterranean in their splendid ships, for the purpose 
of trafficking both in their own productions and in those of the distant East, 
spices, ihmkincense, oil, wine, com, and slaves, but they even ventured 
beyond the Pillars of Hercules, (Straits of Gibraltar), purchased tin from 
the inhabitants of the British Isles, and amber from the people of the 
Baltic, and undertook venturous expeditions to India (Ophir) and the 
southern parts of Arabia. They are even said to have doubled the Cape 
of Good Hope, in a voyage of three years' duration, undertaken at the 
instigation of Necho, King of Egypt They established colonies on Crete 
and Cyprus, at Sicily and Sardinia, in the south of Spain (Tartessos and 
Gades, now called Cadiz), and in northern Africa. The commercial 
city, Carthage, founded there by the Tyrians, under the con- 
duct of Queen Dido, soon eclipsed the renown of the mother 
country. The PhoBnidans paid less attention than the other Oriental 
nations to the cultivation of religion. Their worship of Moloch was 
accompanied with frightful human sacrifices, that of Baal with obscene 

§ 15. In their contests with the wariike nations of Asia, tde Phoeni* 
dans displayed both courage and patriotism. When the Assyrian Sal* 
mandsser subjected Phoenicia to his sceptre, and compelled 
the inhabitants to pay tribute, the Tyrians built New T^re 
upon a neighboring island, and defended it with success, for &Ye years, 
against the superior power of the enemy. The merchant Heet of Tyre 
' soon again ruled the sea. Even the Babylonian. Nebuchad- 
nezzar, who had subdued the mainland of Phoenicia, and had 
transplanted the inhabitants of Old T^re, along with the Jews, into the 
interior of his kingdom, was unable to shake the courage of the New 
Tyrians. But these repeated attacks seem to have broken their power; 
for when, shortly after, the Persians subjected the countries of western 
Asia, Tyre also lost its freedom and independence. Phoenicia became a 
Persian province. In the middle of the fourth century, the 
oppression of the foreign governor produced a rebellion, at 


tbe kead of which stood Sidon. It was nnsnccessful. Sidon fell into the 
faands of the Persian king ; and when this prince gave orders for the 
ezecation of the principal citizens, the inhabitants themselves set fire to 
the town, and consumed themselves and their treasures. Tyre existed 
aome time longer ; but when Alexander the Macedonian overthrew the 
Persian empire, and Tjrre, prond of its former glory, ventured to oppose 
' the conqueror, it was taken and destroyed after a seven 
months' siege. It never recovered from this stroke ; and its 
trade and maritime power were transferred to Alexandria. 


§ 16. Whilst the whole world was sunk into idolatry, a people of shep- 
herds, of Semitic origin, dwelling in Mesopotamia, preserved the ori- 
khrmhmM»^ gtual belief in a single God. Abram (Abraham), one of the 
B. c. 9000. ancestors of this nomadic race, left his native pastures at the 
eommand of Jehovah, and settled himself, with his cattle, his men-ser- 
vants and maidens, and his brother's son. Lot, in ''the promised land" 
Cinaan (Palestine), where they continued their pastoral life, and received 
horn, the inhabitants the name of the *^ Strangers from the other side'' 
(Hebrews). Isaac, who was bom to Abraham by Sarah at an advanced 
period of life, continued the race ; whilst Ishmael, Abraham's son by his 
coDCubine Hagar, is regarded as the progenitor of the Arabs. Isaac took 
to wife Bebekah, one of his own relatives acknowledging the true fiiith, 
who brought him two sons, Esau and Jacob. By the cunning of his 
mother, Jacob, the younger son, contrary to the usage that had hitherto 
obtuned, was declared to be the chief of his race, but eould only gain pos- 
Jacob. session of his inheritance afler a long period of probation, 

a. c. ISM. Jacob had twelve sons ; but as he distinguished Joseph, the 
gift of his bek>ved Bachel, by his peculiar affection, the others, moved 
Joseph, ^7 envy, entertained the purpose of getting rid of their 

B.ei7S0. brother, and sold him to some travelling merchants, who 
took him with them into Egypt. As Joseph held fast his integrity, Grod 
rewarded him with prosperity and wisdom. By his skill in the inter- 
pretation of dreams, he obtained the favor of the Egyptian king, and 
arrived at high dignity and honors. He saved the land from famine, and 
by this means attained such credit, that he was permitted to invite his 
father and brethren into Egypt, and to bestow upon them the fertile pas- 
ture-lands of Goshen. The Hebrews were generally called Israelites, 
from Jacob's surname of IsraeL 

§ 17. At first, the Israelites were prosperous in the rich meadows 
of Goshen. But when Joseph was dead, and fresh rulers, who knew 
nothing of his services, assumed the government, dislike to strangers, and 
contempt for the pastoral state, incited the Egyptians to cruelty andi 
severity against the foreigners. They commenced by imposing severe 


socage daties upon them ; and when it was found that, despite this op- 
pression, thej increased so rapidly that the Egyptians at length hecame 
alarmed at their superior numbers, Phdraoh gave commandment to drown 
all their newly-born male children in the Nile. 

Mofles, Moses would have experienced this fate, had not the 

B. o. 1600. daughter of Fhdraoh, who chanced to be walking on the 
banks of the river just as he was about to be drowned, taken pitj on the 
infant, and saved him. Moses came to the Egyptian court, where he was 
carefully brought up, and instructed in all wisdom. The slaughter of an 
Egyptian, whom he saw misusing one of the Israelites, compelled him, 
when he was forty years old, to Hy to the deserts of Arabia. It was here 
that he was inspired with the lofly purpose of becoming the deliverer of 
his people from their Egyptian bondage. At first, Phibtioh refused to 
let the ' Israelites depart ; but after terror and distress had been spread 
over the land by the ten plagues which were sent upon it, he at length 
consented to the retreat required by Moses and his brother Aaron. The 
attempt to bring them back again by force, afler their passage over the 
Red Sea, was attended with the destruction of the pursuers. 

§ 18. For a period of forty years, Moses led a discontented people, 
who were often pining for the fieshpots of Egypt, wandering in the desert, 
for the purpose of strengthening their bodies, restoring virtue and a love 
of freedom to their minds, and of rearing up a young and hardy race, 
who should possess strength and courage for the conquest of the promised 
land. It was during this period that the Ten Commandments, and other 
laws relative to the religion and policy of the Israelites, were delivered 
to Moses on Mount Sinai. These laws were preserved in the ark of the 
covenant, the most sacred of tabernacles. Their interpreters were the 
high priests, to whose office Aaron and his posterity were appointed. By 
their side stood the Levites, as sacrificing priests, teachers, lawyers, and 
physicians. According to the system of Moses, Jehovah himself was king 
and ruler ; it was in his name that the elders of the tribes conducted tiie 
temporal government, whilst the chief priest and Levites superintended 
the affairs of religion. Sacrifices and feasts (those of the Passover, Pen- 
tecost, and Tabernacles) formed the pleasant bond between Jehovah and 
the ^ chosen " people. In the sabbath-year, the lands were left untilled, 
and that which grew spontaneously was given up to the poor. Li every 
fiftieth year (year of Jubilee), lands that had been alienated were returned 
to their original possessors, that property might not be too unequally 
divided. Moses determined upon agriculture in preference to the pastoral 
life, as the principal occupation of his people. 

§ 19. It was not permitted to the great lawgiver to lead his people 

into the promised land. He gazed from the top of Mount Nebo on the 

iJoshuA, beautiful plains of the Jordan, and then departed from among 

B. c 1450. the living, after having chosen Joshua as his successor. 


imd exhorted the assembled people to hold fast upon the God of their 
fathers, and to root out the Canaanites. Scarcelj, however, had the peo- 
ple, under the command of the yaUant Joshua, conquered the Amorites 
and the other tribes, than they gave up war, and demanded the distribu- 
tion of the vanquished lands. This distribution took place hj lot (in 
accordance with the regulation of Moses) among the twelve sons of Jacob, 
in such a waj that Ephraun and Manasseh succeeded to equal shares; 
vhile, on the other hand, the descendants of Levi had no distinct inherit- 
ance, and received only a few towns and a tenth part of the productions 
of the earth. Reuben, Gad, and half Manasseh, chose the pasture- 
land on the east of Jordan; the others settled on the western side of 
the river. 

§ 20. But many powerful tribes, as the Ammonites and Philistines, 
were still left unsubdued, and disturbed the Israelites in the enjoyment 
of their possessions. Bloody and destructive wars induced a rude and 
barbarous condition of society ; and the Israelites not unfrequently forgot 
the living God, who had brought them out of bondage, and fell into the 
practice of idolatry, until misfortunes and defeats again brought them 
back to a better understanding. At these times, men of heroic courage 
would arise, defeat the enemy in victorious fields, and restore the ancient 
manners and the faith of their ancestors. These men are called Judges, 
in the sacred writings. . . . The most renowned among them are Gideon, 
Samuel, Jephthah, Samson the strong, and the heroic Deborah. But 
B. c 1150. the high priest Samuel, a pious and patriotically disposed 
man, was the first who was successful in reuniting the ancient ties which 
bound the people of Israel to their God, and in restoring to the laws of 
Moees their former ascendancy. He overthrew the Philistines, and 
founded the schools whence proceeded those inspired oracles of the peo- 
ple, distinguished in the Bible by the name of Prophets. 

S 21. The sons of Samuel did not walk in the steps of their father, but 
perverted the right At this period, the Israelites, in imitation of the 
surrounding nations, desired a king, who, as perpetual chief, might lead 
them forth to battle and victory. It was in vain that the gray-headed 
high priest sought to dissuade them from this request, whilst he portrayed 
in the strongest colors the misery and oppression that awaited them under 
a kingly rule. The Israelites persisted in their intention, and Samuel 
$g^ anointed Saul, of the tribe of Benjamin, to be king. Saul 

B. c. 1005. was a man of majestic person, brave, experienced in military 
affairs, and successful in the field ; but as he placed his trust in his army, 
and did not hold fast the commandments of Jehovah, he was rejected, and 
Samuel anointed the shepherd lad, David, of the tribe of Judah. Saul at 
this time was attacked with a spirit of melancholy, which nothing but the 
harp of David could alleviate. But env/of the renown acquired by 
David in the wars against the Philistines, and a secret presentiment <^ 


tlie destiny that iiwaited lum, urged Saul to hale and penecate the jovng 
sh^herd; SwTb aod, Jooathaiiy on die other hand, was dcTFOted to him 
with true aflbetioii. David, neTertheleaB, in the midst of dangers and 
dktreasesy esd^ed the attempts of his enemy; and at length, when SanV 
after having enstained a defeat, threw himsdif in deqianr npon his sword, 
David was gradaally recognized as king by the whole of the tribes. 
David, § 22. The reign of David is the glorious period of Jewish 

B. €. 1050. history. By means of succesdfiil wars, he enlarged his king- 
dom to the South and East; he made the Syrian town, Damascns, hia 
footstool, and broke forever the power of the Philistines; he conquered 
Jerusalem, the chief city of the Jebusites, together with the stnmg for- 
tress Zion, and selected it for a residence, and the central point of a 
solemn religious worship ; and with this view, commanded the ark of the 
covenant to be brought thither. David was also a great poet, as is abun- 
dantly shown by his admirable religious hymns (Psalms); and despite 
many grievous transgressions, he still remained ihe ** man after Qod'a 
own heart," since by sorrow and repentance he always regained the fm> 
giveness of Jehovah. The end of his reign was disturbed by the rebel- 
Solomon, iion of his bek>ved son, Absalom, who was led astray by evil 
B. c. 1000. counsellors. The wise Solomon completed the work of hie 
father. As David had been great in war, so his son was illustrious in 
the arts of peace. He adorned his capital with splendid buildings, and 
erected on the hill of Moriah, by the aid of TS^rian artists and masons, 
the magnificent temple which bore his own name, and which, on account 
of the richness of its gilding and ornaments, was the object. of universal 
admiration. But Solomon departed in many things from the laws of 
Moses. He traded with the neighboring nations, and thereby acquired 
incalculable wealth, which stimulated his love of luxury, pleasure, and 
magnificence ; he took to himself wives from a foreign people, permitted 
them the exercise of their idolatrous worship, and even took part in it 
himself. His lofty mind and admired wisdom did not secure him from, 
folly. His love of magnificence and extravagance was the occasion of 
oppressive taxes ; and even during his own life, an insurrec- 
tion broke out under the guidance of Jerobdam. This was 
indeed suppressed, and the originator compelled to take flight ; but when 
Bohoboam, Solomcm's son, BeholxSam, pursued the same course his father 
B. c 976. had taken, and repelled with threats the prayers of the peo- 
ple for relief, many of the tribes fell from him, and chose Jerobdam for 
king. Judah and Benjamin alone remained faithful to the legitimate 
royal race. 

§ 28. From this divisicm there arose two states of unequal magnitude, 
the kingdom of Israel, or Ephraim, formed of ten of the tribes, with its 
eapitals, Shechem and Samaria, and the kingdom of Judah, consisting of 
two tribes, with its chief city, Jerusalem. As Jerusalem preserved the 


ark of the covenant, and was in consequence regarded by the Levites 
and many pious Israelites as the true chief dtj, Jeroboam set up the 
worship of idols in the southern and northern parts of his kingdom, a sin 
which was shared bj the whole of his successors. One of the most im- 
pious among these was Ahab, whose wife, Jezebel, a Tjrian, introduced 
the blasphemous Phoenician worship of Baal, and raged violentlj against 
those who would not do him homage. Bj means of her daughter, Atha- 
liah, who was married to a king of Judah, the same worship was intro* 
duced into Judah, and favored hj the court The consequences were, 
intense hatred and contention, and at length, civil wars between the two 
kingdoms, by which they were mutually weakened ; they then entered 
into alliances with other nations. The voices of the prophets, who boldly 
foretold the destruction of the state if the worship of Jehovah were thrust 
aside for the worship of idols, died away unheeded. When the land was 
threatened by the Babylonians and Assyrians, Isdiah referred to the 
ixmiing Messiah as the only Savior; and Jeremiah lived to see that 
destruction of the state, concerning which he had in vain warned the 
blinded people. 

§ 24. The £phraimitic kingdom of Israel was first subjected to tribute 
by the Assyrians. But when the king, Hoshea, entered into an alliance 
with the Egyptians for the purpose of escaping from this impost, the 
Assyrian king marched an army into the land, subdued Samaria, and led 
away the king, with the greater portion of his subjects, into 
the Assyrian captivity. Foreigners entered into the land, 
and the intermixture of these with the remaining Israelites gave rise to 
the Samaritans. Judah survived 130 years longer. After the fall of 
Israel, it became tributary to Assyria. But when this nation went to 
war with Egypt, the king of Judah sided with the latter, and refused the 
tribute to the Assyrians. The Assyrian king, Sanherib, (Sennacherib,) 
came up against Jerusalem and laid siege to it. But Judah'S hour was 
not yet come, whilst the pious Hezekiah sat upon the throne. The host 
of the Assyrians was almost entirely destroyed in a single night, and San- 
herib (Sennacherib) retreated from the land in horror. It was to the 
victorious Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, that it was first allotted to make 
an end of the nation polluted with new idolatries. He took 
Jerusalem, plundered the temple, carried away the king and 
the chief inhabitants into the interior of his dominions, and oppressed with 
a heavy hand those whom he sufiered to remain. This induced the last 
king, Zedekiah, to try once more the chances of war ; but he 
met with little success. Nebuchadnezzar burnt the city and 
temple, slaughtered the citizens, and at length carried away the deluded 
king and the greater part of his people into the seventy years' Babylonian 
captivity. In their necessity, the Jews again sought the God of their 
fiithers, and found grace in his sight. One of the prisoners, the prophet 


Daniel, arrived at high honors, and alleviated tlie fate of his brethrea. 
After some years, Babylon was conquered by the Persians, 
iipon which Cyrus suffered the Jews to return to their 
homes. Only a small portion returned at first, under the conduct of 
Zenibbabel ; these commenced the rebuilding of the temple. But as 
they avoided all intercourse with the Samaritans, this people, moved by 
hatred, endeavored in every possible way to disturb their purpose. They 
procured a prohibition of the building, which was already commenced, 
B. c 615 ^"^ which, in consequence, was not completed till the reign 
of Darius. During the reign of Artaxerxes in Persia, fresh 
B. c 460. troops, led by Ezra and Nehemiah, returned to their homes, 
rebuilt the city, and reestablished the laws of Moses. They had been 
taught by suffering, that salvation and deliverance were only to be found 
in a steadfast adherence to the faith of their ancestors; and from this 
time forth, they were more careful in shunning idolatry, and all contact 
with idolatrous nations. 


S 25. Media and Persia, two countries where savage and occasionally 
attractive mountainous regions alternate with rich pasture grounds and 
fertile arable lands, were formerly inhabited by tribes who drew their 
origin from the ancient Zend races dwelling farther to the eastward. 
They possessed a remarkable religion, which was founded by the ancient 
sage, Zoro4ster, and had been delineated by him in the sacred books of 
the Zend-Avesta. According to this system, there are two first princi- 
ples ; a spirit of light, Ormuzd, and an evil spirit of darkness, Ahriman. 
Both of these have armies of similar spirits under them, and are to wage 
perpetual war with each other till the end of the world; when the spirit 
of light will become victorious ; upon this, the evil spirit is to disappear, 
and the human race to be rendered happy. This doctrine was repre- 
sented by a powerful hierarchy of priests, the Magi, in a solemn religious 
ceremonial. The god of light was worshipped under the form of the 
sun and of fire, the spirit of darkness was propitiated by sacrifices and 

§ 26. Tlie Medes remained for a long time under the dominion of foreign 
nations ; at length, they roused their courage and fought valiantly for 
their freedom. But a few warlike kings soon after succeeded in suppress- 
ing the newly-acquired liberties of the people, and in establishing a mili- 
tary despotism. They at the same time subdued some of the neighboring 
people, and among others, the cognate tribe of the Persians. But their 
Astyages, rule was but of short duration ; Ast^ages, the la^t of the Me- 
B. c, 676. dian kings, had a vision, which the diviners interpreted to 
signify, that the son of his daughter should, at some time, rule over 
Media and western Asia. Alarmed at this, he gave his daughter in mar- 


liage to a petty prince of the subjected tribe of Persiansi and when she 
bronght forth a son named Cjrms, he commanded him to be put to death 
in the obscurit J of a remote forest. Gyrus only escaped the fate designed 
for him, through the compassion of the shepherd to whom the execution 
of the murder was intrusted. He was brought up as the son of the shep- 
herd, but whilst yet a youth, gave such eyidence in his^pastimes of -an in- 
nate spirit of command, as led to his being brought before the king and 
recognized. Ast^ages, pacified by the diviners, now allowed Cyrus to be 
brought up in a manner suitable to his rank, and sent him back, when he 
had arrived at maturity, to his parents in Persia. It was here that the 
project of freeing his brave but subjected countrymen from the yoke of 
the Modes, and leading them forth to victory and conquest, first arose in 
his mind. His mighty spirit and commanding person compelled the Per^ 
eians to admiration and obedience. He marohed against the Medes ; 
Ast^ages, betrayed and overcome, relinquished the throne to his success- 
Cjnoy ful grandson, who now became the founder of an empire that 

B. c ceo. embraced almost all the civilized nations of Asia. 

^ § 27. At this time. King Cnesus, who possessed such enor^ 

mous wealth that his name is become proverbial, reigned in 
Sardis, the principal city of Lydia. Cyrus declared war against him. 
Croesus, deceived by an ambiguous oracle, passed over the boundary stream 
of the Halys to attack the Persians, but suffered a defeat, and was obliged 
to fly in haste to his capital. Cyrus pursued him, took Sardis, and com- 
manded the captured king to be cast into the flames. Croosus al]:eady 
sat bound upon the funeral pile, when his recollection of Solon, the wise 
man of Athens, saved him from destruction. Solon had once visited Sar- 
dis, and been hospitably entertained by the king. Proud of his prosperity, 
Cnesns had the sage led through his treasure-chambers, and displayed 
before him the whole of his riches. He then asked him who it was that 
he considered to be the happiest of mortals, nothing doubting that Solon 
would name Croesus. The sage, however, mentioned a few persons, 
who^ after leading a virtuous life, had met with a becoming death : when 
CnssQS again asked him whether he did not look upon himself as a 
happy man, Solon made the significant reply, ^ that no man could be con- 
sidered happy before death.'' These words occurred at this moment to 
the captive king, and he exclaimed bitterly, <' Oh ! Solon, Solon ! " The 
exclamation awakened the curiosity of Cyrus ; he had the story related 
to him, and struck by the truth of the words of Solon, set Crcesus at 
liberty, held him in high estimation, and consulted him in all his undei^ 

{ 28. With the same good fortune did Cyrus overthrow the empire of 
Babylon. As the Babylonians, in full security of the impregnability of 
their city, were celebrating a festival, and their luxurious king, Nabon- 
nddus, (Belshazzar), was contemptuously defiling the sacred vessels of 


Ihe Jews, the Feraiaiis penetrated into the town bj an arm of the 

Enphratee, the waters of which they had drained off, killed the king, and 

snbdued the country* By this conquest, Syria, Palestine, 

and Phoenicia also fell under thie dominion of the Persians, 

and the Of^ptive Jews reoeived permission to return to their country. 

Soon after this, Cyrus undertook an expedition against the Massigets, 
a wild nomadic race, living near the borders of the Caspian Sea. He 
was snccessfol at firat, by means of a military stratagem, and destroyed 
many of the enemy, among them a son of their queen, Th<Sm j^ris. But 
shortly after this, he and a great part of his army fell into the hands of 
the Mass^tsB ; and the queen, thirsting for revenge, cast the severed 
head of the mighty Persian king, with an ezpressicm of contempt, into a 
vessel filled with blood. 

Cambyses, i 29. Camb^ses, the victorious and tyrannical son of Cyrus, 

B. c. 529. enlarged the Persian empire by the conquest of Egypt The 
fistte of the dwellers on the Nile was frightful. The unfortunate king^ 
Psammem'tus, after witnessing the oppression ci his subjects, 
and the dishonor of his family, was put to a violent death ; 
the Egyptian temples and sanctuaries were profaned, the treasures plun* 
dered, and the inhabitants abused. But the Persians also encountered a 
heavy doom. ,Two armies, that Cambyses despatched for the conquest of 
the priestly state of AmmiSnium, found their graves in the sandy deserts 
of Libya. This state had its central point in the temple and oracle of the 
ram-homed Jupiter-Ammon, in lihe oasis of Siwah, and was, like Thebes, 
a colony of the original pontifical state, M^roe, which had once subsisted 
in Nubia, in the midst of a savage negro population. Camb^ses died 
after a violent reign of seven years, in consequence of an injury he acci- 
dentally inflicted on himself with his own sword. The Egyptians ascribed 
his sudden death to the vengeance of the gods for the slaughter <3i the 
sacred ox. Apis. 

Dflrins S ^^* Some time after this, seven illustrious Persians 

Hystaspes, agreed together, that they would ride in the direeticm of the 
B. o. 621. rising sun, and that the man whose hor:^ neighed first should 
be made king. In this manner, Darfus, the son of Hyst^pes, and the son- 
in-law of Cyrus, gained the throne, which he occupied, not without re- 
nown, for the space of thirty-six years. He divided the kingdom into 
satrapies, regulated the imposts, and conducted great wars. But his arms 
were not always successful. When he invaded the nomadic tribes, called 
Scythians, dwelling on the steppes of the lower Danube, this people 
retreated with their tents and herds, and surrendered their naked fields 
to the enemy, who were soon reduced by want to the brink of destruction; 
and when at length attacked by the Scythians, were compelled to make a 
most disastrous retreat over the Danube. 

S 31. The simple manners and military virtue of the Persians soon 

HI8T0BT OF aB8BC8» 28 

d^;eaemtied. The magnifioenoe of the conrt, where crowds of offioiafa 
mod priestly counsellors, of serrants and guards, battened on the pros- 
perity of the country, destroyed the well-bemg of the proyinces. The 
royal table was famished with dishes and liquors of the rarest quality, 
brought from the most distant regions. A harem of ostentatious and 
iatriguing women, who frequently had the revenues of whole towns and 
provinces allotted to them to defray the expenses of their trinkets and 
wardrobes, increased this luxury and profuseness. The court moved 
with the seasons. The winter was passed in the genial climate of Baby- 
lon ; the spring in Susa ; the summer in the oool Ecbdtana. Numerous 
gardens arranged fbr the production of fruit, and inclosures where wild 
animals were preserved, contributed to the more refined pleasures of the 
Persian monarchs when on their travels. The governors of the pro- 
vinces imitated the luxury and extravagance of the royal courts to the 
detriment of their lands, which were protected neither by laws nor the 
regular administration of justice from arbitrary and despotic authority. 
For ihe rest, the vast empire of Persia was but a conglomeration of 
heterogeneous elements, where the most diversified manners, institutions, 
and nationalities were approximated to each other without internal union^ 
withoot strength, and without support. 



{ 82. Greece is the southern portion of a large half-insular piece of 
land, which appears broad and unbroken in its northern part, narrow, 
irregular, and perforated by bays and inlets on its southern coast It is 
traversed by numerous ranges of mountains, and consists of rocky and 
hilly tracts, which divide the country into a multitude of small, secluded, 
and isolated regions, and favor the production of numerous and separate 
states. Greece is divided into — Northern Greece, Central Greece, and 
Peloponnesus. Northern Greece consists of the rude mountain region 
of Epfrus and Thessaly. Between these two lands extends, from north 
to south, the wild and rugged mountain range of Pindus, the summit of 
which is almost always covered with snow. Thessaly, with its fruitful 
plains and luxuriant pasture grounds, admirably fitted for the breeding of 
horses, is inclosed by another branch of the same range. The vale of 
Tempe, near Olympus, the hill of the gods, was celebrated in antiquity 
fbr its natural beauties. Among the cities may bo mentioned Larfssa, 
on the Pen^us, and Pharsilus, with its battle-field. The souOiem range 
of hills is called CEta. Between the foot of these mountains and the bay. 


is a narrow delfile, that forms the only natural commaiucadoa between 
Theesaly and central Greece. This is the celebrated pass of Ther- 
mdpjlsB. Central Greece, or Hellas, traversed by branches of the CEtian 
range, is divided into eight small and independent states. The most im- 
portant among them are, Attica, a hill j country, rich in olives, figs, and 
honey, with its chief city, Athens, its seaport, Pind'us, and the battle-field 
of Mdrathon. Opposite Athens lie the two islands, iEgina and S^Uamia ; 
the first renowned for its early cultivation, its trade and navigation ; the 
latter, for the naval engagement during the Persian war. BoecStia, a fer- 
tile corn-producing country, with its seven-gated capital, Thebes; the 
heroic Platss^a, and the renowned battle-fields of Leuctra and Chaeron^a. 
Phods, with the hills of Helicon and Pamdssus, renowned as the seats 
of the Muses. At the foot of the latter, in a spot that was looked upon 
as the centre of the earth, Liy the sacred temple city of Delphi, with its 
celebrated oracle, and numerous magnificent buildings. 

Peloponn^us (at present Mor^) is connected with Central Greece 
by the isthmus of Corinth. This peninsula is surrounded on four of hs 
sides by the sea, and is an entirely mountainous country. In its centre 
is situated the rude region of Arduiia, with its beautiful valleys and fer- 
tile pastures inhabited by a hardy race of shepherds. Mantin^ and 
Megalopolis, founded by Epaminondas, are among the most celebrated 
of its towns. In the north of the peninsula, on the shores of the Cor- 
inthian gulf, lies Achara, with its twelve cities, which were united together 
in the third century by the celebrated Achdian league. Sfcyon, and the 
rich and art-loving Corinth, were also joined in this confederation. To 
the East was Argolis, a rocky region abounding in bays and creeks, with 
its chief city, Argos ; Myc^ne, the ancient royal seat of Agamemnon and 
Tiiynthus, in the neighborhood of which were to be found the remains 
of gigantic buildings (Cyclopean walls). To the south lay the rugged 
Lacdnia, or Lacedaemdnia, with the mountain of Tdygetus, and a few fer- 
tile plains in the valley of the Eurdtas ; near this was the renowned city 
of Sparta, with about 60,000 inhabitants. Westward from Lacede^mon 
extended to the sea-coast the fruitful region of MessOnia, with the for- 
tress IthiSme, and the maritime city Pylos : northward from this lay Elis» 
the territory of which was regarded as sacred, and, in consequence, was 
never viMted with war, together with the city and plain of Olympia, ren- 
dered famous by the Olympian games. 


§ 83. To the east and west of Greece lay a multitude of lai^ and 
small islands, which are of the greatest importance in Greek history. 
They were almost all remarkable for their fertility in wine, oU, fruits, 
and similar productions; carried on an extensive trade, and possessed 
even at an early period a high amount of civilization. The most remaik 


able among them are, on the west, Corcyra, (at present Corfu), renowned 
even in the earliest ages for its wealth and cnltnre, and where, at a later 
period, the Corinthians founded a colony ; and the stony f thaca, the 
dwelling-place of Ulysses. In the southern sea, the large island of Crete, 
which in the time of Homer, numbered a hundred cities, but which was 
dreaded and infamous oq account of its piracy ; Cyprus and Cyth^ra, 
celebrated for the worship of Venus; and Rhodes, renowned for the 
casting of metals, and for its statue of the god of the sun (Colossus), 
seventy cubits in height But the sea the most rich in large and small 
islands is the iBg^an on the east, which for this reason has given its 
name — Archipelago — to every sea abounding in islands. Off the east- 
em coast of Greece, and only divided from it by the narrow channel 
Eurfpus, lies the long and fertile island Euboe'a (N^gropont), with the 
maritime and commercial cities Er^tria and Chalcis. Farther eastward, 
we meet with Lemnos, Thasos, Imbros, and Samothrdce, the anciently 
renowned localities of mysterious religious customs. The group of islands 
lying nearest the east coast of Peloponnesus, are called C^clades, because 
they lie in a circle (Cycles). Among them are Delos, the sacred birth- 
place of Apollo and Didna; Faros, celebrated for its marble ; and Naxos, 
for its wine. Eastward from these we encounter a number of scattered 
islands, the Sp<5rades. The most important, both on account of their^size 
and fertility, and the wealth and civilization of their inhabitants, are the 
islands lying off the coast of Asia Minor, — Lesbos, with its flourishing 
town Mityl^ne, Chios, Samos, Cos, and others. Lastly, the rocky island 
of Patmos, celebrated as the residence of the Evangelist, St John. 


§ 84. Nowhere did the heathen worship of idols assume a more cheer- 
ful aspect than among the Greeks, a great part of whose mythology was 
afterwards adopted by the Romans and incorporated with their own 
religious system. According to the religious views taken by the Greeks, 
the world was originally a rude and formless mass (chaos), from which 
the heaven and earth separated themselves as independent divinities. 
The earth, after this, produced beings of superhuman stature and strength, 
the Titans, who were possessed of the supreme authority, until a more spirit- 
aal race arose, who gathered themselves around the king of heaven, Zeu8| 
or Jupiter, deprived them of their power, overcame the giants and Titans 
who attempted to storm the skies, and buried them in the abysses of the 
earth. After the unruly forces of nature and the power of the elements 
had been thus subdued, Zeus erected his throne upon Olympus, whilgft 
Pluto governed the gloomy regions of the subterranean world, (Hades, 
Tilr^rns, Orcus), and Poo^idon (Neptune), with his trident, ruled the 
sea. Hera or Juno, the queen of heaven, the virgin Pallas Athene 
(Minerva), armed with helm and shield, the protectress of the liberal arts, 


atnd c£ all intelleotaal emplojmen^ ApdUo, the gloriom god of H^il, 
and some othen, were the objects of similar TeneratioD* Besides these, 
woods and mountains, fields and meadows, riven and lakes, were inhar 
bited bj an innmnerable mnltitode of divine beings,-— nymphs, nereids, 
tritons, sirens who with their magic songs aUnsed men to destanction, and 
manj others that frequentlj interfered in homan affidnu An heroic race, 
that derived its origin f)x>m Zens, was the eonnectiDg link between gods 
and men ; whilst the interval between men and the animal tribes was 
filled up by an inferior race of fiuins and satyrs, who united together 
hmnan and bestial qualities, finman life- and this world of divinities 
were supposed to be most intimatelj related with each other. From the 
moment of his birth, a guardian spirit (genius, demon) stood bj the side 
of eveiy man for his whole life, and exereised an influence upon his 
resolutions and actions, without however interfering with the freedom of 
his will. The household hearth was the residence of sacred don^estic and 
family deities (Lares, Pendtes), who [M^eserved the dwelling from evil; 
and every important event of life was under the guardianship of a sepap 
rate divinity. In opposition to the Christian view, which looks upon the 
life of this worid as a state of probation, and of transition to a higjher 
form of existence, the joyous Greeks referred all their pleasures to the 
earthly life, and looked upon the shadowy existence of the subterranean 
world as but its melancholy continuation. They nevertheless believed in 
rewards and punishments, and in a state of immortal existence. Tbe 
departed were brought by Hennes (Mercury), the conductor of the dead, 
before the three judges of the lower world, and, according to their decs 
sion, they were either sent to the residence of the righteous (Elysium, the 
happy islands), or to the place of condemnation (Tartarus). Many 
sacrifices were ofiered on the graves by the survivors to the souls or 
shadows (manes) of the departed. This free and beautiful system of 
mythology is dispLiyed in the most perfect productions of Gre^ art and 



§ 85. The Pelasgi are believed to have been the most ancient inhabit- 
ants of Greece. They were an agricultural and peaceful people, with a 
religion that was founded upon the veneration of nature, and in which 
the earth-mother Dem^ter (Ceres), the wine-producer Dion^us (Bao- 
chns), and the oracle-giving nature*god, Zens of Dod<5na in Epfrus, were 
the divinities that esgoyed the greatest reverence. This raligioiL oi 


Mteve, together wkh the KemaiiM of a primeiFal aidiitoetimr towns and 
fo^ cities, and espedally tke impexishable Cjdopean waHs in Pelopon- 
B^QS, which are built of scpiared stones fitted together without cement, 
leads to the opimon tbat the Pelasgi bore a xesemblanoe, ia their cultiiffe 
and religioos lastitations^ to the people of the East ; and that^ conse- 
quenUj, inteiooiuse must have existed at an earlj period between 
Greece, Asia, and Egypt This view receives oorroboradoa from the 
legends respecdng (wiental colonists, who settled in Greeoe and diffused 
the seeds of civilLsadon at an incon^eivablj remote period. In the same 
waj, Cecrops the Egyptian came to Attica, the PluBnidaa Cadmus to 
BoMitia, the Phrygian Pelops to the peninsula, named after him, Pdo- 

§ 86. The Pelasgi were either driven out or subjugated by the war- 
fike Hellenes, who gradually subjected the whole of Greeoe to their 
power. These Hellenes are divided into three tribes: the Dorians, in 
Peloponn^us ; the lonians, in Attica and the islands ; and the MdlUoDB, 
in Bcedtia and the other states. They distinguished themselves at an 
early period by great warlike achievements, and by founding cities and 
ferdgn colonies. It is in the poetical legends of the twelve labors of 
Hercules, of the voyage of the Athenian hero Theseus to the seo^mling 
Crete, and of the daring Argonautic expedition, that the first traces of 
historical fiicts are preserved, distorted and obscured, as they may be, by 
a mass of fables. The Thessalian Jason, with the most renowned heroes 
of his time, (Hercules, Theseus, Castor and Pollux from Laoedn'mon, 
and the Thradan musician Orpheus), undertook the Argonautic expedi- 
tioo, in the ship Aigo, to the distant land of Colchis, on the east coast of 
the lUack Sea, for the purpose of obtaming the golden fieece, which, as 
the legend reported, Phiyxus, the son of the Thessalian king, had years 
before suspended there, and which was watched over by a sleepless 
dragpn. This Phryxus and his sister Helle had a wicked step-mother, 
who entertained designs against the lives of the two children. Their 
departed mother, Ndphele, the goddess of clouds, appeared to her two 
children, and presented them with a wonderful ram, which conveyed 
diem across the sea i Helle, however, fell off, and was drowned at the spot 
which has received from her the name of the Hellespont. Phiyxus 
reached the land and sacrificed the ram. Jason and his ccmpaaions 
reached Colchis after a difficult voyage, completed their undertaking by 
the aid of the sorceress Med^ daughter of the king of the countiy, and 
returned home with their spoiL But the AigAnants had many wonder- 
ful adventures and perils to encounter on their return through the oeean 
aad the mysterkms river Eridanns, which fenaed the materials of many 
a poetical legend. The early commercial interoouTM between the £6lie 
laoe and the inhabitants of the distant Asiatic coasts appears to be syaa- 
boiiaed by this history of the Argonautic expedition. 


§ 37. The greatest event of the Greek heroic age is the celebrated 
Trojan war. In Iliam, or Troy, on the north-west coast of 
^^ Asia Minor, reigned King Prtamos over a rich and coltivated 

people. His youngest son, Paris, carried off Helen, wife of the Lacedse- 
monian king, Meneldns, who had hospitably received him. The injured 
husband summoned the princes of Greece to undertake an expedition to 
revenge the afl&ont. This expedition shortly 'after took place under the 
command of Agamemnon of Mycdnie, brother of Menelius, and with the 
assistance of the most renowned warriors of Greece. Achilles and his 
friend Patrddus from Thessaly, the subUe Ulysses from Ithaca, Dio- 
m^es from Argos, the sage Nestor from Pylos, Ajax, and many others 
were among the number. The army, having embarked in a vast fleet, 
sailed for the Asiatic coast finom the seaport town of Aulis, where 
Agamenmon had devoted his daughter as a sacrifice to Diana. They 
found, however, the Trojans, especially Hector, son of Priam, and ^Ski^as, 
such valiant opponents, that it was only after a ten years' struggle that 
the city was at length taken and destroyed, by an artifice of Ulysses (a 
wooden horse filled with armed men). Priam and most of his subjects 
fell either in battle or at the destruction of the city ; the rest were car> 
ried away as slaves. But the victors also suffered many misfortunes. 
Achilles, Patrddus, and many others found an early grave in Ilium. 
Agamemnon, after a troublesome voyage home, was murdered at the 
instigation of his faithless wife Clytemnestra ; and Ulysses, tossed bj 
tempests, wandered for ten years to inhospitable shores, over islands aad 
seas, before it was permitted him again to see his faithful wife Penelope 
and his son Tel^machus, and to purge his house of the andadons suitoiB 
who were contending for the hand of his spouse, and who in the mean 
while were feasting themselves upon his property. 

§ 38. HoHER. — The Trojan war is of more importance to poetry and 
art than to history, since the combats of the heroes, and their adventures 
and wanderings on their return home, formed two legendary cydes, 
from which the materials of heroic or epic poetry have usually been 
sdected. The first and greatest poet, who has employed these l^;ends 
in the construction of an immortal work, was Homer, who, according to 
tradition, was a blind singer, whose life was so obscure that, even in 
andent times, seven dties contended for the honor of having given him 
birth. The two great heroic poems, that pass under his name, are 
the Iliad, in which the battles that took place before Troy in the 
last year of the siege are described, and the Odyssea, in which are 
sung the &te and adventures of Ulysses and his companions, on and 
around Sidly in the western sea. £ven a mode heroic poem, Batrar 
ehomyomddiia, in which the combats of fh)gs and mice are described in 
the same manner as those of the Grecian and Trojan heroes, has been 
attributed to him. But as, at that time, the art of writing was unknown 


in Greece,* these poems were at first circulated from mouth to mouth, 
and portions of them were committed to memory and recited by wander- 
ing singers (Bhapsodists). Even at a later period, when they had been 
collected and reduced to writing, they were still impressed upon the 
memoiy of young people, and employed as a means of exciting patriot- 
ism, religion, and a feeling for the beautiful. As Homer was the chief 
of a school of poets in Asia Minor, who, under the name of Hom^rides, 
continued for some centuries to compost poetry in a similar spirit to their 
master, so H^siod, about a hundred years later, became the founder of 
an iBdlic school of poetry, that flourished more especially in Boedtia. 
We still possess an epic poem of Hesiod on the origin and fate of the 
Grecian deities (Thedgoay), and a didactic poem, the ''Works and 
Days." The hexameter measure derived from Homer was, from this 
time, made use of in epic poetry. 

§ 39. Shortly after the Trojan war, great disturbances and political 
revolutions took place in Greece. New races of men drove the old ones 
fit>m the possessions they had hitherto occupied ; these, in their turn, 
attacked other tribes, till at length the weaker resolved to expatriate 
themselves, and to found transmarine colonics. The most important in 
its consequences of these emigrations, was that undertaken 
by the Ddrians to Peloponnesus, under the conduct of the 
descendants of Hercules (hence called the return of the Herachds). 
This evept entirely changed the fate of Peloponnesus, by giving the com- 
mand of the peninsula to the hardy mountaineers of Ddria, instead of the 
Ionic population that had hitherto possessed it. The Ddrians gradually 
subdued Argolls, Lac6nia, Mess^nia, Sicyon, Corinth, and Mdgaris beyond 
the isthmus. They even made an irruption into Attica, and 
threatened Athens, but were compelled to a retreat by Go- 
dros, the Athenian king, offering his life in sacrifice for his country. An 
oracle had declared that victory would incline to the side of those whose 
king should falL When the Ddrians heard this, they gave the strictest 
commands that no injury should be done to Codrus. But this king, dis- 
guising himself as a peasant, commenced a quarrel before the gates with 
the outposts, and was killed without being recognized. The Ddrians, 
despairing of Victory, immediately retreated from Athens. 

The old inhabitants of Peloponnesus experienced a triple fisite. The 
boldest and strongest quitted their country, and established the Ionian 
colonies on the western shores of Asia Minor, and the islands of Chios, 
Lesbos, Samos, &;c These colonies, by the fruitfulness of their soil, their 
navigation, their trade, and their diligence in business, soon attained a 

« This is too sweeping an assertion. The art of writing was certainly practised in 
Egjrpt long before Homer*s day; and the Greeks conld hardly have been ignorant of it, 
tboDg^ the Homeric poems may not have been reduced to writing for a oentory or two 
after they were composed. Am. BL 


degree of proeperitj and dvilization that far sarpassed teiof the mother 
oountiy. Those that remained behind either submitted fireelj to tibe 
Ddriaos, in which case thej were compelled to paj tribute, and were 
excluded from all participation in the government, but were permitted to 
retain their possessions, or thej were subdued with weapons in their 
hands, by force of anns ; in the latter case, thej were reduosd to the con- 
dition of serfs or slaves. The first dass were called Perise'ci, or Lacedse* 
monians, to distinguish them from the Doric Spartans ; the second class 
were stjled Helots. 

S 40. Colonies. — In process of time, the Ionian colonies united 
themselves into a confederacy, consisting of twelve commonwealths, 
among which Miletus, Ephesus with the celebrated temple of Diana, and 
Smyrna, were the most powerful. The affairs of the union were debated 
in a temple on the promontory of M^cale. The twelve colonial towns of 
the .ZEkSlians to the north of Ionia, and the six D<5rian towns on the south, 
possessed similar arrangements. Among the latter, the town of Halicar- 
nassus, the birthplace of the historian Herddotus, b the most remarkable. 
The island of Rhodes also belonged to the latter union. The shores of 
the Hellespont (Dardanelles), of the Fropontis (sea of Marm6ra), of the 
Pontus Euxinus (Black Sea), were covered in a similar manner with 
Greek colonies. The most important were Byz^tium (Constantinople), 
SiniSpe, C^rasus (the native land of cherries), and Trap^zus. Flourishing 
colonies were also to be found on the coasts of Thrace and Macedonia ; 
viz. Abd^ra, Amphfp51is, Ol^nthus, &c In Lower Italy, the number of 
Greek colonial towns was so great, that the inhabitants of the interior 
spoke Greek, and the whole country was known by the name of Great 
Greece. The most celebrated of these towns were T^ntum, the wealthy 
and luxurious S^baris, and the ancient CumsB, the parent city of Naplea. 
The greater part of the beautiful island of Sicily was in possession of 
the Greeks, who founded numerous opulent cities there, but none of 
which, in point of uze, power, and civilization, could compare with Syra* 
cuse. On the north coast of Africa, Cyr^ne rivalled Carthage in wealth 
and commerce ; and in South Gaul, Massilia was a model of civil order, 
and a seminary of cultivation to the rude population in its neighborhood. 
All these towns carried on a fionrishing trade in the productions of art and 
the produce of the soil. Their vicinities were covered with beautiful 
buildings, and adorned for miles with "villas and summer-houses. They 
exercised a salutary influence on the manners and culture of the natives, 
but degenerated in course of time, when wealth and refinement intro- 
duced luxury, sensuality, and effeminacy. The colonial cities occupied 
the position of blood relations to the mother state, but were entirely 
free and independent They retained the manners and reh'gious customs 
of the parent city, and honored it with filial piety ; but they entered 
into no dependent relations with it, like the colonies of the Romans^ 
or those of modem times. 

msroftT 09 OESBOS. 81 


§ 41. Greece never formed a united state, but was separated into a 
number of independent eommunitiesy among which the most powerful 
exercised from time to tame a predominant influence. Sparta, Athens, 
and Thebes, ruled for the most part. But language, manners, and reli- 
gious institutions united the different tribes into a single nation. They 
called themselyes Hellenes, — all other people they included under the 
general term of barbarians. The Greeks, a people full of talent, and 
eminentlj capable of dvilization, arrived at a degree of culture that has 
never sinoe been equalled. Love of freedom, and a masculine energy, 
led them to establish a number of independent republics, to which, at 
first, they attached themselves with enthusiastic patriotism, and in defence 
of which they poured forth their heart's blood, till the rage of faction had 
choked the more generous feelings. Activity and diligence produced 
general prosperity, and a beautiful land under a sky of unvarying bright- 
ness, with a healthy and happy climate, engendered cheerfulness of mind, 
and made existence a pleasure. Simplicity of life lessened the number 
of the wants, and the frugal use of what a fruitful soil and a happily 
sitnated country produced with but littie labor, banished the cares and 
anxieties of life, and permitted every one to enjoy the pleasures afforded 
by poetry, art, and the sciences. 

{ 42. Certain institutions and establishments connected with religion 
were common to all tiie Greek races. The first among these was the 
ancient Amphictyonic Council, a court of arbitration to which twelve 
states sent their deputies, and the office of which was to defend the 
nft^ ^Wiifcl sanctuary at Delphi, and to prevent the wars that broke out be- 
tween smgle states from becoming too cruel and destructive. It was 
also ihe defender of ihe Delphic orade, with its rich temple. In all imr 
portant undertakings, the Delphic Apollo was consulted ; the response 
was given by the inspired priestess, Pythia, from her golden tripod, in 
obscure, and frequenUy amlHguous and enigmatical expressions. The 
temple of Delphi possessed extensive territories, and rich treasures in 
gifts and offerings. The celebration of numerous games, as the Pythian 
(at Delphi), the Isthmian, Nemsan, &C., was a third bond to connect 
together the various states and families of Greece. None of these games, 
however, were so renowned as the Olympic, which, from the time 776 
B. c, were celebrated every fourth year, in the plain of Olympia, in Elis. 
They principally consisted in running, boxing, wrestling, throwing the 
discus or spear, and in chariot racing; and the crown of dive branches, 
that was presented to the victor, was regarded as an enviable distinction 
(btA rendered illustrious, not the receiver only, but his whole family and 


his natiTe dwelling-place. The works of artists^ poets, and literary men 
were also objects of attention. There is even a tradition that Herodotus, 
the father of history, read the first book of his woriu at these games, and 
by so doing excited the emulation of Thucydides, the greatest of historical 
writers. The temple of the Olympian Jupiter, and the colossal sittmg 
statue of this deity, which was overlaid with ivory and gold, were among 
the most splendid examples of Greek art. Pindar, of Thebes, the great 
lyric poet, celebrated the victors in these games in his immortal odes. 


§ 43. The manners of the Ddrians gradually degenerated in their new 
possessions ; the affairs of the state fell into disorder, and an unwarlike 
spirit threatened to difiuse itself. To remedy these evils, 
*' ^' Lyciirgus, a patriotic Spartan of royal descent, determined 

to give his native city the preeminence over the other states, by re- 
storing and establishing the ancient institutions of the D6rians. With 
this purpose, he visited the island of Crete, which was at this time cele- 
brated for its excellent laws ; made himself acquainted with the systems 
that prevailed there, and, on his return, gave the Spartans the remark- 
able constitution, of which die following are the chief outlines : — 

a. Institutions op State. — The whole power of government was 
in the hands of the Ddrians, who, without engaging in any other oocapa- 
tion, devoted themselves entirely to the exercise of arms, ihe conduct of 
war, and the affiurs of the state. In the assemblies of the people, they 
elected the senators, or council of ancients, whose du^ it was to conduct 
the government and protect the laws ; and the five Ephori, who at first 
superintended the regulations of the city, but who afterwards obtained 
the greatest power of control over the public life and actions of those who 
were in office, and by this means gained such an authority for themselyes, 
that even kings were subject to their tribunal. The senate consisted of 
twenty-eight members, of at least sixty years of age ; the presidency of 
this assembly devolved upon the two kings of Sparta, who were chosen 
from the race of the HeracUdse, and whose office was consequently heredi- 
tary. At home, they possessed more honor than power ; but in war, they 
were always the leaders, and had an unlimited command. The funda- 
mental principle of the whole constitution was the equality of property. 
In furtherance of this, the whole lands of Lac<5nia were divided in such 
a way, that each of the 9,000 Spartan feunilies received an equal portion. 
These estates were indivisible, and descended to the eldest bom by the 
law of primogeniture. The 30,000 families of Perioo'ci were in a similar 
manner provided with lands o£ less extent, whilst the Helots were left 
uncared for, and were obliged, in their capacity of serfs, or day-laborers, 
to till the ground of the IXSrians, and to deliver a certain proportion of 
the productions of the soil, in com, wine, oil, and similar matters, to the 
Spartan magazines. 


h Mode of Life. — The rights of the IKSrian depended less updn 
his birth than upon his education ; this, therefore, was entirely under- 
taken bj the state. Weak and deformed children were cast into a gulf 
immediately upon their birth; the vigorous were removed from their 
parents at the age of six years, and educated in public The great ob^ 
ject of this education was to produce bodily hardihood; the gymnastic 
exercises of the palaestra were, for this reason, one of its most important 
branches. But the understanding was also cultivated, and the Spartan 
was not less celebrated for his crafl and shrewdness, than for the terse 
brevity of his speech, which was afterwards distinguished by the term 
*^ laconic" The feelings and imagination were alone neglected, and con- 
sequently, science and poetry were neither esteemed nor cultivated in 
Sparta. Doric art was merely distinguished by vast strength ; not, like 
the Ionic, by grace and beauty. The male part of the population were 
divided, according to their ages, into companies, who din^ together at 
public meals, (syssitia), fifteen usually sitting at one table. These meals 
were extremely temperate and simple, and were furnished from the sup- 
plies of the Helots. The so-called black broth and a vessel of wine were 
the chief features of the entertainment. The kings sat at the heads of 
thdr tables, and received a double portion. Luxury and effeminacy 
were by all means to be avoided ; for this reason, the houses were rude 
and devoid of convenience ; no instrument but the axe was permitted to 
be employed in their construction. Money was banished in ordinary 
intercourse, to the end that no one should possess the means of procuring 
unnecessary pleasures ; and that the Spartans should not learn and accus- 
tom themselves to these pleasures, they were not permitted to travel into 
foreign countries, nor were strangers allowed to make a long residence 
in Sparta. The chase, and the exercise of arms were the chief employ- 
ments of those who were grown up ; the cultivation of the ground was 
left to the Helots ; trade and business to the Perioe^ci. The whole life of 
the Spartan was a preparation for war. In the city, he lived as though 
he were in the camp, and the time of war was his time of joy and rejoic- 
ing. The Spartans marched into the field with purple mantles and long 
hair, and adorned themselves before battle as if for a festival. The 
strength of the army lay in the heavy-armed infantry (hopUtes), which 
consisted of numerous divisions, and which was, in consequence, enabled 
to execute without confusion many movements and evolutions. The 
Spartan never retreated from his ranks; he conquered or died in his 
place. Strict obedience, and subordination of the young to their elders, 
was the soul of the mihtaiy education and discipline in Sparta, which 
was the true temple of honor of the age. 

§ 44. After these kws had been confirmed by the oracle of Delphi, 
Lyeargus caused the Spartans to take an oath that they would never 
ato aoy thing contained in them, till he came back from the journey he 


was about to undertake. Upon this, he is said to have gone to Crete, 
and there to hare died. The consequences of the laws of Ljcuigns soon 
became apparent. Not onlj did the hardy Spartans overcome the kin* 
B. c. 748. dred race of the. Messenians in two lengthened wars, bat 
B. c. 724. thej soon established their power over the whole Pelopon* 
n^sus. The Messenians were reduced to pay tribute in the first of diese 
wars, after their citadel, Ithdme, had been destroyed, and their hero, 
Aridtod4mus, had slain himself on the grave of his daughter whom he 
had sacrificed. The tyranny of the Spartans in a short time 
provoked the Messenians to a second war. In this, they at 
first obtained some advantages, by the heroic deeds of the brave and 
cunning Aristdmenes ; but the Spartans, inflamed by the war-songs of ' 
the Athenian poet, Tyrtseus, finally proved the victors. A part of the 
Messenians quitted their country, and founded Messina in the island of 
Sicily : those who remained were led into slavery, and condemned to the 
miserable fate of the Helots. 


§ 45. Whilst the Spartans, a race of steady and inflexible character, 
held fast for centuries the laws of Lycurgus, the lively and fickle Athe- 
nians introduced among themselves every possible form of government. 
After the glorious death of Codrus, (§ 39) the Athenians 
declared that no one was worthy to be his successor, and 
abolished the monarchy. Some one of the nobles (eupatrides), chosen 
for life to the office of archon, received the supreme power. At first, the 
fiunily of Codrus had the preference in this election ; but as the govern- 
ment with time assumed more and more the form of an aristocratie 
republic, the office of archon was thrown open to the whole body of 
B. c. 762. nobles, and the period of its existence reduced to ten years. 
B. c. 682. For the purpose of admitting a greater number to this honor, 
they at length adopted the expedient of electing nine archons every year, 
who were to superintend the government, the aflairs of religion, military 
matters, legislation, and the administration of justice. The nobles now 
held the power in their own hands, and excluded the people (demos) 
from all share in the government, or in the administration of the laws. 
They alone gave judgment, because they only were acquainted with the 
unwritten and traditionary statutes ; in this way, arbitrary decisions, par- 
tiality, and injustice, were of no unfrequent occurrence. This induced 
the citizens, in the assemblies of the people, to insist upon the framing of 
written laws. The nobles for a long time refused to accede to the 
demands of the people; but when at length they found that further 
resistance was impossible, they determined upon a different method of 
Draco, Oppressing the commons. They commissioned one of their 

3. c. 624. QYm number, Draco, sumamed the Cruel, to draw up a code 


of laws. These proved so severe, that thej were said to be written in 
blood. Every offence was punished with death. Bj this means, the 
nobles hoped again to reduce the discontented people to their former state 
of dependence. Desperate struggles followed, and contention and party 
spirit rose to such a height, that the state was reduced to the verge of 
destruction. At this juncture, Solon, one of the seven wise men, and 
greatly esteemed both as a poet and a friend of the people, proved the 
savior of his country. He gave the state a new and republican form of 
government, in which the principal authority was vested in the assem- 
blies of the people. These assemblies made the laws, named the judges 
and officers of state, and elected the council of the four hundred ; that the 
nobility, however, might not be deprived of the whole of their power, he 
secured to them certain privileges: they alone could fill the office of 
archon, or sit in the high court of the Areopagus, which Solon had 
established to preserve the laws, the government, and public morals. 
This court consisted of the most respected citizens ; it superintended the 
education of youth, and kept an eye upon the lives of the burghers, to the 
end that morality and discipline might be preserved, and an honorable 
and industrious course of life be maintained ; and that luxury, riot, 
and extravagance in dress, might be banished. Solon, at the same time, 
relieved the necessities of the people by the so-called remission of bar- 
dens, by which the poorer citizens were freed from a portion of theur 
debts, and restored to the unfettered enjoyment of their mortgaged 
estates. After Solon had completed these measures, he caused the 
Athenians to swear that they would make no alterations in them for the 
space of ten years : he then set forth on his travels to Asia and Egypt, 
in the course of which he held the before-mentioned conversation (§ 27) 
with CroBsas at Sardis. 


§ 46. All the Grecian states had at first been governed by kings, who, 
as high priests, judges, and leaders of the army, exercised a patriarchal 
power. But the rich and distinguished class, who had hitherto stood by 
the side of the king as his councillors, gradually attained the upper hand, 
and seized the first favorable opportunity of ridding themselves of the 
monarch, and of establishing an aristocratic republic, in which they exer- 
dsed the supreme power. This institution became, in time, extremely 
oppressive to the people. But as the nobles were in the exdnsive pos- 
session of arms, and of the practice of war, it was no easy matter to 
deprive them of the government This took place for the first time, 
when an ambitious noble separated himself from his order, and placed 
himself at the head of the people. . But the rule of the aristocracy was 
not at once sncceeded by a democratic government ; on the contrary, the 
leaders of the people (demagogues) seized in most of the states upon the 


lapreme power. They were distinguished by the name of ** tyrants ; ** 
by which term, however, we are not always to understand a violent and 
arbitrary ruler, but merely one who unites in his own person all the 
functions of government, in a state that had previously been a republic. 
Many of these tyrants possessed great talents for their office, and ruled 
with splendid success. For the purpose of giving employment to the 
people to whom they were indebted for their rise, they erected magnifi- 
cent buildings ; their wealth gave them the means of attracting artists 
and poets, whilst their splendid courts contributed to the magnificence of 
the dties. But the government of the tyrants was not of long duration. 
The nobles neglected no means to effect their overthrow ; and in this 
they were supported by the Spartans, who were everywhere favorable 
to aristocratic institutions. Their sons, who had grown up in the en- 
joyment of power, frequently forgot the consideration they owed to 
the people, and hastened their own destruction by cruelty and des- 

Periander, § 47. The most celebrated of the tyrants were Periander 

B. 0. 600. of Corinth, Poiycrates of Samos, and Fisfstratus of Athens. 
The first two are well known by poetical legends. Periander's friend, 
the singer Arfon, once wished to return to Corinth by ship, from Lower 
Italy. The sailors, who were greedy after the treasures he had acquired 
in Tarentum, made attempts upon his life. When every hope of deliver- 
ance had vanished, AHon sang, and played some notes upon his harp, and 
then leaped into the waves. The dolphins, who had followed the ship, 
bore the singer to the shore. He hastened to Periander, at Corinth, who 
easily discovered and punished the offenders. Not less celebrated is the 
Polyontes, Story of the ring of Pol^crates. The rich and powerful 
B. a 660. ruler of Samos was successful in every thing he undertook. 
At one time, when the king of Egypt was paying him a visit, messenger 
after messenger came to announce some 'fortunate event. Psamm^tichus 
appeared thoughtful, and warned his friend of the instability of fortune 
and the envy of the gods, and advised him to inflict some vexation upon 
himself to appease the irritated divinities. Upon this, Poiycrates cast a 
costly and exquisitely wrought ring, upon which he placed a great value, 
from the roof of his house into the sea. But the gods despised the gifl. 
On the following day, some fishermen bix>ught a large fish to the palace, 
and, as the servants were preparing it for the table, they discovered the 
ring in its entrails. They presented it with joy to the tyrant ; but Psam- 
m^tichus saw in this the omen of approaching misfortune and took a 
melancholy leave. Shortly after, Poiycrates was taken prisoner by the 
Persians, and crucified. 

PbiftntiiB, The most celebrated of all the tyrants was Pisfstrstus, of 

s. a seo. Athens, who succeeded, even during the lifetime of Solon, in 
grasping the sole power. He contrived by dint of cunning, having first 


wonmded himself, and then giTing ont that his lifb had been attempted, to 
procure a bodj-gaard, and to obtain possession of the citadeL His ene* 
mies were indeed twice successful in banishing him from the dtj ; but he 
again returned, succeeded in establishing himself in the government, and 
bequeathed it at &is death to his two sons, Hfppias and Hippdrchus. 
Fislstratus, and, at fbrst, his son Hfppias, ruled with much 
glory. Agriculture, trade, and commerce receiyed a great 
impulse. The poems of Homer, that had hitherto onlj been delivered 
orally by the wandering singers (rhapsodists), were now reduced to 
writing, and by this means preserved to posterity. Artists of every kind 
Ibund in them liberal patrons. Athens was embellished with temples 
and public buildings, and the lyric poet, Andcreon, was a resident at 
Hfppias's court But when ffippdrchus, who was a man devoted to riot 
and the pleasures of the senses, had been kiUed at the panathenaic fes- 
tival, by two Athenians, Harm<5dius and Aristogfton, in revenge of some 
injury they had suffered from him, Hfppias gave free scope to his violent > 
^position. By his severity and cruelty, he alienated the affections of 
the popular party, and by this means prepared the way for his own 
expulsion. He took refuge with the Persian king, Darius, and en- 
couraged him in his design of making war upon the Athenians. 
Shortly after his departure, the democratic republic was established in 


§ 48. Periander of Corinth, and Solon of Athens, were numbered 
among the seven wise men ; of the remainder, Thales of Miletus, the 
founder of the Ionic school of philosophy, was the most renowned. Their 
principles and practical rules of life were embodied in short mottoes, as 
« Enow thyself," "Avoid excess," « Consider the end," " Be watchful for 
opportunities," and numerous others. 

One of the most distinguished men of this period, who did not however 
can himself a wise man (sophos), but only a lover of wisdom (phUosophos), 
was Pythdgoras of Samot, the founder of the sect of the Pythagoreans, 
which had many adherents in CrottSna and other towns of Lower Italy, 
and enjoyed great respect. The members of his sect led a life of tem- 
perance and severe morality, had their meals and exercises in coomion, 
and were devoted with the greatest veneration to their master. They 
practised themselves in mathematics, geometry, and music ; for Pythir 
goras is known as the inventor of^ the theorem, which is named after 
him, the Pythagorean. 


§ 49. A cheerful mode of lifo prevailed at the courts of the tyrants, 
where singers and poets wei^ welcome guests. The severe heroic poetiy 



was not suited to the pleasures and amusements that were there prin- 
cipallj sought after, and its place was in consequence supplied by a 
lighter and less prolix kind, which was distinguished by the term lyric, 
because it was intended to be sung to the lute (Ij^)* -^ ^7^^ poetry, 
therefore, ori^nally consisted in cheerful songs, which exhorted to the 
enjoyment of hfe on Account of the shortness of its duration, and were 
filled with the praises of love and wine, because they drove away care 
and trouble. In this style, An^reon of Teos, in Idnia, who passed his 
life at different courts, and died in his eighty-fifth year, 
was the most celebrated; and for this reason, these kind 
of songs are called Anacxeontic. 

If the shortness of life, and the transitory character of every thing 
earthly, gave occasion to Andcreon to exhort to the enjoyment of exist- 
ence, there were not wanting others to whom these considerations were a 
source of melancholy and sorrow, and who poured forth their complaints 
over the instability and uncertainty of human happiness. This style was 
called the ^ elegiac,'* and was usually composed in a measure consisting 
of hexameters and pentameters united (disticha). The best known 
elegiac poets are Mimn^rmus of C61ophon, and Sim^nides of Ceos. Those 
lyrical compositions that are distinguished by a more lofty feeling, and in 
which the poet sings with enthusiasm or passion of some sublime object, 
are called ^ odes." Sappho, of Lesbos, a poetess celebrated 
for her amatory songs, and her voluntary death, distinguished 
herself in this style of composition. But the Theban, Pindar, was the 
first who gave to the ode its full perfection. At a later period, the term 
" lyric " was applied to all the shorter specimens of poetry, even though 
they were not fitted to be sung to music. Thus satire, the object of which 
is to punish the vices and failings of men by ridicule, and by this means 
to bring about their instruction and improvement, is called "lyric 

B. c. 700. Archflochos, of Faros, the discoverer of iambics, is named 

B. 0. 600. as the first satiric poet ; at whose side, Alc»'us of Mityl^ne, 
the freedom-inspired opponent of the tyrants, occupies no unworthy 
place. In like manner, the short stories where animals are introduced 
acting and speaking (fables), and the object of which is tlie inculcation 
of some useful maxim or rule of life, are distinguished by the same term. 
.£sop, a Phxygian slave, whose history is involved in obscurity, and dis- 
figured by many fabulous stories, acquired a great renown in this sort of 




§ 50. The Greek colonial cities, on the coasts of Asia Minor, had been 
brought bj Cjrus under the Persian dominioni Accustomed to freedom, 
they bore this foreign yoke with the greatest reluctance ; but were unable 
to free themselves from it, because the principal Greeks, who were ap- 
pointed by the Persians to the office of prince, or tyrant, of the different 
towns, and who were consequently devoted to the court of Susa, knew 
well how to keep their countrymen in subjection. One of the most 
powerful of these was Histise^us, prince of Miletus. He had accom- 
panied Darfus in his expedition against the Scythians, (§ 30), and had 
received, together with some other Greeks, the charge of guarding the 
bridges that had been thrown over the Danube. When the news of the 
disasters of the Persians became known, Miltiades, the Athenian, advised 
that these bridges should be destroyed, and the king and his whole army 
given up to destruction. But Histiue'us opposed this project, and was 
afterwards rewarded by being invited to the Persian capital, and passing 
his life there in splendor and luxury. But no pleasures could extinguish 
his longing after his native country ; and when he found that he was so 
much mistrusted as not to be permitted to depart, he secretly instigated 
his relative, Arist^goras of Miletus, to stir up the discontented Greeks to 
rebellion, hoping by this means to gain an opportunity of returning. In a 
short time, Miletus and the other Greek towns were in arms. Sparta, 
and the other states of the mother country, were applied to for assistance ; 
but Athens only, who was afraid that Darius might again restore Hfppias, 
who was residing at his court, and the small town of Er^tria, in Eubos'a, 
sent a few ships. At first, the insurrection appeared successful. The 
Greeks took and burnt Sardis, the chief city of Asia Minor, upon which 
the revolt spread over the whole of Ionia. But fortune soon changed. ^ 
Divisions among themselves, and the superior force of the enemy, occa- 
sioned the loss of a maritime engagement, and the capture and destruction 
of Miletus. Many of the Milesians were led into slavery ; 
Aristdgoras fled to the Thracians, where he met with his 
death; Histis'us was taken prisoner and crucified. Ionia again fell 
under the dominion of the Persians, and Darius vowed a bloody ven* 
geanoe against the Athenians and Er^trians, for the assistance they had 
afibrded the rebels. 

I 51. Mard6nius, the son-in-law of Darius, sailed with a fleet and army 
along the coast of Thrace, towards Greece, whilst the Persian heralds 
demanded earth and water, the symbols of submission from the whole of 


the Greek cities.. But the fleet was driyen against the promontory of 
Athos by a storm, and the Thradans destroyed a part of the land force, 
so that Marddnius was compelled to lead back the remains of his armj 
into Asia, without effecting his purpose. It fared no better with the 
heralds, ^gina, and the greater number of the islands indeed, presented 
the earth and water ; but when they made the same demands at Athens 
and Sparta, they were put to death by the inhabitants, in defiance of all 
the laws of nations. Darfus, enraged at this insult, despatched a second 
fleet, under the command of Dates and Artaph^mes. They sailed throu^ 
the Archipelago, and reduced the islands of the Cydades to submission, 
and afterwards landed at Eubo^a. Er^tria, after a gallant resistance, fell 
by treachery into the hands of the enemy, who razed the city to the 
ground, and sent away the inhabitants into Asia. The Persians marched 
through the island, burning and destroying; and at length, under the 
command of Hippias, landed on the coast of Attica, and encamped on the 
plain of Marathon. The Athenians sent in haste to the Spartans for 
assistance ; but these not appearing at the proper time, in consequence of 
an ancient law of their religion, which forbade them to march to battle 
before a full moon, the Athenians, under the command of ten leaders, 
advanced upon the enemy. The most esteemed among these leaders ^ 
Miltiades, who had formerly served in the Persian army, and 
thoroughly acquainted with its qualities and tactics. By hu direction, 
10,000 Athenians, and 1,000 Plats^ans, attacked the army of Persians, 
of ten times their number, in a place unfavorable for cavalry, and gave 
them a complete overthrow in the battle of Mirathon. The 

B. O 490 

victors gained a rich booty, and placed the fetters they dis- 
covered, and which were intended for themselves, on the bodies of their 
enemies. Great was the renown acquired by the Athenians, who here 
for the first time proved that they were worthy of the democratic free* 
dom they had lately introduced among themselves ; and centuries later, 
patriotic orators would excite the enthusiasm of the people, by calling 
to their remembrance the victory of Miu*athon. Hfppias was one of the 

§ 52. Miltiades, the savior of Greece, did not long enjoy his honors. 
H^ persuaded the Athenians to equip a fleet for the purpose of subduing 
the islands of the' iElig^an Sea, which had submitted to the Persians. 
But when the attempt upon the island of Paros miscarried, the people 
condemned him to pay die cost of the expedition, and to be cast into 
prison till the debt should be discharged. The sentence was carried into 
execution, and Miltiades died in prison of his wounds. Cimon, his son, 
paid the debt, and conferred an honorable burial upon his father. 

At that time, there lived in Athens two men of remarkable diaracter, 
Aristides, sumamed the Just, and Themfstodes. Both sought to render 
their country illustrious, but by different methods. Aristides would 


make use of no means that were not strictly just and honorable, nor con- 
sent to any measore that excited the scruples of his conscience. Themis- 
tocles was less scrupulous: he would regard nothing but the greatness 
and advantage of iJs native city, and not unfrequently had recourse to 
artifice and deceit Shrewder and more talented than his rival, Themis- 
tocles soon won a greater share of the popular esteem ; and to free him- 
self from a hinderance to his plans, he urged the banishment of the mora 
honest Aristides by ostracism.* 

By this means, Themistocles became the sole leader of the Atheniaa 
republic, and he exerted the whole of his influence to obtain an increase 
of the fleet ; for it was only by this means that the Athenians could 
attain a superiority to the other states. A declaration of the Delphic 
orade, that the safety of Athens depended upon its ^ wooden walls/' was 
of great service to him in the execution of this project. 

§ 53. Darfus died in the midst of vast preparations for a fresh inva- 
sion of Greece. But his successor, Xerxes, a man puffed up with pride 
and arrogance, pursued his father's designs of vengeance, and carried on 
his pieparations on such a scale, that he collected an army of a millioa 
and a half of men, and a fleet of more than 12,000 laige vessels. But 
this immejise crowd of people of all nations and tcmgues, with habits and 
weapons of the most diversified character, and accustomed each to its 
own method of waifue, was rather a hinderance than an assistance to 
the enterprise. When Xerxes had completed his preparations, and with 
wonderful good fortune had quelled a revolt that broke out in Egypt, (a 
drcumstance that contributed not a little to swell his confidence), he 
ordered his troops, with an enormous crowd of sutlers, beasts of burden, 
wagons, and dogs of chase, to defile for seven days and nights across the 
Hellespont, on two bridges of boats, and then to march through Thrace 
and Macedonia towards Thessaly, whilst his fieet coasted along the shore 
to supply the army with whatever it needed. To prevent his ships being 
wrecked oo the promontory of Athos, as in the first expedition, Xerxes 
separated the mountain from the mainland, by cutting a canal. Thessaly 
submitted without a blow. B€B<5tia, and a few of the smaller states, 
pofiillanimously yielded earth and water; and the threatening foe still 
marched on. At this juncture, Greece showed what union, courage, 
and patriotism are capable of effecting. The greater number of the 
states united in a confederacy, and placed themselves under the guid- 
ance of Sparta. 

*0f1nunnnwM an Knwagpmeat by which any dtlfea who wai to superior to his fe^ 
bwt in power, inflaence, authority, or other q[iialitieB, as to endanger the dyio equality, 
or the democntlo oooftitation of the state, might be banished for a tenn (nsoally ten) 
tf jean. 

The temi was derived ficom the Greek word for the shell (eetraeon) on which thsi 
tf the accused citizen was written.— TVoni. 


It was in July, just at the time of the celebration of the Olympic 
games, that Xerxes arrived at the narrow pass of Ther> 
m<5p7l», which Le^nidas had occnpied with three hundred 
Spartans and a few thousands of the allies. It was in yain that the Per- 
sian king attempted for several days to force a passage ; thousands of his 
troops fell beneath the swords of the brave Greeks ; even the 10,000 Im- 
mortals, as they were called, the flower of the Persian army, were com- 
pelled to yield to the Spartan valor. At length, a traitorous Greek 
conducted a part of the Persians by a footpath over the summit of the 
mountain (Eta, who attacked the rear of the Greeks. Upon recdving 
intelligence of this, Lednidas dismissed the troops of the allies. He 
himself, with his 800 Spartans, and about 700 of the citizens of Thespia, 
who united themselves to him, devoted themselves to an heroic death for 
their country. Surrounded on all sides, they fought like lions, tiU, over- 
powered by numbers, and wearied with slaughter and contest, they sank 
to the earth. Le<$nidas and his heroic band lived long in song, and a monu- 
ment pointed out to the traveller the spot where they fell. The Persians 
now subjected BoMStia without opposition, pursued their devastating 
course into Attica, and reduced Athens to ashes. The old warriors who 
defended the city were slaughtered: The citizens who were fit to bear 
arms were serving in the fleet The women and children, together with 
their effects, had been sent, by the advice of Themistodes, to iBgfna, 
S&lamis, and Trazos'ne. 

§ 54. Themistodes now became the savior of Greece. The united 
fleet of the Greeks had sailed from the promontory of Artemfsium, where 
it had been for some days successfully engaged, into the Sardnic golf, 
whither it was followed by the Persians. It was here that Themfstodes, 
by his prudence, rendered abortive the ruinous design of the Spartan 
admiral, Eurybi&des, of separating himself with the Peloponnesian fleet 
and dedding the battle in the Ck>rinthian Gulf, by craftily provoking the 
Persian king to a sudden attack in the narrow channel, where the enemy's 
fleet was embarrassed by its own magnitude. Thus originated the sea- 
fight of Sdlamis, in which the Greeks obtained a complete 
victory. Xerxes gazed in despair from a neighboring emi- 
nence on the destruction of his fleet, and then commenced a hasty retreat, 
with a portion of his army, through Thessaly, M^k^on, and Thrace, 
during which he lost some thousands of his soldiers from cold, hunger, 
and fatigue. 

I 55. Xerxes on his retreat left 800,000 of his best troops behind him 
in Thessaly. These marched again into Attica, in the following spring, 
and compdled the Athenians, who had returned home, once more to dis- 
perse themselves. But the Greeks, under the conduct of the Spartan 
Pansinias, lieutenant of the Athenian general, Aristfdes, obtained so 
signal a victory in the great battle of Plats'a, over a force of three times 


their nnmber, that only 40,000 of the Penians sared themselTes across 
the Hellespont The remainder, with their leader, were slain, either in 
battle, in the storming of their camp, or in the flight The booty was 
enormous. On the same day, the Persians suffered a dedsire defeat at 
the promontory ci M^dile, in Asia Minor, from the Greeks on board the 
fleet In this case, also, a Spartan was the leader ; bnt it was the Athe- 
nians and Milesians who bore off the prise of valor. The fleet and camp 
of the enemy were taken and destroyed. The slaughter among the 
broken and flying crowd was frightful. Valor triumphed orer strength, 
and the truth, that patriotism and love of freedom can bear away the 
victory from superior numbers, received a splendid confirmation in the 
^orious triumph of the Greeks over the Persians. Ten years afier- 
wards, the double victory of Cimon on the river Eur/mSdon, 
over the fleet and army of the Persians, brought the war to 
a temporary conclusion. The peace of Cimon freed the whole of the 
Greek dties from the Persian yoke. 


i 56. After the battle of Plat»'a, the war was principally carried on 
at sea. As the Spartans possessed but few ships, the command had 
gradually fallen into the hands of* the Athenians, who, moreover, during 
the whole war, had displayed the greatest courage and magnanimity. 
The aupremaqr of the Athenians was also forwarded by the treachery 
of the Spartan general Pausinias. Paus^tas, at the taking of Byzan- 
tium, had made prisoners of seme illustrious Persians. He sent these 
without any ransom to Xerxes, with the message, that ^ He would assist 
him in subduing the Greeks, if Xerxes would give him his daughter in 
marriage, and make him governor of Peloponn^us.** When the Persian 
king acceded to these terms, the vain and ambitious man became so inso- 
lent, as entirely to neglect the Spartan laws and manner of living ; he 
dothed himself in costly garments, maintained a luxurious table, and was 
waited on and accompanied by a band of Persian guards. At the same 
time, he rendered the Laced8Bm<5nian rule universally odious by his im- 
perious behavior. The Spartans, when made acquainted with this con- 
duct, recalled their faithless general; but their authority in maritime 
affairs was already so much weakened, that they voluntarily renounced 
the command. Pausinias, even in Sparta, kept up a private correspond- 
ence with the king of Persia. But this treachery being exposed by 
means of a slave, he perished of hunger in a temple in which he had 
taken refuge. 

I 57. Whilst Pausdnias was thus weakening the power of his native 
city, the three Athenian generals, by their various capadties and talents, 
were instrumental in raising that of their own. Themistodes, by dint 
of wiadom and eunning^ succeeded in getting Athens sunonnded by a 

44 XHB ijrcnNT wobu). 

ftitmg wall, and in founding die adminble baiiwr of Pirn'os, wbieli 
CSmoa and TMdts afterwards ooonected with Athens, by means of a 
long doable walL Bj thu undertaking, Thendstodes incurred the impla- 
cable hate of the Spartans, who were veiy ayerse to the fortification of 
Athens, and who, for this reason, attempted at a later period to implicate 
him in the treachery of Pans^nias. This happened at a time when his 
enemies in Athens had suooeeded in getting the ambitious man 
** ^ ^ * banished by ostracism, for a term of ten years. Persecuted 
in this way, the great general fied, in the midst of innumerable dangers, 
to Asia, where he was honorably receiyed by the Persian king, and had 
the revenues of three dties of Asia Minor allotted to him for his support. 
But when the king wanted his assistance in the subjection of Greece, 
he is said to haye swallowed poison rather than prove a traitor to his 

As Themistocles by prudence, so Arist^des by justice, aided the inte- 
rests of his native city. The perfect confidence that was placed in his 
character and opinions, induced the islands and maritime cities to enter 
into alliance with the Athenians, and to pledge themselves to a supply 
of ships and money for the continuation of the war. The treasury of 
the confederacy, which was established in Delos for this purpose, was 
intrusted to the management of Aristides, and the command of the united 
fieet was also ^ven to an Athenian. The su^^ly of ships soon became 
burdensome to the smaller states, and they were glad to compromise for 
their delivery, by the payment of an additional sum of money. This 
gave the Athenians the opportunity they so much wished for, of increaa- 
ing their fieet, of subjecting the smaller maritime states, and treating 
them as tributary vassals. Aristfdes died so poor, that the state was 
obliged to defray the expenses of his burial, and to piovide for the 
establishing of his childreai 

§ 58. Cimon, the son of Miltfades, and F^rides, were not less instru- 
mental in the aggrandizement of Athens. The first rendered many 
services to his country by successful expeditions at sea, and gained 
the people by his aflability and generosity. He enlaiged the tern* 
tory of Athens, and empbyed his vast wealth in the embellishment 
of the atjy where he established the beautiful gardens called the 

During his time, Sparta was visited by a fearful earthquake. The 
greater part of the principal dty was destroyed, and, to increase the 
calamity, the Helots and Mess^nlkns sdzed their arms for 
the purpose of regaining their freedom. In their distress^ 
the Spavtans turned to Athens for asdstanoe, and by the influence of 
CSmon, an amy was despatched to their aid. But the suspidoos Spar* 
tMM sent it back again, a proceeding whidi so ofTended the Athenians^ 
thai they banished Cimon by the ostracismi and when the Hessinians^ 


ifWr a contest of ten years, were compelled to sarrender tbeir citadel, 
Ithdme, they gave up the seaport town, Naupaotus, to them for a rasir 
dence. Cimon died, much respected, in Cyprus, b. o« 449. 

Fences, a soldier and statesman, distinguished by great talents, colti- 
Tation, and eloqaenoe, exercised during his life such an influence on the 
state and people of Athens, that the years of his rule were distinguished 
as ^ the age oi Pericles.'' This period includes the time when Athens 
had attained its highest point of refinement at home, and possessed the 
greatest power abroad. Pericles adorned Athens by the erection of tem- 
ples and magnificent buildings ; he encouraged the arts and sciences, he 
invited men of genius, and in particular the great artist, Phidias, to his 
hospitable court He gave to every one the means and opportunity of 
educating and distinguishing himself, and produced by these means a 
taste for art, literature, and poetry, even among the lowest classes of the 
people. Though descended from a rich and illustrious family, he was 
nevertheless a man of the people, and devoted to democratic principles. 
He passed a law, by which every Athenian citizen who sat in juc^ment, 
or was present at an assembly of the people, or served in the fleet or 
army, was entitled to a stipend. He distributed large alms to the neces- 
sitous, he instituted magnificent festivals, plays, and processions, for the 
gratification of the sight-loving people. By his exertions, the Athenian 
state attained such an exalted state of cultivation, that the citizens were 
almost all equally well fitted to fill offices or dischai^ business ; so that 
the regulation, that the greater part of the public offices should be filled 
by lot, was attended with less inconvenience at Athens, than such arrange- 
ment would have produced at any other place. At the same time, Athens, 
by means of Pericles, attained the greatest renown abroad. Her ships 
mled over the -Sgean sea, and compelled the islanders to pay tribute, 
by which means enormous sums of money flowed into her treasury. The 
statue of Minerva was covered with a robe of solid gold ; the Athenian 
armies engaged in successful conflicts with the Thebans and 
Spartans, till the unfortunate battle of Chsron^a put an end 
to thebr military glory. After this engagement, in which the Athenians 
were either killed or taken prisoners, Pericles was obliged to save Athens 
from the destruction by which it was threatened, by concluding the peace, 
named after him ^the peace of Pericles." 


§ 59. The peace of Pericles was of short duration. The prosperity 
of the Athenians filled the Spartans with envy and malevolence ; ai^ 
the insoleDce and severity with which they trea^ their subjected allies, 
more partaoolarly the inhabitants of JEg^na, who had only submitted 
after a long stmgig^e, excited hatred and disgust In a short time, 
two armed and hostile powers stood opposed to each other: the Athenian 


oonfederstroBy wkkh indnded most of the islancls and maridme townsi 
and which was favored bj tin democratic par^ in all the states, and the 
chief strength of which laj in its fleet; and the Peloponn^siaa alliance, 
with Sparta at its head, to which the D<5ric and the gnatej part of the 
.ZBdlian states (B<e6tia and others) attached themselves, and whidi 
deposed its confidence on a gallant army. The Spartans declined for 
a long time to commence hostilities. But when the Corinthians com* 
plained that Athens had violated the peace hj assisting the island of 
Corcyra in its war against the mother country, Corinth, and had laid 
siege to the Corinthian colony, Potidse^a, in Mdcedon, the Peloponn^sian 
war, which, for a period of twenty-seven years, ravaged Greece in the 
most frightful manner, at length broke oat. 

§ 60. As soon as war was- declared, a Spartan army marched into 
Attica, and devastated the country. Upon this, Pericles summoned the 
inhabitants of the country into the tOwn, fitted out a fleet, and, landing 
on the coast of Peloponnesus, commenced reprisals. These were con- 
tinned for some time, till at length a plague broke out in 
Athens, in consequence of the overcrowded state of the city, 
swept away many thousands of the inhabitants, and flnally carried Peri- 
cles himself to the grave, after he had witnessed the death of his three 
sons. The death of this great man was a heavy loss to Athens: for now 
a crowd of selfish demagogues, and among them, Geon, a tanner, obtained 
great influence, seduced the people by flattery, and strove to prolong the 
war. Weakened by their own divisions, the Athenians were compelled 
to look on, whilst the Platse'ans, their most faithful allies, were subdued, 
after an heroic struggle, by the Laced(em6nians and BoecStians : Plate'a 
itself was levelled with the earth, the citizens who were capable ci 
bearing arms were put to the sword, and their wives and chfldren led 
into slavery. 

The Athenian general, Demdsthenes, shortly after suc- 
ceeded in gaining possession of the Messenian town of Pylos, 
whence he harassed the Spartan territories with devastating inroads. 
It was in vain that the Spartans endeavored to drive him from his posi 
tion ; their attacks were repulsed, and more than four hundred heavy- 
armed Spartan troops were shut up in the barren island of Sphact^ris, 
where they were reduced to great extremities. They only obtained the 
means of subsistence by the desperate landing effected by some Helots, to 
whom the Spartans had promised freedom if they were successful in the 
attempt At last, to escape starvation, they were oompeUed to surrender 
themselves to Cleon, who had arrived with reinforcements. This success 
inflilbied the insolence of the democratic leader. He fancied himself a hero, 
and obtained the command of an army that was intended to subdue the 
Spartan general, Brdsldas, in Thrace. But Cleon suffered a defeat before 
the city of Amphfpolis, and was afterwards killed in the flight ; whereupon 


the opposite party gained the upper hand in Athens, and 
conduded the peace of Nicias. In the mean time, a despe- 
rate straggle was going on between the aristocratic and democratic fac- 
tions, in the greater number of the Greek cities ; but nowhere was the 
strife more sanguinary than in the island of Corcyra, where the most 
iUustrious families were completely destroyed. By the help of the Athe- 
nians, the democrats got their adversaries in their power, shut them up 
in a building, and killed them by casting down stones upon their heads. 
Where the Spartans gained the upper hand, the aristocratic party became 
predominant, and punished their enemies by death and banishment ; if 
the Athenians prevailed, the democrats assumed the direction of affairs, 
and treated their opponents with similar severity. 

i 61. The conclusion of peace separated the Spartans and Corinthians. 
The latter, in consequence, united themselves with Argos, Elis, and other 
cities of ArdLdia, for the purpose of depriving the Spartans of their supe- 
riority (hegemony) in Pdoponn^sus. In this attempt, they received the 
assistance of Aldbiades, who was then in his twentieth year, and sister's 
son to Pericles, and who here displayed for the first time his address and 
powers of persuasion. Alcibfades was endowed with the greatest advan- 
tages both of mind and person. He was rich, handsome, accomplished, 
and a most admirable orator ; so that he was exactly fitted to supply the 
place of P^rides, had he only possessed more stabDity and prudence. 
The war, which the Spartans now had to sustain with the Corinthians 
and allies, would have been fatal to their authority, had not fortune 
declared for the LacedaemcSnian arms in the battle of Man- 
'-'-*'*• tLMB'a. 
§ 62. Not long afterwards, the Athenians despatched the finest fleet 
and the most admirable army that had ever sailed from the 
Pins^us, to Sicily, under the command of Aldbfades, Nicias, 
and Ldmachus, fbr the purpose of attacking the D6rian dty, Syracuse. 
This undertaking fxuled. Aldbfades, during his absence, was accused by 
his enemies of many crimes against religion and the government, and 
was ih consequence hastily recalled by the Athenian magistrates. Thirst- 
ing for vengeance, he fled to Sparta, and endeavored to stir up that state 
to make war upon Athens. The brave L^achus fell in the siege of 
Syracuse ; the Athenian fleet was destroyed in the harbor ; and when 
Nicias attempted to escape by land with the remains of the army to a 
friendly city, he was attacked during a night march, and, after a bloody 
fight, taken prisoner with the whole of his troops. Those who did not 
fall in the engagement, were employed as slaves in the stone-quarries. 
The valiant generals, Nicias and Demdsthenes, died in the market-place 
by the hands of the executioner. 

{ 63. Dark reports conveyed to Athens the first news of this dreadful 
bk>w; when the iri^tful intelligence was confirmed, there was scarcdy 


a fiunily that bad not occasion to mouni. The Athenian alliea fill oiF 
and joined the Laced»ni6nian8 ; the Spartans renewed the war by sea 
and land, and were assisted by the Persian governor of Asia Minor. 
Within the city, the aristocratic party were att^npting to overturn die 
constitution, and entered secretly into a traitorous alliance with the Spai^ 
tans. Athens nevertheless defended herself for eight years against the 
superior force of the enemy, and was victor in two important engage- 
ments at sea. But no exertions could restore the crippled state to its 
former greatness. It was in vain that the Athenians recalled Aldbiad^ 
gave him the command of the fleet and army, and cast the column, on 
which his crimes were inscribed, into the sea; — even he could not bring 
back its ancient glories to the Athenian navy. A few months after he 
had entered Athens amidst the exulting shouts of the populace, he was 
again deprived of his command, because his lieutenant in his absence had 
lost the sea-fight of Ephesus. 

§ 64. About this time, the Spartans gained an excellent leader in the 
artful and adventurous Lysander, who obtained the favor of the new 
governor of Asia Minor, Cyrus the younger, for the purpose of increasing 
the Lacedssmdnian fleet by the assistance of the Persians. This Lysander 
took advantage of the carelessness of the Athenian commanders, who had 
suflered their men to go on shore, by making an unexpected attadk upon 
their ships at the Goat's Biver (jSE!gos*p6tamos), on the 
Hellespont, and capturing the whole of them, except nine. 
The power of Athens was now vanished. After Lysander had reduced 
to submission the islands and towns that were firiendlv to the 
Athenians, he blockaded Athens itself by land and sea, and 
the overcrowded city was soon reduced by hunger to surrender. The 
long walls and fortifications were pulled down to the sound of flutes ; the 
ships, with the exception of twelve, delivered to the Spartans, and all 
fugitives and outlaws recalled. Lysander then annulled the democratic 
constitution, and placed the government in the hands of thirty illustrious 
Athenians, who were the allies of Sparta. These aristocrats, distin- 
guished by the name of the Thirty Tyrants, with the clever but violent 
Critias at their head, breathed nothing but death and banishment against 
the democratic party. But this reign of terror was but of short duration. 
Thrasybdlus, a patriotic man, collected around him the fugitives and those 
who had been banished, and marched upon Athens. Critias was slain in 
battle ; the rest fell by treachery into the hands of the conqueror, who put 
them to death, reestablished the democratic constitution, and, by the as- 
surance that the past should be forgotten and forgiven, succeeded in 
again restoring tranquillity and order. * 


§ 66. During the Pebponn^ian war, the morab of the Athenians hai 


deteriorated, and honestj and civil yirtoe came to be less esteemed lihan 
wit and intelligence. This state of things was in a great degree brought 
about by the sophists, — false teachers, who paraded a facdtious kind of 
wisdom founded upon fallacies and sophisms, and who presamed, by ora- 
torical arts and tricks of disputation, to put lies in the place of truth, and 
to convert truth into error. They enticed to themselves wealthy young 
men, and for great rewards instructed them m these arts, by which means 
domestic and public life were poisoned in their very sources. At this 
juncture arose S<5crates, an Athenian citizen, who unmasked these so- 
phbtical mountebanks, and awakened the sentinfents of religion, justice, 
and virtue in the bosoms of his pupils. Sdcrates taught his practical 
philosophy, the end of which was ^ Enow thyself," not in elaborate dis- 
courses from the lecturer's chair, but by questions and answers in the 
pnblic streets, under the open sky, or in the workshops of mechanics. 
Hie sophists were reduced to silence by his clear intellect, his simple 
and upright life, and hb moral worth ; whilst the richest and most 
talented young men united themselves to him. This exasperated the 
vain and greedy sophists, and they accused him of seducing the youth, 
and introducing false gods. S<5crates, in a simple defence, disproved 
before the judges the truth of this accusation. But instead, as was 
then the custom, of imploring his acquittal with prayers and lamenta* 
tions, he concluded his discourse by asserting that he was entitled to be 
received into the number of those illustrious men, who, on account 
of their services to the commonwealth, were maintained at the public 
expense. This offended the judges, and S6crates was condemned to 
death by a small majority. It was in vain that his friends, particularly 
the rich citizen Crito, persuaded him to fly ; he rejected their counsels, 
and in the midst of elevating discourses on the immortal nature of the 
aool, (Plato's Phsedo), he drank the cup of poison, and died with the 
dieerfulness and composure of mind of a philosopher. He has left 
nothing in writing : but his illustrious disciple, Plato, has placed his own 
philosophy in the mouth of Sdcrates. This Plato was so distinguished 
as a writer and thinker that he was named the ^ Divine," as well on 
account of his splendid and exalted ideas and poetical images, as of the 
perfect art of representation which is displayed by his works, written in 
the form of dialogues. Next to him, X^nophon the Athenian, at once a 
soldier and a writer, was the most distinguished of the disciples of So- 
crates. He has made the world acquainted with the life and doctrines 
of his master, in several philosophical pieces, entitled <' Memorabflia of 


S 66. X^nophon's most admirable historical work is the ^ AniHi&si^'' 
ot the description of the campaign of the younger Cyrus in Persia, and 


of the retreat of the Greek troops nnder the oommand of Xidiu^hoa him- 
self. Afler its contest with Greece, the PerBian empire had grown gr»- 
dually weaker. The gOTeniors ruled the provinces in an arbitrary manner, 
and excited insurrections by their oppression. The court was swayed 
by selfish and effeminate men and intriguing women, who practised the 
most irigbtfiil crimes, gave themselves up to every lust and excess, and 
perplexed the affairs of the kingdom by their contests for the crown. It 
was under these circumstances, that the younger Cynis, governor of Asia 
Minor, entertained the project of depriving his elder broUier, Artaxerxes, 
of the crown. He assembled a considerable army of mercenaries, the 
fiower of which was composed of Spartan and other Greek troops, and 
marched with them into Persia. A battle was fou^t in the plain of 
Cun4xa, a few mUes from Babylon, in which the Greeks indeed proved 
, victorious, but Cyrus fell by the hand of his brother. The Greeks were 
summoned to surrender, and when they refused, the Persians mvited 
Qedrchus and the other captains to an interview, in which they were 
treacherously murdered. The Athenian, X^nophon, then placed himself 
at the head of the helpless host, and led them, under the most incredible 
hardships, through Armenia to the Black Sea, and thence to Byzantium. 
Without any knowledge of the land or of the language, without guides on 
whom they could depend, they were compelled to climb pathless mount- 
ains, to wade through rivers, to march through inhospitable and snow- 
covered deserts, pursued by the Persians, and attacked by the inhabitants. 
When they caught the first glimpse of the Black Sea from an eminence, 
they fell upon their knees and saluted it with a shout of joy, as the ter- 
mination of their miseries. 


§ 67. Sparta, by the Peloponn^sian war, had become the first power 
in Greece. She abusied her authority, however, by tyrannizing over the 
other states, and by this means brought upon herself the hatred of her 
allies, in the same way that Athens had formerly done. Her inhabitants 
had long degenerated from the simplicity and severity of manners en- 
joined by Lycurgus. Foreign wars had brought riches, these produced 
avarice and love of pleasure, and from these again proceeded a host of 
vices. Kings and generals suffered themselves to be bought by sums of 
money, and disgraced themselves by corruption. A few families acquired 
enormous wealth and possessions, and plunged into luxury and intemper- 
ance, whilst the poorer classes starved. Even the powerful king, Agesi- 
lius, a strenuous advocate for the old Spartan virtue and simplicity, was 
unable to restrain these vices. 

The other states had also long equally degenerated from the virtues and 
patriotism of an earlier period. Their citizens disaccnsttnned themselves 
from the use of arms, and relinquished the practice of war to hired mer- 


cenaries ; and when king Agesildus declared war agiunst the cmmbling 
empire of Persia, and penetrated with hifl yictorious banners into Asia 
Minor, the Athenians, Corinthians, B<»6tians, and some others, were so 
forgetfbl of their honor and national feelings, that thej suffered them* 
selves to be persuaded bj the Persian monarch to take the field against 
Sparta ; so that Agesilius was compelled to retreat, and to turn his arms, 
in the so-qdled Corinthian war, against the Greeks themselves. Dis- 
union, enervation, and jealousy at length produced such an indifference 
to national honor, that the Greek states rivalled each other to secure the 
favor of Persia, and consented to the shameful peace of An- 
tdlcidas, bj which the west coast of Asia Minor was given 
up to the Persians, and in consequence lost forever to liberty and 

§ 68. The peace of Antdlcidas contained the farther condition, that all 
the Grecian states should be free. The Spartans, who were appointed 
the guardians and executors of the treaty, took this opportunity to dis- 
solve all aUiances between the states, and to increase their own power. 
But their arrogance was soon punished. The Greek town Oiynthus, in 
Macedonia, had united several neighboring cities in a confederation, over 
which, as the principal city, it exercised authority. The Spartans ob- 
jected to this, as contrary to the conditions of the peace of Antdlcidas, 
and on the Oiynthians refusing to dissolve the confederacy, marched an 
army into the countiy, besieged their town, and compelled them to sub- 
mission. During the march through Boedtia, the Spartan general allowed 
himself to be persuaded by the aristocratic party in Thebes to invest the 
town and overturn the democratic constitution. The undertaking was 
successfuL The chiefs of the popular party were either executed, ba- 
nished, or imprisoned ; the aristocrats seized upon the government, and, 
confident of the support of the Spartans, ruled with insolence and vio- 

§ 69. But the hour of retribution was approaching. The banished 
democrats united themselves in Athens, whence they commenced a cor- 
respondence with their friends in Thebes. At their instigation, they in 
a short time returned in secret, in the disguise of clowns, assembled 
themselves in the house of one of the party, and, issuing forth at mid- 
night, fell upon the aristocrats who were collected together at a luxurious 
repast After these had been despatched, they summoned the citizens to 
liberty, reestablished the democratical government, and forced the Spar- 
tan garrison to retreat from the citadel. This occasioned a war between 
the Thebans and Lacedaemonians. The commonwealth of Thebes was 
at that time conducted by two men, who joined patriotism and virtue to 
cooxage and military talents, and who were united together by the bonds 
of friendship^ — Epamin6ndas and PelOpidas. They united their efforts 
in the attempt to elevate their country. Epamindndas introduced a new 


STBtem of tactics, ^ the oblique order of battle," and Peldpidas was the 
originator of the sacred band, which, composed of a number of youths 
united together by friendship, and inspired bj a love of honor and free* 
dom, offered a successful resistance to the Spartans. At first, the Athe- 
nians sided with the Thebans, and by means of their generals, Iphicratea, 
Chdbrias, and TinnStheus, did much mischief to the Lacedaemonians, 
both by sea and land. But when Thebes subjected the lesser cities of 
B<»6tia to its authority, and destroyed Plataa'a, a town that was on 
fieiendly terms with Athens, the old jealousy again awoke, Athens con- 
cluded a peace with i^parta, and when the Thebans refused to accede to 
its conditions, the Lacedaemdnian troops again marched into 
their territory, but suffered so terrible a defeat from Epami- 
ndndas and Pel<5pidas, in the battle of Leuctra, that Sparta never re- 
covered from its effects. For the first time, the Laoedssmdnian troops 
led from the field of battle, so that the old Spartan law, which declared 
fugitives to be infamous, could not be put in force. 

