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'A M ( i 





The Nation Back of Us, The World in Front. 

Out West 

A Magazine of 

The Old Pacific and the New 



Ctias. F\ Ivummis 

Staff — David Starr Jordan, Joaquin Miller, Theodore H. Hittell, Mary Hallock Foote, Margaret 

Collier Graham, Charles Warren Stoddard, Grace Ellery Channing, Ina Coolbrith, William 

Keith, Dr. Washington Matthews, Geo. Parker Winship, Frederick Webb Hodge 

Charles F. Holder, Edwin Markham, Geo. Hamlin Fitch, Chas. Howard Shinn, 

Wm. E. Smythe, T. S. Van Dyke, Chas. A. Keeler, Louise M. Keeler 

A. F. Harmer, L. Maynard Dixon, Charlotte Perkins Stetson 

Constance Goddard Du Bois, Batterman Lindsay, Charles 

Dwight Willard, Elizabeth and Joseph Grinnell, 

Frederick Starr, Sharlot M. Hall. 

Volume XVIII 
January to June, 1903 

Out Wbst Company 

Los Angeles, Cal. 


v. 19 


Copyright, 1903 


Out West Comi-a n y 

The Nation Back of Us, The World in Front. 

Out West 

A Magazine of 

The Old Pacific and the New 



Ctias. F\ Lummis 

Staff — David Starr Jordan, Joaquin Miller, Theodore H. Hittell, Mary Hallock Foote, Margaret 

Collier Graham, Charles Warren Stoddard, Grace Ellery Channing, Ina Coolbrith, William 

Keith, Dr. Washington Matthews, Geo. Parker Winship, Frederick Webb Hodge, 

Charles F. Holder, Edwin Markham, Geo. Hamlin Fitch, Chas. Howard Shinn, 

Wm. E. Smythe, T. S. Van Dyke, Chas. A. Keeler, Louise M. Keeler, 

A. F. Harmer, L. Maynard Dixon, Charlotte Perkins Stetson 

Gilman, Constance Goddard Du Bois, Batterman Lindsay, 

Charles Dwight Willard, Elizabeth and Joseph 

Grinnell, Frederick Starr, Sharlot M. Hall, 

Ella Higginson. 

Volume XIX 
July to December, 1903 

Out West Company 

Los Angeles, Ca*.. 




At La Paz (story). Abby L. Waterman 281 

Bean-Harvest Time, In (story), Anita de Laguna 191 

Bees, A Morning with the, illustrated, Elizabeth Grinnell 597 

Being an American (a study in pedigree), Frank Robbins 199 

Bidwell, Gen. John (biographical study), illustrated, Will S. Green 625 

Blunderer's Mark, The (story), Eugene Manlove Rhodes 514 

Bullying the Quaker Indians, illustrated, Charles F. Lummis (see also 

Sequoya League) 43, 171 

Burton, Chas. E. (the investigation into his conduct as Superintendent 

on the Moqui Reservation) illustrated, 43, 171, 207, 296, 419 

Butterfly Collecting with a Camera, illustrated, Wm. S. Rice 617 

California Constructive League 105, 233, 339, 450, 564, 699 

California Lake Country, The, illustrated, F. de Laguna 262 

California Missions, illustrated (see also Landmarks Club) 5, 3£8 

California, My First Trip To, Ruth Everett 406 

Camino Real, The. ' 670 

Campmeeting in California, The Passing of the (historical study), by 

Leela B. Davis 655 

Canon Diablo, In (story), Idah Meacham Strobridge 65 

Childe Harold (comic illustrated verse ) 71 

Chinook, The, Louisa A. Nash 409 

Cinda Rilla and the Prince (story), Abby L. Waterman 187 

Coral Strand, Upon a, Charles Keeler, illustrated by Louise M. 

Keeler 491, 635 

Cyclone, The, Henry Wallace Phillips 286 

Daughters of Ah Sum, The (story) 658 

Defence of the Minotaur, A (art discussion ), Austin Lewes 

Early English Voyages to the Pacific Coast of America, Woodes 

Rogers 203, 311. 412. S27 

Exiles of Cupa, The, illustrated, Grant Wallace 

Fishes of California, illustrated, Cloudsley Rutter 369 

Ford of Crevecoeur, The (story), Mary Austin . 389 

Garden Homes, illustrated, Grace Ellery Channing 

Giant Forest, In the, frontispiece 23$ 

Grazing Problems in the Western States, Earley Vernon Wilcox.. . 444 

Grazing Problems, A Solution of, W. M. Wooldridge SS6 

Growth of Los Angeles, The (statistics) 

Homekeeping in California, E. C. Tompkins 81 

Hop-picking in the Pleasanton Valley, illustrated, Ottilia Willi 

Horoscope, The (story), Sui Sin Far 

" Houses To Live Outdoors In," illustrated, Grace Ellery Channing 605 

Keeping of the Virgin, In the (story), by Luella Green Harton 

Lady of the Galleon, The (serial story), Louise Herrick Wall 73, 176 

Lake Country, The California. .1, F. de Laguna 

Landmarks Club. The (To conserve the Old Missions and other historic 

landmarks of California^, illustrated 109, 310, 418, 531 

Last Eviction, The (of the San Felipe Indians), illustrated 485 

INDEX iii 


Lion's Den, In the (by the editor) 85, 210, 315, 424, 536,673 

Literary Experience in New Spain, A, I. J. Cox 525 

Los Angeles, The Growth of (statistics) 534 

Lost Mine of Fisherman's Peak, The, Mary Austin 501 

Lumber, From Tree to Finished, illustrated, Frank Haynes Lamb 343 

Memories of the Sierras (poem), Lillian Shuey 128 

Meeting- of Extremes (Rome and Los Angeles), illustrated, Grace 

Ellery Channing 239 

Minotaur, A Defence of the (art-discussion), Austin Lewes 510 

Missions, The Old, illustrated (see also Landmarks Club) 5, 388 

Mist (poem), Nora May French 395 

Monterey (poem), Jeannette Campbell 499 

Moqui Indians (the inquiry into their treatment) illustrated 

43, 171, 207, 296, 419 

Moqui Investigation, Report of Sequoya League's Representative 303 

My Friend Chano (story), W. B. Sawyer, M.D 396 

New Spain, A Literary Experience in, I. J. Cox 525 

Old English Play in California, An (account of reproduction of an 

Elizabethan play at Stanford University), illustrated, Raymond 

Macdonald Alden 164 

Orchids, illustrated, L. Clare Davis 251 

Papeete Beach, On, Charles Keeler, illustrated by Louise M. Keeler 269 

Parting Year, The (poem), by Clara L. Mason 644 

Passing of a Man, The (biographical study of Irving M. Scott), illus- 
trated, Chas. F. Lummis 57 

Passion of a Storm, The, Henry Theodore Fisher 83 

Peixotto and his Work, illustrated, Peter Robertson 133 

Proceedings of the XHIth Conclave of the N. F. G. W., illustrated, 

Cloudsley Rutter 369 

Pueblo Councillor, A (portrait in colors), L. Maynard Dixon 132 

Quaker Indians, Bullying the, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis (see also 

Sequoya League, and Moqui Indians) 43, 171 

Rainbow Trout and its Home, The, illustrated, Cloudsley Rutter 145 

"Ramona " : The Ideal and the Real, illustrated, Carlyle C. Davis 576 

— "Removal of San Felipe Indians to Pala, illustrated 485 

Rogers, Capt. Woodes (his voyage to the Pacific Coast of America) 

203, 311, 412, 527 

Rome, What We Can Learn From, illustrated, Grace Ellery Channing 

237, 357, 473, 575 

Roosevelt at Riverside, President (frontispiece) 2 

Roping in of Hash-knife Jake (story), Gifford Hall 399 

Rose of Seville (poem), Henry Walker Noyes ; 532 

Sanchez Grant, The (story), by Richard L. Sandwick 645 

Santa Fe Trail, The (poem), Sharlot M. Hall 3 

Scott, Irving M. (biographical study), illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 57 

Sea Bass, The Record Black, (his portrait) 500 

•"* Sequoya League, The : " To Make Better Indians," 

43, 171, 207, 296, 419, 533 

South Sea Islands, Travels Among, Charles Keeler, illustrated by 

Louise M. Keeler 269, 491, 635 

That Which is "Written (reviews by the editor and C. A. Moody) 

92, 218, 321, 431,541, 679 

Thus Far — and Much Farther (resume of Landmarks Club to date), 

illustrated , 5 



Tree to Finished Lumber, From, illustrated, Frank Haines Lamb 343 

Trip to California, My First, Ruth Everett 406 

Twentieth Century West, The (edited by William E. Smythe) 

The Nation's Hand in the Desert, illustrated • 97 

Cooperative Colony Builders (at Pinon, Colorado), illustrated 1<>9 

The. Logic of Events 223 

The Building of California 229 

Some Constructive Results 235 

The Instinct of Development 327 

Eight Years Afterward 335 

The Triumph of Modesto 337 

After Private Enterprise— What ? 437 

Cooperation Among Consumers 441 

Grazing Problems in the Western States, Earley Vernon Wilcox ... 444 

Stand By Gifford Pinchot ! 450 

Eleventh National Irrigation Congress 549 

Cooperative Herds on the Range, W. M. Wooldridge 556 

The Fate of the Public Lands 560 

The Olive Branch to the Water and Forest Association 564 

The Montana Situation 691 

Electric Roads in Southern California 694 

In Defense of Forest Reserves 697 

A Twentieth Century Revival 700 

Two Songs (poem), Nora May French 530 

Unto the Hills (poem), A. B. Bennett 399 

Warner Ranch Indians (their removal to Pala), illustrated, GrantWallace 25 

"Water Out of the Rock," illustrated, Grace Ellery Channing 357 

What We Can Learn From Rome, illustrated, Grace Ellery Channing 

23«>, 357, 47 

White Sands of New Mexico, The, illustrated, E. Dana Johnson 385 

Without You (poem), Juliette Estelle Mathis 

Yellowstone Park, illustrated, M. E. Andrews -<ft» 

Articles of Localities, Illustrated : 

California Summer Resorts, A. J. Wells 11 s 

Redlands, Henry L. Graham 

COPYKKill 1 

2.40 /C 
Nnci rery 


Index to Vol. XVIII. 

Anglo-Saxon Peril, The, Charles Fish Beach, Jr 485 

At Twilight (poem), Anna Spencer Twitchell 543 

Burning of a Mojave Chief, The, Sharlot M. Hall 60 

California Constructive League — "To Build the State ; " William E. 

Smythe 250, 396, 525, 662, 700, 780 

California, To (poem), Lorenzo Sosso 208 

Cavendish, Sir Thomas: his voyage to the Pacific Coast, 1587 -269 ^^1 

Child's Moccasin, To a (poem), Hartley Alexander 197 

City Square, The (poem), David Atkins 491 

Columbine, The Rock (poem), Florence Evelyn Pratt... 325 

Coyote, The (poem), Agnes Katherine Gibbs 587 

Dampier, Wm.: his voyage to the Pacific Coast, 1686 351, 493, 627 

" Dau," in Porno Baskets, The, illustrated, Carl Purdy 317 

Dawn (poem), Josephine Mildred Blanch 55 

Days of Forty-Nine (differing versions of the Argonaut song) 202 

Death Valley Party of 1849, The, Rev. John Wells Brier (a survivor), 

illustrated 326, 456 

Desert Grave, Above a (poem), Anna Spencer Twitchell 59 ^ V^ 

Drake, Sir Francis : his voyage to the Pacific Coast 73 'j 

Early lEnglish Voyages to the Pacific Coast of America :_ Drake. -^ -Trl J-Uf 

Cavendish, Dampier, Woodes Rogers 73, 2697351, 493, 627 

Elysian Fields (poem), Juliette Estelle Mathis 465 

English Jim, The Saving of (story), Clarence Alan McGrew 345 

End of the Dream, The (story), Frank Aley 619 

Fremont, Gen. John C. (poems by Joaquin Miller, J. G. Whittier, and 

Chas. F. Lummis) 185, 336 

Fremont, Mrs. Jessie Benton (biographical study), illustrated, Charles 

Amadon Moody ,. 169 

Gulls of San Francisco Bay, The (poem), by Harley R. Wiley 731 

Hallet, Samuel, The Passing of, illustrated, Daniel B. Hadley 585 

Hold-up, An Unsuccessful, John H. Carmany 615 

Hold-up, A Successful (story), Clarence Alan McGrew 69 

Home-Coming of Marie-Pierre (story), C. Lindsay Skinner 198 

Indian Baskets, illustrated 317, 433, 579 

Judge of Hard-Down Hill, The (story), Clarence Alan McGrew 205 

Keith, William (sonnet), Ina Coolbrith, illustrated with miniature' por- 
trait by Lillie V. O'Ryan 432 

Lady of the Galleon, The (serial story), Louise Herrick Wall 603, 732 

Landmarks Club, The (To conserve the Old Missions and other historic 

landmarks of (California ...88, 216, 366, 492, 624, 742 

Lion's Den, In the (by the editor) 90, 217, 367, 497, 631, 751 

Loved I Not Honor More (story), Eugene Manlove Rhodes 187 

McGinnis, Captain of Industry (story), E. Hough...... 566 

Moqui Indians (some consideration of how Agent Burton treats 

them) ,62-5, 668 ¥ t J*7 

My Friend Le6ta, a Samoan Sketch, Charles A. Keeler, illustrated by 

Louise M. Keeler 569 

Mysteries, Those Terrible (at the Point Loma School), illustrated (by 

the editor) 35 

Nevada Indian Baskets and their Makers, illustrated, Clara Mac- 

Naughton 433, 579 

Norris, Frank (biographical study), illustrated, Bailey Millard 49 

Pahawitz-Na'an (story), Mary Austin 337 

Philippine Questions, Some, by James A. LeRoy JX, 762 

Point Loma School, illustrated (by the editor) 35 

1 1 2745 

Pomo Basket, The " Dau " in, illustrated, Carl Purdy 317 

Poppies (poem), Adalia Bee Adams 350 

Quaker Indians, Bullying- the, illustrated, by Chas. F. Lummis 668 

Rattlesnake and its Poison, The, illustrated, by W. H. Backus 691 

Right Hand of the Continent, The : A Story of California as it was, 

as it is, and as it is to be ; illustrated ; Chas. F. Lummis 

j 2, 138, 286, 441, 550, 698 

Reading List on Indiana, A 357 

Rogers, Capt. Woodes : his Voyages to the Pacific Coast 

Saving of English Jim, The (story), Clarence Alan McGrew 345 

Sequoya League, The : " To Make Better Indians". .81, 213, 355, 477, 625,743 

Slaves of the Ring (story), by Eugene Manlove Rhodes 722 

Sturnella's Song (poem), Dr. Washington Matthews 613 

Sunset on the Palatine (poem), Grace Ellery Channing 623 

That Which is Written (reviews by the editor and C. A. Moody) 

96, 228, 374, 505, 641, 757 

Those Blessed Pots, a criticism of " art critics," Austin Lewis 473 

Translation, A Matter of (story), Joseph Blethen 65 

Turning a New Leaf (report of Warner's Ranch Commission), illus- 
trated 441, 589 

Twentieth Century West, The, edited by Wm. E. Sraythe 

Concerning " Great Interests " 523 

Conquering Alkali Lands, illustrated, Henry C. Myers, Ph. D 516 

Defeat of the Works Bill 381 

Defeat the Water Speculators 117 

Ethics of Irrigation, The 233 

Hail, Irrigation President 649 

Happy Alta District, John Fairweather 660 

Irrigation Institutions 394 

Land Laws, Reform of the 389 

Membership, A Wider 250 

Past Year, Great Aspects of the 103 

Path of Reason, The 652 

Power of the League, The 3% 

Presidential Suggestion, Concerning a 108 

Prosperity and Discontent 511 

Protest of the Santa Ana, E. E?Veech 112 

Remedy at Last, A, D. L. Withington 657 

Shall Ireland Make Us Ashamed, illustrated 767 

True Source of Water Supply, with map, Samuel Armor 243 

United Orange Growers, The, illustrated 

Works Bill, Defeat of the 381 

Wright Law, Outcome of 656 

Verses, illustrated, Childe Harold =6, 196 

Warner's Ranch Commission, Abstract from Report of, illustrated. .441, 589 

Was It The Sea (poem), by Edward Salisbury Field 721 

Water-Tank, The (story), U. Francis Duff 

Winter, Southern California (poem), Anna Ball 344 

Akticlks op Localities, Illustrated— 

Coronado Beach 799 

Long Beach, illustrated, by Sidney C. Kendall 783 

Oakland, Charles J. Woodbury 

Orange County, E. E. Keech 

Pomona, F. Llewellyn 397 

San Dimas, La Verne and Charter Oak, C. H. Bigelow 253 

Tent City — Coronado Beach, illustrated, by Edward Hilton 799 

Whittier, H. E. Harris 121 

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jjj % U 23 E * 2 Ieco N o st. LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA ',{{ 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

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At the "Westminster." 

Hotel A.I*cadia, Santa Monica-by-the-Sea, Cal. 

On a picturesque high bluff, overlooking- a wide expanse of blue sea, 
is situated the famous Hotel Arcadia, whose strictly first-class service, 
complete and modern appointments, hot and cold salt water baths, golf, 
tennis, boating-, bowling-, fishing and delightful drives, unite in making 
this a pleasure resort, ideal and complete. 

Hotel IVedondo, Redondo Beach, Cal. 

This elegant hotel (under the management of R. W. Taylor, formerly 
with Hotel del Coronado), is universally recognized as one of the "crown- 
ing efforts " of hotels on the Pacific Coast. 

Of its 225 rooms, every one is an outside room with open grate, hot 
and cold water, and a sunny exposure at some hour of the day. It lias 
elevator, private baths and first-class bowling alleys, while its spacious 
ball room, open billiard room, orchestra, elegant parlors and dining 
room have won for it the well-deserved title of " Queen of the Pacific." 

It adjoins the largest carnation garden in the world, and boasts the 
best fishing on the coast. 

Both these hotels are equally distant (18 miles) from Los Angeles 
with which they are connected by a 30-min. trolley service and frequent 
trains on the Santa Fe, Southern Pacific and Redondo steam railways. 
The superiority of this suburban service renders these hotels vantage 
points, absolutely without a rival, for sightseers, as there is scarcely a 
town or county in Southern California that a guest may not visit and re- 
turn the same day if he wishes. 

There are no other places in Southern California with a climate more 
equable, being considerably warmer than any of the interior towns, with 
the extremes of night and day far less marked. 

For rates and further information, address 

A. D. Wright, Proprietor. 

Hotels "Arcadia" and " Redondo. 

Tourist Hotels 

Hotel Vendome, San Jose 

A visit to California is not com- 
plete without a sojourn at Hotel 
Vendome, San Jose, and a trip from 
there to Lick Observatory, Bit. 
Hamilton. San Jose is the metrop- 
olis of the Santa Clara Valley, fa- 
mous for its orchards, drives and 
scenery, and is reached from Los 
Angeles by the Southern Pacific 
Railway's Coast Line to San Fran- 

The Hotel Vendome is situated 
in a large park of stately trees, 
lawn and flowers. Has broad ver- 
andas, artistic modern furnishings, 
unexcelled cuisine, and pleasant sur- 

It is the starting point for Mt. 
Hamilton stage to Lick Observa- 
tory, and has golf, ping-pong, bowl- 
ing, tennis, automobiles and cy- 

Geo. P. Sneix, Manager. 

" llotrl 1M. niton. " 

Hotel PleaSanton, San Francisco 

Situated in a pleasant part of the city — 
Sutter and Jones Streets. Very convenient to 
all the theaters, churches and principal stores. 
Two lines of cable cars pass hotel. Sutter St. 
line direct from the Ferries to the hotel and to 
Golden Gate Park and other points of interest. 
Elegantly furnished rooms, single or en suite, 
with or without private bath. All modern 
improvements for the comfort and safety of the 
guests. The excellence of the cuisine and ser- 
vice are leading features, and there is an at- 
mosphere of home comfort rarely met with in 
a hotel. Guests desiring rooms without board 
will be accommodated. Rates on the American 
plan, from $2.30 to $5.00 per day for one per- 
son. Special terms by the week and to fam- 
ilies. O. M. Bkennan, Proprietor. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


It is a mild 

Price 10c, 25c, 50c 
and $1.00 Bottles 





We call them Oranges. PAY DIRT ON EVERY 
Write us for information concerning' orange, 
lemon, walnut, apricot, sugar beet, celery and 
alfalfa lands. We'll tell you right. 




Patentees and Manufacturers of Tricycle Chairs 
for Cripples, Tricycles, Invalids' Rolling Chairs, 
and Hospital Appliances. Special machines made 
to order when required, hut send for our catalogue 
and see if one of our designs will not suit your case. 

Popular Vehicles, Business Wagons 

Discerning Buyers will find Our Stock and Prices 
Best Suited to their wants. & <£ <£ <£ 

130-136 North L-os Angeles S-fc. 


When calling, please ask for SMr. Grant 

Save on Books 

Whenever you need any book, or any infor- 
mation about books, write to me, and you 
will receive prompt attention and low prices. 


in all departments of literature is very com- 


and special slips of books at reduced prices 
sent for a lo cent stamp. 


23 W. Forty-second St., Ne<w York 

Books! Books! Books! 

We call the attention of the 
readers of "Out West" to our 
large stock of rare, choice and 
scarce books. Including- the larg- 
est stock of Western Americania 
in the World. 

Send us your list of wants. We will furnish 
Any Book on Earth at current prices. Mail or- 
ders our specialty. Catalogs sent on application. 


" Ye Olde Booke Shoppe" 

Salt Lake City, Utah, U. S. A. 

Mention this advertisement and receive a discount. 


iff- » Write to H. H. TIMBY, Book Hunter -£& 



prevents early wrinkles. It is not a freckle coating ; it re- 
moves them. ANYVO CO., 427 N. Main St., Los Angeles. 

Please Mention that You raw it in OUT WEST. 


The great rush is on. Get 
in on the ground floor and ^ r et 
your water rights direct from 



We are direct agents for the 



10? South Broadway, Los Angeles 

Own a Lot in 

fornia terminus of the Santa Fe 
Railroad, is just across the Bay 
from San Francisco, where the 
three largest corporations in the State, 
namely the Santa Fe Railroad, Stand- 
ard Oil Company and the Southern 
Pacific Railroad meet. These corpora- 
tions are spending millions of dollars 
there which will make it the greatest 
manufacturing city on the Pacific 
Coast. Lots $200 only— 

$5.oo PER MONTH 

A good way to save and make money. 


182 Crocker Building 
San Francisco. Cal. 

LOCATION Just outside city limits of 
Greater Los Angeles, on the San Pedro. 
Los Angeles and Salt Lake R. R. 


355 acres in tracts to suit. Town lots, $100. Acre lots, 2-acre lots, 5-acre lots, at $200 
to $350 per acre. Water free. Terms % cash, balance in 1, 2 and 3 years' time. 10 min- 
utes' ride to Bell, and gather ripe strawberries and vegetables in winter. Oranges, lemons and 
walnuts in bearing. Will you go miles out and pay $400 to $1500 for a 50-foot lot when 
you can buy a whole acre (5 times the amount of land), including water, for $200 to $350 ? 

Compare our land, 
water and location 
with all others, 

have 250 inclu M ot 
pure Artesian Moun- 
tain Water which is 
(Ifcdcil .Hid (Ml with 
the land FREE. 
Kiiiii-mber weonly 
have 73 of these 
choice lot-. 

Don't delay. Secure maps, prices, and see photi 

I' 1 


OTM offered 
on any tract. 

No City Taxes. 

Have your home 

here and do busim--^ 

in Los Anffeles. 


station and 

branch office 

on tract. 

For full information see 





Manager Real Estate Dept. 

Investments, Loans, Stocks and Bonds 


Manager Mining Dept. 


.^/r/^Ami^e/^^tct^n/ /S77 

lz^ S^n^^/^O^, Jan. 1, 1903 

To the Tourist:— 

Three Hundred and Fifty trunks slept out one night this 
month at the Arcade Depot because the baggage room was 
already full of trunks that came on earlier trains. Now 
these trunks did not straggle out here to see the country 
out they came overcrowded with the belongings of people 
who came to stay awhile. 

Nowadays they talk about the •'Santa Pe Habit,'* the 
'•Sunset Limited,'' the ''Golden State Special,'' and a 
whole category of other habits, limited and special, 
contracted by the dear people of the congested East to 
give them a little taste of California sunshine, health 
and happiness during their ''blustering season,*' in as 
casual a manner as the neighbors used to note old aromatic 
Jones' quotidian migration round the corner of the house 
in a due West course by way of the South, in his rattan 
bottomed sleeper. 

What's this fast old world coming to anyway? Why, to 
Southern California, of course! 

It is rather early for the tourists to make their 
annual invasion, and as there was about six or eight 
million dollars left here by them last year, it is a sure 
thing that they will leave about ten millions this year. 
We had only thirty transcontinental trains a day last year, 
and, as the people who heretofore stepped at Salt Lake 
instead of attempting the arduous two days* roundabout 
journey then necessary to get here, will in the near 
future be enabled to come straight through, the inference 
is that we will then have more trains, more people, more 
money and more trunks. 

There is not a single foot more of standing room out 
here than there was one hundred and twenty-one years ago, 
when the pueblo of Los Angeles was founded; but if you 
want to get a deed to any of it nowadays, it will cost you 
a little more than it would then, and we beg 
that it is better to get it now than to wait 
and you might find just what you want in our 
erties for sale, 

Very truly yours, 

to suggest 
any longer, 
list of prop- 



First National Bank, State Bank and Trust Company, Dun or Bradstreets. 
Western Union Code 1901 Edition. 

Please Mention that You 8aw it in OUT WEST. 

Schell's Patent Adjustable Form 

For dressmaking 

It Is tiresome to fit people 
by the usual methods. It Is a 
pleasure to fit and carry out 
the most unique 
design by 
means of this 
form, which 
ii made to 
form, and 
can be Inde- 
and minutely 
as the per- 
son's form 

Is made 
to stand as 
person stands, for- 
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consequently skirts 
will hang* and waists 
fit with perfection and 
comfort. When order- 
ins* send a perfectly 
fitted lining* with 
waist-line marked, also 
skirt measures from 
waist-line to floor 
(front, hips and back) 
with close fitting- col- 
lar and sleeves. 

Los Angeles Office: 316 South Broadway 

Rooms 3 

San Francisco: 503 

and 4 Phone James 44-41 
Powell St. Phone Red 2986 

A New Year— 1903 A New Writer 





of Success 

And during all 
that time, as it 
still continues to 
be, the best foun- 
tain pen made. 
Improved by the 
already famous 
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which prevents 
the overflow of 
Your Dealer Sells Them 

138 Montgomery 

A pocket pen 
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and the most 
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173 Broadway 

New York 



SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL - - $13,000,000 

PAID-IN CAPITAL ---------- 2.500,000 


MONTHLY INCOME. OVER ------- 100,000 

To help its members to build homes, also to make loans on improved property, the 
members giving first liens on their real estate as security. To help its stock- 
holders to earn from 8 to 12 per cent, per annum on their stock, and to allow them 
to open deposit accounts bearing interest at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum, ordi- 
nary, and 6 per cent, per annum, term. 

HOME OFFICE: 301 California St., San Francisco, California 

WM. CORBIN, Secretary and General Manager 

Wm. Kki i ii. 
The grates! (it creative l.mdscape paint' H -. 

CoPyrifkt louu by Ckas. F. Lam mis 


The Land of SxinsKine. 



Vol. XVIII, No. J. 

JANUARY, 1903. 


NE will surmise at once that San Francisco cut its build- 
ing 1 patterns before its people had had much time for 
fun. There can have been no prescience of cables to 
acquit the unhappy men who slammed their streets straight up 
hills we cannot to this day drive horses up, and knifed the land- 
scape until from the bay the city looks very like a huge slashed 
baked codfish. Yet today, up these same streets (some of them 
grass-grown between the cobbles, because [too steep for hoofs), 
whiz street cars with a hundred passengers, and at a rate which 
makes the tourist gasp. The cable-car system of San Francisco 
was the first successful solution of modern street transit, and 
to this day is probably the most complete and remarkable cable 
service extant. The inventor was A. S. Hallidie, a San Fran- 
cisco manufacturer of wire ropes, a scholar, a man of insight, 
foresight and pluck, and for many years one of the regents of 
the State University. He has died within a few months. His 
first cars ran in August, 1873.* Nearly twenty years later I 
used to ride down Broadway, New York, on floundering horse- 
cars. There are a few electric lines ; but so perfectly adapted 
are the cables to these hind-leg hills that there is neither need 
nor thought of a general substitution. There are few routine 
adventures in any city comparable for comfort, cheapness, and 
real thrill to mounting one of these cable-cars, forward, and 
ramping up and down the imminent acclivities. To other urban 
locomotions (and to the cables of Chicago) it is as a galloping 

See pp. 146, 147, Aug-ust number. 

Copyrighted 1902 by Chas. F. Lummis. All rights reserved. 


horse to a rocking-chair. It is really an exercise, as city exer- 
cises go. The salt fog whips your cheeks ; strange pitch-roof 
areas of habitation spring up and fall away ; Taraalpais lifts 
its leonine head above the sky-line, and lies down again ; and 
your proletariat chariot rears, pitches, and swings a corner 
with rather more vitality than marks what passes for a bronco 
in a Wild West show. 

The people who walk so much, and so much ride such behe- 
moth mustangs of street cars, ought to be a sturdy sort — and 
so indeed they are. I know no city where the streets are equally 
beset with robust health. The only point I will concede is the 
special latter-day New York girl of the new type — there was 
no Gibson-girl generic when I was a Freshman, even had there 
been any one to draw her. But she is a lonely flower of " train- 
ing," not of her general environment. She looks as if she 
might reach serenely out from the shoulder and fell every second 
man of her " set " she meets upon the Avenue — and so, I dare 
say, she could. But she has none the better of the California 
girl of a vastly wider range of social zones. She is no more 
divinely tall, no nobler chested, no freer limbed, no nearer the 
vera incessu ftatuit ilea. Nor so rosy. Incidentally, also, no 
better dressed. 

There is a striking difference of physique between the street 
crowds of San Francisco and Los Angeles — a difference dis- 
heartening to those too innocent to know its why. The reason 
is simply that in San Francisco you see streets thronged with 
people who were born in California. In Los Angeles, on the 
other hand, I sometimes walk blocks without meeting, in all the 
crowd, one person who had ever seen California fifteen years 
ago — and I used to know every face in the town. That the 
real reason of the startling difference is only this, the children 
conclusively prove. The southern youngsters are just as stal- 
wart-legged, just as thick-chested, just as surprisingly big for 
the eloquent calendar of their ruddy faces. 

Of the architecture, as of the engineering, of San Francis 
short accounts are likeliest to make long friends. It is a rather 
discouraging procession of wooden, bay-windowed, snub-roofed, 
shoulder-to-shoulder structures, little leavened with new- 
thought, and still browbeaten by the old fear of the temblor. 
San Francisco has never had but two earthquakes that amounted 
to anything (nor they to much). The Coast has never had one 
of the first magnitude ; nor one comparable in severity to that 
which visited Charleston, South Carolina, in 1886. So many 
persons have not been killed by earthquakes in California since 
its discovery as are killed by sunstrokes every year in Chicago 

The Synagogue Emanu-El, San Francisco. 

Photo by C. F. L. 


A Washington Street Palace, San Francisco. 

Photo by C. F. L. 

and New York alone. This is history. But the Argonauts 
somehow acquired the superstition that it was unsafe to build 
except of wood ; and this astounding notion has lamed the archi- 
tecture of San Francisco for fifty years to come. Woodenness 
so wilful and so expensive probably marks no other city — nor 
so strange a specialization of it as the cold convention of home- 
less palaces on Nob Hill. A million and three-quarters for the 
stone retaining-wall around a castle of lumber — costly boards, 
of course, hand-finished, filled with Medici rooms, and art 
treasures beyond reckoning — -but boards ! And in stone-throw, 
another board palace, famed mostly for the thirty-foot fence edi- 
fice behind it and around three sides of a humble neighbor's cot- 
tage. The millionaire "wanted" from street to street; the 
humble neighbor liked it pretty well where he was, and wouldn't 
sell. Revenge was near and human ; ver}^ likely we would have 
gone and done likewise. But after all, the great, lonely man- 
sion, with these many years to judge it, is chiefly a warning of 
the disproportion of getting mad. It is the tragedy of Nob 

I - 

- ss 

1 1 

= M 

w o 

•- - 

- 9 

-i = 



A Modern Housk, San Francisco. 

Photo by C. f. L. 

Hill that its chief palaces were never homes. Today they are 
splendid gifts to education, or vast nautilus shells in whose 
pearly lonelinesses a limpet care-taker crawls about. 

The first tall building- in San Francisco was that of the 
Chronicle, 1886* — and even at that modern date people shook 
their heads. But it stands, unblinking- at the strongest 
"shake" since 1868, and now in imitative company. A few 
of the big blocks would be distinguished figures anywhere, for 
dignity as well as size — the Crocker Building, the Spring 
Valley Water Company and Wells-Fargo buildings, the Empo- 
rium, and so on. The fine Mills building is said to hold the 
United States record still, among office buildings, both as to 
equipment and as an investment. The Spreckels Building is per- 
haps the most graceful and grateful sky-scraper on the continent, 

* See pa<ye 591, June number. 

10 OUT WBS7 

individually and in relation to its environment.* It is only 
70 x 75 feet base, and 315 high (twenty-two stories), but so pro- 
portioned that it is a monument, dominant and aspiring, in 
whatsoever view of the city. The cyclops of a city hall, cover- 
ing six and three-quarter acres, and costing- $6,000,000, is more 
impressive the farther you get — with its squat mass, its con- 
tractored St. Peter's dome, and a swarm of corrals and shanties 
despoiling its presence from any ordinary view-point. It has 
not one-half the dignity of the unelbowed, hill-set Court- 
house of Los Angeles,t which cost one-twelfth as much — but 
had no "pickings." The Ferry building ($850,000) is one of 
the largest and best depot structures in the country, and fairly 
presentable, too, with its f>59-foot front of gray sandstone and 
its 245-foot tower. The Synagogue Emanu-El is one of the 
finest examples of unmuddled and far-compelling church archi- 
tecture in the United States, and of remarkable potency in the 
looks of the city. 

Many very costly, and some very handsome, modern palace 
residences are now set upon the commanding hills; but the 
overwhelming house-architecture is wooden, wanton, and with 
elbows pinned to its sides by as wooden neighbors. The idea 
of sacrificing a little lumber for flowers and trees, and the heal- 
ing touch of earth, has barely dawned. Or yet of any archi- 
tectural adaptation tq the new surroundings. Practically, all is 
imitation — and overwhelmingly of styles which have as much 
relation to these skies, topographies, temperatures, and customs 
as a Tehuantepec jacal might have. Far more vital than the 
artistic sin is the chronic, disregard of the sun. This State has 
more clear days than any other in the Union ; yet curiously 
enough we need all the sun we can get, quite as surely as the 
clammiest northern land does. San Francisco has advanced 
little beyond its copy-books in the science of sunning. It is the 
only serious limp in the fine erectness of these comfortable li 
The relative tenderfeet of the southern city, behind them in so 
many points of adjustment, are far ahead of them in this. 
Aiigelenos have learned, almost universally (or practice, 
whether they have learned or not) to let the sun get at them 
from the four sides of the house, and to prefer flowers and t 
to a party wall. 

That a city of kindling, piled touching and up-hill, and with 
the unfailing strong winds of San Francisco (it has, I believe, 
the greatest annual air-movement of any American or European 
city I, has not in modern days been licked up bodily by tire, is 
to the stranger a standing miracle ; but it is only a California 
"difference." All our frame buildings are of California Red- 

*Nci- i>. 54", Nov. Bomber ' SM p. 5v>. .1 iiuo imiuiIht. 

San Francisco's City Hall, and its Setting. 

Photo by C. J?. £, 

Tin Mil is Hi ii. DING, San Fkan 


wood — the lightest, easiest-worked, most durable, and least in- 
flammable lumber anywhere used for building - . With much less 
strength than the hard pines (which we always use for the 
frame), it is the best and safest of sheathings. Its reluctance 
to kindle is the salvation and the explanation of the City of the 

No other argument is so clear to so many minds of so many 
kinds as is the personal instance. Nothing, of course, can be 
more charlatan or more misleading, if we merely take samples 
each on its unrelated street corner ; but it can be given scien- 
tific weight by coordinating enough cases. If, for instance, we 
find that one end of a State has produced certain character-types 
in a ratio of one hundred to one, as against the other end 
of the same State, we may securely conclude that it is not an 
evergreen accident, and that there are reasons for it. Southern 
California has hardly produced or moulded a single national 
figure, save Stephen M. White. Northern California has turned 
out scores. And this is not the geography; but because Northern 
California was Western and Southern California is Eastern. I 
cannot find that any other State has, within the same time and 
in proportion to population, graduated more pupils who have 
made their respectable mark on the country's history, finance, 
literature. "Mark Twain," the backbone of whatever contin- 
ent there is of American humor; Bret Harte, first master of the 
American short story (and nothing is more pertinent to my 
contention than the quality of his work in the ratio of its dis- 
tance from his California days) ; Joaquin Miller, sometimes one of 
the most unadvised, but structurally the most Homeric of Ameri- 
can poets, and next to Poe in the " inevitable Flame; " Markham, 
the luckiest (and better than his luck) ; Edward Sill and Charles 
Warren Stoddard ; Starr King, second only to Beecher in Amer- 
ican pulpits ; Henry George, whom, even as we disagree, we 
must put next Poor Richard as the most contagious of our 
homely philosophers; Bierce, smallest and greatest of American 
satirists — or perhaps I should say flayers — these and many 
more are all purely California products, though all born else- 
where. The room, the impulse, the glow of the man-stithy 
when it was red-hot, made them. 

Of soldiers. Grant, Sherman, Crook, Sheridan, Halleck, 
Hooker, McPherson, Albert Sidney Johnston — all these and 
many more went to school to California, and when it was stren- 
uous. Chief Justice Field is our contribution to the Supreme 
Bench. Art ? Bierstadt and Tom Hill might have been worse. 
It may be as well to remember, also, that the direct reason why 
Mr. Remington makes horses Go is that a California photo- 


grapher named Muybridge, snap-shuttering- on a California ranch 
(Senator Stanford's, and at Stanford's expense) shamed out of 
any longer public countenance the rocking-horse attitudes that 
had done duty ever since "Our father Adam sat under a tree 
and scratched with a stick in the mould." There were brave 
men before Agamemnon ; but none brave enough to draw a 
horse in the way he should — or could possibly — go, until after 
that artistic Patmos on Palo Alto. 

Yet if I must choose the chiefest — and at the same time the 
truest — types of what California is doing and shall do to make 
good Bayard Taylor's prophecy, it will be none of these, exem- 
plary to the text as they are all. Not one of them, we may have 
full confidence to say, could have been all the man he was, but 
for his schooling in California — for that is merely saying that 
none of them was such a dunce as to be unable to learn when 
he had a chance. That that frontier experience was a chance, 
no one will think of denying who knows anything about it. 
But I prefer to take the omens from a later, a more enduring, 
and therefore a more typical evolution \ from men equalty prod- 
ucts of the frontier, but not of the mere empiric which in its 
time "went hell-bent" for a good many other things, though 
not for the worthy Governor Kent, nor yet for Old Tippecanoe ; 
from men made giants not by riot but by room ; from men of 
refinement as exquisite as the oldest civilization ever nurtured, 
and of a power that grows only in freer spaces, and singler- 
hearted, than any old civilization can keep. 

Let us take John Muir and William Keith — Scotchmen both, 
and after the strictest sect ; matured, and apparently fixed, 
amid the Eastern conventions. We may the more fairly divide 
them by California, because we know what they were before 
they took it for their common denominator. Muir was good 
for a second Thoreau. In California he has become — well, 
about as his own Muir glacier to a Walden snow-drift. I mean 
this very seriously, and with the keenest appreciation of one 
who did so much to put a soul under my boy ribs. Thoreau 
really used to seem an out-door person ! But yon frail, dry 
body, clambering to the 200-foot top of a Sierra pine, to be 
whipt of a Sierra storm ; taking a pinch of tea and a crust of 
bread for commissary, and cimmaroning for weeks over the ter- 
rific ranges as no mere athlete dares to, or physically can begin 
to conquer ; and then writing so nobly of large Nature as man 
never wrote before ! These be large words, my masters ; but I 
am perfectly content to leave them to any tolerable jury that 
will (as I have) re-read every word of Thoreau, visit his out- 
doors, tramp every rood he ever stepped, and then read The 


John Mtik. Copyright iqoo by (has. F. Lummis. 

Mountains of California, and follow ten per cent, of its author's 
footsteps through them. When one sees the high Sierra, then 
one begins to understand what is what. As for speech, I have 
heard the men that passed for eloquent in the East, from Wen- 
dell Phillips hither ; but the nearest I know of Jeremiah is by 
listening to the fragile seer of the Sierra Nevada when the 
spirit moves. 

As for Keith, who was in early manhood a wood engraver 
with Harper's Magazine, and up nearly to his half-century an 
excellent landscape painter, as little is my humility. With 
serious objections to being wrong, I have none whatever to say- 
ing now what will not need be said twenty years from now. It 
took a long time for California to penetrate this Tennyson- 
headed, child-hearted Scot ; but at sixty-two he is growing 
faster, doing more work, nobler, more creative, more prophetic 
work than any other landscape painter I know of. To see this 


Numidian lion (with the soul of a girl) at his work, fairly 
wreaking canvas after canvas ; not as one who puts figure 
beside calculated figure, but feeling, rocking, dabbling at the 
canvas, to find his way — and then suddenly flying at it in a 
very agony of inspiration, daubing, swiping, touching, rending, 
with force enough for a Berserker, and the wrist of a Saladin, 
and in maybe half an hour having a Picture — it is to go back 
to the time when there were Masters. "In a rather catholic 
experience among strongmen — men who could write, paint, 
build, ride, climb, rule, kill, save, I have seen and loved all 
sorts of Mastery ; but never quite so impressive a manifestation 
of Power. Hung in the merciless comparison of Rembrandts, 
Murillos, Velasquez, Ruysdaels, Romneys, Constables, and their 
peers, side by side, his paintings are wholly unabashed. For 
with a wizardry of color no other modern artist has, there is 
to him a sort of Old Testament majesty and awe ; no imita- 
tion of the Old Masters, but their very spirit, come back 
amid our modern cleverness. It is also typical of the charac- 
ter, both of these men and of the State which has flowered them, 
that they do not — and need not — move to the Market-Place. 
They can afford to stay where they and their strength are. 

Such lives, of course, are not acutely contagious; but there were 
plenty that were. It is astonishing how exclusively they belong 
to the San Francisco end of the State — to the older, the really 
Western California. Curiously enough, the new, Easternized 
half of California is literally by longitude (75 per cent, of it) 
east of the frontier half. Southern California has never had 
anything comparable to that intoxicating example, the biting 
case of the Man we Knew. It has made many fortunes, but 
never a vast or a sensational one, though it has imported many. 

The Big Four of the Pacific Railroad were all born poor, and 
not one of them had got rich when he came to California — 
Collis P. Huntington and Mark Hopkins in '49, Charles Crocker 
in '50, Leland Stanford in '52. They were all storekeepers — 
Stanford a grocer, Huntington and Hopkins in hardware, 
Crocker in dry-goods — when they shaped and carried out the 
vast plan which with reference to all other schemes of trans- 
portation stands as the pyramids stand ; which not only made 
colossal fortunes, but was able to 'adopt the national gov- 
ernment in loco parentis, and to get (and stay, until two 
or three years ago) into Uncle Sam's debt to the tune of 
something like a hundred millions. No serious Cali- 
fornia n aims to flatter Mr. Huntington, but beyond question 
he was more vitally the head of more miles of railroad than 
ever walked under any other one hat. He was a Connecticut 



Tub Mission Doi.oki.s. San V 

Photo hv ( . /■". /.. 

peddler; made the brigand Isthmus (which took hard tribute 
from all others) pay him for the privilege of letting him cross, 
and is said to have prevailed upon men to pay him to let them 
work as deck-hands to take his schooner to Sacramento. Stan- 
ford was probably the greatest of railroad builders, counting all 
that goes to greatness — certainly he was the only one widely 
beloved. At any rate, these two, and Meiggs, rank, up to this 
year of grace, as the railroad Napoleons — the men who wrought 
the longest and most difficult transportation lines in history, and 
most handily handled (or defied) deserts, mountains, govern- 
ments, and public opinion. 

The "Big Four" of the Bonanzas were equally risen. Flood 
and O'Brien were bartenders in their own San Francisco saloon. 
Mackay was a blaster in the mines at S4 a day. I'air was .1 
common miner. So was Senator John P. Jones. But their 
Con. Va. had the distinction, unique in history, of paying a mil- 
lion dollars a month in dividends, for nearly two years, to 
nothing of the other many years wlun its dividends would have 
been miracles elsewhere. 

The Altak, Stanford Memorial Chapel, 

Photo by Austin. 

Hi i wi 01 Mosaics, Siam-okii Mkmokial CllAl'Kl.. 

/'*!•/<> fi 



Irving M. Scott. 

Photo by Tuber. 

Lucky Baldwin kept a livery-stable. Lux and Miller, barons 
of ranches half the size of Rhode Island, were butcher boys. 
Sharon, Hearst, D. O. Mills, Lloyd Tevis, J. B. Haggin,* and 
many more, climbed here from obscurity to enormous wealth. 
James R. Keene was a milk-boy in Shasta. Irving- M. Scott, 
the builder not only of the Oregon, the Olympia, the Charleston, 
the Wisconsin, the Monterey, the Ohio, and other war-ships for 
other powers, but of the first and only great ship-yard on the 
shores of the greatest ocean ; who has one of the most excellently 
chosen and most valuable collections of great paintings in 
America — he was an unschooled dollar-and-a-quarter boy in a 
Baltimore foundry, and began his California career as a pounder 
of iron. Peter Donahue, his good angel, the pioneer foundry- 

*Owner of the largest thoroughbred horse farm in the world ; the R.incho del Pasco, 
ne-ir Sacramento, 44,800 acres; and of the highest-priced sire in history — Ormonde, 


man, ship-builder, and railroad-builder on the coast, who 
founded the works which Scott has raised to be a rival of 
Cramps's and Newport News — was engineer on one of the early 
steamers to California. Adolph Sutro, most genuine giant, 
least a freak of fortune, of all the Comstock story, and perhaps 
the only one whose millions wen- made by sheer genius and 
hard work, without a shade of gambling-, was a poor Russian, 
twenty years old, when he landed in San Francisco in 1850, and 
went to selling cigars. In all the annals of human enterprise 
there is no more stirring example of supreme and enlightened 
pluck. For more than fifteen years "that little German Jew" 
fought for his dream of a" coyote-hole " to drain the Comstock 
from four miles away and nearly 2000 feet underground. Alone 
against the hundred-millionaires of the Big Bonanza, against 
State and national governments, against such physical, numeri- 
cal, and financial odds as men may have faced before but cer- 
tainly never before whipped, he carried his war to the people, 
to Congress, to Europe — and won. There are now longer and 
costlier tunnels than the Sutro ; but it is the greatest under- 
ground monument to any one man. With its laterals it is 
33,315 feet in length 'six and one-third miles), 10x12 feet bore, 
and cost $5,000,000. Sutro also did more for the public with his 
gains than did any of the other Comstock kings — probably 
more than all the rest of them put together — and has been a 
more intimate personal influence in the "city." He owned, a 
few years ago, "at least one-tenth by area of all the lands 
within the city and county of San Francisco." (T. H. Hittell, 
History of California, iv., 564.) His death, in L899, probably 
thwarted what should have crowned his liberalities — the dedi- 
cation to the publicof the astounding library of over 500,000 
titles which he was fifteen years collecting for this purpose, and 
for which he had donated an imposing site. Ex-President 
Andrew J. White, of Cornell, pronounced this library "already 
(1892) one of the first four in the United States in value." 

And so on for quantity. These things happen elsewhere, but 
never elsewhere had they — nor have they — rained so thick and 
fast in proportion of time or population. Only a society a good 
deal more — or a good deal less — than human could have failed 
to be deeply stirred and moulded by such examples. 

Everything was ardent, intoxicating, staggering. The sober- 
est commonplaces, as we reckon nowadays, were like a novel — 
and not by Mr. Howells. Business was B game without a limit ; 
the mails, an event; transportation, a drama. Then was the 
Pony Express, which covered 1950 miles of thirsty and savage- 
haunted desert (from Independence, Missouri, to Sacramento) 



Adolph Sutro. 

in ten days — the most marvelous letter-carrying - in human 
story ; the overland stages — and never elsewhere did man pay 
a swingeing fare for so much danger and discomfort — and the 
Wells-Fargo Express. Next to the Hudson Bay Company, this 
is the most romantic corporation in history. It is more in- 
timately connected with the winning of the West than any 
other corporation; has earned and kept more loyalty from its 
men, and respect from the public, than any other common car- 
rier we know ; and is perhaps the onl} 7 monopoly which is never 
called one.* Outside of war, I believe no other trust has ever 

*It has had a monopoly of the express business of the Far West ever since the failure 
of Adams &'Co., 1854. 


seen so many of its men give up their lives at the post of duty 

— nor cause as admirable execution among the outcasts who at- 
tacked them. It would be a whole book in the Odyssey of the 
Pacific, if we might have had our Homer — as now we shall not 
and cannot. Joaquin might have been, if instead of a confidious 
Albion he had timely discovered his Chance. Perhaps even 
Markham might have, if let alone. But they cannot now, nor 
will the Blind Old Man (blind to littler things) arise who can. 
The stress is past forever that should have kindled him. We 
shall never hear in all its stately measure that epic to which 
Helen, and the Sack of Troy, and the Faith of Penelope, and the 
Song of the Sirens were child's play. And it is a pity. 

All this — and far more of it than there is room or need to hint 
at — was bound to count. It did count. It was the food on which 
young San Francisco turned from cartilage to bone. The tree 
will not in another half-century forget its inclination as the 
twig was bent. That was the Old California. The new half 
of the State has never had that forcing. It has gambled in its 
way — the boom of 1886 was almost as crazy, and quite as mean, 
as the Comstock — but never on the John Oakhurst plan. It 
was newer from a newer East, and personally older. It is of no 
petty import in their relative evolutions that the rush to 
northern California half a century ago, was structurally of 
young men with fortunes to make ; the rush (numerically much 
greater) to Southern California in the last fifteen years, of much 
older persons, and with a competence already more or less 

Now, why may it be that yonder old city of men who were 
young and prodigal together ; who knew the days of giants, and 
were of them ; who are so much more at home in the new soil 

— why can it not " get together" so well as the metropolis of 
the new California does ? There are two chief evolutionary 
reasons. One is the result of the silver gambling era, which 
broke out in San Francisco just before the war and lasted 
eighteen years ; when boot-blacks and scullery-maids bought 
"feet" in Crown Point and Gould & Curry; when the princes 
were none too proud to swindle their washer-women. That 
epoch, with its cut-throat lessons, bred a spirit of mutual dis- 
trust, for which the city still pays through its nose. The other 
large reason is — the railroad. There is a certain vague notion 
in the East that California is l< against railroads." This is, of 
course, absurd. California has been (and still is) "against" 
railroad phenomena of which the East has never even dreamed. 
"Ye ask what is a pheenomenon," said the historic Scotch minis- 
ter. " Wull, ye hac seen a cow. But a cow is na a pheenome- 

Thk Pktek Donohub Fountain, by Douglas Tilden. Photo by C. F, L. 


non. An' ye hae seen an apple-tree — and that is na a pheenome- 
non. But, my brithers, when ye sail see a cow climb an apple- 
tree tail-first— that wull be a pheenomenon ! " And we have 
seen it. Other American communities, grown mature and or- 
ganic, have begotten their railroads and brought them up, with 
more or less parental authority as to the way they should go. 
California, while not exactly begotten by its railroads, was 
adopted by them at a tender and inarticulate age, and has 
grown up in their leading-strings. Some of the results, politi- 
cal, social, commercial, have been as unlike anything in the ex- 
perience or guess of the East as the more tangible features of a 
6,000-mile system are. Californians are not anarchists — and 
Dennis Kearney, who is our chief blame, was better handled, 
both by audiences and by authorities, in the East than in Cali- 
fornia. We have simply objected to an intermeddling with 
State, city, and even individual affairs such as no other State 
ever encountered, unless in its dreams. The dominant reason 
why one-half of the State has in the last twenty years been 
growing so many times as fast as the other,* is simply railroad 
competition. To a town anywhere, that is important ; to a 
California town it is almost vital. San Francisco is, perhaps 
to an unprecedented degree, in one pocket. To get to the city 
at all, to move about in it, has meant paying tribute to the same 
Caesar. The railroad, the ferries, almost the entire street- 
transit system, were owned by the Southern Pacific. t- There 
was no complaint of the service ; but the concentration 
had some effects not so good. It rather led the once self- 
reliant Argonauts to rely on the railroad. An exposition, a 
celebration, a new elephant for the park? Well, "the Com- 
pany" is the only one that will make anything out of it. - Its 
subscription will be made whole by a Sunday's travel on its 
street cars. "Let the company pungle up, then." Southern 
California, on the other hand, has never got in the way of lean- 
ing. It had the same transcontinental railroad for a dozen 
years, without getting big enough to have habits. Then in 
came competition (the " Santa Fe ") and immediately whooped 
up population at the rate of over 30 per cent, per year for more 
than a decade. 

Yet all these striking differences are strictly within the line 
of the dogma before stated. They are all fruits of time — or 
the times — in partnership with California ; and with time they 
shall disappear again. Some now living may endure to witness 

*Per cent, increase of population, 1880-1900 : 

1880-1890 1890-1900. 

San Francisco 27.80 14.6 

Los Ang-eles 350.84 103.3 

U. S. Census, 1890 and 1900. 
t The street railroad interests have recently been sold to a Baltimore syndicate ; and the 
Hunting-tons have bouprht up a similar control in Los Angeles. _ 

In "Littlb Japan," Mill Valley. 




the balance-sheet — the tingeing of all the State with the last 
rays of the sunset of that old romance, with the dawn of the 
new ; the dividend of the old strength and generosity by the 
new sobriety and culture. Por more comprehension of what 
this may mean, we may turn to some consideration of the half- 
State which is older in years but younger in fact ; which is 
most of California to the average Easterner, nowadays, and to 
the Argonaut hardly California at all ; in landscape and in 
standards almost as unlike as Egypt from Maine ; and with 
only one absolute agreement — that north or south, California 
" beats the world." Their one mutuality has never been better 
voiced, perhaps, than by the stalwart Yankee — pinched by the 
strict competition here ; returned to New England and pros- 
pered there, but unable to forget freedom, and in three years 
back in California again at a sacrifice — who said to me, 
with at least David's sincerity if not his diction [Psalms lxxxiv, 
10], "I'd rather be a post-hole in God's Country than a flag-staff 
in the East ! " 

[to be continued.] 

Approach of Isbbkg Pass. Headwaters of the Merced. 

Old and New CALIFORNIA. 

I. ( '. I t omaM. 

The Home of the Water-Ouzel. ■ Photo by Hugh S. Gibson. 


hose terrible: mysteries.* 

ITH public interest in the whole case so general 
and so deep, there needs no apology for giv- 
ing several pages of this Western magazine 
to sober photographs* touching the school 
of the Universal Brotherhood at Point 
Loma, Cal., and the eleven Cuban children 
consigned to that school by their parents and 
guardians ; miserably detained for months at Ellis Island, and 
attempted to be deported as paupers or criminals, by certain 
Immedicable Easterners ; released by the Government from this 
outrageous confinement, after full investigation, and just ar- 
rived at Point Loma where they are now happy with the 
brothers, sisters and cousins who had preceded them there by 
from one to three years. The photographs of the institution have 
been in the possession of this magazine for something like a 
year ; those of the little captives immediately upon their safe 
arrival there, and of the visit, a little earlier, of two representa- 
tive — and rather illustrious— Cuban publicists to this school, 
which has had for several years a colony of Cuban children, are 
of course of immediate date. 

While other bigotries, and the congenital "Tenderfoot " con- 






At Point Loma Homestead. 

'Following certain editorial comment last month. 

Safe in California. 

The eleven Cuban children rescued by the U. S. Government from Eastern Dog- 
berries, upon their arrival at the School of the Universal Brotherhood, Point Loma, 
Cal., with Dr. Gertrude W.Van Pelt, who shared their imprisonment at Ellis Island. 

From left to right, beginning at the top, are Isabel Cos, Jos6 Jardines, Francisco 
Llora, Rafael Franco, Joaquin Navarro, Angelita Cos, Antonio Sastre, Maximiliano 
Ferro, Alberto Jardines, Sebastian Cos, Miguel Cos. 



A Group of Cuban Children at Point Loma. 
With the Cuban visitors, Hon. Emilio Bacardi, Mayor of Santiago (the older man), 
Sr. D. F. Ortiz, editor of El Cubano Libre (the younger man), and Dr. Chas. Lopez of 
New Orleans (standing), December, 1902. 

viction that California is barbarous anyhow, that it has to 
fight off the Indians every morning - , and in general Needs Look- 
ing After — a notion to which some Californians have unfortu- 
nately contributed — were back of it all, the actual outrage upon 
the Cuban children, upon Cuba, upon California, was directly 
perpetrated by the notorious "Commodore" Gerry, to whom 
Life has so often paid its disrespects ; and to a review of whose 
outrageous methods the N. Y. Mail and Express of Dec. 1 
devotes two or three full pages. 

But the matter went higher — to the Secretary of the In- 
terior, and to a President who isnot a Tenderfoot. Commissioner- 
General of Immigration F. P. Sargent made a personal and 
thorough examination of the school ; and upon his report, 


'" 1 








M— *S 

• t'V 






5p |f| 





j hips' 



A Point Loma Art Class. 

backed by full evidence, the government immediately ordered 
the release of the children and of the refined woman (Dr. Van 
Pelt) who had them in charge. In the middle of December they 
reached Point Loma ; and these photographs show not onl} r their 
presence there, but a fair hint of what they found. 

This magazine has nothing to do with people's religious or 
mental creeds ; they may believe in warmed-over 'Ologies, or in 
cold ones, or in none at all, for all it cares. But it has an oc- 
casional brief for common-sense, and a standing retainer for 
Western intelligence as against Eastern provincialism, and 
against bigotries in general. It has made very careful investi- 
gation of the Point Loma institution — chiefly because it was 
prejudiced against it. It thinks it knows what it has seen there 
— though of course those who haven't seen must know more. 

A few weeks ago a club-woman, after listening to a paper on 
the alleged literary work of the editor of this magazine, inter- 
rupted the speaker with the protest : "I have understood that 
he came to a ladies' reception barefoot." The lady doubtless 
believed it. So also there are some who believe that the people at 
Point Loma worship purple dogs, starve the babies, run around 
in their nighties, and consecutively use their time in irremedi- 
able orgies. That the babies are not starved, this magazine 
feels to give bond. If they are, the East had better send along 
its Firstborn to take a starving of the same sort. As for the 
other things, those who like to believe them, after looking at 



Thk Woman's Exchange, an Industrial Department of the Point Loma Homestead 

the subjoined photographs, are welcome to. They probably 
would believe anything - . 

Every now and again there comes an "escaped nun " or a " re- 
formed priest," lecturing (for pay) on the " horrors " of nun- 
neries and the confessional. Not long ago we had with us the 
A. P. A., one of whose articles of faith was that the "under- 
ground passages " of every Catholic church are chock-full of 
loaded rifles, ready cocked for the imminent "Papist Uprising." 
Not infrequently someone writes a book " exposing the secret 
crimes of Free-Masonry." As every scholar knows, there are 
scores of volumes to prove that the figure we know as the Cross 
is merely a pagan symbol of lust. Other brilliant intellects 
produce books with such titles as " Prom the Ballroom to Hell " 
— the natural itinerary, of course, of all who Dance. And so on, 
through a list that outmeasures the Homeric Catalogue of the 
Ships. And these credulities thrive ; not because there are a 
few fools to preach them, but because there are so many Open- 
Mouthed Minds to Swallow Everything that is Fed them. All 
men are finite. All faiths being made by men, fall short of in- 
fallibility. But as between the people who follow any faith, 
and them that believe the votaries of that faith to be cannibals 
and horse thieves, there is no question which are the more 

If the people of! Point Loma^are]lcranks, and "(take stockl" in 


Mrs. Katharine Tingley, Head of the Universal Brotherhood. 

Universal Brotherhood, and try to accelerate it ; if they toil to 
educate poor children and rich children of all nationalities ; if 
they wear sometimes khaki, and sometimes "store clothes," 
and sometimes the toga that was good enough for Sophocles — 
why, they have more leisure than this writer. But if they are 
cranks, that is no particular reason why the rest of us should 
be idiots. Lumholtz, the ethnologist, was greatly handicapped 
during his work in "Unknown Mexico" by the conviction of a 
few of the most primitive tribes there that he was a raging 
cannibal. Dr. Lumholtz wore trousers, wrote on paper, carried 
a camera, and was otherwise so impudent as to differ from the 
Huichols. What, then, could be more certain than that he was 
in the habit of eating children ? The good doctor had almost 
as bad a time of it as if he had come among American news- 
papers and churchgoers with a new theory. 

As a mere matter of fact, nobody eats children. Not even at 
Point Loma, San Diego, Cal., United States of America — though 
the Point Loma children look good enough to eat. A good 
many Cuban children are there. A few weeks ago, the school 



* '* 



*" A* « 




Point Loma Childkkx. 

was thoroughly inspected by Hon. Emilio Bacardi, mayor of 
Santiago de Cuba, and Hon. Daniel F. Ortiz, editor of "El 
Cubano Libre." Both have distinguished records in Cuba's 
struggle for independence. Both came officially for Cuba and 

A I'I'IIAN lii>\ AT Ills ! ) K \ \\ i % . . I. I 




the parents, to see what the Point Loma school was like — the 
Cubans not being as yet alive to the full potentialities of Amer- 
ican ''journalism." Both were delighted with what they found 
at Point Loma. If the treatment of the Cuban children is arood 

A Class in Wood-Carving, Point Loma. 



Point Loma Schooi.hov-. 

enough to suit the Cubans, it ought to be good enough for the 
$10 per week newspaper correspondent who never saw Cuba 
or Point Loma, who wouldn't recognize Education if he met it 
on the street, and who thinks with his nose. 

As for the rest, the photographs may tell their own story. 

C. F. L. 

A I'oisi f.oMA Class in rill Vi.miv 




OOKING down into a rift of the green Californian hills 
near Gilroy, by a winding woodland trail that leads away 
from towns and temptation, is a little log cabin that to 
the stranger expresses no more of meaning than any other crude 
structure he might chance upon in the near-by skyland country 
of Santa Cruz. But to me this log cabin is a mute memorial of 
a significant literary life, just beginning to shape itself clearly 
and largely, and, in the very hour of that bright beginning, 
borne away on a sudden wind out of the land we know into the 
land we know not save by faith. 

The cabin on the heights was the chosen retreat of Prank 
Norris, a young man whom the world of letters could ill afford 
to lose ; for he was a conspicuously alert and apt student in the 
modern school of fiction. He had struck a note that vibrated 
far. • He had typified the West after the most vital, the most 
searching, the most earth-gripping of European literary models 
— modelsjin which every one must recognize the saliency, the 

movement, the color, the 
virility of human life. 
The single room of the 
log cabin was piled full 
of literary promises. Now 
it is empty. Norris never 
wrote there. He would 
be writing there now, but 
Death said, "No." 

The young writer, from 
whom we had all come 
to hope so much, had done 
little that could satisfy 
the artistic conscience of 
a man to whom intellect- 
ual and spiritual growth 
was the essential fact of 
life and work. But the 
color of the soil was in 
his pages and the blood 
and bones and viscera of 
humanity as he found it 
— the wholesome and the 
unwholesome, the pleas- 
ant and the repellant — 
painted with a painstak- 

Frank Norris. 

Photo by Gentke. 


ing brush. His creations, even though imperfectly individ- 
ualized, were far better than the work of many others who made 
use of their own insufficient literary forms and set forth their 
own trivial estimates of life with their own weaknesses of 
presentation. I know several rather prominent men of a certain 
literary Weissnichtwo who would give years of their lives for 
such power as Prank Norris had and such fame as he won. 

What Norris had written up to within a short time of his 
death, at the still unripe age of thirty-two, had been from the 
point of view of the earnest literary student, the Bohemian and 
the young man of the world. It was often morbid and nearly 
always essentially material, with none of the spirituality one 
finds in such great artists as Hardy and Eliot. It came from the 
young man enthusiastically devoted to his Zola and his Kipling, 
the young man who loved the stirring sight of the flying 
wedge, the breathless bucking of the center, the burly mid- 
waist tackle and the heavy fall ; the young man who loved the 
gleam of the guns, the infantry tramp, the crash of the con- 
flict, the sweat of the fight. 

And undeniably the infantry tramp was heard in his work, as 
well as the surging bugle note of the strenuous realist. It is 
the swing oi that infantry tramp and the insistent blast of that 
bugle that carry the Norris fiction over the great marshes of 
prolixity, through the mires of indecency and the sloughs of 
sodden brutality encountered in his pages. Many another 
writer with his obvious faults never could have won; but his 
sweeping scheme, his grip of character and his genuine human- 
ity won for him where a less vigorous and less sympathetic fic- 
tionist would have failed. 

The Norris painted by some of the critics and biographers is 
not a man to inspire deep sentiment, but the portrait was often 
loosely drawn and from fancy, not from life. Let me tell you 
of the Norris that I knew. Tall, straight, clean-limbed, with a 
fine, smooth, likeable face, big, brown, frank eyes, with an 
easily kindled smile lurking in them, and the freely frosted hair 
of a man of fifty. The grey of the hair gave a strangely ro- 
mantic interest to the boyish face, and in a roomful of aver 
men the eye of the visitor — and particularly the feminine eye 
— invariably would be drawn to Norris. A gentle habit of 
speech, an easy manner and an elusive and at times hardy pal- 
pable foreign air, were coupled with a charm of presence such 
as I have seen in few men. Yet he could be outspoken enough, 
and he was not without some of the small vices you are alwa> a 
likely to find in a catholic man and never in a prig. In other 
words, he did not pose nor preach and was never afraid to say T or 

Frank Norris. 


do the thing: that would not look well in his biography. He was 
a man's man and a woman's man, and what better word shall I 
say of him? 

Norris was of Middle- West birth, but, let me hasten to add, 
not of Middle-West ideas. He was born in Chicago in 1870, and 
his well-to-do parents had taken him to Europe at the age of 
eight, on which great occasion he had written an unusually 
precocious bit of literature descriptive of his travels, beginning 
with : " The time of departure has now arrived. ' Is this a 
dream ? ' said I." Which highly original phrases were often 
quoted by his elders to get a rise out of Frank, which they did 

The Norrises came to California in 1884, and Frank was sent 
to school at Belmont, San Mateo county. There he played foot- 
ball so furiously that his left arm was broken in two places. 
He gave up the game, but he loved it ever afterward. He 
wanted to be an artist, so he went to Virgil Williams, in San 
Francisco, to learn to draw. Then his mother sent him to a 
Paris art school. In Paris he studied mediaeval history so fever- 
ishly that art was sent into the background, and jousts and 
tourneys filled up his young life. An article descriptive of the 
Museum of Artillery in Paris, published in a San Francisco 
paper, was his first real essay in literature. He loved to prowl I 
about the armor-sta-nds of the Museum, and one day, when the 
watchman was out of the hall, he delighted his romantic soul by 
pulling on a set of rusty armor and brandishing an old sword, 
becoming a very fierce and terrible knight of the middle ages 
for five minutes, and a very terrified young modern when the 
angry keeper returned of a sudden, and, with a light wooden 
cane, put to rout the warrior with the sword. 

The French studies led to a long and labored effort in rhymed 
couplets, depicting in the style of Scott a story of feudal France 
called "Yvernelle." It was published in a little book which I 
have read and do not care to read again. In later years Norris, 
who recognized his lyrical limitations and had decided to shun 
the muse, said of "Yvernelle " that he was trying hard to live 
it down. 

Back again to California and this time to Berkeley. Much 
hard "digging" to gain a freshman's footing and much hard 
climbing to mount the sophomoric heights. Like all men who 
have the making of master artists in them he hated mathe- 
matics, and algebra was his especial abomination. Latin he{ 
likewise loathed, acquiring little, and of Greek nothing. His 
somewhat reserved nature and foreign flavor made him few col- 
lege friends at the first, but the sunniness of student life thawed 


him, and his fair, open face, honest eyes and charming - ways, 
eventually brought him many friends. 

In his university days he wrote many short stories, nearly all 
in the Kipling manner. His first published tale, "The Son of 
the Sheik," appeared in print in his freshman year, and was a 
creditable piece of work for a man of twenty-two. 

After his four rather unsatisfactory years at Berkeley, where 
he did not graduate, he decided upon a literary career, and took 
a one-year course at Harvard with that end in view. He was 
sent to South Africa by a newspaper syndicate at the time of 
the Jamieson raid and was ill there of a fever from the effects 
of which he never really recovered. 

On his return to San Francisco in 1896 he worked at a small 
salary on a society and literary paper called the Wave, now ex- 
tinct. For that journal he wrote many short stories, including 
some of real power and purpose. They were nearly all in the 
Kipling manner, with sometimes a flavor of Du Maurier. One 
of them, the tale of a duel with baseballs, showed much strength 
of the kind called "brutal." It was during the Wave days 
that he wrote " Moran of the Lady Letty," his first published 
long story, a rattling sea yarn of that mysterious and delight- 
ful "Treasure Island" quality, which lays violent hold upon 
the reader's interest. " Moran" has been unsparingly criticised 
because of its technical defects from a marine standpoint, but I 
cannot help loving the book and have defended it jealously in 
and out of print. To my mind it is the best thing Norris ever 
did in fiction, as it is simple, direct and wrought with a wonder- 
ful clarity that contrasts strongly with the prolixity that 
weakens the interest in some of his other books. 

Then came " McTeague," the story of a San Francisco den- 
tist, in which the ^ola-esque medium, upon which Norris had 
come to count so confidently, was employed throughout. The 
story was crudely informed, and while it flowed along with a 
wonderfully realistic sweep, it was infused in many places with 
obviously inferior matter. 

The young writer went east, and was for several years reader 
for a New York publishing house. From New York came 
"Blix" and "A Man's Woman," both of which novels his 
literary friends opened with large expectations, which, unhap- 
pily, were in each case deferred. He married the beautiful young 
woman on whom he had modelled the character of " Blix," and 
after that there was a long book-publishing pause. Then ap- 
peared " The Octopus," that tremendously formidable volume 
on Californian ranch life, which is regarded by some of our best 
literary judges as a great novel. It contains passages that are 


full of vivid color and fine feeling:. " The Octopus " was the 
first in a " trilogy of the wheat," and was to be followed by 
" The Pit," which was to tell the tale of the marketing- of the 
grain, and by "The Wolf," which was to take the breadstuff 
to European mouths. After " The Pit" was finished, in August 
of this year, Norris, who was not in good health, came to Cali- 
fornia and bought the hill ranch and log cabin which is near 
Mrs. Robert Stevenson's country place, with the idea of settling 
down there and writing " The Wolf " and other stories. But 
of a sudden came Death, who said " No ; not in this life, but 
in another shall your work go." The bright spirit passed on 
October 25th, after a painful illness, followed by a desperate 
operation for appendicitis. 

Norris was gradually creeping away from the Zola influence, 
though he still believed that life was more than literature. He 
had written some essays for the Critic, in which he maintained 
the idea of life as opposed to books. As an essayist he wielded 
a stout pen, and in each paper could be relied upon to force his 
pointrjof view throughout. 

All his life he had been a city man, of city habits and of city 
thought, but as he attained intellectual stature there came the 
inevitable yearning for Nature. With his power of observa- 
tion, his keen appreciation of life, what would Nature not have 
done for hirn ? What artistic growth might he not have 
reached ? What soul-growth awaited him there in the hills by 
that log cabin, where, listening close, he might have heard 
" the beatings of the hearts of trees " and been led to " think the 
thoughts that lilies speak in white." Yes, great is the log 
cabin idea in the literary life, and I am glad that it came to 
Norris, even though too late. It was that idea that made the 
strength of Thoreau, of nearly every great writer from the 
country Chaucer to the poor Warwickshire peasant who gave us 
the priceless "Lear," on down to Tolstoy, Hardy, our own Maur- 
ice Thompson and sweet old John Muir. The idea had come to 
Norris, and it is the idea that makes the man and the literary 
artist. Years of life may be passed by the artist in that arti- 
ficial state which we call civilization, and for a long time he 
may contemplate with approval the march of that malady 
which manifests itself to us as "progress," but dissideace, fol- 
lowed by open revolt, w/// come in time. He will see, as Norris 
saw, that a protracted period of literary effort in a great urban 
center, full of urban ideas — which find their most conspicuous 
expression in rampant, blood-consuming commercialism — must 
work an atrophy of the intellectual sympathies and apprecia- 
tions, and thus enfeeble the creative faculty. As a vital and 

i CAUFO^^ 
DA WN 55 

necessary part of his spiritual and artistic growth, he must at 
the last come to see, as Norris saw, that the sham social life 
found in such Babels of self-assured greatness as London and 
New York, and the club-life — the pride of their vain gregari- 
ousness — must be abandoned for long periods of time; that 
one must step from the deoxygenated atmosphere out into the 
open ; that to renew the creative current and keep it at high 
voltage, one must remain for long seasons in close connection 
with Nature's great storage batteries. 

Our young artist was denied the life that gives — the life he 
had come to long for — and all that it would have meant to 
him ; but at the end he might have said with Browning, 

" What I aspired to be 

And could not comforts me." 

Then, too, there remains the good work he really did, which 
will not soon be forgotten. But above all there remains the 
characterful influence, the strong example of rigorous and un- 
stinted endeavor which must be tonic to the minds of writers 
young and old. That influence was wide, and to those "of us 
who knew the man familiarly, it was helpful and should inspire 
us all. For one, I thank whatever gods there be that I knew 
Prank Norris, the man and the artist. What we of today may 
think or say of his books signifies little. For that full senate 
of serene intellects, the scholars of the future, will debate upon 
and weigh his work — and they will decide. 

San Francisco.] 



FLUSH of rose in a dove-gray East ; 
A golden bee arrayed for a feast ; 
A startled cry, a lark's wing spread ; 
Dew-drops a-tremble on briar-rose bed ; 
A ling'ring kiss of night's good-bye 
As stars fade out of a changing sky. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

. 'txv mu{e di^urltJ wftm iKymiivd. 
fear km. *\rowii\< color-rlmd. 

Tor cJI {ke LW-efce^ 1 has? s^eeiv 
\)x ]c\fe l\<v^ looked ^o wry *reei\. 


the: water-tank. 


HE Arizona sun blazed down until the wastes of 
sand and alkali seemed to dance before the 
eyes. The sky was an arch of polished steel 
across which the great disk of white fire swept 
glowing in its tedious track from east to west. 
The waves of heat blazed up from the furnace- 
like surface, and beat against the faces of the 
trudging column. Alkali dust flew in clouds, 
choking the brick-red marchers, and aggravat- 
ing the agony of parched and burning throats in which the 
mucus thickened, till it was as cotton. 

For thirst had fallen upon them. Three hundred soldiers 
were caught in a desert, in which all the water-holes had dried 
up, forty miles from the nearest station. One small tank of 
water, drawn by six mules, must last them over that hell of 
waste. The colonel, upon realizing the situation, made a rapid 
calculation, discovering thereby that one pint every ten miles 
for each man would exhaust the supply. He knew also that 
even experienced soldiers, when half crazed with thirst, might, 
in their extremity, forget not only the army rules and regula- 
tions, but, for that matter, any other rules and regulations 
under heaven. 

A guard was detailed for the water-tank, with " Lieutenant 
Dick " in command — otherwise, Lieut. Richard Roberts ; rough 
and loud, ever ready with a blow for brawlers and laggards, but a 
man of "sand." A pint was issued to each man at starting. Ten 
miles on a pint of water — and Tophet itself a paradise by com- 
parison ! Ever hotter glowed the sun — ever fiercer the blazing 
fiats of sand and alkali. The miles fell slowly behind — heart- 
breaking links in a chain of suffering. Five, six, seven, eight, 
and the column was growing uneasy. Nothing definite that 
one might put his finger on — just simply uneasy. Some of 
the men had developed a curious, dry, rattling little cough ; 
and when they spat, the throat contracted spasmodically with an 
awful aching. Only two more miles — surely they could stand 
that ! And they did. But the ground seemed unstable beneath 
their feet, and the hands that fumbled at their throats shook as 
with a palsy. 

Another pint ; and again the long, crawling line shambled 
on. What sort of country was this, anyway, in which the sky 
spun so, and the distant mountains seemed wheeling to meet 
them ? Then there was a curious swelling and throbbing in 


the temples. And that excruciating: ache in the throat — would 
nothing stop it ? Six miles of the lap were passed, and the 
lieutenant was struck with the hollow-eyed, deathlike look of 
many of the men. The lips of all were swollen enormously. 
Seven miles — was the column moving:, or was it simply the 
earth moving: under them ? And were they moving: with it, or 
against it ? But the dull jarring of the wagons and the muffled, 
mouthing- curses of the mounted drivers — not too thirsty for 
that — chained them to reality. Eight — was the water never 
coming- ? Occasionally a plodder slipped softly to the earth ; 
his face showing: an ugly, pasty white through the red and 
grime. Nine — and endurance, long: tried, flamed up in mad 
protest. An ominous rattling - of unshouldered arms, a grating: 
crunch of the sand, not noticeable when they stepped before — 
the grind of decision — and the whole body moved as one man 
upon the water-tank. No man spoke ; nor was it necessary. 
Their staring: faces spoke for them. The stocky little lieutenant, 
with the Durham-bull head and small blue eyes, set his teeth. 
He knew the grip was coming:. The horses were stopped and 
men swarmed up on the tank — only to find the lids closed and 
padlocked. The guard fixed bayonets, and, g-ently as might be, 
thrust them down, the iron jaw of Lieutenant Dick working- as 
he expostulated with them, crying: that the guards had not had, 
nor should they have, any more than the regular ration, and 
that himself would march the whole distance without touching 
a drop — that their only hope of saving: their lives lay in hus- 
banding: their little supply. 

A glistening: hedge of bayonets surrounded the tank — more 
precious than all the riches of earth. The click of breech- 
locks, as some of the maddened men forced home the cartridges, 
punctuated the lieutenant's speech. He, with bared head and 
foam-flecked lips, faced the main body of mutineers — no longer 
the reckless, care-free, kindly jesters of the day before, ready to 
toss up with death in another form and let the result go as 
it might, but rather creatures who had gone back to primitive 
instincts ; those instincts which had animated their far fore- 
fathers in the gloomy forests of Europe ages before, when they 
fought the wolf and the cave-bear breast to breast. 

And still, so ingrained was discipline — so much was it a part 
of themselves — that even now there was a sort of system in 
their actions, albeit they were of a nature that tended toward 
the doing away with all systems whatsoever. 

Twenty rifles leaped to as many shoulders, the officer staring 
fixedly into the black muzzles, with one hand raised in protest 
which was not wholly lost even upon that mob. 


In the instant of hesitation he spoke again ; and in the great 
stillness which had fallen upon them it seemed that his voice 
might be heard for miles. In hoarse tones which had yet that 
certain ring which no man ever hears unstirred, he asked if 
there was one man among them who would march beside him to 
the journey's end without water. Lieutenant Dick did not 
speak hurriedly, but he lost no time. There was death in those 
fumbling fingers. It might be simply accident ; but some acci- 
dents might as well have been design. 

A lizard rustled across the sand at his feet ; the sun beat ; the 
far hills glimmered, and the whole landscape appeared to bend 
toward them expectantly. Then a little, sandy, "sawed-off" 
fellow who had been picked with many misgivings, simply to 
fill the ranks, separated himself from the mass, walked to one 
side and stood at attention ; a big Norwegian followed ; and in 
the general rattling of rifles being "recovered," the drummer, 
with an eye for situations, beat a long, quick call to the road ; 
the column swung into line and moved off — Lieutenant Dick 
tucking under each arm a rifle which he had gently taken from a 
couple of boy-soldiers, leading the way. The civilization of a 
thousand years, acquired through racking stress and travail, 
had proved itself adequate. 

Demine, New Mexico. 



C{ {SJY LONELY grave,'' you say, with pitying smile, 
jfjf And turn your eyes ahead, where mile on mile 
The stretch of white sand yucca-studded lies. 
You think of cool, dim spots on Nature's breast, 
Whose very marbles have a look of rest — 
And then you pity me — I who have such 
A store of beauty, with the virgin touch 
Of young creation lingering undefiled ! 

This fervent heat, these sands, the burning sky 
Have known my cradling and my short, fierce day, 
And now that I am worsted, here I lay 
The struggle down, content enough to die 
As I have lived, the mighty Desert's child. 

Hamilton, O. 




^(SlERY few people who read of the burning-ghats of India 
\/ and the customs of cremation among ancient peoples 
know that within the borders of the United States live a 
people who have preserved the old tradition of fire-burial up to 
the present time, and who today burn their dead exactly as they 
did when the world of white men stopped short at the English 

Hemmed in the heart of the desert to which their tribe gives 
name, one of the loneliest, dreariest, most desolate, and yet 
most weirdly beautiful spots on earth, the Mojave Indians have 
for centuries had their home along the banks of the Colorado 
river. They were there when Coronado's soldiers strove across 
the deserts on their quest of Cibola-Zuni ; and the Argonauts 
found them digging holes in the sand-bars with the same 
pointed sticks, and sliding in handfuls of the same pale yel- 
low round-grained corn. 

A lean harvest it has been for them always ; eked out with 
mesquite beans and fruits of the surly thick-thorned cactus. 
Their brethren to the south had richer fields, those to the east 
preyed joyously on the provident pueblo-dwellers ; but the Mo- 
javes wrung from their sullen sand-banks what food they might 
and starved between times. 

Cursed by perpetual drouth, swept by sand-storms, and shut 
off by miles of burning desert from all kindlier lands, their grim 
valley has been at once a prison and a stronghold. It barred 
invading tribes and offered no temptation to the white man, 
who crossed it only to spike the rails of a trans-continental rail- 
road and pass on. 

Scarcity of water indeed compelled him to set a great machine 
shop on the banks of the muddy river, and feed his engines for a 
thousand miles with its waters ; but the land received him 
grudgingly and his "Devil's House " has played small part in 
the lives of the brown desert-men who come and go from their 
homes up and down the river. 

Two government schools have gone a little deeper, but stop 
far short of bed-rock. Old faiths and customs still prevail in 
spite of teachers and missionaries, and babies are welcomed and 
the dead burned with rites that were old when the first white 
man saw the valley. 

Vague hints suggest this cremation of the dead, which is 
common only to the tribes of the Colorado desert, as a remin- 
iscence of some great plague or contagion whose date is lost 
even to misty tradition. Ill-judged protests and attempts on 


the part of white people to break up the custom have caused 
the Indians to grow very suspicious, and cremations now take 
place only in some remote spot, at night if possible, and with 
every precaution that no strangers shall witness the ceremony. 

With the poorest squaw are burned her beads, her extra dresses 
and blankets, and whatever goods of value she may possess; and 
the burning of a chief leaves half the tribe beggared in the 
morning. Blankets, beads, bolts of calico, belts, silk handker- 
chiefs, and bright ribbons are thrown into the fire by mourning 
friends and relatives ; the favorite ponies of the deceased were 
formerly shot and added to the pyre, and even the valued rifle 
and knife thrown in. 

The Mojaves are a fine people, as Indian peoples go, strong 
and active and not afraid of work. Many of them are employed 
as section hands on the railroad crossing the desert, where the 
terrible heat burns out the life of a white man in a few months ; 
and- in the round-house at Needles, where the thermometer often 
stands at 120°, a score or more of their picked men have steady 

Chief Juan had nominal charge of these, and the strong, 
steady fellow exerted a quiet but powerful influence over his 
people. His little home of cactus poles, thatched with mud and 
bear grass, hung like a bird's nest on the very bank of the 
river in sight of the shops, and all day his wife sat on the 
shady side of the house weaving beautiful belts of bead-work 
for sale to the tourists who thronged the passing trains. We 
were building a boat a few feet from their door, and soon were 
good friends with all the family. It consisted of Juan and his 
wife Marta, three brown babies who fairly lived in the river, 
and Joli, Marta's brother, a pitiful cripple, who dragged him- 
self out in the sun and watched us for hours. 

Marta feared the " Devil's House," as she called the railroad 
shops, profoundly ; she bade Juan good-bye every morning with 
a pathetic, dumb anxiety, no way lessened by her silence, and 
welcomed him home at night with a dog-like gladness in her 
dark eyes. Between times, as the gay beads slipped through 
her fingers, she tried in broken Spanish, with her few English 
words mingled in, to tell us of Joli. The doctor from the rail- 
road hospital had told us before. 

Joli had worked for the Company loading and unloading 
freight cars ; one day he was caught in a lurching car loaded 
with heavy machinery and fought his way out with a hand gone 
and a hip crushed and dislocated. The doctor was on hand and 
Joli was hurried to the hospital almost at the point of the six- 
shooter, for these Indians will not allow a white doctor to touch 
one of their people if they can help it. 


The hand was dressed, the hip set, and the boy well on the 
way to recovery ; but in about two weeks the clamor of his tribe 
became so great that he was removed to Juan's hut on the river. 
There, after a pow-wow of all the head men, the doctor found 
him with his hand open and dressed in a ball of mud and the 
hip again dislocated. He was Indian enough to live ; but only 
to drag his crippled body out in the sunshine and sit on the 
river bank thumbing a deck of greasy cards and playing Mex- 
ican monte with the loafers of the tribe. 

One sultry afternoon, when the white heat-vapor swam in 
silvery mirage to the very water's edge and a chisel dropped 
from the hand burned one five minutes later as it was picked up 
from the sand, a great cry went up from the round-house, and 
the Mojave workmen streamed out carrying something prone 
among them. It was Juan ; the most capable man of his crew, 
he had been sent up on a disabled engine with two helpers to 
unrivet and take off the hood of the battered smoke-stack. 
Just as they cut the last rivet it lurched over, breaking him 
backward over the headlight and throwing him twenty feet into 
the pit below where he struck square across the end of a pro- 
jecting rail. 

Before the white employees could reach him the unconscious 
man was surrounded by his own people and carried down to his 
hut on the river bank. Long wailing cries broke at intervals 
from his bearers, answered up and down the street and along the 
river, till as if they had risen out of the earth half the tribe 
were gathered around the little hut. 

Poor Marta ! her brown face went grey at the first cry, and 
with set lips she silently folded her bead-work and laid it away 
and cleared the shady space for the limp burden the men were 
bringing. No need to tell her the news ; it had run on before 
to her heart with swift feet. But she did not wail or cry or 
groan ; in all that pandemonium of hideous sound hers were 
the only lips that kept silence. 

Bending almost to the ground or flinging their arms in the 
air ; pushing, crowding, almost fighting for a place near the 
injured man, the entire assembly wailed and howled like a thou- 
sand coyotes, till the echoes borne far up and down the river 
apprised everyone within miles of the accident. 

The hospital doctor hurried down and tried to reach the 
wounded man, but a score of broad shoulders closed in and 
barred his way. "No use," he said, falling back, "it would 
take a company of soldiers to scatter them ; we had enough of 
it with that one," pointing to Joli. " It's a shorter shift 
with this one though ; his back is broken as near as I can tell, 


but the poor fellow may live a week in spite of their howling." 

Juan lay on the bare earth on the shady side of the hut ; 
Marta, with a world of agony in her set face, crouched at his 
head bathing his chest with water, and after the first dash he 
recovered consciousness and pitifully motioned back the howling 
mob that shut off every breath of air from the stifling place. 

A tall old man arriving in haste from up the river pushed his 
way through the crowd and took his place by the side of the 
sufferer, shaking a rattle made of a large dipper gourd filled 
with pebbles, and singing in a high-pitched monotone, turning 
slowly to all points of the compass, apparently with prayers and 
incantations, lifting his hands solemnly and seeming to invoke 
supernatural aid. 

Before his authoritative voice and gestures the wailing crowd 
fell back a little, and a dozen or more very old women, seemingly 
told off for that purpose, gathered in a knot behind the singer 
and bent and contorted themselves in time with the music in a 
pantomime of grief. 

Now for the first time poor Marta moved from her watch by 
Juan's side. Yielding her place to a young woman whom we 
knew to be her sister, she stepped into the crowd and began to 
move from one to another, taking the greatest care to touch 
each person and say a few words full of agonized entreaty. If 
by chance she missed anyone, she turned back and repeated the 
ceremony. Coming to the outskirts of the crowd she caught 
sight of us, her old friends, and for the first time tears ran down 
her cheeks as she saw the two women of our party with eyes 
wet in sympathy for her. 

As the afternoon drew to dusk and Juan grew weaker, the men 
of his family group went out a few feet from where he lay and 
began carrying and cutting the wood for his funeral pyre ; in 
plain sight of the conscious but partly paralyzed man, who 
must have known indeed that the first unconscious moment 
would consign him to the flames, for these people burn their 
dead almost before the breath leaves the body. That now and 
again some tragedy ensues we knew ; for all summer long a 
woman with fingers and toes burned off and great scars on her 
shoulders had come daily to lounge in the shade of the boat and 
get the scraps of food we saved for her. Marta had told us 
that she was one who had been hurried to the pyre too soon, and 
recovering consciousness had escaped to a fate not unlike that 
of Kipling's dead-alive colony, for her people treated her with 
the most profound indifference. 

As the wood-cutting progressed, Marta brought out Juan's 
best clothes, the beautiful woven belt of bead-work and many 


strings of beads worn on neck and wrists, and laid them beside 
him that Jthej might be burned with their owner. Now and 
then she shifted them about or lifted them as if for him to see, 
and once he twisted his fingers in the beads and gazed at them 
long, recalling perhaps the times when they had been worn. 

After dark a few of the Mojaves slipped away to their huts, 
but many rolled themselves up and slept on the ground near, 
and the old man kept up his singing monotone and solemn shak- 
ing of the rattle all night long. 

At daybreak Juan was still alive, and the doctor getting near 
enough to make a brief examination said that he might live for 
weeks, might even get well with proper care. All his aid was 
refused however, and one of the larger row boats was made 
ready to take Juan up the river, " To a mucha big doctor " 
Marta said, slipping over to bid us goodby, with a pathetic 
hope in her face. 

Three weeks later we were lounging in the cool dusk on the 
river bank when a boat slid noiselessly in and a cautious voice 
hailed us. It was Joli and a stranger. Marta had sent them to 
tell us that Juan was dead and that he would be burned at once 
on the little island across the river, with as much secrecy as 
possible that the white people in town might not get wind of it. 

Joli motioned us to the boat, and silently we stepped in ; when 
we reached the island it was already crowded with people. All 
the Mojaves on the river seemed to be there. Near the center, and 
somewhat screened by a clump of cottonwoods, a shallow hole 
had been scooped in the sand and lined with dry wood. It was 
perhaps six feet long and half as wide ; the body covered with 
extra clothes, blankets, beads, and other personal belongings 
had just been placed inside, and the men were covering it with 
dry cottonwood limbs from a large pile near by. 

Poor Marta crouched a little apart with a band of wailing 
women, and the flame leaping up showed her worn and thin 
with her long vigil. As the flame shot up high over the trees 
the island resounded with the wildest wailing and howling ever 
heard ; deafening and terrifying at once, and as infinitely sad as 
only the grief of a primitive people can be. 

The old man with the rattle shook it dismally and chanted in 
jerky measures while the attendants heaped fresh fuel on the 
fire ; and presently one by one, then, as the excitement grew, 
by twos and threes and groups, the mourners rushed forward 
throwing their gifts on the pyre. 

Juan was a man of some means, and Marta's own pile of 
calico and blankets was by no means small ; but he was also 
much beloved by his people, and men who had witnessed many 



burnings said such a pyre had not been known since the burning 
of the old head chief ten years before. 

Bolt after bolt of gorgeous "Indian calico " was unrolled and 
flung into the fire, where it rose and fell on the flame like beat- 
ing wings. As the pile of gifts got low some of the men slipped 
away to town for more calico, and many of the Indians took off 
their own garments and ornaments and heaped them on the now 
glowing bed of coals. 

With the returning boats came white men — and whiskey ; 
bribe to the Indian boatmen from the crowd of curiosity-seekers 
eager to witness any part of the burning. The shouting grew 
wilder and louder, pistols began to crack here and there, 
and we were glad to find Joli and our boat and slip away from 
the half-demoniacal scene. 

Out on the blackness of the river the shouts followed us like 
echoes from Hades; now and then a new flame shot up, silhouet- 
ting the dark leaping figures and ghostly cottonwood limbs 
against the opposite bank. 

Till daylight from our tent on the water's edge we could see 
the spot of fire, like a dull eye growing dimmer and dimmer, 
and catch the weird, lessening cries of the mourners. Then 
boat by boat they came back to the cactus pole huts, and at 
breakfast time Marta was squatted in the shade as usual, baking 
tortillas on a flattened sheet of old stove-pipe for Joli and the 
three brown babies. 

Presc*tt, Arit. 



lARION ROSE found herself for the first time 
in her young life facing the very old problem 
of domestic service. It was small comfort to 
her that the Pacific Coast had once depended 
on the yellow-skinned, almond-eyed sons of the 
Celestial Empire for its dinner-getting. At 
the present moment there were no Chinese to 
be had for domestic service on Puget Sound ; the salmon can- 
neries took all the new comers as fast as they were smuggled 
across the line from British Columbia. Nor was Marion Rose 
comforted by the thought that the non-union cook-ladies had 
followed the railroads to the sunset slope and had been ever 
since in the bosoms of the best families. If the Chinese were 
scarce, the servant girl was scarcer, for she was now largely 
unionized, having somewhat married into the male population 
of the Coast. Reluctantly Marion Rose listened to the voice of 
extremity, which said "You must send for a Jap." _ 


Something: must be done, for Marion Rose had planned a 
dinner and invited certain particular guests — Bax Bannister 
and Miss Bannister and one or two others. But the dinner was 
for Bax Bannister, who had just won promotion at the office by 
his success in Japan. Bax had been attentive to Marion before 
he crossed the Pacific, and Marion had really missed him. Mrs. 
Rose favored the affair, and — Oh, well, it was just too mean 
for the maid to leave that very day ! And a Jap 1 Mrs. Rose 
had always declared that she would never have one in the house. 

Mrs. Rose had telephoned to her trusted employment office, 
only to be told that in July the young girls went to the ranches 
to work in the fields and, incidentally, to meet their beaus. 

44 But what shall I do ? " pleaded Marion. 

"Well, a Jap is better than nothing," said Cook. 

41 Perhaps Mr. Bannister can lend you a Jap," said Mrs. Rose, 
quizzingly. "He was in Japan a long time." 

44 1 wish he had remained there," said the perplexed girl. 
Then she went to the telephone and called up the Japanese em- 
ployment bureau. When a quick 44 Hello" greeted her she 
caught the Japanese flavor of it, and began to speak slowly and 
distinctly for fear of being misunderstood. 

44 1 have lost my table girl and — " 

44 Ha-ha." 

Marion flushed a little and laughed nervously. It was a soft 
sound, deep in the Oriental throat at the other end of the wire. 

44 Yes, it is ridiculous. And just as I was about to give a 
dinner, too." 

44 Ha-ha." 

44 1 assure you it's no laughing matter. I must have some one 
to wait on table." 

44 Ha-ha. I send you boy. Where you live ? " 

44 Number Seven-eleven Highland Drive." 

44 Ha-ha. I send right away. Hsank you. Go'-bye." 

Marion did not report her conversation over the 'phone to 
her mother, but wondered what made the Japanese so keen on 
humor. She watched for the coming of the Jap boy, as he 
would have but one day's practice before the eventful dinner. 

He came, and stood before Marion, bowing from his hips stiff 
as a manikin. He presented a note. 

44 Oh, yes," said she, without reading it. 44 You are to be my 
table boy." 

44 Ha-ha." 

Marion felt the color flying over her face, but the little brown 
chap smiled so pleasantly that she smiled in return. 

44 Cook will show you your room, and then you can set the 
table for dinner." 



Marion perceived that he did not understand, and thought 
him laughing to be polite. It was such a quick, soft, throaty 
laugh. He was a cute Jap, anyway. In a white coat he would 
look as neat as a doll. 

"Ha-ha. Note. Read," said the boy, pointing to a bit of 
paper he had presented. 

The employment bureau had given it to him, as it gives a 
like note to all applicants. The bureau also furnishes each boy 
with a double-acting Japanese-English, English-Japanese dic- 
tionary. Marion read the note : 

" This is Sonamo Hayashi. He wishes to be called Charley. He 
cannot talk English very well, but he can read and write." 

" Very well, Charley. Cook will show you to your room, and 
then " 

"Ha-ha. You write," interrupted the boy, drawing his dic- 
tionary from an inside pocket and holding it in both hands be- 
fore him, at the same time making Marion Rose a stiff, quick 
bow from the hips. 

But Marion led him to the cook, and left her to write the 
necessary directions. Back in the library, Marion sighed deeply. 
The prospect was anything but pleasant. 

The cook spent that evening writing answers to questions 
which the Jap propounded to her on paper, through the medium 
of his dictionary. The next morning at breakfast the Jap 
handed Marion a note and stood demurely waiting an answer. 

" Cook says tonight there is to be in dinner as seven. May I 
have your gracious to show to me the dish which to use as usual." 

" Certainly," said Marion. " The best China, and " 

" Ha-ha. Not — understand — well. You — to — write. 

So Marion wrote it and the Japanese sat down in the butler's 
pantry and translated it into the soft pattering sounds of his 
native chrysanthemums. Then he gave his careful attention 
while Marion selected the china and sorted the glass and silver 
for him. 

Midway between lunch and dinner time — the eventful dinner 
— Marion found him with the table in utter confusion and his 
black head bent over the composition of another note. 

u I have friend from Japan in three years last. Has worked 
Revenue Cutter Grant. I hope gracious to suggest I ask him come 
make pretty table and help myself. He cost two only dollars and 
half. I telephone him can come quick." 

Marion smiled and I nodded. The Jap boy flew to the tele- 


phone. Marion heard him say "Main-six-seven," and then she 
heard the first genuine Japanese eloquence of her life. What 
she could not understand was the frequency with which the boy 
at her end of the 'phone said "Ha-ha" during the conversa- 

An hour later a tiny Jap came to the house and quietly took 
command of Marion's dinner. To her questions he replied in 
broken but freely spoken English, generally interspersed with 
" ha-ha's," that his name was Saki, and that he had at different 
times served officers of the navy both at their homes and on 
board ship. His manner of address was like a stuttering rapid- 
fire rifle — short, sharp, irregular and without accent. But he 
could talk, and that was a comfort. 

Saki asked how many were to sit down to dinner, and Marion 
Rose said seven. Then he said that she need not worry, that 
he would manage. She watched him a few moments and knew 
that her dinner was safe. She went to her room to rest till it 
should be time to dress. When she did go down, a few moments 
before the time for her guests to arrive, everything was ready, 
and Saki, the expert, had proven himself a treasure. The Rose 
family table had never looked prettier. 

The guests came, Bax Bannister, a bit conscious, and Miss 
Bannister, smilingly approving. Marion Rose was complimented 
on her decorations, and felt it her duty to credit Saki. Miss 
Bannister recognized the name and the character, and expressed 
her sympathy for Marion in the struggles that must come with 
the Jap problem. 

" I have just broken in a new table boy," said Miss Bannister 
"and yesterday he left me abruptly. He wrote me a clever 
little note and asked for his pay, saying that he needed it to 
meet an obligation. I paid him, and then he departed, leaving 
only a brief note of farewell." 

" He left you for someone else," said Bax. "That's one of their 
financial niceties. You paid the employment office two dollars 
for him ? Exactly. The office kept one dollar and gave your 
new table boy one dollar for changing places." 

" Really," exclaimed Marion in surprise. 

"And you will pay this little autocrat who calls himself Saki 
two dollars and a half," continued the merciless Bax. 

"Yes," said Marion Rose. 

"Of which your table boy will receive the fifty cents." 

Dinner was announced, and Marion's guests were charmed 
with the table. But when Saki and his aide entered with plates 
of soup Miss Bannister was betrayed into a peal of laughter, for 
in Marion Rose's new Jap she recognized her own truant. 


The Jap boy recognized his former mistress and fled from the 

Bax Bannister, seeing - Marion's discomfiture, briefly ex- 
plained the situation to Saki and then sent him after the 
frightened Charley. 

"Oh, he will not come till I write him a note," said Miss 
Bannister, and on the back of her brother's card she wrote her 
pardon of he ruant's actions, and told him to be faithful to 
Miss Rose. 

Then the dinner progressed, Saki directing the nervous 
Charley with soft, monosyllabic explosions, alternately praising 
and chiding. 

While the dinner lasted Saki was an autocrat, but when it 
was over, he sat down at an end of the kitchen table beside Char- 
ley, and the two tiny men servants ate their fill, talking in soft 
stocking-footed Japanese, while the cook leaned her elbows on 
the other end of the table and eyed them with silent interest. 

" What makes those Japanese laugh so much ? " asked 
Marion of Bax, later in the evening. 

"Laugh?" inquired Bax, in surprise. "They are always 
very serious." 

" But that boy has said ' ha-ha ' to me every other word to- 

Then Bax Bannister laughed in right good earnest, and was 
some time in explaining to Marion Rose that those two soft 
sounds down in a Japanese' throat are the native word for "yes." 
And later still in the evening when Bax explained another mat- 
ter to Marion at some length she did not draw away her hand, 
but sat quite still, and down in her throat made two soft sounds : 


Seattle, Wash. 


[From the Memoirs of the Late Joseph Huskisson, Esq., of California — Second Extract.} 


ffF one will search long enough through the San Francisco 
J[ newspapers of three or four years before the Civil War, he 
may find an article which reads something like this : 

" Sacramento, Sept. 15. — The news has reached here that the stage 
running' between Forest City and Nevada was robbed several days ago. 
The express company's treasure-box was taken by the miscreants, but 
through a sad error on the part of the thieves, a dust bag containing some 
$15,000, the property of a passenger, was overlooked. The stage had 
reached a hill-top near Forest City on its way from that place, when four 
4 road agents,' armed with pistols, appeared and asked the driver to ' pass 
down that box.' 


M The driver, of course, obeyed, and handed down the box without a 
show of resistance. Indeed, any effort on his part to fight the robbers off 
would have been futile. The rascals then started, apparently, to search 
the compartment under the rear seat, but for some reason abandoned that, 
and, having commanded the driver to go ahead, rode away, apparently 
very gleeful at their supposed success. 

" It was discovered later that the dust bag in question, which the driver 
had supposed was in the express box, was actually under the rear seat, 
where it had been placed by its owner, James C. Harrington, who was on 
his way home to New York. His explanation of the affair is that he de- 
signedly put a bag full of gravel in the box while he retained the real dust 
bag under his seat. He was the recipient of many congratulations for 
his good sense and good fortune. 

" One of the robbers is thought to be ' Dutch Trina.' a woman who con- 
sorts with thieves, affects men's clothing, plays cards, swears, drinks, 
smokes, chews, and acts otherwise in the manner of the sterner sex. The 
driver declares that he recognized the other three as William, alias 
' Brockey,' Summers, ' Mob ' Scanlin and ' Scotty ' Burfield, all well- 
known law-breakers and desperate characters." 

These paragraphs will serve as an introduction to one of the 
most surprising- adventures in which "English Jim " Kay and I 
took any part. Jim was bold as ever and apparently recked as 
little of human life, including his own. In fact the circum- 
stances somewhat encouraged daring among the members of the 
law-breaking part of the Pacific coast community. The excite- 
ment and dangers of the Vigilance Committee days had passed 
by, and people had begun to forget that there were still some 
rogues around who had not been hung or effectually expatriated. 
But for some reason our peculiar business had been particularly 
dull for a fairly long period. We had, it i9 true, held up sev- 
eral stages and stopped a number of prosperous-looking indi- 
viduals, but appearances had been deceitful and luck against us. 

Our headquarters had been in a shack-like structure over in 
the hills some twenty miles from the 'stage line. One day we 
decided that a little intelligent " prospecting " was an immedi- 
ate necessity, and " Brockey " Summers was selected to carry 
on an investigation that we hoped would result in feathering 
our scanty nests for another season of carousal. Summers went 
over to Forest City and made it his special affair to discover, 
without arousing undue suspicion, what there was to be had for 
our forceful asking. While there he fell in with "Dutch 
Trina," whose connection with a certain dance hall, the favorite 
of the Frisco " Barbary Coast," had endeared her to every 
scalawag, blackleg, thug and plug-ugly from the days of the 
Hounds to our own unsavory time. It was Trina who found 
out that Harrington was going out on the Monday stage, home- 
ward bound, with his "pile." Certain pardonable indiscretions 
on Harrington's part had made it a point of the bar-talk that 
his pile was worth having. 


