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-^RISTTWYKS NUT^BER. 1S99 ^^'^ ^s^^'n^l\,^^ 

BENJ. IDE WHEELER ) UaVishly-*^-^'"-^*^ 

JOAQUm MILLER > llliimtf jit^H 

CHAS. WARREN STODDARD. ETC. S lllUBlFaxeCl 









UNSHIN 



THE MAGAZINE OF 

CAUFORNIA AND THE WEST 

EDITED BY CHAS.E LUMMIS. 




CONSTANT READER." 



CENTS 



LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO., Incorporated 



CI A 



■^ hen answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunsbinh. 




Braces the nerves, builds up the blood, strengthens everyway— Abbott's, the Original Angostura 

Bitters. 



THE 



Land of Sunshine 



THE MAGAZINE OF 
CALIFORNIA AND THE, WEST 



EDITED BY 

CHARLES F. LUMMIS 



Staff — David Starr Jordan. Joaquin Miller, Theodore H. Hittell, Mary Hallock Foote, 
Margaret Collier Graham, Charles Warren Stoddard, Grace Ellery Channing, John Vance 
Cheney, Ina Coolbrith, William Keith, Dr. Washington Matthews. Dr. Elliott 
Coues. George Parker Winship, Frederick Webb Hodge, Charles F. Holder, 
Edwin Markham, Geo. Hamlin Fitch, Chas. Howard Shinn, T. S. 
Van Dyke, Chas. A. Keeler, Louise M. Keeler, A. F. Harmer, 
L. Maynard Dixon, Charlotte Perkins Stetson, Con- 
stance Goddard Du Bois, Batterman Lindsay, 
Chas. Dwlfr hf yyijj z^j^d. Elizabeth 
^s^lvaG^r 




VOLUME Xll 
December, 1899, to May, 1900 



LAND OF Sunshine Publishing Co. 

LOS ANGELES. CAL. 



v. J'Z 




Copyright 1900 by 
Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 



xH'dic 



The Land of Sunshine. 

Contents of Vol. XI i. 

PAGB 

Answered (poem), Nora May French 331 

Betsy (story), Cloudesley Johns 366 

Birds of Southern California, Elizabeth and Joseph Grin- 

nell (with photos, from life) 165, 239, 291, 344 

Burbank's Indian Portraits, illustrated, C. F. L 332 

But Yet a Woman, illustrated 59 

Cactus (poem), W. W. Lovejoy 187 

California Alps, illustrated, David Starr Jordan 206 

California Babies, illustrated 65, 133, 202, 265, 327, 389 

California Bookman, A, illustrated 235 

California " Shooting Stars," illustrated 138 

California Wildflowers in Winter, illustrated, Chas. Ama- 
dou Moody 153, 222 

Cities of the Dead, illustrated. Dr. Washington Matthews 213 
Colorado River, Discovery of, in 1540, illustrated, Geo. 

Parkier Winship 269 

Compadres, The (story), Verona Granville 370 

Coues, The late Elliott, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 159 

Desert Queen, The (poem), Sharlot M. Hall 103 

E^calante, Fray Silvestre Velez de, Letter (1778) summar- 
izing the Pueblo Rebellion 247, 309 

February Flower-Hunt, A, illustrated, Chas. Amadon 

Moody 222 

Feet of the Young Men, The (poem), Mary Austin 139 

Fiction Stranger than Earthquakes, Ernest P. Clarke 176 

Fiesta at Mesa Grande, A, illustrated, Constance G. Du Bois 86 
Finding the Colorado River, illustrated, Geo. Parker 

Winship 269 

•Flood of Fortune, A (story), O. T. Fellows 36 

Flower Farms of California, illustrated, Sharlot M. Hall.. 280 

Fog Bows, illustrated. Will A. Wright , 376 

Garden of Souls, The (poem). Dr. C. W. Doyle 71 

Grey Day, A (poem), Ella Woodward Foote 331 

Harmer and his Work, illustrated 22 

Indian Education, illustrated 28, 90, 178, 244, 352, 356 

In the Lion's Den (editorial), Chas. F. Lummis 

.....49. 114. 188, 251, 315, 378 

Interrupted Wheeling, A, illustrated, Ralph E. Bicknell.. 228 



In Western Letters, Chas. F. Lummis, with original por- 
traits of Francis F. Browne, Wm. Keith, Edwin 

Markham, Charlotte Perkins Stetson, etc ...296, 346 

Judgment of Paris, The (poem), Julia Boynton Green 377 

Lame Dancing- Masters 356 

Landmarks Club, The, illustrated 128 

Land We Love, The, illustrated 60, 129, 263, 325, 387 

Lewis's Tomb, illustrated, Octavia Z. Bond 358 

Lost — A Man, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 159 

Lost Mines of Mexico, illustrated, Verona Granville 140 

Midwinter Maying, illustrated, Chas. Amadon Moody 153 

Mission Graves, The (poem), Nora May French 71 

Mission Saint's-Day in 1868, A, illustrated, D. M. D 84 

My Brother's Keeper, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis, 28, 90, 178 

New Force, A, illustrated 94 

Night on the Mesa Trail (poem), J. Albert Mallory 205 

Old Garden, The (poem), Nora May French 205 

One of the Old Guard, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 72 

Oom Paul (poem), Joaquin Miller 27 

Out of the Frying-Pan (story), Julia Boynton Green 172 

Painter of Old California, A, illustrated 22 

Painting the First Americans, illustrated, C. F. L 332 

Pioneers of the Far West, from documents never before 

published in English ^ 39, L04, 180, 247, 309 

Pity of It, The, Bertha S. Wilkins 244 

Professor's Wealth, The (story), T. S. Van Dyke 240 

Re very (poem) , Charles Warren Stoddard 3 

Saving the Ranch (Story), T. S. Van Dyke 96 

Soldier of Spain, A (story), Beltran Escoba 236 

Soldier's Will, The, translated by Elliott Coues 373 

Solitude (poem), Louis J. Block 375 

Staging in the Sierra, illustrated, Idah M. Strobridge 169 

That Which is Written (editorial book- reviews) Chas. F. 

Lummis 53, 120, 197, 259, 322, 384 

The Story of Cyrus Hawk, illustrated, C. J. Crandall 352 

The Story of Tin-A, Sui Sin Fah loi 

The University of California and Its Future, illustrated, 

Prest. Benj. Ide Wheeler 4 

The University of California, its Past and Present, illus- 
trated. Prof. Elmer Ellsworth Brown 9 

To Carmen (poem), C P. Holt 83 

Volunteer from San Juan, The (story), Chas. Howard Shinn 309 
While the Honorables Slept (story), Edith King Latham 303 

Will of God, The (story), Eve Lummis 33 

Zarate-Salmeron, Fray Geronimo de, " Relacion," history 

of California and New Mexico, 1538- 1626 39, 104, 180 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshikk." 



In the Heart of Los Angeles 



49 The Hollenbeck, on Second 

49 and Spring Sts., is the most 

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5» 



jj :?econu anu spring r>ts. UOS Angeles, CaL OF 

ELEGANCE IN" FURNITURE of all kinds can be ob- 
tained at our store. For modern stock, large selection and low 
prices in 

Furniture, Carpets, Mattings, Rugs, Curtains, Etc., 

Call on or write 

Southern California Furniture Co., 

312-14 S. Broadway, Los Angeles. 

A Different California — 

Some of your ideas of California may be wrong. Especially you may not know that in Fresno 
and Kings Counties may be found some of the best land in the State on L,aguna de Tache grant 
lately put on the market in ten-acre tracts, or larger, at $35.00 per acre, including perpetual water 
right, at 62Ji cents per acre annual rental, the cheapest water in California. Send your name 
and address and receive the local newspaper free for two months, that will give you reliable informa- 




tion. 



C. A. HUBERT, A^ent, 

207 W. Third St., 
liOS Angeles. 



Address : NARES & SAUNDERS, 
1840 Mariposa Street, Fresno, Cal. 




HOLIDAY GIFTS..,. 



Usefal Furniture Articles. 



FANCY ROCKERS 

MORRIS CHAIRS 

DAVENPORTS 



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Order irom the Big Store.— Booklet Free. 

Niles Pease Furniture Co, 

439-441-443 S. Spring St., I.os AjMfelQS. rt""**** 



The Land of Sunshine 



(incorfokatbd) capital stock $so,ooo. 



The Magazine of California and the West 



EDITED BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 



The Only Exclusively Western Magazine 



AMONG THE STOCKHOLDERS 

DAVID STARR JORDAN 

President of Stanford University. 

THEODORE H. HiTTEIvIy 

The Historian of California. 

MARY HALLOCK FOOTE 

Author of The Led-Horse Claim etc 

MARGARET COLLIER GRAHAM 
Author of Stories of the Foothills. 

GRACE ELLERY CHANNING 

Author of The Sister of a Saint, etc. 

ELLA HIGGINSON 

Author of A Forest Orchid, etc. 

JOHN VANCE CHENEY 

Author of Thistle Drift, etc. 

CHARLES WARREN STODDARD 
The Poet of the South Seas. 

INA COOLBRITH 

Author of Songs from the Golden Gate, etc. 

EDWIN MARKHAM 
' ' ■ '^ ' Author of The Man with the Hoe. 

JOAQUIN MILLER "-^ 

The Poet of the Sierras. 

CHAS. FREDERICK HOLDER 

Author of The Life of Agassiz, etc. 

CONSTANCE GODDARD DU BOIS 

Author The Shield of the Fleur de Lis. 



AND CONTRIBUTORS ARE: 

WILLIAM KEITH 

The greatest Western painter. 

DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS 
Kx-Prest. American Folk-I,ore Society. 

DR. ELLIOTT COUES 

The Historian of Lewis and Clark. 

GEO. PARKER WINSHIP 

The Historian of Coronado's Marches. 

FREDERICK WEBB HODGE 

of the Bureau of Bthnologfy, Washington. 

GEO. HAMLIN FITCH 

I^iterary Editor S. F. Chronicle. 

CHARLOTTE PERKINS STETSON 

Author of In This Our IVorld. 

CHAS. HOWARD SHINN 

Author of The Story of the Mine, etc. 

T. S. VAN DYKE 

Author of Rod and Gun in California, etc. 

CHAS. A. KEELER 

A Director of the California Academy 
of Sciences. 

LOUISE M. KEELER 
ALEX. F. HARMER 

L. MAYNARD DIXON 

Illustrators. 

CHAS. DWIGHT WILLARD 



BATTERMAN LINDSAY, ETC., ETC. 



CONTENTS FOR DECEMBER, 1899: 

Benjamin Ide Wheeler, the new president of the University of 

California Frontispiece 

Revery (poem), by Charles Warren Stoddard 3 

The University of California and its Future, illustrated, by Prest. Benj. Ide Wheeler 4 
The University of California — Its Past and Present, illustrated, by Prof. Elmer 

Ellsworth Brown 9 

An Artist of Old California, illustrated from paintings by Harmer 22 

Oom Paul on his birthday (poem), by Joaquin Miller 27 

My Brother's Keeper, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 28 

Edwin Markham, with unpublished portrait 32 

The Will of God (story), by Eve Lummis 33 

A Flood of Fortune (story), by O. T. Fellows 36 

Pioneers of the Far West — Zdrate-Salmeron, II 39 

In the Lion's Den7(by the editor) 49 

That Which is Written (reviews bv the editor) 53 

*'But Yeta Woman," illustrated..'. 59 

The Land We Love, illv»?irated 60 

California Babies, illustrated 65 



Entered at the Los Angeles Postoffice as second-class matter. 
SEE publisher's PAGE. 



'^**^.^rj>AfJ'<*<'.'.*''^'**^Aff**jf^A*f^^^^ 





THE0REAT ^plCAN M # ^^^ 
WIf «Jy4/f^^ PREPARED JT ^ 

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When answering advertisemenls, please mention that you " saw it m the Land of bUNSHiNB." 



SCRIBNER S 




for 




THE YEAR NOW ENDING HAS 
PROVED EVEN MORE SUCCESSFUL 
FOR SCRIBNER'S THAN WAS '98. 
THIS MEANS THE MOST SUCCESS- 
FUL TWELVEMONTH IN THE HIS- 
TORY OF THE MAGAZINE. . . . FOR 1900, THE CLOSING YEAR OF 
THE CENTURY, HAS BEEN SECURED THE MOST VALUABLE PROGRAM 
THE MAGAZINE EVER OFFERED. SOME OF THE PLANS AND PRE- 
PARATIONS HAVE BEEN UNDER WAY FOR THREE YEARS. . . . RECENT SUCCESSES HAVE 
STIMULATED NEW UNDERTAKINGS, AND ADDITIONAL PLANS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED — THE 
RESULT MAY BE JUDGED OF FROM THE FOLLOWING, ALTHOUGH BUT A PARTIAL AN- 
NOUNCEMENT FOR igoo."* 



Oliver Cromwell. 



THE SEQUEL TO SENTIMENTAL 
TOMMY, by J. M. BARRIE, has finally 
been completed, and will be published in 
Scribner's Magazine, where "Sentimental 
Tommy " first appeared. It will begin with 
the new volume (January number), and will 
be illustrated by Bernard Partridge. It 
is enough to say of the story that it deals 
with the grown-up life of Tommy and Grizel 
in London — with Tommy celebrated and 
Grizel a woman. 



OLIVER CROMWELL, by THEODORE 
ROOSEVELT, will not be the history of a 
mere student, compiled with much research 
but with little experience of affairs. It will 
show a man of action in history as viewed 
by a younger man of action today. -Xt be- 
gins in the January Scribner, and will be 
completed in six num- 
bers. The Illustra- 
tors include F C. 
Yohn, E. C. Peixotto, 
Henry McCarter, Sey- 
mour Lucas, R.A., the 
well-known authority 
upon the Cromwellian 
period, and two other 
well-known English 
illustrators, Frank 
Craig and Claude E. 
Shepperson. There 
Richard Harding Davis, will also be portraits 






Walter A. WyckoflF. 



Henry Van Dyke. 



reproduced 
from the 
famous Eng- 
lish collec- 
tions. 



RICHARD 
HARDING 
DAVIS will 
continue to 
be a promi- 
nen t and 
frequent 
contributor, 
both of fic- 
tion and of 
special arti- 
cles. More J- ^- ^*^"^- 
specific announcement will be made from 
time to time. 

THE BOER WAR will be dealt with in 
Scribner^s (like the Spanish warj with vivid, 
complete discriptions by eye-witnesses — 
accompanied with the best photographs. 
The first articles will be by H. J. Whigham, 
who has already reached the front. 

THE CHARM OF PARIS, by Ida M. 
Tarbell, illustrated by an extraordinary 
group of artists, including Lepere, Mar- 
chetti, Jeanniot, Steinlen, Huard, and Mc- 
Carter. 



SENATOR HOAR: " Harvard Fifty Years 
Ago," and a paper on the Massachusetts Bar 
in the days of Choate and the other historic 
legal giants. 



* The prospectus for 1900, in small book form, with 
illustrations in colors by Walter Appleton Clart . 
F. C. Yohn, H. C Christy, and others (cover by Max 
field Parrish), sent upon application. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I,AifD of Sunshinb. 



MAGAZINE 
1 9 OO 



THE RUSSIA OF TODAY, by Hknry 
Norman, author of "The Real Japan," 
"The Far Kast," etc., and the expert on 
foreign politics and colonial policies. Six 
articles, all illustrated. 



OMDURMAN AND THE SUDAN, by 
Capt. W. Elliott Cairnes, the well-known 
English military critic. The first inside 
view of the actual state of things along the 
borders of the Sudan — the system by which 
this district is being reclaimed from sav- 
agery, the life in the Egyptian army, etc. 
Illustrated by Captain Cairnes's own pho- 
tographs. 

A TRIP IN GREENLAND, and Other 
Articles, by Walter A. Wyckoff, au- 
thor of "The Workers." 



ERNEST SETON-THOMPSON, author 
of "Wild Animals I Have Known," will 
contribute to early numbers of the Mag- 
azine a notable group of stories — all illus- 
trated by himself. 



HENRY VAN DYKE is writing stories 
of wilderness types — full of the charm of 
out-of-door nature. Walter Appleton 
Clark will continue to be his illustrator. 



subscription price, $3 CO A YEAR, POST- 
AGE PREPAID. 25 CENTS A NUMBER. 
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 153-157 FIFTH 
AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



c 



be €bri$tnia$ Scribner 

( December number) includes : Six 
Notable Short Stories— Two 8-page 
Color schemes— C. D. Gibson's *♦ The 
Seven Ages of American Woman" (16 
pages with tint) — Antarctic Exploration, 
by Dr. F. A. Cook and Albert White 
Vorse (illustrated) — An Essay by Au- 
gustine Birrell— and a Discussion of the 
Dewey Arch, by Russell Sturgis, illus= 
trated by Elmendorf with Telephoto- 
graphs. It is Issued November 24, with a 
Christmas Cover by Maxfield Parrish. 



LOUIS C. SENG- 
ER will contribute a 
group of railroad 
stories — '' Train Four- 
teen," "Without 
Orders," " In Time of 
Need." 




Theodore Roosevelt. 



OCTAVE THANET: stories dealing 
somewhat with questions in regard to mod- 
ern woman's sphere. 

WILLIAM ALLEN WHITE : several 
more of his stories of picturesque phases 
of Western public life. 



More " O'CONNOR " stories by William 
Maynadier Browne will appear from time 
to time. 



THOMAS NELSON PAGE, Henry James, 
Maarten Maartens, Edith Wharton are 
among those who have already written 
short fiction for the forthcoming numbers. 



ART FEATURES include, besides the 
uncommon illustrations for "Cromwell" 
and the other pictorial plans mentioned, 
special articles on art and artists, such as 
"Puvis de Chavannes," by John La Farge, 
to be illustrated, in color, from the great 
artist's work ; special 
illustrative schemes 
by E. C. Peixotto, the 
young American illus- 
trator, who is making 
a pilgrimage through 
Europe for the maga- 
zine ; by Walter Ap- 
pleton Clark, and 
Dwight L. Elmendorf. 
Also color-printing 
and colored covers. 

Thomas Nelson Page. 





Henry Norman. 



Ernest Seton -Thompson. 



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SCRIBNER^S HOLIDAY BOOKS 



The most important work of an autobiographical character 
in many years. 

THE LETTERS OF ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON* 

Edited by Sidney Colvin. Illustrated by Guerin and Peixotto. 2 volumes, 
8vo, |5.00 net. 

" The volumes will contain upwards of four huudred and fifty letters — nearly double the 
number of those which have been and are appearing in Scribner's Magazine." — The AthencBum. 

"The final instalment of Stevenson's letters, in Scribner^s, can but leave us wishing he 
had lived to write more of them A few more like his best, and he might have been better 
remembered for his letters than for his books. Fine flashes of criticism light up his corres- 
pondence.' —New York Evening Post. 

" Every month we are able to see more and more how interesting and companionable a 
book the Stevbnson I,ettkrs will make. It bids fair to become one of those works which 
are kept very close to the arm-chair, and kept there not merely during its first public vogue, 
but continuously."— ZA^ Academy, 

By the Author of " WILD ANIMALS I HAVE KNOWN:' 

THE TRAIL OF THE SANDHILL STAG. 

BY ERNEST SETON-THOMPSON, 

With 8 full-page illustrations (one in color), and numerous marginal draw- 
ings by the author. Sq. Bvo, $1.50. 
'• A more delightful bit of impressionist work, subtle word-painting and that best of all 
teaching which conveys its lesson unconsciously is not often found. It is a reproof of the 
blood thirst in the hunter, a plea for the harmless and gentle denizen of the forest and moun- 
tain, a sermon which Buddha might have preached and a marvel of artistic creation all in 
one."— Chicago Evening Post. 

Now in the TWENTY-THIRD THOUSAND. 

WILD ANIMALS I HAVE KNOWN- 
BY ERNEST SETON-THOMPSON. 

With 200 illustrations from clrawings by the author. Square 12mo, |2.00. 

FISHERMAN'S LUCK, BY HENRY VAN DYKE. 

And Some Other Uncertain Things. Illustrated by Sterner, Smedley, Relyea 
and French, and from photographs. Bvo, j^2.00. 
'• Dr. van Dyke has brought from the brooks and the woods a fresh and genuine note into 
our literature— a note in which one hears the fall of water, the stir of leaves, and the sound of 
men moving and speaking. The twelve chapters which make up this book of stories and 
sketches have a delightful breeziness of spirit and a sincere literary charm." — The Outlook 

OTHER HOLIDAY BOOKS. 

SANTA CLAUSES PARTNER AMERICAN LANDS AND 

By Thomas Nelson Page. Illus- LETTERS 

trated in colors. 12mo, $1.50. iV^ze/ Fb/«w^. " lyeather-Stocking " 

w.Ti^T7-n-T o A-K.TTN OT^/^OTTTO to Poe's " Ra veu. " With 150 illus- 

NOVELS AND STORIES trations. svo, $2.50. 

By Richard Harding Davis. Olive 

Leather Edition. 6 vols., 16mo., BOB: The Story of Our Mocking 

limp leather. Sold only in sets. Bird. By Sidney Lanier. With 

$6.00 net. 16 colored illustrations. 12mo,$1.50. 

BRITISH CONTEMPORARY ARTISTS- 

By Cosmo MonkhouSE. With many illustrations. Royal Svo, $5.00. 

Chapters ot the highest critical and descriptive value on Burne-Jones, Watts, Alma-Tadema, 
Millais, IvCighton, Orchardson, and Poynter, illustrated with a perfection and care really un- 
precedented in any similar work. 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, ^'' 'V^^^foil^'*"^' 



Ornamental Border from the Christmas Century. 

^be Cbristmas 
"Century" 

is one of the most beautiful Christmas numbers of a magazine ever 
issued, printed in black and tints, and full of features of special in- 
terest at the Christmas season, including a capital story by Jacob A. 
Riis, **The Kid Hangs Up His Stocking"; Dr. Weir Mitchell's 
poem, **King Christmas and Master New Year"; "A Proven9al 
Christmas Postscript,'* by Thomas A. Janvier; **The Christmas 
Tree," a full-page picture by J. Alden Weir; etc., etc. 

An important feature of the number is the first of a series of articles 
by Sir Walter Besant, author of **A11 Sorts and Conditions of Men," 
on ** Life in the East End of London," with pictures by Joseph 
Pennell and Phil May. In this first article Sir Walter takes a single 
creature out of the two millions in East London, and shows her 
young life in childhood and maidenhood. 

In February will begin a series of articles by Richard Whiteing, 
author of** No. 5 John Street," describing **The Paris of To-day," 
with illustrations by Andre Castaigne, whose pictures are now 
attracting wide attention. 

This Christmas Century contains the second instalment of 

^be Cromwell Ibistot^ 

Bi? tbe IRiabt 1bon, Jobn /IDorle^, /ID, p. 

This will take high rank among the great historical studies of the 
world. No man is more competent to treat his subject than Mr. 
Morley, and he has put his best work into this study of the Protector. 
The illustrations of the history will be not only fine as pictures and 
engravings, but they will be interesting. 

Ube Hutoblograpb^ ot a diuacft 

m 2>t. S. "Oaeir ObitchcW 

AND 

Xlbe BtOGtapb^ ot a (3ri33l^ 
:©!? Brncst Seton*Q:bomp6on 

were oegun in the November number and are continued in this Christ- 
mas issue. After the issue of the December number, subscribers who 
begin with that number will receive a copy of the November number, 
free of charge, if they ask for it on subscribing, thus obtaining the first 
number of the volume and the beginning of the important serials, 
including the Cromwell History. Remit 



$4- 



put 



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The Century Co/s Latest Books. 



HUGH WYNNE. 
Continental Edition. 

By Dr. S. "Weir Mitchell. A new and richly illus- 
trated edition of Dr. Mitchell's famous novel of the 
American Revolution, illustrated with photogravures 
by Howard Pyle and reproductions of old prints and 
manuscripts and photographs of present scenes. Two 
volumes, in a box, $5.00. Third edition on the press. 

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THE MANY=SIDED FRANKLIN. 

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PRESENT=DAY EGYPT. 

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TRAMPING WITH TRAMPS. 

By Josiah Flynt. To the general reader this book 
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THE VIZIER OF THE TWO=HORNED 
ALEXANDER. 

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R. B. Birch, 250 pages, ^1.25. 

TWO NEW BOOKS IN THE THUMB= 
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Each in stamped leather binding, with frontispiece 
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Rip Van Winkle, and the Legend of Sleepy 
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Meditations of Marcus Atirelius, selected and 
newly translated by Mr. Benjamin E. Smith. 

MAXIMILIAN IN MEXICO. 

By Sara Yorke Stevenson. A Woman's Remi- 
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WHERE ANGELS FEAR TO TREAD. 

By Morgan Robertson. A collection of capital 
sea stories, which "tell themselves straightforwardly 
and well. There is humor in them and they move.'' 
{N. Y. Sun.) With frontispiece, $1.25. 

THE ISLAND. 

By Richard "Whiteing. The author of that pop- 
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work with new chapters. 225 pages, $1.50. 

NO. 5 JOHN STREET. 

By Richard Whiteing. One of the season's great 
successes. ' ' A remarkable book by a remarkable man , " 
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THE CIRCLE OF A CENTURY. 

By Mrs. Burton Harrison. Containing two love 
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Also new editions of "The Anglomaniacs." with 
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South " ; " Flower de Hundred " ; and " A Virginia 
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LITTLE JIM CROW, AND OTHER 
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By Clara Morris. The author of this book has but 
recently turned her attention to literature, yet a collec- 
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THE FOUR=MASTED CAT=BOAT, 
AND OTHER TRUTHFUL TALE5. 

By Charles Battell Loomis, A contribution to the 
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HIS DEFENSE, AND OTHER 

STORIES. 

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HOLLY AND - PIZEN," AND OTHER 
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THE SINKING OF THE " MERRIMAC." By 
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WALTER CAMP'S BOOK OF COLLEGE 
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i8th 



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From an article on Boutet de Monvel in the Christmas St. 
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What better Christmas present can 
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History of the People of the 
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The Mansfield Calendar for 1900 

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Recollections of the Civil War 

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Uncle Remus 

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Bird-Life 

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The Story of the Railroad 

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Reminiscences of a Very Old Man 

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Mr. Bullen's New Book 

The Log of a Sea-Waif 

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Anthony Hope's New Novel 

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340,000 to November 1 

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The Races of Europe 

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Scotland's Ruined Abbeys Among English Hedgerows 

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Child Life in Colonial Days The Jingle Book 

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Drake and His Yeomen 

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This and That Tales of Languedoc 

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BISHOP WHIPPLE'S MEMORIES. 

Lights and Shadows of a Long Episcopate 

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LL.D., Bishop OF Minn. With Portraits, etc. fust Ready. !$4.00. 

The missionary bishop's view of his career among the Indians, and of his association with such 
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book abounds in delightful anecdotes. 

Wild Eden. A Volume of Verse The Roman History of Appian 

By GEORGE EDWARD woodberry, of Alexandria 

Professor of English Literature in Columbia Translated from the Greek by HORACE 

University author of The North Shore WHITE. LL.D. I. The Foreign Wars. 

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The United Kingdom : A Political History. 

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The Diary of Samuel Pepys The Story of France 

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Abraham Lincoln : The flan of the People. 

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Nature Pictures by American A History of England 

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Edited with introduction by ANNIE RUS- By KATHARINE COMAN and ELIZABETH 
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With twelve full-page illustrations from drawings by Louis Loeb. Buckram, \2va.o, iil.50. 

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etc., are among its characters. 

Soldier Rigdale : 

How HR Sailed in the " Mayflower," and How He Served Miles Standish. By BEULAH 
MARIE DIX, author of " Hugh Gwyeth, a Roundhead Cavalier." 
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They That Walk in Darkness Young April 

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With better facilities and larger connections, McClure's Magazine will be 
better the coming year than ever before, not alone in one department, but in 
all — justly celebrated authors will contribute of their writings, original and 
clever artists will furnish attractive illustrations. 



Especial attention is called to what promises to be one of the most 
extraordinary magazine serials ever published, entitled 

THE LIFE OF THE MASTER 

By |the Rev. John Watson, D.D., author of "The Mind of the Master," 
"Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush," etc. 

A Life of Christ by the Rev. Dr. John Watson (better known as Ian Maclaren) is a work 
that speaks sufficiently for itself The work embodies all that is told in the sacred records, and 
it is written in a spirit unfailingly devout and reverential. To add to the uniqueness and 
value of the work it will be illustrated largely in color from special drawings and paintings. 
Mr. CoRWiN LiNSON was sent to Palestine two years ago to prepare the illustrations. After 
the fullest and most patient study, he has produced a large number of paintings and drawings 
representing the chief scenes and episodes in the life of the Master. Many of these illustra- 
tions win be printed in color, from plates prepared in Vienna, by the most eminent firm of 
color printers in Europe. In the value and interest of the text and the variety and fineness of 
the illustrations this will indeed be an extraordinary serial. 



During the year will be published contributions from the following well- 
known authors : 



RUDYARD KIPLING 

Following his notable poem, " The King," 
in the November number. Mr. Kipling will 
contribute during the coming year numerous 
poems and stories. 

A Great Novel by^ X^ 

ANTHONY HOPE 

will be commenced some time in the coming 
year. It is not possible at the present writing 
to state just what may be expected from this 
latest work of the author of "A Prisoner of 
Zenda." 

HARK TWAIN 

has written a number of sketches and articles 
for McClure's, an especially striking and in- 
teresting one being entitled 

"A Boyhood Dream." 



W. D. HOWELLS 

is preparing some articles on subjects that 
will prove of especial interest to readers of 
McClure's Magazine, the titles of which 
will be announced later. 

BRET HARTE 

" A Jack and Jill of the Sierras " is the title 
of a short story by Bret Harte, to appear in 
an early issue of the magazine. 

ROBERT BARR 

A number of short stories by Mr. Barr may 
be expected during the coming year. No other 
writer combines humor and dramatic force 
more unfailingly and effectively than Mr. Barr. 

HAMLIN GARLAND 

Mr. Garland will continue to contribute 
fiction and true stories drawn from his own 
large acquaintance with unusual and out-of- 
the-way phases of real life. 



Coming Articles of exceptional interest : 
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SAVING THE SPANISH WRECKS By LiEUT. Hobson 

NEW ROUTE TO THE KLONDIKE By Cy Warman 

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BENJAMIN IDE WHEEI^ER, 
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TH« LANDS OF THE SUN EXPAND TH ■ SOUL. 




Vol. 12, No. 1. 



LOS ANGELES DECEMBER. 1899. 



Revery. 



BY CHARLES WARREN STODDARD. 



In a sea-garden where the winds were still — 
My bonnie boat a cradle rocked at will 
And shining ripples chasing me in play — 
I heard the reef moan faintly, far away ; 
I saw a bird sail o'er on wing of snow — 
Across the wave her shadow swam below ; 
I saw the palms that fringed the lovely land 
And glowing breadths of golden sea-washed sand ; 
I watched the fish that sported in my sight 
Through the sea-tresses, waving, dark and bright ; 
Long ropes of grass and flowers that lay asleep 
On the hushed bosom of the slumbering deep ; 
O, Happy Heart ! O, Idle Hours ! O, wan 
And filmy cloud that ever lured me on 
O'er shimmering sea to hyacinthine sky ! — 
Yet in my bark what precious freight bore I ? 

Behold the harvest reaped from sea and shore : 
Some withered grass or the dead flowers it bore ; 
A handful of white dust, and nothing more. 



Washington, D. C. 



Copyright 1899 by Land of Sunshine Pub. Co 



84105 



The University of California and 
Its Future, 



BY PRESIDENT BENJAMIN IDE WHEELER. 




HAVE been ten days in California and nine 
days in the president's ofifice of its Univer- 
sity, and every day has added to my admi- 
ration of the institution and enhanced the 
wonder I feel before its inner power and its 
unmeasured opportunity. I accepted the 
presidency without knowing the half. It 
stands by the gates of that sea upon which 
the twentieth century is to see the supreme conflict between the 
two great world-halves. It is set to be the intellectual repre- 
sentative of the front rank of occidentalism, the rank that will 
lead the charge or bear the shock. In the Old- World struggle 
between East and West, the ^gean was the arena and occi- 
dentalism militant faced east, orientalism west ; in the new 
struggle occidentalism faces west, orientalism east. The 
arena is the Pacific. The old struggle made Constantinople 
the seat of cosmopolitanism ; San Francisco is appointed by 
the fates of geography to be the cosmopolis of the next era. 
All this one could know and foresee without setting foot in the 
land of sunshine ; but until one has felt the life and power there 
is pent up in the University of California one does not know 
how far California has advanced toward preparation for her 
task. For years the University has gone on in quiet develop- 
ment. Foundations have been laid strong and sure. Devoted 
lives have built themselves solidly into its walls. I^ess effort has 
been spent on tower and minaret to catch the eye of the far 
world than on the substantial construction of wall and buttress. 
Square and plummet have been faithfully used. Every day as 
one studies the structure one marks the traces of wise fore- 
thought and consecrated patience. Many have been the 
hands of faithful builders, but the wise prudence of President 
Kellogg has built with a soundness which commands, as I 
am daily coming to appreciate it more and more, my sincerest 
admiration. He has brought the forces of the inner university 
into unity and cooperation and laid this solid foundation upon 
which the university of the future will build. It is the only 
sure foundation upon which any university life can build. 

The possibilities of work opening before the University and 
the obligations of service to the State and the nation exceed 
in their far-reaching importance those which are involved in 
the mission of any other American university. Its relation 
to the schools of the State through the accrediting system indi- 
cates a peculiar responsibility, and one which must be exer- 
cised, in order to be effective, in a spirit of the largest wisdom 




C. M.'Davis Eng. Co. 



THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 



Photo, by 0. V. Lange. 




o 

w 

Q 
o . 



z 1- 

< ^ 

« a 

C p 

•^ to 

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 7 

and of fullest sympathy with the work and mission of the 
secondary schools. The College of Commerce just founded 
represents a field of activity in which the State can be bene- 
fited most directly and in most timely fashion. If properly 
developed, it will provide men suited to the opening need of a 
nation that is suddenly awakening to find itself an exporting 
rather than an importing country, and that is soon to be before 
the world a creditor nation instead of a debtor. This school 
will collect, collate, and teach information regarding the con- 
ditions and demands of international commerce, the state of 
markets, the methods of trade. It will provide the commer- 
cial missionaries, trade agents, and consuls of the next gener- 
ation. 

The existing departmentis must be fostered and developed. 
Among them are included some that rank already with the 
best in the country. New departments cannot be established 
to the detriment or hindrance of what already exists. The 
department of agriculture is already highly eflScient and under 
superb leadership. California will justly demand that noth- 
ing be spared in the development of this work. Especially in 
relation to the culture of fruit-trees (pomology) and horticul- 
ture, provision for extension of the work must be provided. A 
department of forestry ought to be established at the first op- 
portunity. What does California need more for its naked hills 
and its thirsty brook-beds? What does the whole Western 
slope of the continent need more for its desert stretches? 
Ultimately this must be a problem for the national govern- 
ment to deal with, but California must lead and point the way. 

A harbor that produced the * * Oregon ' ' deserves to have by its 
side a school of naval and marine engineering. Some large- 
minded citizen of California will yet arise to see this opportu- 
nity and provide for its satisfaction. We cannot look to the 
State for everything ; we must not. Private wealth can find 
no surer way for large public usefulness than in such endow- 
ments at the University of California. It will be a healthy 
state of things when every Californian who writes his will 
remembers to insert a clause making the University his benefi- 
ciary either for small or great — a thousand dollars for a schol- 
arship or a special book -fund, ten thousand dollars for a lec- 
tureship, seventy -five thousand for a professorship, two hun- 
dred thousand for a department. 

The new plan for buildings, which Mrs. Hearst's far-seeing 
wisdom and generosity have provided, ofiers every variety of 
opportunity for the consecration of wealth to noble public use. 
By no device known to man can wealth be established in such 
abiding form and monument as when delivered to the keeping 
of a great university whose life spans the generations ; by no 
device is it assured a nobler use. Among all the manifold 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 9 

needs of the University none ranks above the need for a great 
library. The isolation of the Pacific Coast from the centers 
where thus far the world's history has made the great deposits 
of the world's accumulated experience and lore makes peculiar 
and emphatic demand that here be established a New World's 
great Alexandrine Museum. The present library is utterly 
inadequate to the uses of the University. If we are to attract 
and hold here the ablest scholars, we must give them tools and 
material to work with. First there must be a fire-proof library 
building capable of indefinite extension for the storage of 
classified treasures of books. Without this we cannot ask 
men to give funds for the purchase of books. Then we want 
book-funds. A university -class or an individual can give to 
the University for the purchase of books either on a specified 
subject or without specification a fund small or great. The in- 
come of this will be expended each year in perpetuity, and the 
donor's book-plate will appear as recognition in the books thus 
purchased. Reckoning the average cost of a book at two dol- 
lars, a gift of $1000 will put twenty-five books into the library 
each year while time and order last. This is an illustration of 
what university endowments mean. The needs and openings 
I have mentioned are only samples. 

The appeal which this University today makes to the loyalty 
and generosity of its State, is such an one as no opportunity 
for the uplifting of man and society has ever made since the 
light began to shine abroad. 

Berkeley, October 9, 1899. 

' The University— Its Past and 
Present. 

BY PROF. ELMER ELLSWORTH BROWN.' 

^^rtHIS University has, in fact, had three origins. The first 
^^ is the grant of lands from the national government — 
the seminary grant of two townships in 1853, and the 
still more important allotment of 150,000 acres under the 
Morrill act of 1862. 

The second origin is found in the old College of California, 
incorporated in 1855 and formally opened in i860. This was 
an old-line, undenominational, Christian college. It was 
founded and carried on with that whole-hearted devotion to 
higher education, in the face of overwhelming discourage- 
ments, which has made the history of American colleges 
heroic. Its career was crowned with an act of institutional 
self-sacrifice, such as has rarely been seen. A bill had been 
passed by the State legislature in 1866, devoting the Federal 
land grants to the support of a narrow polytechnic school. 
The trustees of the College proposed in 1867 to turn over to 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



the State the valuable lands which they had secured at Berke- 
ley, opposite the Golden Gate, together with all other assets 
of the College remaining after its debts were paid, provided 
the State would build upon the proffered site a University of 
California, to include permanently both classical and technical 
colleges. They agreed that when this should have been done, 
the College would disincorporate. 

The third origin of the University is found in the organic 
act by which it was finally established. This act was prepared 
by one of the trustees of the College of California. It was 
passed by the legislature in March, 1868, and was approved 
by the governor on the twenty -third of that month. After 
some slight modifications, it was put beyond the reach of more 
legislative amendment by being re-affirmed in its entirety in 
the new State Constitution of 1879. 

The charter established the University distinctly as an in- 




Davis Eng. Co 



I^OOKING WEST FROM THB UNIVERSITY 
Mt. Tamalpais in the distance. 



Photo by 0. V. Lange. 



stitution of the State, and made it possible for this institution 
to become one of the chief centers of civic interest and pride. 
It provided a system of administration which tended to pre- 
vent the University from becoming in any narrow sense a rep- 
resentative of the State government : which made it instead a 
real educational representative of the State as a whole. Full 
control was intrusted to a Board of Regents, twenty-three in 
number. The chief State officials are ex-officio members of 
this board, as are also the presidents of the State Agricultural 
Society and of the Mechanics' Institute. The remaining six- 
teen members are appointed by the governor, with the con- 
currence of the State Senate. Their terms are sixteen years 
in length, and two are appointed every second year. These 
provisions are of the greatest practical importance ; they bind 
the University firmly to the governmental system of the State, 
but at the same time guard it against abrupt change with each 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



GOLD MII.L, COHEGE OF MINING. 



Photo, by 0. V. Lange. 




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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



13 




change of the party 
in power. The ar- 
rangement is favor- 
able to real freedom 
and responsibility. 
The endeavor is 
made continually to 
avoid anything like 
isolation from the 
vital interests of the 
State. This appears, 
for example, in the 
effort on the part of 
the College of Agri- 
culture to keep in 
close touch with 
the farmers and 
orchardists of the 
State, through pub- 
lications, corres- 
pondence, and 
farmers' institutes ; 
in the courses of 
university exten- 
sion lectures and 
other public ad- 
dresses which are 
given by University 
men in all parts of 
the State; in the 
close connection 
maintained be- 
tween the Univer- 
sity and other por- 
tions of the State 
educational system ; 
in the inspection 
and accrediting of 
high schools, and 
in the preparation 
of teachers for such schools. In the inspection of high schools, 
the University is not seeking primarily to secure students for 
itself, but rather to build up strong schools. 

The University as now constituted consists of Colleges of Let- 
ters, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, Agriculture, Mechan- 
ics, Mining, Civil Engineering, Chemistry, and Commerce, 
located at Berkeley ; the Lick Astronomical Department at 
Mt. Hamilton ; and the professional colleges in San Francisco, 




C. M. Davis Eng. Cc 



E. Benard, Aicht. 



GENKRAI. GROUND PLAN. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



15 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



Photo, by 0. V. Laui: 



MACHINE SHOP, COI.I,EGE OF MECHANICS. 



namely, the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art, the Hastings Col- 
lege of Law, the Medical Department, the Post-graduate Medi- 




ci. M. Davis Eng Co. ROOM IN PHYSICAL, I,ABORATORY, P^^ot" ^y V. Lange. 



^6 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

cal Department, the Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, and 
the Veterinary Department. 

One of the earlier legislative schemes for the University, in- 
troduced in J 858, proposed to unite under a Board of Regents 
" all the colleges then established and thereafter to be estab- 
lished in the State, with whatever faculties they might have, 
and wheresoever situated " — a plan probably suggested by the 
University of the State of New York. The charter finally 
adopted for the University was not so comprehensive. Yet 
it made liberal terms for the aflSliation of suitable educational 
institutions. Under these provisions the schools of art and 
the professions in San Francisco have entered into the affili- 
ated relation, as appears above. A few years ago the Regents, 
because of their reputation for sound management, were made 
trustees of a fund for the establishment of a trade school. 
The Wilmerding School has been established in San Fran- 
cisco under their direction, in accordance with the terms of 
this bequest. 

The State has provided, in San Francisco, a new building 
costing $250,000, in which the several professional schools are to 
be brought together. Ample and attractive quarters are thus 
provided for all of the affiliated colleges, excepting the Insti- 
tute of Art, which is housed in the fine residence built and oc- 
cupied for a time by the late Mark Hopkins. These profes- 
sional schools are making notable advance in their equipment, 
their instruction, and^ their requirements for admission and 
graduation. The Medical Department enforces an entrance 
requirement equivalent to that in the colleges of general cul- 
ture, and a full four-years' course for graduation. 

The Lick Observatory at Mt. Hamilton is an integral part of 
the University and sustains a verj'' close relationship with the De- 
partment of Astronomy at Berkeley. In addition to the su- 
perior equipment provided for this Observatory by the bequest 
of James Lick, including the great 36-inch equatorial, numer- 
ous gifts of valuable pieces of apparatus have been received 
from time to time. Chief among these is the three-foot reflect- 
ing telescope presented by Edward Crossley, Esq., of Halifax, 
England. 

On the noble site provided for the colleges at Berkeley, 
there have been erected from time to time such buildings as 
were imperatively needed. There are now thirteen of these, 
some of them substantially built of brick, but the most of them 
temporary wooden structures. Yet unsightly and inadequate 
as the present buildings may be, they house collections and 
equipment of great value. The University library contains 
not far from 80,000 volumes, selected with great care. Stu- 
dents have direct access to the shelves, and the actual daily 
use which is made of the books is astonishing. 



THElUNlVERSnV OF CALIFORNIA. i7 

In the library buildings theie are the beginnings of a collec- 
tion of paintings, including some works of considerable value. 
The general museum is especially rich in collections of Cali- 
fornia minerals, fossils, birds, and shells, and of ethnological 
specimens. Many valuable additions have recently been made 
to the zoological collections. The Agricultural Department 
has extensive collections of seeds, beetles, and specimens of 
soils. The several engineering departments have valuable col- 
lections of machine and other models. The botanical collec- 
tions include, in the phsenogamic herbarium, about twenty- 
five thousand sheets of mounted specimens, and in the crypto- 
gamic herbarium over four thousand sheets, besides important 
collections of native woods and cones. There are valuable 
collections of mathematical models, of coins and medals, of 
photographs illustrative of classical archaeology. These 
things may be found described in detail in various University 
publications. But this brief reference to vSome of the more 
valuable collections may serve to show that promising begin- 
nings have been made. 

It would require an extended notice, too, to give any ade- 
quate account of the various University laboratories; but the 
general remark should be made that, owing to the great care 
exercised in the making of purchases and in the keeping up of 
repairs, there is a surprisingly low percentage of waste observ- 
able in them, and a correspondingly high degree of practical 
usefulness is secured. The physical, chemical, botanical, zo- 
ological, minera logical, and various agricultural laboratories 
are well equipped for both under-graduate work and advanced 
research. The students' observatory at Berkeley leads up to 
and supplements the work of the Lick Observatory at Mt. 
Hamilton. It is equipped with seismographs and instruments 
for meteorological observations. All of the technical colleges 
are well supplied with laboratory facilities. Special mention 
should be made of the extensive provision which has been 
made for experiment and demonstration in mining, mechanical 
and electrical engineering. The new psychological laboratory 
is admirably housed and equipped, and proves a very valuable 
addition. There are botanical gardens and a well stocked 
conservatory on the grounds at Berkeley. Here, too, is the 
central agricultural experiment station, which is supplemented 
by four sub-stations, two forestry stations, and a viticultural 
station, in various parts of the State. 

The courses in the several colleges of general culture lead to 
different degrees — A. B. in the College of Letters, B. L. in 
that of Social Sciences, B. S. in that of Natural Sciences. 
The course leading to any one of these degrees consists of 125 
semester units of instruction, of which 65 units are prescribed 
— including various options — 30 units are group-elective, and 







> 



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C.K. Davis Bng. Co. 



KOciv DRIIvUNG, COLLEGE Oi- MINING. 



.to. by (1, V l.ange. 



20 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

30 units are free-elective. The group system is now firmly 
established. It assures the student the command of a fairly 
large range of closely related knowledge, and also makes pos- 
sible a considerable advance into the higher methods of the 
subject elected. 

The great expansion of graduate work in the past few years 
has been accompanied with a stiffening of the requirements 
for higher degrees. For the degree of Ph. D. in particular, 
the requirements are severe and are strictly enforced. The 
Engineers' degrees in the technical colleges rest upon require- 
ments substantially equivalent to those for the degree of 

yi Ph.jB. 

The value of the property belonging to the University on 
the first of July, 1899, was estimated at a little over $4,426, - 
000, and the several endowment funds at the same time 
amounted to something more than $2,843,000; a total — 
"plant " and endowment — of over seven and one-quarter mil- 
lions. These figures include the property and endowment of 
the aflfiliated colleges and of the Wilmerding school. The 
total income for the year ending June 30, 1899, was, in the 
general fund $364,940.45 ; and in special funds, $127,715.86 
— a total of $492,656.31. This includes the sum of $220,- 
090.64 raised by the permanent tax of two cents on each one 
hundred dollars of assessed valuation in the State ; and the 
sum of $26,564.56 the income for the year from the Wilmerd- 
ing fund. It does ^ot include the income of the affiliated col- 
leges. 

A highly significant point in the history of the University 
was the unanimous passage by the legislature, in 1897, o^ ^ 
bill doubling the permanent tax for the University, which 
had up to that time been only one cent on the hundred dol- 
lars. 

This institution has been conspicuous among the State 
universities of the country for the number and value of the 
gifts which it has received from private individuals. Promi- 
nent among these should be mentioned the bequest of $700,- 
000 left by James Lick for the establishment of the Lick Ob- 
servatory ; the gift of $75,000 from Mr. D. O. Mills, for the 
endowment of the Mills professorship of intellectual and moral 
philosophy and civil polity ; the bequest of Michael Reese, 
$50,000 for a library fund ; the gift of a tract of land by Hon. 
Bdward Tompkins for the endowment of a chair of Oriental 
languages and literatures ; the gift of a fine estate and divi- 
dend-bearing stocks to the value of three-quarters of a million 
dollars from Miss Cora Jane Flood ; and numerous scholarships, 
provided by Mr. Levi Strauss, Mrs. Phebe Hearst, and others. 
This list is far from being exhaustive. The extremely liberal 
provision made by Mrs. Hearst for the recent architectural 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 21 

competition, and her promise to erect valuable buildings as 
soon as plans shall have been finally adopted by the Regents, 
are matters of such general interest and information at this 
time as to call for no extended mention here. 

The athletic interests of the University serve as its first 
introduction to many who afterward come to know and care 
for others of its varied activities. Clean sport is the ideal to 
which these athletes have held with great fidelity. The 
athletic team which went out from Berkeley in 1895 to make 
a tour of the leading Eastern colleges, set a high standard for 
both gentlemanly behavior and the winning of events ; and 
these things have come to have a fixed place in the University 
traditions. The military side of University life is maintained 
on a high plane under officers assigned to this duty by the 
general government. Our young collegians were prompt to 
respond to the call for troops in 1898. They rendered intelli- 
gent and courageous service. And three of them gave their 
lives to the cause. 

The student body at Berkeley in the year 1898-99 numbered 
17 16, of whom 953 were men and 763 women. 194 of these 
were graduate students. Including the number at Mt. 
Hamilton and in the professional colleges in San Francisco, 
the total University enrollment for the year was 2438, of whom 
908 were women. Within the first few weeks of the current 
academic year, the registration of students at Berkeley has sur- 
passed that for the whole of the year preceding, which makes 
it altogether likely that the total enrollment at Berkeley for 
the year will reach at least 1900. 

Connected with the University in all of its departments are 
118 officers of administration, and 365 officers of instruction 
and research ; 149 of the latter number being employed in the 
colleges at Berkeley. In the attempt to give some hint of the 
general spirit and purpose which makes the University of Cali- 
fornia itself and not another, it must not be forgotten that the 
men who have taught here during the generation that the 
University has been in existence have more than all things 
else determined the character of the institution. Among these, 
a goodly number marked by high scholarship, great moral 
force, and world wide reputation, have given to the University 
standards and traditions which must be reckoned among the 
choicest of its endowments. 

Berkeley, Cal. 




A Painter of Old California. 

ALEX. F. HARMER AND HIS WORK. 

HETHER by shrewd deliberation or by natu- 
ral gravitation, Alex. F. Harmer has made 
a field peculiarly his own. No other 
painter has given so much attention to the 
California of the old times — and, for that 
matter, no other painter knows the subject 
one-half so well. The plausible suggestion 
that a great Master might have done still 

marvelous art material of our Southwestern 




more with 




C. M. Divis Eng. Co 



HARMER IN HIS STUDIO. 



border is after all impertinent ; for the great Masters have not 
cared to risk their skins where Mr. Harmer learned his ma- 
terial. Nor is this invidious to Mr. Harmer. The fact that 
he has led an uncommon life and has taken his higher education 
in art where few artists would dare go, does not by any means 
indicate that his work needs such apology. The simple fact is 
that it vastly enhances the value of his art. To his technical 
skill, which is, within certain limitations, far from ordinary, it 
adds the rare distinction of accuracy beyond that of anyone 



A PAINTER OF OLD CALIFORNIA 



23 



else who has painted the like subjects. He is particularly and 
indisputably tAe artist of the Apaches and the old-time Spanish 
Californians ; with occasional handsome successes in other 
lines. His sympathy with these specific motifs is unmistak- 
able ; and his experience with them has been long and roman- 
tic. I know of no one else, with half his talent as an artist, 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. From painting by Alex. F. Harmer, owned by A. Solano 

"QUE SANTA ES ESTA ? " 

(What saint is this ?) 

who has had a tenth of his touch with this frontier life — one 
of the most picturesque the world has ever seen. A seasitive 
boy who would enlist as a common soldier that he might get 
to what was then indeed the Far West and paint it, had some- 
thing in him. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co 



26 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Harmer was born in Newark, N. J., in 1856. His bent to 
art developed very early ; and at 1 1 he sold his first oil paint- 
ing — for the rapacious sum of $2 ; which was, after all, a good 
deal for a neighbor to give. Working as a messenger boy in 
a telegraph office, he saved up a few dollars and at 13 started 
West ; working his way by degrees as far as lyincoln, Neb. ; 
which in those days was rather remote. At 15 he decided to 
study art, and began working his way back toward Philadel- 
phia. At Cincinnati, after a hard, vain search for work, he 
enlisted in the regular army for five years ; and after some 
time found himself a member of B Troop, ist U. S. Cavalry, 
at Benicia Barracks, Cal., but was held at headquarters on de- 
tached service. He was hospital steward at Benicia and at 
Halleck, Nev.; and after two years' service secured an honor- 
able discharge, having sought it that he might pursue his art 
studies. Now 19 years old he returned to Philadelphia, by 
way of Panama. He worked a while in a photograph gallery, 
spending every spare moment in drawing. His work secured 
recognition from Wm. T. Richards and the now famous Joseph 
Pennell, and Sartain, the great engraver. Through their good 
offices and his own ability, he was admitted to the Pennsylva- 
nia Academy of Fine Arts. After two years of hard work 
there he decided to go Southwest and paint something ; and 
not having means for such a journey, enlisted in the army 
again, with the understanding that he should be assigned to 
active cavalry service in Arizona where the Indians were then 
habitually on the warpath. Here he saw two very active 
years ; after a few weeks at Gen. Wilcox's headquarters, join- 
ing his troop, L, 6th Cavalry, Capt. McClellan. After a year 
with the cavalry he was assigned to duty at Gen. Crook's head- 
quarters. Here he had the friendship of that greatest of our 
Indian-fighters, "The Grey Fox " (Gen. Geo. Crook), and of 
his right-hand man, the late Capt. John G. Bourke, famous as 
scientist as well as soldier. In the great campaign of '83, 
when Crook penetrated the Sierra Madre of Mexico and 
brought out the wily Geronimo, Harmer was picked to be one 
of the party — the only enlisted man from headquarters. On 
the return from that remarkable expedition, he was, at his re- 
quest, transferred to the command of Capt. Crawford (later 
killed by the Mexicans) at the San Carlos Indian Reservation, 
where he continued his studies of the Apaches. A few 
months later, through the effi^rts of Gen. Crook, he procured 
his discharge and returned to Philadelphia for another course 
at the Academy, earning his bread and butter by illustrat- 
ing. A little over a year of this, and Capt. Bourke carried 
him off to Arizona again ; this time not as a soldier, but as a 
friend. He made interesting trips through the Territory with 
Gen. Crook ; later with J. Armstrong Chanler. Next we find 



OOM PAUL KRUGER, SOUTH AFRICA. 27 

him for a few years in Los Angeles, beginning his studies of 
the Missions and early California life ; then a year in the in- 
terior of Old Mexico ; and at last, after another term in Phila- 
delphia, he returned to California lor good. He was married 
in 1893 to Felicidad A. Abadie, one of the loveliest types of 
Spanish California womanhood ; and since 1894 has lived in 
Santa Barbara, devoting himself chiefly to depicting the good 
old days before the Gringo came. His very valuable collection 
of Indian "plunder" is now in the Hopkins School of Art, 
San Francisco. 

At 43 years old Harmer should still have his best work 
ahead of him. There are indications that it will so turn out. 
Certainly he has shown notable general growth in the fourteen 
or fifteen years that 1 have known him and watched his brush. 
He has certain strict limitations ; but within them his work is 
all good, and much of it really fine. This magazine has 
printed many illustrations by him, in the last few years ;* and 
the accompanying photo-engravings from paintings give 
further evidence of the scope and character of his art. L. 



OoM Paul Kruger, South Africa. 

ON HIS BIRTHDAY. 

BY JOAQUIN MILLER. 

His shield a skin, his sword a prayer : 

Seventy-five years old to day ! 
Yet mailed young hosts are marshaling there 
To hound down in his native lair — 

Oom Paul Kruger, South Africa. 
Mars ! Ever was such shameless shame ? 

Christ's calend calls the roll today. 
Yet Christians write the sweet Christ's name 
In blood, and seek, with sword and flame — 

Oom Paul Kruger, South Africa. 
Stand firm, grim shepherd-hero, stand ! 

The world's watch-towers teem today 
With men who pray with lifted hand 
For you and yours, old, simple, grand — 

Oom Paul Kruger, South Africa. 
God's pity for the foolish few 

Who guide great England's hosts today ! 
They cannot make the false the true ; 
They can but turn true hearts to you — 

Oom Paul Kruger, South Africa. 
Or king or cow-boy, steep or plain, 

Or palace hall, where, what — today. 
All, all, despite of place or gain. 
Are with you, with you heart and brain — 

Oom Paul Kruger, South Africa. 
Brave England's bravest, best, her Fair, 

Who love fair play, are yours today. 
And oh the heart, the hope, the prayer — 
The world is with you over there — 

Oom Paul Kruger, South Africa. 

The Hights, Oakland, Cal., Oct. 

• See Vol. X, pp, 20, 110, 190 ; Vol. X, p. 76, etc. 




^ My Brother's Keeper. 

BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 

V. 

IjT is a natural tendency to judge things by their abuses ; but 
it is not judicial. These estimates of our sinful "philan- 
thropy" toward the Indian shall not, if I know it, be emo- 
tional nor illogical, though there is temptation. I have 
personally known several hundred of those who make their 
living by educating Indians inside-out; a few of them good, 
if not dangerous to fire-proof rivers ; the vast majority unfit 
to instruct anyone — either because too stupid or too some- 
thing else. As an example of the brains employed in the 
service, I may mention a female teacher in New Mexico who 
acquired an ancient grey gelding, left it to pasture during 
vacation ; found a colt running with it in the fall, and soberly 
claimed the colt as hers — offspring of her gelding ! The morals I have 
observed could not be specified in orthodox pages ; but I may mention 
the principal of a government school in New Mexico, in which a couple 
of hundred young Indians were being "taught." Death of a father 
and loss of property led a very beautiful and pure young woman to ap- 
ply for a place as teacher in that school. She got it. One had only to 
see the principal's mouth to know she would get it. A few months later, 
after growing persecution, she climbed out of her bedroom window while 
the amorous principal begged at the door, and floundered three miles 
through winter mud to town to escape him. It will not surprise any 
one to learn that this gentleman, fattened by the government, took his 
revenge by going about and defaming the girl — after a vain attempt to 
get her to return. One of the pleasantest memories of my life is that I 
rescued fifteen Pueblo Indian children from this school, where they were 
held literally prisoners*. Their home was fifteen miles away. They had 
been secured for the school on the sacred promise to send them home in 
vacation ; but they had been imprisoned at school every summer for 
three years. When they tried to go home they were pursued with re- 
volvers, brought back and flogged — like reform-school pupils. I myself 
have seen the black bruises on the arms of a father who went to the 
school to see his three boys, imprisoned there against his will and theirs. 
He is a quiet, serene man I am proud to call my friend. I have known 
him intimately for more than fourteen years, and I never heard his voice 
raised above its normal pitch. But he did not "scat" as readily as 
some other troubled parents. He wished to see his boys. He did not 
even know if they were alive. And as he hung on, quietly and respect- 
fully, he was thrown off the grounds by the professional " bouncers," 
with threats of prison if he came back. His two older boys had gone to 
school with his consent — the vast majority of Indian parents are am- 
bitious to have their children educated — but the youngest was literally 
stolen, and before he was four years old. 

It was a good fight. The Indian parents had been half wild with anx- 
iety for more than a year. But they respect their own laws more scru- 
pulously than any American community does ours, and have an added 
awe of our laws. At last, however, they could endure it no longer. 
Their congress was convened, and I was summoned before it. Night 
after night — for these hard-working farmers were in their fields from 
dawn to dark — we counseled in the great room with its dim, wavering 
lights ; it is one of the most impressive legislative assemblies on earth. 
And when these simple people who had stood by me in such dangers 
and sufferings as few survive ; who had cared for me when paralysis and 
assassin potted me — when they begged me lor help there was only one 
thing to do. We made a test case of Juan Rey's three boys, suing out a 



MY BROTHER'S KEEPER 



29 



writ of habeas corpus. The principal and his bullies came down to the 
pueblo by night to make way with the complaining witness somehow ; 
but by our good luck they left, the worst scared men that ever measured 
New Mexico distances — and not wholly without reason. Morgan, then 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and Daniel Dorchester, D.D., Superin- 
tendent of Indian Schools — two men I believed at the time to be honest 
bigots, but have had opportunity to know better — exerted themselves to 
the utmost to keep the captives, though both knew they were acting ille- 
gally. The oppressors did not dare let the case come into court — even a 
New Mexico court. We got not only the three boys at issue ; but half 
an hour before the case was to be called I had the principal's legal con- 
tract to deliver to me that afternoon the thirteen boys of Isleta who were 
in the school, and to give up three days later the girls, who were being 
herded by the matron m the mountains. 

Now, if any man born of woman or any woman that ever gave her 




C. M. Davis Eiig. Co. SOME OF THE EVICTED. Photo, by Ned Gillette. 

breast to a child, could have been in Isleta those days and seen 11 00 
people crying over the ** little cauitvos" [captives] ; could have seen 
white-headed men and women sobbing and praising God (for these peo- 
ple are all members of a Christian church, you will please remember) — 
and properly vote for that kind of government system, why, then I made 
a mistake in my own mother, that's all. For I revere the memory of a 
pale face that smiled last on me more than thirty-eight years ago ; and 
for her sake all womanhood and all motherhood. But if our govern- 
ment system is right, then I am wrong, and a mother is as good as a 
cow ; both to be milked by a federal officeholder. 

Most of these children were sent to school again ; some to the same 
school when it got a principal who could keep his word, and some to 
Mi»s Drexel's real philanthropy in Santa F6. 



30 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

I have known all those children from their infancy. Juan Rey's three 
boys have lived between them four years in my family, the companions 
of my wife and children. A great many people know their caliber — not 
one American boy in ten is so lovable. And when ** Tuyo," the baby, 
stolen from home by a government school, before he was four years old, 
and forced to forget his language that he might learn English faster, was 
brought home by me to his parents, he could not talk to them, and my 
wife, who learned the Indian tongue excellently during our residence 
in New Mexico, had to interpret for boy and mother. And Pita — as fine 
and motherly a woman as I ever knew — cried ; and Tuyo cried ; and 
so I think did we all. For we were sentimental enough to think a baby 
and his mother should not be divided thus, and that any man who put 
this gulf between them to get himself a salary was, no matter how vir- 
tuous he fooled himself into feeling, a devilish scoundrel. And this is a 
fair, typical example of what our Indian "education" is. It is philan- 
thropy for revenue, without brains and without bowels of compassion. 
And the saddest part of it is that they are mostly, nowadays, such good 
people, and can preserve their self-respect by means of their ignorance. 
If any one charged them with having been Legrees who sold negro 
mother and child apart in the South, their virtuous indignation would be 
sincere ; but they do the same thing today, with Indians in place of ne- 
groes, and with a fat, respectable salary instead of the vulgar auction- 
block commission. But their trade is human blood just the same. And 
they are as sure of their righteousness as — well, as the oflScers of the 
Spanish Inquisition were. 

Every American who does his or her whole duty will read Helen Hunt 
Jackson's A Century of Dishonor — a true picture of our Indian policy. 
It is a fearful indictment ; but it has never been shaken. Manners have 
changed, but the charge is true today. 

Here in Southern California we have just turned a new leaf — as bad 
as the old ones. From time immemorial a little band of Mission 
Indians has lived on Warner's Ranch, on the edge of the desert in San 
Diego county. The old Mexican government, which we affect to despise, 
— and it was, at last, bad enough in California — respected their rights. 
This nation, upon acquiring California, pledged itself to do the same. 
Just now, the Supreme Court of the State has dispossessed them, with the 
most astounding ignorance — for such jurists — of history and legal fact, 
and against the honorable dissent of three of the justices. Where are 
these people to go ? Well, they may go to hell, for all the court. But 
I have known J. Downey Harvey, the successful party to the suit for 
many years ; and though a sadly uninformed Supreme Court has author- 
ized him to starve these poor devils of Warner's Ranch, I mistake him — 
and have all these years mistaken — if he is not the man to see that these 
harrassed people shall have room to live and die beside their father's 
graves. The '* Indian problem" will be simplified to nothing if we can 
show that sense of justice, decency and fair play which roots in every 
human breast and prevails upon the basest savage, but sometimes seems 
to be losing itself in the muddle which we have the delicious conceit to 
call " civilization." 




C. M. Davis Eng. Oo. Copyright 1890 by C. F. Lummis. 

THR GREAT-GRANDFATHER OF THREE OF TH^ "l.lTTI^E CAPTIVES." 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



EDWIN MARKfJAM. 



Photo, by C. F. L. 



Edwin Markhatn, of the Sunshenk staff, whose " Man With the Hoe " 
has had such tremendous vogue, is lecturing in the East and over- 
whelmed with demands for his work. His high rank as a poet, long 
known to those who know, has at last been discovered— and discovered 
" hard " — by the careless public. An excellent unpublished likeness of 
Mr Markham is given above. 



33 

The Will of God. 



BY EVE LUMMIS. 




T was when I was getting ready to start on that trip 
among the cannibal tribes along the Amazon river, 
that the letter came from McGregor which set me 
to thinking. I read it a second time. 

My Dear Mr, Loring: 

Hearing that you are about to start an expedition 
to South America, I write to ask you if you can 
make use of me in any way. I have knocked 
around this country long enough to become quite 
familiar with the Spanish language, and if I could serve you in any 
capacity I should be glad to join you, for I want to get away from here. 
I have no family, I am sorry to say, to care whether I ever return or 
not. Perhaps you have forgotten me — I rode in the spring round-up 
with you two years ago in the San Juan country. 

Very respectfully yours, 

John McGregor. 

Of course I remembered McGregor very well — a great, generous- 
hearted fellow, one of the finest types of manhood I had ever run 
across on our Southwestern plains. I had not forgotten the kindness 
he showed to some youngsters that belonged to the outfit ; or his brav- 
ery in mounting always the bronco that bucked the hardest ; and how, 
as he was one day trying to master a wild thing of the plains that had 
never seen man before that day, one of the animal's fore-legs went 
down into a prairie-dog hole, and man and horse struggled together in 
a confused heap, for what seemed, to us on-lookers, hours ; and when 
he at last, by a mighty exertion, freed himself from the weight that 
bore him to the ground, and we found his leg broken, he took that 
twenty-five mile ride to the nearest place of civilization — a neat adobe 
village of one of the Queres tribe of Indians — without a groan, but 
with his teeth tight shut and his sun-burned face a deathly color. And 
there it was that I first saw Gertrude, as they had named her in the 
Eastern school, where McGregor had induced her father to send her 
when he found her a pretty, bright little Indian playing around the 
pueblo with not too many clothes on. 

I had thought, when the boys had told me about this match that was 
to be between McGregor and the Indian girl, that they would be ill- 
mated — the energetic Yankee and the daughter of a dark, slow blood, 
and I had pitied both of them ; but when I saw her quiet, gentle man- 
ner when the suffering man was laid on a bed in their house, which was 
cleaner than any my eyes had looked on since I crossed the Missouri, 
someway I was reminded of mother and the girls at home. The cos- 
tume of her people was pretty, modest and becoming, and, dressed in 
it, Gertrude was so charming that I might have been in danger of losing 
my heart to the lass myself had it not been for another black eyed girl 
in the States who had been waiting many months for a certain worth- 
less journalist with weak lungs and slender purse to acquire health 
enough and wealth enough to marry. 

I called on McGregor a number of times and saw the improvement he 
was making, under the care of the physician from a distant town and 
the good nursing of Gertrude and her mother. He was desperately in 
love, and one did not need to see them together long to discover that he 
was her hero. I had heard nothing of them lately, and supposed they 
were happily wed long since ; so I was surprised at the letter the mail 
had just brought me, for I had always flattered myself that I was some- 



34 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

what of a judge of character, and I never would have taken McGregor 
for a man who would desert a girl in two years. 

I tried to go on with the article I was about to finish when Ramon had 
brought in the mail, but I couldn't put my mind on the subject again ; 
I could only think and wonder about Gertrude and McGregor. So I 
didn't swear at being interrupted, as I usually do, especially when I saw 
it was my friend' Leopoldo Gonzales to whom the door had been opened 
— a charming, courteous young man with plenty of money, a worthy 
descendant of cavalleros whose fame has been told in ballad and story 
hundreds of years ago in Spain. I vs a-^ fond of I^eopoldo ; he never for- 
got to compliment my last story ; or to rejoice that the glorious sun and 
air of his native Territory had made me almost a well man. His English 
was so superior to my Spanish that I was ashamed to address him in 
his own language. 

He seemed uninterested in anything I said, and plainly he was nerv- 
ous. At every sound of footsteps on the portal he started. 

** How does your sister enjoy her visit with you ? " he asked. 

" She's having a fine time," said I. '* Nell doesn't seem as tender as 
most New Yorkers do out here." 

"Not as tender?" he questioned, as he watched the smoke he blew 
out of his mouth curl and make rings and float gently out of the open 
window. 

I got him to tell me stories I loved to hear of life on the ranch in the 
days of his boyhood, when Mexican and Indian rancher os were ever on 
the watch for, but often surprised by, the cunning Navajo and the mur- 
derous Comanche. But soon it was, "How does Miss Nellie get on 
with her Spanish ?" 

**0, very well, I believe," I told him. "She has been practicing 
every day with our friend Enrique Garcia. The last time I heard them 
talk I couldn't understand a word they said. She seems to have got be- 
yond me, and I've been out here two years." 

lyeopoldo didn't seem any the less nervous for my information. All 
my new friends visited me unusually often after my sister came out for 
a taste of Western life, and for a visit with me before my journey to 
the South ; but I didn't blame them ; girls were scarce in the Territory 
at that time, and girls like Nell were scarce anywhere. 

My friend knocked the ashes off his cigarette and asked, " The horse? 
has he arrived?" 

** Arrived ! he has indeed, and how stupid I am not to have mentioned 
him before. We've been able to do nothing but admire him since he 
came." 

**I am most gratified if you like him. I shall be pleased if your 
sister will accept him and ride him sometimes." 

"She could hardly accept such a gift, you see, old man; but she 
says that as you insist upon loaning him for a time she will have many 
a fine ride over the mesa with him. But if he were mine, a side-saddle 
would never be cinched on him 1 lyct's go out and see him." 

We crossed the patio and walked past the men's quarters and beyond 
to the corral to talk over the fine points of the handsome sorrel that 
was just finishing his oats. The light body, arched neck, and slender 
legs showed him to be built for quick and easy action. 

*' Nell has ridden him before breakfast every morning since he came. 
I knew that some fine horses ran in your herds, but you have chosen 
the finest to send down here for a woman to spoil. You're too generous, 
amigomio.'''' 

"It is my pleasure, I assure you," said lyCopoldo, as he patted the 
shining neck fondly, well pleased at the splendid animal's whinny of 
recognition. 

"But it's warm out here and your cigarette has all burned out. 
Come in and try some of the Havanas that were sent me yesterday." 



THE WILL OF GOD. 35 

The cool air of the adobe was a grateful change from the glaring sun- 
shine of the barren out-door world ; and Leopoldo praised the cigars ; 
he was one of those agreeable persons who praise everything. As I 
turned to the rough table that answered for a desk to look for a match I 
saw that bothersome letter again, and as my friend's large hacienda was 
not far from the farms of the Indians of the tribe to which Gertrude 
belonged I felt sure he could tell me how she and McGregor fared. 

"Ah yes, poor Gertrude," he said, "she is with the saints. No, 
McGregor isn't a widower. If you did not always keep your eyes and 
ears for your books and musty documents alone you would have heard 
how one day they brought Gertrude's father down to the little Indian 
town dying from a pistol shot given him by a cattle man in a row over 
a spring where old Andres was watering his sheep : where he had 
watered them since he first began to herd them as a small boy; a spring 
that had belonged to the Indians far longer than the oldest of the men 
can remember ; and which tradition tells them belonged to the Queres 
from the beginning of the world. The American showed papers and 
claimed to have bought the spring and surrounding land, but Andres 
knew too well that the land and the water belonged to his tribe and he 
would not drive his thirsty sheep away to the plains again to suffer and 
die for what was theirs by right, and the cowardly American gave him 
many wounds and killed dogs and sheep until his ammunition was all 
gone." 

* * An American and a horse were missing from that part of the country 
that night, and it was well, for the murder made a terrible excitement 
among the Indians. The wise men of the tribe took council together 
and decided that it would find great disfavor with the Trues that an 
Indian woman should wed herself to one of the race of the slayer of her 
father, and Gertrude was forbidden to become the wife of McGregor. 
Yes, of course, as you say, an American girl would have married him 
anyway, but not so an Indian, for they are taught obedience to the old 
from the time they are little ones in arms — they drink it in with the 
mother's milk. So McGregor's prayers were for nothing ; and Gertrude 
was ill with sorrow for loss of father and lover at once. 

"Those wise men said also that to gain the favor of the Trues for the 
town again, Gertrude must marry her to one of her own people as soon 
as the time of mourning for the murdered should have passed ; so a sorry 
wedding there was, with the bride in tears for another man. The hus- 
band was jealous and abusive, and after while that fever that attacks the 
sad was strong upon her. So it was not long after Andres's death that 
Gertrude's grave was dug beside his. There was greater sadness in the 
Queres town the day of that funeral than ever before, for the girl had 
been much loved there. The women wept and wailed like never ; 
many believed that Andres had come back from that other world for the 
spirit of the daughter for whom he had ever cared so tenderly, to end 
her suffering. But her mother^ unwashed and fasting, cried days and 
nights, 'The will of God ! It is the will of God ! ' " 

For a few minutes I didn't speak, but Leopoldo found tongue to ask, 
"Is Miss Nellie at home today." 

I swallowed the lump in my throat to answer, " No, some friends 
came over from San lyorenso this morning and took her off for a week's 
visit. Why, kombre, what's your hurry ? I thought you'd come to stay 
with us as usual." 

" My friend," he said, as he reached for his hat and picked up his 
spurs, " I have had such a pleasant talk with you I almost forgot im- 
portant business I have at San Lorenso." 

Ikos Aagales, Cal. 



36 

A Klood of Fortune. 



<Y O. T. FELLOWS. 




jOOD evening, stranger." 

** Good evening. Can you tell me how far it is to 
town, and the shortest road for me to take ? " 

The rancher was a tail^ broad-shouldered man, 
wearing a wide sombrero. He stood at his gate 
looking off toward the sunset, and the above salu- 
tations were passed as I dismounted and held the 
bridle-rein in my hand. He surveyed me for an 
instant before answering, and I had time to note 
that, although bronzed from exposure to the 
winds and sun, his eyes wete blue and his complexion fair, so that the 
few streaks of gray in his hair and beard were hardly noticeable. 

" Well," he said, " it's a good bit of a ride. You don't expect to get 
there tonight; do you? I wouldn't attempt it, stranger. You see the 
road is none too plain by daylight. You are very welcome to stay, and 
you can get as early a start as you wish in the morning." 

I at once concluded that this would be the wisest thing to do, 3o, 
thanking my new-found host I followed him to the house. My horse 
was turned into a spacious corral bountifully supplied with water and 
feed, and I was conducted to a seat upon the broad veranda to await 
supper. This porch extended entirely around the house and com- 
manded a fine view of the mountains to the east and north, the fertile 
valley stretching from the northwest to the southeast, and the line of 
the ocean to the far southwest from which the mists of the evening 
were rising, tinted with the fast-fading colors of the sunset. 

" You have a fine place here," I said, after admiring the prospect for 
a few moments in silence. " You must have spent quite a good many 
years here, if you have made all these improvements yourself." 

"Yes," he said, ^ his glance swept over his fields and orchards ex- 
tending down into the valley, "it is a fine place, and the improvements 
you see are mostly the result of our labors. But come, there is a call 
to supper ; after that is disposed of I will tell you how we came by it." 
We entered the house, when the rancher introduced me to 
his wife, a small, dark woman, her husband's opposite in physical 
characteristics. It was apparent at a glance, however, that she was cul- 
tured and refined, and I concluded at once that she must be a descend- 
ant of one of the old Castilian families who had settled in the valley 
many years before, and who displayed such rare judgment in select- 
ing the most fertile and picturesque spots for their habitations. Supper 
over, we retired again to the veranda, which, in this southern land, 
serves as parlor and sitting-room throughout the greater portion of the 
year. In the west were the last expiring signals of the short semi-tropic 
twilight ; the stars looked near and brilliant, and the full moon, floating 
over the valley, made a night such as is seldom seen except in Southern 
California. Here, with my chair tipped against the wall, I listened to 
the rancher's story. 

" I was scarcely past twenty," he began reflectively, "when I left my 
New England home to try my fortune in the West. It was some years after 
the first excitement of the gold discovery in California, and the country 
had been pretty thoroughly prospected. I drifted to these parts, and with 
a partner from my native town made a camp in the caiion back there 
by that high range you see to the north, and where we had struck 
what we thought was a pretty good lead. We were taking out some- 
thing every day and trying all the while to locate the mother lode, but 
we could never seem to trace it only just so far. From a certain long 
low bluff making out into the canon from the north we worked down- 
ward, finding pay dirt all the way, while above this we found but little, 



A FLOOD OF FORTUNE. 37 

and my partner (his name was lyute Clay, as dry a Yankee as ever lived) 
said one day : 

" * I b'leve that pesky hill is a settin' on our gold mine, pard. If we 
c'd git it ter move we might make a strike.' 

"Acting on Lute's suggestion we made excavations at various points 
into the base of the hill, but it was tedious work ; the gravel was loose 
and caved in on us and we did a great amount of work with seemingly 
no results. Still we persevered, and although it was getting late in the 
fall and the rains coming on we determined to make one more trial. 
We selected a point midway of the blufif and well to the north of 
the creek and started to sink a shaft to bedrock. Many days we toiled, 
and each night as we left our work we anxiously scanned the heavens 
for signs of rain, which we knew might be expected at any time now, 
and which we knew, too, would be more than likely to destroy all our 
work, as the canon was narrow at that point, and the waters falling 
upon the steep slopes of the mountains above sometimes formed raging 
torrents which carried everything before them. Still we worked, and 
hoped that we might complete our shaft before the rains set in ; the 
threatening skies only spurring us to greater exertions. We were get- 
ting well down ; a few days more and our purpose would be accom- 
plished, and we would know if all our work had been in vain. 

*' It was Saturday night after a hard week's toil and we were ready to 
lay by our picks and shovels until monday morning. As we started for 
our camp which was upon a little wooded mesa below a bend in the 
canon, Ivute glanced over his shoulder at the line of clouds hanging 
below the mountain tops : 

"'If I'm not mistaken, pard,' he said, 'we'll git that well of ourn 
fuUer'n we want 'fore next week.' 

" I hope not," I replied. " It has threatened rain many times before 
and cleared away again, and perhaps it will do so this time, We can 
only hope for the best. If it doesn't rain tomorrow we must make a 
trip to the ranch and get the mail and a new supply of grub. 

" 'Yes,' said I^ute with a curious twinkle in his steel grey eye, * the 
mail has a great attraction for you, but I doubt if we'd git it as of'n if 
it wa'n't for the female.' 

" I had no answer for this. There was no use in answering him any- 
way ; he would persist in teasing me about the rancher's daughter at 
the nearest house where we went for our mail and supplies, which, by 
the way, was this same place where we now are. Well, we returned to 
our camp and after cooking and eating our supper we sat by our camp 
fire talking over the experiences of the past and our prospects for the 
future, 

" * What would you do, Lute,' said I, ' if we should strike it rich up 
there in the gulch ? ' 

"'Wall, pardner,' he said at length, 'I reckon if I sh'd make a 
strike I'd go back'n hunt up the folks'n maybe give 'em a lift if I seen 
they needed it. Land knows they've had it hard enough these times, 
but they'd a helped me with the last cent they had ; this I know. What 
would you do, pard ? ' 

" ' Oh, I don't know. I haven't any folks to go back to, so I suppose 
I would get me a ranch in one of these fertile valleys and settle down.' 

" ' You wouldn't have fur ter look.' 

" ' What do you mean ? ' 

" ' I mean that the ranch and the girl are all ready an' waiting for ye, 
and you know it as well as I.' 

" ' Indeed I don't know any such thing. If you mean Manuela 
Ramos and her father's ranch, why you might as well tell me to pull 
the stars down to light our camp as to tell me that she would listen to 
such a thing ; and as to the ranch, although he wants to sell, I am 
afraid it would take a bigger strike than we are likely to make before I 
cotild talk business with him. ' 



38 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

" * Never you mind, pard, you didn't have all your school learnin' fer 
nothin'. The young lady has an idee of sech things, and the old 
Senor himself looks well on ye — but listen to that, will ye? ' 

** It was the roar of the rain among the mountains, and was coming 
nearer. We had no more than time to make things snug about the 
camp before it was upon us. And how it rained ! There were lurid 
flashes of lightning and mighty peals of thunder away among the 
mountain tops. The embers of our camp fire were soon extinguished, 
and within the shelter of our tent we composed ourselves to sleep to 
the music of the pouring rain. 

"In the morning, although the first fury of the storm had some- 
what abated, it was still raining steadily, and continued throughout the 
day, which was Sunday. No trip to the ranch that day, as the stream in 
the canon was rising rapidly, and as we had to ford it frequently on the 
way out, the journey would have been difficult and hazardous. Sun- 
day night came with the rain still falling and the mountain streams 
rising in proportion. 

" During the evening as we sat in our camp the climax of the storm 
came in one grand deluge of water. It seemed to come down in sheets 
for about thirty minutes, and then ceased almost as suddenly as it had 
commenced on the evening before. The banks of clouds rolled rapidly 
away to the north and the moon looked out, revealing a most beautiful 
sight. Every mountain creek was now a wild torrent, tearing down its 
own steep ravine, and these, uniting in the mam canon, made a mighty 
rushing river. We could hear it roaring as it tore its way through the 
narrow channel : 

"* Plenty of water in our well up there now, pard,' said Ivute, as he 
listened to the roar of the waters around the bend. 

*'*Yes,' I replied dubiously, 'and not only water but something 
else ; in fact I don't believe there is any hole there at all by this time ; 
it is all filled up.' 

"And so with li feeling that our labors had been in vain we again 
sought our blankets and and slept until the sun looked over the range 
and lighted up the canon all fresh and radiant. The streams had re- 
tired almost to their normal size, for they subside as quickly as they rise. 

" After breakfast we took our tools and started up the caiion. I^ute 
led the way ; his swarthy face betraying no emotion, but his strides 
were long and rapid, and, although I am a pretty good walker myself 
on occasion, I found it difficult to keep pace with him. As we came 
around a turn into full view of the spot where we had been working we 
involuntarily uttered exclamations of wonder and surprise ! The bluff 
had disappeared — washed clean away by the volume of water, which, 
rising higher than for many years before, had been turned by a pro- 
jecting point of ledge higher up on the opposite bank, and had carried 
away the hill of sand and gravel which had been the deposit, probably, 
of previous floods. 

" We hurried forward and were amazed at the change which had been 
wrought by the storm. We could hardly recognize it as the place where 
we had worked so long. Kvery vestige of the bluff was carried away, 
and where it had once stood was a broad ledge with uneven surface 
washed clean, but holding here and there little pools of water clear as 
crystal and glistening in the morning sun. And there, running 
through the center of the ledge and diagonally across the bed of the 
stream, was a wide vein of gold-bearing quartz. Lute swung his pick 
from his shoulder and chipped off little pieces which he examined 
closely. 

" 'Yes, pard,' he said, 'that's the real stuff an' no mistake. We've 
struck it now ! An' to think that that there freshit what we thought 
was goin' to destroy all our work has jest done the hull thing fer us ! ' 

" There is little more to tell. We lost no time in filing on our claim, 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. 39 

which we named The Flood, and which proved to be very rich. In 
one year's time Lute was enabled to go back East and hunt up his folks, 
and I presume to give them a lift according as he found their need." 

"And you?" 

** Well, I verified lyute's prophecy. I purchased this ranch of Sefior 
Ramos, and I had little difficulty in inducing his daughter to stay. It 
is now many years since the Senor passed away. But it is getting chilly 
out here ; come inside and Manuela will give you some music. " 

Pomona, Cal. 



" Pioneers of the Far West. 

THE EARLIEST HISTORY OF CALIFORNIA, NEW MEXICO, ETC. 

From Documents Never Before Published in English. 

II. 

The translation of Fray Zdrate-Salmeron's ** Relacion " of events in 
California and New Mexico from 1538 to 1626 (begun last month) is 
continued below : 

As these islands are so many and so contiguous and so large, those 
[mariners] who come from China have always taken them to be the 
mainland, and so sheer oflf from them. Between them and the main- 
land is a channel 12 leagues wide, called the Channel of Santa Bar- 
bara. It extends from east to west. When they arrived at the begin- 
ning of this channel, which is near the mainland, a canoe with four 
oars came out from land, and in it came the lord or petty king of that 
coast. This canoe reached the captain's ship ; and though the ship 
came sailing with a good wind, the canoe gave three turns around it 
with the greatest dexterity. All [the Indians] went singing, in the 
tone in which the Mexican Indians sing in their dances. They came 
alongside, and without mistrust the petty chief came up on board and 
soon made three turns in the waist oif the ship, singing. And having 
done this, soon in the presence of all he made a long discourse ; and 
having finished, told by signs how those of the island of Santa Catarina 
had been notifying him for four days, by their canoes, that these white 
and bearded men had arrived there, folks of good heart and manners, 
and that they had given them many presents. And that therefore he came 
to offer them his country and what was in it. And as he saw no women 
in the ship, he asked about them by signs so clear that he made him- 
self understood as well as if he had talked Spanish. They told him 
they did not carry women. Then he insisted more strongly that they 
should go ashore, that he would remedy that need, and promised to give 
ten women to each Spaniard. They laughed over the offer. The petty 
king, thinking that they made mock of him that he would not fulfill his 
word, said that some soldiers should go ashore in his boat, while he and 
a son of his would remain [on board] as hostages, and they should see 
how he would fulfill his word. It was already night, and so they put 
off" the going ashore until next day ; and him they sent away with 
many presents that they gave him. Within an hour the wind came up 
from the southeast ; and as it was astern they did not wish to lose the 
chance. So when it dawned they found themselves at the last [north- 
ernmost] islands of the channel. These are six, and at two leagues 
from one another. The channel is 24 leagues long. 

The coast of the mainland is sightly, cheerful, wooded and of much 
people. They left these islands and drew in to land, to coast it and re- 
connoiter. It was high and mountainous, and under its shelter it 
formed some coves. From one of these came out four canoes, with 



40 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

two Indians in each one, and they came to the ships and gave them 
much fish and many salted and dried sardines. In return [the Span- 
iards] gave them some little articles, and soon they went back. The 
[ships] arrived near a lofty range, vermilion on its skirts, and very 
white on its summit. It is called the Sierra of Santa Ivucia. It is the 
one which the China ships come to reconnoiter. Four leagues up the 
coast the Carmel river enters the sea between cliffs, at the foot of some 
high and white ranges. On its banks are many poplars, white ones (39) 
and black willows, carsas and many other trees of Spain. Two leagues up 
the coast is a famous-good harbor. Between it and the river is a forest of 
pines. It is two leagues across. The land forms a point at the entrance 
to the harbor, called the Point of Pines, while the harbor is called Mon- 
terey's (40). 

23. The armada entered this port Dec. 16, and from here they dis- 
patched the flagship with advices for the Viceroy, giving him the account 
of all that had been discovered, with a map of all the coast, with the 
ports, the islands and their confines. The general sent to ask aid to 
finish exploring [descubrir] the California Gulf and to emerge completely 
from the doubt whether it is a bay or a strait which has outlet into the 
North Sea [Atlantic] by the coast of Florida, as the Indians assert. The 
general wrote to the Viceroy that by the month of May of the following 
year he would be awaiting the reinforcements in California, in the port 
of I^a Paz. 

24. This port of Monterey is extremely good ; it is sheltered from all 
winds, has deep water, much wood and good timbers for building vessels. 
There are oaks, reeds, the broom, wild roses, brambles, willows, syca- 
mores, springs of pretty water, most fertile pastures, good lands for 
planting. There are many and good animals, and some are very great. 
There are bears so great that they have a paw a foot long and a span wide. 
There are some animals which have the foot round, like a mule, and 
horns like goats ; these, they say, are tapirs. There are other animals 
as large as bullockj^, built like stags, with the hoof split like an ox's, 
the hair like a pelican's and three inches long, the neck and back long, 
and upon the head antlers long as a buck's, the tail a yard long and half 
as wide. There are deer, rabbits, stags, hares, wild-cats, turtle-doves, 
thrushes, blackbirds, goldfinches, cardinals, ^uail, partridges, wagtails, 
cranes, vultures, albatrosses. There are birds of the shape of wild 
turkeys ; they are so large that from tip to tip of their wings they 
measure 17 palms. The coast has all the kinds of fishes and shell-fish 
that are found on the coast of Spain. There are many sea- wolves 
[seals] and many whales. This port and its surroundings are populous 
with Indians, who are affable, generous, friendly to give whatever they 
have. These were very sorry that the Spaniards should depart from this 
their country, for they had formed a great affection for them. They are 
Indians who have a government. Here the captain's ship and frigate 
remained until the third day of January of the following year, 1603. 

25. They set out in search of Cape Mendocino. The captain's ship 
entered the port of San Francisco to see if* trace could be found of a 
vessel called the "St. Augustine," which went ashore in that port in 
the year of 1595 ; the which vessel, by command of His Majesty and of 
the Viceroy Don Luis de Velasco, Gov. Gomez Marinas had despatched 
frpm the Philippines to make this exploration of which we are now treat- 
ing, and in a storm it went ashore. The captain's ship anchored be- 
hind Point Reyes (which is a point formed by this same port), because 
the frigate had gone astray in a great storm, and they knew nothing of 
her. The captain's ship came in sight of some lofty hills, vermilion in 



(39> Alamos is a loose word in America. Most commonly it means cottonwoods. 
Here it is doubtless sycamores. 

(40) After the Viceroy of Mexico, Don Caspar de Ziiniga y Acevedo, Condede Monte- 
rey, 1595-1603. 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. 4i 

color; and 14 leagues ahead to the northwest there was seen a cape, 
notched to the sea, and near it some snowy mountains. By the land- 
marks and latitude they said it was Cape Mendocino, which is in 42''. 

26. The frigate having weathered the storm, the pilot took the lati- 
tude and found they were in 43°. The land makes a point which was 
named Cape Blanco [white], from which the coast trends to the north- 
east. At this point was found a river very strong and deep, on whose 
banks were found great ash trees, willows, reeds and many trees of 
Spain. They wished to enter the mouth, but the strong currents did not 
permit. Seeing that they were in a higher latitude than their instruc- 
tions ordered, they turned about for the port of Acapulco. These in- 
structions /would call " destructions,'' in such cases, if the [explorers] 
may not do what opportunity and time give chance for and they deem 
best, taking counsel among themselves as to what is important. 

27. They say that this river [it is the Columbia] goes by the great 
city of Quivira (41), which is the city the strangers gave news of to His 
Majesty, when by stress of weather they traversed the Strait of Anian, 
from which narrative His Majesty ordered that this exploration should 
be made. 

28. The general, Sebastian Viscaino, came back to [Lower] Cali- 
fornia, but did not await there the reinforcements as he had decided, for 
he had hardly sailors enough to trim the sails ; since besides the many 
who had died, the rest were all sick. So he came to the coast of this 
New Spain [Mexico] to see if mayhap its air would give health to the 
sick men. As indeed befell ; for as soon as they arrived at the port of 
Mazatlan they all recovered health. And since, at that time, the govern- 
ment of Peru was entrusted to the Count of Monterey, he did not send 
the reinforcements, nor has anything more been done about this voyage, 
and so everything has stood still. 

29. In confirmation of this great city of Quivira there is also a relation 
given to Rodrigo del Rio, governor-that-was of New Galicia, the which 
story is thus: *' As two vessels of Spaniards were fishing for codfish off 
Ne wfoundlan , so great a storm hit them that it pocketed them in the 
Strait of Anian ; and, running before the storm, one of them, despite 
itself, entered a powerful river which is in this strait on the south side. 
She reached a very populous city, girt with gates and walls. Eight 
sailors leaped ashore with their arquebuces, and arriving close to the 
city the people would not let them enter, though they received them in 
peace. Nearer the city — a little more than the range of an arquebuz, 
was a spring of clear water, and close to it a little house. They told the 
Spaniards to enter there and rest ; and so they did. Here they were 
three days, being given many fowls, tortillas of cornmeal, various fruits, 
chestnuts and many other things. At the end of these days the king 
desired to see those strangers, as something he had never seen. So 
gre t a multitude came forth that they filled those fields, and last of all 
tljey brought the king, borne upon a litter of a yellow metal, the king 
wearing his crown, and clothed in some skins of animals (42). Arriving at 
a point whence he could see and judge the features and figures of the 
Spaniards they halted the litter (though they did not let it down upon 
the ground, but kept it upheld as they had brought it), and they said to 
the Spaniards to come forth from their lodging that the king might see 
them. And when they [the Sjjaniards] wished to come up to the litter 
where the king was, to salute him, the [natives] made signs to them that 
they must not approach but should stand upon their feet. Thus they 
did, and the king kept looking at them with great attentiveness. At the 
end of some time signs were made to them that they should again enter 
their lodgings ; and presently the king returned to the city. He con- 



(41) See '• The Laud of Poco Tieaipo," lyummis. 

(42) This is all a fair example of the iairy tales of some 16th century explorers. 



42 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

tinned to make them presents, as he had constantly done. The Spaniards 
lost their fear ; and as the [native] women came for water to this spring, 
one of the Spaniards tried to put a woman inside the house by force. 
She went to the city to complain ; and soon many Indians came to tell 
the Spaniards they must go aboard [their vessel] at once, Arriving on 
board, they told their comrades what had happened. Beyond these two 
vessels having suffered great shipwreck, the ice and cruel cold so bur- 
dened the men that most of them were frozen and the rest fell sick, so 
that nearly all perished. Those who escaped, seeing that they were too 
few to get to Spain, made their way to Florida, where the one who was 
most anxious to report these things embarked in a frigate which was 
coming to this New Spain. Arriving in the port of San Juan de Ulna 
[Vera Cruz] the death sickness smote him ; and knowing his days were 
fulfilled, he called the brother in charge of the hospital and had him 
write this narrative, that a thing like this might be known, as worthy to 
be seen. The man died, and they sent this narrative to Rodrigo del Rio. 

30. According to the indications, I hold it to be a sure thing that this 
city is the same that was seen by Anian, he who gave the news to His 
Majesty ; and that it is the same that was seen by land by the thirty men 
whom Francisco Vasquez Coronado sent from the plains of Cibola. 

31. And although certain inquisitive persons have given news to His 
Majesty of these things, they have not noted how and from what point 
this exploration is easy ; for experience always shows us new things, and 
always we continue to know more of this land. So I say, that this ex- 
ploration from the port of Acapulco is labor in vain ; because of the con- 
trary winds already mentioned ; and to explore what remains of Cali- 
fornia, one has not to go in with a vessel of deep draft, because amid 
the Gulf are many shoals and reefs, with much risk of being lost. The 
useful thing to do is to build in Sinaloa four long barges, decked in, 
which is easy ; since these can avail themselves of oar or sail and are 
more manageable to enter all the inlets and see what is there ; and with- 
out having to faci^ a storm they can shelter and protect themselves in 
whatsoever nook. 

■^ 32. Touching the reconnoissance of the great city of Quivira, it must 
] be found from one of two points — overland from New Mexico, or by two 
caravels sailing from Florida and entering the Strait of Anian. I do not 
say soldiers should go forth from Florida by land (though it is on the 
same main land with this, as I will show at last, in the face of those un- 
believers who assert the contrary), because it is swampy and is very dis- 
tant from this city, according to the account. So if the entrance is to 
be made by land it must be by way of New Mexico ; and if by sea, then 
from the coast of I^abrador, which is in 50° ; and not by way of Aca- 
pulco, for it is impossible to explore it from there. And if this [city] 'is 
found, two things will result — one, the good of those souls ; the other, 
the advancement of the royal crown, and that His Majesty enjoy such 
riches as they say are there ; and, Christian as he is, employ them so 
well in sustaining these doctrines. 

Expedition of Don Juan de On ate to New Mexico. 

33. Don Juan de Oiiate went forth from this city of Mexico in the 
year 1596, taking in his train ten priests of my father St. Francis, men of 
great spirit and letters. Their names were : Fray Alonzo Martinez, 
comisario of this journey ; Fray Francisco de San Miguel, Fray Francisco 
de Zamora, Fray Juan de Rosas, Fray Alonso de Lugo, Fray Andres Cor- 
chado. Fray Juan Claros, Fray Crist6bal de Salazar (priests), and Fray 
Juan de San Buenaventura and Fray Pedro de Vergara, lay brothers. 

34. Don Juan de Onate took out with him from this New Spain, for this 
journey, more than 700 men, the flower of the soldiery of the Chichi- 
mecs and other persons of account. But as in such occasions there 
lack not envious meii and of evil intent, they managed to disturb this 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. 43 

journey, from which came great trouble and loss to the property of this 
cavalier, and great harm to that land ; since on account of the delay in 
the Visifa (43) that they kept him- waiting three months for, when he 
was all ready, more than 200 men turned back, and many of them mar- 
ried ones. For in so long waiting, they destroyed and ate up all they 
had ; and so they remained behind. Omitting long accounts, which 
have nothing to do with my intention, I say : Don Juan de Oiiate en- 
tered that country [New Mexico] with more than 400 men, of whom 
130 were married and took along their families. Having traveled 400 
leagues directly north, toward the arctic pole, in latitude 37>^^, they 
reached the valley of the Tehua Indians, who are settled on the banks 
of the river which the Spaniards call del Norte (44), since its currents 
flow from that direction. He established his camp between this river 
and that of Zama (45), on a site very much to his purpose. And since 
certain evil-intentioned men have misjudged and smirched it simply to 
speak ill of the settlement Don Juan De Onate made, saying it is bad 
land and poor (these are men that ran away and departed fleeing ; and 
being asked the cause of their departure, sooner than confess their 
fault, they publish these things, damning the country). Contradicting 
them, I say (46) the said settlement is very important and of great 
moment and use to all the country, each and all when the rest shall be 
settled up. Since, as the plan of Don Juan de Onate was to make an ei^;- 
trance and explore the country, he could not have found a location 
more convenient than the said site. For it is the center of the king- 
dom and is distant 200 leagues from California on the west (as has al- 
ready been seen) and about 300 leagues in an air line from Florida on 
the east. We are not to judge this distance by that which [D] Orantes 
[and] Cabeza de Vaca walked, nor Hernando de Soto, since all of them 
wandered lost, walking and walking over again. I count only diamet- 
rically. And to the northward about 100 leagues is the arm of the sea 
which is called River of St. Lawrence, an easy point of embarking for 
Spain ; since, as I shall set down further on, this river goes out to the 
land of Labrador, fronting Newfoundland, where every year they come i 
to catch codfish, and so for this purpose it is the best port that could be "^ 
chosen, and the Indians there have made peace. Through all the prov- 
inces the natives are affable and settled, and they have aided the Span- 
iards with their provisions and appeased their hunger, and aided them 
to build houses, and all the rest of it ; and they promptly yielded them- 
selves vassals to His Majesty. As for the quality of the country, it is 
cold and healthful, with the temperature of Spain. Its healthfulness is 
proved by the fact that the Indians arrive at more than 100 years of age, 
as I have seen them. It is a fertile land, with pretty and crystal waters ; 
much live-stock is raised, cattle and sheep [ganado mayor y menor] 
and if it were not for the greed of the governors, who have taken it all 
out to sell, it would already cover all the fields, Much provision is 
gathered, of wheat and corn and every sort of vegetable As forsaking 
that it is a poor [country] I answer that there has not been discovered 
in the world a country of more mineral deposits than New Mexico (47), 
of every sort of assay, good and bad. There are mineral [minas] depos- 
its (48) in the Socorro mountains, in the Salt Lakes [near Manzano] in 
the mountains of Puaray [the Sandias] in Tunque, in the Puerto, in 



(43) Official inspection. (44) The Rio Grande. 

(45) Chama. (46\ Fray Zdrate is right. It is a fine valley. This little town of San 
Gabriel de los Espafioles, founded 1598, where Chamita now stands, was the first 
Caucasian town in the West and the second in all the United States ; St. Augustine, 
Fla., being first by 33 years. 

- ■ (47) There the fraile's enthusiasm gets the better of him. There were plenty of pros- 
pect holes ; but not one paying mine. 

(48) Afma in Spanish is a looser word than our "mine." It includes prospect holes 
and even untouched ledges and float. 



/ 



44 LAND or SUNSHINE. 

Ci^nega, in San Marcos, in Galisteo, in lyos Pozos, in Picuries (in this 
pueblo are garnet mines), in Zama [Chama]. In all the ranges of the 
Hemex [Jemez] there is nothing but deposits, where I discovered many, 
and filed on them for His Majesty. From the which I took out 18 arro- 
bas (49) of ore. As I returned [to Mexico] I distributed these ores at all 
the mining-camps I passed in order that all might see the ores of New 
Mexico. Before all things, there are mineral deposits, and there is no cor- 
ner which has them not. The Spaniards that are there are too poor in cap- 
ital to work the deposits, and are of less spirit ; enemies to work of any 
sort. Well, in that country we have seen silver, copper, lead, loadstone, 
[magnetic iron], copperas, alum, sulphur, and mines of turquoise which 
the Indians work in their paganism, since to them it is as diamonds and 
precious stones. At all this the Spaniards who are there laugh ; as they 
have a good crop of tobacco to smoke, they are very content, and wish 
no more riches. It seems as if they had taken the vow of poverty — 
which is much for Spaniards, who out of greed for silver and gold, 
would enter hell itself to get them. 

35. I prove this truth, that no one may doubt if they are as spiritless 
as all this ; and I say : It will be nine years since there came into that 
country, in search of mines, three Flemings, citizens of this City of 
Mexico, named Juan Fresco, Juan Descalzo and Rodrigo Ivorenzo, very 
honest men of entire truth and good example. They found many ore- 
bodies, made many assays, got out silver — as we all saw — and came 
back to tljis New Spain, where they bought tools and other necessary 
articles and got a miner and a refiner. They returned the second time. 
The day the news [of their return] reached the town of the Spaniards, 
that these said Flemings were returning to work mines, that same night 
they set fire to the workshops in which they were to treat the ore. The 
which was done since Don Pedro de Peralta was governor ; for he was 
inclined to this ; and with his contracts everything became quiet. By 
this is seen their depraved temper, and that it troubles them, since they 
are enemies of silver, that others should mine it. 

36. The Indians of those provinces are settled, with large houses, 
I mean to say of many apartments and many stories. Their clothing is 
mantas of cotton, which yields well in the country. They color 
these mantas. They also use buffalo hides and wolf-skins, and 
feather tunics, for the which they rear many turkeys. There is no dif- 
ference in the dress of man and woman. All are shod on account of 
the cold. Their sustenance is corn, beans, squashes, and herbs, with 
which all provide themselves for the year before the cold weather comes 
in ; meat of deer, hares, rabbits, wild turkeys, quail, partridges. They 
also kill, for eating, the bears, which are many ; and much fish — 
bagres, pike, trout and matalote — is most common in all the Rio del 
Norte, so that they need not die of hunger. There is one thing to 
praise in these tribes [naciones], and that is that they are not drunk- 
ards. They have no drink save the water of the river They observe 
well the things of the Church and obey the priest who teaches them the 
doctrine. With this, all is said of New Mexico. After having put the 
houses in order and visited all the settled and neighboring tribes, the 
adelantado (50) Don Juan de Oiiate set about making expeditions further 
into the interior. Of those which were effected I will treat here. 

\ 

Journey of Don Juan de Onate to the Great City of 

Quivira. 

37. The Adelantado, Don Juan de Onate, set forth from the town of 
New Mexico [the only town, San Gabriel] to discover the great city of 
Quivira, in the year of 1599. On this journey he took along Father 



(49) An arroba is 25 lbs. (50) Officer in command of exploring force. 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. 45 

Francisco de Velasco, who at the time was Comisario of the province ; 
a man very learned and apostolic ; and for his companion a lay brother 
named Pedro de Vergara ; and 80 soldiers. He took for guide a Mexi- 
can Indian named Jasepe, who had penetrated the interior with Hu- 
mana ; the which Indian, with two other Mexican Indians, had fled 
after Humana took the life of Capt. Leiva, a Portuguese by birth and a 
very brave man. The Indians of the interior had already slain the two 
companions of Jusepe ; he escaped as best he could. I/ater Don Juan 
de Onate found this Indian in New Mexico, in the pueblo of the Picu- 
ries Indians ; and he guided the said Don Juan de Onate by the way and 
road he [himelf] had entered by, which was through the Buffalo 
Plains, where no one can die of hunger, for the immense herd of 
buffalo that is there. These are plains so extensive that no one has 
seen their end and conclusion. They traveled to the east-north-east. 
They saw great grazing grounds, beautiful fields, many waters, lands 
fertile for planting, a good climate. Afterward they went up toward 
the northeast. They went, according to their count, 200 leagues in 
these goings up and down, but not in a direct line. They reached a 
land of promise in fertility, where the fields of themselves, without any 
cultivation, produce grapes, plums in great abundance, and many other 
fruits. On these plains, though there are Indians, they are not settled. 
They have some hovels of straw. These we call the Vaqueros (51), be- 
cause they support themselves on this herd. They do not sow nor har- 
vest food. They dress hides, and take them to the settlements to sell, 
and get in exchange cornmeal, and thus support themselves. 

38. The Spaniards encountered the Escansaques [Kansas] Indians, 
who were going to fight with their enemies the Quiviras. The hostile 
Kscansaques began to do much damage in the settlements, some setting 
fire, others seizing the houses. The Father Fray^ Francisco de Velasco, 
being so Christian and pious, moved with pity for the damage which 
those Indians kept doing, prayed the adelantado that they be on hand 
amid this damage. At this the Indians got restive and turned against 
the Spaniards; to their own harm — since of them near upon a thousand 
perished, and of the Spaniards not one was dangerously hurt, though 
many came out wounded. In this place they say they killed Humana 
and his companions as they were returning loaded with gold. Here was 
found a trace of this, for some articles of iron were found, a few boots 
and the bones of the horses. The procedure they took to kill them was 
to set fire to the camp while they were resting. No one escaped except 
a Spanish boy named Alonzo Sanchez, and a mulatto woman, half 
burned up, who was alive when this [Onate] journey was made, and, 
they say, was three days' travel from this spot. Only a few years ago 
the Indians told me that this Alonzo was alive still, and by his courage 
had become a chief [capitan] and was much feared by the Indians. 
I/ikewise they [Onate's party] learned that near there were seven hills 
in a plain, whence the captives adopted [ahijados] by the Indians get 
out the gold which they work. No pains whatever was taken to see 
about this. 

39. Likewise they tell that the Quiviras had sent an embassador to 
receive the Spaniards ; and seeing them accompanied by their enemies 
[the Escansaques], they feared. The embassador did not dare to cross 
the river which separated them from the Spaniards ; but the adelantado 
sent some soldiers to try to catch him from behind, which they did and 
put irons on him. He was an Indian of importance. But the Indians 
had a sharper trick ; for making a feint of attack, while the Spaniards 
were getting their arms, they took care to carry off the prisoner bodily, 
ironed as he was. As that country appeared verj' well settled, as the 
innumerable smokes showed, the adelantado sent some soldiers to the 



(51) Apaches Vaqueros. " Cowboy Apaches ; " their " covrs" being buffalo. 



46 LAND or SUNSHINE. 

interior. They marched all of one day and returned to say that they 
had not come to the end of the settlements ; the Indians had said it was 
very large and that more to the north were other larger ones. They say 
also that when the Indians hang their cloihing upon the trees, to fight, 
if they had examined the clothing they had found two golden blades of 
the lances with which they fight, and the porringers of gold from which 
they drink. Nothing of this was seen. 

40. These adopted captives have much gold, and work it. They call 
it tejas [literally tiles]. But for proof that there is much gold and that 
they esteem it and work it, I wish no other witness than that which all 
saw in this city of Mexico, and in the court. And that is, that in the 
said clash with the Kscansaques the Adelantado captured two Indians 
adopted by that tribe. One was a little fellow, the other a young man. 
These two (because the fight had been on the day of St. Michael) were 
given the name of the day when they were baptized. Well, this Indian 
Miguel made the smelting furnace, in which the gold is treated, so ex- 
pertly that those who are of this profession marveled. And he knew no 
metal except gold ; for he said, " In my country there is no other thing 
than this, and so I do not know the other things." The silversmiths of 
Mexico were unable to fool him with gilded articles or with things of 
chemistry or of other metals. 

41. This Indian was taken to Spain, so that His Catholic Majesty the 
king Felipe III could see him. The silversmiths of the court tried to 
fool him with a jumble of all kinds of metals broken up ; and they could 
not, because he knew at once what was pure gold. In the house of the 
Duke of the Infantado is a map that the said Miguel made of all 
those kingdoms and provinces of his tribe and those near to them, with 
as great skill as could a cosmographer. The witness is that Father Fray 
Francisco de Velascosaw it, which is sufficient. Said Indian Miguel gave 
in the court such an account of the majesty and lordliness of his kingdom 
and the great riches of gold that there was there, that His Majesty, know- 
ing that the Indian did not lie, commanded that a thousand men should 
prepare themselves for this discovery. The gentleman who had taken 
the Indian to Spain, to do greater service to His Majesty, said he wished 
to furnish at his own cost the half, which were 500 soldiers. The offer 
seemed very good to the king, and he wrote it to the viceroy, that when 
this gentleman should deliver and fulfill what was promised, they should 
prepare another 500 men at his [the king's] cost. As he did not fulfill 
this, because he could not, neither did the king, and this journey has 
remained until God shall move the heart of some rich man who wishes 
to spend that he may leave a memory. 

42. And returning to proceed with my journey, I say, that when the 
Spaniards returned towards New Mexico by the same road along which 
the said Quivira Indians had flown from said settlement, as from fear 
they had absented and deserted their houses, so they also returned to 
them. And seeing the great killing among their enemies they knew 
two thmgs; the one, that the harm" to their pueblo had not been done 
by the Spaniards, but by their enemies ; the other, that the Spaniards 
were very brave and good for friends, and the fame of their great valor 
ran through all the land of the interior, and desiring their friendwship 
and communication they sent from Quivira an Indian ambassador of 
high standing and gravity. He brought 600 servants with bows and 
arrows, who served him ; the neighboring Indians hearing of the troop 
that came, made known that they were coming to finish with all the 
Spaniards, and it was even said that the number of people was great. 
Afterwards they saw the contrary ; but in the meantime, God knows 
how the hearts of the Spanish were. At last he arrived and gave his 
message, inviting the Spaniards with his friendship and lands that they 
should help them to fight against their enemies, the Ayjaos, who are 
those who possess the gold. The Adelantado did not have the forces to 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. 47 

go there, because while he was on this journey many of the soldiers that 
he had left in the village to keep that place had run away. The 
speeches, talking and answers all were in the Apache language, which 
they understood very well. He gave much news of his land, of the lord 
of his kingdom, and of the much gold that there is there. Don Juan de 
Onate, to satisfy himself of what the ambassador said and to find out if 
it was true that they knew gold, melted a chain of gold and a plate of 
lead, another of copper, another of silver, brass, metal, iron, all those 
metals together. He called the ambassador and the other Indians al- 
though not altogether, but in troops at different times. And asking 
them of which kind of those there was in their laud, all inclined to the 
gold. And they said that of that [sort] was what there was, and that 
the others they did not know. And those who did not know it at once 
took the gold in their hands and smelled it, and by the smell they knew 
it right away. And so there was no Indian who did not know it. And 
they said their king had much. The Adelantado asked them why none 
of them carried even a grain, if there was as much as they said ; and the 
ambassador answered that their king has put heavy penalties on the one 
who carries it outside of his kingdom, and that whoever breaks this 
law will be impaled ; but if they had known the Spanish esteemed it, 
they would have brought some. 