§ 70. Epamindndas shortly after marched into Peloponn^us, and ap- 
proached Uie unwalled capital of Laodnia, that for five centuries had 
never seen an enemy in its neighborhood. But the preparations for de- 
fence made by the old king, Agesildus, and the determined attitude 
assumed by the Spartans, whose wives and children prepared to aid in 
the struggle, preserved it from attack. B.ut Epamindndas expiated an 
old act of injustice. He called the Mess^nians to liberty, and restored to 
the exiles who returned from abroad the land of their fathers, with the 
newly-built town of Mess^ne. Some years later, Epamin<Snda3 again 
appeared in Peloponnesus. The Spartans and their allies, under the 
command of Agesildus, presented themselves, and fought 
with him the battle of Mantinss^a. In this battle, the The- 
bans indeed proved victorious, but conquest was dearly bought by the 
death of Epamindndas. A javelin had pierced his breast, but it was not 
till he heard that the enemy were defeated, that he allowed the weapon to 
be withdrawn, and breathed forth his heroic spirit Two years before, the 
brave Pel<Spidas had lost his life in Thessaly, and in the following year, at 
the age of eighty, died Agesildus, after witnessing Sparta's highest glory 
and her deepest fall. Epamin<Sndas was magnanimous, experienced in 
war, and as just, unselfish, and poor as Aristides himself; the lofUness of 
his aims, and the sense of his own personal worth, elevated him above 
avarice and the pursuit of pleasure, and the single doak which he pos- 
sessed was a greater ornament to him than any wealth could have been« 
Hia death was followed by a general flagging in the energies of tho 



§ 71. Whilst the Greeks were destroying their own power and dis- 
turbing the public tranquillity by their internal contests, literature and 
the plastic arts attained ^eir highest perfection. Dramatic poetry, that 
in its origin had been connected with the festivals of the wine-god, 
Dionysus, was raised to a wonderful height by the three great poets, So- 
phocles, Eurfpides, and .S'schylus. Tlie liyes of these three men, who 
were the perfecters of the serious drama (tragedy), may be connected 
with the battle of Silamis, since JEXschylus, who was then in his forty- 
fifth year, fought in the ranks of the combatants ; S<5phocles, at fifteen, 
took a part in the chorus of youths in the festival held after the battle 
finr the celebration of the victory, and Eurfpides was bom on the day of 
the engagement In the seven pieces of iE^schylus, (the Prometheus 
Tinctus, Persie, Agamenmon, &c), we may recognize the great period of 
the Persian war, when the souls of the Greeks were inspired by a noble 
enthusiasm for freedom and their fatherland. His compositions, which 
breathe a reverence for the gods, a respect for ancient institutions, and 
the seli^consciousness of a lofty mind, are occasionally rendered obscure 
by the bold fiight of the ideas, and the solemn energy of the language. 

In the tragedies of SOphodes, of which also seven are preserved (An- 
t^one, CE'pidus, iSllectra, &c.), we see the age of Pericles, with its cul- 
tivation and intellectual sociality ; and hence these compositions remain 
unapproachable models of beauty and harmonious perfection of style. 
Eurfpides, of whom we possess nineteen pieces (Med^ Hecuba, Iphi- 
geniia, &c), belongs to a less energetic period. He prefers to linger 
amidst scenes of justice, in which the Athenians took especial delight ; 
he makes abundant use of the artfully-constructed speeches, sentences, 
and common-places then in vogue among philosophers, and seeks to affect 
his auditors by scenes of sorrow and distress. He replaces the creative 
power and genuine feeling of his predecessors, by sensibility and elegant 
and polished language. Euripides's contemporary, Aristdphanes, brought 
comedy to perfection. His pieces, in which he contrasts the vices of his 
own age with the virtues of an earlier period, were often rendered more 
effective by living characters, who were introduced by name, and por- 
trayed so accurately, that it was impossible to mistake them. Thus, in 
his " Frogs,* and in another of his pieces, he ridiculed Eurfpides and his 
fiat and lachrymose tragedies ; in his^ Clouds,** he held up to derision 
the sophists (under the name of S6crates*) who attempted to undermine 

• TUt is an ingeniou plea to Bare Aristophanes from the serioos ohaige of intending 
to lidleale, and hold np to public contempt, the greatest and pniest oharaoter of his age, 
■id indeed of aU antiqnity. But the excuse cannot be maintained; there can be no dooM 
that the aatizist, wlio was as licentious as he was witty, aotoally intended to injnre the n- 
pBtatloo of Socntes, whom for the time he much disliked. Am. Ed, 


tfie fiuth of the people; and he was eren hold enoogfa to attad^ the power- 
ful CleoQy and the selfish demagogues, in his '^ Knights." 

The chorus, which was a feature peculiar to the Greek drama, uttered 
in unimpassioned and Ijrical poetry the sentiments and reflections of the 
audience upon what was going on upon the stage. The splendid theatiea 
which were eveiTwhere erected, and which were magnificent specimens 
of architecture, contributed not a little to the elevation of the dramatic 
art. A rich citizen could find no better way to the favor of the people 
than exhibiting a dramatic performance at his own expense. 

S 72. It was at this same period that the prose literature of the Greeks 
Pbto, B. a 'ose to its highest point of cultivation. In the dialogues of 
439-848. Plato, ( § 65,) the lofty thoughts of a rich and creative mind 
are cbthed in the finest language, and presented in the most attractive 
Harodotu, form. . HenSdotns, of Halicam^us, is looked upon as the * 
B. o. 460. &ther of history. He described the contests of the Greeks 
and Persians in simple and copious language, but occasionally introduced 
portions of the earlier history of the oriental and Greek tribes, so that 
his account contains a great deal that is fabulous, which he copied from 
the narrations of the priests. During his extensive travels, he made 
himself acquainted by personal observation with most of the countries of 
which he relates the history. His work was written for the people, and 
therefore its language is simple and cordial. He shows how the love of 
freedom, the discipline, and the moderation of the Greeks, bore off the 
victory from the servility, the disorderly masses, and the pomp of the 
ThucydidM, Asiatics. The historical works of HenSdotus kindled the 
B. c. 480. emulation of the patriotic Athenian, Thuc^dides. He had 
been banished at the time of the battle of Amphfpolis, (§ 60), and de- 
voted the years of his absence to the composition of his ^ History of the 
Peloponn^ian war." His ^ thought-weighted " language, and the pro- 
fundity of his reflections, render this work unintelligible, except to the 
learned. The history of Thucydides ends with the twenty-first year of 
the Peloponn^sian war. 

Xenophon, X^nophon, his continuator, takes up the historical thread 

B. a 400. where Thucydides relinquished it. He is distinguished by the 
clearness, ease, and beauty of his style, but is far inferior to Thucydides in 
depth and historical accuracy. Although an Athenian, Xenophon respects 
and praises the Spartans, especially their king, Agesildus, of whose life 
he had also written a description. For this reason, his Greek history is 
composed with a conscious partiality ; the illustrious Thebans, Peldpidas 
and £pamin<Sndas in particular, are thrown entirely into the shade. His 
history concludes with the battle of Mantinae'a. Another work of X^no- 
phon's was a history of the elder Cyrus (Cyrop»dia), a sort of romance, 
in which he displays the founder of the Persian empire as the model of a 


{ 78. Bhetorie, also, about this time, rose in Athens to its highest point 
of perfection. If eloquence had originally been a gift of nature, an in* 
bom talent, it began, after the Peloponn^sian war, to be treated as an art, 
and rules and theories were established respecting it Schools of oratory 
were opened, where the Athenian youth who wished to devote themselves 
to public life, or to the affairs of government or the law, received in- 
struction. For in a democratic republic like Athens, he alone could hope 
to exert himself with success, who was capable of speaking well. Among 
the ten Athenian orators who have left written discourses behind them, 
B. c Isdcrates takes the first rank, both on account of the artbtic 

416— 8S6. skill and perfection of style displayed by his discourses, and 
more particularly, from the great success of his oratorical schooL The 
PCTno^rthCTWft, ™^^ riBuowned of the pupils of Isdcrates, was Demdsthenes, 
B. c who, from his youth upwards, kept his purpose so steadily be- 

Stt — <2a. fore his eyes that he made incredible efforts to overcome his 
Datnnd impediments, so that he might render himself an orator. No one 
possessed to an equal degree with himself the gift of exciting, enchaining, 
and inspiring his auditors. Animation of delivery, alternations from se- 
verity to ridicule, bitter outbursts, and happy turns of expression, all 
serred him as weapons. The most remarkable of his productions are the 
twelve political orations against Philip of Macedon (Philippics), in which 
he endeavors to excite the Athenians to make war upon this enterprising 
monarch, who was at that time meditatmg the subjection of Greece. 
The rival of DenuSsthenes was JE'schines, an orator like himself, who 
sided with the king of Macedon and Ids party. When the Athenian 
senate awarded a golden crown to Demdsthenes, JS'schines attempted, in 
a brilliant speech, to procure a revocation of the vote by calling in ques- 
tion the merits of him to whom the crown had been presented. This gave 
DeoKSsthenes the opportunity of so overwhelming his dpponent, in his in- 
comparable oration ^ de Cordna," that ^'schines was sentenced to pun- 
ishment, and experienced so much annoyance, that he betook himself to 
Bhodes, where he established a school of oratory. 

§ 74. The most flourishing period of the fine arts, under which term 
are included architecture, sculpture, and painting, was from the time of 
Pericles to the death of Alexander. The feeling for art that was inhe- 
rent in the Greeks, was the chief cause of this perfection. Gredan archi- 
tecture was particularly distinguished by symmetry and harmony, so that 
every building formed a beautiful whole. The principal feature in a 
Greek edifice are the piUars, which are divided into three orders by the 
differences in their capitals. The plain and massive Doric, the slender 
Ionic with its voluted capital, and the highly-decorated ^ Corinthian. 
They were particularly employed in the entrances of the temples, and 
in halls and porticos. The dwelling-houses of the ancients were 
small and insignificant, so that their architectural skill could only be 


diBplajed in their public buildings, templefly theatres^ senate-lioiuei^ no* 
nomentfly && 

The art of scolptare was earned to its highest perfectioa bj the 
Greeks, and the masterpieces of antiquitj that have been presenred to 
US are even now regarded as unapproachable examples of beauty. 
Amongst the ardsts, the next in celebrity to Phidias (§ 58) are So(^mi» 
of Pares, Praxiteles of Athens, and Lysippus of Sicyon. Since the beat 
way of showing respect to a celebrated or deserving man, in Greece, was 
to erect his statue, or set up his bust or ^ hermes " (bust placed on a 
pedestal), artists everywhere found employment and encouragement. 
Every city made it a point of honor to possess a multitude of statues in 
its streets and public places. The splendid physical conformatioa of the 
Greeks, which was ^sfigured by no ugly habiliments, and the oppor-> 
tunity, afforded by the exercises of the gymnasium, of seeing the naked 
figure in every variety of attitude, tended materially to the peifectioQ 
of the art of sculpture. The statue of the Belvidere Apollo, the group 
of the La<5coon, and innumerable figures and works in bas-relief, afibrd 
splendid evidence of the high artistic capabilities of the Greeks. 

In painting, the names of Parrhisius, Zeuxis, and Applies are particii- 
larly celebrated. We possess no specimen of ancient painting except the 
figures on the Grecian vases of burnt earth, and a few pictures ea the 
walls of old buildings. Music, dancing, and the histrionic art were also 
cultivated by the Greeks with enthusiasm. 


1. PHILIP OF MACEDON, B. C. 861-836. 

^ S 75. Northward from Greece lies the rude and mountainous tract 
of Macedonia, the inhabitants of which were not looked upon as beloD|^ 
ing to the Hellenes, though they had adopted the military system and 
many institutions of the Greeks. They were a military race, delighting 
in war and the chase, and in chivalrous exercises and entertainments. 
A year after the death of Epamindndas, Philip assumed the government 
of this people. He was a man who united the shrewdness and dexterity 
of a statesman, the talents of a general, and the generosity and magna- 
nimity of a prince. He both loved and respected the cultivation, and the 
artists and poets, of Greece, but held fast, nevertheless, to the manners 
of his own people, and even shared the disposition to intempeianco 
indulged in by his nobles. He possessed a well-appointed and effideiit 
army, which was rendered particularly formidable by a newlyHnvented 
order of battle, called the phalanx. 


i 76. Philip's greal aim was the snbjagation of the disunited Greek 
states. The sacred war afforded him the wished for oppoitunity for this 
purpose. The Thebans wanted to reduce the neighboring state, PhodSy 
under their own dominion, and had cited the inhabitants before the ooun«* 
cfl of Amphfctjons, on a charge of having taken possession of, and 
brought into cultivation, some of the lands belonging to the temple of 
Delphi. The council inflicted a heavy fine upon the PhiSdans, and upon 
their refusing to pay it, they were placed under a ban, and the Thebana 
were directed to carry the punishment into execution. Upon this, the 
Phddans took possession of the temple of Deli)hi, and employed the 
treasures deposited there in hiring an army of mercenaries, by whose 
asnstance they succeeded in defending themselves for ten years against 
all the attadcs of their enemies. The Thebans addressed Uiemselves to 
Philip for assistance. Philip yielded to their request, first subjected the 
Thessalians, and then penetrated by the pass of ThenndpylsB into Phocis. 
After a gallant resistance, the Ph6dans were compelled to submit. They 
were thrust out of the council of the Amphictyons, as a people accursed, 
and Philip was admitted in their place; their cities were rased to the 
ground, some of the inhabitants quitted their country, others were 
carried into slavery, and those that remained were compelled to pay 

I 77. Previous to this, Philip had taken possession of the Greek cokn 
Bial cities, Amphfpolis and Potidss'a, in Maoed6nia, and had founded the 
strcMig town of Philippi in the neighborhood of the former, in a region 
aboonding in gold mines ; after this, he had subjected the haughty dtj 
Ol/nthus, and punished it severely in its possessions and liberties. But 
it was only by the breaking out of a second aacred war, that he waa- 
enahled to attain his object The L6crians were now accused in the 
same way the Ph6oiaiis had formerly been, of having appropriated and 
brought under cultivation a portion of the lands belonging to the temple 
ef Delphi ; and for this crime, they were visited with a heavy fine by the 
eouneil of Amphictyons. As this fine was not paid, the Amphictyons, 
at the suggestion of the orator, ^'schines, who, in his capacity of Athe* 
nian deputy, was present at their council, commuted the punishment of 
the L^crians. The Macedonian king, Philip, hastened thither with his 
army, subdued the L6crians, and laid siege quite unexpectedly to the 
importantly ntuated town of Elat^ This arbitrary proceeding roused 
the Athenians from their indifierence, and induced them to give a hear- 
ing to the exhortations of Demosthenes. The orator himself arranged 
an alBance with the Thebans, and effected the equipment of a consider- 
aUe army. But these troops, collected together in haste, and placed 
aader the eommand of incompetent leaders, were unable to sustain the 
shock of the Macedomaa phalanx. Despite the valor of the sacred band 
tf the Tbebansy who fell to a man on the field, Philip gained the battla 


of Chsron^ay which pat an end forever to th^ liberties of 
Greece. Demdsthenes pronounced the fhneral oration over 
the bodies of those who had fallen, and ladcratesy who was then neailj a 
hundred years old, put himself to death rather than survive the libertaea 
of his country. For the rest, Philip treated the Greeks with kindness 
and affiibilitj, to accustom them more readily to the Maceddnian 7<^e. 
He cherished the purpose of attacking the crumbling empire of Perna, 
at the head of the united states of Greece, and summoned an assembly 
of the whole nation at Ck>rinth, to make the necessary preparations. He 
was already named generalissimo of the forces, with unlimited pow^s, 
and every state was directed to furnish him with its contingent of troops, 
when he was killed, from motives of private vengeance, by one of his 
body guard, at the nuptials of his daughter at Pella, in Maceddoia. 


i 78. After the death of Philip, the Maceddnian throne was ascended 
by his son Alexander, at the age of twenty*one ; a highrspirited prince^ 
and susceptible of aU that is great and honorable. He was brou^^t op 
and instructed in the culture of the Greeks by Aristotle, the great philo- 
sopher, thinker, and inquirer; and in consequence, remained throu^ his 
whole life a friend and admirer of the Grecian art and literature. As 
soon as Alexander had established himself upon the throne, he was 
acknowledged by the Greeks as the successor of his fitther in the offiee 
of generalissimo against the Persians. Before, however, he could under- 
take the campaign to Asia Minor, he had to sustain a severe encounter 
with some wild tribes, who had made an irruption into Maceddnia. A 
false report of his death was suddenly spread abroad in Greece, and 
filled the Greeks with the hope of again regaining their independence. 
The Thebans killed a part of the Maceddnian garrison in their citadd, 
and the Athenians and Peloponn^ians made preparations for war. But 
Alexander came upon them with the rapidity of lightning, Thebes was 
taken, its walls and houses levelled with the ground, and the inhabitants 
reduced to slavery. Only the temple and the house of the poet Pindar 
were spared. The rest of the Greeks were terrified, and the victor, who 
soon repented of his severity, forgave them. 

§ 79. It was in the spring of the year 834 b. o., that Alexander com- 
menced his expedition against the Persians, with a small but valiant 
army, commanded by admirable officers, Clitus, Parmdnio, Ptolemso^us, 
and Antig5nu8. The army arrived at the Hellespont by the same path 
that Xerxes had taken, but in the contrary direction. At the passage, 
Alexander was the first who sprang upon the Asiatic continent, wheret, 
upon the plain of Troy, he instituted solemn games and sacrifices in 
honor of the ancient heroes who had fallen there. Achilles was his 
model; for this reason, he always carried the compositions of Homer 

HISTOftT Of Guaoi. CO 

about with him. Shortly after, the batde at the stream 
Gnmicus took place, where Alexander carried off the victoiy 
fiom the hi superior force of the Persians. His ooarage and chivalrous 
Bphit here plunged him into imminent hazard of his life, from which he 
was only rescned by the timely assistance of his general, Clitns. The 
conquest of Asia Minor was the consequence of this victory. The Greek 
cities submitted themselves voluntarily, and hailed with joyful enthusiasm 
the kingly hero who had sprung from their own race. In the cily of GhSr- 
dium, there existed a very ancient royal chariot, with a knot twisted in the 
most intricate manner, respecting which an oracle had declared, that who- 
ever should unfasten this knot should gain the empire of Asia. Alex- 
ander accomplished the prophecy by cutting the Gordian knot with his 
sword. After this, he crossed by perilous marches the Cilician moun- 
tains, where he got a dangerous illness by bathing in the cold waters of 
the Cydnus, from which he was only restored by the skill of the Greek 
physician, PhiUppus, and his own confidence in human virtue. 

I 80. Darfus Codom^nus himself now opposed him with a much 
stronger force, but suffered a complete overthrow in the battle of the 
Issus. This unfortunate king, who was worthy of a better fate, fied with 
the remains of his army into the interior of his dominions, whilst Alex- 
ander prepared to attack Phoenicia and Palestine, so as not to leave these 
lands unsubdued in his rear. The booty, after the battle of the Issus, 
was immense ; and the number of the prisoners, amongst whom were the 
mother, wife, and daughter of Darius, who, contrary to the customs of 
antiquity, were generously treated by the conqueror, not at all inferior. 

§ 81. Palestine and Phosnfcia submitted without resbtance ; but T^re, 
confident in the strength of its position, rejected the summons to surren- 
der with defiance. Upon this, Alexander undertook the celebrated siege 
of Tyre, which lasted seven months. He commanded a mde, with 
towers, to be erected from the main land to the island on which the city 
was built; and from this mole his soldiers attempted the conquest of the 
town by machines for casting stones, and by every means that art could 
snpply, whilst his ships bk)ckaded the place by sea. But the Tyrians 
defeated his attempts by ingenious methods of defence, and maintained a 
desperate resistance. For this, T3rre had to make a heavy 
B. o. 8SS. expiation when it was at length taken. Those of the in- 
habitants who bad not escaped or perished in the.siege, were reduced to 
shivery, and the city itself was levelled to the ground. For the purpose 
of directing the commerce of the world into a different channel, Alex- 
ander, afier he had conquered Egypt, built Alexandria on an arm of the 
Nile, and this dty soon became the central point of trade and civilisa- 
tion. From Egypt he marched to the widely-renowned temple of Jupi- 
ter Ammon in the oasis of Sivah, where the priests dedared him to be 
die son of Jupiter, a distinction that gained him no little respect in the 
eyes of the superstitious orientals. 


i 82. After Alexander had establklied a new goyenunent in Egjp^ 
be mardied against Darfoi, who, in tlie mean time» had edlected a lai^ 
army. He orosMd the Enpbr&tes and Tigris, and iritfa a 
B. o. 881. ^^^^ ^^ ^^ twentieth part of that of the enemy, he d»- 
' ftated the enonaooa host of the Persians whidb had been assembled 
together from all the East in the plains of Babylon, in the battle of 
Arb^hi and Gaagam^la. The conquest of Babylon, and the capture of 
the two ancient capitals, Sosa and Pers^pdlis, with an eaonnoas treasnre, 
were the fhiits of this splendid victory. Darius fled from Ecbdt&na, the 
beautiful summer residence of the Penian kings, to the mountainous 
region of Bactria, where he received his death from the hand of bis 
treacherous governor, Bessus. Alexander shed tears over the fate of his 
unfortunate rivals and caused his murderer, who had assumed the tide of 
king, but who was soon overcome and taken prisoner by the Maceddni- 
ans, to be crudfled in oonfonnity with the Persian custom. 

§ 83. The enterprising conqueror succeeded, by dint of a daring 
march across the snow-coverod Indian Caiicasus, during which his sol- 
diers narrowly escaped perishing by hunger and fatigue, in makittg 
himself master of the mountain region to the south-east of the Caspiaa 
Sea, and rendering it approachable by the roads he caused to be con- 
etructed. His lofty spirit was not entirely absorbed by scenes of war 
and conquest, but could attend to the civilisation of the savage inhabit- 
ants. Four newly-erected towns, named after him, Alexandria, became 
the centre of the caravan trade, and diffused the Greek cultivation among 
the farthest nations of the East At the stonning of a strong fortress, 
he took prisoner the beautiful princess, Boxina, ''the Peari of the East," 
and made her his wife. 

f 84. Although the Macedonians repeatedly expressed their discontent 
at their leader^s unbounded love of conquest, Alexander nevertheless 
proceeded onwards, to subjugate the lands on the banks of (he Indus. 
But the warlike inhabitants of northern India, urged on by their priests, 
offered him a far more vigorous resistance than the dastardly subjects of 
the Persian king. Alexander's life was exposed more than once to the 
greatest peril in the storming of their strong-holds. The quarrels of the 
native princes facilitated the conquest of the Land of the Five Rivers 
(Punjaub) by the Maceddnians. Some of th^n leagued themselves with 
Alexander against Porus, the most poweriul of these princes on the 
fiurther side of the HydAspes (Dschelum). The passage of this river in 
the fiAce of ^ enemy, and the action that followed, in which the gallant 
Poms was wounded and takra prisoner, are among the greatest militaiy 
achievements of antiquity. Two new cities, BucOphila (so named bk 
honor of Akxander^s charger, Bucephalus), and Nicee'a (city of Yw- 
tory), were to diflbse Grecian civilisation among these lands also. 
Alexander continued his coarse by difficult marches, still &rther east- 

HI8T0BY OF WnClE. 61 

vaid, to H/phXaifly aod was already making preparatioDfl to add the rich 
lands of tlie Ganges to his dominioiis, when the murmurs of the Maoe* 
ddnians beeame so loud that he was compelled, though with inward 
rductanoe, to retreat Twelve stone altars, on the banks of the river 
mark the eastern termination of his conquests. After restoring their. 
lands to Porus and the other Indian princes under Macedonian supremacy, 
he sailed down the Indus to discover another way of returning. 

This undertaking proved most fataL In two months, he lost three 
fourths of his army in the frightful deserts of Gedn^sia, The heroic 
warriors, who had bidden defiance to sword and lance in so many battles, 
fell victims in the barren and waterless desert to want and fiitigue, to the 
miseries of the climate, the fervid sun, the heated sand, and the nightly 
frosts. Alexander magnanimously shared all the dangers and difficulties 
with the meanest of his troops, and rewarded those who escaped with 
entertainments and presents; by this means, the feasting became as 
excessive as the previous want. 

§ 85. Upon his return, Alexander dismissed his veteran soldiers to 
their homes, after having laden them with presents ; inflicted punish- 
ments upon the fidthless governors and officers, who, during his absence, 
had committed acts of violence and oppression, and then devoted himself 
sealonsly to the plan of assimilating the conquered people with theur 
victors, and uniting them together in one nation possessed of the arts and 
cultivation of Greece* He treated the Persians with kindness, for the 
purpose of attaching them to his person and his rule. He surrounded 
himself with a court after the fieishion of their kings, assumed the royal 
habit and diadem, and employed Persian guards and attendants. He 
encouraged marriages between his generals and soldiers and the maidens 
of the country, by presents, and he himself espoused one of the daughters 
of Darius. By this conduct, Alexander offended the Macedonians and 
Greeks, who wished to rule over the conquered people. Already, during 
the Indian campaign, the soldiers had disphiyed their discontent and iU 
humor in dissatisfied murmurs. This induced Alexandeir to have Phi- 
16tas, the playfellow of his youth, and who was now the head of the 
malcontents, stoned by the army, and to put to death his aged &ther 
FarmOnio, who had remained behind in Persia. 

Alexander had at first imitated the customs of the Persian monarchs 
for the purpose of conciliating the conquered people; but he soon b^;an 
to take delight in this oriental magnificence. His court at Babylon, 
which he intended to make the seat of the government of his empire, 
shone with the highest splendor; riotous feasts and banquets crowded 
upon each other, and in the intoxication of sensual indul^ee, he com« 
mitted deeds that afterwards cost hun Utter repentance* Among these 
may be mentioned the murder of his deserving general, Clitus, who 
•aved his life at the Granfcus, but who afierwaids excited his anger by 


some sarcastic speedies as they were drinking. His heart was comipCed 
by flatterers, who thmst his honest and well-meaning advisers fiom his 
side. The intemperate indulgence in strong wines undermined his health, 
and brought him to an early graye. One of the last acts of the hero 
was instituting magnificent funeral solemnities in honor of his prema- 
turely departed friend, Hephas'stion. His grief for this friend of his 
youth had not yet passed away, when an illness carried him 
^ ^ to the grave in the midst of fresih schemes of conquest, and 

before he had determined upon a successor. When he was asked to 
whom he left his kingdom, he is said to have replied, ^ To the worthiest." 
His dead%ody was brought from Babylon to Alexandria, and there 


o. alexandeb's successors. 

§ 86. As Alexander left no heir behind him who was capable of 
assuming the goyemment, — only a brother, who was imbecile, and two 
children who were minors, — his empire fell to pieces as rapidly as it had 
been constructed. After many fierce and bloody wars, in which the 
house of Alexander was totally destroyed, his generals succeeded in 
grasping separate portions of his territories, and erecting them into inde- 
pendent kingdoms. At first, Perdfccas, to whom Alexander had given 
his signet ring, received the greatest respect, and took upon 
himself the office of regent But when he made war upon 
Ptolemy, the governor of Egypt, he was killed by his own soldiers ; 
whereupon Antigonus assumed the chief power. Antigonus 
** ^' ' made himself master of the treasury in Susa, and hired such 
a number of mercenary troops, that he was enabled to bid defiance to the 
rest of the generals, and compel them to acknowledge him as commander 
and regent of the empire. As he allowed it, however, to be pretty 
plainly seen that he aimed at nothing less than the sovereignty of the 
whole of the Alexandrian dominions, the other generals, Sel^ucus of 
Syria, Ptolemy of Egypt, and Gassander of Macedon, leagued them- 
selves together against him and his son Demetrius, who afterwards 
obtained the surname of Poliorc^tes (Taker of Cities). From this 
originated a long contest, that was carried on at the same time both in 
Greece and Asia, with various success, and which was only terminated 
by the great battle of Ipsus, in Asia IGnor, where the hero Antfg6nus, 
who was then eighty years old, lost his life, and his son Demetrius was 
obliged to fly. After many partitions and interchanges, Alexander's 


eufire (a few smaller states excqited) was finallj diyided into the tfana 
following kingdoms : — 

L Maoedonia and Greece, 
n. The Syrian empire of the Seleiicid»« 
lEL Egypt under the Ptolemies* 

& gbeece's last stkuggle. the achaiak league. 

§ 87. From the time of the battle of Chieron^ay Greece had remain- 
ed mider the govemment or influence of the Macedonian kings, and all 
attempts made by individual states to shake off this yoke had proved 
ineffectual. Thus the attempt of the brave Spartan king, Agis 11., who, 
with 5000 of his foUowers, died the death of heroes in the 
bloody field of Megal6polis, was productive of no result. 
The contests between the aristocratic and democratic parties still con* 
tinned in Athens during the Macedonian period. When the aristocrats, 
with the noble Phddon at their head, obtained the government by the 
aid of the Macedonians, many of the popular party, and among others, 
Demdsthenee, the vehement opposer of the royal house of Macedon, 
quitted the city. Threatened with being given up, the great 
^^ orator fled to a temple of Neptune, where he destroyed 

himself bj poison, to save himself from falling into the hands of his 
enemies. Some years afterwards, the democrats again gained the upper 
hand, when they compelled PhOcion, in his turn, to drink the cup of 
poison. From this time, party violence diminished in Athens, but the 
lore of freedom, patriotism, and civic virtue decayed with it Effeminacy 
and the pursuit of pleasure choked the nobler feelings, and although the 
arts and sciences still continued to flourish, and Athens still remained the 
centre of civilization, the greatness of the people was gone forever. 
The dtizena disgraced themselves by servility and flattery, particularly, 
at the time when the two Demetrii, PhalOreus and PoliorcOtes, were 
resident in their dty, and destroyed all morality by their sensuality and 
{ 88. About the middle of the third century, Greece made a final 
effort in the AchAian league, to which Ardtus of Sfcyon 
** ^ gave such power and consequence, especially after the strong 

city of Corinth had placed itself at the head of the confederation, that 
he was enabled to assume the supreme power over PeloponnOsus, and 
even over the whole of Greece. This excited the jealousy of Sparta, 
where, just at that time, two high-spirited kings, Agis HI. and QeOmenes, 
were endeavoring to restore the ancient strength and military virtue. 
For since the Spartans had decided that one person might become the 
proprietor of numerous estates, the whole of the land had gradually got 
mto the possession of a few rich fimnlies, who governed the state by 
chooaing the Ophori from among themselves. The remainder of the clti- 


04 XHB Ascaasn wobld. 

MDt possess^ neither rights nor propeitT^ and were in debt to the xidk 
The two kings sought to remedy these evils hj aboliahiBg the ofieecf 
the ^phori, by destroying the bonds of the debtors, and by reSstablisIiing 
the laws and customs of Lycnrgos. But Agis was dethroned and cruelly 
murdered by his enemies ; and Cledmenes, who by dint of resolution 
succeeded in carrying his objects in Sparta, and then endeavored to 
compel the rest of the Peloponn^sian states to acknowledge the Spartan 
supremacy, was defeated in the battle of SelUUia in Are^ia 
by the Achdian league, supported by the Macedonians* and 
found himself compelled to fly to Alexandria; where he and his faitiifbl 
followers, after being baffled in attempting an insurrection, perished by 
their own daggers. In the same year in which Cle6ntenes met with his 
death, Sparta was subdued by the valiant FhilopQs'men (who had been 
chosen head of the Achaian league after Ardtus), and ccMnpelled a 8lK>rt 
time after to join the league and abolish entirely the laws of Lycnrgoa. 
Fhilopoyn^n afterwards fell into the liands of his enemies, during a war 
with the Messenians, and was obliged to drink the cup of poison. After 
the death of this ^ last of the Greeks," the power of the Achiian leagae 
declined, so that the Romans were enabled to take possesdon of the 
whole country without any great effort. 


S 89. Seleiicus and Ptolemy were the meet fortunate of Alexante^s 
successors. The former, after many wars which were attended with 
important results, succeeded in reducing all the countries between the 
Hellespont and the Indus, and founding the Syrian empire of the Seled- 
cidas. He built the magnificent city of Antioch on the Orontes, and 
Seledcia on the Tigris. By means of these dlSes, and forty others, 
erected by himself and his successors, the Greek language and cukave 
became more and more predominant in the East ; and from this period, 
Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt, were the chief seats of civilization and 
commerce. But this condition of extreme refinement afforded little 
matter for rejoicing. The enormous wealth that flowed into these states 
produced luxury, effeminacy, and sensuality; indolence enervated the 
people, and produced a servile spirit, which displayed itself by the most 
abject adulation of oppressive rulers. Sanguinary crimes, the empire of 
women and fiivorites, universal reprobation and corruption of morals, are 
the prominent features in the history of the Seleiidda, of whom Antfo- 
ohns I£(., sumamed the Great, is the best known, as well by his expedi- 
tiim into India, as from his unfortunate contest with the Bomans. Undtf 
monardis so weak and abandoned as these, it was no difficult matter fiir 
•oterpriaag men to establish small independent states. The most oel6> 
bcated of these were the kingdom of P^sgamns in Asia Minor, and thai 
of the PartUani on the nortlMaat of the Euphrates. 


The Egyptians under the Ptolemies were in a similar position. The 
three first kings established a large naval and military force, by means 
of whiph they enlarged their empire on all sides. Trade and commerce 
produced wealth ; the science of government and taxation was brought 
to a high degree of perfection. Alexandria became the seat of the com- ^ 
merce of the world, and the centre of Greek art, literature, and civiliza- 
tion; the world-renowned museum, with its extensive library and 
residences for poets and men of learning, was connected with the royal 
palace. But the men who were the producers of all this prosperity were, 
like the royal family itself, aliens — Greeks and Jews. The glory of 
the Ptolemaic dynasty was of short duration, for the civilization of Alex- 
andria had no root among the people. It was an exotic plant that em- 
bellished the surface, but left the soil unchanged. The court of Alexan- 
dria was not less distinguished by cruelty, debauchery, and corruption of 
morals, than by its splendor, wealth, and refinement. 


§ 90. JudiB^a was for a long time an object of contention between the 
SftleiicidflB and the Ptolemies. The latter were the first to take posses- 
sion of the land and to render it tributary ; but they suffered the old 
institutions to remain, and allowed the high priest, with the council of 
seventy (Sdnhedrim), to manage the affairs of religion and the internal 
government Many of the Jews settled in Alexandria, where they ac- 
quired wealth and power, but gradually lost the language, manners, and 
religion of their own country, or mingled them with those of the Greeks. 
The translation of the Hebrew text of the Bible into Greek, 
which was executed at the instigation of the second of the 
Ptolemies, by seventy-two Alexandrian Jews (hence called the S^ptna- 
gint), was afterwards extremely serviceable to the propagation of Chris- 

Judse^a was subjected to the Seleucidas by the Syrian king Antiochus 
m. (the Great), and grievously oppressed with taxes. His second suc- 
cessor, Aiitfochus Epiph&nes, plundered the temple in Jerusalem of its 
treasures, and even entertained the purpose of destroying the Jewish 
institutions and the worship of Jehovah, and substituting the Greek 
idolatry in its place. To this project the Jews offered an obstinate resist- 
ance, and by this means drew a severe persecution on themselves. When 
this persecution was carried beyond all endurable limits, the people rose 
in desperation against their oppressors, and under the command of the 
high priest, Mattath^, and his ^v^ heroic sons (Aliccabees), 
encountered the Syrians with courage and success. The 
eldest son, Judas Maccabs^us, enforced a peace, which granted the 
reestablishment of the Jewish worship. His brother Simon 
freed Judas'a from the Syrian yoke, and reigned wisely and 
6* • 




righte6u8l7 as prince and high priest Under his successors, the limits of 
the kingdom were enlarged, and the Idamse'ans (Edomites) indaoed to 
accept the Jewish law. Bnt internal dissensions, and the hatred of sfects^ 
Bdon again impaired the strength of the people. The Pharisees, who 
held firmlj to the prophets and the law of Moses, attributed great merit 
to the accurate observance of trifling precepts and outward ceremonies, 
and fell hj this means into hypocrisy and false righteousness ; the Saddn- 
cees were less severe in their interpretation of the Mosaic laws, and 
attempted to bring them into accordance with the morals, doctrine, and 
way of thinking of the Greeks ; the Ess^nes lived together in brother- 
hoods, who had all their possessions in common, and served God hy acts 
of penance and works of charity. The weakness produced by the mutnal 
hostility of these sects at length brought the Jewish race under the domi- 
nion of the Bomans. The last of the Mdccabees was slain by Herod the 
Idumae'an, who thereupon ascended the throne of David by the assistance 
of the Romans, and ruled over Judie'a as tributary king (Tetrarch). For 
the purpose of conciliating the Jews, who hated him as a foreigner, he 
enlarged and beautified the temple of Solomon ; but towards the end of 
his reign, suspicion caused him to degenerate into a bloodthirsty tyitot, 
who even attempted the life of that Jesus of Nazareth who was sent into 
the world to redeem the lost race of man. 


§ 91. By the conquests of Alexander and his successors, the Grecian 
arts and refinements were diffused over the greatest part of the old worid, 
and a high amount of civilization in consequence produced. The great 
increase of commerce and intercourse among all nations was favorable to 
the spread of this civilization. But the inward strength was weakened 
by the putward diffusion. Nothing worthy of notice was produced in 
poetry, except the Idyls, in which The6critus the Sicilian 
describes a pastoral life full of innocence and simplicity, and 
a few dramatic compositions which are now lost. History and oratory 
were far behind the splendid examples of an earlier period. Learning, 
and the practical sciences, which are based on experience and inquiry, 
attuned, on the other hand, to a great degree of perfection. Learned 
critics and grammarians arranged and illustrated the works of the older 
Greek writers ; natural history and mathematics, geography and astro- 
nomy, of which the elements alone had previously existed, were now 
EacUd, greatly advanced. £uclid, a contemporary of the first 

B. a 280. Pt61emy, composed a text-book of geometry that was em- 
Aichimedes, ployed in education for centuries ; Archim^es of Syracuse 
B. aSU. gained imperishable renown by his discoveries in mechani- 
cal and physical science ; and the art of medicine, that had been fint 
established on a scientific basis by HippiJcrates, was considerably extended 

mfftOBT OF GBEBOS. 87 

by the Alexandrian physicians. Bat philosophy was the snbject that 
reodyed the greatest attentioita. As Paganism in its oorniption afforded 
no rest to the soul, and no support in life, men sought for refuge in the 
parsnit of wisdom. The precepts of the philosophers of an earlier period 
were expanded and applied to the regulation of life. In this way arose 
the schools of philosophy, some of which reposed on the doctrines of Plato 
and Aristotle, and others were originated by the disciples of S<5crates and 
other wise men. The Stoics and the Epicureans became the most dis^ 
tingnished of these philosophical sects. S6crates had especially taught, 
that happiness was the end of existence. His scholar Antbth^nes be- 
lieved that the surest way of attaining this happiness was to renounce all 
{deaaores, and taught that moderation, abstinence, and a freedom from 
DJosKiM. ^^^^ ^^^^ *^® highest objects of human exertion. EQs 
disciple DidgSnes carried these doctrines to the greatest 
eseeas: he liyed in a tub, deprived himself voluntarily of property and 
an the pleasures of life, and by this ^ heroism of abstinence," excited the 
-admiration of the great Alexander. This school was called the pTnic, 
from the place in which AndsthSnes taught; and in allusion to this. Did- 
gSnes reoeived the surname of kuon (hound), because the wretched and 
joylaaa life he led seiemed fitter for a dog than a hunmn being. This 
doctrine in a more noble form constitutes the basis of the St<Hc philoso- 
^^ phy, which was taught by Zeno, a contemporary of Alexan- 

der, in the porticoes (stoa) of Athens. According to his 
leading, man only attains felicity by bearing with invincible indifference 
an the changes and chances of life, — joy and grief, misfortune or happi- 
ness : this is his duty the rather, that every thing is determined on before- 
hand by an eternal natural necessity or fate. In opposition to this view, 
^^^^ another disciple of Sdcrates, Aristfppus of Cyrdne, mam- 
"*' tained the enjoyment of life as his chief principle, and taught 

tiie art of wisely mingling together sensual and intellectual pleasures. 
lliia art of enjoyment was erected by one of his scholars, Epicdrus, into 
a system that numbered many adherents. Whilst, however, Epicdrus 
made happiness to consist in a freedom from all painful and distressing 
emotions, his followers overstepped the bounds of moderation, placed 
Inxnry and the gratification of the appetites as the ends of existence, and 
rendmd Epicurism the philosophy of effeminacy and excess. 




§ 92. The beautiful peninsula wbich is bounded on the north by ^ 
Alps, Burronnded on the east, west, and south by the Mediterranean, and 
trayersed throughout its whole length by the Appenines, was formerly 
inhabited by numerous races of men of different origin. Upper Italy, 
on. either bank of the Po (Padus), was the dwelling-place of the Grallic 
race, who were divided into many tribes and states, and possessed numer- 
ous cities, both in the fertile plains and on the sea-coast. Central Italy 
was inhabited by many small tribes, a part of which had dwelt in the 
land from time immemorial, and might be looked upon as the aborigines 
of the country ; whilst others had wandered thither from abroad. To th6 
latter class belonged the remarkable family of the Etruscans, to the for- 
mer the sturdy race of the Sab^lli, who were again divided into numer- 
ous warlike and freedom-loving tribes, among whom the S^bnnites, the 
Siblnes, and the iBqui, were the most distinguished. The Latins, a 
powerful rustic tribe on the south of the Tiber, were a mixed race, com- 
posed of natives and immigrants, to which, after the conquest of Tkx>y, a 
Trojan race, under the conduct of JSneas, is said to have united itself. 
The coast of Lower Italy was covered with Greek colonies ; the inland 
parts were the seat of warlike tribes of Sab^lline origin, Sdmnites, Cam- 
pdnians, Lucdni. Campdnia, with its vineyards and cornfields, is one 
of the most beautiful and fertile spots on the globe, and was chosen 
accordingly by the Romans for the erection of their magnificent villas. 
Of all these races, that of the Etruscans is the most worthy of remark. 
They formed a confederation of twelve independent cities, of which Cafire, 
Tarqufnii, and Peliisium, in the neighborhood of the Trasim^nian lake, 
Clfisium, and Yeii, are the best known. The separate cities were 
governed by on aristocratic priesthood. These nobles (Lticumoe) 
elected the head of the confederation, the insignia of whose office were 
.an ivory chair, a purple mantle, and axes inclosed in bundles of rods 
(fasces), such as were afterwards borne before the Roman consuls. The 
Etruscans were a religious people, and paid great observance to predic- 
1ions derived from the sacrifice of anima'^ (aaspices), and the flight of 
birds (auguries). They were proficient i i i he art of founding, and in 
working earth and metals, and their skill in architecture is attested by 
\he existing remains of gigantic walls, and the rums of temples, dykes, 
Toads, &c. The innumerable vessels of clay and cinerary urns (Etruscan 
Tases), ornamented with paintings, which are dug out of the earth, are 
•evidence of the diligence of the Etruscans in arts and manufactures. 


Bot the oppresaiTe power of the aristocracy, which proved destnictiTe to 
die freedom and energy of the middle and lower classes, was the occarion 
of the early decay and extinction of the arts of culture among the people. 
The Sibines, Sdmnites, and other tribes of Sab4lline origin, led a simple 
and temperate life in open or only slightly-fortified towns. They loved 
the pastoral life, agriculture, and war, and looked upon their freedom as 
their greatest blessing. From time to time, they celebrated a sacred 
spring, during which the newly-born cattle were offered in sacrifice ; and 
the children who came into the world in the course of the year, left their 
country as colonists, on arriving at the age of twenty. 

The Latins dwelt in thirty cities, which were united together in a con- 
federation, of which Alba Longa was the head. Agriculture and civil 
freedom flourished among them ; their religion was founded upon the 
worship of nature, and bore a relation to the cultivation of the soil. The 
seed-god Saturn, and his spouse Ops (the abundance flowing from the 
earth), were among their deities. The venerable goddess Vesta, whose 
sacred and perpetual fire was watched by twelve virgins (Vestals), was 
also one of the native deities of the Latins. The representatives of the 
onion held their meetings in a Wood on the Albanian hilL 



S 98. We are told by an old legend, that king Numitor of Alba Longa, 
a successor of the Trojan iEn^, (§ 37), was deprived of his crown by 
his brother Amulius, and his daughter Rhsea Silvia placed among the 
sacred virgins of Vesta, that she might remain unmarried and without 
ol&pring. But when she bore the twins R6mulus and Remus, to the god 
Mars, her cruel uncle commanded the children to be exposed on the 
banks of the Tiber, where, however, they were discovered and brought 
up by shepherds. Informed by an accident of the mystery of their birth 
^^ . and the &te of their grandfather, they restored the throne of 

Alba Longa to Numitor, and then founded Rome on the 
Pilatine hill, on the left bank of the Tiber. The rising walls of the city 
are sud to have been stained by the blood of Remus, who was shiin m a 
quarrel, by his brother. 

Bomoins, § ^4- When the little town was built, Rdmulus attracted 

a. 0.730. inhabitants, by declaring it a place of refuge for fugitives. 
Bat as the fugitives had no wives, and the neighboring people hesitated 
to (^ve them their daughters m marriage, Romulus arranged some mili- 


tery games, and invited the neighbors as spectators. At a given sig 
every Boman seized upon a S^ine virgin, an^ carried her cff into the 
eitj. This outrage gave rise to a war between the Sibines and the new 
colony. The two armies were already opposed to each other, when the 
abdacted virgins rushed between the combatants, and put an end to the 
strife, by declaring that they would share the fate of the Romans. A 
treaty was arranged, in consequence of which the Sdbines, who dwelt on 
the Cdpitoline hill, agreed to unite themselves in a angle community with 
the Latins, who lived on the Palatine, and the Etruscans, who inhabited 
the Caelian hill: it was decided further, that the Sdbine king, Titos 
Titius, should share the government with B6mulus ; and that a Latin 
and a Sibine should be elected alternately from the senate to the office 
of king. B<Smulus disappeared from the earth in an unknown manner, 
and received divine honors under the name of Quirinus. The dti- 
cens from this time bore the name of Quirites, conjointly with that of 

Nmna S ^^* '^^ warlike B6mulus was succeeded by the wise 

Pompilins, Sabine, Numa Fompflius, who reduced the rising state to or- 
B. c. 700. ^Qf \yj j^jg ]^^g i^p J religious institutions, and improved and 
civilized the inhabitants. He built temples, and establi^ed a form of 
religious worship, increased the number of priests, and made regulations 
respecting sacrifices and divinations. He dedicated a temple at the en* 
trance of the forum to Janus Bifrons, the god who presides over the 
b^(inning of every thing, both in time and space : the doors of this 
temple were open in time of war, and closed during peace. As the 
Greeks confirmed their laws by the means of oracles, so Numa main* 
tained that he had derived his system of religion from conversations with 
the nymph Eg^ria, who had a wood sacred to her on the south of Borne. 
B. c 660. § 96. The two following kings, TuUus Hostilius the Latin, 

B. a 626. and Ancus Mirtius the Sabine, enlaiged the territory of the 
little state by successful wars ; so that four other hills were added to the 
three before mentioned, and gradually supplied with inhabitants. For 
this reason, Borne is called the seven-hilled city. Under Tullus Hostilius 
the Bomans engaged in a war with Alba Longa. Just as the armies 
were about to engage, it was agreed 'to decide the fate of the two dties 
by a combat between three brothers, the Hordtii and the Curidtii, chosen 
from each of the parties. Two of the champions oi the Bomans had 
already fellen, when the victory was decided in their favor by the cunning 
and bravery of the third, and the possession of Alba Longa fell at once 
into their hands. The city was destroyed, and the inhabitants trans- 
planted to Bome. The same fortune happened to many other cities in 
the neighboihood, during the reign of Ancus Mirtius. The conquered 
citizens settled in Bome, where they received houses and small estates, 
but were not admitted to the privileges of the elder dtizens. The latter^ 



bam this time, were called ^patriciaii8,'',t]ie new-eon^rs bore the niMn^ 
of ** plebeians.'' Aneus Mdrtius foanded the sea-port of Ostis^ ttt tlie 
mgmOk of the TOmt. 

S 97. The laat three kiiig% Taiquinius Frkcus, Senrius Tollius, audi 
Taiqufniiis Sap^rfons, belongod to the Etruscan race, as is evident fimn^ 
the buildings they erected, and the Etruscan institutions they introduced 
B. & 600 ^^ Borne, The elder Tarqum laid the foundation of the 
vast structure of the Capitol, which was completed by his 
son Taiquinius Sup^bns, in aooordanoe with his fiither's design. It con- 
nsted of a citadel and a magnificent temple. He constructed, in addition, 
the enormous clo4c» (sewers), built of freestone, for the draining of the 
tatj, the Circus Mdximus, and the Forum. 
After the murder of Tarquin by the sons of his predecessor, his sgn- 
in-law Servius Tullius ascended the throne. He originaled 
two measures that were followed by important consequences* 
First, he divided the plebeians in the city and its vicinity into thirt j 
tnheBf with their own overseers and &8emblies ; he then divided the enr 
tiTQ population of the state, according to their property, into five classeSi 
and these again into hundreds, in order to facilitate the collection of im- 
posts and the arrangement of military service. By these means, the 
lich obtained greater privUeges, coupled however with the condition dk 
serving as heavy-armed troops without pay, and at their own expense* 
A sixth dass, which included the proletaries (persons without property), 
were exempt from taxes and military eervice, but were also excluded 
fiom all political rights. By these measures, Servius Tullius brought 
upon himself the hate of the patricians, and was in consequence murdered 
bj his son-in-law, Tarquinius Sup^bus, with their assistance. 

I 9d. Tarquinius Sup^rbus enlarged the boundaries of the 
state by successful wars with the Latins, whom he united in 
a confederacy under the direction of Borne ; he completed 
the Capitol, and ordered, the collection of ancient orades, 
called the Sibylline books, to be preserved there ; he founded the first 
eoloDy in the neighboring country of the Yolscians, for the purpose of ex- 
tending the power of Bome. But despite all these services, he rendered 
himself odious to the patrician party by attempting to extend the limited 
hingly authority, ^s acts of violence against the senate and the patri- 
cians, and the severe imposts and soccage- duties with which he visited 
the plebeians, produced general discontent, which finally burst into rehel- 
lioa when it became known in Bome that the outrage which one of the 
kiagfs sons had offered to the virtuous Lucretia had driven her to self- 
tetac^n. Two relatives of the royal house, Lucius Tarquinius CoUa* 
thnis, the husband of Lucretia, and Junius Brutus, were the leaders of 
te insurrection. Upon receiving information of what was taking plaee^ 
file king, who was just then occupied in the siege of the ancient seaport 


of iCrd^ hastened to Borne witb bis armj, for the purpose of suppi^ 
ing the tmnalt ; but he found the gates closed against him, and being 
deposed firom the throne by a rote of the popular assembly, and finding 
himself deserted bj his army, he and hb sons were obliged to retire into 


S 99. After the banishment of the royal family, the supreme power in 
Borne fell into the hands of the senate. They confirmed the laws thai 
were passed in the assemblies of the people, and proposed the officers 
that it was the proYince of the oommdbs to elect. Instead of a king, two 
ocHisuls were chosen every year, who ruled the state, superintended the 
administration of justice, and, in time of war, led the army to the field. 
The patricians alone could be chosen to these or any other offices. 

The young republic had severe conflicts to sustain both within and 
from without Under the first consuls, a nuinber of young Bomans of 
patrician family entered into a conspiracy, for the purpose of bringing 
back the banished royal family. When this was discovered, the inflexible 
Brutus punished the offenders, among whom were two of his own sons, 
with death. From without, the Bomans were threatened with the most 
imminent danger, by the Etruscan king Fors^nna, to whom Tarqnin had 
applied for help, and who had taken possession of the hill Janiculum, on 
the right bank of the Tiber. The Bomans were repulsed in an attempt 
to drive him from thu position, and were only saved by the valor of 
Hor^tius Codes, ^o defended the wooden bridge that crossed the river. 
After the Bomans had secured themselves and destroyed the bridge. 
Codes sprang into the stream, armed and weaponed as he was, and swam 
safely to the opposite shore. Another Boman, Mdtius Scffi'vola, pene- 
trated into the Etruscan camp for the purpose of killing the king. He 
made a mistake, however, and stabbed the royal secretary. When For* 
s^nna, upon this, endeavored by threats to terrify him into a confession, 
Hiitius, to show that he feared neither pain nor death, laid his right hand 
in the midst of a fire that was burning on an altar. It was frmn this cir* 
oumstance that he received the name of Sca^vola (left hand). Astonished 
at such a proof of courage and patriotism, Fors^nna made a peace with 
the Bomans, and withdrew his forces. The Bomans were however 
obliged to relinquish a third part of their lands, and to give hostages. The 
y^ians also, and the confederation of the Latins, took the field in support 
of the Tarquins. Brutus, the founder of the republic, and Aruns Tar« 


qdinios, enoountered in the battle, and fell hj the hands of eadi other. 
It was in the war agamst the Latins that the Bomans for the first time 
appointed a dictator, an officer who was superior to the consuls, and who 
possessed unlimited power both in the dtj and the field. It was only in 
times of the greatest distress and danger that such 'a dictator was ap- 
pointed, and he relinquished his extraordinary office as soon as the neces- 
sity for it ceased to exist 

f 100. When Tarquin found that all the attempts to regain possession 
of his throne had miscarried, he retired to Cums, in Lower Italy, where 
he died. The patricians now governed the state, and op- 
pressed the plebeians by their severe laws of debtor and 
creditor. They (the plebeians) were obliged to pay ground-rent for 
their small properties, to perform military service without pay, and to 
provide their own anns and accoutrements. When they were engaged 
in war, their lands were left untilled at home : bad harvests brought 
poverty, and for the sake of escaping from the temporary pressure, they 
incDrred debts with the wealthy patricians. If the plebeian failed in pay- 
ing the large interest (10 or 12 per cent) the moment it became due, his 
person and estate were seized upon by his creditor, he was reduced to 
the condition of a serf, and his family were left to starve. When this 
state of things' became intolerable, and there was no law to protect the 
unfortunate debtor against his merciless creditor, the ple- 
beians resolved upon quitting Borne, and building a new 
town upon the sacred hill, about a league and a half from the dty. The 
patricians sent Men^nius Agrippa after them, to induce them to return. 
He explained to them the disadvantages that were likely to arise from 
their dissensions, by relating the fable of the quarrel between the stomach 
and the limbs, and the danger the whole kodj was reduced to in conse- 
qaenee, and promised them a redress of their grievances. The plebeians 
allowed themselves to be persuaded, and oblained on their return at first 
five, and afterwards ten, tribunes. These were accounted sacred and in- 
violable whilst they were in office : they possessed the power of placing 
their veto upon any resolution of the senate or decree of the consuls, 
which appeared injurious to the interests of the people ; and if this was 
not sufficient, they could prevent the levies of troops and the collectioa 
of taxes. 

Shortly after this, a fiunine broke out in Bome ; and when at last ships 

arrived from Sicily with com, the haughty patrician, Mardus Coriolilnus, 

proposed that none should be yidded to the people till they had consented 

to the dismissal of their tribunes. Upcm this the pe^le, in their as- 

sembly, passed a sentence of banishment upon CorioUnus. 

and ccMnpeUed him to fiy. Thirsting for vengeance, he be« 

took himself to the Yolsdans, and persuaded them to make an inroad 

under his command upon the Boman territories. They ha4 already pene- 



tnled in their deBftractiTe oonne to within fire milM of Bamt, whn 
their general iras prenuled apcm to retreat bj the united pmj^n of his 
wife and modier. CorioUiMM is said to have fidlen a viotun to the rage 
of the Yolsdans, who nevertheless retained possession of Oie towns thej 
had eonquered^ 


1 101. Borne was so weakened by the dissensions between the diffe- 
rent classes that her foreign foes were able to possess themselyes of one 
provincial town after another, and gradoallj to diminish her territory. 
The plebeians, whose anns were to win the battle, had little pleasure in 
shedding thdr blood to increase die wealth and pow^ <^ their opprea- 
sois ; they even willingly allowed themselves to be d^eated^ when they 
were under the command of one of the rigorous patricians. Such an 
event took place m a war against the people of Y^ii, when one of the 
Fabii was generaL The disgrace was so severely felt by the hi^-spiii^ 
ed fiunily of Fabius, that they deserted their own party, and making 
common cause with the plebeians, proceeded together to attack the Y^ 
ana, but were all ensnared in an ambuscade, and died like heroes. One 
only, who had not arrived at years of maturity, rarvived the destmctiaB 
of bis race. Whilst the Y^ians were attackii^ the BiMnan tnritory am. 
the north, the Yolsd and .£qui made inroads no less destructive on the 
south. The latter of these tribes, whose possessions extended as far as 
Frsen^ste, but a few miles from Rome, once attacked the Romans -at 
mount Algidus, with such socceas, that the latter were 
surrounded in their camp, and must have been taken prison- 
ers if Cindnaitus had not come to dieir rescue. 'When the senate wera 
informed of the danger the a#ny was in, they appointed the patriciaa 
Cincinndtos dictator. Cindnndtus was so reduced in his circnmstaneea 
by misfortunes, that he possessed nothing but a small estate on the rig^ 
bank of the Tiber, which he was tilling with his own hands, when the 
summons of the senate was brought to him. He at once qutted the 
plough, hastened to the place of danger with the R(»nan youth that 
assembled themselves about him, and surrounded the .£qui in the ni^it. 
When these, awakened in the following morning by a great shout, saw 
the situation they were in, they were compelled to surrender themselves 
posoaers of war, and, after giving up their arms, to pass under a yoke 
fiomed of three spears. 

1 103. The plebeians waged a hot contest with the patridana for an 
equally of rigbta. They demanded, above all^ an agrariam lai^ a writ- 
ten code, and a share of the poblio offices. 

The Roman state was in possession of large tiaels of land, which 
mse not the ezelusive prop^ of any oae^ taut the use of whidi had 
hen granted to the patridaas, upon co«ditioa.that a tenth part of the 

HurroBT or BOin. 75 

produce dioald be paid to the stale. This common land (a^er pMievm) 
the patridane looked upon ae tbeir oim, had it cultivated by their clients, 
mk waintSLj overlooked each othei^s remissness when the stipulated 
duty did not find its iray tothetreamiy. The plebeiana demanded from 
time to time an agrarian law, by which a portion of these common 
lands should be surrendered to them. But as often as the application 
▼aa made, it was encountered by a most decided resistance. The consul 
Sp. Gassius, who moved the first agrarian law, was thrown from the 
Tarp^ian rock of the capitol, and the place where his house had stood 
remained empty and desolate. 

§ 103. The administration of the law was exclusively in the hands 
of the patricians, who gave judgment and prtmonnoed decisions aooosding 
to custom and unwritten traditionary rules, and were thus frequently 
gnilty of arbitrariness and partiality. The plebeians, to escape from 
these evils, demanded a fixed and written code, but experienced a violent 
lesistanee from the patricians. After many stormy debates, the tribunes 
of the peopde were at last succesafnl in having envoys sent to Oneda 
Magna and Athens, to examine the laws, and to select those 
that should appear suitable. When these envoys returned, 
both parties agreed that idl the officero of government (consuls, tribunes, 
fcc.) should give up their places ; and that ten patricians should be 
appointed with absolute power, and commissioned to draw up fresh laws. 
At first, the new officers, who, from their number, were called ^ decemvirs,** 
periormed the task committed to them in an exemplary manner, md at 
the end of the year, their laws gave so much satisfiiction to the assembly 
cf the people, that the decem^irate was allowed to continue another 
jesr, for the completion of its work. But now the ten patricians abused 
their authority by violent and arbitrary measures; they proceeded 
against their plebeian opponents by fine, imprisonment, banishment, and 
the axe of the executioner ; when a war broke out with the .£qui and 
Yolscians, they put to death an ancient plebeian hero in the field ; and 
continued themselves in <^ce by their own power, after the second year 
iMd passed, and the compiUition of the laws of the Twelve Tables had 
been completed. The general discontent was fanned into revolt by a 
Iweotioas outrage of Appius Claudius, the most illustrious of the decem- 
virs. This man had conceived a passion for the beautiful Virginia, 
daughter of one of the plebeian leaders, and the bride of another. In 
order to gain possession of her, he instructed one of his adherents to 
declare the maiden to be one of his runaway slaves, and to claim her as 
his property before the judgment-seat of the decemvirs. Appius Clan* 
dias heard the daim in the forum, in the presence of a great muUitBde of 
the peof^ ; but scarcely had he, by his decision, put Virginia into the 
power of the appellant, when her father hastened to the spot and pfaing* 
tdakmfe into her hesirt* Thajdebeians dow sdaed upon the AventJM 

76 IHB AJrcmvT wobu). 

hil]| and insisted with threats upon the expulsion of the deoeniTin and 
the restoration of the old system. Thej obtained both : Appios Qaodios 
destroyed himself in prison, another of the dec^Tirs was executed, and 
the rest expiated their crimes by perpetual exile. The laws of the 
Twelve Tables, however, remained in operation, and became the basis of 
the Roman code. 
S 104. Shortly after this, the plebeians succeeded in having it 
enacted, that the two classes might contract lawful marriages 
''' ^ with each other, without the children of such unions foifeit- 

ing any of the privileges of their class ; and they at length proceeded to 
daim a participation in the consulate. But this demand was resisted by 
the patricians with their whole strength ; and when, at last, the plebeians 
prevented the raising of levies for military service, they declared that 
they would rather have no more consuls than agree to the admission of 
the plebeians to the office. At length it was arranged, that three or four 
military tribunes, with the authority of consuls, should be 
chosen every year from both classes, as leaders of the army 
and chief magistrates. This arrangement lasted for some centuries. 
But it occasionally happened that the patrician party gained the upper 
hand, and then consuls would be again elected for a few years, or the 
office of military tribune would remain unfilled. To make amends for 
their loss, the patricians instituted the office of censors. Theee^ two in 
number, had the keeping of the lists in which every Roman was entered, 
according to his property, as senator, knight, or citizen; they superintend- 
ed the buildmg of temples, streets, and bridges, and exercised a censorial 
supervision, by virtue of which they might deprive men of vicious lives 
of the privileges of their dass. 


S 105. Whilst these struggles were going on within the dty, the 
Roman army was successfully engaged against the enemy. Since the 
regulation that the citizens should receive pay during war, the troope 
could continue longer in the field. After extending their territories on 
the south, they turned their whole force against the Etruscans, and, under 
the command of Camfllus, subdued, after a siege of ten 
years, the hostile ci^ of Yeii, the inhalntants of which were, 
either killed or reduced to slavery. The haughty general, who had drawn 
upon himself the hatred of the plebeians by his splendid triumph ibd une- 
qual distribution of the booty, withdrew voluntarily into exile when sum- 
moned by the tribunes of the people to answer for hb conduct, and by 
this means deprived the state of his aid at the very moment it was most 

1 106. For it was about this time that the Gauls, in the neighborhood 


«f the Po^ croised tlie Apenninefl and laid siege to the Etruscan dij of 
Odaiiim. The inhabitants tamed for assistance to the Romansi who^ 
however, contented themselves with sending an embassy to effect a re- 
CQQciliation. When this fitiled of success, the ambassadors took part in the 
contest, and killed one of the leaders of the Gallic army. Tlds outrage 
of the rights of nations inflamed the anger of the Gauls. They left 
Qdsium, advanced by rapid marches upon Borne, and gave the force 
sent to oppose them so> complete an overthrow at the river Allia^ that 
only a few fugitives saved themselves across the Tiber in Yeii ; ^and the 
day of the battle was ever after distinguished by a black mark in the 
BomiUi Calendar, and observed as a time of fasting and prayer. Borne 
itself, after being deserted by the women and children, fell without 
resistance into the hands of the enemy. The Gauls burnt the empty 
city to the ground, slaughtered about eighty old men in the forum, who 
were desirous of devoting themselves as expiatory sacrifices, and then 
kud si^e to the Capitol, whither those who were capable of bearing 
anns had withdrawn themselves. The garrison, however, under the 
command of the heroic Marcus Manlius, making a gallant resistance, and 
the ranks of the Gauls being thinned by sickness and hunger, a treaty 
was entered into, after the siege had continued seven months, by which 
the Gauls consented to withdraw themselves upon being paid a ransom 
of a thousand pounds weight of gold. It is well known how their inso- 
lent leader, Brennus, increased the stipulated amount by the weight of 
his sword, which he cast into the scale. The story of the banished 
Gamflius pursuing the retreating enemy with a troop of fugitive Bomans, 
and again recovering the spoil from them, is doubted, and may be 
attributed, not without reason, to Boman vanity. 

f 107. After the retreat of the enemy, the Bomans were so dupirited 
. that they had not courage to rebuild their ci^, but wished to settle them- 
selves in the empty town of Yeii. It was only with difficulty that the 
patricians prevented the execution of this project, and that no similar 
purpose might again be entertained, the houses in Yeii were given up to 
the people to be pulled down. Scarcely had Bome been hastily rebuilt 
with narrow and crooked streets, and small dwelling-houses, when the 
patricians again asserted the whole of their claims, and in particular re- 
vived the ancient laws of debtor and creditor in all their ancient severity. 
The preserver of. the capitol, M. Manlius (Capitolinus), took the part of 
the oppressed and impoverished plebeians ; but incurred the enmity of 
those of his own order to such an extent by doing so, that, under the 
frivolous pretext that he was attempting to gain the kingly power, he 
was condemned to death, and thereupon cast from the Tarp^ian rock, his 
house leveUed with the ground, and his memory declared 
B. c. 888. infamous. But this severity against the friend of the people 
mused the plebeians from their apathy. Two bold and able tribunes, 

78 m ANcnxT woild. 

Ltdniiu Stolo and L. SeztinS) proposed die three foUowiiig tewi:-* 
1. CenBuIfl shall be again chosen, but one of them shall alirays be a ple- 
beian. 2. No citizen shall hold oKHPe than 500 acres of pnMic land in lease; 
the remainder shall be distribated in small portions, among the pleMaaa 
as their own property. 8. The interest alreadj paid upon debts shall be 
deducted from the capital snm, and the residne shall be paid in die 
conrse of three years. 

These proposals were resisted to the utmost by the patricians, for the 
space #f ten years ; bnt all their efforts proved onayailing against the 
firmness of the tribunes, who preyented the election of officers and the 
military levies. The proposids became laws, and the privileges of the 
patricians received a severe shock. It is true that they still retained 
ezdnsive possession of the priesthood and certain other dignities ; but in 
the course of a few decades, the plebeians were admitted to these offices 
also, so that a perfect equality between the two dasses shordy followed. 
This dvil concord, to whidi Gamfllus a short, time before his deadi 
dedicated a temple, brought with it aperiod of dvic virtae and heroic 



f 108. After the Bomans had exercised their military prowess in some 
successful engagements with the wandering hordes of the Gaols, they 
attempted to subdue the neighboring tribes. Among these the waiUke 
and freedom-loving Sdmnites, who dwdt amidst the Idfty ridges of the 
Apennines, gave them die greatest trouble, and diey were forced to cany 
on die war against them, almost without intermission, for more than 
sev^^ years. The inhabitants of Capua and the Camp^ian plain, who 
were unable to withstand the hostile attadu of the warl^e Sibnnites, and 
who turned to the Bomans for assistance, were the occasion of the war. 
At first, the Bomans refused them assistance ; but the Capuans having 
recognised their authority, and placed themselves entirdy under their 
protection, they mardied into the field and defeated the enemy with 
great courage, at Come, near Mount Ganms. 

S 109. Shordy after this, the Bomans found themsdves 

menaced with a war by the Latins, who had hitherto been 

thehr allies. These were no longer disposed to recognize Borne as the 

bead of the confederatioo, but required a share in the senate, the oonsol- 

ale, and all offices. Upon this, the Bomans, who were not inclined to 

HI8T0BT or Bom. 70 

jUa to flieee demandBi conduded a haslj peace and alliance with the 
Sfainflw, that thej mi^t turn their anna againet the nearer 
enemy. When the annj was at the foot of Yesnyius, the 
eottsol Manliw Torqatoa forbade any skirmishing. In defiance of this '^ , /^ . 
command, his valiant son made an excursion against the enemy, and 
orercame them, but was condemned to death for disobedience by his in- 
flexible father, v The battle of Yesayius was determined in 
fayor of the Romans by the patriotism of the plebeian con- 
sol, Dedns Mns, who, haying had himself deyoted to death by a priest, 
enveloped himself in a white robe, and, mounting on horseback, plunged 
among the thickest of the eneiby ; whereupon the Latins, together with 
their neighbors, the Yolsd, JBqui, and H^mici, submitted themselyes, 
and were reoeiyed, with diflferent priyileges, as the allies of the Romans. 
In this capacity, ihey were obliged to perform military service in the 
Roman army. 
f 110. The success of the Romans awakened the jealousy of the Sdm- 
nites. Quarrels respecting boundaries led to a renewal of 
hostilities, in which the Romans at first had the advantage, 
tin the imprudent advance of tiie consuls, Yetdrius and Posihdmius, into ^ / . > ( ^ ^ < > 
the Candinian passes, brought the army into such a desperate position, / ' 
that it was obliged to surrender to the hostile general, Pontius, who had 
Bommnded it on every side, and after giving up its weapons, to pass 
ignominiously under the yoke. The senate, howeyer, with an unworthy 
equivocation, declared the treaty that their generals had concluded in 
tibeir necessity with Pontius to be inyalid, and delivered up the consnlsy 
at their own request, in chams to the S^bmites. The generals who suc- 
ceeded them, especially the vigcHrous Papirius Cursor and Fabius Mdxi- 
mus, strained every nerve to wipe away the disgrace ; and their endeayors 
were crowned wiUi such success, that, after a few years, the Simnltes, 
being no longer able to resist the attacks of the Romans, were obliged to 
look around them for assistance. They united themselves with the Um- 
brians, the Gauls, and Etruscans, who were also threatened by Rome's 
love of conquest ; and, for the sake of being closer to their new allies, 
they quitted their own country and marched into Umbxia. 
But the battle of Sent(num, which was decided in fayor of 
the Romans by the self-oblation of the younger Deoius Mus, destroyed 
the kst hopes of the allies. Their great general, Pontius, fell shortly 
afterwards into the hands of the Romans, and was put to a yiolent death. 
It was in yain that the sacred band of the Sdmnites once more tried 
their strength and their swords against the Romans ; Cnrins Dentdtua 
gave them a second overthrow, in which the Samnite youth, the pride of 
^ nation, moistened the fiehl of battle with their Uood. The Semites 
B. tts. '^ ^^ confederates, the Umbrians, Etruscans, and the Sa- 
ndman Gaols, were compelled to acknowledge the supremacy 
of Borne, and to serve as allies in her army. 


§ 111. During the war with the Sdmnitesy the rich, effeminate, and 
oowardlj Tarentioes had behaved in an equivocal manner^ and insulted 
a Roman ambassador. Scarcely therefore had the Bomans completelj 
mastered their enemies, than thej tamed their anns against Lower Italj. 
Hereupon, the Tarentines called the warlike Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, to 
their assistance, who eagerly seized this opportunity for conquest and 
military renown, and embarked with his forces for Italy. Pyrrhus was 
victorious in two engagements, partly from the admirable 
disposition he made of his army, and partly by means of his 
elephants, an animal with which the Bomans were unacquainted ; and 
the senate seemed not unwilling to conclude a disadvantageous peace 
with the conqueror, who was marching upon Rome. But the blind Ap- 
pius Claudius opposed this design, and induced the assembly to reply, 
that no proposals for peace could be entertained till Pyrrhus had quitted 
Italy. The admiration of the king, who had hitherto only been acquainted 
with the degenerate manners of the Greeks, was not less excited by the 
wisdom and dignified demeanor of the senate, and the civic virtues, 
honesty, and simplicity of the Boman generals, Fabricius and Curius 
Dentdtus, than by the heroism, the bravery, and the warlike skill of the 

A short time after, Pyrrhus was called into Sicily by the Syracuaans, 
to assist them agamst the Carthaginians. A love of adventure and con- 
quest induced him to accept the invitation ; but he fiuled in his phui of 
making himself master of the beautiful island, and was compelled by 
the Sicilian Greeks to return. He again marched towards Tarentom, 
but suffered such a defeat at Maleventum (afterwards called 
Beneventum), from Curius Dentdtus, that he found himself 
' obliged to make a hasty retreat* Pyrrhus fell, a few years afterwards, 
before Argos, a ci^ of Peloponnesus ; and about the same 
^' ^ * time, the Tarentines lost their fleet, and a portion of their 
treasures of art, and were made tributaries by the Bomans. The fall of 
Tarentum was followed by the subjugation of the whole of Lower Italy, 
in the course of which the Greek states were treated with peculiar 

O. THE FIB8T PUNIO WAB. (B. C 268-241.) 

S 112. Many centuries before, some Phoenician emigrants had founded 
the trading city of Carthage, on the north coast of Africa (§ 14), which 
soon attained to power and opulence by the skill and enterprising spirit 
of its inhabitants. The Carthaginians carried on an extensive traffic 
with all the lands on the coast of the Mediterranean, established tributary 


colonial cities in Sicilj and tbe soutli of Spain, and acquired such 
wealth, that they laid out the land in the vicinity of their own city 
after the manner of a garden, and embellished it with innumerable mag- 
nificent villas. Bat civic freedom, mental cultivation, and nobility of 
mind were possessions foreign to the Carthaginians. The government 
was in the hands of a purse-proud aristocracy, art and literature were 
little esteemed, their religious system was so barbarous as to permit the 
sacrifice of human victims, and their cunning and falsehood so notorious, 
that the " Punic faith " was proverbial.* Long was the contest between 
the Carthaginians and Syracusans, for^ the possession of the island of 
Sicily. At the time that the gallant adventurer Agdthocles had raised 
himself from the humble condition of a potter to the empire of Syra- 
cuse, this contest was carried on with such changes of fortune, 
that Syracuse was besieged by the Carthaginians, and Car- 
thage by the army of Agdthocles, at the same time. The latter made 
himself master of the north coast of Africa, and assumed the title of king. 
But a change soon took place : his army was destroyed, and he himself 
obliged to fly secretly to Syracuse, where his vital powers were so wasted 
by a poison that was administered to him, that the hoary tyrant consented 
to his own death by fire. His death gave rise to a state of lawless vio- 
lence in Sicily, owing to his Campanian soldiers (M4mer- 
tines) having seized upon the town of Messina on thSir way 
home, slaughtered or driven away the male part of the inhabitants, and 
then filled the island with robbery and devastation. In this distress, the 
Syracusans elected the valiant Hiero for their king. He marched, in con- 
junction with the Carthaginians, against the IVIamertines, defeated them, 
and laid siege to their city Messina. The IMdmertines were shortly re- 
duced to such extremities that they applied to the Romans for assist- 

§113. The Romans did not long hesitate to enter into a defensive, 
alliance with the rapacious Mdmertines, and to gain by this means an op- 
portunity of subjecting the rich and beautiful island, although they saw 
plainly that the jealous Carthaginians, who were already in possession of 
the citadel of Messina, would oppose them with all their strength. A 
Boman army shortly after succeeded in driving back the disunited enemy 
iiom the walls of the city, in bringing Hiero into an alliance with Rome, 
and depriving the Carthaginians of the important town of Agrig^ntum. 
Upon this, the Romans built a fleet afler the model of a shipwrecked 
Punic vessel, and won the first naval engagement, by means 
of the consul Dufllius, at Mylae, near the Lipdrian islands. 
Encouraged by this success, they now determined to deprive tlie Gartha- 

*Ifc Bhonld be remembered, however, especially in reference to this chai^ of bad faith, 
tttfcmoet of onr knowledge of the Carthaginians is derived from their ancient and inveto* 
nto enemies, the Romans. AnLEi, 


ginians of th^r supremacj at sea, and passed over to Africa with a fleet 
and a large armj, under the conunand of the heroic oonsal B^gulus. 
B^golos gradually approached, conquering and devastating, to the gates 
of Carthage. The terrified Carthaginians sued for peace, but when thej 
found the 6onditions offered them bj the haughty conquei^>E too severe, 
they prepared for resistance, increased the number of their mercenary 
troops, and committed the conduct of the defence to an experienced gene- 
ral, the Spartan Xantfppus. This leader gave the Romans so severe a 
. defeat at the seaport town of Tunes, that only 2,000 of their splendid 
army escaped ; the others were either killed or made prisoners of war, 
together with the consul R^gulus. 

§ 114. This blow was followed by a succession of misfortunes: two 
fleets were destroyed by tempests, so that, for some years, the Romans 
renounced all thoughts of success by sea ; on land, they only ventured 
upon trifling engagements, from fear of the elephants, of which they 
themselves never made use, though the battle at Tunes had been decided 
by them. In a few years, however, they recovered themselves; thej 
made a successful sally from Pandrmus (Palermo), drove 
back the Carthaginians, and took possession of all their ele- 
phants. Hereupon the Carthaginians sent R^gulus to Rome to negotiate 
an exchange of prisoners, afler they had obtained from him an oath, that, 
if not successful, he would return to captivity. Begulus advised the 
senate not to consent to the exchange, on the ground that it would be 
disadvantageous to their country ; and then, true to his oath, returned to 
Carthage. Upon this, the Carthaginians were greatly enraged, and pat 
Begulus to death in a most barbarous manner. 

Victory remained for some years dubious. At length, the admirable 
Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barcas, made himself master of the cita- 
del £ryx, and overlooked from a lofty rock all the movements of the 
Romans. But this was only possible so long^ as there was no Roman 
fleet to prevent the communication with the sea. As soon as 200 ships 
had been fitted out at Rome, by private contributions, and by employing 
the treasures in the temples, and the consul Lutdtius Catulus 

B Cm 242> 

had defeated the enemy's fleet at the JEgdtian islands, the 
Carthaginians were compelled to consent to a peace, in which they 
renounced their claims upon Sicily, and promised to pay a large sum to 
defray the expenses of the war. 

6. THE SECOND PUNIC WAE. (b. C. 218-202.) 

S 115. Whilst the Carthaginians, after the peace, were engaged for 
three years in a frightful war with their rebellious mercenaries, the 

Romans were enlarging their territory in every direction. 

They transformed Sicily into the first Roman province ; took 
possession of Corsica and Sardinia after a severe struggle with the semi- 


barbarous inhabitants; and wreste4 the island of Corcjfra (Corfu) and a 
few maritime towns from the piratical Illjrians. But the hardest con- 
flict they had to sustain was with the Cisalpine Gauls, who, supported by 
their brethren in the Alps, had made a destructive inroad 
upon Etruria. After the Romans had overthrown their 
brave, but badly-armed enemies, in two bloody engagement^, the fertile 
regions on either side of the Po were erected into a Roman province, 
under the name of Gallia Cisalpina, and connected with Rome by two 
military roads. 

§ 116. In the mean while, the Carthaginians, at first under the com- 
mand of the brave Hamilcar Barcas, and after his death under that of 
the prudent Hdsdrubal, extended their conquests into the richly metal- 
liferous region of South Spain, and established an admirable military sta- 
tion in New Carthage (Carthag^na). This aroused the fear and envy of 
the Romans, and induced them to enter into a defensive alliance with the 
Greek colony of Saguntum, on the north-east coast of Spain. Hdsdrubal 
soon died, and his place was supplied by Hamilcar's son, Hannibal, who 
was then twenty-five years of age, and who joined the courage and mili- 
tary talents of his father to the prudence of his predecessor, and who, 
whilst yet a boy, had sworn eternal hatred against the Romans upon the 
paternal altar. Eager to measure himself against the Romans, he laid 
siege to the confederate town of Sagdntum. It was in vain that the 
Rinnan envoys warned him to desist ; he referred them to the Cartha- 
ginian senate, but in the mean while pressed the town so closely, that he 
took it in eight months. The most resolute of the inhabitants collected 
their goods together in the market-place, set them on fire, and threw 
themselves into the flames ; the others died by the sword of the enemy, 
or beneath the ruins of their houses. Saguntum was reduced to a 
heap of rubbish. The Roman embassy, when too late, declared war in 

S 117. It was in the spring of the year 218 b. c. that Hannibal crossed 
the Ebro, subjected the tribes in that neighborhood ; and then, with an 
army of 60,000 men, and thirty-seven elephants, penetrated across the 
Pyrenees into Gaul, whilst his brother Hasdrubal, with an equal number 
of troops, held Spain in subjection. After Hannibal, had forced a passage 
through South Gaul and over the Rhone, he commenced his ever-memo- 
rable passage of the Alps (probably by the way of Mount Cenis.) In the 
midst of perpetual contests with the savage inhabitants, the soldiers 
dimbed over lofty mountains covered with snow and ice, without road 
and without shelter, — over precipices and gulfs. Nearly half the troops 
and the whole of the beasts of burden were destroyed. But these losses 
were soon replaced, when, after a^march of fourteen days, Hannibal 
arrived in Upper Italy. For no sooner was the consul Cornelius Scipio 
defeated and severely wounded, in an ajSair of cavalry on the Ticfnus, and 


his fellow-consul, the imprudent Semprdnius, completely routed at the 
rashlj-undertaken battle of Trdbia, than the Cisalpine Gauls joined 
Hannibars standard. After a short rest in Liguria, he 
crossed the rugged Apennines, a most toilsome march, (in 
the course of which he lost an eye from inflammation), and continued 
his devastating* course into Etriiria. The consul Flaminius encountered 
him at the Lake Trasimenus, but by his inconsiderate rashness sustained 
a total defeat, in which he himself lost his life, and his soldiers were either 
killed or drowned in the waters of the lake. The road to Rome was 
now open to the victor ; but he determined upon marching into Apulia, 
for the purpose of inducing the inhabitants of Lower Italy to revolt. 

§ 118. It was at this time, that a man opposed himself to the Cartlia- 
ginian general, who, by his prudence and circumspection, occasioned him 
many difficulties, — the dictator Fabius Mdximus, the Delayer. He 
avoided an open engagement, but followed the hostile army foot by foot, 
and turned every unfortunate movement to his own advantage. He 
reduced it to such a perilous position in Campdnia, by taking possession 
of the mountain heights, that Hannibal was only able to save himself by 
an artifice, — driving oxen, with bundles of lighted brushwood tied to 
their horns, up the hill, by which means he deceived the enemy. But 
the discontent of the imprudent people at this lingering mode of warfare, 
^ induced the consul Terentius Varro, in the following year, again to 
hazard an engagement, against the advice of his colleague, Paulus 
^mflius. Hereupon followed the dreadful defeat of the 
Romans at Cannse, where the number of the slain was so 
great, that Hannibal is said to have sent three bushels of rings to Car- 
thage, which were stripped from the hands of the Roman knights. The 
high-minded Paulus iEmflius was found among the slain. The day of 
the battle of Cannae, like that of the defeat at the Allia, (§ 105,) was 
marked in the Roman calendar as a time of prayer and fasting, ^e 
immovable senate, however, preserved its courage and composure ; all 
who fled at Cannse were declared infamous, and expelled from the 

§ 119. Hannibal did not consider it advisable to advance at once upon 
Rome with his shattered forces, but established his winter quarters in 
the rich and luxurious city of Cdpua. But it was here that his rugged 
warriors were rendered effeminate and lost their love of war. The 
Romans, on the other hand, made new preparations with extraordinary 
rapidity, so that, in the spring, they were able to send fresh troops into 
the field, whilst in the mean time Hannibal's army had received no re- 
inforcements from Carthage. Two successful engagements 
restored the courage of the Romans, and put them in a posi- 
tion to chastise the towns of Sicily and Lower Italy, which, after the 
battle of Canute, had revolted to Hannibal. Marcellus went over to 


SicOy and laid dege to Syracuse ; which defended itself with so much 
courage and success, by the aid of the ingenious mathema- 
tician and philosopher, Archimedes, that it was only by the 
greatest efforts, and after a siege of three years, that Mar- 
cellus could make himself master of the place. The revenge 
of the Romans was fearful : the soldiers plundercKl and slaughtered ; 
Archimedes was slain at his studies, the finest works of art were sent to 
Borne, and the glory of Syracuse was gone forever. Cdpua experienced 
a similar fate. The place was closely besieged by two Roman legions ; 
the terrified inhabitants implored the assistance of Hannibal, who ad- 
vanced upon Rome, in the hope that the Romaos would hasten to the 
relief of their capital, and relinquish the siege. But one legion, in con- 
junction with a few other troops, was sufficient to compel 
Hannibal to retreat, and the Cdpuans, reduced by hunger, 
were obliged to surrender to the other. Twenty-seven senators died by 
their own hands, and fifty-three by the axe of the executioner ; the citi- 
zens were reduced to slavery, and their property bestowed upon foreign 
colonists. The treasures of Cdpua were sent to Rome, all her privileges 
were destroyed, and from henceforth the city was governed by a Roman 
prefect Two years later, Tarentum fell again into the hands of the 
Romans. Fabiiis Mdximus reduced the inhabitants to slavery, and took 
possession of the treasures, but suffered the statues of the ''Angry Grods " 
to remain. Fear soon brought all the revolted states back to the 
Romans, and Hannibal's position, without money, without reinforce- 
ments, and without supplies, became every day more precarious. 

§ 120. Spain was now Hannibal's only hope, since he was deserted by 
his ungrateful country. It was there, that Hannibal's brother, Hdsdni- 
bal, after having opposed the Romans for a long time with success^ was 
at length reduced to such straits by the young and high-spirited Cornelius 
Sdpio, that he was unable to remain in the country any longer, and con- 
sequently resolved upon uniting himself with his brother, who had sum- 
moned him into Italy. Following Hannibal's passage across the Alps, 
he marched into Upper Italy, and then directed his course 
B. c 30S. towards the coast of the Adriatic Sea, with the purpose of 
joining his brother, who was encamped in Lower Italy, opposite the con- 
sul Claudius Nero. But the daring resolution of this consul to effect a 
secret junction with his colleague, Livius Salindtor, by a rapid march 
upon Umbria, led to the death of Hdsdrubal and the destruc- 
tion of his army, at the river Metdurus, before Hannibal had 
received notice of his approach. In the bloody head of Hdsdrubal, which 
the consul, on his return, threw into the enemy's camp, the dispirited 
general recognized the ^' fearful fate of Carthage." 

S 121. It was in misfortune that Hannibal displayed the real greatness 
of his military talents. Without help from without, and without allies 


in Italy, he still maintained himself, with the remains of his armj, for 
some jears, in the extreme south, against the superior force of the ene- 
my. But when the yictorious Sdpio returned, after the subjugation of 
Spain, passed over from Sicily into Africa, with some fugitives and 
volunteers, and, setting fire in the neighborhood of Utica to 
the enemy's camp, which consisted of tents made of straw 
and reeds, attacked them during the confusion, Hannibal was recalled to 
defend his country. Sorrowful and angry he quitted the land of his 
renown. It was in vain that he endeavored, during a conference, to 
persuade his opponent to conclude a treaty, by representing the instability 
of fortune. Scipio would not listen to the proposal ; where- 
upon the battle of Zama followed, and ended in the defeat 
of the Carthaginians. Hannibal himself now advised a peace, hard as 
the conditions were. The Carthaginians were obliged to take an oath 
never to commence war without the consent of the Romans, they were 
compelled to renounce their claims upon Spain, to give up their ships of 
war, and to pledge themselves to pay an enormous sum to defray the 
expenses of the contest. Afler burning the Carthaginian fleet, and 
investing Masinfssa, a friend of the Romans, with the kingdom of 
Kumidia, Sdpio, (afterwards called Africdnus), returned to Rome, where 
a splendid triumph awaited him. Hannibal, on the other hand, was 
obliged, a short time after, to leave his home, a persecuted refugee, and 
carried his hatred of the Romans to the court of the Syrian king^ 


$ 122. About this time. King Philip II. reigned over Macedonia and a 
part of Greece. He had entered into an alliance with Hannibal, and 
made war on the Romans and their confederates in Greece and Asia 
IDnor. It was for this reason that the Romans now turned their arms 
against him. * They sent their general, Flamfnius, a clever man, and one 
who took an interest in Greek art and literature, into Greece ; he sum- 
moned the states to freedom, and then gave the Maceddnians an over- 
. throw at the Dogsheads (Cynosc^phalffi) a range of hills in 

Thessaly. By this, Philip saw himself compelled to a 
* peace, by which he acknowledged the independence of Greece, gave up 
his fleet and a great sum of money, and renounced the right of making 
war on his own account. To gratify the vanity of the Greeks, the 
subtle Flaminius caused the deliverance of Greece from the ]Maced6nian 
yoke to be proclaimed with magnificent ceremonies at the Isthmian 
games. But it was soon evident that the Romans were quite as eager 
to assume the government of Greece as ever the Macedonians had been. 
It was for this reason that many of the Greek tribes, and in particular 
the warlike JSt61ians, who had united themselves in a confederation 


•imikr to thatof tlie AchAlans, applied to the Syrian king^ Antiochus IH. 
for aid, (§ 90). Aatfoehus, at whose court Hannibal was living, yielded 
to the demand ; but instead of joining Philip IL and attacking the Romans 
with united forces, he squandered his time idlj in feasting and luxury, 
and gave offence to the Macedonian king ; whilst the Romans marched 
rapidly into Thessaly, and after storming the pass of Therm<5pyle under 
Forcius Cato, compelled the Syrian king to retreat into Asia. But he was 
immediately followed thither by a Roman army, under the command of 
Cornelias Scipio, with his brother Africdnus at his side, for counsellor. 

A murderous engagement took place at Magnesia, near mount 
Sipj^lus, which terminated to the disadvantage of Antiochus, who was 
compelled to purchase a peace by the cession of Western Asia, this side 
of the Taurus, and by the payment of an enormous sum for the expenses 
of the war. The rapacious JGtdlians were also subdued and punished 
in their purses and their treasures of art. 

Hannibal, threatened with being delivered up to the Romans, fled to 
Prusias, king of Blth^nia ; but when this prince could no longer venture 
to defend him, he swallowed poison on a lonely hill, to escape 
failing into the hands of his mortal enemies. At the same 
time, his great antagonist, Scipio, died at his estate in Lower Italy, far 
away from Rome, whence he had been driven by the malice of his 
enemies. To make this year thoroughly fatal, Fhilopce^men was lOso 
compelled to drink the cup of poison (§ 88). 

§ 123. Perseus, the wicked son of Philip 11., made his way to the 
B£aced<5nian throne by crimes, inasmuch as he provoked the suspicious 
father to murder his younger son Demetrius, a noble prince, and well 
disposed to the Romans. Perseus was scarcely in possession of his 
crown, before his hatred to the Romans induced him to begin a new war. 
His enormous wealth enabled him to make vast preparations, but avarice 
and perverse measures soon occasioned his fall. After the victor^ 
obtained by the expert tactician and accomplished man, 
"" ^ Paulus ^mflius, at Pydna, Perseus fell into the power of 

the Romans, was led in triumph, together with his treasures and his cap- 
tive children and friends, through the streets of the mistress of the 
world ; and shortly after, 'ended his life in solitary confinement Maee* 
ddnia was divided into four provinces, and placed under a republican* 
form of government ; 1000 noble Achdians, among whom was the great 
historical writer, Poiybius, wero conveyed to Rome as hostages, on the 
plea of a secret understanding with Perseus. Twenty years later, a 
pretended son of Perseus raised the standard of rebellion. This gave the 
Romans the wished-for opportunity of converting Maced<5ni4 
a. o. 14S. j^^ ^ Roman province, after the subjection of the impostor 
by Metellus. Metellus had not yet quitted the conquered territory^ 
when the Ach^ian league also took up arms to rid themselves of Bome^a 


oppressive authority. Metellus oyerthrew the Ach^uans who marehed 
against him in two engagements ; but was obliged to leave the terminar 
tion of the war to his rude successor, Miimmius, who 
stormed Corinth, and burnt it to the ground. The inhalut- 
ants were either slain or reduced to slavery, the treasures of art destroyed 
or sent to Rome, and Greece was converted into a Soman province, 
under the name of Achdia. The prosperity of the once flourishing states 
disappeared beneath the pressure of Roman taxation, and every spark 
of the patriotism and love of hberty of a former age was extinguished. 
The Spartans continued their rude trade of war as mercenaries, whilst 
the Athenians sought a subsistence among the Romans, as artists and 
men of learning, as players and dancers, as poets and beaux etpritt; but 
they were treated with little respect. 

§ 124. In the mean while, Carthage had again recovered a portion <^ 
her prosperity. This reawakened the envy of the Romans, and gave 
emphasis to Cato's expression, '^that Carthage must be destroyed.** 
Masinissa, king of Numidia, relying upon Roman protection, enlaiged 
his own territories at the expense of those of the Carthaginians ; and at 
last, irritated them so much by perpetual quarrels about boundaries, that/ 
they took up arms to defend their own possessions. This was looked 
upon in Rome as an infringement of the peace, and occasioned a declara- 
tion of war. The Carthaginians implored indulgence, and delivered up, 
at the demand of the Romans, first, 300 respectable hostages, and after- 
wards, their ships and weapons. But when this was followed by a de- 
cree that Carthage should be burnt to the ground, and a new city erected 
farther from the coast, the inhabitants determined rather to perish 
beneath the ruins of their houses than submit to such a disgrace. A 
spirit of courage and patriotism took possession of all sexes and condi- 
tions. The town presented the appearance of a camp ; the temples w»e 
converted into smithies for forging arms, and every thing was made sub- 
servient to the lofty purpose of saving the state. Even the veteran 
legions of Rome were unable to withstand such enthusiasm as this. 
They were repeatedly repulsed and reduced to a precarious condition, 
until the younger Scipio, the able son of Faulus ^milius, who had been 
adopted into the family of Scipio during childhood, was appointed to the 
consulate before the lawful age, with dictatorial power. After a most 
desperate resistance, and a murderous conflict for six days in the streets, 
it was he who at length succeeded in reducing the city, after it had 
suflered all the extremities of famine. The rage of the soldiers, and a 
conflagration that lasted for seventeen days, converted Carthage, the once 
proud mistress of the Mediterranean, into a heap of ruins; 50,000 
inhabitants, whom the sword had spared, were carried into slavery by 
the conqueror, who from this time bore the name of the younger 
AfricAnus. The terrUory of Carthage was turned into a Roman 


province, called Africa, and the rebuilding of the citj denounced with a 


§ 125. The acquaintance of the Romans with Greece was attended 
with the most important consequences to their civilization, manners, and 
mode of living. Tlie works of Greek art and literature that had been 
taken fi-om the conquered towns, produced, in the more susceptible part 
of the nation, a taste for cultivation, and awakened a fresh class of feel- 
ings. A powerful party, at the head of which stood the Scipios, Mar- 
cellus, Fluminius, and manj others, patronized the Greek philosophy, 
poetry, and art ; cherished and supported the learned men, philosophers, 
and poets, of that nation ; and sought to transport the spirit and language 
of the conquered people to Rome, together with their works of art 
Under the protection of the Scipios, Roman poets wrote verses in imita- 
tion of their Greek prototypes. This was the case with their writers of 
comedy, Fkutus and Terence, the latter of whom is said to have been 
assisted in his compositions by the younger Scipio and his friend Laelius. 
Since, however, the minds of the Romans were directed entirely to the 
practical, to the conduct of war, the government of the state, and the 
administration of justice, intellectual culture never could attain to the 
same height among them as with the Greeks : the people found more 
pleasure in spectacles addressed to the senses, rough gladiatorial com- 
bats, and the contests of wild animals, than in the productions of the 

. But literatare and the arts were not the only things that were borrow- 
ed; elegance and refinement in the arrangement of dwellings, luxury 
and extravagance in meals and dress, politeness and suavity in social 
intercourse, sensual enjoyments and luxurious pleasures, were copied by 
the Romans from the Greeks and Orientals. The victors inherited the 
vices and excesses of the conquered people, along with their wealth and 
dvilization. An opposite party, with Tordus Cato at its head, earnestly 
combated the new system that threatened to destroy the ancient manners, 
discipline, simplicity, moderation, and hardihood. The severity with 
which this remarkable man, in his office of censor, opposed the new 
direction of things, has made his name proverbial. By his aid, the 
Greek philosophers were banished from Rome ; the schools of oratory 
dosed ; the dissolute festivals of Bacchus, and other religious customs 
derived from abroad, interdicted ; the Scipios punished as corrupters of 
morals ; and laws proclaimed against luxury and excess. For the pur- 
pose of counteracting the influence of the new literature,* he himself 
wrote works upon agriculture, the basis of Rome's former greatness, and 
upon the people of ancient Italy, whose simplicity and purity of morals 
be wished to contrast with the commencing degeneracy of his time« But 


the example of Cato, who learned Grreek in his old age, ahows that tin 
rigid attachment to the ancient and traditional invariablj gives way be- 
fore new efforts at progress. 


§ 126. In proportion as the Boman territory increased in extent, the 
heroism, the dvic virtnes, and the patriotic feelings on which Rome's 
greatness had been built, disappeared. Fresh aristocratic families were 
formed from the rich and the illustrious, who, like the patricians of old, 
monopolized all honors and offices. Thej sought perpetually for new 
wars, the conduct of which was given to them alone, for the purpose of 
increasing, by victories and triumphs, the renown they had inherited from 
their ancestors ; and the provinces were exhausted to the end that they 
might give themselves up to all kinds of pleasure and enjoyment, with- 
out lessening the wealth on which the power and splendor of their fami* 
lies were founded. As proconsuls and proprsetors, they conducted the 
government and the administration of justice in the ccmquered provinces, 
with a host of writers and subordinates, and kept their own interest more 
in view than the welfare of the governed. The wealthy members of the 
knightly class undertook, as farmers-general of the revenue, for a oertaifi 
sum they paid into the exchequer, to collect all taxes, imposts, and tdls, 
and then sought, by the most shameless exactions practised by their toll- 
eollectors, receivers, and under-farmers, to indemnify themselves for that 
outlay by an enormous profit. What the officials and revenue-farmers 
left, was appropriated by a tribe of hungry merchants and usurers, so 
that a few decades sufficed to ruin the prosperity of a R4Mnan colony. 
It is very true, that there existed a law which gave the abused provin- 
cials the right of impe^hing their oppressors on the expiration of their 
term of office ; but as the judges all belonged to the same wealthy and 
noble families, the criminal generally escaped free, or was fined in a 
small amount, for the sake of appearances. 

Single provinces would occasionally attempt to shake off this oppres- 
sive yoke, and to regain their freedom by dint of arms. The first ex- 
ample of such a revolt was given by the inhabitants of the Pyrenean 
peninsula, and above all others, by the heroic race of Spain, whose chief 
dty was Numdntia. For five years, they set all the efforts of the Bo- 
Inans at defiance, and extorted a treaty of peace and an acknowledgment 
of their independence, from a consul whom they had inclosed in the h6L» 
lows of their mountains. But the senate did not confirm the treaty, and 

BI9K»tT OF BOMS. 91 

belMiTed as they had done in the affair of the CaudiiiiaD passes ($ 110). 
li was onlj when the jouDger Seipio^ the eenqueror of Carthage, put 
himself at the head of the srmj, aad restored the abandoned energy and 
diseipUiie of the ewnp, thi^ Numdntiay after a desperate de- 
fence, was eottpeUed by hvager to sarrender. The citizens 
sseaped from the insults of the Tictors, by heroically killing themselves. 
Scipio destroyed the empty town, the mins of which still look admonidi- 
bgly down npon posterity, a memorial of a magnawimoas straggle for 

§ 127. The new family adstocraey not only fiUed all the offices, and 
exdoded men of inferior birth from posts of honor, but they also pos- 
sessed the whole Qf the arable land, inasmu<^ as they again claimed an 
ezdasive right to the common lands, and got the smaller {arms into their 
hands by purchase, usury, chicanery, and sometimes even by violence. 
By these means, the greatest inequality of property was produced. The 
class of free husbandmen, ttp<m which the ancient strength, honesty, and 
military virtue of Rome was established, disappeared entirely; whilst 
the nobles got possession of immense estates, which they had cultivated 
by hosts of slaves, who had been made prisoners in war. Numbers of 
impoverished tenants, who had been driven from their houses and farms 
by hard-hearted landlords, wandered through the land, a picture of misery 
and distress. 
In the midst of this state of things, the noble tribune of the people, 
Tiberias Qraoehus, (son of Cornelia, daughter of the great 
Scipio Africinus,) presented himself as the defender of op- 
pressed poverty, by proposing a renewal of the agrarian law of Lidnius 
Btolo (§ 107), which enacted that no one should posses more than 500 
acres of the public land, and that the remainder should be distributed to 
necessitous families in small lots, as their own propety. Upon this, the 
noUes raised a dreadful storm, and prevailed upon another tribune to op- 
pose the measure. According to the Roman code, no proposal could 
become law unless all the tmi tribunes were unanimous. It was owing to 
this, that Gracchus allowed himself to be seduced into the illegal course 
of getting his refractory colleague deposed by the people, and thus vio- 
hting the sanctity cf the tribunitial office. This afforded his adversaries 
ground for the suspicion that Gracchus was meditating the overthrow of 
the constitution, for the porpoee of assuming the kingly authority. He 
kit the favor of the misguided people, and was killed in the Capitol, 
together with dOO of his adherents, dwdng a new election of tribunes. 
The people discovered their delusion when it was too late, and erected a 
•tatne in honor of their high-spirited champicm. 