Our feminine ally with the masculine tendencies communi- 
cated.^her information to Summers, and very shrewdly declared 
herself "in on the deal." Then, probably reflecting that honor 
among thieves is much like harmony among consulting medicos, 
she suited action to words, and became a member of the expedi- 
tion against the Harrington thousands. 

English Jim and I were selected to go as passengers on the 
stage, and attend to any unforeseen difficulties. At the word, 
we were to throw up our hands, but Jim's thumb was to indi- 
cate the spot where the dust bag could be found. I was a sort 
of handy man on this trip. If anybody on board the stage 
pulled a gun I could kick his elbow at the psychological 

Jim took a seat at Harrington's side. I sat behind the driver, 
and kept my foot ready for action. 

Kay soon got Harrington to talking, and I caught enough of 
the conversation to interest me. 

" -Going back home, eh, pardner?" said Jim. 

"Yes. Got my pile and I am goin'. The old lady, the 
mother, needs me — back in New York. Ever in New York ? 
No ? Well, the old lady had a little shop on IGreenwich 
avenue where she sold notions. An' while I was scutterin' 
around here, out comes a letter by the Overland that her little 
place was burned down. Now she don't know anything about 
this lucky strike of mine. Won't I make her happy and proud, 
though ! Got a mother, pardner ? What ! You don't — " 

The rattle of the wheels on a rough grade drowned out the 
words. With the next that I heard that dolt Harrington was 
actually confiding to Jim (a perfect stranger to him) that he 
had brought along two dust bags ; that one of them, which 
contained all his hard-earned wealth, was under the back seat, 
and that the bag he had ostentatiously given to the driver to be 
put in the express box was full of worthless gravel. I heard 
him chuckle at his astuteness. 

" Good plan that," he said. "You can't tell but what some 
of these road-agents had a confederate back there in Forest 
City lookin' at me when I passed up the gravel bag How's that 
for a rich one ? " 

Again a down grade and a rattle of the wheels. 

Then we came down the canon where the four were. At the 
command "hands up " we all obeyed, and there was no foolish 
trouble, but when "Brockey" ordered the treasure-box down I 
turned like a flash on Jim Kay. 

"Turn your head, you ass," he growled, "unless you want it 
punctured with lead." 


But before I turned I saw that he was pointing with his 
thumb at the box and not to the back seat. 

When we got off, I wasted no time. 

" What'n hell do you mean by bilking the gang on this game ? 
You know, and I know, what's in that bag the gang got and 
where the real dust bag was." 

"Never had a mother waiting for you, did you, you damned 
hell-hound ? " quoth he. 



"ICTf ONSTERS of the deep creep out — from whence and 
@JV 1 whither, and why ? 

Great hulks loom out of vapory ghosts, their sireas 
rend the sky. 
He who guides the mighty thing, this matter dread but seen. 
With us salutes the greater power than any force marine. 

Thus are the highways guided : the shuttles to and fro 

To the isles, the dim, scarce-charted wilds, suffering heat, or 

Are moved by something fine and high, the looked-for yea or 

Sallying forth upon a word, unless it bids them stay. 

The lines upon the fretted chart tell but a hollow tale ; 

Por here, where a zigzag marks the course, there raged a 

howling gale ; 
And here, in swooning silence, the oily tropics dream, 
Where treacherous reefs in quiet lie in path of rapid stream. 

Behold ! the stars are marshalled out after the setting sun ; 
It is now long thoughts roam wider out than any courses run. 
And these guide more than compass. The elements be kind 
To the ship that carries men on board who leave good wives 
behind 1 

By some Divine instruction, prattle of little lips, 

Through the velvety night-watch babbling makes wise the man 

of ships ; 
And seas are less uncertain, less far away the goal. 
Because of a love in verity — love of a human soul. 

May no half-human sea-dog, an off-cast from the land, 
On the bridge of a trim-built vessel hold word of high command ; 
But send us those commanders, bred for the sea Down East, 
Whose long generations fought for them their fight against the 

Ennrnada, Mex. 


To the Pacific Coast of America. 

{From their own, and contemporary English, accounts.) 

Sir Francis Drakb. — III. 

>ERE they received news of something that had lately happened in 
or near Europe, since their departure thence. In particular of the 
Death of some great Personages, as the King of Portugal, and both 
the King of Morocco and Fesse, all three slain in one day in one 
Battle in Africa. Also the death of Henry 3 King of France, who was 
murdered by one Jaques Clement, a Monk, by the Contrivance of the 
Papists, because he seem'd to incline to the Protestants to secure himself 
from the Ambition of the House of Guise, and others of the Holy Leagues, 
(as they call it) wherebj' they obliged themselves never to suffer any to Rule 
in France who either had or was likely to profess any other but the Catholick 
Religion. They had likewise an Account of the Death of the Pope, whose 
usurped Authority being lessened in Europe, he had endeavoured to advance 
it in America, so that in all places where the Spaniards have Power, the In- 
fection of Popery hath spread itself, which hath produced the same accursed 
Fruits as in Christendom ; and in the Cities of Lima, Panama, Mexico, and 
the Countries adjacent, no place is free from those Vices this Religion too 
much indulges as Whoredom, Sodomy, and such other Beastialities as are 
not fit to be named among Christians, of which the Actors seem not at all 
ashamed, since the Pope's Pardons are so common and so cheap in those 
Countries, from which by the multitude of Offenders, the Monks and Friers 
reap no small Advantage. 

This gives such Scandal to the poor ignorant Indians, that though they 
have forced Conversion, they are no better Christians, nor know no more 
of the Doctrines of the Gospel than before, yet they seem by the light of 
nature to abhor and detest the filthy and abominable Lives of most of the 
Spanish Priests and People : Herein seeming to parallel the Scypions in 
respect to the Grecians, who, though barbarously rude and ignorant in 
Learning, yet in Modesty, Temperance, and other Moral Virtues, far ex- 
celled the Wise and Learned Greeks, who presumptuously gloried to be the 
most knowing and civilized Peoples in the World. 

But though the Antichristian Clergy industriously endeavor to keep 
them in more than heathenish darkness, yet even among these illiterate 
People God doth not leave himself without Witness, for several of them 
boldly reproved the abominable licentiousness of these pretended Spanish 
Christians, both in their Doctrines, and Practices, which so alarmed the 
Priests, that about two Months before General Drake's arrjval, 12 Persons 
were apprehended at Lima for the Profession of the true Religion, and 
being brought before their bloody Spiritual Tribunal, were condemned to 
be burnt to Death, aix of whom suffered that cruel Execution, being all 
bound to one Stake, and the rest remained in Prison, expecting daily to 
drink of the same bitter Cup.* 

General Drake now considering that they were come one degree North of 
the Equinoctial Line to the entrance of the Bay of Panama, and that there 
was little hopes their lost Ships should be before them, since they could 
get no notice of them in so long a Course, and with the strictest Search 
and Inquiry, and that the Time of the Year drew on wherein their General, 
if ever must prosecute his Design of discovering a. Passage about the 
North parts of America, from the South Sea into our own Ocean, which 

*A11 a very fair example of the 16th century A. P. A. credulity. 


would be serviceable to his Country for the future and themselves might 
have a much nearer passage home, they therefore concluded to find out a 
convenient place for trimming- their Ship, and getting Wood, Water, and 
other Provisions aboard, and then to hasten for discovering this Passage 
through which they might return with Joy to their much desired homes ; 
Sailing therefore March 7. toward the Island of Cainos they arrived there 
the 16th, setting themselves in a fresh River between that and the Contin- 
ent for finishing their Affairs, where there happened a terrible Earthquake 
which was so violent, that the Ship and Pinnace, though near an English 
Mile from the Shoar, trembled and shook, as if on dry Land. They found 
here Fish, Wood, and fresh Water, besides Allagators and Monkeys, with 
many other necessaries that they wanted. In their Passage hither, they 
took one Ship more, which was the last they met with on all these Coasts, 
laden with Linnen, China, Silk, and China Dishes, and a Faulcon curi- 
ously wrought in Gold with a great Emerald in the Breast thereof. 

From hence, March 25, 1579. they resolved to sail the nearest Course the 
Wind would permit, without touching any where in a long waj r , passing by 
Port Papagaiat, the Port of the Vale of the most rich and excellent Bolms, 
Jericho, Quantapien, and divers others ; as also certain Gulphs hereabout, 
which continually send forth such violent Winds, as much endanger the 
Spanish Ships, if they go to near. But having notice that they should oft 
have Calms, and contrary Winds near the Coast, and that if they run off 
to Sea to avoid them, they would not then meet with Land again when 
they would, the General thought fit to increase their Provisions, and there- 
fore at the next Harbour, called Guatuco, inhabited by Spaniards, they by 
trading supplied themselves with Bread and other necessaries, and then 
departed from the Coast of America ; but yet not forgetting to take with 
them a Pot of about a Bushel full of Ryals of Plate that they found in 
the Town, with a Chain of Gold, and other Jewels, which they intreated 
of a Spaniard, who was flying away with them, to leave behind, Next 
Day, April 16, they went directly to Sea, sailing 500 Leagues in Longitude 
to get a Wind, and by June 3 got one thousand four hundred Leagues, 
coming into forty two Deg North Latitude, where they felt an extream 
Alteration from Heat to Cold, which much impared their Healths, made 
the Ropes of their Ship stiff, and the rain was turned into Hail, so that 
they seemed rather in the Frozen Zone than so near the Sun, and sailing 
two Degrees further, the Cold encreased so severely, that their Hands were 
benummed, and they durst hardly bring them from under their Garments 
to feed themselves. Neither could they impute this to the Tenderness of 
their Bodies coming out of those very hot Countries, since their Meat, al- 
most as soon as from the Fire, was frozen, and their Tackle so stiff, that 
six Men were .hardly able to perform what was usually done by three, 
which very much discouraged them ; but General Drake comforting and 
persuading them to trust in God's Providence, who never fails his Child- 
ren, and that they should now quit themselves like Men, and endure this 
short Trouble and Extremity with Patience, since they were sure thereby 
to obtain speedy Comfort and Glory. By such Motives as these he put Life 
into them, so that every Man was armed with a Resolution to see the ut- 
most Discovery that could be that way. 

The Land in that Part of America, bearing farther West than they 
imagined, they were nearer to it than they were aware, and yet the Cold 
still increased. June 5. they were driven by the Winds towards the Shoar, 
which they then first descried, and anchored in a Bay much exposed to 
the Winds and Flaws, and when they ceased, there instantly followed 
thick stinking Fogs, which nothing but the Wind could remove, and that 


was always violent. So that not able to stay here, nor go farther north- 
ward for the Cold and Wind, which was full against them, getting to Sea, 
they were forcibly carried southward from forty eight to thirty eight De- 
grees, where they found the Land low and plain, with some few Hills 
covered with Snow. June 17, they came to a convenient Harbour, and con- 
tinued there till June 23 ; during which, tho' in the height of Summer, yet 
they had constant nipping Cold (being fourteen Days without Sight of the 
Sun for the Fogginess of the Air) which had such Influence not only upon 
their Bodies, who came out of the Heat but upon the Inhabitants them- 
selves, though accustomed thereto, who yet came shivering to them in 
their warm Furrs, crowding together to receive Heat of each other, the 
Trees being without Leaves, and the Ground without Grass even in June 
;j nd July ; the poor Birds and Fowls not daring to stir from their Nests, (as 
they found after they had laid their first Eggs, 'till they were hatch'd, and 
had got some Strength, but had this Advantage, that their Bodies being 
exceeding hot perfect their Young sooner than in other Places. Tho' 
the real Cause of this Extremity is uncertain, yet it is judged to proceed 
from the large Continent of America and Asia, near together, northward 
of this Place, from whose high Mountains, always covered with Snow, 
the North-west Winds, which usually blow on these Coasts, bring this al- 
most unsufferable Sharpness, which the Sun in his greatest Heat is not 
able to dissolve, from whence the Earth is so barren, and the Snow lies at 
their Doors almost in the inidst of Summer, but is never off their Hills. 
from whence proceed those stinking Fogs thro' which the Sun cannot 
pierce, nor draw the Vapours higher into the Air, except the fierce Winds do 
sometimes scatter them ; and when gone, the Fogs return as before. 
Some Seamen aboard, who had been in Greenland, affirmed they never felt 
such Cold in the end of Summer, as now in these two hot Months, from 
whence it may be supposed, there is no Passage through these Northern 
Seas, or if there be it is Unnaviable, the Ice and Cold met with therein. 
Neither in all their sailing on these Coasts to fort3'-eight Degrees, could 
they find the Land bend the least towards the East, but running always 
Northwest, as if it directly met with Asia ; and even then, when they had 
a Wind to carry thern through, if any such Passage had been, yet they had 
a smooth Sea, an ordinary Tide, which could not have happened had there 
been a Streight, as they concluded there was none. 

Next Day after their coming to Anchor in the Harbour aforementioned, 
the Natives of the Country discovering them, sent a Man to him in a Canoe 
with all Expedition, but began to speak to them at a great distance, but 
approaching nearer, made a long solemn Oration, with many Signs and 
Gestures after their manner, moving his Hands and turning his Head : 
and after he had ended with great Shew of Respect and Submission, re- 
turned again to Shoar. He repeated the Ceremony a second and third 
Time ; bringing with him a Bunch of Feathers, like those of a black 
Crow, neatly placed on a String, and gathered into a round Bunde, exactly 
cut, equal in length, which (as they understood afterwards) was a special 
Badge worn upon the Head of the Guard of the King's Person. He 
brought also a little Basket made of Rushes, full of a Herb called Tobah. 
which tied to a short Rod he cast into their Boat. The General intended 
instantly to have recompenced him, but could not perswade him to receive 
any thing, except a Hat thrown out of the Ship into the Water refusing 
any thing else, though it were upon a Board thrust off to him, and so 
presently returned. After this their Boats could row no way, but they 
would follow them, seeming to adore them as Gods. 

June 21, their Ship being leaky, came near the Shoar to land their Goods ; 
but to prevent any Surprize, the General sent his Men ashoar first, with 
all Necessaries for making Tents, and a Fort for securing their Purchase ; 
which the Natives observing, came down hastily in great Numbers, with 
auch Weapons as they had, as if angry, but without the least thought of 
Hostility ; for approaching them they stood as Men ravished with Admiration 
at the Sight of such things as they had never before heard nor seen, seeming 
rather to reverence them as Deities, than to design War against them as 
mortal Men, which they discovered every Day more clearly, during the 
whole Time of staying among them. Being directed by Signs to lay down 
their Bows and Arrows, they immediately obeyed, as well as the rest, who 
came continually to them ; so that in a little while there were a great 
Company of Men and Women to confirm this Peace which they seemed so 
willing to agree to, the General and his Men treated them very courteously, 
bestowing on them freely what might cover their Nakedness, and 


making them sensible they were not Gods but Men, and had them- 
selves need of Garments to cover their Shame, and persuaded them to put 
on Cloaths, eating and drinking in their Presence to satisly them, that 
being Men, they could not live without it ; yet all would not prevail to per- 
suade them that they were not Gods : In recompence of Shirts, Linnen, 
Cloth, and the like, bestowed on them, they gave the General ami his Com- 
pany Feathers, Cawls of Network, Quivers for Arrows mao of Fawn- 
skins, and the Skins of those Beasts the Women wore on their Bodies. 

Being at length fully contented with viewing them, they returned with 
Joy to their Houses, which are dug round within the Earth, a i.e. have from 
the Surface of the ground, Poles of Wood set up and joined t'.getl. 
the top like a spired Steeple, which being' Covered with Water 
can enter, and are very warm, the Door being also the Chimney to let out 
the Smoak, which are made slopous, like the Scuttle of a Ship : Their 
Beds are on the hard Ground strewed with Rushes, with a Fire in the i 
round which they lye, and the roof being low round and close, gives a very 
great Reflection of Heat to their Bodies. The Men generally go naked, but 
the Women combing out Bulrushes, make with them a loose Gam 
which ty'd round their middle, hangs down about their Hipps : And hides 
what Nature would have concealed: They wear likewise about their 
shoulders a Deer skin with the Hair thereon : They are very obedient and 
serviceable to their Husbands, doing nothing without their command or 
consent : Returning to their Houses they made a lamentable Howling and 
Cry, which the English, though three Quarters pi a Mile distance heard 
with Wonder, the Women especially extending their Voices with doleful 

Notwithstanding this seemed Submission and Respect, the General hav- 
ing experienced the Treachery of other Infidels, provided against any 
Alteration of their mind, setting up Tents, and intrenching themselves 
with Stone walls, which done, they grew more secure. Two days after 
i/this first Company were gone a great Multitude of others, invited by their 
■'((Report, came to visit them, who as the other, brought Feathers, and 

of Tobah for Presents, or rather for Sacrifices, believing they were Gods ; 
coming to the Top of the Hill, at the Bottom whereof they had built their 
Fort, they made a stand, where their chief Speaker wearied himself, and 
then with a long Oration, using such violent Gestures, and so strong a 
Voice, and speaking so last that he was quite out of Breath. Having 
done, all the rest bowed their Bodies very lowly and reverently to the 
Ground, crying Oh, as consenting to all had been said : then leaving 1 their 
Bows with their Women and Children behind, they came down with their 
Presents in such an awful Posture, as if they had indeed appeared be tore a 
Deity thinking themselves happy to be near General Drake, and especially 
when he accepted what they so willingly offered, getting as nigh him as 
possible, imagining they approached a God. 

Mean time the Women, as if frantick, used unnatural Violence to th« 111- 
selves, striking dreadfully, and tearing their Cheeks with their Nails till 
the Blood streamed down their Breasts, rending their Garments from the 
upper Parts of their Bodies, and holding their Hands over their II 
thereby to expose their Breasts to danger ; they furiously threw them- 
selves on the Ground, not regarding whether it were wet or dr_\ . 
dashed their naked Bodies against Stones, Hills, Woods, Bushes, Briars or 
whatever lay in their way, which Cruelty they repeated (ye. iiuen 

with Child) fifteen or sixteen times together, till their Strength failed 
them thereby, which was more grievous to the English to see, than 
themselves to sutler. This bloody Sight ended, the Gener al and his ( 
pany fell to Prayers, and by lifting up their Hands and Eyes to He- 
signified that their God, whom they ought to worship, was above in the 
Heavens, whom they humbly besought, if it were his Pleasure, to 
their blind Eyes, that they might come to the Knowledge of Jr. 
CHRIST: While the English were at Prayers, sing i> 
reading some chapters in the Bible, they sat very attentive, and at the End 
of every Pause, cried out with one Voice, Oh I, seeming to rejoice therein, 
yea, delighted to so much in their singing Psalms, that after, when 
resorted to them, they ardently desired that they should sing. After 
Departure they returned all that tin General had give them, thinking 
themselves sufficiently happy in having free .\. .< in. 

Three Days after June 2t>, the News having spread i'self farther into the 
Country, another great Number Of People were assembled, and among 
them their KING himself, a Man of a comely Presence and Stature, attended 


with a Guard of an hundred tall stout Men, having sent two Ambassadors 
before, to tell the General their Hioh, or King, was coming ; one of them 
in delivering his Message spike low, which the other repeated Verbatim 
with a loud Voice, wherein they continued about half an Hour ; which 
ended by Signs they desired some Present to their King to assure him of 
coming in Peace, which the General willingly granted, and they joyfully 
went back to their Hioh. A while after, their King with all his Train 
appeared in as much Pomp as he could, some loudly crying and singing 
before him ; as they came nearer, they seemed greater in their Actions : 
In the Front before him marched a tall Man of a good Countenance, carry- 
ing the Sceptre, or Mace Royal, of black Wood, about a Yard and half 
long, upon which hung two Crowns, one less than the other, with three 
very long Chains oft doubled, and a Bag of the Herb Tobah ; the Crowns 
were of Knit-work wrought curiously with Feathers of divers Colours, and 
of a good Fashion, the Chains seemed of Bone, the Links beinj, r in one 
Chain was almost innumerable, and worn by very few, who are stinted to 
their Number, some of ten, twelve, or twenty, as they exceed in Chains, 
are thereby accounted more honourable. Next the Sceptre bearer came the 
King himself, with his Guard about him, having on his Head a Knit work 
Cawl, wrought somewhat like a Crown, and on his Shoulders a Coat of 
Rabbet Skins reaching to his Waste. The Coats of his Guard were of the 
same Shape, but othor Skins, having Cawls with Feathers, covered with a 
Down growing on an Herb, exceeding any other Down for Fineness, and 
not to be used by any but those about the King's Person, who are also per- 
mitted to wear a Plume of Feathers on his Head, in sign of honour, and 
the Seeds of this Herb, are used only in Sacrifice to their Gods. After 
them followed the Common People almost naked, whose long Hair tied up 
in a Bunch behind, was stuck with Plumes of Feathers, but in the forepart 
only one Feather like an Hord, according to their own Fancy, their Faces 
were all painted, some White, others Black, or other Colours, every Man 
brinsring something in his Hand for a Present : the Rear of their company 
consisted in Women and Children, each Woman carrying a Basket or two 
with Bags of Tobah, a Root called Patah (whereof they make Bread, and 
eat it either Raw or Baked,) broiled Fishes like Pilchards, the Seeds and 
Down aforementioned, and such other things : Their Baskets are made of 
Rushes like a deep Boat, and so well wrought as to hold Water. They hang 
pieces of Pearl shells, and sometimes Links of these Chains on the Brims, 
to signify they were only used in the Worship of their Gods ; they are 
wrought with matted down of read Feathers into various Forms. 

General Drake caused his Men to be on their guard whatever might 
happen, and going into his Fort, made the greatest shew possible of War- 
like Preparations, (as he usually did) so that had they been real Fnemies- 
they might thereby be discouraged from attempting anything agaiust them. 
Approaching nearer, and joining closer together, they gave a gen- 
eral Salutation, and after Silence, he who carried the Sceptre, prompted by 
another assign'd by the King, repeated loudly what the other spoke low, 
their Oration lasting half an hour, at the close whereof they uttered a 
common Amen, in Approbation thereof : Then the King with the whole 
number of Men and Women (the little Children remaining only behind") 
came farther in the same Order down to the Foot of the Hill near the Fort ; 
When the Sceptre bearer, with a composed Countenance, began a Song, 
and as it were a Dance, and was followed by the King and all the rest, 
but the Women, who were silent : They came near in their Dance, and the 
General perceiving their honest Simplicity, let them enter freely within 
their Bulwarks, where continuing awhile singing and dancing, the Women 
following with their Bowls in their Hands, their Bodies bruised, and their 
Faces, Breasts and other Parts, torn and spotted with Blood : Being tired 
with this Fxercise, they by Signs desired the General to sit down, to whom 
their King and others seemed to make Supplication, that he would be the 
King and Governor of their Country, to whom they were most willing to re- 
sign the Government of themselves and their Posterity ; and more fully to 
declare their meaning, the King with all the rest unanimously singing a 
Song, joyfully set the Crown on his Head, enriching his Neck with Chains, 
offering him many other Things, and honouring him with the Title of 
Hiho, concluding with a Song and Dances of Triumph, that they were not 
only visited by Gods, (which they still judged them) but that the great God 
was become their King and Patron, and they now the happiest People in 
the World. 

The General observing them so freely to offer all this to him. was un- 


willing to disoblige them, since he was necessitated to continue there some 
time, and to require Relief in many things from them not knowing what 
Advantage it might bring in time to his own Country, therefore in the 
Name and for the Use of Queen Elizabeth, he took the Sceptre, Crown, and 
Dignity of that Land upon him, wishing that the Riches and Treasures 
thereof, wherein the upper Parts abound, might be as easily transported 
thither, as he had obtained the Sovereignty thereof, from a People who 
have Plenty, and are of a very loving and tractable Nature, seemingly 
ready to embrace Christianity, if it could be preach 'd and made known to 
them. These Ceremonies over, the common People leaving the King and 
his Guard mingled themselves among them strictly surveying every Man, 
and enclosing the youngest, offered Sacrifices to them with a lamentable 
Shriek and weeping, tearing their Flesh from off their Faces with their 
Nails, and this not the Women only, but old Men likewise were even as 
violent in roaring and crying as they. The English much grieved at the 
Power of Satan over them, shewed all kind of dislike hereto by lifting 
their Eyes and Hands toward Heaven ; but they were so mad on 
Idolatry, that tho' held from rending themselves, yet when at Liberty, 
were as violent as before, till those they adored were conveyed into their 
Tents ; whom yet as Men distracted they raged for again : Their Madness 
a little qualified, they complained to them of their Griefs and Diseases, 
as old Aches, shrunk Sinews, cankered Sores, Ulcers, and Wounds lately 
received, wherewith divers were afflicted, and mournfully desired Cure for 
them, making Signs, that if they did but blow upon them, or touch their 
Maladies, they should be healed. In pity to them, and to shew they were 
but Men, they used common Ointment and Plasters for their Relief, be- 
seeching God to enlighten their Minds. 

During their Stay here they usually brought Sacrifices every third Day, 
till they clearly understood the English were displeased, whereupon their 
Zeal abated ; yet they continually resorted to them with such Eagen 
that they oft forgot to provide Sustenance for themselves, so that the 
General, whom they counted their Father, was forced to give them 
Victuals, as Muscles, Seals, and the like, wherewith they were extreamly 
pleased, and since they could not accept of Sacrifices, they, hating Ingrati- 
tude, forced what they had upon them in recompence, though never so 
ful to themselves : They are very ingenious, and free from Guile or 
Treachery ; their Bows and Arrows (which are their only Weapons, and 
almost all their Wealth) they use very skilfully, yet without much Execu- 
tion, they being fitter for Children than Men, though they are usually so 
strong, that one of them could easily carry that a Mile together without 
Pain, which two or three Englishmen there could hardly bear ; they run 
very swift and long, and seldom go any other Pace ; if they see a Fish so 
near the Shoar as to reach the Place without swimming, they seldom 
miss it. 

Having finished their Affairs, the General and some of his Company 
made a Journey up the Country to observe their manner of Living, v. ith 
the Nature and Commodities of the Country : They found their H 
such as you have heard, and many being fix'd in one Place, made divers 
Villages : The Inland was far different from the Sea shoar, it being a 
very fruitful Soil, furnished with all necessaries, and stored with large fat 
Deer, whereof they saw Thousands in an Herd, and Rabbets of a strange 
kind, having Tails like Rats, and Feet like a Mole, with a Natural Bag 
under their Chin, wherein, after they have filled their Belly abroad, they 
put the rest for Relieving their Young, or themselves when they are 
willing to stay at home. They eat their Bodies, but preserve their Skins, 
of which the Royal Garments of their King are made. This Count rj 
General Drake called Nova Albion, both because it had white Clifis toward 
the Sea, and that its Name might have some likeness to England, which 
was formerly so called. Before they went hence, the General caused a 
Mountain to be erected, signifying that the English had been there, and 
asserting the Right of Queen Elizabeth, and her Successor*, to that K 
dom, all engraven iu a Plate of Brass, and nailed to a great firm P 
the Time of their Arrival, the Queen's Name, and the free Resignation of 
the Country by the King and People into her Hands, like wise his Picture 
and Arms, and underneath the General's Arms. 

The Spaniards had never any Commerce, nor ever set Foot in this 
Country, their utmost Acquisitions being many degrees Southward thereof: 
and now the Time of their Departure being at hand, the joy ol 


was drowned in extream Sorrow, pouring out woful Complaints and 
grievous Sighs and Tears, for leaving them ; yet since they could not have 
their Presence (they supposed them indeed to be mindful of them in their 
Absence) declaring by signs that they hoped hereafter to see them again, 
and before the English were awake, set fire to a Sacrifice, which they 
offered to them, burning therein a Chain of a Bunch of Feathers. The 
General endeavoured by all means to hinder their Proceedings, but could 
not prevail, till they fell to Prayers and singing of Psalms, when allured 
thereby, forgetting their Folly, and leaving their Sacrifice unconsumed, 
and the Fire, to go out, imitating the English in all their Actions, they 
lift up their Heads and Eyes to Heaven as they did. July 23. they took a 
sorrowful Leave of them but loath to part with them, they went to the top 
of the Hills to keep sight of them as long as possible, making Fires before, 
behind, and on each side of them, wherein they supposed Sacrifices were 
offered for their happy Voyage. A little without their Harbour lye certain 
Isles called by them the Islands of St. James, wherein were plenty of Seals 
and Fowls, and Landing in one of them next day, they supplied themselves 
with competent Provisions for some time. 

The General now finding the Extremity of the Cold increase, the Sun 
being gone further, and the Winds constantly blowing Northerly, giving 
do hope of finding a Passage through these Northern Seas, he resolved 
with the general Approbation of all, to lose no more time, but sail directly 
to the Molucco Islands. 


[From Harris's Voyages, 1745, beginning' at Panama.] 

The Admiral, now thinking he had, in some measure, revenged both 
the public Injuries of his Country, as well as his own private 
Wrongs, upon the Spaniards, began to deliberate upon his Return 
home. But which Way he should take, was the Question to be re- 
solved : To return by the Streights of the South Sea (and as yet no other 
Passage had been discovered) he thought would be to throw himself into 
the Hands of the Spaniards, who would probably there wait for him, with 
a far greater Strength than he could now cope with ; for he had at this 
time but one Ship left, not strong, though it was a very rich one. All 
things therefore considered, he resolved to go round to the Moluccas, and 
so follow the Course of the Portugese, to get Home by the Cape of Good 
Hope : But, being becalmed, he found it necessary to sail more Northerly 
to get a good Wind ; upon which Design they Sailed at least 600 Leagues, 
which was all the way they made from April 16. to June 3. June 5. being 
got into 43° of North Latitude, they found the Air excessive cold ; and the 
further they went, the Severity of the Weather was more intolerable : 
Upon which score they made toward the Land, till they came into 38 c 
North Latitude, under which height of the Pole they found a very good 
Bay, and had a favourable Wind to enter the same. Accordingly here they 
had some Correspondence with the People of the Country, whose Houses 
lay all along upon the Water-side . They sent the Admiral a Present of 
Feathers, and Cawls of Net-work, who entertained them with so much 
Kindness and Liberality, that the poor People were infinitely pleased. 
Though the Country be cold, yet they so order the matter in the framing of 
their Houses, as to live out of danger of starving ; for they surround them 
with a deep Trench, upon the outmost Edge of which they raise up great 
Pieces of Timber, which close altogether at the Top like the Spire of a 
Steeple ; their Bed is the bare Ground, strewed with Rushes, and their 
Fire-place in the Middle, about which they all lie. The Men go naked, the 
Women wear a close Garment of Bulrushes, dressed after the manner of 
Hemp, which, fastened about their Middles, hangs down to their Hips, and 
upon their Shoulders they have a Deer's Skin ; but their very good quali- 
ties make Amends for their ordinary Dress and Figure, being extremely 
dutiful to their Husbands. The Admiral had, quickly after, another Pres- 
ent from them, which was Feathers and Bags of Tobacco ; a considerable 
Body of them waiting upon him at the same time : They were all gath- 
ered together at the Top of an Hill, from whence their Speaker harangued 
the Admiral, who lay below in his Tent pitched at the Bottom of the Hill : 
When this was ended, they left their Weapons, and came down, offering 
their own presents, and, at the same time, civilly returning those which 
the Admiral had made them. All the while, women the who remained above, 
possessed with a mad Fury, tore their Hair, and made dreadful Howlings. 


which is the common Music at their Sacrifices, something of which Nature 
was then solemnizing' : But whilst these above were serving the Devil, 
the Men below were better employed, attending' very diligently to Divine 
Service, then performed in the Admiral's Tent. These Circumstances, 
though trivial in themselves, are of Consequence in asserting our first 
Discovery of California. 

The News of the English being there, having spread about in the 
Country, there came Two Ambassadors to the Admiral, to tell him, that 
the King was coming to wait upon hiin, and desired a Token of Peace to 
assure his safe Conduct. The Admiral having given this, the whole Train 
began to march towards them, and that in very good and graceful Order : 
In the Front came a very comely Person, bearing the Sceptre before the 
King, upon which hung Two Crowns, and Three Chains of a very great 
length : The Crowns were made of Net-work, and artificially wrought 
with Feathers of many Colours, and the Chains were made of Bones. Next 
to the Sceptre-bearer came the King himself, a very comely proper Person, 
shewing an Air of Majesty in all his Deportment ; he was surrounded by a 
Guard of tall martial-looked Men, who were all clad in Skins : Next to 
these came the common People, having (to make the liner Shew) painted 
their Faces, some white, some black, and some of other Colours, and all 
with their arms full of Presents, even the very children not excepted. The 
Admiral drew up all his Men in Line of Battle, and stood ready to receive 
them within his Fortifications: At some Distance from him, the whole 
Train made a Halt, and kept a profound Silence, at which Time the Sceptre- 
bearer made a Speech of half an Hour long • This being ended, the same 
Officer, of a Speech-maker, became a Dancing-master, and, at the same 
time, struck up a Song, in both which he was followed by the King, Lords, 
and Common people, who came singing and dancing up to the Admiral's 
Fences. Being all set down there, (after some preliminary compliments) 
the King made a solemn offer of his whole Kingdom, and its Dependences, 
to the Admiral, desiring him to take the Sovereignty upon him ; and pro- 
fessing, that he himself would be his very loyal subject : And, that this 
might not seem to be mere compliment and Pretence, he did, by the con- 
sent of his Nobles there present, take off the illustrious Crown of Feath -rs 
from his own head, and fix it upon the Admiral's ; and at the same time, 
investing him with the other Ensigns of Royalty, did, as much as in him 
lay, make him King of the Country. The Admiral accepted of this new- 
offered Dignity, as her Majesty's Representative, in her Name, and for 
her Use ; it being probable, that from this Donation, whether made in jest 
or In earnest, by these Indians, some real Advantages might hereafter re- 
dound to the English Nation and Interest here in those parts. The common 
People dispersed themselves up and down everywhere among the Admiral's 
Tent's, expressing an Admiration and Value for the English to the Degree 
of Madness and Profaneness, coming before them with sacrifices, which 
they pretended to offer with a profound Devotion to them, till they, by 
Force, kept back, expressing their utmost Abhorrence of them ; and direct- 
ing them to the Supreme Maker and Preserver of all Things, whom alone 
they ought to honour with religious Worship The Admiral and his People 
travelled to some Distance up in the Country, which they found to be ex- 
ceedingly full of Deer, which were large and fat, and very often 1000 in 
a Herd. There was also such a vast Plenty of Rabbets, that the whole 
Country seemed to be one intire great Warren ; they were of the Bi>; 
of a Barbary Coney, their Heads like those In our Parts, their Feet like a 
Mole's, and their Tail resembling that of a Rat; under the Chin of each 
Side is fastened a Bag, into which the Creature injects what Food it 
Abroad, and preserves it for a Time of Necessity. The Flesh of the 
a valuable Dish among the Natives, and their Skins afford Robes for the 
King, and all the great Men. The Earth of the Country seemed t 

rich Veins of Gold and Silver, there being hard v any digging 
out throwing up some of the Ores of them, fit e Admiral 
Albion, partly in Honour to his own Coun ry, partly from th 

id Hanks, which it yields to them that vii-w it from the 
A his Departure hence, he set up a Monument with a large Plate, upon 
■ agrsven her Majesty's Name. Picture, Arms, Title to the 
C tmtry, the Time of their Arrival there, and the Admiral 1 
In this Country the Spaniards hn.6 d ting, dot did they ever 

discover the Land by many i of this Place. 



cSequoya League 

^*» "^ ^^- (INCORPORATED) 


Se-quo-ya, " the American Cadmus,'''' was the 
only I?idian that ever invented a written lan- 
guage. The League takes its title front this great 
Cherokee, for whom, also, science has named {"Sequo- 
ias ") the hugest trees in the world, the giant Redwoods 
of California. 


Dr. David Starr Jordan, President Stanford University, Cal. 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Chief Biological Survey, Washington. 

Dr. Geo. Bird Grinnell, editor Forest and Stream, New York. 

D. M. Riordan, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Richard Egan, Capistrano, Cal. 

Chas. Cassatt Davis, attorney, Eos Angeles. 

Chas. F. Eummis, Eos Angeles, Chairman. 


Mrs. Phebe A. Hearst, University of California. 

*Hon. J. Sterling Morton, Nebraska. 

Archbishop Ireland, St. Paul, Minn. 

U. S. Senator Thos. R. Bard, California. 

*Maj. J. W. Powell, Director Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 

Edward E. Ayer, Newberry Library, Chicago. 

Miss Estelle Reel, Supt. all Indian Schools, Washington. 

W. J. McGee, Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of Ethnology. 

P. W. Putnam, Peabody Museum, Harvard College. 

Stewart Culin, University of Pennsylvania. 

Geo. A. Dorsey, Field Columbian Museum, Chicago. 

Dr.T. Mitchell Prudden, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York . 

Dr. Geo. J. Engelmann, Boston. 

Miss Alice C. Fletcher, Washington. 

F. W. Hodge, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 

Hamlin Garland, author, Chicago. 

Mrs. F. N. Doubleday, New York. 

Dr. Washington Matthews, Washington. 

Hon. A. K. Smiley (Mohonk), Redlands, Cal. 

George Kennan, Washington. 

(Others to be added.) 
Treasurer, W. C. Patterson, Prest. Eos Angeles National Bank. 


Amelia B. Hollenback, Josephine W. Drexel. 

'NOTHER detail which for adequate adjudication must 
await its term in the historical review of the Warner's 
Ranch eviction it is hoped to print some day in these 
pages, has been added to the record. 

When California courts, in complacent but mortal ignorance 
of the laws upon which all basic land titles in California are 
founded, gave a verdict ousting the Mission Indians of Warner's 
Ranch from their immemorial home, it was desired to carry the 
case up to the Supreme Court of the United States. To appeal 
to that high tribunal, properly requires a bond. The Indians, 
of course, were hardty in shape to give such a bond. So the Indian 


Rights Association, a national philanthropic organization to 
protect Indians, furnished the bond, which was for $5,500. The 
case went up to the U. S. Supreme Court, and found there as un- 
mitigated ignorance of the Spanish laws upon which — as the 
Court managed to realize — the whole case hinges. The decree 
evicting the 300 men, women and children from the home their 
ancestors occupied long before an "American " ever heard of 
California, was confirmed. Readers of this magazine are fairly 
familiar with the sequel — the sharp public awakening to a dis- 
graceful and unwelcome situation ; the interest taken by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt and the Department ; the labors of the Presi- 
dent's Commission to select a new home for the unfortunates, 
and that Commission's success in securing a place far better than 
Warner's Ranch in every conceivable attribute except the prefer- 
ence of the Indians to stay where their fathers are buried. 

The latest step of the successful claimants to Warner's Ranch 
— all very wealthy — was to sue the Indian Rights Association 
for the full amount of this bond. The case was tried in San 
Diego, in the latter half of November ; and the plaintiffs se- 
cured a verdict for half the amount. That is, $2,738 is taken 
by law from off the backs and from out the bellies of cold and 
hungry Indians elsewhere, and given to the millionaire plaintiffs. 

One who honors History as she is nowadays attempted to be 
written — soberly, scientifically, and in her due proportion — 
cannot presume, so near in time to the fact, to chronicle this 
event save thus in bare outline. These things may not be 
judicially appraised until they shall have digested and cooled. 
Perhaps after a time they may come to look a trifle less con- 

Meantime, nothing delays the actual transfer of the Warner's 
Ranch Indians to their new home, except the inevitable red tape 
of passing on the abstracts of title to the properties involved. 
As these abstracts have been in the hands of the Government 
ever since early in November — and particularly because the 
Department is alive, and the President who "stirred up" the 
routine clerks in August is quite competent to Stir Them Up 
again — it is reasonable to presume that final action is even now 

It is but fair to add that the wealthy gentlemen who have 
won Warner's Ranch are "holding their horses," and that they 
have not pushed the demand for immediate eviction of the 
Mataguay village. According to their lights, they mean to act 
honorably — even " mercifull v.'* 


A charter has been granted Frank Kyselka, J. M. Johnson, 


J. S. Lindley, J. E. Tyler, Miss M. Chase and Mrs. E. R. Hillis 
to found "Hoopa Council of the Sequoya League " at the gov- 
ernment school and agency at Hoopa, Cal. 


* * 

Receipt of $246 for the work of the League has been acknowl- 
edged. Henry C. Newbold, Hay wards, Cal., adds $5. 


* * 

The Gems of Purest Ray Serene that the dark, unfathomed 
caves of Government reports bear are not " full many " — but 
neither are they none. It is rather a pity that matters on 
which the nation expends so many millions of our money are so 
absolutely unknown to 99 American citizens out of every 100 ; 
for there are lots of things here that would interest us if we 
ever heard of them. Some would catch us a-coming, and some 
a-going — even as the two ladies who made it interesting for 
Heine, "the one by her affection, the other by her spite.'' 
Amid the average sawdust pages of perfunctory persons that 
comply with their salary, one finds now and again something 
really worth while as a Terrible Example ; and again, some 
fine protest of a man who was not born to be a red-tape dunce. 
For there are chances for scholarship and manhood, even in 
Government work. 

Well-nigh twenty years ago — at just about the time, in fact, 
that Helen Hunt Jackson was making her more formal but 
hardly less startling returns — the dull ( and generally ignor- 
ant ) pages of the Indian Office reports were enlivened by a 
letter which to this day remains one of the few classics of the Ser- 
vice. We have had, in all our history of Indian Affairs, very 
few Indian agents who would know a scruple if they met it on 
the street ; and still fewer who knew anything about their 
"job" except the size of its salary. But at that time, by some 
providential accident, there was a young man in charge of the 
Navajo agency in Arizona who had both brains and heart. Al§o, 
"nerve." To those who have come to know and love him 
since — and they are all across the continent — it will be no 
wonder to learn that he was already a Man ; but his little re- 
port resigning the Navajo agency is so vividly illustrative of 
Indian Office methods then and now — so true, so pointed, so 
alive with the indignation everj^ honest man has felt that ever 
came really to understand the facts, that it is worthy to be res- 
cued from the obscurity of the black cloth volume in which the 
Government printed it unabridged, and to be spread on the com- 
moner minutes. It is not only a manful, unstudied protest ; it 
is unto this <ia.y a picture of habitual conditions. Many an 

84 OL 1 WEST 

Indian agent could write truthfully very much the same sort of 

a report now, if he knew enough and enough dared. For the 

Service is still made up mostly of Heads that Don't Know and 

Hands that Don't Care. And here was a man that both cared 

and knew — while his courage is a proverb throughout the 


Navajo Agkncv, Fort Defiance, Ariz., 

August 14, 1883. 

Sir : In compliance with instructions received from your office dated 
July 13, 1883, I have the honor to submit the annual report of this agency 
for the fiscal year ending - June 30, 1883. 

Premising that I did not take charge until the first of January last, that 
I have been without adequate assistance to perform the work of the 
agency, that I was much of the time without funds, that the labor de- 
manded of an agent here under present conditions is such as to prevent his 
performing any of his duties in a satisfactory manner, I will say that this 
report must needs be incomplete. It would require the descriptive powers 
of a Scott or a Dickens to portray the wretched condition of affairs at his 
agency in language such as to present a faithful picture • f it to the mind 
of one who never saw it. 

This reservation is situated on the elevated table land known as the Col- 
orado plateau, and lies partly hi New Mexico and partly in Arizona. It is 
about 105 miles square, and embraces something over 10,000 square miles 
of the most worthless land that ever laid out doors. It is wholly a sand- 
stone mesa country, with occasional patches of valley land susceptible of 
cultivation by 1 he rude Indian methods. It is almost waterless, in fact a 
barren rocky desert. What water does exist is alkaline, and nearly all of 
it is such as any well regulated animal east of the Rockies would refuse to 
drink ; still it is the only kind available for these people and the white 
workers amongst them. Many a civilized stomach " goes back " on its 
owner on its first introduction to the " sheep water " of the Navajo 
country. The face of the country is almost entirely rock. Rock every- 
where. No soil, as such, simply the sand and debris accumulated in the 
lower spots by ages of erosion ai.d the action of water since the "early 
days" when the world was new. An Illinois or Iowa or Kansas farmer 
would laugh to scorn the assertion that you could raise anything in the 
sandy beds which form the planting grounds of this people. 

Seventeen thousand Indians manage to extract their living (in addition 
to the mutton which forms the staple article of food) trom these spots, and 
that, too, without any Government aid. If they were not the best Iudians 
on the continent they would not do it. The United States has never ful- 
filled its promises made to them by treaty. It is safe to assume that it 
never will. As I have resigned and am about to leave here, and will probably 
be relieved before this report is read, I may be pardoned for resuming 
my rights and privileges as a citizen and speaking plainly of the K ro8S 
wrongs perpetrated by the Government OB the Navajos and on the N;. 
Agency. Whether that treatment is due to ignorance, malice, or neg 
it is time something was clone to remedy exisiing evils, and I should 
lacking in the performance of a plain duty if I failed to point out a fe- 

The character of the country, as already briefly described, make?, it in- 
cumbent on these Indians to depend aim >st entirely on their flocks for a 
livelihood. They are purely a pastoral people, ami necessarily so. Their 
sheep and goats furnish their staple food, and from the sale of wool they 
procure the other necessaries, flour, su^ar, and coffee. Th 
almost their entire range of food suppli 

Heretofore little in the way of aid has been furnished by the Gov 
ment for the sick, Indigent, ami helpless Indians, the 
pelled to see them suffer under his eyes and toe. 
quests, or else supply the much-needed articles ;>t hi 

as I did, fresh from business life, and knowing the failure 
Government to fulfill its obligations to them, I fo 

supply their needs. I spent some $800 in that way. I thou dddo 

for the United States what I C mid tot anv h «eat business man, firm, or 
corporation In the country — that is, make up for its omissions ; and that. 


upon proper representations, the money would be repaid. I found, how- 
ever, that the United States does not pay anything it can avoid. I was 
compelled to stop that, of course, in self-preservation. How any man could 
turn a deaf ear to the sufferings I witnessed here last winter — to the cries 
of hungry women and children whose only support had perished, owing to 
the severity of the winter, and who were thus deprived of all means of live- 
lihood — puzzles me. But that impersonal myth, the Government, neither 
sees nor hears these things ; and if any of its officers has humanity enough 
in him to heed them, he pays the expenses. I do not state this for my own 
benefit. I shall not be here when any action is had on these maUers, if it 
ever is. What I have done is done. The money it cost me is dead loss. 
An institution which does not fulfill its written obligations cannot be ex- 
pected to sustain its officers in an action dictated by any such weak senti- 
ment as humanity. But, for the sake of the unfortunate individual who 
has to wrestle with this work hereafter, I desire to call your attention to 
the need of strengthening his hands and of sustaining him in doing the 

When I came here there was not an ounce of hay or grain at this agency ; 
there was not an ounce of provisions of any kind for issue ; the thermome- 
ter ranged as low as 20° below zero ( and we are over 7,000 feet above the 
sea ) ; there was not a horse that could walk two miles without falling 
down from sheer fatigue caused by hunger and age, and I was compelled 
to buy food for them at my own expense rather than see them die of star- 
vation. This at an agency for 17,000 people. There was not a house that 
would keep out the snow or the rain. The roofs leaked, the water ran in 
on the floors ( the floors are below the level of the ground ). In a word, the 
agent and employes who were to lift up these people to a higher plane, to 
carry out the civilizing policy of the Government, were expected to live in 
a lot of abandoned adobe huts, condemned by special, regular, and annual 
reports as unfit to live in fifteen years ago, condemned by every one who 
has ever seen them since, and repeatedly damned by all who have been com- 
pelled to occupy them. They are full of vermin and utterly unfit for 
human habitation. I have had to tie my children in chairs to keep them 
out of the water, on the floors, in mid-winter. I have seen my wife, a deli- 
cate lady, and who was at that time nursing a baby, walking around with 
wet feet on the floors of the agent's palatial quarters in a freezing atmos- 
phere, and there wasn't a dry room or a warm room in the house. I have 
seen, as soon as the weather began to moderate, the snakes come out of the 
walls of those same palatial quarters. You wonder we kick. Of course we 
do. I sent my family away and sent in my resignation (the first time) in 
June because I felt that the conditions never would be bettered. It is not 
to be supposed that the Government would pay any more attention to the 
matter now than it has heretofore. Through all tne weary years since 
thi >> agency was located here those who did this work before me have begged, 
pleaded, implored for a place to live in, but all to no purpose. Why don't 
the Government give an agent here as good a shelter as it gives a mule at 
Fort Wingate ? 

I was told repeatedly by influential and well-meaning friends, verbally 
and by letter, to " hold on," " be patient," " we can't do it all in a month," 
" just wait till Congress meets," &c. You have heard it all repeatedly. 
The meeting of Congress would have been very consoling, no doubt, had I 
buried one of my loved ones as the result of this experiment. My family 
is not enduring this now, thank God ; but the conditions are not bettered a 
bit (only that the weather is warmer), and the family of the agency physi- 
cian is putting up with it in the hope that something will be done. I 
predict they won't stand it all next winter. " Wait till Congress meets." 
Wait until an indifferent Congress gets good and ready, and if this one 
doesn't, wait for the next. But don't forget to wait. The same old song 
for the Indian, too. 

Last winter I promised the Indians I would go amongst them and visit 
the portions of their country which I had never seen. I have always felt 
that it was an agent's duty to make himself personally familiar with the en- 
tire country covered by his Indians ; to know their wants, their habits, 
their resources, the climatic conditions ; the amount and kinds of stock 
owned by them ; the number of families, the number of children of school 
age. In short, an agent ought to know his Indians. These Indians range 
over not only the country embraced within the limits of the reservation as 
defined on the maps, but far into the adjoining lands. They are found to the 


south of Zufii, as far east as the Rio Grande, on the north in Colorado and 
Utah, and to the west as far as the Little Colorado, as well as on the banks 
of the main Colorado. Many disputes have arisen between them and the 
surrounding whites. Many are rankling to-day. The Navajos cover more 
than 15,000 square miles of territory. 

When I announced my intention of visiting the country they inhabit, and 
of examining into all the matters of interest to them, it was joyfully received 
by the Indians, as well as by the whites, who had been patiently waiting for 
some authoritative determination of the questions so long uusettled. 
Fifteen thousand square miles of mountain country is a good deal of 
ground for any one man to cover, in the few breathing spells one gets 
while doing the clerical work for 17,000 nomadic Indians, in quadruplicate. 
I managed to make fourteen trips amongst the tribe during the six months 
from January to June, in spite of the onerous conditions placed upon me 
by Congress ; but in denying an agent for these Indians any clerical assist- 
ance, that body prevents his performing any ui the higher duties of his 
office almost as effectually as if it forbade his doing so. 

I have had no police. Navajos cannot be had for any such sum as $5 a 
month. The right to fix the pay of police should be vested in the Secretary 
of the Interior, and not be arbitrarily named by men who have no concep- 
tion of the duties required. I have had to go after red horse-thieves and 
white; to remove unlawful traders from the reserve; to recover .stolen 
stock ; to chase criminals ; and to do it all myself — be agent, clerk, chief 
of police and entire force, hostler, courier, everything ; to be able to C 
with, single-handed, and to wisely treat all the questions arising between 
17,000 Indians and their white neighbors ; and to personally watch over 
and guard every item of Government property at the agency while doing 
this; in a word, to be ( were it possible ) a hundred miles from here settling 
a dispute, and to be quietly making up papers and guarding the dish cloths 
and tin cups at the same moment. 

The reservation lines have never been surveyed. Oh ! how often I have 
written those words. And how much they mean to the man in charge here. 
How in the world am I to be always right on questions of jurisdiction, 
guarding this immense tract with its restless occupants ? Must an agent 
coutinue to assume ( as I have had to ) that the reservation is right where 
he happens to be ? There isn't a mark on the ground. 

This work is a bricks-without-straw task all the way through. If a man 
has the mental and physical qualities demanded, the patience to endure, he 
can take those to a much better market — and he need not travel far. Any 
man who fills the bill here is worth $3,000 a year " and found." He is 
entitled to a good, comfortable house to live in, furnished ; at least as good 
as an ordinary mechanic occupies " in the States." I do not believe the 
Government will get the right man for less. It could not keep me for a 
quarter of a cent less. But I consider myself " discharged, cured." 1 
plead for the future worker in this field. 

The Government ought to do something for the development of water on 
this reservation. There are places where the supply of water is barely 
sufficient for the needs of a few, and where, I think, a small sum properly 
expended would develop sufficient water to irrigate considerable land. In 
other places water has cut a channel through the loose sandy soil, into 
which it finally sinks, until the present beds of the little streams are 30, 40 
feet below their former levels. These places are abandoned. Suitable 
dams would cause them to become productive by enabling the Indians to 
irrigate, and induce the natives to make permanent homes. 

Since I came here I have freed some twenty persons from slavery. A 
regular slave system has been in active operation amongst these Indians 
from time immemorial. I determined to put an end to it. The slaves are 
descendants of war captives and of persons sold into slavery from other 
tribes. The original boudsmen were Utes, Comanches, Apaches, Moqui*.. 
Jemcz, and from other tribes. Some were Mexicans captured in infancy. 
It is estimated that there are some three hundred slaves in the hands of 
the tribe. My plan was to prevent any concert of action in opposition to 
the freeing of the slaves, by taking each clan or gens and dealing with it 
singly. By judiciously fostering the jealousies and rivalries I found exist- 
ing between them, I have so far succeeded in doing my work without open 
resistance, although some pretty violent talk was indulged in ; and I was 
paid a visit one day by forty of the worst in the tribe, armed to the teeth, 
and prepared for a fight. I carried my point, however, and freed the very 


slaves they swore they would not surrender. This work ought to continue. 
Slavery should be eradicated. 

Upon taking- charge of the agency, numerous complaints came to me in 
reference to horse stealing by the Indians. I set myself to work to stop 
it, and by active measures and doing my work in person I have been able 
to do something toward that end. I have taken away from the Indians 
forty-six head of stolen horses and over five hundred sheep. Of the horses, 
fourteen were returned to their owners ; and of the sheep, all but thirty- 
two. The balance of the horses and the thirty-two sheep were sold at 
public auction, under instructions from your office, after being advertised 
for three months under the laws of the Territory of Arizona, the proceeds, 
after defraying expenses, being turned over to the county treasurer of 
Apache county, Arizona, by the justice of the peace who made the sale. 

The agency farm was abandoned this season for the dual reason that we 
were without proper implements to work it and that I am of the belief that 
Government farms on Indian reservations are not the best thing for the 
Indians. The ground was turned over to the Indians, being divided into 
plots for them ; and, under the intelligent supervision of the agency 
farmer, Mr. W. R. Fales, the water from Bonita Creek was conducted to 
the right spot and the whole farm systematically irrigated. The result 
is as fine a field of corn ( Indian ) as one would wish to see, and a due pro- 
portion of melons and pumpkins. 

The agency school was conducted during the past season under contract 
with Dr. H. Kendall, secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Home Mis- 
sions, and was in operation at the time I took charge, with an attendance 
of about 80 pupils. It was managed as an industrial boarding school, 
though no system of teaching industrial occupations was in operation or 
could be under the conditions existing. This was owing to the usual fail- 
ure of the United States to perform its agreements in connection with the 
Indian work. The Government, by its failure, compelled the opening of 
the school in an unfinished building, without suitable appliances ; without 
even a woodshed or a water closet ; with a roof on its kitchen and dining 
room that was about as good as a sieve as a protection ( it certainly was no 
better) ; sans everything almost that was needed for success in a school of 
this kind. Make bricks without straw, ye workers in this field. " Wait 
for Congress," and keep on waiting. But as sure as you do you'll get 
"left." The school is not a success thus far, and the United States 
Government is to blame. 

We have a saw-mill, which I am told cost $10,000 to place in position. 
The only covering for this valuable and useful machinery is the sky. It 
lies there exposed to the snow and the rain, to the sandstorm and the bliz- 
zard, rusting, rotting, and with a fine forest of pine timber within rifle 
shot. I have begged, implored, clamored for money to cover its nakedness. 
It makes me angry every time I look at it. I have offered to start it up at 
my own expense ( the money to be refunded to me ) and to net $500 a month 
to this tribe without the cost of a dollar to the United States. This, too, 
must " wait for Congress." It may be law, but it isn't business. 

Congress ought to do something to enable such of these Indians as are 
willing and of the right caliber to take up land without being compelled to 
pay for it. It ought to devise means to protect them against being swin- 
dled. I know a most deserving Indian who selected a ranch one hundred 
miles from the reservation twelve years ago. He has lived there ever since 
quietly, has raised seven children, has built a house and corral. Four 
years ago he went to Santa Fe" to get a title to his land. He paid some 
scoundrel $160 for a worthless paper, the man representing himself as the 
United States land agent. I reported these facts and sent the paper the 
Indian had received from this swindler to your office, but nothing was 
done. That sort of work discourages others who are willing and who 
have both the desire and the ability to become independent men. 

The Navajos are, in my judgment, the most independent, self-reliant 
Indians we have ; and I believe that in native shrewdness and intellect 
they are superior to any other tribe in the country. They are all armed — 
and well armed. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

United States Indian Agent. 

The Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 



J. G. Mossin. 
Henry W. O'Melveuy. 
Rev. M. S. Liebana. 
Sumner P. Hunt. 
Arthur B. Benton. 
Margaret Collier Graham. 
Chas. F. Lummis. 


President, Chas. F. Lummis. 
Vice-President, Margaret Collier Graham. 
Secretary, Arthur B. Bentoa, 114 N. Spring St. 
Treasurer, J. G. Mossin, California Bank. 
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. M. E. Stilson. 
812 Kensington Road. 

Chairman Membership Committee, Mrs. J. G. Mossin, 1033 Santee St. 

Honokaky Life Membf.ks : R. Egan, Tessa L. Kelso. 

Life Members : Jas. B. Lankershini, J. Downey Harvey, Edward E. Aver. John F. 
Francis, Mrs. John F. Francis, Mrs. Alfred Solano, Margaret Collier Graham, Miss Collier, 
Andrew McNally, Rt. Rev, Geo. Montgomery, Miss M. F. Wills, B. F. Porter. Prof. Chas. 
C. Bragdon, Mrs. Jas. W. Scott, Mrs. Phebe A. Hearst, Mrs. Annie D. Apperson, Miss 
Agnes Lane, Mrs. M. W. Kincaid, Col. H. (1. Otis, H. Jevne, J. R. Newberry. Dr. W. Jarris 
Barlow, Marion Brooks Barlow, Geo. W. Marston, Chas. L. Hutchinson, U. S. Grant, jr.. 
Isabel M. R. Severance, Mrs. Louisa C. Bacon, Miss Susan Bacon, Mrs. Mira Hersbey, 
Jeremiah Ahern, William Marshall Garland, Geo. L. Fleitz, Miss Josephine W. Drexel, 
Mrs. Sarah M. Utt, Miss Anita Ult, Emily Runyon E irl 

Advisory Board : Jessie Benton Fremont. Col. H. G. Otis, R. Egan, W. C. Pattersoa, 
Adeline Stearns Wing, Tessa L. Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas. Cassat Davis, Miss 
M. F. Wills, C. D. Willard, John F. Francis, Frank J. Polley, Rev. Hugh K. Walker, 
Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Lee, Rl. Rev. Joseph H. Johnson, Bishop »f Lo* Angeles, Mrs. 
Caroline M. Severance. 

fgf?tf|HE Club has now finished reroofing the large and import- 
J[ ant building 1 , 120x30 feet in dimensions, which stands 
south and west of the front cloisters of the Mission San 
Juan Capistrano. The new roof is of shakes, a foot to the 
weather ; but the structure is made to carry tiles if they can 
sometime be obtained. Thus far the Club has contrived to re- 
place the Capistrano roofs with the original tiles — and has thus 
reroofed all the large buildings. Now there are no more tiles ; and 
to purchase tiles for such a roof would cost a large sura — much 
more than the Club can pay while so many Mission buildings 
here and elsewhere are going to wrack for want of any sort of a 
roof whatsoever. The first thing is to get a roof which will keep 
out the weather ; and the Club feels glad that it has completed 
this first duty to this building. This insures its safety ; when 
someone will come forward with the several thousand dollars for 
tiles, there will be something left to put tiles on. 

At Pala, work has been much delayed by the sickness and de- 
parture of the Club's contractor who had the work under his su- 
pervision. It is, however, being prosecuted ; and all the chief 
buildings are safe. 
At the magnificent Mission of San Luis Rey, the Club wishes 


to put in several hundred dollars this spring- in rebuilding- the 
beautiful Roman arches recently thrown down by a "twister." 
Thus far, the Club has done nothing for this monarch of the 
Missions, simply because the little Franciscan colony there is 
doing much ; and at other Missions there was no one to do any 
thing, save the Club. Now, however, it seems proper and in 
due succession to assist somewhat at San Luis in matters the 
hard-working and overburdened Franciscans cannot touch. 
Father O'Keefe is planning to rebuild the monastery ; and with 
the restoration of the fallen cloisters the noble old facade will 
be very much as originally. 

The Club has leases until 1912 (when they will unquestionably 
be renewed) on the Missions of San Fernando, San Juan Capis- 
trano, and Pala. It also has preference as purchaser, should any 
of these properties ever be for sale. 

To carry on this work needs money. All annual memberships 
for 1903 are now due ; the more promptly they are paid, the bet- 
ter the Club can prosecute its work. Membership is open to all, 
and is but $1 per year. Life membership is $25. 

The Daughters of the Republic of Texas, under direct lead of 
De Zavala chapter, of San Antonio, have taken up landmarks 
work in the Lone Star State and are protecting, as fast as money 
can be raised, the venerable Texan Missions of San Jose, Con- 
cepcion and San Juan. This worthy work was inspired by the 
success of the Landmarks Club, and is due largely to the good 
American spirit of Miss Adina de Zavala, of San Antonio. Mrs. 
M. Looscan, of Houston, is another of the leading spirits in the 


Previously acknowledged — $5863. 50. 

Since received — Rent, monastery at San Fernando, $48. 

$1 each — Miss Jessie Washburn, Adolph Petsch, Los Angeles, 
Cal. ; Bradbury Cilley, Covina, Cal.; Remey T. Vesque, Terre 
Haute, Ind. 

That with no more than a little quaver of the breath a tired 
old woman has overstepped our trivial hedged paths and gone 
forth upon the inevitable Long Trail — this is the least of it 
For she went even as we could have wished who loved her — full 
of years and honors, ripened and enriched by such a life as no 
woman will ever have the chance to live again ; swiftly, pain- 
lessly, without an apprehension; her last conscious thought 
aglow with the Christmas spirit. But with her went out an 
Epoch. She was the last of the Old Guard of American Chivalry. 
It never surrendered ; but it has died. We had our Stone Age 
with the Puritans, our Iron Age with the Independence and its 
confirming. Now we are in the Gilded Age, and have almost 
forgotten every other. But between was the Age of Real Gold ; 
the one National Romance, the only American Odyssey, the only 
American Crusades— the time and the temper when we had 
Jasons for our Golden Fleece, and Lion Hearts for the Holy 
Sepulchre of human rights ; when Americans Won the West and 
wiped out that "Great American Desert" which two genera- 
tions ago covered half the map of the United States; aye, and 
the worse American Desert that made half that map black; 
when Americans looked up toWhittier and Garrison and Wendell 
Phillips rather than to Pierpont Morgan ; when Jefferson and 
his heirs dreamed out a nation no longer provincial, and Benton 
and Fremont made the dream come true ; when the Senate of the 
United States meant Daniel Webster and Henry Clay, rather 
than Matt. Quay and Mark Hanna. In a word, when Every- 
thing was Different. It is all gone, now ; and with her, almost 
tihe last visible reminder of it. But — thanks to Something 
longer-lived than our tuppenny memories — we can never again 
be quite as if That Day had never been. 

There is no possible question that Jessie Benton Fremont* was 
the greatest woman in the history of the West — that is, in much 
more than half the area of the United States. There is not even 
a comparison. She was more personally and more intimately 
connected with the acquisition of California than any other 
woman or consensus of women ; more than most statesmen ; and 
California was pretty much the West — for you will remember 

• Dir4 ia Los \nireles, December .*7, IfO, 


that, even so late as our Civil War, it was more than 2,000 miles 
from California to the next American State except Texas. No 
other woman in the history of America has had the like influ- 
ence upon the destiny of any portion of the Union. No other 
American woman has been, while living 1 , such a national figure — 
for of course the Martha Washington cult is wholly posthumous. 
Only one other woman has had the familiar compliment of being 
called by the whole nation affectionately by her maiden name ; 
and that one with far less keenness of interest. It is, indeed, 
hardly doubtful that Mrs. Fremont is the most romantic female 
figure in all our national history. And there is no doubt what- 
ever that she deserved the homage she had. 

She was daughter of the very first — and to this day foremost — 
American Senator who really comprehended what the West 
means to the provincial huddle of Eastern States. She had of 
him not only what goes with a father's blood, but his loving con- 
fidence, his respect and his personal training. At 16 she married 
the man next him in Making the West — the man that got us 
California ; the man who became the first presidential candidate 
of the Republican party ; the defeated candidate, who explored 
more of the United States than have all its presidents put 
together (not forgetting the splendid wilderness journeys of 
Washington); the candidate who added a thousand-fold more 
valuable territory to the nation than all its presidents put 
together^ have done ; the general who issued an Emancipation 
Proclamation a year before even Lincoln ventured. And she 
went with him through it all. She was not wife only, but 
counsellor, and largely enabler. Her beauty, her wit, her acute 
mind, her lovely womanliness, charmed the courts of Europe as 
well as the people of the then sturdy Republic. And in Cali- 
fornia she was still the guiding star of that chivalric life of 
which men that can understand it are proud — though it has 
indigested a Harvard professor who could no more translate the 
knightly Western mind than he could understand Fremont's legs 
and their gravitation to the Out-Doors. It is hardly reasonable 
to expect an Eastern easy-chair to comprehend the motives or 
the acts of a man so desperate and so uncomfortable-minded that 
he would spend years in exploring the uncharted wilderness ! 

And now it is all Gone By. There are no more Pathfinders, 
no more Crusades. Over the passes where the keen-eyed, wiry 
young lieutenant and his Canadian trappers and his border 
scouts struggled and starved and froze to blaze the path for 
Civilization, Civilization has come. Where these buckskin men 
floundered through the drifts and stood night-guard against the 
savages, a million Americans sit back today on their Pullman 
plush and draw the curtain for fear they may See Something. 


Not one in a thousand of them ever remembers that his chance 
to growl because the palatial Limited is Too Slow for him was 
won by Men in the stress that Makes Men. Not one in a thou- 
sand of them but would rather read how one of our modern idols 
has just Made a Million than how a few ragged souls hewed out 
the way by which — and by which solely — e very-other million in 
the United States has been made. 

But while those days are gone, they are not lost. Nature is 
not such a fool as she looks — to some — and one of the clever- 
est things she ever did was to provide that we shall always be 
Born Young. If man came upon the stage so smart as he is at 
50, the human world would have gone Dodo long ago. But 
luckily there will always be youth ; and so long as there 
is Youth, so long there shall be Romance. Our salvation is the 
Little Fools who Won't Listen to Us that Know it All — 
though we donH any longer Know Enough to be Young. It is 
indeed nowadays a somewhat sophisticated youth, thanks to 
us ; but it is Touth. It may be so precociously like its elders 
that it no longer believes in Santa Claus, but it is still — and 
always it shall be — youth enough to Run and Jump and "Waste 
its Energy ; "/ to Lov e whe n it is i mpol itic ;1 and to thrill to 
Heroism as we thrill to Dollars. And before it gets so Sadly 
Wise as we are, there will be another crop of Little Fools to 
carry on the sanities of Nature. And so long as Man comes to 
his world bald and bare, and of the pain that makes a mother 
love him, the life of a hero shall not have been wholly spilled 
upon the sand. For of his blood the Young shall still get some- 
thing you and I can never altogether smother, with all our pru- 
dences. That something is the one thing that makes the world 
continue — as a place infested with humans, that is. 

The old queen is dead. I call her so not because queens are 
as she was, but because in our superstition of words we expect 
them to be. Her waiting is done. She has followed her Cap- 
tain over the Great Divide. If there be anything in the most 
beautiful faith known to a race that certainly needs faith, she 
is with the Pathfinder ; no longer wrinkled, tremulous, deaf 
and tied to her chair, but the Jessie Benton of the days when 
Love and History wrought together. God rest her ! 

But while she is where neither bodily infirmity, nor in just 
nor the incomparable littlenesses of man shall ever touch her 
more, there is scant comfort to Americans in remembering how 
we let her die. It is the almost incredible shame of 
our country. Forty years ago the government seized 
Mrs. Fremont's home in San Francisco, for fortifications' 
It never has needed, it never will need, the batteries on 
Black Point; but it has them. Mrs. Fremont had paid 


$40,000 for the property, and a large sum for improvements. 
For forty years her friends have tried to get the government to 
repay her — not with interest, not a "war-claim" price, but a 
sum less than the property cost half a century ago ; not a tithe 
of what it is worth today. Do you imagine the government has 
ever made restitution of a dollar ? Not a copper cent. We 
cockadoodle about our greatness and our enlightenment and our 
wealth and our World-Power. Every time a katydid reporter 
tells us how the nations have their ear to the ground to listen 
to Us, we swell out our chests a little, vaguely conscious that 
the world's tribute is partly personal and altogether due. What 
else but Superiority can you expect of a country where We 
live ? And there is pretty much no one to remind us that our 
" Progress " is the Gravitation of Circumstance, and that even 
as it has come, so in its time it shall go, and no thanks in either 
case to us important flies on the coach-wheel ; but that you 
and I and all of us are to blame for a hundred chronic shames 
no civilized country on earth ever tolerated before. 

There are bigger shames ; but none meaner, more picayune, 
more contemptible than this. Our red-tape record as to many 
just claims is not to be proud of ; but the peculiar circumstances 
of this case make it incomparably disgraceful. The woman 
whose father, husband and herself literally gave California to 
the nation — but for Benton and the Fremonts we should not 
have it under our flag at all — this incalculably rich and self- 
satisfied nation has seen this woman grow old, and die, in pov- 
erty for the money it owed her. It is a privilege of govern- 
ments to take one's property as a stage-robber does ; but if there 
be on earth such a thing as honor, it is the privilege of govern- 
ment not to stay stage-robber forever. We all know what we 
would think if one rich man had robbed this woman. The act 
loses none of its moral quality when a nation commits it. 

Impoverished by this confiscation, Mrs. Fremont passed her 
last years in stringent circumstances. Nothing could embitter 
that indomitable soul ; but her old age was haunted with sorrow 
and anxiety for her children. For herself, unspoiled by the 
dazzling life of earlier days, she had little thought ; but to 
leave her daughter destitute — ! 

Her "boys " are in the service of their country — as some of 
her blood have been continuously for four generations, from her 
father under Jackson to her grandson under Roosevelt — and on 
at least the petty pay the nation gives its defenders. But her 
noble daughter, now within a few months of 60, and in broken 
health, after a lifetime of devotion — she has $500 in the world, 
and the house given her mother by women of Los Angeles. 
She will not starve to death. She can rent the home which has 
such associations, sell some of the relics of her father and 
mother, and enter the Hollenbeck Home for Old Women. Com- 
mercially speaking, that is all she can do ; and we speak and 
think commercially, as a rule. But the Lion reckons she will 
not do any one of these three things. He believes there is 


enough manhood in the United States to see that she shall not 
do them. There is probably no other country in the world that 
would in the first place have let such a woman as her mother die 
its creditor ; but no other country is quite so busy ; and when 
we are slapped in the face with the reminder that we have been 
Too Busy to be Decent, we do blush and atone as well as we 
may. There is only one way honorable to our country for the 
resolving of this case ; and that, of course, is that Congress 
shall repay the debt the nation has owed for forty years. Con- 
gress will never do it, unless now in the sentiment awakened by 
the death of the woman so long wronged. Congress is not a 
rabble of unhanged scoundrels ; but neither is it precisely a 
School of Moral Philosophy. It is a collection of mortal men, a 
good deal bedevilled. It does what it has to do, and not much 
more. What it has to do, depends on us. Any American who 
feels ashamed that his country has for forty years robbed the 
woman that more than any other it ought to have paid, can ac- 
quit himself of his share of the shame by "getting after" the 
public men he knows or knows of, and prodding them to the dis- 
charge of our common duty. There is no sharp stick needed 
for Senator Bard; he is — and long has been — awake. But 
anywhere else in Washington it will do no harm to put in a 

And if there be so little American manhood left in our official- 
dom — as the Lion will never believe unless by proof — certainly 
there are single Americans with not only the manhood but the 
means — and the delicacy — to see that the daughter of the 
Pathfinder and of Jessie Benton never goes to any Home but her 
own. There is no such word as " charity " to a Fremont. 
There is not a man in California but owes the heirs of the Fre- 
monts more than he ever dared run up against his grocer. 
Literally owes. And for that matter, there is not one single 
rich man in the United States who does not morally owe the 
Fremonts a larger commission than he ever paid any agent. 

A series of articles in this magazine for the last six months 
has tried to hint what California has meant to the nation ; 
that California was given to. us by Fremont needs no argument. 
And aside from what we owe the heroes of this romantic ac- 
quisition, there are still people who realize that, as Americans, 
they owe something to themselves. 

mere All of us know that Savages are Superstitious, and 

matter of th t w th p e0 pi e# The Lion has employed and 

enjoyed a reasonable share of his years in tracing these 
superstitions among the very races that button up with them. 
No branch of research is more cheering than that which teaches 
us what a slave of tradition the racial Other Fellow is. The 
only drawback to it is that the student ought really not to 
come home. For there he will have to groan — or laugh, ac- 
cording as is his constitution — M Lord, how like we all are 1 " 

The Lion has known Christmas and Christmas trees in many 
lands — from Nova Scotia to California, from Canada to Chile 
— and he doesn't know a gentler tree in all the forestation of 
this diverse little world. The inconceivable Sequoias of Cali- 


fornia — on one of whose fallen trunks a whole troop of cavalry 
has deployed — the slimmer but still loftier eucalypts of Au- 
stralia ; the lower but bulkier ahuehuetes of southern Mexico ; 
the interlocked giants of the Amazons whose visible roots 
alone would make more tree than any Easterner ever saw at 
home — maybe none of them are quite so much trees as the one 
which once a year bears the fruit of love and good-will. And 
as the Lion was born and " raised " where no other tree than a 
conifer ever dared to be green at Christmas, he certainly is not 

Nor is he smarter than the million other Easterners who are 
voluntarily removed to God's Country because they knew enough 
to Escape. But when he sees — and that is every Christmas — 
thousands of his peers and betters mechanically sending home 
trees they wouldn't, if they stopped to Look Up, wear out on their 
Neighbor's Dog — poor, skinny, knee-high poverties that are 
not Trees but fetishes of the old tradition of winter — why, he 
feels to wish his accident might have been communal. For 
once he couldn't find the dinky little fir he was after. And 
since then, he has had Christmas trees as are trees. 

T?he little conifers, of which thousands are sold in the Cali- 
fornia markets every Christmas, at ridiculous prices — $5 for a 
fair-sized one — are ravished off our watershed, from which we 
cannot afford the loss of a single one. Even if we have learned 
nothing of taste by removal, we must recognize the material 
fact that we haven't forests to burn. "J~ *^ - - 

On the other hand, California is almost everywhere populous 
with a tree so much handsomer, more graceful, more satisfac- 
tory, more like Christmas, than all the bristling conifers of our 
tradition that they look beside it as a Hired Man at a Presiden- 
tial Ball. And instead of being an outrage on our children's 
future to cut it, it needs, and is grateful for, a lopping back. As 
a matter of fact, the Lion used this Christmas the same tree he 
used the year before. In 1901 it was a young tree — maybe 
three years old. Cutting it off four feet from the ground gave 
a tree that brushed the ceiling-beams of a 14-foot room, and the 
walls 16 feet apart. This year, from that stump, there was a 
magnificent round, symmetrical mass of feathery frondage, 
eight feet high and twelve feet across ; so green, so soft, so 
graceful that the most inveterate Yankee — and many such saw 
it — had to say : " Well ! That is a Christmas tree ! It makes 
the other sort look like a fool ! " 

Doubtless the time will come when cultured people will cease 
to build their houses in California precisely as they built in 
Norway or in Vermont, and to live in general as if they had 
Never Budged. For their use of their minds the Lion has no 
special concern. But he does care about our forest trees, which 
are vital where they grow ; and which, when cut, do not make 
one fortieth as handsome a Christmas tree as the plumy exotic 
from Peru which dots all California. And if anyone will once 
dress a California pepper tree for Christmas, that one will never 
need any exhortation to "keep it up." It is all in line with the 
larger lessons he has learned. 

Chas. F. Ltjmmis. 



No better justification for a 
chronic grudge against Eastern 
weather need be alleged than that it 
killed John Fiske at the prime of his manhood, 
in the fulless of his powers. This is an old story 
now, to be sure, but it gains new significance as one considers the 
scattered sheaves of his interrupted harvesting which have been gathered 
by his widow and published in two weighty volumes under the title, 
Essays Historical and Literary. For twelve of these nineteen scholarly 
papers embody a part of the material from which the author would have 
constructed a History of the American People had a decent climate let him 
live. That this shall never now be written as he would have written it, is 
a very definite loss to both History and Literature. Without achieving — 
or attempting — distinction as an original investigator, Dr. Fiske had a 
most uncommon faculty to sift, to digest, to absorb and to convey. As 
nearly without prejudice as it is good for a man to be, seeking invariably 
not for evidence to bolster up an argument but for the truth wherever it 
might lead, careful to discriminate sharply between his knowledge and 
his opinions, the standing he has won among those who have a right to 
judge was fairly summed up by another of the soundest and most critical 
historical students of this generation — "If Fiske said is pretty 
certainly true." 

Besides these specific historical studies and other essays in literature, 
reminiscence and evolution (well described on the back of Vol. II as In 
Favorite Fields) there is a sound and peculiarly interesting general dis- 
course on Old and New Ways of Treating History. Not from this, how- 
ever, but from his Andrew Jackson must come the single quotation which 
can be allowed room here : 

For a long time there was a feeling about the Western country and its inhabitants not un- 
like that to which Gouverneur Morris grave expression. There was an ignorant supercil- 
iousness such as some Englishmen are still found to entertain toward the United States as 
a whole. This feeling has been apt to colour the books on American history written by 
Eastern men. With the best of intentions, and without the least suspicion of the narrow- 
ness of their views, such writers, while freely admitting the vastness and strength of the 
Western country, and the picturesqueness of its annals, hare utterly failed to comprehend 
the Importance of its share in the political development of the American nation. 

True enough — and the more's the pity that this Harvard professor could 
not have lived to set the West in its proper perspective in the national his- 
tory he had planned. Such slips as Dr. Fiske has made — like calling 
Bushy Run " the fiercest battle ever fought between white men and In- 
dians " or speaking of "an intellectual curiosity very rare . . . and. . . an 
amount of forethought truly wonderful in an Indian" — are in matters 
outside the line of his main study, and he would have been the first to cor- 
rect them as he had occasion to investigate the facts. For the most serious 
blemish of these volumes he is not at all responsible — a carelessness in 
proof-reading all the more amazing since this publishing house does not 
usually sin in this BUUUMT. It is not of serious consequence that the 
Elijah Pogram who helped to form Martin Chuzzlewit's opinion of the 
United States should masquerade as Pagram ; and " 1773 " as the date of 
an argument between Gladstone and Herbert Sin-ncer will not mislead the 


present generation at least. It is annoying (to put it mildly) to find 
two familiar quotations from other languages so mispunctuated as to be 
literally untranslatable as they stand — on page 17, Vol. II, is, Si non e vero 
e ben, trovato, and in the note on page 43 of the same volume is " Disce ut 
semper victurus vive, ut eras moriturus." But these are slight and pardon- 
able compared with precisely reversing an author's statement, as on page 
405, Vol I. There Dr. Fiske is made to say that "there is no sense" in 
which Theodore Parker's "pathetic but terrible" indictment of Daniel 
Webster dead finds response in present-day hearts. The context makes it 
perfectly clear that " there is a sense " was intended. The Macmillan Co., 
New York. $4 net. 

If " Mary Adams " — the name offered as that of the author of " Thb voice 
Confessions of a Wife — and Elizabeth Stuart Phelps are not OF 

identical, they are most remarkably twin of heart and brain. In * 

style, in flavor, in point of view, in method of construction, the work of 
the " unknown and pseudonymous author " is not to be distinguished from 
Mrs. Ward's. This may seem — but is not — a question of small signi- 
ficance. There is light here, brilliant and steady — it is of consequence 
whether it shines from a new star or from one whose spectral analysis is 
familiar. In this case the problem seems easy of solution, and without an 
elaborate discussion. Here are parallel quotations from descriptions of a 
physician's hand-to-hand grip with death in Avery — the latest book ac- 
credited to Mrs. Ward — and in the Confessions: 

The physician had ceased to speak to any Beyond a few curt professional orders he 

person. His square jaws came together did not speak. His jaws shut like steel 

like steel machinery that had been locked. locks. His gentle eyes grew terrible, and 

In his eyes immeasurable pity gathered. • • challenged death. . . The doctor called 

Avery thought of that other Healer who my husband's spirit back, 

summoned his dearest friend from the re- ..... 

treat of death "in a loud voice." His face was set and stern; it was as 

strong as bronze. His peremptory orders 

His countenance grew dogged and grim. rang like those of some military man. 

He took control of the despairing house- 
hold as a great general takes command of a 
terrible retreat. 

Such similarities as these seem to me fairly conclusive evidence of iden- 
tity of authorship. 

The story has been so widely read and so much talked about as to require 
no retelling in a review. It is easy enough to pick flaws in it. Most 
women — who are as a sex, noted for their calm balance and perfect con- 
trol over emotions — protest aloud that " Marna " is hysterical, unreal, a 
" perfect fool " in fact. Men will agree that a wife who could write her 
husband two letters and a note of a single evening — one to fasten on his pin- 
cushion with a pearl butterfly, one to slip under his pillow, and the third 
to reach him in unspecified manner — might eventually drive him to mor- 
phine and Uruguay ; but will look with more serious incredulity on the 
fine strength and superhuman self-abnegation of " Dr. Robert." And to 
descend to trifles, one may wonder how a baby born August 17th could be 
just two weeks old on the 30th ; or why it should have seemed good to the 
illustrator to represent the same infant at sixteen months as a long-dressed 
armling of about six. But graver indictments than any of these would 
properly be quashed in any court of critics when urged in derogation of 
this finished and brilliant manner, this bold and clean grasp of such 
matter as commonly betrays a writer into sickly sentimentality, slurring 
suggestiveness or frank and cynical indecency, and this power to create 
real people — whom the reader may like or dislike, approve or disapprove, 
but who are, at all events, alive and interesting. The Century Co., New 
York ; Stoll & Thayer Co., Los Angeles. $1.50. 


Avery is a slighter story and strains normal probabilities much more 
severely. But who cares for cold probabilities if the breathless rush of the 
story carries him right off his feet ? As in the Confessions, the centre of the 
stage is occupied by a lawyer and his wife who love each other deeply and 
passionately, but whose lives narrowly escape total wreck. The Tertiutn 
Quid in each tale is a physician— in this one Dr. Esmerald Thorne — the same 
who had to be translated to Paradise in an earlier story by the same author 
before he could realize how he had failed of tenderness to his own wife. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston ; Stoll & Thayer Co., Los Angeles. $1. 

sermon A discourse inspired by a reading of The Quest of Happiness, 

To A from the fluent pen of Newell Dwight Hillis, pastor of Plymouth 

Church, Brooklyn, might well enough fall under three main heads 
—the Elasticity of Ideas, Eloquence as a Pitfall, and Endemic Clerical 
Recklessness. The treatment of either of these divisions after the fashion 
of Dr. Hillis himself would require more than the 549 pages of his book — 
and might be made at least as profitable and entertaining. But here there 
is space for no more than a couple of choice illustrations which will ap- 
pear in the third section of the sermon, if it is ever written. Dr. Hillis 
says, on page 488 : 

In the beginning the seed rots, and the decay of the germ is repulsive, but in the trans- 
formation the germ works toward the far-off redwood tree of California. 

Not only is this not true — it bears no resemblance to the truth, as the 
most rudimentary knowledge of the facts concerning growth and germina- 
tion would have made clear. A rotting seed, a germ in which " repulsive 
decay " has even commenced, never did and never will produce so much 
as a blade of grass. 

At page 57, Dr. Hillis is arguing that hardship is valuable in making 

character. He says : 

The Hottentot wakes in the morninc, kicks a banana tree, staffs himself with fruit, 
sleeps until the sun is in the zenith, shakes another branch of the bread fruit, repeats the 
stuffing- process, sleeps again, and his life is one lonf stupor. 

The Hottentot is a native of Cape Colony, at the southern extremity of 
Africa. He is of a pastoral and hunting race. His food consists largely 
of milk and the products of the chase. To kick the nearest indigenous 
" banana tree " (in India) his leg would have to be some 4,000 miles long, 
and to shake a branch of the bread fruit (in the South Sea Islands ) would 
stretch his arm something like 8,000 miles. More than that, no " savage " 
tribe ever existed for a single generation or a single week in any such 
condition of sloth and stupor as Dr. Hillis describes. To the contrary, if 
he and his congregation or any other set of "civilized" persons whose 
"man-muscles" have become obsolescent through [generations of disuse 
were removed into the place of any "savage" tribe, stripped of their 
crutches and nurses, and required to provide for themselves, there would 
be neither Reverend Doctor nor congregation in a very few weeks. They 
would have died the death of the Unfit and Incompetent. 

These are but two samples picked almost at random from several score 
of wildly reckless statements which I have marked. Indeed, Dr. Hillis does 
not balk even at flatly and repeatedly contradicting himself. No fluency 
of speech nor charm of style nor sincerity of purpose can make such a 
book anything but worse than worthless ; nor is any man fit to instruct in 
morals or anything else who is satisfied to teach the truth so far as he 
knows t, without taking reasonable pains to find out what the truth is. 
Dr. Hillis is undoubtedly an estimable gentleman, a delightful friend, and 
a charming pulpit orator. But he sadly needs a sieve, and discretion to 
use it. The Macmillan Co., New York. $1.50. 


Nonliving American is better entitled than Edward Everett Hale, history 
by length of years, by close personal touch with the most inter- through 

esting people and events of the nation through three generations, A KEVHOLK - 

by literary skill and by the affectionate regard he has inspired in the 
hearts of thousands who never saw him, to offer confidently his reminis- 
cences. His Memories of a Hundred Years is, in fact, more interesting 
than even the best of his stories, good as they have been. It is by no 
means autobiographical — indeed, Dr. Hale tells far less about himself 
than most of his readers would like to hear. His own description of it as 
" chatter about the history of his own generation and the generation before 
his own as he saw it through his own keyhole " can hardly be improved, 
save that there is far too much wisdom and gentle humor to qualify it as 
"chatter." There is little attempt to be consecutive and none at being 
exhaustive. Dr. Hale just talks pleasantly along about the things that 
interest him as he recalls them, secure that they will interest the reader as 
well. From the thousand temptingly quotable passages, one may select 
as a fine specimen of condensed, incisive and just criticism, this : " The 
modern theory of journalism is that newspapers have no business with 
history." The illustrations have been chosen with discretion, and add 
greatly to both interest and value of these two delightful volumes. The 
Macmillan Co. $5 net. 

Alice MacGowan has drawn largely from personal experience a Texas 
in writing The Last Word — the story of a young and beautiful girt, in 

woman who goes from the " cow-country" of Texas to New York new york. 

" to engage in literary and journalistic pursuits." It is a first-rate story, 
too, on the whole, and quite out of the ordinary run. The genuine breezy 
smack of the plains is in it, and there is an excellent picture of New York 
as it appears to anunawed, bright- witted Western girl who knows and loves 
a country where there is room and air. Slang and that variant of English 
known as "newspaperese " are very much in evidence, as might reasonably 
be expected. Nor has Miss Mac Gowan learned the use of the pruning- 
knife, or its virtue. She says whatever pleases her fancy about any sub- 
ject under the sun, related to the story or not — and to say the truth, usually 
says it interestingly. Apparently it depends wholly on what mark she sets 
for herself, and how much pains she is willing to take, whether her future 
work rises to permanent value or descends to mere smart flippancy. Mean- 
while some friend should suggest that if she really must put an "h" 
into "bronco," it ©ught' least to go where it will not radically alter 
the sound of the word — as " brohnco," or " broncoh," or even " brhohn- 
coh," if the appetite for " h's " is insistent. But " broncho " from one 
who knows the critter at home is not easy to forgive. E. C. Page & Co., 
Boston ; C. C. Parker, Eos Angeles. $1.50. 

The James K. Hackett edition of The Crisis is bound in a red actor 
cover (on which Mr. Hackett's name appears twice in gold letters) VERSUS 

has a red line around each page and comes in a red box. By way 
of foreword is a " sketch of Mr. James K. Hackett's career," from which 
it appears that he could do "stage-falls, bits of dances and the ilike " at 
the tender age of four ; that he was valedictorian in his grammar school 
class and president of his college class; and that in one season he "did 
nearly every conceivable line of work |from Shakespeare to end man in a 
minstrel performance." It is illuminated with 13 photographs — two of 
James K. Hackett in propria persona, two of James K. Hackett as'Stephen 
Brice, and nine of scenes from the play in which he holds the center of 
the stage, or near it. There are also five others in which ilhe does not'ap- 


pear — which seems to be a mistake in judgment, as he is distinctly hand- 
some and well set up. The story is just as good as it was in earlier edi- 
tions. No portrait of Winston Churchill nor any little details concerning 
his life appear in the book. He is only the man who wrote it. The Mac- 
millan Co., New York. 

how A book which gives concisely the results of twenty years' careful 

IT ought and enthusiastic observation and study, which excludes everything 


except precise knowledge obtained by personal seeing and handling, 
and which is fully illustrated with pertinent photographs, is worth a place in 
anybody's library, if only as an example of how such work ought to be — but 
is far too seldom — done. This is an exact description of Caterpillars and 
Their Moths, by Ida M. Eliot and Caroline Gray Soule. It contains not only 
the observed life-history of a number of species, with life-size photo- 
graphs, but all information necessary for rearing moths. The book is as 
nearly indispensable for teachers or students in that line of work as any 
one book can be. The Century Co., New York ; C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. 
$2 net ; postage, 18 cents. 

WHERE There is ample evidence in The Warden of the Marches of 

strange Things Sydney Grier's familiarity with English garrison life on the 
frontier of India, and proof as well of skill at compounding love 
and bloodshed in just proportion to satisfy the appetite of the confirmed 
novel-reader. Yet it may be suggested that another time this author 
might conform to the rules of "sham battles" at least so far as to let 
people once definitely and conclusively slain stay dead. To shoot one man 
" actually through the heart " and to mingle another with the explosion 
of a powder-mine under a fort, only to produce them later very much in 
the game still, albeit more or less disfigured, seems to be giving the miracles 
too little elbow-room. And, in California, 24-hour-old babies do not allow 
their eyes to be caught by flashing rays of light. But India is a long 
way off, and, of course, things may be very different there. L. C. Page & 
Co., Boston ; C. C. Parker, Eos Angeles. $1.25. 

sensational " Good heavens, when have I ever heard such language ! " is 

WITH A the singularly just observation of the countess, on paire 136 of 

VENGEANCE. „ ., % . .. ~ . „, 7 ' . 

On the Cross, a romance of the Passion Play at Oberammergau. 

Here is a sample of the language when it is placid and restrained : 

The labor, the increasing heat of the sun, and the excitement of the countess 1 presence 
had quickened the usually calm flow of his blood till it fairly seethed in his veins, glowing 
in roseate life through the ascetic pallor of his skin, while the swelling" veins stood forth ia 
a thousand waving lines like springs welling from white stone. 

When the author and translator get really in earnest, the pages fairly 
sizzle and smoke. There is unimpeachable authority — the publisher's — 
for stating that M this novel is rapidly rising to the top of the list of best 
selling books," that the fourth edition is just off the press, and that it is to 
be dramatized. Its proper classification in a library would be under the 
head of Unintentionally Funny. Drexel Biddle, Philadelphia ; Cunning- 
ham, Curtis & Welch, San Francisco. $1.50. 

sketches Bayou Triste is a series of studies of life and character on a 

in black Louisiana plantation, with just a tiny thread of a story to string 

them on. The negro servants and their friendly intimacy with 
the families to which they now "belong" by right of long and willing 
service almost as much as of old by actual ownership, are handled with an 
especially deft touch. The author, Josephine Hamilton Nicholls, is 
daughter of the Chief Justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court, and much 
of the book is evidently drawn closely from life. A. S. Barnes & Co., New 
York. $1.50. 


Mary Stewart Cutting may very well have had in mind for a prov. 
text, " Whoso findeth a wife, findeth a good thing." Her Little xvin, 

Stories of Married Life will perhaps seem tame to those who like 22 

the high-spiced, edge-of-the-divorce-court-and-beyond brand of romance, 
but they have a wholesome " homey " taste that is genuinely good. Mc- 
Clure, Phillips & Co., New York ; C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. 

Thoroughbreds is a novel of the race-track and the training among 
stable. The story is woven with considerable skill, but is most Thb 

notable for its accurate studies of various types associated with RUNNERS, 

the "bang-tails" — owners, touts, bookmakers, jockeys, trainers and the 
rest. Mr. Fraser proves himself thoroughly familiar with this field. 
McClure, Phillips & Co., New York. $1.50. 

The story of Rose Ann, washerwoman — "not none o' yo' fancy lauu- 
d'esses, but jes a plain grass-bleachin', sun-dryin', clair-starchin', muscle- 
polishin' washerwoman " — of her husband, "the gentleman of the plush 
rocker," and of their black and happy brood, as told by Ruth McEnery 
Stuart in Napoleon fackson, is delightful reading. Back of the fun of it — 
which is funny enough, in good sooth — lies a very sober lesson as to the 
danger of hasty and ignorant judgment, and the wisdom of letting other 
people arrange their family affairs to suit themselves. The Century Co., 
New York ; Stoll & Thayer Co., Los Angeles. $1. 

Frederic Lawrence Knowles had Mark Twain's permission to dedicate to 
him the Treasury of Humorous Poetry. It contains more than 250 selec- 
tions, including most of the best "classics" and many good moderns. 
The editor explains that copyright difficulties have prevented him from 
using some work of American authors which "belonged." This may ac- 
count for the failure to include such a gem as Charlotte Perkins Stetson's 
"Similar Cases" — an omission hardly excusable otherwise. Dana, Estes 
& Co., Boston. $1.20 net ; postage 13 cents. 

The Book We Need turns out on investigation to be a text-book on arith- 
metic, by Leon Steffire, LL.B., of Bowdle, South Dakota. There is an 
unexpectedly personal flavor to some of the problems offered, as, for ex- 
ample, this: 

A certain little pettifoprg'er and his squire fleeced their victims in one year of $3,126, in the 
next year of $5,100.75, and in the third year of $2,711.25. The squire was to get Yz of it, but 
the other swindled him to the tune of $671.30. How much did the squire get? 

The Whitaker & Ray Co., San Francisco. $1. 

The Beautiful Mrs. Moulton, by Nathaniel Stephenson, is of the better 
grade of American novels. Its greater significance lies in the clean-cut 
study of many " Middle Western " social and business types ; but the story 
itself is well-constructed and interesting, and for the most part convincing 
— though one's faith needs to be well-oiled to accept smoothly the details 
of the plan by which " Launceley " wrecks "Moulton." It is an at- 
tractive book to the eye - as is the rule with the offerings of this pub- 
lisher. John Lane, New York. $1.20 net. 

A large part of Lilli Lehmann's How to Sing (Meine Gesangskunst) is 
given to the sensations experienced by the singer corresponding to the va- 
rious qualities of tone, and a study of the physical facts producing them. 
This is assisted by a number of charts showing the relation of the vocal 
organs, the course of the breath and so on. The author's purpose is to 
give to every singer the benefit of all she has learned about her art dur- 
ing the 34 years of her practice and study of it. The Macmillan Co., New 
York. $1.50 net. 

In The Story of Kate, Pauline Bradford Mackie has essayed a " Tale of 
California Life for Girls." Its heroine is a rancher's daughter who de- 
velops great artistic ability. The story is slight but delicately told. The 
local color is convincing only while San Francisco or thereabouts is the 
field. The life of the ranch or the mountain village Mrs. Hopkins can have 
known very little about, save from hearsay. L. C. Page & Co., Boston ; C. 
C. Parker, Los Angeles. $1.20 net. 

With a cheerful disregard of morals, manners, grammar, probabilities, 
possibilities and pretty much everything else except a brisk and racy story, 
Hope Loring marches along from winning $15,000 in a lottery while at 
school in New Orleans to making millions in a day by "selling copper" 
in Wall street. Lilian Bell assumes responsibility on the title page, as 


she has done before in several similar cases. L. C. Page 4 Co., Boston; 
C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. $1.50. 

Penn Shirley really writes charming stories for the little people — 
simple, straightforward and unaffected. Her Boy Donald and his Hero 
live in California, and seem to enjoy it. The "frantic colt" — in the 
frontispiece — who, if the text is to be trusted, runs away " snorting and 
plunging down the street," appears to a casual observer to be smiling 
broadly, winking in appreciation of the fun, and trotting with his fore-legs 
while he gallops furiously behind. Lee & Shepard, Boston. 60 cents. 

Luncheons — by Mary Ronald, author of the Century Cook Book, and 
offered as a supplement to that classical treatise — is said to contain 
"receipts for all the different dishes that can possibly be needed for every 
kind of a luncheon." A glance through the 228 pages, with their 208 
photographs, indicates that this is no exaggeration. The Century Co., 
New York ; Stoll & Thayer Co., Los Angeles. $1.40 net; postage 15 cts. 

Every volume of the " Pocket Series of American and English 
Classics " which I have so far seen has deserved nothing but unqualified 
praise. Macaulay's Essay on Lord Clive, with introduction and notes by 
J. W. Pearce, Ph. D., is no exception. It is packed full of flavorsome 
meat, and sold for next to nothing. The Macmillan Co., New York. 
25 cts. 

In Oldfield, Nancy Huston Banks has pictured the life of a village in 
the " Pennyroyal Region " of Kentucky in the days when " Vanity Fair " 
was a new book. The colors used are delicate, and applied for the most 
part with discretion, if a little too deliberately for the modern, quick-lunch 
reader. The Macmillan Co., New York. $1.50 net. 

Cap and Gown is made up of verses which have appeared in college 
magazines within a few years. Most of them have the merit of coming 
evidently from those "who sing because they want to sing" — and there 
are some distinctly sweet and musical notes evident. L. C. Page & Co., 
Boston ; C. C. Parker & Co., Los Angeles. $1.25. 

Carolyn Wells has collected, in her Nonsense Anthology, 268 pages of the 
most whimsical verse extant. There is much matter for amusement in 
the book — not the least being the horror with which Lord Tennyson would 
view his "Minnie and Winnie" cheek by jowl with " The Purple Cow." 
Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.25, net. 

The English boys and girls who hold the stage in Evelyn Sharp's The 
Other Boy are unquestionably of close kinship to those with whom her 
readers have become familiar in her other stories. They are a vigorous 
and wholesome set, and their conversation continues to offer revelations in 
English As She Is Spoke. The Macmillan Co., New York. $1.25. 

Mabel Osgood Wright's Dogtown, " being some chapters from the 
annals of the Waddles family, set down in the language of housepeople," 
is dedicated to all who love children and dogs. It is fully illustrated from 
photographs taken by the author, and is a charming book. The Macmillan 
Co., New York. $1.50 net. 

Memories, A Story of German Love, is a translation by Geo. P. Upton 
of Max Muller's delicate and touching tale. Author, translator, illustrator 
and publisher have combined to make the book genuinely a work of art 
from whichever point of view it is considered. A. C. McClurg A Co., 
Chicago. $2 net; $2.12 delivered. 

In Beautiful foe's Paradise, a San Francisco lad is conveyed wo airship to 
an island in some other planet to which all good United States animals go 
when they die. It is approved by the youngsters on whom I have tested it. 
L. C. Page & Co., Boston ; C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. $1.20 net. 

Bulletin No. 35 of the Bureau of Forestry is an exhaustive and finely 
illustrated study of the Eucalypts cultivated in the United States. It is 
the work of Alfred James McClatchie, of the Arizona Experimental 

John James Audubon, pioneer and chief among American bird-students, 
is treated sympathetically by John Burroughs in the " Beacon Biography " 
series. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. 75 cents. 

Chaklbs Amadon Moody. 


Conducted by WILLIAM E. SMYTHE. 




P> ! 

,SYCHOLOGICALLY, though not by the evidence of our 
senses, we know that in these December days the Old 
Year is drawing to its close, and that just over the hori- 
zon the New Year is waiting to be called. Yes, even if New 
England-born and now rooted in California soil by all the ties 
of interest and affection, we know it is getting toward the end 
of the year. True enough, the lawn is green, the trees are 
clothed with abundant verdure, and tender, full-blown flowers 
are nodding in the gentlest of breezes. Anywhere else these 
are the signs of summer — of the year's full-blooded, voluptuous 
youth — and especially in that dear land whence so many of us 
came. And yet, spite of these anomalies, we know that this is 
winter and that we are about to pass over an invisible boundary 
into a new division of our lives. We gravitate naturally into 
retrospection. And as we do — so strong and assertive is our 
inheritance from the unnumbered real winters of the past, 
winters reaching back over God only knows how many genera- 
tions of Old England and New England snowdrifts — that even 
the landscape and the voices of nature seem to change as we sit 
dreaming at the window. The sea is not so blue as usual — it 
is tinged with wintry gray. The sky looks cold. The wind has 
a chilly sound, a sort of December note that we had not noticed 
before. One might even shut one's eyes and imagine that the 
favorite walk to the Point is strewn with brown leaves. No, 
no ! There is a humming bird balancing among the blossoms 
on the trellis ! Still, this is December and we are nearing the 
end of the year, the humming bird to the contrary notwith- 

It has been one of the really interesting years in the THE FAIR 
history of the West. To begin with, it has been a period exterior of 

of high average prosperity. Crops have been generally prosperity. 

good and have brought living prices, and, in a few instances, 
rather more than that. Our schools and colleges have grown in 
membership and in influence. Some of them have mapped out 


new and ambitious plans. Taking the West as a whole, from 
the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, there has been a fair 
degree of expansion on the soil, though it has nowhere ap- 
proached the proportions of a boom year, while in California 
our backwardness in solving the irrigation problem has kept us 
relatively behind Colorado, Montana, Utah, Idaho and Wash- 
ington in broadening the foundation of our economic life. 
Still, the year has been very notable in the efforts that have 
been put forth, particularly in the central and northern coun- 
ties, to increase the agricultural population. These efforts have 
no doubt added much to the reputation of that part of the 
State. Probably they have not actually increased immigration 
to any appreciable extent. Whether this result shall be had 
later depends upon many other factors besides the labors of the 
Promotion Committee itself. 

Turning from the country to the city, we find a much more 
notable gain both in business and in population. In fact, one is 
tempted to inquire not only if the cities are not prospering more 
than the country, but prospering at the expense of the country. 
It may be a merely temporary condition, but during the past 
year the people of the towns have exhibited far more signs of 
flush pocket-books than their country cousins. Labor in the 
town has been better paid than labor in the rural districts, 
whether the worker were a proprietor and small capitalist or a 
hired hand. Unskilled labor in many places has received a 
rate of wage unprecedented elsewhere. Apparently, more jobs 
havi been looking for men than men for jobs. Of local busi- 
ness failures we have heard little or nothing. Of new indus- 
tries and new projects of various sorts we have heard much. 
Even making allowance for the Western imagination, which 
always erects a mere rumor into a twelve-story business block 
before the ink on the newspaper item is fairly dry, there has 
been a very substantial gain in building operations all over the 
State. San Francisco, like London and New York, is going 
through a process of reconstruction. Oakland, Berkeley, San 
Jose, Stockton, Sacramento and Fresno, are gaining in size, in so- 
lidity, and in beauty. Los Angeles — well, Los Angeles is still 
11 at it " as hard as ever, and even a little harder if anything. 
She has not only confounded the evil prophecies of unbelievers, 
but actually surpassed the rosiest predictions of her most reck- 
less partisans. Why, no one can logically explain, but there is 
the fact just the same — there is Los Angeles ! San Diego, 
Santa Barbara, Pasadena, Riverside, Redlands and the rest have 
all grown a little stouter and a little handsomer. We must not 
neglect to observe, however, that their gains are very largely 
due to the continued immigration of the well-to-do who have 


reached that stage of life where they are thinking seriously of 
going to Heaven and who want to get as near to it as they pos- 
sibly can before they die, so that the inevitable step may be but a 
short one. To a certain extent, this is an artificial factor in 
the growth of a community and should not be confounded with 
the more substantial development of material resources. 