43. This embassador said that the Spaniards had traveled in a very 
round-about way by the way they had gone; that if they had gone straight 
towards the north they would have arrived quickly . So that, according 
to what they said, one should go through Taos and through lands of the 
great Captain Quima, through those plains. Proceeding with his mes- 
sage and seeing that the Adelantado was not in a disposition to go there, 
he said to him, that he should give him twelve soldiers, and he would 
go very content. The Adelantado said he could not. The embassador 
said, "how could he go before his king with such a bad message ? That 
he should give him even six soldiers ; that with these he would go very 
content." The Adelantado promised them, and named them, and com- 
manded them to make ready and to prepare arms and horses. With 
this the embassador left very content to give the news, leaving two 
guides who should take them by a straight road ; but after the embasa- 
dor had gone they changed their minds and these soldiers did not go. 
If they had gone they would have seen the truth, and they would have 
come out of this doubt, if it is or if it is not. Here was lost a very 
great opportunity, and we can say that it will be long before the lost 
opportunity will be recovered. 

Journey of Don Juan De Onate to California by Land. 

44. In the year 1604, on the 7th of the month of October, D. Juan de 
Onate started from the town of San Gabriel to discover the Sea of the 
South. He took in his company the Father Fray Francisco de Kscobar, 
who was then comisario of those provinces, and a lay brother called 
Fray Juan de Buenaventura, apostolic men ; and the Father comisario was 
a very learned man and had a gift for languages, as he learned them all 
with great facility. He took on this journey 30 soldiers, the most of 
them Visoiios ; and they did not carry more than fourteen pair of horse 
equipments. Traveling towards the west 60 leagues, they arrived at 
the province of Cuiii, that is in some plains more inhabited by hares and 
rabbits than by Indians. There are six pueblos; in all of them there 
are no more than 300 terraced houses of many stories, like those of New 
Mexico. The largest pueblo and head of all is the pueblo of Cibola, 
that in their language is called Havico. It has 1 10 houses. The food,- 
like that general in all the land, is corn, beans, squashes, meat of the 
hunt. They dress in mantas of iztli woven of twisted cord. These 
Indians have no cotton. They started out from this pueblo, and 
after traveling twenty leagues between the northwest and west, they 



48 LAnD OF SUNSHINE. 

arrived at the province of Mooqui. There are five pueblos and in all 
450 houses — the same number of houses and mantas of cotton. 

45. In the province of Zuiii are deposits of silver of so fine a blue 
that they use it for paint and carry it to sell to the settlements of New 
Mexico. I brought some stones to show, and the painters told me it was 
the best blue in the world, and that in this city [Mexico] every pound 
of it was worth $12, and there was not a pound [to be had]. Likewise 
as to the green [paint] of New Mexico, in particular that of the Homex 
[Jemez] is extremely fine in the leaf; and of these two sorts there 
might be made freight to bring here. 

46. They left Mooqui, and at 1 leagues toward the west they arrived at 
the Colorado River. Tbey called it thus because the water is nearly red ; 
this river runs from northwest to southeast ; afterwards it gives a turn 
to the west, and they say it enters the California [Gulf]. From here 
to where it empties into the sea there are more than a hundred leagues of 
pine forests. (52) From this river they traveled toward the west, cross- 
ing a mountain range of pines that was eight leagues across, at whose 
skirts along the south side the river San Antonio runs seventeen leagues 
away from San Jose, which is the Colorado ; it runs north and south 
through rough mountains and very high cliffs. It is of little water ; 
it has many fish and good. From this river the land is temperate. 
Five leagues on toward the west is the river of the Sacrament. It is of 
as much water as that of San Antonio, of as many fish and as good. It 
has its birth eleven leagues towards the west. It runs northwest and 
southeast along the skirts of some very high mountains where the 
Spaniards took out very good ores, and there are many mineral 
deposits. Until arriving at this place the Spaniards had not found any- 
thing that contented them. It is a very fit place for the dwelling of 
the Spaniards ; it is a place where they could erect reduction works. 
There are good lands for crops, beautiful fields and pasture for herds, 
and many waters. In this moimtain range the Cru.zados Indians have 
their homes. They are ranchers ; the houses of straw ; they sow no 
supplies ; they sustain themselves with the game which they kill, deer 
and mountain sheep (of which there are many). With the skins the 
men and women cover themselves ; all go barefooted, little and big. 
They also have for their sustenance mescaliy which is preserve of the 
root of maguey. 

47. They call these Indians Cruzados [cross- wearing] on account of 
some crosses that all, little and big, tie upon the lock of hair that falls 
over the forehead ; and this they do when they see the Spaniards. The 
origin of this ceremony was not known then ; afterwards it has become 
known that many years ago there traveled through that land a priest of 
my father St. Francis who told them that if some time they should see 
men bearded and white, that so that they would not attack them nor 
harm them, they should put on those crosses, which is something 
esteemed by them. They took it so much to memory that they have 
not forgotten. The men are well featured and noble ; and the women 
handsome, with beautiful eyes, and they are affectionate. These Indians 
said that the sea was twenty days' journeys from there (of those which 
they travel, which they calculate at about five leagues). It is to be 
noticed that no nation of these was caught in a lie. They also said that 
two days' journey from there was a river of little water, by which they 
went to another very large one that enters into the sea, on whose banks 
there was a nation called Aniacava. And soon, farther on, many other 
nations who sow and gather corn, beans and squashes. They left the 
Rio del Sacramento, traveling towards the west and southwest fifteen 
leagues, finding at every stop good watering-places. They arrived at 
the river of little water, called San Andres. 

[TO BK CONTINUED.] 
(62) The noble pineries of the Flagstaff region. 




A republic no longer jealous of its rights has begun to lose them. 

Fists are a manful thing to have ; and we all like Roosevelt for hav- 
ing them. But his best friends note with regret his growing tendency 
to think with them. 

It is all very well for Americans to have confidence in the President. 
That is what they keep a President for. But confidence does not mean 
a state of coma. Let us trust in God and McKinley, but keep the Con- 
stitution dry. 

iPrest. Wheeler's stirring prophecy and Prof. Brown's compact record 
set forth the University of California in adequate light. The State is 
proud of its University — and with reason. Already, against many dis- 
couragements, it has earned a place of honor among the best State Univer- 
sities of the Union. We shall be still prouder of it after a bit- Mean- 
time, rich Californians should put money where all of us will put faith. 
The University of California should be the best-equipped in the world. 
It will be, if all for whom California has done a great deal will do a 
I little for California. 

Christmas in California! Christmas without snow, slush, where 
pneumonia or furnaces ; Christmas with open windows and Christmas 

roses nodding in at them the compliments of the day ; Christ- is real. 

mas with humming-birds whirring about the door and a mocking-bird 
in tune on the ridgepole ; Christmas without overcoats, chest protectors, 
scarfs, ear-muffs, wristlets, arctics — but in their stead barefoot children 
chasing butterflies over a sward of infinite flowers. *' It can't be did ? " 
Oh, yes, it can — and is. "It wouldn't be Christmas?" Oh, yes, it 
would — and is. The Christmas heart is just as big and warm here as if 
it had pleurisy in its next-door pulmonary neighbor. And as for Christ- 
mas weather, you must permit yourself to be reminded that God did 
not send the Babe to earth in a New England climate, but picked out 
one like California. The traditional refrigerator Christmas is the laud- 
able resort of those who, without knowing the Real Thing, make the 
best of their frost-bitten counterfeit. But here's wishing everyone, 
everywhere, the merriest Christmas, even if they have to come to Cal- 
ifornia to get it. 

Good Americans love England ; but it is a pretty poor Ameri- the 
, can that loves her politicians. They are as corrupt and as two 

smug as ours, and possibly still surpass ours in their confi- Englands 

dence that they can fool the people. English politicians tried twice 
to crush this nation in its infancy. They wished its disruption in our 
Civil War. Just now they are trying to murder another little republic, 
that they may " go through its pockets. " But the England we love and 
honor is not the British politicians — it is the English People. TAey 
were not on the side of the stupid and brutal George ; or the feeble 
Colonies would have been wiped off" the earth. TAey did not pray for 
Jeff Davis; or there might have been no Appomattox. T/ie}f are not 
fierce-hearted to butcher the Boers. And not only the People but the 



50 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Statesmen. There were EnglisH anti-Imperialists in 1776 — Burke, Fox, 
Chatham, all the men of their day we most honor — and in 1812 and 
1861. And their blood is still alive in 1899. And as England has a good 
deal to learn from our politicians in the way of snobbery and abject- 
ness, she doesn't " copperhead " her citizens for thinking, nor stop 
their mail. It is the hope for humanity — for no nation has ever yet be- 
come so unscrupulous, so selfish, so venal, as its machine politicians. 
The present pity of it is that decent English boys are shedding their 
lives to fatten a schemer who would cart-tail his grandmother for a 
dividend. 

FROM AFRIC'S As everyone past infancy in politics can see, the English poli- 

SUNNY ticians now dominant have long been slyly pushing the Trans- 

FOUNTAINS. vaal Republic into a corner, for the express purpose of cut- 
ting her throat. Nothing could have saved her — except to give her 
house up to the robbers and go into exile ; there to be robbed again as 
soon as she had made another wilderness worth imperial stealing. The 
only difference made by Kruger's manful stand is that the Boers will 
have some satisfaction before they are crushed. But they were to be 
crushed anyhow. 

How innumerably we rabbit dunces is shown by the American apol- 
ogies for this wicked and wanton war. It is "to protect her citizens " 
the Uitlanders, that noble Old England goes to war. Aye, ^er citizens. 
Apparently this never grazes the journalistic mind. The intruding 
Uitlanders are in the Transvaal to make money. They do not, and will 
not, become citizens. There are many able and some good men among 
these fortune seekers ; but economically they occupj'^ precisely the same 
relation to the Transvaal that the Chinese do to California. They are 
aliens, here to make money and take it home. Do we let the Chinese 
vote ? Nay, do we let unnaturalized Englishmen ? There are as many 
Britons in California as Uitlanders in the Transvaal. Unless they 
foreswear the Queen and take the oath of allegiance to the United 
States, we do not let them vote in five years nor in fifty ; and we 
know what we would say to them if they were so sublimely impudent 
as to demand the suflfrage as aliens. If a million Americans settled in 
England, would they be given a vote as long as they retained their 
United States citizenship ? Well, there are the Uitlanders for you. 
Their claim that a fortune-hunter is entitled to vote in a country he 
refuses to become a citizen of, is the most barefaced plea that ever came 
into court. And that is the English politician excuse for a war to ex- 
terminate a dauntless little nation which has not so many men, women 
and children in the whole republic as England has voters in a shire 
city! 

BREEDERS While the administration is mumbling vague threats of the 

OF terrible things it will do to American citizens if they don't 

TROUBivE. stop daring to think ; and the newspaper lackeys howl that the 
people who protest against war are the only ones to blame for it — these 
troubled gentlemen are forgetting the chief offender. They want to 
get after the Declaration of Independence, and "proceed against" it, 
and exclude it from the mails, and let us know what a seditious, copper- 
head, traitorous document it is. And then the Constitution, which is 
about as wicked. For these two old-fashioned papers have done more 
to "encourage the Filipinos" than all the anti-Imperial speeches of 
today — just as they inspired Mexico, Central America, Peru, Chile, and 
all the other mainland colonies to revolt from Spain ; just as they today 
inspire the people who protest against a war of conquest. These wicked 
manifestos of human rights should be suppressed ! They make trouble, 
at home and abroad-— for those who violate them. Let us wipe them 
out, and tie to Commerce and Chances for American Capital ! 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 5^ 

Some do it of willful knavery, but the vast majority because WNCOLN 
they know no better. The childish papers and paper-educated as a 

people who shriek "copperhead" and "traitor" at all who "copperhead.' 

disagree with the President's war, of course know as little as they little 
care about even the modern history of their country. Not even the 
silliest of them would dare call Abraham lyincoln a copperhead — but he 
was one, by their definition, just as ex-Speaker Reed, and ex-President 
Cleveland, and Senator Edmunds, and Senator Hoar and a host more of 
our foremost men are now, in the mouths of the people who get their 
minds by ** boiler-plate" from Washington. They do not know enough 
to know that lyincoln stood up in Congress in Polk's Mexican War and 
criticised it and the President's precipitation of it as severely as Senator 
Hoar has criticised McKinley. But he did. 

G. Wharton James was a methodist minister at Long Beach, ^ daniel 
Cal., tiJl detected, tried and expelled the pulpit for indecency come to 

too base to be catalogued. Later, hotel tout, and like scien- judgment. 

tific industries. At present, lecturing where he is not known. These 
unpleasant facts of record would be impertinent were it not that the 
gentleman takes the name of California and of Southwestern science in 
vain ; and as reliably as one might expect. California needs no un- 
savory advocates ; and science is ungrateful for ignorant and menda- 
cious handling. 

The retirement of E. L. Godkin from the New York Evening time 
Post, by reason of ill health — though greeted with a chorus of -A^nd 

jeers from newspapers which parrot what they hear — is a proportion. 

national loss. One did not have to agree always with Mr. Godkin — I 
for one frequently did not. But history, a few hundred years from now, 
will remember him as one of not more than five greatest editorial 
writers the United States had produced up to the end of the 19th cent- 
ury. Whereas, in 25 years a student will have to hunt up a quack paid 
" Encyclopedia of Biography " of this day to find out the names of the 
persons now running most of the papers that abuse him. This is the 
difference between fame and our conceit. 

It is to be hoped that the first act of Congress upon convening what 
will be to call for the documents and information about the congress 

Philippine war which have been so sedulously kept from the must face 

people. And this from no spirit of partisanship, but from invulnerable 
American reasons. We are not yet ready to dispense with Congress and 
the ballot and leave government to one man, no matter how good a man he 
may be. If Congress and the people are not to "meddle" with national 
policies, but shut their eyes, put their minds in the safe-deposit and trust 
God and the President, why, let us acknowledge our dictator formally, 
and not keep up the cowardly pretext that the ring through our noses is 
a republican ornament. 

For nine months this country has been waging a war of conquest ; a 
war which the country did not declare and has never sanctioned. It has 
been one man's war, and the people have been kept in the dark as to its 
status and conduct. News has been suppressed and doctored. The Ad- 
ministration censorship confessedly stopped all reports that * 'might hurt 
the Administration." "in place of giving the people light, a bureau of 
glitter has been sent up and down the country to fill us with agreeable 
sounds but no facts. Congress, the representative of the people, has 
been kept outside the door while the political machine determined the 
fate of the Nation. It is " hands off" my war" — though, of course, the 
President is too wise a man to say so and too good a man to be con- 
scious that he feels so. But he does so. 

Now it is disagreeable for Congress to remind the President of its own 
prerogative in this matter ; and there are some Congressmen whose code 
of morals is to be agreeable. But there are some to whom it would be 



52 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

even more unpleasant to do wrong. And even the boneless ones need 
not be fools. The whole drift of our politics now shows that if Congress 
does not guard its powers it will presently have none. There should be 
no partisanship in it and no disrespect. If President McKinley is the 
honest man he is believed to be, he cares more for the good of the Na- 
tion than for having his own way ; he will thank Congress for discussing 
in full light a policy which everyone not a congenital fool knows to be 
the most important that this nation has encountered in its whole his- 
tory. If Congress sees fit to legalize his acts of the last nine months, 
his position will be much stronger than it is now. If it does not, his 
position will be no worse. And it is to be remembered by all concerned 
that the people, and not the President, are the real government of the 
United States ; and that they, not he, must decide whether this country 
shall remain a republic or become a colonial empire under William I. 

^^"^ Aguinaldo is not Washington. But neither are you and I 

QUITE A Washingtons. Did that ever occur to you ? Yet we can love 

WASHINGTON. our couutrv, can we not ? We can love freedom and fear 
whatever gods may be, just as well as the greatest. If no one were en- 
titled to liberty who was not as big as George Washington, the Repub- 
lic would have perished long ago. But a republic is a place where every 
man, little and big, has the right to be free. Wherein even Aguinaldo 
does resemble Washington is that he is fighting for his country's liberty, 
and for doing that, no man who is worthy of liberty himself can despise 
another. Even Imperialists would strengthen their case by not black- 
guarding the ** misguided enemy." The fable of Aguinaldo's having 
"sold out" to Spain is still parroted by stupid newspapers; though it 
has been proved, officially and in our own government records, to be 
entirely false. If the Filipino chief is such small potatoes, it is little 
credit that an American Major-General, with three times as many men 
— and incomparably more effective men — and ten times the armament, 
had not been able to dig him out of his hill in ten months. There is 
room for self-respect and common sense, even in discussions of our war 
of conquest. 

WHERE AH Americans believe in the Flag — but there are several sorts 

IT of belief. Some feel that its only place is over the heads and 

BEi^ONGS. lives of freemen. Some fancy it is just the thing for a beer 
sign or a soap-wrapper or the decorations of a pug dog. Some used to 
think it an inspiring symbol to float over the auction block on which 
Negroes were peddled. Not long ago a vulgar murderess (who will find 
justice in Mexico) showed the "who-will-haul-it-down" patriotism by 
going to prison wrapped in the Stars and Stripes. Now it must be a 
pretty inflamed mind which cannot see that true reverence for Old 
Glory includes removing it from places where it will get stained. 

It is as much a mistake for an American President to get the notion 
that he is the Flag as it is for the newspapers to persist in the delusion 
that they are the People. 

California will net more money this year than ever before in its his- 
tory. Partly because it has started as a model year, and everything will 
do its prettiest ; and partly because tens of thousands of acres will this 
year give their first crop. California is a marvel already ; but modern 
California is only begun. 

As American humor is reputed to be grim at times, it cannot be 
blamed for seeing a smile amid all the shame and pity of the case, as 
the giant British Empire lays consoling hands to mutual shoulders and 
whispers bravely: "Bear up! Keep a stiff upper lip." A whale 
'* bearing up" under the bite of the smelt it has gone forth to swallow. 

ChAS. F. lyUMMIS. 



THAT 
WHICH IS 




53 




It was years ago, and the cheap 
records do not tell who was a.nd 

the wit that nicknamed an ancient dishonest. 

and once honorable California publication The 
-v ^ Warmed-Overland. But the name survives, being 

apt. As for example : For four years the I^and of Sunshine has worn 
on its cover the legend "The Magazine of California and the West." 
It is the only publication which ever carried that title — until now. The 
Overland steals the words for its November cover — using them for the first 
time in its history. This shows several things. First, that the Overland is 
hard hit. Second, that it lacks wit to invent a legend of its own. Third, 
that its notions of honor are dim. No honest person steals — even a 
name. No one but a fool need to. There are as good fish in the sea as 
were ever caught. And anyhow the legend as stolen is false. The Over- 
land is a magazine in California, but not of it. It is a warmed-over imi- 
tation of an Eastern magazine ; a recourse of those who cannot get into 
Eastern magazines. And now an imitator at home. 

One of the most exquisitely beautiful books published in reality 
modern times is The Trail of the Sandhill Stag^ by Ernest nobi,e 

Seton Thompson. And it is as good as it is beautiful — a story work. 

of extraordinary heart and tingle, quite worthy of the author of Wild 
Animals I Have Known. The illustration is lavish and delightful. We 
cannot have too much of this sort of book-making, nor of this sort of 
writing. Charles Scribner's Sons, 153-157 Fifth Avenue, New York. 
$1.50. 

It is only once in a good while that a book of such full satis- stories 
faction comes to hand as Morgan Robertson's Where Angels you should 

Fear to Tread. These eleven short stories have a certain virile READ, 

poise which gives them uncommon appeal. Mr. Robertson's field is 
the sea, as Mr. Hamblen's is. He "knows the ropes" as well and writes 
rather better. But the structural difference between the two is that of, 
we may say, ethical vision. Hamblen makes heroes of the '*Bucko" 
brutes and cowards who made the American marine a dream of hell ; 
who broke the jaws and arms of helpless men ; who were perhaps 
the most bestial things that ever wore the shape of man. In Robert- 
son's stories these vulgar bullies play not the hero's but the villain's 
role ; and providentially get their come-uppance in a fashion to delight 
every fair-play lover. These stories are ingenious, vital, actual and, 
curiously enough, full of a dry humor. There is no laboring to be 
witty ; but the situations are so just, so deliciously in tune with our 
sympathies, and so full of grim humor that they evoke laughter of a 
sort few books call out nowadays. Among the year's books of short 
stories none is to be more heartily commended than this as one sure to 
please the friend who reads it. The Century Co., New York, ;^1.25. 
Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

A handsome, a fascinating and a really valuable book is Sara Maximilian 
Y. Stevenson's Maximilian in Mexico, Mrs. Stevenson was a A.ND his 

part of that strange tragedy of the Little Napoleon's toy em- toy empire 



54 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

pire in America, and while the history can be had elsewhere, the per- 
sonal reminiscences of an eye-and-ear- witness are deeply interesting. 
Perhaps in all American history there has been no chapter more 
dramatic than that of the good, weak Austrian and his sacrifice to 
French ambition ; and his consort, poor Carlota, is a proverb of uni- 
versal pity. Mrs. Stevenson's personal narrative is good reading in both 
applications of the word. Flaws might be picked in the Spanish, 
and sometimes in the historical estimates ; but this would be ungrate- 
ful to a book so decidedly excellent in its line. The Century Co., New 
York. $2.50. Ivos Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

TRAVEL IVi^/i a Pessimist in Spaitiy by Mary F. Nixon, is in its second 

^^'^^ edition — and deserves it. It is a bright, instructive and just 

GOOD EYES. now particularly timely book of travel. For the itinerary — 
gossiping, and reinforced by historical information — Miss Nixon has 
a happy faculty. Above all she is not provincial, but sees things with 
unbiased eyes. The illustration is well chosen and attractive. B. Her- 
der, St. Louis. $1.25. 

^^R*'^ Harper^s Magazine enters, this month, its one-hundredth 

AND volume. It is not too much to call it the world's leading maga- 

STiLL BEST. 2ine — the most interesting, the most instructive, the most virile. 
For many years it has been, under H, M. Alden, the most American of 
our monthlies ; the best balance between real progress and proper con- 
servatism ; the least cowardly of its class. In the mad competition of 
late years it has never lost its head. Anything new and good it has had 
as well as the best, and generally a little better. Things new and silly it 
has not run after. There are just four great magazines of the first class 
in the world, and all in America. All have their special merits. But 
the old standby, Harper^ s, is, as it has been for half a century, still at 
the head of the table. The price has been reduced to $3 per year, and 
without cheapening of quality. 

A FOUR- A rare good dog-book, which will warm every dog-lover and 

FOOTED every hunter, is Diomed, by John Sergeant Wise. " Diomed" 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY, is a famous setter, at home in Virginia ; and his "autobiogra- 
phy" is more interesting and actually more heartening than that of a 
great many people would be. The story is excellently well done, and is 
a monument of loving work ; while the illustration is lavish. "Di's" 
puppyhood, schooling and first hunting ; his escapades after rabbits and 
his gradual development of conscience as a peerless bird-dog; the 
famous hunts that distinguish his prime, the mellow reflections of his 
old age — these are set down so vividly that the reader soon realizes that 
*' D^iomed" was a real dog, and that this is, despite its whimsical form, 
his real story, written by one who loved him. The Macmillan Co., 66 
Fifth Avenue, New York. $2.00. 

ANOTHER Stockton's fire-fly fancy seems never to settle down to a plain, 

STOCKTONIAN folded bug. It is forever on the win^ and aglow, dancing 

WHIMSY. through the night of no-man-knows- whither. The Vizier of 
the Two-Horned Alexander is pure Stocktonesque, a whimsy beyond 
other invention. The hero found the Fountain of Youth in Abraham's 
time, drank it dry, and naturally has lived ever since, without aging, 
but gathering experience beyond compare. Particularly in matrimony, 
having wedded some pretty girl of about every generation in the last 
4,000 years. After *' personally conducted" acquaintance with Isaac, 
Samson, Solomon, Herodotus, Nebuchadnezzar, Moses, Maria Edge- 
worth, Petrarch, Napoleon, and other mile-posts of history, he is now a 
New York broker — decidedly *• with a past." The story is very divert- 
ing. The Century Co., New York. $1.50. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. 55 

Anyone who has read Maurice Hewlett's Forest Lovers will be high- 
sure to get hold of and devour his Little Novels of Italy. Any- ci^ass 

one who hasn't, cannot do it too soon. For Mr. Hewlett is a work. 

rare craftsman. What he writes is really literature ; distinguished of 
style, and full of the better romance. The five "little novels " in this 
charming volume are all antique gems, of a cutting few workmen can 
do — or do do — nowadays . And a beauty of him is that his precise and evi- 
dently fond lapidary ing does not dry up the human juices in his veins. 
It would be hard to devise a mind which would not find these romances 
deeply interesting. The Macmillan Co., New York. |1,50. San Fran- 
cisco, Payot, Upham & Co. 

A peculiar and deeply interesting work is Josiah Flynt's studies 
Tramping with Tramps. Mr. Flynt has been the real thing, OF the 

in this and several other countries — no brief " slummer" but a vagabond. 

full-fledged "hobo." And with a pair of keen eyes he has carried a 
shrewd head and a human heart. For of course his tramping was for 
study of his fellows. Few of us know how this other half live ; and. it 
is worth while to find out by Mr. Flynt's aid ; as significant and inform- 
ative as it is full of human interest. The Century Co., New York. 
$1.50. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

No other humor in many years has hit the general funny-bone JusT 
so squarely as "Mr. Dooley's." He has taken the modern wh«re 

place of A. Ward. And his tremendous vogue has been he is. 

merited. With some allowance for the newspaper pressure, it is a mass 
of excellent wit. The latest embodiment of it is an attractive volume, 
Mr. Dooley in the Hearts of his Countrymen ; a book worth adding to 
collections of American literature. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. 
$1.25. 

There is no American so wise that he will be hurt by reading a book 
Outlines of Civics, by Prof. Frederick H. Clark, of the Lowell to be 

High School, San Francisco. Designed as a supplement to the kept. 

abridged edition of Bryce's great work, The American Commonwealth, 
it is a clear, compact and valuable summary of the machinery of our 
government, about which we should know so much and do know so 
little. The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. 75 cents. 

Morrison I. Swift does not belie his name — certainly there is an ' anti " 
"nothing slow" about his fiery volume Imperialism and Lib- AND A 

erty, Mr. Swift thinks straight on the present shame; Tartar 

and having a tongue of uncommon endowment he talks upon it elo- 
quently, not to say vitriolically. The language is as fierde as the rea- 
soning is (in general) apt. But perhaps the book would do more good 
if more repressed. Ronbroke Press, Los Angeles. $1.50. 

If only for the one character of the old weaver with a heart of AN unusual 
gold, Blanche Willis Howard's posthumous novel with the sort of 

strange name Dyonisius the Weaver's Heart's Dearest would be HEROINE, 

worth while. But " Vroni," the masterful heroine, is a more striking 
creation yet ; and there is no little stir of life in several other characters. 
It is a fresh and interesting story, and not easy to be laid aside. Charles 
Scribner's Sons, 153-157 Fifth Avenue, New York. $1.50. 

A rattling boy's story, sequel to the popular Lakerim Ath- THE 
letic Club, is Rupert Hughes's The Dozen From Lakerim. lakerim 

About half the book was a serial in St. Nicholas : the rest is en- boys again. 

tirely new. There are plenty of shaking-up adventures for these school- 
boys ; and with all its liveliness the book is of good tone. The Century 
Co., New York. $1.50. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 



56 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

A REAi, A plain, true tale of the Dakota of twenty years ago is Russell 

wEST:eRN Doubleday's Caille Ranch to College. A frontier boy's life is 

CAREER. told in homely, unliterary fashion, from the Indian fight in 
which he was mixed at twelve, through his hard youth as coal miner, 
"cow-puncher," "bronco-buster," hunter, tramp — and finally (by an 
unexpected awakening) college boy in the Bast. The story is vouched 
for as true, and has the earmarks. There are over 100 pictures, of which 
many excellent half-tones from Western photographs are really valuable. 
Sent on approval. Doubleday & McClure Co., New York. $1.50. Los 
Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

eiNDERELLA For any young person who has found the paint rather rubbed 

UP TO off the old standard Cinderelfa, a very satisfactory brand-new 

DATE. one, with artistic variations, may be found in The Story of 
Betty, by Caroline Wells. "Betty" is a little, shipwrecked Irish waif, 
disclosed first as a scullery-maid, and liberally endowed with hard 
knocks. But presently she turns out to be heir of the McGuire estate, 
and quite outdoes the old Cinderella by buying a grandmother, a baby 
sister and other useful articles. The bright story is well illustrated by 
Birch, The Century Co., New York. $1.50. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

GIBSON'S My Lady and Allan Darke might be anything, so far as its title 

STIRRING tells us ; but as a matter of fact it is a most uncommon good 

ROMANCE. novel of adventure, and one the most blas6 reader will see 
through to the end. The adventure is fierce enough for the most stren- 
uous, the love-story exceptionally sweet ; and the author's skill in 
keeping the reader on the hooks of suspense is notable. It is a breath- 
less story but a sound one ; with a fine live heroine, a pretty stout hero, 
and a villain past damnation. Charles Donnel Gibson has made a dis- 
tinct hit. The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth ave, N. Y. $1.50. 

" OURS " A new subscription work in 24 folio parts presents Our Islands 

AND and Their People — Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii, the Philippines, 

THEIRS. etc., in extremely attractive pictorial shape. Admirable 
photographs, and well-done colored photogravures picture these insular 
conquests from the most interesting side. The text, by Jos6 Olivares, a 
Californian, is in the customary line ; but the illustrations, of which 
there are more than 1 200, are alone worth more than the price of the 
work. Fifty cents a number, two or more numbers a month. N. D. 
Thompson Publishing Company, St. Louis. 

To Gi^ADDEN A gift to gladden a child's heart is the St. Nicholas Christmas 

YOUNG Book^ a handsome square octavo in a cover bright with can- 

HEARTS. dies and holly, rich, broad pages, and a wealth of very good 
things that have been published, in the last quarter century, in the 
very best children's magazine in the world. Famous writers and the 
best illustrators are here ; and more than 200 pages are filled with 
stories and pictures of holiday turn. For so perfectly made a book the 
price is extremely low. The Century Co., New York. $1.50. Los An- 
geles, for sale by C. C. Parker. 

CASTLE'S Bright, stirring and with many unexpectednesses, Pvgerton 

GOOD Castle (whose Pride of Jennico won so reasonable a success) 

STORY, makes his story of Young April. It would have been easy to 
touch a lower level with the story of a lad of twenty suddenly become 
Duke and desirous to have his fling in the thirty days before he shall 
take up his duties. But there is nothing commonplace or vulgar in 
Mr. Egerton's treatment; and at least two of his characters— ** Neu- 
berg" and "Eva" — are very likeable. The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York. $1.50. 

A standard edition of Percival Pollard's Cape of Storms is issued by 
R. G. Badger, Boston. 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. 57 

A simple story of the London ** other half," Lesser Destinies^ " UFE 
by Samuel Gordon, wins interest hardly foreshown in its first among the 

chapters. It is uneven, and at times the touch seems insecure ; lowly." 

but " Tabitha," the old-maid workshop girl, and her awakening to love ; 
"Nance," the burglar's daughter but still woman; "Jimmy" the 
cripple and "Ted" the hunchback, and "Phoebe," the woman that 
was — they come to concern us in their loves and hates and fortunes. 
Herbert S. Stone & Co., Chicago, $1.25. 

A California Idyll, Ernest McGaffey's musical little poem, is a handsome 
issued in admirable shape by the Channing Auxiliary of San California 

Francisco. A cover of yucca is characteristic and attractive ; publication. 

twenty-one artistic drawings by W. H. Bull give liberal illustration ; 
and the whole booklet is of novel distinction. Mr. McGaflfey's natural 
history limps in one spot ; for the "road-runner" does not tackle rattle- 
snakes. 318 Post street, San Francisco. |1. (In Japan vellum, 50 cents.) 

The Mickey Finn Idylls, by Ernest Jarrold, is a collection of HOMELY 
thirty unpretentious, human sketches of a human little Mick human 

in Harlem and his animal friends. There is a certain unob- nature 

trusive pathos in these slender stories, and a good deal of naturalness. 
A strong commendation by Charles A. Dana introduces the volume. 
Sent to any address on approval. Doubleday & McClure Co., New 
York. $1.25. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

Mrs. C. W. .Earle, whose former volume was so much esteemed MORE "From 
by the enlightened, now issues More Pot-Pourri from a Sur- A surrey 

rey Garden. It is a pot-pourri indeed — a genial gossip of garden." 

gardens, flowers, bulbs, continental travel, the servant-girl question, 
cremation, cooking, and pretty much everything else. Mrs. Earle is 
authoritative on gardening, and interesting elsewhere. The Macmillan 
Co., 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. |2.00. 

Geo. Ade, who has made his hit in these lines, is now out "FABLES 
with a book more enjoyable than its predecessors, because IN 

more in keeping Fables in Slang is not only an able exposi- SLANG." 

tion of the vernacular Chicagoese, but its " fables" are pretty typically 
of the sort called " American humor." Even those who talk English 
will enjoy its whimsical plotlets and jargon. Herbert S. Stone & 
Co., Chicago. $1.00. 

Michael Rolf, Englishman, by Mary L. Pendered, is a Jane- LOVE 
austentatious love-story between a young lady of "birth" and a and 

— a person in the Englishly-dreadful way of trade. The "TRADE." 

power of the nominally "gentle" passion could not be more severely 
tested. But it is enough ; and the lady loved "shop" and all. Sent on 
approval. Doubleday and McClure Co., New York. $1.25. Los Ange- 
les, C. C. Parker. 

Blood sometimes tells, and Julia Ward Howe's daughter (Laura girls 
E. Richards) has the communicative sort, as readers of Captain and 

fanuary need not be informed. Her latest, Quicksilver Sue, is girls. 

a story young girls will enjoy, and with benefit. The book, like all that 
its publishers produce, is handsomely made, and is well illustrated. The 
Century Co., New York. $1. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

In a critical trial of seven months the Los Angeles Times has NOTES, 
won the prize offered by Printer'' s Ink to the newspaper giving 
best service to the advertiser ; open to all papers south of a 
line drawn from ocean to ocean through San Francisco, St. Louis, Cin- 
cinnati and Philadelphia. With Washington, Baltimore and New 
Orleans in the fight, it is significant of many things that the prize comes 
to a California city which had only 25,000 people a dozen years ago. 



58 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

It is pleasant to record that Wm. Doxey — who has done so much for 
artistic book production on this Coast — has risen from failure and re- 
sumed business as the Doxey Book Co. If the new firm contains busi- 
ness skill up to the measure of Mr. Doxey's taste, it should make a 
winning. Better-dressed books are not common anywhere than he puts 
forth. His first important enterprise will be a new edition of //await 
Net, 

The Development of the English Novel is a scholarly and useful 
essay by Wilbur L. Cross, of Yale. One may disagree now and then 
with the dicta; but Prof. Cross's book is clear, well co-ordinated and of 
much authority. It would be htlpful to any one taking a course in 
English literature. The Macmillau Co., 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. 
11.50. 

Doubtless as bad poems have been written before as those in Greville 
D'Arville's Omega et Alpha, but they seldom get into book form. And 
a very pretty book the publishers have made of this assault upon gram- 
mar and poetic feeling. D. P. Elder & Morgan Shepard, San 
Francisco. |1.25. 

City and State is a high-minded weekly by Herbert Welsh, well known 
as Secretary of the Indian Rights Association. Its motto is "Common- 
wealth Above Party ; " and though it deals chiefly with Pennsylvania 
affairs it has much sound comment on national issues. 5 cents, %2 per 
year. 

"Pastor Russell" puns on the death of the Redeemer, and proves 
evolution false, with much more in the same sort in The At-One-ment 
Between God and Man. This is a good deal for 25 cents (paper). Bible 
and Tract Society, Allegheny, Pa. 

Juliette Estelle Mathis, a contributor to this magazine, has issued a 
neat volume of Songs and Sonnets. Mrs. Mathis's verse shows poetic 
leeling and much heart, and the little book is a credit to her. C. A. 
Murdock & Co., San Francisco. 

Mina Ward, of Escondido, Cal , has issued The Diet at er, a collection 
of graded dictation exercises, which will be found useful by all who 
study or teach shorthand. Phonographic Institute Co., Cincinnati, %\. 

The current (1899) School Manual of Riverside county, Cal., is out of 
the ordinary run of publications in this sort. It can be commended to 
the boards of education in many older and larger communities. 

Frank Carleton Peck puts forth in a neat little brochure a collection 
of reasonable verse Under Western Skies. New Whatcom, Washington. 
50 cents. 

A strikingly well-written, convincing and handy weekly is The Public, 
by lyouis F. Post, box 687, Chicago. $1 a year, 5 cents a number. 

The Macmillans issue a very attractive little edition of Harriet Marti 
neau*s classic Feats on the Fiord. Cloth, 50 cents. 

ChaS. F. lyUMMIS 



59 



1 



' But Yet a Woman." 

T is a matter of more than passing interest — and of more than mere 
newspaper significanc^— that a woman has been made Sunday ed- 
itor of the leading newspaper west of Chicago, the San Francisco 

Chronicle. So far as I 
remember, it is the first 
time in the United 
States that a woman 
has won this place on a 
journal of such stand- 
ing. And success was 
never more squarely- 
earned. Mabel Clare 
Craft, whose fine and 
authoritative volume 
Haivaii Nei has been 
mentioued in these 
pages, is the plucky 
woman. She was the 
first woman to carry off 
the gold medal of the 
University of Califor- 
nia ; and beginning on 
the Chronicle as a green 
reporter she has earned 
every step of her ascent 
by honest and com- 
petent work. In these 
days of Nellie Blys and 
other petticoated cheek- 
inesses, it is a pleasure 
to watch the career of 
a real woman, who suc- 
ceeds better in news- 
papering than they by 
the opposite methods. 
Miss Craft has risen not 
by impudence nor by 
favor, but by sober 
work. As a woman she is respected by all who know her ; and despite 
the driving of newspaper pressure she shows a distinct literary gift. 
Her book on Hawaii goes to a second edition— and deserves many more 
— and a volume is announced of her " letters " from Mexico. 




Davis Eng Co MABEL CLARE CRAFT. 




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AND HINTS Of WHY. 





C M.Davis Kng. C: 



"comrades " Photo, by Hattie B. Stephenson. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



A SEVERE WINTER." Photo, by Hattie B. Stephenson. 




C. M. Pavis Ki.g. Co. 



ECHO FALLS, SANTA PAULA CANON. 



Photo, by Kiug Bros. 






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C. M. Davis Kng. Co. 



CHRISTMAS ROSES. 



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CALIFORNIA BABIES 



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C. M. Davis Eiig. Co. 



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C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



MEDITATION. 



Photo, by Schumacher. 



The Land of Sunshine 

PUBI^ISHED MONTHLY BY 

The Uand of SiinshLitie Publislning Co. 

(incorporatbd) 

Rooms 5, 7, 9, \2\)4 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal., U. S A. 



SUBSCRIPTION RATES 
$1 a year in the United States, Canada and 

Mexico 
$1.60 a year to other countries in the Postal 

Union. 

Entered at the Los Angeles Postofl5ce as second- 
class matter. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 
W. C. Patterson - . . . President 
Chas. F. Lummis, Vice-Prea't and M'ng. Editor 

F. A. Pattkk Secretary 

H. J. Fleishman Treasurer 

Chas. Cass at Davis .... Attorney 
E. Pryce Mitchell - - - . Auditor 
Cyrus M. Davis. 



OTHER LOCAL STOCKHOLDERS 
Chas. Forman, D. Freeman, F. W. Braun, Jno. 
F. Francis, E. W. Jones. Geo. H. Bonebrake, 
F. K. Rule, Andrew Mullen, I. B. Newton, S. H. 
Mott, Alfred P. Griffith, E. E. Bostwick, H E. 
Brook. Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner Co., L- Rep- 
logle, J. C. Perry, F. A. Schnell, G. H. Paine, 
Louisa C. Bacon. (See table of contents page.) 

Address all MSS. to the editor ; all remittances 
and business to the company at above address. 

WARNING 
The Land of Sunshinb Publishing Co. has 
nothing to do with a concern which has imitated 
its name as nearly as it dared. This magazine 
is not peddling town lots in the desert It is a 
magazine, not a lottery. Chas. F. Lummis. 



"Replete with information and enter- 
tainment. . . The pictures . . will inter- 
est anyone. Those who go deeper will 
be most struck by the bold and inde- 



pendent tone of the editorial writing, 
especially on public topics. This is not 
a common characteristic of the press on 
the Pacific Coast or elsewhere ; but cour- 
age has a permanent berth in the office 
of the IvAND OF Sunshine. ' '— TAe Nation, 
New York. 

* * We have often had occasion to speak 
a good word for this brave little magazine, 
and to wish it success. The contents in- 
clude much matter of permanent value, 
besides those sections in which the editor 
keeps up a running fire of comment on 
the literary and political happenings of 
the day. . . Mr. Lummis has spoken 
many sober and fearless words, for which 
patriotic Americans cannot thank him 
too warmly." — The Dial, Chicago. 

"The lyAND OF Sunshine is a mag- 
azine with a soul, and gives more genu- 
ine, practical literature that makes for 
humanity than any other publication of 
its size." — San Luis Obispo Reasoner. 

" Unique in periodical literature." — 
San Francisco Chronicle. 

" In every way a credit to California." 
— San Francisco Call. 

" If Californians know the value of 
advertising, they will patronize this pub- 
lication unstintedly." — Milwaukee Even- 
ing Wisconsin. 

"A perfect reflection of the land in 
which we live." — Los Angeles Times. 



A Unique Library. 

The bound volumes of the Land of Sunshine make the most interesting and 
valuable library of the far West ever printed. The illustrations are lavish and hand- 
some, the text is of a high literary standard, and of recognized authority in its field. 
There is nothing else like this magazine. Among the thousands of publications in 
the United States, it is wholly unique. Every educated Californian and Westerner 
should have these charming volumes.* They will not long be secured at the present 
rates, for back numbers are growing more and more scarce ; in fact the June num- 
ber, 1894, is already out of the market. 

Vols. 1 and 2— July '94 to May '95, inc., gen. half morocco, $3.90, plain leather, $3.40 
" 3 and 4— June '95 to May '96, " " " " 2.85, " " 2.35 

" 5 and 6— June '96 to May '97, " " " " 3.60, " " 3.10 

" 7 and 8— June '97 to May '98, " " " " 2.85, " " 2.35 

" 9 and 10— June '98, to May '99 " " " " 2.70, " " 2.20 



The Land of Sunshine Publishing Co., 

\2\% South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Condensed Information— Southern California 



CALIFORNIA// 

NLwYom, 
NLWjtfiSLY, 
DtLAWARL'-oOHlO 



The section generally known as South- 
ern California comprises the seven coun- 
ties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, 
Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura 
and Santa Barbara. 
The total area of 
these counties is 
44,901 square 
miles. The coast 
line extends north- 
west and southeast 
a distance of about 
275 ra iles. A 
$3, 000,000 deep-sea 
harbor is now un- 
der construction at 
San Pedro, near 
Los Angeles. 

The orange crop 
for the past sea- 
son amounted to 
$4,000,000. #1.500,- 
000 of petroleum 
is produced an- 
nually, and large 
shipments are 
made of sugar, 
vegetables, beans, 
Rrain, deciduous 
fruit, honey, wine, 
brandy, wool, 
hides, etc. 

Over $20,000,000 
are invested in 
mining. Thous- 
ands of dollars are 
brought here by 
tourists. 

The population 
in 1890 was 201,- 
352. The present 
population is esti- 
mated at 350,000. 

L/OS AngeIvES county has an area of 
4,000 square miles, some four-fifths of 
which is capable of cultivation, with 
water supplied. The shore line is about 
85 miles in length. The population has 
increased from 33,881 in 1880 to 200,000. 
There are over 1,500,000 fruit trees grow- 
ing in the county. Los Angeles city, the 
commercial metropolis of Southern Cali- 
fornia, 15 miles from the coast, has a 
population of about 115.000. Eleven 
railroads center here. The street car 
mileage is nearly 200 miles. There are 
over 175 miles of graded and graveled 
streets, and 14 miles of paved streets. 
The city is entirely lighted by electric- 
ity. Its school census is 24,766 ; bank 
deposits, $12,000,000 ; net assessed valu- 
ation, $61,000,000; annual output of its 
manufactures, $20,000,000; building per- 
mits, $3,000,000, and bank clearance. 




$64,000,000. There is a $500,000 court 
house, a $200,000 city hall, and many 
large and costly business blocks. 

The other principal cities are Pasa- 
dena, Pomona, Azusa, Whittier, Downey, 
Santa Monica, Redondo, Long Beach, 
and San Pedro. 

San Bernardino County is the larg- 
est county in the State, is rich in miner- 
als, has fertile valleys. Population about 
35,000. The county is traversed by two 
railroads. Fine oranges and other fruits 
are raised. 

San Bernardino city, the county seat, 
is a railroad center, with about 8,000 peo- 
plev The other principal places are 
Redlands, Ontario, Colton and Chino. 

Orange County has an area of 671 
square miles ; population in 1890, 13,589. 
Much fruit and grain are raised. 

Santa Ana, the county seat, has a 
population of over 5,000. Other cities 
are Orange, Tustin, Anaheim and Fuller- 
ton. 

Riverside County has an area of 7,000 
square miles ; population about 16,000. 
It is an inland county. 

Riverside is the county seat. 

Other places are South Riverside, Fer- 
ris and San Jacinto. 

San Diego County is a large county, 
the most southerly in the State, adjoin- 
ing Mexico. Population about 45,000. 
The climate of the coast region is re- 
markably mild and equable. Irrigation 
is being rapidly extended. Fine lemons 
are raised near the coast, and all other 
fruits flourish. 

San Diego city, on the ample bay of 
that name, is the terminus of the Santa 
Fe railway system, with a population of 
about 25,000. 

Other cities are National City, Kscon- 
dido, Julian and Oceanside. 

Ventura County adjoins Los Ange- 
les county on the north. It is very 
mountainous. There are many profit- 
able petroleum wells. Apricots and 
other fruits are raised, also many beans. 
Population about 15,000. 

San Buenaventura, the county seat, is 
pleasantly situated on the coast. Popu- 
lation, 3,000. Other cities are Santa 
Paula, Hueueme and Fillmore. 

Santa Barbara is the most northern 
of the seven counties, with a long shore 
line, and rugged mountains in the in- 
terior. Semi-tropic fruits are largely 
raised, and beans in the northern part of 
the county. 

Santa Barbara, the county seat, is 
noted for its mild climate. Population 
about 6,000. Other cities Lompoc, Car- 
penteria and Santa Maria. 



Condensed Information— Southern California, 



Southern California has the advantage 
of being able to grow to perfection hor- 
ticultural products that can be raised on 
a commercial basis in few, if any, other 
sections of the United States. 

The orange is the leading horticultural 
product of Southern California, 99 per 
cent of the crop of the State being grown 
in the seven southern counties. The 
chief orange-growing sections of South- 
ern California are the San Gabriel, Po- 
mona and Santa Ana Valleys and around 
Riverside and Redlands. The fruit does 
well in certain portions of all the seven 
southern counties. 

The culture of the lemon has been 
largely extended during the past few 
years. 

The grape is extensively grown for 
wine and brandy, for raisins and table 
use. 

The olive tree flourishes in Southern 
California. 

California prunes, which have become 
a staple product and are rapidly replac- 
ing the imported article in Eastern mark- 
ets, where they command a better price, 
are largely grown in Southern California. 

The fig has been grown in California 
ever since the early days of the Mission 
fathers, but it is only during the past few 
years that attempts have been made to 
raise the improved white varieties on a 
commercial scale. 

The apricot is a Southern California 
specialty, which flourishes here and in a 
few other sections of the world. 

The peach grows to perfection through- 
out Southern California, and may be 
gathered in great quantity during six 
months of the year. 

The nectarine grows under similar con- 
ditions to the apricot. 

Apples do well in the high mountain 
valleys, where they get a touch of frost 
in winter, and near the coast, where the 
summers are cool. Around Julian, in 
San Diego county, is a celebrated apple 
producing section . 

Pears succeed well throughout South- 
ern California, but are not yet grown 
largely for export. 

Walnut culture is an important branch 
of horticulture in Southern California. 
The chief walnut growing sections are at 
Rivera near lyos Angeles, in Santa Bar- 
bara county and in the Santa Ana valley 
in Orange county. 

A number of almond orchards have 
been planted, especially in the Antelope 
valley, in the northern part of Los An- 
geles county. 

The growing of winter vegetables for 
shipment to the East and North has be- 
come an important branch of horticul- 
ture. Celery is shipped East by the 
train load from Orange county, during 
the winter months.' 

The culture of the sugarbeet in South- 



ern California, with the manufacture of 
sugar therefrom, promises to become one 
of the leading industries in the State. 
There are three large beet sugar factories 
in this section. The percentage of sugar 
contained in beets raised in this section 
is remarkably high, often running from 
15 to 20 per cent. 

Wheat and barley are grown largely in 
Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego and 
Riverside counties. Large quantities of 
wheat and barley are raised to be cut 
for hay, before the grain matures. The 
corn raised in this section is of the high- 
est standard, sometimes yielding lOO 
bushels to the acre, with stalks over 20 
feet high. Orange county is the chief 
corn producing section. 

Alfalfa, the most valuable forage plant 
in the world, is raised on a large scale, 
six crops being frequently cut in one 
year, yielding from one to two tons to 
the acre at each cutting. 

The lima bean is a specialty in Ventura 
and Santa Barbara counties, the beans 
being shipped East by the trainload. 

Southern California has a world-wide 
reputation as a breeding ground for fine 
stock. 

The dairy interest is of great import- 
ance. There are a number of creameries 
and a condensed milk factory. 

Southern California honey is celebrated 
the world over, being shipped by the car- 
load to the East and Europe. 

The ocean abounds in food fish of 
many varieties. Sardines are packed on 
a large scale at San Pedro, the product 
bringing a high price in the Eastern 
market. 

Outside of horticulture, Southern Cali- 
fornia has valuable underground re- 
sources. The petroleum deposits of this 
section are most extensive, and are being 
actively developed. The petroleum out- 
put of California for 1898 is estimated at 
over $2,000,000 in value. Southern Cali- 
fornia oil is mainly used for fuel. The 
cheap petroleum fields are in Los Ange- 
les city, in Ventura county, at Summer- 
land in Santa Barbara county, at New- 
hall in the northern part of Los Angeles 
county, at Puente near Whittier, in the 
same county, and at Fullerton in Orange 
county. Other fields are being opened 
up. Oil is now worth about a dollar a 
barrel in Los Angeles. 

There are valuable gold mines in 
Southern California. The first discovery 
of placer gold in the State was made in 
Los Angeles county. At present, the 
chief gold mining section of Southern 
California is at Randsburg, just inside 
the border of Kern county. Gold mines 
are also being worked at Acton in Los 
Angeles county, in Riverside county near 
Perris, on the Colorado desert in San 
Diego county, and at other points. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Stjnshink. 



w 



ILL develop or reduce 
any part of the body 




A Perfect Complexion Beautifier 
and 

Remover of Wrinkles 

Dr.JohnWilsonGibbs' 

THE ONLY 

Electric Massage Roller 

(Patented United States, Europe, 
Canada.) 
" Rs work is not confined to the 
_ , „ , face alone, but will do good to any 

Trade-Mark Registered. part of the body to which it is ap- 
plied, developing or reducing as desired. It is a very pretty 
addition to the toilet-table."— Chicago Tribune. 

"This delicate Electric Beautifier removes all facial blemishes. 
It is the only positive remover of wrinkles and crow's-feet It 
never fails to perform all that is expected."— Chicago Times- 
Herald. 

"The Electric Roller is certainly productive of good results. 
I believe it the best of any appliances It is safe and effective " 
— Harriet Hubbard Atkr, New York World. 

For Massage and Curative Purposes 

An Electric Roller in all the term implies The invention of a 
physician and electrician known throughout this country and 
Europe. A most perfect complexion beautifier Will remove 
wrinkles, "crow's-feet" .premature or from age), and all facial 
blemishes— POSITIVE Whenever electricity is to be used for 
massaging or curative purposes, it has no equal. No chareing. 
Will last forever Always ready tor use on ALL PARTS OF THE 
BODY, for all diseases. For Rheumatism, Sciatica, Neuralgia, 
Nervous and Circulatory Diseases, a specific The professional 
standing of the inventor (you are referred to the public press 
for the past fifteen years), with the approval of this country 
and Europe, is a perfect guarantee. PRICE : Gold, $4 00 ; 
Silver, $3.00. By mail, or at oflttce of Gibbs'Company, 1370 
Broadway, New York. Circular free. 

The Only Electric Roller. 
All others so called are Fraudulent Imitations. 




Copyright. 



"Can take a pound a day off a patient, or put it on '" — New 
York Sun, Aug. 30, 1891. Send for lecture on "Great Subject of 
Fat." NO DIETING. NO HARD WORK. 

Dr. John Wilson Qibbs' Obesity Cure 

For the Permanent Reduction and Cure of Obesity 

Purely Vegetable. Harmless and Positive. NO FAILURE. Your 
reduction is assured— reduced to stay One month s treatment 
$5.00. Mail, or office, 1370 Broadway. New York "On obesity. 
Dr. Gibbs is a recognized authority.— N. Y Press, 1899." 

REDUCTION GUARANTEED 

"The cure is based on Nature's laws."— New York Herald, 
July 9, 1893. 



Kodaks 

do away with cumber- 
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heavy, fragile glass plates, 
and bothersome dark- 
slides. 

Just turn a Key — 

All Kodaks use our light-proof film cartridges 
(vvrhich weigh but ounces, where plates weigh 
pounds) ard can be loaded in daylight. Seven 
styles use either plates or films. 

Kodaks, $5.00 to $35.00. 
EASTMAN KODAK GO. 



Catalogues free at the 
dealers or by mail. 




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IT IS OUB SPEOIALTT 

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FREE our Book on Healt*- 
Dr. Gordin's Sanitarium 

514 PINE St., S. F., Cal. 

CONSITLTATTON FREE. 



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Shoe Elegance at Staub's ^ 

We are sole agents for Nettleton's Fine Shoes 
for Men. There is no better shoe made in the 
World than this famous make — dressy and 
up-to-date without being loud — has invis- 
ible Cork soles to keep your feet warm 
and dry. Calf lined, Tan Wil- 
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C. M. STAUB SHOE CO. 

255 South Broadway 

C LOS ANGELES 

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Good health is real wealth— Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters is a veritable fortune to the weak 



When answeringr advertisements, please mention that you •• saw it in the Land of Sunshinb." 



ABBOTS 



D INN 



The 

Best 

First- Class 

Family 

Hotel 

in 

Residence 

District. 



LOS ANGELES 

Beautiful interior court — No cold halls — Celebrated Klaus 
Orchestra for music — Free billiard room — Reading room with 
all magazines and illustrated papers — Convenient to all car 
lines — Best cuisine in California — Social center of the city — 
patronized by the most distinguished people — Everything done 
for convenience, comfort and enjoyment of guests. 
Cor. Hope and Eighth Streets. 



h^-t 





of the NEW MODELS 6, 7 and 8 of the 

Remington Typewriter 

Its Great Speed — faster than the 
swiftest operator, and Certain Action 
— it does not double up nor skip, 
make possible the Light Touch and 
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WYCKOFF, SEAMANS & BENEDICT 

211 MONTGOMERY ST., SAN FRANCISCO 
147 SOUTH BROADWAY, LOS ANGELES 



For = = 



Horton House 



A home=Uke place 

A central street 

A pleasant room 

Good things to eat 

Our Hotel Rates cannot be beat 




San Diego 
Cai. — 



W. E. HADLEY 

Proprietor 



Imperial Granum. 

A prominent Vermont physician writing to 
thank The Imperial Granum Company for copies 
of their famous Clinical record, adds the follow- 
ing: convincing words as to the merits of their 
product as a food for children: "I can show a 
baby that has been reared on Imperial Granum — 
after trying numerous other foods until he was 
reduced to a mere skeleton— that is now as touRh 
and strong a boy of fourteen months as cap be 
found anywhere." 



266 that tells all about MAGIC LAN 

_ _ TERNS and Slereopticoiis— Vow to 

PAG E ojierbte them— how much they cost 

gQQ|r — ho\i men with sirall capital can 

make money with thtm. Sent free. 

McAllister, Mfg optician, 49 Nassau St 



FREE 



N. Y- 



TO CUBE A COLD IN ONE DAY 

Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets. All 
druggists refund the money if it fails to cure. 
E- "W. Grove's signature is on each box. 25c. 



i U Xi 1 V 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you •' saw it in the I^and of Sunshine.' 



.-^^ 



hitely 

Exerciser 



A Daily Necessity to 

Every Man and 
Woman of Sedentary 
Habits. 

Expands chest, strengthens 
lungs, develops arms, takes 
that stoop out of the should- 
ers, bring-s perfect physical 
development. The Standard 
Exerciser of the World. 
Prices-SSS, »3, »4 and 
!*5. Over half a million 
users. Recommended bv 
Physicians everywhere. 



J!ipeeial Xmas Offer. 

Upon receipt of price we 
will forward one macKine 
prepaid to any address, 
and will refund money on 
its return if unsatisfactory 



10 Cpnt< ^"y^ that great 
IV V.Cn» 50c book, "PHy«I. 
eal Edueati<ii»." by Prof 
W. G. Anderson, of Yale." 
125th thousand. Our new art 
catalogue is free. 

WHITELY EXERCISER CO., 

27 Marine Bldg., CHICAGO. 



WE SELL THE EARTH 



BASSETT & SMITH 



We deal in all kinds of Real Estate. 
Orchard and Resident Property. 
Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Y. IM. C. A. Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 



The Most Tasteful Tid-Bit 
of the Season. 



BAYLE'S 

DEVILED CHEESE 



Demanded by all lovers of Cheese. 
Packed only in half and one-pound 
jars. 



GEO. A. BAYLE, Sole Maker, 

ST. LOUIS. U. S. A. 



For Sale by Wholesale and Retail Grocers 
throughout the United States. 



Glover Leaf Rabbitry. 

LORD BRITAIN STOCK 

(Breeding age.) 
As red and fine in points as their famous sire. 
(Score, 955^.) Other fine strains. (Cor- 
respondence solicited.) 

521 San Julian St., Los Angeles, Cal. 




WHEIM YOU VISIT 



SAN DIEGO 



REMEMBER . . . 



THE •••• 



t Mt\ 




Rooms 

$tM per Day 

and up. 



American and European Plans. Centrally 
located. Elevators and fire escapes. Baths, hot 
and cold water in all suites. Modern conveniences. 
Fine large sample rooms for commercial travelers. 
Caf4 and Grille Room open all hours. 

J. E. O'BRIEN, PROP. 



Energy, vigor and strength follow the use of Abbott's, the Original Angostura ^Uters. At grocers. 



Whenlansweritig advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land op Sunshins.' 



Buy Direct from the Producers 

California Ostrich Feathers 




FOR 55C. 

We will send prepaid a handsome demi-plume ; 
for $1.45. a bunch of 3 tips ; for $2.85, an ISinch 
plume. Not woolly feathers, but fine black lustre. 
Being fresh from the birds will stay in curl and 
wear for years. Our handsome illu.strated cata- 
logue mailed Free with each order, or for a 2c. 
stamp. 

OSTRICH FARM 

SOUTH PASADENA, GAL. 

Independent of the Feather Trust. 



■^MjMB ■■■How, to Reduce 

^■i^^^l^B ^^^^^^)t« Mrs. S. Mann. La 
^^^ ^V^K ■ Motteja., writes : "Your 

^Hv^V^A ^m method reduced my 

■ ^m^^k ■ weight 70 lbs. in less 

■ ^^^^H ■ than 3 months. This 
^B ^ ^B ^* was 6 years ago and I 

- have not gained an ounce in weight since.' Purely 
' vegetable andJiarmlessa^ water. Any one can make it 
at home at little or no expense. No starving. No sickness. Wewnl 
mail a box of it and full particulars in a plain sealed package for 4 
cts for postage, etc. Hall Chemical Co. B. 133, St. Louis, Mo, 





Los Angeles Grille Works 

Grilles in Moorish, Russian, Colonial, 
and all other styles. Special designs 
to order without charge. 

BURNT FURNITURE 

A SPECIALTY 

Send for Designs and Prices. 

610 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 



i California Cream of Lemon ^ 



Works Wonders ?S^ ^^ "' ''^""" 



Enemy of Dandruff 



Softens the skin, opens the pores and heals all skin diseases. Cures chap- 
piug. Cleans without making: a lather because it does not contain grease 
or Alkali. If you use it as a cream it will give you a beautiful complexion. 
If you use it instead of soap it will keep your skin in lovely condition, 



3 oz. tubes 15c., 6 oz. tubes 25c. 



Sent post paid if your dealer does not keep it 



A{;ent8 Wanted. Write for Particulars. 



CALIFORNIA CREAM OF LEMON CO, 

448 'WILCOX BUILDING LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

strong and better men and women are tho.«5e who use Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters. 

Druggists. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I,and of Sunshinb." 

The EdISON^^ 

PHONOGRAPH 




Buy an Edison 

Phonograph 

for the family's 
Christmas. 

It will entertain 

your guests 

while it pleases 

you and amuses 

the children — 

and it lasts the ^- 

year 'round. 

All popular standard 
or classical music played by the best bands 
and orchestras or instrumental and vocal 
soloists, besides the amusing and pathetic 
sketches of the recitationist and the stirring 
words of the orator, are yours to command 
when you have an Edison Phonograph. 




'^Concert" $100 



Many styles — from $7.50 to |90.00. All use the same 
records and give equal results, but are run by different 
styles of motors, which vary the cost. Our new cata- 
logue can be obtained from all phonograph dealers. 



NONE GENUINE 

WITHOUT 

THIS 

TRADE 




l/dOll^ 



PETER BACIGALUPI 

933 Market Street San Francisco, Cal. 

PACIFIC COAST AGENCY FOR 

NATIONAL PHONOGRAPH COMPANY, NEW YORK. 



The bitters that's best and has stood the test— Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters. At druggists. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I,and of Sxjnshinb." 



The Trial... 




Of quality and comfort in Shoes comes with use. 
Style can be judged at once. A look will be 
enough to convince you that our Shoes are up to- 
date. Your feet miist be disfigured or beautified 
—all depends on what you put on them. Our fine 
Shoes beautif}' the feet. Prices, as usual, to 
please the economical, 

BLANEY'S 

352 S. Spring St„ near Cor. Fourth St. 



Artistic Grille Work 






Original Design. 



A 

Decoration 

for 

Doorways, 

Arches, 

etc. 



Parquet Floors, Wood Carpet 

A permanent covering for floors instead of 
the health-destroying woolen carpets. 

Healthful, Clean and no Moths * 

OAK FLOORS $1.25 per square yard and up. 

Try our "Nonpareil Hard Wax Polish " 

for keeping floors in good condition. 
Designers of 

FURNITURE SPECIALTIES 

Tea Tables, Card Tables, Book Cases, Cedar 
Chests, Etc. 

JNO. A. SMITH 



707 S. Broadway, 
Tel. Brown 706 



Los Angeles, Cal. 
Established 1891 



ABSOLUTE RELIEF 



FOR THE 



CONSUMPTIVE 



Have you any hereditary weakness 
of constitution ? Are you in an early 
stage of piilmonary or laryngeal 
tuberculosis, catarrh, asthma, ma- 
larial debility? Are you fearful of 
organic heart, kidney, or lung dis- 
ease ? If you are, you have heard of 
the fame of the Saranac Lake Balsam 
Groves in the Adirondack Mountains. 
Statistics prove that sixty to seventy- 
five per cent, of all early cases of 
tuberculosis recover in the Adiron- 
dacks, especially at Saranac Lake. 



WRITE FOR A 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED 

BOOKLET, FREE 

FOR A 2c. STAMP. 



We offer, as an absolute relief to 
those suffering from all throat, lung 
and bronchial troubles, a pillow com- 
bining the world-famous Ozone of the 
Balsam Groves of the Adirondacks. 
This pillow is stuffed with Balsam 
Tips, saturated with a preparation, 
the chief ingredient being balsam 
gum, and gives instant relief; is con- 
ducive to sleep ; allays irritation of 
the bronchial tubes and reduces in- 
flammation, and is of undoubted 
benefit to consumptives and like 
sufferers. 

A pillow will be sent prepaid for 
$1.50 ; larger size, $2.00. 



THE ADIRONDACK BALSAM PILLOW CO., 

UPPER BALSAM GROVE, 
SARANAC LAKE, NEW YORK. 



tlummel Bros. & Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please 'mention that you " saw it in the I^and of Sunshiitb. 



OLDEST AND LARGEST BANK IN SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

Tarmers and IVIerchants Bank 

OF LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Capital ( paid up ) . . $500,000.00 

Surplus and Reserve . 925.000 00 

Total .... $1,425,000.00 

OFFICERS 

I. W. Hellman, Prest. H. W. Hellman, V -Prest. 

Henry J. Fleishman, Cashier 

GUSTAV Heimann, Assistant Cashier 

DIRECTORS 

W. H. Perry, C. E. Thorn, J. F. Francis, 

O. W. Childs, I. W. Hellman, Jr., I. N. Van Nuys, 

A. Glassell, H. W. Hellman, I. W. Hellman. 

Special Collection Department. Correspondence 
Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes torrent. 



W. C. Patterson, Prest. W. Gillelen, V.-Prest. 
W. D WooLWlNE. Cashier 
E. W. COE, Assistant Cashier 




liil 



Cof . First and Spring Streets 

Capital $500,000.00 

Surplus and Undioided Profits 60,000 00 

This bank has the best location of any bank in 
Los Angeles. It has the largest capital of any 
National Bank in Southern California, and is the only 
United States Depositary in Southern California. 



X|V[flS GIFTS 

IN Gold and Silver 
Novelties 

4cme Optical and Jewelry Co. 

342 SOUTH SPRt^G ST. 

226 S. Spring St., Lo.q Angeles, Cal. 

Oldest, laigest and best. Send for catalogue. 
N G. Felker, President. 
John W. Hood, John W. Lackey, 

Vice-President. secretary. 

Telephone Green 1848. 

m^\ JOURNALISM 

INSTRUCTION BY MAIL ONLY. 

A THOROUGH and SCIENTIFIC course 
adapted to the individual needs of writers. 
Long established. Responsible. Successful. 
Instructors experienced and competent. Stu- 
dents successful and pleased. Best of refer- 
ences. Write for descriptive catalogue. It is 

SPRAGUE CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL OF JOUR- 
NALISM, No.ioiTelephoiie Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 





First National Banl( 

' OF I.OS ANGEIiES. 

Largest National Bank in Soutiiern 
California. 

Capital Stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 260,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest. W. G. Kerckhoff, V.-Prest. 

Frank A. Gibson, Cashier 

W. T. S. Hamwond, Assistant Cashier 

DIRECTORS 

J. D. Bicknell, H. Jevne, W. G. Kerckhoff, 

J. M. Elliott, F. Q. Story, J. D. Hooker, 

J. C. Drake. 
All Departments of a Modern Banking Business 
Conducted. 



^ 



J 



%[/» ■sL- •sL^ "vL^ "nI/^ "^l^ "^ "^ "^ ^'^ '^ 



Security Savings BanK 

CORNER MAIN AND SECOND STS. 



Oflflcers and Directors 

H. W. Hellman, J. A. Graves, M. L. Fleming, 
F. O. Johnson, H. J. Fleishman, J. H. Shank- 
land, W. L. Graves. 

J. F. Sartori, President 

Maurice S. hellman, Vice-President 
W. D. LONGVEAR, Cashier 



~^ Interest Paid on Ordinary and Term Deposits - 

^^ iTF^ ITTnI TP^ ■J^I'sT v^ *^ *^fy^ 



'C 4^^ "fc'Ts* v^ *y^ 



K':l^^ ^^h^.^^^'^Z^.-^-S^S^^^s'^T.-^^T.-^^ 




FOR MEATS. FISH. GRAVIES, 

SOUPS. &C., THIS SAUCE 

HAS NO EQUAL. 

Manufactured and bottled only by 

GEORGE WILLIAMS CO.. 

LOS Angeles. Cal. 

If tliis Miiire is not 'nti'f.)rtrry. return it to your 
groce.- and lie will tef und yt 



GEOBliE WlLLFAMS Co. 






lOU 




Geo. Andrew Lewis. 



STAMMER 

Write at once for our new 200 page 
book, The Origin and Treatment of Stam- 
mering. The largest and mos > instructive 
book of its kind ever published. Sent 
freeto any address for 6 cents in stamps 
to cover postage. Ask also for a free 
sample copy of The Phono-Meter, a 
monthly paper exclusively for persons 
who stammer. Address 

The Lewis Scliooi for Stammerers 



128 Adelaide St., Detroit, Mich. 



Help— All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co. 300 W. Second St. Tel. IVtain 509 



Educational 

Department. 




POMONA COLLEGE 



Claremont, 
California. 



Courses leading to degrees of B.A., B.S.. and 
B. L. Its degrees are recognized by Univer- 
sity of California, Stanford University, and 
all the Eastern Universities. 

Also preparatory School, fitting for all 
Colleges, and a School of Music of high 
grade. Address, 

FRANK Ju, FERGUSON, President 

CHAFFEY COLLEGE, onun., c.i. 

Well endowed. Most healthful location. 
Enter from 8th grade. 

$250 00 per year. 

KliM HALL., for young ladies, "under charge 
of cultured lady teachers. Highest stand- 
ards. 

"WEST HALL, for boys: home of family of 
Dean, and gentlemen teachers. 



Occidental College 



.I,OS ANGELES, SCAI.. 

Three Courses: classical, uterary, 

Scientific, leading to degrees of B. A., B. L., and 
B. S. Thorough Preparatory Department. 

Fall term began September 20, 1899. 

Address the President, 

Rev. Guy W. "Wadgworth. 

PASADENA. 

Boarding and Day School for Girls 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges 

124 S. EUCLID AVE. 




GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 



1918-33-34-26 

South Grand Avenue, 
Los Angeles 

Alice K. Parsons. B.A., 
Jeanne W. Dennen, 

Principals. 



LASELL SEMINARY 

FOR 

YOUNG WOMEN 

Auburndale, Mass. 

" In vour walking and sitting so much more 
erect; 'in your general health; in your conver- 
sation; in your way of meeting people, and in 
innumerable ways, I could see the benefit you 
are receiving Irom vour training and associa- 
tions at Lasell. All this you must know is very 
gratifying to me." 

So a lather wrote to his daughter after her 
Christmas vacation at home. It is unsolicited 
testimony as to Lasell's success in some im- 
portant lines. , . J 

Those who think the time of their daughters 
is worth more than money, and in the quality 
of the conditions which are about them during 
school-life desire the very best that the East 
can ofter, will do well to send for the illus- 
trated catalogue. „ . . , 
C. C. BRAGDON, Principal 

A Modern Art School 

At the 

University of Southern California 



WHAT A FATHER THINKS 



Directed by 

PROF. W. 



L. JUDSON 



Offices, 415 Blanchard Art Building 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



An unsolicited opinion 
from the father of one of 
our boys : 

* ♦ * "Our best thanks are 
due you for your unfailing kind- 
ness shown our son during his 
residence at the Academy, and 
while he seems to have done 
very well with his studies, what 
is of far more consequence is 
the influence which makes for 
tnanlirtfss and chaiacter build- 
ing, already apparent in this 
child after a single term." 

Fifth Annual Catalogue ot 

Los Angeles 
Academy 

Mailed to any address upon ap- 
plication to W. R. WHEAT, Bus- 
iness Manager. 

Fall term commenced Septem- 
ber 26, 1899. 

SANFORDA.HOOPER, A. M., 

Head MAster 

GRENVILLEC. EMERY. A. M., 
EDWARD L. HARDY, B.L.. 

Associate Ma't^rs. 



Ilummel Bros. & Co., Largest Employment Agency. 300 W. Second St Tel. Main 5 



When answering advertisements, plea5»e mention that you " saw it in tne Laud of sunshine. 




St. Matthew's 



Military School,... 

Gives careful attention to the mental, moral and physical 
development and training of each pupil 

The school occupies three large buildings especially con- 
structed for its purposes, in the midst of an 80-acre estate 
near beautiful San Mateo. 

TYIiER HAL<Ij, designed particularly for very small boys, 
is conducted as an integral part of the school but in so 
homelike a way that the youngest boys can be properly 
cared for. 

NICHOl^S HAIil. contains dining-room and chapel, and 
other apartments suited to the comforts and convenience 
of the boys. 

KIP HAL-L. contains armory, reading, music and ofl&ce 
rooms, study hall, recitation rooms and dormitories. 

Every provision is made for proper exercise and amuse- 
ments. 

Military discipline is used 1o secure regular exercise and 
habits of promptness and obtdietce. The best and most 
helpful home influences are carefully provided in order to 
maintain the unflagging interest of the boys in their work. 
This school prepares boys for active business, and its graduates are accepted at the 
Univer.sity of California, Stanford University and many ijastern Colleges without ex- 
amination. 

Application for admission should be made as soon as pos- 
sible. Write for catalogue and detailed information to 



THE EASTER TERH 
BEGINS JANUARY 
4TH, 1900. 



Kev. W. A. BREWER, 

Rector and Principal, 

SAN MATEO, CAI.. 




212 2WBST THIRD STREET 

is the oldest established, has the largest attendance, and is the best equipped 
business college on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. 



STUDY LAW AT HOME 



Instruction by mall, adapted to 
every one. Methods approved 
by leading educators. Experi- 
enced and competent instruc- 
tors. Takes spare time only. 
Three courses, preparatory 
business, college. An oppor- 
tunity to better your condi- 
tion and prospects. Students 
and graduates everywhere. 
Eight years of success. Full 
particulars fi-ee. 
Sprague Correspondence School 
of Law, 85, Tel. Bldg., Detroit. 




Send |1 for one year's sub- 
scription to 
"THE BOOK-KEEPER" 

After receiving one copy, if not 
satisfied keep it write us and we 
will send you $1.10 Any way you 
figure it you are ahead A hnnd- 
some monthly niaii»zine for book- 
keepers, cashiers, and business 
men. It will te-<ch you book-keep- 
ing, shorthand penmanship, law, 
shortcuts, corporation accountinff, 
banking business pointers, amus- 
ing arithmetic, lightning calcula- 
tions, etc The Book Kiepke Co., Ltd., 106 Buhl Block Detroit, 
Mich. We guarantee this offer — Publisher 




DIFFERENT IN EVERY FEATURE. 

The BrovrnsbeTger Home School of 
Shorthand and Typewriting. 

903 South Broadway, Los Angeles. Cal 




Large lawn and porches where pupils study and dictate. In- 
dividual instruction only. Half day attendance all thst is 
necessary. Only teachers of long experience do any teaching. 
This is the only Shorthand School on tne coast that has a busi- 
ness office training department. A new machine furnished 
each pupil at his home without extra charge. Send for catalogue. 

Cor. Broadway and Ninth St. Tel. White 4871 



Hummel Bros. & Co., "Help Center." 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb." 



CONFIDENCE P 

Just in proportion as a nation, bank, merchant, r 

lawyer, dentist or physician retains the confidence of K 

the people do they prosper. My big practice is built k^ 

upon a foundation of reliability — backed by the v 

best work — coupled with the perfect confidence of V 

thousands of the best people in this city — because W 

they know my guarantee is as good as any J^ 
bank's. 



Phone Red 3261 





Spinks Block, cor. Fifth and Hill 




Telephone Ai '7 
Main T-// 



Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner Co. 



PRINTING BINDING 
ENGRAVING 



Limited 



Printers a.nd binders to 

Land of Sunshine 



123 S. 'BROADWAY, 

Los Angeles, CaL 



M^^^^^%^^^^^^^^^.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^9^^^^i^^^^^^^^^^^ 




Our laundry js thoroughly 
up-to-date. We have in- 
vested thousands of dollars 
in modern machinery in 
order to be able to give 
first-class service, and we 
give it. Our place affords 
some advantages enjoyed 
by no other laundry in this 
section — such as no saw 
edge on collars and cuffs. 
In our place family wash- 
ings can be done sepa- 
rately. We give the most 
artistic and least destruc- 
tive polish to linen. 

The safest and best is 
always the cheapest. 



149 South Main Street 



t 

Telephone Main 635 ^ LOS ANGELES, CAL. t 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Dye Works, Cleaning 

American Dye Works, J. A. Berg, prop. 

Office 2\0}4 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 

850. Works 613-615 W. Sixth st. Tel. 

Main 1016. 
English Steam Dye Works, T. Caunce, 

proprietor, 829 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Black 2731. 

Door and Window Screens and House 
Repairing 

Adams Mfg Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 
Red 2731. 

JBlectricians 

Woodill & Hulse Electric Co., 108 W. 

Third St. Tel. Main 1125. 
Electric Supply and Fixture Co., 541 S. 

Broadway . Tel . Mai n 83 1 . 
Electrical Commercial Co., 666 S. Spring 

St. Tel. Main 1666. 

Employment Agents. 
Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 and 302 West 

Second st. cor. Broadway, basement 

California Bank Bldg. Tel. Main 

509. 
Feather Works, Mattresses, Pillows, Etc. 
Acme Feather Works, Jas. F. Allen, 

Prop., 513 S. Spring st. Tel. Black 

3151. 

Fish, Oysters and Game. 

(Family trade solicited) 
Levy's, 1 1 1 W. Third st. Tel. Main 1284. 

Fruit and Vegetables 
Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622. (Shipping solicited.) 
Rivers Bros., Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. (Shipping solicited.) 
lyudwig & Mathews, 129-133 S. Main st. 
Tel. 550. ( Shipping solicited.) 

Furnished Rooms 

The Seminole, 324 W. Third st. Rate 

$3 per week and up. 
The Spencer, 3\6}4 W. Third st. Rate 

|3 to $5 per week. Tel. Red 3351. 
The Narragansett, 423 S. Broadway, opp. 

Van Nuys Broadway. Tel. Brown 

1373. Rate 50c per day and up. 
The Kenwood, 131 K S. Broadway. Rate 

$3 to $6 per week. Tel. Brown 1360. 
The Rossmore, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 

416 W. Sixth St. Rate |1.50 to $5 

per week. 
The Hafen, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 344 

S. Hill St. Rate 1 1 .50 to $3 per week. 

Furniture, Carpets and Draperies 

Los Angeles Furniture Co., 225-229 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 13. 
Southern California Furniture Co., 312- 

314 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 1215. 
Gas Regulators. 
Los Angeles Gas Saving Association, 666 

S. Spring St. Tel. 1666. 
Grilles, Fretwork, Wood Novelties, Etc. 
Los Angeles Grille Works, 610 South 

Broadway. 



Groceries 

Blue Ribbon Grocery, B. Wynns & Co., 

449 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 728. 
Despars & Son, cor. Main and Twenty- 
fifth sts. 
H. Jevne, 208-210 S. Spring st. 
C. A. Neil, 423 Downey ave.. East L. A. 

Tel. Alta 202. 
Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622. 
Ludwig & Mathews, 129-133 S. Main st. 

Tel. 550. 
J. C. Rockhill, 1573 W. First St., cor. 

Belmont ave. Tel. Main 789. 
T. L. Coblentz, 825 S. Grand ave. Tel. 

Red 3011. 
J. Lawrence, Cool Block, cor. Jefferson st. 

and Wesley ave. 
Rivers Bros., Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. 
Smith & Anderson, cor. Pico and Olive 

sts. Tel. Blue 3966. 
J. H. Wyatt, 332 E. Fifth st. Tel. Brown 

973. 
The 99 Grocery, T. J. Coy, prop., 4402 

Central ave. Tel. West 32. 
Central Avenue Mercantile Store, Mrs. 

E. Botello, prop., 1200 Central ave. 

Tel. Blue 2580. 
Power House Grocery, J. A. Fazenda, 

prop., 625 Central ave. Tel. Green 

813. 

Haberdashers and Hatters. 

Bumiller & McKnight, 123 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Main 547. 
Hair Bazaar and Beauty Parlors ^- £j 

The Imperial, Frank Neubauer, prop., 
224-226 W. Second st. Tel. Black 
1381. 

Hardwood and Parquetry Flooring and 
Enamel Paints. 

Marshall & Jenkins, 430 S. Broadway. 
Tel. Green 1611. 

Hardware 

W. A. Russell, 204 S. Broadway. Tel. 

Main 47. 

Hay, Grain, Coal and Wood 
The P. J. Brannen Feed, Fuel & Storage 

Co., 806-810 S. Main st. Tel. Main 

419. 
William Dibble, cor. Sixth and Los An- 
geles sts. TeL Green 1761. 
Grand Avenue Feed & Fuel Co., A. F. 

Cochems, 1514 Grand ave. Tel, 

West 227. 
A. E. Breuchaud, 841 S. Figueroa st. 

Tel. Main 923. 
Enterprise Fuel and Feed Store, Ax & 

Peet, 1006 West Ninth st. Tel. West 

239. 
The M. Black Co., 306-308 Central ave. 

Tel. Brown 811. 

Homeopathic Pharmacist 

Boericke &Runyon Co., 320 S. Broadway. 
Tel. Main 504. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Ang^eles, Cal. 



Hospitals 

The California Hospital, 1414 S. Hope 

St. Tel. West 92. 
Dr. Stewart's Private Hospital, 315 West 

Pico St. Tel. West 14. 

Hotels 

Aldine Hotel, Hill St., bet. 3rd and 4th 

sts. American plan, $1.50 per day 

and up. European plan, $3.50 to 

$10.00 per week. 
Hotel Locke, 139 S. Hill st., entrance on 

Second st. American plan. Rate 

$8.00 to $12 per week. 
Bellevue Terrace Hotel, cor. Sixth and 

Figueroa sts. Rate, $2 per day and up. 
HoUenbeck Hotel, American and Europ- 
ean plan, Second and Spring sts. 
Hotel Van Nuys, n. w. cor. Main and 

Fourth sts. American plan, $3 to 

$12 per day ; European plan, $1 to 

$10 per day. 
Hotel Palms, H. C. Fryman, prop., 

Sixth and Broadway. American and 
-1^ European plans. 
Westminster Hotel, n. e. cor. Main and 

Fourth sts. American plan, $3 per 

day and up ; European plan, $1 per 

day and up. 
Hotel Gray Gables, cor. Seventh and 

Hill sts. Rates $1 to $2 per day. 
Hotel Lillie, 534 S. Hill st. Rate $8 to 

$15 per week. 
The Belmont, 425 Temple st. Rate $6.50 

per week and up. 
Hotel Grey, n. e. cor. Main and Third 

sts. European plan. Rate, $3.00 to 

$12 per week. 

Japanese Fancy Goods 

Quong lyee Lung & Co., 350 S. Spring st. 

Jewelers and Watchntakers 

S. Conradi, 113 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 

1159. 
W. T. Harris, cor. First and Main sts. 

Tel. Red 2981. 

liadies' Tailor 
S. Benioflf, 330 S. Broadway. 

Liaundries 

Crystal Steam Laundry, W.J. Hill, Mgr., 
416-420 E. First st. Tel. Red 1932. 

Empire Steam Laundry, 149 South Main 
St. Tel. Main 635. 

liiquor Merchants 

H. J. Woollacott, 124-126 N. Spring st. 

Southern California Wine Co., 220 W. 
Fourth St. 

Edward Germain Wine Co., 397-399 S. 

Los Angeles st. Tel. Main 919. 

liivery Stables and Tally-hos 

Tally-ho Stable & Carriage Co., W. R. 
Murphy (formerly at 109 N. Broad- 
way), 712 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 51 . 

Eagle Stables, Woodward & Cole, 122 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 248. 

Eureka Stables, 323 W. Fifth st. Tel. 
Main 71. 



Meat Markets 

Norma Market, M. T. Ryan, 1818 S. 

Main St. TeL West 171. 
Crystal Market, Reed Bros., 2309 S. Union 

ave. Tel. Blue 3131. 
Model Market, R. A. Norries, 831 W. 

Sixth St. cor Pearl. Tel. 979 Main. 
Grand Avenue Market, J. A. Rydell, 

2218 S. Grand ave. Tel. White 321 1 . 
Pioneer Meat Market, E. Rudolph, 514 

Downey ave.. East L- A. Tel.Alta208. 
Park Market, Chas. Kestner, 329 West 

Fifth St. TeL Red 2671. 
Eureka Market, Jay W. Hyland, cor. 7th 

St. and Union ave. Tel. Main 1467. 
Oregon Market, Geo. N. Briggs, prop., 

525 W. Sixth st. Tel. Red 2032. 
Washington Market, J. A. McCoy, Station 

" D," 1214 W. Washington st. Tel. 

Blue 4961. 

Men's Furnishing; Goods, Notions, Fancy 
Goods, etc. 

Cheapside Bazaar, F. E. Verge, 2440 S. 
Main st. 

Merchant Tailors 

O. C. Sens, 219 W Second St., opp. Hol- 

lenbeck Hotel. 
Brauer & Krohn, 114>^ S. Main st. Tel. 

Green 1745. 
A. J. Partridge, 125 W. First st. Tel. 

Green 13 
M. C. Meiklejohn, 203 S. Main st. Branch 

E St., San Bernardino. 

Mexican Hand-GarTed Leather Goods 

H. Ross & Sons, 352 S. Broadway, P. O. 
box 902. 

Millinery 

Maison Nouvelle, Miss A. Clarke, 222 W. 
3rd St. Tel. Main 1374. 

Mineral Baths. 

Los Angeles Mineral Baths and Springs, 
A. Puissegur, Prop., cor. Macy and 
Lyon sts., and 851 Howard st. 

Modiste 

Miss H. M. Goodwin, Muskegon lock, 
cor. Broadway and Third st. 

Monnmental Dealers 

Lane Bros., 631 S. Spring St., Los Ange- 
les, and 411 McAlister St., San Fran- 



Nurserymen and Florists 

Los Angeles Nursery. Sales depot 446 
S. Main st. P. O. box 549. (Special- 
ties, plant and cacti souvenirs. ) 

Elysian Gardens and Nursery, Ethel 
Lord, prop. City depot 440 S. Broad- 
way. Nursery corner Philleo and 
Marathon sts. 

Elmo R. Meserve. Salesyard 635 S. 
Broadway. Tel. White 3226. Nur- 
sery 2228 Sutter st. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Opticians 

Adolph Frese, 126 S. Spring st. 

Boston Optical Co., Kyte & Granicher, 

235 S. Spring st. 
Fred Detmers, 354 S. Broadway. 

Osteopathy 

Pacific School of Osteopathy and Infirm- 
ary, C. A. Bailey, Pres., Tenth and 
Flower sts. Tel. West 55. 

Paints, Oils and Glass 

Scriver & Quinn, 200-202 S. Main st. 

Tel. 565. 
P. H. Mathews, 238-240 S. Main st. Tel. 

1025. 

Fawn Brokers 

L. B. Cohn, 120-122 North Spring st. 

Pharmaceutical Manufacturers. 

The Salubrita Pharmacal Co., Mrs. L. W. 
Shellhamer, lady mgr 122 West 
Third St., room 320. (Fine cosmetics 
a specialty.) 

Photographers 

Townsend's, 340>^ S. Broadway. 

Photographic Material, Kodaks, etc. 

Dewey Bros., 326 South Spring st. Tel. 
Black 3891. 

Pianos, Sheet Music and Musical 
Merchandise 

Southern California Music Co., 216-218 
W. Third st. Tel. 585. 

Fitzgerald Music & Piano Co., 113 S. 
Spring St. Tel. Main 1 159. 

Williamson Bros., 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. 

Geo. T. Exton, 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. (Agent for Regal Man- 
dolins and Guitars.) 

Picture Frames, Artists' Materials, Sou- 
venirs 

Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 
Ita Williams, 354 S. Broadway and 311 
S. Main st. 

Pleating— Accordion and Knife 
Tucking, Cording, Pinking and Braiding 

Mrs. T. M. Clark, 340>^ S. Hill St. 

Printing, Engraving, Binding 

Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner Co., 123 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 417. 

Restaurants 

Ebinger's Dining Parlors, cor. Spring 
and Third sts. Tel. 610. 

Saddlerock Fish and Oyster Parlors, 236 
S. Spring st. (Private dining par- 
lors.) 

Maison Doree (French Restaurant), 145- 
147 N. Main st. Tel. Main 1573. 

Seymour Dining Parlors, 318 West Sec- 
ond St. 

The Rival launch Counter and Restaur- 
ant, 115 W. Second St. 



Rubber Stamps, Stencils and Seals 

lyos Angeles Rubber Stamp Co., 224 W. 
First St. Tel. Red 3941. 

Ruberoid Roofing and P. & B. Roof 
Paints and Gravel Roofing. 

Paraffine Paint Co., 312-314 W. Fifth St. 
Sewing Machines and Bicycles 

Williamson Bros., 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
Brown 1315. 
Seeds and Agricultural Implements 

Johnson & Musser Seed Co., 1 13 N. Main 
St. Tel. Main 176. 

Sheet Metal Works, Galvanized Iron 

and Copper Cornices, Sky I^ights, 

Roofing, etc. 

Union Sheet Metal Works, 347 to 351 
Central ave. Tel. Black 2931. 
Shirt and Shirt Waist Makers 

Machin Shirt Co., 1 18>4 S. Spring st. 
Bumiller & McKnight, 123 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Main 547. 

Shoe Stores 

Innes-Crippen Shoe Co., 258 S. Broad- 
way and 231 W. Third st. 

Skinner & Kay, sole agents Burt & Pack- 
ard *• Korrect Shape " shoes, 209 W. 
Third st. 

F. B. Verge, 2440 S. Main st. 

Sign Writers and Painters 

S. Bros.-Schroeder Bros., 121 E. Second 
St. Tel. Main 561. 

Soda Works and Beer Bottlers 

Los Angeles Soda Works (H. W. Stoll & 
Co.), 509 Commercial st. Tel. Main 
103. 

Sporting Goods and Bicycles 

I,. A. Cycle & Sporting Goods Co., 460 
S. Spring st. 

Taxidermist and Naturalist 
Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S. Broadway. 

Teas, Coffees and Spices 
Sunset Tea & Coffee Co., 229 W. Fourth 
St. Tel. Main 1214. 

Tents, Awnings, Hanamocks, Camp 
Furniture, etc. 

lyos Angeles Tent & Awning Co., A. W. 

Swanfeldt, prop., 220 S. Main st. 

Tel. Main 1160. 
J. H. Masters, 136 S. Main st. Tel. Main 

1512. Also guns and ammunition. 

Trunk Manufacturers, Traveling 
Cases, etc. 

D. D. Whitney, 423 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Main 203. 
Upholstering, Polishing, Cabinet Work 
Broadway Furniture & Upholstering Co., 

521 S. Broadway. 

Transfer Co. 
(See Van and Storage Go's.) 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Bool<, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Undertakers 

Bresee Bros,, 557-559 S. Broadway. Tel. 
Main 243. 

C. D. Howry, 509-511 S. Broadway. Of- 
fice Tel. 107; Res. Tel. 541. 

Peck & Chase Co., 433-435 S. Hill St. 
Tel. 61. 

"Van and Storage Companies 

Bekins Van and Storage Co. Office 436 
S. Spring St.; Tel. Main 19. Ware- 
house, Fourth and Alameda sts.; Tel. 
Black 1221. 

Wall Paper, Boom Moulding, Decorating 

Los Angeles Wall Paper Co. , 309 S. Main 
St. Tel. Green 314. 

New York Wall Paper Co., 452 S. Spring 
St. Tel. Main 207. 



Warehouse 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) 

Wood Mantels, Tiles, Grates, £tc. 

Chas. E. Marshall, 514 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Brown 1821. 

Wood Turning, Grill and Cabinetwork. 

The Art Mill Co., 649 S. Spring st. Tel. 
Green 1638. 

Wood Turning, Scroll and Band Sawing 

A. J. Koll, 335-337 E. Second st Tel. 
1242. 



PASADENA COMMERCIAL BL.UE BOOK. 

Pasadena is a city of beautiful homes. Its charming Iccation near the Sierra Madre mountains, at 
the head of the beautiful San Gabriel valley, and its proximity and exceptional railway facilities to 
Los Angeles, make it at once popular as a winter resort to tourists and a sviburban residence for Los 
Angeles business men. It has good business houses, fine churches and schools, an excellent library, 
charming drives, and the finest hotel in the section. 



Banks. 

First National Bank, cor. Fair Oaks ave. 
and Colorado st. 

Bakeries. 

C. S. Heiser, 22 West Colorado st. Branch 
26 Pine st., Long Beach. 

Coal, Wood, Hay and Grain. 

J. A. Jacobs & Son, 100 East Colorado 
St. Tel. Main 105. 

Druggists. 

Asbury G. Smith, n. w. cor. Raymond 
and Colorado sts. Tel. Main 171. 

Furniture, Carpets and Draperies. 

Chas. E. Putman, 96-98 East Colorado st. 
Brown & Sutliff, 99-103 South Fair Oaks 
ave. Tel. 99. 

Gymnasium, Baths, Massage. 

Rowland's Gymnasium, cor. Green and 

Fair Oaks. Tel. Black 673. 

Groceries. 

W. J. Kelly, 55-57 East Colorado st. Tel. 

86. 
Martin & Booher, 24 East Colorado st. 
Tel. Main 54. 

Haberdashers and Hatters. 
F. E. Twombly, 28 East Colorado st. 
Harness and Horse Furnishing Goods. 

H. I. Howard, 117 East Colorado st. 

(Fine custom work a specialty.) 

Hotels. 

Hotel Mitchell, cor. Dayton st. and Fair 

Oaks ave. American plan. Rates 

$2.00 per day and up. 

Ice, Distilled W^ater, etc. 
Independent Ice Co., cor Raymond ave, 
and Union st. Tel. Red 672. 



liaundries. 

Pacific Steam Laundry, 254 South Fair 
Oaks ave. Tel. Main 12. 

Meat Markets. 

City Meat Market, John Breiner, 83 East 

Colorado st. Tel. 60. 
East Side Market, H. ly. Flournoy, 184- 

186 East Colorado st. Tel. Black 314. 

Millinery. 

Knox & McDermid Millinery Parlors, 
No. 9 Fair Oaks ave.. First National 
Bank Bldg. 

Opticians. 

Drs. F. M. & A. C. Taylor, 31 East Col- 
orado St. 

Restaurants (launches put up). 

Arlington Restaurant and Bakery, S. F. 
Smiley, prop., 102 East Colorado st, 
second door west Santa Fe tracks. 

Mrs McDermid's Delicacy Bakery, 35 
East Colorado st. 

Steel Ranges, House Furnishing Hard- 
ware, Refrigerators, etc. 

Pasadena Hardware Company, No. 13 
East Colorado st. 

Undertakers. 

Reynolds & VanNuys, 63 N. Fair Oaks 
ave. Tel. 52. Proprietors Pasadena 
Crematorium. 



Wall Paper, Mouldings. Window Shades, 
Paints, Oils, Varnishes. 

H. E. Lodge, 172 East Colorado st. Tel. 
Red 401. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I^and of Stjnshinb. 



Great 

Rock Island 
Route 




Leave Los Angeles every Tuesday via the Denver 
& Rio Grande "Scenic Line," and by the popular 
Southern Route every Wednesday. Low rates; 
quick time ; competent managers ; Pullman up- 
holstered cars ; union depot Chicago. Ourcars 
are attached to the "Boston and New York 
Special," via Lake Shore, New York Central and 
Boston & Albany Railways, arriving Boston 3:00 
p.m.. New York 1 p.m. 
For maps, rates, etc., call on or address, 
F. W. THOMPSON, Gen. Ag't., 
214 S. Spring St. Los Angeles. 

Personally Conducted 

REDONDO BY THE SEA 

17 Miles from liOS Angeles 

Redondo Railway Time Table 

In effect September 8, 1899 
Leave Los Angeles Leave Redondo 

9:80 am daily 8:00 a.m. 

1:30 p.m daily 11:00 a.m. 

5:00 p.m daily 3:45 p.m. 

7:30 p.m ;. Saturday only 6:30 p.m. 

L. J. PERRY Superintendent, Grand Ave. and Jefferson St. 
City office, 246 S. Spring St. Telephone West 1. 

90% or AMERICAN WOMEN 

wash dishes three times each day. If you 
are one of these, wear a pair of " Good- 
year" Rubber Gloves and always have 
soft, white hands. Sent bj' mail, post- 
paid, on receipt of 1 1.50. Agents wanted. 
Address M. O. Dept., 
M. F. Reese Supply Co. .Setauket.N.Y. 

Pacific Coast Steamship Co. 

The Company's elegant steam- 
ers Santa Rosa and Corona leave 
Redondo at 11 a.m., and Port Los 
Angeles at 2:30 p.m., for San 
Francisco via Santa Barbara and 
Port Harford, Dec. 4, 8, 12, 16, 
20, 24, 28, January 1 and every 
fourth day thereafter. 
Leave Port Los Angeles at 5:45 
a.m. and Redondo at 10:45 a.m. for San Diego, 
Dec. 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30, Jan. 3 and every 
fourth day thereafter. 

Cars connect via Redondo leave Santa F6 depot 
at 9:55 a.m., or Redondo Ry. depot at 9:30 
a m. Cars connect via Port Los Angeles leave 
S. P. R. R. depot 1:35 p.m. for steamers north 
bound. 

The steamers Coos Bay and Bonita leave San 
Pedro for San Francisco via Kast San Pedro, Ven- 
tura. Carpenteria, Santa Barbara, Goleta, Gaviota, 
Port Harford, Cayucos, San Simeon, Monterey 
and Santa Cruz, at 6 p m., Dec. 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 
25, 29, Jan. 2 and every fourth day thereafter. 

Cars to connect with steamers via San Pedro 
leave S. P. R. R. (Arcade Depot) at 5:03 p m., and 
Terminal Ry. depot 5:20 p.m. Sunday at 1:45 p.m. 
For further information obtain folder. 
The Company reserves right to change, without 
previous notice, steamers, sailing dates and hours 
of sailing. W. PARRIS, Agt., 

124 West Second St., Los Angeles. 
GOODALL, PERKINS & CO., Gen. Agts., 

San Francisco. 





California 
Limited 

Santa re Route 

Lv. Los Angeles 6:00 pm Tues. Thur. Sat. Sun. 

" Pasadena 6:25 pm " " " ** 

" San Ber'dino 7:45 pm " " " " 

Ar. Denver 5:00 pm Thur. Sat. Mon. Tues 

" Kansas City.. 6:30 am Fri. Sun. Tues. Wed. 

" Chicago 2:15 pm " '* " " 

" New York.... 6:30 pm Sat. Mon. Wed. Thur. 

ENTIRELY NEW AND LUXURIOUS EQUIPMENT. 
EVERYTHING TO MAKE YOU COMFORTABLE, 
AND THE FASTEST TIME EVER MADE. 







CEAINIC S. S. CO.-nONOLlLl 
APIA, AIGKLAND and SYDNEY 




Only Sremer Une to ttie Wmdrtnds at Itie PiciBc 

Ue South Sea Islands 

'■■ SPECIAL RATES 
Fob iwausivt trips takim* m 

FUl.TAMm. ETC. 

"^'•*''" Send 10 cents postage for 
U«o " Trtp to Hawaii" with fine 
photographic illustrations. 
20 cents for new edition of 
same, with beautiful colored plate illustrations ; 
20 cents postage for " Talofa, Summer Sail to 
South Seas," also in colors, to Oceanic S. S. Co., 
114 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Steamers sail to Honolulu twice a 
month, to Samoa, New Zealand and 
Sydney, via Honolulu, every 28 days. 

J. D. SPRECKELS BROS. CO., 
114 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

HUGH B. RICE, Agent, 

230 S. Spring St., liOS Angeles, Cal. 



Hummel Bros. & Co., Employment Agents, 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshimk." 




Make Your 
Advertising Pay ! 

Bright and clever illus- 
trations will do it. We 
make them. We are after 
your business. 

C. M. DAVIS CO., 
EngraverSj 
123 S. Broadway 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Telephone 
Main 417. 



A. G. GARDNER ""■^^ 



HOUSE 



118 Winston St. Tel. Brown 133 5. 



We Sell, Kent, Repair and 
Tune Pianos. 



Most expert repairer of stringed instruments 
in the city. 

Music furnished for entertainments. 




BEUCUS 
ACETYLENE 
GAS 
GENERATORS 

are in hundreds of resi- 
dences, business places, 
churches, halls, etc Ac- 
cepted by the Board of 
Fire Underwriters. We 
are offering 

Special Inducements 
to Agents 

and users who first intro- 
duce the Beuctjs in their 
locality. For particulars 
address H. & B., 746 S. 
Main St., Los Angeles. 




Everybody Goes to Jgnta MOIliCa 
Via Los Angeles-Pacific Electric Ry. 

It provides one of the most modern equipments and the 
coolest and most scenic route in Southern California. 



For Santa IMonica: Cars leave Fourth and Broadway, 
Los Angeles, via Hill and 16th streets, every hour from *6;30 
a. m. to 11:30 p. m. Sundays, every halt hour from 7:30 a.m. 
to 7:30 p.m.. and hourly to 11:30 p.m. Saturdays, extra cars at 5 p.m. and 6 p.m. Cars 
leave Plaza 10 minutes earlier. 

Via Bellevue Ave., Colegrove and Sherman, every hour from *6:15a. m. to 11:15 p. m. 
and 11:45 p. m. to Sherman only. Cars leave Plaza 10 minutes later. 

For Los Angeles: Cars leave Hill Street, South Santa Monica, at *5:50, *6:40 a. m., 
and every hour to 10:40 p. m. Sundays, 7:40 a.m. and every half hour from 8:40 a. m. to 
7:40 p.m., and hourly to 10:40 p.m. Saturdays, extra cars at 4:10 p.m. and 5:10 p.m. Leave 
band stand, Ocean Ave., 5 minutes later. 

Cars leaving Hill Street, South Santa Monica, 40 minutes after each hour from 6:40 a.m. 
to 9:40 p.m. connect at Morocco cars via Sherman and Colegrove. 
*Except Sundays. Offices, Cliamber of Commerce BIdg., 4th and Broadway, Let Angelot 



Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. & Co. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, pleaae mention that you " sa w it in the Land of SmrasiiiB." 

m 





CREATES A PERFECT COMPLEXION 

Mrs. Graham's 

Cucumber and Elder 
Flower Cream 

It cleanses, whitens and beautifies the 
skin, feeds and nourishes skin tissues, 
thus banishing wrinkles. It is harmless 
as dew, and as nourishing to the skin as 
dew is to the flower. Price $1.00 at drug- 
gists and agents, or sent anywhere pre- 
paid. Sample bottle, 10 cents. A hand- 
some book. "How to be Beautiful," free. 

GRAHAM'S CACTICO HAIR GROWER 

TO MAKE HIS HAIR GROW, AND 

QUICK HAIR RESTORER 

TO RESTORE THE COLOR. 

Both guaranteed harmless as water. Sold by best Druggists, or sent in plain sealed 
wrapper by express, prepaid. Price, SI. 00 each. 

For sale by all Druggists and Hairdealers. 

Send for FREE BOOK : " A Confidential Chat with Bald iHeaded, Thin Hsired and 
Gray Haired Men and Women." Good Agents wanted. 

KEDINGTON & CO., San Francigco, Gen. Facitic Coast Agents. 
MRS. GERVAISE GRAHAM, 1260 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 



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(:<«««« «(i««C«C*:e»eC^f:e«»«««»(:ee» »«««««««(:'«««»«« «^ «««-«»« CeC'CSC: ««(:«•« 




swap horses while 
are crossing the stream 



Abraham Lincoln 



This homely saying: of Abraham Lin- 
coln is solid with sense. Better be 
safe on solid gfround before trying: an 
unknown quantity. 

For twenty-five years parents have 
used SCOTT'S EMULSION, and it has 
never failed them. The next time one 
of the children begins to §:row pale 
and thin, do you think they are gfoingf 
to trade off SCOTT'S EMULSION for 
something: new and untried? No, in- 
deed; too much is at stake. If a cold has settled 
on your lung:s, cling: to SCOTT'S EMULSION; 
even if consumption has become fixed, SCOTT'S EMULSION 
holds out every possible promise of recovery. It has cured 
larg:e numbers of cases, and wonderfully relieves the worst. 
SCOTT'S EMULSION feeds starving: tissues. No remedy equals it for all 
wasting: diseases ; whether in the young: infant, the nursing: mother, or the 
nervously exhausted daug:hter-it feeds and builds up. 

All Druggists; 50c. and $1.00. SCOTT <S BOWNE, New York. 



^e3a£ Vehr. 1900 

ONE OF THE OLD GUARD > 
A BULL BAITING IN '68 > 
A "BOOM" STORY > 



Vol. XII, No. 2 
Uavlshly 

Illustrated 



> 



.p=* 



THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE 



=^ 



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> 









/CC^ 



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^* i 



P-x^ 



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THE MAGAZINE OF 



CALIFORNIA AND THE WEST 

EDITED BY CHAS.F. LUMMIS 



i 



'•X' 



•*«" 



AAAAWIAAAAAAAAA/: 

CENTS LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO., Incorporated 



A COPY 



131}^ South Broaflveay, Lios Ang^elen. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in tne Land of Sunshinb. 



o 




Latest 
and Best 

Absolutely the Simplest, 
Ligfhtest-Runningf, Best-Con- 
structed, Stron§:est Chain- 
Stitch Sewingf Machine ever 
invented* Has neither shuttle 
nor bobbin* No ten- 
sions to adjust* Al- 
ways ready when 
needle is threaded* 

SOLD ONLY BY 

THE SINGER 
MANUFACTURING CO. 

Offices in every 

city in tlie world. 



Automatic 




Hotel Westminster.... 



American and 

European Plans 



LOS ANGELES 




The 
Great 



Tourist 
Hotel 



of 

Los Angele 



Every Modern 

Comfort and Convenience 

that can be found 

in any 

Hotel. 



Send for Illustrated Booklet on Los Angeles and environs. 

JOHNSON & FLINT, Proprietor 

strong and better men and women are those who use Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters. 

Druggists. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it In the I^and op Sunshinb." 



In the Heart of Los Angeles««««««««^ 



49 

i^ The Hollenbeck. on Second 

49 and Spring Sts., is the most 

4i centrally located of all the 

^ Lros Angeles Hotels. 

*? Electric cars pass its doors 



to all points of interest. 



6» 
^ Second and Spring Sts. Los Angeles, Cal. J# 



49 

^ It is headquarters for Tal- 
^ ly-ho and Railway Excur- 
^ sions, commercial men and 
49 tourists. 

It is run on both Amer- 
ican and European plans. 

Has first-class Cafe and 
rooms with bath and other 
conveniences. Rat?s are 
reasonable, its 
courteous. 



49 
<9 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
<9 
49 
49 
49 




conveniences ample and its service prompt and 



HOLLENBECK HOTEL 



A. C. BILICKE & CO. 



Props. 

Los Angeles, 



CUTS 



If ^v-u desire good, first-class work in the cut line for your ad- 
vertising purposes, you will have to apply where they are made. 
Good work our specialty. Los Anghles Photo. IEngraving 
Co., 2nd and Main. Telephone Green 1545. 



^^ 



A DIFFERENT CALIFORNIA 

Are all your ideas of California correct ? You 
may not know, for instance, that in Fresno and 
Kings Counties, situate in the noted San Joa- 
quin Valley, is to be found one of the richest 
tracts of land in the State. 60,000 acres of 
the Laguna de Tache grant for sale at $25 to 
$45 per acre, including Free Water Right, at 
62}4 cents per acre annual rental (the cheapest water in California). Send 
your name and address, and receive the local newspaper free for two 
months, and with our circulars added, you may learn something of this 
different California. 

Address NARES & SAUNDERS, Managers, 
FRESNO, CAL, 

C, A, HUBERT, Agent, 207 W. Third St., Los Angeles* 




Good health is real wealth— Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters is a veritable fortune to the weak. 



The Land of Sunshine 



(incorporated) capital stock $50,000. 



The Magazine of California and the West 



EDITED BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 



The Only Exclusively Western Magazine 



AMONG THE STOCKHOLDERS 

DAVID STARR JORDAN 

President of Stanford University. 

THEODORE H. HiTTEIvL 

The Historian of California. 

MARY HAIvLOCK FOOTE 

Author of The Led-Horse Claim, etc. 

MARGARET COI^LIER GRAHAM 
Author of Stories of the Foothills. 

GRACE ELIvERY CHANNING 

Author of The Sister of a Saint, etc. 

EI.LA HIGGINSON 

Author of A Forest Orchid, etc. 

JOHN VANCE CHENEY 

Author of Thistle Drift, etc. 

CHARLES WARREN STODDARD 
The Poet of the South Seas. 

INA COOIvBRITH 

Author of Songs from the Golden Gate, etc. 

EDWIN MARKHAM 

Author of The Man with the Hoe. 



JOAQUIN MIIyLER 

The Poet of the Sierras. 

CHAS. FREDERICK HOLDER 

Author of The Life of Agassiz, etc. 

CONSTANCE GODDARD DU BOIS 

Author The Shield of the Fleur de Lis. 



AND CONTRIBUTORS ARE: 

WILLIAM KEITH 

The greatest Western painter. 

DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS 
Ex-Prest. American Folk-Iyore Society. 

DR. ELLIOTT CODES 

The Historian of Lewis and Clark. 

GEO. PARKER WINSHIP 

The Historian of Coronado's Marches. 

FREDERICK WEBB HODGE 

of the Bureau of Ethnologry, Washington 

GEO. HAMLIN FITCH 

Iviterary Editor S. F. Chronicle 

CHARLOTTE PERKINS STETSON 

Author:of In This Our World. 

CHAS. HOWARD SHINN 

Author of The Story of the Mine, etc. 

T. S. VAN DYKE 

Author of Rod and Gun in California, etc. 

CHAS. A. KEELER 

A Director of the California Academy 
of Sciences. 

LOUISE M. KEELER 
ALEX. F. HARMER 

L. MAYNARD DIXON 

Illustrators. 

CHAS. DWIGHT WILLARD 



BATTERMAN LINDSAY, ETC., ETC. 