S 12B. This reraU did not deter the younger and more 

able brother, CdUns Qraoehus, ten years afterwards, from 

agitaling aaewlbr the agcarian law, and, in connection with it, £» a com 


lawy (bj which deliveries of com were to be made to the poorer dticeoB 
for a moderate price), and other popular measures. His great eloquenee 
and his philanthropic exertions gained him a powerful party among tlie 
lower dass of the people, whose immediate distress he sought to alleyiate 
bj the making of roads and public woriu. But when, at the instigation 
of hb impetuous friend, Fulvius Flaccus, he proposed that the right 
of Roman citizenship should be extended to the allies, the nobles be- 
came alarmed and tried to destroy him. A dreadful combat took place 
at one of the popular assemblies between the aristocratic party, with the 
consul Opfmius at their head, and the adherents of Gracchus and Ful- 
tius. The latter were defeated : Fulvius, with 8,000 of his companioos, 
was killed, and their bodies thrown into the Tiber. Gracchus fled into 
a wood on the other side of the river, and commanded a slave 
to thrust a sword into his bosom. Their laws and in^tituticms 
were annulled, and their adherents punished with death, imprisonment, 
and banishment The aristocracy were now, more than ever, the rulers 
of the republic 

THE jrOUBTHINB WAB. B. 0. 112-106. 

§ 129. The aristocrats disgraced their government by avarice and C(X^ 
ruption, and renounced all sentiments of honor and justice. Jugurtha, 
the grandson of Masinissa of Numidia, a cunning and ambitious man, 
and experienced in war, trusting to the depravity of morals and the cor- 
ruption prevalent in Rome, put to death the two sons of his uncle, who 
had been made co-heirs with himself, seized upon their states, which had 
been conferred upon them by the Romans, and succeeded, by dint of 
bribing the most influential senators, in retaining possession of his plun- 
der, and heaping crime upon crime with impunity. When at length the 
senate were compelled, by the indignation of the people, to send an army 
into Africa, the Numidian king actually succeeded in producing sudi 
enervation and looseness of discipline among the troops, by bribery and 
seduction, that they were defeated at the first attach, and obliged to pass 
under the yoke. This disgrace produced the greatest exasperation in 
Rome, so that the senate were compelled to adopt more stringent mea- 
sures, in order to appease the discontent of the people, and conciliate the 
outn^ged sentiment of justice, by the punishment of the offender. They 
accordingly despatched the upright Metellus, with fresh troops 
into Africa. Metellus restored the discipline of the army, 
and brought back the military renown of the Romans by successful en- 
gagements and conquests. But the people were so embittered against 


tiie nistocracy, that thej resolved to deprive them of the government hj 
any means. For this purpo^, thej required an intrepid leader ; and the 
aspiring and ambitious C. Marius presented himself, a man of obscure 
condition, who was at that time serving as lieutenant in the army of Me- 
tellas, and who joined courage, the talents of a general, and rude military 
virtue, to rough manners, hatred of the nobles, and contempt for their 
cultivation and refinement. Disgusted at the aristocratic haughtiness of 
his commander, Marius returned to Rome, where he was 
chosen consul by the popular party, and intrusted with the 
conduct of the Jugurthine war. Jugurtha, with all his cunning and in- 
ventive genius, was unable long to withstand the energetic Marius and 
his anny, now hardened by severe discipline. He was conquered, and 
fled to the faithless Bocchus, king of Mauritdnia ; but was delivered up 
by him to the shrewd and dexterous lieutenant Cornelius Sylla, and led 
in triuiftph to Rome, where he was starved to death in prison. 

§ 130. CiMBRi AND Teutones. — Marius had not yet concluded the 
Jogurthine war, when the Cimbri and Teiitones appeared on the borders 
of the Roman empire. They were a northeni people, of Germanic ori* 
gin, and gigantic stature and strength, who had left their country with 
their wives, children, and all their property, to seek for a new habitation. 
They were clad in iron coats of mail and the skins of beasts ; they bore 
shields the height of a man, with long swords and heavy maces. They 
first defeated the Romans in a bloody battle in Carinthia, 
passed through Gaul, devastating and plundering, and, within 
four years, cut to pieces ^ye consular armies on the banks of the Rhone 
and the lake of Geneva. Marius, whom the Romans, against the law, 
bad elected &Te successive times to the consulate, came forward as de- 
liverer. With his army, hardened by the labors of digging and hewing, 
he defeated the Teiitones in a bloody engagement at Aqufe 
Seztise, (Aix in Provence), in South Gaul. In the mean 
time, the Cimbri, in a separate body, had penetrated through the Tyrol 
and the valley of the Adige, into Upper Italy ; but when there, had care- 
lessly given themselves up to the pleasures afforded by the rich country, 
till ^ey suffered a similar frightful overthrow on the plains near Yer- 
O^Us, from Marius, who had joined forces with his colleague Lutdtius 
Cdtulus. The courage of these Germans, who killed themselves and 
their children, to prevent their being reduced to slavery, made the Ro- 
mans tremble. 

1. 100 ^ ^^^' *^^ SOCIAL WAB. — A sixth cousulato rewarded 

Marius, the savior of Italy, the pride and hope of the popular 
party. By his assistance, this party again gained the superiority, which 
induced the aristocracy to array themselves around Cornelius Sylla, a 
politic and ambitions man, and versed in war, who united in himself the 
odtivation and love of art of the nobles, with their vices and excesses. 


Frcmi this time, two powerful parties, the democrats under Marias, and 
the aristocrats under Sylla, stood opposed in arms to each other. 11i6 
former endeavored to strengthen their ranks by attracting thither the 
allies, and for this purpose held out to them the prospect of the Roman 
citizenship. When this was not conceded, the disappointed party took up 
arms for the purpose of freeing themselves from Home, or of compelling 
the cession of the refused privileges. This occasioned the 
perilous social war. All the tribes of Sabelline origin, the 
warlike Sdmnites and Marsians at their head, renounced allegiance to 
the Romans, formed an Italian confederation, and declared Corfininm, 
which was also called Itdlica, chief city of the new alliance. Veteran 
armies marched into the field. In Rome, the people put on mourning 
armed the manumitted slaves, and conferred the privileges of Roman 
citizenship upon the Latins, Etruscans, and Umbrians, who had remained 
faithful, to prevent their joining with the others. The Roman^ were 
successful, after many changes of fortune and many bloody engagements, 
in gradually mastering their opponents. But the ferment was still so 
dangerous, that they thought it advisable to prevent a fresh insurrection, 
by conferring the rights of citizenship upon the whole of the allies. They 
nevertheless restricted the elective rights of the new citizens. 

§ 132. The first war against Mithridates. — The allies were 
scarcely appeased, before the Romans were threatened from the East, 
by an enemy as sagacious as he was bold, — Mithriddtes, king of the 
Pontus, on the Black Sea. Like Hannibal, an enemy of the Romans, 
this warlike prince, who was a good linguist, endeavored to unite the 
Grecian and Asiatic states in a vast confederacy, and to free them from 
the Roman dominion. By his orders, all the Roman subjects (togati) in 
Western Asia, 80,000 in number, were put to death in one frightful day 
of slaughter. At the same time, he seized upon some countries in 
alliance with the Romans, and sent an army into Greece to protect 
Athens, BosiStia, and other states that had joined him. Hereupon the 
Roman senate gave the command against Mithriddtes to 
Sylla, who had distinguished himself in the social war, and 
been rewarded by the consulate. But Marius envied his opponent this 
Asiatic campaign, and procured a resolution of the people by which he 
himself was appointed to conduct the Mithridatic war. Sylla, who was 
with his army in Lower Italy, now marched upon Rome, had Marius 
and eleven of his confederates outlawed as traitors to their country, and 
adopted proper measures for the preservation of peace. He neverdieless 
behaved with moderation, that he might be able to commence the cam- 
paign against Mithriddtes as soon as possible. Marius, after multitu- 
dinous dangers and adventures, escaped over the marshes of Mintdmas 
into Africa. 
§ 183. The first civil war. — Sylla now passed over into Greece, 


gtarmed Athens, that expiated its revolt by a frightful effasion of blood, 
seized upon the treasures in the temple <^ Delphi, and 
orerthrew the generab of the king of Fontus in two eagage- 
meats. He then marched through Macedonia and Thracia into Asia 
Minor, and compelled DfithridAtes to a peace, by which Borne not only 
roooyered her dominion over the whole of Western Asia, but was indem- 
nified for the expenses of the war by the payment of a large sum of 
money, and the cession ci the Pontic fleet. The revolted towns and dis* 
tricts were severely punished in their property. 

In the mean time, Marius had returned from the ruins of Carthage 
agsdn into Italy; and surrounding himself with a band of desperate 
men, had marched to the gates of Rome in conjunction with the demo- 
cratic leaders, Cinna and Sertdrius. The city, weakened by famine and 
dissension, was compelled to surrender ; upon which, Marius gave free 
oouse to his thirst for vengeance. Troops of rude soldiers marched, 
plundering and slaughtering, through the streets of the capital ; the heads 
of the aristocratic party, including the most renowned and respected sena- 
tors and consuls, were murdered, their houses plundered and destroyed, 
&eir estates confiscated, and their dead bodies given to the dogs and the 
fowls of the air. After this gratificati<m of his vengeance, 
Marius had himsdf chosen consul for the seventh time, 
hnt died a few months after, from the effeots of excitement and a disso- 

S 134. In the year 88 b. c, Sylla landed in Italy after the termina- 
tion of the first Mithridatic war, and marched, with the support of the 
iristocracy, upon Rome. In Lower Italy, he defeated the democratic 
consuls in numerous engagements, drove the younger Marius to self- 
destruction in the strong city of Praendste, by the dose siege he laid to 
the place, and in a murderous battle before the gates of Rome, annihilated 
Ae Marian party and the rebellions Simnites, 8,000 of whom he slaugh- 
tered before the eyes of the trembling senate. The civil war had already 
cost the lives of 100,000 men, when SyUa (sumamed the Fortunate), for 
the purpose of completing his triumph, made public his proscriptions, 
upon which were written the names of the Marian party who were to be 
killed and plundered. Hereupon all the ties of blood, of friendship, of 
dependence and piety, were torn asunder: sons were armed against their 
parents, and slaves against their masters ; informations were rewarded ; 
terror and corruption of morals were everywhere prevalent Upon this 
Sjlla, who was named dictator for an indefinite period, proclaimed the 
Cornelian law, by which the whole power of the government fell into the 
hands of the aristocracy, and the influence of the tribunes was destroyed. 
^ After the condusion of these arrangements, Sylla retired to 

his estate, where he shortly after died of a frightful di»» 



§ 185. Sjlla's death did not bring back repose to the disturbed state. 
The outlawed and persecuted Marians assembled themselves around the 
brave and upright democratic leader, Sertdrius, and fought against the 
Roman armies in Spain with fortune and success. It was not untQ Ser- 
tdrius had been assassinated by his envious associates, that Fompej, who, 
whilst jet a youth, had joined himself to Sjlla, and was now regarded as 
the head of the aristocratic party, succeeded in overpowering 
the rebels. His mild and placable character, and his courte- 
ous and popular bearing, rendered him an admirable mediator between 
contending factions. 

§ 136. When Fompey returned to Italy from Spfun, he encountered a 
new enemy — the rebellious slaves. Seventy gladiators bad 
Hed, in Cdpua, from the scourge of their task-masters, broken 
open the slave prisons in Lower Italy, and exhorted the inmates to fight 
for their liberties. Their numbers soon increased to 70,000. The valiant 
Thracian, Spdrt&cus, was at their head. Their intention at first was to 
return to their homes ; but after they had overthrown two Roman armies 
that' opposed their passage, they entertained the hope of destroying the 
Roman power, and revenging themselves for the injuries they had re- 
ceived. The danger of the Romans was great But dissension and 
want of military discipline produced a division among the 
slaves, and led to uncombined movements, so that the consul, 
M. Crassus, succeeded in subduing their ill-armed bands in detail. After 
the bloody fight on the banks of the Sfl&rus, in which Spdrt&cus fell after 
an heroic contest, the remainder marched into Upper Italy, where they 
were utterly destroyed by Pompey. 

§ 137. Fompey rendered his name even moro illustrious in Asia, 
B. G. 67. where he brought the war against the pirates, and the second 

B.C. 74-65. Mithridatic war, to a conclusion, than in the expedition 
against the slaves. In the sterile mountain regions on the south of Asia 
Minor, lived a daring race of freebooters, who disturbed the whole Medi- 
terranean by piracy, visited the coasts and islands with plunder and deso- 
lation, dragged off noble Romans as prisoners, for the purpose of exact- 
ing a heavy ransom, and interrupted trade and commerce. Hereupon, 
Pompey was invested with the most unlimited dictatorial power over all 
seas, coasts, and islands. With a splendidly-equipped fieet and army, he 
cleared in three months the whole Mediterranean from the pirates, sub- 
dued the towns and fortresses in their own country, and settled many of 
the inhabitants in the newly-built town, Pompeidpolis. 

§ 188. In the mean time, Mithriddtes, encouraged by Rome's internal 
disturbances, had begun a fresh war. He had already laid siege to the 
rich inland town of Gj^zicus, which was favored by the Romans, when 


LncuUus fell upon him and gave him such an overthrow that he retreated 
in haste to his kingdom of Fontus ; and when this also feU a prey to the 
victor, he sought aid and protection from his son-in-law, Tigrdnes, king of 
Armenia. But Luciillus defeated the enormous host of the 
Armenian king in the neighborhood of his capital, Tigrano- 
c^rta, and was already making preparations for overthrowing the whole 
empire, and extending the Roman dominions as far as Farthia, when the 
legions refused obedience to their general. Upon this, LucuUus retired 
to his wealth and his pleasure-gardens, and Fompej united the command 
of the Armenio-Fontic army to his other dignities. He con- 
quered Mithriddtes, who had assembled fresh forces, in a 
night engagement on the Euphrates, reduced the Armenian king to 
homage and submission, and then put an end to the rule of the Seleiicids 
in Syria. Mithriddtes, deprived of the greater part of his territories, and 
despairing of a successful issue, destroyed himself. After Fompey, at his 
own pleasure, had disposed of the conquered lands in Asia, in such a way 
that the Boman empire was enlarged by three provinces, and some of the 
more distant lands had been ceded to tributary kings, he returned to 
Borne, where he held a public entry of two days, and filled the treasury 
with enormous wealth. 

S 139. A short time before this, M. Tullius Cicero, Fompe/s friend 
and the comp^ion of his thoughts, had acquired the honorable title of 
father of his country. Cicero, bom in a provincial town, and of citizen 
parents, had so distinguished himself by his talents, his industry, and his 
irreproachable life, that although ignoble (novus homo) he obtained the 
consulate. He had devoted himself in Athens and Bhodes with such zeal 
and success to the sciences of the Greeks, and especially to eloquence and 
philoeophy, that he might be compared, both as a statesman and an ora- 
tor, to Demosthenes, and had composed profound works on rhetoric and 
philosophy. Though vain, boastful, and weak, he possessed civic virtue, 
ptttriotism, and a strong sense of justice. 

During his consulate, Catiline, a man of noble family, but disgraced 
bj an infamous life, and loaded with debts, formed a conspiracy with 
certain other Romans of desperate fortunes, the objects of which were, 
to murder the consuls, to set fire to the city, to overthrow the consti- 
tution, and in the confusion to seize upon the government by the aid of 
the soldiers of Sylla and the populace. But the vigilant consul Cicero 
had baffled this atrocious project. By his four orations against Catiline, 
he unmasked the dissembling villain in the senate, and reduced him to 
flj into Etniria, where he met with his death in a courageous defence 
against the consular army. 'Bib confederates were put to a violent death 
in prison. 



§ 140. The TiuuxyiEATE. — Sjlla's fortune excited ambitions men to 
imitate it. Every one sought to be first, and to rule the state at his plea- 
sure. But whilst Fompej, who was now in possession of almost kinglj 
authority, was reposing upon the laurels of his renown, in the full enjoy- 
ment of bis happiness and prosperity, he was gradually overtaken by his 
great competitor, Julius Caesar. This man united talents of the most 
varied character, so that he was not less distinguished as a writer and 
orator, than as a general and soldier. His liberality gained him the favor 
of the people, and his ambition urged him to great deeds. To make him- 
self a match for the old republican party, at the head of which stood the 
eccentric M. Porcius Cato, Csesar formed an alliance with 
Fompey and Crassus, called the ti*iumvirate (league of three 
men), in which they pledged themselves to mutually assist each other. 
From this time, these three men ruled the state without troubling them* 
selves farther about the senate. In a short time, Caesar had 
the government of Gaul, in which he had a long war to con- 
duct, transferred to himself. That he might not be disturbed in his 
undertakings, he renewed the triumvirate in a meeting that was held at 
Lucca. By this means, the goverament of Gaul was continued to him 
for five years. Pompey received Spain as his province, but governed 
it by means of his legates, whilst he himself exercised a dictatorial power 
in Rome. Crassus, the richest man in Rome, to gratify his avarice, chose 
S3rria with its riches ; but was overthrown by the Parthians in the plains 
of Mesopotamia, and killed in the fiight. His more valiant son, and 
almost the whole of the army, died on the field of battle. The Bomaa 
ensigns fell into the hands of the enemy. 

§ 141. C-esar's wxus in Gaul. — The Celts, a people 
divided into many states and tribes, were the ancient inhabit- 
ants of Gnul (France) and Helvetia (Switzerland). The southern part 
of this Graul had already become a Roman province (hence Provence), 
when the Helvetii embraced the project of leaving their sterile mount- 
ains, and settling themselves in its south-western portion. The Romans 
would not permit this, and Caesar in consequence marched into Gaul. 
He overthrew the Helvetii in a battle, compelled them to return to their 
burnt villages and desolated country, and reduced them to pay tribute. He 
then subdued the German leader, Ariovistus, who by means of his hardy 
troops had severely oppressed the Sequani and ^qui, who were dwell- 
ing in eastern Gaul, and obliged him to return again to his trans-Rhenish 
country. After Caesar had subdued the Belgi and. other Gaulish tribes^ 
he twice crossed the Rhine for the purpose of terrifying the warlike in- 
habitants of the rude and woody Germany, and preventing their hostile 
attacks upon Gaul. It is to this undertaking that we owe the first short 


description of Germanj, in Caesar's commentaries on the Gallic war. 
Bat the Boman general never thought of making permanent oonqaests, 
either in Germanj or Britain, on the coasts of which he twice landed. 
After a few engagements with the skin-clad inhabitants of the British 
islands, he sailed back again for the purpose of completely subjecting the 
Gauls. For this restless and fickle people were perpetually revolting 
and taking up arms, when Caesar was employed in another quarter. It 
was not till he had put down the last general insurrection, at 
Alesia, in Burgund;^, that he succeeded in gradually reducing 
the whole country as far as the Rhine, and converting it into a province 
of the Roman empire. 

S 142. The second civil war. — In the meanwhile, 
the rage of party had grown in Rome to the greatest excess, 
and murder and plunder were matters of daily occurrence. This induced 
the senate and the old republicans to attach themselves entirely to Pom-* 
pey, and to place the consulate at his disposal. Pompey employed this 
vast power to depress Caesar, of whose military renown he had become 
jealous. At his instigation, an order was sent to Caesar from the 
senate, at the termination of the war in Gaul, to lay down his command 
and to quit his army. Two tribunes of the people (Ciirio and Ant6nius) 
who opposed this resolution, and demanded that Pompey should also give 
up his power, were driven out of the city ; they fled to Caesar's camp, 
and summoned him to step forward as the defender of the outraged privi- 
leges of the people. 

After a little hesitation, Caesar crossed the boundary stream 
of the Rubicon, and advanced upon Rome. Pompey, aroused 
when it was too late from his indolence and careless security, did not ven- 
toie to await his approach in the city : he hastened to Brundiisium with 
a few troops and a great train of senators and nobles ; and when the vic- 
tor approached that place, he escaped across the Ionian Sea into Epirus. 
Caesar did not pursue him, but fell back upon Rome, where he took pos- 
session of the treasury, and then proceeded to Spain. Here he com- 
pelled the army of Pompey to a capitulation, the result of which was, 
that the generals and officers were allowed to depart, and the greater 
part of the common soldiers joined the victor. When Caesar on his re- 
turn, afler a close siege, had reduced Massilia, a town that wished to 
remain neutral, and punished it severely in its possessions and liberties, 
he again marched to Rome, had himself appointed dictator and consul 
for the following year, and adopted many serviceable measures. He then 
passed over the Idnian Sea, for the purpose of making head against 
Pompey. The decisive battle of Pharsdlus, in the plains of 
Thessaly, was soon fought, in which Caesar's veteran troops 
guned a splendid victory over an army of double their numbers. Pom- 
pey, with a ttw faithful followers, fled across Asia Minor into Egypt, 


where, instead of a hospitable reception, he met his death hj assassi- 
nation. Pt61emy, in the hope of obtaining the favor of Csesar, ordered 
the conquered Pompej to be killed on his landing at Pelusium, and his 
dead body to be cast unburied upon the shore. 

§ 143. C^SAR^s TRIUMPHS. — Shortly after, Cssar arrived in Italy. 
He shed tears of compassion over Pompej's death, and refused the 
instigator of the murder his promised reward. For when he was 
chosen umpire between Ptdlemy and his beautiful sister Cleopiitnu 
in a dispute concerning the throne, he decided in favor of the latter, 
and by this means got involved in a 'war with the king and the 
people of Egypt, that retained him for nine months in Alexandria, 
and reduced him to great peril. It was only when fresh troops had 
arrived, and Ptdlemy had been drowned after an unsuccessful engage- 
ment on the Nile, that he could place the government in the hands 
of Cleopdtra (by whose charms he had been enchained), and proceed to 
fresh conquests. The rapid victory that he gained by the terror of his 
name over the son of Mithriddtes has been rendered immortal by the 
memorable letter that announced the event : ^ I came, saw, conquered " 
( Vent, vidiy vici), Afler a short delay in Rome, he passed over into 
Africa, where the friends of republican government and the adherents 
of Pompey had collected a vast army. Here Caesar gained 
the bloody battle of Thapsus, where the hopes of the repub- 
licans were destroyed. Thousands fell in the field; many of the survivors 
perished by their own hands, and among them, the high-spirited Cato 
the younger, who put himself to death in Utica with calm composure. A 
magnificent triumph of four days awaited the victor on his return to 
Rome, which he, however, soon quitted, for the purpose of attacking the 
last of his enemies, who had assembled themselves around the sons of 
Pompey. The last remnants of the friends of Pompey and the republic 
were destroyed in the frightful battle near Munda, where they 
fought with the courage of desperation. One of the sons was 
killed in the flight, and the survivor followed the life of a pirate, till he 
fell by the hand of an assassin. 

§ 144. Cesar's death. — Csssar now returned, as chief and ruler of 
the Roman empire, to the capital, where he was saluted as ^< Father of 
the country," and elected dictator for life. He sought to win the sol- 
diers and people by liberality, and the nobles by offices : he encouraged 
trade and agriculture, embellished the city with temples, theatres, and 
public places, improved the calendar, and forwarded all kinds of good and 
useful projects ; but his evident attempts to gain the title and dignity of 
king induced some fanatical friends of liberty to engage in a conspiracy. 
His friend and flatterer, Marc Antony, offered him the kingly diadem 
during a feast; and despite the feigned distaste with which Csssar re- 
jected it, his secret satisfaction was easily discernible. At the head of 


the oonspiracj stood the high-minded enthusiast for libertj, M. Janioa 

Bratas, the friend of Ctesar, and the severe republican, Caius Cassius. 

In despite of every warning, Csssar held a meeting of the senate during 
the ides of March, in the hall of Pompej. It was here 
that, with the exclamation, ** Etta Brute/" he fell, pierced 

by twenty-three daggers, at the feet of the statue of his former opponent. 


§ 145. It was soon apparent that the idea of freedom only existed 
among a few men of cultivated minds, but was quenched in the hearts 
of the populace. The first enthusiasm for the newly-acquired freedom 
was soon changed into hatred and invectives against the murderers of the 
dictator, when Marc Antony, in an artful speech at the funeral of 
Cttsar, extoUed his merits and services, and ordered presents of money 
to be distributed among the poor. The senate, on the other hand, were 
for the most part favorable to the conspirators, and conferred upon some 
of ihem the government of provinces ; and when Antony attempted to 
take possession of one of these provinces by force, Cicero obtained, by 
his Philippic Orations, that the senate declared him an enemy of the 
country. The senate, at the same time, gave offence to Octdvius, the grand- 
son of Caesar's sister, who was then nineteen years of age, and who, as 
heir of his uncle's name, (Caesar Octavi^us, afterwards Augustus), had 
all the old soldiers on his side. Octavius, in consequence, raised the 
standard of Caesar's vengeance, and formed a second triumvi- 
rate with Antony and L^pidus, on a little island of the river 
Beno, near Bologna. New proscriptions took place, which proved par- 
ticulariy fatal to the knightly and senatorial ranks. The most deserving 
and illnstrious men fell beneath the blows of assassins, the dearest rela- 
tions of blood, of fH#idship, and of piety were torn asunder. Among the 
vietuns of Antony was Cicero, who was killed during an attempt at flight 
His head and his right hand were placed upon the rostrum. 

§ 146. After the possessors of power in Italy had satiated their ven- 
geance, they marched against the republicans, who had established 
their camp in Macedonia, under the command of Brutus and Cassius. 
It was here, in the plains of Philippi, that a decisive double 
engagement took place, in which Cassius was obliged to 
yield to Antony, whilst Brutus repulsed the legions of Octdvius. But 
when Cassius, deceived by false intelligence, had over-hastily fallen upon 
his own sword, and the triumvirs, twenty days afterwards, renewed the 
fight with united forces, Brutus, ^ the last of the Romans," was forced to 
snecumb, and fell, like Cassius, upon his own sword. His wife, Portia 
(Gate's daughter), destroyed herself with live coals, and many champi- 
ons of liberty died by their own hands ; so ihat Philippi became the 
grave of the republic. Henceforth, the contest was no longer for free- 


dom, but for empire. The Tictoxs divided the Boman territory between 
them ; Alton j chose the east, Octdvios the west ; the feeble L^pidus, 
who at first receiyed the province of Africa, but who never possessed 
much influence, was soon robbed of his share, 

§ 147. But whilst the luxurious Antonj was leading a voluptuous life 
at Cleopdtra's court in Alexandria, the shrewd Augustus and his high- 
spirited admiral, Agrippa, were winning the affections of the Boman 
people by liberal donations and diversions, rewarding the soldiers by a 
distribution of lands, and keeping up the discipline of the fleet and army. 
At length, when Antony lavished Boman blood and Boman honor in an 
unsuccessful campaign against the Parthians, married Cleopatra, and 
gave the provinces of Bome to her son, the senate, at the instigation of 
Oct^vius, deprived him of all his honors, and declared war against Cleo- 
patra. East and west stood opposed in arms. Btit the sea- 
flght of Actium, despite the superiority of the Egyptians, 
was decided in favor of Octavius. Antony and Cleopdtra fled. But 
when the victor approached the gates of Alexandria, the former fell on 
his sword, and Cleopdtra, finding that her charms produced no impression 
on the new potentate, destroyed herself by the poison of an 
asp. Egypt became the first province of the Boman Expike. 


AognstDs, § 148. The bloody civil war had swept away all the men 

from 80 b. a Qf ability and patriotism ; and the crowl that was left de- 
to A. D. manded nothing but food and entertainment, and forgot free- 

dom and civil virtue in the enjoyment of the moment. This rendered it 
easy to the dexterous Augustus to change the Boman republic into a 
monarchy; but he yielded so far to the prejudices of the Bomans,a5 not 
to assume the title of king, or master, and to retain the republican names 
and forms, with the appellation <^ Csesar, whilst he gradually got all the 
offices and privileges of the senate and people placed in his own hands, 
and had them renewed from time to time. He united a profound under- 
standing and talents for government, with clemency, temperance, and 
constancy ; and as he was a master in the art of dissimulation, and knew 
how to turn the failings of men to advantage, he gained his ends mwe 
surely than his greater uncle, Cesar. It was under Augustus that the 
Boman empire possessed the greatest power abroad, and the highest cuU 
tivation at home. It extended from the Atlxmtic Ocean to the Euphr^Ues^ 
and from the Danube and Bhine to the Atks and falls of the Nile s art 


and Uteretore flourished to such a degree, that the reign of Augustas 
was called the golden age. Vast military roads, provided with mile* 
stones, connected the twenty-five provinces with Rome, and facilitated 
intercourse; magnificent aqueducts and canals attested the enterprising • 
spirit of the ]]U>man people; Rome itself was adorned with temples, 
theatres, and baths, and so much changed, that Augustus was able to say 
that he found Rome brick, and lefl it marble. The temple which Agrippa 
consecrated to all the gods (the Pantheon), is still one of the greatest 
ornaments of the eternal city. Augustus and his friend Maecenas, P611io, 
and others, were the favorers of art and literature, and the patrons of 
poets and authors. The first public library was founded on the Palatine 
hill ; the citizens, who now ho longer marched to the wars, and who had 
relinquished the conduct of state affairs to Caesar and his ministers, 
employed their leisure in reading and writing, left actions for words, and 
peiforming for thinking ; it was by this means that polished manners 
soon prevailed among all classes. 

S 149. Roman literature. — Virgil, Horace, and Ovid claim the 
first place among the poets that adorned the Augustan age. The first 
composed the ^neid, an heroic poem on the model of Homer (§ 88), 
pastoral poetry, and a didactic poem on agriculture ; Horace, to whom 
his patron Maecenas presented a small Sabine farm, wrote odes, satires, 
and humorous epistles, in which he exhibits his cheerful views of life in 
a witty and engaging manner ; Ovid, the clever writer of mythological 
stories (Metamorphoses), was banished by Augustus to the rude steppes 
of the Caspian Sea, whence he wrote letters of complaint to his distant 

Among historians, the most celebrated are Sallust, who, in his account 
of the wars against Jugurtha and Catiline, gives a true but frightful 
picture of the corrupt times ; and Titus Lf vius, the tutor of the grand- 
son of Augustus, who wrote a complete history of Rome, in 142 books ; 
of which only thirty-five are preserved. We possess a biography of 
distinguished men, by his contemporary, Cornelius Nepos. The Romans 
took the Greeks for their models in art and literature, but fell far short 
of their masters. 


{ 150. About the time that the Saviour of the world was brought 
forth in lowliness and humility in Bethlehem, in the land of Judae'a, to 
bring the joyful news of salvation to the lost race of man, the Germans 
were engaged in a severe struggle with the Romans for the preservation 
of their liberties and national customs. Drusus, the brave step-son of 
Augustas, was the first Roman who made any conquests on the right 
bank of the Rhine. He undertook many successful campaigns against 
the tribes in alliance with the Suevi, between the Rhine and the Elbe, 


and attempted to secure the land hj intrenchments and fortifieataoos. 
Being killed in the flower of his years, bj a fall from his horse during 
his return home, his brother Tiberius completed the conquest of western 
Germanj, rather bj dint of skilfully-conducted negotiations with the 
disunited Germans, than bj force of arms ; whereupon the country be- 
tween the Rhine and the Weser was erected into a Roman proTince. 
Foreign customs, language, and laws already threatened to destroy Gier- 
man nationality ; German soldiers already fought in the ranks of the 
Romans, and prided themselves on foreign marks of distinction ; when the 
insolence and indiscretion of the governor, Quintilius Varus, aroused the 
slumbering patriotism of the people. Several tribes united themselves 
in a confederacy, under the guidance of Hermann (Amunius), the va- 
liant prince of the Cherusci, for the purpose of throwing off the foreign 
yoke. It was in vain that Segestus, whose daughter Thusnelda had been 
carried off and married by Hermann, against the consent of her father, 
warned the careless governor. Varus marched with three legions and 
several auxiliaries, through the Teutoburger forest, for the purpose of 
quelling an insurrection that had been purposely raised ; but suffered 
such a defeat from the Germans under Hermann's command, that the 
defiles of the wood were covered far and wide with the 
^' ^' ' corpses of the Romans. The eagles were lost, and Varus 

died by his own hands. Augustus, when he heard the news, exclaimed 
in despair, ** Varus, give me back my legions !" 

§ 151. Upon the dea^ of Augustus, in his 76th year, at 
^ ^' Nola, in Lower Italy, Germdnicus, the valiant son of Drusus, 

again crossed the Rhine, ravaged the lands of the Catti (Hes8e)i 
buried the bleaching remains of the Romans in the Teutoburger forest, 
and carried off into captivity Thusnelda, the high-spirited wife of Her- 
mann, whom her treacherous father had given up to the enemy. But 
although he defeated the Cherusci and their allies in two engagements, 
and at the same time pressed Germany closely by sea, the RouEian do- 
minion was never firmly or permanently established on the right bank of 
the Rhine. Storms destroyed the fleet, and a pathless country and the 
swords of the Grermans brought the army to the brink of destruction ; 
and when at length Germdnicus, (to whose noble wife, Agrippina, the 
town of Cologne owes its prosperity), was recalled by his jealous uncle, 
Hb^rius, and shortly after, met with his death by poison in Syria, the 
Germans were no longer disturbed by the ambition of the Romans. Bat 
the Lower German confederation of the Cherusci now turned its arms 
against the Upper German confederation of the Marcomanni> at the 
head of which stood Marb6dius. This gave the Romans an opportunity 
of embroiling Germany from the south. Marb6dius fell into the power 
of the Romans, who kept him for eighteen years at Ravenna, as their 
pensioner ; Hermann was killed by envious friends. His deeds survived 


In soDg, and our own age has erected a oolossal statue, on the Teuthill 
at Detmold, in joyful commemoration of the deliverer of Grermanj. 


§ 152. About 100 years after Augustus, the great historian Tidtus, 
after haying portrayed the events of the Roman empire in his History 
and Annals, embraced the resolution of describing the manners and cus- 
toms of the German tribes, and presenting them as models to his degene- 
rate countrymen. Although the work remained a mere sketch, it is to 
this resolution that we are indebted for the first accurate information 
respecting this region. We learn from it, that Grermany was inhabited 
by numerous independent tribes, sometimes united and sometimes at war 
with each other, who were perpetually changing their places of residence 
in obedience to an innate wandering impulse. 

Wa» and the chase were their chief employments ; they built neither 
towns nor strong-holds ; their huts and farms were scattered about in the 
midst of their grounds ; a peaceful life behind stone walls agreed neither 
with their love of liberty nor their passion for war. They united purity 
of morals, hospitality, good faith, and honesty, respect for women, and 
reverence for the marriage tie, to the external advantages of lofty 
stature, beauty of person, strength, and courage. The only vices attribu- 
ted to them are a disposition to drunkenness and gambling. 


§ 153. Domestic misfortunes disturbed the happiness of Augustus. 
The promising sons, who sprung from the marriage of his daughter 
Julia with Agrippa, died in their youth ; Julia herself occasioned her 
father soch distress by her profligate life that at length he banished her. 
By the intrigues of the ambitious Livia, the emperor's third wife, the 
Tiberiiu, empire descended to Tiberius, the adopted step-son of 
AD. 14^87. Augustus. The clemency at first displayed by this hypo- 
critical prince soon gave way to his natural malevolence, particularly 
when his crafty and vicious favorite, Sejanus, assisted him in establish- 
ing a military despotism. He advised him to unite the praetorian body- 
guard in a permanent camp before Rome. Here they soon became the 
oppressors of the people, raised and dethroned emperors, and introduced 
a military despotism. The assemblies of the people were no longer held, 
and the dastardly senate sank into a mere tool of the despot The fright- 
ful court which took oognizaiice of cases of high treason, was a means of 
destroying every man of ability, inasmuch as it infiicted the punishment 
of death, and imposed fines, not only for actions, but even for words and 
thoughts. Pensioned spies undermined aU faith and trust among the 
people, and destroyed every spark of freedom by terror. The misan- 
thropical Tiberius, tortured by fear and the reproaches of his consdencOi 


passed the last years of his life in the island of CyLprese (Capri), in Lower 
Italy, where he abandoned himself to luxmy and the most infamoi* 
pleasures, whilst Sejdnus was practising every vice in Rome. When the 
la£ter at length attempted to possess himself of the throne, the emperor 
sent an order to the senate to pni him to death. Tiberins, aick and 
advanced in years, perished by a violent death on his estate in Lower 
Italy. During his reign, a dreadful earthquake destroyed many of the 
richest and most beautiful cities in Asia Minor. 

Caligula, § ^^^' His successor, Caius Caligula, the unworthy son of 

A. j>. 87-41. the noble Germdnicus and the high-minded Agrippina, was 
a blood-thirsty tyrant, who took delight in signing sentences of death and 
having them executed; a frantic spendthrift, who lavished m<»iey in 
buildings without a purpose; an insolent boaster, who caused divine 
honors to be paid to himself, and celebrated magnificent triumphs over 
the Germans and Britons, whom he scarcely ever saw ; and a glutton, by 
whose riotous table enormous sums were swallowed up. The Praetorians 
Claudius, ^^ length killed the crazy tyrant, and raised his uncle, the 
A, D. 41-64. imbecile Claudius, to the throne. This empercM: was led by 
women and favorites ; the latter especially the fireedmen Narcissus and 
Pallas, were in possession of all the offices, and enriched themselves at 
the expense of the people, whilst his wife Messalina yielded herself up to 
every lust, and trampled morality and decency under foot At length, 
the emperor commanded her to be put to death, and married his ambi- 
tious and profligate niece Agrippfna, who, however, soon got rid of her 
weak and uxorious husband by poison, for the purpose of raising the 
depraved Claudius Nero, her son by a former marriage, to the throne. 
Kero, § i^^- The demeney which Nero displayed in the OMn- 

A. D. 64-68. mencement of his reign, soon gave phice to the most ex- 
quisite cruelty. He, who once, when he bad to sign an order for an 
execution, wished that he could not write, now not only persecuted, put 
to death, and confiscated the property of every man who displayed the 
virtues of a citizen or the mind of a Roman, but exercised his tyranny 
at the expense of his nearest relations. His step-brother, Germinicos, 
died by poison from the imperial table ; his mother was first sunk at sea 
in a ship, and when she succeeded in saving herself, was put to death by 
assassins despatched for the purpose ; his virtuous wife, Octivia, the 
daughter of CUiudius, found a violent death in an overheated bath. A 
conspiracy, in which the republican poet Lucan (whose heroic poem 
Pharsalia still breathes the old Roman spirit) was implicated, was made 
use of by the emperor to destroy not only Lucan, but his uncle S^necst 
the Stoic philosopher, who had been Nero's own preceptor. Seneca 
opened his own veins. Nero, at the instigation of his courtiers and 
mistress (Poppas^a Sabina), perpetrated the most shameful follies and 
crimes. Spectacles and riotous processions, in which the emperor hiffi* 


self, diflgniaed as a singer and barp-pkyer, took a share along with the 
companions of his jrieasares, Ivxurions feasts and banqnets, and extrava- 
ganoes of every description, consumed the revenues of the state. The 
despot, in the plenitade of his insolence and wickedness, ordered Rome 
to be set on fire,* that he might sing the destruction of Troy from the 
battlements of his palace. To divert the hatred of his subjects from him- 
self, he afterwards attributed the crime to the Christians, who were sub- 
jected, in consequence, to the most frightful persecutions. The rebuilding 
of the city, and Nero's ^ Golden House," on the Palatine hill, increased 
the oppression, till at length, repeated enormities induced the Spanish 
le(^n to revolt As the troops under the command of Galba approached 
the capital, Nero fled to a country house, where he caused himself to be 
stabbed by one of his freedmen. 

§ 156. The house of Augustus became extinct with Nero. Galba was 
(Hn»,Otfao ^^ successor. But as the avaridous old man would not 
mfedUns, gratify the rapacity of the Prseiorians, they proclaimed Otho 
A. D. 68*70. emperor, and put Galba and the successor he had appointed 
to death. At the same time, Yitellius raised his standard on the Rhine, 
mardied with his legions into Italy, and defeated the army of his oppo- 
nent on the banks of the Po. Otho, and several of his adherents, died 
by their own hands. Yitellius was a mere glutton, who found pleasure 
in nothing but luxurious banquets. Accordingly, when Yespdsian, whom 
the Syrian legions had proclaimed emperor, approached the gates of 
Borne, Yitellius was killed by a troop of rude soldiers, and his body 
dragged with hooks into the Tiber. 


TMpuiio, 1 1^7. Yesp^an, the first in the succession of good empe- 

A.D. 70*78. roiB, restored the discipline of the army and the Praetorians 
bj severe measures, improved the administration of justice after abolish- 
ing the court of high treason, and by economy and good management 
saooeeded in replenishing the treasury. At the same time, he embel- 
Uihed the city by building the Temple of Peace and the Amphitheatre, 
tiie gigantic remains of which (CoHs^um) still excite the admiration of 
travellers, and enlarged the boundaries of the empire by the conquest of 
Jodse'a and Britain. 

S 158. The tyranny of the Boman governor who ruled over the land 
of Jods'a had at last driven the people to rebellion. They fought with 
the courage of despair against the advancing legions, but were forced to 
yield to Boman superiority and take refuge in their capital, where they 

*TUi is an ezaggMated aeooniit of Neio*t guilt It !■ aot ptobabla tiutt bi iM0iao 
tnthor of theoooflagration, and Tacitus mjs there was no authority but a ragae romor 
tmong the populace for the story, that Kero showed his indifference or eznltatioQ at tba 
tvsat by playing and tinging whils the flames stitt raged. Am, EbL 


were now besieged bj Yespdsiaii's son, Titus. ThoaBands were 80<m 
carried off by fiEunine and pesdlenoe in the over-orowded city. It was in 
vain that the compassionate general made offers of pardon: rage and 
fanaticism urged the Jews to a desperate resistance. Thej defended 
themsdyes in their temple with an utter contempt for death, till that 
magnificent structure was destroyed by fire on the taking of the city, and 
death raged in every shape among the conquered. The 
complete destruction of Jerusalem then took place. Among 
the prisoners, who followed the triumphal car of the conqueror, was 
Josephus, «the Jewish historian of this war. The triumphal arch of Utas 
in Borne displays, to this day, representations of the sacred vessels of the 
Jews that were at this time conveyed to the metropolis of the world. 
Those who were left behind were exposed to grievous oppression under 
the Roman yoke. But when a heathen colony, sixty years after the 
destruction of the city, was transplanted by the emperor Adrian to the 
sacred soil of Jerusalem, (which from this time was called ^lia Gapi- 
tolma), and a temple erected to Jupiter on the eminence once occupied 
by Solomon's temple to Jehovah, the Jews, deceived by a false Messiah, 
took up arms once more to prevent this outrage. After a 
* murderous war of three years* duration, in which upwards 
of half a million of the natives were slaughtered, the Jews submitted to 
the military skill of the Romans. The survivors left the country in 
crowds, the land resembled a desert, and the Jewish state was at an end. 
Since then, the Jews have been scattered abroad over the whole earth, 
but without mingling with other people, and faithful to their own customs, 
religion, and superstitions. 

§ 159. It was during the reign of Vaspdsian, that the high-«pirited 
Agricola, &her-in-law to the historian T^tus, by whom his life has 
been written, subdued Britain as far as the highlands of Caledonia (Scot- 
land), and introduced the Boman language, manners, and institutions. 
Britain remained subject to the Romans for nearly four hundred years* 
The warlike energy of the people was destroyed by civilization, so that 
they were afterwards as little able to resist the attacks of the rude Cale- 
donians (Picts and Scots) as the wall erected by Adrian proved a defence 
against their inroads. 

TitoB, § 160. The simple and energetic Yesp^isian was succeeded 

A. D. 79-81. by his son Titus, who cast off the failings and crimes of his 
youth when he ascended the throne, and became so admirable a prince 
that he was justly called ^ the delight of mankind." It was during his 
reign that a frightful eruption of Mount Vesuvius destroyed the towns 
of HercnUneum, Pompeii, and Stabis. The inquisitive natural philoeo* 
pher, the elder Pliny, lost his life by the vapor produced by this eruption, 
as we leam from two letters, written by his nephew, Pliny the younger, 
the fiiend and encomiast of the emperor Trajan, to the historian T^tus. 


Hie ezhiimation of these buried towns, which was begun about a hundred 
jears ago, more especially that of Pompeii, has been of the utmost im- 
portance to the knowledge of antiquity and to the artistic taste of our 
own da J. 

§ 161. The noble Titus was unfortunately followed by his brother, the 
Domitian, cruel Domitian, a gloomy and misanthropical tyrant, who 
A. D. 81 -96. look pleasure in nothing but the cqntests of wild beasts and 
gladiatorial combats. When he was at length murdered at the instiga- 
Kerrm, tion of his wicked wife, the throne was taken possession of 

A.D.96-9S. byNerva, an old senator. Nerva adopted the energetic 
Tng'ui, Spaniard, Trajan, who, by his government at home, and his 

A. D. 98-117. victories abroad, deserved the surname of the best, and the 
glory of the greatest, of the Caesars. He provided for the proper admin- 
istration of justice, facilitated trade and commerce by making new roads 
and harbors (Civita V^cchia), and embellished Rome with public build- 
ings, temples, and a new forum, in which he ordered the beautiful column 
of Trajan to be erected. He at the same time reduced the turbulent 
Dacians on the Danube, and established the province of Dacia (Walla- 
diia and Transylvania), which was soon peopled by Roman settlers, on 
the northern bank of the river. In the east, he made war on the Par- 
thians, conquered Babylon, Seleucia, and other cities, and converted 
Armenia and Mesopotamia into Roman provinces. The country between 
the sources of the Danube and the Upper Rhine, (Black Forest), was 
surrendered to settlers from Gaul and Germany, and was afterwards 
protected from hostile attacks by a ditch fortified with stakes. It was 
called Decumdtian land, and the ruins of numerous towns, and the anti- 
quities that are dug up there, show that it must have shared in the dvili- 
zatbn of its conquerors. 

§ 162. Trajan's relative and successor, iBlius Adridnus (Hadrian) 
was more intent upon defending than enlarging the bounds of his em- 
flaaritti, P^^ ^^^ found greater pleasure in art and literature than 
A. D. 117 -188. in war. He was a man of great cultivation of mind, but 
vain, and open to flattery. His eagerness for knowledge, and love of 
art, induced him to take journeys of many years' duration, both into 
the East, where he lingered in Greece, Asia, and Egypt, and into 
the West, where he visited Gkiul, Spain, Britain, and the Rhine-land. 
Among the many writers, artists, and interpreters who surrounded the 
briUiant court of Hadrian, the most distinguished was the Greek Plu- 
tarch, the author of numerous writings. His biographies, in which he 
compares together the Greek and Roman statesmen and generals, are 
especially calculated to excite admiration for the heroic deeds of anti- 
qoity* Hadrian's love of art is borne witness to more particularly, by 
tike ruins of his villa at Tfvoli; his magnificent mausoleum, now the castle 


of St Angelo at Borne ; and iimiuiierable remams of Bcalptare and 

AnUminiu S 163. Hadrian's adopted son^ the simple and benerolent 

Ping, Antonfnus Pius, was an ornament of the throne. He avoided 

A.D. 188-161. ^ar tjij^t i^g might devote all his care to the arts of peace. 
Marcus His successor, Marcus Aur^lius Antonfnus, the philosopher, 

Aurelins, was as much distinguished in war as in peace. He conquered 
A. D. 161-180. ^^^ Marcomanni on the frozen Danjit)e,«and >lrove back over 
the frontiers, after a long war, the Gennan*^ribeff who -were their confede* 
rates. He died at Vindobdna (Vienna), during^ a^^mfRffgn^^ Marcus 
Aur^lius was a man of simple and hardy habits, who, when on the 
throne, remained true to his stoic virtue and se verity of morals (§ 91). 
He promoted civilization and useful institutions, and the collection of 
reflections, which he composed and dedicated to himself, bears witness to 
his noble principles and efforts. 

§ 164. Cultivation and morals. — During this period, the highest 
civilization prevailed in the Roman empire, along with the greatest de- 
pravity of morals. Arts and sciences were encouraged in the courts of 
the Csf^^sars and the palaces of the wealthy, and were shared in by per- 
sons of all conditions. Trades and commerce flourished, and prosperity 
and refinement were visible in the populous cities and elegant dwelling- 
houses ; establishments for education sprang up in Rome and the more 
considerable provincial towns. The ruins of buildings, military roads, and 
bridges that we admire even at this day, not only in Italy, but in many pro- 
vincial towns (Treves, Nimes), the statues, sarcophagi, and altars with 
bas-reliefs and inscriptions, the vases of clay and bronze of elegant forms 
that are dug out of the earth, all bear testimony to the cultivation and 
feeling for art existing among the people in the times of the Ctesars. 
But this refinement was but a superficial polish ; morality, nobility of 
soul, and strength of character, were held in no estimation. The people, 
no longer invigorated by war, or the labors of the field, sank into luxury 
and effeminacy ; they sought their gratification in the barbarous sports 
of the amphitheatre, gladiatorial combats, and the contests of wild beasts, 
and gave themselves up to a relaxing enjoyment of the luxurious baths, 
with which the city was amply provided by the emperors, for the pur- 
pose of withdrawing the citizens from the consideration of graver mat- 
ters. It is in vain, that Persius angrily shakes the scourge of his stem 
satire over the degenerate race, and endeavors to bring back the ancient 
vigor, simplicity, and morality ; — it is in vain, that the witty Juvenal 
unveils in his sportive satire the frightful depths of crime and wicked- 
ness, and lashes his degenerate contemporaries ; it is in vain, that the 
waggish Greek, Lucian, in his witty and satirical writings, jests at all the 
existing conditions of life and religion, for the purpose of destroying what 
is old, and thereby making room for something new and better ; — human 


eooDsd came too late ; nothing but a higher power could save the per- 
ishing world ; the help had already appeared, but the blinded Romans 
did not recognize it, because it came not in the pomp of authority, but in 
the garment of humility. 


(ymtmt^iL^ § 165. Rome's downward course .commences with GSm* 
JL D. 180-192. modus, the unworthy son of Aurelius. He was a barbarous 
tyrant, who delighted in nothing but the combats of gladiators and wild 
beasts, and who distressed the people in every way, till at length he was 
Potinax, put to death by those around him. P^rtinax, his valiant 
A. D. 198. successor, had a similar fate. Afler his death, the insolence 
of the prsBtorians rose to such a height, that they put up the crown to the 
Seotimiiu highest bidder. Septfmius Sev^rus first restrained their inso- 
Sererns, lence by his inexorable severity, and reestablished the impe- 
A.D.198-211. rial power. He was a rude soldier, and enlarged the empire 
by his conquests in the East, where he took Mesopotamia from tlie Par* 
thians; and he secured Britain by new defences against the turbulent 
Ficts and Scots. But he deprived the senate of their last remains of 
power, and placed his whole reliance on the army, so that he was the 
actaal establisher of the military government 

! 166., The death of Septfmius Sev^rus at £b6r&cum (York) in Bri- 
CanctOa, tain, placed his cruel son, Carac^Ula, on the throne, who, true 
A. D. 211-217. to his father's teaching, honored the soldiery, but treated 
other men with contempt. He killed hiis brother, Geta, in the arms of 
bis mother, and then put his preceptor, the great jurist Papinian, to 
death, for refusing to justify the fratricide. For the purpose of augment- 
ing the revenue, he gave the right of Roman citizenship to all the free^ 
bom men in the empire. After the murder of this profligate tyrant by 
his own soldiers, in a campaign against the Parthians, his relative, Helio* 
HdiopOMliu, grains, a priest of the Syrian sun-god, succeeded to the 
A. D. 216-222. throne. Heliogdbalus was a weak and cruel epicure, who, 
bj the introduction of the sensual worship of Baal from Syria, destroyed 
the h&t remnants of the ancient Roman discipline and morality. The 
prstorians at length put the effeminate debauchee to death, and raised 
jy^xjuj^^ his cousin, Alexander Sev^rus, to the throne. Sev6rus was 
Sevens, a man of respectable character, who adopted many excellent 
A. B. 222-285. measures, and listened to the advice of his sagacious mother ; 
but his powers were inferior to the conduct of such difficult affairs of 
state. The praetorians killed the great jurist, Ulpian, before his eyes, 
irith impunity ; and on the eastern boundary, Ardshir (Artaxerxes) 
overthrew the Parthian government, and est^lished the new Persian 
empire of the Sassdnid®, who soon pursued their conquests into the Bo- 
i&an tezritoiy. 


S 167. The death of the emperor and his mother, bj an insurrection 
of the soldiers at Majence, reduced the empire to such confusion, that 
twelve emperors were raised and dethroned within the space of twenty 
yean. Philip the Arab, who, like Alexander Sev^rus, was a friend to 
Philip the Christians, sought to signalize his reign by a magnificent 

1.D 248-249 ^celebration of the thousandth anniyersary of Rome. His 
Decius, successor, Decius, persecuted the Christians, but found an 

A.D. 249-251. early death in battle against the Goths, a German tribe who 
had established themselves on the Lower Danube, and made preda- 
tory excursions thence, both by land and sea, into the Roman territory. 
After his death, the empire seemed on the point of dissolution. The 
generals in the different provinces caused themselves to be proclaimed 
G&Uientu emperors, so that the historians of the period, during which 
A.D. 269-268. Gallienus reigned in Rome, and his father. Valerian, was 
pining in captivity in Persia, call this the age of the thirty tyrants. In 
the mean time, the empire was attacked on the east by the New Per- 
sians, under the command of the valiant Sapor, whilst the German tribes 
threatened the other quarters. 

§ 168. At this juncture, Aur^lian, a man imbued with the old Roman 
Aurelianns, courage and military discipline, was the restorer of the em- 
A. D. 270-275. pire. He subdued the rebellious generals, aind marched 
against the kingdom of Palmyr^ne, which Odendtus had founded on an 
oasis in Syria, and which was governed, after his death, by his beautiful 
and heroic wife, Zen<5bia. Palmyra, the capital city, rich in arts, philo- 
sophy, and commerce, was taken and destroyed, and Zen6bia led in 
triumph to Rome. Her preceptor and adviser, the gallant philosopher 
Longfnus, died a violent death. At first, a follower of the new Platonists, 
who joined the Oriental profundity, superstition, and belief in miracles, 
to the doctrines of Plato, and put the inactive contemplation of the East 
in place of the practical intelligence of ancient Rome, Longfnus had 
afterwards relinquished this obscure wisdom. The ruins of Palmyra yet 
enchain the admiration of the 'traveller. Aur^lian again restored the 
boundary of the Danube on the north, gave up the province on the far- 
ther side of the river to the enemy, and transplanted the inhabitants to 
the right bank. Lest his capital should be endangered by any sudden 
attack, he surrounded Rome with a wall. 

§ 169. After Aur^lian had been killed by his soldiers, and his sue- 
Tacitus, cessor, Tdcitus (a descendant of the historian), had perished 

A.D. 275 -276. in an Expedition against the Goths, the courageous and up- 
Probna, right Probus was raised to the throne. He enlarged and 

A.D. 276-282. completed the boundary wall (Devil's Wall), from the Bava- 
rian Danube to the Taurus, and secured it by means of troops; he 
planted vineyards on the Rhine and in Hungary, and reformed the affiurs 
of the army. After Probus also had been kiUed by his troops, and his 


SDOcessor, Caras, had fallen in an expedition against the Persians, either 
Gams, b J a stroke of lightning or the hand of an assassin, the throne 

A. D. 282-284. was assumed by the sagacious Diocletian. 

§ 170. Diocletian increased the imperial power, and lowered the dig* 
DiodetiAn, nitj of the senate ; he projected a division of the empire, for 
A. D. 284- 806. the purpose of more easily resisting the enemy. He himself, 
with the title of Augustus, governed the Eastern region, together with 
Thrace, whilst his assistant in the empire (Ctesar), Gal^rius, was at the 
head of the Illyrian provinces ; in the same manner, MftWmiRn^ under 
the title of Augustus, ruled over Italy, Africa, and the islands ; and his 
son-in-law, Constantius (Chlorus), governed the western provinces, 
Spain, Gaul, and Britain. For twenty years, Diocletian governed the 
empire with vigor and dexterity, and restored its former strength and 
stability. But when he allowed himself to be seduced into commanding a 
bloody persecution against the Christians, he disturbed the evening of a 
most active life, and stained his name and government with an indelible 
maik of infamy. The sword of persecution was still raging among the 
confessors of the crucified Jesus, when Diocletian abdicated his throne, to 
pass his remaining years in rural retirement at Saldna, in Dalm^tia, and 
to forget the bustle of the world in the arrangement of his palace and 

§ 171. The abdication of Diocletian was followed by a period of con- 
fusion and sanguinary civil wars, which was only put an end to, when 
Constantfnus, the brave and wise son of Constantius, assumed the 
government of the West, and marched into the field against Maximian's 
hard-hearted son, Maxdntius. Constantino, who had been won over to 
Christianity by his mother, Helena, erected the banner of the cross 
pdbarum), overthrew the cruel Max^ntius at the Milvian 
Bridge, and took possession of Home, after his opponent had 
been drowned in the waters of the Tiber. It was from this point that 
Cdnstantine ruled over the West, whilst his brother-in-law, Licinius, 
governed the East. But the ambition of C6nstantine soon occasioned 
another war, in which Lidnius lost victory, kingdom, and, at last, his life. 
It was thus that Cdnstantine became sole governor of the 
Roman empire, and showed favor to the Christians. But 
that the doctrines of Jesus had little effect upon his mind, is shown by 
the cruelty with which he caused whole troops of his captured enemies 
to be thrown to wild beasts, by the severity he displayed in the execution 
of his wife and his noble son, Crispus, and by the love of vengeance and 
want of truth displayed in his character. 





§ 172. The Bomans were verj tolerant of the heathen forms of 
religion amongst other nations, as is apparent at once from the fact, that 
they adopted not only the mythology of the Greeks, but also, by degrees, 
the theology of the East, of the Chaldeans, Persians, Egyptians, and 
Syrians. But as Christianity forbade any combination with Paganism, 
the Christians carefully avoided all participation in the feasts and 
religious rites of the heathen, and kept themselves separate even in the 
daily intercourse of life; thus the hatred of the people and the mis> 
trust of their rulers were roused, and heavy persecutions arose against 
them. Ten persecutions of Christians are recorded from the days of 
Nero, when Peter and Paul are said to have met their death, to the first 
decennium of the fourth century, when Diocletian and Galerias drove 
the confessors of the crucified Saviour, by rack and axe, to the altar of 
sacrifice, burnt down the churches, and gave the Holy Scriptures *to the 
flames. Even the noble-minded Marcus Aurdlius thought it his duty to 
break by force the stubbornness of the supposed fanatics ; and the short 
reign of Decius has become memorable for one of the most violent per- 
secutions of the Christians. But the liolyjoy with which the martyrs, 
bearing witness by their blood, endured torture and death, multiplied the 
number of believers, so that the blood of martyrs is justly called "the 
seed of the Church.'* The objecu of persecution concealed themselves 
in subterraneous passages (the Catacombs), near the graves of those they 
loved, and in caves and mountain clefts. Oppression heightened their 
trust in God ; and the number of apostate believers who delivered up the 
Bible to be burned, or offered incense before the statue of the emperor, 


was small when compared with the number of those who stood finn in 
their faith. Daring the years of persecution, Christianity continued to 
spread, by the indwellbg force of truth, and favorable circumstances from 
without, to all quarters of the heavens, so that, as early as the third 
century, before Cdnstantine raised it to a state religion, it overstepped 
the bounds of the Roman empire. 


§ 173. Cdnstantine, as sole emperor, transferred his residence to 
Byzantium, which from this time forward was called Constantinople. He 
fortified the city, which was favorably situated, with walls and towers, 
aud embellished it most magnificently with palaces and churches, race- 
gronnds, and works of art. He then abolished the antiquated constitu- 
tion of the Roman empire ; vested all power in the imperial throne ; 
surrounded himself with a brilliant court of chamberlains, ministers, 
officials, and servants; and established a galling system of taxation. The 
better to conduct the management of his vast empire, he divided it into 
four prefectures or lieutenancies : the East, to which Thrace and Egypt 
were assigned ; , Iliyricum with Greece ; Italy with Africa ; the West 
(containing Gaul, Spain, Britain). Each of these he divided into a 
greater or less number of districts (dioceses), and these again into states 
(provinces). The last years of his life Constantino devoted principally 
to religious and ecclesiastical matters ; but he deferred the rite of baptism 
which deanseth from sin, till shortly before his death. He founded 
many churches, and endowed them with landed estates. He granted to 
the clergy an immunity from taxes, and other privileges, and allowed 
legacies to the Church. From this time forward, the^ constitution of the 
Chrbtian Church took a new shape ; whereas before, the Elders and 
Bishops were chosen from the whole Church-community, and the princi- 
ple of brotherly equality amongst all Christians was held in honor, now, 
the priesthood (clergy) separated from the people (laity), and introduced 
degrees of rank, so that the Bishops of the principal cities were placed 
over the remaining Bishops as metropolitans, and these again had the 
superintendence of the priests in their immediate neighborhood. At the 
same time, the Church services, which before consisted only in singing, 
prayer, and reading the Bible, and concluded with the love-feasts, were 
made more solemn by the aid of music and other arts. 

§174. Arianism.—« Augustine. — Fathers of the Church. — 
The doctrine (dogma), also, of Christianity did not long remain in its 
original simplicity and purity, when many learned men made it the sub- 
ject of their inquiry and meditation. The first point which they investi- 
gated was the relation of Christ to God, and the mysterious junction of 
His divine and human natures. On this question, vehement contentions 
811096 as early as the time of Constantino, between the Alexandrian 


ecclesiastics. Anus and Athanasius, the first of whom maintained that 
Christ, the Son of God, was inferior to God the Father, and dependent 
on Him ; while the latter laid down the doctrine of the Trinity in Unity, 
through the prii/ciple that God the Son was of the same substance with 
God the Father. The first general Church Council (GEcumenical Syn- 
od), which Constantino convened at Nice, declared the opinion of Atha- 
nasius to be the true (orthodox) faith of the Church ; but the German 
nations, the Goths, Vandals, Longobards, to whom Christianity had been 
brought by Arian missionaries, continued in Arianism for another ccnturj^-, 
and were therefore excommunicated and driven out as heretics from the 
Catholic (universal) Church. An equally important dispute arose in the 
fifth centui7, about original sin and predestination, since Augustine, 
Bishop of north Africa, laid down the principle that the nature of man, 
through Adam's fall, has become unable to do good by its own strength ; 
that this strength is produced only by the grace of God in one portion of 
mankind, while the other remains abandoned to ruin ; so that one man 
may be from the beginning appointed (predestinated) to salvation, ano- 
ther to condemnation. These harsh doctrines were disputed by Pela- 
gius, a monk residing in Africa, and the principle maintained, that man 
can, by the strength of his own free will, do good, and become a partaker 
of salvation. — The Christian writers of the first five or six centuries 
were called Fathers of the Church. . Their works are the more im- 
portant, because on them depend the traditional doctrines of the Catholic 
Church. The nearer, therefore, they stand to the time of the Apostles, 
the greater is their authority, as we assume that the dbciples of Jesus 
made many oral communications to their contemporaries, which are not 
found in the apostolic writings, but might well be known from the works 
of the Fathers. They wrote partly in Greek and partly in Latin. 
OonstantiTis, § 175. Of Constantino's three vicious sons, who, according 
A- D. 867-860. to their father's will, divided the empire, Constantius, after 
, long years of bloody struggles, obtained the sole sovereignty. As he 
was himself busied in Asia, he sent his cousin, Julian, to Gaul, to protect 
the frontiers of the empire against the Germanic nations. 
A.D.867. Julian besieged the Allemanni in Strasburgh, twice passed 
the Rhine, repulsed the Franks in the Netherlands, and restored the an- 
cient renown of the Roman aims. Proclaimed emperor by 
A. D.860. j^.g soldiers in his favorite city, Paris, Julian marched against 
Constdntias, and a civil war would have ensued, had not the latter, died 
Julian just at this crisis. Julian now without hinderance entered 

A. D. 861 -868. the imperial castle in Constantinople, as sovereign of the 
vast empire. He immediately removed all the superfluous officers of the 
court, reduced the imperial household, and in his dress and mode of liv- 
ing studied the greatest simplicity ; he provided for the impartial adminia- 
tratton of justioe, and restored discipline and military virtue in the army. 


StroDglj as he worked by these means on an indolent generation, yet his 
zeal to revive paganism hindered the success of his efforts. The con-^ 
straint which he endured in his youth under Christian masters had pro- 
duced in him an aversion to the Gospel ; whilst his lively imagination, 
and his love for Plato's philosophy (§ 65, 72), and for the literature and 
poetry of antiquity, made him a most enthusiastic admirer of paganism. 
For this reason he was branded by Christian writers with the title of 
Apostate. Nevertheless, he was too just and too wise to inflict bloody 
persecutions on the Christians. He contented himself with removing 
them from his presence, and from public and professional offices, oppos- 
ing their opinions in writings, and reestablishing the heathen worship, 
with its feasts and sacrifices. He himself sometimes offered solemn 
hecatombs of 100 bulls to the god of the sun. Having, however, with 
the heroism of old Home, undertaken an adventurous campaign against 
the New Persians, he pressed forward victoriods over the Euphrates and 
Tigris; but being entrapped into an inaccessible mountainous district, 
and compelled to commence a difficult retreat, he was wounded mortally 
Joyian, by an arrow, and his schemes brought to nought His suc- 

1. D.sss-864. eessor J<5vian, in a dishonorable peace, restored the conquer- 
Valens, ^^ territory, and made Christianity again the dominant re- 

i.D.8«4-878.]igioQ. After his death, the empire was divided, the Arian 
ValentiziMii. ^^^^^ ruling over the East, whilst his brother, the rude and 
1.D.8S4-895. warlike Yalentinian L, governed the West. 


§ 176. When Yalens was ruling the East, the Huns, a wild, hideous, 
well-mounted nomad people, came from the steppes of Central Asia to 
Europe. After the overthrow of the Aldni, the brave East Goths (whose 
gray-haired king, H^rmanrich, devoted himself to death), conquered them 
and then fell upon the West Goths. But this people having been already 
converted to Arian Christianity by Bishop Ulfilas, obtained permission 
from Yaleos to cross the Danube, with their wives and children, and to 
occupy new abodes. Through the venality of the Roman officers, the 
West Goths, contrary to agreement, remained in possession of their 
arms; and as, from the severity and avarice of the governor, they soon 
fell into the greatest distress from hunger, they seized the accustomed 
sword, stormed the city of Marcian<5polis, and carried robbery and deso- 
lation through the land. Yalens marched hastily against the enemy; 
bat in tlie maiderous battle of Adrian6ple he lost the victoiy, and his 


]ife, daring the flight, in a burning hut The victors now roved throng^ 
the defenceless land with unrestrained fuiy, as far as the Julian Alps, 
and menaced even the frontiers of Italj. Then was the brave Spaniard 
Theod6sius chosen sovereign of the East He terminated the Gothic 
war, bj settling one part of the enemy in the southern Danubian pro- 
vinces, and enlisting another part as soldiers in the Roman armies. After 
many contests and military exploits, Theoddsius, henceforth called the 
Great, at length obtained the sovereignty of the West also, and so united, 
for the last time, the whole world-wide Roman empire under one sceptre. 
He was a powerful, but passionate prince ; and on one occasion, in Thes- 
salonica, he put to death 7,000 d^zensy because they had slain his gover- 
nor. For this, the Church's penance was inflicted on him by the un- 
daunted bishop, Ambrose, of Milan, — a punishment which he willingly 
underwent. Theoddsius was a zealous champion of the Catholic faith. 
^e denounced and persecuted Arianism, interdicted the use of sacrifices 
and divinations, and permitted the heathen temples to be plundered and 
destroyed. Now was extinguished the sacred fire of Vesta — the oracles 
and sibyls were silent — and the pagan pantheism yielded to- the faith in 
the crucified Saviour. At his death, Theod<5sius made over the East, with 
Hlfn&j to his son, Arcadius, who was eighteen years old, by whose side 
stood the Gaul, Rufinus; while Hon<5rius, then in his eleventh year, 
under the guidance of the politic and warlike Vandal, Stflicho, was to 
be lord of the West From this time forward the empire remained 


§ 177. Envy of Stilicho induced Rufinus to provoke the valiant Xlaric, 
king of the West Goths, to invade the provinces of the Western empire. 
The Goths marched forthwith, murdering and plundering, through 
Thessaly, Central Greece, and Peloponnesus, and trod under foot the 
A D 896 remains of Greek civilization, until, being surrounded by 

Stflicho's forces, they were compelled to retreat A short 
time after this, Alaric fell upon Upper Italy, pursued his devastating 
course up the banks of the Fo, but suffered so much loss in two undeci- 
A. D. 408. ®^^® battles against Stflicho, that he retreated upon lUyria, 

to wait for a more favorable opportunity. This enemy of 
the empire had scarcely been repulsed, before vast hordes of pagan Ger- 
mans, Vandals, Burgundians, and Suevi, 6cc., burst into Italy, under the 
command 6£ duke Radagafsus, destroyed the towns and villages, and 
filled every place with cruel slaughter and desolation. But these also 
A. D. 406. ^^^ overcome near Florence, by the military skill of Stilicha 

Their leaders were killed ; thousands fell beneath the swords 
of the victors, or perished by hunger and disease ; others entered into the 
Roman service. The remains of their army threw themselves into GauL 


where, after repeated acts of devastation, the Burguodians settled on the 
Rhine and the Jura, and founded the kingdom of Burgundj, which ex- 
tended from the Mediterranean to the Yosges. The Vandals and Saevi, 
on the other hand, crossed the Pyrenees^ and won • dwelling-places for 
themselves by the sword, in Spain and Portugal, which they however 
gave up again twenty years afterwards, and crossed over into Africa with 
the Vandal king, G^nseric. 

S 178. The brave Stflicho, in his necessity, had entered into a friendly 
alliance with Alaric, and consented to pay him a yearly tribute. His 
enemies founded an accusation of high treason upon this, and procured 
his execution at Bav^nna. Hereupon, AUric, enraged at the withdrawal 
of the tribute, and appealed to by Stilicho's adherents for protection, 
marched into Italy, laid siege to Rome, and compelled the terrified in- 
habitants to purchase the clemency of the conqueror with gold, silver, and 
costly apparel. But when the court at Ravenna disdainfully rejected 
Akric's proposals of peace, the Gothic prince again appeared before the 
walls of the former mistress of the world, stormed it at length 
during the night, and surrendered it to be plundered for 
three days by his army. The hero died shortly after, in the flower of his 
age, in Lower Italy. There is a legend that declares that his coffin and 
treasures were buried in the bed of the stream Bus^nto, which had been 
diverted from its cpurse for the purpose. His brother-in-law, Adolf, 
eonduded a treaty with Hon<$rius, by virtue of which the West Goths 
marched into Southern Q^u\. It was here that they founded 
the kingdom of the West Goths, which at first extended from 
the GrarcSnne to the Ebro, and had Tolosa (Toulouse) for its principal 
city. When, however, the Vandals, some years later, went into AfHca, 
the West Goths gradually conquered the whole of Spain; but, on the 
other hand, were compelled to relinquish the territory between the 
P/renees and the GanSnne to the Franks. 

Yalendnian § 179. Hondrius followed Valentfnian HI., with -3ytius 

DL, A. D. 4S6 at his side, for general and influential minister. The go- 
-<W- remor of northern Africa, Bonifdcius, lived in enmity with 

this iB'tius ; and being afraid of his anger, he rebelled, and summoned 
the Vandals, under their bold and crafty king, G^nseric, out of Spain, 
to his assista^^ce. It is true, that, upon their arrival, he repented of 
this rash act, vid opposed them with his forces. But the warlike 
Vandals overcam3 him, and, in defiance of the court of Ravenna, made 
themselves masters of noKhem Africa, where they established the empire 
of the Vandals, with its capital, Carthage, conquered Sicily and tbp 
Balearic islands, and rendered themselves formidable to all islands and 
buds near the coast by their piracies. The kingdom of the Vandals 
existed for a hundred years in ncrth Africa. G^nseric died in 477. 



§ 180. About the middle of the fifth century, Xttila, suroamed the 
Scourge of God, left his wooden residence on the banks of the Theifis, in 
Hungary, for the purpose of conquering the western empire of Rome bj 
the sword. More than half a million savage warriors, partly Huns and 
partly Germans, who were their subjects or allies, marched through 
Austria, Bavaria, and Aleminnia, to the Rhine, where they annihilated 
the royal house of Burgundy in Worms, destroyed the Roman towns, 
and then carried slaughter and desolation into Gaul. It was here that 
the valiant JE'tius, with an army composed of Romans, Burgundians, 
West Goths, and Franks, succeeded, in the Catalaiinian 
plains (Chalons on the Mame), in setting a limit to Attila's 
victorious course. 162,000 dead bodies, and among them that of the 
brave king of the West Goths, covered the field of battle. From his 
camp, fortified with wagons, the Hun bade defiance to the attacks of the 
enemy, and then retreated into Hungary (Fann6nia), with 
the purpose of invading Italy in the following year. Aqui- 
Idia was destroyed ; Milan, Favia, Verdna, and Fadua taken by . storm; 
and the fertile banks of the Fo turned into a desert The unfortunate 
inhabitants of Aquil^ia sought for refuge on the io<^ and sand-islands of 
the lagunes, and thus laid the foundation of Venice. Xttila was already 
on his march towards Rome, where he was induced* by the prayers of the 
Roman bishop, Leo I., to conclude a peace with Valentfnian, and to 
retreat Attila's sudden death, either by hsemorrhage, or the vengeance 
of his Burgundian bride, checked the progress of the Hunnish empire. 
The Ostrogoths, the G^pidae, and the Longobards obtained their inde- 
pendence after a severe struggle, whilst the remains of the nomadic Huns 
were lost in the rich pastoral steppes of southern Russia.* 


§ 181. The Roman power was now rapidly approaching to its falL 
Valentinian with his own hand kiUed ^'tius, the last support of the em- 
pire. Shortly afler, the luxurious emperor lost his own life by FetnSnios 
M^mus, whose wife he had corrupted. FetnSnius, raised to be Yalen- 
tfnian's successor, aspired to the hand of the imperial widow, which in- 
duced the latter to summon the Vandals against the murderer of her 
husband. G^nseric landed at Ostia, took Rome, and subjected the ci^ 
for fourteen days to plunder, during which time the works of art were 
ruthlessly mutilated (Vandalism). Laden with plunder and prisoners 
(the empress and her two daughters among the number), the Vandals 
returned to the coast of Africa, where they resumed their piratical em- 
ployments with more audacity than before. Afler some time, the Sueve, 
Bidmer, a bold, cra%, but blood-stained man, acquired such power, that 


to the daj of his death, he managed the crown and empire at his pleasure, 

withoat even assaming the imperial title. Three years after Rfcimer's 

death, the amhitious general, Orestes, invested his son, Rdmulus Augiis- 

mlus, with the powerless crown. Upon this, the Grerman troops in the 

paj of the Romans demanded a third part of the lands of Italy; and 

when this was not granted, the valiant Ododcer commanded the captive 

Orestes to he put to death, and, hj assuming the title of King of Italy, 

put an end to the Western empire of Rome. Ododcer he« 
A.D. 476. '^ _ _ . , "^ ., . _ _ - 

stowed a yearly pension, and a residence m Lower Italy, 

upon the inoffensive R<5mulus Augustulus. 


§ 182. Ododcer had reigned, not without renown, for twelve years, 
when The<5doric, king of the Ostrogpths, with the consent of the Byzan- 
tine emperor, marched from the Danuhe upon Italy. He was followed 
hy 200,000 men fit for war, with their wives, children, and goods. 
Ododoer was unahle to resist this force. Overcome hy The<Sdoric near 
VenSna, he concealed himself behind the waUs of Ravenna ; and it was 
only after a gallant defence of three years that he at length surrendered 
upon honorable conditions. But he was killed not long aAer, by the 
Goths, at a riotous banquet From this time, the empire of the Ostro- 
goths, which extended from the southern point of Italy to the Danube, 
was governed wisely and justly by' Theddoric, from Ravenna. He paid 
respect to the ancient laws and institutions, employed the original inha- 
bitants of the country in trade, agriculture, and commerce, and com- 
mitted war and the use of arms to the Groths. Even literature and 
drilizadon rejoiced in his protection; and learned Romans, like the 
historian Cassioddrus, were advanced to the highest offices of the state. 
The6doric's authority was so great abroad, that contending kings brought 
their differences to his judgment seat It was only a short time previous 
to his death, that he was rendered cruel by suspicion, and commanded 
the worthy senator Bo^thius, and his father-in-law, Symmachus, to be 
exeeoted, because they were suspected of having invited the Byzantine 
court to expel the Goths. It was in prison that Bo^thius wrote his cele- 
brate work, the ^ Consolations of Philosophy." 


1 183. The Franks, a tribe of German origin, had marched from their 
hereditary possessions on the Lower Rhine to the Meuse and the Sambre. 
From this place, their warlike king, Clovis, led them forth to war and 
plunder. After he had conquered and put to death the last Roman 
AD. 486 - governor, Sydgrius, in Soissons, and made himself master of 
the country between the Seine and the Loire, he advanced 
gainst the Alemanni, who were in "possession of an extensive kingdom 


OD both banks of the Rhine. He defeated them in the great battle of 
Zulpich (between Bonn and Aix), and subjected their 
country on the Moeelle and the Lahn. In the heat of 
the battle, Clovis had sworn, that if the doubtful combat should ter- 
minate in his favor, he would embrace the faith of his Christian wife ; 
and in the same jear, he, with 3,000 nobles of his train, reoeiTed baptism 
in the waters of the Rhine. But ChrisUanitj produced no emotions of 
pitj in his savage heart Afler he had extended the Frank 
A. D. 507. empii^ to the Rhone on the east, and to the Gardnne on the 
south, he attempted to secure the whole territory to himself and his pos- 
terity, by putting to death the chiefs of all the Frank tribes. 

§ 184. The wickedness of the father was inherited by his four sons, 
who, after Cbvis's death, divided the Frank empire between them ; the 
eldest received the eastern kingdom, Austrt^ia, with the capital, Metz ; 
the three younger sons shared the western territory, Neustria, and Bur> 
gundy, which was connected with it. But the empire was agmn from 
time to time united. The history of the kinglj house of the Merovingians 
displays a frightful picture of human depravity. The murders of bro- 
thers and relatives, bloody civil wars, and the explosion of unbridled 
passions, fill its annals, llie savage enormities of the two queens, Bmn- 
hilda and Fredigonda, are particularly dreadful. These horrors ai length 
destroyed all the power of the race of Clovis, so thai they are distin- 
guished in history as sluggish kings, whilst the steward of the royal pos- 
sessions (mayor of the palace) gradually obtained possession of all the 
powers of government, A visit to the yearly assemblies of the people 
(Marzfelder), upon a carriage drawn by four oxen, was at last the only 
occupation of the imbecile Merovingians. At first, each of the three 
kingdoms had its own mayor, until the brave and shrewd Pepin voo 
Heristal succeeded in uniting the mayoralties of Neustria and Burgundy 
with that of Austrdsia, and making them hereditary in his own ^Emiily. 
From this time, Pepin's descendants, who were called dukes of Fran- 
o6nia, possessed the regal power, whilst the Merovingians were kings in 
nothing but the name. 


§ 185. About the middle of the fifth century, the Roman army left 
Britain, which it was unable any longer to retain. The inhabitants, who 
were too weak to resist the attacks of the wild Picts and Scots (§ 159, 
168), sought assistance from the Angles and Saxons of the Ix>wer Elbe. 
These obeyed the summons ; but afler they had repulsed the enemy, they 
turned their swords against the Britons themselves, and, after a fearfol 
oontest, subdued their country, which was henceforth called England 
(Angle-land)'. The greater number of the Celtic inhabitants perished 
1^ the sword; those who were able took refuge in Gaul (Bretagne). li 


iras onlj in the moimfainotis ^Ustiiots of Wales and Cornwall that the 
Cdts asserted their independelice and national pecaliarities, till as late 
as the thirteenth oenturj. The rest of the kingdom fell into the power 
of the Anglo-Saxonsy who established there seven small monarchies. 
These existed in a separate state, in the midst- of perpetual contests, till 
the ninth century, when Egbert united the seven kingdcms 
(Heptarchy), and assumed the title of King of Enghind. 
The paganism of Grermanj had yielded to Christianity as early as the 
seventh century, when the Benedictine monk, Augustine, with a crowd 
of missionaries, landed in Kent, led the king and his nobles to baptism, 
and founded the seat of the archbishopric of Canterbury. 


{ 186. The Byzantine empire displays a melancholy picture of moral 
depravity. A court filled with oriental luxury and magnificence, where 
women and &vorites raise and dethrone weak^ or vicious emperors by 
crimes or intrigues ; an insolent body-guard, who carried on the same 
aodacions game with the crown that the pnetorians had formerly done ; 
and a fickle population, who took pleasure in nothing but questions of 
reHgioiis controversy, and the rude sports of the race-course (hipp6- 
dromus). In these race-eourses, two great parties, who mortally hated 
and persecuted each other, distinguished themselves, according to the 
eobrs of the chariot drivers, into the Blue and the Green. It was under 
J^stiIliJu^ these circumstances, that Justinian, a man of low <)rigin, 
A. D.sa7 -666. ascended the throne, where he completed several great 
vndertakings. He subdued the Green party, that had raised an insur- 
reetbn against him, and closed the race-course for ever; he ordered the 
code of laws, known by the name of Corpus Juris and Pandects, to be 
prepared by his minister, TrilxSnian; he procured silk-worms from 
China by an artifice, and transplanted the manufacture of silk into 
Europe; he built the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople, and he 
persecuted the heathens and Arians. 

1 187. Both the Vandals and Goths had made a profession of Arian- 

iam. Hence Justinian embraced the project of visiting them with war, 

and, by the conquest of their lands, of restoring his empire to the same 

extent it had possessed under Constantino. Belis^us, the great hero of 

his time, subdued in a few months the kingdom of the Vandals, which 

was abeady disturbed by a religious war, and carried the last king, G^li- 

mer, a prisoner to Constantinople. About this time, The<S- 

doric's noble daughter, Amalasunta, was murdered by her 

dastardly husband. Hereupon Justinian assumed the part of her aven- 

8^9 and sent Belia^urios to Italy. Belis^rius tock Rome, and defended 

it with military skill and heroio courage fi>r a twelvemonth 

against the Gothic king, Vitiges. The Goths, filled wi|h 


amasemeDt at the oonnge of Belisdrins, offered bim the flovereigD 
anibonijf and deHvered up to hnn the chief dty, Rayenna. He took 
possesflioii of it in the name of the emperor, but did not, nevertheleaa, 
escape the enTj and calomnj of the Byiantine coortierB. He was 
recalled in the midst of a course of yictories, to defend the eastern fitm- 
tier against the Persians. After his departure, the Goths, 
according to the German custom, raised the Taliant Totila 
upon a shield, and saluted him as king. Totila soon reconquered the 
whole of Italy. Belisdrins again made his appearance, but, being 
slenderly supplied with money and troops by the suspicious emperor, 
with all his courage he could effect but little. Justinian angrily sum- 
moned him back, and punished him with his displeasure. He is said, 
when a blind old man, to have supported his life by begging alms. 
His successor was Narses, a dexterous courtier, but a hero like Beli- 
s^us. Narses gained a victory at Tagina, near the ancient Sentmum 
(§ 110), where Todla and the bravest of his warriors died in the fiekL 
It was in vain that the remainder of the Goths raised the valiant Tejas 
upon the royal shield ; he also, after many bloody encounters, 
fell at the head of his nobles, near the ancient Cumse ; and 
it was only a small band who sought an unknown dwelling-place upon 
the farther side of the Alps. 

S 188. Henceforth, Narses, as the emperor^s lieutenant, governed the 
conquered country from Ravenna. But when Justinian died, and his 
successor deprived Narses of his office, he called the Longobards out of 
Pann<5nia (Hungary), a short time before his death. These advanced 
to the neighborhood of the Po, which received from them the name of 
Lombai:dy, under the warlike Alboin. Pavia was taken by assault after 
a siege of three years, and erected into the capital of the Lombard king- 
dom. Alboin died by the bloody vengeance of his wife, the beautifnl 
Bosamunda. He had killed her father, the king of the G^pidse, some 
years before in battle, and, in accordance with the German custom, had 
had his skull fashioned into a goblet. He once compelled his daughter, 
during a festival, to drink from this cup, a proceeding that so enraged 
her that she procured his assassination. The rude Longobards treated 
the natives with violence, and deprived them of the greater part of their 
possessions. But the fruitful fields were soon brought to a splendid state 
of cultivajion by the sturdy arms of German laborers. A powerful 
nobility of dukes and counts stood at the head of this nation, who elected 
their kings in the assemblies of the people (Maifeldem). The Longo- 
bard kingdom remained independent for two centuries. 

S 189. The glory that Justinian had shed upon the Byzantine empire, 
was soon obscured by the depravity of the court Wicked princes 
ascended the blood-stained throne in the midst of the most revolting hor- 
rors ; deprivation of the eyes, mutilation of the nose and ears, were 


fliingB of dailj occurrence in this God-forsaken court. With all this, 
CoDBtantinople remained, through the whole of the middle ages, the seat 
of learning and refinement, and the Byzantine history confirms a fact de- 
rived from experience, that external civilization and a refined manner of 
living are frequentlj conjoined with barbarousness of mind and de- 
pravitj of morals. The afiairs of the Church always excited the great- 
est interest at Constantinople. When the increasing veneration for 
images and relics threatened to establish a new form of idolatry, inas- 
I^ ^ much as the ignorant people worshipped the images them- 

banrian, selves, Leo the Isaurian issued a command to remove them 
A.D.7i7-74i.|jtogiether from the churches. This gave rise to a storm 
that shook throne and empire for more than a century. Two parties, the 
image worshippers (Iconoduli) and the image breakers (Iconoclasts) stood 
Ccmstantine ^^ hostile opposition to each other. Leo's energetic sob, 
CoproDymus, Constantine Copronymus, followed his father's example. He 
A. D. 741 -746.1,11^ the worship of images condemned by a council of the 
Church, and punished the refractory by death and banishment. His son 
Leo IV., A. D. also, Leo IV., belongs to the number of iconoclastic empe- 
y7&-780. Tors. But after his sudden death, his wife, L^ne, abrogated 
Inne, the former resolutions by a new council, and restored to the 

A. D. 800. churches their ornaments of images. This violent woman 
pat out the eyes of her own son from motives of ambition, and was 
meditating a union with Charlemagne, when she was hurled from the 
throne by a conspiracy. She died in misery at Lesbos. A later at- 
Leo the Anne- ^^'^P^ ^ remove images from the churches, undertaken by 
oiaii,!. D. Leo the Armenian and his successors, was less violent, and 
8U-820. ^03 interrupted by the empress Theodora. Shortly after, a 
new imperial house ascended the throne, in the person of Basilius the 
Macedonian, which ruled with little interruption for 200 
yearsy and restored some strengtl^ to the empire. In the 
West, the decrees against images were not recognized. 


S 190. On the south-western coast of the peninsula of Arabia, which, 
on account of' its great fertility in coffee, frankincense, cinnamon, and 
other spices, is called Arabia Felix, lived for ages, in proud independ- 
ence, a people capable of civilization. Their religion was a rude pagan- 
wn; a black stone in the Caaba at Mecca served as the national palladi- 
^ the care of which belonged to the Eoreishites. They were rendered 
ridi by an extensive commerce, and took pleasure in mental cultivation 


and poetry. It was in the midst of this people that Mohimmed was 
IfQhainiDed, born, towards the end of the sixth century, from the ie> 
A. D. 671 - 68S. spected priestly race of the Koreishites. Daring his youth, 
he made journeys with the caravans into foreign lands in the capacity of 
merchant, and thus became convinced that the religion of the Jews and 
Christians must be preferable to the idolatrous worship of the Arabs. 
As soon, therefore, as he had acquired an independent posidon by his 
marriage with a rich widow, he withdrew from the bustle of the world, 
to the recesses of his own bosom, and sought how he might elevate his 
countrymen from their degradation. The expectation entertained by the 
Jews of a Messiah, the promise of Christ to send a Comforter to those 
who loved him, who should guide them into all truth, wrought upon his 
ardent imagination, and excited within him the conviction, that he must be 
the person of whom the world stood in need. His epileptic fits favored 
the pretence that he held communion with angels, and was the subject of 
divine inspiration. 

§ 191. In his fortieth year, Moh^med came forth with his doctrine^ 
" There is but one God, and Mohammed is his prophet.** But with the 
exception of his wife, his fat&er-in-law Abu Bekir,* his son-in-law Ali, 
and a few of his friends and relations, no one at first believed in his 
mission ; nay, he was even compelled, by a menacing tumult, to fiy from 
Mecca to Medina. (The Mohdmmedans reckon their years 
^' 'from this event, which is called Hejira.) He here foond 
adherents with whom he undertook expeditions, and at length, afrer some 
victorious encounters, he forced his return to Mecca. In Medina he 
composed a part of the sentences of which the holy book of the Koran con- 
sists. Mecca soon acknowledged him as a prophet, and his doctrine, 
called Islam, was soon predominant all over Arabia. He combined in it 
the fundamental doctrines of Juddism and Christianity, with maxims that 
were adapted to the East He commanded frequent ablutions and 
prayers, circumcision, fiists, almsgiving, and pilgrimages to Mecca, forbade 
the use of wine and swine's flesh, and sanctioned polygamy. A chief 
commandment of the Koran was, to diffuse Islam by every means, and 
to compel the natif ns to receive it by fire and sword. Those who fell 
bravely in battle were promised a paradise of sensual enjoyments. The 
prophet died in the eleventh year of the Hejira. Mecca, where he was 
bom, and Medina, the place where his grave is situated, are regarded as 
sacred cities of pilgrimage. Mohdmmed united gra\'ity and dignity 
in his carriage and bearing ; he was benevolent, simple in his.manner of 
living, and not devoid of domestic virtues ; but he was too much addicted 
to women. 

§ 192. Ali, the husband of the favorite daughter of the prophet, hoped 
Abn Bekir ^ become Moh^med's successor (Ehalif). But Moh^- 
A.D. 699-684. med's intriguing wife, Ayesha, procured the election of her 


r Aba Bekir, wlio was saeoeeded by the simple and energetic Omar. 
Q^ig^ Under tUs Bian, the Ansbs, inspired bj their new faith, 

A.ii.6M-e4i. carried their yictorioiis swords beyond the limits of Arabia. 
Pilestine and Syria were conqnered, and Mohammed's warriors marched 
iito the Christian cities of Antioch, Damascus, and Jemsalem. Kaled, 
<<the sword of Giod,*' and the crafty Amni conducted the valiant bands. 
Persia was subjected, after a succession of bloody engage- 
ments. The last king, Yesdejird fled (as once Darius before 
Alexander), with the sacred fire in his hand, to the mountainous high- 
Isnds, where he perished by the hands of an assassin. The Arabs now 
pursued their victorious course through the eastern highlands, and car- 
ried the doctrines of Mohammed to the Upper Indus. The Persian fire* 
worship fell before the Koran, and henceforth, Islam was the ruling 
religion of the £ast. The new cities of Basra, Cufa, and Bagdad, on the 
llgris, soon became the centres of trade, and the seats of oriental luxury 
and magnificence. Shortly after this, Amru marched from 
Syria into Egypt, took Alexandria, (by which means the 
renuuDs of the great library are said to have perished), (§ 125,) burnt 
Memphis, (in the neighborhood of which the chief dty, Cairo, took its 
erigiD ftam the camp of the general,) and thrust aside the Gospel by the 

i 193. Omar shortly after fell by the dagger of a Persian slave, and 
Oduna, Othman, the collector and ananger of the Koran, succeeded 
A. 0.644-666. to the Khalifate. But Othman was also assassinated; and 
when Ali at length ascended the sacred chair that had long been his 
light, the iamily of the Ommiades rose against him and excited a civil 
war, in which Ali and his whole house perished, and the Khalifate was 
taken possession of by the Ommiades, who established their 
residence in the beautifhl Damascus. The Arabians prose- 
cuted their conquests under the Ommiades both by land and water. 
Cyprus, Rhodes, Asia Minor, all felt the edge of their swords; the capital 
of the Byzantine empire had to sustain seven attacks and sieges, and was 
only saved by the newly-discovered Greek fire. The north 
' coast of Africa was subdued at the same time, and the Christ- 
ian religion and civilization there destroyed in the course of a lengthened 
var. The Arabians also gained a firm footing in Sicily, whence they 
niade predatory excursions upon the coasts of Italy. 

1 194. It happened about the beginning of the eighth century of the 
Christian era, that the West Goth, Roderick, deprived his brother of the 
Spenish throne. Hereupon, the sons of the banished man called the 
Anbs into Africa to revenge him. Tarik, the Arabian general, crossed 
tk straits of the sea, founded the town of Gibraltar (Gebel al Tarik,> 
A.D.711 '^ overthrew the West Goths at the battle of Xeres de la 
Frontera, where Roderick and the flower of his chivalry 


were slam in the field. The Arabians overran the whole of Spain, as fiur 
as the rockj Astarias, in a rapid coarse of victories. The Saracena 
crossed the Pyrenees at their side, conquered the south of France as far 
as the Rhone, and threatened France and Christianity with destmction ; 
when Charles Martel, the mayor of the palace of Pepin Heristal (§ 184), 
^ overthrew them between Tours and Poitiers, in a battle that 

lasted seven days, and compelled them to fall back upon 
Spain. Charles Martel was thus the savior of Christian Germany in the 
§ 195. Twenty years after Charles MarteFs death, the dynasty of the 

Ommiades was overthrown by the Abbassides, and their 

A« D. 752* 

whole family destroyed. Populous towns sprang up. Atten- 
tion was paid to trade, agriculture, and the rearing of cattle ; mines were 
opened, and the prosperity of the country was displayed in rich villages, 
flourishing farms, and splendid palaces (Alhambra) : arts and sdeuces 

,^«« ^ere encouras^ed. But after the race of the Ommiades 
A. D. 1088. , . , ,, . , . « . ^ ^ 

became extmct, the Moorish power m Spam was broken up 

into a number of small states, that gradually yielded before the Christians 
of the North. The latter had enlarged their territories by successful 
wars from their head-quarters, the Asturias, so that, with time, three 
kingdoms had been established, Castile, Aragon, and Portugal, each of 
which existed independently of the other, and waged furious contests 
with the Arabs. of the South. These wars produced a spirit of chivaliy, 
religious zeal, and freedom among the Christian Spaniuds. The deeds 
of these God-inspired warriors, particularly those of the great 
Cid Campeaddr, were handed down to posterity in heroic 
songs (Romances), and kept alive the courage and chivalrous spirit of 
the Spanish nobility. Civic freedom was at the same time fiourishing in 
the cities. The victory gamed by the united Christian force at Tolosa^ 
in the Sierra Morena, broke forever the power of the Arabians. 

§ 196. The arts and sciences flourished in all the countries inhabited 
by the Arabs, as well as in Spain. Mosques, palaces, and gardens, were 
to be met with in every Arabian town. Industry and commerce brought 
wealth, — the source of refinement, but, at the same time, of the love of 
splendor and efieminacy. Architecture, music (the system of notes), and 
decorative painting (arabesques), flourished in all the chief Arabian 
towns. The sciences were taught at Cordova, Cairo, Bagdad, Salerno, 
and many other cities ; more particularly, grammar, philosophy, mathe- 
matics, (the Arabian ciphers, algebra), astronomy, and astrology, natural 
philosophy, (chemistry), and medicine. The Arabians translated the 
writings of the Greeks, especially those of Aristotle and Euclid, and cul- 
tivated the art of poetry. The literature and civilization of this people 
had the greatest influence upon the development of the Christian middle 





(A. J}. 768-814.) 

§ 197. The Austrasian duke, Pepin of Heristal, and his son Charles Mar- 
tel,had gained the confidence of the nation by their warlike deeds, and the 
&Tor of the priests by their zeal in the propagation of Christianit j. Both 
parties were instmmental in raising Pepin the Little, the son of Charles 
Uartely to the throne of the Franks. For when the assembly of the 
nation deposed the last imbecile representative of the Merovingians 
(Childeric IIL), and prochumed the chief steward, Pepin, king, the pope 
confirmed the election, in the hope of finding in the Frank ruler a sup- 
port against the Longobards and the iconoclastic emperor of Byzantium. 
In retoni for the royal consecration, which was first performed by Boni- 
&oe, and afterwards by Pope Stephen himself, Pepin endowed the Bo- 
man chair with the portion of coast on the Adriatic Sea, southwards 
from Bavenna. This was the foundation of the temporal power of the 

This Boniface (properly Winfried) was one of those active English 
missionaries, who, under the protection of the first Carlovingian monarchs, 
proclaimed the doctrine of a crucified Redeemer to the rude inhabitants 
of Germany. He preached the Gospel in Hesse, (where he built the 
abbey of Fnlda), founded bishoprics and colleges for education among 
the Thuringians, Franks, and Bavarians, and displayed such zeal that he 
obtained the name of the '^apostle of the Germans." Having been ap- 
pointed archbishop of Mayence, he undertook in his old age another mis- 
sion to the heathen Finlanders, among whom he met with ai violent death. 
All the bishoprics and colleges established by Boniface were closely united 
vith the Roman see ; and as these efforts were favored by the Carlovin- 
gian monarchs, the pope, about the year 800, came to be looked upon as 
the head of the Church in Franconia. 

1 198. Pepin reigned for sixteen years with vigor and renown over 
tlie Frank empire, which extended far into South and Central Germany, 
and which, at his death, he divided between his two sons, 
^^ ' ' Charles and Carloman. When the latter died, about three 
A. D. 771 y^s^fs afterwards, Charlemagne was declared sole ruler of the 
Franks, by the voice of the estates of the empire. He con- 
^aeted many wars, and advanced Christian cultivation and civil order. 
For the purpose of securing the boundaries of his kingdom and extendii^ 


Christiamty, he made war for thirty-one yean on the Saxon eonfedera- 
tion, which was formed bj Tarioas pagan tribes on the Weser and Elbe. 
Charles took the fortress of Eresburg, on the south of the 
Tentobni^ger foFest, destroyed the national palladiam — the 
statue of Arminius, and compelled the Saxons to a peace. He next pro- 
ceeded against the Longobard king, Desid^rius, in obedience to the sum- 
mons of Pope Adrian. With an army collected together near Geneva, 
he crossed the St Bernard, stormed the passes of the Alps, and conquered 
Pavia. Desid^rius ended his days in a cloister. Charles 
erected the Lombard throne in Milan, united Upper Italy 
to the kingdom of the Franks, and confirmed the gifts made by Pepin 
to the pope. 

