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Full text of "Out west"

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LIBRARY 

OF THK 

University of California. 

Received Tht^Uyf^ . i8gi . 
Accession No.Sf^ 9/ • Class No. ^S^Q'T 












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iVoll VI, No. 1 DeCETUTBER, 1S9 

fHV6HRISTMflS NUMBER ""^mSJa... 




10 



LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO., 

V'fcrlN 1 S INCORPORATED 



A COPY 



501-503 Stimson Building. 



$1 



A 
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Health and Rest Seekers 



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Springs 
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Address: PASO ROBLES SPRINGS HOTEL, Paso Robles, Cal. 



RICHARD ALTSCHUL 

REAL ESTATE. 

LOANS AND COMMISSION 

408 SOUTH BROADWAY 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BUILDING 
Telcphonc main 1141 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
Buys and sells on commission only 



Makes a specialty of L-os Angeles City 
Property. Gilt-edged Business and Residence 
lots for sale ; also Grain, Fruit and Alfalfa lands. 
Negotiates Loans and places money on first- 
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Refers by permission to Messrs. L,azard 
Freres, Bankers, New York : London, Paris and 
American Bank, Ltd., San Francisco ; Farmersand 
Merchants, and First National Banks, Los Angeles. 
Correspondence Invited. 



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CONSISTING OF 

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Also Harness and 
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Rambler and Czar 

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THE 

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R. ALTSCHUL 

SOLE AGENT 

408 S. Broadway 
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The Tract was originally laid out into 400 building lots of which only 100 remain in 
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lists address RICHARD ALTSCHUL, Sole Agent. 

408 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Please mention that you "saw It in theTAND of Sonshinb.'* ~ 



^ 



THE 



Land of Sunshine 



A SOUTHWESTERN MAGAZINE 



EDITED BY 

CHARLES F. LUMMIS. 




Volume VI. 
December, 1896, to May, 1897. 



Land of sunshine publishing Co. 
los angeles, cal. 



F850 




Copyright 1896. 1897, 
by Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 



tiancroft Library ('^nivebsity 

The Land of Sunshine. 

INDEX TO VOL VI. 

Across the Border, illustrated Linda Bell Colson. 178 

Artist's Paradise, The, illustrated Chas. F. Lummis. 232 

Authorities on the Southwest, illustrated : 

Dr. Washington Matthews , 109 

Frederick Webb Hodge 146 

Cosmos Mindeleflf. 186 

Before the Bloom (poem) Anna C. Murphy. 187 

Best Blanket in the World, The, illustrated Chas. F. Lummis. 8 

California Mountain Ferns, illustrated Mabel L. Merriman. 74, 113 

Camels iu the Colorado Desert Henry G. Tinsley. 148 

Captain's Song, The. illustrated Auguste Wey. 3 

Chinese Woman in America, The, illustrated Sui Seen Far. 59 

Cigarette, The, drawn by A. F. Harmer 96 

Coronado, The Journeys of 26 

Country of Standing Rocks, The, illustrated Chas. F. Lummis. 183 

Cypress Point, illustrated Ella S. Hartnell. 174 

Daybreak in Ventura (poem) Sharlot M. Hall. 27 

Dead Past, The (poem) Blanche Trask. 11 

Death Valley in '49 116 

Discovery, The Wni, F. Barnard. 73 

Griffith Park, Los Angeles, illustrated : 129 

Gringo, The Randolph Hartley. 173 

Half-Breed's Story, The Batterman Lindsay. 248 

Indian Ruse, An Ella S. Hartnell. 27 

In the Lion's Den (by the Editor) 28, 84, 122, 158, 198, 256 

Ingleside, The Gardens of, illustrated 39 

Irrigation Congress, The, illustrated Fred L. Alles. 35 

Juan Flores.the Outlaw E. B. Julian. 188 

Kit Carson, illustrated (interview with Jessie Benton Fremont) 97 

La Fiesta de Los Angeles, illustrated 261 

Landmarks Club, The 25, 83, 121, 157, 197, 255 

Land We Love, The, illustrated 33, 89. 127, 163, 203 

Last Antelope, The (poem) Jeanie Peet. 112 

Living Pincushions, illustrated Rosa de la Guerra. 133 

Long Beach, illustrated ^ 271 

Los Angeles Oilfield, The, illustrated W. L. Watts. 23 

Los Angeles Queen of the Southwest, illustrated 45 



Midwinter Sport in Southern California, illustrated T. S. Van Dyke. 107 

Missions of California, The, illustrated Chas. F. Carter. 240 

Modjeska's Mountain Home, illustrated Marie H. McCoy. 65 

Montezuma's Castle, illustrated Chas. F. Lummis. 70 

Montezuma's Well, illustrated Chas. F. L,ummis. 103 

Our Deep-Sea Harbor, illustrated W. C. Patterson. 207 

Our Humming Birds, illustrated Juliette Estelle Mathis. 144 

Our Sky (pcem) Charlotte Perkins Stetson. 22 

Passing of Pierre, The (story) Carmen Harcourt. 19 

Pepper-Tree, The (poem> Wm. Norris Burr. 76 

Plaza, The (poem) 1>. Worthington Green. 192 

Pyramids of Taos, The, illustrated Chas. F, I^ummis. 141 

Randsburg, illustrated 167 

Redlands, illustrated Wm. M. Tisdale. 218 

Regulations for the Government of California, 1781 (Reglamento para .. Cal- 

ifornias) 77, 117, 153, 193, 251 

Runners, The (story) R. Harris, 150 

San Diego Water Carnival, The, illustrated :... 165 

San Fernando Mission, illustrated Juan del Rio. 13 

Sequoia, The (poem) C. W. Doyle. 115 

Slowly the Rains Abate ^poem) Julia Boynton Green. 181 

Song of the Missionary's Heart A. W. Tourge6. 22 

Song of the West, A Joseph Dana Miller. 231 

Southern California Palm Garden, A, illustrated Dr. F. Franceschi. 188 

Southwestern Wonderland, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis. 8, 70, 103, 141, 183, 232 

That Which is Written (literary review by the editor) 30, 86, 124, i6o, 200, 259 

Under Strange Skies E. S. Thacher. iii 

Wild Pigeon of California, The T. S. Van Dyke. 18 

Winds and I^eaves (poem) Charlotte Perkins Stetson. 152 



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"MAY I?" 

Copyright '96 Barker Art Gallery, D Col 



George Elliott, «! s. spring st. 

MWWiQW kiiiwit, LOS ANGELES, Cal. 

Pictures, MouiOinos, Artisis' MQleriQl QOd Stalionery 



The Land of Sunshine 

Contents— December, 1896, 

rAOs 

A Navajo Blanket in its natural colors frontispiece. 

The Captain's Song (illustrated), Auguste Wey 3 

The Best Blanket in the World (illustrated), Chas. F. Lummis 8 

(Southwestern Wonderland Series, IX.) 

The Dead Past (poem), Blanche Trask 11 

A Splendid Ruin (illustrated), Juan del Rio 13 

The Wild Pigeon of California, T. S. Van Dyke 18 

The Passing of Pierre (story), Carmen Harcaurt 19 

Our Sky (poem), Charlotte Perkins Stetson 22 

Song of the Missionary's Heart (poem), Albion W. Tourgee 22 

The Ivos Angeles Oil Field (with map), W. L. Watts 23 

The Landmarks Club 25 

The Journeys of Coronado 26 

Daybreak in Ventura (poem), Sharlot M. Hall 27 

An Indian Ruse, Ella S. Hartnell 27 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor) 28 

That Which is Written (by the editor) 30 

The Land We Love (illustrated) 33 

The Irrigation Congress (illustrated), F. L. Alles 35 

The Gardens of Ingleside (illustrated) 39 

Los Angeles, Queen of the Southwest (illustrated) 44 

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Please mention that you ''saw it iu the I<amd of Scnshinb." 



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Vol. 6 No. 1. 



LOS ANGELES 



DECEMBER, 1896. 




The CAPTAIN'S Song. 

BY AUGUSTS WEY. 

N exhibit in the famous Palmer Collection in the 
Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce is a curious 
dance-stick, which the accompanying description 
tells us was once, used ceremonially by many of 
the Southern California tribes of Indians, but 
which has meaning or associations now for only 
the very oldest living members of those tribes. 
The stick, it is further stated, once formed part of 
the ceremonial attending the Dance of the Captain, or Capitan. 

I read this with peculiar emotion, for I had had for some years in my 
possession a music score which I now hope is of the greatest historic 
value, namely, ** La Cancion del Capitan, annotated for me by no less a 
musician than Professor Ardvalo, of Los Angeles. 

Luisa Serrano, herself Capitana, the last Capitana of the Mission San 
Gabriel Arcangel, and one of its pathetic company of neophyte Indians, 
had remembered this song through the successive Spanish, Mexican 
and American occupations of Indian California, and had more than 
once danced, sung, recited and described it to me, in the patio, just off 
the Mission Road, and yet now so apart from it that its existence is 
denied by even intelligent travelers. 

Luisa is buried in the San Gabriel campo santo, near the "tall Capi- 
tan" who taught this song to her and whose technique she probably 
inherited. 

Three other songs were oftenest upon her lips during the days I was 
her guest: the "Song of the Dove," whose only place is in Mrs. '^a.ds.- 
son' s Ramona ; the "Cradle Song," to which she rocked Juana ; and 
"The Departure of the Bride," now reserved for the illustration of the 
Star papers of Don Hugo Reid. 



• As sung by the last Capitana of San Gabriel. 

Copyright 1896 by Land of Sunshine Pub. Co 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. 

JACINTA SERRANO. 
' ' Jacinta, one of the last surviving neophytes of Father Junipero Serra's 
flock, was brought to Pasadena in 1889, with all the materials and imple- 
ments of basketry, to assist in illustrating it, during an Art Loan Exhibition. 
Pasbing up the nave of the Library Building, where Navajo blankets and the 
fine Crittenden collection of Indian curiosities, from the Gulf of Talifornia 
to Alaska, attracted attention, the dim old eyes of Jacinta fell upon the dis- 
play of basketry. It was touching to see her interest aroused, as she grad- 
ually recognized her own work, which she took from the shelves, fondling it 
with her small, brown hands, as a mother would linger over the playthings 
of a dead child. Whenever the crowd diminished. Jacinta was seen examin- 
ing her treasures, which were woven early in the century."— Jeanne C Carr, 
" Among the Basket-Makers." 



To get the annotation of these fine songs, I 
met Professor Ar^valo upon the Mission Road 
one morning. Indians took our horses, and 
we walked together past the pomegranate 
hedge, behind which I was 
sure Ivuisa was already await- 
ing us. I have recorded the 
testimony of those I have 
successively taken with me 
and presented to this old 
Indian woman, who called 
herself always Capitana, but 
whom I called grande dame. 
I often wondered if she noticed 
that I presented all I took with 
me, men and women, to ker 
and never her to them. She 
had, among other attributes 
of the grande dame that of 
knowing how to keep an ap- 
pointment, once made. 

She came to meet me with 
shining, happy eyes, and now 
that I know she was even then 
suffering under mortal disease and knew it, it gives me the pleasure of a 
child to think she was so happy on that day that over and over again 
she could only tell it by pressing her hand against her heart. She had 
made ready for us in her own way. There were three chairs placed 
about her table, set out under an old peach tree, which always associated 
her in my mind with the Zuiii civilization. The Senor Professor's chair 
was on one side this table ; hers and mine upon the other side. Luisa 
on this day evidently proposed singing and dancing, under restrictions 
made by herself. 

Usually the children formed part of everything we did. Francisco 
marched away with my 
whip and deposited the big 
fur robe — to which I had 
a habit of pinning a bunch 
of January violets — safely 
apart from Pamfilo, the 
bronze-brown baby, who 
had a luxurious tendency 
to sit on both the fur and 
the violets with equal self- 
possession and picturesque- 
ness. Today not a child 
was in sight. Even Maria 
de la Cruz was banished 




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. 

LUISA SERRANO. 

" The Indians of San Bernardino constituted a distinct tribe, 

and were regarded as an inferior race by their Los Angeles 

cousins, who called them ' Serranos ' or mountaineers.' — 

Hugo Reid's Papers 



THE CAPTAIN'S SONG. 





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0*oli3nttoltus» 




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Clcl 



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\)itnos.'OeO(t 



-mMi' 



L A. Eng. Co. 



PACE FROM AN OLD PARCHMENT MISSAL. 
(Used in the Mission Mass.) 



Color press work by 
Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner Co. 



from the patio, swept clean by Juana's hands for the Capitana's feet. 
Teodora, the successor in basket-making to Jacinta Serrano, who has 
been recorded in literature by both Mrs. Scidmore and Mrs. Carr, wore 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



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the famous cora, and looked up at us with occasional strange intelligence, 
while Victoria proudly drew the threads of a pattern in drawnwork, 
ordered by a special patrona in Fifth Avenue ; a pattern she had heard 
someone say no Indian perfiladora could execute, and on which she 
worked with the delight only stoics know. 

When we were quite ready, lyuisa 
sang: over and over, bar by bar, 
when asked to, she repeated the fine 
songs we had come to secure. As 
she sang, I understood syncopation 
at last, and believed in the value of 
my own long struggle with thorough- 
bass and harmony. I found all these 
in her melody. When she had 
finished singing the chant of E;l 
Capitan, she rose and danced it for 
us. But the climax was yet to come 
— in the return of these melodies to 
her, through a source she was once 
familiar with, in her chorister life, 
when such trained scholars and 
musicians as President Senan and the 
Fathers Narciso Duran, Florencio 
Ibariez and Juan Bautista Sancho, 
directed the California Missions and 
ruled the neophyte hautboys in the 
old choir-loft. 

Professor Ar^valo took up the 
guitar, and I drew to one side of the 
table his pencil and paper, which, by 
his face, I knew he no longer needed. 
The music was mine forever, melody 
and harmony. And under the ZuSli 
peach tree he played ! I watched 
alternately his Mexican face and the 
Capitana's Indian one, while the 
Song of the Cacique or Capitan first 
left the strings, and then grew and 
swelled, until it seemed to me all the 
Indians of Los Angeles County, rank 
on rank, rancheria on rancheria, 
stood around us with sonajas or 
rattles, accenting the rhythm of this 
one Spanish guitar. When the final 
whirr-r, like the Spanish "r," died 
away, I put one hand on the dear old 
Indian woman's, and pointed with 
the other to the doves fluttering over 
Trinidad's roof, while the finished 
score of the Ramona Dove Song lay 
held under a bough of juniper before 
us ; and then to Juana's cradle, hung 
before her own door, above the low- 
growing chia^ whose blossoms she 
had so often given me in exchange 
for the Marechal Neil roses from my 
belt. And I called her in her 
own language "The Bride" whose 
* * departure ' ' I had promised should 
be published in my book. Trousseau ^"'°° *=°^- ^°- Transcribed by j. c. Fuimore. 

^ -^ SONG OF THE CAPITAN. 



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L. A. Ene. Co. 



THE LAST PALM OF SAN GABRIEL. 
(Destroyed in the storm of 1891.) 



« LAND OF SUNSHINE: 

and betrothal, wedding ceremony and fandango, all this I had written 
out to her dictation, with record of herself and her husband before the 
San Gabriel chancel rail and its watching Archangel, and up in the San 
Gabriel choir-loft, cello and violin, flutes and cymbals playing the 
Wedding March under the Padre's baton. 

This is how I heard the Los Angeles war-dance, which Hugo Reid tells 
us was " grand, solemn and maddening," on the day when I could say at 
last, '*Ivuisa Serrano, Capitana mia, I have kept my word." 

How I found the actual baton used in this dance, safe under glass, in 
the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, where all may see it today ; 
how I came to possess the distinguished piece of music which accom- 
panies this description into print, and to know Professor Fillmore, 
whose scores in the Century Magazine had long ago formed part of my 
work ; and what impression Luisa's melodies made upon the skilled ear 
of Professor Ar^valo, are matters reserved for a later article. 

Pasadena, Cal. 

J THE SOUTHWESTERN WONDERLAND. 

IX. The Best Blanket in the World^ 

BY CHAS. F. LUUMIS. 

"XACTLY the most perfect blanket. Neither Ottoman 
fingers nor British machines have ever produced its 
peer. The only thing I know of to surpass it is to 
be found among the astounding prehistoric fabrics 
we have exhumed in the mummy-mines of Peru, but 
they are not blankets. And this matchlCvSS weaving 
is the handiwork not of some old-world craftsman ; 
not of a trained heir of civilization — but of a wild 
nomad, a dirty, foxy, barbarous denizen of a corner of the ** Great 
American Desert." 

The Navajo Indian of New Mexico and Arizona cannot vie with the 
modern Turk in rugs nor with the extinct Yunca in fringes ; but when it 
comes to blankets he can beat the world. Or rather, he could — for it is 
nearly a generation since a Navajo blanket of strictly the first class has 
been created. Here is a lost art — not because the Navajos no longer 
know how, but because they will no longer take the trouble. They 
make thousands of blankets still — thick, coarse, fuzzy things which are 
the best camping-blankets to be had anywhere, and most comfortable 
robes. But of the superb old ponchos and zarapes for chiefs — those iron 
fabrics woven from vayeta (a Turkish cloth imported specially for them 
and sold at $6 a pound, unraveled by them, and its thread reincarnate in 
an infinitely better new body), not one has been woven in twenty 
years. It is a loss to the world ; but the collector who began in time can 
hardly be philanthropist enough to lament the deterioration which has 
made it impossible that even the richest rival shall ever be able to match 
his treasures. 

There are still Navajos (20,000 of them) and there is still vayeta ; and 
as there are people who would give I500 for an absolutely first-class 
vayeta blanket, you might fancy that the three things would pool. But 

•See Frontispiece. 




A GREAT BARGAIN 





THE ABOVK CUT SHOWS I3,000 YARDS OF CALICO COVKRED WITH PRUNES, ON MY RANCH. 



302 ACRES. 175 acres being in trees. No encumbrance. Seven miles from 
ocean, bigh range of foothills tempers southwesterly trade winds ; elevation 450 feet. 
Highly improved ranch, with running water in creek. For sale entire. Within 300 
yards of R. R. depot, church, postoffice, telegraph, etc. 

About 100 acres in 8-year-old prunes and apricots. 34 acres in 3-year-old apricots, almonds, peaches 
16 acres in 2-year-old apricots, peaches. 18 acres in i-year-old apricots, peaches. 6 acres in blue 
and sugar gums. Enough oranges, lemons, etc., for home and local sale. Balance of land all in 
grain, hay, corn, clover, pumpkins, carrots, etc. Last year's crop was: 1G9}4 tons dried prunes. 
5V^ tons dried apricots. 109 tons baled hay. 4*4 tons barley (grain). 8 tons corn (shelled). Besides 
pumpkins, etc. All damaged fruit, waste grain from stables, pumpkins, corn, etc., turned into hogs. 
No Irrigation Necessary. Our ranch is all valley land; 20 feet to water (average) . 

Giant Sycamores and Monterey Pine avenues, and wild tobacco on ranch. 
12 Roomed Dwelling, with all modem improvements, deep verandas (screened in). Half interest 

in I inch gravity flow mountain water. Water piped all over house. Garden, tennis court, 

stables, two wells, windmill, tanks, etc. 
6 Roomed Boarding House for ranch hands, stabling for 16 horses, 2 cows, etc. Barn covers 115 

tons baled hay. Coveting for all machinery. Tool house. Grain warehouse separate. 
3 ten foot cultivators, 3 heavy wagons, 1 spring wagon, 3 harrows, 2 buggies, mower, rake, smaller 

horse cultivators, gang and hand ploughs, etc. Large and well selected horses. 3 mares bred 

to son ot Red Wilkes (i749)- 
Drying Plant — capacity laoO tons green fruit; including Anderson Dipper (large), Hamilton 

Grader (green and dry fruit), 13«UO yards calico, 1600 boxes; trays, trucks, tracks, etc 
Oil Wells now being sunk about one mile south of this property. 

Reason for sale, owner has nitrate and railroad interests in South America requiring attention. 
Title Guaranteed by Orange County Title and Abstract Co., Incorporated, Santa Ana, Cal. 
Reference (by permission), Farmers and Merchants Bank, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Address Owner. E. PETRIE HOYL.E, 

Rancho Canada de los Alisos, Kl Toro, Orange Co., Cal. 



Have You Tried Them? 




We have purchased the entire output of 
Thatcher's celebrated 

CALIFORMA OLIVES 



Our California Olives are picked when 
ripe and lull of oil and are therefore much 
more nutritious and wholesome than the 
imported green olive. 

Ask youp Gfoeef fof thetn. 

Correspondence from the jobbing trade 
solicited. 

James Hill & Sons Co., 

OLIVE PACKERS 

1001-1007 East First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



"SAFE AS GOVER NMENT BONDS ." 

Southern California Real Estate 
T % First Mortgages ^ 



7 

/o 



Principal and interest payable in Gold Coin in N. Y. Exchange, netting 7 % to 
8 % per annum in quarterly interest payments. 

AH Titles guaranteed by leading Abstract Companies. 

We make a specialty of these Securities. Every detail has our critical inspec- 
tion. Ten Years experience in Southern California, and NO foreclosures. Highest 
references given. Our Mortgage forms sent upon application. 

We give special attention to the investment of Trust Funds, care of Estates for 
non-residents, collection of Rents and other Accounts. 



DEALERS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 
REAL ESTATE 

Los Angeles City and Suburban'properties. Orange and Lemon Groves. Olive, 
English Walnut and Almond Orchards. Large Tracts of Land for Syndicates and 
Colonies. Pasadena property a specialty. 

Sole Agents of the Pacific Land Co. for Southern California, of its lands in 
San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties. 

Dealers in Municipal, County and School District Bonds. 

Great interest is being manifested in Mining properties on the Pacific Coast. 
We give special attention to MINING INVESTMENTS. 

Correspondence invited. 

DARLING & PRATT, 

Investment Bankers and. Broker®, 

Wilcox Building, Los Angeles, Gal., U. S. A. 

REFERENCES: Cable Address, " DARLIPRATT." 

First National Bank of Los Angeles. 
Los Angeles National Bank. 
State Loan and Trust Co. of Los Angeles. 
Chamber of Commerce, Los Angeles. 
Or any of our Clients. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land op 8unsbivk. 



OF THE 

•CTNIVERSITT 




i-color plate by L. A Eng. Co Color cresswork hy 

AN OLD-TIME NAVAJO SADDLE-BLANKET. . Kingsley-Bames & Neuner Co. 



THE BEST BLANKET IN THE WORLD. 




Union Eng. Co. 



NAVAJO HUT AND LOOM. 



Photo, by Maude. 



that is to forget the Navajo. He is a barbarian, to whom enough is an 
elegant sufficiency. By weaving the cheap and wretched blankets of to- 
day — wretched, that is, as works of art — he can get all the money he 
desires. Why, then, moil a twelvemonth over a blanket for $500 (which 
is more coin than he can imagine anyhow) when a week's work will 
bring $5 ? You will think the Navajo is a fool, who will not put out his 
hand for money ; but it is to be remembered that he knows you are one. 




Miiusard-Collier Eng. Co. 



A NAVAJO CHIEF'S BLANKET. 



lo LAND OF SUNSHINE 

who burn your life for it. And a thousand efiforts, by the smartest busi- 
ness men on the frontier, have absolutely failed to revive this wonderful 
old industry. They have at most succeeded only in getting some back- 
slidden marueca* to weave an Americanized blanket which no connoisseur 
would have in his house. 

The Indians of the Southwest were already weavers in the time of 
Columbus ; but of course they had no wool. While the Yncas and the 
Yuncas were weaving the precious fleece of the vicuiia or the coarser but 
longer camel's-hair of the llama, our aborigines had no better material 
than the poor cotton which they raised in a few localities in Arizona and 
New Mexico. That, and buckskin, and rabbit hides twisted into strands 
and sewn together like an old New England rag carpet, was the extent 
of their textile ability. 

The dreadful Spaniard came and saw and conquered. He introduced 
into the New World every domestic animal which is now in use in 
America except only the turkey, our one native pet. Coronado in 1540 
brought the first sheep into what is now United States ; and his flocks 




Union Eng Co. 



A NAVAJO WEAVER. 



Bureau of Ethnology. 



were left with the Pueblo Indians on the Rio Grande and the Pecos. The 
historic indications are, however, that all these sheep were slain and de- 
voured by the barbarians — who also butchered the missionaries left by 
Coronado — and that the first figuring of sheep as an economic factor in our 
area began with the colonization of New Mexico by Juan de Onate in 1598. 

At all events, these facts are safe — that for nearly three hundred 
years there have been sheep in what is now United States ; that the 
Franciscan missionaries taught the Pueblos the use of wool ; that the 
Pueblos, more and more occupied by the better modes of farming taught 
them by the selfsame heroic men, who also gave them wheat and other 
European seeds, finally taught wool-spinning and weaving to the nomad 
Navajos, and have practically ever since depended on their pupils. 

The art of the Navajo blanket is as old as Plymouth Rock — and alrnost 
as bigoted. You can tell a genuine just as far as you can see it. It is a 
curious fact, known to the student, that when left to himself the Indian 



* Navajo woman. 



THE BEST BLANKET IN THE WORLD. n 

never blunders in color. It is only when too long rubbed with our shod- 
dy civilization and poisoned with the ease and cheapness of our accursed 
aniline dyes, that he perpetrates atrocities. His eye for color is elemental 
and absolutely correct. Red is king — and no bastard magenta, mauve 
or lake, but true red. Blue is good, because it stands for the sky ; and 
green because it is the grass ; and yellow for the sun ; and white for the 
clouds and the snow — and these are the only colors found in a strictly 
perfect Navajo blanket. To the Indian, color is a part of religion, and 
purples and pinks and other devil' s-colors he never can use until he is 
fully corrupted. The blanket of today is the most graphic witness to the 
falling-off of the aborigine that ever came into court. It is full of hues 
that any decent Indian knows to be literally infamous. A generation 
ago, a Navajo would have been put to death by his people if simply found 
in possession of one of those witch-colors . 

But the true old blanket was as perfect in its color scheme as in its 
weaving — and I have blankets which have for seventy-five years done duty 
on an adobe floor. The little saddle-blanket shown in the frontispiece — 
and it is the finest of its size in existence — I have traced back sixty- 
eight years, and not got its beginning either. I have other blankets far 
larger and still older, 

Of course at all times these gems were comparatively few. Not every 
Navajo weaver was a master, and not so many could afford a blanket 
whose thread cost $6 a pound as could "stand " the natural wool at thirty 
cents. But what has done most to make the old-time perfect blanket 
scarce is the fact that it was almost invariably buried with its owner. In 
the christian graveyards of the Pueblos, in the barbaric lonely last cud- 
dling-places of Navajo captains, the vast majority of the perfect blankets 
have gone to the worms. I myself have seen ponchos not three collec- 
tions in the world could match today, swathed about the corpse and cov- 
ered with six feet of earth ; and you can fancy if that would make a col- 
lector gnash his teeth. 

I have roughly sketched elsewhere* the modes of Navajo weaving ; 
and Dr. Washington Matthews has published an exhaustive study in the 
Reports of the Bureau of Ethnology — the stolid women working at their 
crude "looms," whose only machinery is the hanging of the warp-cords 
from a pine bough ; the wonderful patterns of the lightning and the 
morning star, the clouds, the earth, the sky. And yet the whole of it 
will never be told ; and only a few will ever be fully aware of the marvel- 
ous lost art which was born and has died among a tribe of savages on 
our Southwestern frontier. / / 



The Dead Past. 

BY BLANCHE TRASK. 

The wind blows wild and free ; 
My eucalyptus tree 

Lends all its boughs for strings ; 
The wild wind turns and plays 
A tune of other days ; 

The dead Past comes and sings. 

The wind sobs as it plays 
That tune of other days ; 

The dead Past sings, nor sighs ; 
It hath endured so much. 
It cares not for the touch 

That loosens older ties. 



Av8lon, Cal. 



* Some strange Corners of Our Country, the Century Co , N. Y, 




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. rtiE MONASTERY CLOISTERS, SAN FERNAl 



13 



A Splendid Ruin, 



BY JUAN DEL RIO. 




^ 



►WENTY-ONE miles north- 
west of Los Angeles by rail, 
and a mile and a half back 
from the little village of San Fer- 
nando, one of the most impressive 
ruins in North America lies in the 
sunburnt plain rimmed with blue 
mountains. The location is one of 
extraordinary beauty — as a matter 
almost ot course, for the Francis- 
can missionaries never blundered, 
either practically or artistically, in 
the selection of sites — and the 
mission of San Fernando Rey de 
Espaiia ( St. Ferdinand, King of 
Spain) was among the largest and 
finest of all the Franciscan estab- 
lishments in the Californias. 

Founded in 1797, in the heart of 
a peculiarly fertile region, it be- 
came (under the acute administra- 
tion of the frailes) unusually 
wealthy. A generation later it is 
said to have had $100,000 worth of 
produce stored within its walls ; while a far larger sum must have been 
represented by the lineal "mile of buildings," grouped about patios, 
which composed this enormous establishment. Like all the missions,- it 
was a commonwealth between walls, a little world in itself set down 
amid a savage universe, a citadel of civilization within whose adobe 
ramparts religion and learning and human mercy could make head 



Union Eng Co. 

A DOORWAY IN THE CHURCH. 




tmmmff^A 






Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. 



THE MONASTERY FROM THE SOUTHWEST. 



OS by C. F. L. 



u 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 




against the outer barbarism. It was a 
wonderful picture of the patriarchal and 
the hierarchal life in one — this mission- 
ary frontier outpost which for its place 
and time was a splendid metropolis. The 
church was the heart of it, naturally, but 
bore about the same proportion to its bulk 
that a normal heart does to a normal 
body. For these remarkable pioneers of 
California were not only missionaries and 
martyrs but business men of an astonish- 
ing capacity. Their religion did not unfit 
them for hard sense and hard labor. In 
the first place they unerringly selected, 
while California was a wilderness, the 



, Eng. Co. 
BREACH IN THE MONASTERY WALL. 

garden spots — and a hundred 
years of experiment have 
failed to find anything better 
than their first judgment. In 
the second place, these theo- 
logians somehow knew 
enough to build by themselves 
an architecture which is to 
this day ahead of anything 
that has come to stand beside 
it in this wonderful century. 
In the third place, they had 
the faculty for creating suc- 
cessful commerce almost with- 
out material, labor, transpor- 
tation or markets. A thous- 
and miles from nowhere ; 
dependent for supplies upon a 
country farther off from them 
in time, toil and danger than 
the ends of the earth are from 
us now; working with and for 
and upon suspicious, sullen, 




Union Eng Co. 

ABUSED PILLARS OF THE CLOISTER. 




INTERIOR OF THE RUINED CHURCH. 



OF THE 

CTNIVERSITY 



i6 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 




Union Eng. Co. 



THE PALMS OF SAN FERNANDO. 



Photo, by Chas. Roberts. 



lazy, ignorant savages — a couple of frailes and a half a dozen Mexican 
Indians and five soldiers reared enormous buildings, raised enormous 
crops, gathered enormous congregations. Only those who firmly refuse 
to reflect can imagine for a moment that these things were done by 
coercion. An ant could as easily bulldoze an elephant as these dozen 
lonely men "drive " the thousands of Indians. It was a missionary and 
not a military conquest which prevailed upon California; diplomacy of 
the highest order, joined to a faith and zeal which we may modestly call 
fanatic. 

The mission of the old California days was not only a place of church 
and school, but a genuine industrial beehive. The converted Indians 
were brought as much as possible within its walls and taught the arts of 
civilization. They became aiders of the padres in farming and in horti- 
culture, in raising cattle and sheep and horses, in curing hides and try- 
ing tallow, in tending vineyards and pressing wine, in carpentry and 



A SPLENDID RUIN. I7 

masonry and tailoring and shoemaking, and other basic industries of 
civilization ; and they were sharers not only in the labor but in its 
fruits. 

Since the Disestablishment, all the missions have suffered ; and those 
which were not surrounded by modern settlements have largely gone to 
decay. San Fernando has become but the shadow of its former glory. 
Only two of the principal buildings are left, and they are swiftly going 
to ruin. Of the minor buildings — the sheds and workshops and quar- 
ters — one crumbling line remains; the rest have sunk into vague 
mounds of adobe. The noble old olive orchard, after nearly a century of 
usefulness, is still vigorous, and needs only care to be highly productive. 
The superb palms, so long untended, lift their tall columns to the sky as 
if so puny a thing as man or man's care were of no significance to them. 
But the massive buildings are not so fortunate. Two years more of pub- 
lic heedlessness, and they would fall and be lost forever. 

The convenio, or monastery, is two hundred and forty feet long by 
sixty feet wide — figures which give some hint of the hugeness of the 
entire plan. It is an extremely strong, impressive edifice, one of the 
finest monuments in the United States. Its grand cloisters with their 
long vista of Roman arches, its third of an acre of red-tiled roof, its 
strong walls, quaint window-grills, giant chimney, dark vaults and vats, 
strong timbers fetched from the distant peaks — all go to make it an 
architectural treasure whose dignity awes even the careless tourist as it 
inspires the intelligent student. . - 

This splendid old building is tottering to its fall — for want of repairs 
to its roof. Through the gaps in the tiles the strenuous winter rains of 
California are devouring the adobe walls ; and already there is a great 
breach on the north side. About $1,500 would put on a solid roof-struc- 
ture, replace the tiles, close the gaps in the walls, and save the building 
to be admired by our descendants a hundred years from now. 

The church is far nearer complete ruin . Its roof is altogether destroyed ; 
and its adobe walls, fully exposed to the weather, will not last much 
longer unless something is done for them. It is a very interesting build- 
ing, one hundred and thirty-four feet long ; and by the immediate ex- 
penditure of $500 could be saved. That would involve the putting on of 
a temporary but substantial roof to protect for the present. The roof 
could be later covered with tiles as it was originally. 

The Landmarks Club^ — which has already proved its metal by taking 
charge of the Mission San Juan Capistrano, and in the past year so re- 
pairing and strengthening that beautiful relic of the past that it will last 
for at least another century — has now taken up San Fernando. Under 
a ten years' lease it will undertake to raise the necessary funds and make 
the necessary repairs to preserve the principal buildings of this Mission 
and avert the disgrace it would be to the intelligence of California if we 
permitted such ruins to disappear. Until within a year, such matters 
have been "everybody's business '^ — and therefore "nobody's busi- 
ness ; " and it is a sad fact that since Southern California became a 
populous commonwealth of cultured Americans, almost incalculable de- 
cay has been allowed to come upon the missions. But now there is an 
incorporated organization of well-known men and women who give 
their time and money to this specific thing — the preservation of our his- 
toric landmarks. And they call on all intelligent citizens and all en- 
lightened visitors to help them now in the work of saving the superb old 
monument of San Fernando Rey. 

El Alisal, Cal. 



^ 



♦See page 25, 



i8 

The Wild Pigeon of California, 



BY T. S. VAN DYKE. 




I HEN the sinking sun floods some great gorge of the high moun- 
tains with rosy haze, while you are seated upon a towering crag 
from which you can look into it, you will say there are few 
sights in the wild life of California equal to that of a large flock 
of its native pigeons circling across the deep abyss. Spirits of the fad- 
ing day they seem as they wheel into the crimson light which fires with 
strange brightness their lustrous plumes of blue and lavender washed 
with wine-red, tinged with violet and bronze and green. So strongly do 
they stand out against the dark background of the deep ravine that 
fancy can almost see the red rim around the golden eye, the yellow bill 
tipped with jet and the white collar on the purplish neck. Then, heralds 
of the coming night they seem as they wheel into the shade where all 
their radiance runs into a dream and only a suggestion of slate blue 
drifts across the gloom. 

Scarcely less beautiful is the bird when circling over the openings 
among the somber pines, or darting at great speed among the oaks. 
And when deep snows cover the trees and it comes down and sails in 
flocks across the white background, against which its pretty hues are 
lost until it becomes almost black, there is a grace about its swift flight 
that makes it pretty still. 

The pigeon is called the Band-tail, from a dark band across the tail 
about the middle. In Southern California it is found only in the higher 
mountains, except when driven down for a few days by heavy snows, 
and except in summer, when it often comes low down into the canons to 
nest. In winter I have seen it as low as five hundred feet above the sea, 
but only for a few days. Late in summer I found pigeons in Rubio 
Caiion, at about twenty-five hundred feet, looking like cliff" swallows on 
the big rocks at the top of the towering walls. But a few years ago they 
were very abundant in many places, and Mt. Palomar, a long, high 
mountain in San Diego county, takes its name from the great numbers it 
once contained. It was a veritable palomar (pigeon-house) and I have 
seen times when the flight across the openings in the heavy timber 
would average a shot a minute for two hours at a time. Though not now 
so plenty, this bird cannot be exterminated as the passenger pigeon has 
practically been in the East, for it is too wary and does not gather in the 
large flocks or roosts that make possible such murderous treatment as 
the brutal white man has given the gentle passenger pigeon. 

Though not so swift a flyer as that marvel of mechanics — the passen- 
ger, or Eastern wild pigeon — the band-tail^is still a very rapid one and 
the most gamy of all the dove family. Larger than the domestic pigeon 
and of the same build, striking its wings together in the same way at 
starting into flight, there is something attractive about its graceful speed 
that makes it a true game bird. Tough as- a duck, wary and hard to 
approach, twisting more quickly at the first sign of danger than any 
other bird that flies, the band-tail taxes the expert shot like no other of 
the pigeon family. Across openings in the tall timber it is as hard to 
hit as the swift blue-winged teal of the Mississippi valley spinning 
through trees. Darting downward out of the opposite side of some 
mountain oak it is about as hard to hit as the Arizona quail playing you 
the same trick out of the opposite side of some big mesquite ; and when, 
with curving rush, it takes the same flight downward from the other 
side of some big pine, it raises bright memories of the time the ruffed 
grouse roared downward with swift curve out of some dark hemlock 
leaving your shot above and behind it. In flavor it is about the same as 
the domestic pigeon, except when feeding too much on acorns, when 
parts of it are bitter. 



THE PASSING OF PIERRE. 



19 



As all the pigeon family are easily tamed there seems no reason why 
this bird would not make a charming pet, It could probably be com- 
pletely domesticated, when its greater beauty, grace and speed of flight 
would make it a vast improvement on the common house pigeon. At 
all events it would be a valuable addition to the aviary where it is now 
rarely or never seen, while to the great majority even of those who 
travel much it is entirely unknown. 

Los Angeles 



The Passing of Pierre. 



BY CARMEN HARCOURT. 




HE Xxw^ flaneur seeks not only the highways but the 
byways. To see the byways of California, with three 
companions I fitted up a commodious camp wagon 
at Mojave, and started across the desert for Mount 
Whitney and the Kern river fishing grounds. After 
three days' travel over sand and sage brush, we 
came to a huge pile of rocks near a spring of pure, 
cold water, and here we pitched our temporary 
camp. 

Leaving my sleeping companions at daylight, I 
mounted my bronco, " Grit," andxode westward for 
a few miles. Suddenly I came upon a deep, narrow 
rift from which a tiny column of smoke arose. 
Bending over a brush fire was a feeble old man, with bushy, matted hair 
and beard. He held a frying pan from which he drew long strips of 
bacon, hot and sizzling, and threw them to the ground. Five jet black 
cats, their tails tied together, frantically scrambled for the bacon, and 
the fortunate — or unfortunate — one yelled with pain as he swallowed 
the coveted morsel. The old man danced with joy and uttered strange 
words of delight as the cats fought, scrambled, scratched and bit in their 
frantic efforts to secure the bacon. For a few moments I stood motion- 
less and fascinated yet horrified at the old man's cruelty. 
"What are you doing, wicked old man?" I finally said. 
At the sound of my voice, he placed the frying pan on the ground, 
and the cats leaped upon it. As the hot bacon disappeared down their 
throats, a chorus of deafening yells rent the air. The old man ascended 
the bank and bowing low said : 

"I am giving the cats their breakfast, madame. Being a humane 
man, I serve the animals first, myself last. I am Pierre Biscailuz, at 
your service ; head shepherd of the sheeps of Monsieur Guipuzcoa, now 
journeying to the mountains of Mono. Will madame honor me with 
her company at breakfast ? 'Tis but a poor repast, a cup of cafe noir, 
a rasher of bacon, a pair of eggs." 

Declining his invitation, I rode on. An hour later as I passed the 
spring near our camp, I found a dog with a badly crushed foot, vainly 
trying to crawl to the water. I ministered to the needs of the half- 
starved creature as best I could and it showed an appreciation almost 
human. Shortly after noon the old shepherd appeared and claimed the 
dog. He thanked me so profusely for my benefactions to his " compan- 
ion " that I was inclined to doubt his sanity in view of his cruelty to 
the starving cats a few hours before. 

Most of the wandering flocks of sheep to be met with on the desert 
are owned by Basques, who are generally wealthy and travel in as luxu- 
rious a state as heat, dust and scorching winds will permit. One day I 
came upon the shepherd's head camp, situated in a sheltered spot near 
rthe foothills. The family was sitting under the shade of an awning 



20 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

near the comfortable camp wagon, enjoying a bountiful luncheon of 
caviar sandwiches, Spanish olives and Chateau la Rose. Monsieur and 
Madame Guipuzcoa had heard of me from Pierre and I was cordially 
invited to join them. In the most naive manner the host explained 
why he and his wife led a nomadic existence, 

"To avoid," he said, "the abomination called taxes, I move my 
sheeps from Ventura before the assessor pirate comes to prey upon the 
poor. I hover on the border of Kern county and drive my sheeps into 
Inyo before he can impose the abomination. The free wools of your 
Clover Clevelan' they have much ruined us, who own the misfortuuate 
sheeps, and the taxes — how you say it — would break the camel's back. 
I have ten thousand sheeps and as many lambs, and they are cut up 
into bunches of one thousand ; with Pierre and Perdita at the head 
command. So that if by chance the assessor pirate should catch one or 
two bunches, the other sheeps escape the abomination. 'Tis a hard life 
and my wife .she pine for Paris. When the wools again bring more 
moneys, we will leave the desert life and return to Paris or the dear old 
country. 'Tis a hard life — yes — but on Sundays, as in the far-off 
mountain home of the Pyrenees, the shepherds gather round and dance 
the single-stick and sing the dear old mountain chansons, while Marie, 
my wife, play sweetly the compliments on the catarrh." 

A few days later the Guipuzcoas moved near our camp and we speedily 
became the best of friends. Miles from any human habitation except a 
few Indian huts, the society of these quaint people was a most welcome 
diversion. The shepherds, like their master and mistress, were Basques 
— of that mysterious people of the Pyrenees, whose language and origin 
are involved in obscurity. Monsieur Guipuzcoa was a large, handsome 
man, slow in thought and speech and remarkable only in his abject de- 
votion to his plump and pretty wife, whose eyes were bright as diamonds 
and whose hair rivaled the sheath of a beetle's wing in glossiness. 
Pierre was a sort of relation. The solitary life of a shepherd is respon- 
sible for much insanity among the expatriated Basques. Their exist- 
ence is almost the dreariest in the range of human experience. When 
feed was plentiful, a band of sheep would not move more than fifty 
miles in four or five months ; and frequently, Pierre told me, he had 
spoken to no human being for three months at a time. So man}'^ of his 
shepherds had gone insane that Monsieur Guipuzcoa kept his flocks 
closely together and provided amusements at least once a week for the 
shepherds, instead of allowing them to become widely separated. 

Pierre's love of the dogs and sheep and his devotion to his master's in- 
terests were the ruling passion of his life. Sleeping or waking he never 
left his charge. He spoke to the sheep as if they were endowed with 
intelligence and he believed the}' understood and answered him. It is a 
well-known psychological fact that by long association people grow to 
look alike; so Pierre, in time, came to resemble the sheep. His dull, 
patient pathetic eyes, fuzzy face and dust-colored, matted hair accent- 
uated the likeness. There was only one person in the Guipuzcoa camp 
that Pierre did not love — Monsieur Blessier, the chef, who, as I soon 
discovered, was deeply enamored of Marie's plump charms. 

One day soon after the sheepmen came to camp near us, I mounted 
Grit and was off for a ride before breakfast. The morning was one of 
rare and sensuous beauty, the fairest I have ever known on the desert. 
Mount Whitney towered clear-cut against the pale, opalescent sky, which 
was absolutely cloudless, as it often is for months at a time. The crys- 
taline purity of the air and the scent of the lovely desert pinks were in- 
toxicating to the senses, and nature in her morning mood was a rare and 
radiant enchantress. The silence was unbroken as the first rays of the 
sun gilded the peaks of the mountains and changed the gray gloom of 
the desert to a warm, amber glow. Myriads of squirrels and rabbits crept 
out, stood blinking stupidly for an instant, then leaped over the plains in 



THE PASSING OF PIERRE. 21 

searcli of their morning meal. A lean, sneaking coyote here and there 
b >uiided after a rabbit, but seldom secured one unless assisted by several 
of his kind. 

Presently a faint, feathery cloud appeared in the north. It grew with 
wonderful rapidity ; at first gray, then dun-colored, then black and 
ominous. I had learned to read some of the mysteries of the desert and 
this foretold a sand storm. And now it was upon me! Grit wheeled and 
galloped like a mad thing toward camp. The wind moaned like the sea. 
A hundred strident voices, each in a different key, swept past me. The 
sand rattled on my hat, filled my eyes, ears and nostrils and cut my face 
like a lash of scorpions. The heat grew intense and all was whirling, 
roaring, terrible darkness. I clung to the saddle in weakness and de- 
spair ; but the brave little bronco bore me on, with an instinct that in 
the hour of peril rises superior to the highest powers of human intelli- 
gence. 

Then I heard a cry of a woman's voice. " Do not desert me, for the 
love of God and the angels ! Jacques ! Jacques ! you could not be so 
cruel ! " 

It was Madame Guipuzcoa. 

A man spoke. " It is your life or mine," he said. '* Life is sweet, I 
will not yield it up. Lie close to the ground and cover your head with 
your gown. Your husband will search for you when the storm is over. 
Farewell, angel of my life." 

It was Monsieur Blessier. He and Marie had run away; and now in a 
moment of supreme peril he was deserting her to save his own life. 

I called to the shrieking woman, for it had grown so dark that I could 
not discern Grit's ears. With a cry of joy she crept toward me, and I 
took her in my arms and we lay down close to the faithful little bronco, 
for he had instinctively buried his muzzle in the sand. After what 
seemed an age, the storm abated and we proceeded toward camp, Marie 
riding behind me and chattering like a magpie. 

" Monsieur Blessier, the beast," she said, *'had long loved me, or pro- 
fessed to. Often he urged me to flee with him, and at last I yielded. 
The sheeps life — oh, it is so hard for me, who have so much lived in 
Paris ! My husband had gone to Keeler and I sent Pierre to the camp 
below, telling him the coyotes had there eaten many sheeps. Then at 
daylight we left. Jacques mounter! on the horse, I on the burro. We 
took much moneys — I have it all here in my bodice — and we carried 
wine and food. When we stopped to breakfast, the horse got away. 
Jacques swore much oaths, but we both mounted the burro and went on. 
Then came the storm. We were lost. The burro could no longer carry 
two, and Jacques — the beast — he deserted me. But he has not the 
moneys ! " 

The little woman laughed merrily. She was ignorant as a bird — a 
heartless little creature of that womankiud which good and true men 
most adore. 

We never heard of Monsieur Blessier. Whether he found the death of 
the desert (as were poetic justice) or was carried safely to some camp by 
the burro, we never knew. 

There was no sign of life about the sheepman's camp. The first inti- 
mation we had of a tragedy was when we came across the dead body of 
Perdita, Pierre's dog. I opened the tent door. Across the Persian rug 
by Marie's cot lay Pierre, shot in the heart, a revolver clasped in his 
hand. Pinned to one corner of the rug was a bit of paper. Marie trans- 
lated the words which were in the Euscara language. " Farewell, mas- 
ter. I have been unfaithful to my trust. Pierre." 

" It does not implicate me," said Marie, " and my husband will think 
he died because of the sheeps the coyotes ate. You will not tell? " And 
I kept my counsel. 



22 



LAND OF SUNSHINB. 



We buried them deep in the desert sands, faithful Pierre and Perdita, 
and rolled a great stone over the grave that they might crumble undis- 
turbed by the jackals of the desert. ':^~~ 

The next day Marie divided her time between reading for the fourth 
time her favorite novel, and trilling in her sweet, fresh voice the pretty 
ballads of Beranger — for Monsieur Guipuzcoa, who sat by Pierre's grave, 
mourning the loss of his " misfortunate " servant, had promised to take 
her to Paris as soon as the " sheeps " were sold in the fall. 

Los Angeles. 



London, Eng. 



Our Sky. 

BY CHARLOTTE PERKINS STETSON. 

They have a sky in Albion — 

At least they tell me so ; 
But she will wear a veil so thick. 
And she does have the sulks so quick, 
And weeps so long and slow — 
That one can hardly know. 

Yes, there's a sky in Albion ! 

She showed herself of late ; 
And where it wasn't white or grey 
It was quite bluish — in a way — 
But near, and full of weight. 
Like an overarching plate. 

Our sky of California ! 

Such light the angels knew 
When the strong, tender smile of God 
Kindled the spaces where they trod 
And made all life come true — 
Deep, soundless burning blue ! 



The Song of the Missionary's Heart. 



San Diego, 1769. 
BY ALBION W. TOURCl 



His shrine, beside the silent sea, 

( As stood His cross by Galilee I ) 
His light, beyond the verge of years, 

( My hope, that knows no hint of fears,) 
The Christ, Jesu ! This truth He taught — 
Whoso would win the love of God, 
For love of man must first have wrought. 
( So my soul's peace is won for me, 
And loud, oh Lord, we sing to Thee !) 



Marv'ille, N. Y. 



23 

The Los Angeles Oil Field. 



BY W. L. WATTS. 



©[?' 



•HE operators in the Los Angeles oil-field state that the main stra- 
tum of oil-sand is from one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
feet thick, but that as a rule it is not productive all the way 
through. Comparing the opinions of well-drillers it appears to be the 
general opinion that on an average at least forty feet of the oil-sand may 
be put down as pay dirt. 

Let us tentatively admit thMt the Second Street Park oil field at Los 
Angeles, as far as developments have shown, derives its oil from a 
stratum of sand carrying about ten per cent of oil ; that the said stratum 
is about forty feet thick, and has an area of about four million square 
feet. Such stratum would contain in round figures about 2,850,000 bar- 
rels of oil. A careful canvass of all the oil producers of Los Angeles 
shows that last year the Los Angeles oil-field produced 729,695 barrels of 
oil, about one-fourth of our theoretical total contents of the sand, and no 
inconsiderable amount was produced in 1894. How much of the* re- 
maining 2,000,000 barrels of oil can be obtained by pumping ? There do 
not appear to be many factors on which to base an estimate. We must bear 
in mind that the oil is heavy oil ; that the gas pressure in the Los Ange- 
les wells was never very great. Therefore the probabilities are that 
even after a well has ceased to yield enough oil to pay for pumping 
every day, providing the wells do not become filled with water or choked 
with sand, small quantities of oil might be pumped from them for quite 
a long period. Moreover, although there is such a forest of derricks at 
Second Street Park they are by no means uniformly distributed over the 
four million square feet which we, by the way of a rough estimate, put 
down as oil-sand. In March 1896, there were 330 wells in this oil field, 
and these wells vary from 560 feet to more than one thousand feet in 
depth. Allowing to each well say five thousand feet, as they are now 
distributed, it would seem that there must be more oil land in the area 
we calculated yet to be heard from. The prevailing dip of the formation 
as seen at the surface at Second Street Park is S. 10° W, although there 
are aberrations from that azimuth. An examination of the outcropping 
oil-sands and the rocks which enclose them, and a comparison of the 
depth at which the oil-sand has been struck in the different wells, shows 
that the oil-sands and the enclosing rocks are practically conformable. 
The general direction of the "oil-line" is east and west Except in the 
case of a few shallow wells, all the prospect wells drilled outside the 
Second Street Park oil-field have proved unsuccessful. 

A review of the situation leads to the conclusion that the best results 
will be obtained by following the strike of the productive oil yielding 
formation, rather than by sporadic prospecting. When a point is reached 
where the formation is broken, in the absence of any rock exposures to 
prove that the geological disturbance is other than local, several hundred 
feet should be passed over and prospecting be recommenced, still in the 
direction of what had been previously proved to be the strike of the oil- 
yielding rocks Accurate drilling records should be kept, from which a 
profile of the oil-yielding strata might be made, and by which an engi- 
neer could trace the course of the oil-sand. 

In view of the fact that the direction of the strike and the angle of the 
dip are somewhat irregular, the safest mode of procedure is to progress 
gradually and not make too long jumps. 

state Mining Bureau. See next page. 



California STATE Mining Bureau. 



J. J. Crawford, State Mineralogist 



Accompanying report of W. L. Watts, assistant in 
ttie field. Compiled from data contributed 
by E. Wright, County Surveyor, J B. Haw- 
ley, C.E., The City Water Works Co., etc. 
Geological field work by W. L. Watts 




^^S^ 



^ 




L. A. Entf.Co. 

Map of the Los Angeles oil fields. 



25 




LAM 0M ARKS 



jmORPORATtO/ 

TO CONSERVE THE MISSIONS 
AND OTHER HISTORIC 
LANDMARKS OF SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

DiRKCTORS : 

Frank A. Gibson. 
Henry W. O'MelTcny. 
Rev. J. Adam, 
Sumner P. Hunt. 
Arthur B Benton. 
Margaret CoUipr Graham. 
Chas. P. Lummis. 



OFFICERS: 
President, Chas. ?*. Lummis. 
Vice-President, Margaret Collier Graham. 
Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, lU N. Spring St. 
Treasurer, Frank A Gibson, Cashier 1st Nat. Bank. 
Corresponding Secretary Mrs M E. Stilson. 

913 Kensington Road, Los Angeles. 
HowoRART LiFK Members : R. Egan, Tessa L. Kelso. 

ADVISORY BOARD: Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R Eean, W. C. Patterson, Adeline 
Steams Wing, Geo. H. Honebrake, Tessa L Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas Cassat Davis, Miss M. F. Wills, 
C. D. Willard, John F. Francis Frank J. Policy Rev. Wm. J. Chichester, Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Lee, 
Rt. Rev. Joseph H Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles. 
J. T. Bertrand, Official Photographer 

The Ivandmarks Club is a year old. Its first annual meeting was held in Los Angeles, 
November 17. Reports by the president and secretary showed that in its one year the 
Club has succeeded in the complete safeguarding of the most beautiful of the Missions 
— San jHan Capistrano, founded in 1776 by Fray Junipero Serra himself. Every im- 
portant building there has been so strengthened that it will stand for 100 years to come ; 
and one year ago all of them were in such decay that they would have been absolutely 
lost with five years more of neglect ; and some of them with one year. Nearly $1400 
has been raised and applied in this work ; and it is astonishing how much has been 
secured with that sum. 

With this handsome achievement at its back, the Club enters upon its second year 
with larger confidence for larger work. Everyone has felt that the Missions should be 
preserved ; nearly everyone has feared that they could not be. The Landmarks Club 
IS here to prove that it can be done and is being done. 

The Club has a lo-years' lease at Capistrano, with preference as purchaser in case 
that property should ever be for sale. It has now secured the same extraordinary 
privileges at the fine and far larger Mission of San Fernando Rey ;* and is engaged in 
raising the necessary $2000 to make the repairs which will save from utter destruction 
that enormous ruin. 

$iooo will be required before work can begin — for a third-of-an-acre tile roof is not to 
be stripped, and the walls exposed, without knowing when one can replace the roof. 
But the Club intends to raise that con.siderable sum before the heaviest of this winter's 
rains shall have wrought their havoc at San Fernando. 

The Club during the year has also killed off a movement to transform the historic 
Plaza of Los Angeles into a market ; and is now engaged in a fight to prevent a blot- 
ting ovit of historic street-names in the same city. 

At the conclusion of the reports the Club unanimou.sly elected as its first Honorary 
Life .Member Judge Richard Egan of Capistrano- to whom the success of the work 
there is so greatly indebted — and as its second, Miss Tessa L. Kelso, now of New York, 
who did the first organized work in behalf of the Missions. 

The former board of directors was unanimously re-elected for 1897. 

After this annual election, the Club's magnificent set of stereopticon views of all the 
Missions was exhibited. 

All memberships lapse with the last day of 1896. It is hoped and believed that every 
present member will early in 1897 renew his or her subscription, and that many new 
members will come in. During the first year of its existence the Club's membership 
has grown to nearly 400. It is also presumed that all the generous donors who have 
given larger sums will repeat or better their liberality with the new year and the new 
work. 

In the contributions of services and material, several omissions have intentionally 
been Aade. The directors have given their services and paid their own expenses 
therein, as a matter of course. There are no salaries, and no "running expenses." 
Every dollar received is net to the work. And by his special request the services of 
Mr. Egan— which have had a cold cash value of several hundred dollars — have not 



'See pages 12-17. 



'-^6 LAND OF" SUNSHINE. 

been charged specifically to his credit. Nor has the Land of Sunshine claimed other 
credit for the $700 worth of space it has given, than the pleasure of doing a genuine 
good to the land it loves. 

Membership in the Landmarks Club is $1 a year ; and there are no other fences. The 
Club, which is preserving these historic monuments primarily for the sake of Southern 
California, but secondarily for all thoughtful Americans, feels doubly entitled, now that 
it has so handsomely proved what it can do, to call upon thoughtful men and women 
everywhere to aid in preserving the most admirable ruins in the United States. 

It is intended to hold a course of lectures in Los Angeles, this winter, in behalf of the 
Club's work. Excursions to the Missions are also contemplated ; and probably other- 
entertainments. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CAUSE. 

Previously acknowledged, $1344.50. 

New Contributions : Maj. Geo. H. Bonebrake, $2 ; F. W. Stein (stereopticon slides), $2 ; 
W. H. Wilson (stereopticon expert, services), $3.50 ; Albion W. Tourgee, (author of " A 
Fool's Errand"), Mayville, N. Y., $1.50; Homer P. Earle, $1 ; Miss Alice J. Stevens 
(notary and typewriter), $1. 

$1 each : U. S. Senator Stephen M. "White, Mrs. S. M. White, Miss Mary Workman, 
Mrs. Wm. H. Workman, Hon. Wm. H. Workman, Rev. A. J. Meyer, Mrs. Percy W. 
Hoyle, Dr. Granville MacGowan, Mrs. Granville MacGowan, all of Los Angeles. 



The Journeys of Coronado. 

'S every student of early America knows, the explorations of Fran- 
cisco Vasquez de Coronado in 1540-42 were the most remarkable 
that have ever been made on this continent ; and it is a pitiful 
commentary on our scholarship that so little genuine research has been 
given to this fascinating topic. Gen. J. H. Simpson, U. S. A., wrote a 
brief but highly valuable treatise in a past generation to identify the 
route of the great explorer who pried into the secrets of the great Ameri- 
can desert three centuries and a half ago. Bandelier incidentally touched 
upon certain features of Coronado's marches ; but his promotion to the 
larger field of South America precluded the completion of the definitive 
monograph on Coronado which he had in hand. And H. H. Bancroft's 
undigested jumble, aggravated by a vicious judgment, was no gain to the 
field. 

But luckily a new and earnest student has arisen to exploit this fas- 
cinating theme. George Parker Winship, of Providence, R. I., who 
published in 1894 a careful translation of the Letter of Coronado ta 
Charles V, and of the anonymous Relacion delSuceso of the same journey,* 
is now prosecuting a more ambitious work. He has just published an 
extremely valuable bibliographical index of Works Useful to the Student 
of the Coronado Expedition. This list, reprinted in advance from Mr. 
Winship's larger work in the 14th Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, is 
of the first importance to every student of the Southwest. It lists over 
250 works on the subject, of which a hundred are. original Spanish 
sources, 115 English works of varying importance, 7 in P'rench, 10 in 
Italian and 8 in German. Of the English authorities there are quoted 
17 works by Bandelier, 3 by Lewis H. Morgan, 5 by F. H. Cushing, 5 by 
F. W. Hodge, 3 by Cosmos Mindelefif, i by Washington Matthews, 2 by 
Gen. J. H. Simpson, 5 by G. P. Winship, i each by Justin Winsor, 
John Fiske, Geo. Bancroft, H. H. Bancroft, E G. Squier and Lord 
Kingsborough, 3 by Wm. H. Holmes, 4 by Chas. F. Lummis. i by J. G. 
Bourke, and so on. 

Mr. Winship's monograph in the Smithsonian report is being looked 
for with much interest, since it promises to be one of the most valuable 
contributions we have ever had to the history of the discover)-^ and ex- 
ploration of the Southwest. He is a well-equipped and earnest investi- 
gator ; and his labors are making fully accessible to English readers for 
the first time one of the most romantic chapters in our history. 



*In the "American History Leaflets," A. Lovell & Co., N. Y. 



Daybreak in Ventura, 

BY SHARLOT M. HALL. 

The sunrise drifted in across the sea, 
And lay in rosy light upon the palms 

That stretched their green leaf-fingers down to me 
Like beggars asking alms. 

I tossed them each a coin of memory 

From out her garnered store ; 
Some pictured dream of olden Araby 

Or Tunis' white- walled shore. 

The dawn- wind waked the pepper trees again, 

And whispering music made ; 
And on the Mission's Moorish turrets then 

The early sunbeams played. 

Along the wharf the little wavelets sped, 

Playing at hide and seek ; 
And on the sea-line Anacapa's head 

Rose up all bare and bleak. 

Behind the sleeping town the sea-mist's lace 

Veiled hill and mountain dome ; 
I heard a step, a word, and raised my face — 

Morning and Love had coiiie. 




Prescott, Arizona. 



An Indian Ruse. 

BY ELLA S. HARTNELL. 

FTER the secularization of the Missions on the Pacific coast, the 
Indians — bereft of the care of the Padres, and driven by hunger 
— became very troublesome as thieves. They would risk their 
necks to obtain possession of a fat old mare from a corral, but disdained 
the skinny, wild horses that roamed over the plains. At night, when 
the horses of a family were corralled it was the custom to put a bell on 
a gentle old mare, so that the tinkling would give assurance of " All's 
well," or its silence would indicate danger. 

One stormy night, a large band of fine horses was put into a corral, 
and the vaqueros went to sleep lulled by the falling rain, and the tink- 
ling bell. About midnight one of the vaqueros awoke, and heard the 
bell as usual, then went to sleep again. In the early morning hours he 
awoke and listened for the bell. There was an ominous silence. The 
vaqueros hurried to the corral and found every horse gone. The 
Indians had come in the night and taken all but one horse, dnd that the 
fleetest of the band. On this horse an Indian had sat all night and 
kept the bell ringing to lull suspicion, then made his escape on the 
same horse. Far out on the plains, the vaqueros saw him going like 
the wind, and not one horse left on the ranch to follow the thief. 



28 







^*^M^y-mr>'. 



IN THE 

LION'S DEN 



"■"•^^ Boston is the most characteristic and most lovable city in 

FOOT OF the United States — possibly because it is the most ignorant. 

THE CLASS. New York knows a little less books and a little more horizon, 
but has lost simplicity, and will never again be able to do anything 
single-heartedly. But Boston — well, Boston, even when she makes a 
fool of herself, does it so all over and head-first that no generous soul 
can forbear to love her. 

If any other American city had refused the gift of Mac Monnies's 
wonderful statue — for of course no city outside of America could be so 
absurd if it tried — it would have been a sheer vulgarity. But with 
Boston it is different. The usually superficial Max O'Rell stumbled 
upon a great moral truth when he called the Bostonians '* educated 
beyond their intellects." They felt that the most perfect bacchante in 
existence, being put in their Public Library, would be too much for 
Boston morals — and they probably know their own weakness best. Feel- 
ing so, they dared say so, in face of the laughter of the civilized world. 
It is a gallant thing lo have the courage of your convictions. But it is a 
pity to have the convictions of an itching tabby-cat. 

Ignorance is not the inability to discuss carpenter's tools ; it is 
blindness to the architecture generally but not necessarily indebted 
to such tools. The most ignorant city in the United States is that which 
has the most splendid monument to books and the most splendid dis- 
regard of the universal Body-Human upon which books are merely the 
fleas. 

So far as heard from, Southern California is the only portion 
of the United States which is doing active, incorporated work 
for the preservation of historic landmarks. Of course no other 
outside of the Southwest, has .such magnificent relics to pre- 
serve, or so many of them ; but the country at large is very much neg- 
lecting what it has. In (and thanks to) this cultured community, the 
Landmarks Club is doing what decent intelligence demands should be 
done everywhere. Though barely a year old, this club has snatched 
from decay one noble monument of a century ago and established it for 
a hundred years to come ; and is now beginning upon another. The 
preservation of the Missions San Juan Capistrano and San Fernando 
Rey might fairly shame many older and more populous communities in- 
to action. 

It was not even close ! Politics as politics have no place in 
the Den ; but when politics mean Americanism and sound gov- 
ernment, they belong everywhere. The Lion begs to pause 
long enough to point that that is fact which he had no hesitation in 
printing as prophecy two months ago. The two coyotes on a moonlit 
hill were no^ a majority. The brains of the United States outvoted the 
mouth. 

The Lion has word that "Montezuma's Castle" on Beaver 

Creek, Arizona, has been undermined by careless excavators 

MINUTE. and is in danger of falling. It is one of the very finest cliff- 

' buildings in existence, and by far the most accessible ; and it would be 



SETTING 

THE 

PACE. 

section 



SENSE 



TOP. 



THINK 



/iSr THE LION'S DEN. 29 

• 

an outrage to let it fall. Public-spfrited Arizonians will probably sub- 
scribe to save it, and this magazine will forward any subscription sent in 
for that purpose. A description and pictures of the Castle will also be 
published at once, to show how important a monument it is. And a 
campaign will be begun to get the government to make national reserva- 
tions of this and others of the unique attractions of the Southwestern 
Wonderland. There is nothing like these wonders elsewhere in the 
world. Is the United States brawling fool enough to throw them away ? 

In the East, today, Nature is dead. Even the hectic flush of there 
fall is over. The stark ground is rigid as a miser's fist. The and" 

naked trees, the perished flowers, the vanished birds — all be- here. 

speak death in the house. And in most places Nature has taken on her 
cold, white winding-sheet. 

In California, instead of death we have the Resurrection and the Life. 
The first rains came a month ago, and made new heavens and a new 
earth. Ten days after them a universal emerald began to steal up under 
the browns of a perfect but rainless summer. A million wildflowers are 
budding, and in a few more weeks will carpet the land with infinite 
colors. The deciduous trees are like lace against the sky ; but our in- 
numerable evergreens — the graceful pepper, the picturesque eucalyptus, 
and all that splendid host, are refreshed for the new year. The dark 
green of the orange is dotted with mellowing globes of gold ; and while 
the snow-crown lies upon our magnificent peaks — beside which the tallest 
mountain in the East is a pigmy — at their feet the incense of orange 
blossoms burdens the air. The roses that clamber to our ridgepoles 
burst every day into more lavish bloom. Nature rests in California, but 
never dies. The summer is the most perfect known to man, and there is 
no winter. And remembering these things, you need no longer wonder 
that Southern California has suddenly become populous with quarter of 
a million people of the class who have the brains and the money to live 
where they deem life worth while. 

The sixth volume of the Land of Sunshine, which begins up v^ 

with this number, is intended to be better than any preceding and 

volume. The magazine already has a reputation throughout on. 

the country for the beauty and novelty of its illustrations. It has al- 
ready pictured California and the Southwest as they never were pictured 
before ; and it has the material not only to continue this pleasant task, 
but to do so more graphically and more interestingly than ever. 

The Land of Sunshine has also become widely known as the most 
concise magazine in the country. As a prominent critic has said, it 
" never beats out an idea to indecent thinness to fill space." Every page 
of it is condensed ; and on its small frame it carries more "meat" than 
do many magazines of double its size. 

Its articles are of wide range for a magazine of locality — so wide a 
range as would be impossible in any other locality than the Southwest. 
And besides being always " good reading," it contains every month some 
brief but solid contribution to knowledge by some recognized authority. 
This feature will grow. 

Most of the historical documents bearing on Southwestern history 
have never been accessible to American students. Accurate translations 
and condensations of some of the most important Spanish sources 
relating to California, Arizona and New Mexico will be printed here. 

The magazine aims to put everything in the briefest form, in this busy 
age ; it aims to be welcome alike to the average intelligent reader and to 
the student. There are very few educated people in its field for whom 
it has not something of direct interest every month ; and to those who 
desire knowledge as well as entertainment, it has become an indispens- 
able hand-book to the Southwest. 



30 




THAT 

WHICH IS 
WRITTEN 



Having passed, by some time, the 
Golden Age of literature, we befall the 
^i<^i'}y^'-\p^^ ' '''^' *" ^S® ^^ Arrival, wherein we are. If business 

^iSf(ii>C'*'' has betaken its feet anew, its gait is not a whit more 

changed since the day of our fathers than is the gait of literature. In 
neither does elbow-room remain for the loiterers that had the right-of- 
way no longer ago than one generation. He who should nowadays so 
messenger-boy his tales as Dickens did would find his " time " waiting 
at the office when he got back. If there has been perhaps no universal 
specific demand for prompter delivery, the boys have themselves uncon- 
sciously quit the habit of marbles at every corner and taken to running 
their errands in very fact. There may not be anywhere now that stately, 
unhasty, Antaean stride of the First Masters ; but the average step of 
letters was never before so springy, direct and unpottering. There was 
never so little vogue of waste words, never such cult of the concise, 
never so straight a path to the colophon. To wallow in pathos, or shred 
humor to a finish, or forage speculation persists only about as much as 
unshorn poetic locks ; the average writer of today trims both close. 
The reader is at last conceded a gleam of imagination and not overmuch 
of patience ; and a liint is presumed to do him as well as the Grandison- 
ian kick. The arrowy grace of Stevenson, the inexorable sweep of Kip- 
ling, might well have changed a fashion ; but they are only masters and 
not creators in the new tendency. No man dare nowadays so squander 
the dictionary as was his privilege a dozen years ago. He may not have 
half the story to tell that his father had ; but he will tell it more tolera- 
bly — very much because he better "knows when to let go." 

A NEW While the small fry of unknowable scribblers are too many 

^T^^ 'N to be stirred by anything short of an earthquake, the few 

OUR SKY ./ ^ cj X 

Western writers who have any standing in the world of letters 
will be very glad to move along and make room for a newcomer, when 
they shall have read Blia W. Peattie's A Mountain Woman. It is dis- 
tinctly an important contribution to the literature of and from the West ; 
and if Mrs. Peattie can ** keep her gait" — and sometimes improve upon 
it, as a writer must — she is going to have a very enviable place. 

The eight short stories which make up this book are plenty uneven. 
The title story is by no means the best, nor even up to the best. It 
lacks crystalization. "Jim Lancey's Waterloo " is probably the strong- 
est of its company ; and a striking story it is — with one serious weak 
link. Even a silver man doesn't see his baby die and not turn a hair. 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. 31 

^'The Three Johns," "A Resuscitation" and "Two Pioneers" are, 
despite small technical faults, fine human stories ; and the whole book 
is unusually interesting and stirring. 

Mrs. Peattie is neither so sure-handed nor so broadly Western as Mrs. 
Graham — whose Stories of the Foothills remain easily the foremost of 
Western tales in recent years — but she deals more with a field which 
the innocent Easterner presumes is all the West. She has neither the 
splendid grasp nor the splendid restraint of her more practiced " rival," 
nor yet the high art. But her point of view is excellent, her style is 
clear and direct, and she has in an unusual degree the faculty of telling 
a story. Her first book has made her calling and election sure in the 
little band of such Western authors as are respected at once by the 
genuine Westerner and the universal critic. The book is perfectly made. 
Way & Williams, Chicago. I1.25. 

Many things that have long ached to be done still remain a 
undone simply because a tradition of modesty remains even spotless 
among writers. If there be any one plot which is a tempta- CONFiDEN( 

lion to the novelist, it is an Immaculate Conception up' to date. It is a 
tremendous theme ; and that it has been so much let alone is striking 
proof that even the vanity of print has not yet wholly destroyed the 
sense of proportion. Our literary artists are hardly too reverent to have 
tried their hand at it ; but evidently they have felt that the canvas was 
just a little too big for them. 

" Martin J. Pritchard " — whose portrait shows "him " to be an emi- 
nently desirable young woman — has not been so easily deterred; and 
her novel Without Sin is an extraordinary piece of courage. It deals 
with a beautiful young Jewess who looks like a Madonna by Botticelli 
and desires to become one. She dreams dreams, and comes to the 
mania that she is to mother the Messiah for whom her people still wait. 
The easier part of her dream comes true ; but the child turns out to de- 
rive from a scrub of an artist and a fainting-spell rather than from 
Jehovah. 

I cannot sit with the too-conscious critics who are scandalized by Miss 
(or Mrs.) " Pritchard's" story. It is in no wise an immoral book, but an 
earnest, honest and decidedly interesting one. The delineation of the 
old Jew curio-dealer and of the Jewish middle society of London are 
very cleverly done. The author's sin is not of morals but of taste. She 
is not quite large enough to make vital so tremendous a plot — and 
frankly I do not know who is. The book is making much stir. H. S, 
Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.25. 

Another sufficiently audacious novel, in a wholly different an 
line, is Percy Andreae's The Vanished Emperor. It takes ambitious 

the names of contemporary gods in vain, under mosquito-net 
disguises which are rather childish and wholly useless. The royal ab- 
sentee is William of Germany — the remarkable young man who may 
be all the fools that premature scribblers claim for him, and may be 
something else. It is too early in the game to make a reasonable esti- 
mate of him ; but at any rate he is no mollusc. 

The novel is not intentionally impudent, though Mr. Andreae's ideas 
of respect are somewhat vague — and one may smile at thought of 
William or von Bismarck if by any miracle they should ever see the 
apologies he lifts toward them. It is a dangerous experiment for an 
everyday man to make great men the puppets of his little stage ; and 
the author seldom justifies his familiarity. Still, the Vanished Emperor 
is ingenious and entertaining ; and anyone who gets fairly into it will 
read it through. Rand, MoNally & Co., Chicago. $1.25. 

It would be worth while to read Checkers, a Hard Luck Story, a 
by Henry M. Blossom, Jr., if only as an education in the most GOOD 
contagious and vivid slang now extant. But the book is more story. 



TALE. 



32 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

than that. The hard luck of the mercurial " Checkers" works up into a 
human document of no mean interest ; full of humor and with much un- 
affected pathos. It is a character-study much better done than the 
average ; and portrays a type none of us would like to be but any of us 
would feel better for having known. Of the mechanical beauty of the 
book it is enough to say that it is published by H. S. Stone & Co., 
Chicago. $1.25. 

ANOTHER Frank Cramer, of Stanford University, has issued an earnest 

CALIFORNIA and instructive study of The Method of Darwin. He justly 

CONTRIBUTION. holds that as an educational factor a fair comprehension of the 
methods by which such a man as Darwin worked out his tremendous 
discoveries is worth all the abstract logic a student could bolt from a 
text-book in a lifetime ; and with entire sympathy and considerable 
luminousness he marks the itineraries of the master mind. A. C. Mc- 
Clurg & Co., Chicago. %\. 
A MEAN One of the most impudent and shameful sneakthieveries on 

GRAVE- record is perpetrated in the St. Louis Globe-Democrat oiSe^t. 

ROBBER. 25, page 8. An anonymous despoiler of the dead there prints a 
story called "A Discipleof Black Art." Thestory is wholly and deliberately 
stolen from the late H. C. Bunner's "Zozo " — one of the famous Short 
Sz:^res, As if to prove his rascally intent beyond peradventure, the thief 
has changed the names of the characters. The Short Sixes are copy- 
righted ; and it is to be hoped that the friends of the dead Bunner will 
make the Globe- Democrat and its contributor sweat. 
THIS, Tho^ Revista de Chihuahua — edited by such a gentleman and 

THAT AND scholar as Dr. Miguel Marquez — is a handsome example of what 

THE OTHER. modem Mexico is doing in the way of monthlies. Chihuahua is 
a fine town of less than 20,000 people, but its magazine is a very creditable 
one in contents and typography. The illustrations are unusually well- 
done. Among the important recent contents is the historian Icazbal- 
ceta's keen and conclusive analysis of the famous myth of the Virgin of 
Guadalupe. 

Sui Seen Far (Chinese Lily, her name means), who has contributed to 
this magazine several short stories of American-Chinese life, is much 
more "on the inside " ot her theme than are most of those who pretend 
to depict the expatriated John. Though an American girl by birth, edu- 
cation and appearance, she is the dauj^hter of a Chinese lady, and shows 
deep sympathy and insight for the maternal race. Her stories are con- 
cise, direct and of excellent color; and her unaffected portrayals of a 
strange, bare, misunderstood but human life ai-e decidedly interesting. 

The Dod^e Book and Stationer)'^ Co., San Francisco', has published a 
very attractive little edition of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayydm, Ed- 
ward Fitzgerald's translation, " life " and notes. Paper, 25 cents. 

A northern contemporary declares that the Overland "should be 
kicked out of the public schools of California," into which it has 
gophered under false pretenses. There is no need of excitement. The 
law of gravitation will take care of the matter. Nothing of the intel- 
lectual and moral caliber of the Overland can keep up in public schools 
anywhere. 

Geo. W. Cable is editing at Northampton, Mass., a little monthly 
named The Symposium. It is a handsome promoter of home courses of 
reading. 

F. W. Hodge, of the Bureau of Ethnology, has reprinted from the 
American Anthropologist his instructive and valuable paper on Pueblo 
Indian Clans. 

Dr. T. S. Palmer, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C, whose excellent monograph on The Jack Rabbits of the United 
States has been noticed in these pages, hails from Pomona, Cal. 

The Argonaut has a right to feel happy over the result of the cam- 
paign. It made the most effective fight for sane government of any 
weekly in the West. 




'•* THE OLD PICO HACIENDA. *'*><'*<» by Jas. 

Beside the San Gabriel river are the ndobe ruins of the patriarchal home of Don Pio Pico, 

last Mexican Governor of California. 




Commercial Eng. Co. 



THE BABIES' PARADISE. 



Photo, by Karle Wills. 



There are babies everywhere ; but it isn't everywhere that American babies have outdoor birthday parties 
in midwinter. In Southern California they do ; and these Redlands youngsters are taking theirs. 



35 



The Irrigation Congress. 




BY FRED L. ALLES. 



©[?' 



•HE antiquity of irrigation is estab- 
lished by a quotation from Gene- 
sis 2:10, to the effect that "A river 
went out of Eden to water the Garden, and 
it was divided into four heads." Irrigation 
is the question of the future in arid Amer- 
ica. It is more important than that of 
silver or the tariff. It is the question of 
existence. The rainbow spanning the arching 
sky is composed of sunshine and water. The 
'i rainbow of promise for the arid west, is that 

sunshine and water will change it from a voiceless 
desert into a place fit for homes for millions of now 
homeless people. 

Irrigation has been practised on the American continent from its 
earliest settlement, and the occasional discovery of evidences of canals 
and ditches of a prehistoric period show that it was always a necessary 
factor in sustaining life in the arid West. 

The early settlers of the I^atin races in the inter-mountain region of 
the far Southwest were content to use water freely and labor sparingly 
in order to produce the little food necessary for their sustenance. A 
small patch of corn, beans, and melons, along the edge of a running 
stream, from which the water could be carried by gravitation, without 
manual labor or the exercise of ingenuity, was considered sufficient 
progress in the science of irrigation. The policy of manana, manana 
confined these little patches of garden to limited areas, subsistence only 
was desired, and profit was unthought of. 

The advent of the Anglo-Saxon into this virgin field, first through the 
thirst for gold in the earth to .California, and, afterward, the pioneering 
into Utah and Idaho for religious freedom, created new conditions. 
Men who would brave the hardships of a trip across the rugged moun- 
tains, through a savage-guarded country, would not be content with 
mere subsistence on a primitive plane of life. These were ambitious 
pioneers, and they wanted the comforts of civilization for themselves 
and dowry of competence for their children. 




Union Ecg. Co. 



A YOUNG IRRIGATED ORCHARD. 



Photo, by Maude. 



36 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

Patches of alfalfa and corn, producing food for man and beast, were 
soon followed by orchards and vineyards, furnishing luxuries for the 
industrious and a competence for the provident. 

Water courses were quickly preempted, small streams were enlarged 
by cleaning away obstructions, and, afterward, by boring into the 
mountains. The nearby streams being soon claimed, the far-oif sources 
of supply were then seized upon and a lavish expenditure of money, 
labor and time followed, to bring the precious water out upon the burn- 
ing sands, pregnant with life, but lacking moisture. Damming the 
mountain streams in far-up valleys and canons naturally followed, to 
save the winter's water for the summer's need. The search for gold was. 
abandoned in many sections, and the search for water was substituted,, 
because water made the return of gold certain in giving productive 
capacity to an otherwise barren soil. 

Only a few years were necessary, a score as men's lives go, to bring an 
end to the water supplies to be had for the taking. But the pressure of 
population coming from the Eastern cities' congested districts was too 
great to be stopped and the demand continued for more water. 

Land, the arid West has always had in abundance — good land — rich 
land — fertile in every constituent chemical element which goes to 
make soils fruitful, but needing the Aladdin's touch of water to make it 
fructify. 

So, five years ago, in the summer of 1891, the men of genius in the 
West, interested in its future from the standpoint both of humani- 
tarianism and self-interest, called for a meeting of the friends of irriga- 
tion to be held at Salt Lake City in September of that year. The 
original suggestion came from Wm. K. Smythe, then publishing the 
Irrigation Age at Denver, and it was cordially seconded by such men of 
national prominence as Senator Stewart, of Nevada, Geo. Q. Cannon, of 
Utah, John P. Irish and C. C. Wright, of California, Prof. Klwood Mead, 
of Wyoming, Judge J. W. Gregory, of Kansas, Senator David Boyd, of 
Colorado, and a large number of others. The call was issued by Gov. 
A. L. Thomas, of Utah, and the first Irrigation Congress was attended 
by delegates from ten States and Territories. The discussions were only 
general, covering all the phases of the irrigation problem, but finally 
determining that national help must be had to solve some of the ques- 
tions arising. Committees were appointed on National Legislation and 
on State laws, but no definite work was ever done by either, mainly 
because no harmonious plan could be agreed on. This Congress was. 
valuable because it brought together men interested in irrigation as a 
national issue and it paved the way for future work. 

The second Congress was held in Los Angeles in October, 1893, and 
was international in character, being by far the most largely attended 
and most interesting ever held. Delegates were in attendance from fif- 
teen different States and four Territories, and from France, Russia, Aus- 
tria, Mexico, India, Canada, New South Wales, Peru and Ecuador. 

This Congress was in session an entire week and adopted some formal 
policies which have since been crystalized in national and state legis- 
lation. It favored joint ownership of land and water because its mem- 
bers believed the titles indissoluble ; arid land is worthless without 
water, and the land company deeding the one to the small land-holder 
should be compelled to also deed the other, and not hold him in 
pawn for life by charging an annual water rental. 

It opposed the present Desert Land law because its members believed 
that it favors the control of vast bodies of land by corporations. Under 
the existing law a man can take up 320 acres of desert land, if he can 
show water service for it, and corporations can use the names of their 
employes to control thousands of acres. A half section is about eight 
times as much land as a family requires for its subsistence in an irri- 
gated district, and, with our rapidly increasing population, the neces- 



THE IRRIGATION CONGRESS. 37 

sary acres for comfortable subsistence should be the family limit of 
ownership. 

It favored the cession of the arid lands to the State because its mem- 
bers believed that the local supervision resulting therefrom, insuring 
the division of the land among actual settlers, was better than any 
national control could give us, under existing legislation. This has 
iDeen partially accomplished in the Carey bill, passed by Congress in 
1894. 

It favored the State supervision of irrigation enterprises, because its 
members believed that the innocent purchaser of land and water should 
be guaranteed protection from the corporations, which too often sell 
ten thousand acres of land with water for only one thousand acres. 
The purchaser can easily measure his ten or twenty acres of land, but 
he cannot measure his water supply, and for this, the most vital item 
in his purchase, he must take the word of the seller. In too many 
-cases in the arid West has it proved true that confiding human nature 
has been duped by designing rascals, and the lyos Angeles Irrigation 
Congress placed itself on record as favoring a strict showing of water, 
by actual engineering measurement, supervised by a State commission, 
before an inch of it could be sold. This has been practically adopted 
by five or six Western States since the Los Angeles meeting. 

The Congress of 1894 was held in Denver and was attended by dele- 
gates from eighteen States and Territories, and by representatives from 
Mexico and Canada. The Carey Arid Land Law had just been passed 
by Congress, and its author. Senator Carey, of Wyoming, was present 
and explained its purposes, and what he believed would be its practical 
results. Under its operation any State in the West can secure one mil- 
lion acres of arid land if it will make formal application for the same 
to the Secretary of the Interior, and will then provide a water supply 
for the land taken. The State must agree, also, to sell the land to 
actual settlers, in tracts of not more than forty acres, at the actual cost 
of reclamation. When this is done and the settler has built a house, 
planted a part of his land and is in occupation, the deed will pass 
directly from the United States to the possessor. This provision is 
designed to prevent the acquisition of large tracts of land by corpora- 
tions, and would also operate to prevent State speculation in the lands. 

The Denver Congress asked the general government for two things : 
the discovery and distribution of water. 

Millions of acres of rich land lie in mountain valleys, susceptible of 
irrigation, on a large scale, but the undertaking is usually too 
stupendous for private capital to engage in. The government owes 
homes to its people so long as it can reasonably provide them. The 
government can make surveys of water courses and sources of supply 
in mountain districts, through its engineering corps; determine where 
these waters can best be used; lay out storage and drainage districts; 
survey the lands and have them placed on the market for public sale, 
limited to citizens of the United States and those who have declared 
their intention to become such; and sell them at a price covering the 
actual cost of surveys and attendant expenses. Nothing definite has 
resulted from this demand, but the agitation of the question will result 
in its final adoption by the government. 

The Denver Congress, at the request of delegates from Kansas and 
Nebraska, asked the government to spend in water survey, test wells 
and exploration of underground supplies in those two States, the vast 
sums of money paid to the general government by land buyers and 
settlers for lands in Western Kansas and Nebraska, which were supposed 
to be humid or sub-humid, but which have proved to be semi-arid in 
character. This just and humane request has not yet been granted. 

The Congress of 1895 was held at Albuquerque, in September, and 
was attended by delegates from all the Southwestern States and Terri- 



38 LAND OF SUNSHINE:. 

tories, and by the representatives from Canada and Mexico, but the 
entire Northwest was unrepresented. 

Here, for the first time, the work assumed a local tone. The discus- 
sions were more on the plane of State or district conventions, and in 
this were a disappointment to the leaders in the movement. The mem- 
bers of the National Committee were enthusiastic in their work, and 
they were heartily aided by the local committees, but the fact cannot 
be overlooked that much of the distinctively broad and national char- 
teristics of the previous congresses were lacking. Although some good 
papers were read and some very encouraging discussions were indulged 
in, the general tone of the papers and discussions related mainly to 
methods of irrigation, value and duty of water, fruit prices and cultiva- 
tion, soil, tillage and such like questions, while the broad issues involved 
in irrigation as a national question were scarcely touched on. 

The Congress of 1896 will be held in Phoenix, December i6th to 19th 
and the famous Salt River Valley settlement in "sun-kissed Arizona" 
will have an opportunity to show what can be done with brains, and 
money, and water. The programme contains the names of men of 
national reputation, and it is to be hoped that the high character of 
previous meetings of the Congress will be maintained. 

Too much time has been devoted at previous meetings to the contest 
for the honor of holding the next Congress. This question should 
always be determined by the National Committee and never by the 
Convention, as by this method much ill feeling and local jealousy, 
which has cropped out heretofore, could be avoided. A central location 
for the Congress, near the masses of the people who are to become 
the future " lords of the desert," is much more to be desired than the 
mere gratification of an ambition to advertise a city. 

The danger of localizing the movement is very great. It was started 
on broad national lines, and to live to a creditable future, it must be 
kept on the same plane. For there is yet much work to be done. 

West of the one hundredth meridian farming is only a lottery, if the 
clouds are to be depended on for moisture; irrigation takes it from the 
domain of chance into the field of certainty; there is no crop- failure in 
irrigated districts. One million square miles of arid lands still remain in 
the West, which the government classifies as desert or pasture lands. 
There is sufficient to supply sixteen million families, a population 
larger than the census of 1890 gives to the entire United States. To 
discover water for this vast empire and to develop methods of distrib- 
uting the water when found, is a work which calls for wise statesman- 
ship, and it may well claim a prominent place in the minds of the men 
who are interested in the development of the West and in the general 
welfare of our country. 

The Albuquerque Congress was also somewhat hindered in its deliber- 
ations on the national questions involved in the irrigation movement 
by the uncertainty regarding the constitutionality of the Wright law 
of California. Nearly every irrigation law in the West has been 
modeled on that act, and while its legality was being tested in the court 
of last resort, the leaders of irrigation enterprises in the West were loth 
to express themselves on their future needs. The Supreme Court of 
the United States having now declared that law constitutional it is 
quite likely that a new impetus will be given to irrigation develop- 
ment, and to the formulation of publicly approved plans for govern- 
ment aid on the lines marked out at previous meetings. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



39 



The Gardens of Ingleside. 



©[?' 



Mausard-Collier Eng Co 



HBY are not the Hanging 
Gardens of Babylon, nor yet 
the Floating Gardens of Ten- 
ochtitlan ; but it is safe to say 
that the parterres of the Eu- 
phrates and Lake Tezcuco 
in all their glory were not- 
arrayed like one of these. They 
are of a type possible only in 
this land of sunshine ; and to 
the traveler from the East or 
from Europe they are nothing 
short of a floral miracle. 

Under the brow of the mesa 
at the foot of the Sierra Madre ; 
midway between Pasadena and 
Alhambra (and but a short walk 
or drive from the Pasadena 
electric-road power-house at the 
foot of Raymond hill) are the 
Ingleside Floral Co. 's gardens — 
thirty acres of scientific and 
perfect floriculture worth going 
a long journey to see. 

While there may be no essen- 
tial connection between fighting 
gallantly for one's country in 
war time, and perfecting roses and ferns and lilies to make for beauty 
and grace in these piping times of peace — beyond the characteristic of 
doing well whatever one does — the fact remains that Capt. F. Edward 
Gray has been a success in both roles. He has won new honors at 
Ingleside. A zealous and cultured botanist, he had followed floriculture 
in his native State (Massachusetts) long before he came to California — 
and only those who know flowers as well as love them can realize what 
it must mean to the scientific florist to exchange the half-hearted New 
England skies for the lavish skies of Southern California. The marvel- 
ous results achieved at Ingleside in four years — thanks to our generous 
soil and climate — could not have been reached in the East in less than a 
decade ; and many of them could never be reached there at all. 

It is only a matter of six years since the first project of raising roses 
under glass became successful in San Francisco; and to Capt. Gray 
belongs the honor of being a pioneer in a similar undertaking in 
Southern California. 

Upon the southern verge of the blossoming acres of Ingleside are 
several big greenhouses, each twenty-five by one hundred and thirteen 
feet, covered with 8000 square feet of glass. A good deal of money has 




Photo, by Waite 



Adiantum Farleyense 



40 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 



been expended upon them, and they may, perhaps, rank as the finest 
commercial greenhouses of their kind upon the Pacific Coast. 

In Southern California, flowers grow everywhere, the year round, out 
of doors — and in a beauty that is the despair of Eastern hothouses — and 
so long as Los Angeles was a small city, this superiority was enough. 
But with the rapid growth of this young metropolis, populated with the 
intelligent and the well-to-do from every part of the civilized world, 
there has arisen a demand for still greater perfection. There has 
been development not only of numbers but of taste ; and with the in- 
creasing importance and refinements of social functions, the last ex- 
quisiteness of floral decoration has come to be sought. The Ingleside 
gardens not only meet this demand, but have done much to create it, by 
demonstrating the higher possibilities of flowers in this flower-land. 




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. 



A HOUSE OF ADIANTUM CUNEATUM. 



Photo, by Waite 



One of the Ingleside greenhouses is given over exclusively to the cul- 
tivation of the delicate, long and slender stemmed roses, chiefly the in- 
comparable " Bride," snowy as the winter head of San Antonio, and the 
tender, susceptible pink " Bridesmaid." It has been but very few years 
since Los Angeles became a city of enough weight to warrant the culti- 
vation on a commercial scale of roses so exquisitely delicate that they 
cannot be brought to perfection in the open air, even in this semi-tropic 
paradise ; but the time has evidently come. And as the demand grows, 
Ingleside will add new greenhouses, to bring these and other rare roses 
to a perfection, in stem, bud and foliage, hitherto undreamed of. 

Next to the glass home of the spotless Brides and their blushing 
maids, is a greenhouse crowded with the fragile and exquisite adiantum 
cuneatum, popularly known as *' maidenhair fern." It is a wonderful 



THE GARDENS OF INGLESIDE- 



41 



sight, such a forest-in-miniature of these most delicate and graceful of 
plants. 

Many, however, rank another adiantum (the Farleyense) as the true 
aristocrat in the plant world ; and of this species Ingleside has a number 
of superb specimens. It is a native of the Barbados, introduced into this 
country in 1865, and here cultivated with very great success. 

In another greenhouse is a great variety of the finest and rarest flower- 
ing plants, needed to supply the retail depot of the Ingleside Floral Com- 
pany in Los Angeles. 

A considerable acreage of the gardens, also, is covered with lath 
houses for the growing of similax, asparagus plumosus, and similar 
plants which require a partial shade. 




Mausard-Cullier Eng. Co. 



A HOUSE OF VARIOUS FERNS 



Photo, by Waite 



It is Captain Gray's opinion that ten years from now all the desirable 
flowers sold in Los Angeles will be grown under glass ; and he plans to 
keep up with the demand. But there is still a world of flowers grown out 
of doors ; and among them the carnation is one of his specialties. There 
was long a curious notion in Southern California that this popular favor- 
ite could not be brought to perfection except on the very coast ; but 
Ingleside has shattered this superstition. The half-score acres of 
matchless carnations at Ingleside, whose spicy breath the land-breeze 
carries sometimes across twenty-two miles of country and well out to sea, 
are a miracle of color as of fragrance. It is a fact that Ingleside carna- 
tions have come to be generally recognized as the finest grown any- 
where ; and as a little token of their standing, it may be mentioned that 



42 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

the company sold 500,000 blossoms last winter in Los Angeles alone. 
The carnation, by the way, has had its ups and downs. Prior to 1850 it 
was a prime favorite in England and America ; but in that year fell, for 
unexplained causes, into unredeemed neglect, and there remained till 
the reaction in public taste rehabilitated it. In our day the carnation — 
ranging, as its aromatic bloom does, through all shades from pure white 
to crimson — is one of the most attractive of outdoor plants, and one of 
the best-beloved. We speak, of course, of the remontant variety, and 
not of the ordinary border-pink. 

Owing to the length of our rainless season and to other influences,, 
there is a larger percentage of fertile seed grown in Southern Californiai 
than anywhere else in the world ; and at Ingleside an important branch 
of the floral industry is the raising of seeds and bulbs for the Eastern 
markets. Gratifying success was achieved last year with the bulbs of 
Lilium Harrisi, more generally known as the Bermuda lily. The 




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. to ACRES OF INGLESIDE CARNATIONS. 

blossom, a pure white emblem of peace and good will, is highly prized 
at Easter-time for church and house decoration. 

But perhaps the most noteworthy achievement of Capt. Gray's skilled 
zeal has been the production of the famous " Ingleside hybrid gladi- 
olus," to bring which up to its present standard seven years of patient 
study, experiment and care have been devoted. The result, gained by 
scientific and systematic hybridizing, is one of the great treasures to 
collectors and fanciers of the finest flowers. The bulbs of this wonderful 
gladiolus are not alone for local markets but are to be distributed 
through the centers of our Atlantic States and of Europe. Ahead of all 
competitors for certain classes of decoration, and perhaps unrivaled as a 
plant, the Ingleside gladiolus is likely to supersede even the orchid, for 
grace of habit and for its delicate coloring — which ranges all the way from 
pure white, through modest lavender, up to the richest crimsons and 
scarlets. The enormous blossoms, often double and generally round, are 



THE GARDENS OF INGLESIDE. 



43- 




■&kr'^^WSr' ''"' 



Hausard-Collier Eng. Co. a BENCH OF ADIANTUM FARLEYENSE. 



Hioto by Waite 



borne on branching flower-spikes — sometimes five or six to the plant. 

During the ensuing year a sufficient quantity of the amaryllis will 
have been grown to warrant its introduction to the market. The 
Ingleside variety bears the largest flower of this type grown in the world. 
It is trumpet-shaped, sometimes fully twelve inches in diameter, ranges 
in color from rich cream to vivid scarlet, and loses nothing in delicate 
beauty by its great size. As yet this magnificent specimen has been seen 
only by the favored few. 

Two new varieties of the Canna (known 
respectively as " Austria " and " Italia," 
or the "orchid-flowering canna") were 
introduced from Italy by Capt. Gray 
about a year ago, and have been multi- 
plied sufficiently to enter the market, 
where they have already roused the 
enthusiasm of connoisseurs. They flour- 
ish admirably here, and their blossoms 
rival many of the orchids. 

To obtain all these brilliant rCvSults — 
and many others — the generous soil of 
Ingleside has been encouraged and rein- 
forced with fertilizers, and supplemented 
with soils brought from a distance to 
suit particular plants. Kspecially it has 
had brains mixed with it, and affection- 
ate care. All this has involved labor and 
expense to a large reckoning ; but the 
results have justified them and will repay 
them. 




Eng. Co. 

CAPT. F. 



Photo, by Steckel 

EDWARD CRAY. 



45 



/ Los Angeles, 

QUEEN OF THE SOUTHWEST. 



OS ANGEIvES has always been a 
queen. She was born one, a hundred 
and six years ago, and baptized name- 
sake of Our Lady, Queen of the 
Angels. The bulk of the sonorous^ 
Spanish name is lost, and los angeles 
of today are of a new and wingless^ 
category ; but she herself has grown 
decidedly more angelic in form and 
feature. She has exchanged the 
shabby pinafores of her lean and 
neglected childhood for the full regal 
robes of a late and sudden maturity. 
And what she has lost in royal name 
she has gained in royal fact. She i& 
queen today from the Pacific to Texas, 
a thousand miles ; and from San Fran- 
cisco to the Mexican frontier, five hundred miles again. 

Half a million square miles is a reasonably roomy empire for an 
absolute monarch in these elbowing days ; and only a very wide-awake 
queen could presume to hold so much, for long, against usurpers. But 
Los Angeles is going to keep her throne. She has no rival present or 
probable in the field. Of all this enormous realm — which is as big as- 
all New England, and every other State that touches the Atlantic between 
Nova Scotia and the Gulf, with Ohio, Indiana and Illinois thrown in 
fof fair measure — Los Angeles is logically and inevitably the head, 
social and commercial. San Francisco, it is true, leans against her 





Union Eng. Co. 



COTTAGES ON FLOWER STREET. 



Photo, by Ellis. 



46 



LAND OF SUNSHINB 



the 




I fences to the north ; but 
I in this field which was 
^ once all his, he has less 
I and less to say as she 
^ has more and more. The 
old contempt and later 
jealousy of the one-time 
ragged ' ' cow- county ' ' 
princess has died away ; 
and now San Francisco 
joins her admirers — 
albeit with some con- 
fusion at the altered 
o relations. 

w If Ivos Angeles had 
2: the most atrocious cli- 
(0 mate and the ugliest 
|J face in the world, her 
^ strategic position would 
■^ nevertheless insure her 
o greatness. As it is, she 
has physical attractions 
which would guarantee 
a metropolis even if 
there were no com- 
merce ; and commercial 
advantages which would 
multiply her population 
even if she were " plain 
as mud." A city so 
doubly dowered in face 
and fortune has an in- 
evitable future ; and the 
size and importance of 
the tributary area make 
measure of that outcome almost beyond reckoning. 




Mansard-Collier Eng. Co. 



THE SAME VIEW IN 1896. 



Photo, by Waite. 




Union Eng. Co. 



A VISTA ON ADAMS STREET* 



Photo, by Ellis. 



LOS ANGELES. 



49 



The whole Southwest is of the arid lands. Therefore in its rawness 
it was unattractive to the unthinking. But those who travel and study- 
recognize that it is the climate fittest to live in and most profitable to 
work in. Under the arid skies, half the (Jiseases that harass man lose 
half their terrors ; and many of the deadliest are unknown. While the 
greenwooded, well-watered Kast (where we all went to school of the 
soil) drowns in periodic floods or shrivels with periodic drouths, this 
new, dry, bare land — where the rivers are brooks and the brooks are 
sandbanks — is the Land of the Golden Mean. Stark and brown and 
asleep as it was, it only waited the coming of its prince to waken it to 
eternal beauty. It is the country of a new art for the Saxon. Back 
yonder he farmed by luck, but here he farms by science. There he 
" made out " if the weather permitted ; here he makes his own weather. 

As the blackest alluvials of Ohio or Kansas are far less productive 
than the sands of California plus irrigation, so no city in the rich and 




L. A. Eng. Co. 



Photo, by Waite. 



BROADWAY AND SECOND. 



SPRING AND FIRST STS. 



LOS ANGELES. 



51 




Union Eng.Co. 



THE HOLLENBECK HOME FOR AGED WOMEN, 
AND PART OF HOLLENBECK PARK 



Photo, by Maude 



populous Kast has been so transformed in a decade as Los Angeles has. 
If any son of a prophet might have come a dozen years ago into the 
sleepy, unpaved, adobe-built, half-Mexican pueblo which was Los An- 
geles even so recently, and tried to deliver a forecast of the decade to 
come, he could not have kept his own face straight. If he had pre- 
dicted that in such time the 12,000 population was to be multiplied by 
nine or ten ; that the shabby one-story mud buildings of Spring and 
Main streets were to be replaced with quarter-of-a-million-dollar blocks; 



^ 



iHiniriiiiiw i ir II! II g^HNiniiNi' 





L. A. Eng. Co. 



Tif^^^SriMSON BUILDING. 



Photo, bjr Waite. 



52 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




L. A. Eng. Co. 



ADAMS STREET. 



Photo, by Fletcher. 



that for six miles square the dusty lanes and empty fields were to be 
dotted with tasteful homes ; if he had talked of $750,000 sewers, and 
$500,000 court-houses, and $200,000 city halls, and four million dollar 
street railways, and all that sort of thing — why, no one would have 
bothered even to laugh at him. For there were more entertaining 
(because more possible) idiots here then to be listened to. 

But the impossible has happened. Los Angeles has today a popula- 
tion between 100,000 and 110,000. The school census of 1896 gives 
20,679 children of school age. It has a greater number of magnificent 
buildings for its size, and of beautiful homes in proportion to the total 
list of dwellings, than any other city in the United States. Probably 
in no other city of 100,000 do so great a proportion of the people dwell 
in homes of their own. It has better street transit than any other equal 
population in the world; 
and better than exists in 
many of our greatest 
cities. Its streets are un- 
perfected yet ; but they 
compare honorably 
with those of Eastern 
towns finished for half 
a centiiry. Its facilities 
of water, lighting, 
drainage; its social, 
educational and religious advantages ; 
its stores, railroads, banks, parks and 
philanthropic institutions— all are far 
in advance of its size and age. No- 
where are schools and churches 
thicker ; nowhere is the average of 
culture and intelligence higher. It 
is the only educated large population ^ ^ ^^^ ^^ p^^^^^^ ^^ p.^^^^ 

in the United States assembled dy ,. rns jewish synagogue 

2. SIMPSON TABERNACLE, M. E. 




LOS ANGELES. 



53 



'A 




jH||R^^' ':"-' ^^^Bi^^^te^' 


0f 


mm":^ . . 


' ^ 


k^ 


JUpg.^-^ _::^::^ 


... ^Ji 


ife. ,£_2!_:~B^ 



Photo, by Putnam- 



Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. ^FfE CHILDS PLACE. 

choice. Not ten per cent, of its citizens were born in it. They are 
here because they have elected Los Angeles as the best city in America 
to live in — better even than the places where they were born and bred. 




Union Eag. Co. 



Photo, by Ellis. 



OH FICUEROA STREET. 

This collective compliment is paid at general expense ; for these people 
have given up homes respectively in every important town of the East, 
and in every civilized country of the world. And they came not in a 




IL. A. Eng. Co. 



STA7E NORMAL SCHOOL. 



Photo by Maud«. 



54 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 




Commercial Eng, Co, 



IN THE CALIFORNIA CLUB. 



^^^ 




Eng. Co. Photo, by Fletcher. 

THE BRYSON-BONEBRAKE BLOCK. 



Photo, by Stiffler. 

rabble gold-rush nor an 
Oklahoma avalanche of 
failures, but in delibe- 
rate choice of the bet- 
ter home. 

To those who have 
never left the East, it is. 
impossible to convey by 
words any comprehen- 
sion of such evolution 
as has been here. They 
cannot remotely realize 
how much more of 
energy there really is in 
man than a " conserva- 
tive " environment per- 
mits him to discover. 
Los Angeles has done 
in ten years what a town 
of her class in the East 
would be lucky to ac- 
complish in forty — and 
she is just finding her 
gait. The next decade 
will be more productive 
than the last ; for such 
a population is like a 



LOS ANGELES. 



55 



snowball — the bigger it gets, the faster it rolls. A great deep-water 
harbor (for which Congress has already made the appropriation) ; the 
additional transcontinental railroad (our third) which will follow the 
harbor ; the vast addition every year to the products of the soil as 
millions of young fruit-trees come into bearing ; the rising tide of 
wealth and intelligence and American energy that pours in steadily — 
these are some of the things which are to work new wonders in this 
land whose story reads almost like a chapter from the Arabian Nights. 
Not so near — but inevitable — is the building of the Nicaragua canal ; 
and that will be enough for the Southwest. 

Ivos Angeles is already one of the most beautiful cities in the country, 
and will probably be the most beautiful of all. It is unsurpassed in 
health fulness, wealth and good order. It is a city of lovely homes, of 
cultured, well-to-do people ; with Eastern education and Western cor- 
diality. And as for its material foundation, it is the verdict of those 
who travel observantly that it has weathered these latter years of busi- 
ness depression more comfortably and with fewer failures than any 
other city in the United States. 




L A Kng Co. 



THE WILCOX BLOCK. 



Photo, by Stiffler. 



'3 



©p 



A New Tourist Hotel in Los Angeles, 

HERE have been many spasmodic attempts to secure for Los 
Angeles a long-needed Tourist Hotel. Various movements 
have been set on foot and enterprises actually started, but until 
recently nothing of practical benefit was accomplished. 

Nearly two years ago, however, one of the substantial citizens of Ivos 
Angeles, without blowing of trumpets or any meretricious advertising, 
quietly began work on a suitable site, and now the Hotel Van Nuys is 
rapidly nearing completion at a cost of $275,000 to $300,000, to supply 
the need of Los Angeles for a first-class hotel . And the Van Nuys is a 
first-class hotel in every sense of the word. There is no building west 
of CJaicago equal to it in perfection of structure and completeness of 
appointment. 

With the most durable foundations man's knowledge and skill have 
yet designed, its frame of the finest tested steel, and two inches of solid 
cement between each floor, it is absolutely as fire-proof as anj^ building 
can be constructed. 




THE VAN NUYS. 



In its appointments everything that modern science and ingenuity have 
invented and could suggest for the luxurious comfort of its patrons has 
t)een included. 

It was the avowed purpose of Mr. Van Nuys, the builder and owner, 
as it is also of Mr. Milo M. Potter, the lessee and proprietor, that it 
should be equal in equipment to any hotel in the West. 

Every room in the Hotel Van Nuys receives the direct rays of the sun, 
and each is equipped with elegant marble wash-stand, with an abundant 
flow of hot and cold water, commodious clothes closet, electric lights, 
steam radiator and telephone communication directly with the hotel 
office. All the doors are double, [so that perfect seclusion and privacy 
are obtained. Nearly every room has a private bath-room attached, 
and these are built, mostly, close to the outer wall, and with a new and 
perfect process are absolutely ventilated. All the balls are wide and 
commodious, heated by steam, and the rooms finished in white cedar, 
which presents a chaste and handsome appearance. 

Hotel Van Nuys is located on Main and Fourth streets, between Main 
and Spring, and is therefore but half a block from Spring street, the 
main artery of Los Angeles, from which radiate all the street car lines 
of the city. Half a block to the south is the Post Office ; one 
block west, the Chamber of Commerce ; three blocks north, the 
City Hall ; across the street. Hotel Westminster ; and it is as convenient 
to all the chief places of amusement, the stores and the churches as any 
hotel in Los Angeles. 

The Hotel Van Nuys is of pressed brick, six stories high, and is fully 
equipped with one freight and two passenger elevators, of the most 
modern and approved electric patterns. 

In its furnishings, everything is commensurate with the solidity and 
permanence of the building. The mattresses were all made under Mr. 
Potter's personal supervision, of specially selected, A i quality, odorless 
hair, luxurious and complete. 

The hotel will be run on both the American and European plans, and 
special arrangements from the outset have been made for the comfort 
and convenience of lady patrons. 

Under Mr. Potter's proprietorship and personal management, it is 
safe to say that the Hotel Van Nuys will at once take rank among the 
Anest and best conducted of hotels. 





How It is Done. 



My namee Hok-i-sin, come from China. 
Me keepee washee house, way down street, 
No likee Melican man, too much machine-chine, 
Him makee China boy takee back seat. 



©[? 



His Sprinkler. 



HE increasing demands of a growing city and the practice of 
that kind of economy which is at the expense of better methods 
and results will no doubt continue to give the Chinese washer- 
man a foothold in Los Angeles. Modern machinery and enterprise 
are nevertheless making rapid inroads into the monopoly which John 
once possessed in the laundry business of the Pacific Coast. Of the seventy 
Los Angeles laundries of today, fully one-half are American. Many of the 
latter possess modern plants, and several of them fine buildings. While the 
reader therefore may be conscious that modern facilities are regularly provid- 
ing his immaculate linen, how many are intelligent concerning the process by 
which is brought to pass this 
happy result — much less have 
ever watched it done ? 

The writer, at least, will 
confess that it was something of 
an addition to his stock of infor- 
mation to learn that a shirt passes 
through nine different machines 
ere it is returned to him for future 
usefulness and ten cents. It was 
with a degree of eagerness, there- 
fore, that he recently availed him- 
self of the invitation of Mr. A. N. 
Davidson, vice-president of the 
Kmpire Steam Laundry, 149 South 
Main street, to follow said garment 
through its experiences in an up- 
to-date laundry. This undertaking 
brought us to a room where five 

clothes and placing in tills the rejuvenated ones for delivery by the twelve wagon 
kept in constant use. From this department the soiled clothes are sent to the assort 
ing room. Here the colored are separated from the white, while flannels and silk 
are collected for hand washing. They next reach the general washing room, wher 
eleven brass perforated cylinders inclosed in wooden sheaths receive the clothes, an( 
by revolving, soap, wash and rinse them. Some of these cylinders are single ; other 
are divided into compartments so that the washing of different families can be don 
separately. 

From this stage the clothes go to the wringers, which in fact are not wringers 




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. john's PLANT. Photo by Blanchard 

markers" were receiving and marking soile* 




Mansard-Collier Eng. Ce. Drawing by Brotze from Photo, by Wai 

THE WASHING ROOM OF THE EMPIRE LAUNDRY. ' 




Hashlight Photo. l)y Waite. 



THE MANGLES, EMPIRE LAUNDRY. 



Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. 



but separators, very much on the order of the separator of a creamery. Into these 
huge double- walled bowls the rinsed clothes are packed, and soon, under a revolution 
of I20O to the minute, lose nearly every vestige ot moisture. Plain goods, such as 
tablecloths and bedclothes, are then placed in the tumbler, another revolving barrel- 
like machine, in order to loosen their angled folds, which process is finished by hand 
at the shaking table. The plain goods are now received by the two mangles, the 
larger of which gives employment to eight hands, and will iron six thousand nap- 
kins an hour. 

Ascending to the second floor, we reach the department where clothes are assorted 
for light or heavy starching. Here we observe an eight-hand machine for starching 
collars and cuffs, while a separate machine starches the bosoms and wristbands of 
shirts. A small mangle is also in use. In the adjoining department twenty to 
thirty hand ironers and crimpers are constantly employed ; these include five French 
mesdames who do nothing but iron fine goods, such as bonnets, silks, etc. 

Further on, reaching from the floor to the ceiling, what appears to be a perpen- 
dicular row of panels with handles are in reality steel telescopic drawers, or the 
Company's clothes-line. Two of these steel driers, which have been recently added 
to the plant at an expense of $1500, will dry clothes within from thirty to fifty minutes, 




Union Eng. Co. 



THE FINISHING ROOM, E^JIPIRE LAUNDRY. 



Photo by Waite. 



The finishing room, with its twenty or more tidy, dextrous girls, and intricate 
machinery, next commands attention. One of its machines irons the shirt ; another 
polishes the bosom, while still another is devoted to setting the yoke. In fact 
the shirt passes through the hands of seventeen different people before it is again 
delivered to the owner. To avoid tearing turned-down collars a separate machine 
is devoted to them. 

But here is a machine in which a thousand dollars is invested in order to give 
collars and cuffs a soft finish. It is heated by steam, and is the only machine of its 
kind west of Chicago. Close to it, however, is the only machine of its kind in 
existence. This hot, swift-revolving, conical little device is the patent of Mr. F. E. 
Fay, secretary and treasurer of the firm, and is already attracting well deserved 
attention in this locality. It is known as the " no saw-edge cuff and collar ironer." 
Heretofore, despite the most careful ironing, there has been no escaping the sharp 
or " saw " edge to cuffs and collars. Generations of erstwhile chafed throats and 
wrists must rise up to call this invention blessed. 

Passing through the wrapping room, the elevator lands us once more in the mark- 
ing department, where wagons are still unloading tired out duds and receiving others 
fresh and clean enough to be donned by Aurora. f. p. 



w6QDBl/Jiy/, 





MISS 



MARIE A. 
STUDIO 



NEY 



226 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 

Oldest, Larg^est and Best. Send for Catalogue. 
G. A. Hough, N. G. Felker, 

President. Vice President. 



Water color studies of California sub- 
jects, especially the old Missions, on 
exhibition. Visitors are always welcome. 
The Wooster, Cor. Green St. and Fair 
Oaks Ave., Pasadena. 



University of Southern California 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



Includes the following ^chool-i : 

College of Liberal Arts, College of Commerce. School of Elocution, 

College of Theology, School of Music, Normal Department, 

College of Medicine, School of Art, Preparatory Academy ; 

ALSO 

CHAFFEY PREPARATORY SCHOOL, ONTARIO, CAL. 

This is the only University in Southern California. It has a strong Faculty of Specialists, 

Good Buildings and large Campus, Superior Laboratories, Fine Museum, 

Large Library, Athletic Track, Gymnasium, Baths, Tennis Court, 

and over 500 Students in all Departments. 
It gives Strong, Broad College Courses, High-Grade Scholarship, Elevated Moral Influences. 
Students can enter at any time. Low Tuition Rates. Second Semester begins January 25th. 



For particulars and catalogues address Pres. GKO, 



W. WHITE, A.M., D. D., 
University \*. O., Lios Angeles, Cal. 




THE 



LOS 
ANGELES 



Business College, 212 W. Third Streets 
Los Angeles, Cal., has a full corps of 
competent teachers, large, new and 
inviting rooms, and offers decidedly 
superior advantages to those wha 
wish to obtain a thorough 

BUSINESS 

Education. Commercial Shorthand 
and Typewriting, Telegraphy and 
Assaying courses of study, all in- 
tensely practical. 

Profusely illustrated catalogue giv- 
ing luU information mailed free. It 
will pay YOU to send for it, and to 
make arrangements to enter this 
modern and progressive 

COLLEGE 



Please mention that you " saw it m the Land of soNStfiNK." 




MARLBOROUGH SCHOOL 

For Girls and Young Ladies 
865 W. 23d St., Los Angeles. 

Handsome home with family discipline and refined 
family life, for twenty girls. New annex this year, 
containing assembly room, class rooms, studio, 
gymnasium, etc. Preparatory to be opened this 
year. Girls graduated in Latin and English 
courses, and prepared for any college to which 
women are admitted. Extended course in English 
Language and Literature, and special opportu- 
nities for work in Art, History, etc. During the 
summer Mrs. Caswell travels in Europe with 
classes. 



Pomona College. 



CHAFFEY 



AT ONTARIO 

( The Model Colonv), 



CAL. 

Boarding 



An KNDOWED Preparatory and 

School. 
15 PROFESSORS AND TEACHKRS: — 

(Johns Hopkins ; Oxford, Eng. ; Wesleyan, 
Conn.: Toronto, etc. 

INDIVIDUAL MKTHOD: The bright 
are not retarded, the slow not crowded. 
Graduate not "in four years." but when 
necessary credits are gained— be it earlier 
or later. 

CHAFFEY GRADUATES SUCCEED: 
5 have been Editors of their respective 
University publications ; t, Business Man- 
agers : a number have taken first prizes 
in rhetoricals ; i, a member Cal. State 
Univ. Faculty ; i, a Fellow in Chicago 
Univ.; 2 Asst. Prin. High Schools ; 2 Edit- 
ors and publishers weekly papers ; etc. 

HEALTH: The " College Home "is peculiar 
because of the motherly care of the ma- 
tron, the abundance of well cooked and 
well served food, and other conditions that 
make the new student healthy and hearty. 

TENTH YEAR begins Sept. 17, 1896. 
Address Dean, William T. Randall, A. M. 



PRIVATE SCHOOL for 

AND BACKWARD UnlLUnLli 

A Private School whose system of individual care 
and education is intended for children who, 
through ill health or mental deficiency, are de- 
prived of the ordinary methods of education. 
Highest references from medical authorities. 
For particulars apply to Miss Allen at the school. 
MISS ALLEN, 

3101 Norwood St., cor. 2l8t. 



GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 

1918-1939-1924 South Grand Avenue 

For resident and day pupils. An attractive home, 
and thorough .school. 

MISS PARSONS AND MISS DENNEN, 

PRINCIPALS 



Pasadena. 



MISS OPJTOJSI'S 
Classical School for Girls. 

A Boarding and Day School. 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges. 



Los Angeles Academy 

A Boarding School for Boys 

Ideal location in country, near the foothills 
Forty boys, eight teachers. Not a larg-e school, 
but a ^ood one. Military discipline. $250.00 a 
year. No extras. Send for catalogue. 

C. A. WHKAT, Principal, 

P.O.Box 193. Los Angeles, Cal. 



FROBEL INSTITUTE 



(CASA DE ROSAs) 



COEST ADRmS ST., COR. HOOVER ST. 
LiOS flNGEUES 

All grades taught, from Kindergarten to College 
Training School for Kindergartners a specialty. 

PROF. AND MME. LOUIS GLAVERIE. 

Circular sent on application. 



CLAREMONT 
CAL. 



POMONA COLLEGE 

Courses leading to degrees of B.A., B.S., 
and B.L. Its degrees recognized by Uni- 
versity of California and other Graduate 
Schools. Also preparatory School, fitting 
for all Colleges, and a School of Music^ of 
high grade. 

Address, C. G. BALDWIN, Pres. 
JOHN C. FILLMORE, 

Director of School of Music. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 



MISS MARSH'S SCHOOL FOR GIRLS 

1340 — 134:2 South Hope Street 
INCORPORATED MAY, 1889. 

In addition to the advantages of the California climate, this school offers to stu 
dents sunny, well-warmed school- rooms and bed-rooms, and the watchful care of a 
refined home. An able corps of teachers is employed, each one a specialist in his or 
her individual line. Art, music and the languages are included with Classical and 
English Courses accredited with Colleges of high standing, local and Eastern. Much 
attention is paid to physical culture, making the health of the pupil and all attainable 
physical perfection a prime object. 

The school is open in all departments, a kindergarten and primary class are carried 
on under thoroughly trained and accomplished teachers ; and domestic science is 
remembered in sewing and cooking classes. 




It is the aim of the school to make the education of each pupil, according to the 
etymology of the word, a leading-out of her individual powers and capabilities in 
their three-fold lines, physical, mental and moral ; and in few other locations do 
climatic conditions so aid in allowing all young girls, whether delicate or strong, to 
acquire a broad and at the same time a polished education. 

The Alumnae of the school number the daughters of some of the most influential 
of our citizens, as well as students from a distance, and reference is given by permis- 
sion to Major G. H. Bonebrake, Judge J. A. Anderson, and Dr. H. H. Maynard, 
former patrons of the school. 



Please mention that you '* saw it in the Land of Sunshinb. 



Phillips' * - * 
Sanitary 6rate 

yoor House snouid ue HeQiiiiiuiiy Healed 

This is accomplished only when you have 
complete ventilation and even heat through- 
out the house, including the halls. The 
Phillips' Sanitary Air "Heater and 
Grate eflfect these desirable results. By 
using this invention in your homes you get 
the cheer and comfort of the open [fireplace 
and perfect heat in all parts of the house in 
addition to complete ventilation, something 
wrhich no other heating apparatus can ac- 
complish. One fireplace heats from four to 
six rooms. All homes in this climate need 
this invention. 

Architects and Physicians 
Recommend its Use 

Read testimonial below from Architect 
Haley: 

A. h. Haley, Architect, Mgr. Guarantee 
Building Co., No. 207 South Broadway, this 
city, writes, "I take pleasure in testifying to 
the satisfactory manner in which your grates 
fulfill their duties in the houses lately de- 
signed and built by me for the Wilshire Co. 
They throw out enormous heat from a small 
amount of fuel, and thoroughly ventilate the 
building. I fully recommend them to the 
public." 

The apparatus consists of a square steel box placed in the chimney above the 
mantel and contains four tubes, around which a continual current of fresh air, 
supplied from the outside, circulates and acquires heat before it is distributed 
throughout the house by means of registers. 

The heat from the fireplace can be regulated at will by means of the sliding 
doors shown in accompanying cut. Figure 5. The consumption of fuel is regulated 
by the lower drafts, thereby making it possible to continue the heating throughout 
the night without replenishing the fire. 

Write for new illustrated catalogue, giving full information and letters of 
endorsement. Address, PHILLIPS SANITARY GKATE CO., 114 N. 
Spring- Street, Los Angreles, Cal. 

THOMSON & BOYLE 

310 TO 314 REQUENA STREET, LOS ANGELES, GAL. 

MANUFACTURERS 



( jRON&STCELI « 






For Irrigation, WaterlWorks, and Mining purposes. Made of best Sheet Steel, and in most thorougk 
manner. Also manufacturers Water Tanks, Oil Tanks, Steam Boilers, Smoke Stacks, Ore Cars, Ore 
Buckets and all kinds of Sheet Metal Work. 

MS" Estimates Cheerfully Given. f^H 




Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb.' 



PUBLISHERS' Department. 



The l^aixd of ^ai\6bii\e 



THE MAGAZINE OF CALIFORNIA 
AND THE SOUTHWEST 



|i.oo A Year. io Cents a Copy. 

Foreign Rates $1.50 a Year. 



Published monthly by 

Tfie Land of 6un6fiine PubfcfiinQ Co. 

INCORPORATED 

501-603 Stimson Building, los angeles, cal, 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 
W. C. Patterson .... President 
Chas. F. Lummis, V.-Prest. & Managing Editor 
F. A. Pattee - Secretary and Business Mgr. 
H. J. Fleishman - . - . Treasurer 
Chas. Cassat Davis - - - - Attorney 



l^ntered at the I^os Angeles Postofl&ce as second- 
class matter. 



Address advertising, remittances, and other 
business, to F. A. Pattee, Business Manager. 

All MSS. should be addressed to the Editor. 
No MSS. preserved unless accompanied by re- 
turn postage. 



oldest and largest bank in southern 
california. 

Farmers and Merchants Bank 

OF LOS ANGELKS, CAL. 