The railroads have done an enormous business and have made 
many costly improvements. Much construction has been done 
in connection with electric lines. Phelps, Dodge & Company 
have completed their new and important line from Bisbee to 
El Paso. Much preliminary work has been done on other pro- 
jects. The Oregon Short Line and Senator Clark seem to 
have come together, so that there will be one road, and only one, 
from Salt Lake to Los Angeles. (Some people think it may 
turn out to be the Burlington in the end. ) There seems to be a 
substantial prospect of a new road from Denver to Salt Lake, 
and of another from Bisbee to Phoenix, thence on to Yuma. 
San Diego is still hoping and planning for a direct eastern out- 
let, and those who know most about it have full confidence in 
the result. By the way, the biggest thing in irrigation de- 
velopment this year is the continued growth and prosperity of 
the reclamation work in the Imperial region, which was 
formerly known as the Colorado Desert. 

Viewed as a whole, the West has made substantial gains on 
the material side during 1902. These gains have been well dis- 
tributed throughout the different States and Territories and 
divided with a fairly even hand among merchants, manufac- 
turers, farmers, stock-growers and miners. The trade of the 
Pacific has expanded perceptibly. Many great enterprises have 
been set on foot, and many which were -already established have 
extended the sphere of their operations. If we do not look 
below the surface of things, and if we think only of today, we 
may say that the past year has been one of unblemished pros- 
perity — that while some have done better than others, nearly 
all have done better than usual. 

In marked contrast to the fair exterior of prosperity, 

. . J ' UNDER THE 

we have heard throughout the past year the rising note surface 

of social discontent. Never in the writer's lifetime, and OF THXNGS « 

probably never in the country's history since the warmest stage 
of the anti-slavery movement, has the atmosphere been so 
charged with this kind of electricity. The agitator is abroad 
in the land. He discourses to groups on the street-corners. He 
speaks on Sunday afternoons in public parks. He gives whole 
courses of lectures in halls, and, wonderful to relate, gets a full 
house every night. But he does more than this. He estab- 


lishes and maintains newspapers to spread his message far and 
wide, and he organizes what he calls the International School 
of Economics to train corps of young - men and women to go and 
preach the gospel to every living creature. Whatever may be 
thought of the doctrines promulgated, no one can fail to note 
certain very striking features of this extraordinary intellectual 
awakening. In the first place, it differs from the Grange, Popu- 
list and Alliance movements in the fact that it is not at all sec- 
tional, and in the even more striking fact that it is born not of 
calamity, but of prosperity — not of hard times, but of good 
times. It has sprung up spontaneously throughout the northern' 
half of the United States from Maine to Dakota, and among all 
communities in the Rocky Mountains and along the Pacific 
Coast. It is in evidence at the South, too, though not so con- 
spicuously. Next, the movement is peculiar and impressive in 
the fact that it has so many earnest missionaries who support 
it with tireless and unpaid devotion. In this respect it seems 
more like religion than like politics or economics. 

There could be no greater mistake than to imagine that the 
strength of the movement is measured by the number of votes 
cast for the candidates of any new party at the November elec- 
tion. Even in this aspect its growth is striking not only in the 
matter of bulk, but even more in the extent of its distribution 
and in the uniformity of its gains throughout the Union, in city 
and country alike. But when we come to examine the year's 
development in the matter of legislation, and when we consider 
the expressions of party platforms and of influential men, we 
behold much stronger evidence of the growth of new thoughts. 
Nor are these confined to the realm of economics. They are 
seen in every department of our intellectual life. They are 
nowhere more impressive than in their spiritual manifestation. 
This is not to say that more people are going to church than 
formerly, but rather that an epoch marked on one side by the 
grossest materialism the world has seen in some centuries is 
marked on the other side by the noblest intellectual aspirations. 
Whether the spiritual uplift is the reflection of social unrest, or 
social unrest the product of spiritual uplift, it would be difficult 
to say ; but that they are inseparably associated, as twin factors 
in creating the present mood of a large part of our people, there 
can be no reasonable doubt. 

So in looking back over the year of 1902 the student of events 
beholds the rich spectacle of Prosperity ; but when he listens he 
hears the rumble of Social Discontent, and, looking closely into 
the heart of things, he sees in the background an eager, earnest 
throng, their faces illumined with a new enthusiasm for the 
Rights of Man. 

"the greatness The legislation of the past year produced two meas- 
of things ^ ureg f momentous consequence to the West. These 
were the National Irrigation and the Isthmian Canal 
Acts. Not since the original acquisition of the vast region 
from which the seventeen States and Territories of the Trans- 
Missouri country were carved has any o\ vnt approached in sig- 
nificance the adoption of these two measures. The one will 
open to settlement what is now but a wilderness, though capable 


of sustaining more people than the present total population of 
the United States ; the other will give cheap transportation for 
the interchange of products between the Atlantic and the Pacific 
Coasts. Both are great foundation stones on which the edifice 
of national greatness, national power and national glory will be 
builded broader and higher than ever before. What is almost 
equall} T striking, both bear testimony to the wonderful growth 
of public opinion in favor of the national ownership of public 
utilities. Neither was beyond the scope of private enterprise in 
its modern form, when capital is brought together to the amount 
of hundreds of millions in single corporations. The capitaliza- 
tion of the Steel Trust is sufficient to built seven or eight Isth- 
mian Canals. We shall be fortunate indeed, if in the next half- 
century so much as the capitalization of the Steel Trust is ex- 
pended on National Irrigation. Would that in the next ten 
years we might have as much for this purpose as Mr. Carnegie 
has recently given to public libraries — seventy million dollars ! 
Plainly enough, the nation is to cut the Isthmus and to own and 
manage the waterway, and the nation is to store the floods and 
distribute them over the land, not because these great under- 
takings are beyond the reach of private capital, but because in 
the last few years there has grown up in this country a public 
opinion which would not entrust to private hands the control of 
these important public utilities. Here is where the future his- 
torian is sure to stick a pin. And he will note with interest 
that while a new party has done most of the preaching of ab- 
stract principles, the doing of concrete acts fell to the hands of 
the old historical parties, one or the other of which has been in 
power almost constantly since the foundation of the Republic. 
We find the same lesson in various other events of the past year. 
For instance, the city of Chicago voted overwhelmingly in 
favor of public ownership of street railways, gas and elec- 
tricity. A powerful public demand arose for the national owner- 
ship of the anthracite coal-fields of Pennsylvania, and one of 
the great parties in New York actually declared itself for this 
revolutionary policy. The popular demand for national control 
of large corporations has risen to portentous proportions. 
The initiative and referendum has been adopted into the 
constitution of one State and into the charters of many cities. 
Thus all along the line we see the influence in actual legisla- 
tion of the new school of economic thought and, perhaps, of 
the growing spirit of human brotherhood which is its spiritual 

All things considered, the past year has been one of extraor- 
dinary interest. Its great aspects have been the amazing pros- 
perity which is spread all over the surface of the situation ; 
then, the propaganda of new ideas of social and economic 
organization ; finally the adoption of these principles to some 
extent in actual legislation under the leadership of those who 
think themselves most firmly opposed to changes. What of the 
future ? Anyone may guess, but no man knows. Events alone 
can answer the question. But this is certain ; we are living in 
a momentous time and history will be made rapidly during the 
next few years. 



^jgVRESIDENT ROOSEVELT has told Congress that if it 
j^S wants to solve the problems of the public domain, and 
feels that it does not quite know how to do so, he will 
gladly appoint an Arid Land Commission to help it find the 
way. A wiser suggestion never fell from a Presidential pen. 
Only those who have given the better part of their lives to the 
disinterested study of the matter can appreciate how wise the 
suggestion is. It is no child's business on which we have 
started — this thing of planting a new nation in the wilderness 
of the West. It is men's work. And the men who do it must 
be very broad and far-seeing, for they will be planning for 
future generations as much as did the fathers of the Federal 
Constitution under which the seed of our institutions has grown 
and blossomed and fruited into the greatest nation of modern 

The particular phase of the public land question which 
brought out the President's suggestion of a Commission in his 
recent message was the matter of dealing with grazing lands. 
Of this the President says : 

We should recognize the fact that in the grazing region the man who 
corresponds to the homesteader may be unable to settle permanently if only 
allowed to use the same amount of pasture land that his brother, the home- 
steader, is allowed to use of arable land. One hundred and sixty acres of 
fairly rich and well-watered soil, or a much smaller amount of irrigated 
land, may keep a family in plenty, whereas no one could get a living from 
160 acres of dry pasture land capable of supporting, at the outside, only 
one head of cattle to every ten acres. In the past, great tracts of the 
public domain have been fenced in by persons having no title thereto, in 
direct defiance of the law forbidding the maintenance or construction of 
any such unlawful inclosure of public land. For various reasons there 
has been little interference with such enclosures in the past, but ample 
notice has now been given the trespassers and all the resources at the 
command of the government will hereafter be I used to put a stop to such 

It is perfectly true that the conditions surrounding the use of 
the public pasture have long been annoying, and have now be- 
come intolerable. In some localities the situation is simply dis- 
graceful. Cattlemen and sheepmen fight and shed blood for 
the possession of property which belongs to neither. A guerrilla 
warfare is maintained between the contending interests. Lives 
are often lost and property destroyed. But this unending strug- 
gle between the owners of cattle and the owners of sheep is not 
the only grave difficulty which arises out of our present policy 
of leaving the pasture lands absolutely without government. 

There is another irrepressible conflict between those who 


want the land for the home of beasts and those who want it for 
the home of men. It is very difficult to draw the line between 
that which is fit only for pasture and that which may be re- 
claimed and put to far higher uses by means of irrigation. 
Formerly all the land was merely a pasture, even that which 
during- the last generation has been transformed into the smiling 
homesteads of Kansas, Nebraska and other States. The home- 
builders have constantly pushed their way further westward 
and constantly driven the livestock into localities more remote. 
This has often been accomplished only in face of sullen resist- 
ance on the part of owners of livestock. " There are too many 
people in this State already," has sometimes been said by the 
champions of the steer to those who urged the reclamation and 
settlement of some of the fairest valleys in the West. In their 
desperate effort to retain possession of these free pastures stock- 
men have sometimes resorted not only to the method of fencing 
in public lands, as mentioned by the President, but to the far 
more dangerous method of taking up public lands through 

dummy " entries. This has been done extensively in Ne- 
braska, as disclosed by the agents of the Administration. 

It is not an easy matter to settle the grazing problem, even 
when we are fortunate enough to] have in the White House a 
President who appreciates the gravity of the matter. The pro- 
posal to lease land has been put forward honestly in some 
quarters and with an utterly selfish and greedy purpose in other 
quarters. The difficulty about any system of leasing the free 
pasture is that the land is only valuable when water may be 
had for stock purposes. Now, cattle companies have acquired 
as much of the river frontage and other water-bearing lands as 
possible. By taking a small amount of land where convenient 
watering places are found they acquire practical ownership of 
the surrounding range. Owning the water, they alone can 
afford to lease the land for pasture. This is not the condition 
everywhere, but it does hold good to a large extent. Neverthe- 
less, some means must be found for the orderly control of the 
hundreds of millions of acres valuable only for grazing pur- 
poses. The solution of the question must take into account the 
fact that National Irrigation will bring great numbers of set- 
tlers into contact with the grazing problem. And never must 
it be forgotten that the rights of men are paramount to the 
rights of livestock. As they say in New Zealand : "A man is 
better than a sheep. 

But a Commission which should confine its investigations to 
the grazing lands would fall far short of its opportunity. This is 
but one aspect of a many-sided national question. The diverse, 
conflicting and unsatisfactory water laws in the various Western 


States must receive early attention at the hands of some com- 
petent authority. What is already a disturbing, and may soon 
become a demoralizing', factor in connection with national irri- 
gation, is the controversy which is arising in regard to local 
water laws. In his first message to Congress President Roose- 
velt made it plain that States should receive National aid as 
they showed themselves worthy of it. He recognized that there 
must be far-reaching local reforms as a means of paving the 
way to great National enterprises in the arid West. So does 
everybody else, but the moment specific plans looking to these 
reforms are suggested, serious differences of opinion arise. The 
nearest approach to common ground is found in the following 
extract from the constitution of the National Irrigation Asso- 
ciation, referring to the objects of the movement : 

The adoption of a harmonious system of irrigation laws in all the arid and 
semi-arid States and Territories under which the right to the use of water 
for irrigation shall vest in the user and become appurtenant to the land ir- 
rigated, and beneficial use be the basis, the measure, and the limit of the 

Upon this broad principle nearly all are agreed, but when they 
come to discuss the details of " a harmonious system," they are 
anything but harmonious. There are those who take the 
Wyoming plan, with its strong, centralized administrative body, 
as their model. There are others who depart as far as possible 
from this ideal and advocate what they call " home rule in irri- 
gation," by which is meant the organization of districts based 
on natural watersheds and governed by officers chosen at popu- 
ular elections. Between these two extremes there is a wide 
middle-ground. To a large extent the fate of National Irriga- 
tion is involved in the outcome of this dispute about local laws 
to govern the distribution of water upon the soil. The contro- 
versy grows in bitterness with each passing month. An Arid 
Land Commission would do an inestimable service to the public 
by investigating the matter and devising, if possible, some 
simple, lucid and workable method of adjusting the new fabric 
of National Irrigation to the angular conditions prevailing in 
our various States and Territories. In some way this work must 
be done, and it ought to be begun without delay. How better 
than by the method suggested in the President's message ? 

But grazing lands and water laws are by no means the only 
subjects which require the attention of such an expert body in 
connection with the development of our public domain. By 
what method are lands reclaimed by means of the new National 
policy to be colonized ? Are they to be thrown open, like those 
of Oklahoma, to the riotous onslaught of "sooners " and specu- 
lators ? Is there to be no attempt at the orderly settlement of 


our splendid valleys and at the systematic creation of those finer 
conditions of social life and industrial organization which our 
marvelous resources render possible ? In the practical realiza- 
tion of this twentieth century task — a nobler task than any 
other people on earth will set their hands to during the same 
period — are we not to attempt to achieve things a little grander, 
a little more just, more humane and more enduring, than has 
ever been accomplished by anybody in the past ? If we are to 
attempt something worthy of the place, of the race and of the 
time, then this proposed Commission may well endeavor to mark 
out the lines upon which it shall be done, for there are no fa- 
cilities for such an undertaking at present. 

Public sentiment has been much aroused on the subject of 
forest preservation. The Bureau at Washington is doing excel- 
lent service. But there is yet much to be done, particularly 
where vast areas of timber lands have gone into private owner- 
ship and been largely denuded, before we shall work out a policy 
of State and national cooperation adequate to the needs of the 
country. And how about the remaining mineral wealth on the 
public domain ? Are we always to give away these resources of 
immense commercial value ? Are they never to pay tribute in 
any substantial form to the public treasury — never to minister 
to the common prosperity of those who now own them in fee 
simple ? These are questions which ought also to be answered. 

Grazing lands, waters of a hundred streams, forests, mineral 
resources, existing laws and customs — the latter good, indiffer- 
ent or vicious — these are the materials and these the conditions 
out of which there shall be fashioned the best institutions of 
civilized life of which the people of our time have any knowl- 
edge. But, with the dying empire-builder in Africa, we may ex- 
claim : "So little done! So much to do!" It is almost ap- 
palling to look over this half-continent, to consider what might 
be made of it, and then to realize what stupendous difficulties 
lie in the way of its realization. But it is with a great sense of joy 
that those who have struggled long to convince their countrymen 
of their duty and opportunity in the Neglected Better Half of the 
United States now realize that the subject has at last risen to 
the dignity of a presidential topic. The Administration which, 
through the appointment of a really competent Arid Land Com- 
mission, or any other feasible method, shall mark out the way 
to bring order from chaos and so widen the foundation of the 
Republic of Irrigation, will perform a labor of constructive 
statesmanship which this generation will appreciate, but which 
later generations alone may estimate at its full value. 



By E. E. KEECH* 

^rtHE thousands of irrigators who use the waters along the 
jL lower course of the Santa Ana River, and who founded, 
built up and now carry on the historic settlements in 
Orange county, are opposed to the Irrigation Bill, which has 
been prepared by the representatives of the California Water 
and Forest Association. The grounds of their opposition are 
set forth in the following statement of their situation : 

The Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company is a Corporation organized 
by the owners of lands in the Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, riparian to 
the Santa Ana River and extending from the Santa Ana Mountains to the 
sea, for the purpose of diverting water from that stream and supplying it 
to their lands for irrigation and domestic use, under their riparian rights 
as preserved and distributed to them by the Decree in Partition of the said 

This Corporation, in connection with the Anaheim Union Water Com- 
pany, that supplies water to the owners of lands upon the other side of the 
river, has for more than twenty years diverted and used all of the ordinary 
flow of the river through Orange county. Over eight thousand acres are 
irrigated by the Anaheim Company upon the north side of the stream and 
sixteen thousand acres by the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company on 
the south side. The last named Company is purely cooperative, existing 
only for the purpose of distributing water to its stockholders, for irrigation 
and domestic use, at the actual cost of delivery. 

For many years the expenses of the Company for construction and per- 
manent improvements have been met by annual assessments of from fifty 
to sixty-five cents per share, and about seventy-five cents per share for the 
expense of delivering the water ; so that each of the sixteen thousand 
acres irrigated by this system is taxed, for all improvements, construction 
and expense of operation and delivery of water, not more than one dollar 
and forty cents annually. 

In order to protect itself and add to its supply of water, the Company 
has, from time to time, purchased tracts of riparian land on the Santa 
Ana River at and above its point of diversion. 

Not only is the water, to which each stockholder is entitled by his ripa- 
rian right and the Decree in Partition, appurtenant to the land, but his 
stock, representing his share of the delivery system, by the Articles of 
Incorporation and By-laws, under Section 324 of the Civil Code, as amended 
in 1895, is also appurtenant to the land and transferable only with it. 

The stockholders are proud of their organization and its successful 
operation, believing that it is better adapted to the existing conditions than 
any known to them in any of the Irrigation States, and that its continued 
maintenance and control by them, as at present, is necessary for their 
permanent safety and prosperity. 

The " Works Bill," drafted by Judge Works, the controlling member of 
the Committee of the Water and Forest Association, not only threatens 
to interfere with the operation and control of this admirable and satisfac- 
tory cooperative system, but strikes directly at the foundation of the right 
of those owning lands under it to the water used by them and their means 

* The author is the attorney for the larjre cooperative organization known as the Santa 
Aaa Valley Irrigation Annotation. 


of defending that right. Section 2 of the proposed bill limits riparian 
rights to " the amount of water reasonably necessary and needed for the 
irrigation of riparian lands, and for watering stock and domestic uses on 
such lands." And it provides that a riparian owner cannot " by injunction 
or otherwise, prevent the beneficial use of the waters of the stream to 
which his lands are riparian, when the same is not actually needed and 
used by him for watering stock and for domestic use or irrigation 

This section, if constitutional, would take away the right of our Com- 
pany to utilize the fall of the water in its ditches for power purposes, from 
which it now derives a considerable revenue, and would permit any non- 
riparian appropriator to step in and appropriate the use of the water for 
such purposes. This effect would be general throughout the State, and 
one of the oldest and most reasonable rights of the riparian owner, that of 
utilizing the fall of a stream for power purposes, would be taken away 
from him and given to whatever power or electric company or promoting 
syndicate is able to grab it under the principle of the proposed bill — 
" first in time, first in right." 

This section would also deprive our Company of the means of defending 
its uses by reason of the riparian lands owned, not only by its stockholders 
but by itself. Whether the riparian system be the best or not it is the 
system in the soil of which our Company was planted and in which it has 
grown, expanded and become strong. Like the oak grown from an acorn 
lodged between the crevices of a great rock into which its roots have pene- 
trated and to whose irregularities it has adapted its form, it must be weak- 
ened if these supports be removed. 

But this section is, in all probability, unconstitutional, as invading vested 
rights, and our stockholders, as well as other riparian owners, would be 
protected by the provisions of, not only our State, but of the Federal Con- 
stitution. Yet, in order to avail themselves of these constitutional guar- 
antees, litigation of their rights would have to be carried to the highest 
courts of the State and the United States, which would cause great delay 
and expense. 

The Water and Forest Association pretends to desire such reforms in the 
laws as would obviate the costly litigation which heretofore has been 
carried on in the process of the settlement of water rights in this State, 
but the bill proposed by Judge Works opens up a more extensive and vexa- 
tious field for such litigation than already exists, because riparian rights 
have attached in every stream in the State. 

The Board of Engineers provided for in the proposed bill, with its ex- 
tensive powers and manifold duties is the establishment of a French 
Bureaucracy, which would : 

(a) Create a special class or coterie of appointees of the executive de- 
partment of the State, with high salaries, together with a horde of deputies 
and assistants at a cost of ten dollars per day and expenses. 

(b) It would require this bureau to carry out investigations made by 
high-priced experts at an immense cost to the State, or the people upon 
whom the burdens would fall. 

(c) The investigations and determinations made by this bureau would 
be of a semi-judicial character and effect, and if done hastily, would be un- 
reliable in character and unjust in operation, and if done thoroughly, would 
be attended with nearly the same expense attending such investigations 
and determinations in the courts, whose decisions are final and the inevita- 
ble end of such controversies, while those of the bureau would be only the 


The power for interference which this Board of Engineers would have in 
the management and operation of our Company would be intolerable to us. 
We would not care to make to them extended and costly reports of which 
there is no necessity, nor would we care to give them data prepared and 
paid for by ourselves in regard to matters which only concern our own 
business. The right to fix our water-rates is one which could only be ex- 
ercised by others to our disadvantage. Ten per cent in number of dis- 
affected stockholders might be easily secured by some agitator to invoke 
the action of this Board of Engineers, and the water-rates re-adjusted in 
such a way as to be oppressive to many of our small stockholders of limited 
means, and to concentrate the use of the water among the wealthy citrus- 
growers who are able to pay the advanced rates. 

But we look with distrust upon the provisions of the proposed bill pro- 
viding for the development, appropriation and ownership of water by 
private corporations, and the arguments in support of these provisions in 
Paragraph IX of the report, which is as follows : " But we are disposed to 
think that the development and distribution of unappropriated and unde- 
veloped water by private enterprise and expenditure of private money, 
should, under proper safeguards, be encouraged, and any rights acquired 
by private individuals or corporations in the attempt to increase and ex- 
tend the use of water, should be fostered and protected." 

We cannot be oblivious to the fact that Judge Works is the counsel for a 
plaintiff who claims to have developed and appropriated and secured rights 
in the waters of the Santa Ana River above our points of diversion which 
are paramount to our rights in these waters, which claim, if successfully 
asserted, would, at least, greatly injure us. Nor can we fail to observe 
that Judge Works, having failed to make any appreciable progress in the 
courts, in his attempt to "foster and protect" the development and appropri. 
ation of water by private enterprise (to our detriment) has changed his field 
of activity from the courts to the Legislature, where he is attempting to 
secure a modification of what he characterizes as the " nefarious " water 
laws at present existing in this State, and the substitution of laws more in 
favor of that " private enterprise " which he represents. 

These are the objections to the proposed bill made from the standpoint 
of the fourteen hundred stockholders irrigating sixteen thousand acres of 
land through the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company. But it is equally 
objectionable from a general standpoint. Constitutional Amendment No. 
28, which was so overwhelmingly defeated in the last election, and well 
characterized as an amendment to turn over to the appointees of the Gov- 
ernor all the business of the State, particularly that of common carriers, 
was not more mischievous, or dangerously far-reaching in its provisions 
than those of the proposed bill for turning over to an engineering bureau ap- 
pointed by the Governor the collection of the data of all the waters of the 
State, of all the irrigable lands of the State, of all the irrigation companies 
of the State, and making it of duplicate public record at the expense of 
the State ; the investigation and determination (in the minds of the mem- 
bers of the board, at least) of all the rights of all the irrigable lands and of 
all the irrigators of the State, and the power in the tirst instance to deter- 
mine and enforce those rights as they view them. 

Whether some such system might be advisable and beneficent, had it 
been adopted and put in force throughout the State at the time of the in- 
ception of titles, may be a fair question for discussion, but that it would be 
confusing and detrimental if put in force at the present time, after the 
development and growth to maturity of our titles ami irrigating systems, 
should be plain to any one familiar with the nature of these titles and the 
practical questions involved in irrigation and irrigating systems. 



John G. North, a representative citizen and trained legal 
mind of Riverside, comments as follows on the proposed legis- 
lation : 

1st. Section 2 of the bill is an attempt to deprive a riparian owner of 
the benefit which he may derive by the natural flow of a stream through 
his premises, in the moisture which the adjoining lands may absorb from 
it, without giving him any compensation and without due process of law, 
and an attempt to prevent his protection of such right by invoking the 
powers of a court of equity. 

2nd. Section 7 is objectionable in that it attempts to authorize the 
newly created Board of Engineers to : 

(a) Define the duty of water, which means to limit the use and rights 
already vested. 

(b) Define and determine the irrigating season, which would also tend 
to unsettle rights already vested. 

(c) Regulate the extent and points of diversion which would have the 
same effect. 

(d) Regulate the matter of cumulation of water and use at stated 

(e) Determine what constitutes surplus water. 

I think all these things tend to unsettle existing rights, and would cause 
endless litigation, and that this section would be thrown overboard in the 

That portion of the section relating to water rates is objectionable to 
me, although in my article in Out West I did not object to the Board fix- 
ing the rates. Upon further reflection, I believe that these rates should be 
left to be fixed by local boards, as at present, and that it would be danger- 
ous to the people's interests to place the fixing of all rates in the hands of 
one State Board. 

3rd. Section 8 is objectionable in that it attempts to make existing com- 
panies subject to the act as relating to their rights and duties. 

4th . Section 12 is an attempt to secure an adjudication by the Board of 
Engineers of the needs of riparian lands and thus of the rights of riparian 

5th. Section 13 is an attempt to judicially determine facts, and there- 
fore to judicially establish rights of riparian proprietors. 

6th. Section 28 seems to prevent the possibility of such appropriation 
of water as will permit the gradual settlement of a large area like River- 
side, and the gradual increase of the capacity of its works and of the 
amount of water actually used. Any large settlement requires such 
gradual increase, and it is held by the Supreme Court of this State that 
such constitutes diligence in pushing the works to completion. 

7th. Section 29 provides for an adjudication on existing rights. 

8th. Section 31 provides for an adjudication as to what water is required 
and when, for irrigation purposes, and what are surplus waters. 

I have not been able to go fully and carefully through the bill, but the 
objections I have already made are genuine, and the bill seems to attempt 
to place judicial powers in the hands of men who are not learned in the 
law, and could not fail to complicate our water rights. These provision* 
would lead to unending litigation which would not stop this side of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. 



V» - 

President— William E. Smythb. 
Vice-President— D. T. Fowler. 
Secretary- Treasurer — Bishop J. Edmonds. 


Will S. Green, Colusa. 
Marshal R. Beard, Sacramento. 
H. P. Stabler, Marysville. 
Harvey C. Stiles, Chico. 
John Kirby, San Francisco. 
N. J. Bird, San Francisco. 
Frank Cornwall, San Francisco. 
John S. Dore, Fresno. 
John Fairweather, Reedley. 
E. H. Tncker, Selma 
A. Hallner, Kingsburg. 
A. H. Naftzger, Los Angeles. 


S. W. Ferarusson, Los Angeles. 
Walter J. Thompson, Los Angeles. 
A. R. Sprague, Los Angeles- 
Charles F. Lnmmis, Los Angeles. 
E. T. Dunning, Los Angeles. 
Chas. A. Moody, Los Angeles. 
Scipio Craig, Redlands. 
Elwood Cooper, Santa Barbara. 
W. H. Porterfield, San Diego. 
George W. Marston, San Diego. 
Bishop J. Edmonds, San Diego. 
William E. Smythe, San Diego. 


INCE the November election the officers have given no 
little attention to the future of the League. It will be 
remembered that the movement was very [quickly organ- 
ized by the personal efforts of its president. The work was 
done rapidly and loosely because it was desired to have it exert 
an influence on the State platforms of 1902, and there was a 
large field to be covered. As there was no working fund to 
start with, so there is no sustaining fund to keep the work alive. 
It by no means follows that the movement was without influ- 
ence, or that it will not continue. For the purpose of cultiva- 
ting high ideals in the economic life of California, the pages of 
this magazine alone are equivalent to an institution — are as 
effective, if not as " terrible," as " an army with banners." So 
long as Out West continues to be read by those who largely 
make the public opinion of California and the West, just so long 
will the Constructive League continue to be a factor in shaping 
events. And if in a few short months it compelled two great 
political parties to deal with one of the living issues, and to 
bring the importance of that issue Ihome to the minds of the 
politicians, what may it not do in the next two years ? 

During the past few months, since the suspension of the 
active lectureship, the membership of the League has grown 
slowly, but it has grown. It has gained some hundreds in and 
around San Francisco among leading business men. Consider- 


able progress has also been made in Southern California. There 
are not now, and there never were, many active local bodies, 
but there are a few. It is within the power of a group of 
members anywhere to make a live organization for the discus- 
sion of public questions or for social purposes. But often a 
single individual is " a live organization." If it were not so, 
many a brave cause would have perished and made no history. 
Wherever there is a man who believes in Constructive principles 
and sees a chance to strike a sturdy blow for them, let him do 
so. If he can gather some of his neighbors about him for the 
purpose of holding public meetings, so much the better. Those 
local clubs which have retained their organization ought to be- 
come very useful institutions during the present winter. 


By the time these words are read a new Governor and a new 
Legislature will have taken their places at Sacramento. They 
will be called upon to deal with at least one of the important prin- 
ciples of the League. In the November and December numbers 
of this magazine space was devoted to a presentation and dis- 
cussion of the measure which will be urged by the Water and 
Forest Association. It is quite likely that the bill will be 
amended before it is presented to the Legislature. No doubt 
efforts will be made to meet some of the shower of criticism 
which has fallen upon it from all sides. But these efforts will 
certainly prove futile. The bill was framed by the most emi- 
nent attorney of private water monopoly. That attorney has 
been selected to perfect the measure 'and to present it at Sacra- 
mento. If he has any assistance in this work it will be fur- 
nished by water monopolists and will probably be represented 
by another of their attorneys. As worthy an effort to benefit 
the State of California as was ever made has been deliberately 
converted into an attempt to place our water resources in the 
hands of promoters, speculators and corporations. In order to 
accomplish this result the solemn declarations of the Water and 
Forest Association, which appointed the Commission to suggest 
a new law, were disregarded, repudiated and trampled under 

The Water and Forest Association in 1901 declared that it 
was opposed " to any attempt to store the flood waters of the 
State by means of private enterprise." This Commission make 
every provision for the storage of flood waters by private enter- 
prise, and make no provision for their storage by public enter- 
prise. They even go further and say they " do not agree with 
the doctrines declared by some " in favor of public enterprise. 
And the "some" to whom they refer is the very Association 
which appointed them. 


The measure was framed in the dark. The tens of thousands 
of actual irrigators who use the water, and the value of whose 
homes depends upon the security of their rights, were not con- 
sulted. Apparently, they were not considered as having any 
particular interest in the matter. 

The men who had written the previous platforms, and who, 
with their voices, their pens and their newspapers, had champ- 
ioned the cause of the Association, were not consulted. 

The leaders in the field of politics, who had been sufficiently 
loyal to the cause of irrigation reform to compel their parties to 
give the subject attention in their platforms, were not consulted. 

The National Irrigation Movement, with its record of things 
done and its power to assist in the development of our resources, 
was also ignored. 

But one interest was consulted in any true sense of the term. 
That was the interest of private water monopoly. This inter- 
est was treated as if it were all of California, from Siskiyou to 
San Diego — all of California, with all its present population 
and all who are to come here in the future. To permit pro- 
moters and speculators to get possession of every trickling 
stream, and to turn it over to some big corporation in order 
that it may extort tribute from those who till the soil unto the 
latest generation — this is the undisguised object of the measure. 
don't be deceived by great names. 

The people should not be misled by the fact that honored names 
are signed to the report of the Commission. In the first place, 
let it be observed that the name of Chief Justice Beatty is not 
signed to it. Those who are familiar with the manner in which 
the bill was framed will instantly acquit David Starr Jordan 
and Benjamin Ide Wheeler of any responsible part in the affair. 
They lent their names to a Commission organized for the pur- 
pose of drawing a measure in accordance with the wishes of the 
Water and Forest Association. They trusted the matter almost 
entirely, it may safely be assumed, to the lawyers who actually 
performed all the labor of drawing the bill. They accepted 
implicitly the report which was presented for their signature. 
The connection of Elwood Mead and Frederick H. Newell was 
entirely perfunctory. If either of these students of irrigation 
law had prepared a bill it would have had slight resemblance to 
the present document. Neither was present at the sessions of 
the Commission, and it is safe to predict that neither will 
undertake to defend the report. As to the two college pro- 
fessors, Messrs. Soule and Marx, both are good, true friends of 
the irrigation cause, but in their anxiety to see progress of some 
kind they were bamboozled into accepting a bill which they 
must know to be highly dangerous to the actual users of water, 
as distinguished from the sellers of water, and to be an abso- 
lute stultification of the Association from the standpoint of its 
former declarations. 

No, the bill is not the work of Chief Justice Beatty, David 
Starr Jordan, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, Elwood Mead, Frederick 
H. Newell, Frank Soule and Charles D. Marx. It is almost en- 
tirely the product of the mind of John D. Works. His is a 
mind which has been devoted for years to the service of private 


water companies until it has become thoroughly impregnated 
with their view of the eternal fitness of things. To say this is 
not to impugn the integrity or good faith of Judge Works. Let 
it be granted that he is an honest, an able and a sincere man, 
but just such men have often inflicted injustice upon the people. 
They would be far less dangerous to society if they were less 
able and less sincere. When men of this kind really believe 
that God Almighty makes the snows to fall and the streams to 
flow for the exclusive benefit of promoters, speculators and cor- 
porations, then there is real danger that we shall have condi- 
tions in California that will breed a new feudalism. In much the 
larger portion of the State men simply cannot live upon the soil 
without using water to give it artificial moisture. Whoever 
controls the water becomes the master of the land. 


There is but one correct theory of water ownership as illlus- 
trated by the experience of all countries and ages. That theory 
is that those who own the land should also own the water. 
Frequently a landowner may control the source of supply him- 
self and thus be independent. More frequently, a little group 
of neighbors, or the members of a large community, may organ- 
ize in cooperation and thus obtain the necessary facilities of ir- 
rigation. In all such cases the true theory of water ownership 
is faithfully observed. But when we get beyond the point where 
landowners may control the water supply, individually or col- 
lectively, we reach a point where either a great corporation or 
organized society, in the form of district, State or nation, must 
step in and perform an indispensable function. 

Then we must choose between the great water lord and a sys- 
tem of public works. There is no middle ground — it is a 
choice between private monopoly and public monopoly. And 
upon that choice hangs the character of our civilization. The 
business of the American people today is not to foster, to en- 
courage and to protect corporate monopoly in natural wealth, 
but to curb, to limit and to control such monopoly. 

However men may differ as to what it is wise or feasible to do 
in regard to natural monopolies which have already passed into 
private hands, they surely ought to agree that such opportu- 
nities which yet belong to the public shall not be given away. 

Those who oppose the Works Bill will be denounced as "extrem- 
ists." It will be said that they demand the immediate public 
ownership of all existing irrigation facilities. The state- 
ment is not true. A very large portion of the irrigation ditches 
now in actual operation belong to those who own the land. 
There are also private companies owning water apart from the 
land. Sometime they may be absorbed into comprehensive sys- 
tems of public works. If that is ever done it must be through 
the pa3 r ment of just compensation and, in most cases, will be a 
relief for the unfortunate Eastern and foreign investors who 
own these properties. But this is not the issue involved in the 
Works Bill. The question is not, Shall the public acquire what 
does not belong to it now? but rather, Shall the public retain for 
itself what now belongs to it, or turn it over to promoters, 
speculators and corporations ? Under the terms of the Works 
Bill valuable franchises would be given away without recom- 


pense ; corporations would have "deputy engineers " appointed 
to act as a sort of private police in dividing the waters of our 
streams ; and a State Board of Engineers would be vested with 
extensive powers to annoy every existing irrigation community, 
with little or no compensating advantage to the public. 

It should be remembered that the great irrigation work of the 
future to be done in California is the storage of floodwaters. 
The entire normal flow of nearly all streams was long since ap- 
propriated and used. But millions of acres may yet be re- 
claimed by means of storage reservoirs. Those who support the 
Works Bill thereby declare that they would turn over to private 
enterprise, as an absolute free gift, the opportunity to store 
these waters and then to sell them to those who till the land at 
prices to be fixed by a State Board appointed by the Governor, 
not elected by the people or within their control. Those who 
oppose the Works Bill do so on various grounds. 

Elsewhere in this magazine representative men of Orange and 
Riverside counties tell why those famous irrigation communi- 
ties are opposed to the measure. The California Constructive 
League will do all in its power to defeat it, because it is un- 
willing to grant a single inch to private water monopoly, and 
because it desires to have the floodwaters reservoired and dis- 
tributed by means of public works. To a large extent, this 
will surely be done by national enterprise if that polic)* is pro- 
perly encouraged and supported by the people of California. 
Very likely national enterprise must be supplemented by some 
form of State and district enterprise. But it would be a crime 
against ourselves and a crime against posterity, to turn over 
this great work to private monopolies. 


The amazing audacity of the Private Water Grab embodied 
in the Works Bill, has aroused indignation and alarm in all parts 
of the State. It is only necessary to have the opposition uni- 
fied and directed in order to secure the certain and overwhelming 
defeat of the iniquitous measure. Members of the Constructive 
League are urged to join hands with all who are willing to help, 
however they may differ with them on other public questions, 
or even on other aspects of the irrigation question. The people 
of California are confronted by one of the gravest dangers in 
their history. They must meet the power of wealth, influence 
and position. Not a single hour should be lost in organizing for 
the fight. 

If necessary, all our hopes of water reform and of policies 
looking to the public ownership of the first of public utilities in 
arid lands should be put aside for the present. If the Works 
Bill becomes a law, there will be nothing for the public to own 
in the way of water supply. Promoters and speculators will 
jump in and grab everything which will serve as the foundation 
of a franchise to sell to corporations. One battle at a time ! 
The battle now is to prevent a long and dangerous step in the 
wrong direction. 

Let all who oppose the proposed law on any grounds what- 
ever stand together, and see that it is buried, in whatever form 
it may be presented, by the Legislature of 1903. 



fALIFORNIA is a land of contrasts ; of mighty mountains and measure- 
less plains; of garden oases in barren deserts; the gold of oranges 
under the silver of snow ; the mansion of the' millionaire by the shack 
of the Indian. But none of these are more striking than the contrast between 
the thriving orchards and teeming activities of Whittier and the picturesque 
old 'dobe ruin standing near on the eastern bank of the San Gabriel river, 
and "thereby hangs a tale." 

It was in the last days of the Spanish Dons. Already at Sutter's mill 
had been found the first golden gleams which led to the mighty mad rush of 
'49. Already General Fremont had begun that memorable movement which 
was to end in the overthrow of Mexican authority in California. But all un- 

The Old Pico Mansion. Photo by Butler A Bailey. 

(Don Pio Pico was the last Mexican Governor of California.) 

conscious of the coming change, Pio Pico, the last Mexican governor of Cali- 
fornia, was taking his wedding journey over the immense tracts which were 
his by Spanish grant, so large and so varied in their location that it is said 
he could travel from San Francisco to San Diego and scarcely step on another's 
land. By the desire of his young wife they were seeking a location for their 
permanent home. Knowing the spot which the morning's drive would reach, 
Governor Pico said, "Where we lunch today, there we will build our home." 
And, though the adobe is crumbling and the timbers, carried on the backs of 
Indians from San Pedro harbor, twenty miles away, are decayed and falling, 
the Pico mansion still stands, a monument to the wisdom of the Spaniard's 

Forty years passed by. The ships which once visited the western coast for 
cargoes of hides and tallow, the sole exports of California, were coming for 



wheat and barley. The gold rush had ended, for the Franciscan monks, with 
their mission-linked chain of green stretched from San Francisco to San 
Diego, had bequeathed a richer treasure, the teaching of the old allegory of 
the man, who, dying, told his sons to dig in the vineyard, for a great treasure 
was hidden there. Stirred by the plow, transformed by the irrigating ditch, 
the soil of California had revealed a greater wealth and the state had entered 
upon the second wonderful era of development. Three disciples of William 
Penn, emulating the example of the great eastern colonist, were seeking a 
place in the new west for a Quaker colony. Their quest had led them to 
almost every locality of the new land. It was a bright spring day when their 
carriage halted on the gently rolling land by the foothills above Governor 
Pico's home, and they repeated together the words he had spoken before, 
"There we will build our home." 

A Westward Look Ackoss Whittibr. 
(From Reservoir Hill.) 

Photo by Ramtty. 

Fifteen years have passed again. Five thousand people traveling through 
Southern California have passed that same way, and repeated those same 
words. What a transformation in that tract lying by the Puente foothills! 
Where fields of barley or patches of mustard grew*, or great mesas stretched 
barren and lifeless save where some lonely shepherd followed his wandering 
flock, now, with her head pillowed in the lap of the foothills, her skirts in 
great plaids of green spread over the valley, lies the fair city of Whittier. 
Fair to the traveler as he gets his first view from the train afar over miles 
of orchards gleams the city, indeed like a gem. 

"Sown in a wrinkle of the hill," 
Fair as he climbs the hills in the rear and looks over an unexampled pano- 
rama. To the north a solid wall of granite towers till it catches the clouds 
on the summit. In a huge crescent of green sparkle a dozen gems, as the 
eye sweeps from Pomona past Pasadena, Los Angeles to Santa Ana. tad 
on beyond to the sun-gilt waters of the Pacific. Beautiful is Whittier from 

Snap Shots About Whittikk. 



every point, and it means much to the home-seeker, Spaniard, or Friend, or 
tourist of today, that from every view point, the place be beautiful where he 
will build his home. 

But good looks are not a sufficient basis for friendship nor for home- 
building. There are probably visual attractions at the North Pole. Climate 
and topography must also be considered. Geography is a key to history. 
The scatheless Alps have written "Liberty" over Switzerland. The island 
location of England has given the seas their mistress. It is not an accident 
that Russia and Germany and the United States, progressive nations, lie 

* ^-^-7" Sfrf*^ ^f^^ 1 * 

i ', * * ; 

' • "^ '•■"■***"'-'■ "■""'-""Vi' - 

- ■ 44 •** 

- * 

EsflSHL JSftik: 

JL.""'-—*^ MffWWmff 

A Few Berries Near Whittier. 

Photo by Ramsey. 

under winter snows; not an accident that deterioration or semi-civilization 
line the shores of the Mediterranean and the banks of the Amazon. Happy 
is that land where the virile, invigorating energy of the North, without its 
rigors and hardships, unites with the luxuriance of the South, without its 
enervation — and its name is California. The proximity to the snow-clad 
Sierras, with their balm of pine and cedar, and to the ocean, with its salt 
breezes, gives life and energy. The exhaustless alluvial soil, the warm ocean 
currents, give all the advantages of the tropics without the enervation of 
blazing sun and malarial jungle. But there are degrees of climatic excellence, 
even in California. Far inland the sea breeze has lost its freshness ; on the 
coast it is a shade too fresh. Electric storms from the desert sometimes slip 
through the mountain gaps and sweep great clouds of sand and dust over 



Beans Among Yodng Walnuts. (Photo taken December, 1902.) Photo by Ram*e\ 

the valleys. But here is a city that the foothills have caught up into their 
arms, sheltering it from the sandstorms on the northeast, yet lifting it up 
to the southwest where the sea breeze, forgetting its rigor, as it gathers 
fragrance from twenty miles of orchard and meadow, fans to daily comfort 
Whittier, the "Foothill City." Remembering the advantages of climate and 
healthful location, we do not wonder that the wily Spaniard said, "There we 
will build our home." 

Pli'l-MllKK I'KVS \r WHITTtFK. 

Photo b\ Rmm 

3. Drying-. 

In Whittier Walnut Groves. 

1. After Picking- Time. 2. Grading- and Sacking. 

(8-year-old trees on this ranch yielded $140 per acre. 

4. Washing. 

Some Whittier Homes. Photos by Ramsey <:>iJ Butler & Bai'.'ev 



Facts are not poetical, but they are 
potent and practical. It is a fact 
that Whittier has almost doubled her 
population in two years, from one 
thousand five hundred and sixty in 
iooo, to three thousand in 1902. In the 
same time bank deposits in the city 
have increased from $90,000.00 to $275,- 
000.00. It is a fact that in the last 
six months more than $c*),ooo.oo have 
been invested in buildings; a $12,000.00 
church, two $12,000.00 school build- 
ings, a $15,000.00 Odd Fellows Hall, 
besides scores of beautiful residences. 
A fire department has been organized, 
a building erected and an ample equip- 
ment secured. The city has been lighted 
with electricity and 25,000 feet of gas 
main have been laid. A complete 
system of interurban electric railway 
is assured at an early date ; a new $25,- 
000.00 High School building within the 
year, a City Hall, and a dozen miles of 
cement sidewalks are not far in the 
future. As he looks at these results, 
the intelligent observer is forced to the 
question, "What are the causes of this 

The answer is not far to find. 
Whittier is not merely a summer or 
winter resort ; not an ephmera which 
flourishes on the support of tourists. 
There is no city of its size in the world 
which has a greater wealth-producing 
territory tributary to it. The 10,000 
acres of orchards which lie in a great 
crescent at its feet, would alone assure 
permanent prosperity. 
It is very generally granted that the San Gabriel Valley district, which 
adjoins the City of Whittier, is the finest English walnut region in California. 
The products this year will reach 50,000 sacks, a valuation of $450,000.00. 
The walnut-growers are strongly associated for mutual protection, and so 
able is the management that this district practically controls the walnut price 
of America. 

It is another significant fact that the first car of California oranges 
shipped this year was packed in Whittier. Last year 200 carloads of oranges 
and 150 of lemons were shipped, and the output this year will make an 
increase of 50 to 100 cars. Three leading companies alone disbursed $135.- 
000.00 to growers of citrus fruits in this district the past season. Ten acres 
of ten-year-old citrus or walnut trees afford an ample competency, yielding 
an average annual income of $2,000.00 to $3,000.00. 

There are only two natural reasons for Southern California's failing to 
equal the tropics in luxuriant production. The first is the cold winds, which 
sometimes in December and January blow from the snow caps of the Sierras 

Photo by .'>. M. Huston. 

Flow ok Water from a 310-foot Well. 

In the Whittier Oil Field. 



and blight orchard and garden. But again Nature has been kind to Whittier 
and reared up the Puente hills to ward off the cold. The almost unexampled 
temperature of January 3, 1902, which wrought severe damage in so many 
localities, left the citrus growths of the Whittier foothills untouched. There 
is a thermal or frostless belt where the slope of the plain lies up against the 
hills, below the cold of the rarified heights and above the valley floors which 
by natural laws of ventilation drain the cold atmosphere to the lower levels. 
So Whittier orchards have never known the touch of frost. Amid the walnut 
and citrus groves flourish peaches and apricots and pears and apples and 
plums. Underneath the spreading branches are gardens which make the 
housekeeper's task easy — tomatoes, peas, beans and strawberries, even in 
January ; lettuce and radishes fresh every day in the year — and flowers ! 
Roses, carnations, lilies, English violets and golden poppies. With such 
beauty and fragrance delighting his senses, with such delicacies from his 

Whit ri ik Statu School. 

/'halo by Butler £ Bailty. 

own garden, with such orchards, minting their own gold, truly the rancher 
well may say, "There I will build my home." 

The other reason for dissatisfaction with some of Southern California 
is its water — what it has and what it hasn't. A journey through much of 
the State is an excellent commentary on Old Testament digging of wells and 
bitter waters. But this section is especially fortunate in its water supply, 
both for domestic and for irrigation purposes. The city owns its own sys- 
tem, purchased at a cost of $45,000.00, and since greatly improved and 
extended. In the very dooryard of the old Pico mansion are located its deep 
wells, tapping the exhaustlcss water-bearing strata which the Rio San Gabriel 
has been laying down for ages. Pure, sparkling, cold water ii drawn from 
deep wells and carried through pipes and covered rewnroir in ample amount 
for field and city. But, in addition to the splendid city system, to many 
local companies and to the great network of the San Gabriel River districts, 



there has been recently reorganized the East Whittier system, a co-operative 
association with its flowing wells and pumping plants near El Monte, its 
twelve miles of cement conduits with a capacity of 1500 miner's inches and 
laterals being built to eight thousand acres in the beautiful La Habra Valley, 
lying in the frostless foothill belt to the east, and lacking hitherto nothing 
but water. The promoters of this system have had perhaps wider experience 
than any two men to be found on the Pacific Coast, experience on the great 
Imperial tract, in Australia and in other places. They knew just what had to 
be done, what could be done, and they knew how to do it. As a result, a 
perpetual and ample water supply is assured at cost price to the settler to 
whom the lana is being sold, for, when the system is complete, the men who 
construct it, having made a profit, will have stepped out, leaving the owner- 

Whittier Oranges. Photo by Ramsey. 

(The crop from this 5-acre ranch sold this year for $1,575, on the trees.) 

ship in the hands of the people. With this added area set to walnuts and 
oranges, there will be tributary to Whittier the finest fruit tract in California 
or in the world. 

But the Puente hills were still not satisfied with the blessings they had 
showered upon their adopted child, the "Foothill City." Only six years ago 
they whispered the secret of another source of wealth hidden in their bosom. 
The oil discovered there is of such high quality and is found in such abund- 
ance that the field is considered one of the best in the state, and the product 
finds ready sale, when that of many wells is a drug on the market. Though 
the field is scarcely entered yet, the monthly output has reached 60,000 bar- 
rels. As the shallow wells of the first drilling are being deepened to 2200 
feet, still greater reservoirs of still better oil are being tapped, and the store 
is shown to be practically exhaustless. Local capital has received highly 




remunerative returns from the oil industry, but the greatest benefit to the 
community has been the high wages, an average of $4.50 per day to the 
army of workmen already demanded by its rapid development. With the 
farther growth of this field, with the factories and varied industries which 
will be brought to the city, by the advantages of cheap fuel, certainly the 
wheels of local progress will be kept well oiled. 

Another item in the catalogue of Nature's gifts might be recorded. It 
takes a startling revelation sometimes to make us realize our blessings. Such 
a disclosure came three years ago to some parties drilling for water on the 
Meyers ranch, two miles south of Whittier, when the drill was suddenly 
hurled from the well, followed by sand and water and rocks, thrown to the 
height of two hundred feet, a phenomenon lasting for several days. Through 
the wreck of the well natural gas has escaped in such quantity that a flame 
ten feet in height has been blazing day and night ever since. A local com- 

Thk New (San Gabriel)\Ki\ i k. 

I'hoto h\ lUitl.t J- Bailty. 

pany has recently been formed to develop this new product, a high-grade 
fuel and illuminant, and experts say the formation indicates a body of it 
sufficient to supply all Southern California. As Whittier stretches out her 
hands filled with such rare opportunities and advantages, Labor and Capital 
are responding in an ever-increasing chorus, "There we will build our home." 

"There we will build our home." America is the home of homes, and 
California is pre-eminently the home spot of the continent It means much 
to ideal home life that children may play in the open air every day in the 
year; that sun and breeze and sea and mountains unite in balm and invigora- 
tion. To these natural advantages Whittier has added other rare induce- 
ments to the home-seeker. There are no saloons in its borders. There are 
nine church edifices representing the leading denominations, and there are 
few vacant pews in them. A stranger recently remarked, "Why, even the 
men go to church in Whittier." 

The interest of the people of Whittier in education and the difficulty 



of furnishing facilities to keep pace with that interest is shown in the two 
commodious grammar school buildings just being completed; in the bonds 
just voted for a magnificent new home for the High School which has grown 
so rapidly since its inception ; in the royal way Whittier College has been 
supported and built up until it affords opportunities for higher education 
unexcelled by any like institution. With these new public school facilities 
and the great development which is made possible to the college by liberal 
endowment, in a situation so conducive to mental effort, certainly Whittier 
promises well to become an educational center. For it is already a cultured 
people drawn from the best sections of the East; a culture attested by the 
demand for and wide use of the public library; by the liberal patronage 

Intensive Farming at Whittier. 
( Young walnuts, dewberries, strawberries. March 1, 1902, this land was bare. 

Photo by Ramsey. 
This photo taken December, 1902.) 

of lecture courses ; by interest in the University Extension movement. The 
refined, progressive home-seeker who has in mind the best interests of his 
children may well choose a spot within the sound of Whittiers church and 
school bells and say, "There we will build our home." 

A barley field with ground squirrels for inhabitants — fifteen years — a 
community of 5,000 cultured citizens and a monthly income of $200,000.00. 
Another fifteen years will soon pass and what then ? With the great Isthmian 
Canal completed, the waters of the Pacific white-capped with the commerce 
of every nation as civilization moves on to the new old worlds rediscovered 
in the Orient — Prophecy halts dumb before the vision of what she sees must 
come to California. In this third era of development, when to mine and 
orchard are added well and factory and fleet, Whittier, only twenty miles 
from San Pedro, the key-port to the trade of the Pacific, will take no humble 



A Whittier Common School. 

part ; Whittier, a region which Nature endowed with rich soil, equable 
climate, liquid wealth, with the boon of river and hill and breeze; and where 
man has drilled wells and planted orchards and budded schools; Whittier, 
with these nature-made and man-developed conditions, offers to you rare 
advantages of home, of church, of school, of employment, of investment. 
Whoever you are, can you find a more attractive place to build your home? 
Note. — The Whittier Board of Trade will be glad to answer your letter 
of inquiry. Address Secretary of Board of Trade, Whittier, Cal. 

W II I I I II K (.'ol I I l.K. 

/•/;,■/,.., b\ />•.•■ 




The Development of the Imperial Settlements. 

ANY plans for the reclamation of arid America have been under dis- 
cussion for many years by both private enterprise and national leg- 
islation, and hundreds of thousands of people have looked foiward 
to the completion of an irrigation system that would give a never-failing supply 
of water to the rich and fruitful soil of the Colorado Desert. Until 1896, when 
the California Development Company was incorporated for the purpose of 
constructing a canal system to irrigate the lands of the Colorado Delta, there 
seemed to be no place in which the homeseeker could found a home and accu- 
mulate property, as did the early pioneer. 

The tremendous growth and development of the United States has re- 
sulted in the rapid disappearance of opportunities for the man of limited means 
and to acquire a home means the necessary capital to purchase high-priced 
lands. For a generation the reclamation of arid America has been a theme 
in theory only until the commencement of this gigantic undertaking to supply 
with water that portion of the Great Arid West, lying in Southern California 
and embracing more than half a million acres of government land, heretofore 
known as the Colorado Desert. This enterprise has developed into one of the 
"greatest and most successful irrigation systems in the world, and places before 
the man of moderate means perhaps the best opportunities that can be found 
on the globe. 

The Old Method of Travel — the New Method. 

Imperial Watkk. 
1. Nine-foot Drop in Main.Canal. 2. Blue Lake. 3. Flooding Land. 5. I': 



Excavating Machine Digging Canal. (Imperial Canal System.) 

The main canals of this system are over one hundred miles long. They 
bring water from the Colorado river — the point of diversion being about eight 
miles below Yuma and just above the international boundary line. Their 
main canals deliver the water supply to the various sections of the Imperial 
settlements in bulk, selling the same at wholesale to the various mutual water 
companies for distribution to the settlers. This system is delivering an 
'abundant supply of water, at the lowest price known on the Pacific Coast, to 
the settlers on the only desirable government land that can be found in the 
United States today under a reliable system of irrigation. 

The Imperial settlements are situated in the southern end of San Diego 
county, and cover about 500,000 acres. The first water from this great canal 
system was run on Imperial lands in June, 1901, and the first crops planted 
and harvested in that year netted far beyond the expectations of the planters. 
In December, 1901, the influx of settlers commenced, and where one year ago 
was but a barren desert now dwell three thousand thrifty people. Four 
rapidly growing business centers are established and there are only about 
one dozen school districts in San Diego county that have larger assessed valu- 
ations than either one of the three districts of Imperial, Silsbee and Calexico. 

The illustrations used in this article are reproductions of photographs 
secured in a recent visit to the Imperial settlements, and show plainer than 
pen can describe the rapid change from desert to garden. 

The soil of the Imperial settlements is an alluvial deposit formed in ages 
past by the waters of the Colorado river which at the present time show by 
actual analysis that they carry commercial fertilizers to the land, ex- 
ceeding by far that of the celebrated Nile. This great river furnishes water 

Main Canal Imperial Water Company — No. 1. (70 feet wide, 8 feet deep.) 


in abundance every day in the year, enabling the owner of land in the Imperial 
settlements to get the cheapest water in America for irrigation purposes. 

The story of this great enterprise reads like fiction, but it is without doubt 
one of the greatest achievements in modern irrigation science, and has been 
for some time an accomplished fact. 

Fully one-third of these lands have already been taken and prosperous 
farmers are rapidly increasing and accumulating wealth in the cultivation of 
this rich soil. 

The live stock industry is foremost, and large herds of cattle and hogs are 
fattened quickly and cheaply from the big crops of alfalfa, sorghum, Egyptian 
corn, Kaffir corn, Milo maize and barley hay that are raised there. The fer- 
tility of the soil is remarkable. Alfalfa sown this last April has cut four 
crops in seven months, and there are grown regularly on Imperial lands 
barley crops that yield seventy-five bushels, of grain, or three to four tons 
of barley nay, to the acre. 

Imperial lands are especially adapted to wheat growing and have already 
yielded as high as sixty bushels to the acre. The Tucson Milling Company 
have offered to take this coming season all the wheat that can be grown on 
30,000 acres and pay Los Angeles prices for it. 

Vegetables of every description are grown in abundance. Cotton growing 
is practically an assured success, experimental crops of the Egyptian long 
staple cotton having demonstrated the adaptability of the soil. Sugar beets 
are grown here, as is shown in an accompanying photograph. They speak 
for themselves and the percentage of sugar content being especially high, this 
industry promises excellent returns. 

Rice has been tried and the crop last season was a very good one. So 
successful was this crop grown by men unacquainted with its cultivation that 
experts who have investigated this experiment are getting ready to engage in 
this branch of agriculture on a large scale in the Imperial settlements. 

The climate being especially adapted, deciduous fruits grown here ripen 
earlier than at any other section of this great fruit State. The celebrated 
Rock Ford melons and canteloupes are grown here with great success and 
reach the Eastern markets fully five weeks in advance of those from any other 
section of the United States, thus bringing the highest market prices. 

Poultry raising is an important industry and a profitable adjunct to the 
resources of the thrifty farmer. 

T!ie winter climate of Imperial is the most elegant in the world. That the 
atmosphere is most pure is evidenced by the clearness of the sky at night and 
a most remarkable phenomenon is observed there. During the full of the 
moon one can see and read coarse print by night. 

While summer heat is great, the dryness of the atmosphere is such that 
it is not as enervating as the Atlantic Coast, and the wet bulb thermometer 
will show a lower average temperature during the summer months than at 

Imperial was the first town started and has a population of about three 
hundred people. It supports a First National Bank, several stoic-, a post 
telephone system, a most creditable weekly newspaper, an ice and refrigerating 
plant, a water system which delivers pure filtered water under pressure, and 
has bright prospects for an electric plant to furnish light and power for the 
towns of Imperial and Silshec. 

Manufacturing industries arc assured by cheap power that can he gen. 
from the drops in the canals within twenty miles of Imperial and the 1. 
erating plant will soon lie run by power secured at a sixteen foot drop of the 
main canal, about three miles from Imperial. 

The town of Silshec is situated on the eastern shore of Blue lake, one 
of the most charming bodies of fresh water on the Pacific ("oast. Blue lake 
is only about one miles in length and half a mile wide hut it ts well stocked 
with fish and surrounded by mesquite timber which will afford shade I 

line boulevard encircling the entire lake. 

Calexieo, on the international boundary line between Mexico and the 

United States, is already a prominent trading point ami bids fair to become 
an important revenue station of the government. 

Brawlej is a new town on the railroad line between Imperial and Old 

In all of the towns the deeds arc so drawn that liquor cannot be sold as a 
beverage and at the recent elections the proposition to license the saloon was 
voted down in all the precincts. 

Imperial Buildings. 

T. P. Banta's Cottatre. 2. Hotel. 3. Company's Brick Block. 5. Church. 
4. Company's Headquarters at Calexico. 

Impkkial Chops. 

1. Crop of Milo Maize. 2. Crop of Sorghum. 3. Cr<>i>.>t Kirwti.ui C»uou. 
5. Crop of Sugar Beets. 4. Alfalfa Field. 



Cattle Ranch in the Imperial Settlements. 

To provide transportation facilities for this rapidly growing community, 
the Southern Pacific Railway Company is now constructing and will soon 
complete a b'anch from Old Beach to Imperial, a distance of thirty miles. 
Ii> addition to this line there will be, without doubt, in the near future, an- 
other transcontinental railroad passing through the Imperial settlements to 
San Diego. 

One of the reasons of the remarkable growth and development of thest 
settlements is the mutual plan and the cheapness of the water system. 

The cost of water rights is nominal. They may be obtained on easy 
term? by purchasing shares of stock in mutual water companies at the rate 
of one share to every acre of land, providing for a perpetual delivery of water 
at a fixed price, enabling the owner to get an abundance of water any day in 
the year. 

The main heading of the Imperial canal system is being enlarged. 
This consists of a large but short canal, having its junction with the river 
in a hill of solid conglomerate rock and cement, which conveys the water 
from the river a short distance to the settling basin. Into this settling basin 
the sediment in the water will be precipitated, then pumped back into the 
river by a hydraulic dredge. At present a temporary canal is in use to convey 
water from the river below the settling basin to the main Imperial canal 

Fattening Hogs in Imperial Settlements, 


system, but this will be filled up and abandoned as soon as the new heading is 
completed. There will be no gates between the river and the settling basin. 
Below the settling basin there is at present one hcadgate; but there is now 
being constructed another great headgate one hundred and twenty-five feet 
wide. The piers of this giant structure are being built of concrete and 
rest on a solid rock bottom. When completed, it will have capacity for the de- 
livery of sufficient water to successfully irrigate eight hundred thousand (800,- 
000) acres of land. The demand for more water u so great that this portion 
of the work is now being rapidly pushed. 

The California Development Company owns 100,000 acres of land on the 
Mexican side, through which the main canal passes. It has recently sold 
10,000 acres of this tract to a Los Angeles syndicate, who have commenced to 
develop the property. In addition to this, the syndicate has also procured ad- 
joining property to the extent of 680,000 acres and is developing the same with 
a view of establishing the largest cattle raising, feeding and fattening proposi- 
tion in the world. Prominent Los Angeles financiers and capitalists who are 
known for their successful business capacity are at the head of this stu- 
pendous undertaking. Water to supply this immense ranch will be supplied 
principally from the Imperial canal system. 

Another Los Angeles syndicate, composed of bankers and business men. 
has purchased from the California Development Company, through the Im- 
perial Land Company, water shares for about 40,000 acres, situated imme- 
diately west of the Braly tract on the west side of New river. This tract 
will be developed at once by the syndicate and colonized under the direction 
and management of the Imperial Construction Company. 

The California Development Company will deliver the water for this 
tract of land at a point north of Imperial and east of New river, from which 
the Imperial Construction Company will conduct it by flume across the river 
and distribute it over the land. 

Thus in a short time that which was a vast desert has been converted 
into one of the most successful agricultural settlements ever established in the 
Arid West. In these settlements the settlers have a source of income and an 
increased and constantly increasing value to their lands. 

Within the last few months the Imperial settlements have to a consider- 
able extent engaged the attention of the press of the country and the possi- 
bilities of this section are not yet half realized. 

Readers who desire to investigate this section more fully should apply 
to the Imperial Land Company, Stowell Block, Los Angeles, California, for a 
copy of an illustrated pamphlet: "From Desert to Garden;" also a copy of 
"An Album of the Imperial Settlements," containing a large number of half- 
tone views showing what has been done there in so short a space of time: also 
a copy of the holiday edition of the "Imperial Press," containing, among other 
things, a list of t he settlers now located on 161,812 acres of irrigated govern- 
ment land. 

M\i\ Stkbkt. Town of Imtkhiai., 



If the history of the great mines of all ages should be written, countless 
volumes would be filled with stories of success and failure in which romance 
and tragedy are closely interwoven. Such a story is to be told of a mine lo- 
cated almost at the gateway of Los Angeles. 

Fourteen years ago Jones Taylor, an old prospector now dead, but then 
well known throughout San Bernardino county, California, was told the old 
legend handed down from the Indians through the Franciscan Fathers, of a 
wonderful gold mine in the desert of Southern Nevada, and he started in 
search of it. Finally, on March 25th, 1888, after following an old Indian 
trail for many months, a few miles above Goode Springs, Lincoln county, 
Nevada, Taylor discovered the apex of a strong and true fissure vein, from 
which he obtained gold assays of astonishing richness. In all his varied ex- 
perience he had never seen gold so yellow nor so fine, and he was confident 
he had found the. object of his search, the long-lost mine of legendary fame. 

He called it the "Keystone," which name now seems almost prophetic, 
since the apex of the lode has truly proven to be the key which opens up all 
the adjoining mining ground occupied by the Keystone and Barefoot groups, 
aggregating twelve mining claims now operated by the Nevada Keystone 
Mining Company of Los Angeles, California. 

Taylor soon sold out to others, who put up a mill and in a crude manner 
of mining extracted $380,000 in gold bullion from one ore chute, which they 
worked to a depth of 700 feet. They were so thoroughly satisfied with the 
first skimming of the cream of this unusually rich ore that they left nearly 
as much gold in the tailings from the mill as they concentrated into bullion. 

These parties then undertook the opening up and development of the New 
York mines near Manvel, Cal., the building of a railroad (the Nevada 
Southern), the establishment of a bank (the Needles National), and the 
building of the Needles reduction works, drawing on the Keystone mine for 
the necessary funds for all these various enterprises. Then came the panic 
of 1893 and with it the loss of the ore vein in the Keystone, and misfortune .& 
fell like an avalanche upon the unfortunate parties who had undertaken so 
much. It was impossible to obtain money for prospecting to rediscover the 
lost ore vein, and the mine went with the rest into the hands of the receivers. 

For seven years the mine lay idle and the general impression was that its 
treasure vaults were exhausted. 

But two years ago Carl F. Schader, well known in mining circles all 
through the Southwest, and who is now general manager of the Nevada Key- 
stone Mining Company, while on a prospecting trip through the desert of 
Southern Nevada, making a thorough and exhaustive examination of all the 
principal mining properties of that region, became convinced that the Keystone 
was a bonanza, and that the former owners had not only lost the ore chutes 
of every level by drifting into country rock, but that they had never discovered 
the greatest ore bodies the mine really possessed. So strong was his belief 
that this was true, that he at once secured a lease and option from the trustee 
for the creditors, and associated with himself some of the best and most 
reliable business men of this part of the country, and went to work with the 
aid of Mr. Carl Andersen, M. E., to open up the mine and prove his opinions 

A careful study of the mine convinced these gentlemen that this ore was 
deposited by thermal springs, and development work done in conformity with 
this theory has without doubt proven the theory correct. A comfortable fortune 
has been spent in this work with the satisfactory result of opening to view 
three ore chutes to the depth of 450 feet, each of which is larger than the 
original, at a corresponding depth. 

The ore consists of streaks of clay, talc and hematite of iron. The highest 
grade ore in the mine is probably an absolutely pure white kaoline carrying 
free gold ; samples showing no free gold to the eye have assayed over $500.00 
per ton. The ore is free milling, 85 per cent, being readily saved by plain 
plate amalgamation, and 00 per cent, of the value contained in the tailings are 
recovered by the cyanide process. The gold extracted by these methods has a 
fineness of from 900 to 925. 

The property is now being operated on a conservative plan by the Nevada 
Keystone Mining Company, which was incorporated May I, 1902, under the 
laws of the State of Nevada, with an authorized capital of $1,000,000. With 
a directorate composed of such representative business men as J. J. Davis, 
President; T. H. Dudley, Vice-President; Jacob Adloff, Treasurer; T. A. 
Johnson, Secretary, and Carl F. Schader, General Manager, the property has 
been rapidly brought up to a regular dividend payer, paying at the rate of one- 
half of one per cent per month; and the work of further development is being 
pushed as rapidly as is practical. Since the organization of the company last 
May over $60,000 in gold bullion has been taken from the mine. 

Like all great mines, the Keystone has had a history full of romance, strife 
and litigation, but over all these obstacles she has triumphed gloriously, and 
has now settled down to lasting peace and prosperity. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 








Poblishbd Monthly by 



Office of Publication! 
113 SovitK Broadway 

Los .Angeles, California 



JosKi-H J. KosBOKoruH, Manager Saa Francisco Office — 

606 Hearst Kiiildintr. 
Shaklot M. Hall, Manager Arizona Office— Prescou. 
John H. Hamlin, Manager Nevada Office— Reno. 

Entered at the Los Angeles Postoffice as second-class matter. 

Cyrus M. Davis F. A. Pattkb C. A. Moody L. H. Cakpentek 

Chas. F. Lummis M. C. Neuner R. W. Rogers 

The photographs of points in and about Oxnard, from which the article on Ventura County 
in December Out Wkst was partly illustrated, were made and furnished to the magazine by 
Mr. A. O. Brewer, of Oxnard. Credit was incorrectly given to another arti>t. 

The 1903 term of Throop Polytechnic Institute opened under favorable condition*, 
with a notable increase in the number of young men who attend for the purpose of taking 
courses in chemistry, physics, assaying, electrical engineering, and kindred studies. Much 
original work is being done in the shops and laboratories of the Institute. All other de- 
partments are kept up to the top notch of efficiency, including that of domestic science for 
girls, the art department for both sexes, clay-modeling, wood-carving, carpentry, forging 
and machine shop work. The latter shop opens with the current term, with the mechanical 
drawing in close association. In the last-named department several of the advanced students 
are making a creditable showing in architecture, others in designing for machinery 

Hand in hand with the daily instruction in all branches of manual training are carried 
along the grammar school, high school and collegiate studies of the more purely theoretical 
kind, while the Institute's business college department is taking a very important place in 
the work of the school. 

The Secretary is always glad to forward catalogues and information of any required 
nature upon application to him by mail, or otherwise, at Pasadena. 

o mfort 



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We guarantee % hatch on all eggs 
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Send for 60-page Catalogue 

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Please Mention that You Saw it In OUT WEST. 


We take great pleasure in announcing to the public that we 
are now in a position to offer Imperial Lands with an abundant 
water supply, for 

$1.25 $1.25 $1.25 

per acre, cash, with no further payment on the principal for 
four years, and twenty years to make final payment. This is 
certainly the most generous offer ever made to the public. It 
has been demonstrated by the farmers at Imperial during the 
past year that one crop grown on Imperial Lands will more than 
pay the total cost of both land and water. We have just opened 
for settlement, on the above terms, as fine a tract of land as 
can be found in the Imperial Valley. This land is within one 
mile of the Southern Pacific Ry. now being built to Imperial. 
Think of securing a 40-acre ranch with an abundant water sup- 
ply for $50.00 cash. You cannot afford to let this pass. 
See illustrated article on Imperial in this magazine. For full 
particulars and descriptive literature, call on or address 

Oakley-Paulin Co. 

304-305 Douglas Building 


Get a 

Civil Service 


Government Positions Are Open 

To fill them Uncle Sam is making selection from thousands of 
applicants. Only those who are qualified — those who pass the Civil 
Service Examinations with the highest grades — receive the coveted 
places. BE PREPARED ! Your chance lies in securing the very 
best preparation. This is to be had bv enrolling for a course of coach- 
originated preparation for Civil Service Examinations by mail in 1893, 
and since that year has coached thousands who are now holding excel- 
lent government positions. There were made more than 

13,000 Appointments Last Year 

and the chances of appointment are now better than ever before. There is 
room for you in the Service if you can pass the examination with a high 
grade — if you are prepared. Examinations will be held soon. For rates, 
positions, salaries, etc., write at once to 


PACIFIC COAST OFFICE: 927 Market St., San Francisco. 
HOME OFFICE: Second National Bank Building, Washington, D. C. 

Please Mention that You Saw it In OUT WEST. 



OF LOS A N«. II. is Incorporated 1871 

Capital, Surplus and Profit* - - $1,569,220.00 

Deposits - - 7,6uu,im»).(ki 

Cash on Hand, and with Bankers - - 5,012,302.00 
U. S. and other Bonds and Stocks - 1,124.400.00 


I. W. H km. man, Pres. H. W. Hellman, Vice-Pres. 

J. A. Graves, 2nd Vice-Pres. Charles SEYLBK.Cash'r 

G. H kim ann, Assistant Cashier 

M. H. Hellman, 2nd Assistant Cashier 


W. B. Perry I.W. Hellman, Jr. O.W. Childs 

I.N. Van Nnys J.A.Graves I. W. Hellman 

H. W. Hellman J. F. Francis C. E. Thorn 

J. Baruch Win, Lacy 

Special Safe Deposit Department and Storage Vaults. 

W. C. Pattbrson, Prest. P. M. Green. Vlc*-Pr#*. 

Frank P. Flint. Second Vice- Prest. 

W. D. Woolwine, Cashier 

E. W. COE, Assistant Cashier 

O. J. WlQDAL " " 


Cor. First and Spring Streets 

Capital Stock . 
Surplns and Profits over 


Largest capital of any National bank in Southern 
California. This bank is fortunate in having- a strong- 
directory and a large list of substantial stockholders. 

T. L. Duque, Pres. I. N. Van Nays, V. 

E. J. Vawter, Jr., Cashier 

Money loaned on real estate at lowest rates. 
Save time and expense by applying to 



Junction Main, Sprlng>nd Temple Sts. LOB ANG1 LBS, CAL. 

DlRHCTORS: — H. W. Hellman, I. N. Van Nuyi, 0. I hham, II 
W. O'Melveny. T. L. Duiiue, 1-. Winter, Kaspare Cohn, W. I.. Ken k. 
IioH, II. Nrwmark. 

DIVIDEND NOTICE— California Safe Deposit and 
Trust Company, cor. California and MwUgMNf] 
Streets. For the six months ending December 31, 
1902, dividends have been declared on deposits in the 
savings department of this Company, as follows : 
On term deposits at the rate of 3 6-10 per cent per 
annum, and on ordinary deposits at the rate of 3 per 
cent per annum, free <>t taxes, and payable on and 
after Friday, January 2, 1903. Dividends uncalled 
for are added to the principal after January 1, 1903. 




We are making and selling the 
best Art Tool in use. Applies 
color by jet of air, enabling the 
artist to do better work and save 
time. No studio complete with- 
out it. Circular! Ena. 

Address, AIR BRUSH MFG. CO., 
115 Nassau Street, Rockford, 111., 
U. S. A. 

Largest National Bank in Southern California 


Designated Depositary of the United States. 

Capital Stock $ 400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 360,000 

Deposits 5.000.000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest. W. G. Kerckhopf, V.-Prsst 
J. C. Drake, Second V.-Prest. 
W. T. S. Hammond, Cashier 

J. D. Blcknel! 
J. M. Elliott 


H. Jevne 
F. Q. Story 
J. C. Drake 

W. G. Kerckhoff 
J. D Hooker 

All Departments of a Modern Banking Business Conducted 


DIVIDEND NOTICE.— The German Savings 
and Eoan Society, 526 California St. — For 
the half year ending with Dec. 31, 1902, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate of 
three and one-eighth (3 l /$) per cent per an- 
num on all deposits, free of taxes, payable 
on and after Thursday, January 1, 1903. 
GEORGE TOURNY, Secretary. 

DIVIDEND NOTICE.— Mutual Savings 
Bank of San Francisco, 33 Post St. — 
For the half year ending December 31, 
1902, a dividend has been declared at the 
rate of three (3) per cent per annum on all 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after 
Thursday, January 1, 1903. 

GEORGE A. STORY, Cashier. 

Montgomery St., corner of Sutter. — The 
Board of Directors declared a dividend for 
the term ending December 31, 1902, at the 
rate of three and one-quarter (3#) per cent 
per annum on all deposits, free of taxes 
and payable on and after January 1, L90& 
Dividends not called for are added to and 
bear the same rate of dividend as the 
principal from and after January 1, l'tU. 

DIVIDEND NOTICE- The Continental 
Building and Loan Association, No. 301 
California St., San Francisco. — For the 
year ending December 31, 1902, has declared 
a dividend of five (5) per cent on ordinary 
deposits ; six (6) per cent on term deposits, 
and eight (8) per went on installment stock. 

Sec. and Gen'l M'gr. 


Women's Apparel 


Most folks predict a very rainy winter. 
You'll take great comfort from stylish, dressy 
suits and skirts that may be worn with equal 
pleasure on clear or wet days. They are made 
of materials that keep new and attractive in 
spite of usage. Even if the garment becomes 
heavily wet it seems just as fresh as ever when 
it is dry once more. The styles are charming 
and effective, the very newest New York has. 
All so nice, and yet prices extremely moderate. 





Princesse Petticoat 

is a tailor-made garment. It g-ives a perfect 

glove fit at the top, impossible to attain with 

any other skirt. 
It does away with all wrinkles at the hips and 
waist, and adds that ar- 
tistic grace to the beauty 
lines of a graceful fig-ure 
that cannot be obtained 
with any other petticoat. 
Every lady knows the 
advantages of a tailor- 
made g-arment, and these 
petticoats are appreciated 
by all who care for that 
ease, comfort and style of 
a well-fitting- garment, 
and ladies who wear these 
petticoats have a well- 
dressed appearance. 
We shall be pleased to show them to all 

ladies who wish to see them, at 

555 S. Broadway, los Annies, c& 

Please Mention that You Saw It In OUT WEST. 



2 7 HOURS 



Low Rates including Berth and Meals Excellent Service 

Steamship Santa Rosa, 2416 Tons, Length 326 Fbbt 


Wednesdays, 7 
Sundays, 7 

Wednesdays, 11 
Sundays, 11 

r„..,„ L>T7>rk/-kvrT^/~k S Steamer Santa Rosa 

Leavb REDONDO j steamer STATB OK California - 

Leave j Steamer Santa Rosa 

PORT LOS ANGELES \ Steamer State of California 


Leave \ Steamer Santa Rosa 

PORT LOS ANGELES '( Steamer State of California 

Steamer Santa Rosa 
Steamer State of Caufoknia 

Lkavb REDONDO-j 

Fridays, 4 

Mondays, 8 
Monday-, B 






ClOM COBIMCttoai ;ii San Francisco with Company's steamers for port s in Humboldt 
Britlsli Columbia, Seattle, Tacotna and Alaska. 

For further in tot inn .m<l dMCTlptlYC m.itter. apply to 

W. PARRIS. Agent. 328 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 

SAN FRANCISCO TICKET OFFICE: 4 New Montgomery St. | Palace Hoteh 

C. D. DUNANN. General Passenger Agent. 10 Market St., San Francisco 




Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST 




Profitable Citrus 

One Hour from Los 

Angeles via Santa Fe 

or S. P. Ry. 

Magnificent View of 

San Gabriel Valley 

and Snow-Capped 


Surplus Water 
for Sale 

With all modern improvements, comprising- 103 acres highly improved property. For sale as a whole or in small 
tracts. For full particulars address owner, GEO. E. COLEMAN, SAN DIMAS, CAL. 


No other property in Los Angeles offers such desirable homesites or such oppor- 
tunities for profitable investment. Located on Pico street, just opposite the Country 
Club. Street cars every five minutes. Size of lots 73^xl78>^ feet — the largest and 
finest residence lots in the entire city. 


Magnificent graveled roadways, wide cement walks, heavy cement curbs. All 
electric light and other poles are in the rear of the lots — no poles in front. 


High altitude, being away above the southwest portion of the city. Magnificent 
views of Hollywood and the mountain range clear to the sea. Pure air. Cool in sum- 
mer and warm in winter — the most healthful location in Los Angeles. Building re- 
strictions enforced that will greatly enhance the value of all property in the tract as 
homes are built. The W. G. Nevin Tract is in every way the finest, best located tract 
that has been laid out in Los Angeles in years. The lots are larger and offer better 
opportunities for fine homesites. The growth of the better residence portion of the 
city southwest and west all combine to make this the most desirable spot in the city 
for high-class homes. 

W. G. NEVIN, 320 322 Lauglilin Building 

Hummel Bros. & Co., "Help Center," 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


In all CHURCHES ami CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR soci.-n.-s tli.-n- i* a larire perc.-ni;.. 
yuuiiir OMB and women \vli'> arc •.ell — n t ixirlinsr, and so have but litlle tinn- for strlf-im- 
iMov.iiKiii in an educational way. In tin- iranu- of FLING FLUNG there are over 100 -< 
Of music and tin- name of tin- h.-ro, tin- luroim- and her father are tin- only -onifs u-d DBMS 
than once. Why not havi- an evening of FLING FLUNG in your church and fat the young 
peopfagM aoiuaintid V There can be no wallflowers in the game as the playi-rs are con. 
tinually changing places. FLING FLUNG is a beautiful story told by pictures, poster-. 1(j 
silk and sllkeM flags, mascots, puzzles, titles of books, ticket^, photos, i«»ppy poster in oil, 
etc., is interspersed with music from beginning to end, and, when the game is finished 
has taken the players completely around the world. Full instructions with game, 
rate \"in S. S. room with the paraphernalia. To all orders reaching us before March 1st a 
beautiful hand-tinted picture, 12xl2,double mount, will be mailed with the game. 
Address express or P. O. money order for $2.25, to 

FLING FLUNG COMPANY, Los Angeles, Cal. P. 0. Box 529 

A Sure 

•or Asthma. 

J*IUUIJ^^™OMLLLO, s „|,| | iy .,n DniKjristN, 


nail, H cent*. 

Cliailrstnwn. Mll88. 

TEACHERS and STUDENTS find here a 
plant equipped fordoing School work— designing, en- 
graving, printing and binding— the best possible prod- 
uct at most reasonable prices. — Oct West Co , Offices, 

IIS S. Broadway. T.o-. Anifele-. 

If You Have Taste 

ortalent fordrawingyou may become 
famous like the originator of this char- 
acter. The ill-. Kit System of Teach- 
ing by Mail prepares you quickly for a 
paying position as Cartoonist, News- 
paper Artist. Illustrator, etc. Original 
school in this line Special offertotbose 

Who Write now. HMldmt School, Eiubllihed 1860. 

National Correspondence Schools, (Inc.) 

v. i. Hesb, Prat., 5 B. Pa. St., Indianapolis, U.S. A. 

Of Interest to Amateur 

(or Professional) Photographers only 


Stiii 1 us J.".! . (silver. 1 . S. it 1 anada or foreign equivalent) for a large 
list, with Instructions. of natnof l;»< 1 \ and gentleman entliu 
Iril.iiteil in different |iarls ..f the world who desire to exchange riews of 
their locality for your lo<al views. List is revised frequently, and «*'/*- 
ruttxtracMargt. Your na«a« inav l>e used on a future list unless you 
tl.erv.isr. 1'rii e to supply houses, $1. 

International Art Exchange Concern, Adrian. Mich., U. S. A. 

^J II I II ■ II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1] III 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 L£ 



The Easiest "Way to do 
tHis is to Buy California 
Mining StocK 


of Stuck 12'i cents per Share. Dividends guaranteed in 90 days. Will 
soon be taken off the market. We expect this stock will go to $1.00 per share 
in six months. 

4- cents per Share. Will probably go to 25 cents per share in a few 
months and pay big dividends soon. 



Address E,. J. YOUNG, Stochbroher, 211 W. First St. 



Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. &. Co., Tel. Main 509. 


115 J° broa&w&v V^* 
Las Angeles, 


II ow. 


Hijhtr or D&y 
2wn or «5hine| 

We *re De,si0ner\s,En£rdvver.s, Printers, 
^ \^ \ ^ binders and Stationers 


EFFECTIVE illustrating is a very strong factor in good advertising. 
Much of the success of the Out West engraving department has 
been due to intelligent comprehension of the requirements of the 
matter in hand and the endeavor to make the most reasonable price 
for the very best work in designing and plate-making. 

All of the half-tone and line engraving in the body of the OoT 

WEST magazine is produced by us, frequently from poor copies, 

and is a fair example of our everyday work on extremely short 

notice. We have a large list of people who send their work to us be- 

Ltne Etching cause they feel that our equipment consists of the best apparatus, 

skilled artists and engravers, and that everything is done under 

most careful supervision. No plate leaves our establishment that is not capable 

of producing excellent impressions at the hands of an ordinary printer. 

On four pages here shown 
we endeavor to include conven- 
tional styles of half-tone and line 
work with a clear explanation of 
just what copy is required and the 
plate used to obtain best results. 
Some of the cuts here printed 
have been already run in large 
editions — only one has been 
made for this advertisement. 

Half-tones are made directly 
from photos, wash drawings and 
similar subjects, and in some 
cases from the articles them- 
selves. The engraving can be 
any size desired that is of the 
same relative proportion as the 
copy ; but the best results are 
obtained when the size is smaller 

than the original. Half-tones may be "square," "outline," "vignette," "oval," 
etc. The square half-tones are the cheapest, and, unless otherwise ordered, we 
place small line around, as it usually gives more finished appearance. If the 

background is 
blended away, the 
style is called "vig- 
nette." If the back- 
ground is cut away 
entirely the engrav- 
ing is said to be "out- 
line." ( hitliii' 
nette and oval half- 
tones are a trifle 
more expensive than 
the square : but this 
additional work fre- 
quently increases the 
effectiveness of the 
engraving very much. In this connection we will say that the better the photo 
the better will be the half-tone therefrom, and we cannot make good cuts from 
poor photographs without re-touching the photograph, thus adding the a- 
time, according to the amount involved, to the cost of the work. Object! 
wanted in the half-tone can be painted out in the photo, and in some cases object* 

Vignetted Half-tone 

Square Half-tone "with Line 

Vignettea and Outlined Half-ione 

can be drawn in, so 
that altogether the 
possibilities of re- 
touching are great. 
In some cases it is 
better to make a 
' ' wash " drawing 
than to re-touch the 

Half-tones vary 
in fineness of texture 
or "screen," but the 
screen most used is 
" 133-line. " Almost 
all Out West mag- 
azine work is from 
that screen. For 
newspaper work or 
work on any coarse 
stock, " 70-line" and 
"100-line" screen 
plates are frequently 
used, and samples of 
same are shown here- 
with. When several 
portraits or different 
buildings are to be 

shown on one page, it is customary to mount all different photos on one card- 
board, drawing around them an appropriate and decorative background and 
making one plate of the entire group. In such cases the name of each person 
can appear on the plate if so desired, and any special ornament or lettering 
added in the background. This issue of Out West contains several such groups. 
Pen-and-ink and black crayon drawings, pages printed or letters written in 
black ink or on typewriter with black ribbon, and prints from engravings con- 
sisting of distinct lines or dots, can all be produced by the zinc etching process, 
and this is much cheaper than half-tone work. These cuts are called "lire 
etchings" and cannot 
be taken direct from 
photos or " wash" draw- 
ings- — pen or crayon 
drawings must first be 

The three-color pro- 
cess — which we cannot 
conveniently illustrate 
here — is a most effec- 
tive and comparatively 
cheap method of repro- 
ducing works of art, 
merchandise, etc., in natural colors. To 
effect this, three plates are used, printed 
in yellow (first), red (second) and blue 
(last) — each one worked directly over the 

preceding one, as fast as the colors dry. Properly printed, from perfect plates, 
the complete job cannot be excelled by double the number of impressions in the 
lithographic process. The Engraving Department has recently issued several 
striking cover-plates by this process, and Out West will shortly print a three- 

0<ual Half-tone 

Line Etching from "Pen Drawing 


color frontispiece, showing- the beautiful effect obtained from the three primary 
colors and their " blends." 

In connection with mechanical engraving-, for which we have recently almost 
doubled our facilities, we employ artists especially selected for efficiency in their 
respective lines of work. They produce de- 
signs and illustrations of all kinds, in black 
and white and in colors ; book, booklet and 
catalogue illustrations, ads, borders, covers, 
posters, letter heads, labels, bird's-eye views 
of real estate plats, residences, factories, etc. 
No matter how crude an idea you have of 
something in the way of an illustration, we 
can furnish you with a rough sketch which 
may be just what you would like completed 
and reproduced in a cut for your commercial 
printing, catalogue or other work. For this 
rough sketch we make no charge, or merely 
a nominal one. 

In closing, we wish to give a few special 
words of instruction to patrons of the Engrav- 
ing Department. Always send firm name 
and full address. Mark every piece of copy 
so as to identify it with the letter of instruc- 
tions. Say if you wish the copy returned. 
Specify distinctly the exact size in inches the 
cut is to be in length or width. If one dimen- 
sion is given, the other will be regulated by 
the camera. Send full instructions for shipping, 
press, as safer and quicker than mail. 

Any point not touched upon in this little article we shall be glad to take up 
with you by correspondence, whether you are in the market for cuts just at the 

231-235 S. SPRINGS! 

Line Etching from Pen 'Drjnuing 

We usually forward by ex- 

Line Etching Signature 

present time or not. We understand the engraving business thoroughly and are 
glad to answer promptly any inquiries. Many engravers charge "block meas- 
ure " — we charge for printing surface only. We buy the best grade of copper 
and hard zinc, blocking wood, etc., and destroy imperfect plates — cuts that many 

engravers call " good 

enough." We want 

"Out West" on a 

half-tone or line-etch- 

i n g to mean w h at 

"Sterling" means on 

a piece of silver. And 

we are more anxious 

to hold old custom 

than to gain new — 

much as we desire the 


70-line Screen Half-tone 

100-line Screen Half-tone 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 





]M"/^\ has ever been found in the enamel of 



Protected by Decision of U.S. Court, pastedon every piece, 


If substitutes are offered, write us. 
Sold by First-class Department and House-/urnishing Stores, 
Send/or new Booklet, 



Please Mention that You Saw it In OUT WEST. 

Artistic MISSION furniture 

We show an abundance of Old Mission fur- 
niture in carefully finished weathered oak. 
Pieces suited for large family rooms, for li- 
braries, for halls, for dining rooms, and for 
dens; rich leather upholstery — some done in 
the rush effect. Every piece we show is dis- 

We also show a number of pieces in the Arts 
and Crafts furniture, with decorations of mar- 
quetry in simple, effective lines. These pieces 
are the most beautiful work of artist and 
craftsman. Mail orders sent us are most care- 
fully filled. 

Los Angeles Furniture Co. 

S. Broadway 
Los Angeles 

The interior 
fittings determine the 
cozlness of the home. 
Rich carpets, handsome rugs, 
inviting draperies, portieres 
and curtains. Come in and 
take advantage of our ex- 
perience in fitting up 

...Attractive Homes 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Old Japan has an art all its own. 
Rich in color effects — unique — orien- 
tal. You will have a superb type of 
perfect Japanese panel decoration in 
our Calendar of Old Japan, 8 inches 
wide, 37 inches long, ready for hanging. 

The Calendar is yours for just 6 
cents in stamps. 

Worth more than that in anybody's 
art collection. 

We offer it, as a token of the excel- 
lence of 

vmt mm Exffiia 


and you will find our Calendar of Old 
Japan worthy of the name and fame of 
its maker. 

The "Best" Tonic is good to give 
and good to take — a nerve builder and 
blood maker — has no equal where one 
needs a building up to health. 

Send three 2-cent stamps, and you 
will receive the prettiest and most dec- 
orative art calendar of the year. 


Milwaukee, Wis. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WE8T. 


Our preeminence as the largest dealers in fine footwear is known all up and 
down the Coast. We carry a large line of ex- 
clusive styles for both men and women — the 
finest shoes shown in the East. A particularly 
good value for women is this $5.00 shoe of velour 
calf; has welt sole and military heel — a plain, 
handsome shoe for winter wear. Women's shoes 
at all prices from $3.50 up. 

Mail orders filled for any style of shoe de- 
sired for men, women or children. Be careful to 
send correct size and we will send you a perfect 
fitting shoe. 



k vtAgAAf^ A 


,/rtss Iki tntritgf—tkat' \ 1 
Hon 't lie -roped in" with ■ 
ll.i Wetherby. Rayser B 1 

V a^aat 

« jTh | 

■m. .^H _^^>^m^I 




WITHOUT TREES You don't realize that a Shot- Tree Is indispensable until you've mntrac te<l the 

habit. Keep a l.eadam Tree in your shoe when the foot is out. It preserves the original 
1 shapeliness— takes out hard ridge* that form while walking, and keeps the curl from the ti>e. Insert a l.eadam S 
1 <///. Good tiling to keep wet shoes "sobered " up like new. Good shoe stores In your town sell l.eadam's Shoe Trees. 
1 substitutes— Ma that niy name is stamped on everv pair, l-'or sale bv C. M. StaubCo., 2.V> S. Broadway, l.os Angeles. ( 

■ Co., SB S. Broadway , Lo tngeleai Ml i . Colorado St.. Paaadena, i al.j Roaeath^l itros. i in. . i. in; Kearney st.. i t 

Modern ness 

is the spirit and fact of our entire establishment. 
Our mechanical plant represents the most up-to- 
— date laundry equipment in the West, and includes 
— — SS5BS L23E — — — facilities, such as our "NO SAW EDGE on 
Collars and Cuffs " machine, which is our own patent. Experience and circumstances 
have enabled us to weed out inefficient help. Skillfulness, promptness and courtesy 

We occupy our own building, from the ground floor up, in the business center of 
the city, and are therefore convenient of access. Call or phone. 

Empire Laundry 


Phone Main 635. 

Satisfaction Gaarantrrd 

Ramonatoilet 5oap 





of Schlitz Beer Sold in One Year 

This makes us, by over one 
hundred thousand barrels, Mil- 
waukee's largest brewers, and 
Milwaukee, as you know, is the 
most renowned brewing center 
in the world. 

This is How It Was Done 

For fifty years we have doubled 
the necessary cost of our brew- 
ing that Schlitz Beer might be pure. 

We cool Schtitz Beer in plate 

glass rooms, and all the air that 

touches it comes through filiers. 

We age our beer for months before 
we market it. That is why Schlitz 
Beer doesn't cause biliousness. 

We filter Schlitz Beer through 
wonderful filters, then sterilize 
every bottle after it is sealed. 

The Beer That Made Milwaukee Famous 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



Dealers in 

Pianos — 

Behr Bros. 


Ivers & Pond 

Bush & Gerts 






Stroftber, etc. 

Southern California 
Headquarters for 

Sewing Machines 


Steinway Pianos 



ROOF of the rank attained by four genera- 
tions of Steinways is seen in their appoint- 
ment by patents and diplomas piano manufac- 
turers to fifteen crowned heads of Europe ; from the 
time of Nicholas II, Czar of Russia, down to His Maj- 
esty Edward VII, King of Great Britain and Emper- 
or of India. 


Sole Selling Agents for Steinway Pianos and Cecilian Piano 
Players in all of Southern California and Arizona 


ftlS*: V 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

*SOXJTrJI^'aL)}O^M->y]US'J£' CO 


Our new store on South Broadway, nearly 
opposite Coulter's. 

We will open our new store 
with the largest stock of the 
finest pianos, pianolas and small 
musical instruments in Southern 
California. We will be better 
able than ever before to sell the 
most satisfactory instruments in 
the most satisfactory way. 

Everyone invited to call and 
see our new warerooms. If you 
can't come, write for description 
booklets of musical instruments. 

Southern California Music Co. 

216-218 West Third St. 
Los Angeles, California 

SAN DIEGO STORE: 1015 Fifth Street 

A Minute or Two and Your Shave is Through 


There's really nothing to learn ; you feel experienced the first time 
you use the ''NEW GEM." By its simple arrangement your beard 
is removed easily and without the least likelihood of cutting the face. 

Sold at Cutlery Dealers or direct from the factory: Razor in tin 
box, $2; Razor, with 2 blades, in fancy leather case, $3. 50; Automatic 
Strop Machine and Strop, $2. Dealers can be supplied through 

Simmons Hardware Co., St. Louis. 

Dunham, Carringan & Hayden Co., San Francisco. 

Hubbard Spencer Bartlett & Co., Chicago. 

Marshall Wells Hardware Co., Duluth. 

Steinen-Kirchner Co., Los Angeles, and jobbing houses generally. 

TO PL.. 
We tea< 
know one 


need not m 
itrument. m^ 


We teach by mail only, and you need not 
know one thing' of music or the instrument. 
Every feature is made simple and plain. 
Best conservatory methods only are used« 
with competent and practical instructors at 
the head of each department. With thous- 
ands of satisfied and grateful pupils in every 
State, there are still those doubting whether 
or not they can learn to play by mail in- 
struction. To give you opportunity to fully 
satisfy yourself as to the real merit of our 
work, we make this liberal trial offer: 

A 10-weeks' course (one lesson weekly) for 
a beginner or advanced player for either 
Piano, Organ, Gutar, Violin, Banjo, Mandolin or 
Cornet will be given on receiptof $1.00. This 
will be your only expense, as all the music 
used in the entire course will be furnished 
free. You will be under no obligation to 
continue unless perfectly satisfied, but 90 out 
of every 100 do continue. Booklet telling of 
our school and the work done during the 
past five years sent free on request. Address 


Suite 58, 19 Union Square, New York City, N. Y. 

A Banjo, Guitar, Violin or Mandolin guaranteed by the 
Ditson Co., for one year, and a 10-weeks' course of in- 
struction, $8.50. Bay State instrument and 24 weeks, $15. 

ui evci .y J 

our scho 

2 past five ; 
Suite 58, 
A Banjo, ( 
Ditson Co., 
struction, $fi 


Help — All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 W. Second St. f Tel. 

Main 509. 

The handsome " Flag-Girl " calendar FREE a work of art. 
six leaves in colors of the 

[quibble Life Assurance Society 


We want the opportunity to tell you about the Equitable Society and its 
policies. Any adult who will fill out the coupon below and bring- or mail it to 
this office will be given a calendar. 

Mr. A. M. JONES, General Agent 

420 Wilcox Block, Los Angeles, California 

Please send me one of your "Flair-Girl " calendars. Also tell me the cost of a policy 


I was born the day «f 18 




Scalp treatment is as much a science 
as the practice of medicine. It requires 
not only 
study, investi- 
gation and 
but wide and 
We believe 
the splendid 
results of our 
method sueak 
more for it 
than any 
or promises. 
We shall be 
pleased to 

consult with those who are afflicted with 
disease of the hair or scalp and explain 
our treatment. We shampoo with green 
soap — keeps the hair soft and glossy. 

Our stock of GRAY HAIR, SWITCHES. 
plete We invite your inspection. 





Hair Powder 

will make oily hair 
without washing. 
50 cents a box by mail. 


Swedish Scal|> Treatment 

S 170 Fifth Ave. NEW YORK 

Wholesale Material for Indian Basketry 


all colors Tel. Main 929 mi hsm 


Seedsman and Florist 247 S. Main. Los Angeles 

Possibly you need three-color plate work. Don't 
think you have to send Hast for it. nv I ia it and do 
It right. <H I W l>l CO.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

AMVl/n TUCATDIPAI PR I fl PDCAM prevents early wrinkles. It is not a freckle coating- ; it re- 
AHiIU InCAInlLAL LULU UntAITI moves them. ANYVO CO., 427 N Main St.. LosAn*eLea. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WE8T. 

Raffia and 
Reeds for 


RAFFIA.— natural color, bunch of 6 oz., 17c; 
9oz., 25c.; lib., 40c; Dyed Raffia, red, brown, 
green, black, blue, yellow and orang-e, 1-oz. 
bunch, 7c; Reeds, per bunch, 15c 

California Seeds 

Send for our Souvenir Collection. 15 most 
choice varieties of native flower seeds in sepa- 
rate packets, mailed free on receipt of 50c 

Special Bulbs 

(California Grown) 

3 Mariposa Lilies, 6 Oxalis, 6 Golden Stars, 12 
Freesias, 3 Callas, 1 Spotted Calla, all mailed 
free on receipt of 50c 

Germain Seed and Plant (o. 

326-330 S. Main Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

For nearly- 
half a century 



have been growing famocs in every 

kind of soil, everywhere. Sold by 

all dealers. 1908 Seed Annual 

postpaid tree to all applicants. 

». M. FERRY & CO. 

Detroit, Mich. 

Ingleside floral Go. 




....Artistic Arrangement of.... 




Fruit Trees-Grape Vines-Small Fruits 


Correspondence solicited. 
Catalogue free on application. 

TRUMBULL & BEEBE, Seedsmen and Nurserymen 


Edward H. Rust Palm Nurseries... 

Large Established Palms 

Cocos australis 

Seaforthia elegans 




Roses, Shade Trees and Ornamental Shrubbery 
Orange, Lemon and Deciduous fruit Trees 






424 South Broadway Los Angeles, California 

Correspondence Solicited Phone Joseph 4791 

Free Trial 

fc^5=di for Morphine, Opium or other drug habit. 
Painless, permanent Home Cure. Contains great vital 
principal lacking in all others. Confidential correspon- 
dence invited. A full trial treatment alone often cures. 

Write St. Paul Association, Suite 847. 48 Van Buren St.. Chicago 


E^^-* for Mornhine. Ooluin or otl 


California, Washington, 
Oregon, Colorado. 

We secure reduced rates on shipments of household 
goods either to or from the above States. Write 
for rates. Map of California, FREE. If not interested, 
tell friends who are. 

TRANS-CONTINENTAL FREIGHT CO., 325 Dearborn St., Chicago. 


Please Mention that /ou Saw it in OUT WL8T. 


Views of California and Ari- 
zona Landscapes, Indians, Grand 
Canyon of the Colorado, Missions 
and Monks of California, Yosem- 
ite Valley, and all points of inter- 
est on Pacific Coast lines of tourist 
travel. Unmounted Prints for 
the album, Souvenir Photograph- 
ic Novelties, magnificent Sepia 
Enlargements for framing. 

The Standard line of Western 

For sale in all high grade sta- 
tionery, curio and art stores. 




ttowiand & Go. 


Developing, Printing, Enlarging 
Mail Orders 


Los flnoeles 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Mothers ! 


has been used foi over SIXTY YEARS 'by 
WIND COLIC, and is the best remedy for 
DIARRHCEA. Sold by Druggists in every 
part of the world. Be sure and ask for "Mrs. 
Winslow's Soothing- Syrup," and take no other 
kind. Twenty-five cents a bottle. 


and CUFFS 


" Warranted Linen " 



Wire, Telephone or Write Wire, Telephone or Write 



Wire, Telephone or Write 

JOHN PARTRIDGE, 306 California St., San Francisco 



Cures While You Sleep 

Whooping Cough, 





Hay Fever, 


Scarlet Fever 

Don't fail to use Cresolene for the distressing 
and often fatal affections for which it is recommended. 
For more than twenty years we have had the most con- 
clusive assurances that there is nothing better. Creso- 
lene is a boon to Asthmatics. 

An interesting descriptive booklet is sent free, which 
gives the highest testimonials as to its value. 


180 Fulton Street, 

1651 Notre Dame Street, 

New York 
Montreal, Canada 



The famous drink of California. 
Wholesome, Healthful, Refresh- 
ing-, Invigorating-. Pints 25c, 
Quarts 45c, Gallon Jug-s $1.50. If 
your grocer does not keep it, will 
ship direct from here. 

Los Angeles Fruit Juice Co. 

119 Neiv High St., Los Angeles 


Please Mention that Vou 8aw It In OUT WE8T. 

Most complete 
showing of 

Gold Leaf 


Verni Martin 

furniture on the 


We devote a 

special room to it 


We make mail-buy in fir perfectly satisfactory. Of course, when possible, one enjoys visiting 1 such a 
complete establishment as ihis before buying, and we are pleased to have you; but so far as real furniture- 
value and long-lived-satisfaction are concerned, it is unnecessary— we serve you just as well by mail. 



439-441-443 S.7SPRING ST.. LOS ANGELES 








and up 



Please Mention that You 8aw it In OUT WE8T. 


in mercantile and professional life 
owe something of their success to 
personal appearance. The leisure 
class owes still more to the same 
cause. The few genuine geniuses 
succeed in spite of it. Personal 
appearance is largely a matter of 
dress. Dress is largely a matter 
of the Cravat. This was under 
stood by some as far back as the 
days of Beau Brummel, but it is 
only the later section of the pres- 
ent generation of men who have 
fully grasped it. The well = 
groomed man of today, even when 
he must economize on other arti= 
cles of apparel, buys ten Cravats 
where his daddy bought one. 

There is a So-pag^e text book 
called " The Cravat." It tells of 
hie What, Where, When and How of a Man's Cravat — Its 
lames and Shapes, Its Tying-, Its care, Its selection, Its 
arious Forms for Special Occasions and Functions, Its 
olor Scheme, Its Adjuncts, Pins, Fasteners, etc.. Its 
•on'ls, in fact, 

All About a Man's Cravat. 