§ 199. During the absence of Charles, the Saxons had expelled the 
Frank garrisons and reestablished their ancient boundaries. Charles 
. ^^ again marched into their country, subdued them, and oom- 
pdled the chiefs of the tribes to submit at Paderbom. Their 
warlike duke, Witikind, alone, fled to the Danes and refused to oonfirm 
the treaty. In the two following years, Charles fought against the 
Moors in Spain, took Pampelona and Saragossa, and united the whole 
country, as far as the Ebro, to his own kingdom, as a Spanish province. 
But during his return, his rear, under the command of Roland, suffered 
a defeat in the valley of Roncesv^lles, in which the bravest champioos 
of the Franks were destroyed. Roland's battle at Ronoesvdlles was a 
ftvorite theme with the poets of the middle ages. The Saxons tock ad- 
vantage of his absence to make a fresh insurrection, and pursued their 
devastating course as far as the Rhine. Charles hastened to the epei, 
gave them repeated overthrows, and subdued their land afresh. But 
when he attempted to employ them as militia against the Slavonic tribes 
in the East, they fell upon the Frank troops who were marching with 
them, at the Suntal (between Hanover and Hameln), and slew them. 
This demanded vengeance. The Frank emperor marched through the 
land, plundering and destroying, and then held a court of judgment at 
Verden on the Aller. 4,500 prisoners expiated with their blood the 
crime of their brethren. Upon this, hostilities were resumed with fresh 
violence. But the battle on the Hase, which terminated to the disadvan- 
tage of the Saxons, put an end to the war. TVitikind and the other diiefe 
took an oath of fealty and military service, and allowed themselves to be 
baplued. The people foUowed their example. Eight bishoprics (Osna- 
bm<^ Minden, Verden, Bremen, Paderbom, Munster, Halberstadt, Hil- 
dersheim,) provided for the maintenance and extension of Christianity 
among the Saxons. Another insurrection, however, was occasioned a 
few yea^ afterwards, by the oppressive arrt^e-fton,* and the unwonted 

* The STimmons to all the tenants, even those of secondary rank, to quit their oocuptr 
tkns, «&d ftUow the kifig to the wars. Am, M 


payment of tithes to the Church, which resulted in 10,000 Saxon families 
bong carried away from their homes, and colonies of Franks being 
established in their place. To oppose the Slavonic tribes to the east of 
the Elbe, Charles founded the Margraviate* of Bradenburg. 

§ 200. Shortly after, Thassilo, duke of Bavaria^ attempted 
to render himself independent of the Frank power, by the 
assistance of the Avars who lived to the east. He was overpowered, 
and expiated his breach of faith by perpetual confinement within the * 
walls of the cloisters of Fulda. Bavaria was hereupon incorporated 
with the Frank empire, and Charles established the Eastern Margraviate 
as a check upon the wild Avars. When Charlemagne had reduced all 
the lands from the Ebro and the Appenines to the Eider, and from the 
Atlantic Ocean to the Raab and the Elbe, he repaired to Rome at the 
condnsion of the century. It was here that, during the festival of 
Christmas, he was invested witli the crown of the Roman empire, in the 
chnrch of St. Peter, by Leo III., whom he had defended against a 
mob of insurgents. It was hoped, that by this means, western Christen* 
dom might be formed into a single body, of which the Pope was to be- 
come the spiritual, and Charles the secular head. It was at this time 
that the long-exbting variance between the Western (Roman Catholic), 
and the Eastern (Greek Catholic) churches, terminated in a complete 

$ 201. The domestic policy of Charlemagne was not less fertile of 
results than the foreign. 1. He improved the government and the ad- 
ministradon of justice by abolishing the office of duke, dividing the whole 
kingdom into provinces, and appointing counts and deputies for the con* 
duct of the afiairs of justice, and clerks of the treasury for the manage- 
ment of the crown lands and the collection of imposts. The laws were 
confirmed by the popular assemblies (maifeldem), in which every free- 
man had a share. 2. He promoted the cultivation of the land, and the 
edacation of the people. Agriculture and the breeding of cattle were 
eocoaraged, farms and villages sprang up, and barren heaths were con- 
verted into arable fields. He founded conventual schools and cathe- 
drals, had the works of the ancient Roman writers transcribed, and 
formed a coUection of old German heroic ballads. Learned men, like 
the British monk, Alcuin, and the historian Eginhard, from the Oden-* 
wald, had ample reason to congratulate themselves on his encouragement 
and support. 3. He favored the clergy and the church. It was by his 
means that the former obtained their tithes and vast gifts and legacies ; 
church music was improved, missionaries supported, and churches and 
iDOQasteries erected. Ingelheim on the Rhine, and Aix, were Charles's 
&vorite plaees of residence. He lies buried in the latter town. 

*A]|aigimve (Katqnis) wm a Count of the frontaer, the frontier being caUed the Haik 
Qfttch). AaLJEd. 



Loois the § ^^^' ^^® ^° ^^ Charlemagne, Louis the Debonnairc 

Deboimaire, (the Gentle), was better fitted for the repose of a cloister 
A. D.8i4-840.^jjj^jj f^r iijg government of a warlike nation. A too hasty 
division of his kingdom among his three sons, Lothaire, Pepin, and 
Louis, was the occasion of much sorrow to himself, and confusion to the 
empire. For when, at a later period, he proposed an alteration in favor 
of his fourth son, Charles (the Bald), the fruit of a second 
marriage, the elder sons took up arms against their father. 
Louis, faithlessly deserted by his vassals on ^ the field of lies," near 
Strasburg, and betrayed to his own sons, was compelled by Lothaire to do 
penance in the church, and to abdicate his throne ; and was afterwards 
shut up for some time in a cloister. It is true that Louis procured his 
father's reinstatement ; but when the weak emperor, after the death of 
Pepin, by a new division of the kingdom, deprived Louis of Grermany, 
in favor of his brothers, Lothaire and Charles, Louis raised his stand- 
ard against him. This broke the old emperor's heart. Full 
of sorrow, he ended his days on a small island of the Bhine, 
near Ligelheim. The hostile brothers now turned their arms against 
each other. A bloody civil war depopulated the country, so that at last, 
after a battle of three days' duration, at Fontenaille in Burgundy, the 
Frank nobility refused to obey the arrtere-hany and by this 
means brought about the treaty of partition of Verdun. By 
virtue of this treaty, Lothaire received the impeiial dignity, together 
with Italy, Burgundy, and Lorraine ; Charles the Bald, western Fran- 
conia (France) ; and Louis the German, the lands on the right bank of 
the Rhine, — Spire, "Worms, and Mayence. 

§ 203. This division was followed by a time of great confusion, daring 
which, Europe was severely harassed, on the south > by the Arabs ; oa 
the east, by the Slavi ; and on the north and west, by the Normans. To 
oppose these predatory inroads, the Carlo vingian monarchs, who were all 
men of weak and narrow minds, were obliged to restore the ducal office 
in the different provinces, and to sanction the hereditaiy authority of the 
Margraves, so that, in a short time, all the power fell into the hands of 
the nobles. By the rapid deaths of most of the posterity of Louis the 
Gharies the I^bonnaire, nearly the whole of the empire of Charlemagne 
Fat, A-D. 876 > devolved upon Charles the Fat, a prince weak and indolent 
^* and simple almost to imbecility. Incapable of resisting the 

valiant Normans, he purchased a disgraceful peace from them. This pro- 
ceeding so exasperated the German princes, that they decreed his depo- 
sition, at Tribur on the Bhine, and elected his nephew, the brave Amolf, 
Anralf A. D. *^ ^^* successor. Amulf governed with vigor. He over- 
Wt - 898. threw the Romans at Louvain, and called in the aid of the 


wild Magjars, or Hungarians, from the Ural, a people expert in hor^- 
manship and archery, and who were now, under their valiant captain, 
Arpad, occupying the plains on the Danube (named after them Hunga^ 
ly), against the Slavi and Avars. The Avars were either subjected or 
compelled to retreat But the strangers (the Hungarians), soon became 
a more dreadful scourge to Germany than either the Slavi or the Avars. 
They made their predatory inroads and exacted a yearly tribute, even 
under Louis the Child, the youthful son of Amulf, who died in the 
flower of his age, after a glorious campaign in Italy. This still continued, 
when, ailer the early death of this last of the Carlovingian race, the 
German nobks, among whom the dukes of Saxony, Franconia, Lorraine, 
CdmdLjLD. Swabia, and Bavaria were preeminent for power, met to- 
rn -91ft. gether and elected Duke Conrad of Franconia, emperor. 
Germany thus became an elective empire. 

S 204. The rule of the Carlovingians survived longest in France, but 
GhariM tbe ^^ possessed neither strength nor dignity. Under Charles 
Simple, A. D. the Simple, who had ascended the French throne after the 
MS-ttd. deposition and subsequent death of Charles the Fat, the dukes 
and counts rendered themselves entirely independent, and one of the most 
powerful among them, Hugh of Paris, kept the imbecile king in strict 
confinement France, on the other hand, was delivered from the devas- 
tating forays of the Normans, by Charles admitting duke RoUo into the 
province named after them, Normandy, upon condition that he and his 
followers would suffer themselves to be baptized, and recognize the king 
is their suzerain (feudal sovereign). The Normans, a people readily 
susceptible of civilization, soon acquired the language, manners, and cus- 
toms of the Franks. Charles the Simple was followed by two other 
kings of the Carlovingian race ; but their power was at last so limited 
that they possessed nothing but the town of Laon, with the surrounding 
eoontry ; every thing else had fallen into the hands of the insolent no- 
Has^ Capet, bility. After the death of the childless Louis Y., Hugh 
A.II.9S7-MS. Capet, son and heir of Hugh of Paris, assumed the title of 
king, and put to death in prison Louis's uncle, Charles of Lorraine, who 
attempted to assert, his right to the throne by force of arms. 


S 205. The inhabitants of the Scandinavian peninsula belong to the 
Gennan race, and share with it the violent passion for liberty, love of 
Action, and disposition to wander, as well as language, religion, and man- 
Ms. Divided into numerous tribes, they undertook vast expeditions to 



all quarters, and trusted their lives and p^perty on the stonny wavei in 
their light rowing yessels. Under the name of Normans, they ravaged the 
eoasts of the North Sea, sailed up the mouths of rivers in their small 
ships, and returned laden with booty to their homes; as Danes, they 
were feared by the English, from whom they exacted a heavy txibiile 
(Danegeld).' The remote island of Iceland was discovered and peopled 
bj Norwegians, who founded a flourishing republic there, with the xe- 
l%ion, language, laws, and institutions of the mother country ; and Nor- 
man Varangians* were invited as rulers by the Slavonic inhabitant of 
the shores of the Gulfs of Finland and Bothnia. Boric, the warlike 
prince of the Russians and of the Varangian race, accepted the invita- 
tion, establi^ed himself in Novogorod, and became the progenitor of a 
race that ruled over Russia till the end of the sixteenth oentoiy, but 
adopted the manners and language of the aborigines. Greenland was 
discovered and peopled from Iceland. Even America is said to have 
been known to the Normans. The Normans loved war, the chase^ and 
the exercise of arms ; agriculture and the breeding of cattle they left to 
the Slavi. Good faith was their most prominent virtue, and a love of 
poetiy the solitary tender feeling indulged by these rude men. The singess 
(scalds) celebrated the illustrious deeds of their forefathers in melan- 
choly songs and legends. The most celebrated collection of such sacred 
and heroic songs is called the Edda. 

§ 206. England, under the weak successors of Egbert (§ 185), sufieied 
the most severely from the Danes. They plundered the coasts and the 
Alfi«d the ^ores of the rivers, and destroyed the Christian churdies. 
Gmat, A. D. Even Alfred the Great was thrust from his throne by them 
871-901. for ^ ghort time, until he contrived, by dint of conning^ 
courage, and watchfulness, to put an end to their inroads. Crowds of 
them, who had been converted to Christianity, were permitted to settle 
in Northumberland. After this, Alfred devoted himself to the internal 
improvement of his people. Like Charlemagne, he divided his land 
into communities and districts, and placed counts and aldermen over 
them to conduct the affairs of justice ; he founded schools and churches, 
made a collection of the Anglo-Saxon heroic ballads, and translated the 
writings of Boethius (§ 182). But when the Anglo-Saxon population, 
under his successors, slaughtered several thousands of the Danes in 
Northumberland (the Danish vespers), Sweyn the Fortunate, king of 
Canate the Denmark and Norway, recommenced the predatory incnr- 
Great, a. d. gions with such success, that his son, Canute the Great, united 
1017-1085. ^jj^ English crown to the Danish and Norwegian. He go- 
verned justly and wisely. After his death, and that of his son HardiGa- 
fidwflCrdthe aute, Edward the Confessor, a descendant of the ancient 
1^1 !^^^^' royal family, ascended the throne. He had resided a long 

* The name Vanmgiani signifies Conain, or Pirates. Am. Bi. 


I ia Nonaandj, and imbibed a preference for French Norman cos- 
It WBA for this reason, that, during his reign, he encouraged Ib- 
i<eigneFB to the prejudice of the naUves, and appointed William, Duke of 
Normandy, heir to his crown, in the event of his death without issue. 
Tiiis wafi resisted by the nation, who elected the chivalrous Harold to be 
kin|^ But by the battle of Hastings, in which Harold and the 
floww of the Anglo-Saxon nobility fell on the field, William 
the Conqueror was made master of England, where he proceeded with 
great severity to establish a new condition of things. He endowed his 
Norman knights with the estates of ihe Anglo-Saxon landlords, intro- 
doced the French language and the Norman law, and presented the 
richest benefices of the Church to his friends. 

§ 207. A short time before, Robert Ouiscard, a Norman 

noble, had made himself master, by his courage and cunning, 

of the greater part of Lower Italy. He called himself Duke of Apulia 

and Calabria, and acknowledged the pope as his feudal superior. His 

heroic son, Bohemond, increased this territory by further 

conquests. But Bobert's family soon became extinct, upon 

Kogor n^ which his brother^s son, Roger II., united Sicily with Lower 

4^D. ItBljy obtained from die pope the title of king, and esta- 

uso-iiM. IjU^^ jjj3 kingdom of Naples and Sicily. For fifty-six 

years, these rich and beautiful lands remained in the possession of Roger 

aad his descendants ; they then passed to the house of Hohenstaufen. 

1. THE HOUSE OF SiLXONT (919-1024). 

{ 308. The yioknoe of the nobles, and the destructiye inroads of 
the Hungarians, had reduced Grermany to a wild and lawless state. 
The first freely elected emperor, Conrad of Franconia (§ 203), endea- 
vored to correct these evils by harshness and severity, and ordered the 
iaaubordinate Count Erchanger and Berthold von Allemanien to be be- 
kesded as examples. But as he saw that his family did not possess sufil- 
cieat political influence, he favored the advancement of his powerful 
Henry "^al, Henry I. (the Fowler), of Saxony. This energetic 

ti» Fowler, prince enlarged the boundaries of the empire on the north, 
A.D.9i9-»w.^l,^^ he. established the march (frontier) of 8<*leswig 
•gsinst the Danes; on the west, where he again won back Lorrame 
to the empire ; and on the east, where the mardi of Meissen was in- 
tended to keep the Slavi in check. He purchased a nine years' truce 
fi^om the Uagyars, and empk>yed the time in the improvement of the 

▲. D. 088. 


Bxmjy and in erecting strong fortresses. By the building of these cite- 
dels, which grew up with time into towns, Henry became the originator 
of the burgher class, and earned the name of the Founder of CitieB. 
Belying on these preparations, he refused the Hungarians,' at the termi* 
nation of the truce, the tribute that had hitherto been paid ; and when 
diey undertook fm expedition for the purpose of revenging 
themselves, he gave them a severe defeat at the battle of 

Otho § 20^- Otho I. the Great, trod in the steps of bis £Eith^. 

the Great, He sought, like him, to preserve the peace of the empire by 
A.D. 986-978.^Qfg|^|Qg dukedoms and bishoprics on his friends and rela- 
tives ; he also enlarged the bounds of his territories, and diffused Christ- 
ianity; and. when the Hungarians again renewed their inroads upon Ger> 
many, this valiant prince ddfeated them with such slaughter in the Ledifeld 
near Augsburg, that only a few out of the vast multitude 
escaped ; from this time, there was an end of their depreda- 
tions. Christianity, which, towards the end of the century, in the reign 
of the Magyar king, Stephen the Pious, the lawgiver and r^vlator of 
the country, penetrated even into Hungary, produced gentler manners 
and a more peaceable disposition* Otho's attainment of the imperial dig- 
nity was an occurrence pregnant with results for Geimany, 
▲. D. 9e2. which, from this time, remained part of " the holy Roman 
empire of the German nation." By his marriage with Adelheid, qneen 
of Burgundy and Upper Italy, who had appealed to him for protection 
against the attempts of Berenger of Ivrea, Otho gained the kingdom of 
Italy, and was invested in Milan with the Lombard crown. Hereupon 
. he proceeded to Rome, obtained the imperial Roman crown, established 
the protectorship of the German emperor over the papal chair, and 
exacted an oath from the Romans, that they would never acknowledge a 
pope without the knowledge and consent of himself or his successors. 
This protectorship the popes were afterwards unwilling to allow to be 

Otho n., § 210. The ten jesn^ of Otho II.'s reign were filled with 

A. D. 978 -988. contests with the turbulent nobility in Germany and Italy; 
with the French, who wished to get possession of Lorraine ; and witl^ 
the Greeks in Lower Italy, where he laid claim to the Byxantine pos-^ 
sessions, as the dowry of his wife Theophania. Being overcome near 
Bassantello^ he fell into the hands of the enemy, from whom he only 
Otho m., escaped by his skill in swimming. His son, Otho III., was 
▲. D. 988 -lOOS. superior to most of his contemporaries in cultivation and 
learned acquirements, in which he had been instructed by the celebrated 
Gerbert, under the guidance of his mother Theophania, and his grand- 
mother Adelheid, so that he was called the Imperial Prodigy ; but he 
was wanting in the vigor necessary to the ruler of a rude and warlike 


people. His love for Greek and Italian refinement induced him to enter- 
tain the notion of making Rome the metropolis of his kingdom ; but all 
his plans were thwarted bj his early death. 

S 211. After many struggles, Henry H. of Bavaria, a relative of the 
Othosy sncoeeded him in the empire. His love for the church and the 
dergy, which he displayed more particularly in founding the cathedral 
and bishopric of Bamberg, procured him the surname of Saint When 
this cathedral was oonsecrs^ by the pope in person, it was from his 
hands that the emperor received the signs of his imperial power, the 
sceptre and the golden apple ; and although, during his Roman expe- 
ditions, he exercised the right of protectorship over the holy city, yet 
the ceremonies practised on the occasion, afforded a pretext to suc- 
ceeding popes to represent the imperial throne as their fief. Under 
Henry H. and the military bustle of the following age, the civilization 
that had flourished in Magdeburg, HaDe, Bremen, and Bardewick, dur- 
11^ the reign of the Othoe, and under the influence of the foreign 
empress and Otho n.'s sisters, was again extinguished. The mathe- 
matical science of Gerbert, who was versed in Greek and Arabian learn- 
ing, and who was raised to the papal chair, ▲. d. 999, under the title of 
Sylvester II., the Latin poetiy of Ehoswitha and others, found little 
eooooragement ; nevertheless, the colleges founded by the Othos still 
preserved the germs of civilisation. 


S 212. Conrad IL was more bent upon enlarging his kingdom and 
Ooiatd IL obtaining knightly renown, than upon governing in peace. 
A. D. Ailer he had been invested with the iron crown of the Lom- 

1014-1089. bards in Milain, and the imperial diadem in Rome, he added 
to his dominions the kingdom of Burgundy on the Rhone and the Jura. 
This involved him in many quarrels, both with the Burgucdian nobles 
•nd bishops, who looked upon themselves as independent princes ; and 
with his son-in-law, Ernest of Swabia, who asserted a more valid daim 
to the empire, and raised the standard of rebellion in the south of Ger- 
nuny, in conjunction with his friend Welf. Both were subdued after a 
loDg struggle, and the deeds and &te of the chivalrous duke Ernest sup- 
plied the materials for poetry and popular legends. Conrad and his sue* 
eeasor lie buried in the cathedral of Spire, of which magnificent stmo- 
Hniyip. ture the former was the commenoer. Conrad's son, Henry 
^ »• III., was a man of great power, under whose reign Germany 

~ ^^^^ attained its greatest limits ; even Bohemia, Poland, and Hun- 
guy^ncknowledged the supvemaey of the Germano-Roman emperor. For 
the purpose of suppressing the insolence of the turiralent nobles of the 
tungdouiy he entertained the project of founding an absolute, imperial, heie« 


jtLtary nuHiardij, aad eitber of aJtraliaU^g the oftoe of duke in Gennaay, 
or making it entirelj dependent upon the enpenxr. In the Bame niumer, 
he took advantage of a diviskMii in the diaxch to depose the thoee con* 
tending popes, and to xaise the German bishops in awsc^mou to the 
papal chair. He attempted to elevate the imperial power above the 
princes of Germany, as well aa over the eonrt of Borne. He enforced 
respect throaghout his whole kingdom for the " peace of God," according 
to which, no weapons might be used between the evening of Wednesday 
and Monday morning ; an arrangement which, in that iron time, was the 
only means of preserving a vestige of order. He also preserved him- 
self unspotted from the crime of simony, i. «., disposing of the proper^ 
or dignities of the ehnrch for money or worldly considerations. 

§ 218. Henry HL's son was the highly-giAed but naisled Henry IV., 
who» from the age of five years, was under the tutelage of his judidoos 
mother, till the ambitious Hanno^ archbishop of Cologne, succeeded in 
getting the young emperor into his power. The severe method of educa- 
tion employed by this prelate disgusted Henry, who was only the more 
pleased with the magnificent Bishop Adelbert, of Bremen, who snatched 
him from the hands of Hanno^ and made himself agreeable to the young 
prince by flattery, and the gratification of his sensual indinations. The 
emperor established his residence at Qoslar, for the purpose of i 
the Saxons, among whom, Heni/s rival, Otho of Nordheim, bad ] 
adherents. He here established a riotous court; oppressed and mal- 
treated both the nobles and people ; and, in the insolence of youth, dis- 
turbed, with his companions, the security of the neighboring country. 
The Saxon nobility at length todc up arms under the conduct of Otho; 
the fortresses were taken, the strong citadel of Hamburg destroyed, and 
the emperor compelled to take flight This proved the commencemoit 
of a destructive war, which was terminated to the disadvantage of the 
Saxons, by the superior talents of H&axj, and his victory on 
the Unstruth. This finally induced them to esSl in the pope 
as umpire. 

f 214. The chair of Rome was at that time occupied by Gregory YII., 
a prelate of rescdute will and decided temper, who cheri^ed the purpose 
of rendering the church independent of the secular authority, and of 
exalting the papacy above the power of the emperor, and that of every 
other temporal prince. With this object, he had induced his predeceesors 
to withdraw the election of pope from the hands of the Roman people, 
and to transfer it to the newly-created college of cardinals. After his 
elevation, he turned his attention to the purifying of the church ; he 
aeoordingly issued a strict prohibition against all simony, deposed and 
banished the bishops who had obtained dieir offices by purchase, and for* 
bade lay investiture (appointment to church offices by a temporal prince) ; 
andf for the purpose of bindbDig the deigy more doeely to the choioh, he 

SB HOUaH 07 FRANOOnA. 139 

pmied a law which aifonsed a rigid obserrance of ceUbaqr bj afl per- 
flWB of the priestlj ooodition. The appeal to his arbitration bj the 
6azoii0 came verj opportanelj to the daring j^eat after these arrange- 
meiitB; it a^rved to confirm the prindple that the pope, as Christ's yioe- 
vQgeaty itaa enperior to all temporal rolecs, and ihat en^terorsy kings, and 
princes, were ceaseqaentljr his vassala. He swamoned Henrj lY. be- 
fore his judgment seat. Instead of obeying the summons, the emperor 
Obtained a resoltttioo from a comieil of the chmdi assembled at Worms, 
which deelared the pope to be deposed, and this lesolution he forwarded 
to Gregory with a ccmtemptaous letter* Upon this, Gregory ezcommu- 
nicaled Henry and his adherfnts,and deposed Mm &om the crpwn. This 
happened at a time when Henry's conduct towards the Saxons, and his 
matrimcmial <|oarrel with his virtuous wife, from whom he attempted to 
get himself separated by the archbishop of Mayence, created uniirersal 
dim^isfiiction. He soon found himself forsaken by his people, and the 
princes who assembled at Tiibur announced to him his deposition, unless 
he were reteased from tbe'exoommunication within a year. Upon this, 
Henry hastened across the Alps, in the midst of a severe 
winter, to the pope, who was residing at the castle Canossa ; 
bat it waa not until after waiting three days barefoot, and in the dress of 
a penitent, ia the court of the castle, that he was admitted to an audience. 
Ate this hnmiliatf<m, the excommunication was^ withdrawn. 

S 216. Daring Henry's absence, his enemies had raised Rudolf, duke 
«f Swabia, to the imperial throne. A civil war broke out in consequence, 
la which Henry reaiained the victor. Budolf, having lost a hand in the 
battle of the i^ter, died shortly afterwards, upon which Henry under- 
took an expedition to revenge himself upon Gregory^ who, 
deceived by false intelligence respecting the victory, had re- 
newed the ezcommunicatioD. He lefl the finishing of the war in Ger- 
numy to his soa<4n<4aw, Frederick of Hohenstaufen, whom he had created 
duke of Swabia, and then marched with his army over the Alps. A 
council of the church, assembled by him at Brixen, deposed 
^ ^' Gregory and elected Clement IH., from whom Henry imme- 

diately received the crown. It is true; that Gregory still maintained 
himself for some time in the castle of St. Angelo, under the protection 
of Robert Guiseard (( 208), with whom he had entered into an aUiaoce; 
but the dreadful excesses of the Konnans produced so much exasperation 
among the Romans, that the pope thought it most advisable 
to take refuge in Salerno^ where he died in the following 
year. But Henry's troubles were not yet at an end. Two rival em- 
penirs aveae ia Germany, and m Italy the auooesscHr of Gregory 
oealed hat aciowd of enemies, and renewed the sttitenoe of eaoommu- 
fticKtisiL At leaglh, his own misguided children rose against him* 
OoBiad waa disowMd by him, and died in disgrace; botiaa short time 


after, Heniy, who was already crowned, drew the Bword against his 
&ther, took him prisoner, and when he escaped from confinement, 
continaed the war against him so long^ that Henry lY^ bowed down 
by misery and misfortone, ended his days at Liege. But even now 
he was not at rest For five years, his dead body remained mibnried 
in an unconsecrated chapel at Spire, before it was allowed to be interred 
in the imperial sepulchre. 

§ 216. As long as Henry V. continued the disgraceful contest with hia 
Hemy V. ▲. d. father, so long he remained the friend of the pope. Bol 
1106- 1126. scarcely was he in exclusive possession of the imp^ial digni- 
ty, before he quarrelled with his ally on the subject of inrestiture. He 
seized upon the pope and cardinals, and succeeded, despite the thunders 
of excommunication by which he was assailed, in effecting a fair cooit 
promise of the subject of dispute, by means of the concordat of Worms. 
It was arranged by this contract, that the bishops and abbots should be 
freely elected and installed in their offices by the pope, but that they 
should be endowed with their temporalities and priyileges by ihe king 
with his sceptre. 

The severity with which Henry had humbled the insolent princes of 
the empire, prevented them from raising to the throne the nearest reb- 
tive of the house of Franconia, Frederick of Hohenstaafen, upon 
j^^yy^jj^ ^^ Henry's death wifiiout children. They elected Lotbaire the 
Saxon, A. D. Saxon, the heir of Otho of Mordheim, but produced a &tal 
1U6-1187. division by this step. For when the brothers of the Ho- 
henstaufen family refused to do homage to the new emperor, Lothaire 
united himself with Henry the Proud of Bavaria, of the house of Wel^ 
by giving him his daughter in marriage, and increasing the vast posses- 
sions of this family by the dukedom of Saxony. The Hohenstanfens 
were unable to resist such superior power, and they were compelled to 
acknowledge Lothaire emperor, and to accompany him in his Italian 




$ 217. Ever since the fourth century, it had been a prevalent custom 
to undertake a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, for the health of the soul and 
ilie expiation of a sinful life, and to pray at what was believed to be the 
Ate of the sepulchre of Christ, and where, in consequence, the Empress 


HeKna had erected a church. These pilgrimages became more nomer- 
008 as the Christian fiuth acquired more influence over the minds of 
men. As long as the mercantile Arabians retained possession of the 
land, the pilgrims came and went without molestation ; but when Syria 
and Palestine were conquered bj the Seljookian Turks, the native Christ- 
ians, as well as the pilgrims, were exposed to severe oppression. Thej 
were compelled to pay a heavy tax, and were frequently robbed, mal- 
treated, and killed. At this juncture, a pilgrim, Peter of Amiens, who 
was returning from Jerusalem, presented himself before Pope Urban 11^ 
described the sufferings of the Christians in the East, and received the 
charge of wandering through town and country, and preparing the minds 
of men for the great enterprise of recovering the Holy Land from the 
bands of the infidels. Wonderful was the agitation produced in all 
lands by the descriptions of the eloquent and meagre-visaged pilgrim. 
When the pope, in consequence, held an assembly at Cler- 
mont, in the south of France, at which several bishops and 
nobles, and a numberless crowd of people of all conditions were present, 
called upon the West to arm itself against the East, and concluded his 
passionate address by an exhortation to every one, ^ To deny himself 
and take up his cross, that he might win Christ," the shout| ^ It is the 
win of God," pealed from every throat, and thousands feU on their 
knees, and demanded to be at once admitted among the number of the 
Mcred warriors. They attached a red cross to the right shoulder, from 
which the new brotherhood received the name of crusaders. Complete 
remission of sins, and an everlasting reward in heaven were promised to 
them. This was the commencement of the first crusade, 1096 — 1099. 

S 218. A mighty enthusiasm took possession of all minds ; no sex, age, 
or condition would be left behind. Many were too impatient to wait for 
the preparations of the princes; a disorderly and half-armed crowd, 
under the direction of Peter of Amiens, and a French 
knight, Walter the Penniless, marched through Grermany 
towards Hungary, on their way to Constantinople. When they were 
denied the necessaries of life in Bulgaria, they stormed Belgrade, and 
filled the country with robbery and murder. Hereupon the inhabitants 
rose upon them, and slaughtered them by thousands. The remnant 
reached Constantinople with their leaders, but were nearly all destroyed 
in Asia Minor by the Se^jooks. The disorderly crowd, which, after a 
bloody persecution of the Jews, marched out of the Bhenish towns, 
Strasburg, Worms, Mayence, &C., under the conduct of the priest, 
Gottschalk, and the count Enrico of Leiningen, fared no better. 

$219. A hundred thousand men had already perished, when the high- 
ipirited Godfrey of Bouillon, duke of Lorraine, marched towards Con- 
■tantmople by the same path, with his brothers and a vast host of well- 
tppmnted knights, whilst Hugh of Y ermandois, the brother of the French 


kmg, and the Norman prinee, Bohemond of Lower Italj, with his chiral- 
rons nephew, Tancred, departed bj sea to the same destination. After 
they bad promised the Byzantine emperor, Alexander GomneniiSy the 
restoration of all the Greek towns that had formerij belonged to the 
Eastern empire, thej were transported into Asia. A review tock place 
in a plain near Nicsea, and the army was fonnd to consist of 100,000 
cavaby, and 800,000 foot, fit for battle. The most celebrated of the 
leaders, besides those already named, were Robert of Normandy, son of 
William the Conqueror (§ 207) ; Stephen of Blois, who numbered 
as many castles as there are days in the year ; the rich and powerful 
Count Raymond of Toulouse, and others. The nege and capture of 
Nicsea was the first important deed of arms achieved by the crusaders. 
From this point, their march proceeded southwards through the domi- 
nions of the sultan of loonium. The Seljooks suffered a defeat in the 
battle of Dorylaeum. But the Christian army was roon reduced to the 
greatest straits by the want of the necessaries of life, so that many re- 
turned home, and others, separating themselves from the main body, 
established independent governments among the pagans. In this way, 
Baldwin, Godf^y's brother, established himself in Edessa, on the £u- 
j>hrates. At length, the host reached the beautiful territory 
^^f Antioch. But the siege of this strong and amply-pro- 
vided city presented so many difficulties to the unpractised knights, that 
that it was only after an investment of nine months that they obtained 
possession of it, by a stratagem of the crafty Bohemond, who contrived 
that a door should be treacherously left open to him. The punishment 
inflicted by the Christians on the conquered city was frightful. But they 
had scarcely held possession of it for three days before the Seljook sultan 
of Mosul made his appearance, and inclosed the place with an innume- 
rable army. The crusaders were in a short time so reduced by famine, 
that their destruction appeared inevitable. From this perilous position 
they were rescued by a holy lance, that was found in the church of St. Peter 
in Antioch, and the discovery of which produced such enthusiasm amongst 
them, that, sallying out of the city, they put to flight a very superior 
army of ihe besiegers, and opened for themselves the road to Jerusalem. 
The faith in the genuineness of the lance soon however disappeared, 
when the priest who had discovered it died from the consequences of the 
divine ordeal to which he was subjected. 
S 220. The army now compelled the contending princes to a rapid 
march. When they arrived, about the time of Pentecost, at 
the heights above Ramla and Emmaus, whence Jerusalem 
first becomes visible, they fell upon their knees in an ecstasy of devotion, 
shed tears of joy, and glorified God with psalms of thanksgiving. But 
the conquest of this strong dty was a difficult undertaking for an army 
of pilgrims, wearied with travel, and unprovided with the necessaiy 

xm CBtjsiSBS. 143 

Hie want of wmter, and the bonung iieat, proved more de« 
fltmetiTe than the anowB of 4to enony. Bst the newlj-aroused enthii- 
aiaflni triumi^ied over all obstacles. Having endured a siege of thirty* 
iMh Juiy^jL. D. nine days, Jenisalem was at length taken by the cmsadea 
10M. gf^r a two days' storm, acoompanied by the shoots, ^ It is 

the will of God,*" "^ God helps ns.** The fate of the vanquished was fnght- 
faL The steps of the mosqnes were washed by the blood of 10,000 
daoghtered Saracens ; the Jews were burnt in their synagogue ; neither 
age nor sex was spared, the streets were filled with corpses, blood, and 
mutilated limbs. It was only after the thirst for revenge and plunder 
had been slaked, that Christian hnmility again resumed its empire over 
the mind, and the same men who, a short time before, had been raging 
like nrvenoQS beasts, might now be seen, with bare feet and uncovered 
heads, marching with songs of praise to the Church of the Holy Sepul- 
chre, to thank Grod with fervent devotion for the success vouchsafed to 
their enterprise. 

§ 221. The next step was to elect a king of Jerusalem. The dioice 
fdl upon the pious and valiant Godfrey of BoaiUon, who refused, how- 
ever, to wear a kingly diadem on the spot where the Saviour of the world 
bad bled beneath a cro:wn of thorns. He rejected the outward symbols 
of power, and called himself the Defender of the Holy Sepulchre. The 
new kingdom of Jerusalem was arranged according to the principles of 
the western feudal system (§ 241). Grodfrey, moreover, won the glorious 
Angnst, victory at Ascalon, over the army of the Egyptian sultan, 
A.D.10M. but died during the following year, from the effects of the 
dimate and his extreme exertions. His brother, Baldwin, succeeded to 
the government, and assumed the title of king. 

§ 222. The kingdom of Jerusalem had severs encounters to sustain 
irith the infidels. When reinforcements no longer arrived from the 
West, the situation of the Christians became extremely precarious, espe- 
oally after the powerful sultan of Mosul had taken and destroyed Edessa, 
1. D. 1147. ^^^ threatened their borders from the East At this junc- 
. ture, St Bernard, abbot of Chiirvaux, in Burgundy, aroused 
A. ft. 1140. afresh the slumbering zeal for religion, and was the origi- 
nator of the SECOND CRUSADE. The authority of this pious man was 
so great, that Louis VH. of France yielded obedience to his exhortations, 
and even Conrad HI. was unable to resist the fiery eloquence with which 
be addressed him in the cathedral of Spire. Conrad assumed the cross, 
and marched with a stately army through Constantinople into Asia 
^or. But here he was decoyed by the artifice of the Greek generais 
into a waterless desert, where die Grusaders were suddenly attacked by 
innumerable squadrons of Turkish cavalry, who gave them so signal an 
overthrow, that scarcely a tenth part escaped with Conrad into Constan* 
tinople. The French aimy that marched akmg the coast fiured no better. 


The greater number of the pilgrims periahed either by the sword of the 
enemy, or by hunger and fatigue. The shattered forces of the two kings 
at length reached Jerusalem, but were unable to perform any action of 
importance, so that the position of the Christian kingdom became from 
day to day more difficult, especially as, shortly after their retreat, the 
magnanimous and yaliant Curd, Sidadin, made himself master of Egypt, 
and united in a short time all the lands between Cairo and Aleppo under 
his sceptre. The kingdom of Jerusalem was soon in distress. Sala£n 
granted a truce ; but when this was violated by a Quristian knight, who 
had audaciously interrupted the passage of Saladin's mother, robbed her 
of her treasures, and slaughtered her attendants, the sultan took the field 
with his army. The battle of Tiberias was decided against 
the Christians. King Guy of Lusignan and many of his 
nobles were taken prisoners ; Joppa, Sidon, Acre, and many other towns 
fell into the hands of the conqueror, and at length, Jerusalem was also 
taken. The crosses were torn down, and the furniture of the churches 
destroyed, but the inhabitants were treated with forbearance. Saladin, 
far superior in virtue to his Christian adversaries, did not stain his 
triumph with cruelty. 

§ 223. The news of the taking of Jerusalem occasioned the utmost- 
alarm throughout the whole West,*and gave rise to the 
THIRD CRUSADE. From the southernmost point of Italy 
▲. D. 1192. ^^ ^^^ j^^^ mountains of Scandinavia, armed bands streamed 
towards the Holy Land. Those who remained behind paid a tax (Sala* 
din's tenth). The three most powerful monarchs of the West, Frederick 
Barbarossa of Grermany, Philip Augustus IE. of France, and Richard 
Coeur de Lion (Lion-heart) of England, assumed the cross. The Em- 
peror Frederick, with a well-appointed army, took the way by land to 
Asia Minor, defeated the sultan of Iconium in a ftuious battle near the 
walls of his chief city, and displayed prudence, courage, and resolution in 
the whole undertaking. But when the old hero attempted, with the 
boldness of youth, to cross the rapid mountain stream of the Saleph, into 
the south of Asia Minor, he was carried away by the torrent. His dead 
body was dragged on shore near Seleuda. Some of the knights returned 
home, and others followed the second son of the emperor, Frederick of 
Swabia, to Palestine, where they took part in the siege of Acre. The 
kings of France and England, who had taken the sea voyage by Sicily, 
met shortly after, before this town. Their united efforts were crowned by 
the M\ of Acre, where Richard distinguished himself as much by his seve- 
rity, pride, and cruelty, as by his valor and hen^m. The German ban- 
ner, that duke Leopold of Austria had first planted on the battlements, 
was torn down and trampled under foot by the commands of Richard ; 
and when the stipulated ransom for the captive Saracens was not paid 
at the appointed moment, he ordered 8500 of these unfortunates to be 


put to the sword. Bichard's name was the terror of the East But de* 
spite all his strength and bravery, he was unable to take Jerusalem. 
Quarrels between Richard and PhiHp Augustus, (who returned home 
after the capture of Acre), and dissensions among the crusaders, checked 
the enterprise. After the conclusion of a treatj, bj which the sea-coast 
from Tyre to Joppa, and undisturbed access to the holy places, were 
assured to the Christians, Richard also turned homewards. Having 
been cast by a storm on the coast of Italy, he attempted to pursue 
his journey through Germany, but was seized near Vienna, and given 
up to the avaricious emperor Henry YL, who shut him up in the 
castle of Trifels, and only released him on the payment of a heavy 

A. D. 1208. § 224. The fourth crusade had a termination alto- 

A. D. 1204. gether peculiar. The knights of France and Italy assembled 
together at Venice, in the beginning of the thirteenth century, under 
Baldwin of Flanders, for the purpose of getting themselves conveyed to 
the Holy Land. Whilst here, the Byzantine prince, Alexius, whose 
&ther, Isaac Angelus, had been deprived of the throne, rendered blind, 
aad shut up in prison by his own brother, presented himself before them, 
and iihplored their assistance against the usurper. Alexius prevailed 
upon the crusaders, by the promise of vast rewards. They sailed for 
Omstantinople under the command of the blind doge, Dandolo of Venice, 
who was then in his ninetieth year, took the city, and placed Alexius and 
hiB father on the throne. But when they insolently demanded the fulfil- 
ment of the promises mode to them, the populaee excited an insurrection, 
daring which Alexius was killed, and his father died of fright, whilst the 
leader of the tumult was raised to the government. Upon this, the 
Franks stormed Constantinople, plundered the churches, palaces, and 
dweUing-hooses, destroyed the noblest works of art and antiquity, and 
filled the whole dty with tea*ror and outrage. They flung the emperor from 
a pillar, and then divided the Byzantine kingdom. The newly-established 
Latin empire, with its chief city, Constantinople, fell to the share of the 
heroic Baldwin ; the Venetians appropriated the lands on the coast and 
several islands of the iE^ean Sea, and gained possession of the whole 
trade of the £ast ; the count of Montferrat received Macedonia and 
Greece, under the title of the kingdom of Thessalonfca ; Villehardouin, 
the describer of this transaction, became duke of Achdia ; Athens and 
other Greek towns were shared among the Frank nobles. As before, in 
Jerusalem, so here, the feudal monarchy was established under the 
western forms, by which means the greater part of the old population 
WIS reduced to the condition of serfdom. But the new empire had no 
lolid foundation nor any long continuance. It preserved itself with diffi* 
A.n.U6i. ^^ for. half a century, by aid from the West, against its 
numerous enemies ; the greater part of it then returned to 


ICchael Pahs^logasy a desoendant of the ancieiit imperU frmOy, who 
taftd 68tablklied an independent goTemrneat in Nictta. 

§ 325. This cruttdey bowever, was witkoot results as far as Jerosalem 
was eoneemed ; and as the Latin kingdom also drew away the streagdi 
fWfm the Holy Land, the latter soon fell into distress. The separate 
bands, that, without leaders and without system, from time to time 
rentured upon this hazardous undertaking, brought as little assistance 
to the closely pressed Idngdom, as did the fanatical enthusiasm that 
impelled crowds of children to assume the cross. Nearly 
20,000 children left their paternal homes for the purpose of 
readiing the holy sepulchre, but either perished by hunger and ex- 
haustion, or were sold for slaves by rapacious merchants and pirates. 
The expedition to Egypt, undertaken by Andrew of Hungary and other 
princes, was also unproductive of any permanent resudt. With such 
examples before him, the excommunicated emperor, Frederick II., under- 
took the FIFTH OBUSADB, at a time when the saltan of Egypt 
was engaged in a war with the governor of Damascus, r^ 
^lecthig the possession of Syria and Palestine. But the pope was indig- 
nant with the excommunicated man, and forbade all Christian warriors 
to support his undertaking ; and when Frederick nevertheless succeeded, 
by dexterously availing himself of ciroumstances, in bringing the sultan 
to a treaty, by which Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth, 
together with their territories and the whole of the sear^oast 
between Joppa and Sidon, were ceded to the Christians, the pope fulmi- 
nated an excommunication against the city and the holy sepulchre, so 
that Frederick II. was obliged to place the crown of Jerusalem on his 
own head, without either a mass or the consecration of the Church. 
Hated and betrayed by the Christian knights and priests in Jerusalem, 
Frederick, with shattered health, retired from the Holy Land. Fourteen 
years afterwards, the Carismians, a savage Eastern race, poured them- 
selves into Palestine, carrying death and destruction in their train. They 
took Jerusalem, destroyed the holy sepulchre, and tore the bones of the 
kings from their graves. The flower of the Christian chivalry fell at 
Gaza beneath their blows. Acre and a few other towns <m 
the coast were all that remained to the Christians. 
I 226. Upon receipt of this intelligence, Louis IX. (the Saint), of 
France, with many of his nobles, took the cross and sailed by Cyprus to 
Egypt. The strong frontier town of Damietta fell into the hands of the 
Franks, but when they proceeded up the Nile to attack Cairo, the army 
was inclosed between the canals and an arm of the river, whilst the fleet 
was destroyed by the Greek fire. Afler the king's brother and the bra- 
'Vest knights had fallen, Louis and the remainder of the army were taken 
prisoners, and he was compelled to ransom himself and a portion of his 
.followers by the payment of a large sum of money and the surrender of 


the conquered towns. In the mean while, the govemment of Egypt had 
fallen into the hands of the warlike Mamelukes, the fonner slaves of the 
Curds. Sixteen years after his return, Louis again undertook 
another crusade, which, however, he first directed against 
the piratical Saracens at Tunis in northern Africa, partly to compel 
them to pay tribute, and partly with a hope of introducing Cluistianity 
amongst them. He had already laid siege to their principal city, when 
the unusual heat produced an infectious disease, which hurried the king 
himaelf and many of his warriors into the grave. The' French leaders 
concluded a hasty treaty with the Saracens, and returned home. The 
feeble remains of the kingdom of Jerusalem were more and more threat- 
ened by the warlike Mamelukes. When Antioch fell into their hands, 
and Acre or Ptolemais was stormed after an heroic defence, the Frank 
Christians that were still alive voluntarily retired from Syria, 
that for the last two hundred years had been drenched by 
the blood of so many millions. 

§ 227. The consequences of the Crusades were of vast importance to 
the progress of the European races. — 1. Cultivation of mind was for- 
warded by them, inasmuch as an acquaintance with foreign lands and 
nations enlarged the hitherto contracted sphere of human knowledge, gave 
men an insight into the sciences and arts of other people, and enlightened 
their minds with regard to the world and human relations. — 2. They 
emiobled the knightly class, by furnishing a more elevated aim to their 
efforts, and gave occasion for the establishment of fresh orders, who pre- 
sented a model of chivalry, and were supposed to combine all the knightly 
virtues. Of these orders, those which most distinguished themselves 
were the knights of St. John (Hospitallers), the Templars, and the Teu- 
tonic knights. They combined the spirit of the knight and the monk ; for 
in addition to the three conventual vows of chastity, poverty, and obedi- 
ence, they joined a fourth, — war to the infidels and protection to pilgrims. 
0.) The order of St John was divided into three classes : serving 
brothers, who were devoted to the care of sick pilgrims ; priests, who 
ministered to the affairs of religion ; and knights, who fought with the 
infidels and escorted pilgrims. Afler the loss of the Holy Land, they 
obtiuned the island of Rhodes, and when they were compelled, after a 
most desperate resistance, to relinquish this to the Ottomans, 
the island of Malta was presented to them by the emperor 
Charles Y. — b,) The Templars acquired vast wealth by donations and 
legacies. After the loss of* their possessions in Palestine, the greater 
number of their members returned to France, where they gave them- 
selves up to infidelity and a life of voluptuousness, which finally occa- 
sioned the dissolution of their order (§ 256). The order of Teutonic 
knights is less renowned for its deeds in Palestine than for its services in 
the civilization of the countries on the shores of the Baltic Smnnumed 


to defend the germs of Christianity against the heathen Pnissians on the 
banks of the Vistula, the Order, af^er many bloody encounters, succeeded 
in converting the people between the Vistula and the Niemen to Christ- 
ianity, and introducing the German manners, language, and cultiration. 
The cities of Culm, Thorn, Elbing, Konigsburg, and others, arose under 
the influence of the active traders of Bremen and Lubeck. Bishopries 
and churches were founded ; the woods were cleared and converted into 
arable land ; German industry and German civilization produced a com- 
plete transformation; but the ancient freedom of the people was de- 
stroyed. The knights of the Order (who, since 1309, had had their 
residence in Marienburg,) conducted the government, and the peasantry 
sank into the condition of serfs. 

About the time of the first crusade, the Mohammedan prophet, Has- 
san, formed the fanatical sect of the Assassins, who dwelt in the ancient 
Parthia and the mountainous heights of Syria, and were remarkable for 
the entire renunciation of their own wills. They obeyed the commands 
of their chief, ^ the old man of the mountiun," with the blindest devotion, 
executed with subtelty and courage every murderous deed that was 
intrusted to them, made a jest of the torture when seized, and were the 
terror of both Turks and Christians. 

§ 228. — 3. The Crusades gave rise toj|^ree peasantry, inasmuch as, 
by means of them, many serfs attained their liberty, and raised and ex- 
tended the power and importance of the burgher class and of the towns ; 
whilst a nearer acquaintance with foreign lands and foreign productions 
gave an impulse to trade, developed commerce, and produced prosperity. 
4. They increased the power and the authority of the clergy, multiplied 
the riches of the church, (the clergy and the monasteries got possessioa 
of vast estates during the Crusades, either by legacies and donations, or 
by purchase), and exalted the zeal for religion into a gloomy fanaticism. 
The latter quality was frightfully displayed in the persecution of the 
Waldenses and Albigenses, a religious sect who were desirous of restor- 
ing the apostolical simplicity of the church and clergy. Provence and 
Languedoc in the south of France, where, under a beautiful and serene 
sky, a prosperous race of burghers had developed their free institutions, 
where the cheerful Proven9al poetry of the Troubadours had indulged 
its petulant and satirical humor at the expense of priests and bishops, 
was the residence of these Albigenses (so called from the city Alby). 
Against these men and their protector, Raimond VI. of Tou- 
louse, Innocent III. ordered the cross to be preached by the 
Cistercian monks. Hereupon, bands of savage warriors, with some 
fanatical monks bearing the cross before them, marched into the blooming 
land, destroyed the rich cities, towns, and villages, slaughtered the inno- 
cent with the guilty, lighted up the flames of death, and filled the whole 
country with murder, plunder, and desolation. Haimond for a long time 


resisted his enemies; but when Louis VIII., excited by an ignoble 
copiditj for extending his possessions, undertook the war against the 
heretics, the count submitted, and concluded a peace bj which he sur- 
rendered the greater part of his territories to France. But a desolating 
war of twenty jears had destroyed the beautiful culture of the south 
of France, turned the land into a wildemessi and silenced forever the 
cheerful song of the Troubadour. A few years afterwards, the gallant 
peasant republic of the Stedingers was visited in a similar manner by 
a war of exterminalaon, at the instance of the bishops of Bremen and 

2. THB HOHENSTAUFENS (▲. D. 1138-1154). 

§ 229. Upon the death of the emperor Lothaire (§ 216), on his return 
from Italy, his son-in-law, Heniy the Proud, believed himself to possess 
the nearest claims to the throng But the great power of the house of 
Welf, who held Bavaria and Saxony, and whose possessions extended 
from the Mediterranean to the Baltic, together with the arrogance of the 
haughty duke, induced many of the princes, assembled at the imperial 
diet at Coblentz, to elect Conrad of Hohenstaufen. But Heniy hesitated 
to recognize the election, and refused the required homage. Upon this, 
Coonullll., Co>u^ pronounced the ban of the empire against him, 
A-D. and declared the forfeiture of both his dukedoms. This 

uts-iui. occasioned a renewal of hostilities between the houses of 
Hohenstaafen and Wel^ and a desolating civil war. It was at the siege 
of Weinsberg, an hereditary possession of the Wel&, that the war cries^ 
''Hurrah for Welf I" << Hurrah for Waiblingl"* which gave rise to the 
party names, Welfs and Waiblings (Italice, Guelfs and Ghibellines), were 
firBt heard. The citadel was obliged to surrender to the emperor, but the 
garrison was preserved by the wit and fidelity of the women. The war 
continued till the death of Henry the Proud. It was only 
when his son, Henry the Lion, received back his paternal 
inheritance and the two dukedoms of Bavaria and Saxony, that a com- 
plete reconciliation was, for a time, effected. 

Conrad was a brave and good man ; but his war against the Welfs, and 
the second crusade in which he engaged, prevented his being of any great 
servioe to Germany. A short time before his death, he exerted his influ- 
ence with the princes to procure die election of his high-spirited and 
energetic nephew, Frederick Barbarossa (Red-beard), who was esteemed 
the flower of chivalry, and with whose qualities Conrad had made 
acquaintance during the crusade. This great emperor, Frederick L, gave 

« WaiblliigirM tlie name of one of th€ heradJtwy poMOMioDi of the HohenBtenfeno. 
Oadphs and QhSbeUines wen the lumeB of the two great political parties that divided 
hily and Qeimaoy during the Middle Ages, the farmer adhering to the Pope, the latter to 
HMEmperor. Am, EL 



peace and order to the empire within, and respect and secoritj with- 
Pndflrick out The genias for goyemment displajed by this power- 
^^'^^'^^'^ ful man, who comhined eeyeritj with jnsdce, awakened 
1158-1190. everywhere respect and obedience. 

f 230. Frederidt foond the hardest conflict in Italy, to whi^ ommtry 
he made six expeditions. The Lombard towns, and the han^tj Milan 
in particular, entertained the project of erecting their temtorieB into 
small republics. Inspired by. patriotism and a love of freedom, they 
formed an effecdye bui^her militia, and attempted to rid themselTes of 
the imperial authority. This refractory spirit displayed itself even durii^ 
Frederick's first campaign, when, in accordance with a long-established 
custom, he held a review of his troops in the plmns near Fiacenza, and 
required the princes and cities of Upper Italy to do him homage. He 
could not, indeed, at this time, coerce the powerful Milan, but he soogfat 
to terrify her by the destruction of some smaller towns, before be had 
himself invested with the Lombard crown in Pavia, and with the imperial 
crown in Rome. He only obtained the latter by giving up Arnold of 
Breecia. This remarkable man wished to bring back the church to its 
apostolic simplicity. In furtherance of this project, he deooonced the 
woridly possessions and the arrogance of the clergy, and affinned thai the 
temporal authority of the head of the Church was an infringement on the 
Holy Scriptures. Inflamed by these discourses, the Bcmians renounoed 
their obedience to the pope, and set up a republic in imitation ef the 
ancient government. But when the bold preacher of this reformatioa 
was delivered up to the pope and burnt before the gates of the city, the 
courage of the Romans was subdued. They consented to abolish the new 
institutions, and again submitted to the power of the pope. 

I 231. After Frederick's departure, the Milanese persisted in th^ de- 
fiance, and destroyed several cities that adhered to the emperor (for 
example, Lodi). Upon this, Frederick undertook a second 
expedition, had his sovereign rights (regalia) determined by 
jurists according to the code <^ Justinian (§ 186), and when Milan 
refused to submit to the decision, uttered the ban against the refractory 
city. A fierce war was at length decided in favor of the emperor. 
Milan was obliged to surrender, after a siege of three years and a ha]f. 
After the carriage (carroccio) that supported the chief banner of the 
city had been broken to pieces, and the citizens had humbled themselves 
before the conqueror, the waUs and houses were levelled with the earth, 
and the inhabitants were compelled to settle themselves in four widely- 
separated points of their territory. Terrified at this result, the remainder 
of the Lombard towns submitted themselves, and received the imperial 
legate (podesta) within their walls. A short time after, Frederick 
engaged in a violent quarrel with the obstinate pope, Alexander HI. 
The angry priest fulminated an excommunication against the emperor, 


flod united himself with the Lombard cities^ which were exasperated 
in^ the tynsxDj of the imperial legate. Under the guidance of the pope^ 
a oonfederation of Lombard cities was rapidly formed, which was joined 
by Milan, which had agaia recovered itself, and by almost all the dty 
eommunities of Upper Italy, The confederation built the strong city of 
Aleman^ia, which was naa^ed after the pope, in defiance of the emperor, 
and defended itself with courage and success against all the attacks of 
Frederick ; so that the latter, having lost many <^ his soldiers by the 
mamier fever, and being busied with the affairs of Germany, was obUged 
to leave Italy for a long time undisturbed. 

I 2S2. At length, Frederick again crossed the Alps with a vast army, 
but was detained so long by the siege of Alexandria, that he feared to 
lose all the fruits of his campaign, and resolved, against the advice of 
his Menda, upon hazarding a battle. But Henry the Lion deserted the 
emperor in the hour of danger ; he refused his assistance, though Frede- 
riflk impk>red h at his feet at the lake of Gomo ; and thus brought about 
the defeat of the Germans at the battle of Legnano, where the Milanese, 
united together for the defence of the car which bore die 

▲> D* 117s. 

ensign (the legion of death), performed prodigies of valor. 
The emperor himself was missing for some days. But so great was the 
respect for Frederick's heroism, that the pope and Lombard confedeni^ 
tion willingly accepted his proffer of peace. At a meeting in Venice, a 
trace of six years, which proved the foundation of the peace of Con- 
ttaaee, was arranged between the belligerent parties. Alexander 
was acknowledged as the lawfhl head of the church, Frederick was 
released from the anathema, and the confederate towns were required to 
do homage, and admit the emperor^s rights as sovereign. Imperial 
legates were to fifl the chief offices of justice, and the imperial troops 
were to be supported by the towns during their marches through them. 
Before Frederick quitted Italy, he married his eldest son, Henry, to 
Constantta, the heiress of the Norman kingdom in Naples and Sicily. 

I 233. Henry the Lion was much alarmed when the news of Frede- 
rick's reconciliatbn with the pope became known in Germany. He had 
extended his rule over the Slavonic tribes in Pomerania and Mecklen- 
burg ; had made war upon the Frislanders on the Baltic, and the peasant 
repabUe of the Ditmarseas, in Holstein ; and had got possession of a 
large kingdom. He had established mines in the Harz mountains ; he 
had founded cities and bishopricks (Lubeck, Munich, Batzburg), and 
attracted settlers from the Netherlands. But his ambition and acts of 
violence against princes and clergy were not less known than his great 
feats in war, so that the braaen lion that he erected before the citadel of 
hb chief city, Brunswidc, might be regarded as an emblem of his 
rapaeity, as well as of his strength. The complaints, accordingly, that 
ttese on all sides against Henry, lipon the emperor^s return, gave the 


latter the opportunity he so much wished for, of summoning him before 
the supreme court of the empire, and upon his n^lect of the repeated 
Summons, of pronouncing against him the ban of the em- 
pire, and depriving him of his two dukedoms, Bavaria and 
Saxony. The former devolved to the Wittelsbachs, who were devoted 
to the Hohenstaufens, and who afterwards received the palatinate of the 
Khine; and Saxony was shared between Bemhard of Anhalt^ son of 
Albert the Bear, and the neighboring bishops and princes. Bat the 
Lion could only be subdued after a destructive war. For two years he 
withstood all his enemies. It was not until Frederick himself took the 
field against him, that he humbled himself before his great adversary, 
prostrated himself at his feet at Erfurt, and retired into three years' 
banishment in England. He nevertheless retained for himself and 
family his hereditary possessions of Brunswick and Luneburg. Alter 
Frederick had subdued all his enemies, he undertook the third crusade» 
that he might finish his heroic course in the same manner that he had 
commenced it. From this expedition he never returned ; he found 
his death in the distant East. But he lives still in the legends of 
his people, in which the restoration of the ancient strength and greatness 
of the Glerman empire is connected with his return. 
Qgg,^ y^ f 234. Frederick's son, Henry YL, was an avaridons and 

▲.D. 1190- cruel prince, who resided more in Italy than in Germany. 
1197. After the death of the last Norman king, he wished to take 

possession of Naples and Sicily, the inheritance of his wife, Constantla. 
But the nobility, who were afraid of Henry's ambition and avarice, op- 
posed this project, and attempted to place one of the pative nobles, the 
brave Tancred, on the throne. It was not until Henry had equipped 
fresh annaments with the ransom of the English king (§ 228), that he 
succeeded, with the assistance of the crusaders of Northern Grermanj 
and Thuringia, whom he enticed by a promise of a free passage to Lower 
Italy, in subduing his enemies, and in getting possession of Naples and 
Palermo. The revenge of the angry ruler was frightful. The prisons 
were filled with nobles and bishops, some of whom were deprived of 
their eyes and impaled, while others were burnt, or buried alive in the 
earth. The plunder was conveyed by heavily-laden pack-horses to the 
Hohenstaufen castles. Henry died suddenly a few years afterwards, at 
the age of thirty-two, leaving behind him a son of two years of age, who 
was intrusted to the guardianship of the highly-accomplished pope. Inno- 
cent m. The adherents of the Hohenstaufens electa Philip of Swabia, 
brother of Henry YL, to be emperor, whilst the Welf faction proclaimed 
Otho iy.y second son of Henry the Lion : the former was acknowledged 
in the south, the latter in the north. The consequence of this division 
was a ten years' war, during which the greatest lawlessness and violence 
prevailed, and such devastations were committed, that sixteen cathedrals 


and S50 parbbes with churches vere burnt to the ground. Eyen after 

Philip had been murdered at Bamberg, from motives of private rev^ge, 

by the hasty pa^grave, Otho of Wittelsbach, peace did not 

return for anj length of tinle« For now a quarrel broke 

oat between the emperor Otho IV. and pope Innocent lU. 

§ 235. Innocent HL, a politic prince, endowed with unusual talents 
for government, gave the papacj its highest power bj establishing the 
prindple, that Uie church was superior to the state, and its spiritual head 
superior to any temporal ruler ; so that all the princes of ihe world were 
boond to consider the pope as their liege lord and arbiter. He at the 
same time laid the foundation of an ecclesiastical state, by getting all 
previous donations confirmed by Otho, and inducing him to renounce all 
the imperial feudal rights over Rome and the central provinces of Italy. 
But when the emperor at length attempted to set some limits 
to the ambition of the pontiff, the latter excommunicated 
him, and sent the young Frederick into Grermany, to sdr up afresh the 
war between the Guelfs and the Ghibellines. The Ghibelline par^ 
gladly united themselves to the handsome and promising youth, so that 
Frederick H. of Hohenstaufen was universally acknowledged 
emperor, even before Otho IV.'s death. Otho IV. died at 
Bnmswick, in the year 1218. But a powerful opponent of the head of 
PjQ^g,!^ jj the church arose in the freethinking Frederick II., who had 
A.i>.iii8- been educated in the wisdom of the Arabians, and who en- 
^^^ tertained a favorable feeling towards the professors of Islam, 

and the Oriental mode of life ; so that his reign presents a continual 
eontest between the imperial power and Uie pi^Micy. Frederick's posi- 
tbn, as king of Upper and Lower Italy, threatened no less danger to the 
temporal power of the pope, than his sceptical turn of mind to the au- 
Ihmtj of the church. It was for this reason, that Innocent and his sue- 
eettors labored to separate the government of Naples and Sicily from 
tbe imperial office. 

f 236. As Frederick for a long time refused to undertake the promised 
enisade (§ 225), he was first excommunicated by Gregory IX., and when 
be proceeded to the Holy Land in the following year, without being 
released from the curse, the pope became more angry than ever, and 
not only paralyzed all the emperor^s undertakings in Palestine, but com- 
manded his territories in Lower Italy to be attacked by soldiers, who 
were distinguished by Uie badge of the keys of St. Peter. This hasten- 
ed Frederid^'s return. He repulsed the papist troops, and approached 
the frontiers of the ecclesiastical territories, upon which Gregory con- 
futed to a peace, and the removal of the excommunication. Afler this, 
Frederick devoted his whole attention to the internal well-being of his 
lungdom. He restrained the increasing feuds and depredations of the 
kni^ts in Geimany ; he gave the inhabitants of Lower Italy anew code 


of laws; ae eneoanged tnuley iodMby, and poetiy. B«i wfies ibe «^ 
tempted to oonpel the iakabitaiilt of the Lombard towns to folfil the 
eondidons of the peaoe of Comtaiice (f 232), and to dkoharge the reg»- 
Ban rights lliat pertamed to huB as anperor, a furious war broke ooL. 
Frederick, in coBJanetion with the GhibeUinesy mderthe inhaDiaB tynmA 
Ezzelino, in Verona, and supported by his tmstj SaraoenS) whom he had 
settled in Lower Italy, overcame the united armj of the L(Mabaids» and 
reduced most of the towns to submission. But when he pursued his 
conquest with severity, threatened the Milanese with a fiite similar to 
tiiat which they had experienced from Frederick Barbarossa (§ 281)y 
and presented his natural son, the brave and handsome Enzio, with the 
kingdom of Sardinia, the ttgtd^ prince of the ^urch again renewed his 
excommunication, joined the Lombards, and attempted to raise up ene- 
mies on every side against the emperor, whom he accused of infidelity 
and contempt for reUgk>n. Frederick retorted these accusations in some 
violent written replies, and rep«d invective with invective; but the 
church earried off the victoiy* 

§ 237. When Gregory IX.,at the ageof neariy a hundred 
^^'^^^ years, at length sunk inio the grave, Frederick's position 
seemed to become more favorable. But the pope's successor, the resolute 
Lmocent lY., trod the same path. For the purpose of being ficee inm 
restraint, he left Italy, and called a solemn coumal of the church, at 
Lyons. Without listening to Frederick's defence, Innocent here renewed 
the sentence of excommunication against the emperor in the severest 
foirn. He denounced him as a blasphemer of God, a secret Mohamme- 
dan, and an enemy of the <4^urch ; declared him to have forfeited hia 
kingdom, released all his subjects fixnn their aath of allegiance, and 
threatened his adherents wUh the ban of the ehurch. Upon this, the 
war broke out afresh in every eonntry. The popish party succeeded in 
Germany in carrying the election of a rival emp^nor, Henxy 
^ ^' ^^' Raspe, of Thuringia ; and when, after the unfortunate engage- 
ment at Ulm, against Frederick's son Conrad, Henry died powerless and 
forsaken in the castle of Wartburg, the young count, William of Hoi* 
land, allowed himself to be persuaded to assume the title of emperor. Bat 
the imperial towns and most of the secular princes sided with Conrad. 

S 238. In the mean time, the war between Guelfs and Ghibellines 
raged furiously in Italy. The fiery temperament of the revengeful 
southerns occasioned deeds of unheardrof atrocity ; family was arrayed 
against family, city against city ; neither age nor condition refrained from 
the combat Ezzelino^ the leader of the Ghibelline nobility, perpetrated 
the most monstrous empties in his attacks upon the Guelf cities, till at 
length he met with the punishment he deserved in the prison of Milan. 

Frederick for a Icmg time maintained his lofty attitude ; the number 
of his files only increased his courage. But when his son, Enzio^ fisll 

iHo thebands of the Befognese, who kept the Mr-htbi^ king fbt tw&ufy 
jean is oo aftie» ient ; when his dMmoelior, Peter of Yinea, differed hia- 
0df to be gained bj the opposite party, oad thea, either fsom ftar or ve- 
morse, deprived himself o^ life ia prisois— *lus heart at leaglii broke. 
He died in his ilfty'Sixth jear, in the arms of his- besi bek>^ed son, Man- 
fted, ia Lower Italy. F^derick IL anited great enltivaiien of mind and 
aptitude for scieace and poetiy, with ooarage, heroism,, and beauty of 
person. Surrounded by pomp, luxury, and pleasures of all descriptions, 
he had every pretension to happineas^ had not hb seeptieal spirit resisted 
tfie church, and had he only learat tx> awdesate has desires and bridle his 

I 289. Upon the nem of Frederick's death, Insooenl IV. returned in 
triumph to Rome. He dedared Naples and Sie£ty U> be lapsed fiefs of 
Ae chair of St Peter, and exoommanicated Coarad IV. and Manfred, 
who wished to take possession of their paternal inheritanoe. Coarad 
soon sank into an early grave ; but his chivalrous hal^brother, Manfred, 
defended Lower Italy with his German and Senusen troops with sueh 
eoorage and success, that the greats part of the towns t«idered their 
sHegiance, and the Gruelfic troops were obliged to retread into the ecde- 
sisstical states. Distress at this hastened the death of Innocent IV. His 
successor, UHnui IV., pursued however the same path. Determined to 
deprive the Hohenstaofens of Kaples and Sioily at any price, he offered 
flus beautiftil kingdom, as a papal fief, to the energetie but despotic 
Charles of Anjou, brother of the French king, Louis IX., under condition 
that he should conquer it by Guelfic assistance and with French troops, 
and should pay a yearly tribute to the Roman court Manfred valiantly 
reidsted his insolent rival. But when the battle ef Bene- 
ventum was decided against him by Italian treachery, he 
plunged into the thickest of the enemy, and died the death of a hero. A 
ttmple giuve^ to which every soldier contributed a stone, inclosed his 

I 240. After the battle of Beaeventum, the power of the OhibelliBes 
was broken ; Naples and Sicily fell into the hands of the stem victor, 
who made the unfortunate land feel all the miseries of conquest The 
adherents of the Hohenstaufens were punished with death, imprisonment, 
and banishment ; their possessions were divided among the French and 
Guelfic soldiers. Upon this, the oppressed people called Conrad IV.'s 
yoongest son, Conradine, from Grermany into Italy. Conradine, in whose 
bosom dwelt the lofty spirit and heroic courage of his ancestors, left his 
home ibi;.the purpose of again conquering the inheritance of the Hohen- 
staufens, with the assistance of his youthful friend, Frederick of Baden, 
tad a few fiiitfafbl adherents. Beceived with rejoicing by the Ghibellines, 
he marched vietorkmsly through Upper and lOddle Italy, pot the pope 
to fii^ and crossed the fronUers of Naples. The battle at Seimoia 


terminated in Ids favor; but his over-hastj advance threw the victoij 
into the hands of the enemj, who were watching in ambuscade. Bk 
troops were either killed or dispersed; he himself, betrayed into the 
hands of his rival, Charles of Anjou, was beheaded at Naples, along with 
his bosom friend, Frederidc Thus sank the last scion <tf a glo- 
rious race of heroes, robbed of his honor, into an early grave. 
The still remaining members of the house of Hohenstaufen also expe- 
rienced a cruel fate. King Enzio died in prison in Bologna (§ 236). 
The ruthless Charles allowed the sons of Majdfred to pine in prison till 
they died ; and Margaret, the daughter of Frederick 11., was ill-treated 
and threatened with death by her husband, Albert of Thuringia, called 
the Uncourteous, so that she fled by night from the castle of Wartbuig. 
In her agony at her separation from her two sons, she bit one of them in 
the cheek whilst embracing him, so that he retained the mark and the 
surname of ^ the Bitten." 

After Conradine's death, Charles proceeded with cruelty and severity 
against all his adherents. Upon this, John of Prodda, a Ghibelline, who 
had been deprived of his property, swore vengeance against the tynnt. 
By his influence, all the French were killed by the Sicilians, on the so- 
called Sidlian vespers, and the island was given up to Man- 
fred's valiant son-in-law, Peter of Aragon, by whose assist- 
ance, the inhabitants successfully repelled all the attacks of Charies, and 
established an independent kingdom. Peter^s second son, Frederick, was 
the flrst king of Sicily. 


§ 241. The institutions which existed during the middle ages originated 
from a mingling together of Roman and Germanic customs fnd laws, and 
were based upon the greater or less amount of personal freedom or the 
want of it These intricate relations are included under the 
'^ general term of ^feudal system.** After the conquest of the 
depopulated Roman provinces, the land was generally divided into three 
portions: the king took one ; another he divided among his companions 
in the war, as their free property (allodial), under the con(Ution of mili- 
tary service ; the third was left to the original inhabitants, upon the pay- 
ment of a tax. But for the purpose of binding the freemen more dosely 
to the throne, the king granted portions of his own lands to a part of 
them for life. This was called a fief; the giver was the li^;e lord, the 
receiver was called liegeman, or vassal. In the same way, rich freemen 
enfeoffed those who were less wealthy with portions of their estates, and 
even of their fiefs (sub-infeudation), and thus obtained liegemen or vassala 
of their own. Bishops and abbots also gave fie& to knights, subject to 
the condition of defending the convent and supplying the required con- 
tingent of troops to the am2re-&in« These rehitions, founded npoii 


matual good faith, constituted a chain that bound the men of. the middle 
ages in a variety of ways, and proved a grievous hinderance to the free- 
dom of person and property. The vassals of the crown or empire gra- 
dually obtained possession of their fiefs as hereditaiy estates, and bv this 
means became so powerful, that they opposed the king as his equals ; the 
rich proprietors deprived the less wealthy of their lands, so that, in their 
capacity of free landlords (barons), they belonged to the class of nobles, 
whilst the freeholders of small estates were degraded to the condition of 
dependents, and cultivated their former possessions as hereditary tenants. 
The number of serfs, who were looked upon as belonging to the land, 
and surrendered as slaves without rights to the arbitrary will of their 
masters, was still very great All who were in the position of dependents 
or sei&, were under certain obligations to the land-owner, eit}ier to pay 
tithes on their produce of fruit, wine, or cattle, or contributions of money 
upon stated occasions, or to perform unpaid labor (soccage duties). These 
taxes and duties, under the name of "feudal burdens," became more 
numerous and oppressive with time. 

S 242. Men were divided in the middle ages, according to their call- 
ings, into three classes, — warriors, teachers, and producers : — 

1. The warrior class embraced the nobility and the knights with their 
vassals and followers. The rank of knight depended upon being descended 
fnm a knightly fiunily, and the knightly education as page or squire, 
during which, the spurs were to be earned by some feat of arms, before 
the candidate could be received into the fellowship by the accolade. The 
great end of knighthood was war, sometimes for the purpose of displaying 
stieugth or acquiring honor ; sometimes, to defend religion and its minis- 
ters, the church and the clergy ; and sometimes, to protect women, as the 
weaker sex. That respect for women, which is the peculiar distinction 
<^ the German character, produced the devotion to the fair sex and the 
sendees of gallantry which were the soul of the chivalry and poetry of 
the middle ages. Knightly games or tournaments, in which the prise 
was presented to the victor by a maiden of noble condition, served to pre- 
serve and invigorate the spirit of chivalry ; and that no unqualified person 
might surreptitiously introduce himself under cover of his armor, coats 
of arms were introduced as symbols of names and families. 

I 243. — 2. The teacher class included the whole of the clergy; not 
only the manifold grades of the' priesthood, but also the monks. In ex- 
dosive possession of the learning of the time, and invested with the power 
of deciding the salvation of men's souls, the clergy acquired vast authority 
orer the ignorant and superstitious people of the middle ages. The head 
21^^^ of the church, the pope, assumed the conmiand over all tem- 
poral princes and kingdoms, and regarded the imperial crown 
as his fief; the superior clergy, besides their ecclesiastical dignities, were 
frequently in possession of the most influential offices of the state; and 


tlie greater mmAer cf Ihe archbishopricsy bishoprics^ and abbades gradii* 
ally acquired great possesskyna, so as to be raised to an equality wUb 
piincipalities. Magnificent cathedrals, adorned with ail the prodnctioaa 
of art, gave evidence of the greatness of the episcopal residcanea. A 
luxurious life in splendidly-ornamented houses seemed the chief privil^a 
of the superior clergy. The episcopal power, which at first was veiy 
considerable, wit perpetually curtailed by the Roman Conastory. The 
investiture of bishops, which had originally been in the hands of the 
prince, was gradually claimed as the exclusive privilege of the Ronoan 
court ; the spiritual jurisdiction of the rural bishops was more and moie 
abridged, whilst the papal court of judicature in Rome decided all impor- 
tant questions before its own tribunal, and withdrew many cloisters and 
abbeys from the episcopal authority, and placed them under its own im- 
mediate jurisdiction. Vast sums were obliged to be paid for all appomt- 
ments, decisions, and dispensations, by which means much money poured 
into Borne. For the purpose of keeping a watchful eye upon the affiun 
of the whole church, and managing every thing from Rome, papal legates 
were constantly traversing the different kingdoms. By these means, the 
papal power became unlimited, and the higher it rose, the less did any 
one dare to raise his voice against it. Every opposer of the existing 
ecclesiastical institutions was regarded as an enemy of the church, and 
the audacious offenders were threatened with the most fearful punish- 
ments of the church in their triple gradation, — excommumctxHony which 
affected only the individual ; the irUerdictj which was pronounced over 
whole countries, and forbade the exercise of eveiy religious and eccle> 
siastical function ; and a crusade^ with the inqubition, by which whole 
provinces were given up to utter destruction. This power of the papacy 
was especially promoted, first, by the spurious Isidorian decretals, a col- 
lection of ecclesiastical laws and decisions, which, professedly belonging 
to' the first four centuries, were in reality, most of them, produced in the 
ninth, and which give the whole legislative and judiciary authority of the 
Church to the pope ; secondly, by the rapid increase of the monks, of the 
ecclesiastical orders, and of convents; thirdly, by the learned men of the 
middle ages, called schoolmen. 

§ 244. Monachism took its rise in the East, where a solitary and con- 
templative life, devoted to the consideration of divine subjects, had always 
MAmM»h!am. ^^"^ considcrcd more meritorious than active exerdon. This 
calling was gradually adopted by so many, that, at the end 
of the third century, the Egyptian Antonius, who had cast away his vast 
possessions and chosen the desert for his residence, collected together the 
hitherto dispersed anchorites (monachi) into fenced places (monasteria, 
•coenobia, daustra, cloisters), that they might live together in fellowship ; 
and his disciple, Fachomius, gave the brotherhood a rule. Monachism 
soon extended to the West. In the sixth centuiy, Benedict of Nursia 


MidMiiliod the fint mcfOBSkry^m Mount Casino, in Lower Italy, and be- 
M&e fay this mennfl the founder of the widelyHipread order of Bene- 
dietines, wiiiofa mpidly extended itself among all nations, and built manj 
oonreats. These monasteries, erected for the most part in beautiful and 
remote sitoations, and the inhabitants of which irere obliged to take the 
three vows of chastity (celibacy), personal poverty, and obedience, proved, 
in those days of lawlessness and barbarism, a blessing to mankind. They 
eoDverted heaths and Ibvests into flourishing farms ; they afforded a place 
of refbge (asylum) to the persecuted and oppressed ; they ennobled the 
nide minds of men by the preaching of the Gospel; they planted the 
seeds of morality and civilization in the bosoms of the young by their 
schools for edncation; and they preserved the remains of ancient litera- 
ture and philosophy from /Utter destruction. Many of the Benedictine 
monasteries were the nurseries of education, the arts, and the sciences, 
ts St. Gallon, Fulda, Beichenau, and Ck)rvey (in Westphalia), and many 
odierB. When the Benedictine order became relaxed, the monastery rf 
Qagny, in Burgundy, separated itself from them in the tenth century, 
and introduced a more rigid discipline. In the twelfth century, the 
monks of Clugny numbered upwards of 2000 cloisters. But this order, 
ako^ soon proTod insufficient to satisfy the strong demands of the middle 
1^ agiinst the allurements of sin and the seductions of the flesh ; so 
that, at the end of the eleventh century, the Gstercians, and a few de- 
cades later, the order of Fremonstrants, sprang up ; the former in Bur- 
gmidy (Citeaax), the latter in a woody country near Laon (Premontr^). 
The order of Carthusians, founded about the year 1084, which com- 
menced with a cloister of anchorites (Garthusia, Chartreuse) in a'rngged 
valley near Grenoble, was the most austere in its practice. A life of soli- 
tude and silence in a cell, a spare and meagre diet, a penitential garment 
of hair, flagellations, and the rigid practice of devotional exercises, were 
duties imposed upon every member of this fraternity. 

S 245. The establishment of the so-called mendicant orders, in the 
I<,„jgj,^j3jj3 thirteenth century, was remarkably productive of results, 
and nommir Francis of Assisi (A. D. 1226), the son of a rich merchant, 
^'^^ renounced all his possessions, clothed himself in rags, and 

wandered through the world, begging and preaching repentance. His 
fieiy zeal procured him disciples, who, like himself, renounced their 
worldly possessions, fasted, prayed, tore their backs with scourges, and 
BQpplied their slender wants fh)m voluntary alms and donations. The 
Older of Franciscans, or Minorites, founded by him, spread themselves 
la^Hdly through all countries. Contemporaneously with the Franciscans, 
who in process of time divided into numerous branches, arose the order 
of Dominicans, or preaching monks, founded by an illustrious and learned 
Spaniard, Dominicns, and whose dearest objects were the mamtenance of 
the predominant faith in its purity, and the extinction of heretical opi- 


niooi. The oonyersum of the Albigeiises (S 228), among whom their 
fimnder had resided for a eonaiderable timOy was the first attempt of the 
Older, the members of which took a vow of entire povertj, aod eodea- 
Yored to win heaven bj austerity and the piactice of a rigid devotion. 
It was for these reasons that the court of inquisition, with its frightful 
examinations, dungeons, and tortures, was committed to them. The 
mendicant orders were the most powerful support of the pope, bj whom 
thej were consequently endowed with the greatest privileges, and with- 
drawn from the jurisdiction of the bishops. The Franciscans possessed 
the hearts of the people, with whose joys and sorrows they sympathized, 
and were principally occupied in the cure of souls : the Dominicans de- 
voted themselves to the sciences, gradually filled the chairs of the univer- 
sities, and numbered many of the greatest teachers of the Church among 
their members. 

§ 246. — 3. To the productive class belonged the inhabitants of the 
towns and countiy who were engaged in the occupations of peace. The 
peasantry, who were for the most part in a condition of serfdom, and 
took no share in public life, were at first exclusively understood by this 
title. But when the number of the towns was increased by the eSoiis 
of the emperors of the Saxon and Hohenstaufen lines, and many of the 
inhabitants of the country settled in them, the third class divided itself 
into citizens and peasants, and obtained various privileges and liberties. 
These towns were distinguished as imperial towns, which were under the 
immediate control of the emperor, and represented in the imperial diet; 
and provincial towns, which belonged to the territory of a prince. The 
former were the most andent, as well as the richest and most powerful, 
and it was in them that the town policy of the middle ages was developed. 
The inhabitants originally consisted, as in ancient Rome, of free patrician 
fiunilies, and a tributaiy and dependent class employed in trade and agri- 
culture, who, as tenants and inferior burghers, possessed no share in the 
privileges of the citizens. It was from the former that the mayor was 
chosen. After a time, the inferior burghers succeeded in gaining the 
ascendency over the patrician families. With this object, the artificers 
formed themselves into guilds and corporations, by which means a public 
spirit was awakened, and the inferior class of citizens rendered more 
powerfuL These guilds, whose strength consisted in the stout arms of 
their members, soon attained such power, that they not only everywhere 
obtained the rights of citizenship, and a share in the government of the 
city, but, in very many towns, the rule of the patricians was thrust aside 
by the power of the guilds. The guilds marched into the field with their 
own banners, under the conduct of the guild-master, and defended their 
liberties without, as they had known how to gain and maintain them within. 
§ 247. The literature of the middle ages was of a threefold characters- 
1. Writings on religion and the Church ; the most important of which 


were composed by the schoolmen and the mystics. By schoolfnen 
are to be understood those philosophical writers who made 
the doctrines and dogmas of the Church the objects of their 
speculation and inquiry. In doing this, they employed the rules of the 
Aristotelian dialectics, and invented a number of formulas and scholastic 
terms (terminologies), and descended at length to trifling subtleties and 
frivolous definitions and demonstrations. The schoolmen produced works 
in which we hardly know whether most to admire the acuteness displayed 
in the divisions of the subject, and in the development and connection of 
the conclusions, or the diligence, the learning, and the wonderful power 
of application. In the thirteenth century, scholasticism attained its high- 
est perfection in the persons of the Dominican, Thomas Aquinas, and 
the Franciscan, Duns Scotus ; so that, from this period, the scholastics 
were all divided into Thomists and Scotists. Men of warm feelings and 
sensitive natures were not content with the dry logic of these schoolmen ; 
they opposed therefore a religion of feeling, of poetry, and of imagina- 
tion, to the Christianity built upon philosophical rules and forms of rea- 
soning. This was first done by St. Bernard of Clairvaux (§ 222), and by 
the noble Bonaventura (a. d. 1274) ; but in the most comprehensive way, 
by the mystics. These latter imitated the necessitous life of Christ, and 
sought to overcome the wickedness of the world by the castigation of the 
body and the mortification of the fleshly appetites, and strove to effect a 
. spiritual union between themselves and God. Mysticism has 

had a powerful influence both upon life and literature ; and 
although the inculcation of meekness and self-humiliation paralyzed 
active exertion, and a life devoted to the emotions and sentiments occa- 
sionally produced fanaticism, yet its influence upon a race which was 
sunk in barbarism and stupidity was, on the whole, beneficial. The 
"Imitation of the Life of Christ," by the Dominican monk, John Tanler 
of Strasburg, and the " Book of Everlasting Wisdom," of Henry Suso of 
Constance, were held in great esteem. The brethren of the Common 
life, to whom belonged Thomas k Kempis (a. d. 1471), the writer of 
the widely-circulated devotional work, called the " Imitation of Christ,*' 
which has been translated into all languages, were the most active among 
the mystics. 

§ 248. — 2. Not only theological and philosophical studies were, and 
remained, in the hands of the clergy, but also mathematical and natural 
science, and the writing of history. The Greeks and Arabians exercised 
the greatest influence in extending and perfecting the material sciences. 
It was from the Arabian schools that the western clergy drew the greater 
part of their admired wisdom. Albertus Magnus, a widely-travelled 
and much esteemed teacher, possessed such a knowledge of physics, che< 
mistiy, and similar subjects, that he was generally regarded as a sorcerer. 
Among the composers of Latin chronicles and annals, William of Tyras, 


ti^e historian of ihe Crusades and the Holj Land, took the first place in 
France ; apd Otho of Freisingen, the half-brother of the empeior. Con- 
rpd HL, in Grermany. Bj the side of these learned historical composi- 
tions, there were already, at the time of the crusades, in Italy, France, 
Bfki Spain, historical descriptions of particular periods and events, in the 
Ttemacular tongues, which, although less trustworthy than the former, are 
more interesting to read, and of more importance to the history of dvil- 
izatlon. Among these may be mentioned the History of the Fourth 
Crusade, by Villehardouin (§ 224), Joinville's History and Chronicle of 
St Louis ; and, before all, Froissart's History and Chronicle of his own 
Time8(A.D. 1329-1400). 

§ 249. — 3. Whilst learned literature was cultivated by the priests 
delusively, the art of poetry passed at an early period into the hands of 
t)ie knights, chiefly because love (minne), and devotion to the ladies,-— 
feelings, to which the clergy, on account of their condition, dared not de- 
vote themselves, were the soul and essence of the latter. The poetry of 
the middle ages was alike, both as to its form and subject-matter, in all 
the nations of £urope. This was partly occasioned by the great inter- 
CQ^urae that took place among people during the crusades, which facili- 
tated the interchange of legends and poems, and partly by the great 
diffusion and general intelligibility of the Romance language. Li France, 
Ita^, Spain, and, to a certain extent, in England, languages were then 
^ken which bore a strong resemblance to each other, so that the lite- 
rary productions of one country could be understood without difficulty in 
the rest The middle-age poetry was divided into tliree kinds, according 
to the subject ; — Heroic poems and heroic ballads (Epopee, Romance), 
where the deeds of knights, battles, adventures, and love affairs — the 
indispensable element of romantic poetry — formed the materials ; son- 
n/ets, in which the poet expressed his feelings, emotions, or thoughts, in 
melodious verses ; and religious poetry, in which the outpourings of devo- 
tion and religious enthusiasm, the praises of God and the Virgin, or the 
pious actions and histories of the saints, formed the subject. The epic 
poems dealt with certain cycles of legends, partly derived from the 
ancient world, as the Alexandriad of the priest Lamprecht, and partly 
£tom the Christian period, as the romance of Charlemagne and his Pala- 
is (for example, the lay of Roland, by the priest Conrad), and the 
British king Arthur and his Round Table, with which the Welsh legend 
df the Grale was afterwards connected. To the latter cycle of romance, 
belong the two greatest epics of the middle age, the Percival of Wolfram 
of Eschenbach (a. d. 1200), and the Tristran and Isolde of Gottfried of 
Stra8bui;g. But the glory of German heroic poetry is the Niebelung- 
^died, the materials of which are derived from the migrations of na- 
tions. The lyric poets^ that in Germany were called ^ minnesanger," and 
in France^ ^ troubadours,^' made the tender emotions of the heart, or th^ 


feelings of love, the subject of their poems ; or they lashed depravity of 
morals and the corruptions of the clergy in satirical compositions, called 
Sirventes. In Germany, the most celebrated of the minnesangers was 
Walter Vogelweide, who lived at the court of Hermann of Thuringia. 
At that time, the castle of Wartburg, near Eisenach, in Thuringia, was 
the place of assembly for the greatest and most renowned singers. But 
Italy could display the greatest poet of the middle ages. After the stem 
Ghibelline, Dante of Florence (a. d. 1321), had moulded the poetical 
language of Italy in his great epic poem, « The Divine Comedy," Pe- 
ti-arch (a. d. 1374) brought it to the highest perfection of harmony in 
his Odes to Laura, while his contemporary, Boccaccio, became the crea- 
tor of Italian prose by his tales and novels (Decameron). Dante's sub- 
lime poem, which consists of three parts. Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, 
contains the whole wisdom of the middle ages, the whole treasure of the 
then acquired science, so that it was said with truth, that heaven and 
earth had each put a hand to Dante's poem. Petrarch's other works 
are written in Latin. He, as well as Boccaccio, was mainly instrumental 
in the restoration of the ancient literature and civilization. 

1. THE INTERREGNUM (1250 — 1273). 

§ 250. The period after the death of Frederick II. was a momentous 
one for Germany. The imperial title was borne by foreign princes 
without power or influence, whilst at home a state of disorder and law- 
lessness prevailed, in which the strong alone could obtain justice. After 
William of Holland (§ 237) had fallen in battle against the brave Fris- 
landers, the archbishop of Cologne turned the election to the wealthy 
Richard of Cornwall, brother of the English king, whilst the archbishop 
of Treves and his party adorned Alfonso X. the Wise, of Castile, with 
the title of emperor. The former sailed repeatedly up the Rhine laden 
with treasures, to satisfy the avarice of the princes who had elected him ; 
the latter never visited the kingdom to the government of which he had 
been invited. The princes and bishops employed this interregnum in 
enlargmg their territories, and possessing themselves of privileges, whilst 
the knights and vassals abused their strength by waylaying and plunder- 
ing. They led a wild and predatory life in their castles, which, as the 
ruins yet show, were built upon the banks of navigable streams or near 
frequented highways; dragged travellers into their dungeons for ih€' 
puipoee of extorting a heavy ransom; plundered the wagons of the' 


mercantile towns, and bade defiance, from behind their strong walls, to 
the powerless laws and tribunals. Attempts were made to remedy this 
state of things, 1 . Bj the secret proceedings of the Fehmgerieht (secret 
tribunal), established bj the archbishop of Cologne in Westphalia (Dort- 
mund); 2. Bj confederations of numerous towns for the purpose of mu- 
tual ^fence. The most important of these confederations were the 
Hanseatic, in Northern Germany, which included Hamburg, Lubeek, 
Bremen, Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund, Riga, and many other trading 
cities ; and the confederation of the Rhine, which embraced the towns of 
Worms, Mayence, Spire, Strasburg, Basle, and numerous others. 


§ 25 J. During the interregnum, many of the princes and bishops had 
assumed the rights of sovereignty. To avoid losing what had been ob- 
tained, the princes to whom the right of election then chiefly belonged, 
and who were in consequence called Electors, sought to prevent the ele- 
vation of any prince whose lands and vassals rendered him formidable. 
At the same time, they required an energetic man, who should be able to 
restrain the prevailing lawlessness, and to break the threatening power of 
Rudolf of Ottocar, king of Bohemia, Moravia, and Austria. All these 
Hapsbnrg, qualities were possessed by Count Rudolf of Hapsburg, 
A. D. 1278- who was elected emperor by the influence of the archbishop 
^^' of Mayence, with whom he was then on friendly terms. His 

moderate hereditary estates, in Alsatia, occasioned no alarm to the prin- 
ces ; his courage, strength, and skill had been long proved and acknov/1- 
edged ; but what contributed especially to his election was his piety, and 
the inclination he had always displayed to the church and clergy. When, 
therefore, Rudolf had assured to the pope and the German princes the' 
continuance of the privileges and territories that they had either usurped 
or . acquired by violence, his election was generally recognized, and 
Alfonso of Castile was induced to abdicate. Ottocar alone refused to do 
homage, and failed to appear at the appointed diet. Upon this, Rudolf 
declared war against him, marched into the enemy's territories with the 
aid of his Switzers and Alsatians, and that of the German princes whom 
he had connected to his house by marriages with his numerous daughters, 
and won the glorious victory on the Marchfeld. Ottocar 

A D 1278 o .^ 

was killed in the fight ; nothing but Bohemia and Moravia 
was left to his son Wenceslaus; the remaining countries of Austria, 
Styria, and Camiola, Rudolf settled on his sons, and by this means be- 
came the founder of the Austrian house of Hapsburg. 

§ 252. As Rudolf of Hapsburg avoided all interference in the aflfairs 
of Italy, he was able to turn his undivided energies to Germany. He 
succeeded, after a succession of campaigns and battles, chiefly in Swabia, 


against the rapacious Eberhard of Wirtemberg, and in Burgundy, in 
regaining manj of the fiefs, lands, privileges, and revenues, that had been 
alienated from the empire. But his greatest service was his securing the 
peace of the country and restoring law and order. He traversed the 
whole empire, and called the robber nobility to a severe reckoning. In 
Thuringia alone, he had twenty-nine knights executed, and destroyed 
sixty castles, and reduced, in a single year, upwards of seventy fortresses 
in Franconia and on the Rhine. He died at an advanced age, at Go- 
m^rsheim, during one of these expeditions, and was buried at Spire. 
His simplicity, virtue, and honesty gained him no less respect than his 
intelligence, his impartial justice, and his warlike achievements. He was 
only wanting in the poetical magnanimity of the house of Hohenstaufen. 

§ 253. The princes, partly out of fear of the power of the Hapsburg- 
ers, and partly from dislike to Rudoirs cruel and avaricious son Albert, 
were induced, at the instigation of the archbishop of Mayence, to eltct 
Adolf. of Count Adolf of Nassau. But he, like Rudolf, attempted to 

Nasssn, a. d. enlarge his own small territories, and made use of the loafi 
1291-1396. ^ Yisd received from the king of England to assist him in 
raising German troops, in purchasing Thuringia and Misnia from Albert 
the Uncourteous (§ 240). This disgraceful transaction involved him in 
a war with Albert's son, ^ Frederick with the bitten cheek," and Diez- 
man, whom their degenerate father had attempted to deprive of their 
patrimony. Tlie public disgust at this dishonest proceeding, and the dis- 
content of the electoral princes of the Rhine (the Palatinate, Mayence, 
Treves, and Cologne), whom the emperor had deprived of the unjustly- 
acquired tolls of the river, had aided in forming a party favorable to his 
opponent Albert. Albert procured the deposition of Adolf and his own 
election ; he then marched with his army upon the Rhine, and was victo- 
rious in the battle at GoUheim near the Donnersberg. Adolf, 
^D.U98. imried from his horse by the lance of his rival, found his 
Albert of death in the tumult. His body rests in the cathedral of 
Amtri«,A.D. Spire. Albert of Austria was an energetic but severe man, 
1398-180S. ^jiQge inflexible disposition might be read in his gloomy and 
one-eyed visage. He was ambitious, and desirous of enlarging his terri- 
tories ; and he therefore not only prosecuted the war against Thuringia, 
but attempted to gain other lands besides. Feared and hated, Albert 
was at length murdered at Windisch on the Reuss, by his own nephew, 
John of Swabia, (Parricida), just as he was making preparations for the 
subjugation of the free Swiss. John expiated his deed in a cloister ; but 
a fearful revenge was taken by the emperor's wife and daughter upon 
those who assisted in the assassination (Wart, Bohn, and Eschenbach), 
and upon all their friends and relatives. 

S 254. Albert's severity was the foundation of the Helvetic oonfedera- 
tioD. Helvetia was a component part of the German empirei and was 


under the protection of prefects, who exercised there the highest offices of 
jurisdiction. This office was at first filled hj the rich and powerful dukes 
of Zahringen, — the founders of Bern and other states. Afier the ex- 
tinction of this house, the counts of Savoy in the South, and the Haps- 
burirs in the North, elevated themselves above the other 

A. D. 1218. 

fiunilies bj their power and possessions. The latter, to whom 
the landgravate of Aai^u belonged, exercised, in the name of the em- 
pire, the functions of protectors over the original cantons on the lake of 
Lucerne, Schwjz, Uri, and Unterwalden, where they held possessions. 

When the Hapsburgs ascended the imperial throne, they attempted 
to bring these cantons under the sovereignty of Austria. In further- 
ance of this purpose, Albert gave permission to the governors (Vogte), 
who ruled the lands of Hapsburg, to exercise the laws of the empire over 
the fVee conmiunities and peasants, and to abuse their position by the 
oppression of the simple, warlike, and freedom-loving mountaineers. 
Upon this, the three oldest cantons, under the guidance of Walther Fur^ 
Werner Stauffiicher, and Arnold Melchtal, concluded an alliance on the 
Butli for the protection of their liberties, the results of which were, that 
the fortresses were stormed and the governors expelled, afler William 
Tell (as the legend goes) had killed Gesler, the most tyrannical of their 
number, with an arrow, because he had compelled him, for some trifling 
disobedience, to shoot an apple from the head of his son. Albert's assas- 
sination saved the Swiss from the effects of his anger, but his plans wens 
taken up by his son Leopold. He marched against the forest eantooa 

with an army, but suffered a severe overthrow in )h» narrow 

pass of Morgarten. The power of the Hapsburgs dedine^ 

from this period in Switzerland. By tiie accession of the Austrian town 

of Lucerne, in 1332, the whole of the shore of the lake of the four can- 

. ^^ tons fell into the power of the confederation, which was soon 

joined by Bern, Zurich, Zug, and many other towns. In the 
A. D. 1851. ^j^^jj^ ^^ Sempach (§ 261), the allies (like the Athenian 
democracy at Marathon), underwent a fiery trial against the Austrian 
and German chivalry, and proved themselves worthy of their freedom. 



§ 255. The ambitious Boniface YIU., in whose person the papacy 
attained its highest glory, was the origin of its downfall. He assumed 
the office of umpire in a war between Philip IV. the Fair of France, 
and Edward L of England; and when Philip declined his interferenoe» 
he forbade the levying of taxes upon the French ecclesiastics. Upon 
this, Philip prohibited the exportation of silver and gold from his king* 
dom, and by this means prevented the receipt of the papal revenue. The 
quarrel to which these proceedings gave rise, during which Bonifinee 


cleclaied every man a heretic who did not believe that the king was sub- 
ject to the pope in spiritual as well as temporal matters, and Philip by 
his deputies solemnly asserted the independence of the throne, ended by 
an excommunication. Upon this, Nogaret, the chancellor of France, 
entered Italy, and having hired some troops, seized the pope in his native 
city Anagni, and held him prisoner. It is true that Boniface was rescued 
by the country people, who rushed to his assistance, and that he hastened 
to Borne ; but the impression made by the disgrace upon the proud and 
violent man was so powerful that he went mad and died. 

A. D. 1SC8. 

The French party now succeeded, not only in getting the 
excommunication withdrawn, but in inducing the new pope, Clement V. 
(hitherto bishop of Bordeaux), to take up his residence at Avignon hi 
the south of France, and thus to put the papacy under the influence of 

the French court This separation of the head of the church 

from Rome, which was mourned over as a second Babylonian 
captivity, lasted for nearly seventy years. 

§ 256. The dissolution of the Order of the Temple (227 b) was the 
first consequence of the alliance between the pope and the French king. 
Dark reports of the blasphemous practices, of the secret crimes and vices, 
of the infidelity and voluptuousness, of which the Order had rendered 
itself guilty, gave Philip the Fair a pretext for suddenly seizing upon 
the persons of the Templars, and confiscating their vast possessions. By 
an unjust prosecution of six years, and by the tortures of the rack, a con- 
fession was at length obtained from the prisoners, which appeared to prove 
the crimes laid to their charge ; and when fifty-four of their number 
retracted the confession extorted frora'nhem by torture, as untrue, they 

were condemned as apostates to a lingering death by fire. 