CONTENTS FOR JANUARY, 1900 : 

'*Sau Luis Was Througed," drawn by L. Maynard Dixon Frontispiece 

The Garden of Souls (poem), Dr. C. W. Doyle 71 

The Mission Graves (poem), Nora May French 71 

One of the Old Guard, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 12 

To Carmen (poem), C. P. Holt 83 

A Mission Saint's Day in 1868, illustrated, D. M. D 84 

A Fiesta at Mesa Grande, illustrated, Constance Goddard Du Bois 86 

My Brother's Keeper, VI, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 90 

A New Force, illustrated 94 

Saving the Ranch, illustrated, a story of the Great Boom, T. S Van Dyke 96 

Tin-A, a Chinese story, Sui Sin Fah 101 

The Desert Queen (poem), Sharlot M. Hall 103 

Pioneers of the Far West — Fray Zdrate-Salmeron's *'Relacion," III 104 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor) 114 

That Which is Written (reviews by the editor) 120 

Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League 126 

The Landmarks Club 128 

The Pasadena Rose Tournament, illustrated 129 

The Land We Love, illustrated 131 

California Babies, illustrated 133 

Entered at the Los Atigeles PostoflSce as second-class matter. 
SEE publisher's PAGE. 



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CONTRIBUTORS FOJ^ 1899-1900: 
A. Conan Doyle 
Stephen Crane 
S. R. Crockett 
Rev. Dr. Henry van Dyke 



Rudyard Kipling 
Wm. Dean Howells 
Joel Chandler Harris 
Ruth McEnery Stuart 
Frank R Stockton 
Louise Chandler Moulton 
Bret Harte 
Egerton Castle 
Mary E. Wiikins 
Edgar Fawcett 
Hezekiah Butterworth 
Mrs. Frank Leslie 
W. G. Van T. Sutphen 
Joaquin Miller 
Maru;aret E. Sangster 
Will Carleton 
G. W. Steevens 
Henry James 



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Robert E Speer 
Mrs. John A. Logan 
Mary A. Livermore 
Capt. Robert E. Lee 



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TH« LANDS OF THE SUN EXPAND THE SOUL. 



;i 



THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE 



Vol. 12, No. 2. 



LOS ANGELES 



JANUARY, 1900. 



The Garden of Souls. 

BY DR. C. W. DOYLE. 

Author of" The Taming of the Jungle:' 

God walked within His garden of sweet savours 
Of souls assoiled ; there dimpling pansies set 

Had infants' faces culled for heaven's favours, 
A.nd roses of fair womanhood from fret 

Released, and from the world's temptations — 

From tears, and wrinkles, and hard fate's negations. 

But most a bed of lilies Him delighted — 

Souls of fair maids caught up unstained and bright 
Amidst the throng my daughter's flower T sighted 
Bending before her Maker, meek and white. 
There shall she bloom till God's awakening thunder 
Thall rouse the dead, and rend the hills asunder. 

Santa Cruz, Cal. 



The Mission Graves. 

BY NORA M/AY FRENCH. 

By man forgotten. 
Nature remembers with her fitful tears : 
The wooden slabs lose name and date with years. 

And crumble, rotten. 

The Father, there, 
One Saint's Day from an evening mass returning, 
Set for each unknown soul a candle burning, 

With muttered prayer. 

Glow-worms, they shone— 
Strange, spectral-gleaming through the lonely dark. 
Whose nameless dust did each faint glimmer mark? 

Skull, crumbling bone? 

Ah! the Dead knew — 
Each to his taper drawn through voids of space. 
Each on his grave (eyes, in a formless face !) 

Watched — the night through. 
La Canada, Cal. 

Copyright 1899 by Land of Sunshine Pub. Co 



72 

' One of the Old Guard. 



BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS. 




F WENDELL PHILLIPS still walked the 
earth, thrilling us now and then with that 
most perfect classic of a lecture ever spoken 
from an American platform, it is not impos- 
sible that he might add to his list of Lost 
Arts that of newspapering. For, as all the 
thoughtful of us know, the American news- 
paper has in a generation changed from an 
art to a business. Once a mission, it is now a money-maker. 
Enormously multiplied in numbers and in "enterprise," its 
relation to the public has nevertheless wholly changed. It 
still clings to the role of educator ; though everyone knows 
that it is nowadays as wholly a commercial affair as Stand- 
ard Oil. It has already come among the dangers and excesses 
that were inevitable unless we should circumscribe by some 
elective system such power as is wielded by the press. Irre- 
sponsibility has bred vast abuses of that power ; and we have 
yielded full room for abuse. These unelected masters are to- 
day far more potent in this nominal republic than the govern- 
ment we do elect. They are far more powerful than ever before, 
and far less scrupulous in the use of that power. But they are 
not more influential. People fear their frown and hunger for 
their smile. But where are the newspapers we used to believe ? 
In all the United States today, you can count upon your 
fingers — and probably with a hand to spare — all the dailies of 
serious circulation that are trusted by their clients as im- 
plicitly as the Springfield Republican has been for half a cen- 
tury, and the New York Evening Post for more than a genera- 
tion. The type of conscientiousness they represent has be- 
come so old-fashioned in American journalism that its survivals 
are almost curios. They seem as strange as would the states- 
men we have ' ' outgrown ' ' among the politicians we are grow- 
ing. And if conscience has become rare, courage no less — 
though impudence did never so abound as now. 

It has been more than the good fortune of Southern Califor- 
nia that it has had during the most crucial formative period 
one of the few newspapers of that sort which still survive ; 
and it has much wider than a provincial interest. The career 
of that paper is, in fact, a scientific document, shedding light 
not only upon a social phenomenon entirely without parallel 
(and it is no careless speech to say that of the evolution of 
Southern California j, but upon every-day matters all Ameri- 
cans may take home with profit — not excluding the Americans 
nearest this blackboard. Among my many shortcomings I 
have never been convicted of flattery ; and what is here to be 



ONE OF THE OLD GUARD. 



73 



said has place because it is far-reaching in application, as I 
hope to make it just to men with whom I very often and very 
earnestly disagree. These fifteen years have given me a 
chance to know the facts ; for in that period I have watched, 
and not carelessly, the growth of Los Angeles from a very 
tough little Western town to a very respectable and extremely 
Eastern city ; and its chief newspaper from the caliber of a 
country sheet to a journal which in every way invites compari- 
son with any in the United States. 

How these two 
agents have re- 
acted upon one 
another ; what 
Southern Califor- 
nia has done for 
the Los Angeles 
Times, and what 
the Times has 
done for Southern 
California, it 
would take a book 
to relate. And it 
could be made a 
very interesting 
book, not without 
scientific value. 
But the gist of it 
can be summed 
up here. It is my 
deliberate belief — 
not without en- 
titlement of some 
fair chance to 
know — that no 
growing commu- 
nity ever had 
more, or more im- 
portant, help from 
any journal. Nor, 
indeed, do I know in America of a case quite parallel ; for 
our evolution has been without precedent in its swiftness. 
From the "wide-open," saloon- ridden, raw frontier town I first 
knew, to the Los Angeles of today, is not only a long-distance 
march, but a long war — with more picket-firing, skirmishes 
and pitched battles than most of us realize today, even of the 
" old timers." And not ten per cent, of the present population 
has been in California long enough to have seen that whole 
campaign. 




Davis Eng. Co. 

HARRISON GRAY OTIS AT 1 6. 



ONE OF THE OLD GUARD. 



75 



Campaigns, of course, are fought by soldiers ; and ours has 
been won by recruits of such character and in such numbers as 
never before in history enlisted so fast for a new land. But the 
best soldiers must have leaders ; and in our American organiz- 
ation a newspaper is the easiest leader, if not always the best. 
Unfortunately, too many newspapers prefer to be camp follow- 
ers. But our army of lions has had a lion for a leader. 

Now this is a large thing to say, but a true one ; I cannot 
recall a single considerable reform or forward movement in Los 




L M. uavis hny L,.. HARRISON GRAY OTIS. 

Angeles in 15 years of which the Times was not the standard- 
bearer. I cannot recall any case in which it has been found 
among the enemies of local good government. In the big cam- 
paigns, it was the 07ily newspaper leader. And time was when 
these civic wars were not so innocent and polite as now. A 
hundred thousand good citizens have made some difference in 
the complexion of things. Fifteen years ago the saloon power 
was practically supreme here. The Times, single-handed, led 
the long, fierce, high-license campaign which at once and for- 



ONE OF THE OLD GUARD. 



77 




MRS. EI.IZA A. OTIS. 



^ 



ALBERT MC FARLAND. 



ever relegated that insolent in- 
fluence from the head of the pro- 
cession to the tail. Even to get 
sewers was a fight hotter than we 
can kindle nowadays — and the 
Times captained and won that bat- 
tle. The first serious bonded im- 
provements — another Times victory. 
And so it went, through those 
strenuous formative years which 
made Los Angeles livable for some- 
thing besides its climate. The 
people did it of course ; but the 
character of the Times was that it 
believed they would do it, and got 
out in the open and rallied them 
to the charge when no one else thought of such a thing as 
possible. The extraordinary and sensational fight of this 
community against a selfish corporation and a corrupt govern- 
ment official for their American rights in a harbor, is modern 
history familiar to nearly all. To those on the "inside " it is 
more than doubtful if that victory could have been won with- 
out the Times. It was celebrated by an episode, perhaps 
unique in American journalism — when the public set a 
memorial tablet of thanks in the granite walls of the Times. 
And the ** San Pedro harbor fight " is a fair type of what the 
paper has done for its community. 

In the great railroad strike of '94, the Times was the only 
daily on the Pacific Coast which " stood fast, stood firm, stood 
true" (as is its motto) for law and order. We, of this city, 
shall probably never know just how much we owe this one un- 
flinching paper that in this end of the State we escaped blood- 
shed and riot in that crisis. It stood erect and outspoken 
when thousands who *' think no small " of their valor, found 
it convenient to talk soft ; and other newspapers either abetted 
the strikers or dared not ruffle them. It made a diversion in 
the ranks of the enemy. Like the donkey between two bundles 
of hay, they hesitated which to " eat " first — the Times or the 
railroad. And like him, the strike starved of indecis- 
ion. But for a few days it was not a comfortable 
forecast. So much (and so bitter) among the mal- 
contents who thronged the streets was the talk of 
"dynamiting the Times'^ and of "shooting old 
Otis," that a man, of whose funeral it was none, 
went up to see if a double-barreled shotgun and a 
forefinger with an easy crook might be helpful in an 
office where he had spent the least profitable years of 
his life. Col. Otis (for the Philippines had not been 



78 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




HARRY CHANDlvER. 



discovered then) was quietly 
at his routine. Possibly he 
was not anxious to be blown 
up. But he said simply, after 
thanks, " My heart is here, 
my work is here. If they 
must dynamite the building 
I do not know what better 
grave I could have than under 
these stones." 

It has been an incident of 
my business for several years 
along the North and South 
American frontiers to watch 
and try to understand what 
passes for courage — and there 
are several classifications. 
There is the brute-brave, who gets too mad too think of con- 
sequences ; the fool "who does not know what fear is ; " the 
man who does know, and cannot forget, but masters it ; the 
man who is afraid lest it be known how much afraid he is — 
and so on. I have never seen Gen. Otis on the battlefield ; 
but the man who can withstand a mob is brave enough for me ; 
and for every man that dares do that I will engage to enlist a 
thousand for a charge up San Juan hill. I have seen a good 
many men killed, and a good many deeds that would generally 
pass for brave. But I never saw a braver act than that of the 
man who stood to lose not only his business but his heart's 

desire ; a poor man (then) 
who had to have $20,000 
or (it seemed certain) be 
ruined ; who could have it 
simply by supporting the 
political ambition of an un- 
objectionable candidate ; 
and who answered the 
profier, while the sweat ran 

off his forehead : ' ' is 

a good man. If the con- 
vention nominates him, we 
will be glad to support him. 
But I cannot tie this paper 
beforehand," A man who 
can do that in these elastic 
days, shall commit several 
good-sized crimes before I 
am ready to scratch him off 
T. E. MOSHER. ™y slate of Men. 





C. M. Davis En p. Co. 



UNVEILING THE SAN PEDRO TABLET. 



8o 



LAND OF SUNSHINE, 



If the fact is clearly of record (and it is) that this one news- 
paper has been more influential than any other one concrete 
factor in the evolution of the community along the right lines, 
it is an equally significant fact that it has paid. When the 
Times started, lyos Angeles had two dailies long established and 
popular, and with every material advantage over the stripling 
newcomer. They are good newspapers still ; few American 
cities of this size have as good. But in these years and under 
their noses the Times has grown to be the most profitable 
newspaper property not only in the city but in the whole West. 
It has a larger advertising patronage than any other newspaper 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



THK i^inotype: battery. 



west of the Ohio. Only four newspapers among the 10,000 of 
the United States print as many "ads." It prints more than 
all the big San Francisco dailies put together. Its plant is un- 
surpassed. It pays larger dividends than any other news- 
paper in 1000 miles. 

Now, why ? 

By running after the crowd, and putting its ear to the 
ground? By "studying to please" everyone ? Hardly, those 
will say who know it. Probably it is no exaggeration to say 
that all the other papers in Southern California put together 
have not amassed so liberal a fund of rank hostility. Nor is 
it altogether a case of "loving it for the enemies it has made." 
Most of them do it great credit ; but many I think it has 



ONE OF THE OLD GUARD. 



8i 



made needlessly, and some unjustly. It is assuredly disquiet- 
ing, for instance, to find such a paper slang-whanging such a 
man (to take a prominent case near home) as David Starr Jor- 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



BRIG. GKN. HARRISON GRAY OTIS. 



Photo, by Marceau. 



dan. California never had a better citizen nor a more useful. 
No newspaper ever did more for good citizenship nor so much 
for education as he is doing. And the humor of it is that if 
the Times really knew Jordan's work it would be first to re- 



82 LAND OF SUNSHIN 

spect an integ^rity and courage equal to its own, and a brain 
which no one in California, certainly, can disparage without 
appearing rather ridiculous. It is so much, however, in the 
newspaper air nowadays to be irreverent and to " pitch in " 
blind, that perhaps we should not wonder if the contagion 
strikes even a journal in most respects vastly above the level 
of its fellows. Somewhat more care in remembering that wise 
and honest men can better employ their pugnacity in fighting 
dishonesty and folly than in abusing equally honest and wise 
men for going to a different church or employing a different 
tailor, would probably remove the only serious criticism of a 
paper in many ways so great that it should allow itself no little 
weaknesses. 

Yet despite its hard and not always discriminate blows, the 
Times has prospered beyond any of its more considerate 
contemporaries. It is not universally beloved, but it is gen- 
erally trusted. Also considerably feared — mostly by those 
whose awe of it is distinctly useful to good government. 
Its opinions may or may not convince the reader ; but no one 
fit to be out without a guardian distrusts its integrity or its 
courage. There may perhaps be a moral hidden away in this 
tremendous financial success of such qualities, in a field strewn 
with the bones of papers that tried to be "popular." And in 
the teeth of this object lesson there are still people who will 
* ' play policy ! " 

The whole secret has been simply character ; and through- 
out its significant career the character of the Times has been 
Harrison Gray Otis. There have been and are other men in 
the winning — men I shall be last to forget ; but the guinea's 
stamp has been this big, rugged — sometimes rough — person- 
ality ; loyal as a child to a principle or a friend, vindictive as 
an Indian toward any enemy of his friend or principle, a soldier 
by every instinct, and so staunch for what he believes to be the 
right as not one man in 50,000 is. It may be said that "it 
paid" — but I am measuring by the time when it didn't "pay," 
and few dreamed it ever would. One reason that it has *' paid" 
is that he would have done it anyhow — and a community 
comes to trust that sort of a man. 

Gen. Otis has an honorable record in two wars. In the re- 
bellion he earned his way from the ranks to a colonelcy, and 
won the friendship of Hayes (later President), McKinley (now 
President), and the lamented Crook. These relations logically 
explain his position on some policies wherein many of us dis- 
agree with him. The Times is Republican, but not " yellow 
dog" Republican. More than once it has revolted against 
folly — or worse — in the party : and in the most sensational 
campaign the State has known it beat, absolutely single- 
handed among newspapers, the surest (but least fit) candidate 
on the ticket. 



TO CARMEN. 83 

In our current war President McKinley commissioned Col. 
Otis a brigadier-general, and he had six months' active service 
at the front in the Philippines ; then resigning and returning, 
with an honorable discharge, to his place at the head of the 

Times. 

The Times was first issued Dec. 4, 1881, by Nathan Cole and James 
Gardiner as a small 7-column folio ; absorbed a month later by Yarnell, 
Caystile & Mathes who were publishing the Mirror (founded 1873). 
Col. Otis entered the firm Aug. 1, 1882 and took editorial charge. A. 
W. Francisco became business manager in 1883, Yarnell & Mathes re- 
tiring. He remained a little over a year. In 1886 Wm. A. Spalding, 
Albert McFarland and Chas. F. I/ummis became members of the com- 
pany. Mr. McFarland, full of good, grey years, is still at his post ; both 
the others have long since gone into other fields. May 1, 1887, the 
Times moved into its own new building, corner of Fort street (now 
Broadway) and First. Since then a large addition has been made to the 
land by purchases on each side and the building is now being notably 
enlarged. L. K. Mosher entered the firm in 1887 and has made his mark 
both as business manager and as editor. In 1897 Harry Chandler be- 
came business manager, and during Gen. Otis's absence in the Philip- 
pines he was in full charge, developing administrative power of a high 
order. Mr. Mosher, during the same period, had the editorial manage- 
ment. Will E. Chapin's cartoons have been a feature of the Times 
since 1894 Frank X. Pfaffinger has been book-keeper since 1887. 
From the first, Mrs. Kliza A. Otis, a lovable and talented woman, has 
been an effective member of the editorial staff 

From the old water-power threshing-machine of a ** Potter drum cyl- 
inder " which pounded out one side of 1400 sheets an hour in 1882, 
to the magnificent perfecting Hoe press which today prints, stitches, 
folds and delivers 48,000 eight-page, or 24,000 16-page, or 12,000 24-page 
copies of the Times per hour, is a long step. Between have come also 
five other presses, each bigger than its predecessor and more competent. 
Ten Mergenthaler linotypes were put in in July, '93, and four have since 
been added. In 1885, if I remember right, the circulation was about 
2700; now it is over 23,000. The capital stock at incorporation (Oct., 
1884) was $40,000, increased two years later to $60,000, and since then 
doubled four times— being set up to $960,000 Dec. 18, 1899. These fig- 
ures speak not only the success of the Times, but the astounding 
growth of the field in which it is published. 



To Carmen, 

BY C. P. HOLT. 

I've bowed before Australia's Rose, 
Columbia's Lily charmed my ej-e, 
While in my memory often glows 
The Red Hibiscus of Hawaii ; 
But here to thee the truth I'll tell, 
Time never can dissolve the spell 
By thee laid on me long ago, 
My Marigold of Mexico. 



84 



A Mission Saint s Day in 1868. 



JY D M. D. 




[OR nearly a century the 19th of August had been the 
great holiday of the year in the little California town of 
San Ivuis Obispo. It is an anniversary in the Mission's 
history — a Saint's day and a festival, consequently a 
notable day to all believers in saintship and bullfights. 
We accepted both with all the faith and reverence we 
could command. We knew that the history of a great 
State had been preserved in these old Missions. The 
annals that have come down to us are meager, the inci- 
dents are briefly told ; but the record is authentic. 

A few Franciscan Fathers, remarkable for their piety 
and courage, came to this western coast to christianize 
the native Indians. When they founded a mission it 
was their custom to give it the name of the saint to 
whom the day upon which it was founded was sacred. 
Thus, every mission has its patron saint, and this one 
is under the special care of Saint Louis, Bishop of 
Toulouse (1275-1298, A. D.),son of Charles of Anjou, 
King of Naples, canonized in 1317. 

The figure within the church, which represents the 
Mission's especial saint, is young and fair and pleas- 
ing ; and with the name and face are the associations 
of solemn ceremonies, and the yearly festivities of an older San Luis 
Obispo than is known to its present population. 

On the 19th of August, 1772 — the date is over the entrance to the 
Church — this Mission was established. Our first anniversary observ- 
ance of the day antedates its Centennial celebration four years — Aug. 
19th, 1868. It was something to remember, and we enjoyed the strang- 
ness and surprises of the day. This fourth Mission founded upon the 
Pacific Coast is four years older than American Independence. 

It has had its seasons of prosperity and adversity, and has been the 
silent witness of many changes. 

Upon the Southern Californian coast, the late summer is the season 
of dusty slopes, parched valleys and sunken streams. The land rests, 
and nature gives you a soft, sleepy welcome. There are no rain- clouds 
in the sky to soften the glare, while the fierce brightness surrounds and 
subdues one. This 19th of August, in the year 1868, was no exception 
to the general rule of summer days, which follow the cessation of the 
trade winds ; but we felt that we could not afford to neglect our first 
opportunity of honoring our own good Saint. We approached the 
straggling little village, of thirty years ago, from the southward, on 
the old Santa Barbara stage road. Even then it made a rather pretty 
picture in the distance. The encircling hills, the Bishop's peak and 
the Mission buildings and ruins were the chief features. The cultivated 
fields, pretty cottages and flower gardens were still in the future. The 
ancient church was the object of especial interest. The necessary re- 
pairs of later years have made it less interesting. When we first visited 
it it was hanging on desperately to the old Mission style. Now it is too 
much repaired ; and consequently spoiled. The former old roof and 
adobe walls were more in keeping with its age and history. The un- 
sightly ruins at the side and in the rear told their own pathetic story 
of neglect and decay. 

The Latin inscription over the entrance might frighten timid souls : 
*' How dreadful is this place. It is the house of God and the gate of 
Heaven." On entering we got our first glimpse of the old paintings, 
silver censers, incense jars, and candlesticks with saintly images, sacred 






A MISSION SAINT'S DAY IN 1868. 85 

cloths and vestments. In the little room behind the altar we found an 
ancient wardrobe and chest of drawers. These contained treasures in 
the line of rich robes of silk and velvet, some of which were brocaded 
with silver and gold, and bordered with shining braids and fringes. 
These gorgeous vestments were from Spain — gifts to the Mission in its 
infancy. The splendor of the robed Franciscan on festival occasions 
must have impressed the untutored Indian. 

We turned from the inspection of things sacred and curious, to follow 
the gathering multitude through the narrow street to the plaza where 
we might see the bullbaiting. Upon "San Luis Day" it seemed our 
Christian duty to take in this old-time ceremony. The very unspiritual 
diversion came from Mother Spain. The sweet-toned bells that called 
to prayers and worship were from the same far country. The small 
town was alive with people. Matrons and maidens crowded the side- 
walk, while their husbands, brothers and lovers, in all the bravery of 
Mexican saddles, jingling spurs and coiled reatas, charged up and down 
the one crooked street upon their favorite mustangs in the most reckless 




SAN r,UIS OBISPO MISSION. 

manner. The outer fringe of the motley gathering was composed of 
curious spectators — a fair and rather mixed contingent composed of 
French, Germans and Americans. Undaunted by the glare and heat of 
the August midday, we waited for the fight. We could not deny that 
we countenanced a barbarous entertainment, but we would wilt and bake 
and choke with dust to honor the good Saint Louis. 

Arrived at the place which had been enclosed for the sport, we found 
that seats had been prepared for the ladies. The men were generally 
mounted, and so well did they sit and ride, that horse and rider seemed 
one creature. The managers of the performance were gay and dis- 
tinguishable in red and yellow scarfs. The hum of voices in many un- 
familiar tongues disturbed the stillness, while the expectant throng 
waited and simmered. 

At last, after we had ceased to care for the promised "show," there 
was an uproar of trumpets, tambourines and voices, and theToro victim, 
with his tormentors, entered the enclosure. The skilled horseman 
whose duty it was to provoke the animals was armed with spears and 
barbed darts, with tiny flags attached. These were thrown at the bull 
to improve his temper, and it improved with each admonitory sting. A 
few footmen were in the enclosure, armed with dark-colored blankets. 



86 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

It was their part to divert the maddened creature and throw the blanket 
over his head in case of danger. One at a time, some twenty bulls were 
brought into the corral. Some ignored the hostility of the enemy, and 
others accepted the challenge and fought until exhausted. 

The festivities of our first attendance lasted from 10 a. m. till late in 
the afternoon. When the crowd dispersed, the more piously inclined re- 
turned to the church for prayers and vespers, while the gay and pleasure- 
loving folk proceeded to dance the hours away till morning dawned. 
The ball was a success, for pretty, dark-eyed girls and graceful dancers 
abounded. 

The centennial celebration (in 1872) of the founding of this Mission, 
outshone all previous affairs within the memory of the townspeople. 
Its like will never again be witnessed, as the Franciscan Fathers have 
left these sheltering walls. The more precious relics have been removed 
to their last outpost, beautiful Santa Barbara. Bullbaitingsare diversions 
of the past. At best they were poor imitations of the cherished amuse- 
ment of a Spanish ancestry. A later generation and civilization will 
have none of it. Our Saint Louis, the Bishop, has outgrown the barbaric 
sport of his earlier occupation of this Mission town. 




A Fiesta at Mesa Grande.* 

BY CONSTANCE GODDARD DU BOIS. 

Author of '■'■A Soul in Bronze." 

PON the return to the fiesta grounds the sec- 
ular pleasures of the day begin in earnest. 
A subdued murmur of laughter and conver- 
sation fills the air. Intelligent looking In- 
dian youths ride at a ring, or test their skill 
by picking up a handkerchief from the 
ground when at full gallop. It is not 
planned to give the Indian dances, for 
Father Antonio has long discouraged these reminders of bar- 
barism ; but the few white guests who are present take up a 
collection to bribe the dancer of the feather dance to show his 
skill, and a half dozen aged men and women enter with en- 
thusiasm upon its accomplishment. 

The master of the dance puts on a feather cap, and taking a 
wooden disk attached to a thong he whirls it rapidly through 
the air, producing a peculiar resonant vibration which is the 
summons to the dance. The old people range themselves to- 
gether and begin a minor chant to the rhythm of a large rattle 
with which the master of the dance keeps time. The younger 
members of the tribe stand in a circle about the space reserved 
for the dancer, and the white people look on from the vantage 
point of horses' backs and carriage seats. Suddenly the 
dancer runs into the ring, poises lightly before the elders, and 
salutes them by bending forward till the ends of two short 
sticks which he holds touch the ground. He wears a skirt of 
eagle feathers with short tights beneath. His bare chest and 



• See November number. 

Illustrated from photos, by the author. 



A FIESTA AT MESA GRANDE. 



87 



arms are painted in a fashion improvised for the occasion with 
wet wood ashes, and his face is unrecognizable through a coat- 
ing of the same, hastily applied. 

Inspired by the monotonous rhythm of the music, he begins 
to whirl lightly upon his toes, spinning like a top while he 




C. M. DaTis Eng. Co. ^^^ qjj) INDIAN OF MESA GRANDK. 



makes the circuit of the ring, at intervals leaping into the air 
and bringing his sticks together with a tapping noise, at which 
signal the master of the dance startles the echoes with an un- 
earthly whoop, and the elders' song becomes louder and more 
exhilarating. It is the weirdest music, rising and falling in 
wild cadences which seem of no relation to the laws of harmony, 
but possess a certain rude consistency of form. An old squaw, 
whose earliest religious worship was, no doubt, that of the In- 



88 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



dian dance, throws heart and soul into her singing. In the 
rapt expression of her dusky face there is no hint of the gentle 
ecstasy which filled old Angela's eyes as she sang the Sanfo in 
the christian church. An artist should have painted the one 
as the christian, the other as the pagan sibyl. 

The dancer continues the exercise until it becomes a wonder- 
ful feat of endurance, trying to the beholder. This seems to 




be an underlying idea of the Indian religious dance. Occa- 
sionally he pauses and rests his sticks upon the ground with 
his face toward the elders. The master of the dance enters 
the ring and traces mystic symbols upon the ground. The 
gyrations of the dancer are continued until suddenly he breaks 
through the circle and disappears amid the silence of the In-^ 
dian spectators and the plaudits of the white men. 



A FIRST A AT MESA GRANDE. 89 

The ** catamount dance " is given later by some visiting In- 
dians of the same tribe from over the hills. This is performed 
by eighteen or twenty of the younger men, who stand face to 
face in a double row closely linked together by interwoven 
arms, and who move as one body with a singular rhythmical 
action forward and back, one foot advanced with emphasis, 
and the swaying motion accompanied by a sing-song chant as 
wild and unmusical as that of the feather dance, and like it 
timed by the rattle vigorously wielded by the leader. This 
dance seems to typify the solidarity of the tribe, as well as to 
testify to their powers of endurance. They continue it with- 
out respite or relaxation until the complete circuit of the 
booths is made, the whole lasting nearly three hours. 

The moon climbs high, and throws a mellow light over all. 
Lanterns hung here and there illuminate the brush houses, 
and fires built upon the ground for the preparation of the eve- 
ning meal throw a bright glow upon the moving figures, the 
sleepy children and the gaunt dogs who make of these interi- 
ors a picturesque and homelike scene. 

In one ramada the floor is cleared and boards laid down for 
a white people's dance ; and here the younger Indians, bright- 
faced youths and girls carefully and neatly dressed, end the day 
by dancing quadrilles and waltzes to the accompaniment of one 
dismal violin which wails in time to the voice of a white man 
who ** calls ofi":" "Ladies to the right; gents to the left; 
swing your partners" — thus the dance goes merrily on. In 
the progress of civilization, the Indian braves have become 
transformed into ** gents." 

Dignity and decorum are maintained throughout. The 
manners of the dancers are quiet and modest. They glide 
through the waltz with a reserved aloofness of manner which 
robs it of the objectionable features which certain moralists 
find in it ; allowing it to serve as a civilizing agency in con- 
trast with the rude war dances of the past. 

It is pathetic to witness the yearning of the younger Indi- 
ans for the refinements of civilization which grinding poverty 
for the most part denies them. It is the ambition of one man 
to have some day a five-roomed house with a "sitting-room." 
To possess lace curtains for the windows is the acme of their 
dreams of luxury. 

In accordance with the commonly observed rule that land 
worth anything to any one else shall not be left in possession 
of an Indian, the reservations allotted to the Dieguenos are for 
the most part lots on rugged, barren hillsides where it is im- 
possible to gain a living from the soil. The industrious 
worker, husband and father, is confronted with the following 
problem : either to do such jobs as he can obtain with the 
neighboring farmers and ranchers at the rate of a dollar a day. 



90 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

meanwhile leaving his patch of ground neglected ; or to stay 
at home and work his land, out of which he cannot make a 
living for his family. At Mesa Grande there are frequent kill- 
ing frosts, and late storms that wash the pollen from the corn. 
There are often meager harvests when famine stares these peo- 
ple in the face. 

Forced by the greed of the white men to sell at the lowest 
figure and to buy at the highest, the Indian is ground beneath 
the upper and the nether millstone. 

His deep love of race and family, and the fondness with 
which his heart clings to the resting places of his dead, are 
factors of the case unregarded by those who urge that he shall 
leave his reservation and go out into the world to make a liv- 
ing like other men. What opening is there for his success in 
a land where white men, owners of broad and fertile acres, 
complain of hard times and scant profits ? 

It is hoped by the friends of the Dieguefios that the govern- 
ment may be induced to furnish them with a few herds of cat- 
tle which might be raised on the wild grasses of their barren 
hillsides. 

It is only necessary to compare the general character of the 
Mission Indians with that of the tribes who have known the 
white man only as a selfish conqueror, to realize the capabili- 
ties of the Indian's character for culture and civilization. 

The good deed of the Mission friars still shines brightly in 
contrast with the selfish neglect, the conscienceless greed, and 
the cold-hearted cynicism which, from that day to this, have 
characterized the treatment of these disinherited children of 
the soil. 

Waterbnry, Conn. 



©p' 



"^ My Brother's Keeper. 

BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS. 
VI. 

>HIS little series of papers as to our American duty toward the 
first Americans (whom we call Indians, still content with the 
blunder of Columbus in 1492) has struck responsive chords all 
across and up and down the United States. Literally hundreds of letters 
and scores of press clippings have been pouring in upon the writer. 
Without a single exception the letters, and with only one exception the 
papers, express keen sympathy with this crusade lor justice and mercy. 
That was to be expected of Americans. Fair play and common sense 
are not lonely in this country. The hearty godspeed of these widely 
scattered people, hardly one of whom is personally known to me, is 
gratifying even to a hardheaded person who needs no " bracing -up." 
Dozens of these correspondents are Indian-teachers — not the pampered 
oJB5cials who fatten on our Indian policy, but the single-hearted men and 
women who are giving their lives to the work, on slender pay, and with 
scant consideration from their political " superiors." There is a mass 
of personal testimony from personal experience, sufficient to convince an 




C. M. Davis Bng. Co. 



AN INDIAN MOTHER. 



Photo, by C. P. Lummis. 



92 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

unbiased person. But I shall use little or none of this material ; partly 
because it is notorious that teachers who venture to see the brutalities 
and follies that are in our present system are punished by the machine, 
and I will use nothing anonymously ; and partly because, without any 
borrowing, I have seen with these eyes enough and to spare. To detail 
even a tithe of my own experience with the ignorance and injustice of 
our Indian policy would outwear the patience of average readers. I do 
not wish to tire them. There are many topics easier and pleasanter to 
write upon. But I do desire to set such Americans to thinking as care to 
think for humanity and that finer sense of honor which should be the 
touchstone of real Americanism ; and to give them suflBcient data for 
thinking straight in a matter too little understood. Even those who do 
not intimately care for Indians/^??' se may be able to care for justice and 
wisdom. Even an Indian is entitled to these things ; and surely we can- 
not afford to give even an Indian less. But we are giving him less. I 
speak quite as much for the sake of Americans as of Indians. It is 
worse to be oppressor than oppressed. It needs no Virginius to invoke 
the 

" Dwellers in the nether glades, 

Avengers of the slain, 

By this dear blood I cry to you 

Do right between us twain ; 

And even as Appius Claudius 
^ Hath dwelt by me and mine, 

Deal ye with Appius Claudius 

And all the Claudian line." 

History — some call it God — does so, anyhow. With whatever measure 
we mete it shall be meted to us at last. Not by lightning strokes nor by 
the rain of brimstone, but by the political and social decay that comes 
soon or late to any people that fail to deal justly. This is an age of 
astonishing benevolence ; and no nation is tenderer hearted than this, 
when it sees. But it does not always see, and it sometimes trusts too 
much to the interested dispensers of its charity. 

There are differences of official attitude toward any criticism of the 
Service. Some are willing to learn ; some take discussion as a personal 
affront. 

Miss Estelle Reel, General Superintendent of Indian Schools (whose 
"job" I am sure this does not jeopardize), closes a womanly letter thus : 

*' I have been trying to follow your advice to ' learn all I can, and trust 
my instincts as a woman.' The longer I stay in the field, the more I see 
the necessity of patience in the attempt to civilize the Indian, and not to 
expect him to become the equal of his white brother in civilization at a 
single bound. I am trying to proceed very cautiously and very slowly, 
and if at any time you find that I am making mistakes I will appreciate 
your advice and be very grateful indeed." 

No such modesty marks Major Pratt, autocrat of the Carlisle school. 
He is the only person thus far heard from who has nothing to learn and 
nothing to feel. This is not strange, as he is the head and front of our 
offending against a wise and just treatment of the Indian. In his Car- 
lisle school organ, The Red Man (a very appropriate index to the Major's 
eyesight ; he never saw a red Indian — except by virtue of paint. The 
Indian is brown ; we are red, and Indians are observant enough to 
make the distinction). Major Pratt comforts himself and meets my 
charges by calling this "a thin little magazine," and me "a fantastic 
litterateur." This is the horizon of his logic — except his telling argu- 
ment that I am "conceited'' for calling attention to his utter lack of 
scholarship in the literature and science of the thing whereby he makes 
his living. Other people than I, he says, have known the Indian and 
mastered what scholars have learned. That is true. But he leaves it to 
be inferred that Maj. Pratt is one of them — and that is not true. He not 
only has not read, he cannot read, the vast majority of the scientific 
literature of this subject. Nor is it true, I believe, that any person who 



MY BROTHER'S KEEPER. 93 

is a master of that field does or would approve of Maj. Pratt's drill-ser- 
geant methods. He is loyally supported and admired by thousands of 
the kindest-hearted people in the United States, who wish to do good but 
do not care to study a dozen years and live in the wilderness to find out 
just how. They take his word that he knows how — and he believes it 
as fondly as they do. 

It is true that this magazine is "thin." So is a razor A leaf from 
the fifth chapter of Matthew is less paper than a volume of the Congres- 
sional Record y but I presume it can be just as truthful. 

While I am not a "litterateur," it is very probable that the "fantastic" 
charge sticks — though it is of an ill grace from Maj. Pratt. That we are 
both uncommonly homely men is not our fault ; and it had never occur- 
red to me to use his face as an argument. That heaven has visibly 
pictured him of the brute type, plain for all folk to see, is a minor mat- 
ter — what concerns us is that his policy is brutal. He is, I believe, hon- 
est and well-meaning ; that he is forceful we all know ; but if ever 
spirituality was left out by the Creator from a bull's physical tenement, 
it is here. Whatever comfort Maj. Pratt can find in the fact that God 
took very little pains with my frontispiece, he is welcome to. But 
whatever it may be, there is nothing "fantastic" about mercy, fair play, 
justice, knowledge — except to politicians. 

This is germane here only as showing how dumb of logic are the 
enemy. Some pretty serious charges have been made in these pages ; 
responsibly, openly and of knowledge. The only answer is to the effect 
that the prosecutor weighs one hundred pounds less than the accused ; 
that he would not fetch as much on the hoof, if both were pork, at fifteen 
cents a pound ; that therefore he must be wrong. No argument is 
brought from history, none from the study of man — they could not be. 
The shapers of this misguided and oppressive philanthropy are not 
only not scholars — they are not even readers. Major Pratt's system sat- 
isfies Major Pratt. Therefore it is all right. Now, "men of action" are 
a good thing in their place. I have even been suspected of being one. 
But the most strenuous man who tries to "do statecraft" without reading 
what mankind had learned before he came, is merely an ox. He may be 
strong, he may be good — but God have mercy on the load he drags at his 
heels, if it be human. 

The natural doubt whether Major Pratt ever read a book in his life is 
dispelled by a choice production of his own school, which he has cer- 
tainly read. Whether his idea of Indians inspired this book, or the 
book gave him his idea of Indians, is immaterial. Either hypothesis is 
equally likely, so far as the evidence shows. The book is a slender volume 
called Stiya^ a Carlisle Indian Girl at Home, and is alleged to be 
"based upon the author's actual observations." This is mendacious at 
the outset; for most of the book is confessedly hearsay. Written by 
and published for (the printers are an honorable house which disclaims 
all responsibility) one M. Burgess, then an1 now an ofl5cial in Maj. 
Pratt's school, the book is grossly ignorant of Indian nature, ridicu- 
lously untrue in its color of Indian life at home. It is a printed reflex 
of Maj. Pratt's mind about the Indian, as of record in his speeches. It 
seems also to be the only "historical source" from which Dr. Gates, Sec- 
retary of the Indian Commission, has drawn his information. But I 
trust — and believe — it does not stand for the code of honor of either of 
these gentlemen. For the book is a monument not only of ignorant 
untruth, but of intentional dishonesty. In unmouthed English, it is a 
thief. It is in violation of the laws of the United States, as well as of com- 
mon honesty. Its only important illustrations are stolen. The author 
has taken copyrighted photographs, mutilated them to remove the prop- 
erty-mark, and added insult to injury by using them to hurt the friends 
of the owner. 

Ivaw and honesty may also be "fantastic" to Major Pratt; but I do 



94 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

not believe so. Heretofore his underling was to blame ; but this day it 
is Major Pratt who becomes responsible for the theft committed and per- 
petuated under cover of his school. I do not expect him to recognize 
the ignorance of the book, nor its absurdity. But he knows now, by 
these presents, that he is employing a thief. And if these presents are 
not good enough for him, he may consult the copyright records of the 
Ivibrarian of Congress. 

It would be absurd to blame Major Pratt for the first commission of 
this peculiarly brazen theft. It is only now that he takes the place of M. 
Burgess at the bar ; and his acquittal is easy. Along with some severe 
strictures, these pages have repeatedly expressed conviction of Maj. 
Pratt's honesty — and by two simple things an honest man can acquit 
himself altogether from this predicament. Of course an honest man 
will not keep a thief on a salary as an example to the nation's wards. 
And of course an honest man will fulfill the law of the country regard- 
ing violations of copyright. That law calls for the destruction of the 
stolen plates, and the payment of $1 to the owner of the copyright for 
each and every copy printed of each plate. I for one would much 
rather see Major Pratt's heart enlightened than his very comfortable 
pocket mulcted ; but he will agree with me that money is nothing to a 
man's honor. As for the person for robbery of whose property Carlisle 
and its absolute ruler are responsible from now on, I am authorized to 
say for him that he will contribute to the Landmarks Club, a corporation 
engaged in a public beneficence, whatever moneys Maj. Pratt may for- 
ward or cause to be forwarded to said owner of the stolen pictures, in 
satisfaction of the law of the nation Under the law, that would amount 
to several thousand dollars — a noble lift for a worthy enterprise. The 
stolen photographs face pp. 12 and 74 in Stiya. It is now up to Major 
Pratt. 



• A New Force. 

WF any doubt as to the "arrival" of Dr. C. W. Doyle, of 
I Santa Cruz, Cal., survived the publication of his Tam- 
ing of the Jungle, it is fully set at rest by his Shadow of 
Quong Lungy reviewed on another page. The man who can 
write two such books, hand-running, has a seat reserved 
among the few California writers worth cataloguing. Both 
are thrilling stories ; both are rich in local color of the better 
sort ; both are dramatic to a rare pitch, and both are strong 
with the strength which does not spill over. Though their 
scenes are so far apart as India and California, they find hu- 
manity in each — and the elemental humanity which is possibly 
best in life, certainly best in literature. The little artificial 
humanities are like the ante-bellum State banknotes — possibly 
good where the bank is known. The older, larger sort, are 
like a British sovereign, current the world over. And it is Dr. 
Doyle's success that he strikes the elemental gold. 

Dr. Doyle was born Aug. 29, 1852, at the foot of the Himal- 
yas, in the little hill-station of Landour. His father, a 
British officer, was killed in the Sepoy war five years later. 
Educated in India, the son studied medicine in England, and 
graduated with honors from the University of Aberdeen, in 
1875. A dozen years ago he sold out his medical practice in 




C. M. navis Kng. Co 



/r.^^y 



96 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



England, devoted some time to travel, and came to settle in 
Santa Cruz, where he is still a practicing physician. He has 
had the advantage of a competent and friendly critic in Am- 
brose Bierce, resident of the same pretty town, to whom his 
second book is dedicated in terms at which Bierce will perhaps 
smile quietly, and some shall doubtless sneer. 

Doyle's literary career is young but encouraging. He has 
won several short-story prizes — whatever that may amount to 
— including the Argonaut competition last year and a preceding 
one for the San Francisco Examiner. The vital part, how- 
ever, is not that his stories win prizes, but that they are good. 
A man whose launching upon literature is so full of promise 
may fairly be expected to make a handsome voyage. Dr. 
Doyle is now gathering together a book of poems. Of the 
quality of his verse some notion may be had from the well-set 
stanzas printed upon another page. I^. 



Savihg The Ranch. 

A STORY OF THE BOOM OF '87. 

BY T S VAN DYKE, 

A uthor of ' Millionaires of a Day." 

N three years you can get it back for government price," 
said Buggins, a prosperous cactus ranchero from San 
Ignacio, to Higgles, a thriving tarweed-farmer from Santa 
Rosalia, as the latter told him he had just sold his ranch 
to some Kastern fools for $35,000. 

" Do you mean to insinuate that I would have it back 
at any price?" 

"Why, you have been in California so long you 
couldn't get away." 

'* Maybe you think you are a judge of dust. Wait till 
I get the rest of the twenty- five thousand in coin, and if 
you have any freight for the East you can ship it on my 
coat-tail. By the way, I heard you had sold your ranch, 
too. What are you going to do yjith your money ?" 

" Well, I can get married now. The blasted ranch wouldn't support 
one person." 

" Ivook out you don't lend it to somebody else with a ranch, or you 
will be ranching again before you know it. I had to take ten thousand 
of mine back in a mortgage, and I'm awful shaky for fear I'll have to 
take back the whole. I'm looking for a fool to saddle it on." 

" Well, don't be looking at me. I wouldn't take back a mortgage 
for five cents on mine and have the other fellow pay taxes and cost of 
recording," replied Buggins. 

It was in the winter of 1886 and 1887, that period that in perspective 
now seems so incredible, but before the great real estate •* boom" in 
Southern California had reached the crazy point. Nearly all the old 
settlers, whose ignorance of the land's peculiarities, with their shiftless 
methods of doing everything, made them think the country worthless 
except for stock range, were laughing at the strangers who came in such 
numbers to tell them the land was really good for something. They 
hastened to take the " tenderfoot's" gold and chuckled over their 




SAVING THE RANCH. 



97 



shrewdness in getting such prices for nothing. The only thing that 
dimmed the brightness of their smiles was the mortgage they some- 
times had to take for a part of the purchase-price, and against which 
they rebelled as far as they could, no matter 



how small it might be 

** I give it up !" said Higgles a year 
later. " I could stand the cold winters 
of the Kast ; but the summers, with 
the hot nights, the lack of elbow- 
room and the smell of the towns was 
too much for me. California is the 
place for a gentleman of means." 

" Yes, and it's all right now for busi- 
ness, ' ' replied Buggins from 
under a shining silk hat. '*I 
have made two hundred 
thousand while you have 
been wasting your money." 

"Not much! I've got 
twenty-five 



JzL 



thousand in 
United States 
bonds back 
Bast in a 




safety vault. 
And they'll 
stay there, 
too." 

"Rust, man, 
The worst 
of waste I 
it's like 
sneaking around 
cactus patch for a 
cottontail with an old-time 
muzzle-loader, the way we 
used to do. We are hunt- 
ing elephants now, with 
cannon — and bagging 'em^ 
too, at every pop. I'll double 
my money in three months. I'll 
be rich yet." 
'• Don't you call two hundred thou- 
sand rich?" said Higgles, whose bonds 
suddenly failed to look as large as they 
did. 
" Why, I suppose so, for folks that don't 
know anything about finance. But when 
you have a dead snap on a million or two, 
it ain't much account. You know I always 
said the country was no good except for a 
playground for rich people. The world is 
just finding out where it is, and the moneyed folks are 
pouring in so fast we have to lie awake at nights to keep 
them from getting away with our best land before we know 
it," said Buggins, as he took Higgles into his twenty- 
thousand-dollar house and introduced him to the diamonds 
that glittered on the breast of his new wife. 
*' We sat around and let 'em get away with our best goods, but we 
have waked up. There's my old place, that I took thirty thousand for, 
is worth a quarter of a million today. Think of that sacrifice ! But if 
I hadn't had sense enough to stay here and buy some more I would have 
been left as bad as you are," continued Buggins. 



93 LAND OF SUNSHINE- 

"Don't see as I'm left so mighty bad," replied Higgles, whose voice 
lacked the firmness of conviction, however. 

** You never had any sand, anyhow. You see you don't even dare to 
ask about your old ranch. You wouldn't know the place. They are 
making a city of it, and she is going to be a daisy, too. Sale begins 
next week. You want to go out and see how the world does business 
when it gets a genuine move on," said Buggins. 

" But how can they sell it without paying my mortgage?" replied Hig- 
gles, who thought it time to say something that showed he, too, knew 
something of business. 

"Ho-ho-ho! Lord! man, what an unturned flap- jack you are! 
Why, to get property at all nowadays, you have to lay down the cold 
stuff so quick there is no time to monkey with such trifling matters. 
They fix them afterward . They'll pay the mortgage so quick it will 
make your head swim, and throw in a chromo to boot." 

" They will ? Then you could sell it for me, couldn't you ?" 

" Say, it's almost a shooting insult to offer a man a ten per cent, secu- 
rity here now, when he can double his money in sixty days on almost 
anything in sight. I wish you had your bonds into money so that you 
could try it. It might make a man of you. As an old friend I feel 
sorry for your verdancy." 

Strange coincidence. Something of the same line of thought flitted 
across Miggles's fancy. The bonds began to look contemptible, instead 
of small. 

Linganore was a netwok of white stakes, covering some six hundred 
acres that lay on a charming bench on the breast of a range of hills, 
looking down upon the sea that miles away smiled in silvery peace be- 
yond a panorama of hill and dale, rolling in a thousand shades of green 
beneath the sunlight of a perfect winter day. 

" Jewhilikins !" exclaimed Higgles, who almost failed to recognize 
the place. ** Why, the cactus and cobblestones are all gone, and there 
isn't a horned toad in sight." 

'* All the country needed was new blood to show us what it was worth. 
We put on airs over the Hexicans and Indians, but we were no better. 
The first American settlers are all horned toads, anywhere," said 
Buggins. 

" What a fool I was," said Higgles to himself, as he saw the grove 
where his shanty had stood turned into a park, with the live oaks all in 
the golden tinge of new life, while the thrush and the mocking-bird 
were singing their best to the warm sun that sparkled on the myriad 
leaves. Beside the grove in the glory of fresh paint was the new hotel, 
surrounded with roses, geraniums, heliotropes, and the many other 
flowers that here make such a brilliant display in so short a time. 
Higgles had never supposed it possible to get more than enough water 
to drink ; but now fountains and sprinklers were playing on the lawns, 
and on the hill back of the hotel was a large reservoir with the marks 
of a pipe line running to a caiion some three miles away, where there 
was plenty of water. His bonds suddenly looked meaner than ever, 
while the mortgage on all this glory seemed absolutely ridiculous 

The reguiadon free ride and free lunch had brought out, as usual on 
such occasions, a goodly crowd which, with the crash of brass and 
drums, still farther expanded the ideas of Higgles, who stood with 
mouth and eyes wide open, as the auctioneer began : 

"This choice bit of the earth has some peculiar advantages. You 
see that ridge, down there between us and the sea, divides the fog, and 
throws it each side, so that this place rests in God's pure sunshine." 

" George ! That's so," exclaimed Higgles. 

"Didn't I tell you?" replied Buggins. "Even fog-splitters are 
worth money nowadays." 



SAVING THE RANCH. 99 

"You'll have nothing but pure sunshine the year round, and in two 
years you can sit under your own vine and fig tree and suck ozone and 
oranges of your own raising," continued the auctioneer. 

Those who saw bright skies, soft air and brilliant earth in December, 
1887, combine with a flood of crazy strangers to set even more crazy 
the Californians themselves, need hardly be told that the first lot brought 
$200, though nearly ten miles from anywhere, and with no more excuse 
for the existence of even the smallest village than there was on any 
other of a thousand spots equally beautiful in scenery and climate 
within fifty miles. But in those times no one ever asked such ques- 
tions. Eyes were fi:!f:ed only on advancing prices and the ever increas- 
ing flood of wealth direct from the old solid East, where people were 
supposed to know something of values. Consequently it was but a 
few minutes before lots reached $250, and went faster and faster as the 
price increased. 

" That's old Bowler, one of the biggest manufacturers in the West. 
You bet he knows a good thing when he sees it," said Buggins, as a 
portly old citizen with gold spectacles bid $27v'5 and took six lots at that 
much a lot. "He's buying to double his money before he goes home 
in the spring. He'll do it, too Lots of these rich folks are paying the 
entire expenses of their trip on just one buy." 

"That's Mundell, one of the big bankers of 'Frisco," continued 
Buggins, as a sharp-eyed man took several lots at $300. " Folks north 
have been turning up their noses at this country for years, just as we 
did. But they have found out it is the best part of the State." 

"Yes, and they're getting in out of the wet as fast as their money 
will let 'em," added a stranger by the side of Higgles. " That banker 
is going to retire and build here. His house alone will almost double 
the value of lots. The plans are in town already drawn, and it's a 
beauty." 

" Durned if they are going to get away with the whole of it, any- 
how! " said Buggins, as he bid $25 over everyone, "I'm tired of seeing 
these outsiders come in and make it all." 

" So am I," remarked another old settler, whom Higgles had failed 
to recognize in his shaven face, glistening high hat, and diamond pin. 
"Three-seventy-five," he called out in a sonorous voice that indicated 
plenty of money back of it. 

" Four hundred ! " yelled Buggins, to the auctioneer. 

Big-eyed and silent. Higgles stood wondering whether he was a fool 
or what ; while lot after lot in blocks of three, four and five, as well as 
singly, went at a constantly advancing figure to actual buyers of a kind 
never seen at auctions elsewhere and nearly all of the highest respect- 
ability. There never was a fairer sale, for on this last swell of the great 
wave there was no need of " cappers," and no auctioneer would be 
bothered with them. Before Higgles could decide the question, over 
a hundred and fifty lots had been sold, the price was at $650, and he 
was beginning to wonder why he had not bought a few at the start, just 
for fun if nothing else. From that stage it is but a step to wondering 
if there is not still time to do the same thing and make some money, 
even if not as much as you could have done by starting at the bottom. 
Higgles took that step. 

Under the midday sun of the loveliest of winter days, surrounded by 
wealth, brains and ripe business experience from all parts of our 
country, in a steady fire of enthusiastic talk, all directed on one point — 
the future of the section and especially of the new town — the idea grew. 

" This morning I offered only residence property so as to get a little 
idea of what the society is going to be here," said the auctioneer after 
lunch. "You can judge of that now from the character of those who 
have bought. From the character of those who own the property and 
the money they have already spent on the hotel, waterworks, railroad 



loo LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

and other improvements, and the amount they have invested here, you 
can see that they will keep their word about making it a great business 
town as well as a residence city. Not only will it be a nucleus from 
which will spread a civilization and refinement that will take the world 
by storm, but it will capture the trade of the vast country back of it that 
is now being so rapidly developed. I will now offer the finest business 
corner in the whole." 

" Hanged if I don't try a whack at it, just for fun," said Higgles to 
himself. But before he could bring his timorous lips to act somebody 
had bid $800. A wealthy widow from Denver raised the bid twenty-five, 
a Chicago lumber merchant called out eight hundred and fifty just as 
Miggles was getting ready to do so, and a heavy paper manufacturer 
from Massachusetts swept it away at eight-seventy-five before Miggles 
could whip his tongue into shape. 

" Am I going to let them make it all ? " he growled to himself, as the 
wine and the excitement acted and reacted. "Why, that was the best 
corner in town. But the others can be made as good by getting enough 
of them." 

A sudden new light gleamed in his eye, and he pushed a few steps 
toward the stand. 

"One thousand dollars," he bawled, as the next corner was ofifered. 
There was a sensation in the crowd as this, the largest raise of the day, 
was made. A minute's time was lost in trying to get a look at the rare 
mortal who operated on such a heavy scale, during which the auction- 
eer, who rarely loses an opportunity to gratify anyone that wishes to 
astonish a crowd in that way, knocked it down to him before anyone 
could interfere. 

" There is the greatest triumph of foresight we have yet seen," said 
the auctioneer. "That, ladies and gentlemen, is the man that sold us 
this property. He is not too proud to admit that our judgment in buy- 
ing it was far better than his in selling it, and he is hastening to retrieve 
his mistake. He looks, too, like a man that can do it, for — " 

" Take the other two corners at the same price," interrupted Miggles. 

" They're yours, my friend," said the aiictioneerin a twinkling, while 
the crowd stood astonished for a moment at this unusual proceeding. 
But the auctioneer was ready for this emergency and quickly said— 

"I will reserve for the owners of the property every alternate inside 
lot. Time moves so fast in this country that we may get left ourselves. 
Now, who wants the next lot to the corner ? " 

"Give you a thousand for it," yelled Buggins, but the crowd that 
had hesitated a minute to take in the full extent of the reservation came 
surging back with bids and swept it away from Buggins and M ggles 
both at eleven hundred before they knew what they were doing. 

Reader, were you one of the old settlers who sold out for a handsome 
competency, and afterward nobly resolved that no Eastern nabob should 
get rich on your property ? Do you remember how you rushed into the 
breach with the money that would have kept you in old age and left 
your family in comfort when you died? And do you remember how 
easy that rush was, when gold was jingling and genuine bank checks 
floating like snovyflakes down on the table of the clerk of the auction ? 
Do you remember when it looked as if money had just been discovered, 
and everyone was trying to find out by experiment what it was good 
for? If so, you can understand how, before the close of the sale, the 
mortgage was paid off, and Miggles owed more than the bonds would 
sell for. And possibly you remember that this was not the only time 
something similar happened during the great boom. 

* » * * 

Three years later Miggles was hoeing potatoes in a block that stood 
in the center of a silent town, while Buggins was sitting on the fence. 



THE STORY OF TIN-A. 



lOI 



" Pretty hard times, isn't it, Mig? *' said Buggins. 

*• Why, no," replied Higgles. " On the whole I don't see as I've got 
any kick coming. I had lots of fun out of it. I've only got one three- 
hundreth part of the ranch I once owned, but I'm making just three 
hundred times the amount of grub out of it that I did befoie out of the 
whole. The boom has been a benefit that way, anyhow." 

'* Well, you've got the city waterworks to play with. I haven't either 
water or land." 

"You can live off the old woman's diamonds, though, like lots more 
of 'em." 

** They're done eat up already," sighed Buggins. 

Loa Angeles, Cftl. 



The Story of Tin-a. 




T 



BY SUI SIN FAH. 

T WAS a fresh winter morning. I had been riding 
many miles ; and feeling tired and hungry, I dis- 
mounted and knocked at the cottage door. It was 
opened by a stalwart Chinaman in a blue blouse, who, 
after listening to my plea for breakfast, invited me to 
enter a room, above the door of which was inscribed in 
Chinese characters, " Here is Peace." 

The perfume of flowers stole to my nostrils from the 
plot of ground below the window, which was cram full 
of color. In California, flowers scarcely seem to need 
much care, but those that bloomed in that small space 
gave me the impression of having been lovingly and 
patiently tended by one whose fondness for flowers was 
inherent. As my eyes strayed over the garden they 
rested upon a tiny Chinese woman bending over a large bush of scented- 
leaf geranium, and plucking therefrom superfluous leaves. She was a 
quaint little thing, not as pretty as some Chinese women that I have seen, 
but by far the most interesting. Her small oval face was a transparent 
yellow, her mouth large, her nose diminutive, but the goodness that 
speaks from lips and eyes was hers, and her bearing was graceful and 
simple. 

Who was she ? Why was she living there ? When my sturdy host re- 
appeared with an appetizing breakfast of boiled rice, broiled chicken 
and salad I questioned him. 

** Who that little lady? " he echoed, then added, "Wait for one minute, 
perhaps you know more I bring her to you." 

In answer to some whispered words from him she shyly came toward 
me. I was myself somewhat embarrassed, but said, "It is so unsatisfac- 
tory eating alone. Won't you breakfast with me ? " 

Whereupon she demurely helped herself to a lump of sugar and be- 
gan to munch it between teeth which resembled nothing so much as two 
rows of fresh sweet-corn. 

We talked of flowers, and her knowledge of the life of plants amazed 
me ; also her original remarks on America and what she had seen of life 
on the Coast. Surmising that the circumstances of her life had not been 
ordinary, I drew her out to talk of herself, and here give her story as 
she related it. 

"I was born on the island of Formosa, so I am not a Cantonese like 
most of the Chinese who come to this country. My home was very 
beautiful. When I shut my eyes I can see it through a rainbow of col- 



The several simple, naive, human stories of the C*Mforni'» Chinese written by this bright little Chineso 
woman and printed in this magazine in the past few years, have been widely enjoyed and copied. The Youth's 
Companion announces her among its contributors for next year —Ed. 



H^'-v^' 



mvf^T^ 



% 



^•■vv'tfffci:^ 



I02 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

ors. It was built on the side of a mountain which was ever green. Be- 
low our house and grounds were tea plantations, and further down, with 
trees and grasses lying between, were my father's rice terraces. 

** I was but seven years of age when my own mother died, but No Dong 
and Sie Yau, my father's secondary wives, were always very kind, and 
treated me like a young and favorite sister. 

** Not far from where we lived dwelt a family with whom my people 
were very intimate. One member of that household, little A-Ho, was 
the dear friend of my childhood and youth. We were of the same age, 
but she was so sweet and pretty with her little round mouth, bright eyes 
and soft shining hair. Many a happy day did we spend together, pick- 
ing flowers on the hillsides or seaweed from the rocks on the seashore. 

•'But happy days go by. A-Ho married a wealthy young man of good 
family and went to live on the other side of the island. How dull the 
days after her departure ! The very sun seemed to have ceased to shine. 
So two years passed. One day my father told me that he was making 
arrangements for my marriage, and that my future husband was to be 
the man who had married A-Ho. This news made me both glad and sad 
— glad because I should again be with my friend, and sad because I waa 
to leave my home for the first time in my life. 

" Then came a long letter from A-Ho — a letter which brought me my 
woman's soul. A-Ho pleaded with me not to become wife to her hug- 
band. She said, * Tin-A, I love him, and cannot bear to see another in 
my place. My affection for you has never changed, and my eyes long to 
behold you, but not, oh, not as a sharer in him. My sin is that I have 
borne my husband no son, and to you would be given the first wife's 
place. So Tin-A, so dear, have compassion on your poor A-Ho, and be 
not the instrument through which she is made a discarded wife.* 

"My heart burned within me, and the tears that did not fall were be- 
hind my eyes. I recalled the hour when A-Ho and I had parted. Be- 
tween her sobs she had murmured, 'Love me always and never grieve 
me,' and clinging to her I had promised that the grave should receive 
me before act of mine should pain her or my heart prove false. 

' 'I went to my father and besought him to deliver me from the marriage 
contract that he had made, and to stay the preparations for the bridal, 
but he laughed, and said : 

" 'Foolish girl, if you do not go to Ah Kim, he will choose some 
other.' And when I still pleaded he became very angry, and I saw that 
my words fell on his wrath like oil on fire. As to my stepmothers, they 
feared my father too greatly to interfere ; besides they thought that my 
mind was sick. 

"Now, just at that time, sojourning in the valley, was a company of 
actors. They were considered very clever, and had performed not only 
in all the chief cities on the mainland, but in America as well. One day 
my father invited these actors to come to our house and perform before 
the family and a number of guests. They came and gave an entertain- 
ment which so highly delighted those assembled that my father had 
them come again and again. 

"The female characters were taken by boys, and an old man was rep- 
resented by a youth wearing a false beard ; another youth with a shrill 
voice played the part of an old woman. 

"They made quite a little money, for all the invited guests rewarded 
them at the conclusion of the acts and my father did likewise. 

"As for myself, having never before seen such performances and such 
tinsel and fancy dresses, I was much impressed and wonderstruck and 
longed to be a man and an actor. One play was a representation of the 
joys and woes of a beautiful princess who flees from her home for love of 
some humble young man whom her parents are opposed to. (Even in 
China custom is sometimes disregarded and affection followed.) Well, 
this play so excited my imagination that then and there while watching 



THE DESERT QUEEN. 4<^ 

it I resolved that I too would leave my home — not, however, for love of 
any man, more because I feared one, for Ah Kim was a cruel man. Aye, 
even cruel to A-Ho who loved him so. 

"I made the acquaintance of some of the actors. It was hard, but as 
you say in America, * Where there's a will there's a way.' The chief, 
an elderly man, who had his wife with him — after listening to my story 
and inspecting my jewelry, decided to comply with my wish and take 
me with his troupe to America. His wife would like a companion, and 
it was very likely that he would be able to find me a good husband 
amongst the Chinamen of San Francisco. When, however, I urged 
that I desired to become an actress, he laughed, and said that that was 
impossible. He himself had been bought from his guardian at an early 
age, and whilst learning to play had been treated very cruelly by his 
masters. Indeed, if one bound out to learn to be an actor should be 
beaten to death for disobedience, inaptitude or want of application, no 
notice would be taken of the circumstance. Moreover, I was a woman. 

"So I came to America. Hum Ling gave up play acting, sold my 
jewelry, and bought the vegetable farm behind this cottage. He and his 
wife, who are both my very good friends, attend to its cultivation, and 
I help the flowers to grow. Hum Ling has many a time chosen a hus- 
band for me but, remembering A-Ho, I fear to wed." 

That was all of Tin-A's story. I rose to go, after thanking her, but she 
looked at me so wistfully as I passed out of the door that I turned and 
asked her one more question. 

"Am I happy?" she repeated. "How can that be when the greatest of 
all sins is to sin against one's parents? Ah, no. Heaven will surely 
punish me for my unfilial conduct. And yet — I am not altogether with- 
out gladness, for I know that I saved A-Ho much pain. Ah Kim did 
not marry again until my dear friend had slipped into the Land of 
Shades, which happened but twenty moons after I had left the country 
which heaven loves. * ' 

Seattlt, Wash. 



The Desert Queen* 

BY SHARLOT M. HALL. 

I was Zenobia in the olden time 

And ruled the desert from Palmyra's walls. 
I flung my challenge to imperial Rome 

So far that still across the years it calls 
In proud defiance ; but my halls are dust. 

The jackal suns him at the temple door. 
The wind-blown sands hide street and corridor 

And heap the palace floor. 

Forgotten is Aurelian and his might. 

Above his grave the beggar children smile, 
And I who ruled the Bast in other days 

Am mistress now of many a Western mile ; 
Crowned with a coronal of ruby flowers, 

And armed and guarded with a thousand spears, 
I dream until the mirage re-creates 

In sh mmering light the splendor of past years. 



Pr«seott, Aric. 



'Cereus Giganteus, the " Giant c.ctus ' of the Southwest. 



I04 

^ Pioneers of the Far West. 

THE EARLIEST HISTORY OF CALIFORNIA, NEW MEXICO, ETC, 

From Documents Never Before Published in English. 

III. 

The translation of Fray Zdrate-Salmer6n's "Relacion" of events in 

California and New Mexico (begun in the November number) is here 

continued : 

48. The next day after having arrived, the Adelantado sent the Cap- 
tain Gerdnimo Mdrquez with four soldiers up the river to discover this 
nation of Amacavas Indians. In a short time he brought two Indians, 
whom the Adelantado regaled, and sent them to call the rest. They 
said that they would do it and that they would bring something to eat. 
On the day following, as the Adelantado saw the Indians were making 
loads, he commanded that twelve soldiers should prepare to go for food 
to the settlement ; but before the soldiers went there arrived more than 
forty Indians loaded with corn, beans and squashes, and then arose an 
Indian who was called Curraca, that in their language means Lord, who 
made a long speech, giving to understand, as they presumed, that he 
was pleased to have seen the Spaniards and that he desired their friend- 
ship.! 

49. Here was the first news they had of the lake of Copal la, from 
where they suppose the Mexicans went out who populated this New 
Spain. They described this lake and lands and all its banks as very pop- 
ulated, and one Indian said Copalla very clearly, and the Captain Ger6n- 
imo Mdrquez told me, that hearing those Indians talk to a Mexican 
Indian^ servant of a soldier, one of them asked " from where is this 
man? Is he perhaps from Copalla? Because those from there talk 
thus." And those Indians also said that those of that language wore 
bracelets of gold, on the wrists and on the fleshy part of the arms and in 
their ears, and that they were fourteen days' journeys from there, of those 
[journeys] which they traveled. They pointed [the place of] this lan- 
guage between the West and the Northwest. The Indians also said that 
the Spaniards could travel by this meadow as far as the sea, and that it 
was ten days* journey of those which they travel, and that it all was pop- 
ulated; this river can be navigated. They set out from here and traveled 
five leagues without seeing Indians, because the mountain was very 
rough, the road narrow and steep ; but past this narrow pass is a wide 
meadow and very populated. Here as many Indians came out with food 
to receive the Spaniards as in the rancheria behind. They are of the 
same nation. Asking them about the sea, they said that down the river 
it was nine days' journeys, but by crossing the river, it was only four ; 
which river they kept on the north and they went traveling toward the 
northwest. It did not seem proper to the Adelantado to leave off follow- 
ing the river down stream as he did, traveling through its meadows, 
seeing always many Indians, asking all of them about the sea, which it 
was now known they called "acilla," and all answered motioning 
from the West, N. W., N., N. E., East and said that thus the sea curved, 
and rather near ; as they said from the other side of the river it was only 
four days' journeys and that that Gulf of California is not closed, but is 
an arm of the sea which corresponds to the Sea of the North [the Atlan- 
tic] and coast of Florida. All the Indians of this river are comely, and 
good featured ; and the women handsome, whiter than those of New 
Spain, being people of whom the men go naked and the women in skins, 
having covered only the parts of modesty. Always when these Indians 
travel they carry a lighted firebrand in the hand, for which I think it 
should be called Rio del Tizon. Thus affirmed a soldier of this journey, 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. *o5 

who had been with Sebastian Vizcaino to California, and he said he went 
in search of the Tizon River, and I believe that had he reached it he 
would not have returned, as he did return, for lack of food ; because 
here there is much. 

50. Past this nation of Amacabos, of which (as of the others) they 
saw only that which was along the road, they arrived at the nation of 
Bahacechas. The language is almost the same, they are friends and they 
communicate with each other. The houses of those of this river are 
low, of wood and covered with earth. The head of this nation is called 
Cohota. He came out with much accompaniment to the road, to receive 
the Spaniards and to beg them not to pass on that day, but that they 
should remain over night in his pueblo ; and this they did to please him. 
This Indian and his [people] gave an account of many things and secrets 
of the land. They asked them about the lake of Copalla and he said 
the same as has been told ; and on showing them a gold toothpick, he 
put it around the wrist as turning it, giving to understand that the Indi- 
ans of that lake wore bracelets of that [material]. The Adelantado 
showed them a coral, and asked them where there was some of that ; 
they motioned toward the South ; they said the Indians of the coast 
took it out of the sea, and the sea when it is rough casts much ashore, 
and that the Indians dig in the sand and take it out to sell. This about 
the coral all the Indians where they passed told, and it was seen to be 
the truth, as they found much in the possession of the Indian women. 

51. After having passed this place, while resting in the pueblo of 
Captain Otata of the same nation, asking him and his some things and 
showing them some silver buttons, they aflfirmed before many soldiers, 
that near there, pointing toward the west, there was much of that, and 
that it was called nane querro. They showed them a silver spoon, and 
when they saw it they said that of that were the bowls and vessels in 
which they eat, and they motioned that these were good and big and 
deep. They rolled a plate of silver that it should make a noise, giving 
to understand that thus sound the others when they fall on the ground, 
and that they do not break ; and putting a plate of silver on the fire with 
water in it they said that where they talked about they boiled meat in 
those ; but that those [vessels] although they were of that [material] 
were large. And this information was of their own accord, without any- 
one's persuading them. And striking the plate divers times with a knife 
and letting it fall altogether with violence, that it should make more 
noise, they said that thus sounded the others, and that they were no 
farther from there than five days' journeys, drawing on the ground the 
sea, in the middle of it an island, which they call Zinogaba, which is the 
name of the nation that inhabits it. To this island they go by sea in 
some canoes or boats, and since from the coast there it is only one day's 
sail, they go in the morning, and before the sun sets they are there. 
They showed on the ground the size of the boat, making on the ground 
a mark, and he commenced to measure and the boat was 70 feet long and 
20 wide. On asking them if the boat carried a sail in the middle the 
Indian took a stick and put it in the middle of the boat that he had 
drawn, with an Indian at the poop, making as if he managed the rudder. 
He then took a cloth, and stretching out his arms on the stick that he 
had put up, started to run with all the velocity he could, saying that thus 
the [ vessels ] ran through the water, and much faster. The certainty 
is that if the Indians had not seen it, they would not know how to paint 
it so perfectly. They also said that the people of that island all wore 
pearl shells around the neck and in the ears, which they call xicullo. 
They also gave news of an instrument with which they make the noise 
when they dance, which is a long stick from which are pendant many 
pieces of that metal of which they make dishes in which they eat, and 
altogether making all sorts of noise they dance to the sound. 

52. With all this news the Adelantado did not wish to leave oflf going 



I06 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

in search of a port, as it was so easy to see and with the good conven- 
ience of guides as they offered themselves for that. Having passed this 
nation of Bahacechas, they arrived at the nation of Ozaras Indians, a 
difficult tongue ; the Indians ill featured, less affable and from whom 
little satisfaction can be had, and less security. These Indians are settled 
along a large river, although not of as much water as that of Good Hope 
[Buena-Bsperanza]. It is called River of the Name of Jesus ; it runs be- 
tween bare mountains, enters into the Buena-Esperanza, S. W. — N. W. 
twenty leagues before reaching the sea. They learned that all the river 
is populated by this nation, and that the number of people is much. 
They drew on the ground 20 rancherias or pueblos of this nation. They 
make mantas of cotton ; the dress and hair is different from the rest ; 
the hair is long and they wear it braided, and then covered with a cloth 
or deer skin. The river makes many basins in this meadow. Here they 
saw some acorns of oak, good and sweet, which the people said were 
from the other side of the river, and that there were many. On asking 
about the birth of the River of Buena-Ksperanza, the Indians said that 
it is near the sea, toward the N. W., and that from its birth to where it 
enters the sea, it is 160 leagues long, and all populated, and that at its 
headwaters range buffaloes and deer as big as horses, from which it is 
seen that it is good level land and well watered. From this river of the 
Name of Jesus to the sea, it is very populated with more people than had 
until then been seen ; but the language is like that of Bahacechas, and if 
it is not the same, they differ very little in dress, the manner of living. 
The houses are well arranged, and the Indians comely. All came out to 
receive the Spaniards, and offered them and invited them with their 
food. Among these Indians were found many white pearl-shells and 
other shells very large and shining, which they make into squares and 
drills [which are] very sightly. These Indians said that along the coast 
there were many of those shells toward the west, and they motioned 
that the sea flowed behind a very bigh mountain, on the skirts of which 
mountain the Riode Buena-Esperanza enters the sea. From these Indians 
they again informed themselves anew of all the things that the Captain 
Otata had told, and they did not differ in anything. And showing them a 
pearl they gave it a name and said there were many and very fat. And 
one Indian, coming up to the Father Comisario, and taking a rosary 
of fat beads that he wore on his neck, said that there were pearls as 
large and fat as the beads of that rosary ; and in regard to the Island of 
Zinogaba, they said that the I/ady or captainess of it was a giantess, and 
that she was called Cinacacohola, which means Woman Captain or Lady. 
They pictured her as of the height of a man-and-a-half, of those of the 
coast (albeit these are very bulky), very broad, and with big feet, and 
that she was old, and that she had a sister, also a giantess, and that 
there was no man of her kind, and that she did not mingle with anyone 
of the island. The mystery of her reigning on that island could not be 
found out, whether it was by inheritance or tyranny by force of arms. 
And [they said] that all on the island were bald — that they had no hair 
on the head. 

53. The first nation after passing the River of the Name of Jesus is 
Halchedoma. There are eight pueblos The first has 1 60 houses, and is 
judged to be of about 2,000 souls. I have already said they saw only 
what lay along the road. Next is the nation of Cohnana. There are 
nine pueblos. A great many of these went accompanying the Spaniards. 
There must have been more than 600 men and women. They passed 
the night with the Spaniards. Next is the nation HagUi. There are 
100 pueblos. Next the Tlalliquamallas, six pueblos. Here more than 
2,000 souls gathered when they brought the corn. Next the Cocapas, 
nine pueblos. This is the last [nation] which they saw, and reached to 
the last place where one can drink fresh water, which is five leagues 
from the sea, because so many [leagues] the salted sea enters up stream. 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. 107 

In the space which there is from the River of the Nameof Jesas, until ar- 
riying at the sea, they saw more than 20,000 souls, on this side of the 
river alone. They said that on the other [side] they were innumerable. 
Only the smokes were seen. The Indians said that they did not pass to the 
other side, because those were their enemies, in spite of being of the 
same nation, and that the others came and killed and did great harm to 
these, by which it can be seen the others are many. They arrived on San 
Ildefonso's day at the last stopping place, and the nearest to the sea, and . 
the last where water can be drank. Then, the day of the conversion/6f 
St. Paul, having sung mass, the Adelantado and priests, with nine sol- 
diers, set out and arrived at a most famous-good port, which port and 
bay are made by the river of Buena-Bsperanza when it enters the sea. 
We call it Port of the Conversion of St. Paul. So large is this port that 
more than a thousand vessels can anchor in it without hindrance to one 
another. The river enters the sea with a mouth four leagues wide, form- 
ing in the middle of the mouth a little low island, not of sand, as is all 
the coast, but of earth ; the whole island, which must be about two 
leagues long, northwest to southeast. 

From what could be seen it forms a great bar to the bay ; the island 
enters it by that river, southeast-by-east, dividing it into two mouths, 
one to the east and one to the southeast, each more than a league and a 
half wide . The port is guarded and protected from the south and west 
by a range, between whose foothills the river enters the sea, which there 
trends nearly north and south, or northwest and southeast ; and a point 
of it [the range] runs more than six leagues into the sea. On the east 
shore this port or bay has another range, which runs seaward northeast 
and southwest. It is seen seven leagues distant from the bay ; it finishes 
and terminates at the sea in seven or eight small hills or buttes with low 
points. Beyond these, from the verge of the land it forms a round point, 
higher than the others which terminate the range. On the west shore 
(which is that next the bay) it ends in three small hills or round points, 
somewhat more elevated than those of the other range, and the last of 
these is higher than the other two. Beyond these, toward the verge of 
the land, it forms a more elevated point, whence the range forms a 
•* hog-back" \_cuchilla, sharp ridge], which runs more than twenty lea- 
gues S.S.W. and N.N.W., inland. The Gulf, on this coast where they 
were, trends east and west, and doubling the points of this range, on the 
west shore (which, as I have said, enters the sea more than six leagues) 
it runs back of this mountain northward ; as all of the Indians said, 
both those of the coast and those of the river ; for they afiirmed that it 
makes a turn to the north, northeast and east. 

54. The Adelantado, Don Juan de Onate, took possession of this port 
in the name of His Majesty, and gave it in His Majesty's name to the 
Father Comisario, Fray Francisco de Escobar, that our sacred religion 
may settle and people that land and the others next it and round 
about, and that we may busy ourselves in the conversion of the natives 
in the place and places most suited to oiir mode of life. 

55. We took this possession on the 25th of January, day of the con- 
version of the Apostle St. Paul (patron of those provinces and custody 
of New Mexico), in the year of Our Lord 1605, for the glory and honor of 
God Our Lord. 

56. This done, the Adelantado, and those who had gone with him, 
returned to the camp, that the rest of the soldiers might go and certify 
to the sea- And thus was it done, the space of four days being spent 
therein. Some soldiers affirmed that they had seen tunny-fish, and that 
they recognized them, since they were men of Spain. This seen, they 
came back by the same way they had gone ; being as well received by 
the Indians and with the same kindliness as when going. Having ar- 
rived among the Ozaras Indians — as they had already informed them- 
selves by the other nations, and all said that this nation is very exten- 



io8 LAND OF SUNSHINK. 

sive and runs along the coast, and that these are they that get out the 
coral from the sea, the which they call quacame — they made inquiry 
and found some packages. The [Indians] said that being back away 
from the coast they had not much [coral] ; but further up the River of 
Good Hope, among Indians of this same nation, other few [corals] 
were found. But in the Province of Zuni they found and purchased 
more. They [the Zunis] said the Indians of the valleys of Senora 
[Sonora] brought it there to sell ; and that they are no more than seven 
days' journey from there [Zuni], and that they get it out of the sea, and 
are not far from the sea ; that this nation reaches to there — the which 
sea they indicated [as lying] to the south and southeast. From the 
province of New Mexico to the sea, the Father Fray Francisco de Esco- 
bar found, on their road alone, ten different languages.* This priest 
was so able and of such great memory that, arrive wherever he might, 
he promptly learned the tongue ; and so on the return journey he talked 
with all the nations and they all understood him. They arrived at the 
Bahacechas where, on their journey going, the Captain Otata and the 
others had given so much news of the land, of the lake of Copalla and 
of the gold, of the island and its gold and silver. Examining them 
again, they gave the same statement as on the journey going, without 
varying it in anything. They made the same doings as on the outward 
journey, with the plate of silver, as is already said ; only they added 
that this silver was taken out of the top of a hill which was on the 
further shore of the island, behind which the sun hides when it sets ; and 
they said that it is cut with a hard instrument. Being asked if it was of 
the same [metal] they said no, it was something dark yellow ; and being 
shown a small sheet of brass, they said it was not of that. And as they 
saw they were not understood, one of them rose and went to the Ade- 
lantado's kitchen and laid hand on a copper kettle and said the instru- 
ment with which they cut the metal whereof they made their bowls 
and pans was like that. The Spaniards set forth from here, and the 
Captain Otata came forth to the road to receive them, with a great ac- 
companiment and ceremonial troop, as is their wont, flinging their bows 
and arrows to earth. He gave to the governor a string of white beads 
which he wore on his neck, and to the Father Comisario another (which 
among them is a great gift), the two of which he had sent to the isle of 
Zinogova to purchase with some mantles of cotton, which on the out- 
ward journey the governor had given him for that purpose. It is plain 
to see that the isle is near, since he had gone and returned in so short a 
time. The [Spaniards] repeatedly cross-examined them about every- 
thing ; and in nothing did they contradict themselves. 

57. These ^ave news of many prodigies of nature which God has 
created between the River of Good Hope and the sea ; the which have 
caused incredulity in them that heard thereof ; so when we see them we 
will affirm them under oath, but in the meantime refrain from men- 
tioning them and pass them in silence. And to put an end to this jour- 
ney, I say : that having endured much hardship and hunger (even com- 
ing to eat their horses) which, not to be too long, I do not all recount, 
they reached the town of San Gabriel on their return, all sound and 
well and not a man missing, on the 25th of April of the year 1605. 
There they rested, and were as well received as they had been anxiously 
expected. 

Florida, Mainland With New Mexico. '^^^ 

58. Against the incredulous who are unwilling to believe that 
Florida is mainland with this [New Spain — Mexico] and with New 
Mexico, knowing, as is known, that men have come overland from 
there — so I will set down everything that has been seen by coast and 



Leguas is evidently a misprint for lenguas. 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. I09 

mainland ; though the people of Florida are not those who have seen 
most. For the English have seen more than we ; since John David 
[Davis], Englishman, in the year 1586 reached 72", where he found the 
sea curdled [i.e., slushy] by reason of the much cold, and came away 
fleeing. Had he not found this obstacle he would have reached a still 
higher latitude. 

59. Another Englishman, named Hudson, in the year 1612 reached, 
on the same course, 65°. He entered a bay* which the coast forms in 
60°. It runs westward more than 300 leagues and then southward by 
more than as many leagues. 

60. At the beginning of this bay, Henry Hudson, Englishman, ar- 
rived that same year of 1612; from which it is seen they have more 
curiosity than we. 

61. With this foundation I say : that the most northerly part of In- 
dia is from Totila to the frontier of Gudlancha ; and from Gudlancha 
this coast runs 200 leagues to the Rio Nevado [snowy] which is in lati- 
tude 60°. 

62. From the white river to the bay of Maluos, is 200 leagues. This 
is called the coast of the cape of Labrador [the ** Laborer"] ; it has on 
its south the island which they call "de los Demonios " [Island of the 
Demons] , in latitude 60°. On this coast of Labrador the natives are 
comely, great workers, swarthy, great hunters. They dress in tanned and 
white skins of animals. There are great forests and very dense ; and 
in them many blood-thirsty animals — grifl&ns, bears, lions. There is a 
thing to ponder ; and it is that all the land animals and all the birds are 
white. All the males and women wear earrings of silver and copper. 
All paint their faces red, for gala — a common use of all the Indians. 
They are idolators and fierce. Many Bretons and some from Norway 
have gone over to settle this land. Many went over in company with 
Sebastian Gavoto [Cabot] a pilot and great cosmographer. And like- 
wise there have gone over many Englishmen. The which have re- 
mained there and settled the land. 

63 From Maluos to the mouth of Marco is 60 leagues. This is in 
lat. 56°. From Marco to Cape Delgado [Thin] is 65 leagues. It is in 
lat. 54°. 

64. From Cape Delgado the coast runs more than 200 leagues toward 
the west, to the River of St. Lawrence [San Lorenzo] which is the river 
I have above set down as to the north of New Mexico 190 leagues, or 
a little more. This they call by another name also, the Strait of the 
Three Brothers. In this place it forms a square gulf. And below the 
St. Lawrence to the Punta de Bacalaos [Point of Codfish] it is over 200 
leagues, according to the information of the Indians of the River of 
Good Hope — as has been said in the journey of Don Juan de Onate. This 
strait [the St. Lawrence] is the one they say opens out from the Sea of 
the North [the Atlantic] and passes to the Sea of the South [the Pa- 
cific]. Between this point and Cape Delgado are many islands, well 
populated, called the Cortes Reales ; f of these islands the French are 
masters. The islands of Corte-Real, Valle, Duxchastens, Cape Despoix, 
Cape Breton (where are many French from Brittany) — with these islands 
the gulf is hidden. 

65. Codfish Point is in lat. 48>^°. It is as cold as Flanders, being in 
the same clime, which is 48 >^ degrees. Here the French abandoned a 
fort because they could not sufier the cold, which was intolerable. 
Froin here it is 70 leagues to the bay of the river, the which is in lat. 
45°. From Newfoundland to Florida it is 900 leagues. 

66. From the bay of the River to the bay of the Reefs is 70 leagues. 
It is in lat. 44^. 



'Hudson's Bay. 

fAfter the heroic Portogneie brotfaera, Oatpard and Misnel Coit«-ft«al. 0«spard diaeoTered and namad Lab- 
ntdor in 1500. 



"® LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

67. From the Reefs to the River Fondo, situated in lat. 43"^, is 70 
leagues. 

68. From the River Fondo to the River of the Dames, which is in the 
same latitude, is 70 leagues. 

69. From the River Gamas [Damas] to St. Mary's Cape is 50 leagues. 

70. From this cape to Cape Low [Bajo] is 50 leagues. 

71. From Low Cape to St. Anne's River is 100 leagues. 

72. From the river of Santa Ana to Cape Arenas [Sandy] , which is 
in lat. 39"^, is a bay of 80 leagues. 

73. From Cape Arenas to the Port of the Prince is 100 leagues. This 
place ts called Chicoria. The inhabitants of this Chicoria appear giants, 
and the king was wondrous large. They are swarthy like mulatoes. The 
men wear their hair long, and the women much more. They are idol- 
ators, tho' they believe the soul is immortal, and that there is a hell or 
place of pains in very cold lands, where the gods permit them to purge 
their sins, that they may after go up to heaven, which is a temperate 
climate. Likewise they believe that many peoples live in the sky and 
below the earth, and that under the sea there are gods In this province 
there are silver, misshapen pearls, and precious stones. They herd tame 
bands of deer in the fields, as here we do rams and sheep, and they make 
cheese of the milk of the does. 

74. Adjoining this province in the same latitude, the province of 
Guadalupe. It has the same things and requisites as that of Chicoria. 

75. From the Port of the Prince to the River Jordan is 70 leagues. 
In this intermediate lies the Rio Negro [Black]. Eighty leagues to the 
mountains is the Forest of the Diamonds, near which the Ensign Moy- 
ano arrived, and carried oflf some Indian women to Florida. They were 
so handsome that all of them married Spaniards of Florida. 

76. From the River Jordan to Point St. Helena is 40 leagues. It is 
in latitude 32°. 

77. From Point St. Helena to Dry River, which is in 31"^, is 40 leagues. 

78. From Dry River to the Cross [la Cruz] is 20 leagues. 

79. From the mouth of the Cross [river] to Cape Canaveral [cane- 
brake] is 80 leagues ; and between are Shoal Bay and Whale Bay, 
Bear Bay, St. Catherine's Bay, dequale, Epoquache Bay, and Pala Bay 
where today are seen the foundations of a fort which belonged to the 
English ; Reynoso Bay (otherwise called Guadalquivi) which whatso- 
ever galleon, big though it be, can enter (the shoals of this bay run two 
leagues to sea), St. Peter's Bay, Bay of St. Mary of Sena, St. Mat- 
thew's Bay, where Pedro Melendez Marquez slew the Frenchmen.* 
Twelve leagues from this, the Bay of Matanzas, where he slew Juan 
Derribao, uncle of the Queen Dona Isabel de la Paz, wife that was of his 
Majesty Philip II. Here is our garrison, in lat. 28>^°, today the garrison 
of St Augustine on Cape Canaveral, whither are wont to scout the fleets 
that sail out of Havana, 38 leagues, in lat. 28^. 

80. From the Port of Espiritu Santo to Moscoso is 9 leagues. Here 
the Adelantado Hernando de Soto made port, and from here went in- 
land, year of 1539, with 900 soldiers that he brought ; and he saw what 
follows, until he died in the quest, as will be seen further on. From 
Moscoso to Iribaracusi is 17 leagues, making 26. At 3 leagues from 
this pueblo is a bad swamp, with a lake a league wide and very deep. 
On its shores it has much mire. In length it has 12 leagues. Six 
leagues of the distance there are many valleys of very pretty cornfields 
which the Indians plant. The land is fertile. This is called the prov- 
ince of Aquera. 

81. From Aybibaracusi to Aquera (which now is called Santa Lucia) 
is 20 leagues, running north and south. [The people] are already Chris- 
tians. From Vitachucu to Ozachile is 10 leagues, and of level land, 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. "i 

crossed by a large river. There are 12 leagues of wilderness [despob- 
lado]. 

82. From Ozachile to Cape Bias is a very great lagoon, though it can 
be forded. 

83. From the Port of Espiritu Santo to Apalache is 1 50 leagues ; but 
already a shorter route has been discovered. 

84. From the bay of Ante to that of Acuse is 60 leagues. It is a good 
port, with depth to the very shore. 

85. From this port of Aute the Adelantado Hernando de Soto sent 
Diego Maldonado in some brigantines to carry advices to Habana of 
what had happened to him in exploring the country inland. But as on 
this journey they carried no pilot to survey the land, his history does 
not say what course they followed — and therefore I do likewise. 

86. From Apalache to Apacha is 20 leagues. It is a people of peace, 
and up to here they are all Christians. 

87. From Apacha one follows a river up stream 40 leagues ; good 
land and fertile, like that of Aapalache. They also are peaceful. He 
traveled north and south. 

88. From here, which is the garrison of St. Augustin, the way is 
straight to Amachava where are six pueblos of Christians. To the left 
hand lies Taxichica, which are more than ten pueblos, and those of the 
lagoon of Ocomi, all Christians ; and on both sides many pueblos of in- 
fidels, in the which pueblos there is much people. 

89. From Amachava (which is called Santa Helena) to Avacara is 12 
leagues. 

90. From San Juan de Avacara to San Martin, where is one of the 
chiefest caciques, is 8 leagues. 

91 . From here to Santa Fe is 4 leagues. 

92. From Santa F6 to Claca is 16 leagues; and 4 to the garrison of 
Mai Camino. They reached another province which is called Chalaqui, 
very poor in food. Most of the people were old and blind, and few. 
It is from Abapache 20 leagues ; and they reached the province Cofaquin. 
At the narrowest this is 8 leagues across. There is a bronze cannon 
here. Between Cofachi and Cofachiqui there is a big wilderness, and 
many arroyos with water, and two big rivers. At 24 leagues the wilder- 
ness begins ; and traveling up a river 12 leagues one reaches the first 
pueblo Cofachique. From the end of the desert-place to Cotachique is 
2 leagues, and it is on the other side of Ayoque. You go coasting. 
Here is sulphur more shining than gold. Those who understand this 
trade say it has an admixture of gold. This river, they say, comes out 
from Santa Helena, in Florida. Here are temples where they bury the 
chief men of the Caciques ; and infinite pearls in a casket of wood, and 
much barrok pearls. A league from this pueblo is the capital, a big 
town ; and the temple where they bury the caciques has great groves of 
trees, a league in circumference. The pueblo is called Tolomeco. The 
temple is 100 paces long and 40 wide, and has 12 giants armed at the 
door ; on the two sides six wooden caskets of pearls and barrok pearls, 
and wooden statues of the defunct Caciques and their relatives ; 88 
stands of arms, with irons of latten, and set with pearls and barrok 
pearls. Going out from Cofachique they travel 32 leagues. They reach 
the province of Chalaqui. From Chalaqui to Xuala is 50 leagues, and 
from Apalache thus far is 270 leagues. By this Xuala passes the river 
of Cofachique ; and from the bay of this port, where they disembarked, 
it must be 250 leagues to Apalache, making 400 in all. From Xuala to 
the province of Guajule is 200 leagues of wilderness. From Guaxule 
to Ichiaha is 30 leagues, where is a river like the Gua [da] Iquivir when 
it passes by the city of Seville. Here are very good pearls. A soldier 
opening an oyster took out a pearl like a filbert, which they priced in 
Spain at 400 ducats. This island of Ichiaha is 5 leagues long. They 
went on from this island, crossed the river and slept in a settlement of 



112 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Acoste, where were over 1,000 Indian warriors. They are a very good 
people. Coca is a province of more than 100 leagues, all well settled 
and fertile. This pueblo of Coca is at the end of it ; it is of more than 
500 houses. Here lives the Cacique ; and they [the Spaniards] left them 
a Christ. Here remained behind a deserter named Falco Herrado, and a 
sick Negro. The last pueblo [is that] of Talici, and soon they enter 
Tascaluca [province] ; next, at 8 leagues, they cross a big river, which 
is that of Talesfe, and enter [the pueblo of] Tascaluca. The Cacique 
was a giant, and [so was] a son of his. There was no [saddle] horse 
that could carry him — only a cargo-hack could carry him. Here the 
Indians killed two soldiers. From here it was a league and a half to 
Manvila. Here of a sudden more than 10,000 Indians fell upon the 
Spaniards who arrived first, and killed some of their horses and stole all 
there was in the camp. This pueblo was fenced with tremendously 
thick timbers, and of three stories high, bound together and chinked 
with clay, with loopholes ; and there were but two gates. They fought 
from within with such fury that they made the horsemen withdraw 
more than 200 paces, for from the stockade they fired much stones at 
them, and did them great damage. So they [the Spaniards] retired to 
make a better attack. They fought nine hours, and came out with 
1600 penetrating wounds, besides the trifling ones which were as many 
more. Eighty-two soldiers and forty-five horses perished. Of Indians, 
men and women, perished more than 10,000 — for the women also fought 
with great spirit. Here was burned up the flour, wine, altars, chalices 
and ornaments ; no more mass was said ; nothing escaped but what they 
wore on their backs ; everything was burned in the houses. They made 
an [altar] ornament of buckskin and said a dry mass [misa en seco], 
adored the cross, which the priest lifted in place of the host. This [form 
of mass] continued for three years, until they came out to a land of 
Christians. 

93. From this Mavilla to the Port of Acusi, which is toward the 
east- northeast, is 30 leagues ; there had arrived the vessels from Ha- 
bana which were going in search of them. In this province adulteresses 
are punished rigorously. They went forth from this province of Tas- 
caluca, wherein lies this.Mauvila [Mobile] where was the bloody battle, 
and of Azunde. Having traveled 1 2 leagues they entered into Chicaza. 
They saw a squadron of more than 1500 Indian warriors who passed in 
canoes to prevent [the Spaniards] from passing. And on the other side 
were also more than 8000 Indians, and for two leagues at a stretch were 
many scattered, all [this] to impede the crossing. But [the Spaniards] 
crossed, having traveled 16 leagues. They arrived at the principal 
pueblo, Chicaza, where are many walnut trees and many fruit trees. 
The pueblo has 200 houses. When they felt secure in this lodging, the 
Indians fell upon the Spaniards, some to fight, others burning the 
houses. They fought two hours. Forty soldiers and fifty horses per- 
ished. 500 Indians perished. They went forth from Chicaza and at- 
tacked the fort of Alibamo [origin of Alabama], which was of four 
"curtains " of 200 feet each. 2000, and more, of Indians and Indian 
women perished. From Alibamo to Chisa is a wilderness of 16 leagues. 
Chisa is on the shore of the largest river that was seen. From Chisa 
they went forth toward Casquin, up stream, where they found a cross- 
ing in the which were many canoes. On the other bank there were 
more than 6000 Indians to prevent their crossing. Having marched 16 
leagues they arrived at Casquin. These Indians asked them to make a 
procession because it did not rain. They made it and set up a cross ; 
and soon it did rain, and very well. The priests and frailes went about 
chanting the litany. They set up a cross on a high hill which was next 
the river. They went forth from Casquin for Capaja, [which] is 12 
leagues. It is divided between two caciques [cacique is probably a mi^ 
print]. In one, a big swamp and lake ; passing the which there are 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST "3 

very pretty pastures. Next, at eight leagues, are some hills, from the 
-which there is a view to Capacha. Forty leagues from Capacha there is 
crystalline salt and very pretty sulphur. The land where these are is 
sterile and bad ; so they returned to Casquin. From Jiere they marched 
36 leagues [through] land fertile and very populous. They reached 
Quiguate ; from here the province takes its name. They marched 24 
leagues down stream from Casquin and arrived at Colima, where they 
were peacefully received. Half a league distant is the principal pueblo. 
In this they found much resistance. Even unto the women they fought 
and let themselves be slain sooner than surrender. Four women at- 
tacked a Spaniard, and with fist blows and biting had him nearly dead, 
till a soldier arrived, and with dagger-thrusts slew them because they 
would not let go. And an Indian [attacking] two soldiers, split their 
bucklers and wounded them very badly. And with another, a mounted 
man, one [Indian] at a single blow opened his horse from the withers 
to the breast with an ax he had wrested from a soldier. And another, 
with one sweep of his club, demolished all the teeth of a soldier. All 
these [Indians] paint themselves with red lead, to appear fiercer. The 
heads they bind with boards from childhood ; and some [of their heads] 
are more than half a yard long, pointed toward the top. Here they 
were twenty days healing those wounded in three cruel battles they had 
with those [Indians]. They marched two days and emerged from this 
province, arriving at Utiange. They marched four days by lands good 
and fertile, but of few people. They reached this pueblo [Utiange] 
which is head [of the province]. The Indians absented themselves and 
would not appear, nor have friendship with the Spaniards. They are 
well formed. There was much laisins and dried plums, much nuts, and 
much other fruits. The pueblo was stockaded with timber, and with 
two rivers at the sides. There are many cottontails, jack-rabbits and 
deer. Here [the Spaniards] wintered ; and it snowed so much that in 
more than a month and a half they could not get out into the fields. 
They had enough corn for all winter, and much firewood. They were 
here five months. Here remained [after they left] Diego de Guzman, 
attached to an Indian woman, daughter of the cacique. They marched 
by way of the province of Naguatex and reached the province of Gua- 
cane. They traversed it in eight days, not exceeding that [time] so as 
not to fight with the Indians. There were crosses in the houses, be- 
cause from hand to hand had passed the good they had received from 
the cross when Alvaro Nunez Cabeza de Vaca and Andres de Orantes 
and their companions passed ;* for they passed healing the sick with 
the sign of the cross. For so much fruit as this doth good example 
bear. These [Vaca, etc.] passed 20 years [really seven] before Her- 
nando de Soto did, which latter is the journey I am talking of. 

94. We [sic] went forth from here. They passed seven small prov- 
inces toward the west and reached the province of Amilco. They 
traveled 30 leagues and arrived at that [province] which is on the bank 
of a river greater than the Guadalquivir. The cacique was awaiting 
the Spaniards with 1500 warriors; but they did not fight. Having 
marched four days' journey they reached the province of Guachoya, 
marching through a wilderness. 

95. Here they [the Indians] bury with a cacique who died those he 
most cared for and loved in life ; his children, wife, kindred and serv- 
ants, they bury all these alive with him. 

[to be conci,udkd.] 



•This part of Vaca's marvelous journey was in 1636, See "The Spanish Pioneers." 




THB There are, after all, only two kinds of people in the civilized 

TWO world — or any other. Those who care and those who don't. 

KINDS, They are uneven halves ; for there are a hundred or a thou- 

sand who don't care to every one who does. Bat on the other hand the 
one weighs as much as the thousand — and more. Everything that the 
world has done, it has done by the few who cared. All the learning, all 
the inventions, all the morals have been thought out and fought out by 
the men and women who care . Never one whit of good was done this 
mortal earth by the multitudes who " guess it will be all right." They 
are not only deadheads but dead-beats — for they ride on the backs of 
the few to safety, comfort, luxury. They would starve off the earth if it 
were not for the people they rather regard as "cranks." Their neigh- 
bor would knock them on the head ; they would have neither fire nor 
house nor clothing nor law nor education nor religion if these things 
had not been invented, advanced and made steadfast by the one man in a 
thousand. No crowd ever had a great thought yet ; no one has ever 
paid his rent to the world who drifted with it. There are dear people in 
the deadhead multitude ; good people as the word goes ; smart people 
by the average careless standard — but after all, a little something lacks 
in the brains and conscience of them that cannot see how much duty 
there is to do and do not feel that they must help do it. Kven among 
savages there are the two classes — else we should not be graduated 
above savages. It was because here and there a cave-dwelling, murder- 
ous, raw-meat-eating biped brute cared ; and was more afraid of his 
brute gods ; and made better flints than his neighbors ; and some of his 
children cared, and his children's children — it is becauvse of this that his 
descendants in 1 900 have limited trains, and telephones and books, and 
a nation. 

^OD Xhe praises of those who sent I^awton to his death may con- 

K-EST sole somebody, but probably not his widow and children. 

HIM. Not even a popular subscription — and certainly Americans 

never gave to a better cause — can pay that stricken home for the loss of 
its heart. Probably there are a thousand homes in as bitter mourning 
for as bitter loss ; but there has been no other life spilled by the Imper- 
ial ambition that was worth so much to the country. I^awton was a 
rare man, a lion even among our biggest soldiers ; a figure so manly that 
the average of our current heroes look pigmies beside him in character 
as in phyvsique. Every inch a soldier, he was the most effective general 
in a war he did not believe in ; and if I^awton had been in command in 
Luzon, there would have been no war. His better life is forfeit for the 
stupidity, the blindness and the ambition of others. Friend, hero, 
patriot — God rest him ! 

THBRB's The shrewd cry that the British Empire hangs on the fate of 

A BIG the little Transvaal war is of course merely a dodge to stam- 

DIFFKRKNCE. pede those who do not favor the mere war of conquest. The 
British Empire is in danger— but not from Kruger. Its disruption will 
come at home, where all empires in history have been disrupted — be- 
cause that instinct toward the eternal relations which we call conscience 



IN THE LION'S DEN. ~ 115 

has grown faint. If the heart of the Empire is all right, you can ampu- 
tate a hand or a leg or all the limbs, and the trunk will still be strong 
and vital. The danger of the British Empire is in England where the 
same corruptions are spreading that rotted out the heart of Rome. The 
acquiescence in Jameson's semi-official piracy and Chamberlain's un- 
principled aggression, the consenting to policies guided not by statesmen 
or sobriety but by the politicians and the music-hall, the forgetting of 
principles for the money's sake — ^these are far swifter figures on the dial 
toward the striking of the hour than any little killing in South Africa. In- 
deed if the Empire were so flimsy that the failure of this first campaign 
against the Boers could jeopardize it, the sooner the card-house falls 
down, the better. But it is not true. It is simply a cry to bamboozle 
sympathy for a war with which most Americans and the greatest En- 
glishmen have no sympathy. 

And let us remember that the British Empire is not England. It 
would not in the least prejudice the right and opportunity of English- 
men to govern themselves, to be wise and happy and prosperous, if they 
lost the "right " to govern other peoples. They believe in that "right," 
we do not ; and the world is leaning ever harder our way. Is England 
unfortunate that we took away from under her wise rule ( "oppression," 
we called it when it was applied to us) the Thirteen Colonies and have 
made a greater nation than she is? Nay, it is the best thing that ever 
befell her. The United States has in a century done more to increase 
English business and wealth, and quite as much to enlarge English lib- 
erties, as England herself. It would be a world-loss if England went 
down ; but it will be the greatest political blessing the world has known 
when the British Empire of subject peoples shall be broken up into in- 
dependent nations — in other words when they shall adopt the American 
principle. And it is coming. 

Did you ever realize that it is unpleasant to starve ? There Thr 
will be thousands of widows and orphans made by this war in QUAI^ity 

South Africa. The English will care for their own ; but who OP mb&CT. 

is to help the wives and children of Boer farmers who die fighting for 
home and country ? Well, such Americans will as had Revolutionary 
forefathers and have Revolutionary blood — besides many who have only 
kind hearts. 

This magazine is authorized to receive any contributions to this cause 
of humanity. They will be acknowledged in these pages and forwarded 
to Geo. W. Van Sicklen, Hon. Treas. of the Committee of the African- 
der Bond, whose heart-stirring appeal ought to call forth a liberal re- 
sponse. The British- American hospital ship was a good thing — though 
the American part of it was ninety per cent, snobbery looking for noto- 
riety. But it will none the less relieve suffering. Suffering English- 
men, that is. There will be no wounded Boers on it. But real Ameri- 
cans, who are not expatriated, can remedy the lack. There is a thou- 
sand times more need of it. 

Poor Puerto Rico ! Hale's pathetic ' 'Man Without a Country' ' i^ET 
is sheer farce to her plight. A Frenchman, a Greek, or a us BS 

Sandwich Islander in Puerto Rico can become an American honrst. 

citizen by making application ; a Porto Rican cannot. How is that for 
liberty ? Nearly every of&ce in the island is held by an American — the 
natives of the country being ousted to make a "place" for their "re- 
deemers." There are nearly a million people thus extinguished; 75,- 
000 negroes, 40,000 of mixed blood, and nearly 900,000 Caucasians. A 
responsible Porto Rican writes : " If at the time of the invasion a 
plebiscite would have given a 97% vote in favor of annexation to the 
United States, today if it were taken, 10% would be a high estimate." 
It is much easier to whoop up a war to "relieve the oppressed" than it 
is to treat them honestly after they are "relieved." But since we have 



"6 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

done the one we must do the other — or be branded with undying shame. 
Unless our rage against Spain was sheer cant and hypocrisy to veil 
greed, we shall promptly redress these wrongs which we ourselves are 
committing. 

IWN'T Blessed, single-hearted old Dewey must not fall into the mis- 

MiSTAKE us, take of the newspapers themselves in thinking the newspapers 
ADMIRAL, are the people. The American people have not blackguarded 
him for giving his house to his wife. Only the newspapers were cap- 
able of that. As for the people, they think all the more of Dewey; 
and so evident has been the attempt to remove him from the presiden- 
tial possibilities — first by playing upon his loyalty and gratitude, and 
then by trying to discredit him in public — that the people (who hate 
mean little games) may take a notion to show Dewey what they really do 
think of him by putting him in the White House anyhow. There is at 
present something strangely like a conspiracy of silence in the admin- 
istration press against Dewey. He has been quietly dropped out of 
sight. Why? Is anybody "skeered ? " 

A CHANCE That a thing has never been done is to some people sufficient 

TO DISTINGUISH reason for never doing it. It may be, for instance, too great a 
ITSELF, tax on red tape ; but if the United States census of 1900 is to 
be made for the sake of real wisdom and not merely to provide many 
thousand enumerators with a job, this suggestion is germane. In Cali- 
fornia, at least — and perhaps in all the newer States — there should be a 
getting at the derivation and former occupation of the Westerner. For 
instance, if we could know what proportion of Californians came from 
each State in the Union, and what proportion from abroad (for rela- 
tively few were born here) ; and whether they pursue here the same vo- 
cations they did at home — particularly what proportion of those who 
till the soil here were farmers before they came ; and this particularly 
in the seven southern counties — why, we should have data not only of 
some interest to Californians but of the greatest use and significance to 
students of political economy. The influence of the West upon the 
nation is one of the most vital themes in our sociology ; and this is one 
of the safe ways to find out and prove something about it. The Census 
Bureau can, if it will, do a really scientific thing. 

<3'^* The relatively few Americans — for the great heart of the 

TTNCONSCious people is sound on this point — who wish England to conquer 

TORIES, the Boers, must imagine that the Fourth of July was invented 
by the Chinese as a date for selling firecrackers. They evidently never 
heard that it commemorates the revolt of a poor little string of separate 
Colonies, unfused, jealous, quarreling among themselves, from the same 
Dear Old England that the Transvaal now defies. Our Colonies were 
not even a republic in name. They did not even have the idea of form- 
ing a republic. The best they were after was independence for their 
scattered little communities ; the national idea was born later and was 
crystallized only by long and angry effort. The Colonies were full of 
Tories, too, who were grieved and shocked at our wicked rebellion, and 
prayed that benevolent England might whip us and give us better 
government than we really seemed likely to give ourselves. These 
gentlemen, who were harshly called traitors then, seem to have had 
issue. But the Tories of today who wish to see the monarchy swallow 
the republic are not traitors. They are simply Americans who have 
forgotten their birthright — or perhaps never knew what it was. They 
are no more foolish, but a trifle more un-American, than the larger class 
of Americans who hate England, they know not why. It is manlier 
(and less ignorant) not to hate any country, but to hate a bad policy in 
any country — even our own. The monarchical policy is to rule over 
subject peoples. It claims divine right to do so — though in these days 



IN THE LION'S DEN. "7 

rather less ridiculous excuses have to be put forward to the world. For 
the United States has proved that the colonial policy of England is a lie 
and a sham, and Canada proves it too — the colony side by side with the 
republic, that all the earth may see the difference in growth under the 
two forms of government. It is hardly possible to deny that Canada is 
on the whole better governed than we are. Bui — ! Fancy anyone 
suggesting that we swap places ! It is our large American privilege to 
misgovern ourselves if we prefer. We don't think much of our ward 
politicians, but we wouldn't swap them for Queen Victoria. And it's 
not that we do not respect her more ; for every fit American does. But 
independence is even dearer than good government. The politicians 
are *' a poor thing, but mine own." 

There is as little taste as knowledge of history in the certain ^s TO 
attempt to make out that the South African Republic is not a A. CERTAIN 

republic, and that therefore England ought to eat it. Talk of bi^indness. 

"oligarchies" is invidious just now. An oligarchy of farmers is no 
worse than an oligarchy of syndicates and politicians. The thirteen 
Colonies which England tried to eat were not a republic, and didn't 
even pretend to be. And certainly England isn't a republic. And, 
talking about oligarchies, what of the country where fifteen men own 
three-sevenths of the land on which the whole nation of 39,000,000 lives? 
That's England. Those who wish to see her crush the Transvaal and absorb 
its little farms from the widows and orphans of the men who will have 
died fighting to defend them (for the farms will not be taken till the 
men are killed, and a good many of the women too), will have to scare 
up some more presentable stalking horse than " Oligarchy." They will 
also have to turn history out of the house and forget every basic pri'^ci- 
ple of the United States. There are grown-up children who cheerfully 
do both, and they blissfully deem themselves Americans. But they 
are not For an American is not *' just somebody who lives in America," 
and refrains from stealing, and is resoluted about when he dies He is 
a man who understands and believes in American principles. The very 
first of those principles is that a monarchy has no right to rule people 
who do not wish to be ruled by it, even if they are people who wear 
paper collars and are impolite to intruders. 

One word from the United States would have averted the wan- o^R 
ton and wicked war in South Africa. It should have been a RESPONSiBirjTY 
friendly and polite word — no such ignorant slap in the face as IN AFRICA., 

we gave England three years ago about Venezuela It would have had 
abundant precedent in this and every other civilized country. England 
would, of course, have winked a knowing eye at Luzon — but she would 
have kept her paw off the Boers, as sharply as she kept it off the wretched 
little South American despotism where she was as much in the right 
as she is now in the wrong. England has been in business as a nation 
for a good many centuries, and is better known to more peoples than 
any other country on earth. She has not a friend in the whole world 
of nations; and she is not going to throw away the one-day caresses of 
a country that has hated her more fiercely (and as unwisely) than any 
other, and whose present ofiicial attitude is merely because "misery 
loves company." The temper of America has not changed. It is an 
unreasoning temper. The average American hates or distrusts England 
blindly, for no better reason than that she twice tried to do for us what 
she is now trying to do for the Boers — to make nice, well bred, profit- 
able servants. Our prejudice is unreasoning, because the real people of 
England were not in either attempt to suppress liberty. In our case it 
was the low and stupid King ; in the Boer case it is the foxy scoundrel 
Chamberlain ; both aided by a mistaken sense of loyalty. America has 
no real friendship for England — more's the pity. It will be a good day 
for both countries when we do have. But our present official iutente is 



iiS LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

merely on the responsibility of such of our politicians as ignorantly 
blackguarded England so long as they could catch a vote thereby ; and 
who will be doing it again as soon as it " pays." The real understand- 
ing between the two countries will come only when each realizes how 
much manlier, cleaner and more honest each people is than its politi- 
cians. 

