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Full text of "Overwater optical scintillation measurements during MAGAT-1980"

NPS-61-80-018 



MONTEREV. IALiFORNIA 9394o' 



y.. 



NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 

Monterey, California 




TECHNICAL REPORT 



Overwater Optical Scintillation Measurements 
during MAGAT-19 80 

E. C. Crittenden, Jr., E. A. Milne 
A. W. Cooper, G. W. Rodeback 
and S. H. Kalmbach 

Optical Propagation Group 

Department of Physics and Chemistrv 
August, 198n 



FEDDOCS 

D 208. B/2 _ 

NPS-51-80-018 



Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 

n^ ^Q^ for: 

Environmental Prediction Research Facility 
:'ey, California, 93940 



NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 
Monterey, California 



Rear Admiral J. J. Ekelund D. A. Schrady 

Superintendent Acting Provost 



The work reported herein was supported in part by the 
Naval Environmental Research Facility, Monterey, California 

Reproduction of all or part of this report is 
authorized. 

This report was prepared by: 



Unclassified 



SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (mren Data Entered) 



REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 



READ INSTRUCTIONS 
BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 



1. REPORT NUMBER 

NPS-6 1-80-0 18 



2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 



3. RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBER 



4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 



Overwater Optical Scintillation Measure 
ments during MAGAT-1980 



S. TYPE OF REPORT d PERIOD COVERED 



Technical Report 



6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 



7. AUTHORCs; 

E. C. Crittenden, Jr, E. A. Milne, 
A. W. Cooper, G. W. Rodeback 
and S. H. Kalmbach 



8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMSERCs; 



9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 

Department of Physics and Chemistry 
Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, CA. , 95940 



10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK 
AREA a WORK UNIT NUMBERS 



N6685680WR80059 



11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 

Naval Environmental Prediction Research 

Facility 

Monterey, CA. , 93940 



12. REPORT DATE 

August, 1980 



13. NUMBER OF PAGES 

14 (separate appendix 85 



14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME 4 ADDRESSC/f dilterent from Controlling Olllce) 



15. SECURITY CLASS, (of tt^ls report) 



Unclassified 



t5«. DECLASSIFICATION/ DOWNGRADING 
SCHEDULE 



16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT {ol this Report) 



Distribution Unlimited 



17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (ol the abstract entered in Block 20, II dillerent trom Report) 



18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 



19. KEY WORDS /'Continue on reverse aide it neceaaary and Identity by block number) 

Turbulence, Refraction structure constant, Scintillation 



ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide U neceaaary and Identity by block number) 



Overii/ater me 
constant for 
for comparis 
measurements 
Aerosol Gene 
to 9 May, 19 
ment because 
path near th 



asurements have been made of the turbulence structure 
index of refraction, C -, by means of scintillation 

on with predictions of Cj^^ based on meteorological 
carried out at the same time, during the "Monterey 

ration and Transport" (MAGAT-1980) experiment, 27April 

80. Scintillation was chosen as the optical measure- 
it gives heaviest weight to points on the optical 

e center of the path, minimizing the shoreline effects 



DD , :°r73 1473 



EDITION OF 1 NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 
S/N 0102-014- S601 ! 



TTnrl qc;c;i f 1 pd 



SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered) 



ITnrI assi fied 



.i.i_UHITY CLASSIFICATION OF" THIS P AOEfWhen Data Entered) 



e overwater path length was 13.3 km. The light source was a 



10.6 micrometer CO-, laser. This combination of range and wave 
length was adequate to avoid saturation effects 



SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS P fKGEfWhen Data Entered) 



Overwater Optical Scintillation Measurements 
during MAGAT-I98O 

E. C. Crittenden, Jr., E. A. Milne, A. W. Cooper 
G. W. Rodeback , and S. H. Kalmbach 

Optical Propagation Group 

Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California. 