It was in vain that Jacob of Molay, the head-master, pro- 
tested against the proceedings, and ofiered to disprove the whole of the 

accusations. He himself died on the funeral pile, afler he 

had summoned the king and the pope to a higher judgment- 
seat The people reverenced him as a martyr, and recognized the judg- 
ment of God in the death of the two princes which shortly followed. The 
French king appropriated the largest share of the estates and treasures 
of the Templars. 

Henrr VIL ^ 257. During these events, Henry VII., of Luxemburg, 

A. D. 1308- was governing Germany, not without renown. After adopt- 
1818. ing vigorous measures for the preservation of the internal 

l>eace of the empire, he took advantage of a contest for the crown of 
Bohemia to add this kingdom to the possessions of his own house, with 
the consent of the Bohemian estates, by marrying his son John to the 
ftister of the last king, who was childless. Scarcely had he brought this 
afikSf, which was the foundation of the vast power of the house of Luxem- 
burg, to a happy conclusion, than he turned his eyes to the long-forgotten 


and disunited Italy, and undertook an expedition to Rome. The adveot 
of tlie emperor was greeted with joy by the oppressed 
Ghibellines ; and the great poet Dante, of Florence (§ 249), 
celebrated his appearance by a Latin essay on monarchy, and by songs 
that were soon in the mouths of everybody. Henry received the crown 
of Lombardy in Milan, collected with rigor the taxes that were due in 
the towns of Upper Italy, and experienced an honorable reception in the 
Ghibelline city of Pisa. But despite all his efforts to assume the cha- 
racter of an establisher of peace, the Guelfs and the haughty Florence, 
with the king of Naples at their head, rose against him with reason. 
The pope himself opposed him, so that his coronation at Rome only took 
place after a lengthened contest. Upon marching into Tuscany for the 
purpose of humbling Florence, Henry died suddenly in the flower of his 
age, near the Ainio. The joy displayed upon his death by the Guel% 
gave rise to the belief that he had been poisoned by a Dominican monk. 
The sorrowing Fisans buried him in the churchyard (Campo Santo) of 
their town. 

§ 258. The death of Henry VIL again produced a contest for the 
crown in Germany ; for, of the seven princes who now usually exercised 
the right of election (Palatinate, Mayence, Treves, Cologne, Bohemia, 
Saxony, Brandenburg), some chose Louis of Bavaria, the others, Frede* 
rick the Fair of Austria. The consequence of this division was an eight 
years* war, which was carried on with particular vigor by Frederick's 
brother, Leopold. Despite the superior strength of the Austrian party, 
Louis, who was an excellent general, maintained his cause with success, 
especially after Leopold's force had been weakened at Morgarten (§ 254). 
It was not, however, till the battle of Muhldorf (or Amfing), 
where Frederick was defeated and taken prisoner by the 
skill of the Nuremberg general, Seyfried Schwepperman, that Louis 
attained a decided superiority. Leopold, however, would not submit to 
a peace. Supported by the pope, John XXII., who pronounced aa 
excommunication and an interdict against Louis for having aided the 
Ghibellines in Milan, and by several princes of the empire, Leopold con- 
tinued the war, and attempted a new election of emperor. Upon this, 
Louis set at liberty his rival, who was imprisoned in the castle of Traus- 
nitz, upon condition that he should renounce the imperial dignity, and 
persuade his party to a peace. But when neither the pope nor Leopold 
would listen to the proposal, Frederick, true to his word, returned to 
captivity, a conduct which so moved his chivalrous opponent, that he lived 
with him henceforth in the closest friendship, and would even have shared 
the empire with him, had not the Electors prevented it. Leo- 
pold died shortly afterwards, but the impetuous pope retained 
his animosity against Louis, which induced the latter to appoint Frede* 
rick regent of the empire, and undertake an expedition into Italy. 


§ 259. Lotus was at first successful in Italy. Supported by the Ghi- 
bellines and the Minorites, he made brilliant progress, and succeeded in 
getting an anti-pope elected ; but when, for the purpose of satisfying his 
fflercenary troops, he exacted heavy levies of money from the Italian 
towns, matters were quickly altered. His retreat to Germany, where 
Frederick had in the mean time died, completed the triumph of the papal 
party. On the other hand, the obstinacy with which John XXII. and 
his successor Benedict XII. retained the excommunication pronounced 
against Louis, and rejected all attempts at reconciliation, irritated the 
German princes to such a degree, that, at an electoral Diet held at Reuse, 
iliej uttered the declaration, " that henceforth every election of emperor 
by the 'princes was valid, without the confirmation of the pope." The 
ecclesiastics who obeyed the interdict were treated as disturbers of the 
pablic peace, and deprived of their offices. The notorious influence exer- 
cised by the French court upon all the proceedings of the pope, and the 
avarice and sensuality of the head of the Church and of the cardinals in 
Avignon, diminished the authority of the court of Rome. But Louts 
himself very soon forfeited the confidence and afiection of the German 
princes, by allowing his avarice and desire of enlarging his territories to 
lead him into unjust and violent measures. Thence it was that the 
French and papal party succeeded in gaining over a part of the electoral 
princes, and getting a rival emperor chosen from the house 
of Luxemburg. But the greater part of the German people, 
and particularly the imperial towns, sided with Louis, so that the new 
emperor, Charles IV. (son of King John of Bohemia), was not generally 
recognized, until the robust Louis lost his life in a bear-hunt, near 
Munich, and his successor, Gunter of Schwarzburg, elected 
by the Bavarian party, had sunk into an early grave at 


OtfiM iv. § 260. Charles lY. was a sagacious prince, who was intent 
^ ^' upon his own interests and the increase of the power of his 

house, and in whose mind money and property held a higher 
place than honor or renown. It was through him that the imperial 
^wer lost all respect in Italy, where he permitted the imperial privileges 
tc be purchased by the towns and princes. The contests between Guelf 
^ 1 Ghibelline ceased from this time, but they only gave place to con- 
t&itioDs between the princes and free towns concerning the enlargement 
of their territories ; mercenary troops were now employed (as formerly 
in Greece) instead of the earlier mUitia, and the enterprising leaders of 
t^-ese bands (Condottieri) not unfrequently held the fate of states in their 
hands, and succeeded in getting possession of their government. The 
^rts of Charles in Germany, also, were chiefly directed to the gratifica- 


tion of his ayarioe and lust of territory. He sold the liberties and privi- 
leges of the imperial towns ; he gracnted letters isf nobilitj for monej ; he 
added Brandenburg and other territories to his patrimonial possessiona. 
His agency was most beneificially felt in Bohemia, which attained by bis 
means to greater prosperity. Artists and artisans were summoned fitmi 
<7ermany and Italy, towns (Carlsbad) and vilh^es were built, agriculture 
and trade encouraged, roads and bridges planned, and heaths and forests 
brought into cultivation. Charles, with the consent of the pope and the 
cooperation of the poet Petrarch, erected the first Grerman 
university in Prague (§ 249), which soon numbered from 
5000 to 7000 students. From Charles lY. emanated the first imperial 
code of laws, known by the name of the Golden Bull, which referred the 
choosing of emperors exclusively to the seven Electots, and determined 
the precedence of the princes. 

§ 261. The imperial authority was much decayed, and confiisi€ni and 
lawlessness prevailed all over Oermany. The laws respecting distort)- 
ance of the public peace were little regarded ; club-law (faustrecht), the 
only law attended to, called upon every man to take care of himself, 
and alliances were formed to do this more effectually. Tlus state of 
disorder became particularly prevalent under Charles's son and sucoes- 
Wencofllaiu, Bor, Wenceslaus, a rude, hot-headed man, devoted to drink 
A. D. 1878- For whilst the emperor was leading a dissolute life in Bohe- 
^*^' mia, devoting himself to hunting, quarrelling with his nobles 

and the clergy, and rendering himself hateful and contemptible by his 
cruelty, and barbarous conduct to the vicar Nepomuk, whom he ordered 
to be thrown from the bridge of Prague into the Moldau, the German 
empire, with its battles and its miseries, was lefl to its fate. The towns 
in Swabia, in Franconia, and on the Rhine, united themselves in an alli- 
ance to preserve the peace of the country, and for defence ag^nst the 
rapacious nobles. The knights, who gained their living by plunder and 
highway robbery, and who were threatened by this alliance, followed the 
example of their enemies, and strengthened themselves by confederations 
of knights (called the Schlegler, and the Ldwen and Hornerbund). The 
two confederations were perpetually engaged in war with each other, till 
at length, the murder of the bishop of Salzburg by a Bavarian duke 
occa3ioned the great cities' war, which produced extreme 
distress in the south of Germany. The citizens were victo- 
rious in Bavaria ; in Franconia, the fortune of war was rendered dub^ 
ous by the courage of the Nuremburgers ; but in Swabia, where the 
valiant enemy of the towns, Eberhard the Grumbler, of Wirtembei|^ 
stood at the head of the nobility, the burghers suffered great loss near 
DMIbgen, and at Worms and Frankfort^ succumbed to the iron ranks of 
the knights of Hesse and the Palatinate. About the same time, tbe 
Swiss confederation was contending with far greater success against the 


ndbles of wmthem GermMj^ Duke Leopold of Austria ioTaded the 
fieedom4oving mountaineers, wUh a host of armed xMUes, who reve- 
xenced him as the flower of chivalry. But in the battle of 
Sempaeby where the heroie Arnold Wiokelreid of Ustar- 
waldoi ^ made a path " for his oountrTiiien into the iroa^olad ranks of the 
kni^htSy bj embracing a number of their lances and burying the points 
ia his boeom, the proud duke, with 656 of his nobles, fell beneath the 
maoes of the Swiss peasants. 
{ 262. The inability of the emperor to remedy the prevailing omfu- 
sion at length induced the Electors, in a diet at Ijahnstein, 
to pronounce Wenceslaus's deposition, ^ because he had not 
aided the peace of the Church, had sold the title of duke to the rich and 
crafty Yiscontt in Milan, had not m^tained the public peace, and had 
governed tyranically and with cruelty in Bohemia.'' Kupert of the Pa- 
Rupert, A. D. latinaite was ejected in bis place ; he was the grandson of that 
1400-1410. Rupert who, in the year of the battle of Sempach, had 
fimnded the university of Heidelberg. But even he, despite many good 
qnalitiesy was not equal to the difficulties of the times. He was com- 
pelled to grant the princes and estates the right of forming confedera- 
tions, and of maintaining the pubfic peace in their own way ; and when he 
4tftempted to restore MUan to the empire, he suffered a defeat from the 
Italian Condottieri (f 260), who had discovered a more scientific system 
d tactics. He was equally unsuccessful in his attempts to restore tran- 
quillity to the Church, an object that was first accompUshed with un- 
speakable difficulty by his successor, Sigismond, the brother of Wenoes- 
fi^gianumd, l^us. The great conndl of the Churdi, that was held by 
A.D. 1410- l^smond for ihls purpose, exhausted the treasury to that 
^^' degree, that the emperor was obliged at first to pledge the 

March of Brandenburg, and the ekcUnral dignity, to Frederick of Ho- 
henxoUem, and afterwards to surrender them to him as his private and 
hereditary property. 


f 263. It had long been wished that the papal chair should be re- 
moved from Avignon to Home ; but the cardinals who were in the French 
interest, and who felt themselves better and more independent under the 
mild and beautiful sky of southern France, prevented the measure. This, 
at length, induced the Italian party to elect a pope of their own. By, this 
means, the Church got two popes, one in Avignon, the othw in Rome, 
each of whom declared himself the rightfiiUy elected head of the Church, 
and fulminated anathemas against his rival and his adherents. The 
whole of western Christendom was divided, consciences perplexed, and 
the Chunsb rent asunder. It was in vain that the synod of Pisa attempt- 
ed to heal the evil by deposing one pope and electing another;-^ the 


fonner two maintained their claims, so that the Church was now triply 
divided. A general discontent spread through the Christian wodd, and 
engendered a loud demand for a refdrmation of the Church, both in ita 
head and members. Whilst the moderate party, and in particular, the 
learned theologians of the university of Paris (Sorbonne), wished to bring 
about this reformation bj a general council, which should be superior to 
the pope, the disciples and adherents of the Oxford profes- 
sor, John Wickliff, aimed at a thorough change both in the 
doctrine and constitution of the Church. Wickliff had not only declared 
the papacy to be an unchristian institution, and preached zealously 
against absolution, monachism, the worship of saints, and similar matters, 
but had stood forward as a reformer, by translating t|ie Bible into Englisli, 
and rejecting many articles of faith, such as auricular confession, celibacy, 
and transubstantiation. The most celebrated of his followers was John 
Huss, professor in Prague, a man distinguished for his learning, and moral 
life, as well as by Christian gentleness. He preached against the abuses of 
the papacy ; against the wealth and secular power of the clergy ; against 
monachism and absolution : and although the pope excommunicated him 
and condemned his writings, the number of his adherents, among whom 
a Bohemian nobleman, Jerome of Faulfisch, distinguished himself 
by his zeal, increased every day. The Germans in the uniTcrsity of 
Prague were curtailed of their privileges for showing an inclination to 
the new doctrines of Huss, for which reason 5000 students and profes- 
sors quitted the place, and thus brought about the foundation of other 
universities, that of Leipsic among the first 

§ 264. When at length, Pope John XXTTT., importuned by the Empe- 
^^^ .. . ror Sigismond, called the Council of Constance, troops of 
Constance, temporal and spiritual dignitaries of all nations poured into 
A. D. 14U- the town, where the splendor of the whole West was at oooe 
^^^^' united. 150,000 men are said to have assembled there. 

The unity and reformation of the Church was the lofty aim of the synod. 
' In the first place, therefore, the three popes were either deposed or per- 
suaded to resign ; and when John XXm. seized the opportunity afforded 
by a tournament to escape in disguise, by the aid of Frederick of Aus- 
tria, and recalled his abdication, the council declared itself independent 
and superior to the pope, and united with the emperor in punishing the 
refractory. Frederick of Austria was outlawed, and deprived of Aargan 
and other possessions by the Swiss, and John was for a long time held 
prisoner in the castle of Heidelberg. But the efforts of the French and 
Germans, who wished in the first place to reform the Church, and then 
to elect a new pope, were frustrated by the Italians (Ultramontani), who 
insisted before all things upon an election of pope. Their opinion pre- 
vailed, and Martin Y., was raised to the papal chair. He was a mode- 
rate man, who contrived, by abolishing a few abuses, and by skilfully 


eondncted negottations, to divide the Totes and baffle the efforts of the 
oooDciL In this waj, the hopes and wishes of the people were disap- 
pointed ; the pope retained his power, and the Church was lefl in her 
corruption. But the Council of Constance has enriched history with one 
deed of horror, — the burning of Huss and Jerome of Prague. The 
council proceeded at its commencement to an examination of doctrines 
deviating from those of the Church, and had condemned Wickliff 's wri- 
tings to the flames, and summoned Huss to answer for his opinions. 
Huss proceeded to Constance, provided with an imperial passport, by 
which he was assured of a safe return to his home, but was imprisoned 
as soon as he arrived there, and accused of disseminating heresy. It 
was in vain that he defended himself with dignity against the charges — 
his judges were his accusers ; it was in vain that his friends appealed to 
the imperial safe-conduct, — the synod laid down the principle, that no 
fiuth was to be kept with heretics, and demanded an unconditional abjura- 
tion. When IIuss refused to do this, he was condemned to 
suffer death by fire as an obstinate teacher of heresy; a 
doom which he underwent with the firmness and composure of a martyr. 
A year later, Jerome also endured the agonies of the burning pile with 
the courage of a stoic. 

§ 265. The intelligence of this horrible event at Constance incited the 
Hussites to a furious religious war. The cup, which, according to the 
views of Huss, was not to be withheld frotn the laity, was borne before their 
annies as the symbol of their cause (hence XJtraquists and Calixtines) ; 
and a heavy vengeance was exacted from the priests who refused to 
administer it It was in vain that the pope fulminated an interdict 
against the adherents of IIuss, their numbers increased daily; they 
stormed the town-house of Prague, and murdered the counsellors, 
which 80 enraged the old Emperor Wenceslaus, that he died 
of apoplexy. Sigismond ought now to have become king 
of Bohemia also ; but the whole nation flew to arms, to prevent the 
faithless emperor from taking possession of the country. John Ziska, a 
general expert in war, valiant, and endowed with a wonderful talent of 
governing the masses, placed himself at its head. It was in vain that 
Sigismond led three imperial armies against the Hussites ; his troops re- 
coiled in dismay before the wild fury of the enraged people. The Hus- 
^tes burnt down the Bohemian churches and convents, and carried theii 
lavages into the neighboring countries. The name of Ziska, the blind 
general, was a terror to the nations. After his death, the moderate party 
(Calixtines) separated themselves from the radicals (Taborites). The 
latter, under the conduct of Frocopius the Great and the Little, continu- 
ed their incendiary course, ravaged Saxony, and extorted tribute from 
Brandenburg and Bavaria, whilst the Calixtines consented to a peace . 
when the Council of Basle consented to the use of the cup in the Lord's 


Supper, and to preaching in the vernacular tongue. It was only when 
A D 1488 ^^ Taboritea Buffered a defeat near Frague, and Uie two 
Procopiuses were kiUed, that the emperor, by the dexterity 
of his chancellor Schlick, succeeded in bringing them to a peaee; 
whereupon Sigismond was acknowledged king. But the glory of Bohe- 
mia was humbled to the dust A few decades later, a small party of the 
former Hussites separated from the Church and formed a separate sect, 
since known as the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren, ^ poor, scripture- 
proof, and peaoefbl.'* 

CoimcU of S ^^^* ^° ^^® council of Bade, to the summoning of 
Basle, A. D. which, Martin Y., successor of Eugenius TV., had, after kmg 
1431 - 1449. hesitation, consented, the reformation of the Church, which 
had been interrupted in that of Constance, was to be concluded, and the 
Hussite controversy arranged. But the proceedings here soon took a 
course that seemed to endanger the papal power. The assembly, whidi 
consisted in part of the lower order of clergy, duninished the monej 
charges that the court of Rome imposed upon the provincial churches, 
and interdicted the incroachments of the pope in the filling up of bishop- 
rics and benefices. Eugenius was rendered so anxious by these and 
other similar resolutions, that he seized the first pretext for removing the 
council to Ferrara, and afterwards to Florence. But many of the deigy 
would not attend ; they chose another pope, and again asserted the for- 
mer principle, that a synod of the Church was superior to the pope, and 
that the former and not the latter was infallible. Upon this, Eugenius, 
encouraged by the fears, entertained both by princes and people, of 
another division in the Church, anathematized the refractory members 
of the council, and rejected their decisions ; and for the purpose of ovep- 
coming more surely the opposition of the Germans, gained over the craflj 
Italian, ^neas Sylvius (afterwards Pius II.), who was private secretary 
to the emperor Frederick IH. By the aid of this shrewd man, who is 
also known as an author, the pope succeeded in winning over the weak 
emperor to the Aschaffenburg concordat, by means of which, the Church 
remained in its former state, and all the abuses and extortions, with a 
few trifling exceptions, were continued. It was in vain that the patriot- 
ically-minded Gregory of Heimburg advocated the liberties of the 
Church and the rights of Germany with intelligence and eloquence; 
abandoned by the emperor and most of the princes, the council, after a 
little hesitation, recognized Eugenius's successor, Nicholas V., as lawful 
pope, and then dissolved itself. In this way, the papacy came forth, for 
the second time, victorious from the fight, but less by the inherent power 
of truth than by unecdesiastical expedients. 


S.267« Whea the male line of tbe house of Luxemburg expired with 
AibBitlLor Sigimond, his aon-in-law, Albert IL of Austria, ascended 
Aiiain,A.D. the imperial throne of Germany, which from this time 
1487-1439. remained in possession of the Hapsburg- Austrian family. 
Albert was a well-disposed and energetic man; but as Bohemia and 
Hungary engaged the whole of his exertions, he could effect nothing of 
importance during the short period of his government His nephew, 
Yf^^g^^ IQ^ Frederick IIL, was his successor in the empire, a prince en- 
^ »• dowed with domestic virtues, but possessing slender talents 

-1498. £.^j, government, and who opposed nothing to the troubles of 
his lengthened reign but a dull and passive indifference. He looked 
quietly on while the Turks took possession of Constantinople, and carried 
their ravages into the hereditary territories of Austria, when Hungary 
aod Bohemia elected native kings, when Charles the Bold of Burgundy 
extended his dominions to the banks of the Rhine (§ 293), when Milan 
and Lombardy were separated from the German empire (§ 261). In 
Germany, the imperial authority fell into utter contempt, the princes 
made themselves independent, and exercised the privilege of private 
war&re without hesitation. The Swabian alliance was engaged in a 
fvioas war with Albert (Achilles or Ulysses), the valiant margrave 
of the Brandenburg territories in Franconia (Bayreuth), a war in which 
nine battles were fought and 200 villages reduced to ashes. Tbe neigh- 
borhood of the Rhine and tbe Neckar was desolated by the war of 
^ the Palatinate, during which, the palgrave, Frederick the 

"Victorious, gained a glorious victory near Seckenheim, and 
Bade prisoners of his enemies, XJlrick of Wurtemburg, the margrave of 
Baden, and the bishop of Metz ; but was unable to prevent the deposi- 
tion of his ally, the banished archbishop. Dieter of Mayence, 
in whose defence he had taken up arms. 
§ 268. This state of disorder and self-redress increased the desire for 
a fresh constitution of the empire. But as the princes refused to sacrifice 
any of their real or pretended rights, every proposal that seemed likely to 
increase the power of the emperor, or diminish that of the princes, encoun- 
M»Timn4nn i^ tered a resolute opposition. At length, Maximilian I. agreed 
A. j>. with the Electors, the secular and spiritual nobles, and the 

iiM-i49«. representatives of the free towns, at the imperial diet at 
A.D^14B6. Wo™^ to ^onn a constitution which restrained the right of 
private warfare, but completely undermined the authority of 
fte emperor. At this diet, the eternal Land-peace was established, and 
^oy act of self-redress by arms forbidden, under pain of ban and out- 
uwij. An imperial chamber was at oQce established to compose all 
qnaoela among the members of the empire, and a short time afterwards, 


the empire was divided into ten circles. 1. The Austrian. 2. The BaTa- 
rian. 3. The Swabian. 4. The Franconian. 5. The Rhenish Elec- 
torate. 6. The Upper Rhenish. 7. The Lower Rhenish Westphalian. 
8. Upper Saxonj. 9. Lower Saxony; and 10. The Bnrgnndian. Bj 
this alteration, the power of the princes was raised to a stOl greater 
height, so that at last thej could act in their own territories as absolute 
rulers. The Swiss confederates, who were at that time in alliance 
with France, refused to recognize the imperial chamber, and denied the 
contingent of troops. Hereupon, Maximilian attempted to compel them 
bj force of arms, but was worsted in the contest, and obliged 
to forego his demands in the peace of Basle, and to admit 
the independence of the Swiss of Germany. 

§ 269. Maximilian's reign forms the transition period between the 
middle age and the modem time. He himself, witli his stately aspect, 
his bold and dangerous huntings, his valiant deeds in battle and tourna- 
ment, may well be looked upon as the ^ last knight ** on the imperial 
throne of Germany ; his love of the decaying chivalrous poetry, his mar- 
riage with Mary of Burgundy, his wars in the Netherlands and in Italy, 
are all stamped with the character of the middle age. On the other 
hand, it was at this time that the commencements of a more refined poli- 
tical science, and of a greater intercourse among nations, displayed them- 
selves, which, combined witli new discoveries and inventions, brought 
about the modem period. 




§ 270. The first successors of Hugh Capet (§ 205) possessed but little 
power and a narrow territory. The dukes and counts of the different 
provinces looked upon the king, who, properly, was only lord of France, 
as their equal, an^d only allowed him the first rank among themselves, in 
so far as they were obliged to, recognize him as their feudal superior. 
The nobles dared not weaken the rights that appertained to bim in this 
capacity, lest they should afford an example of breach of faith to their own 
subjects, and encourage them to similar behavior towards themselves. For 
the rest, the possessions of the great vassals were independent counties 
and principalities, which had no closer connection with the French throne 
than the western territories on the Seine, Loire, and Garonne, which be- 
longed to the king of England ; or the eastern (Burgundian) lands on 

PRAKCE. 177 

the Rhone and the Jam, which were portions of the German empire. 
Bat in the attempt to increase the kinglj power, the house of Capet 
were not less aided bj their good fortune than bj their wisdom. It was 
fortunate, that, owing to the lengthened lives of most of their kings, the 
throne was seldom vacant, that there was almost always a son of age to 
succeed his father, and that, consequently, there was never an interregnum. 
But it was wisdom in the first kings to have their eldest sons crowned 
daring their lives, and to make them their partners in the government, 
80 that, on the death of the father, little or no change was suffered. The 
Lonis VIL ™*^ important kings after Hugh Capet were Louis VU., 
^^- who undertook the second crusade, and during his absence 

Phm'^^*^ intrusted the government in France to the politic Abbot 
kagastoB H., Suger of St. Denis ; Philip Augustus 11., who wrested Nor- 
A- D* mandy and the other territories in the west from the.Enfflish 

11M 19451 

Lonvm ^^^9 ^^^^ Lackland ; and Louis VIII., who enlarged his 
A.D. ' dominions on the south by the war against the Albigenses 
1S28-12S6. (§ 228). j^ut the reigns which had the greatest influence 
A^if^' upon the history of France were those of St Louis and 
me -1270. Philip the Fair. The former improved the laws, and caused 
the royal courts of justice to be looked upon as the highest in the land, 
and the disputes of the nobles among themselves or with their vassals 
to be brought before them for decision : the latter, on the other hand, 
P]jQ{p ^^ increased the consequence of the towns by granting various 
Fair, A. d. privileges and liberties to the citizens, and by being the first 
1286-1814. who summoned the representatives of the towns to the diet 
doring his contest with the pope. (§ 255). After the death of Philip's 
three sons, who reigned one after the other, but left no male 
heirs, the French throne passed .to the house of Yalob. 


S 271. Philip VL of Valois, brother's son of Philip the Fair, in- 
PhOip VL herited the French throne. But Edward III. of England 
A.D. also asserted his claims, as son of a daughter of Philip 

18S8-1S47. ^jj^ YaAT. Without regard to the Salic law, which pro- 
hibited the succession of females, he assumed the title of king of 
France, and made war upon Philip. After a bloody con- 
A.D.1846. ^^^ ^^ ^ £^^ years, the battle of Crecy was fought, in 
which the English were the victors, and the flower of the French chi- 
▼ahy, tc^ether with John, the blind king of Bohemia, fell on the field. 
The possession of the important town of Calais was the fruit of the vie- 
J«lm fba ^^* Philip died in the following year, and his son, John the 
Good, A. D. Good, succeeded to the contested crown. Eager to obliterate 
U47 - 1864. the memory of Crecy, he attacked the English army, which 
Was under the command of Edward in.'s heroic son, the Black PrincOi, 


bat mdS&ni a dedsive defeat at Foictiers, and was obliged to pio* 
oeed as a captive to the capital of England* Whilst he was abseat* 

the kingdom was goTerned bj the crown prince (Danphin). 

Dnrdig lus rule, an insurrection broke oat in Faxis and oTer 
the whole land, which was attended with great derastations and oatzages» 

until the imperfectly-armed citizens and peasants were sob* 
^ ^' dued bj the French knights, and visited with severe punish- 

ment. Shortly after this, a peace was ^tablished between France and 

Ekigland, by which Calais and the south-west of France was 

▲. D 1800 ' * 

surrendered to the English, and a heavy ransom promised 
for John, whilst Edward, on the other hand, renounced his pretensions 
to the FilBftch thit>ne« But when the collection of the ransom money was 

delayed, John voluntarily returned into captivity, and died 

m London. 
ChKlesV^ § 272, John's son, Charles V. (the Wise), healed the 
A. n. wounds of his country. He quietod men's minds by his good 

1864 -laso. jjjj^ gentle government, and by prudence and valor, reco- 
vered the lands that had been lost on the Loire and the Garonne ; so that, 

Vhen the Black Prince fell a victim to a wasting disease, 

and Edward HI. shortly after followed him into the graven 
nothing remained to the English of all their conquests but Calais. But 
under his successor, Charles YLj who became insane shortly after coming 
Charies VL, ^ ^^^ France again fell into a state of confusion and law- 
X. D. lessness. Two powerful court parties, headed by the unde 

18S0-14A2. of the king (the duke of Burgundy), and the king's brotber 
(the duke of Orleans), contended for the government; whilst the buighers 
rebelled against the heavy imposts, and demanded an increase of their 
privileges. About the same, time in which the towns were waging war 
against the knights in Germany (§ 261), the Swiss peasants were con- 
tending against the nobility, and a dangerous popular insurrection, under 
Wat Tyler and others, was making rapid progress in England, the citizen 
and peasant class rose against the court and the nobility in Flanders and 

France also. But want of union among the insurgents gave 

the latter the victory, and the outbreak was followed by a 
diminution of the privileges of the people. The Burgundian party 
fkrored the citizens, the Orleans party the nobility. 

§ 273. The chivalrous king, Henry Y. of England, took advantage 
of these circumstances to renew the war with France. He demanded the 
former possessions back again ; and when this was refused, he entered 

France by Calais, and renewed at Agincoyrt, on the Somme, 
A. n. 1416. ^j^^. ^yg ^ Crecy and Foictiers. The French army, four 
times the number of its opponents, was overthrown, and the flower of the 
French chivalxy either fell in the field, or were taken prisoners by die 
enemy ; notlung stood between the victor and Farisi where party violenoa 

FRANCE. 179 

had just now attained its highest point, and murders and insurrections 
were matters of dail j occurrence. The Orleans party joined the Dau- 
phin, whilst the Burgundian party, with the queen Isabella, united them- 
selves with the English, and acknowledged Henry Y. and his descendants 
as the heirs of the French crown. The whole of the country to the north 
^ of the Loire was soon in the hands of the English. But 

A> D. 1422. 

Henry Y. was snatched away by death in the midst of his 
heroic course, in the same year in which the crazy Charles YI. sank into 
the grave, and the Dauphin took possession of the throne under the title 
Charics vn ^^ Charles YII. But this made little difference to France. 
A. D. The English and their allies prodaimed Henry YI., who was 

14S2>1461. scarcely a year old, the rightful ruler of the country, and 
retuned their superiority in the field, so that they already h^d Orleans 
in siege. 

S 274. In this necessity, the Maid of Orleans, a peasant 

girl of Dom Remy in Lorraine, who gave out that she had 
been summoned to the redemption of France by a heavenly vision, 
aroused the sinking courage <i Charles and his soldiers. Under her 
banner, the town of Orleans was delivered, the king conducted to Rheims 
to be crowned, and the greater part of their conquests wrested from the 
English. The faith in her heavenly mission inspired the French with 
courage and self-confidence, and filled the English with fear and despair. 

This effect remained after Joan of Arc had fallen into the 

hands of the latter, and had been given up to the flames on 
a pretended charge of blasphemy and sorcery. The English lost one 
province after another ; and when Philip the Good of Burgundy recon- 
A.D.ii8(. ^^ himself with the king, Calais soon became their last 

and only possession in the land of France. Paris opened 
A. Dw IMS. jtg gates and received Charles with acclamations. He reigned 
over France in peace for twenty-five years ; but he was a weak man, who 
suffered himself to be guided by women and favorites. He was followed 
Louis XL ^^ Louis XI., a crafty but politic prince, who, by cunning, 
A. D. violence, and unexampled tyranny, rendered the power of 

1461-14S8. the throne absolute, and enlarged and consolidated his em- 
pire. He robbed the nobility of all their choicest privileges, and gradu- 
ally united all the great fiefs with the crown. He then, by the assistance 
of the Swiss (whose hardy youth he and his successor engaged as merce- 
naries), overthrew Charles the Bold, and made himself master of the 
ChuiMYm^ dukedom of Burgundy. The stings of conscience and the 
A. D. 1468- fear of men tortured him in the lonely castles where he 
^^ spent the last years of his life. His two successors, Charles 

A D. 14M - ^^^' ^^^ Louis XIL, conquered Brittany, but dissipated 
uu. the strength of the kingdom in their expeditions to Italy. 



HeiiryH ^ ^^^' With Henry IL, of 'Anjou, the great-grandson of 

A.D. 1154- William the Conqueror (§ 207), the renowned race of Flan- 
1189. tagenet ascended the English throne. They possessed much 

land on the Loire and the Garonne, and as Normandy also belonged to 
the English, the whole of the west of France was in the power of the 
kings of England. Many quarrels and battles arose from this state of 
things, for the kings of France laid claim to the rights of feudal suprema- 
cy over these western lands, which rights the English kings refused to 
render. Henry II., a contemporary of Frederick Barbarossa, was a 
powerful and intelligent regent, who acquired especial renown by his 
improvement in the administration of the laws. In furtherance of this 
object, he attempted, by the Constitutions of Clarendon, so to limit the 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction, that the clergy should be subject to the royal 
tribunals in temporal matters, without any appeal to the pope. Upon 
this point, Henry had a violent contest with the archbishop of Canterbury, 
Thomas a BeckeL Becket rejected the Constitutions of Clarendon, and 
dismissed every priest that submitted to them ; and when he was threat- 
ened with legal proceedings, he quitted England and anathematized 
Henry. But an arrangement was brought about, for a short time, by the 
intervention of the pope. But scarcely was Becket returned to Canter- 
bury, when he resumed all his former severity against the clergy who 
received the Constitutions of Clarendon. The king, who was just then 
in arms against France, suffered an exclamation of discontent against 
Becket to escape him, which induced four of his servants to hasten to 
England, and to slaughter the archbishop on the steps of the 
altar. This sacrilegious deed occasioned universal horror, 
and procured the pope a complete triumph in England. The murderers 
were punished, the Constitutions of Clarendon abolished, and Thomas a 
Becket canonized. Thousands made pilgrimages to his altar ; and the 
king, a few years afterwards, gave a memorable example of his peni- 
tence, by suffering the monks to scourge his bare shoulders at the grave 
of the martyr. 

§ 276. Two of Henry's sons survived their father; Richard Lionheart 
Richard Lion- (§ 22^)) ^^^ John Lackland. Much as the former distin- 
heart, a. d. guished himself by his courage and chivalrous daring, his 
1189 -1199. ygjgn ^as not advantageous to England. The latter was 
John Lack- worsted in every contest in which he engaged. In the first 
land, ▲. D. place, he lost Normandy, and all the hereditary possessions 
1199 - 1216. ^£ jj|g house on the Loire and the Garonne, to the shrewd 
and enterprising Philip Augustus of France; and when he got involved 


in a quarrel with the pope, about the appointment to the chair of the 
archbishopric of Canterbury, in consequence of which the holy father 
pronounced an anathema and interdict upon England, released his sub- 
jects from iheir oath of allegiance, and summoned the king of France to 
take possession of the land, John humbled himself, surrendered the 
throne of England by a solemn act to the pope, and received it back 
again from the hands of the legate as a papal fief, in return for a yearly 
tribute of 1000 marks. John was now released from the interdict, and 
the French king fori>idden to prosecute the expedition against him. En- 
raged at this disgraceful transaction of a king, who, by his severity, arbi- 
trariness, and cruelty, had embittered every dass against himself, the 
nobles of England seized their arms and compelled John, by 
the grant of the great charter (Magna Charta), in a meadow 

' "l^ndaor (Runnymede), to lay the foundation of the free constitution 
Henzy IIL, <^ England. The long reign of John's son, Henry IIL, was 
A. D. me- favorable to the growth of liberty, melancholy as, on the 
^^^ whole, the condition of the land under him was. His ex- 

travagant profuseness to favorites, and the exactions of the papal legates 
and the Italian clergy, inflicted grievous wounds on the prosperity of the 
country, and at length drove the people to rebel and seize upon the king 
and his family, till the abuses were removed, and fresh liberties granted. 
§ ^77. Henry HI. was succeeded by his chivalrous son, Edward L, 
EdwazdL whose reign is rendered memorable by a succession of 
▲.!>. 1373- bloody wars. He added the hitherto independent Wales to 
^^' his dominions, introduced there the laws and constitution 

of England, and was the first who gave the title of Prince of Wales to 
the heir to the throne. Upon a quarrel for the crown break- 
^ ^* ing out shortly after ii^ Scotland, between Robert Bruce and 

John Baliol, in which he was chosen umpire, Edward took advantage of 
the opportunity to establish the much contested feudal superiority of the 
English kings over Scotland, and decided in favor of Baliol, who was 
ready to do him homage. This irritated the Scotch, who were proud of 
their independence. They seized the sword, and under the conduct of 
heroic knights like Wallace, fought many battles for their liberties which 
are renowned in song and legend. Furious contests drenched the phiins 
of the Bonih of Scotland with the blood of heroes; Wallace died as a 
prisoner by the axe of the executioner. The coronation stone of the 
Scottish kings at Soone was brought to London, where it still orna- 
ments Westminster Abbey ; Edward's victorious host marched through 
the whole of Scotland as far as the Highhinds, and yet the Scots still 
maintained their independence. Robert Bruce, the grandson of the 
before-mentioned cani^date for the throne, after many changes of for- 
tune, 'obtained possession of the crown, which became hereditary in his 
family, and passed at length to the related house of Stuart. 


Edward's son of the same name was a weak prince, wbo poisM neklier 
Edwitfd Q. 11^0 conquests abroad, nor preserre peace and order at 
A. D. 1807- home. The nobles repeatedly took up aims against hira, 
un7. killed bos &v(Mite8» and at last looked quiatlj ob, whilst the 

queen and her paramonr, Mortimer, tbrost the nnfortnnala monaroh f«Mn 
^ throne, and had him put to a cruel death in prison. Bat when his 
Bdward m. en^i'getic SOB, Edward IIL, came of i^ge^ he pmisfaed tbe 
A. i>. 18S7- atrocious deed hy executing Mortimer, and banishing the 
1877. queen to a solitary fortress. 

§ 278. Edward m. governed with vigor and renom. He took saea- 
iores for checking the encroachments of the pope upon the English 
Church, in which he was activdj supported bj the Oxford professor, 
Widiff, and granted to manj towns the privilege of sending represent- 
atives to parliament, as his predecessors had before done. By this meaaa* 
the niunber of representatives increased to such an extent that they were 
divided, and from this time, the nobles and bishops fonned the Upper 
House (House of Peers), and the members for the towns, the Lower 
House (House of Commons), of Parliament lie tax could be impoaed 
without their consent. The wars of succession which Edward IIL aod 
his son, the Black Prince, waged with Fiance, were to the advantage of 
the English (§ 271). B\it the government of his grandson and successor, 
Bichaid n. Bichard H., was disturbed by domestic troubles ; a danger- 
A. D. 1877- ous insurrection of the people was only suppressed with 
18M. difficulty by the ready courage of the king; and when Bich- 

aid at length banished his cousin, Henry of Lancaster, who was the 
originator of the disturbances, from the kingdom, Henry formed a party, 
had the king deposed from the throne by an act of parliament, and then 
Hotue of assumed himself the royal title. Bichud died of starvation 
LancMter. in a remote castle, whilst Henry lY., in whose person the 
Henry IV,, house of Lancaster ascended the English throne, was secnr- 
A. D. 1899 - ing to himself and his posterity, by his prudence and valor, 
1418. ^^ crown he had so flagitiously obtained. An insurrectioa 

of the English nobles under the duke of Northumberland and his heroic 
spn Percy, sumamed Hotspur, ended with the defeat of the insurgents. 
The followers of Wicliff, called Lollards, were persecuted for the sake of 
propitiating the clergy in favor of the royal house. Heniy lY. was suc- 
jl^gj^ y, ceeded by his more valiant son, Henry Y., whose youthful 
A. D. 1418- follies, as well as his nobleness of soul and heroic greatness, 
2^83. bave been portrayed in so masterly a way by the great 

British poet, Sfaakspeare. He conducted successiul wars with France, 
but all that he gained by his fortune and courage was again lost in the 
reign of his infant son, Henry YL 

§ 279. This sixth Henry was the most unfortunate prince that ever 
sat on a throne. The crown of France, which he had received whea 

SPAIN. 183 

a child of one year old ($ 274), was wrested from bkn by tbe Maid of 
HenxyVL Orleans, and he was deprived of his English possessions, 
A. i>. 141S " also) by the wars of the Bed and the White Roses. Ridiaid, 
iMl* duke of York, great-grandson of king Edward III., deemed 

that he had better pretensions to the erown of England than Henry VL 
He formed a powerfal party, unfurled tlie banner of rebellion, and com- 
menced the bloody civil war which, from the cognizance borne by the 
chiefs of the parties, was called the War of the Bed (Lancaster) and 
White (York) Rose. It is true that Richard was defeated in a furions 
battle by the forces of the queen, who ornamented his head with a paper 
Hoaseof crown, and placed it upon the battlements of York. But 
York. Richard's eldest son, the chivalrous Edward, revenged the 

Edward IV., insults offered to his father. He got possession of the throne, 
A. !>. 1461 - and, despite the many changes of fortone he met with during 
^*^' his reign, he finally maintained himself upon it, after Henry 

of Lancaster, who had four times exchanged the crown for a prison, had 
ended his miserable existence in the Tower, and his son had been put to 
death. But the blood-stained throne brought no blessing to the house of 
Yozk. Edward first got rid of his brother Clarence by assassination ; 
and when he himself died, leaving behind him two infant princes, his 
Bichaid IIL, JoiiK^g^r bro&er, Richard (HI.), had these put to deatli in 
A. i>. 1488- the Tower, and took possession of the throne, upon which he 
^^^ in vain hoped to secure himself by fresh crimes. Henry 

Tudor, a deseradant of the royal house of Lancaster^^wiio had saved faim- 
sdf from the general ruin of his family by fiying to France^ landed on 
A. D. I486. ^® ^^^^^^ ^ England, and won crown and victory in the field 
of Bosworth, where Bichard w^ slain. Upon this, Heiiry 
Tudor. Vn., with whom the house of Tudor rose to the throne, 

Henry VIL brought about a reconciliation between the Boses by marry- 
A.D.1486- ing the daughter of Edward IV. The history of thd world 
^^^ scarcely relates another war in which so many atrocities 

were committed as in the contest between the Bed and the White Bose. 
Eighty members of royal families, and the ornaments of the nobility, fell 
by die sword. Owing to this, the politic and hard-hearted Henry YH. 
could give greater power to the crown than it had possessed tinder the 

d. SPAIK. 

§ 280. For several centuries, the two kingdoms of Aragon and Castile 
(§ 194) stood side by side in separate mdependence; The former at- 
tempted to extend itself towards the east, and gained possession, not only 
jyi^yo^ Y of the coast lands of Catalonia, Valentia, and Murcia, and the 
A. Ik 1416— Spanish islands, Majorca and Minorca, but subjected, at differ- 
^^^ ent times, Sardinia and Sicily, and ia the reign of Alfonso Y., 


even conquered Naples. Castile, on the other hand, enlai]^ itself oo 
the south, and bj sucoessful wars against the Moors, gained possession of 
Ck>rdova, Seville, and Cadiz. These contests had the greatest influence 
on the history and character of the Spanish nation. First, Thej produced 
a love of war and a chivalrous turn of mind, and were the occasioii that 
the Spanish nation took delight in contests and arms, in tournaments and 
knightly exercises, and in romantic poetry and minstrelsy. Secondly, 
They preserved the zeal for religion, and were the foundation of that pre- 
dominance of the clergy which has always been a characteristic of Spcun. 
Thirdly, They aroused a feeling of liberty and self-reliance among the 
people, — hence the Spanish Estates, which assembled regularly in the 
Cortes, and claimed and exercised privileges which were to be met with 
in no other monarchy. The Estates of Aragon not only possessed the 
right of legislating and of consenting to the levying of taxes, but the king 
was obliged to consult them in the choice of his council. Quarrek 
between the Estates and the king were decided by an independent chirf 
justice (Justitia). 

§ 281. The chivakons Peter UL, the conqueror of Sicily (§ 240), k 
the best known of the Aragonian kings, and Alfonso X., the Wise, of the 
Alfonso X., Castilian. The latter occupied himself with astronomy and 
▲. D. 1262- astrology, with music and poetry, enlarged the university 
^^' of Salamanca, encouraged the development of the national 

language, and had works prepared on history and jurisprudence ; but he 
was wanting in the practical wisdom of life. To gain the shadow of the 
imperial Roman throne, and to gratify his taste for magnificence and 
pleasure, he oppressed his people with taxes, and plunged his land into 
confusion by extravagance, and by debasing the coinage. Alfonso XI. 
AlfoDBo XL, overcame the Moors on the river Sakdo, and took the strong 
1810 ^^* ~ ^^^9 Algeciras, in Andalusia. To defray the expenses of 
the war, the Estates introduced the tax, alcavala, which was 
A. D. 1840. levied upon all movable and immovable property as often 
as it was sold or exchanged, and which proved extremely detrimental to 
trade and commerce. This impost has continued to exist in Spain ever 
Peter the since. Alfonso's son, Peter the Cruel, outraged his wives, 
Cmel, A. D. his brothers and relatives, the nobles and the people, so long, 
1860-1869. ti^t at length his half-brother, with the assistance of some 
French troops, overcame and killed him, and then assumed his place. 
Isabella, The marriage of queen Isabella of Castile, with Ferdinand 
A. D. 1474- i^Q Catholic of Aragon, led to the union of the two king- 
Ferdiaand, doms,^ and consequently to a new epoch for Spain, towards 
A.D. 1479- the conclusion of the fifteenth century. 
'^^^^' § 282. Ferdinand and Isabella, directed by the counsels 

of the shrewd cardinal Ximenes, strove for a common object ; — they 
sought to diminish the power of the nobility and clergy, and exalt that 

SPAIN. 186 

<tf the crown. For this purpose, Ferdinand obtained from the pope the 
grand mastership of the three wealthy orders of Castilian knights, and 
the privilege of filling up the Spanish bishoprics. He next deprived the 
nobility of the administration of justice, that he might transfer it to the 
royal courts, and established the armed Hermandad (police), to preserve 
the peace of the land, and to abolish robbery and private warfare. But 
the most important means of raising the power of the throne was the 
court of Inquisition, in which the king had the appointment of the grand 
inquisitor and all the judges. This royal court of faith, provided with 
spiritual weapons, was not only the terror of heretics and secret Moham- 
medans and Jews, but held the nobility and clergy in awe, and imposed 
heavy chains upon the free activity of the mind. The slightest suspi- 
cion, the false testimony of an enemy, might lead to the frightful dun- 
geons of the Inquisition, where the most dreadfhl tortnres of the rack 
were employed to force a confession of guilt, and wiles, equivocations, 
and insnaring questions were made use of to entrap the resolute. Num- 
berless victims were given up to the flames in the midst of pomp and 
magnificence (auto de £6), or pined away their lives in mouldering dun- 
geons, whilst the treasury of the state was enriched with their property. 
Never were the throne and altar united in a bond so dangerous to the 
liberties of the people, as in Spain since the establishment of the Inquisition. 
§ 283. The banishment of the Moors is one of the most melancholy 
phenomena in Spanish history. When the Moorish kingdom of Grana^ 
' da, afker a war of ten years, fell before the arms of Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella, the Mohammedans were allowed no alternative but to leave their 
country or embrace Christianity ; hereupon, many of them quitted their 
native land, others, with inward repugnance, adopted the doctrines of the 
Gospel, but were driven, by the cruelty of the Inquisition and the op- 
pression of the government; to repeated rebellions, by which their condn 
tion was always rendered worse than before. But their lot was most de- 
plorable under the fanatical Philip II. and his successor of the same 
name. A command was first given that they should renounce their lan- 
guage, their national dress, and their peculiar customs ; and as if even 
this tyrannical order were not sufficient to destroy the last traces of their 
Arabian origin and their foreign faith, they were mercilessly driven 
away from the Spabish territory. 800,000 Moors, men and women, old 
men and children, left the land of their birth, their blooming fields, and 
the houses their own hands had built. The flourishing plains of the 
south soon became a desert, agriculture decayed, and trade stagnated ; 
prosperous villages were reduced to ruins, towns once animated by com- 
merce became depopulated, poverty, dirt, and sloth, took possession of the 
once rich and happy country, the departed splendor of which is still 
attested by magnificent ruins. A simiUr fate attended the Jews ; priesta 
and courtiers divided the possessions and treasures of the banished. 


The destructioa of &e priTil^^ of the Estates and of tfae libertiea 
of the people, were also consequences of this nuadaeToas union between 
the orown and the altar. 

4. ITALT, 

§ 284. In Upper Italy, the two republics of Venice and Genoa raised 
themselves by their trade and navigation, to a prosperi^ that recals the 
memoiy of the most flourishing period of ancient Greece. Yenioe 
directed her view to the Adriatic and iEgean seas, and sought to make 
conquests on their coasts for the purpose of obtainmg suitable havensy 
marts, and magazines ; as those in Dalmatia, Greece, the Archipelago, 
Constantinople, and many other places. This remarkable city, which 
had originated from the nmoa of several islands, became rich and powers 
ful by her oriental traffic Magnificent churches (the cathedral of St 
Mark), gorgeous palaces (that of the doge), splendid squares (the place 
of St Mark), boldly constructed bridges (that of the BiaHo), made 
Yenioe a wonder of the world. But magnificence, wealth, and pleasuresy 
could not make amends for the want of freedom. The original \ 
cratic constitution was changed, during the thirteenth and fourteenth < 
turies, into an oppressive hereditary aristocracy. An elected doge, widi 
limited authority, stood at the head of the state ; but the whole power 
rested in the high councilt to which only a limited number of noble fami- 
lies (nobili), whose names were written in the golden book, had admia- 
sion. For the puipose of preventing any alteration in the oonstitntiQa 
of the state, a council of ten persons were furnished with dictatorial 
power, and provided with a state police of spies and informers, and a 
state Inquisition with subterraneous dungeons, radu, and leaden roofs. 
Every motion was watched, every word listened to, every movement of 
the people observed. 

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centurieSi Venice attempted to extend 
her rule on the Italian continent, and obtained possession, by the help of 
skilful generals, of Verona, Padua, Brescia, and many other cities and 
territories of Upper Italy. By this means, however, she came into hos* 
tile contact with other European states, and was not unfrequently threat- 
ened with destructioa, particularly in the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, by the league of Cambray, in which, the 
emperor Maximilian, Louis XIL of France, Ferdinand the Catholic of 
Aragon, and pope Julius IL, united together for the purpose of dividing 
the Venetian territory, The French were already threatening the wealthy 
dty, when the Venetian council succeeded in dividing the league, and 
gaining over the pope and Ferdinand. In this manner, Venice was 
saved, and the French driven out of Italy. But the wounds which 
Venice received in h^ eastern possesuons by the establishment of the 

iXAur. 197 

Ottxmm Brnpsd^m^im. her iatdftibfihB diaeoTerjof a §m pMS^^ to 
&e East Indies, were inenrable. Siooe Ibeiiy the aUegoriod niftrriiige of 
the doge wkh the Admde in tbe 9bkt» ▼eeael, the BiieenUKiir» has been a 
ovremonj wHhoat a meaniiig* 

§ 286. Grenoa waa the pvood rival of Venice. The nictual jealouay of 

the two refmblics respeotiDg the trade with the Baat was the ooeasicm of 

many wan and maojr bloody nayal eagagements^ in which, however, Yeniee 

was generallj the victor. Grenoa's splendid marble palaces, her havens 

corered with a forest of maeta, and her exchange, bore witness to her 

wealth. But quarrels betwoMi deniocrats and amtocrats, between Guelfs 

^Fieschi and Grimaldt) and Ghibeliines (Spinok and Dona), weakened 

her intenial strength. Incapable of governing herself she sought for 

foreign riders, till at length she fell alternately under the power of the 

French and Milanese. The excellent constitution which the 

naval hero, Andreas Doria, planned in the sixteenth century 

for his native aty, after he had overthrown the French government 

there, and bronght back the republican forms, restored the state to its 

eetward Independeoce, b«i by no liieaqs to its internal tranquillity. 

^ Twenty years later, the handsome, rich, and accomplished 

Fiesco attempted to deprive the house of Doria of the cSLce 

0f dege ; but the eaterprise was frustrated by the unexpected death of 

€ke daring ocmspirator. 

{ Sd6b Milan cama gtadeally under the government of the wealthy 
&mily ^ Visoonti, who obtaised the dacal tide from the emperor, and 
^oaqfoered Ae greater part of Lombardy by the aid of condottieri and 
mercenary troq)e. When the male Ime of the Yisconti became extinct 
in the middle of the fifteenth century, the Milanese trans- 
ferred the sovereignty of their beautiful land, which was 
ajned at both by the French and Spaniards, to Franpisco Sforza, the 
most able of these condottieri. The conquest of the country 
by Louis XII. of France was facilitated by quarrels in 
8forza's fiunily. Louis earned away the duke (Louis Moro) prisoner, 
and suffered him to pine for ten years in a subterranean dungeon. The 
French were indeed driven out of Italy a few years later, and the spn 
of the captive Moro raised to the dukedom of Milan ; but the first war- 
like action of the diivalrous Francis I. was the ^' battle of 
giants " of Mari^anos m which the duke and his Swiss were 
drfeated, and Milan agmn joined to the French kmgdom. Ten years 
afterwards, the dukedom fell into the hands of the Spaniards, who 
remamed in possession of it for nearly two hundred years. 

§287. The western states of Upper Italy fell, for the most part» under 
the power of the eoonts of Savoy, who, by prudence, good fortune, and 
fivoe of arms, gradually enlarged their originally narrow territory to a 
dukedom, which extended northward over the south of Switoerland to 


Jura (Geneva, VaQd, Yalois), and indaded on the soath, Piedmont, wiA 
Turin, the county of Moe, and other territories. Bat when the waifike 
Swiss confederates on the north, and on the west, France, which was 
now united into a powerful kingdom, became the neigfaboro of SaYOT^a 
frontiers, its drcomdference began gradually to lessen. The Yalois was 
lost in the Burgundian war (§ 298), Geneva freed itself during the con- 
tests of the Reformation, and in the wars which Frauds L carried on with 
Charles V., for the possession of Milan, duke Chaiies UL of Savoy, die 
ally of the latter, lost the greater part of his hereditary estates, which 
his son again received, with some loss, at the peace of Caia- 
bresis. But his successors, by taking advantage of favorable 
opportunities, amply repaid themselves for their losses by conquests in 
other quarters (Saidinia, Genoa), and at length obtained possession of the 
kingly power. 


§ 2dd. The trading town of Pisa was the first to flourish in Tuscany. 
When this city had fallen before the army of the Genoese, Florence 
raised itself above the other towns, and at length reduced Pisa itself to 
subjection. Florence was at first governed by the nobility ; but when 
this class had been weakened by the party ccmtentions of the Guelft 
(Black) and Ghibellines (White), the government was obtiuned by the 
people, who were divided into guilds, and who consbted, for the most pait^ 
* of masters of manufactories and workers in wool. But scarody waa a 
complete democracy established in Florence, when a new quarrri ftr 
supremacy sprang up between the rich merchants and the poorer aztisaiia, 
the result of which was, that the state was governed alternately by a 
money aristocracy and by the democratic guilds. Love of freedom, 
patriotism, and refinement were developed in the midst of these contests, 
so that Florence might be compared to the ancient Ath«i6. At length, 
the wealthy family of the Medici succeeded in so completely winning to 
themselves the affections of the poor by their kindness and benevcrfeDce^ 
GoBinode '^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^® illustrious by their friendly affability, diat 
Medici, a. d. Gosmo de Medici, a man of lofty mind and patriotic spirit, 
1418-1464. without assuming either rank or title, governed the Floren- 
tine state with almost unlimited power, and rendered it flourishing 
and powerful by successful wars abroad, and by encouragement of the 
arts and sciences at home. To him belongs by right the surname of 
« Father of his Country." 

Lorenzo the ^ ^^^' Ck>smo's grandson, Lorenzo the Magnificent, trod 
Kagnificent, in thc'path of his ancestors, and rendered Florence the seat 
1472-1492. of every art and science, and a seminary for all Europe. 
His court was ornamented with artists, poets, and writers ; learned men 
from Byzantium, who were fiying firom the sword of the Turks, taught 

ITALY. 180 

Ae Grieek language and literature in Florence. Tinder hw rale, the 
arts of flcalpturey painting, and music began to unfold their choicest 
Uoasoms. After Lorenzo's death, the animated discourses of the Domi- 
nican, Sayon^brola, induced the Florentines to drive out the Medici, and 
to restore the democratic republic But when the pope excommunicated 
the bold ** prophet of Florence," and the priests, against whose wealth 
and luxarions lives his zeal had been chiefly directed, rose against him, 
his enemies succeeded in effecting his overthrow ; upon which, he was 
ecmdemned to be burnt as a disturber of the Church and a corrupter of 
the people. The Medici soon returned ; and when a demo- 
cratic spirit, after some time, again awoke, and a second ban- 
ishment followed, the emperor, Charles V., having an understanding with 
the Medidan pope, Clement VIL, marched upon Florence, compelled it to 
surrender after a close siege, and placed the cruel Alexander 
de Medici as duke over the humbled republic. Alexander, 
after many years' tyranny, was killed by the people, but the government, 
nevertheless^ remained in the hands of the Medici. Among the many 
IQ^jj^j^ artists and writers that lived about this time in Florence, 

Ang^o, ▲. p.* Michael Angelo, who was equally distinguished as an archi- 
1474—1668. foQi^ sculptor, and painter ; and the clever statesman, Mac- 
IfMchiavelli, chiavelli, author of "The Prince," the "History of Flo- 
A. D. 1527. rence," and ** Discourses on Titus Livius," are the most 
distiDgQifihed names. 

$ 290. During the residence of the popes in Avignon (§ 255), violence 
and lawlessness, occasioned by the bloody family quarrels of the Colonna 
and Qrsini, ha^ reigned in the ecclesiastical state of Home. This inspired 
G>]a di Bienzi, a man filled with enthusiasm for ancient Rome, with the 
project of bringing back peace and the ancient greatness to the state by 
the restoration of the republican constitution. Uis fiery eloquence trans- 
ported the Romans. They established a ne^ republican 
Rome, raised the popular orator to the office of tribune, and 
drove the nobles from their walls. But Rienzi's splendid part was soon 
played oat Pride and vanity blinded him ; oppressive taxes deprived 
him of the favor of the people ; so that his enemies, succeeded in procur- 
ing his overthrow, and compelled him to fly. He returned, indeed, a few 
years after, but it was only to meet with his death in a popu- 
^^' lar commotion. After arranging the division in the Church 

(S 263), a few distinguished popes made an attempt to heal the wounds 
of the state and the Church. Among these, may be particularly men- 
A.i>. tioned Nicholas Y., the founder of the Vatican library, and 

1450- i4eo. Plus n. (JRosaB Silvias, § 266), known as a clever and ver- 
satile writer, — both of them patrons of cultivation and science. On 
the other hand, Alexander YI. (Borgia) was the scandal of all Chris- 
tendom bj his abandoned life, and his fimiily (Caesar and Lucretia Bor« 


gia, in particalar) were gailtj of ftightfol criineB. Alezaadei's snoeefltor, 
Jalias IL, posseased a magnaniinaas diapoaitioQ, but Ym pi»* 
sion for war suited in with his spiritoal office. He mardwd 
into the field himself, and enlarged the poaBcoaions of the Chmeh bj the 
addition of Bologna, Aneona, Ferrara, and other towns and territorieSi 
Leo X^ the highl j accomplished son of Lorenzo de Medio, united in 
the Vatican all the splendor of art and refinement as aa inheritance of 
his house. But in studying the productions of Greek and Boman pagan- 
ism, he lost sight of the doctrine of the Church and of reverence he the 
Gospel ; yet he taxed the religious faith of the people by the sale of 
Raphael indulgences, that he might be able to support the expense of 

A. D. building the magnificent church of St. Peter, and to rewsni 

1488 - 1620. artists with a liberal hand. The « divine "^ painter, Baphad, 
was the ornament of his court. 

In Ferrara, during the fifteenth century, reigned the younger branch 
of the house of Este, which was not less distinguished for refinement 
and encouragement of the arts and sciences than the MedicL Ariosto, 
the writer of ^ Orlando Furioso," and Torquato Tasso, the poet of *^ Jeni- 
salem Delivered," were the ornaments of the ducal court (^Ferrara. 

§ 291. The descendants of Charles of Anjou reigned in Naples, which, 

since the fiill of the house of Hohenstaufen (§ 289, 240), had become a 

papal fief. The Guelfic party found in them as zealous defenders, as the 

Ghibelline in the kings of Sicily of the princely house of Aragon. Two 

wicked queens, Joanna L and Joanna XL, filled the kinsdom 

Joanna L . • « , , « . „« , ,% 

A. D. 1848- ^"* *<^ ®^ cruelty, war, and confusion. The latter, before 
18S2. her childless departure, named, first, an Aragonian, and afie^ 

Joanna H, wards a French prince, fi>r her heir, and by this means pn>- 
A. D. 1414— doced two pardes, a French and an Aragonian, that oon- 
^**** tended till the end of the fifteenth century, with great bitte^ 

ness and various success, for the possession of Naples, till Frederick the 
Catholic of Aragon at length gsdned possession of it by caA 
and the success of his arms, and again united it with Sicilj. 
The kingdom of Naples and Sicily remained subject to the Spanicb 
sceptre for two hundred years, and was governed by a vice-king. In- 
O'ease of taxation, and the destruction of the privileges of the Estates, 
gradually produced poverty and loss of fireedom. 


PhiUp the S 292. Philip the Bold had received the dukedom of Bo^ 

Bold, A. D. gondy from his father, king John of France, in ^» He 

1868-1404. united to this, by inheritance and marriage, die Burgtm^ 

John sans Franche Comtd, formerly an appanage of the German em- 

Penr, A. D. pire, ttid the rich lands of Flanders, together with Axtdt) 

1404-1419. Mechlin, Antwerp, Mid some other towns. EQa 80% i^ 

BUBfiUNPT. 191 

mmTwr, and has gnndaoiiy Plulip the Gootl^ eiztanded their possetdanft 
ym^ y^ BtiU &rther oyer tlie oUier states of the Netherlaads^ and 
flood, A. D. established a kingdom that, in ciYiligatkm, indostry, and pros- 
liu-1467. parity, oonld Tie with Italj* Philip the Good was one of the 
most powerful and richest princes of his time, and his Netherknd chivalry 
were distinguished by their q>lendor, adroitness, and polished manners* 
The weidthy trading and manufacturing towns of Ghent, Brussels, Ant- 
werp, Bruges, Louvain, &Qb, possessed great privileges and liberties, and 
a warlike militia. 

S 293. Philip's son, Charles the Bold, enlaiged the dukedom and raised 
Onriesthe ^^ splendw of the chivalrous court to the highest point 
Bol(^A.]>. He was a man of vigor, oourage, and warlike spirit; but 
1467—1477. ambition and violent passions rendered him rash, insolent, 
and obstinate. His efforts were directed to the enlargement of his duke- 
dom into a Gallo-Burgundian kingdom, with the Rhine for its eastern 
boundary. But his undertakings were frustrated by the crafty and faith- 
less Louis XL of France. For when Charles the Bold threatened the 
doke ui Lorraine (whose lands and chief city, Nancy, he was longing 
fiir), with war, Louis brought about an alliance between Lorraine and 
the Swiss. Hereupon, Charles, with a stately and splendidly equipped 
aimy, marched across the Jura against the Swiss, but suffered such a 
defeat in the battle of Granson, that the survivors were dis- 
'. persed in disorderly flight; and the admirable artillery, 

together with a magnificent camp, filled with costly stuffs, gold, silver, 
sod precious stones, fdl into the hands of an enemy who did not know 
their value. Maddened by this disgrace, Charles, a few months afler- 
waids, marched with a firesh army against the confederates. But the 
battle of Murten ended in the same way : the victors were again enriched 
with an enormous booty ; Berne wrested the Yalais from the royal house 
of Savoy, which was in alliance with Burgundy, and the duke of Lor- 
nine again gained possession of his lands, whidi had been seized upon 
by Charles. Misfortune confused the mind of the Burgundian duke : 
blind with rage, and meditating nothing but vengeance, he rejected every 
proposal of accommodation, and marched for the third time against the 
enemy, who were prepared for the encounter. But in January, 1477, 
his army suffered a third frightful overthrow in the froaen fields before 
^ttcj, partly by the swords of the brave Svriss, Alsacians, and Lor- 
niaers, and partly by the treachery of his Italian condottieri. Charles 
himself was killed in a frozen morass during the fight. 

§ 294. Afier the death of Charles, Louis XI. seized upon the i»oper 

dnhedom of Burgundy (Boutgogne), as a vacant fief of the French 

ctown, and attempted to get possession of the other lands. At this jnnc- 

t.%,im ture, Charies's daughter, Mary, was married tothechival- 

rous Maximilian of Austriat who overcame the Frend^ 


and compelled them to reUnqiiish their parpoee. Mary di^ ahortlj afieip* 
wards by a faU from her horse, whibt hawking. The French king again 
renewed his treacherous intrigues for the purpose of exciting the towns 
of the Netherlands against Maximilian, who had been appointed guard- 
ian of his infant son, Philip of Burgundy. Ghent fell off; the guilds of 
Bruges kept him for some time a prisoner ; Brabant wavered ; but never- 
theless, Maximilian, by his courage and conduct, brought the whole of 
the Netherlands to acknowledge his rights of guardianship. Philip's 
son, Charles (V.), who was bom to him by the Spanish Joanna, and who 
was bom in the beginning of the century at Ghent, inheri- 
ted all the lands of his parents and grandparents. Tet his 
heart was with the rich, cultivated, and industrious Netherlands, which 
he had united into a whole by the acquisition of Utrecht, Gueldres, and 
some other towns, and added to the Grerman empire, under the title of 
the JBurgundian Circle. 


§ 295. Afler the daring sea expeditions and wanderings of the Nor- 
mans and Danes (§ 204, 206) had ceased, an enterprising prince was 
here and there successful in raising himself above the other heads of 
tribes (fylken kings), and in founding a kingdom by uniting seven! 
tribes (fylken) together. This was effected in Norway by Handd Fair- 
A. D. 876. ^^ * ^^ Denmark, by Gorm the Old ; and in Swedeuy^ by 
the Ynglians. But it was wi^h reluctance that the warlike 
Norman chiefs bowed beneath the authority of a supreme 
king, and many of the discontented renewed the expeditions by sea, and 
sought for a new home abroad. Thus, BoUo (Robert) in Normandy 
(§ 205). The contests of the kings with the chiefs of the tribes lasted 
for many centuries, and impeded the rapid and effectual introduction of 
Christianity into the Scandinavian kingdoms. For although the Gospel 
had been preached in the three kingdoms as early as the ninth century, 
by Ansgar, the ^ Apostle of the North," and single kings, as Harald 
Bluetooth in Denmark, and Olaf Skotkonung in Sweden, had been con- 
verted to it as early as the tenth century, yet the pagan worship of Odin 
still wrestled with Christiilnity for the mastership, for more than a hun- 
dred years. In Denmark, Harald's grandson, Canute the 
Great (§ 207), and in Norway, Olaf the Saint, gave the vic- 
tory to the doctrine of a cracified Saviour ; but this did not take place in 
Sweden till the middle of the twelfth century, in the reign of Eric the 
Pious, and not till even later than this among the half-ravage Fins. 
Christianity produced the most beneficial effects in the Scandinavian 
kingdoms. The Benedictine monks not only laid the germ of spiritoal 
development, but they also improved the manner of living, and made the 
people acquainted with the advantages of civilization. They introduced 

SCAin)INAVIA. 193 

the art of writing, and banished the rude and defective Ranic characters 
by the Latin alphabet ; they encouraged agriculture and planted new 
kinds of com ; they built mills, opened mines, and accustomed the war- 
like people to the arts of peace, to trade and agriculture. Christianity 
diminished the vast gulf that had hitherto existed between freemen and 
slaves, by awakening in every breast the sentiments of the dignity of 
human nature, and the equality of all men in the sight of Grod. In a 
word, the clergy obtained great wealth, privileges, and possessions, so 
that they could place themselves on terms of equality by the side of the 
freeholders of land. But the peasant class, on the other hand, remained 
in a state of dependence, and the towns arrivedf at neither prosperity nor 

§ 296. Denmark, to which Norway was united, acquired a great extent 
Waldemar II., ^^ ^^^ eleventh and twelfth centuries, under a few warlike 
A. D. 1202- kings. Waldemar IL, the Conqueror, prosecuted the con« 
^^^' quests of his father and grandfather on the coasts of the Baltic 

with such success, that he at last united all the Slavic lands on the 
south and east coasts of the Baltic, from Holstein to Esthonia, — Lauen- 
burg, Mecklenburg, Fomerania, a part of Prussia, the coast land of 
Courland, Livonia, and Esthonia, with his other possessions, and could 
call himself king of the Danes and Slavi, and lord of Nordalbingia 
(Sleswick-Holstein). • But his severity engendered hate and bitterness ; 
80 that when, whilst engaged in the chase, he fell into the power of count 
Henry of Schwerin, whom he had deeply injured, and was kept prisoner 
by him for more than two years in the strong castle of Dan- 
neberg ; the princes who were his yassals revolted from him 
and maintained their independence with the sword ; so that, in a short 
time, the proud fabric of Waldemar fell to the ground. Hamburg and 
Lubeck became free imperial towns ; the peasant republic of the Ditan- 
arsens regained its independence, and the German provinces returned to 
the government of the emperor. Afler Waldemar IL's death, there oc- 
curred a time of internal confusion, which was taken advantage of by 
the aristocracy of nobles to increase their privileges. In addition to 
Waldemar UL,*^^^ freedom from taxes, the holders of land now obtained a 
A.i>. 1840- jurisdiction peculiar to themselves. Waldemar III. again 
1876. governed with a firm hand : his daughter, Margareta, united 

A. D. 1897. *^® three Scandinavian kingdoms under one sceptre, by the 
Union of Calmar. 
§ 297. In Sweden also, the power of the kings had been much dimin- 
ished, and that of the chivalrous nobility increased, by the protracted 
contests for the crown. Even the powerful family of the Folkungs^ 
which had ascended the throne about the middle of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, succumbed in a few generations to the strokes of fate which smote 
all the princely houses of Sweden. Of the seven kings of this royal 


bouse, five were detbroned, and died either in priBon or bamahmen^ 
After the depoeition of the last Folkung, Magnus 11^ the 
Swedish throne descended upon his sister's son, Albert of 
Mecklenburg, who, however, after a few years, was conquered and robbed 
of Us kingdom bj the Danish Margareta ; whereupon Swe- 
den concluded the Union of Calmar with Denmark. 
This Union of Calmar proved a blessing to neither of the three king- 
doms. In Denmark and Norway, under the weak kings who succeeded 
Margareta, the power of the state fell more and more into the hands of 
the rich nobles, whilst Sweden was treated and governed by the Danish 
kings almost as though it were a conquered country. Dissension soon 
loosened the bonds of the Union of Calmar, without, however, tearing 
them completely asunder. The Hanseates, who sought to prevent a firm 
union of the three kingdoms by every possible method, encouraged these 
Christi I divisions from interested motives. The house of Oldenbnxg 
A. D. 1448- assumed the government of Denmark, in the person of 
1481. Christian I. Sweden, abo, at the same time, obtained a 

StenoStnre, sagacious and valiant ruler in Steno Sture. This prince 
A. D. 1471- curbed the insolence of the nobles, elevated the peasant and 
^^^' burgher classes, founded the university of Upsala, and invited 

men of learning and printers from foreign lands into the country. Steno 
Sture governed the kingdom with almost absolute power ; but when hia 
second successor, Steno Sture the younger, quarrelled with the archbishop 
of Upsala, the tyrannical. Christian 11. succeeded, by the aid of the latter, 
in establishing anew the supremacy of Denmark over Sweden. Steno 
Sture was overcome in the field and mortally wounded, 
whereupon Christian 11. commanded ninety-four of the moat 
influential and powerful nobles to be beheaded in Stockholm. But this 
cruelty, after a few years, dissolved forever the bonds between Denmark 
and Sweden. 


§ 298. Shortly after Otho's victory on the Lechfeld (§ 210) 
had put an end to the incursions of the Hungarians, Geisa 
became a convert to Christianity, and ordered the doctrines of the Gos- 
pel to be taught to his own people by German missionaries. What he 
Stephen the ^^o^"^ ^^ brought to a conclusion by his son, Stephen the 
Pious, Pious, who received the kingly dignity from the pope. He 

A. D. 1000. provided for the diffusion of Christianity, (to which the Mag* 
gyars, partly from inherent barbarism, and partly from dislike of the 
Germans, were averse,) by foundihg monasteries, and calling the Bene- 
dictine monks into th'b country ; he reduced the state to order by dividing 
the kingdom into comitates (shires), and by intrusting the management 
'of the affairs of the army, the . government) and the administration of 


justice, to intendants appointed bj himself: he became a legislator, inas- 
much as he accustomed his subjects to civil order, agriculture, and indus- 
try. But the warlike character of the Magyars, and their repugnance to 
the Christian worship of the West, which brought servitude, soccage 
duties, and the troublesome labors of agriculture with it, in place of the 
M wild freedom, occasioned desolating wars and fresh confusion after 
the death of Stephen. 

Geisall., Under Geisa 11., troops of Flemish and Low-Grerman 

A. D. 1150. settlers established themselves in Transylvania, who, under 
the name of Saxons, retain to this day the manners, customs, and institu- 
tions of their fatherland. By patience and industry, they have con- 
verted the land from a desert into a blooming region, with rich towns 
and prosperous villages, and have vigorously defended their liberties 
against all attacks. In the thirteenth century, the Hungarian nobles 
(magnates) wrested a charter (" tlie golden privilege" ) from 
the king, Andreas XL, which secured important privileges to 
the clergy and nobility, and, like the Magna Charta of England (§ 276), 
formed the foundation of the free coifstitution of Hungary. An infringe- 
ment of the " golden privilege ** by the king justified the nobles in an 
armed opposition. 

§ 299. When the rojal house of Arpad was extinguished by the death 
Loalfl the ^^ Andreas III., Hungary became an elective kingdom. 
Gz«at, A. D. Hereupon, Louis the Great, of the rojal Neapolitan house 
1842-1848. of Anjou, was raised to the throne. Under this distinguished 
king, Hungary reached the highest point of its external power and domes- 
tic prosperity. He obtained the crown of Poland, extended the frontiers 
of Hungary to the Lower Danube, and made the Venetians his tribu- 
taries. The hills around Tokay were planted with vines, the adminis- 
tration of justice was improved, the citizens and peasants were secured 
against oppression and arbitrary treatment ; schools for education were 
established. After the death of Louis, who conducted many wars in 
Italy, long and violent contests were carried on for the throne, at the ter- 
mination of which, the German emperor, Sigismond, united the Hunga- 
rian crown with his others, and arranged the representation of the king- 
dom by means of Estates. Under the weak successors of his daughter, 
Hungary would have fallen a prey to the Ottoman Turks, had not the 
heroic Huniades saved the land by his valor and military skill. The 
nation, out of gratitude, conferred the throne of Hungary upon his ener- 
Ufltdiios Cor- S^^^ ^°' Matthias Corvinus, who occupied it for thirty-two 
Tixrns, A.D. years, as the worthy successor of Stephen the Pious and 
1458-1490. Louis the Great. Matthias shone in the arts of peace as 
well as in those of war. He held the power of the Ottomans in check, 
enlarged his territories towards Austria and Grermany, and improved 
the affisun of the army. A new university was founded by him in Bada, 


a library established, and the civilization of the people promoted by the 
introduction from all quarters of men of learning and artists, printers and 
architects, gardeners, persons skilled in agriculture, and artificers. Tbei»e 
advantages were again lost under his successors. The Turks carried 
their victorious arms over Belgrade, the western acquisitions were sur- 
rendered by treaties of peace ; at the same time, the royal power was so 
curtailed, that henceforth, not only the levying of taxes, but even war 
and peace were dependent upon the National Diet, and at length, the 
magnates took possession of the whole auihority for themselves. The 
fall of Louis II. at Mohacs (§ 307) occasioned a contest for 
the crown, the result of which was, that the country was 
divided into two halves : Transylvania and East Hungary, as far as the 
Theiss, which was under the dominion of the Turks ; and West Hungary, 
which Ferdinand of Austria incorporated for some time with his other 
dominions, till the whole fell into the hands of his successors. 


§ 300. The vast plains of the Vistula and the lands on the Oder and 
the Wartha were inhabited by Slavonic tribes, who were sometimes 
governed by a single chief, and sometimes divided into several princi- 
palities. From the time of the conversion of duke Miesco (Mieceslav) 
to Christianity by German missionanes, Poland was looked upon as 
a fief of the German empire, but was very slightly connected with it, 
and in the time of Frederick II. rendered itself entirely independent. 
The kingdom of Poland was torn and weakened by many divisions, 
so that, in the twelfth century, the Silesian principality on the Oder 
was entirely dissevered from it, and united with Germany. Poland 
Vladislaus first rose to importance in the fourteenth century, when 
IV., A. D. 1320. Vladislaus TV. permanently united the principalities on the 
Wartha (Posen, &c.), as Great Poland, with the lands on the Vistula 
(Little Poland) ; had himself crowned in Cracow, and transmitted the 
Casimir the ^^^^^ ^^ ^^"? *^ ^^^ posterity. His son, Casimir the Great, 
Great, a. d. who extended his domains over Gallicia and Red Russia, 
1838 - 1370. and built a university in Cracow, also deserved well of Po- 
land by his merits as a legislator. But despite his efforts to diminish 
the power of the nobility and to increase that of the cities, no free bur- 
gher class could flourish in a nation so addicted to war and so deficient 
in civilization. The dominion that rested on the sword still remained 
with the nobles, — money, retail traffic, and trade, with the Jews; the 
peasant led a wretched life as a serf, and won but a miserable support 
from the fertile coni-fields of the Vistula. 

§301. With Casimir, the male line of the Piasti became extinct; 
whereupon, the Poles transferred the crown to his sister's son, Louis the 
Great of Hungary. From this time forth, Poland became an elective 


kmgdom ; the nation, nevertheless, adhered for two hundred years to the 
L«aiBthe ' race of the JageUons, which, however, was obliged to grant 
GfMt, A. D.' the nobles an immunity from taxes and other great privi- 
TheJacel ^'^^ ^ return for its election. Under the first king of this 
Ions, ▲. D. race, Jagello (Yladislaus), Lithuania was added to the Polish 
1886-1672. empire, after Christianity had been established and the 
idols overthrown there. The woolen garments that were distributed 
during baptism attracted thousands of half-willing Lithuanians to the 
Casimir IV. ^^^ faith. Jagello's second successor, Casimir IV., induced 
A. D. 1447- the German orders to relinquish Culm, Elbing, and Marien* 
1491. werder, and to recognize the suzerainship of Poland ; in doing 

which, be was obliged to purchase by fresh concessions the aid of the 
nobles, who, in the Polish diet, alone possessed the privilege of con- 
senting to the nusing of taxes and the levying of troops. That every 
noble might not always be obliged to appear personally at the Diet, it was 
arranged that a certain number of authorized deputies should be sent 
from all the Yoiwodeschafts, to whom the king added besides a few re- 
presentatives of the clergy and of the higher officials. Without the con- 
sent of this assembly, to which the burgher class was not admitted, the 
king could adopt no measure, either of taxation or legislation, nor take 
any important step in the government or in the conduct of war. The 
nobles were regarded as the only true citizens of the state : and the 
prindple that they were all exactly on an equality, raised their power in 
the same proportion that frequent changes of the throne and wars of 
succession depressed that of the king. 

In the century of the Reformation, king Sigismond established the 
suzerainship of Poland over the dukedom of Prussia, which had been 
recently founded by the grand master of the German Order, Albert of 
Brandenburg, who was a convert to Lutheranism, and enfeoffed Grotthard 
Keltler, chief commander of the Order of the Sword, who had also gone 
over to Protestantism, with Courland : but owing to the selfishness of 
the nobles and internal dissensions, the Polish kingdom was unable, for a 
permanency, to afford any sufficient opposition to the advance of the 
Turks and Bussians. 


S 302. When the great grandson of the Varangian chief, Buric (§ 206), 
Vigdimip the ^^l^dimir the Great, who held his residence in Eiow, intro- 
Great, duced the Greek Christian Church into his dominions, the 

A. D. 2000. latter extended from the Dnieper to the lake of Ladoga and 
to the banks of the Dwina. But they suffered so much in their union 
iad strength under his successors, by divisions among heirs and internal 
A. D. 1287. ^^"^ ^^^ ^^ Lithuanians, Poles, and Brethren of the Sword, 
&C., in the West, gained possession of large portions of terri- 


iory, and at length, the Moguls conquered all the land from the Dnieper 
to the Ybtula, and made Russia tributary. The great khan of the Golden 
Horde of Kaptschak, whose residence, and fixed quarters were on the 
east bank of the Volga, exacted, during two hundred years, an oppiessiTe 
tribute from the Russian princes and their subjects. It was not untO the 
power of the Grolden Horde had been broken by dissension, that the chief 
Ivan Vasily- P"°<5e, Ivan Vasilyeyitsch the Great of Moscow, succeeded 
evitschi ▲. D. in freeing his kingdom from tribute, and in extending it in 
1462-1606. all directions by successful wars. The rich cityof Novo- 
gorod, which belonged to the Hanseatic confederation, and which had 
possessed, for centuries, a republican constitution, and had known how to 
defend its liberties by a stout militia, was subjected and robbed of ita 
privileges, and a number of its chief citizens were removed to other 
towns. Ivan was not only a conqueror, but a legislator and politieiaD, 
although in mind and manners he remained a rude and cruel barbarian. 
He adopted measures respecting the succession of the throne, to the end 
that the kingdom might not be farther divided ; and he invited masons 
and mechanics from Germany and Italy, to plant the seeds of civilization 
among his barbarous people. He built the Kremlin (citadel) for the de- 
fence of his chief city, Moscow. 

Since the destruction of Constantinople by the Turks, the Russian 
metropolitan (afterwards called Patriarch) had been elected by the native 
bishops, and thus the independence of the church maintained. Ivan's 
y :i grandson, Ivan Yasilyevitsch, who first assumed the title of 
evitschll., Tzar, or ruler of all the Russians, conquered Kasan and 
^ ^' Astracan, extended his kingdom to the Caucasus, and made 

* preparations for the discovery and subjection of Siberia. He 
laid the foundation of a standing army by the establishment of the bri- 
gade of arquebusiers (Strelitzes). The male line of Ruiic 
became extinct with Ivan's son, Feodor. 


Zengis-Khan, § 303. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, Zengis- 
A. D. 1227. Khan (Temudschin), the chief of a warlike nomadic horde, 
marched forth to conquest from the elevated plains of Middle Asia. He 
scaled the Chinese wall and subdued the «* celestial empire." Neither 
Hindostan, nor the vast empire of the Carismans on the Caspian Sea and 
in Persia, could withstand the savage strength of this advancing pastoral 
tribe. Bochara,^ Samarcand, and Balch, with all their treasures of art 
and science, perished in the flames. Zengis-Khan's sons and grandsons 
pursued bis conquests. Batu subdued the lands to the north of the Black 
Sea, made Russia tributary, burnt Cracow, and filled Poland and Hun« 
gary with slaughter and desolation. At length, the Moguls (who are 
also called Tatars) crossed the Oder; Breslau was reduced to ashes. 


duke Henry of Lower Silesia fell, with the flower of his Christian war- 
riors, on the field of battle near Leignitz, beneath the blows of the pagan 
nomads; the people took refuge in the mountains; the whole West 
trembled ; the pope and the emperor, engaged in a furious quarrel 
(! 236), did nothing towards aiding Christendom. Happily the enemy 
proceeded no farther. The bravery of the European warriors and the 
strength of their castles scared them away. They turned back from a 
land where there were no riches to attract them, and carried their arms 
against the luxurious khalifate of Bagdad, for which they prepared a 
bloody end. Afler the last khalif, with 200,000 Moslems had fallen, and 
the ancient seat of the empire of the Abassides had been plundered for 
forty days, the Tatars pressed forward upon Syria, where they destroyed 
the magnificent Haleb (Aleppo) and Damascus, and trampled the Chris- 
tian and Arabian culture under the hoofs of their horses. In a few gene- 
rations, the empire of the Moguls separated into a number of independent 
states. But the Russians on the east of the Volga still bore for more 
than two centuries the yoke of the ** Golden Horde," and Hungary and 
Poland recovered but slowly from their devastations. 

S 804. Towards the end of the thirteenth century, the Ottomans, 
pressed upon by the Moguls, left the region they had hitherto occupied, 
on the east coast of the Caspian Sea, and descended upon Asia Minor. 
They were a warlike, nomadic race, professing the Mahommedan reli- 
gion, and incited by their priests (dervishes) to make war upon the 
Christians. Othman marched into Bithynia, chose Frusa 
(Bursa) for the seat of his empire, and maintained his con- 
quests against the indolent Greeks and their western mercenaries. His 
suecessors unproved their army by forming the strongest and handsomest 
youths, whom they selected from their Christian captives, into an effective 
AmnrathL, Infantry (janissaries), by means of a military education. 
^^' Afler Amurath I. had reduced the whole of Asia Minor 

1161- 1889. untier his yoke, he passed into Europe, and subjected, in a 
few campaigns, the whole country between the Hellespont and the 
Hsmus. Adrianople was taken, embellished with splendid mosques, and 
selected for the seat of Amurath's government His son, the energetic 
but cruel Bajazet, continued the victorious course of his predecessor with 
BajjueL ^^^^ success, that he was called the " lightning." He con- 

^ »• quered Macedonia and Thessaly, penetrated through Ther- 

-1408. uuopylflB into the desolated Greece and Peloponnesus, took 
Argos by storm, and allowed his swift horsemen to wander to the south- 
ernmost point of the ancient Laconia. At length, the West armed itself 
against this terrible enemy. Sigismond of Hungary, John of Burgundy, 
the flower of the French chivalry, and many German and Bohemian 
nobles, together more than 100,000 strong, marched to the Lower Danube. 
Bat in the bloody battle of Nicopolis, the Christians, despite their valor. 


Buffered a great defeat Many counts and knights fell into the hands of 
the Turks, and only obtained their liberty by a heavy ransom. 10,000 
prisoners of inferior rank were put to death by the order of BajaseL 

§ 305. The victorious course of this mighty prince was checked by an 
enemy who trod a more vast and bloodier path than himself. This enem^ 
was the Mogul ruler, Timour the Lame (Tamerlane), a descendant dt 
Zengis-Ehan, whose dilapidated kingdom he determined to restore. He 
lefl Samarcand, the charmingly situated seat of his empire, at the head 
of his warlike pastoral tribes, for the purpose of subjoeting every natioQ 
between the wall of China and the Mediterranean, by the edge^ of the 
sword. After he had marched triumphantly through India and Persia, 
and destroyed Bagdad and Damascus, he filled Asia Minor with desola- 
tion and terror. Smoke, ruins, and hills of slain madked his victorious 
path. At this point, Bajazet relinquished the siege of Constantinople, 

and marched against the conqueror of the world. A fearful 

battle'was fought near Angora (Ancyra), which, despite the 
valor and conduct of the Turks, terminated to the advantage of the 
Moguls. Bajazet was taken prisoner, and died the following year of 
grief. Timour's empire fell to pieces as rapidly as it had been formed. 
AmnnthlL, ^ ^^^* Bigazet's grandson, Amorath U., restored the sbaU 
A.D. 1421- tered Ottoman kingdom to its ancient strength and former 
1461. compass in Asia and Europe. He reduced the Byzantine 

empire to the strong chief city and a few neighboring places, and made ii 
tributary. At this juncture, John VIL (PaliBologus), determined to 
gain the aid of the West, by uniting the Eastern church with the Roman. 
With this object, he proceeded to Italy, accompanied by the Patriarch 
and a few bishops, where, eSter a long and vehement dispute upon 
certain religious and ecclesiastical questions, an ambiguous union was 
effected, which, however, was rejected by the zealous confessors of both 
churches, and the division made greater than before. Nevertheless, the 
composition was attended with this result, that the pope, by his legate, 
Julian, united the Christian princes in a campaign agauist the Turks, 
and in the mean while, attempted to persuade the Hungarians and Poles 
to an attack upon the Ottoman empire. Ladislaus, king of Hungary and 
Poland, and the heroic Huniades of Transylvania, crossed the Danube, 

but were totally defeated in the bloody battle of Wama. 

The young kipg was one of the slain ; his head was carried 
about on a spear ; the legate, Julian, was overtaken by death during the 

§ 307. The last hour of the Byzantine empire was approaching, when, 
upon the death of Amurath II., his energetic but bloodthirsty son, 
Mohanimed Mohammed IL, became sultan of the Ottomans. Besolyed 
IL,A.D. upon making Constantinople the seat of his government, he 
1461-1481. advanced to the siege of the city, and hariassed it for fifty 


days hj repeated assaults to such a degree, that, despite a gallant defence, 
it could hold out no longer. When the walls were scaled, the last empe- 
ror, Constantine, who still possessed some feeling for the old Roman 
greatness — for freedom, for religion, and for his country, — joined in the 
romhat, and fell bravelj fighting on the walls of his capital. The ancient 
seat of Byzantine magnificence became the residence of the sultan. The 
church of St. Sophia was turned into a mosque, and the half-moon of 
Islam was planted on the ruins of Christian civilization. Many learned 
men fled in terror to the West, and were instrumental in dlfiusing the 
Greek language and literature. The fall of Constantinople was followed 
by the conquest of Greece and the Morea (Peloponnesus), and the sub- 
jection of the countries on the Danube ; it was only in the mountainous 
regions of Albania and Epirus, that the warlike hero, Alexander Castriota 
A. D. 1467. (Scanderbeg), maintained an independent authority till his 
death, whibt the independence of Hungary was secured by 
Magnificent, ^® victory of Huniades at Belgrade. But under Solyman 
A.D.15S0- the Magnificent, who wrested the island of Rhodes (S 227) 
^^^ from the knights of St John, afler a most gallant resistance, 

the half of Hungary, together with Buda, fell, after the terrible battle of 
Mohacs, into the hands of the Ottomans, who now extended 
their ravages to the walls of Vienna, and alarmed the whole 
West It was under Solyman that the Turkish empire attained its most 
extended limits and its greatest internal strength. In Asia, it embraced 
Syria and the whole country as far as the Tigris ; in Africa, Egypt, with 
tlie sea-coast, and the piratical states of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripolis. 
After Solyman, who died at an advanced age before Sigeth, 
in Hungary, (in defence of which the magnanimous Zriny 
met with the death of a hero), the warlike power of the Turks gradually 
decayed under the exhausting influence of debauchery and sensual indul- 






S 808. Ik the foarteenth and fifteenth centnries, many great inren- 
tions hegan to be applied, by which the condition of the middle ages 
experienced a complete revolution. An Italian, Flavio Gioga, prepared 
a compass by means of the magnetic needle, by which a mighty impulse 
was given to navigation ; gunpowder, which, according to some, was the 
invention of a German monk, Berthold Schwarz, and in the opinion of 
others, had been known at a remote period by the Chinese and Arabians, 
came into use in the middle of the fourteenth century, and prepared the 
downfall of chivalry^ But the invention which was most 
fertile in results was the art of printing, which was called 
into existence by John Guttenbui^ of Mayence. His assistants in the 
work, who alone derived any advantage from the discovery, were Fust or 
Faust, a goldsmith of Mayence, and Peter Schoffer, a writer of books. 
The latter introduced types of metal in place of the wooden ones which 
Guttenburg had employed. At first, the art was kept secret ; but it was 
carried by German workmen into all the countries of civilized Europe. 
By this means, books, which had hitherto been only attainable by the 
rich, came into the hands of the people, inasmuch as their cost was ma- 
terially lessened by the ease with which they were multiplied. 

§ 809. By the use of the compass, it became possible to extend 
navigation, which had hitherto been confined to the coast and the Medi- 
terranean, over the ocean. This was first done by the Portuguese. The 
discovery of the islands of Porto Santo and Madeira, where the coltore 
of the vine and sugar-cane succeeded admurably, was soon followed by the 
possession of the Azores and by the discovery of the Cape de Yerd and 


(he coast ci Upper Guinea, rich in gold dust, ivory, gam, and Negro 

fllayes. XK>wer Guinea (Congo) was also discovered in the reign of king 

John n. It was from this point that the daring Bartholo- 

A. "D 1486 

mew Diaz reached the southern extremity of Africa, the 
original name of which, ^ the Cape of Storms," was soon changed by the 
sanguine king into that of ^ the Cape of Good Hope.** Not more than 
twenty years after, the enterprising Yasco da Gama discovered from this 
point, in the reign of Emmanuel the Great, the sea passage to the East 
Indies, when he sailed firom the east coast of Africa over the Indian Ocean 
to the coast of Malabar, and entered the haven of Calicut. It was here 
that the Portuguese, after some sharp encounters with the natives, esta- 
blished the first European commercial colony, — an undertaking which 
they completed with perseverance and courage. 

AAer Yasco da Gama and Cabral (who discovered Brazil during the 
passage, [a. d. 1500], and took possession of it for Portugal), came the 
gallant Almeida, who reduced many of the Indian princes to pay tribute 
•nd compelled them to submit to the establishment of factories in their 
chief cities. Afler he had been killed by the wild Hottentots on his re- 
turn, Albuquerque, in whom heroic courage was united with wisdom, 
received the govemorBhip of India. He conquered Goa, 
^^ and made it the capital of the Indian colony; he stormed 

Malacca, the. emporium of the trade of Upper India, reduced the ruler 
of Ormuz in the Gulf of Persia to subjection, and caused the name of ' 
Emmanuel to be feared and respected. But the latter rewarded his 
fiuthfal servant with ingratitude; and grief at this broke the hero's heart. 
During the next ten years, the Portuguese established colo- 
nies and factories on the island of Ceylon, and the coast of 
Coromandel, and subjected the spice-bearing Molucca and Sunda islands. 
Lisbon became the seat of the commerce of the world; but avarice and 
selfishness soon stifled the nobler emotions in the hearts of the Portu- 

§ 310. The zeal for discovery, which was awakened by the enterprises 
of the Portuguese, inspired the bold Gen^se, Christopher Columbus 
(Cobn), with the thought of discovering a new way to the' vaunted In- 
dies, by a western passage. He imparted his project to his native city, 
Genoa, and begged for support ; but there, as well as by the Portuguese 
and English, he was refused. At length, Isabella of Castile, in the joy 
of her heart at the fortunate conquest of Granada, allowed herself to be 
persuaded to fit out three vessels, and to intrust them to the bold voya- 
ger. The title of Great Admiral and Yiceroy of all the lands and 
islands that should be discovered, and a tenth part of the revenue that 
might be expected to be received from them, were promised to himself 
and his posterity, as the reward of his success. On the dd of August, 
U92, the little fleet left the Andalusian harbor of Palos, and passed the 


Canarj islands, sailing oonstantlj to die westward. The fear and anxie- 
tj of the seamen increased with the distance they travetsed, and at 
length broke into mnrmuring and open mutiny. The crew were alreadj 
threatening their magnanimous leader with death nnless he returned, 
when the discoverj of the island Guahanani (since then caDed St» Sal- 
vador), on the 12th of October, saved him. They found a beautiful and 
fruitful countiy, with naked copper-colored savages, who looked on with- 
out the slightest suspicion, whilst their land was taken possession of in 
the names of the rojal pair of Spidn, and who exchanged their goods 
for tojs and spangles; but the anticipated treasures in gold, predons 
stones, and pearls, were not met with in' the abundance that was hoped 
for, either here or on the two larger islands of Cuba and Hayti (His- 
paniola, St. Domingo), which were shortly afterwards discoverer]. After 
Columbus had established a colony on Hispaniola, he returned to Spain, 
and after a dangerous voyage, brotight back to astonished Europe the in- 
telligence of a new world, which, in consequence of the original enx>r, 
received the name of the West Indies. In the course of his three fol- 
lowing voyages, Columbus discovered more islands (for example, Jamai- 
ca), and at length, also, the north-east coast of South America, not &r 
from the mouth of the Oronoco. But this new portion of the world did 
not l>ear the name of its discoverer, but that of its deseriber, the Flor- 
entine, Amerigo Yespucci. Columbus shared the lot of many other 
great men ; he was not permitted to enjoy the fruits of his labors. Hie 
colony that had been left behind in Hispaniola had fallen into oonfusiony 
in consequence of quarrels among themselves and with the natives. 
When Columbus, for the purpose of restoring order, wished to punish 
some of the most licentious disturbers of peace, the latter made an aceo- 
sation against him at the Spanish court Hereupon, king Ferdinand 
sent a narrow-minded official to make inquiries, who commenced his un- 
dertaking by depriving Columbus of his governorship, and ordering him 
to l>e carried in fetters to Spain. Here he was indeed released from his 
chains, but nothing was thought about the fulfilment of the stipulated 
contract. Columbus, deprived of his offices and dignities, 
died, shortly after his last unfortunate voyage, in Yalladolid, 
whence his dead body was afterwards carried to Cuba. The fetters in 
which he had been brought bound to Spain, were placed with him in his 
grave, by his son Diego. 

§ 811. A new spirit of heroism had been awakened by Columbus; all 
courageous men who were acquainted with the sea went forth to make 
discoveries. Who could wbh to remain idle when so rich a field for 
gold, renown, and ambition stood open? The hardy and enterprising 
Balboa surmounted the rocky isthmus of Panama under in- 
credible difficulties, and discovered the Pacific Ocean. The 
Portuguese Magelhaens, sailed through the straits, named after him, into 


the Padficy reached the East India Islandsi after enduring the extremi- 
ties of femine, and thus made the first voyage round the world. Both 
died violent deaths, the former by his envious followers, the latter by the 
hand of an assassin on the Philippines. 