It is profusely and sumptuously illustrated by one of 
tie foremost artists of America. The first edition cost the 
ublishers over $15,000, but you can have a copy for the 
sking, by sending this adv't with your address and 6 cents 
i stamps to the Publisher, James R. Keiser, 122=124 Fifth 
.venue. New York. If you prefer a bound copy, de.Luxe 
lition. send 15 cents in stamps. 




There is but one way to tell the reason 
of baldness and falling hair, and that is by 
a microscopic examination of the hair itself. 
The particular disease with which your 
scalp is afflicted must be known before it 
can be intelligently treated. The use of 
dandruff cures and hair tonics, without 
knowing the specific cause of your disease, 
is like taking medicine without knowing 
what you are trying to cure. Send three 
fallen hairs from your combings, to Prof. 
J. H. Austin, the celebrated Bacteriologist, 
who will send you absolutely free a diagno- 
sis of your case, a booklet on care of the 
hair and scalp, and a sample box of the 
remedy which he will prepare specially for 
you. Enclose 2c postage and write to-day. 

629 McVicker's Bldg. , Chicago, HI. 

BAILEY'S Rubber 



Makes, Keeps and 
Restores beauty 
in nature's own way 

'"pHE cup-shaped teeth have a suc- 
■*- tion effect on the skin that 
smooths out wrinkles, rounds out 
the beauty muscles, and {fives per- 
fect circulation of the blood. 

It is so constructed that it treats 
every portion of the face and neck 
perfectly, even to the " crow's feet" 
in the corners of the eyes. 

A jar of skin food given with every roller. 
For sale by all dealers, or ^X\r 

Mailed upon receipt of price, »«•• 
Rubber Catalogue Free. 
Agents Wanted. 


22 Boylston St., BOSTON, MASS. 

Supplying Agents 

Western Wholesale Drug Co., 254 S. Main St. 

F. W. Bratm & Co., 501 N. Main, Los Angeles 




By the Leading 



0. L. M'Ldin 




9x11— $1 00 

11x25— $3 75 

9x11— 1 25 

11x24— 4 00 

9x13— 1 50 

11x24— 4 25 

11x14— 1 75 

11x24— 4 50 

11x15— 2 00 

11x25— 5 00 

13x17— 2 50 

13x25— 5 00 

10x22— 3 00 

9x35— 6 00 

Sent postpaid to any address in the U. S. on receipt 
of price. Address : 

Sunset Art Co., 132 W. 12th St., Los Angeles 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WE8T. 

The Bufa Mining, Milling & Smelting Co. 

Capital. iSI.SOO.OOO 


Par Value. $1.00 per snare 
500.000 Shares in Treasury 

9,000 feet development work; ore blocked out id mine, $1,053,000 ; other assets, ore on dump, land, 
mill, etc., $147,837.87. We offer a limited amount of our Treasury Stock for sale at Fifty Cents, to increase 
reduction works. For full particulars, address 

References on 

DAVIS RICHARDSON, President, Lankershim Bldg., Los Angeles, Cil. 

F* E M I N O LO <3 Y 

FREE, a complete table of contents and sample pages upon request. A household 
necessity. A plainly told, scientific book about women. The roost descriptive, intensely 
interesting and valuable work ever written. It tells women the vital thing's she must know 
about MAIDENHOOD and MOTHERHOOD. It treats of marriage, parental inheritance, 
nursing-, children's diseases and their care; physical culture, personal beauty, giving infor- 
mal ion that is all important to health and happiness. Home common sense treatment for all 
women's ails. Saves doctors' bills. " Feminology " has 700 pages, beautifully illustrated, and 
26 colored plates. 

"If some of the information contained in 'Feminology' were more widely and timely 
known and heeded, endless and needless miseries might be avoided."— Chicago Tribune. 

" A book of information such as a wise mother will desire to place in the hands of her 
daughter when the latter marries."—.?/. Paul Pioneer Press. 
221Q Gladys Ave., Chiogo 



Owing to close confinement in business I suffer 
ed from a bad touch of indigestion, so much so as to 
cause me intense pain. My tongue was coated ; I 
had severe pains around my eyes and felt miserable. 
Through the persuasion of a friend I tried Ripans 
Tabules, and after taking them for two days I ob- 
tained some relief. I kept on taking them, and can 
safely say the}' have cured me. 


The.five-cent packet is enough for an ordinary occasion. The family bottle, sixty 
cents, contains a supply for a year. 

Please Mention that You Saw It in OUT WE8T. 

" NotHing so Rare as Resting on Air" 

The Pneumatic Mattress 


I will have all my mattresses blown up, not stuft. Down is too hard."— Ben Jonson. 

THE PNEUMATIC MATTRESS is as far superior to any other mattress as the Pneumatic bicycle tire is 
superior to the solid tire. It fits the body perfectly. You cannot find an uncomfortable position on the Pneu- 
matic Mattress. It conforms to all positions of the body, thereby resting: all parts equally. Did you ever 
think how unsanitary the ordinary hair, wool or other mattress is? All the perspiration from the body permeates 
the substance of the mattress and remains there. No amount of airing- will remove any disease grerms that may have 
lodg-ed there. Nothing- can enter the Air Mattress. It is the only sanitary mattress In existence. There is no place for 
dust to lodgre ; there is no home for vermin. The Pneumatic Mattress needs no turningr, as air never mats down. It is 
always smooth and requires no manipulation to take out inequalities. No odor and never musty. Can be regrulated 
to any degree of hardness or softness by admitting- or expelling- a little air. It weigrhs when deflated about 18 pounds. 

We make these mattresses in three sizes : %, % and full size ; the latter is also made in two parts divided length- 
wise in centre, thus if two people sleep together and one wants a hard bed, the other a soft bed, both can be accom- 

No springs are required with the Air Mattress; we furnish iron slats for iron beds. It should rest on ordinary 
wood slats on wood beds. 

Durability : The air sack is protected by a covering- of the best quality ticking:. With ordinary care this mattress 
will last a lifetime. Should it by any accident become punctured it can be easily repaired. 

So sure are we that this mattress will grive universal satisfaction that we will send you 
one and allow you to use it THIRTY NIGHTS. If you do not find it the best mattress you 

ever Slept on, or do not like it for any reason, return it and we will pay shipping- chargres 

both ways and refund your money. Price $22.00 up according- to size, including- air pump and slats. Delivered. 

FOR BABIES ° urCrib Mattress is a deligrht to babies and a joy to mothers. It can be cleaned with a sponge 

Half baby's crying: and fretting: will be avoided when you put him on a Pneumatic Crib Mat. 

tress. Price $11.00, delivered. 

American Steamship Line Adopt Our Air Mattress 

I take pleasure in stating- that the Pneumatic Mattresses 
on American line steamships Paris and New York have 
been very satisfactory in every way and we will never 
outfit a steamer with hair mattresses again. For some 
time we carried a number of hair mattresses on the ships, 
in case people preferred them to air mattresses, but have 
ceased doing: so as they are never required. 

Manag:er of the International Navig-ation Co. 


Good for Invalids 

I have used a Pneumatic Mattress for a patient who 
came under my care from a hospital that had nothing- 
but excelsior mattresses. She had seven larg-e bed 
sores on her body. The first nig-ht she used your mat- 
tress, she slept all night without an opiate— something- 
she had not done for six weeks— and has had no further 
trouble, except the tediousness of their healing-. 

A. J. HODGSON, M. D., Waukesha, Wis. 

Our illustrated booklet, " Evolution of the Air Bed " and Catalog- C of Pneumatic Cushions, Pillows, Yacht 
Cushions, etc., sent free on request by mentioning- Out West. 

PNEUMATIC MATTRESS & CUSHION CO., 35C Broadway, New York, N. Y., U. S. A. 

Factory at Reading, Mass. 

I^are Old Books 

and Manuscripts 
SSSSSV, span/sh 


Largest Stock in America 


50 cents, which will be refunded on first order of $5.00 
or more. 



Refers by permission to the Editor. 



For sale at less than half price. We want an accent in 
every town and city in the U. S. Send 35c. for sample 
opal worth $2.00. Good agents make $10 a day. 
Mexican Opal Co.. 607 Frost Bldg., Los Angeles, California 
Bank reference, State Loan and Trust Co. 



Unscrupulous imitators have 1 
attempted to foist upon the 
public harmful imitations of 

Face P«.mler. He sure that Ben Lex> '• 

signature In re<l Ink appears across the i ..m •>{ ea 

That marks it as genuine. Many cheap powders are highly 

|<erfumed with mineral compounds actually harmf 

BLACHE has the |>erfume of natural (lowers 

Pink, (ream Tints. .'>uc. a •- or l.y mall. 

Tak< Hoolhtr. BffN LEV y h CQ 

French Perfumers. 125 Kingston St.. Boston 


Tel. Main £357 


Seals, Badges, Checks, Steel Stamps, Stencils, Ac. 
512 Montgomery St., SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 






ACT OF MAflCM 7. iaa7 



f% *T> / _ „ Perfect California Wines. Each bottle bear- the State of California'- 

w^fJlCjiLQ. M~l LCI ILL 'CL "filial label (as above facsimile) Bra&raatMiag its contents to be true 
^"- r * s-r#»-v«« m^t x. s^s. w a, v^ «_*, and pure California wines. 

These are the finest wines California produces, aired naturally, 
from 4 to 20 years old, and unexcelled for the table or for medici- 
nal use. Shipments East Freight Free. 

Write for price lists, etc. 

E.«tablisHed is. -so 

Los -Ang'eles, California 




E NEVER OVERLOOK THE LITTLE THINGS in our service that go so far 
toward making: this the best place to LUNCH OR DINE. 

111-117 WEST THIRD ST. I |~\ r V\ 




The Vegetarian Restaurant 


A strictly first-class pure-food cafe. A wholesome bill of fare 
scientifically prepared. The best of service. Reasonable prices. 
Sound physical health and a clear brain follow the use of a rational dietary. 



Each Acknowledged the Very Best 


Ripe Olive 


Olive Oil 

If your grocer doesn't keep 
them, write to us and we will 
give you some useful and 
healthful information about 










FREE-Handsome Booklet of Recipes 

VrodktMCt oir* 
Italy — * 

Cvcb^c and 

Pure Lucca 


is made in Italy, the 
natural home of the 
olive. It is the best 
because it is pure. 

|5an Franciico - Portland 
Lo5 Angeles 

Crystallized fruits 

are considered 
especially desirable 
for mailing to 
Eastern friends — 
cct only 75c. per pound, 
postag'e lc. per ounce — 
Mig'Ht be a g'ood plan 
to surprise someone. 

P 241 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

/ through courttsy Carl Purdy "Turtle" Design Repeated 

IL. MeKesy, Jr 

Practical Furrier, Fur Dresser and Taxidermist 
Animal Fur Pvugs and Garni- Heads a Specialty 

Indian and Mexican BlanKets 
BasKets and Relics 


Souvenir Spoons, Native Shell and Agate Jewels 

Santa Barbara, CaL: 

In Potter Hotel, open January, 1903 

Salt Lake City, Utah : 

Two Salesrooms, Hotel Knutsford Building 

Factory and Warehouses, Busby Avenue 

Los Angeles, CaL: 

Corner Fourth and Main Streets 
Opposite Van Nuys and Westminster Hotels 

The largest business of its kind in the world. 

Hair j& j& 

on. the Face, NecK or Arms is 
as unnecessary as it is disfigur- 
ing. If you are sensitive, not liking - 
to ask anybody about it, and feel afraid 
to use loudly advertised articles, too 
many of which seriously irritate and 
injure the skin, you are invited to try 


a standard preparation used for over 50 
years by society leaders and known in the drug 
trade as a strictly legitimate article. Bazin's 
has been awarded the highest gold medals in 
the United States and Great Britain. Bazin's is 
simple, effective, harmless. Why pay exorbit- 
ant prices for worthless " hair removers " when 
Bazin's can be had for 50 cents anywhere? Re- 
fuse substitutes. If you prefer to pay direct, we 
will send full size package in a plain wrapper, 
by mall, postpaid, for the price. Address 


(Established 1848) 




BIG BOX, 25c 

At the iequcst of a num- 
ber of Dentists I have made 
an analysis of Van Bus- 
kirk's Sozodont, which I 
purchased in open market 
in this city. The analysis 
shows that there is nothing 
in it injurious to the teeth or 
gums, but that it contains 
compounds that are of ben- 
efit as deodorizers, anti- 
septics, cleansing agents 
and preservatives. 
Herbert M. Hill, Ph. D., 
Analytical Chemist 
and Assayer, 
University of Buffalo, N. Y. 

Sozodont Tooth Powder, used in 
conjunction with Sozodont Liquid, 
makes an ideal Dentifrice. Bach, 25 
cents ; large sizes together, 75 cents ; 
at the stores or by mail for the price. 
Substitutes should be declined. 

HALL & RUCKEL, New York 


— The International Jury of Awards of the Varis Ex- 
position — atvarded our Wines the Only SNledal given 
to any "Retail Wine 'Dealer in all Southern California 


Should be sufficient inducement for every 
lover of absolutely pure and thoroughly aged 
wines to at least place a trial order with us. 

Old Grape Brandy, per quart bottle 50c. 

Sonoma, Riesling or Zinfandel, per gal . . 50c. 

5-y r.-old Port per gal, 

" Sherry, Angelica or Muscat " 




Unfermented Grape Juice, made by nuns in a con- 
vent at Manzanares, Spain, per qt. bottle. .. .$1.25 

397-399 Los Angeles St. 

P. O. Box 290 Tel. Main 919 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

20-year-old Port, Sherry, Angelica, Muscat 
Malaga, Madeira or Orange, per gal $1.50 




kept in a large and complete stock 


. > 


also aivarded our Wines a SMedal 




Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


January in tKe Sacramento Valley 
is tKe season for ploughing, 
sowing, pruning and planting'. 

No snow, no ice, no blizzards. 
If your knowledge of this sec- 
tion of California is not com- 
plete, write for free information 
to any of the following' 


Mi >KKIS HROOKE, Sacramento— Sacrani.nio 

Con 11 1 v 
C. W. THOMAS, Woodland -Yolo County 
I. II. WILLS, Auburn— Placer County 
R. M. GREEN, Oroville— Butte Coiini v 
J. W KAERTH, Colusa— Colu-a Counts 
H. P. STABLER, Yuba City— Sutter County 
RALEIGH MAKCAK, Vacaville -Solano Co. 

C. F. P08TBR, Coralna Tehama < >>unty 

w C, GREEN, irreiown El Dorado County 

K. A. KORHES. Marvsviile YubaCountv 
J. M. WALLING. Nevada < y Nevada Co. 
P. R. GARNETT, Willows— Glenn l'.miii\ 
J J. CHAMBERS. Redd in« unty 

W. S. GREEN. Presuirmt, Colusa, California 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

IN1COMPOUNDING, an incomplete mixture was accident- 
ally spilled on the back of the hand, and on washing after- 
ward it was discovered that the hair was completely removed. 
We named the new discovery MODENE. It is absolutely 
harmless, but works sure results. Apply for a few minutes and 
the hair disappears as if by magic. IT CANNOT FAIL. If 
the growth be light, one application will remove it ; the heavy 
growth, such as the beard or growth on moles, may require two 
or more applications, and without slightest injury or unpleasant 
feeling when applied or ever afterward . 

Modene supersedes electrolysis. 

Used by people of refinement, and recommended by all 
who have tested its merits. 

Modene sent by mail, in safety mailing-cases (securely 
sealed ), on receipt of $1.00 per bottle. Send money by letter, 
with.your full address written plainly. Postage-stamps taken. 

Local and General Agents Wanted 


T3kpt. 90. Cincinnati, Ohio 

every bottle guaranteed 

flsrWe offer $1,000 for failure or the slightest injury 





It is wholly different in its com- 
position from all other remedies, 
and ensures a cure when taken faith- 
fully, because it removes the excess 
of uric acid. 

It Does tHe AVorK, and does 
it without injury to the stomach or 
other organs. -A.sK those who 
Have tested it. 



Special Notice 

On and after Jan. 1, 1903, to prevent sick- 
ness, children under 10 years of age 
should be cured of Colds,Grip and Headache 
when first symptoms appear by 
prompt application of "Half Orangeine 
Powders. Older persons should take 
full powders as directed in package for 
prevention and prompt cure of even stub- 
born cases. 



For Fatigue, Colds, "Grip," Asthma, Head- 
ache, All Pain, Dyspepsia, Biliousness, 
Neuralgia, "Nerves," Indigestion, "Half 
Sick," "Out of Sorts" Condition, ACTS 
WHILE YOU TAKE. Permanently benefits 
— Prevents little ills from becoming serious. 


Orangeine in China— A Startling Tribute 
to its Power. 
Mr. Charles F. Gammon, Supt. American 

Bible Society ,writes from Tientsin : "On a recent 
visit to the United States I brought back with me 
a quantity of 'Orangeine,' which I found to be the 
first remedy effective in severe cases of headache, 
which I had suffered many years. I have adminis- 
tered the remedy to American and European friends 
with excellent results and have relieved much 
suffering among the Chinese. I send you a P. O. 
order for $5.00, and assure you that I have no motive 
of personal gain in asking your lowest prices. I 
feel interested because of my success in the use of 
'Orangeine' among the Chinese for various disor- 
ders. Used alternately with aromatic sulphuric 
acid, it chec ed several cases of the worst type of 
cliolera, from which tens of thousands died here 
this summer." 
A New York Editor's Wide Experience. 

It! r. J. A. Waldrou, Managing Editor of 
The New York Dramatic Mirror, gives his 
personal experience of great value to every human 
being who desires good health, good spirits and 
freedom from common ills: "I am notonly a steady 
user of 'Orangeine' powders, being of an age when 
their singular and admirable stimulating powers 
prove very beneficial, and being also subject to Hay 
Fever in summer and Grip in winter; but I have 
formed the philanthropic habit of dispensing them 
to friends, for various temporary ailments which 
'Orangeine' so accurately reaches. 

"I congratulate you not only upon the 
ownership of a medicine that must be- 
come universal in use, but also on the 
philosophic happiness that should, be the 
portion of those who do incalculable 
srood while pursuing a legitimate 


Orangeine is sold by druggists everywhere in 25c, 50c 
and $1.00 packages. On receipt of 2c postage we will mail 
10c trial package FRKE with full directions, composition, 
and description of its wide human influence. Also 
"Club Offer" 

ORANGEINE CHEMICAL CO., 15 Michigan Ave., Chicago, ill. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WE8T. 

PAI IFHRNIA I ANFK moorpark, ventura county. Beans. 

UMtlrUlllllH LHlJUO Barley, Apricots, Apples, Prunes, without irrigation. 


In tracts to suit purchaser. $25 to $100 per acre. 



That pay a steady investment, with jrood water 
rights. I have them in the suburbs of Pasadena, 
finely located for homes, also in the country for 
profit. Fine homes in Pasadena a specialty. 



16 S. Raymond Ave 
Pasadena, Cal. 

115 S. Broadway 
Los Ansreles, Cal. 


Citrus and Deciduous Fruits 


PORTERVILLE. California 

Offers better inducements to the Homeseeker 
than any other portion of the United 
States. For particulars address 





209 Orange Street 

For reliable information as to cost, 
care and culture of Redlands 
Orange Groves, call on or address 


Redlands, Cal. 





Fok Sale at Lowest Prices. 

Fifteen years of intimate knowledge of Red- 
lands property enables me to help investors se- 
lect wisely a grove or a house or a good paying 
business property in Redlands and vicinity. 
For information address 


First Nat'l Bank Blk. 


Redlands, Cal. 


We Sell the Earth 


We deal in all kinds of Real Estate, Orchard and 
Residence Property. Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Room 208, 202 ' 2 S. BROADWAY 




tiik m \« it amiato yALUi 

rMQJIM, healthful and productive. Nosnow 
or ice, richest noil, abundant water, dire< 
|>ortation everywhere, advantage*' 
nimonto city, local or Eastern mnrketa a; 
i ndu ce men t tonttl— MxHn wt oi k . •* ■•«►«!»•« < » 

evei-.vtliliig^r.wnfrom New Bl 
ida. All product* reach highest paraer; 
mature early. Write for official HI' 
booklets containing California liif- 

deacrtpttom i ahw wmtUOm on all fruit ■ 
cultural subject* to JIiiiiiik<i- Cli«1>W of 
Commerce, SO0 K St. Sacr-mento. Cal. 


is in the eyes ot Investor* be- 
cause of the excellency of her 
cheap lands, cheap water and 
salubrious climate. Her oranges are in the Eastern market by Thanksgiving and the quality 
the best. If you are seeking Citrus, Deciduous, Alfalfa or Grape Land — improved or unim- 
proved -- let me send you a booklet and give you some prices. EXETER is the citrus center 

^rfpyatoma T?|LETS?AP 


Please Mention that You 8aw It in OUT WEST. 

Maier & Zobelein 



For Family use and Export a specialty. 

▲ pure, wholesome beverage, recommended by 
prominent physicians. 


Tel. main 91 

"The Stretched 


of all Time" 

is on 
the dial of an 


— the world's standard 
for pocket timepieces. 
Perfect in construction; 
positive in perform- 
ance. Sold by every 
jeweler in the land; 
fully guaranteed. Illus- 
trated art booklet free, 

Elgin, Illinois. 




Expert Repairing. Eyes Tested. Mail Orders a Specialty. 



Hummel Bros. & Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

TUp entire 

have established their 
Institute, 529 South 
Broadway, this city, 
where every appliance 
known to the science ot 
Electro Therapeutics 
is to he found. 

01 the New 

Diseases are treated by 

Musical Vibratian, 

combined with all forms 

of Electricity. 

Convalescents from 

acute exhausting 

diseases or any low 

Mate of health will be 

surely benefited by 

this treatment. 

ALL FORMS OF NERVOUS DISEASES — Insomnia, Nervous Exhaustion, Hyste- 
ria, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Bright's Disease, Lumbago, Brain Fas', Functional Heart Derange- 
ments, Migraine, Diseases of the Skin, Bronchitis and all Throat Diseases, Paralysis, Dyspepsia 
and Functional Derangements of the Alimentary Canal, Locomotor Ataxia, Cervical and Lum- 
bar Backaches of Women, Epilepsy. 

Appointments can be made by Pbone MAIN &4-t> 


<*Tv m r m l m *)■ m i u m i m m l u m i m m ir m i u m i* m i m m i' m i u 7»» 
W. E. Talbbrt C. L. Hall - 

Tel Peter 5051 



Also Dealers in 

Paints, Oils, Glass 
Varnishes, Etc. 

Tinting, Paper Hanging, 
Glazing, Sign Writing. 

Estimate* lurnisiie.i 1 1 .-<■. 
Co r respondence Im Ited. 


518 West Sixth St. 


Modern Architecture 

IF you inteml to build a liou-e .1- xotir own 
residence, roe nmioJi want ii right* On 

the Other hand. there ne\.i u a^ a keener 
ilem.iiiil on the part of purchasers and renters 
For niodeiuU Implored property than now. 

Therefore roe need o«r assistance, 

GARRETT & BIXBY, Architects, 

Room 312 Currier Block 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Tel, Tamea 17m. 

113 Weel Third St. 

Help — All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co.. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Scenic Route of 

Southern California 

You can see, on this line, the most prominent attractions of the coun- 
try, such as PASADENA, the OSTRICH FARM, the wonderful MOUNT 
LONG BEACH — the finest beach on the coast — and many other points 
in the shortest time and greatest comfort ; the scenes along the way making 
the trip a rare treat. 

Superbly appointed and equipped cars at convenient 
hours. Plenty of seats for all. PARTY RATES made 
and EXCURSION PARTIES solicited. 

For information, call on or <write cAgent. 

Main 900 

250 S. Spring' 

The Delightful Scenic Route to 

Santa cMonica 

And Hollywood 

Fine, Comfortable Observation Cars- 
Free from Smoke 

Cars leave Fourth street and Broadway, Los A ngreles, for Santa Monica via. Sixteenth 
street, every 15 minutes from 6:35 a.m. to 9:35 p.m., then each hour till 11:35; or via Bellevue 
Ave., for Colegrove and Sherman, every hour from 6:15 a.m. to 11:15 p.m. Cars leave Ocean 
Park, Santa Monica, for Los Angreles, at 5:45, 6:10 and 6:35 a.m. and every half hour from 
6:55 a.m. till 8:25 p.m., and at 9:25, 10:25 and 11:05 p.m. 

Cars leave Los Ang-eles for Santa Monica via. Hollywood and Sherman via. Bellevue 
Ave., every hour from 6:45 a.m. to 6:45 p.m., and to Hollywood and Sherman only every 
hour thereafter to 11:45 p.m. 

•*S~For complete time-table and particulars call at office of company. 

Single Round Trip, 50c. 10-Trip Tickets, $2.00. 



To Owners of Gasoline Engines, 
Automobiles, Launches, Etc. 

The Auto Spa rkcr 

does away entirely with all starting and 
running batteries, their annoyance and 
expense. No belt — no switch — no bat- 
teries. Can be attached to any engine 
now using batteries. Fully guaranteed ; 
write for descriptive catalog. 


42 Main Street Pendleton. Ind. 


will relieve and cure chapped hands, lips, rash, sunburn, chafed or rough 
skin from any cause. Prevents tendency to wrinkles or ageing of the 
skin. Keeps the face and hands soft, smooth, firm and white. It has no 
equal. Ask for it and take no substitute. 


anrl hook, "Fortune Teller by Cards," sent FREE on receipt of 2 cents 
to pay postage. p. s , KEYS, AGT., Ill S. Center Ave., CHICAGO 




Please Mention that You 8aw it in OUT WEST. 


Traveling is a delight when you take the 
Golden State Limited, the new train of the 
SoutHern Pacific-rVocK Island Route, cover- 
ing the distance between Los Angeles and Ghicago 
in less than tHree days. The latest and finest 
Pullman equipment- Buffet Glub Gar, Bath Room. 
Barber Shop, Library, Gompartment Gar, Dining Gar, 
Ladies' Parlor, Observation Gar. 

Double daily service bet-ween Los 
.Angeles and New Orleans. 

Any agent will give you information and literature 
illustrative of your journey. Ask him for particulars, 
or write 

G. A. PARKYNS, Asat. G. F. & P. A. 

261 S. Spring St.. Lot Angeles. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 




One of the 
few places 
by profes- 
sionals ><* -* 
Reached by 
a romantic 
voyage over 
a. tranquil 
o c e a. n 


of a <■* ^? ■* 
e v e r- y 
1 uyu ry 
of the •* -* 
m o s t° 
clubs and? 

Splendid steamships to Hawaii, Samoa. NewZealand 
Australia and Round the World-Sailing's to Hawaii every s 
10 days; to NewZealand and Australia, every 21 days 
Illustrated books: Tahiti, locents Hawaii, locents^* 


643 MaurKe^SI:. 

San Fi~axiciso6. 

i'ni-i-k^j.-v/m. n j* 

HUGH B. RICE, *,©■ Angeles Ag 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Daily between Pacific Coast and Chicago 


Through unique Moki-land. See the Grand Canyon, 
Indian pueblos, hieroglyphics, ruins of cave dwellers. 


Pleaae Mention that You Saw it in OUT WE8T. 

Alaska Central Railway Shares 

A small block of Five Per Cent Preferred Shares (par value $50.00), 
are offered for immediate subscription at $10.00, which may be paid in 
cash or in four monthly installments. 

The permanent survey will soon be completed, and arrangements are 
being made for the sale of the bonds, after which construction will begin. 
It is to meet the expenses of the survey that shares are sold. 

There are many reasons why the investing public should buy these 
shares while the price is low — being now one-fifth of the par value. 

A large increase in values is a certainty. 

That will mean handsome profits for the owners of low-price shares. 

The investment will prove not only profitable, but safe. 

The directors are practical men of high standing in railway circles 
and in the general business world. 

The "Alaska Central" book, map and reports will interest any 
reader who would keep pace with the growth of the great country now 
being opened up. Supplied free on request by 


General Agents 

820-1-2-3 Hayward Building, San Francisco, Cal. 

The handsome "Flag-Girl" calendar FREE — a work of art, 
six leaves in colors 

If you want the Best Protection for your family and your own 
old age, follow the multitude 


New business written in the State of California in 1902 by the 

Equitable Life Assurance Society 

Nearly $2,000,000 more than was written by any other company 

Mr. A. M. JONES, General Agent 

420 Wilcox Block, Los Angeles, California 

Please send me one of your "Flagr-Girl" calendars. Also tell me the cost of a policy 

for $ 

I was born the day of : — 18 


Address : 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUY V>-Z. 




Profitable Orange 
and Lemon Groves 

One Hour from Los 

Angeles via Santa Fe 

or S. P. Ry. 

Magnificent View of 

San Gabriel Valley 

and Snow-Capped 


Surplus Water 
for Sale 

With all modern Improvements, comprising 103 acres highly improved proper t y. For sals as a whole or in small 
racts. For fall particulars address owner, GEO. E. COLEMAN, San dim as, cal. 


=<5 =: =5 5= S> 


Over $20,000,000 worth of tin imported every year, about one-half of which is 
profit. The Santa Ana Tin Mines are destined to be as great as the famous Tin 
Mines of Cornwall, England, which have been large producers for 2350 years. 
The geology is the same, and our development work has proved that they abso- 
lutely conform to those wonderful mines. 

There has been expended over $75,000 to date developing what we believed 
would make large paying tin mines. We are now offering; a limited amount of 
Treasury Stock to complete the mills and development work. These mines will 
be large producers and dividend payers. 

Write for Prospectus and full particulars. 

The Santa Ana Tin Mining Company 

Gail Borden, President 

J. A. Comer, General Manager 

502 Laughlin Building, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
43 Wall St., NEW YORK CITY 



Hummel Bros. & Co., "Help Center," 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



C R 

A E 

R P 


1 S 

A 1 

G T 




Announcement : 

Hawley King & Co. beg to announce the 
fresh arrival of Victorias, Stanhopes, Bev- 
erlys and Vehicle Novelties. 





411, 413 and 415 Sansome St. 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Our new 1903 catalogue, 
one of the finest publications 
ever issued on this Goast, 
beautifully illustrated with Cal- 
ifornia Views, is now ready 
for distribution. All informa- 
tion about the garden and full 
instructions as to planting will 
be found therein. 



Meet every requirement of business or 
pleasure in the most perfect manner. 
Extreme simplicity of construction ; oper- 
ated with ease and safety by anyone. 
Trim, graceful, smooth running, entirely 
reliable — National automobiles are ideal 
for practical everyday service. 

Write for our illustrated catalogue showing 
many new and improved electric vehicles. 

National Vehicle Co., 2006 E. 22d St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Pkase Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

BAILEY'S Rubber 



Makes, Keeps and 

Restores Beauty 

in nature's own wav 

'THE cup-shaped teeth have a suc- 
■*■ tion effect on the skin that 
smooths out wrinkles, rounds out 
the beauty muscles, and gives per- 
fect circulation of the blood. 

It is so constructed that it treats 
every portion of the face and neck 
perfectly, even to the " crow's feet " 
in the corners of the eyes. 

A jar of skin food given with every roller. 
For sale by all dealers, or ^C\r 

Mailed upon receipt of price, 3V/C« 
Rubber Catalogue Free. 
Agents Wanted. 


22 Boylston St., BOSTON, MASS 

Supplying Agents 

Western Wholesale Drug Co., 254 S. Main St. 

F. W. Braun & Co., 50 J N. Main, Los Angeles 




By the Leading 



0. L N Lain 

13x25— $6.00 



9x11— $1 00 

11x25— $3 75 

9x11— 1 25 

11x24— 4 00 

9x13 - 1 50 

11x24— 4 25 

11x14— 1 75 

11x24— 4 50 

11x15— 2 00 

11x25— 5 00 

13x17— 2 50 

13x25— 5 00 

10x22— 3 00 

9x35— 6 00 

Sent postpaid toany address in the U. S. on receipt 
of price. Address : 

Sunset Art Co., IK W. Ed St., Los Angeles 

IMPERIAL Restaurant and Cafe.. 

■■■^i^^^HSHHi F. J. COTTA, Lessee 

Steward Schrien and Chef Hartman know how to tickle the 
palates of the public ; been doing- it for a long time — in 
large Eastern cities. Moderate prices. Daily change of 
menu and musical programme. 



Polytechnic Business College 


12th and Clay Streets, Oakland 

CiilirorMia's Largest and Best Ei/niffed 
linsiness Training School 

Comprises the following Schools and Cot- 
l.-gf-: ColtafSOf Business Training 
of Shorthand and Tyi>.'\vi uing ; School of 
Telegraphy : School of Koduuitca] and 
Au-liit.'. tui.ii Drawing : CoUi . 
Klettriial, M.vhaiiual and Mining Kngi- 
ueeriug in all brain -In-. of Higher Mathe- ii-. IMiysics and Client istfj . 

QoarsatOM pooh locw to graduates of Bus- 
in.-- .mil. Shorthand Course*. 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


!(iffaoro&$ M 
^S c b o o ! " 

SECURED for all 
Students worthy 



(trade mark) 



JgSgT' Complete Business Education — Earnest, 
thorough, individual Instruction; Modern Methods. 
Write for 6o page illustrated Catalogue. 

R. L. DURHAM, Pres. 



Help— All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Pleass Mention that You Saw it in OUT WE8T. 


Is the oldest established, has the largest attendance, and is the best equipped business 
college on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. Telephone Black 2651. 



Theonly completely equipped Manual Training 
School on the Pacific Coast. 

Grammar School, Commercial 
School, Academy, Normal School 
(Sloyd, Art, Domestic Economy), 
College (Degree of B. S.). 

Daily exercises in Sloyd, Wood Turning and 
Carpentry, Forging, Pattern-Making, Machine- 
Shop Practice, Wood-Carving, Clay-Modeling, 
Cooking, Sewing- and Dressmaking, Electrical 
Engineering, Chemical Laboratory Work, 
Mechanical Drawing, Freehand Drawing and 
Painting, Biological Laboratory Work, Gym- 

Diplomas of graduation from Throop Insti- 
tute accepted by the leading colleges and uni- 
versities of the country. 


W. A. Edwards, LL.D., President 
Thkodork Colkman, Secretary 

*£ tc-fr t-t* ttf- 1 1 1 C-frC- fr fr f-tt f-tf- ttfr <*- 





The BERLITZ School I 

of Irtodfc 

TRUST ELDG.Cor. 2nd and Spring Sts.lOS ANGELES 



for best and most practical meth- 
od of teaching: foreign languages. 

All languages taught by the Berlitz Method, 
the best and quickest ever devised- Competent 

native teachers. Private and class instruction. J 

Nearly 200 branches, with 75.000 students, In the I 

principal cities of America and Europe. jm 

Trial lesson free on application to secretary. • 

Commercial classes. Send for catalogue. ♦ 

%«* MWM»»MIM*MM|iNilMF 


The Dobinson School of Expression 

In "the Italy of America," 
Los Angeles, Cal. 614 South Hill St. 

English Literature, Word Analysis, Interpretation. 
Elocution, Physical Culture, Shakespeare, Health. Deep 

Breathing, the Speaking Voice. 
The Dramatic Department includes training for the stage 

and placing of competent pupils. 
Write for catalogue. 


Thou write to the oldest and most reliable Teachers' 
Agency on the Coast tot any Information pom deain 

about school matters. 

Efficient Service. Honorable Dealing. Reasonable 



M flood ltiiilcliuu. s.m Fiancisco, Cal. 


If you have taste or talent for drawing. The MEEB 
system of Teaching by Mall prepares \<m qatcklj Ik 

a paving position as Cartoonist, Newspaper Arti-t. 1! 
hi-tratot, etc. Original school in this line 
offet to those who wnte now. National Correspond 
ence Schools (Inc.). C. J. Hccb. President. I ■ i'< 
St.. Indianapolis, l S. H. 







Fits for college and business. 
Fully equipped Chemical and 
Physical Laboratories. Ten- 
acre Campus. Standard %- 
mile Track. Gymnasium. 
Gallery Track. Shower Baths. 

Principal : Grenville C. Emery, 
A.M., late Master in the Boston 
Latin School. 

Commandant : John S. Murdock, 
Ph. B. (Yale), Lieut, in the regular 
army in Cuba during- the late Span- 
ish war. 

130-154 S. 



Boarding and Day Pupils 

New Buildings. Gymnasium. Special care of health. 
Entire charge taken of pupils during school year and 
summer vacation. Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges. 
European teachers in art, music and modern languages. 
13th year begins Oct., 1902. ANNA B . ORTOIM, Principal 

Occidental College 


The College. Three Courses — Classical, Literary, 

The Preparatory Department is on the list of 
schools accredited by State University. The Occidental 
School of Music gives high grade instruction. Vocal and 
instrumental. First semester began September 24, 1902. 




THE COLLEGE. Faculty of 16. Ample equipment. Students 
may pass from any class to the State University or any 
in the East. 

THE PREPARATORY SCHOOL. As "Chaffey" stood among the 
highest accredited schools in the State. Utmost pains taken 
with physical development, manners and character, as 
well as with the intellect. 
University Station. Dean Wm. T. Randall, A. VI. 


(Casa de Rosas) 

Adams and Hoover Sts.. Los Angeles, California 

Beautiful buildings, delightful home, thorough school. 
Certificate admits to college. 






Ninth year begins September, 1902. Limited numbers, 
full corps of instructors, best of home influences and 

WALTER J. BAILEY. A. M., Principal 

Telephone Main 1556 



A Boarding and Day College for Boys and Young Men 

COURSES : Classical. Scientific, Commercial and 

For further Information address REV. J. S. GLASS, C. M., D. D. 


When you enter the 




Five Departments. Large Faculty of able Instructors 

Apply for catalogue. Phone Green 1848 

Winter Term Opened Jan. 2 



A school for personal culture for young men, women 
and children. Four Departments : ORATORY, ENG- 
Students may enter at any time and take part or all o) 
course. Send for illustrated catalogue. 
Tel. Pico 2521. Adpie Murphy Grigg, Director, 


"The Angrelus," Los Anareles. 

The.. Knutsford" Hotel. Salt Lake City. 

The A.ngelus, Los -Angeles 

American and European plans. Corner 
Fourth and Spring Sts., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Fire-proof, strictly modern and elegant. 
The newest of the first -class hotels of the 
State. Opened December 28, 1901, by G. S. 
Holmes, also proprietor of 

THe I\nutsford, Salt LaKe City- 
Tourists and others going Eastward will 
find that a stop-off of a few days at Salt Lake 
City can be most pleasurably spent. The 
" Knutsford " is the only new fire-proof hotel, 
for the better class of trade, in the city. 
Every place of interest is nearby this hotel. 
Do not be misled, but check your baggage di- 
rect to the "Knutsford," Salt Lake City. 

N. B. —An interesting illustrated booklet 
on " Zion," will be mailed to anyone address- 
ing G. S. Holmes, Proprietor. 

Fremont Hotel, u s Ang«ir 9 

American plan. Opened Octo- 
ber 1, 1902. Corner Fourth and 
Olive Streets. 

The newest and most elegantly 
appointed family hotel in the city. 

Situated, two blocks from Broad- 
way on an eminence commanding 
a charming vista of the city, and 
offering to its patrons the bene tits 
of purest air, prompt and court- 
eous service, and a cuisine un- 
equalled in points of excellence 
anywhere,£and reasonable rates. 

Fori terms address, 
Thos. Pascoe, Proprietor. 


The Westminster.^American and Euro- 
pean plans. Corner Fourth and Main Streets, Los 

Every modern comfort and convenience that can 
»e found in any hotel and at the most reasonable 

The quiet comfort and absence of confusion is 
. noticeable feature of this hotel. Evidence of the 
lasterly manner in which the minutest details 
iave been taken up and dealt with are apparent 
hroughout the whole house, every attention being 
;iven to make the guest feel perfectly at home and 
t ease. 

In addition to its perfect internal service the 
lotel maintains unsurpassed golf grounds. 

F. O. Johnson, Proprietor 

rlotel Arcadia, Santa Monica-by-the-Sea, Cal. 

On a picturesque high bluff, overlooking- a wide expanse of blue sea, 
i situated the famous Hotel Arcadia, whose strictly first-class service, 
omplete and modern appointments, hot and cold salt water baths, golf, 
mnis, boating-, bowling-, fishing and delightful drives, unite in making 
lis a. pleasure resort, ideal and complete. 

rlotel Redondo, Redondo Beach, Cal. 

This elegant hotel (under the management of R. W. Taylor, formerly 
j'ith Hotel del Coronado), is universally recognized as one of the "crown- 
■ lg efforts " of hotels on the Pacific Coast. 

Of its 225 rooms, every one is an outside room with open grate, hot 
nd cold water, and a sunny exposure at some hour of the day. It has 
Iterator, private baths and first-class bowling alleys, while its spacious 
Jail room, open billiard room, orchestra, elegant parlors and dining 
aoaa have won for it the well-deserved title of " Queen of the Pacific." 

It adjoins the largest carnation garden in the world, and boasts the 
est fishing on the coast. 

Both these hotels are equally distant (18 miles) from Los Angeles 
ith which they are connected by a 30-min. trolley service and frequent 
trains on the Santa Fe, Southern Pacific and Redondo steam railways, 
"he superiority of this suburban service renders these hotels vantage 
oitits, absolutely without a rival, for sightseers, as there is scarcely a 
>wn or county in Southern California that a guest may not visit and re- 
urn the same day if he wishes. 

There are no other places in Southern California with a climate more 
quable, being considerably warmer than any of the interior towns, with 
'lie extremes of night and day far less marked. 
For rates aud further information, address 

A. D. Wright, Proprietor. 

Refinement and Comfort. 

At the "Westminster.' 

Hotels "Arcadia" and "Redondo.' 

Tourist Hotels 

HotelVendome, San Jose 

A visit to California is not com- 
plete without a sojourn at Hotel 
Vendome, San Jose, and a trip from 
there to Lick Observatory, Mt. 
Hamilton. San Jose is the metrop- 
olis of the Santa Clara Valley, fa- 
mous for its orchards, drives and 
scenery, and is reached from Los 
Angeles by the Southern Pacific 
Railway's Coast Line to San Fran- 

The Hotel Vendome is situated 
in a large park of stately trees, 
lawn and flowers. Has broad ver- 
andas, artistic modern furnishings, 
unexcelled cuisine, and pleasant sur- 

It is the starting point for Mt. 
Hamilton stage to Lick Observa- 
tory, and has golf, ping-pong, bowl- 
ing, tennis, automobiles and cy- 

Geo. P. Snell, Manager. 

" iicuti Plaamnton. 

"Hotel PleaSanton, San Francisco 

Situated in a pleasant part of the city — 
Sutter and Jones Streets. Very convenient to 
all the theaters, churches and principal stores. 
Two lines of cable cars pass hotel. Sutter St. 
line direct from the Ferries to the hotel and to 
Golden Gate Park and other points of interest. 
Elegantly furnished rooms, single or en suite, 
with or without private bath. All modern 
improvements for the comfort and safety of the 
guests. The excellence of the cuisine and ser- 
vice are leading features, and there is an at- 
mosphere of home comfort rarely met with in 
a hotel. Guests desiring rooms without board 
will be accommodated. Rates on the American 
plan, from $2.50 to $5.00 per day for one per- 
son. Special terms by the week and to fam- 
ilies. O. M. Bkennan, Proprietor. 

Please Mention that You 8aw it in OUT WEST. 




Steam heat, electric light, modern plumbing, with mountain spring water piped 
throughout. Resident physician and corps of trained nurses. Nature's cure for 
asthma, la grippe, rheumatism, and all pulmonary diseases. 737,000 acres of pine 
forests. Grand mountain scenery. Furnished cottages and tents to rent for house- 

Train (Santa Fe via Pasadena) leaves Los Angeles Tuesday, Thursday and Satur- 
day, 8:30 a.m. Stage meets passengers at Hemet 12:40, arrives at Idyllwild at 5:30 p.m. 

For literature, write 

R. A. LOWE, Manager, Idyllwild, Riverside Co., California. 
LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE - Ring- up Idyllwild, Riverside Co., and call for Mr. Lowe. 




The Easiest Way to do 
tHis is to D\iy California 
Mining StocK 


of Stock 12#j cents per Share. Dividends guaranteed in 90 days. Will 
soon be taken off the market. We expect this stock will go to $1.00 per share 
in six months. 

•4 cents per Share. Will probably go to 25 cents per share in a few 
months and pay big dividends soon. 


Address E. J. YOUNG, StocKbroKer, 211 W. First St. 


in 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 f I ■ 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 [ 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 m ■ »J I ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r= 

Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. &, Co., Tel. Main 509. 

I maVe made a careful 
Chem ical ^nalvsis of 

S ozoctont 


^KJ-5; of AN »-»-»^ 

Ch EM I ST. 


and find Nothing injurious 
or objectionable in its compo- 


For Two Score Years and Ten the one great TOOTH 
MOUTHS of genteel Americans has been 


Own a Lot in 


TY OK RICHMOND, the Cali- 
fornia terminus of the Santa Fe 
Railroad, is just across the Bay 
from San Francisco, where the 
three largest corporations in the State, 
namely the Santa Fe Railroad, Stand- 
ard Oil Company and the Southern 
Pacific Railroad meet. These corpora- 
tions are spending millions of dollars 
there which will make it the greatest 
manufacturing city on the Pacific 
Coast. Lots $200 only— 

%5.oo PER MONTH 

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82 Crocker Building 
Sam Francisco. Cal. 


This cut is a reproduction 
of our 3-room cottage. 

Portable Houses all ready for occupancy. These houses are attractive, 
durable and substantially built. No nails, no hammering, no sawing. Anyone who 
can use a wrench or screwdriver can put up or take down one of these houses. They 
have been in constant use for 15 years, and are in good shape today. They are in DM 
in Alaska, in Oklahoma, in Florida, in Arizona, and in other places. Can be finished 
with double walls and ceilings, with felt paper linings. Can be easily moved without 
being damaged. It takes 15 to 20 days from the time you place your order to put a 
house on your lot. They will be just the thing for the tourist. Put one on your ranch ; 
send one to the mountains. One to six rooms. The side walls are % inch ; covered 
with 12-oz. duck, shrunk on with oil and thoroughly painted. Price $100 to $450. 

For particular!), address or call on H. GRANVILLE PEETS, 314 Dodworth Block, Pasadena, Cal. 


Manager Real Estate Dept. 

Investments, Loans, Stocks and Bonds 


Manager Mining Dept. 

,^/4JiA<€myes,yfl€i€#is /S77 


^^S4ri^^ < ^t^ Feb. 1, 1903. 

To the Real Estate Investor: 

In an erstwhile playful mood, the Creator of this 
Universe took a crescent spur from off the snowy Alps 
and set it facing the Western sea; one rainbow drop from 
out the glassy waters of the Mediterranean he placed 
before it in a crystal cup set with a jewelled rim of 
protecting islands; a handful of the sands of the Sahara 
Desert he sprinkled adown the back of the arched-ribbed 
spur, saying, "Thus far and no farther shalt thou roam, 
Man, for here have I placed Death Valley. Against 
the other side nestles the Garden of Eden, close to the 
heart of nature, safe in the arms of 'Sierra Madres ' 
--the mother of mountains- -whose heart throbs to the 
tide pulse of old ocean regularly, two beats to every 
life-giving, life-renewing breath of bracing sea 
breezes by day, and soft desert airs by night; stay 
thou there, and live and learn and prosper." 

Ah! This segregated bit of Switzerland and Italy, 
Egypt and Palestine, christened Southern California — 
this land of snowy mountains and fertile plains along- 
side old ocean--this worlds garden spot of fruitful- 
ness and plenty, this scenic and climatic miracle land, 
rare cameo of the habitations prepared for man, but not 
with human hands, He thus conceived, brought forth and 
blessed countless ages ago. 

Think thou, gentle reader, that land will always be 
for sale here, or even for long at present prices? Go 
to London, thou sluggard, and learn of her! Then 
return and pay double for thy time and experience; or, 
wise man, buy now any one of the choice properties from 
our lists. The one best suited to thy needs, desires 
or wishes may be found here. 

Very cordially yours, 


First'National Bank, State Bank and Trust Company, Dun or Bradstreet. 
Western Union Code 1901 Edition, 

Please Mention that You 8aw it in OUT WEST. 

Schell's Patent Adjustable Form 

Los Angeles Office: 

Rooms 3 

San Francisco: 503 

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Fountain Pens 

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Or= OAL-lf^OQMI A 


SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL - - $13,000,000 

PAID-IN CAPITAL -----.---- 2.500,000 




To help its members to build homes, also to make loans on improved property, the 
members giving first liens on their real estate as security. To help its stock- 
holders to earn from 8 to 12 per cent, per annum on their stock, and to allow them 
to open deposit accounts bearing interest at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum, ordi- 
nary, and 6 per cent, per annum, term. 

HOME OFFICE: 301 California St , San Francisco, California 

WM. CORBIN, Secretary and General Manager 


I'rom I hi t'li'lliii.V l'\ Tliowa* lUnhaiui 

Jkssik Hknton Kki MOOT in 1856. 

St* pagt /■»/. 


The Land of Sunshine. 



Vol. XVIII, No. 2. 

FEBRUARY, 1903. 



$T T is but little more than half a century since the First 
j[ Statesman of New England — a giant an} r where in Ameri- 
can history, and the very Jove of "Tenderfeet" — Daniel 
Webster, towered superb in the Senate of the United States, 
mighty in righteous wrath to protect his home against contami- 
nation by the threatened national acquiring of the Par West. 
And this is a little of what he said : 

' What do we -want with this vast, worthless area ? This region 
of savages and wild beasts, of deserts, shifting sands and zvhirl- 
winds of dust, of cactus and prairie dogs ? To what use could 
we ever hope to put these great deserts or those endless mountain 
ranges, impregnable and covered to their very base with eternal 
snow ? What can we ever hope to do with the Western coast, a 
coast of 3,000 miles, rockbound, cheerless, univiting, zuith not a 
harbor on it ? What use have we for such a country ? Mr. 
President, I will never vote one cent from the public treasury to 
place the Pacific coast one inch nearer to Boston than it now is ! " 
It must have been a gallant thing to see — that Lion of New 
England, rampant in defiance and scorn of the Brute West, the 
Preposterous Pacific. But not half so well worth while as it 
would be to watch and listen to Daniel Webster today, if we 
might hale him back to the pale glimpses of the moon, bind him 
and drag him Westward (since he would never come otherhow), 
and show him a little bit of what we "can ever do " with this 
"rock-bound and cheerless coast." Nor only what we "could 
hope to do " with it, but what we have already done — and using 

Copyrighted 1903 by Chas. F. Lummis. All rights reserved. 


the "We" in a national sense, as he did. For one of the 
things " We " did with it was to stop the extension of Slavery 
— and then Slavery itself. And both in despite of "Ichabod." 
Another thing- " We" did with it was to transform the money 
standards and the money markets of all the world, within two 
years and forever ; and the face of the world's chiefest industry. 
And yet another was to change " Ourselves " from a huddle of 
provinces to a Nation. It is a mere drop of detail in this vast 
bucket that we have also builded Out Here a State which is in 
ratio to population richer, better educated ; with as good schools 
and more of them, and larger enrollment, and paying its school- 
teachers nearly half as well again ;* with more churches, 
more newspapers, more reading of books ; and pretty much 
"more everything " than the State of Webster has today. This 
series of papers has already paid some little attention to the sig- 
nificance of this " vast and worthless area " to the nation that ac- 
quired it against Webster's advice. Roundly to sum up the in- 
fluence which California alone has had upon almost every indi- 
vidual phase of our national life, will need — and will tax — the 
very greatest of historians ; but the present well-meaning com- 
mentator may hope at least to give some reasonable abstract 
and foreword — enough, perhaps, to invite, and whet, an audi- 
ence for the later, larger, and less overworked student who must 
some day do justice to a theme of such national importance. 
It will not be enough, certainly, to deprive a great many East- 
erners of the only serious resemblance they ever had to Daniel 
Webster. The spirit of provincialism never dies — that almost 
angry distrust we have of everything we know nothing about. 
But. as time ripens, these human ignorances sink ever a little 
lower in the social scale. You cannot see that they have fewer 
victims ; but it is perfectly plain that there are fewer in Our 
Set. There still persist Congressmen and Professors immovable 
and immedicable ; but it is already possible to believe them below 
their own professional average. By-and-by this particular 
stupidity will be cherished by none of higher rank in a Dem- 
ocracy than scullery maids and the rag-man. When it was a 
little uncomfortable, and considerably dangerous, to travel — as 
it once was — and when very little of the West (which always 
means not so much one particular incident of the compass as it 
means Out Doors) could be learned by reading, there was some 

♦Average annual salary of teachers in public schools : 

California $943 

New York 851 

Massachusetts "-'* 

Illinois "45 

Ohio 620 

Banana Treks, Whittier, Cal. 

Photo by Ramsey, 


excuse for being- a " Tenderfoot." There isn't now. And this 
expressive Western definition of one whose feet have never yet 
hardened upon any broader or other soil than that of his own 
province — and never -would harden — this Out-Door epithet 
for chronic In-Doorfulness, for narrowness, helplessness and in- 
tolerance rather beyond our fit allowance as finite beings — Re- 
solved, that this Sufficient Word be, and hereby is, now and 
summarily transferred from Slang to English. It is the only 
Name for the Thing. Like tens of thousands of other words 
that now repose in the lexicographic Abraham's Bosom, it was 
born slang but is grown indispensable. And when a word needs, 
in any tongue, it is no longer slang. Tenderfoot it is, then, 

Second Crop of Alfalfa. (In Kern County.) 

and no timid quotation points. The Tall T which it shall have 
is not Apologetic, but Proper. The word subtends a much wider 
— and much more significant — arc of humanity than, for instance, 
"Caucasian " or "Aryan." And as little as they are, so little is it 
intended to be used in these pages as a term of offense. It 
doesn't mean everyone who never saw the West ; but only those 
who never would learn anything if they did. It is not the un- 
remedied, but the irremediable, provincial that is meant. And 
in this modest attempt to anchor a definition never heretofore 
authoritatively fixed, I am not following a whim of my own, 
but plumbing by a tolerable intimate acquaintance, during two- 
thirds of my responsible years, with all the lands where the 
word is used. It is not abuse but classification. It is in the 
category not^of "Nigger" but of "Yankee." Tenderfeet are, 
indeed, partly to blame for being " as ye are." But so, also, in 
our secret heart, are Mongolians — or Frenchmen. 


It is only a trifle beyond a quarter of a century, too, since 
another most famous Easterner, one of the world's geologists, 
Prof. J. D. Whitney, of Yale College, writing for the Encyclopedia 
Britannica its article on California (for the latest edition of which 
reverend Tenderfoot Textbook I had the dissatisfaction of writ- 
ing the supplementary article on the same theme, and of trying 
to pack the 25 years' changes of California, which have tilted 
the whole Union, into the same number of words that were 
allowed for depicting the 25 years' variation of Vermont, which 
has not particularly wobbled St. Johnsbury) prophesied : 

" There is no question that the fear of earthquakes will con- 
tinue to have an influence in retarding the growth of the State.'''' 

Glory be ! This was almost as " close" as his contemporaneous 
prophecy — not as a student of men, which he wasn't, particu- 
larly, but as a geologist, which he most eminently was — as to 
Petroleum : 

" Petroleum was thought likely, at one time,* to become of great 
importance as a -product of California, and several millions of 
dollars were expended in boring and searching for it, but almost 
entirely without success. The great bituminous slate formation, 
of Miocene age, which stretches along the coast from Monterey to 
Los Angeles, does, indeed, contain a large amount of combustible 
matter which may at some future time become oe economical 
value. At present there seems to be no immediate prospect of 
this; and it is certain that the geological conditions 


Now, I hope I am in the near neighborhood of the last man 
alive to sneer at college professors qua professors ; to look upon 
learning as a natural enemy ; or to hate a man for his accident 

The Old Vineyard at Camulos. Photo bv Brewster . 

* He refers to " Tom " Scott's costly experiments, about 1868. 



Some of Webster's Cactus. 
(A Prickly-Pear Hedg-e at San Fernando Mission.) 

Photo by Brewste 

of geography. But I have a humble confidence that even in 
Yale, where they are entitled to be proud of one of the large 
American scientists, they will yet admit that in a case so serious 
as the definitive article in what is to this day the biggest (and 
probably — God help us — the best) universal textbook, Prof. 
Whitney was at fault — not for not knowing ahead of his gen- 
eration, but for Telling what he Didn't Know. 

As a matter of fact (as well as of the government reports), 
California was already in 1900 the fourth State in the Union in 
production of petroleum. And in the two years since then it 
has progressed almost incredibly in the same impudent industry, 
which has no respectful business to exist at all, since the Oracle 
hath said it Cannot Be. But today, if you ride on a railroad 
train in California, you may put your nose out the window and 
fear no sparks in your eye. For the engines burn petroleum — 
California petroleum. You can ride from a California city 



further than from Boston to 
: Albany, with your car-win- 
dow up, in the driest time, 
» and fear no evil of dust — 

1 for the road-bed is ' laid " 
ft, with California petroleum. 

And in the same way, and 

for the same reason, you can 

^ agreeably drive hundreds of 

j? miles on California country 

3 roads that were once the 

2 dustiest in civilization. For 


1 now we ' sprinkle " our 
- roads with oil instead of 
< water. To say nothing of 

x the thousands of factories 


2 and households wherein pe- 
d troleum, crude, is the sole 

fuel. And in the very teeth 
£ of the Stone Oracle, there 
= are scores of "gushers" 
5 among the several thousand 

k oil-wells of California. Un- 


« less memory beguiles me, I 
g long ago printed in these 
5 same pages the photograph 
£ of a California oil-well 
H spouting 200 feet in air. 
The California oil-fields are 
600 miles north and south, 
and embrace 17 counties. 
In 1901, California produced 
nearly one-seventh of all 
the petroleum of North Am- 
erica. In 1902 its petroleum 
output was more than 33 
per cent, larger yet — in fact, and in relation to the total 
United States product. The California production has more 
than quadrupled since 1899. 

The mere tuppenny fact that the State now markets some 
twelve million barrels of petroleum in a year is a mere retail 
matter beside such transactions as seriously concern us now. 
But the relation in which it does " belong " here is that it has 
brought to California the opening of its third great industrial 
era. First of all, and of all most notorious, was Mining — 

In Chinatown, Los Angbles. (Feeding the Dragon.) Copyright iqos, by C. C.Pierce. 


in which California has already harvested, in gold alone (and in 
this one State fifty other minerals are rained) nearly Fifteen 
Hundred Millions of dollars. Next in time (and already yielding 
an annual income more than 50% greater than the one chief 
"Gold Year" in all the history of all the world) — and almost 
indubitably always to be biggest — Agriculture ; and now, 
Manufacturing, on a large scale.* How much these mere mar- 
ginal tabs really mean, may perhaps be made clear enough be- 
fore we are done. 

There was no idle politeness in the promise — made at their 
very outset — to prove the large assertions of these papers. If 
they may sometimes have seemed — to such as never studied the 
text — to Talk Big, the responsibility is not with the occasion- 
ally humble author, but with the official figures. And if figures 
■will lie, government figures lie rather sooner in any other 
favor than that of California. I have staved off statistics as 
long as might be ; since their beef-extract is much " better 
reading." But just here it seems well to present a very few of 
the typical statistics upon which the case rests. 

In the earlier course of this series, relatively little was avail- 
able from the remarkable story now telling by the United States 
Census of 1900. That vast national study in comparative de- 
velopments is still by no means finished. The specific bulletins 
on many large departments of American activity have not yet 
appeared — and perhaps particularly those in which California 
has most selfish interest by its altogether disproportionate de- 
velopment — as, for instance, electric lighting, transit and 

Per cent, of increase, 1890-1900. (U. S. Census, 1900.) 

In No Es- In No. Wajre- In Value of 

tablish- In Capital _ 

„,,.,,, a earners ProdiKt- 

Los Angeles City 88.7 72.4 107.7 115.3 

Whole U. S 44.2 50.7 25.1 38.9 

Massachusetts 8.4 30.7 11.2 16.6 

New York 19.5 46.1 12.9 27.1 

Pennsylvania 32.7 56.5 28.7 37.8 

Connecticut 33.8 38.6 25.7 42.1 

New Hampshire 44.7 27.2 17.1 38.4 

Vermont 34.3 48.2 33.2 50.4 

Iowa 99.2 32.5 14.7 31.6 

Rhode Island 24.0 45.3 19.0 29.2 

Maine 33.8 52.8 6.3 33.1 

New Jersey 67.8 100.5 39.0 72.5 

Michigan 38.6 8.3 9.2 

Indiana 45.8 78.2 41.0 66.7 

Illinois 87.3 54.7 41.0 38.6 

Wisconsin 55.4 34.1 18.4 45.2 

California 58.8 39.9 25.2 41.9 

Yucca Palms on the Mojave Desert. 

Photo hy C. F. L. 


Plowing Salt in California. 
(By the Census of 1900, Californi a is the 5th State in the Union as a producer of salt.) 

power; mining, bank statistics, sea-going - commerce, and edu- 
cation ; in all of which California has made far longer strides 
than the average Union. But among the foot-high pile of bul- 
letins thus far issued, there is enough of definitive statistics so 
that we may begin to trace up-to-date the literally astounding 

OUT W EST 155 

development of one State amid the " vast and worthless area " 
as to which there was " no question " that immigration would 
be "retarded." There will ever be more than a few Califor- 
nians to feel, down along the pious privacy of their dia- 
phragms, a certain genial warmth as unto Webster and Whit- 
ney and their Lilliput disciples, heirs and assigns, for all the 
influence they have had. If something hadn't "retarded" us, 
we must inevitably have drowned in the Flood. For the Waters 
are Chin-deep on us, as it is — and running like a mill-race. 

"Does "Chin-deep" seem an overbearing word ? Well, then, 
for an example, even if an extreme one : 

Here are 18 rather well-known American cities. In 1890 they 

had an aggregate population of 1,256,022 — or nearly 25 times the 

population of Los Angeles then. The 18 of them put together 

had in 1900 just 51,968 more people than they had in 1890 — or 

116 less than the gain of the one city of Los Angeles, Cal., 

in the same period : 

Cincinnati, O. Evansville, Ind. 

Syracuse, N. Y. Topeka, Kan. 

Lowell, Mass. Dubuque, la. 

Richmond, Va. Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Nashville, Tenn. Omaha. Neb. 

Charleston, S. C. Troy, N. Y. 

Augusta, Ga. Lincoln, Neb. 

Wheeling-, W. Va. Saginaw, Mich. 

Mobile, Ala. Sioux City, la. 

The average Easterner thinks of California as a Raw State. 
So it is. Raw as mud. But not in quite the sense he 
predicates. It is raw in comparison to its own potentialities, 
which are so tremendous that I for one dare not pretend to try 
to outline them at all, and venture only upon its past; so tremen- 
dous that no dweller in any Eastern State could possibly compre- 
hend them, even if a competent prophet were to set them forth. 
But as beside any standard of comparison known to the East, 
California is not particularly underdone. 

It is true that its forests cover more ground than the entire 
States of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecti- 
cut, Rhode Island, Delaware and Maryland lumped together,* 

*A comparison of some forests. Figures from the U. S. Census, 1900 : 

Square Per cent 

State Miles of area of 

Forest State 

Maine 23,700 79% 

New Hampshire 5,200 58% 

Vermont 3,900 43% 

Massachusetts 4,200 52% 

Connecticut 1,900 39% 

Rhode Island 400 40% 

All New England 39,300 

California 44,700 22$ 


and are 22% of its entire area ; but is also true that its farms 
cover as much land as the whole States of Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Delaware and 
Maryland all put together, and almost another Rhode Island 
thrown in ; being- 28.9% of its area. They are incomparably 
more valuable forests, incomparably more valuable farms. 

It is true that California is far bigger than New England, 
and that it has far fewer people. But it isn't losing any of its 
area, and it is enjoying the extra Elbow-Room. And meantime 
it is getting the People — incomparably faster than New England 
ever did. Also, treating them incomparably better. 

The first census of the United States was taken in 1790 ; the 
first census of California in 1850. In 110 years, New Hampshire 
has managed to crawl up to almost three times the population 
it had in 1790 ; Delaware to a little over three times ; Massa- 
chusetts to nearly eight times ; Connecticut to nearly four times ; 
Maine to a little over seven times ; Vermont to a little over four 

In 50 years California has grown to more than sixteen times 
the population it had in 1850. Los Angeles has over 64 times 
as many people as it had in 1850. But the astounding story of 
population — a migration which, reckoned by numbers, education 
and wealth, is absolutely unheard of elsewhere in human his- 
tory — must await another chapter. 

New Hampshire has (Census 1900) 95 more farms than it had 
in 1850. This is not a misprint. Its total valuation of farms 
has increased 19 million dollars in half a century. Its total 
value of farm products is no greater now than it was in 1870. 
Massachusetts has 3,646 more farms than in 1850- — a gain of 
10.7% in 50 years. In the same long period its total value of 
farms has increased 60 million dollars. Maine has 12,539 more 
farms than in 1850 — an increase of 26.8 % in 50 years, though 
it is now rapidly declining. The total value of its farm prod- 
ucts is less than $4,000,000 above what it was 30 years ago. 
Connecticut has 4,503 more farms than in 1850. In the last 30 
years it has gained less than $2,000,000 in the total value of its 
farm products. California has 71,670 more farms than it had in 
1850. The increase in the value of its farms is $789,199,373; 
the increase in the value of its farm products in the last 30 
years is $81,834,582. The aggregate value of its 72,542 farms 
is $156,682,055 more than that of the 191,888 farms of all New 
England ; and is exceeded in the whole Union by only ten 
States, which average over 242,000 farms apiece, and have a 
population aggregating nearly 35 million people — perilously 
near to being one-half the total population of the United States, 
and nearly 23 times the population of California. -^ 


The value of farm products in California is $88.70 for every 
man, woman and child in the State ; of Massachusetts, $18.65 ; 
of all New England, $30.35 ; of New York, $30.30 ; of Pennsyl- 
vania, $32.95 ; of Maryland, $36.95 ; of Ohio, $61.75 ; of Illinois, 

And all this is merely commercial ; quite outside the grave 
and permanent historic fact that California has done more to 
make agriculture safe and scientific and profitable than has any 
State, or rally of States, east of the Missouri. 

And its preponderance is not merely in "straight" deriva- 
tion from the soil. In dairy products, for instance, California 
exceeds Maine, Massachusetts, and Missouri put together — 
though they have nearly four and a half times its population. It 
also produces eight times as much butter, cheese and other dairy 
products as the nine States of Virginia, West Virginia, Georgia, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas 
put together — -.though they have over ten and a half times its 
population. In the whole United States there are now " nearly 
four times as many farms as in 1850." In California there are 
now more than 83 times as many farms as in 1850. (U. S. 
Census, 1900.) 

Not only that. While the population of California has in- 
creased 16-fold in the half century, the number of its farms has 
increased over 83-fold. That is, it is " one of the few States 
that has added more to its agricultural than to its other popula- 
tion " in the last 30 years. (U. S. Census, 1900.) 

It is also one of the few States in which the number of farm- 
owners is increasing notably faster than the number of farm- 
laborers for wages. 

The savage, who has no other way to make a fire than by 
rubbing two sticks together, bears very much the same relation 
in progress to the man with a gas range that the Eastern 
farmer-by-luck bears to the farmer-by-irrigation. And he is 
not relatively so old-fashioned ; since matches and gas ranges 
are not a century old, whereas for three or four thousand years 
there have been people in some parts of the world (though not 
in the Eastern United States) with sense enough to give their 
crops water when the crops needed. More than one-fourth of 
all the irrigated farms in the United States are in California ; 
and irrigation from wells — artesian and phreatic — is practically 
a California monopoly, as the State has 89.9 °fc of all acreage 
thus irrigated. Incidentally it may be mentioned that taking 
all the irrigated farms in all the country, and the sixty-four 
million dollars' worth of works built for their irrigation, the 
crop of the one year, 1899, paid not only for the total cost of 
the works but some 30% over. 


A few other detached but typical facts as to the agricultural 
side are these : California is the pioneer and the chief producer 
of beet sugar in the Union, having - the largest factories, the 
largest acreage and the largest output, as it had the first suc- 
cessful factory, in the United States. In fact, in this staple, it 
has 37.4 % of the acreage, and 44.9 % of the product, of the 
entire Union. 

California has not only nearly all the olive, orange, lemon, 
lime, fig, apricot, English walnut, and other "semi-tropical" 
trees in the Union ;* it has 1,250,000 more apple trees 
than Massachusetts ; more than eight times as many pear 
trees as Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut and New Hamp- 
shire put together ; more than twelve times as many cherry 
trees as these four States together ; 100,000 more peach trees 
than Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine 
and New Hampshire in a lump ; nearly one-third of all the plum 
and prune trees in the United States ; more than one-third of 
all the grapevines. 

The total acreage planted to wheat in the six New England 
States, at the time of the last census, was 9,237 acres ; to bar- 
ley, 23,554 acres. There are many — too many — single 
wheat fields and barley fields in California far larger than 
this total for six States with an aggregate population of 
more than four times as many people as California has. Corn 
is not a leading product of California — though anyone can see, 
on permanent exhibition in Los Angeles, stalks better than 20 
feet tall ; but California produced, at the last census, about 11 
per cent, more corn than Massachusetts and Maine combined, 
with far more than double its population. California thinks no 

*Comparison between California and Florida, the only other State in the 
Union growing tropic fruits to any considerable extent. Figures from 
U. S. Census, 1900 : 

Item California Florida 

No. Orange trees 5,648,714 2,552,542 

Boxes Oranges 5,882,193 273,295 

No. Lemon trees 1,493,113 22,699 

Boxes Lemons 874,305 2,359 

No. Fig trees 188,941 9,433 

Pounds Figs 10,620,366 66,680 

No. Olive trees 1,530,164 

Pounds Olives 5,040,227 250 

Comparison of total agriculture of California and Florida ; total number 
of farms, total acreage of farms, their aggregate value, and the aggregate 
value of their products. Figures from the U. S. Census, 1900 : 

State No. Farms Acreage Value Val. of Products 

California 72,542 28,828,951 $796,527,955 $131,690,606 

Florida 40,814 4,363,891 53,929,064 18,309,104 

162 OUT IVES i 

particular shakes of itself as a hay State ; but its hay crop is 
about 20 per cent, more than that of Massachusetts, Connecticut 
and Rhode Island put together — with about two and a half times 
the population. And so on. 

But in the industries which increase the value of products of the 
soil, California has altogether outstripped all competitors. The 
canning of fruits and vegetables is only about half a century 
old, anywhere ; but it has become one of the most important 
industries connected with agriculture in the United States — its 
annual product being some fifty-five millons of dollars, which is 
more than two-fifths of the product of the gigantic dairy indus- 
tries ; and is about as big as the total U. S. production of all 
sugars (maple, cane, sorghum, and beet). In 1870 there were but 
97 fruit and vegetable canneries in the United States ; in 1900 
there were 1808, spread over 32 States. California has 13(> of 
them, and is third in the U. S. in number of establishments ;* but 
it is by far first in output. The value of its products in this line 
is greater than that of the 24 States of Ohio, Michigan, Indi- 
ana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, West Vir- 
ginia, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisi- 
ana, Texas, Idaho, South Dakota, Nebraska, Utah, Colorado, 
Kansas, and New Mexico all put together, and not counting, of 
course, the six States and Territories which have no canneries. 

When we remember the great corn, tomato and other can- 
neries of Maryland, Maine, New York, Indiana, Delaware, 
Ohio, and the Middle West ; that 42 States and Ter- 
ritories of the Union have canneries; and that 17 different 
fruits and vegetables are now extensively canned in this coun- 
try — the enormous development of California is the more striking. 
This one State cans more than half of all the peaches that are 
canned in the whole United States ; more than two-thirds of all 
the pears ; nearly one-half of all the cherries ; nearly four-fifths 
of all the plums ; over ninety-seven per cent, of all the apricots 
— and even nearly one-sixth of all the tomatos. We used to 
think of dried apples as rather a Yankee institution ; but today 
the one State of California dries more fruit than all the rest of 

Statistics of canneries, in order of output, U. S. Census, 1900: 

State No. CaaoeriM Product 

California 136 $13,081,829 

Maryland 371 11,996,245 

New York 511 8,975,321 

Illinois 61 3,730,030 

Delaware 51 1,570,790 

Iowa M 1,359,958 

Maine 59 1,335,671 

A By-Street in Los Angeles. 
( The palms are the native California variety.) 

Photo by Pierce. 

164 OUT W EST 

the Union put together — exactly 53.7 per cent, of the entire 
product of the United States. California and New York to- 
gether dry over 87% of the total ; and California's output is 
more than double that of New York. That is, if we leave out 
the Empire State, California produces more than four times as 
much dried fruit as all the rest of the Union. 

It will probably surprise more people to learn that even in the 
canning- of fish — in which we naturally think first of the great 
lobster and sardine canneries of the northern New England sea- 
board, and the vast salmon pack of Alaska and our Northwest 
Coast — California is now the sixth State in the Union in 
value of product. It is exceeded, in that order, only by Wash- 
ington, Maine, Massachusetts, Alaska and Oregon. 

And fish naturally suggest shipbuilding. Here again we are 
liable to surprise ; for the historic shipyards of New England, 
to say nothing of the huge Cramps's and Newport News, are 
part of our most familiar tradition. But California is now the 
third State in the Union in value of shipbuilding output, as well 
as in total wages paid employes ; and fourth in capital en- 
gaged, and number of employes. It has barely one-sixth as 
many shipbuilding plants as Maine and Massachusetts put to- 
gether ; but has nearly a million dollars more capital invested, 
and comes within $98,000 of equalling their aggregate product.* 

One can almost fancy the snort of indignant incredulity with 
which the unmitigated Eastern mind will receive the sugges- 
tion of California as a manufacturing State ; but you cannot 
"shoo" the Census. It goes its appointed way as calmly and 
impersonally as if there were not so much ignorance of the very 
sort it is designed to alleviate. Twenty-five years ago, Prof. 
Whitney, in the same article before quoted, took as gloomy a 
view of the hopes for manufacturing in California. He had the 
wisdom to perceive that its distance from the great factory States 
would act as a natural High Protection ; but there was no 
decent fuel, except by long import ; and we could not have pe- 
troleum, you know ; and it was altogether a pretty dubious 

But since Prof. Whitney's deliverance, California's rank in 
manufactures has advanced much faster than its rank in popu- 

*A comparison in shipbuilding'. (U. S. Census, 1900) : 

State No. Plantn Capital Value Product 

California 41 $5,776,518 $6,736,636 

Maine 117 2,819,053 3, 777,059 

Massachusetts 125 2,149,291 3,057,454 


lation.* It is now the 12th State in the Union in total value of 
products manufactured. Its returns from manufactures for each 
man, woman and child are more than in Ohio or Maine, Wiscon- 
sin, Vermont, Indiana, Minnesota, Michigan, Missouri, or any 
other of 40 of the States and Territories of the Union. Only 
eleven States equal California in per capita product of manu- 
factures. None equal it in average annual wage of employes.t 
And none of them come anywhere near it in reasonable proba- 
bility of disproportionate increase in the next decade ; for the 
very simple reason that while the rest may fluctuate in inci- 
dental causes for activity or depression in specific lines of manu- 
facture, California alone has now a basic change. Geographic 
relativity by "effective distance" — that is, time and cost of 
transport, rather than miles — and price of labor, and such fac- 

*The 17 leading States of the Union in order of their rank, in per capita 
value of manufactured products, U. S. Census, 1900 : 

Value Mfd. Products 
state per capita. 

Rhode Island $429.52 

Connecticut 388.39 

Massachusetts 369.01 

New Jersey 324.76 

New York 299.33 

Pennsylvania 291 . 19 

New Hampshire 288.32 

Illinois 261.24 

Delaware 245.69 

Montana 234.56 

Maryland 204.16 

California 203.95 

Ohio 200.22 

Colorado 190.53 

Maine 183.39 

Wisconsin 174.39 

Vermont 167.75 

Indiana 150.26 

Minnesota 149.97 

Michigan 147.44 

Missouri 124.09 

And so on down. 

Average of the Union $170.90 

fAverage annual wages paid wage-earners in manufactures. (U. S. 
Census, 1900) : 

State Amount 

California $521 

New York 482 

Connecticut 468 

Massachusetts 458 

Pennsylvania 454 

Ohio 445 

Rhode Island 416 

Vermont 41 5 


tors, may vary a little ; but the change is not, and never can be, 
generic. But it is a generic change which marks California's 
graduation from a State of costly fuel — enormously costly, by- 
leading Eastern standards — to a State of cheap fuel, equiva- 
lent to about $3 per ton coal. With the transcontinental mile- 
ages for a Protective Tariff forever burglar-proof against the 
vagaries of Congress ; with natural resources unequaled in vast- 
ness or in variety by any other State, or by any other two 
States ; and easily surpassing all in its facility to the greatest 
foreign markets— it is not a very risky prophecy that the next 
Census will find California much nearer the head of the class in 
manufactures — as she already stands in industries wherein she 
has had such an opportunity as now offers her in this. 

Thk Wild West. 




*|C#e)EVER but once, so far as 
(§J^X the record runs, in the 
history of the world has 
a girl of eighteen held the destiny 
of a nation in the palm of her 
hand in such wise as did Jessie 
Benton Fremont on a May day 
sixty years ago. Her husband 
had started on the second of his 
marvelous Pathfinding expedi- 
tions — the one that took him 
through the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin valleys ; that opened the 
eyes of Benton, Buchanan, Ban- 
croft, Webster and other men of 
power at Washington, to the 
value of California to the United 
States ; that led directly to the 
Third Expedition, during which 
Fremont saved for the nation what 
he had already disclosed to it. 
^^^Sfc^^^l He had stopped at the Kansas 
frontier to complete his equip- 
ment and "feed up" his animals. There came into the girl-wife's 
hands at St. Louis, where she was to await his return, a letter 
from his superior officer summoning him back to Washington to 
explain why he was taking a mountain howitzer with him. She 
knew that this order, obeyed, would indefinitely postpone the 
expedition — probably wreck it entirely. She did not forward it. 
Consulting no one, since there was no one at hand to consult, 
she sent a swift messenger to her husband with word to break 
camp and move forward at once — "he could not have the reason 
for haste, but there was reason enough." And he, knowing 
well and well trusting the sanity and breadth of that girl-brain, 
hastened forward, unquestioning. While she as promptly in- 
formed the officer whose order she had vetoed, what she had 
done, and why. So far as human wit may penetrate, obedience 
to that backward summons would have meant, three years later, 
the winning of California by another nation — and what that 
loss would have signified to the United States none can know 
fully, but any may partly guess who realize a part of what Cali- 
fornia has meant for us. 

True enough, she could not have forseen what results were in 



Frui/; III,- portrait by Fri,\iri( lis, about ffl ,v- 
Senator Thomas H. Benton. (Mrs. Fremont's father.) 
Tin- first American statesman really to RTUp tin- importance of the Far West. 

the way to come from this critical instant of decision — which 
might easily enough have ruined her young husband's career. 
But she did well know that her statesman father's vision had 
long been turned to the West — in her birth-year* Senator 
Benton offered and pushed to passage a bill making the Santa 
Fe Trail a national road ; and the year after he proposed to the 
Senate that the President should take possession of and retain 
the Oregon country. Nor was she less aware that all her hus- 
band's dreams led to the opening of the Westward way ; it was 
over the discussion of that very purpose that the youthful 
second lieutenant of the Topographical Corps had become an 
intimate of the Benton home, before its beautiful daughter had 



Jessie Bknton Fki 

married him* in defiance of paren- 
tal opposition. (One may fairly 
say "she married him," since this 
only quotes the words credited 
to her father — si non e vero, e ben 
trovato — when, still unreconciled, 
he wrote for a newspaper an an- 
nouncement of the marriage of 
"Jessie Benton to John C. Fre- 
mont." To the objection that this 
reversed the usual order of state- 
ment, he thundered back: "Damn 
it, sir ! it will go in that way or 
not at all ! John C. Fremont did 
not marry my daughter ; she mar- 
ried him." Probably never had a 
reluctant father so good cause for 
approving his daughter's choice, 
since never have father, daughter 
and husband worked, together so 
harmoniously, so successfully and to 
so great an end.) 

Nor was she ignorant of the gravity of her act. Her father — 
first Senator from Missouri, as her husband was later first Senator 
from California — had been since before her birth Chairman of 
the Senate Committee on Military Affairs. Her mother's ill 
health and the rare balance of her own brain had made her the 
sharer of her father's life in uncommon degree. Among her early 
tests was to stand unflinching while a President (Jackson), 
absorbed in the discussion of some matter of statecraft, would 
forget to stop twisting his fingers in her curls before the hurting 
point was reached. The great men of that great day — and 
their greatest thoughts — were already her familiar friends. 
Nor, finally, was there any carelessness or lack of discretion in 
her mental equipment. She had been repeatedly party to the 
frankest discussion of questions of weighty national and inter- 
national import — to the formation of plans even beyond the ken 
of the Administration. And when, two years later, a "leak" 
was discovered at a most critical time in the office of the 
Secretary of State, Mr. Buchanan, knowing no Spanish, brought 
his confidential reports from Mexico to Jessie Benton Fremont 
and her older sister for translation. 

I have dwelt on this event not alone for its intrinsic import- 
ance, though that would be sufficient text for a volume, but be- 

*October 19, 1841. 



Mrs. Fremont in 1876. 
When, as Martha Washing-ton, with Admiral Rowan as Washington, she opened the great 
charity ball in New .York. The ball netted $20,000, and established on a substantial 
basis an important charity for the summer care of poor children. 

cause it displays so luminously some of the qualities that made 
her a Power. Lacking - nothing - of feminine fascination — she 
was among the most noted of "American beauties" and retained 
her charm almost to the end of her days — she no more had a 
" woman's mind" than she had a man's. It was simply a great 
mind — and the phrase is picked with careful recognition of its 
meaning. Clear, logical, unhesitating, fearless, it grasped 
whole whatever matters came before it, digested them promptly, 
and drew from them sound and certain conclusions. Her eye 
was most piercing for shams — she instantly divined that the 
howitzer formed but a pretext for interfering with the expedi- 
tion — yet never grew into the cynical habit of expecting them. 
She had neither the vanity to keep her from seeking and accept- 
ing counsel when it was to be had, nor the timidity to restrain her 
from acting on her sole judgment when suitable advisers were 
not within reach. She did not palter with halfway measures, 
nor do nothing and " let Providence decide " — not only did she 
decline to let the recalling order reach Fremont through her 
hand, but she saw to it that it should not overtake him by any 
other. And so far from trying to elude the responsibility for 
her action, she instantly and with open arms went to meet it. 



General Fhkmunt in 1864. 

Into few lives have ever come so many and so striking: con- 
trasts of surrounding and condition. And since anything- like 
a biography, detailed and in order, is out of the question here, a 
few of the more vivid episodes may be just touched on, without 
attempt at being consecutive. Born in Virginia, on the splen- 
did estate of her maternal grandfather, to whose father it had 
been granted more than eighty years before for military service, 



Mrs. Fremont's Home, West 28th St., Los Angeles. 

Photo by Hugh S. Gibson. 

and dividing- her time till she was past twenty-four between this 
home, the one in St. Louis and -that at Washington, her habit 
of life had been in many respects that of the womankind of 
Southern aristocracy. The cares of housekeeping had never 
touched her, even lightly. Servants were plenty and permanent, 
attached rather by affection and long-time habit than by wages. 
She travelled nowhere except surrounded by relatives and with 
every comfort and luxury. But in the spring of 1848 she came to 
California by the Panama route, alone but for her little daugh- 
ter, to meet her husband, who was making the dangerous trip 
overland. Established in the Castro house at Monterey, with 
two Indian men for servants, she kept open house "after the 
hospitable fashion of a new country, to all who had been, or 
would like to be, friends." The Constitutional Convention was 
then wrestling with the question of slavery or no in the soon-to- 
be State. One of the strong affirmative arguments was the 
need of house-servants and the impossibility of securing Free 
labor for that purpose in those thrilling times. At the Fremont 
table, many of the delegates — and their wives — "saw for 
themselves that it was quite possible for the most cheerful hos- 
pitality to exist without the usual working force." 

y 5 

7 I 

K (4 
fa S 

s s 

H = 

— r 

- f 



Photo by Alice Elliott. 
The Last Photograph made of Mrs. Fremont. 

Fremont, like his wife, was a Virginian before he was Cali- 
fornian — though born in Georgia — and of the slave-holding 
caste. Besides, the use of slaves in working the great placer- 
gold deposits on their California estate, the Mariposas (bought 
for $3,000 before gold had been discovered), would have brought 
quick millions to them. 

But they thought of the others to whom slave-labor would 
mean closing the door of opportunity which had opened so 



Mks. Fremont at 70. (From the bust by Bortrlum.) 

flashingly wide for themselves — and were among the stoutest 
opponents of slavery. 

Coming to California comparatively poor, and anticipating 
only moderate gains and the need for economy, the Fremonts 
soon knew what it was to fill up trunks with gold dust and nug- 
gets from their mines. 

More than any other one man responsible for wresting Cali- 
fornia from Spanish-speaking rule, leading against the native 
forces in actual battle over and over again, and accepting their 
final surrender in person, Fremont was soon the American best 
loved and most trusted by Spanish Californians, and his wife 
found some of her warmest friendships among their women. 



Jessie Benton Fremont at 20. 
(This miniature, painted in Richmond by Dodge, was carried by Kit Carson across the 
plains to Fremont in California.) 

After giving California to the nation, and being- appointed its 
first Governor and Military Commandant, Fremont was relieved 
from duty by his superior officer in the army, and brought back 
to Washington under arrest, to stand trial before court martial 
on charges of mutiny, disobedience to orders, and conduct 
prejudicial to military discipline. He was convicted— and death 
was the possible sentence. But the President, while approving 
the verdict, in the same breath pardoned and restored him to 
duty. One seems to hear his wife's voice echoing with his own 
in his immediate refusal to accept pardon for an offense never 
committed, and his resignation of the rank in the army which 
he had gained by brevet for distinguished services. What 
California thought of it was shown when two years later it let 



MKS. KKltMONT IN M.W, [896. 

him choose whether he should be first Governor of the new 
State or its first Senator. What the nation thought of it ap- 
peared six years later yet, when this Virginian and life-long 
Democrat, as candidate for the Presidency of the new anti- 
slavery Republican party, carried the six New England States, 
New York, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa, polling a vote 
which Horace Greeley declared* to have been much larger than 
the solid strength of the party, M swelled in part by the per- 
sonal popularity of Col. Fremont whose previous career . . . ap- 
pealed . . . with resistless fascination to the noble young men of 
our country." What even the Army thought about it, afterwards, 
came out in 1861, when he was appointed major-general com- 
manding the Western District — Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, 

•Deliberately, in bin History of the War, written mam years later. 




Kansas, and the Territories westward. Prom this he was re- 
moved — on account of his Emancipation Proclamation (the 
first ) when in a few months he had organized a rabble into 
"an army that could not have been beaten" — a blunder that 
amounted to "a national misfortune." I quote Greeley again, 
in both cases. 

Let no one think this mention of John C. Fremont is by way 
of digression ever so slightly from Jessie Benton Fremont. 
These things were as much part of the life of this devoted 
wife as of his own — very likely she felt them far more keenly. 
And as bearing on this fact a quotation from Fremont's 
Memoirs may well be placed in evidence : 



"Her qualities were all womanly, and education had curiously preserved 
the down of modesty which was innate. There had been no experience of 
life to brush away the bloom. She had inherited from her father his 
grasp of mind, comprehending with a tenacious memory ; but with it a 
quickness of perception and instant realization of subjects and scenes 
in their completed extent which did not belong to his ; and with these, 
warm sympathies — a generous pity for human suffering, and a tenderness 
and sensibility that made feeling take the place of mind ; so compelled was 
every impulse to pass through these before it could reach the surface to 
find expression. There was a rare union of intelligence to feel the injury 
of events, and submission to them with silence and discretion ; and withal 
a sweet, and happy, and forbearing temper which has remained proof 
against the wearing of time." 

This is what she calls her " crown of honor " in the bit of her 
handwriting which is reproduced elsewhere — the crown of honor 

An Earlier Photo ok Mrs. Frkmont's Homh. 

of Jessie Benton Fremont, who had won wherever she went 
( and she had gone to many a corner of the world) admiration for 
her beauty from the most accustomed, applause for her brilliant 
wit from the keenest, respect for her broad and inseeing intelli- 
gence from the widest statesmen and the shrewdest diplomats 
— of this woman whom a King of the oldest reigning dynasty 
in Europe, save one, had delighted to honor at his own table, 
and who had been bidden to "an informal morning call" by 
more than one Queen. Her crown of honor, of a truth ! 

Prom such wedded love as theirs — chivalric, absorbing, en- 
during to the end — the veil should be drawn with discretion, 
though it might well serve as an ideal to be striven after, even if 


rarely possible of achievement. But from such fragments of it as 
themselves have made public, three pictures may be set side by 
side, which, to those who can interpret, will tell something- of 
what it was and what it meant. The first is of Fremont, just 
elected Senator from California, riding - from San Jose to Mon- 
terey, through a drenching rainstorm, to bring her the first 
news of it, and back the next day — 140 miles in 36 hours. 
" Only for the joy of telling me " is the note in Mrs. Fremont's 
handwriting in the little book under my hand. 

The second is of the " pretty little supper table " in St. Louis 
"undone each morning to be set afresh for the next night — 
for eight months ! " while she waited for his return from the 
Second Expedition, delayed till hope had begun to fail. 

The third is of the days when for hour after hour and for 
weeks together — her mother "alarmed at this pull on her 
daughter," but her father " delighted ... in seeing the work 
grow" — she wrote, at his dictation, those "Reports" which 
would have made him a lasting reputation had no other 
results of his work appeared. For they did even more than to 
awaken Congress, the Administration and the Nation to its first 
faint sense of what lay in the unknown West. They gave Utah 
to the Mormons.* They probably supplied a greater increment 
to the information concerning the soil, climate and productions 
of the section covered, and to the knowledge of its geography, 
geology, botany and natural history than has ever been credited 
to another man in the same time. They won for him such rec. 
ognition as the great golden medal of the Prussian government 
for progress in the sciences, forwarded by Alexander von Hum- 
boldt (the first scientist of his day and among the foremost of 
all days) with words of warmest personal appreciation ; and 
the Founder's Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of Eng- 
land. How much more than a mere copyist Mrs. Fremont was 
in their preparation appears from his reference to their con- 
stant and enlightening discussion as the work went on — " a 
form of discussion impossible except with a mind and purpose 
in harmony with one's own and on the same level." 

But the keenest contrast, and the most pitiful, remains for the 
last. One of her greatest joys throughout her life was to use the 
influence she had acquired so rightly and so bountifully in the 
aid of those who needed and deserved it, to right Governmental 
wrongs, to open unseeing official eyes, to untie the sluggish 
knots of departmental redtape. Scores of instances might be 
given, but one may select the young Frenchman, crippled in 

*Brigham Young- said, in 1877, " Prom Fremont's reports, we determined to get our wagons 
tog-ether, form a caravan and travel through the country to the Salt Lake, 1,000 miles from 
any civilized country." 

A Bit of Mks. Fremont's Homr in Los Anoklks. 

Photo by Strickland. 


government service, but unable to obtain a pension till 20-year- 
old Mrs. Fremont interested the chairman of the Committee on 
Pensions. A memory to warm a lifetime it must have been to 
her as .he swayed on his crutches, weeping for gratitude and 
saying, " I cannot kneel to thank you — je ri*ai plus de jambes 
— but you are my Sainte Madonne et je vous fats ma -priere." 
Or, to take just one more case, the shy young compositor, by 
name Bret Harte, a bit of whose work attracted her and who 
remained in California only because she repeatedly secured him 
appointments at a good salary. He wrote to her once : _" If I 
were to be cast away on a desert island, I should expect a sav- 
age to come forward with a three-cornered note from you to tell 
me that at your request I had been appointed governor of the 
island at a salary of two thousand four hundred dollars." 

Others she saved — herself she could not help. Through forty 
years no one of all her powerful friends was strong enough, or 
enough in earnest — or possibly it was butj^lack_ of patiencejj- 
to extract from the overflowing treasury of the United States 
the little money needed — in later years needed sadly — to pay 
for thie home bought with her money, taken without compensa- 
tion by the United States, and to this day held by it — unpaid 
for. Not two years ago the President of the United States, so 
soon to die, waved aside the programme arranged in his 
honor, and drove out to Mrs. Fremont's home " to present not 
only the respects of himself and Mrs. McKinley, but the affec- 
tion and esteem of the American people." Yet she went to her 
grave with that outrageous wrong unrighted, with that money 
debt — insignificant to the nation, but of great consequence to 
her and hers — unpaid ! What shall one think of the " affection 
and esteem " of the American people ? 



ERO, scholar, cavalier, 

Bayard of thy brave new land, 

Poppies^for thy bed and bier, 

Dreamful poppies foot and hand. 

Poppies garmented in gold ; 

Poppies of the land you won — 
Love and gratitude untold — 

Poppies — peace — the setting sun ! 

— jFoaguin Milltr, /So* 



YJgwATHFINDER— and Path-clincher ! 
r$y Who blazed the way, indeed, 

But more — who made the eternal Fact 

whereto a path had need ; 
Who, while our Websters set at naught 

the thing: that Was to Be, 
Whipped-out our halting-, half-way map 
Full to the Other Sea ! 

'Twas well that there were some could read 

the logic of the West ! 
A Kansas-edged geography, 

of provinces confessed, 
Became potential Union 

and took a Nation's span 
When God sent Opportunity 

and Benton found the Man ! 

— Chat. P. Lmmmit, *8*f. 


@rtHY error, Fremont, simply was to act 

j^ A brave man's part, without the statesman's tact, 
And, taking counsel but of common sense, 
To strike at cause as well as consequence. 
O, never yet since Roland wound his horn 
At Roncesvalles, has a blast been blown 
Far-heard, wide-echoed, startling as thine own, 
Heard from the van of freedom's hope forlorn ! 
It had been safer, doubtless, for the time, 
To flatter treason, and avoid offence >, 

To that Dark Power whose underlying crime 
Heaves upward its perpetual turbulence. 
But if thine be the fate of all who break 
The ground for Truth's seed, or forerun their years 
Till lost in distance, or with stout hearts make 
A lane for Freedom through the level spears, 
Still take thou courage ! God has spoken through thee, 
Irrevocable, the mighty words, Be Free ! 
The land shakes with them, and the slave's dull ear 
Turns from the rice-swamp stealthily to hear. 
Who would recall them now must first arrest 
The winds that blow down from the free Northwest, 
Ruffling the Gulf ; or like a scroll roll back 
The Mississippi to its upper springs. 
Such words fulfill their prophecy, and lack 
But the full time to harden into things. 

—John GrttmUaf Wk/ttur, /tot 



fast is history made these days ! For all this was 
only a little while ago. 

When Emil James came around the bend in the 
canon, to the opening where the ranch stood, he reined 
up his horse and whistled. 

" O-Oh ! " he said. " My stars alive ! Didn't the 
water came ! Spring, pipe-line, water-pen, troughs, 
corral, saddle-house — all washed away — vamosed! 
Bet Wildcat rared up and fell over backwards ! " 
He rode up in front of the jacal house. 
11 Tou Wildcat!" 

Wildcat came to the open door; "Hello Emil — get down. 
You're just in time for supper." 

" You bet. Pood is the biggest part of my diet. I see you've 
moved your ranch down the canon, and I was afraid I'd find you 
down there hunting for the pieces. Think you'll like it any 
better down on the flat ? " 

"You unsaddle your horse, you old fool, and shut up ! I'm 
pretty sore about this washout. I'm set back about two hundred 
dollars by it." 

After supper was finished, Emil shoved back his plate, lit a 

cigarette, and said : "You got any likely young horses to sell ?" 

" Betcher neck. You know anybody that wants to buy." 

"Yes, indeedy. McNew said to tell you Old Man Forest will 

pay twenty-five for all you had that would stand fourteen and a 

half hands, four year olds and up, sound and broken. Greys, 

roans, duns and pacers barred. He's going to take down a 

bunch, and said to tell you you'd better gather yours and drive 

with him. They're to be delivered at the Nations' pasture at El 

Paso the 20th. They'll take outlaws all right, but no broncos." 

" When's Billy going to start ? " 

"He'll camp at Lava Gap the night of the 24th, he said." 
" By George," said Wildcat, " this here'll be just like getting 
money from home, and express charges prepaid. I was sure 
needin' it, too, as the hobo said when he fell in the creek. I can 
put up about twenty-five head. I'll go over tomorrow and get 
one of the Morris boys to help me gather my little old ponies, 
and hit the road. Don't know what's going to happen. Why, 
last spring you couldn't throw a horse away, much less sell one." 

"I tell you, old man," he confided to Show Me, his "top 
horse," the next day, as they climbed the winding trail to the 
Morris ranch, " we was cutting it pretty fine that time, for cer- 


tain. Now. if I can pay old Forest five hundred on that mort- 
gage, the old skeezicks will let me have a renewal for another 
year for the other half. Then I can sell my steers for enough 
to keep Buddie in school, and fix up the pipe-line and trough 
again, and next year I can sure win out. Then when my 
little bunch of cattle's paid for, I'll go and ask the gray-eyed 
girl a question. Every time I get the mail, I'm scared to death 
for fear I'll hear some feller has snapped her up. Tell you 
what, they can cuss the brown-tailed mares all they want to, 
but they've sure pulled me out of the hole, this time." 

All the way down to El Paso, Wildcat was in fine feather. 
There were dust, heat, thirst and perverse horses ; but they did not 
affect his cheerfulness. There were days of scant and withered 
grass, in spots the rain had missed ; nights when they had failed 
of water for the horses, and these had to be herded all night to 
keep them from going back. Even when they struck the Felipe 
ranch, only to find the windmill broken, and were forced to run 
the heavy horsepower, tying a rope to the horn of the saddle 
and riding tediously around — Wildcat ran the power and 
diverted himself with hilarious song, as if he were enjoying 
himself to the full. 

It was noon on the sixth day when they drew near Ft. Bliss, 
and saw a large band of horses rounded up and held near the 
Nations' pasture. 

Wildcat and McNew stopped their bunch, and rode ahead to 
investigate. The first man they struck was Pat Garrett. Thek 
greetings were cool, for McNew and Garrett were seriously at 
outs, and Wildcat was a partisan of McNew's. 

"Hello, Garrett!" said Billy, "What's all this doings, here? 
Looks like all the horse men in the country had come down." 

"Ye-es," said Garrett, "there's quite a crowd. Forest sent 
me a bid on my old sticks, and me and McCall come down hein 
and found Frank and Tillman Wayne, Briscoe, Johnnie Woods, 
and Newberry — and now you fellows." 

"Why, what on earth is Forest going to do with so many 
horses ? " queried Wildcat. 

"He's got a contract with the British Government for a 
thousand head. That big stiff in the buggy with him is th« 
officer that's receiving them." 

Garrett and McNew rode ahead to the crowd, but Wildcat 
turned and looked around at the grim, gray mountain which 
rose abruptly from the plain just west of them. 

Unforeseen, unheralded, the crisis was upon him — the hour 
that was to be the supreme test of his manhood. Five hundred 
dollars — the price of a jewel, a gown, a night's play — the price 


of a soul. It was not the massive rock-ribbed mountain that he 
saw. It was a lonely, wind-swept street of low adobes, over- 
hung with rushing clouds. A few stars peered out through one 
clear space overhead. Gusts of rain and hail smote his face, 
and the swaying cottonwoods moaned together. A door was 
thrown open, and a broad beam of warm light shot out across 
the storm. And, in the doorway, her eyes alight with love and 
welcome, a woman — a woman with gray eyes. 

The light went out, and instead he saw the bold, black ' ' scare- 
head " of a yellow journal : 

President Kruger's Message to the Americans. 
Tell Them They Are Helping To Murder Us." 

It was over now, and the gray-eyed girl would never know. 
He turned his horse and rode toward the little knot of men by 
the buggy. There was nothing different, unless a little grey 
in the lean, hard, impassive face. He sat a little straighter 
in the saddle, with a slight lifting of his head ; and there was a 
certain compression of the corners of his mouth — that was all. 
Many men had teen Wildcat's lips tighten so ; and most of them 
had unpleasant recollections connected with it. 

"Well, Wildcat," was Forest's greeting, as he drew near, 

how many ponies have you got to sell ? " 

" I don't believe I'll sell," was the response. 

"Won't sell ?" demanded McNew, in astonishment. "Why, 
what's eating you ? " 

" I didn't know they were for the English," replied Wildcat. 
" I'm a Boer man — me. If I was to sell, feeling the way I do, 
I would always feel like it was blood-money, and I'd have to 
sneak round a corner in hell to dodge Judas Iscariot. I know 
the Boers '11 capture the horses all right, but — " 

"Aw!" ejaculated the Englishman, in amazement, and 
brought a gold-rimmed monocle to bear. 

"Why, you idiot," said Billy, " they'll get all the horses they 
want, of somebody. 'Taint like you was their only chance. 
And you'd just as well have the money." 

"Just so," said Wildcat. " Now I'm claiming to be a friend 
of yours, ain't I ? If you and Pat was to get on the warpath 
and go gunning for each other, would it be white for me to sell 
cartridges to Pat, if he run out, because 1 needed the money, 
and Garrett could get plenty somewhere else ? Don't talk to 
me — it don't look to me like it was honor, nohow." 

'' You always was a crazy fool ! " snarled Forest. " But just 
let me tell you one thing, young man. If you ain't right up to 
the scratch with that money you owe me, down goes your meat- 
house ! 'Honor!'" He laughed derisively. "The honor of 
a cowboy ! " 


Wildcat swung- his horse in beside the buggy, thrusting a 
dark face over the wheel. It was easy to see, now, how he 
came by his sobriquet. 

Honor ' was the word I used, sir — the honor of a cowboy ! 
You may be justified in swearing at it, but, except for your 
gray hairs, you are hardly wise. Our standard may be lower 
than most people's — anyhow, it's different. But when we do 
draw the line, we don't step over it. And you — By God, sir, 
there's nothing in the world you wouldn't do for money ! You'd 
sell your grandmother's grave for ten cents ! And you threaten 
me with your dirty old mortgage — you gray -headed old scoun- 
drel ! " 

The Englishman climbed out of the buggy, scrupulously 
brushed the dirt from his coat where it had grazed the wheel, 
screwed the monocle in his eye, and said, regarding Wildcat 
with a fixed and glassy stare, 

"Ah — my good man — if you are such a friend to the Boers, 
why don't you go and help them ? " 

Wildcat wheeled upon him, "I'll tell you, me good man," he 
said, in confidential tones, " I was afraid I'd get hurt — you 
know ! " 

"Aw ! '' Then, after a moment of incredulous staring, " Will 
you be so good as to tell me exactly the difference between the 
Boer war and your Philippine war ? " 

Wildcat threw his leg over his saddle-horn, rested his elbow 
on his knee, and his chin on his hand. " With great pleasure," 
he said. " It's like this. The only way anyone can stand up 
for either war is to reckon the Boers and Filipinos are just 
cattle. So, just to oblige you, we'll consider 'em cattle. And 
even then there's a difference. Like this. 

" Now, 'sposing I had a big farm, and was raisin' mighty 
valuable crops on it. 'Spose me and my brother had had cattle 
on it once and quarrelled and jawed and lawed and fought about 
them, till we was most give out — and most broke, too. Then 
we makes it up and goes ahead and builds fences around our 
land to keep out any of our neighbor's cattle, and put our own 
in our poorest fields, and wish to God we could get rid of 'em 

"Then if I was to go 'way off somewheres, and buy a lot 
more cattle, range delivery, from some one that I knew didn't 
own them, first whipping him for claiming to own 'em — wild 
cattle, scrubby some of 'em, all scattered in mountains and brush 
country — and go to work and pay out twenty or thirty times as 
much more as what they cost me, for hands and horses and 
chuck and corn; and after all that, never gathered anything but 


dead, and dogies and weak sisters — why that would be just like 
our war. 

" And 'spose you had just dead oodles of cattle — fancy stock, 
and Herefords, and Polled Angus, and Durhams, and Chihuahuas 
and old long-horns — all kinds of cattle — more cattle than any- 
body — and a little old Dutchman was to be raising- a little bunch 
of milk-pan cows ; and you was to crowd him, and eat out his 
grass, and steal his calves, and make him move. 'Spose you 
made him move twice, and you got his ranch and improvements 
both times. And he went 'way out in the desert, and you was 
to follow him up and bother him again. 

"Then 'spose he was to knock you down, and pull your hair, 
and pour sand in your eyes, and slap your face, and drag you 
with your own rope " — 

A subdued titter ran around the circle. 

"And if you was to call up all your cowboys, and all the men 
that had your stock on shares, and was to drive the Dutchman 
out in the brush, and shut up his wife and children to die of 
neglect and starvation and sickness" — he lowered his face to a 
level with the other's — "that would be like the Boer war." 