Capital (paid up) - - $500,000.00 
Surplus and Reserve - - 875,000.00 



Total - - $1,375,000.00 

officers : 

I. W. Hellman President 

H. W. Hellman Vice-President 

Henry J. Fleishman Cashier 

G. A. J. Heimann Assistant Cashier 

directors : 
W. H. Perry, C. E. Thom, J. F. Francis, 
O. W. Childs, I. W Hellman, Jr., T. 1,. Duque. 
A. Glassell, H. W. Hellman, I. W. Hellman. 
Special Collection Department Correspond- 
ence Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 




^&a/nJ^ 



OF LOS ANGEI.es. 

Capital Stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 230,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest., W.G. Kerckhoff, V.Pres. 

Frank A. Gibson, Cashier. 

G. B. Shaffer, Assistant Cashier. 

directors: 

J. M. Elliott, F. Q. Story, J. D. Hooker, 

J. D. Bicknell. H. Jevne, W. C. Patterso» 

W. G. Kerckhoff. 

No public funds or other preferred deposits 

received bv this bank. 



ENTLER &OBEAR 

FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE 



$30,000 
PAYING 12 Per CT. 

In the city of Los Angeles, on Main street, 3-story Brick Block, 
over 50 feet frontage ; will take |io,coo in first-class Eastertt 
property, V>, cash, y^ mortgage, long time ; pays 12 per cent, interest on the price— $30,000. 

City and Country property to exchange for Eastern. We can loan your money at good rates. 
Fftp QAI P 2o-acre, high class, elegant Fruit Ranch, between Pasadena and Altadena, close 
run wMLL to Mt. IrOwe Electric Road. Bare land with fine water right ; cost $20,000. 
all in bearing— choice fruits. Fine elevation. A great sacrifice at the price— $15,000. 
1»9 SOUTH BROADWAY, I.OS ANGELES, CAI.. 



CALIFORNIA 

PROPERXr 



It is. 




H. Sarafian & Co. 

WHOLESALERS 

61 1 BROADWftY, NEW YORK 

ESTABLISHED 1874 

Owing to the illness of Mr. H. Sarafian, he ha» 
been ordered by his physicians to leave New 
York and settle in Los Angeles, therefore he 
has decided to establish a Branch. Jtiouse j» 
this city. 

In order to become acquainted with the citi- 
zens, he offers, at 

Unmcmd 
Jluctlon $ale.?<>^^ 

His magnificent, rare, antique and complete 
collection. 

The sale will take place in the early part of 
December. 

Please reserve your purchases until you have 
seen this immense stock. 



Oriental Hugs, €t€. 



THE DIREGTORY FOR j/^Q^ READY MflRGfl IStH 

MAXWELL'S LOS ANGELES CITY DIRECTORY 

AND GAZETTEER OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

Five Complete Directories In One Volume. 



An Alphabetical Directory of the citizens of the City of Los Angeles, a Classified Business 
Directory of the City of IvOS Angeles, a Business Directory of every town in the seven counties of 
Southern California, a Street Directory and a Householder's Directory. 

A NEW FEATURE 

In the Directory of Householders, which will be included in our issue for 1897, the streets 
will be alphabetically arranged and the number of each building on the street given in numerical 
order, and opposite the number will be placed the name of the occupant ; in tenement houses and 
business buildings the name of each occupant will be given. 







. ictprtS.Ci'httniJian£\ 















%A^D GAZETTEjE/^ o/^^9ur/y£A?A/ CAL/FO/^/V/A, 






- NCPRPORATEO 

^ 1894- 

*55.000 










THE STANDARD REFKRENCE BOOK OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

It will be our aim in future editions to make our directory the Standard Reference Book not 
only of Los Angeles City and County, but of all the Seven Southern Counties of California. 

We will, as heretofore, publirh a complete Business Directory and Gazetteer of over 320 towns, 
villages and postoflfice stations in Southern California, giving their location, description, population, 
resources, distance from Los Angeles, etc., etc 

LEADING RESORTS OF CALIFORNIA 

We will in this department, give complete information concerning all Leading Resorts in 
California. Descriptions to be profusely illustrated. 

A NEW MAP 

We have decided to supply to the patrons of our directory for 1897, an entirely new and complete 
map of the City of Los Angeles and seven Southern Counties of Calitornia. The City Map will 
embrace the recently annexed districts, and will also include new names for some 200 streets and 
avenues which are .shortly to be changed to avoid existing duplications; it will be indexed in an 
entirely new and novel manner, whereby .streets and other points can be readily located; it will 
show all street car aud' railway lines, school houses and all other public buildings, city wards, parks, 
jK) nts of inter««t and distances from the center of the city by half-mile circles. 

The Map of Southern California will be indexed so that everv city, town and postofBce can be 
easi'y located. The two maps will be 36x42 inches in size, and will be lithographed in four colors. 

Sub.scription price of Map $[.00, except to subscribers to Maxwell's Los Angeles City Directory 
and Gazetteer of Southern California for 1897, to whom it will be furnished free. 

PRICE, OF DIRECTORY S5.00 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land op Sonshine." 



ARE YOU INTERESTED? 

CALIFORNIA 




BARGAINS IN CITY AND 
RANCH PROPERTY 

No Cyclonps. No Blizzards. No Cold Winters. No Hot Sum- 
mers. The Land of Sunshine, Fruit and Flowers the whole round year. 

J. Ij. Patterson, Real Estate, Ivoans, Investments and General Business Agent, 
419 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. Estates managed, non-residents' property cared 
for, taxes paid, rents collected, etc. I make a specialty of loaning money. Corres- 
pondence solicited from parties having money to loan; large or small sums on real 
estate mortgages. I have for sale large list of city and country property. Also 
exchanges: California for Eastern and Eastern for California, city for country and 
country for city; also nice list of properties in Pasadena, Riverside, Pomona, 
Ontario, San Bernardino, Perris, Santa Monica, Redondo and Long Beach, and have 
local ag"«iits there and in F^astern cities. All inquiries addressed to me 
will receive prompt and careful attention. I refer, with pleasure, to the following 
well know^n parties and firms who have kindly g^iven me permission to 
vise their names for reference: 

Henry W. King & Co., Wholesale Clothiers, R. R. Young, ex County Recorder, Hudson, Vl^is. 

Chicago, 111. W. F. Perry, M. D., Perris, Cal 

Browning, King & Co , Manufacturers and Job- Gilbert Woodruff, Pres. Kockford National Bank, 

bers of Clothing, New York. Boston. Philadel- Rock ford. 111. 

phta, St. L,ouis, Cincinnati, Milwaukee St. Geo. E. King and Geo. L. Woodruff, Vice Pres. 

Paul Minneapolis, Omaha, Kansas City and and Cashier Second Nat'l Bank, Rockford, 111. 

Lincoln, Nebraska Peoples Bank, Rockford, 111. 

W. B. Ferguson. N. W. Fire Ins. Co., Rock Lsland. Hon. James Lamont, Fditor 'Lever, ' Chicago 

D. G. Mitchell, County Treasuter, Riverside, Cal. and "Monitor." Rockfoid, 111. 

P. S. Martin, Fruit Grower, P< mona, Cal. Kx-Gov Merrill of Iowa, Los Angeles, Cal. 

De Witt C. Miller Banker, Newell, Iowa. John Beckwith ex-Postmaster Des Moines, Iowa, 

D. fi. Ferguson. Capitalist, Denver. Colo. Los Angeles, Cal. 

Geo. Reeves, Retired, Pomona, Cal. State Loan and Trust Co , Los Angeles, Cal. 

Tel. Main 642 J. L. PATTERSON, 419 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 



KILROY'S NEW PALESTINE AGENCY, 

SALT RIVER VALLEY, PHCEXIX, ARIZONA, 

Well known throughout the United States and Canada, sends greetings to the thousands of readers of 
the Land of Sunshine in the East, West and Northlands now watching phenomenal strides of Phoenix. 
" I'^hen Truth starts on her onward match Of firoffiess. neither the Gad of Justice or Merer ever stops or 
stavs her." Never have " coming events cast their shadows before" with the .same marked outline 
coupled with intrinsic merit as in this infant city of Phoenix — with rich gold mines producing within 
three short hours' drive by carriage; with one and one-half million acres of the finest land in the known 
world surrounding her; with oranges, lemons, peaches, apricots and grapes, ripe and in Chicago mar- 
ketSifrom four Jto six weeks in advapcc, of California ; with immense quarries of granite and limestone, 
with inexhaustible supplies of coal and coke (over 40 ooo square miles); and lumber (ten thousand 
millions of square feet) within a radius of 300 milts, every foot of the distance a down grade (railway) 
to her doors, not to speak of her assured water power (the by-product of her canals), gifts that 
Providence has given to no other known city in existence — and yet history will repeat it.self here. 
Many will be the lamentations in less than a year to come about the " golden opportunity lust." We 
offer 3 00 city lots^ 50 x 137 leet ; five minutes' walk from the bus'ness centre of phcenix ; no 
street car required ; first-class streets and avenues (80 to 100 feet wide) ; every lot elegantly situated 
and perfect ; no ravines or broken lands ; each lot covered with a luxuriant growth of alfalfa 
(meadow). As in 'Frisco and Los Angeles in early times, when to buy and hold a lot meant a fortune, 
so in Phoenix today. Prices, for a short time, ranging from $70, $80, $90, $100. $150 to $200 each, according 
to avenue and location. This i« an "Angel's Visit." IVill you avail yourself of tt ? If so, send 
money to the Phoenix National Bank, with $2.50 extra for registering deed. The Bank will return 
warranty deed and abstract of title. 

FOR ELEGANT SUBURBAN HOMES 

We also offer 54 blocks, 12 lots 50 x 130 feet in each, adjoining the above lots, unequaled in Phoenix or 
the Salt River Valley for location and soil —each a perfect marvel of beauty. Prices range from $700 
t-o J2400 each. All this property has Sanitary Sewerage {the onlv tract in Phoenix thus supplied ), and 
perfect natural drainage. Free water-right goes with each deed All titles are United States Patents, 
N. B.— On behalf of Phoenix and her twelve thousand citizens, it becomes oiir duty to correct some 
untruthful reports that have been spread by unknown and evidently irresponsible persons to the effect 
that portions of the lands in our city are liable to overflow. We here make the statement, on the very 
best authority, that the Salt River has never, within the memory of man, overflowed its banks or 
backed up its waters. Its banks are channel banks, from fifteen feet high and upward. 

KILROY'S NEW PALESTINE AGENCY 

Reference Phoenix National Bank. ROOM 313 FLEMING BLOCK. 



Please mention that you *' saw it in the Land of Sunshine *' 



Fishers Music House 



427 SOUTH BROADWAY 



LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




INTERIOR OF A PASADKNA HOME FURNISHED WITH ONE OF THE 

WO RLD RENOWNED SOHMER RlANOS 



KROM KI«HER'55 



-SOLE AGENCY 



THIS PUBLICATION IS PRINTED BY US 



I I I I I 





PAPER RULING 
ART BINDING 
BLANK B00t\6 
EMBOSSING 



C0MNTWITHgU5INE66 

PRINCIPLES 



AND YOU HAUE 



Success 



I I I I I t 



WE UNDERSTAND THE 

##«i# Combination 



LET US 



fILL YOUR PRESCRIPTIONS 




KINfeLEY-BARNES & NEUNER CO, 



TELEPHONE 117 



ART PRINTERS 

AND 

BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURERS 
123 SOUTH BROADWAY 

LOS ANGELES, 
GAL. 



HaWLEY, KING & CO,, Broadway and Fifth St. 

^.«„...,.™. LOS ANGELES 

VICTOR 
«ND KEATING 
BICYCLES 



CARRIAGES 
BUGGIES 
TRAPS 



Bicycle Sundries 



AND 

Novelties in Vehicles 



E 
V 
E 
R 
Y 
T 
H 
i 

N 
G 

O 
N 

W 
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E 
E 
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PQiOl 



Fofin 

impieinl; 

Whoie- 



164-168 
L08 



The Broadway Carriage Repository. 



This issue of the Land of Sun- 
shine reaches the 

12,000 MARK 

That this circulation no more 
than meets requirements, will be 
recognized from the fact that the 
smallest edition during the past 
twelve months has been 8,000. 

THE SECRET 

Is that the Land of Sunshine is 
unlike anything else, therefore 
nothing can take the place of it. 

It is characteristic of its field — 
therefore is intensely interesting 
to those interested in California 
and the Southwest. It cares to be 
good rather than big — readable 
rather than full of paper. 

" The best measure of estimating 
the value of an advertising medium 
is the publication itself" — there- 
fore give the L,and of Sunshine 
a fair examination and see whether 
it appeals to you. If it does, it 
will also appeal to others of use to 
you. 




«iga 



A. E)ng. Co., 2053^ S. Main St. 

Artistic Plate making for all Illustrative purposes. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sdnshinb.* 



A BEAUTIFUL HOME 




Wishing to live on my ranch, I will sell my city home. In the southw^est — the prettiest and most 
growing part of I^os Angeles. Best electric line in city passes the door ; another line half a square away. 

loo feet front. Charming modern story-and-a-half cottage, five large rooms downstairs, three 
above. Bath, abundant closets, all modern conveniences. Grape arbor, model henyards and pigeon- 
houses, cellar. Better water supply than center of town. Piped for gas, and hot and cold water. 35 
varieties of fruit on the place. No end of raspberries, blackberries, peaches and figs. Rest of trees 
will all be in bearing in 1897. Rarest and best varieties plums, apricots, peaches, oranges, lemons, 
limes, loquats, pomegranates, grapes, pears, cherries, chirimoyas (custard-apples) , guavas, nectarines, 
prunes, walnuts, olives, etc., etc. Magnificent rosebushes in variety. Fine lawn, flowers and shade 
trees. Splendidly fenced. Insured for two years. More closet-room than in any other house of its size. 

One of the prettiest and most desirable homes in the Land of Sunshine, fruits and flowers. 

For particulars, call on or address CHAS. F. LUMHIS, 501 Stimson Building, or 15 
Forrester Ave. Traction or University car. 



SOLE AGENTS 
FOR 
THE 
CELEBRATED 



ijH^^^^^^I^^';'' ^ 


j 




(^Ijicl^er'inf 



PIANOS 



PIANOS SOLD 

ON EASY INSTALLMENTS 
AND RENTED 



msm I mim pimio t, 



249 S. BROADWAY, BYRNE BLDG. 



OUR NEW WAREROOMS , 



Please mention that you 'saw it in the Land of SonshIne." 



IF YOU LISTEN TO INTERESTED PROMOTERS 

You May Buy Almost Anywhere. 

BUT IF YOU LOOK FOR YOURSELF, 
YOU WILL LOCATE 




IN THE ARROYO SECO SECTION. 

Nature has made it, as your eyes will tell you, the most beautiful part of Los 
Angeles. Held back because it lacked rapid transit and because speculators were 
interested elsewhere, it has now suddenly come to the front. It has now the best 
of transit, and is developing handsomely. 

No dead plain, but a succession of the most exquisite rounding hills and charm- 
ing little valleys in Southern California. You can have your villa in the ** Happy 
Hollow," under magnificent sycamores ; on the fertile first slope, or like an eyrie 
high upon the hills. Whichever you choose, you can have such superb outlooks as 
can hardly be matched elsewhere. Views of wooded valleys, of the giant Sierra 
Madre, of the city, and far off to sea — you can pick between them or between com- 
binations of them. 

The lowest points in this section are several hundred feet higher than the 
thickest of the city ; therefore cooler in summer and warmer in winter, more health- 
ful and more pleasant. No mud. Less fog than in the south of the city. It is on 
both sides of Pasadena Ave., and the electric line ; which is destined to be built up 
its whole length with the finest residences. In a few years it will be the cream of 
Los Angeles. 

If you have money to burn, go and pay five prices for a lot where you can see 
your sidewalk and your neighbor. If you haven't, come and buy a better lot 
whence you can get a perfect view, for a fifth of the money. You will be astonished, 
if you look at prices elsewhere and then here. A man who has two or three lots 
wants fancy prices ; one with hundreds of lots can sell cheap. But the price is the 
only cheap thing about these lots. In a few years these lands will bring higher 
prices than lands in the southwest. Now is the time to buy at first hands. 

I. H. PRESTON, 

Room I, 217 New High Street, Los Angeles. 

Please mention that yon "saw it in the Land op Son^UTB." 



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Practical Chimney Sweeper 

JOHN BAPTIST FROVA, 

826 MACY ST., 
Work Guaranteed. Los Angeles, C*l 

Regular Prices : One Story High, 50 cts ; Every Additional 
Story, 50 cts more ; One Flue hard stopped with brick ana 
plastering, |1 00 per hour. Stove, 25 cts ; Range, 50 cts 

Work must be paid for when done. 







1 

^TkEET 



Photogfraphy 
Simplified. • 

Picture 
taking- with 
the Improved 
Bulls- Eye 
camera is the 
refinement of 
photographic 
luxury. It 
makes pho- 
tographyeasy 
for the novice 
—delightful 
for e ve r y- 
body. -. - - 

LOADS IN 

DAYLIGHT with our light-proof film cart> 
ridges. Splendid achromatic lens, improved rotary 
shutter, set of three stops. Handsome finish. 

Price, Improved No. 2 Balls-Eye, for pictures 

8i4x»i^ inches, . - . . $8.00 

Li^lit.pronrFilm Carlridfirp, 12 expos„pps, 35^x35^, .60 

Complete Developing and Printing: Oii(fl(, • 1.60 

EASTMAN KODAK CO. 

Booklet Free. Rochestcft N* Y. 




Hotel Burke, prescott. a 



rizona 



*• ^Sf- ^fc- ■*> ^ 4?- <fc- 

AMERICAN PLAN 

The only Hotel with all 
Modern Improvements. 

Cuisine Unexcelled 

and special attention given 

to the Dining Room 

Service. 

^ ^ -4^ <^ -a^ <b- ^ 



Fine Sample Rooms for Commercial Travelers 




Burke 3c -Hickey, 



'Bus meets all Trains 



PROPRIKTORS. 



^inn AN APRF ^° acres fine, sandy loam, all in 
llliUU Mil MUliL choice fruit trees; 30 miles from 
Los Angeles, 6 miles from Ontario, ^ mile from S. Cucamonga 
S. P. Ry. station. Adjoining acreage can be purchased. 

For further information apply to owner, O. M. DAVIS, 
123 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, CaL 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



E BEST Clie^^v^ing Gum 



IS THI 



THE CUDAHY ^ 

PHARMACEUTICAL CO., LOS ANGELES. CAL. 




Tempting prices without quality are 



frauds y 

For reliable 
quality and good 
values in Groceries and 




GO TO 



If You cannot Call and make Your 
Selections, 
Send for Our Price List 



H. JEVNE 

208=210 S. SPRING STREET 



qjin 



njTnjTJxriJTJTruTriJTrijiruarijijTjxnjTJT^ riJiJTJiJTJTJiJ^uxnxuTJxriJTJnrLn 



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RETIRING 

From the 

FURNITURE 

BUSINESS 

furniture 

' ana Carpets *•« 



/r^ONTEM PLATING to keep an exclusive 
vS/ Carpet and Drapery House I have de- 
cided to close out my entire stock of 
Furniture at cost, and during this sale I will 
offer Carpets and other floor coverings at a 
little above cost; this will enable you to 
furnish your house at the very lowest prices. 
This furniture comprises all the leading 
makes and different woods, such as Solid 
Mahogany. Curly Birch, Bird's-eye Maple and 
Oak, manufactured by the leading manu- 
facturers at Grand Rapids, Chicago, Cincin- 
nati, New York and Boston. All first-class 
and offered to you at cost. 

W. S. ALLEN 



332 and 334 Sou-tti Spring Street 

LOS ANGELES. CaL. 

IJrnJTJTJTJXriJ UTJ^JTJTJTJXrU IJTJTJT.^^ 






ia 



ENTENMANN & BORST, Manufacturing 

Jewelers and Watchmakers 

Diamond Setters and Engravers. 

Medals, Society Badges and School Pins in gold 
and silver. Fine "Watch Repairing a Specialty. 
Any description of gold and silver jewelry made 
to order and repaired. Old gold and silver bought. 
217^ South Spring: Street 
Rooms 3, 4 and 7. Up Stairs, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



A^TUUA PMRPn by extracting the plant from 
AOinmH UUnCU the stomach, by Dr. Beechler, 
the world's asthma specialist, who has just ar- 
rived, and cures asthma by taking a yeast plant 
from the stomach, which is the cause. He has 
taken plants weighing nine pounds and measur- 
ing one gallon. The only positive cure is to re- 
move the plant. Consult the Doctor free at 3315^ 
S. Spring St., room 11. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land op Sonshinb.* 



$15 TO $100 PER ACRE. 

50.000 ACRES OP LAND POR SALE 

SUBDIVIDED TO SUIT 

IN SAN LUIS OBISPO AND SANTA BARBARA 
COUNTIES 

Suitable for Dairying, Fruit and Vegetable Growing. Climate perfect, Soil fertile, Water abundant 
$15.00 to I50.00 per acre. Terms to suit. Don't buy until you see 
this part of California. 
For further Information apply to : 

PACIFIC LAND COMPANY (Owners) 

SAN LUIS OBISPO, CALIFORNIA 



WHEN YOU VISIT 

SAN DIEGO 

REMEMBER 






RATES 

S2.50 PER DAY 

AND UP 



American Plan Only. Centrally 
located. Elevators and fire escapes. Baths, 
hot and cold water in all suites. Modern con- 
veniences. Fine large sample rooms for com- 
mercial travelers. 



The StcWapt 



m 



_ _ San Bernardino, Cal, 

STRICTLY KIRST-CLASS 

S2 TO $3 PER DAY. ASK ANY COMMERCIAL MAN 



Indian Baskets 


Navajo Blankets 

Pueblo Pottery 

Mail Orders 

Solicited. 
Catalogue Sent 

Free. 




OPKLS 



Mexican Drawn Work and Hand- Carved L-eather 
Goods. Indian Photos (blue prints) 10 c. each. 

W. D. Campbell's Curio Store, 

3S5 South Spring St., L.os Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 




California Wine Merchant 



DIRECT SHIPiWENT EAST 



I CARRY ONLY THE VERY FINEST SELECTIONS 
OF "W^INES FROM EVERY PART OF THE STATE. 
ALL AVINES PURCHASED FROM ME ARE 

GUARANTEED ABSOLUTELY PURE 

AND JUST V^HAT THEY ARE REPRESENTED TO 
BE. FOR REFERENCE, INQUIRE OF ANY BANK- 
ING HOUSE IN THE CITY OF LOS ANGELES. 



SPECIAL OFFER 



PURITY 



J^^^^ /2p r/3/^orthMdi n^T. 

Z Cases fVssor^ed ca^WXoKXwa \N\xNes 

o\ v^ouY ovjn se\ecV\ox\-\i\ion \\\e. \^a^me't\\ 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb. 




FINE SUN EXPOSURE 
CENTRAL LOCATION 

FIRST-CLASS 

SERVICE 

LOW RATES 



^^f* 



MAKE THE 



WoRTOrl 

f40USB 

The best house to put up at in 

SAN DIEGO 

W. E. HADLEY, Proprietor 



$10 



PER ACRE 

FOR FINE LANDS 

IN THE 



$10 ' CORONADO OSTRICH FARM 



FANITA RANCHO 

EL CAJON VALLEY 



1669 Acres for 
1420 Acres for 



$18,000 
$12,000 



Smaller Tracts for $30 to $80 per acre. 

WILL GROW ANYTHING. 

This property is twelve miles from the city of 
San Diego and two miles from Cuyamaca Rail- 
road. It belongs to the estate of Hosmer P. 
McKoon, and will be sold at the appraised value. 

For further information address 

FANNIE M. McKOON. Executrix, 

Santee, San Diego Co., Cal. 



Only Two Blocks NoTth of the Famous 
HOTET. DEL. COKONADO. 




25 Grown Birds. Incubators Running. 
Hatching Continually. 



Chicks 



Feathers and Shells for Sale. 
W. H. BENTLY. Proprietor. 



There's Nothing in Los Angeles 

CORONADO WATER SOUR 



So Cool and 
Refreshing as a 



MR. WHEDON, at 204 S. Spring Street 

CORONADO WATER 



Distributes 



in bottles or siphons. 

Phone 1204 



RICH ESCONDIDO LANDS 



RICH 

FERTILE 

RED SOIL 



Kspeciallv adapted to growing of Citrus and 

otherFruits. ^^^^ ^gg ^^ ^gg p^^ ^^^^ 

Abundant and Cheap Water ; Cheap Fuel ; Good Markets. 6000 acres in 5, 
10 and 20 acre tracts. For sale on easy terms by 

THE ESCONDIDO LAND AND TOWN CO. 

OKPICES 



liOS ANGELKS, CAT.. 

305 W. Second St. 
H. W. Cottle & Son, M'grs. 



ESCONDIDO, CAl.. 
D. P. HAI.E, Gen'l M'gr. | 



SAX DIEGO, CAI.. 

1330 E. Street. 
C. Q' Stanton, M'gr. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the I,and of Sunshinb. 



GRAVING 

cor 




lL54n6ELE6(AL. 



GLASS 



Book Binders, 

Blank Book Manufacturers 
& LONG 2^3-215 New High St. 



Los Angeles. 



Tel. Main 535 




1 yOll INIER[SI[D IN ilO? 



Its mines? 

Its railroads? 

Its coflfee lands ? 

Its commerce with the United 

States ? 
Its history, and its progress along 

every line ? 



Then read MODERN MEXICO, the only illus- 
trated English monthly devoted to the Southern 
Republic. Ten cents will bring you a sample 
copy, and $1 will pay for a year's subscription. 

Modern Mexico's circulation is 10,000 copies 
a month now, and is increasing rapidly. 

Modem Mexico PoDiisiii coiony, 

106-108 E. EIGTH AVE. 

TOPEKA, KAN. 



GOING TO MEXICO? 



THEN STOP AT 



HOTEL TRENTON 



The newest and best hotel in the " Paris of Amer- 
ica." American Plan, Reasonable Rates. The 
Newest and Pleasantest Rooms. 
In the Most Healthful Part of the City of Mexico. 
CALLE DONATO GUERRA, No. 1222 



DO YOU KNOW OF ANY OTHER WAY 

To get such a bound volume on California? Over 600 pages, over 600 illustrations ! Over 100 diflferent 
localities pictured. Over 200 articles, dwelling upon the different phases of Southern California, and 
all for S83. 75. Don't you think, yourself, such a book is worth having ? 

THINK OF IT ! Twelve numbers of the Land of Sunshine furnished, bound and delivered 
for $2.75. 

There are many magazines of many merits — but there is only one magazine in the world which is 
in and of and for God's country ; only one devoted to California and the Southwest ; only one imbued 
with the beauty and the romance, and the progress, the free Western spirit combined with scholar- 
ship, of its fascinating field. That one is the Land of Sunshine. 

Of its literary quality it should suffice to say that its contributor.** already include Charles Dudley 
Warner, Mrs. Fremont, Mrs. Custer, Margaret Collier Graham, Grace Ellery Channing, Joaquin 
Miller, T. S. Van Dyke, John Vance Cheney, Charles Howard Shinn, C. D. Willard, H. Ellington Brook 
and many others of recognized standing. 

Subscribe now, and thus secure the 1896 special X-Mas number. It may soon be out of 
your reach. 

It is only $1.00 a year, exclusive of binding. You have friends for whom you care a dollar's worth — 
and you couldn't please them better for the money. 

LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO., 

601-503 STIMSON BUILDING, 
C. r, LUMMI5, EDITOR. LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



DON'T WHIT 

TO CHOOSE ™UKXM.S y|^J|L J^^ g^JJ (J ^^^^ 

H. F. VOLl^MER 

( QUEENSWflKE,) 

Sells RICH CUT GLJtSS and other useful and ornamental goods 

of up-to-date selection and prices 

116 Soutti Spring Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshink. 



Cape of Storms 

By Percivai. PolIvARD, . . |i.oo 

" A novel of today." — Chicago Post. 
"Interesting and clever."— 5a« Francisco Ar- 
gonaut, 
Printed on hand-made paper, with cover by 
Bradley. 

Beautiful Forms and Faces 

An Art Publication of the Nude, $i.oo 
Embossed cover in colors, with silk ribbon 
48 pages in different colors. 

Edition of tlie above sent Free 

Upon receipt of 
ONE YEAR'S SUBSCRIPTION 

FOR 

.... $2.00 PER YEAR 

A humorous, artistic, up-to-date publication. 
Issued every other Saturday ; will be sent 
from now on until January, 1898. 
Enterprise Buildini^, Chicago. 



(Notice this to-day. This ad. may not appear again.) 



"Western, Masculine and Gritty."— B^otrper's Weekly. 
S1.20 a Year.t*. You Will Like It. 
At News-stands 
10 Cts. 




Sample copy sent on receipt of eight 2-ct. stamps 

" Sports Afield," 358 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Choos? u)hal yoii uJant— 

gun, rifle, ammunition, rod, tarkle, bicycle, campra. 
canoe, row.boat, or any other merchandise that 
money can buy, 

and seclire it u)itho(it cost 

through us. We will supply any article you de- 
sire, free of charge, provided you get a sufficient 
number of your friends to subscribe to Oaiiieland. 
For instance, send us ten yearly subscriptions 
and we will send you any $5 rod you select; send 
fifty, and yo'i can have a $25 camera, or any other 
article or articles worth $25; and so on. 
SEND FOR FULL PARTICULARS and a free sam- 
ple copy of GAM ELAND. Subscription price, 
$1 per year. 

GAMELAND PUBLISHING CO., 

INCORPORATED, 

275 Broa'**-'^'-'. Now York. 

Rfinif AMATFIIR^ ^ furnish any kind of books 
UUU^ HHIHIbUnO, on short notice and easy 
terms. Rare and modern books on Mexico a 
specialty. Address, P. O. Box 158. 

AGUSTiN M. Orortiz, Mexico City. 



$iOO 



IN 



GOLD 



FREE 



Who can form the greatest number of words 
from the letters in EDUCATION? You can make 
twenty or more words, we feel sure, and if you 
do, you will receive a good reward. Do not use 
any letter more times than it appears in the word. 
Use no language except English. Words spelled 
alike, but with different meaning, can be 
used but once Use any Dictionary. Pronouns, 
nouns, verbs, adverbs, prefixes, suffixes, adject- 
ives, proper nouns allowed. Anything that is a 
legitimate word will be allowed.' Work it out in 
this manner: education, date, ducat, don, duce, 
duct, cat, con, cot, at, ate, ton. it, on, no, etc. 
Use these words in the list. The publishers of 
Woman's World and Jenness Miller Month- 
ly will pay $20 in gold to the person able to make 
the large>t list of words from the letters in the 
word EDUCATION ; $10 for the second; $5 for the 
third; $5 for the fourth; and $2 each for the thirty 
next largest lists. The above rewards are given 
free and without consideration for the purpose of 
attracting attention to our handsome ladies' mag- 
azine, twenty-eight pages, one hundred and 
twelve long columns, finely illustrated, and all 
original matter, long andf short stories by the best 
authors; price. $1 per year. It is necessary for 
you, to enter the contest, to send twelve 2-cent 
stamps for a three -months' trial subscription with 
your list of words, and every person sending the 
24 cents and a list of twenty words or more is- 
guaranteed an extra present by return mail (in 
addition to the magazine) of a J92-page book, 
"The Master of Ballantrae, by Robert Louis 
Stevenson, a fascinating story of love and thrill- 
ing adventure. Satisfaction guaranteed in every 
case or money refunded. . Lists should be sent at 
once, and not later than April i.s. The names 
and addresses of successful contestants will be 
printed in May issue, published in April. Our 
publication has been established nine years. We 
refer you to any mercantile agency for our stand- 
ing. Make your list now. Address J. H. PLUM- 
MER, pubisher, 905 Temple Court Building,. 
Dept. 1050, New York City. 

"THE INVESTOR" 

A Financial Guide to Southern California and; 

Weekly Journal of Finance, Insura,nce 

and Trade. 

G. A. D0BIN80N, £ditor. 

Published every Thursday. 

Subscription, I3.00 per annum. 

Sample copies mailed on application. 
"The best journal of its class in the West." — 
N. y. Bond Buver. 

" Commendable in every way." — American In- 
vestments. 

" Has madean enviable reputation. "—.^(?rf/a«rfi 
Citrograph. 

Office, 4 Bryson Block, Los Angeles, CaL 

THE PRESS CLIPPING BUREAU 

GUARANTEES PROMPT, ACCURATE AND 
RELIABLE SERVICE. 

Supplies notices and clippings on any subject 
from all periodicals on the Pacific Coast, business 
and personal clippings, trade news, advance 
reports on all contract works. 

lOS ANGELES OFFICE, m NEW HIGH STREET 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 






RIPHNS 

"TABULES 

REGULATE THE 

STOMACH, LIVER AND BOWELS AND 
PURIFY THE BLOOD 



RIP ANS T A RULES are the best Medicine 
known for Indigestion, Billiousness, Head- 
ache, Constipation, Dyspepsia, Chronic Liver 
Troubles, Dizziness, Bad Complexion, Dysen- 
tery. Offensive Breath, and all disorders of the 
Stomach, Liver and Bowels. 

Ripens Tahules contain nothine injurious to the most 
delicate constitution. Are pleasant to take, safe, effectual, 
and give immediate relief. No matter what's the matter 
one Ripans Tabules will do you good. 



tual, i 
tter, t 



a^ep Mouse 

G. BRI6GS, Prop. 



RATES . . . 

$1.50 and Up per day 



Free Bus to and from Hotel. 

REDLANDS. CAL. 

REDUANDS-.. 



"^W* Ranches, Kesidences and all 

kinds of Real li^state in Redlands at reasonable 
rates. See Redlands before buying. Call upon 
or address JOHN P. FISK, Jr., 

Rooms I and 2 Union Bank Block, 

Redlands, Cal. 




SENT FREE ON APPROVAL 

We send these Gold IVatches, LADIES or GENTS, free by express. You pay 
nothing until after examination. Price * 1 4 . 5<», regular retail price $38 These 
cases are made of two plates of solid gold ; between these plates is a very thin, 
.««tiflF sheet of composition metal, the purpose of which is to protect the works 
from damage when pressed or struck (a feature that saves many a bill of re- 
pairs), and is accompanied by a special guarantee certificate from the manu- 
facturers that they will wear TWENTY YEARS. The movement is a full (15) 
jeweled Waltham, Elgin or Standard, as you may select, has the celebrated 
compensation balance. Patent safety pinion, stem wind and set. warranted 
perfect time-keeper. Watches of this make are never advertised outside the 
show windows of fashionable jewelry stores. If you order in good faith cut 
this out (or mention this magazine) and forward to us, and we will send you 
the watch by express without the payment of a single cent, so you can examine 
it thoroughly, and if not as represented you refuse to take it. We ask you to 
specially note the watch advertisements of other firms ; that they say nothing 
of how many jewels they have. Our watches are high grade, FULL-JEWELED, 
no better made, and must not beconfounded with the cheap watches advertised 
so extensively. In ordering, be sure to state stvle of case and whether ladies' 
or gents' is desired. Address, CHAPIN WATCH CO., 

iau6, 1»07 Chamber of Commerce Building, CHICAGO, ILIi 



Pacific Coast Steamsliip Co. 

steamers, leave Redondo and Port Los Angeles 
for San Francisco : 

Nov. Dec. 

Santa^Rosa. 2:20 p.m I i, 9, 17, 25 I 3, 11, 19,27 

•Corona, 2:20 p.m j 5, 13, 21, 29 | 7, 15, 23, 31 

Leave San Pedro and East San Pedro for San 
Francisco via Ventura, Carpenteria, Santa 
Barbara, Gaviota. Port Harford (San Luis 
Obispo), Cayucos, San Simeon, Monterey and 
Santa Cruz : 

Nov. Dec, 

•Coos Bay, 6:30 p.m I 2, 10, 18, 26 I 4, 12, 20, 29 

Eureka, 6:30 p m | 6, 14, 22, 30 | 8, 16, 24 

Leave Port Los Angeles at 6 a.m and Rt-dondo at 
II a.m. for San Diego. Steamer Corona will 
also call at Newport (Santa Ana). 

Nov. Dec. 

Corona, I 3, n, iQ. 27 I 5, I3, 21, 29 

Santa Rosa | 7, i5, 23 I i, 9. I7, 25 

The company reserves the right to change 
steamers or sailing dates. Cars to connect with 
steamers via San Pedro leave S P. R. R. (Arcade 
Depot) at 5:05 p.m. and Terminal Ry. depot at 
5 pm- 

Cars connect via Redondo leave Santa F6 depot 
at 9:50 a.m. or from Redondo Ry. depot at 9:05 a.m. 
Cars connect via Port Los Angeles leave S. P. R. 
R. depot at 1:35 p.m. for steamers northbound. 
W. PARRIS, Agent, 
124 W. Second Street, Los Angeles. 
<iOODALL, PERKINS & CO., 

General Agents, San Francisco. 



L. A TERMINAL RAILWAY 



Cor. E. First and 

Meyers Streets 



Take Boyle Heights 
Cars. 



Time Table: 

PASADENA 

Leave for : 7:.30, 9:30 a. ni. 

12:40, 3.20. 5:20 p. m 
Arrive from 8 15, 10:50, a. m. 

1:20, 4:35, 6:U0 p. m. 

ALTADENA 
Leave for : 9:30 a. m. 3:20 

p m. 
Arrive from : 10:30 a. m. 

4:15 p. m. 

SAN PEDRO 
Leave for : 9:00 a. m. 1.10, 

5:05 p. m. 
Arrive from : 7:28, 11:15 am. 

3:15 p. m. 





LOS ANCCLC^ 



ALAMITOi) 
lONGBtACn 



GLENDALB 

Leave for : 7:25, 

11:30 a.m. 5:05 

p.m. 
Arrive from : 8:00 

a. m. 5:42, 12:05 

p. m. 



1 iease mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine.* 



(ALirODNIA 
LIMITED 




SANTA rE 
-ROUTE- 



THE QUICKEST 

Transcontinental Train Leaves 
Los Angeles 

MONDAYS AND THURSDAYS 

AT 8-P. M, 

Palace Sleeping Cars, Buffet and Smoking 

Car and Dining Car, under Harvey's 

management, through to 

DENVER 
KANSAS CITY 
ST. LOUIS AND 
CHICAGO 



THE SCHEDULE : 

Leave Los Angeles 8:00 p.m. Monday-Thursday 
Arrive Denver. 11:15 a.m. Thursday-Sunday 

Arrive Kansas City, 5:40 p.m. Thursday-Sunday 
Arrive St. Louis, 7:00 a.m. Friday-Monday 
Arrive Chicago, 9:43 a.m. Friday-Monday 



Vestibuled Throughout. Lighted by Pintsch 
Gas. No Extra Fare. 



LOS ANGELES TICKET OFFICE, 200 SPRING ST.. COR. SECOND ST. 



LEAVE FOURTH ST 

Los Angeles for 

Pasadena. 



PosodenQ m los flnyeies and Pasodena and Paciiic Electric Rys. 



LEAVE FOURTH ST 

Los Angeles 
t5 55 am 1 55 pm 



LEAVE'CHESTNUT STREET PASADENA fob LOS ANGELES 



Echo Mountain. 




6 55 am 

7 55 am 
•8 25 am 

8 55 am 



•2 25 pm 
2 55 pm 

•3 25 pm 
1 55 pm 



•9 25 am '4 25 pm 
9 55 am 4 55 pm 
'10 25 am •5 25 pm 



10 55; 
•11 25 am 

11 55 am 
•12 25 pm 

12 55 pm 



5 55 pm 

6 55 pm 

7 55 pm 

8 55 pm 
<)55pm 



•1 25pmttl0 55pm 
LEAVE HILL ST , 

Santa Monica. 
t5 25 am 2 25 pm 
t6 25am •2 55 pm 

7 25 am 3 25 pm 

8 25 am '3 55 pm 



•Sundays excepted. 

tConnect with Mt. 

Lowe Ry. 



9 25 am 
•9 55 am 

10 25 am 
•10 55 am 

11 25 am 
•11 55 am 

12 25 pm 
•12 55 pm 

1 25 pm 

•155 pm 10 25 pm 
• Sundays only, 
t Except Sunday, 
tt Theatre Car wait* 
close of all theatres. 



4 25 pm 
'i 55 pm 

5 25 pm 
•5 55 pm 

6 25 pm 
•6 55 pm 

7 25 pm 

8 25 pm 

9 25 pm 



This f\agazine. 



IS PRINTED WITH NO. 168 HALF-TONE BLACK 
MADE BY 

California Ink Company 



WE ARE THE ONLY MANUFACTURERS OF 
riNE BLACK PRINTING INKS 
ON THE COAST 

Send for Our Color Specimen Book 



OF SAN FRANCISCO 

Los Angeles Branch 

125 E. Second St, 

MAX MERTEN, AGENT 



HOXElv GREEN, Pasadena, Cal 




J. H. HOLMES, Manager 



THE LARGEST 

MOST MODERN 
AND BEST APPOINTED 

Hotel in Los Angeles County. Every mod- 
ern convenience ; over 300 sunny and spa- 
cious rooms, with private parlors and 
baths. Gardens, conservatory, orchestra, 
etc. Centrally located in Pasadena, 30 
minutes from L.08 Angeles by three 
lines of steam railway. Pasadena and Los 
Angeles JKlectric Cars pass the door 
every fifteen minutes. 












■Ok 



'.9r 









A SOUVENIR CALENDAR FOR 1897 



Twelve beautiful half-tone engravings from original designs, made especially for this work by 
famous artists in Japan. Each picture indicative with the season, the pastime, or legendary idea to- 
which the month is dedicated. 

The twelve cards, printed on finest wedding card, enclosed in box 7x11 inches in size, covered 
with Japan hand-made paper, illustrated title, etc. 

A MOST DESIRABLE HO LI DA Y PRESENT. 
Sold by booksellers or sent, postpaid, for $1.00 by the undersigned. Copyrighted and published by the 

UNION PHOTO-ENGRAVING CO., 

121^ South Broadway, Los Angeles,"Cal. 

WE ARE NOW RECEIVING 

Our Holiday stock, and are showing the latest patterns in Victorias, Cabriolets, Spider Phaetons, 
Straight and Cut-under Surries, Extension-top Carriages, Etc. We have just received a number or 
Genuine Stevens Road Wagons, the ideal for gentlemen's driving. Our stock of Road and Business 
Wagons is very complete, and we always have 

THE OLD RELIABLE STUDEBAKER WAGONS 

You know the quality is all right. We can convince you that the price is right, if you will give us the 
chance. Will you come and see us ? 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG. CO. 200-202 N. Los Angeles^St. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



Ingleside Floral Company 




F. EDWARD 6RAV, Prop. 

ALHAMBRA, CAL. 



New Ingleside 
HYBRID 
GLADfOLUS 

In size, color and markings 
finest ever grown. 25 cents 
each; !$S.50 per dozen, 

postage prepaid. 

ORCHID, 

Flowering CANNAS, 
ITALIA and AUSTRIA 

SI. 50 each. 

Postage prepaid. 

RETAIL STORE 

140 S. SPRING STREET 



LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



CANNA AUSTRIA. Imp. by F. E. Gray 



North. Jolinson St.. 

East Los Angeles. 

A complete stock of Fruit and Ornamental 

mil SHRUBS AND PLANTS 

Large quantities of Eucalyptus, Magnolias, 
Cypress, Monterey Pines, Etc., 

AT PRICES TO SUIT THE TIMES. 

Large specimens for new places for immediate 
effect. Also 

FERNS AND PALMS 

For Inside Decorations. 

All stock guaranteed true to name, and free 
from insect pests and disease. 



Address 



L. J. STENGEL 




I 




SEED COMPANY 

113 N. Main St., 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

iniQ FIOMS Q 

IOC for pkg. Mixed Seeds. 
New Importation of Beautiful 

FLOWERING BULBS 

Grown to Our Order in Haarlem, 
Holland : 

Hyacinths, Lilies of the Valley, 
Anemones Azaleas, 

Ranunculus, Crocus, 
Tulips, Freesias, 

Narcissus, Lilium Harrisii, 

etc. , etc. 

SEND YOUR ORDERS 
NOW. 



p. O. Box 199, Station A, Los Angeles, Cal, 

Plesse mention that you ' saw it in the Land of Sunshine.** 



The Ice and Cold Storage Company 

(5f LOS ANGELES 



Telephone 228 



Seventh Street and Santa Fe Ry. 



Larg-est Ice and Refrigerating- Plant on the 
Pacific Coast. 




Pure Ice from Oistii^led Wmter 

Cold Storage for all Perishable Commodities. 
DISTILLERS OF= THE F^HTV^OUS 

PURITAS WATER 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



lOUDfly NUMBER 



vui. Y 1, r 



Beautifully 

Illustrated 




Ayv\AGAZlNEOf 




o 



CENTS LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO., 

A COPY INCORPORATED 



BAI-CA^ Q.4-m**%at\a% R<«SMin<r 



%i 



YI 



Health and Rest Seekers 



are 



Paso [gobies 
Springs 
Seekers 

The greatest and most 
beneficial Sanitarium 

upon the Pacific Coast. 

TOURISTS should not 
leave for their homes until a 
visit has been paid these 
Springs. Rates, $10.00, $12.50, 
$15.00 and $17.50 per w^eek. 
HAL. 1.00, 

YE KUEUM ATICS 
AND 
DYSPEPTICS! 
Our new Mud Bath, just completed, is a model for comfort and convenience. Take steamer from 
1,0s Angeles to Port Harford, from thence train direct to Springs. E. F. BUKNS, Manager. 
Address: PASO ROBLES SPRINGS HOTEL, Paso Robles, Cal- 




HJ^ WIvE Y, KING & CO,, Broadway and Fifth St. 

LOS ANGELES 

''■'''K'Vl-r.Mr /C^r^^^^rX CARRIAGES 

A-^" KEATING /<\^a^|^^^W/A BUGGIES 

BICYCLES /—y^^H^PWH^BA^-^ TRAPS 




Bicycle Sundries 



E 
V 
E 
R 
Y 
T 
H 

N 
G 

O 
N 

W 
H 

E 
E 
L 
S 



AND 

Novelties in Vehicles 



coinpieie 

RepQir 

ond 

Poio( 

Sfiops. 

Fofm 

wiioie- 

sole 

store 

164-168 



sireel 



The Broadway Carriage Repository. 



CENTRAL PARK FL ORAL CO . 



They keep the choicest Cut Flowers of all kinds in season^ 
The finest Floral Designs are put up by this Company at 
Telephone Main 493 138 SOUTH SPRING STREET 

Please mention that ycu "saw it in the JyAND of Sonshhnb." 



YOU WILL KIND THE 



HOLiLEflfiECF; 



^he most centrally lo- 
cated, best appointed 
and best kept lootel 
in the city. 

American or Euro- 
pean Plan. 

Rates reasonable. 



HEADQUARTERS 
FOR 

TOURISTS 
AND 
COMMERCIAL HEN 




SECOI^D AfiD SPJ^I^G STS., Iios flngclcs, Cal. 



WE ARE NOW RECEIVING 

Our Holiday Stock ^<:!^^^ 

And are showing the latest patterns in Victorias, Cabriolets, Spider Phaetons, Straight- 
side and Cut-under Surries, Extension-top Carriages, Etc. We have just 
received a number of Geiiuiue Stivers Road Wagons, 
the ideal for gentlemen's driving. Our stock of 
Road and Business Wagons is very 
complete, and we always 
have 

THE OLD RELIABLE STUDEBAKER WAGONS 

You know the quality is all right. We can convince you that the price is right, if you will give us the 
chance. Will you come and see us ? 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG. CO. 200-202 N.Los Angeles St. 



A MILLION OOLLARS 

Will be invested in Olive culture in California 
in the next ten years ; the earlier investors will 
reap the largest returns. We will sell you the 
land, plant the trees, take care of them for you, 
and make terms so easy you'll hardly miss the 
money. Our book tells you all about it — Free. 



DEL SUR RANCH CO. 

1227 TRENTON ST. 
Or 930 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Los ANGELES, CAL 




Please mention that you " saw it in the I«and of Sunshink." 




THE Hotel Florence 



ENTIRELY NEW MANAGEMENT 

SAN DIEGO, 
GAL 



Superb in location, 183 feet above the Bay, with the grandest of Marine 
Views. 200 rooms, every one bright, sunny ; single or en suite, with or 
without Baths. Equipped with every accessory demanded of a modern 
hotel. Elevator service, etc. Under the proprietorship and management 
of E. E. Nichols & Son, of the Cliff House, Manitou, Colorado. 
Rates: ;?2.5o to ^4.00 per day. Special rates by the week or month. 



HBBOTSFORD 
J INN 



8th and HOPE Sts. 




ARTISTIC FRAMING 

A SPECIALTY. 



The only Thoroughly Comfortable ^ 
Tourist Hotel In Los Angeles 



Heated throughout by steam 
Convenient to four lines of street railway 
Just outside the business district 
Strictly First-class 
None but white labor is employed 



CHAS. B. JACOBS, 

Proprietor 




MAY I?" 

Copyright '96 Barker Art Gallery, D Col 



George Elliott, «! s. spring st. 

Mwwi Qv» biiiwttj Los Angeles, Cal. 

PiGlyres, Mouidioos, nnists' MoieriQi and stationery 



Please mention that you ** saw it in the Land of Sonshink." 



The Land of Sunshine 

Contents— January, 1897, 

PAGE 

Mistletoe and Sycamore frontispiece 

The Chinese Woman in America (illustrated), Sui Seen Far 59 

Modjeska's Summer Home (illustrated), Marie H. McCoy 65 

Montezuma's Castle (illustrated), Chas. F. Lummis 69 

(Southwestern Wonderland Series, X.) 

California Mountain Ferns (illustrated), Mabel H. Merriman 73 

Historical Department 77 

Regulations for the government ol California, 17S1. 

The Landmarks Club 83 

In the Ivion's Den 84 

That Which is Written 86 

The Land We Love (illustrated) 89 

The Arizona Antiquarian Association (illustrated) 93 

Downey 94 

$15 TO $100 PKK ACRE. 

50,000 ACRES OF LAND FOR 6ALE 

SUBDIVIDED TO SUIT 

IN SAN LUIS OBISPO AND SANTA BARBARA 
COUNTIES 

Suitable for Dairying, Fruit and Vegetable Growing. Climate perfect, Soil fertile, Water abundant 
$15.00 to $50.00 per acre. Terms to suit. Don't buy until you see 
this part of California. 
For further Information apply to : 

PACIFIC LAND COMPANY (Owners) 



FRANCO=AJV\ERICAN JHETHOD of Inch Measurement 

It is the most accurate and periect 
method in use. Any lady can learn it, 
as it is simple, and quickly and easily 
comprehended. 

The Freeman Curved Ruler for Dress- 
makers can be used on any system of 
dress cutting, to remodel into new shapes, 
curves and darts. 



Franco-miiericon sciiooi oi DressiKi 



149 S. BROADWAY 



LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 



Artistic Photographs Speak for themselves 



f» t ^ 




TWELVE 

MEDALS 



PLATINO- 

TYPES 



OPP. L. A. THEATRE 



Awarded two 

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LOS ANGELES, 



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RETIRING 

From the 

FURNITURE 

BUSINESS 



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urniture 

and €(irpet$ 



/r^ONTEMPI^ATlNG to keep an exclusive 
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cided to close out my entire stock of 
Furniture at cost, and during this sale I will 
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little above cost ; this will enable you to 
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This furniture comprises all the leading 
makes and different woods, such as Solid 
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W. S. ALLEN 

332 and 334 Soutti Spring Street 
LOS ANGELES. CaL. 



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The Funk and Wagnall's 

STANDARD DICTIONARY 



Of the 

English Language 

COMPLETE 301,865 Vocabulary Terms. 247 Editors and Specialists. 

SUCCINCT 1522 Readers for Quotations. 5000 Illustrations. Cost 

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Sample Page Free S. W. HINCKLEY, Agent, 207 New High St., Los Angeles, Gal. 

Please mention that yon " saw it in the Land of SuNSH^NK." 



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An Ostrich Feather 
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Take the Pasadena and Los Angeles Electric cars, or Terminal Ry. cars. 

Please mention that you "saw it in the Land op Sonshinb." 



A BEAUTIFUL HOME 




Wishing to live on my ranch, I will sell my city home. In the southwest — the prettiest and most 
growing part of I^os Angeles, Best electric line in city passes the door ; another line half a square away. 

100 feet front. Charming modern story-and-a-half cottage, five large rooms downstairs, three 
above. Bath, abundant closets, all modern conveniences. Grape arbor, model henyards and pigeon- 
houses, cellar. Better water supply than center of town. Piped for gas, and hot and cold water. 35 
varieties of fruit on the place. No end of raspberries, blackberries, peaches and figs. Rest of trees 
will all be in bearing in 1897. Rarest and best varieties plums, apricots, peaches, oranges, lemons, 
limes, loquats, pomegranates, grapes, pears, cherries, chirimoyas (custard-apples) , guavas, nectarines, 
prunes, walnuts, olives, etc., etc. Magnificent rosebushes in variety. Fine lawn, flowers and shade 
trees. Splendidly fenced. Insured for two years. More closet-room than in any other house of its size. 

One of the prettiest and most desirable homes in the Land of Sunshine, fruits and flowers. 

For particulars, call on or address CHA.S. F. LiUMMIS, 501 Stimson Building, or 15 
Forrester Ave. Traction or University car. 



SOLE AGENTS 
FOR 
THE 
CELEBRATED 





PIANOS 



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ON EASY INSTALLMENTS 
AND RENTED 



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OUR NBW WAREROOMS . 



Please mention that you 'saw it iu the L.\nd of Sunshine.' 



IF YOU LISTEN TO INTERESTED PROMOTERS 
You May Buy Almost Anywhere. 

BUT IF YOU LOOK FOR YOURSELF, 
YOU WILL LOCATE 




IN THE ARROYO SECO SECTION/OR IN THE SUPERB 
HIGHLAND VIEW, OR LOVELY GARVANZA. 

Nature has made it, as your eyes will tell you, the most beautiful part of Los 
Angeles. Held back because it lacked rapid transit and because speculators were 
interested elsewhere, it has now suddenly come to the front. It has now the best 
of transit, and is developing handsomely. 

No dead plain, but a succession of the most exquisite rounding hills and charm- 
ing little valleys in Southern California. You can have your villa in the ** Happy 
Hollow," under magnificent sycamores ; on the fertile first slope, or like an eyrie 
high upon the hills. Whichever you choose, you can have such superb outlooks as 
can hardly be matched elsewhere. Views of wooded valleys, of the giant Sierra 
Madre, of the city, and far oflf to sea — you can pick between them or between com- 
binations of them. 

The lowest points in this section are several hundred feet higher than the 
thickest of the city ; therefore cooler in summer and warmer in winter, more health- 
ful and more pleasant. No mud. Less fog than in the south of the city. It is on 
both sides of Pasadena Ave., and the electric line ; which is destined to be built up 
its whole length with the finest residences. In a few years it will be the cream of 
Los Angeles. 

If you have money TO burn, go and pay five prices for a lot where you can see 
your sidewalk and your neighbor. If you haven't, come and buy a better lot 
whence you can get a perfect view, for a fifth of the money. You will be astonished, 
if you look at prices elsewhere and then here. A man who has two or three lots 
wants fancy prices ; one with hundreds of lots can sell cheap. But the price is the 
only cheap thing alDout these lots. In a few years these lands will bring higher 
prices than lands in the southwest. Now is the time to buy at first hands. 

I. H, PRESTON, 

Room I, 217 New High Street, Los Angeles. 



Please mention that yoii " saw it in the I,and of SonSHUTR." 



HOTEL GREEN, Pasadena, Cal, 




J. H. HOLMES, Manager 



THE LARGEST 

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minutes from Los Angeles by three 
lines of steam railway. Pasadena and I,os 
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every fifteen minutes. 




" Temptifig prices without quality are 
frauds.'' 

For reliable 
quality and good 
values in Groceries and 



GO TO 




If You cannot Call and make Your 
Selections, 
Send for Our Price List 



H. JEVNE 

208=210 S. SPRING STREET 



Have You Tried Them? 




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Thatcher's celebrated 

CALIFORNIA OLIVES 



Our California Olives are picked when 
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Correspondence from the jobbing trade 
solicited. 

James Hill & Sons Co., 

OLIVE PACKERS 
1001-1007 E. First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



^^ 






I7ERSITT: 




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. 



SYCAMORE AND MISTLETOE. Photo, by Miss Nora Pettibone. 




LOS ANGELES 



JANUARY, 1897. 



The Chinese Woman in America 



A. Edr. CV 



BY SUl SEEN FAR. 

JTH her quaint manners and old-fashioned mode of 
life, she carries our minds back to times almost as 
ancient as the earth we live on. She is a bit of 
olden Oriental coloring amidst our modern West- 
ern lights and shades ; and though her years be 
few, she is yet a relic of antiquity. Even the dress 
she wears is cut in a fashion designed centuries 
ago, and is the same today as when the first non- 
fabulous Empress of China begged her husband 
to h)uy her a new dress — of a tunic, a pair of 
trousers and a divided skirt, all of finest silk and 
embroidered in many colors. A Chinese woman 
in a remote age invented the divided skirt, so it is 
not a "New Woman" invention. 

The Chinese woman in America differs from all 

others who come to live their lives here, in that 

she seeks not our companionship, makes no 

attempt to know us, adopts not our ways and 

heeds not our customs. She lives among us, but is as isolated as if she 

and the few Chinese relations who may happen to live near were the 

only human beings in the world. 

So if you wish to become acquainted with her, if you wish to glean 
some knowledge of a type of which very little is known, you must seek 
her out. She will be pleased with your advances and welcome you 
with demure politeness, but you might wait for all eternity and she would 
not come to you. 

Having broken the ice, you find that her former reserve was due to 
her training, and that she is not nearly so shy as report makes her. 
You also find, despite the popular idea that the Chinese are a phleg- 
matic people, that she is brimful of feelings and impressions and has 




Copyright 1896 by Land of Sunshine Pub. Co. 



6d 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




||| - sensibilities as acute as a child's. That 

W^ ' _ she is content to live narrowly, restricted 

to the society of one man and perhaps a 
couple of females, does not prove lack 
of imagination ; but merely that she is 
ignorant of any other life. 

She was born in China, probably in 
Canton or near that city. When a little 
girl, she played Shuttlecock, Guessing 
Pennies and Blind Man's Bviff with child- 
ish playfellows, boys and girls ; and 
grandfather and uncles kept her awake, 
when her mother put her to bed, by 
telling her stories of hobgoblins and 
ghosts. Amongst her memories of home 
"* are little pagodas before which she and 

Eng. Co. her brothers and sisters were taught to 

burn incense, and an image of a goddess called "Mother," to whom 
she used to kneel till her little knees ached. 

Until about twelve years old, she enjoyed almost as much healthful 
liberty as an American child ; but in China it is not deemed proper for 
girls beyond that age to have boy playmates. 

Then she learned to sew and embroider, to do light cooking and sing 
simple ballads. She was taught that whilst with them, her first duty 
was obedience to her father and mother ; and after marriage, to her 
husband and his parents. She never had a sweetheart, but with girl 
friends would pass the hours in describing the beauties and virtues of 
future husbands. 

In spite of these restraints, her years slipped away happily until time 
came for her to become an American bride — for the Chinese woman 
who comes to America generally comes as a bride, having been sent for 
by some Chinaman who has been some years in the States or in Canada 
and has prospered in business. 

She has never seen her future husband, she has never perhaps ven- 
tured outside her native village ; yet upon being apprised that for good 
and valuable consideration — for the expectant bridegroom, like Isaac of 
old when courting Rebecca, sends presents of silver and presents of gold 
to the parents or guardians of his chosen — she must leave home and 
friends and native land, she cheerfully sets about preparing for her 
journey. She may shed a few tears upon her mother's breast and sur- 
reptitiously hug her little sisters ; but on the whole, she is pleased. 

Her companions and friends usually regard her with envy. None but 
a well-to-do Chinaman could afford to send for a bride across the sea. 
The chief reason, however, is that the girl who goes to America does 
not become subject to her husband's mother, as when a girl marries in 
China. In that strange land she is obliged to live with her husband's 
parents and obey them as a daughter ; and unless she is of yielding dis- 
position, or the mother-in-law of extraordinary good nature, the result 



THE CHINESE WOMAN IN AMERICA. 



6i 




Mausard-Collier Eog. Co. 



A CHINESE BRIDE IN AMERICA. 



Photo, by Pierce. 



is often unhappiness. If there is a disagreement, it is the duty of the 
husband and son to take his mother's part, and the wife is made to ac- 
knowledge herself in the wrong. The Chinese woman who comes to 
America is favored also in that she can dress in richer costumes. In 
China her ordinary attire would consist of cotton, or a combination of 
silk and cotton, plainly made. The richly embroidered dresses which 
the Chinese women who come to America are allowed to bring with 
them are in China worn only by women of rank and position. 

The bride comes from a respectable middle-class Chinese family. 
Aristocratic or wealthy people would not give a daughter to a man liv- 
ing in exile ; and Wah Ling, being a big enough man to keep a wife in 



62 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

America, feels himself too big to take a girl from the laboring classes. 
He wishes his friends to think that he marries well ; if he were to 
choose a girl of mean condition he might be ridiculed. The Chinaman 
knows little of natural selection ; though in his youth he had a sweet- 
heart, when he wants a wife he sends for a stranger. 

In China it is deemed altogether wrong for girls " in society " to have 
men acquaintances ; but very poor girls choose their associates as they 
please without causing remark. Now and then a poverty stricken or out- 
cast maid wins the heart of a Chinaman brave enough to marry her in 
spite of what his world may say ; but such cases are rare. Very few 
Chinamen are introduced to their wives until after marriage. 

The Chinese woman in America lives generally in the upstairs apart- 
ments of her husband's dwelling. He looks well after her comfort and 
provides all her little mind can wish. Her apartments are furnished in 
American style ; but many Chinese ornaments decorate the tables and 
walls, and on the sides of the room are hung long bamboo panels 
covered with paper or silk on which are painted Chinese good-luck 
characters. In a curtained alcove of an inner room can be discerned an 
incense vase, an ancestral tablet, a kneeling stool, a pair of candlesticks 
— my lady-from-China's private chapel. She will show you all her 
pretty ornaments, her jewelry and fine clothing, but never invite you 
near her private chapel. There she burns incense to her favorite god- 
dess and pra3'S that a son may be born to her, that her husband may be 
kind, and that she may live to die in China — the country which heaven 
loves. 

She seldom goes out, and does not receive visitors until she has been 
a wife for at least two years. Even then, if she has no child, she is sup- 
posed to hide herself. After a child has been born to her, her wall of 
reserve is lowered a little, and it is proper for cousins and friends of her 
husband to drop in occasionally and have a chat with " the family." 

Now and then the women visit one another ; and when they are met 
together, there is such a clattering of tongues one would almost think 
they were American women. They laugh at the most commonplace re- 
mark and scream at the smallest trifle ; they examine one another's 
dresses and hair, talk about their husbands, their babies, their food ; 
squabble over little matters and make up again ; they dine on bowls of 
rice, minced chicken, bamboo shoots and a dessert of candied fruits. 

The merrymaking over, they bid good-by by clasping their own 
hands, shaking them up and down and interlacing their fingers — in- 
stead of shaking hands with one another. 

If it is necessary to pass a room occupied by men, they do so very 
demurely, holding open fans before that side of the face — not because 
they are so shy, but because it is the custom of their country. 

Although she does not read nor go out to see the sights, the Chinese 
woman does not allow time to hang heavy on her hands in America. 
There are many little thoughts in her mind, and she gives expression to 
them in beautiful fancy-work, representations of insects, flowers and 
birds most dextrously wrought from silk and beads. This is not useless,, 
from her point of view, for it can be used as presents to distant rela- 
tions, for the ornamentation of caps for her husband and little son, and 
also on her own apparel. 

She loves flowers, natural or artificial : and if not supplied with the 
former, makes herself great quantities of the latter and wears them on 
hair and breast. 

She bestows considerable pains on the plaiting of her hair ; and after 
it is done up flat at the back of her head, she adorns it with flowers and 
large fantastic pins. Her tresses are shining, black and abundant, and 
if dressed becomingly would be attractive ; but the manner in which 
she plasters them back from her forehead would spoil the prettiest face. 



THE CHINESE WOMAN IN AMERICA. 



63 



While there are some truly pleasant to behold, with their little soft 
faces, oval eyes, small round mouths and raven hair, the ordinary 
Chinese woman does not strike an observer as lovely. She is, however, 
always odd and interesting. 




L. A. Eng. Co 



CHINESE MOTHERS JN CALIFORNIA. 



Photo, by Pierce. 



64 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Needless to say she is vain. Vanity is almost as much part of a 
woman's nature as of a man's ; but the Chinese woman's vanity is not 
that of an American woman. The ordinary American dresses for the 
eyes of her friends and enemies — particularly the latter — and derives 
small pleasure from her prettiest things unless they are seen by others. 
A Chinese woman paints and powders, dresses and bejewels herself for 
her own pleasure ; puts rings on her fingers and bracelets on her arms — 
and carefully hides herself from the gaze of strangers. If she has Gol- 
den Lily feet (Chinese small feet) she is proudly conscious of it ; but 
should she become aware that a stranger is trying to obtain a glimpse of 
them, they quickly disappear under her skirt. 

She is deeply interested in all matters of dress ; and, if an American 
woman calls on her, will politely examine the visitor's clothing, with 
many an expression of admiration. She will even acknowledge the 
American dress prettier than her own, but you could not persuade' her 
to adopt it. She is interested in all you may tell her about America and 
Americans ; she has a certain admiration for the ways of the foreigner ; 
but nothing can change her reverence for the manners and customs of 
her own country. 

** Why do you do that in such a way ? " she is asked, and her answer 
is, "Oh, because that is Chinese way." 

" Do it like this," she is told. She shakes her head smilingly : " No, 
that not Chinese way." 

As a mother, she resembles any other young mother — a trifle more 
childish, perhaps, than young American matrons, but just as devoted. 
When the baby seems well, she is all smiles and Chinese baby-talk ; 
when he is ill, or she fancies so, she weeps copiously and cannot be 
comforted. She dresses him in Chinese dress, shaves his head and 
strings amulets on his neck, wrists and ankles. 

She is very superstitious with regard to her child, and should you 
happen to know the date and hour of his birth, she begs with tears that 
you will not tell, for should some enemy know, he or she may cast a 
horoscope which would make the child's life unfortunate. 

Do not imagine for an instant that she is dull of comprehension and 
unable to distinguish friendly visitors from those who merely call to 
amuse themselves at her expense. I have seen a little Chinese woman 
deliberately turn her back on persons so ignorant as to whisper about 
her and exchange knowing smiles in her presence. She is very loyal, 
however, to those she believes to be her real friends, and is always seek- 
ing to please them by some little token of affection. 

More constant than sentimental is the Chinese woman. She has a 
true affection for her husband ; no other man shares any of her per- 
sonal thoughts. She loves him because she has been given to him to be 
his wife. No question of " woman's rights" perplexes her. She takes 
no responsibility upon herself and wishes none. She has perfect con- 
fidence in her man. 

She lives in the hope of returning some day to China. She feels none 
of the bitterness of exile — she was glad to come to this country — but 
she would not be a daughter of the Flowery Land were she content to 
die among strangers. 

Not all the Chinese women in America are brides. Some were born 
here ; others are merely secondary wives, the first consorts of their hus- 
bands being left in China ; and there are a few elderly women who were 
married long before leaving home. The majority, however, are brides ; 
or as the Chinese call young married females, ** New Women." 

Montreal, Can. 



* MoDJESKA'S MourftXlN Home. 




65 



BY MARIE 




OUTHERN Cal- 
ifornians are 
rather proud 
that Madame Helena 
Modjeska Chlapowski 
has chosen her resting 
place among their 
mountains. The life 
of this beautiful wo- 
man has been full of 
varied and romantic 
experiences, which 
have been told in 
print many times. 
But to those who 
know her, the inci- 
dents that have shaped 
her career are of never 
failing interest. 

She has herself told, 
most charmingly, of 
her struggles and tri- 
Mausard-couier Eng Co. umphs as au actress. 

It is more in the light of a hostess and friend that I desire to speak of 
her. In attempting to draw a pen portrait it will be hard to avoid the 
suggestion of a "halo," but if I am criticised it will not be by those 
who have had the good fortune of her friendship. 

Madame Modjeska comes of a talented but not wealthy Polish family. 
She lost her father when a child, and her mother met with such finan- 
cial reverses that the little Helena, who was destined to thrill the world 
by her interpretations of Shakespeare, shared hunger and cold with her 
brothers and sisters. She was married when very young to M. Mod- 
jeska, her senior by many years. It was while living in the historic 
old town of Bochnia, with her husband and baby boy, that she made 
her first appearance before the footlights, for a charity. The impulse 
that placed her there was pity for those poorer than herself. From this 
accidental beginning she has, by dint of determination and hard study, 
•supplemented by her wonderful talents, won a world-wide fame. 
Madame Modjeska has shown what may be accomplished, against great 
odds, by such a character. She is a persistent student. Her life is one 
of almost incessant activity, mental and physical. Even in her sum- 
mer vacations at her beloved '* Arden," she is constantly busy; study- 
ing new parts, designing costumes, superintending the work in her 
flower garden, and even assisting in remodeling her own gowns. She 
is one of the busiest women I ever knew. 



MODJESKA'S MOUNTAIN HOME. 



67 



The romantic attachment of the young nobleman, Count Charles 
Bozenta Chlapowski, for the beautiful young widow actress might be 
dwelt upon, had not the devotion of the lover been supplemented by 
that much rarer article, the devotion of the husband. After a few years 
of married life in Poland, the young couple left their native land, on 
account of political persecutions, and sought an Altruria on the shores 
of the Pacific. Though their "Arcadian idylla " was a failure at the 
outset, I do not think they have ever regretted coming to America. 
Forced by necessity to return to the stage, Madame Modjeska has won 
for herself fame, and a warm place in the hearts of the American peo- 
ple. She has accomplished much for the theatrical profession, by her 
portrayal of high ideals and by her own irreproachable life, and her 




L. A . En? Co 



MADAME MODJESKA. 



68 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 



benevolent heart and generous 
hand have smoothed the rough 
places in life's pathway for many 
weary feet. 

Madame is a most devoted and un- 
selfish mother, and grandmother. 
Yes, grandmother ! Though if 
you look ever so closely for the 
gray hairs and crowsfeet, you will 
not find them ; and little Felix 
thinks grandmamma the best com- 
rade in the world. Her son, Mr. 
Ralph Modjeska of Chicago, has 
received from her every attention 
that a mother's love could sug- 
gest. He is a civil engineer by 
profession, and a gentleman of 
intelligence and worth. Madame 
Modjeska is intensely womanly — 
intellectual, capable, but always 
womanly. She is a veritable 
queen in the hearts of her family 
and friends. She is unaffected and 
sincere. She once said to me, "I 
like the California people, they are 
Of these she 

seldom speaks and I think would not care to have them told in print ; 
but the impulse that first placed her on the " boards," has been the key- 
note of her career. 
Though America is the 




L A Eng. Co. -pHE FIREPLACE. 

SO sincere." Her charities have been large and various. 



land of her adoption, Madame has a very 




A. Eng. Co. 



A GLIMPSE OF ARDEN. 



MODJESKA'S MOUNTAIN HOME. 69 

tender spot in her heart for the land of her birth, and has made fre- 
quent trips back and forth, often playing en route. The last of these 
trips proved very unsatisfactory on account of the unjust treatment of 
the Russian government in refusing to allow her play in Warsaw, the 
scene of her first achievements as an actress. Of this most painful ex- 
perience she wrote: " Yes, the doors of my country are forever closed 
to me. After the permission had been granted for my appearance, not 
only in Warsaw, but in Petersburg, Moscow and other cities of the 
Russian Empire, and when I had made all the preparations and paid 
all preliminary expenses, besides having given up all other engage- 
ments, I have been stopped on my way to Petersburg by a dispatch, 
telling me that I was not allowed to play in Russia. Myself and my 
husband went to Warsaw in order to find out what was the reason of 
this unjust and cruel treatment. We tried to obtain an audience of the 
Count Shouvaloff, the General Governor of Warsaw. The audience 
was promised, but before we had time to see the Governor, the police 
had sent us the order to leave Warsaw in twenty-four hours. It seems 
that the cause of these proceedings was the speech about Polish women 
I had delivered at the Women's Congress during the World's Fair of 
Chicago." 

Connoisseurs in art, and lovers of Nature, some years ago she and 
her husband came by chance upon a wild and beautiful spot in the 
mountains of the Coast range, about fifty miles southeast of Los Ange- 
les, which took such hold upon their fancy that they were never satisfied 
until they had established their resting headquarters there. And 
indeed one could scarcely imagine a more ideal retreat than this. 

Far away from the hurry and bustle, up in a canon where are purling 
streams, and nodding ferns, and spreading live-oaks, nestled within a 
crescent of the mountains, is the very unpretentious white frame villa — 
" Arden " they have called this mountain home, in honor of Shake- 
speare's " Forest of Arden." Here Modjeska comes each summer, to 
spend as much time as her busy life will permit. The drive from the 
fertile Santa Ana valley leads through the Santiago Cation, one of the 
most beautiful spots in Southern California, and is charming beyond des- 
cription. So gradual is the ascent, that one passes from an elevation 
of five hundred feet above the sea level to twenty-five hundred feet, 
scarcely realizing that one has been climbing. The road winds through 
groves of immense live-oak and sycamore trees, whose branches are 
festooned with the wild grape-vine, woodbine, and other creepers, and 
crosses again and again a beautiful mountain stream. Here and there 
stand out great bunches of the tall white California poppies, and in 
their season the stately yuccas, crowned with their great white panicles, 
the feathery elder, the wild clematis, and large beds of cactus, bril- 
liant with their beautiful yellow and crimson blossoms and ripe "tunas." 
The crested road-runners scamper ahead of the horses ; the doves 
call across the caiion, and flocks of startled quail whirr from coverts by 
the roadside. 

At last we find ourselves at the entrance to the Modjeska Canon, 
which widens into a magnificent natural park. By buying up different 
"claims" from old mountaineers, they have now about two thousand 
acres of land. The tillable part has been set to orchards of oranges, 
walnuts, olives, and deciduous fruits, and a considerable vineyard. The 
mountain sides afford abundant grazing for the flocks and herds. 

Two miles, or more, from the entrance, after a sharp turn in the 
road, and once more crossing the stream, we have our first glimpse of 
the house and grounds. The broad lawns, beneath the spreading live- 
oaks, make a delightfully cool and restful picture. The house is 
nestled within a crescent of the mountain, which rises behind it in 
terraced greenery. In front of the house is an old-fashioned, stone- 
curbed well, from which an "iron-bound bucket" draws deliciously 



70 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

cold water. Hammocks and easy chairs invite you to linger and listen 
to the murmur of the stream, the plash of the fountain, the song of 
the birds, the drone of the bee; while you drink in deep breaths of 
exhilarating air, and gaze your fill upon the mountain peaks, the deep 
blue sky, and the fern-draped terraces. 

Beyond the house the scene becomes more wild and rugged ; the 
mountains crouch closer together, leaving only room for the road and 
the stream to " wind about and in and out," until the road disappears, 
and Nature is left in undisturbed sublimity. Count Bozenta, with the 
aid of Mr. Ralph Modjeska's engineering skill, has conducted water 
from these mountain solitudes for domestic purposes, and for irrigating 
his orchards. In the improvements that have been made there has 
been an effort to supplement the natural beauties, but to leave Nature 
-as undisturbed as possible, and the result is most pleasing. 

The house is quaint and attractive in its appearance, charming in its 
arrangement, and interesting throughout. But the room about which 
the rest of the house seems to cluster is a very large one which serves 
as studio, library and music room combined. The walls are lined with 
book cases, containing valuable libraries in Polish, French and English. 
A fireplace of medieval design, built of hewn stone, with a high nar- 
row shelf, is ornamental ; the cool evenings and mornings are made 
more comfortable by its open fire. Couches in cosy corners, an organ, 
and a concert grand piano, combine with pictures and art treasures 
picked up in all lands, to make this room most quaint and attractive. 
The light comes through a stained-glass window high up in the north 
gable. I recall a summer's evening when the fading light of the sunset 
afterglow fell softly through the stained glass of the window, and the 
shadows crept from their hiding places, and reached out their arms to 
chase the day away ; when the sweet strains of Ave Maria filled the 
quaint room with melody, and the mind with a tangle of wierd fancies, 
that made it all seem a picture from an old-time story book. 

Madame Modjeska as a home-maker is quite as charming as she is as 
"Marie Stuart," "Ophelia" or "Rosalind." She makes her guests 
feel at their ease, and at home, at once. One who has enjoyed the 
privilege of a visit at " Arden " will ever remember, with pleasure, this 
most delightful retreat, and its charming hostess, who has formed strong 
ties of friendship in Southern California. 

Orange, Cal. 



V THE SOUTHWESTERN WONDERLAND. 
X. '' MONTEZUMA'S CASTLE/' 




BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS. 

T would be diflScult to conceive of anything which might more 
bewilder the average Easterner than to be set down suddenly 
and unwarned before one of the principal "Cliff-Dweller" 
ruins of Arizona or New Mexico. He would blink up at the 
sun-be-wildered cliff, whose color, form and contents unliken 
it to any other cliffs in the world ; and at that strange, wild 
masonry, far up the face of the precipice — impossible yet un. 
mistakable, the home once of men and women and babes. And 
if he did not conclude that the whole thing was a dream or a 
mirage, he would at least be confident that he had been whisked outside 
the United States. It is the absolute antipodes of everything he has ever 
known or ever imagined as part of the land he was born in. 




Maiuard-Collier Eng. Co. 



'MONTEZUMA'S CASTLE." Copyright 1891 by C F Lummis. 



72 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

"Montezuma's Castle " is by no means the greatest of " Cliff-Dweller" 
monuments ; but it is very much the finest of those that are accessible 
to the average traveler — and is worth crossing a continent to see. More 
interesting and more characteristic than many of the famous ruins of 
Rhenish Bavaria, to which so many thousand Americans follow the bell- 
wether yearly, it is also larger and older. 

To Ash Fork, A. T., by the Santa Fe Route, to Prescott by the Santa 
Fe, Prescott & Phcenix Railway, and thence by conveyance to old Camp 
Verde, is the itinerary ; and it is interesting throughout. It is also the 
way to the wild Tonto Basin and its unparalleled Natural Bridge ;* and 
one can return overland to Flagstaff, by the delightful canon of Oak 
creek. 

Four or five miles up Beaver creek from Camp Verde, anciently hewn 
by the patient stream from a lime-stone hill, is a strange, white cliff, 200 
feet high, a semi-lune in shape, sheer as a wall. Its face is infinitely 
pock-marked with the weather ; and in the little round hollows so many 
myriad shadows play that no stage of the sunlight can flatten it out. It 
it always in high relief. 

Far up its face is a great cavity, like a basin set on edge ; and therein 
the human martens of the long ago stuck their prodigious nest. The 
gray ruin, half in the white sunlight, half high in the eternal shadow of 
the clift's brow, looks as if carved from the rock behind it. 

This prehistoric American castle is five stories high — about fifty feet. 
The upper tier, far back in the shadow of the rock, is hardly visible in 
the photographs. The crescent-shaped front is over sixty feet in lengtlu 
The rooms number twenty-five ; while below the castle, and at its sides, 
are many other tiny chambers — natural grottoes in the cliff, walled in 
front with rubble masonry. The foundation of the castle is about eighty 
feet above the foot of the cliff, and is not — nor ever was — accessible 
except by ladders. Before Columbus was born, the quiet Children 
of the Sun — whom we know now as Pueblo ladiansf — harried forever 
by the nomad tribes, clambered up this cliff by withe-bound ladders, 
and carried on their backs the thousands of tons of broken rock and clay 
inortar, and handed up from shelf to shelf the rafter-poles "cut" to 
length with stone axes, and built this noble monument, their home and 
fort in one. Here, in their wild eyrie, modest women wove their cotton 
tunics and platted baskets of the palmilla fibre, and cooked their corn 
and beans and squashes in jars of classic shape ; and bare, brown babes 
frollicked in the lap of danger, on perches where not one grown tourist 
in five dare stand ; and lean, sinewy men, carrying their rude weapons 
forever, scratched the soil of their tiny fields and turned in the rivulet 
from their irrigating ditches to refresh the thirsty crops, and at dusk 
clambered up to their aerial village and pulled the ladders up after them. 
In their day it was absolutely impregnable. The overhanging brow of 



♦See the September number. 

fThat the "Cliff" or" Cave-Dwellers" were Pueblos, and not some Lost Race, is so 
absolutely established in science now that only the imread continue the old ignorance. 



THE DISCOVERY. 73 

the cliflf is a perfect protection above ; and from below or either side no 
weapon that was in America in those ages could reach them. The tire- 
less cut-throats of the desert sometimes succeeded in surprising even such 
strongholds ; but that was not the fate of '* Montezuma's Castle." The 
indications are unmistakable to the student that the place was deserted, 
in one of those curious shiftings which were so characteristic of the an- 
cient Pueblos — because of drouth, or an epidemic^ or too long a dose of 
bad neighbors, or simply for an omen. At any rate, they were gone be- 
fore the written history of America began. 

The earthen floors, the reed ceilings, the smoky rafters — all are little 
altered by the centuries. There are tokens of the fire that cooked the 
last meal ; and the tiny, indurated cobs of com, and mummied stems of 
squashes, and fragments of sooty cooking-pots and gay water-jars. I 
have still a yucca-fibre sandal they left hanging on a peg in the wall ; and 
last year several skeletons of babies were found buried in some of the 
rooms — a frequent custom of sedentary aborigines in the old days, all 
the way from Colorado to Chile. 

As was briefly noted in these pages last month, this impressive ruin, 
which has weathered the storms of centuries, almost unchanged, is now 
threatened with destruction. Heedless relic-hunters have so undermined 
the walls that some of them are in danger of falling ; and when the 
process begins, the whole castle will go very fast. With a little attention 
and care, it would stand for another five hundred years ; and if this great, 
rich Philistine of a nation let it fall to wrack, the shame would be 
indelible. All these chief things among the historic monuments of the 
Southwest should be made government reservations — as has been done 
for the ruins of Casa Grande — with a modest appropriation for protection 
and occasional small repairs, and with sharp penalties for the two-footed 
cattle that play vandal. 



The Discovery. 



ly WILLIAM FRANCIS BARNARD. 



Balboa, it was given unto thee 
To dream a titan dream. This westren land 
Thy prow found twice, and then Fate's high command 

Bade thee still westward, strong and brave and free ; 

In Darien thou soughtest what might be 
Over the mountains for King Ferdinand ; 
A hight — a hush ! — thy startled_ vision scanned 

A vast, unknown, horizon-kissing sea ! 

The Atlantic crossed, what were those waters, wide. 
North, south and west, that engulfed the setting sun ? 
It thrilled thee as thou stood 'st upon the marge. 

Which nations would there cease, and which abide ; 
And what vast deeds would yet by man be done 
In such a world ; for ah, the world was large. 

Chicago, 111. 



74 



California Mountain Ferns. 



BY MABEL L. MBRRIMAN. 




The Polypodium 



HBY grow, alike in the seams of granite boulders, high and 
dry in the air, or hidden in the shelter of a decayed 
stump, their rootstocks buried under the dead leaves, their 
fronds heavy with the weight of spores. In size they 
range from the small Goldback, illuminating the dark 
moss of the bank, to the thrifty brakes many feet high. 
Some are stiff and upright with woody stalks. Others 
' sway gracefully with every stirring breath of atmosphere. 

All are symmetrical and beautiful. 
Though they can make no effort to outrival their neigh- 
bors by putting forth flowers of gorgeous hue, still the order of 
ferns (the Filices) is the most loved of all the plant orders, not 
for a periodic flower, but for their whole selves. The children in 
the fields simply pick the bright flowers, disregarding the rest of 
the plant ; but they gather the whole fern. 

The ferns are attractive at all seasons. Whether one approaches 
the dwarf Polypodium of the rocks or the delicate maidenhair by 
the water's edge or the coarsely veined brake or any other of the different 
species, it is all the same. No repulsive odors are given out or revengeful 
poisons. Harmless and unresentful, they still go on ; softening 
the hard outlines of the rocks with their graceful fronds and doing more 
than their share towards making this earth beautiful. 

Of all the ferns, the Polypodium is the fondest of getting its livelihood 
from the bare rocks. It is the most thriving and the most common of 
all among the mountains. 

Polypodium' is' from the [Greek, "many- footed." Surely no more 
characteristic name could be given it. Its many branching rootstocks 
pierce every cranny and, in contrast to the thin cellulose fronds, are 
almost as tough in their fibres as the rocks themselves. 

They creep along, eating their way on the rock surface as season by 
season they extend their branches ; not with long strides as does that 
marvelous walking fern of the Eastern States which bends its long 
frond so that its tapering end may take root and the plant thus go on 
advancing, — but slowly one young fern raising its curled head after the 
other in the procession onward while the old fruited ferns die off in the 
rear. 

It seems scarcely necessary with such rootstocks cc 
tinually growing that the Polypodium should go 
the trouble of producing spores, those brown bodies 
often taken for bugs by the children . But nature 
forces them to provide for any emergency. Some 
hurricane might sweep from off the rocks these 
ferns, and so destroy the species.'' Not so if there 
are spores. No matter how hard the wind may 
blow, it is but utilized as a carrier. The spores 
escaping from their cases are only waiting to be 
wafted as so much dust to new soil or to other 
rocks. 

Borne along the backs of the pinnules may be 
seen the spore cases without covers on the forks 
of the veins. Some ferns have their spore cases 
on separate stalks or some have them secreted 
under the rolled-over edges of the pinnules, but 
it is enough for the Polypodium to bear spores 
without taking needless trouble to protect them. 




'niustratedif torn drawings by the author. 



The GMd-Back. 



CALIFORNIA MOUNTAIN FERNS. 



Or 



No matter if on the exposed surface they are liable to be rubbed off. Just 
because the fern itself grows upon the bare exposed rock so it seems to 
refuse protection to its progeny the spores, that they may the better par- 
take of its own nature. 

Adiantum, the botanical name of the maidenhair ferns, is also from 
the Greek, meaning " unwetted " — because the smooth foliage repels the 
raindrops. 

More regardful than the Polypodiums, the maidenhair ferns utilize the 
edges of their pinnules as protection for their spores. Their black, slender, 
shining stems with alternately branching fronds drooping over the rocks 
or mossy banks indicate want of strength. So, feeling their own need, 
they do what they can to protect the spores by simply here and there 
turning over a lobe of the small frond. 

This frond lobe, thin green cellulose before the fruiting time, becomes 
brown and dried. Through the microscope the veins can be traced in 
this turned-over lobe, and from the rim can be seen the 
sporangia peering out as though their nest might be too 
small for them all. Their stalks look like corkscrews 
bearing on their tops the cellular caps full of the numerous 
spore-bearing bodies. This method of bearing the spores 
not by turning over the whole edge but by simply lap- 
ping over one of the ragged lobes is characteristic of all 
the maidenhair ferns. 

For the members of each family of the 
fern order have their own way of caring for 
their spores, and these different methods are 
the indispensable means of their identifica- 
tion. Not only by position of spores but 
also by general shape, arrangement of pin- 
nules, character of stem, whether green or 
black, smooth or chaffy, are the various 
rns to be recognized. 

While the Polypodium has thicker pinnules growing 
alternately to the main stalk, the maidenhair has thin pin- 
nules growing at the ends of the separate stalks. Each 
pinnule of the Polypodium is broadly lance-shaped with 
finely cut edges, while each division of the maidenhair fern 
is wedge-shaped with lobed edges. Their stems too are dis- 
tinctive ; that of the Polypodium green and slightly chaffy, 
that of the maidenhair black and shining. It must have 
been these black glossy slender stems leaning over the rocks to be 
sprayed by the falling water that gave the Adiantum the common name 
of maidenhair. 

From the damp and shady places in the canons of Southern California 
the common Adiantum Capillus- Veneris fern ranges westward to Utah, 
Texas and Missouri, and in the Atlantic States from Virginia to Florida, 
So widespread is it that in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America it is 
a well known plant. The "Sirop de Capillaire" prepared from its tis- 
sues is popularly used to allay the distresses of coughing humanity. 

The Goldback is another of the small ferns of the Sierra Madre. It 
does not grow in the highest altitudes, preferring rather the shaded 
mountain sides lower down and nearer the canon streams. It is common 
on rocky hillsides throughout California, extending northward, it is said, 
to Vancouver Island and reappearing as far south as Ecuador. 

This brilliant little fern is not found in the East. In California, the 
golden State, where rocks streaked with gold-bearing quartz abound, it 
chooses its habitat. Reflecting the luster of the hidden gold, needing 
no chemicals or microscope or geologist's hammer to disclose its trea- 
sures, the Goldback grows unique among its fellows. It works not like 




Th« Maidenhair. 



76 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

a miser that it may hoard and count, but that it may shed and scatter the 
grains of its short lifetime. 

At the beginning of the season a waxy powder appears on the frond 
backs as silvery dust, making the young fern look gray and hoary. Each 
successive sun turns this silver into gold — a feat which would make the 
alchemist of old times supremely envious. 

Like everything else that is living, this organic fern-gold becomes 
rusty and tarnished. The silver was turned into gold, and the gold soon 
appears as a rusty amalgamate. The lines of fruit forking beneath the 
golden coating at length ripen and burst through. What were before 
resplendent fronds are now curled up around the main stalks, wrapped in 
their own shrouds of dried spores. 

Let these spores fall on the moist earth and there is a'magic change. 
The prothallus grows from the spore, the new fern from the prothallus 
and from the new fern again more gold. 

Still another of the dwarf mountain ferns is the Cheilanthes Myrio- 
phylla. This peculiar little fern is only seen here and there in the dark 
rock crevices, growing up near Mount Lowe springs, 4000 feet above sea 
level. The tufted fronds are somewhat smaller than those of the Gold- 
back, only five to fourteen inches high. The wiry stems 
are exceedingly chaffy, the form lost under the multitude ^.g; 

of dry scales. The sporangia are lost to the view also "^*' 

under the thin, wing-like indusiums or spore covers. It 
was only after soaking the fern pinnules in glycerine and 
examining one of them under the lens of the compound 



microscope that the problem was solved whether the 
spores were lying underneath the colorless chaffy covers 



^iiiSf 







or enclosed deep within the swollen incurving pinnules. 
In this fern as in the others the indusiums although 
often larger than the pinnules are still the spore 
protectors. As in the flower the petals and all 
parts are but transformed leaves, these spore pro- 
tectors are simply transformed scales, and the rusty 
scales fringing the stem from the root upward and 
becoming closely matted as the pinnules are reached, ># 
are but tom-up portions of the outer plant skin, the cheUwithes Mynophyiia. 
epidermis. 

When the fern has performed its duty of spore-producing the round 
pinnules so stuffed before with the green chlorophyll granules become 
brown, dried, shrunken balls, now so choked and lost under the burden 
of protecting scales that the withered fern with the loss of its pinnules 
suffers loss of identity. Like its background of rock it becomes gray and 
colorless. 

(TO BB CONCLUDBD.) 
Eeho Honstain, Oal. 



The Pepper Tree, 

BY WILLIAM NORRIS BURR. 

A wrinkled beldam decked in finery — 

Time-yellowed laces, garments emerald-hued. 
And showy beads. Old, old, so old, and rude 

Of feature as an aged Indian. See 

That leathery skin, bent form, and knotted knee ! 
Ah, 'tis an Indian Lot's wife, a crude 
Old color-loving creature who withstood 

Not some temptation, and became a tree ! 



Long Be&ch, Cal. 



REGLAMENTO 

PARA EL G03IERN0 

DE LA PROVINCIA 

DE CALIFORNIAS. 

Aprobado por S. M. en Real Orden de 24. 
de 06lubrede 1781. 




EN MEXICO. 

Por D.Felipe de Zuniga y Unuvcros, t.alle del EspirhuSanto, 

aiio de 1784. 



78 



• REGULATIONS 

AND INSTRUCTIONS 
For the Garrisons of the Peninsula of Californias, erec- 
tion of new Missions, and fostering of the colonization and ex- 
tension of the Settlements of Monterrey. 



P»g. I. 



REGLAMENTO 



E INSTRUCCION 

Para los Presidios de la Peninsula dc Californias, erec- 
cion de nuevas Misiones, y fomcnto del pueble y ex- 
tension de los Estableciraientos de Monterrey. 

ij Avieiidose dignadd & M. determinar por Real Cedula <Ic 
iTf^n^ll *'■ ''^ Marzode 177^. se varie el Reglamento provi- 




sional qye aflcMtncnte govierna en la Peinsula de Cali- 
fornias, para dar ei debido cumplimtento a tsu Sobera- 
na Resolueion se ha advertido ser el medio mas oportu- 
no y conformc -idaptar en lodo lo posiole a las reglas cstablccidas por 
el Real Rec.l3.;.ento de PresiHioj, el govierno ecooomico de los de la 
Peninsula y suTropa , variando «' pie. paga y manejo de mi^reses de 
un modo que, propcrclonando ccn vent'stjas lj fu^rza de i:s Guarnicio- 
nes para !as salidas y demas funciones del Servicio,se veril'i.jne ahorro 
a los presentee gasios que eroga la Real Hacienda en los Hrt-idioi de 
Loreto, San Diego Monterrey y San Fraocisco, aumentJl do Olici:iIcs, 
iguaSJI'd y proporcion en sus Sueldcs lo; de Sargenios, Caves , Solda- 
dos, Girujano, Oficiales mecanicos y Poblaiiores, de £ueric que sean 
JOK precises pari la subsister.cir,, respsnsabilidad y atencii<ni>s de cada 

fC{^,' comprehendidos los Dependienics del corlo Dcpariamento de 
Marina de Loreto; Slnodus que haa dc continuarse a Religiosos Mi- 

. siooeios, y ordcii con que deben siluuse nuevjs Reducciones, estable- 
ciendo reglas que aiejiiren el fomei.:c, pueble y, extension de los an- 

■tiguos y nuevos Estsbleciiiiiento* , con cuyo importante objelo, el de 
augurir la comunicacion , y airaher al verdadero conocinuento de U 
Religion la numerosa GeniilidaJ que habila ^1 precise estrecho y ar- 
riesgado paso del Canal de Santa Barbara, esia deterniinada ju ocu- 
pacion, establcciendo en cl un Presidio y tres Misionescoo un Pueblo 
que,stiuado en su inmediacion, pueda abasieccr de Viveres con la pro- 
duccioa de sus siembras dicho Pte:;dio y el de San Diego: f (e$pe<5io 
de no ser asequible <^c el Inspeflor de los Presidios de Frontera rejji^. 
telosde esta Peninsula, por impedirlo la travesia de mar, y enonoe* 
disiaiicias a que estao , se hace inescusable que el Governador exeru 



las funciones de Inspedor (como lo ha prafticado) atendido a serd 
Govierno puramente Militar, y no estar este Gefe cotnprebeodsdo 
como CapiUQ de ninguno de los Presidios de su mando.; y 00 siendo 
posible desempe5e por si este encargo, como esta ordenado, siendo de 
la Superior aprobacion tenombrara y creara un Ayudante que,ba)a 
tu direccion y ordenes, reviste los Presidios a que se le destine, cele 
la uniformidad, servicio, disciplina y subordinacion de la Tropa, como 
U mat puoliul observancia de quanto esta prevenido en elcitadoReal 
ReglaiDeoto, coo ia liaica variacion que adviertea los lituks ugmor 



TITULO PRIMERO. 

1. "VJO permitiendo el presente esudo de la PeniaM^ iraritr el 
_I_^ crden establecido de transportar de Nueva Esfxritt de cam- 
ta y riesgo de la Real Hacienda las Ropas,££ei£ios, Viveres yCavalte-i 
xiaspara It subsistencia y emretenimieoto de -la Tropa, Pobladores y 
demas Dependieates de los Presidios , debera seguir esu fti^k* re- 
mitietKlose por el Fa^ordeli Peninsula, y Comisario de San Bias lo 
correspondieoie a las Memorias que hao de pasarse anualmenle por el 
Coreniadcir ai Exmd. Seiibr Virrey , para que se digne determinar »u 
vompra y reraisoa, exceptuado el Presidio de Loreto, cuya cpnside- 
ftUe distaoda no pcrmite la direcckKi de sos Memorias en tiemfo 
oportuoo, por lo que en derechura se pasan a S. E. por el Capitan. 

a.. Los Viveres, Vestuario, Armamento, Mooiura, Ropas,CavaIle- 
rias y demas efeSos que se remitan de Mexico, S. Bias 6 Sonora, h«i> 
H recibirse y distribuirse a la Tropa sobre precios en que resultoi de 
ptinier compra,-bajo cuya consideracion van reglados los Sueldoc cou» 
siguientemeote no han de lener ocra incervencion que la del pago de 
los Individuos que le gozan y comprehendera este Reglamento. 

J. Asi como al presente esta al cuidado del (3>oilsario de Loreto 
y Guarda Almacenes de los restantes Presidios el pago de la Tropa y 
Depeodientes de ellos, como el reclbo de las respeclivas Meraoriaa y 
Ml diftribucioa, correra en lo succ<»iyo con inspeccion del Capiun en 
Loreto, y de el Comandance en los Presidios de ks nuevos Estabieci- 
mientos, a cargo del Habilitado que ha de nombrarse entre los Subal* 
teraoa de la Compaiiia, bajo ias reglas qae se expresaran adelaiue. 

4. £1 Pago de Situados ha de continuarse eo la Real Gaxa de 
iSiiico ea d misoio ordeo que te pcaOica, hacieodose eotrega al F>o- 



His Majesty, having deigned to determine (by 
Royal Decree of March 21, 1775) to alter the pro- 
visi: nal Regulations now in force in the Peninsula 
of Californias; in order to give due fulfillment to 
this Sovereign Resolve, has marked as the most 
opportune and suitable means their adaptation 
(so far as possible^ to the rules established by the 
Royal Regulations for Garrisons, for the econom- 
ical government of the [garrisons] of the Penin- 
sula and their Troops; cnangiug the footing, pay 
and management of interests in such manner as 
to make (by advantageously apportioning the 
force of the posts for sallies and other functions 
of the Service) a saving in the present costs which 
the Royal Exchequer pays in the posts of Loreto*, 
San Diego, Monterrey and San Francisco. [To] 
increase number of Oflficers, equalize and pro- 
portion the wages of bergeants, Corporals, Sol- 
diers, Surgeon, Master Mechanics and Colonizers, 
in such manner that the wages be such as are 
requisitr for the subsistence, responsibility and 
heedfalness of each class. This includes the 
subordiuatesof the small Department of Marine 
at Loreto; stipends which have to be continued 
to Religious Missionaries; and the order in which 
new Reductions [centers for converting the In- 
dians] should be located, establishing rules which 
shall assure the encouragement, population and 
extension of the old and new settlements. With 
which important object, to secure communica- 
tion and to draw to the true knowledge of Relig- 
ion the numerous Gentiles that inhabit the indis- 
pensable strait and perilous pass ot the Channel 
of Santa Barbara, it is decided to occupy it; estab- 
lishing a Post and three Missions, with a Pueblo 
[town] which, being near by, can supply said 
Post and that of San Diego with provisions from 
the product of its crops. And as it is not feasi ble 
that the Frontier Inspector of Posts review those 
of this Peninsula, since the sea-voyage and their 
enormous remoteness hinder, it is made obliga- 
tory upon the Governor to discharge 

♦Lower California. 



the duties of Inspector'(as he has'done); heeding 
that the Government be purely Military, and that 
this Chief be not included as Captain of any of 
the Posts of his command. And if he is unable 
to discharge this duty personally, as is ordered, 
he shall (subject to Superior approbation) name 
and appoint an Aide, who shall, under his direc- 
tion and orders, review the Posts to which he is 
destined, watch zealously the uniformity, service, 
discipline and subordination of the Troops as to 
the most exact observance of whatever is pro- 
vided in the said Royal Regulations, without 
variation except as authorized by the following 
Titles. 

FIRST TITLE. 

1 . As the present condition of the Peninsula does 
not permit change in the established order of 
transporting from New Spain*, at the cost and risk 
of the Royal Exchequer, ot Clothing, Goods, Pro- 
visions and Troop Horses for the subsistence and 
alleviation of the Troops, Settlers and other De- 
pendents of the Posts, this practice must be fol- 
lowed: the Agent of the Peninsula and the Com- 
missary of Sau Bias forwarding their lists for the 
Requisitions, which must be sent yearly by the 
Governor to the Most Excellent Viceroy, that he 
may deign to determine the purchase and for- 
warding [of supplies]. Excepting^ the Post of 
Loreto, whose considerable remoteness forbids 
the sending of its accounts in season; wherefore 
they must be sent by the Captain direct to His 
Excellency. 

2 The Provisions, Uniform, Arms, Saddles. 
Clothes, Troop Horses and other articles sent 
from Mexico, San Bias or Sonora, must be re- 
ceived and distributed to the Troops at prices 
based on first cost, under which consideration the 
wages are fixed. Consequently there must be no 
intervention except the pay of the Individuals 
entitled to it and comprised in these regulations. 

•Mexico. 



79 



3, As at present the Commissary of Loreto 
aud the Storekeeper in other Posts has charge of 
the paying of Troops and Clerks and the receipt 
and distribution of the respective Requisitions, 
it will henceforth be in charge (under inspection 
of the Captain in I,oreto, and of the Commandant 
in the Posts of the new Settlements) of a Pay- 
master appointed from among the Subalterns of 
the Company under the rules hereinafter set 
forth. 

4. The payment of Allowances shall be con- 
tinued from the Royal Chest in Mexico, in the 
same order as now; delivering to the Aerent of 



lor d< U Peoimuh, eg ^lrti>4 de Sapnior Decreto id Eitmd. Seitot, 
ViiT:y,de ia cantMarf que le regula niiicienie i habilioir Iji Memoiias 
de g^et y eftOoi, en que se incluiri el laao que ha de remitiVae 
«n pesos a cadi Presidio, acreditaodote ssimismo al Comisario del De- 
panamento de San Bias el caudal necesario para la compra de Viveres 
y Efe^iosde Racioo ^ como lo demas que por Fa^ura de dicho Co- 
misario te feorica conforoie a las Memo'las^ y rejpeiSo que la ciuda 
entrega ^compras se execuun co I09 uiiimoc meaes delaik), y ttne- 
t'^ica e\ reeibo e» fos Presidios «n Mayo 6 Janio del siguiente, do <le- 
bera variar el m^todo establecido de aviar la Tiopa, cod arreglo at el- 
cance que cada iodividuo se deduua por tu ajuste del alio anterior, 
tubmioittrandose enire ano las Raciooes y demat gastos inescusables 
que ocurraa al Soldado d su familia , por cuya razon te escusa la asis- 
teocia con dos reale* diariot aCavos y Soldados, resullando saiisfacer 
Ja Red Hacienda tos Sityados en 6nef del ano en que se vencea , y 
ptgarte la Tropa i mediados del subaeooente : con cuyo conociniiento 
J prudente regulacion al Importe de lot VLveres, Vestuario, Armaoien- 
to, Mootuia, Ropas, Efe^os y. Caudal que necesitea las Compaiiias, 
GOataodo con el total a que asciende el Situadp, y que han de satisfa- 
eerse ea pesos los Sueldos de Oficiales y Cirujano, verificado el de«- 
Cuento de lo que entre alio reciban, como los alcances que aviada la 
Tropvle resulte, formaran los Habllitados Us Memorial, leniendo pre* 
seote pan su deduction los maffot que exisun, ya sea dimanados de 
h entrega que ha de hiiceneles, 6 por lobranies de uoo'i otro ano, 6 
igualmeote que el dinero que se pida no ha de exceder por ahora de 
la quarts parte del Situado, exduido el Soeldo del Gorernador y Ayi>- 
dame (si le crea eite empico) que han de percibirio separadamente 
como les coovenga. 

J. Como los precios de Ropas y Efefios estin sugetos a alteia- 
dooes, sitoipre que por esta ra(on,6 la de ascender la Memoria a ma- 
yor camidadde la<jue corresponda a las doa quartas partes del Situa- 
do, no pueda verificarse el sunimiento , se soplira la falia de h quarta 
parte 4)ue ha de temilirte en pesos; y respedio de que la restame quar- 
ta parte se regula para costear los Viveres y Efe<ftos que comprehen- 
da la Memoria de San Bias, en quaato noalcaoce, se suplira ea los 



i. Siempre que adelaatadas las tiembras, cosechas y eaquibnoi CO 
los oueros EUcabiecimienios,puedan proveerse los Presidios en el todo 
i parte «te loa Vivatesque occesiuo, en tal caso se pedira por los Ha> 

faili- 
p.3 

the Peninsula (as per Supreme Decree of the 
Most iCxcelleut Sir Viceroy) of the amount fixed 
as sufficient to fill the Requisitions of goods. This 
shall include the sum to be remitted in dollars to 
each Post, likewise crediting to the Commissary 
oftheDept. of San Bias the funds necessary to 
purchase victuals and articles for rations; and 
whatever else, through agency of said Commis- 
sary, is remitted him according to the Requisi- 
tions. As said delivery and purchases are made 
in the last months of the year, and received the 
following May or Tune, there should be no change 
in the established method of providing for the 
troops, with reference to the balance that each 
individual deducts for his last year's settlement; 
providing, through the year, the Rations and 
other necessary expense- of the Soldier or his 
family. For this reason the allowance of 25 cents 
dailj for the support of Corporals and Soldiers is 
exempted; the Royal Exchequer paying the al- 
lowances at the end of the year they come due 
and paying the Troops the middle of the year 
following. With this knowledge and prudent 
regulation of the cost of the Provision, Uniform, 
Arms, Trappings, Clothing, Goods and Funds 
(counting the total sum of ihe Allowance for pay- 
ing in Dollars the Salaries of Oflacers and Sur- 
geon, discounting that which they receive during 
the year and the balances left after supplying the 
Troops) the Paymasters will make out the Re- 
quisitions bearing in mind to deduct the residues, 
whether they arise from the del very to be made 
of them, or as surplus from year to year; bearing 
in mind equally, that the cash to be asked must 
not exceed, at present, one-fourth of the allow- 
ance, exclusive of the Salary of the Governor and - 



Aide (if that office is created), who shall receive 
theirs separately as suits them. 

5. As prices of Clothing and Goods are subject 
to alteration, whenever for this reason, or be- 
cause the Requisition amounts to more than one- 
half the Allowance, the assortment cannot be 
filled, the lack shall be supplied from the one- 
fourth part to be remitted in money; and since 
the remaining one-fourth is arranged to meet 
the cost of Provisions and Goods called for by the 
Requisition of San Bias, any deficiency will be 
covered in same manner. 

6. Whenever the sowing, harvesting and stor- 
ing of crops in the new settlements is advanced 
so that the Garrisons can provide themselves in 
whole or in part with the needful provisions, the 



bilitadas la cantidad de pesos que corresponda i tu compra, i mas de 
la que quedj ssi'ialada, bjxgra su equivalenle en Semillas eA la Memo- 
ria de San BUs, y proporcioiulmente de la consignacioo hecha eo pe- 
sas para su suriimienio. 

7. La suma diliculiad y perdidas que ofrece el transporle y con- 
duction de Cavalleriis desde Sooora a esta Heninsula, obliga a inante- 
oer con tres 6 quatro cada Soldado, y a que exista de cuenu de la 
Real Hacienda en cada Presidio una Kecua de veinte y quatro 6 tteii>- 
ta mulas para la conduccion de la car^a dc las Embarcaciones, proveer 
de Viveres las Escoltas, y socorrer el Presidio que, por perdida , arri- 
bada, d considerable retardo de iin Barcn, fallen Us Semillas y Efe^os 
de primer neccsidad; y subsi^tiendo dichos uiotivos, el de I* conduc. 
cion de Kaciones a los PobUdores del nuevo Pueblo de S.Joseph Gua- 
dalupe , 1.1 que ha de hacerse a el Piiiblo que esta determinado fun- 
dar, y I.i6 deinas faenas que han de ocurrir para el estableciinienio del 
Prcwdio y Misiones en el Canal de Santa Barbara, a que en el primer 
aiio lia de cunjucirse por tierra lodo bastimento y demas preciso p^ra 
su subiisieticia , a que^agrega deberse acarrear en lo succesivo los 
Irutos dc Im Pueblos para proveer los P'-sidios: no siendo yerificable 
poiier esta Tropa en el pie de Cavallerias que esta la de Frontera, has- 
ta tanto que BL>^entada la cria de cavallada en la Penmsula,se facilite, 
es conlorine que cnmpletandose las Recuas de Lorelo y S. Francisco al 
nijn.ero de veinte y quatro mulas cada una con m correspondtenie ipe> 
ro, y de ireinia mulas la de S. Diego, se surta de oiras treinta el Presi- 
dio que ha dc situarse en el Canal, igualmenie aviadas, lodo de cueota 
de U Kl. 1 lacienda, queJaudo su coiiservacion, y reemplazo de las que 
mueiiii 6 se inutilicen , como el repato y entreteniuiienio de aparejn^ 
y demas pertenecienie, como el pago de un Arriero en cada Presidio, 
de cargo del iondo de gradficacion , como gasto general eflijpsucci^- 
voj y en el casu de que por las oiras alenciones i que esti dcstioado, 
no >lcance a.cubrir este gasto, sea la falta de cuenta delCoania de lat 
ComiMflias , que en todo liem po han de retponder de la «xiseiicia de 
dichas Recuas, couiptcheiidida la de Monterrey , que eo el ^«tiil^ 
en quarenta mulas de carga. , , ^ . 

8. Siendo inesciisable maniener los oficios de Carpinteria y Uerr 
reria a estr, recieates adquisiciojies de Monterrey, quedacis coo lot 
SueUj^ qui> se 'les coiuignaa .^ss dos Macsiros, el CarpintctD, y. tres 
Herreros que aCtuaJinenieS^tenrytste' gasto se compteheoderifo* 
iM>tttne del SaiudQrderiltKiijrjej'fjrJianXMego, w (Ifi9 .utM^eati- 



P * 

Paymasters will ask for the sum of money cor- 
responding to their purchase price, above that 
already indicated, subtracting the equivalent 
from the San Bias Requisition for seeds, and pro- 
portionately from the sum for supplying them. 

7. The supreme difficulty and losses in trans- 
porting Troop-horses from Sonora to this penin- 
sula, makes it necessary to supply each soldier 
vvrith three or four, aud to have in each Post, at 
cost of the Royal Exchequer, a drove of 24 or 30 
mules to pack cargoes from the Ships, carry Pro- 
visions for the Escorts and aid the Garrison, 
which, through the loss or considerable delay of 
a vessel, might lack the most necessary Seeds 
and Goods. For these reasons, that of the carry- 
ing of Rations to the Settlers of the new Town of 
San Jo.s6 Guadalupe and to the Town (if it is de- 
cided to found one) and for the other labors to be 
incurred in establishing the Post and Missions 
in the Pass of Santa Barbara — to which for the 
first year all food and other necessities must be 
carried by land — besides the need of hauling in 
wagons, henceforth, the produce of the Towns 
to supply the Posts; since it is impossible to put 
these Troops on a cavalry footing like those of 
the Frontier until facilitated by the increase of 
the horse-herds in the Peninsula, it is proper 
that when the Herds of lyoretoand San Francisco 
are filled to the number ot 24 mules (each with 
its trappings) and that of San Diego with 30 
mules, 30 others be supplied to the Post which 
must be located in the Pass equally equipped. 
All this at cost of the Royal Exchequer; their 



8o 

keep, the replacing of those that die or become 
useless, the repair of harness and other belohg, 
ings, and the pay of one Muleteer in each Post- 
being charged to the allowance fund, as a gen- 
eral expense henceforih. If, owing to other uses 
to which it is destined, the fund will not cover 
this expense, let the deficit tbe charged to the 
General Fund of the Companies, which are at all 
times responsible for the stock 'of said Herds, 
that of Monterey included, which now has 40 
pack mules. 

8. It being indispensable to furnish the trades 
of Carpentry and Blacksmithing to these recent 
acquisitions of Monterey, the two Master Mechan- 
ics, the Carpenter and three Blacksmiths now 
there shall remain, at the wages assigned them. 
This expense shall be included as part of the 
Allowance of Monterey and San Diego to which 



7-^ 

tan, Teni 



cio^, si?ndo ette e! unico q-jc par esU rajon ha dc impender la Real 
Haciend.i : piles quedaiido a beneficio de e«os estabieciiiiientos todos 
los utiles, y herramieiitas correspondieiues i dichos oficios y el de Al- 
banil. que se«n existemes en la entrega que ha dc fornialiiarse a lo^ 
HabilUacoi, ha de costearse de su conservacion y reparo, y el produc- 
to de lac composiciones y obras que se hagaii a partkulares , aplican- 
dos<; el sobrante que resulte a el pago u racion de quatro Aprt-ndiccs 
que h«n de solicitarse para dichos oficios, a cuyo efeilo ha de llevar- 
se la corrfspondientecuenta;debiendose entender interina la conser- 
vacion dc los referidos ofici9s,y rejpeftivo gasto de la Real Hacienda.- 

TITULOSEGUNDO. 

Pie, paga y gratificacion de los Companias y Dcpendientes de 

Presidios y Depart amcnto de Marina dc Loreto : pucstos que 

luhre lu Tropa,y distancias a que cstau situodos. 

I A Coirpania del Presidio de Loreto, Cabecera de la antigua 
|_^ California, consta y ha de permancccr en el pie i: Capi- 
tan, Teniente, Alferez, y quarenta y quatro Plazas, iiiclusos dos Sar- 
centos r «"« Cavos, con que debe conseryar el pcqueno Destacameii- 
to de uh Sargcnto y jeis Soldados en el Real de Santa Anna del Sur, 
distanto cien l-"iias del Presidio: cubrexon un Oficial subalterno, dos 
Cavos y veinte'y tres Soldados las tees MUiones de la Frontera del 
None, cuyo intervalo se regula de doscientas ochenia leguas de la ul- 
tima i LofMo , donde ha de ccntinuar la existencia del Capitan, un 
Oficial' subalterno, que ha de set el flabilittdo, un Sargrnto, un Cavo 
y dirz Soldados: dista del siguiente trescientas cincuenta leguas. 

s El de San Diego constara de Teniente, Alferei, y cmcuent* 
V dos Plazas, inclusos un Sargento y <^inco Cavos, aumentandoise al 
pieaflual el empleode Alferez. Debe cubtir Us t»es Misionesde su 
distrito con un Cavo y cinco Soldados cada una, y vetlficada la funda- 
'cion del nuevo Pueblo, poddra en el una Salvaguardia de quatro Sol- 
dados "lie solo permanecera los dos primeros afios: con lo que queda 
reducidalaGuarniciona un Teaiente, un Allerei,y treinta Plaias- 
inclusos un Sargento y dos Cavos, con que ha de ateoder a las salidas 
y demas funciones del Servicio: regulaudo al que sigue ciento seteota 

• •! Et de SatwCailos de Monterrey consuri de las mismas Plaxas 
^" B cue 

p. 5 

they are set aside, this being the only one for 
this purpose to be met by the Royal Exchequer. 
Since all the tools and irons pertaining to those 
trades and that of Stone-mason, which are in- 
cluded in the delivery to be made to the Pay- 
masters, are to remain for the benefit of the set- 
tlements, the Paymasters are charged with 
their preservation and repair and with receipts 
for the work done for individuals, applying any 
surplus to the wages or rations of four Appren- 
tices, to be sought to learn these trades, whereof 
the due account must be kept. Meantime the 
continuance of these trades and the respective 
cost to the Royal Exchequer are to be under- 
stood. 

SECOND TITLB. 

Footing, pay and gratuities of the companies and 
Dependents of Posts, and Marines of I^oreto; 
posts covered by the Troops, and their distance 
apart. 

I . The Company of the Post of Loreto, Capital 
ofthe old Caliiornia, is and shall remain on the 
footing of Captain, Lieutenant, Ensign and 44 
Recruits, including two Sergeants and three 
Corporals. With this it should maintain the 
small detachment of a Sergeant and six Soldiers 
in the Real [mining town] of Santa Ana of the 
South, distant 100 {Spanish] leagues* [416 miles | 

•A Spanish league was 22,000 feet. 



from the Post. It covers with a subaltern Officer 
two Corporals and 23 Soldiers, the three Missions 
of the North Frontier, which are at intervals in 
the 280 leagues [i 166 miles] between the last of 
them and Loreto. At Loreto must remain the 
Captain, one subaltern Officer (who must be the 
Paymaster), one Sergeant, one Corporal and lo 
Soldiers. It is distant 350 leagues [1458 miles] 
from the following: 

2. The footing of San Diego shall be of Lieu- 
tenant, Fnsign and 52 Enlisted men, including 
one Sergeant and five Corporals, the rank of 
Ensign being added to the present footing. It 
should cover the three Missions of its district 
with one Corporal and five Soldiers apiece. Up- 
on the founding of the new Pueblo [town] it 
shall place therein a Safeguard of four Soldiers, 
who shall remain only the first two years. Thus 
the Garrison [San Diego] will be reduced to one 
Lieutenant, one Ensign and thirty men, includ- 
ing a Sergeant and two Corporals, wherewith it 
shall attend to the sorties and other duties of the 
Service. To the next is 170 leagues [708 miles]. 

3. That of San Carlos de Monterrey shall be of 

6. 

que el antecedente, proveyendose a la Compania los empleos de T^ 
oiente y Alferez: quedaran suprimidas fes Plazas sencillas desua£iual 
pie: debe continuar las Escoltas de un Cavo y cinco Soldados en cad/ 
una de las tres Misiones de su pettenencia : liene empleados quatru 
Soldados en el Pueblo de S. Joseph; y quedar.in existentes en la Guar- 
nicion para las funciones del Servicio un Teniente, un Alferez, un Sar- 
gento, dos Cavos , y veinte y sietc Soldados. Se halla quarenta y dos 
leguas del que sigue. 

4. El de San Francisco constara de Teniente, Aiferez, y treinta 
y una Plazas, inclusos un Sargento y quatro Cavos: se aunienta a su 
aiSual pie el empleo dc Alferez, y se le suprinien tres Plazas sencillas: 
debe cubrir con dos Cavos y dicz Soldados las dos Misiones de su tcr- 
mino; y le resultaran para el servicio del Presidio y salidas un Tenien- 
te, Alferez, y diez y ooeve Plazas, inclusos un Sargento y dos Cavos. 

J. El Canal de Santa Barbara se halla a setenia j quatro leguas 
del Presidio de S. Diego, y setenta del de Monterrey : se dilata entte 
la Costs y Sierra de la Cieneguilla coino vediie y~5eis leguas, siendo 
media a tres quartos su mayor anchurs; es lleno de altas lomerlas, barraii- 
cosy quiebr«sprofundas,cuyo preciso paso, en que se regubndeocho 
adiez mil Gentiles los que pueblan veinte y una Rancherias numerosas 
que a cottas distancias estan situadas en las aliuras y puntas conliguas 
a la Flaya, i cuya imnediacion, bieo sea por ella, 6 por laaltura,di- 
rige el camino real, lo que evjdencia el ricsgo a que pasan expuestas 
lai pequenas Partidas que le giran , y que si algun incidentc pone de 
inaUfe,6 dedara enemiga aquella Gentilldad, quedaria cortada la 
comunicacion de los antiguos y nuevos Establecimientos,cuyos urgen- 
ies motivos han fundado la detetminacion de 0(:upar este paso .n la 
forma siguiente. 

6. £1 Presidio que tia de situarse eo el centro del Canal constara 
«U Compai'iia de Teniente, Alferez, y veinte y pueve Plazas, indusoa 
vn Sargento y dos Cabos: ha. dg esiabjecerse a su abrigo una Reduc- 
tion, que en sdelante variara su posicioa a el parage inmediato que 
proporcione mas tisrras y suficiente agua para el beneficio de Ubores, 
yentonces ha de darsele de la Guarnicion la Escoltadeun C^vo ycin* 
CO Soldados: debeo fundfir$e a los estremos de djcho Canal para su 
perfefla ocupacion ottas dos Redwccioijes, y gva">«<:erte <;qji mi Sar- 
gento y catorce Soldados cqda uoa < ?a qpnsideri^at) dich^iPlfaas co- 
ino supcrnumerarias a la Compania del Presidio, interin te aseguran 
e»os Estableciniientq^ <^d la paz /'twpa adt^isJQU d« U. Qentilidad;^ 



the same number of men as the preceeding, add- 
ing to the company a Lieutenant and Ensign. 
Three privates of its present footing shall be abol- 
ished. It shall continue the escorts (of one Cor- 
poral and 5 Soldiers) in each of the three Mis- 
sions of its territory. It has four Soldiers em- 
ployed in the Pueblo of San Jos6; and there shall 
remain in the Garrison, for the duties of the 
Service, a Lieutenant, an Ensign, a Sergeant, two 
Corporals and 27 Soldiers. It is 27 leagues [112 
miles] from the next. 

4. That of San Francisco will consist of Lieu- 
tenant, Ensign, and 31 Men, including a Sergeant 
and 4 Corporals. An Ensign is added to its pres- 
ent footing, and three privates subtracted. It 
shall cover (with two Corporals and 10 Soldiers) 
the two Missions in its scope; and will have left 
for the service of the Post, a Lieutenant, Ensign 
and 19 men, including a Sergeant and two Cor- 
porals. 

5. The Pass of Santa Barbara is 74 leagues [308 
miles] from the Post of San Diego and 70 from 
that of Monterey. It stretches between the 
Coast and the Cieneguilla [meadow] Range about 
26 leagues, its greatest width being half to three- 
fourths of a league. It is full of high hills, bluflTs 
and profound clefts. In this indispensable pass 



8I 



are 8000 to lo.roo Gentiles [Indians^, who inhabit 
21 Rancherias, situated at short distances on the 
heights and points contiguous to the Beach. 
Near the beach, sometimes on it and sometimes 
on the high ground, runs the Camino Real 
[King's Highway]. This evidences the risk to 
which small Parties are exposed on it; and that 
if some incident makes those Gentiles treacher- 
ous or hostile, communication with the old and 
new settlements would be cut oflf. These urgent 
reasons have caused the determination to occupy 
this pass in the following form. 

6. The Post which shall be established mid- 
way the Pass shall be manned by Lieutenant, 
Ensign and 29 Recruits, including a Sergeant and 
two Corporals. It shall establish in its shelter 
a Reduction which afterward shall be removed to 
the neighboring spot which ofifers more land and 
suflBcient water to irrigate the fields; and then it 
shall be given from the Garrison an Escort of a 
Corporal and five Soldiers. At the ends of said 
Pass, for its complete occupation, two other "Re- 
ductions" shall be placed, each garrisoned with 
a Sergeant and 14 Soldiers. Said Recruits will 
be considered supernumeraries to the Company 
at the Post, while they secure these settlements 
peace and good admission among the Gentiles. 



conseguido con los rupidos pfofjrcsos que dcbcn esperarse en la cspi- 
liiuil conquisia, it reduciran proporcio.-iainienle hasia que qnedcii en 
la rej)u|ar Escolu de un Cavo y cir^ Soldados cada una: los .Sargcn- 
los se iiicorporar?.n de aumento a toCoinpariiss dc S. Diego y M6n- 
tfrtcy,y la^ disi y «eis Plazas rcsiantej se dcstinaran iRuat.nccerotraj 
Kcdiiccioncs que sc deicrmine fundar, en cjyo caso :e :gre(;arin i 
las CcHppanias maj inmcdip.ias de !os sitio: en que se veriflquc. 

7. El Siluado anual del Pte$idio de Lorcto sera 1 2 j : c ps. 4^1.' 
a qoc aRr'-ga^os 1 996 j>s. a que ascicndc el cortespondientc al De-' 
pai (»nieii'o dc M^iiin , que por surplus han dc acreditirse anualmen- ' 
te al Siluado del PiesidiO, ijiiporu 1 4 J 1 8 p:. 4 rs. disiribuidns en esu 
fornu. 