A.D.U10. ^^^ ™^' remarkable event, however, was the discovery 

and conquest of Mexico by Ferdinand Cortez. The contest 
A. D. 1&21. i^^jQ carried on was not with savages, but with a people who 
dwelt in towns, exercised arts and trade, clothed themselves in cotton 
stD&, and lived under a regular system of government, with a king, a 
rich nobility, and a powerful priesthood. With 500 valiant Spaniards, 
who were accompanied by a few native tribes (the Tlascalani) as allies, 
Cortez subjected a populous nation, who.were deficient neither in warlike 
spirit nor patriotism, took their king, Montezuma, prisoner in his own 
palace, and conquered the chief city, Mexico. The frightful effects of 
the thundering ordnance, the stately cavalry, the splendor of the Euro 
pean military accoutrements, engendered a notion among the natives, that 
the Spaniards myst be a higher order of beings, whom it was impossible 
for them, with their feeble strength and miserable weapons (iron was 
ooknown to them), to withstand. Within two years, Cortez conquered 
the land, and put an end to the horrible idol-worship, in which thousands 
of men were every yeajr offered in sacrifice; but he was prevented by the 
suspicious government from establishing a new and regulated system. 
He was recalled, and died foi^otten in Spain, a. d. 1547. 
A. D. 1519- With still smaller means than Cortez, Pizarro and Alma^ 
^^- gro, men of great courage and enterprise, but without culti- 

vation, and governed by selfishness and the coarser passions, effected the 
conquest of the golden land of Peru. The Peruvians, ruled over by the 
rich rojal race of Incas, were a civilized nation of mild character, un- 
stained by the frightful idolatry of the Mexicans, but also devoid of their 
militaiy virtue. A contest for the throne among the royal family facili- 
tated the conquest of the land by the Spaniards. After the cruel Pizarro 
had made himself master of the king, and, despite his promise to set him 
free in return for an enormous mass of gold, ordered him to be executed, 
k sobjected the beautiful land which abounded in the precious metals, 
A. D. 1535- and founded the new capital, Lima. Francis Pizarro and 
^^' his brother soon quarrelled with Almagro (who in the mean j 

time had discovered Chili), and they turned their arms against each other. j 

Ahnagro was overcome and beheaded, but his son avenged the death of 
hb father on Francis Pizarro. The land was reduced to the brink of 
destruction by the wild rage of the discoverers. At this crisis, Charles 
v> sent a wise and prudent priest, Gasca, as governor to Peru : Gasca 
A.i».i548 BU^u^ ^e rebellious troops, had the last Pizarro hung on 
the gallows, and then arranged the state anew. 
i 312. Much as we may admire the heroic courage and the enterpris- 


ing spirit displayed by Europeans in the conquest ^ die Kew Worl^ 
we must equally deplore the severity and avarice' which impelM Ifacm 
to the most cruel ill-usage of the natives. Those who escaped from the 
sword, the destructive effects of gunpowder, and the multiplied diseases^ 
were mercilessly destroyed by severe labors. They were compelled to 
take care of the plantations which the conquerors made on their prcK 
perty, to dig in the gold and silver mines which were opened in their 
country, and to carry burdens for which their feeble bodies were not 
fitted. It was in vain that well-meaning priests, who attempted as mis- 
sionaries to bring Christianity to the savages, preached kindness and 
humanity, — selfishness hardened the hearts of the Europeans and ren- 
dered them insensible to the teaching of the Gospel ; and when at length 
the noble priest Las Casas, with the purpose of lightening the lot of the 
Indians, recommended the more robust African negro for the severe 
labors of the plantations, this gave occasion to the horrible slave-trade, 
which was a curse upon the black population, without preventing the 
gradual extinction of the copper-colored native. The discovery of the 
New World and the introduction of American productions were attended 
with vast results on the European manners and mode of living. Have 
not colonial wares, coffee, sugar, tobacco, ice, since they have been in 
general use, become indispensable necessaries ? Do not potatoes, which 
we received from thence, form the most important part of the food of the 
people ? What influence has not the increased quantity of the precious 
metals, which the mines of Peru have yielded, exercised upon all the relar 
tions of life and upon the value of property ? The natural sciences and 
geography have been so enriched, that since then they have had an 
entirely different aspect Trade also took a different direction: — as 
formerly the Italian trading towns, so now the western states, Portu- 
gal, Spain, the Netherlands, and, somewhat later, England, became 
the centre of commerce and the seat of wealth. But as both the for- 
mer fettered their trade from its very commencement, and excluded other 
nations from their colonies, the season of their prosperity was bat 


§ 813. In the fifteenth century, Italy was the central point of Western 
civilization ; many splendid courts and opulent cities contended for the 
glory of becoming patrons of the arts and sciences. The Medici in Flo- 
rence (§ 288, 289), and several popes, caused manuscripts to be pur- 
chased, and founded libraries and academies; the printing establishments 
which arose in all quarters came to the assbtance of their efforts. At 
first, attention was exclusively directed to the Latin language and literft- 
ture ; but when, after the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, many 
of the learned men of Byzantium took refuge in Italy Greek also came 


ioto fJMihioii. Dbtkuiaries and gramman were compiled ; the compre- 
bension of the ancient authors was &cilitate4 bj commentaries and trans- 
lations, and a classical Latin style became the distinguishing mark of an 
educated man. The next consequence of the revival of classical studies 
was the establishment of fresh seminaries of education, first, in Italy, and 
afterwards, in the other countries of Europe* Many universities, g3rmna- 
siama, and educational establishments of all sorts arose, especially in Ger- 
many, which had long maintained a dose intercourse with Italy; and 
many learned men, as John Reuchlin from Pforzheim (a. d. 1521), 
Erasmus of Rotterdam (a. d. 1586), and Ulrick of Hutten (a. d. 1523), 
rivalled the great Italians in the knowledge of the Greek and Latin lan- 
guages and of science. The friends of the new culture were called Hu- 
manists ; their opponents, the supporters of the scholastic wisdom of the 
middle ages, and above all others, the Dominicans, were named Obscu- . 
nmtists. The Humanists of all countries were connected with one 
another. Latin, then the universal language of all learned and educated 
men, and a rapid interchange of letters, which supplied the place of news- 
papers, fiicilitated this intercourse. The contest between the new culture 
and the Obscurantists, with their barbarous Latin, reached its highest 
point in the dispute which was conducted by Reuchlin with the Domini- 
cans of Cologne. The latter wished to bum all the Hebrew books, 
because they were suppose to contain blasphemies against Jesus Christ. 
Benddin, who was appointed umpire in the matter by the emperor, de- 
clared the charge to be untrue, and opposed himself to the design. This 
so enraged the monks, that they accused Reuchlin of heresy, openly burnt 
one of his works, and condemned the study of the Greek and Hebrew 
languages. This produced a literary war, in which all the friends of 
education took the part of Reuchlin, and the cause of the Humanists 
obtained a complete triumph. The pope at length put an end to the con- 
test : the Dominicans were condemned to pay the costs of the process ; 
and when they delayed to do this, they were forced to discharge their 
obligations by Fiands Sickingen. From the crowd that assembled 
itself around Reuchlin, proceeded the EpittoUB ohicurorum virorum^ 
which are swd to have been chiefly the production of Ulrick von Hutten. 
In these letters, the proceedings and stupid insolence of the monks are 
faithfully but satirically displayed in their own barbarous Latin. Hutten, 
one of the boldest and most powerful advocates of Germany's freedom 
and independence, died, persecuted and a fugitive, on the island of Ufnau 
in the lake of Zurich, in the 86th year of his life. Erasmus of Rotterdam, 
an elegant scholar in ancient literature, fought, with all the weapons of 
wit and intellect, against schoohnen and monks. Among his numerous 
woiks, the most important are The Praise of Folly, — a satirical compo- 
sition, and an edition of the New Testament in the original Greek text, 
with a Latin translation and paraphrase. At first, a friend of Luther 


and Hntten, he afterwards tamed from them and opposed them in 
ment controveisial writings. 



§ 314. The cry that passed through Europe in the fifteenth centuij, 
for a reformation of the Church both in its head and members, had 
remained unheeded bj the popes; and the great ecclesiastical synods 
(§ 264, 266) had been followed by no results. The Church had refused 
the voluntary self-purification that had been required of her, and turned 
a deaf ear to the voice of the people. Since then, the abuses bad not 
been diminished. The court of Borne derived a vast revenue from the 
churches of other countries ; the lower dergy were lazy, immoral, and 
ignorant, and took little or no interest in the new culture and the impulse 
that had been produced by it ; the higher clergy led an entirely worldly 
life, found their enjoyment in sensual indulgeqces and princely magnifi- 
cence, and in the study of works of art and literature, and of the philo- 
sophy of heathen antiquity, frequently lost sight of the doctrines of the 
Gospel. Nothing but an impulse was wanting to unite the dissatisfied 
members of the Church in a mighty opposition. This impulse was given 
by Pope Leo X. For the purpose of defraying the expenses of the 
erection of the chureh of St. Peter, and of other woHes of art, Leo offered 
an indulgence for sale, through the Elector, Albert of Mayence, in which 
forgiveness of sins, reattainment of God's grace, and remission from the 
punishments of purgatory, were assured to the purchaser. Albert, who 
received one half of the profits, employed in Saxony the Dommican monk 
Tetzel, in the sale, who went so audaciously to work, that the Augustine 
monk, Dr. Martin Luther, who saw that real penitence and respect for 
the confessional were thereby endangered, felt himself compelled to afiix 
ninely-five theses to the castle chureh at Wittenbei^, on the eve of All- 
Saints, i^ith the off*er to defend them against any one. In these, he con- 
tested the efiicacy of absolution without repentance, and denied the power 
of the pope to grant remission of sins to any except the penitent. 

§ 815. Martin Luther was bom on the 10th of November, 1483. Des- 
tined to study by his father, a respectable minfer, he had devoted himself 
to jurisprudence, for four years, in Erftirt, when anxiety for the salvation 
of his soul, and the sudden death of a friend during a heavy thundei^ 
storm, determined him to enter a cloister. He once more entertained 


himself among his friends with cheerful singing, music, and wine, and 
then shut himself up in the silent cell of an Augustine monasterj at 
Eifurt He here submitted himself to all the duties and servile offices 
of a mendicant monk, but without thereby obtaining alleviation of his 
melancholj, or of the sufferings of his soul. It was not until he arrived 
at the conviction that man can only be saved, not by his own works, 
but by the mercy of God in Christ, that his heart found repose. By 
the recommendation of the chief of the order, Staupitz, Luther was 
summoned to Wittenberg, in 1508, to give lectures in the Univeruty 
newly established by Frederick the Wise. He had attended with 
great diligence to his duties as teacher, preacher, and pastor of souls, 
when he was ^ now called by Providence to a more extended sphere of 
exertion. , 

§ 816. This bold stepping forward of Luther, in whom a deep reli- 
gious earnestness was not to be mistaken, found great sympathy in the 
whole of Grermany. A summons was soon issued to him to come and 
defend himself in Rome ; but upon the intercession of the Elector of 
Saxony, who was favorably disposed to the reformer, the papal nuncio^ 
Gajetanus, undertook the examination in Augsburg. Luther, provided 
with a safe conduct, appeared in a poor plight at Augsburg: the proud 
Dominican thought to refute the humble monk by his theological learn- 
ing ; but Luther displayed more depth and reading than the former had 
given him credit for. After a short disputation, Cajetan commanded him 
to be gone, and not to appear again before him till he (Cajetan) should 
\call him. After drawing up an appeal to the pope better infarmed^ 
Luther fled hastily from Augsburg during the night. It was in vain 
that Cajetan required the Elector either to send the audacious preacher to 
Rome, or at least to banish him from his states. Frederick replied, that 
Luther's wish to be brought before an impartial tribunal appeared to him 
to be reasonable. This protection of the Elector was of the more impor- 
tance to Luther, as the former, since the death of the emperor Maxi- 
milian, was conducting the government, until the princes could agree 
respecting a fresh election. For as the pope wished to exercise an influ- 
ence on the election of emperor, he attempted to gain over the Electors to 
his own side. Ho sent his chamberlain, Miltitz, an adroit Saxon noble- 
man, with a golden rose, to Wittenberg. H6 was commissioned at the 
same time to dissuade Luther from farther proceedings against the 
Church. Luther promised to let the contest drop if the trade in indul- 
gences was put a stop to,, and silence imposed upon his adversaries as 
well as on himself; and to prove his sincerity, he required, in one of Ins 
writings, every man to give respect and obedience to the Bomaa Church, 
and assured the pope, in a humble letter, that it had never been his 
intentTon to attack the privileges of the Roman chair. 

I 817. But the wished-for reconciliation did not take place. John voft 


Eck (Eddiui),pr(ifiaaHir in Ingoibhidty s learned man and ^Ufak in aign- 

ment, liad a diBputatioa with Lntlier in Letpsic. Here 

™^' Lathery in the heat of oontroTenj, maintained that the 

biflhop of Borne had bteome the head of the Chordi, not bj the ordi- 

nation of Jctons, bat b j homan ammgements made centaries kter, and 

threw doubts upon the infallibilitj of popes and councils. Initated at 

this aadadtj, £ckias at once composed a learned hook, in whidi he 

attempted to prove that the papacj was deirred from Christ himself 

through Peter, and that, consequently, it must be a Divine institution. 

^ Eckius hastened to Rome with this book, and procured a 

Jimel6,1620. T» ,1 . 1. I - !• T .1 J J X . 

Bull, m which a succession of Lathers doctrines were con- 
demned as heretical, his writings sentenced to be burnt, and he himself 
threatened with excommunication unless he recanted within sixty dajs. 
This proceeding of the Roman court, which condemned the Grennan 
reformer upon the accusation of an opponent, without so much as hear- 
ing his defence, was disapproved of bj all Germany. The Bull of 
excommunication, which was made known by Eckius, produced, there* 
fore, very little effect ; it was only in Cologne, Mayence, and LouvaiD, 
that the order for burning Luther's writings was carried into effect ; the 
Bull was not even admitted into Saxony. By so much the greater was 
the effect of some vigorous pamphlets of Luther, " To the Christiaa 
Nobles of the German nation,'' and " On the Babylonian Captivity and 
Christian Freedom," in which he exposed without reserve the abuses and 
failings of the existing Church, and demanded their removal. Encouraged 
by the enthusiasm with which these writings were received, and the ay 
for freedom that resounded through the German nation, Luther now ven- 
tured to take a step that separated him by an impenetrable gulf from 
the Bomish Church. He proceeded, at the head of all the students, to 
December 10, the Elster gate of Wittenberg, and there cast the Bull of ex- 
1620. communication, together with the canons and decretals of the 

Church, into the flames. 

§ 818. Li the mean time, Maximilian's grandson, Charles Y. of Spain 
and Burgundy (§ 294), was elected emperor of Germany, and his first 
undertaking was to be an arrangement of the contentions of the ChurcL 
He appointed a diet at Worms, and ordered Luther, under the assurance 
«of a safe conduct, to appear.* Full of courage and confidence in God, but 
not without fear of experiencing the fate of Huss (§ 264), Luther 
arrived at Worms in the midst of the sympathizing crowd that was 
-streaming thither. The splendid assembly, in which, besides the emperor 
and the papal ambassador (Alexander), there were present many princes, 
nobles, prelates, and deputies from the states, at first disconcerted him. 
When called upon to recant, he begged till the following day for consi- 
deration. At his second appearance, he had recovered the whole of his 
strength and resolution. He declared himself, freely and openly, to be 


the author of the writings that. were produced before him; rejected the 
invitation to recant, with the words '' That so long as he should not be 
coDTinced out of the Holy Scriptures that he was in error, he could not 
and would not retract, for that his conscience was imprisoned in God's 
Word ;" and concluded with the exclamation, ** Here I stand, I can take 
no other course ; God help me. Amen." All attempts to induce him to 
soften ibis declaration failed ; yet no violent proceeding was ventured 
upon. Luther departed in safety ; many princes and members of the 
diet did the same ; then, the ban of the empire was first uttered against 
Luther and his adherents, and his writings condemned to the flames. 
Charles Y., at thb time in more close alliance with the pope, was deter- 
mmed to exterminate heresy. *But Luther was already secure. During 
his return home, the Elector Frederick had him seized upon, and carried 
a$ a prisoner to the castle of Wartburg, under the title of EiUer George. 
He lived here nearly a year; at first, he was. lamented by his friends, 
till some bold fugitive pieces, and an angry letter against Albert of May- 
ence, who was again practising the sale of indulgences, convinced them 
that he was still alive and active. Albert repented, and discontinued the 

§ 319. Whilst Luther, although troubled by sickness and melancholy, 
was leading an active life at tlie Wartburg, proceedings calculated to 
disturb tranquillity arose in Wittenberg, which were not repressed with 
snffident earnestness by the pious and peace-loving Elector. Dr. Carl- 
stadt, a man of confused mind and unsettled in his principles, abdished 
the mass, extended the cup to the laity, and exercised his zeal against 
images and ceremonies. He was soon joined by the so-called Zurickhauer 
prophets, — men without education, and under the dominion of fanatical 
feelings, — who declaimed against the baptism of infants, insisted upon 
the rebaptism of adults (hence called Anabaptists), and believed in im- 
mediate inspirations from God. Images, and the garments used in the 
celebration of the mass, were destroyed in some churches, monks fled 
from their cloisters, and confusion took possession of men's minds. Lu- 
ther was no longer at peace in the castle of Wartburg. He hastened to 
Xuch ISM. Wittenberg, preached daily for a week against the overhasty 
and uncharitable innovations, dismissed the Zurickhauer &- 
natics, and won men's minds to a peaceable development of the Reforma- 
tion. Wittenberg now became the centre of German culture. It was 
here that Philip Melancthon of Bretten, who, when a youth of twenty, 
had already fathomed the depths of learning, and by whose means the 
Saxon schools and church attained a high degree of prosperity, Ubored 
by the side of Luther. Luther's impetuous and boisterous energy was 
well fitted to pluck down, whilst Melancthon's mild- and yielding nature 
was adapted to the work of restoration ; and, as Melancthon, the great 
Mept in, and pnxnoter of, humane studies, sought, by his learned Latin 


writings to establish tlie Dew Church doctrines on a scientific basis, so 
Luther won the hearts of the people by bis Grerman writings and songs, 
and especiallj by his translation of the Bible. This Lutheran Bible, 
which was begun in the castle of Wartburg and finished in Wittenberg, 
after careful consultation with his friends, appeared completed in 1534, 
a master-piece of the German language and of the Grerman spirit. 

§ 820. The new doctrine soon spread beyond the limits of Saxony. 
Besides the Elector of Saxony, the energetic landgrave, Philip of Hesse, 
the founder of the university of Marburg, was, in particular, a zealous 
promoter of the Gospel. But it was the educated burghers of the impe- 
rial cities who distinguished themselves beyond all others by their zeal. 
The assembled people would often, of their own accord, set up a psalm or 
a hymn, and by this means gave an impulse to the abolishing of the 
mass. Where the church was denied to the evangelically-minded people, 
they held their devotions in the open air, in fields and meadows ; and 
where religious motives were not sufficiently powerful, there the view of 
the Church property and worldly advantages helped out what was want- 
ing. The whole of Germany appeared to be hurried away in this 
church movement, and a national Church, independent of Borne, to 
spring up from it. But the pope won over Ferdinand of 
Austria, the duke of Bavaria, and several South-Grerman 
bishops, to the alliance of Regensburg, in which they vowed mutually to 
support each other, and to exclude the innovations of Wittenberg from 
their dominions. Thus were the seeds of an unhappy division spread 
abroad in Germany at the veiy moment when the freedom and inde 
pendence of the nation was the aspiration of her noblest spirits. 


§ d2L The general call to freedom and independence, that, since La- 
ther's appearance, had resounded through all Germany, filled the peasants 
with the hope of alleviating their condition by their own exertions. Jn 
this way originated the peasant war. At first, patriotically disposed 
men, like Sickingen and Hutten, appeared to wish to place themselves at 
the head of the movement, and to carry through the renovation of Ger- 
many, both in state and Church, by the sword. But Sickingen's early 
death during the siege of his castle of Landstuhl, and Hutten's fiight, de- 
layed the outbreak, and robbed it of plan and proportion. The fanatical 
discourses of the fickle Anabaptist, Thomas Mtinzer, who talked of 
abolishing temporal and spiritual power, and of setting up a heavenly 
kingdom where all men should be equal, and every distinction between 
rich and poor, noble and base, should disappear, confused the understand- 
ings of the excited peasants. It was not long before the people, from 
the Boden Lake to Dreisam, assembled themselves around Hans Miiller 
of Balgenbach, who had formerly been a soldier. He marched in a red 


jnaatle and cap from village to village, at the head of his followers. The 
cbief banner was borne behind him on a carriage decorated with boughs 
and ribbons. They carried twelve articles with them, the importance of 
which they were ready to maintain with their swords. By these arti- 
cles, they demanded the liberty of hmdting, fishing, catting wood, &c.; 
the abolition of serfdom, soocage duties, and tithes ; the right of choosing 
their own ministers ; and the free preaching of the Gospel. Their ex- 
ample was soon followed by the peasants in the Odenwald, and by those 
on the Neckar and in Franconia, under the conduct of the audacious pub- 
lican, George Metzler. They compelled the counts of Hohenlohe, Low- 
enstein, Wertheim, Gemmingen^ the superiors of the German Order in 
Mergentheim, and others to accept the articles, and to concede the privi- 
leges demanded, to their subjects; whoever dared to resist them, as count 
Helfenstein von Weinsberg, was put to a cruel death. They marched 
through the land burning and devastating ; they destroyed the monaste- 
ries and castles, and took a bloody revenge on their oppressors and ad- 
versaries. Under the conduct of brave knights, like Florian Geier and 
Cvdtz von Berlichingenof the Iron Hand, they penetrated into Wurzburg, 
whilst other bands ravaged the lands of Baden. The insurrection soon 
extended itself over the whole of Swabia, Franconia, Alsacia, and the 
lands of the Rhine. The spiritual and temporal princes became alarmed, 
and conceded a part of the demands of the irritated peasants. In Thu-' 
ringia and the Harz,'the revolt assumed more of a religious character. 
In Huhlhausen, Thomas Munzer had acquired great respect and the 
reputad(m of a prophet He rejected Luther's moderate views, girded 
himself with the sword of Gideon, and wished to establish a Divine 
kingdom, the members of which should be all free and equal. The peo- 
ple, excited by his preaching, destroyed castles, monasteries, and the me- 
morials of antiquity, in their barbarous fury. 

§ 322. In the commencement, before the insurrection had yet assumed 
60 formidable an aspect, Luther attempted to restore peace: he represent- 
ed to the nobles and princes that they had been guilty of acts of vio- 
lence ; and at the same time, exhorted the peasants to refrain from rebel- 
lion. But when the danger increased, when temporal and spiritual 
things were mingled together, he published a forcible tract ^against the 
plundering and bloodthirsty peasants," in which he called upon the magis- 
trates to attack them with the sword, and to show them no sort of mercy. 
Upon this, the nobles and knights assembled themselves from all quarters 
against the rebels. The elector John of Saxony, the landgrave Philip 
of Hesse, and others, marched into Thuringia and won an easy victory, 
by means of their artillery, over Thomas Munzer and his half-armed 
peasants. A place of execution was set up before Muhlhansen, on which 
the Thnringian ^prophet" was put to a bloody death after undergoing 
firigbtful tortures. 


Truchseas of Waldbm^, captain of the Swabian lea^e, restored peace 
in Swabia, and then marched, in conjunction with the Elector of the Pa- 
latinate and the warlike archbishop of Triers, against the bands of Fran- 
conia, who were besieging the strong castle of Wnrzbui^. Here, again, 
superior military skill and better arms triumphed over the disorderly 
crowd. The insurgents, after a short defence, betook themselves to a 
headlong flight, in which most of them were killed ; the prisoners were 
put to death, and a severe punishment inflicted on the citizens of the 
Frank towns, who had sided with the rebels. The axe of the execu* 
lioner was long busj in Wurzburg. The same was the case in Alsacia, 
and the Middle Rhine-land, and also the Black Forest, and at the sources 
of the Danube, where the insurrection had lasted longest. At length, 
Truchsess of Waldburg and the renowned condottiere, George of Frends- 
berg, succeeded, by dint of severity, in restoring order. In the majo- 
rity of places, the peasants were again oppressed with all their fcMT- 
mer burdens, and in many spots the ciy was loudly echoed, ^ If they 
have formerly been chastised with rods, they shall now be scourged with 


§ 323. The new Church grew stronger and stronger in the midst of 
battles and disturbances, "and Luthei^s energy increased with oppo- 
sition. He left the cloister of the Augustines in 1524, and, in the fol- 
lowing year, married Catherine of Bora, who had been formerly a nun. 
Surrounded by a circle of sincere friends, and by his brothers in office, 
he now led the life of domestic happiness which was so well suited to his 
disposition. His energy and cheerful confidence in Grod were neither 
broken nor disturbed by his poverty, or the repeated attacks of illness he 
experienced. By his two Catechisms he laid the foundation <^ a uniform 
confession of faith, and of a better religious education. MelancthoD, 
upon whom the Elector, about this time, devolved the troublesome task of 
holding a general visitation of the churches all over Saxony, was not less 
active. The Reformation made such advances by the united efforts of 
these two men, that the Catholic princes, both temporal and spiritual, 
became alarmed. They therefore passed a resolution at the diet of Spire, 
that no farther innovations should be made in religion, that 
the new doctrines should not be farther disseminated, and that 
no impediment should be given to the celebration of the mass. It was 
against this decree of the Diet, by which the Reformation would hare 
been condemned to a fatal pause, that a Protest was entered by many of 
the princes and imperial towns. It was for this reason that they, in com- 
mon with all those who rejected the authority of the pope and the doc- 
trines of the Roman Catholic Church, received the name of Pkotest- 
Xnts. As the emperor would not I'eceive the protestation, which was 


Uoiight to him in Italy, the protestiiig princes and towns would at onoe 
have arrai^^ a oonfederacj for their mntual defence, had not Lnther 
and the evangelieal theologians, with ^ a magnanimous scrupulonsness,'' 
rejected every defence of the Word of God by worldly weapons. 

§ 324. In the following spring, the emperor opened the splendid Diet 
of Augsburg. It was here that the protesting Estates presented their 
Confession, which had been drawn up by Melancthon both in the German 
and Latin languages, and approved of by Luther. In this Confession, 
they endeavored to show that they had no wish to establish a new Church, 
bnt only to purify and restore the old one. This Confession of faith, 
which was composed with great temperance and clearness, embraced, in 
the first part, the doctrines of the Reformers, laid down in as dose accord- 
ance as was possible with the faith of the Catholic Church ; and in the 
second part, the abuses against which the Reformers were contending. 
Aiter the reading of the Auosbttbo Cokfbssion, the assembly embra- 
ced the resolution of justifying the doctrines and usages of the Catholic 
Church by a refutation, and then seeing if it would not be possible to 
bring about a composition by a conference between men of moderate 
tempers selected from both parties. But the *^ Refutation/' drawn up by 
£ckius, Cochkeus, and some others, produced but little effect, owing to 
the weakness of its arguments, and was entirely overthrown by Melanc- 
thon's ^ Apology ;** the conference also led to nothing, since both the 
pope and Luther, who, during the Diet, had remaitfed at Coburg, were 
aTerse to any further concessions. It seemed that the unity of the Church 
could be only restored by the sword. The protesting princes and the 
principal imperial towns rejected the decision of the Diet, by which they 
were prohibited from extending their doctrine and were proscribed as a 
sect, and quitted Augsburg. The resolution of the Diet that was deter- 
mined oa aAer their departure, in which the new sect was threatened 
with a rapid extirpation, and the sentence of excommunication denounced 
against all those who, within a certain space, should not renounce their 
aibitraiy innovations, alarmed neither the princes, the peace of whose 
tonseiences was a matter of higher importance to them than the favor of 
the emperor, nor the reformer of Wittenberg, whose confidence and 
cheerful trust in God was at that time at its height, as is testified by the 
immortal hymn, ^ The Lord is a strong castle," which was composed 
during the storms of those days. 


S 825. The Protestant Church of Grermany was unhappily, even at 
this time, divided into the Lutheran and Zwinglian. Ulric Zwingle (bom 
1484), a classically-educated, liberally-minded priest of repuUican prind- 
^68, exerted himself zealously as canon of Zurich against the sale of 
•iadnlgeneea by the Franciscan monk, Samson; against ecdesiastiea] 


abuses of all kinds ; and against the custom of the Swiss, of 
themselves as mercenaries in foreign services. Zwingle, a man of prac- 
tical understanding, without the religious depth of mind or the disposition 
of Luther, did not busj himself with the reformation of doctrine and 
articles of faith, but with the improvement of life and morals. He set 
about the work also with far less ceremonj, inasmuch as he wished to 
restore primitive Christianitj in its simplest form. Having a good nnder- 
standing with the chief council of Zurich, he undertook a complete revo- 
lution of ecclesiastical doctrine and practice, banished all images, crosses^ 
candles, altars, and organs, from the churches, and administered the 
Lord's Supper, in which he recognized nothing but a token of remem- 
brance and fellowship, after the manner of the early Christian loveHfeasta; 
that is, the communicants received the consecrated elements whilst sit^ 
ting. This latter proceeding entangled Zwingle in a fatal controversy 
with Luther. Luther would not receive the words employed in institnt- 
tmg the sacrament, ^ this is my body," in the sense of '^ this represents 
my body," as Zwingle explained them, but asserted the bodily presence 
of Christ in the Lord's Supper. It was in vain that Philip of Hesse 
attempted to prevent this dangerous division by a disputatitm at Mar^ 
buig. Luther saw a denial of Christ in the doctrine maintained by hia 
opponent, and thrust back the brotherly hand that Zwingle ofiei^ him 
with tears. He also opposed himself to any union with the towns of 
Upper Germany which had adopted Zwingle's views, so that these pre- 
sented their own confession of faith to the Augsburg Diet 

§ 325. The same disturbances succeeded the appearance of Zwingle 
in Switzerland as had followed that <^ Luther in Germany. Li Zuridi, 
Basle, Berne, in Schaffhausen, the Rhinethal, and other cantons, the 
Church was reformed according to the principles of Zwingle ; in Appen* 
zell, the Grisons, St. Gall, Glarus, and other places, the adherents of the 
old Church contended with those of the new ; but in the four forest can- 
tons (Schwitz, Uri, Unterwalden, and Lucerne), and in Zug, the Catholic 
faith remained predominant. This was occasioned, in addition to the in- 
fluence exercised on the simple inhabitants of these original cantons by 
the monks and clergy, by the circumstance that the engaging in foreign 
military services, a custom opposed by the Reformers, here formed chm 
of the principal means of support. These five places concluded an alli- 
ance with Austria, and suppressed every innovation with a strong hand; 
whilst Berne and Zurich, on the other hand, afforded their assistance 
with uncharitable zeal and violence in the frontier towns of the Beform- 
atien. Li this exdted state of men's minds, a war was inevitable, partica* 
lariy as Zwingle entertained the project of effecting such a political revo- 
lution in Switzerland as would give the supremacy to the two most power* 
fnl cantons, Berne and Zurich. Mutual revilings of the dergy, which 
nmained unpunished, increased the irritation and provoked hostilities* 


Zmica and Berne blodied up the public roads, and prevented the tratas- 
port of goods and of the necessaries of life. This proceeding enraged the 
Catholic cantons. They made preparations in secret, and fell upon the 
people of Zurich. The latter, surprised, irresolute, and forsaken by the 
Bernese, marched with a troop of 2,000 men against an enemy of four 
times their number, but sustained a bloody defeat in the 
battle of EappeL The courageous Zwingle, who had march- 
ed with them as field preacher, fell beside the banner of the city, and 
with him fell the staunchest friends of the Reformation. His dead body, 
after being exposed to the insults of the enraged multitude, was at length 
burnt and the ashes scattered Co the winds. This event restored the old 
Church in many places that were favorably disposed to the Reformation, 
and was the occasion of the religious divisions that since that time have 
prevailed in Switzerland. 


Chtfles y. S ^^^* Charles V. reigned over an empire such as had not 
^* D* existed since the days of Charlemagne. Before arriving at 

1600 -U68. y^„ Qf maturity, he was already lord of the rich Nether- 
lands, which had devolved upon him as his paternal inheritance ; when a 
youth (after the death of his paternal grandfather, Perdinand the Catho- 
lic), he obtained possession of the united Spanish empire, with the beau- 
tiful kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, and the newly-discovered territories 
in America in the West Indies; he inherited in early nuuihood the 
Hapsburgo-Austrian States (which he relinquished to his brother Fer- 
dinand), and became the successor of his grandfather, Maximilian, on the 
imperial throne of Germany, by the choice of the Electors. He might 
say with truth, that the sun never set in his dominions. He was a man 
of rare sagacity and indefatigable activity ; great in the cabinet, as director 
of the affairs of state, and brave in the field, as leader of the ranks of 
war. His antagonist and rival was Francis I. of France, who was as much 
renowned for his love of the arts and sciences, and for his chivalrous 
conduct in the field, as he was infamous for his tyranny, his luxury, and 
love of pleasure, and his devotion to his mistresses. An unextinguish- 
able jealousy subsisted between Francis and Charles. Each wished to 
be the first prince in Europe ; and each eagerly contested the possession 
of the imperial throne of Grermany, which could alone procure him this 
supremacy. Charies triumphed, and from that moment Francis became his 
decided enemy, and sought every means of weakening his power. Four 
wars arose out of this contention, which were principally occasioned by 
Milan. This beautiful dukedom had remained in the hands of the French 
since the battle of Marignano (§ 286) ; but Charles claimed it as a fief 
of the German empire, and led a vast army, composed chiefly of German 
peasants, under the conduct of the valiant condottieri, Frundsbergi 


SduirtliD, sad others^ against the Frendi and their allieB, the Swias. At 
that time, war was carried on with meroenary tro(^ exdnsiYely ; no 
nation could ventare to oppose themselTes to the Helvetians and G^ 
mans ; the knightly tacdes of an earlier period had ^siUen bdbre their 
matchlo<^ as the castles before their heavy artillery* The French wewe 
conquered. They lost Milan and Genoa, after several bloody encoun- 
ters^and were forced to retreat over the Alps. It was during the retreat, 
that the gallant Bayard, ^ the knight without fear and without reproach," 
fell by a ball from a German arquebusier. The imperial anny, conducted 
by the Constable of Bourbon, the richest and the most powerful of the 
French nobles, who had entered into Charles's service for the purpose 
of revenging his injuries and wrongs upon the French court, marched 
into the south of France, but soon found itself compelled to retireat by the 
gallant resistance of the burghers of Marseilles. 

§ 328. Francis I. himself now marched into Italy, at the head of a 
stately and well-appointed army, for the purpdse of wiping off the dis- 
grace of the defeat, and winning back that which had been loet. But 
being detained for a long time before the walls ^ Pavia, the active Bonr^ 
bon succeeded in collecting a fresh army of peasants, and uniting himself 
with the Spanish general, Pescara. But want of money and the neeea- 
saries of life soon reduced the united forces to the greatest distress, whilst 
the wealthy camp of the French was abundantly supplied with every 
thing needful. Bourbon and Frundsberg took advantage of this drcom- 
stance to excite the peasants to attempt the storm of the French camp. 
The bloody fight of Pavia, in which the French wer^^de* 
feated, originated in a nocturnal attack. Francis I. himself 
after a chivalrous defence, was compelled to surrender, and to proceed 
as a prisoner to Madrid. 10,000 gallant warriors found their deaths on 
the field of battle, or in the waters of the Ticino. After a year's captivity, 
Francis, with inward reluctance, consented to the Peace of Madrid, in 
which he swore to renounce his claims upon Milan, and to surrender the 
dukedom of Bui^undy. 

Scarcely, however, had Francis, after giving up his two sons as hostr 
ages, regained his own kingdom, than the pope released him from his 
oath, and concluded a holy alliance with him, the king of England, and 
some Italian princes, for the purpose of delivering Italy from the Span- 
ish yoke. The flames of war burst forth anew in Italy ; the beat <^ the 
drum was again heard in the German states to summon the peasants to 
the standard. As this was an expedition against the pope, the Lutherans 
came forward in crowds, so that the brave Frundsberg was soon enabled 
to lead a gallant army across the Alps, and to unite himself with Bour- 
bon. But money was soon wanting to pay the troops ; a rebellion in the 
army gave such a shock to Frundsberg that he was deprived <^ speech 
by an attack of apoplexy, and shortly after lost his life. The troops de- 


uanded to be led to Bome^ and Bourboa yielded to their wishes. It was 
on the 6th of Maj^ 1527, that the Spanish and German seMiers scaled 
the walls of Borne. B(mrb<»i was one of the first who fell^ The licea- 
tious bands, unchecked by the presence of a leader, dispersed themselres 
through the city and committed every sort of ontrage. The rich palaces 
and dwelling-houses were plundered, the churches robbed of their ves- 
sels and ornaments ; the Germans insulted the pope and cardinals by 
tidicaloos processioos and mummeries. Clement was obliged to purchase 
his freedom under harsh conditions, and made use of the first opportunity 
to escape. The emperor affected a display of grief and displeasure at 
the injuries suffered by the head of the Church, though inwardly pleased 
at his humiliation. 

In the meanwhile, the French had made some conquests in upper 
Italy, and then marched into Naples, for the purpose of wresting this 
kingdom from the Spaniards. But their army suffering severely from 
pestilence, and the troops of the emperor being reduced one half by their 
excesses in Bome, both parties became desirous of peace. The contend- 
ing kings arranged their differences by the interposition of the mother of 
Francis and the aunt of Charles, in what was called the 
'Ladies' Peace of Cambray t in virtue of which, Francis re- 
linquished his pretensions to Milan, aiid paid two million crowns for the 
ransom of his two sons, but retained possession of Burgundy. The pope 
also, and the Italian princes, soon made their peace. Charles was 
invested with the Boman and Lombard crowns by Clement, who lived 
with him in Bologna under the same roof, and prsmised, in return, to 
exterminate heresy, and to bring back the expelled Medici to Florence. 
The latter project was accomplished ; Florence was conquered and de- 
prived of its republican constitution (§ 289). But the restoration of the 
unity of the Church was no longer in the power of man. The Diet of 
Augsburg, that was appointed for this purpose, did not conduce to the 
desired result (§ 324). 

§ 329. Francis, however, did not relinquish the thought of again 
recovering the dukedom of Milan, and even entered into an alliance with 
the Turks a short time aAer, for the purpose of attaining this object 
In the' same year in which Charles took Tuni^ by a gallant attack, 
put an end to the piracies of the Mohammedan prince, Hay- 
raddin Barbarossa, and set 20,000 Christian captives at 
liberty, Francis made a sudden campaign into.upper Italy, and took pos- 
session, as a preliminary step> of Savoy and Piedmont, the duke of which 
was a relative and ally o£ Charles. But in the following year, Charles 
inarched with a stately army into Provence, for the purpose of carrying 
the war into his enemy's own territory ; but was compelled to retreat 
with loss, in consequence of the French general, the Constable Mont- 
norenci^ reducing the whole of the level country between the Bhone and 


the paBMB <^ the Alps to a desert, and thus producing scarcity and 
disease in the emperor's annj. But as the whole of Christendom was 
indignant at the alliance between Frands and the Ottomans, who com- 
mitted horrible deyastations in lower Italy and the Greek islands, Pope 
Paul m. interposed as a mediator, and brought aboat the 
conclusion of the third war by the ten years' tnice of Nice, 
which allowed every one to retain that <^ which he was then in posses- 
sion. A personal interriew between the two monarchs was to have obli- 
terated all their differences forever; and Charles was so 
convinced of the knightly faith of his rival, that, in the fol- 
lowing year, when an insurrection in Ghent required his immediate pre- 
sencei in the Netherlands, he took his road thither through Paris. Bat this 
friendship was not of long duration. In the year 1541, Charles undertook 
A D 1641 ^ second African expedition, for the purpose of completely 
destroying the corsairs, who rendered the Mediterranean 
insecure from Algiers, as they had formerly done fi:om Tunis. But this 
time, the attack was frustrated by the storms and rains of the later 
autumn, and by the attacks of the enemy, which were rendered partioo- 
larly dangerous by the swampy character of the ground. The emperor, 
who magnanimously shared all the dangers and sufferings of the meanest 
of his followers, was obliged to retreat without effecting his object, after 
suffering a considerable loss in ships and troops. This termination oi the 
enterprise may have filled the French king with the hope that he mig^ 
at length be able to overpower his adversary. He, therefore, after effecting 
A. D. an alliance with the sultan, commenced a fourth war against 

1642-1644. the emperor. But when the latter marched with a vast 
army out of Grermany into Champagne, and approached within two days' 
march of the terrified capital, Francis hastened to conclude 
* the peace of Crespy. From this time, the supremacy of 
the house of Hapsburg in Italy remained undisputed. Francis I. died 
Henry IL tbr^e years afterwards, but his son and successor, Henry H, 
A. D. followed the same path. During the war of religion in Ger- 

1647 - 1669. inany, he entered into an alliance with the Protestant princes 
(§ 387), whilst in his own dominions he suppressed the new doctrines by 
bloody persecutions. When Charles Y. at length quitted the world^s stage, 
the war was still continued for a few years between his son, Philip 11., 
and the French king, till at length the peace of Chateaa- 
Cambresis put an end to the open contest between the two 
monarchs, without, however, extinguishing the hereditary animositf 
between the royal houses of France and Hapsburg. 


§ 880. This war, and the apprehensions that were entertained of the 
Turks, who led army after army into the Austrian territories, prevented 


tbe emperor from putting into effect the resolution of the Diet of Augs« 
burg against the German Protestants, and compelling them by force to 
return to the bosom of the Catholic Church. When, in consequence of 
this order, the imperial chamber began to proceed against the evangelical 
states on account of their confiscation of ecclesiastical property, the Lu- 
theran princes and cities, under the conduct of the Elector of Saxony and 
the landgrave of Hesse, formed themselves into a league at 
Smalcald, in the Thuringian forest, for their mutual defence 
in case any of them should be attacked for the word of God's sake. In 
the following year, the emperor concluded the peace of Nuremberg with 
this league, in which both parties promised to refrain from hostilities till 
a Council of the Church, the calling of which was vehemently urged 
upon Clement YII. by the emperor, should be assembled. The law pro- 
ceedings were, in the mean time, to cease. This treaty bound the hands 
of the Protestants, without giving them any assurance for the future ; but 
afforded great facilities for the diffusion of the Gospel over the whole of 
Germany. The introduction of the Lu&eran form of worship into Wir- 
tembeiig was an event of the greatest importance. Duke Ulrick, a hasty- 
tempered and cruel man, who, from motives of jealousy, had slain a 
knight of his court (Hans von Hutten) with his own hand, had compelled 
his wife to take flight by his bad treatment, had oppressed his subjects 
and conquered the imperial city of Reutlingen, was at length outlawed 
for disturbing the peace of the country, and driven from his land and 
TBssak by the Swabian league. For fourteen years, Ulrick w|is com- 
pelled to lead a wandering life abroad, and to shun his dukedom, which, 
in the mean time, was placed under the government of Austria, when the 
landgrave Philip of Hesse embraced the resolution of restoring to Wir- 
temberg the duke, who was then living at his court He marched into 
Swabia with a well-appointed army, defeated the Austrian governor at 
Laofen on the Neckar, and reestablished the lawful ruler. Ulrick was 
received with joy by his people, who had forgotten his former tyranny, 
and who were easily induced to receive the evangelical doctrines which 
Ulrick had adopted in his misfortunes, and which he now had dissemi- 
nated by Brenz and Schnepf. The Church in Wirtemberg soon became 
Lutheran, and Tubingen was one of the most distinguished seminaries of 
CTangelical learning. 

§ 331. But the new Church was not wanting in spurious growths. 
Tbe doctrine of the Anabaptists, who mistook their own passions for 
divine mspirations, had not been suppressed by the death of Thomas 
Munzer (§ 322.) Notwithstanding the opposition of the Reformers and 
the discouragement given by every lawful magistrate, it would re-appear 
here and there, in places where it had been secretly carried by fugitives. 
The doctrines of these Anabaptists displayed themselves in their most 
frightful shape in Munster. It was in this place that the Reformation 


had made violent way for itself, and had compelled tbe bialiop and < 
to take flight Bnt it soon became evident that Bottman, the most iaihi- 
ential of its preachen, entertained Anabaptist notions. When two vaga- 
bond prophets fhom the Netherlands, Jan Matthys and his conntrTmaii 
and disciple, the tailor, John Bockhold (called John of Lejden,) joined 
themselves to him, the Anabaptist party in a short time attained so com* 
plete a supremacy, that they got possession of all the city offices, drove 
all the inhabitants who were not of their own way of thinking out of the 
to>vn in the midst of winter, and divided their property among them- 
selves. They now established a religions commonwealth, in which 
Matthys possessed unlimited power, introdaced community of goods, and 
conducted the defence of the city against the besieging army of thebifthop 
of Munster. The fanaticism rose to its height when Matthys was killed 
in a sally against the enemy, and Bockold was placed at the head of the 
commonwealth. This man transferred the goveniment of the city to 
twelve elders, whom he selected from the most violent of the fanatics^ 
and among whom, Knipperdoling, who was burgomaster and execotiooer, 
played the most distinguished part. He then introduced the practice of 
polygamy, and mercilessly put to death those who indignantly denounced 
this outrage to Christian morality. When this crazy fanaticism had 
reached its highest pitch, the prophet assumed the title (from Divine 
inspiration) of *< King of the New Israel." This "^ tailor king," onuk 
mented with the insignia of his rank (a crown and a globe suspended by 
a golden chain), and magnificently clothed, held his sittings for the ad* 
ministration of justice in the market-place of Munster, where the '^ chair 
of David " was set up, and introduced a government of mixed tyranny 
and fanaticism, in which spiritual pride and carnal lust were most repol* 
sively associated. 

For a long time, the Anabaptists resbted the attacks of their imper- 
fectly armed enemies with courage and success ; when the besi^ing 
army had been reinforced by the empire, and the closely pressed town 
began to suffer the horrors of famine, they still resolutely maintained 
their defence ; and even when the enemy were within their walls, they 
still resbted with the courage of desperation. Bottman fell fighting ; 
John of Leyden and Knipperdoling were put to death by torture, and 
their dead bodies suspended in iron cages on the tower ; the others were 
either executed or expelled the city. The bishop, the canons, and the 
nobility, returned and introduced Catholicism again in all its rigor, which 
since that time has retained its preeminence in Munster. 

After a few decenniums, the Anabaptists experienced a wholesome 
reformation of their doctrines and discipline from Menno, in which they 
have continued to the present day, under the name of Mennimites. They 
are still distinguished by simplicity of dress and manner of Uving, by 
their rejection of a separate priesthood, of infant baptism, of oaths, of 


mflitaiy service, &c. ; hut tbej have given np those principles of an ear^ 
fier period which were dangerous to moralitj and the state. They lead 
a quiet life as tenant farmers and peasants. ^ 

i 932. Shortly after this, the Reformed doctrines gaiped admission into 
the duchy of Saxony and the electorate of Brandenburg, by the death 
of two princes who had hitherto clung resolutely to the Roman Catholic 
creed. Duke George of Saxony was followed by his brother 
Henry, who, like his son Maurice, was devoted to the Refor- 
mation, and ordered the Reformed worship to be established in Leipsic, 
Mdssen, and Dresden. In the same year, Joachim 11. received the 
Lord's Supper under both forms in Spandau, upon which the country 
embraced the Protestant doctrine. The conversion of Saxony and 
Bnudenburg was decisive for the whole north of Germany. Henry of 
Brunswick- Wolfenbuttel, a cruel and profligate man, alone adhered to the 
aodent Church, less from conviction than from animosity to the landgrave 
of Hesse, the former friend of his youth. But the Gospel triumphed even 
in Wolfenbuttel, when, after a furious controversy, ii^urious alike to the 
dignity of princes and human nature, Henry was overpowered by Hes- 
sian and Saxon troops and carried into captivity. Otho Heinreich order, 
ed the Lutheran doctrines to be taught in the Upper Palatinate, by the 
Nnremburger preacher, Osiander ; and a few weeks before Luther's 
death, the Eucharist was administered in both forms in the Palatinate of 
the Bhine, after the congregation which assembled on the Sd of January 
to hear mass, in the Church of the Holy Ghost, had set up the evangeli- 
cal hjmn, <^ Salvation hath visited us." Baden Durlach also acknow- 
ledged the Reformed confession; and when the Elector, Hermann of 
Cologne, proposed a moderate plan of reformation to his Estates, and the 
duke of Cleves appeared inclined to join the league of Smalcald, it seem- 
ed that the Catholic Church of Grermany must succumb, unless a stop 
vers put to the progress of the Reformation by force. The emperor 
was conrinoed that neither Diets nor religious discussions could heal the 
dirision in the Church ; his hopes rested entirely on the general Council, 
vhich Pope Paul HL had summoned at Trent But the Protestants, 
who foresaw that their doctrines would be condemned in a Council that 
was thus held under the authority of the pope, rejected it, as being nei- 
ther free nor impartial, and demanded a general Synod of the Church 
of Germany. This destroyed the emperor's last hope of an amica- 
ble arrangement, and determined him to attempt the restoration of 
Lather dies, the Church by force of arms. One year after Luther's 
feb.lSQ^ death, at his native city of Eisleben, whither )ie had been 
^^' summoned to compose a difference, the war of Smalcald 

broke out between Charles V. and the Protestant princes and cities of 
1 333. When the emperor had determined upon war, he entered into a 


secret alliance with the pope, who promised him subsidies of mon^, 
with the spiritual Electors, and with the duke of Bavaria ; but he foimd 
the most important of his allies in the Protestant duke, Maurice of S«zo- 
nj. This young, shrewd, and militaiy prince, who, unce 1541, had been 
the ruler of Albertine Saxony, had long separated himself fixm the 
league of Smalcald and joined the emperor, out of envy and hatred to 
his cousin, John Frederick, although Philip of Hesse was his father-in- 
law. This alliance was again renewed. Maurice promised obedieDce 
and devotion to the emperor, and submission to the resolutions of the 
Tridentine Council, provided it gave its sanction to the three chief points 
in the Protestant view, — justification by fisiith, the cup, and the marriage 
of the clergy. Charles, in return, held out the prospect of an increase 
of his territories and the electorship of Saxony. The Protestants had so 
h'ttle suspicion of this arrangement, that when the Smalcald forces march- 
ed into the field, the Elector, during his absence with the army, made 
over the government of Courland to his cousin Maurice. The braTe 
Schartlin, whom the Upper German cities had chosen general, wished to 
bring matters to a conclusion, by making a rapid advance upon B^ens- 
burg, where the emperor was posted with a handful of troops ; but the 
council of war, fearful of doing injury to Bavaria, forbade the enter- 
prise. Upon this, Schartlin turned towards Tyrol, with the parpoae of 
cutting off the advance of the Italian troops, or of dispersing the Coun- 
cil of Trent ; — but this undertakiig was also disapproved of, lest Ferdi- 
nand should be offended. In this manner, Charles, who had already 
pronounced the ban against the Electors and landgraves for treason 
against the emperor and the empire, gained time to draw his auxiliaries 
from Italy, and to occupy a strong position at Ingolstadt. Here, also, 
the Protestants threw away the time in trifling and useless enooonteia, 
till the troops of the Netherlands having united themselves to the impe- 
rial anny, Charles was in a position to assume the offensive. He march- 
ed into Swabia, whither he was followed by the army of Smalcald* The 
damp and cold weather occasioned sickness among the Spanish and 
Italian troops, and afforded the Protestants a hope of effecting a favora- 
ble composition, when the intelligence that Maurice and his friends and 
companions in the faith had proved traitors, and had marched an hostile 
army into Courland, changed the whole face of affairs. John Frederick 
at once hastened back to his states ; the landgrave and the other leaders 
soon returned, and in a short time the whole army of Smalcald was dis- 

§ 334. South Germany now stood open to the emperor. Well-inteo- 
tioned advisers endeavored to persuade him to allow free toleration to re- 
ligious opinions, and by this means to bring back his estates to their 
fonner obedience and devotion. But Charles was bent upon bringing 
back the unity of the Church, and, at the same time, on restoring the 


buperia! ttutboiitj to its aadeBt dignity. WHh fids object^ he required 
te prinees and dties of soudiem Germanj to sabiait themsehFes, and to 
roHMuioe ihe kagae <^ Smaloald* The terrified imperial cities 8o<»i 
yielded obedience to the demand. Ulm snrrendered her artillery, and 
porehased the fSetvor of the emperor by large sums of money ; HeUbron, 
Eofingeny Beutlingen, and many others, did the same. Augsburg wte 
so well provided with artillery and provisions, that Schartlin offered tiie 
nu^trates to defend it for a year and a day, till Protestant Germany 
shoold have recovered itself and be prepared for fresh encounters ; but 
tiie pusillanimous council of traders (Fugger, in particular) gained the 
▼ictory. The emperor took possession of the town, and with it, the ad- 
mirable artiUery and a large sum of money. Frankfort and Strasbnrg 
800O foUowed. The old duke of Wirtemberg humbled himself, paid his 
oontributions to the war, and surrendered his most important fortresses 
to the imperial troops. The old Elector of Cologne, anathematised by 
the pope, threatened by the Spanish troops, and at last abandoned by his 
estates, renounced his office ii} &vor of a follower of the old creed, who 
Mton thrust aside by the mass the German worship of God. By the 
spring of 1547, the whole of southern Germany was reduced to obedi« 
eaee without a blow being struck* 

S 385. In the mean time, John Frederick had repulsed the troops of 
Maurice, taken possession of his own territories with but little trouble, 
and conquered the greater part of Albertine Saxony, as far as Dresden 
and Leipsic. Wherever he went, he was received with acclamations 
by the Protestant part of the population, and it would not have been 
fifficult for him to collect a considerable force, and to bid defiance 
t» the enemies of the evangelical doctrines ; but John Frederick 
was not an enterprising man, and despite ^the ban, respect for the em- 
peror was not yet extinguished in his pious heart; — he rejected the 
proffered aid. Maurice in his need invoked the assistance of the empe- 
ror. The latter hastened with his army mto Bavaria, in defiance of the 
gout, and, uniting his forces with those of Maurice and Ferdinand, 
nurched against his enemy, who was posted on the Elbe with 6000 men. 
Vpon the approach of the emperor, John Frederick wished to fall back 
upon the strong town of Wittemberg, until he could collect the scattered 
dirisions of his army ; but the imperial force, 27,000 strong, crossed the 
Elbe under the guidance of a peasant, surprised the cavahy, who were 
ttigaged in a retreat, on a Sunday morning, when the Elector was attend- 
ing Divine worship, and won an easy victory in the battle of MQhlberg. 
Mm Frederick, a heavy man, was wounded in the fiice and taken pri- 
aoner after a brave defence. In prison, he displayed the serenity of soul 
which is the fruit of a good conscience and a firm trust in God. He 
heard the sentence of death that was pronounced upon him by the empe- 
rarwith the greatest composure, and without even interrupting the game^ 


cf ciieflB inwlueli he ms eogagei Bat CbaileBtt] 

die Be&tenoe into ezecQtioD. He proposed to duBige die ] 

death into that of impri0onment for life, upon emuliti n n I 

nek should give op his fortresses to the emperar, and i 

toriesy together with the deetoral dignitj, to Maniioe. In this ■uumfT » 

the electorship of Saxony passed fi:om the line of Ernest to that of 


It was now the torn of the Uuidgiave of Hesse to be ponisfaed. Man- 
rice and Joachim of Brandenbnig interceded for him, and obtained tibe 
aasnnuicey ^ that if he woold make an nnooncBtiooal surrender, apolo- 
gize for his proceedings, and deliver up his castles, he should be punidied 
neither with death nor with perpetual imprisonment* TlieBe oonditians 
were afterwards modified during a personal interview, and the two prinoes 
assured the landgraye of the safety of his person and possessioDS. In 
reliance on this assurance, Philip, provided with a safe conduct, preacnt - 
ed himself at Halle, where the imperial camp was posted. It was here 
that, aAer having asked pardon on his knees in the midst of a i 
cent assembly, he was invited to supper by the duke of Alba, i 
going to the castle, was retained priscmer in s[ttte of all objections. Hie 
emperor could not deny himself the triumph of having his two greatest 
opponents in his power. He shortly afterwards left Saxony, and took 
his prisoners with him. This proceeding was the first occasion of a ooqI> 
nesB between Maurice and the emperor. 

i 336. In the meanwhile, the Council of Trent, which was opened on 
die 13th <^ December, 1545, had held its first deliberati<ms. But as the 
proceedings were carried on under the guidance of the papal legates, and 
the chief part of the assembly consisted of the regular clergy and the 
uncompromising adherents of .the pope, the resolutions assumed such a 
shape that the Protestants saw in them rather a widening of the pie- 
vious divisions, than any approach to a reconciliation. This coune was 
highly displeasing to the emperor, who hoped now to have brought about 
that unity of fiuth which had so long been wished for ; he remonstrated, 
and wished the resolutions to be kept secret, as he had just brought the 
Protestant Estates to promise that they would submit themselves to the 
Council, if the points already determined upon might be reoonddered. 
But Paul in., who saw clearly that the emperor cherished the wish of 
limiting the power of the pope, and of introducing such reforms into the 
Catholic Church that the Protestants should no longer hesitate to join her 
communion, not only allowed the resolutions to become known, but re- 
moved the Council to Bologna. The emperor was extremely irritated 
at this ; he forbade the clergy to leave Trent, but could only retain the 
smaller number, and for the purpose of paving the way to a reonicm of 
the Church in Germany, he proclaimed an edict, which set forth how 
matters should be conducted until the termination of the CoundL This 


ivas done by the Augsburg Interim ; which, at first designed for both 
religious parties^ was afterwards restricted to the Protestants. B7 this 
instrument, the use of the cup and the marriage of priests were pei^ 
mitted to the confessors of the evangelical Church ; an attempt was made 
to approach their opinions on the doctrines of justification, the mass, &c., 
bj the use of indefinite modes of expression ; but in the celebration of 
Divine worship and in the ceremonies, the old usages were retained* 
This Interim met with great opposition, less from the Protestant princes, 
than from the towns and preachers. The latter could not be prevailed 
upon to receive a religion that was offensive to their consciences, either 
by deprivation of their offices or by loss of their property or freedom. 
Driven from their posts, they left Uieir homes and household hearths to 
fly by secret paths to the north of Germany, where the Interim was 
utterly rejected. Nearly 400 preachers became exiles; Magdeburg, 
which was under the ban, afforded an asylum to the greater number. In 
Saxony, also, the cradle of the Beformation, many preachers fied, from 
dislike to the Leipsic Interim, by the composition of which Melancthon 
incurred the charge of weakness and want of courage. A multitude of 
pamphlets, satires, satirical poems, and wood-cuts, proceeded fh)m Magde- 
burg, which were intended to bring down hatred and contempt upon the 
Interim and its originators. 

S 387. At the moment when the emperor believed himself to be on 
the point of attaining the object of his wishes ; when the Council had 
been again removed to Trent, and even attended by some of the Pro- 
testant Estates ; when every circumstance seemed to combine to raise 
him to the position of temporal head of Christjendom, in the sense in 
which the term was understood in the middle ages; when he already cher- 
ished the thought of having his son elected as his successor, and thus 
rendering the imperial throne hereditary in his family, — he suddenly 
found an unexpected opponent in the man to whom he had been hitherto 
indebted for his triumphs, — in Maurice of Saxony. This sagacious 
prince saw plainly in what a perilous position the civil and religious liber- 
ties of Germany would stand, if Charles should conduct his plans to a 
successful issue ; he saw clearly that he had incurred the hate of all Pro- 
testants by his treachery to the common cause, since he had undertaken, 
in the name of the emperor, to prosecute the ban against Magdeburg, 
stnd had already commenced the siege of the city, where alone the pure 
vord of the Gospel had found an asylum. He could only restore his 
lost reputation by a great and daring action. He concluded a secret alii* 
ance with several German princes, and assured himself of the aid of the 
French king, Henry 11., by a treaty, in virtue of which the latter was 
permitted to occupy the towna of Metz, Toul, and Verdun, without 
infringement of the rights of the empire. The chivabous nuurgrave, 
Albert of Brandenburg Culnbaeh, conducted the negotiation. Upon this, 


IfBorioe granted pardoD and tbe free exercise of rdigioii to liMg^Awr^ 
wtidK immediately subnutted. WarniDgs were sent to the emperor, wko 
wasatthattimeinlnnsbmck; bat Manricey who was a master in the ait 
of deceptioiiy knew how to dissipate all suspicions as thej arose in lua 
mind,. and Charies, who was practised in the intrignesof Spain and Italj, 
thon^ it impossible that he should be ootwitted bja German. Maariee 
Mtftth i&fio. fi^^^J adyanced with three divisions of his armj into the 
' south, took possession of Augsburg, and marched into tbe 

TjnoL He was already approaching Innsbruck with the purpose of mak- 
ing the emperor prisoner, when a mutiny among the Gierman peasants 
afforded the latter an opportunity for escape. The Tridentine GNmcU 
was broken up in confusion, and Charles, after setting the imprisoned 
Elector, John Frederidc, at liberty, fled during the nig^t, ill with, the 
goat and disheartened, over the snow-covered mountains <^ the Tyrol 
into Carinthia; leaving to his brother Ferdinand the difficult task of 
establishing peace. Ferdinand immediately conduded the treaty of 
Passau with the Protestant princes, by which unconditional refigiooa 
liberty was granted to the adherents of the Augsburg Confession, the 
Interim was abolished, the Protestants were declared independ^t of the 
Council of Trent, and the landgrave of Hesse was set at liberty. A per- 
manent peace and amnesty was at the same time decided upon. 

§ 888. The treaty of Passau was the last work of Manrice. Wheo 
bis former confederate, Albert of Brandenburg, refused to accede to it, 
and continued his wars and robberies in Lower Saxony, 
Maurice marched against him to compel him to peace. A 
battle was fought near Sivershausen. The active Maurice was victo- 
rious, but he received a gun-shot wound in the wild confiisioa of the bat- 
tle, of which he died two days after, in the flower of his manly strength. 
He was a man of rare qualities, ^prudent and secret, enterprismg and 
eneigetic" Two years after his death, the Beligious Peace of Angpa- 
burg was conduded, by which the Protestant Estates who followed the 
Augsburg Confession were not only assured of full liberty of conscience 
and religion, but also of political rights equal to those enjoyed by the 
Catholics, and the continued possession of the confiscated ecclesiastical 
property. A free right of 'departure was permitted to subjects who did 
not follow the religion of the Electors ; and a free toleration for those 
that remained. The demand made by the adherents of the ancient faith, 
that, in future, those of the clergy who should join the new Church should 
lose their incomes and offices, occasioned the most vehement disputes. 
As it was impossible to come t9 an agreement, the point was left unde- 
cided, and admitted as a spiritual reservation into the laws of peace -^> 
^ a seed of bloody contests." 

t 889. This religious peace frustrated the most zealous attempts of the 
emperor to restore the unity of the Church, and deprived him of the 


interest be had hitherto taken in the affairs of the world. Oppressed 
with diaoont^it and hodilj suffering, he embraced the resolution of re- 
nouncing his government, and of passing the remainder of his dajs in 
quiet retirement and monastic penance. With this object, he made oyer 
to his eon Philip, at a solemn assembly at Brussels, first, the Nether- 
lands, and a short time after, the kingdoms of Spain and Naples, to- 
gether with the New World; he committed the government of 
the Austrian states and the affairs of Germany, however, to his brother 
Ferdinand. After this, he retired to the west of Spain, where 
he had had a residence built near the convent of St Juste, on the 
pleasant declivity of a hill, surrounded by plantations of trees. He lived 
here for two years in quiet retirement, busied with the practices of reli- 
gkm and with pious contemplation. In the mean time, Frederick L 
leeeived the imperial throne of Germany by the election of the princes, 
afiter he had pledged himself to observe the Peace of Religion, — an en- 
gagement he honestly fulfilled. 


S 340. The greatest divisions arose in Germany, where the move- 
ments in the Church had taken their origin, in consequence of the Re- 
formation. The Lutheran form of worship strove long with the Catholic 
for the mastery. The former extended itself gradually from Saxony and 
Hesse over the neighboring countries, acquired the supremacy in north- 
ern Gemoany, made triumphant progress in Swabia and Franconia, and 
<^)«ied itself a path from Strasburg into Alsacia and Lorraine. The 
doetrines of Luther had penetrated at an early period to the Vistula and 
the shores of the Baltic, where the Grand Master of the German Order 
(S i27}, Albert of Brandenburg, pressed upon by the Poles and deserted 
by the emperor and empire, had joined the evangelical Church, converted 
Prussia into an hereditary dukedom, and acknowledged the suzerainship 
of Poland. The same thing happened in Courland and Livonia, with 
the Head of the Order of the Swoi*d. The Catholic form of worship 
feand its most zealous partisans in the dukes of Bavaria, in the royal 
bouse of Austria, in the spiritual Electors, and in the prince-bishops. In- 
golstadt was an active seminary for the ancient faith. Nevertheless,* as 
the two emperors, Ferdinand L and Maximilian IL, both disdiuned to do 
violence to the consciences of their subjects, the evangeUcal doctrines 
MOD obtained numerous adherents in the hereditary possessions of Aus- 
tria. The Protestants obtained religious toleration for themselves, and 
built several churches in the archduchy of Austria, in Carinthia, and 
Stjria. In Hungary and Transylvania, the Reformation made such pro- 
gress that the evangelical party outnumbered their opponents, and obtain- 
ed religions freedom and equal political rights with the Catholics. In B<h 


hernia, the old Hassites (Utraquists) mostlj embraced the LiitKenii» 
trines. But numerous as were the ti'eaties that guaranteed the n^4 
Protestants in the Austrian dominions, they were disr^arded by ha 
rulers, who restored the Catholic State Church to the preeminfiw. 

The Reformed Church that originated in Swiuerland, also fnid Ik 
way into Germany at an early period. It is true that the doetnoest^ 
Zwingle were only received and maintained by a few towns in the um 
of Germany ; but when Calvin, in Geneva, seized upon the priacpiB 
of Zwingle, and fashioned them into a complete system of dootnK bj 
uniting them with his own views, the reformed Church in Germany gui- 
ed a constant succession of adherents. Frederick III. introdoedi tls 
system into his own land from the Palatinate, and ordered Uranos aii 
Olevianus to draw up the Heidelberg Catechism, a viddi 
extended compendium of Calvin's doctrine ; the same ^ 
happened in Hesse, Bremen, and Brandenburg. £ven MelanethonandVi 
disciples (Philippists, and Cryptocalvinists) were convinced in their baiti 
of the truth of Calvin's views. The former so embittered the cveiwg 
of his life by promulgating these opinions, that he sank into hn gmt 
calumniated and full of sorrow, and his disciples broo^ 
persecution and imprisonment upon themsdves in Saxony. 
The Form of Concord, a confession of faith that was subscribed, sbom 
1580, by ninety-six of the Lutheran Estates of the empire, was intended 
to restore harmony among the German Protestants; but it merely ood- 
firmed the division between the Calvinists and Lutherans, and increased 
the unhappy animosity of one party against the other. 

§ 841. Switzerland also received evangelical confessions of £uth,a6 
well as the Catholic doctrines ; only the system of Zwingle, that was le- 
ceived in the greater German cantons (§ 326), differed less from the 
doctrine of Calvin which was predominant in French Switzerland, tkn 
it did from that of Luther. John Calvin, a learned refugee from France, 
introduced the Reformation and the confederation into Gveneva, t 
town delightfully situated on the frontiers of Savoy and 
France, and then, like the lawgivers of antiquity, he exe^ 
cised the greatest influence on the government, the religion, the maimers* 
and the education of the city, till his death in 1564. Calvin was a nuiQ 
of great intellect and moral power ; severe to others and to himself, and 
hostile to all worldly enjoyments, — he acquired a command over men by 
the reverence that was due to his strong and pure will. The doctrine of 
Calvin is impressed with the character of its originator, — severity and 
simplicity. In matters of faith, he adheres to Zwingle only so far as the 
latter embraces the severe views of Augustine (§ 174), and holds that 
men are incapable of doing good by their own wills. Calvin, like Zwin- 
gle, goes back to the primitive apostolic times, and commands the great- 
est simplicity in ceremonies and forms of worship. Images, ornamenu. 


organs, candles, crucifixes, all are banished from the churches ; the ser- 
vice consists in prayer, preaching, and the sin^ng of psalms, which Gal- 
Tin's faithful fellow-minister, Theodore Beza, had translated into French ; 
there is no church feast except the rigorously observed Sunday (Sab- 
bath). The constitution of the Calvinistic Church is a republican sjmo- 
dial government. The congregation, represented by freely elected elders 
(presbytery), exercises the power of the Church, chooses the ministers, 
watches over morals by means of the elders, administers the discipline 
and punbhments of the Church, and the distribution of alms. The min- 
isters and a portion of the elders constitute the synod, whence the coun- 
try churches receive their laws. Their severity of morals occasionally 
induced the Calvinists to wage war against lawful amusements, such as 
the theatre, dancing, and the more refined pleasures of society ; for this 
reason, their doctrines found less acceptance among the higher than in 
the middle classes. 

§ 342. The Calvinistic doctrines extended themselves from Geneva 
over the flourishing towns of southern France, where they 
soon numbered so many adherents that they were able to 
wage war for many years with the dominant Church. The French court 
was for some time hesitating which form of religion it should adopt ; 
political motives swayed the decision in favor of the Catholic Church. 
Commands were now issued against ^ the so-called reformed religion," 
Calvinistic ministers were given over to the fiames, and an attempt was 
made to prevent the diffusion of their doctrine by persecution and pun- 
ishment. Calvinism penetrated into the Netherlands from 
France and Switzerland, where, after many struggles, it be- 
came victorious in the northern provinces (Holland). At the synod of 
Dort (a. d. 1618), the views of the Arminians, who wished to give a 
milder form to Calvin's severe doctrine of predestination, were condemn- 
ed, and the Augustine doctrine of election maintained. The chiefs of 
the Arminians, particularly the deserving statesman, (Van Olden Bam- 
. veldt), and the distinguish^ historian, Hugo Grotius, were punished, the 
one by death, the other by imprisonment (§ 860). In Scot- 
"* *" land, the evangelical doctrines were long suppressed by the 

court and the clergy, and many courageous confessors perished in the 
fliimes. The regent, Mary of Guise, sprung from a French family, 
which was zealously devoted to the Romish Church, in conjunction with 
Cardinal Beaton, suppressed the innovators by severity. But when the 
cardinal had fallen in his own house beneath the blows of a troop of 
cunspirator^ and the regent had died atler a three years' contest with 
the people who wvre striving fur the Gospel, the rude preacher, John 
Knox, who had known Calvin in Geneva, succeeded in rendering the 
Reformed doctrines triumphant. The doctrines, the form of worship, 
and the synodiai constitution of the Calvinistic Church, were introduced 


into Scotland by a resolation of the parliament, the mass forbidd«B as 
idolatrous, under penalty of fine and death, and the goods of the Cbareb 
confiscated. Monasteries, cathedrals, and treasures of art were destrogr* 
ed with a blind fury. At a later period, the Scottish Church received 
the name of Presbyterian, from its assemblies. In England, similar 
principles, entertained by the Puritans, succumbed to the power of tlie 
High Church ; but they were diffused by numerous sects, and receiTed 
their fullest development on the free shores of North America. 


§ 343. In England, the disciples of Luther were at first bloodily per- 
secuted, and King Henry VIII. obtained such favor with the court of 
Bome^ by a learned controversial work against Luther on the subject of 
the seven sacraments, that it conferred upon him the title of Defender 
Henry VIIL ^^ ^^® Faith. But Henry's attachment to the pope was coo- 
A. D. vei-ted into hatred when Clement YII. refused to separate 

1509-1647. Ynta from his Spanish wife, Catherine, an aunt of the em- 
peror Charles Y. Some internal scruples respecting the validity of his 
marriage with Catherine, who had been the wife of his departed brother, 
and a wish to unite himself to the lovely Anne Boleyn, at length induced 
Henry to attempt the desired separation by a rapture with Borne. Sa|>- 
ported by the opinions of native and foreign universities, and of many 
learned bodies, as to the invalidity of his marriage, he had had bimaelf 
divorced from Catherine, and married to Anne, by Thomas Cranmer, the 
new bishop of Canterbury ; he then compelled the clergy to acknowledge 
him as the head of the English Church, and had a number of acts passed 
by the parliament, by which the pope's authority and infiuence were de- 
stroyed in England. The king then set about effecting such alterations 
in the Church as appeared to him to be useful, or which suited his 
caprice, with unexampled severity and arbitrariness. The numoons 
monasteries were violently dissolved, the monks and nans scarcely pro- 
tected from hunger, and the conventual property either united to the 
crown or bestowed upon courtiers* The tomb of Becket with its rich 
altar was desecrated and plundered, and the memory of the ancient saint 
(i 275) turned to. ridicule, by a ludicrous ceremony. The fiames, by which 
Luthei*ans as well as papists were consumed, were lighted by the wooden 
images of the saints. On the other hand, he left the remaining institn- 
tions of the Catholic Church untouched, and commanded, by the statote 
of the Six bloody Articles, the observance, under penalty of death, of 
celibacy, auricular confession, monastic vows, low mass, transubstantia- 
tion, and the withholding of the cup. The venerable Bish<^ Fbher and 
the intellectual chancellor, Thomas More, the author of the ** Utopia,'* 
died upon the scaffold, because they did not approve the innovations in 
the Church. Enraged at this, the pope at length fulminated a violent 


anathema against Henry and his adherents, at the moment when the dis- 
content at the dissolution of the cloisters had produced an insurrection 
among the peasantry in the north of the kingdom, in which monks 
marched at the head of the bands. Upon this, Henry condemned the 
friends and relations of Cai:dinal Pole, who had prepared the anathema, 
to die upon the scaffold or gaUows, and delivered oyer abbots and monks 
in the dress of their order to the executioner. 

§ 344. But the despotism and sensuality of the king were most clearly 
displayed in his treatment of his wives. Scarcely had the divorced Cathe- 
rine died, far from the court, a victim to her sorrows and her wrongs, 
before her rival, Anne Boleyn, was beheaded by the coinmand of her 
jealous husband. His third wife, the young and gentle Jane Seymour, 
died a few days after giving birth to the delicate Edward ; upon which, 
Henry suffered himself to be seduced by the advice of his chancellor, and 
by a portrait of Holbein's, into suing for the hand of a German princess, 
Anne of Cleves. But neither her figure nor her disposition suited the 
amorous king, who accordingly procured another divorce upon grounds 
altogether frivolous. "Catherine Howard, Henry's fifth wife, retained her 
affection for a former lover after her elevation, and expiated her want of 
fiuth upon the scaffold ; and Catherine Parr, the last of his queens, had 
only her own shrewdness to thank that she did not faU a victim to her zeal 
for the Reformation. Since the days of Nero and Domitian, there had 
hardly been a monarch who had surrendered himself so completely to the 
promptings of a despotic nature, a passion for blood, and a tyrannical 
viU. Even on his death-bed, he issued orders for executions. 
Ednud VL, S ^^^* '^^ ^^® ^^"^^ ^^ ^^ father's death, Edward VI. num- 
A.D. bered but six years ; Henry had, in consequence, appointed 

~^^^ a council, to conduct the government during his son's minoi^ 
itj. In this council, Edward's maternal uncle — the duke of Somerset, 
and the Archbishop Cranmer, attained the greatest authority. The for^ 
mer, raised to the ofiOice of Protector of England, gradually got the whole 
power of the state into his own hands, and favored the establishment of 
an Anglican Church, which had been undertaken with prudence and mo- 
deration by hb friend Cranmer. This consists of a mixture of Catholic 
ami Protestant elements. Public worship was accommodated to the 
Book of Common Prayer, in the English language, which was compiled 
from the ancient Mass books ; the Communion was administered in both 
kinds; the abolishing of celibacy, and the confession of faith in the 
Thirty-nine Articles, is in conformity with other Protestant Churches ; 
on the other hand, the episcopal constitution, the continuance in the use of 
colcMed robes during divine worship, and a few ecclesiastical statutes, call 
the Roouin Catholic system to mind ; only, instead of the pope, the king 
is the head of the Church, and the bishops and archbishops are appointed 
by him. 




Somerset made manj enemies bj his ambition, who first procured Iiia 
fall, and at length his execution. Warwick, earl of Northumberhuid, the 
ambitious chief of the opposite partj, stepped into his place, and ezei^ 
dsed the same unlimited authority over the young king and the coontzy 
as his predecessor had done. For the purpose of prolonging his swa^r, 
he persuaded the dying Edward to alter the will of his father, and ap» 
point as his successor, Jane Gray, a niece of Henry YIII., who was dis- 
posed to the evangelical doctrines, instead of Edward's Catholic sbter, 
Mary. But hatred to the ambitious Northumberiaqd, whose son, Dudley, 
was the husband of Jane Gray, and the hereditary reverence for the 
MaiT Tudor Intimate inheritor, operated in favor of Mary. She brought 
*^' D. the people over to her side by the assurance that nobody 

1658 - 1668. gijouid \yQ disturbed on account of his religion, and succeeded 
in gaining the throne. .Northumberland died dn the scaffold. Dudley 
and the classically accomplished Jane Gray, who was not less versed in 
the writings of Plato than in the Bible, after pining for some time in pri- 
son, were the victims of a similar fate. 

§ 346. Mary did not remain true to her promise. Bred up in the 
Catholic faith, for which her mother, Catherine, had suffered, she looked 
upon the restoration of papacy and the ancient Church forms as the most 
important of her duties as a ruler. She had the Church Reform of Cd- 
wsurd VI. abolished by act of Parliament, and adopted measures, in con- 
junction with Cardinal Pole, whom she raised to the archiepiscopal chair 
of Canterbury, for the extirpation of heresy and the restoration of the 
old system. The refractoiy bishops were deposed ; Cranroer and two of 
his most zealous coadjutors given over to the flames, and the fires of 
martyrdom lighted all over the kingdom. To neglect attending mass 
was to put life in peril. Crowds of refugees fled over the seas, to seek 
for refuge in Germany and Switzerland. When Mary gave her hand to 
the fanatical Philip of Spain, the persecution waxed hotter. But grief 
at the evident dislike of her husband, melancholy, and misanthropy 
shortened her days. She died at the moment when she was deceiving 
herself with the idle hope, that she was about to present a Catholic suc- 
cessor to the nation. 

Her half-sister, Elizabeth, the daughter of the unfortunate Anne 
Boleyn, exchanged the residence she had hitherto occupied in the Tower* 
where she had passed a troublous youth in the midst of sorrow and dan- 
ger, for the royal palace, and restored, by the Act of Uniformity, the 
Reformation that had been established under Edward VI. The Book of 
Common Prayer and the Thirty-nine Articles again resumed their au- 
thority ; and Elizabeth exercised the influence which she possessed as 
the spiritual head of the Church, in establishing the Court of High Com- 
mission. It was in vain that the exiles, on their return home, hoped to 
induce the queen to undertake a thorough Reformation, on the model of 


the Calvinistic Church. Elizabeth's loftj spirit, and her love for reli- 
gioas ceremonial and ecclesiastical pomp, despised the simplicity and 
popular equality of the Calyinists, who, from their insisting upon the 
purification of the Church, were called Puritans. When these men 
found there was no hope for the reception of their doctrines into the An- 
glican Church, thej separated themselves as nonconformists, and esta- 
blished a religious system of their own, with presbyteries and synods, a 
religious aerrioe from which art and poetry were banished, and a system 
of Church discipline in which every earthly pleasure was a sm. Per- 
secution was soon let loose against the Puritans, under which they be- 
came still more gloomy and morose, and at length increased to a danger- 
ous party. 


I 847. In the sixteenth century, a complete revolution in the state of 

affiurs took place in the three Scandinavian kingdoms. Christian II., the 

last king of the united empire (§ 296), irritated the nobility to such an 

extent by his severity and cruelty, that insurrections broke out at the 

same time both in Denmark and Sweden, in consequence of which the 

union of Calmar was dissolved, and the evangelical Church obtained the 

supremacy. Gustavua Vasa, a courageous youth, endowed with the valor 

and wisdom of the Stures, who were his relations, was the originator 

of this ecclesiastical and political revolution in Sweden, and the founder 

of a vigorous race of monarchs. He was carried into Denmark as a 

hostage by Christian IL From this place, however, he soon found an 

opportunity to escape into Lubeck, where he was not only protected but 

provided with money, and encouraged with promises of the liberation of 

his native country. In the same year in which the slaughter 

of Stockholm produced a universal horror of the Danish 

government, Gustavus landed on his native shores. In the midst of a 

thousand dangers and adventures, he escaped the pursuits of Christian's 

emissaries, who were perpetually at his heels, by his own courage and 

the fidelity of his countrymen, till at length he found aid and protection 

from the rude inhabitants of Northern Dalecarlia. With a band of hardy 

peasants he conquered Falun, repulsed the troops of the Danes and their 

allies, and took Upsala. The fame of his name and the attractive call of 

liberty soon resounded through all lands, and attracted many warriors to 

his side. Supported by the Lubeckers with troops, money, and artillery, 

he compelled the Danish garrison to retreat, and then, af^r having been 

elected king by the Diet of Strengnas, he held his entry into 

' Stockholm. At first, the new kingdom of Sweden remained 

an elective monarchy, till, twenty years later, the crown was declared by 

the diet to be hereditary in the male line of Vasa. But as 

the possessions of the throne had been so dilapidated by 


neglect as not to be sufficient to snpport the expeoditare, the new king^j 
dignitj could not be supported with honor except by an aogmentatioo of 
the kinglj revenue. For thb, the Beformation afforded a welcome op- 
portnnitj. The people, instructed in the Lutheran doctrines by the 
brothers Olaus and Lanrentius Petri, willinglj accepted die new fidth, 
and the Diet placed the possessions of the clergj, who during the irpr 
had sided with the Danes, and shown no interest in the independence of 
their country, at the disposal of the king. GustaTus, sap- 
A. D. 1627. port^ i^j ^ii3 resolution, gradually introduced the Reforai- 
tion into the whole countiy, and deprived the Church of the greater psit 
of its possessions, for the purpose of attaching them to the crown. The 
nobility, who were enriched by the proceeding, supported the underttk- 
ing. The bishops, who, after a long resistance, submitted to the new 
system, remained Estates of the empire and heads of the Church, hot 
were dependent upon the king, and held in check by the oonaistories. 

§ 348. A similar revolution had, in the mean time, taken place in Dea- 
mark. Frederick L, acknowledged as king by the nobility and peofde, 
sought, by supporting the evangelical doctrine, to strengthen himself 
against his rival, Christian IL, who, although at first favorable to the 
Reformation, had afterwards united himself to the emperor and the pqie 
for the purpose of regaining possession of his states. In the same time 
in which Frederick admitted Protestants to equal civil rights with Catho- 
lics at the Diet of Odensee, and established the Danish Church's independ- 
ence of Rome, Christian IL made an attack upon Denmark firom N(V- 
way ; but was taken prisoner, and compelled to pine for sixteen years in 
a gloomy tower, with no other companion than a Norwegian dwsiC 
Ghristiaxi m. Under Christian III., the son of Frederidi: I., the Lutbena 
▲. D. form of worship attained a complete triumph in DenmaEk 

1684-1669. also. The clergy lost the greater part of their posseMioos 
to the crown and the nobility, and the bishops, whose titles were retained 
in the Scandinavian kingdoms, fell into complete dependence upon tbe 
government In Norway, the new Church was quietly established \fj 
the peasantry ; but in Iceland, the Episcopal party fell with the swoid 
in their hands. The Swedish and Danish nobility gained great weahh, 
power, and privileges by the Beformation. 

§ 349. Gustavus Vasa had attempted to establish Sweden's prosperity 
by wholesome laws, and by the encouragement of trade and indostrj; 
but evil times came upon the land under the government of his eooi* 
Erich XIY. £nch XIV. was' of so passionate a disposition that he at 
A. D. length became insane. Whilst in this state, he murdered 

1660-1668. ^^Yi his own hand several members of the fiunily of Store, 
and caused all the nobles to tremble in anticipation ai a similar ftte; 
whidi induced his brotheira to place him in confinement, and at length to 
send him out of the worid by poison. His brother, John HI., a weak- 


minded prince of unstable character^ succeeded to the government. Led 
JohnHL astray bj his wife, a rigid CSatholie and the daughter of 
^i>. a Polish prince, and bj a Jesuit who lived secretly in 

1568 - 1592. Stockholm as an ambassador, John attempted again to intro- 
duce the andent form of religion into his kingdom, and consented that 
his son Sigismond, who was to be king both of Sweden find Poland, 
should be brought up as a Catholic. His scheme proved abortive from 
the resistance of the Swedish people to the Catholic ceremonies ; he him- 
self afterwards repented of his attempt, when his second wife exerted her- 
self in favor of the evangelical doctrine. But the attachment to the 
Catholic Church proved of great detriment to his son, the Polish king, 
Sigismond III. For when he refused compliance with the resolution of 
the Diet, that the evangelical-Lutheran religion should be solely predomi- 
nant and alone tolerated in Sweden, his uncle, Charles of Sudermania, 
was named regent. It was in vain that Sigismond attempted 
to defend his rights by force of arms, he was defeated by his 
nncle ; whereupon the Diet required him either to renounce popery, and 
to govern his hereditary kingdom in person; or to send his son to 
Sweden, that he might be brought up in the religion of the country* 
When Sigismond refused compliance with this demand, Charles IX. 
received the crown he had long been striving for, and a new law of suc- 
cession secured it to his family. 

§ 350. At this time, a war arose between Sweden and Poland. This 
Chukft IX. ^^^9 which, after Charles's death, was inherited by his son, 
^ ». Gustavus Adolphus, terminated to the advantage of Sweden, 

1600-1611. ^^^ g^j^^ united Livonia and a part of Prussia to Finland 
and Esthonia, her other provinces on the Baltic. 

From this time, the power of Poland gradually decayed. An attempt 
at a reformation of the Church, which would have been attended by a 
renovation of the state, and a more intimate connection with neighboring 
ooontries, was suppressed by a selfish nobility, who thought of nothing 
bat increasing their own power and privileges. It was only a few per- 
secuted and fugitive teachers of the new doctrines that found protection 
and toleration in Poland. They were opposed to the Catholic Poles 
under the comprehensive term of DissideniSy and succeeded, after many 
straggles, in obtaining toleration for their religion, and an equality of 
civil rights ; possessions in which they were afterwards seriously dis- 
turbed. Several opinions found toleration in Poland that had been 
rejected by the Reformers as unorthodox. Among these may be men- 
tioned those entertained by the sect -of Socinians (Unitarians) founded 
by the Italian Socinus, who denied the Divine nature of Christ and the 
doctrine of the Trinity. 



§ 351. Traces of the Refonn^tion displayed themselves both in Spain 
and Italy, but were prevented from extending partly by the character of 
the people, and partly by the severity of the Inquisition ; the suspected 
died in frightful dungeons, or at the stake. Among the confessors of the 
new doctrine were found the most illustrious authors and men of learn- 
ing, who, for the most part, took refuge abroad. Some adopted princi- 
ples that were rejected as heretical even by the Reformers ; for example, 
the two Italian brothers, Socinus;* and the Spaniard, Servetus, .who was 
burnt to death at Geneva, at the suggestion of Calvin, for holding unor- 
thodox opinions on the subject of the Trinity (a., d. 1553.) 

The heads and leaders of the Catholic Church did not give up the 
tliought of suppressing the new doctrines: wherever it was in their power, 
they sought to attain this object by persecution and violence ; and when 
this was not practicable, they opposed and impeded their diffusion in 
Adrian VL every possible way. Almost all the popes, even those who, 
A. D. 1522, like Adrian YI. and Paul III., were convinced of the pre- 
1628. vailing abuses of the Church, and meditated plans for their 

Panini., removal, displayed great severity agrinst tlie Protestants. 
A. D. 1534- Thus Paul IV., an octogenarian and a gloomy monk, pro- 
voked the people to such a degree, that, on the day of his 
A. D. 1555 - ^^^^9 ^^^y mutilated his statues, and burnt down the hou^ 
1559. of the Inquisition. His successor, Pius lY., brought to a 

Pius IV., termination the twice interrupted Council of Trent, the third 
A. D. 1559- assembling of which commenced with the January of 1502, 
1666. rpj^^ resolutions of this Council (in which the Catholics see 

their own Reformation), form the foundation of the Catholic Church. 
The religious doctrines that had hitherto been regarded as orthodox were 
here recognized as infallible, and embodied in expressions as indefinite 
as possible; a purer code of morals was established, the Church disci- 
pline improved, and a more rigorous supervision of the clergy established. 
The Council of Trent, which was gradually received in all Catholic 
countries, is the final conclusion of Catholic doctrine ; from this time, no 
more synods have been held. In this manner, every attempt at innova- 
tion was prevented, and the character of stability impressed upon Catho- 
licism ; whilst, on the contrary, the essence of Protestantism is develop- 
ment and progress. 

Gregory xm., Gregory XIII., who gave the calendar, which had fallen 
A. D. 1572 - into confusion, its present improved arrangement, by passing 
^^^- at once from the 18th of February to the Ist of March, 

* This is a mistake. Lffilins Socinns and Fanstas Socinus were not brothers, but ancle 
and nephew. The title of the Bibliotheca Fratrum Pobnorum, a collection of the works of 
the Socinian theologians, may have led Dr. Weber into this error. Awl Ed, 


ordered a Te Deum to be sung for the extirpation of the enemies of 
Christ when he heard the intelligence of the massacre of St. Bartholo- 
mew (§ 863). The most remarkable prince of the Church, during the 
gl^iQ^'y^ whole centurjy was Sixtus V., who, from the condition of a 
A. r. liu - poor shepherd boj, had risen to be a Franciscan, inquisitor, 
1^9^* cardinal, and at length, pope. He was a man of a strong 

and imperious nature, who maintained the discipline of the Church with 
inexorable severity, erected seyeral remarkable buildings, drew forth the 
gigantic works of antiquity from their rubbish, and attempted to restore 
the ancient splendor to the papal chair. 

§ 352. The attempts of the popes to suppress the Reformation, or at 
least to prevent its diffusion, found their chief support in the Order of 
Jesuits, which was founded by Ignatius Loyola, a Spanish 
nobleman of excitable imagination and enthusiastic tempera- 
ment. Affected by the histories of the saints, which he read during the 
healing of a wound, Ignatius renounced the profession of soldier, to which 
he had hitherto belonged, and accomplished a toilsome pilgrimage, with 
prayers and penance, to the Holy Sepulchre. After his return, he 
acquired, with incredible perseverance, the education in which he was 
deficient, in Salamanca and Paris ; and then, together with six associates, 
swore upon the host not only to be true to the three monastic vows of 
poverty, chastity, and obedience, but to allow the object of their efforts 
to be determined on by the pope, and then to submit themselves to his 
decision with unconditional compliance. A short time after, they pros- 
trated themselves at the feet of the Roman pontiff, and obtained a con- 
firmation of the new Order, which received the name of the Society of 
Jesus. Ignatius became the first general of the Order ; but it is not to 
him, but to his successor, the Spaniard, Lainez, that the Society of Jesus 
is indebted for its artfully designed constitution. 

This constitution was military-monarchical. The superintendents of 
the provinces (the provincials), were subject to the general in Rome, and 
under these again were a multitude of heads in various steps and grada- 
tions. Obedience and rigid subordination were the soul of the alliance. 
All the members were most heedfully watched over, and were compelled 
to tear asunder all the bands that connected them with the world. 
Postulants were required to pass through a long period of probation, 
during which, the talents and disposition of every individual were mi- 
nutely scrutinized, so that he might be devoted to his most appropriate 
sphere of action. Tlie Jesuits, who were endowed with great privileges, 
soon attained' a vast and multifarious activity. The chief aim of the Order 
was to oppose Protestantism, and to suppress the freedom of inquiry that 
bad been awakened by the Reforrilation. They attempted these objects 
by a variety of ways ; they endeavored to lead back the adherents of the 
new faith into the bosom of the ancient Church by persuasion and seduce- 


ment ; the confessional was made use of to induce princes and men in 
authority to oppose the Reformation, and to put limits to the freedom of 
belief; and bj the education of jouth, which thej had known how to get 
into their own hands, thej sought to bring up the young in their own 
principles. The Order was enriched by presents and legacies, and this 
wealth facilitated the erection of Jesuitical seminaries, which, plentifnilj 
provided with eveiy thing that was requisite, imparted instmcticm gra- 
tuitously, and thus attracted many of the necessitous. Moreover, tbe 
object aimed at by the instruction given by the Jesuits was not a free 
development of the mind, but only the acquirement of knowledge that 
might be serviceable in life. It might rather be called training than 
education. Sciences were presented in a certain contracted form, and 
free speculation was prevented. Readiness in the Latin language, and 
an acquaintance with a few sciences that were of practical utility, were 
the aim of the Jesuitical education; the means — severe disciph'ne and 
the excitement of ambition : philosophy, on the other hand, histoiy, and 
every thing that directs men's minds to more elevated or comprehensive 
views, were either banished or taught with restrictions. But what drew 
down the curses of the people on the Jesuitical order was, that by its 
dangerous morality it became the destroyer of truth and faith, and the 
disseminator of malicious and false principles. The revolting doctrine 
that the end sanctifies the means, and that words and oaths might be 
rendered invalid by a mental reservation, were brought into use by the 
Jesuits in a most audacious manner. 


(A.D. 1558 — 1603). 

§ 353. Philip II. of Spain was a gloomy and misanthropical prince, 
who proposed three objects to himself as the wms of hb existence,— 
the increase of his power, the extirpation of Protestantism, and the anni- 
hilation of liberty and popular rights. In the attainment of these ends, 
he sacrificed the happiness of his people, the prosperity of his kingdoD, 
and the affection of his subjects and nearest relations. His chivalrous 
half-brother, Don Juan, who defeated the Turks in the sea- 
^* ^* ^' engagement at Lepanto, was surrounded by the suspicious 
king with such a web of falsehood, intrigpie, and espionage, and so fet- 
tered in all his undertakings, that grief and vexation plunged him into an 
early grave. Philip's son, the impetuous and passionate Don Carlos, 
died in the dungeons of the Inquisition, — that mighty spiritual court, 
which, under Philip, became the terror and horror of the people. By 
means of this horrible Inquisition, and the dreadful aiUos c2a/e, he was 
indeed successful in destroying every trace of heresy in Spain and Hir 
pies, and in depriving the people of their freedom ; but he at the same 
lime annihikted the prosperity, the wealth, and the national greatness of 


these countries ; and when he attempted to bend the Netherlands under 
the same joke, that memorable contest burst forth, out of which liberty 
came forth triumphant. After a reign of twelve years, which proved the 
grave of Spain's greatness, and burdened the once rich4and with an op- 
pressive national debt, Philip fell a victim to a dreadful disease. He had 
a cruel executor of his tyrannical commands in Duke Alba. The curse 
of the people rests on the names of both. 


§ 854. Portugal had a similar fate with Spain. In both countries, it 
powerful priesthood supported by an absolute king, suppressed the spirit- 
ual movements of the people, and paralyzed their powers. Freedom 
and rights were lost, and the ancient heroism, the bloom and the pros- 
perity of an earlier period, disappeared beneath sloth and slavery. This 
was particularly the case when Portugal, by a gloomy fatality, was uni- 
ted to Spain. 

King Sebastian, a young man, and who had been educated by the 
priests in rigid faith and obedience to the Church and pope, undertook an 
expedition against the infidel Moors in northern Africa, with the purpose 
of gratifying at once both his zeal for proselytism and his love of oon- 
quest He commenced an impetuous attack, during the 
burning heat of an August day, upon the superior force of 
the enemy, in the plain of Alcassar, and suffered a dreadful defeat. 
12,000 Christian warriors covered the field of battle. Sebastian him- 
self was among those who were missing, but his body could be nowhere 
discovered. The crown of Portugal descended to an ancient relative ; 
tnd when he died, two years afterwards, without children, Philip 11. of 
Spain made pretensions to the kingdom, and sent Duke Alba with an 
army against the Portuguese, who, out of -national hatred and neighbor^ 
ly jealousy, favored the pretensions of a rival claimant, Antonio. But 
the latter was not in a position to contest his pretended hereditary claims 
•gainst the superior power of Spain. He was defeated and compelled 
to fiy, apon which Lisbon and the whole country submitted to the Span- 
iards. Antonio, after a few unsuccessful attempts, died, poor and hara»- 
eed by perpetual plots, in Paris ; and the false Sebastians that arose from 
time to time, and endeavored to stir up the Portuguese against their de- 
tested neighbors, did not meet with the necessary support The fourth 
Sebastian, who by many was regarded as the true one, ended his days in 
A. D. 1580- a Spanish prison. The pernicious domination of Spain over 
1640. Portugal endured for sixty yeftrs. At the end of this peri- 

od, the illustrious duke of Braganza succeeded in bringing the crown 
into his own fomily. But in the meanwhile, the navy of Portugal bad 
fallen into decay, and her foreign possessions passed into other hands. 



§ 355. The Netherlands, from time unmemorialy had possessed char- 
tered rights and liberties, .among which, consent to taxation bj the 
Estates of the country, an independent jadicatnre, and the exclusion of 
Spanish troops and officials, occupied the most prominent place. These 
rights had been already occasionally infringed during the time of CharlfiB 
y. ; but the loye of the emperor for the Netherlanders, among whom he 
had been bom, and for whose manners and customs he retained an affec- 
tion, prevented any greater hostilities. Philip, on the contFBury, was a 
haughty Spaniard, who looked upon the Netherlands as a conquered 
oountiy, and who perpetually Tiolated their hereditary privileges. He 
appointed his half-sister, Margaret of Parma, a woman of masculine 
spirit, his viceregent in Brussels ; but placed a state council at her side, 
in which a foreigner. Cardinal Granvella, was president, and sent a 
Spanish garrison into the countiy. But the Netherlandera, many of 
whom were inclined to the evangelical doctrines, felt themselves most 
aggrieved, when the king, for the purpose of maintaining the pure fidth 
and the discipline of the Church, ordered the laws against heresy to be 
rendered more stringent, and appointed fourteen new bishops in addition 
to the four already existing. These regulations w^ere intended to facili- 
tate the gradual introduction of the Spanish Inquisition ; and the Obi^ 
dinal Granvella, who, as archbishop of Mechlin, had ail the other bishop- 
rics under him, already assumed the title of Grand-Inquisitor. All 
attempts of the patriotic party, at the head of which stood William of 
Orange and Count Egmont, to induce the king by petitions to respect the 
institutions of the country, to mitigate the laws against heresy, and to 
allow freedom of belief, were ineffectual. Philip replied, ^ that he would 
rather die a thousand times, tlum suffer the slightest change in religion.* 

§ 356. It was among the burgher class alone that any disciples of the 
new Church were to be met with ; the nobility for the most part adhered 
to the ancient faith, but were resolute in opposing the Inqubition with all 
November, their power. With this object, about 400 nobles subscribed 
1665. the so-called Compromise, and drew up a petition for the 

repeal of the laws against heresy, and the discontinuance of the proceed- 
ings of the Inquisition. When they presented themselves with this 
before the palace of the vice-regent, she fell into a state of agitation. One 
of the council who was standing beside her exclaimed, that she should 
Jiot be alarmed by these beggars (gueux), a word that was communicated 
to the confederates, and made use of by them as the sign of their alii- 
anee. They named themselves Gueses, and from this time wore a medsl 
<oand the neck, with the effigy of the king, and the inscription, " True to 
the wallet" The petition remained without result Heretics were pun- 
eahed in their freedom, property, and lives. Despite all this, the new 


doctrines made more and more progress ; psalms were sung, the preach- 
ings of the evangelical clergy, which w^re oflen held in the open air, 
were attended by thousands ; monks, images of the Virgin, and holj ob- 
jects were turned to ridicule. At length, the long restrained wrath of 
the people at the religious persecution burst its bounds in Antwerp^ 
Brussels, and the whole of Brabant. A mob, consisting of the lowest 
class of the people, mutilated the crucifixes and images of the saints 
which were standing in the roads ; but the increasing multitude soon 
attacked the churches and cloisters, and perpetrated every kind of sacri- 
legious atrocity. These occurrences produced a division. The moderate 
party joined the regent, and assisted her in punishing the guilty. Order 
was in a short time restored, and Margaret recommended gentleness and 
moderation as the only means by which the tranquillity of the country 
could be permanently established. But her representations found no 
acceptance in Madrid. It was determined to send the cruel Alba with a 
Spanish army to the Netherlands, and to reduce the people by force and 

Alba, A. D. S 357. The intelligence of Alba's arrival caused the Nether- 
1U7-1678. landers to take flight in crowds. William of Orange, a pru- 
dent and circumspect man, in the full vigor of life, resolute, energetic, 
and taciturn, yielded to the storm and retreated to Holland. He parted 
in tears from Egmont, whom he vainly- attempted to persuade to follow 
the same coarse. Egmont's happy nature could not giye credit to the 
Spanish treachery, against which Orange warned him. He trusted to his 
former services to the royal family of Spain, aqd remained. But Alba 
had hardly arrived at Brussels, with unlimited powers, before 
he placed the unsuspecting Egmont and the gallant Horn 
nnder arrest, and caused them, with eighteen others of the nobility, to be 
executed as traitors. He then established a council of rebellion, called 
by the Netherlanders The Bloody Council, which punished with unex- 
ampled severity not only the disciples of the evangelical doctrine, but the 
resolute defenders of their country's rights and institutions. The regent, 
disgusted with these horrors, resigned her office and retired to Italy. Her 
memor}- was held in honor. Alba, however, erected a citadel in Antwerp, 
and for six years (a. d. 1567-1573) exercised an oppressive tyranny 
that threatened the greatest danger to liberty and prosperity. Without 
regard to the laws of the land, which required that the taxes should be 
allowed by the Estates df eveiy district, and collected in a manner the 
best suited to their object. Alba imposed a fixed tax upon the country, 
and levied it in a manner extremely unfavorable to trade and commerce, 
tnasmoch as, in addition to a property tax, he introduced a high tariff. 
'The discontent and irritation of the people at these oppressive imposts at 
length produced such a fermentation in the countiy, that Alba's recall 
was decided upon in Madrid. The intelligence that a band of exilee^ 


I called Water-Gkieses, had stormed the sea-port, Briel, and that the north- 

! era states, Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, and Friealand, had united together 

I and reco^ized William of Orange as their Stadtholder, 

miglit have convinced the Spanish court that Alba's pro- 
ceedings were not leading to the desired result. Shortly after the Duke's 
departure from the Netherlands, the northern states, in the synod of 
Dort, raised Calvinism to be the religion of the state, received the Heid- 
elberg Catechism, and erected a Protestant university in the town of 
Leyden, as a reward for the heroic defence of the citizens against the 
beleaguering Spanish army. 
I Zaniga, a. d. § ^^^' Alba's successor, Louis of Zuniga and Rcquesceni, 

j 16T8-1676. abolished the Bloody Council, and attempted by milder mea- 

sures again to confirm the tottering power of Spain in the Netherlands; 
but the hatred of the people against the foreign troops, whose licentious- 
ness every day increased, prevented a reconciliation. Even his victoiy 
on the Mokerheath, where two of the brothers of Orange died as became 
heroes, failed in producing the expected results. Zuniga died two years 
afterwards. Before his successor, Don Juan, Philip's gallant half- 
Don Joan brother, could enter upon his difiicult office, the insolence of 
I A. D. 1576- the savage and unpaid soldiery attained its highest pitch. 

j 1W8. xhgy fiiigji ii^g wealthy cities of Maestricht and Antwerp 

with murder, plunder, and desolation. At this crisis, the shrewd Orange 
was successful in uniting the whole of the states, by the 
alliance of Ghent, in the resolution of mutually assisting eack 
other, with life and property, in driving out the Spanish troops; aod 
Don Juan was not in a position, during the brief period of his exertions 
in the Netherlands, to reestablish firmly the shattered power of Spaio. 
Alexander ^^^ ^^° Juan, as well as his more experienced successor, 
Famese, a. d. Alexander Famese of Parma, son of the regent, Margaret^ 
1678-1692. ^as intent upon fostering the jealousy and hereditary envy 
between the northern and southern states, and on maintaining the rights of 
the Catholic Church in the latter, that the dominion of Spain might be 
preserved in the southern states at least. This scheme was seen through 
by Orange, who, being convinced that even the weak were strengthened 
by union, united the northern states, (Holland, Zealand, Geld- 
ers, Utrecht, Friesland), into a closer confederacy for the 
purpose of mutual cooperation, by the Union of Utrecht This alliance 
was the foundation of the United States of the Pix>testant Nctheriands. 
On the other hand, matters in the south became every day more confused 
and divided by the intermeddling of foreign princes and nobles, so that 
the energetic Parma was enabled in many places to suppress the in$a^ 
rection, and to bring back many of the towns to obedience* Philip'< 
wrath was now directed against Orange. He had already outlawed him, 
aod promised a title of nobility and a vast reward to whosoever sbooU 


ddiver bim ap eitlier alive or dead. This tempting promise, and the ac- 
tivity of fanatical priests, were followed bj several attempts at assassina* 
tioD. Orange escaped one of these, but the ballet of the fanatic, Ger- 
hard Af Franche-Comt^, laid him dead at the door of the 
royal banqueting-haU of Delft The murderer was however 
seixed and put to a cruel death. In the place of Orange, the northern 
states elected his gallant son, Maurice, as Stadtholder and general. 