He whirled and shook his fist at the crowd, his eyes ablaze. 
"You ! " he cried. " You ! How many of you would see one 
man starve one woman and child to death, and put up with it, 
much less help him ? How does multiplying it by thousands 
help it ? How many of you would let him have your horses to 
hunt down the Dutchman in the brush ? " 

The Englishman went very white. Garrett stretched a long 
arm, stroked his mustache slowly, and looked dreamily out 
across the plain. "You needn't rub it in no more, Thompson," 
he said. " I don't want to sell no horses, nohow." 

McNew took off his sombrero, looked at it and scratched his 
head. " I hate to be on the same side with you, Pat," shaking 
his head gravely — "but I reckon you and me and Wildcat 
together are Public Opinion in this here neck of the woods. 
Come on, all you Boer men ! " he added, with challenge in his 
voice, as he joined Garrett and Thompson. 

McCall drove the spurs into his bronco. " Guess I'll just side 
you fellows. Don't have to sell my horses, anyway. My money 
don't cost me nothing — I work for it. " And one by one the 
rest followed him. 

Forest spluttered in impotent wrath, as he saw his prospective 
profits slipping away. He had exacted no forfeit from any of 
the vendors, horse men being usually only too glad to sell. 

The Englishman walked up to Thompson. " I'm wishing you 
were a couple of stone heavier, my man," he said. " I should 
like uncommonly well to thrash you." 


Flap ! Wildcat was off his horse, and had thrown his gun 
into a soap weed. "I should like uncommonly well to have you 
try it," he said, in his sweetest tones. "But — aw — pawdon 
me, me man, if you were a couple of stone lighter, you would 
come a good deal nearer doing it." He threw off spurs and 
overshirt, took the silk kerchief from his neck and knotted it 
around his waist in lieu of a belt. The others crowded round, 
turning their saddle horses loose. 

Forest danced in an agony of helpless rage. "You're never 
going to fight him, Major? This scum, this ruffian, this no- 
body ? " he screamed. 

" I am quite capable of judging for myself, thank you," re- 
plied the Briton, coldly. " This man is no ruffian." He me- 
thodically divested himself of coat, vest, collar, tie and cuffs, 
laid them carefully on the buggy seat, with the monocle on top, 
and came back. 

"It is only fair to say that your man is hopelessly outclassed, 
you know," he said, addressing the crowd. " I was thought the 
best man with my hands in Cambridge, my last year there. So 
he needn't feel cut up, you know, if he gets worsted. As he 
says, I am not very fit ; but even so, there is no disgrace in tak- 
ing a whipping from me." 

Newberry rubbed his nose — it was broken — in reminiscent 
fashion. " Some of us don't think it any disgrace to take one 
from Wildcat," he suggested. 

" It's very decent of you to warn me," said Wildcat, eyeing 
his adversary with a respect he had not hitherto shown. " Still, 
I might sort of promise you'll know you've been in a fight." 

Then was seen the singular spectacle of " Bertie " Vaughn, 
Major of a crack British regiment, a pet of Mayfair and Bel- 
gravia, standing up to do battle with an utter stranger. 

In weight, reach and skill, the advantage was overwhelm- 
ingly with the Briton. Against him were arrayed youth, ac- 
tivity and toughness. The cowboy's wiry muscles, and the 
staying power due to long years of plain living and hard work, 
made him a dangerous opponent. Lithe and agile as his name- 
sake, the wildcat, his natural quickness made up for much of 
his lack of science. Yet from the first it was evident that the 
soldier had made no idle boast. In the beginning Thompson 
went to work hammer and tongs ; only to find his well-meant 
blows easily warded off, blocked and ducked by his burly an- 
tagonist, while a series of disconcerting, lightly delivered 
counters and short arm blows interfered sadly with the continu- 
ity of his onslaughts ; and the Englishman wore a confident 
and easy smile which he found very exasperating. At the end 


of three or four minutes of this kind of work, the Briton was 
almost untouched, while divers bruises and little trickling 
streams of blood began to show on Wildcat's face, and into 
Wildcat's skull had percolated the certainty that if the battle 
was continued on these lines there could be but one result. 

He sprang back and charged, striking with all his force, 
ricochetting like a billiard ball ; circled swiftly round, rushed 
in again, chin well down, taking a blow on top of the head, and 
leaping nimbly aside. Round and round he went, darting in and 
out, giving his enemy no rest, and aiming terrible blows at 
Vaughn's body, which, for the most part, he succeeded in warding 
off or at least in breaking their force. In this process the cow- 
boy was severely punished, being twice knocked down ; but he 
didn't seem to mind a little thing like that. 

Into the attack, Wildcat was putting three times the energy 
the Major was expending in the defense ; but he was standing 
it better. For a long time he continued to hammer at Vaughn's 
trunk, willing to take two blows to give one ; and succeeded in 
getting in a few good licks which distressed the gentleman 
greatly. The jaunty smile faded from his face, and he fought 
warily, devoting much more attention to diverting the Amer- 
ican's vicious body blows than to offensive measures. 

Suddenly Wildcat changed his target. In and back, landing 
fairly on the nose, receiving a blow in return that closed one 
eye and staggered him. Back again, a blow in the mouth, with 
a sharp counter from the Briton that fairly lifted him from his 
feet and sent him down again. Another rush, and he landed 
fairly on Vaughn's eye, ducked, drew back, and feinted for the 
face. The Englishman threw up his guard to protect his one 
serviceable eye. Crash ! Thompson struck him fairly over the 
heart with every pound of strength in his wiry young body be- 
hind the blow, and the victim went down like a log. He rose 
slowly, weakly, gasping for breath. It looked as though youth 
and endurance were to win, after all. 

Confident of victory, the cowboy rushed in again. But the 
other realized that if he were to win at all it must be done in 
the next sixty seconds. Instead of standing to take the charge, 
he met the American, struck him fairly on the forehead, and, 
calling up all his reserves, rushed in return. Wildcat jumped 
back, but the other was upon him, and a shower of merciless 
blows beat upon his face. Blinded, dazed, bewildered, he lunged 
fiercely at random, missed and clinched. Back and forward, 
heaving, trampling, struggling, straining — Vaughn almost 
exhausted, the other with both eyes closed, fighting desperately 
in the dark. And then — his left arm closed around the Briton's 


waist, his right wrist pushing savagely at his throat, a roar of 
voices thundered in his ears, the blood surged to his temples, to 
his stunned and dizzy brain the world seemed swaying, reeling. 
A last furious effort, calling up all his remaining strength, and 
he bent his foeman over backward. They struggled, tottered, 
fell ; but as they went down Vaughn's right hand shot upward 
convulsively, catching the American under the chin. 

"And the subsequent proceedings interested him no more." 

They went down together, a confused sprawl of arms and legs, 
the cowboy on top. McCall and Briscoe untangled them and 
laid the vanquished Thompson, limp and helpless, on the ground. 
The victor's case was hardly less disastrous. He lay sobbing 
for breath — utterly unable to rise. Garrett and Johnnie Woods 
helped him sit up, and gave him water from a canteen. He 
had struck the back of his head on a rock when he fell, and was 
bleeding profusely. 

" What a — ghastly — fluke ! " he panted, as they ministered 
to him. "Couldn't — have struck — another blow, 'pon honor! 
Bellows — to mend — you know." He regarded the unconscious 
Thompson anxiously with his unbattered eye. "I hope he's — 
not hurt ? Plucky beggar ! " 

"He'll be all right in a little," said McNew, who, with Mc- 
Call, was laboring over the fallen champion. " We'll fetch him 

"I say," continued the Major, there's some — old Scotch in — 
my coat. Give him some — of that." 

They poured the liquor down Wildcat's throat. He coughed, 
choked, and rolled his eyes. 

" What a beastly — shame ! " the Major began. Then an in- 
spiration came to his gallant heart that would have done credit 
to Bayard himself. He winked jovially at Garrett. " I'm dead 
— licked— done for — you know ! " he whispered. "Hit my — 
head on a rock ! " And he fell over and relaxed into an inert 
mass of abject humanity, torn, disordered, plastered with blood 
and dust and sweat. 

Wildcat sat up with McCall's assistance, and propped open 
his best eye with a trembling and uncertain forefinger. His 
gaze wandered around until it fell upon the prostrate form of 
his Perfidious Foeman. He silently surveyed the battered ruins 
for a while with an air of vague interest, felt soberly for his 
own head, exactly as if he thought it might be there or there- 
abouts, but wasn't positive, and, as if he " wanted to count it" 
when he finally found it. Then he inquired languidly, 

"What's the matter with Aim ? Mule ? " 

"Knocked out — struck his head on a rock when you both 


fell," replied Garrett, bending- over the shamming- Briton and 
chafing his hands industriously. 

" He's not hurt," snapped Forest, " He's just — " 

Garrett took Forest by one arm and leg, McNew by the 
other. They jammed him into the buggy with appropriate 
language. Then they took the Major's apparel out and gave 
Forest some earnest advice as to his departure, which he took 
— advice and departure both. As he left, the Major groaned, 
rolled over, and gazed blankly around. 

Wildcat looked very much ashamed. " Let's call it a draw, 
Major," he said, crawling to the other's side and holding out his 
hand. "You caught me a sockdolager on the jaw as we fell, 
and I just this minute came to. You had me fairly licked, and 
it was just the old Happen-so that you struck your head." 

"Don't mention it, my dear fellow," said the Major as they 
shook hands warmly. " Delighted to have met you, I'm sure ! " 

They got painfully to their feet, Thompson very wobbly as 
to his knees, the Major still scant of breath. 

During the combat, Nations had ridden down from the 
slaughter-house, and had been a silent spectator of the proceed- 
ings. He now made the first observation that had escaped him 
since his arrival on the scene. 

" Hoss- trade all off, I guess ? Well — bring your horses down 
and put 'em in the pasture. There ain't much grass, but they 
won't starve. You two bruisers come on down and I'll dip you 
in the trough. We'll get dinner and then go down and take in 
El Paso." 

There was a murmur of acquiescence, and the crowd started 
after the horse-herd which had grazed off. A hundred yards 
away, they halted, wheeled, and Garrett shouted as they all 
took off their sombreros : 

"Three cheers for Major Vaughn ! " And the response came 
with waving hats and revolver shots to accompany it. 

"Hip ! Hii> ! Hooray !" 

Thompson shook his head, "There'll be a hot time in the old 
town tonight ! " he said, and they hobbled on their way. 

Tularosa, N. M. 



oK^t ever £r^K^i\ecl u\£. 

II orve Could ©rjy liixd. it 

TSy lookirv^ for* i{ wifl\ a^ li^kf, 


[Looted from the body of an Indian child killed at Wounded Knee. It was complained 
that Indian women — some were killed — fougrht with the braves ; which, indeed, they did. J 


WILD mother's patterned fancy — 
White beads, green and blue, 
With here, like heart-stained arrows, 

Scarlet zigzagged through ; 
Thy lining, furry rabbit, 
Little shoe ! 

How joyously she wrought thee, 

The long, blue, sunny day, 
On the wind-stroked grass of the prairie, 

'Neath the willows' shady sway, 
Singing the old song 

Mothers sing alway : 

Chaske* my little Chaske ; Chaske, my brave to be ! 

Fleet shall he' run as the stallion, stand tall as the tall pine-tree, 

As the storm be mighty and valiant — Chaske, my chief to be ! 

Stringing the beads in patterns, 

Zigzag red and blue ; 
Sewing with thread of tendon 

The furry edges true ; 
Singing the song of mothers 

The blue day through. 

A hill-slope, a desolation ; 

Yonder the cordoned crest 
Of glinting gun and sabre 

Here, like mole in nest, 
Trapped in the hill-crest's hollow, 

The huntsmen's quest. 

A solitude of heaven, 

High and sunny still 
Above a breadth of desert — 

Sudden the locust shrill 
Of bullets, then death, and sudden 

The war-whoop's thrill. 

And here a wild squaw-mother — 
Something dead at the breast, 

*Chaske means, in the Dakotan tong-ue, first-born male child. 

198 OUT W EST 

Something live at the shoulder, 

Spitting lead with the best — 
Singing a song 

Of wild-heart's cradle-rest : 

Death ye have taught me to mother I Death I will mother well ! 
With red, red blood I will nourish, I will lull with the rifle's spell ! 
For O, ye have taught me to suckle, and I will suckle them well I 

Only a wild squaw-mother, 

Bullet-stung at the start, 
Quiet out there in the desert, 

Something dead at her heart. 
See ! her quaint fancy's beading, 

A mother's art. 

Boston, Iff&M. 



ARIE-PIERRE stood at the stern of the " Skidegate" 
and waved tearful farewells to the dear Sisters Mary 
Winifred and Marie Therese, who had come from the 
Convent to see her safely on board the little steamer, 
which was to take her up the coast of British 
Columbia to her father in Sticoom village. 

Marie-Pierre was fifteen years old and very accomplished ; for 
she wrote quite nicely in English, and spoke French, and 
made beautiful lace. She also sang ; and played a few tunes 
upon the organ. Sister Marie Therese, who was musical, had 
taught her. Marie-Pierre was also a good girl, and very de- 
vout. She had spent eight years in the Convent, and the dear 
Sisters had given her every advantage, every care. They felt 
proud of Marie-Pierre. 

"Be good, Marie," had been Sister Therese's last words, 
" and remember that our Holy Mother ever regards you. Pray 
to her, and she will help you." And Marie-Pierre had gravely 
promised to remember. 

Although Marie-Pierre grieved at leaving the dear Sisters, 
she had long looked forward to the time when she should go 
home to her father and her mother. She could remember them 
quite distinctly — a tall blond Frenchman and his little soft- 
eyed Indian wife. Throughout all the years spent in the Con- 
vent, Marie-Pierre had thought of them and felt proud. Very 
few of the girls had both mother and father ; particularly those 


girls who were half white, like Marie. If her father aroused 
her pride, it was to her mother that she gave her love — the 
little mother whose brown bosom had shaped her baby lips, 
whose arms had sheltered her, and whose voice had crooned to 
her in a tongue now forgotten. Her name had not been Marie- 
Pierre in those days. The old name had a soft, clicking, 
heathenish sound, which could not be breathed in Sacre-Coeur ; 
so that the holy water and the sign of the cross had been 
solemnly adjured to make this child, "Marie-Pierre," a Chris- 
tian. The baby name and the baby language were alike for- 
gotten now. She had not seen her parents since the day she 
entered the Convent ; but the human heart clings to its own 
people, and Marie-Pierre had given all the tenderness of her 
young soul to the mother of her dreams and the handsome fair- 
haired father, Armand Lepage. 

Marie-Pierre made a pleasing picture as she sat in a sheltered 
corner, watching the white trail of foam and the circling of the 
gulls. She was dressed neatly in black, with white collar and 
cuffs, and a black hat and veil. Her hair was braided into a 
queue, and tied with a black ribbon. Black was the approved 
shade at the Convent of Sacre-Coeur. Certainly it served to 
accentuate the creaminess and rose-tint of Marie-Pierre's skin, 
and the drooping geranium of her mouth. The dark lashes 
touching her cheek and the heavy black hair lying along her 
brow made her face seem very white and pure. Filled with un- 
defined alarms she sat, hands folded, and shrank back from the 
eyes of a big man in fisher's garb, who paced up and down past 
her retreat and feasted his bold blue gaze upon her simple 

During the past three days of slow and uneventful traveling, 
waking and sleeping, Marie-Pierre had dreamed of the home 
she was hourly approaching. With the stoical, expressionless 
demeanor of her race, she gave no sign of the quivering ten- 
sion within. 

On the third day, as the sullen fury of a clouded sunset faded 
before the wistful twilight's coming, Marie-Pierre caught the 
first glimpse of home. The "Skidegate" rounded a point of 
land into the silent harbor of Sticoom, defaming, with shriek- 
ing whistle and clanging gong, Nature's sacred hour of solitude 
and prayer. One by one the lights twinkled forth from the 
little village, backgrounded with pines and sheltered by its 
pearl-crowned deity of mountains. 

With heart throbbing in such frenzied passion that it seemed 
about to burst, and burning eyes that saw nothing, Marie-Pierre 
stood in the bow gripping the railing with a force that ridged 


with purple her slender brown hands. Slowly the few passen- 
gers were lowered into the landing-boat. When her turn came, 
Marie tottered unseeingly on the first step of the ladder. In a 
moment a pair of strong arms clasped her and lifted her gently 
into the rocking boat. The dazed girl saw no one clearly but 
sank into her place with a vague, uneasy consciousness that a 
pair of blue eyes had been unpleasantly close to her own. "Lend 
a hand, Jim," said a voice ; and the big man turned from his 
contemplation of Marie and bent his great frame over the oars. 
When the boat grounded on the sand the same strong, unwel- 
come arms carried the returned one through the three feet of 
shallow water and set her high and dry upon the beach. 

A crowd of dusky creatures — sprinkled here and there with 
a white man or woman — gathered, chattering and wondering, 
about the girl who stood there speechless from the emotions 
that consumed her. 

Gradually that soft monosyllabic tongue with its guttural 
click became coherent sound to her dazed brain, stirring past 
memories. It pierced to her heart and struck a chord long dor- 
mant. One word, the keynote of her babyhood's simple, happy 
melody, came back to her longing lips. All the tale of her con- 
vent years was told in the cry that broke forth at last. 

"Tseeka !" (mother). 

The spell was broken. Marie-Pierre thrust forward and 
gazed eagerly, piercingly into the group about her. Dead 
silence followed, broken only by the lapping of the waves and 
the far-off wail of a violin. At last one of the women said : 

" She is mad. See, she calls* for her mother, who has been 
in the Church ground these five years." 

"Yes, yes," said the others, drawing closer and staring 
curiously, " she is surely mad. Does one call for a mother who 
has been so long dead ? " They edged nearer and glutted their 
curiosity on the girl's white, stunned face and unseeing eyes. 
They fingered her dress and her neatly braided hair, commenting 
and criticising. Presently one old woman said : 

"Let the girl be taken to her father. It is late, and ray 
man's supper burns on the fire." 

One by one, with clickings and gossipings, the women with- 
drew, leaving the little stranger alone in the fast falling night. 

Jim Basil, the fisherman, who had watched the scene from a 
little distance, came close to her. 

"You're all alone, my girl," he said, "come home with me. 
Well, then, I'll take you to your father. Come on." He took 
her hand, and Marie-Pierre stumbled blindly through the loose 
sand at his side. 


The wind beat itself against the pine-boughs ; the long 
waves beat themselves against the rocks ; the violin wailed 
nearer and more madly. And against Marie-Pierre's heart beat 
one word, and through her brain wailed one word — 

Dead ! Dead ! Dead ! 

"Here's your home, my girl," said the fisherman, stopping 
before the door of the last shanty on the beach. 

Marie-Pierre looked silently as one coming out of a trance. 

On the step sat a man — dirty — unkempt — vile-smelling from 
long intoxication. With his fiddle on his shoulder and his bow 
in his yellow hand, he was playing a screeching, whirling devil- 

Basil bent down and shook him roughly. 

"Lepage, here's your girl come home — vof fille, conrpre- 
nez? " 

The Frenchman turned his pasty face and dull, blood-shot 
eyes uncomprehendingly on the girl, who stood trembling be- 
fore this new horror. He made some drunken mutter and 
plunged again into his awful playing. 

"No good," said the other, with a shrug. "He doesn't 
know anything tonight. You'll have to talk to him when he 
ain't so drunk. You'd best go in the house and sit down." 

So Marie-Pierre entered again into the house of her childhood. 
Her physical endurance gave way at last, and she sank ex- 
hausted on the one rough bench in the shack, and flung her 
arms forward on the table. Her black eyes stared miserably 
out through the open door across the sea, which was now be- 
ginning to silver under the rising moon. The mad playing had 
ceased, and her father lay huddled on the steps in a stupor. 
The waving pine-boughs danced fantastic shapes across the 
floor in time to the wind which whistled uncannily through a 
dead tree-trunk behind the shanty. 

The night stole slowly onward and, worn out by grief and 
fatigue, Marie-Pierre drooped forward on her arms and slept. 
As the moon rose higher, its cold rays fell upon the unconscious 
girl, outlining her soft cheek and curving bosom. 

Outside, where the shadow of a gigantic cedar dipped into 
the well of moonlight, silent as a waiting panther, Jim Basil 
stood — watching. 

Los Ang-eles, Cal. 




.rtHIS magazine has already printed ( in 
* J^ August and September, 1900) two vc 

the numbers for 
versions of the fa- 
mous Argonaut song of above title. Less than half a cen- 
tury ago, this ditty was probably familiar to more Americans 
than any other one popular song, excepting only "Susanna" — 
that is, the California parody on that then universal Negro mel- 
ody ( the words of which were also printed in these pages in 
the August, 1900, number). Today, it is an almost hopeless 
task to discover the veritable words, or anyone who still retains 
the old song. So far as I can recall, they are in no book. The 
little dime-novel-looking "Songsters" in which they were prob- 
ably printed at the time — as were hundreds of other California 
songs — are practically all worn out'and lost. 

Of course these minor historical materials are worth saving ; 
and lit is evidently time to begin. When hardly a soul can be 
found to give the song that within our own lifetime was a fav- 
orite of hundreds of thousands of Americans — and not one of the 
machine-made "popular songs" of today, but almost a Folk- 
song, of and for one of the chiefest events in American history — 
why, the saving of that song from annihilation becomes a duty. 

Of the two already printed versions of "The Days of 'Forty- 
Nine" the older was from Saml. C. Upham's "Notes of a Voy- 
age to California, via Cape Horn ; together with scenes in El 
Dorado in the years 1849-50." The other was " modern " — from 
words (apparently an extempore addendum) by Joaquin Miller. 

Florence Gleason, of Bakersfield, Cal., sends in the following 
version of " The Days of '49," which he says is the original. 
It is not at all impossible, through rather unlikely, that Upham's 
dull and hymn-like stanzas were first in time. They sound very 
much like what a Tenderfoot might write with nothing better 
to do. But there is, I think, no question that the following is, 
in its essential features at least, the famous old song. // has 
meat in it. It may have been written perhaps a dozen years after 
'49 — for poetic license does not need long to Look Back. At any 
rate, crude as it is, it is Californian. It is the version from 
which we of the soberer day have caught quotationar}' frag- 
ments in books too Literary to think of such a thing as saving 
such matter whole. I am convinced of the authenticity of this 
as the effective original of the once world-famous ditty — though 
always open to conviction. But I doubt, a little, its complete- 
ness ; and anyone who can furnish authentic additional verses 
will be doing a service to history. 

Both the versions before printed here were sung to the air of 
" Auld Lang Syne ;" but Mr. Gleason says this wasn't. 


I shall be grateful for any further information on this point. 
Following is the version recorded by Florence Gleason : 

"the days of 'forty-nine." 
You are looking now on old Tom Moore, 

A relic of bygone days ; 
A Bummer, too, they call me now, 

But what care I for praise ? 
For my heart is filled with the days of yore, 

And oft I do repine 
For the Days of Old, and the Days of Gold, 

And the Days of Forty-Nine. 

Refrain — Oh, my heart is filled, etc. 

I had comrades then who loved me well, 

A jovial, saucy crew. 
There were some hard cases, I must confess, 

But they all were brave and true ; 
Who would never flinch, whate'er the pinch, 

Who never would fret nor whine, 
But like good old Bricks they stood the kicks 

In the Days of 'Forty-Nine. 

Refrain — And my heart is filled, etc. 

There was Monte Pete — I'll ne'er forget 

The luck he always had. 
He would deal for you both day and night, 

So long as you had a scad. 
He would play you Draw, he would Ante sling, 

He would go you a hatf ull Blind — 
But in a game with Death Pete lost his breath 

In the Days of 'Forty-Nine. 

Refrain — Oh, my heart is filled, etc. 

There was New York Jake, a butcher boy, 

That was always a-getting tight ; 
Whenever Jake got on a spree, 

He was spoiling for a fight. 
One day he ran- against a knife 

In the hands of old Bob Cline — 
So over Jake we held a wake, 

In the Days of 'Forty-Nine. 

Refrain — Oh, my heart is filled, etc. 

There was Rackensack Jim, who could outroar 

A Buffalo Bull, you bet ! 
He would roar all night, he would roar all day, 

And I b'lieve he's a-roaring yet ! 
One night he fell in a prospect-hole — 

'Twas a roaring bad design — 
For in that hole he roared out his soul 

In the Days of 'Forty-Nine. 

Refrain — Oh, my heart is filled, etc. 

There was Poor lame Ches, a hard old case 
Who never did repent. 


Ches never missed a single meal, 

Nor he never paid a cent. 
But Poor lame Ches, like all the rest, 

Did to death at last resign, 
For all in his bloom he went up the Flume 

In the Days of 'Forty-Nine. 

Refrain — Oh, my heart is filled, etc. 

And now my comrades all are g one, 

Not one remains to toast. 
They have left me here in my misery, 

Like some poor wandering ghost. 
And as I go from place to place, 

Folks call me a " Traveling Sign," 
Saying "There goes Tom Moore, a Bummer, sure, 

From the Days of 'Forty -Nine." 

Refrain — But my heart is filled, etc. 

Simply to have them together, for more convenient reference, the 
two other versions are reprinted, following : 

sthxman's version. 
Fresh laurel-wreaths we bring today, 

To crown the Patriarch, 
Whose hand unlocked the golden ore 

In gulch and canon dark. 
Old Pioneer, thy name we still 

In all our hearts enshrine ; 
God's blessing rest upon thy head, 

Dear friend of old lang syne i 



Oh, cherished be forevermore 
The days of old lang syne ; 
Those golden days, remembered days. 
The days of 'Forty-Nine ! 
Hillside, ravine and tule marsh 

Now blossom as the rose, 
And round Diablo's verdant base 

The crystal streamlet flows. 
Now glory be to God on high, 

Ivet this our paean be, 
And peace on earth, good will to men, 
Our prayer, O God, to thee ! 


We have worked our claims, we have spent our gold, 

Our barks are astrand on the bars ; 
We are battered and old, 
Yet at night we hold 
Outcroppings in the stars. 
Refrain — 

And tho' few and old, 

Our hearts are bold, 
Yet oft do we repine, 


For the days of old, 
For the days of gold, 
For the days of 'Forty-Nine. 
Where the rabbits play, 
Where the quail all day 

Pipe on the chaparral hill ; 
A few more days, 
And the last of us lays 
His pick aside, and all is still. 
Refrain — Same as before, except that " And tho' few " is changed 
to " Though few." 

We are wreck and stray, 
We are cast away, 

Poor battered old hulks and spars ; 
But we hope and pray, 
On the Judgment Day, 
We shall strike it, up in the stars. 
Refrain — 


[From the Memoirs of the late Joseph Huskisson, Esq., of California — 
Third Extract.] 


S soon as it became evident to us that 
the Fraser River gold fields were likely 
to pan out well, we set our hearts and 
feet in the direction of Fort Yale. 
There was a general scampering- of 
California hell-hounds after the Vic- 
toria quarry, but the pack with which 
Jim Kay and I went was a somewhat 
compact organization, held together as 
much by English Jim's natural leadership as anything else. 

There were ten of us at the start. Half of us were shoulder- 
strikers of the early days, notorious from Truckee to San Fran- 
cisco and down into the San Joaquin. " Jug " Shaw, one of 
our members, had gained fame by his escape from the Sacra- 
mento prison brig. ' Fussy " Barton, another of the crew, was 
a New York wharf-rat, who had come over the Panama route 
with a gang of thimble-riggers on the notorious old schooner 
Ringleader. Another was Lee Sing, possibly the only real 
Chinese highwayman of early Western days — an outcast whom 
we, in a fit of forgiving merriment, adopted as a member of our 
sulphurous tribe, instead of following our custom of sending 
all such to a place as near their Flowery Kingdom as our means 
would let us. The rest of us were ordinary "gentlemen of the 


road," who picked our living: from anybody who came along:, be 
he a Chinese vegetable man or a Wells-Fargo messenger. As 
usual, we of the higher class and more sensitive feelings in- 
sisted that we should be kept free from all "Greaser" taint; 
for all such that crossed our path we cast effective black- 
balls of lead. 

We arrived one night, tired, hungry, lean and snarling, at 
Plug Valley, the rival of Hard-Down Hill, and a British mining 
camp whose inhabitants had been so long from civilization that 
they had not heard of the laying of the Atlantic cable nor of 
the miraculous exhibitions of that wonderful horse-trainer, Mr. 
John S. Rarey. Recent proximity to San Francisco and the 
pverland routes had rendered us rather well informed on these 
and other matters of interest and importance, and we accord- 
ingly felt well above the ordinary crowd. 

The unanimous vote of the crowd was to "shoot up" Hard- 
Down Hill, and give its inhabitants a scare that would render 
them submissive to a degree suitable to our importance as new 
members of the community. We accordingly constituted our- 
selves the ruling spirits in the camp already established at Plug 
Valley, a place then occupied principally by a gang of our own 
sweet sort — outlaws from the California coast, Canadian 
rangers, and a smattering of Sydney coves and ticket-of-leavers 
from Van Dieman's Land. The respectable element had long 
been awed into silence. 

At Pete Fergusson's bar, Jim Kay made one of his little 
speeches, in which he neatly renewed the jealousy of Plug Val- 
ley against its rival, and exhorted the Valley contingent to an 
invasion with arms and for glory and whiskey. It soon devel- 
oped, however, that what Plug Valley particularly wanted was 
revenge on the Judge of Hard-Down Hill, who had passed sen- 
tence of outlawry on a number of the disturbing spirits, fright- 
ened away some, and hanged the rest. We were quite ready 
and willing to help overthrow the judiciary. 

About nine o'clock that night we swarmed into Hard-Down 
Hill like a detachment of Huns. Jim Kay led a select crowd of 
us around to the east to set fire to a grocery store and rob it ; 
while the Plug Valley contingent went after their hated Judge, 
the intention being to string him up at the Half Way House, be- 
tween the two camps, to serve as a horrible warning to all who 
pushed law and order too far. 

Both movements succeeded as well as could have been hoped, 
the only casualty being the death of a Plug Valley shoulder- 
striker, whose brains spattered the Alcazar Hotel's bar before 
the Judge's ammunition gave out. We got about $100 in dust 
at the store. 


The mob already had the Judge at the Half Way House when 
our squad, under English Jim, got there ; the most of us flushed 
with vile liquor, and all of us prepared for a mock trial which 
did justice to our rascality. As we entered we all fired our guns 
at the signboard and gave an Apache yell. 

As for the Judge, I expected to see a rum-soaked, tobacco- 
stained, card-thumping old British whelp — a living parody on 
justice. How great was my surprise ! Instead of a wicked old 
Tartar, he was a manly young English chap, as straight! as an 
arrow, with light, wavy hair, a complexion browned by the sun 
and wind, the picture of athletic young life. 

They had him bound tight with a Mexican lariat, which cut 
into his wrists. He stood as proud as a lion and as fearless. 

" Prisoner to the bar !" yelled English Jim with a resounding 
oath. " As long as ther's no regularly appointed judicial repre- 
sentative of the government here, I shall take it on my own 
shoulders, under advices received recently by Atlantic cable from 
the Home Government. I am good enough to represent Her 
Majesty anywhere." 

We greeted this with a cheer. 

" There won't be any time thrown away, gentlemen. The 
prisoner, according to all good law, is a public nuisance and 
ought to be strung up as a lesson to all others of his kind. Has 
the prisoner any letters to write ? " 

" No," said the young Judge in a clear, sharp voice, "but I 
want to say that this is blasted poor business for a man who 
has been at Oxford long enough to be a gentleman." 

He paused and looked straight at Jim. 
' What do you mean, you little pup ? " yelled Jim. 

" None knows better than you," was the reply. 

Jim spat savagely. 

" The young fool is a crack-brain, gentlemen," he snarled. 
" His Honor — that's me — and Huskisson will now remove the 
prisoner to the back room while the jury votes to get the rope 

We no sooner had the man in the back room than Jim slipped 
his big knife across the lariat that bound the Judge. Then, to 
my great astonishment, they began to shake hands. Neither 
said a word for a minute. It was the Judge who broke the 
silence. , 

" Knew I was right, old man," he said. 

"If you get out of this," said Jim, "it'll sort of square 
things a little, Harry. You get out this window, take the 
third horse on the left — it's mine and the best — and dig like 
blazes. We'll pretend to chase you and then we'll get away 
from the other crowd." 

208 OUT W E S T 

" Where'll I meet you to thank you ? " said the Judge. 

"Nowhere," said Jim, fiercely. "We're going too far." 

The Judge choked down a sob. 

"Better steer the outside course, old man ! " he said. "You 
remember the weeds in next to the bank ? It always looked 
shorter that way, but it wasn't. By hearens ! it seems only 
yesterday. Better try it, Bob — that outside, clear course." 

"There won't be any course for us, if you don't go right 
away," whispered Jim. " They're getting ready." 

And Jim pushed him to the window. 

All three of us got away without a scratch. 

" Where are you heading ? " I asked, after Jim and I had got 
well away. 

"Husky, old fellow," he answered, "I'm going to try that 
Outside Course. Do you want to pull with me for a stretch ? " 

Berkeley, Cal. 



AKE not Authority your creed, 
The sceptre does not sway the king ; 

The growth of one insurgent seed 
Means grander faith in everything. 


Here, at the outposts of the West, 
Your banners jubilant unfold — 

That symbolize for men the quest 
Of Holy Grail and Fleece of Gold. 

Learn to be dominant and free 

And multitudinously great, 
Like those white surges of the sea 

That beat in thunder at our Gate. 

Here where the sunset clouds are red, 
Or in yon valleys of the morn 

Is resurrection of the dead ; 
Haste ! Haste ! O men, to be re-born. 

Hew out the pathways of your fate 
In deeds and purposes sublime : 

The swords are sheathed at Eden-gate, 
Enter ! God's world is in its prime ! 


Xo tHe Pacific Coast of America. 

{From their own, and contemporary English, accounts.) 
IV.— Sir Thos. Cavendish,. .1587. 

fflTN preceding articles some brief digest has been given of the piratical 
voyage which brought Sir Francis Drake to California in 1579. The 
• next English freebooter to reach the Pacific Coast of the United States 
was Sir Thomas Cavendish, or Candish, who barely touched California in 
1587. Largely because of Drake's piracies, war had broken out between 
England and Spain ; and Cavendish held a royal commission from the 
Virgin Queen, so he cannot precisely be termed a pirate — as Drake unquali- 
fiedly was. He was not a privateer, however, in any civilized sense ; for 
he did not turn his energies to attacking Spain, but to burning and looting 
the helpless towns of Spanish-speaking people on the remote Pacific shores 
of South America ; and plundering and scuttling merchant and passenger 
ships trading between the Philippines and Mexico. Of course, on his re- 
turn to England, he was knighted. 

Cavendish sailed from Harwich in July, 1586, with the "Desire," 140 
tons; the "Content" 60 tons; and the bark "Hugh Gallant," 40 tons; 
and with 126 men. In Sierra Leone they " Spoyled a town of the Negroes." 
They entered the South Sea Feb. 14, 1587. May 3rd they "made them- 
selves Masters of Two Rich Ships, laden with Sugar, Melasses, Maiz, 
Cordovan skins, Montego de Porco,* Packs of Pintadoes, Indian coats, 
Marmalade Hens, &c. One of them, which had the best Lading, would 
have yielded ^20,000 had there been Opportunity to have made a Sale. 
And of all this they took as much as they could conveniently bestow in 
their Ships, burning the rest with the Vessels, and setting all the People in 
them ashore." 

May 26th, they reached the little Peruvian itown of Paita, " well built, 
very neat and clean in all parts of it, and contains about 200 houses. The 
Admiral landed here with Sixty or Seventy Men, had a Skirmish with the 
Inhabitants, . . . beat them quite out of the Town, . . . till it 
came to a thorough and complete Route, and seized all their Baggage. 
Here was plenty of all sorts of Household-stuff, Storehouses full of all 
sorts of Wares, and 25 &. Weight of Silver in Pieces of Eight. They set 
the Town on Fire, and burnt it to the Ground ; and also to the value of 5 
or ^6,000 in Goods, together with a Bark lying in the Road." "And so," 
as Cavendish humorously records, "leaving the Spaniards the Blaze ©f 
their flaming Houses and Goods, to light them down from the Mountains at 
Night," they sailed away to Puna. "A Large Ship of 250 Ton was here 
riding at anchor ; " which they sunk. " The Casique . . . had a sum- 
tuous palace, with Curious Gardens adjoining it. . . The Casique had 
Orchards that yield most Sorts of useful Fruits, as Oranges, Lemons, Figs, 
Pomgranates, Pompions, Melons, Cucumbers, Radishes, &c." May 29, 
" the Admiral went to a little Island close by Puna, into which the Casique 
had conveyed all the valuable Furniture of his Palace, and other Move- 
ables, necessary both for House and Ship. These stores being all dis- 
covered, they took or plundered what they saw fit out of them, and con- 
veyed it into their Ships. They burnt the Church also, which stood hard 
by the Casique' s Palace, and brought away the Five Bells that were in it." 
June 2, they had a fight with the Spaniards and Indians; "and, having 
* Manteca de puerco —lard. 


intirely put them to Flight, they made Havock of their Fields and Or- 
chards, and burnt Four great Ships upon the Stocks as also the Town 
itself, which they left a mere Heap of Rubbish. This town had no less 
than 300 houses in it." Here the learned editor (John Harris, D.D., F.R.S., 
from whose ponderous and famous Voyages, 1745, many of these digests 
are taken) appends one of his few footnotes : 

" It had been more advisable to have treated these People well. Their 
wanton Acts of Cruelty have been the Ruin of all our Expeditions into the 
South Seas." 

July 9th, they took " a new Ship of 120 Ton. . . They took all the Men, 
the Sails, the Ropes, &c, out of this Ship, and then set her on Fire." The 
26th they came to Agatulco, M made a Descent upon them, and burnt both 
the Town and Custom-house, which was a large and fair Building. Here 
were laid up 600 Bags of Anise (for the Dying of Cloth ) and 400 of Cacaos, 
every Bag of the former being worth Forty, and of the latter Ten Crowns- 
These Cacaos serve amongst them both for Meat and Money. They are 
like Almonds, though not altogether so pleasant ; they afford both Food 
and Drink, and pass in Trade instead of ready Money, 150 of them being 
in Value equal to a Rial of Plate." 

The 29th, " the Admiral went ashore with Thirty Men, marching Two 
Miles into the Woods, where they took a Mestizo belonging to the Custom- 
house of that Town, and a considerable Parcel of Stuffs with him, and 
carried both the Master and the Goods away to their Ships." Aug. 24, 
" the Admiral and Thirty Men went in the Pinnace to the Haven Puerto de 
i Natividad, . . . and burnt the Town, and Two Ships of 200 Ton that 
were then building there, and so returned to their Ships. . ." Sept. 2, " the 
Admiral with about Thirty Men went ashore to an Indian Town called 
Acatlan, which lies Two Leagues from the Road. It consisted of Twenty 
or Thirty Houses, and a Church, which they demolished, and went aboard 
again that Night." The 9th, "the Admiral sent out Forty Men, who 
marching through the Woods and Desart Places, lighted of Two or Three 
Families, some of which were Indians, others Spaniards and one Portu- 
guese, all which they brought to their Ships. The Admiral made the 
Women fetch Plantanes, Lemons, Oranges and other Fruits ; and, for a 
Reward, set all their Husbands free again, except one Sembrano, a Spanish 
Carpenter, and Diego, the Portuguese, whom he Retained."* 

They reached " Massatlan " on the 24th, and on the 27th betook them- 
selves to an island a league north, where they heeled their ship " and new- 
built their Pinnace." 

" In this Island they stay'd till the 9th of October, and then sailed for 
| Cape St. Lucar,* which is on the West Side of the Point of California, 
with which they fell in on the 14th of the same Month, observing, that it 
had very much the same Appearance with the Needles at the Isle of Wight, 
which had been before taken notice of by Sir Francis Drake's People, and 
has been confirmed by all who have sailed thither since. Within this 
Cape there is a very large Bay, called by the Spaniards Aguada Segura ; 
into which Bay there falls a fine fresh-water River, and on the Banks of it 
there are commonly a great Number of Indians, who inhabit there during 
the Summer Season. Into this Bay they came, watered in the River, and 
remained there till the 4th of November, the Winds continuing all that 
time to hang Westerly. They waited here for the Acapulco Ship. 

" November 4. the Desire and the Content went beating up and down 
upon the Headland of California, which lies in the 23° 24' North Latitude ; 

' It would be hard to find a choicer bit of the unconscious humor of the pirate. 
t Cape St. Lucas. 



upon v. hich Day, in the Morning, one of the Admiral's Company, going up 
the Top-mast, spied a Sail bearing in from the Sea with the Cape ; -which 
he presently signified to the Company, -with the joyful exclamation of, A 
sail, a Sail ! The Admiral, having put all Things in Readiness, set forward 
in the Pursuit of her : and, having chased her Three or Four Hours, in the 
Afternoon came up with her, and saluted her with a Broadside, and a Volley 
of small Shot. They found her to be the St. Anne, belonging to the King 
of Spain, the Admiral of all the South Seas, aad of 700 Ton Burden. 
Having boarded her, they found all Things in a good Posture of Defence ; 
the Sails were laid close upon the Poop, the Midship, and the Forecastle. 
All the Men stood close under Fights, which the Captain had raised, pro- 
vided with Targets, Javelins, Swords, and great Stories, which they threw 
into the English Ship, and at them that had boarded theirs, forcing them 
to retire with the Loss of Two Men, and Four or Five wounded. But the 
Admiral, making a fresh Attack with his great and small Shot, raked them 
through and through, killing and wounding great Numbers, as the Ship 
was full of Men : yet they stood very tightly to their Business. But the 
next Broadside reduced them to the last Extremity, boring such wide Holes 
for Water to pour in, that they saw they must either yield or sink. Where- 
upon, hanging out a Flag of Truce, the}* desired the Admiral to save their 
Lives, and they would yield their Ship, with all the rich Cargo, into his 
Hands. This he granted, but commanded them presently to strike their 
Sails, to hoist out their Boat, and come aboard ; which was accordingly 
done by the Captain, (the Pilot, and one of the chief Merchants. They 
told the Admiral what they had aboard, which appeared to be worth fight- 
ing for, since there were 122, COO Pezces* of Gold, rich Silks, Sattins, 
Damasks, Musk, with divers other sorts of Merchandize, and all manner of 
Provisions, almost as acceptable as their Riches. £« 

" This Prize thus gloriously obtained, on November the 6th, they put into 
the Herbour Puerto Seguro, where all the Spaniards, both Men and Women, 
to the Number of ISO, were set ashore, the Admiral having chosen a very 
fruitful Spot for them to live upon ; and, besides, gave them good Store of 
Wine and Victuals, with the Sails of their Ship, and some Planks, to build 
them little Houses in the Country. The Owners thus disposed of, the next 
thing was to share the Booty they had brought ; and here this ungrateful 
Work of Distribution quickly involved the Admiral in all the Circumstances 
of a Mutiny, every Man having a sharp Appetite to the Gold ; but no Man 
ever thinking he had enough. This Feud and Avarice appeared most 
violently in the Content. But all was quickly and quietly compromised by 
the candid Behaviour and Generosity of the Admiral. November 17. being 
her Majesty's Coronation day, they discharged all their Ordnance and 
small Shot in both their Ships, and at Night continued the Celebration of 
the Festival with Fireworks. The Admiral reserved of the Prisoners in 
the Spanish Ship, Two Japonese Boys, and Three that were Natives of the 
Isle of Manilla, a Portuguese that had been in China and Japon, and a 
Spanish Pilot of perfect Knowledge in all the Parts between Acapulco and 
Nueva Espanna, to the Islands of Ladrones. This Acapulco is the Haven 
from whence they set out for the Philippines, and the Islands Ladrones are 
their stated Places of Refreshment. 

" November 19. the Admiral, having discharged the Captain of the St. 
Anne with a noble Reward, and sufficient Provision against the Indians, 
fired the Ship itself, having to the Quantity of 500 Tons of Goods in her, 
and saw her burnt quite down to the Water's Edge. And now this great 

* Dollars. 


Business being happily accomplished, which they had so long attended 
{ upon, they set Sail very cheerfully for England." 

A great storm arose at once, and they lost the " Content," which was 

never heard of again ; * reached the island of Guam Jan. 3, 1588 ; touched 

"-the Philippine coast near Manila, of whose vast wealth Cavendish gives a 

great account, but did not dare attempt this " unwalled Town, of no great 

Strength, .... inhabited by Six or Seven Hundred Spaniards." 

They passed Java, the Cape of Good Hope, and St. Helena. Sept. 3 they 

met a Flemish vessel that gave them the news of the defeat of the Spanish 

Armada. Sept. 9, 1588, they reached Plymouth, having made the voyage 

- f around the world in two years and two months — whereas Drake had taken 

f^5>\ two years and ten months ; and Magellan, on the first circumnavigation of 

** the globe ever achieved by man, was three years and a month. 

In a letter written that day from Plymouth to Lord Hunsdon (Sept. 9, 
1588), Cavendish, recounting his exploits and his plunder, adds naively : 
" In which Voyage I have either discovered, or brought certain Intelligence 
of, all the Rich Places of the World that ever were known or discovered by 
any Christian. I navigated along the Coast of Chili, Peru and Nueva Es- 
panna, where I made great Spoils ; I burnt and sunk Nineteen Sails of 
Ships, small and great : f All the Villages and Towns that ever I landed 
at I burnt and spoiled ; and had I not been discovered upon the Coast, I had 
taken great Quantity of Treasure." 

It is said that Cavendish " brought his Ship into the Harbour of Plymouth 
under a Suit of Silken Sails." At any rate, three years later he had 
squandered the immense fortune acquired by looting, except enough to 
w Outfit a second expedition. With this he sailed from England Aug. 6th, 
v p^J.591. He reached the coast of Brazil, plundered and burned a couple of 
towns, and headed for the Straits of Magellan. Storms, mutiny, the de- 
sertion of vessels and men, and the disastrous outcome of his attacks on the 
Indians, together ruined his hopes of success ; and he "died of mere 
Grief " before getting into the Pacific at all. This miscarriage of Caven- 
dish put a damper on English piracy along the Pacific coast for a long 

And that meant, so far as concerns this ocean, English voyages alto- 
gether — for it was 258 years after Magellan first of all men sailed the 
Pacific (which Balboa had discovered 9 years earlier yet) before any 
English vessel ever entered that sea except for piracy. The honor of be- 
ing England's first peaceful, real explorer in the world's greatest ocean be- 
longs to Capt. James Cook ; who in 1778 visited our Northwest coast. The 
next European voyager to these parts, other than a Spaniard, was a 
Frenchman, Jean Francois de Gallaup, Conde de la Perouse, who made a 
visit of real historic importance to our coast, introduced potatos into Cali- 
fornia (from Chile), and was lost with his ships and men among the New 
Hebrides in 1788 on his way home. But he had already forwarded his 
journal, which was published in France in three large volumes and atlas of 
maps. And with about 1785 began the interest of England in our Pacific 
Coast for trading, fur-hunting, and other operations now recognized as re- 
spectable. But long before that time, Drake and Cavendish had been fol- 
lowed — in ethics as well as in itinerary — by a number of less brainy but 
no more scrupulous pirates ; the most important that reached California 
being Wm. Dampier (1686), Woodes Rogers (1709), and George Shelvocke 
(1721). Commodore George Anson (1740) did not reach California ; and 
though he burned and looted as well as the best of them, along the Spanish- 
American shores further south, he had, like Cavendish, the apology of a 
state of war between England and Spain, and was sent by the English 
government to ravish Spanish commerce in the Pacific. He was the last of 
\he British Scourges of the Pacific. 

*It is a curious fact that the same storm which destroyed the consort " Content," saved 
the lives of the 150 prisoners that Cavendish had heartlessly marooned npon the 
shore of the Peninsula. Most of these were passengers of the " St. Anne" (Santa Ana) ; 

and some of them were women. Among- them, too, was Sebastian Vizcaino, later i.i us 

for the first real exploration ever made of the coast of the present State of California. The 
tempest drove the burning " Santa Ana" ashore; Vizcaino and his companions, aided by 
the rain, extinguished the flames ; and thus not only procured supplier to keep them froa 
starving, but a hull which they patched np so that in it they managed to cross the Gall of 
California, and thus at last reached settlements of their countrymen. It is a pity the buca- 
neer never knew of this little joke of Pate upon him. 

tAnd all of them peaceful merchantmen. 


c3EoyoYA League 

^^iiiii ^ ^^-i (incorporated) 


Se-quo-ya, " the American Cadmus" was the 
only Indian that ever invented a written lan- 
guage. The League takes its title from this great 
Cherokee, for whom, also, science has named ("Sequo- 
ias ") the hugest trees in the world, the giant Redwoods 
of California. 


Dr. David Starr Jordan, President Stanford University, Cal. 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Chief Biological Survey, Washing-ton. 

Dr. Geo. Bird Grinnell, editor Forest and Stream, New York. 

D. M. Riordan, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Richard Egan, Capistrano, Cal. 

Chas. Cassatt Davis, attorney, Los Angeles. 

Chas. F. Lummis, Los Angeles, Chairman. 


Mrs. Phebe A. Hearst, University of California. 

*Hon. J. Sterling Morton, Nebraska. 

Archbishop Ireland, St. Paul, Minn. 

U. S. Senator Thos. R. Bard, California. 

*Maj. J. W. Powell, Director Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 

Edward E. Ayer, Newberry Library, Chicago. 

Miss Estelle Reel, Supt. all Indian Schools, Washington. 

W. J. McGee, Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of Ethnology. 

P. W. Putnam, Peabody Museum, Harvard College. 

Stewart Culin, University of Pennsylvania. 

Geo. A. Dorsey, Field Columbian Museum, Chicago. 

Dr.T. Mitchell Prudden, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Dr. Geo. J. Engelmann, Boston. 

Miss Alice C. Fletcher, Washington. 

F. W. Hodge, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 

Hamlin Garland, author, Chicago. 

Mrs. F. N. Doubleday, New York. 

Dr. Washington Matthews, Washington. 

Hon. A. K. Smiley (Mohonk), Redlands, Cal. 

George Kennan, Washington. 

(Others to be added.) 
Treasurer, W. C. Patterson, Prest. Los Angeles National Bank. 


Amelia B. Hollenback, Josephine W. Drexel. 

>KD TAPE is a hard thing to wait on, for all concerned. It 
is now perilously near two years since the Supreme Court 
of the United States gave Warner's Ranch to the Downey 
heirs, thereby evicting the Indians who had always lived there ; 
and it is not strange that the successful claimants feel it about 
time they were given possession. It took six months to get an 
Inspector out to hunt a new home for the nearly 300 Indians 
thus dispossessed ; and then he made a mess of the job. It took 
six months — and the overwhelming proof of his failure — to 
procure the appointment of a competent Commission to do the 
work right. Thanks solely to the direct interposition of the 


President, the Commission's report was adopted only 18 days 
after it reached Washington. 

It took the Commission three days to get ]into the field ; and 
it worked day and night till its task was done, and done right. 
The only delay in the matter, at this end of the line, was in pro- 
curing the abstracts of title — and that was because many little 
holdings were included, and some had to go through probate. 
Furthermore, all were put in order here, precisely to avoid the 
need of question or delay from Officialdom. And these abstracts 
were receipted for in Washington November 14. Since that 
date they have reposed in the office of the Attorney General. 

Meantime, the season of the rains has come, and is more than 
half gone. In California, the man who thinks to raise a crop, 
this year of grace, has his grain in the ground. Unless he 
gets it in mighty quick, now, he will not harvest a straw. And 
here is where two more parties suffer, so the thing is now a 
three-sided hardship. 

The two-score Americans who last May tied up their 15 little 
farms to the Government for a home .for the Warner's Ranch 
Indians — they will need crops somewhere, this year. But 
where ? If they plant where they are, does anyone expect the 
Government would^pay them for this extra, when the transfer 
is made ? Most of them, acting under good advice, have bought 
farms elsewhere, and made a payment. The next payment is 
due — and they cannot meet it because the Government hasn't 
paid them. They cannot go ahead and plant the new farms 
till they have more nearly paid for them. And there you are. 
And there they are. 

The evicted Indians, after waiting as long as they dared, 
have, of course, in desperation gone ahead to plant the ancient 
fields from which they are to be removed before they can har- 
vest. It would seem hard enough for them to lose their beloved 
oldlhomes, without this added aggravation ; and it will unques- 
tionably complicate the difficulty of their removal. They will 
have had all the labor of planting for nothing — for who is 
going to pay them ? And just incidentally, if the removal is 
delayed past the last day possible for planting — which is very 
near — - it means that the Government will have to feed these 
300 people one full year longer than if it had got its business 
done inltime for them to put in a crop this year. If they had 
been, even by the first of January, on the lands the Commission 
selected, they would have bylthis coming fall larger crops than 
they ever raised in their lives, and would be practically on their 
feet for good. 

As these pages are printing, word comes from the President 


and Senator Bard that things have been " stirred up " again. 
And the Attorney General " hoped," January 11, to have the ab- 
stracts through his office " in a very few days." Let us pray 
that he be not disappointed. 

Later — January 24th, the Attorney General passed on the 
title as perfect. The transaction will be closed at once. 

* * 

An alleged corrupt "order" to the Mission Indians of the 
Torres reservation, out on the deserts of the Colorado, to re- 
move from their old home to another portion of their reserva- 
tion — where the Government is to put down artesian wells for 
them — has caused sensation in some newspapers; and an elo- 
quent "Appeal of the Indians to the President to Save Them " 
has naturally alarmed many lovers of justice. 

The Executive Committee of the League is sifting the case, 
and feels safe in predicting that no crookedness will go through, 
even if it has been planned, as is not probable. The Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs is wholly "with" the League in the 
intention that the Mission Indians shall not be further out- 
raged. The fact that the "appeal" was evidently written, 
and is jointly signed, by the leech-lawyer John Brown (who 
was catalogued in this department of the December number), 
tends to mitigate the alarm one might otherwise feel at the 
imminent oppression foretold by it. Even so, Mr. Brown memo- 
rialized the President that the Warner's Ranch Commission and 
Commissioner Jones were Bad Men and generically Unfriendly 
to Indians. 

At any rate, the truth will be known, presently and precisely ; 
and then acted upon, "according." It appears, at this stage of 
the investigation, to be true that — with the predestination 
which seems to make Government surveyors blunder whenever 
they measure for an Indian reservation, and never in the 
Indian's favor — the reservation was never made to include 
Martinez village at all ; and that Martinez is not only 
not on the reservation, but belongs to the State of Cali- 
fornia, and is not subject to the national government in any 
way. But if this is true, the remedy is, of course, not in 
the direction taken by Brown — the same "lawyer" who was 
going to reverse the Supreme Court of the United States for a 
$25 fee from the harried and poor Indians of Warner's Ranch. 
Even the President has as little power to touch California State 
lands for the Torres Indians as he had to upset the Supreme 
Court for those of Warner's Ranch. Senate Bill 5212, to ex- 
change Section 16, on which Martinez stands, for lands else- 
where in the State, after which Section 16 could be added to the 
reservation, failed to pass last year. If it could pass this year 
— as it ought — the whole trouble would be solved. But the 
President doesn't pass bills, even on appeal of J. Brown. 

* * 

In this department will be printed next month a reading and 
reference list of books on Indians. 

C. P. L 




J. G. Mossin. 
Henry W. O'Melveny. 
Rev. M. S. Liebana. 
Sumner P. Ham. 
Arthur B. Benton. 
Margaret Collier Graham. 
Chas. F. Lummis. 


President, Chas. F. Lummis. 
Vice-President, Margaret Collier Graham. 
Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, 114 N. Sprinr St. 
Treasurer, J. G. Mossin, California Bank. 
Corresponding- Secretary, Mrs. M. E. Stilson. 
812 Kensington Road. 

Chairman Membership Committee, Mrs. J. G. Mossin, 1033 Santee St. 

Honorary Life Members : R. Egan, Tessa L. Kelso. 

Life Members : Jas. B. Lankershim, J. Downey Harvey, Edward E. Ayer, John F. 
Francis, Mrs. John F.Francis, Mrs. Alfred Solano, Margaret Collier Graham, Miss Collier 
Andrew McNally, Rt. Rev. Geo. Montgomery, Miss M. F. Wills, B. F. Porter, Prof. Chas. 
C. Bragdon, Mrs. Jas. W. Scott, Mrs. Phebe A. Hearst, Mrs. Annie D. Apperson, Miss 
Agnes Lane, Mrs. M. W. Kincaid, Col. H. G. Otis, H. Jevne, J. R. Newberry, Dr. W. Jarvis 
Barlow, Marion Brooks Barlow, Geo. W. Marstou, Chas. L. Hntchinson, TJ. S. Grant, jr., 
Isabel M. R. Severance, Mrs. Louisa C. Bacon, Miss Susan Bacon, Mrs. Mira Hershey, 
Jeremiah Ahem, William Marshall Garland, Geo. L. Fleitz, Miss Josephine W. Drexel. 
Mrs. Sarah M. Utt, Miss Anita Utt, Emily Runyon Earl. 

Advisory Board : Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R. Egan, W. C. Patterso», 
Adeline Stearns Wing, Tessa L. Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas. Cassat Davis, Miss 
M. F. Wills, C. D. Willard, John F. Francis, Frank J. Polley, Rev. Hugh K. Walker, 
Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Lee, Rt. Rev. Joseph H. Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles, Mrs. 
Caroline M. Severance. 


fHE Landmarks Club Cook-Book will be on the market in Los An- 
geles in a few days, and will meet a recognized need. While it is 
published for the benefit of the Club, to enable further work in pre- 
serving the Missions, it is no catchpenny affair, but a substantial cloth- 
bound octavo volume of over 250 pages, and as a cook-book one of the most 
satisfactory ever printed. It is also the only one of its kind — "A Cali- 
fornia collection of the best recipes from everywhere " (gathered from 
famous housewives of many lands now resident in this State) ; and with 
particular emphasis on the typical dishes of California and Spanish Amer- 
ica. A chapter on this distinctive cookery, with recipes for a large number 
of the most famous dishes of old California, Mexico, Peru, etc., is contri- 
buted by Chas. F. Lummis. So far as is known, no other cook-book extant 
in English covers this interesting ground ; and these are not make-believe 
Spanish dishes, but the real thing. The book is of real value, and will be 
welcomed by housekeepers not only in California but wherever the need is 
felt of dishes not only new but good. Perhaps no other volume contains 
recipes for so large a number of toothsome concoctions that will be novel 
to so many American housewives. 

There is a brief sketch, also, of the work of the Landmarks Club, with 
many illustrations of the Missions it is saving. Altogether the book will 
be a " good thing to have in the house," and a good thing to send to a 
friend. The price will probably be $1.50 net. Printed for the Landmarks 
Club by the Out West Co., 115 S. Broadway, Los Angeles. 


Previously acknowledged, $5,915.50. 

New contributions, $1 each — Miss Elizabeth W. Johnson, West New 
Brighton, N. Y.; Mrs. Francis Fisher Browne, Pasadena, Cal.; Edmund G. 
Hamersly, Philadelphia; Juliette Estelle Mathis, San Francisco, Cal.; 
Miss Smead, Mrs. J. S. Pierce, Los Angeles. 

lgJtf|HE LION has never been fierce and forward for statehood 
to be given New Mexico and Arizona. It is a large 
question for a small mind ; and after only half a life of 
study he doesn't feel that he is Quite There. Which rather 
bears out Senator Beveridge's proclaimed gospel* that the more 
a man learns a country the less he really knows about it. For 
the gentleman from Indiana, after knowing the Territories al- 
most as many days as the Lion has known them years, is Dead 

Now, be it said at the outset that Senator Beveridge's report 
to Congress in opposition to statehood does not merit the 
abuse it has received in some Western quarters. It shows some 
work, and an excellent spirit of tolerance. It is entirely logical 
that one who thinks the Filipinos have no rights to self-govern- 
ment because they are Far and "Furrin," should feel, that 
Americans who are also a Long Way Off from Hooppole town- 
ship have no home-rule rights either ; but Mr. Beveridge has 
plainly tried not to be Scared in the Woolly West ; and not to 
be too hard on his intellectual and oral inferiors. Perhaps this 
is a sarcastic way of saying it ; but that is for the fault of his 
kind, and not of Mr. Beveridge, sole. He has really done very 
well. That he did not do even better is the blame of his en- 
vironment. And the findings on his argument are as to the 
Opposition he leads, rather than aimed at him individually. 

He justly observes that in considering the admission of a 
State there are two things to be weighed : 

1st, the interests of the people in it ; 

2nd, the interests of the remainder of the Republic. 

Also, he is right in holding that the second consideration should 
have as much weight as the first. It should have more. We 
decided, nearly forty years ago, that the Republic is more than 
the State Rights, or even the property rights and the human 
lives, of almost half of it. 

But here our paths part. Mr. Beveridge fears the m _ 

,. thb FORKS 

average morality of the nation's politics and pocket- of thb 

book would be injured by the admission of New Mexico RC 

and Arizona. This may remind the cynical of a certain elegy 

by Goldsmith : 

*See Aug-usl, 1902, p. 222. 


" The man recovered of the bite, 
The dog it was that died." 

Territorial politics are mean enough ; but they would make a 
white mark on the politics of New York, Pennsylvania, and 
some other States — not excepting the one which invented 
"Blocks of Five" (Mr. B.'s own) — and are fully up to the 
national average. And as to being Seen on the Street Together, 
Santa Fe or Phoenix might well say to Washington, Philadel- 
phia, New York and Chicago : " Well, if /can stand it, I guess 
you can." 

But some who have been really unable to shiver lest the Vir- 
tuous States be corrupted, deject and altogether deflowered, by 
taking two more apprentices into the family — some such have 
refrained from urgency, because they were not sure of the 
present benefit of statehood to the people of the two Territories. 
The politicians, yes, and at once ; the people sometime, as cer- 
tainly. But just now ? 

Yet this is really timid. Statehood is the destiny and the right 
of American communities. Self government is the American 
Idea. And the way we learn self-government is by using it. 
One of the hardest things for the "statesman" to remember 
who plays his researches in one-night stands, is that the Repub- 
lic is the Privilege of Misgoverning Ourselves. It isn't Com- 
pulsory for us to be "run" by Tammanies and Platts and so 
on ; but we May if we Prefer. And though the advantage of 
the nation is paramount, we do not think to clap these malad- 
ministered States back into the calaboose of territorialism. If 
they Like It So, they are Entitled. 

It is an edged tool with which the Senator toys, 

IT WOKK.S . & , . - 

both when he maintains that the Territories really have 

ways, already all the self-government anyone needs, you 
know ; and that they shouldn't mind being unable to 
choose their own governors, senators and judiciary. He 
believes the national government gives them better gov- 
ernors and judges than they would be likely to elect 
for themselves at present ; and that they are just as well off 
without senators. Here is one of the last persons extant with 
whom he can pick a quarrel on either point. But quite as much 
is true of Indiana. A president — certainly if he were Roose- 
velt, and tried real hard — could give the Hoosier State rather 
better officials than it chooses. And this is true anywhere. But 
in spite of the many obvious merits of an Intelligent Despot- 
ism, we haven't adopted it. We still prefer a democracy, ill 
and unfairly as we oft administer it. 


An Automatic Forgettery, and the ability to see in a HAVING BYES 
crowd only the man or fact that can serve you, are al- they 

ways convenient in politics. The people too poor to SKE NOT - 

afford them, sometimes become Statesmen. Nowadays we in- 
cline to be surprised and grateful when a Senator seriously 
knows, or cares seriously to study — or to have his clerk compile 
for him — something of some one item of the history of his 
country. Some do ; more do not. 

Senator Beveridge's chief argument — though possibly not 
his chief concern — is the matter of population. Perhaps the 
people of the two Territories would look just as few to him if 
they were reliable for a good majority for the Party. This is 
not invidious. "Every politician gets some color to his specta- 
cles from these things. But in any event, the whole argument 
is as "preposterous " as the Springfield Republican justly calls 
his position that nowadays a Territory should not be admitted 
till it has at least 1,650,000 inhabitants. As that dean of New 
England journals also points out, most of his entire case could 
have been made just as truthfully, at the time, against the ad- 
mission of half the States that are now in the Union. The 
gravity with which he presents his treatise on what are, and 
what should be, the population-requirements for statehood, be- 
comes ludicrous in face of his innocence of history. For the 
census is so easy that even a clerk can "dig it out." Now, for 
the benefit of such as may need it : 

There were Thirteen original States. They were confounded 
not Admitted, but Just Came In, together. The first by our 

census of the United States covered them all. Five of OWN HISTORY - 

them were smaller in population than New Mexico now is ; 
three were smaller than Arizona. 

Vermont was the first State "Admitted to the Union." It 
hadn't nearly as many people as Arizona has, nor half as many 
as New Mexico. 

In all, 32 States have been " admitted." Twenty of them had, 
at admission, fewer people than New Mexico has ; and a third 
of them had fewer than Arizona has. 

Mr. Beveridge thinks New Mexico hasn't enough people to 
entitle it to be admitted as a State ; but it has almost 50,000 
more people than his own State of Indiana had four years after 
its admission. Let us bow in prayer for a moment. 

New Mexico has 40,000 more population than Illinois had 12 
years after admission ; almost 60,000 more than Missouri had 
13 years after admission ; 90,000 more than Tennessee had 4 
years after admission ; 40,000 more than Louisiana had 8 years, 
or Vermont 9 years, after their admission. 


New Mexico has more than twice as many people as California 
had ; three times as many as Oregon had ; more than three 
times as many as Ohio or Kentucky had ; over ten per cent, 
more than Minnesota had ; twice as many as Arkansas had, 
when they were respectively admitted. 

New Mexico has more people than Florida had 25 years after 
it was admitted 1 It has more than Iowa or Colorado had four 
years after their admission. It has more people than Kansas, 
or Missouri, or Idaho, or Wyoming, or Nevada had ; and almost 
as many as Texas had ; and within 15,000 of as many as Michi- 
gan had. 

So much for the "admitted " States. As to the Immortal Thir- 
teen, New Mexico has, in round numbers, 10,000 more people 
than New Jersey had ; 50,000 more than New Hampshire had ; 
110,000 more than Georgia had; 130,000 more than Rhode 
Island had ; 140,000 more than Delaware had, when they mutu- 
ally erected themselves into a Union of sovereign States. 

To sum up, New Mexico has a larger population than had any 
of five of the original, or any of twenty of the admitted States. 
That is, 25 out of the total 45 States in the Union did not have 
as many people when they were crowned with statehood as New 
Mexico has today. 

As for Arizona, the following States had smaller populations 
when they "got in" than the Territory now has — Kansas, 
Ohio, Illinois, Mississippi, Tennessee, Florida, Kentucky, Cal- 
ifornia, Arkansas, Oregon, Vermont, Georgia, Rhode Island, 
Delaware. And probably also Missouri, Indiana, and Alabama. 
At the next census, from one to nine years after their admission, 
these had but a few thousand — 20,000 for Missouri, in 9 years — 
above Arizona's present population. Arizona by the way, has 
within 2,000 of as many people as Delaware had in 1870, when 
it had been 80 years a State. And no Addicks. 

The mantle of Elijah is a reverend garment when it hath 
fallen upon Elisha; but when Elisha falls- upon it, to save the 
trouble of clothing himself with knowledge, it is a tricky wrap, 
most prone to fly off and discover his nakedness. And this is 
true not only of prophecy in words, but of the effective prophecy 
of acts or of Do-Nothing. Mr. Beveridge of course does not 
say that New Mexico and Arizona will always remain unpopulous 
and inconsequent; but that provincial Eastern belief is all on 
earth the whole opposition means — excepting where it means 
political partisanship. That is the Tenderfoot of it. 

some ixurcsM * or you cant sem Pi ternal b' Sometimes Toll. When 

of "just the two became federal States together, Virginia had 

guessing." f ar morc than twice as many people as New York, and 


was by 75" per cent, the biggest State in the little Union. To- 
day, Virginia is 17th in rank, and has but little more than one- 
quarter the population of New York. The one chief city of the 
Empire State has nearly twice as many people as the whole area 
of the Mother of Presidents. Illinois began federal house- 
keeping with two-thirds as many people as Massachusetts did; 
but today it counts more than three times as many inhabitants 
as the Old Bay State. Vermont and Ohio entered the Union 
only eleven years apart; Vermont three times the more populous. 
Today, Vermont has less than one-twelfth the population of 
Ohio. And the provincials of that day would have smiled as 
pityingly as their successors do, if any one had arisen to foretell 
the Thing that Was To Be within only sixty years or so. 

It is not likely, in the Lion's judgment, that New Mexico and 
Arizona will, with the imminent century, so crushingly 
"Mock the wisdom of the Wise 
And the valor of the Brave" 

that guess at them afar off, or dare them on a Pullman. But as 
strange things politically have happened. On the opening 
pages of this present magazine are quoted the words of two 
men who were — it is certainly not offensive to say — more learn- 
ed than any statesman now fighting the admission of the two 
Territories. No one need feel injured by being put after Web- 
ster and Whitney. And the way they "missed it" may well be a 
warning to less entitled guessers at the bean-jar of futurity. If 
anyone in 1840 had prophesied the finances we know now, he 
would have been detained as a maniac. There "wasn't gold 
enough in the world to do it," you know. But irrigation is a 
far greater upsetting of "orthodox" ideas than the discovery of 
Sound Money was. No man may reckon its outcome — except 
that it will be prodigious. And the two Territories will be 
"among those present." 

Furthermore, it does seem that to anyone searching wkewisb, of 
the census rather for truth than for props to a pre- getting tired 


judged case, it might have occurred to investigate how 
the bald statistics of population "stand." Figures mean noth- 
ing, anywhere, until they are compared with other figures ; 
and even a schoolboy might have gone a step beyond the kinder- 
garten discovery of which commonwealths have the most popu- 
lation. But there are people who do not know how to " so, 
Boss ! " even when the Cow of Knowledge Comes to them 
to be Milked. Or perhaps Mr. Beveridge's clerk got Tired 
too Soon. By keeping awake just a little longer, he could have 
discovered that Arizona, though its population is small, has 
gained more people in the last ten years than have Kansas and 
Delaware put together ; more than have New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont and Delaware, put together ; more than has any one of ten 
political divisions of the Union ; and more than eight times as 
many as has Nebraska. Of poor Nevada, we need not make an 


argument ; but the table below* is commended to the attention 
of several Darkest-Easterners. This, of course, is in actual 
numbers. As for per cent, of increase in population in the 
decade, it may be uninteresting- to that class, but it is a census 
fact, that not one State in the Union comes anywhere near Ari- 
zona, and only the Territory of Oklahoma leads it. Only three 
States have half its percentage of increase — and none of these 
are in the East. Only five States in the East — being liberal, 
and counting Florida and Illinois as "East" — have one quarter 
as high a per cent, of increase. Indiana's per cent, is about 
one-sixth of Arizona's. 

what is, Now it does concern such a study as the Senate 

AN pKR S TiNK-NT Committee was called upon to make, whether the popu- 
lation is stationary or climbing. It doesn't concern 
it that the Territories have fewer people than most States, 
or even than some congested cities. People of ordinary 
sense understand that, beforehand. If the Territories were 
States already, they wouldn't be asking to be made States. 
Altogether, it is not too much to say that the entire use of 
comparative statistics in the Beveridge report is rather in- 
sulting to the public intelligence ; and that its choice of 
direction and limitation would appear dishonest were it not 
so palpably ignorant. Most of the States of the Union were, 
when they came in, smaller and poorer than they are now, 
and than some of the older ones were then. As for the further 
plea (the only comparison into which the Senator waded even 
ankle-deep) that the Territories have fewer people than some 
cities — why, for that matter, neither has Indiana two-thirds as 
many as the city of New York. That sort of " parallel " could 
be used upon many States ; but the primary class in arithmetic 
generally gets over trying to "find the sum of thirteen potatoes 
and four apples." 

tew, mb not With this little answer from our history and from the 

1N 'otmbkss census of 1900 — both of which are so ridiculously easy to be 
consulted, if anyone is so constituted as to Like to Learn — 
the question of numerical population may perhaps consider itself 
taken in and done for. Mr. Beveridge's further argument that 
this innumerousness — portentous and alarming as he finds it per 
se — is all the more menacing to Free Institutions because the 
Territories are big in area, needs no long attention. There will 
be estimable people to read, as solemn^ as he wrote, the tables 
and "comparisons" which index his conviction that the 195,000 
New Mexicans are unfortunate and really abnormal in not being 

* Increase of population from 1890 to 1900. Figures from U. S. Census 

State Pop. 1890 Pop. 1900 l" cr, £? e 


Arizona 59,620 122.931 63,311 

District of Columbia 230,392 278,718 48,326 

Kansas 1,427,096 1,470,495 43.399 

New Mexico 153,593 195.310 41,717 

New Hampshire 376,530 411,588 35,058 

Maine 661,086 694,466 380 

Wyoming 60,705 92.531 31.826 

Delaware 168,493 184,735 K..242 

Vermont 332,422 343,641 11.. 


crowded into such space as so many Americans bump one 
another withal in Jersey City. And with these it is waste of 
breath to argue. It may be suggested, however, that thus there 
is all the more room for Tenderfeet— or, seriously, that a new 
State might have worse faults than lands for home-seekers and 

But when he maintains that because New Mexico has only 
1.6 persons to the square mile, and Arizona 1.1, they are there- 
fore too sparsely settled to be admitted as States, — why, again 
History and the Census wag their heads at him. Even Arizona 
is more densely populated than Illinois was when admitted; 
about as densely as Ohio was; almost twice as densely as Oregon 
or California were. New Mexico is more thickly settled than 
Ohio, Illinois, Florida, Georgia, California or Oregon were when 
they became States. Does anyone suggest that they were a mis- 
take? Mr. Beveridge wishes all new States to be large in area, 
but he would that they become, before they may have statehood, 
almost as thick with humanity as the crowded, tomato-patch- 
sized States most Westerners have come West precisely to es- 
cape the sardining of. 

Driven from the redoubt of "numbers," the Opposi- the terror 
tion at once falls back on its more intimate ditch — Underfoot 

"Well, but what sort of a population?" And here the 
Tender Foot shows cloven — not merely the uncomfortable corn 
of ignorance of history, but the old bifidity of race and religi- 
ous prejudice, of hatred of the Fellow and the Thing we Don't 
Know. WE don't know them? Then What Business have they, 

Through this very ticklish matter, Mr. Beveridge, in his re- 
port, carries himself as a gentlemen and a Senator should. He 
is fair minded, dignified, considerate. Would that it might be 
added that he is wise. Or even consistent — for he has 
been one of the leading champions of our gobbling ten million 
other people who Cannot Talk English. 

In very fact, a great deal of Spanish is spoken in HIS 
New Mexico ; and in Arizona, more than a West- pious 


from-the-Car-Window tourist understands. Over both 
noble landscapes still wander many Persons who Pursue 
Cows, and more that Hunt Holes — and dig 'em, and get 
Stuff out — and other Desperate Characters. There are 
many people who cannot write. I believe Abraham 
Lincoln's mother could not. There are a still larger number who 
do not wear kid gloves, nor that crowning triumph of intellect- 
uality, the "Plug Hat. " Neither did Horace Greeley. There are 
also saloons and games of chance ; and one can fancy the pious 
shock to a gentleman from Washington at discovering, in the 
Wicked West, that such things as the two latter can be, to over- 
come us like a summer crowd without our special wonder. Also 
the unction with which he sees and says that the openness of 
them proves the moral unfitness for statehood of com- 
munities which tolerate it. The only Truly Moral way, 
of course, is to put a green screen before these omnipresent 
vices and to make them a means of support-by-blackmail for 
thousands of base parasites who are always useful in Practical 


Politics; as is the fashion in New York — and, though not al- 
ways so shamelessly, in every other large city in the Union. 

TUERB As to the language, there are not so many people 

ARE OTHERS in New Mexico who speak Spanish as there are people 
in Ohio or Wisconsin who talk German when they can 
do as they prefer, though there is a greater proportion. The 
multitudes of Poles and Hungarians, in Pennsylvania and other 
coal-mining States; the Canadian French in New England, the 
Italian and Yiddish and Swedish and German one hears 
in various Eastern communities — aren't the mighty 
gastric juices of the Republic at work on these? In 
Cincinnati, surrounded with English-speaking associates, 
thousands of mighty good American people still talk 
German by choice when they have a chance. In New Mexico, 
the preponderance of nativity is all the other way; and then the 
unhumorous descendant of the People that Have to be Tre- 
panned, wonders why everyone hasn't already forgotten his 
native tongue in joy of the English! And Senator Beveridge, I 
believe, is of them that expect to make English the language of 
the Philippines ! 

^anguagb Now so far as a rather extraordinar) f experience 

not ^ e £ rimb teaches, this outcry against the Territories for their 
linguistic impertinence comes almost exclusively from 
people who themselves know only one language — and 
that, most of them, no better than the law allows. Spanish 
isn't fatal. Several good men have spoken it and still 
survived to the appointed span. Even a Yankee may 
be immune. And I think I can find in New Mexico about twice 
as many persons who talk two languages as Senator Beveridge 
can find in Indianapolis ; and about four times as many who can 
get along in three. 

"But it isn't American." Sho! Neither is ignorance. Eighty 
years before English was spoken anywhere in the New World, 
this other European tongue was talked in what is now United 
States — to say nothing of the equal historic fact that earlier 
yet it had reached over most of the habitable parts of the two 
continents. To this day, it is current over a larger area in 
America than English is. So it isn't so ^///-American as some. 
New Mexico had Christianity and civilization before New Eng- 
land had. And without insisting upon other even more odious 
historic comparisons, New Mexico has taught the nation more 
about so simple a thing as farming than New England — and 
Indiana — ever did. When more "Americans" fill up New Mex- 
ico, the natives will learn English quite as fast, with relation to 
environment, as the Germans or French learn it in Eastern 
States. A Senator ought not to need to be reminded of this. 

what the As a sheer matter of fact — and perhaps it is not bu- 

nt* MJJ 1 ^! modest to doubt if any person now extant is familiar 
with a larger number of them — the Spanish-speaking 
people of New Mexico are as good Americans as we need. They 
are a decent, god-fearing, law-respecting, hospitable, gentle 
people. And an intensely patriotic one. Doubtless it escaped 
Senator Beveridge's memory that they saved the West to the 
Union. As Von Moltke saw and said, the "joint in our back- 


bone " was the Rio Grande valley. Even the Confederates 
guessed a little of this. The North was handsfull with 
troubles of its nearer own, and did nothing-. But when Sibley 
came up the Rio Grande to split the Union, New Mexico sent 
him home baffled. Glorieta was a good deal more significant 
and far reaching than many battles wherein a hundred times as 
man} r were slain, and battles that people have Heard Of. 
Enough "rebels" were killed; and the South heard of it, if 
the North did not. And the man who saved that great day 
was a noble old New Mexican who couldn't talk English — Col. 
Manuel Chaves. 

But we stray from Congressional logic. To return, monkeying 
Mr. Beveridge is peculiarly unfortunate in all his shy WITH census 

flirtations with the census. In mining, for instance, he 
compares New Mexico and Arizona with the three States that 
are the world's giants ; and rules them out because they do not 
" stack up." Why not compare them with Fellows Their Size ? 
Arizona produces more than eighteen and a half millions of 
dollars a year from her mines. How about Indiana ? How 
about mining in two-thirds of the States ? And possibly it has 
missed the gentleman's notice that in per capita of manufactured 
products Arizona is well ahead of Indiana ; being above the 
average for the Union, while Indiana is away below it.* 

He has also doubtless forgotten, in enumerating the resources of 
the two Territories, to mention the trivial fact that New Mexico 
has just as many square miles of forests as Maine — and if he had 
been adjudicating Maine instead of New Mexico he might have 
remembered lumber as an asset — with the hardly less trivial 
fact that the two Territories together have some 30% more area 
of forest than all six New England States in a lump. 

In its undigested tables of stock-raising, the report serious 
utterly avoids comparison — which might have been SINS OB 

interesting. It gives no hint that only two States in the 
Union have as many sheep as New Mexico — which 
has nearly 900,000 more than Ohio, the next in rank ; 
or almost as many as the greatest sheep-State east of 
the Missouri, with all six New England States thrown in. 
And Arizona has more sheep than all New England. In cattle, 
New Mexico has more than any one of 28 States, being 20th in 
rank in the Union. Arizona has more than any one of twenty 
States. The two Territories combined have more cattle than 
all New England, whose six States have over seventeen times 
the joint population of Arizona and New Mexico. 

The same sort of a judicial mind shows forth throughout. In 
agriculture, Senator Beveridge compares the two Territories 
not with even the average States but with the Whoppers. New 
Mexico and Arizona don't produce a tithe as much wheat and 
corn as Illinois, Minnesota, Kansas, etc. So they are evidently 
too poor cereally for statehood. But at the last census, New 
Mexico raised more than two and a half times as much corn, 

* Rank in Union. 

Val. mfd. products 
per capita 

Arizona 17 $173.39 

Whole Union * 170.90 

Indiana 21 150.26 

226 OUT W E S 1 

and more than six times as much wheat as Maine, which has 
over three and one-half times its population. Even Arizona 
raised four and a half times as much wheat as the Pine Tree 
State. While in Maine the total value of farm property is less 
than one-tenth of one per cent, above what it was ten years ago, 
the total value of farm property in New Mexico has gained more 
than 200 per cent, in the same decade, and the total value of farm 
products 469 per cent. As for Arizona, whose "great occupation 
is mining," in the words of the report, he has similarly forgot- 
ten to learn — or at least to record — the fact that in the last 
ten years the value of its farms has increased over 160 per cent, 
and the value of its farm products 470 per cent. In the same de- 
cade the increase of the whole Union in these two items was 
only 28 and 92 per cent., respectively. The number of farms in 
Arizona is more than four times what it was ten years ago; 
while New Hampshire* has increased only 95 farms in fifty years. 
In ten years, too, the Territory has built 545 miles of irrigating 
canals, and increased its irrigated lands by nearly 120,000 acres. 
Incidentally, this land averages to be worth nearly six times as 
much per acre after it is made irrigable as it was before. 

figures All this does not look much like stagnation of agri- 

TH something culture in either Territory. The figures in their favor 
could be spun long, but there is no need. It will suffice 
to make a casual comparison in per capita value of total farm 
products in a few States ;t mildly showing that herein New 
Mexico and Arizona lead some pretty respectable common- 
wealths ; and that on the other hand the Senator's own Indiana, 
though a rich farming State, is Small Potatoes beside some 
others. The list could be considerably extended — both to the 
advantage of the Territories and the disadvantage of Indiana. 
They are not so far behind it — except in malaria. In this per 
capita, either Territory runs a close second to the great farming 
State of Illinois, surpasses mighty Ohio, doubles New York, and 
quadruples Massachusetts. All of which has rather more per- 
tinence to any sober consideration of the case than has the 
labored proof that the Territories are not so old at twenty-one 
as they would be at eighty. The point is that they are growing 
faster in most respects than most of the present States ; and 
that they are already Old Enough to Vote. 

* See pasre 157 

f Remembering- that " total farm products" include something- be- 
cereals, and bearing in mind the "dairies, fruits and live-stock sold or 
slaughtered," in some of the States below, the list is extra interesting. 
Figures (in even dollars) from U. S. Census, 1900. 

Per capita Per capita 

New Mexico $52 N.Dakota $169 

Arizona SO S. Dakota 

Ohio 48 Iowa 118 

Michigan 45 Kansas 109 

Maine 39 Montana % 

New Hampshire 38 Idaho 90 

New York 25 Oregon 

Connecticut 24 Wrmont 64 

Pennsylvania 24 Indiana 62 

Ma- 12 Illinois 55 


The entire report is of course based purely on "business" 
"business." Had Senator Hoar been of the Committee, THA business. 

he might have taken the Eastern view; but he cer- 
tainly would have inquired if there were any obliga- 
tions of honor or of treaty involved. Senator Beveridge 
is by now well hardened in looking only for national 
"advantage." But the only argument in his whole quiver which 
is either true or sensible, even as "business," is that if this 
Congress doesn't let them in, some other can ; and that if they 
were let in, and it proved a mistake, it could not be undone. So 
soon does the "Tomorrow habit," for which New Mexico has so 
often been ridiculed, seem to have been contagious ! But it is all 
a little cowardly. The business of this Congress is to Find Out, 
and then Act. One doesn't find out much, however, with so sup- 
erficial effort as the Senate Committee has satisfied itself withal. 

There are people in the United States to whom it is AND 


not idle to say that American citizenship has a few 

other metes, bounds, standards and rights, besides those 
measured by "What's he Got?" and "What's In It?" There 
are even people who have heard of such a thing as the treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo, and who understand that the citizens of 
New Mexico and Arizona have a double claim on the nation, 
such as none of the old States had — not only the inherent right 
of American communities to home rule, but the added solemn 
pledge of this Goverment, in the aforesaid treaty, to the people 
it took over from Mexico after the war made by the Beveridges 
of that day. And most of the people who know enough of his- 
tory to know this, have morals enough to apply it ; as have also 
some others. No nation ever found ' k advantage " — for long — by 
being either unjust or ignorant. No nation ever will. It is not 
the Territories that will lose most, if still denied, but the coun- 
try. For a time at the outset, in the Lion's unimportant opin- 
ion, the people of the Territories would suffer somewhat by 
Statehood. There are many unhanged scoundrels there — and 
mostly where the largest apples are found — though none so per- 
nicious as every crowded State harbors. But the way to learn 
to walk is to Walk. When the interest on this Principle falls 
due, both nation and Territories will be the richer if the Amer- 
ican Idea be not sacrificed now to the God of Chatham street. 

Since these pages were put in type there comes to hand The 
Outlook, of January 24, with a "Defense of New Mexico," by a 
New Mexican, so vigorous and so truthful — and incidentally show- 
ing how the Beveridge Committee "investigated" — that it is 
worth anyone's reading. Though it sharply raps The Outlook 
for early comments on the matter ( many of which comments 
were so grossb 7 mistaken as to be surprising in that habitually 
valuable journal ) the editors admit that it is the strongest ar- 
gument they have yet seen for Statehood. But neither that, nor 
this, nor any other presentment now liable, can exhaust the log- 
ical, the historical, the ethical, even the " business " baselessness 
and absurdity of the fight against statehood. Nor, probably, 
relieve any large number of certain people of their present 
lively sense of the Impertinence of the Things They Don't Know. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 




which rs 


One of the competent measures of 
a man is the size of the task he wit- 
tingly assumes. Another is the degree 
with which power to do toughens, in the doing, and 

vision of that which is to do broadens. A third is his theory and practice 
of the use of the pruning-knife. By any one of these yardsticks applied 
to his latest — and last — work, Frank Morris was a great novelist. For the 
"Epic of the Wheat" — that mighty trilogy which shall now never be 
completed — grasps boldly at the huge, elemental forces of nature — the 
blind " Will to Live," unmoral, without self-consciousness, striding along 
its appointed way ; crushing this man or that community with neither 
hatred nor relenting ; tossing to another the thing it hungers after with 
equal indifference. It gazes upon the liyesof men and women, one after an- 
other ; follows each in its eager-eyed pursuit of wealth or leadership or 
love ; watches each struggler winning or losing in his own particular 
game — but always blindly serving his purpose in the great game he does 
not guess of. Now this is the motive and the inspiration of the immortal 
Greek tragedies. It is the summing up of religious creeds as far apart on the 
surface as those taught by the Prince Gautama, Marcus Aurelius and John 
Calvin. It is at the heart of Hamlet, of Les Miserable*, of La Comedie 
Hutnaine. Iyittle men have told it in their little stories and philosophies, 
without knowing it. Large men tell it consciously and of set purpose. 
That the drama is shown for the moment in California or Chicago, that a 
railroad or a Stock Exchange is the tool with which destiny works, that 
a wheat-grower or a stock-speculator is the atom in its way — these are 
but the incidents by which the enduring truth is translated into the lan- 
guage of the passing moment. 

That Norris saw his subject in its full bigness is evident in both The 
Octupus and The Pit. Its outlines, somewhat vague at first, became sharp 
aud definite as he worked, the while his hand grew stronger and steadier. 
And while The Octopus would have been much better for trimming down 
and cutting out, The Pit proves that he had discovered this for himself and 
profited by it. 

Eet a student but penetrate deeply enough to the roots of human action, 
and he will be able to interpret it for himself and others as no mere sur- 
face observer, however minutely careful, can possibly do. In The Pit are 
at least half a dozen men and a couple of women who are real creations — 
not clay models nor stuffed automatons nor embodied virtues or vices, but 
live folks pretty much like those we know. Only we can know them better 
than is generally possible from the haphazard and occasional bumping to- 
gether of people outside a novel. Each one of them proves handsomely 
worth knowing, too. It seems hardly necessary to add that the story holds 
one fast from the opening chapters, and that the book is not one to be 
willingly missed. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. $1.50. 

" ' KRK'S Hiram Albert Vance, Ph. D. (Jena), Professor of English in the 

RICHNESS University at Nashville takes himself with mighty seriousness in 

for you ! his function of editorof, Stevenson's Treasure Island — a gravity 


which will hardly be shared by readers with an adequate sense of the rid- 
iculous. The opening sentence of his "Prefatory Note " strides solemnly 
forward like this : 

The immediate interest, unattended by historical perspective or severe analysis, which 
this classic must arouse is, I believe a sufficiently sound pedagogical reason for its appear- 
ance in this series [of English and American classics.] 

Imagine the brain so built that it is unsatisfied without a "sound peda- 
gogical reason " for Treasure Island ! The maddest burlesque could hardly 
outdo the " Subjects For Study And Comparison" offered by this Ph. D. 
of Jena. Here are two of the ten : 

3. Give your appreciation of Jim Hawkins; also of Dick Johnson. 

8. Do the buccaneers all act consistently with Israel Hand's dictum, "I never saw any 
good come o' goodness? " Make your point clear by an analysis of their conduct. 

But it is in the "Notes," which are affirmed to be either explanations of 
sea-terms or suggestions for the enlargement of romantic interest that the 
learned Professor of Literature is at his choicest. His knowledge of sea- 
terms, despite the ocean-trip which he must have taken to win a Ph. D. at 
Jena, bears all the marks of having been obtained on the banks of the 
Cumberland River, from a somewhat incomplete dictionary. Except when 
it is purely a product of constructive imagination — as, for example, his 
explanation of " on a lee-shore." While, as for " romantic interest," Dr. 
Vance clearly knows it only by name and in theory. There is no quicker, 
surer way of utterly destroying a youngster's taste for and appreciation of 
literature than to compel him to " study " it after this fashion. The Mac- 
millan Co., N. Y. 25 cents. 

Rose Standish Nichols's English Pleasure Gardens is thoroughly good 
attractive from front cover to back, inclusive. " Stately " is hardly OUTSIDE 

too large a word to apply to it, both as to form and substance. and IN. 

Its title would have been more accurate had the limiting adjective been 
omitted, since it ranges in time as far back as the days when Assyria and 
Egypt were the " world-powers," and a-field even unto China and 
Japan. The author plainly gathered an immense mass of material and 
selected from it with peculiarly discriminating taste. The illustrations — 
something like 300 of them — include many interesting reproductions of 
choice old plates. The Macmillan Co., New York. $4 net 

Of close kinship in more than one way to the Pleasure Gardens another 
is Alice Morse Earle's Sun Dials and Roses of Yesterday — and a of the 

rare good family it is. The title was not alluring, and I did not same sort. 

expect to be interested. In fact, there is not a dull page in the book. It 
is a most unusual combination of sound and thorough scholarship with a 
warm sympathj' that makes of it a thing alive. For curious information 
it is nothing less than a mine. Here is a possible scientific explanation of ► 
the miracle of Ahaz ; there a quotation from Geoffrey Chaucer's Treatise 
on the Astrolabe, written for his ten-year-old son ; at one point accurate de- 
tails concerning the calendar and festivals of the Aztecs ; at another 
recipes for " a Tart of Hips," and a "Conserve of Roses boyld." Yet it 
is not in the least a patchwork, but a closely woven and harmonious fabric. 
Nor is one of the two hundred and thirty-odd illustrations superfluous. 
F/ven the initial letters at the beginning of each chapter are reproduced from 
the days when the men who made books loved them and spared no pains to 
adorn and beautify them in every detail. It is a book to own and to de- 
light in. The Macmillan Co., New York. $2.50 net. 

From the sun dial in the garden up through the rose-bushes to and 
the house is but a step — and so one comes very naturally to the STii,l a 

last of this really remarkable trio of books to issue from the same third. 

publishers in a single month. This is Furniture of the Olden Time, by 
Frances Clary Morse, a sister of Mrs. Farle, to whom it is dedicated. Its field 
is narrower, being confined to the United States and for the most part to Colo- 
nial days. But it evidences the same patient, delving industry, the same 
habit of the student loving his work and counting no price of effort or 
research too high for making it accurate, complete and beautiful. Here 
again the illustration is both profuse — there are 295 half-tones from photo- 
graphs — and intimate. Three books so finished, so competent, so thor- 
oughly worth while, on cognate subjects and within a single month, is a 
notable record for any publishing house — even that of Macmillan, which 
is more wonted than most to the doing of such things. The Macmillan 
Co., New York. $3 net. 

230 OUT WES T 

now to think Richard Ingalese — whose portrait is very like that of the hand- 

yourself somest, most genial and most successful wholesale cloth-sales- 

kich. man I ever happened to know personally — devotes some 286 pages 
to the History and Power of Mind. It is an eminently practical book, with 
instructions for winning iove, " greater mentality," hundred-dollar bills, 
a piece of carpet three feet long, ©r whatever else one's fancy may run to. 
To get money, for example, one is first to make a mental image of the 
amount wanted in bills of such size as are required. This is the matrix. 
Then "say to the Universal Consciousness, ' give me this creation, ' " and 
keep saying it until you get it. Since " the Universe is the materialization 
of the Divine Idea ; the Spiritual plane received the impress of the Divine 
Mind when creation commenced and the Planetary Spirits seeing the 
picture, poured into it their own vibratory force and so worlds were brought 
into existence," it follows obviously that your mental matrix will some- 
time draw the money to you. If it ever occurred to Mr. Ingalese that one 
way of getting money was by earning it, he has failed to mention the fact. 
The Occult Book Concern, New York. $2. 

thk uses To the volume on the Deer Family in the American Sports- 

of The man's Library, Theodore Roosevelt contributes about half — and 

hunt. a right interesting contribution it is. Mr. Roosevelt thoroughly 
believes in the life in the open, the exposure, the hard work, and the self- 
reliance which go with big-game hunting as of the greatest value in coun- 
teracting the tendency to softness of fiber which develops in cities. He 
counts going after the game much more important than getting it ; and he 
names as the chief attractions in the chase " the chance to be in the wild- 
erness ; to see the sights and hear the sounds of wild nature," and "the 
demand .... upon the qualities of manliness and hardiness." This 
is unimpeachable doctrine, and, as is well known, Mr. Roosevelt evi- 
dences his faith by his works. T. S. Van Dyke treats the " Deer and 
Elk of the Pacific Coast," in his customary informed and agreeable manner ; 
while D. G. Elliot and A. J. Stone are satisfactory upon " The Caribou " 
and "The Moose." The Macmillan Co., New York. $2. 

one This generation is apt to think of George Francis Train, when 

of THE it remembers him at all, as a harmless old denizen of the Mills 

builders. Hotel, erratic to the edge of insanity and liable to break loose at 
almost any unexpected place. It forgets that through the larger part of a 
former generation he was a Power, a Builder, a man of colossal concep- 
tions, and with the nerve and energy to bring them to pass. Before he was 
twenty, he was one of the foremost figures in establishing the clipper-ship 
line around Cape Horn to San Francisco. Before he was thirty, he built 
the first street-railway in England, paying for it out of his own pocket. 
At thirty, he organized the Credit Mobilier, raised the money to commence 
work on the Union Pacific railroad, and in person broke the ground for the 
first mile of railway track ever laid west of the Missouri. The world could 
use any number of men afflicted with this particular brand of eccentricity. 
His Autobiography, lately published, makes very brisk and entertaining 
reading; and if Mr. Train always sees himself at the center of whatever 
was going on, never by any chance on the circumference, that is a habit of 
vision common to many others who have far less justification. D. Apple- 
ton & Co., New York. $1.25 net; postage 12 cents. 

the Trouble The Taskmasters, by George K. Turner, is a rather promising 

WITH introductory volume to the " First Novel " series. It is a story of 

N'inv England. a New England manufacturing town, and is concerned largely 
with the oppressions of employers, the ignorant submissiveness of the em- 
ployed sometimes swelling into rebellion, and the machinations of ring 
politicians. The hero is a young enthusiast who sees his mission to lie in 
reforming things both in general and in particular. He narrowly escapes 
the accustomed fate of reformers, through no fault of his own. It is a 
holding story, earnestly told, and if the author lays on his colors con- 
siderably thicker than they are found in life, that is a fault not confined 
exclusively to "first novels." The final philosophizing is interesting for 
sundry reasons — one of which is the surprise at learning that for a cen- 
tury and a half New England has been "damned with clammy sentimen- 
tality; all our thinking reeking with sentimental rot — political, s. 
religious." McClure, Phillips & Co., New York. $1.25. 


The latest volume of essays, lectures and addresses by Rt. Rev. justice 
J. L(. Spalding-, Bishop of Peoria — Socialism and Labor, and to a 

Other Arguments, has an added interest by reason of his appoint- just man. 

ment as member of the Coal Strike Commission. It needed no added 
weight. Bishop Spalding's thinking is habitually of that clear, direct, 
undodging sort which commands invariable attention and respect. For my- 
self, the address at the Altgeld Memorial Meeting is fullest of interest. 
Its tenor may be gathered from its closing phrases : 

I salute, with admiration, respect, and reverence the memory of a srenuine and heroic man 
— the truest servant of the people and the most disinterested politician whom Illinois has 
known since Lincoln died. 

A different Altgeld, to be sure, from the one who was believed by many 
sincere — but mistaken — gentlemen to be a menace to society and a proper 
subject to stand up blindfolded against a wall before a firing line. A. C. 
McClurg & Co., Chicago. 80 cents net. 

There are many good reasons for reading Joel Chandler Harris's another 
Gabriel Tolliver, and I discover none for abstaining from it. It stoky of 

is a clean and well-wrought story, in the first place. Then it reconstruction. 
gives a picture of what "Reconstruction" meant in Georgia, which is of 
distinct historical value, though masquing as fiction. The point of view 
is that of the South, yet it is by no means rabidly partizan — indeed, it 
seems to this Northern reader a moderate and just statement of conditions 
that must have been almost intolerable. And Mr. Harris neither adds 
local color nor makes character-studies. His people simply live where 
they belong and go about their accustomed business — and he lets the 
reader see them. McClure, Phillips & Co., New York ; C. C. Parker, L,os 
Angeles. $1.50. 

The Romance of Business is a vein discovered only lately, and how 
the writers who mine it persistently and successfully are still very much is 

few. Two of those whose first delvings were most profitable — ' fiction ? 

Frank Norris and Harold Frederic — have passed untimely, and Harry K. 
Webster is probably the first of those that are left. His Roger Drake, 
Captain of Industry, is both a fascinating story and an illuminating study 
of the development of a great industry, of the growth of mighty indus- 
trial combinations and of the battles of financial giants where mines and 
railroads and newspapers — and for that matter legislatures and courts — are 
to be fought over, and bought and sold. Not the least interest in this book 
is the closeness with which, at some points, it follows the Daly-Clark feud 
in Montana, where the scene of the story is laid. It leaves one wondering 
how far the parallelism goes. The Macmillan Co., New York. $1.50. 

In considering the series of " Best Writings of Great Authors," an offering 
of which The Best of Stevenson and The Best of Balzac are al- of 

ready published, one is driven to various wonderiugs. As to fragments. 

whether, for instance, someone will presently undertake to introduce us to 
the Best of Greek Art by offering for our inspection the heel of the 
Winged Mercury, the waist of the Venus of Melos, and the contorted face of 
Laocoon. By no such method, in fact, is it possible to learn anything 
worth the while about any work of art. Assuming, however, that such a 
forking up of fragments is to be permitted at all, it is reasonably well 
done in the present case by Alexander Jessup. L/. C. Page & Co., Boston ; 
C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. $1.25 each. 

The strength and the charm of Charles G. D. Roberts as shown Connecticut 
in Barbara Ladd — and as has been evidenced in former works — as it 

lie in his intimate sympathy with the forest, the river, the NEVER was. 

meadow, and the wild things that are at home there. As a student of 
human character or a writer of historical romance, he leaves much to be 
desired. The present story professes to be of Connecticut in Revolutionary 
times, but it is a Connecticut quite unlike any of which sober students have 
found any trace in the records. Nor is the spoiled child who attempts to 
commit suicide because she has been scolded either convincing or attract- 
ive. There is a curiously feminine note throughout the book for one that 
is from a masculine pen. I>. C. Page & Co., Boston ; C. C. Parker, L,os 
Angeles. $1.50. 

In the stories collected under the title Whom The Gods De- straying 
stroyed, Josephine Dodge Daskam has for the most part deserted away from 

the field in which she is, if not facile princeps, at least facile inter home. 


principes — the study of child-life — to make tempting excursions into 
meadows where others have delighted to browse. Without being disre- 
spectful, one may imagine Mary Wilkins, Richard Harding Davis and 
others looking slightly asquint at the daring and skillful incursionist, and 
taking a fresh grip higher up on their hard-won laurels. But after all 
Miss Daskam shines most brightly within her own particular bailiwick — 
witness, in this volume, the tale called A Little Brother of the Books. 
Chas. Scribner'8 Sons, New York. $1.50. 

some The purpose of the "Flame Series" is announced as being to 

knotty discuss " Literature, Politics, Labor and other fundamental and ar- 

KTiQUETTK. tistic interests of the period " in a manner " free as thought, yet 
as inoffensive to the charitable mind as the etiquette of judicious language 
can make them." Here is a specimen of the " etiquette of judicious lan- 
guage " from Lionel Josephare's answer to The Divine Question : 

Of what Godhood consists, I, unlike those who, having- seen him by the River of Chebar or 
in Heaven's thunder and lightning and speak of him in devasted obscurity, can but drop the 
futile pen in ignorance. He lives His thoughts, and this all article is a thought of Him. 

All of which may be true, if one could but untangle it. A. M. Robertson, 
San Francisco. 25 cents net. 

frhsh GiyEAN- To take a hopelessly hackneyed subject and extract from it a 

ings from fresh, novel and thoroughly entertaining book is, to put it mildly, a 

an ot,D field, difficult task. A Los Angeles woman, Katharine Hooker (Mrs. J. 
D.), has accomplished this in brilliant fashion with her Wayfarers in Italy. 
Her success is partly due to a choice of paths not beaten hard by the tour- 
ist foot, partly to a fine discrimination in both seeing and telling, partly to 
a simple, straightforward, yet delicate, style. The illustrations, from pho- 
tographs by the author's daughter, are as unshopworn and artistic as the 
text. The book is beautiful at every point. Charles Scribner's Sons, New 
York. $3 net. 

not OF John Bennett has chosen for the scenes on which Barnaby Lee 

The BASER appears New Amsterdam under the rule of ode-legged, choleric 

sort. Peter Stuy vesant, and Maryland under the governorship of gallant, 
debonair Charles Calvert. Though it originally appeared in St. Aicholas, 
the story is far too good for those elders who love a stirring and lifelike 
tale to allow the youngsters to claim a monopoly of it. If it were given to 
ever3 ? struggler in the field of historical romance to weave so compelling a 
story upon so convincing a back-ground, there would be smaller cause for 
the shrugging of shoulders. The Century Co., New York ; Stoll & Thayer 
Co., Los Angeles. $1.50. 

After a prolonged silence, Pierre Loti reappears in print with The Last 
Days of Pekin, being an account of his experience in China as an officer in 
the French navy. It was originally written in the form of letters to the 
Figaro, and is rather of transient journalistic interest than of permanent 
value. Yet his style is unblemished, and the book will entertain its read- 
ers. The translation by Myrta L. Jones seems competent, and the illustra- 
tions are well selected. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. $1.75 net. 

A Southern boy sent to the care of a Northern uncle, who is a physician 
living in a part of Southern Illinois where Confederate sympathy is strong, 
is the central figure in Mary Tracy Earle's The Flag on the Hilltop. The 
flag is the method the doctor takes of proclaiming his allegiance to the 
Union cause and his defiance to the threats of the " Knights of the Golden 
Circle." It is a sane and clean story, but exciting none the less. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co., Boston ; Stoll & Thayer, Los Angeles. 90 cents net. 

Ernest Crosby's Swords and Plowshares is for the most part a blend of 
Tolstoy and Walt Whitman. It is offered as a collection of " Poems and 
Word Pictures." The word-pictures are there in force, but the poems are 
scanty. " The Bugler in the Rear," addressed to Rudyard Kipling, sounds 
a high and strong note. Mr. Crosby hates war, and every other kind of 
oppression, with a deadly hatred, speaks his thoughts fearlessly, and never 
fails to be worth reading. Funk & Wagnalls Co., New York. $1 net. 