Pent. Al 

Sceldo anual del Capitan. j 500. .".: 

Pel Trniciiie. . . . .\ 6 S* • • 

Dil Alfiret 400. . . 

I)e cada uno dc lor. dos Sargrntos sii (». 4 rs. S» J- • ' 

1^ cada uno de lo> i;c» Cavo* iijpj. -675. ». 

l>c cada una de las treinta y Pueie plaias de Soldados' 

»ii7ps.4'5. 8481. . . 4. 

Por la OrauF'.acioii de iO(>s.<ouales por Plaza^^cncilla. 390... 

Total del Prcuidio 11511. ..4. 

DEPARTAMLKTO DE MARINA 
dtl Tcftilda PreaJio. 

SueMo de an Carpin:ero de Rivera a^ iikx 131. • . 

De on Hei.-ero. • uo... 

De UB Gaht'ace ^ 1 10. . . 

TrtyclacuM it U BtUmIra tl Pthr. 

SaeUo anual del Patron I10..« 

Del Guafdiaa . .-. • 84. . . 

I)e QCbO Wafineros a 71 ps. cada hoa. . > fj6. . . 

TnpulMton de U Lancba Lasrettma. 

Su Arraez al ano. 

De och» Macioeros a <$o p>. cada uno. . . . ; 

Por gano aauaj de rar'n;is .^tcorridas y arboladiiras de 

una.Balandta y dos_ Lanclus se rt^'an 400. . . 

.^ ..... TotsJ Si;iudo del Ptesi■^io y Deparumonto. 1 4 5.1 8. . , 
■J-—- - — 



84.. 
360.. 



p./ 

Attaining this with the' rapid progress that 
should be expected in the spiritual conquest, 
they shall be reduced proportionately to the 
regular Escort of a Corporal and five Soldiers 
each; the Sergeants shall be incorporated with 
the Companies of San Diego and Monterey, and 
the 16 remaining Recruits shall be destined to 
garrison other "Reductions" which it may be de- 
cided to found, in which case they shall be added 
to the Companies nearest the spot. 

7. The annual Allowance of the Post of Loreto 
shall be 112,522.50; adding I1996 (amount of the 
corresponding allowance for the Marine Dept., 
which must be credited annually as extra to the 
Allowance of the Post) makes a total of $14,518.50, 
divided thus: 

Annual Pay of the Captain I1500.00 

Of the Lieutenant „„. 550.00 

Of the Ensign 400.00 

Of each of the 2 Sergeants $262 50 525.00 

Ofeachofthe3 Corporals, $225 675.00 

Of each of the 39 Privates, $217.50 8482.50 

For gratuities 01 $10 yearly per private...... 390.00 

Total for the Post 12,522.50 



Marine Department 
of above Post. 

Yearly pay of one Ship-Carpenter $132.00 

Of one Blacksmith 120.00 

Of one Porter 120.00 

Crew of the Sloop "Pilar" 

Annual Pay of the Master 120.00 

Of the Boatswain 84.00 

Of 8 Sailors at $72 each 576.00 

Crew of the Launch "Lauretana"' 

Its Master, by the year 84.00 

*Eight Sailors at $60 each 360.00 

Annual cost of careenings, overhaulings 
and masts for one Sloop and two 
Launches, allow„ 400.00 

Total allowance for the Post and 

Marine $14,518.50 

•Misprint for 6. 



Qucda suprimida por cste Reglamento la Tripulacion de la Lan- 
cl-.a 3jn Juan Nepomuceno, cuyo fiuque ha de conservarse listo para 
armarle siempre que por grave moiico y por solo el lormino que dure 
b urgencia, scan prccisas las trcs Embarcaciones y a esw cfcdo one- 
dara el actual Arraez de Guardian de la Balandra. 

EI, SITUADO ANUAL DEL PRESIDIO DE S. DIEGO 
' itri rfc 1 3 1 62/r. 4 rs. diuribuidos en el ordea siguient^. 

Pecs. Ri. 

Sueldo »nual del Teoienie. 5 5o. • . 

Del Alferez 400. . . 

Del Sargento 463... 4.- 

Dc cada uno de los cincoCavos iij ps. 1115... 

De cada una de hi 46 Plazas sencillas de Soldados 

si7ps.4rs. itwoj... 

Por la Gratificacion de 10 ps.anuales por Plaia sencillj. 460. . . 

13801. ..4. 

Un Cc.'pintcro al aiio 1 80. . . 

t'n Herrero idem 1 80. . : 

Total i... 1 3 165... 4. 

T.L SITUADO ANUAL DEL PRESIDIO QUEHADEES- 
tahlectrie en el CmoI de Sania Bdrhra, sera rf« 7577 f j. 4 ri. rf ,jik 
cpegado! 61? 9 5 pi. pic hnforta el carresponjiente i las dos Escoltes 
que ban de picieerse interiiumcnte, asciendc i 1 4471 pi. 4 rs. dittri' 
tuidoi asi, 

Sueldo anual del Teniente J Jo- • • 

Del Alferez. ^00. . . 

Del Sargento. , ^62. . . 

De cada uno de los dos Cavos » J 5 ps. 450. . . 

• Decadaunadelasi6 PlaiasdeSoldadosiii7ps.4rs. jfijj... 
Por la Gratificacion del fondo comun i lops. por Plaza. 160. . . 

7S77---4- 
Escoltat. 

De cada uno de los dos Sargentos 161 p«. 4 rs. J* J"i« 

De cada una de las i8 Plazas de Soldados 11 7 ps. 4 rs. 6090-, .. 
Por la Gratificacion del fondo comua i 10 ps. por Plaza. i8o. . <. 

Tettl 14471. ■■ 4. 

EL 

p. 8 

This Regulation abolishes the Crew of the 
Launch "San Juan Nepomuceno," which Boat 
must be kept ready to be fitted out whenever 
there is grave need (only during that urgency) of 
the three vessels; and for this purpose, the actual 
Master will remain as Boatswain of the Sloop. 

TTie Annual Allowance of the Post of San Diego 
shall be $13,162.30, divided as follows: 

Annual Pay of the Lieutenant $550.00 

Ofthe Ensign 400.00 

Of the Sergeant 262.50 

Of each of the 5 Corporals, $225 1125.00 

Of each of the 46 Privates, $217.50 10,005.00 

For gratuities of $10 yearly to each Private 460.00 

$12,802.50 

One Carpenter by the year ^ 180.00 

One Blacksmith ditto 180.00 

Total., $13,162.50 

The Annual Allowance of the Post which shall 
be established in the Pass of Santa Barbara shall 
be $7377.50; adding $6805 for the two Escorts 
which must be provided temporarily, gives 
$14,472.30, divided thus: 

/.t C^ mm «rnr* "*' 



82 



Annual Pay of Lieutenant I550.00 

JEnsign 400,00 

Sergeant 262.50 

Each of two Corporals $225 450.00 

Each of 26 Privates, $217.50 5655.«o 

Gratuities from general fund of $10 each.. 260.00 

I7577-50 
Escorts. 

Two Sergeants at I262.50 $525.00 

28 Privates at $217.50 6090.00 

Gratuity at $10 each 280.00 

Total $14,472.50 



TTTULO TERCERO. 

VESTUARK). 



ASI< 
Re 



I como se h»n comprehendido f n Us Memoriis anualel h*' 

Ropas y tfeacK correspondiemes a uoifofmar U Tfop* de 

estps Presidios, siguiendose a! Soldado considerable airaso, ya porex- 

cedente lo que para vestuario se larha subministrado, 6 porque falUn- 

doS;isiresparaIaconslruccion,permaneren tiempo con falta de bt 

precisas prendas, 6 inuillizan e! genero errando su corte : deberan los 

Habiliudos pedir en lo succesivo el vestuario correspondiente a sus 

Compiniis, hecho a proporcion de tatlas, indivjduando las prendas 6 

vestidos perienecientes d cada uno; y como qaiera que el lodo del 

vestuario ha de ser conforme a lo preveaido per el Real ReglamerWo, 

asi como su distribuciort, se tendca p resenie, que no basundo para la 

co.itinua failga de este servicio un par de CaIzones,y algunos la Chu- 

pa, p.ira la duracioniie un ano.hadepedirse el aumenw de estas pre* 

das que se regule predso,e igualmente que siendo e.nbarazosa laCar- 

«)• tuchera de madera y dobles Canones, deben hacerse de iina hilera y 

£i SITUJIDO AyVJI. DEL PSESWTO DE S.ifjIP.I.VS veinle y quatro canones de oja de laca, que forrados en baqueta, fijen 

de Monterey lera tic 1 775: ps. 4 rs. dislriouiJjs de este iiioJo. unidos en la correa que ha de cenir el cuerpo, y a cuyo eleflo ha de 

r.'os. Rs. ser de vara y media de largo con el correspondiente ancho: la caiione- 

SueHo aniial del Gobernador /. 4000. . . ra ha de cubnnui una cartera de ftqueia suave, dara principio a seis 

Del Tcnienie .g 5 50- • • dedos de" la evliu que sera de laton, lisa , con dos claviUos y dos pe- 

Del Alferei. ^. 400. . . quefias boisas en los extremes de dicha canonera, la una con unpeque- 

Dt^Cirujana 4J0-;- no polvorin de oja de lata. 

Prest del Sargento • :62. ..4. 

Se cada uno de los ciiKoCavos 735 ps. I135..! TTTIIT O OTTAWm 

De cada una de las 46 Plazas sencillas de Soldadas xi j.«^i.V/ \l\jn.I\l.yj. 

ai7ps.4rs.. loooj... ^RMAMENTO T MONTURA. 

For la Gr.itificacion del fondM comun a*io ps. anuales 

POfP**" •. • 4^°- • • TTTAdeseren todo Igual a lo prevenido por elRealRegU- 

1 72 51. .. 4. Xl mento; y no siendo asequible poner la Tropa de esu Pe- 

Un Orpintero al auo. 180... ninsula en el pie de ocho cavallerias cada Soldado pir la dificultad de 

Dos Herteros con »8o ps. cada uno 360. . ; f" transporte y conduccion, se mantendran con las mas que se pueda, 

■ interjn que fomentada la crla en los nuevos establecLmientos,sea su- 

^*"* '779^---4- ficieaie a la Remonta de todos los Presidios. \' 

£. Respeilo de mantenerse la cavallada a la inmediariAn A^ 1a« 

IL SrWADO JNUAL DEL PBESWJO DE .S. FRA^■aSCO p^esldips, a los que se t.-abe diariameme »kaa y ^Je Tesundl 

strddt 8oiy pf. ^ rs.d'utriiuidtt en eiuformii. .'j .,-,./ ^ 

Sueldo anual del Teniente 550. . . 

Del Alferez. 400... 

Prest del Saigento. ..'■!.. .4. p. 10 

De cada uno de los quatro Cavos 225 ps. 900... TWTTJT> TTTT "R 

Df cadaunadelas26Pla7asdeSoIdadosa2i7ps.4r«. S^SJ... J.a.xis.u xxxi^xs, 

PorlaGratif.delfondocomuoa iops.anuales por Plaza . 160... Uniforms, 

Un Poblador en cada uno de los dos prlmeroJaVo's po'c" ^'^' "^' I- AS the Clothing and Corresponding gOOds 

sueldo y racion. 116... 3*. to Uniform the Troops of these Posts have been 

Per la racion en cada uno de I05 tres anos siguiemes Included in the annual Requisitions, causing 

que le estin cooeedidai. . .^ • 60. . . considerable delay to the Soldier, either because 

what was furnished him for uniform did not fit, 
or because for want of Tailors to make up the 
cloth they were long without the necessary skill 
or spoiled the cloth in cutting, henceforth the 
Paymasters shall order the uniforms for their 
Companies made in proportionate sizes, itemiz- 
ing the individual measurements and garments. 
And while the total of uniforms must conform to 
^" ^ . , ... ^..t n J .rao /- » the provisious of the Royal Regulations, and 
The Annual Allowance of the Post of \San Carlos likewise the distribution, it must be borne in 
de Monterrey shall be ^77,792.50/ divided tn this rmnd. that as a pair of Breeches (and sometimes 
manner: the Jacket) is not enough to last a year in the 
Annual Pay of the Governor $4000.00 constant hardship of this service, it will be nee- 
Lieutenant 550.00 essary to order extra garments in the required 

Ensiga... 400.00 amount. Equally, that as the wooden one with 

Surgeon 450.00 double pouches 'is inconvenient, the cartridge- 
Sergeant 262.50 box should be made with one row of 24 receptacles, 

5 Corporals, @ $225 1125.00 of tin covered with leather, to be attached firmly 

46 Privates @ $217.50 10,005.00 to the strap used as a belt, which is to be one and 

Gratuities at $10 each, yearly 46000 a half yards long and of corresponding width. 

The row of receptacles to be covered with a flap 

$17,252.50 ofsoft leather, shall begin six inches from the 
On*. rnt-n«.titfr bv the vear 18000 buckle*, which shall be of brass, smooth, with 

?mackSSths at $180 ^ 360 S two claws; and two pouches in the ends of the 

2 Blacksmitns at $i»o ••" ^°°-°° cartridge box, one of them with a small tin 

To^-1 ^^7.79^.50 priming-horn. ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

The Annual Allowance for the Post of San Armament and Horse-Trappings. 
Francisco shall be $8027.50, divided tn this form: 

A„nu,l Pay of the Ue„te„a„t ,550,00 ^^ A'iru,?.?ol,'""is"ft'\f SorptSfe'^l 

^i;„*r,-: 562^0 furnish the Troopsof this Peninsula eight mounts 

?rS;?ot»Sl=2,onFu.d;-i;oeaci.....^lLo f^l.^-^.^^^^^^^^^^^^lT?^:^'. 

T^^x^i <8o27 «;o come possible to Re-mount all the Posts. 

^°^^ »oo27.5o ^ As to maintaining the horse-herd in close 

To each settler in each of the two first proximity to the Posts, to be brought in, mom- 
years, for pay and rations $ii6-37>i ing and evening (if the country 

For rations in each of the three following 

years that they may be granted him $60.00 •"KtUI*" is properij ipeUed HebiU*. 

(To b« CoBtinaed.) 



83 




LAM 0M ARKS 



INCORPORATLO / ^ 

TO CONSERVE THE MISSIONS 
AND OTHER HISTORIC 
LANDMARKS OF SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

DiaxcTORS : 

OFFICERS: Frank A. Gibson. 

President, Chas. F. Lummis. Henry W. O'Melveny. 

Vice-President, Margaret Collier Graham. Rev. J. Adam. 

Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, 114 N. Spring St. Sumner P. Hunt. 

Treasurer, Frank A. Gibson, Cashiei 1st Nat. Bank. Arthur B Benton. 

Corresponding Secretary Mrs M E. Stilson. Margaret Collier Graham. 

913 Kensington Road, Los Angeles. Chas. F. Lummis. 
Honorary Lifk Members : R. Egan, Tessa L. Kelso. 

ADVISORY BOARD: Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R. ERan, W. C. Patterson, Adeline 
Steams Wing, Geo. H. Bonebrake, Tessa L Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas Cassat Davis, Miss M. F. Wills, 
C. D. Willard, John F. Francis Frank J. Polley. Rev. Wm. J. Chichester, Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Lee, 
Rt. Rev. Joseph H Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles. 

J. T. Bertrand, Official Photographer 

The work of raising $2000 for the repairs absolutely necessary to preserve the 
great Mission of San Fernando Rey* from complete destruction is going on steadily 
and pluckily. It is a considerable sum to be gathered in an American community for 
a purely artistic and intellectual purpose, and probably it could not be raised in any ot 
the great cities of the East so surely as it can be and will be in this new and more cul- 
tured community. The place of honor in the new subscription list was taken by Mr, 
James Boone lyankershim of Los Angeles, who contributes $100 for the preservation ot 
San Fernando. Mr. J. Downey Harvey, now of San Francisco, has just subscribed the 
same generous figure. 

A committee is enga§:ed in the canvass for public-spirit of this sort, and expects to 
secure in lump contributions a handsome sum. All memberships in the Landmarks 
Club are now (January 1,1897) delinquent. Membership is only $1 a year, and there 
were in 1896 nearly 400 members. It is confidently hoped that as soon as possible, now, 
all these will renew their membership for 1897. These dues, along with the amount 
expected to be raised by subscription, should aggregate enough to begin work on the 
great convgnio of San Fernando — for which $1000 must be in hand before repairs can 
begin. 

A course of lectures in behalf of the Club is now inaugurated. Rt. Rev. Geo. 
Montgomery, Bishop ot Los Angeles and Monterey, opened the course December 28, 
with an extremely instructive lecture on the " Secularization of the Missions." It is 
notable that the workof preser\'ing our historic landmarks is alike generously encour- 
aged by this Roman Catholic bishop and by the Episcopal bishop of Los Angeles, Rt. 
Rev. Joseph H. Johnson, who shared the platform and prefaced the lecture with a cor- 
dial address. The old bigotries fall away before the joint interest of educated 
Americans to save the historic and the artistic. 

Other lectures in the course will be by Prof. John Comfort Fillmore, the foremost 
living authority on Indian folk-songs ; Chas. F. Lummis, etc. 

The Club's present work at San Juan Capistrano was expected to be finished long 
ago, but unavoidable delays in the manufacture of tile to fill gaps in the roof of the 
original church have postponed the red-letter day. December 18 the work was finished. 
Not only is the last important building reroofed, but Judge Egan has had removed the 
debris which cluttered the ruins of the stone church, outside and in ; and has dug a 
well to supply the place with ^ood water. The Landmarks Club hopes that as many 
people as can visit San Juan Capistrano will do so, to see just what has been done. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CAUSE. 

Previously acknowledged, $1364.50. 

New Contributions: James Boone Lankershim, $100; 
Francii-co, $100; Rt. Rev. Geo. Montgomery, I5 ; G. W. 
Printing Co., $4 ; Aim^e Tourg6e, MayviUe, N. Y., $3 50. 

$1 each : Charles Walter Stetson. Grace EHery Channing Stetson, Katharine Stet- 
son, Pasadena ; Mrs. Hampton L. Story, Altadena ; C. C. Reynolds ; Edmund G. Ham- 
ersly, Philadelphia ; Mrs. J. E. Meeker, Miss Meeker, Miss Julia Meeker, Pasadena. 



J. Downey Harvey, San 
Burton, I5 ; Lang-Bireley 



♦See pp. 13, 25, December number. 



84 




3EANS 



AND 



FHE 



OLD 



/^HOSE 



PORK 



REGIME. 



CHESTNUT 



Just as a few men on the Art Committee of the Public Library 
succeeded in making Boston to be a pain in the equator of the 
civilized world, so a few more, the I^ibrary Directors, have been 
able to remedy our stomachs. MacMonnies's Bacchante is taken in. 
But Boston is far from unanimous in the desire to be acquitted of uni- 
versal derision, and the intramural war is on hotter than ever. Between 
what some people call morals and what everybody calls art, it is a very 
pretty fight as it stands. The Literary World (note the fine aptness of 
the word, and the Bostonian modesty of it), and the Boston Preach- 
ers' Meeting are most audible of the maiden ladies suspecting a man 
under the bed. There seems to be no way out of it but to put the Bac- 
chante to a vote of all the people of the city. Then we shall know pre- 
cisely what per cent, of a population can be exposed to brains without 
catching them. Meantime one concludes the reason why such very good 
people as some Bostonians haven't died younger must be that heaven is 
a little bit bashful about facing their critical scrutiny. 

The Reglamento "for the Government of the Province of Cal- 
ifornias," approved by the King of Spain (Carlos III) in 1781 
and published in Mexico in 1784, is a curious and rather rare 
" source " hitherto inaccessible to the average student of California his- 
tory. A critical translation — not literal but for the sense — begins in 
this issue : and (a novelty in such work) each page of the translation is 
accompanied by a facsimile of the original page. Thus the reproduction 
of this important document is at once interesting to the general reader 
and of its full value to students. It abounds in quaint touches ; but after 
all is most luminous as to the common sense and thoroughness which 
ruled California a century and a quarter ago. 

Sympathy is a very good thing in its place ; but so is the rou- 
tine of the proverbial gentleman who got rich by minding his 
own business. And a great deal of emotion to a very little 
knowledge makes a dangerous mixture. 

It is lucky that Uncle Sam has no business of his own for Congress to 
mind. We all know that business, tariff, currency and the like are trifles 
no one needs bother about. And so the bloodthirsty old men we send to 
Congress have their time free to amuse themselves. They are very 
humorous at play. Here are some of their jokes : 

Spain is making war so impolitely that people get hurt. This must be 
stopped. 



IS IT? 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 85 

The Cuban patriots are worsting the Spanish every day. and will in- 
evitably conquer in a short time. Unless we hurry up, there will be no 
chance for us to get the United States into a war with somebody. 

Spain is a robber nation anyhow. Therefore we ought to rob her of 
her last jewel in the New World she gave us. 

Spain is old and weak, and we could lick her like rolling ofif a log. A 
man who won't fight when he runs across someone he can lick, is no 
patriot. 

There is no end to this humor — nor end to liberating of Cuba by word 
of mouth. ^ But for real war it needs men. What the Lion wants to 
know is this — just how many of these fire-eating editors and senators 
are going to the front if they can scare up a war? Or do they calculate 
to get fat selling extras and blufiing the gallery while Artemas Ward's 
wife's relations go out and get killed ? 

Perhaps the prettiest witticism in American "journalism " was alone 
when, Matthew Arnold having spoken of the Nation as in its 

"the best newspaper published in America," a daily rejoined class. 

that "while the Nation is printed in the United States, it is popularly 
supposed to be edited in heaven." Besides the cleverness of the speech, 
there is something very funny in the idea of a newspaper so eccentric as 
to be consummately able and high-minded. 

Beyond doubt, the Nation is unique in America ; beyond doubt, also, 
it is of greater direct influence than any other of our periodicals whatso- 
ever. Its power is not in driving the multitude with a club nor in cajol- 
ing it with a sham, but in convincing a compact audience. Alongside 
familiar circulations, its clientage is small ; but the Nation is of the 
blood, as well as the temper, of that spotless American who stood before 
a taunting mob that mocked the fewness of the abolitionists, and stayed 
it and swayed it with that finest sentence ever spoken from an 
American platform — " One man and God are a majority \ " It is no 
campfollower of public opinion, but a leader ; and it generally has the 
satisfaction — after being alone and abused for its position on some large 
Cjuestion — of seeing the tardy crowd swing into line a year or so behind 
it. Its sheer courage, absolute integrity and broad intelligence have 
made it indispensable. Not to read the Nation is to be ignorant of not 
only the highest literary authority in America but the best edited and 
most readable journal. 

One could forgive an Easterner for not planting trees. It takes the un- 
some patience above the usual gift to wait till the shade shall forbidden 

be big enough for a grandchild to crawl under. But out here, tree 

where a tree waxes like a rumor, and reaches out even as the grace of 
God ; where a twig set in the ground today and fairly cared for will in 
two years shelter the whole family ; where almost every tree known to 
man will thrive — here there is no excuse for those who do not plant 
them. If we are not wiser than God, let us have God's green trees. 
Let us set them in our grounds and along our streets. We need them 
against our eternal sunshine and our blinding cement sidewalks. We 
need them for our eyes' sake and for our taste's. We need them to keep 
intelligent people from thinking us too Philistine to settle among. There 
is no danger of having too many of them. And incidentally let us have 
city and country officials who know enough to respect a tree when it is 
planted. 

There are^ people so constituted that they can see in such the 
figures nothing but the market side ; and there are others not land 

wholly ignorant of political economy. During the year which OF homes. 

ended November 30, 1896, Los Angeles, a city of a little over 100,000 
population, erected 2312 buildings — an average of six and one-third new 
ones every day in the year. Sixty-five per cent, of them were dwellings. 
This sort of a thing has been keeping up for years. What does it mean? 




THAT 

WHICH IS 
WRITTEN 






THEY 



MASTER 



OF HIS 



The easiest average game to the trap 

seems to be an Eastern editor. Not 

that he is probably so credulous as other 

folk, but that more people burn up energy and skill 

trying to bunco him. Travel articles are popular ; and not 

many editors have traveled much — at least in the countries 

the public cares to hear much more about. Western stories 

are always spicy to the East ; but very few Eastern editors know really 

as much about the West as a bucking bronco knows of the grace of God. 

So if the contributor knows anything and is honest in telling it, they 

are all right ; if he doesn't or isn't, they are made to swindle the reader 

who buys the magazine in faith that it will not leave him more ignorant 

than he began. 

These frauds are innumerable in our periodical clutterature ; and to 
catalogue even those that fly up and hit one in the face, without being 
looked for, would need all the space of this magazine every month. 
But the education of the benighted East must not be wholly neglected. 
The newest victim of the giiessworker is the Cosmopolitan. The 
November number contains "A Legend of the Navajos," by Wm. 
Crocker Duxbury, which is a monument. Aside from the playful rich- 
ness of the " legend" — in this case evidently the end that was ''pull- 
ed" — the history and the geography of the story are something that 
even a tourist might be proud of. That the Welsh taught the Navajos 
to weave; that the Jesuits converted the Pueblos; that there "was a 
Pueblo mission church some twenty miles south of Ft. Defiance," and 
much more as ignorant and ridiculous — it sets one to guessing what an 
editor says to the office cat when he learns just how egregiously he has 
been fooled. 

For a graphic and correct view of the Northwest — and it may 
also be said of the Western " cow country " altogether — there 
FIELD. jg nothing to compare with Theodore Roosevelt's Ranch Life 
and the Hunting Trail. Many writers — and a few of them as gifted — 
have tried to depict that wild, free, rough but manly life without know- 
ing much about it ; there have been rancheros as good as Mr. Roosevelt, 
and hunters greater ; but no one who knew the field so intimately and 
at once so broadly has begun to match his ability to describe it. This 
really magnificent book ought to be read and re-read, not only by every 
Westerner but by every American who cares to know of the types and 
conditions that have broadened and built up our country. It has just 
been brought out in a new edition, at half the former price but without 
loss of beauty. Perfectly printed, on heavy paper, and with nearly a 
hundred of Remington's best illustrations, its dress is worthy of its con- 
tents. The qualities which have made Mr. Roosevelt so valuable a his- 
torian are strong in this fascinating volume — the clear eye and the 
steady hand, the specialist's knowledge of his subject and a fine terse- 
ness and simplicity in his style. It is a pity that even the two or three 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. 87 

errors in the spelling of Spanish words should have been left to mar 
the perfectness of the book. The Century Co., N. Y. $2.50. 

The second book in the ' * Story-of-the-West Series, ' ' edited by stranger 
Ripley Hitchcock, is Charles Howard Shinn's ''Story of the than 

Mine,'' a worthy companion to its predecessor. Mr. Shinn, who fiction. 

has been known for years as a competent writer of magazine articles, here 
illustrates a vast field by a vigorous picture of a typical case — making 
the great Comstock stand for Western mines in general. He has as- 
sembled the needful facts in great mass, and by his unaffected, clear, 
and well marshalled presentation of them has made not a textbook but 
a highly entertaining story. In fact the average novel is not so good 
reading. There are a few local errors of fact — besides the generic one 
in. the editor's preface, which alludes to " Toltec legends " of mines, a 
thing that never existed — and a few blunders in Spanish and careless- 
nesses in English. But these do not affect the worth of the book, which 
is as valuable as interesting. D. Appleton & Co., N. Y. $1.50. 

Two unusually attractive volumes are Chas. M. Skinner's myths 
Myths and Legends of Our Own Land. The compilation was and 

undoubtedly worth making, and has been zealously done. The legends 

notion of " boiling down " stories from the prose or verse of Hawthorne, 
Longfellow, Joseph Rodman Drake, Washington Irving and their 
like (in some cases, also, stories wholly invented by themj strikes the 
reader with some awe — particularly as no credit is given. But Mr. 
Skinner had to "reconstruct" every legend or so many of them could 
not have been packed in these 653 pages. His retelling of the classic 
Eastern myths, and of hundreds of minor unfamiliar ones, is brief and 
dramatic ; and even the critic is disposed to be grateful rather than sniffy 
over so considerable an assemblage of United States traditions. 

The myths and legends are arranged geographically, under such heads 
as "The Hudson and its Hills." "Tales of Puritan Land," " The Cen- 
tral States and Great Lakes," "Along the Rocky Range," "On the Paci- 
fic Slope," and so on. The Eastern ranks are reasonably full, and com- . 
prise more than half the stories in the book. The Western representa- 
tion is meager, and that of the Southwest hardly a corporal's guard. 
One who knows that field is glad to welcome Mr. Skinner's volumes, but 
must wonder how he could fancy his collection "may claim some 
measure of completeness." He gives a few legends of New Mexico; 
but taking that romantic territory as much in detail as he has taken 
New England, fifty such volumes as his would not hold the legends. And 
unhappily some of his Western "myths" are nothing more than the 
wilfull fiction of cheap and hungry newspaper space-writers. Mr. 
Skinner also has a loose habit of making his Indians from Maine to 
California have a " Manitou." In fact the word is a misrepresentation 
wherever used ; and to use it everywhere is an absurdity. The book is 
illustrated with very dainty photogravures. J. B. Lippincott & Co., 
Philadelphia. 2 vols. $3. 

Every one who cares for serious knowledge of the Southwest two 
will welcome Cosmos Mindeleff's two scholarly monographs mportant 

Casa Grande Ruin and Aboriginal Remains in Verde Valley, book: 

Arizona, advance "separates" from the 13th Annual Report of the 
Bureau of Ethnology. Mr. Mindeleff is one of the small but important 
group of field-students (mostly young'men, all well-equipped and earnest 
ones) who are giving us at last sober scientific knowledge of this won- 
derful region. He has been for several years a critical explorer ; and 
his investigations are of permanent value. 

A pleasant little book of bird-studies of the sort now so in birds of 
vogue, and the only one of them that has a special interest to southern 

Southwestern readers, is Florence A. Merriam's A-Birding on californu 



»« LAND OF SUNSHINE 

a Bronco. To the gentle Easterner every horse in the West is a bronco; 
and Miss Merriam merely means that she visited onr smaller birds horse- 
back and acquired a considerable intimacy with them. Her merciful 
hunting-ground was the Twin Oaks valley, San Diego county, where 
her eyes and sympathy took hold upon 58 of our birds. The text has 
little scientific weight, but is engaging and of utility. The illus- 
trations of birds, by Louis Agassiz Fuertes, are of unusual value ; and 
the half-tone views are well selected. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston. 
$1.25. 

"•"•^OSE Alice Morse Earle, who has made considerable reputation as a 

GOOD patient delver among the oddities of our Colonial times, gives 

OLD DAYS. us a quaint and desirable volume in her Curious Punishments 
of Bygone Days. Her researches have gone far, and she is able to com- 
pare old English and other customs ; but the book concerns itself al- 
most wholly with the Thirteen Colonies. The bilboes and the stocks, 
the ducking-stool and the scold's bridle, the pillory and the whipping- 
post, public penance, military punishments, branding and maiming — 
to all these she gives chapters, fortified with extracts from the old 
records of court and church. These pages are not only flavorsome and 
highly diverting, but a very useful reminder what inhuman creatures 
our forefathers were only a little while ago. It is not every intelligent 
American who is aware, for instance, that the beastly whipping of half- 
stripped women at the cart's tail was for more than a century a New 
England custom in full force. The Spanish inquisition was not a whit 
more cruel than our godly ancestors of Salem and Boston and James- 
town. A dozen drawings by Hazenplug, in the style of the New Eng- 
land Primer, add to the attractiveness of the book — which is handsome 
in everything but its proofreading. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

ANOTHER No periodical of any sort is more rarely fooled by incompetent 

BELATED Contributors than the Dial. Its splendid reputation is precisely 

INNOCENT. because it almost never prints a review so altogether trivial as 
some Selim H. Peabody manages to have in the issue of December i. 
And incidentally while it would be vain to ask Mr. Peabody, one would 
like to inquire of the arm-chair oldwives who invented the phrase he 
parrots, why they could'nt use their brains and their eyesight. If the 
" English came to America to found homes " and the "Spaniards came 
with no idea but to gather wealth and get back home to enjoy it," how 
did it happen that the Spanish- American cities invariably grew so much 
faster than ours did, and were so incomparably finer ? For a typical in- 
stance, Puebla, in Mexico, had in 1678 a third more people than New 
York City had in 1800, and better architecture than New York has yet. 

A CHEAP Nothing else is quite so stumblesome to understanding as the 

SORT OF persistency and the fatuity of the literal y thief. Invariably he 

LARCENY. is a failure himself, invariably he gets caught and pilloried in 
his theft, but he still keeps on. One Clarence E. Edwards is the latest 
aspirant to the contempt of people with morals. Anyone who may have 
read in the issue of December 20, of such newspapers as are supplied by 
a certain New York syndicate, an article on Inscription Rock, N. M., 
and who will turn to page 163 of Strange Corners of our Country fthe 
Century Co., 1892) will see how calm a ratero is Mr. Edwards. He has 
never been near Inscription Rock ; and there is no other place on earth, 
except the book cited, where he could have obtained his information . 
His cheap and blundering rehash was peddled at |io per newspaper. 

The December Century has two contributions of special interest to the 
Southwest ; one of Margaret Collier Graham's powerful stories, and a 
graphic and prophetic study of "Our Great Pacific Commonwealth," by 
Sie competent Wm. E. Smythe. 







itt 




L A.Eng.Co. ''awful HEAVY." Photo, by W. C Mac Farland. 

California pioducU both— the sturdy lad and the 15-pound clusters of Sultanas. 




IN THE CHINO HILLS. 

Characteristic landscape of the " Rolling Country " of Sonthj 



t 



>*■ or 



SlYTLB.Zl'SY 




ED s 




WI7BRSITr 



.-:^t^- «»«■ 



f»^^ 



i^pit 





Photographed January, ISOti. 




Union Eng. Co. Photographed November, 1896. Waite, Photo* 

THE GROWTH OF A HOME IN LOS ANGELES, 



93 



^' 



The Arizona Antiquarian 
Association. 

'HIS magazine has frequently pointed out the probably unparalleled 
interest and richness of the Southwest as an archseologic and 
historic field, and the crying need of some protection for the 
magnificent antiquities thereof. With the advent of railroads to Arizona 
the "curio fiend" began to arrive also. To "collect" is one of the 
worthie«^t and most joyful trimmings of life ; but the typical " fiend," 
collecting in ignorance and greed, seems to gather less for learning's sake 
than for the sake of stealing something. These have been the worst ene- 
mies of science. 

Thirty years ago the territory was enormously rich in relics of anti- 
quity ; but no steps were taken to protect them, and the majority have 
been carried off by un benefited vandals — who have also reduced some 
of the most important ruins to worthless rubbish-heaps. 

Spasmodic awakenings of the federal government have been of some 




L. A. Eng. Co 



94 

avail. The famous ruin of the Casa Grande has been made a national 
reservation, and so on ; but hundreds of other ruins, no less important 
— and some of even greater value — are abandoned to neglect and com- 
plete destruction. 

To protect and preserve the remaining antiquities of this romantic 
Territory, the Arizona Antiquarian Association was organized a year ago 
by men and women interested in scientific work. One of its functions 
will be the collection of material for historical and archaeological study. 
The location of the repository or museum will be decided at the annual 
meeting in Phoenix, January 2, 1897. 

An equally important work of the Association will be to secure legis- 
lation protecting the prehistoric ruins from further vandalism at the 
hands of tourists ; and to this end are asked the aid and influence of 
all people who feel interest in such matters. 

Dr. J. Miller, of Prescott, is president of the Association; and James 
McNaughton, of Tempe, is secretary. 

A valuable nucleus has already been made for the projected museum. 

The accompanying illustration shows types of the more than 300 
specimens of pottery, ancient and modern, gathered by the president in 
the "province of Tusayan" (the Moqui country}, a collection excellently 
representative of the fictile art in that region for four hundred years or 
more. In it are many specimens of the rare and beautiful ancient jars 
of Sik-yat-ka. Dr. Miller's entire collection numbers over 1000 Speci- 
mens. He and other collecting members of the Association stand 
ready to contribute their treasures to the Arizona Museum if Territorial 
aid can be secured to found the museum and to aid the equally impor- 
tant protective work of the Association. It is to the credit of Arizona 
that this work has been at last begun ; it will be an enduring honor if 
it can be carried to a logical conclusion. 




L. A. Eng. Co. Photo, by I. P Rowley, 

L. A. COUNTY POOR FARM, NEAR DOWNEY, 

As seen from L. A. Terminal Ry Depot. 



95 



Downey and Vicinity. 



^' 



BY IRA P. ROWLEY. 

>HE fruit Stands and market stalls of lyos Angeles, even at this time 
of the year, are a delight to epicurean eyes, furnishing as they do 
abundant evidence of the glorious fruitage of a soil and climate 
which provide two hundred and seventy-five pound pumpkins, twelve- 
foot corn, two crops of potatoes, ten crops of alfalfa a year and 
vegetables all the year round. 

Trace these products to the precise region where Mother Nature (with 

slight assistance from the 
husbandman) brought them 
to maturity and the major 
portion prove to have come 
from the Los Nietos valley 
to the southeast and just 
without the confines of the 
city of IvOS Angeles. 

The purchase by Ex-Gov- 
ernor Downey of a large 
tract of land in the central 
portion of this valley, equi- 
distant from the *' old " and 
"new" San Gabriel rivers, 
signalized the cessation of a 
brisk rivalry between two 
aspiring villages which 
merged into one, adopting 
the name of Downey, early in the 70's. Situated in the midst of a rich 
agricultural section Downey has enjoyed a steady growth, until now it 
numbers nearly one thousand inhabitants, while its proximity to Los 
Angeles, twelve miles distant, with which it is connected by the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad, affords it the conveniences of the metropolis. 

The industries of Downey consist of nuts, fruits, hay, vegetables and 
stock-raising, a well equipped creamery, a winery from which is ship- 
ped to all parts of the Union the product of Los Nietos valley grapes ; 
a cheese factory, and other enterprises usual to a country town. 

The village proper boasts of some twenty business houses, five churches, 
a newspaper, bank, and an embryotic chamber of commerce in the 
office of Mr. B. M. Blythe, who has on exhibition various products of- 
fering dumb yet eloquent proof of the fertility of the land there- 
abouts. 

In educational advantages Downey is well supplied, for within a 
radius of three miles are to be found seven public schools. 

Almost all of the fraternal orders have members among the people 
of the valley, who convene in nicely equipped lodge-rooms in the vil- 
lage. A Chautauqua circle presided over by Dr. Q. J. Rowley, affords 




Union Eng. Co 

THE DOWNEY EXHIBIT AT LOS ANGELES 
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



96 DOWNEY AND VICINITY. 

literary and social privileges eagerly embraced by the refined and 
cultured people of the village and its environs. Altogether with its 
thrift, enterprise, social, religious, and educational advantages, its acces- 
sibility to the metropolis of Southern California, genial climate and 
other features, Downey well deserves consideration at the hands of 
people seeking a typical Eastern rural life under better climatic con- 
ditions. 

The question of a sufficiency of water is readily answered here : The 
two rivers before referred to, having their source in the snow-capped 
mountains to the north, furnish an abundant supply and it is a boast of 
the people of the valley that they have more water, and cheaper, than 
any other valley in the State. Within a radius of seven miles there are 
seventeen water companies, all owned by the farmers. Artesian wells 
are also seen on every hand, furnishing a never ending flow of pure 
water from depths of from^one hundred to five hundred feet, and obviat- 
ing the possibility of disease. Probably the best of these are tound on 
the County Farm, two miles from Downey. This well is down 275 feet 
and furnishes water for the entire institution, which has in the 
neighborhood of two hundred inmates, with a great variety of live 
stock, a fine orange grove, etc. 

The County Farm is an object lesson well worthy of the attention of 
the intending settler in Southern California. 

The possibilities that lie in raising a diversity of crops are here 
manifest. Here are domiciled 175 indigent claimants on the hospitality 
of lyos Angeles county. The majority of them have outlived their 
usefulness in their own opinion, and in that of the cursory observer. 
Yet this immense institution, with but four persons on its pay roll, is 
very nearly self-supporting. Seven years ago the most visionary person 
would have scoffed at the idea of such a tangled mass of fox-tail and 
salt grass ever being made anything of. Today its meagre allotment 
of land comprising 155 acres, including that upon which the buildings 
are located, yields annually $1500 revenue from the orange crop, a 
like amount from the sale of hogs, and $600 from the sale of eggs. 
All of this in addition to contributing liberally of these products to 
the larder of the institution and supplying milk and butter to the 
hospital at Los Angeles. 

All of this accomplished in seven years by one who, comprehending 
the capacity and fertility of the soil turned it to proper account, should 
as before stated go far toward convincing the earnest homeseeker of the 
vast possibilities awaiting him in this exceedingly fertile valley, blest 
as it is with genial climate, rich lands, healthfulness, religious, educa- 
tional and social advantages and a variety of pursuits from which to 
select those most congenial to his tastes. 






Union Eiig. Co. 



TYPICAL SCENES IN THE DOWNEY SECTION. 






READ THIS CAREFULLY. 

T^TiT? Q A T T?* ^° acres, i mile from Downey ; lo to alfalfa; 
■I. V/Xv OixiJJCJ good 4-room house and barn ; $2500. 

35 acres, 2 miles from Downey ; all to alfalfa; 20 acres were cut , ** CSs|i 

nine times last year ; $100 per acre. 

25 acres of fine land, i mile from Downey ; good 6-room house, Jl^^ .^^^^ '"h 

barn, crib and stable, for $2500. -^ ^S^mm \ 

20 acres, 17 acres fine alfalfa, cut 100 tons this year ; 2% to corn, " ^mS^P -^^ 

% acre to variety fruits ; good 5-room house, barn, crib, stable wa^^ x*""^ 

and chicken house ; $3500. ^ \ 

62 acres, i mile from Downey; about 35 to alfalfa, 25 acres in "^ """^ ^ 

com, 2 acres to bearing orchard ; good 7- room house ; all fenced 
and cross-fenced ; f 100 per acre. 

37 acres, 2 miles from Downey ; all plowed and harrowed ready 
to sow in iDarley and alfalfa ; 4-room house, barn, stable, wagon 
shed ; fruits tor family use ; $100 per acre. B. M. Blythe, Downey,[Cal. 

100 acres, 1% miles from Downey, all good for corn, barley, alfalfa or pasture land ; all fenced and 
cross-fenced ; 2 small houses ; |8o per acre ; ^ cash, balance i, 2 and 3 years. 

49 acres, 5 to oranges, fruits and beets ; 35 to alfalfa, which paid $65 per acre in i8q4 and $50 last year ; 
3-room house, barn, crib and stable ; good well ; $8000 — $2000 cash, balance to suit purchaser. 

42 acres, 2 miles from Downey ; 20 acres to alfalfa, 12 to soft-shell bearing walnuts, 5 to corn, 2 to 
oranges and vineyard and a variety of deciduous fruits ; 6-room house, barn, crib and stable ; $5000. 

B. M. BLYTHE, Downey, Cal. 



What a Record ! 



Policies due and unpaid, NONE. 
Has always paid claims on or before due. 
Claims paid since organization, over $400,000. 
Insurance now in force, over $15,000,000. 

Such are the Facts concerning the 

Bankers Alliance 

OF CALIFORNIA 

Now, you are a sensible person. 

You believe in good insurance. 

JVAa/ do yoii think of this kind? 

Maximum indemnity at minimum cost. 

Three benefits in single policy at cost of one : Life, Accident and Permanent Dis- 
ability. 
Annual dividends after five years. 
Non-forfeitable at end of seven years. 
Paid-up policy at end of ten years, if desired. 
One-half face of policy at age of 75. 

One-half face of policy in case of total or permanent disability. 
In case of accident, $4.00 per week per thousand insurance, for 26 weeks. 
Double that amount if injured by public conveyance. 
Number of small holders as compared with large risks increasing. 

to the insured, and the most at- 
tractive form of insurance in exist- 
ence for live agents to handle. Such 
agents wanted in twenty-two States. 

Address, BANKERS ALLIANCE OF CALIFORNIA, 
Principal offices, Court and Spring Sts. Los Angreles, Cal. 



Absolutely Safe 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



i 



^^^:^ 



"THE GOLDEN TERRACE RANCH" 



is situated neat the Santa F6 
station, in the northern part of 
the city limits of Pomona, and is 
considered one of the best and most attractive ranches in that vicinity. It has a beautiful location and 
a fine frontage on two of the main thoroughfares leading into the city from the north and west. It is 
noted for the mammoth Gold of Ophir rose bush, said to be the largest of the kind in the State, which 
covers the entire side of the house, extending from the ground to the roof, and climbing around and 
over the chimney. Over 15000 roses have been in bloom on this mammoth bush at one time. 

The ranch consists of 44 acres, all set to bearing citrus and deciduous fruits, as follows : 14 acres 
Washington Navel oranges, 6 acres in prunes, 8 acres in apricots and pears, 4 acres in olives and 
peaches, 10 acres in raisin vineyard, i acre in alfalfa and i acre devoted to garden and berries. Ripe 
fruit is picked every month in the year. There is a good house of 7 large rooms, barn and all necessary 
out-buildings in fine condition ; abundance of water for irrigation and domestic purposes. Deed with 
the property. Title perfect. 

Owing to declining health of the owner, I am authorized to exchange this beautiful home for 
property in New York city, Albany, N. Y., New Haven, Conn., Hartford, Conn., Springfield, Mass., or 
that part of the country. Value of the entire property, $40,000 00. 

. I have a number of other choice orange groves, consisting of 5 or 10 acre tracts, with fine improve- 
ments, at very reasonable prices. For information concerning the above property, and particularly as 
to the beautiful city of Pomona and the surrounding country, address 

FRANK P. FIREY, Pomona, California. 



NOT BIG ENOUGH FOR US! 

with an 8,000 edition as a minimum mark 
for the past twelve months, the Land of 
Sunshine has pa.ssed through the usual dull 
season, faced an exceptionally business-dis- 
tracting presidential campaign, and yet been 
able to close the year with an edition of 
12,000, which proved too small to meet de- 
mands. 

It has not relied upon the temporary inter- 
est accorded to politics, the heedless itch for 
social publicity, or the still less valuable 
patronage v on by premiums, but upon last- 
ing merit — and has won. What it has won it 
will keep, namely, a cultured, intelligent, 
observing class of readers, who know a good 
thing when they see it, and (whether it be a 
publication, ranch, lodging, garment, orna 
ment, or edible) have the wherewith to pay 
for it. Do you value the patronage of such 
people? Is a publication which lasts in 
their possession until read from cover to 
cover of 

ANY USE TO YOU? 




I,. A. Eng. Co., 2053^ S. Main St. 
Artistic Plate-making for all Illustrative purposes. 



Please mention that you 'saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



galifornia mission CucalyptU$ £OZeilge$^ 

A Positive Cure for Couglis, Colds, Sore 

Throat, and Diseases of the Broncliial Tubes. 

Endorsed by Pbysicians, Public Speakers and 

Singers in every quarter of tbe Globe. 

Riverside, Cal., May 21, 1894. 
California Eucalyptus Co.: I have used your Euca- 
lyptus Lozenges in my family with great success. It 
acts quickly with children in breaking up colds, and 
also in older ones in removing disagreeable tickling 

" ''-I-—-— _- .7.^=^^:^ sensations in the throat. 

J. C. Stebbins. 

Ask your druggists or send 25 cents to the California Eucalyptus Company, 
lyOS Angeles, Cal., and a box of Ivozenges will be sent to you post paid. 




PoirtDEXfER « WAWWORtrt TO PHYSICIANS 



BROKERS 

308 and 310 Wilcox Building, Second 

and Spring Sts., L.08 Angeles, Cal. 

Buy and sell Real Estate, Stocks, Bonds and 
Mortgages, on commission, make collections, 
manage property and do a general brokerage 
business. Highest references for reliability and 
good business management. 



Hotel B^^"^wick 



AMERICAN 
AND EUROPEAN 
PLANS 

HEflDQUAHTEt^S FOR 

COmmERCIALi TRAVELERS 



DINING-ROOM UNDER SUPERVISION OF 
T- RANEY 

C. H. PARKER, PROP. 

Santa Ana, Cal. 



GOWEN, EBERLE & CO. 



(ESTABI.ISHED 1886) 

REAI. ESTATK AND LOAN 
BKOKKKS 

$500,000 worth of good farms and city property 

to exchange for Uastern property. 

147 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 

References : National Bank of California. 
First National Bank. 



Comfortable practice 
and good residence, 
furnished, in most attractive town in the Rio 
Grand Valley, New Mexico. No opposition. On 
railroad. Easy terms. Address, L. R., care of 
the Editor of this magazine. 

FOR l^E^SE 

.^ A Fine Corner 

4th and Central Ave. 

Inquire 3300 Grand Ave., 

L.OS Angeles. 



THE PRINTOGRAPH 

A Rubber Composition Duplicating Plate. No 

Washing Required. 

Note size, per set (2 plates') - - - $3 .so 

Letter and Legal combined (2 plates) - 4 50 

Music, 11x14 (2 plates) - - - - 550 

Write for circular. Manufactured by 

HERBERT ADAMS, St. Louis, Mo. 

HUNTER & CAMFIELD — ",;VJ„,ce 

11 Q 1/ SOUTH AND LOANS 

11^/2 BROADWAY 
General Business Agents Los Angeles, Cal 
Exchanges Telephones! 



MAGfG 



MERNS WANTED omitV^a^! 

iHARBACHdiC0.809FilbertSt.Phila.Pa. 



Los Angfeies 



10,000 

Positions filled. 



C. C. BOYNTON, 

Manager. 

Associate of FISK AGENCIES, 
Boston, New York, Chicago, Toronto, Minneapolis, Denver 

Teachers' Agency 



A Reliable Aid to Teachers and Trustees. Manual Free. 



BOYNTON NORflAL prepares teachers for Co. Examinations of all grades ; prepares for Civil 
Service Examinations ; publishers Examination Helps: Primary, 50 c; Grammar Grade, 35c.; High 
School, 25c.; Key to Arithmetic, 40 c.; to Algebra, 25 c; to Music, 25 c Write or call. 

525 Stimson Block, Los Angeles. 

Please mention *hat you '• saw it in the Land of Sunshimb." 



city 
Property 

WE OFFER 



WOOD & CHURCH 



Country 
Property 

afineOKANGE GROVE of 5J5 acres close to Pasadena; ii acres 25 years 

old, and 8 acres 10 years old ; budded. One inch of water to each ten acres. 

There is also a variety of fruit and ornamental trees. Never oflfered before for less 

than $20,000, but ovsrner vpants money, and will sell at $11,250. It will pay 15 percent, on the investment. 

We have a fine list of I^os Angeles and Pasadena city property ; some are bargains. 

Mortgages and Bonds for Sale. 

123 5. Broadway, Los Angeles. Cal. Pasadena Office, le S. Raymond Ave. 

Hotel Burke, Prescott, Arizona 




^ ^ ^^ -^ 4y 4^ -^ 

AMERICAN PLAN 

The only Hotel with all 
Modern Improvements. 

Cuisine Unexcelled 

and special attention given 

to the Dining Room 

Service. 

-iJS- -iJS- '^ <JS- 'jji- '*' ■<^ 



f4ne Sample Rooms for Commercial Travelers *BlJrk^ 3c Hlck^V 
'Bus meets all Trains 



PROPRIETORS. 



C alifornia Hurios 



Polished and unpolished shells of all 
varieties found on the Pacific Coast ; 
Gem Stones ; Mexican Opals ; Japanese Cats' Eyes ; Orange Wood, plain and 
painted ; Pressed Flowers, Ferns and Mosses ; Jewelry made from Coast Shells ; 
5x8 Photos, California Scenes, mounted and unmounted. Wholesale and Retail. 

E. L. LOVEJOY, 126 W. FOURTH STREET 

Mail Orders Solicited. Los Angeles, Cal. 



HOTEL A-RCA-DIA, Santa Monica, Cal. 

The only first-class 
tourist hotel in this, 
the leading coast re- 
sort of the Pacific. 150 
pleasant rooms, large 
and airy ball room, 
beautiful lawn and 
flower gardens. Mag- 
n i fi c e n t panoramic 
view of the sea. First- 
class orchestra. Surf 
and liot water bathg 
a positive cure for 
nervous and rheu- 
matic disorders. 

Time from Los An- 
geles by Santa F^ or 
S. P. R.R. 35 minutes, 
Pasadena and Pacific 
electric cars, seventy- 
five minutes. 








S. REINHART, Proprictor 



THE LEADING SEASIDE RESORT 



Flease mentioo tbat yon **8aw it in the I«and of ScnsHmB.** 




RATES $2 AND $2.50 PER DAY 

Hotel HardwlGk 

W. H. GREGORY, Prop. 

Adjoining S. F., P. & P. Passe nger Depot 

First-class Meals 

El egantly Furnish ed Rooms P h 06 n i X , 

With all Modern Conveniences AriZOna 



JEROIVIE, JtRIZONa 



The Grand View Hotel 

J. A. KNABLOCK. PROP. 

American Plan. Rates $2.50 and $3.00 per day. 
First-class in all departments. 

The place for Commercial Travelers and Sight: 
seers to stop is at the Grand View Hotel. 




NcAv Maricopa Hotel (sV 



Rates Reasonable 




iviSRicopn, aRixoNa 

New Hotel, New Furniture, Good Beds, the same widely 
and favorably known Ivandlord, First-class meals. 

The Commercial Man's Headquarters and his wants 
carefully looked after. 

Tourists and others for Phoenix and the Salt River Val- 
ley, will consult their comfort by stopping at the "New 
Maricopa," as it is the only first-class hotel at the Junction. 

J. V. EDAVaRDS, F»ropr. 



JEROME HOTEL 

Situated on Main Street 
Two Doors South of Postoffice 

-^-^EUROPEAN PLAN 



I'^irst-class Hotel, Everything New and 

Clean, Modern Improvements 

Terms Reasonable 

Special Terras by Week or Month 



# 



CHAS. E. NATHHORST 

MANAGER 



LX 



JEROME. ARIZONA 




Please mention that you "saw it in the I«and of Sunshink. 



Hb;OKlA. 



Situated fourteen miles North of Phoenix, Arizona, and within the choicest sec- 
tion of the now famous " Salt River Valley. " Climate, soil and water unsurpased ; 




RAISED ON AI.FALFA. 

good public schools. We desire the right class of actual settlers, and in order to 
secure them we offer to all such * bed-rock " prices. 

^»- FIRST COME SECURE FIRST CHOICE -^^a 
Don't delay, but investigate this at once. Choice improved farms $50 per acre; 
Unimproved lands $25 per acre. All within one mile of the finest Depot on the 
"North and South Road," which is the "Santa F6, Prescott & Phoenix Railway." 




A BIT OF PEORIA LAND. 

To those who will build, either a home or business house, within the town of 
Peoria, we will donate lots FREE OF charge. Secure yourself a home in this "Sun- 
Kissed " land of plenty while the price is within your reach. 

Address : 

H. C. MANN, Peoria, Arizona, 

RESIDENT AGENT 



COMMERCIAL HOTEL, ''"^TmzoNA 

^^B,,,^^ "^ The Leading Hotel 

^-^ .^ 



OF ARIZONA 

00 Rooms, New, Clean and 
Well Ventilated. 




Arranged throughout with 

special reference to the 

traveling Public. 

Suites of rooms for Families 
GEO. H. N. I.UHR8, 

PROPRIETOR. 



piNE I^ALF-TONE pRINTIN6 



A SPECIALTY 



I^INGSLEY 
gARNES 
& 

Co. 




Printers and Binders to « i-i s o^..^.. o^^^.^... ... 

" LaKD OF SUHSHIKB." 123 SoUTH BROADWAY 




9^a^ 



OF L.OS ANGKLES. 

Capital Stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 230,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest., W.G. Kerckhoff, V.Pres. 

Frank A. Gibson, Cashier. 

G. B. Shaffer, Assistant Cashier. 

directors: 

J. M. Elliott, F. Q. Story, J. D. Hooker, 

J. D. Bicknell. H. Jevne, W. C. Patterson 

W. G. KerckhoflF. 

No public funds or other preferred deposits 

received by this bank. 







[pDaD[Ly[p^ 

[S[L(S)(5CS°3 



^TkEET 



the jf merican Ttaly ^^.^^ 

This work is an artistic, glowing and accurate 
portrayal of "God's country," containing: 800 
pages, including 130 elegant half-tones of 
the best things in Southern California. It is an 
accurate portrayal of what the stranger would 
like to know, and what the resident would 
like all the world to know of the IvAND OF 
ETERNAL SPRING. 

I^or Sale at all Bookstores, or J. W. Hanson, 
J 200 Pasadena Ave., Pasadena, Cal. 

OLDEST AND LARGEST BANK IN SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

Farmers and Merchants Bank 

OF LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Capital (paid up) - - $500,000.00 
Surplus and Reserve - - 875,000.00 



Total - - $1,375,000.00 

OFFICERS : 

I. W. Hellman President- 

H. W. Hellman Vice-President 

Henry J. Fleishman Cashier 

G. A. J. Heimann Assistant Cashier 

DIRECTORS : 

W. H. Perry, C. E. Thom, J. F. Francis, 
O. W, Childs, I. W Hellman, Jr., T. I,. Duqub,. 
A. Glassf.ll, H. W. Hellman, I. W. Hellman. 
Special Collection Department. Correspond- 
ence Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 



Please mention that you ** saw it in the T^and op SumSOUTB." 



PUBLISHERS' Department. 



The L^rvd of ^arv^bii\€ 



THE MAGAZINE OF CALIFORNIA 
AND THE SOUTHWEST 



$1.00 A YEAR. lo Cents a Copy. 

Foreign Rates $1.50 a Year. 



ttntered at the I,os Angeles Postofl&ce as second- 
class matter. 

Published monthly by 

Tfie Land of Sunsfiine Pubfisfiing Co. 



601-803 8TIMSON BUILDING, LOS ANGCLE8. CAL. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 
W. C. Patterson .... President 
Chas. F. Lummis, V.-Prest. & Managing Editor 
P. A. Pattee - Secretary and Business Mgr. 
H. J. Fleishman .... Treasurer 
Chas. Cassat Davis .... Attorney 



STOCKHOI.DERS 



Chas. Forman 

D. Freeman 
F. W. Braun 
Jno. F. Francis 
C. G. Baldwin 
S. H, Mott 

W. C. Patterson 

E. W. Jones 

H. J. Fleishman 
Louis Replogle 
Cyrus M. Davis 
Chas. F. Lummis 



Geo. H. Bonebrake 
C. D. Willard 
F. K. Rule 
Andrew Mullen 
I. B. Newton 
Fred L. Alles 
M. E. Wood 
Chas. Cassat Davis 
Alfred P. Griffith 

E. E. Bostwick 
H. E. Brook. 

F. A. Pattee 



Address advertising, remittances, and other 
business, to F. A. Pattee, Business Manager. 

Advertising business East of the Middle States 
should be referred to the E. Katz Advertising 
Agency, 230 234 Temple Court, New York City. 



Has Standing with the Press. 

•' It is cheering to read of the established pros- 
perity of this illustrated masazine, with its wide- 
spread constituency, its lively independence, and 
its genuine learning. — The Nation, N. Y. 

' Far and away the handsomest magazine ever 
published in California."— Santa Barbara /nde- 
pendent. 

" As much good reading matter as is spread 
over three times the space in the more preten- 
tious monthlies." — San Francisco Chronicle. 

' The ' Southwestern Wonderland ' is truly a 
land full of the marvelous, and this is by long 
odds its ablest literary exponent " — Ottawa, 
Canada, /oM^-na/. 

" Written with unusual force and point." — The 
Bookman, N. Y. 

'Justifies its claim to equal ranking with its 
many Eastern competitors." — Philadelphia 
Ledger. 

*' The Christmas number of this rich periodical 
is out, and it is by far the most interesting num- 
ber yet. Indeed, it seems as if it were almost a 
new birth, if there were need of its being born 
again to entitle it to live and prosper forever. 
And again let us ask : What's the matter with 
making it unanimous ? But if notthat, there are 
at least thousands of persons in Los Angeles who 
ought to take it and send East after reading."— 
Los Angeles Herald, Dec. 6, 1896. 



Strongly Endorsed by Readers. 

Pomona, December 6, 1896. 
"I cannot keep from writing to tell you my 
appreciation of the superb Holiday issue of the 
Land of Sunshine, just at hand. It is a feast 
from cover to cover In order to have my numer- 
ous relatives in the East participate. I have 
bought a dozen extra copies for mailing. I only 
wish I were rich. I should love to check a few 
thousand dollars to the Land of Sunshine con- 
cern, for, truly, there is nothing that is so helpful 
to Southern California as your wonderful little 
periodical. Judged from every point of view that 
such a publication may be, it is the very thing 
we want." Yours sincerely. 

Los Angeles, ii-4-'96. 
" I have just finished cutting the leaves of your 
Christmas number of the Land of Sunshine, 
and thought perhaps it might lighten your labors 
a little to know that they are appreciated. From 
the front to the back cover it is a gem of artistic 
beauty. Even the advertisements are worthy a 
frame. I send four copies a year to the frozen 
East, and am sure that as a magnet it is worth 
more to Los Angeles than all the newspapers in 
the city. Wishing the magazine all kinds of 
prosperity, I remain." 

Is a Prophet Honored at Home ? 

Recognizing that the Land of Sunshine is 
presenting California and the Southwest before 
Eastern people from the right standpoint, and in 
order to assist in giving the Christmas number a 
wide distribution, we, the undersigned, agree to 
take, at 10 cts. each, the number of copies set 
opi>osite our names: 

Name No. of Copies 

Ferd K. Rule 50 

John F. Francis 50 

C. D Willard 50 

F. W. Braun 50 

W. C. Patterson 50 

Chas. Silent 50 

The Los Angeles Electric and Lighting Co 50 

Simon Maier 50 

M. L. GrofF. 50 

S. M. White 50 

Bishop & Company 50 

E. W. Jones 50 

H. Jevne , 50 

E. B. Booth 50 

M. S. Severance 50 

John E. Plater 50 

L. A. N. Bank 50 

G J. Griffith 50 

Maier & Zobelein 50 

Frank Wiggins 50 

Sec. Sav. Bank 50 

W. L. Wills 50 

T. D. Stimson 50 

A. M. Ozmun 50 

H. W. StoU & Co 50 

W. W. Montague & Co 50 

J. W. Off 50 

Harper & ReynoldsCo 50 

J. Bixby & Co 50 

Stimson Mill Co... 50 

L. A. Ry. Co „ 50 

Main St. & A. P. R. R Co 25 

Temple St. Cable Ry. Co '25 

Fred L Alles 25 

J M. Elliott 25 

T. C. Gibbon 25 

Niles Pease 25 

So. Cal. Cracker Co 25 

J. S. Slauson 25 

Crescent Coal Co 25 

Davis & Hanna 25 

Owl Drug Co 25 

J. S. Chapman 25 

Pacific Clay Mfg. Co 25 

Willamette Lumber Co 25 

H. W. O'Melveny 25 

E. E. Crandall 25 

And numerous others with orders of ten copies 
each of whom space does not permit mention. 



Items of Interest. 



Musical. 

On November 23d Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler, 
the noted pianiste, made her first appearance in 
this city at the Los Angeles Theatre. The artist 
ranks among the foremost in her profession, and 
has won for herselt a national reputation. Her 
technique and phrasing is beyond criticism, and 
the difficult program was rendered with faultless 
precision. 

The Apollo Club gave its first concert since its 
re-organization, Aug 19th, at the Los Angeles 
Theatre, Nov. 25th. The membership numbers 
twenty male voices, and contains many of the 
members of the former Apollo Club. The work 
by the club under the direction of Mr. Robert S. 
Paulson was very satisfactory, and showed care- 
ful study on the several selections given, 

A violin recital was given by Edwin H. Clark 
at the Southern California Music Hall, on Mon- 
day, Dec. 7th. Mr. Clark shows a marked im- 
provement in execution and shading, and was 
favored with numerous encores. His playing is 
full of sympathy, which holds the closest atten- 
tion of his audience. 

J. Bond Francisco, assisted bv three of his 
pupils, gave a pleasing violin recital on Wednes- 
day evening, Dec. 9th, at the Blanchard-Fitzgerald 
Music Hall. Mr. Francisco is to be congratulated 
upon the success of the excellent program 
rendered. 

Early in January, Dr. G. H. Kriechbaum and 
C. S. DeLano, assisted by Mr. De Lano's guitar, 
banjo and mandolin club, will give the second of 
the series of receptions and musicales at their 
rooms, 356 S. Broadway. 

• Miss Yaw's concert in San Diego was a grand 
success. A large audience was present, and gave 
her a warm reception. Special mention was 
made of her assisting violinist. 

A good sized audience greeted Harley Hamilton 
at Music Hall, Monday evening, Dec. 14th, at his 
first violin recital since his return from London, 
where he has been studying with Sauret. As a 
result of his study Mr. Hamilton shows marked 
improvement in phrasing, bowing and tone He 
has a pleasant stage presence, and plays with 
ease and forcible execution His masterpiece of 
the evening was the Concerto in E minor, Op. 64, 
by Mendelssohn, which was rendered with fault- 
less technique and expression. 

The Mes.siah will be given at Simpson Taber- 
nacle, January 6th, by a chorus of one hundred 
and twenty-five voices, under direction of Prof. 
J. C. Dunster. The soloists will be Miss Beres- 
ford Joy, contralto, Mme. Martinez, soprano, and 
Marion Wigmore, bass. 



Art Seeks Climate. 

Los Angeles has a recent and enthusiastic con- 
vert to Southern California climate in the person 
of Mr. H. Sarafian, of the great New York rug 
firm, H. Sarafian & Co. Mr. Sarafian w^s ad- 
vised by his New York physicians to visit this 
coast for his health, and has but recently arrived 
in Los Angeles, after a short sojourn in San 
Francisco. That he is encouraged andcaptivated 
by our midwinter sunshine, genial temperature, 
flowers and verdure, is best evidenced by his 
having opened, at 315 317 W. Third St., between 
Broadway and Hill, a permanent branch of his 
New York house. The unique and beautiful rug 
photographed by Messrs. SchoU & Kleckner and 
pictured on the outside of the back cover of this 
magazine will convey to the reader an idea of the 
fine class of rugs which this experienced col- 
lector has brought to Los Angeles. Yet nothing 
short 'of a'visit to his magnificent display will 
afford a proper conception of how fully Mr. Sar- 
afian has furnished Los Angeles that of which it 
has long been in need — namely, genuine goods 
and honest prices in this line. 



Theatrical. 

Following "The Land of the Midnight Sun" 
"TH*: WHITli:s^UADK()N"waspresented 

at the Burbank Theatre, commencing Monday, 
Dec, 28, for .seven nights and a special NIGW 
YEAR'S MATINEE and a regular SATUR- 
DAY MATINEE. 

This is the first time this great patriotic and 
romantic play has been seen in this city, although 
it has been one of the most successful attractions 
running in the East the last four seasons. 

The play abounds with strong dramatic situa- 
tions, startling climaxes, beautiful scenic effects 
and handsome costumes. 

The story and scenes are laid in Brazil, and 
deal with an epoch in that country's history 
which cian well be remembered as the time when 
the sailors of the cruiser Yorktown were so 
roughly treated in the streets of Rio Janerio. 
The plot of the drama evolves about Victor 
Staunton, commander of the U. S S. Chicago, 
who, by his American daring and Yankee cun- 
ning, unearths the leader of the brigands, who 
for years had robbed all foreigners who were 
interested in the mines of Brazil, and proves to 
the governor that the daring bandit was an officer 
of high standing in the Brazilian army. The 
scenic eff"ects are simply superb. 



Arizona. 



Arizona is not yet a State, t)ut she will soon be 
admitted into the sisterhood. Arizona is not yet 
as noted as she will be within a short time, on 
account of her mineral resources and her agri- 
cultural products. So few people are aware of 
the fabulous gold and copper mines located near 
Jerome, Prescott, Congress and other towns ; so 
few know of the Great Salt River Valley, in which 
there are more acres of irrigated land than in 
any other similar tract in the United States, on 
which are grown all the more important vege- 
tables, fruits and cereals ; where oranges, 
almonds and dates ripen a month earlier than 
even in California ; there are so many who would 
be thankful to know of the health- restoring 
climate of Phoenix, the capital of Arizona and the 
metropolis of the Salt River Valley, a city of 12000 
inhabitants, with all modern improvements, 
where hundreds of health-seekers spend the 
winter. Reliable data have been gathered and 
published in attractive pamphlet form, which will 
be sent to all seekers after health or wealth, by 
addressing any Santa F6 Route representative, or 
Geo. M. Sargent, General Passenger Agent, Pres- 
cott, A. T. Santa F6, Prescott & Phoenix Rail- 
way Company. 

The San Felipe Hotel at A.lbuqurque, N. M., 
having closed, Geo. P. Owen, proprietor, has 
opened the Grand Central, refitted and nevely 
furnished it. European plan. Electric light. 
Rooms and Sample Rooms heated by steam. As 
the former host of the San Felipe. Mr. Owen is 
widely and favorably known, and his friends will 
need no further assurance of their comfort. 



A Valuable Accomplisliiuent. 

The attention of readers is called to the ad- 
vertisement of the Franco-American- School of 
Dressmaking, appearing in this issue on the 
table of contents page. It certainly has much to 
commend it, not only in method, but for its 
value throughout a lifetime to young ladies with 
sufficient foresight and enterprise to acquire the 
kind of knowledge which always proves a con- 
venience, and often a means of livelihood. 



EDUCATIOfNAL • 

S^^DEPAKTMENT T 

» » ± 




^^rfasdU 



Girls' Collegiate School. 



MARLBOROUGH SCHOOL 

For Girls and Young Ladies 
865 W. «3d St., Los Angeles. 

Handsome home with family discipline and refined 
family life, for twenty girls. New annex this year, 
containing assembly room, class rooms, studio, 
gfyninasium, etc. Preparatory to be opened this 
year. Girls graduated in Latin and English 
courses, and prepared for any college to which 
women are admitted. Extended course in English 
Language and Literature, and special opportu- 
nities for work in Art. History, etc. During the 
summer Mrs. Caswell travels in Europe with 
classes. 



CHAFFEY 



CAL 

Preparatory and Boarding 



AT ONTARIO 

K 'the Model Colonv), 

An KNI>OWEl> 

School. 
16 PKOFESSOKS AND TEACHERS: — 

(Johns Hopkins ; Oxford, Eng. ; Wesleyan, 
Conn.; Toronto, etc. 

TNDTVIDUAI. MKTHOD: The bright 
are not retarded, the slow not crowded. 
Graduate not *' in four years." but when 
necessary credits are gamed— be it earlier 
or later. 

CHAFFEY GRADUATES SUCCEED: 
5 have been Editors of their respective 
University publications ; 3 Business Man- 
agers : a number have taken first prizes 
in rhetoricals ; i, a member Cal. State 
Univ. Faculty ; i, a Fellow in Chicago 
Univ. ; 2 A.sst. Prin. High Schools ; 2 Edit- 
ors and publishers weekly papers ; etc. 

HE A LTH : The "College Home " is peculiar 
because of the motherly care of the ma- 
tron, the abundance of well cooked and 
well served food, and other conditions that 
make the new student healthy and hearty. 

TENTH YEAR begins Sept. 17, 1896. 
Address Dean, Williain T. Randall, A. M. 

PRIVATE SCHOOL for 

AND B/.CKWARO LnlLUntrl 

A Private School whose system of individual care 
and education is intended for children wHo, 
through ill health or mental deficiency, are de- 
prived of the ordinary methods of education. 
Highest Veferences from medical authorities. 
For particulars apply to Miss Allen at the school. 
MISS ALLEN, 

2101 Norwood St., cor. 31st. 



GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 

1918-1932-1924 South Grand Avenae 

For resident and day pupils. An attractive home, 
and thorough school. 

MISS PARSONS AND MISS DENNEN, 

PRINCIPALS 



Pasadena. 



MISS OHTON'S 

Classical School for Qirls. 

A Boarding and Day School. 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges. 

Los Angeles Academy 

A Boarding School for Boys 

Ideal location in country, near the foothills. 
Forty boys, eight teachers. Not a large school, 
but a good one. . Military discipline. $250.00 a 
year. No extras. Send for catalogue. 

C. A. WHEAT, Principal, 

P.O. Box 193. Los Angeles, Cal. 



FROBEL INSTITUTE 



(CASA OE ROSAS) 



CQEST ADAOIS ST., COR. HOOVER ST. 
UOS ANOEUES 

All ^ades taught, from Kindergarten to College 
Training School for Kindergartners a specialty. 

PROF. AND MME. LOUIS GLAVERIE. 

Circular sent on application. 

MISS MARSH'S SCHOOL 

1340 AND 134.2 S. HOPE ST. 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

An incorporated school for young ladies and girls, 
giving all the advantages of a refined home, ad- 
vanced scholarship, and the benefit of the climate, 
to a limited number of students. 
References : 

Rt. Rev. J. H. Johnson, D. D. 

Dr. H. H. Maynard. 

Major G. H. Bonebrake. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 



WE SELL THE EARTH 



BASSETT & SMITh 

POMONA 




OLIVES! OLIVES! OLIVES! 

T^EADER, if there is one fruit more than another that has a 
1 \ bright future in California, that fruit is the Olive. There is no 
fruit that has come into favor more rapidly, and the good 
opinion is only limited by the restricted supply of fruit. When a per- 
son considers the demand for California Pickled Olives and Olive 
Oil. and the price they bring, and then considers the amount im- 
ported to this country, and that too an inferior grade of goods, one 
cannot help being impressed with the bright future of the industry. 
Again, to those who are pioneers in the market and establish a good 
brand, rich rewards are certain. 

Our proposition relate.^ to the Howland Olive Orchard and Oil 
Plant near Pomona. Mr. Howland is one of the pioneers in the 
Olive business, and secured for his Olive Oil a blue ribbon at the 
World's Fair, a First, Second and Third prize at the Midwinter Fair 
and a gold medal at the Atlanta Exposition. His brand is favorably 
known in every market it has entered. 

The property consists of 2g acres at North Pomona, 20 acres in 
leading varieties of Olives and balance mostly in citrus fruits 
On this property is the Mill which is one of the best equipped in the 
State, and the average annual income for the past four years from 
the Olive trees on the property has been $4500. The orange trees 
are now in bearing condition and are producing well. 

In addition to the above is an undivided one-half interest in 120 
acres, 115 acres planted to best varieties of Olives now five years old, 
which should bear a good crop next season. 

The price of the above is !S36,000, which is $20,000 less than 
the same has ever been offered for before. Owner has the best of 
reasons for selling. Figure on the proposition and when you see 
the large dividends that will accrue to the purchaser when the larger 
orchard is in good bearing condition, act promptly. Come and see, 
or correspond for further particulars with 

BASSETT & SMITH, Pomona. Cal. 



HOTEL BALTIMORE 

EUROPEAN PLAN 

Rooms, Parlor and Halls Heated by Steam. 
The Electric Gars pass the door. 
Buttner & SnodgrasH, 

Cor. 7th and Olive Sts., L.os Angelrs 

Bees— Bees — Bees. 

I have one hundred colonies ot bees in ten- 
frame, dovetailed Langstroth hives, with Hoff- 
man self spacing frames. Every hive has two 
coats ot white paint and all are in perfect condi- 
tion. Owing to my connection with the Land of 
Sunshine Publishing Co , my time is so taken up 
I cannot look after my apiary, so have decided to 
sell. Parties thinking of buying can address H. 
W. Newhall, 501 Stimson Bld'g, l,os Angeles, Cal. 



euts 



AT HALF PRICE 



The Land of Sunshine offers for the firs 
time to furnish from its large and well choser 
Stock of over 1000 Cuts, both half-tones anc 
line etchings, any California and South- 
western Subject the purchaser may desire 
Send for Proof Catalogue and see if we car 
not both suit you and save you money. 

LAND OF SUNSHINE PUB. CO., 

501 Stimson Bldg., Los Angeles. Cal. 



GET THE MOST FOR YOUR MONEY 




If your dealer cannot supply it 



BY PATRONIZING 

HOME INDUSTRY 

Alberhill coal is mined within a 
few hours distance from Los 
Angeles, thus saving the con- 
sumer in this section from 
the heavy freight charges inci- 
dent to the New Me:!i or foreign 
product. It gives the most 
for the money. 

TELEPHONE MAIN 359 



^"b^VE^^T^oTHE Alberhill Coal Co., 1001 E. First Street, Los Angeles 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sonshikb.** 



ORANGE BLOSSOM COLONY 

(Near) OAKDKI.E 

STANISLAUS COUNTY, GAL. 



KLALS^TATC A6CNT5* 



Sales over $35,000 
in less than Six 
Months. 



Orange Blossom Colony has today the brightest; outlook of any Colony In the State 



First — Because it is fine, rich soil. 

Second— Because orange trees grow to perfec- 
tion. 

Third— Because there is plenty of water for 
irrigation. 

Fourth— Because oranges ripen 3 to 4 weeks 
earlier than- in Southern California. 

Fifth— Because it is close to the San Francisco 
market. 



Sixth — Because there are no damaging frosts. 

Seventh— Because it is a most picturesque re- 
treat. 

Eighth— Because a refined, intelligent class of 
people are settling there. 

Ninth — Because it is one of the few favored 
spots where citrus fruit grows. 

Tenth— Because Easton, Eldridge & Co. have 
the exclusive handling of it. 



Price of Orange Groves of any size, $175 per acre. Price of Orange Land 
with Water-right, $80.00 per acre. 

Terms : One-qbarter cash : balance in five equal annual payments, with interest at Eight per 
cent, per annum. 

An experienced Horticulturist con.stantly in attendance, and will, for a small consideration, care 
for the orange groves of non-residents. 

For further particulars apply to EASTON , ELDRIDGE &, CO., 

638 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Or to their representative, F. T. KNEWING, Oakdale, California. 




^^ 



226 S. Spring St., Los Angei^es 

Oldest, Largest and Best. Send for Catalogue. 
G. A. Hough, N, G. Felkbr, 

President. Vice President. 



ENTENMANN & BORST, Manufacturing 

Jewelers and Watchmakers 

Diamond Setters and £ng:raver8. 

Medals, Society Badges and School Pins in gold 
and silver. Fine Watch Repairing a Specialty. 
Any description of gold and silver jewelry made 
to order and repaired. Old gold and silver bought. 
217% Soutli Sprint; Street 
Rooms 3, 4 and 7, Up Stairs, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




IHI LOS 

ANGELES 

Business College, 212 W. Third Street, 
Los Angeles, Cal., has a full corps of 
competent teachers, large, new and 
inviting rooms, and offers decidedly 
superior advantages to those who 
wish to obtain a thorough 

BUSINESS 

Education. Commercial Shorthand 
and Typewriting, _ Telegraphy and 
Assaying courses of study, all in- 
tensely practical. 

Profusely illustrated catalogue g^iv- 
ing full information mailed free. It 
will pay YOU to send for it, and to 
make arrangements to enter this 
modem and progressive 

COLLEGE 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Lastd of Sunshine. 



MAKF HflMF ATTRAPTIUF ^he mellow tones of a good piano wm 
IflHRL. IIUIIIL. HI I IIHU I I W L. refresh and rest the parents, amuse the 
children and keep them at home. Do you want one? You say "yes, but can't 
afford it." Yes, you can. WE KENT 'EM. Come in and see us when you are 
down town, or send us your name and address and we will call. Tuning and Re- 
pairing a specialty, li. FL.ETCHER CLARK, Piano Dealer, 
^_^ 1 1 1 N. Spring^ Street. 

WHEN YOU VISIT 

SAN DIEGO 

REMEMBER ... 




♦ THE- 





t\ 



RATES 

$2.50 PER DAY 

AND UP 



T^imerlcan Plan Onl^. Centrally 
located, ^levators and fire escapes. Baths, 
hot and cold water in all suites. Modern con- 
veniences. Fine large sample rooms for com- 
mercial travelers. 



This fjagazine. 



IS PRINTED WITH NO. 168 HALF-TONE BLACK 
MADE BY 

California Ink Company 



OF SAN FRANCISCO 



WC ARC THE ONLY MANUFACTURERS OF 
FINE BLACK PRINTINa INKS 
ON THE COAST 

Send for Our Color Specimen Book 



Los Angeles Branch 

125 E. Second St. 

MAX MERTEN, AGENT 



The Ford Hotel 

PHCENIX, ARI2:ONA. 



American Plan: | European Plan: ^iaff^'^ 

$2 to $4 I $1 to $2 .<<#^ ^ 




Special Rates by the 'Week 
or Montti. 



'nMHimK 



B W. WATERBURY, Hanager. ^ 



iease mention that you "saw it in the Land op Sunshine.* 



$10 



PER ACRE 

FOR FINE LANDS 

IN THE 



$10 



FANITA RANCHO 

EL CAJON VALLEY 



1669 Acres for 
1420 Acres for 



$18,000 
$12,000 



CORONADO OSTRICH FARM 

Only Two Blocks North of the Famous 
HOTEL DEL COKONADO. 



Smaller Tracts for $30 to $80 per acre. 

WILL GROW ANYTHING. 

This property is twelve miles from the city of 
San Diego and two miles from Cuyamaca Rail- 
road. It belongs to the estate of Hosmer P. 
McKoon, and will be sold at the appraised value. 

For further information address 

FANNIE M. MCKOON. EXECUTRIX. 

Santee, San Diego Co., Cal. 




25 Grown Birds. Incubators Running. Chicks 
Hatching Continually. 

Feathers and Shells for Sale. 

W. H. BENXLEY, Proprietor. 



There's Nothing in Los Angeles 



So Cool and 
Refreshing as a 



CORONADO WATER SOUR 



MR. WHEDON, at 204 S. Spring Street 

Dis.ribu.es CORONADO WATER 



in bottles or siphons. 

Phone 1^04 



RICH 

FERTILE 

RED SOIL 



RICH ESCONDIDO LANDS 

Especially adapted to growing of Citrus and 

ot^erF^its. ^^^^ ^gg ^^ ^gg p^^ ^^^^ 

Abundant and Cheap Water ; Cheap Fuel ; Good Markets. 6000 acres in 5, 
10 and 20 acre tracts. For sale on easy terms by 

THE ESCONDIDO LAND AND TOWN CO. 

OKEICES 

I.OS ANGEI.KS, CAl.. I rr^rrt^nrnn r xx I SAN DIEGO, CAI.. 

305 W. Second St. ESCONDIDO, CAL. 1330 jj. Street. 

H. W. Cottle & Son. M'grs. | D. P. HAIiE, Gen'l M'gr. | C. Q. Stanton, M'gr. 



FINE SUN EXPOSURE 
CENTRAL LOCATION 
FIRST-CLASS 

SERVICE 
LOW RATES 



MAKE THE 



H ORTOfl 

J400SE 

The best house to put up at in 

SAN DIEGO 

W. E. HADLEY, Proprietor 



Incubators! Incubators! Incubators 




JOHN D. MERCER, 117 



LO8 ANGELES 
INCUBATORS 

AND BROODERS 
ARC BEST 

Poultry Supplies 

Bone Cutters, Alfal- 
fa Cutters, Shell 
Grinders, Spray 
Pumps, Caponiz- 
ing Sets, Drinking 
Fountains, Poultry 
Books, etc Cata- 
logues Free. 

S. Second St. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 



lARD 
fiOLUER 

:graVinc 

cor 




l44 We!)f^TKiT 
I05An6ELC6(AL. 



r*T A QQ Book Binders, 

vr J^.M O O Blank Book Manufacturers 

& LONG "'■^■5''="Si?^. 

Tel. Main 5.^ 



Los Angeles, 



Photo§:raphy 
Simplified. , 

Picture 
taking- with 
the Improved 
Bulls- Eye 
camera is uie 
refinement of 
photographic 
luxury. It 
makes pho- 
tographyeasy 
for the novice 
—delightful 
for e ve r y- 
body. 

LOADS IN 
DAYLIGHT with our light-proof film cart, 
ridges. Splendid achromatic lens, improved rotary 
shutter, set of three stops. Handsome finish. 




Price, Improved No. 2 Bnlls-Eye, for pictures 
8^ 131^ Inches, . _ . . 

Light-pronr Film Cartrldgre, 12 expognrps, SJ^xSJ^, 
Complete Developing and Printing Outfit, 



$8.00 
.60 
1.50 



EASTMAN KODAK CO* 

Booklet Free. Rochester, N* Y. 



GOING TO MEXICO? 



^ 



THEN STOP AT 

HOTEL TRENTON 



The newest and best hotel in the " Paris of Amer- 
ica." American Plan, Reasonable Rates. The 
Newest and Pleasantest Rooms. 
In the Most Healthful Part of the City of Mexico. 
CALLE DONATO GUERRA. No. 1222 



$100 AN ACRE 



m 



10 acres fine, sandy loam, all 
choice fruit trees ; 30 miles from 
Los Angeles, 6 miles from Ontario, y^ mile from S. Cucamonga 
S. P. Ry. station. Adjoining acreage can be purchased. 



For further information apply to owner, O. M. DAVIS, 
123 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 



DO YOU KNOW OF ANY OTHER WAY 

To get such a bound volume on California? Over 600 pages, over 600 illustrations ! Over 100 different 
localities pittured. Over 200 articles, dwelling upon the different phases of Southern California, and 
all for »2. 7 6. Don't you think, yourself, such a book is worth having ? 

THINK OF IT ! Twelve numbers of the Land of Sunshine furnished, bound and delivered 
for $2.75. 

There are many magazines of many merits — but there is only one magazine in the world which is 
in and of and for God's country ; only one devoted to California and the Southwest ; only one imbued 
with the beauty and the romance, and the prog^ress, the free Western spirit combined with scholar- 
ship, of its fascinating field. That one is the Land of Sunshine. 

Of its literary quality it should suffice to say that its contributors already include Charles Dudley 
Warner, Mrs. Fremont, Mrs. Custer, Margaret Collier Graham, Grace Ellery Channing, Joaquin 
Miller, T. S. Van Dyke, John Vance Cheney, Charles Howard Shinn, C. D. Willard, H. Ellington Brook 
and many others of recognized standing. 

Subscribe now, and thus secure the 1896 special X-Mas number. It may soon be out of 
your reach. 

It is only $1.00 a year, exclusive of binding. You have friends for whom you care a dollar's worth — 
and you couldn't please them better for the money. 

LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO., 

501-503 STiMSON BUILDING. 
C. F. LUMMIS, EDITOR. LOS ANGELES. CAL. 

Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sdnshinb," 



Cape of Storms 

By Percivai. PolIvARD, . . |i.oo 

" A novel of today."— Cht'cagro Post 
"Interesting and clever."— 5an Francisco Ar- 
gonaut. 
Printed on hand-made paper, with cover by 
Bradley. 

Beautiful Forms and Faces 

An Art Publication of the Nude, $i.oo 
Embossed cover in colors, with silk ribbon 
\S pages in different colors. 

Edition of tiie above sent Free 

Upon receipt of 
ONE YEAR'S SUBSCRIPTION 

FOR 

^be )ecbO 

.... $2.00 PER YEAR 

A humorous, artistic, up-to-date publication. 
Issued every other Saturday ; will be sent 
from now on until January, 1898. 
Enterprise Building, Chicago. 



"Western, Masculine and Gritty."— Harper's Weekly. 
S1.20 a Year.^^ You Will Like It. 
At News-stands 
10 Cts. 




Sample copy sent on receipt of eight 2-ct. stamps 

" Sports Afield," 358 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Choos? uJhat yoa uiant— 

gun, rifle, ammunition, rod, tackle, bicycle, camFra, 
canoe, row*boat, or any other merchandise that 
money can buy, 

and secure it u)itho(it cosi 

through us. We will supply any article you de- 
sire, free of charge, provided you get a sufficient 
number of your friends to subscribe to (Jameland. 
For instance, send us ten yearly subscriptions, 
and we will send you any $5 rod you select; send 
fifty, and yoix can have a $25 camera, or any other 
article or articles worth I25; and so on. 
SEND FOR FULL PARTICULARS and a free sam- 
ple copy of GAMELAND. Subscription price, 
|i per year. 

GAMELAND PUBLISHING GO., 

INCORPORATED, 

2 75 Broadway, New York . 

Rfinif AUATPIIR^ T furnish any kind of books 
DUUN HmHICUnOi on short notice and easy 
terms. Rare and modern books on Mexico a 
specialty. Address, P. O. Box 158. 

AGUSTiN M. Orortiz, Mexico City. 



Wi m mmm in mexico? 




Its mines? 

Its railroads? 

Its coffee lands ? 

Its commerce with the United 

States ? 
Its history, and its prog^ress along 

every line ? 



Then read MODERN MEXICO, the only illus- 
trated English monthly devoted to the Southern 
Republic. Ten cents will bring you a sample 
copy, and |1 will pay for a year's subscription. 

Modern Mexico's circulation is 10,000 copies 
a month now, and is increasing rapidly. 

Mern nexico PoDiistiinQ coiooy, 

106-108 E. EIGHTH AVE. 

TOPEKA, KAN. 



BOOKS 



Jones' Book Store 

226 West First St. 
Los Angeles 

NEW BOOKS 
SECOND-HAND BOOKS 

Bought, Sold, Exchanged. 



ii 



THE INVESTOR 



A Financial Guide to Southern California and 

Weekly Journal of Finance, Insurance 

and Trade. 

G. A. DOBINSON, Editor. 

Published every Thursday. 

Subscription, I3.00 per annum. 

Sample copies mailed on application. 
"The best journal of its class in the West."— 
N. y. Bond Buyer. 

" Commendable in every way." — American In- 
vestments. 

•' Has made an enviable reputation, "—^^rf/anrfj 
Citrograph. 

Office, 4 Bryson Block, I,os Angeles, CaL 

THE PRESS CLIPPING BUREAU 

OUARANTBES PROMPT, ACCURATE AND 
RELIABLE SERVICE. 

Supplies notices and clippings on any subject 
from all periodicals on the Pacific Coast, business 
and personal clippings, trade news, advance 
reports on all contract works. 

LOS ANGELES OFEICE, 205 NEW HIGH STREET 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 



I RIPKNS I 

REGULATE THE 

STOMACH, LIVER AND BOWELS AND 
PURIFY THE BLOOD 



RIPANS TABUI.es are the best Medicine 
known for Indigestion, Billiousness, Head- 
ache, Constipation, Dyspepsia, Chronic Liver 
Troubles, Dizziness, Bad Complexion, Dysen- 
tery. Oflfensive Breath, and all disorders of the 
Stomach, Liver and Bowels. 



Ripans Tabules contain nothing injurious to the most t 
elicate constitution. Are nleasant to take, safp efT«r>t-nn] J 



delicate constitution. Are pleasant to take, safe, effectual, 
and give immediate relief. No matter what's the matter, 
one Ripans Tabules will do you good. 



REDLANDS.— 



*«n| Ranches, Residences and all 

kinds of Real Estate in Redlands at reasonable 
rates. See Redlands before buying. Call upon 
or address JOHN P. FISK, Jr., 

Rooms I and 2 Union Bank Block, 

Redlands, Cal. 



Hotel Windsor 

First-class. Electric Redlands, Cal. 

Lights in each room. 

Centrally located. Suites with private bath. 
Tourists trade invited. Rates, $2 to $3 per day. 
Special rates by the week. Commercial Sample 
Rooms on ground floor. Telephone Black 55. 
RICHARDS & I.OW, Proprietors. 



LEAVE FOURTH ST 

Los Angeles for 

Pasadena. 



•6 00 am 



Posflfleno onfl Los flnoeies ond Posodena ond Pociiic necific Rys. 



LEA VE.CHESTNUT STREET PASADENA fob LOS AKGELES 



Echo mountain 



'6 30 am 
7 00 am 
7 30 am 




•Sundays excepted. 

fConnect with Mt. 

Lowe Ry. 



LEAVE FOURTH ST 


Los Angeles 


t5 55 am 


155 pm 


6 55 am 


•2 25 pm 


7 55 am 


2 55 pm 


•8 25 am 


•3 25 pm 


8 55 am 


3 55 pm 


•9 25 am 


•4 25 pm 


9 55 am 


4 55 pm 


•10 25 am 


•5 25 pm 


10 55 am 


5 55 pm 


•11 25 am 


6 55 pm 


11 55 am 


7 55 pm 


•12 25 pm 


8 55 pm 


12 55 pm 


<)55pm 


•125pmttl0 55pm 
LEAVE HILL ST . 


Santa Monica. 


t5 25 am 


2 25 pm 


t6 25 am 


•2 55 pm 


7 25 am 


3 25 pm 


8 25 am 


•3 55 pm 


9 25 am 


4 25 pm 


•9 55 am 


•4 55 pm 


10 25 am 


5 25 pm 


•10 55 am 


•5 55 pm 


11 25 am 


6 25 pm 


•1155 am 


•6 55 pm 


12 25 pm 


7 25 pm 


•12 55 pm 


8 25 pm 


125 pm 


9 25 pm 


•1 55 pm 


10 25 pm 


• Sundays only. 


t Except Sunday. 


tt Theatre Car waits 


close of all theatres 



Pacific Coast Steamship Co. 

steamers leave Redondo at 11 a.m., and Port Los 
Angeles at 2.20 p.m., for San Francisco : 
Dec. Jan. 

Santa Rosa I 3, 11, 19,27 I 4, 12, 20, 28 

Corona I 7, i5. 23, 31 | 8, 16, 24 

Leave San Pedro and East San Pedro for San 
Francisco via Ventura, Carpenteria, Santa 
Barbara, Gaviota, Port Harford (San Luis 
Obispo), Cayucos, San Simeon, Monterey and 
Santa Cruz : 

Dec. Jan. 

Coos Bay, 6:30 p.m I 4, 12, 20, 29 I 5, 13, 21, 29 

Eureka, 6:30 p.m | 8, 16, 24 | i, 9.17,25 

Leave Port Los Angeles at 6 a.m and Redondo at 
II a.m. for San Diego. Steamer Corona will 
also call at Newport (Santa Ana). 

Dec. Jan. 

Santa Rosa I i, 9, 17, 25 I 2, 10, 18, 26 

Corona, | 5, 13, 21, 29 | 6, 14, 22, 30 

The company reserves the right to change 
steamers or sailing dates. Cars to connect with 
steamers via San Pedro leave S P. R. R. (Arcade 
Depot) at 5:05 p. m. and Terminal Ry. depot at 
5:05p.m. 

Cars connect via Redondo leave Santa F6 depot 
at 10 a.m. or from Redondo Ry. depot at 9:30 a.m. 
Cars connect via Port Los Angeles leave S. P. R. 
R. depot at 1:35 p.m. for steamers northbound. 
W. PARRIS, Agent, 
124 W. Second Street, Los Angeles. 
GOODALL, PERKINS & CO., 

General Agents, San Francisco. 



L. A TERMINAL RAILWAY 

Cor. E. First and 

Meyers Streets 



Take Boyle Heights 
Cars. 



Time Table: 

PASADENA 

Leave for: 7:30, 9:30 a. m. 

12:40, 3.20, 5:20 p. m. 
Arrive from 8:15, 10:50, a. m, 

1:20, 4:35, 6:00 p. m. 

ALTADENA 

Leave for: 9:30 a. m. 3:20 

p. m. 
Arrive from : 10:30 a. m. 

4:15 p. m. 

SAN PEDRO 

Leave for: 9:00 a. m. 1.10, 

5:05 p. m 
Arrive from : 7 : 

3:45 p. m. 





LOS ANCELEJ 



ALAMITOi 
BEACn 



GLENDA 

Leave for : 

11:30*. m. 

p.m. 
Arrive from ; 

a. m. 12:05 

p. m. 



SAN PCOHO 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



(ALirOQNIA 
LIMITED 




THE QUICKEST 

Transcontinental Train Leaves 
Los Angeles 

MONDAYS AND THURSDAYS 

AT 8 P. M, 

Palace Sleeping Cars, Buffet and Smoking 

Car and Dining Car, under Harvey's 

management, through to 



DENVER 
KANSAS CITY 
ST. LOUIS AND 
CHICAGO 



SANTA PE 
-ROUTE- 



The schedule : 

Leave Los Angeles 8:00 p.m. Monday-Thursday 
Arrive Denver. 11:15 a.m. 

Arrive Kansas City, 5:40 p.m. 
Arrive St. Louis, 
-Arrive Chicago, 



Thursday-Sunday 
Thursday-Sunday 
7:00 a.m. Friday-Monday 
9:43 a.m. Friday-Monday 



IVestibuled Throughout. Lighted by PIntsch 
Gas. No Extra Fare. 



LOS ANGELES TICKET OFFICE, 200 SPRING ST.. COR. SECOND ST. 

Travel via Sailta Fc ROUtC 

MAGNIFICENT SCENERY aiia ASIl rOfK 

FIRST-CLASS EQUIPMENT 

and Dining Accommodations. 

NO DKLfl^Y 

Passing through the famous mining cities of PrescOTT and CONGRESS; 
into Phoenix through the richest section of the GREAT SALT RiVER 
Valley, noted for its marvelous fertility, agricultural products and 
scenic beauty. 

For information regarding the mineral resources or the agricultural 
possibilities of 

Central Arizona 

or for advice as to the train service from all principal points in the United 
States, write to any Santa Fe ROUTE representative, or to 

GEO. M. SARGENT, 

General Passenger Agent, 
Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix Railway Co. PRESCOTT, A. T. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshxnb." 



RUBIO CANYON, £GHO MOUNTAIN AND MT. I.OWE SPRINGS 



TIME table: 

In eflfect November 3, 1896. 

Cars for Echo Monntain and Alpine Ta^ 
leave Los Angeles via Pasadena and Los 
geles Electric Railway as follows : 

9:00 am. 10:40 a.m. 3:00 p.m. 
Returning arrive at Los Angeles: 

10:40 a.m. 4:00 p m. 5:30 p m. 

Via Los Angeles Terminal Railway, leave 
Angeles at 
9:30 a.m. 3:20 p.m. 

Returning, arrive at 

11:18 a.m. 5:00 p m. 

rates: 

Single fare tickets over entire system • i 
For 3 or more persons " " each 

For 10 " " 

For 25 " " " " " " 

Single fare to Rubio Canyon and return 

" " Echo Mountain 
For 10 persons " " - each 

For 25 " " '• - • " 

First-class Hotel accommodatic 
Grandest mountain, canon andoc 
scenery on earth. 

For further information call on or address J. B. El wood, P. A., 138 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, ( 
or C. W. Brown, Gen. Mgr., Echo Mountain, Cal. 




KILROY'S NEW PALESTINE AGENCY, 

SALT RIVER VALLEY, PHCENIX, ARIZONA, 

Well known throughout the United States and Canada, sends greetings to the thousands of readers 
the Land of Sunshine in the Fast, West and North-lands now watching the phenomenal strides 
Phoenix. " IVhen Truth starts on her onward match of progress^ neither the God of Justice nor Mercy t 
stops or stays her.'^ Never have "coming events cast their shadows before" with the same marked outl 
coupled with intrinsic merit as in this infant city of Phoenix — with rich gold mines producing, wit 
three short hours' drive by carriage; with one and one-half million acres of the finest land in the knc 
world surrounding her; with oranges, lemons, peaches, apricots and grapes, ripe and in Chicago tc 
kets from four to six weeks in advance of California ; with immense quarries of granite and limestc 
with inexhaustible supplies of coal and coke (over 40,000 square miles) ; and lumber (ten thousi 
millions of square feet) within a radius of 300 miles, every foot of the distance a down grade (railw 
to her doors, not to speak of her assured water power (the by-product of her canals), gifts t 
Providence has given to no other known city in existence — and yet history will repeat itself hi 
Many will be the lamentations in less than a year to come about the " golden opportunity lost." 
oflFer 300 city lots, 50 x 137 feet ; five minutes' walk from the business center of phcenix ; 
street car required ; first-class streets and avenues f8o to 100 feet wide) ; every lot elegantly situa 
and perfect ; no ravines or broken lands ; eacn lot covered with a luxuriant growth of alf 
(meadow). As in 'Frisco, Los Angeles, Denver, Kansas City and Omaha in early times, when to 
and hold a lot meant a fortune, so in PhcEnix today. Prices, for a short time, ranging from $70, $80, 
$100, $150 to $200 each, according to avenue and location. This is an " Angel's Visit." IVill you a 
yourself of it f If so, send money to the Phoenix National Bank, with $2.50 extra for registei 
deed. The Bank will return warranty deed and abstract of title. 

FOR ELEGANT SUBURBAN HOMES 

We also oflfer 54 blocks, 12 lots 50 x 130 feet in each, adjoining the above lots, unequal ed in Phcenis 
the Salt River Valley for location and soil — each a perfect marvel of beauty. Prices range from ; 
to $2400 each. All this property has Sanitary Sewerage {the only tract in Phcenix thus supplied ), ; 
perfect natural drainage. Free water-right goes with each deed. All titles are United States Pate 
N. B.— On behalf of Phoenix and her twelve thousand citizens, it becomes our duty to correct sc 
untruthful reports that have been spread by unknown and evidently irresponsible persons to the ef 
that portions of the lands in our city are liable to overflow. We here make the statement, on the \ 
be.st authority, that the Salt River has never, within the memory of man, overflowed its banks 
backed up its waters. Its banks are channel banks, from fifteen feet high and upward. 

KILROY'S NEW PALESTINE AGENCY 

Reference, Phoenix National Bank. ROOM 313 FLEMING BLOCK. 

N, B — Whitelaw Reid, Theodore B. Starr, and A. P. Sturgis of Pierrepont, Morgan of New Y 
City, with their families, have engaged winter homes for 1896-7 in our city, having been ordered 
their physicians to winter here. 



Indian Baskets 

Navajo Blankets 

9 
Pueblo Pottery 

Mail Orders 

Solicited. 
Catalogue Sent 

Free. 




OPKLS 



Mexican Drawn Work and Hand- Carved Leather 
Goods. Indian Photos (blue prints) 10 c. each. 

W. D. Campbell's Curio Store, 

3S5 South Spring St., liOS Ang^eles, C 



mention that you **8aw it in the I«and of Sdmshine.'* 



Ingfleside Floral Company 




F. EDWARD GRAY, Prop. 

ALHAIHBRA. CAL. 

New Ingleside 
HYBRID 
GLADIOLUS 

In size, color and markings 
finest ever grown. 585 cents 
each; f§2.50 per dozen, 

postage prepaid, 

ORCHID, 

Flowering CANNAS, 
ITALIA and AUSTRIA 

$1.50 eaob. 

Postage prepaid. 



RETAIL STORE 



HYBRID GLADIOLUS. Imp. by F. E. Gray 



140 S. SPRING STREET 

LOS ANGELES. CAL. 



'vM- 


'■■f ' /' '^'^^^\Jt' ' 


i**fc^fa'' 


^ 



Union Pboto-Cngravlng £( 



lAKERS OF 



Balf-Concs ana Zinc etchings 

OF HIGHEST QUALITY 

121K SOUTH BROADWAY 
LOS ANGELES 




I 




SEED COMPANY 

113 N. Main St., 
Los Angeles, Cal, 



IOC. for pkg. Mixed Seeds. 



New Importation of Beautiful 

FL.OWERING BULBS 

Grown to Our Order in Haarlem» 
Holland : 

Hyacinths, Lilies of the Valley, 
Anemones Azaleas, 
Ranunculus, Crocus, 
Tulips, Freesias. 

Narcissus, Lilium Harrisii, 

etc. , etc. 

SEND YOUR ORDERS 
NOW. 



Please mention that you 'saw it in the I,and of Scnshine." 



This rug was collected some years ago from the Herat family, in Iran, Central 
Persia, and has been recognized by several experts as one of the finest known to 
them. Unique in colors and design, as well as in its formation of figures ; of flora- 
tion and mosaics. The letters at the head of the rug are Arabic, which we consider 
is from the Koran, designating some prayer or poem — this being what is termed a 
prayer rug. Many other inscriptions can be seen on the original, together with the 
date, 1312, Arabic calendar, the actiial date of its execution. In the center is the 
flower found in the Persian Palace, being greatly treasured, and is similar to the 
Yucca. Two birds, in beautiful colors, surmount the center-piece. The second 
border is very singular, and the only one we have ever seen, and is glorious with 
pink and purple flowers and green leaves on a light blue ground. The other 
borders are exquisite in coloring, and the center ground is of a rich chocolate, all 
beautifully harmonizing. It was made by one of the finest artists in Persia. The 
size is 6 feet 6 inches x 4 feet 2 inches. If this was a painting, taking about two 
months to execute, and would be valued about $2,000 as a painting, this rug, con- 
taining over 1,500,000 stitches, and taking ten or fifteen times longer than such a 
painting, should be proportionately worth very much more. Similar rugs have 
been sold for $3,000 to $6,000, but our price is only $500. 



O 
R 
I 

E 
N 

T 
A 

L 




R 
U 
G 

S 



Do not buy Oriental Rugs until you have seen this largest and most complete 
collection in the United States of over 1500 pieces. We have opened a permanent 
branch in this city, at the address below, for Wholesale and Retail, and carry 
all sizes, designs and colors, ranging in price from $5 to $2,500 each. We guarantee 
our prices very much lower than, and entirely different from, the ordinary. There are 
several very artistic rugs to which we invite your inspection, feeling sure you will be 
more than satisfied. 

315-317 W. Third St., bet. Broadway and Hill. 

Importers, Wholesalers, 611 Broadway, New York, and Cleveland, O. Refer to The State Bank of New 
York ; Park National Bank, Cleveland, O.; The Farmers and Merchants Bank, lyOS Angeles. 



H. SARAFIAN & CO., 



tzir<.\J i-\ rx.J^ * LK^ i^ i 



HIDWINTER NUMBER 



Beautifully 

Illustrate 




Ay^AGAZlNEOf 




LosAnceles^ 



EDITED BY 

A5.r.LUMMIS 








CENTS LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHINQ CO., 

A COPY INCORPORATED 

501-503 Stimson Buildiiii:. 



$1 



YE 



Health and Rest Seekers 



are 



Paso (gobies 
Springs 
Seekers 

The greatest and mogt 
beneficial Sanitarium 

upon the Pacific Coast. 

TOURISTS should not 
leave for their homes until a 
visit has been paid these 
Springs. Rates, $io.oo, $12.50, 
$15.00 and $17.50 per week. 
HAI^IiOO, 

YE RUEUM ATICS 
AND 
DYSPEPTICS! 
Our new Mud Bath, just completed, is a model for comfort and convenience. Take steamer from 
I<os Angeles to Port Harford, from thence train direct to Springs. E. F. BURNS, Manager. 
Address: PASO ROBLES SPRINGS HOTEL, Paso Robles, Cat. 

There's Nothing in Los Angeles 

CORONADO WATER SOUR 





So Cool and 
Refreshing as a 



MR. WHEDON, at 204 S. Spring Street 

Distributes CORONADO WATER '-^"""""vtSr/ 



1304 



ORANGE BLOSSOM COLONY 

(Near) OTtKDTtUE: 



f€AL £^TAT§ A6ENT5 " 



STANISLAUS CO., OAL. 

Sales over $35,000 
in less than Six 
Months. 



Orange Blossom Colony has today the brightest outlook of any Colony In the State 



First — Because it is fine, rich soil. 

Second — Because orange trees grow to perfec- 
tion. 

Third — Because there is plenty of water for 
irrigation. 

Fourth— Because oranges ripen 3 to 4 weeks 
earlier than in Southern California. 

Fifth — Because it is close to the San Francisco 
market. 



Sixth — Because there are no damaging frosts. 

Seventh— Because it is a most picturesque re- 
treat. 

Eighth— Because a refined, intelligent class of 
people are settling there. 

Ninth— Because it is one of the few favored 
spots where citrus fruit grows. 

Tenth— Because Easton, Eldridge & Co. have 
the exclusive handling of it. 

Price of Orang-e Groves of any size, $ 1 75 per acre. 

Price of Orang-e Land with Water-rig-ht, $80.00 per acre. 

Terms : One-quarter cash : balance in five equal annual payments, with interest at Eight per 
cent, per annum. 

An experienced Horticulturist constantly in attendance, and will, for a small consideration, care 
for the orange groves of non-residents. 

. For further particulars apply to EASTON , ELDRIDGE & CO., 

638 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Orto their representative< F. T. KNEWING, Oakdale, California. 

~ Please mention that you "saw It In the I,akd of Somshzkb^ 



YOTJ ^VILL RIND THE 



HOLiLEflBECK 



PHE-HmmHnTIlV 

"(she most centrally lo- 
cated, best appointed 
and best kept fdotel 
in the city. 

^American or Suro- 
pean Plan. 

Rates reasonable. 



HEADQUARTERS 
FOR 

TOURISTS 
AND 
COMMERCIAL HEN 




SECOfiD A5D SPt^IflG STS., Lies flngeles, Cal. 



NO MATTER 

If you are a denizen of the frigid East or a patron of an ill-favored winter 
resort, where the climate and scenic attractions are not the best, the 
cuisine and service at the hotel undesirable, 

KEEP IN MIND 

The fact that SANTA BARBARA. CAL , possesses alluring features 
distinctively its own, and 



THE ARLINGTON 



Is the tourist's hotel, booking the same guests year after year. (The best 
criterion of popularity.) DUNN 

SUNNY ROOMS. ROMANTIC DRIVES. 

(Mountain and Ocean Boulevards.) 
Santa Barbara has the best preserved Mission in the State. 

OAI IFORNIA Ol IRinS PoUshedandunpolishedshellsofall 
V^ ML irWniNIM \^ KjrK\\J<D ^^Heties found on the Pacific Coast; 
Gem Stones ; Mexican Opals ; Japanese Cats' Eyes ; Orange Wood, plain and 
painted ; Pressed Flowers, Ferns and Mosses ; Jewelry made from Coast Shells ; 
5x8 Photos, California Scenes, mounted and unmounted. Wholesale and Retail. 

E. L. LOVEJOY, 126 W. FOURTH STREET 

Mail Orders Solicited. Los Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunrhinr. 




Q ANT A BARBARA, CAI.., has strongc 
^SJl claims on the attention of the tourist than at 
^SJf other resort on the Pacific Coast. Here ai 
blended the advantages of climate and natur 
scenery unexcelled by any other locality in Californ 
or elsewhere. 

An electric street car system, attractive store 
churches, schools and colleges, are conveniences m 
to be ignored. Accommodations at hotels are reasoi 
able in price and appointments the best. 

The livery stables of the town are complete i 
every way and the drivers excellent. 

Santa Barbara is reached by steamship, stage at 
rail from San Francisco, and "by steamship and ra 
from Los Angeles. 



THE ARLINGTON HOTEL, (Santa Barbara) 

is satisfying its quota of guests. 
The reasons therefor will be found in the regular advertisement on fourth pa^ 
of this magazine. E. P. DUNN. 



A CHILD'S EHVIROHMENTS r±llL 



and re- 
ligiously, are all 
that the most anxious parent can desire when 
Santa Barbara is selected as the place for 
acquiring a business education. 



^S>^^*^^^ 




gives the most thorough preparation for life's 
work. Write today for illustrated catalogue, and 
mention the L,and of Sunshine. 

JK. B. HOOVER, Principal. 
Students may enter any time. 

WnRTU TUC WAf ^ It is worth walking the 
WUnin mC ITALK length ot state street to 
view the assortment of novelties I have to offer 
in the way of 

Mexican Art Goods, Carved Leather, Etc. 

When at the postoffice you are but half a block 
from the most attractive curio store in Santa 
Barbara. I like to show goods, even when 
people are not ready to buy. 

GEORGE A. SANIJERS, 
State St.. opposite The Mascarel, and next to 
Fashion Stables, Santa Barbara, Cal. 



THERE NEVER WAS A BETTER TIME 

To make investments in and about San 
Barbara than just at present. The completic 
of the Coast Route is certain to enhance values, 
have for .sale and for rent 

Desirable Property 
of every description, city and country. 
I-OUTS G. DRKYFUS, 124 West Victoria Si 
one-half block from Arlington Hotel, San 
Barbara, Cal. 

RIGHT AND WR0N6 T^^^^V^ftTii^, 

exposed films or plates. I not only know tl 
right way but practice it as well. If tourists pr 
fer to develop their own work, my rooms at 
chemicals are at their service, free of cost, 
probably have as fine a 

Collection of California Views 

as may be found anywhere, and take pleasure : 
showing them, whether a purchase is made ( 
not. When you are at the postoffice you are b 
one square from my place. 

A. H. ROGERS, Photographer, 
Corner State and Haley Sts., Santa Barbara, C£ 

NOT TO READ " THE PRESS" 'S^^^f^^ 

paper; is not to have all of the news, toreig 
domestic and local. 

Guests soj ourning at Santa Barbara usual 
have it sent to their rooms. 



TO THOROUGHLY ENJOY Sa^SfXi^in^SLrstoTa 

Barbara, good rigs, careful drivers, etc , are essential. If you 
would secure these at minimum rates, telephone from your hotel to 



Main 148— The Fashion Stables 

or call at Livery. State Street, opposite The Mascarel. 

FRANK HARDISON, Proprietor. 





EUREKA S^A^I-ES 

W. M. OSBORN, Prop. 

Finest Turnouts in the City. 
Tally-ho for Picnics. 

Special attention^^griven 
to Boarders. 



QOQ WEST FIFTH STREET 
OLO Tel. Main 71 



LOS ANGELE 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



The Land of Sunshine 

Contents— February, 1897. 

PAGE 

The Cigarette, drawn by A. F. Harmer frontispiece 

Kit Carson (an interview with Mrs. Fremont), illustrated 97 

" Montezuma's Well (illustrated), Chas. F. Lummis 103 

(Southwestern Wonderland Series.) 

Midwinter Sports in Southern California (illustrated), T. S. Van Dyke 107 

Authorities on the Southwest (illustrated) 109 

Under Strange Skies, E. S. Thacher iii 

California Mountain Ferns (illustrated) Mabel L. Merriman 113 

Death Valley in '49 ir6 

Regulations of California, 1781 117 

The Landmarks Club 121 

In the Lion's Den (editorial) 122 

That Which is Written (editorial) 124 

The Land We Love (illustrated) 127 

The Griffith Park (illustrated) 




ARTISTIC FRAMING 

A SPECIALTY 



WGDb <^aT5 
IbEAL hEAb5 
ETCHINQ5 
ETC. 



George Elliott, 

421 S. Spring St., 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Piclures, Mouidinos, Artists' MateriQ!, stationery 



FRA ANGELICAS 



Please mention that you "saw it in the I^and of Sunshine," 



HaWlvEY, KING ©• CO,, Broadway and Fifth St. 

LOS ANGELES 

VICTOR 
*^"> KEATING 
BICYCLES 






CARRIAGES 
BUGGIES 
TRAPS 



Bicycle Sundries 



E 
V 
E 
R 
Y 
T 
H 

N 
G 

O 
N 

W 
H 

E 
E 
L 
S 



AND 

Novelties in Vehicles 




The Broadway Carnage Repository. 




Union PbotO'Gndraving €0. 



MAKERS OF 



1>dlf-Cone$ and Zinc €tcDmg$ 

OF HIGHEST QUALITY 

121K SOUTH BROADWAY 
LOS ANGELES 



ffsSO TSFORD 
J INN ^ 

8th and HOPE Sts 

The only Thoroughly Comfortable 
Tourist Hotel In Los Angeles 




^ ^ 1^ 



Heated throughout by steam 
Convenient to four lines of street railway 
Just outside the business district 
Strictly First-class 
None but white labor is employed 

CHAS. B. JACOBS, 

Proprietor 



.lease mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



p. «c B. 

GRAVEL ROOFING 



Are You r Roofs Water -tight ? 

^;^C We have for many years made a specialty of Kepairinj 

1, Old Tin, Corrugrated Iron and Shingle Koofs, anc 

have, bj' reason of our superior methods and materials, been enabled tc 

prolong the life of roofs v^hich were considered worn out. Befort 

Paraff ine Paint Co. » making repairs or alterations we are sure you will find it to youi 

_, _ o 1.. w advantage to consult with us. Examination of roofs 

524 SOUTH BROADWAY and estimates of cost made free of charge. We guar- 

G. JUDAH.Mfg. Agt. Los Angeles, Cal. antee all work. Send for Illustrated Pamphlet. 



READY ROOFING 
BUILDING PAPER 
PAINTS 




WOODLAWN, THE NEW RESIDENCE TRACT OF LOS ANGELES 

Call on Owner for Information, at 

334 South Broadway, L.os Angreles, OaL 
I. T, TWIKRTIN... 

631 AND 533 S. SPRING ST. 

FURNITURE 




BEDROOM, PARLOR 
AND OFFICE 



CARPET, MATTING. LINOLEUM, OIL CLOTH AND 
HOUSEHOLD GOODS. 

Largest Household Lines in Southern Cal. 

OPEN MONDAY AND SATURDAY CVENINQS 

A TOUR TO CALIFORNIA IS NOT COMPLETE WITHOUT SEEING 




AT 

South Pasadena. 



A Branch of the Nor- 
walk Ostrich Farm— 

THE OLDEST 
AND LARGEST 

in America. 

An Ostrich Feathei 
Boa or Coll arette, 
made from the local 
product, makes a 
pleasing and useful 
souvenir of the Golden 
State. 



Take the Pasadena and Lios Angeles Electric cars, or Terminal Ry. cars. 
Please mention that vou "saw It in the Land op Sonshxne." 



gaitfontia mission cucalypttts Eozengcs^ 

A Positive Cure for Couglis, Colds, Sore 

Tliroat, and Diseases of the Broncliial Tubes. 

Endorsed by Pbysicians, Public Speakers and 

Singers in every quarter of tbe Globe. 

Riverside, Cal., May 21, i8q4. 
California Eucalyptus Co.: I have used your Euca- 
lyptus Lozenges in my family with great success. It 
acts quickly with children in breaking up colds, and 
also in older ones in removing disagreeable tickling 

-^ ^^-^^— :r:'7:,sr=^ — sensations in the throat. 

J. C. Stebbins. 

Ask your druggists or send 25 cents to the California Eucalyptus Company, 
Los Angeles, Cal., and a box of Lozenges will be sent to you post paid. 





" Tempting prices without quality are 
frauds.'' 

For reliable 
quality and good 
values in Groceries and 




GO TO 



If You cannot Call and make Your 
Selections, 
Send for Our Price List 



H. JEVNE 

208=210 S. SPRING STREET 



Have You Tried Them? 




We have purchased the entire output of 
Thatcher's celebrated 

CALIFORNIA OLIVES 



Our California Olives are picked when 
ripe and full oioil and are therefore much 
more nutritious and wholesome than the 
imported green olive. 

flsk your Gfoeeit fof thetrj. 

Correspondence from the jobbing trade 
solicited. 

James Hill & Sons Co., 

OLIVE PACKERS 
1001-1007 E. First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention *hat you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb.' 



f-|OTEL AKeADIA, Santa Monica, 



The only first-class 
tourist hotel in this, 
the leading coast re- 
sort of the Pacific. 150 
pleasant rooms, large 
and airy ball room, 
beautiful lawn and 
flower gardens. Mag- 
n i fi c e n t panoramic 
\riew of the sea. First- 
class orchestra. Surf 
and hot water bathg 
a positive cure for 
nervous and rheu- 
matic disorders. 

Time from Los An- 
geles by Santa F6 or 
S. P. R.R. 35 minutes, 
Pasadena and Pacific 
electric cars, seventy- 
five minutes. 




S. REINHART. pnofrictor 



THB LEADING SBASIDB RBSORT 



GOING TO MEXICO? 

ytKS^ THEN Stop AT 

^ HOTEL TRENTON 



The newest and best hotel in the " Paris of Amer- 
ica." American Plan, Reasonable Rates. The 
Newest and Pleasantest Rooms. 
In the Most Healthful Part of the City of Mexico. 
CALLE DONATO GUERRA, No 1222 



SUPPOSE 

You could buy 5 or 10 acres of Olive 
or Almond land by paying a little 
twice a year. 

SUPPOSE 

There would be no interest, taxes 
or any other expenses for four 
years ? 

SUPPOSE 

We would set out the trees and take 
care of them for you lor four years 
with no extra charge ? 

SUPPOSE 

At the end of the four years the 
annual yield would exceed what the 
land cost you per acre ? 

Our book tells you all about it. Free. 

DEL 6UR RANCH CO., 

1227 Tfenton St., Iios Angeles, 

OP 

930 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia. 




Los Angeles Engraving Co., 



ARTISTIC 
PtATE_ 



205^ South Me 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine," 



CORONADO OSTRICH FARM 

Only Two Blocks North <>f the Fatuous 
HOTEI. DEL CORONADO. 




25 Grown Birds. Incubators Running. Chicks 
Hatching Continually. 

Feathers and Shells for Sale. 

W. H. BENTLEY, Proprietor. 

We Sell the Earth -- 

^^ BASSETT & SMITH 

POMONA, CAL 

We deal in all kinds of Real Estate 
Orchard and Residence property. 
Write for descriptive pamplilet. 

ENTENMANN & BORST, Manufacturing 

Jewelers and Watchmakers 

Diamond Setters and Fngfravers. 

Medals, Society Badges and School Pins in gold 
and silver. Fine Watch Repairing a Specialty. 
Any description of gold and silver jewelry made 
to order and repaired. Old gold and silver bought. 
^n% South Spring Street 
Rooms 3, 4 and 7, Up Stairs, LOS ANGELES. CAL. 

^^^^ Ranches, Residences and all 
kinds of Real Fstate in Redlands at reasonable 
rates. See Redlands before buying. Call upon 
or address JOHN P. FISK, Jr., 

Rooms I and 2 Union Bank Block, 

Redlands, Cal. 



FOR IvEffSE 

» A Fine Corner 

4th and Central Ave. 

Inquire 2200 Grand Ave., 

lios Angeles. 



Facts are Stubborn Things^ 


WHY? 


■■bs^^^s^^ss^b^hI 


Because 


V^s^^Shh 


They 


iH|^3^^9 


Are 


f> ^ ^^^^HBh^ 


Indisputable 




THE 


^j^^ 


FOLLOWING 


/|H| 


ARE 


<^ ^1/^H 


FACTS 

CONCERNING 


•^^^ 



1st— The Soil of the Escondido Valley is wonderfully rich and 
productive. 

2nd— The Price is only $35 to %^h per acre 

3rd— The Markets are good ; Fruits and other products obtain 
the same freight rates to the East as those given at Los Angeles 
and San Diego. 

4th— Water is abundant and quality good. 

5th— Fuel is plentiful and cheap. Good dry oak wood can be 
bought for $4 per cord, delivered at your door. 

6th— It is the finest Health Resort in the United States Why? 
Because it possesses the best climate. This is proven by the fact 
that physicians all over the U S., who have made a study of 
Climates, send their patients to Southern California, and every- 
one in California knows that in San Diepo County, 12 to 14 miles 
from the coast, is found the best and most equable climate in 
California. 

7th — Tornadoes, Cyclones, Cold Winters and Hot Summers are 
all unknown at Escondido. 

8th— Ripe Fruit can be picked from the trees every day in the 
year. 

Call at one of the offices for illustrated pamphlet, see views, 
samples of products, etc. 

Offices of, the Escondido Land and Town Co., Escondido, Cal. 
Los Anoklks, Cal., 305 West Second St>. 

H. W. CoTTLK & Son, Managers 
San Diego, Cal., 1330 E. Slreet, C. Q. Stanton, Manager. 
D. P. HALE, General Manager. 




Indian Baskets 

9 

Navajo Blankets 
Pueblo Pottery 

Mail Orders 

Solicited. 
Catalogue Sent 

Free. 




OPKL-S 



Mexican Drawn Work and Hand- Carved lieather 
Goods. Indian Photos (blue prints) 10 c. each. 

W. D. Campbell's Curio Store, 

325 South Spring; St.. liOg Angeles, Cal. 



flease meotlon that you '*»w it in the I«and op Sunshinb.'* 




L. A. Eng. Co. 

'Sketch by Alex' P. Harmer. 



THE CIGARETTE. 



Copyright 1897 by 0. F. Lummis. 



TMC LANDS OF THE SUN CXPAND THE SOUL. 



THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE 



Vol. 6, No. 3. 