§ 859. About this time, the religious animosity between Catholics and 
Protestants was greater than ever in the west of Europe ; and whilst 
the former placed aU their hopes upon Philip of Spain, the latter receiv- 
ed assistance either private or open from Elizabeth of England. She 
sent her favorite, Leicester, with an army into the Netherlands, to pre- 
vent Parma's complete triumph; she assisted the Huguenots against 
Philip's allies, the Leaguists and Jesuits (§ 862, 864), and consented to 
the execution of Mary Stuart, when she found that her 
own life was threatened by the daggers of fanatics (§ 868). 
Upon this, Philip determined to annihilate all ^e enemies of the Catho- 
lic Church by a mighty blow, and above all, to chastise heretical Eng- 
hnd and her excommunicated queen. With this view, he fitted out the 
Armada or ** Invincible Fleet," consisting of 180 large ships of war, and 
sont them into the Channel, under the command of Medina 
Sidonia, to the end that, supported by Parma's land force, 
they might subject, at the same time, England, France, and the Nether- 
hmds. But the undertaking ended in the shame and ruin of Spain. The 
** Invincible Fleet** was destroyed by storms, and the skill and courage 
of Uie English ; the greater part of that which escaped the fire-ships, the 
ro^ and the enemy, in the Channel, was wrecks upon the Hebrides 
aad Shetland islands, when Sidonia attempted to return to Spain by 
flailing round Scothuid. It was a fatal blow. Philip admitted this, when 
he composed the fears of the trembling admiral with the words, '^ I sent 
yoQ against men,'not against rocks and storms." This event destroyed 
Spain's supremacy at sea, and secured the independence of the Nether- 
lands. The war, indeed, continu'ed for twenty years longer ; but the Span- 
iards, despite the bravery of their troops and the skill of their command- 
ers, were not in a condition to subject the whole of the country. The 
northern states, who possessed an admirable leader in Maurice of Or- 
ange, maintained the struggle for freedom and independence. A short 
time before his death, Philip presented the Netherlands to his daughter, 
Clara Eugenia, on her marriage with the archduke, Albert of Austria, 
as a fief, under the condition, that the land should revert to Spain in the 
event of her dying without children. The United States of Holland, 
howeyer, would not consent to this scheme. They still continued the 
^ war after the death of Philip II., till at length, by the intei^ 

mediation of Henry IV. of France, a truce was arranged, 


bj which their independence, reli^ous freedom, and trade with the East 
Indies were secured to them. But it was not tali the peace of Westpha- 
lia that the independence of the United States of HoUand was foanaaHj 
acknowledged. The southern provinces (Belgium), on the other hand, 
remained for a whole century subject to Spain, and then fell into the 
hands of Austria. 

§ 860. Trade. — GovERKMEyr. — Stnod of Dobt. — Holland 
came forth from the struggle flourishing and powerful. Nayigation and 
commerce received a vast impulse, after the Hollanders (particularij the 
East India Company, established in 1602) entered into ^rect commer* 
cial relations with India, and deprived the Portuguese of many of their 
colonies. Batavia, in the island of Java, was the centre of their lucra- 
tive traffic. The Constitution of the United States, which was mainly 
the work of the great statesman. Van Olden Bamveldt, was republicin. 
The States General, which were formed by deputies from the seven 
provinces, possessed the power of legislation ; the High Council, with 
the stadtholder at its head, conducted the government ; the ai&irs of 
war, however, and the supreme command over the sea and land forces, 
belonged to the stadtholder alone. The arts and sciences at the same 
time flourished prosperously ; the study of antiquity, in particalar, met 
with unusual attention in the Dutch universities. 

But even Protestant Holland did not remain free from the mischiev- 
ous wars of religion. A dispute respecting the Calvinistic doctrine of 
predestination divided the country into two parties, — a severe party 
(Gomarists), to which Maurice of Orange and his adherraits attadied 
themselves, and a moderate party (Arminians), whose supporters were 
Van Olden Bamveldt and Hugo Grotius. The synod of Dort (§ 342) 
decided in &vor of the former ; upon which, Van Olden Bamveldt, who 
had deserved so highly^ and was then in his seventy-second year, perish- 
ed on the scaffold ; and Hugo Grotius, the learned hbtorian of the strag- 
gles of the Netherlands for liberty, and the founder of civil and interna- 
tional law according to the principles of the ancients, was confined in 
prison till rescued by the cunning and fidelity of his wife. 


I 361. During this period, furious religious wars were raging in France 
also. Henry U., a determined enemy of the Huguenots (§ 342), died in 
consequence of a wound he received during a tournament His feeble 
YnnaiB IL, <^d delicate son, Francis U., was his successor. This prince 
A. D. was married to the fascinating Mary Stuart of Scotland, 

1669-1660. ^i^QgQ uncles, the Guises, in consequence, enjoyed great in- 
fluence at the French court. The Guises, as zealous adherents of the 
Cathdic Church and the papacy, made use of their loflty position to sup- 
press the reformed party ; but by doing this, gave their opponents, and 


in especial, the Prince Cond^, of the familj of Bourbon, and the Admi- 
ral CoHgniy the opportunity of strengthening themselves by joining the 
Hugnenots. The schism increased daily ; the one party strove to over- 
throw the other, and to secure the victory to their own side by the as- 
sistance of the king. The day on which the Estates assembled at Or- 
leans was selected by both parties as a befitting time for the execution of 
this project. The Guises gained the advantage. The chiefs of the Hu- 
guenots already found themselves in prison, when a turn was given to 
affiurs by the sudden death of the king. The queen-mother, Catherine 
of Medicis, placed herself at the head of affairs during the minority of 
Charles DL, ^be new king, Charles IX., and the Bourbons assumed a 
A. IK 1560- position suited to their birth. The Guises, irritated at the 
^^^^ neglect they experienced, retired with their niece, Mary Stu- 

art, into Lorraine, whence the latter, shortly after, departed with sorrow 
and mourning into Scotland. 

$ 862. The removal of the Guises from the court was of advantage 
to the reformed party. They obtained toleration. Enraged at this con- 
cession, the duke of Guise concluded an alliance with some other power- 
ful nobles for the preservation of the ancient futh in France, and return- 
ed to Paris. During this return, a horrible slaughter was perpetrated 
by the Guises and their attendants upon some Calvinists of the town of 
Yassy, who were assembled together in a bam, for the celebration of 
Dirine worship. This proved the signal for a religious war. The out- 
rage given to the conceded liberty of conscience by this bloody act of 
violence cried for vengeance. France was soon divided into two hostile 
camps, that attacked each other with bitter animosity and religious rage. 
The most horrible atrocities were committed, and the kingdom disturbed 
to its inmost depths. The Catholics obtained aid from Rome and Spain, 
the Protestants were assisted by England ; Germany and Switzerland 
supplied soldiers. After the undecisive battle of Dreux, and the murder 
of the Duke Francis of Guise, at the siege of Orleans, peace was for a 
short time restored, and the Calvinists again assured of religious tolera- 
tion — a promise that met with but little attention. The two parties 
1. IMS. ^^^ ^^^° again arrayed in arms against each other. But 
despite the bravery of the Huguenots in the battle of St. 
Denis, where the elder Montmorend lost his life, the superiority remain- 
ed on the side of the Catholics ; particularly when Catherine de Medicis, 
who had hitherto sided with neither party, embraced the interests of the 
Ifttter. The sight of crucifixes and sacred objects broken to pieces, dur- 
ing a journey undertaken by the queen and her son, and the advice of 
the duke of Alba, with whom she had an interview in Bayonne, had 
produced this alteration in her opinions. After several bloody engage- 
ments in the vicinity of La Bochelle, which the Huguenots had selected 
tt their battlefield, and after their gallant leader, Conde, had been basely 


assiusinated daring one of them, the peace of St Grermain was arrai^ 
edt by which the Calvinists were again assured of the free exercise of 
their religion. Condi's nephew, Henry of Bearo, who hjid 
been bred up in the doctrine of Calvin bj his mother, Joanna 
von Albret, now placed himself at the head of the Huguenots; bat the 
^soul of the party was the brave Coligni, who stood by the side of the 
prince as his guide and adviser. 

S 363. Coligni possessed great influence at the court after the peace. 
The young king respected him, and favored him with his confidence. 
For the purpose of bringing about a permanent reconciliation betweea 
the religious parties, the king now urged a marriage between his sister, 
Margaret of Valois, and the Bourbon, Henry of Beam. This offended 
the Guises, who believed that Coligni had procured the assassination of 
Francis of Guise, and they resolved upon his destruction. Coligni was 
fired at one evening, as he was returning to his own house from the 
Louvre. The ball, however, only shattered his arm, and it was neoes- 
sary to devise a fresh plan of destruction. The Guises, in oonjunctioii 
with Catherine of Medicis, now entertained the horrible project of taking 
advantage of the approaching marriage, for the solemnization of which 
many illustrious Calvinists had hastened to the capital, to destroy the 
chiefs of the Huguenot party. Thus originated the Bloody Nuptiids of 
Paris, in the night of St. Bartholomew, August 24th, 1572. When the 
alarm bell of St. Germain TAuxerrois gave the signal at midnight, bands 
of armed ruffians fell upon the defenceless Calvinists. The grey-headed 
hero, Coligni, was the first victim that the Guises sacrificed to their hate ; 
the murderous bands then marched through all parts of the city, filled 
the streets and houses with blood and corpses^ and laughed to scorn every 
sentiment of humanity and justice. The butchery lasted for three days, 
and was imitated in other towns, so that, at the lowest computation^ 
25,000 Huguenots must have perished. The king, to whom the plan 
was communicated a short time before its execution, listened to the voioe 
of his passions, and himself fired upon the fugitives. Afler the deed had 
been accomplished, and the Guises had been fixed upon by the public 
voice as. its instigators, and called upon to answer for their conduct, 
Charles took the whole affair upon himself, and excused the crime by a 
pretended conspiracy. Many of the French quitted their homes in hor- 
ror, and sought for security in Switzerland, Germany, and the Nether- 
lands. Henry of Beam saved his life by a compulsatory abjuration, bat 
returned to his old faith as soon as he found himself in security. 

§ 364. Charies IX. died two years after the night of 
St. Bartholomew, troubled with evil dreams. His brother 
g^^^j^ Qf Henry, who had been for a twelvemonth the elected king of 
jL D. 1674- Poland, fied secretly from the rude shores of the Yistuk to 
1589. (ij^e possession of the fairer crown of France. Heniy HL 

A. D. 1674. 


was a weak and luzuriouB prince, without either asfiidoity or energy. 
Shut up with his favorites and pet dogs in the inmost apartments of the 
palace, he forgot his kingdom with its disturbances and miseries; and 
when remorse at his sinful life, which was passed in lust and debaucheiy, 
seized upon him, he sought consolation in superstitious devotion, in pil- 
grimages and processions, and in penance and flagellations. To bring 
the Huguenots to peace, so that he might be able to devote himself to the 
undisturbed enjoyment of the pleasures of his capital, Henry, inunediat^y 
upon his accession, granted them freedom of conscience, and equal civil 
rights with the Catholics. Enraged at these concessions, which destroyed 
all th^ fruits of their previous exertions, the zealous Catholics, under the 
guidance of Henry of Guise, and with the cognizance of Philip II. of 
Spain, concluded die Holy League for the preservation of the Churcb in 
all its ancient rights. Many members were won to this alliance by the 
insinuations of the priests and monks, and by the intrigues of the Jesuits. 
The fickle and faithless king, disturbed by this movement, united himself 
with the Catholic zealots, declared himself the head of the League, and 
curtailed the religious peace. The duke of Anjou, Henry's younger 
brother, died a few years after this; and as he, like the king, was without 
children, the Bourbon, Henry of Navarre (Beam), became the nearest 
heir to the throne. This prospect of a Protestant king 
alarmed the Catholic part of France, and gave fresh vigor 
to the League. The weak king was obliged to recall all treaties with the 
Huguenots, to announce the extirpation of heresy, and to approve the 
arraDgements of the League. Henry of Guise, at first, only entertained 
the notion of putting aside the Protestant successor to the throne, who 
had been excommunicated by the pope ; but his courage rose with his 
increasing power ; he soon made attempts upon the crown himself, whilst, 
as a pretended descendant of the Carlovingi, he asserted the superiority 
of his claims to those of the reigning family. A conspiracy was formed 
in Paris (where the citizens were kept in a state of perpetual agitation 
by fanatical popular orators) against the freedom or life of the king; and 
w^en Henry IIL attempted to defend himself by calling in Swiss troops, 
the agitation burst into rebellion. The people assembled themselves 
around the Guises, who, against the king's commands, were entering the 
capital, barricaded the streets and bridges, and commenced 
^ * a furious contest with single divisions of the troops. The 

trembling king fled with his favorites to Chartres, and lefl his capital in 
the hands of his rival. Henry of Guise now possessed the same power 
that had belonged to the mayors of the palace in the time of the Mero* 
September, vingi (§ 184). But even this position did not satisfy the am- 
16S8. bitious party leader. An assembly of £states, convoked a| 

Blois, where the adherents of the Guises were the strongest party, propoa* 
ed not only to deprive the Bourbons of their right to the throne and to ex* 


terminate Calvinism, but to change the government, and to place the 
whole power in the hands of the Guises. At this crisis, Henry hazarded 
a bold stroke ; he had the duke of Guise and his brother, the Gardmal 
Louis, assassinated, and imprisoned the most influential leaders of their 
party. This proceeding produced a fearful commotion in the whole 
nation: in Paris, alle^ance was renounced to the God-forsaken king, 
who had overthrown the pillar of Catholicism ; the pope fulminated an 
excommunication at him ; revolutionary movements took place in many 
quarters. Despbed and forsaken, Henry m. saw no other way to safety 
open to him than an alliance with Henry of Navarre and the Huguenots. 
A frightful civil war burst out afresh, but fortune was hostile to the 
League. Henry had already laid siege to Paris, and threatened to 
reduce the faithless town to a heap of ruins, when the knife of a fanatical 
monk put an end to liis life. Henry IIL, the last Yalois, died on the 1st 
of August, 1589, after appointing Henry of Navarre and Beam his suc- 

§ 365. Henry IV. had still a long struggle to sustain before his head 
was ornamented by the crown of France. Mayenne, the brother of the 
murdered Guise, placed himself at ihe head of the League, and offered a 
vehement resistance to the Calvinistic claimant of the throne. Philip TL 
sought to turn the confusion to his own advantage, and commanded his 
able general, Alexander of Parma, to march his forces from the Nether- 
lands into France. Henry tried for a long time to get possession of his 

inheritance by the sword : he laid siege to Paris, and caused 

the citizens to feel all thQ horrors of famine ; but he at length 
became convinced that he never could gain peaceable possession of the 
French throne by battles and victories. He thought the crown of France 
Jul 1598 ^^ worth a mass, and went over to the Catholic Church in 

the cathedral of St. Denis, and by this means destroyed tbe 
power of the League. Paris now threw open its gates, and welcomed 
the bringer of peace with acclamations. The pope recalled the anathe- 
ma ; the heads of the League concluded a treaty with him, and Philip H, 
a short time before his death, consented to the peace of Vervins. After 
1698 ^^r®'gn «"*d domestic tranquillity had been thus restored to 

France, the king, by the Edict of Nantes, conferred upon the 
Calvinists liberty of conscience, the full rights of citizenship, and many 
other privileges ; such as separate chambers in the courts of justice, 
several castles, with all their warlike munitions (La Rochelle, Montaa- 
bkn, Nismes, &c,) and freedom from episcopal jurisdiction. He next 
sought to heal the wounds that had been inflicted on the land by the war, 
by encouraging agriculture, trade, and commerce ; and had the economy 
of the state and the taxation admirably arranged by his friend and minis- 
ter, Sully. He won for himself the warmest affections of his people by 
his genuine French character, and by his cordial and cheerful disposition. 


Hu solitary failing, his too great love for women, was a merit in tlie 
ejes of the French. But fanaticism was only slumbering. Henry's 
tolerant disposition towards heretics awakened it As he was meditating 
the Tast plan (with the approval of the Dutch Union and other European 
powers) of founding a Christian community with equal privileges for the 
three Confessions, and by this means destroying the supre- 
macy of the royal house of Hapsborg, he fell beneath the 
knife of Bavaillac. 


EHiabeth ^ ^^^' ^^^^ France was being torn to pieces by the war 

JUD.165S- of religion, Enghind, under Elizabeth, was making mighty 
1608. advances in trade and commerce, in navigation, agriculture, 

•nd literature. Elisabeth was a despotic ruler, who suppressed the 
ecclesiastical freedom of the people, and who would suffer no opposition 
to her will in parliament; but she possessed great talents for govern- 
ment, a mind invigorated by severe studies, and an understanding that 
enabled her invariably to recognize and select that whidi was most pro- 
fitable for the country. She surrounded herself by sage councillors, 
among whom, Cecil (Lord Burleigh) held the first raiik, and maintained 
order and economy in the management of the state ; but the dissimula- 
tion she had been accustomed to practise during her perilous youth, 
rendered the crw^ed path of falsehood, and the subterfuges of a dis- 
mgenoous policy agreeable to her. She displayed the latter more 
especially, in her conduct towards Mary Stuart, queen of Scotland, who, 
in character, personal qualities, and history, formed a contrast to her 
neighboring rival. Whilst Elizabeth, from Uie misfortunes of her youth, 
bad carried with her into life a dowry of unamiability, severity, false- 
hood« and envy, the beautiful Mary, after a youth passed in joy and 
happiness, had brought to the Scottish throne a cheerful and engaging 
nature, an open heart, and a joyous disposition ; and whilst the English 
qoeen was closely bound to Protestantism, and united in one Church with 
ber people, Mary held fast to the Catholic faith and the papacy, in the 
midst of a rude nation, who, with their own hands, had raised the Fres- 
bjterian Church to be the Church of the kingdom, and who detested the 
mass as idolatry. Her private chapel was attacked, and the stem 
reformer, Knox, pronounced severe discourses against her from the 
pulpit of the palace, as the prophets had once done against the idolatrous 
kings of IsraeL 

I 367. Mary united herself in a second marriage with 
. ' Damley, a Scotch nobleman, who had been brought up in 
England. The union, however, proved unfortunate. The vain, unthink- 
ing husband, abandoned to the counctb of insincere friends, found plea* 
snre in nothing but hunting and feasting ; and was indignant at finding 


that the queen neglected him, and bestowed her ooofidence on the Binger, 
Rizsio, from Turin, who conducted her correspondence with the Guises 
and the pope. Damlej, urged on by jeakmsy, and a feeling of injoFed 
honor, and irritated bj malicious friends, fbroMd a conspiracy with some 
nobles, — and Mary's favorite, pierced by many daggers, fell 
lifeless before the eyes of his mistress, in her own chamber. 
This horrible deed filled the heart of the queen with bitterness against 
her husband, of whose guilt, despite his denial, she felt convinced. She 
separated herself more and more from him, entertained thoughts of a 
divorce, and turned her favor upon Bothwell, another Scottish nobleman. 
It was not till Daniley fell ill that she appeared to lay aside her displea- 
sure. She attended upon him with the greatest assiduity, in a remote 
Febraaryio, garden house. But the inhabitants of Edinburgh were 
1M7. awakened one night, during Mary's absence, by a dreadful 

explosion. The garden house was found shattered to pieces, and IkuiH 
ley's body, at some distance, apparently suffocated. The public voice 
pointed out Bothwell as the perpetrator of the deed ; and diree months 
after, he was Mary's husband. Was it at all wonderful that she was 
accused of being an accomplice in the murder? Irritated at this criminal 
marriage, the Scottish nobility took up arms. BothweU fled before the 
battle was fought, and led the life of a freebooter near the Hebrides, but 
was taken by the Danes, and died in prison, insane. Mary was led in 
triumph to Edinburgh, amidst the execrations of her people, and then 
imprisoned in a solitary castle on the island of Lochleven, where she was 
compelled to abdicate her crown, and to transfer the government to her 
half-brother, Murray, during the minority of her son, James. Mary, 
indeed, escaped, and found assistance from the powerful family of Hamil- 
ton; but having been overcome in a battle, she would have fallen a 
second time into the hands of her enemies, had she not fled 
with the greatest haste into England, to seek protection from 

§ 368. The queen of England declined every interview with Maiy 
until the latter should have cleared herself fVom the charge of having 
murdered her husband ; and since Mary, as an independent sovereign, 
would not submit herself to an English tribunal, it was considered neces- 
sary to retain her in England. But her presence soon endangered Eliza- 
beth's safety. The duke of Norfolk attempted to gain Mary's hand, but 
lost first his freedom and afterwards his life. The ancient Church still 
numbered many adherents in the northern counties ; the earla of North- 
umberland and Westmoreland raised the standard of rebellion, with the 
purpose of setting Mary at liberty, and restoring the Catholic Church. 
Their undertaking failed. Northumberland, given up by the 
Soots as a fugitive, died upcm the scaffold. Mary was sua- 
peoled as as aooompUce; she was removed from that neighborhood and 


more closely watched. All the efforts of foreign courts to procure her 
liberation were fruitless. The disturbed state of Scotland, where the 
rage of party was leadii^ to assassination and civil war, and the religious 
contests on the continent^ seemed to render her continued imprisonment 
necessary. At this juncture, Babmgton, with a few companions, embraced 
the project of murdering Elizaheth, and placing Mary, by the aid of 
Spanish troops, upon the English throne. Their purpose was discovered. 
The conspirators died upon the scaffold, and when it appeared, upon 
examination, that Mary was privy to the plot, the court pronounced her 
guilty, and Elizabeth was requested by the parliament, for the preserva^ 
tion of religion and the peace of the country, and for the security of her 
own person, to let justice take its course. She wished for the death of her 
enemy, but she feared the consequences. At length, the struggle ended. 
Elizabeth signed the death-warrant, and Burleigh had it hastily executed. 
Mary's head fell on the 7th of February, 1587, in the nineteenth year 
of her imprisonment and the forty-fiflh of her life. She died with firm- 
neas, and true to her faith. Elizabeth, however, complained that her 
minister had ordered the execution against her commands, and punished 
ker secretary, Davison, by fine and imprisonment, for having let the 
warrant go out of his hands. 

$ 369. The pope and Philip IL heard of the deed with horror. The 
former outlawed the heretical queen, and summoned the Catholic powers 
to vengeance ; the latter fitted out the vast Armada (§ 859), for the 
parpose of subjecting England and the Netherlands at one blow, and of 
afterwards founding a Catholic empire in the west of Europe, under the 
rapremacy of Spain. But the deslruction of the ^Invincible Fleet" 
raised the renown of England and its queen, and laid the foundation of 
Britain's empire of the sea and of the greatness of her commerce. From 
this time, her trade, her navigation, and her colonies, received a vast 
impnlse. Drake, the celebrated circumnavigator of the globe, and other 
maritime heroes, had discovered the element on which the power and 
glory of England were to be raised. 

It was only in Ireland that Elizabeth's undertakings were unsuccessfuL 
This island, which for centuries had been conquered, but never taken 
possession of, had been raised into a kingdom by Henry YIII., and sub- 
jected to the religious laws of England. But it was only a small pro- 
portion of the population, namely, the British colonists, who received the 
Beformationj the native Irish remained true to their ancient faith and 
clergy. Elizabeth attempted to bring about a closer political and eccle- 
siastical union between the island and England. The earl of Tyrone, 
one of the military chiefs, opposed himself to this project, and obtained 
help from Spain and Rome. Upon this, the chivalrous earl of Essex, 
to whom the queen had transferred the favor she had so long bestowed 
^OQ his unworthy father-in-law, the earl of Leicester, received the go- 


vernorship of Ireland. Bat instead of sabduing Tjroiie, he condoded a 
disadyantageoas treaty with him. Eflsez, by this meana, incurred the 
displeasure of the qaeen ; and when, instead of waiting qaietly far a 
more favorable time, he formed a plot with James of Sootknd, and at- 
tempted to compel £lizabeth by an insurrection to appcHut James her 
successor, he was seized, and beheaded in the Tower, at the age of thirty- 
three. Grief and remorse at the death of her favorite, and the oon- 
sciousness that the affections of her people had mnch cooled towards her, 
embittered the last years of the queen's life to such a degree, that she 
passed days and nights in tears on the cushions with which the floon 
were covered, till her death, at the age of seventy years, put an end to 
her sorrows. On her death bed, she appointed Mar/s son, James of 
Scothuid, her successor. 


S 870. Civilization received a mighty impulse during the sixteenth 
century in all countries. Schools were improved and universitiea mul- 
tiplied ; art and literature were fostered and supported. The woris of 
the ancients, which were everywhere translated and explained, awakened 
new views and cultivated the taste ; and the mental energy that had 
been caUed into existence by the disputes respecting religion and the 
Church, furthered the general cultivation and enlightenment, and exalted 
literary activity. The interest in intellectual gifts produced marveDoos 
creations in the regions of art and science. Germany and Italy were 
considered the chief seminaries of civilization. 

1. The science of antiquity was more especially cultivated and devel- 
oped in the numerous universities of Germany, and those learned eemi- 
naries that rested upon the study of the ancient classical literature were 
established by the efforts of Melancthon, which extended themselves 
Copernicus ^^^^ *^ countries. It was in Germany that Nicholas Coper- 
A. D. nicus, the great astronomer of Thorn, showed that the 

1478-1648. Ptolemaic system of the universe, the truth of which had 
remained unquestioned for fifteen hundred years, was founded on inoo^ 
rect data ; that the sun remained stationary in the midst of the planetaiy 
system, but that the earth, like the other planets, in additioi^ to the revo- 
lution on its axis, had besides an extremely regular elliptical motion 
Kepler, around the sun. And Kepler, one of the greatest thinken 

A. D 1671- of any age, sought, in the spirit of Plato, for the laws that 
1681. govern the eternal order of the world, with the inspiratioo 

of a prophet, and the creative power of a poet Unappredated, bow- 
ever, and persecuted by religious zealots, he led a melancholy life, in (be 


midst of opprefirive anxieties for the means of living. It fared no bet- 
Q^j^^ ter with his great eontemporarj^ Galileo of Pisa, who, be- 

A.D.i6d5- cause he shared the astronomical opinions of Copernicus, 
1681. ^1^ summoned before the tribunal of the Inquisition, and 

compelled to renounce his opinions on his knees. He was obliged after 
this to linger for some years in the dungeons of the Inquisition, where 
he contracted an affection of the eyes, which afterwards terminated in 

In the mean time, the ^ Meisteraong," a kind of burgher poetry in 
HtDs S«ehs which Hans Sachs, a shoemaker of Nuremberg, particularly 
A, D. 1494- distinguished himself, was flourishing in the German towns ; 
1570- and Sebastian Brandt <(f Strasbuig (author of the '' Ship of 

i«8^-i62i^ Fools"), and John Fischart of Mayence, raised satirical di- 
Fisehart, a. d. dactic poetiy to high perfection. Luther, however, was the 
U^i- creator of German prose by his translation of the Bible, and 

the founder of German sacred poetry by his spiritual hymns. 

The Grermans were also distinguished at this time in the fine arts. 
The pictures of Albert Durer (a. d. 1548), Hans Holbein (▲. d. 1563), 
and Lucas Cranach (a. d. 1553), are still much esteemed, although they 
do not rival those of their great Italian contemporaries, Michael Angelo 
(a. d. 1563), Baphael (a. d. 1520), Titian (a. d. 1576), Leonardo da 
Vinci (a. d. 1519), or Correggio (a. d. 1543). 

2. In Italy, the flourishing period of art and literature, which had 
commenced in the fifteenth century, <^ntinued throughout the whole of 
UKechiETsUi, the sixteenth. In Florence, Macchiavelli, one of the acutest 
A. D. 1627. of thinkers and most politic of statesmen, composed his re* 
markable works, ^ Discourses on Titus Livius," ** History of Florence," 
'^The Prince," which still excite universal admiration. In the much 
talked-of book ^ The Prince," Macchiavelli presents the picture of a ruler 
who, without regard to virtue, morality, or religion, knows how to esta- 
blbh his own absolute power, and to make his own will the law. Freedom 
and national prosperity are as little regarded in this book as truth and 
justice ; intellect alone is held in any estimation. For this reason, a 
Ariotto, futhless system of policy is distinguished by the epithet, 
A. D. 1474- Macchiavellian. In Ferrara, Ariosto wrote the fascinating 
^' and sportive heroic poem of " Orlando Furioso ; " and the 
T«aco,A.D. melancholy Torquato Tasso celebrated the first crusade in 
1^96. beautiful language in his '' Jerusalem. Delivered." 

3. The sixteenth century was the golden age of art and literature in 
(^^y^^i,^^ Spain and Portugal also. Cervantes, in his comico-satirical 
A.D. romance of ^ Don Quixote," has represented, with such art, 
1547-1616. II mmi ^]io completely mistakes the misty creations of a 
world of dreams for actual existences, and fights for an object that exists 
iK>where but in his own imagination, that the name of his hero has be- ^ 


856 tHS M ODEIOr spoch. 

Lope de Vegft, come prorertnftL The drunalie poetrj cf Spdn nmAid iti 
A.D.iSi8- colmiiialiiig point in Lope de Y^m nd CUderan. The 
^***' Portngnese poet, Osmoens, hts ennobled the grett epodi of 

^^^ thediflooTeiyoflndiainhispoeniafthe^Losiid.* Dmiiig 
lesr! a pwMge home from the Eiist Indies, he lost his property 

Camoenf, ^7 ^ shipwredc, and saved nothing hot his poem, thiit lie 
A. D. 1624- held fast with his teeth as he swam. In Portngal, he gra- 
1M9. dually fell into soch poverty that he had bread collected by 

an Indian servant to prevent his dying of hanger. 

4. In England, William Shakspeare, one of the greatest poets of any 
Shakspeare, ^^9^ gave its fiiU perfection to dramatie poetiy, whether 
▲. D. 1564- tragedy or comedy. EUs great dramas are fbonded either 
^"•- upon historical events ("Henry IV.," ** Richard III.'^,or 

npon the ordinary events of human life (** Macbeth,** ^ Lear,** ** Boneo 
and Juliet," ''OtheUo"); the best known of his comedies are, «< Mid- 
summer Night's Dream," and "The Merry Wives of Windsor ; ** in the 
latter, the fat Falstaff, the companion of Henry Y., and the type of a 
comic character, plays the chief part 


1. THE THIRTY YEARS* WAR (A. D, 1618-1648). 


f 871. Whilst the daric fanaticism of Philip 11. was plunging tk 
Ferdinand L, West of Europe into a bloody religious war, arras were st 
A. p. 1666- rest in Germany under the gentle government of FerdinsiMl 
^^^' * I. and Maximilian II. Both these princes upheld the Peace 

^aximilian, ^f Religion with impartiality and justice (§ 340). But when, 
1576. ^^^^ ^^^ premature death of Maximih'an II., his son, Rudolf 

Badolf n. ^^'f ^^^ ^^ ^®° brought up in Spain, came to the throoe, 
A. D. 1676- complaints arose of the infringement of the law, and of vio- 
1612. lation of liberty of conscience. Rudolf, a prince zealoaslj 

devoted to the Catholic Church, but possessed of slender talents for 
government, neglected the affairs of his kingdom for the study of astro- 
nomy, painting, and antiquities, and trusted to the advice of the Jesniti, 
who strewed with busy hands the seeds of religious discord, and called 
forth strife, party-spirit, and confusion, both in the Gennan empire vA 
in the hereditary states of Austria. When the archbishop, Gebhaid of 


Cologne, went over to the evangelical Church, that he might marrj the 
heautif nl countess of Mansfeld, he was deprived of his dignity ; a pro- 
ceeding that was declared by the evangelical States to be an infringe- 
ment of the '^spiritual proviso." The archduke, Ferdmand, bred up and 
guided by the Jesuits, refused the numerous Protestants in Styria, 
Carinthia, and Erain, the religious liberties they had hitherto enjoyed ; 
had the evangelical churches and schools pulled down, and the Bibles 
burnt, and drove out of Ihe country, without mercy, all those who refused 
to attend the mass. The imperial city of Donauworth, which was chiefly 
Protestant, was placed qnder the ban for disturbing a procession, taken 
possession of by the impatient duke, Maximilian I. of Bavaria, and 
deprived of its Protestant worship. It was in vain that the evangelical 
Estates presented complaints ; the weak and indifferent emperor gave no 
redress. It was on this account that a number of evangelical princes 
A. 0.1608. ^'^ imperial cities concluded a Protestant Union, at the 
instigation of the Elector of the Palatinate, for mutual 
A. D. 1609. assistance against aggression and violence. This Union was 
opposed by the Catholic League, formed by Maximilian of Bavaria and 
the spiritual Electors (Mayence, Treves, ond Cologne), and some bishops 
(Wnrzburg, Augsburg, &c.). la this manner, Germany was again 
dirided: the League united itself with Spain ; the Union secured the aid 
of Henry of France and the Butch. The death of the childless duke of 
Ckves and Berg, which occasioned a quarrel for his inheritance between 
the palgrave of Neuburg, who had gone over to the Catholic Church, 
and the evangelical Elector of Brandenburg, gave the first occasion for 
hostilities between the two religious parties. After a long and destruc- 
tire war, a division was agreed upon, by which Cleves was allotted to 
Brandenburg, and Berg with Dusseldorf to the Palatinate. 

§ 372. The incompetence and carelessness of Rudolf threatened to 
destroy all respect for the royal house of Hapsburg. His relatives, 
therefore, compelled him to surrender Austria and Hungary to his 
Inother, Matthias. Rudolf, who was extremely favorable to 4he Bohe- 
mians, whose capital, Prague, he had chosen for a residence, maintained 
them for some time in their allegiance by the granting of letters patent, 
which gave to the Utraquists and Lutherans freedom of conscience, 
equality with the Catholics, and their own defenders. But he was 
obliged at length to relinquish this kingdom also, with its surrounding 
territories, to Matthias, so that, when death put an end to his 
inglorious life, he was in possession of nothing but the power- 
less imperial throne. 

ihHhu^ But Matthias had just as little energy or talents for govern- 

A.D. ment as Rudolf; and being old and childless, he appointed 

^~^*^^' his cousin, Ferdinand of Carinthia, his successor in Austria, 

Hungary, and Bohemia. The elevation of this rigid Catholic filled the 



Protestants (Uttaqaists, Latlieraiis) in Bohemia with alann for 
religioiis liberties. This alarm increased, when, upon the hviUiiig if 
two Protestant diixn^es on the territories of the abbot of Bniiuui and 
of die monastery of Grab, near TopHtz, a deeinon was given, diat no 
evangelieal dinrdi should be erected npon ecclesiastical property ; and 
in consequence of this pn^bition, one chordi was shut up and the odier 
destroyed. The defenders, who saw in this an infringement of the letien 
patent, held a meeting, and proposed a remonstraiice to the emperor, who 
was then absent in Hungary. The reply confirmed the prohibition, and 
contained a severe reproof to the complainers. Irritated at this, the de- 
fenders, under the guidance of the Count von Tfaurn, marched in ams 
to the council-house, for the purpose of calling to account the imperial 
council, to whom they attributed the offensive writing. After a shiBt 
dispute, the irritated Protestants seized npon two of the coundllors who 
were present, Martinitz and Slawata, who were particolariy offensiTe to 
them as zealous Catholics, and threw them, together with the secretary, 
Fabridus, out of the castle window. But notwithstanding the he^il^ 
and the shots that- were fired tSier them, they all escaped with their 
lives. Upon this, the evangelical Estates established a new gOTenuaeal, 
expelled the Jesuits, and fitted out an army under the command of 
Thurn. The intelligence of these proceedings hastened the 
^^ ' ' death of Matthias, who was already ailing. He died at the 
moment in which Thurn, supported by the brave general, Ernest tod 
Mansfeld, defeated the imperial troops who had marched 
into Bohemia, and appeared with his army before the gales 
of Vienna. The oppressed Protestants of Austria entered into an alli- 
ance with Thurn, their ambassadors forced their way into the imperial 
palace, and demanded from Frederick, with threats, religious toleration 
and an equality of their rights with those of the Catholics. The danger 
was pressing; but Ferdinand resolutely refused every concession, till the 
arrival of Dampierre's dragoons freed him from constraint. Unfavonble 
weather and a deficiency in provisions compelled Thurn to retreat. 

§ 873. Shortly after this, Ferdinand 11. was elected emperor of Ger^ 
many in Frankfort ; but before his coronation took place, the Estates of 
Bohemia and Moravia fell off from the house of Austria, and chose for 
king the Elector, Frederick V., of the Palatinate, the head of the Pro- 
testant Union. It was in vain tliat well-disposed friends warned him of 
the dangerous gift ; — the voice of his haughty wife, a daughter of James I. 
of England, the exhortatijons of his Calvinistic court preacher, Scultetus, 
November, cmd his own ambition, determined the result The vain aod 
leis. weak man assumed the Bohemian throne, and hastened to 

receive homage and be invested with the crown at Prague, where he 
squandered the time in idle shows, gave himself up to luzmious living, 
iind ofiended tlie Utraquists and Lutherans in Bohemia by his zeal for 


^^ Calyinism. Ferdinand's conduct was altogether different. He concluded 
" * an alliance with the shrewd Maximilian of Bavaria, who had been edu- 
^* cated by the Jesuits, and who was the head of the well-provided League; 
*? and who soon ordered his able general, Tilly, the Netherlander, to march 
^^ Kovember 7, with his army into Bohemia. The battle at the White Hill 
'«■ iwo. was soon fought, in which Frederick's exhausted troops were 

^^ defeated by the superior force of the enemy, and sought their safety in 
^^ headlong flight. A single hour decided the fate of Bohemia. Frederick 
■r- lost courage and discretion so completely, that he fled with the greatest 
1 <^ haste across Silesia to the Netherlands, pursued by the imperial sentence 
si^ of outlawry, which deprived him of his hereditary possessions of the 
'zz Palatinate. Bohemia and Moravia were again in a few months sub- 
i? jeeted to Austria. Ferdinand cut the letters patent to pieces with his 
SBK own hand ; twenty-seven of the most illustrious nobles died on the scaf* 
ri ibid; hundreds expiated their offences by the forfeiture of. their goods; 
:ic' and the confiscated property was bestowed upon the Jesuits and other 
K^ religious orders. Tyranny, oppression, and seduction, gave a complete 
»t triumph to the Catholic religion in a few decades, after upwards of 
ff 30,000 families had left the country. Shortly after this, the Union, 
which had looked quietly on during these proceedings, was dissolved in 
'^ the midst of universal contempt 

§ 874. After the subjugation of Bohemia, Tilly marched against the 

I; Palatinate of the Bhine. Three courageous men ventured to take the 

it field in the cause of the outlawed Electors and endangered Protestantism : 

f : Christian of Brunswick, administrator of the bishopric of Halberstadt, a 

::. rude soldier, who presented himself as the defender of the electoress 

^i Elizabeth, and who, having collected a troop of soldiers, marched plun- 

i dering through Westphalia towards the Maine ; Ernest von Mansfeld, a 

\ knightly adventurer, who maintained his troops by plunder and levying 

^ contributions, and treated the bishoprics and monasteries on the Maine 

f and Rhine with great severity ; and the margrave, Greorge Frederick of 

> Baden-Durlach. The two latter united gained a victory 

' over Tilly at Wiesloch (Mingolsheim). But when the vic- 

„ tors shortly after separated themselves, George Frederick, 

the following month, lost the battle of Wimpfen, and would 

have himself fallen into the hands of the enemy, had not 400 of the 

dtizens of Pforzheim covered his retreat by an heroic death. A few 

J 90th. months later, Christian of Brunswick also suffered a defeat 

near Hochst, from Tilly's veteran troops, and marched in 

ooDJanction with Mansfeld into the Netherlands, to obtain help from 

England, whilst the League general stormed Heidelberg, Manheim, and 

Fruikenthal, sent the Heidelberg library to Home, and filled every place 

with blood and plunder. In the following year, Maximilian of Bavaria 

teodved the electorship of the Palatinate, as a reward from the Diet of 



§ 875. Feitlinand, not content with the defeat of his enemies, irished 
to make use of his superiority to restore the Catholic Church and to sup- 
press Protestantism. This occasioned anxiety, and procured the enemies of 
the emperor the assistance of England, Holland, and Denmark. Mansfeld, 
Christian of Brunswick, and the margrave of Baden, appeared again in 
the field provided with troops and money, and were still supported by 
Christian lY. of Denmark, who was induced to assume arms, partly by 
religious zeal, and partly by the hope of increasing his territories. A 
new storm burst forth. Upon this, the emperor, to whom the dependence 
upon the League and the great authority of Maximilian appeared dan- 
gerous, determined to raise an army of his own. In this undertaking, 
Albert of Wallenstein, a Bohemian nobleman, offered him his assistance. 
In possession of a vast property that he had gained by marriage, Wal- 
lenstein presented himself before Ferdinand with the offer of supporting an 
army of 50,000 men at his own expense, if he were allowed the unlimited 
command of them, and the privilege of indemnifying himself from the con- 
quered lands. After some hesitation, Ferdinand acceded to the proposal of 
the bold adventurer, and granted him the governorship of Friedland,onthe 
northern frontier of Bohemia, raised him to the office of Elector of the 
empire, and afterwards conferred upon him the dignity of duke. Tbe 
war now extended itself into the North of Germany. But when Wal- 
lenstein with his wild bands took possession of the shores of the Elbe, 
and effected a junction with Tilly, the army of the League and emperor 
soon obtained the advantage. Mansfeld suffered a defeat from the 
Friedlanders at the bridge of Dessau, and was overtaken by death at 
Bosnia, as he was conducting the remains of his army by a difficolt 
march through Hungary into the Netherlands. Christian of 
Brunswick sunk into the grave in the same year, and Chris- 
tian IV. was defeated by Tilly at Lutter, near the Baren- 
berg, and compelled to retreat into Denmark. His ally, the 
duke of Mecklenburg, was obliged to leave his territories, of which, 
from that time, Wallenstein, with the emperor's permission, took posses- 
sion ; Holstein, Schleswic, and Jutland soon fell into the hands of the 
imperialists in the midst of horrible devastations ; Pomerania and Brand- 
enburg were compelled to receive imperial garrisons ; the whole north 
laid subdued at the feet of the emperor, and the Protestant princes and 
cities awaited with fear and trembling the destiny that it should please 
Austria and Bavaria to award them. In this strait, Stralsund gave an 
ennobling example of patriotism and heroic courage. The citizens reso- 
lutely refused to admit an imperial garrison within their walls. Here- 
upon, Wallenstein advanced upon the town with his formidable army, 
and swore that he would take it if it were bound to heaven with chains. 
But all his attacks were frustrated by the strength of the place and the 
heroism of the citizens. Afler he had encamped for ten weeks before 


the city, and saerifioed 12,000 men, he gave up the attempt, lliia result 
chewed WallenBtein's plans of conquest, and brought the war to a more 
rapid tennination. Christian IV. recovered his devastated 
knds by the peace of Lubeck, but was obliged to promise 
that he would refrain iit>m any farther interference in the affairs of 

{ 376. Austria was again victorious ; and the more decisive her victo- 
ry, the greater was to be the triumph of the Catholic Church. The 
Protestant worship was suppressed by violence in all the conquered and 
occupied lands, and the supremacy of Catholicism gradually prepared 
for. With this object, the emperor, at the instigation of the spuritual 
^^^ Electors, published the Edict of Restitution, by virtue of 

which, all foundations and ecclesiastical property that had 
been confiscated since the treaty of Passau (§ 887), were to bei'estored 
to the Catholic Church, the Calvinists were excluded from the religious 
peace, and the Catholic Estates were not to be interfered with in their 
attempts to convert their subjects. Tliis arrangement, which threatened 
to wrest a great number of bishoprics, and almost all the foundations an4 
abbeys of northern Germany, from the hands of their present proprie- 
tors, filled the whole of the Protestant part of the country with terror 
and alarm, and prolonged the destructive civil war. Many princes and 
cities refused compliance, and the emperor found himself obliged to re- 
tain his army under arms to give effect to the execution of the Edict. 
But this army was no longer under the command of Wallenstein. For 
when the princes made a general complmnt, at the Diet of Regensburg, 
of the frightful ravages and barbarous method of warfare pursued by 
die duke of Friedland, and Maximilian imperatively demanded the re- 
moval of his presuming and overbearing rival, Ferdinand, who wished to 
produce a favorable disposition towards the contemplated election of his 
son, found himself compelled to pronounce Wallenstein's deposition. The 
general was informed of the resolution whilst busied with his astrologi- 
eal studies. He retired to his Bohemian estates, where, in proud repose, 
and in the enjoyment of kmgly wealth, he awaited the time when his 
presence would be again required. Tilly assumed the command over the 
assembled host, and marched against Magdeburg, which had opposed the 
execution of the Edict of Bestitution. But whilst the Protestant Estates 
of Germany, helpless and overawed, bent before the superior power of 
Austria, and looked forward in melancholy expectation for the postponed 
execution of the Edict of Restitution, a fresh hero made his ap- 
pearance on the soil of (Sermany — the Swedish king, Gustavus Adol- 



§ 377. GtistaYos Adolphus, the grandson of GrastaTOs Vasa (§ 349), 
detenoiiied to interfere in the war <^ Genaany, partly to defend Fn^ 
testantism, and partly to increase the power of Sweden. He was sap- 
ported hy the shrewd Cardinal Bicheliea (§ 400), who al that time 
goremed Franee, and who looked with jealousy np(Hi the increasiBg 
power of the hoase of Hapsburg. As soon as Gustayoi Adolphos had 
effected a landiog on the coast of Pomenuiia, the old duke 
* ' of the country surrendered his lands, whioh had been fright- 
fully ra^Kaged by the imperial troops, to Sweden* The piety of GustaTos, 
and the strict discipline of his soldiers, who assembled thenselyea twice 
. a day around their field preachers, formed a striking oootrast to the imo- 
lating mode of warfare pursued by Tilly and Wailenstein, 00 that the 
people every where greeted the Swedes and-th^r high-minded king as 
rescuers and deliverers. Not so the princes, whoy from fear of tke em- 
Febmaiy, peror's vengeance, rejected the alliance that was offered 
1631. them, and at the Diet of Leipsic, embraced the resolntion of 

observing a neutral position. The Electors of Brandenburg and Saxooj 
refused permission to the Swedes to march thrbugh their territoiiea 3 and 

w .. ..L whilst Gustavus Adolphus was delayed by negotiatiops on 
War 16, 1681/ , . , . n^-- , , ^ ,1 . 

this subject, Magdeburg, after repeated assaulksy was taken 

and destroyed by Pappenheim and Tilly* The baibarous troops^ wged 

on by k desire for vengeance, and a love of plunder, burst isto the kn^ 

less town, which was surrendered to them for three days' plQDd<», and 

which now became the scene of the most revolting horrors, tiU a conia* 

gration, which extended itself onfall sides, converted it at length into a 

heap of ashes. Two churches and a few fishermen's hutsy were the sole 

remains of this fiourishing imperial city. 

§ 378. The destroyer of Magdebuig now turned a threateniag aspect 

towards Saxony. The Elector, in the anguish of his hearty oonduded 

an alliance with Gustavus Adolphus, that he might be able, by the help 

of Sweden, to prevent the entrance of TlUy's incendiary troops into hu 

September 7, territories. The battle of Leipsic and Breit^eld was soon 

1631. fought, where the imperial army was completely d^eated. 

Tilly, who was himself in danger of hi/} life, was obliged, aAer a grest 

loss, to retreat rapidly into the south, whilst the Swedes turned towards 

the Rhine and the Maine. Before the winter was over, the bishopHc of 

Wurzbnrg, and the greater part of the Lower Palatinate, were in the 

hands of the Swedes; and the towns of the Rhine also fell into the 

power of Gustavus, afler he had accomplished the passage of the Rhine 

at Oppenheim and driven back the Spaniards* In the spring, he marched 

upon Nuremburg-on-the-Lech, where Tilly had occupied a strong posi- 


lioo. The Swedes Ibrced a passage across the vigorouslj defended riyer. 
IXniag tbe storming of the intrenchraecits, Tillj was so sevcretj wounded 
bj a oaanon-ball that he died fourteen days afler, at Ingolstadt, his mind 
busied with military al&irs in the very hour of death. War filled the 
entire soul of this here. Simple and moderate in his mode of living, he 
despised wealth and possessions, as well as titles and dignities. Sensual 
^ijoyments were as unknown to him, as high cultivation or nobilitj of 

After the occupation cf Augsburg, where the evangelical fbrm of wor- 
ship was again restored, Gnstavus Adolphus marched into Bavaria, 
and took possession, as an indulgent conqueror, of Munich, which had 
been deserted by the court A fine, and carrying off 140 concealed can- 
nons, was tbe only punishment inflicted by the king upon the trembling 

S 379. In the mean time, the emperor, in his necessity, had again had 
recourse to Wallenstein, and prevailed upon him by prayers and great 
eoneessions, to raise a fresh army and to take the supreme command. 
After a successful campaign against the Saxons in Bohemia, Wallenstein, 
in conjunction with the Bavarians, marched into Franconia, where the 
Swedes had occupied a strong position near Nuremburg. Here the hos- 
tile armies lay encamped opposite each other for months, without coming 
to an engagement, till at length, all the land for seven miles around the 
spot was wasted, and even the abundant stores of Nuremburg began to 
Ikil. Hereupon, Gustavus resolved to attack the strong camp of Wallen- 
stein, but the gallant assailers were driven back by the tremendous dis- 
charge of artillery. The attempt, af^er a severe loss, was obliged to be 
relinquished, upon which the Wallensteiners marched into Saxony. The 
November 16, Swedes soon followed them hither, and the eventful battle 
istt. of Lutzen, where the Swedes triumphed, but their king 

found the death of a hero in the tumult of the fight, took place upon a 
fi)ggy day in November. Pappenheim, the gallant leader of cavalry, 
was also borne from the field of battle mortally wounded ; and Wallen- 
stein found himself compelled to leave the field to the enemy, and to 
retreat into Bohemia with his defeated army. The Swedes dragged the 
body of their heroic king, plundered and defaced by the hoofs of horses, 
from beneath the dead, and had it committed to the earth in his native 
land. • 

S S80. Af^er the death of Gustavus Adolphus, the Swedish chancel- 
lor, Axel Oxenstiem, a prudent and energetic statesman, undertook the 
conduct of the war in Germany, after he had prevailed upon a number 
of the evangelical princes and cities, by the alliance of Heilbom, to 
continue steadfast in the treaty they had entered into with the 
A.p.l9as. king of Sweden. Bemhard of Weimar and the Swedish 
general, Horn, stood by his side as the chief military leaders. France 


gave supplies of monej. Thus this mischievous war amtinned to rage. 
Bavaria was severely visited hj the Swede9» who, since the death of th^ 
king, had not been a whit behind their opponents in the destructive way 
of carrying on the war ; and the Friedlanders behaved in such a way in 
Silesia, that the prosperity of the land was for a long time destxxyyed. 
But Wallenstein's course was approaching its termination* His dibtfoiy 
way of conducting the war, and his unnitelligible lingering in Bohemia, 
were made use of by his numerous enemies and enviers to his destruo 
tion. He was accused of entertaining the project of entering into an 
alliance with Sweden, and of placing the crown of Bohemia upon his 
own head ; it was for this reason that he had set at liberty the captive 
Count Thum, the hereditary enemy of Austria ; and the contract that 
had been entered into, by the mediation of Illo, between Wallenstein 
and the leaders of the different divisions for mutual adherence^ pointed 
to revolt and treachery. The emperor, guided by the friends of Maxi- 
milian, by monks and Jesuits, who hated the duke on account of the 
freedom of his religious views, determined upon the destruction of his 
too powerful general. After the most influential leaders, GaUas, Picea* 
lomini, and Altringer, had been secured, Ferdinand pronounced Wallen- 
stein's deposition ; and when the latter marched towards Eger, with the 
most devoted of his troops, to be nearer a juncture with the Swedes, he 
was assassinated, together with his most trusty adherents, HIo, Tenka, 
February 25, <Lnd Kinsky, by the Irishman, Butler, and a few confe d e ra tes* 
1684. The vast possessions of the duke and his friends weie con- 

fiscated, and presented to his betrayers and murderers. Honors, digni- 
ties, and wealth were the rewards of the criminals. Thus died Wal- 
lenstein, the terror of the people, and the idol of the soldiery. He pos- 
sessed an audacious and enterprising spirit, a commanding diaracter, that 
was exalted by the taciturnity of his disposition and the gloomy severity 
of his aspect, and a boundless pride and ambition. When his lofly fig- 
ure, enveloped in a scarlet mantle, and with a red feather in the hat, was 
seen pacing through the camp, a strange horror took possession of the 


.§ 381. After the death of Wallenstein, the imperial army marched 
into Bavaria, and defeated Bemhard of Weimar in the battle of Nord- 
Septembers, Ungen. Several German princes took occasion from this to 
1684. conclude the peace of Prague with the emperor. But the 

May, 1686. frightful war was not yet terminated. Richelieu, who was 
not willing that the favorable moment for diminishing the power of the 
Hapsburgs, and extending the territories of France, should escape vd- 
improved, promised efficient assbtance, both in money and troops, to the 


Swedes, and sapported Bernhazd of Weimar in bis under- 
^ ^' takings on the Upper Bhine. The Swedish general, Baner, 

oonqoered Saxonj and Thuringia, and converted the fertile country into 

a depopulated desert Unspeakable calamities were press* 
1687. ^ npaa the German nation, when the emperor, Fer^nand 

Fo^Buid m., n.9 ssmk into the grare, and was succeeded bj his son of 
A.D. 1637- the same name. The warlike actions of Bemhard of Wei* 
^^^' . mar were crowned with success. He conquered Rheinfelden, 

Freiburg, and Breisach, and entertained the project of establishing an 
independent principalitj on either side of the Rhine. But Bemhard 

died suddenly in the flower of life, not without suspicion of 

Jolr 18, 1689. . . j.. -ei i_.i_j x ^x1-» 

poisonmg; and the French took advantage of the circum- 
stance to take his army into their own paj, and make themselves masters 
of Alsace. Thej soon crossed the Rhine and carried the war into the 
south of Germany, whikt the gallant Baner again visited the unfortunate 
Bohemia with the most frightful calamities. Bauer's audacious plan of 
brsaking suddenly from his winter quarters, and seicing upon the Elec- 
tors and emperor at the Diet in Begensburg, had not the expected result. 
The breaking up of the frost and the arrival of the enemy compelled 
the Swedish general to a retreat, during which he died from the effects 
of bis exertions and of an mtemperate life. 

{ 382. Torstenson was Bauer's successor; he was the most talented 
disciple of the school of Gustavus Adolphus. On account of his suffer* 
ingB from the gout, he was usually carried about in a litter ; nevertheless, 
the rapidity of his movements was the astonishment of the world. He 
overthrew the imperial army near Leipsic, and at the hill Tabor; pene* 
A. D 1642. ^fi^^ repeatedly into the heart of the Austrian states, and 

made the emperor tremble in his capital ; he then appeared 
snexpectedly on the Lower Elbe, took possession of Holstein and Schles- 
wic, and compelled the Danish king to a disadvantageous peace. At 
length, exhausted by illness, he laid down the leading staff, which was 
ohtained by the gallant Wrangel. Wrangel, in conjunction with the 

French general, Turenne, carried the war into Bavaria, 

compelled Maximilian to fly, and to conclude a truce, and 
was about to unite himself with the Swedish general, Kdnigsmark, in 
Bohemia, when the news of the conclusion of the peace of Westphalia 
pat an end to military operations. The war ended in Prague, where it 
hsd also taken its origin. 

S 383. Alter Ave years of negotiations in Miknster and Osnaburg, the 
peace of Westphalia, which the people who were wearied out by the wAr 
demanded in despair, was at last concluded. France received the Aus- 
trian portion of Alsace, Sundgau, and Briesach; but was obliged to 
secore to the imperial cities both their former privileges, and their relik 
tioDs to the German empire. Sweden received Upper Pomerania, the 


island of Kugen, and tiie taww of Stetttn, Weismftr, dec, tfie Inshoprics 
of Bremen and Yerdim, a»d an indcinnifiGBtion la aaoney. Brandenbiirg 
obtained the eastern part of Lower Pomenuiia, with tbe bisbopiicB of 
Magdebmg, Halberstadt, MiadcB, Ice* Saxonj was indemnified bj 
Lasatia; otber prmees with olher citieSy foundations, and bifiboprics. 
Bavaria remained in possessiim of the Upper Palatinate and of the ElecCo- 
ral dignity; and the Palatinate of the Shine, with the eighth Electoral 
dignity, was restored to Charles Louis, the son of Froderidc V^ who died 
in the jear 1632. The remaining pnaoes and Estates retained their 
former possessions; and Switzerland and the Low Countries were 
acknowledged as independent states. 

With regard to the affairs of the Chureb, it was arranged, after long 
disputes, that the treaty of Passau, and the religions peace of Augsboii^ 
should be confirmed to the Protestants, the ^spiritual proviso ** abolished, 
and the peace extended to the Calvinists. Li regard to the possession of 
ecdenastical property, and the right of free exercise of religion, the year 
1 624 was taken as the standard. Everything was to remain, or to become^ 
what it bad been at that time. At tbe same time^ the privilege of relbim- 
ation possessed by the princes ceased, and a free exerdse of refigion and 
equal civil rights were assured to the three Christian confessions* 

The farther consequences of the Thirty Tears' War were: — 1. An 
increase of the power of the princes, which was the occasion of expensive 
courts, standing armies, a multitude of officials, and a high and regdariy 
levied taxation. 2. A purity of faith in the Church, whi<^ was net 
founded upon mere warmth of religious feeling, but upon an unalteiabio 
veneration for the literal meaning of the Symbolical Books. S. A deei^ 
of trade, of industiy, and of profitable commeree. Though agricoltore 
revived again, and tbe plough and the mattock restored its former aspect 
to the desolated countiy, the aforetime ]Mx>sperity of Germany never 
returned. Many of the trading towns sunk into poverty; the imperial 
towns were gradually overtaken by the princely residences; and trade, 
industry, and wealth established their seats in Hdland and En^^and. 
German art and literature decayed ; everything native was neglected, 
and fashions, language, and poetry, IxMrrowed frran the Frendi. From 
this period, tbe old German nationafity succumbed to the infioenee of 


f 884. After the premature death of Gustavus Adolphus, the crown 
devolved upon his daughter Qiristina, during whose minority the goven- 
men€ was conducted by a senate, and the opportunity made use of to 

increase the privileges and prc^rty of the noble fiuntfies. 

When the queen herself assumed the govenonent, die aaMm* 


Ued around her a briOiaDt oovt, sammoned arlistB a&d learned men oat 
«f all the eoontriee of Europe to Stockholm, and displi^ed a mascnllne 
•pint and eharader in everjthing. Her taste for art and her love of 
•dence found little support in the Protestant north, aad she consequently 
aerer f^lt hefself at home there* It was on this aooount, that, after a 
reign of ten jearSf Christina abdteated tiie throne of Sweden 
A. D. 1664. .^ ^^^ ^ j^^ cousra, Chartes Gustavus of Pfalz-Zweiburc- 
ken, reserved an aannitjr for herself, and quitted the knd of her fathers. 
She was solemnlj admitted into the Roman Catholie Chureh at Innsbruck ; 
she then travelled through the Netherhinds, France, and Italy, and at 
length established her permanent residence in a city filled with all the 
splendor of art — Rome. She died there in 1689. 
CbarlM X- ^ ^^^* Christma's successor, Charles (X.) Gustavus, was 
A. D. a great warrior. He undertook a campaign for the conquest 

leM- 1660. Qf Poland, and made himself master of the western territories 
of that country, in conjunction with the great Elector, Frederick William 
of Brandenburg, to whom, in return, he promised the liberation of 
Pmssia from the suzerainship of Poland. He would have gained pos- 

T 1 ««•« session of the whole oountry after the three days' battle of 
JnJy, 1656. .__ ,_ , ,4,^*^ . , 

Wanawy had not an mroad of the Danes mto the temtory 

of Sweden called him to a dififereot seene. He left Poland, and marched 
irith restless haste to the lower Elbe. The Danish army opposed no 
resistance, so that, before the commencement of the winter, Sleswic and 
Jutland, with the exception of the fortress of Fredericia, were in the 
hsads of 'the Swedes. This Ibrtress idso was stormed, in the midst of 
irinter, by so daring an enterprise that the king became jealous, and 
sttenpted to edipse the exploit of his general by one still more ventur- 
ons. He erossed with his army on foot, over the frozen channel of the 
Little Beh, in Janoaiy, into Funen^ and a few days after, he passed the 
Grest Belt into Zealand, in which passage two companies were drowned 
before his eyes. Here such confusion was occasioned by the sudden ap- 
pesnmee of the enemy, that defence was scarcdy thought of, and pro- 
posals for peaoe were at once entered into. But great as were the 
Mcrifices tluit the hardly-pressed Danish king offered to make, they were 
rgected by Charles, who hoped to bring the three Scandinavian king- 
doms uoder his own sceptre. But the ^lant attitude of the citizens of 
Copenhagen, who, for a whole twelvemonth, bade defiance to the besieg- 
ing Swedes, and the assistanoe of the Dutch, prolonged the war till the 
ndden death of the kmg gave a turn to afiairs. The Swedish Diet, that 
ooadncted the government during the minority of Charles XI., concluded 
the peace of Oliva with the Poles, and that of Copenhagen 
with the Danes. So great at that time was the respect for 
the military skiU of the Swedes, that Sweden obtained hirge territories 
nl hnportent advantages by both these peaces* Prussia's independenoe 

268 THB MobxBH BPOCH. 

of Poland was acknowledged* This war, in which the Danish nolnlitj, 
who were in possession of great priyileges and revenues, made an open 
display of their cowardice and selfishness, was made use of bj the emut 
to OTerthrow the existing constitution. The eleetiTe monardiy was ooo- 
verted into an hereditarj one, and unlimited power conferred upon tbe 
king by the royal law. The nobility lost their former power and inde- 
pendent position, and were bound to the throne by titles and orders. Li 
Sweden also, the vast power of the nobility was broken by the politic and 
Charies XI. severe Charles XL, who rigidly demanded back the alien- 
A. D. 1060- ated possessions of the crown; the ancient institution) 
1697. however, he allowed to remain. 





James L • $ ^^- ^^^^^8 son, James L, was a weak and pedaatie 

A. D. 1608- prince, of narrow mind and perverted mental constitutioD. 
^^^* Bred up amidst the contentions of Presbyterian preacheiBi 

he was especially furnished with theolo^cal learning, and willinglf 
engaged in controversies respecting disputed points of divini^. He wai 
extremely desirous of gaining the reputation of a deeply learned man, 
both by his writing and conversation, and composed many books ; but he 
was utterly wanting in the penetration and shrewdness necessaiy in a 
ruler. A lover of peace from timidity, he sacrificed the honor of fail 
country to its external quiet, and he was so prodigal of his favor as fre- 
quently to give himself up entirely to the guidance of unworthy favoriteiL 
Among these, George YiUiers, duke of Buckingham, distinguished by the 
symmetry of his figure, exercised the greatest influence upon hia. 
James entertained the most extravagant notions re^>ecting the kin^ 
power. He was firmly persuaded that it was derived immediately from 
God, and that it was unlimited; and he sought for proofs of this in the 
Old Testament. It was on this account that he hated the Presbyteiim 
Church of Scotland, where the king was nothing more than an ar^amrj 
member of the congregation ; but he was devoted to the Episcopal Church 
of England, in which the king was regarded as the head and source of 
all spiritual power. ** No bishop, no king" became therefore the motto 
of all the Stuarts, and the introduction of the Episcopal Qiureh into 
Scotland, and the suppression of the Puritans in England, was, henoe- 
forth, the great object of the whole family. 

§ 887. There are three points particularly worthy of notice in the 
reign of James; the gunpowder plot» the nuptial expedition of the pnnoo 


ofWaleSy and the increasing opposition in parliament. 1. James ^lad 
promised toleration to the English Catholics, for the purpose of rendering 
them favorable to his ascension of the throne. Scarcely, however, was 
the crown firmly settled upon his head, before he, like Elizabeth, levied 
a heavy capitation tax upon the Catholic non-conformists, that he might 
enrich his favorites^ and defray the expenses of his court festivals. The 
deluded Catholics were exasperated. A conspiracy was formed for blow- 
ing up the king and all the. members of the Upper and Lower House at 
the opening of parliament, by means of a mine of gunpowder to be formed 
in the cellar of the parliament-house, and then for changing the govern- 
ment The plot was discovered and frustrated a short time before its 
execution, by a warning in writing received by a Catholic peer. The 
chief conspirator (Guy Fawkes) was seized and executed ; the other 
participators in the plot fled, and excited an insurrection, in which most 
of them perished. The English Catholics were then compelled to pay a 
heavy fine, and to take a particular oath of fidelity to the king. 2. James, 
in bis conceit, thought that no one but the daughter of a king of the first 
rank was a fit spouse for his son, and accordingly made proposals for the 
hand of one of the Spanish princesses. This project excited great dis- 
content among the English, both because they were unwilling to have a 
Catholic queen, and because the lengthened negotiations with Spain that 
were occasioned by it prevented the king from giving any assistance to 
his exiled Protestant son-in-law, Frederick V. of the Paktinate (§ 378). 
At length, the pope and the Spanish court gave their consent, and there 
appeared to be nothing more to prevent the union. At this point, the 
fiivdons Buckingham persuaded prince Charles to make a voyage to 
Madrid, and the king, who in his youth had surprised his Danish bride 
in a similar manner, favored the undertaking. They arrived at Madrid 
under assumed names, and were treated when recognized with great dis- 
tinction. But Buckingham's loose and insolent behavior gave ofience. 
He made enemies of the Spanish court and prevented the marriage. 
Henrietta of France became the wife of Charles. 3. Elizabeth had 
given bat little liberty to the parliament ; but the greatness of her talents 
for government, and her frugal administration, had afforded the people a 
compensation. But when James, in the conviction of his kingly perfec- 
tion, pursued the same path, abridged more and more the privileges of the 
parliament, and burthened the importation and exportation of every kind 
of goods with arbitrary taxes, a vehement opposition arose. It was in 
vain the king threatened, repeatedly dissolved the parliament, and placed 
the boldest speakers under arrest ; every fresh assembly held the same 
hmguage; and when James at length declared that their supposed rights 
were nothing but privileges for which they were indebted to the royal 
A. A. leii &^^9 ^® members of the Lower House registered a protest, 
by which they declared that the making of laws, the consent- 


ing to taxes, and the other befitting rights and privileges of pariiamqit, 
were the undoubted native rights and inlieritanoe of ererj Bngtishman. 
Enraged at this audacity, the king tore the leaf with his own hand from 
the record, dissolved the pariiament, and otdered a few deputies to be 
imprisoned ; bat the spirit of resistance remained alive among the peo- 
ple, and displayed itself still more violently, when Charies L, a proud 
and obstinate ruler, took possession of the throne. 
Charles L, § 388. The government of Charles L b^an with so vio- 

jL D. 1626- lent a quarrel with the parliament, that the latter was twice 
^^^' dissolved during the first two years of his reign. The sup- 

port afibrded to the German Protestants, and a war with France occi- 
sioned by the fickle Buckingham, occasioned great expenses. The kiog 
was consequently extremely indignant that the pariiament was sp^ng ia 
voting supplies, and had not once, during his whole government, consent- 
ed to the levying of tonnage and poundage upon exports and imports, as 
had hitherto been the custom. But when the French war took a disas- 
trous termination, and the blood and honor of England were ignomini- 
ously sacrificed, the third parliament threatened Bucking- 
ham with an impeachment The king, to save his favorite, 
was obliged to recognize the validity of the Petition of Right presented 
by both houses, and by this means to grant its ancient privileges to die 
parliament, and liberty of speech and security of person and 
property to its members. Buckingham was shortly afler as- 
sassinated, upon which the king removed Thomas Wentworth, an elo- 
quent member of the opposition, from parliament into the privy coandl, 
made him earl of Strafford and governor of Ireland, and followed lus 
advice in everything. Wentworth, an ambitious and energetic man, now 
exerted his most zealous efforts to strengthen the power of the throne, 
and with this object, advised the king to govern for some time witboat a 
parliament. For the purpose of raising money for the current expenses, 
the goveniment levied the usual imposts without the ccmsent of the pa^ 
hament, laid heavy indirect taxes upon light wines, salt, soap, and similar 
articles, and revived ancient and obsolete claims of the throne, such as 
ship-money, which in former times had replenished the royal treasnij. 
Charles, at the same time, endeavored to establish the Anglican Church 
on a firmer foundation, and to suppress the Puritans and Presbyterians, 
whose democratic opinions were every day extending among the people. 
In this undertaking, he made use of the services of Bishop Laud of 
London, whom he appointed to the archbishopric of Canterbury. Land 
had the cathedral of St Paul's consecrated afresh, enriched the churches 
with images and ornaments, and the worship of God with ceremonies, 
removed the Puritan preachers from their offices, and had heavy and 
degrading punishments pronounced by the courts (the B^gh Commissioo 
and the judges of the Star Chamber) against all those who opposed (he 

THB BBVOUmOH IH raNHiAin). 271 

eradag instHations. Thus Piynney & Pariten writer, wm oondeanei 
to be exposed in the pillory, to loee both his ears, and to be imprisoned 
fivr life, beonse, in « bulky Tolnme he had written, he had ooadcimaftd 
dueing, masks, and llNeatrical amusements, matters in which the coiut 

§ 889. These measures, which threatened to annihilate the civil and 
regions liberties of England, excited a great commotion over the whole 
oonntry. John Hampden, a man of considerate and resolute character, 
refused payment of the ship-money, and oondncted his defence before a 
court of justice so snccessliilly, that the injustice of the government be- 
came most apparent. The deposed Puritan ministers wandered about the 
ooontry, representing the proceedings of Laud as the commencement of 
the restoration of Oathotidsm, and, by their passionate exhortations, 
strewed the seeds of hatred against the court and the clergy. But the 
king retained his resolution ; and, unwarned by ihe discontent openly ex- 
pressed in England, he even attempted to introduce the Episcopal Church 
sod the Anglican form of worship into Scotland, a country ever zealous 
for its faith. When the first attempt at celebrating divine service under 
the new form was made in the cathedral church of Edinburgh, a tumult 
snse against the performance of the ^ worship of Baal." The crowd 
J«lT 1S87 '^^^^ ** I*«P« • " ** Antichrist 1 " « Stone him ! " hurled seaU 

'* '' at the priest, and drove him from the building. The old 
Covenant ^ for the protection of the pure religion and the Church against 
the errors and corruptions of Popery" was renewed amidst fasting and 
prayer. The bishops were driven away, the Presbyterian form of wor- 
ship restored, and the people called to arms. Upon this, Charles deter- 
mined to pot down resistance by force ; but his troops gave way power- 
less bef<»e the zealous Scots, who marched into the field with prayer and 
psalmody; the hostile squadrons crossed the English borders, and nothing 
was left to the king but to call together the parliament, after 
an interval of eleven years, and to ask the assistance of the 

S 890. The parliament now summoned b known in hbtorj under the 
nsme of the Long Parliament The must influential members and 
speakers, as Hampden, Hollis, Hazelrig, Cromwell, &C., were opposed to 
absolute monarchical power and Episcopal Church government; they 
wanted security for the ancient privileges of the Estates, and for religi- 
ous liberty. But during their contest against the absolute power of kings 
and bishops, they separated from each other : the more violent gradually 
acquired the democratical views of the Puritans ; and whilst they mingled 
civil and religions freedom together, they aimed at an object that was 
^y attainable in a free republican commonwealth. The new parlia- 
aMot innnediately assumed a hostile attitude against the court and gov- 
^nm&enu Instead of at once voting supplies against the Scottish rebels 


the parliament entered into a secret alliance with them, and was die 
cause that they maintained their position on the frontiers. It then oqb- 
menced its attack upon the arbitnuy proceedings in Church and Stste. 
Strafford, ^^ the great apostate," and Archbishop Land, were impeached. 
It was in vain that the king, for the purpose of saving them, yielded to 
all the demands of the House ; it was in vain that Strafford defended 
himself for seventeen days with dignity and presence of mind, and prov- 
ed, in the most convincing manner, that the charges brought against 
him could not be regarded as high treason ; — the Lower House dedsred 
that he must be considered as convicted of an attempt to destroy the 
liberties of the country ; the Upper House embraced the same opiDiOD, 
and the king had the weakness to confirm the sentence, and to sacrtfioe 
the most faithful of his servants to the rage of the people. Strafford 

died upon the scaffold with great composure. Laud, his 
May 11, 1641. \ . . « ^ * • j *i^ 

companion m misfortune, was retained three years m con- 
finement, before his life also was put an end to by the axe of the execu- 
tioner. The abolition of the spiritual courts, and the exclusion of the 
bishops from the Upper House, were the forerunners of the fall <^ the 
Episcopal High Church, 

§ 891. Shortly after this, intelligence got abroaid that the Froteslaat 
settlers in Ireland had been set upon and murdered by the Catholic o* 
habitants. This event was laid to the charge of the court, and espedaDf 
of the queen, and made use of as a proof that Papists, bishops, and cwn^ 
tiers had united in a conspiracy for the destruction of religion and libe^ 
ty. From this point, the struggle assumed more and more of a religioag 
character ; and as the parliament now overstepped the limits of a mo- 
narchical constitution in their demands, inasmuch as they interfered with 
the prerogatives of government, and required that the appointment of 
the higher officers of state, and of the commanders of the army, together 
with the management of the land and sea forces, should be dependent 
upon their approval, the two parties became more decidedly adTcne. 
The people called the adherents of the king, who were mostly noblemen 
and officers, *' Cavaliers;" they distinguished their opponents, however, 
by the nickname of Roundheads, from the cut of their hair. The at- 
tempt of the king to arrest five of the most violent leaders of the oppo- 
sition during a debate failed. They fied, but were brought back the next 
day to the parliament-house in .triumph by the people. Enraged at this, 
Civil War, Charles retired to York and declared war. The queen fled 
▲.D. 1642- to Holland to claim foreign assistance; but as the whole 
^^^' military force of the Continent was engaged in the IWrtJ 

Years' War, no help could be obtained. The war commenced with une- 
qual means for the contest. For whilst the king was unprovided with 
mcmey, and his army suffered from every kind of want, the parliament 
was in possession not only of all the public revenue, but was amply sup- 


ported by private oontribntions. At the first summons, fiimilies brought 
didr plate, women their ornaments ; and every tax and impost, that had 
been obstinatelj contested with the king, were cheerfully surrendered to 
the parliament. Charles's small but practised army was, nevertheless, 
at first successful i^ainst the parliamentary forces, that were led into the 
field by the earl of Essex. In two encounters, the royal cavalry, which 
was commanded by Charles's nephew, Rupert of the Palatinate, gained 
the advantage. In the commencement of the second year, the parlia* 
ment also experienced losses, among which, the death of the upright 
and gallant Hampden was the most severely felt But when Oliver 
Cromwell, a zealous Puritan, formed a resolute band of cavalry from 
amongst his devout friends, which, in the cause of God, rushed blindly 
Jul s 1644 ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ matters assumed a different aspect. In the 
' ' battle of Marston Moor, Rupert, by his impetuosity, lost the 
victory to Cromwell's ^oomy squadrons. From this time, the name of 
Cromwell stood uppermost in the army, and the Puritans took advantage 
of the favorable opportunity to banish the Book of Common Prayer 
from Divine worship, and to thrust aside Episcopacy by the Calvinistic 
discipline and the synodial form of Church government. Images, orna- 
ments, organs, and so forth, disappeared from the churches, painted win- 
dows were broken, monuments destroyed, and festivals forbidden. 

{ 892. But divisions soon arose in the camp of the conquerors. The 
Independents, the boldest and most energetic of the Puritans, were dis- 
contented with the synodial constitution of the Presbyterians; they 
demanded the entire independence, in religious matters, of every indivi- 
dual congregation, and refused to recognize the decisions of the synods as 
laws universally valid. Violent contests took place between the moderate 
Puritans (Presbyterians), and the Radicals (Independents). The latter 
f«bniary, passed the Self-denying Ordinance through the parliament, 
l^tf* in virtue of which, no member of either house could fill any 

place of command or official situation. Essex was, by tKis means, com- 
pelled to lay down his military oflice, and Fairfax, a talented officer, 
entirely under the influence of Cromwell, was placed at the head of the 
amy. Cromwell, the head of the Independents, had been one of the 
most zealous advocates of the Self-denying Ordinance. He repaired to 
the army to resign his command into the hands of Fairfax ; but the latter 
at once gave the parliament to understand that Cromwell was indispensa- 
ble — it was only he who could lead the cavalry; for where he fought, 
in the name of God, along with his pious squadron, there the victory was 
sore to be. Parliament consented, and the civil war burst forth afresh 
J 14. iius ^*^ redoubled violence. But the battle of Naseby destroyed 
' the last hopes of Charles : he retreated with the remains of 
bis army to Oxford. When Cromwell and Fairfax prepared to besiege 
Um there, he embraced a desperate resolution ; disguised as a servant, 


he escaped with two attendants to the Scottish camp on the luntlian 
frontier^ in the hope of finding truth and attachment among his own 
coontiTmen. But all sympathy for fallen greatness was extinguished m 
the bosom ,of the Soots, who were guided entirelj by their austere deigj. 
Thej watched him nanowlj, and compelled him to^attend the lengdieoed 
discourses of iheir ministers, whose usual text was the misdeeds of him- 
self and his ancestors ; and when thej found that it was impossible to 
prevail upon him to accept the Presbyterian fiuth, or to subscribe the 
Covenant, they sold their king for a small price. For the moderate sum 
of £400,000, Charles was delivered up to the commissiooen 

^^ of parliament, who confined him in a strong castle. 

S 893. In the mean time, the division between the Presbyterians, who 
were the superior party in the parliament, and the Independents, who 
prevailed in the army, became every day greater. Cromwell was <hi the 
side of the latter ; but he knew well how to conceal the falsehood of his 
heart by an outward appearance of sanctimony.* Whilst he was playing 
the part of a mediator, the captive Charles was carried off by a zealoiis 
tailor, with a troop of horse, and delivered up into the power of the amy. 
Upon this, Cromwell marched upon the capital for the pn^ 
' pose of giving the Independents the superiority in parliament 

NoTember, also. In the meanwhile, the king escaped to the Isle of 
1648. Wight ; and both Presbyterians and Independents sought, 

for some time, to gain him over to their own side, and to make their 
peace with him in return for certain concessions. But Charles, who 
relied upon foreign assistance, conducted himself in a deceitful and am- 
biguous manner, and thus deprived himself of the last chance (^ a peace- 
ful release. Cromwell now resolved upon his destruction. The annji 
acting under his secret directions, made itself master of the king's penoD, 
and conducted him to a solitary castle on the sea-coast Colonel Pride 
then surrounded the parliament-house with his troops, and commanded 
December, eighty-one of the Presbyterian members to be excluded by 
^^*®' force. After this proceeding, which was known by the name 

of '^ Pride's Purge," Cromwell took possession of the royal apartments in 
Whitehall, — for he was now lord and ruler, and the so-called Bamp 
Parliament, which consisted of Independents, was a mere passive tool in 
his hand. It was determined to accuse the king of treason before an 
extraordinary court, for having made war against the parliament. 
^ Charles Stuart" was four times put upon his trial, and condemned to 
death as a traitor, murderer, and enemy of his country. He was allowed 
three days to prepare himself, and to take leave of his children. He 

«The character given by Weber in the text to Cromwell cannot be regarded mis 
impartial one. Ciomwell^B behavior was certainly not always disUngniahed by peiftet 
candor, bnthis worst enemies will scarcely deny that his religious professions were, ia ft 
great measure, sincere.— TVnisIa^or. 


was then led fordi upon a scaffold constructed in front of Whitehall, and 
Janoary 80, oovered with black, where the sentence was carried into exe- 
1M9. cation bj two masked executioners. An innumerable multi- 

tude gazed in silence upon the frightful scene. It was only when the 
executioner seized the blood-dropping head by the hair, and exclumed, 
<^This is the head of a traitor! " Uiat the assembled people relieved their 
oppressed bosoms by a hollow groan. 

h. OLIVER CBOMWBLL (a. D. 1649-1658). 

§ 394. The intelligence of the king's death excited a fearful sensation 
in Ireland and Scotland. The Prince of Wales, who was living in 
Holland, was recalled to Scotland and acknowledged as 
Charles 11., but was obliged, beforehand, to sign the Cove- 
nant and enter the Presbyterian Church. Ireland also acknowledged 
the new king, and flew to arms. Upon this, Cromwell, after arranging a 
republican government in England, in which Milton, the blind composer 
of ^ Paradise Lost," occupied a post, marched against the disobedient 
island. His path to victory laid over blood and corpses ; and when he 
himself lefl the country to carry the sword into Scotland, other republi- 
can generals pursued the same course. In three years, the threatening 
rebellion was quelled; but Ireland became a depopulated country of 
lawless be^^ars, where the avenger of blood established his fearful dwell- 
ing. The arms of the republic were triumphant in Scotland also. The 
Scottish army had occupied a strong position, which Cromwell could not 
reach. Hunger and sickness soon diminished the number of his troops, 
80 that he was already meditating a retreat At this juncture, the 
preachers who accompanied the Scottish army, and who were annoyed 
by the cheerful military life and the hilarity of the king and his asso- 
dates, advised the commanders to make an attack. When Cromwell 
beheld the movement in the Presbyterian army, he exclaimed, ^ They 
are coming down, the Lord has delivered them into our hands!" The 
battle of Dunbar, fought upon Cromwell's birthday, Septem- 
ber drd, terminated in the defeat of the Scots. Cromwell 
took Edinburgh, and penetrated into the heart of the country. The Lord 
of Hosts, who was invoked both by Presbyterians and Independents with 
fasting and prayer and hypocritical lip-service, was with the bold and 
strong. Charles suddenly hazarded a daring undertaking. He marched 
with his troops across the English border, and called upon the adherents 
of royalty for support Few joined htm, and thus it happened that the 
SeiviemiMr 8, loyal army suffered a complete overthrow at Worcester, 
1^1* exactly a twelvemonth after the battle of Dunbar. This 

battle made Charles a houseless fugitive, for whose capture the parlia- 
ment offered a large reward. After a thousand dangem and adventures, 
k escaped in disguise to France. Scotland was compelled to submit to 


the republican govenunent by General Monk. The free state of dug- 
land wa8 also mvolved in a war with Holland. During this, the republi- 
cans showed that thej were not onlj Yictorioaa on land, but powerfal at 
sea. Greatly as the maritime heroes of Holland, Tnnnp and Ru j^er, 
distinguished themselves bj their courage and ability, Admiral Blake, a 
man of the old republican stamp, and of rude virtues, and General Monk, 
who was equally experienced in land and naval warfare, succeeded at 
length in carrying off the victory. The Dutch were obliged to consent 
to a disgraceful peace, whilst the Navigation Act, which was proclaimed 
October, in £ngland during the war, and which prohibited foreigners 
1661. from bringing any thing but their own productions to ISjig-- 

land in their own ships, gave a fresh impulse to commerce. 

§ 395. During these proceedings, CromweU had fallen out with the 
Lower House, and for this reason he resolved upon dissolving the Jxmg 
(Rump) parliament. After surrounding the house with troops, he entered 

. M ...» ^6 apartment in his dark puritanical dress, delivered a dis- 
Apnl, 1658. 1 . , /•,!-..,. . , • . , , 

course which was filled with invectives, and then, with the 

help of the soldiers who had entered, drove forth those who were present, 
exclaiming to one, ^ You are a drunkard ; " to another, '^ You are an 
adulterer ; " to a third, ^ You are a blasphemer of God ! " A state coun- 
cil, under the presidentship of Cromwdl, then undertook the formation 
of a new parliament. For this purpose, lists of all the Grod-fearing peo- 
ple were made out in every quarter, and from these '^ saints" the repre- 
sentatives of the kingdom were chosen. This assembly (namied in 
mockery, Barebones' parliament, from the leathernseUer, Praise-Gk>d 
Barebones), gave evidence of its disposition and religious views by the 
Biblical names of the greater number of its members (Habakkuk, 
Ezekiel, Stand-fast-in-the-Faitb* &c.). But Cromwell was not able to 
manage these strange men so easily as he had hoped ; and as they wished 
to introduce several vigorous measures, which would have produced great 
changes, he took advantage of the openly-displayed discontent to effect a 
December, violent dissolution by means of his soldiers. After this, a 
1668. new constitution, projected by General Lamb^ came into 

existence, in which a parliament of 400 members composed the legisla- 
tive body, and Cromwell, as Lord Protector, possessed the executiv-e 
power and the command of the land and sea forces. As Protector, 
Cromwell governed energetically and gloriously. His talents for govern- 
ment and his strength of will procured him respect and authority abroad, 
and his respectable household, and his frugal and citizen*like mode of 
life, awakened esteem and confidence at home. But honorably as he 
filled the lofty situation in which fate had placed hi||i he nevertheless 
found many enviers and opponents, both among the republicans and 
royalists, who embittered the evening of his life, and never suffered him 
to attain to a quiet possession of the government Rendered gloomy hj 


suspicion, and in constant fear of assassination, Cromwell died on big 
Septembers, birthday, a daj that he had always regarded as particularly 
16M. fortunate. 

§ 396. Cromwell's weak son, Richard, inherited the dignity of Lord Pro- 
tector, which, however, he did not know how to maintidn. Three powers 
were soon arrayed in hostile opposition, the protector, the parliament, 
and the army, commanded by Monk, Lambert, and others. The military 
power was victorioas ; the parliament was dissolved, and the old Rump 
parliament again summoned; Richard Cromwell, who was neither a 
soldier nor a preacher, was obliged to abdicate, and to seek for 
safety in a foreign land. But the Rump parliament was 
also obliged to yield in a short time to the power of the army ; upon 
which the direction of afiairs was undertaken by a committee of safety, 
under the presidentship of Lambert During all these constitutional 
straggles, the opinion gradually gained ground that nothing but the return 
of the royal family, and the reestablishment of monarchy, could effect the 
permanent reestablishment of order. For this purpose, General Monk 
entered into an alliance with Charles Stuart, who was living in the 
Netherlands, but concealed his plans and opinions mo<)t carefully. He 
obtained the arrest of Lambert, the dissolution of the committee of safety, 
and the assembly of a new parliament With this assembly, which con- 
sisted for the most part of royalists. Monk hastened to effect the restora- 
tion of the Stuarts. An amnesty, and liberty of conscience, were all that 
lb M. 1S60 ^^'^"^^^ ^^ ^ promise before his solemn entrance into Lon- 
' ' don, where he was received by an exulting people. But 

even these conditions were not observed. Sentence of death was pro- 
nounced upon all those who had sat in judgment upon Charles L, and ten 
of them were actually executed as regicides. The triumph of the royalists 
at the destruction of their enemies was much diminished by the resolu- 
tion displayed by the Puritans in their last moments. Cromwell's body 
was torn from the grave and suspended on the gallows. The Episcopal 
Church was restored, and the Presbyterian clergy again deprived of 
their places. 

e. TH£ LAST TWO 8TUABT6 (CHARLES II. 1660-1685, AND 

JAKES II. 1 685-- 1688.) 

S 897. The government of the fickle, characterless, and voluptuous 
Charles was fatal to England. Neither the fate of his father, nor the 
melancholy passages in his own life, served him either for instruction or 
^^wning. Severely as the land was visited by the plague, and by a 
^ghtfttl conflagration that destroyed two thirds of London, no interrup- 
^n was given to the splendid and joyous life that was led by the royal 
^ooxi; and when extravagant expenditure had produced debts and want 
^ money, and the parliament was not so free in its grants as the king 


desired, Charles sold the honor and interests of his eoantry to the French 
king, Louis XIV. At that time especially, it was looked upon as a mark 
of refinement in France if a man left the Protestant Church for the 
Catholic. This way of thinking found some imitation in England. The 
duke of York, the brother of the king, openly embraced Catholidsm, and 
Charles was a Catholic in heart, although he outwardly conformed to the 
English Church, and only betrayed his real convictions when on his 
death-bed, by receiving the Catholic sacraments. The more, however, 
the Stuarts favored CaUiolicism, the more sturdily did the people adhere 
to the faith of their fathers. The fire of London was attributed by them 
to the Papists, and this belief was perpetuated by a monument ; and that 
the public offices should not be made use of as rewards for these changes <^ 
religion, the parliament, after a long contest, carried the Test Act, which 
enacted that none but members of the Englbh Church, and confessors of 
the Protestant doctrine, should be capable of admission into parliament, 
or of holding offices or military posts. As long as CUirendon, the histo- 
rian of the English '< KebelHon," remained at the head of the ministry, 
the king was in some degree restrained within the bounds of moderation 
and legality ; but when the former fell into disgrace, and was compelled 
to end his days as an outlaw in a foreign country, Charles allowed him- 
self to commit acts of all kinds of violence, tyranny, and lawlessness. 
A ministry that was formed of talented but unprincipled statesmen, and 
distinguished by the people as the ^ Cabal " ministry from the initials of 
its members, now conducted the government according to the wishes of 
the king, without regard to the privileges and honor of the people. Cor- 
ruption and venality were*no longer regarded as disgraceful among the 
higher classes, since the king himself drew a yearly stipend from Louis 
XIV. for supporting the French in their war against the Dutch. A new 
contest at this time sprang up between the king and the pariiament. 
For, the more openly the former strove for absolute power, the more did 
the latter endeavor to protect the privileges of the people and the religion 
of the country. The parliament, anxious lest the English Church should 
be exposed to danger under a Catholic king, demanded the exclusion of 
the duke of York from the throne ; and Charles found himself so far 
obliged to yield, that he sent his brother out of the country for some time, 
and formed a new ministry, in which the ingenious earl of Shaftesbniy, 
who had gone over from the king's council to the popular party, was the 
president It was under his administration that the Habeas 

Au, D 1679 

Corpus Act, that sacred law for the freedom of person, came 
into existence. According to this act, no one could be imprisoned, with- 
out a written order of the court stating the grounds of the imprisonment ; 
and within three days, the prisoner was to be brought before the ordi- 
nary judges, and cause was to be shown why he should not be released. 
In the midst of these parliamentary struggles, two parties sprang up, the 


Whigs and the Tories, that exbt to the present day. The Whigs re- 
garded the oonstitution of the state as a mutual eompact between the king 
and the nation, and attributed to the latter the right of active resistance 
in case of any infringement of the compact; the Tories, on the other 
hand, rejected the principle that the royal power proceeded from the 
people, and demanded passive obedience from the subject. The Tories 
gained the upper hand during the latter years of Charles II.'s reign, in- 
asmach as the court took advantage of a conspiracy contrived by some 
worthless men against the lives of the king and his brother, to ruin the 
heads of the Whig party. Lord Russell and Algernon Sidney, two of 
the noblest and most respected of men, died upon the scaffold; Shaftes- 
bury fled to Holland ; the duke of York again regained his rights and 
offices ; and when Charles died a few years aflerwards with- 
out legitimate ofisipring, the Duke ascended the English 
throne, under the title of James 11. 

Jamea II., § 398. A few weeks after James's ascension of the throne, 

i.D. 16«6- Monmouth, a natural son of Charles II., attempted, by the 
aid of the Whigs, to deprive his uncle of the crown. The 
insurrection failed of success. Monmouth died on the scaffold, and the 
frightful, cruelty that James displayed against all the supporters and 
abettors of the enterprise destroyed the last sparks of attachment in the 
hearts of the people. The name of the chief judge, Jeffreys, who pass- 
ed through the counties with the axe of justice and a crew of execu- 
tioners, is written with letters of blood in the annals of English history. 
The victory which he had gained so easily, and the terror of the people, 
induced the king to hope, that by cunning and severity he might gradu- 
ally restore the Catholic religion to its former supremacy in England. 
With this object, he made the detested Jeffreys chancellor, presented 
many offices and military appointments to the Catholics and those who 
had gone over to the Roman Church, and aimed at neutralizing the Test 
Act by the introduction of an edict of toleration. But as the parlia- 
ment, despite the bribery used in the elections, could not be brought to 
accept this edict, James attempted to destroy the Test Act by another 
plan ; he dechired that the throne possessed the power of granting a dis- 
pensation from this law; a privilege by which the power and operation of 
all laws would have been paralyzed. The English people looked on qui- 
etly for some time at these proceedings, although with inward repugnance, 
inasmuch a» the king being old and having no male descendants, and his 
two daughters having been brought up in the English Church and mar- 
ried to Protestant princes, the elder, Mary, to William of Orange 
(§ 403), and the younger, Anne, to a Danish prince, they hoped for a 
speedy deliverance. But when the intelligence of the birth of a prince 
of Wales put an end to all hope of a release from the ydke of popery, 
they began to entertain the purpose of freeing themselves by their own 


efforts, with the assistance of William of Orange. The genuineness of 
the young prince was called in qaestion ; crowds of discontented Britons 
streamed towards the Hague ; the Whigs united themselyes with William 
of Orange, and promised him the support of the Protestant part of the 
nation. James did not perceive the storm that was gathering anmnd his 
head, untU William had landed with a Dutch force on the shores of Eng- 
land, with the avowed purpose of defending the Protestant religion and 
the liberties of the country. It was in vain that the king now tamed 
himself to the army and the people, and promised the removal of every 
measure repugnant to the Constitution; the ground on which he stood 
had been rendered insecure by the treachery, hypocrisy, and peijniy 
with which the Stuarts had rendered the nation familiar. When a part 
of the army went over to William, and the general voice declared itself 
against the king, James sent his wife and son to France, threw the great 
seal into the Thames, and then fled himself in despair from the land of 
December, ^is fathers, of whose fair crown he had deprived himself and 
ipS8, his Catholic offipring. He lived from this time forth at St 

Germain, a pensioner of Louis XIV. 

§ 899. After the flight of James, the representatives of the Englisli 
people declared the throne forsaken, and agreed that the Catholus fine of 
the house of Stuart should be excluded from the government, and that 
this should be placed in the hands of t^l^e royal pair, William and Mary. 
Instructed however by the past, they secured the liberties of the nation 
against any future arbitrary acts by the Bill of Rights, without at the 
same time weakening overmuch the power of the king. The Scots ac- 
knowledged the new government, and regained their Presbyterian 
Church ; but the Catholic Irish, supported by France, and led into the 
field by James 11. himself, were first compelled to snbmis- 

^ ' sion by the bloody battle of the Boyne, and again curtailed 

of their privileges and property. From this time, England, by her navd 
power, her trade, industry, and prosperity, took the lead of all other na- 
▲. D. 1701. ^^^^* When a premature death carried the sickly WiUian 
Anne a. d. cliil^less to the grave, he was succeeded by Anne, the 
1701 - 1714. younger daughter of James II., during whose reign the union 
A.D. 1707. between Scotland and England was completed, so that, from 
this time, the Scottish representatives gave their voices in the English 
parliament. Anne also survived the whole of her children, so that the 
English crown devolved upon the Elector, George of Hanover, the 
grandson of Elizabeth, Palgravine and Queen of Bohemia. Two at- 
tempts of the Stuarts, [a. d. 1715 and 1746], to expel the house of 
Hanover by violence, and to repossess themselves of the English crown, 
terminated unsuccessfully. 