^^ What easy game the politician finds us ! How confidently he 

^^^^ counts upon our human frailty ! How coldbloodedly buncoes 

GAME. our very virtues to serve his ends ! He knows that we dislike 

trouble — and self-government, certainlj', is some trouble. Well, he 
will kindly save us all that. We can just leave things to him. He 
knows that all hearts — even measly little ones — admire loyalty, and 
that most of us are more afraid of being called "traitor" by a traitor 
than we are of an army with banners. So he pledges us to support 
him, and himself to do only what we can decently support ; and then 
he betrays our faith and demands our ''loyalty" to measures he would 
no more have dared suggest beforehand than he would have dared put 
his head in the fire. But he is well aware that, partly because we are 
more honest than he is, and partly because we are less impudent, and 
partly because we are timid, we will follow him almost anywhere after 
once promising to follow him to good things. He counts on this as 
coolly as a business man counts his assets — find with as substantial jea- 
son. It is 90% of his capital. He does not need much brains or 
morals — and generally has not much of either. But if he have the 
smoothness to get oiir consent at first to what is good, he is willing to 
trust us to swallow everything. 

WHii,E^ Following an express declaration of Congress against expansion 

THERE IS in the Philippines, President McKinley tells us that "we /lave 

YET TIME, expanded," and that it is no longer a question for Congress 
or common folks to meddle with. But probably it is not yet too late in 
this con !i try for a plain American to rise and ask : "How? When? 
Who's We ' ? What was the date and what were the ceremonials ? " 
Certainly to annul the Constitution of the United States must have 
taken a specific act, by specific persons, at a specific point of time. 
These things do not come by evaporation nor as a dream in the night, 
without agent or chronology or responsibilit3^ If there are no Ameri- 
cans left who might be curious, the historian at least will wish to know. 
And certainly in all human history a republic was never before turned 
into an empire without the light of day and date. If for more than a 
century we have been wasting our own time and that of Congress, and 
the thing can be so easily done in a dream without any help from us, 
let us know how, that we may save trouble next time ; and let us have 
a date to celebrate among our other patriotic holidays — since nothing is 
so patriotic nowadays as saving ourselves trouble. 

wii,iy LEAVEN It is an absolute fact of history that never before in time of 

THE WHOLE war have American officers and soldiers found themselves with 
LUMP, so bad a taste in their mouths. They never fought better 
(though they have fought incomparably harder fights) — a triumph of 
discipline over taste. But Americans never before battled with so little 
heart. _ Talk with the men back from the Philippines. With very rare 
exceptions they say things you do not find in the newspapers Their feel- 
ing about the local conduct of the campaign, and about the war in 
general, is almost unanimous. Were it not for the feeling which hinders 
a soldier's tongue, the opinion of the men who have done our fighting in 
the Philippines would already have so fixed public sentiment that Con- 
gress would shut up the war at once. But this big, if somewhat tongue- 
tied, influence is at work ; and by the Presidential campaign it will be 
felt. 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 119 

There are estimable people, untimely withdrawn from the blkssud 
oven, who think the eternal truth is not so large as the ques- BE the 

tion whether a person employs a manicure. If he doesn't he innocent 

cannot care for liberty, nor merit it. There are others, as underdone, 
who allege that God cannot favor the Boers because they are ungentle to 
the " Caffres" — as one imperial correspondent spells it. These people 
evidently are unaware that George Washington owned and worked 
slaves ; that there were slaves in all the Thirteen Colonies which 
whipped Great Britain twice. 

Dr. Elliott Coues, the eminent historian — and, as well, one of THE 
our foremost authorities in ornithology — died in the Johns nation's 

Hopkins Hospital on Christmas day. This was one of the last i/OSS. 

men American scholarship could spare; and to this magazine, of whose 
staff he was a member, the blow is doubly sharp. He was not only 
affiliated with its work for the West, but a loved and honored friend. 
The February number will have more to say of him. 

Whatever the dispute as to whether " the Islands" look well OUR 
on a map of the United States, it is certain that Maysville, Ky., OWN 

doesn't. If we are to have a big standing army it had better be heathen- 

sent among these cannibals, who fetch their children out to see them 
gouge, carve and roast a human being. There are too many places in 
our own country that need benevolent-assimilation-with-a-ciub even 
worse than the Filipinos do. 

The pagan Burmese tuck a paper on a revolving wheel and i*abor 
leave it to do their praying. This is wonderfully like some saving 
Americans who fix an Administration prayer-wheel, pin their DEVICES, 

minds on it and go off about their business, quite assured that it would 
be blasphemous to wonder why God gave every man a conscience if its 
work could just as well be done by the machine. 

It was a rude shock to our provincial friends of New York when 
their "Franklin Syndicate" was closed by the brutal police. To expect 
520 per cent, for your money, and get " left," is enough to destroy a New 
Yorker's faith in human nature. Doubtless their childlike trust is one 
of the "blessings" the compassionate Harry Thurston Peck is so sorry 
the West has to get along without. 

"The words of his mouth were smoother than butter, but war was in 
his heart" No, this is not a "copperhead" attack on the administra- 
tion. It is simply a text of scripture. And the bible has not yet been 
excluded from the United States mails, though it has "treason" on 
nearly every page. 

"The Tagals are only brigands. The insurrection is something for the 
police to put down, rather than an army." This is Maj. Gen E. S. 
Otis's latest verdict. If he is right, for the first time in his career, we 
might as well recall 75,000 American soldiers and send over a policeman. 

"No man," said Abraham Lincoln, "is good enough to govern an- 
other man without that other's consent." It may be added that 
no man is so good that no one else need bother to be good. And that 
no president is so American that he can be a republic all by himself. 

Americans used to be so green as to think that people who wished to 
govern themselves had a right to ; but we are smarter now. Anybody 
who has such old-fashioned notions is either a tin-whistle dictator or an 
oligarch who doesn't wash his face. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 



I20 




THAT 

WHICH IS 

WRITTENj 



No wonder we are, as Max MuUer 
remarks, "systematically ruining our 
memories " by so much reading. Last 
year over 77.000 books were published on this 
sinful planet ; and that is now about the average. 
Seventy-seven thousand enemies (mostly) for men to put upon their 
shelves to steal their minds away ! A few books may help a man to 
think, if he have the wherewithal ; but the visible tendency of many 
books is to content people with thinking they thiuk. Of course the 
average memory is already destroyed. "Civilized" people have only 
a remnant as compared with the savage and *' half-civilized." But far 
more vital is the fact that the book-habit is equally undermining 
thought. The time may come when discriminating millionaires, instead 
of founding libraries, will give good, worthy towns $25,000 each for bon- 
fires big enough to burn what books they have. 

AN Doubtless there is something which David Starr Jordan cannot 

AivL-ROUND do well ; but doubtless he never did it. Into whatsoever 

MAN. activity he turns — and these are manifold, since he is one of 

the busiest of men and therefore always has time to do something new — 
he makes a deep dent. It is only a little while since he turned out the 
most monumental work yet extant on ichthyology ; and a little before 
that the ablest and noblest book in existence on " Imperial Democracy;" 
and again a book which is probably the most lucid, attractive and com- 
petent statement of Evolution yet printed. It is equally easy for him 
to president his magnificent university or an international Stal Commis- 
sion, lead the flying wedge at football, climb the Enchanted Mesa, 
"sling a sassy" frying pan in a frontier camp, or handle millions broadly 
and wisely. Now, that is what man was made for ; but not many seem 
to reach completion. It shows how faulty our civilization is when we 
see with what entire absence of strain one man can equal a dozen aver- 
age good men. To see Jordan's colossal figure and hear his easy-going, 
unrapt speech, the notion of this giant coming to the knee-high plane of 
children might seem as incongruous as that of an elephant in the 
minuet. But he can do it with grace scarcely short of his strength, as 
those know who have read a private pamphlet of exquisitely delicate and 
wise poems ; and as is openly proved by his new Book of Knight and 
Barbara (his two children). This is a fat collection of (mostly) nonsense 
stories, wherein the most logical mind. (which is the child mind) delights; 
with a few travesties on the classics, and some soberer animal sketches. 
These stories, invented for Knight and Barbara, have been told to thou- 
sands of other children, in the schools ; and the book is illustrated by 
the real children in the most approved slate-pencil fashion. There are a 
few places in the stories where there seems an elephantine step ; but as 
a whole they are an extraordinary adoption of the eight-year-old point 
of view. Few books nowadays will so much appeal to the normal child. 
D. Appleton & Co., New York. |1.50. 

WHIBRE It would be marvelous, were not literary people so notoriously 

THE SHADOW stupid, that the Chinese in California have never been se- 

FAi^ivS. riously "worked" for the bonanza they are. Nothing in 

America is more strangely picturesque, nothing so steeped in mystery 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. i" 

and — villainy. As literary material it is an almost unexplored wilder- 
ness of inexhaustible richness — a theme for the novelist, short-story 
writer, essayist, sociologist, world without end. Yet they dawdle past 
and over it, blind to its elemental wonder and tragedy, pursuing shal- 
lowness and triviality. Perhaps the first adequate insight into parts of 
that strange, red dripping wheel within our wheels is Dr. C. W. Doyle's 
The Shadow of Quong Lung. If this his novel of San Francisco China- 
town has not, perhaps, quite the sympathetic unity of his learning of the 
Jungle (and it should hardly be expected that he shall love the slums of 
San Francisco as he loves the Terai where he was born), his story gains 
by comparison with the work of any other in the same field. Even an 
Easterner may learn from this graphic picture why scholars as well as 
hoodlums count the Chinese a blot ; for this tale of murder, robbery, 
and the enslaving of women, is a true picture of Chinatown. None 
better than this reviewer cherishes the brotherhood of man ; and the 
Chinese are human. But in this country we have the offal of Canton, 
further dehumanized by an abnormal environment. Nowhere else in 
the world, probably, is there a community so absolutely naked of love, 
home, citizenship. The economist can guess what such conditions 
will produce. What they have produced, Dr. Doyle tells with a direct 
and elemental power It is a gruesome story, but as fascinating as true. 
J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia. $1.25. 

Eminently sound and sane in a class not universally noted for I*IKE 
these qualities, Brander Matthews is one of the good forces in REAL 

American life and letters. A college professor without pedantry, ivlFE. 

a literary man and critic without affectations or dallying, gentle without 
cowardice, genial without blindness, a loyal friend, a good citizen and a 
finished writer, he is of a stripe we could well wish to have more of. 
And I have never known him to write anything which was not worth 
reading. Perhaps the most rounded of his dozen books is the latest, A 
Confident Tomorrow^ a human and heart-warming novel of New York. 
It is notable for its naturalness. It is real ; which is as much above the 
'•realistic" as the moon is above its reflection in a puddle. And that, 
perhaps, is its secret of getting into our hearts — as it does, without ad- 
ventitious aids of sensation, consternation or ostentation. The love- 
story is particularly sweet, without a trace of overdoing. In so com- 
fortable a book one can almost forgive the author's local heresy that 
New York is reallv a "University." Men can learn -Something any- 
where. Many of us will get a really liberal education hereafter ; and 
the natural retort to the statement that New York is very educative is, 
"so is the Other Place." Soberly, the real University of life is any- 
where that man is made to do for himself. It may be a special course 
where everything is done for him except his one little specialty ; but it 
certainly is no curriculum. If New York taught any broad education, 
there soon would be no one left in it. Harper & Bros., New York. 
$1.50. 

It is a large word to use, but probably exact, to say that among " THE STORY 
the hundreds of "series" in all sorts of popular lines, "The OF THE 

Story of the West Series," edited by Ripley Hitchcock, is the WEST, 

best. The field is a noble one, and the treatment thus far has been 
adequate. Hough's Story of the Cowboy, Grinnell's Story of the Indian, 
and our own Shinn's Story of the Mine — these are undoubtedly the best 
popular books ever written to their special texts. They are literature of 
a good order, intensely interesting and of genuine historic value. 
The fourth volume now comes on — The Story of the Railroad, by Cy. 
Warman — and is no less interesting. Mr. Warman is certainly not in 
the class of his predecessors in the series, either in depth or literary 
skill. His book shows haste, and is rather crude beside the foregoing 
masterly volumes. Nor is it so genuinely Western. Mr. Warman is a 



122 LAND OF SUNSHINE, 

railroad man and a rousing writer of railroad stories ; he simply has not 
the historian's grip as the other three have. But he has a good eye for 
the picturesque and knows his theme too well to be misleading. The 
Santa F^ road has a large place in the book, and deservedly. All rail- 
roads are civilizers ; but the Santa F6 is by far the most civilized railroad 
that ever pierced the West. D. Appleton &. Co., New York. $1.50. 

QUATRAINS If " Not failure but low aim is crime," then indeed is Dr. 

AT THE Frank BuUard, of lyos Angeles, safe from prosecution. To 

SPHINX. hope to settle or unsettle faith, doubt or denial, b}'- a sequence 
of 139 quatrains, each reinforced by a quotation ; to be as Dr. Bul- 
iard's ApistopAi7on aims to be, "the Nemesis of Faith," is at least san- 
guine. But it is one of the fortunate cases in which we may shoot our 
arrow o'er the house and not hurt our brother. Belief and disbelief are 
rather pachydermatous ; aud even Khayyamish quatrains do not phase 
them. Probably no one was ever rhymed into a creed nor out of one ; 
and like the big fellow whose wife beat him, " it pleases her and don't 
hurt me." Dr. BuUard's thought is clear and good, his diction ex- 
ceptionally simple and unaffected, his quotation apt and of wide read- 
ing, his versification conscientious, but almost uninformed of melody. 
Printed for the author by R. R. Donnelly & Sons Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

SAWDUST Possibly to Iowa farm boys a generation ago, even poetry 

AND would have been a welcome change. Hamlin Garland was one 

BOYS. of them, and he ought to know. As his book of Boy Life on 

the Prairie is more than ten per cent, verse, we must conclu<ie that for 

the sort of boys Mr. Garland thinks he remembers, "that is the sort of 

thing those people would like." All the verse is not so bad as this : 

A lonely task it is to ploush! 

All day the biack anil clinginR soil 
Eol's lik-' a ribbon from tlie m .uld board's 

Glistening curve All day the horses toil, 
Bat'lii g with Mie flies— and strain 

Their crpakini; col-ars. All day 
The crickets jeer, etc. 

Indeed, it could hardly all be, if Mr. Garland had tried. It is fair to say 
that there are many strong lines in his verse, if not much poetry ; and 
that his picture of a prairie farmer-boy is of his usual photographic sort, 
tho' (again as usual) not with a Dallmeyer lens. Either the book is a 
potboiler, or Mr. Garland's ideas of boyhood have withered prematurely. 
The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth avenue. New York. $1.50. 

THE MAN Of the quality of Clifton Johnson's camera we have been awaie 

WITH before ; his photographic connotation and embellishment of 

AN KYE. books by John Burroughs and others has made the judicious 
rejoice. Now this very genuine artist presents us a book Among En- 
glish Hedgrows which would warm the heart of Irving. Rarely — if ever 
before — has rural England been so exquisitely pictured. To the perfect 
technique of photography, Mr. Johnson adds the "composition" of a 
great painter ; and as result, his photographs may fairly be called art. 
The text is sympathetic and genuine. The artist-author shunned the 
threadbare Cook-ery itineraries and went down atnong the people ; see- 
ing, thereby, not the usual outside but the real life of England. It is a 
good book and a remarkably attractive one. The Macmillan Co., 66 
Fifth avenue, New York. $2.25 

THK PIRATE James Barnes, already well known for his Yankee Ships and 

AS A Yankee Sailors, is franker and nearer history than the usual 

HERO, writer on such themes, in his new book Drake and His Yeo- 
men ; for he frankly confesses "we were pirates all." It is curious, 
however, what heroes English pirates are and how damned are all other 
pirates in our biased literature. Drake, of course, as every student 
knows, was as scoundrelly a pirate as Captain Kidd. But the "Virgin " 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. I23 

Queen shared his plutjder and knighted him ; and books continue to 
lionize him, and many serious good ignoramuses set up Prayer Book 
Crosses and the like in his honor. Mr. Barnes, however, makes a de- 
cidedly good story. The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth avenue, New York. $2. 

Raised of good dough, but evidently taken from the oven " underdone, 
a little unbrowned. Bolton Hall — as shown forth in his good and 

book — is a curious combination of Sam Jones epigram (and Faithful." 

better), maudlin sympathy and emotional religion. No full statured 
man does or can feel as he does about Things As They Are. It would 
be foolish to call the Rev. Mr. Hall an anarchist and probably unjust to 
ticket him as a mere yellow newspaper preacher. He is simply a nice, 
nervous, emotional intelligence that never got out-doors enough to know 
the knocks that make men. His survey of Things that Are in hio clos- 
eted consciousness is doubtless sincere and undeniably well spoken. But 
it is callow and unmanful. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. $1.25. 

Vol. 7, No. 1, of the "Columbia University Contributions to the 
Philosophy, Psychology and Education," is a thoughtful PUEBLO 

monograph entitled Education of the Pueblo Child, a study in child. 

arrested development, by Frank Clarence Spencer, Ph. D. On the 
whole, Dr. Spencer carries his point, though with some errors by the 
way. The Inquisition never had anything to do with Indians any- 
where ; no Pueblo estufas are "conical;" Isleta, as well as Taos and 
Acoma, is where it was in 1540, and its Indian name is not **Tsha-ni-pa," 
but Shi-e-huib-bac. There are a great many typographical errors and 
misspellings which ought not to disfigure so scholarly a work. The 
Macmilan Co., 66 Fifth avenue. New York. 75 cents. 

Doubtless no good healthy American boy has ever lived, since sure 
American railroading began, but has at one time or another TO catch 

longed to be a locomotive engineer. I can vouch for one boy, boys. 

at least, who will never see greater bliss than it was to pitch chunks of 
wood into the fire-box of one of the old funnel -stacks of the B., C and 
M., and singe off his eye-brows at the job, more than twenty-five years 
ago. No boy will be likely to have his appetite allayed by reading Her- 
bert E. Hamblen's IVe Win. Mr. Hamblen is a natural story-teller, and 
this is a boy's railroad story ** from away back." Sent to any address on 
approval. Doubleday & McClure Co., New York. $1.50. Los Angeles, 
C. C. Parker. 

Frances Hodgson Burnett has done several famous things; but GOOD 
in manv ways no better work than this new novel /« Connec- human 

tion With the De Willouzhby Claim. "Big Tom", the "fail- nature. 

ure" of the proud F. F. V., is a character worth writing a whole book 
for ; and there is a good deal else between these covers. The Washing- 
ton end of the story is of course strong with Mrs. Burnett's intimate 
knowledge of that un-American city ; but the fineness of the book, its 
real appeal to every heart, is in the beautiful relationship of the clumsy 
giant to the little waif. Mrs. Burnett has scored another distinct suc- 
cess. Chas. Scribner's Sons, 153-157 Fifth avenue, New York. $1.50. 

The almost uncanny brilliancy of I. Zangwill is not obscured THE 
even under such title as They That Walk in Darkness. These tragic 

"tragedies of the Ghetto," eleven short stories of the Chosen JEW. 

People, are, as it were, a hope against hope. For tragedies they are — 
not the tinsel heroics of the stage, but the mean oppressions of life ; and 
instinct with Zangwill's almost prophetic understanding of his people 
and his astonishing faculty for "saying things." The Macmillan Co., 
66 Fifth avenue. New York. $1.50. 



^24 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

PIONEERS A scholarly and important volume for the historical student of 

OF THE the Southeast is The Franciscans in Arizona^ by Fray 

CROSS. Zephyrin Engelhardt. author of The Franciscans in California, 
which has already been noticed in these pages. Father Zephyrin largely 
(and wisely) follows Arrecivita's Cronica Serafica ; but his comparison 
of authorities has been broad and generally just ; and he sets forth well 
the heroic story of the pioneer missionaries. The volume is printed and 
bound by Indian boys at the Holy Childhood Indian School, Harbor 
Springs, Mich., and can be had of the author at that address. 

<^OOl^ Mrs. Burton Harrison has well carried out a good idea in The 

'^ovu Circle of a Century. The first part is a sweet, old-fashioned 

STORIES. love story of New York in the time of Washington's inaugura- 
tion, very warming to us for hero and heroine, and still more so toward 
the finer girl who was sacrificed. The second part is extremely up-to- 
date — perhaps a little too much so for the best proportion — and carries the 
two-fold romance of the descendants of the characters of the first story. 
It is a book which leaves a good taste in the mouth. The Century Co., 
33 B. Seventeenth street, New York. |1.25. 

" THEY OF H. H. Lusk— long a member of the New Zealand Parliament, 

HIS OWN and for years in the United States — says a great many true 

HOUSEHOLD." things in his review of American conditions, Our Foes at 
Home. Mr. Lusk is a friendly as well as a sober critic, and he sees 
what all thoughtful Americans see of danger in our institutions. He 
also shows us how much worse we are governed than some other coun- 
tries. It is a book serio'is Americans may well read. Sent on approval. 
Doubleday & McClureCo., New York. |1. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

A NOVEL A thoroughly good love story is about the most popular thing 

ABOVE THE we can have, and that is precisely what A. E W. Mason has 

ORDINARY, given us in his unhackneyed novel Miranda of the Balcony, 
There is now and then a little affectation in the telling ; but it is a story 
to rouse one from sleep, and "Charnock,'* "Miranda," her scrub of a 
husband, and ** Wilbraham" the blackmailer, are memorable characters. 
The pi At is decidedly fresh, and the story is that of a rare and noble 
love. The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth avenue, New York. |1.50. 

ROMANCE A second and much changed edition of Richard Whiteing's The 

A.ND Island has just been issued — called forth, no doubt, by the brill- 

SATIRE. iant success of his No. 5 fohn Street. The story of the bliss- 
ful little community on Pitcairn Island is particularly attractive, and 
serves also to wing a shaft of very sharp satire at the greedy and pur- 
blind thing we call civilization. "Victoria" is a large and noble enough 
character to carry a book all by herself. The Century Co., 33 East 
Seventeenth street. New York. |1.50. 

QUORUM A book to compel thought is Booker T. Washington's The 

PARS Future of the American Negro. Mr. Washington, himself an 

MAGNA, excellent example of what a Negro may be, writes of his people 
and the problem for them and for us in a fashion which cannot fail to 
stir reflection. It is a problem we cannot shirk decently nor wisely ; 
and Mr. Booker's sound discussion and statement of facts is an illumina- 
tive aid to proper understanding. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. $1.50. 

SOME Almost passing clever is the jovous f ingle Book, written by 

DELICIOUS Carolyn Wells and illustricated with all the willful yet amiable 

NONSENSE, humanity of Oliver Herford. Children of all ages — and the more 
age the better — will tickle over these extraordinary rhymes, in which the 
English language seems to be playing India- Rubber-Man and " stump- 
ing" the artist to tie himself into as many bowknots — and Mr. Herford 
never takes a dare. The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth avenue, New York. $1. 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. 125 

Certainly, anyone who would accuse Coulson Kernahan of a the 
"purpose" deeper than "having fun" with us in his latest associated 

word would say anything. Scoundrels & Co. is simply made vii.IvAINIES. 

to read, and is in small danger of not being read if once dipped into. 
The idea of the Crimes Trust, as it were, is distinctly good, and the de- 
velopment of it generally so. It is in fact a taking book for the spare 
hour. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

A competent translation — the first in English — of Maurus ROBBERS 
J6kai*s Szegeny Gazdagok is after all these years published and 

under title of The Poor Plutocrats. It is one of the great beggars. 

Hungarian's strongest works. " Fatia Negra" the bandit and "Juon" 
the giant shepherd are particularly striking characters. Sent on ap- 
proval. Doubleday & McClure Co., New York. $1.25. Ivos Angeles, 
C. C. Parker. 

A peculiarly tender and lovable book is the Countess Puliga's FATHER 
My Father and I. Nothing more than the naturally biased and 

tribute of a daughter, it is nevertheless a book to make a man daughter. 

envious. A daughter at all is heaven's last, best gift ; God send us all as 
true ones and as gentle judges as we here find given the Count D'Orsay. 
H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.25. 

Perhaps the last work we shall have from the late Maria Louise MISS 
Pool is A Widower and Some Spinsters, a collection of thir- pooi^'S 

teen short stories of New England. And good stories. Kindly i,ast. 

but (inseeing, Miss Pool drew to the life. An appreciative sketch of her 
and several photographs add to the volume. H. S. Stone & Co., 
Chicago. $1.50. 

Four scholarly monographs on matters of mediaeval Spanish art are 
at hand from Prof. Enrique Serrano Fatigati, president of the Sociedad 
Espanola de Excursiones, of Madrid. Most interesting, perhaps, is 
that on " Spanish Romanesque Cloisters," though its fellow on "The 
Feeling of Nature in Mediaeval Spanish Reliefs," crowds it closely. 
Senor Fatigati writes a handsome Spanish, as many scholars do not ; 
and is a genuine student, as many writers are not. 

Lay Sermons, by Howard W. Tilton, presents the unusual spectacle of 
a newspaper man (he is editor of the Council Bluffs Nonpareil) preach- 
ing righteousness. Mr. Tilton, though not ordained, evidently has a 
vocation ; and he preaches — perhaps at times rather Chautauqually — "a 
gospel of helpfulness and happiness." Sent on approval. Doubleday 
& McClure Co., New York. $1. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

Nancy Hanks, by Caroline Hanks Hitchcock, is a little book which 
fills a certain gap in history; for it at last "vindicates" the mother of 
the'greatest president — if any woman needs vindicating who gives her 
country such a son as Abraham Lincoln, It is an interesting contribu- 
tion. Sent on approval. Doubleday & McClure Co., New York. 50 
cents. Los Angeles, for sale by C. C. Parker. 

A thoughtful and acceptable compilation is Nature Pictures by 
American Poets, edited by Annie Russell Marble, A. M. Among the 
poems are ten by members of the Land of Sunshine staff" — Ina Cool- 
brith, John Vance Cheney and Ella Higginson. The Macmillan Co., 66 
Fifth avenue. New York. $1.25. 

Carl Schurz's masterly address, The Policy of Imperialism, can be had 
in a neat pamphlet from W. J. Mize, 517 First National Bank Building, 
Chicago. It is a magnificent essay in patriotism ; and even those who 
do not agree with it can do themselves good by reading it. 



126 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

The solid old house of J. B. Lippincott Co. will have universal sym- 
pathy for the loss of its entire plant by fire last month ; and admiration 
for its pluck and energy in getting under way again. The business is 
already in operation and a full stock of the Lippincott books will soon 
be ready for the demand. 

How tremendous the publishing business has become is evidenced by 
the fact that a single firm in New York (The Macmillan Co.) issued two 
hundred books this fall. This is doubtless more than the whole United 
States published twenty years ago ; and there are fully ten times as many 
publishers now as then. 

Alice B. Stockham, M. D., puts forth several attractive and instructive 
pamphlets on matters of our intimate concern — Parenthood, Food of the 
Orient, and Hindu Wedding Bells, 25 cents each. Published by the 
author, 56 Fifth avenue, Chicago. 

Wild Eden is a little volume of high-thinking and graceful verse by 
Prof. Geo. Edward Woodberry the editor of "National Studies in Ameri- 
can Letters." The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth avenue. New York. $1.25. 

Hawaii Fair is a slender collection of verses by Philip Henry Dodge. 
D. P. Klder & Morgan Shepard, San Francisco. 25 cents. 

Virginia Baker prints a brief monograph to show that "Sowams," the 
home of Massasoit, was where Warren, R. I., now stands. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 




W 



Platform of the American Anti-Im- 
perialist League. 

^E hold that the policy known as imperialism is hostile to liberty 
and tends toward militarism, an evil from which it has been 
our glory to be free. We regret that it has become necessary 
in the land of Washington and Lincoln to reaffirm that all men, of 
whatever race or color, are entitled to life, liberty and the pursuit of 
happiness. We maintain that governments derive their just powers 
from the consent of the governed. We insist that the subjugation of 
any people is "criminal aggression" and open disloyalty to the dis- 
tinctive principles of our government. 

We earnestly condemn the policy of the present national administra- 
tion in the Philippines. It seeks to extinguish the spirit of 1776 in 
those islands. We deplore the sacrifice of our soldiers and sailors, 
whose bravery deserves admiration even in an unjust war. We de- 
nounce the slaughter of the Filipinos as a needless horror. We protest 
against the extension of American sovereignty by Spanish methods. 

We demand the immediate cessation of the war against liberty, begun 
by Spain and continued by us. We urge that Congress announce to 
the Filipinos our purpose to concede to them the independence for 
which they have so long fought and which of right is theirs. 

The United States have always protested against the doctrine of in- 
ternational law which permits the subjugation of the weak by the 
strong. A self-governing state cannot accept sovereignty over an un- 



PLATFORM OF ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE. 127 

willing people. The United States cannot act upon the ancient heresy 
that might makes right. 

Imperialists assume that with the destruction of self government in 
the Philippines by American hands, all opposition here will cease. This 
is a grievous error. Much as we abhor the war of "criminal aggress- 
ion" in the Philippines, greatly as we regret that the blood of the Fili- 
pinos is on American hands, we more deeply resent the betrayal of 
American institutions at home. The real firing line is not in the sub- 
burbs of Manila. The foe is of our own household. The attempt of 
1861 was to divide the country. That of 1899 is to destroy its funda- 
mental principles and noblest ideals. 

Whether the ruthless slaughter of the Filipinos shall end next month 
or next year is but an incident in a contest that must go on until the 
Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States 
are rescued from the hands of their betrayers. Those who dispute 
about standards of value while the foundation of the republic is un- 
dermined will be listened to as little as those who would wrangle about 
the small economies of the household while the house is on fire. The 
training of a great people for a century, the aspiration for liberty of a 
vast immigration are forces that will hurl aside those who in the de- 
lirium of conquest seek to destroy the character of our institutions. 

We deny that the obligation of all citizens to support their govern- 
ment in times of grave national peril applies to the present situation. 
If an administration may with impunity ignore the issues upon which 
it was chosen, deliberately create a condition of war anywhere on the 
face of the globe, debauch the civil service for spoils to promote the ad- 
venture, organize a truth-suppressing censorship, and demand of all 
citizens a suspension of judgment and their unanimous support while 
it chooses to continue the fighting, representative government itself is 
imperiled. 

We propose to contribute to the defeat of any person or party that 
stands for the forcible subjugation of any people. We shall oppose for 
re-election all who in the White House or in Congress betray American 
liberty in pursuit of un-American ends. We still hope that both of our 
great political parties will support and defend the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence in the closing campaign of the century. 

We hold with Abraham Lincoln, that "no man is good enough to 
govern another man without that other's consent. When the white 
man governs himself, that is self-government, but when he governs 
himself and also governs another man that is more than self-govern- 
ment — that is despotism." "Our reliance is in the love of liberty 
which God has planted in us. Our defense is in the spirit which prizes 
liberty as a heritage of all men in all lands. Those who deny freedom 
to others deserve it not for themselves, and under a just God cannot 
long retain it " 

We cordially invite the cooperation of all men and women who re- 
main loyal to the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of 
the United States. 




128 




TO CONSERVE THE MISSIONS 
AND OTHER HISTORIC 
LANDMARKS OF SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

Directors : 

OFFICERSi Frank A. Gibson. 

President, Chas. F. Lnmmis. Henry W. O'Melveny 

Vice-President, Margaret Collier Graham. Rev. J. Adam. 

Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, 114 N. Spring St. Sumner P. Hunt. 

Treasurer, Frank A. Gibson, Cashier 1st Nat. Bank. Arthur B. Benton. 

Corresponding Secretary Mrs. M E. Stilson. Margaret Collier Graham. 

812 Kensington Road, Los Angeles. Chas. F. Lummis. 

#gJi|^HE Club has large work to do in 1900 ; and before work can be 
s2^l • done there must be funds. An earnest appeal is made to all 
Ji who are interested in preserving the historic landmarks of 
Southern California to renew their memberships or take membership — 
the only formality necessary being the payment of $1 a year (or morej, 
to assist in the Club's work. Several hundred dollars are needed for 
immediate repairs at the Missions of San Diego, San Juan Capistrano and 
Pala. The engraving shows one of the adobe walls at San Diego since 
the Club underpinned it. 

Previously acknowledged, $3730.96. 

New contributions : Geo. L. Fleitz, Detroit, $25. Dorothea Moore, 
M. D., San Francisco, $2 ; Edmund G. Hamersley, Philadelphia, $2. 
$1 each : Mary Hallock Foote, Grass Valley, Cal.; A. Petsch, Dr. J. A. 
Munk, Ivos Angeles ; Mrs. Francis F. Browne, Chicago. 




The Land We Love. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



Photos, by Hill, Pasaden*. 
PASADENA'S TOURNAMENT OF ROSES, JANUARY I, 190O. 
Maj. Gen. Shatter, Brig. Gen. Otis. The Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce Eightin-hand. 




C. M Davis Eng. Co. 



A CALIFORNIA TROUT STREAM. 



Photo, by Lippincott Art Co. 



133 



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CALIFORNIA BABIES 



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•C. M. Davis'Eng. Co, 



YOUNG CAIvIFORNIA. 



134 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co 



JUST KIDS. 



Photo, by C F. L. 



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WHEN WE WENT GIPSYING. 



CALIFORNIA BABIES. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



"WSTKN TO THE MOCKING BIRD.' 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



"chi-i-ick! " 



136 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



AI,I, JOLI^Y. 



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C. M. Davis Eng. Co. « < CAWFORNIA ? YOU BET ! ' ' 



TPhe Land of Sunshine 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

The Land of Sunslnine Publisiiitig Co. 

(incorporatbd) 

Rooms 5, 7, 9, \2\}4 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal., U. S. A. 



SUBSCRIPTION RATES 
$1 a year in the United States, Canada and 

Mexico . , „ ^ , 

$1.60 a year to other countries in the Postal 

Union. 

Entered at the Los Angeles Postoffice as second- 
class matter. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 
W. C. Patterson . - - - President 
Chas. F. Lummis - - - Vice-President 

F. A. Pattee Secretary 

H. J. Fleishman Treasurer 

Chas. Cassat Davis . - - . Attorney 
Cyrus M. Davis. 

OTHER LOCAL STOCKHOLDERS 
Chas. Forman, D. Freeman. F. W. Braun, Jno. 
F. Francis, E. W. Jones, Geo. H. Bonebrake, 
F. K. Rule, Andrew Mullen, I. B. Newton, S. H. 
Mott, Alfred P. Griffith, E. E. Bostwick, H. E. 
Brook. Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner Co., L- Rep- 
logle, J. C. Perry, F. A. Schnell, G. H. Paine, 
Louisa C. Bacon, Hdgar John Arnold. (See table 
of contents page.) 

HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS 
Chas. F. Lummis - - - Editorial 

F, A. Pattee - . - - Business 

Chas. a. Moody - - Subscription 

F. A. Schnell - - - News Stand 

Jno. Edgar Arnold - Eastern Advertising 

Address all MSS. to the editor ; all remittances 
and business to the company at above address. 



WARNING 
The Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. has 
nothing to do with a concern which has imitated 
its name as nearly as it dared. This magazine 
is not peddling town lots in the desert It is a 
magazine, not a lottery. Chas. F. Lummis. 



Dr. W. A. Shepard , of Colorado Springs.'is the 
author of the Shepard treatment for consumption, 
which is attracting attention. 



The Treatment of Cage Birds. 

We all love birds, but few know how to care for 
them properly. Every one owning a bird will 
therefore be interested in a book containing over 
150 engravings and a lithographic plate showing 
all the different kinds of fancy canaries in their 
natural colors. It gives full information in regard 
to song and fancy canaries and how to breed them 
for profit. Hints on the treatment and breeding 
of all kinds of cage birds, with descriptions of 
their diseases and the remedies needed to cure 
them. All about parrots and how to teach them 
to talk. In.structions for building and stocking 
an aviary. The most complete book of the kind 
ever published, irrespective of price. Mailed to 
any address on receipt of 15c. by the "Associated 
Fanciers," 400 N. 3d St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Catarrh. Cannot be Cured 

With LOCAL APPLICATIONS, as they cannot 
reach the seat of the disease. Catarrh is a blood 
or constitutional disease, and in order to cure it 
you must take internal remedies. Hall's Catarrh 
Cure is taken internally, and acts directly on the 
blood and mucous surfaces. Hall's Catarrh Cure 
is not a quack medicine. It was prescribed by 
one of the best physicians in this country for 
years, and is a regular prescription. It is com- 
posed of the best tonics known, combined with 
the best blood purifiers, acting directly on the 
mucous surfaces. The perfect combination of 
the iwo ingredients is what produces such won- 
derful results in curing Catarrh. Send for testi- 
monials, free. 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Props., Toledo, O. 
Sold by druggists, price 75c. 



January "Agreement." 

Prof. C. W. Harris, of 921 S. Olive st., Los An- 
geles, has just issued a journal called The Agree- 
ment, which contains much valuable information 
relative to the science of magnetic healing. The 
matter is easy of comprehension and of fascina- 
ting interest. The Professor will be glad to mail 
a copy to any address upon receipt of stamp. 

Abbot Kinney is giving the Abbotsford Inn of 
this city the advantage of his extensive travel 
and observation amongst the caravansaries of 
Europe. Not only is every usual amusement 
furnished the guest, but the table service par- 
ticularly bespeaks the liberality of the host. 

Grateful Testimony. 

The Imperial Granum Co., New Haven, Conn. 

Dear Sirs .• — I feel assured you have the best 
food preparation on the market. I had a son — a 
soldier — come home low with typhoid fever. I 
used the Imperial Granum and it acted like a 
charm. He is now well. 

It allays inflammation, reduces fever, quiets the 
patient and is a great blessing. I wish you a 
happy Christmas. 

M. D. 

Newport, Dec. 16, 1898. 



The Planter's Dependence on 
Good Seeds. 

Without good, fresh, fertile seeds, good crops 
are impossible. It is, then, of the most vital im- 
portance that you should exercise the greatest 
possible caution in selecting the seeds you are to 
plant the coming season. Since you cannot de- 
termine their fertility or freshness by sight, the 
only certain way to insure yourself against worth- 
less seeds is to buy only those that bear the name 
of a firm about whose reliability there is no ques- 
tion. Ferry's Seeds have been a synonym for 
good seeds for many years. Thousands of gard- 
eners who continue to plant them season after 
season, do so with the full confidence that they 
will uniformly be found to be of high quality, and 
most important of all, true to name. 

Ferry's Seed Annual for 1900 is fully up to the 
standard of former years and will be welcomed 
by all who have learned to regard it as a 
thoroughly reliable and practical guide to plant- 
ing. A copy mav be obtained free by addressing- 
D. M. Ferry & Co., Detroit, Mich. 



TO CURE A COLD IN ONE DAT 

Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets. All 
druggists refund the money if it fails to cure. 
E. W. Grove's signature is on each box. 25c. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb." 




w 



ILL develop or reduce 
any part of the body 



Trade 



..otered. 



A Perfect Complexion Beautifier 
and 

Remover of Wrinkles 

Dr.JohnWilsonGibbs' 

THE ONLY 

Electric Massage Roller 

(Patented United States, Europe, 
Canada.) 
" Rs work is not confined to the 
face alone, but will do good to any 
part of the body to which it is ap- 
plied, developing or reducing as desired It is a very pretty 
addition to the toilet-table." — Chicago Tribune. 

"This delicate Electric Beautifier removes all facial blemishes 
It is the only positive remover of wrinkles and crow's-feet It 
never fails to perform all that is expected "—Chicago Times- 
Herald. 

"The Electric Roller is certainly productive of good results. 
I believe it the best of any appliances It is safe and effective " 
—Harriet Hubbard Ayir, New York World. 

For Massage and Curative Purposes 

An Electric Roller in all the term implies The invention of a 
physician and electrician known throughout this country and 
Europe. A mo«t perfect complexion beautifier Will remove 
vsrrinkles, "crow's-feet" i premature or from age), and all facial 
blemishes— POSITIVE Whenever electricity is to be used for 
massaging or curative purposes, it has no equal. No chareing 
Will last forever Always ready for use on ALL PARTS OF THE 
BODY, for all diseases. For Rheumatism, Sciatica, Neuralgia, 
Nervous and Circulatory Diseases, a specific The professional 
standing of the inventor (you are referred to the public press 
for the past fifteen years), with the approval of this country 
and Europe, is a perfect guarantee. PRICE : Gold, |4 00 ; 
Silver, $8.00. By mail, or at office of Gibbs'Company, 1370 
Broadway, New York. Circular free. 

The Only Electric Roller. 
All others so called are Fraudulent Imitations. 




Copyright 



Copyright. 



"Can take a pound a day off a patient, or put it on " — New 
York Sun, Aug. 30, 1891. Send for lecture on "Great Subject of 
Fat." NO DIETING. NO HARD WORK. 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' Obesity Cure 
For the Permanent Reduction and Cure of Obesity 

Purely Vegetable. Harmless and Positive. NO FAILURE. Your 
reduction is assured— reduced to stay. One month's treatment 
$5.00. Mail, or office, 1370 Broadway, New York "On obesity, 
Dr. Gibbs is a recognized authority.— N. Y Press, 1899." 

REDUCTION GUARANTEED 

"The cure is based on Nature's laws."— New York Herald, 
July 9, 1893. 



VOU HAVE SEEN OSTRICHES 
OfTEN 

Probably, but have you seen them in different 
stages of development, nearly 100 in number ? 
Have you seen them fed ? Have you seen them 
on their nests? Have you seen how they ar^ 




plucked ? Have you seen iheir nests full of 
gigantic eggs ? Have you been told of their 
unique characteristics ? If not, a treat is in store 
for you at the 

SOITH PASADENA OSTRICH fARM 

The best place to purchase boas, capes, fans, tips 
and plumes. Illustrated catalogue for 2 c. stamp. 

ASTHMA 

IT IS CUB SPEOIALTT 

Bronchitis, Lungjhroat, 

Wasting and Nervous 

Diseases cured to 

stay cured ! ! 

Onr New Method treatment and 
Remedies Cure all Stomach, Liver, 
Kidney and Chronic Blood Disease" 

FREE our Book on Healt*- 
Dr. Gordin's Sanitarium 

514 PINE St., S. F., CaU 

r'r,\C!I'I,TAT"XN Ti"nF,F. 





Shoes of Quality for All. 

There are all kinds of Shoes and all kinds of Shoe 
Stores for all kinds of people. 

This is a store for judges of leather and shoe- 
making — a store for particular people, who know 
what a shoe and the fit of it is. We are as careful 
of baby's precious little feet as we are of yours. 
There is nothing so new or nothing so good in 
Shoedom that you cannot find it here. Correspond- 
ence invited from those who cannot call. 

C. M. STALB SHOE CO., 255 South Broadway, iJ^peics 



nummel ttros. & Co., furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb." 

Begfin Now to Investigate 



■^ 



The 

Shepard 

Treatment 

- Consumption 



«ki. 




It 

Radically 
and 

Permanently 
CURES 



Alili FIRST STAGE cases and many 
advanced cases. It never fails to relieve 
all who use it. It is based on the scientific 
principal of Medicated Respiration. 

Persons cured by this treatment live in any climate with pbrfect safety. Write for 

literature and 

references. 



DR. W. A. SHEPARD, Author, ^sl?^**« ^p""«« 




Make Your 
Advertising Pay! 

Bright and clever illus- 
trations will do it. We 
make them. We are after 
your business. 

C. M. DAVIS CO., 
Engravers, 
123 S. Broadway 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Telephone 
Main 417. 



The bitters that's best and has stood the test— Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters. At druggists 



Condensed Information — Southern California 



The section generally known as South- 
ern California comprises the seven coun- 
ties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, 
Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura 
and Santa Barbara. The total area of 
these counties is 44,901 square miles. 
The States of Connecticut, Delaware, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New 
Jersej^ Rhode Island and Vermont could 
all be placed within the boundaries of 
Southern California and still leave 1,154 
square miles to spare. The coast line 
extends northwest and southeast a dis- 
tance of about 275 miles. A |3, 000,000 
deep-sea harbor is now under construc- 
tion at San Pedro, near lyos Angeles. 

The population of Southern California 
is one-fourth that of the entire State. 

Los Angei.es county has an area of 
4,000 square miles, some four-fifths of 
which is capable of cultivation, with 
water supplied. The shore line is about 
85 miles in length. The population has 
increased from 33,881 in 1880 to 200,000. 

Los Angeles City, the commercial 
metropolis of Southern California, fifteen 
miles from the coast, has a population of 
about 1 17.000. It has doubled in popula- 
tion during the last eight years. Its 
school census is 27,000. Eleven railroads 
center here. The street car mileage is 
nearly 200 miles. There are over 175 
miles of graded and graveled streets, and 
15 miles of paved streets. The city is 
entirely lighted by electricity. Its bank 
deposits, $21,000,000; net assessed valu- 
ation, $65,000,000 ; building permits, $3.- 
000,000, and bank clearance, $64,000,000. 
There is a $500,000 court house, a $200,000 
city hall, and many large and costly 
business blocks. 

The other principal cities are Pasa- 
dena, Pomona, Azusa, Whittier, Downey, 
Santa Monica, Redondo, Long Beach, 
and San Pedro. 

San Bernardino County is the larg- 
est county in the State, is rich in miner- 
als, has fertile valleys. Population about 
35,000. The county is traversed by two 
railroads. Fine oranges and other fruits 
are raised. 



San Bernardino city, the county seat, 
is a railroad center, with about 8,000 peo- 
ple. The other principal places are 
Redlands, Ontario, Colton and Chino. 

Orange County has an area of 671 
square miles; population in 1890, 13,589. 
Much fruit and grain are raised. 

Santa Ana, the county seat, has a 
population of over 5,000. Other cities 
are Orange, Tustin, Anaheim and Fuller- 
ton. 

Riverside County has an area of 7,000 
square miles ; population about 16,000. 
It is an inland county- 
Riverside is the county seat. 

Other places are South Riverside, Fer- 
ris and San Jacinto. 

San Diego County is a large county, 
the most southerly in the State, adjoin- 
ing Mexico. Population about 45,000. 
The climate of the coast region is re- 
markably mild and equable. Irrigation 
is being rapidly extended. Fine lemons 
are raised near . the coast, and all other 
fruits flourish. 

San Diego city, on the ample bay of 
that name, is the terminus of the Santa 
F6 railway system, with a population of 
about 25,000. 

Other cities are National City, Escon- 
dido, Julian and Oceanside. 

Ventura County adjoins Los Ange- 
les county on the north. It is very 
mountainous. There are many profit- 
able petroleum wells. Apricots and 
other fruits are raised, also many beans. 
Population about 15,000. 

San Buenaventura, the county seat, is 
pleasantly situated on the coast. Popu- 
lation, 3,000. Other cities are Santa 
Paula, Hueneme and Fillmore. 

Santa Barbara is the most northern 
of the seven counties, with a long shore 
line, and rugged mountains in the in- 
terior. Semi-tropic fruits are largely 
raised, and beans in the northern part of 
the county. 

Santa Barbara, the county seat, is 
noted for its mild climate. Population 
about 6,000. Other cities Lompoc, Car- 
penteria and Santa Maria. 



An estimate of the leading products of Southern California for the year 1899, as compiled by the Los 



Angeles Chamber of Commerce, is as follows 

Citrus fruits $7,000,000 

Gold, including the Rand district 6,000,000 

Petroleum 3,250 000 

Hay 2,000,000 

Vegetables and fruits consumed 1,800.000 

Dried fruits and raisins 1,640 000 

Grain 1,550,000 

Canned goods 1,500,000 

Sugar 1,300,000 

Copper 780,000 

Nuts 750 000 

Brick 750.000 

Flour.... ". 610,000 

Wine 600.000 

Beer '. 54C.000 

Butter 525,000 



Beans | 525,000 

Asphaltum„ 375,000 

Eggs 330.000 

Celery 250,000 

Poultry 240.000 

Hides 200 000 

Green fruits 200,000 

Fish, fresh 150,000 

Wool 150.000 

Vegetables, exported 150,000 

Silver 130,000 

Cheese 125,009 

Fish, canned 110 000 

Olives 100,000 

Mineral water 75,000 



»33, 705,000 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I,and of Sunshinb.' 



ABBOTSFORD INN 



The 

Best 

First= Class 

Family 

Hotel 

in 

Residence 

District. 



^ LOS ANGELES 

Beautiful interior court — No cold halls — Celebrated Klaus 
Orchestra for music — Free billiard room — Reading room with 
all magazines and illustrated papers — Convenient to all car 
lines — Best cuisine in California — Social center of the city — 
patronized by the most distinguished people — Everything done 
for convenience, comfort and enjoyment of guests. 
Cor. Hope and Eighth Streets. 




Elegant 
Couches 

9.00 up to »75.00 



"Dependable Furniture at 
a fair price." 

Booklet Free. 



NILES PEASE FURNITURE CO 

439-441-443 S. Spring St., lios Angeles 



Price $550 



A Great 
Bargain in 



Rockaways 



WII.Z, BEAR INSP CTION 




FUIili PliATFOKM ROCKAWAY— interior upholstered in morocco ; has removable^ front 
glass partition ; has both pole and shafts. Manufactured by the New Haven Carriage Co which 
confirms its quality. ' 

HAWLEY, KINO & C0.,f|?SS*'">H»r;i^i1fAB,cyc.e,. 

cor. Broadway and Fifth Sts., Los Angeles 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the I^and of Sunshine." 




The 31st edition of Our New 
Collide to 1^08e Culture, the 

leadinn Rose Catalogue oj' Amer- 
ica, free on request 132 pages 
superbly illustrated. Describes 
nearly 200 entirely newroses and 
oldfavorites. Makessuccesswith 
D. ifc C. Roses sure. Describes all 
other desirable flowers. Also 
free sample of our magazine — 
"Succefis vilh Floicers." 
TMEDINGEE A CONAKDCO. 
West Grove, Pa. 




VALENTINES.^ 

■ etc., in colors, for 10c. (a i 



LACE, COMIC & IMPOTIT. 
ED VALENTINES, MOTTOES, 
fine assortment). A BIG PACK- 
AGE of larger VALENTINES for 25 cents, 6 PACKAGES 
$1.00. One Gross COMICS to dealers, 50 cents. Address, 
GEM VALENTINE CO., ClintonTiUe, Conn. 



Jerrys 



grow paying crops because ihey re 
fresh and always the best. For 
sale everywhere. Refuse substliuies. 
Stick to Ferry's Seeds and prosper 
1900 Seed Annual free. Write for it. 
0. M FERRY & CO . Detroit. Mich. 




An Open Book on Planting 

How to grow, what to grow, where to grow, when to grow 
are problems iu seed sowing that are solved for growers in 



VICK'S 



Garden 
and Floral 



GUIDE 



No matter how small the amount you grow or how large, 
you'll find it the most valuable book on seeds and plants 
published. Yours for the asking, if you mention whether 
you are interested in flowers, vegetables, or small fruits. 
JAMES VICK'S SONS, 

r2*^^i>>>v ^ ^^'" Street, 

^•yVv Rochester, ^^-^^rff- 
N. Y. >^:^1«v?^ 





FAT 



iHow to Reduce 

it. Mrs. S. Mann, La 
Motte,Ia., writes: "Your 
method reduced my 
weight 70 lbs. in less 
than 3 months. This 

■ — — — was 6 years ago and I 

' have not gained an ounce m weight since." Purely 

1^ vegetable and harmless as water. Any one can make it 

at home at little or no expense. No starving. No sickness. We wiil 
mail a box of it and full particulars in a plain sealed package for 4 
cts for postage, etc. Hall Chemical Co. t)ept. 133, St. Louis, Mo. 



euts 



AT HALF PRICE 




Thk Land of Sunshink offers for sale from 
its large and well chosen Stock of over 1000 

Cuts almost any California and Southwestern 
subject the purchaser may desire. Send 50c. for 
illustrated catalogue. 

LAND OF SUNSHIME PUB. CO. 

VlV/o. South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 



IT PAYS 
TO BE 



A WRITER 



Journalists and authors win mone^ , 
fame and power. Men and women 
can qualify themselves for pracUcul 
literary work during their leisure hours. 
Practical training in reporting, editing 
and story writing at home. 



JOURNALISM '^""""^ 



BY MAII^ 



Thorough knowledge of newspaper work. 
Actual experience from the start. Corps 
of instructors composed of eminent jour- 
nalists. An instructive book, giving 

full details, mailed free. 
National Correspondence Institute, (Inc.) 
27-ISSucond National Bank Building, 
Wasliiugton, D. C. 





'BARKER BRAND-' 

^"''^'''Cnllars & Cuffs 0M' 
fACTORV WEST-ftlOY. N.Y. '^Z"/^' 

SACHS BROS & CO. 

San Francisco Coast Agents 



m m\ mn 



All kinds. Olive, Orange, 
Lemon, Walnut, and 
everything else. Beat- 
grown and largest stock of street and orna- 
mental trees in Southern California. Roses, 
shrubs, etc. Best vaiieties, lowest prices. 

J. E. MORGAN, 4584 Pasadena Ave. 




Telephone Green 427, Los Angeles, Cal. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the I^and ok Sxjnshinb." 



The Trial... 




Of quality and comfort in Shoes comes with use. 
Style <^an be judged at once. A look will be 
enough to convinre you that our Shoes are up-to- 
date. Your feet must be disfigured or beautified 
—all depends on what you put on them. Our fine 
Shoes beautif3' the feet. Prices, as usual, to 
please the economical, 

BLANEY'S 

352 S. Spring St., near Cor. Fourth St. 



Artistic Grille Work 




Parquet Floors, Wood Carpet 

A permanent covering for floors instead of 
the health-destroying woolen carpets. 

Healthful, Clean and no Moths 

OAK FLOORS $1.25 per square yard and up. 

Try our "Nonpareil Hard "Wax Polish. " 

for keeping floors in good condition. 
Designers of 

FURNITURE SPECIALTIES 

Tea Tables, Card Tables, Book Cases, Cedar 
Chests, E;tc. 

JNO. A. SMITH 



707 S. Broadway, 

Tel. Brown 706 



Los Angeles, Cal. 

Established 1891 




Our Gold Medal Wines commend themselves to those who 
require and appreciate Pure, Old Vintages. We are producers 
in every sense of the word, owning large Vineyards, Wineries 

o and Distilleries, located in the San Gabriel Valley. For 
strength-giving qualities our wines have no equal. We SELL o 

° NO Wines under Five Years Old. 

SPECIALi OFFER : We will deliver to any R.R. station in the 
United States, freight free : «> 

2 cases Fine Assorted California Wines, XXX, for |9.00 
Including one bottle 1888 Brandy. 
° 2 cases Assorted California Wines, XXXX, for $11.00 

Including 2 bottles 1 888 Brandy and 1 bottle Champagne. ° 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WINE COMPANY o 

° Tel. M. 332 220 W. FOURTH ST. Los Angeles, Cal. 

Health insurance— Abbott's, the Original Anj?ostura Bitters insures against disease. Grocers and 

druggists. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshikk," 



KDiZERTlSING 

is a part of my business plan. I take it seriously and 
pound away for business results. My ads. are read by 
my patients as well as by people whose patronage 
some day I will have. I have to be careful what I say, 
for purely business reasons . Every day I promise the 
best dental work at the fairest possible charges. A 
well pleased patient is my best advertisement — and I 
never miss a chance. Call any day. 





-s' Phone Red 3261 Spinks Block, cor. Fifth and Hill. 



PRESS OP 







123 

5Broaduiai| 

Loiflnqeles, 

Cal. 



i)pintit\^^ P>\nd\\\i 
JUn|pavl^| 



TCLEPtiONE ■ 

Main 4 



7 



PRINTEKvS ^? BlNDER.5 TO TME 

Land or ^uNvSmine 



::&$&(^(i€^&&:&&&&&«&&&(^&&&^«iCi&&&&(i&&&&&&:&&&&e^&&&&&&&&&&f^«t 




Our laundry is thoroughly 
up-to-date. We have in- 
vested thousands of dollars 
in modern machinery in 
order to be able to give 
first-class service, and we 
give it. Our place affords 
some advantages enjoyed 
by no other laundry in this 
section— such as no saw 
edge on collars and cuffs. 
In our place family wash- 
ings can be done sepa- 
rately. We give the most 
artistic and least destruc- 
tive polish to linen. 

The safest and best is 
always the cheapest. 



Street 



in Telephone Main 635 ji LOS ANGELESs CAL. t 



Health means strength, Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters means health. At druggists and 

grocers. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 
STUDEBAKER WAGONS AND OLIVER PLOWS 



EVERYTHING 

E VER VTHING IN I 

SEND FOR CATA 



EP- jVeWell^atheW^ ^0. 



200-202 NORTH 
LOS ANGELES STREI 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




TWO COSTLY PRESENTS; YDl" get both. 

WE TRUST AGENTS with 12 new style.Stoneaet.EnamelScarf and Stick 



Pins, different patterns. Everybody wears them. Sell to your friends for 10 
3 give you Free a Fine Gold or Silver laid Bracelet (with lock and key), also this 
magnificent Solid Gold laid Band Ring, handsomely engraved, a perfect beauty, wears a lifetime. Send name; 



uo money required until pins are sold; we take all not sold. Address PEARL Pli\ CO., Providence, R. |^ 

WHEN YOU VISIT 



1 


"^ 




»% iin nfl^ 


'mr^:"-°^Sm 


WKS^ 



SAN DIEGO 



REMEMBER 



THB •••• 




n 



Rooms 

$1,00 per Day 

and up. 



American and European Plans. Centrally 
located. Elevators and fire escapes. Baths, hot 
and cold water in all suites. Modern conveniences. 
Fine large sample rooms for commercial travelers. 
Caf6 and Grille Room open all hours. 

J. E. O'BRIEN, PROP. 



4^ California Wines I 



49 

49 
49 



Direct 
to 



Wine Connoisseurs^ 



}^ 



i^ You have no doubt tasted good wines under French labels, and perhaps you iji 
49 liave tasted poor wines under California labels. Wouldn't you like to try ^ 



The Real Thing in the Real Way? 

We will ship you direct, in original packages 






49 
49 
49 
49 
49 

^ of 1 dozen quarts, freight prepaid. 

^ Sherry or Port, vintage of 1878, per gal. $3.25, or $11.00 per case ^T 

i^ of 1 dozen quarts, freight prepaid. j^ 

49 These wines are the finest in California. We are led to make you this ^ 

J^ unusual offer by our confidence that the quality and purity of our goods ^ 



Sherry or Port, vintage of 1868, per gal. $4.25, or $13.00 per case ^ 



49 



49 



will secure and retain your patronage. 



5> 
^ oena lor price list and lull particulars. ^ 

I GERMAIN WINE CO., | 

^ 397-99 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles. Cal. i» 



BONANZA RABBITRY 

Established June, 1895; the oldest in the West; breeding capacity 5000; originator 
of the only practical method of management (open-air, ground floor pens). We 
produce the most perfect types, scientifically bred ; most vigorous specimens, and 
earliest maturity ever attained. We condemn inbreeding. Sixteen different and 
distinct popular strains of blood from imported and pedigreed stock. 

OUR RECENT IMPORTATION FROM ENGLAND 

Comprises the choicest specimens money could buy, and the first choice from twenty 
litteis from twenty best matings ever made in England, and includes 




CHAMPION FASHODA, THE KING OF BELGIANS 

The grandest specimen of his tribe in the world, who, according to the best author- 
ity in England, has a record never before equaled. He captured twelve first prizes, 
seven specials, four medals, and four CHAIylvENGE CUPS, including the CRYSTAL 
PALACE CUP, on the exhibition circuit of England in 1899. Valued f250.00. The 
latter is a trophy offered by the largest pet stock association in the world, who hold 
an exhibition in London annually. 

Fashoda possesses a rich, rose-gold under color, together with beautiful ticking, 
nicely distributed, giving to his coat a luster and richness equal to a mahogany tint, 
extending from neck to tail, from vertebra all but to hocks, and nearly full depth of 
sides. To quote an English authority : " His feet and legs are enough to turn the 
eyes of a breeder green with envy." And again : " An absolutely correct style and 
front." Another says : " The best ever seen." Still others say : " With age he gets 
more beautiful," and " with his new coat in full bloom he will be the ideal." All 
say, "he wins easily in any company," and '* he is the popular winner," and again, 
"the crack Belgian of the period." Popular sires produce popular yoiing who sell at 
popular prices and are always sought after by progressive breeders. Fashoda's 
service may be had for a few does of approved quality. Fee, $25. 

BLOOMING HEATHER 

Is a close second to the great Champion Fashoda ; the best English authorities say 
that they expect him to produce winners by the hundreds ; he is descended from the 
most famous blood lines known — lines that have produced winners for years and 
years past. His book is open to six engagements for January. Fee, $15. 

NOW BOOKING ORDERS FOR FUTURE DELIVERY 

Author of Bonanza Rabbitry Manual, the first and only treatise instructing upon 
this immensely profitable industry from a commercial standpoint. It answers every 
question that a beginner may ask. Second edition now ready. Price $1. Send 
stamp for beautifully illustrated booklet. 

ELMER L» PLATT, 930 Grand View Avenue, Los Angeles, CaL 



When answering advertisements, please mcuuon that you " saw it in the Land op Sunshine. 



Importers and 



Orangedale Rabbitry Lre'ea. 

Belgian Hares 



of High-class, 
Pedigreed 



Start your foundation with first-class stock. Our Rabbitry is headed by SIR BANBURY and 
RUGBY. Both of these specimens are grand in shape and color, long bodies, red front and hind feet. 
Service by former this month, $10.00 ; tlie latter, $5.00. We will have an importation dir-ct from Eng- 
land's greatest fanciers. Watch for announcement of arrival. We have on hand several CHOlCK 
BUCKS of the Yukon strain, from $15 00 to $30 00 each, all scored by Judge P. K. Crabtree, and none 
.'^core less than 90i<( points up to 92 points. We wish to announce that we have secured the finest spec- 
imen of heavy-weight Buck in California. Service fee, $2 00. Bring your does if ycu wish to secure 
heavy market stock We are sole agents for the M.\GIC SNUFFLtC CURE, guaranteed cure for colds 
in rabbits. No trouble to administer ; simply put in the drinking waJer. $1 00 per bottle, by mail with 
full directions. 

OKANGCDALK RABBITRY, 

91 E. Twenty- fifth St., Los An§reles, Cal. 



Pedigreed Belgian Hares 



M > 



Strains of LORD BRITTON and CHAMPION YUKON 

A profitable and pleasurable business and one easily conducted by old or 
young is assured by the Belgian Hare. A ready market can always be found 
among those desirous of establishing choice herds, while its flesh is in 
great demand. A trio of Belgian Hares is as good as a gold mine, and the 
< investment multiplies itself faster than a like amount invested in any other 
S way. Call on or write to > 

$ F. A. SCHNELL, 424 N. Beaudry Ave., Los Angeles, CaL | 



Los Angeles Grille Works 

Grilles in Moorish, Russian, Colonial, 
and all other styles. Special designs 
to order without charge. 

BURNT FURNITURE 

A SPECIALTY 

Send for Designs and Prices. 

610 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 




BEICUS 
ACETYLENE 
GAS 
GENEUATORS 

are ii) hundreds of resi- 
dences, business places, 
churches, halk, etc Ac- 
cepted by the Board cf 
Fire Underwriters. We 
are ofFering 

Special Inducements 
to Agents 

and user- who first intro- 
di ee the Heucus in their 
locality. For particulars 
address Hedden & Bl ick, 
746 S. Main St., Los An- 
geles. 



Eyes Tested Free 

ACME OPTICAL AND JEWELRY CO. 

E- 342 South Spring Stieet 

Los Anoblesj Cal. open eveninqs 



i 



fine Corner for flats ^izJ:- ™S 

dimensions, and cheap. Inquire at 2200 Grand 
Avenue, I^os Angeles. 



A. 0. GARDNER "'^^ausE 

118 "Winston St. Tel. Brown 1335. 



We Sell, Rent, Repair and 
Tune Pianos. 



Most expert repairer of stringed instruments 
in the city. 

Music furnished for entertainments. 



EIREK4 STABLES 



Telephone 

Main 7 I 




W. M OSBORN, Proprietor. 
Tally-Ho Excursions. Victorias and Traps. 
Single and Double kigs. Finest Turnouts in the 
City. Special attention given to Boarders. 
:i4S West 5tli Street, Loa Angeles, Cal. 



HUNTER & CAMFIEID -- ---,„.,,. 

SOUTH AND LOANS 

BROADWAY 
General Business Agents IvOS Angeles, Cal 

Kxchanges Telephone 31 



112 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshimr." 

MOUNT LOWE RAILWAY 

Grandest of all Mountain Railway Rides— Magnificent Panorama 
of Earth, Ocean and Islands. 

KUBTO CANYON, 3300 feet above sea level. 

ECHO MOUNTAIN, 3500 feet above sea level. 

YE AF.PINE TAVKKN, 5000 feet above sea level. 

SUMMIT OF MOUNT LOWE, 6100 feet above sea level. 

\ Echo 

\ Mountain 

I House 

Situated on the crest of 
♦ » Echo Mountain, com- 

manding a magnificent 
view of Mountains, Can- 
yons, Valleys, Ocean and 
Islands. Undoubtedly the 
finest and best equipped 
Mountain Hotel in the 
world. Elegantly furnished 
apartments, rooms single 
or en suite with or with- 
out baths, lighted by gas 
and electricity. All rooms 
heated by gas stoves or 
open fire places. Table 
unsurpassed. An ideal 
place for health, pleasure 
and recreation. 

Hot'l Rates: 

$2 50 and up per day. 
$12.50 and up per week. 
Special rates by the month 
or season. 

Cpp/^^I A I For gue.<5ts remaining one week or longer a special Commutation Ticket rate of 
^-"^ I-.Wl/^l-« fifjy cents for round trip from Echo Mountain to Los Angeles ; forty cents to Pas- 
adena daily if desired. U. S. Postoffice (mails daily), Western Union Telegraph and Telephone. 

WORLD'S FAIR SEARCH LIGHT. 
OBSERVATORY WITH LARGE TELESCOPE located at Eclio Mountain. Open 

Evenings to Guests, Eree. 

For tickets and full information, call on or address 
CLARENCE A. WARNER, Traflflc and Excursion Agent, 

314 South Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. Telephone Main 960. 
J. S. TORRANCE, Gen'l Manager, Echo Mountain, Cal. 




.•K/^.^^l>«S4..^.«B^.*^.,:&lV^.^it>^>^iL^.^iL^.^it>^ 



California Cream of Lemon I 

Works Wonders Thelnemy ofSdwff . t 

Softens the skin, opens the pores and heals all skin diseases. Cures chap- K 

ping. Cleans without making a lather because it does not contain grease 
or Alkali. If you use it as a cream it will give you a beautiful complexion. 
If you use it instead of soap it will keep your skin in lovely condition, 



3 oz. tubes 15c., 6 oz. tubes 25c. 



Sent post paid If your dealer does not keep it 



Agents Wanted. Write for Particulars. 



3 CALIFORNIA CREAM OF LEMON CO. 

3 448 WILCOX BUILDING LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Increase your strength, ward off ill health, use Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters, the strength 

giver. 



When answering^ advertisements, please mention that you " saw It in the Land of Sunshimb.' 



OLDEST AND LARGEST BANK IN SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

Farmers and IVIerchants Bank 

or LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Capital ( paid up ) . . Ssoo.ooo.cxj 

Surplus and Reserve . 925.000.00 

Total .... $1,425,000.00 

OFFICERS 

I. W. Hellman, Prest. H. W. Hellman, V -Prest. 

Henry J. Fleishman, Cashier 

GUSTAV Heimann, Assistant Cashier 

DIRECTORS 

W. H. Perry, C. E. Thorn, J. F. Francis. 

O. W. Childs. I. W. Hellman, Jr., I. N. Van Nuys, 
A. Glassell, H. W. Hellman, I. W. Hellman. 

Special Collection Department. Correspondence 
Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 



W. C. Patterson, Prest. W. Gillelen, V.-Prest. 

W. D Woolwine, Cashier 

E. W. COE, Assistant Cashier 




t miiii 



Cof . First and Spring Streets 

Capital $500,000.00 

Surplus and Undicided Profits 60,000.00 

This bank nas the best location of any bank in 
Los Angeles. It has the largest capital of any 
National Bank in Southern California, and is the only 
United States Depositary in Southern California. 



OPALS 



75,000 

Genuine 
Mexican 

OPALS 

For sale at less than half price. We want an agent in 
every town and city in the U. S. Send 35c. for sample 
opal worth $2. Good agents make $10 a day. 
Mexican Opal Co., 607 Frost Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Bank reference, State Loan and Tnist Co. 



WE SELL THE EARTH 

#^ BASSETT & SMITH 

We deal in all kinds of Real Estate. 
Orchard and Resident Property. 
Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 



First National Bank 

OF tos angei.es, 

Largtst National Bank in Southern 
California. 



Capital Stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivif'.ed Profits over 260,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest. W. G. Kerckhoff. V.-Prest. 

Frank A. Gibson, Cashier 

W. T. S. Hammond, Assistant Cashier 

DIRECTORS 

J. D. Bicknell, H. Jevne, 

J. M. Elliott, F. Q. Story, 



Drake. 



W. G. Kerckhoff. 
J. D. Hooker, 



All Departments of a Modern Banking Business 
Conducted. 



Y -^ 



*\\^ %[•* *sL^ *\\y* *\i/^ 'sL*^ *slx* *sL^ 'vX^ %L^ 



seciini!] Savings m 

CORNER MAIN AND SECOND STS. 



Oflftcers and Directorg 

H. W. Hellman, J. A. Graves, M. L. Fleming, 
F. O. Johnson, H. J. Fleishman, J. H. Shank- 
land, W. L. Graves. 

J. F. Sartori, President 

Maurice S. Hellman, Vice-President 
W. D. LONGYEAR, Cashier 



"^ ^interest Paid on Ordinary and Term Deposits 

^ S* •''Ts* ••Ts* 4^rs« */Ts» fc-*^ fc-Tv* •-'Ts* fc'Tv* v'Ts* (XTs. fc/TN* *> 




FOR MEATS. FISH, GRAVIESi 

SOUPS. AC, THIS SAUOE 

HAS NO EQUAL. 

Manufactured and bottled only by 

GEORGE WILLIAMS CO.. 

LOS Angeles. Cal. 

If this satice is not 'atisfactcry. return it to yont 
grocer and lie will lefuurt your in iiey 

GeOBUE WltLIAMS Co. 



DENTISTRY 




Spacious and attractive appartments. Modern facilities and methods. Court- 
eous and conscientious treatment. Prices right. 



Help— All Kinds. See tlummel Bros. & COb 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



Educational 

Department. 




Poiuona colleye 



POMONA COLLEGE 



Claremont, 
California. 



Courses leading to degrees of B.A., B.S.. and 
B. L. Its degrees are recognized bv Univer- 
sity of California, Stanford University, and 
all the Eastern Universities. 

Also preparatory School, fitting for all 
Colleges, and a School of Music of high 
grade. Address, 

FRANK L. FERGUSON, President 

CHAFFETcOLLEGE, o«t.rr,, cai. 

Well endowed. Most healthful location. 
Enter from 8th grade. 

1250 00 per year. 

EL.M HAL,"L, for young ladies, undercharge 
of cultured lady teachers. Highest stand- 
ards. 

WEST HAr,!., for boys; home of family of 
Dean, and gentlemen teachers. 



Occidental College 

I.OS ANGELES CAL. 

Three Courses: classical, uterary, 

Scientific, leading to degrees of B. A., B. L., and 
B. S. Thorough Preparatory Department. 

Fall term began September 20, 1899. 

Address the President, 

Rev. Guy W. Wadswortli. 



Pasadena, 



Boarding and Day School for Qirls 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges 

124 S. EUCLID AVE. 




GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOI 



1918-23-34-26 

South Grand Avenu« 
liO^ Angeles 

Alice K. Parsons, B.A., 
Jeanne W. Dennen, 

Principals. 



LASELL SEMINARY 

FOR 

YOUNG WOMEN 

Auburndale, Mass. 

" In vour walking and sitting so much more 
erect; "in your general health; in your conver- 
sation; in your way of meeting people, and in 
innumerable ways, I could see the benefit yo-a 
are receiving from vour training and associa- 
tions at Laseil. All this you must know is very 
gratifying to me." 

So a father wrote to his daughter after her 
Christmas vacation at home. It is unsolicited 
testimony as to Lasell's success in some im- 
portant lines. 

Those who think the time of their daughters 
is worth more than money, and in the quality 
of the conditions which are about them during 
school-life desire the very best that the East 
can oflfer, will do well to send for the illus- 
trated catalogue. 

C. C. BRAGDON, Principal 



WHAT A FATHER THINKS .... 







226 S. Spring St., Lof3 Angeles, Cal. 

Oldest, laigt'st and best. Send for catalogue. 
N G. l-ELKER, President. 
John W. Hood, John W. Lackey, 

Vice-President. ^secretary. 

Telephone Green 1S48. 



An unsolicited opinion 
from the father of one of 
our boys : 

* * * "Our best thanks arc 
due you for your unfailing kind- 
ness shown our son during his 
residence at the Academy, and 
while he seems to have done 
very well with his studies, what 
is of far more consequence is 
the influence which makes for 
7nanUness and character build- 
ing, already apparent in this 
chdd after a single term." 

Fifth Annual Catalogue ol 

Los Angeles 
Academy 

Mailed to any address upon ap- 
plication to W. R. WHEAT, Bus- 
iness Manager. 

Fall term commenced Septem- 
ber 26, 1899. 

SANFORDA.HOOPER, A. M., 

Head Master 

GRENVILLEC. EMERY, A. M., 
EDWARD L. HARDY, B. L., 

Associale M.as1«rs. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land op Sunshine.' 




St. Matthew's 



Military School.... 

Gives careful attention to the mental, moral and physical 
development and training of each pupil 

The school occupies three large buildings especially con- 
structed for its purposes, in the midst of an 80-acre estate 
near beautiful San Mateo. 

Military discipline is used to secure regular exercise and 
habits of promptness and obedience. The best and most 
helpful home influences are carefully provided in order to 
maintain the unflagging interest of the boys in their work- 

This school prepares boys for active business, and its 
graduates are accepted at the University of California, 
Stanford University and many Eastern Colleges without 
examination. 



M 



The Easter term begins January 
4th 

Application for admission should 
be made as soon as possible." Write 
for catalogue and detailed infor- 
mation to 

Rev. W. A. BREWER, 

Rector and Principal, 

S.4N MATEO, CAl.. 






212 3nZ:BST THIRD STREET 

is the oldest established, has the largest attendance, and is the best equipped 
business college on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. 



DO 
YOU 




Geo. Andrew Lewis. 



STAMMER 

Write at once for our new 200 page 
book, The Origin and Treatment of Stam- 
mering. The largest and mosi instructive 
book of its kind ever published. Sent 
freeto any address for 6 cents in stamps 
to cover postage. As^ also for a free 
sample copy of The Phono-Meter, a 
monthly paper exclusively for persons 
who stammer. Address 

The Lewis School for Stammerers 



128 Adelaide St.. Detroit, Mich. 



WflHTEH 



2000 
YOUNG MEN 

For the RAILWAY MAIL and POS- 
TAL SERVICES. Salaries from $800 
to $2500 per year. We PREPARE 

young men for these positions hy lui A i i 

We furnish everything. Satis- IVI n I L 

faction guaranteed. Address, enclosing ,_, „, _ .. 

,tamp, INTER-STATE CORRESPOND-.jJ^'Lf^w^J 

ENCE INSTITUTE. Iowa City. Iowa. ^%1^A" »«*" 



DIFFERENT IN EVERY FEATURE. 

Tlie Brownsberger Home School of 
Shorthand and Typewriting. 

P03 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal 




pPlWf" 






For Lease 



^^K Inquire 

1^ 



A fine lot on Central Ave. 
and Fourth St., Los Angeles. 
Inquire 2200 Grand Ave. 



necessary. Only teachers of long experience do any teachiug. 
Tills is the only Shorthand School on the coast that has a busi- 
I ess office training department. A new machine furnished 
ench pupil at his home without extra charge. Send for catalotcue. 
Cor. Broadway and Ninth St. Tel. White 4871 



Hummel Bros. & Co.. "Help Center." 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 50Q 



SUBSCRIPTION AGENTS 

WANTED EVERYWHERE 

For the Magazine of California 
and the West 



A COPY THE LAND OF SUNSHINE a year 



Edited by Chas. F. Lummis, with a syndicate of Western 
writers of wide reputation. 

The liveliest and most independent magazine in the 
country. The spiciest and yet most authoritative articles, the 
finest and rarest illustrations ever published in or of the West. 
The Land of Sunshine is unlike any other magazine. 



\«ff I \t« 

\\(if\ 



It breathes the spirit of California, and the 
West/' — Re<vie<w of Re<vie<ivs. 



lit/ 



Ol IR OPPPR • ^^y^"^ sending us during 
^Ur\ WriELrX. gj^y month two yearly sub- 
scriptions may deduct from the remittance - 10^ 
For five yearly subscriptions ----- 20 ^ 
For six or more subscriptions - - - - 25^ 

We do not ask all of your time. You can do this at odd moments among your 
friends and neighbors. If you are in a position to devote to us all of your time, or to 
undertake to secure a club of ten or more subscribers, write us for terms. 



A PRIZE 



During each month of 1900 we will award as a prize to 
the one sending the greatest number of subscriptions the 
choice of a copy of " Mission Memories," "Southern California 
Illustrated," or a bound volume of The Land of Sunshine. 

SEND JOc. FOR SAMPLE COPY OF THE LAND OF SUNSHINE, 

LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING COMPANY 

J2l>^ South Broadway, Los Angeles, CaL 



special Subscription Offers 

MADE BY THE LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



PREMIUM BOOKS 

Published by the Century Co., N. Y. 

SOME STRANGE CORNERS OF 
OUR COUNTRY. 

Illustrated, $1.50. 
'• He has written a great book, every page of 
which is worth a careful reading." 

—Mail and Express, N. V. 



Together with one new subscription to 
the IvAND OF Sunshine, $2.00. 



" The most unique and perhaps the most de- 
lightful and interesting book yet written on 
American history." 

— Thomas IVentworth Higginson. 



Together with six new subscriptions to 
the Land of Sunshine, $6.00. 



THE MAN WHO MARRIED THE 
MOON, 

and other Pueblo Indian Folkstories. 
Illustrated by George Wharton Edwards. 

$1.50. 

" Deserves to be classed with the best of its 
kind yet produced in our country." 

— The Nation, N. V. 

" We can insist on the great pleasure some of 
these stories must give the reader ; and one, 'The 
Mother Moon,' is as poetic and beautiful as any- 
thing we have ever read, in or out of folklore." 
—JV. Y. Times. 



Together with one new subscription to 
the Land of Sunshine, $2.00. 

Together with -six new subscriptions to 
the Land of Sunshine, $6.00. 



THE GOLD FISH OF GRAN CHIMU, 

$1.00. 

A story of Peruvian adventure. Superbly illus- 
trated from the author's photographs and from 
antiquities exhumed by him in the ruins of Peru. 

" Novel and touching. . . . The spirit throughout 
is alert and gay, and the sympathy with delicately 
strung natures charming ; even the literal trans- 
lation of a foreign idiom (a very dangeious ex- 
periment) adds to the grace and naturalness of 
Mr 1,\imxa.\s'sta.\&"— The Nation, N. V. 



Together with one new subscription to 
the Land of Sunshine, $1 75. 

Together with four new subscriptions to 
the Land of Sunshine, $4.00. 



Published by the Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner Co. 

MISSION MEMORIES. 

75 views of the Franciscan Missions of 
California. Complete collection. Noth- 
ing overlooked. 

In embossed paper covers, $ .75. 

In yucca covers, - - - I.OO. 



In paper covers, together with one new 
or renewal subscription to the Land 
OF Sunshine, $1.50. 

In yucca covers, together with one new 
or renewal subscription to the Land 
OF Sunshine, $1.75. 



Together with one new or renewal sub- 
scription to the Land of Sunshine, 
$1.50. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ILLUS- 
TRATED. 75 c. 
53 carefully selected views of Southern 
California scenery, buildings, etc. Size, 
9 X 12 

The above prices include postage. Address all orders to 
LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBL ISHING CO, 121 'A So ttth Broadway, Los Angeles, CaL 

The bound volumes of the Land of Sunshine make the most interesting and 
valuable library of the far West ever printed. The illustrations are lavish and hand- 
some, the text is of a high literary standard, and of recognized authority in its field. 
There is nothing else like this magazine. Among the thousands of publications in 
the United States, it is wholly unique. Every educated Californian and Westerner 
should have these charming volumes. They will not long be secured at the present 
rates, for back numbers are growing more and more scarce ; in fact the June num- 
ber, 1894, is already out of the market. 

Vols. 1 and 2— July '94 to May '95, inc., gen. half morocco, $3.90, plain leather, $3.40 
" 3 and 4— June '95 to May '96, *• " " " 2.85, ** ** 2.35 

5 and 6— June '96 to May '97, " " " " 3.60, " " 3.10 

7 and 8— June '97 to May '98, *• " " *• 2.85, " " 2.35 

9 and 10— June '98, to May '99 " " " " 2.70, ** " 2.20 

Any volume together with Land of Sunshine one year only 75 cents additional. 



WE DON'T HAVE TO LIVE ON 

CLIMATE 

As the figfurcs following prove: 



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SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

has produced during the year 1899 

7,000,000 worth of oranges and lemons 

6,000,000 worth of gold bullion 

3,250,000 worth of petroleum oil 

1,500,000 worth of canned goods 

1 ,640,000 worth of dried fruits and raisins 

1,550,000 worth of grain 

1,300,000 worth of beet sugar 

275,000 worth of celery 

130,000 worth of silver 

780,000 worth of copper 
8,575,000 worth of miscellaneous products 



2,000,000 



Hi \i/ 

l\l>l 
\i/ I \i/ 

l\i/l 
\t/ 1 \l> 

l\|/l 

Klil 
Hi I \l/ 

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For all the details of soil, climate, people and produc- 
tions of this marvelous land, send ten (lo) cents and three 
(3) cents postage for the 8o-page MIDWINTER NUMBER 
of the LOS ANGELES TIMES, out January i, 1900. 

The population of Southern California in 1880 was 
7}i % of the whole population of the State ; in 1896, 16^ % 
of the whole population of the State ; in 1900 it is estimated 
to be 25 % of the whole population of the State. 



THE TIMES-MIRROR COMPANY, Publishers 
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 



Health means strength, Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters means health. At druggists and 

grocers. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sdmshine.' 



II 



'-^•i.-^T'V/'V-: 



ffeftlDDDl^C.'T. 




As two ardent members of a leading Quaker City Bicycle Club 
were rounding City Hall on their return from a century run, one was 
neard to say: "This is the earliest spring long distance ride I have 
taken during my eight years of riding." " I suppose you attribute 
your improved condition and better muscle to Ripans Tabules," said 
Che other laughing. ''Well," was the answer, '♦ I do. They have put 
my system in better shape than it has been for years. The tired feel- 
ing one gets so quickly on re-entering the sport after a winter's non- 
indulgence I have not felt this year." 



W^ 



rlongliJj. 



o,?^ i?;"I^/?f ^^'^xw^ Health that R-l-fAN-S will not benefit, They banish pain anf5 prr 1, 

in ;«.^"Lft J^^ ^f "^f- ^°*® ^''^ ^'^'•d RTP-A-N-S on the package and accept no substitiue K rp" a n-S 

12.J^V 'i^"^^ ^^''^^iTt packets for 48 cents, may be had at any dniy store T^nsamDlesanrt one thuti 

SosiruSsirNew Yoik.^ mailed to any address V 5 cents.fovM-arc^.d to the RVan^Sm^cal CoVn^^ 



Energy, vigor and strength follow the use of Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters. At grocers. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the L,and of Sunshine. 



Sunset Limited 



Its 

Points of 
Excellence 
are 



BKSTBOUNID 

L,v. San Frakcisco...5.00 p.m. Tues. and Fri. 

Lv. Los Angeles 8.00 a.m. Wed. and Sat. 

Ar, Kl Paso 7.12 a.m. Thur. and Sun. 

I.,v. San Antonio 3.20 a.m. Fri. and Men. 

Ar. New Orleans 7.20 p.m. Fri. and Men. 

teiBSTBOUND 

Lv. New ORLEANS..10.45a.m. Mon. and Thur. 
Lv. San Antonio... 3 20 am. Tues. and Fri. 

Lv. El Paso 8.15 p.m. Tues. and Fri. 

Ar. Los Angeles... 7.45 p m. Wed. and Sat. 
Ar. San FranCisco..10.45 a.m. Thur. and Sun. 



Elegfance and 'GDmpIeteness of 
Equipment 

Carefully Trained Attendants 
Superior Cuisine and Dining Cars 
Attractive and Varied Scenery of 
the Line 

Seasonable Hours at Terminals 
Select Patrona§:e 
Swiftness and Safety of Passage 
Equable Climate of the Route 
Sharp Connections at New Orleans 
with trains of corresponding elegance to the North and East* 

There is no other way by which you can travel East 
or West with better comfort and security. 

E. O. McCoRMiCK, T. H. Goodman, 

Pass. Trafl&c Manager, Gen. Pass. Agent, 

San Francisco, Cal. G. W. IvUCE, 

AbSt. Gen. Frt. and Pass. Agt. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 




Everybody Goes to Santa MOIliCa 
Via Los Angeles-Pacific Electric Ry. 

It provides one of the most modern equipments and the 
coolest and most scenic route in Southern California. 

For Santa Monica: Cars leave Fourth and Broadway, 
Los Angeles, via Hill and 16th streets, every hour from *6:30 
S a. m. to 11:30 p. m. Sundays, every hall hour from 7:30 a.m. 

8 to 7:30 p.m.. and hourly to 11:30 p.m. Saturdays, extra cars at 5 p.m. and 6 p.m. Cars 
8 leave Plaza 10 minutes earlier. 

• Via Bellevue Ave., Colegrove and Sherman, every hour from *6:15 a. m. to 11:15 p. m. 

• and 11:45 p. m. to Sherman only. Cars leave Plaza 10 minutes later 

• For L.08 Angeles: Cars leave Hill Street, South Santa Monica, at *5:50, *6:40 a. m., 

• and every hour to 10:40 p. m. Sundays, 7:40 a.m. and every half hour from 8:40 a. m. to 

• 7:40 p.m., and hourly to 10:40 p.m. Saturdays, extra cars at 4:10 p.m. and 5:10 p.m. I^eave 

• band stand. Ocean Ave., 5 minutes later. 

• Cars leaving Hill Street, South Santa Monica, 40 minutes after each hour from 6:40 a.m. 

• to 9:40 p.m. connect at Morocco cars via Sherman and Colegrove. 

8 ^Except Sundays. Offices, Chamber of Commerce BIdg., 4tli and Broadway, Lot Angelos 
•••••••• •••••••• •••••••••••• •••••••••••••••» •••••••••••••••• •••••••• •••••••• •••••••• ••••••••••••••••••• 



For = = = 



Horton House 



A home-like place 

A central street 

A pleasant room 

Good things to eat 

Our Hotel Rates cannot be beat 




San Diego 
Cal. 



W. E. 



HADLEY 

Proprietor 



Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. & Co. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 



Rock Island 
Route 




Leave Los Angeles every Tuesday via the Denver 
& Rio Grande "Scenic Line." and by the popular 
Southern Route every Wednesday. Low rates ; 
quick time ; competent managers ; Pullman up- 
holstered cars ; union depot Chicago Our cars 
are attached to the "Boston and New York 
Special," via Lake Shore, New York Central and 
Boston & Albany Railways, arriving Boston 3:00 
p.m , New York 1 p.m. 
For maps, rates, etc., call on or address, 
F. W. THOMPSON, Gen. Ag't., 
214 S. Spring St. Los Angeles 

Personal ly Conducted 

REDONDO BY THE SEA 

17 Miles from L.08 Angeles 

Redondo Railway Time Table 

In effect September 8, 1899 
Leave Los Angeles Leave Redondo 

9:80 am daily 8:00 a.m. 

1:30 p.m daily 11:00 a.m. 

5:00 p.m daily 3:45 p.m. 

11:30 pm Saturday only 6:30 p.m. 

L. J. PERRY Superintendenf, Grand Ave. and Jefferson St. 
City office, 246 S. Spring St. Telephone West 1. 

90% OF AMERICAN WOMEN 

wash dishes three times each day. If you 
are one of" these, wear a pair of " Good- 
year" Rubber Gloves and always have 
soft, white hands. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, on receipt of $1.50. Agents wanted. 
Address M. O. Dept., 
M . F. Reese Supply Co., Setauket, N. Y. 

Pacific Coast Steamship Co* 

The Company's elegant steam- 
ers Santa Rosa and Corona leave 
Redondo at 11 a.m., and Port Los 
Angeles at 2:30 p.m , for San 
Francisco via Santa Barbara and 
Port Harford, Dec. 4. 8, 12, 16, 
20, 24, 28, January 1 and every 
fourth day thereafter. 
Leave Port Los Angeles at 5:45 
and Redondo at 10:45 a.m. for San Diego 
1, 5. 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29. Feb. 2 and every 
fourth day thereafter. 

Cars connect via Redondo leave Santa F6 depot 
at 9:55 a.m., or Redondo Ry. depot at 9:30 
a m. Cars connect via Port Los Angeles leave 
S. P. R. R. depot 1:35 p.m. for steamers north 
bound 

The steamers Coos Bay and Bonita leave San 
Pedro for San Francisco via East San Pedro, Ven ■ 
tura. Carpenteria, Santa Barbara, Goleta, Gaviota, 
Port Harford, Cayucos, San Simeon, Monterey 
and Santa Cruz, at 6 p m., Jan. 2. 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 
26, 30, Feb. 3 and every fourth day thereafter. 

Cars to connect with steamers via San Pedro 
leave S. P. R. R. (Arcade Depot) at 5:03 p m., and 
Terminal Ry. depot 5:20 p.m. Sunday at 1:45 p.m. 
For further information obtain folder. 
The Company reserves right to change, without 
previous notice, steamers, sailing dates and hours 
of sailing. W. PARRIS, Agt., 

124 West Second St.. Los Angeles. 
GOODALL, PERKINS & CO., Gen. Agts., 

San Francisco. 




a.m. 
Jan 




California 
Limited 

Santa H? Route 

Lv Los Angeles 6.-00 pm Tues Thur. Sat. Sun. 

" Pasadena 6:25 pm " " " 

" San Ber'dino 7:45 pm " ' " " 

Ar. Denver 5:00 pm Thur. Sat. Mon. Tues 

'• Kansas City.. 6:30 am Fri. Sun. Tues. Wed. 

" Chicago 2:15 pm " " " " 

" New York.... 6:30 pm Sat. Mon. Wed. Thur. 

ENTIRELY NEW AND LUXURIOUS EQUIPMENT. 
EVERYTHING TO MAKE YOU COMFORTABL£, 
AND THE FASTEST TIME EVER MADE. 







CEANIC S. S. CO.-nONOLlll 
APIA, AlCKLAND and SYDNEY 

HONOLULU 



SAMOA.T^y^,. 

NEW ZEALAND, 
AUSTRALIA. 



|ceanicjStc\nship(1 

Onty Stumer Line to Itie yvomlertands af he hcSic 

T).e South Sea Islands. 



■ SPECIAL RATES 

fOO INUUilVt TBIPS TAKINS 

Hawaii. Samoo, Fiji. Tahiti, etc. 



Send 10 cents postage for 
■• Trip to Hawaii;' with fine 
photographic illustration 
20 cents for new edition of 

same, with beautiful colored plate illustrations ; 

20 cents postage for " Talofa, Summer Sail to 

South Sgas," also in colors, to Oceanic S. S. Co., 

114 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Steamers sail to Honoluln twice a 
month, to Samoa, New Zealand and 
Sydney, via Honolulu, every 28 days. 

J. D. SPRECKELS BROS. CO., 
114 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

HUGH B. RICK, Agent, 

330 S. Spring: St., I.08 Angeles, Cal. 



tlummel Bros. & Co., Employment Agents, 300 W. Second St. TeL Main 509 




LAND OF SUNSHINE 



COMMERCIAL BLUE BOOK 



LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 





New residents in a city or persons moving from one section to another are usually forced to learn 
by experience the best places to patronize. Our object in publishing a Commercial Blue Book is to 
point out to our readers a few of the leading stores, hotels, rooming houses, restaurants, schools, 
sanitariums, hospitals, etc.; also professional men, and the most satisfactory places in which to deal. 
As it is not our intention to publish a complete business directory, some firms equally as good as those 
we have listed may have been omited. Still, we believe that those who consult this guide will be satis- 
fied with the list submitted. The variety and class of goods handled, as well as the reputation of the 
merchant, has received careful attention in each selection made, with the idea of saving our readers as 
much time, trouble and expense as possible. 



ART, MUSIC, SCHOOIiS AND COL- 
Ii£G£S. 

Artists. 
J. Bond Francisco, 416-417 Blanchard 
Hall, 235 S. Broadway. 

Business Colleges. 
Los Angeles Business College, 212 W. 
Third St., Currier Bldg. Tel. Black 
2651. 
The Brownsberger Home School of Short- 
hand and Typewriting, 903 S. Broad- 
way. 
Metropolitan Business University, W. C. 
Buckman, Mgr., 438-440 S. Spring st. 
Dancing Academy. 
W. T. Woods, 740 S. Figueroa st. Tel. 
Green 773. 

Dramatic Training 
G. A. Dobinson. Studio, 526 S. Spring st. 
(Training of the speaking voice a 
specialty. ) 

Marbleized Plaster Medallions, 
Busts, etc. 

Sarah B. Thatcher, successor to Alfred 

T. Nicoletti, 129 Bast Seventh st. 

Schools and Colleges. 

St. Vincent's College, Grand ave. 

Los Angeles Military Academy, west of 
Westlake Park. P. O. Box 193, City. 

Miss French's Classical School for Girls, 
512 S. Alvarado st. Tel. Brown 1652 
Musical Colleges 

Bernard Berg (pupil of Rubinstein), 
Colonial Flat 16, Broadway and 
Eighth St. 

Vocal Instruction 

Charles F. Edson, basso cantante. En- 
gagements accepted for concert, 
oratorio and opera. Studio, 611 
Witmer st. 



Architects 

Arthur Burnett Benton, 1 14 N. Spring st. 

Tel. Red 3521. 
R. B. Young, 828 West Seventh st. Tel. 

Main 151. 
John P. Krcmpel, 415-416 Henne Blk. 

Tel. Main 663. 

Architect Supplies 

Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 

Acetylene Gas Generators and Calcium 
Carbide 

Hedden & Black, 746 S. Main st. 
Assayers, Befiners and Bullion Buyers 

Wm. T.Smith & Co., 114 N. Main st. 
Tel. Brown 1735. 

Any vo — Theatrical Cold Cream Make Up. 
Rouge Gras 

Viole & Lopizich, 427 N. Main*st., dis- 
tributing agents. Tel. Main 875. 

Banks 

California Bank, S. W. cor. Second st. 

and Broadway. 
German- American Savings Bank, N E. 

cor. First and Main sts. 
Los Angeles National Bank (United 

States Depositary), N.E. cor. First 

and Spring sts. 
Security Savings Bank, N. E. cor. Sec- 
ond and Main sts. 
Southern California Savings Bank, 150- 

152 N. Spring St. 
State Bank and Trust Company, N. W 

cor. Second and Spring sts. 

Bakeries 

Ebinger's Bakery, cor. Spring and Third 
sts. Tel. 610. 



Land of Sunshine Commerciai Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



The Meek Baking Co. Factory and of- 
fice Sixth and San Pedro sts. Tel. 
main 322. Principal store 226 W. 
Fourth St. Tel. main 1011. 

Mrs. Angel's Bakery, 830 W. Seventh st. 

Los Angeles Bakery, Jean Dor6, Prop. 
(French Bread.) 846 Lyon st. cor. 
Macy. 

Karl A. Senz, 614 S. Broadway. Tel. 
Main 1411. French Pastry. 

Bamboo Goods 

S. Akita, 504 S. Broadway 
Batbs 

Hammam, 210 S. Broadway. Turkish 
and all other baths and rubs, 25 cts. 
to$l. 

Beach Pebbles, Moonstones, Agates, Sea 

Sbells, etc., Dressed and Polished 

to Order 

J. A, Mcintosh & Co., L. A. Steam Shell 
Works, 1825 S. Main st. 

Bicycle Dealers 

L A. Cycle and Sporting Goods Co , 460 
S. Spring st. (Eldridge Bicycles. ) 

Central Park Cyclery, G. W. Williams, 
prop., 518 S. Hill st. Tel. Green 
1211. 

Bicycle Insurance. 

The California Bicyclists Protective As- 
sociation, Chas. J. George & Co., 
Mgrs., 208 Laughlin Bldg. Tel. 
Main 990. 

Bicycle Biding Academy 

Central Park Cyclery, W. G. Williams, 
prop., 518 S.Hill St. Tel. Gr^en 1211. 

Books, Stationery, etc. 

Stoll & Thayer Co., 252-254 S. Spring st. 
Botanic Pharmacy 

Frceman-Liscomb Co., Botanic Pharmacy, 
Main and Fifteenth sts. Tel. We!?t 68. 

Breeders of Thoroughbred Belgians, 
Angoria and Russian Babbits. 

The Bonanza Rabbitry, Elmer L- Piatt, 
930 Grand View ave. Circulars free. 
Building and lioan Associations 

The State Mutual Building and Loan As- 
sociation, 141 S. Broadway. 
Carpet Cleaning 'Works 

Pioneer Steam Carpet Cleaning Works, 
Robt. Jordan, Mgr.,641 S. Broadway. 

I Tel. 217 Main. 
Great Western Steam Carpet Cleaning 
Works. H. Himelreich, Prop. Cor. 
Ninth and Grand ave. (formerly 
Tenth and Grand ave.) Tel. White 
5511. 
Ci 
: 



Carpenter TV^ork, Jobbing, Mill Work 

Adams Mfg. Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 
Red 2731. 



Carriage Works. 

J. U. Tabor & Co. (J. U. Tabor and G. 
N. Rookhout), cor. Seventh and Los 
Angeles sts. Tel. Main 127. 

Cooperative Carriage Works, A. Sperl, 
Mgr., 337 E. First st. 

Clothing and Gent's Furnishings- 

London Clothing Co., 117-125 N. Spring 

St., s. w. cor. Franklin. 
Mullen, Bluett & Co., n. w. cor. Spring 

and First sts. 

Confectionery. Ice Cream, Sherbets, etc. 
Wholesale and Betail 

Merriam & Son, 127 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Main 475. 
M. Broszey & Co., 121 W. Sixth st. Tel. 

Red 2033. 

Coal Oil, Gasoline, W^ood, Coal, etc. 

Morris-Jones Oil and Fuel Co., 127 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 666. 

Curio Stores 

Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S.Broadway. 

Dentists 
Drs. Adams Bros., 239>^ S. Spring st. 

Distilled Water and Carbonated 
Beverages. 

The Ice and Cold Storage Co., Seventh 
St. and Santa F6 Ry. tracks. Tel. 228. 

Druggists 

Boswell & Noyes Drug Co., Prescription 
Druggists, 300 S. Broadway. Tel. 
Main 125. 

F.J.Giese, l03N.Main st. Tel.Brown 310. 

H. C. Worland, 2133 K. First st. Station B. 

H. B. Fasig, 531 Downey ave., cor. Tru- 
man St., East L. A. Tel. Alta 201 . 

M. W. Brown, 1200 W. Washington st. 

Freeman-Liscomb Co., cor. Main and Fif- 
teenth sts. Tel West 68. 

Catalina Pharmacy, M. Home, prop., 1 501 
W. Seventh st. Tel. Green 772. 

Edmiston & Harrison, Vermont and Jef- 
ferson sts. Tel. Blue 4701. 

E. P. Deville, cor, Sixth and Spring sts. 
Tel. Main 799. 

J. V. Akey, Central and Vernon aves. 
Tel. West 32. 

Chicago Pharmacy, F. J. Kruell, Ph. G., 
Prop. Central ave. and Twelfth st. 
Tel. West 132. 

W. A. Home, s. w. cor. Adams st. and 
Central ave. Tel. West 200 

A. J. Watters, Cor Fifth and Wall sts. 
Hughes bldg. Tel. Black 1094. 

Homeopathic Pharmacist 

Boericke & Runyon Co., 320 S. Broad- 
way. Tel. Main 504. 

Dry Goods 

J. M. Hale Co., 107-9-10 N. Spring st. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Dye Works, Cleaning 

American Dye Works, J. A. Berg, prop. 

Office 210^ S. Spring St. Tel. Main 

850. Works 6 13-61 5 W. Sixth st. Tel. 

Main 1016. 
English Steam Dye Works, T. Caunce, 

proprietor, 829 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Black 2731. 

Door and Window Screens and House 
Repairing 

Adams Mfg Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 

Red 2731. 

JBlectricians 
Woodill & Hulse Electric Co., 118 W. 

Third St. Tel. Main 1125. 
Electric Supply and Fixture Co., 541 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 831. 
Electrical Commercial Co. , 3 1 3 W. Second 

St. Tel. Main 22. 

Employment Agents. 

Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 and 302 West 

Second st. cor. Broadway, basement 

California Bank Bldg. Tel. Main 

509. 
Feather W^orks, Mattresses, Pillows, Etc. 
Acme Feather Works, Jas. F. Allen, 

Prop., 513 S. Spring st. Tel. Black 

3151. 

Fisli, Oysters and Game. 

(Family trade solicited) 

Levy's, 1 1 1 W. Third st. Tel. Main 1 284. 

Fruit and Vegetables 
Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622. (Shipping solicited.) 
Rivers Bros., Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. (Shipping solicited.) 
Ludwig & Mathews, 129-133 S. Main st. 

Tel. 550. ( Shipping solicited.) 

Furnished Rooms 

The Seminole, 324 W. Third st. Rate 

$3 per week and up. 
The Spencer, 316>^ W. Third st. Rate 

$3 to $5 per week. Tel. Red 3351 . 
The Narragansett, 423 S. Broadway, opp. 

Van Nuys Broadway. Tel. Brown 

1373. Rate 50c per day and up. 
The Kenwood, 131 X S. Broadway. Rate 

$3 to $6 per week. Tel. Brown 1360. 
The Rossmore, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 

416 W. Sixth St. Rate $1.50 to $5 

per week. 
The Hafen, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 344 

S. Hill St. Rate|l .50 to $3 per week. 

Furniture, Carpets and Draperies 
Los Angeles Furniture Co., 225-229 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 13. 
Southern California Furniture Co., 312- 

314 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 1215. 
Gas Regulators. 
Los Angeles Gas Saving Association, 313 

W. Second st. Tel. Main 22. 
Grilles, Fretwork, W^ood Novelties, Etc. 
Los Angeles Grille Works, 610 South 

Broadway. 



Groceries 

Blue Ribbon Grocery, B. Wynns & Co., 

449 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 728. 
Despars & Son, cor. Main and Twenty- 
fifth sts. 
H. Jevne, 208-210 S. Spring st. 
C. A. Neil, 423 Downey ave., East L. A. 

Tel. Alta 202. 
Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622. 
Ludwig & Mathews, 129 133 S. Main st. 

Tel. 550. 
J. C. Rockhill, 1573 W. First St., cor. 

Belmont ave. Tel. Main 789. 
T. L. Coblentz, 825 S. Grand ave. Tel. 

Red 3011. 
J. Lawrence, Cool Block, cor. Jefferson st. 

and Wesley ave. 
Rivers Bros., Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. 
Smith & Anderson, cor. Pico and Olive 

sts. Tel. Blue 3966. 
J. H. Wyatt, 332 E. Fifth st. Tel. Brown 

973 
The 99 Grocery, T. J. Coy, prop., 4402 

Central ave. Tel. West 32. 
Central Avenue Mercantile Store, Mrs. 

E. Botello, prop., 1200 Central ave. 

Tel. Blue 2580. 
Power House Grocery, J. A. Fazenda, 

prop., 625 Central ave. Tel. Green 

813. 

Haberdashers and Hatters. 

Bumiller & McKnight, 123 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Main 547. 

Hair Bazaar and Beauty Parlors 

The Imperial, Frank Neubauer, prop., 
224-226 W. Second st. Tel. Black 
1381. 

Hardwood and Parquetry Flooring and 
Enamel Paints. 

Marshall & Jenkins, 430 S. Broadway. 
Tel. Green 1611. 

Hardware 

W. A. Russell, 204 S. Broadway. Tel. 
Main 47. 

Hay, Grain, Coal and Wood 

The P. J. Brannen Feed, Fuel & Storage 
Co., 806-810 S. Main st. Tel. Main 
419. 

William Dibble, cor. Sixth and Los An- 
geles sts. Tel. Green 1761. 

Grand Avenue Feed & Fuel Co., A. F. 
Cochems, 1514 Grand ave. Tel. 
West 227. 

A. E. Breuchaud, 841 S. Figueroa st. 
Tel. Main 923. 

Enterprise Fuel and Feed Store, Ax & 
Peet, 1006 West Ninth st. Tel. West 
239. 

Homeopathic Pharmacist 

Boericke & Runyon Co., 320 S. Broadway. 
Tel. Main 504. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Hospitals 

The California Hospital, 1414 S. Hope 

St. Tel. West 92. 
Dr. Stewart's Private Hospital, 315 West 

Pico St. Tel. West 14. 
Hotels 

Aldine Hotel, Hill st., bet. 3rd and 4tli 

sts. American plan, $1.50 per day 

and up. European plan, $3. 50 to 

$10.00 per week. 
Hotel Locke, 139 S. Hill St., entrance on 

Second st. American plan. Rate 

18.00 to $12 per week. 
Belle vue Terrace Hotel, cor. Sixth and 

Figueroa sts. Rate, $2 per day and up. 
HoUenbeck Hotel, American and Europ- 
ean plan, Second and Spring sts. 
Hotel Van Nuys, n. w. cor. Main and 

Fourth sts. American plan, |3 to 

$12 per day; European plan, $1 to 

$10 per day. 
Hotel Palms, H. C. Fryman, prop., 

Sixth and Broadway. American and 

European plans. 
Westminster Hotel, n. e. cor. Main and 

Fourth sts. American plan, $3 per 

day and up ; European plan, $1 per 

day and up. 
Hotel Gray Gables, cor. Seventh and 

Hill sts. Rates $1 to $2 per day. 
Hotel Lillie, 534 S. Hill st. Rate $8 to 

$15 per week. 
The Belmont, 425 Temple st. Rate $6.50 

per week and up. 
Hotel Grey, n. e. cor. Main and Third 

sts. European plan. Rate, $3.00 to 

$12 per week. 

Japanese Faucy Goods 

Quong Lee Lung & Co., 350 S. Spring st. 

Jewelers and Watchmakers 

S. Conradi, 113 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 

1159. 
W. T. Harris, cor. First and Main sts. 

Tel. Red 2981. 

Liadies' Tailor 
S. Benioff, 330 S. Broadway. 

Ijaundries 
Crystal Steam Laundry, W.J. Hill, Mgr., 

416-420 E. First st. Tel. Red 1932. 
Empire Steam Laundry, 149 South Main 

St. Tel. Main 635. 

Liiquor Merchants 
H. J. Wooll&cott, 124-126 N. Spring st. 
Southern California Wine Co., 220 W. 

Fourth St. 
Edward Germain Wine Co., 397-399 S. 

Los Angeles st. Tel. Main 919. 

liivery Stables and Tally-hos 

Tally-ho Stable & Carriage Co., W. R. 

Murphy (formerly at 109 N. Broad- 
way), 712 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 51 . 
Eagle Stables, Woodward & Cole, 122 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 248 
Eureka Stables, 323 W. Fifth st. Tel. 

Main 7 1 . 



Meat Markets 

Norma Market, M. T. Ryan, 1818 S. 

Main St. TeL West 171. 
Crystal Market, Reed Bros., 2309 S. Union 

ave. Tel. Blue 3131. 
Model Market, R. A. Norries, 831 W. 

Sixth St. cor Pearl. Tel. 979 Main. 
Grand Avenue Market, J. A. Rydell, 

2218 S. Grand ave. Tel. White 321 1 . 
Pioneer Meat Market, E. Rudolph, 514 

Downey ave , East L. A. Tel.Alta208. 
Park Market, Chas Kestner, 329 West 

Fifth St. Tel. Red 2671. 
Eureka Market, Jay W. Hyland, cor. 7th 

St. and Union ave. Tel. Main 1467. 
Oregon Market, Geo. N. Briggs, prop., 

525 W. Sixth st. Tel. Red 2032. 
Washington Market, J. A. McCoy, Station 

" D, " 1 2 1 4 W. Washington st. Tel. 

Blue 4961. 

Men's Furnishing; Goods, Notions, Fancy 
Goods, etc. 

Cheapside Bazaar, F. E. Verge, 2440 S. 
Main st. 

Merchant Tailors 

O. C. Sens, 219 W Second St., opp. Hol- 

lenbeck Hotel. 
Brauer & Krohn, 1 14>^ S. Main st. Tel. 

Green 1745. 
A. J. Partridge, 125 W. First st. Tel. 

Green 13. 
M. C. Meiklejohn, 203 S. Main st. Branch 

E St., San Bernardino. 

Mexican Hand-Carved ILeather Goods 

H. Ross & Sons, 352 S. Broadway, P. O. 
box 902. 

Millinery 

Maison Nouvelle, Miss A. Clarke, 222 W. 
3rd St. Tel. Main 1374. 

Mineral Baths. 

Los Angeles Mineral Baths and Springs, 
A. Puissegur, Prop., cor. Macy and 
Lyon sts., and 851 Howard st. 

Modiste 

Miss H. M. Goodwin, Muskegon lock, 
cor. Broadway and Third st. 

Monumental Dealers 

Lane Bros., 631 S. Spring St., Los Ange- 
les, and 41 1 McAlister St., San Fran 
Cisco. 

Nurserymen and Florists 

Los Angeles Nursery. Sales depot 446 
S. Main st. P. O. box 549. (Special- 
ties, plant and cacti souvenirs. ) 

Elysian Gardens and Nursery, Ethel 
Lord, prop. City depot 440 S. Broad- 
way. Nursery corner Philleo and 
Marathon sts. 

Elmo R. Meserve. Salesyard 635 S. 
Broadway. Tel. White 3226. Nur- 
sery 2228 Sutter st. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Opticians 

Adolph Frese, 126 S. Spring st. 

Boston Optical Co., Kyte & Granicher, 

235 S. Spring st. 
Fred Detmers, 354 S. Broadway. 

Osteopathy- 
Pacific School of Osteopathy and Infirm- 
ary, C. A. Bailey, Pres., Tenth and 
Flower sts. Tel. West 55. 