LOS ANGELES 



FEBRUARY, 1897. 



^KiT Carson. 



AN INTERVIEW WITH JESSIE BENTON FREMONT. 




U 




S a frontiersman, his 
name and fame are 
everywhere known ; 
but there are, perhaps, few who 
think of him except as the hero 
of wild adventures. That he 
was, but he was more. Nothing 
could be more mistaken than to 
think of him as a rough border- 
er." Mrs. Fremont sat a little 
forward in her chair, the fine 
old face lighting with that fire 
which will never be forgotten 
by any who have known the 
helpmeet and widow of our 
Pathfinder. 

" Kit Carson was a man 
among men ; a type of the real 
American pioneer, not only 
fearless but clear-headed, as 
gentle as he was strong. He 
had the true courtesy of the 
heart ; and withal a quiet pride 
— much as Richard the Lion- 
Heart and his knights, who 

thanked God they were not clerks. 

** His nature was literally sweet — sweet by its wholesomeness — sweet 

as a clear-cut winter morning is sweet. 

" When he was to come to our house for the first time (he had just 

ridden overland from California on his mission from Gen. Fremont ; and 

my father,* then in St. Louis, charged him to visit us) my mother was a 



MRS FREMONT. 



•Senator Thos. Benton, of Missouri. 

Copyright 1897 by Land of Sunshine Pub. Co. 



98 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

little uneasy. He was accompanied by Edward Beale, then a midship- 
man, afterward General Beale. Carson was shy and reserved, and his 
welcome as one who had been Fremont's companion and right-hand 
man overwhelmed him. Yet he was not awkward. A perfect gentleman, 
his dignity and delicacy completely disarmed my mother. He had been 
'afraid the ladies might not care to have him there if they knew he had 
married a Sioux wife. But she was a good woman,' he declared. 'I 
never came in from hunting but she had water warm for my feet.' I 



KIT CARSON AT FORTY-FIVE. 

have always remembered that — it was so like the simplicity of the bible. 

"Carson was perfectly Saxon, clear and fair, with light, thin 'baby- 
hair,' blue eyes, light eyebrows and lashes, and a fair skin. He was very 
short, and unmistakably bandy-legged ; long-bodied and short-limbed, 
a man of great strength and vitality. On a horse he was superb — 
one of the most perfect riders of the frontier. And he was one of the 
best marksmen. 

"He had a quick and gentle sense of humor. There was no self- 
consciousness in him, nor bitterreis. 




« ^ K 



L. A. Eng. Co. 







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. ^^.'>^»i^ikas 




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.jyy^E^ 


AN INSCRIPTION LEFT BY CARSDN, 




Photo, by A. C.Troman. ' 


(In Ream's Canon, A. T.) 







T(X) 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 



" It used to delight him to go to the market [we were in Washington] 
and watch the crowds and talk with the market people. That it could 
be so easy to procure food was a revelation to him. As my mother said, 
he^ who had so often had to risk his life for a mouthful could appreciate 
this abundance. 

"He was devoted to my daughter Lilly, then seven years old. She 




KIT CARSON IN 1867. 
(From photo, taken a few months before his death ) 

seemed wondertul to him, for the children he had known on the frontier 
of course had not had many advantages and he was surprised at her 
ideas. Sensitive to every generous and refined impulse, as he was, he 
was charming to children . 

"One day, I remember, he bought a pair of turtle doves in the market 
and brought them home to Lil in a squirrel-cage. It was in Washington, 
in the slave days ; but he brought the cage in his own hand — a thing 
no white person thought of doing there in those days. He told her how in 
the wilderness he used to hear the doves call, and that when he was in 



KIT CARSON. 



loi 



the market and heard these lamenting he wished to get them for her. 
The child was faithful in caring for them ; but one hot September day, 
fagged and wilted, she forgot them and they were drooping. I was 
going to care for them, but he said : * No, let her see what she has done. 
One lesson will be enough for her.' 

" She attended to them; and then Carson took her on his knee and 
talked to her with the very feeling of the Hindus — that the life of the smal- 
lest creature should never be taken except at need. Next day in looking 
over LittelVs Living Age, he found Andersen's 'The Lark and the 
Daisy, ' and had me read it to him — Lil sobbing and Carson comforting 
her. 

" *I went to school in a log-cabin school -house,* he said. * One day 
there came the cry of Injuns, and I ran with the men — and thar it 
lays ! But I would give five thousand dollars if I could read as you can !' 

** There was an illustrated edition of Byron in the parlor, and in it one 
day Carson came upon the steel engraving of Mazeppa and began to see 
what it meant. 




L. A. Eng. Co. 



KIT CARSON'S HOUSE IN TAOS 



** ' Read it to me ! ' he cried at last. * You can read it so much faster. 
** So I read to him. He walked up and down, intensely stirred. 

" • There never yet was human power 
That could evade, if unforgiven, 
The patient search, and vigil long, 
Of him who treasures up a wrong ! 

** 'That's it ! That's the word ! ' he broke out. Ne knows how it is ! 
It took me three years before I could go back and thank those Blackfeet 
for robbing my caches.' After this, I had to read * Mazeppa * to him 
nearly every day. 

" Carson was of Kentucky stock, transplanted to Missouri, His sim- 
plicity, like his courage, was of the old pioneer stamp. My mother said 
to him one day : * You must have had a great many fights.* 

** 'I never had a fight of my own but one,' Carson answered. 'That 
was with a Frenchman. He said the Americans were cowards and 
darsn't fight. I told him that I was an American and that I was his 
man . And we fit.' He turned back his collar unconsciously and simply, 
and showed the wound by the collar-bone. 

"This first visit of Carson to our home lasted three weeks and he en- 
joyed seeing and comprehending the life of cities. He never could get 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




L. A. EDg. Co. 



KIT CARSON'S GRAVE. 



over his surprise and pleasure at seeing how easy it was to get food here 
without danger. But he was not dazzled. 

"'They are princes here in their fine houses,' he said, 'and with 
people to wait on them. But on the plains we are the princes, and their 
lives would be worth nothing without us.' 

"Yet the hot days of waiting were long to him — waiting on the politi- 
cians of the State Department while his captain's interests called. They 
were trying to let California work out its own solution, that they might 
not have to compromise themselves between Fremont and some of the 
army people. 

" Carson soon found out for himself that they were not to be depended 
upon. Wh'^n he had an interview with Buchanan — who had grey hair, 
a white waistcoat and cravat and a most respectable air — Carson 
again felt that he had been trifled with. He told the Secretary the 
grass was failing, and unless he got away at once there would be no food 
for the horses on the long journey — and still he was put off. ' Who 
would have thought it ? ' he mused. 'And such a fair-looking gentleman, 
too ! But he was deceitful ! ' 

" Buchanan offered Carson an escort of soldiers — which alarmed the 
frontiersman. Said he : 'I don't want soldiers, I want men. Give me 
Andrew Sublette and one other — men that know the country. What use 
would soldiers be ? ' 

" But at last he got away ; and I accompanied him and Mr. Beale to 
St. Louis, whence Carson set out on his long return-ride to California — 
there to find the delay had accomplished its purpose. His captain had 
been brought back under arrest by Gen. Kearney. 

" It was nearly twenty years before his second and last visit. The 
winning of the West had been accomplished. The civil war had come 
and gone. The famous pioneer and scout of the (jld days was now 
Colonel Carson. He had won his heart's desire — to wear and honor the 
uniform of his country. He had achieved distinction for gallant and 
valuable service in the army, and honest and competent record as an 
Indian agent. 

" But it was a sad visit. He was already stricken with death, and his 
face was drawn with suffering. A half ' broken ' animal had dragged 
him, entangled in his reata, inflicting mortal injuries. Yet the indomitalDle 
will held him up ; and the old sweetness and considerateness and sim- 
plicity still marked his nature. He must fulfill his mission, and he 



MONTEZUMA'S WELL. 



103 



must get back to his single-hearted wife in Taos, New Mexico. After 
the death of his Indian wife he had married a sister-in-law of Maxwell, 
of the famous Maxwell land-grant. He reached home ; but the end was 
near. His wife died of grief at his condition, leaving a young babe ; 
and in a few months he followed her. 

"Carson, Owens and Godey were Fremont's 'Three Musketeers.' 
Each was a specialist. All were singularly cool, brave, resourceful — and 
faithful, beyond chance of change or failure. It was not in them. 

** Carson's adventurous life as hunter, trapper and scout is a part of 
our history. He was one of the finest types of the American backwoods- 
man. As Lieut. Walpole of H. M. S. " CoUingwood, "- who witnessed 
the arrival of Fremont and his mea at Monterey, wrote in his Four 
Years in the Pacific : 

'Here were true trappers, the class that produced the heroes of Fennimore 
Cooper's best works. . . . Tie has one or two with him who enjoy a high reputation 
on the prairies. Kit Carson is as well known there as the Duke [of Wellingtou] 
is in Europe.' 

** He is known for what he did, but I have cared to speak to you rather 
of what he was — the heart he had, the clear, simple, large nature." 



THE SOUTHWESTERN WONDERLAND. 
XL '' MONTEZUMA'S WELL." 



BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS. 



DOZEN miles from Uncle Sam's deserted frontier post of Camp 
Verde, Arizona, and about half as far up Beaver creek from 
"Montezuma's Castle,"* is that unique spot ridiculously mis- 
called '* Montezuma's Well." It has no more to do with Montezuma than 
with the north pole ; and it is nobody's well at all. But whatever name 
it may wear, it is a wonder. Those who have seen the explored world 
are the ones best fitted to know how strange a thing it is ; but to any 
traveler, even a retail one, it is startling. 

Here is a round limestone hill, into whose one side Beaver creek has 




Mausard- Collier Eng Co. 



*See January number. 



OLD CAMP VERDE. 

(From a photo, in 1880.) 




I: 

a ' 

J '■ 



MONTEZUMA'S WELL. 



105 



quarried half-way. It looks from below like ten thousand other hills in 
the Southwest ; at the top, it looks unlike any other hill in the world. 
For here is a tremendous and unexpected hole-in-the-ground, and in its 
bottom the gloomiest of all lakelets. There are but two other places in 
America which even suggest it ; the strange volcanic bowl in the salinas 
west of Zuiii, N. M., and the Volcan de Agua in Guatemala. 

Nine out of every ten visitors will at first flush take this also for a 
crater, but its sides are untoasted limestone, and its origin is not igneous 
but erosive. Slow-burrowing springs, far down the crust, have gophered 
till the undermined hill-top has slumped into the unguessed abyss. 
It is not so overwhelming as the Grand Caiion or the greatest Natural 
Bridge ; nor so dazzling as the Petrified Forest, nor so romantic as some 
of the great grey ruins that were human homes before America was 




Commercial Eng. Co. 



Photo, by C. F. Lummis. 



THE CLIFF-HOUSE, MONTEZUMA'S WELL. 



discovered ; but it is, I think, perhaps the ghostliest thing in the South- 
western Wonderland. 

This sudden well in the grey limestone is about 80 feet deep from rim 
to water-level, and 200 yards in diameter. The walls are apparently as 
circular as man could have carved them. The tar-black lakelet at the 
bottom is of an unknown depth — a 380-foot line at my last visit (1891) 
having failed to find bottom. It is fed by strong springs so far down that 
they make not the slightest ruffle; but I have thrown in a large rock and 
watched the bubbles come up for close to an hour. There is something 
indescribably uncanny in this sudden abyss with its ghostly rocks, its 
gloomy tarn, its strange parasites of a forgotten humanity. 

On the side where Beaver creek has eaten into the hill there is left 
only the thinnest of rims to hold the "Well. " A bowl of such dimensions 



U^^ 



io6 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

and of so thin proportionate crockery would be fragile indeed. Yet 
between the creek and the " Well," on this knife-edgef rim of limestone, 
are huddled the ruins of one of the prehistoric Pueblo fort-houses. A 
crumbled talus of masonry, with its tallest remaining walls not to exceed 
eight feet, it is yet one of the most suggestive types of the ancient 
regime when the few first American farmers and home-makers made 
head against the outnumbering vagrant savage, and the niggard wilder- 
ness. Below, along the pinched creek, were their tiny irrigated farms; 
up here on the ridge-pole between two precipices was their communal 
town of several stories ; and, commanded by it, their last retreat. The 
fort-house absolutely controlled the only reasonable entrance to the 
Well ; the only other path down to the lake's edge could be held by boys 
against an enemy. 

Clambering down this cliff-path to the little platform at the water 
level, one is suddenly aware of a cave-mouth even gloomier than the 
gloomy lake. A sad little sycamore stands before it ; and beyond 
stretches that strange, dark, unscratched mirror of the dark pool. The 
cave is a natural limestone cave, burrowing hundreds of feet under the 
hill ; but at the first turn in it the explorer shivers with sudden wonder. 
For here, too, were the homes of the hunted Pueblos ! Away back in 
the gloom is a strong wall of prehistoric masonry, with a narrow door- 
way; and back again another door and another wall, and so on. The 
limestone floor rings in places bell-like to the tread, and deep under it 
one can hear the chuckle of subterranean water-sprites. Here and there, 
too, it is broken through, and there is the buried brook ready to be drunk 
from as in the old days of the terror. Here was the last refuge of the 
Cliff-builders. Here are still the fragments of their pottery and of their 
agate tools ; and in one room the unforgetful mortar preserves the 
perfect imprint of a baby's hand that pressed it wet a thousand years, 
may be, ago. 

From the arching entrance behind the discouraged sycamore, one 
looks across the gloomy lake to the gloomy further cliff, and there is 
another thrill. Up almost to the top, under a great eyebrow of rock, is 
nestled a perfect cliff house ; and a few rods to the right another. The 
dark rock beetles above ; below, the unfathomed pool mirrors the rude 
window-hole. At the door is a ledge where a few men might stand ; but 
elsewhere a mountain-sheep could not get a foothold. I know practi- 
cally every " Cliff-dweller " ruin in the Southwest; some of them are enor- 
mous and imposing edifices, and this is but one small room ; yet it stands 
in my memory perhaps unique. It is the saddest homestead in the 
world — the last eloquence of that cruel test of the enlarging heart of 
man. We began nomads all. Here the first American home-maker, 
graduated from the level of the beast, risen to care for his young and 
their dam, stood to prove how he could endure for them. And if a 
man of today thinks he knows what home is, and believes he values it, 
I would counsel him to go look at the cliff-houses of Montezuma's Well 
and think back to them, and let their dumb eloquence tell him what 
these brown, forgotten ones suffered and dared for home's sake. 



I07 



Midwinter Sport in Southern 
California. 



BY T. S. VAN DYKE. 




HEN, in the East, the gun lies wrapped in oil and 
ffff^^SW^^jJA flannel and the dog hunts in dreams by the 
JI^VtfifiiBST'if ^^^» the sportsman of the Pacific coast sees the 
brightest of days. The season is indeed closed for 
all large game except bears — and they generally 
close it for themselves. But during the greater 
part of the winter it is open for almost all small 
game, and notwithstanding the settlement of the 
country, there is still a fair abundance of many 
kinds within easy reach of any of the towns. 

Midwinter finds the saucy valley quail full of 
defiance. The walking is good for the hunter, and 
the birds seem determined to give him the exercise 
for which he has come. The quail has learned from 
his persecutors more than almost any other game, and keeps marvelous 
pace with improvements in guns. He used to bother the tyro by keep- 
ing in large flocks, which ran so that it was difficult to scatter them and 
make the birds lie for good single shots on the wing. Now, when they 
rise, their aspirations embrace about half the horizon — and the more it 
stands on edge the better. Yet they still trust first to their legs — and a 
mighty reliance they are. When they try their wings it often seems as 
if done only for a rest, and their speed in air is little greater than when 
on the ground. But these very difficulties make the valley quail of 
California one of the most attractive of all birds for the expert shot, 
because it is the most difficult of all to make anything approaching a 
long string of successful shots upon. 

When varying shades of green begin to play over the rolling land, the 
silvery honk of the goose may be heard where the plain sweeps wide and 




L. A. Eng. Co. 



Drawn by T S. Van Dyke. 



io8 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

free, the clamorous cackle of the white-fronted goose falls from the sky, 
and white lines of the snow goose stream along the distant outlines of 
the hills. 

Where the burr clover and the alfileria line the banks of the slough 
with dark yet tender green, the widgeon now basks in the sun, " taking 
life easy," as did the old natives of the soil. In the water the cinnamon 
teal floats with artless grace, now sitting in the sun half asleep, now 
paddling along the shore, then drifting into some quiet cove and hud- 
dling up in a little mass of shining cinnamon and blue. Kven the 
mallard and the restless canvas-back, with the wandering red-head and 
the roving sprigtail, seem imbued with the spirit of peace in the soft 
days of winter, and drift about on the smooth waters of the lagoon as if 
life were an accepted poem and they the author. 

Most of the bays and inlets are alive in winter with shore birds of 
many kinds. With ringing call the curlew wings his way over the quiet 
water or trots along the shores left wet by the receding tide. Swifter 
and smaller, but often in larger masses, comes the willet with a whirl of 
grey, white and brown, while volleys of snipe shoot here and there, some 
in jackets of pepper and salt, some in more somber brown. And with 
them are avocets and turnstones in brighter white and deeper black, the 
robin snipe in milder hues whistling on his winding way, and the 
yellow-leg piping his shrill notes as he skirts the shore in rapid flight. 
Among them are flocks of little plover in brown and soft grey, whizzing 
here and there with tremulous yet tender whistle, while dowitchers and 
sandpipers no larger than sparrows dash in between. 

And now you may hear the far-reaching tremolo of the sandhill crane 
fall from where in the zenith he is floating like a speck of down. Though 
cunning and patient you will have to be to outwit this wary wanderer of 
the skies, even when he descends to earth to fatten on the grain and 
grass that make him one of the best of game birds. 

Who would not sound the depths of mud for a shot at Wilson's 
snipe ? Where is another scrap of energy that can stir such a tumult in 
the breast of the most hardened sportsman ? And he, too, is here as 
charming as ever seen in the East, with far better ground on which to 
hunt him. Of course he has retained many of his little tricks and 
erratic ways, such as being out when you call, and changing his tack 
about the time you think he ought to keep the same line. But what 
would he be without these little peculiarities ? He is all the more inter- 
esting, too, because he has learned something of smokeless powder and 
modern choke-bored guns, though sometimes he underestimates your 
ability. 

When grey tints creep over the yellow hills of summer and the golden- 
rod reverses these tints in the meadows, before the winter rains have so 
softened the ground that it is unsafe for fast riding, the festive hare makes 
his pretty play before the hounds. There are plenty of places where 
the large hare is so plenty as to be a nuisance ; and, as no laws protect 
him and the land owners welcome anyone who will lessen his numbers, 
plenty of sport may still be had. Few things are more exhilarating 
than a dash after the fleet rascal with good dogs and fast horses that 
enjoy the run and the racket quite as much as you do. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 




I09 

' Authorities ON the Southwest. 

^ ^ ^ ^C^^HK first writer of English who gave anything like 

/' vS'l* a true picture of the A.merican Southwest was 

/ X that unjustly neglected traveler, Capt. Mayne 

^ Reid. He was author of a host of romances 

».^ii --^ ^ which long ago perished, and of boys' books 

which will never die so long as there shall be 
boys who know genuineness from Oliver Optic 
trash. Yet though this is an unpromising pre- 
amble for science, the fact remains that this 
bantam English soldier of fortune was first to 
give place in our literature to a description of 
the wonderful communal architecture of the 
Pueblos ; and first to portray the Great Amer- 
ican Desert and its oases as they are. And he 
has never been tripped in a serious blunder, even 
yet. He was not a man of scientific (nor of 
literary) training ; but he was a splendid ob- 
[»usard.coiiier Eng Co. servcr, au houcst chrouiclcr, a man of sound 

DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS. commou scuse. Aud he was the first Saxon 

that ever loved the Southwest. 

To speak of the Spanish chroniclers who dealt with this romantic 
domain of ours would need a long series by itself — and it is so interest- 
ing a theme that this magazine will sometime take it up. They were 
shrewd and honest observers and writers, these conquistadores ; and it is 
a very great pity that their precious records are not accessible to the 
American student who can read no language but his own. 

Between the first border novelist and the last generation, the literature 
of the Southwest has been both scant and of little worth. A few govern- 
ment reports — like that of Lieut. Wheeler's survey in the 'Fifties, and 
Simpson's studious researches — and here and there a passage in some 
book of travel, have increased our knowledge. But the more pretentious 
books, few as they are, have multiplied darkness rather than light. 
Davis's History of New Mexico was a good book, for its day, but is 
utterly lacking in documentary knowledge. Gov. Prince's history was 
made simply to sell at a territorial fair, and is absolutely worthless. H. 
H. Bancroft's works have one value — as bibliographic indexes of sources 
— but the chapters were written by a corps of cheap newspaper 
reporters and other incompetent men, and to anyone but the most 
thorough expert his "histories" are more dangerous than helpful. 

The works of Schoolcraft and Catlin, monumental as they are, were 
done before ethnology became a science, and rest largely on inadequate 
data. 

The first definitive scientific work on the Southwest was done by Lewis 
H. Morgan, that modest man whose very name is unknown to half this 
generation, but who will be honored by scholars centuries from now as 
the father of American ethnology, when most of the men who are big 
today shall have been absolutely forgotten. Next him and greater, heir 
aud disciple of him and of Humboldt, came Adolf F. Bandelier. He is 
the one man above all others to whom the world is indebted for broad 
knowledge of the Southwest — not to say of American ethnology and 
early Spanish-American history in general. But it is not designed to 
treat in detail of these men now. They shall sometime be taken up by 
themselves. 

Within twenty years (headed and inspired, it is fair to say, by 
Bandelier) there has suddenly arisen the first "school" of American 
students in American fields. It is a small class yet, but a choice one. 
It has made over the world's ideas about one of the most interesting 
areas in the world. And it is still at work. Partly because the South- 



iio LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

west was the only part of the United States left with anything much 
worth exploring when this strenuous young nation began to use its 
brains for other things than chasing dollars, the Southwest has the dis- 
tinction of having trained and made famous the first and only corps of 
scientific students of history and ethnology this country has ever had. 
It is a little band ; but an honor to American science. Its members are 
nearly all young men ; liberally educated, specially prepared by docu- 
mentary study, and graduated in that last college, the "field." For the 
time has forever gone by when men may pretend to write of the history 
or economy of countries and peoples they have never seen. It needs 
now a long specific training, on top of natural qualifications ; learning, 
experience, earnestness, and exploration — before one can pose as an 
authority and not get laughed at. 

This is not a scientific magazine ; but it believes a majority of its read- 
ers are educated and thoughtful people, and that there could hardly be 
a larger service to the Southwest than to popularize interest in the few 
genuine students who are making the Southwest known, and rightly 
known, among scholars the world over. 

Of the present workers in this young school of American science, the 
dean — in point both of years and of absolute solidity — is Dr. Washington 
Matthews, U. S. A. A veteran of our frontier for quarter of a century, 
a gentleman and a scholar of the cleanest type, he is the foremost of the 
specialists. Although his studies have covered several quarters of the 
West, his longest service was in contact with the Navajos of New Mexico; 
and he is recognized over the scientific world as the foremost living au- 
thority on this the largest Indian tribe left in the United States. 

Dr. Matthews was born in Ireland in 1843, but came in infancy to the 
then territory of Wisconsin, later residing in Iowa. He took his degree 
of M. D. in 1864, and at once entered the army, serving till the close of 
the rebellion. Immediately reentering the service, he was post surgeon 
at Ft. Union, Mont., 1865; later, at Fts. Berthold, Buford, Rice and 
Stevenson, Dakota; Ft. Wood, N. Y.; Ft. Sullivan, Me.; Camp Inde- 
pendence, Cal., and Ft. Bidwell, Cal. ; and Ft. Wingate, N. M. 

As early as 1865 he began his ethnographic studies ; and for six years 
made researches among the Hidatsa, Arickaree and Mandan tribes, the 
published reports of which are our most important "sources" concerning 
these Dakota aborigines. For five years he was in the Indian campaigns 
on the borders of California, Oregon, Nevada, Washington and Idaho, 
and came in contact with many little-known tribes. His most important, 
because longest, single work began in 1880, when he was stationed in 
New Mexico and commenced his exhaustive investigations of the 
Navajos. 

Since he was ordered to Washington he has made two long scientific 
expeditions to the Southwest ; one for the Bureau of Ethnology and one 
for the lamented Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition. 

Dr. Matthews has won distinction in his profession ; but it is to the 
scientist rather than the doctor that the largest and longest debt is due. 
Besides his connection with numerous medical bodies, he is a fellow of 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science ; a member of 
the Anthropological Society, the Philosophical Society and the National 
Geographical Society (all of Washington) ; has been vice-president and 
president of the American Folk-Lore Society ; and vice-president of the 
Chicago Folk- Lore Society. 

The characteristics of his work as an ethnologist are patience, thor- 
oughness and safety. He has neither the inspirations nor the dangers of 
the poetic temperament ; he does not imagine, but stops with what he 
knows. And it is safe to be said that his sane, sober, solid work will 
stand practically final for the specialty he undertook. Detail students 
may yet add to our specific knowledge, for his pet tribe will last a long 
time ; but the last generic authority on the Navajos will be, as it is now, 
Washington Matthews. 



UNDER STRANGE SKIES. m 

[Dr. Matthews's principal monographs on the Southwest (not counting his works on 
the Northwestern Indians) are as follows : 

Reports of the Bureau of Ethnology — " Navaj o Silversmiths " (1883) ; " Navajo Weav- 
ers" (1885) ; " The Mountain Chant, a Navajo Ceremony " (1887). 

Other papers— "A part of the Navajo's Mythology" (^American Antiquarian, V, 1883); 
" The Origin of the Utes" (same, VII, 1885) ; " Mystic Dry Paintings of the Navajos" 
(American Naturalist, XIX, 1885); "Navajo Names for Plants" (same. XX, 1886); 
" Some Deities and Demons of the Navajos" (same, XX, 1886); "Navajo Gambling 
Songs " {American Anthropologist, II, 1889) ; ''The Basket Drum" (same, VII, 1894) ; 
" A Vigil of the Gods" (same. IX, 1896) ; "Noquilpi, theGambler" {Journal of Ameri- 
can Folk-Lore, II, 1889) ; "The Gentile System of the Navajo Indians" (same, III, 
1890) ; " Songs of Sequence of the Navajos" (same, VII, 1894) ; and a great number of 
shorter contributions.] 

Under Strange Skies. 

BY E. S. THACHER. 

jE Southern Californiansare set to learn new songs in aland foreign 
to our traditions. And not tolearn them only, but to make them; 
for if here as well as elsewhere Nature has been forever talking, 
she has here found but a meagre audience and no interpreter. 
And to make new songs means to have a new heart, trained to 
this un-Saxon environment, and so made fit to read the strange commu- 
nications that travel in cipher overhead. 

English speech and English sentiment have grown up in the long suc- 
cession of such summers and winters as are glorified by English song. 
The treasures that our language has gathered and stored, in its long 
progress, are all stamped with the mark of a greenwood that is green, 
the home of moist shade, of dim light. And children born on the Con- 
necticut or the Ohio need no introduction to the forests and fields where 
Shakespeare's people walked. 

" Three winters cold 
" Have from the forests shook three summers' pride ; 
" Three beauteous springs to yellow autumn turn'd. 
" In process of the season have I seen, 
' Three April perfumes in three hot Junes burn'd, 
" Since first I saw you fresh which yet are green." 

But through numberless generations to this old aspect of the seasons, 
the very fibre of our sentiment made of it, it is no wonder if often, in this 
land of overpowering sunlight, we think wistfully of the rich, damp 
undergrowth of the woods we used to know, the soft luxuriant summers 
with their changing skies and warm rains, the background of dark and 
turbulent winter giving greater glory to the short season of radiant 
peace. 

The new panorama which is here unrolled for our interpretation is 
indeed fit to kindle the desire to learn its secrets. There is a sense of 
loneliness as we sit down before it, remembering that the great guides 
of sentiment who have led us in the past are strangers to these bright 
plains and mountains. And yet the aid of former days is not wholly 
withheld, for if there is nothing Saxon or Celtic here, there do come to 
us, over these bright blue seas and through this sun-filled air, strong 
suggestions of kinship with those far eastern shores that our own sires 
and singers looked back to as the home of song and wisdom. 

The singing shepherds of old England would lose their way on our 
bushy foothills and their pipes would crack in our arid summer days. 
The lovely color of our soft ocean would win no notes of praise from them, 
for they could love nothing so strange to their eyes and they could only 
bewail their hopeless distance from their own green fields and forests. 

But Homer's auditors, I believe, would here find themselves under 
familiar skies. The adventurous Greek gods might walk our mountain 



112 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

ridges and look out over our seas with high hearts and r ever suspect 
that Olympus was farther away than San Jacinto. I do not know the 
habits of the bees of Hymettus or whether they like the flavor of white 
sage, but it is easy to fancy them humming bits of Anacreon over our 
mountain slopes and wondering what has become of the shrines and 
temples. 

The shrines and temples we have still to build* Is it possible that 
we may some day build into them a suggestion of that clear and simple 
beauty which the Greeks discovered on the shores of a sea as blue as 
ours ? There are places along our coast that are full, to the point of 
speaking, of the spirit of Homer. The old man was not always blind, 
and I should like to take him to certain points I know of and let him 
look about him, and across the channel to the Santa Barbara islands. 
He would have things to say that would be worth printing. And I know 
oak groves, back in deep recesses from the shore, where imagination may 
run swiftly back to days of satyrs and centaurs, and forward again, new 
kindled at the ancient fires, to sport unchecked with shapes unknown. 

The Greeks found this land when they were new to art and civilization . 
We come to ours with trunks full of the spoils of art and the record of 
ages of civilized experiment. What we do here we shall do as nineteenth 
century Americans, and our products will not shine with the divine sim- 
plicity of a new birth. But we shall learn something from the new land 
we have undertaken to dwell in, and perhaps the Greeks may help us in 
our interpretation. 

The love for a new kind of landscape has sometimes to wait for a guide 
who may point out its meaning. I well remember when, many years 
ago, the beauty of strong sunlight seemed first revealed to me by a col- 
lection of Spanish water colors by the great Fortuny. And Spanish 
literature, as well as Spanish art, may well give us help toward a just 
sentiment for our present surroundings. 

At any rate, here we are with our problem. Within the bounds of our 
own country we Saxons are to build a chapter of American life that shall 
fit a semi-tropic, semi-arid setting ; to enter on this sunlit empire and 
make it ours. Nature has been waiting for us. What slender occupancy 
there has been has left suggestions that we should value. But they are 
very slight. Our hands are free to do the thing according to our best 
lights. We shall have to dream over it a good deal, as waking thoughts 
alone can never compass it. 

Nordhoff, Cal. 

The Last Antelope. 

BY JEANIE PEET. 

He Stood upon the valley's edge, the last of all his race. 

And looked, from off the flowery ledge, upon Earth's changing face. 

Where were the groves of yucca palm, his tribe, at noon, to shield? 
Where was the wild waste's endless charm ? Turned into grove and field. 

Gone was the shimmering, sandy plain, which once before him rolled: 
He looked about, but hope was vain. His little heart grew cold. 

Before him, to the right and left, loomed horses, headers, men. 
He turned and fled, like one bereft, into the hills again. 

Break, timid heart ! Your day is done. You leave us but your name. 
The power that this your wild has won, the whole wide earth can tame. 

This ** Valley of the Antelope," where you and yours could rove. 
Now fills with human toil and hope, and human joy and love. 

Harold, Cal. 



113 



California Mount aim Ferns.' 




Th« Woodwwdia 



By MABEL L. MKRRIMAN. 

(Concluded.) 

ESCENDING from the rocky clififs, where the 

tufted Cheilanthes grow, to the banks of the 

streams lined with greater plant growth, we find 

the chain fern<5, the tall, luxuriant Wood- 

wardias. One who is ignorant of plant relationships 

would never think of associating in the same order the 

Cheilanthes Myriophylla and the Woodwardia Radi- 

cans. 

The little fern half hidden in the clefts and obscured 
by its own scaly covers sinks into utter insignificance 
when dragged from its hiding place and ranged beside 
the lofty Woodwardia, whose fronds grow four to six 
feet high. The Cheilanthes must be studied pains- 
takingly with the microscope. The Woodwardia does 
its work on a larger scale. Its spores, arranged in 
chain-like series under the long, narrow covers, can be 
seen several feet away ; while the pinnule veins, anastomos- 
ing one into the other, can be traced with the naked eye 
throughout their course. 

There is a Woodwardia that grows in the Old World that 
often produces at its apex a scaly bud. This, like the walk- 
ing fern, bends down to the ground, takes root and produces a new 
plant. But the California Woodwardia has no such eccentricities. It 
grows from its spores or from its root-stock as do the majority. Like 
so many mounds, the spores appear on the pinnules parallel to the mid- 
ribs and concealed under the indusiums. These burst one edge upon 
arriving at maturity, allowing the ripening sporangia to stretch out 
their elastic stalks towards the light. 

The Woodwardia grows side by side with the Goldback and the 
Maidenhair, under overhanging foliage and by shaded streams. Above 
them, amid the sunlit rocks and on the drier soil, are the evergreen 
shield fferns, called also the "sword " and "Christmas" ferns. These 
are the hardiest of all that grow upon the mountains. They may be 
found fresh and vividly green at all times of the year, and even retain 
their color for days after they have been picked. 

The fronds are simply once-pinnate and in shape lanceolate. The 
rigid pinnules are sharply serrated with spiny teeth, giving this variety 
the name munitum — Aspidium munitum. Aspidium (from 
the Greek word for shield) refers to the shield-shaped 
spore-covers. Crowded on the edges of the pinnules, 
sometimes so cramped for surface foothold that they invade 
the middle portions, are the clustering spores only 
partially covered by the indusiums. The chafify little 
fern by Mount Lowe springs provides so many covers 
that its spores are lost under them ; but the sword 
fern goes to the other extreme. The shield-like 
spore-covers scattered here and there over the crowd- 
ed sporangia are but a mockery of protection. 

As the name sword fern is apt because of the sword- 
like pinnules, so also the name Christmas fern is 
appropriate. While most of the other fern fronds 
are fragile and drooping and soon wither, this fern is 
straight and evergreen. With its frond-tips decked 




♦ Illustrated from drawings by the author. 



The hicld Fern (Asp. munitam). 



114 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




The Ooffee Fern 



by the numerous cinnamon-colored spores, these 
ferns growing in crowns upon the hillsides present 
upon a winter's day a pleasing harmony of rich 
browns and greens. 

Very different in general appearance is the other 
common Aspidium of the mountains. Although 
closely allied and very often found growing side by 
side with it, the ordinary observer would never 
suppose them to belong to the same genus. If 
several of the Christmas ferns were taken and 
arranged alternately along a stem the resulting 
, form would be much the same as that of Aspid- 
^^^ ium argutum — except that each pinnule of the 
Aspidium munitum has an auriculate base. The 
frond branches like a feather, or, more specifi- 
cally, is pinnate and each pinnule is again pin- 
nate — making the whole fern bipinnate, while 
the Christmas fern is simply once pinnate. 

The Christmas fern is green and brown, while 
this fern, its near relative, is green and white. 
The white spore-covers in button-like rows on 
each pinnule and on either side of the midrib 
are so completely protected that no spores are allowed to be visible. 

The Aspidivim argutum is not only very refreshing to look upon, but 
exhales a very refreshing odor. When dried it will perfume a whole 
herbarium as fragrantly as does the beautiful Dicksonia fern common 
in Eastern glens. 

Two other ferns commonly growing on the dry hillsides, and very 
similar in appearance and structure, are the pellea ornithopus and the 
pellea andromedafolia, the birdfoot fern and the coifee fern. Both have 
black, polished stalks, and, like the soil upon which they grow, are dry 
to the touch and not sensitive to the direct rays of the sun. Both 
secrete their spores under the turned-over margins of their pinnules. 

The pinnules of the coffee fern resemble the leaves of the higher 
flowering plants, and are ovate in shape. The pinnules of the birdfoot 
fern are grouped in threes along the stems, radiating from the point of 
attachment like the claws of a bird's foot. 

On the moister banks in the canons they may be found fresh 
and evergreen, with highly polished stems, but on the moun- 
tain crests, where they also strive to grow, exposed to 
the direct rays of the sun, they are stunted and of be- 
dimmed lustre. 

Notwithstanding the possibility of attaining to 
greater size and brilliancy in the shaded cafions, 
they are more often met with on the drier soil, j 

yielding the richer earth to the maidenhair ferns, ; « 
the goidbacks, the woodwardias — ferns that "tX 
absolutely refuse to grow elsewhere. 

So we find ferns prospering only under special 
conditions of soil and shade ; others, adapting 
themselves to a habitat where the rest have failed. 
Some grow away back in the shadow of the rocks, 
only to be seen by close scrutiny ; others flaunt 
their fronds in the face of all who attempt to pen- 
etrate their dense thickets. In comparison we 
find those that have been pushed to the wall — 
those that have been forced to dig their lives from 
the rocks — are dwarfed and hardy. Those which appropri- 
ate the shaded streams are majestic and luxuriant. 

The ferns as a class are patricians of the noblest rank. ^ » ... , » 

Tne tSird t-looi. 




CALIFORNIA MOUNTAIN FERNS. 



115 



In point of pedigree they can scornfully lift their fronds above the 
plebeian weeds of later evolution. Before the flowering plants had be- 
come even a thought in the plant world, the ferns reigned supreme. 
As aristocrats they held sway in the carboniferous age, ex- 
panding until they became towering trees, their rootstalks 
bathed in the rich water, their fronds inhaling and exhaling 
the air laden with the heavy carbon dioxide, the enricher 
of plant life. There were jungles and forests of ferns 
in those days of long ago. The tree ferns of New 
Zealand and other hot climes are but suggestions of 
what the ferns were in their prime. 

And now are they degenerating ? Are they being 
overruled and outwitted by the more gaudy flowering 
plants, as were the amphibians of the animal world, 
once kings but now at the mercy of a formerly in- 
significant biped? 

The flowering plants now come in for a 

greater share of water and rich soil. They 

weave their aggressive roots everywhere 

under the earth's surface, interlacing even 

the rootstalks of the ferns, crowding and 

forcing them into a greater struggle for existence, 

in the end either weakening them or compelling 

them to greater industry. 

" Work to live," the flowering plants are con- 
stantly saying to them, ** or else die in your fast fading nobility." 




Aapidtum argutum. 



Chicago University. 



The Sequoia. 



BY C. W. DOYLE. 



See where it stands in undiminished splendor, 

The giant sentinel of Pan's retreat ; 
Man's genius doff"s before it, fain to render 

Homage, and lay due reverence at its feet. 
No airy spire, no soaring dome tremendous. 
Declares God's glory like this tree stupendous. 

Man's labors vanish ; temple, palace, tumble ; 

And bronze, and marble, tarnish and decay ; 
The greatest monument e'er reared shall crumble. 

Ere this proud tree shall bend before Time's sway. 
The rosy morn it with its crest can greet, 
While darkness spreads her couch about its feet. 

The fairy myths of Greece that figured Naiad, 
Housed airy Echo, gave the Stars a name. 

Apportioned to each Oak its proper Dryad, 
Could find for this no genius of like fame ; 

God's angels, Gabriel, Abdiel, and their kin. 

Alone might dwell such noble fanes within. 



SanU Cruz, Cal. 



ii6 



W 



Death Valley in '49. 

^RINTEDby "blacksmiths" who have disfigured its every page with 
misspellings and letters upside down, Death Valley in VP is 
nevertheless one of the most interesting books of the season. 
William Lewis Manly, who recounts this wonderful true story of one of 
the saddest romances in Saxon American history, was a Vermont boy, 
born 77 years ago — and a very fair type of the old-time Yankee rover. 
Little schooled but shrewd, brave and "a stayer," the tale of his life 
has meat for half a dozen novels. He has not the literary nose for a plot — 
— perhaps fortunately, for only the most unconscious narration would save 
so remarkable a story from suspicion of mendacity ; and if he had had the 
dramatic instinct, he could not have left some of those desert scenes 
endurable to the reader. 

Alone, at lo years old, this Green Mountain boy drove a wagon from 
Vermont to Michigan, when his parents caught the Western fever ; and 
here was the beginning of a rover's career. He grew up a hunter and 
a trapper, with all the hardship and adventure that implied in those 
days. 

When that wonderful " Westward Ho ! " began, with the rumors of 
California gold, Manly became one of the now historic party of overland 
emigrants that crossed the Great American Desert from Salt Lake to 
Los Angeles in 1850. The wanderings and adventures of his little com- 
pany before reaching the Mormon capital were terrible enough ; but 
trivial compared to what they endured with the Death Valley company. 
Among Saxon expeditions in the New World this takes first place. No 
other was so tragic, so plucky nor so crazy. It was a band of men, 
women and little children, with wagons and oxen ; and the honors that 
befell it were incredible. And speaking of the Great American Desert, 
those arm-chair geographers who today rather sniff at the title, because 
they can traverse that desolation in a Pullman, might learn something 
by study of this plain tale. I also have trudged the breadth of that 
desert, and can vouch that Mr. Manly does not overstep the truth. In 
fact he falls much short of conveying a realization of what the desert is. 
He lacks the graphic art, and tells only the bald facts. One has to guess 
the picture ; but the cold records of dying oxen whose marrow turned to 
water as they walked, and of men that fell by the thirsty trail and never 
rose again, and of staggering, blear-eyed living mummies that shuffled 
on — these give the imagination start enough. 

Mr. Manly, the wilderness-trained hunter, seems needlessly severe on 
Rev. J. W. Brier, the minister whose record in the Death Valley party 
was not so masterful ; but the misunderstandings of two such antipodal 
professions are intelligible. 

Pity it is that a narrative of so much worth historically should have 
fallen to the tough mercies of (let us hope) the most incompetent 
printers in California. It deserved judicious editing and issue by a 
standard house. San Jos^. The Pacific Tree and Vine Co., $2.00. 



i 



117 



® 
'REGULATIONS 

AND INSTRUCTIONS 

For the Garrisons of the Peninsula of Californias. 
(Continued.) 



«xput«a la tifrr, a rebatos de fnemjgos, y que una pronta «Iida no 
f« demora por la union y cuidado con que se conserva,-no se variari 
la praaica establecida de lener quatro cavallos de dia y ocho de no- 
che aiados en cl Presidio, cuyo numero se aumenuri siempre que 
*e advicru motivo que obligue i ello. 

TITULO QUINTO. 

Dittribucion de Caudj/es,y ordcii con que ban de llevarte lus 
Cucntas generates y particufares por cl HMlUado. 

«. QLpuesto que ha de isistirse entre aHo la Tropa por el Habili- 
v37 "do en los gasios parliculares que ocurran a sus individuos 
y familias, que por no haver comercio en la Peninsula, foriojamente 
han de impenderlos en los rcspeflivos Almacenes, se excusa socorrer 
diariamente a Cavos y Soldados con dos reales diaries, como se praai- 
ca eo^los Presidios de Froniera; bien que deocurriialgun urgente mo- 
livoft que se haUe con suficiente alcanze, y en el buen estado que 
corresponde, con conocimiento y orden del Capiiaa 6 Comandante de 
la Compaiiia, podran aoiiciparscle veinle 6 treinu petDs; pero por 
oingun caso se liara a el que no este en el esudo y alcanie expresado, 
de que sera respon^able cl Comandanle. 

1. Atendido que el cofaro del Siiuado de estos Presidios se hace 
«n fines del ai'io, conio queda expuesio, y que el avio y pago de la 
Tropa no se elcflua hasia mediados del siguiente, por cuyo medio, en 
qualquier tiempo que se verifique la salida del Soldado, siipuesto el 
gobierno econoniico que ha de seguirse, se hallara con suficiente al- 
cante, a mas del valor de arniamento y c-vallerias, solo se retendran 
a Cavos y Soldados ciiicueiiia pesos de foodo, que han de descontarse 
«n los quairo primeros aflos para los fines que expresa el Tit. 4. Art. 
s. del Keal Keglamenio. 

3. De los descuen'.os que anuslmente se verifican para el foodo 
de alcanies de la Conip3riia,hj de hacer&e por el Habilitado la corres- 
pondiente entrada en Caxa con LUu que individiie los nombres de 
Cavos y Soldados, cmtidad reteoida a cada individuo,y toul caudal i 
que ascicoda^ a quicn para su resguardo se firmara un tanto de dicha 
Lisia, con expresion de quedar depositada en Caxa la cantidad de su 
importe por el Depositjtio, que ha de reputarse como tal el Capitati 
ca l-ereto, y el leguixla Ondal queoo cxerza la habiliucioo en Igi 

p. 11. 

is not exposed to surprises by the enemy), that a 
prompt sortie be not hindered by the way 
the horses are held together and tended, 
there shall be no change in the established prac- 
tice of keeping four horses tied by day and 
eight by night, in the garrison : and this number 
shall be increased whenever there is noticed any 
reason calling for it. 

FIFTH TITLE. 
Distribution of Funds, and order in which general 
and special Accounts must be kept by the Pay- 
master. 



1. Understood that during the year the Troops 
must be assisted by the Paymaster in the special 
expenses which befall individuals and families ; 
that, as there is no commerce in the Peninsula, 
these (expenses) must be on credit in the respect- 
ive Warehouses, the daily succour of 25c each to 
Corporals and Soldiers (as is practiced in the 
Frontier Posts) shall be dispensed with ; though 
when some urgent need arises, and there is suffi- 
cient balance, with the knowledge and order 01 
the Captain or Commander of the Company, $20 
or $30 may be advanced ; but in no case shall this 
be done for one who is not on the stipulated foot- 
ing ; and for this the Commander shall be respon- 
sible. 

2. Recollecting that the collection of the Esti- 
mate for these Posts is made at the end of the 
year, and that the paying of the troops is effected 
in the middle of the year following (by which 
means, at whatever time the Soldier may depart, 
since economy must be practiced, there will be 
sufficient balance above the value of the arm- 
ament and horses) there shall be retained in 
the fund for Corporals and Soldiers only $50 each; 
which shall be discounted in the first four years 
for the purposes set forth in Title 4, Article 2, 
Royal Regulatious. , 



3. Of the discounts annually made for the bal- 
ance-fund of the Company, the Paymaster must 
make the corresponding entry to Cash, with a 
List specifying the names of the Corporals and 
Soldiers, the amount retained for each individual 
and the sum total. For his safeguard, a copy of 
said List shall be signed (crediting the deposit ot 
that amount in the Treasury) by the Depositary, 
who shall be the Captain in Loreto, and the sec- 
ond Officer who does not actas Paj'master in the 



restntts Presidios : el legundo y itguientei aRos se htri la introduc- 
cioi rfet caudal perteneciente a este fondo con su respeflivo ijuste, 
formandose el cargo d« la exisiencia de fin del ano anterior, y monto 
de lot dejcuentos d<l ptesente, se maoifcitacan los pagoj hechw en 
el, y el total en que queda dicho fondo. 

4. El ajuste He la cuenta del aiio verificad6« losdescuentoa anfe- 
cedentej, y el de dos por ciento que ha de percibirel HabitiNKte, h« 
de haccrtt con intervencion del Capitan 6 segundos Oficiales exprest- 
dos en el aatecedente Articulo, y del Interesado 6 Sogero que noiii- 
bre par* que la examine, abonando en dinero de conudo i cada uno 
lo que devengue.enelmismo orden que advierte cl Real Reglamento. 

5. El I'ondo de gratifica'cion del Presidio a raion de diei pesot 
pot Flaja seocilla, tlenc por objeto, i tiias de los gastos generalei, an- 
Dcipar el coste de la racion con que ha de asisiirse a los Indios Pri- 
aloneros, 6 a los que se presenten a tratar de treguas, y anticipar la ha- 
bilitacion de l«s Reclutss,bajo las precisas reglasprevenidaseoel Aru 
5. de nte Tiiulo en el Real Reglamento el cosio que ocasione el sa- 
lario de iin Arriero, reparo y entretenimicnto de apa^ejos y demaj 
avios, y el rcomplato de Mulas de reqiia que mueran 6 se inutilizeiv 
en cada Presidio, 9oed.indo responsables el coinun de I« Compaiiiaa 
(••egun queda advertido ) del tanto que no alcanze a cubrjr el fondo, 
prorrateandose el descubierto que aesulte proporcionalinente compre- 
liendidos Oficiales, atendido a que quedan las requas destinadas a be- 
neficio de las Conipaiiiis, y consiguientemente han de responder de 
su exisirncia en todo tiempo, jr por ningun caso lucerse cargo a la 
Real Hacienda de lo que puedan exceder los gastos de esu y demas 
atenciones a que esta aplicado el fondo. 

6. Sii cuenta ha de llevarse por el Habiliuda,intervenida por los 
demii Oficiales del Presidio, con la mayor exiilitud y justificacion: 
anualinenle se introdiiciri en Caxa con el caudal correspondienle a 
este fondo su respeflivo ajuste, con los documentos que compwtbea 
la legiiiniidad de sus gastos, que ha de haserse de acuerdo y. <ietermi- 
nacion de los Oficiales de la Compaiiia , lot que lean ine«cusahlet, y 
no permitan la demora de consultar al Gobeinadori ^esperac su reso- 
lucion, lo que prccisamente ha de observarse en todos los que aOMln 
exrcunvos. como dar cuenta de los que por serlo se huviesen prafli- 
cado. SHI embar,to de que ha de examinar en Iss Revistis ai bueno y 
Icpjl gibierno, para dar cuenta anualmente de las existfucuiay gastos 
juiitauiente coa lo demas relative al estado de cada EMatdio, y Com- 
iniM al Seiior Comandante General. y. 

p. 12. 

remaining Posts. The second year, and there- 
after, the introduction of the amount pertaining 
to this fund shall be made, with its respective 
settlement ; the charge beidg made up from the 
balance in hand from the preceding year, and the 
amount of discounts of the present year; the 
payments made therein being shown, as also the 
total of said fund. 

4. The settlement of the yearly account (mak- 
ing the preceding discounts and the two per cent. 
which the Paymaster is to receive; must be made 
under the supervision of the Captain or Second 
Officers mentioned in the preceding Article ; and 
of the Interested person or Subj ect named to ex- 
amine it ; making good in ready money to each 
his dues, in the order fixed by the Royal Regula- 
tions. 

5. The gratuity fund for the Garrison, at the 
rate of $io per man. is designated (outside the 
general expenses) to meet the cost of the rations 
wherewith must be assisted the Indian Prisoners, 
or those that come to treat under a truce. Also 
to meet the fitting-out of the Recruits, under the 
exact rules fixed in Art. 5 of this Title in the 
Royal Regulations ; the salary of a Muleteer, the 
repair and care of pack-saddles and other equip*- 
ment, and the replacing of pack-mules that may 
die or become useless in each Post. The com- 
mon fund of the Companies .shall be responsible 
(as aforesaid) for any shortage in this fund; said 



ii8 



Ofl&cers distributing pro rata whatever deficit 
mav result; remembering that the pack-animals 
are destined for the benefit of the Companies, 
and that consequently these are always responsi- 
ble for their keep, and that in no case must the 
Royal Exchequer be charged with any excess of 
cost in this or other matters to which the fund is 
applied. 

6. The Paymaster must keep his accounts, 
supervised by the other Officers of the Post, with 
the utmost precision and equity. Each year there 
should be entered to cash, with the amount cor- 
responding to this fund, its respective settle- 
ment, with the vouchers for the legitimacy of 
the expenditures, which must be agreed and 
determined by the Officers of the Company, 
They shall not fail of this duty nor delay to con- 
sult the Governor and await his decision, the 
very thing which must be observed by those who 
are not executive officers, as well as to give 
account of those who (being such) should do so. 
Nevertheless he must examine in the Reviews 
their good and legal government, to give account 
yearly of the amounts on hand and the costs, and 
other matters bearing on the condition of each 
Post and Company to the Sir General Command- 
ing. 

■7. Las ciicnla? gcniWej han de lle'vane en un Libro, que «e in** ^ 
titulafa de Caxa: su primer partida de cargo sera la canlidad que r«-;^ 
suite existente por la entrega 6 cuenea anterior en rop'as, efeflot, vi- 
veres, reales 6 cavaUeriss; aeguiran las del valor de las Memorias que . 
. se reciban de Mexico y San Bias, el total de slcanzes de la Compaiiia 
y dependientes del Presidio, y el importe producido de potros, reses 
y dema« ganados que en el ano se liuvieren distribuido a la Tropa,cn- 
yas partidas ban de ser las ultimas de cargo, asi cii esta cucnta, como 
en las parlicutares. Los referidos cargos han de compcob^tr^ con el 
liiventario de entrega en el primer ano, y en los siguirates con cl In- 
ventario de existencips, que ha deformaliiarse en fin de c«di afio (corv 
intervencion de los Oficiaies del Presidio) y su respefllTi cuenta : UU 
Fadluras origjnales de Mexico y Saij Ulas con copias de los correspon- 
dienies Recibos dados por el Habilitacio, los particulares ajustfs jr 
cuentas de la Compafiia y dependientes del Presidio , y los documen- 
tos que justifiquen las entradaj pcrtenccientes a la Real Hacienda, que 
han de hacerse por lo tespedtivo a ganados en cuenta separada: las 
partidas de data^on y han de calificarse el pago de prest y sutldos 
con los ajustes y cuentas particulates de Tropa y dependientes del 
Presidio: la inttodtKcion en caxa del caudal correspondiente a la gra- 
tificacion comun, y retencion hecha a Caves y Soldados, hasta verifi- 
car el tondo de alcanze prevenido en sus respeflivos ajustes: las deii- 
das de individuos de la Tropa y dependientes del Presidio por sus 
cuentas; y el monto de las existencias de fin del ano se justificatan por 
su Inventatio, con lo que, deduciendo del total de data elde cargo, se 
demosttara la igualdad, alcanze 6 descubierto que respite. 

8. Los ajustes y cuentas particulares de Oftciales, -Ciriijano, Sar- 
gemo, Cflvos, Soldados y dependientes se Ikvaranen ui> Quaderno 
que anualmente ba de formarse a este efedto: dafa principio con \n- 
4ice que e^prete'Ios nombres y folio en que se hafle la cuenta de c«- ■ 
da BOO , que eitebeiada con su empleo y nombre , sjX nwa cl asiento 
drii pariida que It rtsulto el afib anterior dc alcaoat 6 d*ao, que se 
stcata >l niargeir7 l^iyara, para seguir las subraiMCcKionca que en el 
pfeseiifcse It hag»o. Las partidas han de instruifse con la cantidad, 
cafidad, preeio y total valor del efefio, notando al conir«Bi»rgB»iel . 
mes y dia de se dasion, que ha de ser reglada en precipe a lot^e ; 
coiKlen de las originales Fafluras, 6 exptese el ^faacel, ^«e i^'^'ifl 
fotuiane eo^-ieCicieirbre: se cerraran ha caeaoB, soKltideeiJo ixK 
Mta(<ie disTribQOiBrf«jr dehi<os cl de hftbc^, se D[iat]iMt:aia.«i.alcaia« , 
D que 



7. The general accounts shall be kept in a 
book, to be called the Cash-book. Its first item 
of charge shall be the amount on hand, by deliv- 
ery or brought forward, of clothing, goods, vict- 
uals, money or horses ; next, the amount of the 
Requisitions received from Mexico and San Bias ; 
the total of balances of the Company and de- 
pendents of the Post; and the amounts realized 
from colts, steers and other live-stock which may 
have been distributed to the Troops during the 
year. These items are to come last m the charge, 
both in this account and the private ones. The 
aforesaid charges must be verified by the Inven- 
tory of stock on hand, which must be made out 
at the end of every year (under supervision of 
the Officers of the Postj and their respective ac- 
count. The original Invoices from Mexico and 
San Bias, with copies of the corresponding Re- 
ceipts given by the Paymaster; the private settle- 
ments and accounts of'^the Company and depend- 
ents of the lost, and the vouchers for the entries 
pertaining to the Royal Exchequer, which must 



be made out, for the live-stock, separately; the 
items of credit do and must specify the payment 
of loans and wages, with the settlements and 
private accounts of the Troops and dependents of 
the Post; the posting in the Cash-book of the 
amount corresponding to the gratuity fund, and 
the amount held back for Corporals and Soldiers, 
to verify the estimated balance in their respective 
settlements; the debts-on -account of individuals 
of the Troops and dependents of the Post; and 
the sum of the stock on hand at the end of the 
year shall prove up with the Inventory, where- 
with (deducting the total of debit from the total 
of credit) shall be shown the balance, surplus or 
deficit resulting. 

8. The settlements and private accounts o 
Officers, Surgeon, Sergeant, Corporals. Soldiers 
and dependents shall be kept in a Memorandum 
Book arranged annually for that purpose. It 
shall begin with an Index, showing the name 
and page under which is to be found the account 
of each one, headed with his name and rank. 
This shall enter the item showing last year's 
credit or debit, which must be brought forward 
on the margin and underlined, to follow out the 
supplies to be furnished this year. The items 
must state the quantity, quality, price and total 
value of the goods, noting on the opposite mar- 
gin the month and day of delivery. The prices 
must agree with those fixed in the original In- 
voices or Tariff, to be made up the last of Decem- 
ber. The accounts are to be closed, deducting 
from the total delivered and owed that which is 
due, thus showing the balance 



que resulte, cuya saiisfacd9ab«d«no<ars« a presenciadelinteresado,'" 
segun qutd:> preveiido. 

TITULO SEXTQ. 

Submini.'traciM de las prendas de -ivstir y otras necesariar 
al avio dc las faniiOas de laTr^a, 

NO siendo combinable en estos Presidios sujetar el suitimieo- 
to de sus Memorias a las listas que-previene el Real Re- 
glamento den los individuos de Ja Tropa de las ropas y efeaos que 
neceViten para su svio y el de sus familias, asi por la intermision de 
un ai'io 6 mas en que ha de verificarse su arribo y recibo, como por- 
que no tuviendo oiro medio para surtirse el Soldado 6 proveerle,que 
eldela lemesa general, se seguiria talta de los renglones precisos,. 
pues iiitk»os de percibir el sobrante de su habet en dinero, lo prefe-; 
lirk al forzoso entretcnimiento de su ffluger, hijos y demas familia,. 
por lo que es indispensable variar esta pr.iiSica en estos Presidios, y 
que solo den dichas Listas los Oficiaies, Cirtijano y Sargcntos, reglan- 
dose para la formacion de Memorias a lo prevenido en el Art. 4. Tit. 
I. de este Reglamento. 

I. Pudiendo ve:if!car5e que algijno de los generos 6 efeiflos que 
se remitan por cl Faiftor no sean absolutnmcnte de recibo justificado, 
y no siendo causado el deterioro ;icr averia padecida en su transpor- 

• le, se le hara cargo en primera ocasion, y de ser posible, con la mis- 
ana embarcacioii que lo haja conducido. 

"3. Siendo inevitables Us mermas que padecen las semillas y efcc- 
los de racion despues de su recibo, priiKipalmente el M.iiz, que co- 
munmente se desembarca a^orgojado,la Manteca y Panocha,que der- ' 
tite y reviene el calor de las bodegas,'y el segundo cfeflo permanece 
revenido, y aun llega a derretir las Iretuentes nieblas y humcdad de 
este tempetamenio, a que se agrega la dilerencia y desperdicio que 
.ofrece la Wc/ribucion por inenor, y la que causa la couduccion de di- 
chos efeifta4,'Viveres y menestras para la subsistencia de la Tropa em- 
pleada en escoltas, no debiendo el Habilitado reporur.estas pcriidas, 
ni menos las que ofrecen los generos, cuyos aneages iTo corrc.-ponJcn 

. con su respeflivo vareo, siendo conforme sol'ra estas quiebras el Co- 
mun; para proceder con la juMificacion que corresponde, no se le siga 
a^ravijo, y qaede indemnizado el Habilitado, se observata que, prece- 

dicnr 



resulting. This must be noted in the presence of 
the interested party, as already provided. 

SIXTH TITLE. 
Supply 0/ articles of clothing: and other vecessaries 
'j the outfitting oj the families of the Troops. . 



I. As it is not feasible in these Posts to make 
the assortment from the Requisitions agree with 
the lists provided for by the Royal Regulations to 
be given to individuals of the Troops in clothing 
and goods they may need for their outfitting and 
that of their families (partly by the fact that a 
year or more elapses befpre their arrival and re- 



119 



ceipt, partly because the Soldier has no other 
means of assorting or providing than from a gen- 
eral stock, and would therefore fall short in the 
necessary memoranda — since, anxious to receive 
the remainder of his pay in money, he would pre- 
fer it to the forct d maintenance of his wife, chil- 
dren and remaining family — it is necessary to 
change this custom in these Posts. Therefore 
such lists shall shall be given only by the Officers, 
Surgeon and Sergeauts, following in making 
requisitions that which is set forth in Art. 4, Title 
I of these Regulations. 

2. When it is possible to show that any of the 
articles or goods sent by the Agent are not absol- 
utely up to specifications, if the deterioration has 
not been caused by the voyage, it shall be charged 
back at the first opportunity— and, if possible, on 
the same vessel which brought it. 

3. As it is inevitable that there will be damage 
to seeds and articles of food, after they are re- 
ceived — particularly Corn, which is generally 
landed wormy; Lard and Panocha (cane sugar), 
which the heat of the holds melts and ferments; 
and the latter article remains fermented and even 
becomes watery by the frequent fogs and damp- 
ness of this climate; to which must be added the 
shrinkage and waste caused by retailing, and by 
the carrying of these articles, victuals and neces- 
saries for the subsistence of such Troops as are 
on escort duty — the Paymaster should not report 
these losses, nor those in piece-cloths which by 
shrinkage fall short of their proper measure; it 
being proper that the Common Fund suflfer these 
losses. To proceed with due equity, that there 
be not inconvenience and that the Paymaster be 
secured, it is to be observed that preceding 



dieiWo rtomfcramiento, que hirin los C«tos y Soldados de h Com pa-' 
iiia, de dos Apoderados, en los mismos terminos que se prevendra err* 
el Cap. 9. del Tit. 1 3. a su presencia y de lus Oficiales se haga t»o- 
teo de una, dos 6 ires piezas de cada genero, vareandolas por dislintas 
manos; y descubierla la talta que resuiie, y nijmero de varas que pro 
<h>ican,$e deducira por el valor que sefiale la Faflura a U* ^eus, c(^ 
tejadas el precio de caJa vara a el que ha de reglaree el dispeodio de 
Xms reslantes de su calldad, pradlicando lo misnio con todoj los denial 
eteAos que ofrezcan difereocia, se noiaran todas las que te reconot- 
can en el misoio aiSo, y firmadas por los Ofici.les y Apodendoss «'« 
el Arancel que fixe los preciot de distribucion a los geoettM y efedoi' 
que ofreican merma; y para cubrir las de semillas y eleflot de ration, 
•e auaientara un real a el precio de cada fjnega de Meji, Frijol, Gar.' 
vanio y Lenteja , un real a cada arroba de Manieca y Arroi, y doi ' 
feales la arroba de Panocha, con lo que quedatan i. cargo del Habili- 
«ado fas mermas^ diferencias preveoidas , roiiio las que retulten por 
deicnido en U colocacion y tesguardo de qointo i: fle a w cuidado. 

TITULO SEPtlMO. 

POiyORA. 

'• TJ^ <** observarie pk«ualmente lo prevenido en l« Artk»- 
JLX. 'os '1 '. 3 y 5 «•« «'« Tu. en el Real Reglaownto, ti.ie- 
reocU.noo el 4, en que el repuesto de P6lvon y B>iiis nWiedte en 
cada fresidio, ha de ser correspondienie i din y sets librM |>cr Plata, 
atendida la dificuliad y riesgos que rfrece la conduccion de«i< AJrti- 
co,donde .'-. de jroveerse la falta que reaultare, ju$ti6cada en la cnen- 
ta particular que se ha d« llevar de loi comuoioa, que aprobada por 
el Cobernador, y a su pedimenw. se supliri por la Fac^otia de dich« 
Capital, dignadose deierminarlo el Exuid ScAor Virrey. 



TITULO OCTAVO. 

PROnSION DE EMPLEOS. 

'■ 'R'^^^ '" "^** ""iiletiiin por el Real Reglamento en rsie 

Jj Tiiulo,sicmpre que vacait la Compaftia del Preaidio de Lo- 

iwo, Tenencia d bubceneocu de lot rcMKHca de U Peniiimla, propon- 



nomination (by the Corporals and Soldiers of the 
Company) of two Proxies in the same manner to 
be provided in Head 9 of Title 13; in their pres- 
ence and that of the Officers shall be made an 
average of one, two or three bolts of each cloth, 
measuring them by different hands. Having dis- 
covered how much lacks, and the number of 
yards in hand, this (shortaee) shall be deducted 
from the Invoice value of the bolts, comparing 
the price of each yard with that which shall be 
fixed by the cost of the other bolts of the same 



quality. The same (precaution) must be practiced 
with all the other goods which show variation; 
all those measured must be noted together, and 
marked by the Officers and Proxies, and (thus) 
shall be the tariflF of retail prices upon cloths and 
goods which show shrinkage. To cover loss in 
grains and articles for rations, one "bit*" shall be 
added to the price of each/aAega (ij^ bushels) of 
Corn, Beans. Peas and Lentils; one "bit" to the 
price of each atroba (25 lbs.) of Lard and Rice; 
two "bits" to that of each arroba of Panocha. 
Wherewith the anticipated shrinkage and varia- 
tions shall be at the charge of the Paymaster, as 
shall those resulting from carelessness in storage 
and care of whatever is entrusted to him. 

SEVENTH TITLE. 
Powder. 



I. There must be scrupulous observance of the 
provisions of Articles i, 2, 3 and 5 of this Title, in 
the Royal Regulations; altering Art. 4, in that 
the store of Powder and Ball in each Post must 
amount to 16 pounds per man; in view of the dif- 
ficulty and ri.sk of bringing them from Mexico, 
where must be made up any shortage shown in 
the special account which must be kept of the 
consumption of stores. This being approved by 
the Governor, and on his request, it shall be sup- 
plied by the Factory in said Capital, the. Most 
Excellent Sir Viceroy^deigning to assign it. 

EIGHTH TITLE. 
Conferment of Positions. 



I. Under the rules established by the Royal 
Regulations under this Title, in case of vacancy 
in the Company of the Post of Loreto, the lieu- 
tenancy or sublieutenancy of the remaining 
(Posts) of the Peninsula, 



1^. 



dirigiendo las Propueitas «t 



dra el Gobernador totfeffridflc ( 
$efior Comandaote Geqeral. 

.' ». Para la provision de T»niente y Alferei <Je KCompaSia de 
Loreto, piopondra el Capitan tres Sugetos en quien coacurran las t*- 
lidades que corresponden, y esien en a^ual servicio, pasando la Pro- 
puesu al Gobernador, y este al SeiSor Cotnandmie, General con su 
■probacion o notas. 

3. Para el reemplaro de Plaias vacantes de S.irgentos, hara e! C». 
pitan igual propuesta, como kuTenientes de los restantes Presidios ea 
que no hay Capitan (y ban de exercer sus funcione* en est* pane y 
demas rehtivo 'i las obligaciones de dicho empleo como Coma»dantei 
de laCorapai'iia) entre los que se hayan distinguido Inas por KB con- 
dua» y valor, cuidando en quanto sea posible de qua septa lepr y es- 
cribir, y el Gobernador aprobara el que le pareica convenie»:e. Lat 
Plaas de Cavos las nombrara por si el |Capiian y Teni«»tes Cotnan- 
dant3s de Presidio, con la diferencia , que cstos h«n de pasai el oom-. 
bramiento para su aprobacion al Gobernador. 

TITIJLO NOVENO. 

REVISTAS MESSALES. 

,. 1^ L Comaiijlante de cada Presidio pasara mensalmenee revii- 

f^^ ta a la CcmpaSia, y fortnari un eKUaflo con los nombret 

de Oficiales,Sargentos, Cava, Soldados, Citujano y dein^s dependien- 

les: a los que se h^llasen preseiues pondra al inargen una P: i lot er»- 

destiojVJ IcB.eiJpleo? q pUu« vadantes una, V. Los reetn- 

vattintes del mes anterior se juslificaran por 



plazosdfT 



cho extraflo: si fuesen de empleo de Oliciil, con expr^sion de la fe-- 
cU^iM ciiinplase del Sefior Com.indanie General, y CcrtifiCKion fir- 
•V^ i todos los Oficiales, del Jia en que se le dio posesion : si de 
Capi^n. Sargenio 6 Cabo, con este liliimo documento, y si de Sol- 
d^a, copiando la panida de asienio , que ha de ponerse en el Llbro 
maestro, y el papel de tiempo de diez anos, que ha de darse i todof- 
i su eatrad^. 

2.^ P.ra justifkar las salidas solo variari de lo prever.ido por el 
Realt'*<g''""«n'o *" "'* Titulo, en las que se verifiquen por retiro 
de bclaados, respeflo a que no perinitiendo la suma distancia de esta 
Peuiasula lo verifiquen los isas hasu el regreso de las Embarcacionet 



the Governor shall propose [names for] the afore- 
said positions, directing his nominations to the 
Sir General Commanding. 



•12^ cents 



I20 



2. To provide a Lieutenant or Ensign for the 
Company of Loreto, the Captain shall propose 
three persons, having the necessary qualifi- 
cations and who are actually in service; passing 
the nominations to the Governor, and the latter 
to the Sir General Commanding, veith his ap- 
proval or remarks. 

\ ii. To fill vacant Sfergeancies, the Captain shall 
make similar nominations; as shall the Lieuten- 
ants in the remaining Posts where there is no 
Captain (and where; the Lieutenants must in this 
and other matters discharge the functions of 
Company Commanders) . [The nominations shall 
be] from among those who have most distin- 
guished themselves for good conduct and bravery; 
taking care, so far as possible, that they shall 
know how to read and write. The Governor 
shall approve the one who seems to him fitting. 
Corporals shall be named by the Captain and by 
Lieutenants who command a Post, on their own 
account; with the diflference that they must hand 
up the nomination to the Governor for his ap- 
proval, 

NINTH TITLE. 

Monthly Reviews. 



1. The Commander of each Post shall review 
the Company monthly, and shall draw up an ab- 
stract, with the names of Officers, Sergeants, 
Corporals, Soldiers, Surgeon and other depend- 
ents. For those present at the review he shall 
write in the margin a P.; the occupation of each 
employ^; and for vacancies among employes or 
men a V. Vacancies of the past month which 
have been filled shall be indicated by a note in 
said abstract. If the place was that of an Officer, 
it shall carry the date of the Commanding Gen- 
eral's approval, and Certificate signed by all the 
Officers as to date- of taking possession. If of 
Chaplain, Sergeant or Corporal, it shall carry 
merely the Certificate. And if of a Soldier, it 
shall copy the record of enlistment, which must 
be written in the Roster; and the ten years' pa- 
pers which must be given each man on enlist- 
ment. 

2. To adjust departures, there shall be no vari- 
ation from the provisions of the Royal Regula- 
tions under this Title, except such departures as 
are verified by the retirement of Soldiers. Seeing 
that the vast distance of this Penmsula does not 
permit that other departures be verified until the 
return of the vessels 

■ '^at arri6*n a los PueVtos con el Situa(kr,y de cnya tripulacion se so- 
vlicttan los reemplazos, per ser ef medio que se proporciona en estos 
PrMidios: cbnsiguienteoieme ba de obligar dicho motivo a las Rcvis* 
tat Us Licencias de cumpUdos, i^ue pot otra razon convenga sepa- 
rar de las Companias: por lo que se observara que, precediendo la li- 
eMKitdeLGoixR-iMdor^seextAtsseeo el extrailo Su iechs,^ ^ferriR- 
qoen lotOficiaUs el di»en quese veriRqoc el retire, exceptfOdSks las 
dcasione!! en que se halle presente *t Gobemador. 
- 3. Debiendo acrcditarse aomo Surplus a el Situadff del Pfesidio 
de Loreto el eorrespondiente a su pequeiio Departamento da Marina,' 
«e ineluiran sus individuos en los extra£toc de revista inensualtnente' 
oon distlncion,y a conttnuacion de la Compania, observandocon ellos 
respe^Hvamente las formalidades que quedan prevenidas para e! asien- 
to de sus Plaias en el Libro maestro, y juStificar las vacantes y reem- 
plazos de Soldados; *'diferencia,qUe el OrpitaR podra por si licenciac 
a los Marioeros segun convenga al «ervici« " ••- 
. 4. JLas Revistas han de pasarse ea todos los Presidios del prime- 
10 al quarto dii de cada mes; y qiiedando ei^cjdji 'uno el extraflo ori- 
ginal, se sacarao doc copias con las mismas formalidades, bs que haa 
de temitirlfr cd ^imera ocasion de Loreto y'San Diego, y measaU 
mtett de los denUa Presidiot. 

TTTULO BECIMO. 

^atc cof. los Jndios enemgoi i indiferenteSi 

<• TTAllandose en pai y trapquilidad esta Peninsula y su nuine- 
J.X rosa Gentilidad, mediiote lot moderados castigos prafli- 
MdcK coa los que en distintas parte* le inquietaron, causando hostili- . 
<Mm y mucrtes , junto con el buea trato, humanidad y dulzura que 
experimentaroa I06 Prisioneros, permanecen amlgoj, cooservandose li- 
bre la comuBicacioa de loi Preaidioi y demas establecimiemos, no d«- 
beran altetane las icglaa que anteriortiiente se ordeoaron, conforme i 
iM que pre&K el Real Regbmeato «D ate Tiiulo, que ha de cuav' 
plirse exiaimente en toda* sii* partes, ttfpa lo di^ la vatUeioo y 
CMOS que pttcdao «cutrir. 



p. 17. 

which arrive at the Posts with the Allowance, and 
from whose crews substitutes are sought, this 
being the only means available in these Posts; 
consequently this consideration makes binding 
upon the Reviews the Discharge papers of those 
who have finished their service, or for other 
cause are deemed proper to be retired from their 
Companies. Wherefore, having first secured 
leave from the Governor, the abstract shall give 
the date thereof, and the Officers shall certify the 
day on which the retirement took place, except 
on occasions when the Governor was present. 

3- As it is proper to credit as an Extra to the 
Allowance of the Post of Loreto that of its small 
Department of Marine, the individuals of the lat- 
ter shall be included monthly in the abstract of 
review, separate from, and following, the Com- 
pany; observing with them respectively the form- 
alities herinbefore set forth for the registering of 
the places in the Roster, and noting the vacancies 
and replacements of Soldiers, With this diflfer- 
ence, that the Captain may, of his own authority, 
give leave of absence to the Sailors, according to 
the needs of the service. 

4. The Reviews must be held in all Posts from 
the ist to the 4th of each month. The original 
abstract must remain in each Post; but two copies 
shall be taken with the same formalities, and 
these shall be forwarded from Loreto and San 
Diego atthe first opportunity; and fromtheother 
Posts monthly. 

TENTH TITLE. 
Behavior toward hostile or neutral Indians. 

I. Since this Peninsula is in peace and quiet; 
and its numerous Gentiles [Indians], (by virtue 
of the mildness of the punishments visited upon 
those that in different localities made disturb- 
ances causing hostilities and deaths; along with 
the gfood treatment, humaneness and gentleness 
experienced by the prisoners) remain frietfdly, 
so that communication with the Posts and other 
settlements is kept open; therefore there should 
be no change in the rules formerly established 
according to those defined by the Royal Regula- 
tions under this Title. These must be obeyed 
exactly in all their parts, varying only according 
to circumstances that may arise. 



TITULO ONCE. 

f'tmclonts del Gobemador como Inspe&or de los PresiJhf 
de la Peninsula, 

HAN de ser en todo fonformes por lo respefllvojl Joi Tee-i 
sidios del Gobierno a las que exeroe el lnspeAa«i Cemaito 
dante de los Presidios de Frontcra, segun y coaio etia oideoado eo el 
Tit. 1 1. del Real Reglamento, coo 4a uBica variation de ilefcer icri*, 
tarse el de Loretci cada segundo aoo, por la enorme distaOfis y aspe- 
ro camino que intermedia: para cuyo ef?dto y el de que Jia de desei» 
penar juntamente las demas atenciones del Gotiierno, se le destinsrj^ 
\m Ayudante, que ha de tener el grado de CapUan ; y atendidos los. 
gastos y cooiinuos viages que ha de haect para las Revistas y demaa 
a que se le comisione, siendo aprobad« su arei^cioo, le ragblo acree-. 
dor a el sueldo anual de dos mil pesos. 

TITULO DOCE. 

Fnwckises y faailtad.es delCapitany demis OfeialtSy 
Sargentos, Cavor y Seldadts. 

«• TTAN de ser en todo igvales -i las que i cada clase prefine cl 
XX Tit. 1 3. del Real Reglamento, con la variacioo qoc qaeda 
prevenida por lo respeflivo a Tenientes Comaiidantes de las Compa- 
iius y Presidios en los nuevos establecimientos. 

TITULO TRECE. 

Ob/igacioTies, Nombramiento i Inttruccion de HaUHtados. 

I. X A primera obligation del Oficial Habilitado es Ic de acredl- 

J ^ tar el acierto de la eletcion y tonfianaaque deel faace sa 

Cooipania, fiandole el manejo, eustodia y distribocie&de bbs intemei, 
procediendo en todo ton la liropieza y honor que esioseparaUc ^t« 
profesion. 

I. Uevara las cuentas generales de eargo y daU con U mayor • 
Claridad, justification y orden que queda pcevenido, para que al cabo 
del alio eximinadas y aprobadas per el Capitaq eo «1 Presidio de L«i. 



^TO BE CONTINUED.) 



121 




LAMDMARKS 



INCORPORATED / 

TO CONSERVE THE MISSIONS 
AND OTHER HISTORIC 
LANDMARKS OF SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

DiBBCTORS : 

Frank A. Gibson. 
Henry W. O'HelTony. 
Rev. .1. Adam. 
Sumner P. Hont. 
Arthur B. Benton. 
Margaret Collier Graham. 
Chas. F. LummiB. 



„ . OFFICERS: 

President, Chas. F. Lummis. 
Vice-President, Margaret Collier Graham. 
Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, lU N. Spring St. 
Treasurer, Frank A. Gibson, Cashier 1st Nat. Bank. 
Corresponding Secretary Mrs M E. Stilson. 

913 Kensington Road, Los Angeles. 
HoHORARY LiFB MEMBERS : R. Egan, Tessa L. Kelso. 

ADVISORY BOARD: Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R. Egan, W. C. Patterson, Adeline 
Stearns Wing, Geo. H. Bonebrake, Tessa L. Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas Cassat Davis, Miss M. F. Wills, 
C. D. Willard, John F. Francis Frank J. Polley Rev. Wm. J. Chichester, Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Lee, 
Rt. Rev. Joseph H Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles. 
J. T. Bertrand, Official Photographer 

The collection of $2000 to preserve the historic ruins of San Fernando Rey from 
destruction has not yet fully found its gait ; local and incidental reasons having pre- 
vented thus far an active campaign. Still, the subscriptions continue to trickle in, and 
a very fair start is made on the $1000 which must be on hand before work can begin. 
Meantime this winter's generous rains are not quite so good for the unprotected ruins 
as for everthing else Californian. It is hoped that last year's members will all renew 
their dollar subscriptions at once, now ; that hundreds of other intelligent people will 
join them ; and that those whose interest and means point to larger contributions will 
come forward. 

The Club's work is not provincial. It is saving historic monuments in California, 
but for the benefit and credit of the whole nation. Its members are confined to no 
locality. I,ast year's subscriptions sum up as follows : Los Angeles, $754.50, from 
214 contributors; Pasadena, $383, from 41 contributors; San Francisco, $103, from 4 
contributors ; other California towns were Oceanside, Santa Monica, Escondido, San 
Diego, Ontario, Claremont, Shorb's Station, Stanford University, Grass Valley, Niles, 
Mission Road, El Toro, Puente, San Gabriel, Sierra Madre, San Bernardino, Colton, 
Altadena, Orange, Dunsmuir, Azusa, Santa Barbara, Sacramento. 

Chicago sent $73 from 7 contributors. Subscriptions were also received from 
Dunedin, New Zealand ; New York City ; Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Lockhaven, N. Y.; Oneontai 
N. Y.; Mayville, N. Y.; Washington, D. C; Boston; Providence, R. I.; Philadelphia; 
Detroit; St. Louis; Topeka, Kansas; Kenosha, Wis.; El Paso, Texas; Harttord.Conn.; 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

Critical illness having obliged one of the lecturers to postpone his engagement, it 
has been deemed best to put the whole course of Landmarks Club lectures over for a 
few weeks. Due notice of the dates and subjects will be given in the daily papers. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CAUSE. 

Previously acknowledged: $1,591. 

New Contributions : Account of lecture course, $45.55. 

Ernest K. Foster (printing), $10 ; Los Angeles Printing Co. (printing), $7.50 ; E. H. 
Lammie, $5. 

Dr. T. Mitchell Prudden, College of Physicians and Surgeons, N. Y., $2. 

$1 each : Mrs. Francis F. Browne, Chicago ; P. B. Wright, City Librarian, St. 
Joseph, Mo. ; Capt. J. M. Fowler, 2nd U. S. Cavalry, Ft. Logan, Colo. ; Miss Mary Mc- 
Sweeney, F. A. Pattee, Silas Holman, Mrs. Silas Holman, Mrs. M. E. Stilson, C. P. 
Lummis, Sumner P. Hunt, A. B. Benton. 



122 




IN THE^^^^ 

LION'S DEN 



signed 



HERO 

OF OUR 

FRONTIER 



HE OLD 

AND 

THE NEW 



There are many systems of personal philosophy ; but the corner-stone 
of all systems that are worth having is this : "If you can't have what 
you wish, wish what you have." This has nothing to say with lying 
down and allowing circumstance to walk upon you. There is no defin- 
ing what you cannot have until you have fought your fiercest to see. 
But if there is any one thing this nerve-strung and sub-hysteric age and 
nation need to learn from inferior peoples it is how to "take your medi- 
cine." In the simpler modes of humanity they may be too much " re- 
in ours, we are certainly too much crybabies or pouters. 

Mrs. Fremont's reminiscent miniature of the real Kit Carson 
(printed in this number) is as significant as it is interesting. 
To the comprehension of the average indoor man this is a new 
side of Carson, and a strange one ; yet it is inevitable. A border "bad 
man " can be a scrub, and very often is. A person can live on the edge 
of civilization — or beyond it — and be common as a dog. But no genu- 
ine frontiersman, in decent usage of the word — none of the large old 
types that found and made the way for us — was ever unadmirable. It 
took men to whip the wilderness ; men to thwart the immemorial will 
of God. And when one who has known intimately both the scholar and 
the gentleman product of our finished civilization, and the best pro- 
ducts of the frontier, puts the two side by side, it is very much like com- 
paring Homer and Longfellow. 

Carson had few " advantages ;" but he was so much more a man — by 
every standard that began when the race was young and lasts till now — 
than the average statesman or scholar, that the summing-up makes one 
rather wish we might have kept a frontier. 

The man who can conquer Nature is always worth loving. It was no 
chance jingle, but a distinct inspiration from the upper Truth that gave 
a minor poet to sing : 

" The bravest are the tenderest ; 
The loving are the daring." 

New Mexico's first Superintendent of Public Instruction has 
just concluded his first term. The Lion remembers hearing 
the New Mexico Legislature when it wrestled with the question 
of " public schools or not?" He remembers also the solon who "would 
swim a sea of blood before his children should go to a public school." 
What a wonder is the lapse of a few years ! Today there are 550 public 
schools in the Territory — and never a sea of blood. 

The Lion has also known for a great many years Hon. Amado Chaves 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 123 

I 

and his work. The Territory owes a great deal to this gallant heir of its 
pioneers. Son of the greatest Indian fighter New Mexico has produced, 
and of historic lineage ; himself known and loved throughout that 300 
miles square ; a college-bred American, at once, and a man chivalrous as 
the best of the crusaders, Don Amado has been preeminently the man 
for the place. I have known deeper scholars ; but no one who could 
have done for New Mexico what he has done in four years. 

Today there is not a hamlet in New Mexico which has not its public 
school. These schools are not perfect — if any are. But the vital fact is 
that New Mexico is kindled. Its Spanish-speaking people, as heartily 
as the half-so-numerous "Americans," are awake. The public school 
has come there to stay. New Mexico is oldest of the nation, and most 
romantic, and in some ways slowest ; but there is nowhere in the United 
States a community of more heartfelt patriots or more sincere Americans. 

If there be anything California wishes and does not see, she all things 
may as well get to asking for it ; for this year the trend of for- '^'^^^ together 
tune is to the Southwest. The Funding Bill is slain — 
a matter the semi-occasionally happy Easterner cannot remotely 
imagine. Also, Senator Perkins is reelected from California. He is not 
the only Californian, by a long chalk ; but he is an honest Senator — and 
he was attempted to be defeated for that sole reason. 

Meteorologically this is the best year California has had in five. The 
nation has repudiated sawdust as a currency, the Octopus has sprained 
several tentacles, and the rains of our heaven have been not only just but 
generous. It is always good in "God's Country ;" but now it is superfine. 

Doubtless neither height nor depth nor any other creature shall who 
ever divide Senators Call, Mills and Morgan from the ears they laughs 

have grown ; but no lion's skin can hide them. Congress 
in general, despite its growing tendency to think with its lungs, evi- 
dently "heard from home" during the holidays. There is a shivering 
change of temperature between the December patriots and the January 
patriots. We are not having half so many wars nowadays by word of 
jaw. Even the newspapers are tiring of their toy. Today public 
sentiment in the United States stands where the Nation, the Argonaut 
and the Land of Sunshine stood (apparently alone) months ago. 

Common sense, which bids common people refrain from roaring in 
strange premises, is the last measure to be used on our politicians ; but 
common decency should be demanded. If these Senatorial fire-dancers 
were honest men, they would declare war on Spain. That is what they 
pretend should be done, and it is the thing they can do. But they dare 
not, and they do not mean to. All they are after is to bunco the 
emotional and "put the President in a hole." They wish people to 
believe that they hunger to go to war but that Cleveland won't let them. 
They must have a handsome idea of American intelligence. 

For persons who lie and know they lie, the Den has mere contempt ; 
for fellows who try to degrade the President of the United States, a good 
American hatred. And the Lion has never seen men with the Call- 
Mills-Morgan variety of mouth who would not run. 



124 




THAT 

WHICH IS 

WRITTEN 



Thkrk was never before such need 
as now of honest criticism in literature, 
^^^•>lvi";J^^ ' 'l^r ''' for the simple reason that now for the first 

^IJ^iNir** time literature has become a drunkenness. Everyone 

writes, and everyone praises them that write. And the fact is that we 
get far more trash than honest work, and few to tell us what's what. 

1188 DAWSON It is fair meat for pride to every bigot Westerner that a book of 

AND HER such dress can now be made back of the Rio Grande. Mechan- 

ics are the smallest part of publishing, yet when we remember 

that five years ago the oldest and richest house in New York or Boston 

did not think of issuing a book in such technical perfection as a young 

San Francisco firm now does habitually, it is clearly encouraging. 

If there is any one thing this magazine desires, it is to detect and 
praise Western capacity in literature ; not for provincial but for patriotic 
reasons. It honestly believes that these wider horizons are going to 
mean something in literary evolution ; and it is waiting to see the 
fruits. A careful reading of Emma Frances Dawson's An Itinerant 
House is, I must confess, disappointing. But this may be less fault of 
the book than of the crossroads professors who have mixed themselves 
with it. If we might have come upon Miss Dawson, unprepared by 
these sophomores, her stories might have seemed a more wonderful 
addition to California literature. And by so much as it is possible to 
forget her immature advocates, her work is entitled to be judged by 
itself. Even the amateur preface, which tickets the stories as first pub- 
lished in various fifth-rate periodicals, should not count against her ; for 
talent and judgment are not always next neighbor; 

To me it seems impossible to rank these stories /ith anything that s 
best in Western work. They are not Western, ex ;pt by parentheses of 
San Francisco fog. Miss Dawson is well-read, introspective and of an 
esoteric style ; but to compare either her technique or her touch of 
humanity with those of Mrs. Graham or Mrs. Channing-Stetson or Mrs, 
Peattie or Mrs. Foote is palpably absurd. And to pretend that she is the 
first resurrection since Poe and Hawthorne, would be impossible to any- 
one but a Stanford freshman or a Berkeley professor. The story- 
telling art is the precise thing -she lacks. Her motifs are invariably 
supernatural, and to realize how little she can fool one into temporary 
belief in the impossible, one has but to remember Poe. To compare the 
twain is merely to avow that one has never read Poe. 

Her plots are ungilded impossibilities, her style is harsh (though 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. 125 

learned in many ways) and her march lagging and obscure. A curious 
further structural fault in these stories is that each has been made a trap 
to catch verse in. The ghostly agony never gets so thick but the most 
crucial character has time, leisure and nerves to lug in her or his poem . 
This would be possible in one story, awkward in two ; in every one of a 
bookful it is simply impossible. And while Miss Dawson's verse is deep, 
well set and naked of conjunctions, it is wholly unmusical and not half 
so strong as it sounds. Music is part of poetry ; and she betrays none. 
Her stanzas bear rather the marks of being carved out with an ax. 

Yet when all is said, these stories have a certain power. They do not 
convince the sane reader, but they are tremendous to the neurotic, 
and strange to anyone. The Riverside Press itself never turns out a 
more tastefully made book. San Francisco. Wm. Doxey, $1.50. 

A commendable as well as an entertaining traveler is H. C. travel 
Chatfield-Taylor, whose Land of the Castanet is much better that 

than its title might promise ; for the Castanet is a very small pays. 

and a very insignificant side of Spain. The author modestly lists his 
chapters as mere sketches of travel ; and sketches they are at last ; but 
they hit nearer to vital truths than many pretentious studies of longer 
opportunity. Mr. Chatfield-Taylor is, be it noted, none of the school of 
travelers bent simply on showing how smart they can be at their host's 
expense. He suspects that other peoples are human also ; and of this 
specific people, " whose history is closely allied with our own but whom 
we little understand" he delivers a sane and salutary picture. If he 
does not always grasp the last secret of Spain, he sees fairly and clearly. 

His book is almost as up to date as the dailies are ; and with its in- 
formative illustration and reasonable spirit, it is peculiarly useful reading 
just now when passion and ignorance have come near leading us into 
ingratitude. 

The author's poca mana with the smallest and largest pronoun is 
marked. Fearful to seem conscious by saying '* I," he is tenfold more 
conscious and awkward by saying ** one." But this is a very little fault 
to be the largest found in a book of travel. Chicago, H. S. Stone & 
Co., I1.25. 

The Bookman reminds us again that we are all poor, miser- barking 
able sinners — the first thing we would like to forget. Ordin- at the 

arily sane, if a little too commercially optimistic, it gives space 
in January to a reviewer who were better cast into the Seven Seas, his 
neck adorned with the millstone he cannot see through. Any gentleman 
who has nowise benefited the world by his residence can pick flaws in 
Kipling ; and there are also some lovely people, not at all failures, who 
are somewhere so atrophied that they cannot comprehend mastery. But 
while Mr. Kipling is not winning in person, he has compelled the un- 
willing world. He is the only person in the 19th century with the hand 
of Homer ; and it is just as well to let it stand at that. Literature and 
morals will be the better if we can turn our criticism against the sewing- 
circle "literary people," and the prophets of writer's itch and ignorance. 
We owe nowadays, to any great man though human, sheer gratitude and 



MOO^ 



126 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

not the carping of those who have in all respects failed. Kipling is not 
infallible ; but we might be left to enjoy what is magnificent in him, and 
let the pack chase awhile the fool writers, the dishonest writers and the 
no-writers-at-all who never gave anyone but themselves a thrill. 

HAP- The best short tales printed in the best short magazine are 

^°°'^ reimbodied in the dainty volume of Chap-Book Stories. Here 

STORIES 

are a baker's dozen, all good, though uneven enough. There 
is much human in Octave Thanet's "Old Partisan," and much good 
literature too; scant literature and considerable humanity in *' Mandany's 
Fool, " by Maria Louise Pool ; not much of either in Lefevre's " On the 
Brink. " Neith Boyce, formerly of Los Angeles, contributes the story of 
*' In a Garden, " which is well written but wholly impossible in its Cali- 
fornia "color." Wm. HoUoway's "Making of Monsieur Lescarbot's 
Ballad" has elements of strength. But the story of the book, by odds, 
is Grace Ellery Channing's *' Oreste's Patron." It is not only the truest 
in local color, but truest to the heart ; most unaffected, most simpatico, 
most human. As mere "art" it stands full as high as anything in the 
book ; and beyond technique it is much the tallest of them all in the 
greater qualities. These are bigger artists than Mrs. Channing Stetson ; 
but no one who need have been ashamed to sign this story. Chicago, 
H. S. Stone & Co. $1.25. 

VLES There begins to be considerable California production of 

OF California books ; and, by just one firm, in as perfect dress as 

LANGUEDOC. any part of the East can afiford. The Tales of LanguedoCy 

by Prof. Samuel Jacques Brun of Stanford University, is somewhat 
handicapped by the ridiculous praise of its preface (by Harriet Waters 
Preston) ; but once delivered from its amateur friends it is able to stand 
by itself. The tales come little under the head of actual folklore ; the 
few which belong in that category being much modernized. But these 
as well as the fireside narratives which make the bulk of the book are 
well worth saving. Prof. Brun tells them in a fair, unaffected English . 
Peixotto's illustrations are very good indeed ; and the book by and large 
is a credit to the West. San Francisco, Wm. Doxey. $2.00. 

.___P The New York Herald recently published an article on Santa 

F^ which was distinguished by not having a correct date in it. 

As Santa Fe is in the United States, and as all the chief points 

in its history are easily learned, it would look to be possible for even a 

New York newspaper to get within a hundred years or so of the truth. 

Mrs. Lorraine Immen has published in a pretty booklet her impressions 
of California. The author, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Dr. Cora A. Morse, of San Francisco, has published a brochure, at- 
tractively illustrated, Yosemite as I saw it. 50 cents. 

The Book Buyer, always self-respecting and respectable among (and- 
above) the other publishers' magazines, has stepped still farther beyond 
the trade-list and still nearer to the larger magazine fences. It is a 
liberal education typographically, well written, well illustrated and well 
edited. It seems to be inevitable that publishers' magazines, and 
reviewers who are authors, shall practice a genial optimism, and jump 
not, that they be not jumped. But if its judgments are sometimes too 
good to be true, the Book Buyer is worth taking and reading — and that 
is rare praise in these days of shoddy. Chas. Scribner's Sons, N. Y. 
$1.00 a year. 

The Chap Book is to be doubled in size, without change of price. It 
was first and is best of the deckle-edged monthlies ; and its new de- 
parture will be watched with interest. 



The Land We Love 

(AND HINTS OF WHY.) 




L. A. EnK Co A SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FEBRUARY. 



^iPl^^H 


^^^^^^^^^^H 




jgF' '■ ,:?^".-- 


i 





L. A EnK Co 



A SUNSET IN SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 



Phot©, by Percy S. Cox. 




Commercial Bng Co. 



C AMU LOS RANCHO. Copyright by C F. Lunimis. 

famous by Oelen Hunt Jacksop's " Ramona." 



c,^ 



129 



I 



The Griffith Park. 

,RIFFITH J. GRIFFITH has recently presented to the city of Los 
Angeles 3000 acres of land for a public park. This wide and 
beautiful domain, lying north of the city, is capable of being 
made one of the finest, as it will be the largest, city park in the world. 
With the 500-acre Elysian park and the numerous smaller parks, Los 
Angeles will be without rivals in the way of public pleasure grounds. 
Several views in this charming territory are presented herewith. 




.Union Eng. Co, GRIFFITH PARK— A VIEW ON THE EASTERN BORDER. Photo, by Waite. 




fUnion Eng. Co. 



GRIFFITH PARK— A LIVE OAK. 



Photo, by Waite. 



I30 



I 



IJnion Eng. Co. 



L. A. Eng o. 



iiriiliililitiliiiilM^^^^ 



liiiii iiiiiii ffilii 



GRIFFITH PARK— LOOKING SOUTH. 



THF UNI Nvn BD GUEST. 



^atmq 



i 

i 



Photo byWaite. 




rhoto. by Percy S. Cox. 







'in 


1 '^^^E 


B 


i:k 


^Hl^^l^i "** li^^^j^^^^^^l 


^^^K»!^v-'-. 





Comirercial Eng. Co. 



LOS ANGELES IN 1854. 



131 



^ Sound and Progressive. 

GfV Los Angeles is — as has often been said — " the best advertised city 
I in the United States," there are two reasons for it. Its natural 
"^ resources, springing largely from the best climate in North America 
above Mexico, are of such sort that the mere truth about them has had 
to the rest of the Union all the charm of romance. To the Easterner, 
whose habits and traditions alike have to do with weather that averages 
hostile, and with a correspondingly niggard Nature, there is fascination 
even in the reading about the Lands of the Sun, where climate is never 
harsh nor Nature miserly. But the glamour of its history and of its 
skies have not done more for the fame of Southern California than have 




L. A. EDg Co 



PRESIDENT, CEN. E. P. JOHNSON. 



Photo, by Waite. 



its new possessors. Comparatively unheard-of before, within a decade 
it has become a proverb not alone of climatic perfection but of Ameri- 
can enterprise. 

There is nothing wildcat nowadays in Southern California. For a 
couple of years in the unlamented " Boom " of 1886-87 there was plenty 
of commercial insanity ; and fakirs and promoters swarmed in from all 
over the Union. But the collapse of the craze drove them out, and 
brought every branch of business back to its senses. Since that tre- 
mendous reaction, there has been no more mania. For half a dozen 
years the business of Southern California in every direction has been 
absolutely legitimate ; and the last trace of the boom has been obliter- 
ated. The adventurers have gone ; and in their place 75,000 intelligent 
people — and mostly well-to-do ones — have been added to the popula- 
tion, coming from all over the East to make their homes in the Better 
Country. 

The business men who give the Southern California metropolis its name 




.5 ui 

in 

111 

. DO 



V 

U 
h 

e 

2 

u 
c 

u 

a; [I 



SOUND AND PROGRESSIVE. 



133 




L. A Eng Co FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT, L E. REPLCGLE P*>oto by Wait*. 



today are 
men, mostly, 
of Eastern 
birth, educa- 
tion and re- 
pute ; men 
who had 
made an 
honorable 
record at 
home before 
they came to 
the larger 
and more at- 
tractive field. 
Business eth- 
ics and busi- 
ness intelli- 
gence are at 
as high a 
plane here as 
anywhere in 
the world ; 
and as for 
progress and 
develop- 
ment, no 
city in the 
Union ex- 
cept giant 
Chicago is 



in the same category. As in its municipal improvements Los Angeles 
is ahead, probably, of any other city of its size — and certainly far ahead 
of any other city of any size in the far West — neither is it behind in the 
higher financial fields. 

Eight years ago the Bankers' Alliance of California was incorporated 
in Los Angeles — the beginning of local insurance. Its first president 
was the late H. Sinsabaugh, D.D., one of the ablest and most honorable 
men among all who were prominent in transforming Los Angeles from 
a sleepy frontier town to a modern city. Its other founders were bank- 
ers of high standing ; and the policy they adopted and followed has 
brought the company logically along from modest beginnings to large 
success. Today the Alliance has $15,000,000 insurance written, does 
business in 22 States of the Union, and has 400 agents in the East. To 
anyone posted in California the names of the men at its head are 
enough ; they are names that all over the vState stand for integrity and 
responsibility. Farther away from home, the prompt payment of 
claims (the company has none unpaid) and the attractiveness of the 



134 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 



policy have won general confidence. It has 
returned or paid to members nearly half a 
million dollars. 

The present administration is the strongest 
the Alliance has ever had. The president is 
Gen. E. P. Johnson, president of the Los An- 
geles P'urniture Co., a prominent figure in 
public affairs in this State. F. B. Howes, 
cashier of the Los Angeles National Bank, is 
treasurer. Dr. W. G. Cochran, long president 
of the State Loan and Trust Co., is medical 
director. Louis E. Replogle, a Chicago man 
of national reputation in insurance circles, 
and D. C. Merriam, of the insurance law firm 
of St. John & Merriam, Chicago, have recently 
been brought into the directorate, where they 
are a valuable addition. Mr. Replogle is vice- 
president and active manager, and Mr. Merriam 
is general adjuster and attorney. Such a list 
of men stands unmistakably for prudent enter- 
prise, for solidity and integrity. 
That the institution which had already made so enviable a record is 
growing still, and is more than ever entitled to confidence, is fully 
vouched for by the following statement from State Insurance Com- 
missioner Higgins : 




L. A . Eng. Co Photo by Waite 

FROM SECRETARY'S OFFICE. 




L. A. Eng Co. jji^^ W. G COCH RAN , MEDICAL DI RECTOR. Photo, by Waite. 



SOUND AND PROGRESSIVE. 



135 



Mr. Louis F. Replogle, 

Vice-President Bankers' 
Alliance, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Dear Sir :— I have carefully gone 
over the facts and figures obtained 
by me during my recent investiga- 
tion of the affairs of the Bankers' 
Alliance. 

The business of your company 
is being conducted in an economi- 
cal and conservative manner, and 
if continued on present lines the 
Alliance certainly has a bright 
future. 

The annual statement of the 
company will be verified in a lew 
weeks in accordance with the re- 
quirements of our statutes. It is 
possible that I may have at that 
time some suggestions to make 
(although I do not anticipate any), 
but for the present I have none, 
as I am entirely satisfied with the 
management. Very truly. 

M. R. HIGGINS, 

Insurance Commissioner. 
Dec. 28, 1896. 

The annual meeting of 
policy-holders endorsed this 
official finding by the unan- 
imous reelection of the 
board of trustees. 

There are insurance companies and insurance companies, policies and 
policies ; but the policy of the Bankers' Alliance of California offers these 
advantages, which are given by no other single company : 




L. K Kng. Co. 
E. E. 



Photo by Waite 
BOSTWICK, COMPTROLLER. 




L. A. Engr. Co 

ASST. SECY. 



JOHNSON AND CEO. W. FOREMAN, 



Photo by Waite 
OHIO MANAGER. 



SOUND AND PROGRESSIVE. 



137 



Maximum indemnity at minimum cost. * 

Three benefits in single policy at cost of one : IJfe, Accident and Permanent Disability 

Annual dividends after hve years. ^ 

Non-forfeitable at end of seven years. 

Paid-up policy at end of ten years, if desired. 

One-half face of policy at age of 75. 

One-half face of policy in case of total or permanent disability. 

In case of accident, $4 00 per week per thousand insurance, for 26 weeks. 

Double that amount if injured by public conveyance. 

Number of small holders as compared with large risks increasing. 




r%at0, hf WAu, 



That is about as much as the policy-holder can safely ask. It is a safe 
policy and an attractive one — and therefore as good a thing as an agent 
can handle. 

To the 7000 members of the Alliance, its hundreds of agents and the 
insuring public the accompanying illustrations of the personnel and 
the quarters of the Alliance will be of interest 



PUBLISHERS' Department. 

^. I t t. C >!..* Wholly Unlike Any Other. 

The L^ind of ^arvSbme 

I he JJial, the foremost literary journal 

THE MAGAZINE OF CALIFORNIA in the United States, says in its issue of 

AND THE SOUTHWEST January i : 

$i.oo A Year. io Cknts a Copy. ** The appearance in bound form of the 

FoKHiGN RATES $1.50 A YEAR. gf^j^ volume of the IvAND OF Sunshine: 

Kntered at the Los Angeles Postoffice as second- evidences the Substantial progress which 

class matter. x.u • u • i ^ • • i • j • 
this bright magazine is making, and gives 

Published monthly by ^g opportunity to repeat our previous 

Tfie Land of 6un6fline Pubfisfling Co. commendations of it as one of the two 

INCORPORATED best periodicals published on the Pacific 

601-503 ST.MSON Bu.LD.NG. LOS ANGELES. cAt . ^^^^^ 3^^ Fraucisco has iu The Argo- 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS nmit one of the strongest and most in- 

W, C. Patterson .... President , ^- , ^ .li tt -^ j 

Chas. F. Lummis, V.-Prest. & Managing Editor terestiug weekly papers m the United 

h.J"f^™man ®f^^^t.a^yf"^.B"«^5J|Jg^gn States; and Los Angeles, the metropolis 

Chas. Cassat Davis .... Attorney of Southern Calitornia, has in the Land 

STOCKHOi^DERS OF SUNSHINE a magazine wholly unlike 

Chas. Forman Geo. H. Bonebrake any other published anywhere, charming 

D. Freeman C D. Willard . j / ^ • • • 

F. w. Braun F. K. Rule m appearance and entertaining m con- 

V'n\^^l^'^'''^ Andrew Mullen ^g^ts, which afifords one of the best 

C. G. Baldwin I. B Newton ' 

s. H. Mott Fred L. Ailes evidences of the growth of enterprise 

W. C. Patterson M. E. Wood j i^ ^i. i i. u ui i. 

E.W.Jones Chas. Cassat Davis and culture the place has been able to 

H. J, Fleishman ^^^^^^- p^-.i^th present. The editor, Mr. Charles F. 

Louis Replogle E. E. Bostwick ^ / 

Cyrus M. Davis H. E. Brook. Lummis, is au authority on the life and 

Chas. F. Lummis F. A. Pattee ^. ... /- ,i 0,1 , j 1 • 

». antiquities of the Southwest, and his 

NT^lic^^^- ^^°"^i ^^ addressed to the Editor. graphic articles are an important feature 

No MSb. preserved unless accompanied by re- ° c ^^ ■ 1 -i 1 • j-u_ • 1 

turn postage. of the magazine ; while his editorial 

Address remittances, and impoitant business, notes, though a little free and breezy, 

to F. A. Pattee, Business Manager. jiave a tone and manner that render 

REPRESENTATIVES them unlikely to be overlooked by the 
Los Angeles H. w. Newhall most Casual reader. Over all the mag- 
San Francisco ... - - Wilder & Co. azine the ' local color ' is laid rather 
California - - - - - Ira P Rowley thick— but who that knows and loves 

Arizona and New Mexico - - G. H. Paine oi_i r\ ^•^ • 1.1. t. c 

Chicago - Lord & Thomas, 45 Randolph St. Southern California can get too much of 

New York - - E Katz, 230 Temple Court its Color and its SUnshine ? " 

London - - - - F. W. Frier, 9 Victoria St. 

Paris - - Librarian American Art Ass'n, ' 

131 Bv. Mt. parnasse Makes Them Loiiff for California. 

The Crowning Point. " With the mercury hugging zero, the 

.^ _ North wind howling a gale, fires refusing 

The January number of the Land OF ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ humanity shivering with 

Sunshine is at hand. As is usual with ^^^^^ .^ .^ exasperating to receive such a 

this gem of typography and engraving ^^^i^^^, ^f balmy skies and placid 

It IS exceedingly handsome. No magazine . i_ i.u t . ^.^ ^^ o,r^^^,,^^.^ 

^ -^ ^ temperature as the Land of Sunshine 

on the coast excels it, and but few even .^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^_ 

attempt to equal it. The literary matter ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ .^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ p^^^^^^^ i^ 
IS up to the best of the Eastern mag- pe^salof the pages of California's bright 
azmes. But the crowning point of all is ^^^ sparkling monthly. The illustrations 
that it is thoroughly and distinctively ^^e of artistic and pictorial merit. Editor 
Cahfornian. Every lover of this sunny Lummis' department is one of the fea- 
and unique corner of the world should tures of this publication, and the East- 
be a subscriber and reader. It is only $1 ern magazines will have to look closely 
„ « > u« 1 *^ 1 1 r t. to their laurels to equal his work. This 

a year, absolutely low for so much ex- • ■ r ^ 1 1. t> ^ «j>^ a ;^ 

-^ ' -^ magazine is for sale at Barnard s, and is 

cellence and elegance. ' '—Redlands Cttro- o^iy ten cents per copy. ' ' — The Bristol 

graph. (Conn.) Presi>. 



FisHER's Music House 



427 SOUTH BROADWAY 



LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




INTERIOR OF A HOME FURNISHED WITH ONE OF THE 



WORLD RENOWNED SOHMER RlANOS 



FROM FISHER'S 



■SOLE AGENCY 



A BEAUTIFUL HOME 




Wishing to live on my ranch, I will sell my city home. In the southwest — the prettiest and most 
growing part of I^os Angeles. Best electric line in city passes the door ; another line half a square away. 

IOC feet front. Charming modern story-and-a-half cottage, five large rooms downstairs, three 
above. Bath, abundant closets, all modern conveniences. Grape arbor, model henyards and pigeon- 
houses, cellar. Better water supply than center of town. Piped for gas, and hot and cold water. 35 
varieties of fruit on the place. No end of raspberries, blackberries, peaches and figs. Rest of trees 
will all be in bearing in 1897. Rarest and best varieties plums, apricots, peaches, oranges, lemons, 
limes, loquats, pomegranates, grapes, pears, cherries, chirimoyas (custard-apples) , guavas, nectarines, 
prunes, walnuts, olives, etc., etc. Magnificent rosebushes in variety. Fine lawn, flowers and shade 
trees. Splendidly fenced. Insured for two years. More closet-room than in any other house of its size. 

One of the prettiest and most desirable homes in the Land of Sunshine, fruits and flowers. 

For particulars, call on or address CHAS. F. liUMMIS, 501 Stimson Building, or 16 
Forrester Ave. Traction or University car. 




SOLE AGENTS 
FOR 
THE 
CELEBRATED 







PIANOS 



PIANOS SOLD 

ON EASY INSTALLMENTS 
AND RENTED 



249 S. BROADWAY,. BYRNE BLDQ. 



OUR NEW WAREROOMS , 



Please mention that you " saw it in the I,and of Sunshine." 



IF YOU LISTEN TO INTERESTED PROMOTERS 
You May Buy Almost Anywhere. 

BUT IF YOU LOOK FOR YOURSELF, 
YOU WILL LOCATE 




IN THE ARROYO SECO SECTION, OR IN THE SUPERB 
HIGHLAND VIEW. OR LOVELY GARVANZA. 

Nature has made it, as your eyes will tell you, the most beautiful part of Los 
Angeles. Held back because it lacked rapid transit and because speculators were 
interested elsewhere, it has now suddenly come to the front. It has now the best 
of transit, and is developing handsomely. 

No dead plain, but a succession of the most exquisite rounding hills and charm- 
ing little valleys in Southern California. You can have your villa in the "Happy 
Hollow," under magnificent sycamores ; on the fertile first slope, or like an eyrie 
high upon the hills. Whichever you choose, you can have such superb outlooks as 
can hardly be matched elsewhere. Views of wooded valleys, of the giant Sierra 
Madre, of the city, and far off to sea — you can pick between them or between com- 
binations of them. 

The lowest points in this section are several hundred feet higher than the 
thickest of the city ; therefore cooler in summer and warmer in winter, more health- 
ful and more pleasant. No mud. Less fog than in the south of the city. It is on 
both sides of Pasadena Ave., and the electric line; which is destined to be built up 
its whole length with the finest residences. In a few years it will be the cream of 
Los Angeles. 

I^If you have money TO burn, go and pay five prices for a lot where you can see 
your sidewalk and your neighbor. If you haven't, come and buy a better lot 
whence you can get a perfect view, for a fifth of the money. You will be astonished, 
if you look at prices elsewhere and then here. A man who has two or three lots 
wants fancy prices ; one with hundreds of lots can sell cheap. But the price is the 
only cheap thing about these lots. In a few years these lands will bring higher 
prices than lands in the southwest. Now is the time to buy at first hands. 

I. H. PRESTON, 

Room I, 217 New High Street, Los Angeles. 

Please mention that you ".saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



HOTKU GREKN, F^asadena, Cal. 




J. H. HOLMES, Manager 



THE LARGEST 

MOST MODERN 
AND BEST APPOINTED 

Hotel in I^os Angeles County. Every mod- 
ern convenience ; over 300 sunny and spa- 
cious rooms, with private parlors and 
baths. Gardens, conservatorv, orchestra, 
etc. Centrally located in Pasadena, 30 
minutes from L.08 Angeles by three 
lines of steam railw^ay. Pasadena and L,os 
Angeles Electric Cars pass the door 
every fifteen minutes. 



pl^S'perty WOOD & CHURCH g?oTOy 

WP nCCPQ a fine ORANGE GKOVE of 2:5 acres close to Pasadena; 11 acres 25 years 

11 L UrrLn old, and 8 acres 10 years old ; budded. One inch of water to each ten acres. 

There is also a variety of fruit and ornamental trees. Never oflfered before for less 

than $20,000, but owner wants money, and will sell at $11,250. It will pay 15 per cent, on the investment. 

We have a fine list of Los Angeles and Pasadena city property ; some are bargains. 

Mortgages and Bonds for Sale. 

123 S. Broadway, I.os Angeles. Cal. Pasadena Office, le S. Raymond Ave. 




•^a^ 



OF 1.0s ANGELES. 

Capital stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 250.000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest., W.G. Kerckhoff, V.Pref;. 

Frank A. Gibson, Cashier. 

G. B. Shaffer, Assistant Cashier. 

directors: 

J. M. Elliott, F. Q. Story, J. D. Hooker, 

J. D. Bicknell. H. Jevne, W. C. Patterson 

W. G. KerckhoflF. 

No public funds or other preferred deposits 

received by this bank. 



oldest and largest bank in southern 
california. 

Farmers and Merchants Bank 



OF LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



Capital (paid up) 
Surplus and Reserve 

Total 



$500,000.00 
- 875,000.00 

$1,375,000.00 



OFFICERS : 

I. W. Hellman President 

H. W. Hellman Vice-President 

Henry J. Fleishman Cashier 

G. A. J. Heimann Assistant Cashier 

DIRECTORS : 

W. H. Perry. C. E. Thom, J. F. Francis, 
O. W. Childs, I. W Hellman, Jr., T. I,. Duque, 
A. Glassell, H, W. Hellman, I, W. Hellman. 
Special Collection Department Correspond- 
ence Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 



qjin 



JxrinxuTJTJxrinjTjTJTjxiTnjT.rLrLruxruTrun 



O 
O 

■ 

O 

o 
o 

o 
o 



i^ 



OUTJ 



RETIRING 

From the 

FURNITURE 

BUSINESS 

# 



furniture 

•^ and Carpets 



/^ONTEM PLATING to keep an exclusive 
\^ Carpet and Drapery House I have de- 
cided to close out my entire stock of 
Furniture at cost, and during this sale I will 
offer Carpets and other floor coverings at a 
little above cost ; this will enable you to 
furnish your house at the very lowest prices. 
This furniture comprises all the leading 
makes and different woods, such as Solid 
Mahogany, Curly Birch, Bird's-eye Maple and 
Oak, manufactured by the leading manu- 
facturers at Grand Rapids, Chicago, Cincin- 
nati, New York and Boston. All first-class 
and offered to you at cost. 

W. S. ALLEN 

332 and 334 Sotith Spring Street 
LOS ANGELES. CAL. 



O 

o 

b 
o 
o 

■ 

o 
o 

iJiJTirinjTJTruiJTruiJirLrLnj uTJTJxruTjTjTjuijijijTjxnjiJiJxnjTJT^^ 



««« 



Please mention that you " saw if in the Land of 



I# 



Ju§l as Good 
as llie colunftla" 



You hear it everywhere 
The ringing proof that 



Coiumbias stand the ^.!r?"I^J^^«^[rr 



Fact free at Columbia 
Dealers — by mail for one 



Standard of the World ^"""^ ""-"p 
POPE MFG. CO., Hartford, Conn. 



Tbe Preernan Curve Ruler- 



FOR 
DRESSMAKERS 




This universal curve ruler is 
the most perfect and accurate 
of inventions. Can be used 
any system of dress cutting to 
remodel into the new shapes, curves and darts. 

IT IS THE MOST COMPLETE GUIDE IN CUTTING 
All of the new Seamless Jackets and Princess Gowns, as well as all other garments, 
and is a complete system of itself. 149 8. BROADWAY, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

^inn AN APRF ^^ acres fine, sandy loam, all in 
UIIUU Mil MUllL choice fruit trees; 30 miles from 
Los Angeles, 6 miles from Ontario, }i mile from S. Cucamonga 
S. P. Ry. station. Adjoining acreage can be purchased. 

For further information apply to owner, CM. DAVIS, 
123 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 

.icase mention that yon "saw it in the Land op Sunshine. ** 




Any curable disorder is a needless burden. All disorders arising- from 
indigestion are curable because the cause can be cured to a certainty. 



RIPANS TABULES 



are not a "guess-work " remedy. They give quick relief. The proof of 
this claim may be found in a single t«bule. A sense of relief will be felt 
in the stomach as soon as the tabule begins to dissolve. Every man 
employed indoors should carry a few in his vest pocket. Every \Voman 
should keep them in the house. They are composed of the very medi- 
cines your physician would prescribe were he called on to treat you for 
dyspepsia or any manner of stomach, liver or intestinal troubles. 



Best St Co.. 



..:-": Stanley Dry Plates 

Cheapest and Best in Market. 

Tourists' Depot for Views of California. 

505% S. SPRING ST., LOS ANGELES 



POMONA COLLEGE iir^"""^ 

Courses leading to degrees of B.A., B.S., 
and B.L. Its degrees recognized by Uni- 
versity of California , and other Graduate 
Schools, Also prefisiratory School, fitting 
for all Colleges, and a School of Mu.sic of 
high grade. 

Address. C. G. BAI.DWIN, Pres. 

JOHN C. FII.I,MORE, 

Director of School of Music. 



meotion tliat you "* aaw it fat the 'Ukxn of Sunshine;." 



EDUCATIONAL tt 

^S^DEPARTriENT T 




Girls* Collegiate School. 



MARLBOROUGH SCHOOL 

For GrRLS and Young Ladies 
865 W. S3d St., lios Angeles. 

Handsome home with family discipline and refined 
family life, for twenty girls. New annex this year, 
containing assembly room, class rooms, studio, 
g^ymnasium, etc. Preparatory to be opened this 
year. Girls graduated in Latin and English 
courses, and prepared for any college to which 
women are admitted. Extended course in English 
Language and Literature, and special opportu- 
nities for work in Art, History, etc. During the 
summer Mrs. Caswell travels in Europe with 
classes. 



CHAFFEY ( 



AT ONTARIO 

The Model Colony*-), GAL. 



An ENDOWED Preparatory and Boarding 

School. 
15 PROFESSORS AND TEACHERS:— 

(Johns Hopkins ; Oxford, Eng. ; Wesleyan, 
Conn.; Toronto, etc. 

INDIVIDUAL. METHOD: The bright 
are not retarded, the slow not crowded. 
Graduate not "in four years," but when 
necessary credits are gamed— be it earlier 
or later. 

CHAFFEY GRADUATES SUCCEED: 
5 have been Editors of their respective 
University publications ; 3 Business Man- 
agers : a number have taken first prizes 
in rhetoricals ; i, a member Cal. State 
Univ. Faculty ; i, a Fellow in Chicago 
Univ. ; 2 Asst. Prin. High Schools ; 1 Edit- 
ors and publishers weekly papers ; etc. 

HEALTH : The " College Home" is peculiar 
because of the motherly care of the ma- 
tron, the abundance of well cooked and 
well served food, and other conditions that 
make the new student healthy and hearty. 

TENTH TEAR begins Sept. 17, 1896. 
Address Dean, William T. Randall, A. M. 



PRIVATE SCHOOL for 

AND Bt.CKWARD UlllLUntll 

A Private School whose system of individual care 
and education is intended for children who, 
through ill health or mental deficiency, are de- 
prived of the ordinary methods of education. 
Highest references from medical authorities. 
For particulars apply to Miss Allen at the school. 
MISS AI.I.EN, 

2101 Norwood St., cor. 81st. 



GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 

1918-1988-1984 South Grand Avenue 

For resident and day pupils. An attractive home, 
and thorough school. 

MISS PARSONS AND MISS DENNEN, 

PRINCIPALS 

Pa);adena. 

MISS O^TOrl'S 
Classical School for Girls. 

A Boarding and Day School. 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges. 

\s& Angeles Academy 

A Boarding School for Boys 

Ideal location in country, near the foothills. 
Forty boys, eight teachers. Not a large school, 
but a good one. Military discipline. $250.00 a 
year. No extras. Send for catalogue. 

C. A. WHEAT, Principal, 

P. O. Box 193. liOS Angeles, Cal. 



FROBEL INSTITUTE (-.. « -o.... 

CXIEST RDHCnS ST., COf}. H00VHI{ 8T. 
ItOS AflGEIiES 

All grades taught, from Kindergarten to College 
Training School for Kindergartners a specialty. 

PROF. AND MME. LOUIS GLAVERIE. 

Circular sent on application. 



MISS MARSH'S SCHOOL 

1340 and 1342 8. HOPE ST. 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

An incorporated school for young ladies and girls, 
gfiving all the advantages of a refined home, ad- 
vanced scholarship, and the benefit of the climate, 
to a limited number of students. 

References : 

Rt. Rev. J. H. Johnson, D. D, 
Dr. H. H. Maynard. 
Major G. H. Bonebrake. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the I,and or Sunshinb." 




La Fiesta de Los Angeles 

THE ANNUAL CELEBRATION OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 
AND THE SOUTHWEST. 



APRIL 
20-24 



■^^- 



Unique day parade of Spanish Caballeros, Chinese with 

Great Dragon, Mexican Vaqueros, and other character- 

istic features. Strikingly beautiful electric night parade 

1 097 of California Flowers. Great Water Carnival. Floral 

Parade and Battle of Flowers, including 300 equipages 

tastefully covered with fragrant blossoms ; impossible elsewhere in 

this country, Novel Street Carnival at night. Railroad facilities first-class. 

Ample hotel accommodations at reasonable rates. 

For information address La Fiesta Association, Los Angeles. 

Ferd. K. Rule, President. C. S. Walton, Secretary. 



For free information about Southern California, address, with stamp, 

C. D. WiLLARD, Secretary Chamber of Commerce, Los Angeles. 



CENTRAL PARK ri ORAL CO , 



They keep the choicest Cut Flowers of all kinds in season. 
The finest Floral Designs are put up by this Company at 
Telephone Main 493 138 SOUTH SPRING STREET 



WHEN YOU VISIT 

SAN DIEGO 

REMEMBER 




♦ + THB- 





RATES 

$2.50 PER DAY 

AND UP 



American Plan Only. Centrally 
located. ^Elevators and fire escapes. Baths, 
hot and cold water in all suites. Modern con- 
veniences. Fine large sample rooms for com- 
mercial travelers. 



$15 TO $100 PER ACRE. 

50.000 ACRES OF LAND POR SALE 

SUBDIVIDED TO SUIT 

IN SAN LUIS OBISPO AND SANTA BARBARA 
COUNTIES 

Suitable for Dairying, Fruit and Vegetable Growing. Climate perfect, Soil fertile, Water abundant 
I15.00 to $50.00 per acre. Terms to suit. Don't buy until you see 
this part of California. 
For further Information apply to : 

PACIFIC LAND COMPANY (Owners) 

SAN LUIS OBISPO, CALIFORNIA 

Please mention that you " saw it in the I^and of Sunshinb." 




SPORTSMEN, ALL! 



Invest one cent in a 
send to us requesting 
copy of 



postal card and 
a FREE sample 



GflMELflND, 

the monthly magazine of outdoor life. 
Subscription price, $i per year. Three 
trial numbers, 25c. 

D D C M 1 1 1 M C I ^^ ^'^^^ ^^^^ y°" * S""' ^^<^yc'^' 
rntlYllUmO I camera, or anything you want, if 
you will secure a club of subscribers for us. For 
instance, send ten names and $10, and you can have 
a $5 fishing rod. Full particulars, sample copies 
and order blanks FREE. Write to-day. 

Gameland Publishing Co., 

[Incorporated,] 

63 Rutgers SUp, - NEW YORK. 



Rnn^ AUATPIIR^ I furnish any kind of books 
DUU^ HHIHItunO} on short notice and easy 
terms. Rare and modern books on Mexico a 
specialty. Address, P. O. Box 158. 