Abstract 

Overwater measurements have been made of the turbulence 
structure constant for index of refraction, C^^ , by means of 
scintillation, for comparison with predictions of C^'^ based 
on meteorological measurements carried out at the same time, 
during the "Monterey Aerosol Generation and Transport" 
(MAGAT-8O) experiment, 27 April to 9 May, 198O. Scintillation 
was chosen as the optical m.easurement because it gives heavi- 
est weight to points on the optical path near the center of 
the path, m.inimizing the shoreline influence. The overwater 
path length was 13.3 km. The light source was a 10.6 micro- 
meter CO2 laser. This combination of range and wavelength 
was adequate to avoid saturation effects. 



FIGURES 

Figure 1. Optical paths across Monterey Bay. 

2 
Figure 2. Relative weighting of C as a function of position 

along the path, for MTF and for scintillation. The 

telescope end of the path is at the right. 

Figure 3. Probability density curve for determination of C . 



TABLES 
Table I. Sample data print-out 



I ntroduction 

Models for the prediction of the turbulence structure 
constant for index of refraction, C^^ , have often suf- 
fered from a lack of directly measured values of C^^^ for 
comparison '/^ith predictions. To resolve this uncertainty 
during a continuous series of experiments between 27 April 
and 9 May, 1980, measurements were made of C-^'^ , by optical 
means, along a 13.3 km. overwater optical path between Marina 
and Pt. Pinos on Monterey Bay. In addition to the optical 
measurements, the overall experimental program included 
meteorological measurements made aboard the R/V Acania and 
aboard an aircraft operating in the vicinity. Measurements 
were made in the vicinity of the optical path as well as 
seaward of the path and overhead in the same regions. The 
meteorological results and modeling for prediction of Cj-^2 are 
reported in another U?S report ^•^^. The optical measure- 
ments were made regularly on a six-hour interval basis 
throughout the experimental period. Measurements were also made 
every half hour during a number of periods of "high level" 
activity of all the participating teams. 

Experimental Program 

The geography of r^onterey Bay is well suited for C^^^ 
measurements. Optical paths across the bay are available as 
shown in Figure 1. Since the modeling predictions are 
presumably most applicable far from shore, it is desirable to 
use techniques that emphasize C^2 near the center of the 
optical path. The relative weighting of points on the optical 
path is shown in Figure 2, for use of scintillation, and for 
use of resolution (MTF) to measure C^^. Scintillation is 
the preferred method of measurement, as it emphasizes the 
center of the optical path. 

(^) Naval Postgraduate School Report NPS6l-80-0l6, 
"Verification of the Bulk Model for Calculations of the 
Overwater Index of Refraction Structure Constant", C^^ . 
Davidson, Schacher, Fairall, Spiel, Crittenden, and Milne, 
July, 1980. 



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Measurement of C^^ ^y means of scintillation involves 
measuring the probability density for occurrence of a given 
logarithm of the intensity, for spherical waves, observed 
through a small aperture. Curves such as that shown in 
Figure 3 are obtained by taking the logarithm of the received 
intensity electronically, and digitizing the result at a rate 
of approximately two kilohertz. Sigma, the root-mean-square 
deviation from the mean, for this distribution curve, is 
obtained by fitting the Gaussian distribution to the curve, 
as shown in Figure 3, and calculating the corresponding value 
of Sigma. This method of measurement avoids errors due to 
loss of points at very high or very low intensity. The value 
of C-^ is then obtained by use of the expression: 

7/12 11/12 

C = 1.42 a, . k" z' 
n inl 



where: q = sigma for the probability distribution curve for 

logarithm of intensity, k = 2 tt/X, Zq = optical path length 

This expression has been well established experimentally . ^2 ) , 

The phenomenon of "saturation" poses some problems in the 

measurement of C^^ by means of scintillation. On progressive 

increase of turbulence level, the value of sigma increases, 

proportional to C^, until a value of sigma of about 0.5 is 

reached. Beyond this value, sigma increases more slowly with 

increasing turbulence level, finally reaching a maximum at a 

value of unity. For still higher C^^, sigma can decrease 

below unity. It is Important to realize that sigma saturates, 

not Cj-^. Inverting the previous equation: 

7 / 11/ 

a, J = 0.70 C k ^'^z ' ^^ 
£nl n 



(2) Naval Postgraduate School Report, NPS61-78-003, "Optical 
Resolution in the Turbulent Marine Boundary Layer", Crittenden, 
Cooper, Milne, Rodeback, Armstead, Kalmbach, Land, and Katz, 
February, 1978. 