The Reformer is as thoroughly in earnest as the rest of the Rev. Chark > 
M. Sheldon's books, and less removed from everyday practicability than 
some of them. The object of his attack this time is mainly the " double- 
deck " tenement and the infamously greedy landlord, though the Demon 
Rum does not escape wholly unscathed. It is a sound and wholesome book. 
Advance Publishing Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

Charles Amadon Moody. 


Conducted by WILLIAM E. SMYTHE. 


fijSjflHE efforts made in the last few years to force living eco- 
J^ nomic questions upon the attention of public men and 
legislative bodies have been successful in a gratifying 
gree. The new Governor of California put the subject of irri- 
gation and forest laws well to the front of his inaugural mes- 
sage. This of itself was a great service to the cause, because it 
marked the rise of new questions upon the political horizon, 
The Works Irrigation Bill has been generally spoken of by the 
correspondents at Sacramento as the most important measure to 
come before the Legislature. These facts are well worth men- 
tioning as a matter of encouragement to those who have labored 
in public movements and who have sometimes grown weary be- 
cause the prospect of results seemed remote. The truth is that 
the California Water and Forest Association has done a great 
work. This would be true even if, in the end, every specific 
measure presented by it should fail of enactment. It has raised 
issues which needed to be raised, and which must somehow be 
settled if California is ever to come into her own. It has aroused 
and organized public sentiment and furnished a forum for dis- 
cussion. In exactly the same way, the California Constructive 
League has performed a service by inducing the political parties 
to take up these questions in their platforms and so force them 
upon the attention of executive and legislative officers. It is 
not too much to say that the influences flowing from these 
movements in the past four years have brought us to the thresh- 
old of a new era in the history of the Pacific Coast. Consider 
the matter of their literature alone. If it were all brought 
together between one pair of covers — speeches, platforms, gov- 
ernment reports, magazine and newspaper articles — it would 
make a volume of great size and dignity. It would be a volume, 
too, in which the future historian would find the springs of 
events, some of which have already happened, but more of 
which are reserved for development during the momentous years 
to come. 

There are some people who are discouraged — some who are 


even indignant — because the progress of these movements has 
been marked by serious divisions of public sentiment. These 
people have wished that all might go smoothly to swift results. 
They have resented any assertion of individual dissent from 
propositions laid down in the official action of these Associa- 
tions, regarding it as an unwarranted disturbance of the peace. 
This is a narrow view, founded on a mistaken idea of the spirit 
of our institutions. We are living through the birth-throes of 
a new civilization, which is to grow up and flourish in an envi- 
ronment yet novel to our race. It is not only natural and inevit- 
able, but altogether best, that this process should be accom- 
panied by the friction which arises from differing minds and 
conflicting principles. In his last magazine article, published 
about the time of his death, Tom Reed reviewed the results of 
the November election as affecting certain grave economic 
problems. He remarked that these problems are still with us, 
but added: "We have escaped the one great danger of all 
democracies — the settlement of great questions without dis- 
cussion." The same idea was in the mind of Governor Pardee 
when I asked him how he stood on the proposed irrigation legis- 
lation. He answered that he wanted to see the measure intro- 
duced and thoroughly discussed. Whether the bill should be 
passed or defeated in the end, he seemed to regard as of second- 
ary consequence. He appreciated the fact (and it is good to 
have a Governor who does) that irrigation is one of the very 
big questions of the future, and he wanted the debate to begin 
at once ; for he was confident that out of the fires of discussion 
would come in time measures essential to the growth and great- 
ness of California. 

In response to the Governor's request, I am going to 
to measure make my contribution to the irrigation debate in these 
principles, pages. I would likej to lift the discussion to its highest 
plane. Let us look at it first in its elemental aspects rather than 
in its details. There is such a thing as the Ethics of Irrigation, 
for ethics is the doctrine of man's duty in respect to himself and 
the rights of others. 

This definition is surely a good enough yardstick whereby to 
measure the principle on which the irrigation institutions of 
California and the West ought to be firmly established. It 
must be frankly conceded, of course, that the water laws we 
now have are the growth of more than half a century, and that 
we are not in a position to proceed as if we had a clean, blank 
page on which to write our views. Nevertheless, we must not 
forget that California is in its infancy. With all our talk about 
big things, we have been living through an era of little things. 


We have turned the small stream, built the small reservoir, and 
drained the small swamp. The mighty streams, the mighty 
reservoirs, the mighty swamps — these remain to be dealt with 
by the statesmanship, the engineering genius and the social 
forces of the future. If we have done the little end of our 
development in the wrong way, are we to make the vast develop- 
ment of the future conform to the wrong methods and principles 
which grew up imperceptibly in consequence of our ignorance 
and inexperience ? Or, rather, are we to consider our great 
problems from the standpoint of right and justice, then proceed 
to build in accordance with correct principles, and even aim at 
the gradual reorganization of existing institutions in conformity 
therewith ? It seems to me there is but one answer to the ques- 
tion. We shall be shamefully false to our obligations to pos- 
terity if we perpetuate the wrongs which were fastened upon 
our economic life by those who failed to appreciate the signifi- 
cance of what they were doing in shaping our early laws and 

What is the true doctrine of "man's duty in respect „. _ __ 
to himself and the rights of others " in connection with in humid 

the water supply of an arid region ? Is it the doctrine lands. 

of private ownership of water apart from lands ? 

In humid countries there is no question of the artificial diver- 
sion of water from its natural channels. The settler acquires a 
piece of soil, and inseparably associated with it are the three 
other elements — air, sunshine and moisture — essential to its 
prosperous cultivation He is, therefore, a free man. He is 
ready to go into a partnership with nature to support himself 
and his family and to make comfortable provision for old age. 
No man may say to him : 

" See here, my friend, I appropriated the air before you bought 
this land. The land is worthless without the air. I will sell 
you as much of my air as you need at so much per cubic foot." 

Neither may another man come to him and say : 

" I knew this land would some day be in demand and so I 
stepped in and appropriated the sunshine (they were giving it 
away at that time), and as your land is utterly without value 
unless you can have the use of a reasonable amount of sunshine, 
I will sell you what you need at so much per quart." 

Still better this settler on humid land cannot be approached 
by a waterlord who will say : 

' My dear friend, I came here a little earlier than you did and 
looked over the country to find a good speculation. I was 
shrewd enough to perceive that these valleys would some time 
sustain a dense population engaged in tilling the soil. I noticed 


that the rainfall was not sufficient to permit of intense cultiva- 
tion on small areas unless supplemented by irrigation. I went 
up to the mountains and found a treasure-house — the accumu- 
lated snows of the winter — and I found places where the waters 
which flow therefrom might be conveniently stored. I looked 
up the laws and found I could appropriate these waters and file 
upon these reservoir sites, thus acquiring - the individual pro- 
prietorship of the great natural element without which your 
land is worthless. Now, you are just the man I have been wait- 
ing for. You have bought this little farm. You cannot make 
your home here without using the water that I own. I will sell 
you what you need at so much per miner's inch, and hereafter 
you and your heirs and assigns, to the remotest generation, will 
pay tribute to me and mine." 

The man who has made his home in humid regions does not 
encounter any of these proprietors. He owns the land and with 
it gets air, sunshine and moisture, and, therefore, he is free — 
secure in "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." Would 
he be in the same situation if the air were owned apart from the 
land, if the sunshine were owned apart from the land, or if the 
water were owned apart from the land ? These are of those 
automatic, self-answering questions that require no elucidation. 
The man who owns the air, the sunshine or the water essential 
to another man's existence is the master, while the other man is 
his tenant, his subject, his serf. This being so, is it not per- 
fectly plain that " man's duty in respect to himself and the 
rights of others," in the matter of irrigation, is to see that 
land and water are inalienably united in a single ownership? 

It will be said that these views are ideal and suited 
conskkvativb only to abstract discussion. Further, it will be said 
opinions. t hat they are the views of a radical, and part and parcel 
of "the teeming communism of the day," to quote the words of 
one comfortable Lord of the Melting Snow. Hence, it is highly 
important to show that such is not the case. Some of the wisest 
and sanest men who have ever considered the problems of 
aridity in anything approaching a disinterested and philosophical 
spirit proclaimed these ideas long ago. 

The first scientific explorer of the arid region was Major John 
W. Powell, who became founder of the United States Geological 
Survey. He served in that capacity until his voluntary retire- 
ment a few years since. It is worth while to note that he be- 
longed to what in these days is the party of conservatism, 
though it was born out of the throes of glorious radicalism — 
the Republican Party. He was appointed and reappointed by 
Republican Presidents. Therefore his title to patriotism and 


sanity is unassailable. Neither was he shallow in an intellectual 
sense. He was really a great man, as every one admits. He 
studied the arid region when it was in its first blush of corporate 
development. And then he put upon record these solemn 
words : 

If, in the eagerness of present development, a land and water system shall 
grow up in which the practical control of agriculture shall fall into the 
hands of water companies, evil will result therefrom that generations may 
not be able to correct, and the very men who are now lauded as benefactors 
to the country will, in the ungovernable reaction which is sure to come, be 
denounced as oppressors of the people. 

Let us have another quotation from a good conservative Re- 
publican source. Nelson A. Miles is General of the Armies of 
the United States. He served long in the arid regions. He is 
sane and patriotic. He saw what was going on, and his mind 
dwelt irresistibly upon the issues of the future. He was utterly 
disinterested, being neither owner of water nor attorney of 
water-selling corporations. And he put these words on record : 

Private or corporate enterprise cannot be trusted with the water monopoly 
in the arid regions of the West. 

Finally, we have the ever-memorable declaration of another 
good Republican — experienced in the life of the arid region, 
disinterested, sane and patriotic, like Powell and Miles — the 
declaration of Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United 

States : 

" Private ownership of water apart from land cannot prevail without 
causing enduring wrong." 

What are we going to do with these solemn statements of opin- 
ion by great men who are admittedly sane, patriotic and conserva- 
tive ? Possibly we might brush aside the views of other thought- 
ful students of the subject, who have not the same eminence or 
who do not belong to the same political party. But when the 
Founder of the Geological Survey, the General of the Army, the 
President of the United States, unite in declaring that water 
should not be owned apart from the land, to be sold to the 
masses of our producers, I hardly see how this view of the ques- 
tion can be ignored, even by our most conservative and substan- 
tial fellow-citizens, whether college presidents, government ex- 
perts, eminent attorneys, or judges upon the bench. 

Let us go now from the realms of abstract to that of „ M ■*««■. 
concrete and practical economics. Wherever there has of 

been large and abiding prosperity in the arid region, expbriknce. 

water and land have been united in the same ownership. For 
instance, there was a convention at Riverside in December to 
voice the unanimous protest of Southern California irrigators 
against the Works Bill. In that convention, and in the move- 


ment growing out of it, between thirty and forty water com- 
panies were represented. Every single one of them was a land- 
owner's company. That is to say, those who own the water 
and the canals, also own the land supplied by them. There is 
a sharp distinction between such companies and water-selling 
corporations. A law which would benefit the one would be in- 
jurious to the other. Riverside, Ontario, Corona, Santa Ana, 
Pomona, Anaheim, and the rest, are irrigated in this way. 
Redlands is to some extent an exception, as it was supplied by a 
speculative company owing the water apart from the land (the 
Bear Valley Company), and a sad experience it had. The fam- 
ous Riverside Colony began with two clssses in its citizenship 

— one owning the water, the other owning the land. Grave 
abuses and widespread dissatisfaction ensued. There was strife 
and friction for several years. Peace came at last — when the 
landowners acquired the water and canals. Most of the canals 
in the San Joaquin Valley are owned in the same way, though 
in that locality some of the landowners are possessed of enor- 
mous estates, and their water systems are large in proportion. 
On the other hand, localities could be cited all over the arid re- 
gion, where a corporation owned the water supplied to large 
numbers of small farmers. In such cases there has seldom been 
lasting prosperity, either to the settlers or to the water owners. 

American irrigation began in Utah. There the farmers own 
all of the ditches, and the waterlord is unknown. The famous 
settlements in Colorado were built on the same foundation. Our 
experience in this field has been identical with that of other 
countries. To illustrate, Elwood Mead, in his discussion of 
California irrigation, makes the following reference to Spanish 
experience : 

In Valencia, the most beautiful and prosperous section of Spain, irrigated 
agriculture dates back to the Moors. Water rights are founded on customs 
which are older than records. Water and land are inseparable. Every 
writer who has visited Valencia is of the opinion that the thrift, the skill, 
and the success shown by farmers comes from the peace and security 
which go with the control of both elements of production in an arid region 

— water and land. In the same province the results of the separate owner- 
ship of water and land are as completely manifest. In the district of Elche, 
water was originally controlled by the landowners, but land and water 
were not made inseparable. Gradually water rights were bought up by 
outsiders. Now the farmer buys water from these owners of streams just 
as he buys fertilizers. The water tolls have been raised, farmers impov- 
erished, and all progress and prosperity banished. In the province of 
Murcia, water is attached to the land, and farmers are prosperous. In 
Lorca, land and water are separated, and the result, says a recent report, la 
" large profits for the waterowner, poor farmers, and languishing agricul- 

In the summer of 1900 the Water and Forest Asso- 

HRRB WAS . ... 

thk ciation began an aggressive campaign looking pn- 

promisk. mar i] y to the reformation of California water laws, 


but ultimately to the storage of the floods and the saving 
of the forests. Those who were guiding the movement 
thought it essential that a special tribunal should be ap- 
pointed to adjudicate a multitude of conflicting rights, that 
water rights should issue from the State, and that some form 
of administration should be appointed over the appropria- 
tion and distribution of water. Some one had to go out 
before the people to explain the work, and I happened to be 
selected for the service. When I began, the Association had a 
meagre but distinguished membership — less than one hundred 
all told, but most of them Brigadier Generals in a social and 
professional sense. What was wanted was some plain people 
to make up the rank and file. I got them, to the extent of 
several thousands. And upon what terms were they enlisted ? 
The evils of existing water laws were clearly pointed out, and 
the need of reform was strongly urged. The keynote of my ad- 
dresses and writings in the interest of the movement was the 
following : " What is the great natural law of irrigation ? It 
is this — that in an arid land each man is entitled to receive as 
much water as he may apply to a beneficial purpose, but not one 
single drop to hold out of use to speculate on the necessities of 
his fellowmen." The public responded to that sentiment. They 
were ready to assist in building the State in accordance with 
that principle of water-ownership. Occasionally I found that 
the statement offended individuals. These were generally in- 
dividuals who had more water than they could apply to a bene- 
ficial purpose themselves, and were not averse to holding it ont 
of use in order to speculate upon the necessities of their fellow- 
men. Sometimes these people complained at headquarters, but 
I kept on preaching the gospel to the end of the chapter. A few 
months later I learned that some of the officers of the Associa- 
tion had been apologizing for my statements and giving private 
assurances that the movement was not undertaken for the pur- 
poses I described. At the first opportunity I addressed the 
people of Presno at a farmers' institute, telling them there were 
evidently two views in the Association, and that we should en- 
deavor to find out at the next annual convention which was the 
official one. The next annual convention rolled around after 
some months. Two platforms were prepared, representing two 
different views. One of them prevailed. 

I now invite the earnest attention of the Governor of Califor- 
nia, of the members of the Legislature, of the members of the 
Water and Forest Association, and of all who have the slight- 
est interest in the Works Irrigation Bill, to the following em- 
phatic declarations of the platform adopted at San Francisco, 
December 20, 1901 : 


We congratulate President Roosevelt upon his espousal of the cause of 
forest preservation and Irrigation development. . . (His) recommenda- 
tion in favor of national construction of storage reservoirs, and of large 
main canals as a means of reclaiming and opening to settlement the arid 
public domain, meets with our hearty approval. We agree with him when 
he says : 

" Great storage works are necessary to equalize the flow of streams and 
to save the floodwaters. Their construction has been conclusively shown 
to be an undertaking too vast for private effort." 

And we further agree with the statement contained in his letter to the 
Irrigation Congress of 1900: 

" It is not possible, and, if it were possible, it would not be wise, to have 
the storage work done merely through private ownership." 

We hail with satis/action these declarations by the President of the 
United States that works of irrigation are essentially public utilities and 
ought to be constructed, owned and administered by the people and for the 

With equal heartiness we commend the following quotations from the 
message, showing the President's familiarity with conditions in the West 
and his conclusions based thereon : 

" Whoever controls the stream practically controls the land it renders 
productive, and the doctrine of private ownership of water apart from land 
cannot prevail without causing enduring wrong. The recognition of such 
ownership, which has been permitted to grow up in the arid regions, should 
give way to a more enlightened and larger recognition of the rights of the 
public in the control and disposal of the public water supplies. 

" In the arid States, the only right to water which should be recognized 
is that of use. In irrigation this right should attach to the land reclaimed 
and be inseparable therefrom. Granting perpetual rights to others than 
users, without compensation to the public, is open to all the objections 
which apply to giving away perpetual franchises to the public utilities of 

" We are dealing with a new and momentous question in the pregnant 
years while institutions are forming, and what we do will affect not only 
the present but future generations. 

" Our aim should be not simply to reclaim the largest area of land and 
provide homes for the largest number of people, but to create for this new 
industry the best possible social and industrial conditions." 

If it be unwise to permit private capitalists to construct storage works 
for the reclamation of lands now publicly owned, but hereafter to pass 
into the proprietorship of millions of American citizens, it follows with 
unerring logic that it is equally unwise for private capital to build storage 
works in the great interior valleys of California, in the Coast Region and 
in the South, for the reclamation of lands already owned and occupied by 
private individuals, but destined to be subdivided and disposed of to thou- 
sands of new citizens when irrigation is supplied. 

If it be true, as the President says, that on the public lands " the doc- 
trine of private ownership of water apart from land cannot prevail with- 
out causing enduring wrong," it is equally true that "enduring wrong" 
would follow the application of that dangerous doctrine to private 
lands which must look for irrigation to a source beyond their own control. 
Hence, it follows that " the recognition of such ownership should give 
way to a more enlightened and larger recognition of the rights of the 

As a means of carrying out the recommendations of the President, and 
of shaping the laws and institutions of California in conformity with 
those which his administration proposes for all of the arid States of the 
West, we favor the following course of action : (Then follows a provision 
for the appointment of a Commission to prepare a new code of water laws 
and a recommendation for a generous appropriation by the State " to be 
expended in collaboration with the United States Geological Survey and 
Irrigation Investigations of the Department of Agriculture "). 

We are opposed to any attempt to store the floodwaters of the State by 
means of private enterprise, because such a policy would foster and en- 
trench the system of private water monopoly which, in the language of 
President Roosevelt, "cannot prevail without causing enduring wrong." 
. . . The construction of large storage work under any plan on streams 
already in active use, will unavoidably conflict to some extent with exist- 


ing canals. While we declare our unalterable conviction that in all such 
cases the public interests must be treated as paramount, we nevertheless 
favor the fullest protection of vested rights now recognized by our laws 
and judicial decisions. 

This was the declaration which the California Water AND H - RB 
and Forest Association published to the world as the the pitifdx, 

solemn expression of its Third Annual Convention, after rbsuu*. 

it had had ample time to ripen its convictions by thought and 
study and debate. It appointed a Commission to carry this 
declaration into effect by "shaping the laws and institutions of 
California in comformity with those which his (President 
Roosevelt's) administration proposes for all the arid States of 
the West." It was expected that the Commission would favor 
reformation of irrigation laws, particularly looking to the ad- 
justment of conflicting titles and the orderly distribution of 
water in accordance therewith. But the paramount object of 
its creation was to provide some means for the storage of floods 
in reservoirs which, the declaration said, "are essentially 
public utilities and ought to be constructed, owned and admin- 
istered by the people and for the people." 

So far as the report of the Commission sought to provide for 
the adjudication of rights, it was feeble and futile. So far as 
it sought to provide administration of the streams, it was pre- 
posterous and dangerous ; for it gave us nothing but the vicious 
principle- of private police to serve water-selling corporations. 
But these were mere details. The one great object of the whole 
undertaking was completely subverted. 

The Association had declared that it was "opposed to any 
attempt to store the floodwaters of California by means of pri- 
vate enterprise." Its Commission then proceeded to frame a 
bill which made no provision whatever for storing the flood- 
waters by public enterprise, and which was designed to leave our 
irrigation development wholly to private enterprise. This 
necessarily involves private ownership of water apart from land, 
because the works that must now be built are far beyond the 
reach of such cooperative organizations as have dealt with the 
problem in the South, and nothing is left except to call upon 
great corporations. The Works Bill would turn over to such 
corporations, without compensation, the priceless franchise for 
the storage of floodwaters. It would create a system of tenantry 
not essentially different from that which has made Ireland one 
of the most unhappy and unprosperous places on the globe. For 
ownership of the soil does not confer economic independence, if 
the soil be worthless without water, and if the water be owned 
apart from the land by those who rent it to the actual producers. 
In Ireland the proprietary interest is represented by the land- 

242 UT WEST 

lord ; in California it would be represented by the waterlord. 
There is no economic and no moral difference, since in both 
cases a great natural element essential to human existence be- 
comes the subject of monopoly, and those who must have it in 
order to make a living: from the soil become mere tenants who 
are called upon to divide the products of their labor with the 
great proprietor. 

Study the platform which the Water and Forest Association 
published to the world as its declaration of principles in 1901, 
then consider the provisions of the Works Bill, and you must 
agree with me that there was never a sadder instance of the 
complete miscarriage of a worthy effort to build a new country 
on sound lines. 

stand fikm **■ * s al wa y s unpleasant to disagree with anybody, par- 

for the ticularly with eminent citizens with whom one has en- 

right. j y e( j agreeable associations in public movements in the 
past. It is not pleasant to be criticized — still less so to be misun- 
derstood. But these things are trifles compared with the de- 
sertion or betrayal of great principles in which one believes 
with all one's heart and soul. A man who is a man will do 
right as God gives him to see the right. Nothing was ever so 
clear to my mind as that the ethics of irrigation — "man's duty 
in respect to himself and the rights of others " — demands that 
land and water should be joined in the same ownership. The 
farm may be small or large, but water should belong to it as in- 
separably as the air and sunshine. This principle is often real- 
ized by individuals acting alone, and more often by communi- 
ties organized in cooperation. But we have now outgrown the 
day of little things. We are standing face to face with tasks of 
mighty dimensions. Either we must turn them over to corpora- 
tions, a course which the President says, " is open to all the ob- 
jections which apply to giving away perpetual franchises to the 
public utilities of the cities ;" or we must have a splendid sys- 
tem of public works, constructed by State or Nation, or by both 
in cooperation.* After us will come millions and millions of 
people. Shall we bequeath to them the evils which Major 
Powell foresaw and predicted as the certain consequences of 
"giving practical control of agriculture to water companies," 
or shall we lay the broad foundations of a true Republic of Irri- 
gation ? 

One distinguished citizen recently said to me : "It is true, as 
you allege, that the Works Bill does encourage and protect 

•Another article will deal with practical measures looking to this end, and will, perhaps, 
have peculiar value front the fact that it will be written after full discussion with many 
leading men representing various shades of public opinion. 


private speculation, and does favor ownership of water apart 
from land, but that is not an innovation. It exists today in 
California." Certainly it does, and so did slavery exist yester- 
day in the South. That did not make it right, and that did not 
prevent its overthrow. The apologists for that ancient wrong 
are well-nigh forgotten. The men who drove it from the face 
of the earth are immortal. The day will come when we, or our 
children, will look with amazement upon the history of a bill 
founded on the principle of private speculation in the rains and 
snows of an arid land. Fortunately, not all the abhorrence of 
this principle is standing far forward in the dim aisles of 
the future. I believe there is enough of it here and now to 
prevent the consummation of this wrong. I confidently assert 
that the Water and Forest Association itself, if it could be as- 
sembled in a great convention, would vote overwhelmingly 
against it. The actual users of water throughout the State are 
arrayed in protest. Some of the strongest names in Western His- 
tory — names like Powell and Miles and Roosevelt — cry out 
against it. And those who in this struggle are thinking only of 
the interests of mankind may well say to their opponents, as Wil- 
liam Lloyd Garrison said to his when fighting a similar battle 
in an earlier generation : 

" _Z~ -will not retract, I will not equivocate, I will not retreat a 
single inch. AND I WILL BE HEARD." 

Wm. E. Smythe. 

* TRUE source: or WATER supply. 



CONSIDERABLE misapprehension arises in the minds of 
some people about the source of the water which flows 
seaward from the interior. What produces it ? Where 
does it come from ? These questions may not arise in sections 
where the source of the supply is manifest to all in the frequent 
rains ; but in the arid regions of the West it is often cause for 
wonder that water will continue to flow in some of the streams 
eight or nine months without replenishment from the rains, and 
even two or three years, in exceptional cases, with a very scant 

* [The author of this paper is President of the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company^ 
as he has been for many years. He has, therefore, had the best opportunity to observe the 
conditions of which he writes. He combats the widely-accepted theory that water used for 
irrigation upon the upper course of a stream very largely returns to the channel and may 
thus be used again. In assuming this position he opposes the conclusions of both scientific 
and practical men in all parts of the arid region.— W. E. S.] 


Quite recently an otherwise intelligent man pointed out some 
prominent rocks far up the mountain as " water-making rocks," 
which he said produced the water in the Santa Ana river. An 
article in the California Cultivator, from the facile pen of Wm. 
M. Bristol, of East Highlands, Cal., seriously advocated the 
theory that a portion, at least, of the underground water in the 
basin of the Santa Ana river comes through under the San 
Bernardino mountains from the Mojave desert, or even from the 
remote Rocky mountains. A number of eminent engineers, 
finding considerable water entering the river in its middle and 
lower course after all had been taken out for irrigation higher 
up, jumped to the conclusion that the water entering below was 
the identical water taken out above. All of these theories are 
more or less wrong, as will appear during the progress of this 

The first theory, that the water in the river is the product of 
certain "water-making rocks," is absurd, the vagary of an 
ignorant and superstitious mind. An examination of these 
rocks discloses nothing unusual about them, no chemical action 
taking place and no sign of water anywhere near them. It is 
strange that such a theory should be invented and still stranger 
that any one would believe it. 

The second theory, that water comes through under the 
mountain range, is not much more reasonable than the first. 
Think of it ! That mountain range forms a rock dam many 
miles in thickness and more than a mile high. The weight of 
»uch a mass of matter, in the upheaval and contraction, would 
compact and solidify the underlying strata until every vestige 
of a crack would disappear. If it were possible to conceive of 
"millions of crevices many miles in length " being produced by 
any cause in such material, the first seismic action with such a 
superimposed weight would close up every one instantly. From 
the excavations already made in the mountain side it is learned 
that the seams and fissures near the surface, caused by the ac- 
tion of the atmosphere and descending water, entirely disappear 
and the rock becomes almost too hard to pick or drill toward 
the center of gravity of the mountain. Even where the water 
has excavated caves and crevices near the surface, the first earth- 
quake closes them up, as did one at San Jacinto three years ago, 
when several acres of land near the base of the mountain set- 
tled from three to seven feet. Besides, the silt in the water 
from the surface washings would soon close up the " million 
devious crevices," as everybody sees that it has done in the clay 
seams found in rock taken from any quarry near the surface. A 


piece of two-inch pipe twenty feet long- under a driveway with 
good fall and considerable pressure has been known to fill up 
solid more than once with the silt from the soil above the pipe. 
In view of these facts and illustrations it is reasonable to con- 
clude that it is a physical impossibility that any of the under- 
ground water in the basin of the Santa Ana river should come 
through under the San Bernardino range of mountains from the 
Mojave desert or elsewhere. 

While the third theory, that the water in the middle and 
lower course of the river is return-seepage from the irrigation 
above, has more merit than either of the other two, it will not 
do to press it too far or rely on it very much. In a few excep- 
tional cases, where there is clay or hardpan near the surface, 
like the plains of Fresno or some of the mesa west of River- 
side, irrigating water will be arrested in its downward course 
through the soil and be deflected toward the stream by the dip 
of the impervious substratum, until the lower edge of the mesa 
and the bottom land become saturated and a small quantity of 
water reaches the stream. But in the great majority of cases, 
where the soil is deep and underlaid with a loose formation, 
none of the water used in irrigation on the mesa away from the 
stream ever finds its way back to the river again — at least not 
without being reinforced by the winter rains, when water be- 
comes a drug in the market. This fact is demonstrated by the 
wells along the lower edge of the mesa which is drenched winter 
and summer by the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company's 
canals. In these the water rises and falls according to the 
rainfall, the wet and the dry years, but it is never affected by 
the irrigation immediately above the wells. The only reasons 
given for this return-seepage theory are that, notwithstanding 
the diversion of all the water from the channel above, a large 
stream appears below and that the stream is greater now, since 
the practice of irrigation, than it was before. In answer to the 
first reason, it may be stated that it is usual for a stream to have 
additions to its volume along the whole length of its channel, 
whether its waters be diverted for irrigation or not. If the first 
supply be diverted, the additions will take its place to continue 
the stream ; but where these additions come from is another 
story, as Rudyard Kipling says, which will be told best in fig- 
ures later in this article. In answer to the second reason, it 
may be denied that the stream is greater now than before the 
practice of irrigation, on the testimony of those familiar with 
the Santa Ana river for a generation. Even if it were so, the 


explanation would be found in the greater proportion of the 
rainfall that now sinks into the cultivated fields and shaded 
orchards of the valley, thus allowing less run-off and evapora- 
tion, rather than in return-seepage from irrigation. 

The supernatural and imaginative theories to account for the 
water in the Santa Ana river having thus been disposed of, it 
now remains to explain the real source of the supply and to 
show that the stream is replenished in the usual way by natural 
causes. The drainage-basin of the Santa Ana river includes, 
in addition to the mountain slopes of its tributaries, all the por- 
tion of that great inland valley east of Pomona, which extends 
from the San Bernardino mountains on the north to the range 
of hills on the south separating it from the lower valley facing 
the coast. The surface of this inland valley slopes toward the 
river, which passes through it, and also toward the hills on the 
south, finding its lowest level below Rincon, where the river 
breaks through the range of hills on its way to the ocean. The 
winter rains descend each year with varying quantity upon the 
entire surface Of the drainage-basin of the river, furnishing all 
the water, surface, subsurface and artesian, within such basin ; 
the part that does not immediately run off or evaporate sinks 
into the soil to supply the underground reservoirs and to ooze 
into the stream along down the channel. Andrew C. Lawson, 
professor of geology in the University of California, expressed 
the opinion that the canon through the hills below Rincon is an 
erosion of the river and that there is no other exit, surface or 
subterranean, for the water from this inland basin. The deep 
borings for oil along the hills corroborate this opinion. A 
record, therefore, of the rainfall within the exterior boundaries 
of the drainage-basin of the river would be a pretty accurate 
measure of all the water that could be counted on to supply the 
stream, wells and evaporation in said basin. 

The following figures, which cover the widest possible range 
of the territory involved, are authentic and fairly represent the 
facts and conclusions which they purport to show. The rain- 
fall at San Bernardino is the actual record of that place for 
thirty years, commencing with the winter of 1870-71. The 
rainfall for each of the other places is approximated for thirty 
years by comparing the actual record of each, as far back as 
any exists, with the record of San Bernardino for the same 
years and then adding to or subtracting from the San Bernar- 
dino rainfall the difference between the two. The record is in 
inches and is the annual average for the periods indicated. 



San Bernardino for 30 years 15.69 

Ontario from 1892 to 1900 12.16 

Ontario for 30 years 15.59 

Pomona from 1877 to 1900 18.15 

Pomona for 30 years 17.93 

Chino from 1893 to 1900 12.05 

Chino for 30 years 16.55 

Corona from 1888 to 1900 11.77 

Corona for 30 years 12.71 

Riverside from 1880 to 1900 9.99 

Riverside for 30 years 10.00 

Redlands from 1888 to 1900 15.48 

Redlands for 30 years 16.42 

Average for seven above towns, main basin, 

for 30 years 14.98 


Holcomb Creek from 1891 to 1898 17.81 

Deep Creek from 1891 to 1898 28.28 

Upper Holcomb from 1891 to 1898 13.25 

Green Valley from 1891 to 1898 33.38 

Ivittle Bear Valley from 1891 to 1898 28.74 

Morse's from 1891 to 1898 48.48 

Grass Valley from 1891 to 1898 31.08 

Squirrel Inn from 1891 to 1898 32.59 

Bear Valley from 1891 to 1898 53.70 

Average 9 above stations for 8 years 31.92 

Average 9 above stations for 30 years 33.84 

Inasmuch as the area of the basin of the Santa Ana river is sub- 
divided into mountains, hills and valleys, and as there is no 
known record of the rainfall in the hills, it is assumed that 20.00 
inches would be a fair average rainfall for them. The average 
annual rainfall, therefore, for the three classes of territory em- 
braced in the drainage-basin of the river above Rincon, would 
stand as follows : 

Mountains for 30 years 33.84 inches 

Hills for 30 years 20.00 inches 

Valleys for 30 years 14.98 inches 

The territory, included in the drainage-basin of the Santa 
Ana river, has been classified by J. B. Ljppincott, resident 
hydrographer of the Federal government, as follows : 

Mountains 557 square miles 

Hills 382 square miles 

Valleys 525 square miles 

Total 1464 square miles 

If the water, which actually falls upon the drainage-basin of 
the river each year could be collected into one body, it would 
make a yearly average of nearly two million acre-feet, computed 
as follows : 

MOUNTAINS — Cubic Feet Water 

33.84 inches of rainfall on 557 square miles will produce... 43, 789,718,016 
Hills — 

20.00 inches of rainfall on 382 square miles will produce. ..17,749,248,000 
Valleys — 

14.98 inches of rainfall on 525 square miles will produce. ..18,280,563,840 

Total ...79,819,529,856 

And 79,819,529,856 cubic feet of water equal 1,832,404 acre-feet. 


It is customary for engineers to discount the rainfall 50% for 
evaporation and run-off ; but, on account of the steep, bare 
slopes of the mountains and the dry atmosphere of the interior, 
it is thought best to discount the mountain rainfall 75%, that 
of the hills 66^i%, and that of the valleys 50%. Applying 
these discounts, turning the water into running water and dis- 
tributing it over the entire year, the following results appear : 

Mountain Rainfall— 

Discounted 75%, equals 10,947,429,504 cubic feet. 

Turned into running- water, equals 547,371,475,200 inches per sec. 

Distributed over the entire year, equals.. 17,345 inches. 

Hill Rainfall — 

Discounted 66%%, equals 5,916,416,000 cubic feet. 

Turned into running- water, equals 295,820,800,000 inches per sec. 

Distributed over the entire year, equals.. 9,374 inches. 

V alley Rainfall — 

Discounted 50%, equals 9,140,281,920 cubic feet. 

Turned into running water.equals 457,014,096,000 inches per sec. 

Distributed over the entire year, equals.. 14,482 inches. 

Total available water within the basin, equals 41,201 inches. 

It will thus be seen that, after a very liberal allowance for evap- 
oration and run-off, there is still more than enough of the aver- 
age rainfall (41,201 inches of perennial water) to account for 
all the water that has shown up in the basin of the river, with- 
out conveying more through the mountains or using any of it 
the second time. If it were otherwise, and there really were 
more water in the basin than the figures would indicate there 
should be, then the allowance for evaporation and run-off is too 
large. Since all of the water in the basin is supplied by the rain- 
fall and none of it escapes by secret passages, there must be a 
correlation between the total rainfall and the aggregate quan- 
tity of water in the basin including the evaporation and 

Then, again, the valley and half of the hill rainfall, which 
would drain into the channel below where the stream is all di- 
verted by Riverside, would furnish more water (19,169 inches 
of perennial water) than now shows up below that point ; hcnc^ 
there is no need of inventing a return-seepage theory to account 
for the appearance of such water in the lower channel. While 
undoubtedly there is more or less return-seepage, the quantity 
is insignificant in comparision with the amount of water sup- 
plied by the rainfall. 

Still another conclusion may be drawn from the records of the 
rainfall. While the rainfall is ample to account for all the water 
in the basin of the river, nevertheless it is limited, and this 
limit should be recognized in every plan for water development. 
The chances for successful development, too, are very much less 
at any particular point than the aggregate rainfall in the entire 



basin would seem to promise, because only a small part of such 
rainfall ever reaches that particular point by percolation, and 
that, too, very slowly. Artificial reservoirs are generally 
too small and expensive to be of much service in proportion 
to the outlay ; but the storage capacity of the catchment 
basin of the river can be greatly increased. Cultivation of 
the soil and the growth of vegetation throughout the valley 
section would facilitate the absorption of the rainfall and retard 
the surface drainage. The planting and protection of trees and 
shrubs over the watershed of the mountain section, with their 
leaves, roots and humus, would help to hold back the water 
for summer delivery. The government has set apart 1,152 
square miles, or 737,280 acres, as a forest reserve in the San 
Bernardino mountains, including the sources of the Santa Ana 
river and its principal tributaries. If the channel of the river 
could also be withdrawn from private ownership and be encour- 
aged to grow up like a jungle, it would prevent evaporation and 
obstruct the rapid flow of the water. Most irrigators dread the 
advent of the power companies upon the streams used for irri- 
gation. They believe the hurrying of the spring freshets from 
the mountains through pipes and conduits to the valleys below 
will leave little water in the streams for summer and fall. 

The foregoing conclusions are the certain consequences of the 
facts disclosed in the records of the rainfall. Their lesson is, 
that to get the best results from a stream for irrigation, the 
users of the water must assist nature in conserving the rainfall, 
and not drain the natural reservoirs and denude the surface of 
the water-shed for the sake of temporary gain. 

Orange, Cal. 

Main Basin of Santa Ana River. 
A— Intake of Anaheim Union Water Co. B— Intake of Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Co. 



President— William E. Smythk. 
Vice-President— V. T. Fowler. 
Secretary-Treasurer— Amadon Moody. 

Will S. Green, Colusa. 
Marshal R. Beard, Sacramento. 
H. P. Stabler, Marysville. 
Harvey C. Stiles, Chico. 
John Kirby, San Francisco. 
N. J. Bird, San Francisco. 
Frank Cornwall, San Francisco. 
John S. Dore, Fresno. 
John Fairweather, Reedley. 
E. H. Tucker. Selma. 
A. Hallner, Kingsburg. 
A. H. Naftzger, Los Angeles. 


S. W. Fergusson, Los Angeles. 
Walter J. Thompson, Los Angeles. 
A. R. Sprague, Los Angeles- 
Charles F. Lummis, Los Angeles. 
E. T. Dunning, Los Angeles. 
Chas. A. Moody, Los Angeles. 
Scipio Craig, Redlands. 
El wood Cooper, Santa Barbara. 
W. H. Porterfleld, San Diego. 
George W. Marston, San Diego. 
Bishop J. Edmonds, San Diego. 
William E. Smythe, San Diego. 


RRANGEMENTS have been perfected whereby all annual 
subscribers to Out West may be enrolled as members of 
the California Constructive League upon request. No expense 
attaches to membership unless local clubs find it necessary or 
desirable to raise a fund for their own needs. Any reader of this 
magazine who wants to be a member of the League, and who 
has not already joined some of its thirty local clubs or other or- 
ganizations already affiliated with it, should notify the Secretary 
of the Constructive League, at 606 Hearst Building, San Fran- 
cisco, or 115 South Broadway, Los Angeles. 
" Can women join ? " Most decidedly ? 


The California Constructive League grew out of an article 
published in these pages in December, 1901. The article was 
entitled "A Program for California." Its fundamental proposi- 
tion, which really comprehended all others, was the following : 

To compel the political parties to deal -with living questions of 
constructive character. 

It is notoriously true that the politics of California — as of 
most other States — has little or no significance in connection 
with economic development. In California we elect a Gov- 
ernor once in four years, and a Legislature once in two years. 
These elections are usually little more than an ignoble scramble 
of small politicians. When there is an issue in the campaign, 
it is usually some national question with which our State 


officers have nothing- whatever to do. The years come and go, 
and the procession of office-holders marches past into oblivion, 
while nothing - worth while is done to lay the foundations of a 
civilization, or to shape its noble superstructure. And so it 
must ever be until we shall indeed " compel political parties to 
deal with living questions of constructive character." 

The magazine article which brought forth this movement sug- 
gested four specific measures for discussion, as follows i 

1. Public works of irrigation. 

2. The New Zealand system for dealing with large estates and abolish- 
ing land monopoly. 

3. A wider and more scientific development of cooperation among pro- 
ducers in the purchase of supplies and sale of products. 

4. The adoption of some system of compulsory arbitration aiming at the 
gradual abolition of disastrous strikes, with a recommendation for the 
study of the methods with which New Zealand and Australia are now ex- 

All these features were discussed in the pages of this maga- 
zine during the past year, and also in half a hundred addresses 
delivered by the President of the League over a large portion 
of the State between February 15th and July 1st. With a 
single exception, all were received with a very great degree of 
public interest. The exception was the fourth feature, sug- 
gesting compulsory arbitration This met vigorous opposition 
at the hands of employers and labor unions alike, and was 
therefore dropped from the program. That we shall sometime 
discover a better method than the resort to force in the settle- 
ment of labor difficulties, most thoughtful men believe, but the 
time is not 3 r et. 


About thirty clubs were formed as the result of the lecture- 
ship last year. Some of them accomplished a great deal. New 
clubs ought to be formed, and this can usually be done wher- 
ever there is a live man who will work the matter up among 
his neighbors. There can be no better basis for a debating 
society, and it may have as many pleasant social features as the 
members care to undertake. 

The present membership of the League cannot be far from 
15,000. This is largely composed of other organizations which 
have affiliated with it through the official action of their officers 
or membership. For instance, the Unity Club of San Fran- 
cisco, presided over by Benjamin Fay Mills, joined in a body 
This represents about 600. The Economic League of San Fran- 
cisco, with its 3,000 members, and most of the Single Tax 
League, numbering about 5,000, also signified their desire to be 
considered component parts of the League. Several very large 
cooperative organizations have done likewise. Through the 
new arrangement, by which readers of Out West are permitted 
to join, it is hoped 10,000 more may be brought within the fold 


during the present year. While strong- local organization is de- 
sirable, it is by no means necessary to accomplish results. There 
are a certain number of us in California who recognize our com- 
radeship and want to work together to create better conditions 
of living for the State which is our home and the object of our 
devotion. The Constructive League raises its flag and invites 
all who care to do so to stand beneath it. We will keep in touch 
with each other through the pages of this magazine, which of 
itself constitutes a better and stronger "organization" than 
many a more pretentious official machinery. 

As to literature, the 20th Century West Department of this 
magazine is supplying it regularly. For instance, the funda- 
mental thought underlying public works of irrigation is dealt 
with this month. Some very extensive plans are on foot looking 
to a full presentation of the Problem of Cooperation during the 
present year. Later, it is likely that a very full and interest- 
ing study of the Problems of Great Estates will be brought out. 
We even dream of a Constructive Library, composed of a num- 
ber of useful books to be published in such a way that everybody 
can buy them without feeling the cost. Thus with our maga- 
zines, clubs, lectures, books and big membership we shall grad- 
ually realize that little five-word motto of the League — To 
Bring Things To Pass. 


Although the movement was very new and lacking in cohe- 
sion, it really accomplished a good deal on the field of politics 
last year. It did compel both political parties to deal with at 
least one living issue of constructive character. This was the 
matter of irrigation, which occupied large space in party plat- 
forms, ranked high in the inaugural message of Governor 
Pardee, and is now the most conspicuous question before the 
Legislature at Sacramento. It may be said truly enough that 
the League is not responsible for all these results. Still, those 
closely in touch with events will freely give it credit for a major 
portion of the achievement, so far as actual work in politics is 
concerned. There are many organized influences contributing 
to the agitation of irrigation and forestry questions. There is 
one only which makes any effort to bring these matters into 
politics. That is the California Constructive League. Who 
can doubt that in the next four years, and the next ten years, it 
will accomplish very great results through the influence of its 
membership, individually and collectively. 

At any rate, we are well started and we are going to keep at 
it. If you want to have a hand in bringing things to pass by 
turning your influence into the common stream, send in your 
name and let us work together from now on. 





©r? HE 

>^J re 

^ lit 

poet, the novelist and the descriptive writer have taught us to 
reverence California as our American antique. We picture sun- 
ight poured upon the earth like a boundless benediction. We 
imagine valleys green as the emerald. We conjure up visions of mighty 
mountains radiant with color, every spur and projection softened by dis- 
tance, and all enchanting as a dream. 

We come to modern California and our expectations of Eden-like beauty 
are realized. We see the result of evolution from savagery to civilization, 
from sage brush desert to flowering garden, but give little thought to the 
metamorphosis itself. 

Where many of our present cities or towns are now located, once roamed 
the herds of the early Spanish settlers of this Golden State. They 
were the original pioneers who extended the right hand of fellowship 
to the Anglo-Saxon, and welcomed him with their boundless hospitality. 
They looked upon their vast domains with pride, and never for a moment 
imagined that some day these same people would transform the verdant 
valleys into beautiful orchards and progressive cities. However, regardless 
of what was to be, the Spanish grandees were ever glad to take their 
blue-eyed brothers into their respective firesides, and share the benefits 
with them. 

So today we see the growing villages of San Dimas, La Verne and Char- 
ter Oak in the San Gabriel Valley where once were the possessions of three 

In San Dimas Canon. 

Photo by If. C. Norris; Jr. 



A Foothill Ranch nkar San Dimas. 

descendants of the patrician blood of Spain, viz., Don Ygnacio Palomares, 
Don L/uis Arenas and Don Ricardo Vejar. 

They were the owners of that princely estate, the Rancho San Jose\ on 
a portion of which these towns are situated. This ranch with its fertile 


Will! | 

A l.\ Vl KM HilMK. 

Photo by If. C. \orru.yr. 



A San Dimas Fan Palm. 

Photo by H. C. Norris, Jr. 

valleys and beautiful surroundings, comprised 22,3+0 acres; it was a Mexi- 
can grant conferred upon the above mentioned by Gov. J. B. Alvarado in 
March, 1840. In 1859, Don L,uis Arenas disposed of his valuable holdings 
to Henry Dalton, and some years later Don Ricardo Vejar sold to Schles- 
inger et al, who sold to L,. Phillips. Don Ygnacio Palomares retained his 
interest, which was after his death distributed among his heirs, who sold 
to other parties, and still retain some valuable holdings. Some years later 
it was deemed necessary to obtain a complete abstract of the Rancho San 
Jos£ at the request of the attorney for the Palomares heirs, and it took 
six men ninety days to make the translations of the Spanish documents 
into English and properly complete the work. It is one of the longest ab- 
stracts in the world, and fills 38 volumes, which are on file in the Court 
House of Los Angeles County. 

In 1877, the United States Government confirmed the original grant and 
issued a patent to Palomares, Dalton and Vejar. Francisco Palomares, a 



■ B&^taEt 


Improved and Unimproved. 

Photo by R. W. Lewis 

son of Ygnacio, in 1879, was the owner of 5,000 acres of land, comprising 
La Verne, part of Lordsburg, and a portion of San Dimas. At this time 
land in the upper San Gabriel Valley was of little value. It is related that 
Francisco, some years previous, had mortgaged his 5,000 acres for $7,000. 
The date of foreclosure drew near, and after repeated efforts to sell or bor- 
row, in Los Angeles, he determined on a trip to San Francisco, hoping to 
find some one " foolish " enough to speculate in Los Angeles county prop- 
erty. He visited banks and real estate dealers, offering his mortgage for 
sale. The almost invariable answer was, however, " we do not handle 
mortgages in Southern California." 

At last he succeeded in interesting a Mrs. de Soto, who purchased 600 
acres for $4,800. 

This sale marked the beginning of a new era for the San Jose" ranch. 

Walnut Drive near San Dimas. Photo by H. C. Norris,Jr, 



San Dimas Public School. 

Photo by //. C. Nor r is, Jt . 

While from 1880 to 1886, the development consisted of only a few hundred 
acres planted to wheat and barley, yet slowly, but surely, its latent pos- 
sibilities were beginning to be appreciated. 

The portion of the Upper San Gabriel Valley known as San Dimas, La 

aIsan Dimas Church. 

I'Motolby 11. 

Some San Dtmas-La Verne Homes. Photos by H. C. Norn's, Jr. 




Photo by //. C. Norris, Jr. 

Verne and Charter Oak is a typical Southern California ranching section. 
The aim of this article is to truthfully picture a developing- California 
farming- district. 

After the boom of '86-'87 a few stragglers were left on the San Jose" 
ranch. Some because they could not realize enough on their holdings to 
get away and a few because they believed in the valley despite the scarcity 
of irrigating water. 

The San Jose" Land and Water Co. had succeeded in developing a small 
amount of water in the San Dimas canon — a few inches also being avail- 

San Dimas Canon. 

Phot* by H. C. JVorris, Jr. 

Some Moke Ranch Humes. Photo by II. C. Norn's, Ji 



able from the " Mud Springs." All told, however, there was not enough 
obtainable to provide for 500 acres of land. As a result, Iya Verne was 
depopulated and San Dimas existed as little more than a name on the 
Santa F£ time card. 

In 1887, H. C. Mace planted an orange orchard in Charter Oak and 
hauled irrigation water, in wagons, from the springs two miles distant. 
About the same time several ranchers attempted the cultivation of decid- 
uous fruits and olives. None of these ventures met with permanent suc- 
cess on account of the scarcity of water. 

At this time the prospects of the old San Jose - ranch might have been 
very fittingly summed up in one word — " None." Some four years later a 

The "Furrow" Method ok Irrigation. 

Photo by Schivicktenbtt s. 

few indomitable spirits determined to make one last effort to secure water 
for irrigation. They procured a well-drilling outfit, and the result of their 
labor was water in abundance at a depth of 80 feet. From that day until 
the present the development has been steady and substantial. 

There are four distinctive features of this valley which merit mention. 

1st. Absolute freedom from frosts. 

2nd. Abundance of water. 

3rd. Soil suited to either lemon or orange growing. 

4th. A population made up of educated progressive people. 

The first of these is worthy of more than passing note. The winter of 
1901 02 was one of the most severe that California has known for 20 years, 
yet scarcely a leaf was curled in La Verne, San Dimas or Charter Oak. In 
fact, so favored has this strip of country been that it is known as ""The 
Frostiess Belt," When water was first discovered by drilling, the pessi- 

The "Zig-Zag" Method of Irrigation. Photo by Schwichtcubcu 

The. "Block" Method of Irrigation. Photo by Schwichtenberg 


i inafVfat/Htwtiimin 

mm •iimmnmi 

numiiimfnnm «^i 

nmiimtutmnin'ir\, lt . 



mists said, ''Only a pocket." The reverse is, however, the case. One of 
our western rivers, with the bottom on top and the top on the bottom is un- 
doubtedly the source of supply. That the fountain-head is not local is 
proved by the fact that in spite of three consecutive dry years the flow has 
not decreased. The oldest wells have been lowered, in some instances a 
few inches, in some three to four feet, in others not at all. 

The following incident will help throw light on the nature of this supply. 
About four years ago a number of ranchers determined to drill a test well 
to a depth of 300 feet. At the 70-foot level they encountered water gravel 
and continued in practically the same formation for the remaining 230 feet. 
Today this part of the San Gabriel Valley has one of the most abundant 
and cheapest supplies of water in the West. 

The major portion of the ranches are owned by people of comparatively 
little means. One particularly striking feature of California ranch life is 
here most admirably featured, i. e., the social side. A number of literary 

A Few Young Orange Trees, San Dimas Nursery. 

and horticultural clubs provide for the studious hours, while tennis, ama- 
teur photography, etc., offer relaxation to mind and body. In this part of 
the world the farmer has time to play. Did you ever arise at 3 a. m., 
go out and waken the stock in order to feed them ? Did you ever shuck 
corn with the thermometer trying to crawl into the bulb? Did you ever 
have to break ice in the old washpan just outside the kitchen door before 
you could wash your face in the morning ? 

If you have done these things — and repented — you will appreciate ihe 
difference between ten hours a day on a California ranch where the air is 
always soft and balmy, where old dame Nature is always smiling, and the 
16-hour farm day " Back East," with half of the year a round of rain and 
wind and sleet and snow, and the other half lierce, blinding, stifling heat. 

Although comparatively new as a citrus region, 500 cars of lemons and 



The Citkus Growers' Packinc; House. 

oranges were shipped last year. These figures are not startling. " Signi- 
ficant " is the better word, because not more than one-third of the acreage 
already set out is in full bearing. Then, too, there are many acres of 
practically raw land awaiting the plow and grader. 

One striking feature of this region is, that while land is comparatively 
cheap and much remains to be put in orchards, the ranchers as a rule 
seem to believe that it is better to do a little well than much ill. 

Right here a few facts regarding methods of marketing fruit are not 

In San Dimas Canon. 

I'holo h\ //. ( \ orris, Jr. 


amiss. Ninety per cent, is handled cooperatively. San Dimas supports a 
Citrus Union and a Lemon Association, with a combined membership of 126. 
A certain sum was raised by sale of stock, packing-houses built and equip- 
ped, and the net profits divided pro rata. Charter Oak also has a coopera- 
tive packing house conducted on a like plan. 

San Dimas and Charter Oak divided the honor of receiving the highest 
price per box ($15.50) paid to any California grower last year. I say 
divided, because, although raised in San Dimas, the Valencias in question 
are close enough to Charter Oak for the lighter winds to waft their frag- 
rance over that particular district. 

Some one has said "every town in the Southwest lays claim to having 
the biggest something in the world." The upper San Gabriel Valley is 
no exception to the rule. Their " biggest " is the San Dimas Nursery. 
This year 400,000 citrus trees have been or will be marketed before summer. 
When one considers that this stock is raised entirely in the open with the 
exception of " seeds " (young trees in the lath-house), we must believe in 
tne verity of the " Frostless Belt." 

Two transcontinental railroads traverse the valley — the Southern Pacific 
and the Santa Fe\ Distant but 28 miles from Los Angeles, with an elec- 
tric railway in process of construction, San Dimas never expects to become 
a large city. Ideally located as it is, however, the grim old Sierra Madres 
on the north, the green San Jose" hills rolling away to the south, and the 
giants of the San Bernardino range on the east, the San Jose" ranch is 
destined to become more beautiful with each passing year. The gray 
patches of undeveloped land will give way to the green and gold of orange 
groves. Additional and more pretentious country homes will be erected. A 
few years and Governor Alvarado's gift will be known the world over as 
one of the most lovely spots in the "picture State." 

The San Dimas Citrus Union will be glad to answer any inquiries con- 
cerning this district. 

An Orange Tree in February. 

On thk Link of the Bay Counties Power Plant. 





|HE third city of California in size, the fifth in the same respect of 
the entire Pacific Coast of North America — and yielding the palm 
to none of them for possession of the things which make life best 
worth living — this may fairly be called a great city. But Oakland has 
been overshadowed by the towering fame of her great neighbor, much as 
Brooklyn was by New York until the two were wedded, so that to hundreds 
of thousands — even to some Californians — it is the Place where there is a 
Pier from which one takes a Ferryboat to go to San Francisco. Yet Oak- 
land is not only one of the most thriving, prosperous and important cities 
of all the West — it is certain beyond any cavil to stride rapidly forward to 
even greater achievements than those of which her citizens are already so 
justly proud. 

What are the factors which make this sure? They are four in number — 
shipping, commerce, manufacture, and, last, but far from least, exceeding 
desirability as a place for homes. Note, first, Oakland's magnificent harbor. 

Modern business methods eliminate unnecessary movement in handling 
traffic. Prompt dispatch is demanded. The only effective combination of 
railroad, and steam-craft is at tidewater. Delays for transhipment are the 
fatal increments that lose business. If California is to hold alien com- 
merce as against the shorter Northern routes, Oakland's harbor must be 
utilized. Here already are the most extensive shipyards and marine rail" 
ways and the largest coal bunkers of the state. Here is launched annually 
a greater amount of tonnage than the aggregate of all other shipyards on 
San Francisco Bay. Last year they gave steady employment to 660 men, 
and the aggregate of new work completed amounted to nearly a million and 
a half of dollars. 

The largest California ships have been built here, and here, following 

At an Oakland Pier. 

Photo by H. C ffom's, Jr. 



the lines of largest population, 
should be the exchange of car- 
goes between the United States 
and Oriental nations. The 
present method of transfer- 
ring freight from and to the 
east, while satisfactory in by- 
past days, is no longer abreast 
with the situation. The only 
natural and normal plan now 
is to weld land and sea-route 
here at the water-edge. It 
is only on the eastern shore of 
San Francisco Bay, using the 
ample water front of Oakland 
and Greater Oakland, that Cal- 
ifornia's share of the vast bus- 
iness of the Western Ocean 
can be transacted. 

In fact the demand for ocean 
front for wharf and dock fa- 
cilities becomes continually 
more urgent. Oakland handled 
freight in 1874, 154,300 tons ; 
in 1900, 4,800,000. San Fran- 
cisco's deep-water exposures 
have become substantially ab- 
sorbed. Only lately its Board 
of Public Works recommended 
the preservation and improve- 
ment of Islais Creek, extending 
within the bounds of that city, 
for harbor appropriation. On 
Oakland's harbor line, how- 
ever, there are fifteen miles of 
water front, with belt of rail- 
way, capable of making a com- 
modious haven as soon as the 
scheme of improvement now 
contemplated is complete. The 
navigable channel to deep 
water will be 26 feet deep at 
high water, suitable for or- 
dinary classes of seagoing 
vessels at present. Larger 
appropriations, however, and 
more extended work than 
have as yet entered infc) the 
calculations of those friendly 
to Oakland Harbor are needed. Improvements will by and by be neces- 
sary. The dimensions of the great sea-freighters are keeping pace with 
the tremendous increase of railway power and capacity. The first Pacific 
Mail Steamship between New York and San Francisco, the "California," 
was 200 feet in length and drew 20 feet of water. The last, "Oceanic." 
measures 685 feet and draws 44 feet. Continually deeper, wider and more 



An Oakland Wharf. 

Photo by H. C. Norris, Jr 

direct harbor entrances are demanded. In all the main seaports the chan- 
nels have been deepened. What the tonnage of Oakland will aggre- 
gate when the necessary dredging has been completed and the ocean- 
freighters can dock and clear regardless of tide movements may be esti- 
mated i from the facts that the amount of tonnage handled in 1895 was 

Another Watbr Front View. Photo by H C. Norn's, 7r. 




2,600,000 as against 154,000 in 1874 when small steam-craft alone plied the 
San Antonio water, and the annual tonnage movement of Oakland reached, 
by the last tables at command, more than half that of San I'rancisco, 
which in 1895 was placed at 2,500,000 register, probably equivalent to 
4,000,000 gross. 

As to Oakland's future commercial importance, one need only observe 
that the greatest agricultural valleys in the State converge here so far as 
the shipments of their products and the transit of passengers to and fro' 
is concerned ; also the longest distance electric power line in the world. 
Two transcontinental railways also have their terminus here, and a 
third has lately received a charter to enter the city. 

The vantage held by Oakland as a manufacturing point appears on the 
most casual observation. Her shipping facilities alone are enough to 

Among thk Contka Costa Hii i .-. 
(In the suburbs <>t Oakland.) 

I'holo I 

enable her to dominate the situation — who does not know that manufac- 
turing establishments are wont to gather at points to which the raw 
material can most easily be brought and from which the finished product 
can most readily be shipped ? The high price of power has been in the 
past a barrier to extensive industrial development, but the cheap and ex- 
haustless supplies of oil have gone far to remedying this for the whole 
State ; while for Oakland in particular the conduits along which electricity 
Hows across Carquinez from the distant mountains are of great import- 
ance. In fact, no other year of Oakland's history has witnessed such in- 
dustrial progress as the one just past. Mills and factories have multiplied 
apace and thrived exceedingly. A single fact will startle those who are 
not already familiar with it — Oakland's industrial wage account during 
1002 was more than nine million dollars. And this, of course, takes no 
account of the prodigious steel, sheet-iron, tin-plate, and corrugated iron 
plants, each to cost in the neighborhood of $5,000,000, and all now under 
construction ; nor of the manylother projects of only less importance 



Lake Merritt. (Oakland's7unique["water-park.) Photo by E. R. Jackson. 

The reminiscences of Oakland are dramatic. In 1852, with a dozen 
buildings, a school-house, the only church a tent, and 250 inhabitants, it 
received its town charter. In 1850, the first American came. In 1854, it 
was incorporated as a city, and its first white child born. In|1865, its popu- 
lation was 8,000 ; in 1870, 17,000 : in 1880, 35,000. In 1898, its boundaries 
were extended to the Berkeley line. In 1900, it numbered nearly 70,000 
souls. Today the census declares 82,195. During the last thirty-seven 
years, the United States has doubled its population ; California has trebled 
hers ; Oakland has multiplied its inhabitants by the sacred number, seven. 
In values of properties the ratio of increase is even greater. Note the fol- 
lowing table : 

1870 $ 6,000,000 

1880 28,000,000 

1885 30,000,000 

1890 39,400,000 

1895 46,500,000 

1902 > estimated 55,000,000 

During all its history, Oakland has never experienced a bank failure. 




Its eight banking institutions show today deposits amounting to over 
$18,000,000, $13,670,000 of which are savings funds. 

Generally the conditions that create business are aloof from those that 
produce hygienic home-life. The factory and the mart seek their own 
natural habitat regardless of any other considerations, and men who 
would succeed must dwell where that is. Indeed, of localities, it is cer- 
tain that the money-makers are generally the health-breakers. One pays 
a premium in vitality to inhabit them. Disagreeable to the point of 
danger are the penalties and conditions commonly exacted for business 
profits. It is where the waters are rough that the angel of prosperity 
enters, and there existence is a struggle. A notable exception to this 
induction is found in this city at the limit of the continent. 

Great as are its manufacturing and maritine advantages, it is principally 

An Oakland Garden sum. 

Photo , 

as a home, a residence town, that Oakland has grown to be the third la i 
community in the State and contains over half the population of the county. 
It has attracted to itself some 6,000 of the business and profes>i.n);il men 
of San Francisco. They do their business there, but will live only in 
Oakland. Three ferry systems, soon to be four, connect it with San 
Francisco. Abundant trains distribute through the main arteries of the 
city, whence 130 miles of street car lines radiate to San Lorenzo, San Li-au- 
dro, Haywards, Melrose, Fitchburg, Elmhurst, Kim-rvville, I,urin. 
Berkeley and the island Alameda. Its intra-urban and suburban system 
of rapid transit is now being extended to Richmond and San Jose. All these 
lines render easy of access most attractive localities for abodes. Nearly 
one thousand new houses have been erected during the p.iM voir, and they 
are all upon healthful sites. Building lots and rents are cheap, and houses 
are sold or rented as fast as they are buWt. There are no malarial areas 
within the city's eighteen square miles. It inhabits picturesquely'sea'aml 


Ol THf 




hill, and the gradual rise from the sea-foot and estuary shore to the eleva- 
tions creates a natural drainage and sewer system, the most sanitary that 
domestic science has yet found. On and amid the amphitheater of the 
hills are situated the finest localities and habitations. Pleasant to the 
sense are many of these names : Piedmont, Mountain View, Iyinda Vista, 
Vernon Heights, Arbor Villa, Rose Crest. 

Oakland was built in an oak grove, and took its name from the 
forest of "Live Oaks" (called live, as the Greek language is 
called dead, because both are deathless) with which it was sur- 
rounded. Some notion of its appearance at birth can be obtained 
from the unbroken and undulating uplands beyond San L,eandro. Imagine 
this oak oasis at the end of the desert, on the rim of the sea. The Iyive 
Oak is an adorable tree. With branch and foliage it personates Imother- 

Another Garden View. 

Photo by E.R.* Jackson 

hood and fatherhood. So the early Spanish padres regarded it, and forbade 
its destruction. And the noble hills and mountains (using that word in its 
eastern acceptance) of Oakland, are a blessing inestimable to any town, 
for these highlands and eminences continually lift life from its monotonous 
level. It was the lack of hills that caused the Greeks to build their Par- 
thenon and the desert dwellers their Babel tower. 

From any one of the inviting acclivities cresting the town one may see 
the great bay, Yerba Buena, Alcatraz, the Golden Gate and the long arm of 
the estuary, with its wharves, and forestry of masts, and countless verdur- 
ous islets with their reedy guards holding the restless tides in check. Mid- 
way from the arm extends the open thumb and palm of L,ake Merritt, that 
jewel lake spreading over 170 acres, set with lapidary's skill on the breast 
of the city. This is but one of the city's parks, there being eight others 
scattered through it. 

Oakland is as celebrated for its drives as is Victoria for its walks and 
equestrian by-paths, and the exuberance of nature everywhere is amazing. 

Sacred Heart Convent, Oakland. 

Photo by E. R. Jackson. 

The Christian Science Church, Oakland. 



'Club Housb in^an Oakland Suburban Park. 

Photo l'v E. R. Tmtktom, 

I think it is the first thing that impresses the sojourner. Such profusion 
of foliage on every hill and valley ; such wilding tangle of vine and flower ; 
such shaded, slumberous recesses and canons where the apparelled skies 
gloom, and whose shrunken streams, hiding fern, strange lichens and 

Across Lake Mkrkitt. 

Photo by E. H. ."' 

Piedmont Park, Oakland. 

Photo by E. It, Jackson- 



stranger dark roses, alternately tempt and dissuade. And, about the 
villas, what tumultuous growth of roses and violets and flowers, exotic 
everywhere else, with their victories of color. What palms and magnolias 
and sea-side pines, brotherhood of the Sierra. Hut, most of all, one delights 
in the winter wild grass. It seems so impossible, like an apparition, car- 
peting the roadsides and shoulders of the hills with its tender, willowy 
green and continually wandering away among the thyme and chaparral and 
broad big Oaks, the sisterhoods of Poplar and Manzanita and Eucalyptus 
with their fallen brown flags. Whence is that ecstacy or living which all 
comers find here? Is it from the pungent air of the sea? I know not. 
Oakland possesses the climate of winterless Palestine, but is blessed, as 


Palestine is not, with the omnipotent breath of the ocean. Mountain air, 
sea air and the seaward currents of the dry interior'plains conspire to pro- 
duce it. 

"One cannot live on climate," it is said, but can one really live without 
it? The winter-chill and summer-fever of the East, by them how much 
time ( which is life) is rendered absolutely ineffectual— lost. Does not a 
clement climate actually mean more life ? It means an average of an hour 
every working day. In generous California every day is a day of life, 
abundant, joy-giving as nowhere else. It is seen in the nobility of all 
physical growth. It is only under the rich nurturing of these skies and 
this virile sun that the largest rose-gardens in the country exist, and tin* 
laws of floral development familiar to less favored regions an broken until 
the wise horticulturist produces from strange nuptials wonderful, unlv 
ot Dowers. 

People come here from the frozen East prostrated with its heat, pinched 



The New Carnegie Library, Oakland. 

with its cold, half prepared to resent while they deeply enjoy an atmos- 
phere they hear so much praised, but the kindly-tempered skies make 
friends of them all, and, when they return at all, they tell of the land in 
which whosoever lives never enjoys another. 

Statistics are rather instructive than interesting-, but Oakland's unparal- 
led climate is quite clearly demonstrated from the daily records noted at 
Chabot Observatory. Since January, 1876 (the beginning of the recorded 
observations), the annual average temperature has been 55°. The average 

Oakland High School. 

Photo by E. K. Jackson. 



temperature of its coldest weather, 48° ; that of its warmest, 62°, and its 
average humidity, 80°. The average temperature last year was 50° ; tem- 
perature of the warmest day, 70° ; of the coolest, 39°; greatest variation in 
twenty-four hours, 33° ; least, 6° ; days in which rain fell, 83 ; days of frost, 
22 ; number of clear and fair days, 268. The greatest monthly variation 
of temperature was in October, viz., 43° ; the least in January, 26°. The 
average daily range of temperature for the year was 17.33°. The rainfall 
in inches during the year was 23.92. Separating the period into seasons 
corresponding with those in the East, the mean temperature of the Spring 
was 58.85° ; of the Summer, 59.83 ; of the Autumn, 54.87 ; of the Winter, 
49.27. The difference between the warmest and coldest months of the 

A " Borax King's'' Oakland Home. 

Spring was 6.65° ; of the Summer, 2.9° ; of the Autumn, 11.5°, and of Win- 
ter 5.7. 

The average monthly and annual temperature for twenty-seven years 
was as follows : 

Mean temperature January 47.5 

Mean temperature February 50.0 

Mean temperature March 

Mean temperature April 55.3 

Mean temperature May 58.0 

Mean temperature June 61.6 

Mean temperature July 61.8 

Mean temperature August 61.3 

Mean temperature September 61.] 

Mean temperature October 58.5 

Mean temperature November 

Mean temperature December 

These tables are compiled from statistics from June to June, and com- 
prise 1901 to 1902. 



Snow is an uncommon visitor to Oakland. Who does not." re member that 
wonderful week of Christmas, 1882 with its powder of snow ? How the 
astonished geranium hedges and calla lillies, half smothered, laughed 
through their samite livery into our very eyes ! It was fleeting, gone with 
the day ; and the like has never come again, ephemeral reminder of the 
desolate winters left forever. Less changing and more free from extremes 
are the meteorological records of Oakland and Alameda County than are 
those of any other locality even in this favored State. And its comparative 
death-rate shows that Oakland is one of the healthiest of cities. 

So much for those material features which are the basis of the best 
home-life. What hospitality is there for the Ideals in Oakland ? What of 
its climate, religious, educational, humane ? 

Oakland is conspicuously a church attending and supporting community. 

It believes in a solvent religion preached in solvent churches. No church 
of Oakland is in debt. The finest architecture in the city is exhibited in 
its ecclesiastical buildings, the most recent edifices representing the 
Catholic, Protestant and Christian Science communities. The number of 
Protestant churches is twenty-seven. Among them is the largest and 
most influential Advent organization, save one, in the United States; the 
largest Presbyterian and Congregational bodies in the State, the latter 
ranking third in the United States. 

The Schools of California rank among those of the first half-dozen 
States of the Union ; and the second largest and best equipped High 
school of the State is established in Oakland. The city contains twenty 
modern public-school buildings. From the proposed new bond-issue of 
$2,000,000, the Board of Education has required $468,000 for new buildings 
and equipment. The University of California had its original home in 



Oakland, and is now its nearest neighbor. The foremost seminary for 
women in the West, one of the best known schools of individual education, 
and the oldest college in California are Oakland institutions. 

A noteworthy adjunct to the prominent and continually advancing edu- 
cational activity of Oakland is the Free Public Library, established in the 
new Carnegie building. The structure itself is an education in archi- 

But the unique distinction of Oakland is outside of both clericalism and 
education, and finds expression in a multitude of organizations among 
which the most notable are the Young Men's and the Young Women's 
Christian Associations, the Starr King Fraternity, the Ebell Club, the Oak- 
land Hospital and Aid Association, the Children's Protective Association of 
California, the Associated Charities, the Red Cross, the King's Daughters, 
the Home for Girls, the Ladies' Relief Society, the Woman's Exchange, 
and the West Oakland Home. Then there are various acknowledged Re- 
form Clubs, such as the Ruskin, Oakland, New Century, Human Interest 
and Mutual Benefit. Beside these are many Literary and Social Clubs, 
such as the Athenian, the Berkeley and the Outlook, and all the fraternal 

The name "Athens," so often attached to Oakland, is taken to denote 
certain exceptional acquirement in learning, encouragement of the arts 
and literary culture. In its appreciation of intellectual enterprise and re- 
ligious idiosyncracies, Oakland is conspicuously if not essentially Athenian, 
Its constant desire is " to see and hear something new " — so much so as to 
suggest that Oakland's definition of culture is an encouragement of cults. 
The new voice, the new message, are certain of welcome. Curiosity is 
accompanied by sympathy, and any earnest, magnetic man or woman can 
get a following in Oakland any day. In the strenuous seeking of truth, 
which is philosophy, and the worship of her tenets when found, which is 
religion, Oakland is almost sui generis, and its society is neither dogmatic 
nor provincial in/its sympathies. 

An i • \ k i .\ m- sii'imi. ' • /•! /■". A'. 

(Tin- sheltering oak spreads ovei .i circle 90 fe*l in diameter.) 

^OODWARD, WATSON & CO., the principal installment home- 
builders in Oakland, have under course of construction at the pres- 
ent time, thirty-four beautiful modern homes ranging- in prices 
from $3,000 to $6,000 each. 
The above cuts are vi-:ws of their present operations on one block in 
Bast Oakland clcse to the business and commercial center of the city. 
They have in course of construction at the present time on this block, six- 
teen houses, and in the accompanying illustration is a view of their mill in 
the center of the block where all the mechanical work necessary to be 
done in and about the buildings is completed. This firm buys its lumber 
and all of its materials n cargo lots and prepares every stick of it for use 
in the construction of the buildings with the aid of their own plant ; in 
this manner, they are able to build at least 20% cheaper than the same 
houses could be contracted for singly. A thorough inspection of the con- 
struction of the homes erected by this firm is invited from the very time 
that the first brick is aid until the houses receive the last finishing touches. 


The lust for gold, which has been so potent a factor In the making of the 
history of civilization, and which is a force so vital in the present, seems to 
have overshadowed the important part played by the erratic metal Mercury 
in the drama of human greed. Tn hi* "Romances of the World's Great 
Mines," Samuel E. Moffett, speaking of Almaden, in Spain, the greatest pro- 
ducer of quicksilver the world has known, says, "Almaden has bridged the 
abyss between ancient and modern history- For antiquity, continuity of pro- 
duction and unbroken profit, Almaden stands at the head of all the mines of 
the world of whatever kind." 

This mine, that seems to have discovered the secret of immortality, was the 
key that unlocked for Spain the treasure of sliver in Mexico. In America were 
the richest silver mines of the world, but until the application of mercury in the 
winning of this wealth of precious metal, the waste was enormous, with conse- 
quent loss to the world. When the discovery was made that quicksilver, used 
as an accumulator and carrier, would extract the gold and silver from ores in 
which, It was thought, they were incorporated beyond possibility of liberation, 
the impetus given the mining industry of the world at that time elevated it to 
the most important place among all avocations, which position it has since 
held. Spain reaped the rich harvest that Almaden made possible, pouring the 
liquid metal from her great quicksilver mine over the ores dug from the 
mountains of the country given to her by the conquest of Cortez, and taking 
in return yellow and white bricks of gold and silver, with which she builded 
an edifice of arrogance. 

Thus, has quicksilver been the med'um through which has been obtained 
that immense volume of metal necessary to the commerce of the world and 
equally indispensable in the arts ani sciences. The uses of mercury itself 
have increased outside of its application in the recovery of gold and silver from 
their ores, until the demand for paint, medicinal preparations, scientific instru- 
ments, etc., constitutes a large fraction of the total consumption. 

It was not until twenty years after the discovery of gold in California that 
mercury was discovered in quantity In the state, and the few gold mines then 
obtaining the metal from crushed quartz, secured their supply of "Quick" 
from other sources. Since then, California has been a producer of mercury. 
Mines have been opened, worked and exhausted, and while some have yielded 
constantly to the present time, none have approached the record of Almaden 
During 1901, two new mines were added to the list of producers. The largest 
producers were the New Idria, of San Benito Co., Napa Consolidated, of Napa 
Co., and New Almaden, of Santa Clara Co., the production of these being about 
equal. Several of the older producing mines fell off materially in production. 
The total production of mercury In C ilifornia in 1901 was 26,720 flasks (76% 
pounds to the flask). The aggregate 1=? made up of the product from the larger 
and older mines, and that from the smaller mines and prospects whose individ- 
■ ual yield is insignificant. 

In view of the great influence exerted by quicksilver in the past and up to 
the present, although its importance is commonly neglected, it is interesting to i is ;o the results that may attend the decreasing supply and increas- 
ing demand. All available statistics i adicate this condition, ami it seems prob- 
able that the metal may approach tha: dignity, measured by its market price, 
to which its function in the past woul.i seem to entitle It 

In California, attempts are being made to resuscitate the older mines, and 
several new nnes, the owners of whi h are making claims of greater or less 
possibilities, are being enthusiastically exploited. The fac: remains, how 
that the demand is Increasing out of proportion to the supply, and it is to the 
new mines that we must look for that of the future The outlook is not 
The Minora! Industry for 1901, states that "The outlook for Increased pro- 
duction is nut favorable. Many cit' the older producers are ''ailing off in their 
output, and in. new mines of importance arc being discover?d, newspaper re- 
ports notwithstanding." 

While the above statement is gene-ally true, there la one notable exception 
to the last assertion. This one cannot be classed as a now discovery, since It 
was kimwn in the early seventies. !•' om an industrial point of view, ho* 
it is quite now. and this is astonlsh'ng. Why such a deposit has never teen 
mined and turned into money, history only may tell. Certain it is. that three 
miles above the town of Sulphur Creak, Colusa Co., California, there is 
markable exposure of mercury ore. in ivhlch just enough work has been done to 
indicate its immense possibilities The mine is called the "ELGIN" and Is 
owned by the Kigin Quicksilver Mines a company recently formed to work this 
remarkable property. The writer, aft r visiting the mine, called on the i 
Agent of the company, and there [earned to en to open 

the Immense body of ore in ■■> vigoroui manner The Company states that it 
shall place a reduction plant on the mine of loo tons dally capacity, for which 

there is an abundan 't' ore The WTlb announcing In this 

article 'hat t> Mines, through Its Fiscal Agent, E n \ 

eklnd & Co., 187 Montgomery St , San Pranclsco, Calif., is offering two hun- 
dred thousand snares of its capital stock. Reports by competent men and the 

literature Of tin- Company, with all info mat 'on as to merits of the mine, manage- 
ment or matters pertaining to either, can be had at the address given ai. 


In Sonora and Sinaloa, the Northwestern states of Mexico, bordering the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, the mountains are rich in ancient mines, which, according to traditions of the first 
settlers after the conquest, have been worked from time immemorial. In the vicinity of some 
of these mines are vestiges of adobe buildings in which the Indians say their ancestors lived 

The mineral region of Alamos, in the southern part of Sonora, discovered more than two 
hundred years ago, has been constantlv worked up to present time. Gamboa in his "Treatise 
on Mining" says the revenues from Alamos exceed those from all the rest of the "Kingdom." 

Velasco in his book "Sonora" states that "From 1790 to 1800, heavy remittances of silver 
were sent from Alamos to the City of Mexico, the author personally seeing more than 1600 bars 
in one remittance. Large quantities of gold were also remitted, partly in dust and partly in 
bars; in 1897, a Calidonian, Pablo Trilles, sent to his own account 1207 marks, equal to 
9656 oz., all taken from one pocket of one mine ; this the author witnessed. The region of Ala- 
mos contains many leagues of pure mines, old and new, so that it may be said without ex- 
aggeration there is not a hand's breadth of soil which does not contain some vein of precious 

The accompanying picture of the old arastra or "tahana," as the natives call it, was 
taken near one of the oldest mines of the "Los Alamos Mining and Milling Co.," near the 
City of Alamos, and was in use one hundred years ago to grind out and amalgamate ores con- 
taining free gold and silver found in the adjacent ledges belonging to the company. 

If the ore was not "free-milling" and the metal could not be amalgamated in arastras 
and smelted in their crude furnaces, the property was abandoned as of no value. 

These "antigua" workings, that have been recently opened, have proved to be most 
profitable under the management of competent men, with new methods for treatment of re- 
fractory ores, and improved machinery. 

Now is the time to purchase stock in a reliable mining company at only 50 cents per 
share of $2.00 par value. 

We believe that the stock will reach more than par value in less than a year. 

Dr. Finis E. Yoakum, President, 
Los Alamos Mining and Milling Co. 

Office: 213-216 Grant Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 


Pure as the Pines 

The refreshing and invigorating 
influence of the Pine Forest is 
felt wherever 

is used. The standard of purity 
and quality, its healing, soothing 
and cleansing virtues have re- 
ceived the endorsement of medi- 
cal practitioners the world over. 


The Packer Manufacturing- Co., New York. 

"I always read it, for I am heartily in sympathy 
with so many of the thing! for which it works." 
Presidknt Roosevelt. 

"The best there is in periodical literature on th«- l'.i- 
cific Coast. . A voice listened to with respect and in- 
terest in all parts of the country. "The Vial, Chicago. 

Out West 

F. A. PATTEE, BnainSM Manager 
C. F. LUMMIS, Editor. C. A. MOODY. Assistant Editor 

Entered at the Los Angeles Postoffice as second-class matter 
Published Monthly by 

C. M. DAVIS, General Manager. M. c. NEUNBR, Secretary 



L. H. CARPENTER, Treaearer. 

Cyrcs M. Davis 

Chab. F. Ldmmis F. A. Pattee 

H. Carpenter C. A. Moody 

M. C. Neunkk 

Office of 1'ublicationi 
115 South. Broadway 

Los Angeles, California 


Joseph J. RoasoiOUOH, Manager San Francisco Office- 

606 Hearst ISuilding. 
Sharlot M. Hall, Manager Arizona Office— Prescott. 
John H. Hamlin, Manager Nevada Office— Reno. 

Out West rs not only the leading magazine published in much the larger half of the 
United States, but is also distinctively different from any published elsewhere. It not merely 
happens to be published in the West ; the Spirit of the West is vital all through it. It there- 
fore has a distinct place in the attention of readers everywhere, and appeals more strong! 
the attention of Westerners than does any publication of more general character. 

Advertising Rates: $25.00 per page or pro rata for three or more pages during twelve months, or $3" 00 
a page for a less amount of spare. Spaces less than four inches, $2.10 an inch. 

R. A. Berry 


Warren Chknkv 








Real Estate 


Berkeley, California 


prevents early wrinkles. It ia not a freckle coating ; It "- 
moves them- ANYVO CO., 427 N. Main St.. Los Angeles. 




From. Crown, of Hea.d 
to Sole of Foot- 

the body, its apparel atvd its sur- 
rouadiags, demwvd frequent washiag 

P earHlVe ModemSoap 

3te] should be Msed - as harmless 

jpl as tke most delicate soap- 

iaore effective tKaivtke 

strongest soap, hence 

it cleans q\iickly and easily 

, witkoxit the wearing rubbing 

! saves at every 

point. Splendid for Bathing 
j euvd tired feet Soakiivtf. 

sttz. O 


1301 Castro St., Oakland, Cal. 

Over 60 Yards of Fowls. Oldest 
Poultry Establishment on the Coast. 
We guarantee % hatch on all eggs 
we sell. Manufacturers of the 

Pacific Incubator and Brooder 

The best machines in the world. 

Send for 60-page Catalogue 


Our Costly 

The water used in SCHLITZ Beer comes 
from six wells, driven down to rock. 

The barley is the finest grown, selected 
personally by a partner in our concern. 

The hops come mostly from Bohemia, 
and cost twice what common hops cost. 

Every process of the brewing is in per- 
sonal charge of two of the brothers who 
own the business. 

All the air that touches SCHLITZ Beer is 
filtered. Every drop of SCHLITZ Beer is 
filtered through masses of white wood pulp. 

Every bottle is cleaned by machinery four 
times before using. 

After the bottle is filled and sealed, it is ster- 
ilized for i \ hours by the process of M.Pasteur. 

Common beer can be brewed for half the cost of 
SCHLITZ; but our extra cost is all spent to insure absolute 
purity. Yet common beer and SCHLITZ Beer cost you 
the same. Why not get the best for your money ? 

Ask for the Brewery Bottling. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 





( fi RA/LROAD '1 

fa* «ajgf 














The hardest problem the future engineer 
has to solve is often the way to get the tech- 
nical training he needs to begin the practice 
of his chosen profession. 

Here is a way open to everybody. 

In any of the courses named here the stu- 
dent is soon prepared, by mail, to turn his 
learning into dollars, and support himself in 
the simpler branches of his profession while 
his training goes forward. We will carry 
an ambitious student to the highest profi- 
ciency in Engineering or Architecture. 

Careers of successful engineers who have 
studied by mail demonstrate the thor- 
oughness and practicability of our method. 
If you are interested, write for a free copy 
of our illustrated booklet on 



This booklet shows the economy , ^^_ 

of our method ; its excellence as a ff^W^Y/J 
way of advancement for workers 
whose leisure is limited to a few - 
hours a week of " spare time;" ex- / STU DYj 
plains our degrees, conferred by ^ 
authority of Congress; and illus- 
trates our methods. Schools also 
of Science and Languages, Journal- 
ism, Bookkeeping, Shorthand, 
Typewriting, etc. Write and tell 
us your needs. 








iff" -~ 5 ~^H!)| 


p*~ " "'•*«(; 






929 Market St., San Francisco. 4, 2d National Bank Bldg. .Washington. D. 



i w4 — H 



— J ryi 


giMpi*. a MtJ 

Ml- 11! 

r _l, •■- — • 

7m ~- « 



— II M 



It is conceded by business men that real estate affords the 
safest investment. 

We do a general coast business, namely : 


SUBURBAN AND VILLA SITES, connected direct with 
OAKLAND AND SAN FRANCISCO by a splendid car 
and ferry system. 

ship and rail meet. 

RANCH PROPERTIES, large and small. 

COLONIZATION. We have several ranch properties suit- 
able to colonization. 

Correspondents will be answered promptly. 

The E. P. Vandercook Company 

1016 Broadway, Oakland, and Urn. 32, 2nd floor Mills Bldg., San Francisco 

Please Mention that You 8aw it In OUT WEST. 

Largest National Bank in Southern California 



Designated Depositary of the United States. 

Capital Stock $ 400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 360.000 

Deposits 5,000,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest. W. G. Kerckhoff, V.-Prest. 
J. C. Drake, Second V.-Prest. 
W. T. S. Hammond, Cashier 


J. D. Blcknel! H. Jevne W. G. Ktrckhaff 

J. M. Elliott F. Q. Story J. D. Hooker 

J. C Drake 

All Departments of a Modern Banking Business Conducted 

Los Angeles National Bank 

N. E. Cor. First and Spring Sts. 

Capital, .... 

Surplus and Profits, 

U. S. Bonds carried at Par, 


Modern Safety Deposit and Storage Vaults. 
No city or county deposits. No interest paid 
on deposits. 

W. C. Patterson, President. 

W. D. Woolwine, Cashier. 

T. L. Duque, Pres. I. N. Van Nuys, V. P. E. J. Vawter, Jr., Cashier 

Money loaned on real estate at lowest rates. 
Save time and expense by applying' to 


PAID-UP CAPITAL, $100,000 

Junction Main, Spring and Temple Sts. LOS ANGELES, CAL - 

DIRECTORS: — H. W. Hellman, I. N. Van Nuys, O. T. Johnson, H. 
W. O'Melveny, T. L. Duque, L. Winter, Kaspare Cohn, W. G. Kerck 
hoff, II. Newmark. 

Books! Books! Books! 

We call the attention of the- 
readers of "Out West" to our 
large stock of rare, choice and 
scarce books. Including- the larg- 
est stock of Western Americania 
in the World. 

Send us your list of wants. We will furnish 
Any Book on Earth at current prices. Mail or- 
ders our specialty. Catalog's sent on application. 


" Ye Olde Booke Shoppe " 

Salt Lake City, Utah, U. S. A. 

AIR RRIIQU We are making- and selling the 
1 best Art Tool in use. Applies 
color by jet of air, enabling the 
I artist to do better work and save 
J time. No studio complete with- 
P^lggy^B out 't- Circulars free. 


Address, AIR BRUSH MFG. CO., 
115 Nassau Street, Rockford, 111., 
U. S. A. 

67th Semi-Annual Statement 


S. E. Corner Broadway and Ninth Street 


Capital Stock Fully Paid, - $300,000 
Surplus and Undivided Profits, $150,000 

Wm. G. Henshaw, Prest. C. E. Palmer,. V.-Prest. 
A. E. H. Cramer, Cashier. 

Wm. G. Henshaw C. E. Palmer Chas. T. Rodolph 
Thos. Prather H. W. Meek P. W. Henshaw 

R. S. Parrelly Thos. Crellin A. E. H. Cramer 

Shelby P. Martin Geo. E. Grant 

Rate Paid on all Savings Deposits, 3.25 per cent. 

A General Banking Business Transacted 
Exchange on all Commercial Centers 

Statement of the Condition of The Union Savings 
Bank, December 31, 1902 


Loans $2,788,366.49 

Bank prem ises and real estate taken for debt 200,289.01 
Cash on hand and due from Banks 

and Bankers $444,658.58 

Bonds of the United States .. 213,213.00 657,871.58 
Miscellaneous Bonds 1,035,781.14 



Capital Stock paid 
Reserve Fund . . 
Undivided Profits 
To Depositors . . 
Taxes reserved 








WM. LANG, Manager 
Tenth and Webster Streets Oakland, Cal. 



806 Isabella Street Oakland, Cal. 

PAUL P. BERNHARO & CO. Tel - Maitt 5357 


Seals, Badg-es, Checks, Steel Stamps, Stencils, &c. 
512 Montgomery St., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

A Complete Pharmaceutical Education, equal to a 
resident colleg-e course. Personal attention. 
Prepares for registered pharmacist examination. A 
special offer to those who write now. National Corres- 
pondence Schools, E. J. Heeb, Pres., 5 N. Pa. St., Indian- 
apolis U. S. A. | 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 










Ventura County 

our profitable crops are the 

Lima Bean 
Sugar Beet 

VENTURA COUNTY is a healthy 
Coast county, with 1852 square miles 
of very fertile territory. There is 
an interest-earning of at least 10 per 
cent on the investment at the prices 
at which we sell these properties. 
Buy your ticket to Ventura. Do not 
be satisfied until you see us. We 
are prosperous, healthy and con- 
tented. Write for price list and 
printed matter. 












NEW MUSIC. Book contains "My Oriental Queen" 
(with music), "Good-bye, Dolly Gray," "It's Just Be- 
cause She Loves you so, Sweetheart," "Just Because 
She Made Them Goo-Goo Eyes," and many more. 
Sent for 10 cents (silver preferred). Amkkican Sup- 
plier, KM 8 St. So , Fargo, N. Dakota. 




vV oR s 





^FREE-handsome Booklet of Recipes^ 

CORNS Cured by Yankee Corn Plasters, 10 cents. 
Johnstone Pharmacal Co., Dep. B,(>M" Ogdeu A v., Chgo] 

Our Wines are the 
Best in the World 



We Sell Them at Popular 

Our 20-year-old Port, Sherry, Angelica, 
Muscat, Malaga, Madeira or Orange, 
at $1.50 per gallon, are known and useil 
by connoisseurs throughout the world. 
Write for complete price-list. 

Edward Germain 
Wine Company 

397-399 L,os Angeles St. 
P. O. Box 290 Los Angeles, Cal. 


Illustration shows building - yard of JoKn "W. DicKie on the 

Alameda side of Oakland estuary, with three Ferry Boats in course 
of construction. Two of them are double-end propellers for the San 
Francisco & Piedmont Railroad, and one paddle-wheel for the North 
Shore Railroad Building, Nos. 65, 66 and 67. 

Office, 125 Stewart St., SAN FRANCISCO 

Please Mention that You 8aw it in OUT WE3T. 



Exemplify in themselves the highest and noblest form 
of musical instruments the world has known. Their 
fame is universal. In St. Petersburg, Vienna, or 
Paris, they occupy the same lofty plane of superiority 
that they do in New York. In London, Melbourne or 
Montreal, the Steinway Pianos grace the drawing- 
rooms of homes of wealth and refinement. 

Geo. J. Birkel Company 

Steinway Agents for all of 
Southern California and Arizona 

345-347 South Spring St. 


Popular Vehicles, Business Wagons 

Discerning Buyers will find Our Stock and Prices 
Best Suited to their wants. ■<■<■<■< 

130-136 North l_os Angeles S*. 


Fruit Trees-Grape Vines-Small Fruits 


Correspondence solicited. 
Catalogue free on application. 

TRUMBULL & BEEBE. Seedsmen and Nurserymen 


KIDDER'S PASTILLES. ; '- i ' i:Astl na - 

STOWELL a < O.. itn. 

Sold by nil DriiKKlxlR. 
or by -iiiiil. ;;:. oenU, 
(•Imrlc'Slown, Mans. 

Unitarian Literature will be furnished (m of ex- 
pense to anyone desiring and sending their address to 
Miss Hklrn L. Day, 

11a rust able. Massachusetts. 

Wp Never 

In our service that go so far toward making 
, , g this the best place to 

Overlook the lunch OR DINE 

Little Things Music and the Delicacies of Dining; 


III 117 West Third St. 
263 South Main St. 

ATTCWTIflM I ADPC PADITAI HOOyOOO southern California ranch propem for nia below value. 
AIICH I lull LAHLlL UArllAL i I't \\MnN<;A mountain WATER CO., sin crm an. ( \i. 

in women is heightened by 
a beautiful complexion. 

Women, preserve your 
chiefest charm ! 


Face Powder produces a soft, velvetyjskin. It im- 
proves any complexion, preserves a beautiful one 
and restores one that has faded. The famous 
beauties of the world owe much to LABLACHE. 
White, Pink, Flesh, Cream Tints 50c a box. 
Druggists or by mail. Beware of all substitutes. 
Hen LEVY & Co., Fr. Perfumers, 125 Kingston St., Boston 

% gRPMO 




It is a mild 

Price 10c, 25c, 50c 
and $1.00 Bottles 



The famous drink of California. 
Wholesome, Healthful, Refresh- 
ing-, Invigorating-. Pints 25c, 
Quarts 45c., Gallon Jugs $1.50. If 
your grocer does not keep it, will 
ship direct from here. 

Los Angeles Fruit Juice Co. 

119 New High St., Los Angeles 


Not what is 

said of it, 

but what it does, 

has made the 

fame of the 


and made 10,000,000 
Elgins necessary to 
the world's work. 
Sold by every jeweler 
in the land; guaran- 
teed by the greatest 
watch works. Illus- 
trated art booklet free. 

Elgin, Illinois. 







Expert Repairing. Eyes Tested. Mail Orders a Specialty. 



Possibly you need three-color plate work. Don't 
think you have to send East for it. We do it — and do 
it right. OUT WEST CO., Los Angeles, Cal. 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


«?Slii ? ornia 


Buy Hill's if you want to be sure of its purity. If your grocer or 
drug-grist cannot supply it, send direct to us. Write for our book- 
let about Olive Oil and How to Use it in Cooking. 

James Hill (EX Sons Co. 

Tel. Main 359 

lOOl F. First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Be Sure tHat "You Get Hill's. 


And OtHer Table RelisHes 




Enjoy the proud distinction of being the 
Best Produced in America 

Eastern Shipments a Specialty 

and Mail Orders promptly filled. We will ship, 
freight Prepaid, to any railroad station in the 
United States 

Special No. 1 -Two cases of our finest assorted Wines 

and Brandies for $13 
Special No. 2 Two cases of our assorted XXX X Wines 

(24 bottles), including one bottle " (iood Samaritan" 

Brandy, and one bottle California Champagne, for $11 
Special No. 3— Two cases of our assorted XX X WlOM 

(24 bottles), including one bottle "Good S.imai " 

Brandy, for $9 

Southern California Wine Co. 

220 W. Fourth St. Los Angeles 





No attempt to 
improve on the 
work of nature in 
making Shredded 
Wheat. The 

properties natur- 
ally organized are 
then scientifically 

That is all. 

Send for"THE VITAL I 

QUESTION" (Cook t 

Book, illustrated in col- ft 
ors) FREE. Address 

She NATURAL FOOD CO., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Each Acknowledged the Very Best 


Ripe Olive 


Olive Oil 

If your grocer doesn't keep 
them, write to us and we will 
(five you some useful and 
healthful information about 



Productr ofr 

Crosse, and 

Pure Lucca 


is made in Italy, the 
natural home of the 
olive. It is the best 
because it is pure. 



lian Francisco - Portland 
Lo5 Angeles 

Please Mention that You Saw It in OUT WEST. 

Orange County 


Orange, Lemon, Walnut, Apricot, Peach, 
Grape and Apple Lands, under the Santa 
Ana Valley Irrigation System. Cheapest 
and best in the State. 


Santa Ana, California 



That pay a steady investment, with (rood water 
rights. I have them in the suburbs of Pasadena, 
finely located for homes, also in the country for 
profit. Fine homes in Pasadena a specialty. 




16 S. Raymond Ave., 
Pasadena, Cal. 

115 S. Broadway 
Los Angeles, Cal. 


Citrus and Deciduous fruits 


PORTERVILLE. California 

Offers better inducements to the Nomeseeker 
than any other portion of the United 
States. For particulars address 




Get a borne la the University Town. 
For fuit her Information, addresi 


1502 Shattuck Ave. N. Berkeley, Cal. 





Fok Sale at Lowest Prices. 

Fifteen years of intimate knowledge of Red- 
lands property enables me to help investors se- 
lect wisely a grove or a house or a good paying 
business property in Redlands and vicinity. 
For information address 


First Nat'l Bank Blk. Redlands, CaL 


We Sell the Earth 


We deal in all kinds of Real Estate, Orchard and 
Residence Property. Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Room 208, 202 > , S. BROADWAY 




or i< 
1 1> >n 
j ii. in 

■■ lACsunno v\i.ii\ 

itureMjue, healthful and productive. I 

IK grown from NewKngland toFlor- 
idnots reach highest perfection ami 
v. Write for official illu-tmtt <i 
talnintr California Information ami 
: alao ciattstics on ail fruit and a^n 
cvtM to MnniifftT 4'luiiiibrr of 
,100 K St. Sacramento, Cal. 


is in the eyes of investors lo- 
calise of the excellence of her 
cheap lands, cheap water and 
salubrious climate. Her oranges are in the Eastern market by Thanksgiving and the quality 
the best. If you are seeking Citrus, Deciduous, Alfalfa or Grape Land — improved or unim- 
proved — let me send you a hooklet and give you some prices. EXETER is the citrus center 

>$rI«Paloma t?ilet5°ap 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

100 Acres ^ (5ELL 

are now being- 

Into 50 
One-Acre Lots 
And Over 
100 Town Lots 


Select your Lots 
At once and 




in 6 Months. 
All will be 

Sold in 
30 Days 



250 Inches Pure 


HAS GROWN \ Water 


Deeded with the land 

But a rich, warm loam foil; 355 
acres In tracts to suit, at $200 to $360 per 
acre; (4 cash. Just outside the city. Take 
9:05, 10:35 or 1:40 train. Terminal Depot: 
W minutes' ride to Bell, and gather ripe 
strawberries and vegetables in winter, or- 
anges, lemons and walnuts in bearing. Will 
you go miles out anu pay MOO to $1,600 for 
a 50-foot lot. when you can buy a whole acre 
five times the amount of land, including water, 
for $2C0 to $35(1 Go out and compare our land, 
water, lucation with all others. Don't delay; 38 
lots have been sold in two weeks; buildings go 
lng up. All unsold will be raised in price as soon as 
work commences on the new electric line, which will 
run the entire length of Bell Tract giving two means of 
ransportation to city. Agents on the ground at all times 
how property, maps, photos. Call at office on tract, or see 



ftUDWAy LosAN<tftf 


No City Taxes 

Electric Cars 

to pass 
Entire Length 


and Postoffice 
on the land. 

Unequaled for Tone 
and Durability 

Williamson Bros. 


Representatives for Southern California. 

Also Shoning-er, Ivers & Pond, Bush & 

Gert's Victor, and other fine pianos. 







WILLIAMSON BROS., 327 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 


Women's Apparel 


Most folks predict a very rainy winter. 
You'll take great comfort from stylish, dressy 
suits and skirts that may be worn with equal 
pleasure on clear or wet days. They are made 
of materials that keep new and attractive in 
spite of usage. Even if the garment becomes 
heavily wet it seems just as fresh as ever when 
it is dry once more. The styles are charming 
and effective, the very newest New York has. 
All so nice, and yet prices extremely moderate. 





Very Latest Styles both in 


The finest productions in 

Ladies* Neck Dressings 

of the Leading 
New York Makers 

< . In 1 vSHIIM > 




Princesse Petticoat 

is a tailor-made garment. It gives a perfect 

glove fit at the top, impossible to attain with 

any other skirt. 
It docs away with all wrinkles at the hir>< and 
waist, and adds that ar- 
tistic grace to the beauty 
lima Of a graceful figure 
that cannot be obtained 
with any other petticoat. 
Every lady knows the 
advantages of a tailor- 
in. 1. 1.- garment, and these 
petticoats are appreciated 
by all who care for that 
ease, comfort and style of 
a well-fitting garment. 
and ladies who wear these 
lx'ttu-oats have a well- 
dressed appearance. 
We shall be pleased to show them to all 

ladies who wjnIi to see them, at 

555 S. Broadway, los Annies, qi. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

" Everyone who wishes to hear 
absolutely faultless, free of any 
kind of nervousness, piano playing-, 
should buy a Pianola. It is perfec- 
tion."—/. J, Paderewski. 



It will make a player and a cultivated musician of everyone. It increases 
the repertoire of the finest pianist, and brings within the reach of everyone 
every piece of music ever written. Every home that has a piano should 
have a Pianola, for it is only with the aid of the Pianola that everyone can 
use the piano, and all the music in the piano be brought out. $25 worth of 
music, free with every Pianola. The Pianola is the only perfect piano 
player. We are exclusive agents. 

We have the largest and finest building in Southern California devoted 
to the sale of musical instruments. Those contemplating the purchase of 
a musical instrument should send to us for booklets and catalogues. 

Southern California Music Company 

332-334 South Broadway, LOS ANGELES 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


TIAN ENDEAVOR aoclel lag i ben la ■ 
larjre percentage of you n if men and 
women who are aelf-aapportf ng;, and 

so have but little time for self- im- 
provement in ati educational way. 
In Hi.' Kameof FLING FLUNG there 
are over 100 scores of music and the 
name of the hero, the heroine and 
her father are the only sontrs used 
more than once. Why not have an 
evening of FLING FLUNG in your 
church and let the young- people get 
acquainted? There can be no wall. 
Bowera in the came an the players 
nre continually changine 1 places. 
FLING FLUNG is a beautiful story 
told by pictures, poster*, 16 silk and 
silkeen flags, mascots, puzzles, titles of books, tickets, 
photos, poppy poster in oil etc., is interspersed with 
music from beginning to end, and, when the game is 
finished has taken the players completely around the 
world. Full instructions with game. Decorate your 
S. S. room with the paraphernalia. To all orders 
reaching us before March 1st a beautiful band-tinted 
picture, 12x12, double mount, will be mailed with the 

Address express or P. O. money order for $2.25, to 


P. 0. Box 529. Los Angeles, Cal. 



and CUFFS 


44 Warranted Linen ' 



Wirt, Telephone or Write Wire, Telephone or Write 


Wire, Telephone or Write 
JOHN PARTRIDGE, 306 California St.. San Francisco 
California • 

This is the equality store where all are treated alike 


Growth of business necessitates the addition of another 72x135- 
foot floor. We're at it. When completed we'll have the largest 
and finest clothing establishment on the Pacific Coast. Until 
completed we're offering as an extra inducement, 

20'/ discount on Men's and Boys* Clothing 

Even such fine makes as the Rogers-Peet and the Stein-IJloch 
goods everytHing in clothing except full dress suits and 
Tuxedos. Mail orders get the benefit of this reduction. 
(Kindly mention this paper.) 

London Clothing Co. 

Harris & Franh, Proprietors 

119 to 125 N. Spring' St. LOS ANGELES 



Two kinds of folks 
above all, who need steady 
nerves — the nervous kind, 
and the nerveless kind. 

Pabst Malt Extract, the 
"Best" Tonic, is the one 
kind of tonic that helps 
both kinds of folks. 

It steadies unsteady 
nerves — it makes steady 

Run-down people can't 
get out and exercise. 

„ Patost 
Malt Extract 

is the one tonic that takes 
the place of actual exer- 

It builds flesh — nurtures 
nerve — helps health. 

Good for all sorts of peo- 
ple out of sorts. 

The one tonic that tones. 

Sold by all druggists. 

Our booklet is now 
ready for mailing. 


Pabst Extract Department 
milwaukee, wis. 

Please Mention that You 8aw it in OUT WE8T. 

Nettleton Shoes - $4.75 

Shoes that are worth $6, $7 and $8 

Our lines of men's winter shoes are broken, and to straighten out 
and adjust stocks, prices on these broken lines have been reduced 
to $4 75 the pair. The swellest men's shoes shown on the 
Coast. Leathers are Velour Calf, Vici Kid, Patent Calf, 
Enamel Calf and Box Calf. Medium and Heavy Soles. 
Special attention given to mail orders. State size and 
leather desired. 



hx vtAOAJvjV A 

an i-BwaaaBBMBjb^l 


L m^****:i 


WITHOUT TREES Shoe wearing en go on without the aid of Shoe Tree*, but the economy of WITH TREES 

pntti' away with trees in them must appeal to you. Leadam's Shoe Trees pre-* 
1 serve the original shape and smoothness of footwear — keep wrinkles out of the toe, keep the sole flat, and stairs otl old age. It Is the only mean* ■ 
I known lor making wet shoes lit for next morning'! wear. Slip the tree In the shoe— frtss the levtrage — that's all. Don t 1* "roped in" » 

■ stilntis. See that my name is stamped on every pair. For sale by C. M. Stauh Co.. 255 S. Broadway. Lea Angeles. < al : Wetherby, Kays'- ■ 

■ Co.. IMS. Broadway, Loa Angeles; 58 i . 1 oterado St . rasartuna. ( al.j Biaaalhal isr..s.(in. .), m: Kearnej 


is the spirit and fact of our entire establishment. 
Our mechanical plant represents the most up-to- 
date laundry equipment in the West, and includes 
— facilities, such as our " NO SAW EDGE on 
Collars and Cuffs " machine, which is our own patent. Experience and circumstances 
have enabled us to weed out inefficient help. Skillfulness, promptness and courtesy 

We occupy our own building, from the ground floor up, in the business center of 
the city, and are therefore convenient of access. Call or phone. 