AGUSTiN M. Orortiz, Mexico City. 
Refers to the editor, by permission. 



THE PRESS CLIPPING BUREAU 

GUARANTEES PROMPT, ACCURATB AND 
RELIABLE SERVICE. 

Supplies notices and clippings on any subject 
from all periodicals on the Pacific Coast, business 
and personal clippings, trade news, advance 
reports on all contract works. 

108 ANG[l[S OFFICE, M M UIGH 8TRFFT 



rrrraraLANTERNs wanted iswM. 

I W f ;\n inHARBACH&CO,809Filberts"phila"pa. 



HAVE YOU SEEN 

Modern 
Mexico ? 

The monthly magazine published at 
St. Louis, Mo., and devoted to inter- 
national trade ? Its full of information 
about the Southern Republic, and is 
handsomely illustrated. Printed in Eng- 
lish and Spanish— just the advertising 
medium to reach Mexican buyers. 
$1.00 a year, single copies 10 cents. 

W11.1.IAM C. Smith, Manager, 
Insurance Exchange Building, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

"THE INVESTOR" 

A Financial Guide to Southern California and 

Weekly Journal of Finance, Insurance 

and Trade. 

G. A. DOBINSON, Editor. 

Published every Thursday. 

Subscription, $3.00 per annum. 

Sample copies mailed on application. 

"The best journal of its class in the West." — 
N. V. Bond Buyer. 

" Commendable in every way." — American In- 
vestments. 

" Has made an enviable reputation."— ^^rf/anrfj 
Citrograph. 

OflRce, 4 Bryson Block, lyOS Angeles, Cal. 




i> LDEST AND BEST OF WESTERN MAGAZINES 

Devoted to the Interests of Sportsmen 



SPORTS AFIELD for_:97 

Better and Brighter than other Journals of its class. Best short 
stories of Sport and Adventure. Best Serials of Southern and 
Western Life. Best Corps of Writers in Departments devoted to 
field sports, angling, cycling, kennel, rifle and trap, and kindred 
matters of interest to Sportsmen. Beautifully illustrated and thoroughly up to date in every par- 
ticular. Subscription price, $1.20 a year. Send stamp for sample copy. 

SPORTS AFIELD PUBLISHING CO., 358 Dearborn Street, Chicago, Ills. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the L,and of Sunshine." 





'gsimtmmm 



The Ford Hotel 

PHCENIX, ARIZONA. 



American Plan: 

$2 to $4 



European Plan: 
$1 to $2 



Special Rates by the "Week 
or Month.. 

DR. FORD, Proprietor. 



RATES $2 AND $2.50 PER DAY 

Hotel HardwlGk 

W. H. GREGORY, Prop. 

Adjoining S. F., P. & P. Passenger 



First-class Meals 
Elegantly Furnished Rooms 
With all Modern Conveniences 



Phoenix, Arizona 



:dS^h^ 


gr«*^ 



Hotel Burke, Prescott, Arizona 



i 






-. i-^r-'^B.^jii^ 


It 



^ -*. ^ •* -*- 4?- •<$► 

AMERICAN PLAN 

The only Hotel with all 
Modern Improvements. 

Cuisine Unexcelled 

and special attention given 

to the Dining Room 

Service. 



^ r^ 



-«• ^ 



Fine Sample Rooms for Commercial Travelers T^url^^ ?^ "IHiP^l^^V 



'Bus meets all Trains 



PROPRIETORS. 



Tlin AMfDIPAy ITAIV byj. W. HANSON, D. D. This new and complete work 
Inr llmrnll.llll llllll onthelandofecer.bloomingflotoersandecer-ripening 
I III. nillkiiiunil I I flkl ^ruit is full ^f Southern California. The soil, climate, 
products, mountainSj desert, seaside, cities, and all that characterizes this beautiliul land are de- 
.scribed with enthusiasm and yet accurately. Just ichat the resident mould like to tell and the 
tourist would like to know is contained in the 300 pages. 130 choice half-tones embellish the book. 
The seven southern counties — Santa Barbara, Ventura, I,os Angeles. San Bernardino, Orange, River- 
side and San Diego. It is for sale at all bookstores, or may be ordered of the author, J. W. HANSON, 
Pasadena. Price $1.50 cloth ; paper, $1.00. Paper, type, illustrations and binding are of the very best. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 



TO KRIZONA 

Travel via Sailta FC ROUtC 

MAGNIFICENT SCENERY 300 ASIl rOrK 

FIRST-CLASS EQUIPMENT 

and Dining Accommodations. 

NO DKI^ffY 

Passing through the famous mining cities of Prescott and CONGRESS; 
into Phoenix through the richest section of the GREAT SALT RIVER 
Valley, noted for its marvelous fertility, agricultural products and 
scenic beauty. 

For information regarding the mineral resources or the agricultural 
possibilities of 

Central Arizona 

or for advice as to the train service from all principal points in the United 
States, write to any Santa Fe ROUTE representative, or to 

GEO. M. SARGENT, 

General Passenger Agent, 
Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix Railway Co. PRESCOTT, A. T. 

KILROY'S NEW PALESTINE AGENCY, 

SALT RIVER VALL.EY, PHCENIX, ARIZONA, 

Well known throughout the United States and Canada, sends greetings to the thousands of readers of 
the Land of Sunshine in the East, West and North-lands now watching the phenomenal strides of 
Phoenix, " When Truth starts on her onward mat ch of progress, neither the God of Justice nor Mercyever 
stops or stays her." Never have "coming events cast their shadows before" with the same marked outline 
coupled with intrinsic merit as in this infant city of Phoenix — with rich gold mines producing, within 
three short hours' drive by carriage; with one and one-half million acres of the finest land in the known 
world lurrounding her; with oranges, lemons, peaches, apricots and grapes, ripe and in Chicago mar- 
kets from four to six weeks in advance of California ; with immense quarries of granite and limestone, 
with Inexhaustible supplies of coal and coke formation (over 40,000 square miles); and lumber (ten 
thousand millions of square feet) within a radius of 300 miles, every foot of the distance a down grade 
(railway) to her doors, not to speak of her assured water power (the by-product of her canals), gifts 
that Providence has given to no other known city in existence— and yet history will repeat itself here. 
Many will be the lamentations in less than a year to come about the " golden opportunity lost." We 
offer 30O city lots, 50 x 137 feet ; five minutes' walk from the business center of phcenix ; no 
street car required ; first-class streets and avenues (80 to 100 feet wide); every lot elegantly situated" 
and perfect ; no ravines or broken lands ; each lot covered with a luxuriant growth of alfalfa 
(meadow). As in 'Frisco, Los Angeles, Denver, Kansas City and Omaha in early times, when to buy 
and hold a lot meant a fortune, so in Phcenix today. Prices, for a short time, ranging from $70, $80, $90, 
$100, $150 to $200 each, according to avenue and location. This is an " Angel's Visit." IVill you avail 
yourself of it f If so, send money to the Phoenix National Bank, with $2.50 extra for registering 
deed. The Bank will return warranty deed and abstract of title. 

FOR ELEGANT SUBURBAN HOMES 

We also offer 54 blocks, 12 lots 50 x 130 feet in each, adjoining the above lots, unequaled in Phoenix or 
the Salt River Valley for location and soil — each a perfect marvel of beauty. Prices range from $700 
to $2400 each. All this property has Sanitary Sewerage {the only tract in Phoenix thus supplied ), and 
perfect natural drainage. Free water-right goes with each deed. All titles are United States Patents. 
N. B.— On behalf of Phoenix and her twelve thousand citizens, it becomes our duty to correct some 
untruthful reports that have been spread by unknown and evidently irresponsible persons to the effect 
that portions of the lands in our city are liable to overflow.. We here make the statement, on the very 
best authority, that the Salt River has never, within the memory of man, overflowed its banks or 
backed up its waters. Its banks are channel banks, from fifteen feet high and upward. 

KILROY'S NEW PALESTINE AGENCY 

ROOM 313 FLEMING BLOCK. 

N. B — Whitelaw Reid, Theodore B. Starr, and A. P. Sturgis of Pierrepont, Morgan of New York 
City, with their families, have engaged winter homes for 1896-7 in our city, having been ordered by 
their physicians to winter here. 

Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshinb." 



piNE [^ALF-TONE PRINTING 



A SPECIALTY 



i^ingsley- 
Qarnes 

& 

Neuner 
Co. 




Printers and Binders to «rft9 o^..-,.. n^^.^...... 

"Lakdofsunshine • 123 South Broadway 



Pacific Coast Steamship Co. 

steamers leave Redondo at ii a.m., and Port L,os 
Angeles at 2.20 p.m., for San Francisco, via 
Santa Barbara and Port Harford : 

Jan. Feb. 

Santa Rosa I 4, 12, 20, 28 | 5, 13, 21 

Corona | 8, 16, 24 | i, 9, 17, 25 

IvCave San Pedro and East San Pedro for San 
Francisco via Ventura, Carpenteria, Santa 
Barbara, Gaviota. Port Harford (San Luis 
Obispo), Cayucos, San Simeon, Monterey and 
Santa Cruz : 

Jan. Feb. 

Eureka. 6:30 p ra | i, 9, 17, 25 I 2, 10, 18, 26 

Coos Bay, 6-30 p.m | 5, 13, 21, 29 | 6, 14, 22 

Leave Port Los Angeles at 6 a.m and Rt dondo at 
nam. for San Diego. Steamer Corona will 
also call at Newport (Santa Ana). 

Jan. Feb. 

Santa Rosa I 2, 10, 18, 26 | 2, 10, 18, 26 

Corona | 6, 14, 22, 30 | 7, 15. 23 

The company reserves the right to change 
steamers or sailing dates Cars to connect with 
steamers via San Pedro leave S P. R. R. (Arcade 
Depot) at 5:05 p. m. and Terminal Ry. depot at 
5:05pm. 

Cars connect via Redondo leave Santa F6 depot 
at 10 a.m. or from Redondo Ry. depot at 9:30 a.m. 
Cars connect via Port Los Angeles leave S. P. R. 
R. depot at 1:35 p.m. for steamers northbound. 
W. PARRIS, Agent, 
124 W. Second Street, Los Angeles. 
GOODALL, PERKINS & CO . 

General Agents, San Francisco. 



euts 



AT HALF PRICE 

The Land of Sunshine offers for sale or 
for rent from its large and well chosen 
Stock of over 1000 Cuts, both half-tones and 
line etchings, any California and South- 
western Subject the purchaser may desire. 
Send for Proof Catalogue and see if we can 
not both suit you and save you money. 

UNO OF SUNSHINE PUB. CO., 

501 Stimson Bldg., Los Angeles. Cal. 

YOU CffN GET 

A IVI V ^^^^ Of f"*""'* Tree 
^\IN T Ornamental Tree 

"^— ■"^— ■ Vine or Rose 



AT. 



JEROME CALDWELL'S 

Fancher Creek Agency, 

313 S. BROADWAY, I.OS ANGfCLKS. 

L. A. TERMINAL RAILWAY 

Cor. E. First and 

Meyers Streets 

Take Boyle Heights 
Cars. 



Time Table: 

PASADENA 
Leave for: 7.30, 9r30 a. ni. 

12:40, 3 20, 5:20 p. m 
Arrive from 8 15, 10:50, a. m 

1:20, 4:35, 6:00 p. m. 

ALTADENA 
Leave for: 9:30 a.m. 3:20 



4:15 p. m. 

SAN PEDRO 
Leave f r : 9:00 a. m. 

5 :05 p m 
Arrive from : 7:28, 11:15 a m. 

3:45 p. m. 





LOS ANGEL£^ 



ALAMlTOb 
LONOBLACn 



GLENDALIj 

Leave for : 7:! 

11:30 a. m 6 

p. m. 
Arrive from : 8 ' 

a. m. 12:05, 6^ 

p. m. 



SAH PCOItO 



Lemon, Olive, Small and Deciduous 

Fruit Land. Twenty miles from Los Angeles on 
Southern Pacific and Terminal railroads. No damaging 
frosts or destructive winds. A delightful climate winter or 



ALAMITOS. 

summer. Beau itul ocean and mountain view, lovely homes, the best of water. 
Soil a Rich Sandy JLoam, free from alkali or adobe. 

$150.00 per acre, 1-4 Cash, balance I, 2 and 3 years. 

One share of Water Stock deeded with each acre of land. 



Address, 



E. B. CUSHMAN, A^ent, 

ALAMITOS LAND COMPANY, 



306 West First Stre et, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



(ALirOBNIA 
LIMITED 




SANTA FE 
-ROUTE- 



THE QUICKEST 

Transcontinental Train Leaves 
Los Angeles 

MONDAYS AND THURSDAYS 

AT 8 P. M. 

Palace Sleeping Cars, Buffet and Smoking 

Car and Dining Car, under Harvey's 

management, through to 

DENVER 
KANSAS CITY 
ST. LOUIS AND 
CHICAGO 



THE SCHEDULE : 

Leave Los Angeles 8:00 p.m. Monday-Thursday 
Arrive Denver. 11:15 a.m. Thursday-Sunday 

Arrive Kansas City, 5:40 p.m. Thursday-Sunday 
Arrive St. Louis, 7:00 a.m. Friday-Monday 
Arrive Chicago, 9:43 am- Friday-Monday 



Vestlbuled Throughout. Lighted by PIntsch 
Gas. No Extra Fare. 



LO<5 ANGELES TICKET OFFICE, 200 SPRING ST., COR. SECOND ST. 



LEAVE FOURTH 8T 
Los Angeles for 
Pasadena. 
) am 2 30 pm 



*6 00am 
•« 30 am 

7 00 am 

7 30 am 

8 00 am 
8 15 am 
8 30 am 

8 45 am 
tQOOam 

9 15 am 
9 30 am 
9 45 am 

1*00 am 
10 15 am 
HO 30 am 

10 45 am 

1 1 00 am 
11 15 am 
11 30 am 

11 45 am 

12 00 m 
12 15 pm 
12 20 pm 
12 45 pm 
100 pm 

1 15 pm 
1 30 pm 

1 45 pn) 

2 00 pm 



2 45 I'm 
tSOOpm 

3 15 pm 
3 30 pm 

3 45 ym 

4 00 pm 
4 15 pm 
4 30 pm 

4 45 pm 

5 00 pm 
5 15 pm 
5 30 pm 

5 45 pm 

6 00 pm 
6 15 pm 
6 30 pm 

6 45 pm 

7 00 pm 

7 30 pm 

8 00 pm 

8 30 pm 

9 00 pm 
9 30 pm 

10 00 pm 

10 30 pm 

11 00 pm 
11 30 pm 



215 pm 
'Sundays excepted 
tConnect with Mt 
Lowe Ry 



Posoileflo onil los flnoeies onfl Posodeno aod Pociiic Eiecific Rys. 



LEAVE CHESTNUT STREET PASADENA fob LOS ANGELES 



*5 30 am 10 00 am 1 45 pm 

6 00 am 10 15 am 2 00 pm 

6 30 am 10 30 am 2 15 pm 

7 00 am 10 45 a-n 2 30 pm 
7 15 am 11 00 am 2 45 pm 
7 30 am 11 15 am 3 00 pm 

7 45 am 11 30 am 3 15 pm 

8 00 am 11 45 xm 3 30 pm 
8 15 am 12 00 m 3 45 pm 
8 30 am 12 15 am 4 00 pm 

8 45 pm 12 30 pm 4 15 pm 

9 00 am 12 45 pm 4 30 pm 
9 15 am 1 00 pm 4 45 pm 
9 30 am 1 15 pm 5 00 pm 
9 45 am 1 30 pm 5 15 pm 

OFFICES, CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BLDG. 
Fourth and Broadway, Los Angeles 



5 30 pm 

5 45 pm 

6 00 pm 

6 30 pm 

7 00 pm 

7 30 pm 

8 00 pm 

8 30 pm 

9 00 pm 
9 30 pm 

10 00 pm 

10 30 pm 

11 00 pm 



Echo Mountain. 





L^ 



LEAVE FOURTH ST 

Los Angeles 
t6 05 am 2 05 pm 

7 05 am '2 35 pm 

8 05 am 3 05 pm 
•8 35 am '3 35 pm 

9 05 am 4 05 pro 
•9 35 am '4 35 pm 

10 05 am 5 05 pm 
•10 35 am •5 35 pm 

11 05 am 6 05 pm 
•11 35 am 7 05 pm 

12 05 am 8 05 pm 
•12 35 pm 9 05 pm 

1 05 pm 10 05 pm 
•1 35 pmttllOSpm 
LEAVE HI LI. ST . 

Santa Monica. 
t5 35 am 2 35 pm 
t6 35 am •S 05 pm 

7 35 am 3 35 pm 

8 .35 am '4 05 pm 

9 35 am i 35 pm 
•10 05 am •5 05 pm 

10 35 am 5 35 pm 
•II 05 am ^6 05 pm 

11 35 Hm 6 35 pm 
•12 05 am •7 05 pm 

12 35 pm 7 35 pm 
• 1 05 pm 8 35 pm 

1 35 pm 9 35 pm 
•2 05 pm 10 35 pm 
• Sundays only, 
t Except Sunday. 
t+ Theatre Oar waits 
clooeof all Ihe.»tre9 



TO PHYSICIANS 



Comfortable practice 
and good residence, 
furnished, in most attractive town in the Rio 
Grand Valley, New Mexico. No opposition. On 
railroad. Easy terms. Address, L. R., care of 
the Editor of this magazine. 



226 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 

Oldest, Largest and Best. Send for Catalogue. 
G, A. Hough, N. G. Felkkr, 

President. Vice President. 



Please mention that you " saw It in the Land op Sonshinb.* 



COLUBR 

;&raVin& 
or 




|44 Webf^AiT 
l05An6EII5CAL 



Photo§:raphy 
Simplified. . 



Picture 
taking with 
the Improved 
Bulls- Eye 
camera is the 
refinement of 




r* T A QQ Book Binders, 

V;? 1^2\ O O Blank Book Manufacturers 

& LONG "'-^'^^'"Si^^eles. 
Tel. Main 535 



u X u r y. It 
makes pho- 
tographyeasy 
for the novice 
—delightful 
for e ve r y- 
body. 

LOADS IN 
DAYLIGHT with our light-proof film cart- 
ridges. Splendid achromatic lens, improved rotary 
shutter, set of three stops. Handsome finish. 

Price, ImproTed No. 2 Bolls-Eye, for pictures 

8% xH]4 inches, . - . . $8.00 

Hffht-proof Film Carl ridge, 12 expognrpg, 3J^x85^, .60 

Complete Developing and Printing Oiitfll, - 1.60 

EASTMAN KODAK CO. 

Booklet Free. Rochester, N. Y. 



Los Angfeles 



10.000 

Positions Filled. 



C. C. BOYNTON, 

Manas:er. 

Associate of FISK AGENCIES, 
Boston, New York, Chicago, Toronto, Minneapolis, Denver 

Teachers' Agency 



A Reliable Aid to Teachers and Trustees. Manual Free. 



BOYNTON NORriAL prepares teachers for Co. Examinations of all grades ; prepares for Civil 
Service Examinations ; publishers Examination Helps: Primary, 50 c; Grammar Grade, 35c.; High 
School, 25c.; Key to Arithmetic, 40 c.; to Algebra, 25 c.; to Music, 25 c. Write or call. 

525 Stimson Block, Los Angeles. 




THE Lbs 

ANGELES 

Business College, 212 W Third Street, 
Los Angeles, Cal., has a full corps of 
competent teachers, large, new and 
inviting rooms, and offers decidedly 
superior advantages to those who 
wish to obtain a thorough 

BUSINESS 

Education. Commercial Shorthand 
and Typewriting, Telegraphy and 
Assaying courses of study, all in- 
tensely practical . 

Profusely illustrated catalogue giv- 
ing full information mailed free. It 
will pay YOU to send for it, and to 
make arrangements to enter this 
modern and progressive 

COLLEGE 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 




Ingleside STpU 



F., EDWARD GRAY, Prop. 

ALHAiHBRA, CAL. 



New Ingleside 
HYBRID 
GLADIOLUS 

In size, color and markings 
finest ever grown. 2 5 cents 
each; $2.50 per dozen, 

postage prepaid. 

ORCHID, 

Flowering CANNAS, 
ITALIA and AUSTRIA 

$1.50 each. 

Postage prepaid. 

RETAIL STORE 



140 S. SPRING ST., 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

4®=" Send for illustrated circular. 



HYBRID GLADIOLUS. Imp. by F. E. Gray 



A Woman Florist* 



5 



EVERBLOOMING 

ROSES 

Bed, White, Pink, Yellow and 



Blush 



FOR 



I On 





I 




ATT. WILL BLOOM THIS SUMMER. 

Send 10 cents for the above Five colors of Hoses. I 
want to Bhow you samples of the Hoses I grow, hence 
this offer. 

8 of the loveliest fragrant everblooming Roses, 25ct8 
8 Hardy Roses, each one different, fine for garden, 25ct8 
8 Finest Flowering Geraniums double or single, 25ct8 
8 Carnations, the 'Divine Flower," all colors, - 25ct8 
8 Prize Winning Chrysanthemums, world beaters, 25ct8 
8 Lovely Gladiolas, the prettiest flower grown, - 25cts 
8 Assorted Plants, suitable for pots or the yard, - 25ct3 
8 Beautiful Coleus, will make a charming bed, - 25ct3 
10 Sui)erb Large Flowered Pansy plants, - - - 25ct8 
6 Sweet Scented Double Tube Hoses, ----- 25ct8 
3 Begonias and 2 choice Palms, fine for house. - 25ct8 
3LiOvely Fuchsias and 3 fragrant Heliotropes, - 25ct3 
H) Packets Flower Seeds, a Choice Aassrtment, - lOcta 

SPECIAL OFFER—Any 5 sets for $1.00 ; half of any 
5 sets, 6 Jets. ; or the entire lot mailed to any address for 
|2.50;or half of each lot for $1,25. I guarantee satisfac- 
tion. Once a customer, always one. Catalogue Free. 
Tliese plants will all grow with proper care. My great 
monthly "How to trrow Flowers," tells how. Add 25cts. 
to your order for it one year. Address, 
MISS ELLA V. BAINE8, Box 7 2 8prlnirfleld, OW* 



SEED COMPANY 

ilSN.MainSt., 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

CflliniQ ROMS Q SM. 

IOC. for pkg. Mixed Seeds. 
New Importation of Beautiful 

FLOWERING BULBS 

Grown to Our Order in Haarlem, 
Holland : 

Hyacinths, Lilies of the Valley, 
Anemones Azaleas, 
Ranunculus, Crocus, 
Tulips, Freesias, 

Narcissus, Lilium Harrisii, 

etc. , etc. 

SENO YOUR ORDERS 
NOW. 



Please mention that vou *saw it in the Land of Scnshiicb.' 



(^hino! 0hino!! Chino!!! 



Where the Great Sugar Beet Industry of California is located. We want 
thousands of people to cultivate the rich lands at Chino. There is no 
proposition in the United States that offers the inducements for people 
to secure Good ■Homes, Good Living and Good Health 
that Chino oflfers. The great factory at Chino wants thousands of tons 
of beets. 



We Have the Beet Land, 
and are Offering it 
at "Reasonable Figures 



^ On Long Time and 
1^ Easy Terms 



We guarantee the market for the beet crop raised on the Chino lands. 
The crop will pay for the lands in a few years. Also choice dairy lands. 
We want Butter and Cheese Makers for Chino lands. 3ooklet and 
Pull Information FPC^ ! 



Easton, Eldridge & Co., 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



121 South 
3road>vay 




"THE GOLDEN TERRACE RANCH" 



is situated near the Santa F6 
station, in the northern part of 
the city limits of Pomona, and is 
considered one of the best and most attractive ranches in that vicinity. It has a beautiful location and 
a fine frontage on two of the main thoroughfares leading into the city from the north and west. It is 
noted for the mammoth Gold of Ophir rose bush, said to be the largest of the kind in the State, which 
covers the entire side of the house, extending from the ground to the roof, and climbing around and 
over the chimney. Over 15000 roses have been in bloom on this mammoth bush at one time. 

The ranch consists of 44 acres, all set to bearing citrus and deciduous fruits, as follows : 14 acres 
Washington Navel oranges. 6 acres in prunes, 8 acres in apricots and pears, 4 acres in olives and 
peaches, 10 acres in raisin vineyard, i acre in alfalfa and i acre devoted to garden and berries. Ripe 
fruit is picked every month in the year. There is a good house of 7 large rooms, barn and all necessary 
out-buildings in fine condition ; abundance of water for irrigation and domestic purposes. Deed with 
the property. Title perfect. FOR EXCHANGE. 

Owing to declining health of the owner, I am authorized to exchange this beautiful home for 
property in New York city, Albany, N. Y., New Haven, Conn., Hartford, Conn., Springfield, Mass., or 
that part of the country. Value of the entire property, $40,000.00. 

I have a number of other choice orange groves, consisting of 5 or 10 acre tracts, with fine improve- 
ments, at very reasonable prices. For information concerning the above property, and particularly as 
to the beautiful city of Pomona and the surrounding country, address 

FRANK P. FIREY, Pomona, California. 

Please mention that you 'saw it in the Land of Sunshine.'' 



I. VI,- No. 4 6 \Z%I 

LIVING PINCUSHIONS." 



Lavishly 

Illustratec 




LosAngeles^ 



EDITED BY 

A5.r. LUMMIS 



COPvWiCMTCO 1895 BY L AMD OF SUMSHINE PUB. CO 



'W 



10 



CENTS LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO., 

A COPY INCORPORATED 



<ii;i 



Health and Rest Seekers 



are 




Paso loobies 
Springs 
Seekers 



The greatest and mogt 
beneficial Sanitarium 

upon the Pacific Coast. 

TOURISTS should not 
leave for their homes until a 
visit has been paid these 
Springs. Rates, $10.00, I12.50, 
$15.00 and $17.50 per week. 
HAI.I.OO, 

YE KUEUM ATICS 
AND 
DYSPEPTICS! 
Our new Mud Bath, just completed, is a model for comfort and convenience. Take steamer from 
Los Angeles to Port Harford, from them 2 train direct to Springs. E. F. BURNS, Manager. 

Address: PASO ROBLES SPRINGS HOTEL, Paso Robles, Cat. 



Qammia mission CUCalyptUS COZCIIgCS^ 

A Positive Cure for Coiig-hs, Colds, Sore 

Throat, and Diseases 0/ the Bronchial Tubes. 

Endorsed by Physicians, Public Speakers and 

Singers in every quarter of the Globe. 

Riverside, Cal., May 21, i8q4. 
California Eucalyptus Co.: I have used your Euca- 
lyptus Lozenges in my family with great success. It 
acts quickly with children in breaking up colds, and 
also in older ones in removing disagreeable tickling 
sensations in the throat. 

J. C. Stebbins. 

Ask your druggists or send 25 cents to the Cai^ifornia Eucai,ypTus Company, 
Los AngKi.es, CaIv., and a box of Lozenges will be sent to you post paid. 




Hotel Plcasanton 



COR. SUTTER 



AND JONES STS. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

special Rates to Tourists. 
Centrally lyOcated. 
Cuisine Perfect. 

The Leading Family and Tourist 
Hotel of the Pacific Coast. 



O. n. BRENNAN, 

Proprietor. 




Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 



YOU WILL P^IND THE 



HOliLEflBECK 



PI{H-Hmi]<lE](lTUY 



^h<> most centrally Slgl 



located, first-class 
Botel in the city, M. 

^American or Suro- 
pean Plan. 

Rates reasonable. 



HEADQUARTERS 
FOR 

TOURISTS 
AND 
COMMERCIAL HEN 




a^H^^^^^^^^^^^^B 



<^>SJp '^S/9 C^S9'^>S^ ^^5/9 (^2/9 '^S/? C^&9 '^sS^R-Q^'^S^ V^^ 



SHCOfiD AND SPI^IfiG ST6., Lies flngeles, Cal. 



NO MATTER 

If you are a denizen of the frigid East or a patron of an ill-favored winter 
resort, where the climate and scenic attractions are not the best, the 
cuisine and service at the hotel undesirable, 

KEEP IN MIND 

The fact that SANTA BARBARA. CAL , possesses alluring features 
distinctively its own, and 

THE ARLINGTON 

Is the tourist's hotel, booking the same guests year after year. (The best 
criterion of popularity.) DUNN 

SUNNY ROOMS. ROMANTIC DRIVES. 

(Mountain and Ocean Boulevards.) 
Santa Barbara has the best preserved Mission in the State. 

Calif ornia Curios poiishedandnnpoiishedsheiisofan 

^^ ^ : Vw/ varieties found on the Pacific Coast ; 

Gem Stones ; Mexican Opals ; Japanese Cats' Eyes ; Orange Wood, plain and 
painted ; Pressed Flowers, Ferns and Mosses ; Jewelry made from Coast Shells ; 
5x8 Photos, California Scenes, mounted and unmounted. Wholesale and Retail. 

E. L. LOVEJOY, 126 W. FOURTH STREET 
Mail Orders Solicited. Los Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb. 




Q ANTA BARBARA, CAIi., has stronger 
^SJi claims on the attention of the tourist than any 
SSS^ other resort on the Pacific Coast. Here are 
blended the advantages of climate and natural 
scenery unexcelled by any other locality in California 
or elsewhere. 

An electric street car system, attractive stores, 
churches, schools and colleges, are conveniences not 
to be ignored. Accommodations at hotels are reason- 
able in price and appointments the best. 

The livery stables of the town are complete in 
every way and the drivers excellent. 

Santa Barbara is reached by steamship, stage and 
rail from San Francisco, and by steamship and rail 
from Los Angeles. 



THE ARLINGTON HOTEL (Santa Barbara) is satisfying its quota of guests. 
The reasons therefor will be found in the regular advertisement on first page 
of this magazine. E. P. DUNN. 




A YOUNG PERSON'S ENVIRONMENTS 

Socially and religiously, are all that the most 
anxious parent can desire when Santa Barbara 
is selected as the place 
for acquiring a busi- ^-/^JUTij 
ness education. 

The Santa Barbara 
Business College gives 
the mostj thorough 
preparation for 'life's 

work. Write today for illustrated catalogue, and 
mention the Land of Sunshine. 

K. B. HOOVER, Principal. 

4i^Students may enter any time. 

WORTH THF WAIIf « is worth walking the 
nun in inC nflLN length ot state street to 
view the assortment of novelties I have to oflfer 
in the way of 

Mexican Art Goods, Carued Leather, Etc. 
When at the postoffice you are but half a block 
from the most attractive curio store in Santa 
Barbara. I like to show goods, even when 
people are not ready to buy. 

GEORGE A. SANliERS, 
State St., opposite The Mascarel, and next to 
Fashion Stables, Santa Barbara, Cal. 



THERE NEVER WAS A RETTER TIME 

To make investments in and about Santa 
Barbara than just at present. The completion 
of the Coast Route is certain to enhance values. I 
have for sale and for rent 

Desirable Property 

of every description, city and country. 
liOUTS G. DREYFUS, 124 West Victoria St., 
one-half block from Arlington Hotel, Santa 
Barbara, Cal. 



RI6HT AND WRONG llTor^VHt^il^t^ 

exposed films or plates. I not only know the 
right way but practice it as well. If tourists pre- 
fer to develop their own work, my rooms and 
chemicals are at their service, free of cost. I 
probably have as fine a 

Collection of California Views 
as may be found anywhere, and take pleasure in 
showing them, whether a purchase is made or 
not. When you are at the postoffice you are but 
one square from my place. 

A. H. ROGERS, Photographer, 
Corner State and Haley Sts., Santa Barbara, Cal. 



TO THOROUGHLY ENJOY Sl„tT7n'^S''ruf°s'i„7; 

Barbara, good rigs, careful drivers, etc , are essential. If you 
would secure these at minimum rates, telephone from your hotel to 

Main 148— The Fashion Stables 

or call at Livery, State Street, opposite The Mascarel. 

FRANK HARDISON, Proprietor. 





EUREKA SABLES 

W. M. OSBORN, Prop. 

Finest Turnouts in the City. 
Tally-ho for Picnics. 

Special attention given 
to Boarders. 



323 



WEST FIFTH STREET 

Tel. Main 71 LOS ANGELES 



Please mention that you "saw it in the I^and of Sunshine. 



The Land of Sunshine 

Contents— March, 1897. 

PAOE 

Frontispiece 
Living Pincushions (illustrated), Rosa de la Guerra 133 

The Pyramids of Taos (illustrated), Chas. F. Lummis 141 

(Southwestern Wonderland Series, XII.) 

Our Humming Birds (illustrated), Juliette Estelle Mathis 144 

Authorities on the Southwest (illustrated), II 146 

(F. w. Hodge.) 

Camels in Arizona, H. G. Tinsley 148 

California "Regulations, 1781 " 153 

The Landmarks Club 157 

The Lion's Den (editorial) 158 

That Which is Written (editorial) 160 

The Land We Love (illustrated) .' 163 

The Mining Camp of Randsburg (illustrated) 165 



ARTISTIC FRAMING 

A. SF»ECIALTY. 




Wood (uls 
lcl(?al jHeaos 
LTchinds 

Elc 



ICTuri^S 

Mouloinds 

HaTi^rials 
SiaTiun^fy 



TE DEUM LAUDAMUS ! 

GEORGE EIvLIOXT 

4^21 S. spiting St., Iios Angeles, Cal. 



ARD 
fiOLUER 

(CRAVING 

cor 




l054n6CLE6CAL 



ENTENMANN & BORST, Manufacturing 

Jewelers and Watchmakers 

l>iaiuond Setterg and Engravers. 

Medals, Society Badges and School Pins in gold 
and silver. Fine Watch Repairing a Specialty. 
Any description of gold and silver jewelry made 
to order and repaired. Old gold and silver bought. 
317>^ South Spring Street 
Rooms 3, 4 and 7, Up Stairs, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshtnk. 



(^hino! ^hino!! Chino!!! 



Where the Great Sugar Beet Industry of California is located. We want 
thousands of people to cultivate the rich lands at Chino. There is no 
proposition in the United States that offers the inducements for people 
to secure Good Homes, Good Living and Good Health 
that Chino offers. The great factory at Chino wants thousands of tons 
of beets. 



We 



Have the Beet Land, 
and are Offering it 
at "Reasonable Figures 



4r On Long Time and 
1^ Easy Terms 



We guarantee the market for the beet crop raised on the Chino lands. 
The crop will pay for the lands in a few years. Also choice dairy lands. 
We want Butter and Cheese Makers for Chino lands. "Booklet and 
Pull Infornnation Fp^^ T 



Easton, Eldridge 3c Co., 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



121 South 
Sroad^vay 



A BEAUTIFUL HOME 




Wishing to live on my ranch, I will sell my city home. In the southwest — the prettiest and most 
growing part of I,os Angeles. Best electric line in city passes the door ; another line half a square away. 

loo feet front. Charming modern story-and-a-half cottage, five large rooms downstairs, three 
above. Bath, abundant closets, all modern conveniences. Grape arbor, model henyards and pigeon- 
houses, cellar. Better water supply than center of town. Piped for gas, and hot and cold water. 35 
varieties of fruit on the place. No end of raspberries, blackberries, peaches and figs. Rest of trees 
will all be in bearing in 1897. Rarest and best varieties plums, apricots, peaches, oranges, lemons, 
limes, loquats, pomegranates, grapes, pears, cherries, chiriraoyas (custard-apples) , guavas, nectarines, 
prunes, walnuts, olives, etc., etc. Magnificent rosebushes in variety. Fine lawn, flowers and shade 
trees. Splendidly fenced. Insured for two years. More closet-room than in any other house of its size. 

One of the prettiest and most desirable homes in the L,and of Sunshine, fruits and flowers. 

For particulars, call on or address CHAS. F. LUM-VEIS, 501 Stimson Building, or 15 
Forrester Ave. Traction or University car. 



Please mention that yoti " saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



p. «t B 



GRAVEL ROOFING 
READY ROOFING 
BUILDING PAPER 
PAINTS 



Are Your Roofs Water -tight ? 



We have for many years made a specialty of Repairing: 
Old Tin, Corrugrated Iron and 8hingle Koofs, and 

have, b3' reason of our superior methods and materials, been enabled to 
prolong the life of roofs which were considered worn out. Before 
making repairs or alterations we are sure you will find it to your 

^.^....w advantage to consult with us. Examination of roofs 

524 SOUTH BROADWAY and estimates of cost made free of charge. We guar- 
E. G. JUDAH,Mfg. Agt. Los Angeles, Cal. antee all work. Send for Illustrated Pamphlet. 



Paraffine Paint Co. 




La Fiesta de Los Angeles 

THE ANNUAL CELEBRATION OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 
AND THE SOUTHWEST. 



APRIL 

30=24 

1897 



Unique day parade of Spanish Caballeros, Chinese with 
Great Dragon, Mexican Vaqueros, and other character- 
istic features. Strikingly beautiful electric night parade 
of California Flowers. Great Water Carnival. Floral 
Parade and Battle of Flowers, including 300 equipages 
tastefully covered with fragrant blossoms ; impossible elsewhere in 
this country, Novel Street Carnival at night. Railroad facilities first-class. 
Ample hotel accommodations at reasonable rates. 

For information address La Fiesta Association, Los Angeles. 

p£RD. K. RULB, President. C. S. Walton, Secretary. 

For free information about Southern California, address, with stamp, 

C. D. WiLLARD, Secretary Chamber of Commerce, Los Angeles. 




I. T. T^KRTIN... 

631 AND 533 S. SPRING ST. 



BEDROOM, PARLOR, 
AND OFFICE 1 



FURNITURE 



Iron Beds, $7.cx)_iand up. 



CARPET, MATTING, LINOLEUM, OIL CLOTH AND 
HOUSEHOLD GOODS. 

Largest Household Lines in Southern Cal. 

OPEN MONDAY AND SATURDAY EVENINGS 



A TOUR TO CALIFORNIA IS NOT COMPLETE WITHOUT SEEING 




AT 



South Pasadena. 



A Branch of the Nor- 
walk Ostrich Farm— 

THE OLDEST 
AND LARGEST 

in America. 

An Ostrich Feather 
Boa or Coll arette, 
made from the local 
product, makes a 
pleasing; and useful 
souvenir of the Golden 
State. 



Take the Pasadena and IjOS AngeleH Fleotric cars, or Terminal Ry. cars. 



Please mention that vou "saw it In the Land op Sunshinb.' 



Ha Wl^E Y, KING ©• CO,, Broadway and Fifth St. 

rw^ LOS ANGELES 

VICTOR '_" _:: 

CARRIAGES 

, ^.n.^^^^^_v,-x ^, BUGGIES 

BICYCLES U^m^^JJJ-Jl ^\IJ^^&^^\ TRAPS 



Bicycle Sundries 



E 

V 

E 

R 

Y 

T 

H 

I 

N 

G 

O 
N 

W 
H 

E 
E 
L 
S 



AND 

Novelties in Veiiicies 




complete 



PfllOl 

SHOPS. 

Forin 

impieris 

loie- 

soie 

Slore 

164-168 

North 



street 



The Broadway Carnage Repository. 




The Union Photo. Eng. Co., 121^ S. Broadway. 

Los Angeles, will make for you best Half-Tones 
16 cts. per sq. inch ; Line Etchings, 8 cts. per sq. 
inch. 



Photogfraphy 
Simplified. • 

Picture 
taking- with 
the Improved 
Bulls-Eye 
camera is the 
refinement of 

Photographic 
u X u r y. It 
makes pho- 
tographyeasy 
for the novice 
— delightful 
for e ve r y- 
body. 

LOADS IN 
DAYLIGHT with our light-proof film cart- 
ridges. Splendid achromatic lens, improved rotary 
shutter, set of three stops. Handsome finish. 

Price, Improved No. 2 Bolls-Eye, for pietvres 

8^x31^ inches, . - . . $8.00 

Uslit-proof Film Cartridge, 12 expog„re«« 3^x3^^, .60 

Complete Developing and Printing Outfii, • 1.60 

EASTMAN KODAK CO. 
£ookZei Free. Rochester, N. Y. 




Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



CORONADO OSTRICH FARM Facts are Stubborn Things-- 



Only Two Blocks North of the Famous 
HOTEL DEL CORONADO. 




25 Grown Birds. Incubators Running. Chicks 
Hatching Continually. 

Feathers and Shells for Sale. 

W. M. BENTLEY, I»roprietor. 

WOODI-ffWN 

10 minutes' ride from business center of 

LOS ANGELES. 

Paved and curbed streets, 3 electric car lines, and 
other improvements. The Finest Residence Tract 
in the city. Two story houses now being built and 
sold on the installment plan. Forty houses built 
and sold during last two years. Send for further 
particulars if you want a Home In God's Countrr 

Address owner, TUOS. McD. PATTEN, 
Cor. Main and Jeflferson Sts., 

(Also 6 acre bearing Orange Grove T^os AngeleS, Cal. 

at Redlands.) 



WHY? 


^Upg-^S^^m^^^BMH 


Because 


I^^UB^BIBH 


They 


'JH^^BI^S 


Are 


' ^^^^H9I 


Indisputable 


>\E0pl^^^HI 


THE 


^^m^ml 

ymmm 


FOLLOWING 


' hH 


ARE 




FACTS 


"^^^^M 



CONCERNING 

Escidiflo id the Esiio Vdllei 

1st— The Soil of the Escondido Valley is wonderfully rich and 
productive 

2nd— The Price is only $35 to $^5 per acre 

3rd— The Markets are good ; Fruits and other products obtain 
the same freight rates to the East as those given at Los Angeles 
and San Diego. 

4th— Water is abundant and quality good. 

5th— Fuel is plentiful and cheap. Good dry oak wood can be 
bought for $4 per cord, delivered at your door. 

6th— It is the finest Health Resort in the United States Why ? 
Because it possesses the best climate. This is proven by the fact 
that physicians all over the U S., who have made a study of 
Climates, send their patients to Southern California, and every- 
one in California knows that in San Dievo Countj , 12 to 14 miles 
from the coast, is found the best and most equable climate in 
California. 

7th— Tornadoes, Cyclones, Cold Winters and Hot Summers are 
all unknown at Escondido. 

8th— Ripe Fruit can be picked from the trees every day in the 
year 

Call at one of the offices for illustrated pamphlet, see views, 
samples of products, etc 

Offices of the Escondido Land and Town Co., Escondido, Cal. 

Los Anoilks, Cal., 305 West Second St. 

H. W. CoTTLK & Son, Managers 
San Diego, Cal., 1330 E. Street, C. Q. Stanton, Manager. 
D. P. HALE, General Manager. 



MAGC 



,„,NTERNS WANTED oWAm^ 

|HARBACH&CO.809FilbertStPhila.Pa. 



^^^ Ranches, Residences and all 
kinds of Real Estate in Redlands at reasonable 
rates. See Redlands before buying. Call upon 
or address JOHN P. FISK, Jr., 

Rooms I and 2 Union Bank Block, 

Redlands, Cal. 

FOR LBASB 

.^ — A Fine Corner 

4th and Central Ave. 

Inquire 2300 Grand Ave., 

lios Angeles. 




There's Nothing in Los Angeles 

^"ef^^.tC/a, a CORONADO WATER SOUR 
MR. WHEDON, at 204 S. Spring Street 

Distributes CORONADO WATER '"'""'" %tr.%804 



Please mention that you saw it ni the Land of Sdnshine.' 



City 
Property 

WE OFFER 



WOOD & CHURCH 



Country 
Property 

a fine ORANGE GROVE of J*5 acres close to Pasadena; ii acres 25 years 

old, and 8 acres 10 years old ; budded. One inch of water to each ten acres. 

There is also a variety of fruit and ornamental trees. Never ofiered before for less 

than $20,000, but ovi^ner vpants money, and will sell at $11,250. It will pay 15 per cent, on the investment 

We have a fine list of Los Angeles and Pasadena city property ; some are bargains. 

Mortgages and Bonds for Sale. 

123 S. Broadway, Los Angeles. Cal. Pasaden a Office, le S. Raymond Ave. 

JTJT.nJTJTJTJTJT.JTJTJTJTJlJTJTjarLnj\nj^^ nJXriJlJTJTJTJ^lJTJTJTJXnJTJTJJXrLp 



gnn 



o 
o 

■ 

o 
o 
o 

o" 
o 



mjxr 



RETIRING 

From the 

FURNITURE 

BUSINESS 



Turntture 

' and Carpets 



/r^ONTEMPLAlING tokeep an exclusive 
vi2/ Carpet and Drapery House I have de- 
cided to close out my entire stock of 
Furniture at cost, and during this sale I will 
offer Carpets and other floor coverings at a 
little above cost ; this will enable you to 
furnish your house at the very lowest prices. 
This furniture comprises all the leading 
makes and different woods, such as Solid 
Mahogany. Curly Birch, Bird's-eye Maple and 
Oak, manufactured by the leading manu- 
facturers at Grand Rapids, Chicago, Cincin- 
nati, New York and Boston. All first-class 
and offered to you at cost. 

W. S. ALLEN 

333 and 334 South Spring Street 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



««« 



uxriJTJxnjxnjiriJTJxrirLriJTJ iJxrirLnjiruTJuuTJiJTjTJTJijuTjTjTjT^^ 



O 
O 

o 
o 
o 

■ 

o 
o 




"THE GOLDEN TERRACE RANCH" 



is situated near the Santa' F6 
station, in the northern part of 
the city limits of Pomona, and is 
considered one of the best and most attractive ranches in that vicinity. It has a beautiful location and 
a fine frontage on two of the main thoroughfares leading into the city from the north and west. It is 
noted for the mammoth Gold of Ophir rose bush, said to be the largest of the kind in the State, which 
covers the entire side of the house, extending from the ground to the roof, and climbing around and 
over the chimney. Over 15000 roses have been in bloom on this mammoth bush at one time. 

The ranch consists of 44 acres, all set to bearing citrus and deciduous fruits, as follows : 14 acres 
Washington Navel oranges, 6 acres in prunes, 8 acres in apricots and pears, 4 acres in olives and 
peaches, 10 acres in raisin vineyard, i acre in alfalfa and i acre devoted to garden and berries. Ripe 
fruit is picked every month in the year. There is a good house of 7 large rooms, barn and all necessary 
out-buildings in fine condition ; abundance of water for irrigation and domestic purposes. Deed with 
the property. Title perfect. FOR EXCHANG*:. 

Owing to declining health of the owner, I am authorized to exchange this beautiful home for 
property in New York city, Albany, N. Y., New Haven, Conn., Hartford, Conn., Springfield, Mass., or 
that part of the country. Value of the entire property, $40,000.00. 

I have a number of other choice orange groves, consisting of 5 or 10 acre tracts, with fine improve- 
ments, at very reasonable prices. For information concerning the above property, and particularly as 
to the beautiful city of Pomona and the surrounding country, address 

FKAI^K P. FIREY, Pomona, California. 






Of 






^imt^^ 



THE LANDS OF THE SUN EXPAND THE SOUL. 



THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE 



Vol. 



No. 4. 



LOS ANGELES 



MARCH, 1897. 



Living Pincushions. 




BY ROSA DE LA CUERRA. 

OMEHOW, when there was such an agitation about 
the choice of a "national flower," a few years ago, 
the most distinctive of all our flowers was hardly 
brought into the contest at all. I say the most dis- 
tinctive ; for while there are many other flowers 
which are found nowhere else, there is not any other 
flower-family so large, so striking or so characteristic 
that is confined to this hemisphere. The cactus is 
par excellence the American among flowers — it is at 
home nowhere else in the world. It is impossible to 
•state exactly how many varieties are known to science, for the field is 
not very well defined, as yet, and the nomenclature is much confused ; 
but there are a great many hundreds of them. Counting the artificial 
varieties or "sports" — for the cactus isperhaps the easiest of all plants 
io be transformed by grafting and other tricks of the enthusiast — the 
number runs into thousands. A Philadelphia dealer lists nearly 2400 
varieties. All of these strange plants, unlike anything else in nature — 
and some of them wonderfully attractive, as all are interesting — are 
natives of the Americas exclusively, except the Opuntia fprickly pear), 
which was also found in Greece, and which gets its name from the 
Greek town Opus. "Cactus" itself is a Greek word, first applied to 
these plants by L/innseus. 

In the United States there are over fifty species, ranging trom the 
giant Zahuaro (candle-stick cactus) of the Arizona desert, which rises to 
60 feet in height, down to tiny half-globes no bigger than a marble. 
Most of these fifty varieties are found in Arizona and New Mexico. 
Utah has only nine; but California shares a majority of the full list. 
Mexico is the richest single country in the variety and interest of its 
cacti ; and South America is a productive field. 

In the United States the cactus is known almost exclusively as a child 
of the desert — Nature's most wonderful adaptation to foil the deadly 
aridity of that vast waste — and as the pride of some collector's hot- 
house. It is not put to any practical use, with us ; but everyone familiar 

Copyright 1897 by L»nd of Sunshine Pub. Co. 



134 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




»rd-Collier Kng. Co. 

THE GRIZZLY BEAR 



with Spanish-America (by travel or by 
books) knows how extensively it is used 
there. In Southern Mexico nothing is 
more common or more striking than the 
hedges of the '' organ o,'" that peculiar fluted 
column whose resemblance to the pipes of 
an organ has given it its name. The 
prickly pear (a variety improved by culti- 
vation to many times the size of the wild 
tuna) is also used for hedges; and around 
the old missions of California there are 
still remnants of these picturesque vegetal 
fences which the padres planted more than 
a century ago. The organ cactus will not 
thrive in the United States. 

More than 60 years ago there arose a cactus 
craze which bade fair to rival the famous 
tulip mania. Collectors in this country and in Europe went wild over 
this peculiarly interesting plant, the innumerable variations of which 
made it especially tempting for their purpose. As high as $150 was 
paid for single specimens, and cactus hunters were ransacking the out- 
of-the-way corners of the New World for new plants, just as similar 
commercial naturalists are now hunting orchids. But of late years the 
collecting of cacti has risen from a mere fashionable fad to the rarer but 
more dignified hobby of specialists. Mrs. Bandelier, first wife of the 
eminent historian, was among 
the most successful cactus am- 
ateurs in this country ; and a 
variety which she discovered 
bears her name. 

No other plant lends itself so 
readily to collection ; for it is 
almost infinite not only in 
varieties but in variety. There 
is hardly a strange shape under 
the sun which it does not or 
will not assume. It is tough 
and not at all hard to please. 
It thrives in pots of sand, where 
almost any other plant would 
perish. It is admirable for 
"carpet bedding," being hard- 
ier and far more striking, as 
well as far more varied, than 
the Echiverias and other plants 
usually employed thus. The 
most widely known cactus is 
doubtless the Night-blooming 




Mausard-Collier Erg. Co. 

A CRESTED OPUNTIA. 




UniouEng. Co. -j-^^ ZAHUARO OF THE ARIZONA DESERT. 




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LIVING PINCUSHIONS. 



137 




Mausard-CoUier Eng. Co. 

ECHINOCACTUS POLYANCISTRUS. 



Cereus — unless the commoner but less sen- 
sational "Century plant" should be given 
the precedence. But while these have won 
the highest distinction, they are not more 
interesting than scores of others. A.11 cacti 
have strange and interesting shapes ; nearly 
all have showy, and sometimes exquisitely 
beautiful flowers ; and many bear fruit 
which is by no means to be despised. No- 
where else in the vegetable kingdom (not 
even among the orchids) is it possible to 
make so large an assemblage of such dis- 
similar forms within the same family — 
from an inch high to sixty feet, from the 
shape of a carriage whip to that of a barrel, 
from the slender ocalilla to the angular- 
lobed opuntia, from the rosy "fairies' pin- 
cushion " to the hirsute " grizzly bear," and 
so on indefinitely. 

The cactus is not only an American but a 
Southwesterner. It is a child of the arid 
lands. It never grew (and never will grow, except artificially) in the 
moist climates like those east of the Missouri. Nature invented it for 
the deserts, a redemption and a hope in those burning solitudes. Any- 
one who has ever seen the Southern Arizona desert bewitched by the 

first rains, and turned from grey 
sand to a living carpet of tiny 
wildflowers, starred here and 
there with the gorgeous blos- 
soms of the cacti, knows one 
of the most wonderful sights 
in nature ; while thousands of 
human lives, and the lives of 
hundreds of thousands of an- 
imals have literally been saved 
by these strange vegetable 
water-tanks in the land of 
thirst. Kvery cactus is a reser- 
voir. Born and bred amid 
universal drouth, it stores 
moisture for its own needs and 
is often the salvation of its ani- 
mate superiors. Many a pros- 
pector lost on the desert would 
have perished miserably but 
for this cooling pulp ; and 
there is never a bad year but 
the cacti (particularly the tuna) 




Mausard-Collier Erg. Co. 
IN " CARP'S- 



Photo by Rile, Santo Monica 

CACTUS GARDEN. 



138 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



pull the cattle through. How animals 
can eat these prickly lobes is a mys- 
tery — but they do, just as rabbits and 
quail dash unscathed through the 
forest of thorns. In seasons of scant 
pasturage, cattlemen in the Terri- 
tories frequently build a bonfire over 
a heap of prickly pear, to burn off 
the "stickers" as much as possible; 
and cattle eat the charred lobes 
greedily. 

The most familiar cacti of the South- 
west in a state of nature are the huge 
and ghostly zahuaro ; the buckhorn 
cactus (called by the Mexican popula- 
tion entrana) whose stems make the 
familiar * ' lattice- work canes ; ' ' the 
prickly pear (opuntia) or tuna or 
nopal, commonest and most esteemed 
for its fruit, which is healthful and 
cooling; the ''Turk's head;" the "P'ish-hook" and the "Fairies' Pin- 
cushion." I am told that the "Century Plants " also grow wild in some 
parts of Arizona.* The entrana or buckhorn — well named, as it 
branches almost exactly like antlers, and has a surface very suggestive 
of horns "in the velvet" — grows farthest north and to the greatest 
altitudes of any of these varieties. It ranges far up into Colorado, and, 
unless I am misinformed, is common at corresponding altitudes in Peru. 
It is the cactus used by our strange New Mexican fanatics, the Penitentes, 




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. 

FOXTAIL CACTUS. 




L A Eng Co. 



Photo, by Slocum, San Diego. 
TUNA HEDGE AT A CALIFORNIA MISSION. 



* Quite right. I have seen Ihem in bloom by the thousand in the Touto Basin.— Ed. 






LIVING PINCUSHIONS. 



^39 



who lash great loads of it upon their bare backs as one of the tortures 
of their barbaric penance.* 

The most useful of all the cacti are undoubtedly the agaves. From 
the mescal and the maguey are made the two national drinks of Mexico 
— mescal, a potent brandy, and pulque, a milky and swillish beer. The 
fibres of the plant make very serviceable cordage, mats, etc.; the pulp 
of the leaves, roasted in the fashion of a Rhode Island clam-bake, makes 
a sweet, sticky, nutritious mess of which the nomad Indians are par- 
ticularly fond. If it had not been for this roasted mescal, our wars with 
the Apaches would not have lasted one half so long ; and this bit of 
Arizona botany has therefore cost the government of the United States 
a good many millions of dollars. Perhaps we may get it back some- 




Mausard-Collier Edr. Co. 

ORCANO HEDGE AT TEOTIHUACAN, 



Photo l,y 
MEXICO. 



J., time ; for the fibre of the same plant is likely to supply the growing 
* demand for cordage and paper. It is a wonderful plant, whose possi- 
bilities are little realized. Shut an Apache up with it and he can extract 
from it board and lodging — clothes, rope, food and the wherewithal for 
a spree. Other varieties of cactus furnish the Indian and the Spanish- 
American frontiersman with needles, thread, fish-hooks, pins, fences, 
candles (the dried stem of the " buckhorn " was the prehistoric candle 
of America, and makes a very good one), houses and many other things. 
The agaves are commonly, and I should think properly, ranked with 



* A description of the Penitentes and their rites was printed in this maerazine for 
May, 1896.— Ed. 




s^ 

Q 3 

O 4> 

n 

;? ^ 

«) ti 
o o 

H 



THE PYRAMIDS OF TAOS. 



141 



the cacti, though not included by botanists in the family of cactacecs. 
Of the same relationship is the more northern and smaller "Spanish 
bayonet," yucca baccata, whose root (the well-known "amole" of the 
Southwest) is absolutely the best soap in the world for the hair and for 
washing woollen goods. 

It is to be hoped that one of these days American botanists will pay a 
little more attention to this most interesting and most American of 
plant families. It is as yet most imperfectly classified, and it certainly 
merits a scientific treatment. The most important work on this Ameri- 
can plant is in German — Forster's expensive Cacten Kunde ($12). The 
only book that can be had at a reasonable price is by an Englishman, 
the assistant curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew — Watson's 
Cactus Culture for Amateurs. An important American book. Dr. 
Engelmann's CactacecE of the U. S. and Mexican Boundary Survey, is- 
out of print and costs $10 and upward. There are a few dealers' cata- 
logues, which are interesting but not very scientific. There is plenty 
of room for some American student to make a specialty of cacti and 
give us the first complete work on a fascinating theme. 
Santa F6, N. M. 



' THE SOUTHWESTERN WONDERLAND. ^ 

XII. The Pyramids of Taos. 

BY CHARLES F. LUMMIS. 

|A.R be it from me to fetch them into comparison with 
Ghizeh or Dahshur. They are not so ancient nor so 
tremendous nor so mysterious. Not a hundredth part 
so many inspired idiots have published careless false- 
hood and crazy theory about their miraculously exact 
orientation and their probable destiny for astronomic 
observatories and units of weight and measure. They 
are simply American pyramids, or pyramoids, and there- 
fore about one ten-thousandth as well known to Ameri- 
cans as is the sepulchre of Cheops. They are prehistoric 
but still in use. They are no tombs of fabulous kings, 
nor impenetrable secrets of what a world has forgotten 
more than it ever knew. They are just monuments to 
the human love of home — and the human ingenuity in 
making home a safe retreat even in the childhood of the 
race. In a word, they are the two great communal 
houses in which the Pueblo Indians of the northern- 
most valley in New Mexico have been making their simple history for 
probably 500 years. 

When Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, the first great North American 
pathfinder, was making his astounding marches through our Southwest, 
350 years ago, his subordinate, Capt. Francisco de Barrionuevo, marched 
with a few men over 100 miles up the Rio Grande from Tiguex (a pueblo 
about where Bernalillo, N. M., now stands) and finally reached the large 
and powerful village of "Braba," as the Indians called it. The explor- 
ers named it Valladolid, and Castaneda, the peevish chronicler of Coro- 
nado 's expedition, describes it so well that it has been conclusively 
identified with the present Taos. 

Today the Pueblo pyramid-houses of Taos stand (as they did then, 69 
years before there was an English-speaking resident anywhere in the 
New World) on the two sides of a chuckling trout brook, in a lovely 




w 




THE PYRAMIDS OF TAOS. 



143 



valley among the last vertebrae of the Rocky Mountains. Close on the 
north the massy Truchas spring abruptly from the little plain. To the 
east and south are the dwindling and farther ranges of Picuris and 
Santa Fe. On the west the great canon of the Rio (»rande splits the 
valley from the timbered uplands of Tres Piedras. It is one of the finest 
landscapes in the Southwest ; and despite its altitude (over 7000 feet) 
one of the fairest valleys. 

Nowhere in the world is there a more startling page of ancient history 
brought down to date. The whole of Europe has nothing which re- 
motely suggests these human beehives, these pyramidal fortress-homes 
of the northern Tiguas. Even among the most strangely picturesque 
populations of China. India and the isles of the sea, there is no mate to 
Taos. It is only in America, and only in New Mexico, that such things 
are to be seen ; and they are not common even there. Zuni, the 
one village that is left of the " Seven Cities of Cibola " whose fame led 




TAOS FEAST-DAY RUNNERS. 



Copyright by C. F Lumniis. 



to the first discovery of Arizona, New Mexico, Indian Territory, Colorado 
and Kansas by Europeans, is of the same type as Taos — bigger but far less 
beautiful. And Acoma the "Sky City," and the pueblos of Moqui, are 
diminished specimens of the same strange development. But Taos is 
queen of all — the most perfect remaining type of the terraced communal 
house of the ancient Pueblos, which was in its turn the most astonishing 
domestic architecture ever invented by man, savage or civilized. 

Fancy some child of the giants trying to build a pyramid of its over- 
grown blocks; a pyramid over 400 feet on a side, the "steps" fi)rmed 
by the superimposed cubes being about 10 feet high, and six layers of 
them, laid up with childish irregularity. Fancy this vast plaything 
turned into a labyrinth of cells of stone and adobe, with snowy walls of 
gypsum, and crooked doors and earthen chimneys on each stage, and 
bristling ladders from step to step. Populate it with a few hundred 
mysterious beings of active bronze, clothed in strange oriental garb, in- 
scrutable but human, reserved but gentle, living their quaint lives with 
our selfsame joys and sorrows, passions and hopes and fears, and with 
more than our balance in it all — and you begin to have a rudimentary 
notion of Taos. 

The life and the customs of this six-storied republic of two houses and 
500 people are precisely like those of other Pueblo towns, which I have 



144 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 



often described in detail.* The Taos are, indeed, of the Tiguas, the 
second of the six linguistic stocks of the Pueblos, Their language is the 
same as that of Isleta — the southernmost of all the pueblos, as Taos is 
the most northerly. Between them are villages speaking the entirely 
different languages of the Tehuas, the Jemez, the Tanos and the Queres. 

Like all other Pueblos, the Taos live by agriculture ; and their small 
farms are irrigated from the mountain streams. Like all the others, too, 
they are Catholics — brands plucked from the pagan burning by the 
Franciscan missionaries of whom more than forty suffered martyrdom in 
New Mexico. Their present church is small and new — dazzled with 
whitewash for each yearly feast of San Geronimo, the patron saint of 
the pueblo. The ruins of the old church (the first Franciscan Mission 
in Taos was founded more than 280 years ago) stand not far off, its mas- 
sive adobe walls fighting stubbornly against abuse and decay. This old 
church was the fort so hotly contested in the "Taos Rebellion," in which 
Gov. Bent was killed. 

Kit Carson lived three miles down the valley in the little Mexican 
town of Fernandez de Taos, now the county seat. The valley is famous 
for its wheat and flour, and is a considerable factor in the business of the 
Territory. But its largest treasure is its two splendid monuments of the 
first American home-makers and of the most original architects in 
history. 

Our Humming Birds. 



BY JULIETTE ESTELLE MATHIS. 



T 



'T is only in the Americas that these bril- 
liant feathered fairies are found, and in 
Southern California during most of the 
year they are abundant. These interesting 
bird-midgets are of the genus Trochilus. 
The Calypte Anna, Trochilus Alexandri, 
Telesphoros rufus, Telesphorus playcerus, 
Calypte Costal, Attilus Ailoisae, and the 
Stellula Calliope are the seven species found 
in our own State. To the energetic re- 
searches of John Gould of London, and 
Prince Lucien Bonaparte, whose 
collectors explored the continents 
of North and South America, the 
scientific world is largely indebted 
for the statistics concerning the 
greater portion of over three hun- 
dred and twenty distinct species of 
this apparent embodiment of per- 
petual motion, whose remarkable 
plumage is mounted with a metallic 
lustre possessed by no other living 
creature. Nootka in the northwest, 
Canada in the northeast and Terra del Fuego are the limits of its migra- 
tions. In the West Indies and Central America nearly all of the known 




Mausard-CoUier Bng. Co. 
Photo, by Newton, 

Santa Barbara. 



*See Strange Corners of Our Country (the Century Co.) 
(Scribners). 



The Land oj Poco Tiempo 



OUR HUMMING BIRDS. H5 

varieties are found at some time of the year. On Juan Fernandez two 
species are obtained, but in Mexico and Guatemala there are upwards 
of forty. Jamaica exhibits the Polytunus or Black-headed specimen, 
having two tail-feathers extending twice the length of its body, forming 
a court-train that would seem inconvenient in the entanglement of 
tropical vegetation. In the Andes of Bogota there exists one known as 
the Sword-bill, that useful member protruding two- thirds the length of 
the whole body. Brazil and Guiana produce others with crested heads 
and lateral tufts on the neck capable of erection and depression at 
pleasure ; when fully expanded the effect is given of two pairs of wings. 
Of these the Chestnut-tufted Coquette is the acknowledged belle. One 
grotesquely distinguished species sports an elevated crest nearly as long 
as the whole body. But it is from a domestic point of view, as denizens 
of our own honeysuckle vines under the eaves and as divers wit'STh our 
own crimson pelargoniums and fuchsia-bells, darting about the windows 
and peeping in upon us, that we find them so alluring and irresistible. 
The tiny, radiant *' Ruby-throat," Telesphorus rufus, and a larger one, 
Calypte Anna, with bright emerald and silver-gray breast, are the 
varieties oftenest seen hovering, quivering and feeding about our bushes, 
with long, slender beaks thrust in deeply after the honied store. They 
will attend strictly to business in your immediate proximity, if you will 
only keep quiet. I have picked flowers from one side of a small shrub 
while a humming-bird industriously drank from the other. So tame are 
they that a " Ruby-throat " once suddenly shot into a fine spray with 
which I was irrigating and took his shower-bath, then settled down 
and drank from the small pool near my feet. When satisfied he flew off 
as serenely as if I had been an inanimate feature of the garden. Another 
instance I know of their fearlessness and again it was a " Ruby-throat." 
A boy was gathering a bouquet when the bird attempted to feed from 
the same bunch of blossoms. The little fellow put out his hand and 
caught it with perfect ease, but let it escape when told that it could not 
live in captivity. It is said that no amount of care can keep them in 
confinement. Another child tried the experiment. He had found a nest 
with two little birds, too young to fly, in it. He brought them to me 
and we fed them faithfully with honey which they drank out of a spoon, 
but they died in a few days in spite of our devotion. One of my 
neighbors had a pair nested in a honeysuckle vine over the arch of the 
porch at the front door. They came for several successive years and 
then she missed them. One day she observed a strange female garbed 
as a lady, intruding among her roses and brandishing a hand-net such 
as is used for securing butterflies. In answer to my friend's inquiry as 
to the object of her presence on the premises, she coolly stated that she 
was catching humming-birds. My indignant neighbor informed her 
that she had no more right to enter her garden for humming-birds than 
for any other of her possessions. The surprised huntress retorted that 
they belonged to nobody, which assertion was promptly denied and the 
woman was made to understand that while the birds were inside of that 
fence they would be protected, and what was more that she could go 
right out of the gate where she came in, for she was "no lady." 
In which verdict I quite agreed. Yet the trespasser considered herself 
highly insulted. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 



[Mrs. M. G. Jenison, of San Antonio, Cal., writes to this magazine of a neighbor 
who by patient degrees induced a ruby-throat to take sweets first from a dish held out 
to him, then from her hand, and at last from her lips.— Ed.] 



[46 



^ Authorities on the Southwest. 




w 



(ITHOUT pretending 
to sequence in order 
of their seniority or 
rank, this series of brief 
sketches aims to present the 
men who are doing com- 
petent work on the history, 
antiquities and ethnography 
of the Southwest. The pub- 
lic is entitled to be interested 
in this most American work ; 
and is entitled, furthermore, 
to know just who, among 
the host that pretend to write 
authoritatively of this fasci- 
nating field, have been ac- 
cepted as worthy of cred- 
ence. They are a small 
school, but a gallant one ; 
and the nation owes them a 
much larger debt than it yet 
imagines. Here is the rich- 
est and most fascinating field 
ever undertaken by Ameri- 
can scholars. More than 
that, it is the most perish- 
able thing in all science. 
No other area of such value, 
anywhere in the whole 
world, is so fast losing its 
characteristics. Before the 
strenuous stride of American civilization the wilderness has disappeared 
as by magic, the frontier is already but a memory, and the aborigine is 
lapsing from the ways that are of scientific value more rapidly than he 
ever did elsewhere ; just as the physical landmarks of the past are dis- 
appearing faster than any other nation is philistine enough to let them 
disappear. All things considered, the Southwest is the most promising 
place on earth for learning at first hand the foundations of human 
society — that knowledge without which we can never have a really 
complete history of the race. And nowhere else is there so little time 
to get this fundamental information. We must learn swiftly or not at 
all. In another generation it will be forever too late. 

As Dr. Matthews* is dean of this little school of American science, 
Frederick Webb Hodge is one of its youngest members. But it is dis- 
tinctly encouraging that as the veterans come into years, earnest and 
well-equipped young men are rising up to be their heirs. It is a pity 
for American scholarship that they are so few ; it is an honor to Ameri- 
can scholarship that they are so competent. 

Mr. Hodge is qualified for his work by careful documentary study, a 
safe mental attitude, and a valuable course of field training. His Ari- 
zona explorations, guided by men like Bandelier and Gushing, were of 
very great value and gave his work a quality which is lacking in that of 
some longer specialists. He is a painstaking and a reliable student ; 
and his contributions to the scientific literature of the Southwest, 
though mostly in short papers, are all of direct value and weight. 



Union Eng. Co. 



FREDERICK WEBB HODGE. 



' See the February number. 



AUTHORITIES ON THE^SOUTHWEST. H7 

Mr. Hodge was born in Plymonth, England, October 28, 1864, but was 
brought to this country at seven years old, and is doing more service to 
America than half the born Americans. He was educated in the public 
schools of Washington, D. C. At 19 he had been for two years in full 
charge of the publication of a legal journal. In 1884 he was appointed 
on the U. S. Geological Survey, devoting his spare time as a student in 
the Corcoran Scientific School, Columbian University. 

His antiquarian bent had developed early. At the close of '86 he 
resigned from the Geological Survey to become secretary of the Hemen- 
way Southwestern Archaeological Expedition (Frank Hamilton Cushing, 
director ; Ad. F. Bandelier, historiographer ; H. F. C. Tefn Kate, somat- 
ologist), the best equipped, most important and most sadly-sequeled 
scientific expedition that ever worked in the United States. Eighteen 
months were spent in excavations among the prehistoric ruins in 
southern Arizona; and a year in the pueblo of Zuni, N. Mex., where 
similar explorations were conducted. His detail maps of the ancient 
"Pueblo de los Muertos," with its acequias and reservoirs, are of im- 
portance. Descriptions of these ruins are in his " Prehistoric Irrigation 
in Arizona" (in the American Anthropologist) and his "Architecture 
of the Prehistoric Pueblos of Southern Arizona" (unpublished). 

The Hemenway Expedition ended its field-work in July, 1889 ; and 
Mr. Hodge returned to Washington, being appointed to the Bureau of 
Ethnology for duty in the preparation of a Cyclopedia of the Indian 
Tribes North of Mexico^ an important work (now nearing completion) 
which was soon placed entirely in his charge. Since the Bureau was 
reorganized (1894), many of its administrative duties have devolved on 
him ; and since that time he has had charge of the Bureau's publica- 
tions — which are confessedly the handsomest and the most adequate 
works issued b^"^ our government — and of the building up of the 
Bureau's library, which has grown in a few years to about 6500 volumes 
on anthropology. 

In connection with his work on the Cyclopedia of Indian Tribes^ Mr. 
Hodge again made explorations in the Southwest in 1895, visiting every 
pueblo in New Mexico and Arizona ; and was concerned in excavations 
amid the ruins of Sityatki, an ancient town of the Moquis, from which 
an invaluable collection of prehistoric pottery and other artifects w^as 
assembled. This collection is now in the National Museum. 

Mr. Hodge has been curator of the Anthropological Society of Wash- 
ington since April, 1893, ^^^ a member of the editorial committee of 
the American Anthropologist during the same period. He is a member 
of the American Folk-lore Society, and of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science. In addition to the writings above men- 
tioned and to contributions to various works of reference on subjects 
relating to the Indians of North America, he has published A Zuni Foot 
Race, The First Discovered City of Cibola, The Early Navajo and 
Apache, Pueblo Snake Ceremonials, and Pueblo Indian Clans. He has 
almost brought to completion a critical Index to Schoolcraft's Indian 
Tribes, which will comprise about 20,000 references. 

In his scientific work he has found an unusually competent assistant 
at home. Mrs. Hodge was in Zuiii two years and a half ; and probably 
no other American, except Cushing himself, knows the Zuni language 
so well as she does. 



148 




Camels in the Colorado Desert. 

BY HENRY C. TINSLEY. 

\MELS on the desert of Azizona and New Mexico ? 
You surely don't mean real camels, such as we read 
about in the Bible and Arabian Nights ? 

That is exactly what I mean — true camels as bore 
the three wise men to Bethlehem at that first 
Christmas, running wild within our domain. 

The history of the camels of the Southwest is one 
of the high comedies to be found in even the dull- 
-^_-|^^^--_- est volume of public record from the Government 
(Kry^l^Jml^ Printing Ofl5ce at Washington. In some ways the 
yy^|" ^Sf> '^2 procuring of the beasts in the Orient and their 
^^M<ik^\^0^^ establishment on the American desert, recall a 
light opera. Some of the persons interested in the 
scheme have become famous in our national history. 
A homely, black, cloth-covered volume of about 300 pages, bearing the 
title "Senate Executive Document No. 62 of the Thirty-fourth Con- 
gress," (Washington, 1857) tells the early story of Uncle Sam's camels. 
In 1852, when millions in gold were being mined in California, while 
thousands of people were crossing the plains to the new Dorado, and 
when a transcontinental railroad was only a vague dream of a few 
enthusiasts, Lieut. Edward F. Beale (afterwards General Beale) was 
stationed at Fort Yuma, between California and Arizona on the Colorado 
desert. A stream of immigration and freight passed that way every 
week. The disease, suffering and frequent death among the horses and 
mules in that dry, solar heat convinced Lieut. Beale that here, of all 
places, was where the camels of Sahara and Arabia could be used to 
advantage. In connection with Capt. Adams of the garrison he wrote 
at length upon the subject to Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War. He 
prepared pictures showing the various uses to which the "ship of the 
desert" might be put — carrying field cannon across their backs, hauling 
caissons, and conveying sharpshooters to the front. 

The ideas of the young military men in the West had immediate and 
enthusiastic reception by the Secretary. A commission was soon sent 
out from San Antonio, Texas, to Arizona to ascertain the uses that camels 
could be put to in military transportation. The commission made a 
favorable report, and, with Secretary Davis's annual report to Congress, 
in 1852, there was a request for an appropriation for the purchase of 
camels for the War Department. Senator John M. Mason, afterward 
concerned with John Slidell in diplomatic relations between the Con- 
federacy and Great Britain, championed the proposition. 

On March 3, 1853, ^ t)ill appropriating $30,000 for the purpose became 
a law by the President's signature ; and Secretary Davis appointed 
Major C. Wayne in December, 1854, to go to Egypt and Arabia to buy 75 
camels. In May, 1855, Major Wayne sailed from New York. He was 
instructed to go to London and Paris and there get all the practical 
information possible from military men who had been in Oriental cam- 
paigns where camels had been under fire, as to the habits, diet and uses 
of the beasts in warfare, and as to the best fodder and care for them. 

In the Government book, Secretary Davis tells in detail how he in- 
structed Major Wayne to proceed from Paris to Cairo, and when he had 
bought his camels to bring them to New York on the naval storeship 
" Supply," then under command of Lieut. D. D. Porter. The Secretary 
goes into minute particulars in his instructions to the Major, and says 
that Damascus and Palmyra had once been famed for dromedaries, and 
that Kurdistan still possessed '* animals of fine quality." The Secretary 
believed, however, that the best breed was to be found in Persia. He 
bade Major Wayne to keep the War Department posted. 



CAMELS IN THE COLORADO DESERT. U9 

Lieut. Porter's instructions were to await Major Wayne at some con- 
venient point in the Mediterranean, to disembark a land force at Beirout, 
and to see that the expedition was amply protected against attacks from 
the warlike tribes of the interior. On returning, the Lieutenant was to 
land his cargo at some point on the coast of Texas. 

Many pages are taken up with letters that passed between Secretary 
Davis, Minister Plenipotentiary James Buchanan (afterwards President), 
Lieut. Porter and Major Wayne, while the two last named were in Egypt 
and Arabia searching for the best varieties of camels. There are com- 
munications from the Egyptian Khedive concerning his interest in the 
camel quest of Uncle Sam's agents, and resolutions by the Cabinet of 
the Khedive on the subject. Lieut. Porter and Major Wayne bought 
their first camels in Tunis, and gravely wrote to Secretary Davis that 
they were guests of the Bey of Tunis for a few weeks while they were 
studying the habits of the beast. Their observations fill twenty pages in 
the book. 

From Tunis they journeyed to Alexandria, and there began buying. 
They wrote to Washington every few days about their experiences. They 
told of the tricks that turbaued hostlers had of palming off a Methuselah 
of a humped-beast upon unsophisticated Yankees. 

From Egypt Major Wayne and Lieut. Porter went leisurely over to 
Arabia. There they bought more camels of another breed, and during 
the three months they were so engaged, had time to write more long 
letters to Secretary Davis. The expedition received at Smyrna thirty- 
three camels from the interior. Major Wayne reports the price as vary- 
ing from $15 to |i,ooo. In Egypt a good beast could be purchased at $50 
to $130. The swift dromedary cost from $45 to $1,000. The range of 
price in Asia Minor was not so wide. 

The storeship " Supply " reached Indianola, Texas, Feb. 10, having 
lost three camels on the voyage. Those that survived were well, and 
the whole drove was taken under the care of Capt. J. N. Palmer, U. S. A., 
to Camp Verde, Texas, there to be kept several years. The "Suwanee " 
brought in a load of forty-one camels on Feb. 10, 1857, ^^^ these, too, 
were sent to the interior. 

Secretary Davis appends to his report a grave treatise upon the camel 
in all its phases and uses, with special reference to its employment in 
the army. He lived to see the finest possible opportunity for testing the 
value of his importation, but seems to have become too absorbed in 
other cares to give this interesting subject the attention it deserved. 

The old-time residents of Western Texas have vivid recollections of 
the effort to make the burden-bearer of the Orient useful in the military 
service of the Southwest, and especially of the laughable failure it 
turned out. From Indianola, the camels were moved overland at the 
rate of forty to fifty miles a day, carrying Government stores to the 
weight of 1,000 to 1,500 pounds each, to interior points in Texas. Almost 
from the first there was difficulty in grooming and feeding the animals. 
In a few weeks several died of unknown diseases, and others languished 
and became unfit for work. The military officers found it hard to get 
any hostler to attend to the camels, towards which all the cavalrymen 
and troopers took a violent dislike. The horses became restive and 
ugly when stabled or corralled with the strange beasts. There were fre- 
quent reports that a camel or two had broken away during the night 
and wandered away ; and it has been suspected that extraordinary zeal 
was not always put forth to find the animals and bring them back. 

From May 5, 1857, until in 186 1, some thirty of the camels, that had 
become partially domesticated to American ways and adapted to the 
climate of the Southwest, were kept at the United States forts at El 
Paso and Bowie, A. T. They were fed and cared for at the expense of 
the War Department, but because the troopers and teamsters could not 
.be got to use them in place of horses or mules, and especially because of 



I50 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

the clumsiness of the harness and the unusual labor jn packing, the 
animals were seldom used. In the last year or two of their stay at the 
garrison they were merely pensioners upon Uncle Sam's bounty, and 
were never brought into service. In 1861 the herd had increased to 
forty-four head. Then the civil war came on, and in the stir of those 
days in every fort in the South all attention was turned to the great 
crisis. The forts fell into disuse and the beasts were allowed to wander 
away at will. They traveled in pairs, and sometimes in bunches of four 
and six, across the deserts and into the mountains. Some lived for 
years in the panhandle of Texas, and in a few years made their way as 
far west as the Colorado river. In some instances the camels multiplied, 
but in twenty years most of them died among the mountains or were 
killed by the Indians. 

At intervals in the last decade soldiers and cowboys in New Mexico 
and Arizona have seen the strays. Reports are that the animals have 
grown white with age, are as wild as any mustang, and have hard, 
bony hoofs, unlike the pedal cushions of the well-kept camel, and that 
their hide has assumed a hard, leathery appearance. It is likely there 
are very few left in America. They have not been seen in tlie central 
part of either New Mexico or Arizona in several years. A number of 
members of the International Boundary Commission that recently 
finished a survey of the boundary line between the United States and 
Mexico, report that they saw two camels on the desert ; and the animals 
although seen well through a field-glass, appeared to be in their prime, 
and probably were descendants of the original herd. They were running 
wild in Sonora, Mexico, about forty miles south of our line. The Indians 
said they had seen several in their jcountry for years, and had feasted on 
a few of them. 



The Runners, 



BY R. HARRIS. 




T is a true story, for I know the ofl5cer who told it to me 
for true. 

A company of Indian scouts employed by the U. S. Army 
was stationed at Camp Tonto with the troops. We were 
crowded, and the scouts camped under the great sycamores 
that lined the banks of the desert stream. They were an 
indolent lot — nomad barbarians who could work mag- 
nificently at a pinch but took their leisure seriously. 
Among them a few were noted for an endurance extra- 
ordinary even among Indians ; and foremost of them all 
was a tall, lithe, sinewy young fellow named Pablo. He 
was a famous runner, and much in demand for carrying im- 
portant despatches across the country. 

Among the white soldiers at the post was one Robertson, who had also- 
considerable repute as a long distance runner. Between him and Pablo 
a fictitious rivalry had been created by the idle talk of the soldiers. 
There was not just then much else to do, and the men taunted one and 
the other with inferiority. Robertson used to grow angry and swear 
savagely at these banterings ; but Pablo simply held his speech and re- 
fused to enter into any argument, shrugging his shoulders and walking 
away. 

But the men, for want of better occupation, kept up their banter ; and 
at last a race was arranged. The oflScers had become interested ; and an 
opportunity was easily made. A despatch was to be sent to Fort Grant, 
185 miles distant. Pablo was to carry it ; and as soon as he should re- 
turn Robertson was to make the same journey and try to beat his time- 
The winner was to have a handsome purse and the championship. 



THE RUNNERS. I5I 

It was in summer, and the desert nights were light and warm. Pablo 
set out at sundown. We all watched him as he swung away in that long, 
swinging stride, and peered after him till the lithe figure was swallowed 
up by the distance and the gathering gloom. He carried only a small 
sack of jerked meat and a few biscuits. The trip across the desert was 
not without danger. At one stretch it was thirty-five miles from water 
to water. 

For the next five days there was little talk in the post of anything but 
the race ; and there were few who had not bet on the result. A mounted 
courier had once made the round trip in four days and four nights ; but 
the horse had died soon after reaching the post. 

Pablo's sweetheart, a comely savage maid who came once a week to 
wash for the post-commander's wife, said Pablo would be back on the 
fifth day. 

And so he was. Toward evening, when every adobe house-top had its 
watchers with field-glasses, he came in sight. The far-off speck grew ; 
and presently Pablo — gaunt faced and with an unaccustomed droop in his 
shoulders — came striding in, and made for the commander's house. 

Two minutes later, he and Robertson emerged from the house. The 
latter began his long journey on a run ; and Pablo turned across the 
mesa to the reservation, two miles away. Bonita would have an aborigi- 
nal feast ready against his return. And if he won — ah, if he won, they 
were to wed. 

Robertson had disappeared in the dusk. The little groups of watchers 
were breaking up. Only a few noticed the dark form that came racing 
in and belabored the post-surgeon's door. A few minutes later, Pablo 
and the surgeon went away together. 

But next morning the story was all over the fort. During Pablo's 
absence, Robertson had visited the rude home of Bonita and her aged 
mother. What fairer prey for a soldier of the United States than one of 
the Indian wards ? When Pablo, secure and exultant after his wonder- 
ful race against time, had entered the hut, it was to find Bonita a wreck. 
The old mother told him the awful story, and he came for the surgeon. 
But it was too late. 

Fully half the garrison attended the funeral. But Pablo was not there. 
When we asked the other Indians where he was, their only answer was 
a " quien sabe? " 

Five days — and we began to expect Robertson. On the sixth a de- 
tachment started in search of him. 

His tracks were plain on the desert sands, and we followed them. Ten 
miles out from the post the blurred imprint of a moccasin came in upon 
them and covered them, step for step. We rode all day ; but the shoe 
prints never came out from under the flat pats of the moccasins. 

Next morning we were in the land of thirst. The heat refracted from 
the staring sands was something fearful. Our horses lagged and 
groaned ; and we rode in silence with cracked lips. 

Near noon, when the heat seemed wholly intolerable, we noticed that 
the moccasin tracks suddenly quitted Robertson's trail. But a mile 
farther on, in a gulley, they came back to it. Here were tokens of a 
savage struggle. The sands were trampled, and off at one side we found 
the distinct imprint of a human form. From there, only the moccasin 
tracks went forward. 

On through the cactus-sentineled waste we urged our limping beasts. 
The trail was plain — but now the footprints sank deep in the sand, as if 
their maker bore a heavy burden. 

At three of the afternoon we came suddenly over the brink of a little 
basin. Mezquites sprawled about, and the giant zahuaro lifted its vast 
candlestick toward the sky. Our horses plunged down the slope — their 
first trace of animation in the whole day. There was wiry grass amid 
the mezquites ; and yonder the precious gleam of water. A pure spring, 
bubbling from under an outcrop ledge, had made this little oasis. 



152 LAND OF SUNSHINB. 

A pack of wolves could not have turned our famished horses from the 
water ; but not a man of that thirsty company thought of drinking. All 
sat turned in their saddles, staring with inflamed eyes to a gigantic za- 
huaro a few rods below the spring. 

There was what had been Robertson. Its ankles and wrists were 
lashed to the thorny pillar of the zahuaro. The head lopped forward 
upon the breast ; with popping eyes, and a black tongue that gagged the 
mouth. The cords had sunk under the flesh. The hands and back were 
black with sunbaked blood. Clearly, Robertson had tried to get a drink. 
And his captor had diverted the rivulet so that it chuckled and sparkled 
at the very feet of the victim. 

We buried Robertson in the little oasis, and near the water. Perhaps 
the spell of the desert was on us ; but it would not have entered any 
man's head there to take the corpse far from that dancing rill. And not 
a word was spoken. 

You have heard of " Renegade Pablo," of course, and of the trail of 
blood he left across the territory. His raid began just after the un- 
finished footrace by which Uncle Sam lost an ordinary soldier and an un- 
commonly good Apache scout. 

Riverside, Cal. 



New York City. 



Winds and Leaves, 

BY CHARLOTTE PERKINS STETSON. 

Wet winds that flap the sodden leaves ! 
Wet leaves that drop and fall ! 
Unhappy leafless trees the wind bereaves — 
Poor trees and small ! 

All of a color, sdlemn in your green ! 
All of a color, sombre in your brown ! 
All of a color, dripping grey between 
When leaves are down! 

O for the bronze-green eucalyptus spires 
Far flashing up against the changeless blue ! 
Shifting and glancing in the steady fires 
Of sun and moonlight too ! 

Deep orange groves ! Pomegranate hedges bright ! 
And varnished fringes of the pepper trees ! 
And Ah ! that wind of sunshine ! Wind of light ! 
Wind of Pacific seas ! 



d 



REGULATIONS 

AND INSTRUCTIONS 
For the Garrisons of the Peninsula of Californias. 



153 



ELKVENTH TITLE. 
Functions of the Governor as Inspector of Posts for 

the Peninsula. 

I. These shall conform wholly, with respect 
to the Government Posts, to those exercised by 
the Commanding Post-Inspector of the Frontier, 
as set forth in Title 12 of the Royal Regulations. 
The only variation is that the Post of Loreto 
should be reviewed every second year, because of 
its enormous distance and the roughness of the 
intervening road. Wherefore —and because he 
has to discharge the other duties of Government 
— he shall be furnished with an Aide, with the 
rank of Captain. In view of the expenses and 
constant journeys he has to make for the Reviews 
and other duties to which he may be commis- 
sioned, if his appointment be approved, I* fix 
his annual salary at $2000. 

TWELFTH TITLE. 
Functions and powers of the Captain and other 
Officers, Sergeants, Corporals and Soldiers. 
I. These shall be in every respect equal to 
those defined for each class under Title 13 of the 
Royal Regulations; except the variation herein- 
before provided in case of Lieutenants Command- 
ing Companies and Posts in the new settlements. 

THIRTEENTH TITLE. 
Obligations, appointment and Instruction of Pay- 
masters. 

1. The first obligation of the OflBcial Paymas- 
ter is to prove himself worthy the election and 
confidence shown by his Company in entrusting 
to him the management, custody and distribution 
of its interests; proceeding in all things with the 
cleanness and honor inseparable from his pro- 
fession. 

2. He shall keep the general accounts of debit 
and credit with the utmost clearness, accuracy 
and order, as is provided; so that at the end of 
the year, when his accounts shall have been ex- 
amined and approved by the Captain in the Post 
of Loreto, 



*9- 

teta,^ iot6r»eniftB por ta Oficiilej i]«« Jlo «tensm li Habiliiacion 
to los detnas Picsirlios que no tienen Capiun, te aprueben iginlmcw 
te por el GoberaadDr. i*< , 

3. Tambieo Ueviri eon las mismas circunstanciai y ordemcioa 
•dvertida la cuenta particular de cada individuo, enterandose con ire- 
«ueocia de las de Soldadot, para sujtiar Us diswibucioBa que en el 
ivio gedsfal j entre ano m les haga a el alcanie de cada uoo, de ma- . 
do, que exceptnados los Rcdutas, ninguno ha de percibircantidad que 
tj tenga dcvengada, prefirieodo en su dacion las prenlas de restuaria, 
armamento y inontim,y cavallerias que necesiie, y ban de coostar 
por las Revistas semanarias que han de pasarse. 

4. Siempre que muera 6 se licencie algun^ldad^J, supuesu U 
urgencia de comprar gut cavaUecias y armameiiRilll^rauf iar at RedU' 
ta que lo reemplaae, 6 compleur 1^ faltas que 4l/«V>ir<"rost.prec»- 
diendo su justa tasacioo, que han de interrenir los «1t:*deros si se ha- 
Uasen presentes, las lomari el Habilitado, y las distribuiri (conforme 
i'\i orden que l«.Comunique el Comapdante de la Compania ) sobre 
los mismos precios en que las recib»,pradticando lo mismo en caso de 
tomarUs por el fondo, para reinw^arle por deuda al difunto, cumpli- 
•do 6 licenciado. 

J. Bijo la prohibicion y pena que previene el Art. 7. Tit. 14. del 
Real Reglamento, no podtan los Habilitados cargar al Soldado en la* 
Mbounistraciones de viveres, vesluario y demas efeftos, mas de lo 
^ys resulte en las respe(9iva« Faifluras por primer costo, co» er^nico 
tumento que expresa el Arancel, y se deduzca por la operacidn pre- 
venida en el Art. 4. Tit. 6. de este Reglamento, qued«ndo igualmen- 
te co.'nprehendido en la pena senalada en dicho Tilulo, si incurriete 
en quiebra culpable, 6 extravio de caudales. 

6. Seguiran correspondencia con el Fa<ftor ■At la Peninsula y Co- 
oiisario de San Bias, por quienes se les dirigiran en derechura las cor- 
tespondicntes remesas, fafluras y conocimientos; y sera al cuidado del 
ra<aor soliriur los ajustes queanualmente han de formalizarse por 
Oficiales Keales de la Caxa de .Mexico, con a^reglo a los^xtradlos de 
Serista a cada Presidio, los que dirigira a los Habilitados, que han de 
archivarlos4;6n los extraiftos generales, y servifles de gobierno de \a 
que a buena cuenta pueda resultar percibido de uno a otro »5o, 6 al- 
cinee<)ue quedo. 

7. Si«ndo por ahora inexcusable se transporten de Sooora Cava- 
Uos y Mulas para mameoer en esudo de servicio la ■CompaRias de 



and, in the other Posts, which have no captain, 
supervised by those Officers who are not Pay- 
masters) they may be approved also by the Gov- 
ernor. 

3. Likewise he shall keep, with the same de- 
tail and order the private account of each indi- 
vidual, informing himself .frequently as to those 
of the soldiers, in order to reduce the distribu- 
tions made in the general and mid-year advances 
to the balance of each one's account; so that (ex- 
cept the recruits) no one shall receive more than 
is due him; preferring, in the delivery, the arti- 
cles of uniform, arms and horse-trappings neces- 
sary for the weekly Reviews which must be 
passed. 

4. Whenever any Soldier shall die or be fur- 
longhed, in view of the urgency of buying his 
mounts and Equipment to supply the Recruit 
who is to take his place, or to fill the shortage of 
others, after their just appraisement (supervised 
by his heirs, if present; the Paymaster shall take 
these articles and distribute them (in the order 
set for him by the Company Commander) at the 
same price at which he received them; following 
the same method in case of taking them for the 
fund, to settle wnat is owing the dead, retired or 
farloughed man. 

5. Under the prohibition and penalty set forth 
in Art. 7. Title 14 of the Royal Regulations, Pay- 
masters shall not be allowed to charge the Sol- 
dier (in supplying victuals, uniform and other 
articles) more than the nrst cost given by the 
respective Invoices, with no other increase ot 
price than is expres.sed in the Tariff, and deduced 
by the operation provided in Art 4, Title 6 of these 
Regulations. The penalty prescribed in said 
Title equally includes any culpable loss or embez- 
zlement of funds. 

6. Paymasters shall keep in correspondence 
with the Agent of the Peninsula and Commissary 
of San Bias, who will send ihem by the directest 
way the corresponding remittances, invoices and 
bills of lading. It shall be the care of the Agent 
to ask for the settlements which mu.st be made 
outannuallyby the Royal Officers of the Treas- 



esios PiiesiJios, precedicndo la correspqpdionte superior orden, debe^ 
4i anticipirse el caudal prcccso para su cOifipf*, y Verilicado el arribo 
.J distribucion de cavalleria?, seyua Ijs que i Cads Compania se d«»i- 
j net*, roa arreglo ■£ su nOmero, calidad y precia de primtt..<ampra» 
■■ fortiarin los Habilitados siis recibos, que han de pasarse al Gbberna- 
tldr, para que por su mano s< dirijan' •dt)iTciales Reales de la Cax» de 
Mexico para que se formalice el debido cargo; "en inteligencia, que la» 
bestias que uiuetan, se picrd.ia 6 inutilicen despuAde la entrega ei» 
I* PcniiKula, ha dc cargarse prorratcado Su iiriporteei* Us restantes, 
y sobre los precios qce resuUcn han de distribuirsc. " 

J?. Sin embargp qucT^ns Habili.ados no han de futfer salidas pa- 
rt suriir l.t provision de viveres, ropas y demas eleflosi siendo Itgado* 
a los gistos, r?^;)onsabilidad y cuidado de los rcpucstos y su diijribu- 
bucian-por m-rnor, llevjrJas cuentas generales y particulates d^Tro- 
piy dependic.ites del Presidio, deberan ikscontar al Capitan, Oficia- 
les, Cirujano, Sargento, Cavos, SoId.idos y dependienles dos por cien-'!S 
to pot las ager.cias y. gasios que Ic ocasipiu. su comision. 
■ ' 9- , Qi^do !c huviere de nombr.ir Habiliudo en el Presidio de 
Lpicto, respe<fto oe no haver en i\ Capellan ( ni en los restantes de I*. 
• Peninsuh) suplird la falta de este voio-viiisegundo Apoderado de la 
Compailia, que en coasideracion de tenereiiipleaJas 32 Plazas de Us 
44.de sudut4cion en los Destacamentos dfel Realde Santa Anna del 

■ Sur, y frontera del Norte, prevendra el Capitan con 1» anticipacioa 
que coaveoga, cue los Sargc.itoi, Ca*os y SoJdados juntos en sus. 

I respeilivos deslinos nombren dos Apoderados por la Compania entre. 
ellos mismos, lo que executado, se dirigiran los votos por escrito de 

■ los Individuris de cada.pu'esto en derechura. al Capitan, que hata prac- ■ 

■ ticar lo mismo a la Tropa existenle en el Presidio, con asistencia del 
Patron de la BaUndra, y Qficialcs de Maestranza del Departamcnto 
dc Marina, que han de votar por Sugeto de la Compania; y vistos los 

: que resultcn nombr.idos por pluralidad de volos, y de hallarse em- 
pleados en los Destacamentos,se relevardn, para que se irasladen al 
Presidio, mandando el Capiian al Oficial destinado en U Frontera re- 

■ mit.t su voto cerrado,e inmediaiamenie que se verifique convocara a 
»u casi al Oficial subaltenio,. y a los Apoderados de U CompatiU: 
abicrto y visio en el Lugar que corresponds el voto del Oficial ausen- 
te, qui-dara nombrado uno de los Oficiales subalternos, y no otro por 

•Habilitado. ' 



: dos por uno y tres por otro, ha- 



'De Ne?«. 



154 

ury of Mexico, conformably to the abstracts of 
Review for each Post; and these he shall direct 
to the Paymasters who must archive them with 
the general abstracts, and make use of them for 
guidance as to the sums which may be received 
from year to year on account, or the balance left 
over. 

7. It being for the present indispensable that 
Horses and Mules be transported from Sonora to 
maintain in eflfective state the Companies of 



p. 20. 

these Posts, the corresponding superior order 
having been obtained, the necessary sum for 
their purchase shall be estimated ahead; and up- 
on the arrival and distribution of saddle-animals 
as destined for each Company, according to their 
number, quality and first-cost price, the Pay- 
masters shall make their receipts. These must 
be passed to the Governor, that they may be 
directed by his hand to the Royal Officers of the 
Treasury in Mexico, that the proper charge may 
be made. It being understood that the animals 
which may die, be lost or become worthless after 
they have been delivered in the Peninsula, shall 
have their value charged pro rata upon the re- 
maining animals, which shall be distributed at 
the resulting prices. 

8. Although these Paymasters are not to make 
expenditures to supply victuals, clothing and 
other articles, being bouno to the costs, responsi- 
bility and safe-keeping of the stores and their 
distribution at retail, the keeping of general and 
private accounts of the Troops and employees ot 
the Post, shall discount to the Captain, OflBcers, 
Surgeon, Sergeant. Corporals, Soldiers and em- 
ployes 2 per cent, for the service and costs of 
commission. 

9. Whenever it may be necessary to name a 
Paymaster in the Post ot Loreto,in consideration 
of there being no Chaplain in it or in the other 
Posts of the Peninsula, the lack of this vote shall 
be supplied by a second Proxy of the Company. 
Since 32 of its 44 men are occupied in the Detach- 
ments of the Real of Santa Anna of the South 
and the frontier of the North, the Captain shall 
provide, with proper announcement, that the 
Sergeants, Corporals and Soldiers, collectively in 
their stations, nominate two Proxies for the 
Company from among themselves. This accom- 
plished, the votes shall be sent in writing by the 
Individuals of each rank, direct to the Captain. 
He shall cause the same course to be followed by 
the troops present in Garrison, with assistance 
of the Master of the Sloop and the Naval Officers 
of the Department of Marine, who are to vote 
for a Member of the Company. And when it is 
seen who have received the plurality of the votes, 
if they are stationed with the Detachments they 
shall be relieved, that they may transfer them- 
selves to the Post, the Captain ordering the des. 
ignated Officer on the Frontier to remit his vote 
sealed. As soon as this is done he shall summon 
to his house his Subaltern Officer and the Proxies 
of the Company. The vote of the absent Officer 
having been opened and seen in its proper turn; 
one of tne subaltern officers, and no other, will 
stand named as Paymaster. 

10 If of the five votes there be two for one 
person and three for another 



p 21 

the two who were of the contrarv verdict must 
conform and assume their share oY the responsi- 
bility, the same as if they had voied for the per- 
son elected. 

II. In the Posts of the new Settlements in 
which there are but two Subaltern Officers, the 
naming of the two Proxies in each Company 
shall proceed in the same method with the same 
notice as is already provided. This done, the 
Commander shall convoke the Ensign and Prox- 
ies to name one of .«said Officers, and no other, for 
Paymaster. In case the four votes be for one 
person, the election shall be consummated, he 
who was opposed being bound to conform and 



. vran de conformarse los dos que fueron de contrario diaamen y co.ij. 
tituirse responsables, conio si buviesea voudo i sij lavor. 

II. En los Presidios de los' nuevos esublecimientos en que <olo 
hsy dos Oticiales subalternos, se procederi al nombramiento de'dos' 
Apoderados en cad. CompaHia en losmismos termino, y ant.cipacion 
que queda prevenida, io que executado, convocari «l Comandante ai ' 
A.lerez y Apoucrados para Dombrar uno de dichos Ofieiales y no otro 
por Habduado: en case de que los quatro votos huviesc tres por uno. 
quedara exccutada la eleccion, debiendo conformarse el que l^esc dc' 

• conirar:o diaamen, y constiruirse responsable, como si huviera voia 
do isu favor: en el caso de resuliar dos votos a favor de. cada 8n<i 
dccidira el Gobernador. ■ ™> 

i:. Luego que este formalizada la election se extendera cl Norn- 
bram,ento y Poder, de que ha de sacarse copia para dar cuen.a coa ' 
ellaal Gobernador, debiendo cadatres anos proceder de nuevo a la 
nomjoacio. de O.^cial Habilicado , b.en para reelo^ir el aduai , 6 pau 
nombraroiro. ^ . j " i""* 

13-. C°"siguienteilojreferidosprimerosnombramientosd.bera- 
hacerseentrega a ios respeflivos Habilitados por elComisarlodeipre- 
s.d.odeLoreto,y Guarda Almacenes de los de San Diego, Monterrey 
y ban I'ranc.sco, por formalcs Inventarios de lodos los generos," vive- 
res y efeflos que existan en los Almacenes, con la debidi distincioa 
decal,dades,medida,peso y valores sobre precios de primer com- 
p.-a, y gruesa que forme su total, en que no han de incluirse los efec 
tos que no se han distribuido a la Tropa y Dependicntes inclusos Pb- 
bladores, pues de estos ha de formalizarse separado Inventario, sei^: 
lando con claridad su estado y valor en quan.o sea posible, lo que arf'' 
praflicado, quedara en dep6sito en poder del Habilitado, hasu tanto 
^ que aandocuenta con diclK) Inventario al Superior Gobierno se de- 
tcrcpioe la salida que.deba darse a lo que de esta clase resulte' 
. ■4. Debiendo'quedar las Mulas de Requa contodolocorrespon- 
d.sntea sus aperos, herramientas de Carpinteria, Hcrrcria,v obras m». 
lerules a beneficio de los Presidios y Compafi.as, que ha de responder 
de SM eitistencia, segun queda prevenido para la debida constancia se 
procedera a la enuega de dichos utiles, Mulas de carga, aperos cos- 
Uleru, aparejos y denus avios, precediendo valuacion, que ton la de- 
bida expre.^ion del estado,ca!idad y valor de caaa piej.a,ha de hacerse 
por l.,s Pentoi que a este eicao se nombren por el tomand^me del 
i'residio,que hade intervenir la entrega y vaiiio, firmando con los Pe. ' 
* rJros 



assume responsibility, the same as if he had 
voted in that person's favor. In case there are 
two votes for each person, the Governor shall 
decide. 

12. As soon as the election is perfected, the 
Appointment and Authorization shall be com- 
mitted to writing, whereof, a copy must be taken 
to be rendered to the Governor. Every three 
years there shall be nomination anew for Official 
Paymaster, whether to reelect the incumbent or 
to appoint someone else. 

13. Consequent upon the aforesaid fir^t ap- 
pointments, the Commissary of the Post of 
Loreto and the Storekeepers of the Posts of San 
Diego, Monterey and San Francisco shall make 
delivery to the respective Paymasters, by formal 
Inventories, of all the stuffs, victuals and goods 
on hand in the storehouses, with proper distinc- 
tion of qualities, measure, weight and values on 
prices of first cost, and the sum total. In these 
must not be included the goods which have not 
been distributed to the Troops and Employes 
(Settlers included) since of these a separate In- 
ventory must be drawn up, showing clearly, as 
far as po.ssible, their condition and value; which 
thus performed, shall remain deposited in the 
power of the Paymaster until such time as, giv- 
ing account to the Superior Government with 
said Inventory, the expenditure which should be 
devoted to this item shall be determined. 

14. Since the Pack Mules with all that belongs 
to their trappings, the tools for Carpentry, Smith- 
ing and other* materials are to remain for the 
benefit of the Posts and Companies, which are 
responsible for their condition, as is already pro- 
vided for the due faithfulness, the delivery of said 
utensils, cargo Mules, harness, panniers, pack- 
saddles and other gear shall proceed (after they 
have been appraised.) This, with the due speci- 
fication of the condition, quality and value of 
each article, must be done by the Experts to be 
named for this purpose by the Post Commander, 
who must superintend the delivery and valuation, 
signing with the Experts and Paymasters, Com- 
missary or Store-keeper, the vouchers which 
must be filed with the Inventory. 



•"Obras" seams to be a tiisprint for "•trai." 



u. 

tiros J Habilltidas, Comisarlo 6 Guard* AtatdeviudillgeDdh), que 
. hi de acumularse al Inventaria. 

15. Existiendo en el Pftildlo de Mootene^'HIn pie de Ganado 
, lUcuno,«que en el dia excede de quioientas rabekaa de xoii» edadei, 

tptro de Yeguada, que igualmeote pasa de ciemo y fctenta cabeaa, y 
Vooao doscienus y cincuenta de Ganado meaer de peio y lana,<cuo al-- 
guius Bn-Tates y de Ganado de xerda, y ea d Presidio de S. Fraocitco 
hay cleoto veinte y qoatro cabezas de Ganado Bacuno, perteaedente 
lodo a la Real Hadenda , deberan cooiprehenderse en el primer la- 
venurio de entrega con dittincioa de eapecies y edades en Ganado 
mayor y Yeguada, quedando a cargo de lot Habilicadoc que,baxi> laa 
ordenes del Goberaador, celaran el pastorio y cuidado de dicbot Ga- 
nadbs, »a aufoenia, distribucion a Pobladores con calidad de pago 6 
reinJegro, y conseivando el vientre, dara salida de Poiros, Toros, No- 
villoa,Carneros, Castrad<ie, de Pelo,Zenios y deom que por viejo 6 
infecunM deba expenderse en pie, Uevari b cuei>t».de ealos Ganadoa, . 
para dar la cuenia de sus produ<!)os y aumento i la Real Hacienda 
anualmenie, corno se expresari adelante. 

1 6. El Oomisario de Loreto y Guarda Almacenes de los restaa* 
tes Presidioi hMdv rormaiizar sus cueaMs de modo que 00 quedea 
los HtbUltados sOjeios a responder e^ le succesivo al Real Tribonal y 
Audiencja de Cuentas de resultas de laa anteriores: conseqUencemen- 
te ningun otro doclimento debe quedar en su |X)der, que un unto del 
ultino ajuste o cuenta , y los Inrentarios de entrega , y ha d« «ef solo 
el cargo de cada Habilitado,y parte de pago de sus respcifUvua Situ*- 
do« la cantidad en que excedan el valor de los enseres, distribuidot y 
cargibles a la Tropa, Dependientei y Pobladorea, y el de sua dd>Kos 
at total de alcanies ( vencidoe deide d afio de 1774, ioclu»i»e haaia 
el dia de la entrega) que ban de satisfacerse enteramente a los loic- 
resado*. pero si pot el conirario excede la partida de alcantex i la de 
Oeoitat y ensere^, su residuo serai favor del Habiliudo en quienat/ 
▼eriftqijt > In di acrcditarsele pot la Real Caxa de Mexico ea el pri* 
incr ajiiju wut « k tormalice deducido el aumciito respe^iva 

J 7. Coa.^ ci. el transporic de las remesas anuates ocurrea y c*» 
.aaji calo: o» Ui bodega.^ de la enibarcadon y otroi incidentes, perdi- 
-da», averias ) merinu, principalmente en la Mameca, Panocha, Cal- 
dos 1 Scniilias, oebt verificarse la entrega con eniera satisfacciuu oei 
Haoiliudc, precediendu peso, medida, y desatara de los citado4 ren- 
gio.ies y dema ]ue ciuvenga , y en el caso de resuUar averiadu, roto 



p. 22. 

15. As there is on hand at the Post of Monte- 
rey a Herd of Cattle which at present exceeds 
500 head of all ages, and another herd of Mares 
which counts up over 170 head, and about 250 
head of sheep and goats, with some droves of 
Burros and Pigs; and in the Post of San Fran- 
cisco there are 124 head of Cattle, all belonging 
to the Royal Exchequer, these must be included 
in the first Inventory of delivery, itemizing the 
kinds and ages of the Cattle and the Mare-herd. 
This is the duty of the Paymasters, who, under 
the orders of the Governor, shall carefully over- 
see the herding and care of said Herds, their 
increase, their distribution to Settlers as pay or 
reimbursement; and with care m breeding shall 
be kept the outgo of Colts, Bulls, Calves. Sheep, 
Geldings, Goats, Pigs and of the others that be- 
cause old or barren should be constantly used up. 
The reckoning of these Herds shall be kept, to 
give annual account of their oroduce and increase 
to the Royal Exchequer, as hereinafter set forth. 

16. The Commissary of Loreto and Store* 
keeper of the other Posts must so make up their 
accounts that hereafter the Paymasters be not 
responsible to the Royal Tribunal and Court of 
Accounts for the results of preceding accounts. 
Consequently no other document should remain 
in their possession except a copy of the last set- 
tlement or account, and the Inventories ofthe 
turning over. And it shall be exclusively the 
duty of each Paymaster, and part of the pay of 
his respective Allowances, the sura in which the 
value of the chattels distributed and chargeable to 
the Troops, Employes and Settlers exceeds the 
value of his debits to the total of balances (paya- 
ble from the year 1774, inclusive, to the day of 
giving possession) which must be paid in full to 
those Interested. But if. on the other hand, the 
item of balances exceeds that of debits and chat- 
tels, the residue shall be in favor of the Pay- 
master, and must be credited to him by the Royal 
Treasury of Mexico in the first settlement had 
with him, subtracting the respective interest. 

17. Whereas in the transportation of the an- 
nual remittances there occur (cau.sed by the heat 
in the Holds of the vessels, and by other inci- 
dents) losses, damage and leakage — principally 
in the Lard, Sugar and Liquids— the delivery 
should be made to the entire satisfaction ofthe 
Paymaster, weighing &nd measuring the articles 



and he shall separate from the aforesaid that 
which is found proper. In case any bale, tierce 
or box 



i mal acondidonado tfguo fardo, fercio 6 cixon, par calificar su de- 
teriotb ^n el todo 6 parte, se procedera a su formal reconocimienib i 
htxCo coll lAtervencion del Comandante de la Embarcadoo y deel det 
Presidio, confrontando por la Faflura Ics g^neros 6 efeSos que Ct)Q- 
tenga,y lilWtuado, se certificari pOc dicbos Ofidales el menoscabo 6 
pWdida que haya caustdo U a*iriii,6 algon oCtoiacidelite,que debe^i 
«xpresarse, y asi praflkaulo, se desembarcard y recogef< el HabiUta- 
do dlcha Certificadon, que ha de ponerse por cabeia de las diUgeni 
das de tasapdon,que ha de hiicerse en el PrisWio con interveodoo del 
Capital! y Oficialea aubalterKos, antecedlendo oombramiento ^t lot 
PeritMf^qne hari el Comandaiue) que con preMr)cia de los precios y 
FadJora, y del dano causado, con ciucion de el, y de los generas 6 
efeflqe que It tengan, le seBalari el justo vrior a que quedA reducf- 
dos, y al que ua alteracion ban de distribulrse y cargarte a la Tropa: 
el Habilitado se Ibrmara cargo del Kqaido valor en que queden los 
geoeros y el'eaos averiados, como de los que no lo sean, segun resut 
le de Us diligenclas, de que dexando Copia certiicada por los Ofi- 
ciales en el Presidio, se remitirin las origioales por el Habilitado al 
Fa^or, para que por ellas compruebe y se acredite la perdida. 

1 8. Para evitar la confusion cbn que se hace la entrega y medi- 
da del Mail y Frijol en las Bodegas 6 Pafioles de la Embarcacion, ea 
las que fOrjosauiente ha de seguirse menoscabo al que entrega midiefr 
dosa bien^por recalcar to* valances U Semilla en la medida, 6 al que 
recibe, por medirse mal, 6 derramarse al tiempo de vadar la BiedkU 
en lo) costales, ppr la prisa i incomodidad con que se executa , y i 
que atrlbuyen los Guarda Almaceues mucha parte de merroaa: para 
excuia«n lo auccesivo dicbot inconveniences, «e hara i* medicion de 
granoa en tierra, bien sea en la Playa, 6 en Ion Presldiot iomedialot 
al detembarcadero, como tiempre se execute en Loreto, y algun aiio 
en Monterrey, con corta d ningnna laiu, habiendece experimentado 
crccidat en la contraria priSica. 

1 9. Lot Habiliiadoi otorgarin asi de lot Fardos, Terciot y Ca- 
xoiies remitldot de Mexico, como de los vlveres y efe^os que lleguen 
de San Bias, a continuacion de los CDnoclmiealos , con expresioo de 
las falias, pirdldas 6 mermas que retultaron en la entrega, ) el tanto 
recibido en cada Semilla, Arina y efefloi de racicn, cuyos docunien- 
tos firmados por el Habilitado se entregaraa al Sugeto qu« Venga he- 
cho cargo de la reniesa, por qeleo ha de ftrmarae en lot Conotlmieh- 

tnaiteo de la ComiMrt* de S. Blat la dectlH- 



p 23. 

turns out to be damaged, broken or in bad condi- 
tion, to determine it it is spoiled partially or 
entirely, he shall proceed with his formal inspec- 
tion on board the Vessel, with the .superintend- 
ence of its Captain and of the Post Commander; 
checking by the Invoice the goods and articles it 
contains. This done, the said officers ahall cer- 
tify the deterioration or loss which may have been 
caused by the damage or other incident which 
must be specified. Having done thus, the Pay- 
master shall di.serabark and take charge of said 
Certification, which must be placed head by head 
upon the appraisement lists that are to be made 
in the Post under the supervision of the Captain 
and subaltern Officers, previous to the appoint- 
ment of experts by the Commander. Comparing 
the prices and the Invoice with the damage 
caused, (specifying the damage and the goods or 
articles affected by it), there shall be shown the 
just value to which the goods are reduced; and 
upon this valuation, without change, they must 
be distributed and charged to the Troops. The 
Paymaster shall charge the present net value of 
the damaged goods and articles, as well as of 
those not damaged, as fixed by the official in- 
quiry; and leaving a copy thereof certified by 
the Officers in the Post, the Paymaster shall for- 
ward the original documents to the agent, where- 
by to prove and credit the loss. 

18. To avoid the confusion arising from the 
delivery and measuring of the Corn and Beans in 
the Holds or Storerooms of the Vessel, wherein 
there inevitably must follow shrinkage to the 
person delivering, if he gives good measure — 
since the rolHng of the vessel shakes down the 
grain in the measure — or to the receiver, because 
scant measure is given, or because the grain is 
.spilled at the time of emptying the measure into 
the bags, on account of the haste and inconven- 
ience with which this is done (and to this the 
Storekeepers attribute a large part of the shrink- 
age); to shun such difficulties henceforth, the 
measuring of grain .shall be done ashore, either 
on the Beach or in the Posts near the landing 
place, as has always been done at Loreto, and 
sometimes at Monterey, with little or no loss. 



156 

while large losses were suffered under the con- 
trary practice. 

19. The Paymasters shall stipulate as well the 
Bales, Tierces' and Boxes forwarded from Mexico 
as the provisions and goods which arrive from 
San Bias, at the ends of the Bills of Lading, not- 
ing the shortages, losses or leakages discovered 
at the delivery, and the amount received of each 
Grain, Flour and article of provision. These 
documents, signed by the Paymaster, shall be 
delivered by the Person who comes in charge of 
the shipment, by whom must be signed, in the 
Bills of Lading that are sent in duplicate from 
the Commisariat of San Bias, the declaration 

ncion de la enfrega aile haya verificado en cada ramo 6 «fc£to de Io« 
'Coritenidos en los cnismbs Cooocimientos, que lian ile quedar en po- 
nder del Habilitado par;» calificar su recibo,a cuyo efciao debcra reirii- 
,tirIos (quedando con Copia certificada por los Oj'iciaies dc la Conipa- 
iiia) al Faflor de la Peninsula -para que lo prtsente en dondc corres- 
ponda,/ por ellos se haga el dcbido abono, respe<£lo de que conlorme 
al total importe de lasfafluras, se habra formadoel cargo al SItuado, 
por el atrazo con que foraosamcnte hau de liegar estos comprobames. 
so. Habiendose esiablecido de pocos afios 3 esia parte hacer ea- 
trega de la remesa general, a los Coniramaesires de las Embarcacio- 
.res, los que por falta de inteligencia y prr^isa asistencia en ellas.oca- 
s'lonan atraso para puotualizar su entregi, debiendo ser en lo surcesi- 
vo un Oficial el que reciba, es conveniente se varle esta pra(aica, y 
<jue de no ser el encargado el Comandantc dc la Embarcacion, lo sea 
<l Piloto, en quien hay mas proporcion y respo.isabilidad para dicha 

• 2 1. Zstando esfaMecido que el Capitan de! Presidio de Lorefo, 
eomo Teniente de Gobeinador, de las Licencias a loc Armadores que 
<ntren al b^seo de Perlas en su Costa e Islas contiguas, regiilando el 
tanto que ha de pagar por quinto c:da Canoa,que aflualinente esta 
ffeglatia en cien pesos, alendida la escasez a que lian venido los Place- 
tes, p.-)r cuya razon pasaron aiios en que no entro Armador alginio, 
no excedierido el presente de dos 6 trcs Canoas ,Ias que lo verilkan, 
cuyo produao con orden de dicho Capitan lo ha'icobrado el Coniisa- 
TJo que ha dado su correspondiente cntrada li la ]Real Hacienda con 
«1 pfoducido de la venta de Sal, y algnnos Toros del Ganat'o orejano 
que compra laTropa y Vecinos del Real de Santa Anna: debiendo se- 
guirse esta praflica en lo succesivo por los Habilitados, darar: cstos 
anuattnente la correspondiente entrada del produflo de eitos ramus y 
dcmas que pertenczcan a h Real Hacienda en Cuenta separada, c in- 
,»ervenida por el Capitan, en la que se dataran los gastos que ocasio- 
nen las carenas, recorridas y arboladuras de la Balandra y Larichas del 
Departamemo, la que con los <:orrespcndientes justifieanies de cargo 
y data, se dirigira al Faflor dc la Peninsula, para que la present en 
k\ Keal Tribunal de Cuentas,y se hagan los cargos 6 abonos que cor- 
- --"1 al Sitoado. 



ii^ Respeaiyamente debera'n los Habnitadorde "Monterrey y 

S. 1 rancisco formar anualmente cuenta de cargo y dau de los Giina- 

"dos que sean de su cargo, con distincionde cspecies, expresion del 

p. 24. 

of the delivery made in each branch or kind of 
{roods contained in the Bills of Lading them- 
selves, which must remain in keeping of the 
Paymaster to attest his receipt. To this end he 
should forward them (retaining a Copy certified 
by the OflScers of the Company) to the Agent of 
the Peninsula that it be exhibited wherein 
they tally, and that from them may be made the 
due receipt, seeing that the charge entered 
against the Allowance was made according to the 
gross amount of the Invoices, on account of the 
unavoidable delays in the arrival of these vouch- 
ers. 

20. Whereas, it has been for a few years the 
rule to make delivery of the general consign- 
ment to the Boatswains of the Vessels, and they, 
through lack of intelligence and of the proper 
assistance on board, cause delays in impressing 
the delivery upon their memories, henceforth 
the one who receives should be an Officer, it is 
expedient to change the practice; and f the Com- 
mander of the Vessel is not supercargo, the Pilot 
should be, as he has more fitness and responsi- 
bility for said commission. 

21. Whereas it has been enacted that the 
Captain of the Post of Loreto, as Lieutenant- 
Governor, give the Licenses to the Cruisers to 
engage in the pearl fisheries on that Coast and 
its contiguous islands, regulating the amount 
which each Canoe must pay in Fifths [the Royal 
share] which sum is now fixed at 5ioo; in view of 
the scarcity to which the Deposits have come, lor 
which reason years have pas.sed in which not a 
single pearl diver entered, and even now there 
are not more than two or three Canoes that do; 
and this sum, by order of said Captain, has been 
collected by the Commissary who has turned it 



over to the Royal Exchequer with the proceeds 
of the sale of Salt and some Bulls bought by the 
Troops and Citizens of the Mining Camp of 
Santa Anna; and whereas this practice should be 
followed henceforth by the Paymasters, these 
shall enter, each year, the proceeds of these 
branches, and others pertaining to the Royal 
Exchequer, in a separate account, supervised by 
the Captain. In this shall be noted the costs of 
careen ings, overhaulings and masts for the 
Sloop and Launches of the Department; and 
this, with the corresponding vouchers of debit 
and credit, shall be sent to the Agent of the 
Peninsula to be presented in the Royal Court of 
Claims, for the charges or rebates which shall 
make it tally with the Allowance. 

22. The Paymasters of Monterey and San Fran- 
Cisco respectively must make up annually a debit 
and credit account of the Herds in their charge 
itemized by kinds, showing the * 

'I- 

aumento de cabeias, y produiSo en pesos de las que en el ano se hif. ^ 
viese expendido, para cuyo efe6)o se arreglaran al Forinulario que irX. 
al 6n de esta Instruccion. 

23. Asimlsmo ha de ser de cargo del Habilitado de Presidio en 
cuya inmcdiacion 6 tcrmino se situe nuevo Pueblo de Gente de r»- 
lon, formal asiento y abrir cuenta a los Pobladores, hacerse cargo f- 
dar los correspondientes resguardos de las caniidades que para d^ha-.^ 
bilitacion se les haya suplido en Sonora, como de los ganados 6 herr*. '-, 
imentas que para el mismo efeiSo se remitan de otros Presidios, acre- 
ditarles su respeflivo haber desde el dia de su entrada, y verificar el 
cobro de la subministraclon que a cada P^tUador resulte y drba des- 
contarsele, formaiido anualmente cuenta, en que con la debida clari- 
dad y comprobacion se den los gastos y entradas que cOrrespondau i 
la Real Hacienda. 

24. Los asientos que a todo Poblador ha de formar el Habilita- 
do, han de instruirse con su nombre, calidad, estado, edad, patri-.. y 
Pueblo en que queda avecindado, y con igusl distincion se expre^iirav 
el nombre, calidad y edad de su muger, hijos y hijas, dia , mes y lAd)-', 
en que se le dio entrada a el gxe de sueldo y racinii que esta con- 
signada a cada uno, reglando^e en est* parte a lo que iri prevenido 
tn la Instruccion de Poblacion, de no opanerse a ello las. coiidicioues 
con que te hayan regisirado los que de ^ooora vengan a . poblar esloc 
establecimientos.. '' " 

s 5. La entrada de nuevo Poblador y data de su haber en la cuety)' 
ta particular que queda prevenida, se justiUcara con la Orden que ht'r 
de anteceder del Gobernador, y copia de la partida de jaiento. Las/ 
salidas por muerte se comprobsran con copia de la partida de entier-* 
ro, y cese de Jueldo 6 racion que en cada ano resulte, se distini;uira , 
en la partida co que con separactonlu de dttarje el residiirqi c de . 
uno a otro perciba en el afiael indivi'duo a aiu~rermioe, pucs su com- 
piobacion se deducira del respediivQ asieno, tespecto a que de to- 
dos se ha de acompaiur copia^li ta p'.iner cuenta. 

i'^r* En los ddS primero* sSis ha dc descontarse a los Pobladore* 

el imp irte de las lJerramie»ta?tjoe huviereii recibido, y en los siguieo* 

tes tfcs alios se verificara el pago de~t<>Jn-k> dcnras quo se les huviere 

tuplido para l.i habilitscion de sus li.borcs, coiTibrfM-a.iJ uue se pre- • 

, vendra en su corrcimmdiente Insiruccion. 

27. El Maix, !■ rixol, Garvanzo y l^nleja$ que produzcan las co- . 
techas del Pueblo, reservando los vecinos lo preciso para su.subsisien. 
- G cia 

p. 25. 

increase of numbers and the proceeds in dollars 
for those sold during the year, for which purpose 
they will follow the formula which will go at the 
end of these instructions. 