Paints, Oils and Glass 

Scriver & Quinn, 200-202 S. Main st. 

Tel. 565. 
P. H. Mathews, 238-240 S. Main st. Tel. 

1025. 

Pawn Brokers 

h. B. Cohn, 120-122 North Spring st. 

Pharmaceutical Manufacturers. 

The Salubrita Pharmacal Co., Mrs. L. W. 
Shellhamer, lady mgr 122 West 
Third St., room 320. (Fine cosmetics 
a specialty.) 

Ph oto graphers 

Townsend's, 340)4 S. Broadway. 

Photographic Material, Kodaks, etc. 

Dewey Bros., 326 South Spring st. Tel. 
Black 3891. 

Pianos, Sheet Music and Musical 
Merchandise 

Southern California Music Co., 216-218 
W. Third st. Tel. 585. 

Fitzgerald Music & Piano Co., 113 S. 
Spring St. Tel. Main 1 159. 

Williamson Bros., 327 S Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. 

Geo. T. Exton, 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. (Agent for Regal Man- 
dolins and Guitars. ) 

Picture Frames, Artists' Materials, Sou- 
venirs 

Sanborn, Vail & Co , 133 S. Spring st. 
Ita Williams, 354 S Broadway and 311 
S. Main st. 

Printing, Engraving, Binding 

Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner Co., 123 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 417. 

Restaurants 

Ebinger's Dining Parlors, cor. Spring 
and Third sts. Tel. 610. 

Saddlerock Fish and Oyster Parlors, 236 
S. Spring st. (Private dining par- 
lors.) 

Maison Doree (French Restaurant), 145- 
147 N. Main st. Tel. Main 1573. 

Seymour Dining Parlors, 318 West Sec- 
ond St. 

The Rival Lunch Counter and Restaur- 
ant, 1 1 5 W. Second st. 



Rubber Stamps, Stencils and Seals 

Los Angeles Rubber Stamp Co., 224 W. 
First St. Tel. Red 3941. 

Ruberoid Roofing and P. & B. Roof 
Paints and Gravel Roofing. 

Paraffine Paint Co., 312-314 W. Fifth st. 
Sewing Machines and Bicycles 

Williamson Bros., 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
Brown 1315. 
Seeds and Agricultural Implements 

Johnson & Musser Seed Co., 1 13 N. Main 
St. Tel. Main 176. 

Sheet Metal "Works, Galvanized Iron 

and Copper Cornices, Sky I^ights, 

Roofing, etc. 

Union Sheet Metal Works, 347 to 351 
Central ave. Tel. Black 2931. 

Shirt and Shirt TVaist Makers 

Machin Shirt Co., 1 18^ S. Spring st. 
Bumiller & McKnight, 123 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Main 547. 

Shoe Stores 

Skinner & Kay, sole agents Burt & Pack- 
ard " Korrect Shape " shoes, 209 W. 
Third st. 

F. E. Verge, 2440 S. Main st. 

Sign Writers and Painters 

S. Bros.-Schroeder Bros., 121 E. Second 
St. Tel. Main 561. 

Soda Works and Beer Bottlers 

Los Angeles Soda Works (H. W. Stoll & 
Co.), 509 Commercial st. Tel. Main 
103. 

Sporting Goods and Bicycles 

L. A. Cycle & Sporting Goods Co., 460 
S. Spring st. 

Taxidermist and Naturalist 
Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S. Broadway. 
Teas, Cofl"ee8 and Spices 

Sunset Tea & Coffee Co., 229 W. Fourth 
St. Tel. Main 1214. 

Tents, Awnings, Hammocks, Camp , 
Furniture, etc. 

Los Angeles Tent & Awning Co., A. W. 

Swanfeldt, prop., 220 S. Main st. 

Tel. Main 1160. 
J. H. Masters, 136 S. Main st. Tel. Main 

1512. Also guns and ammunition. 

Trunk Manufacturers, Traveling 
Cases, etc. 

D. D. Whitney, 423 S. Spring st. Tel. 
Main 203. 

Upholstering, Polishing, Cabinet Work 

Broadway Furniture & Upholstering Co., 
421 S. Broadway. 

Transfer Co. 
(See Van and Storage Co's.) 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, CaL 



Undertakers 

Bresee Bros,, 557-559 S. Broadway. Tel. 
Main 243. 

C. D. Howry, 509-511 vS. Broadway. Of- 
fice Tel. 107; Res. Tel. 541. 

Peck & Chase Co., 433-435 S. Hill St. 
Tel. 61. 

Van and Storage Companies 

Bekins Van and Storage Co. Office 436 
S. Spring St.; Tel. Main 19. Ware- 
house, Fourth and Alameda sts.; Tel. 
Black 1221. 

Wall Paper, Koom Moulding, Decorating 

Los Angeles Wall Paper Co , 309 S. Main 
St. Tel. Green 314. 

New York Wall Paper Co., 452 S. Spring 
St. Tel. Main 207. 



Warehouse 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) 

Wood Mantels, Tiles, Grates, Ktc. 

Chas. E. Marshall, 514 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Brown 1821. 

Wood Turning, Grill and Cabinet Work. 

The Art Mill Co., 649 S. Spring st. Tel. 
Green 1638. 

W^ood Turning, Scroll and Band Sawing 

A.J. Koll, 335-337 E. Second st. Tel. 
1242. 



PASADENA COMMERCIAL BLUE BOOK. 

Pasadena is a city of beautiful homes. Its charming location near the Sierra Madre mountains, at 
the head of the beautiful San Gabriel valley, and its proximity and exceptional railway facilities to 
l.os Angeles, make it at once popular as a winter resort to tourists and a suburban residence for Los 
A ngeles business men It has good business houses, fine churches and schools, an excellent library, 
charming drives, and the finest hotel in the section. 



Banlcs. 

First National Bank, cor. Fair Oaks ave. 
and Colorado st. 

Bakeries. 

C. S. Heiser, 22 West Colorado st. Branch 
26 Pine St., Long Beach. 

Coal, Wood, Hay and Grain. 

J. A. Jacobs & Son, 100 East Colorado 
St. Tel. Main 105. 

Druggists. 

Asbury G. Smith, n. w. cor. Raymond 
and Colorado sts. Tel. Main 171. 

Furniture, Carpets and Di*aperies. 

Clias. E. Putman, 96-98 East Colorado st. 
Brown & Sutlifif, 99-103 South Fair Oaks 
ave. Tel. 99. 

Gymnasium, Baths, Massage. 

Rowland's Gymnasium, cor. Green and 
Fair Oaks. Tel. Black 673. 
Groceries. 

W. J. Kelly, 55-57 East Colorado st. Tel. 
86 

Martin & Booher, 24 East Colorado st. 
Tel. Main 54. 

Haberdashers and Hatters. 

F. E. Twombly, 28 East Colorado st. 

Harness and Horse Furnishing Goods. 

H. I. Howard, 117 East Colorado st. 

(Fine custom work a specialty ) 

Hotelfl. 

Hotel Mitchell, cor. Dayton st. and Fair 

Oaks ave American plan. Rates 

$2.00 per day and up. 

Ice, Distilled Water, etc. 
In<lependent Ice Co., cor Raymond ave. 
and Union st. Tel. Red 672. 



Laundries. 

Pacific Steam Laundry, 254 South Fair 
Oaks ave. Tel. Main 72. 

Meat Markets. 

City Meat Market, John Breiner, 83 East 

Colorado st. Tel. 60. 
East Side Market, H. L. Flournoy, 184- 

1 86 East Colorado st. Tel. Black 3 1 4. 

Millinery. 

Knox & McDermid Millinery Parlors, 
No. 9 Fair Oaks ave., First National 
Bank Bldg. 

Opticians. 

Drs. F. M. & A. C. Taylor, 31 East Col- 
orado St. 

llestaurants (Lunches put up). 

Arlington Restaurant and Bakery, S. F. 
Smiley, prop., 102 East Colorado st, 
second door west Santa Fe tracks. 

Mrs. McDermid's Delicacy Bakery, 35 
East Colorado st. 

steel Banges, House Furnishing Hard- 
ware, Refrigeratoj-s, etc. 

Pasadena Hardware Company, No. 13 
East Colorado st. 

Undertakers. 

Reynolds & VanNuys, 63 N. Fair Oaks 
ave Tel. 52. Proprietors Pasadena 
Crematorium. 



Wall Paper, Mouldings. Window Shades, 
Paints, Oils, Varnishes. 

H. E. Lodge, 43 East Colorado st. Tel. 
Red 401. 



When answering advertisements, plrase mention that you " saw it in the Land of SunshinbJ 



REDUCTION IN THE PRICE Of GAS 



Service Connections 

FREE OF COST 

Houses Piped and Fixtures 
furnished at 

ABSOLUTE COST 

The cost of piping and 
fixturing a small cottage 
IS less than $20.00. 



On January 1st 

the price of gas 
will be 

REDUCED 

TO 

$1 60 PER 1000 
CUBIC FEET 



THE BEST GAS RANGE 
costs only $14 00. 

Many of our Appliances 
sold on the 

INSTALLMENT 
PLAN 

PAYMENTS 

$1.00 PER 
MONTH 



At this exceedingly low rate no one can afford to do their cooking 

with any other fuel than gas. 

Modernize your kitchen — get rid of the soot, smoke and dirt, and 

save money by reducing* the cost of your fuel. 



THIS REDUCTION IN THE PRICE MAKES QAS 
THE VERY CHEAPEST FUEL IN THE 

riARKET TODAY. 
BEGIN THE NEW YEAR WITH A NEW 
ECONOriY. 



No light so cheap as the Welsbach — with Gas at the Reduced Rate. 



LOS Angeles lighting CO., 453-457 South Broadway. 



AN IDEAL RANCH 

FOR SALE 
IN THE FINEST CLIMATE ON EARTH 

8 mileH from San Diego, 600 feet from 
main wagon road and t^ miles from 
R. K. Station, P. O., Scliool, Stores, 
Blacksmith Shop, etc. 

10 68-100 acres, graded for easy irrigation ; ample water right ; 710 lemon, 34 navel 
orange, 5 tangerenes, 10 guavas, 6 loquot, 2 apricot, 2 plum, and one each of apple, 
pear, persimon and mulberry trees, all in full bearing. 

Buildings on ranch for lodging, storage, barn, etc. Curing plant, light and heavy 
wagons, spray pump, flume, hose, etc. For further particulars address 



GEORGE H 



OR, 16 CHAMBERS ST., 

NEW YORK CITY 



CARR 

LA MESA, CAL. 



Ilummel Bros. & Co., Largest Employment Agency. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it 



The Most Tasteful Tid-Bit 
of the Season. 




BAYLES 

DEVILED CHEESE 



Demanded by all lovers of Cheese. 
Packed only in half and one-pound 
jars. 



GEO. A. BAYLE, Sole Maker, 

ST. LOUIS. U. S. A. 



For Sale by Wholesale and Retail Grocers 
throughout the United States. 



SIMPLY DELICIOUS. 



1 package Bromangelon — 
1 pint boiling water— 
1 minute's time — 
Nothing more. 




Flavors— Lemon, Orange, Strawberry, 
Raspberry, Cherry. 

FRFF SAMPI F ^^^^ ^ ^^"*^ ^^ stamps for 
rriLb OHIfirLL postage, with your grocer's 
name, xnd we will mail you a pnmple of Bro- 
mangelon Free. State what flavor. 

Mfrs , Stern & Saalberg, 

3U W. 40th St., New York. 
Agts. for Los Angeles, Flint & Wise. 




311 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



147 S. Broadway, liOS Ang^eles. 



Drives away care, lends buoyancy to the spirits and strength to the body— .Abbott's Angostura Bitters. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sumshikb." 




CREATES A PERFECT COMPLEXION t 



Mrs. Graham's 



Cucumber and Elder t 
Flower Cream I 



It cleanses, whitens and beautifies the 
skin, feeds and nourishes skin tissues, 
thus banishing wrinkles. It is harmless 
as dew, and as nourishing to the skin as 
dew is to the flower. Price $1.00 at drug- 
gists and agents, or sent anywhere pre- 
paid. Sample bottle, 10 cents. A hand- 
some book, "How to be Beautiful," free. 



GRAHAM'S CACTICO HAIR GROWER 

TO MAKE HIS HAIR GROW, AND 

QUICK HAIR RESTORER 

TO RESTORE THE COLOR. 

Both guaranteed harmless as water. Sold by best Dniggigts, or sent in plain sealed 
wrapper by express, prepaid. Price, SI. 00 each. 
For sale by all Druggists and Hairdealers. 

Send for FREE BOOK : " A Confidential Chat with Bald Headed, Thin Haired and 
Gray Haired Men and Women." Good Agents wanted. 

REDINGTON & CO., San Francisco, Gen. Facitic Coast Agents. 

MRS. GERVAISE GRAHAM, 1261 Micliigan Ave., Chicago. 

MRS. WEAVER-JACKSON, Hair Stores and Toilet Parlors, 

318 S. Spring St., L,os Angeles. S2 Fair Oaks Ave., cor. Green St., Pasadena. 



% 



C:»(^C:l^«»:«C(^»=»'«^»^&f'S^&^C^»=^C'^^^««^^^«^«^«^<^^^:^^^^^&&^&C^^C^C^^««(^6«^«' 





BAKER'S 
BREAKFAST 
COCOA 



" It is at once a delightful food and nour- 
ishing drink, and it would be well for hu- 
manity if there were more of it consumed 
and less tea or coffee."— TA^ HomcKOpathic 
Recorder. 



Walter Baker & Co. Limited 

DORCHESTER^ MASS. 
Established I7SO 



in 

I 
I 

I 

i 

I 
fit 

I 

I 
I 



of a soda 
Sparklets 
of the age. 



Enjoy the advantages 
fountain in your home, 
are the greatest invention 
For club, traveling and 
hospital use, as well as 
the home. 

SPARKI.ETS are small 
steel capsules containing 
pure carbonic gas. By 
using these capsules in a 
specially prepared bottle 
water or any other bever- 
age can be instantly car- 
bonated. 

Makes Root Beer and 
Ginger Ale equal to the 
finest imported. 

A complete soda foun- 
tain, inexpensive and 
simple. 

Call or write for interesting descriptive 
reading matter. 

California Instantaneous Garbonating Go. 

130 W. SECOND ST., 
Ground Floor. Tel. Red 2906. Wilcox Bldg. 




I 
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I 

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IX 

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fit 

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IX 

I 

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I 
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Pebrukrv, 1900 



A MIDWINTER MAY 
"LOST MINES" 
STAGING IN THE SIE 



ING ) 
lERRA > 



Vol. XII, No. 3 
Uavishly 

Illustrated 







THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE 




:> 
:> 

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> 



THE MAGAZINE OF T 

CALIFORNIA AND THE WEST 

EDITED BY CHAS.F. LUMMIS 



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|/^ CENTS 
Iv/ A COPY 



LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO., Incorporated 
121^ South Broadway, lios Angeles. 



$1 



A 
YEAR 



When answering advertise ments, please mention that you " saw it in the I^and op Sunshine. 






t Remodeling a Gown I 



becomes a pleasing occi^tibn, provided it was stitched 
on a Singer Automatic. The elastic seam made 
by this machine is perfectly safe when locked, but can 
be taken apart in an instant when unlocked. Thus its 
use is especially desirable for the clever woman who 
wishes to make over a garment so that it may conform 
to the changing styles. Whether in the hands of the 
amateur or the expert, this simple bit of mechanism is 
the most convenient and effective of any. 

Having all the advantages claimed for other "auto- 
matic " sewing machines, the Silent Singer has 
many points of preference that can easily be 
demonstrated by comparison. Of faultless con- 
struction and Gnish, it is absolutely the lightest- 
running, the simplest and most compact. It is more easily 
threaded, and its parts are better protected from dust. 
The broad treadle better promotes the health and 
comfort of the operator, because it is lower and the posi- 
tion of the feet can be changed at will. These points are 
worthy careful consideration by those of delicate heahh 
or unaccustomed to continuous use of a sewing machine. 



V 

i 



SOLD 
ONLY BY 



THE SINGER MANUFACTURING CO. | 



.. Offices in every city in the world ... 



in 




211 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



147 S. Broadway, lios Angeles. 



Energy, vigor and strength follow the use of Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters. At grocers. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshinb. 



In the Heart of Los Angeles***^^****^ 



49 

*? 

4^ 
<9 
49 
49 

49 
49 
49 
49 
49 



The Hollenbeck, on Second 
and Spring Sts., is the most 
centrally located of all the 
Los Angeles Hotels. 

Electric cars pass its doors 
to all points of interest. 

It is headquarters for Tal- 
ly-ho and Railway Excur- 
sions, commercial men and 
tourists. 

It is run on both Amer- 
ican and European plans. 

Has first-class Cafe and 
rooms with bath and other 
conveniences. Rates are 
reasonable, its 
courteous. 




conveniences ample and its service prompt and 



HOLLENBECK HOTEL 



A. C. BILICKE & CO., 
Second and Spring Sts. 



Props. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



2* 



IS!^^^9^9^^^^9999^9999999^999^^^^^^'^ 



CUTS 



If you desire good, first-class work in the cut line for your ad- 
vertising purposes, you will have to apply where they are made. 
Good work our specialty. Los Angeles Photo. Engraving 
Co., 2nd and Main. Telephone Green 1545. 




^s^ms^mJ 



A DIFFERENT CALIFORNIA 

Are all your ideas of California correct ? You 
may not know, for instance, that in Fresno and 
Kings Counties, situate in the noted San Joa- 
quin Valley, is to be found one of the richest 
tracts of land in the State. 60,000 acres of 
the Laguna de Tache grant for sale at $25 to 
$45 per acre, including Free Water Right, at 
62;^ cents per acre annual rental (the cheapest water in Caliiornia). Send 
your name and address, and receive the local newspaper free for two 
months, and with our circulars added, you may learn something of this 
dififerent California. 

Address NARES & SAUNDERS, Managers, 
FRESNO, CAL. 

C A HUBERT, Agent, 207 W. Third St., Los Angeles. 



Good health is real wealth— Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters is a veritable fortune to the weak . 



The Land of Sunshine 



(INCORPORATBD) capital stock $50,000. 



The Magazine of California and the West 



EDITED BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 



The Only Exclusively Western Magazine 



AMONG THE STOCKHOLDERS 

DAVID STARR JORDAN 

President of Stanford University. 

THEODORE H. HITTELI. 

The Historian of California. 

MARY HAIyLOCK FOOTE 

Author of Tlhe Led-Horse Claim, etc. 

MARGARET COI^LIER GRAHAM 

Author of Stories of the Foothills. 

GRACE ELIvERY CHANNING 

Author of The Sister of a Saint, etc. 

ELLA HIGGINSON 

Author of A Forest Orchid, etc. 

JOHN VANCE CHENEY 

Author of Thistle Drift, etc. 

CHARLES WARREN STODDARD 
The Poet of the South Seas. 

INA COOLBRITH 

Author of Songs ffom the Golden Gate, etc. 

EDWIN MARKHAM 

Author of The Man with the Hoe. 



JOAQUIN MILLER 

The Poet of the Sierras. 

CHAS. FREDERICK HOLDER 

Author of The Life of Agassiz, etc. 

CONSTANCE GODDARD DU BOIS 

Author The Shield oj the Fleur de Lis. 



AND CONTRIBUTORS ARE: 

WILLIAM KEITH 

The greatest Western painter. 

DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS 
Ex-Prest. American Folk-I,ore Society. 

DR. ELLIOTT COUES 

The Hiitorian of lyCwis and Clark. 

GEO. PARKER WINSHIP 

The Historian of Coronado's Marches. 

FREDERICK WEBB HODGE 

of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 

GEO. HAMLIN FITCH 

I^iterary Editor S. F. Chronicle. 

CHARLOTTE PERKINS STETSON 

Author of In This Our World. 

CHAS. HOWARD SHINN 

Author of The Story of the Mine, etc. 

T. S. VAN DYKE 

Author of Rod and Gun in California, etc. 

CHAS. A. KEELER 

A Director of the California Academy 
of Sciences. 

LOUISE M. KEELER 
ALEX. F. HARMER 

L. MAYNARD DIXON 

Illustrators. 

CHAS. DWIGHT WILLARD 



BATTERMAN LINDSAY, ETC., ETC. 



CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, 1900 : 

California "Shooting-Stars" Frontispiece 

The Feet of the Young Men (poem). Mary Austin 139 

"Lost Mines" of Mexico, illustrated, Verona Granville 140 

A Midwinter Maying, illustrated, Charles Amadon Moody 153 

Lost — A Man, illustrated 159 

Familiar Birds of Southern California, illustrated — The Mocker — Elizabeth and 

Joseph Grinnell 165 

Staging in the Sierra, Idah M. Strobridge, illustrated by L. Maynard Dixon 168 

Out of the Frying-Pan— (story), Julia Boynton Green 172 

Fiction Stranger than Earthquakes, Ernest P. Clark 176 

My Brother's Keeper, Chas. F. Lummis 178 

Pioneers of the Far West — Fray Zdrate-Salmeron's " Relacion," concluded 180 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor) 187 

That Which is Written (reviews by the editor) 193 

The Land We Love, illustrated 198 

California Babies, illustrated 199 

The Southern California Fig 

The Belgian Hare, illustrated 



Entered at the I«os Angeles Postoffice as second^lass matter. 
SEE PUEI^ISHER'S PAQE. 



can be recommended as THE BEST diet for the last comers into the 
household. Unlike those food preparations that are liable to stimu- 
late the brain and irritate the digestive organs, it embraces in its 
composition that which makes strong bone and good teeth ; good 
flesh and blood ; is easy of digestion ; and which acts as a preven- 
tative of the many intestinal disorders incidental to childhood. 




A STURDY IMPERIAl><jRANUM BOY 
OP^SEDALIA.MO, 

^H£ SURGEON GENERAL of one of the 

MOST IMPORTANT STATES IN THE UNION, IN AN 

INTERVIEW SAID ^ "I have four boys, a// raised on IMPERIAL GRANUM 
r-^ ^->^^ exclusively, never having tasted mother's milk. One boy is center 

eft I A ^^V """sh on his football team, and the four boys vary from 5 feet 1 1 inches 

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California Wild Flowers 



Only Californians can know the brilliancy of the varied carpet of wild 
flowers which nature spreads over California's plains and mountains. But 
every Land of Sunshine subscriber who has a garden may now have a 
sample of that gorgeous carpet at his own door. To make this possible, 
we have contracted with the Germain Fruit Co., a leading and reliable 
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California Wild Flowers 

The fifteen varieties selected are all of great beauty, each one would 
be a treasure in any garden and some are rare and difficult to obtain. 
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soms six to nine inches in diameter ; the superb California Poppy, whose 
Spanish name {copa de oro — cup of gold) is fairly warranted ; the brilliant 
and graceful shooting-star, of which photograph and description appear 
elsewhere in this magazine ; and others hardly inferior in beauty and in- 
terest. The collection as a whole has never before been offered to the 
public. The full list with retail price per package, is as follows : 

Per Package 

Delphinium cardinale (Scarlet Larkspur). Bright scarlet loc 

DiCENTRA CHRYSANTHA (California Bleeding Heart). Lemon yellow 15c 
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with yellow 15c 

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EscHSCHOLTziA CALiFORNiCA (California Poppy). Gold yellow 5c 

GiLiA TRICOLOR (Bird's Eyes). Violet, yellow and white 5c 

lyAYiA GLANDULOSA (White Daisy). White loc 

LiMNANTHES DouGLASSii (Meadow Foam). Pale yellow 5c 

MiMULUS CARDiNALis (Scarlct Monkey Flower). Scarlet loc 

Nemophila iNSiGNis (Baby Blue Eycs). Blue 5c 

OxYURA CHRYSANTHEMoiDES (Tidy Tips). Yellow and white 5c 

Pentstemon spectabilis. Blue and red loc 

Phacelia Parryi. Brilliant purple icc 

Platystemon californicus (Cream Cups). Sulphur yellow 5c 

Romneya Coulterii (Matilija Poppy). White with yellow stamens 15c 

The list price of these seeds adds up $1.40. The annual subscription 
price of the Land of Sunshine is $1.00. We will send the full collec- 
tion of seeds and the magazine for one year to any address on receipt of 
$1.50. This offer is open to old and new subscribers alike. As supply 
of a few of the varieties is limited we reserve the privilege of substituting 
kinds of equal value. 

SUBSCRIPTION DEPARTMENT 

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-i is a Food Medicine 

''First in "war, first in peace^ first 
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It Is the one STANDARD remedy in the treatment of CONSUMPTION, BRONCHITIS, 
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FATHER OF HIS COUNTRY. 




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C. M. Uav.s Kng. Co. CALIFORNIA "SHOOTING-STARS, " LIFK SIZE. ri'oto. by C. F. L., Jan. 23, 1900 

(See " A Midwinter Maying," p. 15:}.) 



THK LANDS OF THE SUN EXPAND THK SOUl 



THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE' 



Vol. 12, No. 3. 



LOS ANGELES 



FEBRUARY, 1900. 



The Feet of the Young Men 



f f^ 



BY MARY AUSTIN. 



-' Acts V,9. 



HERE the nations sat in council, scarlet robe and purple hem. 
From the four- went ways of travel came the poor of God to 

them ; 
Came the blind of right and reason, came the halt of rule and 

law, 
Came the feeble, feckless peoples, crying dole of all they saw. 

** Lo, to you God giveth bread, 
Break a crust to us," they said, 
*• We have eaten fruit of bondage to the core ; " 
" Take, and eat," the nations cried, 
'' Here is freedom ;" but they lied. 
And the young men's feet were at the door. 

'•AH we know of truth to God-ward, all we can of love beside. 
All our good sword arm hath won us," quoth the nations ; but 

they lied. 
Bid them wait upon the scarlet, puppet to the purple hem— - 
As they dealt with hungry peoples, so the Lord hath dealt with 

them. 

They have felt the threshing flail. 

They have passed beyond the pale. 
To the limbo of lost empires, gone before. 

They are stricken in their pride. 

They are dead, because they lied — 
And the young nien^s feet are at the door. _ 

Though your word shall run with power, and your arm reach 

overseas, 
Yet the questing bolt shall find you if you keep not faith with 

these ; 
Lest you be at one with Egypt, lest you lie as Rome lies now 
In the potter's field of empires, mint and cumin, keep the vow. 

Keep the truth your fathers made, 

Lest your children grow afraid, 
Lest you hear the captive's mothers weeping sore — 

There is little worth beside — 

They are dead because they lied, 
And the young men's feet are at the door. 



Copyright 1800 by land of Sunshine Pub. Co 



I40 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

The " Lost Mines'' of Mexico. 



BY VERONA GRANVILLE. 




OIvUMBS might be written about the " lost 
mines*' of Mexico, which Baron von Humboldt 
called "the treasure house of the world." 
There is no subject more fascinating ; and when 
a prospector or miner falls under its dazzling in- 
fluence he pursues his search, year after year, 
sacrificing his all in the radiant hope of uncover- 
ing untold wealth in buried treasure, or finding 
shafts and tunnels leading to great bodies of glit- 
tering ore. 

Tradition locates most of the lost mines — or 
minas tapadas — in Northern Chihuahua and 
Sonora, in the Sierra Madre. This area has always, until the 
past dozen years, been subject to periodical raids from Apaches ; 
and miners were often forced to flee for their lives to the in- 
terior, and shafts and tunnels were concealed, and frequently 
all surface improvements destroyed by the owners themselves, 
to prevent discovery until they could safely return. That 
many never returned, and that many mines are still tapada no 
one acquainted with the history of mining in Mexico can 
doubt. In many instances the trails leading to old mines may 
have been totally destroyed during the rainy seasons, when the 
face of nature is sometimes altered beyond recognition by dev- 
astating storms. 

At Q.ny peon hut one hears stories of lost mines, incalculably 
rich in gold ore or bullion ; and fiction is so interwoven with 
fact that the most logical mind finds it difficult to tell where 
one leaves off and the other begins. It is no exaggeration to 
say that millions of dollars have been spent in pumping out 
old shafts and removing debris from ancient tunnels, many of 
which, no doubt, were abandoned by the Spaniards themselves 
as worthless. A few old mines have proved rich, a few more 
of suflBcient value to work at a fair profit, but ninety per cent, 
of them are worthless under present conditions ; and so far as 
I have been able to learn, none of them contained buried trea- 
sure in bullion, though, considering the remoteness of the 
mines and the fact that shipments of bullion were made to the 
ports only once or twice a year, it may well be that much metal 
was left buried when a hegira took place before the all- con- 
quering Apaches. 

The Spaniards obtained vast amounts of silver in Mexico, 
but little gold outside the ancient temples. The patient In- 
dians, content to work for a few centavos a day, never disclosed 
the location of the supposedly rich placers, from which they 
obtained the gold that adorned the temples, or the few grains 



THE "LOST MINES" OF MEXICO. 



141 



they traded for food and clothing. Bribes and tortures were 
equally unavailing to disclose the source of the coveted metal, 
except where it was found in small quantities. The Indians 
persisted that the gold images were the accumulation of ages ; 
and time has proved the truth of this, for no large nuggets nor 
rich placers, compared with California, South Africa, Australia 
or the Klondike, have ever been found in Mexico. The largest 
nugget I have heard of was found in Guerrero, a few years 
ago, by an Indian, who sold it for $300, about half its value. 
A beautiful nugget was found in Sonora that so strikingly re- 
sembled the sacred picture of Our Lady of Guadalupe as to 
inspire great awe among the Pima and Yaqui Indians. An- 
other, smaller but equally beautiful, resembles a tiny cluster 





^1^^^^^. l^Rk. ^''^^^-%^ 


n 




, % 


3% 






^^^^^^ 



C. M. Davis Eng. Co. / 

IN THE SIERRA MADRE, MEXICO 
BACKBONE." 



Photo, by the Author. 
THE devil's 



THE "LOST MINES" OF MEXICO. 



143 




of grapes, so perfect that one can 
scarcely believe that nature was 
the sole artificer. 

But in silver of virgin purity 
no country in the world can 
compare with Mexico. The 
largest lump of virgin silver 
known to the world was dis- 
covered near a Papago Indian 
pueblo in Sonora. It weighed 
no arrobaSy or 2,750 pounds. 
It was seized by the Viceroy 
of Mexico pending a dispute 
between the discoverer, Diego 
Asmendi, and a custom-house 
ofBcer. It was finally confis- 
cated by the Crown of Spain. 
The disheartened Asmendi died 
without revealing the source 
of the treasure. Some of the 
most beautiful wire silver in the 
world comes from the famous 
Batopilas mines, which were 
worked by the early Spaniards, 
and recently rehabilitated by 
the noted "Boss" Shepherd, once mayor of Washington, 
D. C. At Zacatecas, in the great veta madre, wire silver with 
ruby stain is taken out in great masses and virgin purity — so 
beautiful and fascinating that it is small wonder much of it is 
stolen by the miners, despite the closest vigilance. 

The so- called Yaqui gold-fields have no existence, though 
industriously advertised each year by unscrupulous manipula- 
tors. It is true that there is gold in Rio Yaqui and all its 
tributaries ; but it is in small quantities and so fine that the 
most industrious miner can make only wages. On Rio Mu- 
latos, natives make a few reales a day after the rainy season. 
Gold is spread over a vast area of the Sierra Madre, but no 
placers are being extensively worked. An American company 
is erecting large works near Rio Concho, but it is questionable 
if the heavy cement-like deposit, in which the gold is found, 
will ever yield to modern machinery. 

The prospector's only chance of obtaining wealth of gold in 
the Sierra Madre is to uncover a nmia tapada, or to follow the 
arroyos showing "color." or trace "float" until the "contact" is 
met ; then, perhaps, after weeks or months of searching, the 
vein may be found. Perhaps it will prove one in thousands of 
sufficient value to work ; perhaps it is the remnant of a once 
great vein that has been scored away by nature, the values 



C. M. Davis Eng. Co. Photo, by the Author. 

AN ORE CARRIKR. 



^ALIFOB^ 



THE "LOST MINES" OF MEXICO. 



145 



disseminated over a large area in small quantities and forever 
lost to man. There is a twelve- thousand acre ranch in Sonora, 
every square yard of which will yield a * * color ' ' in the pros- 
pector' s pan. The source of the gold was unsuccessfully 
sought for many generations, and, when finally found in a hill 
ten miles distant, of the once great vein not more than an 
arroba was left. It assayed thousands of dollars to the ton, 
and the old hacendado died in poverty, bemoaning the fact that 
he had not lived a few hundred years sooner, when the gold 
clustered thick in the seams of the denuded ledge that could 
be traced for more than a mile on the surface Some day, 
perhaps, modern methods may find a means of gathering the 
scattered gold of the old rancho, that lies uncultivated since 
the death of the old don, who heavily mortgaged his inherit- 
ance and wasted all the energies of his life in deploring the 
shabby trick played upon him by nature. 

At Piedras Azules, in the heart of the mountains, a pros- 
pecting party stopped one day for lunch. In searching for a 
lost knife, one of the party found a rock weighing about two 
tons from which native silver protruded. It yielded more than 
four thousand dollars when broken up and washed in the ar- 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



ON THE RIO ARCS. 



Photo, by the Author. 



THE "LOST MINES" OF MEXICO. 



147 




CM. Davis Eug. Co. qI^D 0RE-MII,I. AT ALMA. DE MARIA. Plioto. b, Ihe Author. 



royo. The prospectors went out, organized a company with a 
capital of $25,000 and returned. They prospected for months 
without discovering a particle of metal, and left the mountains 
penniless. It is believed that the rock from which the silver 
was obtained was carried down by the water in the arroyo 
from a mining camp forty-five miles distant — a solitary piece 
of *' float " that cost the prospectors dearly. I have been un- 
able to learn the cause of the beautiful blue color in the 
Piedras Azules, which is a small Pima pueblo a few miles from 
the Yepachic, and at the foot of a lofty mountain called I^a Di- 
visadera. 

Among the rich mines worked by the Spaniards was the Tar- 
asca, in Sonora, of which Humboldt v»^rites so fascinatingly, 
and Ward and other historians mention favorably. The his- 
tory of Tarasca is one of evil deeds, of duplicity, of theft, of 
greed, and all the base passions incited by the love of gold. 
The mine was worked long before the Spaniards arrived in 
Mexico, and the gold and silver fashioned into ornaments by 
the aborigines. A family in Guaymas has a necklace of fly- 
ing-fish purchased from a Pima Indian chief, who stated that 
the metal was dug from Tarasca. The mine was worked by 
various Spaniards and later acquired for the Crown of Spain. 
It was extensively worked, barring certain periods during 



THE "LOST MINES" OF MEXICO. 



149 



Apache wars, until the epoch of the French intervention, when 
the shafts and tunnels are said to have been concealed by the 
administrador, Don Juan Moreno, an Imperialist, who was 
forced to seek safety in flight. After the restoration of peace, 
Tarasca was looked for in vain, and to the present time no one 
is certain of its location, though the mine now known as 
Ubarbo is believed to be the Tarasca. Ubarbo had been ex- 
tensively worked when re-discovered, years ago, and the 
shafts and tunnels concealed under earth and brush. Rich 
pillars of ore were found in the drifts, and the mine corre- 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



A prospector's pack-train. 



Photo, by the .Author. 



sponds in many respects with the description in the archives of 
the American consulate at Guaymas. 

But the lost mine about which tradition gathers thickest is 
Taiopa, supposed to be located in the Sahuaripa district, in So- 
nora. Little documentary evidence exists to prove Taiopa a 
reality, and that has evidently been manufactured by unscru- 
pulous manipulators. A wealthy Mexican gentleman recently 
made a trip to Madrid, and after minute search, at great ex- 
pense, found absolutely no data to prove that such a mine was 
worked for the Crown of Spain, and no reliable data in the 
Mexican archives or elsewhere to prove that such a mine was 
ever known. But quite as trustworthy as most written doc- 



J50 



LAND OF- SUNSHINE. 




C. M. Davis Kng. Co. Photo, by the Author. 

RUINS OF AN OI.D-TIME " VASO " OR SMEI^TER. 



».... --^I'/.-r-ft" 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. OLD-TIME REDUCTION WORKS. Photo, by tin A.ti.or. 



THE :/LOST MINES" OF MEXICO. 151 

uments are the traditions gathered from the Pima Indians. 
They stoutly maintain that Taiopa exists, and a few claim to 
know its locality. Small quantities of very rich ore are occa- 
sionally sold at the mountain mining camps, and all attempts 
to follow the Indians to the spot where it is found, or bribe 
them to reveal it, have failed. Wanting but little in addition 
to the corn they grow, they are imbued with a superstition 
that if they reveal the locality of a mine they will instantly 
drop dead. To one unacquainted with the Indian character 
this statement may seem incredible ; but any prospector or 
miner in the Sierra Madre will affirm its truth. Large sums 
of money have been ofifered the Pimas to tell where the mina 
tapada is. They scorn money, and the only open sesame is 
mescal, by the liberal use of which the Indian may be made 
to disclose many things, but so far he has held inviolate his 
vow to reveal to no mortal man the famous Taiopa. But the 
fascinating secret, in part, has been revealed to a woman. All 
tales of lost mines have for their central figure a grateful In- 
dian, and this story is in that particular monotonously like the 
rest. The facts so far as I have been able to discover are the 
following : 

About a year and a half ago an old Pima chief fell ill in one 
of the valley pueblos, and was cured by a Mexican lady so well 
known and so estimable that her statement is universally ac- 
cepted. The old Indian returned to his tribe, and from time 
to time sent her rich bits of ore, which assayed thousands of 
dollars to the ton. All her efforts to induce him to lead her to 
the mine were futile. He said the Great Spirit would strike 
him dead if he did. Last summer the plucky sefiora went to 
the mountains and lived among the Indians for three months, 
doctoring the sick, and giving presents of calico and gay rib- 
bons to the women and small quantities of mescal to the men 
of the tribe. She became convinced beyond doubt that the 
spot from which the rich ore came was Taiopa. The chief ad- 
mitted that it was the mina 'tapada, that was worked when he 
was a boy. After much persuasion and the gift of a goodly 
portion of the fiery product of the maguey, he directed two 
women of the tribe to take her to within a few yards of the 
mine, that she might discover it unaided and save the Indians 
from the penalty of sudden death for revealing it. Overjoyed 
at gaining so much, the Mexican woman had two burros 
packed with provisions, and mounted on mules the three 
women set out. They traveled mostly at night, passing 
through deep cafions and over lofty mountain passes. The 
fourth night, some hours after dark, the Indian women led her 
into a deep cafion and paused a short distance from a large 
rock. In the dim moonlight an old arrastra was seen, and 
across the cafion was a large ore dump, from which opened a 



152 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

tunnel. The woman gathered bits of ore from the dump and 
arrastra, but was hurried away by the Indians, who said they 
would be killed if they delayed beyond the time given them by 
the chief. They traveled until the moon went down, rested a 
few hours, and went on before daylight, completely baffling 
the Mexican woman as to the route they had brought her. 
They arrived at the pueplo at nightfall, and having taken four 
days to reach the mine and but one to return, the obvious con- 
clusion was that she had been led about in a circle — a curious 
method of putting at rest the complex Indian conscience. 

Despairing of gaining more, the Mexican woman returned 
to her home. In September she returned with her young son, 
a mozo and a few burros, to search for the elusive Taiopa. In 
crossing Rio Aros the mozo and two of the burros were 
drowned. Disappointed but not discouraged, the plucky 
woman left her son to work at a mining camp, and returned 
to the valley for fresh supplies, promising to return and prose- 
cute the search. May her courage be rewarded by all the 
treasure tradition attributes to the famed Taiopa ! 

Other lost mines of which one hears innumerable tales are 
Reina Mercedes and the Casa Blanca, which are said to have 
been the property of the Crown during the Spanish occupation 
of Mexico. Both have probably been re-discovered and worked 
today, under other names. The Reina Mercedes is said by the 
Pima Indians to be one of the rich Concheno group of mines, 
and the Case Blanca the Casitas mine, thirty miles west of 
Mulatos. Near Casitas is an ancient mine, now worked by a 
Mexican company, that had open cuts on the surface for more 
than a mile, and several miles of underground workings, when 
re-denounced by the Mexicans. Near this mine, where a once 
large church has fallen into ruins, were found two copper 
bells, bearing the name of Guadalupe de Taiopa ; thus lead- 
ing many to believe that the Tajos mine is the long-lost 
Taiopa. 

In searching for the lost mines of Mexico, with their fasci- 
nating traditions of buried treasure, few stop to consider the 
conditions under which they were worked. I^edges that were 
considered enormously rich by the Spaniards would yield no 
profit now, with the low price of silver and the high prices of 
freight and labor. During the Spanish occupation labor and 
food cost the mine owner comparatively nothing. As mules 
were scarce and expensive, all transportation of supplies to the 
mines and of bullion to the ports of Guaymas or Mazatian was 
done by Indians, a carga of three hundred pounds being the 
weight each one carried on his back. The ore was crushed in 
arrastras, the motive power being Indians, who also mixed by 
treading with bare feet the pulp with quicksilver and other 
elements to form amalgam. This was disastrous to the health. 



A MIDWINTER MAYING. I53 

the quicksilver penetrating to the blood, stiffening the bones 
and making old men of mere boys. 

The cost of mining in the Sierra Madre today is more than 
twice as great as it was some forty years ago. To make even 
a modest profit, great economy must be exercised, and strict 
business methods prevail in every department — facts that are 
at last becoming evident in the mining world, which long held 
the occupation of delving for the treasures of Mother Earth as 
a " gamble." No occupation, despite its hardships and isola- 
tion, offers richer rewards than mining, which imbues the 
delver with radiant hope that any day may bring to light a 
bonanza, rich as tradition tells us is the mysterious Taiopa. 

Mataehic, Chihuahua, Mex. 

A Midwinter Maying. 

BY CHARLES AMADON MOODY. 

|HE Philosopher admits that the second week 
in January is midwinter according to the al- 
manac and all his own previous experience. 
But this is his first winter in the land of 
sunshine. And when the birds sing May, 
and the sky smiles May, and tender breezes 
breathe May, and wild flowers spell May on 
field and hillside, what twelve-year-old phi- 
losopher would pin his faith to an unconvincing calendar? 
Therefore he stands stoutly to it that he and I went a-maying 
on the fourteenth day of January, this year of early rains. The 
fragrant trophies of our day-long hunt in and about the Ar- 
royo Seco — more than thirty varieties of spring flowers — lend 
color (indeed, all the colors of the rainbow, and some besides) 
to his assertion. 

*'And anyway, papa, we couldn't have gone januarying, 
because there isn't any such word." 

This clinches the argument, and we turn to count over our 
treasures. 

First come the poppies, as they were last in the gathering. 
Scores of their red-gold cups had offered themselves to us 
earlier in the day, but we knew where a closely-packed acre of 
them must be crossed on our way home and waited till then 
for the few hundred we wanteu. "Greedy," did you say? 
Not so. Like Clive in India, we were amazed at our own 
moderation. For though the poppy-fields have been aglow 
for more than two weeks, and hundreds of visitors have come 
and gone away loaded down with burnished blooms, not a flaw 
appears in that royal robe, close- woven and flung over whole 
acres of ground. Brave show as our poppies make here in the 
room, they are but as a handful of sand to the sea-shore, com- 
pared with what were left. 




^54 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Here is a great cluster of "shooting stars" — Dodecatheon 
Clevelandii is but an ungainly name for so brilliant and graceful a 
flower.* We found one level field on the first bench of the ar- 
royo well sprinkled with the gay beauties a week ago, and 
counted ourselves most fortunate. But today, a mile further 
north, we came upon a bank dipping steeply northward into a 
narrow little ravine, and there we found such a display of 
floral fireworks as quite eclipsed its forerunner. Each sturdy 
flower shaft rose tall and straight, then seemed to explode into 
a shower of blossoms, for all the world like some miniature 
sky-rocket. And such blossoms ! The reflexed petals of some of 
them are the purest of lilac through most of their length, on 
some the lilac grades daintily into white, others are milk-white. 
Lilac and white alike merge at the base of petal into a yellow 
that varies from bright lemon to almost green. This is sharply 
cut off by a rim of rich purple or dark scarlet, prolonged over 
part of the beak into which the anthers gather, but giving 
place as sharply to a circle of greenish yellow from which the 
sharp style protrudes like the bill of some giant mosquito. It 
this description sounds fantastic, it is the fault of the writer. 
The flowers themselves are marvels of delicate beauty, nor is 
the aristocratic perfume of the cyclamen lacking. 

These wild Canterbury bells {Phacelia Whitlavia) were col- 
lected from several sunny hillsides. Later on, their large and 
exquisitely-shaped blossoms of dark purple will appear in 
great profusion, but today a few dozen made us thankful. The 
two other Phacelias among our finds — the wild heliotrope with 
small purplish blue flowers set close on a raceme curiously 
coiled upon itself, and another of almost bushy habit fairly 
covered with blue blossoms — are less notable singly, but as 
yet far more numerous and conspicuous. 

Our three lupine cousins are among the showiest of this 
day's gathering. These large maroon-and-white flowers, al- 
most odorless themselves, though the coarse, hairy stems 
leave the hands smelling strongly of string-beans, came from 
high on a gravelly and almost barren hillside, steep and slip- 
pery enough to give even the agile Philosopher some trouble 
about his footing. The smaller blue and white one {Lupinus 
bicolor) fragrant, with leaves like a six fingered hand spread 
wide open, grew on a gentler slope and in richer soil. The 
third variety (much to the Philosopher's delight) proves to be 
no third at all, but only such specimens of Lupinus bicolor as 
have been fertilized, and so have doffed their virgin garb of 
blue and white to don a richer wedding gown of reddish-purple. 

The wild peony was in bloom before New Year's, and on 
many plants the fruit has begun to form. The somber red 
flowers on their tough stems, though odorous, lay but doubtful 
claim to consideration on the score of beauty. Very different 

• See frontispiece. 




r. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



CANTERBURY BRI^I^S. 



Paotc. by C. F. L., Jan. 23, 1»0«\ 



A MIDWINTER MAYING. 



157 



is the case with the vivid scarlet of the "Indian paint-brush " 
and that Pentstemon 'Vfh.xch. children call the "scarlet bugler." 
These two are alike in more than color — indeed, we might 
easily fancy them the chummiest of companions, so closely to- 
gether did they stand on the sandy, stony floor of the arroyo. 
No modest, shrinking violet is Viola Pedunculata^ the wild 
yellow pansy — "Johnny-jump-up" a friend of the Philoso- 
pher's prefers to call it. These which we have were lifting 
their pretty faces right among the "shooting-stars " and almost 
as high ; nor need they fear the comparison. While we are at 
it, suppose we sort out the rest of our yellow beauties. Three 
kinds of cups may well enough go side by side — sun-cups, 
cream-cups, and lustrous buttercups. The first is an evening 
primrose, the second is of the poppies, while the third for 
some esoteric reason has been christened by the botanists 
"little frog" — Ranunculus. The Philosopher fancies most 
the gold-yellow of the sun-cup, I am inclined to prefer the 




C. M. Daris Euf . Co. 



BRODIAKAS. 



P.ioto/by C.'F. L , Jan. 23,,19l)0. 



158 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

lighter tint of the cream-cup, yet the glistening polish of the 
buttercup is after all the oldest friend. With these we put the 
tall Western wall- flower, deliciously fragrant ; and '* tidy- 
tips," that trimmest of all the daisies with its yellow rays 
evenly tipped with white; and golden "sunshine" (Baeria 
gracilis). Only a few of each of these fall to our lot, but as 
the season draws on they will be counted by millions. Add 
the tiny yellow forget-me-nots, for tbeir rich orange color (they 
have none of the honey-sweet fragrance of the wild white 
forget-me-not which we also have), twine among them some of 
these golden threads of dodder — the parasitic " love -vine " — 
and there we have a study in yellows that might well drive an 
artist to despair. 

These twigs of buckthorn, each crowned with a cluster of 
feathery white, came from a steep bank on which the little 
trees stood so close and full of bloom as to give the effect of an 
unbroken fleecy curtain. The long sprays of wild white clem- 
atis — "virgin's bower " is none too poetical a name for it — 
were clambering over the trees on a neighboring slope. We 
almost missed these, taking the vine from a little distance for 
the wild cucumber whose smaller white starry flowers were as 
early out as the large dark ones of the wild peony. But it is 
an excellent rule for a flower-hunt — and may have its uses 
elsewhere — not to be sure of anything, until you are sure of it. 
So we climbed a little nearer to the doubtful blooms and were 
well rewarded for our pains. Not far away we came upon 
these wild-pea blossoms, cream-white faintly lined and flushed 
with pink, exquisitely perfumed and set amidst graceful, ferny 
foliage — one could hardly ask for a flower more nearly perfect. 
We found the first of these during Christmas week, and their 
time of bloom is already almost over. 

Carefully tucked away in one corner of our basket, now al- 
most empty, are some of the dearest, daintiest of all our spring- 
time visitors, Gilia tricolor and Nemophila insignis. ** Bird's- 
eyes " and ** baby-blue-eyes " their lovers call them, and who 
ever saw and failed to love them ? The Philosopher declares 
that the baby-blue-eyes wear precisely the blue of Yale, and as 
a native of the City of Elms he has had opportunity to learn 
that tint. The faint lilac of the little bird's-eyes, turning to 
bright gold in the tube of the corolla save for five dark purple 
spots, make a color combination charming beyond description. 
We had to cross some fields today where no step could be 
taken but at the cost of crushing many of these frail beauties 
under foot. 

H ilf a dozen Brodiaeas — the blue cluster lily or wild hya- 
cinih — just one pink prickly phlox, a single blue "skull-cap " 
(the quaintest little joker of them all), some clove-scented 
blossoms of the violet night-shade, and a handful of ground 



LOST-A MAN I59 

pink and alfilarilla — there is only the empty basket left. But 
the deft hands of the Mistress of the Manse have been busy 
with our tribute, and behold ! the room is full of the sweet- 
ness and light of our wild flowers. We let our thoughts run 
back to Januaries spent in other lands — no need to run over 
the long catalogue of woes, from driving sleet in zero weather 
to the drizzle and slush of a "January thaw" — and do not won- 
der at the result of the Philosopher's meditations: — "It's 
lucky everyone doesn't really know how lovely Southern Cal- 
ifornia is to live in, because there wouldn't be anyone left to 
live anywhere else." 




' Lost— A Man. 

NLY six months ago we sat under rust- 
ling cottonwoods in the land we all 
loved and all had earned the right to 
love — Dr. Elliott Coues, the fresh- faced, 
gray-beard dean ; and Frederick Webb 
Hodge, the serious hero of the Enchant- 
ed Mesa and all it means, and probably 
the logical successor to the dean's man- 
tle as our foremost scientific editor ; and 
George Parker Winship, the young giant 
of the MSS.; and the Cowboy-who-Cares ; 
and the little girl who was born to the 
care. Comadre 'Pita stood massive behind our chairs and waved 
away the flies, and urged us (who had no need of urging) to despoil her 
cherished chickens and Tuyo's pet squabs and the golden-brown supa- 
pillas : with that in her face which would make any woman on earth 
fair to look upon. All was good— the delicious hospitality of the In- 
dian friends whose faces beamed on all for the one's sake ; and the New 
Mexican sky, unsullied as Truth ; and the touch of men that had toiled 
for the same Truth's sake and now were met where it was best to meet. 
In all the wavering shadows of the leaves upon us, there was no shadow 
of what was to come. Yet it was already written. As the rest of us 
look back to that flawless day in Juan Key's pdtio I fancy we shall not 
escape some twinge that we could not better read the lines under 
those clear, genial eyes. Already Dr. Coues was a doomed man. Al- 
ready he suspected it — and allowed no one else to. The weariness and 
bruises of a long, hard trip in springless wagons would soon wear off, 
and our Nestor be himself again. Even his last letters, months after, 
did not convey a sense of apprehension. But now, we know he knew. 

It is foolish, generally, to say of any man that loss of him leaves a 
vacancy which cannot be filled. Somehow, sometime, it is filled. Per- 
haps not tomorrow, perhaps not with the identical roundness. But the 
gap is filled, and life and thought march on. There is only one public 
relation in America in which a capital loss is irreparable — and that is one 
of the several relations which have lost Elliott Coues. He was a born 
lexicographer, and a graduate one ; but a later Cenlury Dictionary will 
find his substitute. He stood at the head of American ornithology — but 
birds will last a long time, and we can breed scholars for them. But the 
West cannot fill his shoes. By the time another could learn what he 
knew, there will be no more West — except on the maps. As a field of 
research it will not, of course, wholly have passed away ; but it will be 
hopelessly dwindled, sophisticated, plastered. It is passing now, with 
rapidity that to the student is frightful. The " Great American Desjert" 



LOST-A MAN, 



i6i 



is no more — nay, it is no longer quite credible. The wilderness is tamed 
with homes. The frontier is only a memory ; the eye-witnesses of it are 
dying off, its scant documents are wasting or lost, its very aborigines 
are being wiped off the slate by benevolent assimilation a little more 
cruel and much more sweeping than whisky. And meantime, 90 per 
cent, of what money and impulse can be drummed up for American 
scholarship goes abroad to exploit the nursery myths which have en- 
dured some thousands of years already, and would " keep " a few thou- 
sand more. The only thing it is impossible to make broadly interesting 




DR. COUES IN 1885. 



LOST-A MAN. 



^63 




DR. COUES'S LATEST PICTURE. 



to Americans is America. 
It is more interesting, it is 
more significant. But it has 
not the backing of super- 
stition and a certain intellec- 
tual snobbery. Perhaps the 
largest fame of this man 
who won large fame in many 
lines was that he was an 
American scholar, American 
in time. His other activi- 
ties, many and high as they 
were, do not seem to me so 
sure of lasting distinction. 
Dictionaries and ornitholo- 
gies we shall keep on mak- 
ing, world without end ; but 
whenever hereafter the stu- 
dent shall turn to the Amer- 
ican history of the West, he 
will have to deal with Coues. 
There will be no other edi- 
tions of Lewis and Clark, 
Zebulon Pike, Fowler, Lar- 
penteur ; for the monumen- 
tal works of Coues are de- 
finitive ; nor will there ever 
be a short cut to royal knowl- 
edge of the West without 
reckoning these pioneer re- 
cords. Such a field will not 

always be caviare to the general ; and the loss of the last scholar who 
saw those great transitions with his own eyes and studied all the data in 
that essential light, is literally as irreparable as to the human friends 
who will never find just the same man again behind some other face. 

It is not unscientific to say that even in the human relation science 
could not afford this loss. A scholar in the broadest sense, a scientist in 
the true use of an abused term, *' a man for a' that," undried by tireless 
detail and the very genius of precision ; of sane *' horse-sense" and the 
broader manhood which so seldom inhabits with dusty authority. Dr. 
Coues was an extraordinary figure even amid the brave but woefully 
small band of American scholars of America. In the whole United 
States there have been but three men one would reasonably rank in the 
same class : Bandelier, Matthews and Coues. Even Parkman may be 
excluded, both because of his exclusive bent to history, and because his 
field training — though enough to guide him as the greatest of all our his- 
torians — was mere kindergarten to the frontier experience of these our 
three giants of the West. A few magnificent juniors are growing up, 
and will save what Time shall permit to be saved. But when the last of 
these three shall have crossed the long divide, the Golden Age of West- 
tern science will have closed. 

The same unsmothered humanity, the same willful humor which made 
the college boy of 40 years ago a thorn in the side of prim professors, 
were vital to the end, but chastened and balanced. They inform all 
Coues's work ; and in one of the last letters he ever wrote, just before he 
passed under the surgeon's knife, they sparkle grimly but unafraid. 
Such a man never would have dried up to the proverbial scientific 
mummy. He humanized whatever he did, without sacrifice of exactness. 
No one surpassed him in the esoteric equipment ; and as a '* readable " 
scientist he was easily unrivaled. He was human enough to love and 



i64 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

hate — to love the true, to hate the sham, with that wholeheartedness 
which is, after all, the guarantee of all progress. Virtue nor truth was 
ever yet advanced by the nice little people who dare not be "impolite," 
Yet of course Coues was no Berserker — but a trained force not atrophied 
by the training. Even as a critic, I do not know of anyone in the 
United States to replace him. His reviews — particularly in the Nation, 
the foremost of our reviews — were in the very forefront of American crit- 
icism ; unsurpassed as to competency, even in a rally to which only ex- 
perts are called, and of a vitality all his own. He never took a volume 
as a blackboard to show oflF his learning ; he was absolutely free from a 
common wiseacre jealousy and a still commoner timidity ; and he had none 
of that fear of warm praising which is a commoner fault of critics than 
fear to riddle a sham. A vital force like his is not lost even among the 
dry bones of knowledge. It was worth more than a whole battery of 
automatic science dry-washers; if for no other reason, because it at- 
tracted to science the thing science most needs and finds hardest to get 
— which is recruits. When it shall come to be more widely understood 
that science is not necessarily mummification ; that, unless predisposed to 
embalming, one may be a true scientist and still a living man with mag- 
netism for young and old, hopeful, vital, round — why, then it will not be 
a half so hard to induce young men to look toward science as a life-work 
and to choose it while they still have blood in their veins. I am not at 
all sure that we ought not to count this quality even among the high at- 
tainments of this true man, true friend, true American. 

Dr. Coues was born in Portsmouth, N. H., Sept. 9, 1842, of studious 
stock ; and in due course took his degrees as A. B., A. M., M. D. and Ph. 
D. As a college boy he was already a serious ornithologist, and before 
graduation was in the service of the Smithsonian . In war times his 
(collaterally) important career as an army surgeon began ; his first post 
being at Whipple, in Arizona. These long professional years on the 
frontier were in his case (as in that of Dr. Washington Matthews) of the 
highest value to science ; and led logically to still further education in 
the frontier. It was largely due to this that he was so incomparably 
equipped for his later work, both in zoology and history. It is impossi- 
ble to give here anything like a resume of the activities of a man so tire- 
less in so many fields of science. Such a compend may be found in the 
Nation of Jan. 4,1900. Dr. Coues was a member of scores of the leading 
scientific bodies of the world. His publications include about 1000 
titles. Most prominent amid his prodigious accomplishment were his 
definitive editing of the great American explorers of the West — Lewis 
and Clark, Pike, Fowler, Larpenteur ; a translation and connotation of 
Father Garces's diary of a journey to California in 1775 was left in type, 
and will be brought out by F. W. Hodge — the monumental labor he did 
on the Century Dictionary, and, in ornithology, his Key to North Amer- 
ican Birds, his Field Ornithology, and many more. The Key, particu- 
larly, is the American ornithologist's technical bible. 

On Christmas day, 1899, this brave man and great one died in the Johns 
Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore. Thus untimely, American scholarship 
loses one of its leaders ; and every American scholar a helpful mentor. 
This little Western magazine, to which he had long been a devoted 
friend and with which, despite his overwhelming duties elsewhere, he 
had specifically allied himself, has perhaps no keener loss than its dig- 
gers and betters ; but none can feel the loss more keenly. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 





i65 

Familiar Birds of Southern 
California. 

BY ELIZABETH AND JOSEPH ORINNELL. 

THE MOCKING BIRD. 

fHE cities of Southern California are set in 
** peaceful woods." Numerous varieties of 
trees and shrubs and vines cluster about the 
homes of rich and lowly, making ideal haunts for 
the singing birds. And yet it is common to hear 
strangers remark on the " scarcity of birds." There 
are plenty of them in plain sight if one has cultivated 
the art of seeing them. A noted humorist has " ob- 
served that two classes of individuals visit our Land of 
Paradise. One class looks at things, the other class sees 
things." One may be looking at birds and never see 
them, for lack of a trained eye, the same as he would 
miss seeing other features of a landscape. Our birds are 
not gaudy, many of them resembling the appearance of 
their haunts in color. King of them all, by birth and 
common consent, is the mocking bird. He is a born aris- 
tocrat from the crown of his graceful head to the tip of 
his dainty foot. He morever acts in the capacity of police- 
man, giving the signal of approach of danger, whistling a 
shrill warning understood perfectly by his fellow citizens. One 
easily recognizes this note. He is seldom seen farther north 
than Santa Barbara county, and is at his best in and near our 
orange groves And he is with us the whole year, flitting soul 
of the trees and shrubs, embodied voice of all Nature's pro- 
fusion. But he does not sing the whole year. He " hangs his 
harp on the willows ' ' or the eucalyptus trees, after nesting 
time, only to bring it forth at the height of the tourist season 
as if to ravish the heart of the stranger. *'We stand and listen 
with delight to this grand concert of Nature's great musician, 
his voice ever changing, ever sweet," until suddenly, but for 
his form, we have before us a motherless young turkey, or a 
lost chicken. And the famous singer delights in abrupt 
changes " from grave to gay, from lively to severe,'* even the 
very severe, as many a victim can testify when he rushes out 
of his door to rescue what he supposes to be some wounded 
creature, only to be greeted by a saucy mocker from his perch 
on the house cresting. For more than half of the year the 
rnocking bird spends his time in listening or studying his 
pieces. He is the best listener in the world. His whole atti- 
tude is an animated "hark!" He is literally " all ears." 
Then, when he does begin to sing, he never quits unless for 
his meals. He is not afraid of the "night air," nor does he 
pay the least respect to the desires of those who would sleep. 



i66 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Once disturbed from his slumbers by this midnight carouser the 
tourist in his chamber may as well sit bolt upright in his bed 
and listen and laugh, for it is certain he will not doze off again 
until the reveler in the tree outside has worn his throat 
hoarse. Save for these singing months the mocker is heard 
little but for his short shrill screams as he makes-believe chase 
some other birds from his haunts. 

When singing, he seeks a pinnacle, but when nesting or 
otherwise engaged, this free and easy bird chooses shrubs or 
low trees. He is not shy, but easily tamed, even coming at the 
call of those with whom he is familiar. One may be wishing 
for a glimpse of the famous songster and peering into the 
farthest trees or sky to make him out, when, lo ! within a few 
feet, if one be alert to movement and color, the little fellow 
may be seen sitting or noiselessly dropping from his perch as 
fearless as a caged canary. In flight the mocker is as still as 
a falling leaf, merely flitting, with hardly a movement of the 
wings, hence the stranger thinks him difficult to find. If in 
one of his listening, dreamy moods, the bird challenges one to 
catch him, moving lazily and for a short distance. If a hungry 
spell is on hiin, he darts quickly to the ground, where he 
peeps longingly under the garden seats as if wishing you would 
take the trouble of moving them so he might help himself to the 
bugs. But he is a poor pedestrian. He never walks, like a 
blackbird, though, if there be some inducement ahead of him, 
he will hop quite a distance, listening as he goes, with head 
erect, and dainty tread as if he spurned the ground. It is 
when he is on the ground that the mocker is more easily iden- 
tified. His feathers lie close, and he hops on tiptoe, careful 
that the point of his tail clears the grass. He makes himself 
taller than he really is in his anxiety to take in the whole of 
the situation. He is accused of domineering over other birds, 
with some reason, though his bark is worse than his bite, for 
he seldom actually attacks a fellow creature, contenting him- 
self with scolding. Few birds really care for his noise. He 
doesn't mean anything by it. 

It is difficult for even those most familiar with the birds to 
distinguish the male from the female mocking bird, when the 
former is not singing. He is a little smaller than his mate, a 
trifle clearer and purer of tint. The upper parts are ashy grey, 
the lower parts greyish-white. The wings are blackish-brown, 
with white stripes at the base, more conspicuous in flight. 
The outer tail feathers are white, the others being mixed 
brown and white. The bill and feet are black. The length 
of the bird from tip of beak to tip of tail is about ten inches. 

By the first of April our musician has attained the object of 
his voluble courting, although he continues his melody far 
into the summer. His quiet mate does the nest-building, with 



BIRDS OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA- 167 

only an occasional **lift" from her loquacious lord. He would 
much rather mimic his fellows, including the postman's whistle, 
than turn mechanic. And the parent birds make no secret of 
their intentions or achievements. It is not difl&cult to locate 
their nest. They will show you exactly where it is, screaming 
all the way. The nest itself cannot be termed a work of fine 
art, for it is loosely built of coarse material — ^just whatever 
comes handy, grass and string and leaves. It is usually in a 
shrub or a low tree, the pepper or the peach or the Monterey 
cypress. They may build for successive years in the same 
locality, but not often in the same tree. The eggs are four in 
number, rarely five, a little smaller than a robin's egg, bluish- 
green with brown freckles. It is seldom that more than two of 
the young reach maturity. From many broods watched we have 
concluded that if a pair of mockers succeed in rearing one out 
of the four that usually hatch they do very well. But they do 
not despair, for two or three broods in a season make some 
amends for disappointment. There are several reasons for 
this shortage. Bird fanciers employ boys to watch and capture 
the young as soon as hatched, as the mocker is more easily 
raised by hand than most birds. Not half the birds stolen by 
the boys, however, reach the fancier. They are experimented 
with on the way, lost, abused, and confined in too narrow 
limits. We boast of a law in favor of the song birds, but, 
alas, it is little operative. Another enemy of these birds is 
the cat. She is very fond of mocking bird, and may often be 
seen creeping through the garden shrubs to locate a nest. 
Little heaps of feathers here and there tell the story. 

As to food, the mocker, young or old, is not particular. He 
will relish almost anything — from pie and gingerbread to fruit 
and bugs (but not angle worms). If food is placed in a con- 
venient spot, the parent birds will bring their young as soon 
as they are able to fly and teach them to pick up the morsels. 
It is slow and tedious work, the art of teaching young mockers 
how to eat. Their appetite is keen, but the ability to help 
themselves is tardy in development. One needs no more en- 
tertaining company in a Southern California garden than a 
brood of young mockers just out of the nest. Their voices 
are coaxing and shrill. They cry constantly for food from 
dawn until dark. Occasionally one has the pleasure of seeing 
four birdlings near together, each leaning forward with flutter- 
ing wings and open mouth. Next day there are two in 
place of four, and the observer grows anxious. Then only 
one squeaks its hungry plaint, while, more than likely, by the 
third or fourth day, the parent birds sit mournfully on the 
nearest loquat and look reproachfully at space. 

Pasadena, Cal. 




C.M.D»Ti8Eng.Co. WINTER STAGING IN THE SIERRA. Drawn ly L. Maynard Dixon 




i69 




Staging in the Sierras, 

BY IDAH MEACHAM STROSRIDCB. 

ROSSING the Sierra Nevada today in a Pull- 
W|jA>j5^fc^ man, with all the luxuries of modern travel, 
lVjC^K'^i^ I am reminded of a trip I made over the 
I(aT#Ai«<wI same route back in the '6o's. 

It had been raining incessantly for days ; 
and San Francisco's gutters were running 
with water up to the curbs. 
^(j^^^fSif^ With the old Chrysopolis pitching and 

rS^^T^v i rolling in the storm as she churned her way 
tll^^l^sSfSi up the Sacramento river, we ate a supper 
served on dishes that refused to maintain 
their equilibrium; and later, in our berths, could hear the 
roaring of the storm all night. The wind was a gale ; the 
rainfall had become a deluge. 

Morning found us at Freeport, but there was no abatement 
of the storm, and the country seemed afloat. A transfer was 
made to the railroad there — called now, I believe, the Placer- 
ville branch of the Southern PacMc. 

Through the leaky roofs of the rather primitive coaches the 
water dripped into the laps of the women, or ran down the 
necks of the men. Tiny rivulets found their way under the 
passengers' feet. People stared at each other in gloomy 
silence ; for the rain against the windows made it impossible to 
see out. Nor did the conditions change during our thirty- 
mile ride to I^atrobe, El Dorado county, at that time the ter- 
minus of the railroad. 

Here, three six-horse stages and a fast freight wagon 
evolved themselves out of the general dampness, and passen- 
gers and luggage were transfered to them through mud and 
5ush knee deep. Once seated within — every place was filled 
— fingers outside fastened us in, buttoning close the leather 
curtains ; and with hat brims turned down, and coat collars 
turned up, passengers sat in semi-darkness listening to the 
pelting of the storm. Rain overhead ; mud underfoot. It 
seemed as if the whole bottom had fallen out of heaven's res- 
ervoir. 

The stages lurched, and rocked, and rolled their way up 
toward the mountains. Everything was too depressing to per- 
mit such exchanging of jokes as generally comes to those who 
are shut up together in a coach on a long journey. 

Placer ville reached, we were told that there had not been a 
day without storms for three weeks, and not a moment's res- 
spite from the continual downpour for four days. 

The station platform of the bustling little town where the 
stages drew up was covered with mud-spattered men in oil- 



I70 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

skins, weeping oceans of rainwatery tears as their owners 
moved our way to peer into the stages and stare at the woman 
who, with her little daughter, was tempting providence in 
crossing the mountains in a midwinter storm. 

Afternoon found the stages encountering less mud, the road 
leading up among the pine trees and granite boulders of the 
higher altitudes. Climbing the grade at Slippery Ford, where 
the road reached up over a smooth granite floor, the horses 
would not have had footing if the stage company had not 
macadamized the so-called '* ford." The rain turned to sleet, 
and that turned to snow. On to Strawberry Valley, where 
supper, comfortable beds, and a breakfast eaten by candle-light 
were followed by seats in sleighs replacing the stages. 

The driver of one of the sleighs — which were simply coaches 
on runners — was the historic Hank. Hank Monk, with his 
characteristic drawling speech; his slow, awkward move- 
ments, and clumsy way of reaching for the whip, or gathering 
up the reins. But, oh ! the magic of his touch ! Instinct- 
ively, the horses seemed to know that it was a master hand 
that guided them; and they leaped forward into the snowy 
road at the message Hank sent them down the telegraph line 
of leathers. 

Fresh horses every twelve miles ; and every horse * * driven 
for all he was worth." The passengers with the sharp air 
stinging their ears, flakes whirling into their faces, awoke to 
the delightful exhilaration of a sleigh-ride over the heights 
amidst the finest mountain scenery, with the prince of reins- 
men holding the ribbons. 

No one could remain under mental depression hearing him 
encourage his team with his quaint (and sometimes profane) 
language. 

**Git out o' here, ye skunk ! What's the matter with ye, 
ye old devil ? Aint ye never goin' to straighten yer traces ? 
Go it ! ye danged old rat, go it ! I say ; I'm here behind ye. 
Git up ! G' lang there ! 'fore I snake the hide ofPn ye! Whcop 
lo, Charley ! You Baldy, git inter yer collar ! Git up ! G' 
lang ! " 

Such were the ejaculations we heard to the accompaniment 
of the sleigh-bells. The voice from the interior of the bundle 
of furs on the box was never silent a moment. 

Stories of Hank Monk's driving have grown threadbare ; 
but anyone who has ever sat bcvside him as he guided his 
horses with that unerring precision which must have been a 
gift of the gods, can never recall the experience without a 
thrill of delight tingling through the veins and a wild longing 
to enjoy the sensation once more ; wishing that the stage- 
coaching days were not forever gone, and that poor old Hank 
were not dead and under the sod. 



STAGING IN THE SIERRAS. 171 

Bofore us was the mountain, an illimitable mass of downy- 
snow. Snow everywhere ; underfoot, overhead. The pines 
and firs and tamaracks were so heavily laden that the branches 
bent downward until the tips were buried in the snow on the 
ground. Where the snowfall of a few days before had half 
thawed and then frozen, it had encased the spines and leaves 
of every tree on the mountain in a glittering crystalline net- 
work of indescribable loveliness ; and all the while, soft, new 
flakes were falling and weighing down the branches more and 
more, till, grown into great unwieldy masses, they would sud- 
denly tumble off, and the boughs spring up again, bare and 
green,, to their wonted places. Telegraph wires hung heavy, 
and were so coated with the frozen particles that — large as a 
ship's cable — they sagged from the poles ; the buried poles 
themselves looking like great daggers driven hilt deep into the 
bosom of the virgin snow. 

The sleighs dashed through half a mile of fog — a great 
fog bank that but made the cloudland scene the lovelier ; for 
while a fog from the sea seems always to hide something that is 
dark and unlovely, a mountain fog, in winter, suggests a 
world of white and radiant objects. And so, on through that 
enchanted fairyland, walled by the clouds and the snow, 
over the summit, past dark Tahoe, past the pines and the 
tamaracks and firs, on and on we dashed ; and down the 
other slope of the mountain into Carson Valley. 

The other stages had gained upon us and passed us twice, 
only to be repassed in turn by Hank's team, which he was 
putting to the test of speed. 

Finally we found ourselves racing in earnest. Down the 
eastern slope of the Sierras we dashed ; the fresh, mettlesome 
horses springing ahead under the lash of the driver, as in and 
out of ravines and canons, swinging around sharp curves, 
tearing along the edge of more than one precipice, where the 
slightest miscalculation would have hurled us hundreds of feet 
below — down we raced where every turn must be estimated to 
a nicety — the snow struck back from the horses' beating hoofs 
pelting us like snow balls, and the sharp wind cutting us in 
the face. 

Horses had been changed since the race began. The last 
time we passed the other two sleighs. Monk had greeted them 
with a jeer of derision, ending with a wild hurrah, as his six 
big horses jumped their length each time they threw their feet 
forward ; gaining — steadily gaining — at every spring. Still he 
was urging them on. 

We began to feel anxious ; this was entirely too exhilarat- 
ing ; and we remonstrated. He only redoubled his yelling ; 
and the lash of his long whip, circling in the air, sent forth a 
series of shots like a Chinese New Year celebration. 



172 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

The pace was terrific for a mountain road. We were going 
like the wind when, of a sudden, horses, sleigh, passengers, 
driver and all were hurled in an inextricable mass into the soft 
snow at the upper side of the grade. Hank had himself dis- 
appeared — all but his boots — in the snow bank where he shot 
head-first. They pulled him out, none the worse for his tumble. 
He was a bit dazed for a minute ; but he had never loosened his 
grip on the reins. It took some time to straighten out the 
tangle ; and then we found that the tongue of the sleigh was 
snapped off close to the body of the vehicle. Before Hank 
had got it spliced with odd pieces of rope brought from no- 
body knew where, along came the other sleighs exulting. 

The tongue mended — "with a hinge in the middle so as it 
*d work better ; so as to turn sharp corners easy, ' ' said Hank — 
away we went, and Hank Monk deaf to all entreaties to '*go 
slow." Faster than ever ; the horses now fairly flew over the 
snow, the "hinge" working beautifully, yet sometimes swing- 
ing the sleigh from side to side and perilously near the outer 
edge of the road. 

The speed was the speed of a comet, we thought, as he 
whipped, and shouted, and swore his six living whirlwinds 
into a pace that was making them winners all. Race them he 
would, and did ; and in spite of the mishap and broken tongue 
he beat his rivals into the valley where the sleigh was put 
aside and we were again transferred to stages that now took us 
through Carson City and Gold Hill to Virginia, the Mecca of 
all travelers back in the early 60 's. 

In this year of grace we make the trip in a few hours where 
it once took days. We gain in time ; but after all are we really 
the gainers ? 

Humboldt, Nevada. 

Out of the Frying-Pan, 

BY JULIA BOYNTON GREEN. 

was Old Bond Blue, the paper. Emily affected it 
and it typified the delicate impression of distinction 
conveyed by herself. The characters were rather 
large, free, and dashing within decided limits, be- 
speaking calm nerves, healthy muscles and an eye 
pleased with lineal harmonies ; such a hand as you 
would not find among the signatures of fifty young 
women. To see it one must lament the era of the 
typewriter, and at the same time feel an agreeable 
curiosity as to the person back of the pen. 
Puiyi^MAN Car "Montezuma," near IvAS Vegas. 
Dear but Deluded Payrients — Now that I am well on my way I want 
to assure you in the words of my small cousin Jack, when we spell things 
he isn*t to know, "I understand puffickly what you mean!" and I'm 
going to prove it as that blessed baby can't always do. You have been 
on tenterhooks ever since I was fifteen lest I should fall in love unadvis- 
edly. Fancy it ; the hardest-hearted damozel in Christendom ! It wasn't 




OUT OF THE FRYING-PAN. I73 

specially flattering to me and it must have been harrowing to you. My 
having gone on to twenty-five without disgracing the family doesn't seem 
to have reassured you an atom ; I have felt it in the air all this time ; 
papa is so stately with Norman Mather, so unnecessarily contemptuous 
of harmless little Max Greer — so significantly sociable with my beloved 
friend Irving Holmes ! I'm so sorry I can't like him quite well enough 
to make yoa happy, dearest Pater, but . . . Then mama has such a 
suppressed nervousness, invisible, I suppose, to any but my wicked eyes, 
whenever a new attachi appears ! Oh, it is all deliciously droll ! Feel- 
ing tolerably safe, myself, I have enjoyed the situation hugely. So did 
sister Janet before she finally demonstrated to you that heart entangle- 
ment does not necessarily paralyze the good head one may have inherited 
from one's forbears (ahem !) by fixing her affections on Paul Hosking, a 
man even you couldn't pick a flaw in. Of course she had to follow her 
lord to the far Pacific, but even that has turned out a blessing in ambush 
since voila! it affords an asylum for a despair of a daughter, embarrassingly 
beset by supernumerous suitors ! . , . Ah, well, I congratulate you 
on being well rid of me ; how eased and comfortable your shoulders 
must feel ! To tell the honest truth I am relieved myself; things were 
getting rather mixed and pressing, and it is so nice not to have to decide 
things. I think you may give your apprehensions a good long siesta, for 
I prefer to take my cowboys in Bret Harte's books ; I never could live 
farther than six hours on the limited from New York ; I don't half believe 
in even the climate, and I am going to run all Janet'?» inflated rhapsodies 
to earth (excuse the mixed metaphor) ; I'll send you the flat reality, 
honor bright. Not that she knows she's fibbing, the dear, so much do 
love and a cheerful spirit and much imagination do for the deluded ; but 
there canH be as nice people there as we know back home, and if there 
were they could never know each other as well and have as good times, 
they're so busy making money and getting things settled and respect- 
able. I am holding myself braced to see Janet in a sunbonnet and Paul 
in his shirt-sleeves. I suppose my bicycle toggery will be a nine days' 
wonder, and as for golf I can picture the uncomprehending stare which 
will meet my mention of it. I expect the links there are all missing 
ones ! Oh, I remember the eulogies of cousin Eleanor, but she has 
really traveled very little, and anyway she and I are decidedly different; 
our requirements would not be the same, and she would not miss hosts 
of things that I should. Devotedly, 

Emii^y. 
Still Bond Blue, but with a nervous haste alternating with a dejected 
droop in the chirography. 

Casa Ai,kgrk, VaIvMIRa, Cai,., 

Jan. 20. 

Dearest Mater and Pater — If you have sneers, prep^^re to sneer them 
now ! But I think it would better be smiles or sighs of satisfaction, for, 
instead of a bursted bubble, I have to present you with a rose (or is it a 
lily ?) quite unbeholden to any sort of paint. California is nice enough, 
without any exaggeration. You tnust respect my ^honesty ; it is some- 
thing at twenty-five to confess oneself humiliatingly mistaken, and I do 
that same with my face in the dust. 

They met me at the station, Janet in a gown and hat to which I've 
not the remotest approach — her couturiere has a sister in Paris — Paul in 
an artistic combination of silk shirt, natty hat, carved leather belt, etc.; 
they were on their way home from — must I say it — the golf links ; Paul 
is the finest player here, or anywhere I think, with one exception. The 
children — I had forgotten babies could be so rosy — wore darling peaked 
sombreros and have delightful manners. Janet actually looks younger 
than I do, and try as I might I could not discover a trace of lurking dis- 
content or patient resignation in her eyes, which are just aa blue and 
more merry than of yore. As we drove home, it was toward evening, the 



174 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

mountains were a dream of tender gradations in vaporous amethyst, rosy 
lilac and pink, rising to a heavenly irradiation, a soft suffusion of pure 
color on the very highest summit, that brought tears to my eyes. Speech 
is pitiable when one tries it for such a purpose. Notwithstanding, I said, 
** Why have you never told me how they are ?" Janet said, *' You try 
it, my dear!" and I have. 

Farther on, a speck I had noticed ahead developed itself into a horse 
and rider ; they dashed half past, then the black splendid brute creature 
wheeled chafing and snorting ; the equally splendid human creature in 
the saddle acknowledging Janet's presentation to me with no cowboy air. 
He was riding to the mail he said, and halted to ask Paul something 
about oranges. Arrived at home that dreaded Chinaman met us at the 
door, in spotless raiment of some sort, his face abeam. I actually did 
not mind when he nodded at me and said, " How do ?" The house was 
so full of flowers of such variety and perfection that I thought and said, 
poor innocent, that it was a pity to despoil the garden just for me. Paul 
smiled, looked at Janet and said, ** How could we do too much for our 
first home visitor ?" 

The dinner was not bacon and beans, and the felt-soled foreigner served 
it in a way to win even fastidious me. I wish we could create a vogue of 
celestial footgear among Eastern maids. Ti Lim was under a French 
chef in San Francisco for years, and I never tasted such soups and rolls 
and ices and delectable concoctions of all sorts outside of dear Paree. 
The cakes come on the table not only with the most festive and elaborate 
icing, but with Latin and French inscriptions, often appropriate and al- 
ways amusing. Janet keeps only Ti him and baby's nurse, but she seems 
hardly to have a household care. 

Here I stop to take breath, for the very next day began such a whirl 
of things that I am bewildered yet. I went out early on the little ombra 
opening ofi^ my room, and felt as though I had a proscenium box in some 
stupendous theater ; the dawn effects on the mountains and valleys are 
as bewildering in their way as the sunset pageant ; the deep purple 
canons yet brooding in sleep, with rags of snowy fog drifting off into 
their weird recesses ; the beautiful valley, long and green and still, with 
here and there a spot glowing in primrose luster where the sun strikes 
through some mountain gap ; the colossal shadows of the great eastern 
giants projected on the western slopes and sky. Oh, it is all marvelous ! 
If all the rest of California is our Italy, this particular region must be 
our Switzerland. Janet says if it moves me now I'll be shaken^ to the 
foundations when I see it in storm, that it is infinitely more thrilling and 
dramatic. But here I am essaying the utterly futile again ! 

The next thing I noticed was that the garden bore up bravely under 
the heavy demands of the night before ; I said to myself, * ' Have I ever 
seen roses before?" All along the sides of the tennis court (yes, they 
have one, if Janet told me I'd forgotten it) were great globular constel- 
lations of daisies white and the adorable pale sulphur ones they have 
here. By the brimming cement basin, which is really Paul's and little 
Percy's swimming tank, a fascinating tangle of vivid bloom reflects 
itself in the water. 

Alma Tadema seats, in plaster or something, stand about, with pictur- 
esque sprays of Gold of Ophir or Duchess or glowing red Henriette 
roses breaking the graceful Greek outlines. A coboea — that ^^ scandens** 
as I never would have believed — has gained the highest pinnacle of the 
children's palm-thatched play-house, and the Japanese honeysuckle 
doesn't even pretend to be deciduous here. And then the orchard, the 
miles and miles of orchard, deep malachite, bossy with cadmium spheres, 
each one polished and perfect, till they look impossible ; did I ever see 
oranges before ? 

But I must get on or you will think I am making the most out of the 
natural charms to atone for other lacks. 

We have neighbors ! not Indians or ** poor white trash," but a Boston 



OUT OF THE FRYING-PAN. i75 

man, he of the black charger, and his sister who keeps house for him — 
actually the lyoraine Floyd that I heard of all through my years at Wel- 
lesley. She left the year before I entered. Her brother, Eric, is a class- 
mate of Paul ; strange I do not recall their mentioning either of them. 
Something made me figure to myself a goggled bas-bleu, eccentric in 
leather leggins, and a man as unbalanced as I then considered Paul to be 
on the subject of California. Whereas Ivoraine Floyd is a most charming 
and unique creature and deserves every bit of her Wellesley reputation ; 
while her brother — well, he deserves to be her brother. They invited 
me to ride up Madrono Canon with them the second morning. Paul 
went with us ; I rode Janet's Fairy, such a pretty bay animal, but I 
should have liked to re-christen her Demon, such a dance she led me. 
Paul simply took it for granted I knew how to ride and could manage a 
brute that gives Janet no trouble, but I think he has changed his mind, 
much to my chagrin. All the time Mr. P'loyd was saying the brightest 
things I couldn't half keep up my end I was so preoccupied with my 
disconcerting mount. I came home prostrate and weary in flesh and 
spirit, and determined to practice my equestrianship before breakfast, 
and learn a few things before parading my inexperience in public again. 

After lunch Janet took me to her club, which was another blow. I 
will not go into details, but content — or punish — myself with saying that 
the conduct of this bodj'- of women was so smooth and eflficient, the 
characters of the papers read and the subseq^uent discussion so serious 
and at the same time so brilliant, that I felt like an old kid glove with 
the buttons off. 

Next day Mr. and Miss Floyd dined here ; they brought over some 
fascinating carved ivories, etchings, and exquisite specimens of Cobden 
Sanderson's book-binding (I had never heard of the man, to Janet's 
astonishment) for us to see ; a case had just arrived of things they had 
picked up on their last trip abroad. After dinner Mr. Floyd worked 
awhile on a strong pen-and-ink drawing of Paul which he is to use in 
illustrating a new novel by Mrs. Maud Chandler Gorham, the George 
Eliot of the Pacific Coast, you know. The pose was so fine and the cos- 
tume so attractive that I got out my materials and began a wash draw- 
ing ; Mr. Floyd is polite enough to pretend to think well of my efforts, 
but his work in pen and ink makes me hate mine. Fancy it ! Miss 
Bmily Carruth in acute attack of disillusion, not as regards the pathetic 
little State of California which she has deigned to distinguish by her 
notice, but as regards herself, her accomplishments, her standards, her 
ideals, her requirements, etc. 

Well the work of demolition went merrily on. There have been re- 
ceptions, golf, tennis, luncheons, charming dancing parties and more 
horseback excursions. Janet rather apologizes and assures me she isn't 
always so gay and frivolous. I cried one day, I was so overcome by all 
the surprises ; Mr. Floyd had been playing Greig to me, after superin- 
tending the orange picking all the morning (it is a wholesome natural 
sort of life, after all, isn't it ? half your day out of doors, cheek by jowl 
with Mother Earth, and the other half left to invite your soul and 
groom your hobby). Grieg always affects me, and Mr. Floyd's touch 
is irresistible ; so I lay and wept comfortably and abused Janet for not 
preparing me for the state of things out here. She petted me and 
snaoothed me down and said, "You couldn't understand, dear; you 
simply wouldn't have believed until you had seen, that we are happy 
and rational and progressive out here, and that none of us left our re- 
fined tastes and our intellects and our inheritances of culture behind us 
when we left the East ! I didn't even want to urge you to come for fear 
of hardening your adamantine prejudice still more ; you are a bit of a 
provincial, Emilia mia, for all your travel, and you are so young in 
many ways!" 

Oh, the last cruel shock ! Janet's dearest friend, Mrs. Ireland, has an 



176 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

original Gibson much finer than either of mine, in his earlier and more 
engaging manner. Isn't that impertinent ? 

This morning Mr. Floyd and I ^lave been up in the hills to look for 
creamcups and early poppies ; he seems to have loads of time and a 
laudable desire to keep me amused. He is handsomer than Hal South- 
brook, more intellectual than Norman Mather, and a far better artist 
than Max. Oh, my prudent Pater, is there any place too wild for the 
Baby God to go ? I suspect he was a Forty-niner or even before, and 
this is just the place for him to flourish ! He freezes, East, clad only in 
his little wings. Good night, your uncertain and unsatisfactory but 
every loving, Kmii,y . 

February tenth. 

Written at Janet's desk, on her heavy cream, Marcus Ward, Royal 
Irish linen ; the fair Emily has forgotten she prefers blue. 

My very dears — I suppose you haven't seen what was coming, but I 
have felt it in my prophetic bones almost from the first. 

It isn't so very sudden as it looks. I haven't been finding out all these 
years what men I wouldn't marry without getting some light on what 
manner of man I would ! Yet I have to keep saying this over to my- 
self to save getting dizzy when I realize that here I am, engaged, and 
only away from home one month ; and he hasn't even saved my life ; 
but it just did itself, you blessed things, and I am only too blissful to 
have discovered that I have a real live truly heart like other girls. Even 
the having to live out here doesn't cast the faintest cloud on the joy of 
my surrender. I don't seem to care a fig about being a trifle more than 
six hours on the limited from New York ; I said this to Eric and he said, 
" Why should you, when we have a life pass on the Unlimited for 
Eden ?" And I have developed a love of land that will delight the 
cockles of Pater's heart. Of course we shall travel, but we both want a 
home and a country and lots of ground where we can see things grow. 
One can do that out here. Can this be I who dreamed of an establish- 
ment in the metropolis ? 

Now do be patient with this last and greatest of the long list of shocks 
wherewith I have worried you from my pinning- blankets up. Break 
the news mercifully to the sorrowing swains and wire me your blessing 
as soon as you are sufl&ciently recovered. Blissfully and apologetically, 

February sixteenth. Emily . 

' Fiction Stranger Than Earth- 
quakes. 



BY BRNBST P. CLARKE. 




m' 



*HERE are at least three kinds of ** California liars," 
and a careful and scientific classification might de- 
A velop others. But three are readily suggested — the 
Californian who lies about the country for boom 
purposes ; the Eastern visitor who lies about the country 
out of sheer ignorance or natural depravity, and the 
■•" Easterner in his native lair who has never seen Califor- 
nia, but who thinks himself competent to describe its 
climate, productions and history with great freedom 
and particularity. 
The first variety are comparatively harmless, for their 
flamboyant statements are not taken seriously even by themselves. 

The second variety — whether they gush over the country or malign 
it — are more harmful, for they might be presumed to know what they 
are talking about, and to be more disinterested than the resident Cali- 
fornian. After a man lives here fifteen or twenty years he recognizes 
that the country is too big a topic to be discussed in a few glittering 



FICTION STRANGER THAN EARTHQUAKES. i77 

generalities. The tourist is not embarrassed in this way ; he goes round 
the *' kit^-shaped track " once and takes a trip to San Diego. And then 
after a week's stay in the country is ready to write a book in which he 
discusses orange growing, rainfall, and northers with startling origi- 
nality. 

The third variety is probably quite as damaging to the country as the 
second ; people who read these sage lucubrations on California matters 
do not know the imbecility which characterizes them. 

The recent seismic disturbance in Southern California has given op- 
portunity for all three kinds of liars — and several kinds unclassified. 
The returns are not all in yet ; but copies of Eastern papers that have 
reached here indicate that the tourist has turned himself loose in his 
home paper ; and if one were to judge this disturbance by some of 
these accounts he would infer that not a brick building was left stand- 
ing in all Southern California. 

The morning of the earthquake some yellow correspondent in Los 
Angeles of a Chicago paper, anxious to serve the news up in shape for 
wood-type "scare heads," telegraphed that every brick building in 
Riverside had been shaken down. The fact was that not a brick was 
shaken loose in any brick block in Riverside ; but it is always hard for 
the truth to catch up with a lie, and thousands of the readers of this 
great metropolitan daily no doubt still believe that the orange city was 
wiped out by the earthquake. It was a wonder this ingenious corre- 
spondent, skilled in making news, did not report the orange groves all 
swallowed up. 

But the Eastern liar about California capped the climax. A Phila- 
delphia paper reported that the railroad wreck at Pomona was caused 
by the earthquake. This disaster occurred some ten hours before the 
earthquake, and the natural sequence of events would therefore suggest 
that it caused the earthquake rather than was caused by it. Really the 
San Francisco dailies missed a great opportunity in not arraigning the 
" Octopus" as the real cause of the earthquake. But this imaginative 
writer in the Quaker City goes further : he says that San Jacinto was 
swallowed up by *' a tidal wave." Any such a little thing as a primary 
geography map of California is evidently unknown in a Philadelphia 
newspaper office. A mere casual glance at such a map would have 
shown the writer that San Jacinto is a hundred miles inland and 1 500 
feet above the sea. The man who could invent a tidal wave that would 
travel 100 miles from the coast and engulf a valley 1500 feet above sea 
level is wasting his talents in a daily paper. 

The simple truth is that only one or two buildings will be abandoned 
as a result of the Christmas earthquake at San Jacinto and Hemet ; and 
$50,000 to $100,000 will repair all the damage in both towns. A loss like 
that in the East caused by fire, by flood, by lighning, or by cyclone 
would not be considered worthy of more than a double head in any 
well regulated newspaper a hundred miles from where it happened ; 
but an earthquake in far-off California is fitting subject for the riotous 
imagination of the most sensational fictionites the yellow journals of 
the East can produce. The middle West has about a cyclone a week in 
the cyclone season that does more damage than this earthquake, and 
averages two or three a season that kill more people than have been 
killed by earthquakes in California in 130 years. But the Western 
editor goes down in his cyclone cellar and proceeds to " point a moral 
and adorn a tale" from the San Jacinto earthquake, in which he 
solemnly warns his readers to stay away from California. Well, this 
country was first settled by men and women brave enough to face the 
horrors of the Great American Desert, and we don't know that we have 
any desire for an influx of people who can be frightened by a lot of old 
women's tales about earthquakes. 



178 

My Brother's Keeper. 

BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS. 
VII. 

O Major Pratt, head of the Carlisle Indian Mill, and our present 
Indian system, has found not only a new epithet for me, but a 
partner in iniquity ! He discovers another foe in Frederick Starr, 
the famous anthropologist, of Chicago University. " Now comes 
Prof. Starr, with the statement made in a public lecture and immediately 
reported to us by one of his audience [fancy "reporting" Starr to Pratt !] 
that the only thing Carlisle has succeeded in doing for the Indians is to 
crush out every noble and sympathetic feeling and to develop their 
avarice." 

Whether Prof. Starr ever said this I do not know, for of course the 
J^ed Man is not a competent witness to anything in the world to which 
Prof. Starr belongs. Whether he said so or not, he could say so without 
at all impairing his reputation, as scientist or as man. For it is effect- 
ively true. 

Maj. Pratt also " understands that Prof. Starr is not an original investi- 
gator, . . . but collates and discourses upon the discoveries of others," 
which shows again how much Maj. Pratt "understands" of the field 
out of which he has procured a very handsome living during the major- 
ity of his mature life. Doubtless he never heard of Frederick Starr 
until Frederick Starr expressed the usual scientific opinion about Car- 
lisle. If he will keep on collecting, he can presently know at least the 
names of all the men who are famous as scholars in America, and by the 
like introduction they will puncture his horizon, as they choose to ex- 
press their disapproval of his methods. His knowledge of scholarship 
is strictly delimited to its phenomena as **an enemy of Carlisle." 
Meantime, while Maj. Pratt is learning, thus disagreeably, the list that 
some Americans love to honor, he cannot bring forward one name one- 
tenth as respectable in science as Prof. Starr's, that will write itself 
down as in favor of the Pratt methods. 

He evidently realizes this, and tries to deceive himself as to its sig- 
nificance by pretending that he believes that all ethnologists want the 
Indian kept in barbarism that they may study him at leisure ! In most 
people such a plea would be plain dishonesty; in Maj. Pratt we are 
willing to attribute it merely to his utter lack of intellectuality. My 
seven-year-old child has as much conception of what ethnology is 
as this veteran has. Now, ethnology is simply the study of what man 
used to be, in order that we may understand a little better what he is 
now. It has a Greek name, as most studies have ; it requires patience, 
as all studies do ; it may even seem a bugbear to the illiterate. But after 
all it is a common-sense affair, in which nothing short of common-sense 
can succeed. Blacksmithing is not a bit more " practical." The people 
who try to be ethnologists with the sort of equipment Maj. Pratt brings 
to education are a laughing-stock. And how little he is fit to be an edu- 
cator of Indians, no enemy could diagram so mercilessly as he himself 
shows in his January Red Man. To think, that in the last year of the 
smartest century, a man entrusted to mold aboriginal lives by the 
wholesale thousand can actually plume himself on his ignorance and 
distrust of the whole science which simply means understanding 
aborigines ! 

Though slow of words the gallant Major has added to his vocabulary. 
It is not only "thin" and " fantastic," but now " hysterical" to care for 
home and mother and father. Of course, when he says that I make the 
•' plea that the family tie is disrupted . . by educating Indian children 
away from the tribe" he knows that he has been dishonest — temporarily 
and thoughtlessly, no doubt. While he has no knowledge on earth 



MY BROTHER'S KEEPER. i79 

what •* the tribe" is, he does know that I said nothing of the sort. My 
English needs no diagram, even to a Carlisle intelligence. I said, in 
eflfect, that the Pratt S5'stem educates Indian children out of their homes 
and spoils them as children to the mothers who bore them. Anything 
about their relations to the tribe I will discuss with those who know 
what a tribe is — and this relieves Maj. Pratt from any responsibility 
whatever of answer. He admits the truth of my assertion, though of 
course he cannot understand its meaning. ** Unquestionably there results 
a certain ntodificaiion of that blind loyalty to family and clan which in 
the Indian amounts to a religion," he says in the January Red Man. 
Ignorantly as this is stated, it contains an eternal truth. And I simply 
wish to ask any American, man or woman, that has children of his or 
her loins, whether he or she is looking after some "higher educa- 
tion" to lessen the " religion" of filial loyalty. Unselfish as true 
parenthood is, do you know of any smartness that will pay your child, 
not to say you, for losing his faith in you? I shall not insult you by 
asking you whether anything he could learn at Carlisle would pay either 
of you. I ask for the highest supposititious case. If your son could be 
Huxley, would it be a good bargain to pity his mother for a fool ? The 
splendid disciplinarian of Carlisle — and I am not sarcastic ; he is all 
that — expressly scorns ' ' the instinctive and superstitious regard for the 
niere tie of blood:' These are my italics, but his words. •* The mere 
tie of blood" means simply that my son is mine, your son is yours. 
What does a "superstition" like that count in the face of a chance to 
be educated in the wisdom of Carlisle? But why is this wisdom saved for 
Indians ? You and I and no other plain American can send our children 
to be taught the Higher Wisdom of contempt for the womb that warmed 
them. No college teaches it ; and Maj. Pratt's institution is by his own 
confession "class legislation," designed to give Indians a better chance 
than white folks can get. All of which is unconstitutional. 

In almost anyone else, Maj. Pratt's whole argument would be at once 
set down as dishonest fiddling ; but it does not seem so in his case. It 
appears to be merely the desperation of an honest soldier, stung because 
others do not share his faith that the chief end of man is to be drilled in 
the manual of arms. I think he actually believes his own logic ; that if 
a man can be taught to plow with chilled steel instead of a sharp stick, 
he is paid for being compelled to break the family ties. He certainly 
believes that to be educated by Major Pratt is worth more than to 
'* honor thy father and thy mother." What are they worth if you can 
be raised up to be a cheap convenience to a Pennsylvania farmer ? 

To anyone manful, Maj. Pratt cannot be entirely an enemy, unless he 
shall show traits I do not believe he will show. The feeling is regret 
that so splendid a physical force was not fitted with mind and soul, for 
it could have done so much good in a world in which it means to do so 
well! 

The Major fools himself into thinking he believes that those who 
study the Indian study him as a curio. The simple and eternal fact is 
that they study him as a man. It is because we realize that by a pro- 
vision of Nature (not of Carlisle) he is human ; that he cares for the 
mother that gave him her sore breast to suck, and is cared for by her ; 
because we iinderstand that ^he is human ; because we can solve all his 
equations by the unerring laws of corporal creation, and not by guesswork , 
that we can understand him at all. The real offender against horse-sense 
is Major Pratt — the head of the unlettered school, which imagines that 
God amused himself by making things in human shape, but without 
humanity ; really good for nothing but cordwood to warm some one 
with a salary : that He counterfeited the pains of labor and swindled the 
suckling that thought it was a mother's breast he drew — all that a modem 
"hustler" might have "a good thing" out of these imitations of hu- 
manity. Human nature is human ; and it may be that some ethnologist 



i8o LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

likes Indians unspoiled. But we all know that even scholarship is not 
more selfish than a fat salary . And I never heard of any student who 
got a tenth as much money out of the Indian, directly or indirectly, as 
Major Pratt gets, so it liardly becomes him to accuse them of bias. As 
little does it befit his mouth to pretend that it is a whim of these ** dan- 
gerous scientists" or "thim dom'd lithery fellers" to believe the rela- 
tion of child and parent one of the basic wisdoms of Nature to perpet- 
uate humanity ; therefore universal to all that wear the outward form of 
man ; therefore to be respected by all who bear the inward grace of 
manhood. 



» Pioneers of the Far West. 

THE EARLIEST HISTORY OF CALIFORNIA, NEW MEXICO, ETC. 

From Documents Never Before Published in English. 

IV. 

This installment concludes the translation (begun in the November 
number) of Fray Ger6nimo de Zdrate-Salmer6n's "Relacion " of events 
in California and New Mexico up to 1626. 

96. From Guachoya, after the death of the Adelantado Hernando de 
Soto, they traveled by forced marches more than 100 leagues to the 
west. Here they lost their way, for the guide was already dead. On the 
third day they reached the plains of Cibola [this evidently is not meant 
to mean Coronado's Cibola, but merely the buffalo plains — Ed.], where 
they killed their hunger with the much meat of buffalo [ciboloj. The 
Indians of these plains have no houses except some wretched huts 
[chozuelas]. They plant no food-stuff". They subsist on what they 
kill with the arrow, on herbs and roots of trees, and other things. 

97. These and the Apaches are one and the same, as has already been 
said above. And with this it stands proved how Florida and New 
Mexico is all mainland with this [Mexico] where we are; since the 
plains of Cibola begin at 20 leagues from the settlements of New Mex- 
ico and run toward Florida. And it happens many times in dry years 
that these cows [buffalo] came even to the salt lakes, which is of the 
settled part of New Mexico, of the nation of the Tompiro Indians. 
And it is known by us, by what has been seen since in New Mexico, 
that in those plains of Cibola those who inhabit them are the Apache 
Indians, whom we call cowboy Apaches [vaqueros] because they sub- 
sist by these cows [buffalo]. Therefore these soldiers [of de Soto] were 
not far from New Mexico. 

98. From here these soldiers returned on the back trail, with very 
great hardships and besetments by the Indians, who killed many sol- 
diers. Out of more than 60 Indians brought up as servants, not one 
was left, and [only] 100 Spaniards and 80 horses reached the Great 
River [Rio Grande of course does not mean here what it does in our 
day. It was the Mississippi — Ed.] and lodged themselves in Amnoya ; 
whence they departed with intent to go to Mexico, but had to return. 
Here died Juan Ortiz, the interpreter, and 150 persons. Here they 
found more than 20,000 fanegas of corn, and much dried fruits. This 
river every fourteen years overflows its banks by reason of the much 
snows that melt in the Sierras. It is more than 500 leagues long from 
its source to where it enters the sea ; which is, according to what can 
be gathered, where is now the English, which is called the Bay of St, 
Mary, the Wigwam [Jacal] — otherwise called New Virginia, New 
France. They call it Virginia because in their tongue that means Para- 
dise. 

99. Here are more than 25,000 men, English and French. On three 
rivers they have three forces. Twelve leagues inland they have a vecf 



PIONEERS OE THE EAR WEST. i8i 

great city ; and in latitude 435^° they extract very rich ores and carry 
them to England to be treated. 

100. These soldiers [of de Soto] embarked on San Pedro's day in 
big scows, to go down stream. They left Amnoya. On the second day 
more than a thousand canoes came out to the encounter and slew 48 
soldiers of them. These canoes carried 25 oars to a crew, and in each 
canoe 30 archers. The [Spanish had] embarked 350 horses ; and in the 
last pueblo the [Indians] shot these all with arrows. They kept their 
way down stream for 15 days. The river here was more than 15 leagues 
wide. On the 20th day they recognized the sea ; and they went coast- 
ing slowly [costa d costa] until Panuco. Here I drop this voyage, be- 
cause now they had emerged from so many dangers and tribulations. 
And if at some time someone may enter that country, with this [my] 
narrative he will know the name of the nations and the order in which 
they lie, and what country is populated and what wilderness and desert. 

101. To others this shall appear a very old matter, inasmuch as a 
book is going the rounds here [telling] of this journey and the con- 
quest of Florida. I admit it, and likewise will admit thus much — that 
there is a great difference between having seen it in a book of history 
which has more than 400 leaves and having seen its gist in only four 
[leaves] ; and that at least it has cost [me] toil to make a digest of it 
solely to give pleasure to the reader. 

Information about the Mexican Nation which Settled 
this Land of New Spain. 

102. That which has been tracked and is held to be an established 
thing is that the Mexican Indians, who settled this New Spain, came 
forth from the Lagoon of Copalla, which is 14 days' journey the other 
side of the Good Hope River [our present Colorado River]. It is dis- 
tant from this City of Mexico more than 400 leagues in a straight 
line ; and if one goes by way of New Mexico it is more than 540 
[leagues]. The direct way is to go in by the valleys of Seiiora [Sonora], 
without going as far as the Rio del Norte [Rio Grande now], cutting 
straight across to the province of Mooqui, and from there to the Cru- 
zados ['* cross-wearing"] Indians, and then ascend to reach the head of 
the Good Hope River. And if one goes from New Mexico for this ex- 
ploration one has to go by way of the Zama [Chama] River, traveling 
northwest. So the Indians of New Mexico told me when I got my in- 
formation from them. 

103. In the journey of Don Juan de Onate to the Californias, I have 
noted how they found an Indian who, on hearing another spoken to in 
the Mexican [Nahuatl] tongue, said that thus spoke the Indians of the 
Lagoon of Copalla. Likewise I said I would set down, further on, the 
information they got in this journey, and would relate it succinctly. I 
there touched upon it, and passed on to follow what I had begun ; but 
now I say that they learned the following facts : 

104. On that journey they found many edifices and ancient ruins, 
acequias [irrigating ditches] like those that were anciently in Mexico 
[at] Azcapuzalco ; and the "dumps" of the ores they treated. This 
was seen beyond the province of Mooqui [beyond, as they came from 
the Rio Grande]. And when they asked the Indians what ruins were 
those, they replied that it was the tradition of the elders, w hom they 
had heard recount it, that it was many ages before that a great number of 
people had passed there, having come forth from the Lagoon of Copalla — 
though they name it by another name, since it is another tongue which 
they speak — to settle in new worlds, traveling to the South. And that 
they had gone on so far that it was never known of them whether they 
were alive or dead. All these signs and trail of ruins, such as acequias 
and ore-dumps, are in the valleys of Senora, Sinaloa and Culiacan, 



i82 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

which, as they demonstrate, is the direct road that they followed when 
they came to settle up this land . 

105. lyikewise it is an ancient tradition among the Indians that a 
piece of virgin iron which is three leagues from Santa Bdrbola, half a 
league oJBf the road over which pass the wagons which go to New 
Mexico, is a memorial of the coming of the Mexicans [Aztecs] to settle 
this land ; and that they halted there, and the idol which spoke with 
them told them that it should remain there for a memorial * 

106. The iron must weigh over 800 hundredweight [80,000 pounds]. 
And they say that a demon, in form of an old Indian woman, very 
wrinkled, brought it there upon her back. Good muscle for an Indian 
hag! 

107. This is a thing which all of us who pass over that road go to see, 
out of curiosity. 

108. A blacksmith of Santa Bdrbola cut off a little from one side ; 
and others, not believing it a movable thing and brought from far, but 
suspecting it to be an outcrop [mina] of virgin iron, undermined it ; 
the which iron, lacking the earth which had upborne it, turned on its 
side and is now thus tipped. 

109. The Father Fray Francisco de Velasco, a priest of qualities 
known to all and above set forth, when I was conversing with him 
about this information, told me that when he was going in company 
with the Colonel Don Vicente de Saldivar, commanding in the field 
[maestre de campo] to explore the Sea of the South, when they re- 
turned at the end of four months of wandering without having reached 
the sea on that journey, they came to the nation of the Cruzados In- 
dians. [Here] they lost some horses ; and in search of them two 
soldiers and a Mexican Indian, a soldier's groom [criado is not servant 
in our sense; it is someone reared and educated in the household]. 
When they asked some Indians if they had seen the horses, one replied 
in the Mexican tongue [Nahuatl] that he had not seen them. And 
when they asked the Indian where he came from, that he knew how to 
talk the [ancient] Mexican tongue, he answered that [he was] from the 
interior, pointing to the north, which is where the Lagoon of Copalla 
is. In their care to hunt up their horses they did not take care to take 
this Indian to the camp so that all might see him and examine him ; 
and afterward, when they made an investigation to find him, he did not 
appear, for he had hidden. 

110. When I was making many and extraordinary investigations in 
New Mexico to verify and clear up this truth, whether there be Mexican In- 
dians there, the Captain Ger6nimo Mdrquez told me how, the first time 
he was on the great cliff of Acoma, he entered an estufa and [saw] in 
it some pictured Indians [painted on the wall]. And as he recognized 
them for Mexicans [Aztecs] by their dress, he asked the [Acoma] In- 
dians who were those that were there painted ; and they replied that it 
was a few years since some Indians of that dress had come there from 
the direction of the seacoast [Pacific] ; and that being a thing not seen 
among them, they had pictured them ; and that from there the 
[strangers] had gone toward the pueblo of Cia, of the Queres nation. 
With this information I made great research ; and asking the chief- 
captain of the pueblo of Cia — [who was] called Don Andres Pachete — 
and other elders, if they had information of those peoples that had come 
from toward where the sun sets, he said yes ; that he very well remem- 
bered having seen them, and that some of them had been entertained 
in his house. That this was a few years before the Spaniards made a 
settlement in New Mexico ; and that if I wished to inform myself about 
it I should a.sk of the Indians of the Hemex [Jemez] nation, in whose 
pueblos they [the strangers] had passed more days resting. 

* This story of the great meteorite is from Villagran's epic historj'. 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. 183 

111. I made this investigation with the captains of the Hemex na- 
tion ; and summoning the senior Captain of the pueblo of Amoxunqua, 
called Don Francisco Guaxiunzi, and the senior Captain of the pueblo 
of Quiumziqua, called Don Alonso Piztazondi, and his brother Don 
Gabriel Zandir, and other elders, all said that it is true that those 
strangers had been there some days resting ; and that always 
when they heard me speak with an Indian in the [ancient] Mexican 
tongue, they were reminded of the strangers, because those had talked 
in that fashion ; and that they still remembered some words which they 
had heard them speak in the Mexican tongue. And these they repeated 
to me [decian] . 

112. These Mexicans, the Hemex Indians call in their own tongue 
" Guaguatu " [or] "Guaputu; " and when I asked the Indians why 
they gave them this name, they replied it was because of their mode of 
life — for they have not terraced houses as [do] those of New Mexico, 
but covered with straw, and have no estufas for their winter — so they 
had told them — and that yonder where they were [living] it does not 
get so cold as in New Mexico. Also that soon they [the strangers] re- 
turned to their own land, not by the road they had come, but by way 
of the river Zama, up stream ; traveling to the northwest, according to 
the direction that they showed me. 

1 13. When I said to these Hemex that if there were guides I would 
very gladly go to discover this nation, for the much love I bear it, and 
inasmuch as I know the tongue, and that by this means it would be 
easy to convert them to the true knowledge and bosom ot the church, 
they replied that to go straight to the Lagoon of Copalla there was no 
need of a guide. [One only had to] go out by way of the river 
Zama ; and that past the nation of the Apache Indians of Nabajii [our 
Navajos] there is a very great river [this was the upper course of the 
Colorado or Buena-Esperanza] which flows to that lagoon, and that the 
river suffices for guide. And that all was plain with good grasses and 
fields between the north and northwest ; that it was fertile land, good 
and level, and that there are many nations— the province of Quazula, 
the qusutas [Utas?], and further inland another nation settled. That 
they have ladders of stone to go up to the houses ; and that they knew 
all these things from the Apache Indians and others who had seen all 
that world, 

1 14. This is what I have contrived to learn concerning the [ancient] 
Mexican nation. God permit that the door open to that so great multi- 
tude, for the well-being of those souls and the glory and honor of God 
our I/ord ! 