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It can be seen that sigma is reduced, for a given turbulence 
level, by reducing both k and z. Reducing k means using the 
maximum possible wavelength. In practice this is 
accomplished by using a CO2 laser with a wavelength of 10.6 
micrometers. Reducing the range length, z, involves the 
problem that a short path length often leads to shoreline 
influence on C^^. The path chosen for this experiment has a 
rather long range length, 13.3 km, but it crosses Monterey 
Bay where there is relatively little shoreline influence. 
The values of signa encountered during the experiment 
approached the region of saturation in a few cases, but 
serious saturation apparently did not occur during the 
e xperiment . 

The source laser was a 3 watt Spectra-Physics model 9^1 
electrical discharge CO2 laser, operating at 10.6 
micrometers. A back-up laser was also provided, and proved 
to be needed during the experiments. The back-up laser 
itself, in turn, had to be replaced before the end of the 
experiment. The lasers are water cooled, with a closed 
circuit de-ionized water system, cooled by heat exchange to 
an ice bath. Once aligned, the lasers retained alignment on 
the receiver across the bay. 

The transmitted laser beam profile was shaped by means 
of a one-inch focal length germanium lens, converging the 
radiation to a cross-over, which in turn was located near the 
focus of a 3-inch diameter off-axis paraboloid front surfaced 
mirror. Adjustment of the angle and position relative to the 
focus was provided by means of microinch micrometer screws. 
The beam spot at the receiver had a width of about 50 
meters . 

The transmitted beam was chopped at a frequency of 1.0 
kiloherz by means of a chopping wheel located at the focus of 
the germanium lens. A reference signal was obtained from the 
chopping wheel by means of a GaAs LED transmitting through 
the chopping wheel to a photocell. This reference chopped 
signal was amplified and used to modulate a 256.3 megaherz 
telemeter signal. The pulsed telemeter signal was 



transmitted by means of a directive antenna array to the 
other end of the optical range, where it was received on a 
similar antenna, amplified, and used to trigger the phase 
sensitive detection system and the digitizer in the receiving 
system. 

The receiving optical system was an 18-inch diameter 
Cassegrain telescope with a focal length of 8 meters. The 
large aperture was useful in initial alignment, but was 
stopped down at first to a 5-inch diameter circular aperture 
for scintillation measurement. During the first day of 
operation, tests were made to determine if aperture averaging 
were occurring. This was found to occur with the 5-inch 
aperture, but it was negligible for apertures of one-inch and 
less in diameter. Subsequent measurements were always made 
with the one-inch aperture, and additional measurements were 
also made with the 5-inch aperture to provide data with which 
to evaluate the small number of earlier data points taken 
with the 5 inch aperture. 

The detector was a HgCdTe photoconductive detector, 
cooled to 77 K by liquid nitrogen. The signal from the 
detector was amplified in a Princeton Applied Research model 
113 low-noise amplifier. The amplified signal was 
demodulated in a circuit arranged to sample the amplitude at 
the center of the received rectangular optical pulse, and at 
the center of the off-interval. The difference of these two 
signals was then used to construct a slowly varying signal 
representing the true Intensity variation. This signal was 
then sent through a HP7562A logarithmic converter and then to 
the NIC-80 on-line computer. The NIC-80 digitized the signal 
once for every optical pulse. The sampling was timed to 
occur shortly after the background was sampled and subtracted 
from the light signal. The triggered detection amounts to a 
phase sensitive detection technique and provides a large 
increase in the signal-to-noise ratio relative to direct 
detection methods. 