Empire Laundry 

Phone Main 635. 


Satisfaction Guarantfrd 

Ramon A Toilet 6oap *Z££rtteXm 

AM sending you a photograph of our Mellin's Food Baby. She is fourteen months old and 
weighs 30 pounds. She has been taking Mellin's Food since she was two and a hall 
months old, and has been perfectly well ever since. 

MRS. E. S. K1RKPATRICK, Woodstock, N. B. 

A sample of Mellin's Food sent free on request. 
Mellin"? Food Co. 
Boston, Mass. 

Pleaie Mention that You Saw It in OUT WE8T. 

Raffia and 
Reeds for 


RAFn A— natural color, bunch of 6 oz., 17c; 
9oz., 25c.; 1 lb., 40c.; Dyed Raffia, red, brown, 
green, black, blue, yellow and orange, 1-oz. 
bunch, 7c; Reeds, per bunch, 15c 

California Seeds 

Send for our Souvenir Collection. 15 most 
choice varieties of native flower seeds in sepa- 
rate packets, mailed free on receipt of 50c 

Special Bulbs 

(California Grown) 

3 Mariposa Lilies, 6 Oxalis, 6 Golden Stars, 12 
Freesias, 3 Callas, 1 Spotted Calla, all mailed 
free on receipt of 50c 

Germain Seed and Plant (o. 

326-330 S. Main Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 



are planted by fanner 

and gardener who hag 

stopped experimenting. It 

pays to pay a little more 

for Kerry ■ and reap agrtat 

dead mo re at the harvest. All 

dealers. 1»08 Heed Annual 

post|>aid free to all applicants. 

D. M. FERRY St CO., 

Detroit, Mich. 


California, Washington. 
Oregon, Colorado. 

We secure reduced rates on shipments of household 
goods either to or from the above States. Write 
for rates. Map of California. FREE. If not interested, 
tell friends who are. 

TRANS-CONTINENTAL FREIGHT CO., 325 Dearborn St.. Chicago. 
San Franci-co OfictU I s Montgomery St , Room 4 


Free Trial 

tor Morphine. Opium or other drug habit. 
Painless, permanent Home Cure. Containsgreat vital 

8 rincipal lacking in all others. Confidential correspon- 
ence invited. A full trial treatment alone often cures. 

Write St. Paul Association, Suit* 847. 48 Van Buran St. .Chicago 

Typical Western Pictures 

Views of California and Arizona Landscapes, 

Unmounted Prints, Souvenir Photographic Novel- 
ties, mairnitit'i-ut Sepia Knlargemenis. The Stand 
ard line of Western Views. For sale in all liieli 
irrade stationery, curio and art stores. 






per 15 



S. C. \ 

1 Plymouth 


I Brahmas 
V. Leghorns 

ONLY birds that have MOULTED 
are used as Breeders 



Santa Barbara, Cal. 



Nearly Two Million 



Metallic Cartridges 

Guns for 4/f Kiwis OfSliooliwr 
And Ammunition for 


Repeating Arms (s* 

New Haven, Cow. 

Pacific Coast Agency : 127-135 First Street, San Francisco- A. Mailer, Agent 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Old /Wission Clocks 
$45 » $500 


Clocks that will give added charm to the 
most luxuriously furnished homes. And 
they're more than ornamental — even the 
cheapest are perfect time-keepers. The 
more costly ones are fitted with genuine 
Westminster chimes. All bells and gongs 
are perfectly tuned, soft and musical. 

Los Angeles 
Furniture Co. 

City Hall 

225-29 S. Broadway 


Manufacturers of 


Fancy Furniture and 
Bedroom Sets 

Decorating a Specialty 

TEL. JAMES 3921 

214 S. Broadway. Los Angeles 

Wholesale ami Retail 


Edited by Francis Trevelyan Miller 
Under Business Management of Edward B. Eaton 

History, Literature. Art, Science, Genius and Indus- 
try, in art editions, lavishly illustrated. Pub- 
lished at Hartford, Connecticut. 



Apply to MISS A. FEARING, I 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


! NO POISON has ever been found jj 

in the enamel of - 




/We make \ V L V' 1 1 k> 1 £*3 

ViS20 kinds,/ 


I.1520 kinds J 

j is a sign of 3 


1/ substitutes are offered "write us. g 

Sold by P"irst-class Department and House Furnishing Stores. ►• 

i LALANCE & GBOSJEAN MFG. CO., New York, Boston, Chicago * 







g"^ <JT> 1 Perfect California Wines. Each bottle bears the State of California' 

\*(~h {*(") tl (1 MJ Lfl tl C* CL official label (as above facsimile) guaranteeing- its contents to be trvn 
v, ' v, * v »«'**' A-^t'V*/* +\*%*> and pure California wines. 

These are the finest wines California produces, aged naturally, 
from 4 to 20 years old, and unexcelled for the table or for medici- 
nal use. Shipments East FreigHt Free. 

Write for price lists, etc. 

Established l&ftO 

Los Angeles, California 


X? 5 ^^ 


The Vegetarian Restaurant 


A strictly first-class pure-food cafe. A wholesome bill of fare 
scientifically prepared. The best of service. Reasonable prices. 

Sound physical health and a clear brain follow the use of a rational dietary. 



Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


February is a Spring Month . . . . 

Fruit trees and flowers are blooming. Why not escape your February ? 

February is always a pleasant month in the Sacramento Valley. 

We have good lands for small prices. 

We have plenty of work for all who are industrious. 

Come and investigate our possibilities. 

Low Railroad Fares for a season of seventy-five days will be in effect on and after 

February 15, 1903. 
$25.00 from Missouri River points. Correspondingly low rates from other sections 

of the East. 
We have pamphlets, picture books and photographs for your perusal. They are free 

for the asking. Why not write us ? 


MORRIS BROOKE, Sacramento— Sacramento 

C. W. THOMAS, Woodland -Yolo County 
J. H. WILLS, Auburn— Placer County 
R. M. GREEN, Oroville— Butte County 
J. W. KAERTH, Colusa— Colusa Count v 
H. P. STABLER, Yuba City— Sutter County 
RALEIGH BARCAR, Vacaville Solano Co. 

C. F. FOSTER, Cornitttr Tehama County 

W. C. GREEN, Georgetown— El Dorado County 

E. A. FORBES, Marysville— Yuba County 
J. M. WALLING, Nevada City -Nevada Co. 
P. R. GARNETT. Willow-— Glenn County 

J I CHAMBERS. Redd in*— Shasta County 
W. S. GREEN, President, Colusa, California 

F. E. WRIGHT, Secretary, Colusa, California 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



toilet * nb 



First : Because it is entirely different from 
ordinary talcum and dusting powders, inas- 
much as it is a distinct specific for skin affec- 
tions. While it is unquestionably the best 
toilet and nursery powder in the world, its 
medicinal qualities place it in a class by itself. 

Second : Because it is a scientific prepa- 
ration originated by an expert chemist and skin 
specialist whose one object was to produce a 
powder containing antiseptic, astringent and 
disinfecting qualities, bland in application, yet 
more potent in soothing, healing and preserv- 
ing the skin than any yet known. In evidence 
of his success the refined families and best 
physicians in New England, where it is best 
known, for years have used no other. 

Third : Because Comfort Powder 
comprises, as no other powder does, 
in one preparation the finest and 
most delicate of toilet and nursery 
powders, and in addition the most 
efficient medicinal qualities for heal= 
ing and preserving the skin. 

Fourth : Unequaled in its ability to pre- 
vent and heal all inflamed and uncomfortable 
conditions of the skin. It will not harm the 
most delicate skin, yet it has power to cure 
the most obstinate skin affections. 

For these reasons and the abundant testi- 
mony possessed, we are justified in claiming 
Comfort Powder unequaled for any inflam- 
mation or soreness of the skin and for 

Toilet, and Nursery, Chafing, After a Bath, 
After a Shave, to Prevent Offensive Per- 
spiration, for Sunburn, .Roughness, Redness 
and Eruptions of the Skin, Nettle -Rash, 
Prickly Heat, Infant Eczema, Tired, Aching 
Feet, Accidental Burns, Itching, Mosquito 
Bites, in the Sick-Room, Irritation Caused 
by Truss Pads ; in fact, for all Skin Affec- 
tions it is a Healing Wonder. 


If YOZTKS does not Jteep it, take no other, but 
semi 25c. to the Comfort Powder Co., Hartford, 
Conn., and receive box, post-paid. Cheap sub- 
stitutes are never satisfactory. 

Cures WhiJe You Sleep 

Whooping Cough, 





Hay Fever, 


Scarlet Fever 

Don't fail to use for the distressing 
and often fatal affections for which it is recommended. 
For more than twenty years we have had the most con- 
clusive assurances that there is nothing better. Creso- 
lene is a boon to Asthmatics. 

An interesting descriptive booklet is sent free, which 
gives the highest testimonials as to its value. 


180 Fulton Street, 
1651 Notre Dame Street, 

New York 
Montreal, Canada 


Patentees and Manufacturers of Tricycle Chairs 
for Cripples, Tricycles, Invalids' Rolling Chairs, 
and Hospital Appliances. Special machines made 
to order when required, but send for our catalogue 
and see if one of our designs will not suit your case. 

Please Mention that You 8aw it in OUT WEST. 

Dependable furniture at a fair price 

Our curtain and upholstery department 
is equipped to work out the most elab- 
orate schemes of interior decorating and 
furnishing. The present stock of 


was selected with this idea in view. We 
will be pleased to make suggestions and 
submit sketches for all of the curtains, 
hangings, draperies and upholstering of 
an establishment, or any part of them. 
Write for particulars. 

A[iles Pease 
Furniture Co. 

439'44h443 S. Spring St. 
Los Jrngeles 



IQis KJtilims 

The prices of Oriental rugs are advancing. An additional 
export duty went into effect January 1st. 

90 per cent of antique Oriental rugs are just from the 
looms, but are acid washed in order to give the antique 
effect. The 10 per cent of genuine antiques imported to this 
country is difficult to find. We have 500 of them and will 
guarantee everyone against "doctoring." Our buyer was 
seven weeks selecting these rugs, and during that time looked 
through more than 500 bales. 

If you buy of us you are securing our guarantee as well as 
the finest and largest collection of first quality Oriental 
rugs to be found in the West and the largest collection of 
genuine antiques in America. 

Barker 'Brothers 

420-4-24 S. SPRING ST. 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WE8T. 

" NotHing' so Rare as Resting' on Air" 

The Pneumatic Mattress 


I will have all my mattresses blown up, not stuft. Down is too hard." — Ben jonson. 

THE PNEUMATIC MATTRESS is as far superior to any other mattress as the Pneumatic bicycle tire is 
superior to the solid tire. It fits the body perfectly. You cannot find an uncomfortable position on the Pneu" 
matic Mattress. It conforms to all positions of the body, thereby resting- all parts equally. Did you ever 
think how unsanitary the ordinary hair, wool or other mattress is? All the perspiration from the body permeates 
the substance of the mattress and remains there. No amount of airing- will remove any disease germs that may have 
lodged there. Nothing- can enter the Air Mxttress. It is the only sanitary mattress In existence. There is no place for 
dust to lodge; there is no home for vermin. The Pneumatic Mattress needs no turning, as air never mats down. It is 
always smooth and requires no manipulation to take out inequalities. No odor and never musty. Can be regulated 
to any degree of hardness or softness by admitting or expelling a little air. It weighs when deflated about 18 pounds . 

We make these mattresses in three sizes : }4, % and full size ; the latter is also made in two parts divided length - 
wise in centre, thus if two people sleep together and one wants a hard bed, the other a soft bed, both can be accom- 

No springs are required with the Air Mattress; we furnish iron slats for iron beds. It should rest on ordinary 
wood slats on wood beds. 

Durability : The air sack is protected by a covering of the best quality ticking. With ordinary care this mattress 
will last a lifetime. Should it by any accident become punctured it can be easily repaired. 

PD p p TTD I A I ^° sure are we that this mattress will give universal satisfaction that we will send you 
iKLL 1 f\lr\L. one and allow you to use it THIRTY NIGHTS If you do not find it the best mattress you 

~~ " "~ "" "^—^— — — •^—^— ever Slept on, or do not like it for any reason, return it and we will pay shipping charges 
both ways and refund your money. Price $22.00 up according to size, including air pump and slats. Delivered. 

FOR BABIES ° ur Crib Mattress is a delight to babies and a joy to mothers. It can be cleaned with a sponge ' 

^— — ^— ^— — Half baby's crying and fretting will be avoided when you put him on a Pneumatic Crib Mat- 
tress. Price $11.00, delivered. 

Good for Invalids 

I have used a Pneumatic Mattress for a patient who 
came under my care from a hospital that had nothing 
but excelsior mattresses. She had seven large bed 
sores on her body. The first night she used your mat- 
tress, she slept all night without an opiate— something 
she had not done for six weeks— and has had no further 
trouble, except the tediousness of their healing. 

A. J. HODGSON, M. D., Waukesha, Wis. 

American Steamship Line Adopt Our Air Mattress 

I take pleasure in stating that the Pneumatic Mattresses 
on American line steamships Paris and New York have 
been very satisfactory in everyway and we will never 
outfit a steamer with hair mattresses again. For some 
time we carried a number of hair mattresses on the ships, 
in case people preferred them to air mattresses, but have 
ceased doing so as they are never required 

Manager of the International Navigation Co. 

Our illustrated booklet, " Evolution of the Air Bed " and Catalog C of Pneumatic Cushions, Pillows, Yacht 
Cushions, etc., sent free on request by mentioning Out West. 

PNEUMATIC MATTRESS & CUSHION CO., 35C Broadway, New York, N. Y., U. S. A. 

Factory at Reading, Mass. 

Please Mention that You Saw It in OUT WEST. 


Scalp treatment is as much a science 
as the practice of medicine. It requires 
not only 
study, investi- 
gation and 
but wide and 
We believe 
the splendid 
results of our 
method speak & 
more for it 
than any 
or promises. 
We shall be 
pleased to 

consult with those who are afflicted with 
disease of the hair or scalp and explain 
our treatment. We shampoo with green 
soap — keeps the hair soft and glossy. 

Our stock of GRAY HAIR, SWITCHES, 
plete. We invite your inspection. 




\ Swedish 

I Hair Powder 

S will make oily hair 


£ without washing. 

S 50 cents a box by mail. 


Swedish Scalp Treatment J 

170 Fifth Ave. NEW YORK S 



I will send PS1 I Mai little of my 
Face Bleach to any lady sending name 

Wholesale Material for Indian Basketry 


mi COLOM Tel. Main 929 UXUM 


Seedsman and Florist 247 S. Main. Los Angeles 

IN COMPOUNDING',, an incomplete mixture was accident- 
ally spilled on the back of the hand, and on washing after- 
ward it was discovered that the hair was completely removed. 
We named the new discovery MODENE. It Is ■baotaMr* 
harmless, lint works sure results. Apply for a few minutes and 
the hair disappears as if l»y magic. IT CANNOT FAIL If 
the growth be light, one application will remove it ; the heavy 
ijr.iwth, sir h as the l>eard Of growth on moles, may require two 
or more applications, and without slightest injury or unpleasant 
feeling when applied or ever afterward. 

Modem supersedes electrolysis. 

Used by people of refinement, and recommended by all 
who have tested Its merits. 

Modene sent by mall, in safety mailing-cases (securely 

sealed ), on receipt of $1.00 per bottle. Sendinoney by letter, 

witlfyour full address written plainly. Postage-stamps taken. 



Dipt. OG. Cincinnati, Ohio 

«"We offer $1,000 for failure or the slightest njury 






There is but one way to tell the reasoa 
of baldness and falling hair, and that is by 
ph examination of the hair itself. 
The particular disease with which vut 
scalp it afflicted must l<e known bWI it 
can tie Intelligent I he use of 

dandruff cures at -. without 

knowing the s|>ecific came of jrour disease. 
Is like taking medli Ine without kn< sHag 
what you s rn ,nhtre 

fallen kalr* from \our combings, to Prof. 
I. 11. Austin, the celebrated lUcterlologtat, 
who will send \ M abwlnlely tr*e a dtagno* 
.ise.a boats It M care <>i the 
halt and s, alp. and a sample box ol the 
remedy which he will prepare specially foe 
you. Enclose ac postage and write to-day. 

629 McVickera Bid*., Chicago, 111. 

Please Mention that You Saw It in OUT WEST. 

Modern Architecture 

IF you intend to build a house as your own 
residence, you certainly want it right. On 
the other hand, there never was a keener 
demand on the part of purchasers and renters 
for modernly improved property than now. 
Therefore you need our assistance. 

GARRETT & BIXBY, Architects, 

Room 312 Currier Block 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Tel. James 1706 

212 West Third St. 



has been used for over SIXTY YEARS by 
WIND COLIC, and is the best remedy for 
DIARRHOEA. Sold by Drug-gists in every 
part of the world. Be sure and ask for "Mrs. 
Winslow's Soothing- Syrup," and take no other 
kind. Twenty-five cents a bottle. 

W. E. Talbekt 

C. L. Hall 

Tel Peter 5051 



Also Dealers in 

Paints, Oils, Glass 
Varnishes, Etc. 

Tinting:, Paper Hanging-, 
Glazing-, Sigrn Writing-. 
Estimates furnished free. 
Correspondence invited. 

518 West Sixth St. 


Please Mention that You 8aw it in OUT WE8T. 

Scenic Route °f 

Southern California 

You can see, on this line, the most prominent attractions of the coun- 
try, such as PASADENA, the OSTRICH FARM, the wonderful MOUNT 
LONG BEACH — the finest beach on the coast — and many other points 
in the shortest time and greatest comfort ; the scenes along the way making 
the trip a rare treat. 

Superbly appointed and equipped cars at convenient 
hours. Plenty of seats for all. PARTY RATES made 
and EXCURSION PARTIES solicited. 

For infotmation, call on or -write cAgent. 

Main 900 

250 S. Spring 

The Delightful Scenic Route to 

Santa. cMonica 

And Hollywood 

Fine, Comfortable Observation Cars 
^^^bT Free from Smoke 

Cars leave Fourth street and Broadway, Los Angeles, for Santa Monica via. Sixteenth 
street, every 15 minutes from 6:35 a.m. to 9:35 p.m., then each hour till 11:35; or via Bellevue 
Ave., for Colegrove and Sherman, every hour from 6:15 a.m. to 11:15 p.m. Cars leave Ocean 
Park, Santa Monica, for Los Angeles, at 5:45, 6:10 and 6:35 a.m. and every half hour from 
6:55 a.m. till 8:25 p.m., and at 9:25, 10:25 and 11:05 p.m. 

Cars leave Los Angeles for Santa Monica via. Hollywood and Sherman via. Bellevue 
Ave., every hour from 6:45 a.m. to 6:45 p.m., and to Hollywood and Sherman only every 
hour thereafter to 11:45 p.m. 

*ST"Por complete time-table and particulars call at office of company. 

Single Round Trip, 50c. 10-Trip Tickets, $2.00. 



To Owners of Gasoline Engines. 
Automobiles, Launches, Etc. 

The Auto - Sparker 

does away entirely with all starting ami 
running batteries, their annoyance ami 
No l.elt — no switch — no bat- 
teries, (an be attached toeayengtaM 
DO* usliii; batteries. Fully jjuaranteed ; 


42 Main Street Pendleton. Ind. 


will relieve and cure chapped hands, lips, rash, sunburn, chared or rough 
skin from any cause. Prevents tendency to crinkles or a^einc of the 
skin. Keeps the face ami hands soft, smooth, tinu and white. It has no 
equal. Ask for it and take no substitute. 




teller by" MM 1 KM on re. dpi of 1 cents 
0. * sTVS, AOT., HIS ('enter Ace . CHICAOO 

*£rl£ Paloma Tpilet5?ap 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 






It is wholly different in its com- 
position from all other remedies, 
and ensures a cure when taken faith- 
fully, because it removes the excess 
of uric acid. 

It Does tHe WorK, and does 
it without injury to the stomach or 
other organs. .AsK those who 
Have tested it. 



"Oh Fudge! 

TaKe an Orang'eine Powder ! 

No Home, No Traveler 

No Toiler, No Human Being 

should be witHoxit 


( Powders ) 

For Fatigue, Colds, "Grip," Asthma, Head- 
ache, All Pain, Dyspepsia, Biliousness, 
Neuralgia, "Nerves," Indigestion, SEA- 
SICKNESS, "Half Sick," "Out of Sorts" 
Permanently benefits — Prevents little ills 
from becoming serious. 


Orangreine is sold by drugrgists everywhere in 
25c, 50c. and $1.00 packages. On receipt of 2c. 
postage we will mail 10c. trial package FREE 
with full directions, composition, and descrip- 
tion of its wide human influence. Also "Club 

15 Michigan Ave. Chicago, 111- 


The Electropoise produces wonderful results in Sleeplessness and 
all nervous troubles. Write for information. 

The Electropoise is a scientific instrument. When applied there is no sensation or nervous 
shock, but the body immediately begins to attract quantities of oxygen, through the lungs, 
and the pores of the skin. This oxygen feeds the fires of life. It sets the heart in active 
motion, the pulse becomes stronger, and the red color of the blood is rapidly restored. It adds 
vitality, strength and energy, purifies the blood, produces appetite and the ability to digest 
food, restores the nerves to tranquillity and insures perfect sleep. The Electropoise is positively 


indestructible. It lasts a lifetime. It saves the expense of medicine. The first expense is the 
only expense. For all minor ills it is ever ready, and in those more serious and grave com- 
plaints it is the sheet anchor on which greatest reliance can be placed. 

The Electropoise has restored to health the most ser- 
ious and chronic sufferers from Nervous Prostration, 
Sleeplessness, General Debility, Malaria and Chills, Bron- 
chial troubles and ailments of the Throat and Lungs, Low 
vitality, Constipation, Dyspepsia, Paralvsis, Locomotor 
Ataxia, Rheumatism, recent and in the most chronic form, 
Sciatica, and all stomach troubles. Its use so purifies 

the blood that it makes the complexion perfect. Children 
Instinctively abhor medicine. The Electropoise is invalu- 
able in all Children's complaints. 

Write for Further Detailed Information. 
We publish a remarkable book containing- hundreds of 
indorsements from eminent people, who have used The 
Electropoise during the past fourteen years, which 
we will send to you free on request. 
We are very anxious lhat you should 
state your symptoms when you write, 
as we can then explain how The 
Electropoise will help you. 

Electropoise Company 

Room 78, 
1 123 Broadway, New York 

Please Mention that You 8aw it In OUT WEST. 



2 7 HOURS 



Steamship Santa Rosa, 2416 Tons, Lkncth 326 Fkkt 


r „ „ ut!m-w/~»tvtt-\/-v \ Steamer Santa Rosa 

Leave REDONDO j steamer STATR OK California - 

Leave j Steamer Santa Rosa 

PORT LOS ANGELES / Steamer STatk of Caufoknia 


Leave j Steamer Santa Rosa 

PORT LOS ANGELES j Steamer State of California 

t _ - DonnwnA \ Steamer Santa Rosa 

Leave REDONDO } steamer STATK OF caufornia 


Wednesdays, 7 am 
- Sundays, 7 am 

Wednesdays, 11 am 
Sundays, 11 am 

Mondays, 4 
Fridays, 4 

Mondays, 8 
Mondays, 8 

Close COttOeCtkMM at S.m Francisco with Comiunv'- ■tSSMSW tot porta in Baasbottl 

British Cotambla, Besttls, Tacotaj ami Alaska. 

For furt bet in toi nut ii hi and dsscripl i\<" matter, apply to 

W. PARRIS, Agent. 328 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 

SAN FRANCISCO TICKET OFFICE: 4 New Montgomery St. | Palace Hotel 

C. D. DUNANN. General Passenger Agent, 10 Market St.. San Francisco 






Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



One of the 
few places 
by profes- 
sional *• * * 
Reached by 
a romantic 
voyage over 
a, tranquil 
o c e a. n 


of a ■* « ** 
w i r K 
eve ry 
1 u xr\i ry 
of the ^* ^? 
m o s t° 
clubs and* 

Splendid steamships to Hawaii, Samo&. NewZealand 
Australia and Round theWorlcLSailings to Hawaii every v 
10 days; to NewZealand and Australia, every 21 days 
Illustrated boohs: Tahiti, locents Hawaii, iocents-«? 



643 Maj-RetrSI:. 

San Frajrkcisco. 



RICE. T os Angeles Agent, 230 SOUTH SPRING STREET 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


TRAVELING is a delight when you take the 
Golden State Limited, the new train of the 
SoutHern Pacific-IVocK Island Route. The 

latest and finest Pullman equipment — Buffet Glub 
Gar, Bath Room, Barber Shop, Library, Gompartment 
Gar, Dining Gar, Ladies' Parlor, Observation Gar. 

The shortest line, the quicKest time, the 
finest train between SoutHern California and 
the Hast. 

The Overland Limited, via San Francisco 
and Ogden, is not excelled by any train in the world. 

Double daily service between Los Angeles 
and New Orleans. 

Any agent will give you information and literature 
illustrative of your journey. Ask him for particulars, 
or write 

G. A. PARftYNS. Asst. G. F. & P. A. 

261 S. Spring St.. Los Angel**. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


The finest and most 
comfortable train in 
the world through 
the most interesting- 
country in the world. 

Daily Between 
Pacific Coast and Chicago 

The only high-class train that runs 
through. It is lighted by electricity from 
engine headlight to Observation Parlor, 
and it affords Dining Car service that can- 
not be matched. It makes the quickest 
time, and is equipped to afford the highest 
degree of comfort and safety. It runs 
over the pleasantest line — the 


Address for information about 
California, local agent, or 

JMO. J. BYRNE, Ccn'l Passr Agent 
Los Angeles 

CEO. T. NICHOLSON, Pass'r Traff. Mgr. 


Please Mention that You Saw it In OUT WEST. 






Acts quickly, no mixing, no soil- 
ing of dishes, no trouble. Dropped 
in rat holes, put in linen closets, 
etc., without soiling anything. 
Kills every time. Rats and mice 
leave choicest grain and food for 
it. Die in open air seeking water. 


Ask your druggist. If he hasn't 
it, send us 25c. for one box, or 
60c. for three boxes, which will 
be sent you with all charges pre- 
paid, enough to kill all the rats 
you will ever have. 

The Rat Biscuit Co. ""/'• s > Springfield, Ohio 

Rats spread bubonic plague and 
other diseases among stock and 



1 Typewriters! 




Are the 


"The fox" 

In the Middle States and in the 
East where " The Fox " is bet- 
ter known, it is " The Leader." 
and EASY ACTION have 
== made it the STANDARD. : 



1 The Fox Typewriter company. Lid. | 

104 Front Street 


Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. &. Co., Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

"The Quality Store" 


M. & B. Clothing: is planned, 
not only to sell today, but to 
prove good enough in its service 
to bring - you back ag-ain, in the 
future, when you need more. 

It is made with the highest aims to meet the most exacting demands. 
The new Spring' styles are ready. 


Self-measurement blanks upon application. Mail orders filled in a 
dependable manner. Complete Boys' Department — everything 
but shoes. 

Mullen CgL Bluett Clothing' Co. 

First and Spring Sts., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Every number a complete book. Every month a different subject. The best library of photographic informa- 
tion obtainable. Plain and practical. Beautifully illustrated. 35 numbers published, all obtainable. 25 cents each. 

Per year, $2.50 in advance. No free samples. 

Send for Blue Booklet describing the series — free on application. 









Located in Fresno and Kings Counties in the center of the State. All 
rich alluvial soil on Kings River bottom in the best fruit-growing region 
of the State. We can also grow Indian Corn and all other cereal crops 
to perfection, and the land is particularly adapted for the growth of 
alfalfa and the handling of dairy stock. We are selling it in ten-acre 
lots or larger at $35.00 to $50.00 per acre ; one fourth cash, balance in eight 
annual payments if desired. If you want a good piece of land, be sure 
you look over Laguna. Don't make the popular mistake of concluding 
that California is only for the rich man. If you are willing to work you 
can make a start on the Laguna with less money than anywhere else, 
and the climate will be as much yours as if you owned a million. 


laton, Fresno County, California. 

^I«Paloma t©ilet5?ap 




Charles Amadon Moody, Assistant Editor 



President of Stanford University. 


Chicago University. 


The Historian of California. 

Author of "The Led-Horse Claim," etc. 

Anthor of " Stories of the Foothills." 


Author of " The Sister of a Saint," etc. 

Author of " A Forest Orchid," etc. 

The Poet of the South Seas. 

Author of " Song's from the Golden Gate," etc. 

Author of " The Man With the Hoe." 

The Poet of the Sierras. 

Author of "The Life of Ajrassiz," etc. 

Author of " The Shield of the Fleur de Lis." 


Author of "The Conquest of Arid America," etc. 


The greatest Western Painter. 


Ex-Prest. American Folk-Lore Society. 


The Historian of Coronado's Marches. 


of the Smithsonian Institntion, Washington. 


Literary Editor S. F. "Chronicle." 

Author of " In This Our World." 

. Author of " The Story of the Mine," etc. 

Author of " Rod and Gun in California," etc. 




Authors of "Our Feathered Friends." 

Contents— March, 1903. 

The Right Hand of the Continent, illustrated, X, by Chas. F. Lummis 289 

The " Dau " in Pomo Baskets, illustrated, by Carl Purdy 317 

The Rock Columbine, verses, by Florence Evelyn Pratt 

The Donner Lake Party of 1849, illustrated, by Rev. J. W. Brier, a survivor *... 

Rise Up Fremont, and Go Before," poem, by John G. Whittier 336 

Pahawitz-Na'an, story, by Mary Austin 

Southern California Winter, poem, by Anna Ball 344 

The Saving of English Jim, story, by Clarence Alan McGrew MS 

Poppies, verse, by Adelia Bee Adams 350 

Early English Voyages to the Pacific Coast of America (from their own, and contemporary 

English, accounts) — V. Wm. Dampier, 1686 351 

The Sequoya League, "To Make Better Indians " 355 

A Reading List on Indians 356 

The Landmarks Club 366 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor) 367 

That Which is Written (reviews by C. A. Moody) 

The 20th Century West, conducted by Wm. E. Smythe : 

Defeat of the Works Bill 381 

Irrigation Institution 394 

Reform of the Land Laws 391 

The Constructive League 3% 

Pomona, illustrated, by F. Llewellyn 

Copyright 1903. Entered at the Los Angeles Postoffice as second-class matter, (srk pcbushsr'b paokJ 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

The handsome "Flag-Girl" calendar FREE — a work of art, 
six leaves in colors 

If you want the Best Protection for your family and your own 
old age, follow the multitude 


New business written In the State of California in 1902 by the 

Equitable Life Assurance Society 

Nearly $2,000,000 more than was written by any other company 

Mr. A. M. JONES, General Agent 

420 Wilcox Block, Los Angeles, California 

Please send me one of your "Flagr-Girl" calendars. Also tell me the cost of a policy 

for $ 

I was born the . , day of_ 18 






"Viyella" comes in the latest Spring designs and color com- 
binations. Solid Colors ! Stripes ! Plaids ! 

'Viyella" is guaranteed to be unshrinkable, and after repeated 
washings retains the same soft lustre. 

'Viyella" in the heavy weight is the most fashionable fabric 
for Ladies' and Gentlemen's golf, tennis and boating costumes. 

4 Viyella " is stamped on selvedge every 5 yards of each piece. 
Avoid Imitations. Refuse substitutes. 

Does Not SHrinK 

Hummel Bros. & Co., "Help Center," 116-118 E. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 






> 5 

There are so many lines in our store, and there are so many styles in each line that 
we find people have difficulty in comprehending the completeness of our stock. As a 
sample, let us take our line of 


There are scores of styles in all the accepted woods 
— Mahogany, solid and veneered ; Oak, golden, 
Flemish or Mission finish ; Bird's-eye Maple. 
Some of these are simple and plain like the one 
here shown, which is in the now popular Mission 
style ; others are ornamented with heavy carving. 
The prices range from $7.50 up to $125 each. One 
thing is true about every one of these desks — what- 
ever the price, the desk is honestly made, plainly 
priced and worth what we ask for it. 

Then there are Library Desks in various styles, 
and modified forms of the regulation office desk — there are literally hundreds of styles 
and we believe there is not a thing in the way of desk needs that we cannot supply. 




4X9 441 445 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cat. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WE8T. 



January 1, 1903 

Insurance Stock Total 

_ . ( Assets, $48,221,000 $13,393,000 $61,614,000 

oeCVirity - •< Liabilities, 41,90VX):) 7,936.000 49.839,0u0 

( Surplus, - - - - - $6,318,000 $5,457,000 fll,77 ; ,000 

/ Thirty-nine percent saved on Expected Mortality Cost, since 1865. 

1 No other American Company has realized such saving'. 
IP 1 — ^ — — — — — 

i^C-onomy < Only 18.25 per cent of Premium Income used for Expense of Management, since 1894. 

I Ten per cent lower than the average expense rate of twenty-four leading American 

ana \ companies. 

IT fj.. i\\-+ r _ _ J All policy-holders share annually in the surplus after two years. 
" "^ " "" / Unfortunate policyholders do not forfeit their dividends. 

Are qualities that the prudent man cannot afford to overlook when selecting a life in- 
surance company. 

No company invites strict investigation of its record on these points more cordially 

The Provident Life & Trust Company 


inform Represented by Georg'e Smedley Yarnall 

Y0URSELF 402 Trust Bldg'., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Life . Endowment . Installment . Investment . Annuity . Partnership . Term Insurance 




Profitable Orange 
and Lemon Groves 

One Hour from Los 

Angeles via Santa Fe 

or S. P. Ry. 

Magnificent View of 

San Gabriel Valley 

. and Snow-Capped 


Surplus Water 
for Sale 

With all modern improvements, comprising: 103 acres higrhly improved property For sale as a whole or in small 
tracts. For full particulars address oxmc, G» = Q. E. CDLSMAV, SAN DIMAS. CAL. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

BAILEY'S Rubber 



Makes, Keeps and 
Restores beauty 
in nature's own way 

*"pHE cup-shaped teeth have a suc- 
-*■ tion effect on the skin that 
smooths out wrinkles, rounds out 
the beauty muscles, and fives per- 
fect circulation of the blood. 

It is so constructed that it treats 
every portion of the face and neck 
perfectly, even to the " crow's feet" 
in the corners of the eyes. 

A jar of skin food given with every roller. 
For sale by all dealers, or ^C\r 

Mailed upon receipt of price, VV/C 
Rubber Catalogue Free. 
Atrents Wanted. 


22 Boylston St., BOSTON, MASS 

Supplying Agents 

Western Wholesale Drug Co., 254 S. Main St. 

F. W. Braun & Co., 501 N. Main, Los Angeles 




By the Leading 



0. L. M'Lain 

13x25— $6.00 



9x11— $1 00 

11x25— $3 75 

9x11— 1 25 

11x24— 4 00 

9x13— 1 50 

11x24— 4 25 

11x14— 1 75 

11x24— 4 50 

11x15— 2 00 

11x25— 5 00 

13x17— 2 50 

13x25— 5 00 

10x22— 3 00 

9x35— 6 00 

Sent postpaid to any address in the U. S. on receipt 
of price. Address : 

Sunset Art Co., 132 W. I2tn St., Los Angeles 



Dealers ii 

Pianos *»< 

Behr Bros. 


Ivers 8t Pond 

Bush & Gerts 






Strohber, etc. 

Southern California 
Headquarters for 

Sewing Machines 


Hummel Bros. & Co., "Help Center," 116-118 E. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

^S c b o o I" 

SECURED for all 
Students worthy 



(trade mark) 


Jg^T Complete Business Education — Earnest, 
thorough, individual Instruction; Modern Methods. 
Write for 6o page illustrated Catalogue. 

R. L. DURHAM, Pres. 



Help — AM Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 





Fits for college and business. 
Fully equipped Chemical and 
Physical Laboratories. Ten- 
acre Campus. Standard %- 
mile Track. Gymnasium. 
Gallery Track. Shower Baths. 

Principal : Grbnville C. Emery, 
A.M., late Master in the Boston 
Latin School. 

Commandant : John S. Mcrdock, 
Ph. B. (Yale), Lieut, in the regular 
army in Cuba during the late Span- 
ish war. 



THE COLLEGE. Faculty of 16. Ample equipment. Students 
may pass from any class to the State University or any 
in the East. 

THE PREPARATORY SCHOOL. As "Chaffey" stood among the 
highest accredited schools in the State. Utmost pains taken 
with physical development, manners and character, as 
well as with the intellect. 
University Station. Dean Wm. T. Randall, A. M. 



A school for personal culture for young men, women 
and children. Four Departments : ORATORY, ENG- 
Students may enter at any time and take part or all or 
course. Send for illustrated catalogue. 
Tel. Pico 2521. Addik Murphy Grigg, Director. 


An English and Classical Boarding and Day School. 
Boys received at any time when there is a vacant- v. 
Send for catalogue. 

WALTER J. BAILEY. A. M.. Principal 

Telephone Main 1556 




Boarding and Day Pupils 

New Buildings. Gymnasium. Special care of health. 
Entire charge taken of pupils during school year and 
summer vacation. Certificate admitsto Eastern Colleges. 
European teachers in art, music and modern languages. 
13th year begins Oct., 1902. ANN4 B RT0N. Principal 

Occidental College 


The College. Three Courses — Classical, Literary, 

The Preparatory Department is on the list of 
schools accredited by State University. The Occidental 
School of Music gives high grade instruction. Vocal and 
instrumental. First semester began September 24, 1902. 



The only completely equipped Manual Training 
School on the Pacific Coast. 

Grammar School, Commercial 
School, Academy, Normal School 
(Sloyd, Art, Domestic Economy), 
College (Degree of B. S.). 

Daily exercises in Sloyd, Wood Turning and 
Carpentry, Forging, Pattern-Making, Machine- 
Shop Practice, Wood-Carving, Clay-Modeling, 
Cooking, Sewing and Dressmaking, Electrical 
Engineering, Chemical Laboratory Work, 
Mechanical Drawing, Freehand Drawing and 
Painting, Biological Laboratory Work, Gym- 

Diplomas of graduation from Throop Insti- 
tute accepted by the leading colleges and uni- 
versities of the country. 


W. A. Edwards, LL.D.. President 
Theodore Coleman, Secretary 

plain tqalppad fordoing School work -designing, 
graving, printing and binding the 1*-- 
uct at most raaaoaabls price*. Out Wb9t C<> 

115 S. Broad wav, Lo- Angelc*. 




Adams and Hoover Sts.los Articles. Caliiot Mid 

Beautiful luilMIng*. home, thorough «ch.- 
ite ninth* to college. 


Pleas-? Mention that You Saw it in OUT WE8T. 


The BERLITZ School 



















TRUST ELDG., Cor. 2nd and Spring Sis., LOS ANGELES 



for best and most practical meth- 
od of teaching foreign languages. 


All langruagres taug-ht by the Berlitz Method, 
the best and quickest ever devised- Competent 
native teachers. Private and class instruction. 
Nearly 200 branches, with 75,000 students, in the 
principal cities of America and Europe. 

Trial lesson free on application to secretary. 
Commercial classes. Send for catalogue. 



The great business arena 
wants trained young men. 
There are today more $10,000 
positions than there are $10,000 
men. A little forethought and 
careful preparation, and a great 
deal of ambition and energy will 
make a $10,000 man of you. Get 
ready. Start right. Secure a sound 
business education at 


a.4 PostiSt SanFrancisco. 

./end Por Cafaloo'uq,, 

O 5 

The Dobinson School of Expression 

In "the Italy of America," 
Los Angeles, Cal. 614 South Hill St. 

English Literature, Word Analysis, Interpretation. 
Elocution, Physical Culture, Shakespeare, Health, Deep 

Breathing, the Speaking Voice. 
The Dramatic Department includes training for the stage 

and placing of competent pupils. 
Write for catalogue. 



Then write to the oldest and most reliable Teachers' 
Agency on the Coast for any information you desire 
about school matters. 

Efficient Service. Honorable Dealing-. Reasonable 


31 Flood Building-, San Francisco, Cal. 

You Can Get it 

Mnnau B y the famous HEEB System of 

mUntiy Teaching by Mail. LEARN AT 

MqImiKV hom E. Illustrating, Cartooning, Law, Pharmacy, 

lYIclKing Medicine, Nursing, Book-keeping, Banking, 

Prliinotinii Shorthand, Penmanship and Letter Writing, 

LQUGallUn Mechanical Drawing, Etc. 

Special inducements to those who write now mentioning choice of course. 

National Correspondence Schools, (Inc.) 
e.j. Heeb.Pres., 5 n. Penn. st , Indianapolis, U. S. A. 

Los rfnge/e* 


Is the oldest established, has the largest attendance, and is the best equipped business 
college on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. Telephone Black 2651. 


"The Ang-elus," Los Angreles. 

The„Kn utsford" Hotel. Salt Lake City. 

The Angelxis, Los Angeles 

American and European plans. Corner 
Fourth and Spring Sts., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Fire-proof, strictly modern and elegant. 
The newest of the first-class hotels of the 
State. Opened December 28, 1901, by G. S. 
Holmes, also proprietor of 

THe Rnutsford, Salt LaKe City 

Tourists and others going Eastward will 
find that a stop-off of a few days at Salt Lake 
City can be most pleasurably spent. The 
" Knutsford " is the only new fire-proof hotel, 
for the better class of trade, in the city. 
Every place of interest is nearby this hotel. 
Do not be misled, but check your baggage di- 
rect to the "Knutsford," Salt Lake City. 

N. B. — An interesting illustrated booklet 
on " Zion," will be mailed to anyone address- 
ing G. S. Holmes, Proprietor. 

Fremont Hotel, Lo 9 An^iei 

American plan. Opened Octo- 
ber 1, 1902. Corner Fourth and 
Olive Streets. ' 

The newest and most elegantly 
appointed family hotel in the city. 

Situated, two blocks from Broad- 
way on an eminence commanding 
a charming vista of the city, and 
offering to its patrons the benefits 
of purest air, prompt and court- 
eous service, and a cuisine un- 
equalled in points of excellence 
anywhere, and reasonable rates. 

Fori terms address, 
Thos. Pascoe, Proprietor. 


THe Westminster. — American and Euro- 
pean plans. Corner Fourth and Main Streets, Los 

Every modern comfort and convenience that can 
be found in any hotel and at the most reasonable 

The quiet comfort and absence of confusion is 
a noticeable feature of this hotel. Evidence of the 
masterly manner in which the minutest details 
have been taken up and dealt with are apparent 
throughout the whole house, every attention being 
?iven to make the guest feel perfectly at home and 
it ease. 

In addition to its perfect internal service the 
hotel maintains unsurpassed golf grounds. 

P. O. Johnson, Proprietor 

Refinement and Comfort. 

At the "Westminster. 

Hotel Arcadia, Santa Monica-by-the-Sea, Cal. 

On a picturesque higrh bluff, overlooking- a wide expanse of blue sea, 
s situated the famous Hotel Arcadia, whose strictly first-class service, 
omplete and modern appointments, hot and cold salt water baths, golf, 
ennis, boating, bowling, fishing and delig-htful drives, unite in making- 
his a pleasure resort, ideal and complete. 

Hotel IVedondo, Redondo Beach, Cal. 

This elegant hotel (under the management of R. W. Taylor, formerly 
nth Hotel del Coronado), is universally recog-nized as one of the "crown- 
sg efforts " of hotels on the Pacific Coast. 

Of its 225 rooms, every one is an outside room with open g ate, hot 
nd cold water, and a sunny exposure at some hour of the day. It has 
levator, private baths and first-class bowling- alleys, while its spacious 
all room, open billiard room, orchestra, elegant parlors and dining- 
>om have won for it the well-deserved title of " Queen of the Pacific." 

It adjoins the largest carnation garden in the world, and boasts the 
sst fishing on the coast. 

Both these hotels are equally distant (18 miles) from Los Angeles 
ith which they are connected by a 30-min. trolley service and frequent 
ains on the Santa Fe, Southern Pacific and Redondo steam railways, 
he superiority of this suburban service renders these hotels vantag-e 
Mnts, absolutely without a rival, f^r sightseers, as there is scarcely a 
■wn or county in Southern California that a guest may not visit and re" 
:rn the same day if he wishes. 

There are no other places in Southern California with a climate more 
luable, being considerably warmer than any of the interior towns, with 
ie extremes of night and day far less marked. 

For rates and further information, address 

A. O. Wright, Proprietor. 

Hotels "Arcadia" and "Redondo. 

Tourist Hotels 

Hotl Vendome, San Jose 

A visit to California is not com- 
plete without a sojourn at Hotel 
Vendome, San Jose, and a trip from 
there to Lick Observatory, Mt. 
Hamilton. San Jose is the metrop- 
olis of the Santa Clara Valley, fa- 
mous for its orchards, drives and 
scenery, and is reached from Los 
Angeles by the Southern Pacific 
Railway's Coast Line to San Fran- 

The Hotel Vendome is situated 
in a large park of stately trees, 
lawn and flowers. Has broad ver- 
andas,' artistic modern furnishings, 
unexcelled cuisine, and pleasant sur- 

It is the starting point for Mt. 
Hamilton stage to Lick Observa- 
tory, and has golf, ping-pong, bowl- 
ing, tennis, automobiles and cy- 

Geo. P. Sneix, Manager. 

" Hotel IMiMsatiton. 

Hotel PleasantOIl, San Francisco 

Situated in a pleasant part of the city — 
Sutter and Jones Streets. Very convenient to 
all the theaters, churches and principal stores. 
Two lines of cable cars pass hotel. Sutter St. 
line direct from the Ferries to the hotel and tc 
Golden Gate Park and other points of interest. 
Elegantly furnished rooms, single or en suite, 
with or without private bath. All model 
improvements for the comfort and safety of th( 
guests. The excellence of the cuisine and sei 
vice are leading features, and there is an at- 
mosphere of home comfort rarely met with in 
a hotel. Guests desiring rooms without board 
will be accommodated. Rates on the American 
plan, from $2.50 to $5.00 per day for one per- 
son. Special terms by the week and to fam- 
ilies. O. M. Brennan,! Proprietor. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



Steam heat, electric light, modern plumbing, with mountain spring- water piped 
throughout. Resident physician and corps of trained nurses. Nature's cure for 
asthma, la grippe, rheumatism, and all pulmonary diseases. 737,000 acres of pine 
forests. Grand mountain scenery. Furnished cottages and tents to rent for house- 

Train (Santa Fe via Pasadena) leaves Los Angeles Tuesday, Thursday and Satur- 
day, 8:30 a.m. Stage meets passengers at Hemet 12:40, arrives at Idyllwild at 5:30 p.m. 

For literature, write 

R. A. LOWE, Manager, Idyllwild, Riverside Co., California. 
LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE -Ringr up Idyl wild, Riverside Co., and call for Mr. Lowe. 



Finished just before his death 


" What is TRUTH 7" 
asked jesting Pilate, 
and would not 
stay for an 

Translated by E. A. Vizetelly. The third in the " Four ^^L X- 
Evangelists" group, following " Fruitfulness " and " Labor" 

THE PLOT : Virtually a re -setting* of the famous 

Dreyfus case 

vm/ /^^ SUBJECT : Illustrates the antagonistic influences of 
February '^^ tne Jesuit and Secular parties in school questions. 

!2mo. $1.50 

TREATMENT : Sustains from cover to cover 

John Lane New Yori^. intense interest in a vivid dramatic situation. 

Please Mention that You 8aw it in OUT WEST. 



We offer a Mexican investment, pay- 
ing 10 %, which with contemplated 
improvements, will treble in value. 
Produced this year $103,743. Assets, 
$147,837 in ore on dump, land, stores 
and mill, besides $1,053,000 in ore 
blocked out. Low capitalization. No 
liabilities. Titles perfect 


To increase reduction works, a limited amount 
of Treasury stock is offered at 75c a share. Par 
value, $1. A permanent dividend-paying- in- 
vestniLMit. For complete and full particulars 
regarding our properties, bank references, etc. 




Los Angeles 

Own a Lot in 

fornia terminus of the Santa Fe 
Railroad, is just across the Bay 
from San Francisco, where the 
three largest corporations in the State, 
namely the Santa Fe Railroad, Stand- 
ard Oil Company and the Southern 
Pacific Railroad meet. These corpora- 
tions are spending millions of dollars 
there which will make it the greatest 
manufacturing city on the Pacific 
Coast. Lots $200 only — 

$5.oo PER MONTH 

A good way to save and mak'i money. 



82 Crocker Building 
San Francisco. Cau. 




Over $20,000,000 worth of tin imported every year, about one-half of which is 
profit. The Santa Ana Tin Mines are destined to be as great as the famous Tin 
Mines of Cornwall, England, which have been large producers for 2350 years. 
The geology is the same, and our development work has proved that they abso- 
lutely conform to those wonderful mines. 

There has been expended over $75,000 to date developing what we believed 
would make large paying tin mines. We are now offering a limited amo-int of 
Treasury Stock to complete the mills and development work. These mints will 
be large producers and dividend payers. 

Write for Prospectus and full particulars. 

The Santa Ann Tin Mining Company 

Gaii. Borden, President 

J. A. Combk, General Manager 


502 Laughlin Building, LOS ANGELES, CAL, 
43 Wall St., NEW YORK CITY 

Please Mention that You 8aw It In OUT WEST. 

:<S= 5 ^5> 


Manager R=al Estate Dept. Investments, Loans. Stocks and Bonds Manager Mining Dept. 

^/.Q^^.^S^Mar. 1, 1903. 

To the Real Estate Investor : 

Come to California — the Mecca towards which the sons 
of men are looking and longing — the Eden of America; 
combining old-world grandeur of sea and mountain, match- 
less climate and productive soil; where eternal spring 
reigns with undisputed sovereignty. 

The Golden State — where prosperity is epidemic; where 
health and happiness hold high carnival, and blossoms 
bloom in prodigal profusion a dozen months out of 
the year. 

Thrice blessed, beautiful California; the fairest spot 
upon this mundane sphere; a living, breathing monument:! 
of the goodness and greatness of an All-wise, Omnipres- 
ent Being who created the heavens and the earth and all 
things therein. 

Well might one long for the hundred eyes of Argus 
with which to view ALL the beauties of our beloved 
Southland; or the hundred hands of Briareus, that he 
might pluck the tallest tree from the summit of some 
lofty mountain, dip its top into the the limpid waters 
of the sea, and paint the burnished heavens with glow- 
ing pictures of this earthly Paradise. 

Glorious California, the home of culture and refine- 
ment, ours to enjoy, ours to control, ours to transmit. 
Come, thou stranger without the gates, and help us 
build up this mighty Western Empire which is but just 
budding, a chrysalis, but rapidly ripening into a gor- 
geous butterfly. Come, do come! A royal welcome awaits 
you; and when you get here our services are at your dis- 
posal. We will gladly aid you in finding a home to your 

Very cordially yours, 

REFERENCES BY PERMISSION : First National Bank, State Bank and Trust Company, Dun or Bradstreet. 

Western Union Code 1901 Edition. 

Please Mention that You Saw It in OUT WEST. 

Schcll's Patent Adjustable form 

Los Angeles Office 

Rooms 3 

San Francisco: 503 

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To help its members to build homes, also to make loans on improved property, the 
members giving first liens on their real estate as security. To help its stock- 
holders to earn from 8 to 12 per cent, per annum on their stock, and to allow them 
to open deposit accounts bearing interest at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum, ordi- 
nary, and 6 per cent, per annum, term* 

HOME OFFICE: 301 California St, San Francisco, California 

VM. CORBIN, Secretary and General Manager 




The Land of SvinsKine. 


I T &k V 


Vol. XVIII, No. 3. 

MARCH, 1903. 




IMPERTINENT as it must seem to us self- 
satisfied ephemera, who can feel the earth 
teeter under our masterful tread — who forget 
that Yesterday was, and Tomorrow shall be ; 
and who realize, even of our maggot moment, 
litttle more than how much We outweigh 
the coach-wheel — it is nevertheless an irrev- 
erent fact of History (the sticky paper to which adheres what 
little is left of a thousand other fly-times), that 

Civilization began only when Man began to Move, and has 
progressed only upon condition of his removals. No people 
ever yet rose to a high culture in its geographic cradle; no 
country was ever yet tnade eminent by its first inhabitants. 

Throughout the record of mankind, not its indigenes but its 
invaders have wrought the chief (when not the only) fame of 
every land that was ever famous ; the serious ascent of every 
tribe or nation up the scale of Progress began with, and hinged 
upon, that tribe's Migrating. The savage is the only unalloyed 
Conservative. No tribe that ever removed much, remains 
savage ; and conversely, if you wish to find savages, seek a 
tribe still persistent where it originated. In a word, it is the 
immemorial lesson of evolution that Man, to Grow, has had to 
Get Out. The individual may colorably resist this law of 
nature ; and so may the generation, or even the sequence of 
generations ; but all are paying interest on the debt, and the 

Copyrighted 1903 by Ch»s. F. Lummis. All rights reserved. 


generations must sometime settle the principal. Violations of 
hygiene are as ineluctably punished in the social as in the 
physical body. What happens to nations that once civilized 
themselves by demigration, but have since Stayed Too Long un- 
varying, India and China are tolerable hints ; there are others, 
in a graduate scale of the hopelessness of immobility. As for the 
relation between Conservatism and Progress, they walk asunder 
in the inverse ratio with any nation, and with approximately 
equal steps. As a mere passing and trivial — but typical — 
"modern instance," let us say Russia, England and the United 
States. What is the descending order of their conservatism ; 
what the ascending rank of their advancement ? 

Doubtless no faithful workman will ever "defy" anyone to 
prove him wrong. If he be really fit to saw boards, or paint 
signs, or burrow in history, he knows that his best benefac- 
tors are not they that maudle in vain praise over his botch- 
eries, but the fellows that show him wherein he blundered — 
even the fellows that do it in a nasty way, as it is somehow 
easy for poor human nature to present its criticisms. And I 
shall be very grateful to anyone who will prove, never so un- 
kindly, that this rather large postulate (which I do not re- 
member to have encountered flatly in type) is not a generic 
truth of history — namely, that Man, in the long sense, Has to 
Move or Stagnate. I will even be grateful for reminder of one 
single national exception that can be established by modern 

In their Genesis, the Hebrews were a pest to Egypt and a 
burden to themselves ; it was with their Exodus that they began 
to be a People ineradicable from history ; and that with their 
immigrant fists they made what the whole world still calls the 
Holy Land. Who knows anything about the aborigines of 
Palestine? Who doesn't know that it is the country "made" 
by the Wandered Jew, while he rested there before further self- 
making by further wandering ? 

Greece ? The name sounds familiar. A year's subscription 
(which is two rotund American deities) free to any one that 
will offhand name one autocthonous tribe of that matchless ar- 
chipelago. But when the likes of Cadmus drifted in, there 
began to be a land which has set the world's standards forever 
in sculpture and in literature — to say nothing of the notch of 
the best educated people in history. 

Were a stage-robber to demand your Instant Definition or 
your Life, pray what would you hand him out as to the Herni- 
cans and the Auruncans ? But you could find fobs from which 
to disgorge at least a nickel's worth of testimony to having 

An Assisted Immigrant. Photo by Pierce. 

Foliasre of the Pepper Tree. (Brought from its home in Peru to California, where it grows twice as lar^e.) 


heard of Rome after the Pious Trojan and his sort arrived ; 
and after immigration had devolved amid the lean Italian tribe- 
vocabularies the mother tongue to which every great 
modern language is incomparably beholden. If Italy had been 
burglar-proof against outside brains, not so much as a ghost of 
what we call Latin should have walked the universal earth ; and 
if there had been no Latin as we know it, there might, indeed, 
have been an English language — but you and I couldn't read 
it. Latin is the Preferred Creditor of the leading tongues of 
Christendom ; and there wasn't any Latin until Immigrants got 
in to teach Latium what its jargons really could be made. 

Old England in Los Angeles. 

Photo by Pierce. 

The freshman, still unwiped of the college plutn-bloom, can 
doubtless tell us the name of some one tribe of the barbarians 
between whom All Gaul was Divided when a little, bald-headed 
soldier and scholar discovered it to the world ; the rest of us 
must refresh ourselves from the encyclopedia. But of France, 
and of its language (which was imposed by its invaders), even 
those of us who are more rubbed retain some vague concept. 

England ? Its civilization and its language are the sum of 
its immigrations. We all know what a howling wilderness it 
was of naked, brutal, raw-dieted, tongue-tied troglodytes, when 
it was discovered by the succession of peoples with Marrow 
enough^in their Minds to Stir them. We can easily guess what 
it Iwould |be| today, if Vikings and Romans and Normans and. 


various other stocks that have varied its savagery had never 
run across it and stamped their heels all over its face. 

And even the conglomerate English People of today, the 
blend of so many Angle and Saxon and Norse and Teutonic and 
Norman and other elements ; where do you fancy they are 
" doing best " for Progress — in the tight little island, or over 
here whither a few of them have Moved ? 

We still recognize the Irishman as a lively immigrant — but 
it was in the same capacity that he settled upon the Ould Sod. 
The Celts and Milesians did not originate in Ireland, but came 
thither from afar. The Teuton was an immigrant to Germany, 
not an aborigine; and has not yet forgotten how to move, to 
his own betterment and that of the land he adopts. When we 

Another Adaptation of the Moresque. (Los Ang-eles.) Photo by Pierce. 

" talk Spanish," it is no aboriginal speech of the one-time 
queen of nations, but the superb instrument forged by her 
Roman, and polished by her Moorish, conquerors ; and our at- 
tempts (generally felonious) upon " Spanish architecture " are 
a following after the style which overran Spain from Africa. 
And so on, for as long as one cares. Even the marvelous 
aboriginal cultures of Mexico and Peru — which the scientist 
does not classify as "civilization," but which were in some 
respects higher — were exotic. The Incas and the Aztecs did 
not originate where they made their astonishing record — they 
Moved there. And by Motion they Grew. 

Perhaps it were wanton to remind ourselves that what is now 
the United States was not wholly developed by its aborigines ; 
or even that its present people have some cause to be glad that 
they are here rather than back where they or their great-grand- 
fathers came from. 


A Field of Pineapples. 
(In the Cahuenga Valley, near Los Ansreles. 

Photo by Pierce, 

Migrations are the milestones of the whole world's Progress. 
Civilization is the product of Emergence, of Getting Away 
both geographic and intellectual — and one is hard without the 
other, reading either way you will. Even those who are least 
fanatic in adoring Civilization and all its works ; who most 
doubt if what we call "Progress" makes its devotees any hap- 
pier or any better, have to realize that it is the attraction of 
gravitation of humanity, thus far unsuspended. It is the stand- 
ard by which everything is judged, nowadays. So it is neither 
unfair nor unimportant to judge it, in its turn, by some other 
things. Particularly as it is so prone to Forget the Pit whence 
it was Digged, and the Rock from which it was Hewn. One 
of its commonest symptoms, when it becomes acute, is to see as 
dangerous, if not actually depraved, the very thing that 
created it. It turns pale when it meets its own mother. 
No one of transcontinental acquaintance and experience is 
unfamiliar with the queer (and generally unconscious) 
admixture of disapproval, misgiving and almost dismay 
they that Go Forth are regarded withal by them that Stay Put, 


That warning - gospel of Conservatism, "a rolling stone gathers 
no moss," is as true now as when it first scared the first youth 
that ever Wanted Out ; but still, as a million years ago — and 
still in every land and in every town — there are some who can 
think of better ambitions than to grow Mossy. Even the un- 
comprehended Vagrom Man has had his uses in the world's 
development ; and the true Migrant, who goes out to See and 
to Win — he has been the spinal column of the race. Nature 
gives us our way in self-making, and ultimately fits our cloth- 
ing to our habit. To keep from being stepped upon, the 
greyhound has gradually elected legs ; the turtle, a shell. In 

Far-Wandered Architecture. 

Photo by Pierce. 

(In I,os Angeles the snow-shedding- roof is merely for ornament.) 

Nature, all things must Grow somehow ; but some things In- 

M-a-y-be all this Means Something ; History occasionally 
does. And if it ever meant anything, anywhere, it means every- 
thing to the West and to the very problems we are now reckon- 
ing with. It is the Key to our Riddle — that Impenetrable 
Enigma over which the East wags its solemn head altogether, 
and which we ourselves have not yet reasonably answered. 
Maybe, also, the big-enough historian will some day look out 
from his closet long enough to see — and we have still historians 
who could see, if they emerged and looked far enough — and 
give us the great book the theme and our bareness merit. 

Mankind no longer flows and ebbs in vast racial waves as in 
the earliest floodings of Europe and Asia. Nowadays it mostly 
leaks rather than bursts its native reservoir. Still, there have 
been several pretty serious tides of migration within times and 

£ <- 


geographies particularly interesting - to us "Americans." Among 
civilized shiftings in modern days, that marvelous precipita- 
tion which promptly followed the discovery of America was 
easily first. The Spanish exploration, conquest and colonization 
of two-thirds of all the New World that is even today populated 
by civilized persons — the inrush from 1520 to 1650 — has no 
tolerable rival if we weigh the area covered, developed and popu- 
lated in so short a time ; the addition to the world's anthro- 
pological and geographical knowledge, and to the world's 
wealth ; the danger and difficulty of the conquest ; the pro- 
portion of college men and great men in the total immigration ; 
the linguistic potency (which stuck the conquering tongue for- 
ever upon more people, in any one country of Spanish America, 
than English has been imposed on people altogether, by 
England and by Us); or the records scholars have of the 
transition. But that, of course, is merely scientific. The 
human thing about it is that never before did so many well- 
educated people go so far in miles-at-a-lick, nor so fast, nor with 
a tenth so much contribution to literature. 

The first English invasion of the New World was slow if sure, 
and has not as yet covered anywhere near so much territory, 
though within my lifetime it has buttered part of its territory 
much thicker. If New York city hadn't within 20,000 of as many 
people in 1800 as Puebla, Mexico, had in 1678, it has caught up 
since. At no time up to within the half-century had immigra- 
tion to the United States been of the calibre to count in the 
class now in mind. As for the post-bellum hordes at Castle 
Garden, neither do they count here, because, while numerically 
tremendous, the wave has carried more than its share of spume. 

The most heroic, the most precipitate, and the most epochal 
migration in what wezaW. "American history" (*. e., history of 
the United States) was beyond comparison the East-to-West 
shifting of population in 1849-59. In that one decade some 
300,000 Wide- Awakes had moved farther, and at more cost of 
hardship and danger, than so many so comfortably civilized per- 
sons had ever moved — or ever have moved — in the world's his- 
tory. Never before nor since have so many ministers, doctors, 
lawyers, merchants, deacons, carpenters, shoemakers, farmers, 
judges, millers and other persons of sober and secure occupa- 
tion, "walked so far afoot," if so far endured a voyage to 
which the most hardened sensation-seeker could hardly find a 
parallel now. Never before nor since did so many respectable 
persons leave respectable families behind — nor, perhaps, so 
often forget to return for them or send for them. Never before 
nor since have so many persons accustomed to the Comforts of 



Los Angeles County Courthousk. 

Photo by Pierce. 

Home (in modern terras) so utterly surrendered these comforts 
and so thriven without them. And incomparably, never before 
nor since have anything like the same number of human beings 
so radically and so lastingly remade the business habits of the 
whole world. Nationally, that was our nearest approach to the 
ancient racial supersessions. 

The very wonderful colonization and development of our vast 
Middle West and Northwest, imminently following our Civil 
War, and achieved largely by its disbanded soldiers — but made 
possible and attractive precisely by the California which fur- 
nished the money and credit for that war — that was another 
of the national milestones History will sometime draw bigger 
than we of today have the proportion to. Numerically it was 
great ; economically it was enormous. Legitimate child of 
California, it is already old enough and big enough to feed its 

A Los Anoki.ks Hospital. 
(St Vincent Sanitarium.) 

Photo <"• . 

A Twelve-foot Potato Plant. 
(Southern California.) 

Photo by CrandalL 


grandparents — the Conservative States which have not moved 
much since 1850, nor been recipients of much motion — save 
such as comes from Canada and Europe ; which is now not the 
cream, but nearer the skim, of human kind. 

The older, heroic, but relatively innumerous, pioneering - of 
what we may call the immediate backwoods of the Atlantic 
fringe of States — the gallant episode of Kentucky, Ohio and 
their historical mates — all this was of another, and a scientific- 
ally smaller category ; less significant as to speed, numbers and 
world-weight. "National politics" and "centers of popula- 
tion " are not always so mightily important as they look close 
at hand. Mostly, if they Came Home fifty years later, their 
own Mothers wouldn't know them, so wofully shrunken in 
stature. Five Presidents have, indeed, procured themselves to 
be born in Ohio — but the Presidency has long been a compro- 
mise in geographies, not an index of regional cultures. Only 
three New England Presidents have been elected ; and it is al- 
most half a century since a born Yankee sat in the White House, 
save the incidental Arthur, who was not elected to the office, 
and who had graduated to New York. The selection of "cen- 
tral " candidates, in general deference to considerations much 
more formidable to politicians than to scholars — or to the people 
— is already a habit which will not be easily broken. Yet one 
might almost remark that the farther West it came for its Pre- 
sidents the better the country has fared. In geography it never 
but the once ventured so far westward as Illinois — and got 
Lincoln. In spirit, it has come as far on several occasions. 
Washington was emphatically a Westerner of his day ; and Jef- 
ferson had the Western horizons that gave us Lewis and Clark. 
Roosevelt, of course, will rank for Western anywhere. 
Even to mention Grant, he formed his character in California. 
It can hardly be said that the farther East it went for its Presi- 
dents, the worse the country came out ; but certainly even the 
admirable Adamses were not the giants of our record ; and as 
for Pierce it is not worth while to comment. Except on the 
perhaps curious fact that New Hampshire furnished the Presi- 
dent who was the foremost official Champion of Slavery ; and 
that California furnished (besides even weightier contribution) 
the first presidential candidate of the party born in and for 
Freedom, whatever we may think it has diminished to. It is 
also a coincidence that no President from New England was 
ever re-elected. Of course this is not intended for argument ; 
but neither is it wholly fortuitous as concerning the relation be- 
tween Emergence and Progress. 

But California has had two epoch-marking and epoch-making 

< «; 

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< ■= 


landslide immigrations ; each paralleled by nothing' else in our 
national history — nor by much in any other — and so unlike 
between themselves that almost the only comparison is by con- 
trast. Except that both were much more rapid than the 
peopling of most other States ; that both were distinct and 
wilful Emergences from hardshell Conservatism, and that both 
are remarkable in history for the "continuous mileage" of the 
migrancy — wherein, of course, the Pacific Coast altogether 
leads the world's record — these two great sweeps of popula- 
tion were so unlike one another that it seems incredible that 
they were moods of the same peoples, and only forty years apart. 
In physique, in mental and ethical attitude, in first motive, in 
experience, in methods, in interests, in performance, and in 
the nature of their immediate results, they were ages asunder. 
Their differences, while perhaps not so glibly to be catalogued, 
were really deeper-seated than those between the first Euro- 
pean settlements of Mexico and New England. It is easy to see 
which was the more sensational ; but hard to decide which was 
the more wonderful. As to their relative import, and pregnant 
forecast to the race, I have a decided opinion. As to which 
was the saner — and therefore, in our modern excitation, the 
more unexpected — there can be no real question. 

The first was Sheer Adventure (with its usual historical 
twin of Fortune-seeking) and one of its most magnificent chap- 
ters since man's genesis ; the second was Reasoned Migration. 
The first was of men ; the second, of families. The first came 
specifically to skin California and carry home its golden pelt ; 
not to build a State but to eviscerate a natural treasury ; and 
the great constructive work these Argonauts presently did out 
here was because of what California taught them, and not the 
lesson with which from the East they started so pat and pell- 
mell to school. And the largest, the pleasantest thing the West 
taught them was that they Didn't Have to Go Home. The 
latter is the very thing that the second immigration learned be- 
fore it came, and came because of learning. Adventure and 
greed entered hardly at all into their motives ; and returning 
from California, not at all. They came precisely to stay ; and 
they are as inveterate in fixity as their surviving predecessors. 
Instead of rampaging off to California to find somewhat to 
Fetch Home to the Family, they fetched the Family and the 
Home along, and set them down in the very lap of riches mani- 
fold, whereof the Gold-Hunters had jingled but the small- 
change. They form the least heroic migration in history, but 
the most judicious ; the least impulsive but the most reasonable. 
They brought far less 'muscle than their predecessors, and have 

X -_ 

< (S 


developed far less , but in "sinews" they were far better sup- 
plied. In fact they were, by and large, by far the most comfort- 
able immigrants, financially, in history. Instead of by Shank's 
Mare, or prairie schooner, or reeking - steerage, they came on pa- 
latial trains ; instead of cabins they put up beautiful homes ; 
instead of gophering for gold, they planted gold — and it Came 
Up, in tenfold harvest. And for all their comparative sedate- 
ness, they have made a record of development and progress the 
far hardier, far braver and far more interesting Pioneers did 
not approach. As to number, more of these New and Velvet 
Immigrants came in the five years ending with 1890 than in the 
Golden Decade of 1849 - 59 ; and the tide has never since ceased. 
There are 12 States in the Union which have gained more peo- 
ple since 1880 than California has gained ; 38 (including terri- 
tories) which haven't gained as many. All New England, 
leaving out Massachusetts, gained 90,000 less. Virginia, which 
in 1880 had more people than California has today, shows a gain 
nearly 290,000 less. Kansas, which had in 1880 nearly 200,000 
more inhabitants than California, now has not so many. 
Not one State in the East has equalled California's fer cent. 
of increase of population in the 20 years ; and only Florida in 
the South. Except Florida, all the States that have increased 
in more rapid proportion are Out West ; and except Minnesota 
and Texas, not one of them has yet one-half the present popu- 
lation of California. 

Naturally, I am not arguing that the Pullman Conquest of 
California was in numbers one of the landmarks of history. 
Even in our own nation, it surpasses in arithmetic only three- 
quarters of the States. Still, this brief comparison may serve 
to indicate that neither was this migration exactly insignifi- 
cant, even in numbers. But its distinction — the quality which 
makes it interesting to study, and unique in the record — lies 
not in its Mass but in its Class. Different in kind from the vast 
majority of human migrations, it differs no less in degree from 
the few that suggest its parallel. Genericall} r speaking, there 
is a standing and very essential difference between the immi- 
grations which populate the East and those which are settling 
the West. Of course there are no higher single peaks of char- 
acter or of culture in the West, and perhaps none so high, and 
certainly nowhere so many, But the Average Altitude is very 
much greater indeed — and for the almost absurdly evident 
reason that we have No social Swamps. The pauper and the 
criminal classes find it more comfortable to stay where they can 
lean on or prey upon populations not only larger but also more 
of the sort that themselves find it Easier to Stav Put. The 


parasitic classes — and these are not all poor — have lost the 
power of detaching- themselves from the great trunk which they 
are sapping, and which yields them up barely enough juice to 
maintain whatever "life" a parasite may be said to have. 
Furthermore, distance and railroad rates are not only a High 
Protective Tariff for Western manufactures, but a remarkably 
effective Restriction of Immigration — of the sort we are now 
nationally trying to restrict. And as a matter of fact, in 
almost any Western community whatever, the average of educa- 
tion, morals and property is higher than in almost any sizable 
Eastern community whatever. Of course there is some flying 
scud of criminals and paupers; we have too many specimens of 
both. But as compared with the East, the West has nothing to 
be called a Pauper Class, nor a Criminal Class ; and the Labor- 
ing Class is of a mighty different sort from that with which 
the East is now most familiar. 

In high average of education, social "respectability," and 
"comfortable circumstances," the Second Invasion of California 
has no precedent. Never before have so many people of that 
category — nor with so few of lower grade to pull down their 
average — in a like period migrated so far, paid so much for 
transportation, paid such whopping prices for land, built such 
a class of homes — in cost, taste and comforts* — nor so numer- 
ously changed their vocation, or at least added an avocation. 
Never elsewhere has so great a throng of mature, well-to-do 
non-farming migrators turned to the soil for pleasure and busi- 
ness combined — nor found so much of each. And never else- 
where have the unacquainted newcomers (for, unlike ordinary 
migrations, this was not collective and by localities, but indi- 
vidual and selective from Everywhere) so soon and so well 
learned to Harness the communal Energies. There is nothing in 
the East, nor in the Old World, like such communities as, for 
instance, Riverside and Redlands. Not alone the wealth and 
the intelligence they brought, but the Associative Effort they 
have learned only here, have made these as fascinating and pro- 

* Number of telephones per 100 population, 1902 : 
City Per 100 pop. 

L,os Angeles 12.3 or 1 tel. to every 8 persons 

San Francisco 9.2 or 1 tel. to every 12 persons 

Detroit 4.2 or 1 tel. to every 24 persons 

Cleveland 3.4 or 1 tel. to every 29 persons 

Boston 3.2 or 1 tel. to every 31 persons 

New York 2.4 or 1 tel. to every 41 persons 

Chicago 2.3 or 1 tel. to every 44 persons 

Philadelphia 1.8 or 1 tel. to every 55 persons 

Ivos Ang-eles has a greater number of telephones than Baltimore, a city 
five times its size. 


phetic to the student of human developments as they are visi- 
bly bewildering oases of beauty to the tourist amid the bare 
land they were once like. 

But here we come to another of those curious perplexities 
which so often crop up in sober consideration of this field. 
It is not the State of California, with its enormous area and 
literally incalculable natural wealth, that has so grown in popu- 
lation, but Patches of it. Enough California to blanket all New 
England, and tuck it in on both sides, has practically no more 
people today than it had in 1880. In the twenty years the gain 
of population for the whole State has been 620,359. Of that 
total, 348,663 (or far more than half) was confined to the seven 
counties which are what is commonly known as " Southern 
California"* and the metropolis of San Francisco. 

Geographically and by area the southern half of the State 
comprises 13 counties, so the accepted term "Southern Califor- 
nia" is arbitrary rather than descriptive. Counting by latitude, 
the total gain of population of the State for this term has been 
divided roughly as follows : 

13 southerly counties One-half. 

San Francisco city and county One-sixth. 

43 northerly counties One-third. 

This is remarkable enough ; but not all. If we omit the imme- 
diate Bay of San Francisco, close about which are grouped the 
only six counties in California! (except Fresno and San Diego in 
the south) which today contain one-quarter as many people in all 
as Los Angeles county has gained since 1880, the disproportion is 
still more startling. The gain of these six northern counties, 
stimulated by the irrelation to the greatest harbor in 5,000 miles, 
is, since 1830, 236,403 ; that of the seven counties of " Southern 
California," 239,840; making a total of 476,243. This leaves 
only 144,117 to be shared among the 44 other counties. 

No one who knows anything of the case will accuse me of 
"sectionalism." That isn't what is the matter. No one has 
more cheerfully proved that the northern half of the State excels 
in "natural advantages." It is beyond question more beautiful in 
verdure, incomparably better forested, better mineralized, much 
better watered, much better be-rained. And that is partly what 
IS the matter. The northern Californians haven't fully dis- 
covered, as yet, that they " Have To. ,J We of the more arid 
south found it out early, and it has been the making of us. The 
superstitions of the East count it a misfortune to be obliged to 

* Counties of Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Bar- 
bara and Ventura ; area 44,901 square miles, or about two-sevenths of the entire area of the 

t Alameda, Sacramento, San Francisco, San Joaquin, Santa Clara and Sonoma. 


irrigate ; in scientific fact, it is the greatest material godsend 
that ever overtook Agriculture or Humanit3 r . But we cannot 
enter upon this now. It shall have its turn. 

Let ns rather begin to focus our glasses on the most extra- 
ordinary example and center of this new immigration. 

When I walked into Los Angeles, a little over 18 years ago, it 
was a dull little place of 12,000 people, with perhaps six build- 
ings of three stories or better ; and with a few doleful miles of 
such bobtail horse-cars as still serve parts of New York city. I 
used to shoot quail and jack-rabbits where is now the center of 
such a residence district as no other American city has quite the 
likes of. For a year there was no change to mention ; but then 

A Country By-way. 

Something Happened, and the Miracle began, whose explanation 
must await another chapter. But we may at least indicate that 
there was a Miracle. 

Not one city in the United States which was no larger than 
Los Angeles in 1890 is larger now ; not one city which was no 
larger in 1880 is larger now. In other words, not a single city 
in the Union has overtaken Los Angeles in rank by population. 
But in these two decades, Los Angeles has outstripped 99 
American cities which were numerically larger in 1880 ; and in 
one decade has passed 19 cities that were numerically larger in 
1890. In 1880, Los Angeles was the 135th city in the Union in 
population. In 1890 it was the 56th. In 1900 it was the 36th. 
There are now 35 cities in the United States larger than Los 


Angeles ; but only 13 cities have gained as many people in the ten 
years from 1890 to 1900.* 

In this last decade, the city of Los Angeles has gained over 
5,000 more people than the whole States of Maine, Vermont, 
Nebraska and Nevada, put together, gained in the same period. 
In 1890 their aggregate population was 2,098,179 — or over 41 
times the population of Los Angeles ; their aggregate in- 
crease in the ten years is 46,890 ; that of Los Angeles, 52,084. 

The State of Kansas, with a present population only 15,000 
less than the total present population of California, increased, 
between 1890 and 1900, by 10,711 less people than did the city 
of Los Angeles. 


* These 13 cities are the only ones in the United States which equal Los 
Angeles, Cal., in actual numerical increase of population between 1890 and 


Rank in Pop. Increase 

City Union 1900 since 1890 

New York 1 3,437,202 944,611 

Chicago 2 1,698,575 598,725 

Philadelphia 3 1,293,697 246,733 

St. Louis 4 575,238 123,468 

Boston 5 560,892 112,415 

Baltimore 6 508,957 74,518 

Cleveland 7 381,768 120,415 

Buffalo 8 352,387 96,723 

Pittsburg 11 321,616 82,999 

Detroit 13 285,704 79,828 

Milwaukee 14 285,315 80,847 

Newark 16 246,070 64,240 

Indianapolis 21 169,164 63,728 

Los Angeles 36 102,479 52,084 

In the decade from 1890 to 1900 Los Angeles overtook and outstripped in 
total population the following 19 cities, all of which were larger in 1890 : 

City Pop. 1890 Pop. 1900 Increase 

Memphis, Tenn 64,495 102,320 37,825 

Scranton, Pa 75,215 102,026 26.811 ' 

Lowell, Mass 77,696 94,969 17,273 

Albany, N.Y 94,923 94.151 dec. 772 

Cambridge, Mass : 70,028 91,886 21,858 

Atlanta, Ga 65,533 89,872 24,339 

Grand Rapids, Mich 60,278 87,565 27,287 

Dayton, 61,220 85,333 24,113 

Richmond, Va 81,388 85,050 3.662 

Nashville, Term 76,168 80,865 4,697 

Hartford, Conn 53,230 79,850 26,620 

Reading, Pa 58,661 78,961 20,300 

Wilmington, Del 61,431 76,508 • 15,077 

Camden, N.J 58.313 75,935 17,622 

Trenton, N.J 57,458 73,307 15,849 

Lynn, Mass 55,727 68,513 12,786 

Troy, N. Y 60,956 60,651 dec. 305 

Charleston, S. C 54,955 55,807 852 

Lincoln, Neb 55,154 40,169 dec. 14,985 

Los Angeles 50,395 102,479 52,084 




IN a series of articles on "Porno Indian Baskets and Their 
Makers" which appeared in Out West of Dec, 190L, 
and Jan., Feb., and March, 1902, I omitted all mention 
of some very curious phases of basketry embodying- reli- 
gious ideas. My information on the subject did not 
satisfy me at that time. During the past winter, studies 
which had been previously carried on independently by 
Mr. S. A. Barrett, of Ukiah, and myself, were continued 
in collaboration, and made to include a study of the language, 
customs, myths and industries of the Pomos, the work center- 
ing on the Calpella Porno dialect, but touching four or five 
others. The work so carried on lacks much of completion, but 
includes a vocabulary of some thousands of words illustrated 
by sentences, many myths taken verbatim in Indian and with 
both free and literal translations, and a body of other informa- 
tion. While these studies must be put in systematic form, com- 
pared and verified carefully before ready to be submitted as a 
scientific publication, I am satisfied that the matter which I 
submit to the readers of Out West is strictly authentic. 

The Porno Indian was a pantheist. He not only believed that 
man's spirit is immortal, but that all animals had immortal 
spirits, that their prototypes, animal spirits embodying the 

The accompanying' illustrations show different basket weaves, the '' Dau " being- usually 
indicated by the letter D. 



idea of deity, preceded and paved 
the way for all life, and that every 
inanimate object had a spirit. The 
creator of all was a spirit called the 
coyote spirit (dutvi namo). He, 
who in their myths is described as 
the all-wise spirit and the know- 
ing- spirit, created or superintended 
the creation of the world, and at 
different times it would seem (for creation myths are abun- 
dant) planned and created races of men. With this preamble 
we will proceed to give the myth telling of the origin of the 


When the world-maker, the coyote spirit, had concluded his 
work of creating the world and man, he seated himself to rest, 
congratulating himself upon the many good works he had done. 
At this juncture the Pika Namo, or basket spirits, came before 
him and petitioned him to give them a village or home to be 
theirs always. The coyote spirit graciously acceded, and said 
to them, that there, on the surface of baskets, they might have 
a home which should be theirs always, and then addressing the 
basket spirits, said, "You basket spirits, young men and young 
women, old men and old women, children all, here is a good 



home for you all, to be yours always. If you die, you will lie in 
the ground four days here, then you will ascend to the upper 
sky to live forever, where there is no sickness, where it is always 
day, where all are happy. 

"The door (dau) of the basket will always keep swinging 
for you to escape through when you die." 

But the basket spirits were discontented and kept crying out 
as if in pain. 

" What are you doing down there?" the coyote spirit asked. 
" We said nothing," they said. " We talk good ; we speak dis- 
courses to the dead ones. Now we basket spirits are going to 
do good ; you have spoken wisely to us and we will remember it. 

We will stay in this home you have given us until we die and 
can go to the sky home." 

This myth shows clearly that they believe a particular race of 
spirits inhabited the baskets, and that they needed the dau, or 
door, to escape through when the basket was destroyed. As to 
what this door, which should always swing open, is, our illus- 
trations best explain. In baskets in which the design is circu- 
lar, there is an intentional break in the continuity of the design. 
Follow the circle and there is a design or alteration of designs 
repeated again and again, but at the dau an altogether different 
design is inserted. A dau may be very small or inconspicuous, 
so much so that the untrained eye fails to note it ; but it is 
usually very plain, and often the most beautiful part of the de- 



sign. Where the design is in a number of circles, there is not 
always a dau in each circle, and if the design is spiral, there is 
no need of a dau. If a basket has a number of designs, each 
forming a circle, there is not always a door in each circle, 
although there may be. It has been suggested by some 
students of basketry that the dau originated in the fact 
that sometimes a repetition of a design did not form a 
complete circle, but left a gap which the weaver filled in with 
some sort of figures ; and that the myth or superstition was a 
second thought. It is easily to be shown that this supposition 
is absolutely groundless. In the first place, christianized In- 
dians make baskets without daus, and still more pertinent is the 

fact that a woman may make a small dau, a very large dau, or 
none at all, in the successive circles of one basket, showing that 
she is complete master of the situation. 

Many Indian women are Catholics or Protestants, and some 
are quite intelligent ; but there are few who will omit the dau 
from a basket. The following myth explains this. To one 
who believed it, it must have carried a terror sufficient to pre- 
serve the custom. 


There was a woman in Gravelly Valley, near Kaltoi, who 
had failed to make a dau on a basket. To her appeared 
the spirit of the basket, saying, " You have always neglected to 
make a door for our spirits to escape by. You shall never go 
to the home above over there, I say to you. Good women never 


fail to make daus, I tell you. I will myself cause you to die ; 
this instant shall you die." 

Then the Kaltoi woman said, *' O, my basket spirit, spare 
me now, and after this I will never fail to make daus in my 
baskets. When I die I will meet you in the sky-home above, 
where we will always be good, where day always stays, where 
you and I will live together. O, basket spirit, my heart is good 
now. My brain will stay good. If I die now, you will come 
to me afterwards and we will live friends forever." 

Then the world-maker said, "It is good. I accept this 
woman's life as a sacrifice, and you may live in the sky home 

Then the woman, weeping, accepted her fate and died. 

These myths, as is the case with all Porno legendary lore, are 
recounted from time to time by the old medicine men to the 
younger generation, and serve as a most forceful reminder of 
the sacred obligations to the basket spirits assumed by those 
who choose to make baskets. And it may be added that these 
are obligations which are seldom broken. 

Ukiah, Cal. 




IS a little fairy dancer 

In her skirts of gold 
Flutters where the wind is piping 

Music faint and old. 

Vis-a-vis a butterfly 

Balances and bows, 
Gorgeous in his brown and yellow, 

Come to pay his vows. 

In a little brown arroyo 

Many miles away, 
Dance, my .lady Columbine ! 
New York. Dance, my rover (gay ! 



By REV. JOHN WELLS BRIER, a Survivor. 

[On the 4th of last month a rather wonderful little reunion was held at 
Lodi, Cal. There three old people, who had not seen one another for S3 
years, met to celebrate the anniversary of the day when they and their 
comrades, the pitiful, starving remnants of the Jayhawkers of the historic 
Death Valley party, staggered forth from the last defile of the grisly 
desert on which they had wandered lost for months, and were safe in 
"God's Country." It was Feb. 4, 1850, that the 16-year-old scout, sent 
ahead by the despairing and perishing immigrants, found at last a human 
habitation, and brought them to the noble hospitality of the San Francis- 
quito rancho, where they were tenderly nursed back to life. The ruins of 
the old adobe ranch-house can still be traced near where the Southern Cali- 
fornia village of Newhall, and the railroad station of Saugus, are today. 

The boy scout is now a gaunt and grizzled veteran — Capt. J. B. Colton, 
of Kansas City. He has been record-keeper of the Jayhawkers ever since; 
and has filled a stack of bulky scrapbooks ( some of which he showed me 
the other day ) with all sorts of matter concerning, and relating to, that 
famous journey. With the single exception of the " Donner party," it was 
the most fearful overland trip in our history, Much concerning it will 
presently find place in these pages. Thanks to Capt. Colton, too, the sur- 
vivors of that heroic episode have been kept in touch. This Lodi meeting 
was the 31st reunion he has held of the dwindling and far scattered sur- 
vivors on the anniversary of their great deliverance. Only seven of the 
36 original' Jayhawkers are still living ; but every year Capt. Colton gets 
to the iremote home of some one of them : and perhaps one or two others 
are able to come from afar ; and the rest send letters. 

The Lodi meeting was at the home of Mrs. 
J. H. Brier, that wonderful little woman who, 
with her husband, and three little boys, the 
oldest nine, the youngest only four years old, 
shared the indescribable horrors of that 
wandering ; thanks to her magnificent pluck, 
and to the manly devotion of the Jayhawkers 
— who admitted the Briers to their party 
when the big caravan broke up soon after 
leaving Salt Lake. The husband — who 
preached the first Protestant sermon in Los 
Angeles, soon after their miraculous, escape, 
and was for years a famous Methodist pio- 
neer missionary in California — died several 
years ago. Mrs. Brier, at almost 90, is still 
active and alert. The six-year old boy who 
trudged beside her that deadly way, and 
rested on her heroic breast, is now Rev. J. 
W. Brier, who wrote for me, a year or two 
ago, the following reminiscences of what 
was so sharply burned in upon his childish 
mind. — Ed.] 

Rkv. John Wklls Bhikk. 

/jgSrtlllS is a record of such events of an awful four months, 

J^ journey from the Mormon village at Salt Lake to the 

Spanish pueblo at Los Angeles as stamped themselves so 



deeply on the memory of a six-year-old lad that they stand out 
clear and vivid after more than half a century. 

September 30, 1849, our party of 105 wagons left the rendez- 
vous on the bank of a stream flowing into Utah Lake, and took 
up the trail across the wild flax fields, with the Wasatch mount- 
ains on our left, and a broad plain, whose broken bounds and 
barriers appeared only faintly and occasionally, stretching to 
our right. Captain Hunt, who had contracted to conduct us to 
Los Angeles within nine weeks for a thousand dollars, was our 
leader. While the teams were fresh and the credit of Capt. 

Mrs. Brier Columbus Brier Rev. J. H. Brier 

Kirke White Brier John Wells Brier 

The Brier Family. 

(From a dag-uerreotype in Marysville, Cal., in 1852.) 

Hunt was unimpaired, we were in excellent spirit. At length, 
however, the guide began to miscalculate; and, on one occasion, 
his uncertainty cost us a week of time and travel. The train 
had been loaded for expedition rather than comfort, and no pro- 
vision had been made for leisure. The leading thought had 
been to make it as easy as possible for the teams ; and when 
they began to wear a jaded look, when seven weeks of the nine 
had passed with no more than a third of the distance covered, 
the spirit of discontent grew towards open revolt. 



Mrs. J. II. Brier. 
(From a photo made 25 years ajro.) 

The Captain was taciturnity it- 
self. If he possessed the know- 
ledge of a guide, he seemed to be 
wanting in the tact of a leader. 
This may be the fancy of a child, 
for I confess that I was afraid of 
the silent man, and wondered if 
he ever loved anybody, and if he 
slept on horseback. 

We had journeyed down into the 
Great Basin, and every day the 
scenery had become more and more 
unattractive. A party came into 
our camp near the Iron Buttes, who 
were on a forced march to Califor- 
nia, guided by a chart furnished 
by the Utah Chief, Walker. This 
route lay due west and entered the 
valley of Owen's Lake. It was a 
most inviting trail, dotted at conven- 
ient intervals with springs ; and 
as we were assured that a fort- 
night would take us to the en- 
chanted shores of Owen's Lake our affections were immedi- 
ately alienated from Captain Hunt and the Spanish Trail. 

There were, perhaps, five hundred people within the circle of 
our wagons. In mass meeting, the new departure was discussed, 
and my father was one of its most enthusiastic advocates. The 
guide very consistently opposed it. "Gentlemen!" he ex- 
claimed with characteristic brevity, "All I have to say is, that 
if you take that route you will all be landed in Hell !" 

As the result of the conference, Captain Hunt was left with a 
following of five wagons, while we pushed on without a guide, 
without a chart, without a particle of authentic information 
and without the faintest conception of the true character of the 
wilderness we were about to penetrate. As early as the second 
day our trail began to swerve too far to the south. We should 
have reached the Mountain Meadows, but, when night came, 
we halted on the brink of an impassable canon, traversed by a 
tributary of the Vegas. The only man who could descend to 
the stream was a Canadian voyageur, and those who drank of 
its water were compelled to pay at the rate of one dollar per 

Clearly we must find a way of escape or turn back. Mr. 
Rhinierson, a man of cautious judgment, resolved to return to 



Photo by C. F. L., Jan. 29, 1903. 
Captain John B. Colton. (See paije 326.) 

the guidance of Captain Hunt, and I believe that more than 
half of the company followed his example. Meantime ex- 
plorers had gone out, and my father was able to report that 
from the top of a pine on a hill he had seen open country toward 
the west, with a mountain intervening around whose side, 
bristling with dwarf cedars, a road must be cut for the train. 
Men were at once sent forward, and that night we camped 
among quaking bogs at the edge of a dark drain of the Moun- 
tain Meadows. 

The day following we advanced, by a long and easy grade, to 
a summit whereon was an old Indian cornfield. The air was 
sharp, and the sky was overcast. The men circled about the 
greasewood fires and sang the old songs, some of which were 



Photo by C. F. L. about 1885. 
Rev. J. H. Brier. 

parodied in a manner to turn re- 
grets into laughter. I well re- 
member the chorus of "Carry me 
back," and that of "Oh, Susanna," 
accompanied by the strains of Nat 
Ward's fiddle. 

By a sweep to the north and west 
we entered a north-and-south val- 
ley, bounded on the west by Tim- 
panute mountain. We should have 
doubled this mountain on the north, 
but our magnet drew us southward. 
Our course lay for miles among 
conical stacks, containing the seed 
of a species of bunch grass, gathered 
for food by the natives. The scene 
was exceedingly picturesque ; and 
the grain would have proved most 
serviceable to us in the days to 
come. We respected the rights of the red man, but he was 
not equally considerate. Two riding animals were missed 
on the morning of our departure, and their unhappy owners 
had the misfortune of seeing them pursued by naked savages 
along the base of the distant mountain. Before disappearing 
from view the exultant natives made their adieus by executing 
a grand salaam in reverse order. 

We journeyed fifty miles with the Timpanute, and descended 
into the first real desert I had ever seen, and saw here, for the 
first time, the mirage. We had been without water for twenty- 
four hours, when suddenly there broke into view to the. south a 
splendid sheet of water, which all of us believed was Owen's Lake. 
As we hurried towards it the vision faded, and near midnight we 
halted on the rim of a basin of mud, with a shallow pool of brine. 
From this point I remember little of our westward course across 
the great desert until we rested at the mouth of a deep-walled 
fissure, and two Indians were brought into camp, captured at 
the extremity of the cleft. Questioned by signs as to the direc- 
tion of the great water, they pointed to the southwest, and one 
of them led two of our young men to a beautiful mountain 
spring. During the night both escaped. Before this our party 
had been growing smaller. Eleven young men had "packed 
their backs " soon after we left Captain Hunt. At the Amar- 
gosa they separated, Savage and Pinney steering for the White 
Mountains, and the nine crossing Funeral Mountain and en- 
tering Death Valley. Savage and Pinney were found by 
Indians, who gave them food, and conducted them as captives 




"' ^-.?- 






*' i 



#' ., jf 


0J "V 

Pw *3il 


to Owen's Lake. Pinney delighted the Indians by his dancing, 
his great size and the redness of his hair. They called him the 
" Big Chief," and in the spring led him and his friend to the 
inland plains. The skeletons of those who had entered Death 
Valley were discovered some years after. I have an impression 
that the parties diverged to the south before we reached the 
Amargosa ; and the Jayhawkers entered Death Val ley not far 
from the bend of the Amargosa. We overtook them on the 
bank of a saliferous stream, where they too were compelled to 
abandon their wagons. Finally a small party left us at Furnace 
Creek, and another in Panamint Valley. 

From the escape of the captives to the abandonment of our 
wagons my memory is utterly at fault. The latter event is 
vividly recalled — the drifting sand, the cold blast from the 
north, the wind-beaten hill, the white tent, my lesson in the 
Testament, the burning of wagons as fuel, the forsaking of 
nearly every treasured thing, the packing of oxen, the melan- 
choly departure. (Twelve years afterward Gov. Blaisdell found 
the things we had abandoned, in a remarkable state of preserv- 
ation.) The walking, now made necessary, was hard upon the 
women and children, but the short rations were more trying 
for all. 

After many days of bitter travel, we reached the Amargosa 
and camped in its dry channel, counting ourselves fortunate to 
find a muddy pool of water. The end of the next day found us, 
with our canteens empty, at the summit of a pass where there 
was no water, no grass, no fuel — nothing but a low, tubular 
plant, mottled with pale red and purple, that rattled desolately 
in the north wind. Early the next morning, from the top of a 
neighboring crag, my father looked across the furrowed hills 
into a deep valley reaching westward to a lofty mountain range, 
and in it, seeming scarcely two leagues away, a beautiful oasis 
of grass and springing water. All that day we hurried toward 
it, hardly able to keep pace with the eager animals down the 
well-beaten Indian trail, and it was midnight (of Dec. 24, 1849) 
before we reached the oasis. For the last six miles my father 
carried my younger brother. 

The place was evidently a resort, and deep trails had the ap- 
pearance of having been cut through the barriers of soft, though 
solid, rock. A lavatory in so hot a region was a luxury, espe- 
cially as the spring flow was copious and of every degree of 
temperature. It was carried off in the channel of Furnace 
Creek and discharged into a saline swamp of the valley below. 
The best we could do for Christmas was to slaughter an ox free 
for all. The men wanted something to remind them of other 


days, and my father gave them a lecture on education. It was 
grave, humorous and reminiscent. 

During the day, reconnoitering parties explored the inlet to the 
unknown valley beyond. They found the Jayhawk wagon 
tracks, and we decided to follow them northward. Nearly oppo- 
site our encampment, a trail mounted to an elevation of the 
Panamint range, where a valley, rich in grass, offered an easy 
descent to Wild Rose and Darwin canons, and opened up a near 
way to Watkin's Pass. But of this we were ignorant. 

On this day two of the men came upon an old Indian in a de- 
pression, with the sand packed about him, but his head left ex- 
posed. One of them mistook him for a wolf, and was about to 
shoot him, when the other exclaimed — "My God! it is a 
man ! " He was released from confinement, and we watched 
him catch beetles for food, and visit the near branch for drink, 
though his eyes may have been dead for a quarter of a century. 

We passed into Death Valley, along the margin of a coruscat- 
ing basin of salt and soda. That day we overtook the Jay- 
hawkers, and, as our own company had been reduced to a small 
fraction, by the departure of Captain Town and party, we united 
our fortunes with theirs. They endeavored to persuade us to 
remain at the Springs, promising to return from California to 
our rescue. My mother, who had never been a burden to any 
one, heroically refused, and the Jayhawkers gallantly pledged 
her their undivided loyalty. 

Steering north of west we drove across the shifting dunes for 
twenty miles to the pass between the Panamints and Tele- 
scope Peak, from the summit of which we were in plain view of 
Mt. Whitney and the Minarets. We were only two days' journey 
from Owen's Lake ; but we turned to the south, and prolonged 
our journey by hundreds of miles. All this I can distinctly and 
accurately recall. Twenty miles across the naked dunes, the 
wind driving the sand like shot into the face and eyes; a raging 
thirst, for we had found no potable water in the Valley of 
Death ; the bench lands, thickly strewn with basalt boulders ; 
the snow-line, to which my father mounted, returning with all 
the snow he could carry, which we melted for man and beast ; 
the field of snow that we crossed, the cattle eating it to assuage 
their thirst ; the majestic view of Mt. Whitney and the 
Minarets ; the midnight march down the long and irregular 
ravine; the arrival at an Indian village among the mesquite 
groves, in which only one of the villagers remained, an aged 
squaw, who scolded us in a language we did not understand. 

We entered the rectangular thatched huts, and found a number 
of hair ropes and bridles, but little furniture. Midway the 
village was a vast heap of offal, and the bones of horses were 
scattered about freely, showing that the natives were accus- 


tomed to visit the great ranges of California for their regular 
supply of meat. Our attention was drawn to an escarped 
pool — a lure for aquatic birds, always willing in this arid 
region, to alight upon any considerable body of water. As it 
might be dangerous to pass the night in the deserted village, 
we moved down to another spring and made our camp. 

Here the few left of our original party baked up the flour that 
was left to them, and, with many regrets, left us. We had beef 
— such as it was — in plenty, but no bread. The Jay hawkers 
were equally destitute, but one of their number was rich in the 
possession of a tallow candle, and this he ate in solitude — hav- 
ing fallen to the rear for the purpose — while we were crossing 
the Mojave desert. 

By this time the physical condition of the party had become 
about as bad as it could be. There was not a vigorous man 
among us, and two or three had reached a stage beyond which 
there was nothing but death. My mother came of a Vermont 
stock, fit alike for adversity and prosperity. My father had 
always been active, enterprising and irrepressible. He had 
spent his manhood in self-sacrificing labors, and had never 
known what it meant to be discouraged. Now, however, we 
could see that he was failing, while, under an acute disorder, it 
was hard for him to perform the ordinary duties of the camp. 
Still he continued to explore, as he had always done, until his 
infirmity forced him to the rear. 

In company with others, he crossed Panamint Desert to find a 
passage through the range. There were two ways, the more 
southerly seeming, in the distance, to be the more inviting. A 
small party of us selected this way, and the body of the Jay- 
hawkers preferred the other. Toward evening of the second 
day we approached a narrow fissure, with perpendicular walls a 
thousand feet high. Its floor was of level sand, and rose 
steeply at the upper end. As we approached the end of the 
dreary chasm the thirsty cattle sniffed the air and broke into a 
trot. But the water proved to be only a slow trickle, which, in 
a hour, yielded enough for a ration of coffee before sleeping. 
In the morning we found that Mr. Pish was unable to proceed. 
A number of the oxen had escaped during the night, and while 
two of the young men returned for them, a third remained 
to take care of the feeble old man. The rest of the party could 
not delay, but pushed on to the summit of the pass, from which 
we descended by the track of a water-spout — the most devious, 
precipitous and dangerous trail imaginable. At the end of a 
most discouraging afternoon we suddenly emerged upon a scene 
as wonderful as it was unexpected — a great body of water 
shining only a few miles across the desert. Again it was the 
mirage, but we did not discover this for many hours. Long 
past midnight we came up to it, and found only a basin of slime, 
strongly impregnated with borax, on the banks of which were 
camped the Jay hawkers from whom we had parted days before. 
They had brought a little water with them, however, and gener- 
ously shared with us. Here word was brought to us, by the 
man we had left behind, of the death of Mr. Pish, and of a 
younger man, Mr. Isham, who had sunk exhausted by the way. 
[to be concluded.] 



Y an oversight, only one of Whittier's tributes to the 
Pathfinder was included in the presentation of Fre- 
montiana, last month. It is proper to print here the 
more familiar "Rise up, Fremont and go before" of that 
American poet who did more for Freedom than all other Amer- 
ican poets put together. 


All night above their rocky bed 

They saw the stars inarch slow ; 
The wild Sierra overhead, 

The desert's death below. 

The Indian from his lodge of bark, 

The gray bear from his den, 
Beyond their camp-fire's wall of dark, 

Glared on the mountain men. 

Still upward turned, with anxious strain, 

Their leader's sleepless eye, 
Where splinters of the mountain chain 

Stood black against the sky. 

The night waned slow : at last, a glow, 

A gleam of sudden fire, 
Shot up behind the walls of snow, 

And tipped each icy spire. 

" Up, men ! " he cried, " yon rocky cone, 
Today, please God, we pass, 
And look from Winter's frozen throne 
On Summer's flowers and grass ! " 

They set their faces to the blast, 

They trod the eternal snow, 
And faint, worn, bleeding, hailed at last 

The promised land below. 

Behind, they saw the snow-cloud tossed 

By many an icy horn ; 
Before, warm valleys, wood -em bossed, 

And green with vines and corn. 

They left the Winter at their backs 

To flap his baffled wing, 
And downward, with the cataracts, 

Leaped to the lap of Spring. 

Strong leader of that mountain band, 

Another task remains, 
To break from Slavery's desert land 

A path to Freedom's plains. 

The winds are wild, the way is drear, 

Yet, flashing through the night, 
Lo ! icy ridge and rocky spear 

Blaze out in morning light ! 

Rise up, Fremont! and go before ; 

The Hour must have its Man ; 
Put on the hunting-shirt once more, 
And lead in Freedom's van ! 
8th mo., 1856. 




>AIWAI lies in a hill-dimple at the foot of Tonopah, and 
eastward, straight away as the crow flies, rises the high 
ridge which divides that country from the valley of 
Bitter Springs. Over that ridge, called Waban, go all the In- 
dian inhabitants of Haiwai at the time of the first hoar frost, 
to the pinon gathering. The broad, low-heading trees grow 
thickly, midway of the east slope of Waban, and, in the dry 
flats where no trees are, grow c/iza, wild cabbage, and foodful 
roots. High on Waban, among the tamarack pines, are deer for 
the killing, and quail troop at all seasons on the downward 

The pinon season makes a little exodus at Haiwai. There is 
work to be done at good wages, white men's work on the farms 
and about the mines ; but when the quail begin to flock and the 
frosts to nip, a call comes out of the hills that no Paiute can 

The strong men go to the hunting of deer, the strong women 
to beat down the round, brown cones from the unwilling trees, 
old men to tend the fires for roasting, and old women to keep 
the camp. 