23. In the same manner it shall be the duty of 
the Paymaster of a Post in whose vicinity or 
boundaries a new Pueblo of civilized People may 
be founded, to make a register and open an ac- 
count with the Settlers, take charge of, and give 
proper vouchers for, the sums that were supplied 
them in Sonora to outfit them ; likewise of the 
herds or tools that are sent from other Posts for 
the same purpose ; to credit them with their re- 
spective property from the day of their arrival, 
and verify the collection of the subsidy which 
may be due each Settler and should be discounted 
for him ; making an annual account, in which, 
with due clearness and attestation, shall be given 
the expenditures and receipts pertaining to the 
Royal Exchequer. 

24. The registration which the Paymaster must 
make out for every Settler shall give his name, 
quality, condition, age. nationality, and the Pueb- 
lo in which he is enrolled as a citizen ; and with 
equal detail shall give the name, quality and age 
of his wife, sons and daughters ; the day, month 
and year in which he entered upon the enjoy- 
ment of the salary and rations allotted to each 
one, following in this, part the provisions to be 



(To be Continued.) 



157 




LANDMARKS 



?>;;^^P^' 



INtORPORATtO/ ~ 

TO CONSERVE THE MISSIONS 
AND OTHER HISTORIC 
LANDMARKS OF SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

DlKICTOM : 

Frank A. Gibson. 
Henry W. O'Melveny. 
Rev. J. Adam. 
Sumner P. Hunt. 
Arthur B. Benton. 
Margaret Collier Grahami. 
Chas. F. Lummis. 



^ .. . ^^ „ , OFFICERS: 

President, Chas. F. Lnmmis. 
Vice-President, Margaret Collier Graham. 
SecreUry, Arthur B. Benton, 114 N. Spring St. 
Treasurer, Frank A. Gibson, Cashier Ist Nat. Bank. 
Corresponding Secretary Mrs. M E. Stilson. 

913 Kensington Road, Los Angeles. 
HoTORAST Life Members : R. Egan, Tessa L. Kelso. 

ADVISORY BOARD: Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R. Esan, W. C. Patterson, Adeline 
Steams Wing, Geo. H. Bonebrake, Tessa L. Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas Cassat Davis, Miss M. F. Wills, 
C. D. Willard, John F. Francis Frank J. Polley Rev. Wm. J. Chichester, Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Le«, 
Rt. Rev. Joseph H Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles. 
J. T. Bertrand, Official Photographer 

This is a gloriously rainy winter in Southern California. The downpour which 
assures us a year of phenomenal prosperity is washing the unprotected walls of the 
Mission of San Fernando. The Club has already about I400 on hand ; but it will have 
to have $600 more before work can begin on that enormous ruin. Generous contribu- 
tions from that fine Western pioneer type, Edward E. Ayer, now a moving spirit in the 
Newberry I^ibrary and the Field Columbian Museum, of Chicago ; from Mr. and Mrs. 
John F. Francis and jMrs- Alfred Solano, have given an admirable start ; but there is 
far more to be done. 

The prominent Pasadena ladies who last year gave one of the most artistic enter- 
tainments ever seen in the West, and by it netted $300 for the Landmarks work, are 
preparing to surpass themselves this year. They will give in the new Auditorium, 
Pasadena, March 25, the most brilliant and accurate rehabilitation of the romantic Mis- 
sion daj'S that has ever been seen here. The function will be called " Recuerdos de las 
Misiones " (Memories of the Missions). A representation of the great cloisters of San 
Fernando will occupy one side of the auditorium ; and everything is being done to 
made the entertainment beautiful and interesting. The committee of arrangements 
includes Mrs. B. Marshall Wotkyns, Mrs. Chas. Frederick Holder, Mrs. Presley C. 
Baker, Mrs. Francis F. Rowland, Mrs. Seymour E. Locke and Miss Dows. 

Mr, C. A. Fries, an Eastern artist who has been camping at Capistrano for several 
months and doing some unsually fine work there, has presented the Club with the first 
piece for its contemplated museum — an admirable study of the old choir loft in Fray 
Junipero's original church (1776), Some of Mr. Fiies's paintings of Capistrano are 
among the best that have ever been done there. 

It may be added that the Club has some ancient but livable rooms in the Mission 
itself : and that it is willing to accommodate there such artists as seem worth while, on 
conditions which may be learned by addressing the president. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CAUSE. 

Previously acknowledged, I1672.05. 

New Contributions: Edward E. Ayer, Chicago, $50 , John F. Francis, |2s ; Mrs. 
John F. Francis. $25; Mrs. Alfred Solano, $25; A. Schwarzmann, proprietor of Puck, N. 
Y., $10 ; Very Rev. Joachim Adam, V. G., |6 ; Dr. Washington Matthews, U. S. Army, 
Washington, D, C.,|2. 

|i each : Geo Parker Winship, Providence, R. I.; Edmund G. Hamersly, Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; Ad. Petsch, Jas. Siauson, W. C. Patterson, Howard Longley; Mrs. R. J. Mohr, 
Pasadena ; Dr. Dorothea Moore, Hull House, Chicago ; Mary S. Barnes, Stanford 
University ; Prof. C G. Baldwin, President Pomona College ; Chas. G. Bailey, Wash- 
ington, D. C; Harriet Borden Weld, Alhambra, Cal.; J. W. Connolly, San Diego. 



158 







IN THE 

LION'S DEN 




There is no manner of doubt that the world knows more than it ever 
did before ; but the ability to learn a lesson by rote has not made uni- 
versal the ability to think. There is no apparent decrease in the number 
of good souls whose reflective processes are so located that if they were 
stricken with brain fever the only proper specialist to call would be the 
chiropodist. 



)THER 

ox. 



The Lion sympathizes with every man who wishes to be free. 
Also with every woman. He is sorry for the child trammeled 
by authority and spankings — but he would not remove the 
child's guardian. It would seem possible to be sorry without also being 
absurd. There is such a thing as common sense. 

The Lion knew thirty-seven gentlemen and their ladies who maintained 
war against the United States for many years. Their patriot chief was 
named Geronimo ; and they were fighting for liberty, against more vital 
oppression than any Spanish colony ever knew until it got its own 
tyrants. But the Lion does not remember that the American people 
went into hysterics of sympathy for Apacheria Libre. The Apaches had 
to be governed ; and it is well for us and for them that their "patriotic 
struggle " failed. 

The South fought for its "liberty ; " but even the South is glad today 
that it was whipped into submission to government. 

And finally, men and brethren, it is just as well not to lose sleep over 
skulkers. When the Cuban "government" moves from New York to 
Cuba and takes its chances with the negroes who are fighting for it, the 
Lion will find it easier to get up a thrill. JeflF Davis has had his share 
of abuse ; but he never ran the Rebellion from London. 

Arbitration treaties are unpopular with Corbett, Sullivan and 
their peers in Congress. There is also a time in every school- 
CRAPPERS? boy's life when to be anything but a bragging little fighter 

would arouse his scorn. But grown men and nations find it easier to be 
manly. They fight as hard as the hairbrains, when there is need of 
fighting ; but they are glad of the restrictions which keep them from 
gouging and hairpuUing in the gutter at every excuse. Our unweaned 
Congress does not seem to realize that the United States is mostly grown 
up. 

It is certainly a great pity if a young gentleman of wealth who 
is about to be married to a presumably honest girl cannot have 
an obscene orgie with his friends the night before without in- 
terference from a plebeian police, which ismaintainedto enforce decency 
among the humble. Yet, when all the whitewashing has been applied 
that the " Seelye dinner " can carry, the cold fact remains that we are 
indebted to this New York gentleman for reminding us what curs can be 
bred under free institutions ; and for setting us to figure how many and 
how tolerable the litter may become before free institutions must perish. 



DDLESOME 

POLICE. 



IN THE LION'S DEN. I59 

As has been remarked here before, the longest comfort about a our 
fool is that you always know where to find him. The Over- imported 

la7id — which was once a California magazine — is declaring philistii 

that the old missions of California should be left to rot, the sooner the 
better In the Overland' s narrow circulation — a few districts about San 
Francisco — this intelligent attitude is fashionable; but in Southern 
California we are saving these monuments at once of a heroic history 
and a noble architecture. The Overland' s articles on the Missions are 
extraordinarily ignorant and mendacious ; written by a poor, unbalanced 
fellow who was unable to find a job even as a newspaper reporter in 
Los Angeles, but fair meat for the Overland. To people who are not 
both ignorant and philistine it is needless to comment on a proposition 
to destroy what few historic landmarks we have in the United States ; 
and as the Overland does not circulate among people who know or care, 
probably no harm is done. 

It is to be hoped that Mr. McKinley can satisfy the national ^^^ winter 
expectations and undo the things that have come upon us ^^ ^^^ 

largely from the present national tendency to do a 150,000 conti 

business on $5000 money and $45,000 nerve. At any rate, he must be 
given a fair show not only as to time but as to discount. 

But whatever befalls the rest of the country, Southern California is 
going to do a little prosperity on its own account. It has felt these years 
of depression less than has any other portion of the country ; and now 
it has had enough, even of the little. 1897 will be the best year we have 
known for five — the best for stock and for crops. With the millions 
this year will bring Southern California for its products, there will be no 
longer so much as the echo of hard times — not to mention the millions 
to be circulated here by the government. 

The Nicaragua Canal is a thing which must be built — and will '^^^ advocate, 
be, unless the United States is a composite ninny. Incident- and not 

ally, also, it is a matter of the highest import to California. "'"^^ °^' 

But national business must be done on business lines ; and Californians, 
even sooner than Americans by average, should rejoice at every step 
which leads that way. The defeat in Congress of the Canal Bill was no 
defeat of the Nicaragua Canal but merely of a fake (or a colossal ignor- 
ance) which claimed paternity at that doorstep. The canal never would 
have been built — it is now proved — under those conditions. By the de- 
feat of a proposition which contemplated our building a canal through 
Nicaragua without Nicaragua's consent, we are that much nearer to 
some plan which savors a little less of childishness or of swindling. 

The American Shakespeare Magazine would do well to get the 
under the letter and into the spirit of its unconsulted god- diehl 

father; for it " examples us with thievery" of a non-Shake- to pay. 

spearian sort. William was himself a good single-handed — conveyer, the 
wise it call — but no petty larcenist. What he took he immortalized. 
The A. S. M. steals this magazine's article on Modjeska's summer home 
without credit or betterment. It should learn that even Shakespeare 
cannot be understood without some moral sense. 

It is oddly enough true that nobody flatters England quite so " IF we 
fulsomely as do the professional tail-twisters. According to DON'T 

the gatling-mouthed old men who compose the audible part watch 01 

of the United States Senate, England is so much smarter than we are 
that we should inevitably be taken in if we had no Senate to be brains 
for us. 



i6o 




THAT 

WHICH IS 
WRITTEN 



Firearms were the death of chivalry ; 
they set the scullion level with the 
-< »., »,^^?-- - .'^ ,^ knight. So late as our own frontier, which 

\^'J?^\.^»Vs,'^;r ' >^ ' was essentially chivalric, it was common complaint 
^^i>> "* that " a trigger's just as easy pulling to a scrub as to 

a Man." Periodicals sometimes seem to be leveling letters the same 
downward way. Mr. Snippy, of Skowhegan, gravely and fiercely "doing 
for " Kipling or some other Lion-Heart of letters, is a cheerful modern 
spectacle. Yet after all, calibre counts at last ; and Mr. Snippy is inevit- 
ably remindful of the tenderfoot's .22. " Say, son," the frontiersman 
remarked soothingly, " if you was to shoot me with that, and I ever 
found it out, I'd be displeased." 

^ Doubtless God takes care to know whatever Boston doesn't, 

lY WAY OF ^jjat knowledge may not perish from off the earth. But it is 

BOSTON. disquieting to think what might happen if He trusted the Hub 
too far and forgot to keep tab. 

If the Boston Literary World of January 9th had been published in 
the West, we never should have heard the last of our " ignorance and 
semi-barbarianism." Happily, it wasn't. Its leading editorial on the 
Jesuit Relations is as illiterate a string as ever came untied. Tho: Jesuit 
Relations are priceless, and it is an honor to Western letters that they 
are being superbly reprinted ; but the Literary World knows as much 
about them as Cramoisy himself knew of the Boston Public Library. 
Ignorant praise of such landmarks in history is far more dangerous to 
Boston than brute silence could be ; and the Bostonian* who became 
(by what he learned outside of Boston) the greatest of American his- 
torians must be shivering in his grave. 

The Literary World, amid its stultifications, says : 

" The Jesuit Relations taay be regarded as the beginnings of American literature. 
For, though written by foreigners and in a foreign tongue [this is good, in Canada in 
1610] they were written on American soil and on an American subject, and are the 
foundation of American history. For if the Red Men of North America were not the 
first Americans, who were ? And if the literature of which they were the subject was 
not the fir.st American literature, what was ? Before the Pilgrims and Puritans had 
settled in New England . . . the French Jesuits were beginning that wonderful 
<:hapter of exploration .... The first American literature was thus a product of 
missionary faith and zeal. The Jesuit missionaries in New France were the first 
foreign correspondents on the continent." 

And this from Boston? Incidentally, it is also from the loudest rager 
against MacMonnies. 

The first letter included in the Jesuit Relations was written in 1610. 
American literature of the same sort had its beginnings more than 100 
years before that. Not to mention the Letters of Columbus and of his 
immediate successors, or works known only to specialists; the Literary 
World might be improved by learning of the precious volume of the 
letters of Cortez, written in North America and on North America in 
1520 ; the letters of Coronado in 1541 ; Cabeza de Vaca's Shipwrecks 
and his Commentaries ; the precious Chronicles of bold Pedro Pizarro 
and dyspeptic Castaiieda and ever-adorable Bernal Diaz ; and the hund- 
reds of other American books written and printed in the century before 



*Francsi Parkman. 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. i6i 

New France began One might mention the Royal Commentaries and 
volume of poems of the Inca Indian Garcilaso de la Vega (whose edition 
of 1581 is before me) ; but doubtless the Literary World vjovX^. hold that 
South America is not America. As for North America, it doubtless has 
never heard of the heroic poem of Villagrdn on the conquest of New 
Mexico ; nor of the Indian historians and poets of the century of Cortez ; 
nor of Zumdrraga, the first American publisher (1536) ; nor of the 
hundreds of American books not only written but Printed in America 
before the year 1600. 

And if the Literary World will have it that the first American litera- 
ture was written by Catholic missionaries (as it very largely was), what 
is the matter with Marcos of Niza, and Benavides, and Motolinia and 
Gomara and all that splendid host ? They were Catholic missionaries. 
They wrote as ably about America as did the Canadian Jesuits, and more 
fully, anywhere from a decade to a century earlier. What is more, they 
built ten times as many churches, converted twenty times as many 
Indians, and taught a %iropean language to fifty times as many American 
aborigines as did the Jesuits in Canada. They were no braver and no 
nobler ; but they came earlier and staid longer. 

America may well be proud of this splendid reprint of a splendid col- 
lection — the United States has never begun any such historical work on 
its own domain. But only "the bookful blockhead, ignorantly read *' 
could ever refer to the Jesuit Relations as "the beginning of American 
literature." 

As books are the fashion, the Literary World might print one entitled 
" What We Do Not Know about the Jesuit Relations in General, and the 
History of America in Particular. ' ' 

The February LippincotVs has for its complete novel Clarence ^ ^^^ 
Herbert New's " Under the Pacific," a tale of a sunken galleon habit of 

and its millions. Mr. New is a young man of good parts, who much VOGI 

has traveled a good deal and picked up many snatches of local color. He 
has also much ease in twisting a yarn, and knowing ways with sailor 
lingo. The story is a clever one. 

But Mr. New can never learn younger or more easily than now near 
the start, that the ignorance of the reader is a mighty uncertain quan- 
tity. An author would better know what he is talking about or else 
withhold his speech. His vanity, if nothing else, should save him from 
the common error into which Mr. New and many worse writers fall. 
This story pretends to be flavored with Spanish ; but shaking a pocket 
dictionary over a page is poor seasoning. Mr. New's Spanish words are 
largely blundering; and his dialogues which pretend to be englished from 
the conversation of Spaniards are inconceivably absurd. They are not 
English ; and they are probably farther from Spanish than the author 
could have got if he had tried. The total ignorance of Spanish customs 
is equally unconcealed. No Andalusian girl — unless an unusually 
cheeky strumpet — could or would talk or act as Mr. New's heroines do. 
Imagine a Spanish patrician lady calling a he American " Knriquito 
mio " on a week's steamer acquaintance ! 

Mr. New owes himself training in what to let alone. 

While the average author's factory is run day and night, and ^ novel 
anything is good enough to sell if it can be sold, there are a worth 

few who have the business sense (and maybe also the artistic while 

conscience) to work by hand and turn out large wares slowly. So Harold 
Frederic contained himself long ; and when his Damnation of Theron 
Ware came out it won him more money as well as more fame than a 
dozen machine-made novels would have done. And "Lucas Malet^' 
seems to have the same unintoxicated sense. On the heels of The 
Wages of Sin^ anything by the same author would have been market- 



i62 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

able; that the "advantage" was not followed up with a flood of trash 
shows how some slow people respect their art as much as they do money. 
The Carissima, which breaks the author's long silence, is one of the 
strongest and best novels of the season, as it has some reason to be. 
Charles Kingsley's daughter ought to be able to write ; and when to clear 
skill she adds such patience, the result may very well be striking. The 
story is striking ; an original plot, well crystalized and excellently told. 
The motif oi it, *' Leversedge's" grim haunting, is developed with the 
skill which lends reason to the unreasonable — the gift without which any 
handling of the supernatural is absurd. The Carissima herself is a 
remarkable character-study, the foils to which (her parents) are also very 
well drawn. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

A new prophet of Kansas literature is Wm. Allen White, a 

KANSAS young newspaper man whose name for gingery editorials has 

STORIES. passed the Grasshopper boundaries, and who has just published 

a volume of Kansas stories, The Real Issue. There are fifteen tales, 

none of them uninteresting, and some of them ve#y good indeed. '* The 

King of Boyville " is a head above anything else in the book, and would 

have been perhaps a better choice for title story. It is an uncommon 

inspiration in boy nature. In pathos Mr. White is not so steady on his 

feet; but "the Home coming of Col. Hucks " and its sequel are well 

done. Mr. White has a direct newspaper way, and an eye for a point ; 

and the volume holds out promise of growth in him. Way & Williams, 

Chicago. $1.25. 

■^ Eight uncommonlv clever and entertaining stories are those 

3HARACTER which make up C. E. Raimond's The Fatal Gift of Beauty. It 

SKETCHES, is English middle-class and servant life in profile, that Mr. 

Raimond draws with quick and sure lines. The title story and ** The 

Portman Memoirs " are particularly excruciating ; and " Below the Salt" 

is as well done on soberer models. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1 25. 

^ The Hip-Roof House is a simple, wholesome, old-fashioned 

FASHIONED boy-story by Albion W. Tourgee, author of A Fool's Errand. 

STORY. ^Q unadulterated, unmodernized boy and a nice girl, an amiable 

grandfather in distress, a big-hearted lake-steamer captain, a mean man 

and a mortgage, and the lifting of the last — these are the landmarks of 

the book, which is one that youngsters should enjoy. Eaton & Mains, 

N. Y. 90 cents. 

The Month is "something new " and well-favored — a monthly 
.EAVES. made up of what is best worth saving from the weekly Critic. 

Being thus rid of the priu ary expenses, it can be sold at a dol- 
lar a year ; and being on coated paper, its illustrations are far more ef- 
fective than those of its parent. It is a convenient digest of a valuable 
journal, and will doubtless succeed. But it would seem a little more 
scrupulous by confessing itself reprint matter. 

It would have been more considerate to change size with a volume ; 
but if we forget this untimeliness the Chap-Book's new style is a gain in 
dignity as well as space. Its dress is admirable ; and the friendly glove- 
contests with current letters in the new elbow-room are lively and profit- 
able. 

Charlotte Perkins Stetson, razor- witted as ever after a sojourn in dull 
England, is in New York making even socialism readable in the Ameri- 
can Fabian, of which she is one of the editors. 

The Outlook has come into the long skirts of a fullgrown magazine. 
It was already by far the best of the religious family papers ; and the 
new form is in keeping with its high standards. 

The 1897 Year Book of the Los Angeles Times has a great amount of 
condensed information about California in particular, and nearly every- 
thing else in general. Paper, 35 cents. 



^ 



^ivf 



163 




MB ^B [1©VE 




kM 




A REMNANT OF OLD CALIFORNIA. 
The scarlet strings of chile (Spanish peppers) drying in the sun. 




Union Eng. Co. 



A PASADENA COTTAGE. 



Photo, by Hill, Pasadena. 




I 



165 



The San Diego Water Carnival. 



^C^^^HB first event of the California fiesta season — and an extraordi- 
\2^|' narily interesting one — was the Midwinter Carnival held at San 
Ji Diego Feb. 20-23. Thousands of visitors were delighted by the 
novel display. The largest gathering of U. S. war-vessels ever seen on 
the Pacific coast in gala attire went through their evolutions in the 
lovely bay which is San Diego's glory and one of the most valuable pos- 
sessions of California ; and other gaieties by land and water rounded 
out a memorable midwinter merry-making. The magnificent Hotel del 
Coronado, with its 750 rooms, was filled to overflowing ; and the grand 
ball in its great ballroom was the most brilliant function seen in Cali- 
fornia this winter. San Diego's excellent hotels were also crowded. 
The Water Carnival was a complete success, and leaves pleasant memo- 
ries with the San Diegans and their guests. 




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. 

MRS. L. R. WORKS, QUEENZoF THE WATER CARNIVAL, SAN DIEGO, 



i66 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 



% 



w 





^^f;^-^ i-i^^ 




Behre, Eng. Photo, by Slocmn. San Diego.. 

U. S CRUISER PHILADELPHIA IN SAN DIEGO BAY 




Behre, Eng. 



AT HOTEL DEL CORONADO. Photo, by Slocum, San Diego, 



167 



Randsburg. 



THE GREAT NEW MINING CAMP OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 



^ ^ 



OU can leave Los Angeles at 10:15 a.m. 

and be in Randsburg the same night. 

This announcement fluttering from 

the doorway of the Santa Fe ticket office tells 

of the proximity of a thriving mining camp to 

y \ 'l the metropolis of Southern California. 

One reaches Kramer at sundown and in a 
few hours a comfortable stage lands one at the 
St. Blmo, the leading hotel of this magic town 
of the desert. Where less than two years ago 
only sage brush and greasewood grew, are now 
between 2000 and 3000 people, and each day 
adds to their number. 

Early in the spring of '95, a prospecting 

party, John Singleton, C. A. Burcham and F. 

M. Mooers, camped where is now the famous 

Rand group of mines. They found a portion 

of a ledge sticking up above the ground, and 

the pieces knocked off panned as good as $50 per ton. The shaft which 

was sunk alongside this ledge was the first hole dug in the district and 

developed the famous Rand mine. 

The dry wash was put to a test, and the result was better than $5 a day 
to the man. Indications appearing richer higher up in the gulch, they 
concluded to work as long as pay dirt was found, which finally ran |2o. 
Hampered by lack of capital, they resumed their prospecting tour 
and d iscovered besides the "Rand" other good properties, including 
"Yellow Aster," "Trilby," "Singleton," "Mooers," "Big Horse" and 
"Nancy Hanks." 

the camp took its name, after the famous 




From 
*'Rand^ 
Johannes- 
burg, South 
Africa. Af- 
ter sinking 
on what is 
now the 
Olympus 
mine, they 
■developed a 
ledge of from 
50 to 100 feet. 

The town 
site of Rands- 
burg is lo- 
cated on a lit- 
tle "bench" 



the first-named 
at 




ON THE 100-FOOT LEVEL OF THE OLYMPUS. 



V. 



UNIVE.loirf 



i68 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 



^^l/'-Y 



»J 



between[high hills with a high 
mountain for a background. 
There is enough comparatively 
level ground to accomodate A 
town of five thousand people, 
and judging from the way the 
place is growing that number 
will be there before another 
year. 

Situated as the town is, ap- 
proximately four thousand feet 
above sea level, the eye takes in 
a wonderful sweep of mountain 
and plain. Away in the dis- 
tance are the Sierra Nevadas ; a 
little nearer, the Goler hills, 
rich in color and mighty in size. 
Mt. El Paso stands like a senti- 
nal over the desert, and far to 
the right the peaks of the Slate 
ranges rear their heads. 

The camp has become the 
mecca of the prospector, in- 
vestor, fortune seeker and min- 
ing expert from everywhere. 
In a single evening at the St. Elmo Hotel one will make acquaintance 
with men from South Africa, Cripple Creek, Comstock and many other 
famous districts. 






<^h. 



eu^ 



Behre Eng Co. 




Union Eng. Co. 



THE LITTLE BUTTE." 



RANDSBURG. 



169 



The man without means, seeking employment, finds little encourage- 
ment here. The mines have not reached a state of development where 
it is possible to work many men. Building is being carried on aggres- 
sively, but for the most part, property owners are their own architects, 
contractors and builders. 

This rapid growth seems to be justified by the wonderful development 
of rich finds from the hammer tap on the surface to the continuous and 
pay rock from the grass roots down. This bids fair to surpass any camp 
discovered in late years, as it is situated centrally in a gold-bearing zone 
many miles in length and broad as the eye can reach. 

Randsburg is essentially a "poor man's camp." Considerably over 




Union Eng. Co. 



HORNING OUT" AT THE MONTE CRISTO.' 



a quarter-million dollars has been extracted from these mines in six 
months by the original locators. 

The consensus of opinion among those competent to judge, is that 
while the reputation of this camp has been founded upon its wonderful 
high-grade properties with ore running up to thousands of dollars per 
ton, still the great future of the camp lies in its low grade ore which 
like a net work traverses the surrounding country for miles. 

Wire gold, than which no other form is rarer, is found on Rand 
mountain. It runs in beautiful white quartz lying next to the hanging 
wall. 

From the famous Good Hope mine in Perris district, which once 



lyo 



LAND OK SUNSHINE 



changed hands for $300,000, wire gold in large quantities was taken. 
Most of the producing mines are found in the contact porphyry and 
mica schist and porphyry and syenite ; what are styled in the vernac- 
ular of the miner " bull ledges" of quartz, are found traversing the dis- 
trict in all directions. These are unlike the ledges of similar character 
found in Northern California, in that they are all more or less miner- 
alized and not infrequently carry gold of extreme fineness and would 
pay in districts where fuel and water are available. 

Against the oft quoted statement that the novice has an equal chance 
with the expert in this district, it is said that the dyke movements are 
clearly defined throughout this zone, and a careful study of the con- 
dition of mines now being operated makes the work of the intelligent 
operator and prospector almost a certainty. On one point all seem 
agreed, and that is that the mountain sides being so precipitous, at no 
time in the course of development work and extraction of ore will it 




Behre Eog. Co. 



A STREET IN RANDSBURG. 



be necessary to erect expensive machinery as is found in Virginia City 
and some other districts. All the ore may be taken out through tunnels 
at different elevations along the mountain. Between Rand mountain 
and that which is designated as Trilby is a gorge making this possible ; 
and other locations enjoy somewhat similar advantages. 

Two miles from Randsburg in the Yuccaville section, this character- 
istic feature is the more noticeable because of distinct indications of 
earthquake disturbances having rent the formation from east to west, 
leaving parallel fissures over one mile in width and three miles in 
length, within which are found hundreds of stringers of very rich 
quartz. Great dykes of prophyry, mica schist and ** bull quartz" 
are here in evidence, running from north to south. This is a formation 
destined to play an important part in the mining industry of the district 
and is made the more interesting from the fact that before the original 
locators had performed much work, a fabulous price was offered for the 
claim by San Francisco mining men of prominence. 



RANDSBURG. i7i 

r This unwillingness of claim owners to consider the overtures of in- 
vestors has retarded developments. But this is always a temporary con- 
dition only. 

When locators awaken to the fact that because a location shows quartz 
it is not necessarily valuable, and that great expectations alone do not 
find as ready purchasers now as of old, the real success of a mining 
camp begins. 

That the Rand presents the most flattering inducements to practical 
miners and men of means is a fact nbt to be disputed. With the enlist- 
ment of capital will come the solution of another problem which has 
confronted the camp from the first. There is no water in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Randsburg, and under existing circumstances ore must 
be hauled to Garlock, ten miles distant, increasing the cost of milling 
to $io per ton. Only high grade ores will stand the expense of treat- 
ment at this distance and as low grade ore abounds in endless quantities, 
capital is required to develop wells in the hills near by. Already a 
quantity sufficient for domestic use is found, obviating the necessity of 




BehreEng.Co. RANDSBURG, FROM THE WEDGE MINE. 

hauling it from Garlock as was previously done at an expense to con- 
sumers of $2 per barrel. 

The fuel question is always a momentous one ; but the history of min- 
ing camps is that wherever ore is found in paying quantities ways and 
means are found for developing it to the best advantage. Considering 
the location of Randsburg and its distance from the railroads and 
centers of supplies, prices are most reasonable, averaging but little 
above those of Los Angeles. 

This is particularly true of meats and groceries. The low price of these 
commodities has a corresponding effect on the tariff at hotels and res- 
taurants. Los Angeles is by common consent considered the base of 
supplies for the camp. With competing lines of railroad she has dis- 
tinct advantages over San Francisco. Her money should draw divi- 
dends from that section and the output of the mines should be added 
to her industries. 



ASSAYERS 

"''■^ 5tnalytlcal Chemists 

ASllysisTn'so^uth'ern "California. f|5 N. Majll St., LOS AngBlBS 

Assay, Mine and Mill Supplies 

I carry the best assorted line in South.ern California. 
Send us a Trial Order. 



300-302 N. MAIN STREET, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

THE BI-METALLIC ASSAY OFFICE AND CHEMICAL ^LABORATORY 

A.ssayixig in all its* Brariciness. Determinations Accurately Made. 
R. A. PEREZ^ MANAGER 

Formerly : Chief Assayer El Paso Smelting Works, El Paso, Tex. ; Assistant Chemist Consolidated 

Kansay City Smelting and Refining Co., Argentine, Kansas. 

(Prompt Re' urns.) 184 S. MAIN ST., I.OS ANGEI.ES,ICAI.. 



riachinery Depo 



WE ARE GETTING THE TRADE 

Of sagacious mine owners and operators in the territory tributary to 
Ivos Angeles. Our Eng"ines, Boilers, Hoists, Milling' and 
Mining- Machinery are of the right sort — the sort that satisfies. 
We execute commissions for machinery of special pattern properly 
and promptly. The Atlas Engines and Boilers, so well known 
as to require no special mention, are handled by us, as are also the 
Wortington Steam Pumps. 

We can interest anyone looking for the best in Water Works 
Machinery. 

Inquiries promptly answered. 



Baker Iron Works 



LOS ANGELES. CAL. 



-jcase mention that you "saw it in the I,and of SuNsmNE.* 




MINERS, ATTENTION! 

Ore Sacks, Tents, Blankets, Wagon 
Covers, Awnings, 

And Everything needed for a Prospecting Tour. 



CAMPING OUTFITS FOR RENT AT CATALINA 
AND ELSEWHERE. 

LOS aiSCEIvES XENX AND a>VNING CO., 

250 South Main Street. A. W. Swanfeldt, Prop. 





THOMSON 



MINING Water Tanks, Oil Tanks, Steam Boilers, Ore Cars, Ore Buckets, etc. Sheet Iron Work 

PIPE of all kinds. 
Correspondence solicited. 



310-314 Requena Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 



OLDEST AND LARGEST BANK IN SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

Farmers and Merchants Bank 



OF LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



Capital (paid up) 
Surplus and Reserve - 

Total 



1500,000.00 
- 875,000.00 

$1,375,000.00 



OFFICERS : 

I. W. Hellman President 

H. W. Hellman Vice-President 

Henry J. Fleishman Cashier 

G. A. J. Heimann Assistant Cashier 

DIRECTORS : 

W. H. Perry, C. E. Thom, J. F. Francis, 
O. W. Childs, I. W Hellman, Jr., T. I*. Duque, 
A. Glassell, H. W. Hellman, I. W. Hellman. 
Special Collection Department. Correspond- 
ence Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 




^Wi^ 



OF LOS ANGKIiES. 

Capital Stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 250,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest., W.G. Kerckhoff, V.Pres. 

Frank A. Gibson, Cashier. 

G. B. Shaffer, Assistant Cashier. 

directors: 

J. M. Elliott, F. Q. Story, J. D. Hooker, 

J. D. Bicknell. H. Jevne, W. C. Patterson 

W. G. Kerckhoff. 

No public funds or other preferred deposits 

received by this bank. 



THE HOTEL WI/NTDSO-R 



KEt) LANDS, 



A First-class Tourist and 
Family Hotel. 

The comforts of a home at moderate 

charges, 
lyocation in the business part of the 

city, convenient to stores, public 

library and postofiice. 
lyighted by electricity throughout. 

Suites with private bath. 

Rates 82 per Day upward. 

Special by the week or month. 

RICHARDS & I.OW, 

Proprietors. 




Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 



Publishers' Department. 



The i^avid of ^ai\6biiv^ 



THE MAGAZINE OF CALIFORNIA 
AND THE SOUTHWEST 



$1.00 A Year. io Cents a Copy. 

Foreign Rates $1.50 a Year. 

Entered at the I,os Angeles PostoflBce as second- 
class matter. 



Published monthly by 

The Land of 6un6f]ine Pubfisfiino Co. 

INCORPORATED 

SOI -603 Stimson Building, los angeles, cal. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

W. C. Patterson .... President 
Chas. F. IvUmmis, V.-Prest. & Managing Editor 
F. A. Pattee - Secretary and Business Mgr. 
H. J. Fleishman .... Treasurer 
Chas. Cassat Davis .... Attorney 



STOCKHOI^DERS 



Chas. Forman 

D. Freeman 
F. W. Braun 
Jno. F. Francis 
C, G. Baldwin 
S. H. Mott 

W. C. Patterson 

E. W. Jones 

H. J. Fleishman 
Louis Replogle 
Cyrus M. Davis 
Chas. F. I^ummis 



Geo. H. Bonebrake 
C D.Willard 
F. K. Rule 
Andrew Mullen 
I. B. Newton 
Fred L. Alles 
M. E. Wood 
Chas. Cassat Davis 
Alfred P. Griffith 

E. E. Bostwick 
H. E. Brook. 

F. A. Pattee 



All MSS. should be addressed to the Editor. 
No MSS. preserved unless accompanied by re- 
turn postage. 

Address remittances, and important business, 
to F. A. Pattee, Business Manager. 



REPRESENTATIVES 

Los Angeles H. W. Newhall 

San Francisco Wilder & Co. 

California Ira P. Rowley 

Arizona and New Mexico - - G. H. Paine 
Chicago - Lord & Thomas, 45 Randolph St. 

New York - - E- Katz, 230 Temple Court 
London, F. W. Freir, 82 Bishops Gate St., Within 
Paris - - Librarian American Art Ass'n, 
131 Bv. Mt. Pamasse 



A Good "Work, 

Itis safe to state that since the opening of the 
mmigration bureau of Easton, Eldridge & Co., 
Los Angeles, no real estate firm in this section 
las contributed more to the settlement of South- 
ern California. 

Mr. G. J. Farnsworth, who has charge of this 
ind the country department, is a gentlemen of 
ong experience in this class of work, and seems 
;o know the real value of experience, namely, a 
steadfastness of purpose in the pursuit of meth- 
>ds which bring not alone temporary results, but 
permanent success. 

Mr. Farnsworth reports that results received 
Tom advertising in the East are proving very 
satisfactory. A South Dakota gentleman, to 
!vhom he recently sold $12,000 worth of Chino 
land, has become a most enthusiastic Southern 
Zalifornian. Fifty Ohioans are also eager to start 
^or this section. I^et the good work go on. 



Au Education Free. 

This magazine now offers the most liberal pre- 
mium ever given by any publication in the West. 
No trashy jewelry or rejected merchandise, but a 
sound, sensible, practical education for two 
young people who have the energy and brains 
to deserve it. To the boy or girl, young man or 
young woman, who sends in before Sept., 1897, the 
largest list of subscribers to the Land of Sun- 
shine we will give a six months' free scholar- 
ship in the famous Throop Polytechnic Institute, 
Pasadena. It is not a hard condition. The maga- 
zine is only a dollar a year. It is the only maga- 
zine of California and the Southwest. It is read 
and prized all over the West and East, and is 
ranked by the highest critics as unique in its 
beauty and interest and its genuine learning. 
Those who are not already subscribers are easily 
persuaded to become such, when they see the 
magazine. 

There are two of these prize scholarships to 
be given, each worth $55. They are worth work- 
ing for. You do not lose your work anyway ; for 
if you fail to get one of the scholarships we will 
pay you a cash commission of 25 per cent on all 
subscriptions secured. This is a rare chance for 
wide-awake young Californians. 

The Throop Polytechnic is widely and honor- 
ably known as a solid and competent institution 
for giving practical training ; and the young man 
or woman who desires to lay the substantial 
foundation of success in life can do no better 
than begin at Throop. 

Pupils are admitted to the Sloyd grammar 
school who have completed the third year of the 
public school. 

Students holding a certificate of graduation 
from a California grammar school, or any other 
school of equivalent grade, will be admitted to 
the Academy without examination. All other 
applicants will be subject to examination in 
Arithmetic, Grammar, English, Geography and 
United States History. 

Therequir<^ments for admission to the college 
department are as follows : The completion of 
one of the Academy courses, or the completion of 
the course in an accredited high school, or an 
examination in the studies included in such 
course. For further details sec the catalogue. 
Sent on demand. 

Each month hereafter the Land of Sunshine 
will reproduce in its advertising pages a view of 
some department of this famous Polytechnic 
School, and provide the reader with a better 
knowledge of the advantages which it oflTers. 

Instructions for entering the Land of Sun- 
shine Free Scholarship Competition will be given 
on application to this office, 501 Stimson Build- 
ing, Los Angeles. 

A Kedlands Article. 

The next issue of the Land of Sunshine will 
present the peerless locality of Redlands. Those 
who have heard of the magnificent scenery and 
fine improvements of that progressive town, but 
have not been so fortunate as to see the same, 
will be interested in the reproduction of them in 
this magazine. Mr. W. G. Walther, who has the 
matter in charge, is stopping at the Hotel 
Windsor, so long and so pleasantly known to all 
who have visited Redlands. 



California s Blind Musician. 

Prof. J. M. Wood, the blind musician, tha» 
whom no one is better known, from Puget Sound 
to the Gulf of California, travels constantly in the 
best favored region of God's domain, giving with 
the assistance of local talent, concerts which have 
called forth encomiums from press and public 
everywhere. 

Scarce a town, village or hamlet in Oregon, 
Washington, California, Arizona or New Mexico 
that the Professor's peregrinations have not taken 
him to — and other states and territories as well 
as the northern portion of Old Mexico have been 
visited by him in his thirty years tour of the land 
of sunshine. Forty years ago, while living in 
Missouri, Professor Wood lost his eyesight. A 
few years subsequent to this he took up the study 
of music and a few years later crossed the plains, 
to Oregon where he located some fifteen miles 
from Corvallis. Now California claims him for 
her own and a welcome awaits him in nearly 
every town in the state where his charming 
personality and skill as a violinist have won him 
a place in the hearts of the people. In centers of 
refinement and culture and in the roughest of 
mining camps he is equally well received and 
his habit of insisting upon being treated as a man 
blest with the full complement of senses, earns him respect not vouchsafed one playing upon the 
sympathies of the people. Professor Wood is his own manager, attending personally to all of the 
details of his concert tours. Nothing deters him from making the most lengthy and hazardous of 
trips. Whether riding as the guest of California railroads or upon burro back over mountain trails, 
it is all the same to him. He has trusted to the eyesight of sure footed quadrupeds for so many years 
that all thought of danger has passed. He hears the utterances of enraptured tourists and sees in 
fancy the pictures they describe. The music of birds and brooks is compensation for that which is 
lost to him. The perfume of the flowers makes up for that which he cannot see. Withal he is happy 
and content. An obj ect lesson to the cynic and pessimist. 




COLLARS AND CUFFS NEVER CHAFE 

THAT ARE IRONED AT THE 




NO-SAW-EDGt 

ON COLLAR5^dCUFF5 



TRADE 

NO-SAW-EDGE ON COLLARS AND CUFFS LAUNDRIED AT THE EMPIREw 

MARK 

4®^ WE HAVE THE FIRST AND ONLY =©a 
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NO-SAW-EDGE COLLAR AND CUFF IRONER 

MARK 

As well as the first machine made for the purpose, it being 
149 SOUTH MAIN OUR OWN invention. 

TELEPHONE 635 A TRIAL WILL MAKE YOU A LIFE) PATRON 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine, 



I A Free Book 
I about Almond 
I and Olive Cul= 
ture. 



Tells all about the easiest way to 
start. Tells where the best lands 
are and how to buy them to the 
best advantage — tells about the 
money to be made — in fact, it tells 
all there is to tell — 32 pages of 
splendid money making reading. 
It'6 free- if you ask for it. 

Del Sur Ranch Co., 

338 S. Broadway, Los Angeles. 

Kastem Office : 

930 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 



Watchmaker and Jeweler 

Watches Cleaned 
Mainspring 



$1.00 

$r.oo 



H. T. HOLLINGSWORTH 

Los ANGELES, CAL. 
Jewelry made to order and repaired. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. 

Jl@°^212 W. Second Street 



ffbbOTSFORD 
J INN ' 

8tli and HOPE Sts, 



jii^iiiif^iif^ti^inTr^^t^^t 1 't twirtriTi 1 1 ^TjTftTivTivvy.'yry.'iV j 




The only Thoroughly Comfortable 
Tourist Hotel in Los Angeles 



Heated throughout by steam 
Convenient to four lines of street railway 
Just outside the business district 
Strictly First-class 
None but white labor is employed 

CHAS. B. JACOBS, 

Proprietor 



Cuts 



AT HALF PRICE 

Thb Land of Sunshine oflfers for sale or 
for rent from its large and well chosen 
Stock of over 1000 Cuts, both half-tones and 
line etchings, any California and South- 
western Subject the purchaser may desire. 
Send for Proof Catalogue and see if we can 
not both suit you and save you money. 



LAND OF SUNSHINE PUB. CO, 



501 Stimson Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 



We Sell the Earth-— 



BASSETT & SMITH 

POMONA, CAL. 

We deal in all kinds of Real Estate 
Orchard and Residence property. 
Write for descriptive pamphlet. 



piNE [JALF-TONE PRINTING 



A SPECIALTY 



I^INGSLEY 
gARNES 
& 
^EUNER 

Co. 




"^"tL^^K^sS^^MZS South Broadway 



f^T A 00 Book Binders, 

VXLjX\\D\D Blank Book Manufacturers 

& LONG "^-^■^'''''g^i^Us. 

Tel. Main 535 



i^ease meotioa that you "saw It Jn the I^and of Sunshine.' 



THE. BEHRE. ENGRftVING GO. 




Copper and Zinc Etchings of Every Description 
FINE COLOR PRINTING 



Cor. Franklin and New High Sts., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Southern California Lands ^ 

/i\ If you expect to live in Southern 

California, and want the best land for the least 
money, write us. We can sell good lands, now 
in cultivation, at prices from $10 to $60 per 
acre. Anything we offer will bear the closest 
investigation. H0IN9EXTER & WADSWORTH, 

308 Wilcox Building, Los Angeles. 



WOODIvl5>VN 

10 minutes' ride from business center of 

LOS ANGELES. 

Paved and curbed streets, 5 electric car lines, and 
other improvements. The Finest Residence Tract 
in the city. Two story houses now being built and 
sold on the installment plan. Forty houses built 
and sold during last two years. Send for further 
particulars if you want a Home in God's Countrr. 

Address owner, TUOS. McD. POTTER, 
Cor. Main and Jefferson Sts., 

(Also 6 acre bearing Orange Grove I,os AngeleS, Cal. 

at Redlaads.) 



HOTEL AKCADIA, Santa Monica, Cal 



The only first-class 
tourist hotel in this, 
the leading coast re- 
sort of the Pacific. 150 
pleasant rooms, large 
and airy ball room, 
beautiful lawn and 
flower gardens. Mag- 
n i fi c e n t panoramic 
view of the sea. First- 
class orchestra. Surf 
and hot water baths 
a positive cure for 
nervous and rheu- 
matic disorders. 

Time from Los An- 
geles by Santa F6 or 
S. P. R.R. 35 minutes, 
Pasadena and Pacific 
electric cars, seventy- 
five minutes. 



S. REINHART, Proprietoh 




THB LEADING 8BASIDB RESORT 



DO YOU KNOW OF ANY OTHER WAY 

To get such a bound volume on California? Over 600 pages, over 600 illustrations ! Over 100 different 
localities pictured. Over 200 articles, dwelling upon the different phases of Southern California, and 
all for 812.76. Don't you think, yourself, such a book is worth having ? 

THINK OF IT ! Twelve numbers of the L,and of Sunshine furnished, bound and delivered 
for $2.75. 

There are many magazines of many merits — but there is only one magazine in the world which is 
in and of and for God's country ; only one devoted to California and the Southwest ; only one imbued 
with the beauty and the romance, and the progress, the free Western spirit combined with scholar- 
ship, of its fascinating field. That one is the Land of Sunshine. 

Of its literary quality it should suflBce to say that its contributors already include Charles Dudley 
Warner, Mrs. Fremont, Mrs. Custer, Margaret Collier Graham, Grace Ellery Channing, Joaquin 
Miller, T. S. Van Dyke, John Vance Cheney, Charles Howard Shinn, C. D. Willard, H. Ellington Brook 
and many others of recognized standing. 

Subscribe now, and thus secure the 1896 special X-Mas number. It may soon be out of 
your reach. 

It is only $i.oo a year, exclusive of binding. You have friends for whom you care a dollar's worth — 
and you couldn't please thembetter for the money, 

LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO., 

501-503 STIMSON BUILDING, 
C. F. LUMMIS, EDITOR. LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



mention that you "* saw it in the IUnd op SUNSHmB.' 



IF YOU LISTEN TO INTERESTED PROMOTERS 
You May Buy Almost Anywhere. 

BUT IF YOU LOOK FOR YOURSELF, 
YOU WILL LOCATE 




IN THE ARROYO SECO SECTION, OR IN THE SUPERB 
HIGHLAND VIEW, OR LOVELY GARVANZA. 

Nature has made it, as your eyes will tell you, the most beautiful part of Lo& 
A.ngeles. Held back because it lacked rapid transit and because speculators were 
interested elsewhere, it has now suddenly come to the front. It has now the best 
of transit, and is developing handsomely. The Los Angeles & Pacific Electric R.R. 
bas purchased over loo acres in this section, running north from the city limits, and 
will lay out a magnificent amusement park, with all the facilities for recreation and 
enjoyment for cultured people. A splendid Delmonico hotel, bicycle track, ball 
grounds, etc., will join to make this the finest resort in California. 

No dead plain, but a succession of the most exquisite rounding hills and charm- 
ing little valleys in Southern California. You can have your villa in the "Happy 
Hollow," under magnificent sycamores ; on the fertile first slope, or like an eyrie 
high upon the hills. Whichever you choose, you can have such superb outlooks as 
can hardly be matched elsewhere. Views of wooded valleys, of the giant Sierra 
Madre, of the city, and far oflf to sea — you can pick between them or between com- 
binations of them. 

The lowest points in this section are several hundred feet higher than the 
thickest of the city ; therefore cooler in summer and warmer in winter, more health- 
ful and more pleasant. No mud. I^ess fog than in the south of the city. It is on 
both sides of Pasadena Ave., and the electric line; which is destined to be built up 
its whole length with the finest residences. In a few years it will be the cream of 
IvOS Angeles. 

You will be astonished, if you look at prices elsewhere and then here. A man 
who has two or three lots wants fancy prices ; one with hundreds of lots can sell 
cheap. But the price is the only cheap thing about these lots. In a few years these 
lands will bring higher prices than lands in the southwest. Now is the time to buy 
at first hands. 

I. H, PRESTON, 

Room I, 217 New High Street, Los Angeles. 

Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 




SPORTSMEN, ALL! 

Invest one cent in a postal card and 
send to us requesting a FREE sample 
copy of 

GflMELflND, 

the monthly magazine of outdoor life. 
Subscription price, $i per year. Three 
trial numbers, 25c. 

D D C M 1 1 1 M C I ^^ ^^^^ S^^^ y°" * S""' bicycle, 
rlfLIYllUITIO i camera, oranything you want, if 
you will secure a club of subscribers for us. For 
instance, send ten names and $10, and you can have 
a $5 fishing rod. Full particulars, sample copies 
andorder blanks FREE. Write to-day. 

Gameland Publishing Co., 

[Incorporated,] 

eg Rutgers SUp, - NEW YORK. 

Qameland and the Land of Sunshine, $1.60 per year. 



Rnn^ AUATPIIR^ J furnish any kind of books 
DUU^ HIIIHItUnO, on short notice and easy 
terms. Rare and modern books on Mexico a 
specialty. Address, P. O. Box 158. 

AGUSTiN M. Orortiz. Mexlco City. 
Refers to the editor, by permission. 

"Western, Masculine and Gr\\Xy. '^Harper' a Weekly. 
S1.20 a Year.^. You Will Like It. 
At News-stands 
10 Cts. 




Sample copy sent on receipt of eight 2-ct. stamps 

" Sports Afield," 358 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Together with Land of Sunshine, $1.50 a year. 

THE PRESS CLIPPING BUREAU 

GUARANTEES PROMPT, ACCURATE AND 
RELIABLE SERVICE. 

Supplies notices and clippings on any subject 
from all periodicals on the Pacific Coast, business 
and personal clippings, trade news, advance 
reports on all contract works. 

LOS ANGELES OFFieE, 205 NEW HIGH STREET 



HAVE YOU SEEN 

Modern 
Mexico ? 

The monthly magazine published at 
St. Louis, Mo., and devoted to inter- 
national trade? Its full of information 
about the Southern Republic, and is 
handsomely illustrated. Printed in Eng- 
lish and Spanish— just the advertising 
medium to reach Mexican buyers. 
$1.00 a year, single copies 10 cents. 

W11.1.IAM C. Smith, Manager, 
Insurance Exchange Building, 
St. Louis, Mo. 



it 



THE INVESTOR 



A Financial Guide to Southern California and 

Weekly Journal of Finance, Insurance 

and Trade. 

G. A. DOBINSON, Sditor. 

Published every Thursday. 

Subscription, $3.00 per annum. 

Sample copies mailed on application. 

"The best journal of its class in the West."— 
N. Y. Bond Buyer. 

" Commendable in every way." — American In- 
vestments. 

" Has made an enviable reputation, "—^^rf/anrfi 
Citrograph. 

Ofl&ce, 4 Bryson Block, Los Angeles, Cal. 



The HoRton House 

SAN DIEGO. CAL. 

W. E. HADI^EY, F»rop. 

The Best Liocatlon. 
The Best Table. 
The Most Courteous Treatment. 

The most historical resort in Southern Califor- 
nia. A warm, sunny house, where every one feels 
at home. The Venetian Lady Troubadours, a 
company of talented mandolin artists, are in at- 
tendance at meals. Come and see us, and we will 
prove the above. 



THE AMERICAN ITALY 



by J. W. HANSON, D. D. This new and complete work 
on the land o* eoer-blooming filousers and eo6r-ri{)ening 
fruit is full of Southern California. The soil, climate, 
products, mountains, desert, seaside, cities, and all that characterizes this beautiful land are de- 
scribed with enthusiasm and yet accurately. Just tohat the resident would like to tell and the 
tourist would like to knous is contained in the 300 pages. 130 choice half-tones embellish the book. 
The seven southern counties— Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles. San Bernardino, Orange, River- 
side and San Diego. It is for sale at all bookstores, or may be ordered of the author, J. W. HANSON, 
Pasadena. Price I1.50 cloth ; paper, $1.00. Paper, type, illustrations and binding are of the very best. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb." 




E.ducation&l 
Department 



f^ -r r 



Casa de Rosas. 



MARLBOROUGH SCHOOL 

For Girls and Young Ladies 
866 W. S3d St., L.08 Angeles. 

Handsome home with family discipline and refined 
family life, for twenty girls. New annex this year, 
containing assembly room, class rooms, studio, 
gymnasium, etc. Preparatory to be opened this 
year. Girls graduated in Latin and English 
courses, and prepared for any college to which 
women are admitted. Extended course in English 
Language and Literature, and special opportu- 
nities for work in Art, History, etc. During the 
summer "Mrs. Caswell travels in Europe with 
classes. 



POMONA COLLEGE 



CLAREMONT 
CAL. 



Courses leading to degrees of B.A., B.S., 
and B.L. Its degrees recognized by Uni- 
versity of California and other Graduate 
Schools. Also preparatory School, fitting 
for all Colleges, and a School of Music of 
high grade. 

Address, C. G. BAI.DTVIN, Pres. 

JOHN C. FILLMOKE, 

Director of School of Music. 



CHAFFEY 



An BNDOTTED 

School. 



AT ONTARIO 

( 'the model COLONY"), CAL. 



Preparatory and Boarding 



16 PROFESSORS AND TEACHERS:— 

(Johns Hopkins ; Oxford, Eng, ; Wesleyan, 
Conn.; Toronto, etc. 

INDIVIDUAI. METHOD: The bright 
are not retarded, the slow not crowded. 
Graduate not "in four years," but when 
necessary credits are gamed— be it earlier 
or later. 

CHAFFEY GRADUATES SUCCEED: 

5 have been Editors of their respective 
University publications ; 3 Business Man- 
agers : a number have taken first prizes 
in rhetoricals ; i, a member Cal. State 
Univ. Faculty ; i, a Fellow in Chicago 
Univ. ; 2 Asst. Prin. High Schools ; 2 Edit- 
ors and publishers weekly papers ; etc. 

HE AliTH : The *' College Home " is peculiar 
because of the motherly care of the ma- 
tron, the abundance of well cooked and 
well served food, and other conditions that 
make the new student healthy and hearty. 

TENTH TEAR begins Sept. 17, 1896. 
Address Dean, William T. Randall, A. M. 



GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 

1918-1929-1934 South Grand Avenue 

For resident and day pupils. An attractive home, 
and thorough school. 

MISS PARSONS AND MISS DENNEN, 

PRINCIPALS 



Pasadena. 

MISS O^TOK'S 
Classical School for Girls. 

A Boarding and Day School. 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges. 

Los Angeles Academy 

A Boarding School for Boys 

Ideal location in country, near the foothills. 
Forty boys, eight teachers. Not a large school, 
but a good one. Military discipline. $250.00 a 
year. No extras. Send for catalogue. 

C. A. WHEAT, Principal, 

P. O. Box 193. liOS Angeles, Cal. 



(casa oe rosas) 



FROBEL INSTITUTE 

OOHST AOACQS ST., COH. HOOVBf} 8T. 
liOS AHGHIiHS 

All grades taught, from Kindergarten to College. 
Training School for Kindergartners a specialty. 

PROF. AND MME. LOUIS GLAVERIE. 

Circular sent on application. 



MISS MARSH'S SCHOOL 

134.0 AND 1342 8. HOPE ST. 
LOS ANGELES. CAL. 

An incorporated school for young ladies and girls, 
giving all the advantages of a refined home, ad- 
vanced scholarship, and the benefit of the climate, 
to a limited number of students. 

References : 

Rt. Rev. J. H. Johnson, D. D. 
Dr. H. H. Maynard. 
Major G. H. Bonebrake. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the I,akd of Sunshinb." 



EDUCATIONAL 

^^DEPAKTNENT 

*____t ± 




^^flssJ-. 



Girls' Collegiate School. 



PRIVATE SCHOOL for 



NERVOUS 
AND Bf^CKWARD 



CHILDREN 



A Private School whose system of individual care 
and education is intended for children who, 
through ill health or mental deficiency, are de- 
prived of the ordinary methods of education. 
Highest references from medical authorities. 
For particulars apply to Miss Allen at the school. 

miss:ai.i:.en, 

2101 Norwood St.. cor. Slst. 



2i(i S. Spring St., Los Angei^es 

Oldest, I^argest and Best. Send for Catalogue. 
G, A. Hough, n. G. Pblkbr, 




President. 



Vice President. 





Currier Building 

UNEXCELLED .... ^ 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 



Los Angeles 



10,000 

Positions Filled. 



C. C. BOYNTON, 

Manager. 

Associate of FISK AGENCIES, 
Boston, NewjYork, Chicago, Toronto, Minneapolis, Dcnrer 

Teachers' Agency 



A Reliable Aid to Teachers and Trustees. Manual Free. 



BOYNTON NORriAL prepares teachers for Co. Examinations of all grades ; prepares for Civil 
Service Examinations ; publishers Examination Helps: Primary, 50 c; Grammar Grade, 35c.; High 
School, 25c.; Key to Arithmetic, 40 c.; to Algebra, 25 c.; to Music, 25c. Write or call, 

525 Stimson Block, Los Angeles. 



TELEPHONE 
1475 RED 




Company jK 
Pl)otd-fci)^rdOerj 



$100 AN ACRE 

Is not much to give for a home in 

"God's Country," 
Where there are no cold winters, no 
burning winds, no blizzards, no cy- 
clones, but 

A CHANCE TO REAP WHAT 
YOU SOW. 

If you wish from 10 to 40 acres of 
rich, sandy loam, planted in three- 
year-old fruit trees, with railway and 
school facilities, and amid the grand- 
est scenery in 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

address, C. M. Davis, 
123 SOUTH BROADWAY 

LOS ANGELES^ CAL. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Lahd op Sonshuvb.** 




The Ford Hotel 

F»HaENIX, ARIZONA. 



American Plan: 
$2 to $4 



European Plan: 
$1 to $2 



Special Rates by the Week 
or Month.. 

DR. J. M. FORD, Proprietor. 



RATES $2 ANo $2.50 PER DAY 

\\m\ flardwlGR 

J. J. HARDWICK, Owner. 
J. D. FEE, Lessee. 

Adjoining S. F., P. & P. Passenger 



First-class Meals 
Elegantly Furnished Rooms 
With all Modern Conveniences 






Phoenix, Arizona 





" Tempting prices without quality are 
frauds y 

For reliable 
quality and good 
values in Groceries and 




GO TO 



If You cannot Call and make Your 
Selections, 
Send for Our Price List 



H. JEVNE 

208-210 S. SPRING STREET 



Indian Basicets 
Navajo Blanlcets 
Pueblo Pottery 

Mail Orders 

Solicited. 
Catalogue Sent 

Free. 



OPHL-S 



Mexican Drawn Work and Hand- Carved Leather 
Goods. Indian Photos (blue prints) 10 c. each. 

W. D. Campbell's Curio Store, 

325 South Spring; St., 1.08 Angeles* Cal. 



flease mention *hat you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb." 



-TO ARIZONK 

Travel via Sailta FC RoUtC 

MAGNIFICENT SCENERY aflU ASll rOFK 

FIRST-CLASS EQUIPMENT 

and Dining Accommodations. 

NO DBLHY 

Passing through the famous mining cities of Prescott and CONGRESS; 
into Phoenix through the richest section of the GREAT Salt River 
Valley, noted for its marvelous fertility, agricultural products and 
scenic beauty. 

For information regarding the mineral resources or the agricultural 
possibilities of 

Central Arizona 

or for advice as to the train service from all principal points in the United 
States, write to any Santa Fe ROUTE representative, or to 

GEO. M. SARGENT, 

General Passenger Agent, 
Santa Fe. Prescott & Phoenix Railway Co. PRESCOTT, A. T. 

KILROY'S NEW PALESTINE AGENCY, 

SALT KIVER VALLEY, PHOENIX, ARIZONA, 

Well known throughout the United States and Canada, sends greetings to the thousands of readers of 
the lyAND OF Sunshine in the East, West and North-lands now watching the phenomenal strides of 
Phoenix. " IVhen Truth starts on her onward match of progress, neither the God of /usttce nor Mercy ever 
stops or stays her^ Never have "coming events cast their shadows before" with the same marked outline 
coupled with intrinsic merit as in this infant city of Phoenix —with rich gold mines producing, within 
three short hours' drive by carriage; with one and one-half million acres of the finest land in the known 
world surrounding her; with oranges, lemons, peaches, apricots and grapes, ripe and in Chicago mar- 
kets from four to six weeks in advance of California ; with immense quarries of granite and limestone, 
with inexhaustible supplies of coal and coke formation (over 40,000 square miles); and lumber (ten 
thousand millions of square feet) within a radius of 300 miles, every foot of the distance a down grade 
(railway) to her doors, not to speak of her assured water power (the by-product of her canals), gifts 
that Providence has given to no other known city in existence— and yet history will repeat itself here. 
Many will be the lamentations in less than a year to come about the " golden opportunity lost." We 
oflFer 3 00 city lots, 50 x 137 feet ; five minutes' vitalk from the business center of phoenix ; no 
street car required ; first-class streets and avenues (80 to 100 feet wide) ; every lot elegantly situated 
and perfect ; no ravines or broken lands ; each lot covered with- a luxuriant growth of alfalfa 
(meadow). As in 'Frisco, I,os Angeles, Denver, Kansas City and Omaha in early times, when to buy 
and hold a lot meant a fortune, so in Phoenix today. Prices, for a short time, ranging from $70, $80, $90, 
$100, $150 to $200 each, according to avenue and location. This is an " Angel's Visit." Will you avail 
yourself of it f If so, send money to the Phoenix National Bank, with $2.50 extra for registering 
deed. The Bank will return warranty deed and abstract of title. 

FOR ELEGANT SUBURBAN HOMES 

We also oflFer 54 blocks, 12 lots 50 x 130 feet in each, adjoining the above lots, unequaled in Phoenix or 
the Salt River Valley for location and soil — each a perfect marvel of beauty. Prices range from $700 
to $2400 each. All this property has Sanitary Sewerage {the only tract in Phoenix thus supplied ), and 
perfect natural drainage. Free water-right goes with each deed. All titles are United States Patents. 
N. B.— On behalf of Phoenix and her twelve thousand citizens, it becomes our duty to correct some 
untruthful reports that have been spread by unknown and evidently irresponsible persons to the eflfect 
that portions of the lands in our city are liable to overflow. We here make the statement, on the very 
best authority, that the Salt River has never, within the memory of man, overflowed its banks or 
backed up its waters. Its banks are channel banks, from fifteen feet high and upward. 

KILROY'S NEW PALESTINE AGENCY 

Room 313 Fleming Block. 

N. B — Whitelaw Reid, Theodore B. Starr, and A. P. Sturgis of Pierrepont, Morgan of New York 
City» with their families, have engaged winter homes for 1896-7 in our city, having been ordered by 
their physicians to winter here. 

Please mention that you "aaw it in the I,and of Sxjnshinb." 



RUBIO CANYON, ECHO MOUNTAIN AND MT. 



liOWB SPRINGS. 

TIME TABLE: 




In eflfect February ist, 1897. 

Cars for Echo Mountain and Alpine Tavern 
leave Los Angeles via Pasadena and Los Angeles 
Electric Railway as follows : 

9:00 a.m. 10:20 a.m. 1:00 pm 3:00 p.m. 
Returning, arrive at Los Angeles : 
11:35 a.m. 3:35 p.m. 5:35 p.m. 
Via Los Angeles Tecminal Railway, leave Los 
Angelesat 
9:35 a.m. 1:35 p.m. 3:35 p.m. 

Returning, arrive at Los Angeles : 

11:10 a.m. 3:10 p.m. 5:10 p.m. 

RATES: 

(From Los Angeles ) 

Single fare tickets over entire system - $5.45 
For 3 or more persons '• " each 3.95 

For 10 •• " " " " " 3.45 

For 25" " " " " " 2.95 

Single fare to Rubio Canyon and return .95 

" " " Echo Mountain • - - .45 

First-class Hotel accommodations. 
Grandest mountain, canon and ocean 
scenery on earth. 
For further information call on or address Clarence A. Warnbr, 138 S. Spring St., I^os Angeles, Cal., 
or C. W. Brown, Gen. Mgr., Echo Mountain, Cal. 



Pacific Coast Steamsiiip Co. 

steamers leave Redondo at 11 a.m., and Port IvOS 
Angeles at 2.20 p.m., for San Francisco, via 
Santa Barbara and Port Harford : 
Santa Rosa and Corona- 
March I, 5, 9. 13, 17, 21, 25, 29 
Ivcave San Pedro and East San Pedro for San 
Francisco via Ventura, Carpenteria, Santa 
Barbara, Gaviota, Port Harford (San I,uis 
Obispo), Cayucos, San Simeon, Monterey and 
Santa Cruz, at 6:30 p. m.: 
Eureka and Coos Bay- 
March 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30 
Leave Port Los Angeles at 6 a.m and Redondo at 
II a.m. for San Diego. Steamer Corona will 
also call at Newport (Santa Ana). 
Santa Rosa and Corona — 

March 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, 31 
The company reserves the right to change 
steamers or sailing dates. Cars to connect with 
steamers via San Pedro leave S P. R. R. (Arcade 
Depot) at 5:05 p.m. and Terminal Ry. depot at 
5:05p.m. 

Cars connect via Redondo leave Santa F6 depot 

at 10 a.m. or from Redondo Ry. depot at 9:30 a.m. 

Cars connect via Port Los Angeles leave S. P. R. 

R. depot at i :35 p.m. for steamers northbound. 

W. PARRIS, Agent, 

124 W. Second Street, Los Angeles. 

GOODALL, PERKINS & CO., 

General Agents, San Francisco. 



L. A. TERMINAL RAILWAY 

Cor. E. First and 

Meyers Streets 

Take Boyle Heights 
Cars. 



Time Table: 

PASADENA 

Leave for: 7:30, 9:35 a. ni. 

1:35, 3.35, 5:38 p. m. 
Arrive from 8 47, 11:10, a. m. 
3:10,5:10,6:40 p. m. 

ALTADENA 

Leave for: 9:35 a.m. 1:35 

p. m. 3.25 p. m. 
Arrive from : 11:10 a. m. 

3:10 p. m. 5.10 p m. 

SAN PEDRO 
Leave for: 8:50 a.m. 1.10, 
5:12 p. 





LOS ANGCLCS 



GLENDALE 

7:2C 
4:60 



Leave for ; 
11:50 a. n 



ALAniTDi 
LONGBtACn 



SM PEDRO 



Arrive from : 8:33 
a. m. 1:05, 6:05 
p. m. 

CAP ALINA I8L. 
Leave for 8:50 am. 
Ar. from 5 ;36 p.m. 



ALAMITOS 



The most beautiful location for a productive home in Southern 
California. The home of the Lemon and Olive. Small 
and deciduous fruits grow to perfection. No damaging frosts 
or hot, destructive winds ; a climate perfect winter or summer. lyovely homes, grand 
ocean and mountain views ; the best of water, and plenty of it. Soil, a rich, sandy 
loam, free from alkali or adobe. Joins Long" Beach, 20 miles from Los 
Angreles, on Southern Pacific and Terminal railroads. $150.00 per acre ; ^ cash, 
balance i, 2 and 3 years. Title perfect. One share of water stock with each acre of 
land. Addres, E. B. CUSHMAN, Agent Alamitos Land Co., 306 W. First 
Street, Los Ang-eles, Cal. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Suns^imk." 



(ALirOBNIA 
LIMITED 




SANTA FE 
-ROUTE- 



THE QUICKEST 

Trantcontinental Train Leaves 
Los Angeles 



MONDAYS AND THURSDAYS 

AT 8 P. M, 

Palace Sleeping Cars, Buffet and Smoking 

Car and Dining Car, under Harvey's 

management, through to 

DENVER 
KANSAS CITY 
ST. LOUIS AND 
CHICAGO 



The Schedule : 

Leave Los Angeles 8:00 p.m. 
Arrive Denver. 11:15 a.m. 

Arrive Kansas City, 5:40 p.m. 
Arrive St. Louis, 7:00 a.m. 
Arrive Chicago, 9:43 a.m. 



Monday-Thursday" 

Thursday-Sunday 

Thursday-Sunday 

Friday-Monday 

Friday-Monday 



Vestibuled Throughout. Lighted by PIntsch 
Gas. No Extra Fare. 



LOS ANGELES TICKET OFFICE, 200 SPRING ST.. COR. SECOND ST. 



LEAVE FOURTH ST 


Los Angeles for 


Pasadena. 


•6 00 am 


2 80 pm 


•6 80 am 


2 45i>fn 


7 00 am 


t3 00pm 


7 30 am 


3 15 pm 


8 00 am 


3 30 pm 


8 15 am 


3 45 pm 


8 30 am 


4 00 pm 


8 45 am 


4 15 pm 


t9 00am 


4 30 pm 


9 15 am 


4 45 pm 


9 80 am 


6 00 pm 


9 45 am 


5 15 pm 


1*00 am 


5 30 pm 


10 15 am 


5 45 pm 


tlO 30 am 


6 00 pm 


10 45 am 


6 15 pm 


1100 am 


6 30 pm 


11 15 am 


6 45 pm 


11 30 am 


7 00 pm 


1145 am 


7 30 pm 


12 00 m 


8 00 pm 


12)5pm 


8 30 pm 


12 30 pm 


9 00 pm 


12 45 pm 


9 30 pm 


100 pm 


10 00 pm 



1 15 pm 10 30 pm 

180 pm 1100 pm 

1 45 pm 

2 00 pm 
21(pm 

•Sundays excepted. 

tConneet with Mt. 

Lowe Ry. 



PQSfldeno and los Angeles ond Meno and Paciiic Electric Rys. 

LEAVE CHESTNUT STREET PASADENA for LOS ANGELES 
•6 30 
600 

6 30 

7 00 
7 15 
7; 

7 46) 
800 

8 15 
8 30 




LEAVE FOURTH ST 

Los Aneeles 
for Santa Monica. 
t6 05 am 2 05 pm 
•2 35 pm 

3 05 pm 
•3 35 pm 

4 05 pm 
•435 pm 

5 05 pm 
•5 35 pm 

6 05 pm 

7 05 pm 

8 05 pm 

9 05 pm 
10 05 pm 

•1 35 pmttl 105 pm 
LEAVE HILL ST . 

Santa Monica. 
t5 35 am 2 35 pm 
t6 35 am '3 05 pm 

7 35 am 3 35 pm 
4 06 pm 

9 35 am 4 35 pm 
10 05 am '5 05 pm 
10 35 am 5 35 pm 



•11 

1135 1 
•12 05 I 

12 35 pm 

•1 06 pm 
1 " 

•2 05 pm 
• Sundays only. 
t Except Sunday. 

Theatre Car wait» 
close of all theatres. 



•6 05 pm 

6 35 pm 
•7 05 pm 

7 36 pm 

8 35 pm 

9 35 pm 
10 35 pm 



Best Sl Co.. 

: Stanley Dry Plates 

Cheapest and Best in Market. 

Tourists' Depot for Views of California. 

505^ S. SPRING ST.« LOS ANGELES 



SOL 
AQBNTS 
■ OR 



TO PHYSICIANS 



Comfortable practice 
and good residence, 
furnished, in most attractive town in the Rio 
Grand Valley, New Mexico, No opposition. On 
railroad. Easy terms. Address, I,. R., care of 
the Editor of this magazine. 



Please meotion that you " saw it in the I^ano of 



/Not to be Overlooked 




When you want a fine Basket Bouquet or Floral Design, with 
fresh flowers, remember the Central Park Floral Co. 
They keep everything in season, and guarantee first-class work. 
Telephone Main 493. 138 S. SPRING ST. 



WHEN YOU VISIT 

SAN DIEGO 

REMEMBER 




♦ ♦ TH] 





RATES 

$2.60 PER DAY 

AND UP 



T^imerlcan Plan Only. Centrally 
located. Elevators and fire escapes. Baths, 
hot and cold water in all suites. Modern con- 
veniences. Fine large sample rooms for com- 
mercial travelers. 

J. E. O^BRIEN, PROP. 



$16 TO $100 PER ACRE. 

ACRES OF LAND FOR 6ALE 

SUBDIVIDED TO SUIT 

IN SAN LUIS OBISPO AND SANTA BARBARA 
COUNTIES 

Suitable for Dair3ring, Fruit and Vegetable Growing. Climate perfect, Soil fertile, Water abundant 
$15.00 to I50.00 per acre. Terms to suit. Don't buy until you sec 
this part of California. 
For further Information apply to : 

PACIFIC LAND COMPANY (Owners) 

SAN LUIS OBISPO, CALIFORNIA 



FOR 
DRESSMAKERS 



Tfee Freeman Gurve Ruler- 

This universal curve ruler is 
the most perfect and accurate 
of inventions. Can be used 
any system of dress cutting to 
remodel into the new shapes, 
curves and darts. 

IT IS THE MOST COMPLETE GUIDE IN CUTTING 

All of the new Seamless Jackets and Princess Gowns, as well as all other garments, 
and is a complete system of itself. 149 S. BROADWAY, LOS ANGELES, GAL. 




GOING TO MEXICO? 

^^S^^ THEN STOP AT 

»^ HOTEL TRENTON 



The newest and best hotel in the " Paris of Amer- 
ica." American Plan, Reasonable Rates. The 
Newest and Pleasantest Rooms. 
In the Most Healthful Part of the City of Mexico. 
CALLE DONATO GUERRA. No. 1222 



Please mention that you ♦ saw it m the Land of SdKSHINE." 



INGLESIDE Floral Company 

GROWER OF 

S@@ditt« Smibtt and Out Fto'wex's. 
"' ^" ■ 1 




ff 



SEND 

FOR 

ILLUSTRATED 

BROCHURE ' 

DESCRIBING 

INGLESIDE 

GARDENS 



«? 



ACRES OF CARNATIONS. INGLESIDE. 



Carnations a specialty. Ing-lesicle Hybrid Gladiolus, finest in the world. 
Nurseries at Aihambra, Cat. Store, 140 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cai. 



CACTI 



^^F 



AT GREATLY 

REDUCED PRICES 




I 




©TTR collectors having trav- 
eled in all parts of the 
United States and Mexico, 
as well as the West Coast Islands, 
in search of cacti and other suc- 
culents, we are enabled to offer 
a greater variety, and at a much 
less cost, than other dealers. 

Our stock includes many 
species never before offered to 
the public, and an inspection 
of the same will amply repay 
the lover of this curious and 
beautiful class of plants. 

ETHEL LORD 

(Successor to Wm. S. Lyon & Co.) 

440 S. BROADWAY 

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 



SEED COMPANY 

113 N. Main St., 
Los Angeles, Gal. 

(iQlilOfi FlMS Q 

IOC. for pkg. Mixed Seeds. 
New Importation of Beautiful 

FLOWERING BUL.BS 

Grown to Our Order in Haarlem, 
Holland : 

Hyacinths, Lilies of the Valley, 
Anemones Azaleas, 
Ranunculus, Crocus, 
Tulips, Freesias, 

Narcissus. Lilium Harri»ii, 

etc. , etc. 

SENO YOUR ORDERS 
NOW. 



Flease mention that you "saw it in the I«and of Scmsbimk. 



gy/^ ev^ tt/^ ja/^ ii/^ t%/^ g</^ ftT^ f'T' ix/^ <^s/^ fs/^ '*7^ 



Dust- 
Proof 
golumbias 

Without an oil hole in the bearings— dust can't get 
in because there's no place for it to get in, and this is 
only one of the superlative features of the Columbia 
bicycle for '97. 

Catalogue worth keeping and good enough to pay for, free from 
Columbia dealers, by mail for one 2-cent stamp. 



Pope Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn. 



ORANGE BLOSSOM COLONY 

(Near) OKKDnUE 

STANISLAUS CO., OAL. 

/f€AL£iTAr£A(f£Nri^ Salcs ovsr $35,000 
^mkMnoH^^ in less than Six 
Months. 

Orange Blossom Colony has today the brightest outlook of any Colony in the State 

First — Because it is fine, rich soil. Sixth — Because there are no damaging frosts. 

Second— Because orange trees grow to perfec- Seventh— Because it is a most picturesque re- 

tion. treat. 

Third— Because there is plenty of water for Eighth— Because a refined, intelligent class of 

irrigation. people are settling there. 

Fourth — Because oranges ripen 3 to 4 weeks Ninth — Because it is one of the few favored 

earlier than in Southern California. spots where citrus fruit grows. 

Fifth — Because it is close to the San Francisco Tenth— Because Easton, Eldridge & Co. have 

market. the exclusive handling of it. 

Price of Orang-e Groves of any size, $175 per acre. 

Price of Orang-e Land with Water-right, $80.00 per acre. 

Terms : One-quarter cash : balance in five equal annual payments, with interest at Eight per 
cent, per annum. 

An experienced Horticulturist constantly in attendance, and will, for a small consideration, care 
for the orange groves of non-residents. 

For further particulars apply to EASTON , ELDRIDGE &. CO., 

638 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Or to their representative, F. T. KNEWING, Oakdale, California. 

Please mention that you * saw it in the Land of Sunshine. " 



^^RIL, i&^ / 



SPRING NUMBEt^ 



YOI. VI, 1 

Splendidly 

Illustrated 




Los Angeles. 



£DITED BY 
LUMMI5 



OP'«,CMTEo 1695 BV LAMD OF SuriSHiME PUB.CO 



JCsfi 







CENTS LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO., 

A COPY INCORPORATED 

501-503 Stimson Buildinfi:. 



$1 



Yl 



Health and Rest Seekers 



are 




The gfreatest and most 
beneficial Sanitarium 

upon the Pacific Coast. 

TOURISTS should not 
leave for their homes until a 
visit has been paid these 
Springs. Rates, $10.00, $12.50, 
$15.00 and $17.50 per week. 
HAI.I.OO, 

YE RUEUM ATICS 
AND 
DYSPEPTICS! 
Our new Mud Bath, just completed, is a model for comfort and convenience. Take steamer from 
lyos Angeles to Port Harford, from thence train direct to Springs. E. F. BURNS, Manager. 

Address: PASO ROBLES SPRINGS HOTEL, Paso Robles, Cal. 




Paso loobies 
Springs 
Seekers 



rmmin mm eucalyptus Cozenges^ 



A Positive Cure for Coug-hs, Colds, Sore 

Throat, and Diseases 0/ the Broncliial Tubes. 

Endorsed by Physicians, PubUc Speakers and 

Singers in every quarter of the Globe. 

MRS. ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON, 

The distinguished wife of the famous writer, sends 
the following from their home in Appia, Samoa, to a 
brother, Mr. J. Van de Grift, in Riverside, Cal.: 

"The Lozenges came at last, and have done a lot of good to a number of people." 

Ask your druggists or send 25 cents to the California Kucalyptus Company, 
L/OS Angeles, Cal., and a box of Lozenges will be sent to you post paid. 




Hotel Pleasanton 



COR, SUTTER 



AND JONES STS. 



San Francisco, Cal. 



Special Rates to Tourists. 
Centrally Located. 
Cuisine Peffect. 

The Leading Family and Tourist 
Hotel of the Pacific Coast. 



O. n. BRENNAN, 

Proprietof 




Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb. 



YOU >?VILL RIND THK 



HOLiliEflBECK 



PIlH-Hmi]>lH]<lTUY 

*(0he most centrally 
located, first-class 
3otel in the city. 

^American or Suro- 
pean Plan. 

Rates reasonable. 



HEADQUARTERS 
FOR 

TOURISTS 
AND 
COMMERCIAL flEN 




SECOfiD A5D SPI^IflG STS., lies Angeles, Cal. 



NO MATTER 

If you are a denizen of the frigid East or a patron of an ill-favored winter 
resort, where the climate and scenic attractions are not the best, the 
cuisine and service at the hotel undesirable, 

KEEP IN MIND 

The fact that SANTA BARBARA. CAL , possesses alluring features 
distinctively its own, and 



THE ARLINGTON 



Is the tourist's hotel, booking the same guests year after year. (The best 
criterion of popularity.) ^ p Qy|^|^ 

SUNNY ROOMS. ROMANTIC DRIVES. 

(Mountain and Ocean Boulevards.) 
Santa Barbara has the best preserved Mission in the State. 

O A I I FO R N I A O I J R I nS Pollshed and unpolished shells of all 
^^ ML ir^niNIM V^ UniWO varieties found on the Pacific coast ; 
Gem Stones ; Mexican Opals ; Japanese Cats' Eyes ; Orange Wood, plain and 
painted ; Pressed Flowers, Ferns and Mosses ; Jewelry made from Coast Shells ; 
5x8 Photos, California Scenes, mounted and unmounted. Wholesale and Retail. 

E. L. LOVEJOY, 126 W. FOURTH STREET 
Mail Orders Solicited. Los Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshink. 




ANTA BAKBAKA, CAIi., has stronger 
claims on the attention of the tourist than any 
other resort on the Pacific Coast. Here are 
blended the advantages of climate and natural 
scenery unexcelled by any other locality in California 
or elsewhere. 

An electric street car system, attractive stores, 
churches, schools and colleges, are conveniences not 
to be ignored. Accommodations at hotels are reason- 
able in price and appointments the best. 

The livery stables of the town are complete in 
every way and the drivers excellent. 

Santa Barbara is reached by steamship, stage and 
rail from San Francisco, and by steamship and rail 
from IvOS Angeles. 



THE ARLINGTON HOTEL, (Santa Barbara) is satisfying its quota of guests. 
The reasons therefor will be found in the regular advertisement on first page 
of this magazine. E. P. DUNN. 



TO THOROUGHLY ENJOY T.n'Srir^^t^Jti?. 

Barbara, good rigs, careful drivers, etc , are essential. If you 
would secure these at minimum rates, telephone from your hotel to 

Main 148— The Fasbion Stables 

or call at Livery, State Street, opposite The Mascarel. 

FRANK HARDISON, Proprietor. 




WORTH THE WALK 



It is worth walking the 
length ot State Street to 

view the assortment of novelties I have to oflfer 

in the way of 

Mexican Art Goods, Oarued Leather, Etc. 

When at the postoffice you are but half a block 
from the most attractive curio store in Santa 
Barbara. I like to show goods, eveu when 
people are not ready to buy. 

GEORGK A. SANliERS, 
State St., opposite The Mascarel, and next to 
Fashion Stables, Santa Barbara, Cal. 

THERE NEVER WAS A BETTER TIME 

To make investments in and about Santa 
Barbara than just at present. The completion 
of the Coast Route is certain to enhance values. I 
have for sale and for rent 

Desirable Property 

of every description, city and country. 
LOUIS G. DRKYFUS, 124 West Victoria St., 
one-half block from Arlington Hotel, Santa 
Barbara, Cal. 



RIGHT AND WR0N6 H\-:S%;^til''<tlZt 

exposed films or plates. I not only know the 
right way but practice it as well. If tourists pre- 
fer to develop their own work, ray rooms and 
chemicals are at their service, free of cost. I 
probably have as fine a 

Collection of California Views 

as may be found anywhere, and take pleasure in 
showing them, whether a purchase is made or 
not. When you are at the postoffice you are but 
one square from my place. 

A. H. ROGERS, Photographer, 
Corner State and Haley Sts., Santa Barbara, Cal. 




Currier Building 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 



flRTISTIG FRAMING 



A SF»ECIALTY. 




TE DEUM LAUDAMUS I 



Wood (uls 
Idi^al mads 
Elchmds 

Elc 



PlCTUfi^S 

nouldin(^s 

naTs^fials _ i 
Slaiiuni^ry fl 



GEORGE EIvLIOXX 

421 S. Spving St., Ltos Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the I^and of SuNSkiNB." 



The Land of Sunshine 

Contents— April, 1897. 

PAOB 

A Southern California Palm Garden Frontispiece 

The Gringo, by Randolph Hartley. 173 

Cypress Point (illustrated), by EUa S. Hartnell 174 

Over the Border (illustrated), by Linda Bell Colson 178 

Slowly the Rains Abate (poem), by Julia Boynton Green 181 

The Country of Standing Rocks (illustrated), by Chas. F. Lummis 182 

(Southwestern Wonderland Series, XIII.) 

Authorities on the Southwest, Cosmos Mindeleff. 186 

Juan Flores, the Outlaw, by E. B. Julian 188 

California "Regulations, 1781 " 193 

The Landmarks Club 197 

In the Lion's Den (editorial) 198 

That Which is Written (editorial) 200 

The Land We Love (illustrated) 203 

Our DeepSea Harbor (illustrated), by W. C. Patterson 206 

The Merchants and Manufacturers Association, by H. W. Frank 212 

Redlands (illustrated), by W. M. Tisdale 218 



xiJrrinjTruTJiJTriJTriixiTnjinjiJTrinjTJTJirij^^ 



QTLn 

I EmnniHB m psm 

AT 

BARTLETT'S 

233 S. SRRING ST.. 



Los Angeles, Cal. 



THERE ARE OTHERS- 

«"^ Florentine Mandolins 
'^- Seville Guitars 

ARE ON TOP. 

* ' Perfect in tune and easy to play. 
Tone most exquisite!'^ buyers all say. 

I^^Send for new Illustrated Price 
List, and enclose Five Two- Cent 
Stamps and we will return you five 
new pieces of music postpaid. 



AQBNCV or TMB OKL«BR«TKD 



? 



jUTJiruTJTn 



:ri 




Aderina Patti 



••The Queen of Song" 

Says: "The Kimball Piano has a 

wonderfully sweet and sympathetic 
tone and supports the voice in a 
most satisfactory manner." 

Send for complimentary collection of 
photographs of the world's celebrated 
musicians. 

AGENCY AT 

Bartlett's ilusic House, 

LOS ANQELBSj OAL. 



c3i a 



ttuTJUTJxnjTTUTJUijTjxnjTjxnjTJiJinnj^^ 



Please mention that you *saw it in the Land of Sunshikb.** 



With our new CORONADO tank line we are 
now ready with THE PUREST of water to de- 
liver all orders for WATER in syphons, tanks 
and cases. 



Telephone Main 746 

937 East Third Street. 



CORONADO OSTRICH FARM Facts are Stubborn Things^ 



Only Two Blocks Nortli of the Famous 
HOTEI. DEIi CORONADO. 



m^m^-XB^-^ 



Chicks 



25 Grown Birds. Incubators Running. 
Hatching Continually. 

Feathers and Shells for Sale. 

W. H. BENTLEY, I»roprietor. 

WHEN YOU VISIT 

SAN DIEGO 

REMEMBER . . . 




RATES 

$2.50 PER DAY 

AND UP 



American Plan Only. Centrally 
located. Elevators and fire escapes. Baths, 
hot and cold water in all suites. Modem con- 
veniences. Fine large sample rooms for com- 
mercial travelers. 

J. E. O'BRIEN^ PROP. 




1st — The Soil of the Escondido Valley is wonderfully rich and 
productive. 

2nd— The Price is only $35 to $65 per acre. 

3rd — The Markets are good ; Fruits and other products obtain 
the same freight rates to the East as those given at Los Angeles 
and San Diego. 

4th— Water is abundant and quality good. 

5th — Fuel is plentiful and cheap. Good dry oak wood can be 
bought for $1 per cord, delivered at your door. 

6th— It is the finest Health Resort in the United States. Why? 
Because it possesses the best climate. This is proven by the fact 
that physicians all over the U. S., who have made a study of 
Climates, send their patients to Southern California, and every- 
one in California knows that in San Diego County, 12 to 14 miles 
from the coast, is found the best and most equable climate in 
California. 

7th— Tornadoes, Cyclones, Cold Winters and Hot Summers are 
all unknown at Escondido. 

8th — Ripe Fruit can be picked from the trees every day in the 
year 

Call at one of the offices for illustrated pamphlet, see views, 
samples of products, etc. 

Offices of the Escondido Land and Town Co., Escondido, Cal. 
Los Ano«lj£s, Cal., 305 West Second St. 

H. W. CoTTLK & Son, Managers 
San Diego, Cal., 1330 E Street, C. Q. Stanton, Manager. 
D. P. HALE, General Manager. 




Please mention that you " saw it in the Laud of SOMSHUfB.** 



Artistic photographs speak for themselves.' 




TWELVE 

MEDALS 

CARBONS 

PLATINO- 

TYPES 



OPP. L. A. THEATRE 



Awarded two 

gold medals by 

the World's Fair 

Convention of 

Photographers, 

the highest 

recognition given 

on photographs 

during the 

World's Fair 

year. 



220 SOUTH SPRING STREET, 

LOS ANGELES. CAL. 



Southern California Lands ^ 

— -^'^^ 

/i\ If you expect to live in Southern 

California, and want the best land for the least 
money, write us. We can sell good lands, now 
in cultivation, at prices from $10 to $60 per 
acre. Anything we oflFer will bear the closest 
investigation. POINOEXTER & WADSWORTH, 

308 Wilcox Building, Los Angeles. 



Watchmaker and Jeweler 

Watches Cleaned - - |i.oo 
Mainspring - - - - $i.oo 

H. T. HOLLINGSWORTH 

Los ANGELES, CAL. 
Jewelry made to order and repaired. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. 

212 W. Second Street 



f-|OTEL AKCA1DIA, Santa Monica, Ca 



The only first-class 
tourist hotel in this, 
the leading coast re- 
sort of the Pacific. 150 
pleasant rooms, large 
and airy ball room, 
beautiful lawn and 
flower gardens. Mag- 
n i fi c e n t panoramic 
view of the sea. First- 
class orchestra. Surf 
and hot wat^r baths 
a positive cure for 
nervous and rheu- 
matic disorders. 

Time from L,os An- 
geles by Santa F6 or 
S. P. R.R. 35 minutes, 
Pasadena and Pacific 
electric cars, seventy- 
five minutes. 




S. REINHART, Proprietor 



THB LEADING SBASIDB RBSORT. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the I^and op Sunshine.' 



Reliable 
Resisting 
Remarkable 
Rigidity 

The 5% nickel steel tubing in the Columbia bicycle for '97 gives a 
strengthful rigidity, with graceful lightness, that can't be in any other 
bicycle, because we use all of this tubing that can be made this year. 



Beautiful book of Columbia, free from Columbia dealers, by mail 
for one 2-cent stamp. 

Pope Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn. 



euts 



AT HALF PRICE 

Thb Land of Sunshine oflFers for sale or 
for rent from its large and well chosen 
Stock of over 1000 Cuts, both half-tones and 
line etchings, any California and South- 
western Subject the purchaser may desire. 
Send for Proof Catalogue and see if we can 
not both suit you and save you money. 

LAND OF SUNSHINE PUB. CO., 

501 Stimson Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 



We Sell the Earth-- 



BASSETT & SMITH 

POIVIONA, CAL. 

We deal in all kinds of Real Estate 
Orchard and Residence property. 
Write for descriptive pamphlet. 



piNE I^ALF-TONE PANTING 



A SPECIALTY 




I^INGSLEY- 
gARNES 
& 
^EUNER 

Co. 

'^'•l:Lro/sS«»^" 123 South Broadway 



f^j A QiCi Book Binders, 

Vf l-«r\00 Blank Book Manufacturers 

& LONG "'■"='''" SiflS^eles. 

Tel. Main x» 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunsftne." 



A BEAUTIFUL HOME 




Wishing to live on my ranch, I will sell my city home. In the southwest — the prettiest and most 
growing part of I,os Angeles. Best electric line in city passes the door ; another line half a square away. 

IOC feet front. Charming modern story-and-a-half cottage, five large rooms downstairs, three 
above. Bath, abundant closets, all modern conveniences. Grape arbor, model henyards and pigeon- 
houses, cellar. Better water supply than center of town. Piped for gas, and hot and cold water. 35 
varieties of fruit on the place. No end of raspberries, blackberries, peaches and figs. Rest of trees 
will all be in bearing in 1897. Rarest and best varieties plums, apricots, peaches, oranges, lemons, 
limes, loquats, pomegranates, grapes, pears, cherries, chirimoyas (custard-apples) , guavas, nectarines, 
prunes, walnuts, olives, etc., etc. Magnificent rosebushes in variety. Fine lawn, flowers and shade 
trees. Splendidly fenced. Insured for two years. More closet-room than in any other house of its size. 

One of the prettiest and most desirable homes in the Land of Sunshine, fruits and flowers. 

For particulars, call on or address CHAS. F. L.UM;m:IS, 501 Stimson Building, or 16 
Forrester Ave. Traction or University car. 




The Union Photo. Eng. Co., 121^ S. Broadway, 

Los Angeles, will make for you best Half-Tones 
[5 cts.,per sq. inch ; Line Etchings, 8 cts. per sq. 
inch. 




No, 4 
BULLS- 
EYE .. 

$12.00. 



For 4x5 Pictures. 



as a 



As Simple 
Pocket Kodak. 

Loads in daylight with our light-proof 
Film Cartridges. Fitted with achromatic 
lenst improved shutter and set of three stops* 
Handsome finish. 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 

Booklet Free. Rochester, N. Y» 



Hcase incntioo that yoa **aaw tt in the I<ano of Somshutb.* 



IF YOU LISTEN TO INTERESTED PROMOTERS 
You May Buy Almost Anywhere. 

BUT IF YOU LOOK FOR YOURSELF, 
YOU WILL LOCATE 



'»m^ 


h^MW^ ^JsA&i-- 


f 


-■■«s ■ ■ 


■'- '--^^^^^P'll^ 


Mi 




'Jt' ■'.. ' '"fWk 




itL^ap 


1. , 







IN THE ARROYO SECO SECTION, OR IN THE SUPERB 
HIGHLAND VIEW. OR LOVELY GARVANZA. 

Nature has made it, as your eyes will tell you, the most beautiful part of Los 
Angeles. Held back because it lacked rapid transit and because speculators were 
interested elsewhere, it has now suddenly come to the front. It has now the best 
of transit, and is developing handsomely. The Los Angeles & Pacific Electric R.R. 
has purchased over loo acres in this section, running north from the city limits, and 
will lay out a magnificent amusement park, with all the facilities for recreation and 
enjoyment for cultured people. A splendid Delmonico hotel, bicycle track, ball 
grounds, etc., will join to make this the finest resort in California. 

No dead plain, but a succession of the most exquisite rounding hills and charm- 
ing little valleys in Southern California. You can have your villa in the "Happy 
Hollow," under magnificent sycamores ; on the fertile first slope, or like an eyrie 
high upon the hills. Whichever you choose, you can have such superb outlooks as 
can hardly be matched elsewhere. Views of wooded valleys, of the giant Sierra 
Madre, of the city, and far off to sea — you can pick between them or between com- 
binations of them. 

The lowest points in this section are several hundred feet higher than the 
thickest of the city ; therefore cooler in summer and warmer in winter, more health- 
ful and more pleasant. No mud. Less fog than in the south of the city. It is on 
both sides of Pasadena Ave., and the electric line ; which is destined to be built up 
its whole length with the finest residences. In a few years it will be the cream of 
Los Angeles. 

You will be astonished, if you look at prices elsewhere and then -here. A man 
who has two or three lots wants fancy prices ; one with hundreds of lots can sell 
cheap. But the price is the only cheap thing about these lots. In a few years these 
lands will bring higher prices than lands in the southwest. Now is the time to buy 
at first hands. 

I. H, PRESTON, 

Room I, 217 New High Street, Los Angeles. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land op Sunshine.' 



:r 17% 



TMC LANDS OF THE SUN EXPAND THE SOUL. 



THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE 



Vol. 6, No. 5. 



LOS ANGELES 



APRIL, 1897. 




The Gringo. 

BY RANDOLPH HARTLKY 

HE Sheriff of San Felipe drives slowly along the 
dusty road in his old-fashioned chaise. The wheels 
are red, the horse is red, the road is red and the nose 
of the Sheriff of San Felipe is redder than them all. 
Beside the red nose is a fine dark nose, the nose of 
an artist, a poet, a musician — what you will. It is 
in fact all of these and none of them, for it belongs 
to no one but poor Jose Barela of the Mission. 

"Ah, he was a good man, this Gringo, and how 
well he played the Fandango^ La Golondrtna, Las 
Noches — you should have heard." 

" Bah ! " says the Sheriff of San Felipe. 
"And he sang too. Dios, how the Gringo sang! You would think la 
Santisima had sent him the voices of the angels. But yet how sad he 
was — at night when the Mission bells rang for the vespers — how sad 
he was." 

" Bah ! " says the Sheriflf of San Felipe. 

"But why * bah,' Senor Cheriff?" murmurs the poor Jos6 Barela. 
The Sheriff of San Felipe takes from his mouth a huge piece of tobacco 
and wipes his lips on the sleeve of his dusty yellow coat. 

"The reason I say 'bah,' Jos^ Barela, is that you are a fool, the 
Gringo was a fool, and you Greasers always will be fools." 
" But why, Setior Cheriff? " meekly asks Jose Barela. 
"And why not? Do you make money, Jos^ Barela? Tell me that, do 
you make money?" 

" No, Seiior " humbly says Josd. 
" Then, Bah ! " says the Sheriff of San Felipe. 

The fine dark nose and the coarse red nose are entering the adobe hut 
of the Gringo. A poor starved body lies on the floor before a little 
«hrine in the corner. But in the shrine there is no crucifix — only an 
old faded likeness of a sweet-looking English girl, and round about it a 
mass of poppies and wild Mission roses. The flowers are sadly droop- 
ing now for the Gringo has been dead two days. The poor Jose Barela 
bares his head and murmurs a little prayer for the soul of the Gringo. 
The Sheriff of San Felipe turns the body over with his foot, and the 
long yellow hair falls like a halo around the pinched white face. In his 
book he writes clumsily " Englishman about forty years old, found 
•dead in adobe at San Felipe Mission. Name unknown. Died of starva- 
.tion." 

Copyright 1897 by Land of Sunshine Pub. Co. 



174 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



" It was for her that he came," says Jose Barela pointing to the photo- 
graph in the shrine. "And each day he brought new flowers and put 
them there around her. For ten, for fifteen years, Senor Cheriff. And 
at night he used to kneel there to pray. Ah, he loved like a Spaniard^ 
this Gringo man." 

" Bah ! " says the Sheriff of San Felipe. 

San Diego, Cal. 

' Cypress Point. 



ly ELLA S. HARTNELL. 




HE stranger who takes the "Seventeen-mile Drive" at 
Monterey will find no spot, in all that fascinating trip, 
more interesting than Cypress Point. 

Long before you reach the point, you will find yourself 
gazing at what seems a giant ostrich that has turned to 
flee, with giant strides, from some monster of the sea. 
The illusion vanishes as you near the point, and the 
ostrich resolves itself into two fantastic old cypress trees 
whose trunks form the legs, and their curiously twisted 
limbs the body. 

The origin of these trees is unknown, locally. They are 
said to resemble the Lebanon cedars, but with that excep- 
tion to be unlike any other tree on earth. 

The Indians had a tradition that a ship was once 
wrecked at Cypress Point, and all on board, a strange 
people, were drowned ; among the wreckage that floated 
to the shore were the seeds of these cypress trees. 

The Indians also claimed that prior to this, the point was the site of a 
village inhabited by a powerful tribe of aborigines. Rudely carved 
cooking utensils have been found in the soft, mellow mold covering the 
point, and, by running the hand through the soil, abalone shells are 
found by the hundred. If these ancient people used this leathery 
mollusc as food, it may have hurried their extinction. The point is 
also the home of an interesting little land snail that may have been one 
of the delicacies indulged in by these dusky epicures. One scientist says 
that this snail is found only at Cypress Point. It feeds on vegetable 




Hausard-Collier Eng. Co. 



THE OSTRICH 



Photo, by Johnson. 




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. 



THE SENTINEL. 



Photo, by Johnson. 



(( JNIVERSir^ 



CYPRESS POINT. 



177. 




Coiuraerciil Eng. Co. 



THE CYPRESSES OF MONTEREY. 



matter, and sleeps under logs, presumably with one eye open for its 
enemy, the blue jay, who wages a war of extinction on this helpless 
little creature. One may, by stirring the soil, bring up many of the 
pretty brown-striped shells of this snail, but nearly all are tenantless. 

This weird old forest is a "creepy " place to visit. The trees, gnarled 
and distorted, show the struggle for existence on this wind-swept point 
jutting far out into the sea. r^ ; 

Not even the silvery moss draping their bleached and angular limbs, 
nor the brilliant fungus creeping over their trunks, can hide the scars of 
battle with their strongest foe, the wind ; but to the fury of winter 
storms we are indebted for a peculiar sight on the hillsides where the 
trees are exposed to the full force of the winds. 

Little by little the young cypresses were forced to the ground until all 
semblance of a trunk was lost, and they now lie flat with their foliage 
spreading over the ground like a great fan. 

In some parts of the forest the growth is so dense that the sunlight is 
shut out, and the scene is one weird enchantment. Here the fight has 
also been fierce for existence, the weaklings have gone down and are 
crumbling to dust, while the strong have yielded their foliage to slow 
death except on the tops where the umbrella-shaped masses catch the 
life-giving rays of the sun . 

Across the head of the long, narrow channel cut into the forest by the 
sea, a cypress has fallen ; but its wonderful vitality has defied death, 
and from the fragment of root still feeding the tree, an army of shoots 
has sprung up. Where the head of the fallen old monarch lies a great 
cluster of vivid golden-rod has pushed its way through the branches, 
lighting up the sombre tints of the foliage with an effect never to be for- 
gotten after coming out of the shadow where neither sun nor flower can 
be seen. Out on the rocky point stands the "Lone Cypress, " a giant 
among his fellows as such a sentinel should be. For how many cen- 
turies has this battle-scarred veteran faced the ocean blasts for the group 
nestled behind him ? 

These trees lend themselves to the graces (?) of cultivation with won- 
derful readiness, and, in the process, lose all their individuality. One 
would never recognize these picturesque old cypress trees in the mon- 
strosities sometimes seen over the gates of cemeteries or churchyards, or 
in a hedge tortured, by a pair of sharp shears, into shapes with the 
grace and solidity of a beer keg. It is a change as pitiful as that of the 



178 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



wild rose whose indescribable sweetness has ended in that "delicious 
tea-scent ' ' found only in dog-leg tobacco. 

After a day spent in this old cypress forest, you will be glad to come 
out to the sunlight, and revel in the beauty and sweetness of the delicate 
beach verbenas, pink and yellow, trailing over the snow-white sand, 
fire-pinks gleaming in the foliage at the roadside, wild asters whose pale 
lavender tints shine out among feathery goldenrods, and, as you follow 
the creeks or cross them, the banks are crowded with thousands of tiny 
blossoms creeping down with the little streams to the rocks on the beach. 

Salinas, Cal. 



' Across the Border. 



BY LINDA BELL COLSON . 






E had none of us visited Tia Juana, the little ham- 
let just across the line into Mexico from San Diego 
county, Cal. None, that is, except one member of 
the party, whom we called Madame Experience. 
She had been everywhere. 

Driving down from San Diego, we wound above 
the sapphire bay, through the orange and lemon 
groves, out over the brown and yellow plains, 
where meadow-larks trilled their liquid song, and squirrels and cotton- 
tails scurried across the road. As we approached the Mexican border 
the country gradually became greener. Huge, twisted sycamores and 
whispering willows dotted the landscape, and made restful bits of 
shadow amid the universal sunshine. 

Just as we were crossing the line we decided to use the kodak on two 
Mexicans who were rounding up a "bunch" of cattle — handsome fel- 




Behre, Eng. 



MEXICAN CHILDREN. 



ACROSS THE BORDER. 



179 




Tut MtXt> BfiTH^. 



OOVnijj/ifi^y MaVUNSLHT, 






lows, both, dressed in the usual 
vaquero costume. But alas, when 
we opened the seals, our kodak was 
a " Bull's eye," and by the time we 
had made out how to use it the 
vaqueros had ridden away. I called 
after them, in the best Spanish I 
could muster, to do me the favor to 
return ; and they did so, smiling 
with white teeth, and with bashful 
dignity consenting to our request 
that they be photographed. 

Tia Juana means "Aunt Jane." 
Years ago this was part of a great 
Mexican land grant. When the old 
Don, who was its owner, parceled 
it out among his heirs, he gave this 
part to his aunt Jane ; and "Aunt 
Jane " it will be forever. 

We had pictured to ourselves a 
typical Mexican poblacion of quaint 
flat-roofed adobe houses, cobble- 
stoned streets, a plaza set with trop- 
ical trees and flowers ; perhaps a 
band of tattered musicians picking 
from guitar and mandolin that en- 
trancing Spanish music which can 
never be imagined till heard, and 
once heard is never forgotten . 

But Tia Juana is nothing of the 
sort. It might be almost any frontier 
village. There is nothing character- 
istic in its two or three streets of 
Americanized rough board shanties, 
unless the Spanish names over the 
custom-house and other official build- 
ings, the strings of chile, sunning 
against the dwellings, and the plump, 
big- eyed children. There are but 
one or two adobe buildings — one 
long, low ruin with iron-barred win- 



FRATJCTSCO. Mau«ard-Collier Kng Co. 



i8o 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



^•^m 



dows and tottering walls, 
which was the custom-house 
"before the flood." Close to 
it is a funny wee affair like a 
doll's house, with the awe-in- 
spiring legend, "Juzgado de 
Paz." The little chocolate- 
colored adobe church stands 
on a slight eminence. 

While dinner, was preparing 
for us at the little hotel, we 
amused ourselves watching the 
antics of a load of tourists who 
had arrived a little later than 
we. They were of the ortho- 
dox type. They filed into the 
custom-house and got their 
handkerchiefs rubber-stamped 
by the patient and polite 
inspectors. They brought 
sheaves of letters, addressed 
to friends " back East," to 
mail in the little postofBce, as 
travelers to Mexico. They 
flocked into the curiosity shop 
and bought imported curios 
at double prices — to be carried 
home and exhibited with a 
proud ** I bought these in 
Mexico." We left them making a house-to-house canvass of the rest of 
the village. Evidently they meant to get their money's worth. 





Behre, Eng. 



A MEMORY Ot 




Behre, Eng. 



DRYING CHILES. 



SLOWLY THE RAINS ABATE. i8i 

It was a good dinner to which we were called back. Th^fondista had 
kept his word. First came sopa de macarones secas (dry maccaroni 
soup), which we ate with a fork, Then huevos con chile (poached eggs 
in a thick red-pepper sauce) : came con papas (beef cooked with pota- 
toes and a big dash of onions) ; frigoles (brown beans) of course — and 
most delicious they were — and finally, arroz con leche (a delicate pud- 
ding of rice and milk). 

And while we discussed these good things, we also discussed the 
photographs we would make — and again we reckoned without our 
camera. The stout, pleasant-faced senora of the hotel gave us permis- 
sion to ** take" her pretty black-eyed children, Albertina and Francisco. 
But the camera stuck at " i", which it registered when we "snapped" 
the vaqueros. After we had turned it for about an hour, each one of 
the party taking a hand, we discovered that we had been turning the 
wrong way. Half our film was spoiled, and Albertina was already gone 
off to school. 

Might we follow her? Certainly. We climbed to the little white 
house on the hill ; but suddenly the door was shut ; and we could hear 
no sound within, nor see anything through the keyhole. We tried the 
door, but it was locked ; and our knocks and calls elicited no response. 

Only when Madame Experience called out, as one who is to be obeyed, 
"Albertina ! Albertina Padilla!" — only then did the door crack suspici- 
ously. The pretty teacher peeped out; and then Albertina stepped forth 
in her best bib and tucker, while a whole battery of staring black eyes 
was trained on us from the door, fascinated with the picture-making. 

Before turning homeward, we drove a few miles further to the Aguas 
Calientes (Hot Springs), which are famed through all the country-side 
for the cure of rheumatism and dyspepsia. The mud baths almost in- 
variably benefit those who give them a fair trial — though, as the good- 
looking American who runs the baths said : "Some folks expects mir- 
acles, and if they don't begin to get limber the second day they get dis- 
couraged." 

Homeward bound, we paused at the line long enough for a snap shot 
at the monument which marks the boundary between the two Republics; 
and to watch the sinking sun, a huge golden ball, reflecting a strange 
opalescent light upon the brown mesas and winding valleys of Mexico 
behind us and California before. And as we came up the cumbre^ and 
saw ahead the blue line of the Pacific across the shadowy slopes, the 
peaks behind were rosy-purple— the lonelv peaks of Mexico, whose gar- 
ment's hem we had touched for one happy day. 



Slowly the Rains Abate. 

BY JULIA BOYNTON GREEN. 

Slowly the rains abate and very slowly 

The foothills weave their garb of maiden green — 

Velvet of grass and fern and all things lowly, 
With bright brocade of blossoms thick between. 

The clambering vetch with pale pink clusters heavy, 
The slim brodiaea with its violet brush, 

The golden pansies in a nodding bevy. 
With myriad lilac lupines, tall and lush. 

Over yon aged cactus, grim and hoary, 
Festoons of fairy leafage lightly lie ; 

It is the tiny wild white morning-glory 
Its baby trumpets flaring to the sky. 

And up, up in the spaces wide and sunny 
A gleaming splendor thrills the heart of me; 

Fit for Titania's dew or Hebe's honey 
The poppy's polished chalices I see ! 

Redlands, Cai.' 



■ 




^^^I^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^I^^^^^^^h' 


1; ^^- 


I 


lit 




i83 
THE SOUTHWESTERN WONDERLAND^^ 

XIII. The Country of Standing 
Rocks. 

BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS. 

[HE erosion of the Southwest is absolutely unique. Those 
are words not to be littered inconsiderately ; but here they 
are not abused. Water is the world-carver everywhere ; 
but nowhere else has it worked such a stupendous cameo. 
Nowhere else do we find the mesa (table-land) formation 
on a great scale ; therefore nowhere else are there so 
many sheer cliffs, so many stone islands and monuments. 
The Southwest is literally "the Land of the Standing 
Rocks." They are characteristic of Arizona, New Mexico, 
Colorado and a little of northern Mexico. 

All this enormous area (of something like three-quarters 
of a million square miles) is mostly a country of sandstone 
blanket strata. It is marked by many of the noblest vol- 
canic peaks — and altogether the most interesting volcanic 
areas — in North America ; but the upheaval of the vast 
majority of it was slow even in the chronologies of earth- 
building. Its whole vast span averages altitudes such as 
few mountain-tops attain in the Eastern States ; yet its 
general look is that of a vast plain, warted here and there 
with mountains of almost unparalleled abruptness. 

The weathering of this stupendous plateau — one of the 
great uplands of the globe — has been, for reasons too com- 
plex for detail here, entirely sui generis. Among the larger 
causes of this result are the aridity of this area, the inter- 
mittence of its streams, the fierceness of its winds (which 
pluck up the sands for tools) and the fact that so huge and 
so deep a sandstone deposit exists nowhere else. Across 
this undulant lofty plain, athonsand miles wide either way, 
the slow processes of water and wind have wrought the most bewildering, 
the most fantastic, the most beautiful and the greatest multitude of car- 
ven rocks in existence. 




Union Eng. Co. 



WIND EROSION NEAR FT. DEFIANCE, N. M. 



Photo, by C F. L. 



i84 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 



The ** Garden of the Gods " in Colorado is a famous and a very won- 
derful thing, beloved of travelers from other lands. But as beside other 
rock-sculpture in the Southwest, it is the veriest trifle. To go no 
farther, the Navajo Reservation (half in New Mexico andhalf in Arizona) 
has more, and more startling "monuments" by about fifty fold. All 
across the Southwest are greater wonders of the same sort than the 
Garden of the Gods ; and the one rock of Acoma* pretty nearly out- 
does it. 

This gigantic sandstone (split here and there by volcanic vents, and 
frequently capped with lava, basalt and tufa) ranges through every 
shade from pale grey and mouse-color to blood red ; and the wholesale 
erosion of it would be a life-study for either the artist or the geologist 
with sense enough to undertake it. I presume to say that there are in 
the Southwest 100,000 miles of sandstone cliffs ; from 200 to 6500 feet 
high ; of the most exquisite colors and the most astounding sculpture — 
and no two of them alike. 

The Grand Cation of the Colorado is of course the noblest example of 



MM WW 




Union Eng. Co. 



THE NAVAJO CHURCH.' 



♦See this magazine for October, 1896. 



THE COUNTRY OF STANDING ROCKS. 



185 




EAST SIDE OF ACOMA. 



Copyright by C. F. Luinmis. 



erosion on earth, as Acoma is the noblest single rock. Both are, for 
this trivial planet, things apart. But of minor wonders — which still sur- 
pass anything yet discovered elsewhere — the name is legion. Such a 
table-land as Katzimo (the Mesa encantada) nearly 1000 feet high, has no 
mate in any other country. Even the sandstone caracoles (snail-shells) 
near Ft. Defiance, New Mexico, though mere bagatelles in their en- 
vironment, would anywhere else be accounted wonders. The strange 
pinnacles and fachadas fretted by sand-laden winds are particularly 
curious and interesting ; and many of the most fantastic rocks in the 
Southwest are pure wind erosion. Near the Defiance buttes is the most 
remarkable ventana known — a "natural bridge" of 60 feet span 
gnawed by the New Mexican zephyrs in a sandstone cliff. This is the 
largest example . But this boring of ventanas (windows) in promon- 
tories of the cliffs by the natural sand-blast is familiar all over the 
Southwest. 

The tourist on the Santa Fe route (except that irremediable common 




Behre, Eng. 



THE. CARACOL BUTTES. 



Photo, by C. P. L. 



i86 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



'A 



tourist who traverses one of the most interesting countries in the world 
with Pullman curtain down) sees along the A. & P. R. R. more sculpt- 
ured rocks and more precipices than he will ever see from another car- 
window. The rosy cliffs which run westward from Mt. San Mateo to 
the L/ittle Colorado, would make the everlasting fortune of every resort 
in the East. The White Mountains (of which I know and love literally 
every foot) would be a mere hole-in-the-ground, beside them. The 
•' Navajo Church" and "Pyramid," near Ft. Wingate, and the "Bottle," 
a few miles west of Manuelito, and almost on the line between New 
Mexico and Arizona, are most notable of the natural monuments visible 
from the train ; but off to the north, even more remarkable " standing 
rocks " are in multitude. 

The Southwest is perhaps not to the geologist the most wonderful cor- 
ner of the globe. Possibly the expert that I am not would see more than 
I can in the porphyry tusks of the Andes or the older molars of the 
Himalayas. But this I do say deliberately, that so far as thei 
layman is concerned, there is no other place where he can see so dia- 
grammatically the gestation of Mother Nature ; no other where the 
earth-shaping processes are so set upon the blackboard for him. There 
is nowhere else such a plan of erosion as the Grand Canon presents with 
its mile-and-a-quarter cross-section of strata ; no other so graphic map 
of the weathering of a landscape. It is not for the professionally blind 
imbecile who calls himself a tourist and crosses a continent as ignorant 
as he started. But no man or woman who traverses the Southwest with 
some apology for brains can fail to begin to feel the wonder and the les- 
son of the land of mesas and of standing rocks. 



^ Authorities on the Southwest. 



NOTHER of the earn- 
est, well -equipped 
and reliable stu- 
dents of the South- 
west is Cosmos Mindeleff, a 
young man of Russian par- 
entage but born near Wash- 
ington, D. C, in 1863. His 
father was a chemist of note, 
and his mother a well-known 
painter and accomplished 
linguist ; and young Min- 
deleff inherited the schol- 
arly turn. At nineteen he en- 
tered the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, and was in the same 
year sent out to New Mexico 
to survey the Pueblo villages 
and make models of them. 
The beautiful models of 
Acoma and others of these 
ancient towns which have 
been admired by visitors to 
the Smithsonian, as well as 
at most of the great exposi- 
tions in this country since 
the Philadelphia "Centennial" (and in several expositions abroad) 
are his work, and witness not only his artistic skill but his accuracy. 
The ground plans from which these models were made are regarded as 




Mausard-Collier Ene Co 

COSMOS MINDELEFF. 



BEFORE THE BLOOM. 187 

among the most accurate architectural data ever collected. They were 
subsequently published in a treatise on "Pueblo Architecture," pre- 
pared in collaboration with his brother, Victor Mindeleflf, and issued by 
the Bureau of Ethnology in 1889. 

In 1886 he published a description, in Science y of the Moqui Snake 
dance. This, although one of the earliest accounts published, is still 
quoted as an authority. Since that time he has been engaged in the 
study of the cliff ruins and other remains, and has made minute sur- 
veys of many hundred of them. 

In 1891 he undertook the repair and preservation of the well-known 
Casa Grande ruin, on the Gila river, for which an appropriation was 
made by Congress. He prepared the plans and made the contracts for 
the work, which was carried out in 1892. A report on this repair work 
is now in press and will soon be issued. Another report by him on the 
Casa Grande, a study of the ruin as it was before it was repaired, was 
issued this year by the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Later in 1892 he made an examination of the aboriginal remains in 
the valley of the Rio Verde in Arizona, and a report on that region was 
also issued this year. In 1893-94 he made a detailed stud3'^ of the cliif 
ruins of "Canon de Chelly," of which region he had previously made 
a close topographic map showing the character of the surroundings and 
the location of each ruin. He also made detailed ground plans of nearly 
every one of the 140 ruins he found there, together with a series of 
photographs and sketches. This material is embodied in a report which 
is now in press, and will be one of the most important contributions to 
knowledge of this subject ; it will be fully illustrated. 

He has also now in press another report that will be issued by the 
Bureau of Ethnology. This is a treatise on the hogans or houses of the 
Navajos, giving for the first time definite information concerning the 
construction aud elaborate ceremonial of dedication of a very interest- 
ing and primitive type of house structures. 

Mr. Mindeleff has in hand a mass of material concerning the ruins of 
the Southwest which is gradually being put in form for publication, in- 
cluding a series of accurate ground plans and a great number of photo- 
graphs of the Chaco ruins, and of other ruins on the San Juan. He is 
also writing a number of essays on miscellaneous topics connected with 
his work in the Southwest. 



Before the Bloom. 

BY ANNA C MURPHY. 

As one o'ertaken midstep by a sudden mood. 
Will pause and muse 'twixt changing red and white of brow 

Before his daydream into happy deed be wooed : 
So all our California orchards lean them now, 

Remembering once more an old, sweet thought of Spring ; 
Faint lit by haloes of the opal's flushing gloom ; 

Soft stilled with rapturous desire a day will bring 
To their fulfillment, in a world asurge with bloom. 

Univertity of California. 



188 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

A Southern California Palm 
Garden. 



■p 



BY DR. F FRANCESCHI. 

jALMS are kings in the vegetable world ; and unlike many kings 
of human breed, their prestige rests solely on their nobleness of 
appearance, and on their beneficence. Not a single palm is 
known to possess poisonous properties. No wonder we feel reverence 
and admiration for them. Their cult has so increased that all through 
the civilized world millions of palms are raised exclusively for house 
decoration, a cherished and petted existence, but hard and curtailed. 
Far luckier are the palms that are raised here, and lucky are we in 
Southern California, who are able to enjoy their beauty without having 
to ramble over the earth in search of them. Over one hundred dif- 
ferent kinds of palms have been introduced from different countries, 
and many of them have acquired already full rights of citizenship with 
us. The frontispiece shows some of the finest specimens to be seen in 
the country. The slender-growing, feathery-headed palm in the center 
is " Cocos plumosa " from Brazil ; on the right corner stands the "Sabai 
Palmetto " from our Southern Atlantic coast ; on the left Palma Azul or 
Blue Palm, " Krythea armata " from lower California; while in the 
background are to be seen two huge specimens of the Palma de miel or 
Coquito, "Jubsea spectabilis" from Chile, and of * ' Phcenix Canarien- 
sis " from the Canary Islands, which has become so popular all over 
California. Under the Cocos is a young clump of giant bamboo, **Bam- 
busa vulgaris " from India. In a small compass how many countries 
are represented by their noblest children ! This picture was taken in El 
Montecito near Santa Barbara, at the residence of the late Kinton 
Stevens, who was one of the most enthusiastic pioneers to enrich Cali- 
fornia with plants from other lands. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 

' Juan Flores, the Outlaw. 

BY EDWIN B. JULIAN. 

NK pleasant day in January, 3857, ^ loaded four horse wagon 
wound along the old country road between Los Angeles and San 
Juan Capistrano. The horses, which were driven by an Ameri- 
can named Garnet Hardy, were large and powerful, and it was 
evident from their glossy coats that their owner was proud of them. 
They were, however, a source of constant anxiety to him for the country 
was infested with thieves who were excellent judges of horses. A year 
before, this team had been stolen; but it was recovered and the thief sent 
for ten years to San Quentin. This episode had made young Hardy ex- 
ceedingly cautious, and it was with many misgivings that he now ap- 
proached San Juan which was a reputed rendezvous for several notorious 
robbers. The quaint old mission town was at that time a place of im- 
portance, being one of the few settlements between Los Angeles and 
San Diego. 

Hardy arrived soon after noon and having delivered his load and fed 
his team proceeded to inspect the ruins of the Mission. Forty years 
ago the ruin was much as the fathers left it. The tiles had not been 



JUAN FLO RES, THE OUTLAW. 189 

carried away by the curio collector, the chapel walls had not been 
marred by vandals or defiled with the names of the vulgar, nor had the 
old fruit trees inside the Mission walls been transmuted into paper knives 
and walking sticks by the ubiquitous globe trotter. 

While Hardy was admiring the picturesque structure four men saun- 
tered over to where his horses were tied and examined them critically. 

The streets were deserted, for the town was taking its siesta, but the 
men, one of whom was an apparent stranger, were observed by at least 
one pair of bright eyes, and their owner's curiosity as to the identity of 
the new comer was instantly awakened. 

Margarita thought she recognized the young stranger, who was a 
native Californian and rather handsome ; and when he passed the open 
door in which she was sitting, without so much as glancing at her, she 
felt a trifle piqued. She watched him as with his companions he crossed 
the street to the upper end of a row of adobes where the American horses 
stood. 

It was not long before she thought of something needed at the tienda 
and throwing a shawl over her head, she started up the street. As she 
paased the group of men she cast a hasty glance at them. The one 
whose appearance had seemed familiar was talking and gesticulating ex- 
citedly. Another look at the speaker removed her doubts — it was Juan 
Flores. She was greatly surprised to see him there, for it was reported 
that he had been convicted of horse stealing and given a long term in 
San Quentin, Filled with wonder she went to the store and slowly re- 
turned. From his manner it was evident that Flores was very angry, 
and his wrath seemed to be occasioned by the sight of those horses. 

Margarita approached the old structure by which the men were stand- 
ing. They were conversing in low, earnest tones and did not notice her. 
She passed the first two doors of the deserted building which were nailed 
up ; the third was open and she entered. The partitions had been 
taken out, the rooms having been used as a stable, and she moved noise- 
lessly along to the very corner by which the men were standing and 
against which one of them was leaning. 

If the eavesdropper expected to learn something startling, she was not 
disappointed. As she listened with her ear to an interstice in the wall 
she grew faint and dizzy. What she heard was nothing less than a plot 
to waylay and murder the American when he should leave town, and de- 
part for Sonora with the horses. 

Flores, who had recently escaped from the penitentiary, had recognized 
the horses as the ones he had stolen, and he now burned to be revenged 
upon Hardy for the pari he had taken in the trial. 

While Margarita crouched there, scarcely daring to breathe, Flores 
and his companions moved away and Hardy returned to the wagon. 

Her first impulse was to rush out and warn the young man of his 
danger. But she spoke no English ; then, too, Flores might see her 
and murder them both. In this exigency she remembered her old friend 
Don Juan. 

Don Juan's rancho lay about a mile and a half west of the Mission, 
contiguous to the ocean, and in less than half an hour Margarita was 
there, pale and breathless from having run nearly the entire distance. 
Upon hearing her story Don Juan drove to town, leaving the girl, who 
dared not return, at his home. He made the American cognizant of his 
danger without apparently exciting the suspicion of the wary Flores. 
That night, under cover of darkness, a messenger was dispatched to Los 
Angeles informing the sheriff of the whereabouts of the escaped horse- 
thief and of the contemplated crime. 

On the following day Sheriff Barton, Alfred Hardy, a brother of the 
man in San Juan, and three others left Los Angeles to capture Flores. 
That the sheriff had a premonition of his impending fate is evinced by 
the fact that he made his will before starting. He had been engaged in 



I90 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

numerous rencontres, had arrested many dangerous men, and was con- 
sidered a fearless and efficient oflBcer. 

The party camped that night below Los Nietos and reached the Sepul- 
veda rancho (now the San Joaquin) at nine or ten o'clock the next morn- 
ing. Here the party which was augmented by a Frenchman, traveling 
south, was entertained with all the courtesy and hospitality for which 
early days in California are famous. 