The digitized log- intensity signal was tallied in the 
computer to yield a probability density curve from which the 
best-fit Gaussian distribution was determined. The 
log-intensity probability density curve data for each run was 
stored on magnetic tape and later plotted out for each 
Cf^2 value. The value of C^'^ , using the best-fit sigma 
in the equation quoted earlier, was printed out on the 
HP-9871 line printer. The length of each data sampling run 
was usually 40 seconds, or 40,000 samples. The C^^ 
values are tabulated in Appendix A (separate volume). 
An automatic weather recording station was also 
operated at the Pt . Finos site, with print-out every half 
hour, for wind velocity, temperature, and relative humidity. 
The sensors were on a pole about 15 ft. above the ground and 
about 20 ft. from the foghorn building. The surroundings 
obviously modified the readings, so they should be used with 
caution. 

Experimental Results 

All results were reduced immediately by the on-line 
computer and printed out on the HP-9871 line printer. Copies 
of the results were communicated to NEPRF on a daily basis in 
the course of the experiments. A sample print-out appears in 
Table I. For the Cj-^2 results, the date, tim.e, value of 
Cj^, Cj^2 and the value of sigma of the probability 
density curve are printed. 

In most cases scintillation was measured with two 
different aperture sizes, to aid in evaluating any aperture 
averaging. The print-out shows the aperture size as "large 
hole" - a 5 inch diameter aperture, or "small hole" - a 
one-inch diameter aperture. 



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11 



Additional measurements of atmospheric transmission at 
four different wavelengths are also printed out. This data 
is part of a different experiment being conducted at the same 
time. The two sets of data have not been separated by tran- 
scribing, because of the danger of introducing errors. 

For each Cj-j2 value, the probability density curve 
has been printed out, in order to determine if the distribu- 
tion is reasonable. Such a curve appears in Figure 3, as 
previously discussed. The plots from the approximately 260 
scintillation runs have not been Included in this report 
because of the bulk of paper involved In reprinting them. 
They are available on request. The probability density data 
is also stored on tape and is available at any time, if 
desired. 

A complete set of the computer print-outs for the exper- 
iment is tabulated in Appendix A of this report. This 
appendix is bound separately in an additional volume, and 
submitted in only one copy, because of the large number of 
pages (85 pages) and the large page size. 

The meteorological data: Temperature, Relative humidity, 
and Wind speed are printed with the other data in Appendix 
A. 



12 



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No. of Copies 

1. Defense Documentation Center 2 
Cameron Station 

Alexandria, Virginia 22314 

2. Library, Code 0142 2 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 939^0 

3. Dean of Research, Code 012 1 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 939^0 

4. Dr. A. Goroch 2 
Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility 
Monterey, California 939^0 

5. Dr. A. Welnsteln 2 
Director of Research 

Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility 
Monterey, California 939^0 

6. Dr. C. W. Fa 1 rail 1 
BDM Corporation, 13^0 Munras St. 

Monterey, California 939^0 

7. Professor J. Dyer, Code 6lDy 1 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 95?40 

8. Assoc. Professor K. L. Davidson, Code 63Ds 1 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 939^0 

9 Professor G. E. Schacher, Code 6lSq 1 

Naval Postgraduate School 
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10. Professor E. C. Crittenden, Code 6lCt 4 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 939^0 

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Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California, 939^0 

12. Assoc. Professor E. A. Milne, Code 6lMn 1 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California, 939^0 



13 



13. Assoc. Professor G. W. Rodeback , Code 6lRk 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, Callifornla, 93940 

14. Professor S. H. Xalmbach, Code 6lKb 
Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California, 93940 

15. Lt . Gary Ley 
PMS-405 

Naval Sea Systems Command 
Washington, D. C. 20360 

16. Dr. A. Shlanta 
Code 3173 

Naval Weapons Center 

China Lake, California 93555 

17. Dr. Barry Katz 
Code R42 

Naval Surface Weapons Center 

White Oak Laboratory 

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18. Dr. J.H. Richter 
Code 532 

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19. Dr. Lothar Ruhnke 
Code 8320 

Naval Research Laboratory 
Washington, D.C. 20375 



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