As for the children, they are incredibly busy, getting them- 
selves nicely varnished over with crystal-clear resin, and grow- 
ing so fat on the oily kernels that it is a wonder how they keep 
on seeing out of their small, beady eyes. With the tribe goes 
their flock, goats and sheep two score, up by the way of Waban 
Pass to feed in the high meadows ; and, because he was ac- 
counted fit for nothing else, Limpy was set to watch them. Any 
Paiute of Haiwai would have told you that the child should have 
been glad that he was able to do so much for his keep, but to 
Limpy it was the very badge and trumpeter of his affliction. It 
was a post of no labor and much lying in the sun ; the meadows 
were small, well fenced by barrens over which the sheep had no 
desire to stray, and, for help, a dog that had the flock upon his 

At the foot of Waban begins the Soshone country, and time 
was when the Paiutes harvested pinons at peril. But in these 
pacific days there is little traffic of any sort between Paiutes 
and Soshone, except that they steal from each other with the 
greatest good-will if occasion offers. And though Limpy 
dreamed dreams of holding his flock in the face of their warlike 
hordes, he knew he was quite safe against any such chance. 
Mornings and evenings Chopo helped him from meadow to camp, 
that was seldom too far for a long cry to reach. When the 


small children could be spared, he coaxed them with him for 
company, and the wild things of Waban showed him many a 
wonder. But because he could not, Limpy longed to be break- 
ing his back with the heavy baskets, and wearying his legs 
with trotting to and fro with the pitchy, shiny cones. Limpy, 
however, had learned the logic of necessity, and tended sheep ; 
and since there was no one who belonged to him in particular, 
there was no one to find out how sore a heart he had. In truth, 
Limpy would have been of little use at the pifion gathering, for 
one-half of his body was paralyzed, stiffened and shriveled into 
all but uselessness. He could stoop with difficulty, and lift and 
carry not at all. Moreover, the boy was a public charge 
in the Campoodie, where nobody loved him and nobody 
was unkind. Because they pitied him, the Paiutes took no 
notice of his infirmity, and because he had the heart of a man, 
Limpy made no moan, but, being a Paiute, felt the primitive 
shame of physical deformity, and the desire to do great things 
and win a man's name. The name he was known by he had 
accepted from the Whites for whom he did errands, they need- 
ing something to call him by. Those of his own people who 
understood it thought it a good enough name, being true ; the 
more so since there is no need of one having a particular name 
who has done nothing in particular worth naming. Small 
chance of that, thought the Paiutes of Haiwai, since there was 
to be no more fighting with Whites or each other, though no 
lack of causes to fight for. So Limpy minded sheep, hopping 
about with incredible spryness on his peg leg, and made merry 
at the pifion gathering. 

The young men had gone to the high passes hunting the deer, 
and only old men and women kept the camp at Hidden Waters, 
on the sunrise slope of Waban. Limpy was having a particu- 
larly good time, having coaxed the younger children to the 
herding-meadow by a tale of a woodchuck that came out of 
its hole and spoke to him. The woodchuck had not spoken that 
day, but it might have, and there was the fun of expecting it ; 
so they brought home the flock merrily through the slanting 
light, garlanded with wild flowers, and laughing an echo to the 
laughter of the women coming it with the baskets. 

The flock was shut in the wattled corral at the end of the 
swale, and by moonrise the camp at Hidden Waters was sleeping 
the sleep of the well-fed. Meanwhile Limpy's hour approached. 

The first that was known of it was when Chopo loosed the 
flock and cried out that two were missing — two he-goats of the 
flock — and never a dog had barked, nor an owl hooted louder 
than its wont. 

Limpy knew, and the boys that were with him knew, that 


they had all come in from the feeding-ground. Chopo laid his 
eyes to the ground, squinting along the trampled grass ; mean- 
time the old men wagged their heads with surmisings. Chopo 
neither wagged nor spoke. The hair of his head stood up ; his 
nostrils were drawn and lifted at the outer corners ; his eyes 
narrowed to fine points of fire. He was following a trail. He 
slid out of the golden patch by the springs into the twilight 
pines. The old men went about to gather sticks ; they would 
have a council fire ; perhaps they would make medicine. They 
shook with excitement, their old eyes glittered beadily ; but 
they did not talk. Limpy hopped about on his peg leg, help- 
ing. He know better than to question his elders, but as guard- 
ian of the flock he felt that somewhat devolved upon him. The 
women were forbidden from the harvesting. 

" It would be well," suggested Limpy to old Tuyo, the arrow- 
maker, " if the young men came home from the hunting." 

The arrow-maker was not sure. Young men were needful if 
there was fighting, but this — Ah ! Ah ! and he fell to mum- 
bling and shaking his head. What, oh, what is it ? Limpy 
questioned with his eyes. The arrow-maker leaned over to him. 
They were very good friends ; perhaps there was also a matter 
of secret sympathy between them, for the arrow-maker was not 
valued of his tribe as he had been. 

" Pahawitz na'an" he said with his lips to the boy's ear. 
Limpy's own eyes glittered. He left gathering sticks, and 
made a little council for himself, back of a brown boulder by 
the spring, with the other boys ready to hear a wonder. 
Pahawitz na^an 1 He that was reputed to be the father of 
Paiutes, believed by some to be an evil spirit, going about in 
the form of a beast with the thoughts of a man. Pahawitz 
nd'an / But none of them dared say it above a whisper, lest 
the man-bear should hear. 

They had heard tales of him by the winter fire, but it had 
been long and long since the bear that walked like a man had 
been seen of any Paiute. Hunters who came not back from 
their hunting were supposed to have met with him. One, 
Chico, reported having seen the tracks of him five winters ago, 
when the snow was deep on Tonopah, and had come away in a 
great fright ; but this tale was not much believed. *' He would 
have run away from the tracks of a real bear just the same," 
explained the arrow-maker. But now the arrow-maker had seen 
also. All the camp at Hidden Waters kept close and went 
softly ; the fear of Pahawitz na'an was on them all. It wore 
off as it drew near noon ; it was so bright and clear a day, the 
late flowers made a pleasant glow in the sun, the sheep bleated 
cheerfully in the corral, and the pleasant smell of roasting cones 


hung in the air. Limpy took a blackened stick and began to 
draw upon the rocks. He drew the Mahalas gathering cones, 
the young men hunting the deer, white men as he remembered 

"Now," he said, "I will draw Pahawitz naan." Sallie's 
Tomee, who stood as high as Limpy's shoulder and was as 
broad as long, broke into a howl of terror. 

"Ho," cried Limpy, "who's afraid of Pahawitz nd'an?" 
Tomee stamped with rage and fright. 

" Don't you say that name some more," he cried. 

"Coyote," jeered Limpy ; " look, there is Chopo ! The bear 
has not eaten him." 

In fact Chopo and the man-bear had not come together. The 
Indian had followed the trail until he lost it in a stony place. 
But Pahawitz nd'an it was. He had come into the camp and 
gone out of it on all fours, but through the pines he stood up 
and walked like a man, driving the goats. Did ever a bear the 
like ? Moreover the dogs had not barked. 

That night the arrow-maker made Medicine. He burned 
strange smelling things in the fire, muttering, the while, things 
that one must not venture to hear. It was not very strong 
Medicine, but it sufficed. Pahawitz nd'an came no more to the 
sheepfolds for that time. 

The third day the young men returned, and, though they 
heard the news with headshakings and snorts of disbelief, the 
camp was moved from Hidden Waters to Passowai, and the 
harvesting went on. 

And now it was for Limpy to say if he would have help at 
the herding or no, and that he would not ; for since it was 
thought worthy the courage of a man, there was no Paiute so 
jealous of his work as the little, lame lad. He had moments of 
heart-sinking when he heard things stirring in the wood, and 
looked ever sidewise as he went among the gloaming pines. 
But the cool October days moved on, and the fear faded. Limpy 
forged with the flocks into farther and farther meadows. And 
in time Pahawitz no* an came back for more sheep. 

It was near mid-afternoon. Limpy lay on the sunward side of a 
boulder, mocking the tell-tale jays in the Tamarack pines. 

Suddenly the jays left quarreling to clear out of the timber on 
the upper side of the meadow, crying, "Thief, a thief! Who 
comes ? A thief, a thief ! " The chipmunks heard and stopped 
in mid career, motionless as the rocks they perched upon. The 
woodchucks heard and got back to their doors ; the dogs moved 
uneasily to put themselves between the flock and whatever came 
out of the wood. 

Limpy saw the hair of their backs rise, and there fell a silence 


in the glen — such a silence as moves before an enemy or a 
stranger in the wood — and out of the silence, moving stilly, too 
cautiously by far for a bear that was not half a man, came 
Pahawitz na'an. 

And yet it was no man that came out of the wood, but a bear, 
brown and shaggy as bears should be, walking on four feet 
as other bears. 

Limpy slid from his rock to the shadow of it ; the dogs bristled 
more and more, but they did not bark, and Pahawitz na'an 
spoke to them. Yes ! And in the Paiute tongue, since they un- 
derstood no other. Limpy did not hear, but he saw them 
slink, bristling still, but abashed. Pahawitz na'an nosed among 
the indifferent sheep, parting out the best of them. Never a 
bear did as this one did. He drove the yearlings out of the 
meadow, and, as he went, he rose up like a man, and went walk- 
ing and driving the sheep among the tamarack pines. And 
after him, from bole to bole of the shadowing trees, from bush 
to boulder, followed a peg-legged little Indian, sometime keeper 
of the flock. For as Limpy lay in the shadow of the rock, his 
strength came back to him, and with it a little of his man's 
spirit and sturdy sense. The sheep were not eaten and the dogs 
had not barked ; Pahawitz na'an had spoken and they had 
obeyed him. Clearly the man-bear wanted sheep, and at the 
thought Limpy's wrath arose. The sheep were his, his in trust 
as shepherd, his by right of his interest in the property of the 
campoodie. A scant flock meant scant living at Haiwai ! 

It was too far to go to the camp for help ; the flock was safe 
with the dogs against any other chance than just the one that 
had befallen them. Limpy would have his sheep again, or at 
the least know where they went. Besides, a curiosity greater 
than the fear drew him to the edge of the wood ; but though he 
had courage for following, he did not follow fast. 

If Pahawitz na'an were a man, he could be none other than 
an Indian by the wit he showed in covering his track, doubling 
and turning so that it was a weary little Paiute that came to the 
end of it where it dropped over the rim of an exceedingly steep, 
deep gully, in which boulders, huge as houses, lay tumbled 
thick together amid masses and windy cavea of shade. The 
sound of the sheep came up from them, and Limpy, peering 
over the edge, saw Pahawitz na'an going about man-wise to 
drive his last steal into a pen and make it fast with stones. 
Then from a recess of the rocks he drew a knife long and 
shining, and Limpy's awed gaze clung to it in the gathering 
gloom. Then on a sudden there was a scurry of bare feet on 
the pine needles, the pad, pad of a little peg-leg, and away into 
the woods fled Limpy, for with a quick motion of the knife at 


his own throat, Pahaivitz na'an had thrown off his bear's skin 
and stood forth a man. 

About the hour of sunset, Chopo set out to help the tardy 
Limpy home with the sheep, and met them half way of the 
trail, straggling and lagging, the dogs doing their work half- 
heartedly, for the puzzle of the man-bear worked mischief in 
their heads. Chopo counted the flock — two missing — and 
Limpy ! Here was strange work. He got the remnant 
to the camp and spread the news ; but with the best speed 
they could make, it was too late when the young men came 
to the herding meadow to do more than piece out the circum- 
stance. Peer as they might into the darkling wood, they 
could read only that Limpy and the sheep went away walking 
with Pahawitz na'an, he going on two feet and making a track 
very like a bear's, but such as no bear erer made. By that 
time the dark fell on the camp, and the fear that walketh in 

There was a council fire at Passowai that night, the children 
huddling by their mothers, and all ears alert for sounds from 
the wood. The old men spoke oftenest and at greatest length ; 
it was their time come again. Nevertheless there were young 
men to whom the whole thing seemed of human contriving. In 
the end, according to the wisdom of the fathers, they made Big 

They cleared a space around the fire, and the arrow-maker 
leaped in the dim-lit circle, nearly naked, and bedaubed with a 
paste of white flour, for he had left his Medicine-bags at 
Haiwai. There was no light but the fire. The old men made 
them rattles of willow wands, split and peeled, and the click of 
these and the droning voices reached far across the night. 
Around the squatting circle ran little movements of fervor, of 
appreciation, shoves and nudges, laughter of sheer delight. 
Vague excitement flickered and flared up in the faces of the old, 
old men, mumbling like dogs who hunt in dreams. Clear across 
the open space the firelight glittered on the throats of the young 
men where the pulse moved, fluttering, sliding, snake-like, as 
in the throat of wild animals about to spring. One — two hours 
the rhythmic, hypnotic dance went on, rose in a scale, and the 
heart pounded heavily against the glistening ribs — and far 
out in the pines arose a small sobbing cry. 

One caught it in the outer circle of listeners and froze into an 
attitude of listening. The sense of approaching presence ran 
like a thing palpable around the circle. A cry, and then 
another, struck through the tense preoccupation of the dancers, 
and stilled the clack of the rattles. It came from the far side 
of the camp toward the wood, and insensibly the circle melted 


and massed again, putting- the fire between it and whatever 
might come out of the dark. 

The cry grew and was answered by the tethered flock and the 
dogs; afterward came the pad, pad of a peg-leg — Limpy ! 

He came into the circle, wan and scared, breaking into tears 
and sobbing. His was a tale marvelous beyond belief, such as 
would serve for big talk for time to come. "And at the last," 
said Limpy, "he cut himself with the knife and came out a 

'Ah ! Ehu ! Heard you ever the like ? " 
So," said High Jack, " what kind of a man ? " 
Indian man." 
Paiute ? " 

No, not Paiute. Maybe Soshone." 
'Ah ! a — a — ah ! " 
Dressed ? " said High Jack. Like a flash it came to Limpy 
that the man who came out of the bear's skin in the glen wore 
blue overalls such as the men bought in the shops. A little 
breath of laughter ran about the camp ; a spirit in overalls ! 

"And the place," said High Jack, " could you find it again ? 
Then eat and sleep. Presently we may have need of you." He 
took Limpy bodily by the shoulders and turned him out of the 
council. And this time it was the young men who talked. 

Two hours later the moon rose. Limpy had not turned his 
side in bed for the heaviness of slumber when the men called 
him. It was clear ; it was cold and gloriously light ; the wood 
was deeply still. One of the men gave him an old coat with long 
ragged tails that hung down and warmed his legs. High Jack 
came behind and thrust his shoulders between the boy's knees. 
Six figures, singly and still, threaded the aisles of the pines, 
and on the shoulders of the foremost rode the little lame shep- 
herd, pointing the way. 

They went forward at a great pace, without words. They 
were young men brought up on the borders of White life, think- 
ing thoughts other than their fathers had, but as they went in 
the moonlight they grew more and more like what their fathers 
were. Their faces fell into set, fierce lines. They crouched 
and moved stealthily. Nearing the gully of Big Rocks, they 
drew off their boots and went lightly as the night wind. At 
the head of the gully where the trail went down, they left 
Limpy, very glad at first not to go near the man-bear, very 
frightened to be alone as soon as they had dropped down among 
the shadows. 

Pahawitz na'an was asleep in his bear's skin for warmth, 
thinking no harm. He neither saw nor heard the six Paiutes 
feeling toward him, but the sheep heard and waked him with 


their blether. He wormed through the hollows of the rocks 
like a wild thing, but the click of the bear's claws betrayed him. 
It was Indian set to catch Indian — wild thing against his kind. 
He made the trail first, knowing the tricks of the place, and 
up to the rim of the wall, not fairly on it, for there the moon- 
light shone, but a little to one side where the bluff was dark 
and more sheer. There, as he raised himself, dreadful to be- 
hold with his own head close by the bear's head hanging over 
his shoulder, suddenly there shot up from the scrub, where 
Limpy huddled in his loose long coat with flapping tails, with a 
terrible, amazed howl, an impish figure with wind-spread 
wings, dancing black and large against the moon. The man- 
bear slipped. The superstitions he had played upon undid him. 
He groped for a hold, but the bear's skin prevented him. He 
fell out from the cliff and backward, making no sound, but 
clutching wildly at the throat of his lying dress as his body 
plunged into the shadow of the gulf. 

When the Paiutes came and looked upon his face they said, each 
man of them in his own way, " Soshone," as one might say dog, 
coyote, or what not ; and they buried him where he lay. 

It was dawn-end, and a light breaking over Soshone Land 
when the Paiutes came back to Passowai, driving their sheep, 
and one, who had brought away the bear skin, capering in it to 
the great delight of the camp. High on the shoulders of the 
young men rode Limpy, bepraised and called out of his name. 
Hours after, deep in the slumber that paid out the night watch, 
the boy smiled the smile of a satisfied heart. For the name 
they had called him by, the name he had made for himself at 
the gully of Big Rocks, was Pahawilz na'an. 

Independence, Cat. 



H winter, it is grand to see thee there, 

Camped like a threat'ning Fabian, on the height 
Of every purple mountain, when the night, 

Thine ancient ally, forced to seek his lair, 

Leaves thee full-panoplied and fit to dare 
The rosy ramparts, far below, of light 
And warmth and perfume, where the summer 

In sunny trenches guards possessions fair. 

But she smiles on and bids the lilies sprout, 
And turns to where the golden orange glows, 

Sets starry bloom, and orders brown bees out. 
That he will threaten only, well she knows ; 

For here's the tyrant Timrod writes about — 

If he comes down, she'll " brain him with a rose." 

Col i.. u. Cal. 


[From the Memoirs of the late Joseph Huskisson, Esq., of California — 
Fourth Extract.] 


((ffF a man is willing to lead a decent life again," said Eng- 
J^ lish Jim, as we were hitting the trail back from the Praser 
River, " I fancy there'll be a few who will let him live, 
even if they aren't eager to share grub-stakes with him. At 
any rate, I'm willing to meet up with anybody on that propos- 

I nodded assent. 

"Then we'll go back to 'Frisco again," he said — and so we 
did, by as straight a road as horses could take us. 

I puzzled all the way over what two men, who had spent the 
best part of ten years in thieving, could do to earn an honest 
living. But Jim, as usual, had already made up his mind what 
to do next. In some way he had acquired a good technical knowl- 
edge of tobacco and its uses, and while we sauntered down 
Market street the very night of our arrival in the city, he spied 
a sign advertising a well-placed store for rent. Within two 
days it was our store, with a small stock of pipes, cigars, to- 
baccos and such other things as go with them. We even soon 
began to lay plans for an extensive wholesale trade. 

Our success — the success of "Kay & Huskisson, tobacco- 
nists " — surpassed my most sanguine hopes. With business 
prosperity came naturally something of social activity, made 
safe, as we soon discovered, by certain carefully devised hirsute 
transformations. As fate would have it, indeed, one of the 
warmest friends we made was Harry Larkin, whom, as I saw 
him squinting along the wrapper of a cigar, I recognized as the 
man who had squinted along the barrel of a pistol at my head 
years before in the San Joaquin Valley. He had been a Wells- 
Fargo agent down there. Jitn had sent a bullet into his right 
arm, and the young agent actually shifted his gun to his left 
hand and pumped lead with that, as if left arms were made for 
shooting. That was the time my pinto horse lost his hot- 
spurred life. But, if Larkin ever recognized us in our trans- 
formed state, he never gave any evidence of it. 

With such an acquaintance it was easy for us to become 
members of the old Bowdoin Engine Company, whose heavy 
Hunaman engine, brought from Boston by the ship Andrew 
Jackson in 1852, still served as the center of interest whenever 
the volunteer firemen were out with it for practice or in danger- 
ous earnest. 

Jim Kay and I were always at the front of the fire-fighters. 
Indeed, we nearly lost our lives when the roof of the blazing 


Caliente saloon caved in. It was on that occasion that the com- 
pany lost one of its best pieces of hose. 

Unwilling- to procure any new hose that was not of the best, 
the compan} r decided to send back East for a new section, and 
Kay was selected to place the order. I went with him to the 
wharf the next Steamer Day, as he wanted to send his order by 
a friend on board, and I wanted to see the sights of Steamer 

We were coming off the steamer when I saw Jim's eyes gleam 
and felt him grip hard on the rail in front of me. Down on 
the wharf below us, one of those dirty steamship-runners was 
plucking the sleeve of a woman and shouting in her ear. 

"Don't take the old sink-box, lady," he bawled. " They have 
to shift the cattle on her to keep her on her keel. She's an old 
floating coffin. I tell you now, lady, you're '' 

"I wish you to understand that I'm not going at all," she re- 
plied. " Won't you please quit annoying me ? " 

Her soft, calm voice impressed me at once. What a woman ! 
Hair of jet black ; deep, soft eyes that danced and laughed and 
sobbed and wept — or I knew they could — under her broad, 
shading hat ; cheeks of well-rounded, flushing brown ; a noble 
chin as nobly poised ; a tall figure which even the outrageously 
fashioned skirts of those days could not mar — a real woman! 

What could prompt even a yellow cur to snarl at such a 
woman I never understood. Yet he did it with an ugly leer and 
an obscene fling. 

Jim Kay was over the rail in one second, and in the next his 
big, brown hand closed in a steel grip on the dirty wharf-rat's 

"Swear at a lady, eh 1 " A shake. "You ugly thug." 
Another shake. "Such as you need a lesson like this." A 
breath-stopping strangle on the dog's throat. "You'll get it, 

As a yell of approval went up from the chivalrous crowd, Jim 
dragged the miserable wretch to the bulkhead, kicking, cuffing 
and shaking him all the way, and then pitched him bodily into 
the muddy water, while anotheryell went up from the onlookers. 
Then he turned to the young woman with a polite bow. 

" I regret this, madam," said he, "but it seemed necessary. 
Pardon my haste, I beg of you." 

" Indeed, it seems that you could hardly have done other- 
wise," she returned. 

I caught her measuring Jim's broad shoulders with a glance. 
There was a mere hint of a smile curving her proud lips. 

"I see we are attracting attention," said Jim, "and Mr. 
Huskisson, my friend here, will summon a carriage for you." 


I bowed deeply and scampered off after a Jehu. 

When I came back, with the carriage engaged, I saw her 
waving a final good-by to a gray-haired old gentleman who was 
leaning over the rail, hatless, as the steamer swung clear of the 
pier. The next moment Kay was helping her into the four- 

All the way home Jim's eyes burned as I had never seen them 
before. I spoke to him twice without getting a reply. 

"What's her name, Jim ? " I repeated. 

His cheeks burned as he turned. 

" I don't know," he stammered. "But — but — I can find out. 
There aren't two such women west of the Rockies." 

The bugle and the tramp of feet for the soldier ; the ringing 
of bells and the clatter of hoofs and the whir of wheels for the 
firemen. As we raced along, a whiff of smoke tickled my well- 
trained nostrils. 

" Where are we going, Jim ? " I shouted, as we started down 
the last hill. 

"Didn't catch it," he yelled back. And before I could find 
out from anybody else, we were there and racing with the old 
Monumentals for the best position. 

The house was Colonel Harvey's, and one of the best in the 
city. It was roaring with flames, and only one corner seemed 
to have escaped the fire up to that time. 

I heard somebody question, " Is there anybody inside ? " and 
the reply, " Don't think so." But the word had hardly been 
spoken before a long moan went up from the crowd — a great 
gasp of dismay. 

A tall, proud woman had appeared at the corner window on 
the second floor. As a puff of wind swept aside the murk of 
smoke, I saw her plainly — the woman who had left us — un- 
known by name — at the pier. She held a child in her arms. 
She did not cry out ; there was neither use nor need for that. 

Right below her the wind was tossing a great, ruddy tongue of 
flame from the ground-floor window. All around, the heat 
scorched, and I saw her shield the child's face. 

There seemed to -be no way of rescue except by the ordinary 
ladder — and that way failure and death flamed glaringly. But 
the ladder was put up as fast as we could set it. 

Who would climb it ? Were they going to let the ladder 
burn while they waited for an answer ? Then somebody jumped 
past me and sprang upon it. Two rungs at the bottom and a 
series of what seemed leaps, by which the climber seemed to fly 
— up through a burst of flame. Jim it was, of course. His coat 
was afire, and I shut my eyes for an instant in dread. 


From below we threw showers of water on him and the ladder, 
but a feeble effort it was in the face of that fiery torrent. The 
crowd yelled as he reached the window, and then waited breath- 
lessly while the engines clanked to the roar of the flames. 

I saw her try to hand him the child. He looked down at the 
flames and shook his head ; there was no time for two trips — 
little enough for one. 

Both? Yes! How he did it I do not know to this day. 
But those were strong arms of English Jim's. Down he came 
with his double burden, right to the sweep of the flame. 
Would he try to climb through it again, hampered as he was ? 
That was impossible. No, he was going to jump those thirty 
feet. Already the ladder was afire beyond hope of saving it 
much longer. In that infinitesimal instant of anxiety I remem- 
bered that Jim's left leg had been smashed five years before by 
Calaveras Pete's ugly mustang, and I wondered if it could stand 
the strain. 

Then he jumped. 

The child and the woman were unhurt except for bruises. 
They were soon picked up and carried away. But Jim lay long 
unconscious. When we got him around he tried to stand, 
pointed with a grin at his left leg and then fainted again. 

The crowd, however, knew he wasn't killed, and as he was 
carried away in Dr. Houseman's carriage a wild shout went up 
that would have well paid any man for a broken leg. 

She — Miss Harvey, who had insisted on returning — caught 
me by the arm as he was taken away. 

" He — how is he ? " she asked. 

I gripped her hand — just why I don't know, but somehow 
that expressed what I couldn't say just at that moment. She 
understood, but she laughed in a way that scared me — a nerv- 
ous little hysterical laugh — and then began to cry, and that 
frightened me more. So I led her back to the house where she 
and the child — her youngest sister it was — had been taken by 
kind neighbors. 

There it was that I learned that she and the little girl had 
been abandoned in the burning house by cowardly, panic- 
stricken servants. 

The doctor prescribed plenty of air and sunshine for Jim, but I 
know the grave old medico actually feared at times that the visits 
of one tall young woman brought with them a little too much sun- 
shine for his patient. The doctor feared inflammation from undue 
excitement ; if his fears had been based on probable palpitation 
of Jim's heart, I might have sympathized with him. And how 
Jim did drink from the deep, sweet wells of those eyes and hang 
on every word of that soft, strong-breasted voice ! Even I, who 


am not troubled by any ordinary woman's eyes, felt somewhat 
of that which must have gripped Jim. She came too often, I 
was sure, for one whom gratitude alone moved. 

How well I remember the morning when the bolt struck at 
our feet and stunned us ! Jim's broken leg had knitted almost 
completely, and he was sunning himself at the southeast corner 
of our little brick-and-adobe house. When I went out for a mo- 
ment, I left him reading one of the news sheets, which, as it 
happened, was not of the most savory character even then, and 
later became so bad that it rotted by the wayside. 

When I came back, Jim's hand was clinched hard on his chair, 
and that old, careless, devilish look was gleaming from his eyes. 
He tossed the sheet to me pointing at a corner of the so-called 
editorial page. I read : 

" To the Editor : 

Sir : As a citizen of public spirit I write to say that in my opinion 
public decency in San Francisco has suffered a severe set-back when a 
notorious blackleg, practically an expatriate from this section of our fair 
land, is allowed to enter the company of gentlemen and not only pose as a 
gentleman but stand as the recipient of honors. I forbear the mention of 
names but will content myself by saying that these remarks are called forth 
by the presence here of an outlaw and cut-throat, who, by mere chance, has 
succeeded in saving the life of a very estimable young woman, the 
daughter of one of our most respected citizens. He is now taking advan- 
tage of that fact to worm himself into her confidence and perhaps even her 
affections. Her reputation is worth more than the lives of ten such black- 
guards ; and it is to preserve it and the good name of the city that I write 

It was signed, Pro Bono Publico. When I read the signa- 
ture Jim snorted and growled. 

" Now, who — " 

" Why, that steamship runner's at the bottom of it, of course, 
but the dog can't write Latin, even if he can English. That's 
what disturbs me. But at any rate, my wicket's down for these 

I nodded, as usual. 

Within an hour we had decided that the next boat to the 
Isthmus would be none too soon for us, and I went to secure 

Two days later we were on board — early, to avoid any diffi- 
culty ashore. I propped him up in his bunk to favor his leg, and 
then I went to get one good, long drink of the strongest whiskey 

When I came back I was surprised to see the stateroom door 
closed. I thought I might have struck the wrong room until I 
heard a voice inside that I recognized — a woman's, full- 
breasted, full of pride and mellow sweetness. I listened, played 


eavesdropper, if you will, contenting myself with the thought 
that I should be superfluous inside. 

" I came to find you," she was saying. 

"But I am going away," he answered. " You have learned 
what I have been ? Yes, I see that. You must leave me — for 
the sake of your reputation — but, perhaps — I hope, at least — well, 
I hope, anyway, that you will not think ill of that part of my 
life of which you have been a witness. No, no; it must end 
here. I am going away for the sake of your reputation and 
your self-respect." 

"Reputation!" she cried. "Self-respect! What respect 
could I have for myself if I left you when trouble came to you ? 
What you -were matters not to me. I know what you are. For 
your own sake you must leave here, but you shall not leave me. 
I will go too." 

Jim gasped. 

"With me? "he asked. 

" Why not?" 

" There is not a vacant stateroom on board. But perhaps I 
can get the purser to find me a smaller one and you may have 
this. Huskisson '11 be back in a moment and I'll send him to 
find out." 

" Ah," she said, "but if there are so many passengers aboard 
there must be at least one who is qualified to perform a marriage 
ceremony — and — and — perhaps, Mr. Huskisson could get an- 
other stateroom." 

"You — you — don't mean you'll marry me?" stammered Jim. 

" If you'll have me," she answered. 

And I scuttled away for another drink. 



GOLDEN nugget felt the Sun's warm rays, 
Awoke to life, and longed to see his face ; 
It pushed its way up through the yellow mould, 
And — merged in golden light — the virgin Gold, 
Clasped in the arms of the adoring Sun, 
Seemed melted — Gold and Sunlight into one, 
Retaining yet the semblance of the two. 
'Twas thus the glorious poppy came to view, ■ 
Transformed from gold, poured with a lavish hand 
Forth by the Maker, on this favored land ; 
Their golden petals by warm sunshine mellowed, 
Their golden hearts by richest gold-dust yellowed, 
Fit emblem of a land so rich and free ; 
Deep hearted Poppies, by the Western Sea. 


To the Pacific Coast of America. 

(From their own, and contemporary English, accounts.) 

V.-Wm. Dampier, 1686. 

fgjrtHE next Christian Pirate in the Pacific, of any conse- 
J^ quence, was the cautious Wm. Dampier. Cynical per- 
sons might call him a coward. That is, of course, by 
average pirate standards. A summary of his achievements, 
compiled from his own narrative, follows. He touched Cali- 
fornia, incidentally, almost two and a quarter centuries ago. 

At the close of the year 1679, William Dampier set out with the Cap- 
tains Caxon, Sawkins, and Sharpe, with other Privateers, from Nigral 
Bay, at the west end of Jamaica, their first expedition being "against 
Porto-Bello, which being accomplished, they took a Resolution to cross 
the Isthmus of Darien, in order to pursue their Designs in the South Seas. 
On April 5. 1680. they landed near Golden Island, being between 3 and 400 
strong, carrying with them such Provisions as were necessary, and Toys 
to gratify the free Indians, through whose Country they passed. In about 
nine Days time they arrived at Santa Maria, which they took without 
much Difficulty, but found there neither Gold nor Provisions, as they ex- 
pected ; so they staid only three Days, and then embarked on board 
Canoes, and other small Craft, for the South Seas. On April 23. they were 
in sight of Panama and having in vain attempted Puebla Nova, before 
which Captain Sawkins, then acting as Commander in Chief was killed, 
they went off to the Isles of Quibo. On June 6. they sailed from thence to 
the Coast of Peru ; and touching at the Islands of Gorgonia and Plata, 
they came to Ylo^wh they took in the month of October. About Christ- 
mas, the same Year, they arrived at the Island of Juan Fernandez, wh. was 
the farthest they went to the south : There they deposed Captain Bartholo- 
mew Sharpe, who had the chief Command after the Death of Sawkins, and 
made choice of one Captain Watting to command, under whom they 
attempted Arica ; but were repulsed, with the L,oss of twenty-eight men, 
among whom was the new commander Captain Watting ; when they sailed 
for some time without any Commander, but, arriving in the Island of 
Plata, their Crew split into two Factions ; when it was resolved, before 
they proceeded to the choice of a Commander that the Majority, with their 
Captain, should keep the Ship, and the minority the Canoes and Small- 
Craft. Mr. Dampier prepared with his Associates to return over I^and 
into the North Seas. 

" On April 17, 1681, they quitted Captain Sharpe, and, without acknowl- 
edging any Commander, resolved to prosecute their design of repassing 
the Isthmus, though they were but forty-seven men in all. This was one 
of the boldest undertakings that ever came into the Head of desperate 
Men, and yet they performed it without any considerable loss. On May 1. 
they landed on the continent ; past the Isthmus in twenty-three Days ; and, 
on the 24th, embarked on board the Captain Tristrian, a French privateer, 
with whom they joined a fleet of those sort of People, consisting of nine 
Vessels, on board of wh were near 600 Men. This was a very great Force, 
and they flattered themselves with the Hopes of doing great Things 
against the Spaniards : But through Variety of Accidents, tho' chiefly 
through the Disagreement among their Commanders, they were able to do 


very little, except that these People, who came over Land, made them- 
selves Masters of a Tartan ; and putting themselves under the command 
of Captain Wright, continued along the Spanish Coast, quite down to the 
Dutch Settlement of Curacao, where they endeavored to sell a good Quan- 
tity of Sugar wh they had taken on board a Spanish Ship ; but, failing in 
that Design, they prosecuted their Voyage to Tortugas, and from thence to 
the Curacoa Coast, where they took three Barks, one laden with Hides, 
another with European commodities, and the third with Earthen-ware and 
Brandy. With these Prizes they proceeded to the Island of Roca, where 
they shared them, and then resolved to separate, tho' they were but sixty 
in all : Of these, about twenty, among whom Dampier was, took one of 
the Barks, with their Share of the Goods, proceeded directly for Virginia, 
where they arrived in July 1682." 

After some time " having spent the best Part of their Wealth, they were 
ready to enter on any Scheme that could be proposed for getting more : nor 
was it long before such an Opportunity offered. Captain Cooke . . . coming 
thither with a Prize, and declaring his Resolution to go into the South 
Seas, and cruise among the Spaniards, Mr. Dampier . . . readily agreed to 
go with him, and brought most of his Companions into like Disposition 
. . . furnishing him with One-third of his whole Company. In this Voyage 
it was that Captain Cowley acted as Master, though he was not trusted 
with the true Design. They sailed from Achamack in Virginia, August 
23. 1683. and steered their Course for the Cape de Verd Islands." . . . 
Dampier was now embarked for his first Voyage round the World. . . . 
They touched at the Isle of Salt, wh was inhabited by not above five or six 
Men. The chief brought them three or four poor goats and some salt in 
return for which they gave him " some old Cloaths." 

From the Isle of Salt they sailed to St. Nicholas, another of the Cape 
Verd Isles, where they would have provided themselves with beef and 
goats " but they would not let our Men come ashore ; because one Captain 
Bond, a Bristol man, had, not long before, carried off some of the chief 
Inhabitants under the same Pretence." 

From the Cape Verde Isles they steered their course to the south. On 
the 19th of March they " discerned a Sail to the South of us, wh we 
supposed to be a Spanish Merchantman bound from Baldivia to Lima ; but 
proved one Captain Eaton, from London, who being bound to the South 
Seas as well as we, we kept Company with him quite through the 
Streights." . . . 

" March 24 we got in sight of the Isle of John Fernandez, and soon after 
came to an Anchor, in a Bay at the South End," from which place they 
again set sail "April 8. 1864. in Company with Captain Eaton, for the 
Pacific Sea, properly so called, being that part of the Mare del Zur which 
extends from South to North, betwixt 30° and 40° South Latitude ; and 
from the American Shore to the West, without limitation, as far as I 
know." ..." We continued our course towards the Line to the 24° South 
Latitude, in Sight of the Continent of America" . . . sailing " no nearer 
than twelve or sixteen Leagues to it, for fear of being discovered by the 

They continued their " Course at some Distance along the Coast till May 

i the 3d, at 9° 40' South Latitude, when we descrying a Vessel, Captain 

J Eaton took her, being laden with Timber." . . . "May 10 we anchored 

near Lobos de la Mare with our Prize . . . Upon Examination of the 

Prisoners, being convinced that we were discovered by the Spaniards, and 

consequently, they would keep their richest Ships in Port, it was con- 


sidered, whether we should attack some Place thereabouts ; and Truxilo, 
though a populous City, and of difficult Access in Landing at the Port of 
Guanohagno, six miles hence, being thought the most likely Place, we pre- 
pared for the said expedition ; and, May 17. found our whole Number to 
consist of 108 sound Men ; but, the next Day, some of our Men descrying 
three Vessels to the West, without the Isles, and one betwixt the Isle and 
the Continent, we gave them Chace ; we in Captain Cooke's Ship that 
towards the Continent, and Captain Eaton the other two. They were soon 
taken, and proved to be laden with Flour from Guanehagno to Panama : In 
one of them we found a Letter from the Viceroy of Lima, to the Presi- 
dent of Panama, intimating, that, having notice of some Enemies lately 
come into those Seas, he had immediately sent away these three Ships to 
supply their Wants ; at the same time, being informed by the Prisoners, 
that those of Truxillo were erecting a Fort near their Harbour of Guane- 
hagno, we resolved to give over our Design of attacking that Place, and 
steered with our three Prizes to the Isles of Gallapagos." . . . After a 
stay of twelve days among these Isles, one of our Indian Prisoners, a 
native of Rio Lega, having given us an ample Account of the Riches of 
that Place, and offered his Service to conduct us thither, it was resolved to 
take his Advice ; and accordingly we set Sail the 12th of June, with an In- 
tention to touch in our Way at the Isle of Cocoas : We took our Course 
North 4° 4' Latitude, With a South and by West and South Southwest 
Winds ; and as we came West to the Isle of Cocoas, the Wind South-West 
and by South, thus we continued our Course to 5° 40' N. Lat. when, de- 
spairing to make the Isle of Cocoas, as the Wind Stood, we directed our 
Course to the Continent. . . . The fair weather and small Winds, con- 
ducted us by the Beginning of July to Cape Blanco, on the Continent of 
Mexico." . . . and here they anchored in a small bay called Calderas Bay. 
"On the Coast of the North Sea, Captain Cooke, who had been very ill ever 
since our Departure from the Isle of Juan Fernandez, died, as soon as we 
came within two or three Leagues of this Cape ( a thing frequent at Sea, 
for People to die in View of the Land, after a long Illness ) ; and as, in a 
few Hours after, we came to anchor a League within the Cape, ... at 
fourteen Fathoms clear hard Sand, he was immediately carried on shore, 
under a Guard of twelve armed Men, in order to his Interment : While 
our Men were busy in digging the Grave, three Spanish Indians came to 
them, asking them several impertinent Questions ; which our People 
having answered as they thought convenient, they kept them in 
Discourse till they found means to seize them all three, though 
one of them escaped their Hands again. The other two, being car- 
ried aboard confessed, that they were sent thither as Spies, to inform 
themselves concerning us, from Nicoya, a small Mulatto Town twelve or 
fourteen Leagues from hence, seated upon the Banks of a River bearing 
the same name, which being a Place very convenient for building and re- 
fitting of Ships, the President of Panama had sent Advice of our coming 
into these Seas to their Magistrates. Concerning the Inhabitants of the 
Country, they told us, that they lived mostly by manuring of their Grounds 
for Corn, and feeding their Cattle in the Savannas or Plains, of wh. 
they had great store ; and that they sent their Ox hides to the North sea, 
by the Lake of Nicaragua ; as they did also a certain red Wood . . . used 
for dying, wh they exchanged there for Linen and Woolen commodities 
brought thither from Europe. They added, that not far from the Sea was 
a large Beef-pen, where we might provide ourselves with what Cows or 
Bulls we had occasion for. As this was a scarce commodity amongst us at 
that time, twenty-four of us were immediately dispatched in two Boats,! 
who, under the Conduct of one of the Indians, landed at a Place a League 
from the Ship, and haled their Boats upon the dry Sand : Thus, led by 


their Guide, they came to the Pen, in a large Savanna, two Miles from the 
Boats, where finding' abundance of Bulls and Cows feeding-, some were for 
killing three or four of them immediately ; but the rest opposed the same, 
alledging, they had better stay all Night, and in the Morning kill as many 
as they had occasion for. Here upon I, [Dampier] and eleven more, thought 
fit to return aboard, which we did without the least Opposition, expecting 
the coming of the rest the next Day ; but, hearing nothing of them by 
Four o'Clock in the afternoon, ten Men were sent in a Canoe to look after 
them. They were no sooner come into the Bay where they landed 
before, but they found their comrades upon a small Rock, half a Mile from 
the Shore, standing up to the Middle in Water, whither they had fled for 
Refuge to escape the Hands of forty or fifty well armed Spaniards, with 
Guns and Lances, who had burnt their Boat : They were got upon the 
Rock at low Water ; but it being then flowing Water, they must have in- 
fallibly perished, had our Canoes come but one Hour later, wh. now 
brought them safe aboard. We afterward seized upon two Canoes, ready 
fitted, in this Bay." 

On the 20th of July, they "sailed away from the Bay of Caldera, with Mr. 
Edward Davis the Quartermaster, constituted Captain, in room of Captain 
Cooke, deceased. They went in company with Captain Eaton, and one of 
their Meal Prizes, towards Rio Leja, against wh. Port they arrived in 
three Days. 

... " The country about Rio Leja, is easily discovered at Sea, by 
reason of an high, peaked, burning Mountain called Volcano Vejo, the Old 
Volcano, by the Spaniards. It is easily distinguished, being very high, so 
as to be seen twenty Leagues at Sea; ... It smokes all Da3 r , and also 
sends forth Flames at Night. . . . Being in Sight of the Volcano Vejo, 
seven or eight Leagues from the Shore, the Mouth bearing North-east, we 
took in our Topsails, and made towards the Harbour ; and then, setting out 
our Canoes, rowed up to the small Town, that makes the Harbour of Rio 
Leja, by Nine o'Clock in the Morning ; where we discovered an House, and, 
soon after, three Men going into a Canoe on the Inside of the Island, and 
making what Haste they could to row to the Continent ; which before they 
could reach, we overtook them, and carried them to the little Isle. At the 
same time we observed one on Horseback on the Continent, riding away 
full Speed towards the Town. They frankly confessed, that they had been 
placed there by the Governor of Rio Leja, who had been advised of our 
coming into those Parts, to keep Watch Day and Night ; and that Horse- 
man we saw riding away, was placed upon the same Account on the Con- 
tinent, within an Hour's Riding of the Town. Thus, finding ourselves dis- 
covered, the Horseman being gone three Hours before Eaton and his 
Canoes came to the Island, the Design upon that Town was laid aside for 
this Time." ... At four o'clock in the afternoon they took their course 
for the Gulph of Amapalla. . . . 

" Captain Davis being sent before, with two Canoes, into this Gulph to 
get some Prisoners, he came to Mangera, where, finding a path from the 
Creek, he followed it towards the Town ; but the Inhabitants no sooner 
had notice of his coming, than they all ran into the Woods, leaving only 
the Priest behind them : who being taken, with two Boys his Attendants, 
Captain Davis made them conduct him to the Isle of Amapalla, where 
being landed, he marched up to the before-mentioned Place, a mile from 
the Landing-Place, on the Top of the Hill. The Inhabitants, who saw 
them Advance, were ready to retire into the Woods ; but the Secretary, an 
Enemy to the Spaniards, having persuaded them, that they were friends, 
who craved their Assistance against their common Oppressors, they bid 
Davis and his Men welcome. After the first Salutation they marched to- 
wards the Church, (the Priest, brought along by Captain Davis, at the 
Head of them). . . . His Intention was, as soon as they were all got into 
the Church, to engage all their Assistance against the Spaniards, to ac- 
complish wh the Priest had promised his good Offices ; but just as the few 
remaining Indians were entering the Church, one of Captain Davis's Men 
pushed a Man forward to hasten him into the Church ; wh the Indian 
being frightened at, set up his Heels, and the rest, taking the Alarm, fol- 
lowed ; so that Captain Davis and the Friar being left alone in the Church 
he ordered his Men to fire at them ; wh being done the Secretary was 
killed in the Fray : And so the whole Project vanished into Smoke, by the 
Foolishness of one inconsiderate Fellow." 



cSequoya League 

^^— «^ ^^-, (INCORPORATED) 



Se-quo-ya, " the American Cadmus" {born 1771, 
died 1842), was the only Indian that ever in- 
vented a written language. The League takes its 
title from this great Cherokee, for whom, also, science 
has named ( "Sequoias ") the hugest trees in the world, 
the giant Redwoods of California. 


Dr. David Starr Jordan, President Stanford University, Cal. 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Chief Biological Survey, "Washington. 

Dr. Geo. Bird Grinnell, editor Forest and Stream, New York. 

D. M. Riordan, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Richard Egan, Capistrano, Cal. 

Chas. Cassatt Davis, attorney, Eos Angeles. 

Chas. F. Eummis, Eos Angeles, Chairman. 


Mrs. Phebe A. Hearst, University of California. 

*Hon. J. Sterling Morton, Nebraska. 

Archbishop Ireland, St. Paul, Minn. 

U. S. Senator Thos. R. Bard, California. 

*Maj. J. W. Powell, Director Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 

Edward E. Ayer, Newberry Library, Chicago. 

Miss Estelle Reel, Supt. all Indian Schools, Washington. 

W. J. McGee, Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of Ethnology. 

F. W. Putnam, Peabody Museum, Harvard College. 

Stewart Culin, University of Pennsylvania. 

Geo. A. Dorsey, Field Columbian Museum, Chicago. 

Dr.T. Mitchell Prudden, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York . 

Dr. Geo. J. Engelmann, Boston. 

Miss Alice C. Fletcher, Washington. 

F. W. Hodge, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 

Hamlin Garland, author, Chicago. 

Mrs. F. N. Doubleday, New York. 

Dr. Washington Matthews, Washington. 

Hon. A. K. Smiley (Mohonk), Redlands, Cal. 

George Kennan, Washington. 

(Others to be added.) 
Treasurer, W. C. Patterson, Prest. Eos Angeles National Bank. 


Amelia B. Hollenback, Josephine W. Drexel. 

|Si|P|HE demands of official etiquettee have kept this magazine 
± from disclosing - , heretofore, the location selected by the 
Warner's Ranch Indian Commission for the new home of 
the 300 evicted Indians. Of course the thing- leaked out, 
months ago, and has been unauthoritatively stated in many 
newspapers ; but the Department of the Interior kept the Com- 
mission sealed ; and the editor, as chairman of that commission, 
has disclosed the matter to no one. Receipt of this telegram, 

however, serves as a release : 

Washington, Feb. 20. 
Chas. F. Lummis, Los Angeles: 

You are authorized to make public the results of the Warner's Ranch 
Commission work. Ethan Aixen Hitchcock, Sec'y. 


Next month will begin in these pages a full description, fully 
illustrated, of the new location ; and also of some other matters 
brought out in the Commission's work. Indian Commissioner 
Jones and other officials desire that the government publish the 
entire report ; but it is not certain that this effort will succeed. 
It should be published entire, for its usefulness to the Indian 
bureau and others ; but it would be rather a formidable under- 
taking for this magazine. The report is in two large type- 
written volumes of 136 and 80 folio pages, respectively, and 
contains 152 photographs, besides maps, tables, etc. 

Meantime it may be stated that the lands to which the 
Warner's Ranch Indians are to be moved, and upon which they 
will be safe from further eviction, are in the Pala valley, in 
San Diego county, Cal.; about 40 miles from their present home, 
24 miles inland from Oceanside, and 16 and 12 miles respectively 
from the nearest railroad stations, Fallbrook and Temecula. 
The land is 3,438 acres, of which over 2,000 acres are arable, 
over 700 acres irrigable under present development — which can 
be greatly increased — and 316 acres of it now cultivated by 
irrigation, besides a large quantity in grain. At their old 
home, the Indians had about 900 acres, of which possibly 200 
acres are arable and 150 irrigable. The quality of the land at 
Pala is far superior, and the water supply is about eight times 
as great ; there is a huge supply of timber ; and in fact Pala is 
immeasurably superior to Warner's Ranch in every material 
consideration, except the hot springs. This is consoling to 
those of us who have most lamented that the Indians could not 
keep their old homes — as of course they would rather do than 
move to any paradise. The Pala valle3 r is not a tiny corner of 
some vast desert ranch, but a fertile, bowl-shaped valley now 
occupied by 15 families of farmers. Their improved farms are 
what the government is now purchasing ; and the Indians will 
have the valley all to themselves. The details of this location 
— doubly interesting because this will be the first time in our 
history that Indians have been given better lands than they 
were driven from, and more lands — will be printed in the April 
number, with many photographs, showing not only the scenery 
but the water supply and the growing crops of all sorts found 
by i the Commission. 

Prom the " business" side it may be mentioned now, that the 
government was about to pay $70,000 for 2,370 acres, with 
practically no water supply whatever ; and that it is now get- 
ting over 1,000 acres more land — and better land — and more 
than 500 times as much water, for $46,230. It is expected to 
be able to apply this saving of over $23,000 to further relief of 
Mission Indians ; and the Commission has made recommenda- 
tions which, if carried out, will relieve eight other reserva- 
tions, covering more than 700 Indians now destitute and 



*|C#§)EARLY every day brings inquiries, from individuals, 
/g)l>i women's clubs and other sources, "what books can we 
^■^ read for a reliable idea of the Indian " or of some special 

subject connected with him. These requests are too numerous 
for individual answer ; and there are thousands of books, more 
or less " about Indians," and more or less worth reading — gener- 
ally less. 

For these reasons, the following hasty outline of a reading 
and reference list on Indians is printed here for the general 
convenience. It is not — nor even desires to be — complete. The 
projected bibliographic catalogue of one private library in this 
country,* devoted to North American Indians alone, will, if it 
shall ever be completed, make eight or nine ponderous volumes, 
and will sell at something like $400. The present is a list not 
for scientists but for the intelligent general reader who would 
like to "post up." A great many works are purposely excluded 
from it ; some because they hardly seem necessary in a mere 
sketch-list, and some — including more than a few of alleged 
authority — because they are worthless. No book in this list is 
infallible at every point, but its inclusion here signifies that its 
virtues outweigh its faults, and that it is at least harmless — and 
probably really worth while. The most important ones are in- 

Most of these titles can probably be found in a good public 
library. But the public library habit, excellent as it is, should 
not wean us of the much better habit of Owning Books — with 
due taste in selecting books worth owning, as of course nine out 
of every ten are not. 

At this day, when a disproportionate share of keeping intel- 
lectual activity alive is done by the women's clubs, it seems to 
me high time for these clubs to be Book-Lovers and not Book- 
Skimmers. Let the novel of the day have its passing fillip, and 
the Tendency of Literature be tried for its life before the Pull 
Bench ; but every serious woman's club should be beginning its 
own little reference library of the standard books in the lines 
which particularly interest that particular club. This is espec- 
ially true in the West, where we have topics all our own. Every 
woman's club in California, for example, ought to have a sound 
little reference library on California, on the Missions, on 
Indians, on irrigation, etc. In Colorado they ought to have the 
standard books — and particularly the earliest books — on Colo- 
rado. And so on. In California, for instance, the interesting 
and valuable books written here in the most romantic days of the 
State are already scarce, and growing rarer and costlier every 
day. Something of this is true as to books on the Indian ; and 
while we are getting more exact books, on the average, the 
material — the Indian himself, from whom we must study — is 
being rapidly wiped off the slate by the remorseless sponge of 
selfishness ; and soon, exactness will have nothing to work on. 

A good many of the following books are out of print ; but 
the) r can be obtained (with patience, sometimes), from one of 
the reliable 'dealers in Americana. There are many of these in 

* That of Edward E. Ayer, Chicago. 


this country* who will undertake the commission to procure any 
book desired, and at a reasonable price. Any of them will fur- 
nish free catalogues of books they have now on hand. 

The following- list is alphabetical by authors. At the end is 
given a brief grouping by subjects, etc. : 

Bancroft, Hubert Howe — 

Native Races of the Pacific States. 5 vols. 8vo, about 800 pp each. 
San Francisco, 1886. Useful for reference to the expert, but undi- 
gested, unbalanced, half indexed, full of inaccuracies and mis judg- 
ments. Like all the other 34 vols, of his enormous cordwood History 
of the Pacific States — conceived and marketed in the "Drummer" 
spirit ; done for him by a mob of reporters ; " worked " on a confid- 
ing public, but long ago found out by scholars — these large 
books can be bought, in almost any quantity, in the second-hand 
bookstores of Los Angeles and San Francisco, bound in full sheep, 
at 75c. a vol. in sets, or $1 for one. The vol. on New Mexico and 
Arizona, and vol. 1 of California, are rather more useful than the 
Native Races ; but of the same general faults. 
Bandelier, Ad. F. — 

The highest authority on the archaeology and ethnology of all Spanish 

America, particularly including the Southwest. All his works are out 

of print, and can be obtained only through dealers in Americana. But 

they are the cornerstone of scientific knowledge of the Southwestern 

and Mexican Indian. The following are most important. 

Historical Introduction to Studies Among the Sedentary Indians of 

New Mexico. Papers of the Archaeological Institute of America, 

1883. 8vo, 33 pp. 

Contributions to the History of the Southwestern portion of the U. S. 
Ibid, 1890, 8vo, 206 pp. 

Final Report of Investigations Among the Indians of the Southwestern 
Portion of the U. S. Ibid, 1890-92, 2 vols, 8vo, ill., 319 and 591 pp. 

Documentary History of the Zuni Tribe, Outline of, Houghton, Mifflin 
& Co., Boston, 1892, 4to, 115 pp. 

The Delight-Makers. (A really photographic view of Pueblo Indian 
life before the discovery of America). Dodd, Mead& Co., New York, 
1890, 8vo, 490 pp. 
Benavides, Fray Alonso de — 

One of our most important early " sources " on the Southwest, and 

one of the rarest books. 

Memorial on New Mexico in /6jo. Translated with notes. Land 
of Sunshine, Sept., 1900- March, 1901. Out West Co., Los Ange- 
les, $1.50. (Magazine numbers, unbound). Will be issued in a sump- 
tuous and expensive book, with facsimile text and notes, probably 
during 1903. No other even passable English translation has ever 
been printed. 
Brinton, D. G.— 

Dean of authorities on American linguistics. 

Myths of the New World. N. Y., 1868. 
Bourke, Capt. John G. — 

On the Border with Crook. 111., 491 pp.,8vo. Chas Scribner's Sons, New 
York, 1891. An important and fascinating book, by the lamented 
soldier-student who was right-hand man of the greatest Indian- 
fighter in our history — the General the Indians most dreaded as a 
foe and most trusted as a friend. Capt. Bourke also wrote one of 
the earliest studies of the Moqui Snake-Dance (now largely out of 
date, in the light of later science) ; An Apache Campaign (Scribner, 
New York, 1886, ill., 112 pp.) ; and The Medicine-Men of the Apache 
(9th Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology). 
Catlin, George — 

Manners, Customs and Conditions of the North American Indians. 
London, 1841. 2 large 8vo vols., over 400 colored ills. Catlin ( born 

*For instance, Noah F. Morrison, Elizabeth, N. J.; Shepard Book Co., 
Salt Lake City ; F. E. Grant, 23 W. 42nd St. N. Y., A. C. McClurg & Co., 
Chicago ; Robt. Clarke Co., Cincinnati ; W. H. Lowdermilk, Washington, 
D. C; H. H. Timby, Conneaut, O. I can vouch for all these. 


in Wyoming about 1800 ) was the pioneer illustrator of the Western 
Indians, among- whom he wandered from 1832 to 1839. While he was 
neither a scientist nor a great artist, his work deservedly made a sen- 
sation throughout the civilized world ; and his drawings have been 
doing duty ever since, in books of all sorts. A modern reprint with 
all the colored plates can be had for about $7.50. 

Costans6, Miguel — 

The engineer of the expedition which founded the first California 

Historical Diary of the Voyages by Sea and Land to the North of Cali- 
fornia. 1769. The poor translation printed in London in 1790 is ex- 
cessively rare. A translation from the original MS. was printed in 
Land of Sunshine June and July, 1901. The Out West Co., Los Ang- 
eles. 40 cents. The second number particularly describes the coast 
Indians of California at that time. 
Coues, Dr. Elliott — 

Foremost of American editors of Americana. (Pike, Henry, Fow- 
ler, etc.) 

On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer. The Diary of Fray Francisco 
Garces, 1775. (Contains voluminous notes and the most convenient 
authentic lists and characterization of Southwestern and California 
Indian tribe-names, etc.). Francis P. Harper, New York, 1900, 2 
vols., 8vo, $6.00. 
Culin, Stewart — 

Curator, University of Pa., and our leading authority on Indian games. 
Chess and Playing Cards. 8vo, 225 pp., 226 ills. Deals with a great 
number of Indian games. Report United States National Museum, 
Cur tin, Jeremiah — 

Famous linguist, translator and folk-lorist. 

Creation Myths of Primitive America. 530 pp. Little, Brown & Co., 
Boston, 1898. $2. 
Cushing, Frank Hamilton — 

Mr. Cushing was the most intimate investigator of the details of 
Indian life this country has produced. All his writings are valuable, 
and of great literary charm as well. (See Land of Sunshine, June, 
1900, p. 8, for sketch and portraits). Among the works especially to 
be commended here are : 
Zuni Folk Tales. 111., 474 pp. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 

1901. $3. 
The Need of Studying the Lndian, in Order to Teach Him. In 28th 

Annual Rept. Board of Indian Commissioners, 1897. 
A Study of Pueblo Pottery. 111., 48 pp., 4th Annual Report, Bureau of 

Zuni Fetiches. 111., 36 pp., 2nd Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology. 
Dellenbaugh, F. S.— 

Member of Powell's famous second Grand Canon exploration. 
The North Americans of Yesterday. 8vo, 487 pp. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, New York, 1901. $4 net. Not particularly scientific, but gen- 
erally reasonable. Disfigured by the idiotic word "Amerind," in- 
stead of American Indian. Great number of good illustrations. 
Dorsey, J. Owen — 

Of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

A Study of Siouan Cults. 11th Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology, 

pp. 361-544. 
Omaha Dwellings, Furniture and Implements, 13th do. 
Dunn, J. P.— 

Massacres of the Mountains ; a History of the Indian wars of the Far 
West. Harper & Bros., New York, 1886. 111., pp.784. This large 
volume, with nearly 175 rather scattering illustrations, runs Mrs. 
Jackson's Century of Dishonor a close second as a connected story, 
or general picture, of the treatment the Indians have had. It is 
practically indispensable to a popular " reading-up " of the " Indian 
Question." It is out of print, but can be obtained through a dealer 
for something like $2. 

360 OUT W EST 

Eastman, Charles A. — 

A Sioux Indian, now a practicing physician of standing-. 

Indian Boyhood. 289 pp., many ills. McClure, Phillips & Co., New 
York, 1902. $1.60. The very well-told and interesting account of 
his own boyhood and youth. 
Escalante, Fray Sylvestre Velez de — 

For many years a Franciscan missionary in New Mexico. Made a re- 
markable exploration in Arizona, Colorado and Utah in 1776. Letter 
dated April 2, 1778, from Santa Fe\ N. M. A very condensed sketch 
of New Mexican history from the Pueblo Rebellion of 1680 to Fray 
Sylvestre's time, and drawn by him from the official records 
preserved in the archives at Santa F6 till our American Governor 
Pile allowed most of them to be destroyed as waste paper. The 
document, never before published in English, is translated in Land 
of Sunshine, March and April, 1900. Out West Co., Los Angeles. 40 
Fewkes, J. Walter — 

The most minute investigator of the Moquis. 

Tusayan [Moqui] Migration Traditions. 19th Annual Report, Bureau 
of Ethnology, pp. 577 — 1011. 
Fillmore, John Comfort — 

The famous musical expert (died 1899) who first proved that Indian 

music is founded on harmony. He overthrew the absurb closet theory 

to the contrary, which was almost universal, even among scientists. 

Omaha Indian Music. (See Miss Fletcher.) 

The Harmonic Structure of Indian Music. 22 pp. In American An- 
thropologist, Apr., 1899. 

Besides several other technical papers, in scientific publications. Prof. Fillmore pub- 
lished ia this magazine popular essays on Indian music: "Two Tigua Folksongs' 
(with music). May, 18% ; ' Songs of the Navajos " (with Dr. Matthews), music, Oct 
and Nov., 1896 ; " Scientific Importance of the Folk-Music of our Aborigines," 
June, 1897. 

Fletcher, Alice C— 

Indian Song and Story from North America. \2d pp., with music. 

Small, Maynard & Co., Boston (30 songs). 
Report on Indian Education and Civilization : Exec. Doc. No. 95, 
48th Congress, 2nd session. (Miss Fletcher is the foremost woman 
student of Indians ; and all her papers, like " The Import of the 
Totem," "The Significance of the Scalplock,' etc., are important. 
She has also been the most effective agent of the Government in the 
allotment of Indian lands in severalty. See this magazine — then 
Land of Sunshine — for June, 1900, p. 19.) 
Omaha Indian Music. In collaboration with Francis la Flesche and 
John Comfort Fillmore. 152 pp. 92 songs, with music. Peabody 
Museum, Cambridge, Mass. 1899. See Fillmore. 
Foster, Geo. E.— 

Se-Quo-Yah, the American Cadmus, etc. 111., 242 pp. Phila. 
The Indian Rights Association. Out of print, but can be obtained 
through a dealer in Americana for about $1.50. For condensed sketch 
of Sequoya see Out West, Feb., 1902, pp. 173-176 ; and for portrait of 
same, April, 1902, p. 390. Out West Co., Los Angeles. Each 20c. 
Fowke, Gerard — 

Stone Art {of the Indians]. 13th Annual Repqrt, Bureau of Ethnology, 
p. 177. 
Garland, Hamlin — 

The Captain of the Gray-Horse Troop. Harpers, N. Y., $2. Though 
fiction, is a very accurate picture. 
Grinnell, Geo. Bird — 

Mr. Grinnell is one of the most sensible, most earnest, scholarly and 
successful leaders in the attempt to better Indian conditions. He is an 
adopted chief of the Blackfeet ; a member of the Executive Commit- 
tee of the Sequoya League ; and was President Roosevelt's special 
Commissioner to investigate the Standing Rock scandal. All his books 
are interesting and important. All deal principally with the Plains 
The Story of the Indian. (Story of the West Series. D. Appleton A 


Co., New York, 1895). 111., 268 pp. $1.50. One of the best general 

pictures of the Plains Indians ; not so important on the Southwest 

and California tribes. 
Blackfoot Lodge Tales and Pawnee Hero Stories are both important 

in folklore. Both, I believe, are out of print. 
The Indian of Today is a sumptuous quarto, illustrated with many 

large portraits, 175 pp. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $5. 

Hodge, Frederick Webb — 

(Of the Smithsonian Institution, and Dr. Coues's collaborator and suc- 
cessor as an editor of Americana.) 
Prehistoric Irrigation in Arizona. American Anthropologist, July, 

1893. Washington, D.C. 
The Early Navajo and Apache, ibid, July, 1895. 
Pueblo Indian Clans, ibid, Oct., 1896. 

Holmes, Wm. H. — 

The talented head of the Bureau of American Ethnology — succeeding 
the late lamented Maj. J. W. Powell— has been for many years an in- 
defatigable and expert worker in these fields of knowledge. Incident- 
ally one of the foremost of American water-colorists, he is better 
known as one of the world's leading authorities on aboriginal arts and 
Prehistoric Textile Fabrics. 3rd Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology, 

pp. 397-420. 
Art in Shell. 2nd ditto, pp. 185-311. 
Pottery of the Ancient Pueblos. 4th ditto, pp. 265-367. 
Ancie?it Pottery of the Mississippi Valley, etc., 4th ditto, pp. 368-472. 
Hopkins, Sarah Winnemucca — 

Life Among the Piutes. 268 pp. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 
1883. Sarah Winnemucca was a Piute woman of character and ability, 
who served Gen. O. O. Howard as guide and interpreter in the Ban- 
nock war of 1878 ; was afterward a school-teacher, and married an 
American named Hopkins. Her father was Winnemucca, head chief 
of the Piutes ; and Sarah was widely known in army circles for her 
competency, and in government and Eastern circles by her devoted 
efforts to secure justice for her people. 
Hough, Dr. Walter — 

One of our serious students. 

The Moki Snake Dance. Pub. by the Passenger Department of the 
Santa F6 route, Chicago, 1899. 60 pp., 64 ills. Aside from the un- 
historic spelling of the name Moqui, a good popular account of this 
remarkable religious ceremonial. 
Jackson, Helen Hunt ( " H. H.") — 

It hardly needs to list Ramona ; not only a great novel but a true 
picture of Indian wrongs in Southern California. 

A Century of Dishonor. 457 pp. Harper & Bros., New York, 1881. 
The best digested and most reliable statement of our governmental 
misdealings with the Indians. It is drawn from official Government 
reports. This remarkable and valuable book is out of print ; but can 
be obtained for about $1.50. 
Glimpses of California and the Missions. Mrs. Jackson's essays on the 
Indians and Missions of California, contained in her Glimpses of Three 
Coasts (long out of print) have recently been republished in an attrac- 
tive volume by themselves, 292 pp., with Sandham's illustrations, 
under above title. The book is one which everyone interested in 
Indians or in California should have. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 
1902. $1.50. The two chapters on " Eather Junipero and his work," 
and " The Present Condition of the Mission Indians " are also issued 
by the same publishers in a much smaller volume by themselves. 
159 pp., ill. Her official report as special Commissioner of the Gov- 
ernment on 
The Condition and Needs of the Mission Indians, was printed as 
Senate Report No. 74, 50th Congress, 1st session, 1888. It is dated 
July 13, 1883 ; and is of 30 8vo pp. of solid nonpareil. It contains 
much valuable information. 

Other valuable official reports on the condition of the Mission 
Indians are those of D. B. Wilson, to the Interior Department, 1852 ; 


and C. C. Painter, 1888. An official but truthful later statement of 
these conditions (1901) is by Constance GoddardDu Bois. 16 pp. Can 
be had from the Indian Rights Association, 1305 Arch street, Phila. 
A list of the Mission Indian reservations of Southern California 
was printed in Out West for April, 1902. 
Jenks, Albert Ernest — 

The Childhood of J i-shib, the Ojibwa. 111., 130 pp. Published by The 
American Thresherman, Madison, Wis.,' 1900. An unpretentious, 
sympathetic, accurate picture of Ojibwa life, by the author of the 
valuable Bureau of Ethnology monograph on The Wild-Rice Gather- 
ers of the Upper Lakes. 
Jones, Wm. A. — 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 

Reports, 1901, 1902. For present status and views of the Indian Office. 
(Free). Washington. 

Kennan, George — 

The distinguished Siberian traveler. 

The Standing Rock Case. In The Outlook (287 Fourth Ave., N. Y.) 
Nos. Mch. 29, Ap. 19, May 3 and Dec. 13, 1902. 

L,a Flesche, Francis — 

An Omaha Indian, son of a chief and known to students by his able 
collaboration with Miss Fletcher in scientific investigation. 
The Middle Five. 227 pp. Frontis. in colors by Angel de Cora, an In- 
dian girl who has illustrated several books. Small, Maynard & Co., 
Boston, 1900. $1.25. A delightful story of the author's boyhood, and 
the education of a very Good Indian. 

L/eland, Chas. Godfrey — 

The distinguished folk-lorist. 

Algonquin Legends of New England. 1885. Out of print. 
Kuldskap, the Master. 370 pp., ill. Funk & Wagnalls Co., N. Y., 1902. 
$2. A delightful book of metrical translations of Indian poems. 

Lummis, Chas. F. — 

The Land of Poco Tiempo, 310 pp., 38 ills. Chas. Scribner's Sons, 
New York, 1893. $2.50. 

Some Strange Corners of Our Country, 270 pp., 49 ills. The Century 
Co., New York. $1.50. 

The Man Who Married the Moon (Tigua folkstories) 239 pp., 24 ills. 
The Century Co., New York. $1.50. 

My Brother's Keeper ; 7 illustrated articles in Land of Sunshine (mag- 
azine ) Aug. 1899-Feb. 1900, inclusive. The Out West Co., Los An- 
geles. $1.50. 

The Exiles of Cupa (eviction of the Warner's Ranch Indians). In Out 
West, May, 1902, illustrated. On the same theme also, in the same 
magazine, under the title " Sequoya League," in every number from 
Feb., 1902, onward. 

Mesa Grande, Two Days at, Out West, June, 1902. 
MacCauley, Clay — 

The Seminole Lndians of Florida. 5th Annual Report, Bureau of Eth- 
nology, pp. 465-529. 
Mallery, Col. Garrick — 

Sign Language among North American Indians. In 1st Annual Re- 
port, Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 269-550. 

Ptctographs of the North American Indians. 4th ditto, pp. 13-254. 

Picture- Writing of the American Indians. 10th ditto, 740 pp. 
Matthews, Dr. Washington — 

Dean of our American ethnologists, and foremost living authority on 

the Navajos, our largest Indian tribe. 

The Night Chant, a Navajo Ceremony. Memoirs American Museum 
of Natural History. Large folio, 332 pp., many illustrations and 
colored plates. New York, 1902. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Navajo Legends. 8vo, 299 pp., ills. Memoirs American Folk-Lore So- 
ciety, Boston, 1897. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Navajo Silversmiths, ill., in 2nd Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 
Washington, 1883. 111., 13 pp. 


Navajo Weavers, ill., in 3d Annual Rept. Bureau of Ethnology, Wash- 
ing-ton, 1884. 

The Mountain Chant, ill., a Navajo Ceremony, in 5th Annual Report, 
Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, 1887. 

Songs of the Navajos, in Land of Sunshine, Oct., 1896. Out West Co., 
Eos Angeles. 20 cents. 

A Navajo Initiation, Land of Sunshine, Nov. 1901. Out West Co., Eos 
Angeles. 20 cents. 

McGee, W. J.— 

Eong Acting-Director of the Bureau. One of our larger ethnologists, 
and one with very uncommon gift for making "good reading " without 
loss of scientific value. His monograph on the Seris is highly interest- 
ing. See Land of Sunshine, May and June, 1901 , for two illustrated 
articles by him upon this theme. 

The Seri Indians [Eower California], 17th Annual Report Bureau 
Ethnology, and as a " separate." 111. Pp. 9-296. 

Mindeleff, Victor — 

A Study of Pueblo Architecture. 8th Annual Report, Bureau of Eth- 
nology, pp. 13-223. 
Mindeleff, Cosmos — 

Cliff Ruins of Cation de Chelly, Ariz. 16th Annual Report, Bureau of 
Ethnology, pp. 79-191. 
Mooney, James — 

Of the Bureau of Ethnology. One of the most competent of the heroic 
little band of American scholars of American things. All his contri- 
butions to science are marked by humanity as well as research. His 
special field is among the Cherokees, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Kiowa, 
Comanche, Caddo and other "Indian Territory" tribes. The book 
particularly to be noted in such a list as this is his 
Ghost-Dance Religion, and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890. The official 
story of the "battle" of Wounded Knee (pp. 829-887) should be 
read by every American. The book is a ponderous one of 490 pp., 
published in, and also as a "separate" from, the 14th Annual Re- 
port, Bureau of Ethnology. It is fully illustrated. Other valuable 
works by him, are : 
Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees, 7th A. R. Bureau Eth. 
Calendar History of the Kiowas, 17th do. 
Myths of the Cherokee, 19th do., 548 pp. 
Morgan, Eewis H. — 

The Father of American Ethnology. 

The League of the Iroquois. 1851 Out of print and rare. A sumptu- 
ous new edition, with the map, Morgan's colored plates, and liberal 
illustration, has been printed recently (1901) by Dodd, Mead & Co., 
New York. 2 vols., $15. His weighty papers on Indian architecture 
and social organization are scarce. 
Parkman, Francis — 

The greatest of American historians. 
The Jesuits in the New World. Works. Many Editions. 
Pokagon, Simon — 

Chief of a Pottawattamie band. Died 1899. His father sold the site of 
Chicago, and surrounding country, to the U. S., in 1833. The Indians 
got part of their money in 1896 — a little wait of 63 years. Simon was 
well educated, knew Greek and Eatin fairly well, and often addressed 
American audiences. 

Queen of the Woods — a story of his early life and love. 111., 254 pp., 
with portrait, biography, etc. C. H. Engle, Hartford, Mich., $1.00 
and $1.50. 
The Red Man's Rebuke. A tiny booklet of 16 pp. on native birch bark. 
Same publisher. 50c. 
Powell, J. W.— 

Hero of the Colorado Canon, and the really great man who built up the 
Bureau of Ethnology, and was its head until his death last year. 
Sketch of the Mythology of the North American Indians. 1st Annual 

Report, Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 19-59. 
Wyandot Government. Ditto, pp. 59-68. 
Indian Linguistic Families. 7th ditto, pp. 7-139. 


Powers, Stephen — 

Tribes of California. Vol. Ill of "Contributions to North American 
Ethnology," U. S. Geograph. and Geologioal Survey, Washington, 
1877. 635 pp. A few ills. This is the standard book on the abori- 
gines of Northern California. It does not deal with the Mission or 
other Christianized Indians who were largely in Southern California, 
The book is scarce, but can be procured of a dealer, for about $5, 
and should be in every public library in California and the West. 

Purdy, Carl — 

Leading authority on California bulbs, and student of baskets. 
Porno Indian Baskets and their Makers. 43 pp., 40 ills. In Out West, 
Dec. 1901 — Mch. 1902, incl., 4 nos. 80c. 
Also as a "separate" pamphlet, 25c. Address the author, Ukiah.Cal. 

Rau, Chas. — 

Indian Pottery. Smithsonian Report, 1866. 
Royce, Chas. C. — 

The Cherokee Nation oj Indians. 5th Annual Report, Bureau of Ethn- 
ology, pp. 129-371. 
Indian Land Cessions in the United States. 18th do., pp. 527-651, and 
many maps. 
Serra, Fray Junfpero — 

The great Apostle of California. 

Diary of his march from Mexico to San Diego, Cal., in 1769, to found 
the Franciscan Missions. Translation (from the original MS.) in 
Out West, March to July, 1902, inclusive, 5 nos. Never elsewhere 
published in English. Out West Co., Los Angeles. $1. 

Stevenson, Tillie E — 

Religious Life of the Zuni Child. 5th Annual Report, Bureau of Eth- 
nology, pp. 539-557. 
The Sia [Pueblos]. 11th do., pp. 9-157. 

Thomas, Cyrus — 

Mound Explorations of the Bureau, etc. 12th Annual Report, Bureau 
of Ethnology, pp. 17-772. 
Winship, Geo. Parker — 

Librarian of the great Carter Brown Library of Americana, and one of 

the leaders in bibliography of the subject. 

The Coronado Expedition, i 540-1542. 300 pp., 46 ills. Contains origi- 
nal text and a translation of Castaneda, and other contemporary docu- 
ments, and a scholarly history of that wonderful exploration of the 
whole Southwest, from Mexico to Kansas, 360 years ago. In —and 
also as a "separate" from — 14th Annual Report, Bureau of Ethno- 
logy. Has a bibliographic list of works on this theme. 
Zarate-Zalmeron, Fray Geronimo de — 

For 8 years Franciscan missionary in New Mexico, 175 years ago. 

Narrative of all the Things that have been Seen and Known in New 
Mexico . . . from the year 1538 to 1626. (Touches Pueblos, Apaches, 
Mojaves, Navajos (he was the fjrst man to print the name), and other 
tribes from California to Florida.) The only English version is in 
Land of Sunshine, November, 1899, to February, 1900, inclusive. 
Four numbers, unbound. Out West Co., Los Angeles. 80c. 

Zitkala-Sa — 

A young Indian girl whose papers in the Atlantic Monthly (Feb. and 
Mch., 1900) are among the best literary productions in English by 
any American Indian, and valuable as a true and delicate picture of 
her own experience in education. 

There are doubtless books omitted by oversight which properly belong 
in this list ; but as a rule, omission may be taken to be intentional, either 
because the book is deemed too technical to belong in such a list, or be- 
cause it is deemed needless in any list. 

A few may be specifically tagged here as worse than worthless — that is, 
they convey more error than useful truths. Stephen D. Peet's series on 
" Prehistoric America," and particularly the 3rd vol., The Cliff Dwellers and 
Pueblos ; L. Bradford Prince's History of New Mexico ; Susan Wallace's 


Land of the Pueblos ; Carl Fickemeyer's Among the Pueblo Indians, and his 
Over the Great Navajo Trail; Verner %. Reed's Lotokah, Adobeland 
Stories, and Tales of the Sun-Land ; C. E. Bank's A Child of the Sun; R. 
B. Townsend's Lone Pine ; Thos. Donaldson's Moqui Pueblo Indians oj 
Arizona, and Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. 


Indian Character and Life —For a general idea ( in the above list ) Morgan, 
Cushing, Grinnell, Fletcher, Dellenbaugh, Lummis, Jenks, Catlin, La 
Flesche, Eastman, Zitkala-Sa. 

Indian Wrongs — For a fair understanding of the treatment the Indians 
have received: Mrs. Jackson {Century of Dishonor), Dunn, Mrs. Hop- 
kins, Mooney, Bourke, Kennan, Garland. The full list of reliable 
witnesses ( including chapters in books of many sorts ) would be a big 
catalogue in itself. 

Indian Industries and Arts, in a general way : Morgan, Cushing, Grinnell, 
Dellenbaugh, Lummis, Mooney, Bourke, Catlin, Purdy, in general ; for 
more detailed information, Matthews, Holmes, Rau, and others noted 
above in Bureau of Fthnology Reports, and the works of Otis T. 
Mason, and others of the U. S. National Museum. By the way, these 
great monuments of scholarship are not half so well known to Americans 
as they should be. They abound in papers of the highest interest and 
authority, are lavishly illustrated, and should be among the much-used 
books of any reference library. Some of the earlier volumes are 
scarce ; but these can be had at reasonable prices from a dealer. The 
later volumes can be obtained gratis through your Senator or Con- 

Articles on Indian Baskets have appeared in Out West (and its predecessor, The Land or 
Sunshine,) for June, 18%. (" Confessions of a Basket Collector "), Dec, 1901, Jan., Fab. and 
March, 1902. (Carl Pnrdy's valuable and authoritative series on " Porno Baskets and their 
Makers.") On Indian Jewelers and Silversmiths, July, 1896. 20c. On Navajo Blankets 
Dec, 18% ( out of print ) $2. On Pueblo Pottery, July, 1897, etc. 20c 

Books written by Indians : See under Fastman, Hopkins, La Flesche, 
Pokagon, Zitkala-Sa. 

Tribes, Reservations, Languages, etc. 

Map of the U. S. showing the Indian reservations of the country, given 
in Dunn. List of Mission Indian Reservations, in Out West, Apr. 1902. 
List of linguistic stocks and tribes in Dellenbaugh (appendix). Of 
course the reader who wishes to enter deeply into the linguistic divi- 
sions, the languages, etc., will go outside this list to the works of 
Brinton, Powell, Gatschet, and others ; and for bibliography to Pill- 
ing, etc. 

In Farly Times — The vast majority of valuable works on the American 
Indian, in times back toward the discovery of America, were in Spanish 
and French — about ten to one, Spanish. Many of the French works 
have been translated — notably in the monumental edition of Jesuit 
Relations in some 60 vols., by the Burrows Bros. Co., Cleveland, O. 
Very few of the great Spanish works are available to Fnglish -speak- 
ing students. A few are named above. 


Without particulars of date, publisher or price, the 13th Annual Report of the Indian 
Rights Association also commends the following- books, for which I can at present supply 
neither this deficiency nor an appraisement, as I haven't them : " Life and Times of David 
Zeisberger ; " " The Red Man and the White Man," by G. E. Ellis ; " Our Indian Wards," 
by Col. Manypeuny ; " 40 Years with the Sioux," by A. L. Riggs ; " The Story of Metla- 
cathla," by H. S. Welcome ; "Our Life Among- the Iroquois," by Mrs. Caswell ; " Life of 
Chief Joseph," by Gen. O. O. Howard ; " The Ponca Chiefs," by Tibbies ; " The Red Man," 
by a Penobscot Indian ; " The Indian Side of the Indian Question," by Rev. Dr. Burrows ; 
" Onoqua," by Frances C. Sparhawk ; " Senator Intrigue and Inspector Noseby," by same ; 
" Indian Sign Language," by Lieut. Clark. 

R. 1. Dodge's " Thirty-three Years Among Our Wild Indians," commended in this list, is 
of the " popular " subscription-books ; full of inexactness and lack of scientific knowledge. 
Nor has it more comprehension of Indian reasons and motive than army and official circles 
generally have — which is very little. But Col. Dodge knew justice ; and his chapters on the 
governmental treatment of our wards are strong and good. 

C. F. L. 




J. G. Mossin. 
Heory W. O'Melveny. 
Rev. M. S. Liebana. 
Sumner P. Hunt. 
Arthur B. Benton. 
Margaret Collier Graham. 
Chas. F. Lummis. 


President, Chas. F. Lummis. 
Vice-President, Margaret Collier Graham. 
Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, 114 N. Spring St. 
Treasurer, J. G. Mossin, California Bank. 
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. M. E. Stilson. 
812 Kensington Road. 

Chairman Membership Committee, Mrs. J. G. Mossin, 1033 Santee St. 

Honorary Life Members : R. Egan, Tessa L. Kelso. 

Life Members : Jas. B. Lankershim, J. Downey Harvey, Edward K. Ayer, John F. 
Francis, Mrs. John F. Francis, Mrs. Alfred Solano, Margaret Collier Graham, Miss Collier 
Andrew McNally, Rt. Rev. Geo. Montgomery, Miss M. F. Wills, B. F. Porter, Prof. Chas. 
C. Bragdon, Mrs. Jas. W. Scott, Mrs. Phebe A. Hearst, Mrs. Annie D. Apperson, Miss 
Agnes Lane, Mrs. M. W. Kincaid, Col. H. G. Otis, H. Jevne, J. R. Newberry, Dr. W. Jarvis 
Barlow, Marion Brooks Barlow, Geo. W. Marston, Chas. L. Hutchinson, U. S. Grant, jr. 
Isabel M. R. Severance, Mrs. Louisa C. Bacon, Miss Susan Bacon, Mrs. Mira Hershey, 
Jeremiah Ahem, William Marshall Garland, Geo. L. Fleitz, Miss Josephine W. Drexel. 
Mrs. Sarah M. Utt, Miss Anita Utt, Emily Runyon Earl, D. M. Riordan, Frank J. Sullivan, 
Alice Phelan Suliivan. 

Advisory Board : Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R. Egan, W. C. Patterson, 
Adeline Stearns Wing, Tessa L. Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas. Cassat Davis, Miss 
M. F. Wills, C. D. Willard, John F. Francis, Frank J. Polley, Rev. Hugh K. Walker. 
Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Lee, Rt. Rev. Joseph H. Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles, Mm. 
Caroline M. Severance. 

jSffHE Club begs to urge all members to pay up their annual 
J[ fees promptly. These became due Jan. 1, and while the 
interest on so small a sum as $1 is not worth anyone's 
saying, prompt payment enables the Club to lay out its work 
ahead and to do it more satisfactorily. Repairs cannot be 
undertaken until the money to pay for them is in the treasury. 
All persons who care for the preservation of the Old Missions 
and other landmarks are invited to join this Club. There is no 
other ceremonial than the payment of the annual fees, $1 per 
year. This money is all applied to the work ; there being - no 
salaries. The Club has already made extensive protective re- 
pairs at four Missions ; and a vast amount of work still needs 
to be done. Life memberships are $25 ; and the Club has now 
handsome life-certificates, suitable for framing. 

The beautiful Landmarks Club Cook Book is now out, and 
will undoubtedly have a large sale. The price is $1.50 net; 
postage 10 cents. Can be procured by addressing Chairman 
Membership Committee, as above. 


Previously acknowledged, $5,921.50. 

New contributions— D. M. Riordan, Los Angeles, $25; Frank 
J. Sullivan, $25, Alice Phelan Sullivan, $25, San Francisco. 

Mrs. W. P. Plummer, Noyo, Cal., $2; Edith Alden Daniels, 
Lockport, N. Y., $1. 

"|C#5)EXT to forgetting his own name, perhaps the 
(§J\, sauciest of many mischiefs the mind sometimes 
plays its landlord is to trip him over names only less 
familiar. By some such brilliancy last month (p. 145) the Lion 
robbed his own college to enrich its Hated Rival, and swapped 
two great brothers in their professional cradles. Josiah D wight 
Whitney, who wrote the Encyclopedia Britannica article on 
California, was the great Harvard geologist ; William Dwight 
Whitney, the great Sanscrit scholar, who wrote other articles in 
the Britannica, was the man of Yale. This stumble perhaps 
shows the danger of a not very long-legged mind trying to ride 
at once, or in the same day, such an unmatched span as Sans- 
crit and Geology going in opposite directions. 

In the October Den, at the heels of the event, certain 


comment was made upon the incompetent, immaterial ok to 

but far from irrelevant shooting of "editor" Marriott, clench? 

the notorious blackmailer, of the San Francisco News-Letter, by 
two friends of a clean girl who had been smirched by him ; 
with some general reflections upon the vile industry which is 
plied by certain sheets in every large city — and some small ones 
— and from which no woman's honor nor man's purse is safe. 
Some doubt was expressed whether, in these and cognate cases, 
the most righteous and manful way to protect womanhood is to 
stand upon the full dignity of evening-dress etiquette and 
punish the betrayer of your daughter or defamer of your mother 
— and deter further harpies — by failing to recognize the offender 
on the street ; or even, in aggravated cases, turning up your nose 
visibly at him and confiding to some one what you think of 
him. These drastic measures have the distinguished authority 
and approval of Culture and Respectability ; in the present in- 
stance, as generally, they were by implication endorsed by the 
run of the Eastern and English Press as the only procedure 
proper to truly civilized man ; and there was universal reproba- 
tion of the Positive Rudeness of the girl's champions. And as 
if it were not boorish enough to attack the " journalist " at all, 
they outraged etiquette still further by going to his house to do 


it. And his family is alleged to have managed to see some of 
the final proceedings. Of course the fact that the News-Letter 
had entered the girl's home to attack her, and that her family 
was more or less " present " when she was stricken, has no sig- 
nificance in Polite Society and among the Truly Refined. 

A good deal of the Paper-Doll attitude about these things is 
doubtless chargeable to the most frequently misquoted book in 
the world — which has been interpreted to justify every folly 
and every crime, as well as to establish every virtue. That 
First Gentleman and enduring philosopher, who himself was 
certainly not a sissy, did indeed advise his assistants that if 
someone smote them upon the right cheek they should turn to 
him the other also. This was not altogether a bad policy for a 
dozen men setting out to convert a whole nation from its imme- 
morial religion. He even bade his followers that "if any man 
will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have 
thy cloak also." And with some for reverence, and with others 
for the perhaps commoner commodity of prudence, the former 
precept is much in favor, figuratively, with the Best Society. 
The latter command, no one makes pretence of minding ; it is 
safer defending a lawsuit than your face, and politer — thanks 
to a polite profession which defends the suits for you. 

But I utterly fail to find mandate or intimation that if any 
man shall smite your mother upon the one cheek, you are to 
turn her around so that he can slap the other. Nor yet that 
whosoever shall beguile thy wife, let him take thy daughter 
also. On the contrary, it is refreshing to remember that this 
Patient Gentleman was also Man enough to commit assault and 
battery, in church, for cause — and that he actually flogged certain 
human cattle out from the temple they defiled with their mer- 
cenary lust. 

This is, of course, going rather back of and above the case in 
point ; but so does every principle. It would be a pity if the 
great examples could be applied only to Perfect Beings. And a 
good precedent is worth remembering, even in the affairs of 
petty humanity. 

To descend again to the specific case, a San Francisco jury 
has decided that it is no crime to pot a blackmailer who battens 
by defaming women and robbing men. Shoot him in his house, 
or in his back, or in his legs, or in any other anatomy you can 
manage not to miss, so shall you 'scape blameless. The repre- 
hensibly inexpert marksmen who did their fumbling best by 
Marriott — or who couldn't shoot so fast as he could run — were 
triumphantly acquitted. 

From a certain eminently proper viewpoint, this is a lament- 


able outcome. It is Illegal to Shoot People, or those who out- 
wardly Look to be such. Unless, indeed, you detect them at 
your virtuous bedside, abstracting 1 the six-bits from your 
trousers pockets, in which case Outraged Manhood is fully 
justified to Protect His Own. Then you may meritoriously 
pull trigger — if you chance to know which is the trigger. But 
otherhow, Hands Up. It is also illegal to compound with ille- 
gality, and to acquit a prisoner who hath done this thing. But 
there are worse things than illegality ; and one is poltroonery. 
It was illegal, even in Judea, for a young man to take a stick to 
his fellow citizens, in a sanctuary — but maybe that is just where 
he chose ; between the Holy and the Formal. And there 
are rougher and worse men who will choose the same way still. 
It may be a "miscarriage of justice " when the avengers — even 
crude and maculate avengers — of a woman's wrongs are ac- 
quitted of a "crime." But it isn't altogether a pink perfection of 
"justice " that men need to be illegal to be manly, and that a 
woman has no other safety than the possession of a brother or 
friend who cares more for her than for his Manners. Mean- 
while, it is reasonable guessing that for some time to come in 
" lawless" San Francisco the Industry of Blackguarding Women 
by blackmailers will sensibly fall off. Nor is it audacious to 
guess which procedure, the Polite or the Unregenerate, will in 
such cases generically have the quiet approbation of even the 
most refined women that look to be the wives and mothers of 

Congresses come, and go, and are forgotten ; but not NOT DEAD 
principles. A question involving these is a public bur- nob yet 

den until settled ; and it never is settled at all until it swbpbth. 

is settled right. No dodge or compromise can rid our backs of 
it for long* 

The defeat of the Statehood bill at this session — conceded as 
these lines are writing — so far from eliminating the question as 
a timely one, only emphasizes the need of public enlightenment. 
The amount and infinite variety of historical ignorance paraded 
by the Opposition, and the unmistakable regional, racial and 
religious intolerances many of its most respectable leaders were 
unable to conceal — except from themselves — show clearly that 
the only possible hope to educate an effective number of the 
most teachable and ponderable Esteemed Easterners up to some 
modest comprehension of a very important part of their own 
country, is by Keeping School early and often. There is no 
human possibility of stirring the vast, inert mass of complacent 
provincialism ; but the conquest of an intelligent minority will 
suffice ; and that, with time and patience, can be accomplished. 


There are enough people of the sort we admire and love, who, 
despite their Unremovedness and the marvelous multiplicity of 
their misinformation, care for the truth ; and they are worth 
laboring with. The ice, moreover, is already broken, though 
only in its thinnest place. By now, so many Stay-at-Homes have 
known so many of their direct relatives and friends to survive a 
visit to California, or even residence therein, without visible loss 
of life, manners or morals — and no more loss of mind than is 
indicated in their common delusion that they Like it Better — 
that the profound old concept of the whole West as Far, Fear- 
some and Fatuous has been pretty seriously shaken — though 
only in the one local behalf. California begins already to be 
portionably pardoned for its Remoteness, to be little feared for 
its Terrors, and to be spoken of with not so very much more 
suspicion than if it were an Eastern community — as, indeed, 
half of it very nearly is. Still, no weighty publication in the 
East has ever visibly realized that California is in fact quite 
as "civilized" as any American commonwealth, and in most 
respects more so. And of the really Best Easterners ( best in 
character and in mind ) who have never Removed, I have yet to 
find one who could or did absolutely grasp this revolutionary 
truth. Yet I have known about as noble specimens of American 
manhood and scholarship as the East or any other land affords. 
So much for California. As to the rest of the West, the 
Becalmed, and the best of them, are at least deeply and darkly 
suspicious ; often, firmly convinced of its iniquity. 

Now, the West is, in a way, all in the same boat. It is 

TIMK TO ' ... 

I.B? fau, time for us to fall into stroke ; and this magazine, which 

tockther! s tands for all Out West, and for Westernness, keeps its 
oar in for no sectionalism. As a matter of fact, the cause of 
New Mexico and Arizona is the cause of California and all the 
Western sisterhood — and that is the cause of the nation. Cali- 
fornia may not realize it — for all Narrowness isn't Divided into 
Three Parts, of which the East has Three and the copyright — 
but we need the Territories rather more than they need us. 
From every motive of enlightened self-interest, California and 
the other Western States are quite as deeply concerned that even- 
handed justice be done the postulants for Statehood as they 
themselves are. If they need Statehood in fulfillment of their 
American rights, we no less need that strengthening of Western 
influence in Congress. Every Western State needs it ; and Cali- 
fornia a little the most of all, because she has at present much 
more at stake — much more at the present mercy of the incredu- 
lous or dull provincial. We all need this thing ; not for raids on 
the treasury, not to get what doesn't belong to us — but precisely 


that we may hare a reasonable share of what does. Nor is this 
selfish. The nation needs it quite as hard as we do, and gets at 
least as much back from it. For more than fifty years Califor- 
nia has been filling - the nation's pockets and shaping the nation's 
destinies more broadly and more surely than her own ; and she 
is still requited very much as she was in the early days — when 
the national government paid the Argonauts $10 per ounce for 
their gold-dust, which was worth $18 ; and robbed thousands of 
the original Calif ornians of their homes by such outrageous 
Tenderfoot land laws as Spain never passed for her remoter 
colonies. ( For a fair characterization of this, by an officer of 
the U. S. Navy then on the spot, see Revere's Tour of Duty in 
California, 1849, p. 196). Prosperity of the West means, in an 
extraordinary degree, prosperity of the nation ; and for both we 
need more weight of the out-door, traveled, untimorous, non- 
parasitic, tolerant West in Washington. That is precisely what 
a Republican minority in the Senate — already enough scared by 
the straight Westernness of a Republican President — is afraid 
of ; and has, for its fears, refused to allow Statehood to be voted 
upon when a majority of Congress was in favor. George Ken- 
nan's merciless exposure, now current in The Outlook, tells how 
the corruptionist Addicks is " Holding-Up a State." There is 
room for a story as remarkable, though rather lamentable than 
so shameful, of how two Should-be States have been Held Up and 
Shanghaied by an innocent Night-Blooming Serious of the 
Wabash — whom we Call the Neighbors in to Behold, when he 
is About to Open. 

In very fact, this fear of Western influence in Congress 4WnAT „ 


has the same parentage, the same complexion and the of the 

same destiny as the long Eastern dismay about Roosevelt. dark. 

There is nothing more substantial to it than Fear of the Dark. 
It is the timidity that seems almost inseparable from conserva- 
tive Age — the conviction that "Those Boys are going to Break 
their Necks and Tip Over the Milk-Pail ; " the forgetf ulness of 
days when we too were Virile, and even — with reference to the 
Old World from which our Fathers had escaped — Western. 
Thus far, the Boys haven't exactly spilled the Milk ; on the con- 
trary, they have presented the Old Folks with ten times the 
original herd, and new and improved methods of milking. 
Their own necks are still unbroken, and they have more than 
once saved the necks of their elders — and will do it many a time 
again, and with as little thanks for the service. Without the 
West, the North — aye, nor the South — could not have thrown 
off the incubus of Slavery. Without the West, the country 
could not have had Sound Money ; and if any Imperforate cares 



to retort with mention of the ephemeral Free Silver heresy, 
let him be reminded that even free silver is somewhat nearer 
Money than were the depreciate rags which were the country's 
medium until the West gave it the two metals ; and would be 
its misfortune still, if there were not gold and silver producing 
States — all in the West. And out of the West has come the 
light and power to vitalize, convince and establish the farthest 
reaching economic measure our government has yet launched. 
Of course so far as it has any sensible significance to the great 
majority of Non-transferable Easterners, National Irrigation 
might almost as well be called National Phlebotomy ; but there 
are enough, even Back Yonder, who can foresee its meaning and 
its tremendous prophecy — and the Western-minded President 
who enabled it is of them. Nor are the Addickses, Tom 
Platts, Tillmans, Hannas, Grosvenors and their sort products 
of the Naughty West. While it still less knows the fact, the 
East needs Western influence in Congress quite as seriously as do 
we the nominal beneficiaries. 

It is not subsidies nor bounties nor pensions nor favors 
there bb that the West asks — and should join in asking for all its 

wght. p ar t s — but common justice. Even the most unim- 
peachable court cannot give that when it hasn't the evidence — 
save such as a smattering prosecutor may himself know or care 
to present. Of course New Mexico and Arizona will be admitted 
some day ; if the East had really known them, they would have 
been admitted at this session ; and it is evidently high time for 
a Campaign of Education — not in partisan politics but in the 
provable historic and census truth. Some mild sallies in this 
direction were made in these pages last month ; and now and 
again it will be in order to brush away other conservative cob- 
webs. For the present it will suffice to hold " funeral obsequies " 
over the "argument " that either Arizona or New Mexico hasn't 
enough people for Statehood. With what was said in the Feb- 
ruary Den, and the tables opposite for clincher, that question 
may be counted dead- and buried. No honest and intelligent 
person, facing these official facts, can longer maintain that im- 
potent pretext. 

In last month's running summary was an important error on 
the safe side. Instead of twenty-four, full twenty-nine of the 
total forty-five States of the Union did not have as large popu- 
lation when they became States as New Mexico has today. 
Twenty had not so many as Arizona has. The tell-tale record, 
compiled from the Twelfth Census of the U. S. is here filed as an 
exhibit. See next page. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 




Population at nearest Census 

New Mexico 195,310 (1900) 

Arizona 122,931 (1900) 

State Year Admitted 

Vermont 1791 85,465 (1790) 

Kentucky 1792 73,677 (1790) 

Tennessee 1796 105,602 (1800) a 

Ohio 1802 45,365 (1800) 

Louisiana 1812 76,556 (1810) b 

Indiana.. 1816 147,178 (1820) c 

Mississippi 1817 75,448 (1820) 

Illinois 1818 55,211 (1820) 

Alabama 1819 127,901 (1820) 

Missouri 1821 66,586 (1820) d 

Arkansas 1836 97,574 (1840) 

Florida 1845 87,445 (1850) 

Iowa 1846 192,214 (1850) e 

California 1850 92,597 (1850) 

Minnesota 1858 172,032 (1860) 

Oregon 1859 52,465 (1860) 

Kansas (January) 1861 107,206 (1860) 

Nevada 1864 6,857 (1860) f 

Nebraska 1867 122,993 (1870) 

Colorado 1876 194,327 (1880) g 

Montana 1889 132,159 (1890) 

N.Dakota 1889 182,719 (1890) 

Idaho 1890 85,385 (1890) 

Wyoming 1890 60,705 (1890) 

Notes— a, Tennessee in 1790,35,691 ; b, Louisiana, 153,407 in 1820; c, Indiana, 24,520 in 
1810 ; d, Missouri, 140,455 in 1830 ; e, Iowa, 43,112 in 1840 ; f, Nevada, 42,491 in 1870 ; g, Colo- 
rado, 39,864 in 1870. 

Rank in 1900 Pop. i* 1900 

45 New Mexico 195,310 

49 Arizona 122,931 

State Pop. at entry 

46 Delaware 56,096 

2 Pennsylvania 434,373 

16 New Jersey 184,139 

11 Georgia 82,548 

29 Connecticut 237,946 

7 Massachusetts 378,787 

26 Maryland 319,728 

24 South Carolina 249,073 

36 New Hampshire 141,885 

17 Virginia 747,610 

1 New York 340,120 

15 North Carolina 393,751 

34 Rhode Island 68,825 






The power of " party " over the 
mind and conscience of otherwise 
sane and reasoning- citizens is a never- 
ending source of amazement to those who think, 
instead of allowing themselves to be fitted with ready-made opinions. It 
is comparable with nothing else but religious prejudice, and differs from 
this very strikingly in that, whatever may formerly have been the case, 
the two chief parties now have shibboleths and slogans a-plenty, but noth- 
ing resembling a creed — except "follow my leader." In this surrender — 
open-eyed, yet utterly blind — of the reality of power, while retaining its 
semblance, lies a menace to popular self-government which did not occur 
to either Macaulay or De Tocqueville — and a far graver one than any 
they saw. Naturally those thoughtful observers who have perceived this 
growing danger have raised their voices against it in protest vigorous and 
persistent, though apparently of little avail. But it has been left for a 
French political student, M. Ostrogorski, to deal with the subject as a 
whole — its embryology, morphology, anatomy, physiology and psychology. 
Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties, lately translated 
into English by Frederick Clarke, is a profound, broad and searching study 
of the internal growth of political parties in England and the United 
States — the first which has ever been made on any such scale, and one 
which will necessarily be the foundation of any future investigations along 
these lines. Anything like a summary of the two bulky volumes into 
which an enormous wealth of material has been compressed is of course 
impossible — the bare table of contents of the second volume covers 37 
pages. And an attempt at destructive criticism would be presumptuous, 
since M. Ostrogorski is not only the first authority upon his subject — he 
is practically the only one. The book is a model of prodigious industry, 
of keen and broad historic sense, of sound philosophic preception, and of 
scientific method. Mr. James Bryce, than whom there is no better quali- 
fied judge, vouches for the minuteness and accuracy of the study into 
the English party system, though believing the deductions drawn by the 
author are somewhat too gloomy. In the volume devoted to the United 
States I find no important errors in fact, and singularly few omissions or 
misinterpretations. Some things which he has failed to mention are, how- 
ever, of real significance. Apparently he overlooked the despotic power 
of the Speaker of the House — a power of slow-growth, ripening suddenly 
in the hands of Tom Reed (whose name and achievement M. Ostrogorski 
seems to have overlooked) and well illustrated by this recent newspaper 
paragraph : 

The California delegation In the House today called upon Speaker Henderson and asked 
him to allow the bill appropriating $200,000 for the purchase of the Big Tree grove in Cali- 
fornia to come before the House for consideration. Mr. Henderson positively refused to 
allow the bill to come before the House this session, taking the ground that there is more 
important business to be considered. 

Nor did he realize that delightfully simple variety of " Senatorial 

courtesy " which allows a handful of Senators either to " talk an obnoxious 


measure to death " or to block all legislation until their pet bill passes. If 
he had been writing today, he would certainly have darkened the colors of 
his picture by mention of the "ripper bills" by which in Pennsylvania 
and Ohio the dominant party has at the same time disciplined recalcitrant 
communities and taken away from them the right of self-government — by 
common report, at the instigation of Quay and Hanna respectively. And 
while Addicks was long ago endeavoring to crowd Delaware into his 
breeches pocket, it is only since the publication of this book, that he has 
reached his final pedestal of shameless impudence. 

Every student will follow M. Ostrogorski with interest and thorough ap- 
preciation through most of his work. But with his suggested remedies 
many — perhaps most — will reluctantly disagree. The most important of 
them is the splitting up of the great parties into a greater or less number 
of smaller coteries, each united around a single question. Prohibition, 
woman's suffrage, and many other rallying-points about which this has 
been tried stand as witnesses against this suggestion. To many of us it 
seems that the formula of a cure may be stated about this way — Instead 
of allowing a few men to make a business of politics, let every man make 
politics his business. The Macmillan Co., New York. $6.00 net. 

Wise and witty, with gentle laughter rippling everywhere over " bmerson 
a current of thought that is always broad, deep and strong, distilled into 

Gerald Stanley Lee's Lost Art of Reading will be a delight and a Forty years." 

stimulus to whomsoever is large enough to receive it. The title, attractive 
as it is, seems wholly too small for the scope of the book, till one bethinks 
himself that from any point whatever one may sweep a circle that shall 
include the universe, so far as we may know or guess at it. Within these 
pages lies packed a sound philosophy of education, of morals, of manners 
— of the whole of living. And many a single sentence has in it the nour- 
ishing meat of a long discourse. Difficult as it is to choose from so rich a 
book, I cannot but quote two passages : 

A man's culture is his knowledge become himself. It is the seeing- of his eyes, and the 
hearing of his ears and the use of his hands. . . . To be cultured is to be so splendidly 
wrought of body and soul as to get the most joy out of the least and the fewest things, 
, . . [The scholar] may be naked before the universe, and it may be a pitiless universe or 
a gracious one, but he is always master, knowing how to live in it, knowing how to hunger 
and die in it, or, like Stevenson, smiling out of his poor, worn body to it. He is the uncon- 
querable man. 

As I sit in my library facing the fire I fancy I hear, sometimes, my books eating each 
other up. One by one through the years they have disappeared from me — only portraits or 
titles are left. The more beautiful book absorbs the less and the greater folds itself around 
the small. . . . Lowell and Whittier are footnotes scattered about in several volumes, 
now. J.G.Holland (Sainte-Beuve of my youth!) is digested by Matthew Arnold and 
Matthew Arnold by Walter Pater and Walter Pater by Walt Whitman. Montaigne and 
Plato have moved over into Emerson, and Emerson has been distilled slowly into — 
forty years. Holmes has dissolved into Charles Lamb and Thomas Browne. A big 
volume of Rossetti (whom I oddly knew first) is lost in a little volume of Keats, and as I sit 
and wait, Ruskin and Carlyle are going fast into a battered copy on my desk — of the Old 

One may listen long for finer, fuller tones than Mr. L,ee has sounded. I 

count this book a classic, in the full sense. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New 

York. $1.75 net. 

Sir Wal