LoQis xm. S 400. The first partof the reignof the weak Louis XIH, 
A.]>. 1610- who only numbered nine years at the time of his father^s 
IMS. marder (§ 365), was full of mischief for France. Daring 

the time the queen-mother, Mary of Medicis, conducted the government^ 
Italian favorites exerted a great influence upon affairs, enriched them- 
selves at the expense of the French, and irritated the pride of the na- 
tion by their insolence. Enraged at this, the nobility took up arms, and 
filled the country with rebellion and the tumult of war. When at length 
Louis XIII. himself, upon coming of age, assumed the government, he 
indeed consented that the foreign favorites should be removed by murder 
and execution, and banished his mother from the court ; but the people 
gained little by it. The new favorites in whom the king, who possessed 
no self-reliance, reposed his confidence, were not distinguished from the 
former either by virtue or talents ; for this reason, both the nobles of the 
kingdom and the Huguenots, who felt themselves injured in their rights, 
again rose against the government, and threw the land into fresh confu- 
sion. This melancholy condition of affairs was only put an end to when 
Cardinal Richelieu was admitted into the state council, and 
^ ^* introduced a complete change of system. This gr^at states- 

man maintained an almost absolute sway in the court and in the kingdom 
for nearly eighteen years, though the king never loved him, the queen 
and the nobility were constantly attempting his overthrow, and a succes- 
fikm of cabals and conspiracies were plotted against him. The greatness 
of his mind triumphed over all obstacles. Richelieu's efforts were di- 
rected towards the extension and rounding of the French territory with- 
out, and the increasing and strengthening of the royal power within. In 
fortherance of the former of these objects, he sought to weaken the house 
of Hapsburg, and for this purpose entered into alliances with the enemies 
of the emperor not only in Germany, in the time of the Thirty Years' 
War, but in Italy and other places ; and, to attain his aims in regard to 
the latter project, he neglected to call together the estates of the king- 
dom, broke the power of the nobility and of the independent officials 
and judges in the parliament, and attacked the Huguenots, who had form- 
ed an almost independent alliance in the south and west of France, with 
their own fortresses, an effective militia, and great privileges. After 
conquering the most important of the Huguenot towns (Nismes, Mon- 
taoban, Montpellier), and destroying their fortifications, }n three wars, 
and when he had at length taken Rochelle, the bulwark of the Calviui* 
iits, after a siege of fourteen months, he proceeded to deprive the Pro- 
testants of their political privileges and of their independent pontioBi 


bat granted them^ by the Edict of Nismes, liberty of oonscienoe and 
equal rights with Catholic sabjects. The turbulent nobles had been de- 
prived of their greatest support by the disarming of the Huguenots, and 
the war could now be prosecuted against them with success. The most 
daring were got rid of by banishment and the executioner. Even the 
queen-mother and her second son, the duke of Orleans, who had at- 
tempted to procure the fall of Richelieu, were compelled to leare the 
country, and the confidential friend of the latter, Henry, duke of Mont- 
morency, a scion of one of the most renowned families of France, died 

at Toulouse by the hand of the executioner. A similar fate 

awaited the count of Cinq-Mars and his friend, De Thou, a 
few years later, when, in conjunction with the queen and some of (he 
nobles, they formed a conspiracy against the mighty cardinal. The par- 
liament, the upper tax-offices and courts of justice, which, like the kin^ 
claimed an independent authority on account of their offices being he- 
reditary, were weakened by the establishment of extraordinary courts 
and higher officers, who were dependent upon the minister. 

I 401. In the year 1642, died Richelieu, hated and feared by the no> 
bility and the people, but admired by contemporaries and posterity ; 
Louis XIII., a prince without either great virtues or great vices, and de- 
pendent upon every one who could either acquire his favor or render 
himself formidable to him, soon followed him. His widow, Anne of 
Austria, the proud and ambitious sister of the king of Spain, undertook 
Louis XIV. ^^® government during the minority of his son. But as she 
A. D. 1648- reposed the whole of her confidence on the Italian, Maxario, 
^7^^* the inheritor of the office and the principles of Richelieu, she 

met with vehement opposers among the nobility and in the parliament, who 
attempted to regain their former power and position. The people, in the 
hope of being relieved of some of their heavy taxes, and guided by the 
clever and dexterous Cardinal Retx, embraced their cause, with the in- 
tent of compelling the court to remove Mazarin, and to adopt a different 
A. 0. plan <^ government. This gave occasion to a furious eiril 

1648-1663. war, which is known in history as'Mhe War of the Fnmde." 
Mazarin was obliged to leave the country for a short time, but so immo- 
vable were the favor and confidence of the queen, that he governed 
l^rance from Cologne as he had formerly done in Paris. But his ban- 
ishment did not last long. When Louis XIY. had attained the years of 
kingly majority, and Turenne, the commander of the royal troops, had 
conquered his rival, the great Cond^, the general of the insurgents, in 

the suburb of St. Antoine, Mazarin returned in triumph. 

His solemn entry into Paris was a sign that absolute power 
had gained the victory, and that henceforth the will of the monarch was to 
be law. Mazarin enjoyed for six years longer the greatest respect in 
France and Europe ; Cardinal Retz, the ingenious composer of the Me- 

AO^.OF LOUIS XIY. . 288 

moin of this war, was obliged to leave his ooantrjy after he had preyiQusIj 
expiated his turbulent coodact in the prison of Vinoennes ; Conde, poor 
and unhappy, wandered among the Spaniards, till the grace of bis master 
allowed him to retam and take possession of his estates; Mazarin's 
nieces, Italian females without name or position, were endowed with the 
wealth of France, and sought for as brides by the greatest nobles ; and 
the members of parliament adapted themselves without opposition to the 
directions they received from above, after Louis had appeared before 
them in his boots and riding whip, and demanded their obedience with 
threats. Louis now gave effect to his principle, ^ I am the state " (retail 
A. p. 16&9. ^'^' mot). The peace of the Pyrenees with Spain was the 
last work of Mazarin. He died shortly after, leaving enor- 
Mireh 9, mous wealth behind him. His death took place at the mo- 
^^^' ment when Louis began to grow weary of him, and was 

longing to seise the reins of government in his own powerful grasp. 


{ 402. After the death of Mazarin, Louis XIY., in whom kingly abso- 
latian attained its highest point, appointed no prime minister, but sur- 
rounded himself with men who merely executed his will, and whose 
highest aim was to increase and spread abroad the renown, glory, and 
honor of the king. Li the choice of these men, Louis displayed judg- 
ment and the talents of a ruler. His ministers, especially Colbert, the 
great promoter of French industry, manufactures, and trades, as well as 
his generals, Turenne, Conde, Luxemburg, and the engineer, Yauban, as 
modi surpassed, in talent, acquirements, and dexterity, the statesmen and 
ficddiers of all other countries, as Loub XIY. himself was preeminent 
among the princes of his age, in the greatness of his -power, in command- 
ing presence, and kingly digni^. He rendered the age of Louis XIY. 
the most illustrious in the French annals, and caused the Court of Yer- 
sailles (the seat of the royal residence) to be everywhere praised and 
admired as the model of taste, of refinement, and of a distinguished 
mode of living. But as he sought nothing but the gratification of his own 
selfishness, of his own love of pleasure, of his pride, and of his desire for 
renown and splendor, his reign became the grave of freedom, of morals, 
of firmness of character, and of manly sentiments. Court favor was the 
end of every effort, and fiattery the surest road to arrive at it ; virtue 
and merit met with little acknowledgment. 

§ 403. Louis XIY. wished to enlarge his empire, and to render his 
name illustrious by military renown. He took advantage, therefore, of 
the death of the Spanish king, Philip lY., to make pretensions to his 
Sptajih War inheritance as the husband of Philip's daughter, and to march 
1. ». an army into the Spanish Netherlands. By the triple alliance 

Uir-i66S. of £ngyuid^ HoUand, and Sweden, he was indeed compelled, 


by the peace of Aix, to surrender, after a short eampaign, the greiier 
Ma 1668 ^^^ ^ ^^® conquests ; but manj of the frontier towns of 
' Flanders remained with France, toid were concerted by Yta> 

ban into impregnable fortresses. As Holland had been the chief instni- 
ment in checking the ^ctorioDS coarse of the haughty king, so she did not 
fail to experience the vengeance of the French potentate. He won Swe- 
den to his side, purchased the favor of the English king by annuities and 
mistresses (| 897), and concluded an alliance with the Elector of Cologne 
and the bishop of Munster. Thus prepared and protected on every side, 
Dutch War ^^^ began a second war, which at first was directed agsint 
A. D. Holland alone, but in which almost all the European' states 

1672-167B. ^gj^ involved during the seven years of its conunuanee. 
AAer the celebrated passage of the Rhine at Tolhuis, the French army pur- 
sued its rapid course of victories into the territories of the States GenenL 
Holland was now in extremities. The republicans, who had hitherto coo- 
ducted the affairs of the State with great credit, had been more solidtoaa 
about improving the navy than upon maintaining or increasing the land 
forces ; how could they resist the stately armies of France, conducted, ai 
they were, by the most celebrated generals ? liege, Utrecht, and Upper 
Issel, fell into the hands of the enemy ; French dragoons already nisde 
incursions into the province of Holland, and approached to within two 
miles of the capital ; — the terrified republicans implored peace, but were 
not listened to. But whilst the French army was wasting time in tbe 
siege of the Dutch fortresses, the republicans, to whom the whole d 
the mischief was ascribed, were overthrown by the Orange party^ their 
chiefs, John and Cornelius de Witt, murdered in the streets of the cspi* 
tal, and the government then placed in the hands of the shrewd and wa^ 
like stadtholder, William III. of Orange. This celebrated general aroused 
the courage and patriotic enthusiasm of the Hollanders; they cat throu^ 
their dykes, and rendered the inundated country inapproachable by the 
French ; the walls of Groningen defied all the efforts of the enemy, and 
the marshal of Luxemburg's daring march against Amsterdam, over the 
frozen waters, was frustrated by a sudden thaw. These and other ci^ 
cumstances saved Holland. For as the great Elector of Brandenborg, 
Frederick William, now came to the assistance of the Dutch, and also 
induced the emperor Leopold to take an interest in the war, the French 
were obliged to divide their power, and to send their chief 
force to the Rhine. Spain, ialso^ add the German empire, 
soon entered into the war against France. 

§ 404. The military power of France increased with the number of 
her enemies. Turenne crossed the Rhine, after having barbarootljT 
ravaged the lands of the Palatinate, and pressed forwards, burning aad 
ravaging, into Franconia. The German princes were divided ; the im' 
penal minister of war was in the pay of Louis, and betrayed the mil^ 


tarj plans to the enemy ; the Austrian generals were either incompetent, 
or, like Montecncoli, engaged in Hungary. The triumph of France 
would have been complete, had not the great Elector saved the military 
reputation of Germany. Louis XIV., for the purpose of compelling the 
latter to separate himself from the army of the Rhine, had induced his 
allies, the Swedes, to attack the march of Brandenburg. But the ener- 
getic Frederick William appeared in his own territories before the 
enemy entertained the slightest suspicion of his approach, and gave the 

surprised Swedes a complete overthrow in the battle of 
' * Fehrbellin. This battle was the foundation of Prussia's 
greatness. A month later; Turenne, the greatest general of his age, was 
killed by a cannon-ball, near Sasbach, and the enemy compelled to 
retreat across the Rhine. But the war nevertheless continued for three 
years longer, and was particularly destructive to the lands on the Mosel 
and the Saar, where the French committed frightful ravages. It was 
not until the English parliament demanded, with menaces, that the 
government should dissolve the alliance with France and support the 

Dutch, that Louis resolved to put an end to the war. By 
* the peace of Nimeguen, the Dutch, who in the mean time 
had made the office of stadtholder hereditary in the male line of the gal- 
lant William of Orange, received back the whole of their lost towns and 
territories. On the other hand, the Spaniards were obliged to relinquish 
Franche-Comt^, and the whole of the fortified places in the line of Va- 
lenciennes and Maubeuge, to France, and the German empire lost not 
only the town of Freiburg in the Breisgau, but was obliged to submit to 
the greatest humiliations. The dukedom of Lorraine, which belonged to 
Germany, and of which the French had taken possession at the com- 
mencement of the war, was given back to the duke, who was engaged in 
the Austrian service, under such degrading conditions, that the latter 
preferred to allow it to remain still jn the hands of the enemy ; and the 
great Elector saw himself compelled to give up to the Swedes the lands 
and towns he had conquered with so much difficulty in Pomerania. 

§ 405. The timorous acquiescence of the German princes infiamed the 
insolence and ambition of Louis XIV. He asserted that a number of 
dbtricts and portions of territory, which, at an earlier period, had belonged 
to the towns and provinces which had fallen to France in the Peaces of 
Westphalia and Nimeguen, were included in the cession. To arrange 
this matter, he established the so-called chambers of reunion in Metz and 
Breisach, and, supported by their decisions, took possession of a number 
of cities, towns, boroughs, villages, mills, nay, even whole provinces, on 
the left bank of the Rhine. Success only increased the audacity of the 
French king, so that, at length, in the midst of peace, he wrested the 
September, ^^^ town of Strasburg from the German empire. The trai- 
U8L torous bishop, Francis Egon, of Furstenburg, assisted in the 


surprise and occupation of the place. The once free burghers were i 
pelled, after being disarmed, to take the oath of subjectioa to the foreign 
potentate upon their knees. The ornaments of German architectDTO 
were restored to the Catholic worship, and the arsenal was emptied. In- 
stead of chastising this insolence with their united forces, Austria, Spain, 
Angast 16, ^^^ the German empire concluded a truce for twenty jetm 
1684. with the tyrannical king, at Regensburg, by which all the 

annexed and plundered provinces were given up to Louis, with the 
single condition, that he should be satisfied with what he had got, and 
should put an end to his annexations. 

Austria's distress and triuhph. 

§ 406. During this time, the emperor Leopold was engaged in the 
eastern portion of his dominions. In Hungary, the oppression exercised 
by the government upon the Protestants, the burdensome quartering of 
troops, and some acts of violence against certain magnates, had produced 
a formidable rebellion at the moment when the Turks were renewing 
their former plans of conquest, and some active chief viziers were awak- 
ning the warlike spirit of the janisaries. The Austrian government 
hoped to suppress the insurrection by severity. It condemned the leaders 
to death upon the scaffold, and outraged the chartered rights of the 
nation. But these acts of violence excited the love of free- 
dom and the military spirit of the Hungarians. Emmerick 
Tokeli, an active noble, whose property had been confiscated, unfurled 
the banner of rebellion. In a short time, he had it consider- 
able army at his command, with which he drove the Aus- 
trian forces out of Hungary. Louis XIY. afforded him assistance, and 
the Porte, which recognized him as tributary king of Hun- 
gary, despatched a powerful army for his defence. The 
Turks marched, plundering and devastating, to the walls of Vienna. The 
court fied to Lintz, and the capital of Austria seemed lost But the 
courage of the citizens and of their leader, Rudtger von Staremberg, to- 
gether with the Ottoman's want of skill in conducting sieges, preserved 
Vienna for sixty days, in spite of all attacks, till at length the imperial 
army, commanded by Charles of Lorraine, and in conjunction with a 
Polish force under the heroic king, John Sobieski, came to the help of 
September, the hardly-pressed town. A bloody engagement under the 
1688. walls of Vienna terminated to the disadvantage of the Turks. 

They made a hasty retreat, and left an enormous booty in the hands of 
the victors. From this time, the fortune of the war remained with the 
Austrians. Hungary was conquered, Tokeli compelled to fiy, and Bnda, 
which had been in possession of the Turks for 146 years, was wrested 
from their hands. After the criminal court . of Eperies had deprived 
the Hungarian nobility of their most enterprising leaders, and spread te^ 


Tor throagh the whole nation, the emperor Leopold was enabled, at the 
Diet at Presbarg, to abolish elective monarchy, and to banish certain 
piivil^^ from the constitution that interfered with the royal power, 
without any opposition. In this way, Hungary became the inheritance 
of the house of Hapsburg. The Turks made great efforts to regain that 
vhich had been lost, and streams of Turkish and Christian blood were 
shed around the walls of Belgrade ; but those great heroes, Charles of 
Lorraine, prince Eugene, and Louis of Baden, held victory 
firmly to the Austrian banners. By the peace of Carlowitz, 
Transylvania, and the whole of the land between the Danube and the 
Theiss, were ceded to the Austrians. 


S 407. For the purpose of creating a diversion in favor of the Turks 
against the superior power of Austria, Louis XIV. took advantage of 
affairs relating to the inheritance of the Palatinate and the election of the 
War of archbishop of Cologne, to engage in the third war, called the 

Orieus, A. D. war of Orleans. When the elector Charles died without 
i6&9-ie97. jQi^Q issue, and the land fell into the collateral Catholic line 
of Pfalz Neuberg, Loub XIV. claimed not only the movable property, 
bot also the immovable estate, as the inheritance of Elizabeth Charlotte, 
the sister of the deceased Elector, and the wife of Louis's brother, the duke 
of Orleans ; and when this claim was not admitted, he marched an army 
upon the Rhine* For the purpose of rendering it impossible for the 
enemy to penetrate into France, Louvois, the hard-hearted minister of 
war, gave command for creating a desert between the two kingdoms by 
devastating the banks of the Rhine. Hereupon, the wild troops fell like 
incendiaries upon the fiourishing villages of the Bergstrasse, the rich 
cities on the Rhine, and the blooming districts of the southern Palatinate, 
and reduced them to heaps of ashes. The shattered tower of the castle 
of Heidelberg is yet a silent witness of the barbarity with which Melac 
and other leaders executed the commands of a merciless government 
Towns and vilkges, vineyards and orchards, were in flames from Haardt* 
gebirge to ^ahe ; in Manheim, the inhabitants themselves were obliged 
to assist in destroying their own buildings and fortifications ; a great part 
of Heidelberg was consumed by fire, afler the bridge of the Neckar had 
been blown up ; in Worms, the cathedral with many of the dwelling- 
hooses became the prey of the fiames ; and in Spire, the French drove 
out the citizens, set fire to the plundered city and the ve- 
' nerable cathedral, and desecrated the bones of the ancient 


The second occasion of the war, in which, beside the German empire 
and the emperor, the Netherlands, Spain, and the dukes of Savoy and 
Piedmont became involved, was the appointment to the spiritual electo^ 


slnp in CologiDe, where Look XIY<^ hy dint of bribeiy, had Beemed Ae 
election of William Ton Funteobofg, a man in the interests of Fmee; 
bat both pope and emperor refused confirmation. In this nar, aieoi 
which lasted for eight jeara, the French armj, which waa oondoded ^ 
the most distinguished generals, maintained its supremacy over tbe fir 
superior force of the enemy. In Italy, in the Netheilandd, in betfilj 
afflicted Germany, in the north of Spain, the French had generally fk 
advantage ; even at sea they maintained their honor, altboo^ 
the battle of La Hogue went against them. It was a cause 
of much surprise that Louis should consent to the nniveraalljr desired io^ 
mination of the war, and should show himself far more no- 
derate in the peace of Ryswick (between Hague and D(Mj 
tban in that of Nimeguen. The German empire was the only losers 
inasmuch as it was obliged to leave Strasburg and -all the annexed pn- 
vinces to France. Louis's reason for concluding the peace so hastily vai, 
that he wished to have his hands free at the approaching vacancy of tke 
Spanish crown. 


§ 408. It was daring the last three decades of the seventeenth oentiny 
tliat France stood at the culminating point of her power abrtMul andof 
her prosperity at home, so that the flattering chronicles of those days ik- 
scribed the age of Louis XIY. as the golden age of France. Tnde tai 
industry received a prodigious development bj the care of Colbert; tbe 
woollen and silk manufactories, the stocking and cloth weaving; vldA 
flourished in the southern towns, brought prosperity, the maritime feicc 
increased, colonies were planted, and the productions of France weie ca^ 
ried by trading companies to all quarters of the globe. 

The court of France displayed a magnificence that had never befixe 
been witnessed. The palace of Versailles, and the gardens wfaicli vere 
adorned with statues, fountains, and alleys of trees, were a model of tute 
for all Europe ; fetes of all kinds, jovial parties, ballets, firewoib, tbe 
opera and the theatre, in the service of which the first intellects in 
France employed their talents, followed upon each other in attraedTe 
succession ; poets, artists, men of learning, all were eager to do hoDor to 
a prince who rewarded with a liberal hand every kind of talent that coo- 
duced either to his amusement or to his glory. Sumptuous bnildlDgs* 
as the Hospital of Invalides, costly libraries, magnificent productions d 
the press, vast establishments for the natural sciences, academies, 9^ 
similar institutions, exalted the glory and renown of the great Loai^ 
The refined air of society, the polished tone, the easy manners of the 
nobility and courtiers, subdued Europe more permanently and exteo* 
aively than the weapons of the army. The French fashions, language, 
and Uteiatttre, bore sway from this time in all circles of the higher ciassei. 


The consequences of the establishment of the French Academy by Riche- 
lieo were a development of the language, style, and literary composition, 
that was extremely favorable to the diffusion of the literature. The lan- 
guage, so particularly adapted for social intercourse, for conversation, and 
for epistolary writing, remained from henceforth the language of diplo- 
macy, of courts, and of the higher classes ; and although the literary pro- 
ductions are wanting in strength, elevation, and nature, — the polish of the 
form, and the ease and felicity of the style, gave French taste the supre- 
macy in Europe, and strengthened the French people in the agreeable 
delusion that they were the most civilized of nations. In the time of 
Louis, dramatic poetry reached its highest excellence in Peter Corneille 
(1684), whose ^ Gid" is regarded as the foundation and commencement 
ofckssical stage poetry; in J.Racine (1699), who, in his Iphigenia and 
Phaedra ventured to emulate £uripedes, and in the talented writer of 
comedies, Moliere (1678), whose Tartuffe, L'Avare, Le Misanthrope, &;c. 
evince a profound knowledge of human nature in its aberrations. Boi- 
leau (Despreaux) (1711), a dexterous versifier, was admired as the 
French Horace on account of his odes and satires ; Lafontaine's (1694) 
&bles and stories are still familiar in all families as school and children's 
books, and the adventures of Telemachus by Bishop Fenelon (1715) are 
translated into all European langul^^es, and have an immense circulation* 
At the same time, the eloquence of the pulpit was cultivated by JBossuet 
(1704) and other spiritual orators ; the philosophy of scepticism, by the 
Huguenot, Bayle ; and the literature of polemics by the religious party 
of the Jansenists, in its contests against the Jesuits and their dangerous 
morality. In this latter dass, the Provincial Letters of Pascal occupy 
the first rank. 

§ 409. But however fiatterers may sing the praises of the age of Louis 
XIY^ one spot of shame remains ineradicable — the persecution of the 
Huguenots. The French king believed that the unity of the Church 
was inseparable from a perfect monarchy. For this reason he oppressed 
the Jansenists, a Catholic party, which first contended against the Jesuits, 
and afterwards against the head of the Church himself; and he compelled 
the Calvinists, by the most severe persecutions, either to fiy, or to return 
into the bosom of the Catholic Church. Colbert, who esteemed the 
Huguenots as active and industrious citizens, prevented for some time 
these violent measures ; but the suggestions of the royal confessor, La 
Chaise, the zeal for conversion of the afiTectedly pious Madame Main- 
tenon, who had been first a tutoress of the court, and afterwards Louis's 
trusted wife, and the cruelty of Louvois, the minister of war, at length 
triumphed over the advice of Colbert. A long succession of oppressive 
proceedings against the Huguenots prepared the way for the great stroke* 
The number of their churches was restricted, and their worship confined 
to a few of the principal towns. Louis's paroxysms of repentance and 


derotioB were always the aources of fresh opfnreanoiis to the GalTinisde 
liereticfly bj whose cooTersioii he thought to expiate his own erimes. 
Thej were gradually ezduded from office and dignities ; converts were 
fieiToied ; in ibis way, the ambitious were enticed, the poor were' won by 
money, which fk>wed from the king's conversion chest, and from the libe- 
ral gifts of the pious illustrious ; a wide field was opened to the zeal for 
proselytism by the enactment that the conversion of children under age 
was valid. Families were divided, children were torn from their parents 
and brought up as Catholics* Court and deigy, the heartless and ekh 
qnent bishop Bossuet at their head, set all means in motion to establish 
the ecclesiastical unity of France. When all other means of converaioB 
fiukd, came the dragonades. At the command of Louvois, the cavalry 
took possession of the southern provinces, and established their qoarteiB 
in the dwellings of the Huguenots. The prosperity of the indostrions 
citizens, whose substance was devoured by the dragoons, soon disap- 
peared. The bad treatment by these booted missionaries, who qaitted the 
houses of the apostates to fall in doubled numbers upon those who re- 
mained stodiast, operated more effectually than all the enticements of the 
€ourt or the seductions of the priests. Thousands fied abroad that th^ 
October, might preserve their faith upon a foreign soil. At last came 
1686. the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The religious woi^ 

ship of the Calvinists was now forbidden, their churches were torn down, 
their schools closed, their preachers banished from the land ; when the 
emigration increased to a formidable degree, this was forbidden, under 
punishment of the galleys and forfeiture of goods. But despite all threats 
and prohibitions, upwards of 500,000 French Calvinists carried their 
industry, their faith, and their courage to Protestant lands. Switzerland, 
the Palatinate of the Ehine, Brandenboig, Holland, and England, offered 
an asylum to the persecuted. The silk manufacture and stocking-weav- 
ing were carried abroad by the fugitive Huguenots. Flatterers extolled 
the king as the exterminator of heresy, but the courage of the peasants 
in Cevennes, and the number of Huguenots who contented themselves 
with private devotion, show how little religious oppression conduced to 
the desired end. For when the persecution was carried into the distant 
valleys of the Cevennes, where Waldenses and Calvinists lived, according 
to ancient custom, in the simplicity of the faith, the oppressors met with 
an obstinate resistance. Persecution called forth the courage of its vic- 
tims, oppression urged zeal into fanaticism. Led on by a young mecha- 
nic, the Camisardes, clad in a linen frock, rushed *' with naked breast 
against the marshals." A frightful civil war filled the peaceful valleys 
of Cevennes ; fugitive priests, in the gloom of the forest, exhorted the 
evangelical brethren to a desperate defence, till, at length, the perBeeotore 
-grew weary. Neariy two millions of the Hugnenots remained withoat 
(Xighti and widiout religious worship. 



[a. d. 1606-1732.] 

§ 410. North America, with the exception of Mexico, was not colo- 
nized bj Europeans so early as the southern part of the Continent. The 
discoveries of Cabot had given England a valid claim to the 
whole coast from Labrador to Florida ; but the country pre- 
sented none of the allurements that had incited and rewarded the Spanish 
adventurers. Fertile and well-wooded, indeed, intersected by noble rivers, 
and inclosing safe and capacious harbors and bays, it seemed a promis- 
ing region for permanent settlements and agricultural industry, but 
offered only a faint prospect of wealth to be obtained from gold and silver 
mines, or from plundering the native inhabitants. There was little 
chance of glory or gain in subduing feeble and destitute tribes, who had 
hardly risen above the lowest stage of savage life. Buccaneering Eng- 
lishmen, like Drake, Frobisher, and Hawkins, thirsting for adventure 
and gold, contemptuously overlooked the North American Indians, pre- 
ferring to attack and rob the wealthy settlements already formed by the 
Spaniards at the south. A party of French Huguenots attempted to 
colonize Florida ; but the Spaniards, who claimed the country, surprised 
the infant settlement, and massacred nearly all its inhabitants, not sparing 
even the women and children. This slaughter was soon 
avenged by a Frenchnuui, Dominique de Grourges, who cap- 
tured Fort Carolina, where the victors had established themselves, and 
hanged all his prisoners ; but he made no attempt to form another colony, 
and did not even disturb the little Spanish city of St. Augustine, which 
remained, but did not flourish, as the only permanent settlement of Euro- 
peans on the coast north of the Gulf of Mexico during the sixteenth cen- 

The English, under the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh and his half- 
brother. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, attempted to create a settlement on 
A. D. tlie coast of what was subsequently called North Carolina. 

i&£3-i5€7. Three parties of colonists were sent thither, but they were 
few in number, and ill provided with necessaries ; one returned, and the 
other two perished, either fi-om starvation or the hostility of the natives. 
Early in the seventeenth century, the French, under De Monts and 
Champlain, explored the country around the Bay of Fundy and that bor- 
dering on the St. Lawrence, laying claim to Acadie (Nova Scotia) and 
Canada, which together were called New France. De Monts founded 
Port Royal (Annapolis), on the eastern shore of the Bay of Fundy, in 
1606 ; and two years afterwards, Champlain estabUshed on the St. Law- 
rence the post of Quebec In 1609, the Dutch sent out Henry Hudson, 
who explored the American coast for a considerable distanoey entered 


New York harbor, and sailed up the river which now bears his name. 
Stimulated by a feeling of rivalry with the French, the English renewed 
their attempts at colonization on a larger scale. James I. granted the 
whole country, from Cape Fear to Passamaquoddy Bay, to two companies 
of merchants and adventurers. The southern portion, from the thirty- 
fourth to the forty-first degree of latitude was given to the London Com- 
pany; and the northern part, from the thirty-eighth to the forty-fifth 
degree, was to be colonized by the Plymouth Company. Neither was to 
commence a settlement within one hundred miles of a spot already occu- 
pied by the other. Such associations, looking only to the profits of trade, 
and intended to remain as commercial corporations within the limits of 
England, were but ill fitted for the great enterprise of founding and nour- 
ishing colonies on a distant coast. All their undertakings resulted in dis- 
appointment and loss ; and they were finally dissolved while the settle- 
ments which they had created were still in the weakness of infancy. 
§ 411. Virginia. The first band of colonists sent out by the London 
Company established themselves on a spot which they called 
Jamestown, on the James river, about fifty miles above ite 
entrance into Chesapeake Bay. The situation was an unhealthy one, 
and most of the adventurers were poor gentlemen or broken down trades- 
men, unused to toil, and " fitter to breed a riot than to found a colony.* 
The direction of afiairs had been given to a council, consisting of seven 
persons, nominated by the Company in England. John Smith, a military 
adventurer of great courage, enterprise, and sagacity, was one of them ; 
and the incompetency of his colleagues soon becoming manifest, he gm- 
dually assumed the lead, and several times rescued the feeble settlements 
from the imminent perils of savage warfare and famine. Half of the 
emigrants perished during the first six months ; and if the colony had not 
been fed by frequent supplies of food and additional settlers from Eng- 
land, the enterprise must soon have been abandoned. In spite of Smith's 
remonstrances, the settlers wasted their time in seeking for gold and sil- 
ver, instead of cultivating the ground ; and they actually sent a vessel to 
England laden with dirt in which glittering specks had been discovered, 
which they mistook for gold. Smith explored the country, and coasted 
the bay in an open boat, entering the principal rivers and inlets, and thus 
obtaining the requisite information for the construction of a chart, which 
was transmitted to England and published. In one of these expeditions, 
he fell into the hands of the savages, and was on the point of being put to 
death, when he was rescued by the chieftain's daughter, Pocahontas, and 
after an imprisonment of a few weeks, was sent back to Jamestown. But 
the colony was soon deprived of his invaluable services ; in 1609, he was 
severely injured by the accidental explosion of his powder bog, and was 
compelled to return to England for surgical aid. After his departure, 
the affiiirs of the colony again declined, and the settlers more than oooe 


detennined to abandon the undertaking, and return home. But they 
were prevented by the seasonable arrival of ships, bringing fresh sup- 
plies and a reinforoement of men, whose broken fortunes in their native 
knd made them eager to brave the perils of a desperate enterprise. Thus 
oiien rescued from the brink of ruin, the colony struggled on, till its 
members at last became inured to their novel situation, and acquired the 
habits of life which alone could meet its exigencies. Novel recruits were 
sent out from time to time to keep up their numbers. In 1619, ninety 
young women arrived, of irreproachable character, who were sold at the 
prioe of their passage, to become wives to the planters. Many cargoes 
ef vagrants, thieves, and jailbirds also came, to serve as indented servants 
for a term of years, and afterwards to become free colonists. Then a 
more lasting impression was made on the future character and fortunes 
ci the settlement by the introduction of twenty negro slaves, who were 
brought by a Dutch trading vessel, and readily purchased by the settlers. 
Tobacco had now become the staple product of the colony, and slaves 
were profitably employed in its cultivation. -** 

f 412. The London Company obtained a new charter in 1609, which 
gave them the power of enacting all necessary laws for the Colony, and 
i^pointing a governor and other officers to see that the laws were exe- 
cuted. Whatever discontent may have been excited among the emi- 
grants by this measure, which gave the whole control of their affairs to a 
oooncil resident in England, they welcomed the appointment of Lord 
De la War to be their first governor, as the good abilities and amiable 
but resolute character of this nobleman seemed to promise a successful 
administration. Unfortunately he remained in office but a short time, 
owing to the failure of his health ; and his successors, Dale, Grates, and 
Argal, governed with a rigor and severity which occasioned loud com- 
plaints. But they had many dissolute and turbulent subjects to rule; 
and the order and discipline which they preserved were favorable to the 
prosperity of the settlement Hitherto the land had been held in com- 
mon, and the products of all labor were thrown into a common stock. 
But experience having shown that this policy placed the idle and the 
diBflolute oa a par with the virtuous and the industrious, besides dis- 
couraging the latter, each settler now received an allotment of land as 
his own, and was allowed to work on his own account. The savages had 
occasionally given much trouble, and in 1622, they were nearly success- 
ful in a plot which they had formed for the entire destruction of the set- 
tlements. In one day, they killed three hundred and forty^even of the 
whites. A furious war succeeded, in which the Lidians, indeed, were 
defeated and driven back with great slaughter, so that they never became 
formidable again. But the colony had received a fearful blow, firom 
which it recovered with slowness and difficulty. The number of settle- 
ncnts was reduced from ei^^ty to eight, and a famine ensued that de- 


gtroyed manj liyes. The first eoloniai assembly was called by Oor. 
Teardley in 1619, and two years afterwards, a special ordinance eotH 
irmed the right of holding such a local legislature. 

The proceedings of the Company in England had now awakened the 
jealousy of the crown ; and these misfortunes gave King James the 
pretext that he wanted for depriving them of theii' charter, and taking 
^e government into his own hands. Of course, it was administered on 
die arbitrary principles which were then in favor at conrt Complete 
legislative and executive power was given to a governor and a cooneil oi 
twelve persons, all nominated by the crown ; and this power was tyran- 
nically exerdsed.'^Yet the General Assembly, though not formally 
Authorized, was still permitted to meet, though it was much restricted 
in the exercise of its functions. At one time, the patience of the settlers 
gave way, and they seised their governor. Sir John Harrey, 
and sent him a prisoner to England to answer for his mis- 
conduct With the native obstinacy of his character, Charles L reseated 
this act as savoring of audacity and rebellton, and sent back the obnoz* 
ious governor, with a fresh commission, under which he ruled more 
^rrannically than ever. Still, the prevailing sentiment in the ctAotkj was 
eminently loyal, and during the English Civil War, they took sides, as 
long as they durst, with the king, against the Pariiament Many of the 
•ettlers, as has been said, were decayed gentlemen and unportioned sons 
of noble families, in whose minds the prejudices of rank were rather 
heightened than diminished by the want of fortune. The Chureh of 
England was established by law, regular stipends bdi^ allotted to its 
ministers in every parish, and the preachers of any other persuasioA were 
not allowed to exercise their functions. The English law of primogeni- 
ture and entail regulated the descent of property; and the wealthier 
colonists, directing the labor of many indented servants and slaves, lived 
apart on their plantations, affecting something of the state of a landed 
aristocracy. After the ruin of the king's cause at home, in 1645, many 
of the disbanded cavaliers found refuge in Virginia, bringing with them 
their sentiment of chivalrous attachment to Church and King. 

§ 418. In 1671, Gov. Berkeley estimated the population of the coloay 
at 40,000, including 2,000 negro slaves, and 6,000 indented white ser- 
vants. The character of his administration may be inferred from a com- 
munication made by him, this year, to the English Privy Conncil. ^ I 
thank Grod," he wrote, ^' there are no free schools or printing, and I hope 
Ire shall not have any these hundred years ; for learning has brought 
disobedience, and heresy, and sects into the world, and printing has 
divulged them, and libels against the best government. God keep aft 
fW>m bothP Yet a few years afterwards, discontent had become 60 
general that a rebellion broke out, and for a few months the insurgents 
hud entire control of the government. Nathaniel Bacon, ft yovng law* 

viRannA. 9M 

jer, £Bfcui|;iii8lied for his talents and activity, was the popular leader in 
tfiis moTement The people wished to commence hostilities with the 
Indians, whose eondaot had been such as to occasion great excitement 
and fears of a general conspiracy against the whites. But it is probable 
that other grievances) some of which were of long standing, were the 
true causes of the outbreak, and that the Indian war was only a pretext 
Six hudred volunteers were collected. Bacon was chosen 
their leader, and Gkiv. Berkeley was asked to give^him a com- 
mission to act against the savages. ^The governor not only refused, but 
commanded the men to disperse under pain of being considered as traitors ; 
and summoning those who were faithful to his standard, he set out in ptu^ 
soit of them. But while he was gone, the counties near Jamestown bn^e 
oat in insurrection, seized the capital, and took possession of the govern- 
meat. Berkeley was compelled to yield, to dissolve the old Assembly, 
which had been long in session and had become unpopular, and to issue 
writs for a new election. Bacon and a large majority of his friends were 
returaed to the new Assembly. Among them were many persons of 
wealth and inflnence. A commission to act against the Indians was stitt 
refused him, and fearing treachery, he left the city, called together his 
adherents, returned at the head of 600 men, and dictated his own terms to 
the enraged but powerless Berkeley. Bacon was appointed general, was 
authorized to raise an army of a thousand men, and to prosecute the war 
vigorously. The Assembly th€n turned its attention to the redress of 
grievances. The right of choosing members of the Assembly and of 
voting in parish matters was restored to the freemen, some unjust exemp- 
tions from taxes were taken away, tippling houses were regulated, and an 
act was passed of oblivion and indemnity for those who had been engaged 
in the recent disturbances. But the governor's spirit was not yet snb- 
daed. After the Assembly was dissolved, he again denounced Bacon as 
a rebel, retired for a time to Accomac to muster his friends, and then 
momed with an armed force, and took possession of the cajNtaL But 
the insurgents besieged him there, and he was again obliged to leave^ 
while the town was set on fire and wholly consumed. But in the midst 
of these successes. Bacon was suddenly ti^en sick and died ; and no pro- 
per person being found to take his place, the army was dispersed, and 
the iosorrection abandoned. Berkeley returned in triumph, and punishp 
ed the rebels with great rigor, some of their leaders being condemned 
and executed, and others were sentenced to pay heavy fines. He then 
went to England,, where, instead of the praise and rewards that he 
expected, he was severely censured for his cruelty. He died a few 
months afterwards, as it was reported, of chagrin. An act of general 
pardon and oblivion was sent out from EngUuid, and other mild and 
popukr measures soon wiped out the memory of Bacon's rebellion. 
Needy and covetous govemorB still provoked occasional discontent; bat 


the spirit of the people was eminently lo jal, 8o that they were tardy an! 
reluctant to acknowledge the revolution of 1688, and only afker repeated 
commands was a proclamation issued announcing the aoeoesitoa ei 
William and Mary to the English throne. 

§ 414. Pjltmouth. Far different was the character of the emigrants 
who founded the New England Colonies, under grants from the Ply- 
mouth Company. These were Puritans of the straitest sect, Independ* 
ents in their notions of Church goTemment, and now fast verging 
towards republicanism, in consequence of their long continued oppoeitioA 
to the constituted authorities of Church and State at home. The intolc' 
rant spirit of the English hierarchy and the arbitrary proceedings of the 
court made their residence in England uncomfortable, if not perilous; 
and they looked to voluntary exile for deliverance. A company of them, 
under the Bev. John Robinson as pastor, and William Brewster as 
ruling elder, embariced for Holland in 1608^ carrying iheir wives^ 
children, and little property along with them. They were kindly 
leceived by the Dutch, who were Protestants, and they remained over 
ten years in peace at Leyden. But Puritans as they were, they were 
still Englishmen ; they disliked the sound of a foreign language, and the 
prospect that their children would intermarry with the Dutch, and forget 
their English parentage and the customs of their forefathers. The 
greater part of them, therefore, determined to emigrate to America, and 
for this purpose, returned first to England, whtere they easily procured 
the promise of a grant of land from the London Company, as they in* 
tended to establish themselves within what were then the limits of Vir- 
ginia. They sailed from Plymouth in the ship Mayflower, and after a 
tedious and stormy voyage of over two months, arrived at Gape God, 
nearly two degrees north of the place which they had aimed at. The 
lateness of the season, however, the fatigues of the voyage, and the perils 
<tf coasting along a shore which had been but imperfectly explored, pre- 
vented them from putting to sea again, and they sought a spot for their 
settlement in that neighborhood. But as they were th^ without the 
limits of the Virginia Company, and the Crown * had refused to grant 
them a charter, they deemed it necessary, befoire* leaving the vessel, to 
sign an agreement, promising to submit to whateyiftr ^just and equal 
laws and ordinances might be thought convenient for the general good." 
They selected Plymouth, which offered a tolerably ^good harbor in the 
southwestern part of Massachusetts Bay, as a suitable place for the com- 
mencement of a colony; and on the 22d of December, 1620, the PiL- 
GRIHS, as they might now well be termed, landed there, numbering only 
one hundred and one, including the women and children.' John Carver 
was chosen their first governor, and Miles Standish their militaiy leader, 
as they had some apprehensions of the savages. Divided into nineteen 
fiEonilieS} they immediately b^gan to fell trees and construct houses, la 


wbich to find shelter against the rigors of the winter. But their expo- 
sure was necessarily great, and thej had bat a slender stock of provisions 
and other necessaries. Sickness came upon them, and during the first 
five months, thej lost more than half of their number. 

One of their associates, who had been left behind in England, obtained 
for them a grant of land from the Company which was now incorporated, 
wider a new charter, as "^ The Council established at Plymouth, in the 
County of Devon, (England,) for the Planting, Ruling, Ordering, and 
Gk>Teming of New England in America." This grant authorized the 
colonists to choose a Governor, Council, and General Court, for the 
enactment and execution of laws. Strictly speaking, however, the Com- 
pany had no right to give them any thing more than the property of the 
soil. A charter from the Crown was necessary to complete their politi- 
cal organization ; and this they never obtained. But the necessity of the 
case compelled them to act as if they had received full powers; and their 
remoteness and insignificance prevented the authorities at home from 
questioning their right. The agreement which they had signed on board 
the Mayflower was the basis of their l^islation ; and for some time, all 
the settlers came together in a general assembly, to enact the necessary 
bws. Thus, in its origin, the colony was the purest democracy on earth, 
lime showed the inconveniences of such an arrangement, and the legisla- 
tive power was then delegated to an Assembly, composed of representa- 
tives from the several towns. Land and other property were at first 
held in common, the Company in England being entitled to a specified 
share of the total profits, t But this experiment turned out like the simi- 
lar one in Virginia ; finding that industry was dbcouraged by it, the 
Colonists succeeded in purchasing, on cr^it, the share of the London 
partners. A division was then made of the land and movable property, 
and henceforth each one reaped the fruits of his own toil. The people 
were united in religious fiuth, and wished not to be disturbed by theolo- 
gical controversies ; so, when one Lyford, a clergyman of the Church of 
England, was sent out to them as a suitable pastor, in pkice of Robinson, 
who had died at Leyden, they refused to receive him, and exercised their 
undoubted right of ownership of the soil, by expelling him, and two who 
adhered to him, Oldham and Conant, from their territory. These 
banished persons established themselves at Nantasket, just beyond the 
limits of the Plymouth colonists. The soil around Plymouth was thin 
and poor, and the people had brought but few worldly goods along with 
them ; thus, the progress of the settlement was slow. Some of their old 
companions, who had been left behind in Holland, now came out to Join 
them; and a few others, attracted by similarity of worship, and by the 
prospect of driving a little traffic in fish and peltry, were added to their 
nnmber. But ten years after the landing at Plymouth, the population 
numbered only three hundred. Their territory, indeed, was but small| 


being bounded on the land side by a line drawn northerly fVom the mooth 
of Narraganset river, till it met one carried westeriy from Cohasset 
rfvnlet, ^ at the uttermost limits of a place called Pocanoket." 

S 415. Massachusetts. But encouraged by the growth of this 
colony, feeble as it wa9, the Council of y ^wJE ngland proceeded to make 
lavish grants of their remaining lands, ao^^^^nd out other bands of 
emigrants, taking little care to define the^mi^^es of the new grants, 
or to avoid ceding to one company or individual o^ veiy tract already 
bestowed upon another. This negligence was thegra^^ of much subse- 
quent dispute and difficulty. A few persons also established themselves 
at various points along the coast, who had no formafffie to any land, bat 
who were afterwards generally admitted to have m impeifect right, 
founded on occupancy and prescription. Some few fishing settlements 
Vere thus established; but their inhabitants had not the disposition to 
toil, the habits of order and self-denial, or the indomitable perseverance 
which characterized the Puritans. All their establishments were subse- 
quently absorbed by the Massachusetts colony, which became the chief 
agent in the settlement of New England. 

The persecution of all who would not conform to the Established 
Church still continuing in England, and king Charies having avowed his 
purpose to govern without a ParUament, many of the wealthier dass of 
Puritans now determined to emigrate to America. A company was 
formed at the instigation of Mr. White, a clergyman of Dordiester; 
among its members were John Humphrey and Isaac Johnson, two brt^ 
thers*in*law of the Earl of Lincoln, John Winthrop, a gentleman of 
landed property in Suffolk, Sir Richard Saltonstijl, John Endieott^ 
Thomas Dudley, William Coddington, Richard Bellingham, Matthew 
Cradock, and other merchants and lawyers of wealth and infiaence in 
London and some of the northern and midland counties. They obtained 
from the Council for New England a grant of a tract of land^ bounded 
by two parallel lines running westward to the Pacific Ocean, one drawn 
three miles north of any part of the Merrimac river, and the other, three 
miles south of any portion of the Charles. Soon afterwards, their organ* 
ization was completed by a charter from the Crown, which incorporated 
them under the title of the ** Governor and Company of Massachusetts 
Bay in New England," with power to admit what new members or free- 
men they might choose. They were supposed to be a private trading 
corporation, resident in England, where they were to make laws and 
regulations for the government of their colony in America. A goveinor, 
deputy-governor, and eighteen assistants were to have the management 
of their affairs ; and these officers were to be'^chosen, and all important 
laws enacted, at a ^ Great and General Court" of all the freemen, to be 
held quarteriy. A company of sixty or seventy persons, under John 
Bndioott^ were sent out in 1626, who oommenoed a settlement at Salem; 

and these were followed, the next year, by six ships, bringing abont two 
hmdred colonists, of whom many were indented seirantv, together witb 
a stock of cattle and o&er necessaries. It was soon manifest, bowevel:, 
that a colony, to be prospevons, most hare the manageiherit of its own 
affairs, withoirt being obliged to wait for orders from a distance. John 
Winthrop and many other leading stockholders offered to emigrate, if 
they were allowed to carry the charter and the government along with 
them. The legality of su<^ a measure was at least doubtful ; but the 
mgency of the case remoTod all scruple, and the colonists probably hoped 
that the remoteness of their new home would screen their proceedings 
from public notice. New officers were therefore chosen fW>m those who 
were disposed to emigrate; and in April, 1630, a fleet of fifteen ships, 
equipped at an expense of £20,000, sailed from the Isle of Wight, hay- 
ing on board Winthrop and Dudley as governor and deputy-governor, 
togedier whh most of the assistants, and a company of about one thou- 
sand persona. They b^an a settlement at Charlestown, but soon removed 
to the neighborii^ peninsula of Trimountain, which they named Boston, 
after the English town whence some of the chief emigrants came. «The 
hardships of the first winter, which was a severe one, caused disease to 
break out among them, and over two hundred died, among whom were 
Isaac Johnson, and his wife, the lady Arabella. But after this period, the 
ORler and industry which prevailed in the colony, the commencement of 
trade with Virginia and the Dutch at Manhattan (New York), and the 
rapid influx of settlers, driven away from England by the religious and 
political persecution which still raged there, laid the foundations of steady 
growth and permanent prosperity. During the first ten years afler the 
settlement of Massachusetts, about twenty-five thousand persons left their 
native land to find a home in New England. 

f 416. The government of the colony was theocratic in many of its 
features, modified at first by an aristocratic or patriarchal element, which 
was soon eliminated, however, by the force of circumstances, that set 
strongly towards republican institutions. The few men of wealth and con- 
sideration, who were the leaders of the emigration, naturally strove to 
retain the chief power and influence in their own hands, and to govern 
acQording to their notions of what religion and the word of Grod required ; 
and in this attempt, they were strongly seconded by the ministers of the 
churcbes. At first, the people, with the instinctive respect of English- 
men for rank and station, gave way to them, and conferred the whole 
power of legislation on the governor and the assistants, who were fami- 
liarly known as ^the magistrates.** Even a council for life at one time 
was instituted, but it continued only for a few years, and the freemen 
tbo resumed the power of enacting laws^^^ly they were moderate in 
te exercise of their functions ; and persons once chosen to the board of 
nagistntes were nsoally reappointed, no one being leH out but for som^ 


extraordinary cause. Purity of fiuth and worsliip was the chief modTB 
for establishing the colony. The people wished to be free, not only from 
persecution, but from the presence of other sects and from theological oon- 
trorersies. Only such persons were to be admitted to be freemen, or yoters, 
as those who were already freemen should designate ; and this priTHege 
was soon confined by law to those who were members of the drarches. 
But as there was little difference among them in p<xnt of religions opi- 
nion, and as most of the adult males, or at least, neariy all the heads of 
fiunilies, were church members, this exclusive privilege created no gene- 
ral discontent. The magistrates exercised their huge powers resolutdy 
to keep out heretics and schismatics, and to maintain religious worship 
and practice in all their purity. Those who did not agree with them 
were required to go elsewhere, and establish a colony for themselve^ 
Eoger Williams, and some followers of Mrs. Hutchinson, did so, and 
founded a new settlement in Rhode Island. Others took refuge in New 
Hampshire ; but Massachusetts claimed the land there as a part of her 
own territory, and from 1640 to 1680, the claim was made good. A few 
Quakers gave great annoyance by their fanatical and outrageous conduct; 
they were once and again dismissed, with threats in case they retumel 
They did come again, and then three of them were hanged. The magis- 
trates, on this occasion, published a defence of their conduct, dweDii^ 
especially on the case of Mary Dyer, who was a third ccnner, and had 
been once reprieved when already on the gallows, as a proof that they 
desired, not the death, but the absence, of the Quakers. Some adherents 
of the Church of England, who had come out without invitation to join 
them, were summarily sent back to the mother country. Two hundred 
years ago, the principles of religious toleration were but little understood; 
yet as the Company owned the territory, and had emigrated for the 
avowed purpose of forming a religious conununity by themselves, it is 
perhaps harsh in us to chaige them with intolerance. Ihey had a right 
to expel intruders. -v/ 

'^ § 417. Of course, great severity of manners and punctiliousness of reli- 
gious observances were enjoined. Various sumptuary laws were enact* 
ed ; the Sabbath was observed with Jewish strictness ; blasphemy, witch- 
craft, and adulteiy, were punished with death ; slanderers were whipt, 
cropped, and banished. But except in these particuUrs, and a few othen 
of no great importance, the Mosaic law was not established in the odooy. 
The people had good sense enough to see that it was not adapted to the 
circumstances and the times. No restriction was imposed upon them 
except that contained in the Charter, that no laws should be nuide repug- 
nant to the laws of England ; and this was construed very liberally, to 
mean that no part of the English law was in force there till it was 
expressly reenacted. At first, the magistrates governed without any 
other rule than their own sense of right and their interpretation of the 



law of God. Bot the people becoming jealous of so lai^ a discretion, a 
code, or ** Bodj of Liberties,** was established, consisting of 
one hundred articles, drawn np with singular brevity and 
deaniess, embracing manj of the best and most liberal provisions of the 
English Common Law, and, in some respects, in advance both of English 
and American law at tbe present day. This code became the basis of 
legislation, not only in Massachusetts, but throughout New England, the 
other colonies adopting many of its most important provisions. In one 
important respect, the Mosaic rule was followed in preference to the 
English law ; the estates of persons dying without a will were divided 
equally among the children, except that the eldest son received a double 
share. This law, favoring the distribution rather than the aggregation 
of property, made the establishment of a territorial aristocracy impossible, 
kept up the idea of equality among the people, and tended strongly to the 
development of republican sentiments. 

Another circumstance, which silently fostered the democratic spirit of 
the people, was the great extent of their territory in comparison with 
their numbers, and the disposition that has characterized them from that 
day to this, to spread themselves over the face of the country, instead of 
remaining together on one spot. When as yet they were only a few hun- 
dred in number, instead of seeking protection against the savages and 
other perils of the wilderness by union and concentration, they colonized 
a dozen or twenty distinct townships, the extr^oaes of which were some 
thirty miles apart Eight townships were represented in a General 
Court held only two years after Winthrop landed ; and before the colony 
was ten years old, or contained in all more than 15,000 settlers, at least 
twenty distinct settlements were formed. But the most remarkable 
instance of this tendency to segregation took place as early as 1684, when 
Mr. Hooker and his whole church at Newtown petitioned for leave to 
remove to Connecticut, the avowed reason for this step being the want 
of pasturage for their cattle ; and ^ it was alleged by Mr. Hooker as a 
fundamental error, that the towns were set so near to each other." The 
settlements being thus scattered, and the colony as a whole being imper- 
fectly organized, each town was obliged from the first to direct its own 
expenditures and manage its own affairs. The inhabitants held town- 
meetings, levied taxes to provide for their common wants, chose execu- 
tive officers, afterwards termed ^ selectmen," and in fact created a little 
republic nearly complete in organization. It is now generally admitted, 
that the tone of American politics and the general character of American 
institutions have been more controlled by tiie influences of the township- 
system of New England than by all other causes united. 

In the nuun, also, there was great equality among the colonists in p<Hnt 
d fortune and social position. Many English genUemen and wealthy 
merchants, as we have seen, favored the emigration, and some embarked 



in it. But the ba^^j and the powerfol do not <^ten go into exik, and 
the perils and hardships of a home in the wilderness pcorented maaj 
persons of wealth from joining in the enterprise, and caosed others to 
leave it af^er a brief sojoam in New England. Humphrej, SaltoBslatt, 
Vane, and Yassall returned to their native land after a short stay, and 
the Johnsons died. The great bulk of the colonists were of the middling 
and lower classes of English society ; very few were wealthy, neariy all 
were dependent on the labor of their hands. Equality of social claims 
was the natural basis of equality of political rights. There was a germ 
of republicanism in the colony from the outset, — a natural tendengr 
towards universal eligibility and universal suffrage. 

§ 418. The first care of the settlers of Massachusetts was to provide 
for universal education and universal worship. The several townships 
that were organized were so many distinct churches, which admitted thdr 
own members, chose their own pastors, and managed their own aflhin. 
Each town, either by levying a tax or by voluntary contributions, pro- 
vided buildings for public worship and salaries for their ministers. Whes 
Boston was but six years old, the General Court passed an order, appro- 
priating a sum, equal to the amount raised by a year's taxation to def Ay 
all the public expenditures of the colony, for the establishment of a col- 
lege at Newtown ; and two years afterwards, John Harvard, a clergyaasn 
of Charlestown, bequeathing half of his estate for the same object. Har- 
vard College was founded. Free schools were established in several tf 
the towns; and in 1649, a general system of popular education was esta- 
blished throughout the colony, each township being required to 
a free school for reading and writing, and. every town of a hundred 1 
holders a grammar school, ''to fit youths for the university." The pre- 
amble of this law declares that the motive for passing it was to provide 
'' that learning may not be buried in the grave of our fathers,^ — "'it be- 
ing one chief project of that old deluder, Sathan, to keep men from the 
knowledge of the Scriptures, as in fonner times keeping ihem in an 
unknown tongue, so in these latter times by persuading men from the use 
of tongues." The grim Puritan of those days believed his child's sool 
would be in danger if he were not enabled to read the Bible for himself; * ^ 
and thus care for general education naturally grew out of careWbr the 
interests of religion. As the democratic spirit spread among the people^ 
they reclaimed the legislative authority for themselves ; and a body of 
representatives, consisting of two or three del^ates from eaah 
town, were united with '' the magistrates " for the purpose of 
enacting laws. At first, the representatives sat and voted in the same 
chamber with the assistants ; but in 1644, a division was made, and the 
two classes afterwards formed separate houses of legislation. . 

§ 419. During the first few years in the histoiy of the settlem^it, the 
Indians had given no cause for alann. Just before the arrival of Ae 

]fi£8AaHU8Rn!& 960 

I a eoiitagioiis disease had nged among the native tribes, neavljr 
cactetminaling some of them, so that the territory seemed providentialljr 
left vacant for occupation by the Eng^sh. Bat as the white settlement^ 
increased in nnmber, the jealonsj of the Indians was aroused; and m 
1687, the Pequods, a tribe dwelling on the banks of what is now called 
'fhe Thames river, in Connecticut, began hostilities. But as they were 
yet very imperfectly provided with fire-arms, they formed but a con- 
temptible enemy* A band of eighty men, under Captain Mason, were 
sent against them, who, with the aid of a few friendly Indians, attacked 
their palisadoed village in the grey of the morning, forced their way into 
it, set fire to the wigwams, and killed about six hundred of the savages. 
The next month, another band attacked the remainder of the tribe, who 
had taken refuge in a swamp, killed many of them, and took about two 
hundred prisoners, who were afterwards kept as slaves, a portion being 
sent to the West Indies to be sold. The few who escaped found a home 
among the Narraganset and Mohegan Indians, and the Pequod tribe 
eeased to exist > 

To guard against the dangers apprehended not only from the Indians, 
but from the Dut<^ and the French, a confederacy was formed in 1643, 
between the four colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and 
New Haven, to form rules for regulating intercourse with the savages, 
and to render mutual aid if a war should break out. In consequence of 
fills union, the whites became more respected and feared by the native 
tribes, several of whom sought their alliance and protection. But in 
1675, Philip of Mount Hope, a chief of the Wampanoags in Rhode 
Idand, began hostilities, in which he was soon joined by nearly all the 
aative tribes in New England. The Indians were now well supplied 
with fire«arms, and were ^cpert in the arts of amhush and forest waifare, 
in which as yet the whites were very deficient. A fearful contest ensued, 
wfaidi brought all the white settlements to the verge of destruction. It 
lasted nearly a year, in the course of which, upwards of two thousand 
Indians were killed or taken, and some of the New England tribes were 
exterminated. The whites suffered terribly ; twelve or thirteen of their 
towns w^re entirely ruined, six hundred houses had been burned,' and 
about jfix hundred men had fallen in battle. No assistance was received 
from England, and the expenses of the war burdened Massachusetts with 
a heavy debt But henceforward, no great danger was apprehended from 
the Indians,' except when they acted as allies of the French. 

! 420. Frequent complaints were made to the Privy Council in Eng- 
land, that the acts of trade were generally disregarded by Massachusetts, 
sad that the eopdnct and laws of the colony in many other respects were 
in violation of the charter and subversive of the authority of the crown. 
Coou&igsioners were sent oot to make inquiries respecting these subjects 
rfcomplaint 'Bat the breach was only wiOsBed by thismeasure, as the 


commissioners were ciiptioas and insolent in their language and condnel, 
and the General Court was obstinate and not over respectfuL Chalks 
n.9 who had just triumphed aflter a long contest with the popular partf 
at home, had taken away the franchises of the city of London, and oooiis- 
cated the charters of nearly all the boroughs in the reaUn, was in no 
humor to be bearded by a few daring sectaries in New England. Legpd 
proceedings were instituted, and before Massachusetts could engage coun- 
sel in her defence, judgment was entered by default, and the charter de- 
clared to be forfeited. The government of the colony was thus thrown 
entirely into the hands of the king ; and James 11., who had now come to 
the throne, appointed Sir Edmund Andros to be governor of all New 
England, the charters of the other colonies being either forfeited or in 
abeyance. The popular legislative assemblies were dissolved, and Sir 
Edmund, with authority to appoint and remove the members of his coim- 
dl at pleasure, enacted laws and governed as he saw fit. For more than 
two years, Lis yoke was heavy upon the necks of the people. Then came 
a rumor that a revolution had taken place in England, and that the PrincB 
of Orange already was, or would soon be, on the throne, in place of the 
deposed James II. ; and without waiting to learn whether it was any thii^ 
April, more than a rumor, the inhabitants of Boston seized their 

A. D. 1689. arms, imprisoned Andros and his chief adherents, and rein- 
stated their beloved charter government, with the venerable Simon Brad- 
street at its head. Tlien ensued a negotiation with the government of 
William and Mary, for the restoration of the old charter. But the king 
and his ministers were determined to strengthen the royal prero^tive, 
and they would only offer a new charter, far less liberal in its provisions 
than the old one, with the significant intimation that the colony migkt 
take that or none. Finding that they would otherwise be governed at 
the royal pleasure, the people very reluctantly accepted the new instru- 
ment, by which Plymouth and Maine were united to Massachusetts, and 
the appointment of the governor, secretary, and all admiralty officers was 
reserved to the crown. The governor might convoke and adjourn the 
General Court at pleasure ; he had a negative upon the election of coun- 
cillors and the enactment of laws, and a right to nominate ail judges and 
military officers. The laws were to be transmitted to England, even 
after he had sanctioned them ; and if disapproved by the king within 
three years from the time of their enactment, they became void. Tbe 
right of suffrage was no longer confined to church members, but ms 
given to all who had 40 shillings income from freehold property, or 40 
pounds of personal estate. 

§ 421. The first royal governor appointed was Sir William Phips, 

whose administration was distinguished only by the unhappy popular 

delusion, usually called the Salem Witchcraft. Some children 

were, or pretended to be, thrown into convulsions ; and they 


toeosed certain persons of bewitching them. The mania spread ; olJiers 
deekured that they were afflicted, pinched, and bruised, and when the wit- 
nesaes and the accused were confronted in open court, the former seemed 
to be thrown into an agony, and charged the latter with tormenting theoi 
by diabolical means. Every one against whom they " cried out " was 
arrested, and the prisons were soon filled. Some weak-minded persons 
among the prisoners were persuaded or terrified into a confession of 
guilt, and then bore witness against others ; and upon this accumulation 
of evidence, many were convicted. Twenty persons were hanged, among 
whom was Mr. Burroughs, a clergyman ; and one old man, aged eighty 
years, was pressed to death. Many others were cried out against, and 
fled for their lives. At last, the extravagance of the evil began to work 
its cure. The witnesses accused some persons who stood so high in 
eharecter and station, that the belief even of the credulous mob was 
shocked. A reaction took place, juries refused to convict, the jails were 
emptied, and some of the judges and those who had been active in the 
prosecutions made a public profession of their errors and their peni- 

§ 422. Other New England Colonies. Having sketched the 
history of Yirginia, Plymouth, and !&Iassachusetts, during the seven- 
teenth century, a few words must suffice for the other Colonies. Roger 
Williams and some other religious exiles from Massachusetts colonized 
Bhode Island in 1638, having purchased the land of the Narraganset 
Indians. They obtained a patent from the Long Parliament six years 
afterwards, and in 1 663, Charles II. granted them a very liberal dmrter, 
under which they chose their own ofiicers and enacted their own laws 
with almost as much freedom as if they had been an independent 
republic. By the infiuenoe of Williams, perfect religious toleration was 
established in this Colony, men being held responsible for their religious 
opinions and practice only to their God. The temtory of Connecticut 
was granted, in 1630, to the Earl of Warwick, who soon assigned his 
right to Lord Say and Scale, Lord Brook, and others. Several settle- 
ments were formed on the Connecticut river, in 1635 - 6, by Mr. Hooker 
and other emigrants from Massachusetts, who at first acknowledged the 
authority of the Colony they had just left, but soon established a govern- 
ment for themselves, modelled on that of Massachusetts. Hartford was 
their chief town. About the same time. Lord Say and Scale with his 
associates sent over John Wiuthrop the younger, with instructions to 
build a fort at the mouth of the Connecticut, and erect buildings to 
accommodate such settlers as might come thither. This was the origin 
of Saybrook. In 1637, Mr. Davenport, with a company of emigrants, 
Bome of them men of wealth, arrived in New England, and after some 
hesitation as to the choice of a place, they founded a settlement at New 
Haven. They were rigid Puritans, who wished to establish a community 


CMdbimiBg in «U thiogs to their peculiar principlea. They ffcdmitted 
Qolj church members to be freemen, and resolved that the Word of God 
should be the only rule iu their administration. The Dutch lud claim 
to the whole country, and the dispute between them and the English 
settlers was more than once on the verge of breaking out into open war. 
Charles IL, soon after his restoration, granted to Connecticut a charter 
quite as liberal as that given to Rhode Island ; but as this instrument 
brought t<^ether the two distinct settlements of Hartford and New 
Haven, the people of the latter place were very reluctant to accept it, 
and only yielded, after some years* delay, to the fear that a general 
governor might be sent out from England to rule them. From the 
period of this union, 1665, the progress of the Colony was steady and 
prosperous. The territory of New Hahpshibb was granted by the 
Plymouth Company to Capt. John Mason, in 1629. But few settlements 
were formed under his management, principally by fishermen and exiles 
from Massachusetts, who remained for some time without any goven* 
ment but such as they established for themselves. Exeter, Dover, and 
Portsmouth, then called Strawberry Bank, were the only towns that con* 
tained many inhabitants. In 1641, they voluntarily placed themselves 
under the protection of Massachusetts, who had always claimed the Ytaaif 
and who continued to govern them till 1679, when, by a decree of the 
king in council. New Hampshire was made a separate province, to be 
governed by a President and Council, appointed by the king, and a 
House of Representatives elected by the people. Frequent disputes 
ensued, both with their rulers, and with Mason and his heirs respecdog 
the titles to their lands. But after the Revolution of 1688, most of these 
controvefsies were quieted, and excepting frequent hostilities with As 
Indians, the people prospered. Maine was originally granted to Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges, and was purchased of his heirs, in 1677, by Massa- 
chusetts, for £1,200, it having been governed by that Colony for many 
years piievious, under a disputed title. The controversy ending with thb 
purchase, Maine remained a part of Massachusetts till a very recent 

§ 423. New York. The Dutch, founding on the explorations of 
Henry Hudson a claim to the Hudson river and an indefinite extent of 
territory through which it flows, built some fortified trading posts near 
its mouth as early as 1613. They also explored the northern coast of 
Long Island Sound, and both shores of Delaware Bay ; and on the 
strength of these discoveries, an Amsterdam company obtained from the 
States General an exclusive gi*ant to trade along the coast between the 
40th and 45th degrees of latitude, a region by them called New Nether- 
land. The £nglish never allowed their claim, which only became im- 
portant when, in 1621, it passed into the hands of the Dutch West lodis 
Company, a wealthy association with large privileges;, and capable of 

NBW 70&K. 307 

condacUng extensive operations. Under their direction, Fort Orange 
was buUt where Albany now stands; and in 1626, the island of Man« 
hattan was purchased of the Indians, and Fort Amsterdam erected at 
its southern extremity. As yet, traffic with the savages in peltry was 
the only object of these establishments ; but in 1629, a scheme was ma- 
tured for forming Dutch settlements in the countiy. Extensive grants 
of land were offered to any member of the Company, who, under the* 
name of Patroon, should establish a colony of at least fifty persons upon 
it; and as much land as they could cultivate was offered to any free 
settlers who should remove thither at their own expense. Under these 
offers, some of the most inviting lands were taken up; but the progress 
of colonization was slow, agriculture being made secondary to trade with 
the Indians. A port was established on the Connecticut, near Hartford^ 
which soon led to a sluirp dispute with the English settlers in that 
region. The Swedes also came into collision with the Dutch, by attempt- 
ing, under the sanction of the renowned Gustavus Adolphus, to found a 
settlement and trading post on the west shore of Delaware Bay, a region 
diumed by the Hollanders. The Swedes bought some land of the 
Indians, and built a fort called Christina, — the germ of the Colony of 
New Sweden, now the State of Delaware. The infant settlement was 
prudently managed, and might in a few years have become prosperous, 
if the Dutch had not attacked it, in 1655, with a force of six hundred 
men, who captured all the Swedish posts, and the region was again 
absorbed into New Netherkmd. 

A destructive Indian war was added to the other embarrassments of 
the Dutch. The latter showed themselves as great savages as their red 
opponents, who nearly overmatched them, and destroyed many of their 
most flourishing '' boweries,** or plantations. The people were harshly 
governed, being allowed no voice in the administration, and they com* 
plained that^ " under a king they could not be worse treated." The 
English were determined to monopolize the coast, and in 1664, Charles 
II. granted to his brother a large region, including New Netherland, to 
be called, in future, in honor of the Duke, New York. An expedition 
of six hundred men, under Sir Robert Nicholb, was fitted out to take 
possession ; and so many English were now settled in the Colony, the 
Dutch also being lukewarm towards their own government, that no op< 
position was offered. Liberal terms of capitulation were granted, and 
the territory was annexed without a blow to the domain of England. 
No popular representation in the government was allowed till 1684, the 
Duke of York appointing a governor who ruled arbitrarily ; and even 
after that period, the administration continued to be distasteful to the 
people. When the news of the revolution of 1688 arrived, the inhabit- 
ants of New York rose in anns, like their brethren of Boston, and under 
the gnidaaoe of Jacob Leislery a wealthy German merchant deposed the 


former authorities of the place, and instituted a government of their own. 
The colon J remained under Leisler's rule till March. 1691, when Col. 
Sloughter arrived, ^ith a commission as governor, and his agent de- 
manded peremptorily the surrender of the fort. Leisler hesitated and 
delayed, and when at last he did obey, he was seized, togetiier with his 
son-in-law, Milbourne, tried for rebellion, and executed. This proceed- 
ing was a harsh and hasty one ; and the king subsequently restored their 
confiscated estates to their heirs, and allowed their bodies to be taken 
up and reinterred with pomp, while the people cherished their memoi^' 
with affection and respect. 

§ 424. Mabtland. George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, a Koman Catho- 
lic by religion, obtained from Charles I., in 1630, a grant of the then 
uninhabited shores of Chesapeake Bay, as an asylum for the persecuted 
Papists. The charter, which secured liberty of conscience, and equal 
privileges to the members of all Christian sects, was not issued till after 
this lord's death, and was then given to Cecil, his eldest son and heir. 
He sent out his brotlier, Leonard Calvert, as governor^ with 
about two hundred emigrants, mostly Roman Catholics, and 
a settlement was formed at St. Mary's, the new colony being called 
Maktland, in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria. The proprietaiy had 
full power to enact all necessary laws, not repugnant to the laws of Eng- 
land, and not without the advice and approbation of the freemen of the 
province or their representatives; — this being the first provision in any 
colonial charier for giving a legislative power to the people. The provinoe 
was wisely and moderately governed, liberal grants of land being offered 
to all comers, to be held by the payment of a quit rent to the proprietor. 
Baltimore did not wish to shut out heretics from his colony ; Puritans 
and Church of England men were invited to oome, under a promise of 
enjoying equal privileges with the Catholics ; thus Maryland became a 
general asylum for the persecuted of all sects. We are not surprised to 
learn, therefore, that, before Lord Baltimore's death in 1676, he was in 
receipt of a considerable income from the province, which then contained 
about sixteen thousand inhabitants, most of whom were Pi-otestants. The 
people wisely sought support from agriculture rather than mining and 
trade. Yet they did not pass through the time of the Civil War and the 
domination of the Long Parliament without annoyances and contests. 
During this period, of course, Lord Baltimore's principles were not in 
favor, and his colony was regarded with a jealous eye. William Clay- 
borne had obtained a royal license to trade in all those parts, and he and 
his associates denied the legality of the Maryland grant. The Parlia- 
ment sent out commissioners who displaced the officers of the proprietary, 
and put the government into the hands of the Puritans, who soon passed 
an act that excluded papists and prelatists from the benefit of the act of 
toleration. A civil war at one time raged in the colony, Boondheadi 


and Cayalien being opposed to each other, as in the mother knd. Bat 
with the restoration of Charles IL, these troubles ceased, and the pros* 
peritj of the settlement for a long period suffered but little interruption. 
Yet an order was passed in 1681, for intrustfng all offices to Protestants, 
so that the Catholics were disfranchised a second time in the colony they 
had founded. 

S 425. Thb Carolinas. The territory on the coast south of Virgi- 
nia, extending nominally as far south as St. Augustine, was granted, in 
166d, to the great Lord Clarendon, the Earl of Shaftesbury, and six 
other eminent individuals. The whole region was to constitute one pro- 
vince, under the name of Carolina, the proprietors receiving, together 
with the grant of the land, ample powers of government. But a settle- 
meat had already been formed near Albemarle Sound by some religious 
exiks from Virginia, and another one, near the mouth of Cape Fear 
river, by some adventurers from New England, afterwards reinforced by 
a band of emigrants from Barbadoes. In 1670, three ships were fitted 
out with colonists from England, under the command of William Sayle, 
who formed a settlement at Port Royal, which he soon removed to the 
peninsula at the mouth of the Ashley and the Cooper rivers, giving to the 
town that he founded there the name of Charleston. As this place was re- 
mote fron Albemarle, it obtained a separate government, and thus were 
created the two colonies of North and South Carolina. The proprietors 
gave public assurance that the settlers should enjoy unrestricted religious 
liberty, and that their representatives should have a voice in the enact- 
ment of laws. Unluckily they employed the celebrated philosopher, John 
Locke, to devise a scheme of government for the colony ; and he gave 
them, under the name of the ^ Grand Model," the most complicated and 
fiudful system that the wit of man ever contrived, and which was a per- 
petoal source of trouble and confusion for the quarter of a century dur- 
ing which it was in partial operation. It established two orders of nobi- 
lity, landgraves, and caciques; it assigned two fifths of the land for 
seignories, baronies, and manors, to be cultivated by a race of tenants 
attached to the soil, and the remaining three fifths were allotted to private 
freeholders ; and it erected a formidable bureaucracy, with officers and 
titles enough for a populous kingdom of the Old World. This rickety 
system could never be put into full operation, and in 1693, it was entirely 
abrogated. The motley population was swelled by two ship-loads of 
Dutch emigrants from ^ew York, and by a cargo of slaves from Barbadoes. 
AAer the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, many Huguenots came to 
South Carolina, and settled along the Santee ; they had been preceded 
by some Presbyterian settlers from the north of Ireland, and by a Scotch 
eokmy led by Lord Cardross. Religious toleration and the prospect of 
obtaining land on easy terms were the lures which drew so many diffei> 
ent classes of immigrants. The population thus formed did not show 


themselTes rerj tractable. They persisted in keeping op fm iU^il tn£- 
fic with New England, they grumbled at paying quit rent to the prop gie* 
tariesy and they quarrelled with the arbitrary and rapacioiis go v e r n ors 
who were sent to rule over fbem. But in spite of these inteiT u p ti on S y 
, the two oolonies prospered, advancing steadily, though not rapidly, both 
in population and wealth. 

S 426. New Jebset. The territory between the Delaware and Hod- 
son rivers, being included in the sunender by the Dutch to the En^ish 
in 1664) was granted by the Duke of York, under the name of New 
Jbssbt, to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret They sent over 
Philip Carteret as governor, with a liberal constilntion lor 
^^' the new colony, and bountiful offers of land to all settlers 

who would oome thither. Lord Berkeley sold his right, after be had held 
it ten years, to a company of Quakers, who, wishing to govern separately 
a region which might be an asylum for the persecuted of their sect, made 
an agreement with Carteret for the partition of the territory. The west- 
em portion was assigned to them, the eastern to Carteret A lai^ge con- 
pany, consisting principally of Quakers, then came from England, and 
settled in Burlington and its ndghborhood, ample privileges being secured 
to them by a new constitution. A dispute ensued with the Duke of Yoric 
respecting the title to their lands, as he pretended that, under a new 
patent which he had obtained from the crown, his original rif^ts wers 
restored. But the commissioners in England, to whom the matter was 
referred, adjudged his claim to be invalid, and new settlers continuing to 
arrive, the colony became very prosperous. East Jersey, also^ in 1682^ 
was sold by the heirs of Carteret to Willtam Penn and twenty-three asso* 
dates, mostly Quakers, who appointed Robert Barclay governor, and 
endeavored to attract emigrants thither. Many of the Scottish Cove- 
nanters, now suffering a deplorable persecution under Lauderdale and 
Claverhouse, fled from their native land, and found a pleasant and safe 
asylum in East Jersey. The numerous proprietors, weary of quarrelling 
with each other and with the people, surrendered their rights to the 
crown in 1702 ; and the two divisions were then united under one govern- 

i 4i7. Pennstltania. Another Quaker colony was established, on 
a larger scale, by 4he celebrated William Penn, a man of great ability 
and integrity, resolute in purpose and energetic in conduct, a keen con- 
tioversialist, and one who displayed on many occasions more shrewd- 
ness, knowledge of the world, and practical talent than are ofien found 
united with a fervor and sincerity of religious belief which had the 
appearance of an unruly fanaticism. The Quakers, indeed, while pre> 
serving with great steadfastness most of their inoffensive external peen- 
liaritiesi had quietly undeigone a considerable change in the manner and 
spirit of their proceedings,— a change attributable in some degree fee 


dlB inflneiice of Penn himself. Thej were no longer the wild and ex« 
travagant sectaries, whose ootrageoos conduct, twenty years before, had 
troubled the peace of Massachusetts. Their manners had become qaiet 
and discreet, and though they remained fearless of persecution, they no 
longer courted it In consideration of the services of his father, a dis- 
tinguished admiral, Penn obtained from Charies II. a grant 
of the territory on the west bank of the river Delaware, ex- 
tending fire degrees in longitude, and bounded by the 40th and 48d 
parallels of latitude ; and the king insisted on naming it Pennstltania.* 
The charter gave him the absolute property of the soil and ample powers 
of government, but required the advice and consent of the freemen of the 
province for the enactment of laws. The sturdy and independent spirit 
of the New England colonies having taught the crown lawyers a lesson 
of caution in drawing up colonial charters, it was stipulated in this case 
that the king might negative any enactment of the assembly, that parlia- 
ment might levy taxes, and that an appeal might be made to the crown 
from the decisions of the courts of justice. 

Acting under this charter, Penn drew up a very liberal ^ Frame of 
Goverament,** and also published a body of l^wa, that had been examined 
and approved by a company of proposed emigrants in England. He 
ako advertised the lands for sale, asking forty shillings, besides a perpe* 
tnal quttrent of one shilling, for every hundred acres. Unlimited free- 
dom of oonsctence, and the right to be governed by laws Enacted by 
themselves, were secured to the people. As the terms were liberal, and 
the advantages of the territory, in respect to climate, situation, fertility 
of the soil, and the friendly disposition of the neighboring Indians, were 
considerable, a crowd of emigrants presented themselves, comprising 
many Quakers and a number from Holland and Germany. The Duke 
of York, afterwards James H., with whom Penn was high in favor, made 
over to him all his own right to the three lower counties on the Dela- 
ware, first peopled by the Swedes, which had lately been governed as 
an appendage to the Duke's province of New York. These counties 
belonged geographically rather to Pennsylvania than New York, and 
possession of them was important for the new colony, as they already 
contained about 8,000 inhabitants, Swedes, Finns, and Dutch, steady and 
industrious in their habits, and inured to their situation. Besides these, 
a number of Swedish, Dutch, and English settlers were already establish- 
ed in other portions of the territory, by whom the new government was 
favorably received. William Markham, one of Penn's kinsmen, was 
sent out in 1681, with three ships and about three hundred emigrants, 
bearing a plan of the city which was to be founded at the confluence of 
the Schnylkill with the Delaware, and a very friendly message to the 
Indians, whose good will the new proprietor was anxious to concili- 
ate. Penn himself came out the next year, in the course of which 


twenty-three yessels anrived laden with goods and emigtanis. He heli 
a friendly conference with the savages, under a large elm at Ken8ingtol^ 
which afterwards became an obrject of much curiosity and respect, as 
marking the site of this famous interview. A treaty was made by wbidi 
the Indians sold their lands on terms satisfactory to them, and stipulated 
to maintain peace and friendship, which promise was long religioaslj 
observed. The savages named him Onas, and though they gave the 
same title to the subsequent governors of the colony, they always referred 
to him as the great and good Onas. After laying out the new dtj of 
Philadelphia, so called from the spirit of brotherly love which wai to 
animate its inhabitants, and holding a conference with Lord Baltimon 
about the disputed boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania, Peaa 
returned, in 1684, to £ngland. He did not visit America again till 
1699, and then made but a short stay. The progress of the new pro- 
vince was as rapid as its commencement had been auspicious. In 1684 
it contained twenty settled townships and seven thousand inhalMtaotB ; 
and not many years afterwards, the population was estimated at thirtj 
thousand. Some of the laws proposed by Penn and adopted by the 
Assembly bore the imprint of his quaint and benevolent dbpositioD. 
To prevent lawsuits, three arbitrators were to be appointed by the county 
courts, to hear and determine small controversies; children were to bs 
taught some useful trade, to the end that none might be idle ; agenti 
who wronged their employers should make restitution and one third 
over ; and the property of intestates was to be divided equally amoiig 
the children, except that the eldest son should receive a double shares 
And yet Penn reaped little but disappointment and vexation from Us 
connection with the colony. His great mistake seems to have oonsisted 
in reserving a quitrent, instead of making over the land absolutely to the 
settlers. Though the annual payment was but small, and was justly doe 
to him, as in no other manner c6uld he be remunerated for his aetusl 
outlay, the demand of it was a fruitful source of annoyance and discoo- 
tent. Penn had great difficulty in collecting it, became impoverished, 
and was at one time imprisoned for debt. The impossibility of satisfying 
all the demands of the people while their uneasiness really proceeded 
from this annual exaction, and the boundary controversy with Loid 
Baltimore, embittered all the latter part of his life. He founded a pros- 
perous colony, but he sacrificed his own interests and his peace of nund 
in the undertaking. The lower counties on the Delaware, complaioing 
that their peculiar interests were not attended to^ were allowed to dissolve 
the legislative union with Pennsylvania, but remained subject to ibe 
same governor. 

§ 428. Geoboia was founded in 1732, under a plan formed by Gene- 
ral Oglethorpe and some other benevolent gentlemen, in order to eeti- 
blish a place of refuge for poor debtors and other indigent persons &O0 


Ghreat Britain, and for penecnted Protestants from all nadons. A grant 
^iras obtained from the king of the unoccupied territory on the right bank 
of the Savannah river, the land to be apportioned gratuitously among the 
settlers, charitable donations being made to defray the expense of trans- 
p<yrting them across the Athintic, and supporting them during the first 
season. Funds were freely contributed for this generous purpose, under 
the hope that the measure would reduce the poor rates in England, and 
empty the workhouses and debtors* jails. But the class of persons thus 
sent out were very unfit for the work of creating a new settlement and 
subduing the wilderness. They were chiefly broken-down tradesmen 
and impoverished debauchees ; while sailors, agriculturists, and laborers 
from the country were needed. A company of persecuted Lutherans 
from Salzburg, and one of Scotch Highliuiders, who settled respectively 
tlie towns of Ebenezer and New Inverness, formed industrious and thriv- 
ing colonists. Oglethorpe brought over the first band of emigrants, and 
founded the city of Savannah. The colony being regarded as in a state 
of pupilage, its affairs were administered, for the first twenty years, by a 
board of trustees, nominated in the charter, who were to appoint their 
asaociates and successors, and had the ezdnsive right of legislation. The 
generous motto on their official seal, non $My $ed aiitt (not for them- 
selves, but for others,) showed the benevolent purposes with which they 
acted. Some of their measures were wise, others were preposterous. 
They strictly forbade the introduction of negro slaves ; the use of rum 
was prohibited; no grant of land was to exceed five hundred acres; the 
land was not to be sold or devised by the holders, but was to descend to 
male children only, and in case of the failure of such heirs, was to revert 
to the trustees. But these laws did not long remain in force ; slavery 
was introduced from the neighboring province of Carolina ; females were 
allowed to inherit, and the land became subject to the same regulations 
as other property. So long as the colony was managed by trustees, and 
considered as an object of charity, it languished, and large sums were 
expended upon it in vain. At last, the government was abandoned to 
the crown, its institutions were assimilated to those of the other colonies, 
and it then had a steady and prosperous growth. The Methodists and 
Moravians were numerous in Georgia, the two renowned preachers of 
the former denomination, Wesley and Whitefield, residing in it for seve- 
ral years. 

§ 429. It is apparent from this review, that the English colonies in 
North America, with the exception of Virginia and New York, were 
founded and peopled chiefly by religious exiles. The English Puritans 
were most numerous in New England, the Quakers in New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania, the Roman Catholics in Maryland, Scotch Presbyterians, 
French Huguenots, and Methodists in the south, and German Lutherans 
in Pennsylvania and elsewhere. Earnestness, sobriety, an independent 


spirit, and a determined hatred of oppression thus cfaaractmaed tko 
people from the beginning. Whatever emigrants came out solelj in 
quest of wealth were soon disabused of their error, and either returned 
to the Old World, or learned to labor and to endure in their new home. 
Property was very evenly distributed, and there were no marked ineqaa- 
lities of rank or social position. Protected bj their feebleness and insig- 
nificance in the outset, and by their distance from the mother country, 
the colonists were, in the main, allowed to enact their own laws, and 
manage their own afiairs. Without any marked purpose of deviating 
from the policy, or shaking off the yoke, of England, they were, from the 
commencement, semi-republican and semi-indispendent. Disciplined by 
privation, exile, and peril, thrown on their own iresources, governing 
themselves, their situation developed in them the elements of a thought- 
ful, vigorous, and resolute character. After they had overcome the first 
difficulties and obstructions in the way of founding a new home in the 
wilderness, their habits of endurance, industry, and frugality soon gave 
prosperity to their undertakings. Agriculture and commerce flourished, 
and they increased rapidly in population and wealth. They were no 
longer the feeble dependencies of a remote power; they could boast that 
they had laid the foundations of a great empire. 



§ 480. When the childless Charles II., the last of the house of Haps- 
burg in Spain, was near his end, he suffered himself, from a feeling of 
irritation towards the European powers who had arranged a partition of 
his lands during his life, to be persuaded by the French ambassadofs to 
make a secret will, by which the second grandson of Louis XIY., duke 
Philip of Anjou, was named heir to the whole Spanish monarchy, to the 
exclusion of Austria, which, according to an earlier family compact, bad 
the nearest claim upon the vacant throne. Charles II. died 
at the commencement of the new century,' and Loub XIY., 
guided by his council and his second wife, Madame Maintenon, a woman 
of inferior birth, determined, after some hesitation, to adopt the will, 
much as his exhausted kingdom required repose. This resolution was 
followed by the most desperate war that had hitherto taken place. The 
Leopold, emperor Leopold took up arms for the purpose of securing 
A. n. the inheritance of the Hapsburgs for his second son, Charles, 

166T- 1706. ^j force. On the side of Austria were ranged, not only the 


greater part of the prinees of Germany, particolarlj the Elector, Frede- 
rick of BraDdeiiburg, who for this assktanoe was adorned with the title 
ofkingof Fmssia, and Hanover, for which a ninth Electorate had re- 
cently been made, but the maritime powers, England and Holland; the 
latter, out of fear of the threatening superiority of France, the former, 
from anger that the Fr^Qch king had recognised the Pretender, James 
(HL) Stuart, on the death of his father, as king of England. The Elec- 
tor of BaTaria and his brother, the Elector of Cologne, were the only 
princes that sided with France. Spain was di\rided. The eastern pro- 
vinces, Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, were for the Austrian claimant of 
the throne ; Castile, on the other hand, and the rest of the kingdom, took 
up arms to defend the Bourbon king,^ Philip Y., who was descended on 
his mother's side from the Hapsburgs, and whose character bore the im- 
press^of Spain. 

$ 431. The reason that the fortune of the war remained this time so 
ckwely bound to the banners of Austria and England, was, that their 
annies were conducted by the two greatest generals of the age, prince 
Eugene of Savoy, and the duke of Marlborough. The former at once 
Jocieased the renown he had already acquired in the war against the 
Turks by a masterly campaign in Italy, where he drove back the gallant 
General Catinat and brought over the duke of Savoy and 
Piedmont to the side of Austria ; while Marlborough, who 
was the chief of the Whigs, (who since Anne's coming to the govern- 
ment had guided the political helm,) and consequently, endowed with 
almost unlimited power, was distinguished both as a warrior and states- 
man, but stained his glory by avarice and love of gain. The duke 
of Savoy brought the calamities of war upon his own land by his 
alliance with Austria. Yendome, a skilful general, subdued Pied- 
mont and the fertile plains of Lombardy, and thought to unite himself 
with the Elector of Bavaria who had marched into the Tyrol ; but the 
daring rise of the gallant Tyrolese, who, from their inaccessi- 
ble mountain heights and the crevices of their valleys, 
attacked the Bavarians with their rifles, and prevented their advance by 
a well-managed guerilla warfare, prevented this plan. The Elector was 
compelled, afler severe loss, to evacuate the. Tyrol ; whereupon he joined 
the French army, which had marched through the Einrigthal in Swabia, 
under the command of the marshals Yillars and Tallard. It was here 
that Eugene, and Louis of Baden, the commander of the imperial forces, 
opposed themselves to the enemy. M^lborough, after a masterly march 
on the Bhine and the Mosel, soon joined the other two, upon which, 
Eugene and Marlborough despatched the old and cautious Louis to the 
nege of Ingoldstadt, and then defeated the French and Bavarian army 
A^utu, ^ ^e battle of HSchstldt, (or, as the English call it, the 
ITM. battle of Blenheim). Tallard, and a great part of his force: 


were made piisonen ; the whole of the mmiidoiis of war fell into tlie 
hands of the enemy. The Elector of Bayaria was obliged to follow die 
French over the Rhine, and expose his territories to the Austrians, who 
exercised the most frightful oppression there ; so that, at length, the peo- 
ple, driven to despair, made an insurrection, which, however, had ooly 
the effect of increasing the measure of their sufferings. For the purpose 
of chastising the unpatriotic sentiments of the princely house of BaTaria, 
Joseph L, the new emperor, Joseph I., who trod the same path his 
▲. D. father had done, pronounced the ban against Max £mma- 

1706-1711. jjji^i^ j^j jjig brother, the Elector of Cologne. 

§ 432. Fortune was also adyerse to the French both in the Nether- 
May ss, IsLuds and in Italy. In the former country, Marlborough 
1706. gained the splendid victory of Bamillies from the incompe- 

tent marshal Villeroi, the favorite of Madame Maintenon ; upon which, 
the Spanish Netherlands acknowledged the Austrian competitor for the 
September 7, throne : and in Italy, prince Eugene defeated the superior 

1706. force of the French at Turin ; whereupon, Milan and Lom- 
bardy, together with Lower Italy and Sicily, fell into the hands of the 
victors. The glory of Eugene spread far and wide, and his name be- 
came henceforth familiar in the mouths of the people, who celebrated his 
deeds in their songs. It was in Spain only that Philip of Anjou main- 
tained himself against the English and Austrian army. It is true, that 
the provinces of the ancient kingdom of Aragon, out of national hatred 
to Castile, sided, for the most part, with the Austrian claimant of the 
throne, when the latter landed in Catalonia. Barcelona, Valencia, and 

all the cities of importance united themselves to him, whilst 

the English fleet took Gibraltar. Philip V. neverthelen 

maintained his supremacy by the adherence of the Castilians, and visited 

the revolted provinces with a severe chastisement after the victory of 

April 26, Almanza. The beautiful plains of Valencia were ravaged, 

1707. the resolute inhabitants, who were prepared to undergo the 
worst extremities rather than submit themselves to the detested Casti- 
lians, suffered death in all its forms ; and, to avoid the insults of their 
enemies, they even set fire to their own houses, and perished, like the 
citizens of Saguntum and Numantia, beneath the ruins. When at length 
resistance was broken by the capture of Saiiagossa and Lerida, and the 
heads of the boldest had fallen beneath the axe of the executioner, the 
three provinces of Valencia, Catalonia, and Aragon lost the last remains 
of their rights, and were governed henceforth by the laws of Castfle. 
Barcelona, however, maintained a gallant resistance to the end of the 

S 438. In the year 1708, the two great generals, Eugene and Mail- 
Jnly 11, borough, increased their military renown by the vidoiy of 

1708. Oudenarde on the Scheldt. At this pomt, Louis XIV. bc^ . 


to despair of the successful tennioation of the war ; and, taking the ex- 
hausted condition of his kingdom into consideration, he now wished for 
peace. But, bj the influence of Eugene and Marlborough, who wished 
to take advantage of their success for the humiliation of France, condi- 
tions of great severity were demanded of him. It was not only required 
that the French king should renounce all pretensions to the collective 
empire of Spain, but that he sHisuld surrender Alsace and Strasburg ; 
and, hard as this abasement must have appeared to the proud potentate, 
he would have accepted the conditions, had not his enemies added the 
degrading demand, that Ix>ui8 should himself assist in driving his own 
grandson out of Spain. This appeared too severe to the French court, 
September 11, <U9d thovwar continued. But in the murderous battle of 
1709. Malplaquet, France lost more troops than in any previous 

engagement, and would have been compelled to accept peace under any 
conditions, had not Divine Providence now wished to chastise the inso- 
lence of others, that men might learn moderation. 

I 434. A quarrel between the proud and ambitious wife of Marl- 
borough and queen Anne, and the intrigues that sprung from it, had 
occasioned the exclusion of the duchess from the court, and the expul- 
sion of the Whig ministry by the Tories. The latter, with the cele- 
brated statesman and writer Bolingbroke at their head, now wished for 
the termination of the war, in order that Marlborough, who was at the 
head of the opposite party, might be no longer indispensable ; and with 
this object, entered into negotiations for peace with France, which were 
brought to a more rapid termination by the death of the em- 
peror Joseph I. without male heirs, in the following year, 
Charles YL, and by the succession of his brother, Charles, who was the 
ITU 1740 intended inheritor of the Spanish monarchy. It could now 
be no longer the interest of the foreign powers to add the 
territories of Spain to those of Austria, and thus to establish the supre- 
macy of the house of Hapsburg in Europe. A truce between England 
and Spain, after the conclusion of which Marlborough lost all his offices, 
Xtvii, and was accused in parliament of embezzlement, was the 

1713. forerunner of the peace of Utrecht. By this, the Spanish 

and American possessions were left to the Bourbon king, Philip Y., 
imder the condition that the crowns of France and Spain were never to 
be united ; England received Nova Scotia and other possessions in North 
America from France, and Gibraltar, and certain commercial advantages 
from Spain ; the duke of Savoy received the island of Sardinia and the 
title of king. 

•The emperor and the German empire did not join in the peace of 

Utredit^ and continued the war for some time longer. But the emperor 

quickly became convinced that he was unequal to conduct the war by 

Umself for any lengthened period, and gave his consent to the peace of 



Baetadt, to which also the German empire acceded at Baden in tho 
ym^^T Aargao. Bj tfaiBi Austria obtained the Spanish Nether- 
1714. lands, and Milan, Naples, and Sicily, in Italy; the Elec^ 

September, ors of Bavaria and Cologne were agun restored to their 
171^- lands and titles, and the royalty of Prussia generally m> 


September 1, § 4^^* FRANCE. Louis' XIV. died in the following year, 
1714 weary ofi life, and borne down by severe strokes of fate. 

Within two years, he had lost his son, his grandson, and his intelleetual 
Louis XV. ^'^®> ^^^ ^^ eldest great-grandchild, so that his youngest 
A. D. great-grandchild, then five years of age, succeeded to the 

1716 • 1774. throne, under the title of Louis XV. During his minority, 
Orleans, the government was conducted by Philip duke of Orleans. 
Kegent,A. D. This prince, like his former preceptor, cardinal Dubois^ 
~ ^ ^ ' whom he raised to the ministry, was a man of intellect and 
talent, but of most profligate morals, who despised religion and virtue, 
and by' his dissolute and voluptuous life outraged decency and morality, 
and squandered the revenues of the state. The Mississippi scheme^ 
which was established by the Scotchman, Law, and which not only 
promised a high rate of interest, but held out hopes of vast profits ia 
America, produced an incredible intoxication of mind throughout all 
France, which the unprincipled regent and his companion well knew how 
to take advantage of. Almost all the gold coin flowed into the bank, 
and was exchanged for paper money, till at length a bankruptcy took 
place, which deprived thousands of their property, whilst the greedy 
magnates were enriched by the spoils. 

§ 436. Spain. The Spanish king, Philip V., was a weak prince, who 
was governed by women, and who at length fell entirely into melancholy, 
and surrendered the government of his empire to his ambitious second 
wife, Elizabeth of Parma, and the intriguing Italian, Alberoni. These 
two contrived, by dint of war and intrigue, that Elizabeth's eldest son, 
Charles, should receive the kingdom of Naples and Sicily; and her 
second son, Philip, the dukedom of Parma, with Piacenza and Guastalla. 
Li this way, these states received Bourbon rulers. When Philip V. 
Ferdinand VI. ^^^^f ^^11 of trouble, into the grave, he was succeeded by 
A. D. his son, Ferdinand VL, who inherited his father's hypo- 

1746-1769. chondria, and at length sunk into an incurable melancholy, 
which, like that of Saul, could only be relieved by singing and play- 
ing on the harp ; hence the singer Farinelli obtained great influence at 
the court. 

§ 437. Enoland. The free constitution of England obtained such 
George I., stability during the reigns of the kings of the house of Hano> 
A.D. yer, George L, IL, and IIL, that the personal character of 

1714-1727. ^Q monarch exercised but little influence upon the oouiae of 

8WBDBN Ain> &U8BIA. 319 

The governmeDty which was respcmsible to parliament^ had 
G««89 n., more regard to the prosperity of the kingdom and to the 
im-1760. gr^ft^eas of the nation, than to the wishes of the court. It 
GMne m ^^ ^' ^^^ reason that trade, industry, navigation, and pros* 
A. D. perity received an immense development Under George L, 

1760-1820. ^j^ restored the Whigs to his confidence, James (UL) Stu- 
A. ». 1715-17. ^^ attempted, with the aid of the discontented Tories (Jaco- 
bites), to regain the English throne ; but his undertaking failed, and in- 
volved his adherents in heavy penalties* The same thing took place in a 
second attempt, which was hazarded by James's son, Charles Edward, in 
A L 1746 ^® ^^go^ of George IL Aided by France, he landed in Scot^ 
land, where he found numerous adherents among the gal- 
lant Highlanders. His first successes encouraged him to march upon 
. 1746 ^S^^ ^"^ fortune soon forsook him, and the battle 

' * of CuUoden destroyed the hopes of the Stuarts for ever. 
Charles Edward, upon whose head the English government had set a 
price, was saved, as once Charles IL had been, by the friends and adher- 
ents of his house, in a wonderful and romantic manner. His abettors were 
proceeded against with frightful severity ; there was no end to executions 
and confiscations of property ; the prisons were filled with Jacobites from 
Edinburgh to London. 

THE NORTHERN WAR (1700-1718). 

I 438. Sweden and Bussia. At the commencement of the eight- 
eenth century, Sweden stood at the highest point of her power. The 
possessions oi the crown had been increased, and the treasury filled, by 
the prudence and frugality of Charles XI. ; the fleet and army were in 
good condition ; the coast lands of the Baltic, with the rich towns of Wis- 
mar, Stralsund, Stettin, Biga, and Beval, and the effluxes of the Weser, 
Oder, Dwina, and Neva, were included in the Swedish territory, the site 
now occupied by Sl Petersburg being a swampy hollow on Swedish 
land. In courage and military spirit the Swedes were inferior to none. 
ImpexialhonseBut apoweiful neighbor had arisen in the East, since the 
A. D. ™*^**'' Bussians had united and strengthened themselves under the 
1618-1730. rule of the bouse of Bomanof ; and they now began to extend 
their frontiers in every direction. This was especially the case under 
Alexis, Alexis Bomanof and his two sons, Feodor and Peter. Alexis 

^' ^' conquered Smolensk and the Ukraine, compelled the warlike 

and well-mounted Cossacks to acknowledge the supremacy 
of Russia, and encouraged the civilization and industry of the country ;