115. Eighty leagues before reaching New Mexico from the west side, 
separated by two days of travel from the Rio del Norte and the King's 
Highway, information is had of many puebios of a courteous [or ad- 
vanced: "politica"] people, who plant cotton, corn and other vegetables, 
weave the finest and thinnest manias [dresses] that have been seen of 
that class, of which I certify that some few reached my hands, the 
which I purchased simply to bring and show in this country. They say 
the land is abundant, fertile and well watered. This nation is called 
the Cojoyas. Up until now it has been suspected that these were the 
same [people], because, ever since a few years ago, some come forth in 
company with the Gorretas [little-cap] Indians to see the Spaniards who 
go and come from New Mexico. In this last expedition, when I came 
out of that country, I made investigation to learn what nation this was, 
and thus it is known now that they are Cojoyas. They have for neigh- 
bors on the side of the east the Gorretas, on the side of the south the 
Conchos, and they are enemies ; for the Indians of the Hot Spring, who 
have been thought until now to be Tepeguanes, are Conchos, and the 
Conchos extend still beyond, for they reach far enough to border upon 
these Cojoyas. 



i84 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

116. In the valley of San Martin, 50 leagues beyond Santa BArbola, 
when I showed these manias to some Conchos Indians from the scrub- 
oaks, who came out to the road to see us (in fine being Christians, bap- 
tized by the hand of the holy Fray Alonzo de Oliva) soon as they saw 
the manias they recognized them, and said it was not far from there 
where the [people] wove those manias. And they showed the road 
straight and level, being the Canada [a smooth, trough-like valley] of 
this valley of San Martin, all straight to the north, leaving the King's 
Highway of New Mexico on the right hand. This was learned through 
an interpreter very skilled in the [ancient] Mexican tongue, and of 
the Concho nation. 

117. This is very easy to investigate with a couple of dozen men; 
and if they are men^ 12 is enough. Perchance that will be of moment ; 
and all is, to go searching the land ; and there results the well-being of 
souls that should not be few, since the Indians say there are more than 
40 pueblos. 

Narrative of the Pilot Morera, Who Passed from the 
North Sea to the South Sea, Through the Strait. 

118. The Father Fray Antonio de la Ascension, a friar of the Bare- 
foot Carmelites, one of the three who went with Sebastian Vizcaino to 
the discovery of Cape Mendocino, gave me this narrative as a thing se- 
cure, wherefore I put his name here ; and he says : 

119. A foreign pilot, named N. de Morena, who steered the English- 
man from the sea of the North [the Atlantic] to that of the South [the 
Pacific] through the strait of Anian, gave this narrative to Captain 
Rodrigo del Rio, Governor that then was of New Galicia. When the 
Captain Francisco Draque [Francis Drake] returned to his country, this 
pilot — who had come emerging from the Strait in his company — was 
very sick, and more dead than alive ; and to see if the airs of the land 
would give him life, as a dead thing they put him ashore. The which 
[pilot] in a few days recovered health and walked through that land for 
the space of four years. He came forth to New Mexico, and from 
there to Santa Bdrbara [in Chihuahua], and then passed to the mines of 
Sombrerete in search of said Rodrigo del Rio. And the said pilot re- 
counted to him the following : 

120. Having given a long narrative of his much wandering, he told 
him how the said Englishman, Francis Drake, in the passage [text 
parajcy stopping place ; apparently a misprint for pasaje] of the Strait 
of Anian, had put him astiore, for the reason aforesaid. And that after 
he recovered health he had traveled through divers lands, through 
many provinces, more than 500 leagues of mainland, until he came far 
enough to catch sight of an arm of sea which divides the lands of New 
Mexico from another very great land which is on the side of the West. 
And that on the coast of that sea were many and great settlements, 
among the which is a nation of white people, the which are accustomed 
to go horseback, and fight with lance and dagger. It is not known what 
nation this may be. The said Father Fray Antonio says he believes they 
are Muscovites. I say that when we see them we shall know who they 
are. This pilot told how this arm of sea runs from north to south ; and 
that it seemed to him it went on the northward to connect with the har- 
bor where the Englishman had put him ashore. And that on that sea 
coast he had seen many and good harbors and great inlets ; and that 
from the point where they put him ashore he would venture to get to 
Spain in 40 days in a good ship's- tender ; and that he must go to get 
acquainted with the Court of England. [Apparently quoting what 
Drake said to him.] 

121. He offered himself to take the said Rodrigo del Rio to the pas- 
sage [again paraje\ of the arm of sea which he discovered ; and said 
that he could easily cross him over to the other side. 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. iSS 

122. This arm of sea is held to be an assured thing. It is that of the 
[Gulf of] California, called the Mar Rojo [Red Sea] ; and the land 
which is on the other side is that of the Californias. As they have told 
me it, so I set it down, without quitting nor adding anything of my 
own part [lit. of my house]. 

123. All these news of the great riches of New Mexico and of the 
interior country, the Spaniards of New Mexico have not been ignorant 
of. But they deserve not to enjoy them, by the secret judgments of 
God, which we cannot understand. Wherein is seen fulfilled the 
prophecy of the holy Fray Diego de Mercado, a priest of this serafic 
religion, son of the province of the Holy Gospel ; who, seeing the troop 
of people pass through the pueblo of Tula when Don Juan de Onate 
went in to colonize New Mexico, said : '* By the life of Fray Diego 
(for this was his oath), God has in those remote parts of New Mexico 
great riches, but by the life of Fray Diego, the present settlers have not 
to enjoy them, for God is not keeping it for them." And so it has been ; 
since all the first ones have died off without enjoying them, and with 
great suffering. For they always came with these desires and anxieties 
for riches, which is the end wherefor they went in to settle there, and 
they spent their substance. God our Lord, who is the knower of all 
things, knows the when and the how in which those riches must be 
made manifest to men, that they may enjoy them. For to him only 
is it given to know this, for thus He revealeth to us, saying : non est 
vestrum, non est tempora del momento* 

124. And not only have the citizens [vecinos] of New Mexico not en- 
joyed riches, but the lash of God hath been always upon them. It is 
the most oppressed and subjected people in the world [observe that he 
speaks not of the Indians but the colonists themselves] ; for they are 
not masters of their own will nor their own property ; since with ease, 
and without their power to make resistance, these are taken from them 
with the strong hand, leaving them naked, and the others rich. These 
are the secret judgments of God. 

125. And if all that has been said were not enough that men should 
take heart to enter the interior country to see and enjoy so great riches 
as God our Lord hath there in keeping, for all the incredulous who are 
slow in believing, the following occurrence was enough to make them 
bethink themselves [caer en la cuenta] and emerge from their incre- 
dulity. 

126. [It was] when that holy man Fray Juan de Escalona, priest of 
this province of the Holy Gospel, was guardian of the monastery of 
Quauhquecholan. One evening at the setting of the sun, at the hour 
for repeating the Ave Maria, he was with his companions walking up 
and down in the pdtio [court] of the church, for the heat of the harbor 
compels it [such outing]. They repeated the Ave Maria, and all went 
upon their knees to pray it. The prayer finished, all the priests rose, 
save the holy man Fray Juan de Escalona, who remained in prayer; 
for while the rest prayed the Ave Maria he was snatched away in spirit. 
The other priests, since they knew and respected him for saintliness, 
left him and resumed their promenade in the pdtio. At the end of a 
bit, the holy man began to cry out, saying ^^Beaiiprimi/ Beali primiP^-\ 
The priests who heard him were in great attention and care, to see if 
they could hear any other thing. But they heard no more, and were 
left in this desire to know what he meant in those words ** Beati primiJ 
Beati Primi P^ repeated twice. His rapture over, and when he had come 
to himself, the priests enquired of him what voices had been those ; 
but he would say nothing, and the priests remained at last, like in- 
quisitive folk, in the wish to know that mystery. Another day the 
holy man coming to "reconcile" himself (that he might celebrate 

*The friar mixes Spanish with his Latin. 
tL&tin : '* Happy are the first." 



i86 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

mass) under confession to one of the said priests, the confessor ques- 
tioned him very searchingly to tell what voices had been the voices of 
the night before. And the priest replied : "On this condition, Father; 
that so long as I live no one shall know the case, I will tell it." Ihe 
confessor gave him his word not to tell it to anvone while he 
[Escalona] should live. And this word being given^ he [Escalona] said: 

127. *'You shall know, my Father, how yesterday evening, when 
we were praying the Ave Maria, there were revealed unto me all the 
riches and temporal goods which God our Lord hath in keeping in the 
interior country of New Mexico, under the North. Likewise it was re- 
vealed to me how frailes of my Father St. Francis are to discover it ; 
and how the first that enter there must be martyred ; the which were 
represented unto me, and in the spirit I saw them martyred ; and re- 
joicing to see them endure the martyrdom with such eagerness and 
strength — for that [reason] I said ^ Beati primi ! Beati Primi ! ' 

128. "Likewise it was revealed to me how, when this has passed, 
and after that land shall have been watered [irrigated, regado] with the 
blood of these martyrs, the Spaniards shall go in there to enjoy so 
many riches as are there." 

129. And this holy man with this good desire [himself] went in 
unto New Mexico with the second expedition the priests made in the 
time of Don Juan de Oiiate ; and made a beginning of the baptism in 
the pueblo of Santo Domingo, on the banks of the Rio del Norte [This 
pueblo is still on the Rio Grande, some 30 miles above Albuquerque, 
New Mexico] ; Indians of the Quires nation. In the which pueblo he 
finished the days of his life holily. The prodigies which befell this 
holy man with those Indians are many ; but as has already been said 
this is a narrative and not a history, so to be brief I do not put down all 
that happened. 

130. I know not, most reverend Father, what heart there is so turned 
to flint that with these things it would not soften and become more than 
soft wax, and desire to be of the first to enjoy such a palm and such a 
crown. Since our serafic religion so much giveth the honor to God our 
Lord, and we receive from His liberal and frank hands each day so many 
mercies ; for unto our sacred religion and not unto another He hath re- 
served this enterprise to honor and ennoble still more this poor flock. 

131 . I have given information to Your Most Reverend Paternity con- 
cerning all these things, with what brevity and best style the shortness 
of my understanding and my clumsy language can attain ; that as a 
pious Father, on whom it depends to care for the well-being of those 
souls, you may open the door and give leave that all the priests who 
may have the spirit go in apostolically unto the interior country and 
new world of New Mexico. Without receiving wages from His Majesty, 
but, as I say, like apostles, what priests this holy province of the Holy 
Gospel hath, as it hath had them always, of very great zeal, that desire 
to go in among those infidel and barbarous nations, to lay down their 
lives among them in imitation of Him who for love of us laid down 
His life upon the tree of the Cross. 

132. After I had finished writing this narrative there came into my 
hands the narrative which follows, wherewith the seal is set to all these 
truths about this great world of New Mexico, called Spain the Greater, 
which is so great as a mainland that other like it has not been dis- 
covered. Because . . . 

133 Toward the South one can go bv land to [vSo. lat.] 52>^*, which 
is the Strait of Magellan ; and toward the North it has no limit shown, 
for it is as it were illimitable. 

134. This land is from North to South 2178 leagues long. 

135. From the East to the West it has [a width of] 1277 leagues— for 
there are that many from Newfoundland to Cape Mendocino. Thanks 
be given to the Most High, who created it. Amen. 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. 187 

Narrative of the Holy Mother Maria cle Jesu«; Abbess 
of the Convent of Santa Clara de A^reda. 

136. It is very probable that in prosecuting the exploration of New 
Mexico and the conversion of those souls, a kingdom shall be reached 
which is called Tidam, 400 leagues from the City of Mexico, to the 
West, between the West and the North. According to what is under- 
stood, it is between New Mexico and the Quivira ; and if perchance 
this be an error the cosrnography will aid the taking of information as 
to other kingdoms ; called, the one, that of Chillescas ; the other, that 
of the Guismanes, and the other of the Aburcos, which form the bound- 
aries of this said kingdom of Tidam. And discovered if they be, it 
shall be endeavored to learn if in them, particularly in Tidam, there be 
knowledge of our holy Catholic faith, and by what means and methods 
our Lord hath made it manifest. 

1 37. We, Don Francisco Manzo y Zuiiiga, elect Archbishop of Mexico, 
of His Majesty's Council, and of the Royal [Council] of the Indies : 
We particularly charge this inquiry upon the reverend Fathers and cus- 
todians of the said conversion [missionary organization] that they 
make inquiry and solicit, with the exactness, faith and devotion such a 
matter requires ; and that of what shall result [from the investigation] 
they give us advices in such manner as to convince. Wherefrom, with- 
out doubt, shall proceed great increase, spiritual and temporal, unto the 
honor and glory of God our Lord. Given in Mexico, on the 18th day 
of the month of May, 1628 [the text has the palpable misprint ** 1682"]. 

Francisco Manzo y Zuniga, 

Licentiate. 
[Fray Ger6mino has quoted here, of course, not the famous report of 
the famous abbess, but the official endorsement of the archbishop. He 
now concludes his own ** Relacion"]. 

138. This, most reverend Father, is that which has been seen, heard 
and learned, as well by sea as by land. And I certify to your rever- 
ence that I have not given it all the weight I could, but rather 
have fallen short [have understated it], fearing its various seeming to 
incredulous men. For these ordinarily are persons who have never 
gone outside their own little village, and know only one acra and one 
sacristan ; so that all they hear seems to them impossible ; and [they 
think] the world cannot be as big as it is painted, because they do not 
arrive any further with their understanding than their eyesight reaches. 
But to men of action, and well-read, nothing of this obfuscates the un- 
derstanding ; because, as they have it, they can grasp this and much 
more. The certainty is, that by not completing the exploration of this 
land, His Majesty would lose a great world. And may our Lord guard 
Your Most Reverend Paternity, as all we your sons desire. Amen. 
Praise be to God. 

The Cactus. 

BY W. W. LOVEJOY. 

With shining upturned face, despite alarms. 

And armored cap-^-pie in coat of thorn 

Like warrior-saint, the cactus greets the morn ; 

Or dervish, praying with wide-open arms ; 

So facing East, sun-lover, proferring 

A votive sun, a little gold-hued flower, 

And brimming cups of purple wine as dower ; 

Her praver and passio'i. love and offering. 

To one great faithful friend, the Sun, are given. 

Nor qui'e alone: her kin close grouped in banda 

Spread far and wide and claim the desert sands ; 

And from the sun-devoted field is driven 

All alien worship. Thus with gifts she stajads 

AdoBimg, praying with uplifted hands. 



i88 




VERDICT The card (on another page) of Mr. W. C. Patterson, president 

o^ of the Los Angeles National Bank and of this corporation, 

ACQUITTAI,. should fully absolve him from any suspicion of complicity 
in the literary bias or editorial views of this magazine. All he 
has ever consented — or been asked — to do is to give of a shrewd and 
honorable business man's time to a labor of love for California. That 
he gives, and generously. To exonerate any other stockholder before- 
hand, it may be said now that the Land of Sunshine is edited by its 
editor. Furthermore — out of old-fashioned respect to the law of Cali- 
fornia,^ now broken, I believe, by every other publication in California — 
the editor signs his name to what he writes. Very likely there are other 
stockholders who disagree with him about politics, religion, literature 
and tailoring. This is merely surmise ; they have never bothered to tell 
him, nor he to ask them. The only essential agreement is that all of us 
love California, believe in her, have faith that she is not too illiterate to 
countenance a magazine. Whatever credit the magazine may win — and 
among the scholarly, everywhere, it has won respect — is theirs to share ; 
and every Westerner's. Whatever faults it has they are nowise to blame 
for. Any bad proof-reading, low standards or heretical opinions belong 
exclusively to the debit of the only person alive who has anything to do 
with them. That is the editor. And that is what editors are for. 

Mr. Patterson I have known and loved for 18 years. I induced him to 
come from Ohio to California — which probably never secured a better 
citizen, nor was ever more kind to one. To this day there is no man 
whose word I would rather have ; and I know he would take mine. 
Still, he would not quit the Presbyterian Church even though I begged 
him to ; nor yet because he is aware that there other denominations with 
more membership. It would be as impossible to coax or bully his con- 
victions as to buy them outright. Possibly that is one reason why we 
are friends. 

He has no more need of the magazine than I have. He gives gener- 
erously of his time, for the same reason — and long after he has been com- 
pelled to withdraw from many of the host of directorates, chair- 
manships and other responsibilites in which he was involved. 
Under all the circumstances the magazine feels rather proud that it re- 
tains him — for California's sake. 

If we could always agree with our friends, this would be a happy 
world — unless, indeed, some friction arose as to which friend should be 
the one to agree. But as we cannot, the practical thing is to pick friends 
on such cardinal lines as manhood, honor and sincerity — and then for- 
give them though they insist on being active Presbyterians when they 
really ought to be middling Methodists. 

^^* , And since this undivided and rather tiresome responsibility of 

WHAT s the editor for his own mind seems to puzzle and irritate a rather 

THE USE? larger number of honest people than one might perhaps ex- 
pect in this year of God's grace 1900 — possibly as many as one per cent, 
of the readers — it may at last be necessary to become personal for once. 
The magazine of course, is run chiefly for those who can guess why; but 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 189 

it is not here to sneer at those who have not happened to think why. 
It has a mind — or what serves as one. With such equipment as it has — 
and with every fiber thereof— it believes that in a republic it is every 
man's duty to put his shoulder to the wheel. It does not know of any 
excuse for deadheading. It has dear friends who can run their railroads, 
banks, farms, shoeshops or whatnot, and let their citizenship slide ; and 
they may be right. But if they /ell as it does they would do as it does. Their 
greater fortune is merely in finding some way to fancy themselves non- 
responsible. Mr. Lincoln, a good enough pattern of an American for it 
to cut by, never prayed for **a government of most of the people, by as 
many of the people as are not too busy, for such of the people as can 
make it worth while." 

The magazine believes that this republic is just now at a point when, 
more than ever before, it needs the best thought, the highest courage, 
the most unselfish devotion, of every man in it. Nations are deter- 
mined not by dreams but by policies ; in a republic, policies are made 
by the people. When the people get tired of their job, it isn't a repub- 
lic. A few office holders cannot run a democracy, no matter how good 
they be. 

A nation of human beings is human. Therefore it can be good or 
bad. To be good requires effort ; to be a good nation requires general 
effort. One will search history in vain for record of any nation that 
ever drifted into perfection. On the contrary, they have all died in 
their due time, because they got to drifting. Enough people didn't 
care, or "couldn't leave the store," or "guessed someone else would 
attend to it." Even national conceit never saved them. The hope for 
America (in such Americans as have any other hope than conceit) is 
that this late land, founded on the creed that every man has a heart and 
head of his own and may be trusted to use them when he is not only 
given a chance to but is in honor sworn to use them, shall succeed 
in perpetuity where all lands have failed whose creed was that one man 
or a class could relieve the crowd of its responsibilities. 

There is, of course, no time in a republic when the citizen when 
can safely or decently shirk his individual responsibility. And can wk 

equally, of course, there are times when to be so busy with Shirk ? 

loans or real estate or literature that you cannot attend to your plain 
duty as a plain American i^ even more disastrous and more shameful 
than at other times. When ? In science, perhaps, the historic crises. 
To the individual, assuredly, whenever he thinks there is a crisis. Pos- 
sibly, also, we shall be held responsible for caring enough and using 
common sense enough to know if there is a crisis or not. 

To any sound mind it is probably not pleasant to harp everlastingly 
on one string. There are plenty of things between the cover of God's 
visible handiwork which almost any intelligence can find interesting. 
Certainly it is a morbid temper which prefers to be disagreeable, other 
things being equal. But it is only putty which dare not be disagree- 
able when other things are not equal. 

This magazine of course is published primarily for the West, heretic 
It is therefore used to being a " heretic." Seventy million EVEN in 

Americans do not believe the West is a good place to live in ; GEOGRAPHY, 

four million Americans do. But the magazine begs no one's pardon for 
disagreeing, early and often, with the 70,000,000. This is doubtless con- 
ceit. A vote of 17 to 1 ought to convince any modest person that two 
and two make three. Any man that will love a girl whom fifty men 
Ao not love (mostly because they never chanced to see her) is evidently 
opinionated. Yet you never knew a lover converted by that majority 
or by that taunt. 



I90 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

^H® One reason why this magazine prefers the West is that the 

BKTTBR West is more independent It hires out less of its thinking. 

WEST, jt is less content with hand-me-down clothing for its mind — 
be that mind 42-iuch or 29. And our West is the freer edge of America ; 
and America altogether is West to the countries that hold up their 
hands with a " please, ma'am, may I think ? " It began with a Declara- 
tion of Independence ; and to this day it never got any serious utility 
of any citizen who in his own person denies or forgets that declaration. 
He may '* bring money into the town ; " but he is no profit to his 
country. No nation can be independent much longer than it is made 
up of independent individuals. When a majority of its citizens will 
sell, barter, swap, convey, lend, dodge or loaf away their direct indirid- 
ual duty, then the country is sold out also. 

^^ Ai^D TTTF ^^^® magazine is a human product. It can make mistakes, 

-i — - Doubtless it does. But it will never make the last and vilest 

MiSTAKK. mistake of thinking it can dodge itself. It will never think 
that an American can get rid of his obligations as an American by 
moving West, or by running a magazine, or writing books, or conduct- 
ing a department store, a church, a college, a bank, a pawnshop or a 
potato patch. Whichever of these equally honorable industries he pur- 
sues, he is protected by American law ; and every American has a share 
and a duty in making that law, by his vote and voice. If he denies, re- 
nigs, dodges or sneaks out of that share, his country does not need 
him. This absurd Western magazine is published in the belief first 
that an American's soul is his own ; second, that his country has as 
much as a half interest in that soul. If it is mistaken, it has no fear of 
death. It would be sorry to live in an America where this was no 
longer true. 

WHAT It is not aimed at those who have the kind of mind to imagine 

IT IS that it alienates friends for fun or indigestion ; that it loves to 

NOT. lose money ; that it is a vehicle for vanity or a refuge for failure — 
or that friends, enemies, "policy," fear, favor, anonymous letters or 
signed ones, comfort or convenience or its own "tired feeling " will be 
reckoned in whatever it may happen to deem its obligations. Some of 
these obligations it heartily wishes it didn't have to feel ; but its inge- 
nuity has thus far been insuflficient to discover some way of putting itself 
to sleep. And as it could never permanently interest people who think 
it ought to doze, it is modest enough not to aim at them at all. 

SOM^ Philosophers agree that human motives are always more or less 

COi,D mixed ; and frankness must apply philosophy at home. Pos- 

FACTS. sibly even an inborn and undiluted American independence is 

fortified by the knowledge that it cannot be ** punished," as well as by 

the faith that it does not deserve to be. And for such as may need the 

information, certain plain, every-day reasons why may be set down. 

The Land of Sunshine) was not founded to let anyone into print, nor 
is it run to keep anyone there. It is not an asylum for the disappointed. 
A great many Western periodicals have been born simply because no 
Eastern periodical cared to relieve the promoter's itch for type. This 
magazine is based simply and solely on the faith that the West had a 
right to something better; that what is too illiterate for the East is too 
illiterate for the West ; that if such service is to be given at all it should 
be competent ; as cultured, as unfawning, as thoughtful as the temper of 
the West is believed to be. He gives little who only gives what he can- 
not sell. 

It is no reproach to make a living out of California. On the contrary 
it is as commendable as it is fortunate. But this writer has for five years 
been giving his living to California. To do justice to the labor of love, 
wiih the material at hand (since it requires more than double the work 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 191 

any Eastern magazine editor ever does"), has compelled him practically to 
cease from the literary activities which are far more " profitable " in 
money and reputation. It has compelled him to refuse an average of 
five books a year, and " articles " uncounted ; it has put him two years 
behind on contracts with the Harpers, the Macmillans and other respect- 
able houses. And it has been a matter of course, not of complaint or 
boasting. It is no credit — just sentiment. So long as California cares 
for the offering, so long it will be hers ; in love and faith and pride of 
her. And the indications are that she is not tired of it. And anyone 
who likes to imagine that anyone so foolish as to do this sort of thing 
will be '* wise " enough to count the cost, is — welcome to. 

The magazine has never printed a more reluctant page — nor a less 
apologetic. It has refrained for two years, under considerable provoca- 
tion. Being Western, it has aimed to be as clean from braggadocio or 
apology as high-class Eastern magazines are, if a little less timid ; and 
more free than vulgar Eastern magazines are. It has tried to keep 
high standards. Whether it has succeeded is best proved by the rock- 
bound fact that even the Eastern critics, and all of them, respect it ; that 
it has enlisted with it the Western writers who count. There is not a 
failure on its list ; not an incompetent using the magazine as a life-pre- 
server. It is a rally for the West's sake, of people who could get more 
money for the same work, who devote a percentage of their marketable 
brains to patriotism. It is the first time such a thing was ever done in 
the West — or anywhere else ; the agreement of a band of successful 
people to give money's worth and brain's worth to Western literature. 

Though Western and small, the magazine is conceited enough A.S TO 
to feel a right to its own manhood. It makes this explanation THE 

simply for those who honestly oppose or do not understand it ; OTHERS, 

not because it is afraid of them, but because it believes they have rights 
also. But that done, it turns to the Americans who need no explanation 
— the incomparably larger share of its clientage ; the men and women 
who do not agree with it in everything, but do agree with it in the 
thing upon which all else hinges. Many of them do not even know Cal- 
ifornia ; many care little for orange crops, frontier stories, Indian poli- 
cies. Western history, climate as a means of grace, or some other things 
the magazine cares much about. But they care about Americanism, and 
like It. To this class the magazine is proud to acknowledge its debt. 
They have enabled, and they enable, its faulty but single-hearted cru- 
sades. Probably no magazine ever had better cause to care for its read- 
ers ; and (in no vain glory, but simply as showing that it does not flatter 
in its estimate of the West) no Western magazine ever before had so 
many readers to care for. It has more subscribers and more business 
than any other monthly west of Chicago ever had ; and perhaps the 
reason is that it would sooner lose every subscriber and every advertiser 
than its respect for the West, which naturally includes self-respect. 

All educated Westerners will note with consternation that the how ark 
University of Chicago has decided to adopt "drummer" the FLIGHTY 
spelling. And not consternation only, but blushes ; for fallen. 

Chicago is near enough Western to be able to bring reproach on us. 
The only comfort is that this astounding sin of crudity and unculture 
was perpetrated only by a narrow majority in the university " congre- 
gation." 

The West has suffered enough aspersion of its scholarship ; mostly 
through the provincial ignorance of its critics — for it has hardly ever 
before given so sound a reason for criticism as this. And if Chicago is 
careless, the real West is not. We have high schools which could do 
such a thing, but, thank heaven, no colleges. California has two uni- 
versities in every respect equal to the University of Chicago ; in many 
respects far superior. Stanford or Berkeley could no more dedcend to 



192 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

these half-baked cacographies than they could vote to abolish literature. 

There are, indeed, many good men and some few learned ones who 
favor the deformed spelling, because they see only one side of the case. 
But this ''reform" is invariably a confession of ignorance of etymology. 
No man who really understands the legitimate descent of words ever did 
or ever will favor any project to make them vagabond bastards. The 
restlessness belongs only to those who do not quite know why words 
are spelled as they are. Their feeling is purely commercial; and 
while a "drummer" is entitled to use words, he isn't the man to de- 
termine them. 

These "spelling reformers" are generally good people. They would 
quietly reprove the Creator by making all trees equilateral, with 
branches opposite, straight and unvarying — their idea of '* order." And 
as God made trees disorderly, they can hardly rest till they have cut 
the trees down, run them through the saw-mill and the planing-mill, 
and then dyed the boards all the same color, and piled them in a nice, 
"regular" lumber-yard. How much superior their boards are to a 
forest ! 

Words are as natural growths as trees, and as eloquent of the soil 
they sprung from. Even when all are transplanted into the greatest 
linguistic woodland man ever swung in the branches of, you can tell 
the Australian eucalyptus and the Peruvian pepper-tree and the Mexican 
mahogany and the Ceylonese teak and the Himdlyan bamboo from the 
English oak. It is because of these exotics from every land that we 
have the noblest language on earth. The real "English" has been 
multiplied twenty-five times ; and our tongue today has five times the 
vocabulary of any other, twenty times Shakespeare's, forty times 
Homer's. And that is one reason why it is some trouble to learn, and 
some further trouble to spell. But those who are too lazy for it should 
frankly stand as bad spellers, not as reformers. Scholars have no diffi- 
culty in spelling English, and no desire to have it fall under the shears 
of those Noah's Ark gardeners who are never content till they have 
clipped a cypress into a " sore thumb" or a square hedge with balls 
on top. A surpassing beauty of English is that it is a garden of the 
world's flora ; their habit a little conformed, but their parentage 
uudenied. 

Not in scholarship only are these intermeddlers unripe ; they lack 
even a carpenter's sense. They try to measure everything by one rule, 
without knowing how long the rule is or whether there is a rule. If 
there is any way to " break all ten commandments at once" they do it 
with their " decalog." They write " thru" for through — but they dare 
not take their own u seriously. To and d/ue and d/ew and woo, and you 
and iwo and skoif — what are they going to " du" about these? And if 
they can make sAoe into "shu", what will they pervert sAoo into ? Put 
an accent ? But that's as much type as the old way, and more bother — 
and bother is their only devil. 

K is simpler than ch ; f than ph ; and it would not be hard to emas- 
culate our thousands of Greek words. The same sandpaper of igno- 
rance would obliterate many other nationalities of words. Of course 
the polyglot English cannot be dressed down to a multiplication table. 
All these gentlemen could do would be to take away the only safe rule, 
and substitute still more exceptions. But they will never be allowed to. 
There will always be enough scholars who know and love the tongue, 
and can spell it, to save it from the drummers, who neither know nor 
care. 

TRY ON It is uQt a matter of opinion, but of record, undenied by any 

THK one, that the Filipinos care enough for liberty to have fought 

SHOE. for it against tremendous odds for more than a year. They 

may not be fit to govern themselves ; but thus long they have baffled 



IN THE LION'S DEN. I93 

the attempts of the greatest nation on earth to govern them. That also 
is not denied. If the "rebels" are "only a few oppressors" of the 
vast bulk of the Filipinos, how does it chance that the overwhelming 
"victims" of the " dictator" don't help us out? If the " rebellion" is 
over, how does our Lawton get killed in battle nine miles from Manila? 
How would it do to judge these things by ourselves ? We may be too 
smart to acknowledge the Golden Rule, as by authority of the Man 
of Nazareth — one trouble with us, perhaps, is that we have so many 
people who are superior to him who was a Man, whether he was God or 
not — but there is no better business or legal test. We run our business 
on the standard that what we do not like people to do to us we should 
not allow them to do to others. And suppose we use this common- 
sense test on the Islands. What would we do if England were bringing 
us civilization and freedom, and we were her Filipinos ? There isn't an 
American who doesn't know. 

The Argonaut seems to be the only journal on the Coast with why 
foresight enough to see what the Imperial trend means to Call- wakK 

fornia. It means, of course, the sacrifice of California. We ^-^ ' 

cannot keep out nor fine the products of our new " possessions," which 
raise the same things that California does. We cannot shut subjects of 
the United States out of the United States, as we can — and have been 
obliged to — the alien Chinese. When we force the unwilling to accept 
this country as their country, then they must be free in it. All this 
means that the cheap products of Hawaii, Porto Rico and the Philip- 
pines are to come into the market in equal competition with California 
products, and that the coolies who raise those insular crops are to come 
to crowd American farmers. People such as build the homes which 
make California the garden of the world, cannot compete with Filipinos. 
And nothing — not even the moral wrong of "giving liberty" by giving 
death — is more astounding than the lack of Yankee shrewdness which 
characterizes this policy. "Our Islands" will be "a good thing" for 
syndicates, trusts, promoters (and I've nothing against these per se^^ 
and for a small number of merchants in San Francisco and New York. 
But to the people who produce, the men who have farms, fruit ranches, 
sugar-beet fields, garden homes, it will be a wedge of ruin. Ruin to 
their pockets. Whatever they think of the ethics of expansion, they 
will do well to take their business sense oflf back of the house and shake 
out the careless moths from it. The millstone is there, the hole is 
through it, and all they have to do is to look. If they know of any 
way to put a protective tariff between Arizona and California, or any 
method of keeping Coloradans from migrating to New York v/henever 
wages shall be forty times as high in New York as in Colorado ; if they 
are just aching for a competition that can produce the same things at a 
tenth of the price it costs them to produce these things — why, then, 
they had better turn over and resume their nap. 

Fortunately for all of us, genius has not yet been madea quali- THE OSES 
fication of citizenship. The country would be in a bad way if o^ Ta% 

a man who honestly uses all the brain he has were disqualified head 

because he has not more. And one very good use of brains is to know 
what better brains are doing. We do not have to invent a new language 
or multiplication table for ourselves, nor discover the law of gravitation 
nor in any otherwise flounder along as though no one had ever lived be- 
fore ; and amid their thoughtless millions now and then a Cadmus, a Co- 
lumbus, a Newton, a Huxley. Even in current life, it is just as well to 
know what the great thinkers think. Of course a great man can be mis- 
taken. But he is no more likely to be than a little man. His opinion 
does not absolve anyone else from thinking. IJut if we are going to be 
influenced by opinion, as we all are, more or less, we might as well lean 
on statesmen as on politicians ; on the intellects marked to outlast the 



OP THK 



[( ttkiversitt)) 



194 ' LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

ages, as upon the emotions of the music hall, the penny-a-liner, or the 
schemer, which notoriously perish tomorrow. And if we do not care 
much about brains, the same ** practical " rules we acknowledge to be 
the only sound ones in examining a witness in a petty larceny case are 
none too good to judge bigger things by. We invariably take account, 
in law and business, of ihe witness's " bias for or against." Is he preju- 
diced by love or hatred ? Is there *• any money in" his evidence ? If so, 
it counts against him. On the other hand, the man who testifies palpa- 
bly against his own "interest; " who tells the thing he is likely to be 
mobbed for, is weightier — unless to the mob. 

Certainly, for instance, men like James Bryce and John Morley and 
Herbert Spencer have no axes to grind in opposing the Boer war and 
holding England in the wrong. They are Easjlishmen — and patriotic 
ones, if there have ever been any. They are of England's greatest ; and 
on the other side is no Englishman their peer. They certainly do not 
hope to gain money or position or popularity by standing like rocks 
against the wave of popular excitement. They know that they will be 
cursed and hated — perhaps pelted — by multitudes of the mediocre (and 
less), whose children will live to parrot history which will be written 
precisely from the point of view of Bryce and his class. Multitudes arid 
furors do not make history ; they simply fill the docket the court passes 
judgment upon ; the judgment which endures when the litigants or 
offenders are forgotten. As for what Gladstone would have felt and 
done in this disgraceful war, of course every well informed man knows 
by what Gladstone did before, when the same great empire bullied the 
same little republic — and got a Majuba Hill for precedent. 

On the other hand, we have no trouble to see the motives of the con- 
scienceless Rhodes and Chamberlain, and those who can make money, 
fame, social distinction out of war's glory. And we would be very blind 
if we could not appreciate how easy it is for such '* interested parties" to 
play upon the homely, manly virtues of a mass less shrewd than they, 
though incomparably more honorable. As the devil can quote scripture, 
there was never a politician yet who said : "I am unpatriotic. God is 
against my plan. It is for our country's shame. But let's doit, for 
there's good stuff in it for me, and you fellows will enjoy hurrahing and 
won't really mind the taxes." Nay ! The song of the thievish politician 
is just as high-sounding as the song of the honest statesman. So the only 
safety for the plain man is to let songs go by, and decide soberly in his 
own head, and with disinterested advice, if he must have advice, just what 
is patriotism and what isn't. The reason why nation^ have made mis- 
takes in past history is chiefly that schemers realized how much easier it 
is for almost any man to fall in after the brass band than to keep his own 
way. It is easier for those who do not fall in as well as for those who 
do. For it has never yet been discovered that brains make a man less a 
patriot. And when it shall be discovered, it will be time to hunt around 
for a new kind of patriotism — one that can stand the light. 

A STRAW That the American people sympathize with the little Boer Re- 

IN THE public in its magnificent fight against odds, is certain. The 

WIND, newspapers don't count for much ; some are committed to the 
Administration, and others are partisans against it. And a partisan on 
either side of any question is never quite convincing. But the striking 
thing is that this sympathy of a republic for a republic is so strong and 
has been so felt that the Administration no longer dares to keep its atti- 
tude of polite contempt for the Boers, and its righteous conviction that 
the noble land which "stood by" us when we jumped oh someone 
cannot possibly do wrong. No student of affairs would need to read of 
crowded pro-Boer mass-meetings all over the country to know where 
the country stands. He knows by the sudden change of base at Wash- 
ington, r«f the emissary of the Transvaal. 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 



195 



A good American must have considerable trouble first, even if who ark 
he finally succeeds, in forgetting that the definition of a re- our 

public is hardly to be taken from that republic's enemy. En- witnhssks. 

glish politicians (mind I do not say England) declare that the 
Transvaal is not a republic. And that is all any American newspaper 
has to go on when it reprints the definition. But is anyone aware that 
the English politicians of that day thought the Thirteen Colonies were 
a republic? Or that they were good enough to govern themselves? 
They did not think so even in 1812, when they impressed American 
seamen and bullied the weak nation past endurance — and got nobly 
thrashed by the little boy they had bullied. Does anyone really ex- 
pect the present Ivord Norths to say, "Oh, yes, the Transvaal is a re- 
public, as ignorant and unwashed as the American Colonies were, 
though far more compact; but we find it convenient to suppress this 
republic before it gets too big " ? That would be a nice plea with which 
to come to Americans for sympathy, wouldn't it? 

Now, what is a republic ? Is it a property qualification ? Is it a 
country so big and so rich and so well manicured that it can do as it 
likes? Or is it any country, little or big, rich or poor, in homespun or 
Tuxedos, that calls itself a republic and fights to the last ditch, against 
hopeless odds, for the right to govern itself? 

If we are willing to despise any republic whose enemies say it . ^ «q 
isn't a republic, and that its desperate fight is simply to main- 
tain an unwashed oligarcy (though it doesn't seem to be the manhood. 

oligarchs alone who are holding at bay the largest army, and the best 
equipped, that England ever sent to any war), we certainly are not yet 
at a point when we can despise manhood. To every man with the 
breath of life in his veins, courage is good. Every man who is not him- 
self a cur, loves a hero. And the boy who faces a giant is a hero. The 
lyion has no reservations in admitting that Buller's "men are splendid." 
They are English soldiers, not English politicians. Their individual 
braverj'^ is tested and stands the test, and gives us all a new pride. But 
war is judged not only by the soldier but by the side. And there is no 
courage in the Imperial Goliath tackling the Republican David. Every 
American who inherited humor has doubtless reflected already that we 
have no columns in the newspapers telling us how *'brave" the people 
around the bulletin boards in Pretoria are, nor about the "grim, stern 
faces" in the Pretoria Clubs. And when we remember the yards of 
this interesting matter we have set before us from London, and that at 
the last census England (not counting Australia, Canada nor any other 
colony) has only about 39 times as many people as the Transvaal, the 
humor of the matter becomes hard to elude. 

The editor's series of studies of California, now begun in what 
Harper'' s Magazine^ ^ may have one special interest that can ex- tis.^ WEST 

cuse reference to it here. It is, perhaps, the first extensive means. 

consideration of the West from a purely Western point of view— and of 
course to be typically Western means to have been Eastern once. The 
only complete Westerner is one who understands both East and West, 
not only by study but by habit. In no other fashion under heaven can 
he quite realize how much the West means even to him. The most 
striking and the most vital philosophic fact about Californians is 
that they are converts, graduates, whose geography is determined by 
choice, not by chance. Yet all our serious books are by Easterners — 
far more talented, as sympathetic as one could ask, and almost all of 
them fired to prophecy even by a few wisely-focussed tourist weeks in 
the new world they write about. But all were outside. If they had really 
understood California they would be here yet — or their bones would. 

Janunry, 1000 It will be som« months b«f*r« th« steond artiol* can appMr. After tkat it is kopad to main- 
tain ttt« eontanMity. 



196 LAND OK SUNSHINE. 

They are like St. Anthonys philosophizing about love. They know that 
it is ; they know it is beautiful ; they have seen "a man leave father, 
and mother and cleave unto his wife." But they cannot translate it 
literally. They cannot even philosophize best, with a philosophy un- 
touched by love — for perhaps, in the higher sense, love is only un- 
derstanding. And they cannot quite understand how a Westerner feels, 
nor why he feels so. 

If it seems immodest at this date to write of a theme so much greater 
genius has been given to, it is at least immodesty which has tried to 
justify itself. Not only by the practical fact of experience, but by the 
humdrum of more patient and longer study. 

What California really is, why it is so, what it must mean in its own 
future and in the future of the nation it has so tremendously influenced 
for half a century — and is now to influence more than ever — trying to 
learn from every predecessor, but not afraid also to think, these articles 
are meant as much for Westerners as for Easterners. Much in them 
will seem revolutionary to the East ; but the writer will be genuinely 
grateful to anyone, anywhere, who will disprove any of his facts or un- 
dermine his conclusions. Any honest desire to teach carries the equal 
anxiety to learn. And it seems to him that one of the most tremen- 
dous lessons man can teach or learn is the real evolutionary meaning of 
the West. 

Senator Beveridge has been in lyuzon. Therefore " of course he knows." 
Probable he has also been in New York ; but there is as yet no wild 
clamor of New Yorkers to have him arbitrate their destinies. Not every 
tourist is a statesman. Even should Mr. Beveridge in some future vaca- 
tion make a voyage of discovery to the Constitution of the United States, 
he might return (still) the Boy Orator of the Wabash. 

The Lion has been accused of being " sarcastic.'* Maybe. At any 
rate he is never cynical. Cynicism is despairing and selfish. Sarcasm is 
a weapon of hope. It is to provoke thought. It may also provoke those 
to whom it is a bother to think ; but this is not its aim nor its fault. If 
people will think of their country as much as they should, they may 
think as little as they like of this aggravating fellow citizen. 

Messrs. Beveridge and Barrett, who speak for the Administration, 
wisely avoid discussion of morals and American history. Their only 
text is, how much money we can make by forgetting our history and our 
morals. Like good salesmen, they are here to talk faster than the cus- 
tomer can think ; but all they really say is $. 

A drummer naturally does not look to the Declaration of Independence 
or the Gettysburg address for arguments to sell a bill of goods. Neither 
do Messrs. Barrett and Beveridge, the Administration's commercial 
travelers. And for the same reason — it wouldn't help them, and they 
*' don't see what that has to do with it, anyhow. All you care about is 
the money." But— have they quite *' sized up" their customer? 

President McKinley, "swinging round the circle," assures us that 
"there is no expansion question — we have already expanded." So! 
The President has expanded ; and the people need not bother them- 
selves further. If they are real good people, they will not even talk 
about it. Now — what sort of a leaden counterfeit mind is it that can- 
not see how nearly this spells dictatorship ? 

Some very respectable people seem to imagine that the only way to 
be unpatriotic is to fail " to whoop it up" when the signal is given. 
This is an error. A man can be unpatriotic by being more kinds of a 
fool than Nature specified him to be. Also, by putting his mind in his 
mouth, leaving his conscience in the other pocket, and ** guessing that 
everything will come out all right." 

Chas. F. Ldmmis. 




It is very rarely, even in a time when 
brains are a fad ard writing their 
trade-mark, that a book so combines real 
worlh'with the qualities of almost universal interest 
as do the industrious and delightful volumes of 
Alice Morse Earle. Mrs. Earle has a good vital " nearness," with all 
her unimpeachable scholarship. She seems instinctively to know and 
be attracted to the most human side of a subject ; and thanks to this 
grace she makes very human what she has arrived at by tedious and 
arduous drudgery. Her researches in the dusty catacombs of the colo- 
nial days are thorough ; and thoroughness in history (or anything else) 
means drudgery. But from among these dry bones she has the splen- 
did gift to bring us forth beauty and life. Her latest volume, Child 
Life in Colonial Days ^ is a most handsome book of 400 pages ; admirably 
and fully illustrated, and of astonishing detail. For a fair comparison, 
it stands for more actual research, probably, then went to make the 
whole list of several hundred " timely " books already published about 
the Spanish War and its results. From a sober standpoint of scholar- 
ship, entirely regardless of political bias, it is w^orth the whole pot- 
boiling of them. And it is of even more universal appeal. It must be 
a peculiarly empty head and heart which can miss the interest of such 
a volume ; and certainly no American scholar, even in the most unlike 
direction, can fail to honor Mrs. Earle very highly for her characteristic 
labors. The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth avenue, New York. $2.50. 

If genius be in part the retention of youth — and in so hard a REai, 
definition it sometimes seems that the nearest solution may be ^^"^ " 

that it is to keep the young ability to feel and be impressed, boy. 

even after we are old and experienced enough to harness our impres- 
sions — why, Wm. Allen White (what's-the-matter-with-Kansas White) 
has a certain streak of it. For while most of us turn more or less sober 
cart-horses as the load of life is piled heavier behind us, he has kept the 
wild colts of imagination and desire, though his wrist has learned 
strength and certainty in their guidance. His recent Court of Boyville 
is a distinct intoxication to anyone that was ever within that jurisdic- 
tion. If at times perhaps a little conscious, it is an uncommon book — 
and uncommonly good. His boys are such boy boys I And his sym- 
pathy and understanding are so swift and clear as to be inevitable. The 
preachment at the outset is very warming; and the stories, as it were a 
recess from the dry school of Now, back every fellow to his old play- 
ground. The Doubleday & McClure Co. For sale by C. C. Parker, 
Iros Angeles. $1.50. 



It is also a Kansas White, but an unlike and steadier one who 
compels our less ready attention to a much more uncomfort- 
able theme. Doubtless all of us look a trifle askance at the 
problem novel — particularly of those impudent problems which ques- 
tion the eternal fitness of our stupidities. Aside from our natural dis- 
trust of any suggestion that we could possibly be improved, it is un- 
fortunately true that perhaps the average advocate of change is less 
reformer than rebel, less constructive than destructive — and less bal- 



2UITE 

ANOTHER 

COI.OR. 



^98 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

anced than either. It is hard to see new light without bccominj; a bit 
dazed. Enough in the usual ** reform " creed antagonizes our real 
sense to encourage and fortify our reluctance which is solely from 
habit. 

It is a fine triumph for Mr. White that he has written a novel hinged 
wholly upon the " University Settlement" without making a socialist 
tract of himself. The actual conditions he sees, sanely and clearly ; if 
in learning them, he has escaped forming theories, he is indeed a rare 
human ; but he keeps his theories in his head and writes only his facts. 
His attitude is in the proper sense judicial. The strongest criticism of 
the book is that it has not quite enough swing. It is too much a pic- 
ture, not enough the drama which is real so long as the footlights burn. 
The love of the patrician missionarying-girl for the mechanic is possi- 
ble enough, and indeed logical. But to bridge the chasms of fiction 
we must have not only logic but the compulsion of sympathy ; partic- 
ularly when the chasm is such Differences as have given Mr. White his 
title. But it is an uncommon book, in its restraint and in its ease. Mr. 
White (who is wintering in Southern California) is to be congratulated; 
and there will be a lively interest in whatever may be his next work. 
Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. $1.50. 

CRAWFORD'S Judged by the long standards (which are of course the only 

MASTER- safe ones) Marion Crawford's Via Crucis is the novel of several 

PIECE, years. It is an optimistic token, too, that such a novel has al- 
ready, in a few months, run up a sale of some 53,000. Vulgarities may 
sell better yet ; but we are not quite spoiled when a book of this stature 
can still be a popular success, as well as a joy to the judicious. One 
of the blessedest privileges nowadays is "not to have to" read the new ; 
but one really cannot afford not to read this masterpiece, perhaps the 
largest novel of the crusades since Scott. Its whole atmosphere and 
scope are rare in this day, or in any other ; and " Eleanor'* may safely 
be measured beside any heroine in fiction. The Macmillan Co., 66 
Fifth avenue, New York. $1.'50. 

^^ Of a charm wholly its own, an achievement quite worthy to 

TWO-FOLD rank with "Uncle Remus," and, besides the equal humanity, 

ART. an added touch of the artistic, Howard Weeden's Bandanna 
Ballads is one of the real gems of the year. The exquisite feeling, 
sympathy and humor of these genuine poems, which are among the 
best ever written of Negro life in the South, are matched only by the 
really wonderful photographic types which illustrate them. As one 
who has made perhaps as many photographs of types as any person 
alive, I must say that I have never see n so perfect a collection as that 
with which Miss Weeden graces her poems. Joel Chandler Harris con- 
tributes a worthy introduction. The Doubleday & McClure Co., New 
York. C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. $1. 

^*OM An uncommonly judicious compilation *' from the stores of 

CALIFORNIA English verse, made for the youngest readers and hearers," is 

EDUCATORS, ^ke Listening Child, by Lucy W. Thacher, of Nordhoff, Cal. 
It merits the high commendation so high a critic as Thos. Wentworth 
Higginson gives it in a foreword — "it has not often been my lot to en- 
counter [a selection] one so carefully thought out and intelligently 
arranged." 

The Thachers are constructive educators, whose thought and fame are 
far wider than the retired little Califoruian Eden where their activities 
are. The quality of Mrs. Thacher is evidenced in the sense of propor- 
tion her editing shows; and Mr. E. S. Thacher (who is a valued con- 
tributor to these pages) writes for introduction an inspiring and sound 
"Short talk to children about poetry." Ella Higginson is the only 
Western poet represented (she has four numbers), Joaquin Miller and 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. ^99 

Bret Harte apparently not being deemed quite the milk for babes. But 
here is a compiler with taste not to forget the most perfect memory in 
any eight lines of English — Leigh Hunt's matchless "Jennie Kissed 
Me." The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth avenue, New York. E. T. Good- 
year, 319-323 Sansome street, San Francisco. 

It has been a long time certainly, and in human probability it •*• GOOD 
will be as long a time again, that one must look about for an- SEA 

other who can write a sea-story with W. Clark Russell. And STORY, 

as he is no lubber at a love-story either, he makes the sort of tales that 
people sit up to read. His newest, Rose Island^ is all Russell — which 
means that it is a good deal easier to pick up than to lay down. H. S. 
Stone & Co., Chicago. 

One will not need to be reminded, in reading Prairie Folks ^ that Garland 
the writer is the identical Hamlin Garland with whom the same -^^ 

reader may often have been very much out of patience. It is homb. 

the same ; but not quite the same. The old hard strength is here ; 
the old merciless vision for the "practical" (which is apt to be as un- 
scientific in its verdict as dreamy idealism is) ; but, here, in their own 
despite, informed with some persistent stirring of romance. There is a 
rift in the sullen horizon, and a new light upon all the cold landscape. 
Perhaps it is a mere accident of allocation ; maybe Mr. Garland's 
least depressing stories happened to come free for a book at about the 
same time. At any rate, this seems to me the most satisfactory of 
his books. There is no diminution of his uncommon strength, and 
rather savage insight for savagery, by the new note of hope or of cour- 
age (which comes to the same thing) — the quality which so much lacks 
in his usual atmospheres. The rude life is all here, with its animalism, 
its roughness and hardness and meanness ; but it is no longer as one 
without hope. These short stories are of real power and stir. The 
Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth avenue, New York. $1.25. 

Mary Hartwell Catherwood's Spatiish Pe^^y is worth liking, WHEN 
even without its historic figures. It is a well digested and sym- Lincoln 

pathetically told little story of life in New Salem when Abe was young. 

Lincoln and Dick Yates were young men there ; and weaves them into 
the woof very effectively. For so simple and brief a tale, several char- 
acters — " Peggy," her Indian guardian and her Canadian boy-lover, the 
bearded hag and the villainous uncle — secure unusual hold. Several 
fine photogravures of scenes intimate to Lincoln's early life add much 
to the pleasure of a handsome book. H. S. Stone & Co.. Chicago. $1 .50. 

Love Made Manifest, by Guy Boothby, is a feverish novel, FROM 
which begins with boy and girl love in Samoa, turns on a con- LOVE TO 

quering literary hero who writes the play of the year in a LEPERS, 

night, and elsewise flouts the ravening editor and the usual experience ; 
marries a girl he doesn't love, because he is lonely (while she takes him 
to pension her father), falls in love with his Samoa girl now that she is 
married, runs off with her to the South Seas, and repents by nursing 
lepers. She dies, and he is shot by Mr. Boothby's idea of Spaniards. 
Love is made manifest enough in the book ; but none of it of a sort one 
would care to domesticate. Mr. Boothby is not uninteresting ; but he 
would be belter for a de-Gunterating of his temperature. H. S. Stone 
& Co., Chicago. $1.25. 

In Soldier Rigdale, Beulah Marie Dix has a story to tell of "^^ 
matters nearer home and our hearts than she told in Hugh COLB 
Gwyeth, but with the like formal underfstanding of a by-gone days. 

time. Her dealing is now with the *' Mayflower " and Plymouth Rock, 
and the little colony of the Puritans, and the hard and unlovely life of 



200 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

its first years. The hero is a twelve-year-old boy, whose name ** Miles " 
allows the fetching in of the title ; but Miles Standish and John Alden, 
and other historic figures are employed to the book's advantage. The 
Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth avenue, New York. $1.50. 

A STIRRING Cyrus Townsend Brady makes a warmly readable "romance of 

^^^ the War of 1812" in his For the Freedom of the Sea. Archdeacon 

STORY. Brady is nothing if not patriotic ; and his story, which in- 
cludes the fortunes of '* Old Ironsides " and several other mighty craft, 
is not only active reading, but a rather fair document just now as to 
Dear Old Kngland. Its color of the brutality and tyranny which drove 
us to our second war with Great Britain is not overdrawn. The story 
considerably atones for a general amateurishness of style, though not 
quite for such English as " had never failed to return from a cruise 
without the laurels of victory wreathed about her mastheads." Mean- 
ing, of course, exactly the reverse. Chas. Scribner's Sons, 153-157 
Fifth avenue. New York. $1.50. 

WELLS'S Naturally, Mr. H. G. Wells is neither Poe nor Fitz-James 

INGENIOUS O'Brien ; and no doubt he secretly thirsts for the blood of un- 
TALES. ripened friends who would make him so. But he certainly 
suggests both these masters, and not merely by category of the pseudo- 
scientific method in fiction, but by measurable approach in rank. He 
is doing their sort of story better than anyone else does ; probably bet- 
ter than anyone else has done since "The Diamond Lens" — and, withal, 
in his own fashion. The five stories which make up his Tales of Space 
and Time are all of an unusual mold. The first is perhaps weakest — for 
it is nearest imitation. But all are compelling ; and particularly the one 
with which he had least business, the " Story of the Stone Age," which 
is as elemental as it is ingenious. The Doubleday & McClure Co., 
New York. C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. $1.50. 

^^ Simple, manly and sound, M. J. Canavan's Ben Comee^ "a tale 

THE OLD of Rogers's Rangers, 1758-59," is of a fashion no longer com- 

SCHOOL. mon but none the less commendable. Its homely reality, un- 
decked with rhetorical plumes, will be effective with almost any boy ; 
for it tells of Colonial Indian -wars just as unaffectedly as the hero might 
have told them in real life. The Macmillian Co., 66 Fifth avenue. New 
York. $1.50. 

SOUNDING Violet Hunt's epigrammatic brightness does not fail her in 

THE The Human Interest^ nor her sensibility to small things. In 

SHALLOWS, fact, both qualities are marked in this study of a woman much 
more tolerable between covers than running at large. Other characters 
are subordinated — though sufficiently sketched — to this morbid *' Mrs. 
Biles" and her self-made world; the stage, whose star she is, and ap- 
plauding audience all at once. To live a lie is common ; to tell so well 
the living of so thin a lie and so believed by its inventor, is not so usual. 
H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

o^' In Orchard Folk Elizabeth Winthrop Johnson tells two Cali- 

OLDEN fornia stories one rather wonders not to have heard of before. 

CALIFORNIA.. Miss Johnson has been an occasional visitor to California for 20 
years ; and is here now — but she has learned something much deeper 
than the usual tourist horizon. The old and deeper things have ap- 
pealed to this quiet woman ; and one comes to admire not only her in- 
tuition for them, but her evident study. There is very little in all this 
book to criticise, and a great deal to commend, in local color ; and this is 
a good deal to say. The most structural criticism to be made of these 
two long stories is their deliberateness. They linger. Yet they have 
action enough, and humanity enough and a much more than average 
aptness of word. The Continental Pub. Co., New York. 



OP THK 

UNIVERSITY 

THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. 201 

The indefatigable Moses King, who does thejje things harder a notablk 
and better than anyone else, has issued a sumptuous, in- picture 

te resting and really valuable pictorial record, in a substantial gallery, 

volume, of Tke Dewey Reception in New York city. 

There are 980 views and portraits, showing every stage of the cere- 
monies ; and instructive, furthermore, as a gallery of the decidedly mis- 
cellaneous New Yorkers — from Goflf around to Paddy Divver, and from 
the President of Columbia College to the saloon-keepers — who were the 
officials of the occasion. 346 Broadway, New York. $5. 

Mrs. Schuyler Crowninshield is not only of the feeling for a Romance 
story — that native grace which cannot be acquired — but a sym- and 

pathetic observer. The heart-warming quality is strong in her color. 

San Isidro, a novel of the West Indies. The local color is at least as 
accurate as we may expect, and far more effectively used than average 
experience teaches us to expect. Love enough and high enough ; hate 
enough, and its fruits ; and a judicious use of climatic and social possi- 
bilities in the tropics — these and her sympathy have given Mrs. Crown- 
inshield to tell a very taking story. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

A particularly attractive book for young children — a little ^^^ 
older they will resent its condescensions — is The Wonderful ^he 

Stories of fane and John, by Gertrude Smith. Full of the young. 

right impulse, and generally guided by wise sensibility, these sketches 
of the wonderfulness of real things approve themselves. The illustra- 
tions by Alice Woods are unhackneyed and add much to the book. H. 
S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1 .50. 

The Macmillan Company, New York, began last month the publica- 
tion of a new magazine, The International, which promises to be gen- 
uinely important. The editorial board comprises an American, an Eng- 
lishman, a German, and a Frenchman in each of its twelve departments, 
and all famous men. The departments include history, philosophy, 
psychology, sciology, comparative religion, literature, fine art, indus- 
trial art, physics, biology, medicine and hygiene, geology and geog- 
raphy. $3 a year, 25 cents a number. 

Parts III and IV of Our Islands and their People, fulfill the promise 
of their predecessors. They are sumptuously jjrinted, portfolio size, 
each with a well done color frontispiece, a profusion of extremely good 
photographs, and the text to carry them. For their pictorial interest 
and information they are highly desirable. In 24 parts, 50 cents a part. 
The N. D. Thompson Publishing Company, St. Louis. 

The very title disarms criticism of Some Homely Little Songs, by A, 
J. Waterhouse. They are just that — and sometimes a little more — the 
uncounterfeit verses of a man you think you would like to know. Whita- 
ker & Ray Co., San Francisco. 

The Whitaker & Ray Co. , San Francisco, publish for Lillian Leslie 
Page a pretty brochure of her verses, under title Forget-me-nots. 50 
cents. 

A very tasteful " Lark edition " of Kipling's ' Mandalay " is issued by 
the Doxey Book Company, San Francisco. 75 cents. 

Toyon is a book of holiday recitations collected by Allie M. Felker. 
Paper, 35 cents. Cloth, $\ . Whitaker & Ray Co., San Francisco. 

Santa Claus and the Black Cat are yokefellowed by Wm. H. Venable, 
to point a moral in a genial pamphlet. Cincinnati. 

The New York World Almanac for 1 900 is as useful as its predecessors. 
Paper, 25 cents. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 



202 



TT 



1*1 
1*1 
ill 



I I II I I I T 



CALIFORNIA BABIES 



it 

V 




C . M. Davis Eng. Co. 



JUST SUN$mN^, 



The Land We Love. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



winter" weathkr. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



THE REAI. THING IN COWBO\c5. 



Photo byJ. L. Wayland, 



' The Southern California Fig 
Company. 

WHAT IT IS, WHAT IT HAS DONE, AND WHAT IT PROPOSES 

TO DO. 



! 




F ancient lineage, ancestral honor and past and pres- 
ent service to mankind make good the claim to aris- 
tocracy, then is the fig-tree aristocrat by triply un- 
assailable title. First of the trees to be called by 
name in our own Bible, the record stands that its broad 
leaves served to shroud the perish- 
ed innocency of the pair in Eden. 
Over and over again in the same 
familiar pages, its name appears, 
sometimes in bare mention of its 
accustomed use for food, more 
often to point a parable, to give 
sweetness to a promise or add 
terror to a threat. Not the least 
interesting of these allusions is 
the parable of Jotham, spoken 
more than three thousand years 
ago. This relates that on a time 
the trees went forth to anoint a king over them and said unto the fig- 
tree, Come, thou, and reign over us. But the fig-tree, weighted no less 
with wisdom than with fruit, declined imperial dignity, saying, Should I 
forsake my sweetness and my good fruit, and go to be promoted over the 
trees ? 

In other religious literature of the Oriental races, the fig-tree is given 
even greater prominence and honor. Indeed, it is to this day rever- 
enced as sacred by no inconsiderable portion of the human race. 

No cause for wonder here. Strange enough it would be if the fig had 
failed to root itself deep in the imagination and affection of all dwellers 
in lands of its maturity. Rapid in its growth, it may take up its ap- 
pointed task of fruit-bearing in the second year from its planting, yet its 
vigorous and prolific life may extend through many generations of men. 
The dense foliage and imposing size of some varieties add beauty to the 
landscape, while offering amply the shade so grateful in lands of the 
sun . Prodigal in its bounty — a quarter of a ton of fruit is no unusual yield 
from a single tree in one year — the harvesting is an easy task, for the 
ripe figs drop at one's feet. Delicate and delicious in flavor when fresh, 
highly nutritious and not without distinct medicinal value, the fruit may 
be cured or preserved at small cost and in a number of ways, and may 
then be kept indefinitely in store to add to the variety and relish of the 
daily diet. As far back as written or graven history runs, the fig is on 
record as an important source of food supply ; and countless ages back 
of any record, no doubt, our arboreal anthropoid ancestors (if such there 



-* tp-i 



THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FIG CO. 

were), thanked their primitive divinities (if such they had) for its pro- 
fuse gifts. 

From Egypt and Syria to Southern California is a far cry, and from 
prehistoric man to his more or less civilized descendants at the verge of 
the twentieth century is a farther one. Yet what has been written is but 
by way of introduction to a very plain and practical talk about fig cul- 
ture in Southern California and the particular opportunities in that di- 
rection now open to the readers of this article. 




TEN-YKAR-OLD FIG TREK IN THK "SMYRNA OF CALIFORNIA.' 
1899 CROP YIBI.DED 650 POUNDS OF FiGS. 



The fig was among the fruits first introduced in California by the found- 
ers of the Missions, and has been cultivated here with profit and advantag 
for more than one hundred and thirty years. At the present time there are 
probably something like 50,000 trees in bearing in the State, mainly of 
the black or purple varieties. In the season — which is a long one, ex- 
tending from early summer to late fall — the fresh fruit is freely eaten 
and highly relished by most Californians. But partly because the 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

choicest and most highly flavored varieties of fig had not been intro- 
duced on a commercial scale here, partly for lack of accurate knowledge 
of the precise conditions of soil, climate and cultivation necessary for 
the best results, partly on account of imperfect methods of curing and 
packing, California dried figs have not hitherto held equal rank in the 
markets with the Smyrna product. In consequence, the fig-raising and 
packing industries have remained entirely insignificant by comparison 
with the possibilities if properly developed. How great these possibili- 
ties are may be judged from the fact that the imports of Smyrna-cured 
figs to the United States last year approximated ten million pounds. 

The Southern California Fig Company includes men of proved business 
capacity, established financial standing, and extensive experience in 
fruit-raising in California. Its organizers have been experimenting for 
several years for the purpose of obtaining a process for curing and pack- 
ing figs which shall yield a product at least equal in flavor and keeping- 




OVERI^OOKING THE FIG PI^ANTATIONS. 

qualities to that imported from Smyrna. In this they are confident that 
they have succeeded. To give this achievement its fullest commercial 
importance, it was necessary at the same time to provide for a greatly 
increased supply of figs of superior quality to the average grade now 
produced in California. Accordingly these gentlemen have carefully in- 
vestigated the conditions of climate, soil, moisture and altitude under 
which the Smyrna fig reaches its greatest perfection, as well as the 
question of which varieties of fig are most profitable and desirable, and 
their precise requirements as to care and cultivation. The results of these 
studies have been applied in deciding just what locality in California 
promised the greatest certainty of success in raising the figs which the 
Southern California Fig Company will require for its packing and manu. 
facturing operation. What facts and principles controlled their decision 
will be stated in detail next month in this magazine. For the purposes 
of the present article, it is sufficient to say that there is in the western part 
of the San Bernardino Valley, near Ontario, a tract of land, limited in 



THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FIG CO. 

area, but, in the best judgment of the projectors of this enterprise, pos- 
sessing every requirement for raising figs equal to any in the world. 
This is not a matter of opinion alone, but is verified by the numerous fig 
trees in this district — the ** Smyrna of California," as it is entitled to be 
named — which have now been in bearing for more than ten years with- 
out the loss of a crop. (The illustration on a preceding page shows 
one of these convincing witnesses.) 

Now, nowhere else has the Company found all the conditions of the 
utmost success in fig-raising so perfectly united as here. It has therefore 
acquired a considerable part of the whole tract — almost 2,000 acres — 
which it proposes to subdivide into 20-acre plots, plant with the choicest 
varieties of figs, and sell at the actual cost of the land and improvements. 
In order that the trees may be cultivated and cared for in the most 
skillful manner, the Company have arranged for the services of an expe- 
rienced fig-grower, for many years in charge of a large plantation in 
Smyrna, and he is now on his way to California. The price paid by pur- 




A VENUE IN THE "SMYRNA OF CAWFORNIA." 



chasers of 20-acre lots will include the cultivation and pruning of the 
orchard for three years under the expert superintendence of this gentle- 
man. There will therefore be no necessary outlay upon the property 
after payment of the purchase-price, until the trees have come into 
free bearing. 

Further, the Company proposes, for the handling of fruit grown on 
their lands, to erect an extensive plant, comprising curing-grounds, pack- 
ing-houses, and buildings for the manufacture of such products as fig- 
jam, syrup of figs, fig biscuits, and preserved, crystallized and spiced 
figs. On the next page appears an illustration showing samples of figs 
preserved in various methods, which have been prepared by the Southern 
California Fig Company for exhibition at the Paris Exposition. Large 
as the demand already is for fig products, it is certain to be very greatly 
increased when the public becomes acquainted with the delicious pos- 
sibilities. For instance, the present writer can vouch for it that nearly 
ripe figs make a sweet pickle that is unsurpassed. 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Since the Southern California Fig Company expects to make its profits 
not from the sale of lands but by handling the fruit raised on them, and 
since the entire present product of figs in Southern California falls far 
short of meeting its expected requirements, it offers and wishes to make 
contracts for the purchase from the producers of their entire crop of 
figs for a term of seven to ten years at prices which will give a large 
annual return on the capital invested. With this guarantee of a satis- 
factory cash market, and the freedom from risk of crop failure, the 
Company believes that its fig-lands give opportunity for a most unusually 
desirable, secure and profitable investment, besides offering to the buyer 




PRODUCTS OF THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FIG COMPANY, AS 
THEY WILL APPEAR AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION. 



an opportunity of making for himself a perfect home in a perfect 
climate. 

This Article has of necessity been very general in its character, exact 
figures have not been given, and details have been lightly touched. Of 
one important point — the ideal charm of life in Southern California — 
nothing has been said. Next month, as already stated, the subject will 
again be taken up in these pages, and it will be shown why this par- 
ticular locality has been selected as the one best adapted for successful 
fig culture. The question of the cost of bringing a fig plantation into 
bearing and the returns to be expected will also be taken up. Meantime 
the Southern California Fig Company will gladly furnish the fullest 
particulars to any persons interested, at its office in the Stimson Building, 
this city, or by mail. 



' The Belgian Hare 




BY CHAS. C. CHAPMAN. 

HE BELGIAN HARE seems to have been introduced into this 
country at a most opportune time. While the demand for meat is 
constantly increasing, not only in the United States, but the world 
over, the supply of meat- producing animals is less than it has been 
for years. Settlers are encroaching upon the best of the vast graz- 
ing lands of the middle West which has hitherto supported count- 
less thousands of cattle. It is therefore a paramount question as 
to how the supply may be kept equal to the growing demand. 
The recent high prices have stimulated production in a measure 
and at the same time curtailed consumption. It is not desirable, 
however, that the demand should be lessened on account of the in- 
ability of the masses to afford a liberal supply of meat. 

The solution in a large measure of this perplexing question is the 
Belgian Hare. It has come into our midst to occupy an important 
place. It is scarcely possible to estimate the real value of an animal 
that will produce the superior quality of meat that this one does and at 
so small expense of both time and money. We have no hesitancy in 
afl&rming that any animal or fowl that will yield as wholesome and deli- 
cately flavored meat as ever was served to kings, at the nominal cost of 




'^A^e^ 



*^^m 



A NATDRAL POSER. 

lyieadow Brook Belgian Hare Company, Ix)s Angeles. 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

production of from two to five cents per pound, will meet with popular 
favor among all classes, rich and poor alike. This in the main is the 
secret of the unheard-of reception given the Belgian Hare wherever in- 
troduced. All who come within the radius of its charmed circle are 
soon smitten. The little animal not only wins for itself admirers, but 
makes enthusiastic supporters of most of those who give it the least 
attention. Its graceful form, docile, even affectionate disposition, and 
readiness to reciprocate attention, attract and hold those who become 
acquainted with it. It soon becomes a pleasure to work with it, and to 
those who have a few hutches filled with good stock, no more fascinat- 
ing employment can be found than caring for them. 

Apart from the splendid meat-producing quality of the Belgian Hare, 
which must ever be its chief merit, it possesses, as previously intimated, 
an interest for fanciers that is equaled by few animals. It is susceptible 




I,ORD I<URGAN ( IMPORTED). 

Lord Lurgan Rabbitiy, Los Angeles 

of such high breeding, attaining perfection in so many points, as meas- 
ured by the standard established by the National Belgian Hare Club, 
that there is really thrilling interest in breeding the highest types. 

It must be understood that there are various grades of the Belgian 
Hare from the ordinary thoroughbred to the beautiful and graceful, 
even dainty animal, that scores from 94 to 96 points, being almost per- 
fect in every essential requirement. Such animals differ from ordinary 
stock quite as much as a fine Kentucky thoroughbred horse from a 
bronco. This statement is based upon actual observation, for the most 
perfect specimens of the Belgian Hare known in the world are owned 
in and about L/OS Angeles, where they may be seen daily. It is evident 



THE BELGIAN HARE. 

that this stock radically differs from that which filled the hutches of 
our rabbitries six to nine months ago. 

Some of the breeders were quick to comprehend the situation, realiz- 
ing that, as with other animals, the big money was to be made in raising 
the highest types. They immediately set about securing the best stock 
in this country. Not satisfied with the acquisitions thus made, however, 
and sparing neither money nor pains, they began to import from Kng- 
land. Several of these gentlemen have crossed the ocean, spending 
weeks in England in making their selections, and to show that they 




THE SIRDAR 

Glea Ellen Rabbitry, Los Angeles. 

have skimmed that country of her finest specimens, her prize-winners 
and champions, we point to such specimens as Palace Queen and Fashoda 
pictured in this article, and other late victorsof her exhibitions, includ- 
ing the Challenge Cup Winners of the last two annual Crystal Palace 
Shows held at lyondon. To this evidence is added a significent remark in 
a recent letter from a gentleman who is now on the ocean with his pur- 
chases. He said, " The next man who comes over after stock will have 
a hard time of it. The breeders have sold about everything they had^ 
even to their best yonng stock and finest breeding does." 

There is really no further necessity of making these long journeys 
and hazarding valuable stock, even under most favorable conditions, by 
shipment of six thousand miles. All of the leading strains that became 
famous in England are here in their purity, and the progeny, being 
produced by our intelligent breeders, give evidence of even being 
superior to any stock yet imported. 

Southern California has wrested, not only the claim of Denver as 
being the home of the leading breeders of this country, but we believe 
has robbed England herself of her right to the distinction of having 
the best stock. Indeed Lord Lurgan, pictured on another page of 
this article, was purchased from English owners for $400, the highest 
price ever given for a Belgian hare. Such an animal nevertheless 
usually pays for himself in about two months. Animals have been 
sold from some of our leading concerns at figures never dreamed of by 
breeders in other sections. Nor is the heavy demand for stock the only 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

explanation for these long prices. The fact is, no such superb animals 
were ever known to this country as some which, when less than six 
months old, have sold for from $100 to $300 apiece. It at once becomes 
an interesting business when stock finds buyers at such prices, and sales 
at these figures are by no means uncommon. 

It is quite difl5cult to name the characteristics of the fancy Belgian 




LORD BRITAIN. 

Me idow Brook Belgian Hare Company, Los Angeles. 

hare so that they may be fully appreciated and comprehended without 
the specimen being seen. There are, however, some points that can be 
emphasized which will aid in making selections, even among medium 
grade stock. The head should have no tendency to beefiness, but be long 
with thin chops, a good sized eye, round and bright but not bold. The 
back of the head should stand out well from the neck, while the latter 
should be free from stockiness. The ears should be fine rather than 



W^SBSKB^M 


K^ 








■Hi 



SECTION OF A MODEL RABBITRY. 

Becker's Babbitry, Los Angeles. 



thick in texture, carried erect, rather close together, and five inches in 
length at maturity. In America there is a tendency to breed for ears 
too long and large. When such is the case they are apt to be coarse 
and heavy and fall apart and lop. The front view of head pictured in 



THE BELGIAN HARE. 




CHAMPION FASHODA. 

Bonanza Rabbitry, Los Angeles. 



this article 
should stimu- 
late fanciers to 
greater efforts to 
measure up to 
such a speci- 
men. 

The body 
should be long 
as per illustra- 
tion of Lord Brit- 
ain, well arched 
as shown by 
vS i r d a r, with 
round loin. The 
girth over 
paunch should 
be very nearly 
the same as at 
the heart,affbrd- 
iug that racy 
appearance so 
much sought 
after. The front 
legs should be 
long, straight 
andfineinbone. 

In color the 
hare should be 
a rich red, bor- 
dering on ma- 
hogany tint. 
This should be 
well carried 



down on to sides to a 
cinnamon colored 
belly. The fur should 
be as free as possi- 
ble from blue color. 
White markings 
must be confined to 
the underneath 
portions of the 
body. Ticking, 
which consists of 
the black tipping 
on ends of the 
hair over the 
back and carried 
down somewhat 
on the sides, should 
be wavy and 
plentiful. This 
is one of the 
finest points to be 
attained. The front 
feet should be of an 
even red, and the 




^^2i*^ 



wr^' 



FASHODA, JR. 
Fashoda, Jr., Babbitry, Los AngeleF. 




YUKON BOY. 
Hadley's, Lamanda, Oal. 

hind ones as nearly so as possible. The ears should be well laced, 
which means a well defined black edge around the tips. 

The standard for weight is eight pounds for a mature specimen. 

According to the standard there are certain disqualifications. These 
are lopped or fallen ears, white front feet, or white bars on same, and 
decidedly wry (carried to one side) tail or front feet. 

As an evidence that the English people appreciate the meat produced 
by the Belgian hare we are informed that they import annually from 
Belgium $3,000,000 worth of it. This, besides that produced at home, 
would indicate that millions of animals are slaughtered every year to 
supply the Knglish market. No effort has been made in Belgium for 
high breeding, and they have nothing in that country but the common 
stock, which lack the rich, delicate flavor of the meat produced by the 
best types. We do not expect the common Texas cattle to yield beef 
equal to our highly-bred Herefords. The same law will apply to the 
Belgian hare. There can be no question that the demand for the 
meat in this country, when the merits of the Belgian are known and 
the supply sufficient, will be enormous. There need be, we believe, 
no fear of an over-production, when it can be put on the market at 
from 12 to 15 cents per pound, for at that price it is cheaper than 
we may hope to be able to purchase other meats, even of a far 
inferior quality, and at the same time money can be made in raising 
them at those prices. 

There are some characteristics of the Belgian hare which demand 
consideration for it from people of all sections. In the first place it 
is so very cleanly in its habits. None of our domestic animals compare 
with it in this respect. It can be confined in what would be considered 



THE pELGIAN HARE. 




LORD BANBDRY, JR. 

Los Angeles Rabbitry. 

very small quarters without detriment. Indeed it seems to thrive best 
when kept closely. Under these conditions its meat is undoubtedly 
more tender and better flavored than it would be were it permitted to 
run at large. 

In its ability to produce its young rapidly, the Belgian Hare is a 
marvel. In this respect, also, it has no equal among the whole 
catalogue of our domestic animals or fowls. 

The insignificant cost of keeping the animal supplied with 
proper food is another point greatly in its favor, and in connection 
with those above mentioned, certainly commends it to the con- 
sideration of householders everywhere, and to those who wish to 
make the breeding a business, these essential advantages are of no 
small moment. 

It has proved immensely profitable in Southern California, and 
we see no reason why it will not in other sections if followed in- 
telligently. It requires but small capital to begin with, and in a 
remarkably short time sales can be made of stock produced in your 
own hutches. 

We hear many reports of fabulous amounts made in the Belgian 
Hare business, some of which we are inclined to regard as quite 
highly colored. It is hardly possible for one to begin with a single 
pair of hares, and in three years, after having sold |1 5,000 worth, 
have a plant valued at $20,000, all the accumulation of the original 
investment. This statement we have just read in a leading East- 
ern magazine as the achievement of a Los Angeles man. 

We have no desire to mislead anyone by overdrawn statements 
as to what might be reasonably expected by those who wish to go 
into the business. Like every other line, much depends upon the 
genius and adaptability of the management. For the amount of 
cash invested, and with ordinary business sagacity, we believe it i^ord Britain. 
will prove in general, not only an attractive, but a lucrative busi- 
ness, either as a little side enterprise, or as an exclusive calling. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



®r 



The Coming Exposition. 

\0 the American Breeders of Belgian Hares, a Ivos Angeles corporation, belongs 
the credit of preparing the most unique and elaborate pet-stock exhibition 
ever held in any country. This will be held in Hazard's Pavilion, I^os An- 
geles, February 8th, 9th, and 10th, and will show the Belgian Hare in every phase 
of his life and value. Prizes in gold will be awarded aggregating two thousand dol- 
lars and special prizes amounting to a much larger sum. The entries, which are 
very numerous, include the finest specimens in the world. Some of these are native 
bred. Others have been imported at great risk of loss en route and at prices which 
astonish the average citizen not a dealer. 

When a single Belgian Hare first sold in I^os Angeles for $250, people laughed in- 
credulously. Yet the investment proved to be a splendid one. Later, citizens of 
Los Angeles went to England and purchased the finest specimens to be had, regard- 
less of prices. These importers gave their personal attention to bringing their im- 
portations across the Atlantic and landed them in Los Angeles in the pink of con- 
dition. Some of these brought much more than |250 each, and their new owners 
justly considered them bargains at the prices paid. 

Something about the Belgian industry appeals to every lover of animals — and 
every normal person is a lover of animals. There is a fascination in breeding and 
rearing so sensitive and beautiful a creature entirely apart from its value as an arti- 
cle of food or trade. Undoubtedly this feature of the industry has appealed most 
strongly to the merchants, bankers, lawyers, writers, physicians and teachers who 
have become enthusiastic fanciers of the Belgian. These will find that their inter- 
est will grow keener as their knowledge of the Belgian increases. 

Ladies invariably admire the rich color of the best specimens, the soft, satin luster 
of their coats and the novel blending of attractive shades. Abroad, the fur of the 
Belgian is prepared by a process of dyeing into what is known as "electric seal,'* 
and by a process of plucking, into fur of a rich dark-brown color, greatly admired 
wherever known. 

The exposition that is to take place under the auspices of the American Breeders 
of Belgian Hares will be of great value in many ways. Breeders will learn to esti- 
mate values by comparisons and will become acquainted with each other. The pub- 
lic will not only see the finest specimens alive, but will have an opportunity to taste 
the dainty flesh of the Belgian prepared in appetizing forms. The old-world epi- 
cures have feasted upon this meat for many years, but it is a novelty here. Gar- 
ments made from the fur will also be on exhibition. The managers confidently ex- 
pect an attendance of at least fifty thousand people. 

This exposition has already cost an immense amount of time and energy on the 
part of its promoters. When one stops to think that eighteen months ago there 
were no Belgians worth mentioning in Southern California, and that hereafter Los 
Angeles will be the recognized center of the industry, one sees another striking 
proof of the fact that California never lags along the path of progress. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Lamd of Sumshinb." 

Meadow Brook Belgian llare Company 

Breeders, Importers and Exhibitors of High-class Belgian Hares 

WE HAVE THE LARGEST ESTABLISHMENT 
OF THE KIND IN THE WORLD 



At the head of our Rabbitry of nearly 2000 hares are the famous 

(4 f r\f*/4 |^t«f "i-Cl i f^ " The best known and highest-scoring buck 
i-^Ul CI Dl 1 Ldlml in America, and the great 

English Champion "Dash*' 

Winner of Challenge Medal, 13 Firsts and 8 Specials. 
Among our other Imported Bucks are 

»*Lord Kilby,'* "Lord Nason," Prince Priory," "Banbury Duke," 
**Cirimsby Star Second," ♦'Lord Somerset," **Sir Edinboro" 

SERVICES FOR BREEDING FROM $7.00 TO $25.00 




A CORNER OF OUR OFFICE 

Among our prize- winning and high-scoring Does are to be found 
Champion ♦ ♦ Palace Queen ' ' winner of challenge Cup, Crystal Palace, I,ondon, 1899, and 

16 firsts and 10 specials. 

Champion *♦ Banbury Queen" winner ofis firsts and lo specials. 

** Lady Flash " winner of Medal, 4 firsts and specials (only times out). 

** Beauty of England" winner of3 firsts and specials (only times shown). 

We safely ship to all parts of the United States. Every animal leaving our establishment guar- 
anteed as represented. For full information of the Belgian Hare send for our beautifully illustrated 
32-page souvenir catalogue, sent on application. It will tell you all you want to know of this little 
animal. Enclose 2-cent stamp. Address, 

References by permission : McadoW BfOOk Belgian Hare Co. 

The Los Angeles Nat'l Bank oo^oooo x»-^ j* 

The Bank of California 831-833 Soxitb Grand Ave., 

A. K. Crawford, Capitalist I^OS ANGEIiBS, CAI,, 



When answering adTcrtisements, please mention that you '* saw it in the Land of Sxtmshinx." 




HIGH-CLASS 
BELGIAN 
HARES 



BARRED 
PLYMOITH 
ROCKS 



LAMANDA PARK^ CAL. 

P\ON'T buy stock from sickly herds. Health is an essen- 
tial foundation. What is color, lacing, length, etc., if 
the animal is sickly ? 

My pens and runs are roomy and healthful ; my ranch 
is situated at an altitude where the climate is most equable. 



YUKON BOY 

Sire "Champion Yukon'* 
Dam "Melba." 

PURCHASE PRICE/ $250,00 

POINTS, 95 >i FINE. 

p. E. CKABTKEE, Judge 




J 



Is fully worthy of his honors. Strongly featured, entirely red. His service 
will enhance your stock and give you prize winners. 

Young by Yukon Boy and several choice does which were sired by Lord 
Britain and scoring 92^ to 94^, will be ready for sale about May or June, 1900. 
Other choice stock at all time. 

IvOCATiON OF Ranch— Midway between L,amanda Park and San Gabriel, half a 
mile North of San Gabriel Sanitarium. If notified in advance conveyance will meet 
visitors at Lamanda Park or San Gabriel Depot. 

Address, L.. D. HADL.EY, 

Box 143 Lamanda Park, 

Los Ang-eles Co., Cal. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshiwb. 



>^iL^ 


r^ 


y^ja^ 


SDNFLOWEB 


BHBBITBY 


I^BIVITRY 


^^r^ 


T'Tl^ 



BREEDING CAPACITY, 2,000 ANNUALLY 

Ten Separate Strains of Blood ; Ground-floor Pens and Scientific 
Breeding Practiced; Pairs and Trios mated not akin. 




SIR DASH, Imported 

At head of herd. A magnificent specitnen of royal breeding. Rich in color, 
with an abundance of ticking for his age, seven months, promising with a 
few months more of age, he will be the peer of any imported Belgians. He 
possesses, in particular, one feature that is greatly sought after and rarely 
found in European- bred stock and that is size, coupled with fineness of bone 
and extra length of front legs. 

This buck was selected especially to mate with the particular type of does 
that I have, and his young promise to go beyond my highest expectations. 
Service fee $10.00 for month of February only. I am now booking orders for 
young from Sir Dash out of Bessie Ivce, Lady May, Bonanza Belle, and 
daughters of Rochdale. Extra inducements offered to purchasers of large lots. 

Thirty breeding does, unexcelled for beauty, quality and vigor. Prompt 
attention and unquestionable reliability assured. Circular for stamp. 

Mrs, J. F. BOYD 

416 East Twenty =third St. 

Take Maple Avenue Car. Los Angeles, Cal. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you ** saw it in the Land of Suxshine.* 

I East Washington Rabbitry 



We are prepared to furnish young from eight or 
nine of the best strains in this section and others 
bred by ourselves. Perfectly healthy. Prices rea- 
sonable. Address or call on 

C. S. HOGAN 

Pres. Am. Breeders of Belgian Hares (Incorporated) 



787 EAST WASHINGTON STREET 



Los Angeles 
California 



(jur Stock Includes 


it 


the Following Blood 


St 

if 


FASHODA 


j( 


LORD LURGAN 


St 

if 


TRINIDAD 


RED SOVEREIGN 


St 


ROCHDALE 


i 


LORD BRITAIN 


St 

If 


YUKON 


St 


SIR STYLES 


It 


KLONDIKE 


It 


NUGGET 


St 



5 CROWN RABBITRY 

y Breeders of HIQH = QRADE BELGIANS 

We have stock from such Qf the PoDular Strains 

noted sires as '^ 

Lord Britain, Lord Duffiner, King Leapold, Sir Styles, Sir Banbury and Dexter. 



I 



We are offering young stock from these grand sires at prices that are within 
the reach of all. Breeding does at all times and at reasonable prices. Write 
A for free book on Belgian Hare Industry. Correspondence solicited. Jj 

i CHAS. N. TUFTS, 144 W. 33d Street, Los Angeles, Cal. C 



Lord Lurgan Rabbitry 

Lord Ivurgan, the most superb animal ever 
brouerht from England. The result of the first 
personal trip, an expert judge, and the largest 
price ever paid for a pair of hares. Biggest 
money in best stock. Service fee |20.00. Healthy 
young from best matings at reasonable prices. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. 

226 E. Adams St., l.o^ Angreles, Cal. 



New York Poultry Ranch 

Third and Reno Sts., lios Angeles, Cal. 

Breeder of Thoroughbred White Wyandottes, 
White and Barred and BuflF Plymouth Rocks, 
Light Brahmas, Black Minorcan, White, Brown 
and BuflF Leghorns. We can sell you chicks from 
one day old upward by the dozen, hundred or 
thousand. Incubator capacity 2500 eggs at one 
time. BELGIAN HARES at moderate prices 
head by Son of Britain. FRED. F. WHEELER, 
Proprietor. 



START RIGHT 



or you are bound to start over again with a ^ 
^ loss of valuable time. i 



Our Babbitry is 
Headed by . . . 



SIRDAR 



Sire, Champion Dash 
Doe, Champion Priory 



Fee, $10.00 



f We have also other prize winners, such as S 

§ LORD PEERLESS, Sired by Lord Britain, and DON GI. ADSTONE, Sired by Banbury, Jr. ^ 
5 Fee, $6.00. The very finest stock for sale. i? 

I GLEN ELLEN RABBITRY, 524 E. Eighth St., Los Angeles, Cal. \ 

I At home after 1 o'clock p. m. Closed on Sundays. 5 

gn^n^njgm. ^n^n^n^m. ^t(dn,d'jt* ^ma^^njr* a- «^^<T«jri< b-*^*,*^*-* ^K^n^n^^^w.,/n,^w,f ^m^n^Kifw^mj^K,tT»jtnj^mjtni^njm^njt*i^n^n^%itM.^fr M^^jr^^ 

G. F. CONANT 

1325 South Los Angeles Street 
Los Angeles, Cal., 

! Can sell you the finest ol Standard Bred and 

1 also Heavy Weight Belgians. The first to show 

and the latter to raise for meat at correct prices. 



•:*i*^^;^ 




JOHNSON'S RABBITRY 



Telephone Main fgQ 



I have for sale some of the best BELGIAN STOCK 
such as 

Lord Britain, Lord Lurgan, Prince Albert, Champion Dasli, and Dasli, Jr. 

Write or apply:to G- G* JOHNSON 

tt9 South Broadway, Los Angeles, CaL 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Scnshikb. 



Rosewin Rabbi try 



919 West Adams Street 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



m 
^4 



m 

i 

P 

i 

m 



Do you want Imported Does or Bucks that score 94}4 to 95)4 ? If so 
we have them cheaper than you can buy them elsewhere. 

Also youngsters from such high class stock at very low rates. We 
have some lower grade stock cheap. 

PRINCE IMPERIAL 

A Perfect Beauty At Stud. 

AND THE GREAT 

SIMON BUCK 



^ that beat three noted winners at Doncaster. The longest bodied, best ^ 

^4 shaped and longest limbed, with absolutely the best Ear Lacing ever seen SsS 

^% on a Belgian. The finest buck in England, say the noted judges, has i^ 

^ arrived and is at stud. Fee for either of above bucks, $25.00. ^^ 




Willey's Belgian Rabbitry 




High Class 
Pedigreed 
Stock 
Headed by 

ynj. 



(Name Begistered 
Trade-Mark) 



YUKON, J 11. (Registered) 



This buck has perfect symmetry and color. Observe the grand arch. 
Close seconds are 



Lord Wantage" 

Imported 



"Telramund" 

Imported 

Among my choice does is «« Champion Denham Duchess,'* winner of 
many firsts and specials, beating the cup winner at Leamington, the only 
time they met. Call or write for full particulars. 

J. r. WILLCY, 1239 East Eighth St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Irighter hearts and stronger bodies follow the use of Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters. 

At grocers. 



a 



Wtieu answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I^and of Sonshikb." 



BECKER'S Babbitry 

208 W. THIRTIETH ST. 



ONIiY CHOICE, W£LI.-BR£:D 
BELGIAN HARES 

Stock Shipped to all Points 



BRITAIN METEOR and SIR ALBANY 



AT STUD 



This Rabbitry contains blood from the LEADING STRAINS of Belgian 

Hares of this day. 

Address L. C. BECKER, 
POTOMAC BLOCK LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 



The Sanborn Rabbitry 



'-TuxruTjrTJTJxrriJiJxnjijrirLnnrLa 

Shipments made to all parts ? 



of the United States. 






? Breeders of High-class Pedigreed Belgian Hares. Breeding stock and young stock 

P from well known strains always on hand at reasonable prices. Satisfaction guaranteed and 

P correspondence solicited. 

h i^i»nV%ttf\T Qp^rrinrl '^^^ ^^^^ °^ °"*" Babbitry is a fine specimen, both for 

d Udll UUI y OCC'tf IILI, length and color, and direct from imported stock, out of 

2 Lord Banbury and Dora, whose pedigrees contain such names as the famous Malton Mystery, 

b winner of forty first prizes, Champion Excelsior and Lady lyundy. Visitors always welcome. >. 
5 E. F. SANBORN, 3836 West Pico St., Los Angeles, Cal. C 

OlJl/UTJTJTJXriiXriJUTJTJl/lJXnJTJlJTJ^^ 



Clover Leaf Rabbitry 

Highest Grades of Belgians a Specialty 

Stock from numerous popular strains. 
We also have the lovely Spotted Russians, Black 
Belgians and the beautilul Silver Blues (Blue 
Fawns). Mail orders carefully attended to. 
Correspondence solicited. 

581 San Julian Street. 



OccidentaJ Babbitry ^^ 

242 East Twenty=seventh St. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

special attention given to out-of-town orders. 
Large Stock. Best Strains. 



gjrijajTJTJxririJTJTjanjTJTJxrLruxnixnj-Ln nrup 

LOS ANGELES RABBITRY 




Pens headed by the famous bucks 

AMBROSE 

LORD CLEETHORPES 

LORD BANBURY, Jr. 

Please note, their ancestors consist of the Crystal Palace winners 
and other blue- bloods of England. Unnecessary to go into details 
in describing them, as they simply have no peer for shape or color, 
and they have proven their power to reproduce their likeness, 
many of their progeny being valued as high as $150 each. 

During next few monthe will have for sale over 100 fine young- 
sters sired by these grand bucks and from high-grade does. Will 
also have for sale a number of mature does. 

Price of stock and service fees reasonable. 

VISITORS WEI.COMK CORRKSPONDKNCE SOLICITED. 



E. BAMESBERQER, Mgr., 



L309 Winston Street. 



injfi 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Land of SxriraHiNX." 



Sunset Rabbitry ^^02 w. pico st. | 



Hi 

in 
Hi 

I W- C. SHORT, Prop. I 

i H^^^r BELGIAN HARES | 

jSj We are pioneers in the hare business and with our method of breeding and 5 
iti blue-blood stock have produced specimens of the highest types. jj 

^ Our stock is of such well known strains as /fk 

I CHAMPION YUKON f 

t LORD BANBURY S 

I CHAMPION FASHODA | 

$ Ch. Malton Mystery, Ch. Climax, Ch. Western Queen, Ch. Royal Sovereign, if^ 

jJ winner of Challenge Cup Crystal Palace Show,'97; Imported Rochdale, Ch. J 

ik Priory, Prince Albert, etc. jj 

il^ We are booking orders for future delivery of stock from our noted does, ifi 

jjl Lady Alden, Sunset Bell, Queen Elizabeth, Rosa Bonheur, Duchess, etc. J 

iif Stock purchased direct guaranteed. * i* 

it, Correspondence and visitors a pleasure. if 

* PICO HEIGHTS CARS PASS THE DOOR. J 

The Fashoda, Jr., Rabbitry 

Owners of the Peerless yot^ng Btsck FASHODA^ JR*^ Imported 

Son of Champion Fashoda. Healthy, vigorous, perfect in shape, beautiful in color. 
He is one of the finest specimens in the city. Fee, $10.00. 

We have in stock such strains as Fashoda, Jr., Champion Dash, Sir Styles, Lord 
Liverpool, Lord Lurgan, Lord Britain, Yukon, Nonpariel, etc. 

Prices very reasonable. Correspondence solicited. 

THE FASHODA, JR., RABBITRY 

1701 New England Avenue, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Blue Ribbon Rabbitry,^ 



504 WASHINGTON ST., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
Breeders of High Grade Bei,gian Hares. Owners of the Famous Bucks 
LORD YUKON ^ DUKE OF YORK, JR. ^ RED JACKET, JR. ^ YUKON CHIEF 

Several Yukon Bucks For Sale ; Score 93 X to 94 >^. Standard and Heavy Weights 
for sale at all times. Exhibition specimens a matter of correspondence. Write 
your wants. Ask for Booklet on the Belgian Hare. All stock sold as represented or 
money refunded. We ship in extra light crates. 

Hummel Bros. & Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 

Brown's Belgian Rabbitry 




Sir Styles, Imported. 



Booklet mailed free. 



Is one of the largest and best equipped 
rabbitry's in the West, containing over 3C0 
thoroughbred pedigreed hares. Headed 
by such bucks as " Sir Styles " and " Lord 
Lumb," imported from England. "Trini- 
dad" and "Son of Lord Banbury." These 
bucks are all grand breeders and have a 
national reputation. My "Lady London" 
won first prize and Gold Cup at Crystal 
Palace show just held in London, England. 
Correspondence solicited. I ship all over the United States. 



TOM 

900 West Jefferson Street 



BROWN3 Prop. 



Los Angeles, Cal. 



BELGIN HARE SUPPLIEsl 

Call at the California Pottery Works ♦ 
for rabbit drinking and feed jars. ♦ 

319 W. Fourth St., I.os Angeles, Cal. 

PETER STONE, PROP. 



. Anoklica Brook, Prop. :' 

^ Ivers and Alvarado St., L.08 Angeles. ^ 

) Take Bellevue Ave. (Sinta Monica) car to Alvarado street. ( 

) Second house north. C 



PACIFIC RABBITRY.... 



Breeders 
of 



Thoroughbred Belgian Hares 



We breed nothing but acclimated Southern California stock, out of Yukon, Jr , Prince Albert, 
Lord Britain, Kitchener, Prince, Sr., and Does out of Lord Liverpool and Nonpariel. 

BUZZ KELJLAM, Manager, 410 W. Twentieth St., 

Write for Prices. Los Angeles, Cal. 



c*o 



&H o flQ 



CO o3 



* S'JS o . 






I 5 



JS o p t; --^ 



5.2 2 05 >,'0-5 ?■*' S*? fe-S a «.T-^-o- 2 a 



*s« 






; d CO 
.ct: 



, t> ® E o *• H o S 



!r*j= o t" J^ S^ ^ 






E c o te 
^ ■ be 

is ^3 



MERRILL'S RABBITRY 



We Import and Breed none but the best of Belg-ians. 



1220 Georgia St., Los Angeles, Cal 



Box 963. 
Correspondence solicited. 



WEST END RABBITRY . . . 

^"'rT\^cr^„°rb'S BELGIAN HARES 

Yukon and Lord Britain Stock 
Sir Jasper, sired by Champion Yukon at Stud. 
Correspodence solicited. 

ANDERSON & LEtIN, Props. 
219 N. BONNIE BRAE Take Second street Car 



ORANGE GROVE RABBITRY 

Thoroughbred 

Belgian Hares 



Breeder ot 
and Dealer in 



SIR AMBROSE and 

YOUNG WELLINGTON AT STUD 

J. J. liE GOBE:, Proprietor, 

1336 E. 27tli St., I.OS Angeles, Cal. 
Take Vernon Car. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



MY 




ARE ALL 
IMPORTED 



and are from all the latest strains in England 
from such stock as 

CHAMPION EDINBORO, CHAMPION DASH, CHAMPION 

FASHODA, CHAMPION EXCELSIOR, 

ISLEWORTH SQUIBB, DUKE OF YORK, DUKE 

OF RICHMOND, &c., &o 

Young stock constantly on hand, and does old enough for 
breeding for sale at all times. Hares sold by trios or pairs of no 
relation if desired. 




F. B. COX. PROP. 



# 



FASHODA II * 

my fine buck, has no peer as a breeder and as a fine specimen. He 
won second at Crystal Palace, London, in six month's class, Nov., 
1899. DENHAM PRINCE is a superb breeder, having won three Z 
firsts and specials, and two seconds. For any one wanting fine stock 
to start with, I will breed does sold by me to either or both of these 
bucks without extra charge. Write or call at 

COX^S RABBITRY 



411 East Ttoentg-Third St. 



Los Angeles, Gal. | 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Laxd op SmrSHurs.* 



% 



w 

I f^ he California I 

I fv^ Belgian Hare Co. i 

ijj High grade young stock for sale ; strains of LORD BRIT- ^ 

\t A IN, CHAMPION YUKON and SIR BANBURY. J! 

Ij Will breed does sold, to CHAMPION FASHODA, FASHO- jjj 

\J DA SECOND, LORD KICHNKR, LORD YUKON, BANBURY * 

% SECOND. % 

^ Heavy-weight, pedigreed, market stock at reasonable rates. ||j| 

I*' Those who contemplate starting a rabbitry can secure jjj 

yt; valuable hints as to construction of pens, caring for stock, <|i 

jjj etc., at this address. JJ 

V*? Call or address The California Belgian Hare Co., 3? 

S 424 N. Beaudry Avenue J! 

^ Los Angeles. Cal. Tel. Green 1274 n^ 

\iif i> 
Uf 
vi/ 



^^^^a^-s^^^^^-s^^^^^a^^^s^^s^^^^-s^^^^a^^-s^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



i 



\ 



? THE ONLY BELGIAN HARE AND POULTRY 

j == AUTHORITY IN THE WEST =^ 

\ Treats in a lucid and practical manner on every phase of the Belgian Hare |^ 
>f industry. Its contributors comprise the leading judges, breeders and fanciers 
^ of Belgian Hares. Subscription 50 cents per year. Single copies 5 cents. 



w ui DCigiau nares. csuuscription ou c 
\ To foreign countries 75 cents per year 

\ THE CALIFORNIA POULTRY TRIBUNE \ 

1 THE PET STOCK PAPER OF THE WEST 

^ Good money in Belgians, certainly, but there is better money to be had by 

\ being up-to-date in the latest information. BIG MONEY, however is only 

^ available by advertising in THE CALIFORNIA POULTRY TRIBUNE, 

^ because it brings results. A trial order will be convincing. Send it today and 

2 ask for a free sample copy. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: . :: :: 

A THE CALIFORNIA POULTRY TRIBUNE 

^ No. 115 NORTH MAIN STREET :: :: :: LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, 0. S. A. 

^ 1^" NOTICE — To readers of this magazine who will state having seen this 
7i advertisement in the Land of Sunshine we will send THE C. P. TRIBUNE 
^ the remainder of 1900 for only 25 cents. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: \ 



\ 



TThe Land of Sunshine 

PUBWSHED MONTHLY BY 

Xtie Latici of Sunsliitie Publislaing Co. 

(incorporatbd) 

Rooms 5, 7, 9 ; \2\)4 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal., U. S. A. 



SUBSCRIPTION RATES 
$1 a year in the United States, Canada and 

Mexico 
$1.60 a year to other countries in the Postal 

Union. 



Entered at the Los Angeles PostoflBice as second- 
class matter. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 
W. C. Patterson . . . - President 
Chas. F. Lummis - - - - Vice-Pres 

F. A Pattbb Secretary 

H.J.Fleishman Treasurer 

Chas. Cassat Davis . - - - Attorney 
Cyrus M. Davis. 

OTHER LOCAL STOCKHOLDERS 
Chas. Forman, D. Freeman, F, W. Braun, Jno. 
F. Francis, E. W. Jones, Geo. H. Bonebrake, 
F. K. Rule, Andrew Mullen, I. B. Newton, S. H. 
Mott, Alfred P. Griffith, E. E Bostwick, H E. 
Brook. Kingsley- Barnes & Neuner Co , L- Rep- 
logle, J. C. Perry, F. A. Schnell, G. H. Paine, 
Louisa C. Bacon, Hdgar John Arnold. (See table 
of contents page.) 

HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS 
Chas F. Lummis - - - Editorial 



F A Pattee 
Chas. a. Moody 

F. A. SCHNELL 

Jno. Edgar Arnold 
C. M. Davis 



- Business 

Subscription 

News Stand 

Eastern Advertising 

- Mechanical 



Address all MSS. to the editor ; all remittances 
and business to the company at above address. 

WARNING 

The Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. has 
nothing to do with a concern which has imitated 
its name as nearly as it dared. This magazine 
is not peddling town lots in the desert It is a 
magazine, not a lottery. Chas F. Lummis. 

The foregoing does not refer to Sunset, the 
handsome monthly published by the Southern 
Pacific Ry. Co , under the able editorship of Mr. 
E. H. Woodman. 

Los Angeles, Cal., January 23, 1900. 
To the Readers of the Land of Sunshine : 

I fully recognize the right of Mr. Lummis to his 
own opinions. I concede his absolute sincerity, 
and I commend his courage, in that he assumes 
full responsibility for the views to which he gives 
expression, by affixing thereto his own signature. 

I feel impelled, however, to declare that person- 
ally my judgment and honest convictions are not 
in accord with the sentiments which for many 
months have appeared in the editorial columns 
of this journal, touching the acts of the present 
National Administration in relation to the late 
Spanish War, the Philippine War, and also upon 
the bugbear of "Imperialism." 

W. C. PATTHRSON, 
President Land of Sunshine Co. 

TO CUBE A COLD IN ONE DAY 

Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets. All 
druggists refund the money if it fails to cure. 
E> W. Grove's signature is on each box. 25c. 



The Reason "Wtiy. 

One million Singer sewing-machines were 
made and sold during the year 1899. This prob- 
ably equals the production of all other manufac- 
turers combined, and the question arises as to 
why the Singer should be so gieatly preferred all 
over the world. 

From the very beginning there has been a con- 
stant evolution in the construction of these ma- 
chines, a ceaseless attempt to enlarge their use- 
fulness by adapting them to the performance of 
everv stitching operation, a continuous improve- 
ment in the processes of manufacture. 

Singer machines are so simple that a child can 
understand them ; they are so strong that a 
bungler can hardly get them out of order. ICvery 
part is made with such scrupulous care from the 
best materials, fitted in its place with the utmost 
exactness, and tested and re-tested so many 
times before leaving the factory, that they never 
get the "fits" which try a woman's patience, de- 
stroy the fruits of her labor, and consume her 
time in vexing attempts to coax the machine to a 
proper performance of duty. 

' Such a high degree of mechanical perfection 
can only be obtained through long experiei'ce 
in the operation of immense factories containing 
tools that are peculiar to these works and are un- 
equaled for their purposes. The system of test- 
ing, inspecting and assembling at the Singer fac- 
tories is such that it seems well nigh impossible 
for a Singer machine or any of its parts tio leave 
the works in an imperfect condition. 

Of course, this elaborate system of inspection 
and testing materially increases the cost of man- 
ufacture ; but It is only by the use of such means 
that really first-class sewing-machines can be 
made. Imitation is the sincerest flattery, and 
imitations of o'd forms of sewing-machines long 
since discarded by the Singer Company are made 
by unscrupulous persons, and put upon the mar- 
ket to deceive the unwary. The difference be- 
tween the cost of a hikjh class sewing machine, 
embodying the best of materials and workman- 
ship, and its spurious imitation, made of cheap 
materials in the cheapest way, is soon eaten up 
by the added cost of the latter for repairs and 
lost time in the work-room 

The Singer Manufacturing Company aims to 
maintain its well-earned reputation for fair deal- 
ing during all time. It is permanent, its offices 
are in every city in the world, and parts and sup- 
plies for its machines can always be easily ob- 
tained. Thus it may be seen why Singer sew- 
ing-machines have the preference whenever their 
merits are fairly investigated. 



In CtLolera Infantum 

The Imperial Granum Food has proved of 
priceless value, being often the only nutriment 
found suitable and capable of being retained. 
Thousands of lives have apparently been saved 
by its use, and it has seemed to possess not only 
nutritive but medicinal value, so immediately 
soothing and quieting was its effect. This shows 
the vital importance of such a nutriment, one 
that is pure, natural and unsweetened and that 
can be easily and quickly assimilated, even when 
the digestive powers are impaired by disease. 



FRECKLES 



positively removed by 
using Stillman's Cream. 
Prepared especially for 
this great enemy of beauty. Write for particulars. 
STILLMAN FRECKLE VRV.An CO., Dcpt. £) AURORA, ILLS. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I^and of Sunshine. 





Admirable 

Shoes for little feet at attractive prices. Put 
your children' s pedals in durable footwear. Make 
the youngsters merry— with our almost 

EVERLASTING SHOES 

Such news about shoes as we are telling makes 
parents' hearts glad. Here are a few of the 
goodly bargains for money savers : 
Little gents' lace shoes, neat bulldog fl^l CA 

toes, "Messenger Boy" <i4>l»JiF 

Same in youths' sizes ^ | 7 Ft 

12>^to2 ^''' ^ 

Same in boys' sizes C'y f\(\ 

2]/^ioby2 qj^.uu 

Misses' dongola kid shoes, heavy ex- (Tl CA 

tension soles, sizes 11 >^ to 2 xJJI.JVf 

Same in child- CI 7^1 

ren's ^l»C.J 

Woman's fine box calf or dongola lace (T^ A A 

shoe, heavy welt soles , >J)J«W 

BUffNEY'S 

352 S. Spring St., near corner Fourth St. 

Eastern Buyers, Look Out! 

(Tricks in all Trades.) 
Buy your hares through reputable business 
people I guarantee satisfaction or refund 
money. Hares at all prices. Refer to Dun, 
Bradstreet, or any bank or citizen. 
W. M. JOHNSTON, M. D., 

1016 W. Pico St., L,os Angeles. 



Trade-Mark Registered. 



WILL develop or reduce 
any part of the body 

A Perfect Complexion Beautifier 
and 

Remover of Wrinkles 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' 

THE ONLY 

Electric Massage Roller 

(Patented United States, Europe, 
Canada.) 
" Ks work i» not confined to the 
face alone, but will do good to any 
part of the body to which it is ap- 
plied, developing or reducing as desired. It is a very pretty 
addition to the toilet-table." — Chicago Tribune. 

"This delicate Electric Beautifier removes all facial blemishes. 
It is the only positive remover of wrinkles and crow's-feet It 
never fails to perform all that is expected."— Chicago Times- 
Herald. 

"The Electric Roller is certainly productive of good results. 
I believe it the best of any appliances It is safe and effective ." 
— Harbiet Hitbbard Atie, New York World. 

For Massage and Curative Purposes 

An Electric Roller in all the term implies. The invention of a 
physician and electrician known throughout this country and 
Europe. A most perfect complexion beautifier Will remove 
wrinkles, "crow's-feet" (premature or from age), and all facial 
blemishes— POSITIVE. Whenever electricity is to be used for 
massaging or curative purposes, it has no equal. No charging. 
Will last forever Always ready for use on ALL PARTS OF THE 
BODY, for all diseases. For Rheumatism, Sciatica, Neuralgia, 
Nervous and Circulatory Diseases, a specific The professional 
standing of the inventor (you are referred to the public press 
for the past fifteen years;, with the approval of this country 
and Europe, is a perfect guarantee. PRICE : Gold, |4 00 ; 
Silver, $3 00. By mail, or at office of Gibbs'Company, 1370 
Broadway, New Yobx. Circular free. 

The Only Electric Roller. 
All others so called are Fraudulent Imitations. 




Copyright. 



Copyright. 



"Can take a pound a day off a patient, or put it on"— New 
York Sun, Aug. 30, 1891. Send for ler-ture on "Great Subject of 
Fat." NO DIETING. NO HARD WORK. 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' Obesity Cure 
For the Permanent Reduction and Cure of Obesity 

Purely Vegetable. Harmless and Positive. NO FAILURE. Your 
reduction is assured — reduced to stay. One month's treatment 
15.00. Mail, or office, 1370 Broadway, New York 'On obesity, 
Dr. Gibbs is a recognized authority.— N. Y. Press, 18«9." 

REDUCTION GUARANTEED 

"The cure is based on Nature's laws."— New York Herald, 
July 9, 1893. 




Co-Carts 

for California babies 
All styles and prices 
Write for our little booklet on 
American House furnishings 

NiLES Pease Furniture Co. 