The men, who were armed with double-barreled shotguns and Colt's 
revolvers, left the heavier weapons on a porch connecting with the 
dining room while they were at breakfast. They took their departure 
shortly after. Barton and one deputy riding in advance while Hardy and 
the Frenchman, who was mounted on a mule, brought up the rear. 

They had proceeded about twelve miles, when a party of sixteen horse- 
men appeared from behind a low spur of hills, a few hundred yards from 
the road. It was not unusual to see several vaqueros riding together, 
but Barton was evidently distrustful, for he halted and called for Hardj' 
and the Frenchman to come up. As the party approached, the sheriff 
and his men prepared to dismount, but the cavalcade announced them- 
selves as friends and being apparently unarmed, the oflficers kept their 
seats. The sheriff had previously arrested Juan Flores and he recog- 
nized him and another desperado, Pancho Daniel, for whom there was a 
reward offered. The officers called upon them to halt, but undaunted by 
the guns leveled at them, the bandits rode directly toward the little 
party and when within a few yaidsof them drew revolvers and com- 
menced firing. Barton and three of his deputies, who were excellent 
marksmen, returned the fire at close range, but none of the outlaws fell. 

It has been generally supposed that an accomplice of Flores drew the 
shot from their guns while the party were at breakfast. It certainly 
seems improbable that the bandits would have ridden up to the barrels 
of guns loaded with buckshot in the hands of cool men. 

The sheriff and three of his deputies were immediately shot down. 
The Frenchman, who was unarmed, fled at the commencement of the 
firing. Hardy shot once, but his horse became unmanageable and see- 
ing his comrades on the ground, he followed the Frenchman whom he 
soon overtook. He was pursued several miles, but his horse, which was 
noted for its speed, left the bandits far behind. 

The Frenchman was unmolested ; and that alone was sufficient to cast 
suspicion upon him. He was arrested and tried in Los Angeles, but as 
no evidence could be adduced to show that he was in any manner con- 
nected with the Flores band he was acquitted. 

The desperadoes, after despoiling their victims of their arms and valu- 
ables, riddled them with bullets, and returning to San Juan, took pos- 
session of the town and indulged in a drunken revel. Garnet Hardy,, 
upon their return to the town, fled with his horses, and taking a circuit- 
ous route east of the Santa Ana mountains, descended the caiion of that 
name and eight days later reached Los Angeles. 

For several years subsequent to the advent of the Americans, Lo& 
Angeles was in frequent turmoil, but never before, not even when Stock- 
ton's marines bombarded the town and with unfurled flags and a brass 
band marched through the streets, did such excitement prevail as upon 
the January night when Alfred Hardy returned with tidings of the 
murder of Sheriff Barton and his deputies. The bodies of the victims 
were brought in the following day, and the town en masse attended their 
sepulture. 

The dead sheriff had been very popular, and the general sorrow was 
deep as was the resolve to punish the perpetrators of the cowardly 
crime. Upon the receipt of the news in El Monte a large number of 
citizens left for Los Angeles to join in the pursuit of the outlaws. The 
population of this town consisted largely of Texans and frontiersmen. 



JUAN FLORES, THE OUTLAW. 191 

who were not distinguished for piety, sobriety, or other virtues which 
mark its present inhabitants. 

Don Pio Pico, an ex-Governor of California, provided horses for those 
who engaged in the search for the outlaws, and the second day 
after the murder, fifty men under the leadership of Gen. Andres Pico left 
the city for San Juan. 

The El Monte contingent occasioned some trouble by evincing a desire 
to hang innocent men along the road, but the interference of the rational 
members of the party prevented the perpetration of any outrage. 

One or two days were spent in searching the hills adiacent to San Juan, 
after which the force separated, one party going up the coast, one down, 
and a third (composed of twenty Mexicans, Californians, and El 
Mouteans' heading for the mountains. It was on the fourth or fifth day 
following the murder, that Pico and his party crossed the head of the 
Aliso caiion and stood on the dividing ridge between that and the San- 
tiago. 

The sun had just risen. The caiion and surrounding hills were then a 
veritablejungle, totally uninhabited above what is now known as ** the 
Picnic Grounds." While the party stood upon the ridge, deciding upon 
a course, the sound of voices reached their ears, and presently eight men 
were seen riding leisurely down the caiion. The vigilantes hurried 
down the steep hill, calling upon them to surrender. 

The bandits, (for such they were) led by Juan Flores, answered with 
imprecations, and finding their passage intercepted, turned about and 
dashed up the canon. Several shots were exchanged but no one was 
wounded. The mountains in that region are extremely broken and 
precipitous, and the outlaws being unacquainted with the country were 
at a serious disadvantage. Upon coming to a fork in the caiaon, they 
started up the middle ridge, but had not proceeded far before they came 
to a precipice. To retreat was impossible, for the vigilantes, who were 
close upon them, had seen their predicament and so disposed their num- 
ber as completely to bar the descent. The capture of the eight men 
now seemed inevitable, but the indomitable Flores with two companions 
clambered over the bluff and at the imminent risk of their lives man- 
aged to make the descent, while a horse which they attempted to take 
with them lost his footing and was dashed to death on the rocks below. 

The other outlaws delayed surrendering long enough to permit the 
three to escape. They were couveyed by some of the El Monteans to 
an old adobe on the ranch of Teodosio Yorba, located on the present 
site of Olive Heights. The remainder of the party went in pursuit of 
the others and followed them several miles over the brushy, broken 
mountains. Flores was captured the next day about five miles below 
the peak from which he escaped and which now bears his name. Becom- 
ing hungry he shot a rabbit and the report of his pistol divulged his 
hiding place. He was taken by two of the party to the building where 
his five companions were confined. 

Gen. Pico and his force continued his search for the other two, and 
captured them in the Santiago caiion not far from where Flores was 
found. The party had nearly reached the vallev when a messenger met 
them with the intelligence that Flores had escaped from the house 
where he was confined. During the night he had with his teeth untied 
the cords that bound one of the bandits who had in turn released Flores 
and the others. Bursting through the doors they knocked down the 
drowsy guards and escaped into the darkness. With the exception of 
Flores they weie recaptured, and he, it was thought, had returned to the 
mountains. 

The vigilantes, when they received this news, were standing by a 
stream lined with oaks and sycamores. A council was held and it was 
decided to search for the bandit in the higher mountains. The prisoners 
would be an incumbrance. It could not be proved that they werepres- 



192 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

sent at the murder of Barton and his deputies, but they were gamblers 
and in bad compan3\ A short time later the vigilantes emerged from 
beneath a sycamore, but the prisoners were not with them. They 
dangled lifeless from the tree. 

When Juan Flores escaped from the adobe on the Yorbi rancho, he 
started for Los Angeles with the intention of secreting himself with 
friends till the excitement had abated somewhat. 

Upon approaching, he found it impossible to enter the city for it was 
guarded, everyone seeking egress or admission being subjected to close 
scrutiny. He sought shelter from several who had previously befriended 
him, but the country was so thoroughly aroused that no one dared 
assist him, even with food. Footsore and nearly famished, he wandered 
to the Cahuenga hills where a few days later he was apprehended. He 
was executed soon after in Los Angeles on the hill where the county 
court house now stands. He admitted his guilt but said that Daniel 
rather than he was the leader of the band who committed the murder. 
He met his death with composure. Flores was twenty-two years of age, 
of a good family and did not have the appearance of a desperado. 

Most of those engaged in the murder were hanged or sentenced to 
prison for life. It was nearly two years before justice overtook Pancho 
Daniel, but when captured he was wearing a belt taken from Barton. 
He was found one morning suspended from a beam in front of the Los> 
Angeles jail. 

Santiago Canon, Cal. 

The Plaza. 

BY L. WORTHINCTON GREEN. 

The first soft light o'er mountains stealing 

Eclipses bright Lucero's charm ; 
The matin call from belfry pealing 

Rouses the echoes' quick alarm. 
And hark ! the voices, shrill or sweet. 
Of wandering vendors of the street. 
Leche de vaca ! Leche ! 

Sombre figures stilly gliding 

To the Cathedral's lamp-lit gloom, 
Tapalos the faces hiding 

Leave conjecture ample room. 
And far and faint from where he fares 
The strolling merchant calls his wares, 
Agua fftiel / Agua miel ! 

Mozas to the fountain tripping 

For the household's daily need, 
Ollas balance, brimming, dripping, 

With a marvelous skill indeed. 
And sounds from morn till vesper bell 
The brief refrain of those who sell, 
Dukes ! Hay dulces ! 

The caballero waits the dona 

Coming from the droning mass. 
The hurrying mozo greets his niiia 

Seeking glances as they pass — 
Thwart, perchance, this ardent bliss 
Floats the cool antithesis, 
Helados ! Helados ! 

Redlands, Cal. 






' REGULATIONS 

AND INSTRUCTIONS 
For the Garrisons of the Peninsula of Californias. 



193 



(Continued.) 



(p. 25 continued.) 

made in the Intructions ior Settlement, when 
feasible under the conditions on which those who 
come from Sonora to populate these Settlements 
are registered. 

25. The entry of a new Settler and the credit 
of his property in the private account which has 
been provided for, shall tally with the Order 
which must first be had from the Governor, and 
the copy of the record of registration. The los- 
ses by death shall be verified by a copy of the 
record of interments ; and stopping of pay or ra- 
tions due each year shall be indicated in the 
record by noting separately the remainder that 
from one to another the individual has received 
in the year, as the proof will be deduced from 
the respective register since a copy of the register 
must always accompany the first account. 

26. In the two first years the value of the 
tools they have received must be discounted to 
the Settlers ; and in the following three years 
payment shall be made for all the other things 
supplied them for the outfitting of their labors, 
according to the provisions to be made in the 
corresponding Instructions. 

27. The Corn. Brown Beans, Peas and Lentiles 
produced by the harvest of the Pueblo (the citi- 
zens reserving what is necessary for their sub- 

|ei« y.siembfas, no titiie ni piiede darsele por ahora otro dfstino que 
dftepfoveertes Preidios. Consecuentemente las Hjbllitados com- 
■praran estas scmillas sobre lo« precios queesun esiablecidos, 6 en ade- 

' Janie se estableiCan, con ccasitleracioa' i <)ue han de conducirse con 
las Requas de los Presidios. 

c8. Si en el Presidjo a que se agregue Pueblo exlste algun pie 

'de ganado perienecieifle a la Ket{ Hacienda, se acuoij^ata su cucnta 
a la de Poblacion, en la <}ue se farinara el correspondiente ca.go el 
Habilitado del produce de las cabezas que x buvieren distribuido, e 
igualmente ha de cooiprehender en elta con U correspondiente apro- 
bacion lo producido por qualqaier otro et'eAo perteneciente a dicha 
dgl Hacienda, teniendo presente,que loda la costaleria de Esmlquil- 
p* que se reinita de San Bias (exceptuada la de empaque dc- Ariaa 
que viene comprehendida en el valor de cada teri;io, y las cargaj de 
coslales que se distribuyan a su cucola a la Tropa) como los cascosde 
Barril, han de volverse de un afio a otro, para por este medio excusar 
su repetido gasto: a los abrigds y petates de fardos que vienen de 
Mexico, como a los caxones, se les procurara dar salida a los que lie- 
.guenbuenos, y lbs que por podridos 6 rotos no la tengan, como los 
cjbcieados de cuero, deberan considerarse como gasto legitimo dc la 
yRtal Hacienda, calificando lo que asi resulte, con Certificacion Arma- 
•da por los Oficiales que imervengan el Inveniario de existenciis de 
fin de afio, la que ha de acompanarse a la expresada cuenia pariicu- 
Jar, que ha de dirigirse anualinenie al Gobcrnador, por quicn recono-. 
'•ida, aprobada y visada, se remitira a los Oficiales Kcales dc las Ca- 
Mas de Mexico , para que por ella se acrediien los gastos que corres- 
poodan al Habiiitado. 



the proceeds of whatsoever other article pertains 
to said Royal Exchequer. Bearing in mind that 
all the Esmiquilpa sacks sent up from San Bias 
(except those for flour, which are included in the 
value of each tercio, and the load.s of sacks dis- 
tributed to the troops on account), as well as the 
Barrels, must be returned from year to year, by 
this means to avoid the repeated expense of them; 
as to the wraps and mattings on bales which 
come from Mexico, as well as the boxes, pains 
shall be taken to get some benefit from those that 
arrive in good condition ; and those which by 
being rotten or broken have no use, like those 
headed with hide, shall be considered a legitimate 
expense on the Royal Exchequer. That which 
turns out thus shall be attested with a Certifica- 
tion signed by the Officers who supervise the In- 
ventory of stock on hand at the end of the year, 
which is to be attached to the aforesaid private 
account. This must be sent annually to the 
Governor ; and being examined, compared and 
approved by him, shall be forwarded to the Royal 
Officers of the Treasury ot Mexico, that by it 
they may credit the expenditures pertaining to 
the Paymaster, 



FORMULARIO. 

CVENTA DB C4RGO T DjfTA DB LOS G AX ADOS QUE 
fuedtn nistenlet rn el Preiidio dt Sa* Carlot de Monterrey pertene- 
titntei i la Real Hacienda, que por comitim est tin 4 m cargo cmio Ha- 
Ulitado de la Ccmfiama, en que con distincion de especies, numifietto en 
tut retpeahas cuenlai el cargo que u de. ijo por el Inventario de en- 
Mega, la nacencia del presente ant, la diitrihucion de cahezas que en il 
u hiio, su pTodnCIo en pesos, la existenciay aumento que resulta 
en fin de Didtmhre dc 1 780. 

CUENTA DB TEGUAS T POTROS. Cahex^s. Pesos. IL„le,. 
Primeramenie: Son data cienio noventa cabezas, 

que con la distincion de clases que consta det 

Inveniario de enlrega quedaron existenies en 190. 
Son cargo treinta y dot Potrillos producidos de 

la nacencia del presente ano. j j. 

Son cargo ireinu y ocho Potrancas de la mism* 

nacencia. j8. 

Data en S'l especie, y produHo en pesos. 
Son data veime Potros domaderos que se distri- 

buyeron a seis pesos cada uno en la Compania. 10. iso. 
.Son data dicz Potros de tres aiios que se vendie- 
ron al Habiiitado del Presidio de San Fran- 
cisco al mismo prerio 10. <fa, 

•Son data dos Yeguas que murieron,cuyosfierTOi 

>e inanil'esiaron y quemaron t. 

Data... 35. 
Cargo... ;6o. 

Quedan existenfes en f.o de Piciembre. u8. 

La cxistencia del ano anterior lue de. 1 9a 

Su aumento y produ.fto en d presente es 38. i8a ' 



■OJEN^ 



FOR- 

p. 26. 

sistence and planting) have not, and cannot for 
the present be given, other use than to supply the 
Posts. Accordingly the Paymasters shall buy 
these grains at the prices now fixed or those that 
may be fixed hereafter, bearing in mind that they 
have to be transported upon the Packbeasts of 
the Posts. 

28. If in the Post to which a Pueblo is added 
there be on hand any herd belonging to the 
Royal Exchequer, its account shall be added to 
that of the Settlement ; in which the Paymaster 
shall make the corresponding charge of the pro- 
ceeds of the animals distributed, and likewise 
shall embrace in it (with the proper altestation) 



FORMUI^ARY. 



p. 27 



DEBIT AND CREDIT ACCOUNT OF THE 
FLOCKS WHICH are on hand in the Post of San 
Carlos de Monterey belonging to the Royal Ex- 
chequer, entrusted to my charge as Company Pay- 
master ; in which, by kinds ^ I present under their 
respective accounts the charge entered from the 
Inventory of delivery, the increase of the present 
year, the distribution of animals, the proceeds 
thereof in dollars, the amount on hand and increase 
at the end of December, 1780. 



194 



ACCOUNT OF MARES & COLTS. 

Head Dollars. 

First: Credit 190 head, which was dis- 
tinguished by classes in the Inven- 
tory of delivery, remain on hand 190 

Debit 32 colts of the increase of the 
present year 32 

Debit 38 fillies of the same crop 38 

260 

Credit by kind, and proceeds in dollars. 

Credit 20 Colts, fit for breaking, dis- 
tributed among the Company at $6 
each 20 $120 

Credit 10 3-year-old Colts, sold to the 
Paymaster of the Post of San Fran- 
cisco at the same price 10 $60 

Credit 2 Mares that died, whose brands 
were exhibited and burned 2 

Credit 32 

Debit 260 

On hand the last of December 228 

On hand the year before 190 

Increase and proceeds this year 38 $1 



■ WENT J DE GAKABO BACUKO. Caitxas. P,m, ntAi, 
$pq cargo quinientas seteiua cabezas, que eo las 

clasps que expresa el Inventario quedacon 

.*xistentes en • ' 

'j^/cargo ochenti y tres Terneros producKJos 

I " en la naceiicia del presente ano 

I Cion cargo ciento y seis Terneras de dicha na- . 

<enfia. 106. 

779^ 
Data en especiei^ y produce en pesos. 
^'tSoil data qiiarenta y seis Noviilos de quatroaiios 
^(jue se reinitieron a D. N Habiliiado de„_. 

■ para di^tribuir a Pobladores, de cuyo cargo 
.queda dar ciurada de su Importe al respeito 

. . de seis pesos cabeza a la Real Hicieiida . 

Son ilata diez Toros que se distfibuyeroo a la ., 

Tropa a cinco pesos. ■. -yit, 

€00 data quatro Bacas, que pot viejas se v^die* 

ton i seis pesos cada una. 

'Soo data dos Tores que se lasiiinaron, y fue dis-. 

tributda la carne de cada uno en vciiite racio- 

,_ nes i dos. reales. :. ; 

jSon dau tres Terneros y dos Terneras que ma-. 

taron los Lobos. ' y. . 

Data... 67. 
Car git... 7;9. 

Quedan existentes en fin de Diciembre '. . . ^6^^. 

Xa exisiciicia del ario anterior fue de. ....... _. 570. . - 

ftU auineiito y produilo en el presente cs 1 2 ■?. . j6o. 

Con cste ordcn seguiran las cucntas de los detnas Ganados po- 
piendo a conlinuacion resunwn de las cantidades que ■ produxeron ti» 
|)csos jgara minitesur ui total, contra el que se dalarpn las partioasi 
producidas pot Ganados que hayan saliilo pora Pobladores, cuva saiis- 
'laccion dtba hacerse por olro Har;illt:i<to, v las linicis de'g^sio que 
han de olrecer pur el ^al^uio del Pastor de Gan^do nicnur, y doso irer. 
4(rob^s de Iferba de l-uebla que ha de [ ediiie imio li citcp ai'iu, con lo 
"■•■■ ' . . . -- -• ,ju^-. 

^ ACCOUNT OF CA TTLE HERD. 

Head. $ 
Debit 570 head, which, by classes as 

per Inventory were on hand 570 

Debit 83 bull calves of the increase of 

the present year 83 

Debit 106 heifer calves of said increase 106 

779 

Credit by kinds and proceeds in dollars. 

Credit 46 four-year-old steers, sent to 

Don N , Paymaster of , to 

distribute to settlers, of which 
charge there remains to be entered 
their amount, at $6 per head, to the 
Royal Exchequer •••.••.•••• 46 276 

Credit 10 Bulls, which were distrib- 
uted to the Troops at $5 10 50 



Credit 4 Cows, which were sold as 
aged at $6 each 4 24 

Credit 2 Bulls which were injured and 
their meat was distributed in 20 ra- 
tions, each one, at 25c per ration 2 10 

Credit 3 Bull Calves and 2 Heifer 
Calves which the wolves killed 5 

Credit 67 

Debit 759 

On hand the la.st of December 692 

Amount on hand last year was 570 

Increase and proceeds the present 
yearis 122 360 

The accounts of the other Herds shall follow 
in this order, followed by a summary of the 
amounts they brought in dollars, to show their 
total. Against this shall be credited the items 
realized from the Herds given out to Settlers, 
satisfaction for which should be made by another 
Paymaster, and the only items of cost which 
should be oflfered for the wages of the shepherd 
and 50 or 75 pounds* of Puebla hay which is to be 
asked for one or the other years, wherewith 

>V 

qrle deduoier>4ose la dati Jel cargo, qij«3ari demostndo el que resutw 
te contra el que da la cuenia , y relaciuuando al pie cl v>iA cargo f \ 
distribocioa de pesos; pondra I4 fecha vftrmata.. 

TITLXO CATORCE. 

' Cobierno Politico, e Instruccion para Poblacion, 

Slendoel objeto 3e mayor Importancia para dar cumpIimientO': 
a las piadosas intenciones del Key i>ue»uo Senor, y perpe-' 
tuar a S. M. el dominio del dilaiado terreno que en la extension de ' 
mas de dosctentas leguas comprchenden loj nuevos EMablecimieiiios;. 
de los Presidios, y respedivos Puertos de San Diego, Monterrey, y , 
SI Francisco, adclantar la Reduccion, y hacer util al estado en lo po- ' 
lible tan vasto Pais, habitado de innumerable Gentiiidad,exccptuados,^ 
mil setecienioa quarenta y nueve Chiisiianos de ambos sexos que tie- 
oen las ocho Misiones que se hallafl sobre cl camino que dirige detc 
primero al ultimo Presidio, erigiendo Pueblos de gente de razon, queji 
. congregada fomente la labranza, planlio, y cria de ganidn. y succe;;-.' 
vaniente los denias ramos de industria, de modo que a discurso de air' 
guooa anos hasten sua produccione; i'abaslecer de vivercs y cavalle.«'' 
rias las Guarniciones de Presidi'js, excusando por este medio el dila- 
■tado transporte, riesgos y perdiaas con que de cuenta d- la Real Ha- 
:Cteoda se conduce, con cuya justa idea se halla pooiado y lundado el 
jPueblo de San Joseph, y estd detenninada la eieccion de oiro, para 
'cl que ban de dirigirse Pobladores con sus familias de la Provincia de ' 
fiooora y Sinaloa, cuyo progrcsivo aumeiifo y el de las Tamilias fle Iv 
Tropa, proporcionara el esiablecimieiito de oiras Foblacioiics y He-i 
-cltitas para las Companias Presidiales, libertandose el Kfal Eratio de 
lbs forzosos gasios que aCluaimente impende para el k>^ro de uno y-' 
• oiro; y conyiniendo estabbcer jeg! ji qu« lo aseguren, se obscrvari 
la Instruccion siguiente.'. _ ~ 

Asi como liasta ahora /uerdn consignados i cada Poblador, k 
mas de la racion; i to ps. en cada iino de las dosprimeros anos, y so- 
lo la racion en. las ires siguientes, reguladu en real y medio diarin, ' 
francos, gozaran por lo equivalenie en lo succetivo cienio diez y seis 
pesos ires y medic reales-en cada uno de los dos prinieros ai'ios. en- , 
aendiendose coniprehendidi iiidjcha cantidad b racion,'y por ella eti 
los tres afios siguicmes sescijta pesos en cada iino. con lo que queda* 
coiiipciisado coil vei.iaja el antecedenie gocc, deducido el 'aumento 

p 29. 

subtracting the credit from the debit account, 
there will be shown how it stands against him 
who presents the account. And balancing at the 
bottom the total debit and distribution of dollars, 
he shall date and sign it. 

TITLE FOURTEEN. 
Political Government and Instructions for Settle- 
ment, 

I. Since the most important object for the ful- 
fillment of the pious intentions of our Lord the 
King, and to perpetuate His Majesty's dominion 
over the extensive territory embraced for more 
than 200 leagues bv the new Settlements and re- 
spective Posts of San Diego, Monterey and San 
Francisco; to advance the Conversion, and to 
make this so vast Country as useful as possible to 
the State— inhabited by innumerable Gentiles 

•An arrobais 25 pounds. 



195 



<except 1749 Christians of both sexas at the eight 
missions on the road between the first and the 
last Posts), erecting Pueblos [towns] of civilized 
people, who, being assembled, shall encourage 
tilling, planting and stockraisiug, and in succes- 
sion the other branches of industry, so that in 
the course of a few years their produce may suf- 
fice to supply the Post- Garrisons with victuals 
and horses, thus making up for the distance of 
transportation [from Mexico], risks and lo«<ses at 
which these things are brought by the Royal Ex- 
chequer, with which fit idea the Pueblo of San 
Jos6 is already founded and settled, and the build- 
ing of another is determined upon, for which 
Settlers and their families must come from the 
Province of Sonora and Sinaloa: whose proerress- 
ive increase, and that of the familiesof the Troops 
"will provide for the establishing of other settle- 
ments and for Recruits for the Post Companies, 
thus freeing the Royal Treasury from the forced 
•costs which it is now under to meet these ends; 
and it is convenient to establish regulations which 
shall certainly bring this about, the following in- 
structions shall be observed*. 
t- 2 Since, until now, there were assigned to 
each Settler his rations, $120 in each of the two 
first years, and in the three years following the 
rations only, fixed at 17^4 cents a day. exempt; 
hereafter they shall enjoy as an ecjuivalent $ri6.- 
37^^ in each of the two first years, it being under- 
stood that the rations are included in this 
amount; and for the rations in the three years 
following, $60 in each. Whereby the foregoing 
emolument is advantagedusly replaced, subtract- 
ing the increase 

■3»- 

coo que se pagibi. y bun con qne te les tubmir.lstro la Ration, cu- 
yo» efeifios y denus han de rccibir al cosu d«sde que apro6ado, se 
■ declare la prai5)ica de eaie Rrglainenio; sieodo prevencion, que el re- 
ferido (iempo de cinco afioi ha de conursc para siu goces desdeeldia 
que se verifique la posesion de Solarea j Sutrtes de tierras que han 
de repartirse a cada Poblador, como se cxpresara adelmte, debieudo . 
correr el tiempo que anteceda deade nis regiatros b»o Us coodicionet 
de Cofilratas^ y para que se evite eae gaito, se providenciara de mo- 
4la,que luego que Ueguen iiuevos Pobiadofes sin mtermisioa s«^(uea 
y de la reterida Foseiion. 

3. A cad* Poblador y al comun de Pueblo han de darse con c»- 
lidad de reiiiiegro en Mulas y Cavallos, que seaa de dar y recibir, y 

. page de lot denu^'ganado mayor y inenor.bano lot jusios prtcios que 
h4ii ae arancclarse, y las heriamienias al cotle, conio esia ordenado, 
dos Yeguas, dos Bacas con una cria, dos Ovtrjas, y dot Cabras, lodo 
de vientre, y una yunta de Bueyes o Novillos, una rejao puiiu de 
arado, un Axadon, una Coa, una Hacha y una Hoi, un Cuchillo de 
mome, una Lanza, una Escopela y una Adarga, dos CiTtllot y una 
Muk de carga; igualmenre y i cargo de! coinun se daran lot p*dres 
que Corcespondao al niimero de cabeus de ganado en sus cspecies del 
todo del Vecindario, un Burrn maestro, otro comun y (res Hurras >>■> 

' Barraco. y tres Puercts, una fragua aviada de yunque y demas herra- 
mient^-s que le corresoonda, seis barras seis palas de fierro, y la ber- 
mnienta neccsaria de Carpiaieria y Cirreteri*. 

4. Los Solares que se concedan a los nuevos Pobladores se han 
de sei'ialar por el Gobierno en los sitios y con la extension correspon- 
dieote a la que tuviere el icrreno donde se estableacan lus nuevos 
Pueblos, de modo que quede formada plaza y calles, cont'orme a lo 
prevenido por Ley«t del Rcyiio, y con su arreglo se wi'ulara Exido 
connpelente para el Pueblo y Dehesas con las tierras de labor que 
-coavenga para Propios. 

Cada Soerte de tierri, asi de riego como de temporal, ha de 
ter de doscientas varas de largo, y doscienus de an^ho, por ser esle 
el asibico que regalarmente ocupa una fanega de Mail en sembradu-* 
ra; el reparijniiento que de dichas Suertes, como de los Solares ha de 
bKcrK a nocnbre del Key nuestro Seoor i Ux nuevos Pobladores, se 
hara por el Gobiemo con igualdad y proporcioa al terreno que logre 
el beuefkio de riego, de forma, que precediendo la correspondiente 
-demarcacion, y reservando valdias ta quaru parte del numcro que re- 

tulie 



with which it was paid and reduction with which 
have been issued the Rations. These goods, and 
others shall be received at cost as soon as these 
Regulations shall be approved and declared in 
force. Warning is given that the said five years' 
time is to be counted for their prerogatives from 
the riay of actual giving^ possession of th? House- 
Lots and Fields to be given out to each Settler, as 



will be hereinafter set forth; the time between 
registration and taking possession, to run under 
the conditions of Contracts; and to avoid this cost 
it shall be so arranged that as soon as new Set- 
tlers arrive they shall be located and given said 
Possession without delay. 

3. To each Settler and to the common fund of 
the Pueblo must be given (subject to replacing in 
the case of Mules and Horses, which may be 
given and received, and to payment in the case 
of other herds, cattle and sheep under the just 
prices which shall be fixed, and the tools at cost, 
as is ordained) two Mares, two Cows with one 
Calf, two Ewes, and two she-Goats, all pregnant; 
and one yoke of Oxen or Bullocks, one Colter, one 
Hoe, one Spade, one Ax, and one Sickle, one 
Field-knife, one Lance, one Musket and one 
Dagger, two Horses and one cargo Mule. Like- 
wise and to the common charge, shall be given 
sufficient fathers for the number of head of stock 
in each kind in the whole community; one mas- 
ter-Burro, one common one and three she-Burros, 
one Boar and three Sows, one Forge fitted with 
an anvil and other necessary belongings, six 
Crowbars, six iron Spades and the necessary tools 
for Carpentry and Wagonmaking. 

4. The building-lots granted to the new Set- 
tlers must be fixed by the Government as to loca- 
tion and size according to the extent of land 
where the new Pueblos may be established. So 
that a plaza [public square] and streets shall be 
left as provided by the Laws of the Realm; and 
correspondingly shall be marked out sufficient 
Room for the Pueblo to grow, and Pastures, with 
the suitable arable lands for Individuals. 

5. Each allotment of Fields, both for irrigation 
and for dependence on the rainfall, shall be 200 
varas [550 leet] long and 200 wide, this being the 
area ordinarily taken hy one fanega [i]4 bushels] 
of Corn in sowing. The allotment to be made of 
said Fields, as of the Building-Lots, in the name 
of our Lord the King, to the new Settlers, shall be 
made by the Government equitably in proportion 
to the amount of land which can be irrigated; so 
that, after first making the proper demarcation, 
and reserivng vacant the fourth part of the fields 
counting 

3«- 

aulte contando con el niimeM de Pobladores,. si aliMuien, se repar- ■ 
. tiran a dos Suertes a cada uoo de rejjadio, y otras dot de secadal, y de 
las realengas se separaran las que p-irecieren conveniences para pro- 
pioi del Pueblo, y de las resiantes se hara merced i nombre de S. M. 
a los que de nuevoieouascn a poblar por el Gobernador, igualmeate 
que de los respeAivos Sokra, y seoaladamente i los Soldados, que 
por haber curaplido el tiempo de su empeaa, 6 abanzada cdad, se re- 
ttren del Servicio, como a las familias de l0> que mueran, los que ha- 
buiuran sua labores con el londo que cada una dcbe. lener, tiu que a 
estos se asista de cueata de la Real Hacienda coo tueldo, racion ni- . 
ganadot, por ser limiiada esu gracia a los que con aquel destioo se . 
extrafian de su pais para poblar esie. 

6. Las casas tabric<Jas en los Solares concedidos y seiialados i--' 
los nuevos Pobladores, y las Suertes de lierra comprehendidas en sua 
respeSivas ly.ercedes, seran heredilarias con perpetuidad en sut hijo* 

y deaceodientes, o hijas que casen con Pobladores utiles, y que no 
tengao repartimiento de Suertes por si mismoscumpliendo todosellos 
con lai condiclones que iran expresadas en esta Instruccion; y para 
que los hijos de los poseedores de estas mercedes lengan la obedien- 
cia y respeto que deben a sus padres, ha de ser Ubre y faculiativo en 
esios, si luvieren dos 6 mas hijos, eUgir el que quisiereo de ellas,sien> 
do secular y lego, por heredero de la Casa y Suertes de Poblaclon, y 
tambien podran disponer ijue se repartan entre ellos,pero no que una 
sola Suerte se divida, porque han de ser todas y cada una <;: por si 
indivisibles e inagenables perpetuamente. 

7. Tampoco podran los Pobladores ni sus herederoj imponer 
censo, vinculo, liaiiz.i, hipoieca ni otro gravamen alguno, aunque sea 
par causa piadosa sobre Casa y Suerte de tierra que se les conceden, 
y si alguno lo hiciere contraviniendo a esta justa prol^ibicion, queda- 
ni privado'jde la propiedad irremisiblemente, y por el mismo hecho ' 
te da'i su doucion a otro Poblador que sea util y obediente. 

8. GozaratVios nuevos Pobladores para iiian'ener sus ganadot del: 
aprovechamiento comun deaguas y pastos, leiia y madera del Exi^- < 
do, Monte y Dehesa que ha de seiialarse con arreglo i las Leyei i- 
cada nuevo Pueblo, y ademas disfrutar a privativamence cada uno el, 
pasto de sus licrcis propias, pero con cundicion, que debiendo tenets) 

y rriar toda clase de ganado mayor y menor, no siendo posible cuide- J 
por SI cada uno el cotto ntimero de cabezas que para pie les quedaa 
consignadas , pues de ello se teguirta desateiider las labores y obraf 






'This is kept unsplit, &s a typical De Neve sentence Else- 
where his breathless flights are cut into sections Had he been 
no more governor than rhetorician tlie Province would have 
died young 



the number of Settlers, if they will tally, there 
shall be allotted to each Settler two Fields of 



196 



irngableland and two more of dry. And of the 
royal lands shall be set aside such as is deemed 
proper for individuals of the Pueblo, and of the 
remainder grants shall be made by the Governor 
in the name of His Majesty to those vv^ho come 
newly to settle; and also of the respective Build- 
ing-lots. Particularly to the soldiers who, by 
having served the time of their enlistment, or 
because of advanced age, are retired from the 
Service; as also to the families of those who die. 
These shall carry on their farming by means of 
the funds each should have, without assistance 
from the Royal Exchequer in salary, rations or 
live-stock, this favor being limited to those who 
with that provision emigrated from their own 
country to colonize this one. 

6. The houses erected upon the Lots granted 
and set aside to the new Settlers, and the Fields 
embraced in their respective grants, shall be an 
inheritance in perpetuity to their sons and de- 
scendants, or daughters who marry useful Set- 
tlers and have no allotment of Fields for them- 
selves; all such persons to comply with the con- 
ditions which will be set forth in these Instruc- 
tions. And that the sons of the possessors of 
these grants may have the obedience and respect 
they owe their parents, the latter shall be free and 
empowered, if they have two or more sons, to 
choose which one they will (being secular and 
lay) for heir of their Houses and Fields. And 
likewise they shall be able to dispose that these 
fields be divided among the children— but not 
that one single Field be divided, for the fields 
must be, all and each, indivisible and inalienable 
forever. 

7. Neither shall the Settlers nor their heirs be 
able to place a quitrent, entail, bond, mortgage 
nor other incumbrance whatsoever (though it be 
for a pious cause) upon the House and Fields 
granted to them; and if anyone shall act contrary 
to this just prohibition, he shall be irredeemably 
deprived of the property, and for the same act his 
endowment shall be given to such other Settler 
as IS usetul and obedient. 

8. To maintain their herds the new Settlers 
shall enjoy the common privileges of water and 
pasturage, firewood and lumber from the Outer 
Lands, Forests and Pasture to be assigned accord- 
ing to Law to each new Pueblo. Each shall also 
have exclusively the grazing of his own lands; 



'3«- 

publicas, delier j per aliora pastoreane uni.lo <-l ii.iado mtnor d# la 
coniunid.id, d.- iuid tat^;.. lu de scr el jjago dtl l'«ioi, y por lo res- 
peflivo a mdcar el^aiiado mayor, y lracrl< al ci.ftal, coino Ytfguas y 
Burras, jpgun coiiveii)>3, han de ^c■^lo dos I'obladores, i|ii<; diarianieii- 
le, 6 como les pareica. iKiinbraran eritre si de cavallada, coii lo que 
esiara cwidado rl jjaiiado en sus esperies, eviiado el riesjio de al7arse, 
y atendidas las labores y ,lf ,i,as /'aenas dil coniiin, culdando cada in- 
dividuo senalar su, respei'livas cabe7.i5 de gaii;id<. inenor. y marcar el 
niayot, p:ita cl ,|iir se darjri loi regr.iros >lp Hi rros correspoiidientes 
sin derecho algun.; cm prevcnciDii, ijue cad.i Hoblador en lo succesi- 
vo no ha de c»ceder de cincuenia cabeias de cada espeiie el que po- 
»ea, pa'a que de esie nmdn se disiribuya enlie todos la utilidad que 
p^oducen los ganadn<. y t|ue no se eslanque en pocos Vecinos U ver- 
dadcra uqui ?!i dc los Hiir-blos. 

9. SLihii cseiiios y libres por i^rniino de cinco anos los nuevos 
Pobladores de pagar dic/inos ni ouo derecho alifuno de lis fruios y 
eM)uilnios que les prodiizi an Ijs licrras de su doiacion y ganados,con 
lal que en d primer :u-io roniado disde el dia que se les senalen los 
So'ares y Siieries constrnyan en la lornia posible'sus casas y las habi- 
Jen, abran las zanjas corifspondienlts al ricgo de siis tierras, ponien- 
do a las lindes divisoriis en lugar de mojones arboles Irutales 6 silves- 
ires que sean uides, a rajon de diez en cada Suerte, e igualmente se 
abra la azequia 6 zanja madre, lornion presa, y demaji^ras piiblicas 
y precisas para el benrfKio df las Lbores a que con ^^Itrencia ha de 
atenderse por el comiin, de cuyo cargo ha de ser dar conslruidas las 
Casas Re.iles en los quairo aiios, y en el lercero una troxe capaz y 
suficifcile para Posilo, en que han de cusiodiarse las producclones de 
Ja siembra de comunidad, que al respe6to de un almud de Mait por 
Vecino,ha de liacerse desde dicho lercer alio haso el quinto inclusive 
en las lierras que se senalen por propios del Pueblo, debiendo hacerse 
lodas las faenas que ofrezca hasti poner sus cosechas dentro del Posi- 
Jo por el coinun, a cuyo beneficio han de servir linicamenle; y para 
iu gobierno y aumento se forniaran oportunamente las Ordenanzas 
que han de observarse. 

10. Uespues de los cinco aiios satisfara'n los Diezmos a S. M. 
para qurtos aplique segun lucre de su Real agrado, como que ente- 
lamente le pertenecen, no solo por el Patronalo Real absoluto que 
<)ene en estos Uominios Suyos, sino tambien por ser novales,pues han 
jde producirse ei lerrenoi Imsu abo» ioculios f iil^andonados, y que 



but on condition that— as he should have and 
breed all kinds ol livestock, large and small and 
It IS impossible that each should by himself care 
lor the few head consigned to him for a start 
since that would lead to neglect of his crops and 
public duties— 

p. 32. 

for the present the goats and sheep of the com- 
munity should be herded together, the pay of the 
Shepherd being a common charge; and for round- 
ing up the cattle and horses and bringing them 
to the corral, as Mares and she-burros, there 
should be two mounted Settlers appointed daily 
(or as often as seems best) from the communitv. 
Thus the herds will be cared for in their kinds 
avoiding the risk of their being "lifted," and the 
fields and other duties of the community being 
attended to. Each individual shall mark his 
sheep and goats and brand his horses and cattle 
for wlich the registers of branding-irons will be 
given without any charge. Warning being given 
that henceforth no Settler shall have over fifty 
head of each kind of stock; in order that the use- 
fulness of the herds be distributed among all, 
and that the real wealth of the Pueblos be not 
monopolized among a few citizens. 

9- The new Settlers .shall be exempt and free 
for the term of five years from paying tithes or 
any other tax on the fruits and produce brought 
them by the lands and herds with which they are 
furnished ; on conditions that in the first year 
from the day they are allotted their Lots and Fields 
they shall build their houses as best they may, 
and dwell in them; shall open the proper ditches 
for the irrigation of their lands, placing on their 
boundary lines, instead of landmarks, useful 
fruit or forest trees, at the rate of ten to the 
Field; and equally that they shall open the ace- 
qma or zanja madre [mother-ditch], build a res- 
ervoir and other public works necessary to benefit 
the crops. This should by preference be done in 
common; and at the common charge must be 
built the Royal Buildings within four years, and 
in the third year a bin, large and adequate, for a 
public granary, in which must be guarded the 
communal crops. This communal s^wing at the 
rate of one almud [-% of a bushel] of Corn per Cit- 
izen, must be made from the third year to the 
fifth, inclusive, in the land allotted to individual.^ 
of the Pueblo. All the work incidental thereto, 
up to storing the crops in the Public Granary, is 
to be done by the community, for whose exclusive 
benefit it shall serve. To regulate and increase 
this item, the Ordinances will be drawn up, in due 
time, and must be observed. 

10. After the five years, they shall pay tithes 
to His Majesty, to be applied as maybe his Royal 
pleasure; since they pertain wholly to him, not 
only by the absolute Royal Patronage which he 
has in these his dominions, but also as tithes from 
new broken lands, as they are to be produced in 
lands till now uncultivated and abandoned and 



now about to be made fruitful at the cost of the 
great expenditures made by the Royal Ex- 
chequer. 

When the said term of five years is past, in 
recognition of the direct and supreme dominion 
which pertains to the Sovereign, the new Settlers 
and their descendants shall pay half a fanega of 
Corn per irrigated Field; and for their own bene- 
fit it will be an indispensable obligation upon all 
in common to repair the irrigating-ditch, reser- 
voir, sewers and other public works of their 
Pueblo— including the Church 

II. When the droves of pigs and burros shall 
have multiplied, the necessary Burros having been 
adopted for service of the Mares, if the division 
of each of the two kinds be feasible, said division 
shall be made, by common consent of the Settlers, 
among themselves, as equitably as possible so 
that from the first herd each Citizen have two- 
head, a male and a female. This done, the ani- 
mals shall be marked and branded by their own- 
ers. 

(,TO BE CONTINUED.) 




TO CONSERVE THE MISSIONS 
AND OTHER HISTORIC 
LANDMARKS OF SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

DiBKCTORS : 

Frank A. Gibson. 
Henry W. O'Melveny. 
Rev. J. Adam. 
Sumner P. Hunt. 
Arthur B. Benton. 
Margaret Collier Graham. 
Chas. F. Lummis. 



^ ■. . ^^ „ , OFFICERS: 

President, Chas. F. Lummis. 
▼ice-President, Margaret Collier Graham. 
Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, 114 N. Spring St. 
Treasurer, Frank A. Gibson, Cashiei 1st Nat. Bank. 
Corresponding Secretary Mrs. M E. Stilson. 

913 Kensington Road, Los Angeles. 
HoKOBART LiFK Membbss : R. Egan, Tessa L. Kelso. 

ADVISORY BOARD: Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R Egan, W. C. Patterson, Adeline 
Steams Wing, Geo. H. Bonebrake, Tessa L Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas Cassat Davis, Miss M. F. Wills, 
C. D. Willard, John F. Francis Frank J. Policy Rev. Wm J. Chichester, Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Lee, 
Rt. Rev. Joseph H Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles. 

J. T. Bertrand, Official Photographer 

Steadily, if slowly, the subscriptions come in; and it is earnestly hoped that by April 
15 the Club will have in its treasury the $1000 necessary for the begfinning of work on 
San Fernando. It will require another $1000 to complete the repairs on that enormous 
ruin. A great deal is hoped from the superb entertainment given by the Pasadena 
Branch as this number goes to press. 

As a direct result of agitation by the Club, a special commission appointed by the 
Mayor has revised the street names of L,os Angeles ; restoring over one hundred old 
Spanish names, and commemorating many names of neglected pioneers. 

Prof. John Comfort Fillmore, who is recognized by scientists the world over as the 
foremost authority on that topic, delivered, March 8th, the second lecture of the Club's 
course, his subject being " Folk songs of the American Indians." The lecture wan a 
revelation to the audience, which was shamefully small for a city that pretends to cul- 
ture. The two remaining lectures will be announced later in the dailies. 

The young ladies of the Hotel Green, Pasadena, gave some very artistic tableaux a 
few weeks ago, and netted $17 for the Club's work. 

The Redlands Camera Club is preparing to give an entertainment in behalf of the 
Landmarks fund. Among the attractions of the evening will be an exhibition of the 
magnificent lantern slides owned by the Landmarks Club. 

CONTRIBOXrONS TO THE CAUSE. 

Previously acknowledged, $1828.05. 

New contributions : Young ladies at Hotel Green, Pasadena, proceeds of tableaux, 
$17 ; A. McFarland, $10. 

$1 each : Miss M. F. Wills, J. C. Perry-, Mrs. Frank McGrath, Mrs. Shelly Tolhurst. 
Miss M. McSweney, Miss C. M. Seymour, C. H. Sessions, Mrs. C. H. Sessions, Miss 
Emma B. Pinney, Miss Julia E. Weaver, Mrs. Percy Hoyle, Mrs. Weaver Jack.son, 
Mrs. Adams, Mrs. Jacob Loew, all of Los Angeles ; Mrs. Kate Conger Baker, Great 
Neck, Long Island : Mrs. S. Hubbard, Azusa, Cal.; Mrs. W. H. Knight, Hinsdale, Ills.; 
Miss Leila Fressell, N. Y.; Mrs. Caroline T. Clark, New Haven, Conn.; Mrs. Belle M. 
Jewett, Pasadena, Cal.; Datus C. Smith, Yonkers, N. Y.; Wm. Hoyle, El Toro, Cal., 
Otelia Flood. San Francisco, Cal.; Mrs. Colin Stewart, Miss Thomas, Mrs. E. E. Spald- 
ing, Miss Susan Homer Stickney, A. C. Vroman. W. H. Hill. C. J. Crandall, all of Pasa- 
dena, Cal. ; Mary Hallock Foote (author of " The Led-Horse Claim "), Grass Valley, Cal. 



198 




The only serious drawback to residence in the Untutored West 

t^E is our remoteness from Culture. We do not much miss the 

MISS. other fleshpots of the Eastern Egypt; most of us are here 

precisely because we knew enough to move. But it is hard to have to 

depend upon the transcontinental mails for refining influences, instead 

of drinking them at the fountain head. 

We have nothing out here to take the place of the delicate models 
among which our cousins live and move and have what they account 
their being. We can, of course, subscribe for their periodicals, and 
learn something at long range ; but it is rather like learning a language 
by mail. 

The Bookman for January brought the wandering world back by the 
ear to learn that while Mr. Kipling may do very well in a crowd he isn't 
exactly a poet. This created some scandal among persons who had for- 
gotten to ask the Bookman what to think about The Man Who Is. But 
the Bookman for March is ready for them. With that chaste delicacy 
which is notoriously lacking in the Rowdy West, this literary journal, 
edited by a Columbia College professor, says : 

"Because we do not choose to be lound synchronously yapping: with all the little dogs 
of literature . . . we have Blanche, Tray and Sweetheart, with the rest of the puny 
pack, biting viciously at our heels." 

Verily, O Bookman, almost thou persuadest me to be a New Yorker! 

The most distinctive American? Certainly not Washington 

ERiCAN nor Jackson nor even Lincoln, nor any of our poets, nor one 

INVENTION. of our philanthropists. Statesmen, patriots, heroes, geniuses 

— they have been a heritage of every land since the heart of man began 
to catch up with his belly. 

But the United States invented Collis P. Huntington, and he is all our 
own — the first unmixed American product. 

This strong old man who has passed his three-score years and ten and 
still doth more seriously incline to "fix" legislatures than his Maker, 
has worn such opportunity as was unknown before this generation and 
befalls not one in five millions even now. Few of his contemporaries 
have matched his brains in their class ; and he had the chance no man 
will ever have again — for now there is no more frontier to be brought 
alongside the world. He amassed wealth several thousand times vaster 
than was honest before the war ; and wielded an enormous patronage. 
Ability, timeliness and money gave him power such as few men ever 
possessed in this country ; and he ought to be, at 75, one of the fore- 
most names of this century. 

But Mr. Huntington has fallen short; and for one simple reason 
which every young American would do well to paste in his first grown 
hat. He had every element of greatness except — a conscience. He 
has used his money worse than he gathered it. His great enterprises — 
conceptions almost of genius — have fattened on the corruption of men. 
Despite the great material benefit these enterprises have incidentally 
brought us, he has been the most dangerous enemy California ever had 

— the heaviest burden to her commerce, the worst corrupter of her 



77V THE LION'S DEN. I99 

politics, the deadliest example to her youth. Lesser men have grown 
immortal on half his talent and a hundredth of his opportunity ; Mr. 
Huntington has after all made a failure of life, because, with all his 
brains, he did not know enough to be honest. 

Being of the opposite camp, and at the outset a bitter op- hail 
ponent, the Lion feels entitled to have his growl out about the and 

man who has just stepped down from the highest place in the farewell. 

world. Particularly as his notion will not be popular while the cautious 
are still fumbling and the heathen continue to rage. 

Americans are presumed to like pluck and honesty and manhood. 
Every American who is fit to fly that name has revolted, at least inwardly, 
at the tyranny of his own little ward boss. We shall come to respect 
the American who, first in a generation, made his rebellion effective 
against all the bosses little and big. "Party" is a forceful bogie for 
men and presidents ; but we are rather coming to understand what it 
means. 

Mr. Cleveland was never wholly the ideal statesman ; but if supreme 
courage, integrity and manhood are American qualities, he is a good 
American. And it is well for us that that kind of an American was there 
to meet the Chicago rebellion, the crazy-money mania, the war idiocy 
and the perennial spoilsman. No president since the Rail-splitter has had 
the chance to do so much for his country. And when the same con- 
temporary passions that equally blackguarded Washington and Jackson 
and Lincoln and Grant shall have passed, when cerebration by the 
partisan mouth shall have been replaced by thought in perspective, 
Grover Cleveland will unquestionably be ranked by history as the 
greatest president between Lincoln and our present hopes. 

It is reassiiring if the government of the United States is here 
after all able to go out without holding up its hand to School- and 

master Huntington and saying: "Please, sir, may I?" For hereafter 

four or five years it rather looked as if the shrewd and unscrupulous old 
man had not only several States but the whole Nation in his breeches 
pocket. Few Eastern people could believe a true story of the fashion 
in which this Napoleon of the lobby has mocked the public, wound 
Congress about his well-lubricated finger, and quietly laughed in the 
face of the national government. He has set aside the verdicts of 
national commiSvSions, undone acts of Congress, and in a "republic," 
has drowned the voice of millions with the voice of one. 

But his day is done. The government has stumbled into a final de- 
cision to make a harbor for the People, out here, instead of a harbor for 
Huntington sole. And while the stiff old man has never learned to 
bend, the day is at hand when he must go where he can lobby only 
dreams. He will have the company, it is true, of the thousands of his 
purchases ; and doubtless neither will change their spots. But over 
yonder, while he will buy and they be bought, there will no longer be 
any way to " deliver the goods." 

Secretary of War Alger seems to be ripe in political geography. Let 
us trust that he is also far enough along in arithmetic to comprehend 
the ratio of a million to one. And let us pray that there be not too 
many more mere coincidences of taste between Gen. Alger and plain 
Mr. Huntington. 

Death is not the only great leveler. The Nevada prize-fight is entitled 
to forgiveness, if not gratitude. It provided a place in the economies 
of God for John J. Ingalls. 

Somewhat the complexion of last year's birdsnests adorns the spec- 
ulators who thought to grow rich by getting a few thousand less cold- 
blooded Americans killed in a war over Cuba. 



200 




THAT 

WHICH IS 
WRITTEN 



Ci,KARi,Y, there is no one left so ig- 
norant that he or she cannot write a 
Ji^.^ro.sV''^ ' ''i^r *' book. God knows the books most written 

^iiNir*** ^^^ ^^^ enough; and that the quantity of books is 

more shudderable still. But after all, amid the Flood, the most note- 
worthy thing is the large per cent, of clever books. This is far more 
strange than even the forty days and forty nights rain of them. There 
is no copyright on ability ; people of bewildering gift spring up like 
the dragon's teeth of Cadmus, full-armed and grown over night. 

Yet startling as are the inundation and the height of its waves, they 
do not hide one fact. One of the most visible features of latter-day 
writing is that it is still vastly easier to be smart than to be accurate — 
and ''accuracy" is not a mugwump word ; it simply means truthful- 
ness. The great lesson which now more than ever before needs to be 
learned is that honesty is quite as essential to literature as talent is. It 
is nowadays easy enough to write a book ; and only a little less easy to 
find a publisher. But to write a book which will last or deserves to last 
— that is what very few of our brilliants have learned. Literature is an 
art only when two things meet — something to say and the skill to say it. 
At present it is principally a fad. 

There are dyspeptic people who count Richard Harding Davis 
conceited. This is all wrong. Mr. Davis is one of the most 
brilliant young men now engaged in dictating literature ; and 
there is of course a possibility that he has heard of the fact. But he cer- 
tainly is not vain. If there were a pinfeather of the peacock in his hide 
he would write only on those lines wherein he is fascinating. He would 
keep Van Bibbering and adding a luster to coronations. Probably he 
has to travel ; but he doesn't have to write about his travels — and would 
not if he were swollen in head. If he were a vain man he would be pain- 
fully careful not to put himself down a fool in black and white. That 
Mr. Harding- Davis has cheerfully printed his Three Gringos in Central 
America^ and his Cuban tin-war-correspondence, is enough to acquit 
him forever of anything remotely resembling vanity. Trivial, ignorant 
and impudent are they all ; and among them are the most extraordinary 
verdancies ever recorded by a man of letters. 

A handsome book which will please tourists and many resi^ 
dents is The American Italy ^ by J. W. Hanson, D. D., a com- 
paratively new convert to God's country. It is liberally and in- 
structively illustrated, is written with all a lover's fervor — and with no 



HER 
SLANDER 

NAILED. 



\ GOOD 

TEXT 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. 201 

mean knowledge — and covers a good deal of ground in a popular way. 
Of course the "Italy" is Southern California; and of it Mr. Hanson 
discourses as warmly if not so critically as Mr. Warner the inventor of 
the name. There ought not to be a tithe so many misprints in this 
book, and the pronunciations of our Spanish names are sadly unreliable. 
But it would be ungracious to apply too severe standards to a volume 
which quotes this magazine so often and so cordially. And in any event, 
Mr. Hanson has written the very book he seems to have started out to 
write, and one which bids fair to have a considerable success. W, B. 
Conkey & Co., Chicago, lr.50. 

Lo4o-kah, the Uncivilized, hy \^xw^t G. Reed, is an interest- " stirring 
ing story — or sequence of stories — well told and much above Indian 

the average Western tale. Technically it has in spots some STORIE 

very bad faults — in the forefront of which is the impossible mixing of 
theosophy and Indian lore, and in the background the fact that Mr. 
Reed has still a great deal to learn about aboriginal character. But on 
the other hand he has learned parts of it very well indeed ; and some of 
the chapters are thoroughly Indian-felt, their only blemish being an in- 
continence of rhetoric such as no Indian ever suffered from, even after 
he had graduated from Buflfalo Bill's show. Mr. Reed however has done 
very handsomely on the whole , and as he shows more verisimilitude 
than ninety per cent, of those who write stories about Indians, he is en- 
titled to praise and gratitude for conscientious work. And withal he has 
made a rather uncommonly interesting book. The illustrations, by 
Chas. Craig and L. Maynard Dixon, are of uneven merit ; some are 
trivial, a few, particularly of Mr. Dixon's, are very good. The Conti- 
nental Pub. Co., N. Y. 

In dress characteristic of its publishers (which is to say miss 
faultless), and in body its mother's own child, Julia Magruder's magruder'S 

Afiss ^yer 0/ Virg'tnia is a comfortable hook when the mood storie 

is not too exigent. The eight short stories which fill the plump covers 
are wholly Magrudery — as she is habitually wrote in Lippincott. That 
is to say, they are pleasant stories, written mildly, simply, naively, in 
direct narrative, and with none of the technique of the latter-day scien- 
tific short story. Miss Magruder is not artful, but neither is she un- 
natural ; and I should judge that to many her stories will be a sweet 
boon. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago, %\.^o. 

The Historical Society of Southern California is doing, quietly things 
and perhaps a little slowly, work that is worth while, chiefly in worth 

the preservation of recollections by the earliest American set- saving, 

tiers in this State. Its Annual Publication for 1896 contains, amid less 
valuable matter, several contributions by educated ** old-timers." H. D. 
Barrows's interesting reminiscences of a stage-ride of 2380 miles in i860, 
by the famous Butterfield overland stage-line from Los Angeles to St. 
Louis ; several papers by the indefatigable J. M. Guinn, on the pioneer 
trapper Jedediah S. Smith, the " Historic Houses of Los Angeles," ** Old 
Time Schools and Schoolmasters of Los Angeles," etc.; and extracts 



202 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

from D. B. Wilson's notes on "Renegade Indians of San Gabriel," are 
among the best of the contents. The studious Father Adam's " Defense 
of the Mission System " indicates how ignorant have been the obscure 
" historians " against whom was necessary any defense of a noble and 
wonderfully able missionary campaign. The pamphlet is unhappily not 
so well proofread as its contents merit. Published by the Society, Los 
Angeles. 

While California cities are wrestling with the problem of the 
NOCENTS unemployed who have flocked hither from the less prosperous 

ABROAD. East to go a-huckleberrying among our dollar-bushes, it might 
be well to think of ways to employ these people in some other " midst " 
than our own. For instance, it would be inexpensive by wholesale to 
outfit these gentlemen with proper green-goods and the gold-brick of 
sub-commerce, and turn their noses to the East. There they could 
fatten on the editors, if on no one else. Here is the sober Outlook (New 
York) gravely printing the story of a California cat which picks up the 
" nuts " as they fall from the olive trees and harvests them in a basket — 
not to mention its very catty accomplishment of churning, and ringing 
a bell when the butter "comes." 

Before there is time to catch one's breath, enter the dear old Youth' s 
Companion with a cat in Los Angeles which, being bereft of its kittens, 
went out and caught a young "prairie-dog" and adopted it! Is the 
Companion quite sure it wasn't a hippopotamus calf that pussy took in ? 
She would find it quite as easily, in Southern California, as a prairie-dog 
— and would be quite as likely to mother it. 

But maybe a cat so bent on furnishing a story for the innocent (and 
quite incidentally, of course, $10 to her gracious chronicler) traveled 
400 miles to where there are prairie-dogs, crawled 40 feet down a 3-inch 
burrow to where all prairie-dogs stay till they are past being adopted, 
nabbed her orphan and trotted home with it — incidentally swimming 
the Rio Colorado. 

And again. The story of "A Fateful Pipe" in the Companion of 
March 18 is a fake, pure and simple ; and if its author, Ed word E. Bil- 
lings, did not know that he was dishonest when he sent the story, then 
he belongs in an asylum. He is inconceivably ignorant of everything 
he tries to describe ; and as a guesser he is a monumental failure. 

It is probably too much to ask that a publication which has grown 
wealthy by selling amusement and information to a million young 
Americans should have or procure for its editorial staff anyone who 
knows anything about the various corners of the United States ; but for 
the fake story-writer there should be a hereafter ; and Mr. Billings's fake 
is one of the worst that has appeared in any publication in many a day. 

Meantime the East smiles pityingly at the ignorant Britisher who 
expects to hunt buffalo in Boston and to be scalped in Chicago. 

TH A pleasant little book of local interest is Two Health Seekers 

AND in Southern Calijornia, by Wm. A. Edwards, M. D., and Bea- 

ROYALTIES. trice Harraden. Dr. Edwards states the familiar facts about 
this section as a health resort, simply and fairly. Miss Harraden 's part 
is two chapters which though very slight as the net result of two years' 
acquaintance with a corner of the country, are gracefully written and 
at least mark a distinct advance of vision. Clearly California — even 
as seen through that most impossible glass, an English colony here — is 
slowly breaking down the insular prejudices. Miss Harraden is still 
English enough to be capable of the startling discovery that California 
is no place for walking — a nugget which would have filled Bayard 
Taylor's soul with joy. She also is over-conscious of rattlesnakes — 
which do not hurt so many people in twenty years in the whole South- 
west as Jack the Ripper butchered in London in six months. But she 
is learning. J. B. Lippincott Co., Phila., $i.co. 






OF THE 



X O'NIVERH 








Commercial Eng. Co SEAL ROCKS. CATALINA ISLAND. 



Photo/by.Brickey. 




L. A. Eng. Co. THE GARDEN, SANTA BARBARA MISSION. Photo, by Maude. 




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207 



\^ 



Our Deep-Sea Harbor. 



ly W. C. PATTERSON. 





HE necessity for a commodious harbor adjacent to 
I;os Angeles has long been apparent, and with the 
phenomenal growth in the population and resources 
of Southern California, the need has been more and 
more emphasized. 

The United States Government- many years ago 
recognized this necessity and made numerous appro- 
priations, spending in all upon what is known as the 
inner harbor an aggregate of about one million dol- 
lars. The result of these expenditures was extremely 
satisfactory. The depth of water on the bar was increased from two and 
one-half feet to fourteen feet at low tide. Subsequently a commission 
of United States Engineers, of which Col. Mendell was president, made 
surveys, plans and recommendations for an outer or deep 
sea harbor, available for refuge, commerce and defense. 
At that time the Southern Pacific Company was the only 
railroad which had access to San Pedro Harbor (formerly 
called Wilmington Harbor), and up to iS88 no shipping 
could reach or pass through Los Angeles from tide water 
except over that line.^ 

About that time extensive enterprises were inaugurated 
at Redondo Beach. A large wharf was built at that 
place, which by reason of its availability (except in 
rough weather) and the enterprise of its owners, soon 
absorbed about forty per cent, of the ocean commerce 
from the north, which previously landed at San Pedro. 
About the same period, or a little later, the Los Angeles 
Terminal Railway Company, a corporation composed of wealthy East- 
ern capitalists, acquired Rattlesnake Island, now called Terminal Island, 
thus gaining access to San Pedro Harbor on the east. 

The Southern Pacific Company then constructed a great wharf in 
Santa Monica Bay, which is located northward of both San Pedro and 
Redondo. This location appeared favorable to the interception of ship- 
ping from the north, which was then being divided between Redondo 
and San Pedro. This site, also, by reason of the high bluffs which 
almost encroach upon the heach, was practically inaccessible ex- 
cept to the railway which had already occupied the narrow space. 
The Southern Pacific then began to oppose the construction of a 
deep sea harbor at San Pedro and to urge the building of a break- 
water by the United States Government around its wharf, which 
had been named Port Los Angeles. Through the influence of the 
very able men who dominate that railway company, the recom- 
mendations of the Mendell Board were set aside and Congress was 
importuned to authorize the Secretary of War to refer the matter 
to a new commission, which might possibly report adversely to 
San Pedro. 



/ 

\ / 

SENATOR S. U WHITE 



'M^, 




SENATORG. C. PERKll 




'' w^ 




o 

OJ 
Q 

a, 

s: 

"^ - 

(0 (ti 

S 6 
DQ o 

"5; a 

:? 




OUR DEEP-SEA HARBOR. 



209 




Photo, by Schumacher. 
K. RULE 



An act was passed accord- 
ingly, and under its author- 
ity the Secretary of War 
appointed a board consisting 
of five of the most eminent 
engineers of the United 
States Army, with Colonel 
(now General) Craighill as 
chairman. That board, after 
a most exhaustive examina- 
tion of the merits of San 
Pedro, Santa Monica and 
Redondo, unanimously rec- 




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. 

CHAS. WIER. 



ommended San Pedro as the proper location, confirm- 
ing in effect the conclusions of all previous Government experts. 

In ordinary affairs the question would have been considered settled ; 
but, instead, it was projected into the last session of Congress. After 
an exceedingly earnest contest a law was passed appropriating two mil- 



lion nine hundred thou- 
struction of a harbor at 
Pedro, and authorizing' the 
mission consisting of an 
ofiScer of the Coast and 
experienced engineers 
final location and to pre- 
etc. The commission ap- 
G. Walker, Rear- Admiral 
Rodgers, Assistant U. S. 




sand dollars for the con- 
Santa Monica or at San 
appointment of a com- 
officer of the Navy, an 
Geodetic Survey and three 
from civil life to fix the 
pare plans, specifications, 
pointed consisted of John 
United States Navy ; A. F. 
Coast Survey ; W. H. Burr, 
George S. Morison. These 



Richard P. Morgan and Photo, by schoii 
gentlemen, after long and 8ec> F^eeX^boT ufgW. arduous labors, reported 
by a vote of four to one in favor of San Pedro. Inasmuch as the Act 
reads that "the decision of a majority shall be final as to the location of 
said harbor," the matter is at last considered definitely settled. 

An erroneous impression exists in some parts of the country which 
does an injustice both to Mr. Huntington and the people of Southern 

California. It is not true, as many 

are inclined to believe, that he has 

this section of the country, figur- 
atively speaking, by the throat. 

Even were he disposed to indulge 

in a throttling pastime, our people 

are not made of the stuff" which 

would yield submission. It is true 

that the great railroad of which he 

is president has made a stupendous 

effort to induce the government to 

construct a costly break-water 

which would practically protect Union Eng,co 





CHAS. FORMAN, 
President Chamber of Commerce 



Photo by SchoU. 
FRANCIS. 



OUR DEEP-SEA HARBOR. 



211 




Southern Pacific property only, and while that company, 
without question, prefers to- monopolize business in 
every territory which it enters, it is still entitled to credit 
and consideration for what it has done to further the de- 
velopment of California. 

Having failed to defeat the final location of the harbor 
at San Pedro, Mr. Huntington is too shrewd a man not 
to make the best of the situation. 

The friends of the San Pedro site will long have reason 
to look back with the greatest satisfaction to the part 
which they bore in the fight. An acquaintance with the 

Photo, by Siholi. . ./-., < .••.lj-^.i 

GIBBON more prominent of those who participated in the con- 

test in favor of San Pedro will convince the reader that it was in the 
hands of men who were actuated by business sense, intelligence and the 
highest patriotism. 

The same may be said of its friends among the press. Among our 
dailies the Times and the Herald have been alert and constant in their 
loyalty, while of the monthlies of the coast the Land of Sunshine 
from the beginning of the contest has been a most fearless and power- 
ful exponent of the right. The winning side always has attractions, 
and it can be said that San Pedro Harbor today has no opponents among 
the press of Southern California. With apparent unanimity all our 
people have settled down to making the most of the opportunity now 
existing, and are united in one common cause, prosperity. 

The creation of a deep-sea harbor implies great things for Southern 
California. It means in all human probability the early construction 
of the Salt I^ake Railway, which will give us an additional transconti- 
nental line. It means the attraction to our port of much .of the com- 
merce of the Orient, which in reaching the great markets of the middle 
and eastern States, will seek the easy grades and favorable conditions 
which attend the lines of railway which radiate eastwardly from Los 
Angeles. 

It means among other things the selfish consideration that several 
millions of dollars are to be expended in the construction of the harbor, 

wharves, docks and ship- 
yards, thus giving em- 
ployment to large num- 
bers of laborers, and 
enhancing the trade of 
our merchants and en- 
couraging our manufac- 
turers. Taking it all in 
all, it means the advent 
of a new epoch of de- 
velopment and prosper- 
ity for Southern Cali- 
fornia. 




n 



Union Eng. Co. 



Photo, by Steckel. 




H. HAWCOOD. 



W. C PATTBRSON. 




Behre, Eng. Photos, by Graham & Morrill. 

REPRESENTATIVE EXHIBITS OF HOME PRODUCTS. 

1. F. W. Braun, Eucalyptus Remedies. 2. Oraig, Stuart & Co., Wholesale Grocers, 3. Foster 

Preserving Co. 4. Los Angeles Soap Co. 5. Boston Dry Goods Co. 6. CudaTiy Packing Co. 



21.^ 



The Merchants' and Manufactur- 
ers' Association. 

BY H. W FRANK, ^PRESIDENT. 

JS>lf%llU extremely creditable and successful **Home Products Ex- 
^^1 position " held in Los Angeles in January was a surprise and an 
^ educator even to our own citizens. Very few realized the extent 
and excellence to which local manufactures had grown, almost unnoted; 
and the graphic lesson taught by this collective exhibit was more than 
a [nine-days' wonder. The exposition proved beyond cavil that Los 
Angeles is even now prepared to supply not only the local demand but 
the whole Southwest with her home products of highest quality and in 
great variety. Arizona and New Mexico no longer need look to Texas, 
Kansas City, Denver or San Francisco ; their wants can be more ad- 
vantageously supplied by the natural metropolis of the Southwest. 

The Exposition also called new attention to the persistent, consistent 
and invaluable work that has been and is being done for this section by 
the vigorous organization which conceived and carried out this success- 
ful and important affair. The Exposition (managed by Charles DeGarmo 
Gray, now General Manager of the Carnival of the Golden Gate), was 
a creation of the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association, and adds 
another to that organization's long list of benefits to the community. 

The real history of the Association dates from January, 1894, when 
six prominent merchants met in the parlors of the Nadeau to confer in 
regard to the boycott then going on against the merchants who were 
advertising in the Los Angeles Times, which newspaper was in trouble 
with the labor unions. It was through this meeting that the strong 
organization we now have was formed. The merchants who were then 
greatly annoyed and abused for offering their wares through the Times, 
at this meeting decided it was high time to have an organization of their 




Behre, Eng. 



GENERAL VIEW OF EXHIBITION . Photo, by Graham & Morrill. 
Showing the prize exhibit of Bishop & Co in center. 







I 




Behre, Eng. 



Photox. by Graham & Morrill. 
REPRESENTATIVE EXHIBITS OF HOME PRODUCTS. 
1. James Hill & Sons, Olives. 2. Excflsior Laundry. 3. Mfiyherg Bros., Queensware, etc. 4. Baker 
Iron Works. 5. Thomson & Boyle, Sanitary Grates, Water Pipe, etc. 6. P. Keam, Brooms. 



MERCHANTS' AND MANUFACTURERS' ASS'N. 215 

own for mutual protection and also to advance the best interests of Los 
Angeles. 

Though nearly all our merchants were members of the Chamber of 
Commerce, it was felt that we should have an organization to deal with 
purely local interests commercially, as well as to help the Chamber keep 
up a standing exhibition and encourage immigration. 

The original officers of the association were : W. C. Furrey, Presi- 
dent ; W. C. Bluett, Vice-President ; H. Jevne, Treasurer ; J. E. Wal- 
deck, Secretary; Directors — M. H. Newmark, Wm. Bien, J. T. Shew- 
ard, J. O. Koepfli, J. S. Salkey, C. H. Hance, T. A. Gardner, Max 
Meyberg. 

The first practical act of the new organization was to have the City 
Council abolish the license tax then paid by all retail merchants and 
ranging from $3.00 to $20.00 per month. With much persistency this 




Behre, Eng Ph^to by Graham & Morrill. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE HOME PRODUCTS EXHIBITION. 
1, R. H Herron ; 2, J B 'hamherlain ; 3, R W. Pridham ; 4, P. L. Baker ; 5, K. A. Stuart ; 
6, Secretary J. V. Wachtel ; 7, Manager C. De G. Gray ; 8, Press Agent F. J Zeehandelaar. 

first battle was fought and won ; the strongest argument being that the 
license was in reality double taxation, as the merchants were already 
doing their share in support of the city by paying taxes on their large 
stocks. 

In April of the same year (1894) the association inaugurated an annual 
carnival season for Southern California with the first *' La Fiesta de Los 
Angeles" (Max Meyberg, Director-General), which has become a per- 
manent annual feature of great benefit to the community, to which it 
has given an immense amount of advertising. La Fiesta also creates a 
diversion much appreciated by our people and brings thousands of 
visitors here yearly. The Fiesta of 1897 bids fair to eclipse all pre- 
vious efforts. 

In 1895 the officers were : J. O. Koepfli, President ; J. S. Salkey, Vice- 



2l6 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 




President ; H. Jevne, Treasurer ; Directors, M. H. New- 
mark, S. B. Lewis, J. B.Johnson, Max Meyberg, W. C. 
Furrey, H. J. WooUacott, J. T. Sheward, W. O. Bluett. 

Those for 1896 were : H. W. Frank, President ; P. 
M. Daniel, Vice-President; K. A. Stuart, Treasurer; 
Wm. H. Knight, Secretary ; Directors, Fred ly. Baker, 
A. G. Bartlett, John J. Bergen, A. H. Fixen, F^. M. 
Coulter, J. A. Kingsley, R. W. Pridham. 

This board started out with a firm resolution to 

build up the association (which had dwindled to 147 

members), to carry out the purposes for which it was 

organized, viz : 

To consider all steps tending to promote the welfare of the city 
of Los Angeles. 

To devise, consider and recommend such legislative, municipal 
and other measures as may be wise and expedient, and for the best 
interests of the city of Los Angeles. 
To aid and assist the authorities of said city in carrying out all ordinances and laws 
for the comfort, safety, health and prosperity of the people living therein. 

To devise and recommend the adoption of such measures as will tend to beautify 
said city and add to its attractiveness 

To originate and aid measures which may add to the pleasure, convenience and 
safety of visitors to this city and to the Coast. 

To encourage the establishment and successful prosecution of manufacturing in- 
dustries, and to induce and assist the location within this city, or in its vicinity, of new 
enterprises. 

To assist the merchants, members of the association, and the mercantile community 
in general, in devising and recommending such trade relations as may seem desirable 
and expedient. 

The dues were raised to $1.00 per month. A regular monthly meet- 
ing of all the members and two meetings of the board were established, 



ng. Photo, by Schumacher, 

, W. FRANK, PRBST. 






Behre, Eng. 



FLASHLIGHT VIEW IN THE DIRECTORS' ROOM. 



Photo by Waite. 



MERCHANTS' AND MANUFACTURERS' ASS'N. 217 



and interest was promoted by bringing up for discussion at the monthly 
meetings new and live topics. By such means the membership has been 
increased to 310. 

This active organization absorbed the Manufacturers' Association, 
with about 60 members, in July, 1896, and the board was increased to 
fifteen. Many important subjects have held the attention of the board, 
and every effort made to promote new lines of steamships and railroads, 
besides numerous matters appertaining to municipal good government. 

In January of this year the association made a great success of its 
*' Home Products Exposition," which added the snug sum of $1124.00 to 
our treasury. 

The latest work of the association was to take charge of and help raise 
a fund to employ deserving citizens who were out of work. Six hun- 
dred men will have been given work and $15,000 paid in wages when 
the work now in progress on a new boulevard in Elysian Park is 
completed. 

This business-like method of assisting the laboring man and those de- 
pendent upon him is, I am sure, much appreciated by all classes, and in 
my opinion is a lasting honor to the association. 

In the near future it is designed to erect a great exposition building, 
suitable for large conventions and expositions. If this can be done, it 
will add greatly to the success of the association, and no doubt prove a 
profitable investment. If each of the 300 members would subscribe for 
one share of stock at a par value of say $200.00, a fine building and 
suitable lot could be obtained. As Los Angeles is likely soon to be the 
terminus of another transcontinental road via Salt Lake, and we are to 
have a fine harbor at San Pedro, it behooves our business men to look 
ahead, remembering that in the future, as in the past, the city must de- 
pend on the enterprise and public spirit of its citizens to keep its present 
rank as the second city in commercial im- 
portance on the Pacific Coast. We may 
some day take the lead even of San Fran- 
cisco, considering the rapid strides we 
have made in the last ten years — from a 
population of 50,000, as per the last census, 
to a population calculated by Postmaster 
John R. Mathews, at 105,000. 

For those who understand their busi- 
ness, there is today* an opportunity in 
various lines of manufactures that would 
be first to reap the advantages of the near 
future ; especially now that we have cheap 
fuel in the way of crude oil at our very 
doors. 




CHAS DE C. CRAY, 
Manager Home Products Exhibition. 



2l8 



J 



Redlands. 



BY WM. M. TISDALK. 



EN years ago this expressive name was first ap- 
plied to a series of long slopes of red, clayey soil, 
extending from the eastern foothills of the San 
Bernardino valley to the long plains which tame 
the impetuous onrush of the Santa Ana where it 
swings to the lower levels from its high birthplace 
north of Mt. San Bernardino. Today it is the 
name of the easternmost of the beautiful citiep that 
adorn the most fertile valleys of Southern California. 
The tourist after crossing the Colorado desert and 
traversing the pass of San Gorgonio, sees his first orange-groves at 
Redlands Junction. If he comes by the Santa Fe, he glides down the 
long hill this side of the Cajon pass to San Bernardino ; and if he takes 







Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. 



REDLANDS HIGH SCHOOIjt 



Photo, by Paxton. 



the train there for the eastern loop of the " Kite-shaped track," he finds 
Redlands the principal town of this famous orange-growing section. 

There is a continuous rise from the ocean, ninety miles away ; and at 
a height of about 1,500 feet, Redlands looks down upon the broad west- 
erly valleys which extend from the mountains to Los Angeles. 

When the writer first knew Redlands, nine years ago, there were only 
a lonesome-looking brick block, a single railroad, a few scattered, insig- 
nificant little orange groves at.d a wonderful vision of mountains and 
valleys, and azure sky over all. Today there is a city of 5000 people, 
with three railroads, handsome business houses, electricity, half a score 
of churches, elegant public buildings and splendid schools, with many 
tasteful and ornate houses. And everywhere, upon the hills and rolling 
ground, as well as upon the nearer level valley, are magnificent orange- 



REDLANDS. 



219 



groves. This magical transformation is an indication of what may be 
done with every available acre between Santa Monica and Mt. San Ber- 
nardino. 




Behre, Eng. 



RESIDENCE OF A. H. SMILEY. 



Photo, by Paxton. 



171 



220 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 




THE UNION BANK IN 1887. 

The growth of the orange-groves of Redlands and its surrounding 
territory reminds one of the trick of the Hindoo fakir, who plants a seed, 
before your eyes, in a little pot of earth, covers it with a cloth, waits a 
few moments, and reveals a mango- tree laden with fruit. The orange 
crop of this vicinity is 800 carloads a year, and will soon be three times 
that amount. These oranges have a place of their own in the markets 
of the East — at the top. The Redlands navel orange, time and again in 
the past three years has sold at 25 to 50 cents per box more than those of 
other California localities. Whether this is a result of a factitious repu- 
tation or of an actual difference in quality I shall leave to the dealers to 
discuss, but the fact is an excellent advertisement for the leading in- 
dustry of Redlands and gives an increased value to every acre of citrus 
groves in this vicinity. Redlands has never had a frost to injure its 







Union Eng. Co. 



THK UNION BANK IN 1897. 



Photo, by K. 0. Wells. 



REDLANDS. 221 

oranges and lemons to an extent worth mentioning ; its trees have been 
kept remarkably free from insect pests by tireless vigilance ; and growers 
and packers have spared nothing to place upon the market the very best 
fruit in the very best way, with absolute uniformity and honesty of 
quality. The result shows that a good article is always in demand, 
even in hard times, for there is always a class of consumers in the great 
cities to whom quality, not price, is the first consideration. 

This is a question of prime importance to Redlands. There are consid- 
erable areas in other fruits, and latent possibilities of other industries ; 
but Redlands today derives almost all of its income from this single 
fruit. The navel orange seems to be reasonably reliable for an income, 
if we can accept the statement of the prominent New York jobber who 
recently said : 

" The California oranges, alone of all products, sold not only at a good price, but 
realized a profit for shippers, when all foreign oranges were disposed of at the lowest 
prices on record and at tremendous losses to owners. No single product of the earth 
has made the marvelous stride in popular favor, increase in demand and consumption, 
which marks the record of this week's sale of California oranges." 




Union Eng. Co. ^ general VIEW of redlands. Photo, by J F. E. 

Producing only a limited quantity of the choicest fruit, the growers of 
Redlands and Highlands have had no fears of a glutted market. The 
effort has been to establish a reputation and to secure a high price rather 
than to force fruit upon an unwilling market, or to attempt to drive in- 
ferior fruit out. Nearly all the oranges in this section are marketed by 
local associations, upon a cooperative plan, all the growers being inter- 
ested to maintain the highest quality in the brands that have come to be 
recognized as distinctive of this section. Losses through rejections or 
failures to collect are almost unknown, and all shippers from Redlands, 
whether associations, firms or individuals, are compelled to maintain 
quality and price. The owners of full-bearing groves in this vicinity, 
which are paying from $250 to I500 an acre, net, this season, can afford 
to smile at hard times. 

As Redlands lies close to the highest mountains, with some of the 
most extensive water-sheds, in Southern California, there is no danger 



222 



LAND OF SUNSHINB 



of a water-famine. There are many old and 
valuable water rights uncontrolled by any cor- 
poration. In some localities tunnels have de- 
veloped a fine flow at a comparatively trifling 
cost. There is a wide area of 
level land now watered by 
wells pumped by electricity. 
The rancher with a property 
of this sort, watered m this 
way, and growing Redlands 
navel oranges, is as nearly in- 
dependent as any tiller of the 
soil can be. 

The homes of Redlands are 
as remarkable in their way as 
her orange groves. The stran- 
ger sees at once that this is a 
community of refined and 
enterprising people. There is unvarying attention to home adorn- 
ment, and the wonderful possibilities of soil, climate and water-supply 
are used to the highest advantage. This is true not only of the many 
very handsome places of the wealthy, but of the less pretentious homes. 
The population of Redlands is largely derived from New England, 
New York and other Eastern States — men who have brought the thrift, 
enterprise, refinement and regard for education and progress which 
characterize the best portions of the East. The commodious churches, 
beautiful and well-equipped public library, and schools excellent in 
buildings and standard of scholarship — all testify to active public spirit. 
The schools of Redlands take the child, almost without expense, from 
the kindergarten to the State University . 

Redlands people have a marked inclination towards all sorts of 




Mauiard -Collier Eng. Co. 

RESIDENCE OF A. 



Photo, by J. F. E 
HUBBARD. 




Behre, Eng 



RESIDENCE OF C. L. AND F. H. CLOCK. 



Photo, by Paxton. 



REDLANDS. 



223 




Union Eng. Co. 



societies, religious, humane, fra- 
ternal, educational, musical, 
social, benevolent and horticul- 
tural. The greatest deprivation 
in a small town for those accus- 
tomed to city life, is a lack of 
high-class entertainments. But 
local talent goes a long way 
here ; and Redlands, San Ber- 
nardino and Riverside now form 
a circuit which begins to attract 
some of the best artists that 
come to the Coast. Fortunately, 
too, we are only two hours from 
Los Angeles, a distance by no 
means prohibitive if one wants 
to get farther into the world. 

The climate and scenery of Redlands attract hundreds of winter tourists 
every year. Many become enthusiastic lovers of the place and return to 
become citizens. The public spirit of Messrs. A. K. and A. H. Smiley 
has furnished these transient guests a superb object lesson in what may 
be accomplished here by good taste and money. The far-famed " Smiley 
Heights," or Caiion Crest Park is the most unique and elaborate private 
park in California. These grounds comprise 200 acres on the crest of 
the hills south of Redlands, 200 feet higher than the town. The first 
plantings were made in April, 1890, since which time a barren, sun-burnt, 
irregular mass of hill-side has been transformed into a wonderland of 
flowers and foliage. 

The southern exposure of Caiion Crest Park is the side of a narrow 
gorge, San Timoteo canon, and no attempt has been made to cultivate 
its precipitous slope, which is picturesque and beautiful. 

The view to the north is a beautiful contrast. In the immediate fore- 



Photo. by K 0. Wells. 
BUILDING. 




Union Eng. Co. 



RBSIDBNCB OF EDWARD F. PARTRIDOB. 



Photo, by Pax ton. 



224 LAND or SUNSHINE 

ground, right and left, are the billowy hills, all glossy green with the 
orange. From these fall away long, gentle slopes towards the valley, 
planted likewise to orange trees. Almost every grove (five, ten, 
twenty or fifty acres) surrounds a home — prehaps a pretentious modern 
residence, perhaps only a cottage, but always gay with embowering 
roses. Beyond these cluster the business blocks of the town. Farther 
north are wide deciduous orchards, velvety grain-fields and lusty vine- 
yards, each with its new effect of color. In the farthest distance, under 
the northern foot-hills, gleam the boulder-strewn sands of the Santa Ana, 

Away to the westward the valley widens toward the coast. From the 
farthest point of vision on the northwest to the farthest on the south- 
east, a sweep of a hundred miles, rises the San Bernardino range. Its 
highest points are the peaks of San Antonio, Cucamonga, San Bernar- 
dino, San Gorgonio and San Jacinto. Between the frowning, battle- 
mented slopes of these is an almost continuous mountain wall, partially 
broken only at the passes through which the transcontinental railroads 
enter Southern California. In the winter these peaks are thickly cov- 
ered with snow and are marvelously beautiful. San Jacinto on the ex- 
treme southeast, a peak which rises ten thousand feet in five miles, is 
especially noble and majestic ; a mighty, lonely dome of snow. 

The view from Canon Crest Park has been compared to almost every- 
thing ; pronounced finer than that from Monte Carlo or that from the 
Alhambra. Those who have traveled widely try to find an apt compari- 
son, and invariably fail. Those who have not traveled content them- 
selves with saying that it is the finest view they have ever seen. Where one 
sees best this wonderful panorama, the Messrs. Smiley have made their 
homes, two tasteful residences surrounded by such a park as is not dupli- 
cated in California. Here are all the trees, shrubs and flowers that 
flourish in the semi-tropics. There are over a thousand different varieties 
of trees and shrubs, to say nothing of the flowers. No other collection 
in Southern California has one-sixth as many. Here nature has made a 
growth in six years that would require half a lifetime in a colder climate. 
The park has 40 varieties of eucalyptus, 20 of acacias and 15 of palms. 
There are deodar cedars and cedars of Lebanon ; many varieties of 
cypress ; six rare varieties of native pines ; sequoias — both the gigantea 
and the sempervirens — the magnolia grandiflora, the California bay-tree 
and scores of trees the very names of which are unfamiliar to the general 
reader. 

The flowers are far too numerous to mention, and include everything 
from the foreign-born crysanthemum to the brilliant California poppy. 
The irrigation system on this property is a model. There are seven 
miles of piping, two miles being of six-inch pipe. The park is traversed 
by five miles of roadway and there are three or four miles of stone 
masonry. Every detail has been supervised by the owners, who are 
eminently fitted for the work by years of experience East and West. 
This magnificent property has been thrown open to the public for any 
reasonable enjoyment, and thousands of people come to Redlands for 
the express purpose of visiting it. 



REDLANDS. 



225 



A typical Redlands " place " is the residence and grove of C. L. Clock 
and sons who are among the more recent comers from the East. Flee- 
ing from the rigors of Iowa winters they came to Southern California 
and visited all sections before deciding upon Redlands. The charms of 
its climate and scenery decided them and they are convinced, by their 
experience in orange growing up to the present time, that it is the most 
profitable form of farming possible in the United States. 

The newspapers of Redland have always done loyal and efficient ser- 
vice in promoting its welfare. The Citrograph, which was the first 
paper started in Redlands, has occupied a unique place among the weekly 
iournals of California for ability and typographical beauty. The Facts, 
the first paper in Redlands to become a daily, is wide-awake, vigorous 
and well edited. 

The Redlands High School is an institution of which any city might 
be proud, and is ranked second among the high schools of Southern 
California, in standard of scholarship and equipment. It has a commo- 
dious building furnished with every modern convenience. The recita- 
tion and assembly rooms are handsome, airy and sunny, the largest 
seating 200 pupils; This school is only five years old, but its enrollment 
at the present time is 170. It has a well-equipped chemical laboratory, 
an excellent reference library, laboratories and recitation rooms for the 
natural sciences, electricity throughout the building, etc. The principal 
is Ivewis B. Avery, and under his efficient supervision the school main- 
tains a high standard . 

The three banks of Redlands are noted for conservative and public- 
spirited policy. The First National Bank and the Savings Bank of Red- 
lands are under the same management. The directors and stockholders 
are among the leading capitalists of the city. 




Mansard Collier Eng. Co. 



RESIDENCE OF A, K, SMILEY, 



226 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

The Union Bank is the oldest in Redlands proper. It has owned its 
banking house ten years, and owns no other real estate. The products 
of the surrounding country are very largely marketed through it. Its 
financial policy has always been very consersative. Speculative enter- 
prises have always been avoided and it has on deposit no county or other 
public funds. The officers and stockholders are among the leading 
citizens of Redlands. 

The Masons have in Redlands four lodges and chapters. 

The Redlands Chamber of Commerce, now in its fourth year, has done 
great work in building up the city. Such organizations are not usually 
long-lived, but this has shown unusual vitality and activity. The present 
officers are, President, A. B. Ruggles ; Vice-president, S. S. Haver ; 
Secretary, C. T. Giffi^rd. 

The Redlands Electric I^ight and Power Company was first in the 
United States to adopt the " three phase " system for the transmission of 
electricity. This company generates electricity by water, operating a 
plant which produces i,ooo horse power, and furnishes light and power 
iu Redlands and to points nearly thirty miles distant. So successful has 
it been that a new company has recently been formed, plans have been 
made and large capital has been enlisted for extensive additions to this 
system. A sufficient amount of water will be taken from the Santa Ana 
river at its junction with Bear Creek, and delivered at the head of the 
present Bear Valley canal, with a fall of i,ioo feet, to generate 10,000 
horse power. This energy will be converted into electricity which will 
be transmitted, by a current of 30,000 volts, and used at different points 
between Redlands and Los Angeles, and in Los Angeles, seventy-five 
miles away. It will form the longest system for the transmission of elec- 
tricity in the world. 

Work has already commenced. H. H. Sinclair, of Redlands, known 
for his energy and success in business affairs, and Henry Fisher, an 
Eastern capitalist of large means^ are at the head of the enterprise, and 
its completion will be a very important step in the development of this 
portion of Southern California. 

Although not especially advertised as a sanitarium, Redlands is visited 
by many health- seekers as its winter climate is dryer and less severe than 
that of towns nearer the coast. It has always been a favorite city with 
the tourist travel which is constantly increasing. The hotel accommo- 
dations are now ample and adapted to all tastes and purses. 

Some of the most popular mountain summer-resorts are most readily 
reached from Redlands ; and fisherman and hunter find in the streams 
and forests of the San Bernardino range the finest sport in California. 

The business houses of Redlands are all that could be desired in a city 
of its size for equipment, stock and prices. The three railroads provide 
some forty local trains a day and a choice of three routes to the East. 
With its natural advantages of soil, climate, scenery and water supply, its 
acquired advantages social, educational and religious, the high reputa- 
tion of its citrus fruits, its remarkable growth and still greater prospects, 
this youngest of the cities of Southern California well deserves the whole- 
souled loyalty of its citizens and the careful consideration of any who are 
looking towards California for the making of a home. 



227 



• La Fiesta, 1897. 

A FIESTA DE I^OS ANGELES, from an experiment three years 
ago, has risen to be recognized as the foremost carnival in the 
West, an annual merrymaking which attracts people from all 
over the country. Southern California has the making of the most 
beautiful carnivals in the world, the Italian standards not excepted and 
New Orleans not in the race at all ; and we are gradually growing toward 
fulfillment. The two fiestas thus far held have been shining successes ; 
and it is hoped that this of 1897 will beat the record. The events run 
from April 20 to 24 inclusive, beginning with the fancy dress ball in 
honor of La Reina de la Fiesta. A street parade of Spanish Caballeros, 
the gorgeous Chinese with their wonderful 500- foot dragon, the military 




Mausard-CoUier Eng. Co. 

LA REINA DE LA FIESTA, 



Copyright 1897 by SchoU. 
MISS FRANCISCA ALEXANDER. 



and societies ; grand concerts, athletic sports, and a water-carnival ; a 
night parade, " the Legends of Flowers," with 20 splendid floats, and a 
floral parade by day, with such wealth of flowers as no other civilized 
country can match, and an evening's masking, are among the attractions. 
The tribunes will be in the same place as last year. 

A happy thing has been done in the selection of this year's Queen of 
the Fiesta. Miss Francisca Alexander, a native Californian, a fine type 
of Spanish beauty, and a young woman of great charm and of sterling 
good sense, will discharge the gracious duties of queen. 

The May Land of Sunshine will illustrate the Fiesta thoroughly and 
graphically. 



228 



A New Dispensation. 




w 



lECENT revolutions in the local newspaper field have 
given Los Angeles a good fortune perhaps unparalleled 
J^ ^ among cities of its size ; its three dailies directed by 
men of the highest character and ability. The Times 
under Col. H. G. Otis has always been a power for good ; and 
now that Wm. A. Spalding has taken the Herald, and Charles 
Dwight Willard the Express, the field is occupied in a way 
which should revive the best traditions of journalism. 

Mr. Willard, though young (37), has an established reputa- 
tion as a man of letters and a man of affairs. For years he 
was the Argonaut's best contributor ; and his short stories at- 
tracted wide attention. He had years also of the direct news- 
L. A. Eng. Co. schoii, Photo, paper training on the dailies, and mastered his profession. 
cHAs. D. WILLARD. Sluce 1891 hc has been connected with the Los Angeles Cham- 
ber of Commerce, where he developed extraordinary executive ability. 
During Mr. Willard's term as secretary, and very 
largely through his alertness, energy and tact, the 
Chamber has grown from a moribund institution 
to an organization unique in the United States. 
It has now a membership of 900, owns a mag- 
nificent exposition of California products, and is 
a great power in the community. If Mr. Willard 
can work a proportionate miracle upon his news- 
paper, he will make it one of the best properties 
in the West. 

Mr. Willard is president of the Sunset Club, has 
been all through the harbor fight one of the most 
effective champions of the honest side, and all in 
all is one of the coming men of Southern Cal- 
ifornia. 

Fred L. Alles, now business manager of the re- 
organized Express, is another man of high standing and of peculiar 
ability for the place. A stronger team could not be found. 

The National Irrigation Congress owes more to Mr. Alles than to any 
other one man ; and he was its secretary until its recent degeneration. 




FRED L. ALLES. 



A Public Loss. 



OUTHERN CALIFORNIA haslost a staunch 
and wise friend and a good citizen in the 
sudden death of Kirtland H. Wade, General 
Manager of the Southern California Railway. 
A quiet, balanced, clear-headed, warm-hearted 
man, universally respected, and by all who 
knew him well, warmly loved, he did a large work 
in the development of this end of the State, and 
unconsciously won for himself in the community 
a place that wall not soon be filled. 

His death by apoplexy at fifty-two was an un- 
expected cutting short of a useful life, and a cruel 
The great mechanism with which he was identified 
will go on safely and well ; but there will always be a regretful memory 
for the man who added to his position the charm of a lovable character. 




K. H. WADE. 



blow to his friends. 



229 



California Beet Sugar. 




! 



N these days of gigantic trusts, 
controlled for the most part 
by foreign capital, it is re- 
freshing to turn to our own 
California industries, pluckily 
making their way with home 
material, home labor and home 
capital. Such an institution is 
the Chino Beet Sugar Company, 
founded in 1891 at a cost of 
$400,000. Its factory at Chino 
BEET SUGAR FACTORY, CHINO. begau with a 350 ton capacity ; 

now it slices and works into white, granulated sugar three times that 
tonnage every twenty-four hours. This, despite the trying repeal of the 
bounty law, speaks volumes for the tenacity of purpose of the stock- 
holders, who have added to the original investment until the plant now 
represents a total cost of $1,500,000. 

As an agricultural crop in this country, sugar beets have been obliged 
to fight their way to the confidence of incredulous farmers. The intro- 
duction of a farm crop with which our people are entirely unfamiliar, 
and bringing with it such radically new features of agriculture, and the 
adoption of it in a community on a scale sufficient to warrant the erec- 
tion of a sugar factory, is no easy task. 

Until after the second crop was harvested in Chino, there were 
many thereabouts who doubted the advantages of the industry. Now 
everybody acknowledges the sugar beet as his best friend. 

A field crop of this character naturally invites from an enthusiast 
highly colored statements and exaggerated figures on the returns and 
profits. The Chino Beet Sugar Company has therefore collected figures 
from growers showing it to be indisputably a much more profitable 
crop, on an average, than those commonly grown in California, and 
this testimony has had the effect of increasing the acreage to a point 
testing the capacity of the factory. 

The growing popularity of beet sugar is attested by the increased con- 
sumption of it. In i8bo the world's consumption of cane sugar was 
2,200,000 tons, and in 1894, 2,904,000 tons, whereas the consumption of 
beet sugar in 1880 was 1,030,000 tons, and in 1894, 4,975,000 tons. Thus 
showing that the consumption of beet sugar increased by 383 per cent, 
as against only 32 per cent. increavSe for cane sugar in the same period 
named. These figures speak eloquently of the uprooting of a prejudice 
arising principally from a lack of knowledge concerning the methods 
employed in extracting sugar from the beet. The apparently anomalous 
statement that cane sugar may be made from sugar beets is endorsed by 
scientists. Technically, sugar from the sugar beet and sugar from sugar 
cane are identically the same. If any difference exists it is in favor of 
the beet as being the most cleanly. With the dissemination of this 
information comes a corresponding increase in sales. The housewife puts 
it to a practical test in the preparation of preserves, jellies, marmalades, 
etc., and the confectioner, long since convinced, uses it where cane sugar 
once held undisputed sway. 

We consume annually 2,500,000 tons of sugar. We pay to foreign 
nations about $120,000,000 annually for sugar. We have the land; we 
have the climate, and we have the brains and bone and sinew to produce 
all that we require. What is required is national protection on the part 
of the government to make these factors effective. A protective duty of 
one and one-half cents per pound, as is at present talked of, is in reality 
no protection to the industry in California, owing to the free entry of 
Hawaiian sugar. 



Redlands.... 



If you want a home in the "Land 
of Sunshine," be sure to see Red- 
lands before buying any property. 
It will be to your advantage to call 
on 



P. Fisl Jr. 



Rooms i , 2 and 3 

UNION BANK BLOCK 
REDLANDS, CAL. 



Orange Groves, Fruit Ranches of 

All kinds, Business and Resident Property.... At Reasonable Prices 




Correspondence Solicited 

Mr. Fisk opened his office in the above building at the time of its completion, it 
being the first business block erected in Redlands ten years ago. He has ever since 
actively engaged in selling Real Estate, and is thoroughly acquainted with all kinds 
of property in Redlands and vicinity. Parties contemplating purchasing property of 
any kind will do well to consult him. 



The Redlands Facts 'jai?;s;b'^ 

lished there, and is the oflBcial 
city paper. Independent Re- 
publican in politics, and with a 
handsome advertising patron- 
age, moral in tone, and always 
working to advance Redlands' 
interests, it exercises quite an 
influence, and there are but few 
families in which it is not a wel- 
come visitor, Wm. G. Moore, 
the present proprietor, came 
here from Pennsylvania in 1895, 
hoping that his pulmonary 
troubles might be benefitted by 
this famous climate. He was 
delighted with Redlands and its 
people, and a most unexpected 
opportunity off^ering for the pur- 
chase of The Facts, he soon 
after its acquisition, purchased 
a pretty home on Cajon street, 
surrounded by bowers of roses 
(150 varieties), callas and citrus 
trees, and is now comfortably 
living there with his wife and 
daughter, while his two sons are 
managing his business and real 
estate interests at his old home 
in Wornelsdorf and Reading, Pa. 
Mr. Moore's antecedents and the intelligence and public spirit with which he has taken hold of in- 
terests in this section, certainly stamp him as of the kind that Southern California desires. 




He Is All Right. 

Who has not seen the Redlands Weekly *' Cttrograph,^' and having seen learned to admire both it 
and its open hearted enterprising editor and proprietor Scipio Craig. Scipio while not so ancient as 
his illustrious namesake is nevertheless an old timer in Southern California, and with a record as a 
constant and ready champion of its best interests. May his shadow never grow less or the Citrograph 
ever find aught but welcome and gi-atitude among Southern Californians in general and the people of 
Redlands in particular. 



.tease mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 





aker f^mt 



REDLANDS, CALIFORNIA 



$1*25 PER 



r-^iXatr' 



G. BRIGGS, 



Free 'Bus. 



Proprietor 



«^ REDLAND<5,CAL. ^' 



WE ARE UP-TO- 
DATE IN BRIDdE 
WORK 




OUR GOLD CROWNS- 
ARE MADE rROM" 
22 K. GOLD - - - 



■MAt\E AND REPAIR ARTinCIAL TCCTH 
CXTRACT TCCTn WITnOUT PAIN 



^ A A ^ il^ 




T^^« only 





THE MOTEL WINDSOR 

REDLANDS. CAL. 

A First-class Tourist and 
Family Hotel. 

The comforts of a home at moderate 

charges, 
lyocation in the business part of the 

city, convenient to stores, public 

library and postoffice. 
Lighted by electricity throughout. 

Suites with private bath. 

Rates 92 per Day upward. 
Special by the vpeek or month. 
J. R. RICHARDS, Prop. 




nease mention that you " saw it in the I«and of Sunshinb." 



SOMETHING EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW. 

The advantages possessed by a large, modem store are all on the customer's side. Everything 
and anything in the shape of first-class, fresh, clean goods can be secured without delay at such a 
store, and, having been purchased in large quantities, they are ofifered at the most tempting prices. 




Mausard-CoUier Eng. Co. Photo, by Waite. 

RETAIL DEPARTMENT OF THE LARGEST AND MOST ELEGANT RETAIL AND WHOLESALB 

GROCERY STORE IN THE WEST. 

This new^ and freshly stocked store w^as opened early m the summer of 1896, at 208-210 S. Spring 
St., by H. Jevne, who has been estabhshed in Los Angeles since 1882. Those unable to visit this great 
emporium in order to make their selections should send for the complete catalogue and price list of 
goods, which is furnished iree on application. 

UP-TO-Df\TE MET-HODS! 

The time is past when one needs to put up with the stiff " celuloid finish" shirt front, the 
rough saw edge to collars and cufi's or the destruction of goods. Among its other modern facilities 
the Empire Steam L,aundry, 149 S. Main, has the only " Soft Gloss Finish " machine of the kind west 
ot Chicago, and the only " No-Saw-Edge on Cutis and Collars " machine in the entire west. The latter 
is their own invention and those who have tried it are unbounded in their praise. There is no excuse 
for being uncomiuriaole or out of-date with such a laundry in the locality — in fact new customers 
wonder how they endured the old methods so long. 




Union Eng. Co 



THE FINISHING ROOM, EMPIRE LAUNDRY. 



Photo by Waite 



WOOD & CHURCH 



Country 
Property 

a fine OKANGE GKOVE of 25 acres close to Pa.sadena ; 11 acres 25 years 
old, and 8 acres 10 years old ; budded. One inch of water to each ten acres. 
There is also a variety of fruit and ornamental trees. Never offered before for less 
than $20,000, but owner wants money, and will sell at $11,250. It will pay 15 per cent, on the investment. 
We have a fine list of Los Angeles and Pasadena city property ; some are bargains. 
Mortgagres and Bonds for Sale. 

123 5. Broadway, los Angeies, cai. Pasadena Office, le s. Baymond Ave. 



City 
Property 

WE OFFER 



Please mention that you '♦saw it in the I.AND of Sumshinb.* 



HAWLEY, KING & CO. 

Broadway and Fifth St. 

LOS ANGELES 




VICTOR 
WORLD-MARCH 
*ND KEATING 
BICYCLES 



CARRIAGES 
BUGGIES 
TRAPS 



Bicycle Sundries H Novelties in Vehicles 

Everything on Wheels 

COMPLETE REPAIR AND PAINT SHOPS. 
FARM IMPLEMENTS 



WHOLESALE STORE.. 



164-168 N. LOS ANGELES STREET t M 




. STANHOPE SURREYS and BUGGIES I 

Are built for comfort, style 
and wear. In fact they are 
the proper things for this 
climate. They will stand 
more use and look better in 
five years than most vehicles 
that are much more expen- 
sive. Our Catalogue shows 
the newest ideas in wheeled 
vehicles. We will send it if 
you write for it. 

200-202 N. LOS ANGELES STREET, LOS ANGELES. GAL. g 

mjijiJTruTjajTxu^inruTJTJiJiJxriJTjTJ^^ 







gjinjTJiJTJTJTJiJinnjiJTJTJinjTJT^ jTruTjajTJxrLanjTJTJTnnTLriiJUx 



JLCLEVELAND... 

RUNS EASY 
CUSTPROOF 

NEW WHEELS FOR RENT 
L. B. WINSTON, 

634 So. Broadway, L. A. 

H. A. LOZIER & CO., ^ 

San Francisco s 



Crui/lJTJTJTJTJTJTJTJJXriJTJTJTJlJTJlJT^^ 




LTLU 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 




OLDEST AND LARGEST BANK IN SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

Farmers and Merchants Bank 

OF LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Capital (paid up) - - $500,000,00 
Surplus and Reserve - - 875,000.00 

Total - - $1,375,000.00 

OFFICERS : 

I. W. Hellman President 

H. W. Hellman Vice-President 

Henry J. Fleishman Cashier 

G. A. J. Heimann Assistant Cashier 

DIRECTORS I 

W. H. Perry, C. E. Thom, J. F, Francis, 
O. W. Childs, I. W Hellman, Jr., T. I,. Duque, 
A. Glassell, H, W, Hellman, I. W. Hellman. 
Special Collection Department. Correspond- 
ence Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 

OF I.OS ANGELES. 

Capital Stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 250,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest,, W,G, Kerckhoff, V,Pres. 

Frank A, Gibson, Cashier. 

G. B. Shaffer, Assistant Cashier, 

directors: 

J. M. Elliott, F, Q. Story, J. D. Hooker, 

J. D. Bicknell. H. Jevne, W. C, Patterson 

W, G. Kerckhoflf. 

No public funds or other preferred deposits 

received by this bank. 

A Free Book 
about Almond 
and Olive Cul= 
ture. 



Tells all about the easiest way to 
start. Tells where the best lands 
are and how to buy them to the 
best advantage — tells about the 
money to be made — in fact, it tells 
all there is to tell — 32 pages of 
splendid money-making reading. 
It's free if you ask for it. 

Del Sur Ranch Co., 

338 S. Broadway, Los Angeles 

Eastern Office : 

930 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 



^gg^^^ggg^ 



€arp«$ 



3m-mM43^^ 



^r^.F%r^' 



Our stock of Carpets is an assort- 
ment to be proud of. There is 
many a store in the large eastern 
cities that does not begin to show 
the variety and choice patterns 
that are to be found in our well- 
lighted and well-ordered carpet 
room. Many of the designs shown 
are exclusive patterns and cannot 
be had in any other Los Angeles 
establishment. Our salesmen will 
be glad to show the new things and 
quote you prices. 



''mtm^i?m 



C^s Jfngeks furniture go. 

eurtains, Rugs, furniture 

225-227-229 S. Broadway »> 

THE BE.HRE, ENGRAVING GO. 





Copper and Zinc Etchings of Every Description 
FINE COLOR PRINTING 



Cor. Franklin and New Hlgli Sts., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention that vou ^'saw It in the Lard op SoicsauiB.' 



Publishers' Department. 



The L.6iT\d of ^ai\Sbii\€ 



THE MAGAZINE OF CALIFORNIA 
AND THE SOUTHWEST 

li.oo A Year. io Cents a Copy. 

FoRKiGN Rates $1.50 a Year. 

Entered at the I^os Angeles Postoffice as second- 
class matter. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 
W. C. Patterson ... - President 
Chas. F. Lummis, V.-Prest. & Managing Editor 
P. A. Pattee - Secretary and Business Mgr. 
H. J. Fleishman ... - Treasurer 
Chas. Cassat Davis - - - - Attorney 



STOCKHOLDERS 



Chas. Forman 

D. Freeman 
F. W. Braun 
Jno. F. Fraucis 
C. G. Baldwin 
S. H. Mott 

W. C. Patterson 

E. W. Jones 

H. J. Fleishman 
Louis Replogle 
Cyrus M. Davis 
Cnas. F. Lummis 



Geo. H. Bonebrake 
C D.Willard 
F. K. Rule 
Andrew Mullen 
I. B. Newton 
Fred L. Alles 
M. E. Wood 
Chas. Cassat Davis 
Alfred P. Griffith 

E. E. Bostwick 
H. E. Brook. 

F. A. Pattee 



All MSS. should be addressed to the Editor. 
No MSS. preserved unless accompanied by re- 
turn postage. 

Address remittances, and important business, 
to F. A. Pattee, Business Manager. 



Redlands Bargain. 

Eighty acres unimproved land on Redlands 
Heights, near Smiley Park, for sale. Best of 
lemon and orange land. Sightly view. Orange 
groves all around. Neighbors, schools, etc. Will 
sell 40 acres or all. Would make a magnificent 
park or home place. Address C. H. Stone, Red- 
lands, or F. W. Marvin, owner, 569 Market St., 
San Francisco. 



Our Oriental Art Emporium. 

We would like to call the attention of our readers 
to the large and most magni6cent display at the 
new headquarters of Messis. H. Sarafian & Co., 
cor. Fourth street and Broadway, Chamber of 
Commerce Building. Mr. H. Sarafian has come 
to Los Angeles from New York for the benefit of 
his health, and has opened a branch of their New 
York headquarters in this city. Many persons 
who have purchased of this experienced collector 
of rugs take pleasure in stating to the public, 
their entire satisfaction of the goods and espe- 
cially the low prices. Mr. H. Sarafian is a gentle- 
men of means and refinement and has made a 
study of this class of art. and Los Angeles is cer- 
tainly to be congratulated on having him in her 
midst. No lover of art should miss this aisplay ot 
oriental art which is free to all. 



Distinguishes It from Others. 

There is something about the Land of Sun- 
shine that distinguishes it from all the other 
magazines of the day. In the first place the 
name is attractive. That there is such a land we 
may well believe when we see its exponent — at- 
tractive in appearance, well edited and finely 
illustrated. It is devoted to the interests of 
Southern California. Every number is valuable 
with articles descriptive of geographical and 
mineral conformation, climate, etc., of the South- 
west ; the customs of the Indians, the old relig- 
ious and social life ; the new possibilities of the 
land. The I,and of Sunshine is very loyal to its 
home, the land of sunshine, and by its graphic 
style and evident knowledge interests the reader 
to hope for more. — Oswego (N. Y.) Daily Times. 

An Education Free. 

This magazine now offers the most liberal pre- 
mium ever given by any publication in the West. 
No trashy jewelry or rejected merchandise, but a 
sound, sensible, practical education for two 
young people who have the energy and brains 
to deserve it. To the two boys or girls, young 
men or young women, who send in before Sept., 
1897, the largest list of subscribers to the Land 
OF Sunshine we will g^ve a six months' free 
scholarship each in the famous Throop Polytech- 
nic Institute, Pasadena. 

You do not lose your work anyway ; for 
if you fail to get one of the scholarships we will 
pay you a cash commission of 25 per cent on all 
subscriptions secured. This is a rare chance for 
wide-awake young Californians. 



Of Historic Value. 

In addition to the splendid series of illustrations 
and with articles dealing with every phase of life 
and nature in Southern California, and in the 
whole Southwest, which give such interest to 
every issue of the Land of Sunshine, Mr. Lum- 
mis begins in the January number to translate, 
with reduced photographic fac-simile of the 
origmals, some of the most valuable sources of 
southwestern history. The first work is the reg- 
ulations for the government of the province ot 
California, approved by the Spanish king in 
October, 1781, and printed in Mexico three years 
later. The service thus rendered by Mr. Lummis 
to historical students is a very considerable one, 
and one which they will not be slow in recogniz- 
ing and acknowledging.— yo«rna/ of Education^ 
Boston. 

Easton & Eldridge. 

Mr. Wendell Easton, of San Francisco, arrived 
in the city March 23rd. Mr. Easton is on a 
business trip in connection with the extensive 
interests of the firm of Easton, Eldridge & Co. in 
this section of the State, and to arrange with Maj . 
Geo. Easton the details of the extensive coloniza- 
tion work the firm has been developing for the 
past few months. When this work is thoroughly 
organized splendid results will follow, and the 
State will be greatly benefited by an addition to 
its population of good, tbrifly, energetic people. 

Exceptional. 

Beautiful surroundings and frostless citrus land 
is not often to be had at $50 an acre, but the Escon- 
dido Land and Town Co. not only furnishes such 
bargains, but with plenty of water, unexcelled 
climate, good school facilities, etc., thrown in. 

Albuquerque, N. M. 

The Grand Central is the only first-class hotel 
in Albuquerque New Mexico. It is located in 
the heart of the business center, and within one 
block of R.R. depot. Modem improvements, 
steam heated rooms, electric lights, comfortably 
furnished rooms, European plan. Rates reason- 
able. Geo. P. Owen, formerly of the San Felipe 
(now closed), is the proprietor. 



EDUCATIONAL 

^^DEPARTNENT 




Girls' Collegiate School. 



MARLBOROUGH SCHOOL 



For Girls and Young Ladies 
865 W. 23d St., Los Angeles. 

Handsome home with family discipline and refined 
family life, for twenty gfirls. New annex this year, 
containing assembly room, class rooms, studio, 
gymnasium, etc. Preparatory to be opened this 
year. Girls graduated in Latin and English 
courses, and prepared for any college to which 
women are admitted. Extended course in English 
Language and Literature, and special opportu- 
nities for work in Art, History, etc. During the 
summer Mrs. Caswell travels in Europe with 
classes. 



CHAFFEY 



AT ONTARIO 

( 'the Model Colony"), CAL. 



An KNDOWED Preparatory and Boarding 
School. 

16 PROFBSSOKS AND TBACHliJRS :— 

(Johns Hopkins ; Oxford, Eng. ; Wesleyan, 
Conn.; Toronto, etc. 

INDIVTDUAt. MKTHOT>: The bright 
are not retarded, the slow not crowded. 
Graduate not ' in four years," but when 
necessary credits are gained— be it earlier 
or later. 

CHAFFBY GRAnUATES SUCCEED: 

5 have been Editors of their respective 
University publications ; 3 Business Man- 
agers : a number have taken first prizes 
in rhetoricals ; i, a member Cal. State 
Univ. Faculty; i, a Fellow in Chicago 
Univ.; 2 Asst. Prin. High Schools ; 2 Edit- 
ors and publishers weekly papers ; etc. 

HBAI^TH : The " College Home" is peculiar 
because of the motherly care of the ma- 
tron, the abundance of well cooked and 
well served food, and other conditions that 
make the new student healthy and hearty. 

TENTH TEAR begins Sept. 17, 1896. 
Address Dean, William T. Randall, A. M. 



MISS MARSH'S SCHOOL 

1340 AND 1342 S. HOPE ST. 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
An incorporated school for young ladies and girls, 
giving all the advantages of a refined home, ad- 
vanced scholarship, and the benefit of the climate, 
to a limited number of students. 
References : 

Rt. Rev. J. H. Johnson, D. D. 
Dr. H. H. Maynard. 
Major G. H. Bonebrake. 



POMONA COLLEGE 



CLAREMONT 
CAL. 



Courses leading to degrees of B.A., B.S., 
and B.L. Its degrees recognized by Uni- 
versity of California and other Graduate 
Schools. Also preparatory School, fitting 
for all Colleges, and a School of Music of 
high grade. 

Address, C. G. BAI^DWIN, Pre*. 

JOHN C. FIIiLMORE, 

Director of School of Music. 

GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 

1918-19;i3-19^4 Soutli Grand ATenue 

For resident and day pupils. An attractive home, 
and thorough school. 

MISS PARSONS AND MISS DENNEN, 

PRINCIPALS 



Pasadena. 

MISS OfJTOK'S 
Classical School for Girls. 

A Boarding and Day School. 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges. 



FROBEL INSTITUTE <«.... -o.... 

COHST ADRCQS ST., COR. HOOVHR ST. 
UOS AflOEUES 

All grades taught, from Kindergarten to College. 
Training School for Kindergartners a specialty. 

PROF. AND MME. LOUIS CLAVERIE. 
Circular sent on application. 

Los Angeles Academy 

I A Boarding School for Boys 

I Ideal location in country, near the foothills. 
Forty boys, eight teachers. Not a large school, 
\ but a good one. Military discipline. $250.00 • 
I year. No extras. Send for catalogue. 

i C. A. WHEAT, Principal, 

P. O. Box 193. liOS Angeles, Cal. 




226 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 

Oldest, Largest and Best. Send for Catalogue. 
G. A. Hough, N. G. Pelkbr, 

President. Vice President. 



Please mention that you "saw It in the Land of Suhshikb. 



THROOP POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE 

PASADENA. CALIFORNIA 



Located in a beautiful city of cultured homes, this splendidly equi-pped technical schoorpives'tc 
each of its pupils, in addition to thorough training in all the subjects ordinarily taught in schools, well 
organized opportunities for exercising skill of hand and accuracy of eye through the use of tools, at 
the same time developing good judgment by the constant application of theory to material and 
mechanical as well as art processes. ^^^^_^_^^____^ 

DEPARTMENTS 

I, History and Civics ; 2, Aticient Languages ; 3, Modern Languages (French, Ger- 
man and Spanish) ; 4, English ; 5, Mathematics ; 6, Mechanical and Architectural 
Drawing; 7, Free-hand Drawing ; 8, Chemistry ; 9, Physics and Electrical Engineer- 
ing ; 10, Biology; 11, Sloyd Manual Training for Juniors ; 12, Sloyd Normal Course 
for training teachers ; 13, Woodshop ; 14, Forging Shop ; 15, Pattern and Machine 
Shop; 16, Clay Modeling and Wood Carving; 17, Sewing; 18, Cooking; 19, Regular 
Grammar Grades. 



NFORMATION ON APPLICATION 

David Heap, Secretary and Business Manager. 



CATALOGUES AND FULL 

Walter A. Edwards, A. M., President. 

Next Term Begins April 6th, 1897. 
To learn how to secure all this free, see oflfer on Publishers' Page of this magazine 



Los Angeles 



10,000 

Positions Filled. 



C. C. BOYNTON, 

Manager. 

Associate of FISK AGENCIES, 
Boston, New York, Chicago, Toronto, Minneapolis, Denver 

Teachers' Agency 



A Reliable Aid to Teachers and Trustees. Manual Free. 



BOYNTON NORriAL prepares teachers for Co. Examinations of all grades ; prepares for Civil 
Service Examinations ; publishers Examination Helps: Primary, 50 c; Grammar Grade, 35c.; High 
School, 25c.; Key to Arithmetic, 40 c.; to Algebra, 25c.; to Music, 25c. Write or call, 

525 Stimson Block, Los Angeles. 



FOR 
DRESSMAKERS 



Ttie Freeman Gurve Ruler- 

This universal curve ruler is 
the most perfect and accurate 
of inventions. Can be used 
any system of dress cutting to 
remodel into the new shapes, 
curves and darts. 

IT IS THE MOST COMPLETE GUIDE IN CUTTING 

All of the new Seamless Jackets and Princess Gowns, as well as all other garments, 
and is a complete system of itself. 149 S. BROADWAY, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 





MINING Water Tanks, Oil Tanks, Steam Boilers, Ore Cars, Ore Buckets, etc. Sheet Iron Work 

PIPE of all kinds. 
Correspondence solicited. 



310-314 Requena Street, Los Angeles, Cal, 



Please mention that you *' saw it in the IvANd of Sunshink. 



Avery-Staub Shoe Co. 






Telephone- 



...2^^ SOUTH BROADWAY 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



Red nil ^ 

FASHIONABLE FOOTWEAR J 




I. T. Ttf^KRTIN... 

531 AND 533 S. SPRING ST. 



BEDROOM, PARLOR 
AND OFFICE 



FURNITURE 



CARPET. MATTING. LINOLEUM, OIL CLOTH and 
HOUSEHOLD GOODS. 

Largest Household Lines in Southern Cal. 



Iron Beds, $7.00 and up. 



I-H F=IESTK IS COTV^ING... 

You may want a Horse Cover, Bicycle, Buggy, Phaeton, Cart or 
Tally Ho decorated. Ivcave it with 

CENTRAL PARK FLORAL COMPANY 

They do all kinds of decorating, and first class work guaranteed. 
Floral work is their Specialty. 13^8. Spring St. Tel. Main 493. 



10 minutes' ride from business center of 

LOS ANGELES. 

Paved and curbed streets, 3 electric car lines, and 
other improvements. The Finest Residence Tract 
in the city. Two story houses now being built and 
sold on the installment plan. Forty houses built 
and sold during last two years. Send for further 
particulars if you want a Home In God's Country. 

Address owner, THOS. McD. POTTER, 

Cor. Main and Jefferson Sts., 

(Also 6-acre bearing Orange Grove I^OS AngeleS, Cal. 

at Redlands.) 




THE KIHNEY HOUSE ^"^=o.t.^'™Skf "" 

Light and well furnished rooms for Families and Traveling 
Men. Best Accommodations in Olobe. 



RATES $2 AND $2.50 PER DAY 

Hoi)6l HardwlGk 

J. J. HARDWICK, Owner. 
J. D. FEE, I<essee. 

Adjoining S. Fm P. & P. Passenger 



First-class Meals 
Elegantly Furnished Rooms 
With all Modem Conveniences 

Phcenix, Arizona 




Fkase xuention tbat you ** saw it to the ]«akd of Sunshine.** 



Phoenix, Mesa, Florence and Globe Stage Line 

C. C. HOCKETT, F»rop., Riverside, Arias. 

The most comfortably equipped route in Arizona. Daylight 
travel only. Stage stops over night at Riverside. 




THE WILLIAMS HOUSE 



-t 



CURTIS G. POWELL 

PROPRIBTOK 



A Strictly First-class service, where the Com- 
forts of a Home may be obtained at 
Reasonable Rates. 



it4 

Iv. W. COLWNS, 
Agent at Phoenix 

Johnson Bros., 

Agent at Mesa 

D. C.Stephens, 

Agent at Florence 

Louis Sultan, 

Agent at Globe 



^ 





1$S 

Cowpany *^ 



$100 AN ACRE 

Is not much to give for a home in 

"God's Country," 
Where there are no cold winters, no 
burning winds, no bliizards, no cy- 
clones, but 

A CHANCE TO REAP WHAT 
YOU SOW. 

If you wish from lo to 40 acres of 
rich, sandy loam, planted in three- 
year-old fruit trees, with railway and 
school facilities, and amid the grand- 
est scenery in 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

address, C. M. Davis, 
123 SOUTH BROADWAY 

LOS ANGELES^ GAL. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land op Sxtnshiitb." 



TOURISTS 

When you leave Los Angeles be sure and s'op oflf at San I.uis Obispo. It is reached by a de- 
lightful stage route, via Santa Barbara, or by boat and rail via Port Harford. We have 

50.000 ACRES OP LAND FOR SALE 

SUBDIVIDED TO SUIT 

IN SAN LUIS OBISPO AND SANTA BARBARA 
COUNTIES 

Suitable for Dairying, Fruit and Vegetable Growing. Climate perfect, Soil fertile, Water abundant 
I15.00 to I50.00 per acre. Terms to, suit. Don't buy until you see 
this part of CalifomU. 
For further Information apply to : 

PACIFIC LAND COMPANY (Owners) 

SAN LUIS OBISPO, CALIFORNIA 



GOING TO MEXICO? 



T' 



THEN STOP *T 



HOTEL TRENTON 



The newest and best hotel in the " Paris of Amer- 
ica." American Plan, Reasonable Rates. The 
Newest and Pleasantest Rooms. 
In the Most Healthful Part of the City of Mexico. 
CALLE DONATO GUERRA, No. 1222 



Pacific Coast Steamsliip Co. 

steamers leave Redondo at 11 a.m., and Port Los 
Angeles at 2.20 p.m., for San Francisco, via 
Santa Barbara and Port Harford : 
Santa Rosa and Corona- 
April 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30 
I,eave San Pedro and East San Pedro for San 
Francisco via Ventura, Carpenteria, Santa 
Barbara, Gaviota, Port Harford (San Luis 
Obispo), Cayucos. San Simeon, Monterey and 
Santa Cruz, at 6:30 p. m.: 
Eureka and Coos Bay- 
April 3, 7, II, 15, 19, 23, 27, 
Leave Port Los Angeles at 6 a.m and Rrdondo at 
nam. for San Diego. Steamer Corona will 
also call at Newport (Santa Ana). 
Santa Rosa and Corona- 
April 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 
The companjr reserves the right to change 
steamers or sailing dates. Cars to connect with 
steamers via San Pedro leave S P. R. R. (Arcade 
Depot) at 5:05 p. m. and Terminal Ry. depot at 
5:05p.m. 

Cars connect via Redondo leave Santa F6 depot 
at 10 a.m. or from Redondo Ry. depot at 9:30 a.m. 
Cars connect via Port Los Angeles leave S. P. R. 
R. depot at 1:35 p.m. for steamers northbound. 
W. P ARRIS, Agent, 
124 W. Second Street, Los Angeles. 
GOODALL, PERKINS & CO., 

General Agents, San Francisco. 



L. A. TERMINAL RAILWAY 



Cor. E. First and 

Meyers Streets 



Take Boyle Heights 
Cars. 



Time Table: 

PASADENA 

Leave for : 7 30, 9 35 a. m. 

1:35, 3 35. 5:38 p. m. 
Arrive from 8 47, 11 ;10, a. m. 
3:10,6:10, 6:40 p. m. 

ALTADENA 

Leave for : 9 :35 a. m. 1 :35 

p m. 3 35 p m 
Arrive from: 11:10 a. m. 

3:10 p. m. 5.10 p m. 

SAN PEDRO 

Leave fr: 8:50 a. m. 1.10, 

5:12 p m. 
Arrive from : 8:30, 11: 

5:36 p. m. 





LOS ANCCLLS 



ALAP1ITD5 
lONOBtACn 



PCDKO 



GLENDALB 
Leave for : 7:2 

11:50 a.m. l.fi 

p.m. 
Arrive from : 8:3 

a. m. 1.05, 6.0 

p. m. 

CAT A LIN A I8L. 
Leave for 8 :50 a n 
Ar. from 6;36p.B 



Boyle Heights cars pass Terminal Station. 

W. J. COX, G. P. A. 



FIVE MILES FROM THE RECENTLY LOCATED 
1>EEP-SEA HARBOR. 



ALAMITOS 



The most beautiful location for a productive home in Southern 
California. The home of tlie Liemon and Olive. Small 
and deciduous fruits grow to perfection. No damaging frosts 
or hot, destructive winds ; a climate perfect, winter or summer. Lovely homes, grand 
ocean and mountain views ; the best of water, and plenty of it. Soil, a rich, sandy 
loam, free from alkali or adobe. Joins JLongr Beach, 20 miles from L-os 
Angreles, on Southern Pacific and Terminal railroads. $150.00 per acre ; % cash, 
balance i, 2 and 3 years. Title perfect. One share of water stock with each acre ot 
land. Addres, K. B. CUSHMAN, Agent Alamitos Land Co., 306 W. First 
Street, Ltoa Ang^eles, Cal. 

Please mention that you " saw it in the Laitd of Sunshinb." 



(ALirODNIA 
LIMITED 



l^^^g^^^H^I^:^ 




SANTA rE 
-ROUTE- 



THE QUICKEST 

Transcontinental Train Leaves 
Los Angeles 

MONDAYS AND THURSDAYS 

AT 8 P. M, 

Palace Sleeping Cars, BufTet and Smoking 

Car and Dining Car, under Harvey's 

management, through to 

DENVER 
KANSAS CITY 
ST. LOUIS AND 
CHICAGO 



The Schedule : 

Leave Los Angeles 8:00 p.m. 
Arrive Denver. 11:15 a.m. 
Arrive Kansas City, 5:40 p.m. 
Arrive St. Louis, 7:00 a.m. 
Arrive Chicago, 9:43 a.m. 



Monday-Thursday 

Thursday-Sunday 

Thursday-Sunday 

Friday-Monday 

Friday-Monday 



Vestibuled Throughout. Lighted by PIntsch 
Gas. No Extra Fare. 



LOS ANGELES TICKET OFFICE, 200 SPRING ST.. COR. SECOND ST. 



LEAVE FOURTH ST 
Los Angeles for 
Pasadena. 
*S 00 am 2 30 pm 
*« 80 am 
7 00 am 

7 30 am 

8 00 am 
8 15 am 
8 80 am 

8 45 am 
t«00am 

9 15 am 
9 80 am 

46 am 
19 00 am 

10 15 am 
MO 30 am 
m 45 am 
1100 am 

11 15 am 
1180 am 
114Aam 
13 00 m 
13 >5 pm 
13 80 pm 

•13 46 pm 
100 pm 

1 15 pm 
1 80 pm 
1 i& pm 
3 00 pm 
316 pm 

'Sundays excepted 

tConnect with Mt 

Lowe Ry. 



Hena and los Angeies and Pasodena end Pacific Electric Rys. 



LEAVE CHESTNUT STREET PASADENA ros 1.08 ANGELES 



Echo Mountain. 




LEAVE FOURTH 8T 

Los Ansreles 
for Santa Mnnica. 
t6 05 am 2 05 pm 

7 05 am '2 35 pm 

8 05 am 3 05 pm 
'8 35 am *3 35 pm 

9 05 am 4 05 pm 
*9 35 am *4 35 pm 

10 05 am 5 05 pm 
•10 35 am '5 35 pm 

11 05 am 6 05 pm 
•II 85 am 7 05 pm 

12 05 am 8 05 pro 
•12 35 pm 9 05 pm 

1 05 pm 10 05 pm 
•1 35 pmttn05pm 
LEAVE HIM. ST . 

Santa Monica. 
t5 35 am 2 35 pm 
t6 35 am '3 05 pm 

7 35 am 3 35 pm 

8 35 am ^4 05 pm 

9 35 Hm 4 35 pm 
•10 05 am ^5 05 pm 

10 35 am 5 85 pm 
•1) 05 am •6 05 pm 

11 35 am 



6 ba pm 
•7 05 pm 

7 35 pm 

8 35 pm 
' 35 pm 



•12 05 am 

12 35 pm 

•1 05 pm 
1 35 pm 

•2 05 pm 10 35 pm 
• Sundays only, 
t E^fept Sunday, 
tt Theatre Car waits 
cloxe of all theatres. 



Best iSt Co., 
..:;f: Stanley Dry Plates 

Cheapest and Best in Market. 

Tourists' Depot for Views of California. 

505>i S. SPRING ST.. LOS ANGELES 



MAGIC 



INTERNS WANTED tftJgil'A^! 

iHARBACH&CO.809FllbertStPhlla.Pa 



TO PHYSICIANS 



Comfortable practice 
and good residence, 
furnished, in most attractive town in the Rio 
Grande Valley, New Mexico. No opposition. On 
railroad. Easy terms. Address, I,. R., care of 
the Kditor of this magazine. 



Please mention that you " saw It iu the I«and op 




A PLEASArtt EVEriirlC... 

at home is out of the question unless you have 
a piano. Good music is worth having isn't it ? 
If so, why not rent a piano from Clark, the 
piano dealer. Renting is cheaper than buying, 
and a good piano can be rented at reasonable 
rates. h. R. Parsons makes a specialty of 
tuning, repairing, polishing and regulating. 

L. FLETCHER CLARK, Piano Dealer, 

111 N. SPRING STREET. 



WE GIVE LIBERAL PREMiUMS for clubs 
of subscribers. Here are some: Moore Bicycle 
saddle for 5 subscriptions. Search Light Lantern 
for 6. Pocket Kodak (loaded) for 6. Bristol steel 
fishing rod for 9. Comet Camera for q. $15 Mil- 
waukee reel for 15. $15 Washburn banjo, mando- 
lin or guitar for 15. $16 Winchester rifle for 16. $18 
Marlin rifle for 18. Complete Spalding tennis outfit 
for 29. $50 phonograph, complete and ready for 
use, for 50. Acme bicycle, '97 model, man's or 
woman's, for icx). $100 Syracuse bicycle, '97 model, 
man's or woman's, built to order, for 125 subscrip 
tions. And there are hundreds of other equally 
desirable articles full particulars of which will be 
found in GAMELAND, the monthly magazine of 
outdoor sport. Subscription price, $1 per year. 
SEND FOR A FREE SAMPLE COPY. Order 
blanks, for use in securing subscriptions, free of 
charge. 

Address, 

GAMELAND PUBLISHING CO., 
Incorporated, 

63 Rutgers Slip, New York. 
Qameland and the Land of Sunshine, $1.60 per year. 



"Western, Masculine and Gritty."— harper's Weekly. 
^ J81.20 a Year.Y'. You Will Like It. 
At News-stands 
10 Cts. 




Sample copy sent on receipt of eight 2-ct. stamps 

" Sports Afield," 358 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Together with Land of Sunshine, $1.50 a year. 



HAVE YOU SEEN 



Modern 
Mexico ? 



The monthly magazine published at 
St. Louis, Mo., and devoted to inter- 
national trade? It's full of information 
about the Southern. Republic, and is 
handsomely illustrated. Printed in Eng- 
lish and Spanish— just the advertising 
medium to reach Mexican buyers. 

$1.00 a year, single copies 10 cents. 

William C. Smith, Manager, 
Insurance Exchange Building, 
St. Ivouis, Mo. 



nnnV AUATniRQ Ifumishanykindofbook^ 
DUUK AMAICUnO, on short notice and easy 
terms. Rare and modem books on Mexico a 
si>ecialty. Address, P. O. Box 158. 

AGUSTTN M. Orortiz, Mcxico City. 
Refers to the editor, by permission. 



Western Field and Stream. 

America's representative monthly publication devoted to game, fish and forest conservation, the 
promotion of sportsmanlike gunning and angling, and the literature of recreative life in sun and 
shade. Edited by Charles Hallock (founder of Forest and Stream) and Mark Biff. Beautifully 
printed and illustrated. Send one dollar for a year's subscription, or stamp for a sample copy to the 
publisher, John P. Burkhard, Pioneer Press Building, St. Paul, Minn. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the I,Aia> of Sunshinb. 



INGLESIDE Floral Company 

QROWER OF 




SEND 

FOR 

ILLUSTRATED 

BROCHURE 

DESCRIBING 

INGLESiDE 

GARDENS 



^ 



ACRES OF CARNATIONS, INGLESIDE. 

Carnations a specialty. Ingrleside Hybrid Gladiolus, finest in the world. 
Nurseries at Alhambra, Cal. Store, 140 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



lARD 
COLUER 

tRAVlNC 
TOT 




i44 Weil ^ Am 
l05An6CLE6(AL. 



ENTENMANN & BORST, Manufacturing 

Jewelers and Watchmakers 

Diamond Setters and Engravers. 

Medals, Society Badges and School Pins in gold 
and silver. Fine Watch Repairing a Specialty. 
Any description of gold and silver jewelry made 
to order and repaired. Old gold and silver bought. 
317}^ South Spring Street 
Rooms 3, 4 and 7. Up Stairs, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




\ 




SEED COMPANY 

113 N. Main St., 
Los Angeles, Gal. 

li floMs Q Speiliy. 

IOC. for pkg. Mixed Seeds. 
New Importation of Beautiful 

FLOWERING BUI.BS 

Grown to Our Order in Haarlem. 
Holland : 



Hyacinths, 

Anemone*/ 

Ranunculns, 

Tulips, 

Narcissus, 



Lilies of the Valley, 
Azaleas, 
Crocus, 
Freesias, 
Lilium Harrisii, 
etc. , etc. 



SEXO YOUR ORDERS 
NOW. 



Flease mention that you *saw it m the Land of SCMSHlifB.^ 



The Ice and Cold Storage Company 

LOS ANGELES AGENTS FOR ICE. 
'-'^^ /MN\aci-co Independent Ice Co Pasadena 

Seventli Street and Santa Fe Ry. • '^^t^^^^''.':'::::'":^'^:^^^ 

_ , , nnn ^^° Wilton Santa Ana 

TPlPnnnnR y/K Yoakum & Powell Santa Monica 

l6l6|illUnC llO W.C.Smith Lorg Beach 




Larg-est Ice auU Kefrig-eratingr Plant on tlie Pacific Coast. 

Pure Ice from Distilled Wkter 

Cold Storagre for all Perishable Commodities. 
DISTILL-eRS OF= THE F=H7V^OUS 

PURITAS WATER 

(2hino! Chino!! 0hino!!! 



Where the Great Sugar Beet Industry of California is located. We want 
thousands of people to cultivate the rich lands at Chino. There is no 
proposition in the United States that offers the inducements for people 
to secure Good -Homes, Good Living and Good Health 
that Chino oflfers. The great factory at Chino wants thousands of tons 
of beets . 



We Have the Beet Land, 
and are Offering It 
at "Reasonable Figures 



^ On l-ong Time and 
J^ Easy Terms 



We guarantee the market for the beet crop raised on the Chino lands. 
The crop will pay for the lands in a few years. Also choice dairy lands. 
We want Butter and Cheese Makers for Chino lands. 3ooklet and 
Pull Infornnation FPCC ! 



Easton, Eldridge Si Co-, 

Los Angei«-s, Cal. 



121 South 
BroadNvay 



Flease mention that you '*saw it in the Land op Sonshivb. 



ft FIESM. NUMBER, 



<^SrOEl6JPtB>tATAN EL ALMA^ 




PTRiOMTeo lee^ ©rt awoof suMSMirse pub co 



5 



CENTS LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO. 

A rriDV INCORPORATED 

A CUFY 501-503 Stimson Building. 



$1 



Health and Rest Seekers 



are 




Our new Mud Bath, just completed, is a iuulI^: 

Los Angeles to Port Harford, from thence train direct to Springs. 

Address: PASO ROBLES SPRINGS HOTEL, Paso Robles, Cat 



Paso loobies 
Springs 
Seekers 



The greatest and most 
beneficial Sanitarium 

upon the Pacific Coast. 

TOURISTS should not 
leave for their homes until a 
visit has been paid these 
Springs. Rates, $10.00, $12.50, 
$15.00 and $17.50 per week. 
HAIiL-OO, 

YE RUEUM ATJCS 
AND 
DYSPEPTICS! 
jiiifort atfd convenience. Take steamer from 
E. F. BURNS, Manager. 




JOHN T. GAFFEY 

HAS 

The Choicest Property 

FOR SALE AT 

SAN PEDRO, CAL. 



Al. LEvg 



Oysters and Fish 



EXCLUSIVELY 

III West Third St. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



Tel. Main 1284 



FOR 
DRESSMAKERS 



Tlie Freemai] Gurve Ruler- 

This universal curve ruler is 
the most perfect and accurate 
of inventions. Can be used 
any system of dress cutting to 
remodel into the new shapes, 
curves and darts. 

IT IS THE MOST COMPLETE GUIDE IN CUTTING 

All of the new Seamless Jackets and Princess Gowns, as well as all other garments, 
and is a complete svstem of itself. 149 S. BROADWAY, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Santa Catalina^lsland, season 1897 





GREATEST ATTRACTIONS IN THE WEST 

Charming climate, wonderful natural attractions, famous fishing and wild goat shooting. The 
new scenic ride from the ocean to Middle Ranch. Splendid coaching, famous Western drivers. 
Delightful Coast excursions. Novel outdoor sports. Grand conctrts every day. Dancing Pyro- 
technic displays Water carnivals, etc., etc. 

Hotel Metropole always open, remodeled and enlarged, new additions, elegant rooms with bath. 
Grand ball- room, etc , ready this season. Island Villa opens July ist. 
Full information, rates and illustrated pamphlets. 

WILMINGTON TRA.NSPORTATION CO., 

222 South Spring St , Los Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention that you 'saw it m the Land of Sonshine.' 



FIESTA VISITORS! 

HOliLiEflBECK 



YOU >?VILL KIND THK 



^he most centrally 
located, first-class 
jfdotel in the city. 

^American or Suro- 
pean Plan. 

Rates reasonable. 



HEADQUARTERS 
FOR 

TOURISTS 
AND 
COMMERCIAL HEN 




9^^^^Vpjt ^ai^M^— 1 



> oi(<jO/S<P y 5C0 ^)?y'^ 9,R(o vX(o vXv'^ 5/i5 ^ ^ v^ 9 o (0 ysCpL 



%. 




SECOfiD AfiD SPHlflG STS., lios Angeles, Cal. 



I. T. 7WYHRTIN... 

631 AND 533 S. SPRING ST. 



BEDROOM, PARLOR 
AND OFFICE 



FURNITURE 



CARPET. MATTING, LINOLEUM. OIL CLOTH and 
HOUSEHOLD GOODS. 

Largest Household Lines in Southern Cal. 



Iron Beds, $7.00 and up. 




Hotel Lillie 

534 South Hill Street 

Opposite Central Park. 

Electric Cars pass the door for the Santa F6 
and Southern Pacific Depots. 

Most Complete, Attractive, Comfortable 
FAMILY AND TOURIST HOTEL 

in Southern California. 



STEAM HFATED. AMERICAN PLAN. 

Rates Low for the Summer. 



Tel. 116S Black. I.08 Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



i;<riVERSiT 




Q AXTA BARBARA, CAL., has stronger 
^Sjl claims on the attention of the tourist than any 
\S^ other resort on the Pacific Coast. Here are 
blended the advantages of climate and natural 
scenery unexcelled by any other locality in California 
or elsewhere. 

An electric street car system, attractive stores, 
churches, schools and colleges, are conveniences not 
to be ignored. Accommodations at hotels "kre reason- 
able in price and appointments the best. 

The livery stables of the town are complete in 
every way and the drivers excellent. 

Santa Barbara is reached by steamship, stage and 
rail from San Francisco, and by steamship and rail 
from L,os Angeles. 



TO THOROUGHLY ENJOY '^U'S^i^S^'^.tt.^^ 

Barbara, good rigs, careful drivers, etc , are essential. If you 
would secure these at minimum rates, telephone from your hotel to 

Main 148— The Fashion Stables 

or call at Livery, State Street, opposite The Mascarel. 

FRANK HARDISON, Proprietor. 



UVERY, 




THERE NEVER WAS A BETTER TIME 

To make investments in and about Santa 
Barbara than just at present. The completion 
of the Coast Route is certain to enhance values. I 
have for sale and for rent 

Desirable Property 

of every description, city and country. 
I.OUIS G. DREYFUS, 124 West Victoria St., 
one-half block from Arlington Hotel, Santa 
Barbara, Cal. 

RIGHT AND WRONG J^J^^TS 

exposed films or plates. I not only know the 
right way but practice it as well. If tourists pre- 
fer to develop their own work, my rooms and 
chemicals are at their service, free of cost. I 
probably have as fine a 

Collection of California Views 
as may be found anywhere, and take pleasure in 
showing them, whether a purchase is made or 
not. When you are at the postoffice you are but 
one square from my place. 

A. H. ROGERS, Photographer, 
Corner State and Haley Sts., Santa Barbara, Cal. 




226 S. Spring St., Los Angbi^es 

Oldest, Largest and Best. Send for Catalogue. 
G. A. Hough, N. G. Pblkbr, 

President. Vice President. 



GLASS 



Book Binders, 

Blank Book Manufacturers 
& LONG 213-215 New High St. 



Los Angeles. 



Tel. Main 535 



THE MOST ENJOYABLE TRIP l^lr^^J^S. 

Los Angeles. Passing through Pasadena, lunch 
at Hotel Oakwood, Santa Anita. Return via. 
Baldwin's Ranch, San Gabriel -.Mission , to East 
Side Park, Los Angeles. DON'T MISS IT ! 



MAGIC 



, INTERNS WANTED iff/cl.m^ 

IHARBACH&C0.809FllbertStPhlla.Pa. 



f\RTISTIC FRAMING 

A SPECIALTY. 




TE DEUM LAUDAMUS ! 



wood Cuts 
lo^al maos 
LTcnin6s 

Elc 



Piciui'^s 
nouloin6s 

Hal^fials 
. STaTiuni^i^y 



GEORGE ELLIOTT 

421 S. spring St., lios Angeles, Cal. 



Please mention Jhat^you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb. 



The Land of Sunshine 

Contents— May, 1897. 

PAGE 

A Patriarch of the Southwest Frontispiece 

A Song of the West, by J. D. Miller 231 

The Artist's Paradise (illustrated), by Chas. F. Lummis 232 

History of the California Missions (illustrated), by C. F. Carter 240 

The Half-Breed's Story, by. Batterman Lindsay 

The Fiesta of Ivos Angeles (illustrated) 

California " Regulations," 1781 

The Landmarks Club 

In the Lion's Den (editorial) 

That Which is Written (editorial) 

The Land We Love (illustrated) '. 

Long Beach and the Alamitos (illustrated) 



A TOUR TO CALIFORNIA IS NOT COMPLETE WITHOUT SEEING 

tficn f 

AT 

South Pasadena. 




BABY OSTRICHS, HEN'S EGG AND OSTRICH EGGS. 



A Branch of the Nor- 
walk Ostrich Farm— 

THE OLDEST 
AND LARGEST 

In America. 

An Ostrich Feather 
Boa or Coll arette, 
made from the local 
product, makes a 
pleasing and useful 
souvenir of the Golden 
State. 



Take the Pasadena and Los Angeles Bleotric cars, or Terminal Ry. cars. 



A POINTER CONCERNING THE NEXT POINT 

FIESTA VISITORS 

When you leave Los Angeles be sure to stop oflf at San Luis Obispo. It is reached by a de- 
lightful stage route, via Santa Barbara, or by boat and rail via Port Harford, You will 
never be nearer, and your visit to this coast will be incomplete without having 
seen this beautiful valley. We have 

50,000 ACRE6 OF LAND FOR SALE 

SUBDIVIDED TO SUIT 

IN SAN LUIS OBISPO AND SANTA BARBARA 
COUNTIES 

Suitable for Dairying, Fruit and Vegetable Growing. Climate perfect, Soil fertile, Water abundant. 

$15.00 to $50.00 per acre. Terms to suit. Don't buy until you see 

this part of California. 

For further Information apply to: PACIFIC LAND COMPANY (Owners) 

SAN LUIS OBISPO, CALIFORNIA 



Please mention that you ** saw it in the Land of SOMSHum.* 



HAWLEY, KING & CO. 



Broadway and Fifth St, 

LOS ANGELES 




VICTOR 
WORLD-MARCH 
*'^'> KEATING 
BICYCLES 



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BUGGIES 
TRAPS 



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Everything on Wheels 

COMPLETE REPAIR AND PAINT SHOPS. 
FARM IMPLEMENTS 



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y^ 



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. STANHOPE SURREYS and BUGGIES 5 

Are built for comfort, style 

and wear. In fact they are 

the proper things for this 

climate. They will stand 

more use and look better in 

five years than most vehicles 

that are much more expen- 
sive. Our Catalogue shows 
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C vehicles. We will send it if 
5 you write for it. 

5 200-202 N. LOS ANGELES STREET, LOS ANGELES. CAL. P 

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Please mention that you "saw it in the I,and of Sunshine." 






20 years of 
t Colurnbias 

y!: The culminative result of a score of 
/!v y^^fs of masterful experience— Co- 



4 



^ 



yj: lumbia bicycles have been tested in the 
yj: crucible of public opinion and have 
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j/jiy that can be for ^ WO— less price 
jljS^ stands for less quality. 



Slf 



Magnificent catalogue, free from Columbia dealers, by mail Mif 
for one 2 -cent stamp* %l/ 

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■HOTEL AKCA1DIA, Santa Monica, eal. 



The only first-class 
tourist hotel in this, 
the leading coast re- 
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pleasant rooms, large 
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beautiful lawn and 
flower gardens. Mag- 
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■dew of the sea. First- 
class orchestra. Surf 
and liot 'water baths 
a positive cure for 
uervous and rheu- 
tuatic disorders. 

Time from I,os An- 
geles by Santa F6 or 
S. P. R.R. 35 minutes, 
Pasadena and Pacific 
electric cars, seventy- 
five minutes. 



S. REINHART, PROPRiExor 




THB LEADING SBASIDB RKSORT. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the I^and of Sunshine." 



With our new CORONADO tank line we are 
now ready with THE PUREST of water to de- 
liver all orders for WATER in syphons, tanks 
and cases, 



Telephone Main 746 

937 East Third Street. 



CORONADO OSTRICH FARM 

Only Two Blocks North of tlie Famous 
HOTEIi DEL CORONADO. 




Chicks 



25 Grown Birds. Incubators Running. 
Hatching Continually. 

Feathers and Shells for Sale. 

W. H. BENTLEY, Proprietor. 

WHEN YOU VISIT 

SAN DIEGO 

REMEMBER . . . 




RATES 

$2.50 PER DAY 

AND UP 



American Plan Only. Centrally 
located, ^levators and fire escapes. Baths, 
hot and cold water in all suites. Modem con- 
veniences. Fine large sample rooms for com- 
mercial travelers. 

J. E. O'BRIEN. PROP. 



Facts are Stubborn Things^ 

WHY? 

Because 
Tliey 
Are 
Indisputable 

THE 

FOLLOWING 
ARE 
FACTS 



CONCERNING 



[mil 




1st — The Soil of the Escondido Valley is wonderfully rich and 
productive. 

2nd— The Price is only $35 to $65 per acre 

3rd — The Markets are good ; Fruits and other products obtain 
the same freight rates to the East as those given at Los Angeles 
and San Diego 

4th— Water is abundant and quality good. 

5th — Fuel is plentiful and cheap. Good dry oak wood can be 
bought for $4 per cord, delivered at your door. 

6th— It is the finest Health Resort in the United States Why? 
Because it possesses the best climate. This is proven by the fact 
that physicians all over the U. S., who have made a study of 
Climates, send their patients to Southern California, and every- 
one in California knows that in San Diego County, 12 to 14 miles 
from the coast, is found the best and most equable climate in 
California. 

7th — Tornadoes, Cyclones, Cold Winters and Hot Summers are 
all unknown at Escondido. 

8th — Ripe Fruit can be picked from the trees every day in the 
year 

Call at one of the offices for illustrated pamphlet, see views, 
samples of products, etc. 

Offices of the Escondido Land and Town Co , Escondido, Cal. 
Los Anobucs, Cal., 305 West Second St. 

H. W. CoTTLB & SoK, Managers 
San Diego, Cal., 1330 E Street, C. Q. Stanton, Manager. 
D. P. HALE, General Manager. 




Flease mention that yon " saw it in the I.amd op Sonshihk.' 



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Late Cutter with Macdougall Garments 

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Angeles 

Cal.^ 



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Agent for 
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Riding Breeches 

and livery a specialty 

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OLDEST AND LARGEST BANK IN SOUTHERN 
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Farmers and Merchants Bank 

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Capital (paid up) - - $500,000.00 
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Total - - $1,375,000.00 

OFFICERS : 

I. W. Hellman President 

H. W. Hellman Vice-President 

Henry J. Fleishman ; Cashier 

G. A. J. Heimann Assistant Cashier 

DIRECTORS : 

W. H. Perry, C. E. Thom, J. F. Francis, 
O. W. Childs, I. W Hellman, Jr., T. L. Duque. 
A. Glassell, H. W. Hellman, I. W. Hellman. 
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Frank A. Gibson, Cashier. 

G. B. Shaffer, Assistant Cashier. 

directors: 

J. M. Elliott, F. Q. Story, J. D. Hooker, 

J. D. Bicknell. H. Jevne, W. C. Patterson 

W. G. Kerckhoflf. 

No public funds or other preferred deposits 

received by this bank. 



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all there is to tell — 32 pages of 
splendid money-making reading. 
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Eastern Office : 

930 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 



GOING TO MEXICO? 



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The newest and best hotel in the " Paris of Amer- 
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Newest and Pleasantest Rooms. 
In the Most Healthful Part of the City of Mexico. 
CALLE DONATO GUERRA. No 1222 



Please wcntioa that too "aaw It In the Iamd of 



A BEAUTIFUL HOME 




Wishing to live on my ranch, I will sell my city home. In the southwest — the prettiest and most 
growing part of I<os Angeles. Best electric line in city passes the door ; another line half a square away. 

100 feet front. Charming modern story-and-a-half cottage, five large rooms downstairs, three 
above. Bath, abundant closets, all modern conveniences. Grape arbor, model henyards and pigeon- 
houses, cellar. Better water supply than center of town. Piped for gas, and hot and cold water. 35 
varieties of fruit on the place. No end of raspberries, blackberries, peaches and figs. Rest of trees 
will all be in bearing in 1897. Rarest and best varieties plums, apricots, peaches, oranges, lemons, 
limes, loquats, pomegranates, grapes, pears, cherries, chirimoyas (custard-apples) , guavas, nectarines, 
prunes, walnuts, olives, etc., etc. Magnificent rosebushes in variety. Fine lawn, flowers and shade 
trees. Splendidly fenced. Insured for two years. More closet-room than in any other house of its size. 

One of the prettiest and most desirable homes in the Land of Sunshine, fruits and flowers. 

For particulars, call on or address CHAS. F. I^UMMIS, 501 Stimson Building, or 15 
Forrester Ave. Traction or University car. 



Union 
Pftow- 
Engravind 

€0 . 





South 
Broadway. 



Co< nnacln 
eal. 




No, 4 
BULLS- 
EYE .. 
$12.00. 



For 4x5 Pictures. 



As Simple ~ . 
Pocket Kodak. 

"Loads in daylight with otir light-proof 
Film Cartridges. Fitted with achromatic 
lens, improved shatter and set of three stops. 
Handsome finish* 

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Booklet Free. Rochester, N. Y. 



Please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunsfxnb. 



THE LANDS OF THE SUN EXPAND THE SOUL. 



THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE' 



I I I w 



LOS ANGELES 



MAY, 1897. 



A Song of the West. 

BY JOSEPH DANA MILLER. 
I. 

Sing lis a soug of the West, where the hearts of men are free, 

Where the birds ot freedom nest close to the western sea ; 

Where the winds are loosed on the hill, and the mountain air is dry, 

And the calm, round moon is still in an endless prairie sky. 

Where in beauty of light and gold, in their everlasting march. 

The legion of .stars are rolled through the seas of the azure arch— 

A spangle of flame and light, a cluster of yellow and gold 

Set deep in the western night, and high where the hills are cold. 

It is here that the sou! has birth, and rises to newer power. 

For here is the sap of earth, saved trom the primal hour ! 

II. 
Here the land of mountain-passes, in an ever endless sweep ; 
Here the surging sea of grasses, and the cataracts that leap 
Over gorge and into canon, with a roar that stuns the ear ; 
What a mighty life began on this strange spot of all our sphere ! 
What a genie first empowered with a strength to smite the hill 
Hewed these rock where lie embowered forest pine and gleaming rill ; 
Genie of enchanted region, who in days when all was new. 
Wrought these mountain peaks, a legion climbing upward to the blue. 
With their wondrous snow-caps gleaming, in a myriad colored rays — 
Sculptor-genie, from whose dreaming sprang this miracle of days ! 

III. 
Sing us a song of the West, of hill and mountain fanned 
From base to climbing crest, by winds from a braver land ; 
Where the virgin soil untrod holds her lap for the seed. 
And men are nearer God in purpose and in deed. 
Come out of the olden East, with its ugly structures high, 
Its mortar and brick, and feast your eyes on a rarer sky. 
Where is neither fog nor smoke, but only a wondrous hue 
Of a newer green awoke under oceans of fleckless blue. 
Who knows but out of the West unheralded shall spring 
The hand that may teach us best to bind the broken string 
Of the nation's harp that lies, shattered, and worn and still. 
And point us to the skies, and the summit of Pisgah hill ! 



Copyright 1897 by Land of Sunshine Pub. Co. 



232 



The ARTIST'S Paradise. 



BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS. 

INCE the nebulous day when 

" Our father Adam sat under the Tree 
And scratched with a stick in the mold, 
And the first rude sketch that the world had seen 
Was joy to his mighty heart — " 

there has doubtless been neither time nor place 
wherein man has not fqund it worth his while to try 
to make pictures. And he has made them — very 
much indeed, as he has made his gods, off his own 
pattern, and not much beyond his own size. Whether 
the cuneiform "inscriptions" of Mesapotamia or the 
inspired marbles of Greece, or the rilievos of Nineveh, 
or the pictoglyphs of Palenque, or the human con- 
dors of Tiahuanaco, or the crude conventional sym- 
bols of Apache, Iroquois or Pueblo — man has been 
pushed by a mightier power than his own to, meddle 
with the graphic. Stronger than his conservatism — 
which is so mighty in savage man that the higher 
civilization has not yet got halfway rid of it — 
stronger than his knowledge of the fact that he does 
not "know how," stronger even than his vanity, 
which dislikes to be sneered at by the primitive art-crit4c, is the general 
human need of pictorial expression. There is not a tribe so unrisen 
that it does not try to picture something ; and among some tribes which 
are not even half civilized, the artistic inclination has had permanent 
and very remarkable results. The man who, after any respectable pre- 
paration for such study, will take up the Nahuatl "picture-writings" or 
the portrait vases of Chimbote, will be amazed to see how far art is a 





Union Eng. Co. 



IN THE HARVEST-FIELD. 



Photo, by D. C. McGaryin. 



• Southwestern Wonderland Series, XIV. 



THE ARTIST'S PARADISE. 



233 



universal and congenital human trait. Civilization, truly, with its focus- 
sing of thought and of means, has added vastly to technique ; but on 
the other hand, as it has atrophied observation it has narrowed the 
talent, so that instead of being so general among us as it was among our 




AGUA DULCE.' 



Photo, by Jas. L. Smith. 



234 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




Behre, Eng. 



FROM PINE — 



Photo, by Maude, 



savage forefathers, it is 
differentiated to a few 
of us — and much more 
apiece. 

But this did not start 
out to be a monograph 
on the evolution of icon- 
ography. Its simple lay 
intention was to remark 
that the appetite to 
make pictures is some- 
thing better than a 
social smartness ; that 
it is a birthright of 
naked humanity from 
the common father ; 
and that it is worth 
our stewardship — even 
when it comes down to 
the most human and 
least divine form of 
" art " — the art of the 
camera. 

Perhaps the saddest 
thing in the case is the 
superstitious slowness 
of the cralt. The savage 
follows strictly his little 
sum of symbols — whose 
catalogue, the world 
over, is astonishingly 
narrow — and the civil- 
ized artist, though he 
has different and wider 
traditions, is no less a 
slave to them. He 
paints or draws with the 



'i 




Commercial Eng. Co. 



TO PALM. 

(In ten miles.) 



Photo, by Maude, 



THE ARTIST'S PARADISE. 



235 



same tools, in the same way, the same subjects as his predecessors since 
the Dawn. And the minor, more modern and more characteristically 
civilized multiple who expresses his art hunger by pressing the button 
is several whole degrees less original. It is estimated (by me) that the 
amount misspent annually in the United States for photographic material 
would buy the whole output of the world of real painters at market 
prices ; while the sum expended in successful photography would prob- 
ably provide a modest funeral for half the failures. 

One of the strangest things about artists — of palette or lens (for only 
a pervert can nowadays deny the capacity of the camera for genuine art 
work) — is their sheeply habit of jumping the same old fence, one after 
another. The young painter who arrives to sell his first daub must at 




Mausard Collier Eng. 



A SOUTHWESTERN TYPE. 

(Pueblo girl of Tesuque, N. M.) 



236 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



once across the water to attempt the threadbare things which are already 
done in France a hundred fold better than he and all his tribe can ever 
do them. And having made bold to sell several second daubs, he must 
settle in New York. 

Now, it is well for art to have a market and the artist bread and butter; 
technique is as necessary in art as trousers are to civilization ; but the 
gentlemen of art do not want to forget what too many literary gentlemen 




THE ARTIST'S PARADISE. 



237 



are nowadays for- 
getting to their det- 
riment — that much 
as style is, material 
is more. No matter 
what their skill of 
telling, they must 
have something to 
tell, if they would 
last. 

While they hud- 
dle like indetermi- 
nate sheep, the 
richest art-quarry 
in the world, prob- 
ably — and certainly 
the richest in reach 
of careful persons 
— is disintegrating. 
The frontier .has 
gone, with all. its 
rough but manly 
picturesque nc'ss, 
and they have 
caught hardly one 
gesture of it. Triv- 
ial a thing as it is, 
there is not tod&y 
an artist in the 
United States who hks ever drawn a six-shooter respectably (on canvas 
at least); and if they have botched this simple tool (made in Hartford, 
Conn.), far less have they been able to grasp the characteristic environ- 
ment of which Col. Colt's apothegm was only a feature. The one man 
(Remington) who can draw any Western horse, is limited to the Northern 
cayuse; and is as innocent of the Arab-blooded mustangs of the South- 




Union Kng. Co. 



A SPANISH RANCHO. 



Photo, by C. F. L. 




THE ARTIST'S PARADISE 239 

west as he is of all Indians who are not Sioux. It is not meant to find 
fault with an artist to whom all Americans are in debt ; but it is a pity 
for the West that his notions have crystalized so hard on one local type 
which is as unlike other (larger and more important) ones as Theodore 
Roosevelt is unlike Thos. Piatt. For that matter, 50 per cent of Ameri- 
can illustrators draw a deer with his ears and horns wrong side out. 

The American Indian — who is, by all his tribes together, unquestion- 
ably the most picturesque human figure that has walked the earth since 
the Rennaissance — is rapidly becoming extinct. In one generation from 
now he will hardly be worth painting anywhere. And no artist has ever 
made more than a few desultory, unacquainted, unrepresentative 
"studies" of him — if we may insult "study" by using it of such 
superficial work. The wonderfully pictorial architecture of bygone 
civilizations is fading as fast from off our continent, and as unrecorded — 
while our rote artists hand-paint the scenes beloved of chromos. The 
Eastern painter of the first class, of good physique and some intelli- 
gence of head as well as craft in his fingers, could make, in ten wise 
years in the Southwest, his everlasting fortune and his everlasting fame. 
A minor artist in the same field could raise himself at once above the 
competition of his biggers and betters — for he would have something 
new and wonderful to tell. But the chances are that neither of these 
gentlemen will come until it is half-way too late. 

But there is one thing that will await even their slugabed awakening. 
The kindest skies that ever wrought magic between the dabs of the 
brush will be the same. Egypt and the Holy Land and the desert West 
Coast of South America, and our own Southwest — the world's chief arid 
lands — will keep their ineffable atmospheres which make a fool of the 
artist from humid countries until he gets their key. Color has a different 
meaniag here ; and he is mortified to discover that he is no longer 
master of his own palette. But when he does learn — ah, then it is 
worth while ! When a man can at last interpret these ineffable atmos- 
pheres ; when " the light that never was on sea or land " (in the wet-sky 
poet's geography) flushes for him, by every dawn and sunset, the magic 
winter-headed peaks whose feet are lapped with eternal summer ; when 
daily the incredible clarit}' of the arid lands teaches him the real mean- 
ing of distance and of detail ; when he learns the difference between his 
old plugged sunlight and the genuine gold, and for his muddy shadows 
finds out the sharp but transparent glooms of the Land of the Afternoon 
— why, then, unless superstition is more than art in him, he begins for 
the first time to grasp some kindergarten notion of what art may at last 
mean . And when he does, it will be a red-letter day for American art. 
For no other civilized country in the world is such a school. Not every 
artist is Ibig enough for it. But when one comes to comprehend the 
secret of Bierstadt and Thos, Hill, and Keith (who have begun to trans- 
late these skies), one begins to dream of what may yet be when Ameri- 
can artists begin to think with their heads. 

For three years this magazine has been presenting characteristic 
photo-engravings of the Southwest ; and a few hints accompany this 
article. The types, the landscapes, the antiquities ; the mountains and 
the ocean, the sceneries of Maine and Florida (here squeezed within a 
dozen miles), the pastoral and the picturesque, the historic and the 
genre, such variety as lay never in any other country of ease to the 
traveler — of how inexhaustible these subjects are, the files of this mag- 
azine are eloquent. I have photographed more picturesque lands than 
even the Southwest ; but there is no other land of tolerable access which 
remotely compares with it in picturesqueness. It is the amateur photo- 
grapher's paradise. And for him who wears the gift of reproducing not 
only form but color, as color is under a real sky, it is matchless. 



24© 



The California Missions. § 




©p' 



BY CHAS. F. CARTER. 

>HB early history of California is probably more pict- 
uresque and interesting than that of any other State 
in the Union.* The energy, courage and zeal which 
8Vi 17 marked the establishment of the Missions by the Francis- 
j|.A.*j i{ cans; the wonderful material growth of these missions; 
the picturesque scenes of Mission, Mexican and Indian life 
through more than half a century, with manners and cus- 
toms so utterly foreign to all our ways ; the pathetic death 
of the Mission system after a career so glorious in spiritual 
and worldly achievement — all these things make the story 
of California fascinating and unusual amid the biographies 
of the States. 

It is sometimes difficult to realize that most of the South- 
west was already an old civilized country at the time of our Revolution- 
ary war. Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Nebraska, California, 
etc., were colonies of Spain. They had been hers for 230 years already ; 
and New Mexico had been colonized nearly 200 years. In New Mexico 
a dozen Missions had been established by 1616. Even in Texas there 
were Missions that were old — as Americans counted age. Near San 
Antonio are the remains of the Mission La Purisima Concepcion, which 
was founded in 17 16. The present church there was begun in 1731 and 
is in excellent preservation. The Mission San Jos^ y San Miguel de 
Aguayo, whose ruins are about two miles distant, was famed in its day 
for elegance of design, the King of Spain having sent out his own 
architect to build it. It was founded in 1720. The oldest Mission in 
Texas was founded in 1690, but was abandoned. 




L A. Eng. Co 



MISSION SAN MIGUEL, CAL. 



Drawn by Chas. F. Carter. 



§ Condensed from an unpublished historical sketch, ' The Missions of Nueva California." 
•This is unquestionably true as to fullfledged States The Territory of New Mexico had a mnch wilder and 
greater romance, partly because its opening up by Europeans began two centuries earlier ; and partly because it 
was occupied by savages remarkably advanced in social organization and of great warlike ability, wh§r«tas the 
California Indians were comparative sheep as to both brains and ferocity.— Ed. 




V. R. DEL V. R E JUMPERO SERRA , 



mmiiJiiiliiWH 



A Kng Co. 



FRAY JUNIPERO SERRA. 
From frontispiece of Palou's " Life," Mexico, 1787. 



1 




THE CALIFORNIA MISSIONS. 



243 



N 



Unrnw 



■^HHSH 



Mansard Collier Eng. Co. 



LA PURieiMA CONCEPCION. 



California has not so long a history. Leaving aside the discoveryf 
and explorations, the real starting point of its history was in 1769 when 
the first Franciscan missionaries arrived from Mexico and founded the 
first Mission. 

The acquisition and settlement of California had its political as well 
as its religious side and aim. The new country was to be a province of 
Spain ; the cheapest and most effective way to colonize it was through 
the church, always zealous to convert the heathen. The long line of 
the Pacific coast was strategically important as against the encroach- 
ments of other nations. . 

As early as 1697 the first Mission, that of Loreto, was founded by the 
Jesuits in Viejat California. This was followed by the establishment of 
a large number of other Missions, from one end of the peninsula to the 
other. 

The authority of the Church, in the days of the conquest of America, 
was ij^reat not only in spiritual but in temporal affairs. In the founding 




Mausard-Collicr Eiig. Co. 



SAN LUIS OBISPO. 



+ Hernando de Alarcon discovered it in 1540, via the liulf and the Colorado river. In 1542 Juan Rodriguez 
Cabrillo explored its Pacific coast to a hundred miles north of where San Francisco now is. Cortez himself dis- 
covered Lower California. — En. 

told. Now called Lower. 



244 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



of the California Missions it was almost paramount, politically as well 
as ecclesiastically. 

A presidio, or frontier post, garrisoned by a few soldiers, was the 
usual first step in colonizing a new country, directly followed by the 
mission. This was the case in Texas and New California, though it does 
not seem to have been so in the peninsula. 

As the number of Missions grew, and their remarkably successful 
and rapid work in pacifying the Indians w^ent on, there was less and less 
need of presidios for their protection. For the twenty-one Missions in 
New California there were but four presidios. 

The Jesuits founded all the Missions of I^ower California up to the 
time of their expulsion, 1767. These Missions were then given over to 
the Franciscan order ; who were soon obliged to divide them with the 
Dominicans. The Franciscans founded only one new Mission in Ivower 
California, turning their attention almost at once to Upper California. 
In a few years they transferred all the southern establishments to the 
Dominicans, and devoted themselves to the new work in the north. 

For several years Mexico and Spain had been growing restive at the 
encroachments of Russia, whose seal-fishers kept creeping down the 
Northern Pacific coast, occasionally reaching California. It seemed 




THE PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY IN 1792 
From Vancouver's " Voyages." 

necessary to occupy this exposed territory before it should fall a prey 
to other nations. Accordingly, by order of Carlos III an expedition to 
occupy and fortify San Diego and Monterey left La Paz (Lower Califor- 
nia) in four divisions ; the first division, on the San Carlos, starting 
January 9, 1769. The last land division, led by Caspar de Portola, 
Governor of Lower California, and accompanied by the great missionary 
fray Junipero ■■ Serra, left Santa Maria, May 11. The second water divi- 
sion, on the San Antonio, was first to reach vSan Diego, anchoring in 
the bay April 11. They had gone by, as far north as Santa Cruz (one 
of the Channel Islands, which they thus christened because of the 
honesty of the natives in restoring an iron cross left ashore) but got 
back and found San Diego bay 18 days ahead of the San Carlos. The 
latter vessel arrived April 29, with her crew down with scurvy ; and a 
hospital had to be established on shore at once. It was probably within 
the limits of the present San Diego " New Town " ; but was soon moved 
some miles north to what is now called " Old Town." Of the 90 sailors, 
soldiers and mechanics stricken with scurvy, less than one-third re- 
covered. Only eight men, at one time, were on their feet. Father 
Serra helped dig the ditch for the dead. 



*Hoo-n6e-per-o. 



THE CALIFORNIA MISSIONS. 



245 



The first land division, with 25 soldados de cuera (leather-jackets) and 
42 christianized Indians from the northern Missions of the peninsula, 
arrived May 14 ; and the second land division came up July i. July 16, 
the first Mission in New California was founded, and dedicated, with what 
ceremony could be had in the wilderness, to San Diego de Alcald •• — for 
whom Vizcaino had named the bay in 1602. The Indians seemed un- 
usually dull to conversion ; and for a full year this first Mission had not 
a single neophyte — a fact unparalleled in California Mission history. 

Two days before this founding, Gov. Portold and nearly all his force 
started overland to find the bay of Monterey and to found there the 
second Mission. They found the place ; but were unable to recognize it 
in summer from Vizcaino's description of it in winter. They went on 
as far as San Francisco bay, and finally gave up the search and marched 
back to San Diego, arriving there in January, 1770. 

Their supplies were nearly gone, and the outlook was discouraging. 
Portola ordered a novena (nine days' devotions). If succor did not 
come before its close, they would retreat to Mexico, ivuckily, before 
that fateful day, the San Antonio came beating into the harbor from the 



north. She had sailed 
Diego by night, her 
Monterey ; but by good 
Channel Islands, had 
return of the party, 
nick of time. So 
tlement saved on 
the very brink of 
ruin . How it 
might have 



past the starving settlers at San 
orders being to meet Portold at 
fortune, in taking water at the 
learned from the Indians of the 
and retraced her course in the 
narrowly was this first little set- 




Union Eng. Co. 



SAN LUIS REY. 



Drawn by Elmer Wachtel . 



changed the whole history of California, down to the present day, had 
that expedition failed ! It is very probable that the country would have 
fallen into the hands of Russia ; or possibly those of England. -^^ 

Father Serra believed that the bay which Portold could not reconcile 
with Vizcaino's description might after all be Monterey ; and, largely 
through his influence, the Governor set out again in April, 1770, to find 
this predestined spot. One division went by land and one by sea. Fray 
Junipero accompanying the latter. This time they recognized the bay 
as Vizcaino's " Monterey ; " and here, June 3, they founded the second 
Mission in what is now the State of California — San Carlos Borromeo.f 
This was presidio and mission both ; an important point, as nearest the 
Russian line of encroachment from the north ; and was for six years 
the northmost point of Spanish settlement. 

The news of the successful founding of Missions at San Diego and 
Monterey caused the greatest rejoicing in the City of Mexico. A 
solemn mass of thanksgiving was celebrated in the Cathedral and it was 
decided to send the means to found five more Missions at once. The 



* St. James of Alcala (A. D. UOO-U0.3) was a Franciscuu of Andalusia. Canonized in 1588. His daj is Nov. 12. 

+ St. flharles Borromco fl.538-158i), son of the Count of Arona (Italy) and nephew of Pius IV , whs Arch- 
bishup of Milan, and a Oardixai. Canonized in 1610. 



246 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 



San ^Antonio, bringing these supplies and 10 friars, reached Monterey 
early in 1771. Father Serra and his followers started southward as soon 
as feasible ; and on the 14th of July founded the Mission of San An- 
tonio de Padua.J Two months later the fourth Mission, San Gabriel Arc- 
angel, was founded. Here a mob of hostile Indians menaced the frailes ; 
but when a picture of the Virgin (painted upon a cloth) was held up, 
the savages threw down their arms and did homage. 

San Luis Obispo*, the fifth Mission, was founded Sept. i, 1772 ; and 
then came an interval of four years before another was established. 

The Indians of Central and Southern California were divided into in- 
numerable small tribes, which at this distance of time cannot be identi- 
fied with any accuracy as to name and locality. The two largest tribes 
in Southern California were the Coahuias,t ranging back into the San 
Bernardino mountains, and the Dieguenos neighboring (and named 
after) San Diego. Among the tribes of Central California the Tulares, 
Tejons and Sonomas are as well known as any ; and their names are 
perpetuated in \he localities they occupied. 




SANTA BARBARA MISSION. 

From an old print. 

These Indians were very low in the human scale. Favored by one of 
the most delicious climates on earth, with little struggle for existence, 
and not much harrassed by marauding neighbor tribes, they were yet far 
below the aborigines of Northern California. The Pueblos, Navajos, 
Apaches and other great tribes of less favored parts of the Southwest 
greatly surpassed them in warlike character and in the arts of peace. The 
California Indians were indolent, naked, little more moral than the brutes. 

April 7, 1772, marked the final and complete separation of the Mis- 
sions of Antigua and Nueva (Lower and Upper, literally Ancient and 
New) California. The Dominicans retained all the former; the Francis- 
cans took control of the latter, including the Missions already founded 
and those thereafter to be established. 



X<t- Anthony of Padua. Born in Lisbon, 1195; died in Padua, 1231. Canonized in 1232. His day is 
June 13. 

• St. Louis (1275-129>!) Bishop f^f Toulouse, son of Charles of Anjou fKing of Naples) and nephew of St. Lauis 
of France. Canonized in 1317. His day is Aup. 19. 

t Misspelled in every possible way and many impossible ones, Most commonly Coahuilla.— Ed. 



THE CALIFORNIA MISSIONS. 



247 




THE LANDING AT SAN DIEGO- 
From an old print. 



Father Serra, President of the 
Missions of New California, 
desired to found at once a Mis- 
sion at San Buenaventura ; but 
its distance from the other es- 
tablishments and the smallness 
of the Spanish force led Fages, 
the military comandante and 
acting Governor, to refuse the 
necessary men. A long and 
bitter controversy arose be- 
tween the Mission President 
and the Comandante ; and re- 
sulted in the recall of the latter 
to Mexico. Father Serra had 
gone to headquarters. He made 
his first report to the Viceroy 
under date of May 21, 1773. 
The five Missions were in charge 
of 19 triarsof the College of San 
Fernando, City of Mexico. Al- 
ready 491 Indian converts had 
been baptized, and 62 couples 
united in christian marriage. 
He reported the live-stock of the Missions as flourishing from the first ; 
but agriculture by irrigation in a strange land was still in the experi- 
mental stage. 

Father Serra was successful with the viceroy as with the heathen. 
Gov. Fages was removed, the authority of the missionaries was increased, 
and so were their material supplies. A royal edict of Sept. to, 1772, 
ordered the viceroy to assign $23,000 annually for the support of the 
Missions of New California. Father Serra returned from his diplomatic 
mission in 1774, reaching San Diego in March. 

In August of the same year he removed the San Diego Mission to its 
present site in " Old Town ; " partly for better farming facilities, partly 
to be nearer the presidio. Here suffered the first martyr of California. 
Nov, 4, 1775, the Indians fired the Mission of San Diego by night. Fray 
Luis Jaime, the priest, wakened 
by the flames, ran out crying 
*' Love God, my children ! " His 
naked body was found after- 
wards, bruised from head to foot 
and with 18 arrow wounds. It 
was buried in the presidio chapel ; 
and later in the rebuilt Mission. 
Two dependents of the Mission 
were butchered along with Padre 
Jaime. 

Mission Dolores, dedicated to 
San Francisco de Asis,^ founder 
and patron of the Franciscan 
order, was founded Oct. 9, 1776, 
in what is now San Francisco. A 
presidio had already been estab- 
lished there. 

(to bk coNHirnKD.) 



• St. Francis (U82-1226). Canonized in 1228. 
His day is Oco. 4. 




THE MIRACLE OF SAN GABRIEL. 
From an old print. 



248 

The Half-Breed's Story. 



»y BATTERMAN LINDSAY. 




HAVE often heard my mother tell about her aunt's wedding. 
It was a great many years ago, before there was any town 
here in Seattle. The whites call the Indians "lazy Indians," 
'* dirty Indians." The Indians are just like white people — 
some are lazy, some are dirty, some are not. 

My grandfather lived in a big house of logs, with tables 
and chairs and beds, as good as any the white people had 
who first came to this country. He was Hyas Tyee of the 
Duwamish, — and Quo-doultz was his name. The Duwamish 
are fair people with grey eyes. My mother was much fairer 
skinned than I am ; I resemble my father, who was a dark 
man. My grandfather's children had slaves to wait on them ; they did 
no work unless they chose ; the girls did beautiful bead work. When 
the boys were old enough to hunt and fish, each had a slave to row his 
canoe or carry his gun My mother had never cooked a meal till she 
became a white man's klootchman — then she had to work hard enough 
with her twelve children coming one after the other, and the men at the 
sawmill to board. She was only forty-two when she died, and a beautiful 
woman still. Yes, I have seen my grandfather ; but he was a proud 
man, and seldom came around the white people ; he had no use for 
their cast-off clothes and left-over food. I have seen him, though, sitting 
by mother's fireplace. My grandmother I never saw. She died when 
my mother was a little girl. The way of her death was sad. She went 
out to pick berries ; and stayed so long that my grandfather went to seek 
her. He followed the path that he thought she must have taken until 
he came to a ravine where a tree had fallen across and made a bridge ; 
he saw that the tree was broken in two in the middle because it had 
become rotten, and he said, "No, she cannot have come this way." 
Then something said to him: "look down," and he looked down in 
the ravine and there was my grandmother hanging on a branch. The 
branch had pierced through her like a spear. Yes, she was dead. My 
grandfather was a young man then, but he never married again. The 
slaves took care of his children until his oldest daughter was old enough 
to govern his house. My grandfather was very strict with his daughters. 
Do you think they were allowed to run about everywhere and go to the 
Indian dances ? No more than you would let your daughters go to public 
balls where you buy a ticket at the door. Princesses? Yes they were 
princesses, real ones. 

About my great-aunt's wedding ? Oh, yes. She was my grandfather's 
only sister, and her name was T'saquinza. A great many young men 
loved her, but her father was very proud and he would not let her marry 
any one but a chief or a chief's son. So it was arranged that she should 
marry Yoot-skut, a young chief of the Snoqualmies. My great-aunt had 
never seen Yoot-skut but once, so that she did not know whether she 
liked him or not, but she must do as her parents wished. That is the 
way with Indian girls, though the Indians never strike their children. 
I never saw my mother strike one of her twelve more than to give them 
a push or a little box on the ear. 

So Yoot-skut came down the river with a great many of his friends, in 
canoes ; it took them a week to come down the Snohomish and up the 
Sound and up the Black river to my great-aunt's home, and there was 
feasting and dancing for a week when they arrived. My great aunt's 
father spent about all that he had in giving feasts and making presents. 
Then when the time came to go away, from the door of the house to the 
canoes they made a road of swan's down a foot deep for the bride to walk 
over and covered it with beautiful blankets woven out of the wool of the 



THE HALF-BREED'S STORY. 249 

mountain sheep. T'saquinza wore moccasins and leggins of fawn skin, 
soft as silk and covered with bead work ; her short skirt was of bright 
red cloth, bought from the traders, and three slave women had worked 
three months weaving her blanket, that was fine enough to put through 
a bracelet. She had a wide belt of bead work, and necklaces and brace- 
lets of shells, and beads and bright ribbons were braided in with her 
long hair. She took with her, to wait upon her, four slave women and 
two boys, given to her by her father. And so my great-aunt was mar- 
ried, and went away with her husband Yoot-skut. They called him 
Yoot-skut because he was short and fat ; and when T'saquinza had lived 
with him only a little while, she made up her mind that she did not like 
him ; but he treated her very kindly, and she was afraid to leave him 
and go home, for she knew her father would be very angry when she had 
no good cause. And, although, as I have told you, the Indians don't 
beat their children, they have a great deal of power over them, es- 
pecially the girls. 

Well, after a while some of the Duwamish came on a visit to the Sno- 
qualmies ; and the Snoqualmies gave them feasts and dances, aud treated 
them well in return for the entertainment they had at my great-aunt's 
wedding. Amongst the Duwamish was a young man by the name of 
Skootza, a great hunter and foot racer, a very big, handsome fellow, and 
an old friend of T'saquinza. So one night, when everybody was singing 
songs, telling tales and dancing, my great-aunt and he took a canoe and 
slipped away in the dark together. When it was found out, there was an 
awful row, and the Snoqualmies and the Duwamish came very near hav- 
ing a fight on the spot. But finally the Duwamish went home very 
angry, and Yoot-skut and his friends took their guns and went to hunt 
T'saquinza and Skootza. But they did not find them. Instead of going 
down the river to the Sound, and back towards their home on It-kow- 
chug (Lake Washington), as everybody supposed they had, they only 
went down as far as where the Skykomish empties into the Snoqualmie, 
and then went up the Skykomish into the mountains ; and there they 
stayed hid for a year. My great-aunt took two of her slaves with her, 
and some few things that they could carry in the canoe, and they got 
along very well and were very happy. They had a little boy that they 
named Klatawah-soot (go-away-and-hide). 

Now all this time Yoot-skut kept looking for his wife, and at last he 
heard where they were, and he took some of his friends and went after 
her. When they came as far as they could go in the canoes, they pulled 
them up into the trees and hid them, and went on foot very carefully, 
for they meant to surprise them and kill Skootza before he had a chance 
to fight ; for they all knew what a good shot and a great fighter he was. 
But it happened, when Yoot-skut and his friends came to the place, that 
Skootza and the slave boy were gone off to hunt mountain sheep, and 
there were only my great-aunt and the slave woman at home. My 
aunt was sitting nursing her baby, and when she saw Yoot-skut and the 
others come out of the woods she was too frightened to move at first ; for 
she knew perfectly well that Yoot-skut had the right to put her to 
death in any manner he chose ; and she had heard of one man that 
had his wife killed in a horrible way that I cannot tell you of. 

Now, in this place they had picked out to hide in, the river took a 
great jump over a precipice, and went down into a deep chasm with high 
walls of rock on both sides, so straight up and down that only a mount- 
ain goat could have climbed them. And when you looked down there 
all you could see was a raist like smoke, with the black rocks showing 
through it here and there ; or if the mist blew to one side, then you 
could see the river at the foot of the fall boiling and seething like water 
in a pot over a fire of pitch knots. 

Just for a moment, as I said, my great-aunt was too frightened to stir; 
then she jumped and ran and stood on the very edge of the chasm, with 



250 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

the babe in her arms. ** If any of you come a step nearer," she said " I 
will jump." Now, Yoot-skut loved his wife very much ; perhaps he 
may have thought he would kill her, I can't say about that, but when 
he saw her, he wanted her back. And he promised her solemnly that 
he would not harm her or the child if only she would come and live with 
him again ; and would forgive all and would be as kind to her as before. 
But she only stood still and shook her head ; she was so close to the 
edge that it made Yoot-skut shiver, and he commenced to beg her that 
she would step ever so little away, for fear that she would overbalance 
herself and fall in ; then when she still stood without moving, he began 
to promise that if she would come with him quietly before the hunters 
returned, that the matter should rest as between him and Skootza, and 
that he or his kin would never take any vengeance on him. But 
T'saquinza only shook her head and stayed on the edge. Then Yoot- 
skut's friends began to jeer at him and asked him what he wanted of a 
woman that would rather lie with the fishes than with him ? " Push her 
over, Yoot skut," said one of them. "Push her over and have done 
with it. Then we will wait behind the trees for Skootza, and attend to 
his matters when he comes back " But Yoot-skut only looked at 
T'saquinza standing there with her baby in her arms, and he said, "Why 
do you not like me, o-quack-a-cull ? (my wife). Was I not always good 
to you ? " 

•' Why would she like a short, fat fellow like you, when there was a 
tall, handsome one waiting behind a tree?" said his friends, taunting 
him to make him angry ; and it did, for the blood flew to Yoot-skut's 
head, and he took a step forward, but stopped himself, for T'saquinza 
stepped yet further back, until it seemed to him that she was standing 
on the air. 

"L/isten, Yoot-skut," she said very earnestly. "You were kind to 
me and denied me nothing that I wished ; and I had hoped you were 
married again long before tliis to some one else prettier and better tem- 
pered than I am. But before ever I saw you I loved Skootza. When we 
were children, playing together on the sand of the beach of It-kow-chug, 
I promised him to be his wife. If I should go back with you now as you 
ask, my spirit would stay here with Skootza, and what is a body without 
a spirit? If you know what love is, as you say, then you should pity me 
and leave me in peace. You may kill me if you like; it is your right. I 
only ask that you shall do it yourself, and no other. But when I have 
given up home and friends and father and mother and brothers, for this 
man, think you I would not give up life also? " 

Then Yoot-skut looked at her a long time before he said, *' Because I 
know what love is, I will leave you in peace. T'saquinza, Skootza's 
wife, good bye." 

And he turned and went away, his friends taunting him, and saying, 
"Sheen! Sheen! Halo sheen mika? — Shame! Shame! Have you no 
shame? that you bring us all this way for nothing but to go back with 
our tails between our legs like tl'kope kowmux " (beaten dogs). 

But Yoot-skut said not a word, except to bid them begone when some 
of them turned ugly and were determined to stay and kill Skootza, if not 
the woman. Then Yoot-skut raised his gun and said that he would 
shoot the first man who turned his face backward, and they all went off 
jeering and sulking. 

And that is all about my great-aunt's wedding. Once when she was a 
very old woman, she said to me, " Yoot-skut was the better man, Tenas 
Karpo (Little Cousin), but we do not love men for their goodness." 

Seattle, Washington. 



-REGULATIONS 

AND INSTRUCTIONS 

For the Garrisons of the Peninsula of Californias. 

fConcluded.) 



251 



v,n i ...cerse f,u^„f,,us i co..a de Jot pindes di^pendios y glL 

Pasadoel lefeiiilo icrmiiio de loi cinco aHos, eo reconoci- 
n.irnio d,:! dircflo y sn|He.i.o dominio que peffenece al Soberjno, pa- 
p».j.. los nuevos Pol>l;,Jores y sus descendienles media fanejja de 
M».i p..r Md^ Suerte de tierra de regadio,y en beneficio deellos nus- 
•i»i's<.ta cblij-arion iiidispensible y coniun de lodos coocurrir a repa- 
rar In azequia, presa, largeas, y las demas obras publicas de su Pueblo 
i.Kli.sa la Iglesia. 

. 1 . Multiplicado el ganado de zerda y bumda, ahijados los Bur 
ros que conve.iga para garin'iones de las Yeguas, sitriidu awquible la 
repanic.on de cada una de las dos especies, se tvecu.ara de comun 
consenii.nier.to dj los Pobladores e..ire s. con loda la ig.ialdad posi- 
bic, de n.od>. que del prju.er gan.do que de<ada Vecino con dos ca- 
beias, macho y hecnbra, y co.) una del scjundd, lo que refifwado, $e 
•enalaran y marcaraij ppr ^us dueiius. 

It. En los cinco anos prevenidos estaran obligados los nuevos 
Pobladores a tener dos yun(as de Bueyes, dos arados, dos rejas o pu„. 
ta^ |.;ira labrar U lierra, dos ha^adone^ con la dcnias herraniienia pre- 
ciia de labrania, y finalizadas en los ires priineios anos enlecamente ' 
sus casas, y pobladas en ella sci. Gallinas y „n Gall.^ pr.*,bi«,Kk«e 
absoluiamente que en el lermino sefialado de cinci anos (..ledan eiia- 
genarse por venia, cainbio d otro preiexio, ni notar ninguna cabiit 
de ganado de Jas que se les subniinistrari, ni de'las de su tespe^ivo 
procreo e»ceptuado el ganado nie.ior de lana y pelo, que a los qua- 
tro aiios es preciso darle salida, pu^s de lo conliatio muere y en mi 
conseqiiencia podran disponer i «, arbil.io de las cabeaa, que sean 
de d.cho i.enipo, pero no de las que no h. sean, baxo la (K-na al que 
contr,vi.,iese a esia providencia, dirigida a su prbpio be.ulicio y au- 
memo de sus bienes, de quedar por el n.is.no hech.) («ivario del gnce 
de r«ion que se le concede por un ano, y el que en qualquie. modo 
•.reciba una o mas cabetas de dicho ganado en el reler.do iienipo, de 
qualquier esudo o condiciun que sea, sera ohiigado a devolverlas. 

1 3. Cumplido el lermino de cinco anos conservand.. el vienire 
de lodas especies,exceptuado el de zerda y biirras, que solo sera obli- 
gado 3 lener cada Poblador una Puerca, y un fiurro 6 Burra, teiiien- 
dj habilitadas sus labranias con las yuniasde liueyes u Noy.llos k- 
naladas, hallandox aviados de Mula de ca/ga y Cavallos' precises, se- 

12. Within the aforesaid five years the new 
Settlers are all obliged to have two yokes of Ox- 
en, two plows, two plowshares or points to culti- 
vate the earth, two hoes, with the other necessary 
tools for farming. Their houses must be entirely 
finished within the first three years, and furnish- 
ed with six Hens and a Rooster. It is absolutely 
prohibited that within the fixed term of five 
years Settlers shall dispose, by sale, exchange or 
other pretext, ot kill any animal of those supplied 
them or of those of their own raising— except 
the sheep and goats, which at (our years must be 
crossed (since otherwise they die); and in conse- 
quence those of this age may be disposed of at 
the owner's will. But ntit the younger ones; un- 
der penalty for him who disobeys this provision 
(which is for his own good and the increase of his 
belongings) of being by the very act deprived for 
one year of his rations. And he who howsoever 
receives one or more head of said flocks within 
said period, in whatever state or condition, shall 
be obliged to give them back. 

13. On completion of the term of five years — 
preserving the breed of all the kinds (except 

gigs and burros, of which each Settler will 
e obliged to keep but one Sow and one Bur- 
ro or she-Burro) having their farms equipped 
with the yokes of Oxen or Bullocks indicated, 
being provided with a cargo Mule and the neces- 
sary Horses — 

p. 34. 

the settlers shall be at liberty to sell the Bulls, 
Bullocks, Colts or Horses. Burros, wethers, 
gelding goats, pigs and Sows. It being forbidden 
to kill a Cow unless she is old or barren ; and 
Ewes and She-Goats under three years old ; or 
to sell Mares or good breeders until such time 
as each Settler shall possess 15 Mares and 
one Stallion, 15 Cows and one Bull, 12 Ewes and 
one Ram, and 10 She-goats with one Male. 

14. It shall be forbidden to all Settlers or Citi- 
zens to sell Colt, Horse, Mule or Stud, or to ex- 
change said beasts, except among themselves, be- 
ing prov'ded with those that are necessary, since 
the remainder are destined only for spare Mounts 
for the Troops of the Posts, and must be paid lor 



r«ii libres para vender los Toro«, Xovillos, Potros 6 CavaUos, Burros, 
Carncros, cj-irados de pcio, icrda y Puercas, qucdando prohibido se 
mate B.ica, no sifndo vieja o machorra, y per consiguienie ini'ecun- 
da, Ovej.is o C.il)ras que no sean de Ires anos airiba, ni vender Ye- 
guas ni vienircs liiilts hasta lanio que se verique por cada Poblador 
b posesion de quince Yeguas con un Cavallo padre, quince Bacas ■ 
con an Toro, doce Ovejas y un Caroero entero, y diet Cabras y un ■ 
ilach* 

1 4. Sera prohibido a todo Poblador y Vecino vender Potro, Ca- 
vaUn, Mula o Macho, ni cinibiar dtchas bestias no siendo enire si 
inismos,estaiido aviados de las que les sean neces.irias, pues a las res-- 
unies no ha de d-irieles otro destino que el de la Kemonta de la Tro- 
pa de los Presidios y lian de pagirse a los justos precios que se esia- 
bleican, exceptuando todo Cavallo 6 Mula especial en los misnios 
Pueblos, baxo la 4>ena de veinte pesos, que lian de exigirse i el que 
co:iifaviniere i csta providencia per csda cabcza a que diese otra sa- 
lida que 1.1 que qiieda exprcsada, lo que se aplica por taitii al denun- 
tiador, y gastos de Rcpnblica, 



tl Mail, 



xol,Ga 



y Lanteji 1 



!as co- 



*echM de los Pueblos, reservando los Vecinos lo preciso para si) sub- 
listencia y siembras, ha de ctfmprarse y satisfacerse de contado sobte 
los precios que esten e-iablecidos, 6 en adelante se estableican par* 
la provision de los Presidios, y de su iiupotte sc hirin a cada Pobla- 
dor lot prudentes descuenios que convengan, para reintegrar a la Real 
Hacienda de las caniidades que para su habilitacion se le hayao supli- 
do en reales, cavallcrias, ganados, hen'amientas,semillas y demas el'eo 
los, de modo que en los cinco primeros arias ha de quedar verifica* 
do cl pugo. 

1 6. Todo Poblador y Vecino cabeia de familia a que se htjta 
reparlido 6 «r> adelante se reparian Solares y Suertes de tierras, yte* 
que los uicceitn, seran obligados a mantenerse equlpados coa 60% 
Cavalkx, silia aviada, escopei.i y demas armas que quedan exoresa-' 
das, y han de tub.ninisirarseles .il costc para defender sut reapeiSivos 
distritas, y acudir sin abandon;ir ^iqiiella primera obligacioa doode con 
grave urgencii se ordeae por il Gihernador. 

.!> l)e1a»tt»eTcedes de Solares Tierras y Aguas co«cedidas a 
lof nucvuM Hobladoret, Vecinos a que W concedan en lo soccesivo, 
ts libraraa por el Gobernadur o ComiMrio que nombre i este ehQo 



at the just prices which shall be fixed (except all 
Hor«es and Mules of private ownership in the 
Pueblos themselves) under a fine of $20 which 
shall be collected from whatsoever person shall 
disobey this law for every head of which he shall 
make other disposal than has been stated, which 
shall be applied half to the accuser and half to 
the public expenses. 

15. The Maize, Beans, Peas and Lentils which 
are harvested in the Pueblos (the Citizens reserv- 
ing what will be necessary for their .'subsistence 
and planting) shall be bought and paid for in 
cash at the prices which are established, or 
henceforth shall be established, for the provision 
of the Posts ; and of its value the prudt-nt dis- 
counts which shall seem proper shall be made to 
every Settler, to reimburse the Royal Trea.sury for 
the amount which for his equipment he has been 
supplied in coin, riding bea.sts. flocks, tools, seeds 
and other effects, so that in the five first years the 
pay shall be completed. 

16. Every Settler and Citizen head of family to 
whom has been granted, or in the future shall be 
granted. Building Lots or Fields and their succes- 
sors, shall be obliged to keep themselves equipped 
with two horses, a saddle complete, firelock and 
other arms which are mentioned, and mu.st be 
furnished them at cost that they may defend 
their respective districts, and assist, without 
abandoning their first obligation, where with 
grave urgency they shall be ordered by the Gxdv- 
ernor 

17 Of the grants of the Building lots. Lands 
and Waters conceded to the new Settlers, or Citi- 
zens to whom such may be granted in the future, 
the corresponding patents shall be delivered by 
the Governor or Commissioner named for this 
purpose, 



whereof record must be kept (and of the registers 
of brands) in the general book of the settlement 
which must be made up and guarded in the 
Archives of the Government, in which will be put 
head by head a copy of these Instructions. 

18. And it being essential to the good govern- 
ment ot the Pueblos, administration of Justice, 



252 



if- 

los corrc^porvlientfs (k-spachns, de que ha de tomsrse nion /de lo»' 
rejjisiros do fierros eti cl Libro general de Publaciun que Se ha de- 
formar y puardnf en el Atrhivo del Gobietno, en el que se ponc.i 
pnr caheza copia de esria ifcruccioi). 

18. Y conviniendo psra el bten •gobierno y policia de los Pue- 
blos, administracion dc Ji.siicia,dirigir laS obras pi'iblicn, repartimien- 
10 de las taiidas de agua, y celar el ruiDplimienlo de quaoto queda 
prevenido eii esia liiMiuccion, se les de a proporcionde sus vecinda- 
rios Alc»'de« Ordinarios y olros OHciales de Consejo anuales, se pon- 
draii por el (iobernador en losdos primeros afius, y en los siguieiiies 
nombraraa por si y entrc si. los oficibs de Kepubiica que se hayan es- 
tablecido, cnyas elecciones ban de pasarse para su conHrmacion al 
Gobernador, por quien se coniinuarii diclio noinbrainiento eii los (res 
afiijs siguieiKcs si adviriiese convenir asi. 

TITULO QUINCE. 



Erection de 



ReJiiccioneS. 



RE«peflo de que siwadas en el Canal tJe Santn Barbara las 
ires Reducciones queesun deterniinadas,que(laracubier- 
4a la Uemarcacion que ha gobotnadu dc Hur a None cl eslableci- 
miento de las echo anteriormente iuudadas sobre el cainino que diri* 
ge del Presidio de Sao Diego al de Monterrey, y de e^ie aide Sao 
Francisco, y consiguieniemente queda lacilitada la toinunicacion de 
lo< nuevos Establecimicntos , pues quedan las once Misiones y Presi- 
dljs dittanies enue si de uece a veinie leguas, escepiuado el infef- 
valo que media de la de S. Amonio a S.Luis,y de S.Juan Capisirnno 
a S. Gabriel, que se regulan de veintf y cinco Icguas: e; de sum* im- 
portancia para a^dantar la reduction de la niimerosa Gcntilidad que 
puebla esta parte de la Peninsula, variar el esubleciniiento de nticvas 
Keducriones a los rumbos opuesios, pioponionando en quanto io 
permiun los siiios, que han de sollcitarse de las calidades que c-mit(c- 
ne para la cstabilidad, de loripa que cada una de la» que en Io Mcve- 
tivose siiuen (que a excepcioo de una 6 dos seran Us resuocesal 
Leste) queden en la distancia de ratorce .1 vcinte Icguas de dus dclas 
amiguis, por cuyo medio se ocuparaalos iniervalusque estas lienea 
cnire si, se itaii einciido las Ranctiscias de Gentiles, sc aunienrati 



direction of the public works, division of the 
" turns " of water, and to fulfill carefully the ac- 
complishment of whatever has been provided in 
these Instructions, the Pueblos shall be given, in 
proportion to their number of inhabitants, al- 
caldes of the ist instance, and other officials of the 
Council yearly. These shall be appointed by the 
Governor the first two years ; and in ihe follow- 
ing years they shall nominate by themselves and 
from themselves the public officials that shall have 
been arranged for. These elections must pass 
for their confirmation to the Governor, by whom 
said nomination shall be continued in the three 
following years if he deems it expedient. 



TITLE FIFTEEN. 
Erection of Nezv ''Reductions 



Since after the location of the three Reductions* 
which are determined upon for the channel of 
Santa Barbara, the Demarcation will be com- 
plete which has ruled from South to North the 
establishment of the eight previously founded on 
the road which leads from the Post of San Diego 
to that at Monterrey, and from this to the one of 
San Francisco ; and consequently communication 
between the new Establishments is facilitated, as 
the eleven Missions and Posts are from thirteen 
to twentv leagues distant from one another (ex- 
cepting the interval from San Antonio to San 
Luis, and from San Juan Capistrano to San 
Gabriel, which is reckoned at twenty-five leagues) 
it is of the greatest importance for advancing the 
conversion of the numerous Gentiles which in- 
habit this part of the Peninsula to change the 
establishment of the new Reductions to the oppo- 
site directions; proportioning them as the site 
will permit (in which must be sought the neces- 
sary qualities) in such a manner that each one of 
those which shall be in the future (and except 
one or two, the remainder shall be to the East) 
shall be at a distance of fourteen to twenty . 
leagues from two of the old Reductions, ^y this I 
means they will fill the gaps which are now be- 
tween the old ones, will girdle the Rancherias 
[Indian villages] of the Gentiles, will inciease 



•stations for converting Indiana 



consid^rameAtaJa Christiandad , y descubrtri la Tierra. ^ 

1. Supuesio que es in;is de doscientas icguas la extension en que 
se hallao situados.los rel'eridos Establecimicntos de Monterrey, noe*. 
tando descubietto el ancho de la tierra, se infiere ha de corresponder 
con exceso, atendjdo se cuenta pof miles Io mas que se dilata, y con- 
scqiientemenle se hace inexcusable verificar ei aumento de Reduc- 
ciones con proporcion a el vasto Pais ocupado; y aunque debe exe- 
cuiar'^e iuccesivameote eji el ordeii que queda expresado, segun (p 
aseguren fau wiiCfiores luudaci^ nes, miuorando sus liscoltas, para que 
la Tropa sobranie guarni.wa la: que se aumenten, siendo lorzoso scan 
niucfias, es coiisiguiente iun de gravar considerablemcnle el Erario, 
6 ca.iiinar con niorosidad la ereccion, y para facilitaria convicne que 
cxceptoadas la» tres Reducciones que han de situarse en el Canal de 
S^ini.i Hatba.-a con dos Religiusos cada una, por las jusias causas que 
alli concurren y quedan expuestas, l;:s demas que subsigan se esta- 
blc:can contorme iU anfigua praiitica de esta y demas Provi[ieias in- 
lernas con un Minisiro, pero sin variacion de la limosna de quatro- 
cienios pesos que a el aiio estan (eiisi^nados a cada uno,en cuya can- 
tid.id bm de entenderse coroprehendidas todas las necesidades reli- 
giosas, asrcomo'el avio temporal de Mision y labranza, en losun mil 
pesos concedidos para caBa hindacion, perraitiendose paca el mas 
pronto increniento de las nyevas, que las antiguas las socorran coa 
las cabezas de ganado y sooiiilas, que sin t'alta eif sus espticiee, regule- 
el R. P. Presidente pued.in dar, y con un xMinistro en el primer ano 
de la lundacion. 

3. Las echo Misiones ai5)ualmcnte establecidat quedaran con los 
dos Ministros que cada una ticne; pero no han de reemplazacse lo» 
que por mueite 6 retiro vayan faliando, hasti taiito que queden re- ' 
ducidas a un snio Ministro, a exeepcion de las inmediaias a los Pre- 
sidios , en que han de subsistir dos Religiosos, y uno con la precisa 
asistencia al Presidio conio Capellan de el, interin no se determine 
proveerlos de Capellanes sjculares: co.iseqiientemente si resultase la 
talta en estas Misiones. o en las del C'anal, pasara a ocupar sti lugar 
unode las de San Juan C.ipistr.i:;o, San Gabriel, an Luis, San An- 
tonio, 6 Sar.ta Clara, 6 concutrir, coino queda diclio-, a nuevas fun- 



En el mismo orden que explica el Articulo segundo deberan 

se a un solo .Minis'.ro las Dodiinas que adoiihistran los Keli- 

gio- 



Christianity markedlv, and will explore the coun- 
try. 

2, It being understood that the line of the 
aforesaid Establishments is more than 200 
leagues long from Monterey, while the width of 
the country is unknown (but is presumed to be as 
great as the length, or greater, since its greatest 
breadth is counted by thousands of leagues) it is 
consequently made imperative to increase the 
number of Reductions in proportion to the vast- 
ness of the country occupied, and although this 
must be carried out in the succession and order 
aforesaid, as fast as the older establishments 
.shall be fully secure, decreasing the size of their 
Escorts that the remaining Troops may garrison 
the added establishments which must perforce 
be many and consequently will either be a con- 
siderable burden on the Treasury or will have to 
be erected slowly. To facilitate the matter it is 
advisable that (except the three Reductions which 
have to be located along the Santa Barbara chan- 
nel, which are to have two Priests each, for the 
local reasons already set forth) the rest that may 
follow shall be established under the old practice 
in this and the other Interior Provinces, with 
only one Priest, but without change from the aid 
of I400 a year which is assigned to each. In this 
sum. it must be understood, are to be included 
all the articles necessary to worship, as the tem- 
poral supplies for Mission work and farming in 
the $1000 granted for each founding. It shall be 
permitted, for the more rapid increase of the new 
Missions, that the older ones help them with live- 
stock and seeds (given so as not to run short in 
any variety, as the Reverend Father President 
of the Missions shall direct) and with one Priest 
in the first year of establishment. 

3- The eight Missions alreadv established 
shall retain the two Priests that each now has ; 
but vacancies by death or retirement shall not be 
filled until they are reduced to one Priest apiece. 
Excepting, the Missions which are clo.se to posts; 
in which must be maintained two Priests, one 
being obliged to serve the Post as its Chaplain, 
until it shall be decided to provide the Posts with 
secular Chaplains. Consequently if a vacancy 
occurs in these Missions, or in those of the 
Channel, a Priest shall come from the Missions 
of San Juan Capistrano, San Gabriel, San Luis, 
San Antonio or Santa Clara to fill it— or, as afore- 
said, to aid in founding new Missions. 



253 



4 In the same order as explained by the 
second Article, the Curacies administered by the 

jipws del Orden de Sttito Dominpo en b witigua Cjlifornb, excep- 
luad.i la dc Loreto, eo que han de eiijtir dos Minijiros, uno coma 
«. jfcll^i del Ptesiiiio, y las dos ultimas del None , que al preaeoie 
o 111 iidebme sean /roiitetizas , y en una y otnn se reemplauran iai 
lal!:is i|ue ocurran con Io$ jeKundos MiniMros de Us resiantes, interia 
s' !>>iiun, quedando todos con el sinodo de trescicnios cinruenta pe- 
sos que a cadj uno esian sefialados ; pero sin afbitrio loj Preladu* de 
remover con esle oi otro inotivo alguno a los Religiososde una i oCr» 
Uoeirina, para lo que precisa y cumplidamenie ha de guardarse la 
forma del Keal Paironazgo, en todas sus {tanes, y cases que puedka 
ociirrir. 

5. Supuesio cstaf solo fundadas la Reduccion de Nri Sri. del 
Ro>ario de Viiudaco y la de Santo Domingo de Us cinco que debea 
siiuars*; conforme a la demarcacion anieriormente acordada por la 
Real Junta dc Guerra y Real Hacienda, para cubrir el camioo que 
liiiem-.edia de la Frontera al Presidio de San Diegcx, tiendo de la ma- 
yor importancia verificar la ereccion de las tres restantes, con lo que 
qucdara facititada la comuoicacion de los aniiguos y nucvos Estable- 
cimientos, debera exccuurse con la posible brevedad. 

Es quanto dexo expuesto lo que la experiencia y conocitniento 
adquirido, mi zelo y amor al Real Servieio, y cumplimiento de Km ■ 
superiores Ordenes nie ban difiado por mas convenienie pa(a dcaein- 
penar la Keal Resolucion y piadosas ioteociones del Rey. 

Real Presidio de S. Carlos de Mjoterrey 1 . de Juoio ce 1 779:= - 
Felipe de Neve. 



JTlA .0:0 cI Rey cl RfgUn.«nto. para rf- gobieroo de la , 
Provicci.: d- CdJiK-rnUs tormada pot tlGnbcrnador ds dli. ' 
». Fci!f>t Neve en viriud do lo d^puesto en Real Ordcn de ' 
^1 de M.'Mde 1775. dci qwl rcmite WE. Testimoo.ocon; ' 
Carta de 1 9 de Etiero tie esf; anc> nilniero 85*5. Se b« digna- ' 
do S. K. aprobario, y de su orden lo prc"cnj;o i V. E. para ] 
»u iP:cI,r;cKi3 y gobierno. U;os jjuarde a V. E. muchosaiios. 
San Lorcp.7c. 34 ds Oflubre de .1 781.= Josef de Calvei.=: 
Setior Virrey de Nueva Espini. "' ■ 

Mexico :6 de M^no de i? 8j.=Saquese.copia cerufi* 
ptU <fc e-'Uilea! Ordens y agrtgad* jl Keglamento que » 
txpresa p^r* coiwanci* d.- li sprobacion que ha merecidb £' 
a Ma, in'pr'in .n<^^i ios eSioipUfe* correspwidienres. y dirijaiw 
_»e ton \.y. Teipet\ncs.06i6<» {oa^-r.^Thi al Senor Cwnan- 
dwte General de l>covhKh* irttruis, a los Oficiif-i Reale* 
ac csta^ Caias, el Real Tribonal de Cuentas, al Failor Don 
Manuei ItjRkSr. c"- Goy<, a! Comiiario del Ocpariamct)Uj de" 
&n Biu, y .i.'.Gob^r.udor de Qtiffotrm, put iufcomitnca: 
J cumpluwcmo en ja parte x]ue a catJa uno toga; de cuyi 

ptovKk-jxh .wavwra flnre»poe»u,«k'rikJi«Rea! Orden,:? 
Mayorga. 

Esfopia ,}' ,f» rrighal, de que crrvfico. Wxico tr^, At ^brUJ^ 
ml setuC: rtos oc tenia y dot^Pedro Antonio de Cotio. 



Es copia de su original, que queda en U Secret fria de la 

dancia General de mi cargo, de que certifico, Arisfe C de Febrt' . 

ro de ijio^Antomo Bomllu.. 

p. 37. 

Priests of the Order of Santo Domingo in Old 
[Lower] Califoruia shall be cut down to one 
Priest each. Excepting, the curacy of Loreto 
(in which two Priests must be kept ; one of them 
as Chaplain of the Post) and the two most north- 
erly curacies which now are or shall become the 
frontier Missions. And in all these, vacancies 
shall be filled from the second Priests of the 
other Missions, while they hold ont. All ^hall be 
continued in the stipend of $350 which isassigned 
to each. But the Prelates shall not have discre- 
tion, for any reason, to move the Priests from 
one Curacy to another, that the form of the Royal 
Patronage be preserved exactly and fully in all 
its pans and whatever case may arise. 

5. It is understood that the Rednction of Our 
Lady of the Rosary at Viiiadaco. and that of 
Santo Domingo, are the only ones yet founded 
that should be located according to the plan for- 
merly agreed upon by the Royal Council of War 
and the Royal Exchequer, to cover the road from 
the Frontier to the Pos* of San Diego ; as it is of 
the greatest importance to effect the erection of 
the remaining: three, whereby communication 
between the old and new Establishments will be 
facilitated, this should be done with all possible 
promptness. 

So much as I have set fortli is that which the 
experience and knowledge acquired here, my 
zeal and love for the Royal Service, and the ful- 
fillment of Superior Orders have dictated to me 
as most suitable for carrying out the Royal Reso- 
lution and the pious intentions of the King. 

Royal Post of San Carlos of Monterey, June r, 
1779. 

Felipe de Neve. 

This is a copy of the original, which remains in 
the Secretary's office of the General Comtnandancy, 
tn my charge. Whereto I certify. Arispe iMex.^ 

Feb. , lySo. 

Antonio Bonilla. 



p. 38. 

The King has seen the Regulations for the gov- 
ernment of the Province of Californias, drawn up 
by the Governor thereof, Don Felipe Neve, by 
virtue of the dispositions of the Royal Decree of 
March 2t, 1775 of the which Your Excellency for- 
wards testimony with your Letter No. 856 of Jan. 
19 of this year. His Magesty has deigned to ap- 
prove it, and of his decree I advise Your Excel- 
lency beforehand for your understanding and 
guidance. God guard Your Excellency many 
years. San Lorenzo, Oct. 24, 1781. 

Josef de Galvez, 

Sir Viceroy of New Spain. 

Mexico, Mch. 26, 1782. 

Let a certified copy of this Royal Decree be 
taken ; and adding it to the Regulations to which 
it relates, in proof of its approval by His Magesty, 
let the corresponding copies be printed, and the 
necessary number be sent, with the respective 
Official Letters, to the Sir Commander-General 
of the Interior Provinces, to the Royal Officers of 
this Treasury, to the Royal Tribunal of Accounts, 
to the Agent Don Manuel Ramon de Goya, to the 
Commissary of the Department of San Bias, and 
to the Governor of the Californias for their un- 
derstanding and fulfillment in the part that re- 
lates to each. The which supplying with copies 
shall be acknowledged in response to said Royal 
Decree. 

Mayorga. 

Copy of the original, whereof I certify. Mex- 
ico, third "f Aprils One Thousand, Seven Hundred 
and Eighty-two. 

Pedro Antonio de Cosio. 




L. A. Eng. Co. 



A MAP OF NORTH AMERICA IN 1754. 
Drawn by the Geographer-in-ordinory to tht King of Spain 



255 




LAM 0IH ARKS 



INCORPORATED /- ~ 

TO CONSERVE THE MISSIONS 
AND OTHER HISTORIC 
LANDMARKS OF SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

DiRECTOSs : 

O FFI C ER S: Fr an k A . Gibson . 

President, Ch&s. F. Lummis. Henry W O'Melveny. 

Vice-President, MarRHret Collier Graham. Rev. J.Adam. 

Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, lU N. Spring St. Sumner P. Hunt. 

Treasurer, Frank A. Gibson, Cashiet 1st Nat. Bank. Arthur B. Benton. 

Corresponding Secretary Mrs M E. Stilson. Margaret Collier Graham. 

913 Kensington Road, Los Angeles. Chas. F. Lummis. 
HoaoBAKT Lire Mehbebs : R. Egan, Tessa L. Kelso. 

ADVISORY BOARD: Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R. Egan, W. C. Patterson, Adeline 
Steams Wing, Geo. H. Bonebrake, Tessa L Kelso, Don Marcos Forst«r, Chas Cassat Davis, Miss M. F. Wills, 
C. D. Willard, John F. Francis Frank J. Polley Rev. Wm. J. Chichester, Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Lee, 
Rt. Rev. Joseph H Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles. 

J. T. Bertrand, Official Photographer 

If there were ever any doubt that Pasadena i.s theWestern Athens, it would have 
been dispelled within the twelvemonth. Los Angeles is certainly of higher average 
intellectuality than any city of the East; but Pasadena, with perhaps 12,000 inhabitants, 
puts this metropolis of nearly ten times the size to the blush. Last year it turned in 
I383 cash to the work of the Landmarks Club ^a pretty fair test of intellectuality) ; and 
this harder year it already contributes much more. The entertainment given March 
25 by the Pasadena Branch was not only an artistic success of which everyone con- 
nected with the Club is proud, but it was a pecuniary success. About $390 was netted 
for the work — a lift which will probably enable the Club to begin work at San Fer- 
nando in May, as it will leave the amount in the treasury but little short of the $1000 
necessary to commence. The ladies who engineered this doubly successful affair — 
Mrs. B. Marshall Wotkyns, Miss Clara L. Dows. Mrs. Chas. F. Holder, Mrs. Presley C 
Baker, Mrs. Francis F. Rowland, and Mrs. Seymour F.Locke — with all who gener- 
ously assisted them, have earned the gratitude of every intelligent American. 

It is unpleasant to record that while this Club is giving its labors to a needed 
work for the credit of America it has some foes among them of its own household. A 
few weeks ago an excursion of schoolma'aras, ticketed from Santa Ana, visited the re- 
stored Mission of Capistrano, clambered upon the tile roofs and broke with their cul- 
tured and delicate feet some 40 tiles. Now is a fit time to announce officially that the 
Club has legal rights over these buildings ; and that it will prosecute, to the full limit 
of the law, whatever person ever steps again on its roofs. If common decency does 
not teach philistines where they belong, the inortification of publicity and the penal- 
ties of the law shall. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CAUSE. 

Previously acknowledged, $1886.05. 

New Contributions: J. R. Newberry, Los Angeles, $10; John Aspinwall, New 
York, $10; Mrs. James Berryhill, Des Moines, Iowa, $5; F. M. Coulter, Los Angeles, $5; 
Boston Dry Goods Store, Los Angeles, $5 ; Thorpe Talbot, Dunedin, New Zealand, 
I1.50. 

$1 each— C. C. Parker, B. F. Gardner, Gen. J, R. Matthews, Alfred Solano. Mrs. 
John Ellis, Adolph Petsch, Wilbur O. Dow, Los Angeles ; Mrs. E. C. Sterling, St. Louis ; 
Juliette Estelle Mathis, Alice Huse Williams, Santa Barbara ; H. W. Cunningham, 
South Pasadena. 

Through the Pasadena Branch, $1 each : Mrs. Nana D. Hoxie, Pasadena ; Mrs. 
Chas. F. White, Chicago ; Chas. Hastings, Mrs. Chas H. Hastings, Sierra Madre. Cal.; 
Miss Edith M. Allen, New York; Francis Le Baron Robbins, Mrs. Le Baron Robbins, 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; Dr. John M. Radabaugh. Wm. R. Staats, Miss Grace Groschen Wot- 
kyns, Mrs. Jas. M. Evans, Geo. B. Post, Pasadena; Mrs. Edwa'd Barry, Garvanza ; E. 
C. Kent. Philadelphia. Pa.; Clara L. Dows, Mrs. Vallette, M. Dreer, Mrs. M. D Greble, 
Augusta M. Dreer, Miss Florence M. Greble, Miss Margaret V. Greble, "A Friend," 
"A Friend," all Pasadena ; F. A. Foster, New York. 



256 





IN THE 

LION'S DEN 



SPRINGS 



A YEAR. 



It really looks to be time for national cerebration. A boy with his 
first red-topped boots is sure ; and so are those of about his age at fifty 
years. But Americans whose heads also have grown up, understand 
that the republic is an experiment whose outcome hinges on the ulti- 
mate fitness of humanity. If the individual may be relied upon, by 
average, to be honest and fairly intelligent, then we shall win. If not, 
we shall not. Upon every man-jack of us lies the responsibility of the 
problems of the race. We have gone to the blackboard to do the 
sum of man's fitness for self-government — and heaven knows we are not 
just yet writing the example any too legibly. 

It is easy enough to get out and fight for one's country ; and even 
many cowards do it. But the patriots this country above all others 
needs, and needs now, are of the far rarer sort that are neither blind nor 
dumb nor helpless in peace and at home. 

It is a natural delusion of the unremedied East that a land 
which has no savage winter cannot have a real spring. It is 
true that in God's country we do not spell it : 

S— for the Slush and the Shivers ; 

P— for Pneumonia present ; 

R— for the fresheting Rivers ; 

I— for the day that IS pleasant ; 

N— for the Next, which is just the reverse ; 

G — for thank Goodness the thing was no worse. 

We do not have here an annual body-snatching of Mother Earth, nor 
yet the vernal convalescence of Nature from mortal sickness — for here is 
neither sickness nor death nor burial for them. The restful sleep of 
youth is theirs, but no decay ; recuperation but not dissolution. 

If spring is a green awakening, if it is a triumphal entry of birds and 
flowers, and hope quickened — then we have not one spring but two. 
With the first impregniug rains of what (for want of a fitter word) we 
call winter, the brown, wild earth conceives her infinite brood of ver- 
dure and of flowers. Ten thousand square miles wear such a carpet of 
bloom as the " fertile " East never saw in its floweriest day. All through 
the brown summer our lawns, our gardens, our evergreen trees have kept 
their richness ; and now the virgin lands surpass them. November and 
December are the first California spring. 

The year around, our oranges, lemons, eucalyptus, peppers, grevil- 
leas and other invariable trees wear their Lincoln livery ; but in the 
early fall the deciduous trees begin to hibernate. Through the months 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 257 

of rain— that is, the months in which this sky knows how to rain (and 
has exercised itself, this rainiest "winter" in five, by twenty precipita- 
tions, aggregating less than ten days of 24 hours each) — they are a bare 
lacework against the sky. 

But with April (or the frayed ends of March) the rose pink of more 
peach-trees than are in all Maryland flushes across a thousand orchards, 
and the fainter apple-bloom is along the foothill ranches ; and upon a 
thousand slopes glows the halo of apricot and almond (a pure glory no 
Easterner can imagine); and even the dark orange-trees turn on a sud- 
den frosty with their perfumed bloom ; and the noble sycamores prick 
into leaf, and slender alders are transformed from naked grace to grace- 
ful umbrage. The roses which flower year-long — and the Lion has his 
own Duchesse which has never been without a blossom for a week at a 
time since he planted it, June 24th, 1893— turn with April to a perfect 
avalanche of bloom. The Reve d' Or which he set out from a pot less 
than four years ago, is now 20 feet tall and 20 feet wide and has today 
over 1000 blossoms. 

The only reason why an unmoved Easterner might not deem this 
spring is that (never having seen so fair a spring) he might take it to be 
heaven. And the reason why this and like matters have place in this den 
is that the Lion honestly believes that the best Americans should do 
themselves the kindness to foregather in the only portion of the United 
States where God is not hostile. 

The New York Times is an unusually competent newspaper, a tyro 
with a special literary bent. Which makes all the more ag- '^ the 

gravating its recent editorial on Cabot. Gabote was a citizen of saddle. 

Venice, as his letters-patent from Henry VII show. The '* Cabots " 
discovered Hudson's bay and Nova Scotia. Neither John nor Sebastian 
ever saw what is now United States. And as for the Times proposition 
that their discoveries were more important to the world than those of 
Columbus, that is something below discussion. If Columbus had not 
found the New World, the Cabots would never have sailed. Not only were 
they cheap imitators of the World-Finder, but no colony sprang from 
their landfalls in over 200 years. And the Times knows as little where 
their landfalls were as it does about their value in general. 

With this issue. Volume VI of the Land of Sunshine is com- thus far 
plete. The general verdict seems to be that it has been a more '^^^ much 

attractive and a more valuable volume than any of those which farther. 

preceded it ; and Volume VII may be relied upon to advance the stand- 
ard yet a little farther. The field is constantly widening ; material, in- 
stead of becoming scarce, multiplies ; and the standing of the magazine 
steadily rises, at home and abroad. 

As this number goes to press there are special dispatches indi- he starts, 
eating that Secretary of War Alger has concluded not to be a ^^ 

bigger man than Congress and the geography. Southern Cali- "^ 

fornia would like to see the harbor which the United States government 
has for eight years tried to give us, and which for eight years one man 



258 LAND OF SUNSHINB. 

(naturally not a poor one) has staved off. But that is not half so im- 
. portant as the general American desire to know if this is a republic or a 
marketplace. 

E There is movement to establish at Pasadena, Cal., a woman's 

BETTER college of the first rank. The Lion knows Prof. Bragdon and 

knows Lasell Seminary at Auburndale, Mass., (where his cub- 
hood befell Latin and Greek among the wise virgins) and is glad to 
vouch for both. But something more than both brings the matter prop- 
erly hither. 

At that crucial time in maidenhood whereat the higher education 
averages to begin, there are parents who seriously prefer the conven- 
tions to the Creator. They unquestionably love their daughters. They 
would know better than to plant potatoes in a cellar ; but without a 
qualm they will pot the flower of all humanity in a register-heated, 
vitiated room which absolutely cannot (in that climate) be ventilated 
decently in four months at a time. A man can scarcely succeed in raising 
thoroughbred chickens without more taxing his intelligence than many 
people tax theirs to rear their girls. 

It is a good American hope that the class is really increasing of them 
that can apply common-sense even to the family. It is worth more to a 
girl — in happiness and physical fitness and her meaning to the future — 
to grow up where she may (and should be obliged to) admit God's air 
to her room and her lungs every hour of every day in the year ; where 
sunshine and birds and fruits and flowers are always hers, and Nature is 
never a shrew — it is wprth more to her than all else her parents could 
give her. 

I Gentlemen sometimes get into Congress ; and scholars when 

HOTTENTOT no millionaire is handy. If the rest of the nation were as hon- 

orably represented as Southern California is — if the average of 
brains and character in the Senate were even half up to the stature of 
our White, we might sleep o' nights. But when we are nationally rid- 
den with the branded Frye and the peashooter Morgan and an assort- 
ment of freaks in every kind, it is hard to be vain. As for Mr. Dingley, 
even a protectionist (I egotistically hope), need not be a savage. There 
is no other nation on earth so uncivilized as to tax knowledge. Mr. 
Dingley, being apparently more acquaint with dime novels than with 
text-books, has fined every American who is less an ignoramus. Mexico, 
which we rarely even patronize, was never so near barbarism. Mexico 
welcomes intelligence and books. We have arrived at making both a 
misdemeanor. 

L Los Angeles (population about 105,000) raises $20,000 a year for 

^S"^"- a Fiesta to amuse herself and the stranger within her gates. 

San Francisco (population 350,000) declares for a Fiesta, clam- 
bers painfully to $14,000, and gives it up unable to " fill." This, which 
non estfabula, docet the varieties of population. If the Lion ever says 
anything small about the Easterner, it is always about the immobile 
variety. The reason why one half of California steps at thrice the gait 
of the other half is simply that is full of graduated Easterners. 



259 




THAT 

WHICH IS 

WRITTEN 



• Come early aud avoid the rush " is 
as good advice in literature as it is at the 
bargain-counter. Or would have been— for now 
t!fi>i: ■•* it is too late to avoid the rush. There will never again 

be floor-space for the common seeker of literary fame — there are too infer- 
nally many other smart people. It is a curious thing. There are today 
in the United States many hundreds of minor writers, recognized, fairly 
successful, but after all barely able to make a livelihood without some 
other business. A dozen years ago any one of these struggling people 
would have been famous and well-to-do, on the very same work that 
nowadays keeps him poor. In that short time everybody has managed 
to get in everybody else's road. The magazines and weeklies are in a 
state of siege by an army of scribblers ; even the newspapers come in for 
the crumbs. The big monthlies are supplied with manuscripts to last a 
whole generation ; even so small a magazine as this receives some 300 
offerings a month. Even books multiply past counting ; and thousands 
of them (such as they are) pour forth yearly from the presses of a horde 
of publishers big and little, good, bad and indifferent. All this is simply 
because it has become the proper thing to be an "author." 

But the fad has lost its feet. There is no longer any money in it ; and 
as for fame, it has become too cheap to be worth while. It is no joke to 
write a good book ; but the last few years have proved that any fool can 
write a book. And so many of them do it that the only friendly advice 
to be given the itcher for fame is the same that /'ww^A gave to those 
about to marry. 

After long waiting amid a deaf and blind generation, Joaquin 
Miller seems to be coming to his own. England.found him a 
poet twenty years ago ; New York discovered the same pal- 
pable fact, Anno Domini 1896; and now he is to have a "complete 
edition." Whitaker & Ray, of San Francisco, are bringing it out this 
month. It is promised that the footnotes shall be of extraordinary in- 
terest. And it is certainly of extraordinary interest when the first real 
edition is printed of the American poet who, with all his palpable faults, 
is most primeval of us all ; the one who in all American verse has 
leaned least on the classic crutches and stood most unaided upon his own 
untied feet. As well as any other colleged fool I can pick flaws in 
Joaquin's technique ; but by the Bones, while only a greenhorn can 
scorn technique, what we need nowadays is Men. 



AT THE 



ELEVENTH 

HOUR 



26o LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

)RiES The death of "Oliver Optic" removes the most prolific of 

^^^ American writers of juveniles, and adorns a moral. Mr. 

STORIES 

Adams was a conscientious Yankee school-teacher with 
some ability for routine travel, and a positive tirelessness in common- 
place fiction. He wrote over loo boys* books, of which not one is un- 
clean, morbid or (as juveniles average) unwholesome ; ^nd yet not one 
was, in the highest sense of the word, truthful. He did not, as a sober 
fact, know thoroughly any phase of life he tried to describe ; and as 
soon as he left the environment wherein he was born and died, his local 
color comes from the guide book. He is a far less sinner than most of 
his contemporaries in similar lines ; yet I believe he wasted vast oppor- 
tunities to be of use, and therefore wasted many minds. While his 
stories-by-the-yard had vogue, American boys were also reading the 
equally clean and incomparably more heartfelt and valuable stories of 
Mayne Reid, who knew by proof his many fields not only better than 
the guidebooks but better than most of the historians of his day. 

tAY The Lark, of San Francisco, has taken its last flight — not 

LEAVES. because it couldn't soar longer, but because it wouldn't. Its 

incubators seem to yearn for larger fledglings. 

This may be wisdom and it may be not. At any rate it is a pity. T/ie 

Lark has been the only bird of its sort in any firmament. It was the 

funniest periodical nonsense — and it is something to be first. 

Mr. Burgess and his accomplices now lean to the East and to sobriety, 
whereof both are good. But while these gentlemen have shown a larger 
gift amid their fooling, the preeminence of their little Lark is not more 
certain than that they will never again be foremost if they matriculate 
among the eagles. 

Luis Gonzales Obregon, the brilliant young preserver of the legends of 
Mexico, and (as well as a most lovable personality) a charming writer 
also upon other literary and historical lines, has issued in pamphlet an 
interesting fragment, an eye-witness's account of the last moments of the 
hero priest Hidalgo, the Washington of Mexican Independence. An in- 
troduction in Sr. Obregon's always fascinating Spanish precedes the 
reprint of these important but long forgotten documents. 

Dr. Cephas M. Bard, of Ventura, California, reissues in pamphlet form 
his interesting paper on " The Climatic Surgical Advantages of Littoral 
Southern California." Years of experience enable him to speak authori- 
tatively on the marvelous favorableness of this climate to the healing of 
wounds. 

Dr. J. A. Munk, of Los Angeles, [has 'reprinted from the California 
Medical Journal his paper on " The Climate of Southern California." 
It is a very fair digest of a large topic in small space. 



OF THR 

JNIVEBSITY 
UCalifobH\^ 




La Fiesta de Los Angeles. 

UREIvY there is no federal law forbidding Americans to 
have a good time ; nor do any of the States, so far as 
known, impose a fine for the enjoyment of life. And 
yet it is a fact, notorious to travelers, that the people 
of the United States know less about the art of recreation 
than any other people now extant. They haven't time to 
live. 

But the Southwest is appointed schoolmaster — and the 
lesson is going to be learned. Probably there is a smaller 
proportion of dunces, at the outset, in a class made up 
almost altogether of people who were not too dull to mi- 
grate for the sake of larger life ; but anyhow, they have 
come to a pedagogue there is no dodging. 

The first and only decent climate that half a million Saxons ever 
lived in is bound to thaw its inmates. We shall learn many lessons 
here, whether we will or no. We shall probably continue to " get as 
much done" as the Saxon has ever done anywhere; and we shall un- 
questionably get very much more out of it. Indeed, by force of our 
environment rather than by our deliberate wit, we are destined to show 
an astonished world the spectacle of Americans having a good time. 

A fiesta is so logical a thing to a decent climate — and alsb to a 
country founded by 
the people who are 
past masters in the 
art of life — that it 
is a wonder it had 
not earlier broken 
out in modern Cali- 
fornia. But if we 
were not hasty in 
catching the new 
contagion, it has 
♦•taken" at last. 

The fiesta de Los 
Angeles was i n- 
vented three years 
ago. Mr. Max Mey- 
berg, probably 
more than any 
other one person, 
was the inventor; 
and he was presi- 
dent of the first 
/iesla, that of 1894. 
Of a people famous 
not only for busi- 
ness success, but 
also for skill in en- 
joying life, Mr. 
Meyberg did a good 
thing for his fellow- 
citizens when he 
set the Fiesta pace. 
As Americans are 
never obtuse to vis- 
ible lessons, the Photo. by Schumacher. 

Fiesta has learned mrs. childs, la reina de la fiesta, 1894. 




LA FIESTA DE LOS ANGELES. 



263 




er, Eng. 



AN 1895 FLOAT, 



carried out with unusual sincerity. The Spanish 
parade of Los Angeles Chinamen trapped out in 
lifty picturesque 
Pueblo Indians — 
the highest aborig- 
inal types in Amer- 
ica — and a due ad- 
mixture of more 
conventional p a - 
geants, athletic 
sports and social 
functions, made the 
Fiesta of 1896 
memorable one. 
The president was 
John F. Francis, 
and C. D. Willard 
was secretar}^; and 
financially as well 
as other ways that 
Fiesta was a grand 
success 

This year the pa- 
geants were more 
of the usual cate- 
gory. Shakespere 
took the place of 
Pacific Romance, 
and afforded a more 
glittering if less 
un i que bac k- 



steadily. The carni- 
val of 1895 was much 
of an advance over 
its one predecessor. 
In 1896 a conscious 
effort was made to 
give the celebration 
a characteristic fla- 
vor. It was designed 
to be not merely a 
season of merrymak- 
ing ; but a specific 
and typical affair 
which should reflect 
the matchless ro- 
mance of the South- 
west and the Pacific 
Coast, instead of 
copying after New 
Orleans and St. Lou- 
is and every other 
conventional carniv- 
al. The central 
theme was the Ro- 
mance of the Pacific 
— the Incas, the Az- 
tecs, the Pueblos, the 
California Missions, 
and the details were 
riders, the magnificent 
barbaric splendor ; the 




Union Eng. Co. 



FLORAL DAY, 1895. 



LA FIESTA DE LOS ANGELES. 



265 



ground. Mr. Ferd. K. Rule, president, and C.S. Walton, secretary, have 
kept up the traditions of Los Angeles for expert business management. 

In a country long ago famous for lovely women, and now coming to be 
known for as kind to its adopted as to its native daughters. La Fiesta has 
of course been fortunate in its queens. This year for the first time the 
royal prerogative went to a native Californian, a fine type of Spanish- 
American loveliness, who has added a special charm to an ephemeral 
throne. 

Southern California has not only a population capable of learning the 
unaccustomed arts of enjoyment, but a great number of qualified leaders 
in such a crusade. Any community is sure to win in any undertaking if 
it has such a host of men with the brains, the taste and the public spirit 
to take hold of so large a task, give their time and thought and money. 




Photo. Copyrighted by Steckel. 

MRS MODINI-WOOD, QUEEN OF LA FIESTA, 1895. 




L. A, Eng. Co. ONE OF THE 1897 FLOATS OF THE STREET PARADE. Copyright 1897 by Waite. 




L. A. Eng. Co. 



GRAND STAND, FLORAL DAY, 1897 Copyright 1897 by Waite 

The Fiesta and Floral Queens and Maids of Honor. 



LA FIESTA DE LOS ANGELES. 



267 




THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FLOAT, 1896 

and make it a success. If the Fiesta did nothing else than to give us 
such splendid proof of the sort of citizens we have — and to give them 
the healthful exercise of working for a general good — it would still be 
worth while. 

The night pageant of April 22 was very brilliant. The Floral Proces- 
sion, on the 23rd, though unfavored by the weather, was a spectacle 
which the visitor from less generous climes will hardly forget — an in- 
describable wealth of flowers artistically disposed, in quantity, variety 
and beauty beyond the dreams of folk who know "flowers" only by 




Rioto. by WaHe. 



Copyright 1896 by F. Lummi* 

THE PUEBLO INDIANS, FIESTA OF 1896. 



268 



LAND OF SUNSHINE, 




their experience in northern 
climes. Roses and heliotrope 
and lilies and sweet peas, and 
almost every other civilized 
flower — and many of the pre- 
cious wildflowers of California 
— were wreathed, festooned, 
massed on horses and vehicles 
of every description, their in- 
trinsic beauty enhanced by, in 
general, remarkable ingenuity 
and taste in the handling of 
them. This pageant brought 
out the largest and most en- 
thusiastic audience of the fiesta ; 
and even those familiar with the 
loveliness of California flowers 
were charmed with this most 
successful display. 

In the cred- .^^1 ^•■ 

itable day pa- 
rade of the 
2ist, at least 

the Chinese pageant, with its wealth of barbaric splendor 

and its 225-foot dragon, was unique among carnival 

features. To these largest successes, the usual program 

of ball, fireworks, athletic sports, all-fools* night and 

the like, added the proper complement and the Fiesta 

of 1897 leaves many pleasant memories and some proud 

ones. The street decorations were peculiarly successful 

and effective — very much the best work that has yet 

been done here ; aud the set floats showed that even 

such experts as Mr. Ad. Petsch and Mr. Robinson can 

do better work each year — growing with the demand 

upon them. 

The Fiesta de Los Angeles seems to be here to stay. 

We need some such set unbending ; and if successive 

managements are wise, we shall fully adopt the annual season of fun. 

The only thing to be guarded against is a cheapening of the plan. There 

are sometimes temptations ; but in this population, the only way to suc- 
ceed with a fiesta is never to let it subside to any suggestion of a fake. 



Fiesta de Los Angeles, 
SWEET PEAS. 




F. K. RULE, 

President La Fiesta de Los Angeles, 189 



.«.^lp*^,^V^:pli=:m 



I v^V^'^ ^'".^ 



Union Eng. Co. 



MISSION fNDlANS, FIESTA, 1897. Photo Copyrighted 1897 by Waite 




Mausard-CoUier Eng. Co. Copyright 1897 by Schumacher. 

LA REINA DE LA FIESTA OF 1897, MISS FRANCISCA ALEXANDER. 



TJS 






i^iif 




Photo by M B Howard, L A. Eng.Co. 

THE FLORAL QUEEN SALLIE P M'FARLAND AND HER MAIDS OF HONOR. 




Photo, by H B. Howard. 



THE SANTA CLAUS FLOAT, 1897. 



L, A. Eng. Co. 




Photo, by Graham & Morrill. 

1. Rose Cart. 



FLORAL DAY, 
Los Caballeros. 



A Marguerite Four-in-Hand. 



L. A. Eng.Co. 




FLORAL DAY, 1897. 
Marigold Cart of F. K Rule. (Stiffler Photo.) 2. Americus Club, Pasadena, escorting the Queen 

to the Throne. 3. Sweet Pea Carriage. (Photo, by Waite.) • 



273 



Long Beach and Alamitos. 

BY WM. CALER, EDITOR OF " THE BREAKER " 

|A.TURE made Long Beach for the most attractive coast town in 
the State ; but for nearly a century after Fray Junipero founded 
his first Mission, this exquisite locality was neglected by man. 
The thousands of acres from which the original townsite was selected 
about 1884 had been for years in possession of the Bixby brothers, eight 



^' 




GENERAL VIEW OF LONG BEACH. 



Sturdy men of Maine who early crossed the plains and became great land- 
holders here. Llewellyn, Jotham and John acquired lands embracing the 
18,000-acre Palos Verdes rancho, west of San Pedro ; the io,ooo-acre 
Cerritos rancho north of Long Beach ; and the 5,000-acre Alamitos 
rancho, on the east. Of the latter, I. W. Hellman, president of the 
Nevada Bank, San Francisco, is now chief owner. He is also president 
of the Alamitos Land Co. 

Long Beach was platted in 1884 as Wilmore City ; acquiring its present 
name when the Long Beach Land and Water Co. come into control, and 
put in a water system. After various more primitive facilities for travel, 
the S. P. R. R. connected Long Beach with the San Pedro line. In 1889 
the L. A. Terminal Ry . was built from Los Angeles to Rattlesnake Island, 
via Long Beach ; and since then the town has grown steadily if not 
rapidly. Bonds were voted and a $15,000 pleasure wharf was built. 




PLEASURE WHARF AT LONG BEACH. 



274 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 




PUBLIC SCHOOL. 

perfect drive than the best race-track, 

this country at least, equally safe and 

child and the most 

expert swimmer, it 

is enough by itself 

to make the fortune 

of Long Beach. 

The town has but 
one really first-class 
hotel (Seaside Inn), 
which under the ex- 
perienced manage- 
ment of the well- 
known bonniface, 
Mr. E. D. Bolter, can 
butbe a drawing card 
for Long Beach. * 
Also ample board- 
ing and rooming 
houses. There are 
cement walks and 
electric lights, an 
ample water supply, 
lumber-yard, brick- 
yard, etc. Half a 
dozen congregations 
have their own 
churches — M e t h o - 



which was opened to 
the public in April, 
1894. It has been of 
great value to the 
town, afibrding the 
best facilities for 
boating, fishing and 
bathing to be had on 
the coast. 

There are beaches 
and beaches ; but in 
the whole of North 
America there is not 
another like the 
magnificent twelve- 
mile beach, of al- 
most imperceptible 
slope, hard and 
smooth as a floor, 
which stretches from 
San Pedro to Alami- 
tos Bay. A more 
a bathing beach without a peer in 
equally delightful for the frailest 




* See Items of Interest in 
this number. 



BANK OF LONG BEACH. 



LONG BEACH AND ALAMITOS. 




BELLEVUE LODGE. (See Items of Interest ) 

dist, Presbyterian, Congregational, Friends, Baptist and Christian. The 
Chautauqua Society (now incorporated, and permanently located here) 
has erected a large building of seven rooms and a fine auditorium, and 
will soon begin the main structure to accommodate at least 2500 persons. 
Over 30 buildings are now in course o^c on structian , ^n^ toyn , and there 
are several more "in sight." CJSnCrOlt L^lDCittr|i 

There are good public schools (high-school included) wim 400 pupils, 
efficiently managed by Prof. H. L. Lunt. The Masonic order owns its 
hall, in which the Foresters, Maccabees (Tent and Hive) and Fraternal 
Aid Association also meet. The Bank of Long Beach ( Jotham Bixby, 
Prest.) does a large business. There are two good newspapers, the 
Breaker and the Eye-. A fine park of four squares is a great addition to 
the attractions of the town. 

With two railroads (both connecting, a few minutes' ride distant, with 
the coast steamers) ; with its matchless natural endowment and its con- 
servative but steady progress. Long Beach offers peculiar inducements to 
the best class of homeseekers. 

A strong factor in the development of Long Beach is the San Pedro 
Lumber Co., under the local management of Mr. A. W. Goodhue. It is 




THE HENDERSON BUILDING. 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



277 



always ready to lend a hand to whatever enterprise will make for the 
progress of Long Beach. 

THE ALAMITOS, 

joining Long Beach on the east, and Cerritos rancho adjacent on the 
north, must be included in any general description of the locality. 
Results have justified the action of the Alamitos Land Co. in plotting 
nearly 1000 additional acres to 5 and lo-acre tracts for suburban homes 
and fruit ranches. Less than five years have elapsed since homes began 
to replace the enormous grain-fields ; and already there is a town of some 
200 houses. About 500 acres are set to lemons ; and already it is ex- 
pected that these young trees will produce a carload of fruit this season. 
Nearly an equal acreage has been planted to olives, one grove covering 
40 acres. There is great demand not only for the pickles but for the oil, 
which may presently be applied to a home industry, as tons of sardines 
are packed at San Pedro. There are two associations of lemon-growers 




THE WINOARD'S, 



— the Alamitos with 25 members, and the Signal Hill with about a dozen. 
The Alamitos lands are as successful in corn and gardens as in fruit ; and 
this enables the man of small means to "inch along" while his trees 
come to bearing. 

Here, where vegetation is perennial, and one can work out of doors 
the year round, ten acres can be made to yield as much as 60 or 80 in the 
East. It is no place for the shiftless ; but the thrift necessary to suc- 
cessful farming anywhere realizes better results here than ever east of the 
Rockies. Land can be bought on three and four years' time, one-fourth 
down. Water is furnished at cost, until the tract shall all be sold, when 
it will become the property of the landowners in proportion to their 
holdings, and will be managed by themselves. 

The model fruit farm of 100 acres begun a couple of years ago by Dr. 
Emmet Densmore, lies on the eastern rim of the Alamitos settlement, 
and is an earnest of what can and will be done in that whole great area. 



278 



LONG BEACH AND ALAMITOS. 




TERMINAL DEPOT. 



The Alamitos people are 
enterprising and progressive. 
Their neat homes, good roads 
and thrifty farms speak for 
themselves. They have erected 
a fine schoolhouse ; and last 
month completed a neat build- 
ing for public library and hall. 
Several years ago the owners 
of the Alamitos tract of nearly 
4000 acres laid out and planted 
a park of eleven acres. This 
has been kept up at private 
expense, and is now an attrac- 
tive resort. It is only a mile 
and a half from the center of 
Ivong Beach. Just in front, on 
the bluflf overlooking the ocean, is reserved a site for a fine hotel. 

Travelers who have driven over the Alamitos and to the top of Signal 
Hill never forget the wonderful panorama of sea and islands and rolling 
plain and swelling hills and horizon of snow-peaks. On a clear day (of 
which there are at least 300 in the year) one can see at least 20 towns and 
cities. Mt. San Antonio (10,100 ft.) rears his white head at a distance of 
about 50 miles, while the higher San Jacinto, "Greyback," and San 
Bernardino, and the whole vast wall of the Sierra Madre are not only 
visible but imposing. 

It is a proved fact that one can in the winter snowball on Mt. Lowe at 
1 1 a. m , dine at the Echo Mountain Hotel, come down the Incline to pluck 
roses in Altadena, and before 2:30 p. m. be enjoying a plunge in the surf 
at Long Beach. This is about equivalent to a winter journey from Boston 
to Florida in three and a half hours ; a facility which Bostonians would 
be rather glad to get, and which the luckier people of Southern California 
know how to appreciate. Such contrasts give a graphic idea of the 
climatic range of this wonderful country, and faintly hint at the variety 
of the joys of life at command where the best of all lands seems to have 
been condensed. 




POSTOFFICE BLOCK. 



©[?' 



To Meet the Demand. 

»HE intelligence and size of a community can be gauged by the character of 
the institutions which minister to its wants. A community has often to be 
educated to an appreciation of such things as might be included by the 
term luxuries, but in the case of the necessities, such as groceries provide, it is the 
community which does the educating. 

It is, therefore, to the great credit, both of Los Angeles and its enterprising busi- 
ness men, that it not only has the largest but most up-to-date grocery establishments 
of the entire West. To render this statement more apparent it will certainly be but 
fair to the reader to select for example an institution of this kind, which is by no 
means the largest in Los Angeles, although it is, perhaps, the newest, most conven- 
ient of access, and most alert. Los Angeles scores another point when it is appre- 
ciated that a gentleman with so 
large an experience in the grocery 
business 
Mr. 
Nicolson 
has en- 
joyed in 
Colorado 




A NICOLSON CO., GROCERS, BYRNE BUILDINC, COR. THIRD ST. AND BROADWAY, LOS ANGELES. 

was so quick to realize the opportunities presented by a city of this kind. The 
location selected, the fine basement and elegant retail room formerly occupied by the 
Mt. Lowe Springs Co., Third street and Broadway, is certainly a strong proof of Mr. 
Nicolson's alertness to the convenience of customers, while an evidence of his sense of 
justice to the community is the fact that he has associated himself with partners 
who, from long residence, understand the wants of the people of Los Angeles, and 
have a host of friends who will be glad to assure their success. Few need be 
reminded that Mr. H. I. Seward is of the old and prominent grocery firm of Seymour 
& Johnson, or that Mr. H. W. Seymour is a son of one of the members of that pioneer 
firm, or that Mr. J. R. Schaffer is recently from one of the largest grocery firms on 
Spring street. But their names will be additional assurance of old-time courtesy and 
satisfaction. 

A trial order to this firm by the writer disclosed three things which stand out 
above the general excellence discovered. First, pure foods of all kinds ; second, the 
finest lines of teas to be had, and last, but not least, a specialty is made of the World's 
Fair renowned prize winner, Chase & Sanborn's coffee. Aside from these, aerated 
bread stuffs, the finest of spices, mountain butter of superior keeping quality, and 
many other staples are in evidence. It will thus be seen that the wants of Los 
Angeles, as well as those of the entire surrounding country, need not go prospecting 
outside of the metropolis of the Southwest. 



Do You Care What You Wear? 

OUBTLESS you do. The question therefore, which is more diflScult for the 
reader to answer is where to secure the best at the