439-441^443 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 



Hummel Bros. & Co., furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 



Condensed Information— Southern California 



The section generally known as South- 
ern California comprises the seven coun- 
ties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, 
Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura 
and Santa Barbara. The total area of 
these counties is 44,901 square miles. 
The States of Connecticut, Delaware, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New 
Jersey, Rhode Island and Vermont could 
all be placed within the boundaries of 
Southern California and still leave 1,154 
square miles to spare. The coast line 
extends northwest and southeast a dis- 
tance of about 275 miles. A |3, 000,000 
deep-sea harbor is now under construc- 
tion at San Pedro, near Los Angeles. 

The population of Southern California 
is one-fourth that of the entire State. 

Los Angki.es county has an area of 
4,000 square miles, some four-fifths of 
which is capable of cultivation, with 
water supplied. The shore line is about 
85 miles in length. The population has 
increased from 33,881 in 1880 to 200,000. 

Los Angeles City, the commercial 
metropolis of Southern California, fifteen 
miles from the coast, has a population of 
about 1 17,000. It has doubled in popula- 
tion during the last eight years. Its 
school census is 27,000. Eleven railroads 
center here. The street car mileage is 
nearly 200 miles. There are over 175 
miles of graded and graveled streets, and 
15 miles of paved streets. The city is 
entirely lighted by electricity. Its bank 
deposits, $21,000,000; net assessed valu- 
ation, $65,000,000 ; building permits, $3.- 
000,000, and bank clearance, $64,000,000. 
There is a $500,000 court house, a $200,000 
city hall, and many large and costly 
business blocks. 

The other principal cities are Pasa- 
dena, Pomona, Azusa, Whittier, Downey, 
Santa Monica, Redondo, Long Beach, 
and San Pedro. 

San Bernardino County is the larg- 
est county in the State, is rich in miner- 
als, has fertile valleys. Population about 
35,000. The county is traversed by two 
railroads. Fine oranges and other fruits 
are raised. 

An estimate of the leading products of Southern 
Angeles Chamber of Commerce, is as follows : 

Citrus fruits |7,000,000 

Gold, including the Rand district 6,000,000 

Petroleum 3.250 000 

Hay 2,000,000 

Vegetables and fruits consumed 1,800.000 

Dried fruits and raisins 1,640 000 

Grain 1,550 000 

Canned goods 1,500,000 

Sugar 1,300,000 

Copper 780 000 

Nuts 750 000 

Brick 750 000 

Flour 610.000 

Wine 600.000 

Beer 54C,000 

Butter 525,000 



Ventura County adjoins Los Ange- 
les county on the north. It is very 
mountainous. There are many profit- 
able petroleum wells. Apricots and 
other fruits are raised, also many beans. 
Population about 15,000. 

San Buenaventura, the county seat, is 
pleasantly situated on the coast. Popu- 
lation, 3,000. Other cities are Santa 
Paula, Hueneme and Fillmore. 

Santa Barbara is the most northern 
of the seven counties, with a long shore 
line, and rugged mountains in the in- 
terior. Semi-tropic fruits are largely 
raised, and beans in the northern part of 
the county. 

Santa Barbara, the county seat, is 
noted for its mild climate. Population 
about 6,000. Other cities Lompoc, Car- 
penteria and Santa Maria. 

San Bernardino city, the county seat, 
is a railroad center, with about 8,000 peo- 
ple. The other principal places are 
Redlands, Ontario, Colton and Chino. 

Orange County has an area of 671 
square miles; population in 1890, 13,589. 
Much fruit and grain are raised. 

Santa Ana, the county seat, has a 
population of over 5,000. Other cities 
are Orange, Tustin, Anaheim and Fuller- 
ton. 

Riverside County has an area of 7,000 
square miles ; population about 16,000. 
It is an inland county. 

Riverside is the county seat. . 

Other places are South Riverside, Fer- 
ris and San Jacinto. 

San Diego County is a large county, 
the most southerly in the State, adjoin- 
ing Mexico. Population about 45,000. 
The climate of the coast region is re- 
markably mild and equable. Irrigation 
is being rapidly extended. Fine lemons 
are raised near the coast, and all other 
fruits flourish. 

San Diego city, on the ample bay of 
that name, is the terminus of the Santa 
F^ railway system, with a population of 
about 25,000. 

Other cities are National City, Escon- 
dido, Julian and Oceanside. 
California for the year 1899, as compiled by the Los 

Beans $ 525 1 00 

Asphaltum 375.000 

Eggs 330,000 

Celery 250,000 

Poultry 2^40 000 

Hides 200 000 

Green fruits 2C0.000 

Fish, fresh 150,000 

Wool 150 11(10 

Vegetables, exported 150,000 

Silver 130 000 

Cheese 125 009 

Fi'^h, canned 110 000 

Olives 100,000 

Mineral water 75,000 

$33,705,000 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you ** saw it in the Land of SuifSHiNB.' 



SMMERCIAL DRAWING TAUGHT 

f^ We fit the .student tor work in Newspaper, Lithographing, 

^Engraving aiul other Establishments, or the Studio. The 

profession is highly profitable, and 

tlie demand for competent educated 

artists is practically unlimited. 

'RA(;TI0.\L drawing taught l)y PBACTICAL 

methods. Write for further information. 

SCHOOL OF APPIIED .4RT, Box 3S00, Battle Oreek, With. 




Dunlop Pneumatic Tires 

jfh rt\v for Bicycles 
'i \p (W^\f '**'• Carriages 

? i W^ S for Automobiles 



The American Dunlop Tire Co. 



Thp Whnlp Illi^strated. Thousands of interesting 
I lie ¥T IH»>IC views in all cities and countries, for 
Stereoption exhibitions. Faying busi- 
ness for men with littie capital. Par- 
ticulars and 25b page Magic Lantern 
book free. 

McAllister, Mfg. optician, 49 Nassau St., N. Y. 



World 



■■■^M ■■■■How to Reduce 

^■^^■^K ^^^^^it. Mrs. S. Mann, La 
^^^« ^B^B B Motte.Ia., writes: "Your 

^^IV JV^B ^1 method reduced my 

^ ^■^^^ ^1 weight 70 lbs. in less 
■ ^^^^H ■ than 3 months. This 
■^ ^" ^* ^* was 6 years ago and I 
have not gained an ounce in weight since." Purely 
vegetable and harmless as water. Aiiy one can make it 
at home at little or no expense. No starving. No sickness. We will 
mail a box of it and full particulars in a plain sealed package for 4 
cts for postage, etc. Hall Chemical Co. Dept. 133, St. Louis. Mo 




I 



The 



Most Tasteful Tid- 
of the Season. 



Bit 



BAYLE'S 

DEVILED CHEESE 



Demanded by all lovers of Cheese. 
Packed only in half and one-pound 
jars. 



GEO. A. BAYLE, Sole Maker, 

ST. LOUIS. U. S. A. 



For Sale by Wholesale and Retail Grocers 
throughout the United States. 



Artistic Homes 

"THE COTTAGE-BUILDER" 

Issued monthly ' 
(tl PER 

*Pl YEAR 
with any two 
25-cent books. 
SAMPLE 

COPY 10 c. 



A. 304-PAGE 
BOOK 

of low-cost houses, sent, 
postpaid, 95c. 

MI SPECIALTY : 



High-grade Do- 
mesiic, Ecclesi- 
asticnl, Monu- 
mental and ' 




Municipal Architecture. Ref idences, Churches, Schools, Storei, etc. 

List of 25-cent Books I From Moderate- Cost Houses. 

32 Houses, $1000 to $1200, 25c 



32 Moderate-Cost Houses - 25c 
32 Cottages, Bks 1, 3, 4 (each)25c 
32 Double Houses • ■ - 25c 
32 Artistic Churches • - - 25c 



32 Houses, $1200 to $1500, 25c 

32 Houses, $1500 to $2000, 25c 

Houses. $1800 to $2500, 25c 

HERBERT C. CHiVERS, Arch't. 



Wainwright, St. Louis, Mo. 




ASTHMA 

IT IS OPS SPEOIALTT 

Bronchitis, Lungjhroat 

Wasting and Nervous 

Diseases cured to 

stay cured 1 1 

Oof New Method treatment and 
Remedies Cure all Stomach. Liver. 
Kidney and Chronic Blood Disease-" 

FREE our Book on Health 
Dr. Go rd i n 's Sa n ita ri u m 

514 PINE St., S. F., Cal. 

CONSULTATION FREE, 



Dro-man-gel-on 

DESSERT JELLY 

5IMPLY DELICIOUS. 

1 package Bromangelon — 
1 pint boiling water — 
1 minute's time — 
Nothing more. 




Flavors— Lemon, Oranse, Strawberry, 
Raspberry, Cherry, 

FREE SAMPi F ®^°^ ^ ^^°*^ ^" stamps for 
I iibb wnmi LL postage, with your grocer's 
name, and we will mail you a sample of Bro- 
mangelon Free. State what flavor. 

Mfrs., Stern & Saalberg, 

311 W. 40th St., New York. 
Agts. for I,os Angeles, Flint & Wise. 




Brownsberger 
School 



Educational 
Department 



DIFFERENT IN EVERY FEATURE. 

The Brownsberger Home School of Shorthand anA Typewriting 

lyarge lawn and porches where pupils study and dictate. Individual instruction only. Half-day at- 
tendance all that is necessary. Only teachers of long experience do any teaching. This is the only 
Shorthand School on the coast that has a business ofi&ce training department. A new machine 
furnished each pupil at his home without extra charge. Send for catalogue. 

903 South Broadway, cor. Ninth St., Los Angeles, Cal. Tel. White 480' 1 



POMONA COLLEGE 



Claremont, 
California. 



Courses leading to degrees of B.A., B.S., and 
B. L. Its degrees are recognized by Univer- 
sity of California, Stanford University, and 
all the Eastern Universities. 

Also preparatory School, fitting for all 
Colleges, and a School of Music of high 
grade. Address, 

FRANK I.. FBBGUSON, President 

CHAFFEY COLLEGE, ont.ri., c.i. 

Well endowed. Most healthful location. 
Enter from 8th grade. 

|250 00 per year. 

EliM HAIiL., for young ladies, undercharge 
of cultured lady teachers. Highest stand- 
ards. 

WEST TBLAT^T., for boys; home of family of 
Dean, and gentlemen teachers. 

LASELL SEMINARY 

FOR 

YOUNG WOMEN 

Auburndale, Mass. 

" In your walking and sitting so much more 
erect; in your general health; in your conver- 
sation; in your way of meeting people, and in 
innumerable ways, I could see the benefit you 
are receiving from your training and associa- 
tions at Lasell. All this you must know is very 
gratifying to me." 

So a father wrote to his daughter after her 
Christmas vacation at home. It is unsolicited 
testimony as to Lasell's success in some im- 
portant lines. 

Those who think the time of their daughters 
is worth more than money, and in the quality 
of the conditions which are about vl:em during 
school-life desire the very best that the East 
can offer, will do well to send for the illus- 
trated catalogue. 

C. C. BBAGDON, Principal 




226 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Oldest, largest and best. Send for catalogue. 
N G. Felker, President. 
John W. Hood, John W. Lackey, 

Vice-President. secretary 

Telephone Green 1848. 



Occidental College 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Three Courses: classical, Literary, 

Scientific, leading to degrees of A. B., B. L.i and 
B. S. Thorough Preparatory Department. 

Winter term began January 3, 1900. 
Address the President, 

Rev. Guy "W. fVadgworth. 

Pasadena. 

Boarding: and Day School for Girls 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges 

124 S. EUCLID AVE, 

WHAT A FATHER THINKS .... 



An unsolicited opinion 
from the father of one of 
our boys : 

* • • "Our best thanks are 
due you for your unfailing kind- 
ness shown our son during hia 
residence at the Academy, and 
while he seems to have done 
very well with his studies, what 
is of far more consequence is 
the influence which makes for 
manliness and character build- 
tng, already apparent in this 
child after a single term." 

Fifth Annual Catalogue ot 

Los Angeles 
Academy 

Mailed to any address upon ap- 
plication to W. R. WHEAT, Bus- 
iness Manager. 

Fall term commenced Septem- 
ber 26, 1899. 

SANFOi uA.HOOPER, A. M., 

Head Master. 

GRENVILLE C.EMERY, A. M., 
EDWARD L. HARDY, B. L., 

Associate Masters. 




When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I^and of Sumshinb.' 

St. Matthew's 

Military School.... 

Gives careful attention to the mental, moral and physical 
development and training of each pupil. 

The school occupies three large buildings especially con- 
structed for its purposes, in the midst of an 80-acre estate 
near beautiful San Mateo. 

Military discipline is used to secure regular exercise and 
habits of promptness and obedience. The best and most 
helpful home influences are carefully provided in order to 
maintain the unflagging interest of the boys in their work. 

This school prepares boys for active business, and its 
graduates are accepted at the University of California, 
Stanford University and many Eastern Colleges, without 
examination. 



The Easter term begins January 
4th. 

Application for admission should 
be made as soon as possible. Write 
for catalogue and detailed infor- 
mation to 

Rev. W. A. BREWER, 

Rector and Principal, 

SAN MATEO, CAI.. 






GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 



1918-82-24-36 

Soutb Grand Avenue, 
lios Angeles 

Alick K. Parsons, B.A., 
Jeanne W. Dbnwen, 

Principals. 



J212 3H2BST THIRD STREET 

is the oldest established, has the largest attendance, and is the best equipped 
business college on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. 




Cuo. Aodruw Lewiii. 



STAMMER 

Write at once for our new 200 page 
book. The Origin and Treatment of Stam* 
mering. The largest and mosi instructive 
book of its kind ever published. Sent 
freeto any address for 6 cents in stamps 
to cover postage. Ask also for a free 
sample copy of The Phono-Meter, a 
monthly paper exclusively for persons 
who stammer. Address 

The Lewis School for Stammerers 



128 Adelaide St., Detroit, Mich. 




ART CRITICISMS »r.^L 

If you draw, design, decorate, paint, 
model, or photograph, you can impro\e 
your work at small cost by receiving 
criticisms and suggestions by mail. 
Good work has a money value. Write 
for full paHicuIars FREE. 

N.Y. SCHOOL OF 
ILLUSTRATING, 

1 14 WEST 34th ST., 
NEW YORK. 



Ilummel Bros. & Co.. "Help Center." 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 



No 

Matter 

What 



yotjf politics may be you*lt latigh to 
** split youf sides ** over JUDGE duri:^ 
the campaign of J900. JUDGE has 
politics in pictures for the politician, 
humor for the humorist, and all-around 
good-natured satire for everybody. 
JUDGE^S cartoons are features of every 
political contest that a good American 
should not miss* 

JUDGE is published weekly and is 
to be found the world over. It is sold 
at JO cents per copy, or by the year 
at $5.00. 

Remember, please, that 

Judge is 
the Prince of 
Caricaturists 



Los Angeles Grille Works 

Grilles in Moorish, Russian, Colonial, 
and all other styles. Special designs 
to order without charge. 

BURNT FURNITURE 

A SPECIALTY 

Send for Designs and Prices. 

610 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 



BEUCUS 
ACETYLENE 
GAS 
GENEKATORS 

are in hundreds of resi- 
dences, business places, 
churches, halls, etc Ac- 
cepted by the Board of 
Fire Underwriters. We 
are offering 

Special Inducements 
to Agents 

and users who first intro- 
duce the Bkucus in their 
locality. For particulars 
address Hcdden & Black, 
746 S. Main St., Los An- 
geles. 




Artistic Grille Work 






Original Design. 

A 
Decoration 

for 

Doorways, 

Arches, 

etc. 



Parquet Floors, Wood Carpet 

A permanent covering for floors instead of 
the health-destroying woolen carpets. 

Healthful, Clean and no Moths 

OAK FlyOORS $1.25 per square yard and up. 

Try our "Nonpareil Hard TVax Polish " 

for keeping floors in good condition. 
Designers of 

FURNITURE SPECIALTIES 

Tea Tables, Card Tables, Book Cases, Cedar 
Chests, Etc. 

JNO. A. SMITH 



707 S. Broadway, 
Tel. Brown 706 



Los Angeles, Cal. 
Established 1891 




FOR MEATS, FISH. GRAVIES. 

SOUPS, &C., THIS SAUCE 

HAS NO EQUAL. 

Manufactured and bottled only by 



I 

i 

<jfi grocer 



GEORGE WILLIAMS CO., 
LOS Angeles. Cal. 

this sauce is not «atisfdctcry. retttrn it to your 
and lie will jef und your money 

Geobue Willtams Co. 




A. G. GARDNER 

118 TTinston St. Tel. Brown 1325. 



PIANO . . . 
. . . HOUSE 



We Sell, Kent, Repair and 
Tune Pianos. 



Most expert repairer of stringed instruments 
in the city. 

Music furnished for entertainments. 



Health insurance— Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters insures against disease. Grocers and 

druggists. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw It in the Land of Sunshiivb." 



OLDEST AND LARGEST BANK IN SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

Tarmers and Merchants Bank 

OF LOS ANGELES, CAL 

Capital (paid up) . . $5c»,ooo.oo 

Surplus and Reserve . 925,000.00 

Total .... $1,425,000.00 

OFFICERS 

I. W. Hellman, Prest. H. W. Hellman, V -Prest. 

Henry J. Fleishman, Cashier 

GUSTAV Heimann, Assistant Cashier 

DIRECTORS 

W. H. Perry. C. E. Thorn. J. F. Francis. 

O. W. Childs. I. W. Hellman. Jr.. I. N. Van Nuys, 

A. Glassell. H. W. Hellman. I. W. Hellman. 

Special Collection Department. Correspondence 
Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 



First National Bank 

OF LOS ANGEIiES. 

Largtst National Bank in Soutlitrn 
California. 



Capital Stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivitled Profits over 260,000 

J. M. Elliott. Prest. W. G. Kerckhoff, V.-Prest. 

Frank A. Gibson, Cashier 

W. T. S. Hammond, Assistant Cashier 

DIRECTORS 

J. D. Bicknell, H. Jevne, 

J. M. Elliott, F. Q. Story, 



Drake. 

All Departments of a Modern 
Conducted. 



W. G. Kerckhoff. 
J. D. Hooker. 



Banking Business 



W. C. 



Patterson, Prest. P. M. Green. VicePres. 
W. D WOOLWINE, Cashier 
E. W. COE, Assistant Cashier 




Cor. First and Spring Streets 

Capital $600,000.00 

Surplus and Undioided Profiits 60,000.00 

This bank has the best location of any bank in 
Los Angeles. It has the largest capital of any 
National Bank in Southern California, and is the only 
United States Depositary in Southern California. 



WE SELL THE EARTH 



BASSETT & SMITH 



We deal in all kinds of Real Estate. 
Orchard and Resident Property. 
Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

232 W. Second St., Room 208, Los Angeles, Cal. 
(^U|§ AT HALF PRICE 

Thb IvAND of Sunshine oflFers for sale from 
its large and well chosen Stock of over 1000 

Cuts almost any California and Southwestern 
subject the purchaser may desire. Send 50c. for 
illustrated catalogue. 

LAND OF SUNSHINE PUB. CO. 

121^ South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 



California Cream of Lemon I 

Works Wonders ThcE^myo"iS2jnrff ^ 

Softens the skin, opens the pores and heals all skin diseases. Cures chap- 
ping. Cleans without making' a lather because it does not contain grease 
or Alkali. If you use it as a cream it will give you a beautiful complexion. 
If you use it instead of soap it will keep your skin in lovely condition, 



3 oz. tubes 15c., 6 oz. tubes 25c. 



Sent post paid if your dealer does not keep 



Assents TTanted. Write for Particulars. 



'I 



CALIFORNIA CREAM OF LEMON CO. 

^ 448 WILCOX BUILDING LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



DENTISTRY 



Spacious and attractive apartments. Modern facilities and methods. Court- 
eous and conscientious treatment. Prices right. 



356 S. Broadway 

Los Angeles, Cal. Telephone Red 3431 



O. H. KRIECHBAUM 



Help— All Kinds. See nummel Brix. & Co. :tUO W. Second St TeL Mali 509 



firank JesUe's Popular J\JonthIy 




Frank Leslie Publishing Houst, 

143 fifth Avenue, New YorK, 



has become a leader among the lo-cent magazines, 

and publishes the Best Literature and Art that 

money and energy can procure for 

W Cents a Cop y 
$tM A Year 

Lith(^faphed Cover in Colors Each Month. 

CONTRIBUTORS FOR 1899- 1900: 
A. Conan Doyle 



Rudyard Kiplinj^^ 
Wm. Dean Howells 
Joel Chandler Harris 
Ruth McEnery Stuart 
Frank R Stockton 
Louise Chandler Moulton 
Bret Harte 
Egerton Castle 
Mary E. Wilkins 
Edgar Fawcett 
Hezekiah Butterworth 
Mrs. Frank Leslie 
W. G. Van T. Sutphen 
Joaquin Miller 
Margaret E. Sangster 
Will Carleton 
G. W. Steevens 
Henry James 



Stephen Crane 

S. R. Crockett 

Rev. Dr. Henry van Dyke 

"Josiah Allen's Wife 

F. Hopkinson Smith 

Frank L. Stanton 

Wm. Hamilton Hayne 

Gen Nelson A. Miles 

Sec. of the Navy Long 

Gen. Wesley Merritt 

Walter Camp 

Mrs. Roger A. Pryor 

Sec. of the Treasury Gage 

Robert E Speer 

Mrs. John A. Logan 

Mary A. Livermore 

Capt. Robert E. Lee 



STAFF OF ARTISTS : Messrs. A. B. Wenzell, W. Gran- 
ville Smith, H. Chandler Christy, F. Luis Mora, H. M. 
Eaton, B.J. Rosenmeyer, Clifford Carlton C H. Grun- 
w^ald, H. C. Edwards, Frank Adams, F. W. Read, and 
others. 



Special Offer, 



for a limited period, 

provided LAND OF SUNSHINE is mentioned. 



44 



LITTLE SWEETHEARTS'' ART CALENDAR 

and FRANK LESLIE'S POPULAR MONTHLY one year 




— _, ALL for 

' .J^MBi|$4Qfl 



!f¥^ 



ALL L 




FOR 



The Calendar is in six beautiful groups, of Water Color Designs, by Frances Brundage, tlie famous painter >_. 
children; each group in 12 colors and size 10 x 12% inches, on fine Whatman paper; tied at top with silk ribbon- 
making the prettiest and most artistic collection of water-color reproductions ever issued. Each of the six sheets 
contains two months' dates, being a complete calendar for 1900. FREE with each Yearly Subscription. 

*** For 25 CENTS, Trial Subscription, 3 months. Specimen number sent on receipt of 3 two-cent stamps. 
Founded, 1855. FRANK LESLIE'S PUBLISHING HoUSE, I4I-I43 FiFTH AVENUE, NeW YoRK. 



"In the Name of the Prophet-figs!" 



The lyAND OF Sunshine already has more paying subscribers than 
any other magazine published on the Pacific Coast ever had. We propose 
to multiply their number by at least four this year. To this end we make 
this 

Unmatched Offer to Subscribers. 

To any subscriber, new or old, who will agree to devote some time 
to securing new subscriptions for the Land of Sunshine, we will pay a 
cash commission of 20% on each new subscription obtained,, which may 
be retained from the remittance accompanying each order. This alone 
will assure liberal payment for effective work. But in addition to this, 
we will deed outright to the person sending us the longest list of new 
annual subscribers under this offer during the year ending February i, 
1901, 

Ten Acres of Choice Fruit Land 
Set to rigs 

free from incumbrance, and without cost to the successful competitor. 
We have further made such a contract with the Southern California Fig 
Company, that their trained experts will care for and cultivate the orchard 
for three years, without cost to the winner of the contest. The orchard 
is in one ot the most charming residence sections of Southern California, 
and this offer gives such a chance as may never come again to secure a 
home UNDER your own vine and fig tree. 

Send in $1.00 for your own subscription at once, and receive full de- 
tails concerning this magnificent and unparalleled offer. 



SAMPLE COPIES, 10 CENTS 

Subscription Dep't LAND Of SUNSHINE PUBLISHING COMPANY 

121^ South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb. 



Sunset Limited 



Its 

Points of 
Excellence 
are 



BRSTBOUND 


I,v. San Fra> CISCO 


...5.00 p.m 


Tues. and Fri. 


I.V. 


Los Angbles.. 


...8.00 a.m 


Wed 


, and Sat, 


Ar. 


Kl Paso 


...7.12 a.m 


Thur. and Sun, 


I,v. 


San Antonio... 


...3.20 a.m 


Fri. 


and Mon. 


Ar. 


New Orleans,. 


...7.20 p.m 


Fri, 


and Mon. 


3H2BSTBOUND 1 


I.V. 


New ORLEANS..10.45 a.m. 


Mon. 


and Thur. 


Lv. 


San Antonio... 


3.20 a.m. 


Tues 


and Fri. 


T,v. 


El Paso 


8.15 p.m. 
7.45 p m. 


Tues 


and Fri. 


Ar. 


Los Angeles... 


Wed. 


and Sat. 


Ar. 


San FRANCISCO..10.45 a.m 


Thur, and Sun. 1 



Elegance and Completeness of 
Equipment 

Carefully Trained Attendants 
Superior Cuisine and Dining Cars 
Attractive and Varied Scenery of 
the Line 

Seasonable Hours at Terminals 
Select Patronage 
Swiftness and Safety of Passage 
Equable Climate of the Route 
Sharp Connections at New Orleans 
with trains of corresponding elegance to the North and East* 

There is no other way by which you can travel East 
or West with better comfort and security. 

K. O. McCoRMiCK, T. H. Goodman, 

Pass. Traffic Manager, Gen. Pass. Agent, 

San Francisco, Cal. G. W. Luce;, 

AbSt. Gen. Frt. and Pass. Agt, 

Los Angeles, CaL 



•••••••• •••• •••••••• •••••••••••••••• < 






Everybody Goes to Sgnta MOfliCa 
Via Los Angeles-Pacific Electric Ry. 

It provides one of the most modern equipments and the 
coolest and most scenic route in Southern California. 

For Santa Monica: Cars leave Fourth and Broadway, 
Los Angeles, via Hill and 16th streets, every hour from *6;30 
a. m. to 11:80 p. m. Sundays, every half hour from 7:30 a.m, 
to 7:30 p.m,. and hourly to 11:30 p.m. Saturdays, extra cars at 6 p.m, and 6 p.m. Cars 
leave Plaza 10 minutes earlier. 

Via Bellevue Ave., Colegrove and Sherman, every hour from *6:16 a. m. to 11:16 p. m. 
and 11:45 p, m. to Sherman only. Cars leave Plaza 10 minutes later. 

For lios Angeles : Cars leave Hill Street, South Santa Monica, at ♦5:50, *6:40 a. m., 
and every hour to 10:40 p. m. Sundays, 7:40 a.m. and every half hour from 8:40 a. m. to 
7:40 p.m., and hourly to 10:40 p.m. Saturdays, extra cars at 4:10 p.m. and 5:10 p.m. I^eave 
band stand. Ocean Ave., 5 minutes later. 

Cars leaving Hill Street, South Santa Monica, 40 minutes after each hour from 6:40 a.m. 
to 9:40 p.m. connect at Morocco cars via Sherman and Colegrove. 
*£Cxcept Sundays. Offices, Chamber of Commerce Bids., 4th and Broadway. Lot Angelot 



For = = 



Horton House 



A home-like place 

A central street 

A pleasant room 

Good thingfs to eat 

Our Hotel Rates cannot be beat 




San Diego 
Cal. 



W. E. 



HADLEY 

Proprietor 



Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. & Co. Tel. Mala 509 



When answering aavertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb.' 



STUDEBAKER WAGONS AND OLIVER PLOWS 

EVERYTHING IN VEHICLES I^IF^^JU P 1 I ^A^^ AT'L ! P»l«7/^ f^^^L 200-202 NORTI 

EVERYTHING IN IMPLEMENTS /ll F WW LLL J » i Mlri EfVS V O "-O^ ANGELES STI 

SEND FOR CATALOGUES |J 1 ■«■■ |^ |^/ 11 I 1 ^ ff f %^ V * '■*'® ANGELES. GAL 



ORTH 

STREET 




JVHEN YOU VISIT 



SAN DIEGO 



REMEMBER 



THE •••• 




Rooms 
$t.00 per 
and up. 



D^y 



American and European Plans. Centrally 
located. Elevators and fire escapes. Baths, hot 
and cold water in all suites. Modern conveniences. 
Fine large sample rooms for commercial travelers. 
Caf6 and Grille Room open all hours. 

J. E. O'BRIEN, PROP. 



You Cannot Have California Climate 
In IViid-Winter Back East 

But you cau have the next best thing — 



PURE CALIFORNIA WINES 



Our pure old Port and Sherry takes the sting out of the blizzards by 
fortifying you with good warm blood. Send us a trial order. 



32=year=old Port or Sherry 



Finest in all California 

Per gallon, »4.a5, prepaid Per Case, $13.00 



22=year=old Port or Sherry 



Much finer in every respect than the wines you pay from 

one-third to a half more for in your home market. 

Per gallon, S3. 35, prepaid Per Case, $10.00 



2 Cases Fine Table Wines, assorted, prepaid. 



$8.50 



EDWARD GERMAIN WINE CO., »™' «.J!fSf £&,. 



P. O. BOX 290 



Hummel Bro& & Co., Employment Agents, 300 W. Second St Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I<and of Sunshihs.' 



NOT HOAV CHKffP 




but the best dental work is my motto — it has been 
for 29 years. This is why I am kept busy serving 
people who appreciate good work at fair prices — 
backed, by a guarantee as good as any bank. 

Painless Dentistry — Modern Charges — 
Warranted Work. 




Phone Red 3261 Spinks Block, cor. Fifth and Hill. 



PRESS OP 



S||^6UrT6r^(0; 




123 

SBroadmay 

Ips^noeles. 

Cal. 



Xn|pavl^| 



Telepmone 
Main 4 



7 



PrinteKvS ^-^ Binders to the 
Land or 5uN.5mNE 



;€^«(:«(i(i€:&^&&&€i€:&&€:S^&(^««C^Cf«^€^f;«i«f^^&&«€^&&;&S^&C:^€:lr^(i(:€^&^ 




A rully 
Equipped 
Modern Laundry 

is always the cheapest. 
Cheapest in health, 
cheapest in wear and 
tear, and cheapest in 
style and finish af- 
forded. 



COLLARS AND CUFFS 



m^ We have perfected and patented the only machine that irons the edges of collars and cuffs 
i|i so that they will not chafe. Give it a trial. 

$ Telephone Main 635 ^ 149 South Main Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Health means strength, Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters means health. 

grocers. 



At druggists and 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 







CEANIC S. S. CQ.-HONOLILU 
APIA, AlCKLAND and SYDNEY 

HONOLULU 



SAMOA,a. 

NEW ZEALAND, 
AUSTRALIA. 



IcuNic Steamship (b 

Only SrewierLine to ItuWondcrlindsgdlK Pacific 

» TKe South Sea Islands. 



' SPECIAL RATES 
For iNCLUiivt trips takim* 
.Fiji.TAMrri. tTC. 



Send 10 cents postage for 
" Trip to Hawaii," with fine 
photographic illustration 
20 cents for new edition of 

same, with beautiful colored plate illustrations ; 

20 cents postage for " Talofa, Summer Sail to 

South Seas," also in colors, to Oceanic S. S. Co., 

114 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Steamers sail to Honolulu twice a 
month, to Samoa, New Zealand and 
Sydney, via Honolulu, every 28 days. 

J. D. SPRECKELS BROS. CO., 

114 IMontgomery Street, San Francisco. 

HUGH B. BICE, Agent, 

230 S. Spring St., I^os Angeles, Cal. 

REDONDO BY THE SEA 

17 Miles from Lios Angeles 

Redondo Railway Time Table 

In eflFect September 8, 1899 
Leave Los Angeles Leave Redondo 

9:80 am daily 8:00 a.m. 

1:30 p.m daily 11:00 a.m. 

5:00 p.m daily 3:45 p.m. 

11:30 p.m Saturday only 6:30 p.m. 

L. J. PERRY. Superintendent, Grand Ave. and Jefferson St. 
City office, 246 S. Spring St. Telephone West 1. 




California 



Santa re Route 

Lv. Los Angeles 6KX) pm Tues Thur. Sat. Sun. 

" Pasadena 6:25 pm " " " " 

" San Ber'dino 7:45 pm " ' " " 

Ar. Denver 5:00 pm Thur. Sat. Mon. Tues. 

" Kansas City.. 6:30 am Fri. Sun. Tues. Wed. 

" Chicago 2:15 pm " " " 

'• New York.... 6:30 pm Sat. Mon. Wed. Thur. 

ENTIRELY NEW AND LUXURIOUS EQUIPMENT. 
EVERYTHING TO MAKE YOU COMFORTABLE, 
AND THE FASTEST TIME EVER MADE. 



OPALS 



75,000 

Genuine 
Mexican 

OPALS 

For sale at less than half price. We want an agent in 
every town and city in the U. S. Send 35c. for sample 
opal worth $2. Good agents make $10 a day. 
Mexican Opal Co., 607 Frost Bldg., Los Angeles. Cal. 
Bank reference, State Loan and Trust Co. 



AN IDEAL RANCH 

FOR SALE 
IN THE FINEST CLIMATE ON EARTH 

8 mileH from San Diego, 500 feet from 
main wagon road and \% miles from 
K. K. Station, P. O., School, Stores, 
Blacksmith Shop, etc. 

10 68-100 acres, graded for easy irrigation ; ample water right ; 710 lemon, 34 navel 
orange, 5 tangerenes, 10 guavas, 6 loquot, 2 apricot, 2 plum, and one each of apple, 
pear, persimon and mulberry trees, all in full bearing. 

Buildings on ranch for lodging, storage, barn, etc. Curing plant, light and heavy 
wagons, spray pump, flume, hose, etc. For further particulars address 



GEORGE H 

OR, 16 CHAMBERS ST., 

NEW YORK CITY 



CARR 

LA MESA, CAL. 



Hummel Bros. & Co^, Largest Employment Agency. 300 W. Second St. TeL Main 509 




New residents in a city or persons moving from one section to another are usually forced to learn 
by experience the best places to patronize. Our object in publishing a Commercial Blue Book is to 
point out to our readers a few ot the leading stores, hotels, rooming houses, restaurants, schools, 
sanitariums, hospitals, etc.; also professional men, and the most satisfactory places in which to deal. 
As it is not our intention to publish a complete business directory, some firms equally as good as those 
we have listed may have been omited. Still, we believe that those who consult this guide will be satis- 
fied with the list submitted. The variety and class of goods handled, as well as the reputation of the 
merchant, has received careful attention in each selection made, with the idea of saving our readers as 
much time, trouble and expense as possible. 



AKT, MUSIC, SCHOOI.S AND COIi- 

Artists. 

J. Bond Francisco, 416-417 Blanchard 
Hall, 235 S. Broadway. 

Business Colleges. 

l/os Angeles Business College, 212 W. 
Third St., Currier Bldg. Tel. Black 
2651. 

The Brownsberger Home School of Short- 
hand and Typewriting, 903 S. Broad- 
way. 

Metropolitan Business University, W. C. 
Buckman, Mgr., 438-440 S. Spring st. 

Dancing Academy. 

W. T. Woods, 740 S. Figueroa st. Tel. 
Green 773. 

Dramatic Training 

G. A. Dobinson. Studio, 526 S. Spring st. 
(Training of the speaking voice a 
specialty. ) 

Marbleized Plaster Medallions, 
Busts, etc. 

Sarah B. Thatcher, successor to Alfred 
T. Nicoletti, 129 Bast Seventh st. 

Schools and Colleges. 

St. Vincent's College, Grand ave. 

Los Angeles Military Academy, west of 

Westlake Park. P. O. Box 193, City. 
Miss French's Classical School for Girls, 

5 1 2 S. Alvarado st. Tel. Brown 1 652. 

Vocal Instruction 

Charles F. Edson, basso cantante. Kn- 
gagements accepted for concert, 
oratorio and opera. Studio, 61 1 
Witmer st. 



Architects 

Arthur Burnett Benton, 1 14 N. Spring st. 

Tel. Red 3521. 
R. B. Young, 828 West Seventh St. Tel. 

Main 151. 
John P. Krempel, 415-416 Henne Blk. 

Tel. Main 663. 

Architect Supplies 

Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 

Acetylene Gas Generators and^Galcium 
Carbide 

Hedden & Black, 746 S. Main st. 

Assayerg, Refiners and Bullion Buyers 

Wm. T. Smith & Co., 114 N. Main st. 
Tel. Brown 1735. 

Anyvo — Theatrical Cold Cream Make Up. 
Rouge Gras 

Viole & Lopizich, 427 N. Main st., dis- 
tributing agents. Tel. Main 875. 

Banks 

California Bank, S. W. cor. Second st. 

and Broadway. 
German-American Savings Bank, N. E. 

cor. First and Main sts. 
lyos Angeles National Bank (United 

States Depositary), N.E. cor. First 

and Spring sts. 
Security Savings Bank, N. E. cor. Sec- 
ond and Main sts. 
Sotithern California Savings Bank, 150- 

152 N. Spring st. 
State Bank and Trust Company, N. W. 

cor. Second and Spring sts. 

Bakeries 

Ebinger's Bakery, cor. Spring and Third 
sts. Tel. 610. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



The Meek Baking Co. Factory and of- 
fice Sixth and San Pedro sts. Tel. 
main 322. Principal store 226 W. 
Fourth St T^l. main 1011. 

Mrs. Angel's Bakery, 830 W. Seventh st. 

!Los Angeles Bakery, Jean Dor^, Prop. 
(French Bread.) 846 Lyon st. cor. 
Macy. 

Karl A. Senz, 614 S. Broadway. Tel. 
Main 1411. French Pastry. 

Bamboo Goodg 

S. Akita, 504 S. Broadway 

Beach Pebbles, Moonstones, Agnates, Sea 

Shells, etc.. Dressed and Polished 

to Order 

J. A. Mcintosh & Co., L. A. Steam Shell 
Works, 1825 S. Main st. 

Bicycle Dealers 

I, A. Cycle and Sporting Goods Co., 460 
S. Spring st. (Eldridge Bicycles.) 

Central Park Cyclery, G. W. Williams, 
prop., 518 S. Hill st. Tel. Green 
1211. 

Bicycle Insurance. 

The California Bicyclists Protective As- 
sociation, Chas. J. George & Co., 
Mgrs., 208 lyaughlin Bldg. Tel. 
Main 990. 

Bicycle Biding^ Academy 

Central Park Cyclery, W. G. Williams, 
prop., 518 S. Hill st. Tel. Green 121 1. 

Books, Stationery, etc. 

Stoll & Thayer Co., 252-254 S. Spring st. 

Botanic Pharmacy 

Freeman-LiscombCo., Botanic Pharmacy, 
Main and Fifteenth sts. Tel. West 68. 

Breeders of Thoroughbred Belgians, 
Angoria and Russian Rabbits. 

The Bonanza Rabbitry, Elmer h- Piatt, 
930 Grand View ave. Circulars free. 

Building and lioan Associations 

The State Mutual Building and Loan As- 
sociation, 141 S. Broadway. 

Carpet Cleaning Works 

Pioneer Steam Carpet Cleaning Works, 
Robt. Jordan, Mgr., 641 S. Broadway. 
Tel. 217 Main. 

Carpenter Work, Jobbing, Mill Work 
Adams Mfg. Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 
Red 2731. 

Carriage Works. 
J. U. Tabor & Co. ( J. U. Tabor and G. 
N. Rookhout), cor. Seventh and Los 
Angeles sts. Tel. Main 127. 

Clothing and Gent's Furnishings 

London Clothing Co., 1 17-125 N. Spring 

St., s. w. cor. Franklin. 
Mullen, Bluett & Co., n. w. cor. Spring 

and First sts. 



Confectionery, Ice Cream, Sherbets, etc. 
Wholesale and Retail 

Merriam & Son, 127 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Main 475. 
M. Broszey & Co., 727 W. Sixth st. Tel. 

Red 2033. 

Coal Oil, Gasoline, Wood, Coal, etc. 

Morris-Jones Oil and Fuel Co., 127 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 666. 

Curio Stores 
Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S.Broadway. 

Dentists 
Drs. Adams Bros., 239>^ S. Spring st. 

Distilled Water and Carbonated 
Beverages. 

The Ice and Cold Storage Co., Seventh 
St. and Santa F6 Ry . tracks. Tel. 228. 

Druggists 

F.J.Giese, 103N.Main st. Tel.Brown 310. 

H. C. Worland, 2133 E. First st. Station B. 

H. B. Fasig, 531 Downey ave., cor. Tru- 
man St., East L. A. Tel. Alta 201. 

M. W. Brown, 1200 W. Washington st. 

Freeman-Liscomb Co., cor. Main and Fif- 
teenth sts. Tel. West 68. 

Catalina Pharmacy, M. Home, prop., 1501 
W. Seventh st. Tel. Green 772. 

Edmiston & Harrison , Vermont and Jef- 
ferson sts. Tel. Blue 4701. 

E. P. Deville, cor, Sixth and Spring sts. 
Tel. Main 799. 

J. V. Akey, Central and Vernon aves. 
Tel. West 32. 

Chicago Pharmacy, F. J. Kruell, Ph.G., 
Prop. Central ave. and Twelfth st. 
Tel. West 132. 

W. A. Home, s. w. cor. Adams st. and 
Central ave. Tel. West 200. 

A. J. Watters, Cor. Fifth and Wall sts. 
Hughes bldg. Tel. Black 1094. 

Homeopathic Pharmacist 

Boericke & Runyon Co., 320 S. Broad- 
way. Tel. Main 504. 

Dry Goods 

J. M. Hale Co., 107-9-10 N. Spring st. 

Dye Works, Cleaning 

American Dye Works, J. A. Berg, prop. 

Office 210>^ S. Spring st. Tel. Main 

850. Works 6 13-61 5 W. Sixth st. Tel. 

Main 1016. 
English Steam Dye Works, T. Caunce, 

proprietor, 829 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Black 2731. 

Door and Window Screens and House 
Repairing 

Adams Mfg Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 
Red 2731. 

Electricians 

Woodill & Hulse Electric Co., 118 W. 
Third St. Tel. Main 1125. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Klectrical Commercial Co., 313 W. Second 
St. Tel. Main 22. 

Employment Agents. 

Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 and 302 West 
Second st. cor. Broadway, basement 
California Bank Bldg. Tel. Main 
509. 

Fish, Oysters and Game. 

(Family trade solicited) 
Levy's, 1 11 W. Third st. Tel. Main 1 284. 

Fruit and Vegetables 

Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622. (Shipping solicited.) 
Rivers Bros. , Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. (Shipping solicited.) 
lyudwig & Mathews, 129-133 S. Main st. 

Tel. 550. ( Shipping solicited.) 

Furnished Rooms 

The Spencer, 31 6>^ W. Third st. Rate 
$3 to $5 per week. Tel. Red 3351. 

The Narragansett, 423 S. Broadway, opp. 
Van Nuys Broadway. Tel. Brown 
1373. Rate 50c per day and up. 

The Rossmore, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 
416 W. Sixth St. Rate $1.50 to $5 
per week. 

The Hafen, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 344 
S. Hill St. Rate |1 .50 to |3 per week. 

Furniture, Carpets and Draperies 
Los Angeles Furniture Co., 225-229 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 13. 
Southern California Furniture Co., 312- 

314 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 1215. 

Gas Regulators. 
Los Angeles Gas Saving Association, 313 
W. Second st. Tel. Main 22. 

Grilles, Fretwork, "Wood Novelties, Etc. 

Los Angeles Grille Works, 610 South 
Broadway. 

Groceries 

Blue Ribbon Grocery, B. Wynns & Co., 

449 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 728. 
Despars & Son, cor. Main and Twenty- 
fifth sts. 
H. Jevne, 208-210 S. Spring st. 
C. A. Neil, 423 Downey ave., Bast L. A. 

Tel. Alta 202. 
Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622. 
Ludwig& Mathews, 129-133 S. Main st. 

Tel. 550. 
J. C. Rockhill, 1573 W. First St., cor. 

Belmont ave. Tel. Main 789. 
T. L. Coblentz, 825 S. Grand ave. Tel. 

Red 3011. 
J. Lawrence, Cool Block, cor. Jefferson st. 

and Wesley ave. 
Rivers Bros., Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. 
Smith & Anderson, cor. Pico and Olive 

sts. Tel. Blue 3966. 
J. H. Wyatt, 332 E. Fifth st. Tel. Brown 

973. 



The 99 Grocery, T. J. Coy, prop., 4402 

Central ave. Tel. West 32. 
Central Avenue Mercantile Store, Mrs. 

E. Botello, prop.„ 1200 Central ave. 

Tel. Blue 2580. 
Power House Grocery, J. A. Fazenda, 

prop., 625 Central ave. Tel. Green 

813. 

Haberdashers and Hatters. 

Bumiller & McKnight, 123 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Main 547. 

Hair Bazaar and Beauty Parlors 

The Imperial, Frank Neubauer, prop., 
224-226 W. Second st. Tel. Black 
1381. 

Hardwood and Parquetry Flooring and 
Enamel Paints. 

Marshall & Jenkins, 430 S. Broadway. 
Tel. Green 1611. 

Hay, Grain, Coal and Wood 

The P. J. Brannen Feed, Fuel & Storage 
Co., 806-810 S. Main st. Tel. Main 
419. 

William Dibble, cor. Sixth and Los An- 
geles sts. Tel. Green 1761. 

Grand Avenue Feed & Fuel Co., A. F. 
Cochems, 1514 Grand ave. Tel. 
West 227. 

A. E. Breuchaud, 841 S. Figueroa st. 
Tel. Main 923. 

Enterprise Fuel and Feed Store, Ax & 
Peet, 1006 West Ninth st. Tel. West 
239. 

Homeopatliic Pharmacist 

Boericke &Runyon Co., 320 S. Broadway. 
Tel. Main 504. 

Hospitals 
The California Hospital, 1414 S. Hope 

St. Tel. West 92. 
Dr. Stewart's Private Hospital, 315 West 

Pico St. Tel. West 14. 

Hotels 

Aldine Hotel, Hill st., bet. 3rd and 4th 
sts. American plan, $1.50 per day 
and up. European plan, $3.50 to 
$10.00 per week. 

Hotel Locke, 139 S. Hill st., entrance on 
Second st. American plan. Rate 
$8.00 to $12 per week. 

Bellevue Terrace Hotel, cor. Sixth and 
Figueroa sts. Rate, $2 per day and up. 

HoUenbeck Hotel, American and Europ- 
ean plan. Second and Spring sts. 

Hotel Van Nuys, n. w. cor. Main and 
Fourth sts. American plan, $3 to 
$12 per day ; European plan, $1 to 
$10 per day. 

Hotel Palms, H. C. Fryman, prop., 
Sixth and Broadway. American and 
European plans. 

Hotel Vendome, 231 S. Hill st. First- 
class dining room in connection. 

Westminster Hotel, n. e. cor. Main and 
Fourth sts. American plan, $3 per 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



day and up ; European plan, $1 per 

day and up. 
Hotel Gray Gables, cor. Seventh and 

Hill sts. Rates $1 to $2 per day. 
Hotel Lillie, 534 S. Hill st. Rate $8 to 

$15 per week. 
The Belmont, 425 Temple st. Rate $6.50 

per week and up. 
Hotel Grey, n. e. cor. Main and Third 

sts. European plan. Rate, $3.00 to 

$12 per week. 

Japanese Fancy Goods 
Quong I,ee Ivung & Co., 350 S. Spring st. 

Jewelers and Watchmakers 
S. Conradi, 113 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 

1159. 
W. T. Harris, cor. First and Main sts. 

Tel. Red 2981. 

Iiadies' Tailor 
S. Benioff, 330 S. Broadway. 

liaundries 

Crystal Steam Laundry, W.J. Hill, Mgr., 
416-420 E. First st. Tel. Red 1932. 

Empire Steam Laundry, 149 South Main 
St. Tel. Main 635. 

liiquor Merchants 
H. J. Woollacott, 124-126 N. Spring st. 
Southern California Wine Co., 220 W. 

Fourth St. 
Edward Germain Wine Co., 397-399 S. 

Los Angeles st. Tel. Main 919. 

liivery Stables and Tally-hos 
Tally-ho Stable & Carriage Co., W. R. 
Murphy (formerly at 109 N. Broad- 
way), 712 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 51 . 
Eagle Stables, Woodward & Cole, 122 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 248. 
Eureka Stables, 323 W. Fifth st. Tel. 
Main 71. 

Meat Markets 
Norma Market, M. T. Ryan, 1818 S. 

Main St. Tel. West 171. 
Model Market, R. A. Norries, 831 W. 

Sixth st. cor Pearl. Tel. 979 Main. 
Grand Avenue Market, J. A. Rydell, 

2218 S. Grand ave. Tel. White 321 1. 
Pioneer Meat Market, E. Rudolph, 514 

Downey ave.. East L. A. Tel.Alta208. 
Park Market, Chas Kestner, 329 West 

Fifth St. Tel. Red 2671. 
Eureka Market, Jay W. Hyland, cor. 7th 

st and Union ave. Tel. Main 1467. 
Oregon Market, Geo. N. Briggs, prop., 

525 W. Sixth st. Tel. Red 2032. 
Washington Market, J. A. McCoy, Station 

" D," 1214 W. Washington st. Tel. 

Blue 4961. 



Men's Furnishing Goods, Notions, Fancy 
Goods, etc. 

Cheapside Bazaar, F. E. Verge, 2440 S. 
Main st. 



Merchant Tailors 

O. C. Sens, 219 W Second St., opp. Hol- 

lenbeck Hotel. 
Brauer & Krohn, 1 14>^ S. Main st. Tel. 

Green 1745. 
A. J. Partridge, 125 W. First st. Tel. 

Green 13 
M. C. Meiklejohn, 203 S. Main st. Branch 

E St., San Bernardino. 

Mexican Hand- Carved l.eather Goods 

H. Ross & Sons, 352 S. Broadway, P. O. 
box 902. 

Millinery 

Maison Nouvelle, Miss A. Clarke, 222 W. 
3rd St. Tel. Main 1374. 

Mineral Baths. 

Los Angeles Mineral Baths and Springs, 
A. Puissegur, Prop., cor. Macy and 
Lyon sts., and 851 Howard st. 

Modiste 
Miss H. M. Goodwin, Muskegon Block, 
cor. Broadway and Third st. 

Monnmental Dealers 

Lane Bros., 631 S. Spring St., Los Ange- 
les, and 41 1 McAlister St., San Fran 
Cisco. 

Nurserymen and Florists 

Los Angeles Nursery. Sales depot 446 
S. Main st. P. O. box 549. (Special- 
ties, plant and cacti souvenirs.) 

Elysian Gardens and Nursery, Ethel 
Lord, prop. City depot 440 S. Broad- 
way. Nursery corner Philleo and 
Marathon sts. 

Elmo R. Meserve. Salesyard 635 S. 
Broadway. Tel. White 3226. Nur- 
sery 2228 Sutter st. 

Opticians 

Adolph Frese, 126 S. Spring st. 

Boston Optical Co., Kyte & Granicher, 

235 S. Spring st. 
Fred Detmers, 354 S. Broadway. 

Osteopathy 

Pacific School of Osteopathy and Infirm- 
ary, C. A. Bailey, Pres., Tenth and 
Flower sts. Tel. West 55. 

Faints, Oils and Glass 

Scriver & Quinn, 200-202 S. Main st. 

Tel. 565. 
P. H. Mathews, 238-240 S. Main st. Tel. 

1025. 

Pawn Brokers 

L. B. Cohn, 120-122 North Spring st. 

Pharmaceutical Manufacturers. 
The Salubrita Pharmacal Co., Mrs. L. W. 
Shellhamer, lady mgr 122 West 
Third St., room 320. (Fine cosmetics 
a specialty.) 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Bool<:, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Photo grapliers 

Townsend's, 340>^ S. Broadway. 

Photographic Material, Kodaks, etc. 

Dewey Bros., 326 South Spring st. Tel. 
Black 3891. 

Pianos, Sheet Music and Musical 
Merchandise 

Southern California Music Co., 216-218 
W. Third st. Tel. 585. 

Fitzgerald Music & Piano Co., 113 S. 
Spring St. Tel. Main 1 159. 

Williamson Bros., 327 S Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. 

Geo. T. Exton, 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. (Agent for Regal Man- 
dolins and Guitars. ) 

Picture Frames, Artists' Materials, Sou- 
venirs 

Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 
Ita Williams, 354 S. Broadway and 311 
S. Main st. 

Printing, Engraving, Binding 

Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner Co., 123 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 417. 

Restaurants 

Ebinger's Dining Parlors, cor. Spring 
and Third sts. Tel. 610. 

Saddlerock Fish and Oyster Parlors, 236 
S. Spring st. (Private dining par- 
lors.) 

Maison Doree (French Restaurant), 145- 

; ' 147 N. Main st. Tel. Main 1573. 

Seymour Dining Parlors, 318 West Sec- 
,ond St. 

The Rival Lunch Counter and Restaur- 
ant, 115 W. Second St. 

Rubber Stamps, Stencils and Seals 

Ivos Angeles Rubber Stamp Co., 224 W. 
First St. Tel. Red 3941. 

Ruberoid Roofing and P. & B. Roof 
Paints and Gravel Roofing. 

Paraffine Paint Co., 312-314 W. Fifth st. 

Sewing Machines and Bicycles 

Williamson Bros., 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
Brown 1315. 

Seeds and Agricultural Implements 

Johnson & Musser Seed Co., 1 13 N. Main 
8t. Tel. Main 176. 

Shirt and Shirt TTaist Makers 

Machin Shirt Co., 1 18>^ S. Spring st. 
Bumiller & McKnight, 123 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Main 547. 

Shoe Stores 

-Skinner & Kay, sole agents Burt & Pack- 
ard " Korrect Shape " shoes, 209 W. 
Third st. 

F. E. Verge, 2440 S. Main st. 



Sign Writers and Painters 

S. Bros.-Schroeder Bros., 121 E. Second 
St. Tel. Main 561. 

Soda liVorks and Beer Bottlers 

I^s Angeles Soda Works (H. W Stoll & 
Co.), 509 Commercial st. Tel. Main 
103. 

Sporting Goods and Bicycles 

ly. A. Cycle & Sporting Goods Co., 460 
S. Spring st. 

Taxidermist and Naturalist 

Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S. Broadway. 

Teas, Coffees and Spices 
Sunset Tea & Coflfee Co., 229 W. Fourth 
St. Tel. Main 1214. 

Tents, A'wnings, Hammocks, Camp 
Furniture, etc. 

Ivos Angeles Tent & Awning Co., A. W. 

Swanfeldt, prop., 220 S. Main st. 

Tel. Main 1160. 
J. H. Masters, 136 S. Main st. Tel. Main 

1512. Also guns and ammunition. 

Trunk Manufacturers, Traveling 
Cases, etc. 

D. D. Whitney, 423 S. Spring st. Tel. 
Main 203. 

Upholstering, Polishing, Cabinet Work 

Broadway Furniture & Upholstering Co., 
421 S. Broadway. 

Transfer Co. 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) 

Undertakers 

Bresee Bros,. 557-559 S. Broadway. Tel. 

Main 243. 
C. D. Howry, 509-511 S. Broadway. Of- 
fice Tel. 107; Res. Tel. 541. 
Peck & Chase Co., 433-435 S. Hill st. 
Tel. 61. 

Van and Storage Companies 
Bekins Van and Storage Co. Office 436 
S. Spring st.; Tel. Main 19. Ware- 
house, Fourth and Alameda sts.; Tel. 
Black 1221. 

Wall Paper, Room Moulding, Decorating 

Los Angeles Wall Paper Co., 309 S. Main 

St. Tel. Green 314. 
New York Wall Paper Co., 452 S. Spring 

St. Tel. Main 207. 

Warehouse 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) 

Wood Mantels, Tiles, Grates, Etc. 

Chas. E. Marshall, 514 S. Spring st. 

Tel. Brown 1821. 
W^ood Turning, Grill and Cabinet Work. 
The Art Mill Co., 649 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Green 1638. 
W^ood Turning, Scroll and Band Sawing 
A. J. Koll, 335-337 E. Second st. Tel. 

1242. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Bool<, Pasadena, Cal. 
PASADENA COMMERCIAL, BLUE BOOK. 

Pasadena is a city of beautiful homes. Its charming Iccation near the Sierra Madre mountains, at 
the head of the beautiful San Gabriel valley, and its proximity and exceptional railway facilities to 
Los Angeles, make it at once popular as a winter resort to tourists and a suburban residence for Los 
Angeles business men. It has good business houses, fine churches and schools, an excellent library, 
charming drives, and the finest hotel in the section. 



Banks. 

First National Bank, cor. Fair Oaks ave. 
and Colorado st. 

Bakeries. 

C. S. Heiser, 22 West Colorado st. Branch 
26 Pine St., I/ong Beach. 

Coal, Wood, Hay and Grain. 

J. A. Jacobs & Son, 100 East Colorado 

St. Tel. Main 105. 

Druggists. 
Asbury G. Smith, n. w. cor. Raymond 

and Colorado sts. Tel. Main 171. 

Furniture, Carpets and Draperies. 

Chas. E. Putman, 96-98 East Colorado st. 
Brown & SutlifiF> 99-103 South Fair Oaks 
ave. Tel. 99. 

Gymnasium, Baths, Massage. 

Rowland's Gymnasium, cor. Green and 

Fair Oaks. Tel. Black 673. 

Groceries. 

W. J. Kelly, 55-57 East Colorado st. Tel. 

86. 
Martin & Booher, 24 East Colorado st. 
Tel. Main 54. 

Haberdashers and Hatters. 
F. E. Twombly, 28 East Colorado st. 
Harness and Horse Furnishing Goods. 

H. I. Howard, 117 East -Colorado st. 

(Fine custom work a specialty.) 

Hotels. 

Hotel Mitchell, cor. Dayton st. and Fair 

Oaks ave. American plan. Rates 

$2.00 per day and up. 

Ice, Distilled Water, etc. 
Independent Ice Co., cor Raymond ave. 
and Union st. Tel. Red 672, 



liaundries. 

Pacific Steam lyaundry, 254 South Fair 
Oaks ave. Tel. Main 72. 

Meat Markets. 

City Meat Market, John Breiner, 83 East 

Colorado st. Tel. 60. 
East Side Market, H. L. Flouruoy, 184- 

1 86 East Colorado st. Tel . Black 3 1 4. 

Millinery. 

Knox & McDermid Millinery Parlors, 
No. 9 Fair Oaks ave., First National 
Bank Bldg. 

Opticians. 

Drs. F. M. & A. C. Taylor, 31 East Col- 
orado St. 

Restaurants (launches put up). 

Arlington Restaurant and Bakery, S. F. 
Smiley, prop., 102 East Colorado st, 
second door west Santa F^ tracks. 

Mrs. McDermid's Delicacy Bakery, 35 
East Colorado st. 

Steel Ranges, House Furnishing Hard- 
ware, Refrigerators, etc. 

Pasadena Hardware Company, No. 13 
East Colorado st. 

Undertakers. 

Reynolds & VanNuys, 63 N. Fair Oaks 
ave. Tel. 52. Proprietors Pasadena 
Crematorium. 



Wall Paper, Mouldings, Window Shades, 
Paints, Oils, Varnishes. 

H. E. Lodge, 43 East Colorado st. Tel. 
Red 401. 



The bound volumes of the Land of Sunshine make the most interesting and 
valuable library of the far West ever printed. The illustrations are lavish and hand- 
some, the text is of a high literary standard, and of recognized authority in its field. 
There is nothing else like this magazine. Among the thousands of publications in 
the United States, it is wholly unique. Every educated Californian and Westerner 
should have these charming volumes. They will not long be secured at the present 
rates, for back numbers are growing more and more scarce ; in fact the June num- 
ber, 1894, is already out of the market. 

gen. half morocco, $3.90, plain leather, $3.40 
•• " •' 2.85, " •* 2.35 

•' " " 3.60, " •• 3.10 

** " " 2.85, '* " 2.35 

a «. *. 2.70, •• '• 2.20 



Vols. 1 and 2— July '94 to May '95, inc. 
" 3 and 4— June '95 to May '96, " 
" 5 and 6— June '96 to May '97, " 
** 7 and 8— June '97 to May '98, " 
" 9 and 10— June '98, to May '99 *' 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Scmshinb." 




The purchasing agent for one of the large brass roll- 
ing mills in Connecticut had a "mighty hard time" with 
his stomach. ''I used to get up in the morning feeling 
150 years old," he said, " and at meal time I felt faint, but 
still I had an insatiable appetite. I was cross and irritable. 
I didn't take any interest in business or anything else, and 
finally I got so bad I had the jaundice and was as yellow 
as sulphur. I was getting to be a perfect wreck and I 
didn't care so very much whether I lived or died. It was 
at this point that I began using Ripans Tabules, but before 
I had used three dozen my natural color began to return. 
All my stomach trouble has disappeared and now I con 
sider myself well" 

WANTED.— A case of bad health that R*rP*A'N'S win not benefit. They bai^h pain and prolong life. 
One gives relief. Note the word R'l-P-A'N'S on the package and accept no snbstitute. R'l-P-A-N-S, 
10 for 5 cents or twelve packets for 48 cents, may be had at any drug store. Ten samples and one thou- 
•and testimonials will be mailed to any address for 5 cents, forwarded to the Ripans Chemical Co., N«, 
10 Spruce St., New York. 



Increase your strength, ward off ill health, use Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters, the strength 




WE LI! 
THEY 1 
DONT| 

GET ^^ ^ ^^^gs: \ 

ahead" 

COLUMBIAS 

AND HARTFORDS' 



Constant adaptation of the the best means to t!:e best ends, has earned 
for oir machines their recogr-i^ed superiority. But we have never allowed 
success to act as a bar to progress. 

Our machines for ICCO are an exemplification of this policy. 

New Frames, new Hubs and Spoke::-, new Ceit Post Binder, reduction in 
weight are improvements common to both Chainlcss and Chain models. 

Our new Coaster Brcke permits the cyclist to enjoy the pleasure of 
coasting while retaining full control of the wheel. It does not require re- 
moval of the feet from the pedals and the speed of the bicycle can be 
regulated no matter how steep the grade. The brake is applicable to both 
Chainless and Chain models, and is furnished for ^5.00. 

The Columbia Chainless, reduced in weight and other- 
wise greatly improved, is the ideal mount for road or track. 

Columbia, Hartford, Stcrmer and PecisoEit Bicycles. 

$75, $30, $5D, $35, $30, $25. 

Columbia and Stormer catalogues free from any Columbia or Stormer 
dealer, or by mail for 2-cent stamp each. 



CALEN0AR 
FOR 5 

2 CENJ . 



AMERICAN BICYCLE COMPANY 

P0PE5SALES DEPARTMENT 

HARTFORD CONN 




When answering: advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine,' 




'BARKER BRAND" 

L'lEn'cnUars a Cuffs |//^^- 

SACHS BBOS & CO. 
San Franplsco Coast Agents 




Pacific Coast Steamship Co. 

The Company's elegant steam- 
ers Santa Rosa and Corona leave 
Redondo at 1 1 a.m., and Port I.os 
Aiig;e'es at 2:30 pm, for San 
Francisco via Santa Barbara and 
Port Harford, Feb, 2, 6, 10, 14, 
18, 22, 26, March 2 and every 
fourth day thereafter. 
Leave Port Los Angeles at 5:45 
a m. and Kedoudo at 10:45 a.m. for San Diego, 
Feb 4 8, 12, 16, 20. 24, 28, March 4 and every 
fourth day thereaiter. 

Cars connect via Redondo leave Santa F6 depot 
at 9:55 a m , or Redondo Ry. depot at 9:30 
a ra. Cars connect via Poit Los Angeles leave 
S. P. R. R. depot 1:35 p.m, for steamers north 
bound 

The steamers Coos Bay and Bonita leave San 
Pedro for rtan Francisco via East San Pedro, Ven- 
tura. Carpc nteria, Santa Barbara, Goleta Gaviota, 
Poit Harford, Cayucos, San Simeon. Monterey 
and Santa Cruz, at 6 p m.. Feb. 3. 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 
27, March 3 and every fourth day thereafter. 

Cars to connect with steamers vta San Pedro 
leave S. P R R (Arcade Depot) at 5:03 p m., and 
Terminal Ry. depot 5:20 p.m. Sunday at 1:45 p.m. 
For lurther information obtain folder. 
Thf Company reserves right to change, without 
previous notice, steamers, sailing dates and hours 
of sailing. W. PARRIS, Agt., 

124 West Second St., Los Angeles. 
GOODALL, PERKINS & CO., Gen. Agts., 

San Francisco. 



CURED OF DRINKING 



A Woman's Secret Method Whereby She 
Cured Her Husband who was a Ter- 
rible Drunkard, by Mixing a Rem- 
edy in His Coffee and P*ood, 
Curing Him Without His 
Help or Knowledge. 



A TRIAL PACKAGE FREE TO ALL. 

It takes a vsroman to overcome obstacles. Mrs. 
Chas. W. Harry. 920 York .street. Newport, Ky., 
had for years patiently borne the disgrace, suffer- 
ing, misery anrl_^privation due to her husband's 
drinking habits. 
Learning there was 
a cure for drunken- 
ness which she could 
give her husband 
secretly, she decided 
to try it She mixed 
it in his food and cof- 
fee, and as the rem- 
edy is odorless and 
tasteless he never 
knew what it was 
that so quickly re- 
lieved the craving 
for liquor. He soon 
btgan to pick up in 
flesh, his appetite for 
solid food returned, 
he stuck to his work 
regularly and they now have a happy home. Mr. 
Harry was told about his wife's experiment and 
he gives her the credit of having restored him to 
his senses. It is certainly a remarkable remedy, 
cures a man without his effort, does him no harm 
and causes him no suflTering whatever. 

Dr. Haines, the discoverer, will send a trial 
package of this grand remedy free to all who will 
write for it. Enough of the remedy is mailed 
free to show how it is used in tea, coffee, or food, 
and that it will cure the dreaded habit quietly 
and permanently. Send your name and address 
to Dr. J, W, Haines. 1397 Glenn Building, Cincin- 
nati. Ohio, and he will mail a free sample of the 
remedy to you, securely sealed in a plain wrap- 
per, also full directions how to use it, books and 
testimonials from hundreds who have been 
cured, and everything needed to aid you in sav- 
ing those near and dear to you from a life of deg- 
radation and ultimate poverty and disgrace. 

Send for a free trial today. It will brighten the 
rest of your life. 




MRS CHAS, W, HARKY. 



fine Corner for flats 



close in, well 
located, good 

dimensions, and cheap. Inquire at 2200 Grand 

Avenue, Los A ngeles. 




LACE CURTAINS 



FREE 



These beautiful Royal Lace Parlor Curtains are of the newest Savoy I 

^ design, three yards long, 36 inches wide, are washable and will last a I 

^ life time. You can get two pairs of these choice curtains, (same design ' 

.,,-;= as In cut), and four beautiful Sash Curtains (one yard square each) FREE by selling our GREAT 

;V||1 COLD REMEDY and HEADACHE CURE. Cures Cold in One Day ! Relieves Headache at Once! We 

will give the curtains absolutely free to anyone taking advantage of the great offer we send to 

every person selling six boxes of our Tablets. If you agree to sell only six boxes at 25 cents a box, 

write to-day and we will send the Tablets by mail postpaid. When sold, send us the money and 

we will send four Sash Curtains, unhemmed, so they may be made to fit any window, together 

with our offer of two complete pairs of Royal Lace Parlor Curtains, enough to furnish a room, 

same day money is received. This is a grand opportunity ior ladies to beautify their homes with 

ftne Lace Curtains of exquisite design. All who have ear ed them are delighted. Address: 

NATIONAL MEDICINE CO., 1010 Chapel St., i4ewHayen,Conn.Box233 B 



tlummei Bros. & Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. lei. iviain :>u^ 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land op Sunshine. " 

Quality High Price Low 

Price, $225.00 




Made by Geo. W. Osgood oi Amesbury, Mass., Manufacturer of Fine Carriages. 

ALL PRICES MARKED IN PLAIN FIGURES. 

MAWLhrY, KlNCl &. CO., ** ^'* ^Haraess^^na Bicycles, 

cor. Broadway and Fifth Sts., Los Angeles 




Make Your 
Advertising Pay! 

Bright and clever illus- 
trations will do it. We 
make them. We are after 
your business. 

CM. DAVIS CO., 

Engravers, 

123 S. Broadway 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Telephone 
Main 417. 



The bitters that's best and has stood the test— Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters. At druggists. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you *' saw it in the Land of Sunshine '' 

CREATES A PERFECT COMPLEXION 

Mrs. Graham's 

Cucumber and Elder 
Flower Cream 

It cleanses, whitens and beautifies the 
skin, feeds and nourishes skin tissues, 
thus banishing wrinkles. It is harmless 
as dew, and as nourishing to the skin as 
dew is to the flower. Price $1.00 at drug- 
gists and agents, oi sent anywhere pre- 
paid. Sample bottle, 10 cents. A hand- 
some book. "How to be Beautiful," free. 

CACTICO HAIR GROWER 

TO MAKE HIS HAIR GROW, AND 

QUICK HAIR RESTORER 

TofRESTORElTHEDCOLOR. 

Both guaranteed harmless as water.ESold by best Druggists, or sent in plain sealed 
wrapper by express, prepaid. Price, SI. OO each. 
For sale by all Druggists and Hairdealers, 

Send for FREE BOOK : "A Confidential Chat with Bald Headed, Ihin Haired and 
Gray Haired Men and Women." Good Agents wanted. 

REDINGTOX & CO., San Francisco, Gen. Paciiic Coast Agents. 

MRS. GERVAISE GRAHAM, 1261 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

MRS. WEAVER-JACKSON, Hair Stores and Toilet Parlors, 

318 S. Spring St., lios Angeles. 82 Fair Oaks Ave., cor. Green St., Pasadena. 








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m }k 



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^¥A¥^¥^¥r^¥rik¥^¥^¥^¥^¥^ 



♦ ''<A Perfect Food'' 



•^ 

» 



^reset^es Health 



"Prolongs Life '' ♦ 



BAKER'S 

BREAKFAST 

COCOA 




fe 



Trade-Mark 
on Every Package 



" Known the world over. 
. . . Received the highest in- 
dorsements from the medical 
practitioner, the nurse, and 
the intelligent housekeeper 
and caterer." — Dietetic and 
Hygienic Gazette. 

Walter Baker & Co. Ltd. 

DORCHESTER, MASS. 

Established 1780. 



f'¥^¥A¥A¥^¥ik¥^¥^¥^¥^¥ik¥'i^ 



X 



grape fruitate 
Orangedtc 

Two new California fruit pro- 
ducts which have no equal as 
a delicate, appetizing and en- 
joyable fruit food. 
Grape Fruitate as an appetizer 
on the breakfast table will 
greatly enhance the morning 
meal. 

For invalids and convalescents 
Orangeate and Grape Fruitate 
have no equal. If your grocer 
does not have them, write to 
us and we will see you are 
supplied. 

Bishop & Company 

Los Angeles 



7v\^HRCH. lyuu 



CALIFORNIA ALPS, 

DAVID STARR JORDAN. 
CITIES OF THE DEAD, 

DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS. 



VUI. All, l^U. 4 

l^avlalily 

Illustrated 



'L05 PAISES DEI SOLDUATAN El AlMA"^,;g^gg^;;^^r^!g»=:=aa,^ 



THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE 



~1 




THE MAGAZINE i 

CALIFORNIA AND THE WEST 

EDITED BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 



s^;^ 




A CALIFORNIA MOCKING BIRD. 



AAAAAAAWWVWWlAAAAAAAAA 



10 



CENTS LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO., Incorporated 

A COPY 121^ South Broadway, I.08 Ang^eles. 



$1 



A 
YEAR 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you ' saw it in the I,and of Sunshinb. 






c^or^«^« 




Grandmother Knows 

and all thrifty housewives 
should know the value of 

Singer 

Sewing Machines 

They have every advantage claimed 
for other niachines and many addi- 
tional points of excellence. 

The Singer Manufacturing Co. has 
offices in every city of the world ; 
upon application to any of them a 
machine will be delivered to your 
home, and 

YOU CAN TRY IT FREE. 

The machines are either sold for 

cash or leased, as you may prefer, and old machines will be taken in 

exchange. Either lock-stitch or chain-stitch, with any style of cabinet. 

l77oi',7"§ "'":'!"!'.'. THE SINGER MANIFACTURING CO. 





steel Wheel 

Pneumatic 
Runabouts 

Arc the Correct Thing Now 

FKAZIEK OF AURORA, ILIilNOIS, MAKES THE BEST. U, 



eOl^D BY 



\ E. P. BOSBYSHELL 



Wholesale and Retail 




Buggies, Carriages, Wagons and Agricuiturai implements y 

130=132 N. Los Angeles St. 

LOS angei.es, cal,. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the I,and of Sunshixr.' 



In the Heart of Los AngeleSft:ft«j^:«diii«>; 



49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 



The HoUenbeck, on Second 
and Spring Sts., is the most 
centrally located of all the 
Los Angeles Hotels. 

Electric cars pass its doors 
to all points of interest. 

It is headquarters for Tal- 
ly-ho and Railway Excur- 
sions, commercial men and 
tourists. 

It is run on both Amer- 
ican and European plans. 

Has first-class Cafe and 
rooms with bath and other 
conveniences. Rates are 
reasonable, its 
courteous. 




conveniences ample and its service prompt and 



HOLLENBECK HOTEL 



A. C. BILICKE & CO. 
Second and Spring Sts, 



Props. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



6» 

s 



ar¥¥¥$¥¥¥¥¥«;tF¥$¥¥¥$¥«;¥¥«^¥¥$¥¥$¥¥¥¥^ 



CUTS 



If you desire good, first class work in the cut line for your ad- 
vertising purposes, you will have to apply where they are made. 
Good work our specialty. Los Angeles Photo. Engraving 
Co., 2nd and Main. Telephone Green 1545. 



A DIFFERENT CALIFORNIA 

Are all your ideas of California correct ? You 
may not know, for instance, that in Fresno and 
Kings Counties, situate in the noted San Joa- 
quin Valley, is to be found one of the richest 
tracts of land in the State. 60,000 acres of 
the Laguna de Tache grant for sale at $25 to 
$45 per acre, including Free Water Right, at 
62;^ cents per acre annual rental (the cheapest water in California). Send 
your name and address, and receive the local newspaper free for two 
months, and with our circulars added, you may learn something of this 
different California. 

Address NARES & SAUNDERS, Managers, 
FRESNO, CAL* 

C A* HUBERT, Agent, 207 W. Third St,, Los Angeles, 




Good health is real wealth— Abbott's, the Original Angostura Bitters is a veritable fortune to the weak. 



The Land of Sunshine 



(incorporatkd) capital stock $50,000. 



The Magazine of California and the West 



EDITED BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 



The Only Exclusively Western Magazine 

AMONG THE STOCKHOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS ARE: 



DAVID STARR JORDANf 

President of Stanford University. 

THEODORE H. HITTELL 

The Historian of California. 

MARY HALLOCK FOOTE 

Author of 7>« Led-Horse Claim, etc. 

MARGARET COLLIER GRAHAM 
Author of Stories of the Foothills. 

GRACE ELLERY CHANNING 

Author of The Sister of a Saint, etc. 

ELLA HIGGINSON 

Author of A Forest Orchid, etc. 

JOHN VANCE CHENEY 

Author of Thistle Drift, etc. 

CHARLES WARREN STODDARD 
The Poet of the South Seas. 

INA COOLBRITH 

Author of Songs ftom the Golden Gate, etc. 

EDWIN MARKHAM 

Author of The Man with the Hoe. 

JOAQUIN MILLER 

The Poet of the Sierras. 

CHAS. FREDERICK HOLDER 

Author of The Life of Agassiz, etc. 

CONSTANCE GODDARD DU BOIS 

Author The Shield of the Fleur de Lis. 



WILLIAM KEITH 

The gfreatest Western painter. 

DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS 
Ex-Prest American Folk-I,ore Society. 

DR. ELLIOTT COUES 

The Historian of Lewis and Clark. 

GEO. PARKER WINSHIP 

The Historian of Coronado's Marches, 

FREDERICK WEBB HODGE 

of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 

GEO, HAMLIN FITCH 

I,iterary Editor S. F. Chronicle. 

CHARLOTTE PERKINS STETSON 

Author^of In This Our World. 

CHAS. HOWARD SHINN 

Author of The Story of the Mine, etc. 

T. S. VAN DYKE 

Author of Rod ana Gun in California, etc. 

CHAS. A. KEELER 

A Director of the California Academy 
of Sciences. 

LOUISE M. KEELER 

ALEX. F. HARMER 

L. MAYNARD DIXON 
Illustrators. 

CHAS. DWIGHT WILLARD 



BATTERMAN LINDSAY, ETC., ETC. 



CONTENTS FOR MARCH, 1900 : 

In the California Alps, illustrated Frontispiece 

The Old Garden (poem), Norah May French 205 

Night on the Mesa Trail (poem), J. Albert Mallony 205 

The King's River Alps, illustrated, David Starr Jordan 2O6 

The Cities of the Dead, illustrated. Dr. Washington Matthews 213 

A February Flower-Hunt, illustrated, Chas. Amadou Moody 222 

An Interrupted Wheel Trip, illustrated, Ralph E. Bicknell 228 

A California Bookman, illustrated 235 

A Soldier of Spain (Story), Beltran Escoba 236 

Familiar Birds of Southern California, illustrated, Elizabeth and Joseph Griunell 239 

The Professor's Wealth, a Story of the Boom, T. S. Van Dyke 240 

The Pity of It, Bertha S. Wilkins 244 

Pioneers of the Far West— tie Letter of Fray Silvesier Valez de Escalante 247 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor) 251 

That Which is Written (reviews by the editor) 259 

The Land We Love, illustrated 

California Babies, illustrated 

The Southern California Fig 



Entered at the Los AngelfS Postoffice as second-class matter. 
SEE PUBI^ISHER'S PAGE. 



REMEMBER THAT IMPERIAL GRANUM CONTINUES 
TO BE THE STANDARD AND BEST FOOD FOR 
BABIES • • INVALIDS AND CONVALESCENTS 
PRAISE ITS VIRTUES, AND IT IS ACCEPTABLE TO 
THE PALATE AND TO THE MOST DELICATE 
DIGESTION AT ALL PERIODS OF LIFE • THERE 
ARE MORE HEARTY MEN AND WOMEN IN THIS 
COUNTRY TODAY THAT WERE RAISED ON 
IMPERIAL GRANUM THAN ON ANY OTHER FOOD. 



nsaiaiMaflEii MtgiaiK! 




combined with pure, sweet cow's 
milk, furnishes the best principles 
of diet for the last comers into the 
household. They thrive on 
it, and laugh rather than 
bawl, especially when 
IMPERIAL GRANUM 
is placed in their sight. 



^r-^ 



^-^x^ 



Wi* 



Mother's Milk 

of suitable quantity and 
quality is the best form of 
nutrition for the little one, 
and it often happens that 
a mother can successfully 



at first it seems impossible, if 
^ \ , she will resort to a liberal diet of 

IMPERIAL GRANUM. 
/? /? ^ Booklet sent on application. ^ ^ ^ 

SOLD BY DRUGGISTS EVERYWHERE! 

Cbe Imperial 6raTium Company, - ]^ew Raven, Conn- 

Shipping Depot: John Carle & Sons. New York. 



n 



ECLIPSE BICYCLES 

ARE TO THE FRONT 

Selling at prices that make them move. Our 
preparations for this season make your op- 
portunity. Call and see our line, they are 
beauties. Equipped with 

THE CELEBRATED MORROW 
HUB ^NO COASTER BRAKE 

Why not ride a fine wheel and get your 
money's worth ? 

THE PIERCE WHEEL, Tried and 
True." A rider never changes his mount. 

When does the 20th Century begin ? It be- 
gins with the Cushion-frame Chainless. 

n. B. BAILES, ir.^^X"'"} 



Phone Green 1976. 



Dunlop-^Pneumatic Tires 

#for Bicycles 
f for Carriages 

I for Automoliiles 



The American Dunlop Tire Co. 



FRECKLES 

this great enemy of beaut: 
STILLIHAN FRECKLE CKKAm CO., Dept. 



positively removed by 
using Stillman's Cream. 
Prepared especially for 

this great enemy of beauty. Write for particulars. 

' " AURORA, ILLS. 



WE MANUFACTURE ALL KINDS OF 

RUBBER GOODS 



When you purchase and ■want 

TIG Best MM Hose 




See that our name is on every length. 

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Vol. 12, No. 4. 



LOS ANGELES 



MARCH 1900. 



The Old Garden. 

BY NORA MAY FRENCH. 

The garden of Dolores ! Here she walked, 
When, fretted on the twilight's pallid space, 
The trees were black and delicate as lace, 

And palms were etchings, sharp and slender-stalked. 

Now riots summer in these magic closes. 
And life is rounded in the frailest spray. 

Dolores, cold, and buried yesterday, 
Is it thy spirit here among the roses ? 

For restless murmurs thro' the garden seek, 
To shadowy caress the flowers unclose, 
A blossom in the dark magnolia glows — 

Or leaning pallor of an oval cheek ? 

Upon the dark is borne a strange long cry ; 

And one quick sob of wind the air has moved. 

Ah ! perfect garden that Dolores loved, 
Her soul has called to thee . . a last good-by. 



Los Ani^eles, Cal. 



Night on The Mesa Trail. 

BY J. ALBERT MALLORY. 

Night on the mesa trail, and a glow o'er the hill-top dying. 
Spectral shapes on the plain, and nearer the restless herd ; 

Afar the cry of a wolf, and an echo far replying, 
And a shuddering breath of wind, and the chirp of a wakened bird. 

Night on the mesa trail, and a wistful cowboy singing 
Softly a song of a maid — the song that hath mocked the years — 

Softly for that good-by, and warm «rms round him clinging ; 
Passionate eyes uplifted, veiled in a mist of tears. 

Night on the mesa trail, and a foe in the shadow lying — 
Silent the arrow speeds straight to its quivering mark ; 

A savage cry on the night, and the herd in terror flying, 
And under the careless stars a face upturned to the dark. 

Night on the mesa trail, and a something yonder lying 
Huddled and still — and nearer the cry of the wolfish pack ; 

-And over the hills to the east a maiden shivers, sighing. 

Stirred with an unknown fear for one who shall ne'er come back. 

Riverside, Cal. 

Copyright lOOO by Land of Sunshine Pub. Co 



2o6 



The Alps of the Kings-Kern 
Divide. 



BY DAVID STARR JORDAN. 



^ N this paper I write in a few words to point the way to the 
I highest of the high Sierras, at the same time clinching 
what I have to say by a few good photographs. These 
were taken in 1899 by Professor Robert Eckles Swain of Stan- 
ford, and they show the characteristic features of some of Cal- 
ifornia's mighty Alps. For the high Sierras, the huge crests 
at the head of the King's, Kern, Kaweah and San Joaquin 
rivers are Alps indeed, not lower than the grandest of those in 
Europe, and scarcely inferior in magnificence. Indeed the 
number of peaks in this region which pass the limit of 13.000 
feet is not less than in all Switzerland. The highest of these 
peaks. Mount Whitney, is given on Le Conte's map as 14,522 
feet in height. It is thus a little lower than the Matterhorn 
(14,705), while Mt. Blanc (15,731) Monte Rosa (15,366), the 
Mischabelhorn (14,941) and the Weisshorn (14,803) outrank 
it a little more. But virtually all reach much the same level, 
and between these peaks, and the next in rank in Switzerland, 
the Fenster Aarhorn, 14,026, California claims a good many, 
notably Mount Williamson (14,448), Tyndall (14,360), Jordan 
(14,275), Junction (about 14,200), two of the Kaweahs 
(14,139 and 14,141), with Barnard, Keith, Agassiz's Needles, 
Dusy, Sheep Mountain, Milestone and the South Palisade, each 
something over 14,000 feet, and a host of high points as Uni- 
versity of California Peak (13,900), Jessie Peak (13,391)- 
Rixford, Brewer, Stanford, Ericsson, Lyell and a host of 
others named and unnamed which fall but little below. In 
this we need not mention Shasta (14,400) tall, lone and tre- 
mendous, but which is put up independently on a different 
plan in another part of the State. 

If for a moment we compare the high Sierra Nevada with 
the Alps, we find in the mountains of Switzerland greater 
variety of form, and of rock formation, and with greater pic- 
turesqueness in color, the white of the snow being sharply con- 
trasted with the green of the flower-carpeted pastures. The 
rainfall and snowfall of the Alps is far greater, hence all the 
deep valleys are filled with snow, the canons are glaciers, for 
slow-melting snow masses become compacted into ice. 

The Sierras are richer in color, and they throb with life. 
The dry air that flows over them is stimulating, balsam-laden, 
and always transparent to the vision. The Alps seem always 
bathed or swathed in clouds. Their air is clear only when it 
has been newly washed by some wild storm. When a storm 
is over, the sky soon needs washing again, and in its blue 
reaches is full of a steamy suggestion as though it had not 
been properly dried. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. Photo, by Prof. R. E. Swain 

KING'S RIVER, FROM I.E CONTE'S CAMP. 

" Glacier Monument " in the background. 




2 W 
D 
O 



O ^ 



THE ALPS OF THE KINGS-KERN DIVIDE. 209 

The glacial basins of the high Sierras, huge tracts of pol- 
ished granite, furrowed by streams and fringed with mountain 
vegetation, are far more impressive than similar regions in the 
Alps. In the Alps the glaciers are still alive and at work. In 
the Sierras, a few little ones are left here and there, high on the 
flanks of precipices, but the valleys below them, once filled 
with ice, are now bare slicken and sharp-backed or clogged 
with moraines, just as the glaciers left them. The wreck of a 
vanished glacier, as in Ouzel Basin of Mt. Brewer, and Deso- 
lation Valley of Pyramid Peak, may tell us more of what a 
glacier does than a living glacier itself. 

The forests of the Sierras are beyond comparison nobler 
than those of the Alps. The pine, fir and larch woods of 
Switzerland are only second growth, mere brush, by the side of 
the huge pines (Sugar Pine, YellowPine and High Mountain 
Pine) of the flanks of the Sierras. /'Giant firs and spruces, too, 
rival the largest trees on earth, while above all, supremely pre- 
eminent over all other vegetation, towers the giant Sequoia, 
mightiest of trees. On a small tree, ten feet through, cut at 
Sequoia Mills, I counted 1902 rings of annual growth. This 
tree was a sapling, four feet through, at the time of the fall of 
Rome. The greatest Sequoias, happily yet uncut, have doubt- 
less four times this age, and it is safe to say that many of them 
have stood on earth at least 8000 years. 

So far as man is concerned, there are great differences be- 
tween the Sierras and the Alps. The Alps have good roads, 
trails, hotels everywhere. They are thoroughly civilized, pro- 
vided with guides, guide-posts, ropes and railings, and the 
traveler, whatever else he may do, cannot go astray. If he 
gets lost he has plenty of company. The Sierras are unin- 
habited. In their high reaches there is no hotel, and not often 
a shed or roof of any kind. The trails are rough, and when one 
climbs out from the cafions he has only to go as he pleases. 
But wherever he goes he cannot fail to be pleased. The 
Sierras are far more hospitable than the Alps, and the danger 
of accident is far less. Every day in the Alps may be a day of 
storm, and no one can safely sleep in the open air. In the 
Sierras there are but two or three rainy days in the summer, 
and these are thunder-showers in August afternoons. The 
weather is scarcely a factor to be considered ; every day is a 
good day, one or two perhaps a little better. 

The traveler is sure of dry, clear air, a little brisk and frosty 
in the morning, making a blanket welcome, but all he needs is 
a blanket. For luxury he will make a bonfire of dry branches 
— pine, cedar, cotton wood, all burn alike — and there is always 
a dead tree ready to his hand. He will build his fire near the 
brook that he may put out its smoldering embers in the morn- 
ing. No matter how high his flame may rise in the evening. 




§1 



M i3 



SI 




THE ALPS OF THE K/TTS^^fla^^W DIVIDE. 21 



with morning only embers are left. For surely no mountain 
lover will leave his fire uncovered to burn and murder its waj' 
through the forest. Last year the United States government 
sent out rangers to protect the forests from fire, and to punish 
the careless camper, be he angler, mountaineer or prospector. 
This is a wise move, and it should have been made long ago. 
More than this, the State or government should never let 
another acre of land on the Sierras be denuded of its timber. 
On the preservation of our forests depends the fertility of our 
plains. To California this matter is vital above all others. 
Commerce will come in due time whatever we do ; but a forest 
once uprooted, we can never restore. The great Calaveras 
grove of Sequoias is now for sale, the first known and the most 
picturesque of all, doubtless going to the lumber company 
that will make the highest bid. To destroy this noblest of 
groves for the lumber that is in it would be barbarous. There 
should be but one bidder for the Calaveras grove — the people of 
the United States. We cannot call ourselves civilized if we stand 
by, consenting to its destruction, as we have done to the 
slaughter of the great Sequoias of the Converse Basin, with 
brush, sawdust and soil, all, save the primeval granite, all 
vanishing in the final conflagration of the abandoned lumber 
camps. 

In the high Sierras, the form of the mountains favors the 
climber. Each peak is part of a great anticlinal fold, broken 
and precipitious on one side, retaining the original slope on 
the other. Most of the mountains about Mt. Whitney share 
the form of that mountain. A gentle slope on the west side, 
covered by broken, frost-bitten rock ; on the east side a perpen- 
dicular descent to an abyss. On the east and north almost 
every peak is vertical and inaccessible, the while the west side 
offers no difficulty. Only time and patience are demanded to 
creep upward over the broken stones. All of them require en- 
durance, for they are very high, but few of them demand any 
special skill or any nervous strain, and the views iheir summits 
yield are most repaying. 

To reach the best of them one should leave the Southern 
Pacific railroad at Sanger. Here he meets the stages of Galla- 
gher and Denneen. In a ride, preferably taken at night, he 
crosses the hot plains to the foothills. Turning in at mid- 
night, he sleeps till morning, then taking the stage again, he 
rides up hill all day, past Millwood, the General Grant Na- 
tional Park, with its giant Sequoias, and through the pine for- 
ests to Huckleberry Camp. Here he is met by Kanawyer's 
troop of saddle horses, and a charming day's ride obliquely 
down the slopes of the King's River Cafion, brings him at 
night to a camp in the river bottom. There may be a house 
there or a tent, but he needs neither, for the night is full ot 



212 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Stars — and the stars keep oflf the rains ! Taking his horse again 
in the morning, by noon he reaches the Sentinel Camp, which 
is the best center for excursions. Here Kanawyer keeps 
horses, mules, tents and blankets for rent, and provisions for 
sale, so that henceforth all the traveler needs to take with him 
will be strong clothing, stout nailed shoes, and good temper. 

The King's River Canon he will contrast with the Yosemite. 
The Yosemite has finer single rocks, higher single clifis, far 
more majestic waterfalls and a general air of perfection as 
scenery. The King's River Caiion is bigger, wilder, with 
higher walls, which slope backward out of sight, and the mount- 
ains into which it rises are far wilder and more stupendous. 

The traveler will not be long in the Canon before he will 
want to climb up to take a look at some of these. He may 
wind up the dusty trail to Goat Mountain and see them all at 
once in glorious waves of distances. He may perhaps crawl 
to the top of the grand Sentinel and see some of them at an- 
other angle. He may wander to Kearsarge Pass on the Main 
Divide at the head of the Caiion and see the world from one of 
the three great peaks, Rixford, Jessie, or, highest of all, the 
huge mass of crumbling granite called the University of Cali- 
fornia Peak. Or he may turn toward the heart of the moun- 
tains themselves and lay his camp at East Lake in the Ouzel 
Basin, the wonderful glaciated north slope of Mt. Brewer. 
Here John Muir studied the water-ouzel in its home, and wrote 
of it the best biography yet given to any bird ; and here, too, 
you may study the ouzel and the winter wren, the marmot and 
the mountain chipmunks. 

Here you may climb Mt. Brewer (13,886 feet), the culminat- 
ing outpost of the cross-divide between the King's and the 
Kern. Or you may go farther, turning eastward into the very 
center of the frost- king's domains, climbing the gorge of tur- 
bulent Stanford brook, past stately Crag Ericsson, over Harri- 
son's Pass, an old sheep trail, steep, dusty and hopeless, to the 
frost-bitten crag named Stanford. This peak lies in the King's- 
Kern divide, in the very center of the high Sierras. It is a 
double-topped ridge, the highest summit 14,100 feet, the south- 
ernmost, known as Gregory's Monument, about 20 feet lower. 

From this peak one may see nearly all the high Sierras, 
from the San Joaquin Alps on the north to the Kern Alps on 
the south ; and whoso once climbs this crag or the peak of its 
sister university or any other of their craggy brethren has 
earned a place in the roll of honor of those ' ' whose feet are 
beautiful on the mountains." He has learned the secret of 
California. He will join the Sierra Club. He will fight in 
every way he knows against the wanton destruction of our for- 
ests and the desecration of our mountains, and, whenever the 
fates permit, he will wander back to the "heart of the Sierras," 
the Ouzel Basin and the Mountains of the Great Divide. 

Stanford University, Cal. 




213 

' The Cities of the Dead. 

BY DR WASHINGTON MATTHEWS, U. S A. 

|HK existence of ancient ruins in our Southwest has 
long been known to the world. The Spanish in- 
vaders of 154D tell of some that they saw; others 
have been described in the reports of various military 
and civil expeditions which have explored the 
country since our troops first entered it in 1846. 
Since we came into possession of the land in 1848, 
many of the ruins have been surveyed, sketched, 
photographed and modeled ; surface finds have been 
abundantly collected, and cliff-dwellings, whose in- 
teriors were easy of access, have been looted — too 
often, alas ! in an unscientific manner — but it was 
not until 1887 that any systematic effort was made to excavate the ruins. 
There were some good reasons for this long delay on the part of 
archaeologists ; the barren character of the land, the difficulty of access 
before railroads were built and the hostility of Indian tribes only re- 
cently subdued. There were other reasons, not so much to our credit ; 
the importance of excavation was not sufficiently appreciated ; the 
abundant surface finds were supposed to tell the whole story ; the ethno- 
graphy of the region was not understood, and the valuable suggestions 
it was able to afford were unknown ; the antiquarians of America were 
more interested in the Orient than in the Occident, and so were their 
wealthy patrons ; while money might easily be obtained for digging on 
the banks of the Nile, none could be procured for work on the banks of 
the Gila. 

All these conditions are changed now — railroads have penetrated the 
land of ruins ; the Indians are at peace ; some of the valuable lessons of 
modern ethnography have been learned ; the rich results of the first ex- 
cavations have shown what might be expected of others ; the noble ex- 
ample of one capitalist has stirred the ambition or directed the generosity 
of others, and today the work of digging goes bravely on in many parts 
of the arid land under both governmental and private auspices. 

Let them dig. For the past 50 years, all over the mound-strewn valley 
of the Mississippi, people of all classes, from school-boys to grizzled 
savants, have been digging and have not yet exhausted the supply of 
mounds. We may dig for a century in the land of ruined houses and 
not finish the task of destruction. The ruins are countless. But before 
the digging goes any further, I wish to call attention, once more, to the 
work of the pioneer excavators ; for at the time the excavations were 
made they received altogether too little notice, and their importance is 
not generally recognized in the scientific world, much less in the land 
where they were conducted. 

Excavation was at last begun to satisfy the curiosity of the ethnologist 
rather than that of the archaeologist. In studying the myths and cere- 
monies of the people of Zuiii, during his long residence in their pueblo, 
Mr. Frank Hamilton Gushing, whose labors some years ago were 
widely heralded throughout the land, discovered some perplexing facts 
for which he could find no explanation ; but a study of the Zuni tradi- 
tions led him to believe that he might discover a solution of the mysteries 

•This interesting and human document by the dean of our Western ethnologists is 
doubly welcome to these pages; not only because Dr. Matthews never wrote an idle 
thingjbut because of his sketch of an affair which may invite scientific critici-ra, but 
certainly merits comprehension Mr. Gushing' s extraordinary service to American 
ethnology can hardly be too much emphasized. His fruits must be appraised by science, 
and some of them will surely be rejected ; but the fact is certain that he has done for 
ethnology what few ever could do. We may safely reckon him as the most extraor- 
dinary of our field " detectives," no matter what qualification we make as to his judi- 
cial equipment.— Ed. 




[^^-:§t^^4l 








THE CITIES OF THE DEAD. 



215 



by exploring far to the southwest of Zuiii, where the people of the 
pueblo declared their ancestors once dwelt. The interesting nature of 
these problems and the way in which Mr. Gushing believes he has solved 
them by means of excavation, have been fully explained by him in a 
paper read before the seventh session of the International Congress of 
Americanists at Berlin in 1888, and published in the transactions of the 
Congress. We have no space here to enter into such details of his paper. 
But excavations cost money, and, as before stated, money for American 
work was difficult to obtain. At length, in 1886, Mrs. Mary Hemenway, 
of Boston, came to Mr. Cushing's aid. In February of the following 
year he, with a party of assistants, began to work near Tempe, in the 
valley of the Salado or Salt River, Arizona. At first he worked on some 
stone structures of a kind widely distributed over the arid region of the 
Southwest without discovering anything unusual — without finding the 
clues he sought. While thus working, with diminishing hope, he learned 




C. M. Dayis Eng. Co. 



PICTOGRAPHS IN ARIZONA. 



of certain earthen mounds on the bottom-lands of the Salt River. His 
attention was particularly directed to one of great size, some eight or 
nine miles from Tempe, and he proceeded to dig in this and in its 
vicinity. 

The structure had an irregular rectangular form, appeared to be rudely 
terraced, and seemed to be an ordinary earthen mound ; but excavation 
revealed that it was the remains of a vast clay building, once many 
stories high, and similar in construction to the well known Casa Grande, 
some 35 miles distant in the Gila valley. The bottom-land around the 
mound was overgrown with mesquite, and, to the untrained eye, showed 
no evidence of former habitation ; but the soil was found to abound in 
potsherds and other evidences of human handicraft, which led the ex- 
pert to believe that the remains of dwellings might be found beneath the 
level surface. So the workmen were set to digging, and they soon came 
to the numerous foundations of earthen walls. Mr. Cushing and his 



2l6 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



party then camped and continued to dig in this neighborhood all summer 
until they brought to light the remains of an ancient city, some six 
miles in length and from half a mile to a mile in width. This fallen 
city he named Los Muertos, from the number of skeletons he exhumed 
th^re. Subsequent explorations revealed the ruins of several other cities 
as large as or larger than the first, and several other great clay-walled 
temples, once as great as the Casa Grande, and probably from five to 
seven stories high. All the ruined cities were given Spanish names. 

It would have been wise for Mr. Gushing if he had left the hot flood- 
plains of Southern Arizona during the torrid summer of that region and 
sought either total rest or labor in some cooler climate ; but he heard 
that parties of more greed than learning proposed to go to work on his 
mound with horses and scrapers if he should abandon it, and tear it 
rudely to pieces for such curios as they could find. Perhaps this was idle 
talk, but it had the effect of making him remain and pursue his work in 
the summer. Tent life in the Salado Valley in summer, with a tempera- 
ture of 120° in the shade, is no pleasant existence for the most robust ; 
but, to a person of our explorer's feeble frame and weak digestion, it was 
ruinous. When, on the first of September, I arrived at his camp near 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



PREHISTORIC BOWL. (One-third life size.) 

Excavated by the Henienway Expedition. 



Tempe, I found him profoundly exhausted, but still endeavoring to 
work. In addition to his scientific labors, his worries were not a few. It 
was no uncommon experience for him, when he had laid bare the floor of 
a dwelling or a pyral mound, put everything in the place where it was 
found, all ready for notes and photographs, and called his workmen in to 
dinner, to find on going out again that visitors had kicked and trampled 
everything to pieces or helped themselves to whatever struck their fancy. 
When he remonstrated they would say, *' This is government land. We 
have as good a right to these things as you have." 

The objects which first attracted my attention, after my arrival in Mr. 
Cushing's camp, were the human bones which had been dug from among 
the ruins — chiefly from under the floors where Zuiii folk-lore had 
taught the explorer to seek them. At the time of my arrival they were 



THE CITIES OF THE DEAD. 



217 




C. M. Davis K.ng. Co 



From Water Color by Mrs F. \V Hodge 



SACRED MEDICINE JAR, PREHISTORIC, UFE SIZE. 

From near Halonawan. 

scattered in fragments over the ground. Most of the dead had been 
cremated ; but some, supposed to be the priestly class, had been buried 
without cremation. The uncremated bones had become very friable from 
long interment and, on exposure to air and sunlight, soon crumbled to 
pieces. But they were rarely left to the unaided mercies of sun and air. 
Here again the busy visitors found use for their boots and did what they 
could to hasten disintegration. A slight examination showed me that we 
had found here a lot of skeletons which were, in many respects, the most 
unique ever discovered, and I adapted such means as I found at hand to 
preserve some of the bones. After my return to Washington, Dr. 
Jacob L. Workman, anatomist of the Army Medical Museum (now of 
Yale), went to collect and preserve the skeletons. In his more leisurely 
examination he discovered other wonderful anomalies, which I had over- 
looked. A study of these bones, presented in the sixth volume of the 



2l8 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. From Water Color by Mrs. F. VV. Hodge 

A POTTERY '*i,i,AMA." (Reduced one-half.) 

Excavated by the Hemenway Expedition at Los Guanacos. 



Proceedings of 
the National 
Academy of 
Sciences, has 
shed great light 
on many vexed 
questions in hu- 
man anatomy 
and evolution, 

On the 9th of 
September we 
made an effort 
to get Mr. Gush- 
ing away from 
our lively com- 
panions of the 
camp — the flies, 
mosquitos, scor- 
pions, tarantu- 
las and rattle- 
snakes — and 
take him where 
he might regain 
his strength, in 
the cool breezes 
of the Pacific. 
But we got no 
further than 
Maricopa sta- 
tion , on the 

Southern Pacific railroad, when violent rains descended in the mount- 
ains, the road was washed out both east and west of us, and we found 
it prudent to return to Tempe. It was fortunate that we went back 
when we did. The night of our return to Tempe another great storm 
came on, the branch road between Tempe and Maricopa was washed out, 
and the latter place (at that time a poor little collection of adobe huts, 
with one small Chinese eating-house) was isolated from the rest of the 
world. Some travelers who went to Maricopa on the same train with us 
would not return because the branch road would not take them back 
free. We heard afterward that they ate up all the provisions for sale in 
Maricopa, were compelled to break into a freight car containing Govern- 
nment bacon and hard bread, and subsisted on these luxuries for nearly 
two weeks. Such a diet would have killed my patient. 

It was not until the 26th of September that we finally succeeded in 
getting away from Tempe, and starting west on the first train that went 
through on the Southern Pacific* railroad after the floods. There were 
four in our party, Mrs. Gushing, her sister Miss Magill (now Mrs. 
Frederick Webb Hodge), Mr. Gushing and I. We telegraphed for a Pull- 
man berth for our sick man, but got for him instead room to lie down on 
the crowded floor of the ordinary passenger-car. Here he fell into a de- 
lirious sleep and astonished the gentle tenderfoot by delivering harangues 
in the Zuiii tongue. The morning of the 27th we breakfasted at the 
salubrious station of Yuma, and spent the forenoon sweltering beneath 
sea-level and watching the eternal mirage of the Colorado desert. Oh 
how delicious was that iced tea of Indio at the western end of the desert, 
where we stopped for dinner ! My recollection is that I drank about a 
gallon of it. I had no room for food. How delicious, too, was the cool 
Pacific breeze that welcomed us when our train had clambered to the 
summit of the San Gorgonio Pass, and we looked down the western 
slopes of the mountains to our Promised Land ! On the 29th our party 



THE CITIES OF THE DEAD 



319 



reached San Diego, where I turned the invalid over to the skillful care of 
my good friend Dr. David L. Huntington,* of the army, and where I 
remained a few days enjoying life before I started back to Washington. 

When Mr. Gushing recovered his health suflSciently to go to work again, 
he returned to the Salt River Valley to continue his explorations there. 
He afterward made excavations in the ruins of Heshota Uthla near Zuni, 
but again ill health compelled him to abandon work. 

All the results of the explorations of the Hemenway expedition in the 
Salt River Valley cannot be presented here, but some of the principal 
may be mentioned. The great antiquity of many of the remains was 
fairly established. It was estimated that the aboriginal settlement 
was in the height of its glory 2,000 years ago, and that it fell some time 
before the advent of the white man. No trace of contact with European 
civilization was found. It was thought that the destruction and abandon- 
ment of the old cities occurred suddenly. Mr. Gushing thinks an earth- 
quake threw down the cities and temples of the plain ; but recent 
events show that the destruction may possibly have been caused by 
floods. There is good evidence that the population was dense, and that 
the waters of the Salt River were not sufficient, even with the aid of 
their storage reservoirs, for the fields of the ancient Saladoans ; but that 
they constructed dams to hold the waters which at times descended from 
the desert mountains that immediately surrounded them. The beds of 
the larger canals — the acequias tnadres — were traced for a distance of 150 
miles ; but for many miles more their course could not be followed as 
they had been filled in by the drifting sands of centuries. 

The population of the ancient Salado settlement has been estimated as 
high as 80,000. This estimate may seem unreasonablef in view of the con- 
ditions of the present day ; the country could support no such population 
now ; but it must be remembered that the wants of the ancient Saladoans 
were more easily satisfied than those of the modern Americans, and that 



* Since this was written news has come from Rome of the death of Dr. Huntinsrton. 

;tlt is at least "unreasonable." Jn 
computing prehistoric populations 
in the Southwest it is impossible 
to take the ruins at their face 
value. A fifty per cent, discount is 
the least that can be made in reck- 
oning population at any one time. 
Even in any single town a large 
per cent, must be allowed lor 
"cast-oflfs." When a house wore 
out, its people built another and 
left the old to add its bones to the 
general " built -up -area." The 
•ame process is visibly going on 
still in every surviving pueblo ; 
but once it went by steps of towns 
as well as of houses ; whole pueb- 
los being deserted and new ones 
built. Only Spanish restriction 
and centralization in the 17th and 
18th centuries stopped this broad- 
casting of abandoned "cities." 
The enormous number of ruins in 
New Mexico and Arizona is sure 
to mislead us unless we remem- 
ber that they were a sort of eth- 
nographic coral reef— alive at the 
top. This process also has been 
visible within historic times. The 
Southwest never had any "teem- 
ing millions." Its population was 
always slender and sparse. It 
never was able to support any- 
thing more. It has not seriously 
changed its physical temper since 
man began to infest its face.— Ed. 




A SAI^ADO SKDI.I., SHOWING THE " INCA BONE 



r- 







^ ,?.? 







^, 



f "I 






■ \ 










If' J^-.TS 




THE CITIES OF THE DEAD. 221 

the man of the elder day was his own beast of burden. No provision had 
to be made for the maintenance of great draft animals. 

Some of the discoveries led Mr. Gushing to advance the theory that 
the ancient Arizouians had a more intimate relation to the ancient Peru- 
vians than many of the so-called civilized tribes which dwelt nearer to 
Peru. Groups of stones found on the floors of the houses seemed to 
him to be the remains of bolas, such as the South Americans used. He 
found terra cotta images of an animal, unlike any now living in North 
America, but resembling the Camelidce of South America — the vicuiia, 
llama and alpaca. He found, in rock inscriptions of the Southwest, sup- 
posed representations of such animals and of men throwing the bolas. 
The great prevalence of that peculiar anomaly of the skull called the 
Inca bone was also notable. Up to the time of these excavations the an- 
cient skulls of Peru showed the presence of the Inca bone more than 
any others in the world ; but the ancient Arizonian crania exceed the 
Peruvian in this particular. The symbols on the Salado pottery show 
elements both Peruvian and Zuiiian. 

Mr. Cushing's Peruvian theory was received with much doubt by the 
scientific world ;* he did not himself put it forward very confidently ; but 



<^ «|^ 





1 




ARIZONA ROCK-INSCRIPTIONS INCLUDING THE bO-CALLED "LLAMAS" AND 
"BOLA MEN." 



recent discoveries among the ancient Calchaqui in the mountains of the 
far-off Argentine Republic seem to strengthen the theory. The careful 
Dr. ten Kate in his recent work, Anthropologie des Anciens Habitants 
de la Region Calchaquie (La Plata, 1895) shows that many remarkable 
resemblances exist between the ancient peoples of Arj^entina and of Arizo- 
na in arts, culture and, above all, in the peculiar formation of the skeleton. 
Do the people of the modern Salado cities know anything of the an- 
cient greatness that surrounds them ? I know not, for it is long since I 
have heard from there ; but I have reason to fear that they are not fully 
aware of the value of the archaeological treasures that lie beneath their 
luxurious fields and blooming orchards. About four years after my visit 
to Los Muertos, I met a gentleman who had recently come from Phoenix, 
and, as a feeler, I directed conversation to the Hemenway Expedition. 
"Yes " he said, " Gushing sunk $500 of Mrs. Hemenway's money, every 
month, in that valley, for years and found absolutely nothing." About 
the same time I saw in an Arizona paper an account of a man who, in 
^iiKgiJ^g a cellar near Phcenix, had unearthed a skeleton with accompa- 
nying earthenware and other objects. The paper made various com- 
ments about the novelty of the find and added some profound specula- 
tions as to whether the skeleton belonged to a Toltec or an Aztec ! 



Washington, D. C. 



* So it is. I believe, still. The examples of alleged llamas are not convincing; the 
bola-men as little.— Kd. 




222 LAND OK SUNSHINE 

A February Flower-Hunt. 



BY CHARLES AMADON MOODY. 

T is high noon of the first day in the second 
week of February. I stretch luxuriously 
in the shade of a tall eucalyptus, benevo- 
lently assimilating a most satisfactory lunch- 
eon. The Philosopher, by way of recuper- 
ation from four hours of hard walking: over 



the hills and pre- 
paration for as 
many more, has 
swarmed up the 
tree, and, after cut- 
ting his fill of the 
white-rimmed blos- 
soms, has decided 
to be Mowgli for 
a while and lie at 
length along a 
branch. Two blem- 
ishes on this ' 'play ' ' 
are that his own 
coal-black Baghee- 
ra is miles away at 
home, and that I 
fall far short of a 
convincing Baloo, 
being able neither 
to teach him bird, 
beast and snake 
calls nor to enforce 
any lesson with 
stroke of paw. 

The blue of the 
sky is rather deep- 
ened than marred 
by the fleecy wisps 
of cloud that float 
across it. In the 
full mid-day splen- 
dor of the sun is no 
hint of discomfort 
nor any threat of 
" taking cold" in 
the cool and fra- 




is Eng. Co Photo. C. F. L„ Feb. 13, 1900. 

FUCHSIA-FLOWKRED GOOSEBERRY, 




CM. Davis Kog.Co 



" WILD .CUCUMBER. 



Photo, by C. F. L., Feb. 1», 1900 



224 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

grant breeze from the south. In the morning paper was some 
chatter about zero weather and blizzards east of the Rockies, 
but all that is utterly meaningless to us here. The bees, 
bustling about their tasks — honey from the eucalyptus is one 
of the choicer sweets — bring to my drowsy brain some thought 
of early summer, and I murmur, 

" What is so rare as a day in June ? 
Then, if ever, come perfect days ! " 

Whereupon Mowgli becomes the Philosopher again for long 
enough to assert with entire conviction, "The man that wrote 
that couldn't have known anything about February days in 
Southern California." 

But what have we to show for spoils of this February 
flower-hunt ? Most of the wild flowers we found a month 
ago* are far more plentiful now. Canterbury-bells shake 
and swing by hundreds — yes, by thousands. Baby-blue-eyes 
nestle close over many a moist slope. The scarlet paint-brush 
{Castilleia parviflord) which then lent only an occasional dash 
of brilliant color, may now be had by the armful, provided 
only that one does not balk at hard scrambling up and down 
the steep and difficult hillsides it most affects. The wild cu- 
cumber has not ceased to fling its spray of starry white over 
tree and bush and ground, though from many of the vines the 
odd, oval, green fruit, set thick with spines, swings freely. 
The same fruit laid on a table looks most comically like a 
green, dumpy piglet in hedgehog's armor. Wild clematis, 
too, continues to shower its blossoms while seed is ripening, 
and the wild morning-glory, twisting up tall, dead stalks of last 
year's plants and curving gracefully down again from their 
tops, reminds the Philosopher of the miracle of Aaron's rod. 

The shooting-star's fireworks have faded in some of its 
earlier stations, but are yet to be found a-plenty in other spots 
more accessible to the wayfarer. Poppies — past their prime 
in the foothill fields — are only now coming into bloom on the 
lower reaches of the arroyo. Wild hyacinths lift their pale- 
blue crowded clusters everywhere ; and the lupines, though 
fuller-flowered and richer-tinted than a month ago, are so com- 
mon as to seem hardly worth the gathering. 

Yellow remains the master-color, and this seems to the 
Philosopher passing strange. " In the East," he says, "we 
used to find white and pink flowers mostly in the spring, ex- 
cept dandelions and buttercups ; and then came the blue ones, 
and the red ones, and the yellow ones didn't come till last of all. 
Now, why do you suppose it is so different here, with so much 
yellow at the very first of it ? " I can only admit ignorance as 
to the reason, but the fact is as plain to my eyes as to the Phi- 
losopher's. Ten of our thirty varieties, four weeks ago, were 

* See " A Midwinter Maying " in February Land of Sunshine. 



A FEBRUARY FLOWER-HUNT. 



225 



either solidly yellow in some shade, or showing that for the con- 
spicuous color. Today the tale stands seventeen out of fifty — 
for we can count no less than half a hundred kinds of wild flow- 
ers gathered during this walk. 

Right here comes a difl&culty. As the Philosopher puts it, 
*' If you just tell their names, it'll sound like a store catalogue, 
and if you try to tell what they look like, there won't be room 
for anything else in the magazine." The only way out seems 




CM. Davis Eng. Co. 



owl's clover. 



Phot... hy C. F. L., Feb. 13,1900. 



226 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



to be to take for granted the flowers named last month (we 

have seen all but two of them today) and just hint at the 

beauty of part of our newer finds. 

Deer-weed (//osackia glabra) is the commonest of them all, 

yet one of the most decorative, with its long, slender stems 

crowded from end 
to end with small 
yellow flowers, 
slightly red-tinged. 
There are a score 
of stems, or more, 
to each bush, and 
they stand at every 
angle. Why so 
beautiful a shrub, 
and one so valua- 
ble for its honey 
and for feed to 
browsing animals, 
should be called a 
"weed" puzzles 
the Philosopher. 

Conspicuous for 
size and assertive- 
ness, but far less 
graceful, is the sun- 
flower. It seems 
entirely out of place 
at this time of year, 
but is evidently 
quite indifferent to 
that fact. The same 
conditions of slope 
and soil that suit 
these two suit also 
the wild buck- 
wheat, none of the 
three being, in 
truth, at all fast- 
idious. The small, 
dull, pinkish-white 
blossoms of the 
buckwheat are 
borne in packed 
heads an inch or 
two in diameter, 

CM. D.visEng. Co. Photo, by C. F. L., Feb. 13, 1900. fragraUt aud rlch 

humming-bird's sage, in honey. 




A FEBRUARY FLOWER-HUNT. 227 

The tree-poppy (^Dendromecon rigidum) carries its four- 
petalled, bright-yellow blossoms spread flat open at the end of 
every woody branch. It is hardly a tree, despite its name, but 
a tall, spreading bush. " Airy" is the right adjective for the 
flowers, which are in sharp contrast with the pale-green, rigid 
leaves. So far we have found only three of these bushes, but 
each one of them offers us flowers by dozens. 

Even more interesting than the tree-poppy is the fuchsia- 
flowered gooseberry (Ribes speciosum), whose motto might 
well enough be Noli me tangere, so well is it protected with 
short, strong " prickers." The flowers are small, but exquis- 
itely shaped, very numerous, and of a brilliant scarlet that is 
most effective against the glossy dark-green of the dense 
foliage. " It looks too good to be true," is the Philosopher's 
comment. 

Richer yet in coloring is the humming-bird's sage {Audi- 
bertia grandiflord). The camera has caught form and habit 
of growth to the life, but cannot even suggest the superb 
bronze of stem and bracts nor the wine-color (shading from 
claret to port) of the sparse blossoms. The true sage already 
mentioned looks utterly plebian beside it. 

It is all too easy in writing of California wild-flowers to ex- 
haust one's stock of superlatives. The blue larkspur certainly 
demands more than one of them to do it justice, for the perfec- 
tion of its blue leaves nothing more to expect in purity and 
depth of color. Perhaps we prize these specimens all the more 
for the difficulty of getting them. 

Our showiest flower-cluster is made by massing together 
quantities of the scarlet paint-brush and that Orthocarpus 
which the illustration shows so beautifully. Its thread-like 
bracts are delicate below, turning white above and strongly 
tipped with pink. The flowers proper are almost hidden 
among these filaments, but themselves form a dainty study in 
white and pink. " Owl's clover" is the name they share with 
others of their family, but they will answer also to " pink- 
paint-brush," " fox -tails," or, in the soft Spanish " escobitas." 

The flame-red of the Indian pink is worth more than a pass- 
ing word, but that is all it can have here. It sets off" wonder- 
fully the clean beauty of the white daisy, though this has little 
enough need of aid from any contrast. Aristocrat to the petal- 
tips is this daisy (Layia glandulosa)^ preferring to stand by 
itself on the sandy washes where little else grows. 

The white snap-dragon — a single spike crowded full of 
small white flowers, darkly dotted as though a pepper-box had 
been once lightly shaken above them — resembled an orchid 
at first glance. It adds pleasure to the gathering to know that 
it will still look fresh and beautiful after ten days in the house. 

The last word of this talk about the flowers may well come 



OP TRH 
OAt ii-^i-.M\^, 



228 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

from the dear little "whispering bells" (£mmenant/ie penduli- 
fiora). Lift the stalk to your ear, shake it gently, and if 
you are truly Initiate, the soft rustle of the tiny bells will tell 
you far more than any printed page of the secrets of the birds 
and the bees and the flowers, and all the wild, sweet life that 
thrills in them all. 

Pasadena, Cal. 




> Am Interrupted Wheeling. 

BY RALPH E. BICKNELL. 

MAY as well say at the start that my chum, Jackson 
Tidd, is superstitious. Generally, he is rational 
enough ; he handles Greek with an ease that is 
exasperating; he handles the pigskin well, too. 
But I have known him to be blue for days because 
a dream went wrong ; to give up a yachting cruise 
because it fell on the thirteenth. Banter at home 
and ridicule at college have failed to shake his 
credence in the preternatural. 

His room-mate at college, I was spending the 
last month of vacation at Tidd's home in Santa 
Barbara, Cal. Two weeks were already gone when 
he proposed a bicycle trip to San Diego. The greenest of tenderfeet, I 
was nothing loth to learn something of the " land of sunshine." The 
very next morning, happening not to fall on Friday, found us, with 
cyclometers freshly set, skimming southward along Pacific Boulevard. 
Tidd had even gone so far, I afterward discovered, as surreptitiously 
to slip a dozen plates, tenderly wrapped in cotton batting, into my 
traveling case ; an indefensible deception, as I afterward earnestly 
represented to him, but then, photography is Tidd's other fetish. 

It was yet early morning when we reached Carpenteria, a little town 
famed as possessing the largest grape vine in the world, owned by 
"Jake" Wilson, a genial old bachelor whose chief care in life seems 
the well being and reputation of his giant vine. A framework over 
one-fourth of an acre in size is required for its spreading branches, and 
my pocket tape measured the circumference of its trunk as seven feet 
ten inches. From eight to ten tons of fruit is its annual contribution 
to its owner. I was impressed by the possibilities of appendicitis, but 
on inquiry we learned that Jake didn't know what an appendix was. 
Under the shade of the old vine, in the primitive days of '50, was held 
the first election in Santa Barbara county. 

I/caving Jake and his wonder we struck an up-grade that took us into 
the charming Casitas mountains. There was walking, to be sure, and 
the sun was eager, but the views were surpassingly lovely. Set in frames 
of varying green. Nature had painted a paradise of flowers by the road- 
side. Picturesque canons, too — sun-kissed glens, brooks that defy the 
traveler to pass without a drink. 

There were many little ranches at intervals, where farming, however, 
is done on such a bias that the usual agricultural wagon is abandoned, 
and a wooden sled, as not being likely to topple over, is used instead. 
Stopping at Ventura long enough to admire a solid acre-and-a-half of 
calla lilies (raised for seed), Tidd and I continued to Saticoy, in the 
center of the great bean-producing Santa Clara valley. We inspected a 
bean warehouse 400 feet long, with a capacity for holding 120,000 sacks 
of the Boston delicacy. A New Englander, I found it difficult to repress 
my feelings. 

Another good day's jog brought us to Camulos, the chief scene of 

Illustrated from photos, by the author. 



AN INTERRUPTED WHEELING. 



229 



Helen Hunt Jackson's powerful novel Ramona. As a special privilege 
we were allowed to pass the night there ; and next day were conducted 
over the place, which is the same now as when " H. H." transferred its 
beauty to the pages of her California classic. The house is a typical 
mansion of the old Spanish regime — a one-story, whitewashed adobe, 
built round a court on three sides. The white walls and grated windows 
of Ramona's room are there as in the story, but "Ramona" was not 
there, nor ever had been. We had it on the authority of the delightful 
Spanish-Californians, whose home this is, and who were personally ac- 
quainted with Mrs. Jackson, that the character of "Ramona" is en- 
tirely fictitious— albeit several old Indian dames in Southern California 
claim to be the original. 

A pretty little place of worship is the ranch chapel, with all its burn- 
ing tapers and its crucifixes in miniature. One little statue is 120 years 
old. Near the chapel is the set of bells, brought from Spain in the 
early days, that for a century have called master and servant to a com- 
mon prayer. Queer old specimens they are, cracked and corroded, and 




C. M. Davis Eng.Co. 



A ROW OF HOUSES IN SANTA BARBARA. 



with Spanish inscriptions. On hills beyond the house are the wooden 
crosses, too, mentioned in the well known book. 

We found Newhall Pass a pretty " tough pull" while it lasted. It is 
probably the most costly piece of road-building in Southern California. 
The county carving-knife was sunk into the decomposed granite for a 
gash of fully a mile. At the summit the cut is a hundred feet deep 
and barely wide enough for a wagon. The wind was like a hurricane 
in the narrow defile, and Tidd and I were fairly blown down the other 
side and into the fertile San Fernando valley. One enormous composite 
orchard we noticed — of apricot, olive, orange, fig, and almond — whose 
rows were two-and-a-half miles long, and uninterrupted except by the 
road. 

A fine old place the San Fernando Mission must have been in the days 
of the Franciscan missionaries. One of the most picturesque of all the 
t\Tenty-one that stretch from San Diego to San Francisco, it was in its 
prime one of the most complete, but the century since its founding has 
crumbled into ruin many of its thick adobe walls. In its habitable 
part a colony of ranchmen were living, and its stately corridors were 
littered with modern wagons and farming tools. 



230 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




CM Davis Ens. Co. SANTA BARBARA MISSION. 




C. M. Dayii Eng. Co. WILSON'S GIANT GRAPEVINE, CARPINTERIA. 



AN INTERRUPTED WHEELING. 



231 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



CAMULOS — " RAMON A 'S HOME." 



It is a reproachful commentary on our race for the new, that these 
noble specimens of the old are allowed thus to fall into decay. The 
California Missions are an inheritance of which any country might be 
proud, and ours is not so rich in the past that it can afford to lose a 
single tile from these monuments of the devoted pioneers. "■■^■^I'- 'tT^ 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co 



MISSION OF SAN FERNANDO — THE MONASTERY. 



232 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




C. M. Davis Kuu. Co. 

OLD INDIAN AT SAN FERNANDO. 



The outer buildings of the 
San Fernando Mission are 
nearly leveled to the earth. 
The main structure [monastery] 
IS still standing, though much 
of its peculiar red tiled roof 
was fallen in, and time and the 
rain had made huge breaches 
in its whitewashed walls.* 
Some of the old rude benches, 
«)U which the ascetic padre sat, 
remain in the rooms, and a pic- 
lure of the Savior now and 
then, but there is a prevading 
odor of mold and age. 

An old stone fountain is still 
seen in front of the mission 
and a couple of gigantic palm 
trees. In the rear is the olive 
orchard, unkempt and over- 
grown. Blue sky and bare 
rafters roofed the chapel build- 
ing and the grass was green on 
its sacred floor. f The original 

* Roof and walls fully repaired by 
the Landmarks Club since Mr. B's 
visit. See this magazine for Oct. '97 
and March '98.— Ed. 

t Also now re-roofed by the Land- 
marks Club — Kn- 




C M. Davis Eng. Co. ^HE SAN FERNANDO CLOISTERS. 



AN INTERRUPTED WHEELING. 233 

frescoing at the altar end still faintly colored its weather stained white. 

By a caved-in set of steps we descended into the mission dungeon. It 
was totally dark — a repulsive place, with a clammy damp floor of earth, 
suggestive of the grave itself. Tidd lit a match. "Christian-like, this 
hole ! I can almost hear some poor devil groaning now."* In fact the 
atmosphere of the place was not congenial, and when a rat ran close by 
my leg we rather hastily retired. 

Sunning herself under one of the arches, an old woman who might 
have been Age personified was squatted on a low chair. " Venus re- 
alized ! " Tidd muttered, '* I must have a picture." To this the ancient 
dame would not assent till a twenty-five cent piece magically changed 
her feelings. It is guessed at the village that she is a hundred and six- 
teen years old — one of the first converted Indians. 

It is a hard road from San Fernando to Pasadena — through a compar- 
ative desert, where sagebrush and greasewood grow and the lively liz- 
ard and horned toad hold forth. We turned off our main road to take 
in one of the many interesting places about Pasadena — Brown Moun- 
tain, the home of the anti-slavery agitator's sons, Owen and Jason. An 
extraordinarily poor road has been constructed for the convenience of 
travelers and up it we took our weary way. None too wide at best, it 
at places overhangs "Negro Caiion " at a height of hundreds of feet. 
Away below — miles it seems — a brook dashes over the boulders. 

Stopping to breathe at the summit I reflected on the strange nature 
(inherited doubtless from their peculiar father) that made hermits of 
these two men. When a pleasant home was to be had in the valley, 
they took the silent mountains for their companions and accepted gladly 
a solitude that most men would deem unbearable. On a few acres of 
level, the ground was tilled ; a few sheep and a cow or two were kept, 
occasionally a job was obtained outside — this was the life of John 
Brown's sons. 

Their first abode was a small log cabin ; later a frame house — but both 
have been destroyed, The grave of Owen is on a little knoll near 
where the cabin stood. A small pine tree, planted by his own hands, 
stood guard, and a plain wooden slab had this inscription : 

Owen Brown 
— Died— 

Jan'y 8-1889. 
Aged 64 years. 

Nature's wild offerings growing about the flattened mound were its 
only decoration. But the very bareness was impressive, and "his 
soul is marching on." A fine monument has since been erected, at the 
completion of which memorial ceremonies were held. 

" Well, ready for Pasadena, Tidd? " I ventured. 

" I want you to snap my picture here first," he replied. " I'm in love 
with the place." So, he standing on a crag, I pressed the button. 
" That's the first plate off the new dozen, " he said— the dozen that he 
had smuggled into my case. 

We registered at a Pasadena hotel for the night, and Tidd went out to 
hire a dark-room in which to develop. It took him a good while, and 
when he returned to our room he was evidently agitated. He sank into 
a chair and fell to studying a time-table. I looked on in amazement. 
" Tidd," I said, " are you possessed ? " 

"Not possessed, Bick — I've had a warning, and I leave for home on 
tomorrow's train." 

Reason and ridicule had no effect. He was mum and melancholy as 
we steamed through the towns lately passed on our wheels. Neither 

*The " Dungeon " of tourist fable was in fact merely a wine cellar. The only prison- 
ers were the spirits of the 32,000 grapevines.— Kd. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co 



Gdr. KDWARD ROBESON TAYI,OR. 

(See nexVpage.) 



A CAUFORMIA BOOKMAN 235 

was I jovial, when I considered that our trip was "gone up " beyond 
reclaim. 

I could get not a word from him until, as the hills of Santa Barbara 
eame in sight (perhaps thinking himself now tolerably safe) he pulled 
a plate triumphantly from his pocket and held it to the light. It was 
Tidd's Brown Mountain picture. Standing right above him, with out- 
stretched arms, was a figure in white! The rest was much over-ex- 
posed. The figure, though very indistinct, was nevertheless discernible. 

The train slowed up and we stood on the platform. In exchange for 
our checks the baggage-master gave me our abandoned wheels. 

"Tidd," I said, between laughter and anger, ** you're an aggravated 
case of chump. That plate — that * warning ' of yours that has spoiled 
the trip — is one that I accidentally pulled out while I was cleaning my 
wheel the evening we were at Camulos. A part of the cotton stuck to 
it and by shutting oflF the weak evening light made that strange figure. 
I had meant to tell you that the plate was spoiled." 

But Tidd is still superstitious. 

Lawrence, Mass 

• A California Bookman. 

R. KDWARD ROBESON TAYIvOR, of San Francisco, long 
known at home as a serious scholar, and a year or so ago 
brought to the wider notice and consideration of bookmen 
everywhere by his competent and conscientious translations — 
notably of H^redia — has renewed and corroborated his claim to recog- 
nition by a new volume of poems, reviewed on another page. His 
literary industry is clearly extraordinary ; and, in spite of its volume, 
his work, so far from showing haste, bears all the evidence of careful 
workmanship. 

Dr. Taylor was born in Springfield, 111., Sept. 24, 1838, and grew up in 
Missouri. He arrived in San Francisco Feb. 4, 1862 ; studied medicine, 
and was graduated in 1865 from the school which is now the Medical 
Department of the University of California. Was private secretary to 
Gov. Haight from 1867 to the end of his term, and later became his 
law- partner (having been admitted to practice by the Supreme Court at 
its January term, 1872). Remained in active practice of law till the 
summer of 1899, then retiring to become Dean of Hastings College of 
the Law. Was a member of the Board of Freeholders, which framed 
the ** New Charter" of San Francisco, and is at present a member of the 
Board of Trustees of the San Francisco Public Library as well as of the 
Law Library. 

Dr. Taylor is not of the stage bookworm type. A short, powerful 
man, with an unusually large and symmetrical head upon a massive 
trunk, he belies his age, and has every promise before him of long 
years of scholarly activities. Some of his best verse has been kindled 
by a deep appreciation of Keith, the most prophetic and inspired of 
American painters — and naturally not the best-known to a country 
which largely measures art by the artist's "mixing" with reporters. To 
find Dr. Taylor after office hours, it is a pretty safe guess to drop into 
that canvas wonderland on Pine street, and wait a bit. This curious in- 
timacy between the hard-headed bookman and the rapt painter has in- 
fluenced both ; and beneficially, no doubt. One of his sonnets to 
Keith is included in the new volume. It ends : 

" Would that my rhyme could run as does this stream, 
Which on thy canvas breaks in rapturous song 
Where Spring, triumphant, bursts from every clod ! 
Then would be realized my vain, fond dream : 
To sing one bar that might amidst the throng 
Of countless voices rise from earth to God." 



236 




A Soldier of Spain. 

BY BELTRAN ESCOBA. 

HB sun had gone down two hours when my 
** bunkie " Texas Harry and I were munching our 
hard-tack fried in bacon grease, and washing it 
down with black, muddy coffee. 

The cathedral bell of Santiago tolled mourn- 
fully in the distance, and I rose to repeat my 
supiica de la noche, causing the venturesome land- 
crabs to scurry back among the scrub palms. 

As I resumed my seat and supper, Harry irrever- 
ently remarked, "You-all Mexicans do pray and 
fight some." I ignored the statement, and Harry went on, ** Say, pard, 
I seen a Spanyard up yonder today, a-drawin' his rations, and he was 
sure^aco, like he never had a bite to eat since we-ali infested this lay- 
out. He had a little gold cross crucifix thing on his ches' and I ast him 
to sell me it, but 'twasn't no go. Say, is it agin his religion to sell it? " 

** No," I replied, "probably it was a great keepsake, for those poor 
fellows are pretty hard up and will sell 'most anything." 

The tiny fire before us snapped and blazed fitfully as we sat smoking 
our cigarettes. Our thoughts were in far distant Texas, with the brown 
eyes that gazed after us when the Bough Riders left San Antonio. 

Santiago was taken, Cervera's fleet destroyed, and already it seemed 
as if the war were half over. How long would it take to get back to 
San Antonio, I wondered. 

" Buenas noches, senores,^^ came a voice from the chapparal. '^Buenas 
noches,'" we answered. ** Pase, amigo,'' said I, "be seated." 

The intruder was clad in the regulation blue and white stripe of the 
Spanish regulars, and by his emaciated face and hands I presumed him 
to be Harry's man with the cross. 

** How didst thou pass the picket ? " I asked, as he gracefully accepted 
the cigarette Harry offered. 

"lyike the land-crabs," he replied, ** On my knees and elbows." 
Then turning to Harry he asked, "Does the Americano still want to buy 
the cross ? If so, it is his. I love it much, but I need the money more." 

His thin hand trembled as he handed it Harry, who held it up to the 
light, saying, " What's it worth, Beltran?" The Spaniard started and 
looked up. His thin lips parted in a smile as he said, '* My name is 
also Beltran, Senor. We are tocayos (namesakes). The cross is gold, 
Senor. It belonged to my wife, and she is dead. Her brother brought 
it to me from Spain. He was killed at San Juan Hill. You will give 
mie a good price for it, Senor .^" he went on, turning to Harry, who was 
examining the exquisite workmanship of the tiny crucifix, "the money 
is for masses for my wife and child, senores. They died of hunger in 
C6rdova, after I left for the war." 

" Died of starvation in C6rdova ? How could that be, man ? " 

"Ah, C6rdova is a vast city, tocayo mio^ and when the men were con- 
scripted for this unholy war many wives and babies were left to starve. 
Ivisten, I will tell you my story, which is like that of many a soldier. 

" Three years ago I was studying law in Toledo. My father had made 
considerable money in handling cork, and it was his wish, as well as 
that of my mother and sisters, that I become a lawyer ; and when I took 
up my studies with the great Hernandez they were indeed happy. 

" After I had been studying about a year I went with some students 
to Madrid to hear a course of lectures there, and while visiting some 
relatives of a poor fellow-student met my wife that was to be. 

* * She was an orphan and poor, but, Senor, she was most beautiful, 
and as good as the Virgin herself. After the lectures were finished, we 
were quietly married by the padre and returned to Toledo together. 



A SOLDIER OF SPAIN. 237 

**Ah! how happy we were on that short journey! It seemed as if 
we were living in Paradise. Yet, with all my happiness, there was one 
drop of bitterness. She was of the people ; and when I realized what 
my family would say, I trembled for both of us, for my father was a 
stern man, and a fault was never forgiven nor forgotten. 

** Well, it turned out as I thought. My family were enraged beyond 
description and we were banished from the house. I can hear the 
curses of my father to this day. My poor mother tried to say a word of 
compassion, but my sisters and father overwhelmed her with re- 
proaches and we went away, not knowing how we should live. 

*' It was misfortune from the beginning ; but we were brave through 
it all, and when I earned a few pesetas by copying some legal papers we 
were as happy as two doves. 

** The Seiior Hernandez invited me to discontinue my studies ; and 
after I saw all my old friends turn away when I came near, we decided to 
pack up our few belongings and go to C6rdova. Maria would not hear 
of returning to Madrid, for she had told all she knew that her husband 
would be a famous lawyer, and her pride was great. 

"At C6rdova our baby was born and the few centavos I earned 
went for medicines. I wrote to my mother for some money, and the 
letter came back with a postscript that my actions had killed her. 

"At last, in desperation, I joined the army, hoping that my small 
wages would keep my loved ones from starving or charity. 

** We were told that the war in Cuba was almost over, and that the 
Americanos were afraid to interfere, and in all probability we would 
only have to serve a short while, and that in Spain. 

** But one day orders came to go to Cadiz and embark for Cuba. Who 
knows what agonies I suffered. My Maria and little Jos6 — how could I 
leave them ? As we marched through the streets to the cars, Maria 
walked beside me in the gutter, promising that she would keep well and 
strong, for God would provide for her and Jos^ until I returned, with 
many pesetas from Cuba. 

** At the railroad station I clung to my preciosa amor, cursing the 
army and all soldiers. A guardia civil came up and rudely ordered me 
to join my comrades in the train. ' One moment more,' entreated 
Maria, her great dark eyes pleading stronger than lips. " Ni un mo- 
ntentito mas*' (not an instant more), snarled the beast, and taking 
Maria by the shoulder he pushed her down the steps. 

" The blood rushed through me like fire, and swinging my rifle I 
struck him down like a dog. 

"'Mother of God, what hast thou done?' moaned Maria, as the 
blood gushed from the wound and the man lay like one dead. 

"The captain of my company rushed up with some men and made 
me a prisoner, binding my arms behind me, and throwing me on the 
train. 

" I never saw my wife or child again, and when shut up in my prison 
aboard the ship, my only consolation was the thought that when we ar- 
rived in Havana I would ship aboard some vessel returning to Spain. 

" Fues — there is no need to tell you how that and many other schemes 
failed and how I drifted from Havana here. 

" But one day, while out in the trenches of San Juan Hill, I saw 
Maria's brother Ramon working with pick and shovel ; and going to 
him I told him who I was — for care and disappointment had changed 
me. 

"Ramon had been in Cuba only a few months, having enlisted in 
Madrid and come direct from Cadiz. When I asked him how Maria was 
he dropped his shovel , and taking from his neck this little cross, handed 
it to me. . . . * And Jos^ ?' I stammered. * He is dead, too.' Then 
the Inspector approached and we resumed our work. 

" After dark I went to Ramon's quarters and he told me all he knew. 



238 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

** For some days after I was thrown aboard the train Maria was in the 
hospital, and Jos^ with her. When she was strong enough to leave — 
where to go ? No husband, no friends, no money — nothing. 

"That night, crouching in a doorway, she thought it all over care- 
fully. If in three days she could not find employment she would leave 
Jos6 in the Hospicio de Santa Inez, to the care of the good sisters there. 
The three days came and went. There were many soldiers' wives look- 
ing for work. Weak, and faint with hunger, she hastened toward the 
Hospicio. Poor little Jos6 was crying — he was hungry, too. 

* * It was dark when she reached the Hospicio ; and with many a kiss 
she laid him in the revolving cradle, set in the wall, which turned to 
the watching sister within. Must her child grow up a nameless found- 
ling ? No ! and yet she could not write his name ! 

"Another young woman, coming with a child in her arms, urged 
Maria to make haste. Stifling her sobs, she swung the cradle inward, 
but it had scarce left her hand when she thought of the cross she might 
have hung about Josh's neck to distinguish him. 

" ' Revuelta ! Revuelta P (turn, turn) she screamed, clutching madly 
at the iron, which slowly swung back ; but it was empty. 

"Running around to the main doorway she pounded until her 
knuckles bled. At last the huge door swung slowly inward, and a soft- 
voiced sister asked what was wanted. 

"*A child? What child, seiiora? For we have many babies. 
Come in the morning and you can pick it out.' 

" At daylight she returned to the Hospicio and patiently waited till 
mass was said and her knock was answered. As she entered the in- 
fants' ward a white-robed sister came out with a still babe in her arms, 
its face covered. 

" Jos6 was not among the children of the night before. And when 
Maria fainted, her forehead struck upon an angle as she fell. 

" ' I went to the hospital to see an injured^ friend,' went on Ramon, 
* and as I came out they were carrying Maria into the building. I tried 
to get in, but it was too late ; no more visitors could enter ; I must come 
the next day. 

" * At the visitors' hour I was first on the line and I hastened to see 
Maria. I could stay but a few moments, they said, but it was enough for 
her to tell me all, and give me the cross for you. She said she wanted 
to die, for all had been taken from her — husband, babe, friends, health, 
everything ; only sorrow and want were left. 

" * I told her my regiment was on the way to Cadiz, and thence to 
Cuba, and that I should surely see you, but meanwhile she must keep up 
courage. 

" * The next day I bought a bottle of wine with my last few centavos 
and took it to the hospital for her, but they told me she had died in the 
night and they would bury her beside her child.' '' 

The Spaniard's voice grew lower and lower, till at last it was but a 
whisper. " So you see, Senores, I have lost all. For Ramon was killed 
by your bullets at San Juan." 

" Harry, you don't want this little keepsake," I managed to say, at 
last. 

" Reckon you're right, pard ! Say, let's give his nibs a couple of 
pesos apiece, anyhow. He's up agin' it strong." 

I explained to our friendly enemy ; but he would not listen to the 
proposition. 

"Take it as a loan, then," I argued, Harry chiming in with lame 
Spanish. 

" Senores, you are very kind, and God will reward you. But it is a 
loan." 

We gave him five silver dollars, and after many tearful thanks he 
shook our hands and disappeared in the brush. Our fire had long since 



BIRDS OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 



239 



gone out. Without a word we crawled into the tiny dog-tent, and draw- 
ing the blankets over us tried to court sleep. 

Next day about noon a Cuban came down the rough road driving a 
sorry -looking horse attached to a rude cart. A blanket-covered object 
lay on the floor, and when I asked him if he had anything to sell he 
crossed himself and answered, " iVb, senor^ es un muerto ; a dead 
Spaniard. I found him near the arroyo. He was stabbed, seiior, but I 
found this held to his lips,'* holding up the cross we had seen the night 
before. 

Harry and I took charge of the remains, and together we buried him. 
The cross we replaced on his breast, and on a rough headboard we cut 
the words "Beltran Navarro, a Soldier of Spain." 

When we were permitted to go to Santiago we had a special mass said 
for him and for his dead in far-off Spain. 

Jersey City, N. J. 




FAM11.1AR Birds of Southern 
California, 

BY ELIZABETH AND JOSEPH GRINNELL. 

THE BUTCHER BIRD. 

\0 THK novice there is sometimes some diffi- 
culty in distinguishing the shrike from the 
mocking bird. There is a little similarity 
in color and size, but in markings, and form of head 
and beak, the difference is great. Compared with the 
mocker, the California shrike, which is our ' ' butcher 
bird,'* is more grey than brown, and the white of 
the wings and tail is more conspicuous. The tips 
of all the tail feathers are white, as is also the throat. A 
"black bridle" on either side of the forehead, which 
includes the eyes and meets at the base of the black 
beak, renders this bird easily distinguishable. The beak 
is hooked, larger and shorter than that of the mocker, but the 
whole bird from tip to tip is more than an inch shorter. The 
sexes differ but slightly or not at all. While the butcher bird 
has come honestly by his name, he does not persist in crime to 
the exclusion of turning an honest penny for the farmer. He 
dotes upon the Jerusalem cricket, that wicked little fellow that 
digs holes in the sides of our potatoes, and is as fond of mice 
as he is of small snakes. He has been seen to watch for and 
snatch a gopher throwing up its solitary mound on the mesa. 
True, he does eat an occasional small bird, and it cannot be de- 
nied that he impales his prey on orange thorns and barbed wire 
fences. What purposes he has in view is not perfectly under- 
stood. Possibly it is for reasons of taste. He may prefer his 
meat cured, or he may have learned from his fathers to lay by 
something for a rainy day. Or he may do it from pure mis- 
chief. In any event we have found small lizards, birds, even 
downy chickens, Jerusalem crickets, mice and beetles, impaled 
— always by the neck. There is method even in the seeming 



240 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

cruelty of this tyrant, for he kills his prey before hanging ; al- 
ways by blows on the back of the neck and head. So he is not 
the heartless creature he is supposed to be. He is the agricul- 
turist's friend, and very interesting as a study. Close acquaint- 
ance with him reveals him to be a bird with an occasional 
musical note, some charm of manner, and a graceful though 
solitary personality. It is probably on account of his prefer- 
ence for a meat diet that he is shunned by other birds. The 
butcher bird nests with us in March and April. The eggs are 
usually six in number, of a greyish-brown mottled appearance. 
The nests are large and compact. So heavy are they, inter- 
twined with string and sticks in a general structure of wild 
sage, that one imagines them to be partly of mud like a robin's. 
Why this preference for sage, is a question. We have never 
found a butcher's nest built wholly of any other material. 
Possibly it is to keep away the mites, as these parasites are 
well known to infest the nests of most birds. 

The butcher bird makes its nest in orange trees and hedges, 
or other low trees and shrubs, often within easy reach. 
Whether they succeed better than the mockers in rearing their 
young is not certain, for the birds are not too common. They 
may be seen in the uplands and mesas, but not so frequently 
in our house gardens. They are not noisy birds as we know 
them, except for a harsh scream once in a while, and, but for 
their hooked bills, might find a warm place in the hearts of all. 

Pasadena, Cal. 



"¥' 



The Professors Wealth, 

BY T. S. VAN DYKE. . 

Author of Millionaires of a Day ^ etc. 

*0U look tired tonight, John," said the wife of Professor Dump- 
kin as he came in. 

" Yes, there are several other tired folks in town. Prices 
haven't risen any for a day or two." 

" Why not sell as they are ? You say your lots are worth a hundred 
thousand dollars, and that is thirty times what you began with a year 
ago." 

'* I have been trying all day to sell," he was about to say, but the 
words died upon his tongue. For it was in the height of the great real 
estate boom of 1886-1887 that raged so violently over Southern Califor- 
nia — a bubble that swelled and rolled never so brightly as the very day 
before it broke — and no one could admit that there was any defect in the 
tissue. He had resigned a good position as principal of the school be- 
cause "time is too valuable to waste in the school room at a hundred and 
fifty a month." In spite of the entreaties of his wife to sell and put the 
money in something safe, he kept selling only to buy more on a margin 
that every day was becoming thinner. He could almost any day have 
sold all he had for $100,000 ; but to him, as to the majority, it seemed 
throwing property away to sell for any purpose except to re-invest in a 
still larger draft on the golden future. 

** Did you sell anything today, Dumpy, dear? " 



THE PROFESSOR'S WEALTH. 241 

"Why — ah — no. Somehow there were not many buyers around 
today." 

* ' But were there any ? ' ' 

" Why — ah — yes — I expect so, but I didn't happen to strike them. 
There may be — a — ah — temporary lull. Folks would naturally have 
to catch their breath after such a rush. When they do they will take 

hold harder than ever. Then I will sell and let you invest the money." 

* * * 

** No, Molly, I didn't sell today, either. It was kind of quiet again. 
Folks say they are tired of giving away their property, and have taken 
it oflf the market." 

'* But would not that only make buyers more eager ? " 
" Why — ah — I suppose so— of course. But somehow it doesn't seem 
to work that way. But you needn't be scared. There are just as many 
rich strangers coming as ever. But the new ones didn't bring money 
enough with them, and the old ones have spent all theirs and are wait- 
ing to get more from the East. You see it takes an immense amount of 

cash to keep abreast of such a growth as this." 

* * * 

"John, you look real sick tonight." 

" Second payment is due on those lots at Wildwood, and it will take all 
my ready money." 

" Why, you don't mean to pay it ? " 

** Good gracious ! I have five thousand invested there in the first 
payment. You don't want to lose that, do you ? " 

" But what is the difference between paying five thousand more now, 
and another five thousand in sis months, and buying new lots of the 

same kind in six months for ten thousand, if they are worth it then ? " 

* « * 

** Molly, you are always on deck when it comes to steering the family 
ark. Instead of paying on those lots I exchanged them for stock in 
the Occidental Land Company. I have been elected president. Quite 
an honor, my love. The president of the Empire Bank resigned to 
make way for me. His wife will call on you shortly — and don't be 
starchy because she never called when we were poor. We've got to keep 
an eye on business. Folks are just beginning to realize my business 
ability." 

"Can you not use some of that ability in getting some money 
where it will be sure ? " 

" Why, I am worth seventy five thousand, safe enough. To be sure, it 
isn't quite as much as the hundred thousand, but it is quite a neat little 
sum, considering we had only three thousand to start buying with, a 
little over a year ago. I am getting it clear of the debts, and then it 
will be just as good as the United States bonds that you want so much. 
And as soon as things pick up agairr it will be worth the hundred thou- 
sand, and a good deal more." 

* * * 

" Molly, we are going to board at a seaside hotel." 

" Why, Dumpy, dear, I couldn't think of it ! With deferred payments 
coming due, and prices falling every day, we can't afford it." 

" If the rest of the boys only had such a wife ! But your dear solici- 
tude is needless. We are going to board out the rent. I swapped the 
Occidental stock for the Hotel Del Golden Strand." 

" That immense thing ? Why, I heard there was a mortgage on it in 
proportion to its size." 

" But you didn't hear that there was an assessment on the stock in 
proportion to its size. I can sell a hotel with a mortgage more easily 
than stock with an assessment. That's where a knowledge of business 
comes in, you see. Colleges don't teach such things. You can 
only learn them on the street." 



242 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

** I do -wish you would sell and quit business." 

** Why, that's what I am trying to do. But somehow the blasted stuff 
sticks to my fingers like pitch. Deacon Jones and Brother Smith are 
helping me get out from under. They all say I am worth $75,000 
all right ; but somehow the fellows with money don't seem to think so." 

** Well, do sell for less — and make sure of something." 

** That's what I am trying to do. But \^hen I offer to sell a thing for 
less they look wise, and say I don't want to sell at all. That's queer 
talk when a man is trying his best to sell. Molly, it looks now as if the 

fools had all the money." 

* * * 

"John, these folks are so cross I can hardly endure it here. They 
actually want cash for our board." 

*' Possible ! I guess the only way to get our rent is to run the hotel 
ourselves." 

'* But where are the guests?" 

" Where are the guests at the other Hotels de Boom ? They all run 
without any. Why can't we ? It's mighty respectable now, too, keeping 

a seaside hotel." 

* * * 

*' In luck again, Molly ! I won't hav^ to rustle clams on the beach 
any more, and you won't sing to empty rooms. I swapped the hotel 
for Buglake Water bonds." 

*' What, the new city water works? Then we'll have interest to live 
on, won't we ? And you will let me clip the coupons, won't you ? " 

** Not just this evening, my dear. You didn't hear me through. I 
found there was something wrong about the levels, so that the water 
would have to run up hill to get to town. Our school philosophy says 
it won't do that ; so I traded them ojBf for University stock. I am going 
to be a director and have an eye on a professorship. Deacon Jones and 
Brother Smith are directors, and they say they will stand in with me." 

*' But I never heard of colleges paying any dividends ! " 

** Well, it's first class trading-stock, and I have got to have something 
that will trade, so as to get out what I have all clear. I am wiggling 
out from under in fine shape, but not quite through yet. I am wortk 
fiifty thousand fast enough, when I get it all clear." 

"John, couldn't you get half that in cash and keep off the street?" 

" That's just the trouble, Molly. The fools have got the money and 
the brains have got the property. It's a singular arrangement that the 
books on political economy in college don't throw any light on, some- 
how." 

* * * 

"Why, Dumpy, dear, this is a round steak you brought home." 
"But, Molly, dear, it will make a square meal just the same. No- 
body eats porterhouse now but the tourists. There is plenty of busi- 
ness, though, and I made a big trade today. Traded those lots in Para- 
dise Park for Klectric Railroad stock. 

"Why, everyone says the electric railroad is a failure." 
" It's afine trading stock, anyway. We've got to keep things humming 
here to keep up a show of business, or the whole thing'll pop all in a 
heap. Deacon Jones and Brother Smith are stockholders, and they saj 
the franchise alone, for a city such as this will be in a year or two, is worth 
a million, no matter what the motive power is. They will stand in with 
me to control the company." 

"But you said they were already bankrupt." 

" But out in this progressive country that don't make any difference. 
It's mighty respectable, and in some ways is an advantage. You don't 

have lawyers chasing after you all the time." 

* * * 

" Yes, Molly, I am cleaning up fast, now. Made a big trade today •> 



THE PROFESSOR'S WEALTH. 243 

Lumped everything for two houses and two lots right in the middle of 
town. Be right in the business part in a year. We can live in one and 
rent the other, as soon as we get possession." 

"As soon as we get possession ? " 

"Yes. You see I only got a mortgage on them for twenty-five thou- 
sand, but as nobody pays anything of that sort just now, I will have to 
foreclose the mortgage to get possession, and that will take a little time. 
I am worth twenty-five thousand now, sure. There was a little imagina- 
tion, I find, about the other values, but this is a straight mortgage on 
business property, property that will be business property. It will be 
worth the hundred thousand then, but I am not figuring on that any 
more. Twenty-five thousand is quite a little dust-heap now-a-days, my 
dear. What are you sighing about.' ^ 

" Only to think how easily dust-heaps are swept away here." 

•* Well, don't worry. Things are sure to go up. Some folks say it 
will be in six months. But I am conservative and don't think it will 
be much under nine months. Conservatism is the only advantage that 
I can see from my college education. What are you sighing about 
again ? " 

"I wish you had a little more of that conservatism, John, and had 
kept the school." 

" Don't stew about that. I am laying pipe to tap it again. I'm — I'm 

getting to be quite a politician as well as business man" 

* Id * 

** You look so tired to night, John." 

"I am. Blasted lawyer wants a thousand dollars to foreclose that 
mortgage, and wants the cold stuff in advance, because he says the other 
party is going to fight it all the way through the Supreme Court, so as 
to hold it till things start up again. You see that shows it's valuable, 
just as I told you." 

•* And how long can he keep it in court ? " 

** There's the rub, Molly. From three to five years, they say. You 
see the blasted colleges don't teach such things. But I'm getting there 
with both feet. I found a lot of liens for lumber and work on it that 
are ahead of the mortgage, and I am arranging to get them in to fore- 
close. Then I found there had been some street grading and paving 
and curbing ordinances passed that will take several thousand dollars, 
and the cuss that owns the mortgage never can pay them." 

" But how areyou going to pay them any more than the other man ?" 

" Haven't just exactly decided that point myself, Molly." 

* * * 

"Struck bottom at last, Molly ! I'm comfortable for the first time." 

** And how much are you worth now ? I am losing confidence in 
your estimates." 

* ' Replace it, my dear, replace it quick ! It will be all right this 
time." 

"And what is it?" 

'* Well, it looks as though I had dropped another $25,000 or so." 

"John, you don't mean to say that it's all gone ? " 

" It bears a close resemblance to something similar, Molly. I have 
traded out everything and wiped out all the indebtedness ; but the 
blasted sponge mopped the whole slate. It seems as if I had been play- 
ing with a great big soap-bubble on a rock. The soap-bubble was mine. 
The rock belonged to the other fellow. When the bubble bursted the suds 
stuck to the rock ! ' ' 

"But you have some money left in bank? " 

" All blowed in in commissions. Brother Smith worked ten days on 
that last trade for me. It takes a high order of genius. As the goods 
can't be split, the commission has to be in cash, of course." 



244 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

'* And is the three thousand that I saved with such hard work out of 
your salary all gone too ? " 

•' Molly, I'm awfully afraid somebody has got it. But it's worth it all 
to see how nobly you stand adversity. Thanks to your good sense we 
have no big display advertisement to take down, and no diamonds to run 
to your uncle's with. We are rich in experience if no longer in fancy, 
and — Molly. I've got the school back." 

" My, I'm so glad! You will talk respectable English again, then. 
Won't it seem strange to have a decent steak once more ? " 

** I am afraid we'll have to wait a bit for the steak. My first month's 
salary is loaned to Deacon Jones," 

•• Why, John, how could you, when we need it so much, and he is 
bankrupt?" 

*' He is on the school-board." 

" And will you have to wait a month before you get any money? " 

** Two of them, my love." 

"Why, what's the matter with the second month's salary? " 

** Ivoaned to Brother Smith." 

** Is he on the school-board, too ? " 

" No, but his brother-in-law is. Pass the beans, please." 

Los Angeles, Cal. 




The Pity of It, 

By BERTHA S WILKINS. 

O ONE who has lived and worked in an Indian 
boarding-school with heart and eyes open, the life 
of the children appears as it really is, lonely and 
forlorn, though the visitor is often impressed by 
the order and system of institution life. 

On hearing the children singing grace at the 
table, an impressionable lady exclaimed enthusias- 
tically, "Oh, what a glorious work! What an 
influence for good! " Yet this same "influence 
for good " is killing the Indian children as surely 
as our bullets killed their ancestors. 

Tribes which have yielded to our "civilization," and have given 
their children to the schools, are dying out, while tribes like Navajos, 
who have strenuously opposed our overtures, have increased in num- 
bers since 1868 from 12,000 to 22^000. They are not only self-support- 
ing but wealthy, though their large reservation is mostly barren and 
waterless ; with industry and care their herds of sheep and cattle afford 
an ample income. 

The boarding-school dormitory, with its rows of snowy beds, about 
which the visitor goes into raptures, has another aspect at times. 
While watching almost a hundred coughing boys retire on a cold night, 
a government physician remarked, " These places are death-traps. It's 
impossible to protect the healthy from contamination in such a place. 
The windows must be open for ventilation, and there is no mother nor 
father to see that the covers are not kicked off." 



♦The editor's series of papers on " My Brother's Keeper," of which No. VII was 
printed last month, is now temporarily interrupted, for variety's sake, to allow other 
witnesses to be heard. There is no intention, however, to abandon this crusade for 
manhood's sake and mercy's The magazine means to pour steady light on the 
abuses and ignorance and inj ustice which mark our present system of Indian educa- 
tion ; in the simple belief that Americans wish to deal justly and will deal justly when 
they know how. 

Miss Wilkins, whose sound paper is given herewith, is a noble and earnest woman 
whom I have no hesitation in vouching for. She is an experienced teacher of Indians 
in government schools, and a competent witness. Her theory is a theory, albeit a 
good one ; but her statements of fact are strictlj true and very mildly stated.— Ed. 



THE PITY OF IT 



245 



Another objection to these great schools is, that any institution is a 
sorry home for a little child. Children need ^bove all else love, and 
nothing but love will satisfy them. 

A boy of six who had made his little mark in a reservation school, 
was asked by his teacher, " Will you come with me to my home and go 
to school where white boys go ? There are engines and big houses, and 
you shall see the ocean with the ships. There are grapes and apples 
and all kinds of fruits to eat. You will be a smart man when you are 
big, and you will get money when you work ! " 

** I like to go to see the engines and the ships on the ocean," he 
answered, thoughtfully, "but my papa will be very sorry. When I come 
to this school, not far away, my papa just cry and put his hand on my 
head and put me up on his arm and will not let me go. I like my 
papa. Just catch fish for me and put it on fire with salt and we have a 
good time to eat. No, I not go far away from my papa. And my 
mama got nice baby. Just cry and laugh and like to play with me too, 
that baby!" 

What can we do to compensate the child for such memories of home, 
which are in themselves a benediction ? 

When children droop and pine with homesickness, or some other 
ailment at boarding-schools, they can usually be saved by sending them 
home. This is sometimes done in time to save them ; more often they 
come home to die. It is awkward for the Superintendent to report 
deaths. Dying is not in the curriculum. 

At the Ivos Angeles Institute, Major Pratt of the Carlisle School had 
the satisfaction of hearing some of his graduates defending his position 
as champion of the policy of doing away with reservations and rearing 
all Indian children in institutions. Since his influence is so strong 
upon his students, it is to be deplored that the Major cannot give them 
some of his own splendid physical vigor ; for the three young Indians 
who championed his cause, though admirable in spirit and genuine in 
conviction, were, in their low state of health, living arguments against 
our system of education.* 

However far behind modern pedagogical methods the Roman Catholic 
Indian schools may be, they are usually in very good locations, 
with orchards and vegetable gardens, making it possible to vary the 
children's diet. One of the great hardships of the children at the 
boarding-schools is the monotony of the diet and the lack of vegetables. 
They usually have more meat and coflfee than is good for children, and,- 
even in the spring and fall, neither fresh vegetables nor fruits. 

The government furnishes white flour (not whole- wheat as they have 
it at home), meat, beans, hominy, rice, molasses, cofiee, tea, some sugar, 
iome milk, and a low grade of dried fruits. 

So much for the physical conditions; the moral conditions are even 
worse. In many instances the dormitories are schools of vice ; here 
the influence of the bad child has few restrictions. 

It is often said that the Indian camp is a low place — that depends 
upon its distance from low whites, as a rule. A class of twenty boys 
between the ages of ten and eighteen, was received into a reservation 
school direct from *'the camp." They had never been in "civilization" 
and had to learn the use of knives, forks, chairs, etc. They were, how- 
ever, a frank, manly set of boys ; compared with boys in our public 
schools, they were much above the average in manly qualities, with 
the exception of two. The oldest was morally low, having been on the 
range with the Mexican cowboys, and another was lowering and savage 
in disposition. He was the only one of the class, be it remarked, who 
could speak English. For some time he acted as interpreter. 

*This is literally true. They were bright and refined ; but physically a sad deteri- 
oration from the average of their own home people. — Ed, 



246 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

The homes from which these eighteen boys came could not have 
been corrupt — since men do not gather figs from thistles. 

When they left school in the spring, however, their faces had hard- 
need. With their knowledge of Knglish they had gained in knowledge 
of evil. After spending the summer at their homes (tiny mud huts on 
the desert) they usually return in the fall with a healthy bronze and 
some of the old time wholesomeness upon their faces. 

Economists divide all the activities represented by the word "civiliza- 
tion" into two classes. Those necessary for the physical, mental or 
moral welfare of the individual or of society in general are the essen- 
tials of our civilization ; all unnecessary activities, such as the produc- 
tion of useless luxuries, the changes of fashions, and the awful waste of 
competition, constitute the non-essentials. 

To the essential activities belong those which furnish the wholesome 
food-stufifs, materials for clothing and the education of all. Education, 
broadly considered, comprises not only schools, but also the press and 
all truly artistic and scientific professions. 

This essential part of our civilization represents enlightened sim- 
plicity with no limit to its advancement as soon as relieved from the en- 
cumbrance of the non-essentials. 

The civilization of the Indians, and other primitive races, represents 
unenlightened simplicity, which remains well-nigh stationary for ages. 
The connection is obvious ; in our attempts at civilizing a primitive 
race, their simplicity should remain ; but for their ignorance we should 
give them enlightenment. 

What child-study is doing for education, race-study should do for 
primitive peoples. If, therefore, a permanent commission were estab- 
lished under the guidance of the Bureau of Ethnology, for instance, 
with its workers trained in such settlements as Hull House in Chicago, 
where they might receive the baptism of the newly-awakened spirit of 
altruism, the Indian would, for the first time, have a chance to develop 
his possibilities. 

Under scientific direction the natural tendency and invariable habit of 
our primitive race to a community life might be studied. After some 
experiments with the slum-children of New York city, Mr. George has 
evolved his Junior Republic. The children are learning self-government, 
cheerful obedience to laws, the value of money and the necessity of work. 

This knowledge is exactly what the Indians can use. Self-government 
and obedience they know, and should be allowed to retain ; the other 
they can learn. It should be taken to the Indian home. In the straight- 
jacket of our great boarding-schools the children learn at best only obe- 
dience to — strangers. 

The institutionalized village, as Mr. George has evolved it, offers a 
rational solution to the problem of the primitive races ; it is practically 
a course in self-government under inspiring leadership, not under 
"management." 

Given favorable agricultural conditions, the physical needs of all the 
Indians can be supplied cooperatively by the Indians themselves ; ra- 
tions would be unnecessary. 

A village of huts, large enough for comfort and decency ; a large 
oven to supply bread for all ; a sewing-room ; a laundry ; a kitchen, 
such as we find in European cities, where wholesome food can be 
bought cooked, in any quantity and at cost ; bath-rooms and swim- 
ming tank and a general meeting-room where entertainments of a 
wholesome kind might be given ; a nursery, kindergarten, a day-school ; 
most of these departments the Indians themselves might learn to conduct. 
Any who were not inclined to fit themselves into such conditions should 
be given full freedom to face the problem of getting a living alone ; 
the very motive of the cooperation being to secure freedom for the indi- 
vidual — freedom from vices, diseases and overwork. 



247 

^ Pioneers ok the Far West. 

THE EARLIEST HISTORY OF CALIFORNIA, NEW MEXICO, ETC. 

From Documents Never Before Published in English. 

ESCALANTE'S LETTER {l778). 

Pursuing its fixed policy — which is to be entertaining if possible, but 
valuable anyhow — this magazine continues * its publication of rare doc- 
uments of early Western history hitherto unavailable to the average 
student. 

A compact and very accurate sketch of the bloodiest episode in all 
Southwestern history — the Pueblo Rebellion of 1680, and the Recon- 
quest of New Mexico, which took more than a decade to complete — is 
given in this letter of the Franciscan missionary. Fray Silvestre Velez 
de Escalante. He condenses the account from official documents then 
ill the archives at Santa F^, before our civilized blood had come in with 
the kind of officials that sold heaps of these priceless historic docu- 
ments to the ragman. Whatever sins of omission or commission the 
conquistadores were guilty of in New Mexico, they never did anything 
more vandal than that destruction of archives for waste paper in our 
Gov. Pile's administration ; and this historic fact should make us rather 
more tolerant of our predecessors. 

All this aside, the red uprising and the gallant reconquest, more than 
two centuries ago, are of deep thrill as a human story. The loneliness 
and heroism of that early pioneering of New Mexico, the pathos of the 
greatest "Indian massacre " in what is now United States, and the new 
winning of that Frontier by some of the most desperate military assaults 
in American history — these are (^uite as interesting, perhaps, as the aver- 
age "make-believe" stories. Fray Silvestre's summary is a valuable 
historical "source." A "popular" review of these events, digested 
from every known document, may be found in The Spanish Pioneers.^ 

In this close translation and annotation, parentheses are used simply 
to aid lucidity ; but brackets indicate supplied or explanatory words. 

IvBTTBR 

of the Father 

FRAY SIIvVESTRK VKI.KZ DK KSCALANTK, 

written 

ON THE 2d of APRIIv, IN THK YEAR 1778. 

1 . Reverend P'ather reader, now my lord : As much because of the 
necessary duties of the office I have already twice resigned, though in 
vain, as because of the journey which I made to El Paso this winter, I 
have not been able either to read or make extracts from the MSS. of 
these government archives ; except from the year 1 680 (there are no 
older papers here) in which year this kingdom was lost, to the year 
1692, in which Don Diego de Vargas began the winning back of it. I 

•Already published : The Reglamento, or code of laws for the government of Califor- 
nia (1781), Jan.-May, 1897, (translation and fac-simile); Testimonio on the first Co- 
manche raid (1748), Jan.-Feb., 1898 (translation and original); Revilla Gigedo, Viceroy 
ol New Spain, Report on California (translation), June-Oct., 1899 ; Zlrate-Salmeron, 
Relacion, New Mexico and California from 1538-1626, Nov., 1899-Feb. 1900, translation. 

t A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. 



248 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

hope to disengage myself, and in the coming [months of] May and 
June to finish examining the documents which remain. All whatso- 
ever I find useful, I will send together, whither Your Revetence may 
bid me. And although just now I have not the necessary quiet, never- 
theless, that Your Reverence may see that these delays are not excuses, 
but that truly I desire to do your pleasure, herewith shall go this 
epitome of the information gathered from the [official] papers of Don 
Antonio de Otermin ; of Don Domingo Gironza Petriz de Cruzate (who 
succeeded him in the governorship in August of 1683) ; of Don Pedro 
Romeros Posada ^who succeeded Gironza in 1688 and governed a year 
and [some] months, Don Domingo Gironza resuming the governorship 
in the [year] of 1689;, and of Don Diego de Vargas who succeeded him 
in 1691. Of the predecessors of Otermin there are in these archives no 
edicts nor any other document [paper] whatsoever ; for even those 
[documents] pertaining to the first years of the government of the said 
Otermin are lacking. Some [other governersj are named incidentally 
in various memorials [representaciones] and depositions made to Oter- 
min, after the general [Pueblo] uprising, by various citizens of this 
kingdom [New Mexico was then a reino of the Spanish crown, governed 
by a "Governor and Captain-General"] ; and these the Father Fray 
Francisco Farfan says had been governors successively before Otermin. 
And these are all as follows : Don Fernando de Arguello was governor 
in 1645 ; Don Hernando Ugarte y la Concha in 1650 ; Don Fernando de 
Villannova, Don Juan de Medrano, Don Juan de Miranda, and Don 
Juan Francisco Trevino. This Trevino was succeeded by Otermin. 
This is the most that I have found concerning the ancient governors, 
from Don Juan de Onate up to Otermin. 

2 This kingdom of New Mexico, before it was lost by the general 
i uprising of the Indians [1680], was composed of forty-six pueblos of 
Christian Indians, and one town of Spaniards — which was at first that 
of San Gabriel del Yunque,* and later that of Santa F6, capital of the 
kingdom, as it is today ; with various farms [estancias] also of Spaniards. 
[These were] situated in various places on the banks of the Del Norte 
river [Rio Grande] ; and tho' altogether they included more population 
than Santa F6, on account of their being much scattered and distant 
from one another they did not merit the name of pueblo. A few years 
before the said uprising, the hostile Apaches destroyed, by almost con- 
tinuous invasions, seven pueblos of the said 46. One [was] in the 
province of Zuni, and this was Jahuicu [Hawiku] ; and seven [six] in 
the valley of the Salt Lakes. These were Chilili, Tafique [Tajique] and 
Quarac [Cuarai] of the Tehua Indians ; Ab6, Jumancas and Tabira.f of 
the Tompiros. All the which were on the Eastern skirts of the Sandia 
range [that part of it now known as the Manzano], except two which 
were distant from the range and toward the Salines. Nearly all the 
confines of this kingdom were then occupied by the infidels of the 
Apache tribe [nacion], distinguished by different names according to the 
lands each portion dwelt upon ; and only on the west of the province 
of Moqui were neighbors [text "confiaban," evidently misprint for 
confinaban], as today, the [Indians] of the Cofnina [Cosnino] tribe. 
At the beginning of the governorship of Don Antonio de Otermin, 
they let themselves be seen, and established communication with the 
Spaniards. From there [are] the Yutas [Utes], of whom until then 
there had been [no ?] information. Of the Comanche tribe, if any in- 
formation was had in the last century, it was not known until the 
present one, in which [century] the Yutas introduced them to the 
pueblo of Taos.f Today they dominate nearly all the plains and the 

♦Contraction for Yuge-uinge; San Gabriel de los Espanoles, founded by Onate 1598 
where Chamita now stands. This was deserted, and Santa F6 founded, also by Onate, 
1605. 

tSee "The I,and of Poco Tiempo, Chap. XI, Scribner's. 

jSee this magazine for Jan., 1898, p. 74. 



PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST. 249 

country of the Buffalo, which formerly the Yutas and Apaches pos- 
sessed. For that [i. e. the buflfalo] they called those who lived ou said 
Plains, Cowboy Apaches [vaqueros], and other infidel tribes. And 
thus on the northeast, east and soiitheast they bound this kingdom to- 
day, these said Comanches ; and on the north and northwest the Yutas ; 
and from the west-northwest to the south-southeast, the Apaches. 

3. The year of 1680 (the second of Otermin's government), on the 
10th day, an Indian of the Pueblo of San Juan de Los Caballeros [St. 
John of the Gentlemen, named by the Spaniards for the gentleness and 
courtesy of the natives] found himself a fugitive in the pueblo of Taos. 
[He was] of the Tehua tribe, and was named Po-pe. In the time of 
[Gov.] Don Juan Francisco Trevino he had been imprisoned with 46 
other Tehuas for having committed various murders, idolatry and evil- 
doing ; and on this occasion he went fleeing on account of other new 
crimes of this class. Being thus in this pueblo, he plotted the general 
uprising, and from there sent messengers to all the pueblos of the 
kingdom ; for already, from beforehand, they secretly obeyed him. He 
had persuaded them that whatever the padres [priests] and governors 
ordered them was directed to no other purpose than to enslave them 
each day more.* And they feared him, because all were persuaded that 
he held frequent and express communication with the fiend, and that 
for this reason he could do them all the harm he might wish. All the 
pueblos agreed, except those of the Piros — for although the Queres of 
the pueblos of the Cieneguilla [text Cienegail], and the Tanos, showed 
some repugnance, at the time of [carrying the plot into] execution they 
followed the rest. The day determined upon for attacking all the 
monasteries and houses of the Spaniards was the 18th of August. But 
this treachery was discovered on the 9th (and it could not be avoided), 
for the Tanos [Indians] of San Crist6bal and San I/dzaro gave warning 
to the Father Custodian, who was then Fray Juan Bernal, and he 
promptly sent it on, with a letter, to the governor. Likewise the Peccos 
[Pecos] revealed the conspiracy to their minister, the Father Fray Fer- 
nando de Velasco, who on the same day communicated it to the gov- 
ernor. The [governor] on account of these warnings, and another upon 
the said matter, which he received at the same time from the alcalde of 
Taos, Marcos de Bras, caused to be seized two Indians of the pueblo of 
Tesuque, who, on behalf of the Tehuas, had gone to call together the 
said Tanos and Queres. Seeing by this that they were discovered, the 
Taos, Picuries and Tehua [Indians] broke out by order of the said 
Po-p4, and attacked the monasteries and the houses of the Spaniards, 
carrying everything with blood and fire, the 10th day of that same 
August, before dawn. All the rest of the rallied pueblos, soon as they 
knew this, did the same. They took the lives of 18 priests (among 
them the Father Custodian) and three other lay brothers!; and 380 Span- 
iards, this number including men, children, women and domestics 
[criados], and a few Spanish women who were kept as captives. The 
remnant Spanish population, and a number of priests besides, who did 
not perish, divided into two parties. In the pueblo of Isleta those as- 

* This is a fair statement of the case. Rather diflferent from the usual ignorant idea 
that the Pueblos zf«y^ enslaved, forced to work in mines (which did not exist), etc. 
Po-p6's argument was that the churches and schools would result in slavery. The scien- 
tific proofs of this estimate are overwhelming. 

t These martyr missionaries were as follows, the pueblo where they were slain being 
given : Frailes Juan Bernal, custodian, Galisteo ; Tomds de Torres, Namb6 ; Juan Do- 
mingo de Vera.Galisteo ; Juan Bautista Pr6, Tesuque ; Fernando de Velasco, between 
Pecos and Galisteo ; I,uis de Morales, San Ildefonso ; Matias Rendon, Picuries; An- 
tonio Mora, Taos ; Manual Tinoco, between San Marcos and Galisteo ; Francisco 
Antonio Lorenzana, Juan Talabdn and Jos6 de Montas de Oca, all at Santo Domingo ; 
Antonio Sanchez de Pr6, San Ildefonso ; Luis Maldonado, Acoma ; Juan del Val, 
Halona (Zuni) ; Jos4 de Figueroa, Ahuatui (Moqui) ; Agustin de Santa Maria, Jos6 de 
Bspoleto, Oraibe (Moqui) ; Jos6 Truxillo Xongo-pabi (Zufii) ; Juan de Santa Maria, 
Jemez ; Juan de la Pedrosa, Taos. 



250 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

sembled who had lived at San Felipe and points down stream. On the 
14th they started on their flight for El Paso ; for the rebels spread the 
word that the governor and all those in the town [Santa F6, then the 
only vt//a in N. Mex.] had already perished. Those of the Caiiada [of 
Cochiti] congregated and fortified themselves in the house of the 
Alcalde Mayor [mayor and judge] of that jurisdiction. Being few in- 
deed, they defended themselves by being together, until Otermin sent 
them succor, and they came to incorporate themselves with those in 
the Town. On the 15th this [Santa F4] was besieged on the south side 
[the mountains wall it elsewhere] by the Taos [Indians] of San 
Marcos, San Crist6bal and Galisteo, the Queres of the Ci^nega, and the 
Pecos. They took possession of the houses of the Tlascala [Mex.] In- 
dians, who lived in the ward [called] "Analco," and set fire to the 
chapel of San Miguel. 

The said [Indians] were 500 men-of-arms. Against them sallied the 
Spaniards of the Town, and joined such bloody battle as lasted more 
than six hours. Our men would have conquered, had not the Taos, Pic- 
uries and Tehuas arrived. These besieged the said Town on the north 
side, and began to attack in force the royal buildings in which were 
gathered the women and children [families], as well those of the Town 
as those from San Marcos, and from the Canada, along with those of 
the Tlascalans. In five days they gained and got possession of the 
greater part of the Town, burning some houses and quartering them- 
selves in others. They set fire to the church and monastery, and left the 
Spaniards no more ground than what was occupied by the royal houses 
and the plaza. They cut off the water from them, and reduced them to 
the last peril. Already the rebels were close upon 3C00 men ; and ours, 
between soldiers, citizens and domestics, did not count up 150 — where- 
fore they scarce had spirit to take their arms in their hand. But as the 
governor saw that already there was no other means than to risk it to 
break through the besiegers, he set in array the few men-at-arms he had, 
with the three priests who labored hard enough to relieve them of some- 
what of that dire dismay and terror which possessed all. On the 20th, 
with only 100 men, the governor fell Tipon the enemy, invoking the 
sweet name of Mary. He slew more than 300 of them, captured 43 
whom he promptly had shot [hizo arcabucear] in the plaza, took from 
them some arms and horses, and made them raise the seige and go out 
fleeing. Of ours, only five perished in all the time of the siege, but 
many were wounded ; and among them the governor with a [musket] 
ball in his chest and another wound on the forehead, though neither of 
the two was dangerous. At once, without detention, Otermin marched, 
with the three priests (who were the Fathers Fray Francisco Gomez de 
la Cadena, actual minister of the Town ; Fray Andres Durdn, guardian 
of the monstrance [casket in which the Host is kept] ; and Fray Fran- 
cisco Farfan), with the aforesaid people, retreating toward Kl Paso. At 
the halt at San [text, *^fray"] Cristobal, he overtook the lyt. Gen. 
Alonso Garcia, seven more priests, and the citizens of down the river. 
From here all went on to the halt of the Salineta [salt pond], where 
they made a plaza de armas [military square] . They were here a little 
time, until they proceeded to another halt which they named San Lo- 
renzo, in which they suffered great want, in spite of the fact that the 
Father Fray Francisco Ayeta, then Solicitor of the kingdom, gave them 
free rations [les franque6] in the name of His Majesty Carlos II, and 
caused to be issued to them daily ten horned cattle and ten fanegas of 
com. 

[to be continued.] 



Tjl<riV£.BSlT' 




We have too many cynics nowadays. There is enough to pro- '^°^ 
voke cynicism, no doubt — but, after all, it's a coward's refuge many 
from the ills we have and ought to mend. It is a fool's part cynics. 

not to see when things go wrong ; a cur's to let them go ; a man's and 
a woman's part to face them, understand them and fight them — hopeful 
always. When the world stops growing it will rot. When society 
stops growing it has rotted. And the world never did grow and never 
can grow in any other way than by its individual grains. It is not so 
smart or so good yet that it can rest, nor spoiled enough to be thrown 
away. There is nothing so bad it cannot be mended, and nothing so 
good it does not need bettering. And these things are "up to" you 
and me. 

Mr. Moody's appreciation on another page deals with the ^^^ 
miracle that is perhaps trite to some Californians but is eternal winter 

in its beauty. The wild flowers of a California *'winter" are so rainbow. 

heavenly a glory as never elsewhere beamed on this old earth. The 
original Garden of Eden had not their parallel, for the simple reason 
that it hadn't room, even if it could have had as many kinds of flowers 
— as of course it couldn't, for plain evolutionary reasons. 

There was doubtless never another land where a man could walk 400 
miles and trample a flower at every step — as John Muir records of the 
great central valley of California before it had been turned into such 
vast wheat fields as man had never even dreamed of before. We have 
no 400-mile flower carpet left : nothing but square leagues of winter 
bloom. There are plenty of Californians who used to know all the 
New England flowers, and campaign among them with the old Gray's 
Manual ; but no one ever saw in New England, at any season, any " 
flower in such mass, nor any such variety of flowers, as is common here 
in every normal winter. The "poppy " fields are of course most fa- 
mous, by their richness of Etruscan gold ; and one perfect day I saw their 
glow against the Sierra Madre from the deck of a Pacific Mail steamer, 
at least 30 miles away. But they are no lovelier and no more lavish 
than plenty of other flowers, in this land where Mother Nature is not 
stingy. And possibly the Nature that gives a new life and glory to the 
flower will have something to say in developing even so slow and stupid 
a plant as humanity ! 

Precisely how clear a title we have to call ourselves civilized '"^^^ shadow 
is just now being searched by the abstract office upon whose *^^ ^ 

report the Supreme Bench of Posterity will pass. Vandals crime. 

whose god is their belly are moving to cut down the Calaveras grove of 
Big Trees. If we permit them, we are as base as they. Savages, of 
course, are never such brutes. They take what wood they need to keep 
warm, and no more. It takes the camp-followers of civilization — the 
men who have grown up within reach of schools, churches and art — 
even to conceive of such a barbarity as turning this grove of the 
noblest trees in the world into boards, to be peddled at $17.50 per M. 

Now the Big Trees may be " on some one's land ; " but they belong 
to California. They belong to every man in the United States who has 



252 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

risen above the mind and conscience of a razorback porker. And if 
the men who " own " them are of the stuff to sell them for slaughter,* 
we ought to be of the stuff to stop it. There is some proper way to 
avert this crime. Government is simply a machine to work the will of 
the people — and there is enough machine to do the work. Mostly it is 
engaged in labor which could be deferred. It is time for Gov. Gage to 
wake up, for our legislators to wake up, for the people to wake up. 
The petty intrigues will keep till day after tomorrow ; but if the Cala- 
veras sequoias are cut down it will take 7000 years to replace them — and 
for 7000 years the California which let them be cut down would be a 
byword. If it is found the State hasn't legal strings to trip up these 
barbarians, then the State must go to the national government for re- 
dress — and with the impetus to get it. Senator Perkins and Senator 
Bard and our congressmen are good and useful representatives ; but in 
all their lives they will never have a chance to do work so enduring 
unto the ages as if they preserve these trees. The Lion believes in law. 
He has taken his rifle to help maintain it against ** mob justice." And 
he is sure there are enough laws in the United States to suppress crime. 
But if there are not, let us find out ; and meantime advise these public 
enemies who are infinitely more dangerous than a poor vulgar murderer, 
that if they go to chopping before we can get a law, some of the Cala- 
veras redwoods will dangle a new sort of cone. 

•^^^ In one important direction, at least — and perhaps in several — 

OUT OF ^ijg University of Texas is approving itself a good living force 

TEXAS. in Western scholarship. Under Dr. Geo. P. Garrison, the de- 
partment of history is doing a sort of work of which, to their reproach 
be it said, most of our bigger and richer universities are startlingly 
neglectful — and that is original research and publication in State and 
regional history. Dr. Garrison is not only an inspiration and a balance- 
wheel to his students, but a vital energy in the Texas State Historical 
Association and editor of its useful and honorable Quarterly. These are 
steps in the right direction, and should rouse larger universities to 
emulation at least. A chair of history nowadays, if it does not rally 
recruits to original local research and open the records, is rather a fossil 
inutility — particularly here in the West, where out of so long and so 
romantic a past'so little of the real material for exact history is even to- 
day accessible to the ordinary student. Our colleges, little and big, 
ought to be doing something for the publication of original "sources." 
It is rather a pity for a great State to be represented in so vital a line 
of modern scholarship only by what this little magazine is able to do 
at its proper cost. 

GETTING President Arthur Hadley, of Yale, a fine young impulse al- 

AT THE ready seriously felt in a fine old body, advises that we apply 

ROOT, i^^ social ** cut direct" to men who make money dishonestly. 
He argues, and very justly, that men will not be unscrupulous to get 
millions if the rest of us are scrupulous not to bow to the millions if 
they are dirty. The only reason why money may be dangerous is that 
we are rather inclined to be mighty polite to money, no matter whence 
it came. Trusts and millionaires are not so much to blame as a society 
ready to think their "means" justify their ends. 

Prest. Hadley has a good idea ; and good ideas are always worth 
tracking to their lair. It might, for instance, interest the forceful 
young President of Yale to read Margaret Sherwood's Henry Worthing- 
ton^ Idealist. It is only a novel ; but it applies his own political econ- 
omy several stages nearer home. Its suggestion, if even more chivalric 
than his, is also farther consistent. If colleges, libraries and other 
public utilities would refuse any endowment because the money was 
not quite clean, it would much more seriously jolt the conscience of 
money-getters than any individual snubbing. Imagine a magnate giv- 

*It is only jast to say that Mr. Sperry has long tried to have the grove bought for the 
public. 



IN THE LION'S DEN. «53 

ing Harvard a million dollars ; and Harvard pausing even a moment to 
enquire *' how was it made ?" Imagine Harvard investigating and 
maybe saying: " We feel obliged to decline this gift for the reason 
that it represents methods we do not wish our young men to follow." 
Fancy Harvard ! Or any other institution I But also fancy the million- 
aire thus snubbed ! Fancy the shock to ** society !" 

There is, of course, the other side. Practical persons may say, ** Yes, 
this money was ill-made, but now it can be well spent. Isn't that 
better than having it spent as shamefully as it was made ?" Well, that 
depends. It is no better spent than made if it is used to teach young 
men that if they can learn Greek they may forget scruples. But it is a 
long question and a wide one, and perhaps truth is somewhere in its 
middle. Maybe the colleges might compromise honorably; take the 
million and devote ten per cent, of it to a chair for teaching that noth- 
ing in the donor's money became him like the *' leaving" of it. 

Almost beyond comparison, the population of California is panic 
above that of any other State in average intelligence and among the 
morals. This is for the very simple evolutionary reason that RECRUITS, 

its people come by choice, not by chance. But their very newness car- 
ries some penalty. For instance, in the ease with which they panic 
about the weather. Where a man is born, he takes the law of gravita- 
tion for granted. He expects the grace of God to come out all right. He 
doesn't expect any country that could produce him to go to the dogs by 
way of the weather. 

But in a new country, where he isn't quite sure whether God rules or 
not, any departure from a hearsay program alarms him. If it doesn't 
rain on the day he has been told it ought to rain, he worries. It isn't very 
complimentary to his maker nor to his own intelligence — but perhaps it 
is human nature. 

Men and brethren, do not worry ! If California peters out, the rest of 
the continent will go too. There will be none left to mourn us. But 
we are not in any direct succession to be mourned. The very worst 
thing we have is a good many "tenderfeet" — and even they will digest. 

• ' While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand ; 
When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall, 
And when Rome falls — the world." 

A matter of fourteen years ago two young men of assorted -^^^ ^^ a 
sizes used to tramp the seared valleys of Southern Arizona to- hardwood 

gether, nominally to hunt, but perhaps, in fact, merely getting finish. 

joy of their legs. As unlike as possible in type, they agreed in tough- 
ness. One was a hickory sapling, and one a trunk of oak. The wiry, 
brown newspaper man had had an uncommon experience of tramping 
on rough frontiers, and has had more since ; but to this date he has never 
tried another man who could "keep him going" all day except this 
blonde Hercules of an army surgeon then new to the West ; medium- 
tall, square, very broad, with a grip like a grizzly, a torso like Atlas, 
and level eyes, and a jaw no child would fear and no sensible bully dis- 
regard. If for nothing else than the fellowship of men fit to be out of 
doors, a bond must have grown between the two out of a whole post 
who preferred to go out and master the desert rather than stale at poker 
in De Long's, what time all waited summons to the field. But there was 
something else ; for the young surgeon was as marked and as rare a type 
in man fulness, integrity and poise as in his extraordinary physical en- 
dowment. From either point of view, he was one man in forty or fifty 
thousand. 

It was in the last great Apache outbreak, just before splendid Lawton 
made that grey-wolf campaign which finally ran down Geronimo and 
promoted — Miles. The surgeon was Lawton's right hand ; his fellow 
tramp was to have been the left. But just in the waiting " the paper" 



254 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

needed him at home. It was reorganizing, it claimed its man, and it 
had his pledge. But he still keeps Lawton's telegrams urging him back 
to join the expedition in which a place was reserved for him. Unfor- 
tunately, he did not know, until too late, how much of a place. For 
his newspaper chief was too good a friend and too good a soldier to have 
held back a city editor from being lyawton's chief of scouts, had they 
known. 

Times have changed since then. I^awton — God rest him ! — is dead ; 
the foremost soldier in a war he did not as a man believe in. Geronimo 
teaches a Sunday school in Florida. A little frontier newspaper has 
grown to a giant, which would never miss a much better man than it 
once could not spare ; and its ** Colonel" is now a Major-General. And 
the young company surgeon on an Arizona post is picked up over 
the heads of an army to be Governor-General Ivconard Wood, of Cuba ; 
a model of what appointments should be and so seldom are. Would 
that our new subjects everywhere might never know a smaller type of 
American manhood ! 

'• THAT WERE Xhe passing of John Ruskin is after all rather a comfort than 

NOT BORN a shock to those who loved him — which means all who intelli- 

TO DIE." gently love Truth. It was his release from the shadow; for 
his own flame flickered out several years ago. Only a body was 
left to die. And the real Ruskin will never die, so long as there is left 
on earth a heart wherein the flower of immortality can find soil to grow. 
Timely — as the world always finds her greatest — he came at perhaps 
the psychologic moment when a prophet was most needed to arrest and 
shame the swift corruption of ideals by commercialism. The disease 
spreads still ; but its antidote is known. Even as vulgarity and philistin- 
ism were never so rampant as now, the People who Think are better- 
armed than ever to combat them. Probably no other man ever lived 
who did quite so much for Art — and Art does not mean the snippy 
•'shop "of degenerates, but man's conscience for the Beautiful and 
True. Ruskin was not infinite. He even made mistakes. But he was 
an inspiration and a light and a standard. No man can follow Ruskin 
and be cheap or venal or shallow or untrue. 

THOSE If it be absurd to ask people to use common sense every day, 

BRAVE it certainly is not too much to expect them to take it out of 

ouTi^ANDERS. their cedar-closet and air it once in a while. For they are in- 
clined to get angry if you suggest that maybe they haven't any, even in 
camphor. 

Now, the poor Uitlanders ! Think of those wicked Boers shame- 
fully ** downtrodding " the virtuous aliens, who "are two- 
thirds of the population " of the Transvaal and pay nine-tenths of the 
taxes — and even then cannot become citizens without becoming citizens! 
Think of it ! Think of Englishmen not being allowed to vote in the 
United States until they become naturalized ! Just — think. And while 
you are about it, think upon the arithmetic of your youth. 

The Uitlanders are two-thirds of the population of the Transvaal — so 
our British and Tory friends swear. Unless the multiplication table has 
changed its mind lately, that means that they outnumber the Boers two 
to one. And where are they now ? Read about any beleaguered garrison 
of Uitlanders, cooped upon some kopje, and heroically standing off" 
half their number of unwashed oppressors ? Noticed any roster of an 
Uitlander regiment cooperating with brave old "Bobs"? What has 
become of this "two-thirds of the population"? Have they all run 
away? 

Now, the Thirteen Colonies were two million when they won their 
liberty from England, which then had twelve million. We were not two 
to one but one to six. And as there are still some people in America 
with the blood of Lexington in their veins, it is a little too soon to ask 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 



255 



America to cry for the two-to-one adventurers who are still slaves — and 
so slavish that having whined others into fighting for their liberty they 
promptly disappear from view. There are 200,000 British soldiers in 
South Africa — which is an additional four to one. England has 39,000,- 
000 people ; and if the brave Uitlanders could be found with a micro- 
scope, the Boers would be outnumbered seventy to one. Really, the Uit- 
landers appeal to an American ! They are a manful lot. But that is un- 
just. The fact is simply that the politicians lie. A few hundred Uit- 
landers have run away and are Johnhayshammonding wherever they 
can find credulous ears. Some are doubtless trying to mind their own 
business. But the majority of the foreigners in the Transvaal are evi- 
dently neither curs nor shopkeepers. They are evidently helping the 
Boers stand oflf, and in magnificent fashion, not only the flower of the 
British army, but the whole vegetable garden. For England has sent 
against the South African farmers an army eight times as big as she 
needed to crush Napoleon, and nearly twice as big as she ever put in the 
field before. 



NOT HATS 
BUT 

HISTORY. 



The Lion would be last to hate England at all — not to say 
blindly. He doesn't. But he hates her policy, historic and 
unvarying, ever building new upon the same old lie that 
Might makes Right. His forefathers hated it, and so did yours — else 
there would be no United States today. The sole reason why we have a 
country of our own, instead of being a nice appendage to the British 
Empire is, that we believe empires are wrong. England had a more 
plausible right to coerce us than she has had in any war since our Revo- 
lution. We were her sons and her subjects, the country was hers, the 
money which had developed it was hers. India, the Transvaal and 
many other victims, never owed her allegiance at all. She takes them 
not because they are hers, but because she wants them. We took from 
her what was hers by every law the world knew ; for we declared to the 
world a new law — that there is no ownership in human liberties. The 
world, no matter how reluctantly, has felt the justice of the republic. 
England, herself, is tremendously republicanized. Why? Because 
freedom is catching; and her people saw us grow, and wrenched for 
themselves new and ever larger liberties from the unwilling fist of 
Divine Right. But because England is freer now than she was before a 
republic taught her what freedom is, it does not follow that she is more 
entitled to take away other people's freedom than she was when her 
king was a sodden brute and her laws whipped women at the cart's tail 
and hanged the starveling who stole a loaf of bread. She could give 
many countries *' better government " than they have ; but no country 
wants her good government since the United States has made such a 
tremendous success in getting along without it. 

The Ivion is glad to feel, and to say, that he believes President SCORE one 
McKinley's stand for free trade with Puerto Rico absolutely ^otr. the 

right, and all the more honorable because it makes an excep- president. 

tion to our party creed for the sake of humanity. Not only that ; if 
the opposite policy shall be adopted, we shall ruin and starve the Puerto 
Ricans. Their blood will be on our heads as surely as there was blood 
on Weyler's — for God never cares what language we speak, but what 
we do. The island is already in a pitiable condition because we have 
not understood its needs ; but if we raise the price of food to these 900,- 
000 simple natives by import taxes there and shut them from their only 
market by our own protective taxes, we shall starve far more than even 
Weyler starved. And the Lion hopes President McKinley will carry 
this point. It will not seriously pinch Americans, and it will save the 
lives we have assumed responsibility for. 

The trouble is that no one foresaw this logical trouble before — though 
it was inevitable from the first. If we are going to make people free by 



^ LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

taking away their independence, we must at least give them our own 
sort of liberty in return. We cannot make them accept this country as 
' their country, and then forbid them to travel where they like in it, and 

to trade freely with it. I say "must" and ''cannot" for the simple 
reason that the United States must not and cannot be a liar and a ty- 
rant. Does anyone care to dispute that ? Now, Hawaii, Cuba and the 
Philippines come under the same moral law as Puerto Rico. We have 
taken them ; if we keep them we must treat them justly. We cannot 
and dare not be more wicked and more stupid even than Spain, whose 
colonial history is a solemn warning. But unless we oppress these 
islands and starve them by taxation, and keep them under the fist of 
the United States but not under its Constitution, why, we must ruin our 
own laborers and producers — our California fruit-growers, sugar-grow- 
ers, laborers, among others. Free trade and unrestricted immigration 
between us and the islands will ruin our backbone class ; the other 
thing will ruin the ten million poor devils we have forced to accept 
" liberty " at our hands. 

It isn't so simple to play empire after all. A plain republic, which 
the noblest Constitution on earth is big enough to cover, is safer and 
better. And it is now confessed, of course, by the Administration, that 
the Constitution isn't big enough to cover the Islands. 

►«.u*OBD Capt. Alfred T. Mahan is a justly famous writer on sea power. 

AND Perhaps too famous for his own good. The hen which broods 

SHANGHAISD. ^oo long on one nest rises with uncertain gait and a vacant 
eye for everything but her glass eggs. Sky and earth and air are mere 
background for the brood she never wearies of counting beforehand. 
And something of this at times marks human incubators of a theory. 
Capt. Mahan, rising from obscurity to fame by a fine commentary upon 
the use of ships and guns when we need them, has worked himself 
into the conviction that we need guns and ships all the time, and 
nothing else — except, of course, a Captain Mahan to direct them. This 
tendency, indeed, is in human nature as much as in hen nature. It is a 
tremendous temptation for men of war to forget that their " chance" is 
after all their country's misfortune. The well balanced natures resist. 
Grant and Sherman were not the worst soldiers we have had ; but they 
detested war. Capt. Mahan, it is hardly necessary to remark, is not of 
their stature — except that he can write much better than either. But 
there are indications that while the rest of his mental crew is drilling 
overtime his common-sense has gone ashore and got shanghaied. Cer- 
tainly Capt. Mahan would never have been heard of unless he had 
started with more brains than he is using on the present dog-watch. 
"The United States," he says in the religious Independent y " holds the 
Philippines by the unimpeachable title of successful war, confirmed by 
treaty with the previous unimpeached possessor." Verily > to stultify 
oneself thrice in twenty-two words is turning in narrow sea-room. The 
"unimpeachable title of successful war," eh? Then if England had 
whipped us iA ^776 the Declaration of Independence would have been a 
lie, would it? Morals, liberty, equity — they have nothing to do 
with title in Capt. Mahan's idea of a republic? Physically 
it would be a mere walk-over for me to knock Capt. Mahan down, 
throttle him, and relieve him of his hat, watch and loose change. And 
doubtless he would be consistent enough to agree that I thereby ac- 
quired an "unimpeachable title" to that plunder. But the courts 
wouldn't confirm my title, and neither would the conscience of people 
with common sense. 

"Previous unimpeached possessor," eh? The Filipinos had already 
impeached Spain's title by war successful enough to shut the Spanish 
up in one walled town. And the United States impeached Spain's title 
by going to war with her. We made war on the ground that she had no 



IN THE LION'S DEN. «57 

legitimate title to any colony held by force. She was an oppressor and 
a robber. Now in this matter of title, either Capt. Mahan tells a false- 
hood or the United States did— since both have intelligence enough to 
be responsible for what they say. I do not think the nation lied. 

Perhaps Capt. Mahan should consort with the marines while his 
skull-power rests. At present he rather suggests, with his appetite for 
armaments and a chance to use them, the boy who wished: **Ma! If 
the Pacific was only made of custard-pie and I was throwed into the 
middle of it and had to eat my way ashore !" 

There must be Americans still in whom "Yankee inquisitive- what 
ness" is not altogether dead ; and anyone in whom it is not ^^^ ^"^ 

dead as a nail must often wonder how so many Filipinos come ikwn* r 

to get killed and so few Americans. "Marksmanship" won't do 
altogether. Boys with guns would make more mortality among invaders. 
The answer now and then leaks out, in spite of the censorship. ** The 
troops killed 75 natives, eleven of whom had rifles. The others were 
villagers armed with wooden swords. . . . Several fleeing non-com- 
batants were killed, including three women." This is not a "copper- 
head" document. It is an Associated Press report, passed by the ad- 
ministration censor at Manila, Feb 5. Now in the name of God — is 
there an American that does not feel that ? 

What makes " fitness for self-government ? " Getting it per- ^^ 
feet ? Then we are not fit. Rome at its rottenest, Russia at its *^^^ ^^""^ 
most despotic, never beat our Alger beef or the Montana sena- RXJI»«. 

torship, nor ever rivaled our "nigger-barbecues" down South. But a 
despot, though he would do our politics better, would do us worse. We 
are fit for self-government because we desire it and would fight for it. 
That was the enablement of our forefathers who did fight for it — though 
as a matter of fact their self-government for many years was about as 
bickering, jealous and insecure a status as history records. Revolution ? 
Well, what was our Rebellion? Assassination? How did Lincoln and 
Garfield die ? Corruption ? What does Senator Clark pay for his seat ? 
Security? What about Homestead and Pullman strikes, what about 
Georgia children brought to see a man burned at the stake, what 
about murder and martial law at Frankfort? No, friends, we must 
admit that fitness for self-government means — as the Declaration of In- 
dependence and the Constitution of the United States say it means — the 
birthright of all men who demand it. If we make a test by absolute 
success, we shut ourselves out. The man who will fight for freedom is 
fit for it — fitter than some of us are who dare not fight even a politician's 
jeers. Our colonial grandfathers were fit for it because they fought for 
if — and even they never stood up armed only with "bows and arrows and 
wooden swords." 

There were three saloons in Manila when our army entered it. ^^'^ 
There are over 400 saloons in Manila today. A firm of Mil- ^* 

waukee brewers proudly advertises that it has sent 219 carloads THurr. 

of beer to Manila in one shipment. This is certainly progress for 14 
months. But not popular progress. Manila has been under martial 
law every day of that time. It is absolutely and exclusively for the 
Commander-in-chief of the army of the United States to say whether 
there shall be one saloon in Manila, or 400 — or none. And, by the way, 
on whom do the 400 saloons now in Manila make their living ? Has 
native thirst increased more than one hundred-fold in a year? If so, 
who taught them ? And if the new-comers who brought the saloons are 
their chief patrons, isn't it time for some one to look out a little bettor 
for American soldiers ? 



258 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

SAm'l Commercial-traveler Beveridge has made a flat failure of his 

o^ trip for the *' House" whose samples he carries. He was too 

POSKN. sordid a Sam'l of Posen to be stomached even by men pretty 
well seasoned to drummer politics. In the very Senate he was instantly 
and mercilessly rebuked, not by partisans but by Senators from the op- 
posing wings of his own party, for his shamelessly mercenary estimate 
of American character. 

The impudence of such a person in accusing his elders and betters of 
contributory murder ; of ** cheering the Filipinos on to shoot down 
American soldiers," and of having the blood of the war on their hands, 
would be miraculous elsewhere — but not in Mr. Beveridge. He has 
shown us precisely what to expect of him. 

No Anti-Imperialist has any blood on his hands. There is not an 
Anti-Imperialist alive who does not care more for the life of each Amer- 
ican soldier than Mr. Beveridge or his sort care for all their lives. 
There is nothing in the Philippines any Anti-Imperialist would trade one 
American soldier's life for — but there's something there that the Ad- 
ministration will pay as many soldiers for as may be the *' asking- 
price." The only people who are "cheering Filipinos to shoot down 
our men" are those who keep our men where Filipinos can shoot them 
down, and can't well help trying to shoot them down. For it was not 
the *' Antis" but the God of the Antis who put in every ignorant human 
heart — aye, and in every brute beast's heart — a rude tendency to fight for 
its lair and its young. A badger would certainly be better fed, better 
lodged, better " civilized" in Herr Hagerman's menagerie ; but he 
doesn't care to be. Who is to blame that a man whom Hagerman sends 
into the den gets bitten ? The badger ? No — for he is as God made him . 
The bystander who says, "Oh, let the poor brute run"? Or Hager- 
man, who sends a beast-catcher, who has no power to disobey when 
sent? 

As for the equally sapient charge that the Anti-Imperial sentiment 
keeps the war alive — well, the Anti-Imperial sentiment kept alive a 
little war which began in 1776. The Anti-Slavery sentiment kept alive 
the casual unpleasantness which befell in 1861. But, quickly as things 
move now, it will be at least 1901 before even the Beveridges will tell 
us that the blood of our heroes was on the hands of Washington and 
•Lincoln, and the sentimentalists they stood for and led. Meantime, 
we shall go on thinking that the guilt of blood lay on just the other 
hands. 

POi^iTics /^n anonymous subscriber writes to ask why this den 

AND "must meddle with politics." Dear heart, reveal yourself, 

PATRIOTISM, and accept the gift of a dictionary ! This magazine, since the 
day it was born, has never printed one line of politics. Until it gets 
into better hands it never will. The Lion is a Republican — too much a 
Republican to be a traitor to Lincoln. His country comes before his 
party ; and his party is nothing unless it serves his country. Politics 
are partisan ; patriotism is merely American. 

'^^^ The statement in " One of the Old Guard" (this magazine 

ROLiv OF for January) that the Los Angeles Timas was the " only daily 

HONOR. Qfl the Coast which ' stood fast, stood firm, stood true' for law 
and order," should have been qualified as to the size, effectiveness and 
fierceness of that standing. The Alameda Argus, the Pasadena S^ar and 
the Bakersfield Calif omian (then by Geo. F. Weeks, now editor of the 
Alameda Encinat) wish it to be remembered that they also stood up. 
They are entitled to be on that short roll of honor ; and the people have 
a right to remember those that were true to their trust. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 



259 




THAT 




WHICH IS 



Some seventeen years or so ago, 
this serious person (then seriously- 
engaged in jesting) adapted an old proverb 
to the youngest of humorous papers. The p'int 
was in the application on't. He received current 
rates (namely, four bits) for the one insertion. For some 800 insertions 
since (for after doing duty amidships the motto was directly run up to 
the masthead and kept there) he has been paid an enormous royalty — 
in satisfaction. Satisfaction, not because every week since has proved 
him a true prophet, but because the prophecy was true — which is dif- 
ferent. The six words were simply : 

** While there is Life there's Hope:' 

The point ? Look at the top of the second page of the brightest and 
truest humorous paper in the world. 

Life is " only a funny paper" — and only the funniest. All have 
characteristics —this one has character. This is "funny," too. But 
Life is never funny enough to forget manhood and citizenship ; never 
funny enough to hold its breath lest it scare a dollar that might fly its 
way if it were very still ; nor to think that by being witty one is ab- 
solved from being an American. And what was true seventeen years 
ago is truer still today. For if there were not a good many of this sort 
of Americans, the highest-class thoroughbred of all our humorous 
papers would not be also the *' best- paying." It is a visible token of 
our health. We may pimple a Beveridge now and then, we may fall 
into a state of coma by wards and townships, and dream that somebody 
is so good that every, other conscience can knock off" work. But we are 
not going to be altogether lost so long as there are enough Americans of 
the type to support such a p»per. While there's Life there's hope — let 
us even hope to bring the Dead to Life. 

A large, dignified, and seemly volume of Moods and other RHYMB 
Verses bespeaks alike the industry and the culture of Dr. Bd- ^-^^ 

ward Robeson Taylor (San Francisco), the indefatigable trans- reason. 

lator of H^redia. Here are more than 175 poems, in a long variety of 
themes, some of local inspir^ition, but more of pure literature ; with all 
the handicraft of a confirmed and earnest bookman, and showing in 
many ways how useful a training is severe translation. There is not 
much of the savor of humor, and melody seems rather by technique 
than instinctive, and inspiration shows less than careful workmanship. 
But Dr. Taylor's taste is trained, his affectio» real, his thought sound ; 
and the volume is a credit to him — as such a volume, inside and out, is a 
credit to the Coast. Elder & Shepard, San Francisco. $1.25. 

Margaret Sherwood has a quietly generous revenge on the ^^ "^^ 
reviewer who rather staved off the reading of her Henry Worth- CIvEan 

ington. Idealist y because it looked a task. For when he did pick MONEY. 

it up, it took hold, and with an unusual grip. Purpose novels are 
generally hateful, and this is a purpose novel most decidedly. But it is 
not hateful, nor impossible, nor depressing. Miss Sherwood's fine work 
was never done to better advantage ; she makes the vital success — for 



26o LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

her *' purpose" is not a lump in the throat of the book, but the motive 
power of the human beings in the book. This delicate distinction is 
the difference between preaching and art. One may not agree with 
the hero ; and the large class which will officially and off-hand disagree 
with him is drawn in the book with a serene and unbitter clearness. 
There is nothing to antagonize the smaller class who will disagree with- 
out being living mediocrities — in fact there is every temptation to them 
to admire this young knight. The question of the book is "clean 
money;" and whatever our convenience may reconcile us to, it would be 
hard to deny that the hero has raiher the ethics of the case. In any 
event it is a thoroughly good story to read ; with some little weaknesses 
but an uncommon average of strength, poise and sympathy. The Mac- 
millan Co., New York. Payot, Upham & Co., San Francisco. $1.50. 

WHEN A. simple, straightforward and winning romance of the Kansas 

KANSAS Border Wars is Wm. R. Ivighton's Sons of Strength. With 

Bt,ED. rather Quakerly tendency the story follows the little foundling 
from his abandonment by the emigrant wagon up to young manhood 
and love, and the dramatic finding, for better or worse, of the mother 
who had deserted him for his good, and a good figure of a brother. As 
a picture of the Free-Soiler struggle it barely whets our appetite ; John 
Brown enters only to go out again a trifle inadequately ; but as a sym- 
pathetic human story it is attractive and promising. The Doubleday & 
McClure Co., New York. C. C. Parker, I^os Angeles. $1.25. 

A NURSERY Another useful volume in the useful series of ** National 

OF AMERICAN Studics in American Letters" is Brook Farm, by Lindsay 
LETTERS. Swift. The real nature and balance of this most extraordinary 
experiment in idealism ; what its aims were and how they failed, what 
its influence was upon that transcendental group of its members and 
associates of whom so many stand high in our literature — these things, 
and in fact about all that really is known of value concerning the sub- 
ject, Mr. Swift sets forth clearly, with dignity, and a good deal of skill. 
The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth avenue. New York. $1.25. 

** JUST Walter S- Phillips knows how to tell an outdoor story, even if 

ABOUT lie errs in spelling his pen name, *'E1 Comanche'," and insists 

A BOY." on saddling "bronco" with an impossible h — two things no 
Westerner who writes should ever be guilty of. But hunting and fish- 
ing and general outdoor fulness he can spell very handily ; and his 
pretty book, Just About a Boy — and his and the boy's drifting and 
tramping adventures and content — is pleasant reading. H. S. Stone & 
Co., Chicago. $1.25. 

" RELIGION " A. review here always means a book read through; wherefore 

ON ITS Mr. Frank Crane's The Religion of Tomorrow is hereby noticed 

HEAD, but not reviewed. Life is short, and the religion of yesterday 
as much as a busy man can honestly apply. For those who for any 
reason have more leisure and less respect for words the book may be in- 
teresting. The first fifty pages, at least, are well written and earnest ; 
but I should be sorry to need to read more than fifty pages of a book 
founded wholly on the proposition that " Religion is the personal influ- 
ence of God." Without troubling as to what tailor's measuring-stool 
Mr. Crane climbed withal to discover that God is a "person," it is 
enough that he takes the dictionary otherwise in vain. It will not be 
religious, even tomorrow, to murder the parts of speech. All persons 
know, who use what endowment the Impersonal gave them, that religion 
is just the other thing. It is man's personal attitude toward his divin- 
ity, whatever that may be. This is the reason there are many kinds of 
religion — including "true" and "false." Now, God didn't make the 
English language ; but He doubtless has His opinion of those who 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. 261 

falsify it in His name. And I have a vague recollection of a biblical 
remark to the effect that '* This man's religion deceiveth his own heart." 
H. S. Stone & Co. , Chicago. $1 .50. 

It is economically certain that Mr. Bram Stoker is a sober SUPPED 
man. Drunkenness would have no charms, nor delirium any FUI^I, with 

news, for a person of his imagination. His novel, Dracula^ is horrors. 

a most surprising affair — and not its least surprise is that of finding 
yourself clutched and dragged along by so grisly an impossibility. Mr. 
Stoker has a steady and rather adroit hand to steer and display the paces 
of his hasheesh fancy ; and though the story never convinces, it never 
loosens its peculiar grip on the reader. " Dracula" is a human vampire 
— literal vampire of the folkmyths — and with this repellant motifs the 
author has spun a web of horrors I do not remember the mate to. Per- 
force, all turns out well in the end ; else one would have every right to 
resent so persistent racking of whatever nerves one may have. Double- 
day & McClure Co., New York. C. C. Parker, lyos Angeles. $1.50. 

Stephen Bonsall, a newspaper correspondent who became ^ 
heard of in the Cuban war, has made a sober-looking book masked 
(thanks, doubtless, to sober publishers) of a rather ingenious battery. 

hash which he calls The Golden Horseshoe. It is in the form of a puta- 
tive correspondence between two U. S. officers engaged in the present 
war "for liberty," and desires to show the conversion of an anti-Imperi- 
alist by the good old argument that there's more money in Imperialism. 
Mr. Bonsall's evangelizing will convince the deacons but not convert 
anyone. The Macmillan Co., New York. $1.50 

It is a good deal of comfort at a certain stage to be able to ^^"^ 
write Songs of Love. The verses in Mr. Adcliffe Teske's slim ^o 

volumette of this title must have consoled the lover and the there are. 

lady, and they are not liable to disturb the rest of us, being rather 
platonic than incendiary. Nor does the singer fail to slip in now and 
then a message which we drier ancients may cherish when eyebrows 
fail to stir us : 

" There are letters as dull as a donkey, 
And letters as prim as a prude ; 
There are letters saucy and spunky, 
And letters as soft as a dude. 

" But of all written letters the sweetest, 
Full of pledges and passionate sighs ; 
The letters of youth are completest. 
With their taffy and nonsense and lies." 

Which nobody can deny. But it took Mr. Teske to think of it and bind 
it in cloth. The author, Hartford, Conn. 

Charles Battell Loomis has been for years a steadfast purveyor ^ REIvIAble 
of humor to the risible papers ; best known, perhaps, to read- brand 

ers of Puck, but breaking out frequently in all sorts of places ^^ fun. 

— even unto the Century and the Critic. One of his charms is his de- 
pendableness. He will undertake a joke when all other undertakers 
fail ; and it must be said that he composes them decently. The Four- 
Masted Catboat\%\i\^ latest book — just late enough. It is well illus- 
trated by Florence Scovel Shinn ; and still better by the author. It 
really shows Mr. Loomis at his best ; and his best is a comfortable pro- 
fessional humor, not too startling, not too forced, but homely and wel- 
come. The Century Co., New York. |1.25. 

Frank C. Riehl, to whom Indians and the muse alike have SOME 
charms, considerably commingles the twain in two pretty STUFFED 
volumes of verse — Poems of the Piasa an^ Runes of the Red INDIANS. 

Race. Mr. Riehl's aborigines are rather Fenimore Coopery — which is 



262 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

to say that they are Noble Red Cigar-Signs — and his "lege»nds" are 
newspaper legends, not real ones. Of the real Indian, who is human, 
and noble and romantic enough, but an Indian and not a stuflfed angel, 
there is no glimpse. Mr. Riehl's verse is reasonable and his sympathy 
real ; and if he will apply both to the actual humanities he will gain in 
weight. Published for the author, Alton, 111. 

ThoughTFUI, James Douglas, I/L.D., President of the American Institute of 
LEAVES. ^^^i°g Engineers, reprints two compact and competent 
"separates " of recent papers by him. One is on the "Tech- 
nical Progress of the Nineteenth Century ; " the other, still more in- 
teresting, on "American Transcontinental Lines." This is a conven- 
ient digest of large facts ; perhaps particularly commendable for its ju- 
dicial view of the early exploration of this continent. The stolidity of 
the Anglo-Saxon — " enterprising but not adventurous," as Mr. Douglas 
justly says — as to the intellectual appeal of new lands is here admitted 
in a sketch which is worth writing several papers for. " It seems abso- 
lutely incredible that a community of England's hardiest and most in- 
telligent sons should have been content to remain for two centuries 
hemmed in between the sea and the AUeghenies, uninspired by the 
slightest curiosity to know what filled the gap of 3000 miles between 
their home and the western sea." But it is true. And meantime, as 
Mr. Douglas roughly sketches, the Latin races had discovered, con- 
quered and largely colonized a majority of North and South America, If 
this seems disproportionate space in these crowded pages for notice of a 
slender pamphlet, it is entitled by the breadth of Mr. Douglas's view. 
He should, however, expunge the threadbare folly that the Spaniards 
came here "with the sword in one hand and the cross in the other" That 
has long ceased to be history. Nor is it exactly critical to make a race 
contrast of the fact that the Spanish in 1540 made "only trails," and 
that we nowadays make railroads. 99 John street. New York. 

AT THE ]y[j.. Geo. H. Pepper, of the American Museum of Natural His- 

PRETTY ^^ tory. Central Park, New York, and director of the Hyde Expe- 
PUEBi^o. dition to New Mexico, reprints in a "separate" from Monu- 
mental Records his modest and workmanlike paper on " Ceremonial De- 
posits Found in an Ancient Pueblo Estufa in New Mexico " by that ex- 
pedition. The ruin in question is the famous one well named Pueblo 
Bonito ; and Mr. Pepper's own photographs, which illustrate the paper, 
give a graphic hint of the mystery and beauty of that immemorial 
walled city. They are pictures made with scientific insight, and, as 
well, are really of extraordinary artistic charm. 

STORIES Little Jim Crow is an attractive collection of eleven stories 

FOR GIRI,S. for girls by Clara Morris, author of A Silent Singer. The 
stories are all of tender feeling, a bright if rather conscious humor, and 
a good deal of the art of telling. There will be many girls to like 
" My Mr. Edwards," and " Theophilus" and other heroes of the book. 
The Century Co., 33 East Seventeeth street, New York. $1.25. 

Emmet Densmore, M. D., publishes a volume of nearly 200 pages on 
Consumption and Chronic Diseases. His * ' cure ' ' harks back to nature, 
and the " open air treatment." Undoubtedly Nature is the best doctor, 
if she have a chance. But most people treat her very much as they do 
a doctor — call her in and then muddle her prescriptions with someone's 
else nostrums. Stillman Pub. Co., 15 Sterling Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. %\. 

The Nevada Magazine^ edited by C. D. Van Duzer, is making a fair 
fight for " the best interests of the State of Nevada." That is up hill, 
of course, but up hill is the way to go. The " Sagebrush State " has a 
good many loyal hearts and some good heads, and reasons for both ; 
and every reasonable Westerner will wish well to the plucky State 
and the plucky magazine. Winnemucca, Nev. $1.50 a year. 

Chas. F. I/UMMIS. 




oooooooooooooe o o»ooeooeooooeoB o ooooooo o o uooooooo o oooooo 

HElANDWE[OVE 



AND HINTS Of WH/. 





C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



WHERE BOTH GROW. 



Photo by Townsend. 



(^ The Southern California Fig 
Company. 

WHAT IT IS, WHAT IT HAS DONE, AND WHAT IT PROPOSES 

TO DO. 

II. 

|0R the benefit of any readers of this article 
who failed to see its predecessor in last 
month's I^and of Sdnshine, certain general 
facts may be here repeated. The Southern California 
Fig Company is composed of men of honorable and 
successful business records, in- 
cluding some who have given 
special attention to raising and 
marketing fruit. Organized to 
cure and pack figs and to manu- 
facture fig products, it had before 
it at the outset two main prob- 
lems — first, to discover the best 
processes for treating the fruit ; 
second, to arrange for a regular 
supply of figs of the first quality 
suflScient to meet the requirements 
of the large factory which they 
propose to establish. 

The first of these problems de- 
mands no more of our attention at 
present than the bare statement 
that it has been satisfactorily solved, after elaborate and prolonged ex- 
perimenting. The Southern California Fig Company now controls 
processes for curing and packing figs, and for working them up into a 
variety of commercial products that will place the output of its factories 
at least on an equal footing in the markets with any fig products in the 
world. 

As a preliminary to the solution of the second problem named, it was 
essential first to ascertain just what conditions are necessary to bring 
the fig to the highest degree of perfection. This was necessary because, 
although figs are grown to some extent in Morocco, Palestine, Syria, 
India, Southern France, Italy, Spain, the West Indies, and a few sec- 
tions of the United States, yet practically the entire commercial fig sup- 
ply come from a limited district of Smyrna, in Turkey. Even there the 
choice fig district is confined to a small area distant from 40 to 100 miles 
from the coast, at an altitude of about 500 feet above sea-level, with a 
sunny exposure, and not requiring irrigation. Taking into considera- 
tion these facts, in connection with various more or less successful fig- 
plantings in this State, it appears that certain conditions are absolutely 
essential to the successful production of figs in California. 

These conditions the Southern California Fig Company have found 




LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

nowhere else so perfectly combined as in a limited tract of land in the 
western part of the San Bernardino valley. Here, at a distance of from 
50 to 60 miles from the Pacific Ocean, at an altitude from 900 to 1100 
feet above the sea, on the sunny southerly slope of the Sierra Madre 
range, they have found natural conditions so favorable to the fig that 
they believe this limited district may fairly be called "the Smyrna of 
California." 

The surface soil averages at least twenty feet in depth. It is the pro- 
duct of the slowly crumbling mountain-slopes mingled with decom- 
posed vegetable matter, hence it is largely composed of disintegrated 
granite mixed with the richest of natural fertilizers. This makes the 
addition of commercial fertilizers entirely unnecessary. The supply of 
plant food already contained in the land is inexhaustible, so far, at least, 
as the present generation is concerned. 

It is never necessary to resort to summer irrigation here. This is 




FIGS GROWN, CURKD AND PACKED IN THE " SMYRNA 0F"CAI.IE0RNIA.' 



amply proved by the flourishing orchards in this vicinity which are 
never irrigated, even in the driest season. This is partly due to the 
natural underground drainage from the near-by mountains which pro- 
vides a continual supply of moisture within reach of the tree-roots, and 
partly to the loose, friable character of the soil which renders evapora- 
tion very slow at only a trifling distance from the surface of the ground. 

The winter climate is mild and delightful. Neither cold winds nor 
heavy frosts are to be reckoned with. The heat of the summer is dry, 
humidity never rising to a point which means suffering for mankind or 
injury to tree or fruit. 

This combination of climate, soil and natural moisture is of untold 
value to the fig-grower, assuring him of a certain crop each year of the 
finest quality of fruit. 

That this is the true home of the fig in California is proved by the 
fact that fig trees here have borne fruit for upward of ten years with- 
out a crop failure, as well as by the recent report from the U. S. Consul 
at Smyrna " that a box of figs grown and packed in the fig belt of Cali- 
fornia reached his country last autumn, and was inspected and univers- 
ally praised by many dealers. In some instances it was impossible to 



THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FIG COMPANY. 

persuade the parties that the said figs were grown outside of the 'Aidin' 
district (the choicest fig section of Smyrna), in fact some went so far as 
to designate the orchard. Those who grasped the full importance of 
this American enterprise predicted that Turkey's supremacy in the fig 
trade was waning." 

Having satisfied itself of these facts, the Southern California Fig 
Company gained control of the larger part of these choice fig lands, 
and now offers them in ten or twenty-acre tracts to persons seeking 
either gilt-edged investments or a self-supporting home in the most 
livable place in the world (all things considered), at prices and on terms 
which put them within the reach of those of very moderate means. 
They further propose to care for and cultivate each tract without further 
cost to the purchaser for the term of three years, when the trees should 
be in profitable bearing. Beyond that time cost of cultivation should 




AVENUE IN THE "SMYRNA OF CALIFORNIA." 

not exceed $25 per acre ; indeed the company will take contract to do 
the work for that price when desired. They will fu